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THE present Supplement has been undertaken by Mrs. George M. 
Smith, now the proprietor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 
and has been edited by Sir Sidney Lee. It furnishes biographies of 
noteworthy persons who died between 22 Jan. 1901 and 31 Dec. 1911. 
The former date was the day of Queen Victoria's death, and the First 
Supplement, which was published in the autumn of 1901, brought the 
record of national biography down to that limit. The bounds are 
now extended by nearly eleven years. The new volumes treat exclu- 
sively of those whom death has qualified for admission within the 
prescribed period. 

When the present Supplement was planned the death of King 
Edward VII was not anticipated. Among the great names which 
the present volume includes, that of the late King is bound to attract 
chief attention. His memoir, like that of Queen Victoria in the First 
Supplement, is from the pen of the Editor. 1 It is an attempt made 
it is believed for the first time to co-ordinate the manifold activi- 
ties of the sovereign in a just historic and biographic spirit. To the 
information which is already scattered through numerous published 
sketches and books of reminiscence at home and abroad much has been 
added, through the courtesy of those associated with the late King, from 
unpublished and unwritten sources. It is hoped that the result will be 
to remove some widely disseminated misapprehensions and to furnish 
some new and authentic elucidations. Although the article is shorter 
than that on Queen Victoria, it is on a larger scale than is habitual to 
the Dictionary. But the prominent place which the late King filled for 
half a century in the nation's public life, both before and after his 
accession, seemed, in the absence of a full record elsewhere, to compel 
a treatment which should be as exhaustive and authoritative as the 
writer's knowledge allowed, with due regard to the recent dates of the 

The late King had a personal relation with the Dictionary which, 

1 Mr. Lionel Gust, F.S.A., M.V.O., has added to the article an account of the portraits. 

vi Prefatory Note 

apart from other considerations, calls in its pages for the tribute of an 
adequate memoir. On 25 May 1900, on the eve of the publication of 
the sixty-third and last volume of the substantive work, the late King, 
then Prince of Wales, honoured with his presence a private dinner- 
party given to congratulate the late Mr. George M. Smith, the public- 
spirited projector, proprietor, and publisher of the undertaking, on its 
completion. 1 He then spoke with his customary grace and charm of 
his interest in the Dictionary, and he afterwards expressed in a letter to 
the Editor the satisfaction which the meeting gave him. On 25 October 
1901, the day of the publication of the last volume of the First Supple- 
ment, the King furthermore sent a letter of congratulation ' on the final 
completion of this great work/ Finality is no attribute of a record of 
national biography, but in the late King's lifetime the Dictionary 
came to a close with its First Supplement. It will now stand completed 
with its Second Supplement. 

In February 1902 his late Majesty was pleased to accept from 
Mrs. George M. Smith a complete set of the volumes, which he placed 
in his private library at Sandringham. In acknowledging the gift the 
King's secretary wrote that His Majesty, who regarded the work as 
' one of the highest interest and utility/ would ' always value Mrs. 
Smith's kind present as a memento ' of the late George Smith, 
* who did so much for literature, and whose acquaintance it was a 
satisfaction to His Majesty to remember to have made/ 

The number of names in the present Supplement reaches a total of 
1660, of which 500 appear in this volume and the remainder fill two 
succeeding volumes. The contributors to this volume number 166. 

The principles of selection and treatment are those with which 
students of the Dictionary are already familiar. Special care has 
been taken to make the genealogical data uniform and precise, and 
to give full particulars of memorial foundations, and of portraits whether 
painted or in sculpture. 

1 Of the twenty-nine persons who were present on the occasion twelve, including 
the King and the late Mr. George M. Smith, have since passed away. All are now 
commemorated in the Dictionary. Memoirs of Mr. George M. Smith and of Mandell 
Oeighton, bishop of London, appeared in the First Supplement. The Second Supplement 
supplies notices of the rest, viz. King Edward VII, Lord Acton, Canon Ainger, Dr. 
Richard Garnett, Sir Richard Jebb, Mr. Joseph Knight, Mr W. E. H. Lecky, Sir Theodore 
Martin, Sir Leslie Stephen, and Sir Spencer Walpole. 

Prefatory Note vii 

The sources of biographical knowledge in the case of these whose 
careers have very recently closed differ from the sources in the case of 
those who belonged to more or less remote generations. In the interests 
of accuracy and completeness it has been necessary here to test and 
supplement previous notices often inaccurate and incomplete in the 
press or elsewhere, by application to living representatives and associates. 
The thanks of the Editor and contributors are due to the many hundred 
persons who have corrected current errors from private knowledge 
or have supplied information which has not hitherto been published. 
The readiness with which such co-operation has been given calls 
for very warm acknowledgment. The service has invariably been 
rendered without any conditions which might tend to impair the 
essential independence of the Dictionary. Officials of public institu- 
tions of every kind have also been most generous in their assistance, 
and have offered welcome proof of their anxiety to make the Dictionary 
authentic at all points. 

In agreement with the principle of the Dictionary the memoirs 
embrace comprehensively all branches of the nation's and the empire's 
activity. In any endeavour to classify the vocations of the persons 
commemorated, allowance must be made for the circumstance that in 
a certain proportion of cases the same person has gained distinction 
in more fields than one. If the chief single claim to notice be alone 
admitted in each instance, the callings of those whose careers are 
described in this volume may be broadly catalogued under ten general 
headings thus : 


Administration of Government at home, in India, and the colonies 53 
Army and navy ...... . 44 

Art (including architecture, music, and the stage) 
Commerce and agriculture .... 

Law ........ 

Literature (including journalism, philology, philosophy 

printing, and lexicography) 
Religion ....... 

Science (including engineering, medicine, surgery, anc 

exploration) ....... 

Social Reform (including philanthropy and education) 





The names of twenty-five women appear in this volume, on account 
of services rendered in art, literature, science, and social or educational 

Prefatory Note 

Articles bear the initials of their writers save in a very few cases 
where material has been furnished to the Editor on an ampler scale 
than the purpose of the undertaking permitted him to use. In such 
instances the Editor and his staff are solely responsible for the shape 
which the article has taken, and no signature is appended. 

In preparing this Supplement the Editor has enjoyed the advantage 
of the assistance of Mr. W. B. Owen, M.A., formerly scholar of St. 
Catharine's College, Cambridge, and of Mr. G. S. Woods, M.A., formerly 
exhibitioner of Exeter College, Oxford. 

%* In the lists of authors' publications the date of issue is alone appended to the titles of 
works which were published in London in 8vo. In other cases the place of issue and the 
size are specifically indicated in addition. 

Cross references are given thus : to names in the substantive work [q. v.] ; to names 
in the First Supplement [q. v. Suppl. I] ; and to names in the Second and present 
Supplement [q. v. Suppl. II]. 




J. P. A. . . 
W. R. A. . 

W. A 

C. A. ... 
J. B. A . 
R. B. . . 
T. B. ... 
C. E. A. B. 
F. L. B. . 
L. B. . . . 
W. A. B. . 
T. G. B. 

G. S. B. . 
C. W. B. . 
J. C. B. . . 

E. M. B. . 
A. A. B. . 

F. H. B. . 
A. R. B. . 
J. B. ... 
A. C-L. . . 
A. C. . 

. C. . . . 

',-'-. A. J. C. 


BABT., M.P., D.C.L., 





C. W. BOYD, C.M.G. 

J. C. BRIDGE, D.Mus. 













J. D. DUFF. 






W. H. G. F. W. H. GRATTAN FLOOD, Mus. 

S. E. F. . . . S. E. FRYER. 


G. A. G. . . G. A. GIBSON, M.D. 




E. fi. . . . . EDMUND GOSSE, C.B., LL.D. 

F. C 

V. C 

J. S. C. . . . 

C. OF K. 

C. D 

S. R. D. 

J. D. D. 

P. E 

M. E 

! W. G. F. . . 


List of Writers in Volume I. Supplement II. 



R. E. G. . . R. E. GRAVES. 
W. F. G. . . W. FORBES GRAY. 










P. J. H. . . P. J. HARTOG. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 

A. M. H. . . A. M. HIND. 
R. L. H. . . R. L. HOBSON. 

H. P. H. . . H. P. HOLLIS. 

E. S. H-R. . Miss EDITH S. HOOPER. 

W. W. H. . W. W. How. 

O J. R. H. 0. J. R. HOWARTH. 



W. H. H. . . THE VEN. W. H. BUTTON, B.D. 



C. H. L . . . THE REV. C. H. IRWIN. 




T. E. J. . . . T. E. JAMES. 

A. H. J. . . THE REV. A. H. JOHNSON. 

P. G. K. . . P. G. KONODY. 


LL.D., F.R.S. 

D. C. L. . . D. C. LATHBURY. 



W. R. M. L. THE REV. W. R. M. LEAKE. 



C. H. L. . . PROFESSOR C. H. LEES, F.R.S. 

J. H. L. . . MAJOR J. H. LESLIE. 

LL.D., D.D. 

E. M. L. . . COLONEL E. M. LLOYD, R.E. 
J. E. L. . . . PROFESSOR J. E. LLOYD. 

B. S. L. . . . B. S. LONG. 


C. P. L. . . . SIR CHARLES P. LUCAS, K.C.B., 




C. D. M. . . C. D. MACLEAN, Mus.Doc. 

G. A. M. . . GEORGE A. MACMTT.T.AN, D.LrrT. 




D. S. M. . . D. S. MELDRUM. 


A. H. M. . . A. H. MILLAR. 
H. C. M. . . H. C. MINCHIN. 

W. F. M. . . W. F. MONYPENNY. 



D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 

G. W. T. O. G. W. T. OMOND. j 


List of Writers in Volume I. Supplement II. 

D. J. 0. 

w. B. o. 
j. p. . . 
D. P. . . 

E. H. P. 

p. . 

M. H. S. 
V. H. S. 

R. S. . 

C. P. . . 
D'A. P. . 
G. W. P. 

D. P-N. . 
A. Q.-C. 
W. R. . . 
L. R. . . 
H. D. R. 
T. K. R. 
R. J. R. 
L. C. S. . 


J. S. 

T. S. 
W. N. S. 
C. S. S. . 

E. S. 

L. P. S. . 
A. F. S. . 

F. S. S. . 
C. F. S. . 
W. R. S. 

W. F. 8. 

. D. J. OWEN. 

. W. B. OWEN. 





C. W. S. . 
S. H. S. . . 
H. T-S. . . 
H. R. T. , 
















. W. N. SHAW, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

| T> 


D. L. T. 
F. W. T. 
B. T. 
T. H. T. 
J. R. T. 
T. F. T. 
W. W. T. 
R. H. V. 

H. M. V. 
W. S. W. 

M.D., F.R.S. 
. L. P. SIDNEY. 

. Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

C. W. . . 
A. B. W. 
W. H. W. 





. C. W. SUTTON. 

. S. H. SWINNY. 


. H. R. TEDDER, F.S.A. 


. F. W. THOMAS, PH.D. 


. T. H. THORNTON, C.S.I., D.C.L. 


. PROFESSOR T. F. Tour. 





G. S. W. 


LlTT.D., LL.D. yy yr 

. W. F. SPEAR. 

. G. S. WOODS. 

26 September 1911.] 

The following are some of the chief articles in this volume : 

E. A. ABBEY, R.A., by M. H. Spielmann. 

LoA ACTON, by the Rev. J. Neville Figgis, D.Litt. 

CANTON AINGEB, by Edith Sichel. 

ARCHBISHOP ALEXANDEB, by the Bishop of Ossory. 

GEOBQE ALLEN (Ruskin's publisher), by E. T. Cook. 

LOBD AMHEBST of Hackney, by H. R. Tedder, 


R. D. ABCHEB HIND, by Prof. Henry Jackson, O.M. 
PBOFESSOB W. E. AYBTON, by P. J. Hartog. 
ALEXANDER BAIN, by Elizabeth S. Haldane. 
T. G. BABING, 1st Earl of Northbrook, by Bernard 

Mallet, C.B. 

DR. BABNARDO, by Rev. James Marchant. 
MAHY BATESON, by Prof. T. F. Tout. 
DOBOTHEA BEALE (of Cheltenham), by Elizabeth 


ALFRED BEIT, by C. W. Boyd, C.M.G. 
C. F. MOBEBLY BELL, by W. F. Monypenny. 
SIR LOWTHIAN BELL, by Prof. W. A. Bone, F.R.S. 
MRS. ISABELLA BISHOP (born Bird), by Sir Charles 

P. Lucas, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

Dufferin and Ava, by Sir William Lee-Warner, 



SIR ALGERNON BORTHWICK, 1st Lord Glenesk, by 

Reginald Lucas. 

GEOIUIL: HENRY BOUGHTON, R.A., by Martin Hardie. 

by John Sargeaunt. 



HENRY BROADHUBST, by J. Ramsay Macdonald, M.P. 
ROBKRT BUCHANAN, by Thomas Bayne. 
Siu KKI.VKRS BULLER, by Colonel E. M. Lloyd. 


Gotch, F.R.S. 


ABTHUB JOHN BUTLER, by Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch. 
SAMUEL BUTLER, by Thomas Seccombe. 
F. A. V. CAMPBELL, 3rd Earl Cawdor, by Lloyd C. 


Lord Pentland. 

ton and 8th Duke of Devonshire, by Bernard 

Holland, C.B. 

Marquis of Salisbury, by Algernon Cecil. 

Vetch, R.E., C.B. 

FRANCES POWER COBBE, by Rev. Alexander Gordon. 
JOHN WILLIS CLABK, by the Provost of King's 

College, Cambridge. 

T. SIDNEY COOPER, R.A., by A. M. Hind. 
EDWARD BYLES Co WELL, by F. W. Thomas. 
EARLCOWPER, by Earl Curzonof Kedleston, G.C.S.I. 
SIR DONALD CURRIE, by President Thomas 


LORD CURRIE, by Lord Sanderson, G.C.B. 


SIR DAVID DALE, by L. P. Sidney. 
THE DALZIEL BROTHERS, by Campbell Dodgson. 
LORD DAVEY, by J. B. Atlay. 
JOHN DAVIDSON, by F. L. Bickley. 
MICHAEL DAVITT, by F. Sheehy Skeffington. 
LOWES DICKINSON, by George A. Macmillan. 
SIR CHARLES DILKE, by J. R. Thursfield. 
EDWARD VII., by Sir Sidney Lee. 
GOVERNOR EYRE, by Sir Everard im Thurn, 


D.N.B. Supp. ii. Vol. i. 

435 ii 14 Craigie, Mrs. Pearl Mary Teresa 

i "-I i 44 Currie, Sir Donald, for in 1881 

C.M.G., in 1881 K.C.M.G. 

for baptist read congregational 
. . . C.M.G., read in 1877 he was created 


Page Col. Line 

464 i 19 Dalziel, George : for 85 read 58 

468 UU.&3) 

f.e. > Davenport-Hill : for ROSAMUND read ROSAMOND 
648 ii indexj 

469 ii 12-9 f.e. Davey, Horace, Lord Davey : omit None the less .... of Commons. 

479 i 27-30 Davitt, Michael : for The priests .... became bankrupt, read He was returned 
unopposed for north-east Cork at the bye-election of Feb. 1893, but having 
been declared bankrupt was unseated in the following June. 

486 ii 18-20 Deane, Sir James Parker : for in 1885 .... same year read on 1 Aug. 1885 
he received the honour of knighthood, and in 1892 was sworn a member 
of the privy council. 

491 ii 14 Des VCBUX, Sir (George) William : for in the same year read in 1893, 

496 ii 16 Dibbs, Sir George Richard : for Cyra read Agra 

497 i 18 for 4 Aug. read 5 Aug. 

19 for Anna read Annie 

500 ii 25 Dickson, Sir Collingwood: for 1865 read 1855 

500 ii L . for He left no issue read He had three sons who predeceased him. 

605 ii 19-17/.e. Dilke, Sir Charles Wentworth, 2nd Baronet : for This amounted .... as just 
read Public opinion for the most part took this finding as a verdict against 
Dilke and regarded it as just. 

508 i 28-29 Dilke, Emilia Francis Strong, Lady Dilke : for the truth of the charges against 
him was legally affirmed in July 1886 read the verdict of the second trial 
(July 1886) was assumed by a large section of the public to imply his guilt 
46 for 1884 read 1888 

ii 4 for 1894 read 1904 

534 i 43 Duffy, Sir Charles Gavan : for made K.C.M.G. read knighted 

50 after next year insert, when he was made K.C.M.G. 

541 i 47 East, Sir Cecil James : for lieut.-general read general 

ii 29 after 28 May 1896 insert He was made general in 1902 and retired next year 

547 ii 13 f.e. Edward VII: for 1845 read 1843 

548 i 11 f.e. for St. George's read The Irish 
551 i 19 for mountain read pass 

43 for Windsor read St. James's Palace 

555 i 1 for lake Michigan read the Detroit river 

556 i 2/.e. for 10th hussars read 2nd battalion Grenadier guards 

575 ii 9 f.e. for Norfolk read Warwickshire 

576 ii 12-13 omit he thus became the chief of royal archmasonry 
586 ii 15 for G Feb. 1899 read 30 July 1900 

588 i 14 for 1885 read 1886 

600 i 19 for duke of Ormonde read marquis of Ormonde 

602 ii 5 for 1870 read 1869 

604 i 14 f.e. for the state banquet read the banquet at the British embassy 

636 i 18 Evans, Sir John : for 1889 read 1898 
40 for 1890 read 1900 


N.B. />. stands for from end and U. for last line 
Page Col. Line 
19 i 84-86 Adderley, Sir Charles Bowyer, 1st Baron Norton : omit In March 1859 .... 

reform bill. 

52 ii 10-8 /.e. Ardagh, Sir John Charles : for He was the delegate .... to the conference rend 
He represented the British army, being one of four delegates of the British 
government in June 1906, at the conference. 
6-4 /.#. for The new convention .... proposals read The new convention was 

signed in the following month. 
68 ii 11 Arnold, Arthur : for 1892 read 1886 

65 ii 40-41 Asher, Alexander : for Inverness read Inveravon 

66 ii 8 f.e, Ashley, Evelyn : for under-secretary read parliamentary secretary 
80 ii 43 Bain, Alexander : for two years read a year 

175 i l.l. Blackwood, Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple, 1st Marquis of Dufferin and 

Ava : for 1891 read 1890 

176 i 2 for 1901 read 1899 

181 i 29 Blennerhassett, Sir Rowland, 4th Baronet : after City insert retaining the seat 

until 1874. 

83 for 1874 read 1880 

42 for Kerry read the Harbour division of Dublin City 

189 ii 89-41 Bodley, George Frederick : omit Even Butterfield's .... rood. 

205 i 12 /.<?.) 

and > Boyle, Sir Courtenay : for EDWARD read EDMUND 

646 ii index ) 

224 ii 25-26 Bright, William : omit in succession to Arthur Penrhyn Stanley [q. v.] 

236 i 29 Brown, George Douglas : for Coylton read Colyton 

282 i 44-45 Butler, Arthur John : for was buried .... on 6 April read was buried at 
Wantage. He married on 6 April 

286 i 5-4 f.e. Butler, Samuel : for Paul Gaugain read Charles Gogin 

298 i Campbell, Frederick Archibald Vaughan, 3rd Earl Cawdor : throughout tlir 

article, for Carnarvon and Carnarvonshire read Carmarthen and Carmar- 

808 ii 2 f.e. Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry : omit Sir William Harcourt, 

824 i 45-46 Cavendish, Spencer Compton, Marquis of Hartington and 8th Duke of 
Devonshire : for Sir Charles Wood . . . . [q. v.] read George Frederick 
Samuel Robinson (afterwards first Marquis of Ripon) [q. v. Suppl. II.] 

881 i 6/.e. Cecil, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-, 3rd Marquis of Salisbury: for 12 July 
read 6 July 

858 ii 7 Cheadle, Walter Butler : for square read street 

878 i 4 Cleworth, Thomas Ebenezer : for Wakefield read Wakeford 

875 i 16-18 Clowes, Sir William Laird: omit He had in 1891 .... Society 

881 i 14 Cokayne, George Edward : for 1869 read 1859 

888 i 81 Coleridge, Mary Elizabeth : for in London read at Harrogate 

899 i 19 f.e. Compton, Lord Alwyne Frederick : for on 11 Nov. 1878, read in 1879 

400 ii 17 Conder, Charles : for Maria read Maris 

486 ii 14 Craigie, Mrs. Pearl Mary Teresa : for baptist read congregational 

l .vi i 44 Currie, Sir Donald, for in 1881 .... C.M.G., read in 1877 he was created 
C.M.G., in 1881 K.C.M.G. 


Page Col. Line 

464 i 19 Dalziel, George : for 85 read 53 

f.e. > Davenport-Hill : for ROSAMUND read ROSAMOND 
648 ii indexj 

469 ii 12-9 f.e, Davey, Horace, Lord Davey : omit None the loss .... of Commons. 
479 i 27-80 Davitt, Michael : for The priests .... became bankrupt, read He was returned 

unopposed for north-east Cork at the bye-election of Feb. 1893, but having 

been declared bankrupt was unseated in the following June. 
486 ii 18-20 Deane, Sir James Parker : for in 1885 .... same year read on 1 Aug. 1885 

he received the honour of knighthood, and in 1892 was sworn a member 

of the privy council. 
491 ii 14 Des Vosux, Sir (George) William: for in the same year read in 1893, 

496 ii 16 Dibbs, Sir George Richard : for Cyra read Agra 

497 i 18 for 4 Aug. read 5 Aug. 

19 for Anna read Annie 

500 ii 25 Dickson, Sir Collingwood : for 1865 read 1855 

500 ii L . for He left no issue read He had three sons who predeceased him. 

05 ii 19-17/.e. Dilke, Sir Charles Wentworth, 2nd Baronet : for This amounted .... as just 
read Public opinion for the most part took this finding as a verdict against 
Dilke and regarded it as just. 

508 i 28-29 Dilke, Emilia Francis Strong, Lady Dilke : for the truth of the charges against 
him was legally affirmed in July 1886 read the verdict of the second trial 
(July 1886) was assumed by a large section of the public to imply his guilt 
46 for 1884 read 1888 

ii 4 for 1894 read 1904 

534 i 43 Duffy, Sir Charles Gavan : for made K.C.M.G-. read knighted 

50 after next year insert, when he was made K.C.M.G-. 

541 i 47 East, Sir Cecil James : for lieut.-general read general 

ii 29 after 28 May 1896 insert He was made general in 1902 and retired next year 

547 ii 13 f.e. Edward VII : for 1845 read 1843 

548 i 11 f.e. for St. George's read The Irish 
551 i 19 for mountain read pass 

43 for Windsor read St. James's Palace 

555 i 1 for lake Michigan read the Detroit river 

556 i % f.e. for 10th hussars read 2nd battalion Grenadier guards 

575 ii 9 f.e. for Norfolk read Warwickshire 

576 ii 12-13 omit he thus became the chief of royal archmasonry 
586 ii 15 for 6 Feb. 1899 read 30 July 1900 

588 i 14 for 1885 read 1886 

600 i 19 for duke of Ormonde read marquis of Ormonde 

602 ii 5 for 1870 read 1869 

604 i 14 f.e. for the state banquet read the banquet at the British embassy 

636 i 13 Evans, Sir John : for 1889 read 1898 
40 for 1890 read 1900 







ABBEY, EDWIN AUSTIN (1852-1911), 
painter and black-and-white and decorative 
artist, born on 1 April 1852 at 315 Race 
Street, Philadelphia, was eldest child in 
the family of two sons and a daughter of 
William Maxwell Abbey (1827-1897), a mer- 
chant of Philadelphia. His mother, Margery 
Ann (1825-1880), was daughter of Jacob 
Kipel, second son of Jacob Kypel (d. 1797), 
a farmer who emigrated to America from 
Freiburg, Baden, in 1760. 

Abbey received his education in Philadel- 
phia at the Randolph school (1862-4) and 
Dr. Gregory's school (1864r-8), where he 
had drawing lessons from Isaac L. Williams 
of the Pennsylvania Academy, a landscape 
painter of local repute ; for three months 
in 1868 he studied penmanship at Richard 
S. Dickson's writing-school. While there 
he contributed picture puzzles to Oliver 
Optic's ' Our Boys and Girls ' under the 
pseudonym of * Yorick.' In 1869 he entered 
the employ of Van Ingen and Snyder, wood- 
engravers of Philadelphia, who sent him to 
work in the antique and life classes at the 
Academy of Fine Arts. He was employed 
mainly on commercial and news illustra- 
tions. Soon afterwards he studied under 
Professor Christian Schuessele at the 
Pennsylvania Academy and worked on 
historical compositions. The experience 
developed his power of imagination and 
faculty for design, while he applied himself 
to research in history and costume. In 
1870 he sent drawings to the New York 
publishing house of Harper & Brothers for 
production in their * Weekly.' In 1871 he 


went to New York, and after a month's 
probation in that firm's art department 
received a permanent position on the staff. 
He worked for Harpers continuously for 
twenty years. 

In 1878 he came to England with a 
commission from Harpers to illustrate 
Herrick's poems. After two years he 
returned to New York for three months, 
and then settled permanently in England. 
He lived much in London, with country 
residences, first at Broadway, and then 
at Morgan Hall, Fairford, where he had a 
private cricket-ground. Latterly he pur- 
chased Woodcote Manor, previously 
occupied by Sir Francis Seymour Haden 
at Alresford, but did not live to occupy 
it. In London he acquired Chelsea Lodge, 
where he also worked much. 

It was with his pen-and-ink illustrations 
that Abbey first conquered the English 
and American public. These appeared in 
editions of (among other works) Dickens's 
* Christmas Stories' (1876); Herrick's 
poems (' Hesperides ' and * Noble Numbers ') 
(1882); 'She Stoops to Conquer' (1887); 
' The Good-Natured Man ; Old Songs ' (1889); 
'The Comedies of Shakespeare' (1896) 
132 illustrations which, by invitation, were 
exhibited at the Salon of the Soci6t6 
Nationale des Beaux- Arts, Paris, 1896 
and ' The Tragedies of Shakespeare.' 
In 1885 a sketching tour in Holland with 
his friend George Henry Boughton [q. v. 
Suppl. II] was commemorated in ' Sketches 
and Rambles in Holland,' to which both 
artists contributed drawings. His first 

Abbey s 

contribution to the Royal Academy was ' A 
Milkmaid ' (1885), in black and white. 

Meanwhile Abbey's power matured in 
water-colour, pastel, and oil. Although 
his delicate fancy lent itself admirably to 
water-colour painting, he executed not much 
more than a score of works in that medium ; 
but they stand high in the list of his achieve- 
ments. His first water-colour was ' Rustics 
Dancing in a Barn,' which was shown at 
the exhibition of the American Water- 
Colour Society of New York before 1876, 
and a few others followed in that and 
succeeding years. To the Royal Institute 
of Painters in Water-Colours he contributed 
'The Widower' (1883); 'The Bible 
Reading ' (1884) ; ' The Old Song ' (1885) ; 
and ' The March Past ' (1887) ; and to the 
Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours, 
'An Attention' (1893-4-5); and 'Quiet 
Conscience' (1896). On occasion Abbey 
would use pastel with brilliant effect, 
as in 'Good Friday Morning' (1884); 
his pastel sketches from Goldsmith's plays, 
exhibited in 1896, are masterly; but 
the examples of his work in this method 
are relatively few. 

In 1890 he sent to the Royal Academy 
his first oil picture, ' A May-Day Morning,' 
which attracted wide attention for its 
originality, humour, truth, and joyousness. 
This was retouched and somewhat modified 
in 1904. He now embarked on a great 
commission for Boston, and not until 1894 
did he send again to the Royal Academy. 
His second work seen there in oils, 
' Fiammetta's Song,' created so deep an 
impression that he was immediately 
elected A.R.A. Many important historical 
and poetic compositions were now shown 
at the Academy : ' Richard, Duke of 
Gloucester and the Lady Anne' (1896), 
and ' King Lear, Act 1, Scene 1 ' (both in 
the McCulloch-Coutts Michie collection) 
and 'Hamlet' (1897). ' The Bridge' was 
shown in 1898, when Abbey was elected 
full member of the R.A. Subsequently 
came ' Who is Sylvia, what is she . . . ? ' 
and ' O Mistress mine, where are you 
roaming ? ' (1899) (now in the Walker 
Art Gallery, Liverpool) ; ' A Lute Player ' 
(diploma work), 'The Trial of Queen 
Katherine' (Senator W. A. Clarke's col- 
lection), and 'The Penance of Eleanor, 
Duchess of Gloucester, &c.' (1900) ; ' Cru- 
saders sighting Jerusalem' (1901); ' Pot- 
Pourri' (1903 signed * 1899 ') ; 'A 
Measure,' and a decoration, a triple 
panel reredos for the Holy Trinity 
Church, Paris (1904); 'Columbus in the 
New World' (1906), which startled the 


public by its decorative scheme; and in 
1910, the last year of his career, an historical 
picture, * The Camp of the Army at Valley 
Forge, Feb. 1778,' as well as a great upright 
decoration, ' Penn's Treaty with the Indians,' 
both for the state capitol of Pennsylvania. 
Meanwhile Abbey painted a few other 
pictures : ' The Poet,' his only contribution 
to the New Gallery (afterwards much 
altered and almost wholly re-painted) ; 
' A Pavane ' (1897) for Mr. Whitelaw Reid ; 
* Fair is my Love ' (1906), in the gallery of 
the corporation of Preston ; and the official 
picture of ' The Coronation of H.M. King 
Edward VII,' at Buckingham Palace, a 
work fifteen feet by nine feet, containing 
120 excellent portraits and occupying the 
artist during 1903-4. 

Abbey's mural decorations comprise 
the most ambitious part of his work. The 
great frieze for the delivery room of the 
public library of Boston, U.S.A., on which 
he was engaged between 1890 and 1901, is 
lofty in conception and original in plan and 
one of the most elaborate decorations 
produced by either American or British 
artist. Five of the paintings 90 feet in 
aggregate length were shown at the Con- 
duit Street Galleries, London, in January 
1895, and the completed series at the Guild- 
hall, October to November 1901 fifteen 
paintings in all. The dramatic presentation 
and artistic power of this great effort were 
recognised at once. For the Royal Exchange, 
London, he executed in 1904 a mural panel 
representing the ancient reconciliation of the 
two City companies, the Skinners and the 
Merchant Taylors, 1484. There followed a 
vast commission to decorate the state 
capitol of Pennsylvania at Harrisburg. In 
April 1908 eight large allegorical paintings, 
forming a portion for the dome, were ex- 
hibited in London at the Imperial Institute. 
At his death he had completed the 
immense composition ' The Apotheosis of 
Pennsylvania,' in which the whole history of 
the state is summarised, and the dome- 
ceiling ' The 24 Hours.' Other decorative 
work had occupied Abbey, especially the 
designs for Sir Henry Irving's contemplated 
but abandoned production of ' Richard II ' 
(1898). At the request of the office of 
works Abbey superintended the decoration 
of the peers' corridor in the Houses of 
Parliament with historical pictures, approxi- 
mating in sentiment to the Tudor style of 
the architecture, by a group of young artists 
working on an harmonious plan. These 
were completed in 1910. 

Abbey died on 1 Aug. 1911 at Chelsea 
Lodge of an affection of the liver. After 



cremation he was buried at the old church- 
of Kingsbury, Neasden. On 22 April 
L890 he had married Mary Gertrude 
jhter of Frederick Mead, merchant, 
New York). She survived him without 


Abbey's artistic and intellectual merits, 
which his personal charm and sympathetic 
and generous temperament enhanced, were 
widely acknowledged. He rapidly became 
a leading force in the English and American 
art of the day and founder of a school. 
Steeped in mediaeval and seventeenth and 
eighteenth-century art and literature, he 
captivated the public by the charm, dignity, 
and dramatic ability which he brought to 
the rendering of his subjects. At the same 
tune his artistic qualities, alike as to colour, 
draughtsmanship, composition, and inven- 
tion, appealed on technical grounds to his 
fellow-artists, whether his medium were oil, 
water-colour, pen-and-ink, or pastel. 

He was chosen member of many artistic 
societies in England and other countries, 
including the American Water-Colour 
Society of New York (elected 1876) and 
the Royal Institute of Painters in Water- 
Colours (London) (elected 1883 and resigned 
in 1893). In 1895, when he became one of 
the original incorporators of the American 
Academy at Rome, he was elected associate 
of the Royal Water-Colour Society. In 1901 
he was made an associate and in 1902 a 
member of the (American) Academy of 
Design ; and he was an original member 
of the American Academy of Arts and 
Letters. He was an hon. member of the 
American Institute of Architects (1895) ; 
hon. member of the Royal Bavarian 
Academy and of the Madrid Society of 
Artists ; hon. associate of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects. After ex- 
hibiting his work in Paris in 1896 he was 
made chevalier of the legion of honour 
and corresponding member of the Institut 
de France, as well as of the Societe 
Nationale des Beaux- Arts, Paris (1896). 
Yale University made him an hon. M.A. 
and the University of Pennsylvania an hon. 
LL.D. Among the awards won by Abbey 
were a second-class gold medal, Munich In- 
ternational Exhibition in 1883; a first-class 
gold medal, Exposition Universelle, Paris, in 
1889 ; two gold medals, Chicago Exhibition, 
1893 ; a gold medal of honour, Pennsylvania, 
1897 ; and a first-class gold medal, Vienna 
Exhibition, 1898. In Jan-March 1912 a 
memorial exhibition of Abbey's works, com- 
prising 322 items, was included in the 
'Old Masters' exhibition of the Royal 
Academy at Burlington House. 

Abbey remained to the end an American 
citizen ; but he deeply appreciated his 
reception in England, and he had a full 
faith in the beneficial influence and equitable 
organisation of the Royal Academy. 

Among portraits of Abbey are a crayon 
drawing by J. S. Sargent, R.A. ; an oil 
portrait by Sir W. Q. Orchardson, R.A. 
(1910, Orchardson's last work) ; a bronze 
bust by E. Onslow Ford, R.A. (1902); a 
sketch portrait by John H. Bacon, A. R.A. ; 
drawings by Griyayedoff and Napoleon 
Sarony respectively, and a caricature and 
portrait by Leslie Ward (' Spy ') in ' Vanity 
Fair' (1898). 

[Private information and documents in the 
possession of Mrs. E. A. Abbey ; Royal 
Academy Catalogues.] M. H. S. 

ABBOTT, EVELYN ( 1843-1901 ),classical 
scholar, born at Epperstone, Nottingham- 
shire, on 10 March 1843, was third of the 
five sens of Evelyn Abbott, a farmer and 
landowner, by his wife Mary Lambe. 
Educated first at Lincoln grammar school 
and afterwards at the Somerset College, 
Bath, Abbott was elected in 1862 to 
an open exhibition at Balliol College, 
Oxford, and commenced his university 
residence in October. He established 
a high reputation among his contem- 
poraries as a scholar, and was likewise 
distinguished in athletic sports. In 
1864 he won the Gaisford prize for 
Greek verse and a first class in classical 
moderations. In the Easter vacation 
of 1866, just before he entered for his 
final examination, he fell in a hurdle 
race and injured his spine. Unhappily, 
he was so unaccustomed to illness that 
he did not recognise the serious nature 
of the accident, and continued his exertions, 
both at his books and at cricket, as if 
nothing had occurred. In the summer he 
obtained a first class in literae humaniores. 
In the following autumn, when the mischief 
became manifest, it was too late for a cure ; 
he became hopelessly paralysed in the 
lower limbs, and until his death never put 
foot to the ground. The inevitable effect 
of these unnatural conditions on his 
health and activity was held at bay 
for thirty-five years by a very strong 
natural constitution and by his admirable 
courage and patience. He soon began to 
take private pupils, sometimes near his 
birthplace in Sherwood Forest, sometimes 
at Filey. In 1870 he was appointed by 
Dr. Percival sixth form master at Clifton 
College. In 1873 Benjamin Jowett, Master 
of Balliol, invited him to return to Oxford, 
and until 1875 he took work at Corpus a 

A Beckett 

A Beckett 

well as at Balliol. In 1873 he graduated 
B.A. and M.A. In 1874 he was elected a 
fellow and tutor of Balliol. From that 
time till his resignation, only a few days 
before his death, ho was a mainstay of the 
administration and teaching of his college. 
At first he taught mainly Latin and Greek 
scholarship; in his later years Greek 
history was his principal subject. He won 
the affection and confidence of his pupils 
by his unceasing efforts for their welfare 
and by the cheerfulness with which he 
bore his physical disabilities. He became 
Jowett lecturer in Greek in 1895, and was 
librarian of the college from 1881 to 1897, 
and in 1882 served as junior bursar. 

Throughout his life Abbott was constantly 
engaged in writing in addition to his 
college work. He was well versed in 
German, and besides Curtius's * Elucidations 
of the Students' Greek Grammar' (1870) 
he translated Max Duncker's * History of 
Antiquity' (6 vols. 1877-81). He also 
assisted Miss Sarah Francis Alleyne (d. 1885) 
in English versions of Duncker's ' History 
of Greece' (2 vols. 1883-6) and Zeller's 
' Outlines of Greek Philosophy' (1885). He 
was editor of ' Hellenica ' (1880; 2nd 
edit. 1898), a collection of essays on 
Greek themes, and was general editor of 
the 'Heroes of the Nations' series, to 
which he contributed a life of Pericles 
(1891). Other works were ' Elements of 
Greek Accidence ' (1874) and an index to 
Jowett's translation of Plato (1875). With 
Lewis Campbell [q. v. Suppl. II] he wrote 
the biography of his life-long friend, 
Benjamin Jowett, Master of Balliol (1897). 
His most important literary work is his 
' History of Greece ' in three volumes 
(1888-1900), admirable alike for its 
learning, sound judgment, and simple 
and lucid style. The sceptical view of 
the * Iliad' and 'Odyssey,' which regards 
them as purely works of poetical 
imagination, has nowhere been more 
ably presented, and the presentation 
well illustrates Abbott's independent 
method in treating historical problems. 

Abbott, who was made LL.D. of St. 
Andrews in 1879, maintained his activities 
till a few weeks before his death at 
Malvern on 3 Sept. 1901. He was buried 
at Redlands cemetery, near Cardiff. 

[Personal knowledge ; Foster's Alumni Oxon.] 

J. L. S.-B. 

(1844-1909), humorist, third son of Gilbert 
Abbott a Beckett [q. v.], was born at Port- 
land House, North End, Fulham, in October 
1844. His godfather was William Gilbert 

|~q. v.], the father of Sir William Schwenck 
Gilbert [q. v. Suppl. II]. Gilbert Arthur & 
Beckett [q. v. Suppl. I] was his elder 
brother. Arthur was educated first at 
Honiton and then at Felsted from January 
1858 to December 1859 (BEEVOR, Alumni 
Felsled.). While at Felsted he contributed 
to the * Braintree Times ' ; and later he was 
a favourite chairman of Old Felstedians. 
Palmerston nominated him in 1862 to a 
clerkship in the war office, but he soon 
migrated to the post office, and left the civil 
service in 1865 to engage in journalism. 
From 1871 to 1874 he was private secretary 
of the duke of Norfolk. Subsequently he 
became a student of Gray's Inn, 13 June 
1877, and was called to the bar 3 May 
1882, but he obtained no practice. 

His vocation for the press showed itself 
early. At twenty he was assisting (Sir) 
Francis Burnand on the ' Glow-Worm,' a 
penny evening humorous paper, with which 
he was associated till 1868. He afterwards 
edited a satirical weekly, ' The Tomahawk.' 
At twenty-two, with the aid of his brother 
Gilbert, he wrote a ' Comic Guide to the 
Royal Academy' (1863-4). Good verbal 
spirits were the mainspring of his humour. 
Later he edited the * Britannia ' magazine 
(1868-70) and acted as special correspondent 
to the * Standard ' and the ' Globe ' during 
the second period of the Franco -Prussian 
war in 1870, when he was arrested at Amiens 
and astonished a court of French officers by 
his jocularity. In 1871, after experience in 
the volunteers, he was given a company in 
the king's own light infantry militia, and 
for a short time in 1896 edited the * Naval 
and Military Magazine.' From 1891 to 1895 
he was also editor of the ' Sunday Times,' 
under the directorship of Sir Augustus 
Harris. His best work was done in 
connection with ' Punch,' of which he 
claimed that his father was part-originator 
and founder. Tom Taylor first invited him 
to contribute in May 1874; in August 1875 
he was called to the table, and for the 
following twenty-seven years he was an 
ardent devotee. His 'Papers from Pump 
Handle Court, by A Briefless Junior' 
(in continuation of the jeu ff esprit of his 
father) were much quoted. After Burnand's 
promotion to the editorship in 1880 he 
occasionally acted as locum tenens. His 
withdrawal from ' Punch ' under pressure 
in June 1902 left some resentment, and 
he projected and edited through 1902-3 
a rival comic paper, ' John Bull,' which 
met with no success. Apart from his 

* Punch ' work he wrote ' About Town,' 

* . s. d.j and some melodramatic novels, 



one of which, 'Fallen among Thieves' 
(1876), he and John Palgrave Simpson [q.v.] 
dramatised as ' From Father to Son.' 
He was also author of 'Our Holiday in the 
Scottish Highlands' in conjunction with 
Linley Sambourne in 1876, and in his last 
years of several very loosely knit volumes 
of recollections, among them ' London at j 
the End of the Century' (1900), 'The A 

PBecketts of Punch' (1903), and 'Recollec- 
tions, of a Humourist' (1907). President 
of the Newspaper Society in 1895, of the 
Institute of Journalists in 1900, and ! 
British delegate of the press congress at 
Liege in 1905, he was universally liked in 
his profession. Irrepressible egotism in A 
Beckett lent an additional charm to a 
character simple, kindly, and genial to its 
foundation. His naivete was well shown in 
his relations with Cardinal Manning, to whose I 
church he became, like his friend Burnand, 
a convert in 1874. An accident necessi- 
tated the removal of A Beckett's leg at St. 
Thomas's Home on 11 Jan. 1909, and he J 
died of collapse on 14 Jan. 1909. After a ! 
requiem mass at Westminster he was buried 
in Mortlake cemetery. He married in 
1876 Susanna Francesca, daughter of Dr. j 
Forbes Winslow, by whom he left two sons. ! 
His completion of his father's ' Comic ' 
History of England ' is still unpublished. 

[The Times, 12-15, 19 Jan. 1909 ; Illus- i 
trated London News, 18 Jan. 1909 (portrait) ; j 
Men and Women of the Time, 1899 ; Foster's 
Men at the Bar, 1885 ; Burnand's Records and j 
Reminiscences, 1904, ii. 230 ; Recollections of j 
& Humourist, 1907 (portrait); Spielmann's 
Hist, of Punch (1895) ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; A , 
Beckett's works ; personal recollections.] 

T. S. 

first baronet (1827-1902), chemist, born j 
on 17 July 1827 at Woolwich, was son of ! 
Johann Leopold Abel (1795-1871), a music- 
master in Kennington, by his wife Louisa 
((/. 1864), daughter of Martin Hopkins 
of Walworth. His paternal grandfather, 
August Christian Andreas Abel (6. 12 Aug. 
1751 ), was court miniature-painter to the 
Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 

Abel was attracted to a scientific career by | 
a visit at the age of fourteen to an uncle in j 
Hamburg, A. J. Abel, a mineralogist and a 
pu pil of Berzeli us. After a course of chem is - 
try under Dr. Ryan at the Royal Polytechnic 
Institution, he entered the Royal College | 
of Chemistry, founded in October 1845 
under A. W. Hofmann ; he was one of 
the twenty-six original students. Next 
year he became an assistant, holding the 
position for five years. In 1851 he was 

appointed demonstrator of chemistry at 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital to Dr. John 
Stenhouse [q. v.], and in March 1852 
lecturer on chemistry at the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich in 
succession to Faraday [q. v.] In con- 
junction with Charles London Bloxam 
(d. 1887), his assistant and successor there, 
he published a useful ' Handbook of 
Chemistry ; Theoretical, Practical, and 
Technical' (1854; 2nd edit. 1858). 

Abel became ordnance chemist at Wool- 
wich on 24 July 1854, and he was made 
chemist to the war department there in 
January 1856. From 1854 till 1888, when 
he retired from Woolwich, Abel was the chief 
official authority on all matters connected 
with explosives. He was a member of the 
ordnance select committee, was expert for 
submarine defence and smokeless powder, 
and from 1888 until his death was president 
of the explosives committee. The trans- 
formation of arms and ammunition which 
took place during the thirty -four years of 
his service at Woolwich necessarily occupied 
the greater part of his scientific career, 
though almost every branch of technical 
science was enriched by his labours. The 
supersession of black by ' smokeless ' powder 
was flue to his researches on guncotton, 
founded on the attempts of Baron von 
Lenk to utilise this explosive in 1862. 
He developed the process of reducing gun- 
cotton to a fine pulp which enabled it 
to be worked and stored without danger. 
These results of his work were published 
in 1866 in his lectures ' Gun Cotton ' and 
in ' The Modern History of Gunpowder.' 
Another important research, carried out 
in conjunction with Captain (afterwards 
Sir) Andrew Noble, aimed at determining 
the nature of the chemical changes pro- 
duced on firing explosives. This work, 
carried out at great personal risk, is of the 
highest value and threw new light on 
the theory of explosives. The conclusioas 
were published in various papers and 
lectures from 1871 to 1880 (cf. On 
Explosive Agents, a lecture, Edinburgh, 
1871 ; Researches on Explosives with Capt. 
Noble, 1875 and 1880). The explosion in 
Seaham Colliery in 1881 led to the appoint- 
ment of a royal commission on accidents 
in coal mines on which he served, and to 
Abel's researches on dangerous dusts (1882), 
in which he investigated the part played 
by dust in bringing about an explosion. 
In other directions Abel reached equally 
important results. As an expert in 
petroleum he devised the Abel open -test, 
with a flash-point of 100 Fahr., legalised 



in 1868, which was superseded in 1879 
by the Abel close-test, with a flash-point 
of 73. He also carried out many 
researches into the composition of alloyed 
metals with reference to their physical j 
properties. His last piece of work, carried i 
out in conjunction with Prof, (afterwards j 
Sir) James Dewar, was the invention | 
of cordite in 1889. The use of high I 
explosives abroad forced the English 
government to seek for a better material 
than guncotton, and a committee was 
appointed in 1888, under Abel's presidency, 
to examine all the modern high explosives. 
None of them was exactly suitable to 
service requirements, and their inventors 
refusing to make the necessary modifica- 
tions, Abel and Dewar devised and patented 
a compound of guncotton and nitroglycerine 
and assigned it to the secretary of war 
in 1890 (cf. Hansard, 11 Sept. 1893). 
Cordite is now the standard explosive of 
this country. 

Abel's remarkable powers of organisation 
and his official position as scientific adviser 
to the government gave him a prominent 
position in the scientific world. He was 
elected F.R.S. in 1860, and received the 
royal medal in 1887. He was president 
of the Chemical Society (1875-7), df the 
Institute of Chemistry (1881-2), of the 
Society of Chemical Industry (1883), and 
of the Institute of Electrical Engineers. 
He was also president of the Iron and 
Steel Institute in 1891, and was awarded 
the Bessemer gold medal in 1897. He acted 
as chairman of the Society of Arts (1883-4) 
and received the Albert Medal in 1891. 
The Telford medal was bestowed on him 
by the Institution of Civil Engineers in I 

At Plymouth in 1877 he presided over the j 
chemistry section of the British Association, I 
and as president of the Association at \ 
Leeds in 1890 he gave an address on 
recent practical applications of science. | 
When the foundation of the Imperial | 
Institute was decided on in 1887, Abel was 
appointed organising secretary, remaining 
its honorary secretary and director from 
its opening in 1893 till it was handed over 
to the board of trade in 1901. He was 
made C.B. 1877, was knighted 1883, 
became K.C.B. 1891, a baronet 1893, 
G.C.V.O., 1901 ; he received the hon. 
D.C.L. (Oxford) 1883, and D.Sc. (Cam- 
bridge) 1888. In addition to the publications 
already cited, he contributed sixty-five 
papers to scientific publications and some 
important articles to the 9th edition of the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 

Abel, who combined with his scientific 
capacity high accomplishments as a 
musician, died at his residence, 2 Whitehall 
Court, S.W., on 6 Sept. 1902, and was 
buried at Nunhead cemetery. He married 
(1) Sarah Selina (1854-1888), daughter 
of James Blanch of Bristol; (2) in 1889, 
Giulietta de la Feuillade (d. 1892). He 
had no children. His portrait, by Frank 
Bramley, was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1901. 

[War Office List ; Burke's Baronetage ; 
Nature, Ixvi. 492 ; The Times, 8 Sept. 1902 ; 
Journal, Iron and Steel Institute, Jxii. 1902; 
Journal, Soc. of Arts, Sept. 1902; Soc. Chem. 
Industry, xxi. 1902 ; Trans. Chem. Soc. 1905, 
i. 565 ; Oscar Guttmann's Manufacture of Ex- 
plosives, 1895, i. 346-8.] R. S. 

(1814-1903), first bishop of Wellington, 
New Zealand, born on 17 June 1814 at the 
Royal Military College, Sandhurst, was 
second son of Captain Thomas Abraham 
of the 16th regiment, who was on the staff 
there. His mother was Louisa Susannah, 
daughter of Edward Carter of Portsmouth. 
After attending Dr. Arnold's school at 
Laleham, he went in 1826 to Eton as 
an oppidan, but to save expenses soon 
went into college, then half empty. He 
reached the sixth form, and played in the 
school cricket eleven. In 1833 Abraham 
went as a scholar to King's College, 
Cambridge. King's at that time had the 
privilege of giving its own degrees with- 
out university examination in a tripos. 
Abraham was a good and accurate scholar, 
with a special memory for Horace and 
Homer, which he retained through life. 
He graduated B.A. in 1837, and succeeded 
to a fellowship at Bang's, which he held 
until 1850. He proceeded M.A. in 1840 
and D.D. in 1859, and took the ad eundem 
degree of M.A. at Oxford on 14 June 

After being ordained deacon in 1837 
and priest in 1838 and entering on parochial 
work as curate of Headley Down, Hamp- 
shire, he returned to Eton as a master. For 
thirteen years he threw himself heart and 
soul into Eton life. There were few masters 
and the classes were large and unwieldy ; 
Abraham had more than ninety boys 
in his division. With George Augustus 
Selwyn [q. v.], who was private tutor to 
the earl of Powis's sons at Eton and curate 
of Windsor, Abraham now began the 
friendship which determined his career. 
When in 1841 Selwyn became bishop of 
New Zealand, Abraham was anxious to 
follow him, but for the present the calls of 



Eton kept him at home. In 1846, in the 
interests of the reform of the school, he 
resigned the lucrative post of house-master to 
become assistant-master in college, and was 
largely responsible for the rapid improve- 
ment in the moral tone of the King's 
scholars. He helped to modify the system of 
fagging, and repressed the old college songs. 
As a teacher, Abraham widened the range 
of the curriculum, combining the teaching 
of history and geography and stimulating 
the boys' interest in history and literature. 
The collegers regarded him as a kind adviser 
and friend, and in 1850 gave a font and 
cover to the college chapel as a tribute of 
their regard. His pupils included Edward 
Henry Stanley, fifteenth earl of Derby 
[q. v.], to whom for a time he was private 
tutor at Knowsley, and Lord Robert Arthur 
Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, afterwards third 
marquis of Salisbury [q. v. Suppl. II], who 
visited him in New Zealand in 1852. In 
1848 Abraham was appointed divinity 
lecturer of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
and next year, when he became B.D. at 
Cambridge, published his * Festival and 
Lenten Lectures.' 

He left Eton at Christmas 1849 to join 
Bishop Selwyn in New Zealand, and 
arrived in Auckland harbour in July 1850. 
Selwyn at once put him in charge, as 
chaplain and principal, of St. John's Col- 
lege, Auckland, a small training college 
for Maori and English youths. In 1853 he 
was made archdeacon of Waitemate, with 
the oversight of a large district. He took 
long tramps with Selwyn for months 
together through the native districts, visit- 
ing mission stations and schools. He 
returned to England in 1857 for surgical 
treatment of a broken arm. Whilst in 
England the new dioceses of Wellington and 
Nelson were constituted ; Abraham was 
consecrated bishop of Wellington at Lam- 
beth Palace on 29 Sept. 1858, and his 
friend, Edmund Hobhouse [q. v. Suppl. II], 
bishop of Nelson. For twelve years 
Abraham was fully occupied in creating the 
machinery of his new diocese, the chief 
town in which had just been made 
the seat of government. Three or four 
months in the year he spent in visiting 
outlying stations. During the Maori war 
in 1860 he powerfully urged just treatment 
of the natives. 

In 1868 Abraham returned to England 
with Selwyn, who was appointed to the 
see of Lichfield, and owing to Selwyn's 
temporary failure of health became co- 
adjutor bishop. In 1872 he was collated to 
the prebendal stall of Bobenhall in Lichfield 

Cathedral, and in 1876 was made a canon- 
residentiary and precentor. He assisted in 
the revision of the mediaeval statutes of the 
cathedral, taught in the theological college, 
helped in beautifying and strengthening 
the fabric of the cathedral, of which he was 
the keeper, and although no musician was 
unremitting in devotion to the welfare of 
the choristers. In 1875-6 Abraham was 
also non-resident rector of Tatenhill, in 
Needwood Forest. A total abstainer, he 
was long a frequent speaker at meetings 
of the United Kingdom Alliance. 

After Selwyn's death in April 1878, 
Abraham, with Bishop Edmund Hobhouse 
and Sir William Martin [q. v.], organised, 
by way of memorial, Selwyn College, 
Cambridge, which was opened in October 
1882. He rendered the college much gen- 
erous service, and as a chief benefactor he 
is mentioned annually in the chapel com- 
memoration on 4 Feb. Abraham worked 
with William Dalrymple Maclagan [q. v. 
Suppl. II], Selwyn's successor at Lichfield, 
until 1890, when he resigned his canonry, 
thenceforth residing with his only son, the 
Rev. Charles Thomas Abraham, first at 
Christ Church, Lichfield, until 1897, and 
afterwards at Bakewell, Derbyshire. He 
died on 4 Feb. 1903 at Bake well vicarage, and 
was buried at Over Haddon churchyard. A 
memorial service was held the same day in 
Eton CollegeChapel, where a marble slab and 
effigy have been placed. Abraham married 
on 17 Jan. 1850 Caroline Harriet (d. 1877), 
daughter of Sir Charles Thomas Palmer, 
second baronet, of Wanlip, Leicestershire. 
Charles Thomas Abraham, his son, is 
now bishop suffragan of Derby. 

Besides the work mentioned Abraham 
was author of : 1. ' The Unity of History,' 
1845; 2nd edit. 1846. 2. 'The Three 
Witnesses on Earth,' 1848. 3. * Personal 
Religion and Cathedral Membership,' 1858. 
4. ' Readings, Meditations, and Prayers on 
the Lord's Supper,' 2nd edit., 1858. 

[Articles on Charles John Abraham, by 
A. L. Brown and C. T. Abraham, in the Selwvn 
College Calendar for 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906 ; 
W. H. Tucker, Bishop Selwyn's Life, 1879 ; 
G. H. Curteis, Life of G. A. Selwyn, 1889 ; 
Maxwell Lyte's History of Eton, 1875, p. 421 ; 
A. D. Coleridge's Eton in the Forties, 1896, 
p. 381 ; A. L. Brown's Selwyn College, 1906 ; 
The Times, 5, 9, and 13 Feb. 1903 ; Crock- 
ford's Clerical Directory; Lichfield Diocesan 
Magazine, March 1903 ; Foster's Peerage and 
Baronetage ; original letters in the possession 
of Mr. Percy Simpson ; private informa- 
tion.] W. G. D. F. 

ACTON, JOHN ADAMS (1830-1910), 
sculptor. [See ADAMS-ACTON, JOHN.] 




ALDENHAM and eighth baronet (1834-1902), 
historian and moralist, born at Naples on 10 
Jan. 1834, was the only child of Sir Ferdinand 
Richard Edward Acton, seventh baronet 
(1801-1835), by a German wife, Marie 
Louise Pellini de Dalberg, only child of 
Emeric Joseph Due de Dalberg. After his 
father's early death his mother married (2 
July 1840) Granville George Leveson-Gower, 
second Earl Granville [q. v.], the liberal 
statesman ; she died 14 March 1860. The 
Acton family had long been settled in 
Shropshire, and the first baronet owed his 
title (conferred in 1643) to his loyalty to 
Charles I. Acton was descended from a 
cadet branch of the family. His great-grand- 
father; Edward Acton, was the youngest 
son of a younger son of the second baronet, 
and settled at Besancon as a doctor. 
From his marriage with a daughter of 
a Burgundian gentleman there issued Sir 
John Francis Edward Acton [q. v.], the 
friend of Queen Caroline and premier of 
the Two Sicilies at the tune of Nelson. 
His career was not unstained, and Acton, 
it is said, refused to touch monies coming 
to him from that source. Acton, who 
although a Roman Catholic by race and 
training was deeply hostile to the 
arbitrary power of the Pope, owed his 
existence to a papal dispensation. In 
1799 Sir John Acton (who eight years 
earlier succeeded to the title owing to the 
lapse of the elder branch of the family) 
obtained a dispensation to marry his 
brother's daughter. From this marriage 
issued Acton's father. 

Of mingled race and bred amid cosmopoli- 
tan surroundings, Acton was never more 
than half an Englishman. His education 
was as varied as his antecedents. After a 
brief time at a school in Paris, he was sent 
in 1843 to the Roman Catholic College at 
Oscott, then under Dr. Wiseman, for 
whom he always retained affection in 
spite of later divergence of opinion. Thence 
he went for a short time to Edinburgh as a 
private pupil under Dr. Logan. There he 
found neither the teaching nor the com- 
panionship congenial. In 1848 began that 
experience which was to mould his mind 
more than any other influence. He went 
to Munich to study under Professor von 
Dollinger, and as his private pupil to 
live under the same roof. There he 
remained for six years in all, and not only 
laid the foundations of his vast erudition 
but also acquired his notions of the methods 
of historical study and the duty of applying 

fearless criticism to the history of the 
church. From this time he never wavered 
in his unflinching and austere liberalism, 
and very little in his dislike of the papal 
curia. A passionate sense of the value of 
truth, of the rights of the individual con- 
science, and of the iniquity of persecution, 
and hatred of all forms of absolutism, civil or 
ecclesiastical, were henceforth his distinctive 
qualities, and coupled with these was that 
desire to bring his co-religionists into line 
with modern intellectual developments and 
more particularly the science of Germany. 

In 1855 he accompanied Lord Elles- 
mere to the United States ; presence at 
the important constitutional debates at 
Philadelphia stimulated his interest in 
the question of state rights. In 1856 
he accompanied his step-father, Lord 
Granville, to the coronation of the Czar 
Alexander II, and made a great impression 
on statesmen and men of intellectual 
eminence by a display of knowledge sur- 
prising in a youth. In 1857 he journeyed 
to Italy with Dollinger, and became 
versed in Italian affairs. Minghetti, the 
successor of Cavour, was a family con- 
nection and a frequent correspondent. 
(For evidence of Acton's insight into 
Italian matters, see articles in the Chron- 
icle, 1867-8, and hitherto unpublished 
correspondence with T. F. Wetherell.) 

On his return from Italy, Acton settled 
at the family seat at Aldenham, Shropshire, 
beginning to collect there the great library 
which reached a total of some 59,000 volumes. 
In 1859 he was elected to the House of 
Commons as whig M.P. for Carlow, and he 
sat for that constituency till 1865. He 
was then elected for Bridgnorth, in his own 
county, by a majority of one, and was 
unseated on a scrutiny. His parliamentary 
career was not successful. He was no 
debater ; he only made a single short 
speech and put two questions while a 
member of the house. What he said of 
himself, ' I never had any contemporaries,' 
rendered him unfit for the rough and 
tumble of political life. The House of 
Commons proved a thoroughly uncongenial 
atmosphere,but it brought him the acquaint- 
ance of Gladstone, who soon inspired 
Acton with devotional reverence. 

Acton proceeded to win intellectual 
and moral eminence at the expense of 
immediate practical influence. Even before 
he entered parliament he had actively 
joined those who were seeking to widen 
the horizons of English' Roman Catholics. 
In 1858 he acquired an interest in a 
liberal catholic monthly periodical, called 



the ' Rambler,' which, having been started 
ten years before by an Oxford convert, 
John Moore Capes, had won the support of 
Newman. Acton's fellow proprietors were 
Richard Simpson [q.v.] and Frederick Capes, 
and Simpson was serving as editor. In 
1859 Newman, whose aid was reckoned of 
great moment, succeeded Simpson as editor 
(cf. GASQUET, Lord Acton and his Circle, xxi), 
but the authorities urged his retirement 
within four months. Thereupon Acton 
became editor in name, although Simpson 
did most of the work. The periodical 
in its old shape came to an end in 1862, 
being converted into a quarterly, with the 
title ' The Home and Foreign Review.' 
This review represents the high-water 
mark of the liberal catholic movement. 
Probably no review of the reign of Queen 
Victoria maintained so high a standard of 
general excellence. Some of the strongest 
articles were written by Acton himself, 
though his style had neither the point nor 
the difficulty of his later writings. Many 
of them have since been republished in the 
two volumes entitled * The History of 
Freedom ' and * Lectures and Essays on 
Modern History.' The amazing variety of 
his knowledge is better shown in the 
numerous shorter notices of books, 
which betrayed an intimate and detailed 
knowledge of documents and authorities. 
The new quarterly had, however, to run 
from the first the gauntlet of ecclesiastical 
criticism. Cardinal Wiseman publicly 
rebuked the editors in 1862. Acton in 
reply claimed for catholics the right to 
take ' a place in every movement that 
promotes the study of God's works and the 
advancement of mankind.' 

Acton attended in March 1864 the Con- 
gress of Munich, when Dollinger pleaded 
on liberal grounds for a reunion of Christen- 
dom. Acton reported the proceedings 
in the ' Review.' His report awakened 
orthodox hostility, and when a papal brief 
addressed to the archbishop of Munich 
asserted that all Roman Catholic opinions 
were under the control of the Roman 
congregations, Acton stopped the review 
instead of waiting for the threatened veto. 
In withdrawing from this unequal contest, | 
Acton, in a valedictory article called ' Con- | 
flicts with Rome ' (April), which he signed 
as proprietor, declared once more in 
stately and dignified language his loyalty 
at once to the church and to the principles 
of freedom and scientific inquiry. At 
the end of the year Pope Pius IX 
promulgated the encyclical ' Quanta Cura ' 
with the appended 'Syllabus Errorum,' 

which deliberately condemned all such 
efforts as those of Acton to make terms 
between the church and modern civilisation. 
At the time Acton informed his constituents 
at Bridgnorth that he belonged rather to 
the soul than the body of the catholic church. 
This expressed very clearly the distinction 
dominant in his mind between member- 
ship of the church of Rome and trust in 
the court of Rome. 

The ' Review ' was replaced to some 
extent by a weekly literary and political 
journal called the * Chronicle,' which was 
started by T. F. Wetherell in 1867 with 
some pecuniary aid from Sir Rowland 
Blennerhassett [q. v. Suppl. II]. It 
ran for the most part on secular lines 
merely coloured by a Roman Catholic 
liberalism. Acton wrote regularly through 
1867 and 1868. In some of his articles, 
notably in that on Sarpi and others on the 
Roman question, he was seen at his best. 
None of these contributions have been re- 
printed. On the stoppage of the ' Chronicle ' 
at the end of 1868 he again interested him- 
self in a journalistic venture of an earlier 
stamp. He helped Wetherell to launch in a 
new form and in the liberal catholic interest 
an old-established Scottish quarterly, the 
* North British Review.' Acton eagerly 
suggested writers and themes, and was 
himself a weighty contributor until the 
periodical ceased in 1872. For the first 
number he wrote a learned article on 
' The Massacre of St. Bartholomew,' wherein 
he sought to establish the complicity if 
not of the papacy, at least of the Popes 
in this great auto da fe. Acton sub- 
sequently modified his conclusions. The 
article, which was afterwards enlarged and 
translated into Italian by Signor Tommaso 
Gar, was doubtless designed as a piece of 
polemics as well as an historical inquiry. 

Meanwhile, two lectures which Acton 
delivered at the Bridgnorth Literary and 
Scientific Institution on the American 
Civil War (18 Jan. 1866) and on Mexico 
(10 March 1868) illustrated his masterly 
insight alike into past history and current 
politics. In Nov. 1868 he stood unsuccess- 
fully for his old constituency of Bridgnorth. 
By that time Acton's intimacy with Glad- 
stone, now the liberal prime minister, had 
ripened into very close friendship. They 
were in Rome together in Dec. 1866, and 
Acton had guided Gladstone through the 
great library of Monte Cassino. Acton 
was Gladstone's junior by twenty-five years, 
and to the last he addressed the statesman 
with all the distant marks of respect due 
to a senior. But Acton influenced Glad- 




stone more deeply than did any other 
single man. Gladstone had implicit faith 
in his learning and sagacity, and in such 
vital matters as home rule and disestablish- 
ment Acton's private influence was great 
if not decisive. Gladstone submitted to 
his criticism nearly everything he wrote. 
Acton was no admirer of Gladstone's 
biblical criticism, and endeavoured, not 
always with success, to widen the scope of 
Gladstone's reading. But from 1866 the 
fellowship between the two men grew 
steadily closer, and the older sought the 
guidance and advice of his junior on all 
kinds of matters. On 11 Dec. 1869, while 
Acton was in Rome, he was on Gladstone's 
recommendation raised to the peerage. He 
took the title of Baron Acton of Aldenham. 
At the time a new general council was 
sitting at Rome to complete the work 
begun at Trent and to formulate the 
dogma of papal infallibility. Acton was in 
Rome to aid the small minority of prelates 
who were resisting the promulgation of the 
dogma. He worked hard to save the 
church from a position which in his view 
was not so much false as wicked. He urged 
the British government, of which Gladstone 
was the head, to interfere ; but Arch- 
bishop Manning, whose interest was on 
the opposite side, neutralised Acton's in- 
fluence with the prime minister through his 
friendship with Lord Odo Russell, the un- 
official British agent at Rome. Acton's 
work at Rome was not confined to hearten- 
ing the opposition or to sending home 
his views to Gladstone. To Dollinger at 
Munich, the centre of the German opposition, 
he wrote long accounts (with the names in 
cypher) of the various movements and 
counter-movements. These were combined 
with letters from two other persons in the 
series published in the ' Allgemeine Zeitung ' 
from December 1869 under the name 
' Quirinus.' They were republished at 
Munich in 1870 (4 pts.) and were translated 
into English as ' Letters from Rome on the 
Council ' (London, 3 ser., 1870). Acton is 
only partially responsible for ' Quirinus' s' 
deliverances. In some places the sym- 
pathies of the writer are strongly Gallican 
a point of view which appealed to Dollinger 
but never to his pupil. Acton's difficulties 
at Rome were great. Many of the prelates 
who were opposing the infallibility dogma 
regarded it as true, and objected only to 
its being defined at that time and in 
existing conditions. Acton was an open 
assailant of the doctrine itself. Conscious 
of inevitable defeat, the opposition eventu- 
ally withdrew from Rome, and the dogma 

was adopted by the council with unanimity. 
On 11 July 1870 Acton had already arrived 
at his house at Tegernsee, and there in 
August he completed his ' Sendschreiben an 
einen deutschen Bischof des vaticanischen 
Concils ' (Nordlingen, 1870), in which he 
quoted from numerous anti-infallibilists, 
living or dead, and asked whether their 
words still held good. But the catholic 
world, to which Acton appealed, accepted 
the new law without demur. Dollinger 
refused, and was consequently excom- 
municated (1 April 1871), while a small 
body of opponents formed themselves at 
Munich in Sept. 1871 into the * Old Catholic ' 
communion, which Dollinger did not join. 

Acton for the time stood aside and 
was unmolested. But when in 1874 
Gladstone issued his pamphlet on ' The 
Vatican Decrees,' the publication of which 
Acton had not approved, he denied in 
letters to * The Times ' any such danger to 
the state as Gladstone anticipated from 
possible Roman Catholic sedition owing to 
their allegiance to a foreign bishop. Yet 
Acton, while defending his co-religionists 
in England, dealt subtle thrusts at the 
papacy. He made it clear that what pre- 
served his allegiance and minimised his 
hostility to the Vatican Decrees was a sense 
that the church was holier than its officials, 
and the bonds of the Christian community 
were deeper than any dependent on the 
hierarchy. Acton was therefore able to 
speak of communion in the Roman church 
as 'dearer than life itself.' His present 
attitude, however, was suspected by the 
authorities. Archbishop Manning more 
than once invited an explanation. Acton 
replied adroitly that he relied on God's 
providential government of His church, 
and was no more disloyal to the Vatican 
council than to any of its predecessors. 
After more correspondence Manning said he 
must leave the matter to the pope. Acton 
made up his mind that he would be ex- 
communicated, and wrote to Gladstone that 
the only question was, when the blow would 
fall. But it did not fall. Perhaps as a 
layman, perhaps as a peer, less probably 
as a scholar, he was left alone, and died 
in full communion with the Holy See. 

With the letters to 'The Times' of Nov. 
to December 1874 Acton's polemical career 
closed. He admitted in a letter to Lady 
Blennerhassett that the explanations given 
by Newman in the ' Letter to the Duke of 
Norfolk' on Gladstone's expostulations 
(1875) would enable him to accept the 
decrees. But if he thought his fears of the 
decrees had been in some respects exagge- 



rated, his hatred of ultramontanism was 
never appeased. 

Through middle life Acton divided his 
time between Aldenham, the Dalberg seat 
at Herrnsheim on the Rhine, and a house 
at Prince's Gate in London. In 1879 
financial difficulties drove him to sell 
Herrnsheim and to let Aldenham. He 
thenceforth spent the winter at Cannes 
and the autumn at the Arco Villa at 
Tegernsee, Bavaria, which belonged to 
his wife's family, and only parts of the 
spring or summer in London. He read 
more and wrote less than previously, but 
his historical writing lost nothing in depth. 
In the spring of 1877 he gave two lectures 
at Bridgnorth on the ' History of Freedom 
in Antiquity and in Christianity.' Two 
articles in the * Quarterly ' on ' Wolsey 
and the Divorce of Henry VIII ' (Jan. 1877) 
and on Sir Erskine May's * Democracy in 
Europe ' (Jan. 1878) and an article on 
Cross's ' Life of George Eliot ' in the * Nine- 
teenth Century ' (March 1885) are exhaus- 
tive treatises. In 1886 he helped to set on 
foot the ' English Historical Review ' 
and contributed to the first number a heavy 
but pregnant article on * German Schools 
of History' (German transl. 1887). In 
London he saw much of Gladstone and 
encouraged him in his home rule propa- 
ganda. A member of Grillion's and The 
Club, he was in intimate relations with 
the best English intellectual society. 
Honours began to flow in. In 1872 the 
University at Munich had given him an 
honorary doctorate, and in 1888 he was made 
hon. LL.D. of Cambridge, and in 1889 hon. 
D.C.L. of Oxford. In 1891, on a hint from 
Gladstone, he was elected an honorary 
fellow of All Souls. When Gladstone 
formed his fourth administration in 1892, 
Acton was appointed a lord-in-waiting. 
Queen Victoria appreciated his facility 
of speech in German and his German 
sympathies, but the position was irksome. 
In 1895 came the great chance of Acton's 
life in his capacity of scholar. On Lord 
Rosebery's recommendation he became 
regius professor of modern history at 
Cambridge in succession to Sir John Seeley. 

Acton was at once elected an honorary 
fellow of Trinity College, and took up 
his residence in Neville's Court. He threw 
himself with avidity into professorial work. 
His inaugural lecture on the study of 
history (11 June 1895) was a striking 
success ; it contained a stimulating ac- 
count of the development of modern 
historical methods and closed with an 
expression of that belief in the supremacy 

of the moral law in politics which was 
the dominant strain in Acton. It was 
published with a bulky appendix of illus- 
trative quotations, illustrating at once the 
erudition and the weakness of the author, 
and was translated into German (Berlin, 

Settled at Cambridge, Acton began almost 
at once to lecture on the * French Revolu- 
tion ' for the historical tripos. His 
lectures were largely attended, both by 
students and by the general public. They 
were read almost verbatim from manu- 
script with very rare asides. The dignity 
of his delivery, his profound sense of the 
greatness of his task and of the paramount 
import of moral issues gave them a very 
impressive quality. Probably his half a 
dozen years at Cambridge were the happiest 
time in Acton's life. He loved to think 
of himself as a Cambridge man at last, 
and was as proud as a freshman of his 
rooms in College. He had the pleasure of 
finding eager pupils among some of the 
junior students. In 1899 and 1900 much 
of his energy was absorbed by the project of 
the ' Cambridge Modern History.' He 
did not originate it, but he warmly for- 
warded it, and acted as its first editor, with 
disastrous results to his health. On the 
business side he was never strong ; and 
the effort of securing contributors, of 
directing them and of co-ordinating the 
work was a greater strain than he could bear. 
He regarded his editorial position very 
seriously ; and although nothing was pub- 
lished while he was still alive, yet nearly 
the whole of the first volume and more 
than half the second were in type some 
two years before his death. The plan of 
the whole twelve volumes and the author- 
ship of many even of the later chapters 
were his decision. Unfortunately Acton 
contributed nothing himself. The notes 
prepared for what should have been the 
first chapter on ' The Legacy of the Middle 
Ages ' were not sufficiently advanced for 
publication. For all that the history 
remains a monument to his memory. In 
1901 his final illness overtook him ; suffer- 
ing from a paralytic stroke, he withdrew 
to Tegernsee, and after lingering some 
months he died there on 19 June 1902. 
He was buried at Tegernsee. 

Acton married on 1 Aug. 1865 the 
Countess Marie, daughter of Maximilian, 
Count Arco-Valley of Munich, a member of 
a distinguished and very ancient Bavarian 
house. His widow survived him with a 
son, Richard Maximilian, who succeeded him 
as second Baron Acton, and three daughters. 

Of two pencil drawings done in 1876 by 
Henry Tan worth Wells [q.v. Suppl. II] one 
is at Grillion's Club, Hotel Cecil, London, and 
the other at Aldenham. He had become 
F.S.A. in 1876, and was made K.C.V.O. in 
1897. Acton's valuable historical library at 
Aldenham, containing over 59,000 volumes, 
was bought immediately after his death 
by Mr. Andrew Carnegie, and was presented 
by him to John (afterwards Viscount) 
Morley. Lord Morley gave it in 1903 
to the University of Cambridge. The 
whole collection is divided into 54 classes 
under the main headings of (1) ecclesiastical 
history, (2) political history, and (3) subjects 
not falling under these two heads. The first 
heading illustrates with rare completeness 
the internal and external history of the 
papacy; under the second heading works 
on Germany, France, and Switzerland are 
represented with exceptional fulness (cf. 
Camb. Mod. Hist. vol. iv. pp. viii, 802). 
Acton's books bear many traces of his 
method of reading. He was in the habit of 
drawing a fine ink line in the margin 
against passages which interested him, and 
of transcribing such passages on squares 
of paper, which he sorted into boxes or 
Solander cases. 

Apart from his periodical writings Acton 
only published during his lifetime some 
separate lectures and letters, most of which 
have been already mentioned. The two on 
'Liberty' delivered at Bridgnorth in 1877 
appeared also in French translations (Paris, 
1878). He edited Harpsfield's ' Narrative of 
the Divorce' (book ii.) and 'Letters of 
James II to the Abbot of La Trappe ' 
(1872-6) for the Philobibton Society, and 
' Les Matinees Royales,' a hitherto unpub- 
lished work of Frederick the Great (London 
and Edinburgh, 1863). Since his death 
there have been issued his ' Lectures on 
Modern History,' edited with introduction 
by J. N. Figgis and R. V. Lawrence (1906) ; 
' The History of Freedom, and other 
Essays,' introduction by the editors (1907) ; 
* Historical Essays and Studies ' (1907) ; and 
' Lectures on the French Revolution ' (1910). 
These four volumes, like his inaugural 
lecture, are fair evidence of his powers. The 
vast erudition, the passion for becoming 
intimately acquainted with many different 
periods, were a bar to production on a large 
scale. This was also hindered by a 
certain lack of organising power and a 
deficient sense of proportion. He aban- 
doned his project for writing a ' History of 
Liberty,' which indeed was never more than 
a chimera displaying his lack of archi- 
tectonic faculty. Nor did the notion of a 

history of the ' Council of Trent ' fare ^ 
better, and of the projected biography of 
Dollinger we have nothing but a single 
article on * Dollinger' s Historical Works ' 
from the ' English Historical Review' (1890). 
His essays are really monographs, and in 
many cases either said the final word on a 
topic or advanced the knowledge of it very 
definitely. As an historian Acton held 
very strongly to the ideal of impartiality, 
yet his writings illustrate the impossibility 
of attaining it. The ' Lectures on Modern 
History' are actually the development of 
the modern world as conceived by a con- 
vinced whig and except in the actual 
investigation of bare facts no historian is 
less impartial and more personal in his 
judgments than Acton appears in the 
volume on the ' French Revolution.' His 
writing again has a note as distinctive as 
though very different from that of Macaulay. 
His style is difficult ; it is epigrammatic, 
packed with allusions, dignified, but never 
flowing. He has been termed a * Meredith 
turned historian ' ; but the most notable 
qualities are the passion for political right- 
eousness that breathes in all his utterances, 
the sense of the supreme worth of the in- 
dividual conscience and the inalienable 
desire for liberty alike in church and 

[Personal knowledge; The Times,20 June 1902; 
unpublished correspondence with Dollinger, 
Newman, Gladstone, Lady Blennerhassett, 
and others ; editorial introductions to Lectures 
on Modern History (1906) and the History 
of Freedom (1907); Letters of Lord Acton 
to Mary Gladstone (with memoir by Herbert 
Paul), 1904 ; Gasquet, Lord Acton and his 
Circle, 1906 ; Edinburgh Review, April 1903 ; 
Independent Review, art. by John Pollock, 
October 1904; Bryce's Studies in Contem- 
porary Biography, 1903 ; Morley' s Life of 
Gladstone, 1904, ii. and iii. ; Grant Duff's 
Notes from a Diary ; PurcelTs Life of 
Manning, 1896; Wilfrid Ward's Life of 
Cardinal Newman, 1912. A bibliography, 
edited by Dr. W. A. Shaw for the Royal 
Historical Society, 1903, gives most of Acton's 
writings whether in books or periodicals. 
Various sections of the catalogue of the Acton 
collection have been published in the Cam- 
bridge University Library Bulletin (extra 
series)]. J. N. F. 

ADAM, JAMES (1860-1907), classical 
scholar and Platonist, born on 7 April 1860 
at Kinmuck in the parish of Keithhall near 
Inverurie in Aberdeenshire, was second 
child and only son of James Adam and 
Barbara Anderson. The father owned the 
general store and tailor's shop which served 
the neighbouring countryside ; he died of 



typhoid fever when his son was only eight. 
His mother (still living) by her own energy 
carried on the business, and brought up her 
six children. After varied scholastic ex- 
periences Adam made rapid progress at the 
parish school of Keithhall under George 
Kemp, M. A., and having spent some months 
at the grammar school of Old Aberdeen 
won the third bursary at Aberdeen Uni- 
versity in Oct. 1876. Though chiefly 
interested in Greek, Adam took a good 
place in most of the classes of the arts 
course. His devotion to Greek was fostered 
by the professor, (Sir) William Geddes 
[q. v. Suppl. I]. In 1880 he graduated 
with first-class honours in classics and 
carried off the chief classical prizes and the 
Ferguson scholarship. Meanwhile in the 
spring of 1880 he had been elected classical 
scholar at Caius College, Cambridge. 
In the summer of 1882 he was placed 
in division i. of the first class in the 
classical tripos, part i. In 1883 he just 
missed the Craven scholarship, but in 1884 
was awarded the first chancellor's medal 
and obtained a specially brilliant first 
class (only once equalled) in part ii. of the 
classical tripos with distinction in classics, 
ancient philosophy, and comparative 
philology. In Dec. 1884 he was elected a 
junior fellow and was soon appointed classi- 
cal lecturer of Emmanuel College, where he 
settled down at once to his life's work as a 
teacher. During his undergraduate career 
at Cambridge Adam had devoted himself 
with increasing ardour to the study of Plato, 
and this author for the rest of his life 
generally furnished a subject (most fre- 
quently the ' Phaedo ' or some books of the 

* Republic') for one of the two courses of 
intercollegiate lectures which it was part 
of his college duty to deliver annually. 
Aristotle's ' Ethics,' Lucretius, Cicero's 

* de Finibus,' and above all the Greek lyric 
poets were also frequent subjects. His 
lectures were full of wit as well as learning, 
and however mystical some might consider 
his philosophical views, there was no lack of 
precision in his scholarship. Throughout 
his teaching career Adam took classes with 
rare intermissions at Girton College, and was 
an ardent supporter of the claims of women 
to degrees, when the question came before 
the senate of the university in 1897. A 
knowledge of Greek he regarded as an 
essential part of university education, and 
he was a resolute opponent of all attempts 
to make Greek an optional subject of study. 
At Easter 1890 he visited Greece. In the 
same year he was appointed joint tutor 
of his college with Mr. W. N. Shaw (now 

director of the Meteorological Office), and 
in 1900, the number of tutors having been 
meantime increased, he succeeded Mr. Shaw 
as senior tutor. His relations with pupils 
and colleagues were kindly and affectionate, 
while his efficiency as a lecturer proved of 
great benefit to the college. The changes 
in the classical tripos, which came into 
force in 1903, emphasised the importance 
of ancient philosophy, and the college hall 
| was barely able to hold the numbers that 
i flocked to Adam's lectures on Plato and 
Aristotle. In 1887, inspired probably by 
his closest friend, Robert Alexander Neil 
[q. v. Suppl. Ill, he published his first 
edition of a Platonic dialogue, the ' Apology.' 
This was followed by the ' Crito ' in 1888, 
the * Euthyphro ' in 1890, and (in conjunc- 
| tion with his wife) the * Protagoras ' in 1893. 
I In 1890 he had announced an intention of 
preparing an edition of the * Republic.' 
In 1897 he published a revised text. This, 
however, differs in many passages from the 
large edition in two volumes which appeared 
after many years of labour in 1902, and 
immediately took its place as the standard 
edition. Adam's notes and excursuses, 
| which are very concise considering the 
j difficulty of the subject, represent a judge- 
ment based upon a thorough knowledge 
of the vast work of his many predecessors. 
In textual matters as years went on he 
became steadily more conservative, believing 
that the tradition of the Platonic text was 
in the main quite sound. An investigation 
preliminary to his edition of the * Republic ' 
was a discussion of the ' Platonic Num- 
i ber' (Cambridge University Press, 1891). 
Adam's interpretation has been confirmed 
j by Professor Hilprecht's discovery of the 
; Babylonian perfect number. At Christmas 
1902 he was nominated Gifford lecturer at 
Aberdeen. He chose for his subject ' The 
Religious Teachers of Greece,' and the 
lectures delivered in 1904 and 1905 were 
very successful. 

In the spring of 1907, Adam, who, amid 
his unceasing work, retained his youthful 
appearance in middle age, was attacked 
by illness. He died in Aberdeen after 
an operation on 30 August 1907, and 
was buried at Woking. Adam married, on 
22 July 1890, a former pupil, Adela Marion, 
youngest daughter of Arthur Kensington, 
formerly fellow and tutor of Trinity 
College, Oxford. His wife survives him 
with two sons and a daughter. An en- 
larged photograph hangs in the parlour of 
Emmanuel College. 

The Gifford lectures, which were left 
complete, but not finally revised for publica- 

tion, were edited with a short memoir by his 
widow and published in 1908 (2nd edit. 1909). 
A collection of his essays and lectures was 
edited by Mrs. Adam in 1911 under the 
title of 'The Vitality of Platonism, and 
other Essays.' These collected papers best 
illustrate the bent of Adam's mind in later 
life. For many years he had been deeply 
interested in the relationship between 
Greek philosophy and the New Testament. 
Though he would not have said with 
Westcott that * the final cause of Greek was 
the New Testament,' he certainly tended 
to regard Greek philosophy pre-eminently 
as a * Praeparatio Evangelica,' and his 
occasional lectures on such semi-religious 
topics at summer meetings in Cambridge 
found large and appreciative audi- 
ences. Witty and paradoxical in conversa- 
tion, though with a vein of melancholy in 
his nature, Adam found fullest scope for his 
abilities as a teacher, and to education in 
the highest sense all his work as lecturer 
and writer was devoted. 

[Information from the family ; the Memoir 
by his wife quoted above ; intimate personal 
knowledge for over twenty-five years.] P. G. 

1903), army chaplain in India, born on 
24 Nov. 1839 in Cork, was only son of three 
children of James O'Brien Adams, magis- 
trate of Cork (d. 1854), by his wife Elizabeth 
Williams. Educated at Hamlin and Porter' s 
School, on the South Mall, Cork, he pro- 
ceeded to Trinity College, Dublin, where 
he graduated B.A. in 1861. He always 
excelled in athletics, and was regarded as 
the strongest man in Ireland, vying with 
his friend Frederick Burnaby [q. v.] in gym- 
nastic feats. He was ordained deacon 1863 
and priest 1864 and served curacies at 
Hyde, Hampshire (1863-5), and at Shottes- 
brook, Berkshire (1865-6). In Oct. 1866 he 
became a chaplain on the Bengal establish- 
ment under Bishop Robert Milman [q. v.] 
at Calcutta. Here he had a severe attack 
of fever, and after sick leave to Ceylon 
was appointed to Peshawar. There he was 
indefatigable in visiting the out stations 
Naushahra and Kohat; he did much in 
restoring and beautifying the church and 
the cemetery at Peshawar, and received 
the thanks of government for his exertions 
in the cholera camps during two outbreaks. 
Save for some months at Allahabad (March 
to Dec. 1870) he remained at Peshawar 
till December 1872. He was then stationed 
at the camp of exercise at Hassan Abdul 
army headquarters till March 1873, and in 
1874 he was sent to Kashmir on special 
duty. Here he built, in great part with 

his own hands, a church of pine logs, 
where services were frequently held for 
the numerous visitors to Gulmarg and 
Sonamarg ; it was subsequently burnt 
down by accident. 

In January 1876 Adams was ap- 
pointed to Meerut, and in December took 
charge of the cavalry and artillery camp 
for the Delhi durbar on the visit of 
the Prince of Wales (afterwards King 
Edward VII). 

Subsequently he had experience of much 
active warfare. In Nov. 1878 he joined 
the Kuram field force under Sir Frederick 
(afterwards Earl) Roberts, and was engaged 
in all the operations in the advance on 
Kabul. At Villa Kazi on 11 Dec. 1879 
he risked his life in rescuing several men 
of the 9th lancers, who were in danger 
of drowning in a watercourse while the 
Afghans were near at hand. Lord Roberts 
witnessed Adams's exploit and recom- 
mended him for the Victoria Cross, which 
he received from Queen Victoria on 4 Aug. 
1881. He also took part in the march of 
Lord Roberts from Kabul to Kandahar 
in August 1880, and was present at 
battle of Kandahar on 1 Sept. 1880. 

On returning to India after furlough in 
1881 Adams spent a year at Lucknow. 
During three years (1883-5) at Naini Tal 
he was instrumental in the erection of an 
east window and reredos in memory of the 
victims of the great landslip. In 1885 he 
accompanied the field force under Lord 
Roberts up country in Burma, and he 
took part in the operations there. He 
had already received the bronze star for 
the Kabul - Kandahar march and the 
Afghan war medal with four clasps, Kan- 
dahar, Kabul, Charasiab, and Peiwar 
Kotal ; he was now awarded the Burmah 
field force medal. 

Through twenty years' service in India 
Adams was * the idol of the soldiers.' In 
1886 he settled in England, and from 1887 
to 1894 he held the rectory of Postwick 
near Norwich. After two years' rest in 
Jersey he became in 1896 vicar of Stow 
Bardolph with Wimbotsham near Down- 
ham Market. He was appointed in 1900 
honorary chaplain to Queen Victoria, and 
King Edward VII made him chaplain in 
ordinary in 1901. In 1902 he left Stow for 
the small living of Ashwell, near Oak- 
ham. There he died on 20 Oct. 1903. On 
30 June 1903 Dublin University had con- 
ferred on him the honorary degree of M.A. 
While in England on furlough he married 
on 16 Aug. 1881 Alice Mary, daughter of 
General Sir Thomas Wiltshire [q. v.l 



She survived him with an only daughter, 
Edith Juliet Mary. 

Three brass tablets were erected to his 
memory one by the patron, Sir Thomas 
Hare, in Stow Bardolph church; another 
by Lord Roberts in a little church in the 
fen district of Stow, built as a memorial ; 
and the third in Peshawar Church, put 
up in 1910 by friends who had known 
' Padre Adams ' in Peshawar or during the 
Afghan war. 

[Private information from his widow; 
Army Lists ; The Times, October 1903 ; 
H. B. Hanna, The Second Afghan War, 
1910, iii. 181 ; Lord Roberts, Forty-one 
Years in India, pp. 142, 143, and 275; 
Burke's Baronetage.] H. M. V. 

(1851-1904), journalist and compiler, born 
at Brixton on 25 Dec. 1851, was elder 
son of William Henrv Davenport Adams 
(1828-1891) [q. v. Suppl. I] by his wife 
Sarah Esther Morgan. Entering Merchant 
Taylors' School in January 1863, he went 
to Edinburgh University, but ill-health 
precluded his securing any academic dis- 
tinction. Becoming a journalist, he was 
appointed in 1875 leader-writer and literary 
and dramatic critic for the 'Glasgow 
Daily News,' and later he edited the even- 
ing and weekly editions. From 1878 to 
1880 he was editor of the 'Greenock 
Advertiser'; from 1880 to 1882 acting- 
editor of the * Nottingham Guardian ' ; 
from 1882 to 1885 editor of the 'Derby 
Mercury ' ; and from 1885 till his death 
literary editor and dramatic critic of the 
London ' Globe.' 

Adams's main interest lay in the drama, 
and the leisure of twenty years was devoted 
to the compilation of ' A Dictionary of the 
Drama,' which was to be 'a guide to the 
plays, playwrights, players, and play- 
houses of the United Kingdom and America, 
from the earliest times to the present day.' 
Only the first of the two projected volumes 
(A-G) was completed at Adams's death at 
Putney on 27 July 1904. He was buried at 
Putney Vale cemetery. On 19 Oct. 1875 
he married Caroline Estelle, daughter of 
John Korner, a Polish exile of noble 

Besides the comprehensive but unfinished 
* Dictionary of the Drama ' (1904), Adams 
published : 1. ' A Dictionary of English 
Literature, being a comprehensive guide 
to English authors and their works,' 1878. 
2. ' By-Ways in Book-Land,' 1888. 3. * A 
Book of Burlesque,' 1891. 4. ' With Poet 
and Player : Essays on Literature and 
the Stage,' 1891. 

[The Times and Globe, 28 July 1904; 
Theatre, 1894 (portrait); Reg. Merchant 
Taylors' School ; private information.] L. M. 

ADAMS-ACTON, JOHN (1830-1910), 
sculptor, born at Acton Hill, Middlesex, on 
11 Dec. 1830, was the son of William 
Adams, a tailor, of Acton Hill by his wife 
Helen Elizabeth Humphreys (Par. Reg.). 
Two sons and three daughters survived the 
father. The second daughter, Clarissa, en- 
gaged in art and exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. To avoid confusion with other 
artists of the same name, Adams adopted 
in 1869 the additional surname of Acton 
from his birthplace. 

Educated at Lady Byron's school, Baling, 
he received his first tuition as a sculptor 
under Timothy Butler. He subsequently 
worked in the studio of Matthew Noble 
[q. v.], and during 1853-8 studied at 
the Royal Academy Schools, where his 
promise was liberally recognised. He 
won first medals in the antique and life 
classes, and the gold medal for an original 
sculpture group, ' Eve supplicating for- 
giveness at the feet of Adam,' in December 
1855. As a student he exhibited a me- 
dallion of Dr. Chalton in 1854, and other 
medallions in 1855 and 1856. In 1858 he 
gained the Academy's travelling student- 
ship, and was at Rome till 1865. There his 
success in portraiture, to which he devoted 
his main efforts, excited the admiration 
of John Gibson [q. v.], who sent many 
visitors to his studio. 

After 1865 Acton settled in London, where 
he was soon busily employed. He executed 
the Wesley memorial in Westminster Abbey, 
the Cruikshank memorial in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, the statue of Wesley before 
the City Road chapel, and the memorial 
of Cardinal Manning in the new Roman 
Catholic Cathedral at Westminster. He 
also executed a colossal statue of Sir 
Titus Salt, erected near Bradford Town 
Hall in 1874, and statues of Queen 
Victoria for Kingston and the Bahamas, of 
Mr. Gladstone, a close friend and the 
godfather of his fourth son, for Blackburn 
and Liverpool, and of Bishop Waldegrave 
for Carlisle Cathedral. Edward VII, as 
Prince of Wales, sat to him many times, 
and the Emperor and Empress Frederick 
of Germany showed interest in his art. 
He exhibited regularly at the Royal 
Academy till 1892, sending there statues 
or busts of Gladstone (1865, 1868, 1869, 
1873, 1879), Lord Brougham (1867, 1868), 
John Bright (1870), Charles Dickens (1871), 
Charles Spurgeon (1874), Earl Russell 
(1874), Archbishop Manning (1884), the earl 



of Beaconsfield (1885), and Leo XII 
(1888). Others who sat to him wer 
Canon Duckworth, Lord Shaftesbury 
Dr. Parker, Mr. Fawcett, Lord Napier o 
Magdala, Cobden, Lord Roberts, Dea 
Farrar, Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Sir Isaa 
Holden, Sir Edwin Landseer, and many 
leading academicians. Of his ideal work 
the best were The First Sacrifice,' ' Th 
Lady of the Lake,' * Pharaoh's Daughter, 
'Zenobia,' and 'The Millennium.' 

Acton's last work, which was left un 
finished, was a small figure of * The Ange 
of Peace.' He died at his wife's home 
Ormidale, Brodick, in the Isle of Arran 
which he visited every summer, on 28 Oct 

Acton married on 15 Aug. 1875, at St 
Mark's Church, Hamilton Terrace, London 
Marion Hamilton of the Isle of Arran, an 
authoress writing under the name ' Jeannie 
Hering.' He had four sons and three 
daughters. Two of his sons, Harold anc 
Murray, practised their father's art. 

[The Times, 29 Oct. 1910 ; Daily Telegraph 
and Morning Post, 1 Nov. 1910 ; Graves's Roy 
Acad. Exhibitors; Art Journal, Nov. 1910 
Studio, Nov. 1910 ; Hodgson and Eaton, The 
Royal Academy and its Members, 1905; in- 
formation suppLed by Mrs. Acton and others. 

Qj -pi n 

ADAMSON, ROBERT (1852-1902), 
philosopher, born at Edinburgh on 19 Jan. 
1852, was fifth of the six children of Robert 
Adamson and Mary Agnes Buist. The 
father was a writer (i.e. solicitor) in Dunbar 
and afterwards at Coldstream, but had 
removed with his family to Edinburgh 
before the birth of his son Robert, and 
died when the latter was three years old. 
The boy passed from Daniel Stewart's 
Hospital, Edinburgh, to Edinburgh Uni- 
versity in November 1866, and after 
obtaining first prizes in metaphysics and 
in English literature, graduated, in 1871, 
with first-class honours in philosophy and 
with a scholarship awarded to the best 
graduate in that subject. He spent the 
summer of 1871 at Heidelberg, and acted 
as assistant in the following winter to Henry 
Calderwood [q. v. Suppl. I], professor of 
moral philosophy at Edinburgh, and in 
1872-4 to A. Campbell Fraser, professor of 
logic and metaphysics. During these years he 
read omnivorously in the Signet library and 
elsewhere, and gained other post-graduate 
scholarships or fellowships, including the 
Ferguson scholarship and the Shaw fellow- 
ship, both open to graduates of any Scottish 
university. In 1874 he was appointed addi- 
tional examiner in philosophy in the univer- 

sity, and joined the editorial staff of the 
* Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (9th edition). 
To the third and fourth volumes of that 
work he contributed a large number of 
articles on subjects of general literature, 
and in the third volume began a series of im- 
portant philosophical articles. The article 
on Francis Bacon (which James Spedding 
[q. v.] had originally undertaken and had 
relinquished) first gave public proof of 
Adamson's powers as a philosophical 
critic and historian. There followed bio- 
graphies of Hume, Kant, Fichte, and 
Schelling, and the very learned article on 

In the summer of 1876 Adamson was 
appointed professor of philosophy and 
political economy at Owens College, 
Manchester, in succession to W. Stanley 
Jevona [q. v.] After six years he was 
relieved of the work of lecturing in 
economics ; but he greatly extended the 
philosophical teaching, especially after 
1880, when the creation of the Victoria 
University gave him freedom to plan the 
work in accordance with his own views. 
He was made hon. LL.D. of Glasgow in 

In 1893 he was appointed by the crown 
to the chair of logic in the university of 
Aberdeen. He removed to Glasgow in 
1895 on his election to the professorship 
of logic and rhetoric there. Between 1885 
and 1901 he acted on six occasions as 
examiner for the moral science tripos 
at Cambridge. For five years (1887-91) 
tie was one of the examiners in mental and 
moral science in the University of London. 
Ee was also the first external examiner in 
philosophy to the newly founded Uni- 
versity of Wales (1896-9). On 5 Feb. 1902 
died of enteric fever at Glasgow; his 
3ody was cremated at the Western Necro- 
polis. In 1881 he married Margaret, 
daughter of David Duncan, a Manchester 
merchant, who survived him with two sons 
and four daughters. 

Adamson took an active part in academic 
msiness. At Manchester he supported 
warmly the admission of women students 
to college and university on equal terms 
with men ; he threw himself zealously 
nto the movement for an independent 
university, and when the Victoria University 
was created in 1880 he took a prominent part 
in its organisation. He acted as temporary 
egistrar, was first secretary and afterwards 
hairman of the new board of studies, 
nd gave important assistance to the 
nstitution of the university department 
'or training elementary teachers. At 



Glasgow he served on the court as well as [ In addition to articles in the ' Encyclopae- 

on the senatus, and took a leading part in dia Britannica,' the * Dictionary of National 

the early stages of the movement which Bipgraphy,' ' Mind,' and elsewhere, Adam- 

afterwards resulted in substituting a three- son was author of the following works : 

term system for the unbroken session of 1. 'Roger Bacon: the philosophy of 

the Scottish universities. He was also a science in the middle ages (an introductory 

keen politician, and gave active support address),' Manchester, 1876. 2. ' On the 

to the advanced liberal party. 

Philosophy of Kant' (Shaw Fellowship 

Adamson's literary activity, which was Lectures, 1879), Edinburgh, 1879 (trans- 
unusually great in youthful manhood, | lated into German by Professor C. Schaar- 
afterwards diminished, largely owing to the i schmidt, * unter Mitwirkung des Verfassers,' 
demands of lecturing work and academic Leipzig, 1880). 3. 'Fichte' (Philosophical 
business, and partly at any rate to a Classics for English Readers), Edinburgh, 
gradual change in his philosophical views. 1881. After his death there appeared: 4. 
But his lectures to his students gave the 'The Development of Modern Philosophy, 
results of his original thinking. The stand- with other Lectures and Essays,' ed. by 
point adopted in his earlier work was j W. R. Sorley, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1903 (with 
idealistic, and akin to the prevalent . complete bibliography). 5. ' The Develop- 
neo-Hegelianism. But he found increasing I ment of Greek Philosophy,' ed. by W. R. 
difficulties in working out a coherent inter- j Sorley and R. P. Hardie, Edinburgh, 1908. 
pretation of reality on these . lines, and in 6. * A Short History of Logic,' ed. by 

adapting to such an interpretation the 
knowledge of nature, mind and history 
arrived at by modern science. In his 
later tl linking his attitude to idealism 
changed, and he aimed at a constructive 
philosophy from a point of view which he 
did not refuse to describe as naturalism or 
realism. By this term, however, he did 
not mean that the external mechanism 
of things in space and time was equivalent 
to the sum-total of reality, but rather 
that truth in philosophy is to be reached 
by turning from abstract conceptions to 
concrete experience. Mind has indeed 
come into being, but it is not, on that 
account, less essential than, or inferior to, 
nature ; each is a partial manifestation 
of reality. An outline of a theory of 
knowledge on these lines is given in the 
concluding part of his posthumously 
published lectures on ' Modern Philo- 
sophy ' ; but this theory was never worked 
out by him in detail, nor subjected to the 
same thorough criticism as idealistic 
philosophies received at his hands. Both 
in his earlier and in his later period his 
own views are developed by means of a 
critical study of the history of thought. 
Following the biological analogy of * re- 
capitulation ' he found in the history of 

philosophy a treatment, only more elaborate 
and leisurely, of the same questions as 
those which face the individual inquirer. 
In general his work is distinguished by 
extensive and exact learning, by keen per- 
ception of the essential points in a problem, 
by great power of clear and sustained 
reasoning, by complete impartiality, and 
by rigid exclusion of metaphor and the 
imaginative factor. 

W. R. Sorley, Edinburgh, 1911 

A medallion of Adamson, executed in 
1903 by Mr. Gilbert Bayes, was presented 
by old students and other friends to the 
University of Glasgow in February 1904. 
Later in the same year, a replica of this 
medallion was presented by another body 
of subscribers to the University of Man- 
chester, and the Adamson Lecture there 
was founded in his memory ; at the same 
time his philosophical books, numbering 
about 4387 volumes, were presented to the 
Manchester University by Mrs. Adamson 
(see Manchester Guardian, 4 June 1904). 

[Memorial introduction prefixed to Develop- 
ment of Modern Philosophy, 1903 ; Prof. (Sir) 
Henry Jones in Mind, July 1902 ; private 
information. For an account of his philo- 
sophy see Prof. G. Dawes Hicks, in Mind, 
January 1904, and Uebenveg-Heinze, Grundriss 
der Geschichte der Philosophic, 10th edit. 1909, 
part iv. pp. 535-7.] W. R. S. 

first BARON NORTON (1814-1905), statesman, 
born at Knighton House, Leicestershire, on 
2 Aug. 1814, was eldest son of Charles Clement 
Adderley (1780-1818) by his wife Anna Maria 
(d. 1827), daughter of Sir Edmund Burney 
Cradock-Hartopp, first baronet, a descen- 
dant of Oliver Cromwell. On the death 
without issue of his great-uncle, Charles 
Bowyer Adderley of Hams Hall, War- 
wickshire, on 12 April 1826, Charles suc- 
ceeded to the great family estates round 
Birmingham, and in Warwickshire and 
Staffordshire. Thereupon he was taken 
from school at Redland near Bristol, and 
placed under a clerical tutor of low church 
views, who deepened the evangelical 
convictions with which his parents had 





imbued him. In 1832 ho became a 
gentleman-commoner at Christ Church, 
Oxford, where his piety suffered no 
diminution, while he acquired a knowledge 
of music and art and a love of horse 
riding and of tobacco. He rode daily till 
he was eighty-eight, and hunted for many 
years. At Christ Church he began, too, a 
life-long friendship with John Robert 
Godley [q. v.], who greatly influenced him. 
He took a pass degree in 1835. 

From 1836 to 1841 Adderley mainly 
engaged in travel, study, and the manage- 
ment of his estates. He sought to develop 
his property on enlightened principles. When 
he came of age in 1835 the estate at Saltley 
near Birmingham supported a population 
of 400, which grew to 27,000 in his lifetime. 
Planning the streets of the town in 1837 
so as to avoid the possibility of slums, he may 
be called the father of town-planning. In 
providing, endowing, and supporting places 
of worship in Saltley he spent 70,000/. 
He gave Adderley Park to Birmingham ; 
in 1847 he promoted the foundation of 
the Saltley Church Training College (in 
which he was interested to the end) and 
in 1852 he founded the Saltley Reformatory 
on the model of that of Mettray in 

The family residence at Hams Hall was 
not far from the home of Sir Robert Peel at 
Drayton Manor, Tamworth. Peel urged 
Adderley to enter Parliament and in June 
1841 he was elected as a tory for the 
northern division of Staffordshire. He 
held the seat through eight elections, retir- 
ing in 1878. Adderley opposed Peel's free 
trade policy of 1846, although he formally 
abandoned protection at the general 
election of 1852. He took at first little 
part in debate, but wrote occasionally 
in 1 848 on general topics in the ' Morning 
Chronicle ' and on colonial subjects in the 
'Spectator' in 1854. 

Gradually colonial questions roused 
Adderley's enthusiasm, and he soon 
rendered services of the first importance 
to colonial development. In 1849 he 
joined his friends Godley, Edward 
Gibbon Wakefield [q. v.], and Lord 
Lyttelton in founding the Church of 
England colony of Canterbury in New 
Zealand. In the same year he stren- 
uously resisted Lord Grey's proposal 
to transport convicts to the Cape, and 
elaborated his argument in a pamphlet, 
'Transportation not necessary' (1851). 
To Adderley's advocacy the Cape colonists 
assigned the government's abandonment 
of its threat to send Irish political convicts 

among them, and by way of gratitude 
they named Adderley street after him. 
Penal colonial settlements were abrogated 
in 1852, partly owing to Adderley's 

Meanwhile Adderley helped Wakefield to 
found in 1849 the Colonial Reform Society 
for promoting colonial self-government, 
and of that society he became secretary. 
In ' The Australian Colonies Bill Discussed ' 
(1849) he urged complete delegation of 
powers to the colony while throwing on 
it the cost of any imperial assistance. 
The independent constitution of New 
Zealand was drafted at Hams Hall in 1850 
and the constitution of the other colonies 
followed this precedent. In ' Some Reflec- 
tions on the Speech of Lord John Russell on 
Colonial Policy ' (1850) Adderley declared 
that principles of self-government could 
alone yield ' thriving colonies, heartily 
and inseparably and usefully attached 
to England.' He powerfully developed his 
views in ' The Statement of the Present 
Cape Case' (1851); in his 'Remarks on 
Mr. Godley 's Speech on Self-government 
for New Zealand ' (1857) ; in his letter to 
Disraeli on ' The Present Relation of England 
with her Colonies ' (1861 ; 2nd edit. 1862) ; 
and finally in his ' Review of " The Colonial 
Policy of Lord John Russell's Administra- 
tion," by Earl Grey [1853], and of subsequent 
Colonial History ' (1869, 3 pts.), a compre- 
hensive survey of the progress of colonial 
freedom. At the age of ninety, in his 
* Imperial Fellowship of Self -governed 
British Colonies' (1903), he enunciated 
anew his lifelong conviction that ' colonial 
self -administration and imperial fellowship ' 
are ' co-ordinate elements ' in * true 
colonial relationship.' 

In Lord Derby's first administration of 

1852 Adderley refused the secretaryship 
of the board of control, and continued to 
advocate as a private member of the 
House of Commons social and educational 
as well as colonial reforms with an indepen- 
dence of party cries which earned him the 
epithet of liberal-conservative. In 1852 
he introduced a reformatory schools bill, 
for bringing refractory children or young 
criminals under educational control. In 

1853 he opposed with great foresight the 
abandonment of the Orange River sove- 
reignty. In 1854 he was responsible for 
the Young Offenders Act (a part of his 
'reformatory' policy), and he introduced 
the Manchester and Salford education 
bill, in which a local education rate was 
first proposed. In ' Punishment is not 
Education ' (1856) and in his ' Tract on 



Tickets of Leave' (1857), he pushed 
further his plea that education might cure 
crime more effectually than punishment. 

On the formation of Lord Derby's 
second ministry in Feb. 1858 Adderley 
was appointed vice-president of the edu- 
cation committee of the privy council, and 
was admitted to the privy council. His 
office also constituted him president of 
the board of health, and a charity com- 
missioner. The educational situation was 
peculiarly interesting. On 21 June 1858 
Adderley in moving the education vote gave 
the first official estimate of the cost of a 
national system of elementary education : 
he put the amount at a million pounds per 
annum. At the same time he pointed 
out that that was the first day on which the 
University of Oxford was conducting its 
middle class examinations throughout the 
country, and was thereby inaugurating a 
new correlation of the universities to 
national life. Next day the first royal 
commission on elementary education was 

During his brief term of office Adderley 
consolidated the accumulated minutes of 
the council on education, prepared the way 
for the revised code, passed a Reformatory 
Act amending that of 1854, and (faithful to 
the principle of devolution) passed a first 
Local Government Act, the term * local 
government ' being his own invention. 

In March 1859 Adderley, though a minister 
of the crown, voted against a second read- 
ing of lu's government's reform bill. On the 
defeat of Lord Derby's ministry he resigned 
office, and Lord Palmerston became prime 
minister. The outbreak of the Maori war 
in New Zealand in 1860 moved him 
deeply, but he advised the colonists to 
provide an army of their own, while 
urging that all parts of the Empire should 
give mutual help in case of need. In the 
same year he introduced without success 
an education bill which aimed at making 
education compulsory. In Lord Derby's 
third administration of 1866 Adderley 
became under-secretary for the colonies, 
and was immediately confronted by the 
difficult case of Governor Eyre [see EYRE, 
EDWARD JOHN, Suppl. II], whom he 
loyally defended from the attacks of John 
Stuart Mill (cf. FINLASON'S Hist, of the 
Jamaica Case, 1869). In the same session 
he carried through the House of Commons 
the British North America Act (1867), 
which created the Dominion of Canada. 
Amid his parliamentary occupations, 
Addrrley published ' Europe Incapable of 
American Democracy (1867), in which he 

sought to reconcile his conservative faith 
with advanced ideas of social freedom 
and progress. 

Adderley continued in office when 
Disraeli succeeded Lord Derby as prime 
minister. He resigned with his colleagues 
in Dec. 1868, and was made K.C.M.G. 
next year by Gladstone, the new liberal 

Erimo minister, who was a personal 
iend. ' I am glad our opponents decorate 
our bench,' remarked Disraeli. Adderley 
was made chairman of the sanitary com- 
mission which reported in 1871 and led to 
the passing of the Public Health Acts of 
1872 and 1875. He took a prominent 
part in opposing Irish disestablishment. 

When Disraeli returned to office in 
February 1874, Adderley became president 
of the board of trade, but owing to his 
frank independence, which the prime 
minister feared, he was not admitted to 
the cabinet. ' Single-heartedness, unfailing 
temper, and unwearied zeal ' characterised 
his departmental work. The amendment 
of the merchant shipping law was his first 
official concern in the House of Commons, 
and he was brought into painful conflict 
with Samuel Plimsoll [q. v. Suppl. I]. 
Adderley's bill of 1875 was assailed by 
Plimsoll and withdrawn. In 1876 another 
bill which legalised a ' leadline ' usually 
named after Plimsoll, although Adderley 
claimed it as his own, was introduced and 
passed. On 8 March 1878 Adderley 
retired from office with a peerage, assuming 
the title of Baron Norton. In the same 
year he presided at the Cheltenham meeting 
of the Social Science Congress, and he 
was a frequent speaker in the House of 
Lords on education and colonial and social 
questions. In 1880 he refused an offer of 
the governorship of Bombay. In his 
speech in the upper house on the Educa- 
tion Code of May 1882 (reprinted as a 
pamphlet) he practically advocated free 
education and protested against the com- 
plexity of the code with its detailed system 
of payment by results. He sat on the re- 
formatory and industrial schools commission 
(1883) and on the education commissions 
of 1883-4 and 1887. In 1884 he promoted 
the compromise between the two houses on 
the liberal government's reform bill. 

Norton had long played an active part in 
religious affairs. As early as 1849 he had 
published a devotional ' Essay on Human 
Happiness ' (rev. edit. 1854). In his ' Re- 
flections on the Rev. Dr. Hook's Sermon on 
" the Lord's Day " ' (1856) he dwelt on the 
need of popular parks, gardens, and reading- 
rooms for Sunday recreation and religious 





contemplation. A strong churchman, he 
yet advocated in 1889 a union between 
the Church of England and the Wesleyans, 
and he developed an aspiration to heal 
protestant schism and stay controversy in 
'High and Low Church' (1892, 2nd ed. 
1893). His hope of reconciling apparently 
opposing social as well as religious forces 
found expression in his * Socialism ' (1895), 
in which respect for manual labour and zeal 
in social service and social reform were 
shown to harmonise with conservative and 
Christian feeling. In his ' Reflections on 
the Course from the Goal' (1898, 2nd ed. 
1899) Norton discussed the formation of 
character. His religious views kept him 
in touch with all classes of thinkers, and 
neither doctrinal nor political differences 
affected his private friendship. With Mr. 
Gladstone especially he was long on cordial 
terms. Cobden and Bright were among 
his political friends, and he reckoned Arch- 
bishop Benson, Cardinal Manning, Dr. Dale, 
and Edward King, bishop of Lincoln, among 
his intimate acquaintances. To the end 
of his life Norton wrote long letters to ' The 
Times ' on lu's favourite themes of social 
reform, education, and colonial affairs. 
He was no brilliant writer nor speaker, 
and was reckoned by political colleagues to 
be tenacious and outspoken to the verge of 
obstinacy and bluntness, but his views were 
enlightened, generous, and far-seeing, and 
they influenced the progress of public 
opinion. A skilled musician and a com- 
petent art critic, Norton died at Hams 
Hall on 28 March 1905, and was buried in 
the family vault in Lea Marston Church. 
Adderley on 28 July 1 842 married Julia Anne 
Eliza, daughter of Chandos, first Baron Leigh 
of Stoneleigh. There were ten children 
five sons and five daughters. He was 
succeeded as second Baron Norton by 
his eldest son, Charles Leigh Adderley. 
His youngest son, James Granville, became 
vicar of Saltley in 1904. Lady Norton 
died on 8 May 1887. 

A portrait was painted in 1890 by 
Jacomb Hood. George Richmond, R.A., 
made a drawing for Griilion's Club. A 
cartoon by ' Spy ' appeared in * Vanity 
Fair ' 1892. The Norton Memorial Hall at 
Saltley was erected in Norton's memory. 

[W. S. C. Pemberton's Life of Lord Norton, 
1814^1905, Statesman and Philanthropist, 
1909, contains autobiographic notes, with por- 
traits ; see also The Times, 29 March 1905 ; 
Hansard's Reports ; Burke' s Peerage; J. R. 
Godley's Letters edited by Adderley for 
private circulation ; Adderley's works.] 

J. E. G. DE M. 

ADLER, HERMANN (1839-1911), chief 
rabbi of the united Hebrew congregations 
of the British empire, born at Hanover 
on 30 May 1839, was second son of two sons 
and three daughters of Nathan Marcus 
Adler [q. v.], chief rabbi, by his first wife 
Henrietta Worms. Through his mother 
Adler was cousin of Henry de Worms, first 
Baron Pirbright [q. v. Suppl. II]. His elder 
brother, Marcus Nathan (1837-1910), was 
vice-president of the Institute of Actuaries 
and a founder of the Royal Statistical and 
London Mathematical Societies. Brought 
to London in June 1845, when his father 
became chief rabbi of England, Adler was 
sent to University College School and Uni- 
versity College, London. After [a brilliant 
career there he graduated B.A. at London 
University in 1859. He preached his first 
sermon at the consecration of the Swansea 
synagogue in September 1859. Next year 
he went to the University of Prague and 
continued his theological studies under Dr. 
Rapoport, chief rabbi there ; from him in 

1862 he received the rabbinical diploma. 
In December 1862 he obtained at Leipzig 
the degree of Ph.D. for a thesis on 

On his return to England he became in 

1863 temporary principal of the Jews' 
Theological College, then in Finsbury 
Square, and he held that office until 1865 ; 
he subsequently acted as theological tutor 
until 1879, was chairman of council in 1887, 
and was president at his death. He was 
appointed in February 1864 first minister 
at the Bayswater Synagogue, Chichester 
Place, Harrow Road, where till 1891 he 
attracted large congregations by his culti- 
vated preaching. While at Bayswater he 
helped to found Jewish schools there, and 
was instrumental in establishing religious 
classes for Jewish children at the board 
schools in the east of London. His vigorous 
replies in the * Nineteenth Century ' for 
April and July 1878 to Prof. Gold win 
Smith's attack (in the February number) 
on the Jews for lack of civic patriotism 
brought him praise from Gladstone and 
made for him a general reputation as a 
Jewish apologist both in Europe and in 
America. Next year he became delegate 
chief rabbi for his father, then in declining 
health ; and on his father's death he was 
installed as chief rabbi on 23 June 1891. 
Adler, who spared himself no labour in dis- 
charging his rabbinical duties, tenaciously 
upheld the spiritual authority of his office 
over his own community. Rigidly.orthodox 
in ceremonial observances, he at the same 
time gained much influence in social spheres 

Adler 21 


outside Jewish ranks by virtue of his tact 
and wide culture. 

Adler's main and invariable endeavour 
was to serve the best interests of his co- 
religionists at home or abroad, and he 
actively identified himself with all move- 
ments or institutions, charitable, political, 
social, educational, and literary, which 
were likely to serve that end. In 1885 he 
joined the Mansion House committee for 
the relief of persecuted Jews in Russia. 
The same year he visited the Holy Land 
and inspected many of the colonies estab- 
lished there by Russo-Jewish refugees. He 
represented the Russo-Jewish community 
at the conferences of the Hebrew con- 
gregations of Europe and America, held 
at Berlin in 1882 and at Paris in 1890. 
He was president of the Jewish Historical 
Society of England (1897), and vice-presi- 
dent of the Anglo-Jewish Association. His 
other offices included those of vice-presi- 
dent of the Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children, and of the Mansion 
House Association for Improving the 
Dwellings of the Poor ; he was a governor 
of University College, an administrator 
of the 'People's Palace,' Mile End, and an 
energetic member of the committees of 
the King Edward Hospital Fund and the 
Metropolitan Hospital Sunday Fund. He 
gave useful evidence before the select com- 
mittee of the House of Lords on sweating 
in 1888 ; before the joint committee on 
Sunday closing in May 1907 ; and before 
the divorce commission in 1910. 

Adler's seventieth birthday in 1909, 
which synchronised with the jubilee of his 
ministry, was publicly celebrated with 
general enthusiasm. A portrait in oils, 
executed by Mr. Meyer Klang, was hung 
in the council chamber of the United 
Synagogue, Aldgate. A replica was pre- 
sented by the Jewish congregations to 
Mrs. Adler, and on her death passed to his j 
elder daughter. He was also made hon. 
D.C.L. of Oxford, and he received theC.V.O. | 
from King Edward VII. He had already ! 
been made honorary LL.D. of St. Andrews j 
in 1899, and he was elected a member i 
of the Athenaeum Club under Rule II on the j 
suggestion of Mandell Creighton, bishop of 
London, in 1900. 

Adler died of heart failure on 18 July 
1911 at his residence, 6 Craven Hill, London, 
and was buried at the Willesden Jewish 
cemetery. He married in September 1867 
Rachel, elder daughter of Solomon Joseph, 
who survived him till 9 Jan. 1912. 
Of his two daughters, the elder, Nettie, 
was elected member of the London county 

council. His only son, Alfred, a minister, 
predeceased him in 1911. By his will he 
left the testimonials and addresses which 
had been presented to him to the Frederic 
David Mocatta [q. v. Suppl. IIJ library and 
museum at University College, as well as 
various sums to Jewish and other institu- 
tions (The Times, 11 Aug. 1911). Of two 
portraits in oils, besides that mentioned 
above, one painted by Mr. B. S. Marks, 
in 1887, belongs to Adler's younger 
daughter, Mrs. Ruth Eichholz ; the other, 
executed by Mr. Solomon J. Solomon, R.A., 
in 1908, was presented by (Sir) Adolph 
Tuck to the Jews' College. A cartoon by 
' Spy ' appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1894. 

His published works, besides sermons 
and pamphlets and reviews, include : 
1. ' Ibn Gabirol, the Poet Philosopher, and 
his Relation to Scholastic Philosophy ' (in 
University Coll. Essays), 1864. 2. ' A Jewish 
j Reply to Bishop Colenso's Criticism on the 
Pentateuch,' 1865. 3. ' Sermons on the 
Biblical Passages adduced by Christian 
Theologians in support of the Dogmas of 
their Faith,' 1869. 4. ' Anglo -Jewish 
Memories, and other Sermons' (jubilee 
memorial volume), 1909. He also contri- 
buted a chapter to ' Immortality : a Clerical 
Symposium ' (1885) ; and a paper on ' The 
Chief Rabbis of England ' (in Anglo-Jewish 
Historical Exhib. volume, 1887) (1888). 

[The Times, 19 July 1911 ; Jewish Chron. 
and Jewish World, 21 July (with portraits) ; 
Jewish Year Book, 1911 ; Who's Who, 1911 ; 
Jewish Encyclopaedia ; Men and Women of 
the Time, 1899.] W. B. O. 

(1815-1901), prime minister of Tasmania, 
born at Ballyclare, co. Antrim, Ireland, 
on 2 Oct. 1815, was son of James William 
Agnew and Ellen Stewart of Larne, co. 
Antrim. Educated for the medical profes- 
sion at University College, London, at 
Paris, and Glasgow, he qualified as M.R.C.S. 
in 1838 and graduated M.D. at Glas- 
gow in 1839. Ho almost immediately 
started for Sydney, N.S.W., sailing on 
the Wilmot. He spent a few months 
practising in Sydney, and then tried for a 
time the rough station life of the western 
part of Victoria. Subsequently he reached 
Hobart, and there he was disappointed of 
the post of private secretary to Sir John 
Franklin, then governor of Tasmania. On 
24 Dec. 1841 he became assistant surgeon 
on the agricultural establishment ; in July 
1842 he was removed to Saltwater Creek in 
the same capacity, and on 28 Feb. 1845 ho 
was transferred to be colonial assistant 
surgeon at Hobart, with charge of the 




general hospital. With this work he com- 
bined a general practice which laid the 
foundation of his influence amongst tho 
people of Hobart. Yet ho found time for 
studies in science and art ; one of the 
founders of the Tasmanian Royal Society, 
he joined the council in 1851, and became 
honorary secretary in 1860. 

In 1877 Agnew gave up his practice 
and entered the legislative council as 
member for Hobart at the general election 
of July 1877. From 9 Aug. 1877 to 
5 March 1878 he served with Philip 
Oakley Fysh as minister without a 
portfolio, and continued in the ministry 
as reconstructed under Giblin till 20 Dec. 
1878. He was again in office with Giblin 
from 29 Oct. 1879 to 5 Feb. 1880, when 
he resigned in order to visit the 
Melbourne Exhibition, being president of 
the Tasmanian Commission ; thence he 
proceeded to England (see FENTON'S HisL 
Tasm. p. 370, note). 

Returning from England in 1881, 
Agnew re-entered the legislative council 
in 1884. On 8 March 1886 he formed a 
ministry in succession to (Sir) Adye Douglas 
[q. v. Suppl. II], and was premier till 29 
March 1887 ; he was also chief secretary till 
1 March. His tenure of office was marked 
by educational reform. In 1891 he left 
the colony for a long visit to England, 
returning to Tasmania in 1894, when he 
was made K.C.M.G. In 1899 he was 
disabled by illness, and died at Hobart 
on 8 Nov. 1901. He was accorded a public 
funeral and buried at the Cornelian Bay 

' Good doctor Agnew ' left his mark 
on Tasmania alike in public life, science, 
and art. He was a contributor to the 
' Journal ' of the Tasmanian Royal 
Society, his chief papers (1843 and 1864) 
being on the poison of Tasmanian 
snakes. He was a liberal donor to the 
museum at Hobart, of which, as well as 
of the botanic garden, he was the first chair- 
man. In 1888 he bore the cost of the 
last shipment of salmon ova to Tasmania. 
He was a member of the council of educa- 
tion and of the university till 1891, when 
he resigned on absence from the colony. 
He was also president of the racing 

Agnew married : (1) in 1846, Louisa 
Mary, daughter of Major J. Fraser of the 
78th Highlanders ; she died on 10 March 
1868 ; by her he had eight children, of 
whom one married daughter survives ; 
(2) in 1878, Blanche, daughter of 
William Legge, of Tipperary, widow of 

Rev. Dr. Parsons of Hobart; she 
without issue on 16 Dec. 1891. 

A portrait painted by Tennyson Col 
is in the Art Gallery in Hobart. 

[Tasmanian Mail, 9 and 16 Nov. 1901 (wit 
portrait) ; Mennell's Diet. Australas. Biog. 
Burke's Colonial Gentry, ii. 592; Taamanian 
Blue Books ; private information.] 

C. A. H. 

AGNEW, Sm WILLIAM, first baronet 
(1825-1910), art dealer, was born at 
Salf ord on 20 Oct. 1 825. The family derive 
from the Sheuhan branch of Agnew of 
Lochnaw. William's grandfather, John 
Agnew (1751-94) of Culhorn, migrated to 
Liverpool. His father, Thomas Agnew 
(1794-1871), who in boyhood studied draw- 
ing and modelling there, became a partner 
in 1816 of Vittore Zanetti, a dealer in 
clocks and opticians' wares, of Market 
Street Lane, Manchester. The firm soon 
took up picture dealing. The elder Agnew 
was from 1835 sole proprietor of the concern, 
to which he added a print-selling and 
print-publishing branch. He served as 
mayor of Salford 1850-1. His portrait by 
J. P. Knight, R.A., is in the Peel Park 
Museum, Salford, to which he gave many 
I pictures (cf. The Intellectual Observer, 1871, 
! pp. 253-4 ; Art Journal, 1861, p. 319 ; The 
i Dawn, 24 April 1884 ; AXON'S Annals of 
I Manchester, 1886, p. 327). He was a fervent 
j Swedenborgian (BAYLEY'S New Church 
I Worthies, 1881). He married, on 17 Feb. 
i 1823, Jane, daughter and coheir of William 
! Lockett (d. 1856), first mayor of Salford ; 
by her he had five sons, of whom William 
was the eldest, and four daughters. 

Educated at the Rev. J. H. Smithson's 
Swedenborgian school, Salford, William 
and his younger brother Thomas (1827- 
1883), who adhered through life to their 
father's Swedenborgian faith, early joined 
their father's business, which rapidly 
developed under their control. They were 
partners from 1850, when the firm took the 
style of Thomas Agnew & Sons. Estab- 
lishing branches in London (first at 
Waterloo Place and from 1876 at Old 
Bond Street), as well as in Liverpool, they 
had the chief share in the formation during 
the middle period of the century of the 
great art collections in the north of England 
and the Midlands the Mendel, Gillott, and 
many others. Among the collections, 
chiefly of old masters, which they helped 
to form between 1870 and 1890, were those 
of Sir Charles Tennant and Lord Iveagh. 
From 1860 onwards they purchased largely 
at Christie's (see REDFORD'S Art Sales, 
ii. passim), where William Agnew usually 


represented the firm. They dealt in works 
oy old masters, or early English and modern 
t-rtists, as well as in water-colour drawings. 
Agnew bought the collection en bloc of Marl- 
borough Gems at 35,000 guineas in June 1875 
for Mr. Bromilow of Bitteswell Hall (where 
it remained until dispersed at Christie's 
26-29 June 1899). On 6 May 1876 he 
purchased at the Wynn Ellis sale for 
10,100 guineas the Gainsborough portrait 
of the Duchess of Devonshire which, on the 
night of 26 May, was cut out of its frame 
and stolen from Agnew's Old Bond Street 
gallery; it was not recovered until March 
1901, when it was bought by Mr. J. P. 
Morgan (see Catalogue Raisonne of Mr. 
J. Pierpont Morgan's Pictures, by T. H. 
WARD and W. ROBERTS, 1907, s.v. 
'Gainsborough'). From 1867 onwards the 
firm held an annual exhibition of drawings 
at their London gallery. 

Agnew came into business relations 
with the leading artists, which often 
developed into personal friendships. He 
was an early friend of Fred Walker 
(MARKS, Life and Letters of Walker, 1896, 
passim), with whom he visited Paris 
in May 1866 ; from Walker he pur- 
chased many pictures, notably ' Spring,' 

* Vagrants,' and ' The Harbour of Refuge ' ; 
the last he presented to the National 
Gallery of British Art in 1893 (Cata- 
logue, ed. 1910, p. 378 ; of. The Times, 
9 Feb. 1911). He was a promoter of the 
fund for making purchases for the nation 
at the Fountaine sale in 1884, and of the 
Royal Jubilee Exhibition at Manchester, 
1887, when he was chairman of the fine art 
section. He was on the royal commissions of 
the Melbourne Centenary Exhibition, 1888, 
and of the Paris Exhibition of 1900 ; and 
was long president of the Printsellers' Asso- 
ciation. He presented in 1883 Reynolds' s 
portrait of Malone, and in 1890 Ballan- 
tyne's portrait of Landseer to the National 
Portrait Gallery, and in 1903 Reynolds's 
Mrs. Hartley and child to the National 

In 1870 Agnew undertook new business 
responsibilities. His sister Laura was wife 
of William Bradbury of the London printing 
firm of Bradbury & Evans (the proprietors 
of 'Punch'). On F. M. Evans's death in 
1870 Agnew and his two brothers, Thomas 
and John Henry, joined their brother-in-law, 
and the firm became Bradbury & Agnew ; 
William Agnew became chairman in 1890, 
when the firm was turned into a limited 
company. He took a keen interest in 

* Punch,' was on terms of intimacy with 
members of the staff, and, as long as his 


health permitted, regularly attended the 
weekly dinner. 

In politics a strong liberal, and a 
faithful follower of Gladstone, whom he 
came to know intimately, Agnew was 
elected M.P. forS.E. Lancashire, 1880-5, and 
for the Stretford division of Lancashire 
1885-6. In 1885 he spoke in the House 
of Commons in support of the vote of 
83,520J. for the purchase of the Ansidei 
Madonna by Raphael, and the portrait of 
Charles I by Van Dyck from the Duke 
of Marlborough for the National Gallery 
(The Times, 6 March 1885, report reprinted 
in REDFORD'S Art Sales, i. 397 ; and Pall 
Mall Gazette, 23 July 1886). He sup- 
ported Gladstone's home rule bill in 
the spring of 1886 and was defeated at 
the general election in the summer ; 
he unsuccessfully contested the Prestwich 
division in 1892. Deeply identifying him- 
self with the organisation of his party, he 
was one of the founders of the National 
Liberal Club, London, and was president 
of the Manchester Reform Club (where 
his portrait appears in the gallery of past 
presidents), which he also assisted to start. 
His interest in philanthropical and other 
enterprises, especially at Manchester, was 
wide and practical. He was also a patron 
of music. At one tune he was fond of 
travelling and of yachting, and was a 
member of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club. 

Agnew, who was created a baronet on 2 
Sept. 1895 on the recommendation of Lord 
Rosebery, died at his London residence, 
Great Stanhope Street, on 31 Oct. 1910. 
His body was cremated at Golder's Green. 
The gross value of the personal and real 
estate was sworn at 1,353,5922. (for will, 
see The Times, 18 Feb. 1911). He 
married, on 25 March 1851, Mary, eldest 
daughter of George Pixton Kenworthy 
of Manchester and Peel Hall, Lancashire 
(she died in 1892). He had four sons and 
two daughters, his eldest son, George, 
succeeding him in the baronetcy. 

A portrait by Frank Holl (1883) and a 
marble bust by E. Onslow Ford (1899). 
together with a painting of him in infancy 
with his mother by J. W. Reynolds, jr., 
belong to his eldest son. A portrait by 
Sir H. von Herkomer is the property of 
his second son, Mr. C. Morland Agnew ; 
and a chalk drawing by G. F. Watts that 
of his fourth son, Mr. Philip Agnew. 
Agnew figures in ' A Picture Sale at 
Christie's,' in * The Graphic ' 10 Sept. 1887 
(reproduced in REDFORD'S Art Sales, ii., 
facing p. xxix), in T. W. Wilson's 'A 
Salo at Christie's' (Mag. of Art, May 



1888, p. 229), and in 'The Old Masters 
Exhibition, 1888,' by H. Jermyn Brooks 
(reproduced in Sphere, 23 Oct. 1909). 

[Manchester Guardian, The Times, and 
Daily Telegraph 1 Nov. 1910 (with portrait) ; 
Punch, 9 Nov. 1910 (with in meraoriam verses 
by the Editor and notice by Sir Henry Lucy) ; 
Lucy's Sixty Years in the Wilderness, 1909 ; 
M. H: Spielmann's Hist, of Punch, 1895 (with 
portraits), p. 39 ; Mitchell's Newspaper Press 
Directory, 1911 (with portrait) ; Manchester 
Faces and Places, 10 July 1890 (with portrait) ; 
Hey wood's Authentic Series of Press Bio- 
graphies ; information from Sir George W. 
Agnew and Mr. C. Morland Agnew.] 

W. R. 

1906), author and musician, born in rue St. 
Honore, Paris, on 4 Nov. 1826, was younger 
son of George Aida, son of an Armenian 
merchant settled in Constantinople, by his 
wife Georgina, second daughter of Admiral 
Sir George Collier [q. v.] His father, who 
acquired in Vienna a complete knowledge 
of languages, travelled widely, was admitted 
to good society in the chief capitals of 
Europe, came to England during the 
regency, and was killed in Paris in a duel 
when Aide was four years old. His elder 
brother, Frederick (6. July 1823), was 
killed by an accident at Boulogne in 1831. 
Brought by his mother to England, Charles 
was educated privately at East Sheen and 
at Greenwich till at the age of sixteen he 
was sent to the University of Bonn. Sub- 
sequently he obtained a commission in the 
British army, serving with the eighty-fifth 
light infantry until 1853, when he retired 
with the rank of captain. After a spell of 
foreign travel he settled in England, living 
chiefly at Lyndhurst in the New Forest 
with his mother, till her death at Southsea 
on 12 Oct. 1875. Subsequently he took 
rooms in Queen Anne's Gate, London, 
where he entertained largely, his guests 
including the chief figures in the social and 
artistic world of France as well as England. 
Many months each year were spent abroad, 
in Egypt and every country in Europe 
except Russia. In after-life he shared 
with his cousins, Colonel and Mrs. Collier, 
Ascot Wood Cottage, Berkshire. 

A man of versatile accomplishments and 
with abundant social gifts, Aide, who spoke 
and wrote French as easily as English, de- 
voted himself with equal success to society, 
music, art, and literature. From early 
youth he composed poetry ; his first 
published volume appearing in 1856, 
under the title of ' Eleanore, and other 
Poems.' * The Romance of the Scarlet Leaf ' 

followed in 1865, and ' Songs withoi 
Music ; Rhymes and Recitations ' (2 edil 
1882 ; third enlarged edit. 1889). His 
volume of poems, ' Past and Present,' 
appeared in 1903. Many of his poems 
ballads, * The Pilgrim,' ' Lost and Found' 
and * George Lee,' found their way 
popular anthologies. Aide was also a 
lific musical composer, and set many of 
own verses to music. ' The Danube River,' 
' The Fisher,' ' The Spanish Boat Song,' and 

* Brown Eyes and Blue Eyes ' were among 
songs by him which won a general repute. 

At the same time Aide made some repu- 
tation as an amateur artist, exhibiting at 
many of the London galleries sketches 
which he made in foreign travel. But 
his chief energies were devoted to fiction, 
and novels came regularly from his 
pen for some fifty years. His first novel, 
' Rita,' appeared anonymously in 1856 
(French translation, 1862). Some eighteen 
others followed, the most popular being 
' Confidences ' (1859 ; 2nd edit. 1862, 16mo) ; 

* Carr of Carlyon ' (3 vols. 1862 ; new edit. 
1869); 'Morals and Mysteries' (1872). 
short stories ; and ' Passages in the Life of 
a Lady in 1814-1815-1816' (3 vols. 1887). 
' The Chivalry of Harold ' was published 
posthumously in 1907. Aide's novels 
mainly dealt with fashionable society, 
and although they lacked originality or 

! power, were simply written under French 
! influence and enjoyed some vogue. 

Meanwhile Aide turned his attention to 

, the stage. On 7 Feb. 1874 ' Philip,' a 

romantic drama in four acts from his pen, 

was produced by (Sir) Henry Irving at the 

I Lyceum theatre, Irving taking the title 

I role. On 12 June 1875 (Sir) John Hare with 

I Mr. and Mrs. Kendal produced at the Court 

I theatre ' A Nine Days' Wonder,' a comedy, 

i adapted from a simultaneously published 

novel (JOSEPH KNIGHT, Theatrical Notes, 

1903, pp. 43-7). Aide also published in 1902 

seven miniature plays in a volume entitled 

| ' We are Seven ; Half Hours on the Stage ; 

Grave and Gay ' ; the last, called ' A table 

| d'hote,' is in French. Aide died in London, 

! unmarried, on 13 Dec. 1906, and was buried 

| in the churchyard of All Souls, South Ascot. 

A portrait in oils, painted at Rome by 

I Duke Sante della Rovera, and exhibited at 

the New Gallery in 1907, is in the possession 

of the artist. 

[The Times, 17 and 21 Dec. 1906 ; Pratt, 
I People of the Period, 1897 ; G. Vapereau, 
Diet. Univ. dos contemporains, 1893 ; J. D. 
! Brown, Biog. Diet, of Musicians, 1886 ; Bio- 
graph, March 1880 ; Biog. Mag. August 1887 ; 
i Lord Ronald Gower's My Reminiscences, 


2 5 


1882, and Old Diaries, 1902; Allingham's 
Diary, 1907; Brit. Mus. Cat.; private 

AIKMAN, GEORGE (1830-1905), 
painter and engraver, born at the top of 
Warriston Close, in the High Street, Edin- 
burgh, on 20 Ma}' 1830, was ninth child 
of George Aikman of Edinburgh by his 
wife Alison McKay. The father, after 
employment by William Home Lizars [q.v.] 
the engraver in St. James Square, Edin- 
burgh, started business for himself about 
1825 in Warriston Close, where he carried on 
the Lizars' tradition by producing all the 
plates and illustrations for the seventh 
edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 
Many of these were drawn and engraved 
by his son George. From a private 
school the boy was sent to Edinburgh 
High School, where he was for three 
sessions in the class of Dr. James Boyd. 
He was then apprenticed to his father, 
who had removed his business to 29 North 
Bridge, and after a journeyman period, 
during wliich he worked in Manchester 
and London, he was admitted a partner. 

While serving his apprenticeship he 
had attended the classes of the Trustees' 
Academy, then directed by Robert Scott 
Lauder [q. v.], and the Royal Scottish 
Academy life-class. As early as 1850 he was 
exhibiting at the Scottish Academy exhi- 
bitions, but it was not until 1870 that he 
abandoned business for painting. In 1880 
he was elected an A.R.SA. Between 1874 
and 1904 he exhibited at nine of the Royal 
Academy exhibitions in London. Except 
for a few portraits and some canvases de- 
picting humours of monastic life, Aikman's 
theme as a painter was landscape, chiefly 
that of the Perthshire Highlands and 
of Warwickshire. It was generally low in 
tone ; his skies were sometimes very 
luminous, but in oils his colour tended to 
heaviness, which was avoided in his water- 
colours, in wliich medium, though he 
1 rented it lightly, he was more successful. 
He practised etching during the greater 
part of his life, and towards the end 
he engraved several mezzotints. Im- 
pressions of some of these were exhibited, 
Imt only a few of them were published. 
The engraved plates included ' Robert 
Burns' (etching), after A. Nasmyth, and 
1 Sir Douglas Maclagan ' (etching), after 
Sir George Reid ; while among his original 
]>lates \\ere ' Carlyle in his Study ' (etching); 
' Sir Daniel Macnee, P.R.S.A.' (etching) ; 
' Norham Castle ' (etching) ; * Coming 
Storm across the Moor ' (mezzotint). An 
etching after his picture ' For the Good , 

j of the Church ' (R.A., 1874) was purchased 
I by the Association for the Promotion of 
the Fine Arts in Scotland. Aikman con- 
tributed to the 'Etcher' (1880, 1882), 
' English Etchings' (1883-4), and 'Selected 
Etchings' (1885), and he illustrated 'A 
i Round of the Links : Views of the Golf 
| Greens of Scotland' (1893), with etchings 
| after the drawings of John Smart, R.S.A., 
1 and * The Midlothian Eska ' (1895). 

Aikman acquired through his father and 
: through his own study and research an ex- 
ceptionally full knowledge of the engravers 
and painters of earlier generations, and 
some contributions on this topic to the 
' Art Journal ' were of considerable value. 
j Devotedly attached to Edinburgh, he made 
1 drawings of ancient houses doomed to 
demolition, and the City Museum possesses 
a collection of these memorials. 

He died in Edinburgh on 8 Jan. 1905, 
and was buried in Warriston cemetery. 
On 2 Dec. 1859 Aikman married Eliza- 
beth Barnett, who with three daughters 
and two sons survived him. 

[Private information ; Scotsman, 9 Jan. 
1905 ; Graves, Royal Acad. Exhibitors, 1905 ; 
Catalogues of the Royal Scottish Academy.] 

D. S. M. 

AINGER, ALFRED (1837-1904), writer, 
humourist and divine, born at 10 Doughty 
Street, London, on 9 April 1837, was 
youngest of four children of Alfred Ainger 
by his first wife, Marianne Jagger, of Liver- 
pool. The father, an architect of scientific 
tastes, who designed the first University 
College Hospital (demolished and rebuilt 
1900-6) and the Palm House at Kew, was 
of French Huguenot stock and of Unitarian 
J belief. The mother, who was musically 
j gifted, died two years after her son Alfred's 
I birth ; her husband soon married again, and 
! had a second family. Alfred, after attending 
: as a child University College School, went 
| in 1849 to Joseph King's boarding-school 
at Carlton Hill, where he fell under the 
I two potent influences of Charles Dickens 
and of Frederick Denison Maurice (for 
| some account of schoolmaster King see 
FREDERIC HARRISON'S Memoirs, i. 28 sq.). 
His schoolmaster took him to hear Maurice 
preach, and he turned from his father's unit- 
arianism to the Church of England. Charles 
Dickens's sons were Alfred's schoolfellows at 
Mr. King's school, and with them he visited 
their father. Dickens 'early discovered the 
boy's dramatic gift, and for several years 
Alfred was his favourite dramatic pupil, 
acting with him and Mark Lemon in the 
amateur performances which Dickens 
organised at Tavistock House. Subsequently 



for a time he played with a fancy of making 
the stage his profession, and he was always 
an admirably dramatic reciter. At sixteen, 
Ainger passed to King's College, London, 
where Maurice was professor both of divinity 
and of English literature. Literature now 
absorbed Ainger. With Lamb and Crabbe, 
he discovered that he had many affinities. 
Devotion to Shakespeare manifested itself 
early and in 1855 he became first president 
of the college Shakespeare Society. A 
passionate love of music also developed 
into one of his chief resources. In 
October 1856 he matriculated at Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, with a view to a 
legal career. Henry Latham and Leslie 
Stephen were tutors of his college, 
while Henry Fawcett soon Ainger's in- 
timate friend was elected a fellow in the 
year of Ainger's entrance. At Cambridge 
Ainger became the leading spirit of a 
literary circle which included Hugh Reginald 
Haweis [q. v. Suppl. II], Mr. Horace 
Smith, and Dr. A. W. Ward. He was a 
foremost contributor to a short-lived under- 
graduate magazine (3 nos. 1857-8), called 
' The Lion,' which Haweis edited. Ainger's 
skit there on Macaulay and his criticisms 
of Shakespeare bore witness to his literary 
gifts and brilliant humour. At Cambridge, 
too, he came to know Alexander Macmillan, 
then a bookseller in Trinity Street, after- 
wards the famous London publisher, and 
was admitted to Macmillan' s family circle. 

Ainger's health allowed him to do no more 
than take the ordinary law examination 
(in June 1859). He graduated B. A. in 1860 
and M.A. in 1865. His father's death in 
November 1859 made a waiting profession 
impossible for him and, acting upon 
his own inclination and upon the advice 
of his friends, Leslie Stephen among 
them, he took holy orders. In 1860 he 
was ordained deacon, and soon after became 
curate to Richard Haslehurst, Vicar of 
Alrewas, in Staffordshire. In 1863 he 
was ordained priest, and from 1864 to 1866 
was assistant master in the Collegiate 
School at Sheffield. In the autumn of 1865 
he had competed successfully for the reader- 
ship at the Temple. That post he held for 
twenty-seven years, and in that capacity 
won a wide reputation as reader and 

Both Ainger's sisters married early, 
the younger, Marianne, to a German named 
Wiss, and the elder, Adeline, to Dr. Roscow 
of Sandgate, who died in 1865. Shortly 
after his resettlement in London (1867) 
he experienced the great sorrow of his 
life in the sudden death of his widowed 

sister, Mrs. Roscow. The shock aged 
prematurely and turned his hair white. 
He became the guardian of his sister's 
four children two girls and two boys, 
and devoted himself to their care. In 
1876 Ainger moved to Hampstead, where 
his two nieces, Ada and Margaret Roscow, 
lived with him, and where he formed 
an intimacy with the artist of * Punch,' 
George du Maurier [q. v. Suppl. I]. 
That companionship provided Ainger with 
a definite field for his wit. He constantly 
suggested the jests which du Maurier 
illustrated, . 

He had an exceptional power of making 
friendships. When he came to the Temple, 
Dr. Thomas Robinson (1790-1873) [q. v.] was 
master ; in 1869 Robinson was succeeded 
by Dr. Charles John Vaughan [q. v.], 
with whom Ainger formed close relations. 
The poet Tennyson was among his acquaint- 
ances (LORD TENNYSON'S Life, i. 117, ii. 
327), and he was elected a member of the 
Literary Club which was founded by Dr. 
Johnson (GRANT DUFF'S Notes from a Diary, 
passim). He was a copious correspondent, 
and his letters, always spontaneous, 
abounded, like his conversation, in sudden 
turns and airy quips. 

Meanwhile Ainger made a position in 
literature. At twenty-two he contributed 
his first successful article, ' Books and their 
Uses,' to an early number of ' Macmillan's 
Magazine' (December 1859, i. 110). He 
took the whimsical pseudonym ' Double- 
day ' (Doubled A). Eleven other articles 
appeared under the same friendly auspices 
between 1871 and 1896. In the latest period 
of his life, 1900-4, he was a regular con- 
tributor to a weekly journal called the 
Pilot,' edited by Mr. D. C. Lathbury. 

Ainger's chief writings dealt with the life 
and work of Charles Lamb, with whose 
genius he had native sympathy. His mono- 
graph on Lamb was published in 1882, in 
the * English Men of Letters ' series (revised 
and enlarged 1888). There followed editions 
of ' Lamb's Essays ' (1883), ' Lamb's Poems, 
Plays, and Miscellaneous Essays ' (1884), 
and ' Lamb's Letters ' (1888, new ed. 1904), 
the only collection which could lay claim at 
the time of publication to completeness. 
Ainger's life of Lamb and his edition of 
Lamb's writings embody much patient 
and original research. But Ainger was 
somewhat fastidious in his editorial 
method, and occasionally omitted from 
the letters characteristic passages which 
clashed with his conception of their writer's 
character. His labour remains a memorial 
of the editor's personal feeling and delicate 


insight rather than a monument of 
scholarship, and it has been largely super- 
seded by Mr. E. V. Lucas's fuller biography 
and edition of Lamb's works and letters 
(1903-5). To this Dictionary Ainger con- 
tributed the articles on Charles and Mary 
Lamb, on Tennyson, and on George du 
Maurier, and wittily summed up its principle 
of conciseness in the motto, * No flowers, by 
request,' with which he made merry in a 
speech at a dinner of the contributors (8 July 

As a lecturer on literary subjects Ainger 
was popular with cultivated audiences 
throughout the country, and from 1889 
onwards he frequently lectured at the Royal 
Institution, his subjects including ' True and 
False Humour in Literature,' ' Euphuism, 
Past and Present,' and the ' Three Stages of 
Shakespeare's Art.' In 1885 the University 
of Glasgow conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of LL.D., and he was made honorary 
fellow of his college, Trinity Hall. 

During his last twenty years Ainger' s 
influence as a preacher grew steadily. In 
1887 he became canon of Bristol, where he 
formed many new and agreeable ties. He 
was appointed select preacher of Oxford in 
1893. In the same year bad health com- 
pelled him to resign his readership at the 
Temple. Thereupon he accepted the living 
of St. Edward's at Cambridge. Again illness 
speedily forced him to retire, and he spent 
two months in travel in Egypt and Greece. 
In June 1894 Ainger, on Lord Rosebery's 
recommendation, was appointed Master of 
the Temple in succession to Dr. Vaughan. 
Thenceforth his duties of preacher became ! 
the main concern of his life. In 1895 he ' 
was made honorary chaplain, in 1896 
chaplain-in-ordinary to Queen Victoria, ' 
and in 1901 chaplain-in-ordinary to King : 
Edward VII. His sermons in the Temple | 
were marked by beauty of language, and 
by a quiet, practical piety, which was im- 
pationt of excess. Neither high church nor | 
low church, Ainger professed an unaggres- 
sive, moderate evangelicalism. 

In 1903 Ainger's health broke after an 
attack of influenza, and at the end of the 
year he resigned his canonry at Bristol. 
He died of pneumonia on 8 Feb. 1904 at 
Darley Abbey, near Derby, the home of his 
younger niece, Ada Roscow, who, in 1896, had 
1 1 1 a rried an old friend, Walter Evans. He was 
buried in the churchyard of Darley Abbey. 

Apart from the works already mentioned 
and articles in periodicals, Ainger was 
author of a volume of sermons (1870), a selec- 
tion of Tennyson for the young (1891), a 
biograpliical preface to an edition of Hood's 

i Aird 

poems (1893, 1897), an introduction to an 
edition of Gait's ' Annals of the Parish ' 
(1895), and a monograph on Crabbe (1903, 
in ' English Men of Letters ' series). After 
his death ' The Gospel of Human Life ' (a 
volume of sermons, 1904) and ' Lectures 
and Essays ' (2 vols. 1905) were edited by 
H. C. Beeching, dean of Norwich. 

Of two portraits in oils by Hugh Gold win 
Riviere, one, which was painted in 1897 
and has been reproduced in photogravure, 
belongs to Ainger's nephew, the Rev. 
Bentley Roscow, at Flint House, Sand- 
wich ; the other, which is smaller and 
was painted in 1904 after Ainger's death, 
is at Trinity Hall. Of two portraits by 
George du Maurier, one in water-colour 
(about 1882) belongs to the artist's widow, 
and the other, in black and white, dated 
1882, to Ainger's niece, Miss Roscow. Mrs. 
Alexander Macmillan owns a portrait in 
pastels by the Norwegian artist, C. M. 
Ross ; and a sixth portrait by Sir Arthur 
Clay, done in oils in 1893, belongs to the 
Rev. Bentley Roscow. A cartoon by ' Spy ' 
appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' 1892. 

[Life and Letters of Alfred Ainger, by Edith 
Sichel, 1906 ; Dean Beeching's prefaces to 
The Gospel of Human Life and Lectures and 
Essays ; Dr. A. W. Ward in Macmillan's Mag., 
April 1904; Quarterly Review, Jan. 1905; 
Monthly Review, March 1904 ; The Times 
9 Feb. 1904 ; Old and Odd Memories, by Lionel 
Tollemache, 1908.] E. S. 

AIRD, SIR JOHN, first baronet (1833- 
1911), contractor, born in London on 
3 Dec. 1833, was the only child of John 
Aird (1800-1876), by his wife Agnes (d. 
29 July 1869), daughter of Charles Bennett 
of Lambeth, Surrey. His father, son of 
Robert Aird of Fortrose, Ross-shire, 
originally a mason at Bromley by Bow, 
was (for twenty years) superintendent 
of the Phoenix Gas Company's station at 
Greenwich, and started in 1848 a contracting 
business for himself, laying down mains for 
many gas and water companies in London. 

After private education at Greenwich 
and Southgate, Aird joined on his 
eighteenth birthday his father's business, 
! which was soon known as John Aird 
& Sons. He was entrusted with the 
! removal of the 1851 exhibition buildings 
| (erected by his father) and their recon- 
! struction as the Crystal Palace at 
Sydenham. The firm now engaged 
in large enterprises both in this country 
and abroad. They constructed reservoirs 
at Hampton and Staines, and the 
Bockton plant of the Gas Light and 
Coke Company. Abroad their works in- 



eluded the first waterworks at Amsterdam, 
and others at Copenhagen and Berlin, as 
well as gasworks in Copenhagen, Moscow, 
and elsewhere in Russia, France, Italy, and 
Brazil. They were also associated with 
Brassey & Wythes in constructing the 
Calcutta waterworks, with Sir John Kirk 
in building the Millwall Docks, and with 
Peto, Brassey & Betts in civil engineer- 
ing works in Sardinia. 

In 1860 the firm was renamed Lucas 
& Aird. Ten years later the elder Aird 
died, and John became a chief partner. 
In 1895 the concern changed its designa- 
tion to John Aird & Co. Meanwhile it had 
carried out much railway and dock work, 
including various extensions of the 
Metropolitan, District, and St. John's 
Wood railways, Royal Albert Docks, 
Tilbury Docks, East and West India 
Docks extension, and the West Highland 
railway. Aird's firm also completed the 
Manchester canal. 

Aird is best known by his great w r ork 
of damming the Nile ; the necessity for 
this had long been recognised, but its 
execution was prevented by the poverty 
of the Egyptian exchequer. In February 
1898 Aird offered to construct dams at 
Assuan and Assyut, payment being 
deferred until the completion of the con- 
tract, and then spread over a term of years. 
His offer was accepted by the Egyptian 
government, and the work, begun in 
April 1898, was finished in 1902, a year 
before the stipulated time [see BAKER, 
SIR BENJAMIN, Suppl. II]. About one 
million tons of masonry were employed in 
its construction, and at one time 20,000 
men (90 per cent, of them natives) were 
engaged. Aird received for his services 
the grand cordon of the Medjidieh 
in 1902. Later undertakings of the j 
firm include the Royal Edward Dock 
at Avonmouth (1902-8), the Tanjong 
Pagar Dock works at Singapore, the 
barrage at Esneh (opened in 1909), 
and the elevation of the height of the 
Assuan dam. 

Aird became an associate of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers in 1859 and a 
member of the Iron and Steel Institute in 
1887. In 1886 he served on the royal 
commission on the depression of trade, and 
from 1887 to 1905 represented North 
Paddington in the conservative interest in 
the House of Commons, where he was 
well known and respected. He became in 
1900 the first mayor of Paddington, and 
was re-elected in the following year. Aird 
was popular in City circles, and was in 1882 

appointed on the commission of lieutei 
of the City of London. He was a livery- 
man of the Needlemakers' Company, and 
served as master in 1890-2 and 1897-8. For 
many years he was associated with the 
volunteer movement, and was major and 
honorary h'eutenant-colonel of the engineer 
and railway volunteer staff corps. He 
was created a baronet on Lord Salisbury's 
recommendation on 5 March 1901. 

Aird was an ardent collector of pictures 
from 1874, when he removed from Tun- 
bridge Wells to his London residence, 
14 Hyde Park Terrace. His collection 
was confined almost exclusively to modern 
British art, of which he was a judicious 
patron. His artistic treasures included 
some of the finest examples of Calderon, 
Dicksee, Fildes, Frith, Leighton, Marks, 
Orchardson, Noel Paton, Prinsep, Briton 
Riviere, Rossetti, Marcus Stone, Storey, 
Tadema, and F. Walker (cf. illustrated 
description by J. F. BOYES in Art Journal, 
xliii. 135-140 ; and a catalogue of the 
collection by HENRY BLACKBURN, privately 
printed in June 1884, with miniature 
reproductions of each painting, water- 
colour drawing, and sculpture). He was 
a member of council of the Art Union 
of London from 1891 until death. An 
enthusiastic mason, Aird was senior grand 
deacon for the same period. 

He died on 6 Jan. 1911 at his country 
residence, Wilton Park, Beaconsfield, Bucks, 
and was buried at Littleworth, near 
Beaconsfield. His estate under his will 
was sworn at 1,101,4892. gross. 

Aird married on 6 Sept. 1855 Sarah 
(d. 4 April 1909), daughter of Benjamin 
Smith of Lewisham, Kent, by whom he 
had two sons and seven daughters. His 
elder son, John, succeeded to the baronetcy. 
Portraits of Aird were painted by (Sir) Luke 
Fildes in 1898 and by Sidney Paget in 
1902; the latter is in Paddington Town 

[Engineering (portrait), 13 Jan. 1911; the 
Times, 7 and 12 Jan. and 23 March 1911 ; 
Cassier's Mag. (portrait and sketch), Aug. 
1901, xx. 266, 343-4; Pratt's People of 
the Period, p. 18 ; Burke's Peerage, 1910.] 

C. W. 

SON, JAMES, 1835-1911.] 

AITCHISON, GEORGE (1825-1910), 
architect, born in London on 7 Nov. 
1825, was son of George Aitchison 
by his wife Maria Freeman. After 
education at Merchant Taylors' School 
(1835-41), he was articled in 1841 to 
his father, then architect to the St, 



Katharine Dock Co. Entering the schools of 
the Royal Academy in 1847, he graduated 
B.A. at London University in 1851, and 
began in 1853 an architectural tour which 
If. I to his acquaintance in Rome with George 
Homing Mason [q. v."|. Mason introduced 
him to Frederic Leigh ton [q. v. Suppl. I], 
Concluding the tour with William Burges 
[q. v.], he returned to London in 1855 and 
four years later was taken into partnership 
by his father, to whose practice and appoint- 
ment ho succeeded in 1861, becoming 
subsequently joint architect to the London 
and St. Katharine Docks Co. In 1865 
Leigh ton, the friend of his lifetime, gave 
him the opportunity of designing his house 
and studio in Holland Road, South Ken- 
sington (now Leighton House), to which 
the Arab Hall was added at a later date. 
Aitchison's other principal works were the 
hall of the Founders Co. (1877); offices 
for the Royal Exchange Insurance Co., 
Pall Mall (1886) ; decorations for the 
apartments of the Princess Louise at 
Kensington Palace ; and the board room 
for the Thames Conservancy (1868), with a 
frieze by Leighton. He was examiner in 
architecture and the principles of ornament 
at the Science and Art Department, South 
Kensington, and for many years district 
surveyor for East Wandsworth and Tooting. 
Aitchison was elected A.R.A. in 1881 and 
R.A. in 1898. He had already become pro- 
fessor of architecture to the Academy, a 
post which he resigned in 1905. From 1896 
to 1899 he was president of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects, and during 
his presidency (1898) was awarded the 
royal gold medal. His work as an 
architect, always scholarly, is chiefly 
marked by his promotion of higher standards 
of internal decoration and by his colla- 
boration with other artists in such work. 
He was a wide reader, a good talker, and 
the collector of an interesting library. 

His numerous writings were mostly pro- 
fessional lectures, presidential addresses, or 
communications to architectural journals. 
He edited and wrote an introduction to 
\\'ard's 'Principles of Ornament' (1892), 
and was a contributor of several memoirs 
to this Dictionary, including those of Sir 
Charles Barry, Francis Hall, and George 
Homing Mason. 

Aitchison resided and worked at 150 
Harley Street, where he died, unmarried, 
on 16 May 1910. An excellent portrait by 
Sir L. Alma-Tadema, R.A., which was 
exhibited at the Academy in 1901, hangs 
in the room of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects. 

[Journal Royal Inst. of Brit. Architects, 
xvii., 3rd series (1909-10), 581 ; The 
Times, 17 May 1910 ; personal knowledge.] 


HENRY HUCKS, 1819-1907.] 

1909), major-general, born at Quebec, 
Canada, on 22 May 1834, was son oi 
Lieut. -colonel Ralph Carr Alderson, royal 
engineers, by his wife Maria, daughter of 
Henry Thorold of Cuxwold, Lincoln- 
shire. John Alderson (1757-1829) [q. v.] 
physician, of Sculcoates, Yorkshire, was 
his grandfather. Educated privately at 
Messrs. Stoton & Mayer's school at 
Wimbledon (1844-8), he entered the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich, as a cadet, 
in May 1848. He received a commission 
as second lieutenant in the royal artillery 
on 23 June 1852, and served in Canada 
until 1854, when, on promotion to the rank 
of lieutenant, he returned to England. 
Serving through the Crimean war, he was 
present at the battles of the Alma, Inker- 
man, and at the siege and fall of Sebastopol. 
He was mentioned in despatches, and 
received the medal with three clasps, the 
Turkish medal, and the legion d'honneur, 
third class. He was promoted to the rank 
of second captain on 1 April 1859 and 
from Feb. to June 1864 was attached on 
special mission to the headquarters of the 
federal army under General O. A. Gillmor 
during the civil war in the United States 
of America, and was present at the bom- 
bardment of Charleston. 

On his return to England Alderson joined 
the experimental department of the 
school of gunnery, Shoeburyncss, and 
became successively captain on 6 July 
1867; major 3 July 1872; lieut. -colonel 
1 Oct. J877; colonel (by brevet) 1 Oct. 
1881, and major-general 9 July 1892. 

From 1871 he held various appointments 
in the department of the director of 
artillery at the war office, and in 1891 be- 
came president of the ordnance committee. 
This important office he held until his 
retirement from the army on 22 May 1896, on 
account of age. From 1897 until his death 
he was a director of Sir W. G. Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co., the gunmaking firm at 
Elswick, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

He was made C.B. on 21 June 1887 ; a 
K.C.B. on 30 May 1891 ; and was appointed 
colonel commandant in the royal artillery 
on 4 Nov. 1905. He died at Durham on 10 
Sept. 1909. He married in 1877 his second 
cousin, Florence, youngest daughter of Sir 
Edward Hall Alderson (1787-1857) [q. v.], 

baron of the exchequer, and had one son, 
Ralph Edward. 

[The Times, 11 Sept. 1909; E.A. Insti- 
tution Leaflet, October 1909.] J. H. L-E. 

ALEXANDER, MBS. (pseudonym) 
(1825-1902), novelist. [See HECTOR, Mrs. 

ALEXANDER, BOYD (1873-1910), 
African traveller and ornithologist, born 
at Cranbrook, Kent, on 16 Jan. 1873, 
was a twin son (with Robert Alexander) of 
Colonel Boyd Francis Alexander, of an 
Ayrshire family, by his wife Mary Wilson. 
Boyd, after education at Radley College 
(1887-91), passed into the army in 1893, 
joining the 7th battalion rifle brigade. 
Devoting himself to travel and ornithology, 
he visited the Cape Verde Islands twice in 
1897 to study their ornithology, and he 
went, in 1898, for the same purpose to the 
Zambesi river and its tributary the Kafue. 
In 1899 he joined the Gold Coast con- 
stabulary, and in 1900 he was present at 
the relief of Kumasi. For this service he 
received the medal and clasp, and on his 
return to England he was offered and 
accepted a commission in the rifle brigade. 
Keeping up his studies of bird life in West 
Africa, he visited Fernando Po hi 1902, and 
made there not only ornithological but also 
ethnological investigations and a map, and 
gathered material for a review of Spanish 
missionary work. In 1904 he started on 
an expedition which was designed to 
survey northern Nigeria and to show that 
Africa could be crossed from west to east 
by means of its waterways. Accompanied 
by his younger brother, Captain Claud 
Alexander, Captain G. B. Gosling, Mr. P. A. 
Talbot, and his assistant and taxidermist 
Jose Lopes, Alexander left Lokoja on the 
Niger on 31 March, and travelled to Ibi 
on the Benue. There the party separated 
for a time. Gosling, a zoologist, went off 
to shoot big game. Claud Alexander and 
Talbot carried out a valuable survey of the 
Murchison mountains in spite of sickness, 
scarcity of food, and difficulties with 
carriers and hostile natives ; they finally 
reached Maifoni, where Claud Alexander 
died of fever, after six weeks' illness, 
on 13 Nov. 1904, at the age of 26. Boyd 
Alexander meanwhile travelled alone by 
Loko on the Benue, Keffi, the Kachia and 
Panda Hills and Bauchi to Yo (26 Oct.), 
some thirty miles from Lake Chad. He 
succeeded in visiting his dying brother at 
Maifoni, and thence he (now with Talbot. 
Gosling and Lopes as companions) reached 
Lake Chad by way of Kukawa and Kaddai. 
Some months were spent in the difficult 

exploration of the lake. Their valuable 
surveys of the lake, when compared with 
other surveys, enabled geographers to form 
an idea of the remarkable periodic variations 
of level and other physical conditions to 
which the lake is liable in sympathy with 
periods of drought or heavy rainfall. On 
26 May 1905 Alexander, Gosling and Lopes 
(Talbot having returned to the west) started 
up the Shari, making a detailed survey 
of the Bamingi tributary in September. 
They then traversed the watershed to the 
Ubangi, and proceeded across the centre 
of the continent, following that river and 
the Welle. At Niangara on the Welle 
Gosling died of blackwater fever. Alex- 
ander now travelled to N'Soro, turned 
north to the Lado country, and followed 
the Yei river and Bahr-el-Jebel down- 
ward through the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 
He surveyed the Kibali tributary of the 
Welle in July and the Yei in October 1906, 
besides carrying out important zoological 
studies. He reached the Nile in December 

For his journey across the continent 
Alexander received the gold medal of the 
Geographical Society of Antwerp in 1907, 
and the founder's medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society of London in 1908, 
as well as the thanks of his colonel, the 
duke of Connaught, on behalf of his 
regiment. At the close of 1908 Alexander, 
with Lopes, left England again for West 
Africa. He visited the islands of Sao 
Thome, Principe, and Annobom, and, in 
March 1909, the Kamerun mountain, whence 
he proceeded to Lake Chad by way of the 
upper Benue, intending thereafter to make 
for Egypt through Wadai and Darfur. The 
country was known to be in a disturbed 
condition, and Alexander, on reaching 
Nyeri, seventy miles north of Abeshr, the 
capital of Wadai, was murdered by the 
natives on 2 April 1910. He was buried 
at Maifoni, by the grave of his brother Claud. 
Lopes, who had accompanied Mm since his 
earliest journey to the Cape Verde Islands, 
escaped. There is a memorial to Boyd and 
his brother Claud at the parish church of 
Cranbrook, Kent, and his portrait as a boy, 
by Godbold, is preserved by his family. 

Alexander published, an account of his 
journey of 1904-7 in ' From the Niger to 
the Nile ' (2 vols. 1907). He contributed 
a detailed account of Fernando Po to the 
'Ibis' (1903), and a paper 'From the 
Niger, by Lake Chad, to the Nile,' to the 
'Geographical Journal,' xxx. 119. 

[Obit, notice, Geographical Journal, xxxvi. 
08 ; private information.] 0. J. R. H. 



ALEXANDER, WILLIAM (1824r-1911), 
archbishop of Armagh, was born in Derry 
on 13 April 1824. His father, Robert Alex- 
ander, rector of Aghadowey, was nephew of 
Nathanael Alexander, bishop of Meath, 
and a cousin of James Alexander, first earl 
of Caledon. His mother was Dorothea, 
daughter of Henry M'Clintock of Bally - 
arton, co. Donegal. William was the eldest 
son in a family of three sons and five daugh- 
ters; of his two brothers, Henry became 
a rear admiral, and Robert was killed 
at the siege of Delhi. Educated at Ton- 
bridge School, Kent, William matriculated 
at Exeter College, Oxford, in November 
1841, afterwards migrating to Brasenose. 
Residence at the university during the last 
years of the Oxford movement permanently 
affected his life and his attitude towards 
religious questions. In later years he used 
to recall the spell of Newman's sermons. 
He graduated in classical honours (fourth 
class) in 1847, but in spite of the low class he 
had proved command of poetic and literary 
gifts. On 19 Sept. 1847 he was ordained 
deacon by Richard Ponsonby [q.v.], bishop 
of Derry, accepting the curacy of the cathe- 
dral parish. He received priest's orders on 
16 June 1848, when the ordination sermon 
was preached by William Archer Butler [q.v.] 
Subsequently he held in turn the benefices 
of Termonamongan (1850), Fahan (1855), 
and Camus- juxta-Mourne (1860), and was 
appointed dean of Emly (a sinecure office) 
in 1864. 

Meanwhile in 1850 Alexander won at 
Oxford the Denyer theological prize for an 
essay on the ' Divinity of Christ ' ; in 1853 
he recited in the Sheldonian theatre a con- 
gratulatory ode to Lord Derby, then as- 
suming the chancellorship of the university, 
and in 1860 he obtained the university 
prize for his sacred poem * The Waters 
of Babylon.' In 1867 he was a candidate 
for the university professorship of poetry at 
Oxford,when Sir Francis Doyle [q.v. Suppl.I] 
was elected by a narrow majority. 

In the same year Alexander became 
bishop of Derry, being consecrated in 
Armagh cathedral on 6 Oct. 1867, and 
proceeding D.D. at Oxford. At Derry 
he lived for the next twenty-nine years. 
The requirements of his episcopal office 
were exacting and he diligently dis- 
charged his pastoral duties, confirmations, 
ordinations, visitations and the like, gaining 
in a marked degree the affection of his 
clergy. He never cared for the routine 
work of committees or for the details of 
financial organisation. The disestablish- 
ment of the Irish church in 1869 was a 

blow to him, and he held that it had done 
serious injury to religion in Ireland. By 
conviction a high churchman, although 
with no leaning to what is called ritualism, 
Alexander was not in full sympathy with 
the party which became dominant for a 
time in the councils of the disestablished 
Irish church, and synodal controversy was 
distasteful to his spirit. On the death of 
Archbishop Robert Bent Knox [q.v. Suppl. 
I] in 1893 he was elected by the Irish bishops 
to the see of Armagh and the primacy of all 
Ireland. It was not until his succession 
to the primacy, with the full concurrence of 
all ecclesiastical parties, that he became 
the recipient of that full measure of honour 
and respect in Ireland which had already 
been accorded to him in England and in 
the colonial churches. ' I have been, per- 
haps,' said Alexander of himself in 1893, 
with modesty and some justice, * enough of 
a writer to prevent me being a very good 
speaker. I have been enough of a speaker 
to prevent me being a thinker. And I have 
been enough of a writer and speaker and 
thinker to prevent me being a very good 
bishop for these troublous times.' 

Poetry and literature were always the 
delight of Alexander's leisure, although not 
a chief occupation. Through life he wrote 
verses, which good critics recognised as 
genuine poetry. In 1886 he published 
' St. Augustine's Holiday and other Poems ' 
(with a preface of autobiographical 
interest), and in 1900 another edition of 
his poems appeared under the title of 
' The Finding of the Book.' Many striking 
verses of his on occasions of public 
interest appeared in ' The Times ' and the 
' Spectator ' during later years. 

But from the early stages of his clerical 
career it was as an eloquent and ac- 
complished speaker, preacher, and lecturer 
that he made his mark. In America 
his power was no less recognised than in 
England. Literary themes attracted him 
as well as religious or theological ones. 
A Dublin lecture on Matthew Arnold's 
poetry (1863) was full of suggest! veness and 
of nice critical discrimination. Another on 
Virgil and St. Augustine was printed in 1869 
along with a spirited blank verse transla- 
tion of part of the '^Eneid.' To the end of 
his days Alexander was under the spell of 
St. Augustine, and one of his most charac- 
teristic lectures, delivered in 1876 in 
St. James's, Piccadilly, dealt with St. 
Augustine's Confessions. Not only was 
he sensible of the merits of the African 
bishop as a theologian and a spiritual 
guide, but he was strongly attracted 



by his terse and epigrammatic style. 
The larger part of Alexander's writings 
and lectures, however, was on theological 
subjects and much of it was prepared for 
English pulpits. Not so powerful as Magee, 
he became, probably, the most brilliant 
Anglican preacher of his day. No one 
approached him as a master of felicitous 
and striking phrase. His sermons were 
not so closely reasoned as Liddon's, but 
their effectiveness was much enhanced by 
their delivery without manuscript, by a 
splendid and sympathetic voice and a 
dignified presence. ' My habit,' he wrote, 
* is to prepare carefully and to take into 
the pulpit a complete skeleton of the 
discourse, and as much argumentative or 
illustrative matter as might occupy some 
minutes in delivery, trusting for the rest 
to the suggestions of the moment founded 
upon previous thought.' His sermons on 
great occasions were very numerous, two 
notable examples being his discourse at 
the enthronement of his old friend Magee 
as archbishop of York on 17 March 1891, 
and that before the Lambeth conference 
in Canterbury Cathedral on 4 July 1897. 

Steeped in the writings of Pearson and 
the great Caroline divines, he wrote and 
spoke with a just sense of proportion, 
and knew how to distinguish things essential 
from things of secondary importance. 
His Oxford prize essay on the 'Divinity 
of Christ' was reprinted twice in a slightly 
modified form, in 1854, and again in one 
of his latest books, 'Primary Convictions' 
(1893, 2nded. 1898). This work also contains 
the substance of lectures delivered in America 
in 1892; it deals with the main topics 
of the Christian creed, and in picturesque 
and impassioned language dwells upon its 
beauty, its reasonableness and its response 
to the aspirations of the soul. His reasoned 
apologetic is reverent, telling, and brilliant ; 
but he did not read German, and he took 
the critical labours of Germany at second 
hand. In 1876 he delivered at Oxford the 
Bampton lectures on the ' Witness of the 
Psalms to Christ and Christianity' (1876; 
3rd edit. 1890). This contains much that is 
permanently valuable and suggestive, from 
the theological rather than the critical side. 
The same may be said of the ' Leading 
Ideas of the Gospels' (1872, 3rd edit. 1898), 
which grew out of Oxford sermons preached 
in 1871. His commentaries on the 
Johannine epistles (1881) in the ' Speaker's 
Commentary ' and hi the ' Expositor's 
Bible ' (1889) abound in devout and beau- 
tiful thoughts and in proofs of a refined 

A convinced unionist in politics, Alexander 
showed his rhetorical power to advantage 
at the Albert Hall, London, in 1893, in his 
speech against the second home rule bill; 
but he had friends in all political camps. 
The most delightful of hosts, his con- 
1 versation was full of interest and esprit. 

and even in extreme old age a literary 
problem or nice point of criticism would be 
eagerly taken up by him and discussed 
with his old fire. With the manners and 
the courtesy of a grand seigneur he com- 
bined the fatherly dignity of a prince of 
the church. He resigned the archbishopric 
on 30 .Jan. 1911, and died in retirement 
at Torquay on 12 Sept. 1911. He was 
buried in Derry Cathedral cemetery beside 
his wife who had died on 15 Oct. 1895. 
Alexander was hon. D.C.L. Oxon (1876), 
hon. LL.D. Dublin (1892), hon. D.Litt. 
Oxon (1907), and he received the G.C.V.O. 
in 1911. On 15 Oct. 1850 he married Cecil 
Frances (daughter of John Humphreys, 
D.L.), well known as a hymn writer [see 
I], by whom he had two sons and two 

Alexander's portrait was thrice painted : 
(1) for his family, by C. N. Kennedy, when 
he had been twenty-five years bishop of 
Derry ; (2) for the palace of Armagh, by 
Walter Osborne ; and (3) by Harris Brown 
for presentation to the National Gallery 
of Ireland by friends, representing all 
religious denominations, on his resignation 
of the primacy. A synod hall at Armagh 
is being built (1912) in his memory, and in 
Derry also his name is to be associated 
with a monument. A cartoon by ' Spy ' 
appeared in 'Vanity Fair' in 1895. 

In addition to the works enumerated 
he published ' The Great Question and 
other Sermons ' (1885 ; 2nd edit. 1887), 
and ' Verbum Crucis ' (1892), and he edited 
Ephesians, Colossians, Thessalonians, and 
Philemon (1880) in the 'Speaker's Com- 

[The Times, 13 Sept. 1911, memoir by the 
present writer ; Irish Times and Daily 
Express of same date ; Sunday Mag. (August 
1896), by S. L. Gwynn ; Miles's Sacred 
Poets of the Nineteenth Century, 1907, 
pp. 59 sq. ; family information ; personal 
knowledge.] JOHN OSSOKY. 

1907), journalist and author, born at Diss, 
Norfolk, and baptised on 7 Aug. 1836, was 
the only son of John Alger, a corn merchant 
of that town, by his wife Jemima, daughter 
of Salem Goldworth, yeoman, of Morning 
Thorpe, Norfolk. Educated at Diss, Alger 




became a journalist at the age of sixteen. 
At first he wrote for the ' Norfolk News,' 
and afterwards transferred his services to 
the ' Oxford Journal.' In 1866 he joined 
the parliamentary reporting staff of 'The 
Times,' and after eight years' work in that 
capacity was sent to Paris in 1874 to act 
as assistant to Henri Opper de Blowitz, 
' The Times ' Paris correspondent. There 
he remained for twenty-eight years. His 
leisure he chiefly devoted to historical 
research in the Bibliotheque Nationale and 
National Archives. He made himself 
thoroughly familiar with the topographical 
history of Paris, and threw new light on 
byways of the French revolution, in- 
vestigating with especial thoroughness the 
part which Englishmen played in the great 
movement. His chief publications were: 
1. ' Englishmen in the French Revolution,' 
1889. 2. 'Glimpses of the French Re- 
volution,' 1894. 3. 'Paris in 1789-94; 
Farewell Letters of Victims of the Guillo- 
tine,' 1902. 4 ' Napoleon's British Visitors 
and Captives,' 1904. He also published 
' The Paris Sketch Book ' (a description of 
current Parisian life) (1887); contributed 
historical articles to several leading maga- 
zines, and was an occasional contributor to 
this Dictionary. In 1902 Alger retired from 
the service of ' The Times ' on a pension, 
and settled in London. He died unmarried 
at 7 Holland Park Court, Addison Road, 
West Kensington, on 23 May 1907. 

[The Times, 25 May 1907; Who's Who, 
1907 ; M. de Blowitz, My Memoirs, 1903.] 

S. E. F. 

HENRY GERARD, 1825-1904.] 

baronet (1826-1907), general, born at 
Edinburgh on 21 Jan. 1826, was eldest son of 
Sir Archibald Alison, first baronet [q. v.], 
the historian, by Elizabeth Glencairn, 
daughter of Lieut. -colonel Tytler. In 1835 
Possil House, near Glasgow, became the 
family home. The father educated his son 
privately, till he went to Glasgow University. 
There, at the age of fifteen, he gained the 
first prize for an English essay on the 
character and times of Sulla, and reviewed 
Thierry's History of the Gauls ' in Black- 
wood's Magazine.' Between Alison and 
his father there was always the closest 
intimacy. They shared the same tastes, 
and the son replied in ' Blackwood ' (May 
1850) to the criticisms in the ' Edinburgh 
Review ' on the continuation of his father's 

On 3 Nov. 1846 Alison was commissioned 
as ensign in the 72nd foot (afterwards 


Seaforth highlanders) and joined the 
depot at Nenagh. He was promoted 
lieutenant on 11 Sept. 1849, and joined the 
headquarters of the regiment in Barbados. 
Yellow fever was raging there, and his 
father had arranged for an exchange, but 
Alison refused to leave his regiment at such 
a time. He went with it to Nova Scotia 
in 1851, and came home with it in October 
1854, having been promoted captain on 
11 Nov. 1853. 

After some months at Malta, the regiment 
went to the Crimea in May 1855, and having 
taken part in the expedition to Kertch, 
was placed in the highland brigade at the 
end of June. While serving with the 
regiment in the trenches before Sebastopol, 
Alison attracted the notice of Sir Colin 
Campbell [q. v.], by opportunely producing 
a sketch plan of the trenches, which he 
had drawn on the inside of an envelope, 
as well as by his coolness under fire during 
the assault of 8 Sept. He was mentioned 
in despatches, was made brevet-major on 
6 June 1856, and received the Crimean 
medal with clasp and the Turkish medal. 
On 19 Dec. 1856 he left the 72nd for an 
unattached majority. 

When Sir Colin Campbell left England at 
twenty-four hours' notice on 12 July 1857 
to deal with the Indian Mutiny, he took 
Alison with him as his military secretary, 
and a younger brother, Frederick, as his 
aide-de-camp. In the second relief of 
Lucknow both brothers were wounded, the 
elder losing his left arm. He returned 
to duty early in 1858, but the stump 
inflamed, and he was invalided home 
(10 March). He had been mentioned in 
despatches (Lond. Gaz. 16 Jan. 1858), was 
made brevet lieut. -colonel and C.B. (28 Feb. 
1861), and received the medal with clasp. 
On his arrival in England he dined with 
Queen Victoria. When entertained by the 
corporation of Glasgow, he explained Sir 
Colin Campbell's work, and wrote on ' Lord 
Clyde's Campaign in India ' in ' Blackwood ' 
(Oct. 1858). 

Alison was unemployed for the next four 
years. From 17 March 1862 to 19 Oct. 1867 
he was an assistant adjutant-general, first 
with the inspector-general of infantry at 
headquarters, and three years afterwards 
in the south-western district. He became 
brevet-colonel on 17 March 1867. On 
1 Oct. 1870 he was placed on the staff at 
Aldershot as assistant adjutant-general. At 
the end of 1873 he went to the west coast of 
Africa in command of the British brigade 
sent out for the Ashanti war, with the local 
rank of brigadier-general. He took part in 





the battle of Amoaful, the capture of Bequah, 
the action at Ordashu, and the taking of 
Coomassie. At Amoaful the fire was very 
hot, and the dense growth made direction 
difficult, but his staff were struck by his 
self-possession and the precision of his 
orders. When abscesses in his only hand 
made him nearly helpless, he bore his 
suffering with' sweet . . .serenity.' He was 
repeatedly mentioned in despatches (Lond. 
Gaz. 6, 7 and 17 March 1874), received the 
thanks of parliament and the medal with 
clasp, and was made K.C.B. on 31 March 
1874. After a few months at Aldershot, 
Alison went to Ireland as deputy adjutant- 
general on 17 Oct. 1874. He received a reward 
for distinguished service on 6 Oct. 1876, and 
was promoted major-general on 1 Oct. 1877. 
After four months as commandant of the 
Staff College at Camberley, he was deputy 
quartermaster-general for intelligence, and 
helped at the headquarters staff (1878-82) 
to meet the Egyptian crisis of 1882. 

On 6 July Alison left England to take 
command of a force which was assembled 
at Cyprus to secure the Suez Canal. The 
bombardment of Alexandria took place 
on the llth, and Alison landed there on 
the 17th with two battalions which were 
soon reinforced. On the 24th he occupied 
Ramleh, and receiving instructions to 
* keep Arabi constantly alarmed,' he made 
repeated demonstrations towards Kafr- 
ed-Dauar, especially on 5 Aug. Thus 
Arabi was led to expect that the British 
advance on Cairo would be from Alex- 
andria, and not from Ismailia, as was 
intended. In that advance Alison 
commanded the highland brigade, con- 
sisting of the highland light infantry, 
Camerons, Gordons, and black watch. 
This was the leading brigade of the second 
(Hamley's) division in the storming of 
the intrenchments at Tel-el-Kebir ; and 
Alison took a personal part, revolver in 
hand, in the confused fighting inside. 
After the surrender of Cairo he was sent 
to occupy Tanta with half a battalion of 
the Gordon highlanders (17 Sept.). He 
found there an Egyptian force of all arms 
disposed to resist ; but by coolness and tact 
he induced them to lay down their arms 
(MAURICE, p. 103). He was mentioned in 
despatches (Lond. Qaz. 29 July, 6 Oct., 
and 2 Nov.), received the thanks of parlia- 
ment, and was promoted lieut. -general 
for distinguished service on 18 Nov. 1882. 
After Lord Wolseley's departure Alison 
was in command of the British force in 
Egypt till 17 May 1883. On his return to 
England a sword of honour was presented 

to him by the citizens of Glasgow, with a 
tiara for Lady Alison. 

Alison held the command of the Aldershot 
division from 1 Aug. 1883 till the end of 
1888, with the exception of part of 1885, 
when he acted as adjutant-general during 
Lord Wolseley's absence in Egypt. He 
received the G.C.B. on 21 June 1887, and 
was placed on the retired list under the 
age rules on 12 Jan. 1893. He was given 
the colonelcy of the Essex regiment on 
24 Nov. 1896, and was transferred to his 
old regiment, the Seaforth highlanders, on 
30 March 1897. He was also honorary 
colonel of the 1st volunteer battalion of the 
highland light infantry, 25 July 1883, 
and was made honorary LL.D. of Cambridge, 
Edinburgh, and Glasgow. In 1889 he was 
appointed a member of the Indian council, 
and remained on it for ten years. He died 
at 93 Eaton Place, London, on 5 Feb. 1907, 
and was buried at Edinburgh with military 
honours, the Seaforth highlanders taking 
part in the ceremony. On 18 Nov. 1858 
he married Jane, daughter of James Black 
of Dalmonach, a Glasgow merchant. She 
died on 15 July 1909. She edited her 
father-in-law's autobiography, and was a 
woman of many gifts. They had two sons 
and four daughters. The eldest son, Archi- 
bald (the third baronet), was born on 
20 May 1862. At his residence, Possil 
House, Copse Hill, Wimbledon, there are 
portraits of Alison by S. West (1865) and 
by Miss Munro (1900). 

* Modest and self-effacing to the very 
verge of humility, he never asserted his 
individuality until duty summoned him 
to the front ' ; but he knew how to combine 
courtesy with insistence on duty. Among 
contributions to * Blackwood,' besides those 
mentioned, were articles on the British 
army and its organisation (1869 and 1892) 
and on ' Armed Europe ' (1893-4). 

[Cornhill Magazine, March 1907; Black- 
wood's Magazine, March 1907 ; private 
information; The Times, 6 Feb. 1907; 
Autobiography of Sir Archibald Alison 
(first baronet), 1883 ; Major Brackenbury, 
The Ashanti War, 1874; Sir Frederick 
Maurice, The Campaign of 1882 in Egypt, 
1908 ; Shand, Life of Sir E. Hamley, 1895.] g 

E. M. L. 

ALLAN, SIR WILLIAM (1837-1903), 
engineer and politician, born at Dundee 
on 29 Nov. 1837, was third son of James 
Allan (d. 1883), machine maker and pro- 
prietor of Seabraes Foundry, Dundee, 
by his wife Margaret Dickson (d. 1879). 
Allan served his apprenticeship as an 
engineer at his father's foundry. As a 




journeyman he removed to Glasgow, and 
shortly afterwards (1856) he went for 
a short time to Paterson, New Jersey. 
In 1857 he joined the royal navy as en- 
gineer, and spent the next three years 
mainly at foreign stations. In 1861, when 
the civil war broke out in America, Allan's 
love of adventure led him to take service as 
chief engineer on board a blockade-runner. 
He was in Charleston harbour when the 
Federals bombarded the city (21 Dec. 1861), 
and was captured and carried as a prisoner 
to the Capitol, Washington. Being re- 
leased on parole, he returned to Dundee, 
resuming work at Seabraes Foundry. 
His varied experience had made him a 
competent workman, and when the 
North-Eastern Engineering Company was 
formed at Sunderland in 1866 he was 
engaged as foreman over one of the depart- 
ments. The new venture was not at first 
successful. In 1868 the company was 
in difficulties and Allan became manager. 
Under his control the concern flourished, 
and after its removal to Wallsend, on the 
Tyne, enjoyed a high position in Tyneside 
engineering. In 1886 Allan started with 
great success on his own account the 
Scotia Engine Works at Sunderland, 
and remained active head of the firm till 
1900. The business was then amalgamated 
with Messrs. Richardson, Westgarth & Co., 
Ltd. Allan became director, and was also 
until his death chairman of the Albyn 
Line, Ltd., shipowners of Sunderland. 

From his youth Allan was an advanced 
radical, and showed practical sympathy with 
the working-classes. He was the first large 
employer to introduce an eight-hours day 
in his own works. At a bye -election 
at Gateshead on 24 Feb. 1893 Allan was 
returned in the liberal interest by a majority 
of 868 over his opponent, Mr. Pandeli Ralli. 
He represented Gateshead till his death. He 
spoke in the house with more force than 
elegance, but always with sincerity and 
common-sense. His practical knowledge led 
Him to oppose strenuously the introduction 
of the Belleville type of boilers into the 
navy (Hansard, 25 June 1896; LUCY'S 
Unionist Parliament, 1895-1900, p. 78). 
On the occasion of King Edward VH's 
coronation in 1902 Allan was knighted. 
He died on 28 Dec. 1903 at Scotland 
House, Sunderland, and was buried in 
Ryhope Road cemetery, Sunderland. Allan 
was married to Jane, daughter of Walter 
Beattie of Lockerbie, who survived him. 

In addition to his other activities Allan 
was a writer of Scottish songs fluent, 
patriotic, fervid. From 1871 till his death 

he published so many volumes of verse 
that he was described as ' the most prolific 
poet of our time.' His poetic publications 
include : 1. * Rough Castings in Scotch 
and English Metal,' 1872. 2. ' Hame-spun 
Lilts, or Poems and Songs chiefly Scottish,' 
1874. 3. * Heather-bells, or Poems and 
Songs,' 1875. 4. ' Ian Vor, a Drama,' 1876. 
5. ' Roses and Thistles, Poems and Songs,' 
1878. 6. 'A Life's Pursuit,' 1880. 7. 'After 
Toil Songs,' 1882. 8. 'Lays of Leisure,' 
1883. 9. ' Northern Lights, or Poems and 
Songs,' 1889. 10. 'A Book of Songs in 
English and Scottish,' Sunderland, 1890, 4to. 
11. 'A Book of Poems,' 1890. 12. 'Demo- 
cratic Chants,' 1892. 13. ' The Rose of 
Methlic,' 1895. 14. ' Sunset Songs,' 1897. 
15. 'Songs of Love and Labour,' 1903. 
Allan's only technical publication was 
' The Shipowners' and Engineers' Guide 
to the Marine Engine ' (Sunderland, 1880). 

A cartoon portrait by ' Spy ' appeared in 
' Vanity Fair ' in 1893. 

[Dundee Year Book, 1903 ; Dundee 
Advertiser, 29 Dec. 1903; Cat. of Lamb 
Collection of Dundee Books, Dundee Refer- 
ence Library; Reid's Bards of Angus and 
the Mearns ; H. W. Lucy's Balfourian 
Parliament, 1906, p. 109 (with sketch portrait 
by Phil May) ; private information.] 

A. H. M. 

ALLEN, GEORGE (1832-1907), 
engraver and publisher, son of John and 
Rebecca Allen, was born on 26 March 
1832 at Newark-on-Trent, and was edu- 
cated at a private grammar school there. 
His father died in 1849, and in that year 
he was apprenticed for four years to an 
uncle (his mother's brother), a builder in 
Clerkenwell. He became a skilled joiner, 
and was employed for three and a half 
years in that capacity upon the wood- 
work of the interior of Dorchester House, 
Park Lane. A reference to this work occurs 
in RusMn's ' Munera Pulveris ' ( 151 ). Upon 
one door in the house Allen and another 
workman were employed for seventy-nine 
days, and Ruskin used to show a model 
of this door to his friends as a specimen 
of English craftsmanship. Upon the 
foundation of the Working Men's College 
in 1854 he joined the drawing class, and 
became one of Ruskin's most promising 
pupils there. 'The transference to the 
pen and pencil of the fine qualities of 
finger that had been acquired by handling 
the carpenter's tools,' coupled with an 
' innate disposition to art/ enabled Allen, 
says Ruskin, to attain rapidly great 
precision in drawing. Allen was brought 
further into connection with Ruskin by 




marrying (25 Dec. 1856) his mother's 
maid, Anne Eliza Hobbes. He was offered 
a post in Queen Victoria's household in 
connection with the furniture of the royal 
palaces; but this he declined in order 
to devote himself entirely to Ruskin's 
service, in which he remained successively 
as general assistant, engraver, and pub- 
lisher for fifty years. For a few years 
he acted as an assistant drawing-master 
under Ruskin at the college. Ruskin 
then encouraged him to specialise in the 
art of engraving, which he studied under 
J. H. Le Keux, the engraver of many 
of the finest line plates in ' Modern 
Painters.' He also studied mezzotint under 
Lupton, who engraved some of the ' Liber ' 
plates for Turner. Allen's knowledge of 
the two methods enabled him to produce 
the plates of mixed styles, which were 
included in Ruskin's later books. Of the 
original illustrations in ' Modern Painters,' 
three were from drawings by Allen ; he en- 
graved three plates for the edition of 1888 ; 
and in all executed ninety other plates 
for Ruskin. Some of Allen's drawings 
are included among the examples in the 
Ruskin school at Oxford ; and he is one 
of three or four assistants whose work has 
often been mistaken for Ruskin's. In 
addition to engraving and copying, Allen 
was employed by Ruskin as general 
factotum. Many of his reminiscences were 
of distinguished visitors to Ruskin's house 
at Denmark Hill to whom he was instructed 
to show the collection of Turner drawings. 
It was he, too, with others, who assisted 
Ruskin in sorting and arranging the Turner 
drawings and sketches at the National 
Gallery. In 1862, when Ruskin thought of 
settling in Savoy, Allen with his family 
went out to Mornex. He was an excellent 
geologist, and Ruskin often trusted to his 
observations. Like Ruskin, he was an 
enthusiastic mineralogist ; his collection of 
minerals was acquired after his death by 
the University of Oxford. He was a keen 
volunteer, and Ruskin took no offence when 
his assistant engaged in rifle-practice among 
the mountains. In 1871 Ruskin decided 
to set up a publisher of his own. At a 
week's notice, and without any previous 
experience of the trade, Allen started upon 
this enterprise. His publishing establish- 
ment was first his cottage at Keston, and 
afterwards an out-house in the garden of 
his villa at Orpington. Sarcastic reference 
was made in the public prints to Ruskin's 
idea of publishing *in a field in Kent,* 
and the net-system, then a novelty in 
the trade, upon which Ruskin insisted, 

encountered much opposition. Ruskin, 
however, was able to create the demand 
for his publications, and the experiment 
prospered. The original idea of allowing 
no commission to the booksellers, but 
leaving them to charge it to the public, 
was, however, presently abandoned ; and 
the expansion of the business necessitated 
the addition of premises in London. In 
1890 Allen opened a London publishing 
house at 8 Bell Yard, Chancery Lane ; 
and in 1894 he moved to larger premises 
at 156 Charing Cross Road. There he 
engaged in general publishing, though 
Ruskin's works remained the principal 
part of his business. Allen was one of the 
original ' Companions ' of Ruskin's ' Guild 
of St. George,' and was a familiar figure 
at all Ruskinian gatherings. His unaffected 
simplicity and sterling character made him 
many friends. At his house at Orpington 
he took pleasure in flowers and bees, and he 
was a judicious buyer of water-colours 
and ' Martin ' ware, as well as of minerals. 
Most of his collections including many 
Ruskiniana were privately disposed of 
after his death. His last enterprise was 
the library edition of Ruskin's works 
(1903-11), of which, however, he did not 
live to see the completion. He died, in 
his seventy-sixth year, on 5 Sept. 1907, at 
Orpington, and is buried in the parish 
churchyard there. His wife had died, in 
her eightieth year, eight months before 
him. They had four sons and four 
daughters. The eldest daughter, Miss 
Grace Allen, and the two eldest sons, 
William and Hugh, continued the business, 
which is now carried on at 44 Rathbone 
Place. A portrait of Allen (1890) was 
painted in oils by F. Yates ; the chair in 
which he is shown as seated came from 
Ruskin's study at Denmark Hill, and is 
said to have been the one used by Ruskin 
when writing ' Modern Painters.' 

[Library edition of Ruskin, vol. xxxvii. pp. 
Ix-lxiii ; the present writer's Life of Ruskin, 
1911 ; private information.] E. T. 0. 

ALLEN, JOHN ROMILLY (1847-1907), 
archaeologist, born in London on 9 June 
1847, was the eldest son of George Baugh 
Allen (d. 1898), a special pleader of the 
Inner Temple, of Cilrhiw, near Narberth, 
by his wife Dorothea Hannah, third 
daughter of Roger Eaton of Pare Glas, 
Pembrokeshire. John was educated at 
King's College school (1857-60), Rugby 
school (1860-3), and King's College, London 
(1864-6). In 1867 he was articled to 
G. F. Lyster, engineer in chief to the 
Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, with 




whom he remained until 1870. Ho was 
next employed as resident engineer to 
the Persian railways of Baron de Reuter 
and afterwards in supervising the construc- 
tion of docks at Leith and at Boston, 
Lincolnshire. Meanwhile he was interested 
in archaeology, and to this pursuit, and 
particularly to the study of prehistoric 
antiquities and of pre-Norman art in Great 
Britain, he devoted the rest of his life. 
His earliest contribution to ' Archaeologia 
Cambrensis ' (* A description of some cairns 
on Barry Island ') appeared in April 1873 ; 
he joined the Cambrian Archaeological 
Association in 1875, was elected a member 
of the general committee in 1877, became 
one of two editors of the 'Journal' in 1889, 
and was sole editor from 1892 until his 
death. Having begun with the antiquities 
of Wales, Allen from 1880 gave special 
attention to those of Scotland also ; in 
1883 he was elected fellow of the Scottish 
Society of Antiquaries, and in 1885 was 
Rhind lecturer in archaeology in the 
University of Edinburgh. In England, he 
became F.S.A. in 1896, editor of the 
' Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist ' 
in 1893 ; and Yates lecturer in archaeology 
in University College, London, for 1898. 

Allen had in a high degree the patience, 
thoroughness, and insight of the scientific 
archaeologist. Possessed of a certain sar- 
donic humour, he was skilful in exposition 
and fertile in illustration. In knowledge 
of early Celtic art and ability to unravel 
its history he was without a rival. He 
was unmarried, and during his later years 
made his home in London, where he died 
on 5 July 1907. In addition to his numerous 
contributions to archaeological journals, 
Allen published : 1. ' Theory and Practice in 
the Designs and Construction of Dock 
Walls,' 1876. 2. ' Early Christian Symbo- 
lism in Great Britain and Ireland ' (Rhind 
lectures), 1887. 3. ' The Monumental His- 
tory of the Early British Church,' 1889. 
4. * The Early Christian Monuments of 
Scotland,' Edinburgh, 1903. 5. 'Celtic Art 
in Pagan and Christian Times,' 1904. 

[Burko's Landed Gentry, llth edit. (1906) ; 
Who's Who, 1907 ; The Times, 13 July 1907 ; i 
Archaeologia Cambrensis, sixth series, vii., 
Oct. 1907, 441-2.] J. E. L. 

1903), captain R.N., born on 8 Aug. 1812, 
was son of W T illiam Allen, a master in the i 
navy and presumably a follower of Admiral 
Sir Robert Caldcr [q. v.]. He entered the navy 
as a second-class volunteer in July 1827. 
In that grade and as second master he 
served with credit, principally on the west 

coast of Africa and in China. In 1841 he 
was advanced to be master, and in 1842-4 
was master of the Dido, with (Sir) Henry 
Keppel [q. v. Suppl. II], in her celebrated 
cruises against the Malay pirates of Borneo. 
In 1850-1 he was master of the Resolute in 
the Arctic, under Captain Austin, whom 
he followed from the Blenheim, and had 
charge of the magnetic observations. In 
1854-5 he was master of the Hogue block- 
ship in the Baltic, and rendered efficient 
service by his survey, often under fire, 
of the approaches to Bomarsund. In 1863 
he was promoted to the then new rank of 
staff -commander, and in 1867 to that of 
staff-captain. In 1866-7 he was master- 
attendant and harbour -master at Malta; 
and in 1867 was appointed in the same 
capacity to Devonport, whence he was 
transferred to Deptford. When that dock- 
yard was closed in October 1870, he retired 
with the rank of captain. He was a 
silent, thoughtful man, singularly modest 
and retiring. The subordinate position 
in which so much of his service was 
passed prevented his name from coming 
prominently before the public ; but in 
the navy his reputation as a sound and 
skilful navigator and pilot stood very 
high, and was officially recognised in his 
nomination to a C.B. 'in 1877. He died 
in London on 28 Jan. 1903. 

Allen was twice married. His first wife 
brought him a daughter and four sons, who 
all entered the public service, navy, army, 
or marines. The second wife survived him. 

[Royal Navy Lists ; The Times, 31 Jan. 1903 ; 
Keppel, Expedition of H.M.S. Dido to 
Borneo for the Suppression of Piracy, 1846 ; 
Markham, Life of Sir Leopold McClintock, 
1909 ; private information.] J. K. L. 

1903), theologian, born at Midsomer Norton, 
Somerset, on 12 Feb. 1813, was son of 
Thomas Allies, then curate of Henbury and 
later rector of Wormington, by his wife 
Frances Elizabeth Fripp, daughter of a 
Bristol merchant. His mother died a week 
after his birth, and he was brought up by his 
father's second wife, Caroline Hillhouse. 
After education at Bristol grammar school 
he entered Eton in April 1827 under 
Edward Coleridge. There in 1829 he was 
the first to win the Newcastle scholarship. 
He matriculated at Wadham College, 
Oxford, in 1828, where he was exhibitioner 
from 1830-3, graduated B. A. with a first class 
in classics in 1832, proceeded M.A. in 1837, 
was fellow from 1833 till 1841, and humanity 
lecturer 1838-9. 

Allies early came under the influence of 



John Henry Newman, and with him and 
Pusey was soon in constant intercourse. 
His sympathy with the tractarians was 
strong, but his loyalty to the Anglican 
church was only shaken slowly. After a tour 
in France and Italy during 1836 he took holy 
orders in 1838, and assisted William Dods- 
worth [q. v.] at Christ Church, St. Pancras, 
in 1839. From 1840 to 1842 he was 
examining chaplain to Dr. Blomfield, bishop 
of London, who in June 1842 presented 
him to the living of Launton, Bicester, 
Oxfordshire. Travels in France in 1845 
and 1847 with John Hungerford Pollen 
[q. v. Suppl. II] quickened doubt of the 
validity of the Anglican position, and 
a statement of his views in his ' Journal in 
France ' (published February 1848) brought 
on him the censure of Samuel Wilberforce, 
bishop of Oxford. Study of the Fathers, 
and especially of Suarez's work, * De Erro- 
ribus Sectse Anglicanae,' combined with the 
Gorham decision on baptismal regeneration 
in 1850, shattered his faith in the established 
church, and in his ' Royal Supremacy ' (1850) 
he forcibly presented the Roman point of 
view (cf. LIDDON'S Life of E. B. Pusey, iii. 
257 seq.). In October 1850 he resigned his 
Launton living and joined the Roman 
communion. He removed to Golden Square, 
London, where he took pupils, and later 
for a time to the Priory, 21 North Bank, 
St. John's Wood, the house afterwards 
inhabited by George Eliot [q. v.]. From 
August 1853 until his retirement on a 
pension in 1890 he was secretary of the 
catholic poor school committee in John 
Street, Adelphi (instituted in 1847), and 
actively promoted catholic primary educa- 
tion. To his energy was due the foundation 
of the Training College of Notre Dame, 
Liverpool, in 1855, of the Training College 
for Women at the Convent of the Sacred 
Heart, Wands worth, in 1874, and of the 
St. Mary's Training College for Men in 
Hammersmith. In March 1855 he became 
first professor of modern history at the 
new Catholic University of Ireland, Dublin, 
under Newman's rectorship. On his lec- 
tures there he based his voluminous 
* The Formation of Christendom ' (8 vols. 
1865-95; popular edit. 1894 and following 
years). The work trenchantly expounds 
St. Peter's predominance in history. 
Among Allies's intimate friends in his 
last years were Lord Acton and Aubrey 
de Vere, who addressed a sonnet to him on 
the publication of his ' Holy See,' the sixth 
volume of his ' Formation of Christendom,' 
in 1888. In 1885 Pope Leo XIII created 
him knight commander of St. Gregory, 

and in 1893 he received through Cardinal 
Vaughan the pope's gold medal for merit. 
In 1897 his health declined, and he died at 
St. John's Wood on 17 June 1903, being 
buried at Mortlake by the side of his wife. 
He married on 1 Oct. 1840, at Marylebone 
parish church, Eliza Hall, sister of Thomas 
Harding Newman (an Oxford fellow 
student), and had issue five sons and two 
daughters. His wife, who joined the 
Roman catholic church five months before 
himself, predeceased him on 24 Jan. 1902. 
A portrait, painted by Mrs. Carpenter in 
1830, is reproduced in the memoir by his 
daughter Mary (1907). 

Allies, one of the most learned of the 
Oxford converts to Rome, traced the 
growth of his opinions in * A Life's Decision ' 
(1880; 2nd edit. 1894). Other works by 
Allies are : 1. ' The Church of England 
cleared from the Charge of Schism,' 1846 ; 
2nd edit. 1848. 2. 'The Royal Supre- 
macy,' 1850. 3. 'The See of St. Peter,' 
1850; 4th edit. 1896. 4. 'St. Peter, his 
Name and Office,' 1852; 2nd edit. 1871; 
new edit. 1895. 5. 'Dr. Pusey and the 
Ancient Church,' 1866. The last four were 
reprinted with Allies's other controversial 
writings in ' Per Crucem ad lucem,' 2 vols. 

[Thomas William Allies, by Mary Allies, 
1907 ; art. in Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol. i. 
1907, by the same writer ; The Times, 2 July 
1903; Tablet, 20 June 1903; Liddon's Life 
of E. B. Pusey, 1894, vol. iii. ; Life of J. H. 
Pollen, 1912 ; Wilfrid Ward, Life of J. H. 
Newman, 1912.] W. B. 0. 

(1824-1904), mathematician, was born 
on 28 Sept. 1824 at Dublin. Ho was a 
younger son of William Allman., M.D. [q. v.], 
professor of botany in Trinity College, 
Dublin (1809-44). He entered Trinity 
College, and after a distinguished career 
graduated in 1844 as senior moderator and 
gold medallist in mathematics with Samuel 
Haughton [q. v. uppl. I]. He was also 
Bishop Law's mathematical prize-man and 
graduated LL.B. in 1853 and LL.D. 1854. 

Allman was elected professor of mathe- 
matics in Queen's College, Galway, in 1853, 
and remained in this post till he retired in 
1893, having reached the age-limit fixed by 
civil service regulations. He was elected a 
member of the senate of Queen's University 
in 1877, and in 1880, when the Royal 
University of Ireland was founded, he was 
nominated by the Crown as a life senator. 
He was made F.R.S. in 1884, and lion. D.Sc. of 
Dublin in 1 882. He contributed a f e w papers 
on mathematical subjects to scientific period- 




icals, besides an account of Prof. McCullagh's 
[q. v.] lectures on the ' Attraction of the 
Ellipsoid ' which appears in the latter's 
collected works. He also wrote a number 
of articles in the 9th edition of the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica ' on Greek mathemati- 
cians. His chief contribution to science is his 
* History of Greek Geometry from Thales to 
Euclid' (Dublin 1889), which first appeared 
as articles in ' Hermathena.' In this he 
traced the rise and progress of geometry and 
arithmetic, and threw new light on the 
history of the early development of mathe- 
matics. With his life-long friend, John 
Kells Ingram [q. v. Suppl. II], he was 
attracted to positivism, and entered into 
correspondence with Comte in 1852 ; in 
1854 he went to Paris and made his personal 
aquaintance. His position at Galway 
prevented his taking any public part in 
the positivist movement, but his teaching 
was much influenced by Comte's mathe- 
matical work, the * Synthese Subjective,' 
and his general theory of historical develop- 
ment. Allman died of pneumonia on 9 May 
1904 at Farnham House, Finglass, Dublin. 

He married in 1853 Louisa (d. 1864), 
daughter of John Smith Taylor of Dublin 
and Corballis, co. Meath. A son and two 
daughters survived him. 

[Proc. Roy. Soc. 78 A. (1907), p. xii; 
Positivist Review, July 1904, p. 149 ; The 
Times, 13 May 1904.] R. S. 

(1832-1903), headmaster of Loretto school, 
born in Glasgow on 12 Aug. 1832, was 
second son of George Almond, incum- 
bent of St. Mary's Episcopal Chapel, 
Glasgow, by his second wife, Christiana 
Georgina, eldest daughter of Thomas Smith, 
barrister, of London. His paternal great- 
grandfather was headmaster of Derby 
school, and his maternal great-grand- 
father was John Hely-Hutchinson [q. v.], 
provost of Trinity College, Dublin. Pre- 
cociously clever, he began to learn his letters 
at sixteen months, and at three years was 
struggling with the multiplication table. 
After attending the collegiate school, Glas- 
gow, he entered in 1845 the University 
of Glasgow. At the end of the session he 
gained the Cowan gold medal in the Black- 
stone Latin examination, and he also 
specially distinguished himself in the Greek, 
mathematics and logic classes. Having 
been elected in 1850 to a Snell exhibition, 
he proceeded to Balliol College, Oxford. 
Here, contrary to the expectations of his 
tutors, who had the poorest opinions of his 
chances, he, in 1853, obtained a first class 
both in classical and mathematical modera- 

tions (a record for Balliol College) ; but, 
owing to ill-health and other causes, only a 
second in the final schools. Although he 
delighted in boating and won a place in the 
BalSol eight, he found little that was con- 
genial in undergraduate life. In his later 
years he wrote, ' there is hardly a period of 
my life (since Oxford, which I hated) I would 
not gladly live over again.' He graduated 
B.A. in 1855 and M.A. in 1862. In 1855 
he left Oxford for Torquay, where his 
father was living in retirement ; and 
having failed to pass into the Indian 
civil service, he was induced by a friend, 
who had fallen ill, to assist him in his 
tutorial establishment. This led him to 
conceive a liking for teaching, and in 
1857 he accepted the office of tutor in 
Loretto school, Musselburgh, then merely a 
preparatory for the English public schools. 
In the following year he became second 
master at Merchiston school, Edinburgh, 
where he took an active part in Rugby 
football, and did his utmost to foster a 
love of cricket, introducing an English 
professional to instruct the boys in the 
game. Already he had begun the strenuous 
advocacy of systematic physical exercise 
in schools, and of the cultivation of hardi- 
ness as essential to a thoroughly healthy 
boyhood, and of prime importance in the 
formation of proper habits of mind. These 
and other educational ideas he found 
opportunity to put into fuller practice, 
when, in 1862, he became proprietor of 
Loretto school so called from its contiguity 
to the site of the old chapel and hermitage 
dedicated to Our Lady of Loretto. 

Here he began with only fourteen boys, 
supplemented for the first two or three 
years with a few university pupils ; and, 
as he himself put it, gradually built up a 
school out of nothing, though the numbers 
never reached 150. His early, almost 
insuperable, difficulties he met with perfect 
gaiety ; and he was accustomed to refer 
to this period of his lif e as ' the happy early 
days when I was nearly bankrupt.' He 
closely pursued a special educational aim. 
The first duty of a headmaster he con- 
ceived to be the direction of a school so 
as to accomplish the purpose of training 
the individual character. It was his leading 
maxim to rule by persuasion, not by force, 
and to secure what he called ' behind-back 
obedience.' * Relations between master 
and boys were thus unusually sincere, and 
the place had rather the aspect of a family 
than of a school ' (MACKENZIE'S Almond of 
Loretto, p. 160). So far also as he could 
he sought to develop an independent 



interest in study and to diminish the evils 
of cram and competition, although ham- 
pering outside influences interfered here 
seriously with his ideals. But the main 
feature in which he may justly be regarded 
as a pioneer was * the application of the 
best knowledge to the physical nurture of 
the young ; the total elimination from 
our practice with regard to this nurture, 
of convention, tradition and rule of thumb ' 
(ib. p. 391). He attached a cardinal import- 
ance to fresh air, personal cleanliness, proper 
and regular diet with the abolition of 
* grubbing,' the regulation of the hours 
of sleep and study, physical exercise in all 
weathers, and the disuse ' of linen shirts 
and collars and suits of close material 
for ordinary school wear, in favour of 
tweed knickerbocker suits of loose texture 
and flannel shirts worn open at the neck 
without neckties ' ; with * the practice of 
changing into flannels for all forms of 
violent exercise.' In regard to the 
question of fresh air he anticipated the 
methods 'now employed as a preventative 
and cure of consumption ; and the coat- 
less, flannelled, bare-headed athlete was 
also largely his creation. That the stamina 
of Loretto boys greatly exceeded the average 
was manifested, year by year, by the large 
proportion of them who won athletic 
distinction at the English universities ; 
but the result was attained by a proper 
attention to physical health, not an over 
attention to physical exercise. Almond did 
not a little to revolutionise the school 
methods of Scotland. 

After showing for a few years signs of fail- 
ing health, he died of a bronchial affection 
on 7 March 1903. He was buried in Inveresk 
churchyard. He married in 1876 Eleanor 
Frances, daughter of Canon Tristram of 
Durham [q. v. Suppl. II], and had issue 
three sons and three daughters. 

Besides various contributions to reviews 
and magazines, in which he expounded his 
educational principles, he was author of: 
1. * Health Lectures,' 1884. 2. 'Sermons 
by a Lay Head Master,' 2 series, Edinburgh, 
1886 and 1892. 3. ' English Prose Extracts,' 
Edinburgh, 1895. 4. ' Christ the Protestant, 
and other Sermons,' Edinburgh, 1899. 

[R. J. Mackenzie's Almond of Loretto, 1905 ; 
H. B. Tristram's Loretto School Past and 
Present, 1911.] T. F. H. 

HACKNEY (1835-1909), born at Narford 
Hall, Norfolk, on 25 April 1835, was eldest 
son of William George Daniel-Tyssen (1801- 
1855), whose surname was originally 

Daniel, by Mary, eldest daughter of 
Andrew Fountaine of Narford Hall, Nor- 
folk. Together with his father, who 
represented a branch of the old Kentish 
family of Amherst and had inherited the 
Tyssen property in Hackney through his 
mother, he took by royal licence, 6 Aug. 
1852, the name of Tyssen-Amhurst, for 
which he substituted, again by royal licence, 
that of Tyssen- Amherst on 16 Aug. 1877. 
He was educated at Eton and matriculated 
at Christ Church, Oxford, 19 May 1853. 
Inheriting large property in Norfolk and in 
Hackney, he was high sheriff for Norfolk 
in 1866. He was M.P. for West Norfolk 
in the conservative interest from 1880 to 
1885, afterwards representing south-west 
Norfolk from 1885 to 1892. He was created 
Baron Amherst of Hackney on 26 Aug. 

For more than fifty years Lord Amherst 
collected rare books and MSS., tapestries, 
antique furniture, and other works of art. 
One object was to illustrate the history of 
printing and bookbinding from the earliest 
times down to modern days. Another was 
to illustrate the history of the Reformation 
at home and abroad and of the Church of 
England by means of bibles, liturgies, and 
controversial tracts. A ' Handlist of the 
Books and MSS. belonging to Lord Amherst 
of Hackney' was compiled by Seymour 
de Ricci (privately printed, 1906). The 
compiler had also prepared an exhaustive 
catalogue raisonne of Lord Amherst's whole 
library. Owing to the dishonesty of a 
solicitor entrusted with the administration 
of estate and trust funds, Lord Amherst 
found himself in 1906 obliged to announce 
the sale of the finer portion of the magni- 
ficent library at Didlington Hall. A 
series of splendid ' Caxtons,' eleven out of 
the seventeen being perfect examples, 
were sold privately to Mr. J. Pierpont 
Morgan, and the other portions of the 
library, including many extremely rare 
printed books and fine Italian, Flemish, 
French, and English illuminated MSS., 
were disposed of by auction by Messrs. 
Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge in a sale 
which began on 3 Dec. 1908. The 
second portion of the library was sold 
24 to 27 March 1909, and the total realised 
by both sales was 32,592Z., which does not 
include the 25,0002. understood to have 
been paid for the 'Caxtons.' Messrs. Christie 
disposed (11 Dec. 1908) of some fine ex- 
amples of old Gobelins and other tapestry, 
old French and English furniture, Limoges 
enamels and old Italian majolica. The 
amount realised was 38,796Z. The pictures 



sold for 1561?. ; the engravings for about 

Lord Amherst travelled much in the East, 
and his collection of Egyptian curiosities 
was almost as well known as his books and 
china. Some of these were described in 
' The Amherst Papyri, being an Account 
of the Egyptian Papyri in the Collection of 
Lord Amherst,' by P. E. Newberry (1899, 
4to), and * The Amherst Papyri, being 
an Account of the Greek Papyri in the 
Collection of Lord Amherst of Hackney,' 
by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt (1900, 4to). 

He died after a few hours' illness at 
23 Queen's Gate Gardens, London, S.W., 
on 16 Jan. 1909, in his seventy-fourth year, 
and was buried in the family vault in 
Didlington churchyard, Norfolk. 

His portrait by the Hon. John Collier is 
now in the possession of Baroness Amherst 
of Hackney. It has been engraved. He 
married on 4 June 1856, at Hunmanby, 
co. York, Margaret Susan (6. 8 Jan. 1835), 
only child of Admiral Robert Mitford 
of Mitford Castle, Northumberland, and 
Hunmanby, Yorkshire. His widow and 
six daughters survived him. The eldest 
daughter, Mary Rothes Margaret, who 
married in 1885 Lord William Cecil, suc- 
ceeded to the peerage by special limitation 
in default of male heirs. He bore the 
undifferenced arms of the family of 
Amherst, quartering Daniel and Tyssen. 
He was of middle height and sturdy 
appearance, of genial and unassuming 
manners, much interested in his literary, 
artistic, and antiquarian collections and 
the pursuance of the duties of country 
life in Norfolk, where he farmed on a 
large scale and was known as a breeder 
of Norfolk polled cattle. He was an 
excellent shot and fond of yachting. He 
presented a volume to the Roxburgh Club, 
of which he was a member, and one to 
the Scottish Text Society. He wrote: 1. 
(with Hamon Lestrange) ' History of 
Union Lodge, Norwich, No. 52,' privately 
printed, Norwich, 1898. 2. (with Basil 
Home Thomson) ' The Discovery of the 
Solomon Islands, by Alvaro de Men- 
dana, in 1568, translated from the original 
Spanish MSS., edited with introduction 
and notes,' 1901, 2 vols. small 4to, 100 copies 
on large paper (the translation was made by 
Amherst from the MSS. in his own collec- 
tion; it was also issued by Hakluyt Soc.). 

[Family information ; Complete Peerage, by 
G. E. C., new edit, by Vicary Gibbs, 1910; 
The Times, 18 and 21 Jan. 1909; Alfred 
Austin's Autobiog. 1911, ii. 269-73.] 

H. R. T. 

1909), labour poet writing under the pseudo- 
nym of c Surfaceman,' born on 30 April 1845, 
in the village of Kirkconnel in Upper 
Nithsdale, was sixth and youngest son of 
James Anderson, a Dumfriesshire quarry- 
man, by his wife Isabella Cowan. When the 
boy was three, the household removed to 
Crocketford in Kirkcudbright, and at the 
village school there Anderson got all his 
schooling ; there too he began to make 
rhymes. At sixteen he was back in his 
native village working in a quarry ; some 
two years later (1862), he became a surface- 
man or platelayer on the Glasgow and 
South-western railway there. While per- 
forming his long day's task on the line he 
found opportunity of an evening or at meal 
times on the embankment to read Shelley, 
Wordsworth, and Tennyson ; and by help 
of * Cassell's Educator ' and an elementary 
grammar, acquired French enough to 
puzzle out Racine and Moliere. Later he 
managed in like manner to read Goethe, 
Schiller, and Heine in German, learnt a 
little Italian, and acquired a smattering of 
Spanish and Latin. In 1870 he began to 
send verses to the 'People's Friend' of 
Dundee, whose sub-editor, Mr. A. Stewart, 
brought Anderson's work under the notice 
of George Gilfillan [q. v.] and advised the 
publication of a volume of collected pieces, 
' A Song of Labour and other Poems ' 
(1873). This Gilfillan reviewed very favour- 
ably ; and to a second volume, ' The Two 
Angels and other Poems' (Dundee, 1875), 
the friendly critic prefixed an appreciative 
memoir of the * Surfaceman,' whose verse 
now appeared from time to time in ' Good 
Words,' ' Chambers's Journal,' ' Cassell's 
Magazine,' and the 'Contemporary Re- 
view.' A wealthy Glasgow citizen, Mr. 
Thomas Corbett, sent Anderson to Italy with 
his son (Archibald Cameron Corbett, after- 
wards Lord Rowallan). But the sonnet 
series ' In Rome' does not record the 
impressions made by Italian experiences ; 
they are the imaginings of the railway 
labourer who, when he published them 
(1875), had hardly been out of his native 
county. Before the surfaceman returned 
to his labours on the rail he had made 
personal acquaintance with Carlyle, Roden 
Noel, Lord Houghton, Miss Mulock (Mrs. 
Craik), and Alexander Macmillan. His next 
venture, ' Songs of the Rail ' (1878 ; 3rd 
edit. 1881), was largely composed of railway 
poems from the two earlier collections. 
'Ballads and Sonnets' (1879), published 
by Macmillan, also contained a selection 
from the earlier volumes with new pieces. 



In 1896 all the volumes were out of 

In October 1880 Anderson passed from 
the exhausting twelve hours a day with 
pick and shovel at 17s. a week to the lighter 
appointment of assistant librarian in 
Edinburgh University. Learned leisure 
failed to stimulate his poetic impulses ; 
henceforward he wrote little but occa- 
sional verses, mainly when on holiday 
amongst old friends at Kirkconnel. For 
private circulation he printed some transla- 
tions from Heine ; and from time to time 
he revised, amended, or extended a long 
blank verse poem on the experiences of 
Lazarus of Bethany in the world of spirits, 
and after restoration to life. In 1883 he 
left the university to become secretary to 
the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution, a 
library and lecture society. But in 1886 
he returned to the university library, where 
at his death on 11 July 1909~ he had for five 
years been acting chief librarian. He was 
unmarried. In Edinburgh he conciliated 
respect and affection, not less by the 
native dignity and force of his character 
than by his geniality and social gifts, 
although in later years ill-health made him 
much of a recluse. 

Anderson's poetical work shows lyrical 
power, generous feeling, and vivid vision, 
as well as a command of metre and a 
literary equipment that would be note- 
worthy in a writer of liberal education 
and in a cultured environment. He had 
no faculty for prose writing. His most 
characteristic achievement was as laureate 
of the rail (after the manner of the ' Pike 
County Ballads' or Bret Harte) and of 
child life in humble Scottish homes. In his 
best-known poems the vernacular of the 
south-west of Scotland is employed with 
verve and discretion. Few anthologies of 
Scots poems now lack one or two of Surface- 
man's, and several of the railway and child 
poems are popular recitations. 

In 1912 a modest memorial was erected 
in Anderson's native village ; his scattered 
and unpublished pieces were collected for 
issue ; and the publication of the Lazarus 
poem was contemplated. 

[Dundee Advertiser, 6 Jan. 1896; Frank 
Miller, The Poets of Dumfriesshire, 1910; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 

D. P. 

ANDERSON, GEORGE (1826-1902), 
Yorkshire batsman, was born at Aiskew 
near Bedale, Yorkshire, on 20 Jan. 1826; 
he early showed athletic aptitude as a high 
and long jumper and as a cricketer; his 
cricket was greatly improved by the visit 

to Bedale of the eminent bowler William 
Clarke in 1848. Employed as a clerk in 
youth, he made the game his profession in 
early manhood. Anderson first appeared 
at Lord's in 1851, when he played for the 
North v. South, and for the Players v. 
Gentlemen in 1855. He was from 1857-64 
a member of the All England XI captained 
by William Clarke and George Parr [q. v.]. 
He visited Australia with Parr's team in the 
winter of 1863, but met with little success. 
His most successful season was that of 
1864, when in first-class matches he averaged 
42 runs an innings, and scored 99 not out 
for Yorkshire v. Notts. He captained the 
Yorkshire team for a few seasons ; in May 
1869 a match was played for his benefit at 
Dewsbury between the All England XI and 
the United All England XI. 

Anderson was a kindly, handsome man 
of fine physique ; he was six feet high, 
weighed 14| stone, and was of great strength. 
His style as a batsman was described as 
' the model of manliness ' ; he had a good 
defence, and though he took time to get 
set, he was in his day the hardest and 
cleanest hitter of the best bowling. In 
1862 he made a drive for eight runs at the 
Oval when playing for the North of Eng- 
land v. Surrey. Another hit by him off 
Bennett, the Kent slow bowler, was reputed 
to have pitched farther than any previously 
recorded at the Oval. On retiring from 
professional cricketing, Anderson became 
in 1873 actuary of the Bedale Savings 
Bank, and held the office until the bank's 
failure in 1894. He died at Bedale on 27 
Nov. 1902. 

[The Times, 28 Nov. 1902 ; Daft's Kings of 
Cricket (portrait, p. 61) ; W. Caffyn's 71 not 
out (portrait, p. 39) ; Wisden's Cricketers' 
Almanack, 1902, p. Ixxx ; Haygarth's 
Scores and Biographies, iv. 277, xiv. p. xxxi ; 
R. S. Holmes, History of Yorkshire County 
Cricket, 1904 ; information from Mr. P. M. 
Thornton.] W. B. 0. 

(1836-1908), professor of practice of medi- 
cine in the University of Glasgow, born in 
Glasgow on 9 June 1836, was second of three 
sons of Alexander Dunlop Anderson, M.D., 
medical practitioner in Glasgow, who in 1852 
was president of the faculty of physicians 
and surgeons of Glasgow, by his wife Sara, 
daughter of Thomas McCall of Craighead, 
Lanarkshire. His father's family was de- 
scended on the maternal side from William 
Dunlop [q. v.], principal of Glasgow 
University, 1690-1700; and in the male 
line from John Anderson (1668-1721) [q. v.], 
the stout defender of presbyterianism, and 




collaterally from John Anderson (1726-1796) 
[q. v.], founder of the Andersonian Institute, 

After early education in Edinburgh 
Anderson entered Glasgow University to 
study medicine. There in April 1858 he 
graduated M.D. with honours, and became 
a licentiate and fellow of the faculty of 
physicians and surgeons of Glasgow. Two 
years were spent as resident physician in 
the Glasgow Royal Infirmary ; two more in 
travel and medical study at Paris, Wiirzburg, 
Berlin, Vienna, and Dublin. On returning 
home he was speedily appointed lecturer 
on practice of medicine in the Andersonian 
Institute and, not long after, physician 
to the royal infirmary. There the lucidity 
and skill of his clinical teaching attracted 
large numbers of students. 

In 1861 a hospital and dispensary were 
founded at Glasgow for diseases of the 
skin. Anderson and Dr. Andrew Buchanan 
were appointed the first two physicians. 
Buchanan died prematurely in 1865. For 
forty-seven years Anderson bore the main 
share of the duty. In 1909 the institute 
was absorbed by the western infirmary, and 
the dermatological teaching was provided for 
by the foundation of a lectureship at the 
university on which Anderson's name was 
conferred in recognition of his services. 
Meanwhile in 1874 Anderson was appointed 
to a newly founded chair of clinical 
medicine in Glasgow University. He held 
this post till 1900 in conjunction with that 
of physician to the western infirmary. His 
clear and systematic method of exposition 
and demonstration, his strict concentration 
on the subject in hand, and his organising 
power enabled him to fulfil his functions 
with admirable efficiency. From 1897 to 
1901 he was examiner in medicine and 
pathology for the British and Indian 
medical services. In 1900 he succeeded Sir 
William Tennant Gairdner [q. v. Suppl. II] 
in the chair of practice of medicine, and 
removed from his house in Woodside 
Terrace to the official residence in the 
college square. The practical aspects of 
his subject chiefly appealed to him. The 
physician's business, he insisted, was to cure 
the sick. But he took a high view of the 
moral responsibilities of a medical adviser, 
and never suffered his pupils to forget that 
medicine is a liberal profession as well as a 
useful art. 

For many years Anderson engaged in 

extensive consulting practice. His opinion 

, was especially valued, not only in skin 

diseases, in which he long specialised and 

his eminence in which was recognised in 

England and on the Continent, but also in 
consumption, in the curability as well as in 
he prevention of which he was a believer, 
and in certain forms of paralysis. 

In 1903 he was appointed university 
representative on the general medical 
council ; he was knighted in 1905 ; in 1906 

was entertained at a public dinner by 
representatives of the medical profession in 
the west of Scotland, including many former 
pupils and assistants ; in 1908 he was made 
honorary physician to the king in Scotland. 

A conservative in politics, and in religion 
a member of the Church of Scotland, 
Anderson was genial in society and obliging 
in disposition. He died suddenly on 25 
Jan. 1908, after speaking at the dinner of 
the Glasgow Ayrshire Society. He was 
honoured with a public funeral in the 
necropolis of Glasgow. 

Anderson married on 20 July 1864 Margaret 
Richardson, daughter of Alexander Ronald- 
son, merchant, Glasgow, and left one son, 
Thomas, who is in medical practice at New 
York. There is a good portrait of Anderson 
in possession of his widow. 

Anderson's chief publications were : 1. 
'The Parasitic Affections of the Skin,' 
1861 ; 2nd edit. 1868. 2. On Psoriasis and 
Lepra,' 1865. 3. On Eczema,' 1867, 3rd 
edit. 1874. 4. ' Treatment of the Diseases 
of the Skin, with an Analysis of 11,000 
Consecutive Cases,' 1872. 5. 'Lectures 
on Clinical Medicine,' 1877. 6. ' Curability 
of Attacks of Tubercular Peritonitis and 
Acute Phthisis (Galloping Consumption),' 
1877. 7. 'A Treatise on Diseases of the 
Skin,' 1887 ; 2nd edit. 1894. 8. ' On Syphi- 
lite Affections of the Nervous System, 
their Diagnosis and Treatment,' 1889. 

[Private information; personal know- 
ledge; obit, notices in Lancet, Brit. Med. 
Journal, Medical Times, Glasgow Herald, and 
The Times, 27 Jan. 1908 ; William Stewart, 
Glasgow University, 1891, p. 136 (with por- 
trait).] J. C. 

ANDREWS, THOMAS (1847-1907), 
metallurgical chemist and ironmaster, born 
at Sheffield on 16 Feb. 1847, was only son 
of Thomas Andrews, proprietor of the old- 
established Wortley Iron Works, near that 
town, by his wife Mary Bolsover. Educated 
at Broombank school, Sheffield, and after- 
wards a student of chemistry under Dr. 
James Allan of Sheffield, Andrews early 
developed a faculty for original scientific 
research, which was fostered by the practical 
advice and guidance of his father. On 
the latter's death in 1871 he became head 
at Wortley. 

Andrews's researches in metallurgy proved 




of great scientific and industrial value 
After prolonged investigation on a large 
scale he determined the resistance of metals 
to sudden concussion at varying tempera 
tures down to zero (0 deg. P.) ; and was 
one of the first to study metals by the 
aid of the microscope, following up the 
pioneer inquiries of Henry Clifton Sorby 
[q. v. Suppl. II]. In 1888 he was elected 
F.R.S. and was besides a fellow of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh and of the 
Chemical Society, and member, respectively, 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers and 
Society of Engineers. To the publications 
of these societies and to technical periodi- 
cals he contributed some forty papers 
The Society of Engineers awarded him two 
premiums for papers in their * Transac- 
tions, 1 viz. ' On the Strength of Wrought- 
iron Railway Axles * (1879), and * On the 
Effect of Strain on Railway Axles ' (1895). 
In 1902 ho received the society's gold 
medal for the memoir, * Effect of Segrega- 
tion on the Strength of Steel Rails.' In 
1884 the Institution of Civil Engineers 
awarded him a Telford medal. An im- 
portant paper on * Wear of Steel Rails on 
Bridges * was published in the ' Journal 
of the Iron and Steel Institute ' (1895). 

From time to time Andrews acted as 
consultant to the admiralty and the board 
of trade on metallurgical questions. He 
paid special attention to the microscopic 
examination of metallic materials with a 
view to determining the cause of naval 
accidents, and he contributed a detailed 
series of observations on the subject to 
' Engineering * (1904). In a paper on the 
microscopic effects of stress on platinum 
(Roy. Soc. Proc. 1902) he broke new 
ground. At Cambridge University he 
delivered lectures to engineering students. 
At Sheffield Andrews was a consistent 
advocate of technical education directed 
to industrial ends ; and he actively assisted 
in founding and developing Sheffield Uni- 
versity. He died at his home, 'Ravencrag,' 
near Sheffield, on 19 June 1907. He 
married in 1870 Mary Hannah, daughter 
of Charles Stanley of Rotherham, and had 
issue three sons (two died in childhood) 
and one daughter. 

[Roy. Soc. Proc. vol. Jxxxi. A. ; The Times, 
20 June 1907 ; Engineering, 28 June 1907 ; 
Industries and Iron (with portrait), 24 April 
1896 ; private information.] T. E. J. 

ANGUS, JOSEPH (1816-1902), baptist 
divine and biblical scholar, only son of 
John Angus, a farmer and later a leather 
merchant, by his wife Elizabeth Wanless, 
was born at Bolam, Northumberland, on 

16 Jan. 1816. His first schooling was 
at Newcastle, under George Ferris Whid- 
borne Mortimer [q. v.], who wanted to 
send him to Cambridge. As a noncon- 
formist and a member of the baptist 
church under Thomas Pengilly at New- 
castle, he preferred Edinburgh, where he 
entered in 1834, after passing a year at 
King's College, London. In 1835 he studied 
for the baptist ministry at Stepney College 
(instituted 1810), under W. H. Murch, D.D., 
a good scholar. Returning to Edinburgh 
with a scholarship under Dr, Ward's trust, 
he graduated M.A. with distinction on 
27 April 1837, and gained the gold medal 
in moral philosophy and the university 
English essay prize. In 1838 he accepted 
a call to New Park Street chapel, South- 
wark, where subsequently Charles Haddon 
Spurgeon [q.v.] won his fame as a preacher. 
In 1840 he was appointed colleague to John 
Dyer in the secretaryship of the Baptist 
Missionary Society, and became sole secre- 
tary in 1841. He had much to do with 
the raising of the jubilee fund (32,OOOZ.), 
by means of which, among other enter- 
prises, the mission house in Moorgate Street 
was built. In 1849 he was placed at the 
head of Stepney College, which under his 
presidency largely increased in efficiency 
and importance, was removed to Regent's 
Park in 1856, and equipped with special 
chairs and scholarships by means of a 
'professorial fund' (30,000?.), secured by 
his exertions. He held the presidency 
till 1893. In connection with his academic 
work he brought out some useful hand- 
books to the Bible (1853 ; 2nd imp. 1907), 
to the English language (1864), and to 
English literature (1866) ; and editions of 
Butler's 'Analogy and Sermons' (1855; 
2nd edit. 1881) and Francis Wayland's 
' Elements of Moral Science ' (1858) ; all 
these were published by the Religious 
Tract Society. The degree of D.D. was 
conferred in 1852 by Brown University, 
Rhode Island. From 1859 he was for ten 
years examiner in English to the London 
Jniversity, and in 1865 to the civil service 
commissioners. In 1870 he was appointed 
on the New Testament company for the 
revision of the * authorised ' version of the 
Scriptures. He was elected in 1870 for 
Marylebone to the first London school 
board, held office for ten years, and was 
re-elected for the period 1894-7. In the 
bibliography of baptist authors of all 
classes, ancient and modern, he took 
the greatest interest ; his own collection .. 
of such works was unsurpassed, and 
his privately printed lists of acquire- 




ments and desiderata were of no small 
service to students of the byways of 
religious history. His latest summary of 
results, ' Baptist Authors and History, 
1527-1800,' was printed in the ' Baptist 
Handbook/ in 1894, and issued separately 
in 1896. 'As a theologian his position 
was essentially conservative ; in a contro- 
versy of 1870 he upheld the doctrine of 
eternal torments ; he was not without 
mellowing influences in his later years. 
He died at Hampstead on 28 Aug. 1902, 
and was buried in Norwood cemetery. 

Angus's portrait by Melville is in 
Regent's Park College, and has been 
engraved. He married on 3 March 1841 
Amelia (d. 1893), fourth daughter of William 
Brodie Gurney. Of his family of four sons 
and six daughters, the second son, John 
Mortimer Angus, M.A., is registrar of the 
University of Wales. 

In addition to the manuals indicated 
above and subsidiary pieces Angus pub- 
lished 1. ' The Voluntary System * (prize 
essay), 1839. 2. ' Four Lectures on the Ad- 
vantages of a Classical Education as aux- 
iliary to a Commercial,' 1846. 3. * Christian 
Churches ' (bicentenary prize essay), 
1862 ; 1864. 4. ' Egypt and the Bible,' 
1863. 5. ' Apostolic Missions,' &c., 1871 ; 
2nd edit. 1892. 6. 'Man, a Witness for 
Christianity,' 1872. 7. 'Popular Com- 
mentary on the New Testament ' (Hebrews to 
Jude), 1883. 8. ' Six Lectures on Regenera- 
tion ' (the Angus Lectureship), 1897. 

[The Times, 30 Aug. 1902 ; Baptist Hand- 
book, 1903, p. 189 (with portrait); Cat. of 
Edin. Graduates, 1858, p. 225; information 
kindly supplied by Mr. Charles J. Angus.] 

A. G. 

ANNANDALE, THOMAS (1838-1907), 
surgeon, born atNewcastle-on-Tyne on 2 Feb. 
1838, was second son of Thomas Annan- 
dale, surgeon, by his wife E. Johnstone. 
Annandale was educated at Bruce's academy 
in Newcastle, and was afterwards appren- 
ticed to his father. Continuing his pro- 
fessional studies at the Newcastle Infirmary, 
he matriculated in 1856 at Edinburgh, and 
graduated M.D. in 1860 with the highest 
honours, receiving the gold medal for his 
thesis ' On the Injuries and Diseases of 
the Hip Joint.' He was appointed in 1860 
house-surgeon to James Syme [q. v.] at 
the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, and was 
Syme' s private assistant from 1861 to 1870. 
In 1863 he was admitted F.R.C.S. Edin- 
burgh, and became a junior demonstrator 
of anatomy in the university under Prof. 
John Goodsir [q. v.]. He was also ap- 
pointed in 1863 a lecturer on the principles 

of surgery in the extramural school of 
medicine, and gave there a course of lectures 
yearly until 1871, when he began to lecture 
on clinical surgery at the Royal Infirmary. 

Annandale was admitted a M.R.C.S., 
England, on 15 July 1859, and F.R.C.S. on 
12 April 1888; in 1864 he won the Jack- 
sonian prize for his dissertation on ' The 
malformations, diseases and injuries of 
the fingers and toes, with their surgical 
treatment' (Edinburgh 1865). Appointed 
assistant surgeon to the Royal Infirmary 
at Edinburgh in 1865, and acting surgeon 
there in 1871, he became regius professor of 
clinical surgery in the university x>f Edin- 
burgh in 1877, in succession to (Lord) 
Lister, who then migrated to King's College, 
London. He was made honorary D.C.L. 
of Durham in April 1902, and was surgeon- 
general to the Royal Archers, his Majesty's 
bodyguard in Scotland, from 27 May 1900 
until his death. He joined the corps as 
an archer in 1870. 

Annandale died suddenly on 20 Dec. 1907, 
having operated as usual at the Royal 
Infirmary on the previous day. He was 
buried in the Dean cemetery, Edinburgh. 

He married in 1874 Eveline, the eldest 
daughter of William Nelson, the publisher, 
of Edinburgh, and had a family of three 
sons and three daughters. 

A bust, executed by W. G. Stevenson, 
R.S.A., is in the lecture theatre of the 
Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. 

Annandale, who began to practise surgery 
when it was an art left it a science. He kept 
himself abreast of all the incidents of the 
change and combined the good points of 
each period. He was keenly interested in 
university matters and especially in the 
welfare of the students. He was prominent 
at the Students' Union and in the Athletic 
Club. ' The Annandale gold medal in 
clinical surgery ' was founded in his memory 
at Edinburgh university. 

Annandale published (all at Edinburgh), 
in addition to the work named and many 
separate papers in professional periodicals : 
1. 'Surgical Appliances and Minor Oper- 
ative Surgery,' 1866. 2. 'Abstracts of 
Surgical Principles,' 6 pts. 1868-70 (3rd ed 
1878). 3. ' Observations and Cases in 
Surgery,' 1875. 4. ' On the Pathology and 
Operative Treatment of Hip Disease/ 1876. 

[Brit. Med. Journal, 1908, i. 60 (with 
portrait) ; Lancet, 1908, i. 70 ; Scottish 
Medical and Surgical Journal, vol. xxii. 1903, 
p. 68 (with portrait) ; Edinburgh Medical 
Journal, vol. xxiii. n.s., 1908, p. 1 ; informa- 
tion from Mr. J. W. Dowden, F.R.C.S. 
Edin.] D'A. P. 


4 6 


JOHN (1822-1907), Anglo-Indian official 
and author, third son of Alexander Arbuth- 
not, Bishop of Killaloe, by his second wife, 
Margaret Phoebe, daughter of George 
Bingham, was born at Farmhill, co. Mayo, 
on 11 Oct. 1822, a younger brother 
(6. 1824) being General Sir Charles George 
Arbuthnot [q. v. Suppl. I]. Sir Alexander's 
great grand-uncle was Dr. John Arbuthnot 
[q. v.j, poet and wit, and his father's brothers 
included Charles Arbuthnot [q. v.], General 
Sir Robert Arbuthnot [q. v.], and General 
Sir Thomas Arbuthnot [q, v.]. His father 
died suddenly towards the close of 1828, 
leaving his widow ill provided for. She 
settled at Rugby in order that her two 
boys might be educated under Dr. Arnold. 
Alexander entered Rugby as a foundationer 
in April 1832, his contemporaries and 
friends there including Arthur Stanley, 
Tom Hughes, and Matthew Arnold. His 
last two years were spent in the sixth form, 
and he retained through life the impressions 
made upon his mind by the great headmaster. 

It was an unsolicited testimonial from 
Arnold which secured for him nomination 
to a writership for the East India Company. 
He accordingly studied at the East India 
College, Haileybury, from ,23 Jan. 1840 to 
Christmas 1841, winning distinction in 
classics and Telugu. Leaving England on 
24 May 1842, he sailed round the Cape and 
landed at Madras on 21 Sept. In the follow- 
ing June he earned the honorary reward of 
1000 pagodas for proficiency in Telugu 
and Hindustani. After serving as assistant 
collector in Chingleput and then in Nellore, 
he was appointed early in 1845 head 
assistant to the registrar of the Sadr court 
and Foujdari Adalat, the forerunners of 
the chartered high court. In 1851 he 
completed the compilation of a selection 
of reports of criminal cases in the Sadr 
court between 1826 and 1850, with an 
historical preface. He similarly compiled 
and summarised the papers relating to 
public instruction in the Madras province 
from the time that Sir Thomas Munro [q. v.] 
took charge in 1822. With his Sadr court 
appointment he combined the secretary- 
ship of the so-called university board, 
which had charge of what later became 
the presidency college. 

The memorable education despatch of 
the court of directors in 1854 led to Arbuth- 
not's appointment in March 1855 as the 
first director of public instruction for 
Madras, In this capacity he established 
the education department on the basis 
still maintained, organising an inspecting 

staff, opening district schools, and int 
ducing the grant-in-aid system. He also 
worked out the details of the scheme under 
which the university was incorporated 
1857, He was one of the original fellows, 
and was vice-chancellor in 1871-2, filling 
the same position in the Calcutta Uni- 
versity in 1878-80. A warm supporter 
of the policy of fitting Indians for situations 
of trust and emolument in the public 
service, he always strongly defended from 
attack the government's educational system, 
which proved more successful in Madras 
than elsewhere in India, owing in part at 
any rate to Arbuthnot's wise control of 
its early years. 

In October 1862 Arbuthnot was ap- 
pointed chief secretary to the Madras 
government, becoming ex ojficio member 
of the local legislature. From October 
1867 he was a member of the executive 
council, and as senior member he acted 
as governor from 19 Feb. to 15 May 1872, 
when on the assassination of Lord Mayo 
(8 Feb. 1872) Lord Napier of Merchiston 
went to Calcutta temporarily to assume 
the viceroyalty. He was created C.S.I., 
but with characteristic independence he 
declined the decoration, on the ground that 
it was an inadequate recognition of his 
office and services. Next year (24 May) 
he was gazetted K.C.S.I. At the close 
of his council term (28 Oct. 1872) he came 
home on furlough, and two years later, on 
expiry of leave, he resigned the service. 

In the spring of 1875 he went back to 
India, on the invitation of Lord Salisbury, 
the secretary of state, as a member of the 
governor-general's council He joined the 
council on 6 May, serving first with Lord 
Northbrook and then, from April 1876, 
with Lord Lytton. In September 1876 
Lytton nominated him for the lieutenant- 
governorship of Bengal in succession to Sir 
Richard Temple [q. v. Suppl. II], but the 
law member of the India council, Sir H. S. 
Maine [q. v.], advised Lord Salisbury that, 
as Arbuthnot had resigned the civil 
service, he was statutoilly ineligible, and 
to his severe disappointment he was passed 
over. Already in 1871 the same office, 
in the event of its being declined by Sir 
George Campbell [q. v. Suppl. I], had been 
destined for Arbuthnot (BUCKLAND'S Ben- 
gal under the Lieutenant-Governors^ vol. i.). 

As home member of the governor-general's 
council Arbuthnot was largely responsible 
for the measures dealing with the great 
southern India famine in 1877-8. He 
took part in the proclamation durbar at 
Delhi on 1 Jan, 1877, and his name headed 




the list of * Counsellors of the Empress,' 
a new order intended but never actually 
constituted to form an Indian privy council. 
A year later Jie was created C.I.E. 

Great as was Arbuthnot's attachment 
to Lytton, he never hesitated to exercise 
his independent judgment. In December 
1877 he strongly dissented, in the gloomy 
financial circumstances, from the reduc- 
tion of the duties on salt in Bengal and 
northern India. He was always opposed to 
proposals for the reduction of the cotton 
duties, proposals which he assigned to poli- 
tical pressure from Lancashire. In March 
1879, when he voted with the majority of his 
colleagues against a reduction, Lord Lytton 
exercised the rarely used power of over- 
ruling his council. The governor -general's 
action was only confirmed by the council of 
India in London on the casting-vote of the 
secretary of state, Lord Cranbrook (East 
India Cotton Duties, white paper, 1879). 
Arbuthnot endeavoured to prevent Sir 
Louis Cavagnari [q. v.] from going to 
Kabul with a small escort, and on 22 Oct. 
1879 he minuted against what he regarded 
as the unduly aggressive spirit of Lytton's 
Afghan policy. Arbuthnot had the unani- 
mous support of his colleagues in his 
conduct of the Vernacular Press Act, 
1878, and he viewed with great disfavour 
its repeal, after he had left India, by Lord 
Ripon's government (19 Jan. 1882). 

Returning to England on the expiry of his 
term in May 1880, Arbuthnot settled at 
Newtown House, Hampshire, where the rest 
of his life was spent. He was a generous 
benefactor of the locality, building a 
parish room and handing over the owner- 
ship of the village school, after enlarge- 
ment, to the National Society. A strong 
conservative and churchman, he was for 
many years a member of the Winchester 
diocesan conference and chairman of the 
Andover division conservative association. 
But India still held the foremost place in his 
thoughts. In the spring of 1883 he accepted 
the chairmanship of the London committee 
to resist the famous ' Ilbert Bill ' of Lord 
Ripon's government, and both by speech and 
pen he brought the issues to the notice of 
the public. On the nomination of Lord Cross 
he joined the India council on 1 Nov. 1887, 
and there, during his ten years' term, showed 
his old strength and independence. In 
1894-5 he steadfastly deprecated, as con- 
cessions to Lancashire interests, the opposi- 
tion to the reimposition of cotton import 
duties in India. He was most assiduous 
in his attendance at the India office, and 
spoke very frequently in the council 

discussions. When he retired, on 31 Oct. 

1897, his service of the Crown had extended 
over fifty-five years, throughout which he 
showed unusual administrative powers and 
combined tact and courtesy with a spirit 
naturally somewhat despotic and impatient 
of control. He died in London of heart 
failure on 10 June 1907, and was buried 
in the churchyard at Newtown, 

While at the India office Arbuthnot 
largely suspended the journalistic and 
literary work in which he had engaged on 
leaving India. But he remained a regular 
contributor to this Dictionary from the 
first volume, published in January 1885, 
writing in all fifty-three articles, including 
those on Clive, Wellesley, Canning, and Sir 
Thomas Munro. In 1881 he compiled a 
selection of the minutes of Munro whom 
in many points he resembled and wrote 
an introductory memoir, which was re- 
published separately in 1889. He also 
wrote a biography of Clive, published in 

1898, for Mr. H. F. Wilson's * Builders of 
Greater Britain ' series. The recollections 
he was compiling at the time of his death 
were completed by his widow, and were 
published in 1910 under the title of ' Mem- 
ories of Rugby and India.' 

Arbuthnot married on 1 Feb. 1844 
Frederica Eliza, daughter of General R. B. 
Fearon, G.B. She died in 1898, and on 
6 June 1899 he married Constance, daughter 
of Sir William Milinan, 3rd bart., niece of 
Robert Milman, bishop of Calcutta. There 
were no children of either union. 

[Memories of Rugby and India, 1910 ; Lord 
Lytton's Indian Administration, 1899; The 
Times, 12 June 1907 ; Winchester Dioc. Chron., 
July 1907 ; Minutes of Dissent ; unpublished 
sketches by Sir Charles Lawson, and private 
papers kindly lent by Lady Arbuthnot.] 

F. H. B. 

GERALD (1833-1901), orientalist, born at 
Belgaum, Bombay presidency, on 21 May 
1833, was second son of Sir Robert 
Keith Arbuthnot, second baronet, by his 
wife Anne, daughter of Field-marshal Sir 
John Forster Fitzgerald [q. v.]. He was 
educated privately on the Continent, at 
Anhalt and Geneva. Receiving a nomina- 
tion to Haileybury in 1851, he went out 
to India in the Bombay civil service in 
1853, where his father had served before 
him, and retired in 1878. His last appoint- 
ment was that of collector of Bombay city 
and island, in which capacity he fixed the 
existing assessment on what are known 
as toka lands. He is remembered for 
driving^a four-in-hand, and for his seaside 


4 8 


residence at Bandra, outside the island, 
where he entertained Sir Richard and 
Lady Burton in 1876. He had already 
been initiated into Oriental literature by 
Edward Rehatsek, an eccentric but learned 
Hungarian, who led the life of a faqir at 
Bombay. Shortly after his return to 
England Arbuthnot associated himself with 
Burton in founding the Kama Shastra 
Society, for the issue to private subscribers 
of unexpurgated translations of Oriental 
classics. He was himself active in procuring 
the translation of Jami's ' Beharistan' and 
of S'adi's 'Gulistan'; and to him Burton 
dedicated the fourth volume of his ' Arabian 
Nights,' commending his critical apprecia- 
tion of Oriental literature, which enabled 
him ' to detect the pearl which lurks in the 
kitchen-midden.' Arbuthnot's own books 
were in the nature of popular compilations, 
the two most important being ' Persian 
Portraits ' (1887), and ' Arabic Authors ' 
(1890). A work of more permanent value 
was his inauguration, in 1891, of a new 
series of the ' Oriental Translation Fund,' 
which he started with some translations by 
Rehatsek, and which was continued after 
his death through his munificence. He 
was a member of council and also a trustee 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, and he took 
a prominent part in organising the reception 
of the International Congress of Orientalists 
that met in London in 1892. He was given 
to hospitality both at his town house in 
Park Lane and at his country residence 
near Guildford. He took a lively interest 
in his village neighbours, and his memory 
is preserved by the Arbuthnot Institute, 
Shemley Green, under the charge of the 
Wonersh parish council. He died in 
London on 25 May 1901. In 1879 he 
married Ellinor, daughter of Admiral Sir 
James Stirling [q. v.] and widow of James 
Alexander Guthrie of Craigie, Forfarshire, 
who survived him until 9 May 1911. 
There were no children of the marriage. 

[The Times, 28 May 1901 ; personal 
knowledge.] J. S. C. 

AIICHER, JAMES (1823-1904), painter, 
born in Edinburgh on 10 June 1823, was 
eldest child of Andrew Archer, dentist in 
Edinburgh, who married Ann Cunningham 
Gregory, and by her had two sons and 
two daughters. The younger son, Andrew, 
was the author of a history of Canada 
(1876), while the youngest child, Georgina, 
was the founder of the Victoria In- 
stitute, Berlin, and tutoress of the German 
Emperor William II, Prince Henry, and 
Princess Charlotte of Prussia. After 
education at Edinburgh High School, 

James studied art at the Trustees' 
Academy, while Sir William Allan [q. v.] 
was at its head, with Thomas Duncan 
[q. v.] as his assistant. Archer's genera- 
tion thus immediately preceded that 
which studied under Scott Lauder [q. v.], 
although he outlived and outworked many 
of Lauder's pupils. He was elected an 
associate of the Royal Scottish Academy 
in 1850, and he became a full member 
in 1858. The life-class in that year 
passed from the Trustees' School to the 
control of the Scottish Academy, and (Sir) 
Joseph Noel Paton [q. v. Suppl. II], James 
Drummond [q. v.], and Archer were 
appointed visitors. Their report on the 
conduct of the life- class insisted on drawing 
as opposed to colour in the training, a 
recommendation which Lauder appears to 
have regarded as a reflection on his own 
methods (cf. HARDIE, Life of Pettie, p. 12). 
While resident in Edinburgh, Archer 
showed his versatility in the many 
pictures which he exhibited at the Scottish 
Academy ; these included ' The Child John 
in the Wilderness ' (exhibited 1842) ; ' The 
Messiah ' (1846) ; c The Condemned Souls 
Crossing the River Acheron' and 'The 
Last Supper' (1849); 'Douglas Tragedy' 
and ' Mary Magdalene at the Sepulchre ' 
(1850); 'The Mistletoe Bough' and 
'Burger's Leonora' (1852); 'Hamlet' 
(1853) ; ' Rosalind and Celia,' his diploma 
work (1854) ; ' The Last Supper ' (1856), and 
the first (1861) of several scenes from 
the 'Mort d' Arthur.' In these years he 
also painted many portraits in oils, and until 
his migration to London had a large 
practice in portraiture in chalks ; among 
his sitters were Professor Aytoun and 
Alexander Smith. 

In 1862-3 Archer gave up his Edinburgh 
studio, 2 York Place, and removed to 
London, He resigned at the time his 
lieutenancy in the artists' company of 
the city of Edinburgh artillery volunteers, 
in which, under the captaincy of Sir Noel 
Paton, with John Faed as first lieutenant, 
was enrolled every artist of note in Edin- 
burgh at that time. He was also a member 
of the Smashers Sketching Club, which 
he helped to revive in London later under 
the name of the Auld Lang Syne Sketching 
Club (see Chamber s's Journal, January 

In London, settling first at 21 Phillimore 
Gardens, and after 1882 at 7 Cromwell 
Place, he diligently contributed to the 
Royal Academy, to which he had sent 
pictures since 1850, and where he continued 
bo exhibit until 1900, missing one year 




only during the half-century. He had 
some difficulty in disentangling himself 
from the Arthurian legend, but was 
most successful with costume pictures 
and portraits of children, such as ' Playing 
at Queen with a Painter's Wardrobe ' 
(R.A. 1861), * How the Little Lady Stood 
to Velasquez' (R.A. 1864), 'Old Maid: 
Maggie, you 're cheatin' ' (R.A. 1865), 
' In the Time of Charles I : Portraits of the 
Children of W. Walkinshaw, Esq.' (R.A. 
1867), 'Against Cromwell' (R.A. 1869), 
'Colonel Sykes, M.P,' (R.A. 1871). A long 
series of portraits included several painted 
during prolonged visits between 1884 
and 1887 both to the United States 
(Mr. James G. Elaine and Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie) and to India (Lady Dufferin 
and Lord Clandeboye, Lord Dalhousie, 
and a posthumous portrait of Sir Charles 
Macgregor). Among his chief sitters 
at home were Sir George Trevelyan 
(R.A. 1872), Professor Blackie, three 
times (the portrait of 1873 hangs in 
the library of the Scottish Academy), Sir 
Henry Irving in ' The Bells ' (R.A. 1872), 
Dr. Ellicott (R.A. 1883), and Sir Edwin 
Arnold (R.A. 1890). In 1877 he painted 
for and presented to the Scottish Academy 
a portrait of Sir Daniel Macnee. Archer 
continued to the end of his life to produce 
large canvases, such as ' King Henry II and 
Fair Rosamund,' ' The Worship of Diony- 
sus,' ' Peter the Hermit,' ' St. Agnes of 
the Early Christian Martyrs,' and ' In the 
Second Century " You a Christian ? " '. 
He also painted a few landscapes. For the 
first number of ' Good Words ' (1860) he 
did six drawings illustrating the serial 
story 'Lady Somerville's Maidens,' and 
he contributed two illustrations to 
'Household Song' (1861). 

During his last years he lived at Shian, 
Haslemere, where he died on 3 Sept. 1904 ; 
he was buried at Hasiernere. Archer 
married, in 1853, Jane Clark, daughter of 
James Lawson, W.S., Edinburgh ; a son 
and three daughters survived Him, 

Archer's work was always refined, and 
iv i looted his interest in literature and a 
certain sympathy with the Pre-Raphaelites ; 
a lack of force may be attributed to what 
his friend Professor Blackie described as 
' his thoughtful, evangelico -artistic mild- 
ness ' (Letters of John Stuart Blackie to his 
Wife). Unluckily for his reputation he con- 
tinued to work after his powers failed. He 
was at the time of his death the oldest 
member of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
and had been for ten years on its retired list. 

A portrait painted by himself at an 


early age is in the possession of the 
widow of Henry Gregory Smith, 

[Private information ; The Times, 6 Sept. 
1904 ; Scotsman, 8 Sept. 1904 ; Graves's 
Royal Academy Exhibitors, 1905 ; Cat. 
Ro^al Scot. Academy.] D. S. M. 

RICHARD DACRE (1849-1910), Greek 
scholar and Platonist, born at Morris Hall, 
near Norham, on 18 Sept. 1849, came of an 
ancient Northumbrian family, being third 
and youngest son of Thomas Hodgson 
(b. 1814), who, on the death of a brother 
in 1869, succeeded to the estates of Stelling 
and Ovington and assumed the surname 
of Archer-Hind. The father, a learned 
horticulturist, graduated B.A. from Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in 1837 and M.A. in 
1840. His wife was his first cousin, Mary 
Ann, second daughter of John Thomas 
Huntley, vicar of Kimbolton. Richard 
Dacre had from his father his early teach- 
ing in Latin and Greek, and even when 
he was at Shrewsbury school, whither he 
proceeded in 1862, and where he was the 
pupil of Dr. B. H. Kennedy and Dr. H. W. 
Moss, his father continued to assist his 
studies. In 1868 he won an open minor 
scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and in the following October he went into 
residence at the university, living with his 
parents, who now established themselves at 
Cambridge, as they had formerly established 
themselves at Shrewsbury, that he might 
have the comforts of a home life. He was 
elected to a college foundation scholarship 
in 1869 and to a Craven University scholar- 
ship in 1871. In 1872 he was placed third 
in the first class of the classical tripos and 
won the first chancellor's medal for classical 
learning. He was elected to a fellowship 
in his college in October 1873 and was 
appointed assistant lecturer in April 1877 
and assistant tutor in December 1878. At 
Easter 1899 he was made a senior lecturer, 
and in December 1903 he retired from the 
staff. During the last two years of his 
life Archer-Hind was an invalid. He 
died at Cambridge on 6 April 1910. The 
body was cremated at Golder's Green, and 
the ashes were buried at Cambridge. He 
married on 17 March 1888 Laura, youngest 
daughter of Lewis Pocock [q. v.]. He 
left one son, Laurence, born in 1895. 

Both in Latin and in Greek the excep- 
tional quality of Archer-Hind's scholar- 
ship was recognised from the beginning of 
his Cambridge career. But Greek came 
to interest him more than Latin. At a 
later time, while his love of Pindar, 




^Eschylus, and Sophocles never wavered 
his admiration for Plato waxed exceed- 
ingly. In 1883 he published an admirable 
edition of the * Phsedo,' in which he in 
vestigated the argument of the dialogue 
and traced its relations to the rest ot 
Plato's writings. A second edition 
appeared in 1894. In 1888 he brought 
out his magnum opus, an original and 
complete edition of the difficult, important, 
and neglected ' Timeeus,' which gave 
new impetus to Platonic studies. The 
translation is exact and scholarly ; the com- 
mentary is helpful, learned, many-sided ; 
and in the introduction Archer-Hind sets 
out the results of his profound study of 
Plato's metaphysic. His aim is to ' show 
that in this dialogue we find, as it were, the 
focus to which the rays of Plato's thoughts 
converge, that in fact the " Timaeus " and 
the " Timseus " alone enables us to recognise 
Platonism as a complete and consistent 
scheme of monistic idealism.' 

Archer-Hind's conception of the theory 
of ideas as ' a thorough-going idealism ' is 
the key at once to Platonic philosophy 
and to Platonic science. Papers in the 
* Journal of Philology ' (see especially xxiv. 
49 ; xxix. 266 ; xxxi. 84) supplemented 
the editions of the ' Phaedo ' and the 
'Timseus.' In 1905 Archer-Hind pub- 
lished a volume of admirable * Translations 
into Greek Verse and Prose.' 

An industrious teacher and a singularly 
efficient examiner, Archer-Hind took no 
prominent part in the affairs of the uni- 
versity; but his occasional allocutions at 
university discussions and college meetings 
were incisive and epigrammatic. He was 
always an earnest supporter of the move- 
ment for the education of women, and gave 
much time to the affairs of Newnham 
College and the instruction of its students. 
His literary interests were by no means 
limited to the classical tongues. He 
loved his garden, and kept an exact record 
of the rare plants which it contained. 
He took a passionate interest in music ; his 
knowledge of certain favourite composers 
was intimate and minute. He had made a 
careful study of Greek music. His quiet, 
retiring manner covered strong convictions 
tenaciously held. 

[Information from Mrs. Archer-Hind, Dr. 
J. W. L. Glaisher and Mr. R. D. Hicks; 
personal knowledge ; school, college, and 
university records. See Cambridge University 
Review, 28 April 1910 (an article by the 
present writer) ; The Times, 8 April 1910 
(obit, notice by Dr. S. H. Butcher) ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, s.v. Hind.] H. J. 

1907), major-general, royal engineers, born 
at Comragh House on 9 Aug. 1840, was 
second son of William Johnson Ardagh, 
vicar of Rossmire, of Comragh House and 
Stradbally, co. Waterford, by his wife 
Sarah Cobbold, of Ipswich. After educa- 
tion at the endowed school in Water- 
ford under Dr. Price, John entered 
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1857, with the 
intention of taking orders. He gained a 
prize in Hebrew and honours in mathe- 
matics. But deciding on a military career 
he passed first at the entrance examination 
to the Royal Military Academy at Wool- 
wich in 1858, and was again first at the final 
examination, receiving a commission as 
lieutenant in the royal engineers on 1 April 
1859. After the usual training at Chatham, 
Ardagh superintended the construction of 
Fort Popton, one of the new works of 
defence for Milford Haven, under the 
Defence Act of 1860. When a rupture 
with the United States, owing to the 
Trent affair, threatened in November 1861, 
Ardagh embarked at Queenstown in the 
transport Victoria (26 Dec. 1861) with the 
stores necessary to construct a line of 
telegraph through the colony of New 
Brunswick to the St. Lawrence river. 
The vessel, which was badly found, en- 
countered tempestuous weather and was 
driven back to Queenstown ; leaving port 
again on 13 Feb. 1862, she was only saved 
from foundering by Ardagh's and his 
sappers' ingenuity and exertions, which 
enabled her to reach Plymouth on 12 March. 
Ardagh's conduct was highly commended 
by the duke of Cambridge, Commander-in- 

Ardagh, who remained at home, was 
charged with the construction of the new 
fort at Newhaven, and there invented 
an equilibrium drawbridge, which was 
used at Newhaven fort and elsewhere 
(cf. his description of it in Royal Eng. 
Prof. Papers, new series, vol. xvii.). After 
other employment on southern defences, 
he was appointed, in April 1868, secretary 
of Sir Frederick Grey's committee to report 
on the fortifications in course of construc- 
tion under the Defence Act of 1860, and in 
September 1869 accompanied Sir William 
Jervois [q. v.] on a tour of inspection of 
the defence works at Halifax and Bermuda. 
Permitted to witness the entry of the 
German troops into Paris in February 1871, 
Ardagh visited the defences of the city, 
and went on to Belfort and Strassburg. 
After three months in Malta and a year 
at Chatham, he was promoted captain on 

. Ardagh 


3 Aug. 1872, and joined the Staff College in 
February 1873, passing the final examina- 
tions in December 1874. In April 1875 he 
was attached to the intelligence branch of 
the war office, was in Holland on intelligence 
duty (10 Jan.-8 Feb. 1876), and became 
a deputy assistant quartermaster-general 
for intelligence (13 July). 

In August 1876 Ardagh began important 
services in the Near East. He was then 
sent on special service to Nisch, the head- 
quarters of the Turkish army operating 
against Servia. In October he was sum- 
moned to Constantinople to report on 
the defence of the city. In fifteen days 
he prepared sketch-surveys of nearly 150 
square miles, and proved himself an expert in 
strategic geography. These surveys included 
the position of Buyuk-Chekmedje-Dere, 
with projects for the defence of the Dar- 
danelles and the Bosphorus, the Bulair lines 
and Rodosto. The actual works were subse- 
quently constructed by the Turks. Ardagh 
also reported for the foreign office on the 
operations in Herzegovina and Montenegro, 
and in December 1876 went to Tirnovo in 
Bulgaria to report on the state of the 
country. After an attack of fever, from 
which he recuperated in Egypt and Greece, 
he resumed his duties at the war office in 
April 1877, when he completed a report 
and survey begun in the previous year on 
the sea defences of the Lewes and Laughton 

From December 1877 to March 1878 
Ardagh was in Italy on special foreign 
office service, and in the summer attended 
the congress of Berlin as technical military 
delegate under General Sir Lintorn Simmons 
[q. v. Suppl. II]. Ardagh's knowledge of 
the Turkish provinces proved of value, and 
in July he was created C.B. (civil). Between 
September 1878 and September 1879 he was 
employed on the international commission 
to delimitate the frontiers of the new princi- 
pality of Bulgaria. On 30 Nov. 1878 he 
was gazetted a brevet-major, and was pro- 
moted regimental major on 22 Sept. 
1880. On 14 June 1881, after much 
negotiation among the great powers, in 
which he played some part, he became 
British commissioner for the delimitation 
of the Turco-Greek frontier. In spite of 
obstacles the work was completed by the 
end of October. 

In February 1882 Ardagh was appointed 
instructor in military history, law, and 
tactics at the School of Military Engineering 
at Chatham, but on 5 July he was sent 
suddenly to Egypt, where he was occupied 
almost continuously for nearly four years. 

His first duty was to place Alexandria in a 
state of defence after its bombardment by 
the British fleet and to take charge of the 
intelligence department there. Becoming 
on 21 Aug. deputy assistant adjutant- 
general, he was subsequently employed 
in the railway administration at Ismailia, 
and was present at the actions of Kassassin 
and Tel-el-Mahuta, and at the battle of 
Tel-el-Kebir. He was mentioned in Lord 
Wolseley's despatch at the end of the cam- 
paign and was promoted brevet lieutenant- 
colonel (18 Nov. 1882). He also received 
the British war medal with clasp for Tel-el- 
Kebir, the Khedive's bronze star, and the 
fourth class of the order of the Osmanieh. 

Ardagh remained in Egypt as deputy 
assistant adjutant-general to the British 
army of occupation, and was largely 
employed in making surveys. In July 
1883 he went home on leave, but returned 
to Egypt almost immediately on an out- 
break of cholera, and laboured untiringly 
during the epidemic. 

In February 1884 Ardagh, as commanding 
royal engineer and chief of the intelligence 
department, accompanied the British force 
under Sir Gerald Graham [q. v. Suppl. I], 
which was sent from Cairo to the Eastern 
Soudan. He was present at the battle of 
El Teb (29 Feb.), and at the relief of Tokar 
(1 March) he arranged the removal of 700 
Egyptian inhabitants. By 8 March the 
change of base from Trinkitat to Suakin 
had been made, and on the 12th Ardagh 
reconnoitred with the mounted infantry 
the ground towards the hills. After the 
battle of Tamai (13 March) the road was 
open to Berber, and Ardagh shared his 
general's opinion that an advance should 
then have been made to Berber to 
reach out a hand to General Gordon at 
Khartoum. He afterwards wrote : ' Ber- 
ber was then in the hands of an Egyptian 
garrison, and had we gone across, the 
subsequent operations for the attempted 
relief of General Gordon at Khartoum 
would not have been necessary.' Graham's 
force returned to Cairo in April, leaving a 
battalion to garrison Suakin. Ardagh was 
mentioned in despatches and was made C.B. 

In May 1884 he went home on leave. 
In the autumn an expedition to relieve 
Khartoum was organised. Ardagh 
favoured the Suakin-Berber route, but 
Lord Wolseley, who commanded, resolved 
to ascend the Nile. Ardagh was appointed 
commandant at the base (Cairo), with the 
grade of assistant adjutant-general. His 
energy, devotion, and quiet cheerfulness 




helped to expedite the fatal enterprise, and 
at the end of the disastrous campaign he 
was promoted to a brevet colonelcy (15 June 
1885), receiving the third class of the order 
of the Medjidieh. On 30 Dec., as chief staff 
officer of a combined British and Egyptian 
force, he took part in the engagement at 
Giniss, when a large army of the Khalifa, 
which was endeavouring to invade Egyptian 
territory, after the abandonment of the 
Soudan, was defeated with great loss. For 
his services Ardagh was mentioned in 
despatches. On 17 Dec. 1886 he was 
promoted to a regimental lieutenant- 
colonelcy, and on 26 Jan. 1887 he was 
gazetted a colonel on the staff. 

In Nov. 1887 Ardagh returned to London 
as assistant adjutant-general for defence 
and mobilisation at the war office, and he 
inaugurated schemes of mobilisation for 
over-sea service, and of local home defence. 
From April 1888 to 1893 he was aide-de- 
camp to the duke of Cambridge, com- 
mander-in-chief. In October 1888 he 
became, with war office sanction, private 
secretary to the marquis of Lansdowne, 
viceroy of India. Save for a period of 
absence through illness in 1892, he remained 
with Lord Lansdowne through his term of 
office. He returned to England in May 
1894, after a short service with Lord 
Lansdowne' s successor, Lord Elgin. He 
was made a C.I.E. in 1892, and K.C.I.E. in 

Ardagh had spent less than a year as 
commandant of the School of Military 
Engineering at Chatham (from 16 April 
1895), when he rejoined (27 March 1896) 
the war office for five years as director 
of military intelligence, with the temporary 
rank of major-general. He was promoted 
major-general on the establishment, on 
14 March 1898. The South African war 
broke out in October 1899, and during the 
black days at the opening of the campaign 
an outcry was made that Ardagh's depart- 
ment had not kept the government in- 
formed of the number of men the Boers 
could put into the field, nor of the prepara- 
tions they had made for the war. Yet 
Ardagh, in spite of a limited staff and 
inadequate funds, had performed his duty 
thoroughly. He compiled for the govern- 
ment a full statement of the number 
and military resources of the Boer forces, 
estimating that the defence of the British 
colonies alone would require 40,000 men, 
while to carry the war into the enemy's 
country would require 200,000. Copies of 
this paper were eventually laid on the 
tables of both houses of parliament at 

Ardagh's request. Meanwhile ' Military 
Notes on the Dutch Republic,' a secret 
work prepared under Ardagh's auspices in 
the intelligence branch, fell early in the 
campaign into the hands of the Boers after 
the action of Talana (20 Oct. 1899), and 
was published. These documents, which 
were corroborated by evidence before the 
royal commission on the war, relieved 
Ardagh of all blame. 

In addition to his ordinary duties Sir 
John was a member of a committee on 
submarine telegraph cables, and in 1899 
military technical adviser to the British 
delegates, Sir Julian (afterwards Lord) 
Pauncefote [q. v. Suppl. II] and Sir Henry 
Howard, at the first Hague peace con- 
ference. There he took a leading part in 
drawing up the ' Rules respecting the 
Laws and Customs of War on Land.' In 

1900 he was awarded the distinguished 
service pension. 

After leaving the war office in March 

1901 he showed to advantage his tact 
and knowledge of international law as 
British agent before a commission to 
investigate the claims of foreign powers 
on account of the deportation to Europe of 
subjects of theirs domiciled in South Africa 
during the war. From December 1901 to 
June 1902 he was in South Africa settling 
miscellaneous claims in connection with 
the war, which was still going on. He 
returned to South Africa later in the year 
with the temporary rank of lieutenant- 
general as member of the royal commission 
for the revision of martial law sentences. 
In October he was a member of the 
British tribunal on the Chili -Argentina 
boundary arbitration and helped to draft 
the award. On 9 Aug. 1902, when sixty- 
two years of age, Ardagh retired from 
military service, but was still employed by 
the foreign office. He succeeded Lord 
Pauncefote on the permanent court of 
arbitration at the Hague, and became a 
British government director of the Suez 
Canal. In December 1902 he was created 

Ardagh'was deeply interested in the British 
Red Cross Society, of which he became a 
member of council in 1905. He repre- 
sented the British army, being one of four 
delegates of the British government in June 
1906, at the conference held by the Swiss 
government for the revision of the Geneva 
Convention of 1864. The new convention 
was signed in the following month. His 
last public duty was to act as a delegate 
of the central committee of the society at the 
eighth international conference in London 




in June 1907. On his deathbed he received 
from the Empress Marie Feodorovna of 
Russia the Red Cross commemoration 
medal for his services during the Russo- 
Japanese war. Ardagh died on 30 Sept. 
1907 at Glynllivon Park, Carnarvon, and 
was buried at Broomfield Church, near 
Taunton. He married on 18 Feb. 1896 
Susan, widow of the third earl of Malmes- 
bury and daughter of John Hamilton of 
Fyno Court House, Somerset, who sur- 
vived him without issue. 

Ardagh served on the council of the Royal 
Geographical Society, was an associate of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers, and was 
a member of the Royal Society's geodetic 
arc committee in 1900. He was made 
hon. LL.D. of Trinity College, Dublin, 
in 1897. He wrote in the ' Quarterly 
Review ' (October 1894) on British rule in 
Egypt, and contributed occasionally to 
other periodicals. He was a skilful artist. 
A collection of 140 water-colour drawings 
by him was presented by his widow to the 
Royal Engineers Institute at Chatham. 

His portrait, painted in oils by Miss 
Merrick in 1896, and exhibited at the 
Royal Academy that year, was presented 
by his widow to the officers of the royal 
engineers, and now hangs in their mess 
room at Chatham. A replica is in Lady 
Malmesbury's possession. 

[War Office Records; The Times, 2 Oct. 
1907 ; Royal Engineers Journal, Nov. 1907 ; 
Life, by Susan, Countess of Malmesbury, 1909.1 

R. H. V. 

ARDITI, LUIGI (1822-1903), musical 
conductor and composer, born at Crescen- 
tino, in Piedmont, on 16 July 1822, was son 
of Maurizio Arditi by his wife Caterina 
Colombo. He was educated as a violinist at 
the Milan conservatoire, showing also some 
talent for composition. In 1840 an over- 
ture of his was produced in Milan, and 
during the carnival of the following year 
a light opera, ' I Briganti.' He made his 
first appearance as an operatic conductor 
at Vercelli in 1843, and became an honorary 
member of the Accademia Filarmonica 
there. From 1846 he frequently visited 
America, where he produced and conducted 
operas ; he brought out his ' La Spia ' at 
New York in 1856. The same year he 
toured through eastern Europe to Con- 
stantinople, and in 1858 settled in London 
as conductor to the opera at Her Majesty's 
theatre, retaining tliis appointment through 
the management of Lumley, E. T. Smith, 
and Mapleson until the destruction of the 
theatre by fire in 1867. Upon the resigna- 
tion of Costa from Covent Garden, Arditi 

was engaged there for the single season of 
1869. In the winters of 1871 and 1873 he 
conducted the Italian opera at St. Peters- 
burg, and from 1870 onwards for several 
years did similar work every spring at 
Vienna. From 1874-7 he conducted the 
promenade concerts at Covent Garden, and 
in 1878 visited Madrid for a two months' 
season. Arditi was the favourite conductor 
of Madame Adelina Patti, and between 
1882 and 1887 he went on operatic tours 
to America and through the United 
Kingdom with Mapleson's company, of 
which she was a leading member. He con- 
ducted the first performances of the follow- 
ing notable works amongst others : Gounod's 
'Faust' (Her Majesty's, 11 June 1863); 
Wagner's ' Flying Dutchman ' (Drary Lane, 

25 July 1870) ; Mascagni's ' Cavalleria 
Rusticana ' (Shaftesbury, 19 Oct. 1891) ; and 
Humperdinck's ' Hansel and Gretel ' (Daly's, 

26 Dec. 1894). He retired shortly after 
1894, and died at Hove on 1 May 1903. 
He married on 20 June 1856 Virginia, 
daughter of William S. Warwick, of Rich- 
mond, Virginia, U.S.A., and had issue one 
son and one daughter. 

Arditi's vocal waltz, ' II Bacio ' (1860), 
has long been a favourite with vocalists ; 
other songs of similar character and 
merit, such as * L'Ardita ' (1862), enjoyed 
a temporary vogue. In later life he wrote 
nothing of value. He published in 1896 
* My Reminiscences ' (ed. Baroness von 
Zedlitz). A caricature portrait by ' Ape ' 
appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1885. 

[Arditi's My Reminiscences, 1896 ; Musical 
World, May 1903; Grove's Diet, of Musicians; 
Benjamin Lumley's Reminiscences, 1864; The 
Mapleson Memoirs, 1888, passim ; personal 
knowledge.] F. C. 

ANDREW, 1845-1911.] 

ARMES, PHILIP (1836-1908), organist 
and musical composer, born at Norwich 
on 15 Aug. 1836, was eldest son of Philip 
Armes (a bass singer) by Mary his wife. 
A chorister in Norwich Cathedral 1846-8, 
he joined the choir of Rochester Cathedral 
in 1848 on the appointment of his father as 
bass lay clerk there. Possessed of a beautiful 
voice, he achieved great success as solo boy, 
and on retiring from the choir in 1850 
received a public testimonial. Determined 
to follow the profession of music, he was 
articled in 1850 to John Larkin Hopkins 
[q. v.], orgariistof Rochester Cathedral, and 
up to 1856 acted as his assistant, at the 
same time serving as organist of Milton 
Church, Gravesend. In 1857 he passed to 
St. Andrews, Wells Street, London, then to 




Chichester Cathedral in 1861, and finally 
to Durham Cathedral in 1862, where he re- 
mained till his death. He had graduated 
Mus. Bac. Oxon. in 1858, and was admitted 
to the same degree ad eundem at Durham 
1863. He proceeded Mus. Doc. at Oxford 
in 1864 and at Durham ad eundem in 
1874. The honorary degree of M.A. was 
conferred on him by Durham University 
in 1891. 

When the chair of music was founded at 
Durham University in 1897, Armes was 
appointed first professor. In 1890 he drew 
up the scheme of examinations for musical 
degrees which is still in use. 

Armes's compositions comprise : oratorio, 
' Hezekiah,' produced at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne (1877); cantatas, 'St. John the 
Evangelist,' produced at York Minster 
(1881); and 'St. Barnabas' produced at 
Durham (1891); services, anthems, hymn 
tunes, &c. He obtained the Molineux prize 
and gold medal offered by the Madrigal 
Society in 1897 for his madrigal ' Victoria.' 

He died at Durham on 10 Feb. 1908, and 
was buried in the cemetery of St. Mary-le- 
bow there. He married in 1 864 Emily Jane, 
daughter of Sir Henry Davison, chief 
justice of the supreme court, Madras, by 
whom he had two sons and two daughters. 

[Private information ; Grove's Diet, of 
Music.] J. C. B. 

1903), judge of the supreme court of Canada, 
born on 4 May 1830, near Peterborough, 
Ontario, was youngest son of Samuel 
Armour, rector of Cavan, Canada, by his 
wife Margaret Douglas. The father, of 
Irish origin, graduated M.A. from Glasgow 
University in 1806, and emigrating to Canada 
about 1821, taught in a school in York (now 
Toronto) before taking orders in the Church 
of England. The son John, after early 
education at the local schools and at Upper 
Canada College, where he was head boy, 
entered the University of Toronto as a 
King's College exhibitioner, and graduated 
B.A. in 1850, gaining the gold medal in 
classics. He began the study of law under 
his brother, Robert Armour, and in the 
office of Chancellor Vankoughnet. Called 
to the bar in 1853, he practised in Cobourg 
in partnership with Sidney Smith, after- 
wards postmaster-general of Canada. He 
was appointed county crown attorney for 
Northumberland and Durham on 26 Mar. 
1858, and clerk of the peace on 2 May 1861, 
and a queen's counsel by Lord Monck in 
1867. He was elected warden of the counties 
in 1859-60. In the same year he was 
chosen a senator of the University of 

Toronto, and in 1871 became a bencher of 
the Law Society of Upper Canada. In 
1874 he declined the liberal nomination for 
West Northumberland in the House of 
Commons. He was appointed a puisne 
judge of the court of queen's bench in 1877, 
and was promoted chief justice of the court 
in 1887. He was made commissioner to 
revise the Ontario statutes in 1896. In 
July 1900 he became chief justice of 
Ontario, and president of the court of 
appeal. He declined a knighthood more 
than once. In June 1902 he received an 
honorary LL.D. from his university. In 
November 1902 he was nominated a judge 
of the supreme court of Canada by Sir 
Wilfrid Laurier. In May 1902, as one of 
the * distinguished jurists of repute,' he was 
chosen by the Canadian government to 
represent Canada on the international 
tribunal constituted to decide the Alaska 
boundary dispute. He died in London on 
11 July 1903, whither he had gone to attend 
the sittings of the arbitration. A memorial 
service was held at the Temple Church. 
He was buried in St. Peter's cemetery, 
Cobourg, Ontario. 

Armour was among the greatest jurists 
whom Canada has produced. Absolutely 
fearless and outspoken, he not infrequently 
aroused hostile prejudice. His alleged 
unfriendliness to corporations failed to 
affect his judgments, which were based on 
a thorough knowledge of the law and a 
profound insight into human nature. 

He married on 28 April 1855 Eliza, 
daughter of Francis Schimerhorn Clench 
of Cobourg and Eliza Cory. Of eleven 
children of this marriage ten survive (1912). 
Several portraits exist. One by E. Wyly 
Grier is in the National Gallery, Ottawa, 
and three replicas of this are owned by the 
family. Another by G. T. Berthon is at 
Osgood Hall, Toronto. There is a bust by 
Lady Ross (Miss Peel) in the Normal School, 

[The Times, 13 July 1903 ; Canada Law 
Journal, xxxix. 458 seq. ; Canadian Law 
Times, xxiii. 319.] P. E. 

1905), sculptor, born in Bloomsbury on 
18 June 1828, was fourth and youngest son 
of John Armstead, an heraldic chaser, by 
his wife Ann, daughter of Hugh Dyer of 
Belfast. A wide reader from youth, he 
received little school education. At eleven 
he was working in his father's workshop, 
and at thirteen was sent to the old School 
of Design, Somerset House. While sketch- 
ing at the British Museum he began a 
lifelong friendship with a fellow student, 




William Holman-Hunt fq. v. Suppl. II" 
Subsequently, at Mr. Leigh's Academ; 
in Maddox Street, he came to know J. R 
Clayton, designer of stained glass windows 
and his future brother-in-law Henry Tan 
worth Wells [q. v. Suppl. II]. Later he 
was employed at Messrs. Hunt & Roskell' 
factory of gold and silver work, enjoyed the 
occasional tuition of E. H. Baily, R.A 
[q. v.], and at the same time joined the 
Royal Academy schools. Finally he became 
designer in chief to Hunt & Roskell 
and in that capacity did a great deal o: 
work hi and for metal : designing 
modelling, and chasing in gold, silver, anc 
bronze. His style was influenced by that o: 
Vechte, the great French silver- chaser, who 
was then in England. Among Armstead's 
works in metal the most important are a 
' Testimonial (the Shakespeare Cup) to 
Charles Kean,' the 'St. George's Vase,' 
the ' Tennyson Cup ' (for which he was 
premiated at the Paris Exhibition ol 
1855), the 'Packington Shield,' and the 
* Outram Shield,' now in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. Save for a brief 
engagement by Hancock's firm of like 
character, he remained with Hunt & 
Roskell till 1863, when he left to devote 
himself exclusively to sculpture. Armstead 
had already practised that art in his leisure, 
and had won two Art Union prizes (for 
'Satan Dismayed' and 'The Temptation 
of Eve'), besides designing external mural 
decoration for Evelyn Shirley's mansion at 
Ettington, Warwickshire. A short visit 
to Italy in 1863-4 was followed by an 
introduction to Sir Gilbert Scott. Scott 
soon employed Armstead on the Albert 
Memorial, and thenceforth his position 
was assured. From his early tutor, 
Bailey, he derived some of that 
over-suavity of style which marked the 
early Victorian school of modelling, of 
which John Gibson was perhaps the most 
typical exemplar. To a certain extent, 
however, Armstead now rose above the 
tradition in which he had been reared, and 
his later works show little of the fluid 
modelling and superficial elegance which 
characterised his master. He was indus- 
trious and business-like ; one commission 
always led to another, and down nearly 
to the end of his life ho was one of the 
best employed sculptors of his tune. 
Armstead's most important works are the 
marble reliefs on the south and east 
sides of the podium to the Albert 
Memorial and four bronze statues 
rhetoric, astronomy, chemistry, and 
medicine on the same structure ; 

the external sculpture on the colonial 
office, Whitehall ; the reredos in West- 
minster Abbey ; the fountain in the fore- 
court of King's College, Cambridge ; the 
memorial to George Edmund Street 
[q. v.] in the central hall of the law 
courts, and the effigies of Bishop 
Wilberforce in Winchester Cathedral 
and of Bishop Ollivant in Llandaff 
Cathedral. Armstead executed a few 
imaginative works such as ' Ariel,' 
' Hero and" Leander,' ' The Ever- reigning 
Queen ' (his diploma work), and * Remorse.' 
The last named was bought by the Chantrey 
trustees and is now hi the Tate Gallery. 

Armstead was elected A. R.A. on 16 Jan. 
1875, and R.A. on 18 Dec. 1879. He was 
a loyal and industrious servant of the 
Academy and extremely popular as a man. 
He taught in the Academy schools from 
1875 till near his death. He gave proof 
of unusually fine taste as an arranger of 
works of art when it became his turn to 
place the sculpture in the annual exhibi- 
tions. He also arranged the British 
sculpture in the Paris Exhibition of 1900. 
He died at his house, 52 Circus Road' 
St. John's Wood, on 4 Dec. 1905. 

Armstead married, on 9 Sept. 1857, 
Sarah, daughter of Henry Tanworth Wells, 
and sister of Henry Tanworth Wells, R.A. 
[q. v. Suppl. II] ; he had issue three 
daughters and one son. A portrait, painted 
in 1878 by his brother-in-law Wells, is, 
with a bust executed by W. R. Colton, 
A.R.A., hi 1902, in the possession of his son, 
Dr. H. W. Armstead. A second portrait, 
painted by Sir Hubert von Herkomer, 
R.A., in 1902, belongs to his daughter, 
Miss C. W. Armstead. 

[Henry Hugh Armstead, R.A., by his 
daughter, Miss C. W. Armstead [1906] ; The 
Times, 6 Dec. 1905 ; Men and Women of the 
Time, 1899 ; private information.] W. A. 

CARLYON HUGHES, first baronet (1836- 
907), journalist and newspaper proprietor, 
r ounger son of Colonel George Craven 
Armstrong, of the East India Company's 
army, and of Georgianna, daughter of 
2apta,in Philip Hughes, was born at 
jucknow on 20 July 1836. Ho was 
rivately educated and was nominated 
/o a military cadetship hi the company's 
ervico in the year 1855. During the 
ndian Mutiny he was attached to the 
i9th Bengal native infantry, and after- 
wards to Stokes's Pathan horse, a newly 
aised regiment of native irregulars. As 
econd in command of the latter he was 
angerously wounded in the course of the 



operations around Delhi. On the sup- 
pression of the mutiny he was appointed 
orderly officer at Addiscombe Military 
College, a post which he occupied till the 
closing of that institution in 1861, when 
he retired from the army with the rank 
of captain. In 1866 he took up the duties 
of secretary and registration agent to the 
Westminster Conservative Association, and 
his powers of work and organisation were 
largely responsible for the defeat of John 
Stuart Mill [q. v.] by W. H. Smith [q. v.] 
in November 1868. After acting for a 
short time as financial manager of Watney's 
brewery, he was offered in 1871 the editor- 
ship and management of the ' Globe' news- 
paper, then in the hands of a small con- 
servative syndicate of which Mr. George 
Cubitt, afterwards Lord Ashcombe, was 
the leading member. The paper had been 
run for some years past at a heavy finan- 
cial loss, but Captain Armstrong, though 
without any previous experience of journal- 
ism, was an excellent man of business 
with a keen political instinct. He rapidly 
raised the paper from the position of a 
mere derelict to that of a valuable property, 
and he made it one of the most thorough- 
going and influential supporters of Disraeli 
in the metropolitan press ; down to his 
death it remained the typical organ of 
the militant conservative school. As an 
acknowledgment of his labours and success 
the sole property of the ' Globe ' was made 
over to him by the owners in 1875, and in 
1882 he acquired a large interest in the 
' People,' a Sunday conservative paper 
with a large circulation among the working 
classes. Thanks to these joint ventures 
Armstrong acquired a handsome fortune, 
but he took no part in public or political 
affairs outside the columns of his paper. 
Perhaps the best remembered incident in 
connection with his editorship of the 
' Globe ' was the disclosure in its pages, on 
30 May 1878, of the terms of the Salisbury- 
Schouvaloff Treaty. A summary of that 
document had been brought to the paper by 
an occasional contributor, Charles Marvin 
[q. v.], to whom the foreign office had given 
employment as an emergency ' writer.' 
The official denial of its correctness was 
followed by the publication in the same 
paper on 14 June of the full text, which 
completely vindicated Marvin's accuracy. 
Proceedings were instituted against the 
latter on the part of the government, but 
were speedily abandoned. In 1892 Arm- 
strong received a baronetcy in recognition 
of his services to the unionist party ; he 
had relinquished the editorship of the 

'Globe' in 1889, and in 1899 the con- 
trol of the paper passed to George Elliot, 
his second surviving son, who succeeded 
to the baronetcy. He died on 20 April 1907, 
after a long illness, and was buried atWoking. 
He married on 2 Feb. 1865 Alice Fitzroy, 
daughter of the Rev. Charles Joseph Furlong, 
who survived him. His eldest son, Arthur 
Reginald, lieutenant 19th Hussars, died 
at Secunderabad 1 Nov. 1898. A portrait 
in oils by Herkomer belongs to his widow. 
A cartoon portrait by ' Spy ' appeared in 
'Vanity Fair' in 1894. 

[The Globe, 1 Jan. 1903 and 22 April 1907 ; 
personal knowledge.] J. B. A. 

ARMSTRONG, THOMAS (1832-1911), 
artist, born at Fallowfield, Manchester, 
on 19 Oct. 1832, was eldest son of Thomas 
Armstrong. Educated at a private school 
at Tarvin, near Chester, he was originally 
intended for business in Manchester. His 
tastes, however, led him to take up drawing 
under Mr. Crazier, of the Manchester 
Fine Art Academy. Deciding to adopt 
painting as a profession, he went to Paris 
in 1853, contemporaneously with du 
Maurier, Poynter, Lamont, and Whistler. 
At first he worked in the Academic of 
Suisse, who had been for many years a 
prisoner of war at Dartmoor and on his 
release had set up an art class in Paris, 
which the principal painters of the Restora- 
tion period from Ingres onwards had fre- 
quented. Armstrong subsequently entered 
the atelier of Ary Scheffer, who greatly 
influenced his style and method of work. 
In the summer he joined Millet, Bodmer, 
and Charles Jacque at Barbizon, and from 
them learnt much of which he made 
profitable use in his work in Algiers (1858-9) 
and subsequently on the Riviera (1870-2). 
Meanwhile he had studied in the Academic 
Royale of Antwerp under Van Lerius 
(1855-6), and in 1860 he was joined by du 
Maurier at Diisseldorf. There Professor 
Eduard Bendemann had recently succeeded 
F. W. Schadow, who had brought from 
Rome to Germany the traditions of 
Renaissance art. On his return to England 
Armstrong devoted himself to decorative 
painting in houses in the north, and on 
more than one occasion associated with his 
work that of his friend Randolph Caldecott 
[q. v. ], whom he was the means of bringing 
into public notice. In 1864 he definitely 
fixed himself in London, exhibited regularly 
at the Royal Academy from 1865 to 1877, 
and subsequently up to 1881 at the 
Grosvenor Gallery. His landscape painting 
was distinguished by its fidelity and poetic 
feeling, but in his figure pieces, to which 




he devoted much time and conscientious 
labour, the conflicting influences of his 
early training were often apparent. 

In 1881 Armstrong was appointed director 
for art at the South Kensington (now 
Victoria and Albert) Museum in succession 
to Sir Edward J. Poynter, R.A., and he 
promptly made his influence felt on the 
methods of teaching. He held that so 
rarely were the talents of the craftsman and 
designer to be found united in the same 
pupil, that it was the duty of technical 
schools to recognise the independence of 
the two capacities, while applying art to 
industry in every branch of teaching. 
Before his appointment to South Kensing- 
ton he had guided and instructed Miss 
Jekyll in her efforts to establish at Chelsea 
a school for art needlework for the first 
time in this country, efforts which were 
amply justified by the results. In his 
official capacity he continued to work on 
the same lines. He warmly supported 
the efforts of Walter Copland Perry [q. v. 
Suppl. II] to supply art students with an 
adequate representation of antique sculp- 
ture, and developed and carried out the 
plans of his predecessor (Sir) Edward 
Poynter, for a museum of casts. To his 
initiative also was due the revival of the 
art of English enamelling, under Professor 
Dalpeyrat in 1886. He was, too, a warm 
supporter of the School of Art Wood-carving, 
which, though not officially countenanced 
or aided by the department, received the 
active support of its chief, Sir John 
Donnelly [q. v. Suppl. II], to whose place 
as chairman of the committee Armstrong 
succeeded in 1902. But it was by the 
personal interest which he took in the 
pupils' work, scattered though it was all 
over the country, that Armstrong's services 
to art and its application to industry must 
be gauged. He made himself acquainted 
with the requirements of each district, 
the special aptitudes of the students and 
the lines on which they needed help and 
guidance. It was owing to Armstrong's 
insistence that the Victoria and Albert 
Museum possesses the reproduction to scale 
of the Camerino of Isabelle d'Este, the 
Appartamento Borgia in the Vatican, the 
dome of the Chapel of St. Peter Martyr 
at Milan, and the chief room of the 
Palazzio Madama at Rome and other 
works works representing the highest 
period of the Italian renaissance and in- 
valuable to students of decorative art. 
With the same object he applied himself 
to the acquisition of works of art for the 
museum having an educational value or 

bearing upon the development of artistic 
taste and feeling. His colloquial know- 
ledge of foreign languages, combined with 
an attractive personality, behind which 
lay a shrewd sense of business, enabled 
him not only to purchase and acquire for 
the museum many important works, but 
to establish friendly relations with the 
directors and officials of similar museums 
on the continent, and to attract them to 
this country to compare and explain their 
methods. Armstrong retired from South 
Kensington in 1898, when he was made 
C.B. Thereupon he took up painting again, 
and devoted himself especially to the execu- 
tion of a mural tablet in plaster and copper 
which was placed in the church at Abbots 
Langley to the memory of his only child 
the subjects of the panels being a Riposo 
and Christ and the doctors. 

Armstrong died suddenly at Abbots 
Langley on 24 April 1911, and was buried 
there. On 22 April 1881 he married Mary 
Alice, daughter of Colonel Brine of Shaldon, 

[The Times, 26 April 1911 ; private informa- 
tion ; Graves's Royal Academy Exhibitors ; 
Art Journal 1891 with portrait.] L. R. 

ARNOLD, SIR ARTHUR (1833-1902), 
radical politician and writer, born on 28 
May 1833, at Gravesend, Kent, was third 
son of the three sons and three daughters 
of Robert Coles Arnold, J.P., of Whartons, 
Framfield, Sussex, by his wife Sarah, 
daughter of Daniel Pizzi of Clement's Hall, 
Rochford, Essex. Sir Edwin Arnold [q. v. 
Suppl. II] was an elder brother. Owing to 
delicate health, Arnold, whose full Christian 
names were Robert Arthur, was educated 
at home, and subsequently adopted the 
profession of surveyor and land agent. He 
was professionally engaged on proposals 
connected with the construction of the 
Thames embankment; and in 1861 he 
issued a pamphlet, entitled ' The Thames 
Embankment and the Wharf Holders,' in 
which he supported the adoption of the 
scheme of (Sir) Joseph William Bazalgette 
[q. v. Suppl. I]. Cherishing literary am- 
bitions, he produced in his leisure two 
sensational novels, 'Ralph; or, St. Sepul- 
chre's and St. Stephen's' (1861) and 
' Hever Court ' (1867), the latter appearing 
as a serial in ' Once a Week.' 

In 1863, under the Public Works (Manu- 
facturing Districts) Act, Arnold was ap- 
pointed by Charles Pelham Villiers [q. v.], 
then president of the poor law board, 
assistant commissioner and subsequently 
government inspector of public works. For 
three years he was engaged on the difficult 



task of supervising the employment of the 
destitute cotton operatives of Lancashire 
on the making of roads and other public 
works, and he contributed some striking 
articles on the subject to the 'Daily 
Telegraph.' In 1864 he issued his popular 
'History of the Cotton Famine from the 
fall of Sumter to the passing of the Public 
Works Act,' which reappeared in a cheap 
edition next year. In 1867 a tour in the 
south and east of Europe first aroused his 
philo-Hellenic sympathies, which were con- 
spicuous in his descriptive letters ' From 
the Levant,' published in 1868, and to 
which he was constant through life. In the 
same year Arnold became first editor of 
the ' Echo,' a new evening paper, and one 
of the earliest to be sold for a halfpenny, 
which attained great success under his 
control. He resigned the post in 1875, soon 
after the purchase of the paper by Albert 
Grant, known as Baron Grant [q. v. Suppl. 
I], and immediately started on a journey 
through the East with his wife, riding the 
whole length of Persia, a distance of more 
than 1000 miles. His 'Through Persia 
by Caravan ' (1877), dedicated to Earl and 
Countess Granville, gives a spirited account 
of his adventures. 

Arnold's interests were divided between 
politics and journalism. A staunch radical, 
he studied with attention current social and 
agrarian problems, and contributed fre- 
quently to the leading reviews. Articles and 
pamphlets by him were collected into a 
volume, entitled 'Social Politics ' (1878), 
in which he warmly advocated the reform 
of the land laws and the political enfran- 
chisement of women. He was in sym- 
pathy with the movement in favour of the 
nationalisation of land, and in 1885 was 
elected chairman of the Free Land League. 

Meanwhile Arnold's ambition to enter 
parliament had been gratified. After 
contesting unsuccessfully the borough of 
Huntingdon in the liberal interest in 1873, 
he was returned in 1880 as radical member 
for Salford. While acting with the radical 
wing of his party on questions of home 
politics, Arnold frequently criticised with 
vigour and independence the government's 
conduct of foreign affairs. In 1880 he 
became chairman of the Greek committee, 
in succession to Sir Charles Dilke, and he 
was active in urging the claims of the 
Hellenic kingdom to an extension of 
territory in accordance with the suggestion 
of the treaty of Berlin. In 1873 the King 
of Greece had conferred on him the golden 
cross of the Order of the Saviour. In the 
House of Commons he made his mark as an 

effective speaker in debates on the franchise. 
On 21 March 1882 his proposal of a 
uniform franchise and a redistribution of 
seats was approved by the house (Hansard, 
3 S. cclxvii. 1443, 1532). In 1883 he 
moved for an elaborate return of electoral 
statistics, which influenced the reform bill 
of 1884. At the general election of 1885 
Arnold was defeated in the newly formed 
division of North Salford. He stood again 
there in 1892 as a supporter of home rule, 
with the same result, and he was defeated 
in 1892 for North Dorset. He did not re- 
enter the House of Commons. As a liberal 
imperialist Arnold gradually lost sympathy 
with the official policy of the liberal party, 
and in 1900 he opposed the views of Sir 
Henry Campbell-Bannerman [q. v. Suppl. 
II] on the conduct of the South African war. 

Abandoning party politics, Arnold de- 
voted his energies to problems of municipal 
government. In 1889, on the formation of 
the London county council, he was elected 
an alderman for six years ; he was re- 
elected in 1895 for three, and again in 
1898 for six years. On 12 March 1895 
he was chosen chairman, and was re-elected 
on 10 March 1896, thus enjoying the unique 
distinction of holding the office for more 
than one year. On 18 July 1895 he was 
knighted, and Cambridge bestowed on him 
the hon. degree of LL.D. in 1897. He died 
at 45 Kensington Park Gardens on 20 May 
1902, and was buried at Gravesend. In 
1867 he married Amelia, only daughter of 
Captain H. B. Hyde, 96th regiment, of 
Castle Hyde, co. Cork, who survived him 
without issue. She founded a scholarship 
in his memory at Girton College, Cambridge, 
and a brass memorial tablet has been 
placed there. 

[Times and Westminster Gazette, 21 May 
1902 ; Tinsley, Random Recollections of an 
Old Publisher, 1900, ii. 67 ; T. H. S. Escott, 
Masters of English Journalism, 1911 ; Men 
and Women of the Time, 1899 ; private in- 
formation from Miss Arnold.] G. S. W. 

ARNOLD, SIB EDWIN (1832-1904), 
poet and journalist, born at Gravesend on 
10 June 1832, was second son of Robert 
Coles Arnold of Whartons, Framfield, and 
elder brother of Sir Arthur Arnold [q. v. 
Suppl. II]. Educated at King's School, 
Rochester, and at King's College, London, 
where he was a friendly rival of F. W. 
(Dean) Farrar (1850-1), Edwin obtained a 
scholarship at University College, Oxford, in 
1851 and graduated B.A. in 1854 and M.A. 
in 1856. Although he won only a third 
class in the final classical school, he read 
Greek poetry with enthusiasm, and in 1852 




he obtained the Newdigate with an ornate 
poem on ' Belshazzar's Feast.' This was pub- 
lished separately ( 1852) and was also reissued 
to form next year the staple of an elegant 
volume, ' Poems Narrative and Lyrical ' 
(Oxford, 1853). Dedicated to Lady Walde- 
grave, Arnold's ' Poems ' obtained the dis- 
tinction of a review, on ' The two Arnolds,' 
in c Blackwood' (March 1854). In America, 
many years later, Matthew Arnold found 
himself credited to an embarrassing extent 
with the poetical baggage of his namesake. 
After a short period as second English 
master at King Edward's School, Birming- 
ham, Arnold was in 1856 nominated 
principal of the government Deccan College 
at Poona. On settling there he was elected 
a fellow of Bombay University. He soon 
studied Eastern languages, and mastered not 
only those of India but also Turkish and 
Persian. A successful translation of 'The 
Book of Good Counsels. From the Sanskrit 
of the Hitopadesa,' with pleasing illustra- 
tions by Harrison Weir (1861), dedicated 
to his first wife, indicates his rapid at- 
traction to Oriental study. He also wrote 
a pamphlet on education in India (1860), 
pleading for a more scientific grafting of 
Western knowledge upon the lore of the 
East, and a ' History of the Marquis of 
Dalhousie's Administration' (2vols. 1862-5). 
His demeanour as principal during the trying 
times of the mutiny won him commendations 
from the Indian government. 

During a visit to England in 1861 Arnold 
obtained through a chance advertisement the 
post of leader-writer on the ' Daily Tele- 
graph,' which Joseph Moses Levy [q. v.] was 
just setting to work to regenerate. This 
appointment finally determined his career. 
His colleague George Augustus Sala describes 
in his ' Reminiscences ' how in the early days 
of 1862 the Eastern aroma first began 
to make itself felt in the leading articles of 
the ' Daily Telegraph.' Arnold and Sala 
were responsible, perhaps, in about equal 
measure for the roaring tones in which 
the ' Telegraph ' began about this time to 
answer back the thunder of * The Times ' 
newspaper (see MATTHEW ARNOLD'S Friend- 
ship's Garland, 1871 ). On Thornton Hunt's 
doath in 1873 Arnold became a chief editor 
of the ' Daily Telegraph,' and with the 
proprietors was responsible for the despatch 
of some enterprising and important journal- 
istic missions, that of George Smith [q. v.] 
to Assyria in 1874, that of H. M. Stanley 
(jointly with the 'New York Herald') to 
complete the disdbveries of Livingstone in 
the same year, and that of Sir H. H. John- 
ston to Kilima-Njaro in 1884. Arnold's 

Oriental knowledge proved of vital influence 

on his editorial work, and as a champion of 

Turkey through the Russo-Turkish war and 

of Lord Lytton's forward policy in India 

he helped to mould public opinion. He 

was made C.S.I, when Queen Victoria was 

proclaimed Empress of India on 1 Jan. 1877. 

j In 1879 he published the epic poem * The 

I Light of Asia,' to which he owed most of 

| his fame. In blank verse, of Oriental 

luxuriance, in which colour and music were 

! blended in the Tennysonian manner with 

I heightened effects, Arnold here presented 

j the picturesque and pathetic elements 

of the Buddhist legend and the life of 

Gautama. The moral doctrines were those 

to which Europeans had been accustomed 

all their lives, but the setting was new to 

English and American readers. The poem 

aroused the animosities of many pulpits, 

but there were sixty editions in England 

and eighty in America, and translations 

were numerous. A sequel appeared in 1891 

as ' The Light of the World,' and proved 

a signal failure. 

After twenty-eight successful years in the 
editorial room, where his staff of writers 
included Edward Dicey, James Macdonell, 
H. D. Traill, and others, Arnold, who was 
made K.C.I.E. in 1888, became a travel- 
ling commissioner of the paper. In 
August 1889 he started with his daughter, 
Katharine Lilian, upon a long ramble chiefly 
devoted to the Pacific coast and Japan. 
As a picturesque tourist in books like 
' India Revisited ' (1886), ' Seas and Lands' 
(1891), 'Wandering Words' (1894), and 
[ ' East and West ' (1896) (studies of Egypt, 
I India, and Japan), he has had few rivals. His 
' first visit to Japan was often repeated, 
and he was fascinated by the artistic and 
j social side -of Japanese life. His writings 
on Japan helped to spread in England 
optimistic views of Japanese progress and 
culture. In 1891 he undertook a reading 
tour in America, and he received numerous 
foreign decorations from Turkey, Persia, 
Siam, and Japan. 

During the last nine or ten years of 

his life his sight gradually failed, but in 

i spite of infirmities he maintained a keen 

' interest in contemporary affairs. In 1899 

; he dedicated to his third wife his inter - 

I esting story of the wrongs of an Indian 

I cultivator called ' The Queen's Justice,' 

and in 1895 he dedicated to the Duchess 

of York, afterwards Queen Mary, his 

'Tenth Muse and Other Poems, including 

many Renderings of Japanese " uta." ' 

He died at his house in Bolton Gardens, 

London, on 24 March 1904 ; he was 



cremated at Brookwood and his ashe 
bestowed in the chapel of his old college 
at Oxford. A portrait by James Arche 
was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1890. He married (1) in 1854 Katharin 
Elizabeth (d. 1864), daughter of Rev. Theo 
Biddulph of Bristol; (2) Fannie Maria 
Adelaide (d. 1889), daughter of Rev. W. H 
Channing of Boston, U.S.A. ; he issued 
' In my Lady's Praise ' in the year of her 
death ; (3) Tama KuroKawa of Sendai 
Japan, who survives him. He left issue 
Mr. Edwin Lester Arnold, the author, and 
four other children, two sons and two 

Arnold was a copious and animatec 
writer, and where he is describing actua 
events, often vivid and terse. Somewhat 
insensitive to the finer kinds of metrical 
effect, he is as a poet over-sensuous, and 
at times allows his glowing imagery to 
vitiate his taste. He confidently expected 
the reversion of the laureateship after 
Lord Tennyson's death. 

Apart from those already enumerated, his 
original works include (chiefly in verse) : 1. 
'Griselda, a tragedy, and other poems,' 1856. 

2. 'The Wreck of the Northern Belle,' 1857. 

3. ' The Poets of Greece,' 1869. 4. ' Indian 
Poetry,' 1881. 5. ' Pearls of the Faith,' 
1883. 6. ' The Secret of Death,' 1885. 7. 
' Lotus and Jewel,' 1887. 8. ' With Sa'di 
in the Garden,' 1888. 9. ' Japonica ' 
(papers from * Scribner's Magazine'), 1892. 
10. ' Potiphar's Wife,' 1892. 11. ' Adzuma ' 
(a story of a Japanese marriage), 1893. 12. 
'The Voyage of Ithobal,' 1901. Among 
his translations are ' Political Poems by 
Victor Hugo and Garibaldi ' (under initials 
E. A.), 1868 ; ' Hero and Leander,' from 
Musseus, 1873 ; 'The Indian Song of 
Songs from the Jayadeva,' 1875 ; ' Indian 
Idylls from the Mahabharata,' 1883 and 
1885; 'The Chaura panchasika,' 1896; 
'Sa'di's Gulistan,' parts i.-iv. 1899. He 
was also author of ' A Simple Transliteral 
Grammar of Turkish,' 1877. A collection 
of his poetical works came out in 1888. 
Selections appeared in the same year and 
' The Edwin Arnold Birthday Book ' in 1885. 

[The Times, 26 March 1904 ; Daily Tele- 
graph ; Athenaeum ; Illustrated London News 
(portrait) ; Alfred Austin's Reminiscences, ii. 
175 ; Hatton's Journalistic London ; Arena, 
April 1904; Men of the Time; Bookman, 
1901, xiii. p. 373 (caricature by Phil May); 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; private information.] 

T. S. 

(1832-1902), organist and musical com- 
poser, born on 22 Dec. 1832 at Pet worth, 

Sussex, was son of George Frederick 
Arnold, organist of the parish church 
there, by his wife Mary. He was articled 
to George William Chard [q. v.], the 
organist of Winchester Cathedral, in 1849, 
and on Chard's death the articles were 
transferred to his successor, Dr, Samuel 
Sebastian Wesley [q. v.]. Arnold was 
organist successively at St. Columba's 
College, Rathfarnham, near Dublin (1852), 
St. Mary's Church, Torquay (1856), and New 
College, Oxford (1860). He graduated Mus. 
Bac. at Oxford in 1853 and Mus. Doc. 
in 1860. In 1865 he succeeded Wesley 
at Winchester, retaining the post for the 
rest of his life. He was a fellow of the 
College of Organists, acting long as an 
examiner for that body. He died at 
Winchester on 31 Jan. 1902, and was 
buried there. He married on 6 June 1867 
Mary Lucy Roberts, who survived him with 
three sons and a daughter. An alabaster 
tablet to his memory, with a quotation 
from one of his works, was placed in the 
north transept of the cathedral in 1904. 

Arnold, whose sympathies were with 
Bach and his school, was a composer, 
chiefly of church music. His published 
compositions include a national song, ' Old 
England' (1854); an oratorio, ' Ahab,' 
produced by the National Choral Society 
at Exeter Hall (1864); 'Sennacherib,' 
a sacred cantata, produced at the Gloucester 
festival of 1883; 'The Song of the Re- 
deemed,' written for and produced at St. 
James's Church, New York (1891) ; ' An 
orchestral introduction and chorus in praise 
of King Alfred,' performed at the inaugu- 
ration of the Alfred Memorial at Winchester 
in 1901, besides two motets, two psalms, 
anthems, part songs, and two sonatas. 

[Musical Times, Nov. 1901, March 1902 
(with portrait), May 1902 ; Brown and Strat- 
ton, Musical Biog., 1897 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
private information.] F. C. 

1904), author and journalist, born at 
Hobart, Tasmania, on 18 Sept. 1852, was 
eldest son and second child of Thomas 
Arnold [q. v. Suppl. I], nephew of Matthew 
Arnold [q. v. Suppl. I], and grandson of 
Dr. Arnold of Rugby [q. v.]. His mother 
was Julia, daughter of William Sorell, 
registrar of deeds, Hobart. His elder 
sister is the well-known novelist Mrs. 
Humphry Ward; On the return of his 
parents to England in 1856 Arnold lived 
nainly with his father's kindred at Fox 
How, Ambleside. From 1862 to 1865 he 
was at the Oratory School, Birmingham, 
where his father was classical master under 




John Henry Newman [q. v.]. When 
Thomas Arnold left the Roman catholic 
church, his son was sent to Rugby, where 
he lived for a year with the headmaster, 
Frederick Temple [q. v. Suppl. II], and then 
in September 1866 entered Charles Arnold's 
house. He matriculated on 14 Oct. 1871 
at University College, Oxford, then under 
the mastership of G. G. Bradley [q. v. Suppl. 
II], and was elected to a scholarship in 
1872. He took a second class both in 
honour moderations (in 1873) and in 
lit. hum. (in 1875). After graduating 
B.A. in 1876 Arnold settled at Oxford, 
combining literary work with private 

In 1879 ho won the Arnold prize with 
an essay on ' The Roman System of 
Provincial Administration to the Accession 
of Constantino the Great.' The work, 
which was published in 1879, was a 
thorough digest of the literary and epi- 
graphic sources, and is the chief English 
authority. A new edition, revised from the 
author's notes by E. S. Shuckburgh [q. v. 
Suppl. II], appeared posthumously in 1906. 

In 1879 Arnold adopted the profession of a 
journalist, joining the staff of the ' Manches- 
ter Guardian ' and settling at Manchester. 
As writer and sub-editor he devoted his ver- 
satile energy to the * Manchester Guardian ' 
for seventeen years. A Gladstonian liberal 
in politics, he fought with courage and 
consistency through the long home rule 
controversy of 1885-95. Subsequently, in 
' German Ambitions as they affect Britain 
and the United States' (1903), a collection 
of letters originally contributed to the 
'Spectator' under the signature 'Vigilans 
et ^Equus,' Arnold proved his mastery of 
foreign contemporary literature and his 
ability to draw prudent deductions from 
it. But history, literature, and art 
continued to compete with politics for 
his interest. He helped to develop the 
literary section of the * Manchester 
Guardian,' and he encouraged local 
artists, taking an active part in the 
establishment of the Manchester School 
of Art. His house at Manchester was the 
centre of an interesting political, literary, 
and artistic circle. 

Arnold never ceased to devote his scanty 
leisure to Roman history. In 1886 he 
published a critical edition of the section 
on the Punic war in his grandfather's 
' History of Rome ' ; and contributions 
between 1886 and 1895 to the * English 
Historical Review ' showed the strength 
of his interest in ancient history. As 
years went on Arnold grew fastidious 

over writing on his chosen subject ; and 
though to the last he kept up with the latest 
research, eight chapters of an incomplete 
history of the early Roman empire, post- 
humously edited by E. Fiddes under the 
title of ' Studies in Roman Imperialism ' 
(1906), are all that remain of his accumu- 
lated material. They bear witness to his 
width of knowledge, maturity of thought, 
and cautious temper. 

Spinal disease compelled Arnold's retire- 
ment from the ' Manchester Guardian * 
in 1898, and next year he moved to 
London, where he was for a time still 
able to see friends and to write a little. 
Occasionally he travelled south. On his 
return from a visit to St. Jean-de-Luz he 
died at Carlyle Square, Chelsea, on 29 May 
1904. He was buried at Little Shelf ord, 
near Cambridge. In 1877 Arnold married 
Henrietta, daughter of Charles Wale, J.P., 
of Little Shelf ord, and granddaughter of 
Archbishop Whately [q. v.] ; she survived 
him without issue. 

In addition to the publications already 
mentioned Arnold issued a scholarly 
edition of Keats (1884; new edit. 1907). He 
was a contributor to T. Humphry Ward's 
' English Poets ' (1880-2) ; and some pene- 
trating dramatic reviews by him were 
published in 'The Manchester Stage, 
1880-1900 ' ( 1900). He revised his father's 
edition of Dryden's * Essay of Dramatic 
Poesy ' in 1903. 

[Memoir of William Thomas Arnold 
(with portrait) by his sister, Mrs. Humphry 
Ward, and his colleague of the Manchester 
Guardian, C. E. Montague, 1907 ; The Times, 
30 May 1904 ; Manchester Guardian, 30 May 
1904 ; Quarterly Review, Oct. 1905 ; Rugby 
School Register, 1842-1874, p. 266, 1902; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1888.]. G. S. W. 

LEY (1855-1909), author and politician, 
born on 19 Aug. 1855 at Dawlish in 
Devonshire, was second son and third child 
in the family of two sons and two daughters 
of William Delafield Arnold [q. v.], some- 
time director of public instruction in the 
Punjab. His mother was Frances Anne, 
daughter of General John Anthony Hodgson. 
Thomas Arnold [q. v.], headmaster of 
Rugby, was his grandfather, and Matthew 
Arnold [q. v. Suppl. I] his uncle. His 
parents took him out to Kangra when he 
was four months old. There his mother 
died in 1858 ; next year the four children 
were sent home to England, and the father, 
who followed them, died at Gibraltar on 
9 April 1859. The orphaned children were 
at once adopted by their father's eldest 



sister, Jane Martha, and her husband, 
William Edward Forster [q. v.], who had 
no children of their own. Perfect confid- 
ence and affection marked for life the rela- 
tions between foster-parents and adopted 

From a private school at Exmouth kept 
by his kinsman, John Penrose, Hugh passed 
in 1869 to Rugby, then under the head- 
mastership of Frederick Temple ; but when 
Temple was succeeded by Dr. Hayman 
[q. v. Suppl. II] Forster removed the boy 
and placed him under a private tutor. On 
24 Jan. 1874 he matriculated at University 
College, Oxford. There he graduated B.A. 
in 1877 with a first class in modern history. 
He only proceeded M.A, in 1900. At the 
time of leaving Oxford he with his brother 
and sisters formally assumed the name of 

Settling in London, Arnold-Forster read 
for the bar in the chambers of Mr. R. A. 
M'Call (now K.C.) and was called to 
Lincoln's Inn on 5 Nov. 1879. There was 
early promise of a lucrative practice, but 
on Forster's appointment as chief secretary 
for Ireland in the second Gladstone 
administration in 1880, Arnold-Forster, his 
adopted son, became his private secretary, 
and he shared Forster's labours, anxieties, 
and incessant perils through the next two 
years. During this period, too, he gave 
first proof of his literary aptitudes. In 
1881 he published anonymously ' The 
Truth about the Land League,' a damaging 
collection of facts, speeches, and documents, 
which ran through many editions and 
helped to discredit the nationalist cause 
in Great Britain. Thenceforth Arnold- 
Forster wrote much on political and social 
questions in the press or in independent 

In 1885 he became a member of 
the publishing firm of Cassell & Co., 
and devoted himself with characteristic 
thoroughness to its affairs, until he became 
absorbed in politics. For Cassell's he 
prepared many educational handbooks 
designed to propagate a wise patriotism. 
These works included ' Citizen Reader ' 
series (1886 and frequently re-issued), de- 
scribing for children the principles and 
purposes of English institutions ; ' The ' 
Laws of Every-day Life' (1889); 'This 
World of Ours,' lessons in geography 
(1891) ; 'Things New and Old' (1893, Eng- 
lish History readers in seven volumes) ; 
'History of England ior Children' (1897); 
and ' Our Great City ' (1900). He was also 
largely concerned as a member of the firm 
of Cassell's in the preparation of 'The 

Universal Atlas,' which subsequently be 
came 'The Times Atlas.' 

Meanwhile he was developing his political 
interests. In 1884, on the foundation of 
the Imperial Federation League with 
Forster for its president, he became it 
secretary, and thenceforward enthusiasti- 
cally advocated a closer union of 
empire, actively supporting the efforts 
Mr. Joseph Chamberlain in that direction 
and ultimately accepting his policy of 
tariff reform and colonial preference. From 
boyhood he had devoted himself to the 
close study of naval affairs and of warships. 
His love of the sea was insatiable, and 
he spent many a holiday cruising in a 
Thames barge, which he fitted out in quite 
homely fashion. In 1884 he inspired the 
famous articles on ' The Truth about the 
Navy ' (published by Mr. Stead in the 
'Pall Mall Gazette'), which led to a large 
increase in the navy estimates under the 
Gladstone government and to endeavours 
of later governments to place the navy 
on a footing of adequate efficiency. In 
a forecast of a modern naval battle entitled 
' In a Conning Tower ' (1888, 8th edit. 1898) 
he showed a technical knowledge remarkable 
in a civilian. 

As early as 1881 Arnold-Forster declined 
an invitation to stand for parliament as 
liberal candidate for Oxford. In 1883 a 
similar invitation from Devonport led him 
to make several speeches in that consti- 
tuency ; but before the election (of 1885) he 
followed Forster in dissent from the liberal 
policy, especially in Egypt, and he withdrew 
his candidature. He joined the newly 
formed liberal unionist party in 1886 on 
Gladstone's adoption of home rule^ and was 
defeated as a unionist candidate in June 
1886 for Darlington, and again at a bye- 
election in 1888 for Dewsbury. At the 
general election of 1892 he was elected 
for West Belfast, and retained that seat 
until 1906. As a private member of 
parliament he addressed himself with some- 
what uncompromising independence chiefly 
to naval, military j and imperial questions. 
Pamphlets on ' Our Home Army ' (1892), 
' Army Letters ' (1898); and ' The War Office, 
the Army, and the Empire ' (1900) gave him 
some reputation as a critic of military affairs. 
Interesting himself during the early stages of 
the Boer war in land settlement in South 
Africa, he pressed the subject on the 
attention of Mr. Chamberlain, then colonial 
secretary, who in August 1900 sent out a 
commission of inquiry with Arnold-Forster 
as chairman. Amid many interruptions 
and impediments he completed his task 



in South Africa by November, when he 
received and accepted Lord Salisbury's 
offer of the office of secretary of the ad- 
miralty. After drafting the report of the 
South African land commission he entered 
on his new duties. His chief, Lord Sel- 
borne, who had just succeeded George 
Joachim (afterwards Lord) Goschen [q. v. 
Suppl. II] as first lord of the admiralty, 
sat in the House of Lords. Arnold-Forster 
consequently represented the admiralty in 
the House of Commons, and exercised there 
more authority than usually belongs to a 
subordinate minister. At the admiralty he 
actively helped to carry out the drastic 
reforms which Lord Selborne initiated, 
mainly on the inspiration of Sir John 
(afterwards Lord) Fisher. He was pro- 
minent in formulating the administrative 
measures required by the new scheme of 
naval training ; he directed much admini- 
strative energy to the standardisation of 
dimensions and material in the navy, and 
to the higher organisation of defence with 
a view to the needful correlation of naval 
and military preparations of the kingdom 
and empire ; he helped in the reconstruc- 
tion of the committee of imperial defence. 

In the autumn of 1903 secessions from the 
cabinet owing to Mr. Chamberlain's promul- 
gation of the policy of tariff reform led to 
a reconstruction of Mr. Balfour's ministry 
eighth DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, Suppl. II ; 
RITCHIE OF DUNDEE; Suppl. II]. Arnold- 
Forster, an ardent supporter of tariff re- 
fornij now entered the cabinet as secretary 
of state for war in succession to Mr. St. John 
Brodrick, now Viscount Midleton, who be- 
came secretary of state for India. He was 
thereupon admitted to the privy council. 
During his recent holidays a severe strain 
had permanently affected Arnold-Forster's 
heart, and he was thenceforth hampered by 
increasing debility, but he threw himself 
into the task of reorganising the war office 
and the military forces of the crown with 
indefatigable energy. The royal com- 
mission on the South African war had 
lately reported, and schemes of reform 
were rife. The government had already 
decided to appoint a small committee to 
advise on the reconstruction of the machin- 
ery of the war office. One of Arnold- 
Forster's first administrative acts was to 
appoint Viscount Esher, Sir John Fisher, 
and Sir George Sydenham Clarke as the 
sole members of this committee, whose 
report resulted in the constitution, on a new 
and established footing, of the committee 

of imperial defence, and in the recon- 
struction of the hierarchy of the war office 
more or less on the model of the board of 
admiralty. Other reforms were initiated 
by Arnold-Forsterj but his definite views 
on problems of military organisation did 
not always find acceptance with colleagues, 
who were distracted by other political 
issues, and by the growing weakness of the 
government. Stiff in opinion, clear and 
incisive in expression, he was perhaps a little 
intolerant of the views of others equally 
entitled to be heard ; nevertheless he 
secured the acceptance of the lines on which 
in his judgment the general staff of the 
army ought to be organised. But many 
of his general schemes were frustrated by 
Mr. Balfour's resignation on 4 December 
1905, and his measures were not adopted 
by his successor. 

In 1906, owing to the distance of the 
constituency and his decline of physical 
strength, he retired from the representation 
of West Belfast, and was returned for 
Croydon. In the same year he published 
'The Army in 1906: a Policy and a 
Vindication,' his own estimate of the needs 
of the army and an account of his 
administration. In opposition he was 
energetic in his criticism of the military 
policy of Viscount Haldane, liis successor 
at the war office. His last literary effort 
was ' Military Needs and Military Policy ' 
(1908), with an introduction by Field- 
marshal Earl Roberts, an attempt to 
expose the defects which he saw in the 
liberal war minister's schemes. 

In 1907, after recovering from a grave 
attack of illness, he went with his wife and 
a son to Jamaica on the invitation of Sir 
Alfred Jones [q. v. Suppl. II] in order to 
attend a conference of the Imperial Cotton- 
Growing Association. During his stay 
there a terrible earthquake devastated 
Kingston, and destroyed Port Royal. 
Thenceforth his health steadily failed, 
although he continued his political work with 
exemplary fortitude. He died suddenly at 
his London residence in South Kensington 
on 12 March 1909, and was buried at 
Wroughton, Wiltshire, the parish in which 
his father-in-law lived. In 1884 Arnold- 
Forster married Mary, eldest daughter 
of Mervyn Herbert Nevil Story-Maskelyne 
[q. v. Suppl. II]. She survived him with 
four sons. 

With the shadow of death long hanging 
over him, no man, as Mr. Balfour remarked 
after his death, was * more absolutely 
absorbed in a great and unselfish desire 
to carry out his own public duty.' His 


6 4 


speeches in parliament were models of 
lucid exposition. He spoke, as he wrote, 
easily, fluently, and with an orderly evo- 
lution of his topics. He made no use of 
rhetorical ornament, but he seldom wearied 
his hearers, and never confused them by 
any slovenliness of preparation or obscurity 
of expression. 

He proved his versatility by publishing, 
besides the works mentioned, ' What to do 
and how to do it' (1884), a manual of the 
laws affecting the housing and sanitation 
of London ; * The Coming of the Kilo- 
gram ' (1898, 2nd edit. 1900), a defence of 
the metric system ; and ' English Socialism 
of To-day ' (1908, 3 edits.). 

[A memoir by his wife, 1910, with a list of his 
more important writings ; Hansard's Debates ; 
The Times, 13 March 1909 ; personal know- 
ledge; private information.] J. R. T. 

ARTHUR, WILLIAM (1819-1901), 
Wesleyan divine, born at Glendun, co. 
Antrim, on 3 Feb. 1819, was son of James 
Arthur, whose ancestors belonged to the 
counties of Limerick and Clare, by his 
wife Margaret Kennedy, who was of 
Scottish and Ulster descent. Shortly 
after his birth his father removed to 
Westport, co. Mayo. Brought up as an 
Episcopalian, he became a Wesleyan 
methodist, and began to preach at the age 
of sixteen, when, coming to England, he 
entered Hoxton academy for the training 
of Wesleyan ministers. Resolving to engage 
in mission work, he sailed for India on 
15 April 1839, under the auspices of the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society. In India 
he laboured at Gubbi, about eighty miles 
north-west of Bangalore; but his health 
gave way, and he returned to England in 
1841. In 1842 he was stationed at Wesley's 
chapel, City Road, London. From 1846 
to 1848 he laboured in France, first at 
Boulogne and then in Paris. In 1849 and 
1850 his ministry was in London, at Hinde 
Street and Great Queen Street. From 1851 
to 1868 he was one of the secretaries of the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society, and he was 
an honorary secretary 1888-91. From 
1868 to 1871 he was principal of the 
Methodist College, Belfast. 

Meanwhile he was elected a member of 
the legal hundred in 1856, and was 
president of the Wesleyan Conference in 
1866. In 1888 he settled at Cannes, 
where he preached occasionally in the 
Presbyterian church. He died at Cannes 
on 9 March 1901. He married on 18 June 
1850 Elizabeth Ellis Ogle of Leeds, who 
bore him six daughters. 

Arthur rendered good services to his 

church in its foreign mission work, in 
its educational enterprise, and in its home 
mission. To him was due its Metropolitan 
Chapel Building Fund in 1862, and he 
sympathised with Hugh Price Hughes 
[q. v. Suppl. II] in his ' Forward move- 
ment,' especially in modifying the three- 
years' system of pastorate. His portrait 
by Gooch is in possession of his daughter, 
Miss Arthur. 

Arthur's chief influence was exercised 
through his writings. ' The Tongue of 
Fire ' (1856 ; 18th ed. 1859) sets forth in 
glowing language and with great wealth 
of illustration the importance of spiritual 
power in life. Three books treat of 
Italy and the Papacy ; ' Italy in Transition ' 
(1860; 6th ed. 1877) describes a visit in 
1859 ; ' The Modern Jove ' (1873) reviews 
the collected speeches of Pope Pius IX ; 
' The Pope, the Kings and the People ' 
(1877, 2 vols.) is a history of the papacy 
from the issue of the ' Syllabus ' in 1864 
to the Vatican Council of 1870; Arthur 
consulted the best authorities in Italian 
and German, and criticised adversely 
Manning's ' True Story of the Vatican 
Council' (1877). 

Besides the books mentioned and numer- 
ous sermons, lectures and pamphlets, 
Arthur's works include : 1. 'A Mission 
to the Mysore,' 1847. 2. 'The Successful 
Merchant ; a Life of Samuel Budgett,' 
1852. 3. ' The People's Day,' 1855 ; llth ed. 
1856 ; an appeal to Lord Stanley against 
the opening of Exhibitions on Sunday. 
4. 'Life of Gideon Ouseley, the Irish 
Evangelist,' 1876. 

[William Arthur : a biography, by Thos. B. 
Stephenson, D.D., 1907 ; Crookshank, History 
of Methodism in Ireland, 1885 ; private 
information.] C. H. I. 

ASHBY,HENRY(1846-1908), physician, 
born at Carshalton, Surrey, on 8 March 1846, 
was the son of John and Charlotte Ashby, 
both members of the Society of Friends. 
Educated firstly at Ackworth School, near 
Pontefract, and from 1864 at the Flounder's 
Institute, Ackworth (belonging also to the 
Society of Friends), Ashby after some 
experience as a teacher entered Guy's 
Hospital. Winning the gold medal for 
clinical medicine, he was for two years 
assistant in the physiological laboratory 
and also resident obstetric and house physi- 
cian. He was admitted M.R.C.S. in 1873 
and graduated M.B. in 1874 and M.D. in 
1878 with a gold medal in the University 
of London. In 1875 he was appointed 
demonstrator of anatomy and physiology 
in the Liverpool School of Medicine and 


assistant physician to the Liverpool Infirm- 
ary for Children. In 1878 he removed to 
Manchester to become honorary physician 
to the Manchester Hospital for Diseases of 
Children (known as Pendlebury Hospital). 
From 1880 to 1882 he was evening lecturer 
on animal physiology in the Owens College, 
and from 1880 till death lecturer on diseases 
of children, first in the Owens College and 
then in the Victoria University. He be- 
came a member in 1883 and a fellow in 1890 
of the Royal College of Physicians. An 
active member of the medical societies of 
Manchester, he promoted the transfor- 
mation of the microscopical section of the 
Medical Society into the Pathological Society 
(1885), of which he was the first president 
(1885-6). He also was president of the 
Medical Society and of the Medico-Ethical 
Association. In 1902, when the British 
Medical Association visited Manchester, he 
was president of the section on children's 

Ashby, who rapidly acquired a very large 
practice as consultant on children's diseases, 
zealously devoted himself to the welfare of 
poor children. He was honorary consulting 
physician of the schools in and near Man- 
chester for the crippled and deaf and dumb. 
When the Manchester education committee 
undertook the education of the feeble- 
minded children, he helped and reported 
on the work unofficially for two years 
(1902), and was special medical adviser to 
the committee from 1904. In 1904 he gave 
important evidence before the depart- 
mental committee on physical deteriora- 
tion appointed by the lord president 
of the council Of especial value was the 
medical advice and guidance which Ashby 
gave Miss Mary Dendy, who successfully 
founded in 1898 the Lancashire and Cheshire 
society for the permanent care of the feeble- 
minded ; the object being not only to 
educate such persons but to take care of 
them throughout their lives, so as to prevent 
them transmitting their disability. Schools 
were opened, and a colony which was 
established at Sandlebridge in Cheshire 
(1902) provided in 1911 accommodation for 
268 residents. A royal commission on the 
care and control of the feeble-minded, before 
wlu'ch Ashby gave evidence of importance 
in 1905, was largely an outcome of Ashby's 
support of Miss Dendy's experiments. In 
1905 on Ashby's advice the Manchester 
education committee inaugurated a resi- 
dential school for cripple children at Swinton, 
the only one of its kind under municipal 
administration. Ashby enjoyed a world- 
wide reputation as an expert on diseases of 

VOL. LXVII. sup. ii. 

; Asher 

children, and his wards at Pendlebury were 
visited by physicians from the Conti- 
nent and America. In later life he closely 
studied the psychology of the child, and 
began a book on the subject which he 
did not live to complete. In 1905 he 
delivered the Wightman lecture on * Some 
neuroses of early life.' 

He died on 6 July 1908 at his residence, 
Didsbury, Manchester, and was cremated at 
the Manchester crematorium, his ashes being 
buried in St. James, Birch, churchyard. He 
married in 1879 Helen, daughter of the Rev. 
Francis Edward Tuke of Borden, Kent, 
and left two sons, one of whom entered the 
medical profession, and one daughter. 

A memorial scholarship was founded by 
Ashby's friends in the Victoria University of 
Manchester, to be awarded triennially for 
the encouragement of the study of diseases 
of children. A tablet placed by the family 
at Pendlebury Hospital commemorates his 
services to the institution. 

Apart from papers on diseases of children 
Ashby wrote with Mr. George Arthur 
Wright : ' Diseases of Children, Medical 
and Surgical ' (1899 ; 5th ed. 1905), a stand- 
ard text-book. His other books were : 
' Notes on Physiology ' (1878 ; 8th ed. 1910, 
edited by Ashby's son, Hugh) and ' Health 
in the Nursery ' (1898 ; 3rd ed. 1908). 

[Personal knowledge; information from 
Mrs. Ashby, Mr. Hugh Ashby, M.B. (Camb.), 
M.R.C.P., and Miss Dendy; Brit. Med. 
Journal, 25 July 1908 ; Lancet, 18 July 
1908; Manchester Guardian, 7 July 1908 
(with portrait).] E. M. B. 

ASHER, ALEXANDER (1835-1905), 
solicitor-general for Scotland, born at 
Inveravon, Banffshire, in 1835, was son of 
William Asher, parish minister of Inverness. 
After education at Elgin Academy and at 
King's College, Aberdeen, he entered Edin- 
burgh University, where he was a mem- 
ber of the Speculative Society (president 
1863-5), but did not graduate. Passing to 
the Scottish baron 10 Dec. 1861, he gradu- 
ally acquired a large practice, and 
became one of the most distinguished 
counsel of his day, his only rival being 
John Blair Balfour, first Baron Kinross 
[q. v. Suppl. II]. He took a leading part 
in numerous cases which attracted public 
attention, and he represented the United 
Free Church in litigation which ended in 
1904 with the defeat of that body. A 
strong liberal in politics, he was appointed 
in 1870, during the Gladstone ministry of 
1868-74, advocate-depute. At the general 
election of 1880 Asher was unsuccessful as 
liberal candidate for the Universities of 




Glasgow and Aberdeen ; but in' 1881 he was 
elected for the Elgin district of boroughs 
(in succession to Sir M. E. Grant Duff) and 
retained this seat for the rest of his life. He 
made no great mark in the House of Com- 
mons, where he followed Gladstone in his 
support of home rule. Meanwhile in 1881 
he became Q.C., and was solicitor-general for 
Scotland during Gladstone's later ministries 
in the years 1881-5, 1886, and 1892-4. He 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
the Universities of Aberdeen (1883) and of 
Edinburgh (1891). In 1894 he resigned office, 
' largely,' it was said, ' owing to the very 
inadequate remuneration then paid to the 
Scottish solicitor-general ' (The Times, 7 Aug. 
1905), and in the following year was elected 
dean of the faculty of advocates. Suddenly 
taken ill in London on 4 July 1905, he died 
at Beechwood, near Edinburgh, on 5 Aug. 
following, and was [buried in the church- 
yard of Corstorphine. Asher, who married 
in 1870 Caroline, daughter of the Rev. C. 
H. Gregan Craufurd, left no family. There 
is a portrait of him in the Parliament House 
at Edinburgh, painted, at the request 
of the Scottish bar, by Sir William Quiller 
Orchardson, R.A. [q. v. Suppl. II], in 1902. 
[Scotsman and The Times, 7 Aug. 1905 ; Roll 
of Alumni in Univ. and King's Coll., Aberdeen, 
1596-1860, p. 170; Hist. Speculative Soc. 
p. 150 ; Rolls of the Faculty of Advocates.] 

G. W. T. O. 

ASHLEY, EVELYN (1836-1907), bio- 
grapher of Lord Palmerston, born in 
London on 24 July 1836, was fourth son 
of Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh earl of 
Shaftesbury [q. v.], by his wife Emily, 
daughter of Peter Leopold Cowper, fifth 
Earl Cowper ; his maternal grandmother was 
sister of Lord Melbourne, and in 1839 
married as her second husband Lord 

Ashley, whose baptismal names were 
Anthony Evelyn Melbourne, was educated 
at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1858. In the 
same year he became private secretary to 
Lord Palmerston, then prime minister. 
The government was on the eve of defeat, 
and on its fall (1858) Ashley paid a visit 
to America with Lord Frederick Cavendish 
[q. v.] and Lord Richard Grosvenor, after- 
wards Lord Stalbridge. Next year Lord 
Palmerston [returned to office, and Ashley 
acted as his private secretary until the 
prime minister's death in 1865. Mean- 
while he made more than one eventful 
excursion abroad. In 1860 he told 
Lord Palmerston that he was going to 
Italy to see what Garibaldi was doing 

and should take full advantage of his 
official position. Lord Palmerston replied 
that what his secretary did during his 
holiday was no business of his. With 
this implied permission, Ashley presented 
himself to Garibaldi in camp and was 
given ample facilities for watching the 
progress of the campaig;n. In 1863 he 
accompanied Laurence Oliphant [q. v.] on 
an expedition into the Russian province 
of Volhynia, where they were arrested 
on suspicion of being Polish insurgents 
(OLIPHANT, Episodes in a Life of Adventure, 
p. 333). In 1865 he was attached to the 
mission sent to convey the Order of 
the Garter to King Christian IX of Den- 
mark, and was then created a commander 
of the Danish Order of the Dannebrog. 

In 1864 Ashley joined Algernon Borth- 
wick [q. v. Suppl. II] and others in pro- 
ducing ' The Owl,' the forerunner of society 
newspapers. The editors were intimately 
acquainted with current public and private 
affairs, and secured contributions of literary 
value. The publication attracted much 
attention during the six years of its exist- 
ence. Ashley had become a student of 
Lincoln's Inn on 22 Nov. 1856, and was 
called to the bar in 1863. After Lord 
Palmerston's death (1865) he joined the 
Oxford circuit; he held the office of 
treasurer of county courts from 1863 until 
1874. He devoted most of his time to 
the completion of ' The Life of Lord 
Palmerston,' which had been begun by 
Lord Dalling, but was interrupted by his 
death in 1872. Lord Dalling published in 
1870 two volumes and had written part 
of a third. This Ashley finished in 1874, 
and he added two concluding volumes 
which he published in 1876. Though new 
material has since been published, the book 
still holds standard rank. 

In 1874 Ashley entered parliament as a 
member of the liberal party. At the 
general election in February he had been 
defeated in the Isle of Wight, but he was 
returned for Poole, Dorset, at a bye-election 
on 26 May 1874. As a private member 
he persistently but unsuccessfully en- 
deavoured to pass a bill to enable accused 
persons to give evidence. The principle 
was eventually sanctioned by Lord Hals- 
bury's Act of 1898. In 1879 he distin- 
guished himself by his defence of Sir Bartle 
Frere from an attack by members of 
his own party. At the general election 
of 1880 he was returned for the Isle of 
Wight and was appointed under-secretary 
to the board of trade in Gladstone's 
second administration. The president, 


Mr. Chamberlain, was also in the House of 
Commons, so that Ashley's parliamentary 
duties were light, but he presided over the 
railway rates committee (1881-2). In 
1882 he was transferred to the colonial 
office ; the secretary of state was Lord 
Derby, and Ashley represented his depart- 
ment in the House of Commons. To him 
fell the important task of explaining 
the conditions of service in which the 
Australian contingents were to proceed 
to the Soudan in 1885. From 1880 to 
1885 he was one of the ecclesiastical 

At the general election of 1885 Ashley 
was beaten in the Isle of Wight by Sir 
Richard Webster (Lord Alverstone). When 
Gladstone announced his adoption of 
the principle of home rule, Ashley joined 
the liberal unionists. At the general 
election of 1886 he stood as a liberal unionist 
for North Dorset, and was beaten. Thence- 
forward he sustained a series of defeats 
at Glasgow, Bridge ton division, in 1887, at 
tin! Ayr boroughs in 1888, and at Ports- 
mouth in 1892 and 1895. Of statesmanlike 
temper, he was brought up in an older 
political school, and was untrained in 
modern electioneering methods; on the 
mass of voters his intellectual ability and 
attainments made small impression. Al- 
though his active interest in county politics 
never declined, he made no further attempt 
to renew his parliamentary career. 

On the death in 1888 of his uncle, 
William Cowper-Temple, Lord Mount- 
Temple [q. v. Suppl. I], Ashley succeeded 
to the properties bequeathed to Mount- 
Temple by Lord Palmerston, his stepfather 
Broadlands, Romsey and Classiebawn, 
co. Sligo. He was sworn of the privy 
council in 1891. He was D.L. Hamp- 
shire and J.P. Hampshire, Dorset, and 
Sligo, an alderman of the Hampshire 
county council, official verderer of the 
New Forest, and five times mayor 
of Romsey ( 1 898-1902). He was also chair- 
man of the Railway Passengers' Assurance 
Company. He died at Broadlands on 
15 Nov. 1907, and was buried at Romsey. 

Ashley married twice: (1) in 1866, 
Sybella, daughter of Sir Walter and Lady 
Mary Farquhar (d. 1886), by whom he left 
MIC son (Wilfrid, M.P. for the Blackpool 
division of Lancashire since 1906) and one 
daughter ; (2) in 1891, Alice, daughter 
of William Willoughby Cole, third earl of 
Enmskil leu, by whom he left one son. 
A portrait painted by Miss Emmett in 
1899 is at Broadlands. A cartoon by 
Spy ' apprared in ' Vanity Fair' in 1883. 


[The Timea, 16 Nov. 1907 ; Daily Telagraph, 
16 Nov. 1907; Blackpool Herald, 16 Nov. 
1907; private sources; cf. Lucy's Disraeli 
Parliament, pp. 57 et seq.] R. L. 

(1849-1902), politician. [See BARTLETT, SIR 


1911), Japanese scholar, born near 
Londonderry on 9 April 1841, was son of 
George Robert Aston, minister of the 
Unitarian Church of Ireland and school- 
master. Receiving early education from 
his father, he matriculated at Queen's 
College, Belfast, 1859, and after a distin- 
guished career as a student, graduated in 
the Queen's University of Ireland, B.A. in 
1862 and M.A. in 1863, on both occasions 
being gold medallist in classics and 

| taking honours also in modern languages 
and literature. In 1890 he was made by 
the Queen's University hon. D.Lit. 

In 1864 Aston was appointed student 
interpreter in the British Consular Service 
in Japan, and in the autumn joined the 
staff of the British legation at Yedo 
(Tokio), where (Sir) Ernest Satow was 
already filling a like position. 

Aston's official career extended over 
twenty-five highly interesting years in 
the history of Japan and Korea. Sir 
Harry Parkes [q. v.] became envoy at Yedo 
in 1865, and it was largely on the advice 

j of Aston and Satow, based on the result of 

| their historical researches, that Parkes sup- 
ported the revolutionary movement in Japan 
in 1868, and unlike the diplomatic representa- 
tives of other western powers hastened to 

acknowledge the new government of the 

i emperor. From 1875 to 1880 Aston was 
assistant Japanese secretary of the British 
Legation at Tokio, and from 1880 to 1883 
consul at Hiogo. He prepared the way for 
the first British treaty with Korea, which 
was signed on 26 Nov. 1883, and from 1884 
to 1886 was British consul-general in Korea. 
He was the first European consular officer 
to reside in Soul, and he was present 
through the early troubles that marked 

| Korea's first entry into the world, including 
the sanguinary 6meute at the capital in 

I 1884. From 1886 to 1889 Aston was 
Japanese secretary of the British legation 
at Tokio. 

From his first arrival in Japan Aston rapidly 
turned to advantage his linguistic aptitudes, 
which proved of value in his official work 
and eventually gave him a high reputation 
as a Japanese scholar. When he reached 

i Japan, scarcely half a dozen Europeans 

I had succeeded in acquiring a practical 




knowledge of the language. There was 
hardly a phrase book ; there were no 
dictionaries, and no elementary grammar 
either for Europeans or for Japanese 
students, grammar being ignored in the 
Japanese school and college curriculum, I 
and left entirely to philologists, whose 
works (few in number) were too abstruse 
for study by any but the most advanced 
students. Not until ten years after 
Aston's arrival was the first attempt 
at a grammar on European models pub- 
lished by the education department of the 
imperial government. Aston in the interval 
not only acquired a complete, accurate, 
and eloquent command of the spoken 
language, and a facility of using the 
written language, which is different from 
the spoken in essential characteristics, but he 
compiled grammars (1869 and 1872) of both 
the spoken and written Japanese languages 
on the European method, and on lines of 
scientific philology. Aston's grammars were 
superseded by the more comprehensive 
works of Professor Basil Hall Chamberlain 
on ' Colloquial Japanese ' (1888) and * The 
Study of Japanese Writing' (1899), but 
Aston led the way in the arduous task. 
Later he extended his studies into Chinese 
and Korean philology, and was the first 
among either European or Asiatic scholars 
to show the affinity of the Korean and 
Japanese languages. 

At the same time Aston was an original 
and exhaustive investigator of the history, 
religion, political system, and literature of 
Japan. He was the first European to 
complete a literal translation of the Nihongi, 
the ' Ancient Chronicles of Japan ' (1896) ; 
this work and Professor Chamberlain's 
translation of the Kojiki, the Ancient Re- 
cords, form the original authorities for the 
mythology and history of ancient Japan. 
The original is written in the most abstruse 
style, and Aston for the purpose of his 
translation, which though literal is grace- 
ful and simple, had to consult hundreds 
of explanatory volumes by native com- 
mentators, as well as the Chinese classics. 

His subsequent works on ' Japanese Liter- 
ature ' (1899) and on ' Shinto ' (1905), the 
indigenous religion of Japan, became recog- 
nised text-books ; they have been trans- 
lated into Japanese and are used and quoted 
by leading native scholars in Japan. 
Aston also wrote on historical and philo- 
logical subjects in the ' Transactions ' of the 
Asiatic Society of Japan, the Japan Society, 
and the Royal Asiatic Society of London. 
According to Dr. Haga, professor of litera- 
ture in Tokio University, Aston's literary 

exertions, combined with those of Satow 
and Chamberlain, generated that thorough 
understanding of the Japanese by the 
English which culminated in the Anglo - 
Japanese alliance of 1902. 

On retiring from Japan on a pension in 
1889, Aston was made C.M.G. Thence- 
forward he resided at Beer, South Devon, 
where he died on 22 Nov. 1911. He had 
long suffered from pulmonary trouble, but 
ill-health never diminished his geniality. 
He married in 1871 Janet, daughter of 
R. Smith of Belfast ; she predeceased him, 
without issue. His unique collection of 
native Japanese books, numbering some 
9500 volumes and including many rare 
block printed editions, was acquired for 
Cambridge University library in January 

[The Times, 23 Nov. 1911, 2 Feb. 1912; 
Foreign Office List ; Who's Who, 1911 ; 
personal knowledge.] J. H. L. 

ATKINSON, ROBERT (1839-1908), 
philologist, born at Gateshead on 6 April 
1839, was only child of John Atkinson, who 
was in business there, by his wife Ann. 
After education at the Anchorage grammar 
school close to his home from 1849 to 1856, 
he matriculated in Trinity College, Dublin, 
on 2 July 1856, but he spent the years 
1857 and 1858 on the Continent, principally 
at Liege. There he laid the foundation of 
his knowledge of the Romance languages. 
On his return to Ireland he worked as a 
schoolmaster in Kilkenny till he won a 
Trinity College scholarship in 1862. Thence- 
forward his academic progress was rapid. 
He graduated B.A. on 16 Dec. 1863, M.A. 
in 1866, and LL.D. in 1869. In 1891 he 
received the honorary degree of D.Litt. 

In 1869 Atkinson became university 
professor of the Romance languages, and 
from 1871 till near his death he filled at the 
same time the chair of Sanskrit and com- 
parative philology. His masterly powers 
of linguistic analysis made him an admir- 
able teacher, notably of composition in 
Latin and Romance tongues, while the 
immense range of his linguistic faculty 
enabled pupils of adequate capacity to 
learn in his classroom languages new to 
them, with almost magical rapidity and 

Atkinson was both a linguist and a 
philologist of exceptional power and range. 
With equal facility he taught not only most 
of the Romance languages but also Sanskrit, 
Tamil,Telugu, and other Indian tongues. He 
was a brilliant Hebrew scholar, and Persian, 
Arabic, and several languages of Central and 
Western Asia were familiar to him. In all 


6 9 


the many forms of speech that he studied 
he acquired a mastery of colloquial idiom 
and of pronunciation, as well as of the 
literary style. In lu's later years he 
devoted his leisure to Chinese, and at his 
death he had completed a dictionary of that 
tongue. The * Key ' which he intended to 
accompany it, and without which it could 
not be used, he did not live to complete. 
The MS. as it stands has been presented 
by his widow to the library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. 

A scientific philologist, Atkinson was 
always intent upon analysis of the structure 
of a language rather than on its literature. 
His philological teaching impressed on his 
pupils the principle of law in language, as 
opposed to theories of ' sporadic changes.' 
Therein he long anticipated Brugmann 
and the new school of philologists. 

The most important outcome of 
Atkinson's study of Romance languages 
was a scholarly edition of a Norman-French 
poem attributed to Matthew Paris, and 
entitled ' Vie de Seint Auban ' (1876). 

In Sanskrit learning Atkinson confined 
himself to the language of the Vedas 
and to Sanskrit grammar, planning and 
partially writing a Vedic dictionary, and 
learning by heart, as Pandits have done 
for twenty-four centuries, the whole of the 
intricate masterpiece of the great gram- 
marian Panini. 

In addition, Atkinson was both an 
expert scholar in Celtic and an advanced 
scholar in Coptic, the Christian descendant 
of the ancient Egyptian language. In 
two communications dealing with the 
latter, and made by him to the Royal 
Irish Academy (Proc. 3rd series, iii. 24, 225) 
in 1 893, he subjected to searching examin- 
ation a series of Coptic texts published 
during the preceding ten years by Pro- 
fessor Rossi and M. Bouriant. It was 
not perhaps difficult to show the inferior 
character of these publications ; but the 
service rendered by Atkinson was to 
enter a much-needed protest against a 
tendency to ' play hieroglyphics ' with 
Coptic texts. In the decipherment of the 
ancient Egyptian language there is room, 
no doubt, for conjecture and hypothesis : 
in Coptic, as Atkinson showed once and for 
all, the rules of accidence and syntax are 
fully known, and editing and translation 
should proceed with the scientific regularity 
of any other better known Oriental 

On 11 Jan. 1876 Atkinson was elected a 
member of the Royal Irish Academy, and 
in March became a member of ite council. 

In 1876 he was chosen librarian. Secre- 
tary of council from 1878 to 1901, he was 
then elected president. Meanwhile in 
1884 he was Todd professor of the Celtic 
languages in the academy, delivering an 
inaugural lecture on Irish lexicography 
! on 13 April 1885. His connection with the 
i Royal Irish Academy drew him to Celtic 
studies. His Celtic work was that of a 
pioneer, being undertaken before many 
1 fundamental principles of old Irish grammar 
were recognised. But he edited two docu- 
ments which are of the utmost importance 
for the student of the history of the Irish 
language. Of these the first was ' The 
| Passions and Homilies from the Leabhar 
I Breac,' with translation and glossary 
j (Dublin 1887 ; perhaps the most im- 
portant source of information with regard 
to Middle Irish), to which he appended the 
' Todd Introductory Lecture on Irish Lexi- 
cography.' His second Irish publication 
of great philological value was Keating's 
'Three Shafts of Death ' (Tri Bior-gaoithe 
an Bhais, Dublin, 1890), with glossary 
and appendices on the linguistic forms. 
He also wrote valuable introductions and 
analyses of contents for several of the MS. 
facsimiles issued by the Royal Irish Acad- 
emy, viz. 'The Book of Leinster ' (1880), 
'The Book of Ballymote' (1887), and 'The 
Yellow Book of Lecan ' (1896). With Dr. 
John Bernard, now bishop of Ossory, he 
edited for the Henry Bradshaw Society 
in 1898 'The Irish Liber Hymnorum' 
(2 vols). A ' Glossary to the Ancient Laws 
of Ireland' which he prepared for the 
' Rolls' series, 1901, was severely criticised 
by Whitley Stokes [q. v. Suppl. II]. To 
Irish, Atkinson added a knowledge of Welsh. 
To Welsh grammatical study he contributed 
a paper ' On the use of the Subjunctive 
Mood in Welsh ' (Trans. Royal Irish Acad. 

Atkinson's varied energies were by no 
means confined to philology, he being an 
accomplished botanist and a fine violinist. 
In 1907 his health failed. He died on 
10 Jan. 1908 at his residence, Clareville, 
Rathmines, near Dublin, and was buried at 
Waltonwrays cemetery, Skipton, Yorkshire. 
On 28 Dec. 1863 he married, at Gates- 
head, Hannah Maria, fourth daughter of 
Thomas and Elizabeth Whitehouse Harbutt 
of that town. The only child, Herbert 
Jefcoate Atkinson, became a civil engineer. 
[Obituary notices in the Times, 13 Jan. 
1908 ; Athenaeum, 18 Jan. 1908 ; Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, April 1908, and 
Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 
July 1908 ; information received from Atkin- 



son's family, and personal reminiscences 
of the writer, who has also to record his 
obligations to Professor W. Ridgeway, of 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, for a 
note on Atkinson as an authority on the 
Romance languages, to Mr. E. 0. Quiggin, 
Gonville and Caius College, and to Mr. Stephen 
Gaselee, Magdalene College, Cambridge, for 
similar notes dealing respectively with his 
studies in Celtic and Coptic.] G. A. G-N. 

ATTHILL, LOMBE (1827-1910), 
obstetrician and gynaecologist, born on 
3 Dec. 1827 at Ardess, Magheraculmoney, 
co. Fermanagh, was youngest of ten sur- 
viving children of William Atthill (1774- 
1847). The father, of a Norfolk family, 
after graduating in 1795 as second wrangler 
and Smith's prizeman, became fellow of 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 
acted as chaplain (1798-1804) to his 
relative, Dr. Porter, bishop of Clogher, and 
was thenceforth beneficed in Ireland. 
Atthill's mother was Henrietta Margaret 
Eyre, eldest daughter of George Maunsell, 
dean of Leighlin. Atthill's elder brother, 
John Henry Grey Atthill, became chief 
justice of St. Lucia. 

After attending the grammar school, 
Maidstone,- Kent (1839-41), he returned 
to Ireland to prepare for Trinity College, 
Dublin. In June 1844 he was apprenticed 
to Maurice Collis, a surgeon to the Meath 
Hospital, Dublin, and in July he entered 
Trinity. In July 1847, while under twenty, 
he obtained the licence of the Royal College 
of Surgeons in Ireland, and in 1849 he 
graduated B.A. and M.B. of Dublin Uni- 
versity, and in 1865 M.D. 

In 1847 he became honorary surgeon to 
a charitable dispensary in Fleet Street, 
Dublin, where he gained much experience 
of typhus, small-pox, and other infective 
fevers, and during the following winter 
was assistant demonstrator in the Park 
Street School of Medicine. From 1848 to 
1850 he was dispensary doctor of the 
district of Geashill in King's County. In 
1850 he settled in Dublin and was made 
assistant physician to the Rotunda 
Hospital in 1851. While in the Rotunda 
Hospital for the usual period of three 
years he endeavoured, without much 
success, to build up a private practice. 
A period of pecuniary struggle followed. 
In 1860 he was elected fellow of the 
King's and Queen's College of Physicians 
and from that year to 1868 was registrar 
of the college. In 1868 there was a turn 
of fortune. He joined the staff of the 
Adelaide Hospital and was given charg 
of a ward for the treatment of diseases 

peculiar to women, the first appointment 
f the kind in any Dublin hospital. Gynae- 
cology was practically a new study, and 
thenceforth Atthill, by his teaching and 
vritings, did much for its development. 
He was one of the first in Ireland success- 
ully to perform the operation of ovariotomy, 
lis first two cases being successful. In 
November 1875 he was elected master of 
the Rotunda Hospital, and thus com- 
manded the best field in the kingdom 
:or obstetric and gynaecological experience, 
[n the Rotunda Hospital he gave gynaeco- 
.ogy a place almost as important as mid- 
wifery. He re-organised the working of 
that institution by the introduction of 
Listerian principles, and practically drove 
puerperal sepsis from the wards (JOHNSTON, 
Proc. of the Dublin Obstetrical Society, 
1875-6, p. 28; SMYLY, Trans, of the 
Royal Acad. of Med. in Ireland, 1891). 
From 1874 to 1876 he was president of 
the Dublin Obstetrical Society. He was 
president of the obstetric section of the 
Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland in 
1884-5, and again in 1895-7, and was 
president of the Academy 1900-3. In 1888 
he was elected president of the Irish College 
of Physicians, and from 1889 to 1903 repre- 
sented the college on the General Medical 
Council. In 1898 he retired from practice, 
in which he finally achieved great success. 
He died suddenly on the platform of 
Strood railway station near Rochester on 
14 September 1910. He was buried at 
Mount Jerome cemetery, Dublin. He 
married (1) in April 1850 Elizabeth 
(d. 1870), daughter of James Dudgeon 
of Dublin, by whom he had one son 
and nine daughters ; and (2) on 1 June 
1872 Mary, daughter of Robert Christie of 
Manchester, and widow of John Duffey of 
Dublin, mother of Sir George Duffey, a 
president of the Royal College of 
Physicians of Ireland. 

Atthill published at Dublin in 1871 ' Clini- 
cal Lectures on Diseases Peculiar to Women ' 
(7th edit. 1883 ; reprinted in America, 5th 
edit. 1882 ; and translated into French 
1882, and Spanish 1882). Consisting of 
lectures to students in the Adelaide 
Hospital, the book embodied the results 
of Atthill's own experience, and was for many 
years regarded as the best English text-book 
on the subject. In 1910 he published in 
the ' British Medical Journal ' (1910, vol. i.) 
' Recollections of a Long Professional Life,' 
afterwards reprinted for private circula- 
tion. Posthumously in 1911 there appeared 
his 'Recollections of an Irish Doctor,' an 
interesting reminiscence of Irish life prior 


Austen Leigh 

to the famine, and a modest description 
of Atthill's early struggles. Atthill con- 
tributed much to professional journals. 

[AtthilTs Recollections, supra ; Medical Press 
and Circular, 21 Sept. 1910 ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry ; Todd's Dublin Graduates ; MS. En- 
trance Book, Trin. Coll., Dublin ; Proc. 
Dublin Obstetrical Soc. ; Trans. Royal Acad. 
of Medicine in Ireland ; private sources.] 

R, J. R. 

AUMONIER, JAMES (1832-1911), 
landscape painter, born in Camberwell on 
9 April 1832, was son of Henry Collingwood 
Aumonier, a jeweller, by his wife, Nancy 
Frances, daughter of George Stacy. The 
family was of French descent. A younger 
brother did excellent work as an engraver, 
and a nephew, Stacy Aumonier, became a 
landscape painter and decorative designer. 
James's childhood was spent at Highgate 
and High Barnet, and at fourteen he 
\v,-is placed in a business which was 
little to his taste. For some time he 
attended the evening classes, first at the 
Birkbeck Institution, then known as the 
Mechanics' Institute, and subsequently at 
South Kensington, where he worked with 
such application that he soon found em- 
ployment as a designer of calicoes in a 
London firm. 

Meanwhile he used all his spare time 
to practise landscape painting out of doors, 
working in the early morning hours in the 
cloisters of Westminster and in Kensington 
Gardens, and later in Epping Forest. He 
exhibited for the first time at the Royal 
Academy in 1871, but continued his work 
in the factory until after 1873, when Sir 
Newton Mappin purchased a picture shown 
by Aumonier at the Royal Academy, ' An 
English Cottage; Home.' The title is 
typical of the class of subject that 
appealed most forcibly to Aumonier. He 
devoted himself almost exclusively to 
the painting of the peaceful English 
countryside, and showed a special pre- 
IV n -nee for the warm golden tints of 
autumn and of the late afternoon. A true 
lover of nature, he took her facts as he found 
(lion, without imposing upon her his own 
idi as of pictorial fitness. Aumonier never 
left England until 1891, when he visited 
Venice and the Venetian Alps, but he always 
preferred to find his subjects in his own 

He became associate of the Royal In- 
stitute of Painters in Water-colours in 1876, 
and was one of the original members of the 
Institute of Oil Painters. In 1889 he was 
awarded a gold medal for water-colour in 
Paris, and a bronze medal for oil painting 

at Adelaide. He also received a silver 
medal at the Brussels exhibition in 1897. 
An exhibition of his water-colour drawings 
was held at the Leicester Galleries in 1908, 
and another of his work in oils as well 
at the Goupil Gallery in March 1912. 
Among his best pictures are ' When the 
Tide is Out,' 'The Silver Lining of the 
Cloud ' (both in the Royal Academy of 1895), 
'In the Fen Country,' 'The Old Sussex 
Farmstead,' ' Sunday Evening,' and, above 
all, ' Sheep Washing,' now in the Chantrey 
bequest collection at the Tate Gallery, 
which also owns his ' Black Mountains.' 
He is represented, too, in the municipal 
galleries of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, 
Liverpool, Sheffield, Oldham, Adelaide, and 
Perth (Western Australia). 

Aumonier died in London on 4 Oct. 1911, 
and his remains were cremated at Woking. 
He married in 1863 Amelia Wright, and 
had two sons and two daughters. A 
sketch portrait in oils by James Charles 
[q. v. Suppl. II] was executed in 1900. 

[Studio, vol. xx. 1900 ; Morning Post, Oct. 
1911 ; private information.] P. G. K. 

CHANDLER ROBERTS- (1843-1902), 
metallurgist. [See ROBERTS- AUSTEN.] 

1905), thirty-second provost of King's 
College, Cambridge, born at Scarlets, 
Berkshire, on 17 July 1840, was sixth son 
of J. Edward Austen (after 1836 Austen 
Leigh, who died vicar of Bray (Berks) in 
1874) and of Emma (d. 1876), daughter 
of Charles Smith, M.P., of Suttons in Essex. 

Austen Leigh entered Eton as a colleger 
in 1852; in 1858-9 he played cricket for 
the school. In 1859 ho entered King's 
College, Cambridge, as a scholar on the 
foundation, gained a Browne medal for Latin 
ode, and a members' prize for Latin essay 
in 1862, graduated as fourth classic in 1863, 
and proceeded M.A. in 1866. Ho became 
fellow of his college in 1862, was ordained 
deacon by the bishop of Lincoln (visitor of 
the college) in 1865, and from 1865 to 
1867 was curate of Henley-on-Thames. 
He never proceeded to priest's orders. 

In 1867 he returned to King's College, 
where he passed the rest of his life, taking 
an active part in teaching and adminis- 
trative work. From 1868 to 1881 he was 
tutor, dean in 1871-3 and again in 1882-5, 
and from 1877 to 1889 vice-provost. On 
the death of Richard Okes [q. v.] he was 
elected provost (9 Feb. 1889). In 1876-80 
and again in 1886-90 ho was a member of 
the council of the senate, and in 1893-5 he 
served the office of vice-chancellor. 


Austen Leigh's work was that of an 
administrator, and his leading character- 
istics were fair-mindedness, courtesy, and 
unsparing industry. In the year in which 
he entered King's College, the old privilege 
of the foundation, in virtue of which Kings- 
men were admitted to the degree of B.A. 
without passing any university examina- 
tion, had been surrendered. This was only 
the first of a long series of reforms, which 
took shape in two successive bodies of 
statutes, ratified in 1861 and 1882 respec- 
tively. Under these the college, hitherto 
a close corporation of Eton collegers, was 
thrown open to the world. In the furthering 
of these reforms and in guiding their pro- 
gress with justice and moderation, lay the 
principal achievement of Austen Leigh's 
life. As provost, he presided over the 
college with striking success during a period 
of its history remarkable for intellectual 
growth. He was an active member of the 
governing body of Eton College from 1889, 
and from 1890 did equally good service as a 
governor of Winchester College. Others of 
his interests are indicated by the fact that 
he was president of the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Musical Society (from 1883), and of 
the university cricket club (from 1886). 
On 20 Jan. 1905 he died suddenly 
in his house at Cambridge of angina 
pectoris, and was buried at Grantchester. 
On 9 July 1889 he had married Florence 
Emma, eldest daughter of G. B. Austen 
Lefroy, but left no issue. 

A portrait by the Hon. John Collier is 
in possession of his college. 

His only published work is a ' History of 
King's College ' (in * Cambridge University 
College Histories ') 1899. 

[Personal knowledge ; Augustus Austen 
Leigh : a Record of College Reform, by W. 
Austen Leigh, 1906.] M. R. J. 

AYERST, WILLIAM (1830-1904), 
divine, bora at Dantzig on 16 March 1830, 
was eldest son of William Ayerst, vicar of 
Egerton, Kent. Educated at King's College, 
London (1847-9), he became in 1849 
scholar and Lyon exhibitioner of Caius 
College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. with 
a third class in the classical tripos and 
junior optimc in 1853, and M.A. in 1856. 
Ordained deacon in 1853 and priest in 
1854, he served the curacies successively 
of All Saints, Gordon Square (1853-5), 
St. Paul's, Lisson Grove (1855-7), and St. 
Giles'-in-the-Fields (1857-9). Whilst work- 
ing as a curate he won the Hulsean prize 
at Cambridge in 1855 and the Norrisian 
prize in 1858. In 1859 Ayerst went out 
to India as rector of St. Paul's School 



Calcutta. In 1861 he was appointed to 
a chaplaincy on the Bengal ecclesiastical 
establishment ; served as senior chaplain 
with the Khyber field force from 1879 
to 1881, and received the Afghan medal. 
Returning to London, he was appointed 
by the London Society for Promoting 
Christianity amongst the Jews principal of 
its missionary college and minister of the 
Jews' Episcopal Chapel, Cambridge Heath, 
but accepted in 1882 the vicarage of 
Hungarton with Twyford and Thorpe 
Satchville, Leicestershire. In 1884 he 
opened at Cambridge a hostel, Ayerst Hall, 
designed to aid men of modest means in 
obtaining a university degree and theo- 
logical training. He resigned his living 
in 1886, but served as curate of Newton, 
Cambridgeshire, from 1888 to 1890, and 
continued his work at Ayerst Hall until 1897. 

In 1885 the church party in Natal, which 
had stood by Bishop Colenso after his 
deposition from the see of Natal, and 
continued after his death an independent 
ecclesiastical existence, formally applied 
to the English archbishops through the 
church council of Natal for the consecration 
of a successor to Colenso. The request 
was refused. After some delay, Ayerst 
accepted the offer of the bishopric, and 
again attempts were made to obtain con- 
secration. This, in spite of Ayerst's 
persistency, was definitely refused by Arch- 
bishop Benson on 21 Oct. 1891. During 
his later years Ayerst lived quietly in 
London, where he died on 6 April 1904. 

Ayerst married (1) in 1859 Helen Sarah 
Hough Drawbridge, by whom he had ten 
children, of whom three sons and a daughter 
survived him ; and (2) in 1893 Annie 
Young Davidson. He published ' The 
Influence of Christianity on the Language 
of Modern Europe ' (1856) and ' The Penta- 
teuch its Own Witness ' (1858). 

[Guardian, 13 April 1904 ; A. C. Benson's 
Life of Edward White Benson, 1899, ii. 484- 
511 ; C. F. Pascoe. Two Hundred Years of the 
S.P.G., 1901, p. 334 ; Cambridge University 
Calendar ; private information.] A. R. B. 

1908), electrical engineer and physicist, 
born in London on 14 Sept. 1847, was son 
of an able barrister, Edward Nugent Ayrton 
(1815-1873), and nephew of Acton Smee 
Ayrton [q. v.] [see for earlier relatives 
Ayrton's father, a distinguished linguist, had 
severe ideas of education, and tried, without 
much success, to enforce on his son the 
practice of speaking different languages 
(including Hebrew) on each day of the 




week. After attending University Col- 
lege school from 1859 to 1864, he entered 
University College 1 London in 1864-5, 
and in July 1865 and July 1866 took the 
Andrews mathematical scholarships for 
first and second year students respectively. 
In 1867 he passed the first B.A. exami- 
nation of the University of London, with 
second-class honours in mathematics, and 
entered the Indian telegraph service, being 
sent by government on passing the entrance 
examination to Glasgow to study electricity 
under (Sir) William Thomson, afterwards 
Lord Kelvin [q. v. Suppl. II]. Of his work 
in Kelvin's laboratory he gave a vivid 
account in 'The Times,' 8 Jan. 1908. 
After some practical study at the works 
of the Telegraph Construction and Main- 
tenance Company he went out to Bombay in 
1868, his appointment as assistant-superin- 
tendent of the fourth grade dating from 
1 Sept. 1868. With Mr. C. L. Schwendler, 
electrician on special duty, he soon worked 
out methods of detecting faults which 
revolutionised the Indian overland system 
of telegraphs. In 1871 Ayrton was moved 
to Alipur ; returning on short leave, he 
married in London, on 21 Dec. 1871, his 
cousin, Matilda Chaplin [see AYRTON, 
MATILDA CHAPLIN]. In 1872-3 he again 
returned to England for special investi- 
gations ; and was also placed in charge of 
the testing for the Great Western Rail- 
way telegraph factory under (Sir) William 
Thomson and Fleeming Jenkin [q. v.]. In 
1873 the Japanese government founded 
the Imperial Engineering College at ToWo, 
which became for a time the largest 
technical university in the world. Ayrton 
accepted the chair of physics and telegraphy, 
and proceeding to Japan created a labora- 
tory for teaching applied electricity. The 
first of its kind, this laboratory served as a 
model for those which Ayrton himself orga- 
nised in England later, and through them 
for numerous other laboratories elsewhere. 
During the five years in Japan Ayrton with 
his colleague, Professor John Perry, carried 
out an extraordinarily large amount of 
experimental work ; their joint researches 
include the first determinations of the dielec- 
tric constant of gases and an important 
memoir on the significance of this constant 
in the definition of the electrostatic unit of 
quantity ; memoirs on the viscosity of 
dielectrics, the theory of terrestrial mag- ! 
netism, on electrolytic polarisation, con- 
tact electricity, telegraphic tests, the 
thermal conductivity of stone, a remarkably 
ingenious solution of the mystery of 
Japanese * magic ' mirrors, and a paper 

interesting to the philosophy of aesthetics 
on ' The Music of Colour and Visible 
Motion.' In 1878 Ayrton returned, home 
and acted as scientific adviser to Messrs. 
( Josiah) Latimer Clark [q. v.] and Muirhead. 
In 1879 Ayrton became a professor of the 
City and Guilds of London Institute for the 
Advancement of Technical Education, an 
institution founded by certain City com- 
panies. He delivered the inaugural address 
on 1 Nov., and began the institute's work 
in the basement of the Middle Class Schools, 
Cowper Street. He and Professor Henry 
Edward Armstrong, F.R.S., the chemist, 
were at first the sole professors, and his 
first class consisted of an old man and a boy 
of fourteen. Perry soon joined the small 
staff and the movement spread rapidly. In 
1881 the governors of the institute laid the 
foundation of two colleges, the Finsbury 
Technical College and the Central Technical 
(now the City and Guilds) College, 
South Kensington. Ayrton acted as 
professor of applied physics at Finsbury 
from 1881 till 1884, and then became 
first professor of physics and electrical 
engineering in the Central Technical 
College, a post which he held till his 

Ayrton and Perry continued till about 
1891 their scientific partnership ; in 1881 
they invented the surface-contact system 
for electric railways with its truly absolute 
block system, which in 1882 they applied 
together with Fleeming Jenkin to ' telpher- 
age,' a system of overhead transport used 
little in England, but to a greater extent in 

In 1882 Ayrton and Perry brought out 
the first electric tricycle ; they next in- 
vented in rapid succession a whole series 
of portable electrical measuring instruments, 
an ammeter (so named by the inventors), 
an electric power meter, various forms of 
voltmeter, and an instrument for measuring 
self and mutual induction. Great use is 
made in these instruments of an ingeniously 
devised flat spiral spring which yields a 
relatively great rotation for a small axial 
elongation. The instruments have served 
as prototypes for the measuring instruments 
which have come into use in all countries, 
as electric power has become generally 
employed for domestic and commercial 
purposes. Ayrton and Perry also invented 
a clock meter and motor meter which served 
as models for the meters now used, and 
would have brought them an immense 
fortune, had they not abandoned their 
patents at too early a date. Of the in- 
struments other than electric invented by 




them about this time may be mentioned 
transmission and absorption dynamometers, 
and a dispersion photometer. Apart from 
specific inventions of apparatus and 
instruments the two men carried out in- 
vestigations into almost every branch of 
electric engineering and the branches of 
mechanical engineering specially useful to 
the electrical engineer. 

In 1891 Ayrton and Perry published their 
last joint paper, in which, together with one 
of Ayrton's pupils, Dr. W. E. Sumpner, 
they showed that the theoretical law pre- 
viously worked out for quadrant electro- 
meters was not valid. From 1891 onwards 
Ayrton worked mainly in collaboration with 
Mr. Thomas Mather, F.R.S. (first his 
assistant and later his successor), with 
Dr. Sumpner, and with others of his pupils, 
past and present. Among his later researches 
of importance are those on accumulators, on 
Clark cells, on galvanometer construction, on 
glow lamps, on non-inductive resistances, 
on the three voltmeter method of deter- 
mining the power supplied to a circuit 
(devised jointly with Dr. Sumpner), on the 
very ingenious 'universal shunt box' and 
electrostatic voltmeters, invented jointly 
with Mr. Mather, work on alternate-current 
dynamos, on ampere-balances and on 
transformers, an elaborate determination 
of the ohm in conjunction with Principal 
John Viriamu Jones [q. v. Suppl. II], and 
an investigation of the phenomena of smell, 
dealt with in Ayrton's presidential address 
to the mathematical and physical section of 
the British Association in 1898. 

An address on 'Electricity as a Motive 
Power ' delivered to working men at the 
Sheffield meeting of the British Association, 
23 Aug. 1879, put forward for the first 
time the important suggestion that power 
could be distributed at once most econo- 
mically and safely by means of high 
tension currents of relatively small quantity 
' transformed down ' at the distant end of 
the transmission system. In the lecture 
delivered at the Johannesburg meeting of the 
British Association on 29 Aug. 1905, Ayrton 
pointed to the fulfilment of his prophecies ; 
and at the same time discouraged the project 
for utilising the Victoria Falls on the Zam- 
besi as a generating station, on the ground 
that the plan proposed was inefficient and 
that their beauty would be spoilt to no 

Research work was only one side of 
Ayrton's many activities ; he was employed 
as a consulting electrical engineer by 
government departments and by many 
private firms, and took part as an expert in 

many important patent cases. He invariably 
declined to act in legal cases unless a 
preliminary investigation had convinced 
him of the soundness of the cause for 
which he was to appear. 

Ayrton was elected fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1881, and was awarded a royal 
medal in 1901. In the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers (founded in 1871 as 
the Society of Telegraph Engineers and 
Electricians) Ayrton took a special interest, 
and the development of the institution, 
which he joined in 1872, was largely due 
to his energetic support. From 1878 to 
1885 he acted as chairman of the editorial 
committee and as honorary editor of the 
' Journal.' In 1892 he was elected presi- 
dent and from 1897 to 1902 acted as 
honorary treasurer of the institution. He 
was president of the Physical Society from 
1890 to 1892. 

For the admiralty Ayrton carried out 
important investigations on the heating of 
cables used in the wiring of warships, on 
searchlights (in conjunction with his second 
wife), on sparking pressures, and other 
matters, and he was a member of the com- 
mittee appointed in 1901 to consider and 
report upon ' the electrical equipment of His 
Majesty's ships.' He served on the com- 
mittee appointed in 1889 to advise the 
board of trade on electrical standards, of 
which the report led to the formation of the 
present board of trade testing laboratory; 
and he also served on the general board of 
the national physical laboratory and on 
juries of several international exhibitions, 
including that of Chicago in 1893 and of 
Paris in 1900. He acted in 1903 as a 
member of the educational commission 
organised by Mr. Alfred Mosely, C.M.G., to 
visit the United States and report on 
American education. 

Above all Ayrton threw himself heart 
and soul into his teaching. The labora- 
tories, which he created at Finsbury and 
South Kensington, turned out hundreds 
of electrical engineers, and by his stirring 
addresses on technical education, he played 
an important part in the technical develop- 
ment of the country. His public lectures 
were elaborately prepared, abounded in 
striking illustration, and were delivered with 
the skill and fire of an accomplished ad- 
vocate. In the laboratory he taught each 
student to carry out every experiment ' as 
if he were the first who had ever investigated 
the matter,' and criticised the work that 
came to his notice in the most minute detail, 
and on any indication of want of energy or 
thoroughness he was mercilessly severe. 




He treated himself with the same severity ; 
for years together he took no rest from work, 
and towards 1901 he developed weakness of 
the arterial system, from which he ultimately 
died on 8 Nov. 1908, at his house, 41 Nor- 
folk Square, Hyde Park. He was buried at 
the Brompton cemetery without religious 
rites, but with a choral service of sacred 
music. His son-in-law, Mr. Israel Zang- 
will, and Professor Perry delivered addresses 
over the grave. 

By his first marriage Ayrton had one 
daughter, Edith Chaplin Ayrton, who 
inarriccl the writer, Israel Zangwill, and is 
herself the author of several novels. On 
6 May 1885 he married Miss Sarah (Hertha) 
Marks, a distinguished Girton student, who 
was in 1906 awarded the Hughes medal of 
the Royal Society for her researches on the 
electric arc and on sand ripples ; by his 
second marriage he had one daughter, 
Barbara Bodichon, now married to Mr. 
Gerald Gould. 

The list of Ayrton' s papers, 151 in all, 
includes eleven published before 1876, 
independently ; seventy published between 
1876 and 1891 with Prof. Perry (of which 
two were in collaboration with other 
workers) ; and twelve in collaboration with 
Professor Mather. Ayrton published in 1 887 
a work on ' Practical Electricity,' which went 
through eleven editions in his lifetime and 
has since been reissued as a joint work with 
Professor Mather. 

It is as a pioneer in electrical engineering 
and a great teacher and organiser of tech- 
nical education that Ayrton will be re- 

membered. He was a man of restless 
energy and of the most varied capacities, 
scientific, dramatic, and musical, and alive 
to problems of philosophy and religion to 
which he refrained from devoting his 
time only because he saw no possibility 
of immediate solutions. Like other 
members of his family he was an 
active and generous supporter of women's 

Ayrton was somewhat above the medium 
height, fair, with brown hair and blue eyes. 
A medallion in plaster by Miss Margaret 
Giles (Mrs. Bernard Jenkin) is in the 
possession of Mrs. Ayrton. 

[A short account of the Families of Chaplin 
and Skinner and connected Families, privately 
printed, 1902, for Nugent Chaplin; Univ. 
Coll. School Register for 1831-1891 ; Univ. 
Coll. London, Calendars for 1865-6, pp. 55, 
118; ib. for 1866-7, pp. 67, 116; ib. for 
1867-8, pp. 109, 130; University of London 
Calendar ; Government of India Telegraph 
Department, Classified Lists . . . and Distri- 
bution Returns for years ending 31 March 
1869 (pp. 3, 50) and 1870-1873 ; article by 
P. J. Hartog in Cassier's Magazine, xxii. 541 
(1902) ; obituary notice in The Central (Journal 
of the City and Guilds of London Central 
j Technical College), vol. vii. (1910) (with por- 
| trait from photograph) by Maurice Solomon 
j and Professor Thomas Mather, F.R.S., with a 
bibliography containing a ' fairly complete ' list 
of papers, by F. E. Meade, as well as in Nature, 
19 Nov. 1908, and in Proc. Roy. Soc. 85 A, p.i., 
by Professor John Perry ; information from 
Mrs. Ayrton and personal knowledge. 1 

P. J. H. 


1904), scientific lecturer and aeronaut, 
born at Lam bourn Woodlands, Berkshire, on 
19 June 1846, was fourth son of John Bacon, 
vicar of Lambourn Woodlands, a friend 
and neighbour of Charles Kingslcy and 
Tom Hughes, by his wife Mary Lousada, 
of Spanish ancestry. His great-grandfather 
was John Bacon, R.A. [q. v.], and his 
grandfather John Bacon (1777-1859), sculp- 
tor [q.v.]. After education at home and at 
a coaching establishment at Old Charlton, 
with a view to the army, he matriculated 
from Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 
1865, gaining a foundation scholarship in 
1869. Eye trouble compelled an ' aegrotat ' 
degree in the mathematical tripos of 
1869. His intimate friends at Cambridge 
included William Kingdon Clifford [q. v.], 

Francis Maitland Balfour [q. v.], and 
Edward Henry Palmer, the orientalist 
[q. v.l- 

From 1869 to 1875 he worked with a 
brother at Cambridge as a pass 'coach.' 
Taking holy orders in 1870, he was unpaid 
curate of Harston, Cambridge, until 1 875, 
when he settled at Cold ash, Berkshire. There 
he assisted in parochial work, was a poor 
law guardian, initiated cottage shows, and 
encouraged hand-bell ringing and agricul- 
ture. He acted as curate of Shaw, four 
miles from Coldash, from 1882 until 1889, 
when his * The Curse of Conventionalism : 
a Remonstrance by a Priest of the Church 
of England,' boldly challenged the con- 
ventional clerical attitude to scientific 
questions, and brought on him. the censure 
of the orthodox. Thereupon he abandoned 



clerical work, and devoted himself to 
scientific study. 

Astronomy and aeronautics had interested 
him from boyhood, and much of his life 
was devoted to stimulating public interest 
in these subjects. On 10 Feb. 1888 he 
became a fellow of the Royal Astrono- 
mical Society, before which he read in 1898 
a paper on 'Actinic qualities of light as 
affected by different conditions of atmo- 
sphere.' With the British Astronomical 
Association, which he joined in 1895, sub- 
sequently becoming a member of council 
and of the eclipse committees, he witnessed 
at Vadso, in Norwegian Lapland, the 
total eclipse of the sun (9 Aug. 1896). In 
Dec. 1897 he led a party to Buxar in 
India for the solar eclipse of January 
1898, and took the first animated photo- 
graphs of the eclipse, but the films mys- 
teriously disappeared on the voyage home. 
Of this eclipse Bacon gave an account in 
the ' Journal ' of the association (viii. 264). 
Bacon, as special correspondent to ' The 
Times,' observed the solar eclipse of 28 May 
1900 at Wadesborough, North Carolina, 
and made further experiments with the 

From kite-flying Bacon early turned to 
ballooning and to the acoustic and meteoro- 
logical researches for which it gave oppor- 
tunity. His first balloon ascent was made 
from the Crystal Palace on 20 Aug. 1888 
with Captain Dale. Experiments in 1899 
proved that sound travelled through the 
air less rapidly upwards than downwards. 
In August of that year he successfully 
experimented from his balloon with 
wireless telegraphy. On 15 Nov. 1899 
he and his daughter narrowly escaped a 
fatal accident when descending at Neath, 
South Wales, after a balloon journey of 
ten hours to examine the Leonid meteors 
(for account see Journal Brit. Astr. Assoc. 
x. 48). In November 1902 Bacon crossed 
the Irish Channel in a balloon, a feat 
accomplished only once before in 1817. 
On the voyage he proved the theory that 
the sea bottom was visible and could be 
photographed from a great height. Bacon 
photographed from his balloon, at a height 
of 600 feet, the beds of sand and rock ten 
fathoms deep in the bottom of the Irish 
Channel. Bacon's photographs were exhi- 
bited at the Royal Society's soiree at 
Burlington House in the spring of 1903. 
With Mr. J. Nevil Maskelyne Bacon began 
experiments in the inflation of balloons with 
hot air by the vaporisation of petroleum, 
in place of coal gas, thereby greatly quicken- 
ing the process and the better adapting 

balloons to military uses. Bacon also 
prosecuted inquiries into the causes and 
cure of London fog, insisting on the need of 
stronger currents of air through the streets, 
by widening thoroughfares and increasing 
the number of open spaces. 

Bacon's investigations exhausted his 
slender resources, and from the winter 
of 1898 he was active and successful as a 
popular lecturer on his work and experiences 
and as a popular scientific writer in the 
press. On 15 Feb. 1899 and 22 Jan. 
1902 he read before the Society of Arts 
papers on * The Balloon as an Instrument 
of Scientific Research ' (cf. Journal Soc. 
of Arts, 17 Feb. 1899), and 'Scientific 
Observations at High Altitudes' (tfc. 24 
Jan. 1902). In a paper at the Cambridge 
meeting of the British Association on 
* Upper Air Currents and their Relation 
to the Far Travel of Sound' (1904) he 
summarised his more recent acoustic experi- 
ments in balloons. He died of pleurisy at 
Coldash on 26 Dec. 1904, and was buried in 
Swallowfield churchyard, near Reading. 

Bacon married twice : (1) on 11 April 
1871 Gertrude (d. 19 Jan. 1894), youngest 
daughter of Charles John Myers, fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and vicar of 
Flintham, Nottingham, and had issue two 
sons and one daughter, Gertrude ; (2) on 
7 Oct. 1903 Stella, youngest daughter of 
Captain T. B. H. Valintine of Goodwood, 
by whom he had one daughter. His elder 
daughter, Gertrude, who was his bio- 
grapher, often accompanied him in his 
ascents and eclipse expeditions (see her 
accounts in Journal Brit. Astron. Assoc. 
x. 18, 288; xi. 149) and wrote on 

Bacon's separately published works were : 

1. 'By Land and Sky,' 1900, a lucid 
account of the fascination of ballooning. 

2. 'The Dominion of the Air,' 1902, a 
popular history of aeronautics. 

[The Record of an Aeronaut, being the life 
of John M. Bacon, by Gertrude Bacon (with 
photogravure portrait), 1907 ; The Times, 
27 and 28 Dec. 1904 ; Journal Brit. Astron. 
Assoc. 19 Jan. 1905; Roy. Astron. Soc.'s 
Monthly Notices, Feb. 1905 ; E. W. Maunder, 
The Indian Eclipse, 1898 (1899), and The 
Total Solar Eclipse, 1900 (1901).] W. B. 0. 

ROBERT (1844-1907), general, Indian 
staff corps, born at Wheatleigh, Taunton, 
on 11 Jan. 1844, was third son of Henry 
Badcock, J.P., of Wheatleigh, by Georgina 
Jeffries. His father's family had long 
been connected with a bank in Taunton, 
now a branch of Parr's bank. Educated 




at Elstree and at Harrow School, he passed 
to Addiscombe, and obtaining his first 
commission as ensign on 1 Oct. 1861, was 
promoted lieutenant on 1 Oct. 1862 and 
captain on 1 Oct. 1873, brevet-colonel on 
2 March 1885, major-general on 1 April 1897, 
lieutenant-general on 3 April 1900. 

After a brief period of regimental duty 
with the 38th foot and then with the 29th 
Bengal native infantry, he entered in 1864 
the commissariat department, in which he 
remained till 1895, achieving a remarkable 
success and rising to the highest post of 
commissary general-in-chief, December 1890. 
In his three earliest campaigns, Bhootan 
(1864-5), the Black Mountain expedition 
(1868), and Perak (1875-6) he attracted 
notice for his foresight and power of organisa- 
tion, winning the thanks of government. 
His next service was rendered as principal 
commissariat officer under Sir Frederick 
(afterwards Earl) Roberts in the Kuram 
field force (1878-9), taking part in the 
forcing of the Peiwar Kotal and other 
actions. Returning from furlough when 
operations were resumed, he joined the 
Kabul field force, and owing to his 
admirable preparations Lord Roberts 
found in Sherpur when it was invested 
' supplies for men stored for nearly four 
months and for animals for six weeks.' 
Badcoek also assisted in recovering the 
guns abandoned near Bhagwana, and 
finally when the Kabul-Kandahar field 
force, consisting of 9986 men and eighteen 
guns with 8000 followers and 2300 horses 
and mules, started on 9 Aug. 1880 he 
relieved Roberts's ' greatest anxiety,' and 
the force reached Kandahar, 313 miles from 
Kabul, on 31 Aug., with a safe margin of 
supplies. For these services he received 
the medal and three clasps, the bronze 
star, brevets of major and lieutenant- 
colonel, and the C.B. Roberts reported to 
government that he knew of ' no officer so 
well qualified as Major Badcoek to be 
placed at the head of the commissariat 
in the field.' In 1885 he collected trans- 
port for the Sudan, and in 1895 received 
the C.S.I, and the thanks of government 
for his services in connection with the 
Chitral relief force. He was appointed 
quartermaster-general in India on 7 Nov. 
1895. Besides these appointments he acted 
as secretary in the military department 
1890-1 and was president of a committee 
to consider the grant of compensation for 
dearness of provisions, October 1894. On 
Ms retirement at the expiration of his term 
of office as quartermaster-general in 1900, 
he took an active part in the organisation 

of the imperial yeomanry, and was appointed 
member of the council of India, receiving 
on 26 June 1902 the K.C.B. He died in 
London on 23 March 1907, while still holding 
that office, and was buried at Taunton. 

He married in 1865 Theophila Lowther, 
daughter of John Shore Dumergue, I.C.S., 
judge of Aligarh, by whom he had four 
sons and a daughter. All his sons entered 
the army. Sir Alexander appears in the 
picture of officers who took part in the 
Kabul - Kandahar march published by 
Major Whitelock of Birmingham in 1911. 

[The Times, 25 March 1907 ; Watford's 
County Families ; Hart's and Official Army 
Lists ; Roberts's Forty-one Years in India, 
1898 ; H. B. Hanna's Second Afghan War, 
3 vols. 1899-1910.] 

BYRDE (1843-1906), compiler of guide- 
books, born at Uttoxeter on 6 March 1843, 
was the second son of three children of 
Whieldon Baddeley, solicitor, of Rocester, 
Staffordshire, by his wife Frances Blurton 
Webb. His elder brother, Richard Whiel- 
don Baddeley (1840-76), was the author 
of several novels and a volume of poems 
'The Golden Lute.' (1876), which was 
published posthumously. After education 
at King Edward's grammar school, Bir- 
mingham, Baddeley obtained a classical 
scholarship at Clare College, Cambridge, 
and matriculating in October 1864, 
graduated B.A. with a second class in the 
classical tripos in 1868. In 1869 he was ap- 
pointed assistant master, and subsequently 
house master, at Somersetshire College, 
Bath. From 1880 to 1884 he was assistant 
master at Sheffield grammar school. 
Retiring from school work, Baddeley then 
settled at The Hollies, Windermere, and later 
removed to Lake View Villas, Bownese. 
Intimately acquainted with the Lake 
district and keenly interested in local 
affairs, he was chairman of the Bowness 
local board until its dissolution in 1894, 
and identified himself with movements for 
preserving footpaths and for popularising 
the Lake district as a pleasure resort. On 
his initiative sign posts were placed by the 
Lakes District Association on mountain 
paths, and a flying squadron of young 
members was organised to report periodi- 
cally on the condition of the passes. The 
new road from Skelwith bridge to Langdale, 
and the drive along the west side of Thirl- 
mere, which was completed by the Man- 
chester corporation in 1894, were largely 
due to Baddeley's active intervention. 
He was opposed to the multiplication of 
railways or of local industries. 



From 1884 to 1906 Baddeley, who was 
an untiring walker through most parts 
of England and a close observer of nature, 
mainly occupied himself with preparing the 
' Thorough Guide ' series of guide-books 
for Great Britain and Ireland. The series 
opened with the ' English Lake District ' 
(1880 ; llth ed. 1909). In ' South Wales ' 
(1886; 4th ed. 1908), 'North Wales,' 
2 parts (1895 ; 8th ed. 1909), and * South 
Devon and South Cornwall ' (1902 ; 3rd ed. 
1908) he collaborated with the Rev. C. S. 
Ward. Remaining volumes include : 
* Glasgow ' (1888 ; 3rd ed. 1900) ; ' York- 
shire,' 2 parts (1893 ; 5th ed. 1909) ; 
' Scotland,' 3 parts (1894) : part i. ' The 
Highlands ' (llth ed. 1908) ; part ii. ' The 
Northern Highlands ' (7th ed. 1906) ; part 
iii. ' The Lowlands ' (5th ed. 1908) ; 
'The Isle of Man' (1896; 2nd ed. 
1898) ; ' Ireland,' part i. (1897 ; 6th ed. 
1909); 'The Peak District' (1899; 9th 
ed. 1908) ; ' Orkney and Shetland ' (1900 ; 
6th ed. 1908); 'Liverpool' (1900); 
' Bath, Bristol and forty miles around ' 
(1902 ; 2nd ed. 1908). Baddeley' s guides 
were accurate, concise and practical. He 
had the gift not only of describing natural 
scenery but of forming a comparative 
estimate of its beauty. He paid special 
attention to the needs of the pedestrian. 
Though an enthusiastic mountaineer he 
deprecated hazardous adventure. 

Baddeley died on 19 Nov. 1906, at his 
house at Bowness, of pneumonia, which he 
contracted on a visit to Selby while revising 
one of his Yorkshire volumes; he was 
buried at Bowness. In 1891 he married 
Millicent Satterthwaite, daughter of Robert 
Henry MachelT Michaelson- Yeates of Olive 
Mount, Windermere. who survived him 
without issue. In 1907 a clock tower was 
erected at Bowness in his memory by 
public subscription from friends and ad- 
mirers in all parts of the British Isles. 

[The Lakes Chronicle, 28 Nov. 1906; 
Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 24 Nov. 1906; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Concerning Guide Books, by 
Claude E. Benson, art. in Cornhill Mag., 
September 1910 ; private information.] 

G. S. W. 

BAILEY, PHILIP JAMES (181&-1902), 
author of ' Festus,' only son of Thomas 
Bailey of Nottingham [q. v.], by his first 
wife, Mary Taylor, was born on 22 April 1816, 
at Nottingham, in a house, now demolished, 
on the Middle Pavement facing the town 
hall. He showed an early interest in his 
father's poetical tastes, which his father 
stimulated by taking him to see Byron's 
lying-in-state at the Old Blackamoor's 

Head in Nottingham High Street, and by 
encouraging him to learn by heart the whole 
of ' Childe Harold.' Educated in Notting- 
ham, he was tutored in classics by Ben- 
jamin Carpenter, a Unitarian minister. 
In his sixteenth year he matriculated at 
Glasgow University with a view to the 
presbyterian ministry; but quickly 
renouncing this ambition, he began in 
1833 to study law in a solicitor's office in 
London. On 26 April 1834 he was entered 
a member of Lincoln's Inn, and was 
called to the bar on 7 May 1840, but 
never practised. Meanwhile his interest 
in legal studies had been interrupted by the 
reading of Goethe's ' Faust.' The German 
poem took possession of his whole mind 
and energy, but it failed to satisfy his moral 
ideals, especially in its treatment of the 
problem of evil. He felt under compulsion 
to produce his own version of the legend, 
and retired for that purpose in 1836 to 
the seclusion of his father's house at Old 
Basford, near Nottingham, where in three 
years' time the original version of his poem 
' Festus ' was written. It was printed in 
Manchester by W. H. Jones, and published 
without the author's name in London by 
William Pickering in 1839. 

On the whole the reception of ' Festus ' 
was enthusiastic. If the 'Athenaeum' 
(21 Dec. 1839) pronounced the idea of the 
poem to be 'a mere plagiarism from the 
" Faust " of Goethe, with all its impiety 
and scarcely any of its poetry,' Bulwer 
Lytton, James Montgomery, Ebenezer 
Elliott, J. W. Marston, R. H. Home, 
and Mary Howitt joined with other leading 
reviews in a chorus of praise (see press 
notices in 2nd edit.). Tennyson wrote 
to FitzGerald in 1846 that he had just 
bought the poem, and advised his friend : 
' order it and read : you will most likely 
find it a great bore, but there are really very 
grand things in "Festus."' The Pre- 
Raphaelites discussed the work with' much 
admiration, although Patmore complained 
that Bailey was ' painting on clouds ' 
(Pre-Raphaelite Diaries, ed. W. M. ROSSETTI, 
229, 262, 265). 

In the second edition of 1845 Bailey made 
large additions, and processes of addition 
and recasting went on in later editions until, 
in the eleventh or jubilee edition of 1889, 
the work reached more than 40,000 lines. 
In that volume was incorporated the greater 
part of three volumes of poetry, which 
Bailey had meanwhile published separately. 
These were ' The Angel World, and other 
Poems ' (1850), which attracted the attention 
of the Pre-Raphaelites, and was eagerly 



noted by W. M. Rossetti for review in ' The 
Germ ' ; ' The Mystic, and other Poems ' 
(1855) ; and ' The Universal Hymn ' (1867). 
Although the popularity of ' Festus ' fluctu- 
ated, it was alive at the end of the nine- 
teenth century. The ' Festus Birthday 
Book ' appeared in 1882, and the ' Beauties 
of Festus ' in 1884. A ' Festus Treasury ' 
was edited by Albert Broadbent in 1901. 
In the United States thirty unauthorised 
editions of * Festus ' appeared before 

Bailey's poetic power was never so fresh 
and concentrated as in the first edition of 
' Festus.' His later additions turned the 
poem into a theological and metaphysical 
treatise, for which some critics claimed 
liigh philosophical merits, but beneath 
which the poetry was smothered. In 1876 
W. M. Rossetti spoke of ' Festus ' as ' but 
little read,' but by way of remonstrance 
Mr. Theodore Watts claimed that the 
poem contained ' lovely oases of poetry,' 
among ' wide tracts of ratiocinative writing ' 
(Athenceum, 1 April 1876). Bailey prefixed 
to the jubilee edition an elaborate account 
of the aims of the poem in its final form 
and of the general principles of its arrange- 
ment. He was often regarded as the 
father of the ' spasmodic ' school of poetry, 
and satirised as such along with Alexander 
Smith [q. v.] and Sydney Dobell [q. v.] by 
W. E. Aytoun [q. v.] in Firmilian ' (1854) ; 
but in his last year he denied the imputation 
in a long letter in which he restated, with 
a self-satisfied seriousness, the intention 
of his work. He there claimed Browning 
as well as Tennyson among his admirers 
Lit. Anecdotes Nineteenth Century, ii. 413-8). 
Bailey wrote a play on the subject 
of Aurungzebe, which Talfourd admired. 
Talfourd introduced the author to 
Macready, but the play was not produced 
and was finally destroyed by Bailey in a 
fit of despondency. Besides the volumes 
afterwards incorporated in ' Festus,' he 
published in 1858 ' The Age,' a colloquial 
satire ; in 1861 a prose essay, ' The 
International Policy of the Great Powers ' ; 
in 1878 Nottingham Castle, an Ode ' ; and 
in 1883 (undated, published at Ilfracombe) 
' Causa Britannica, a Poem in Latin 
Hexameters with English Paraphrase.' 

In 1856 Bailey received a civil list pension 
of 100/. in recognition of his literary work. 
In 1864 he settled in Jersey, whence he paid 
frequent visits to the continent. Ho 
witnessed the eruption of Vesuvius in 1872, 
impairing his health by exposure to heat. 
In 1876 he returned to England, settling 


first at Lee near Ilfracombe, and in 1885 
at Blackheath. Finally he retired to a 
louse in the Rope walk of his native 
Nottingham, where he died after an 
attack of influenza on 6 September 1902. 
Ie was buried in Nottingham cemetery. 
:Io married twice. His first marriage was 
unhappy, and he was compelled to divorce 
lis wife, by whom he had a son and daughter. 
His second wife was Anne Sophia, daughter 
of Alderman George Carey of Nottingham, 
whom he married in 1863. She devotedly 
watched over his later years, but died before 
him in 1896. In 1901 Glasgow University 
conferred upon him an hon. LL.D. degree 
in his absence. A bronze bust of Bailey 
executed by Albert Toft in 1901 is in 
;he Nottingham Art Gallery. A marble 
aust by John Alexander MacBride, 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1848, 
s in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 
Edinburgh. A plaster cast of it, dated 
1846, is in the Nottingham Art Gallery. 

[Recollections of Philip James Bailey, by 
James Ward, Nottingham, 1905 (with por- 
trait) ; Men and Women of the Time, 1899 ; 
Miles 's Poets and Poetry of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, iv. 517 seq. ; The Times, Daily Chronicle, 
and Daily News, 8 Sept. 1902 ; Athenaeum, 
13 Sept. 1902; Notes and Queries, 9th ser. 
x. 242, 1902. See also Eclectic Review, vi. 654 ; 
Academy, 1901, p. 447; 1902, pp. 248, 250; 
Sunday Mag., Jan. 1898 ; Session of Poets, by 
Caliban [i.e. Robert Buchanan] ; Spectator, 
18 Sept. 1866; and Fortnightly Rev., Nov. 
1902 (art. by Mr. Edmund Gosse, giving 
careful account of the gradual growth of 
Bailey's Festus, with an excellent estimate 
of his worth and significance as a poet).] 

T^. "R 

BAIN, ALEXANDER (1818-1903), 
psychologist, logician, and writer on edu- 
cation, born on 11 June 1818 in Aberdeen, 
was one of the eight children of George Bain, 
a man of energy and a strict Calvinist. 
Son of a small farmer, the father served as 
a soldier, and finally settled in Aberdeen as 
a weaver. Alexander's mother, Margaret 
Paul, active and industrious, but delicate 
in health, died young. Bain himself 
preserved his health by a carefully planned 
system of simple living. At eleven he left 
school to work for his living. Although 
occupied in weaving, he found time to study 
mathematics by himself, and at sixteen 
he attended first of all an evening school 
and afterwards a mutual instruction class 
connected with the Mechanics' Institution. 
John Murray, a minister in Aberdeen, helped 
him in acquiring Latin, and introduced 
him to Professor John Ouikshank, who 
assisted him greatly in his studies. After 



spending three months at the grammar 
school, Bain obtained a bursary at Maris- 
chal College at the ago of eighteen ; in 1 840 
he graduated at the head of the honours list, 
and in the same year he began to con- 
tribute to the ' Westminster Review,' while 
he also attended classes in chemistry and 
anatomy. In 1841 he became assistant to 
the professor of moral philosophy, Dr. 
Glennie, and in 1842 he visited London and 
made the acquaintance of John Stuart Mill, 
George Grote, George Henry Lewes, Edwin 
Chadwick, Thomas Carlyle, and other men 
of note. At Mill's request Bain revised the 
manuscript of his ' Logic ' and later on he 
reviewed it in the ' Westminster Review ' ; 
he was likewise led by Mill to make a 
special study of the philosophy of George 
Combe [q. v.], and in 1861 he wrote ' The 
Study of Character, including an Estimate of 
Phrenology.' In 1844 Bain lost his post of 
assistant to Dr. Glennie owing to his having 
made some innovation in the teaching, but 
he was asked temporarily to take the 
place of the professor of natural philosophy, 
William Knight (1786-1844) [q. v.], though 
doubts of his religious orthodoxy prevented 
his becoming his successor. A like dis- 
appointment was experienced in regard to 
the logic chair at St. Andrews University ^ 
for which he was a candidate, and several 
further applications for vacant chairs 
proved futile, largely from the same 
cause. In 1845-6 Bain lectured in Glasgow 
in connection with the Andersonian Uni- 
versity, and continued to write for maga- 
zines, besides publishing educational works 
on science for Messrs. Chambers. Through 
Edwin Chadwick's influence he came to 
London in 1848 to fill the post of assistant 
secretary to the metropolitan sanitary 
commission, and he was occupied in public 
health work in London until 1850. Subse- 
quently he lectured at the Bedford College 
for Women while carrying on his literary 
labours. In 1852 he edited Paley's 
* Moral Philosophy.' On his first marriage 
in 1855 he resigned his appointment at 
Bedford College and resided at Richmond 
for five years. During this period he held 
examinerships for the University of London 
and Indian civil service and occupied 
himself with writing ; in 1855 he published 
' The Senses and the Intellect ' (4th edit. 
1894), and in 1859 ' The Emotions and the 
Will' (4th edit. 1899). 

Bain was again defeated in his application 
for the logic chair at St. Andrews in 1860, 
but despite much opposition from the 
orthodox party, he was in the same year 
appointed by the crown to the newly created , 

professorship of logic and English in the 
United University of Aberdeen on the 
recommendation of Sir George Cornewall 
Lewis, then home secretary. Bain set 
himself to improve the teaching of logic 
and English in Aberdeen University. For 
his English class he wrote an English 
grammar in 1863, which was followed 
three years later by a manual on ' English 
Composition and Rhetoric ' (new edit. 1887) 
and then by * English Extracts.' In 1872 
and 1874 he issued two other English 
grammars. In 1868 he published his 
important work, * Mental and Moral Science, 
a Compendium of Psychology and Ethics ' 
(3rd edit. 1872), and in the following year 
he edited along with J. S. Mill, George 
Grote, and Andrew Findlater, James Mill's 
' Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human 
Mind.' In 1870 appeared his ' Logic ' and 
in 1872 there was published (in the ' Inter- 
national Scientific ' series) his ' Mind and 
Body' (3rd edit. 1874; German trans. 
1874; Spanish trans. 1881). He was 
accorded the degree of LL.D. by the 
University of Edinburgh in 1869. 

Bain assisted his pupil and close friend, 
George Groom Robertson [q. v.] in editing 
' Grote's Aristotle ' (1872), and he also edited 
Grote's minor works in 1873. In 1876 there 
was issued on Bain's initiative and at his 
expense the first number of ' Mind,' the 
philosophical journal for which he frequently 
wrote. He appointed Groom Robertson 
editor, and was financially responsible for 
the periodical until 1891, when Groom 
Robertson resigned his editorship. Bain 
published another educational work, ' Edu- 
cation as a Science ' also in the ' Inter- 
national Scientific' series, in 1879 (German 
trans. 1879). His health began at this time 
to flag, and in 1880 he resigned his chair ; 
two years later he was elected Lord Rector 
of the Aberdeen University, an honour which 
was accorded him for two separate terms 
of three years each. His later works were 
'James Mill: a biography* and 'John 
Stuart Mill: a Criticism with Personal 
Recollections' (1882); 'Practical Essays,' 
a collection of addresses and papers (1884); 
an edition of G. Groom Robertson's philo- 
sophical remains (1894) ; ' Dissertations on 
Leading Philosophical Topics ' (1903), and 
finally his ' Autobiography,' published 
posthumously in 1904. In addition, he 
continued to write largely in periodicals. 
All through life he was keenly interested 
in public affairs, educational and other, 
and in university matters he led the pro- 
gressive party. He received a civil list 
pension of 100Z. on 18 June 1895. He 




died at Aberdeen on 18 Sept. 1903, and 
was buried there. 

Bain was married twice: (1) in 1855 to 
Frances A. Wilkinson, who died in 1892 ; 
and (2) in 1893 to Barbara Forbes. He had 
no issue. His portrait by (Sir) George Reid 
was presented to him in 1883 and hangs in 
Marischal College. In 1892 his bust by 
Mr. Bain Smith was presented to the public 
library of Aberdeen. 

Bain was an ardent promoter of educa- 
tion, advocating reform in methods of 
teaching natural science and the claims of 
modern languages to a larger place in the 
curriculum. But his chief claim to notice 
rests on his work as a psychologist and as an 
advocate of the application of ' physiology 
to the elucidation of mental states.' One 
of the first in this country to apply to 
psychology the results of physiological 
investigations, he greatly advanced and 
popularised the science as it is usually 

Bain was a conspicuous exponent of 
what is sometimes termed the a posteriori 
school of psychology, whose foundation was 
laid by Hobbes and Locke while its tenets 
were carried to their extreme consequences 
by David Hume. The so-called Scottish 
philosophy of Reid and Dugald Stewart 
(which was carried on alongside the ideal- 
istic system of the German philosophers 
whose origin may be traced to Descartes) 
represented a reaction against this school, 
and James Mill by way of a counter- 
reaction stoutly maintained that a return 
must be once more made to Locke. 
In this conviction he was supported by 
Bain, who developed more fully the ideas 
which Mill propounded. He felt that the 
old psychology which regarded the mind 
as though it were divided up into separate 
compartments must be discarded, and, 
like Mill, he argued that the laws of 
the human intellect necessarily correspond 
with the objective laws of nature from which 
they may bo inferred. 

Bain and his followers admit that 
there are certain notions such as extension, 
solidity, time, and space, which are con- 
structed by the mind itself, the material 
alone being supplied to it, but they 
make it their work to trace the process by 
which the mind constructs its ideas, and 
believe that the laws by which it operates 
will be found not to be anything remote 
or inexplicable, but simply the actual work- 
ing out of well-known principles. Thus 
Bain's conclusion is (1) that the pheno- 
mena of the mind which seem the more 
complicated are formed out of the simple 

VOL. Lxvn. SUP. ii. 

and elementary ; and (2) that the mental 
laws by means of which the formation 
takes place are the laws of association. 
Bain considers that these laws extend to 
everything, and ho proceeds to inquire 
how much of the apparent variety of the 
mental phenomena they are capable of 
explaining. Then he endeavours to deter- 
mine the ultimate elements that remain in 
the mind when everything that can be 
accounted for by the law or laws of associa- 
tion is deducted, and he proceeds by means 
of these elements to determine how the 
remainder of the mental phenomena can 
bo built up with the aid of these same laws. 
It must not be forgotten, however, that in 
his later years he laid considerable stress 
on the part played by heredity in accounting 
for the facility with which the individual 
acquires knowledge. 

Bain's system of philosophy has been 
termed materialistic because it endeavours 
to ascertain the material condition of our 
mental operations and the connection that 
exists between mind and body, and also to 
follow out the development of the higher 
mental states from the lower. He expounded 
the association psychology with which his 
name is connected with lucidity and in great 
detail, for he possessed an exceptional 
gift of methodical exposition. He applied 
natural history methods of classification to 
psychical phenomena in a manner which 
gave scientific value to his work, and a 
knowledge of the physical sciences unusual 
to a philosopher of his day, conjoined with 
remarkable analytic powers, enabled him 
to present his system with effect. 

In ethics Bain was a utilitarian, and for 
the confirmation of his views his appeal was 
made frankly to experience. He claimed 
indeed in his psychology to have purged 
himself of metaphysics, of which, especially 
in its idealistic development, he had the 
greatest distrust, regarding metaphysics as 
having separated itself from the experimental 
test which he regarded as all-important. 

[Autobiography, ed. W. L. Davidson, with 
bibliography by P. J. Anderson, 1904; 
Dissertations and Discussions, by John Stuart 
Mill, 1867; Th. Ribot, La Psychologie anglaise 
contemporaine, 1870 ; Blackwood's Mag., July 
1904; Mind, April 1904, vol. xiii (new series) 
by W. L. Davidson ; Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
llth edit. ; and Hastings' Encyc. Religion and 
Ethics, ii.] E. S. H. 

BAIN, ROBERT NISBET (1854-1909), 
historical writer and linguist, born in 
London on 18 November 1854, was eldest 
son of David Bain, Cape and India mer- 
chant (still living in 1912), by his wife 



Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Cowan of 

After education at private schools, he 
was for some years a shorthand writer 
in the office of Messrs. Henry Kimber 
& Co., solicitors, of 79 Lombard Street. 
From boyhood Bain showed an aptitude 
for languages, with a preference for those of 
northern Europe, and although he was only 
out of England for four brief periods 
in Denmark and Sweden in 1884, in Salies 
do Beam and Pau in 1886, in Paris for 
a short time a few years later, and in 
Germany and Switzerland for some weeks 
in 1908 for health he acquired, unaided, a 
high degree of proficiency in no less than 
twenty foreign tongues, including Russian, 
Swedish, Hungarian, Finnish, Polish and 
Ruthenian. In 1883 he entered the printed 
books department of the British Museum 
as a second-class assistant, easily heading 
the list of candidates in the examination. 
He became in due course a first-class 

Bain did much besides his official work, 
where his linguistic talent proved of great 
service. After his visit to Denmark and 
Sweden in Aug.- Sept. 1884, he began writing 
on Scandinavian and Russian history. 
' Gustavus III and his Contemporaries, 
1746-92 ; an Overlooked Chapter of 18th 
Century History ' (2 vols. 1894) was based 
on the best Swedish authorities. There 
soon followed four monographs on Russian 
history : The Pupils of Peter the Great ' 
(1897), based largely on the collec- 
tions of the Russian Imperial Historical 
Society; * The Daughter of Peter the Great : 
a History of Russian Diplomacy and of the 
Russian Court under the Empress Eliza- 
beth Petrovna, 1741-62' (1899), a capable 
survey of an obscure and difficult period ; 

* Peter III, Emperor of Russia : the Story 
of a Crisis and a Crime' (1902), in which 
Keith's dispatches and the Mitchell papers 
were utilised for the first time ; and * The 
First Romanovs, 1613-1725 ' (1905). ' The 
Last King of Poland and his Contem- 
poraries,' presenting a new view of its subject, 
appeared in 1909. 

Of equal value were two volumes in the 

* Cambridge Historical' series (ed. G. W. 
Prothero), 'Scandinavia, 1513-1900' (1905), 
and 'Slavonic Europe' (1908), and a life 
of Charles XII (1895) for the ' Heroes of the 
Nations ' series. He contributed to the 
' Cambridge Modern History' seven chapters 
on the history and literature of eastern 
Europe (vols. iii. v. vi. and xi.) ; and histor- 
ical and biographical articles relating to 
Hungary, Poland, Russia and Sweden to 

the llth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia 

Bain's interests extended to literature as 
well as to history. In 1893 he issued a 
version of Andersen's ' The Little Mermaid 
and Other Stories,' and in 1895 a 
sympathetic ' Life of Hans Christian 
Andersen,' founded on Andersen's letters 
and itineraries. He was chiefly instru- 
mental in introducing the Hungarian 
I novelist, Maurus Jokai, to the English 
public, rendering into English ten of his 
stories, as well as a collection of ' Tales 
| from Jokai ' (1904). From the Russian he 
| translated the Skazki of Polevoi as 
'Russian Fairy Tales' (1893), as well as 
' Tales ' from Tolstoi (1901 and 1902) and 
Gorky (1902). From the Finnish he 
rendered Juhani Aho's ' Squire Hellmann 
and Other Stories ' (1893). His ' Cossack 
I Fairy Tales and Folk Tales' (1894; illus- 
| trated by E. W. Mitchell) was the first 
English translation from the Ruthenian. 
He also translated from the Danish J. L. I. 
Lie's 'Weird Tales from Northern Seas' 
(1893), and from the Hungarian Dr. Ignacz 
Kunos's 'Turkish Fairy Tales and Folk 
j Tales' (1896). 

Bain, who was in early life a fairly good 
gymnast and light-weight boxer, injured 
his health by excessive hours of work. 
A zealous high-churchman, he was for' 
some years a sidesman and a constant 
attendant at St. Alban's, Holborn. He 
died prematurely, at 7 Overstrand Man- 
sions, Battersea Park, on 5 May 1909, and 
was buried in Brookwood cemetery. 
He married in 1896 his cousin, Caroline 
Margaret Boswell, daughter of Charles 
Cowan of Park Lodge, Teddington; she 
survived him only two months, dying on 
10 July 1909. 

[Private information ; Mr. G. K. Fortescue 
and E. P. R., in St. Alban's, Holborn, Monthly, 
Juns 1909 ; The Times, 11 May 1909 ; Athen- 
seum, 15 May, 1909 ; Who's Who, 1909 ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] G. LE G N. 

(1832-1911), promoter of the post-office 
telegraph system, born on 10 Nov. 1832 
and baptised at Chipping Barnet, Hertford- 
shire, on' 19 Jan. 1834, was younger son of 
Edward May Baines, surgeon, of Hendon 
and Chipping Barnet, by Fanny, his wife. 

Educated at private schools Baines early 
showed interest in practical applications of 
electricity, and helped by his uncle, Edward 
Cowper [q. v.], and an elder brother, G. L. 
Baines, mastered, when fourteen, the 
principles of telegraphy, constructing and 
manipulating telegraphic apparatus. Two 



years later, through the influence of 
Frederick Hill, an uncle by marriage, and 
Rowland, afterwards Sir Rowland Hill 
[q. v.]i he obtained an appointment under 
the Electric Telegraph Company, in 
whoso service he remained seven years, 
having charge for the first three years of a 
small office established by the company in 
1848, within the buildings of the general 

hi April 1855, on the nomination of 
Rouland Hill, Baines was made a clerk in 
the general correspondence branch of the 
_:<! K>ral post-office, being transferred after 
a few months, on account of his knowledge 
of railways, to the home mails branch. His 
leisure was devoted to schemes for 
trlt 'graphic extension. He planned the 
laying of a cable to the Canary Islands, 
across the South Atlantic to Barbados, 
and along the chain of West India 
Islands; and ho also proposed a cable 
to connect England with Australia by 
\\ay of the Canary Islands, Ascension 
Islands, St. Helena, and the Cape of Good 
Hope. In a letter to ' The Times ' (14 Sept. 
1858) he further advocated the connection 
of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts by a 
line across Canada. His most important 
scheme, which he drew up in 1856, was for 
the government acquisition of existing 
tele.Lcr;mh systems. This proposal, with 
the permission of the duke of Argyll, then 
postmaster-general, he forwarded to the 
lords of the treasury. After a long interval, 
in 1865 Frank Ives Scudamore [q. v.], a 
post-office official, was instructed by Lord 
Stanley, then postmaster-general, to report 
on the advisability of post-office control of 
1 1 1 e telegraphic systems. In his report Scud- 
amore acknowledged Baines's responsibility 
for the first practical suggestion. In the 
result, control of existing telegraph systems 
was transferred to the post-office on 5 Feb. 
1870. Baines's knowledge of telegraphy 
\\as helpful in bringing the new public 
service into operation, and all the main 
i res of his original scheme free delivery 
within a mile, the creation of a legal mono- 
poly, a uniform sixpenny rate irrespective 
of distance are now in operation. 

In 1875 Baines was made surveyor- 

'-ral for telegraph business, and in 1878, 
\\ith a view to decreasing the danger of 

usion and increasing the efficiency of the 
coastguard service, he proposed the estab- 
lishment of telegraphic communication 

ind the sea-coast of the British Isles, 

to he worked by the coastguard under the 

iol and supervision of the post-office. 

proposal, renewed in 1881 and again in 

1888, was adopted by the government in 

In 1882 Baines was made inspector- 
general of mails and assistant secretary in 
the post-office under Sir Arthur Blackwood. 
He organised the parcel post service, 
introduced by Mr. Fawcett in 1883, extend- 

\ ing the system subsequently to all British 

I colonies and most European countries. 
Different views and systems of postal 
administration on the continent made his 
task difficult. He became C.B. in 1885 and 
retired through ill-health on 1 Aug. 1893. 

Baines lived for the greater part of his 
life at Hampstead, where he took an active 
interest in parochial work. He assisted 
in the acquisition of Parliament Hill Fields 
for the public use, was a member of the 
Hampstead select vestry, and in 1890 
edited * Records of Hampstead.' He was 
also an enthusiastic volunteer, serving both 
as a non-commissioned and commissioned 
officer. His latter years he devoted to 
literature. His main work, 'Forty Years 
at the Post Office ' (2 vols. 1895), remin- 
iscences written in an agreeable style, 
contains valuable details of reforms at the 
post-office both before and during Baines's 
connection with it. He also published ' On 

| the Track of the Mail Coach' (1896), and 
contributed an article on the post-office to 
J. Samuelson's * The Civilisation of Our 
Day' (1896). 

Baines died on 4 July 1911 at Hampstead, 
and was cremated at Golder's Green. 
He married in 1887 Laura, eldest daughter 
of Walter Baily, M.A., of Hampstead. 

[The Times, 7 July 1911 ; Forty Years at 
the Post Office, 1895 ; Athenaeum, 20 Jan. 
1896, and 4 Feb. 1895 ; Frank Ivcs Scuda- 
more, Reports on the Proposed Government 
Acquisition of Telegraphs, 1866 and 1868; 
Kelly's Handbook; St. Martin's-le-Grand, 

i vols. iii. and xxi.] S. E. F. 


! 1908), colonel, royal engineers, eldest son 
in a family of five sons and four daughters 
of Thomas Baird, of Woodlands, Cults, 
Aberdeen, and of Catherine Imray, his wife, 
was born at Aberdeen on 26 April 1842. 
Educated at the grammar school and at 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, Andrew en- 
tered the Military College of the East 
India Company at Addiscombe in Juno 

1860, and was transferred to the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich in January 

1861, owing to the amalgamation of the 
Indian with the royal army. He received 
a commission as lieutenant in the royal 
engineers on 18 Dec. 1861, and after 
instruction at Chatham sailed for India on 



8 4 


1 March 1864. Baird was employed as 
special assistant engineer of the Bombay 
harbour defence works, and had charge of 
the construction of the batteries at Oyster 
Rock and Middle Ground until the end 
of 1865. He was then appointed special 
assistant engineer in the government 
reclamations of the harbour foreshore. 
During 1868 he served as assistant field 
engineer in the Abyssinian expedition under 
Sir Robert Napier, afterwards Lord Napier 
of Magdala [q. v.]. For his work as traffic 
manager of the railway from the base he 
was mentioned in despatches (Lond. Gaz. 
30 June 1868), and received the war 

In December 1869 Baird became 
assistant superintendent of the great 
trigonometrical survey of India. He 
was employed successively on the triangu- 
lation in Kathiawar and Gujarat. His 
health suffered from the extreme heat in 
this arid country, and he went on furlough 
to England in the spring of 1870. While 
he was at home, Colonel (afterwards General) 
James Thomas Walker [q. v.], the 
surveyor-general of India, chose him to 
study the practical details of tidal obser- 
vations and their reduction by harmonic 
analysis as carried on under the super- 
vision of Sir William Thomson, afterwards 
Lord Kelvin [q. v. Suppl. II], for the 
British Association. 

Tidal observations were only undertaken 
by the survey of India, in the first instance, 
with the object of determining the mean sea 
level as a datum for the trigonometrical 
survey. But Baird, widening his aim, 
determined ' to investigate the relations 
between the levels of land and sea on the 
coasts of the gulf of Cutch, which were 
believed by geologists to be gradually 
changing. This necessitated a more exact 
determination of the mean sea level than 
had hitherto sufficed for the operations 
of the survey' (BAIRD, Manual of Tidal 
Observations, and their Reduction by the 
Method of Harmonic Analysis, 1886, pref.). 
It was decided to carry out observations 
at stations in the gulf of Cutch, in accord- 
ance with the recommendations of the 
tidal committee of the British Associa- 
tion, by self -registering gauges, set up for 
at least a year at a time. Having 
returned to India in December 1872, 
Baird selected three stations on the 
gulf of Cutch for his tidal observatories, 
one at the mouth, another at the head and 
as far into the ' Runn ' as possible, and the 
third about the middle of the gulf. These 
observatories were inspected periodically 

by Baird and his assistant in turn, in 
circumstances involving severe privation. 

Baird was promoted captain on 4 April 
1874. In 1876 the governor-general in 
council commended Baird's labours, and 
in July 1877 instructions were issued for 
systematic tidal observations at all the 
principal Indian ports, and at other ports 
on the coast lines where the results would 
be of general scientific interest, apart from 
their usefulness for purpose of navigation. 
To Baird, who had become deputy superin- 
tendent in the great trigonometrical survey 
department, was entrusted the general 

Meanwhile, in 1876, Baird was at home, 
working out with assistance the results 
of his observations in the gulf of Cutch. 
In the autumn he read a paper on 
' Tidal Operations in the Gulf of Cutch ' 
before the British Association at Glasgow. 
On his return to India in June 1877 he 
organised a new department of the survey 
along the coast lines from Aden to Rangoon, 
with its centre at Poona, Bombay. 

In July 1881 Baird was at Venice as one 
of the commissioners from India to the third 
international congress of geography, and 
there he exhibited a complete set of 
tidal and levelling apparatus in practical 
use in an adjoining canal. Baird was 
awarded the gold medal of the first class. 

After some eighteen months on furlough 
in England, Baird, who had been promoted 
major on 18 Dec. 1881, resumed his tidal 
duties in India in March 1883, his field of 
operations including India, Burma, Ceylon, 
and the Andaman Islands. On 27 Aug. 
the great volcanic eruption of Krakatoa, 
in Java, caused a wave which was distinctly 
traceable in all the tidal diagrams, and 
Baird sent a paper on the subject to the 
Royal Society, of which he was elected a 
fellow in the following May (Proc. Roy. 
Soc. No. 229, 1884). 

Between July 1885 and August 1889 
Baird was temporarily employed as 
master of the mint at both Calcutta and 
Bombay, and also as both assistant and 
deputy surveyor-general of India. He was 
promoted brevet lieutenant-colonel on 
18 Dec. 1888, and on 12 Aug. 1889 became 
permanent mint master at Calcutta. In 
that office he re-organised the manufacturing 
department. In 1895-6, in accordance with 
his proposals, the government withdrew from 
circulation worn and dirt-encrusted coinage. 

Promoted regimental lieutenant-colonel 
on 9 April 1891, brevet colonel on 29 Sept. 
1893, and substantive colonel on 9 April 
1896, he retired from the mint owing to the 



age-limit on 20 April 1897, and received 
the special thanks of the governor-general 
for his varied services. He was created 
C.S.I, in June 1897. On his return home, 
he bought a small property at Palmers 
Cross, near Elgin. He died suddenly of 
heart failure in London, on 2 April 1908, 
and was buried at Highgate. 

Sir George Darwin, who first made 
Baird's personal acquaintance at Lord 
Kelvin's house in 1882, wrote of Baird's tidal 
work on his death, ' In science he has left a 
permanent mark as the successful organiser 
of the first extensive operations in tidal 
observations by new methods. The treat- 
ment of tidal observations is now made by 
harmonic analysis in every part of the world, 
and this extensive international develop- 
ment is largely due to the ability with which 
he carried out the pioneer work in India.' 

Baird married at Aberdeen, on 14 March 
1872, Margaret Elizabeth, only daughter 
of Charles Davidson, of Forrester Hill, 
Aberdeen, and of Jane Ross. She survived 
him with a family of two sons and five 

Besides the works cited, Baird was 
author of articles on the Gulf of Cutch, 
Little Runn, and Gulf of Cam bay in the 
* Bombay Gazetteer ' ; ' Notes on the 
Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations,' 
published by order of the secretary of state 
(1872) ; * Auxiliary Tables to facilitate the 
Calculations of Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 
Observations' (1897); 'Account of the 
Spirit-Levelling Operations of the Great 
Trigonometrical Survey of India' (British 
ciation, 1885). He was also joint 
author with Sir George Darwin of a report 
on the results of the ' Harmonic Analysis 
of Tidal Observations' (Proc. Roy. Soc. 
-March 1885) ; and with Mr. Roberts of the 
Nautical Almanac Office of 'Annual Tidal 
Tables of Indian Ports.' 

I War Office Records ; India Office Records ; 
Thr Times, 10 April 1908; Men and Women of 
the Time, 1899; Proc. Roy. Soc., 1908, Obit, 
by Prof. G. H. Darwin ; Proc. Institution of 
Civil Engineers, vol. 172, part ii. 1908 ; Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 47, 
part ii. 1878, account of the tidal observations 
in tho Gulf of Cutch, compiled by Captain 
J. Waterhouse.] R. H. V. 

BAKER, SIR BENJAMIN (1840-1907), 
eivil engineer, born at Keyford, Frome, 
Somerset, on 31 March 1840, was son of 
I'xnjamin Baker and Sarah Hollis. His 
father, a native of county Carlow, became 
1'iin. ipal assistant at ironworks at Tondu, 
Glamorgan. After being educated at 
Cheltenham grammar school, Baker was for 

four years (1856-60) apprentice to H. H. 
Price, of the Neath Abbey ironworks. 
Coming to London in 1860, he served as 
assistant to W. Wilson on the construction 
of the Grosvenor Road railway bridge and 
Victoria station. In 1861 he joined 
the permanent staff of (Sir) John Fowler 
[q. v. Suppl. I], became his partner in 
1875, and was associated with him until 
Fowler's death in 1898. As a consulting engi- 
neer he rapidly gained the highest reputa- 
tion for skill and sagacity, and was consulted 
by the home and Egyptian governments, 
by the colonies, and by municipal and 
other corporations. The credit of the 
design and execution of the great con- 
structional engineering achievements with 
which Baker's name is associated was 
^necessarily shared by him with Fowler 
and many other colleagues, but Baker's 
judgment and resource were highly im- 
portant factors in the success of these 

Baker early engaged on the underground 
communications of London. As assistant 
to Fowler, he was at the outset from 1861 
employed on the construction of the Metro- 
politan (Inner Circle) railway and the St. 
John's Wood extension. In 1869 he became 
Fowler's chief assistant in the construction 
of the District railway from Westminster 
to the City. In a paper on ' The Actual 
Lateral Pressure of Earthwork,' for which he 
received in 1881 the George Stephenson 
medal of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
he discussed some fruits of this experience 
(Proc. Inst. C. E. Ixv. 140), and described 
the work itself in 1885 (ib. Ixxxi. 1). 
Subsequently Fowler and Baker acted as 
consulting engineers for the first ' tube ' 
railway (the City and South London line, 
opened in 1890), and with J. H. Greathead 
were the joint engineers for the Central 
London (tube) railway, opened in 1900. 
In the construction of this line Baker 
carried out the plan suggested by him five- 
and-twenty years earlier, of making the 
line dip down between the stations in order 
to reduce the required tractive effort (see 
his articles on urban railways in Engin- 
eering, xvii. 1 et seq.). After Greathead's 
death in 1896 Baker also acted as joint 
engineer with Mr. W. R. Galbraith for 
the Baker Street and Waterloo (tube) 

From the early years of his career Baker 
studied deeply the theory of construction 
and the resistance of materials. For 
' Engineering ' he wrote a series of articles 
on * Long Span Bridges ' in 1867, and 
another, * On the Strength of Beams, 




Columns, and Arches,' in 1868. Both 
series were published in book form, the 
first in 1867 (2nd edit. 1873) and the 
second in 1870. A third series, ' On 
the Strength of Brickwork,' was written 
in 1872. In the work on long span 
bridges he reached the conclusion that 
the maximum possible span would 
necessitate the adoption of cantilevers 
supporting an independent girder the 
system adopted later for the Forth bridge. 
To his early training in the Neath Abbey 
ironworks he owed the foundation of his 
thorough knowledge of the properties and 
strength of metals, on which he wrote 
many masterly papers (cf . * Railway 
Springs,' Proc. hist. Civ. Eng. Ixvi. 238 ; 
' Steel for Tires and Axles,' ibid. Ixvii. 
353, and ' The Working Stress of Iron and 
Steel,' Trans. Am. Soc. Mecli. Eng. viii. 157). 
Baker's special equipment thus enabled 
him to play a foremost part in association 
with Fowler in the designing of the Forth 
bridge on cantilever principles. This great 
work, begun in 1883, was completed in 1890, 
and Baker's services were rewarded by 
the honour of K.C.M.G. (17 April 1890) 
and the Prix Poncelet of the Institute of 

From 1869 Baker was also associated 
with Fowler in investigating and advising 
upon engineering projects in Egypt. One 
of these was for a railway between Wady 
Haifa and Shendy and a ship incline at 
Assuan, and another (about 1875) was a 
project for a sweet-water canal between 
Alexandria and Cairo, which was intended 
to be used for both irrigation and navigation 
but was not carried out. Thenceforward 
Baker played a prominent part in the 
engineering work which has promoted the \ 
material development of the country. He 
was consulted by the Egyptian government 
on various occasions as to the repair of the 
Delta barrage (see Sir HANBURY BROWN'S 
paper in Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. clviii. 1); 
and when, after several years' investigation, 
schemes were prepared by Sir William 
Willcocks (Report on Perennial Irrigation 
and Flood Protection for Egypt, Cairo, 1894) 
for the storage of the waters of the Nile for 
irrigation purposes, a commission appointed 
by Lord Cromer, of which Baker was a 
member, approved the project for a reser- 
voir at Assuan and chose a site for the .dam. 
To meet the objection of one of the com- 
missioners, Mr. Boule, to the partial sub- 
mergence by this plan of the temples at 
Philae, the height of the proposed dam was 
reduced from 85 to 65 feet. The work, 
for which Baker was consulting engineer. 

was commenced in 1898 and was completed 
in 1902, when Baker was made K.C.B. 
and received the order of the Medjidieh. 
The dam is 6400 feet in length, 1800 feet 
of it being solid and the other 4600 feet 
pierced by 180 sluice-openings at different 
levels, which can be closed by means of iron 
sluices working on free rollers on the Stoney 
principle (cf. MAURICE FITZMAURICE'S de- 
scription in Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. clii. 71). 
For a subsidiary dam which was built at 
the same time at Assyut, below Assuan, 
Baker was also consulting engineer. When 
the contractors, Messrs. Aird, had this work 
well in hand, with a large part of their 
contract time to run, Baker, realising the 
advantages of early completion of the dam, 
advised the Egyptian government to cancel 
the contract and to instruct the contractors 
to finish the work at the earliest possible 
moment, regardless of cost, leaving the 
question of contractors' profit to be settled 
by him. His advice was followed, the 
work was completed a year before the 
contract time, and the gain to the country 
from the extra year's supply of water was 
estimated to be 600,OOOZ. (G. H. STEPHENS, 
* The Barrage across the Nile at Assyut,' 
Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. clviii. 26). The 
vast benefits conferred upon Egypt by 
the Assuan reservoir rendered further 
schemes for storage inevitable, and as no 
suitable site could be found for another 
reservoir above Assuan, it was decided to 
raise the dam there to about the height ori- 
ginally proposed by Sir William Willcocks. 
Baker solved the difficult problem of 
uniting new to old masonry so as to form a 
solid structure, in the conditions obtaining 
in the Assuan dam, by building the upper 
portion of the dam as an independent struc- 
ture which could be united to the lower by 
grouting with cement when it had ceased 
to settle and contract. Just before his 
death Baker went to Egypt to settle the 
plans and contract for this work (since 
completed), as well as preliminary plans 
for a bridge across the Nile at Boulac. 

Smaller but important works which 
Baker also undertook include the vessel 
which he designed with Mr. John Dixon in 
1877 for the conveyance of Cleopatra's 
Needle from Egypt to England (see his 
' Cleopatra's Needle,' Min. Proc. Inst. 
Civ. Eng. Ixi. 233, for which, and for a 
paper on 'The River Nile,' he received a 
Telford medal from Inst. Civil Eng.) ; the 
Chignecto ship railway, for which Fowler 
and Baker were consulting engineers, and 
which was commenced in 1888 and aban- 
doned in 1891 owing to financial difficulties ; 



the Avonmouth docks (in association with 
Sir John Wolfe Barry, 1902-8) ; the Rosslare 
and Waterford railway ; the widening of 
the Buccleuch dock entrance at Barrow, 
and the construction of the bascule bridges 
at Walney (Barrow-in-Furness) and across 
the Swale near Queenborough. 

Baker gave much professional advice in 
regard to important structures at home 
and abroad. When the roof of Charing 
Cross railway station collapsed on 5 Dec. 
1905 he at once examined it, at some 
personal danger, and gave serviceable 
counsel. He was also consulted by Captain 
J. B. Eads in connection with the design of 
the St. Louis bridge across the Mississippi, 
and in regard to the first Hudson river 
tunnel. When the latter undertaking 
threatened failure, he designed a pneumatic 
shield which enabled the work to be 
extended 2000 ft., about three-fourths of 
the way across the river (1888-91). No- 
where were his abilities appreciated more 
highly than in Canada and the United 
States. He was an honorary member of 
both the Canadian and the American Society 
of Civil Engineers and of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

Baker served from 1888 until his death 
on the ordnance committee, of which he 
became the senior civil member on the death 
of Sir Frederick Bramwell [q. v. Suppl. II] 
in 1903. He was active in many govern- 
ment inquiries. He was a member of a 
committee on light railways in 1895, and 
of the committee appointed by the board 
of trade in 1900 to inquire into the loss 
of strength in steel rails. To the London 
county council he reported in 1891, with 
(Sir) Alexander Binnie, on the main 
drainage of London, and in 1897, with 
George Frederick Deacon [q. v. Suppl. II], 
on the water-supply of London from Wales. 

Baker was elected an associate of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers in 1867, a 
member in 1877, a member of council in 
1882, and president in 1895, remaining on 
the council till his death. His services to 
the institution were very valuable. During 
his presidency the governing body was 
enlarged with a view to giving the chief 
colonies and the principal industrial 
districts at home representation on the 
council, and the system of election of the 
council was modified. 

Baker became a fellow of the Royal 
icty in 1890 and a member of its 
council in 1892-3, and was one of its vice- 
i'lmts from 1896 until his death. 

Of the British Association, Baker was 
1'ivHilrnt >t tin mechanical science section 

at Aberdeen in 1885. He was also actively 
interested in the Royal Institution, in the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers (on the 
council of which he sat from 1899 until 
death), in the (Royal) Society of Arts, and 
in the Iron and Steel Institute. He was 
an associate of the Institution of Naval 
Architects and an honorary associate of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects. 
Honorary degrees were conferred upon him 
by the Universities of Cambridge (D.Sc. 
1900), Edinburgh (LL.D. 1890), and Dublin 
(M.Eng. 1892). 

Baker died suddenly from syncope at 
his residence, Bowden Green, Pangbourne, 
on 19 May 1907, and was buried at Idbury, 
near Chipping Norton. He was unmarried. 

His portrait in oils, by J. C. Michie, is 
in the possession of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, and an excellent photo- 
graph forms the frontispiece of vol. clviii. 
of that society's ' Proceedings.' 

A memorial window, designed by Mr. 
J. N. Comper, was unveiled by Earl Cromer 
on 3 Dec. 1909 in the north aisle of the 
nave of Westminster Abbey. 

[Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. Ixxxiv. ; Min. Proc. 
Inst. Civ. Eng., clxx. 377; The Times, 20 
May 1907 ; Engineering, Ixxiii. 685, Ixxviii. 
791 ; the Engineer, ciii. 524 ; see art. FOWLER, 
Sir JOHN, Suppl. I.] W. F. S. 

(1835-1903), Wesleyan missionary and 
premier of Tonga, born at Brimscombe 
near Stroud, Gloucestershire, in 1835, was 
son of George Baker by his wife Jano 
Woolmer. He emigrated to Australia about 
1853, where, after acquiring a knowledge 
of pharmacy, he studied for the Wesleyan 
ministry. In 1860 he was sent as a mission- 
ary to the island of Tonga in the South 
Pacific. In consequence of the cession of 
Fiji to England in 1874 the Tongans became 
seriously alarmed for their independence, 
and Baker, at the request of King George 
of Tonga, negotiated a treaty with 
Germany recognising Tonga as an indepen- 
dent kingdom in return for the perpetual 
lease of a coak'ng-station in Vavau. In 
reward for his good offices Baker received a 
German decoration. In 1879 the Wesleyan 
conference in Sydney, at the request of 
Sir Arthur Gordon (afterwards Lord Stan- 
more), British high commissioner of the 
Western Pacific, appointed a commission 
to inquire into various charges preferred 
against Baker by the British vice-consul in 
connection with his method of collecting 
money from the natives, and Baker was 
recalled to a circuit in Australia. But 
he did not obey the order. In January 




1881 he severed his connection with the 
Wesleyan mission, and was immediately 
appointed premier by King George. Under 
his guidance the constitution was revised, 
and the little kingdom of 20,000 people was 
loaded with a cabinet, privy council, and 
two houses of Parliament. In 1885 a 
Wesleyan Free Church was set up by 
Baker in opposition to the conference in 
Sydney. Unfortunately Baker's govern- 
ment attempted to coerce members of 
the old church by persecution, and in 
January 1887 the discontent culminated 
in a determined attempt on Baker's 
life, in which his son and daughter were 
injured. Four natives were executed and 
others sentenced to imprisonment for this 
attempt. Secure in the confidence of the 
king, Baker was now all-powerful ; he 
had taught the people to acquire many of 
the externals of prosperity and civilisa- 
tion. But he had failed to conciliate the 
powerful chiefs, whose position as the 
king's advisers he had usurped. In 1890 
they appealed against him to Sir John 
Thurston, the British high commissioner, 
who removed him from the islands for 
two years. When he returned in 1893 
King George was dead, and his political 
influence was at an end. Disappointed in 
his hope of preferment among Wesleyan 
adherents, he proceeded to set up 
a branch of the Church of England, 
which gained a good many followers. He 
died at Haapai on 30 Nov. 1903. He was 
married, and had one son and four daughters. 

[The present writer's Diversions of a Prime 
Minister, 1894, and his Savage Island, 1902 ; 
which embody personal observation of 
Baker's career in Tonga ; Resume of Inquiry, 
Tonga Mission Affairs, Auckland, 1879 ; Re- 
ports, by Sir Charles Mitchell, Bluebook, 
1887, and by Rev. G. Brown, Sydney, 1890; 
The Times, 29 and 30 Dec. 1903, 2 Jan. 
1904 ; Blackwood's Mag., Feb. 1904.] 

B. H. T. 

(1823-1903), physician, born at the Manse 
of Sorn, Ayrshire, on 2 June 1823, was sixth 
son and eighth of the thirteen children 
of Lewis Balfour, D.D., by his wife 
Henrietta Scott, third daughter of 
George Smith, D.D., minister of Gal- 
ston, who is satirised by Burns in * The 
Holy Fair.' The father was grandson, 
on his father's side, of James Balfour 
(1705-1795) [q. v.] of Pilrig, professor of 
moral philosophy and of public law at 
Edinburgh, and on his mother's side of 
Robert Whytt [q. v.], professor of medicine 
at Edinburgh. Of George William's brothers 

the eldest, John Balfour (d. 1887), surgeon 
to the East India Company, served through- 
out the second Burmese war and the 
Mutiny, and finally practised his profession 
at Leven, in Fife. Another brother, 
Mackintosh, who spent his life in India, 
became manager of the Agra bank. A 
sister, Margaret Isabella, married Thomas 
Stevenson [q. v.], the lighthouse engineer, 
and was mother of Robert Louis Steven- 
son [q. v.]. 

George William, after education at Colin- 
ton, to which parish his father was trans- 
ferred in the boy's infancy, began the study 
of veterinary science with a view to settling 
in Australia ; but soon resolving to join 
the medical profession, he entered the 
Medical School of Edinburgh. In 1845 he 
graduated M.D. at St. Andrews, and became 
L.R.C.S. Edinburgh. After acting as house 
surgeon to the Maternity Hospital of 
Edinburgh, he in 1846 proceeded to 
Vienna, where he studied the clinical 
methods of Skoda, the pathological 
researches of Sigmund, and the homceo- 
pathic treatment of Fleischmann. On 
his return from Austria, in 1846, he pub- 
lished papers on ' The Treatment of Pneu- 
monia as practised by Skoda * (Northern 
Journal of Medicine, Jan. 1846, p. 55) ; 
on ' Necrosis of the Jaw induced by Phos- 
phorus as taught by Sigmund ' (ibid. 
May 1846, p. 284) ; and on ' The Homoeo- 
pathic Treatment of Acute Diseases by 
Fleischmann ' (British and Foreign Medico- 
Chirurgical Review, Oct. 1846, p. 567), 
which at once placed him in the front 
rank of the younger medical inquirers. 
Thenceforth Balfour contributed largely to 
medical literature. 

Balfour was a general practitioner in the 
county of Midlothian from 1846 till 1857, 
when he removed to Edinburgh, and prac- 
tised as a physician on becoming F.R.C.P. 
Edinburgh in 1861. In 1866 he was 
appointed physician to the Royal Hospital 
for Sick Children, and from 1867 he was 
physician to the Royal Infirmary, being 
appointed consulting physician in 1882, on 
the expiry of his term of office. At the 
infirmary Balfour won general recognition 
as a clinical teacher of the first eminence, 
alike in the lecture theatre, at the bedside, 
and through his writings. For the 
New Sydenham Society he translated 
(1861-5) the ' Hand-book of the Practice 
of Forensic Medicine,' by Johann 
Ludwig Casper. In 1865 he published 
' An Introduction to the Study of 
Medicine ' a work which well illustrated 
his philosophic temper, independent judge- 


8 9 


ment, and historical sense, as well as the 
literary grace which was a family heritage. 

In 1868, following out a suggestion of 
his father-in-law, Dr. James Craig of 
Ratho, he wrote two able papers on 
* The Treatment of Aneurysm by Iodide 
of Potassium,' and thenceforth mainly 
concentrated his attention on diseases of 
the heart. ' Clinical Lectures on Diseases 
of the Heart and Aorta,' which appeared 
in 1876, greatly enhanced his reputation, 
and ' The Senile Heart,' which was issued 
in 1894, at once took rank as a classic. 
With Sir William Tennant Gairdner [q. v. 
Suppl. II] in Glasgow, and Charles Hilton 
Fagge [q. v.] in London, Balfour shared 
the credit of making the most important 
contributions of his generation to the 
clinical study of affections of the circula- 

Balfour, who was interested in biblio- 
graphy, was librarian to the College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh from 1873 to 1882 
and from 1887 to 1899. He was president of 
the college 1882-4, and was a member of the 
University Court of St. Andrews for many 
years. He received the honorary degree 
of LL.D. at Edinburgh in 1884, and at 
St. Andrews in 1896. He was appointed 
physician in ordinary to Queen Victoria in 
1900 and honorary physician to King 
Edward VII in 1901. 

In 1899 Balfour retired from Edinburgh 
to Colinton, the home of his youth, where 
he died on 9 Aug. 1903. Of impassive de- 
meanour, he charmed his friends by his 
quaint humour and culture. Although 
probably the best auscultator of his time, 
he lacked all appreciation of music. A 
portrait, by R. H. Campbell, hangs in the 
Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. 

Balfour was thrice married : (1) in 1848 
to Agnes (d. 1851), daughter of George 
Thomson, by whom he had one son, Lewis ; 
(2) in 1854 to Margaret Bethune (d. 1879), 
eldest daughter of Dr. James Craig, of Ratho, 
by whom he had eight sons and three 
daughters; and (3) in 1881 to Henrietta, 
daughter of John Usher, who survived him. 

[Lancet, 22 Aug. 1903 ; Brit. Med. Journal, 
22 Aug. 1903 ; Edinb. Med. Journal, Septem- 
ber I'.KCi; Scottish Med. and Surg. Journal, 
September 1903; The Balfours of Pilrig, 
by Miss Balfour Melville of Pilrig, 1907 ; 
1C. L. Stevenson, Memories and Portraits, 1887; 
te information.] G. A. G. 


SB OP GLASCLUNB (1837-1905), lord 

tit of the court of session in Scotland, 

born at Clackmannan on 11 July 1837, was 

second son (in a family of two sons and a 

daughter) of Peter Balfour (1794-1862), 
parish minister of that place, by his wife 
Jane Ramsay (d. 1871), daughter of Peter 
Blair of Perth. Educated at Edinburgh 
Academy, of which he was * dux,' or head 
boy, he passed to the University of Edin- 
burgh, where he had a distinguished career, 
but did not graduate. Passing to the 
Scottish bar on 26 Nov. 1861, he rose with 
almost unexampled rapidity to be the fore- 
most advocate in Scotland, his only rival 
being Alexander Asher [q. v. Suppl. II]. 
He first engaged prominently in politics at 
the general election of April 1880, when he 
contested North Ayrshire, as a liberal, 
against Robert William Cochran-Patrick 
[q. v. Suppl. I], afterwards permanent under- 
secretary for Scotland. Balfour was de- 
feated by fifty -five votes, but was returned 
unopposed on 1 Dec. 1880 for Clackmannan 
and Kinross when William Patrick Adam 
[q. v.], the sitting member, was appointed 
governor of Madras. Appointed immediately 
solicitor-general for Scotland in Gladstone's 
second ministry, he in 1881 succeeded John 
(afterwards Lord) McLaren [q. v. Suppl. H] 
as lord advocate. He was made honorary 
LL.D. of Edinburgh University in 1882, 
and became a privy councillor in 1883. 
He remained in office till the liberals 
went out in 1885. For nearly 150 years 
prior to 1885 the lord advocates were 
practically ministers for Scotland ; but 
during Lord Salisbury's short-lived ad- 
ministration of 1885-6 the ancient office of 
secretary of state for Scotland, which had 
been abolished at the close of the rebellion 
of 1745-6, was revived. Balfour was thus 
the last of the old line of lord advocates, 
and though he was always stronger as a 
lawyer than as a politician, managed the 
affairs of Scotland with ability in the face 
of considerable difficulties caused by the 
crofter question and the movement in 
favour of * home rule ' for Scotland. In 
1886 he was again lord advocate, but went 
out when the Gladstone government was 
defeated on the Irish question. In 1885-6 
he was dean of the faculty of advocates, 
and again in 1889-92. From 1892 to 
1895 he was once more lord advocate 
under Gladstone and Lord Rosebery, and, 
during that period, took a prominent part 
in carrying through the House of Commons 
the Local Government Act for Scotland 
(1894), by which parish councils, framed 
on the model of the English Act, were 
established. The defeat of the Rosebery 
government in June 1895 was the end of 
Balfour's official career ; but at the ensuing 
general election he was again returned by 



his old constituency, and remained in 
parliament till 1899. In that year the lord 
president of the court of session, James 
Patrick Bannerrnan (afterwards Lord) 
Robertson [q. v. Suppl. II], became a lord 
of appeal, on the death of William Watson 
(Lord Watson) [q. v. Suppl. I], and so high 
was the estimation in which Balfour was 
held that the conservative government 
bestowed on him the vacant office. ' I 
have never in my life known an appointment 
which gave such universal pleasure,' Lord 
Rosebery said at a banquet given by the 
Scottish Liberal Club in honour of Balfour's 
appointment. In 1902 Balfour was raised 
to the peerage as Baron Kinross of 
Glasclune. His health, which had begun 
to fail before he left the bar, broke down 
rapidly after he became a judge. On 22 Jan. 
1905 he died at Rothsay Terrace, Edinburgh, 
and was buried in the Dean cemetery there. 

Balfour married twice : (1) in 1869, 
Lilias, daughter of the Hon. Lord Mac- 
kenzie (Scottish judge) by whom he had 
one son, Patrick Balfour, second Baron 
Kinross (b. 23 April 1870) ; (2) in 1877, 
Marianne Elizabeth, daughter of the first 
Baron Moncreiff [q. v.], by whom he had 
four sons and one daughter. 

There are two portraits of Balfour : one, 
painted by John Callcott Horsley, R.A., was 
presented to him by his supporters in 
Ayrshire ; the other, by Sir George Reid, 
president of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
was presented to him by the counties of 
Clackmannan and Kinross on the occasion 
of his becoming lord president. Both 
paintings are in the possession of his widow. 
A cartoon portrait by ' Spy ' appeared in 
' Vanity Fair ' 1887. 

[Scotsman, 23 Jan. 1905 ; The Times, 23 Jan. 
1905; Roll of Faculty of Advocates; Records 
of Juridical Society 1859-63 ; History of 
Speculative Society, p. 152 ; personal know- 
lodge.] G. W. T. 0. 

1908), physician, was grandson of Percival 
Banks, surgeon in good practice in Ennis, 
co. Clare, who came of an English family 
settled in Ardee, co. Louth, in comfortable 
circumstances, from the middle of the 
seventeenth century. His father, also 
Percival Banks (d. 1848), the youngest of 
twenty-four children, after much foreign 
travel, and both naval and military service, 
succeeded to his father's practice at Enm's, 
and was later surgeon to the co. Clare 
Infirmary. John was the second son. 
His mother, Mary, was sister of Capt. 
Thomas Ramsay of the 89th regiment. 
The elder son, Percival Weldon Banks 

(d. 1850), a graduate of Trinity College, 
Dublin, and a barrister of Gray's Inn, took 
to literature in London, writing as ' Morgan 
Rattler ' in ' Fraser's Magazine ' and 

John was born in London on 14 Oct., 
probably in 1815. The year is doubtful, 
but on entering Trinity College on 6 Feb. 
1833 he gave his age as seventeen (MS. 
Entrance Boole, Trinity College, Dublin). 
According to his insurance policy, however, 
he was ninety-five at the time of his death ; 
if this be correct, he was born in 1812. 
After attending the grammar school of 
Ennis he began his medical studies in the 
school of the Royal College of Surgeons in 
Ireland as a pupil of (Sir) Henry Marsh 
[q. v.], professor of the practice of medicine 
there. Banks obtained the licence of the 
college in 1836. 

Meanwhile he had in 1833 entered Trinity 
College, where in 1837 he graduated B.A. 
and M.B., and in 1843 proceeded M.D. 
In 1841 he became a licentiate, and in 1844 
a fellow, of the King's and Queen's (now 
Royal) College of Physicians in Ireland. 
Professional promotion was rapid. In 1842 
he was appointed lecturer in medicine in 
the Carmichael School of Medicine in 
Dublin, and in 1843 physician to the House 
of Industry Hospital ; this position he held 
till his death. In 1847 and 1848 he was 
censor of the College of Physicians in 
Ireland. In 1849 he was elected king's 
professor of the practice of medicine in the 
school of physic, Trinity College, a post 
which carried with it duties as physician to 
Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital. He resigned 
both these appointments in 1868, but he 
was afterwards consulting physician to the 
hospital. In 1851 he became assistant 
physician, and in 1854 physician, to the 
Richmond Lunatic Asylum. Among the 
many Dublin charities at which Banks 
filled the position of consulting physician 
in his later years was the Royal City of 
Dublin Hospital. 

Banks was president of the College of 
Physicians 1869-71. From 1880 to 1898 
he was regius professor of physio in the 
University of Dublin, and from 1880 to his 
death physician in Ireland successively to 
Queen Victoria and to King Edward VII. 

In 1861 Banks became president of the 
Dublin Pathological Society, and in 1882, 
when the Royal Academy of Medicine in 
Ireland was formed, Banks was chosen its 
first president. In 1887 the British Medical 
Association met in Dublin, with Banks in 
the office of president. 

For many years Banks enjoyed a largo 



practice, and his professional and social 
position alike made him the virtual head 
of the medical profession of Dublin and 
Ireland. Papers which he wrote in his 
younger days gave a promise of valuable 
scientific work, which he failed to fulfil. 
But Ms article on ' Typhus Fever ' in 
Quain's 'Dictionary of Medicine' (1882) 
was long regarded as an authority. He 
was recognised as an expert in mental 
disease, and he so effectually urged the 
importance of psychological study for medi- 
cal students and physicians, that to his 
influence may be partly assigned the 
inclusion of mental disease in the medical 
curriculum. In 1868 he published (Dublin 
Journal of Medical Science, vol. xxxi.) a 
note on the writ * De Lunatico Inquirendo ' 
in the case of Dean Swift, which had fallen 
into his hands. 

Banks was always interested in medical 
education. He represented from 1880 to 
1898 at first the Queen's University and 
then the new Royal University (of both of 
which he was a senator) on the General 
Medical Council, where he pleaded for a high 
standard of general preliminary education. 
He urged the lengthening of the medical 
curriculum from four to five years, and he 
added a medal and a second prize to the 
medical travelling prize in the school of 
physic, Trinity College. Banks' s culture, 
old-fashioned courtesy, and handsome per- 
son gave him a high place in social life, and 
Ms social engagements probably impaired 
his devotion to scientific research. He 
numbered among his friends the leading 
professional men of Dublin. He was a 
polished and convincing speaker, an admir- 
able talker, and a writer of clear, scholarly 
Knulish. In 1883 Banks declined the offer 
of a knighthood (cf. comment in Punch, 
28 July 1883), but in 1889 he accepted 
the honour of K.C.B. He was made hon. 
D.Sc. of the Royal University (1882) and 
hon. LL.D. of Glasgow (1888). Connected 
by marriage and property with the co. 
Monaghan, he was a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant of that county, and served as 
hiirh sheriff in 1891. Banks, whose eye- 
sight tailed in later life without impairing 
his social activity, died on 16 July 1908 at 
his residence, 45 Merrion Square, Dublin, 
and was buried in Mount Jerome cemetery, 

Banks married in 1848 Alice (d. 1899), 
youngest daughter of Captain Wood 
Wright of Golagh, co. Monaghan. Their 
i nly child, Mary, in 1873 married the Hon. 
Wilkraghby Burrell, son of the fourth 
Baron Gwydyr, and died in 1898, leaving 

an only surviving child, Catharine Mary 
Sermonda, wife of John Henniker Heaton 
the younger. 

A portrait by Miss Sara Purser, Hon. 
R.H. A., painted in 1888, hangs in the Royal 
College of Physicians, having been presented 
to the college by the Dublin branch of the 
British Medical Association. A portrait 
medal was engraved by Mr. Oliver Sheppard, 
R.H. A., in 1906 for award to the winner of 
the travelling medical prize at Trinity, and 
a medallion from the same design is in the 
medical school of Trinity College. 

[Irish Times, 17 July 1908 ; Medical Press 
and Circular (notice by Sir F. R. Cruise), 
29 July 1908; Cameron's Hist, of Royal 
Coll. of Surgeons in Ireland ; Todd's Cat/ of 
Graduates in Dublin University; private 
sources.] R. J. R. 

(1842-1904), surgeon, born at Edinburgh 
on 1 Nov. 1842, was son of Peter S. Banks, 
writer to the signet. He received his 
early education at the Edinburgh Academy, 
whence he passed to the university. After 
a brilliant career in medicine he graduated 
M.D. with honours and the gold medal for 
his thesis on the Wolffian bodies (1864). 
During his university career he acted as 
prosector to Professor John Goodsir [q. v.]. 
Whilst at the Infirmary he acted as dresser 
and as house surgeon to James Syme [q. v.]. 
After graduating he was demonstrator of 
anatomy for a short time to Professor Allen 
Thomson [q. v.] at the University of 
Glasgow. Afterwards he went to Paraguay, 
where he acted as surgeon to the Republican 
government He settled at Liverpool in 
1868 as assistant to Mr. E. R. Bickersteth 
in succession to Reginald Harrison [q. v. 
Suppl. II], and joined the staff of the In- 
firmary school of medicine, first as demon- 
strator and afterwards as lecturer on 
anatomy. This post he retained, with 
the title of professor, when the Infirmary 
school was merged in University College. 
He resigned the chair in 1894, when he 
became emeritus professor of anatomy. 

Meanwhile, having served the offices of 
pathologist and curator of the museum, 
he succeeded Reginald Harrison as assistant 
surgeon to the Royal Infirmary at Liver- 
pool in 1875, and was full surgeon from 
1877 till November 1902, when, on being 
appointed consulting surgeon, the com- 
mittee paid him the unique compliment of 
assigning him ten beds in his former wards. 

Banks was admitted F.R.C.S. England 
on 9 Dec. 1869 without having taken the 
examinations for the diploma of member. 
He served as a member of the council 



from 1890 to 1896. He was the first repre- 
sentative of the Victoria University on the 
General Medical Council. In 1885 he was 
one of the founders of the Liverpool 
Biological Association and was elected the 
first president; in 1890 he was president 
of the Medical Institution. In 1892 he 
was made J.P. of Liverpool, and in 1899 
was knighted and was made hon. LL.D. 
of Edinburgh. 

He died suddenly at Aix-la-Chapelle 
on 9 Aug. 1904 whilst on his way home 
from Homburg, and was buried in the Smith- 
down Road cemetery, Liverpool. 

He married in 1874 Elizabeth Rathbone, 
daughter of John Elliott, a merchant of 
Liverpool; by her he had two sons, one 
of whom survived him. 

Mitchell Banks deserves recognition as 
a surgeon and as a great organiser. To his 
advocacy is largely due the modern operation 
for removal of cancer of the breast. He 
practised and recommended in the face 
of strenuous opposition an extensive 
operation with removal of the axillary 
glands when most surgeons were contented 
with the older method of partial removal. 
He made this subject the topic of his 
Lettsomian lectures at the Medical Society 
of London in 1900. As an organiser he 
formed one of the band who built up the 
fortunes of the medical school at Liverpool, 
landing it a provincial school and at a very 
low ebb Banks and his associates raised it 
by dint of hard work first to the rank of 
a medical college and finally to that of a 
well-equipped medical faculty of a modern 
university. The plan involved the re- 
building of the infirmary, and Banks 
was a member of the medical deputation 
which, with characteristic thoroughness, 
visited many continental hospitals for the 
purpose of studying their design and 
equipment before the foundation stone of 
the Liverpool building was laid in 1887. 

Mitchell Banks had a good knowledge of 
the history of medicine. His collection 
of early medical works was sold in seventy- 
eight lots by Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson 
& Hodge in June 1906. He was a frequent 
contributor to the scientific journals. ' The 
Gentle Doctor,' a scholarly address to the 
students of the Yorkshire College at Leeds 
in October 1892, and ' Physic and Letters,' 
the annual oration delivered before the 
Medical Society of London in May 1893, 
are good examples of his style and methods. 
These two addresses were reprinted at 
Liverpool in 1893. 

His portrait by the Hon. John Collier 
was presented to him on his retirement 

from active duties at University College, 
Liverpool, by his colleagues and students. 

The William Mitchell Banks lectureship 
in the Liverpool University was founded 
and endowed by his fellow-citizens in his 
memory in 1905. 

[Lancet, 1904, ii. 566 (with portrait) ; Brit. 
Med. Journal, 1906, ii. 409 ; Liverpool Medico- 
Chirurgical Journal, Jan. 1906, p. 2; infor- 
mation kindly given by R. A. Bickersteth, 
Esq., F.R.C.S. Eng. ; personal knowledge.] 

D'A. P. 

BELL- (1836-1908), prime minister. [See 

1904), bishop of Carlisle, born at Keighley 
on 29 March 1835, was eldest son of James 
Bardsley, hon. canon of Manchester, and 
Sarah, daughter of John Wareing of 
Oldham. He had six brothers, all in holy 
orders. Educated at Burnley and after- 
wards at Manchester grammar school, he 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, where he 
graduated B.A. on 8 March 1859, proceed- 
ing M. A. in 1865, and receiving the Lambeth 
degree of D.D. in 1887. He was ordained 
deacon in 1859, becoming priest in 1860. 
Bardsley's sympathies were with the 
evangelical party, and he shared the views 
of the Islington Protestant Association, of 
which he was secretary (1861-4). He served 
curacies at Sale, Cheshire (1859-60), at St. 
Luke's, Liverpool (1860-4) and at St. John's, 
Bootle (186^-71). In 1871 he accepted the 
perpetual curacy of St. Saviour's, Liverpool, 
where he acquired the reputation of an 
industrious organiser and a fluent preacher. 
On the formation of the new see of Liver- 
pool in 1880, bishop John Charles Ryle 
[q. v. Suppl. I] appointed Bardsley one of 
his chaplains and archdeacon of Warrington. 
In 1886 he was transferred to the arch- 
deaconry of Liverpool. Although a party 
man, Bardsley was no bigot. He per- 
formed his archidiaconal visitations with 
tact and vigour ; and in more than one 
instance he enforced clerical discipline by 
coercive measures. 

In 1887 Bardsley was nominated by Lord 
Salisbury to the bishopric of Sodor and Man 
in succession to Dr. Rowley Hill [q. v.] 
and was consecrated in York Minster on 
24 Aug. 1887. His evangelical views were 
in accordance with the traditions of the 
Manx church ; and the main feature of his 
episcopate was the development of the 
Bishop Wilson Theological College. On the 
death of Harvey Goodwin [q. v. Suppl. I] 
Bardsley was translated to the see of 
Carlisle, and at his enthronement on 22 April 




1892 he publicly declared his intention of 
being the bishop not of a party, but of the 
whole church. He was helpful and sym- 
pathetic to all his clergy, who trusted him 
implicitly, and by prudent administration 
he left little scope for extreme propaganda 
on either side. He was especially active 
in supporting the Diocesan Society and in 
organising in his diocese a systematised clergy 
sustentation fund. He died at Rose Castle, 
Carlisle, on 14 Sept. 1904, and was buried at 
Raughton Head. 

In 1862 he married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Rev. Benjamin Powell of Bellingham 
Lodge, Wigan, and sister of Sir Francis 
Sharp Powell, first baronet. Ho left two 
sons and three daughters. 

Although no profound nor exact scholar, 
Bardsley was a thorough and capable 
administrator. Ho travelled much in the 
East, especially in Palestine. 

Besides sermons Bardsley published : 1. 
* Counsels to Candidates for Confirmation,' 
1882. 2. ' Apostolic Succession,' 1883. 

[The Times, 15 and 19 Sept. 1904 ; Guardian, 
21 Sept. 1904 ; Dublin University Calendar, 
1860 ; Crockford, Clerical Directory, 1902.] 

G. S. W. 

EARL OF NORTHBROOK (1826-1904), states- 
man, born at 16 Cumberland Street, 
London, on 22 Jan. 1826, was eldest son of 
Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, first Baron 
Northbrook [q. v.], and great-grandson of 
Sir Francis Baring, first baronet [q. v.]. 
His mother was Jane, daughter of Sir 
George Grey, first baronet, and sister of 
Sir George Grey, second baronet [q. v.], the 
whig statesman, to whose character that of 
his nephew bore much resemblance. 

Thomas George Baring was educated 
privately and went at the age of seventeen 
to Oxford, where he entered as a gentle- 
man commoner at Christ Church in 1843, 
graduating B.A. in 1846 with a second 
class in the final classical school. Nurtured 
in an atmosphere of whig politics and 
high official position, he was early drawn 
to public life. On leaving Oxford he 
served a political apprenticeship in a 
variety of private secretarysliips to Henry 
Labouchere (afterwards Lord Taunton) 
[q. v.] at Dublin and the board of trade, 
to his uncle, Sir George Grey [q. v.] at the 
home office, and to Sir Charles Wood 
(afterwards Viscount Halifax) [q. v.] at 
the board of control. In 1848, the year 
of his marriage, his father succeeded to 
the family baronetcy and estates, including 
Stratton in Hampshire, a place destined to 
be his own home for forty years. In 1857 

Baring entered the House of Commons as 
whig member for Penryn and Falmouth. 
The liberal party had long been in power, 
and Baring served the government in a 
succession of subordinate posts. In 1857, 
in Lord Palmerston's government, ho 
became civil lord of the admiralty, and on 
Lord Palmerston's return to power in 1859 
was under secretary in the newly constituted 
India office under Sir Charles Wood until 
1864, with a brief interlude in 1861 as 
under-socretary at the war office. In 
1864 he wont in the same capacity to the 
home office under his uncle, Sir George 
Grey, and in April 1866 he was appointed 
secretary to the admiralty, going out of 
office with Lord Russell's administration 
in June of the same year. In Sept. 
1866 he succeeded his father as second 
Lord Northbrook, and leaving the House 
of Commons devoted himself to the busi- 
ness of his estate and local affairs in 

In 1868 Northbrook was again recalled 
to office as under- secretary of state for 
war in Gladstone's first administration, 
and he took a leading share, under 
Edward (afterwards Viscount) Cardwell, 
in the reform and reorganisation of the 
army. In this capacity it fell to his 
lot to pilot the regulation of the forces 
bill through the House of Lords and to be 
an interested witness of the exciting struggle 
which ended in the abolition of the purchase 
system by royal warrant. 

Lord Northbrook was now marked out 
for high office, and in February 1872, on 
the assassination of Lord Mayo [q. v.], 
he accepted the governor-generalship of 
India, a country with which he had some 
hereditary connection, his great-grand- 
father, Sir Francis Baring, first baronet, 
having been chairman of the court of 
directors of the East India Company, while 
his own service at the India office had 
familiarised him with Indian problems. 
Lord Northbrook's term of office 
gained for him the reputation of one of 
the best and most successful of modern 
viceroys. He found in India a situation 
of considerable unrest, caused principally 
by the energy with which necessary re- 
forms both in legislation and in finance and 
administration had been carried out since 
the mutiny, and notably by his prede- 
cessor, Lord Mayo. It was fortunate for 
India that Lord Northbrook at once realised 
the necessity of what he called ' steady 
government,' in respect of both foreign 
and home policy. His first acts were in- 
tended to remove the discontent which 




had boon aroused by the increase of im- 
perial and local taxation; and it was in 
the teeth of much expert opinion 'that he 
decided on the non -renewal of the income- 
tax, the disallowance of the Bengal munici- 
palities bill, and the modification of certain 
local imposts. Finance indeed he took 
under his special charge, and exercised a 
rigid and effective control over expenditure 
on public works, civil and military, with 
the result that during his four years' 
administration there was a surplus of 
ordinary revenue over expenditure of not 
less than a million sterling without the 
imposition of new taxation, notwithstand- 
ing an expenditure of 6,306,673J. for famine, 
which had been charged against revenue. 

The Bengal famine was the most note- 
worthy occurrence of Northbrook's vice- 
royalty, for not only was it the worst famine 
which had arisen in India for at least a 
hundred years, but it was the first in which 
the state was able, by vast but well-designed 
measures of relief, to save the lives of the 
population. These measures, taken under 
the direct supervision of the viceroy, who 
for eighteen months hardly left Calcutta, 
were (wrote Sir Evelyn Baring, afterwards 
Lord Cromer, then private secretary to 
Northbrook, his second cousin) ' fully suc- 
cessful ' ; and ' The Times ' gave expression 
to the general feeling, when it stated that 
to Lord Northbrook belonged the high 
honour of commanding one of the greatest 
and noblest campaigns ever fought in 
India. As in his financial measures, so on 
this occasion he showed his strength of 
character by resisting the universal outcry 
for regulating prices, stopping the operations 
of private traders, and preventing the 
export of rice. 

The only other incident which aroused 
much excitement or controversy was the 
deposition in 1875 of the Gaekwar of Baroda 
following upon the rare procedure of a 
commission of investigation, partly British 
and partly native, in connection with his 
alleged attempt to poison the resident, 
Colonel (afterwards Sir Robert) Phayre 
[q. v.] and the subsequent restoration of 
the native administration of the state in 
pursuance of the non-annexation policy 
always cordially adhered to by Lord North- 

The close of Lord Northbrook's term 
was marked by a certain amount of friction 
between the government of India and Lord 
Salisbury [q. v. Suppl. II], who had taken 
the place of the duke of Argyll as secretary 
of state for India upon the fall of Glad- 
stone's administration in 1874. Lord 

Salisbury, contrary to Northbrook's views 
and wishes, was inclined to exercise a 
more vigilant control from home than his 
predecessor. The increasing use of the 
telegraph was in fact beginning to revo- 
lutionise the relations between the two 
governments. On the question of Afghan- 
istan, Lord Salisbury, influenced by the 
Russophobist views of Sir Bartle Frere 
[q. v.] and Sir Henry Rawlinson [q. v.], 
put forward a proposal in his despatch 
of 22 Jan. 1875 for placing British agents 
at Herat and possibly at Kandahar, for 
the purpose of supplying the British 
government with information. Lord 
Northbrook, who deprecated the alarmist 
views put forward from home, and was 
firmly opposed to anything like external 
aggression, more especially in the direction 
of Afghanistan, remained as usual open- 
minded as to this suggestion until he had 
satisfied himself by careful inquiries from 
the best qualified sources ; he finally came 
to the conclusion that the proposed action 
would be impolitic except with the full 
consent of the Ameer, which he had reason 
to believe would not be given. No further 
steps were taken in this direction, until 
Lord Lytton [q. v.] succeeded Lord North- 
brook as viceroy. Meanwhile another 
question, that connected with the tariff and 
the cotton duties, led to a more serious col- 
lision of opinion, in which Lord Northbrook, 
though a convinced freetrader in principle, 
stood out as a champion of Indian interests 
against the pressure from Lord Salisbury 
and the home government in favour of a 
remission of the duties against Lancashire 
goods. By this time Lord Northbrook 
had decided on private grounds to resign 
his office, and he only remained in India 
until the conclusion of the visit of King 
Edward VII, then Prince of Wales, in the 
winter of 1875-6, a fitting . climax to his 
viceroyalty. He left India on 15 April 

The distinguishing mark of Lord North- 
brook's rule was, apart from his administra- 
tive capacity, his determination to guide 
himself by the wishes of the population at 
large so far as he could ascertain them. 
His genuine feeling for the natives, to whom 
his strict impartiality and the sympathy 
which underlay his reserve strongly ap- 
pealed, procured him the title of ' The just 

An earldom was conferred on him in 
recognition of his work in India on 10 June 
1876. On his return home, Lord North- 
brook's first care, having inherited a large 
fortune, a house in Hamilton Place, and 




a great collection of pictures from his 
onde, Thomas 'Baring (1799-1873), M.P. 
for Huntingdon, was to reorganise his 
private lifo both in London and at Strat- 
ton. While his own party remained in 
opposition, he was again able to attend to 
the duties and occupation of a country 
gentleman. Much as ho deprecated party 
conflict on Indian questions, the develop- 
ment of the Afghan imbroglio under his suc- 
cessor, Lord Lytton, forced him by degrees 
to take a prominent part in the controversy ; 
and even if it be admitted that the Lawrence 
policy of complete non-interference had 
practically broken down before Lord North- 
brook left India, the disastrous results of 
the counter-policy as actually pursued 
completely vindicated Northbrook's fore- 
sight and courage in the line he took on this 

On the accession to office of Gladstone 
in 1880, Lord Northbrook was appointed 
first lord of the admiralty. At the 
same time he became the principal adviser 
of the cabinet on Indian questions, and 
later on, when Sir Evelyn Baring, his 
cousin, was consul-general at Cairo, on 
Egyptian policy also. He was one of the 
four ministers Lord Granville, Lord 
Kimberley, and Sir Charles Dilke were the 
other three who were directly responsible 
for the despatch of General Gordon [q. v.] 
to the Soudan, a step which he after- 
wards admitted to have been a ' terrible 
mistake.' In Sept. 1884 he went to Cairo as a 
special commissioner to advise the govern- 
ment on the ' present situation in Egypt,' 
and especially on the 'present exigencies 
of Egyptian finance,' and in the reports 
brought homo by him in the following 
November he definitely ranged himself on 
the side of single British control, with all 
wliich that conclusion implied. His col- 
lea'.Mies, however, did not accept his plan of 

lisa I ion, and though he remained a 
niemhor of the government for the short 
remainder of its term, his relations with 

me became from that time 
markedly less cordial. He had returned 
liom Egypt to find himself the object of 
.serious attack on account of the agitation 
started in the ' Pall Mall Gazette ' by Mr. 
Stead's articles on ' The Truth about the 
Navy,' which resulted in the decision of the 
p'\ eminent, in Lord Northbrook's absence, 
to introduce a programme of expenditure 
on ship-building. As a matter of fact the 

. headed by Lord Northbrook and 
advised by Sir Cooper Key [q. v.], had, 

MI' ml Colomb, the biographer of the 
r, wrote, taken more decided steps in 

reorganising the navy * than perhaps any 
board which preceded it,' and technical 
opinion has long since vindicated Lord 
Northbrook from any suspicion of neglect 
or supineness. The fall of Gladstone's 
administration in June 1885 marked the 
close of Lord Northbrook's official career, 
although he refused high office in the 
cabinet on two subsequent occasions. In 
February 1886 Gladstone offered him 
the choice of the lord-lieutenancy of 
Ireland or the lord-presidentship of the 
council, but his Egyptian experience had 
decided him never again to servo under 
Gladstone, and though he retained an open 
mind on the Irish question longer than 
many of his old colleagues, he was already 
moving towards the liberal unionist position 
of strong hostility to the home rule solution, 
which he adopted on the production of 
Gladstone's bill in 1886. In December 
1886, upon Lord Randolph Churchill's 
resignation, he declined a suggestion that 
he should join Lord Salisbury's cabinet 
with George Joachim (afterwards Viscount) 
Goschen [q. v. Suppl. II], preferring with 
the rest of his old colleagues to support the 
government from without. When the time 
arrived, in 1895, for a unionist coalition, it 
was too late for him to re-enter the political 
arena and take office with the leader 
with whom throughout his political career 
he was much in sympathy, the Duke of 
Devonshire [q. v. Suppl. II]. He retained, 
moreover, strong liberal sympathies, which 
he showed at the close of his life by with- 
drawing his support from the unionist 
party in 1903 at the commencement of the 
agitation in favour of tariff reform. 

After the break-up of the liberal party 
in 1886, Lord Northbrook, living much at 
Stratton, found himself increasingly in- 
volved in the business of local administra- 
tion. As a member of the committee of 
quarter sessions ho took a leading part in 
the arrangements for the transfer of 
authority to the new Hampshire county 
council under the Local Government Act of 
1888 ; ho became chairman of the finance 
committee of the county council, and in 
1894, on Lord Basing's death, ho yielded, 
though with reluctance, to the unanimous 
wish of liis colleagues that he should accept 
the chairmanship of the council which ho 
held until his death. In 1889 he had been 
elected to the ancient office of high steward 
of Winchester, and in the following year he 
succeeded Lord Carnarvon as lord-lieutenant 
of Hampshire. In these various capacities, 
his courteous dignity, his force of character, 
his known impartiality, his complete 


9 6 


mastery of detail, and his financial ability 
enabled him to render conspicuous service. 
Lord Northbrook died after a short illness 
at Stratton on 16 Nov. 1904, and was 
buried at Micheldever church. 

Lord Northbrook belonged to the best 
typo of whig statesmanship. Trained 
from boyhood to political life he had, like 
other men of position and fortune in his 
generation, a high ideal of citizenship and 
public spirit, and both as a statesman and 
country gentleman left an example of 
energy and capacity expended in the 
service of his fellow-men. He had a re- 
markable aptitude for official business and 
especially for finance. His judgment was 
sound, and though naturally quick and 
vivacious in temperament he was eminently 
fairminded and impartial, and took the 
utmost pains to inform himself by ex- 
haustive study and inquiry on the merits 
of any political or administrative question 
with which he had to deal. He had 
little power of speaking and was shy and 
reserved in manner, but he had great 
self-reliance, wide sympathies, and much 
natural dignity, travelling, sketching, 
fishing, and in earlier life hunting, were his 
favourite recreations ; he was a lover of 
books and reading and of art and 
pictures, of which he was a highly com- 
petent judge. 

Lord Northbrook married in September 
1848 Elizabeth Harriet, daughter of Henry 
Charles Sturt of Oichel, who died on 3 June 
1867. There were three children of the 
marriage, two sons, of whom the elder 
succeeded as second Earl of Northbrook in 
1904, and the second, Arthur, was drowned 
when serving as a midshipman on board 
H.M.S. Captain in 1870, and one daughter, 
Lady Jane Emma, who from her thirteenth 
year was her father's constant companion. 
She accompanied him to India, where at 
a very early age she acted as hostess for the 
viceroy with tact and success, and her 
marriage in 1890 to Col. the Hon. Henry 
George Lewis, third son of John Crichton, 
third earl of Erne, caused little interruption 
to their lifelong intercourse. 

The principal portraits are a water-colour 
drawing of Lord Northbrook as a young 
man, by George Richmond, R. A., at Netley 
Castle, Hampshire, a drawing by H. T. 
Wells, R.A., for Grillion's Club, a portrait 
in peer's robes by W. W. Oulesa, R.A., at 
Government House, Calcutta (a copy at 
Stratton), and a portrait painted in 1903 
by A. S. Cope, R.A., in the County Hall 
at Winchester (copy at Stratton). There 
is also at Calcutta a bronze statue of . 

1 Lord Northbrook in the robes of a G.C.S.I., 
by Sir Edgar Boehm. Cartoon portraits 
are in ' Vanity Fair ' 1876 and 1882. 

[Memoir by the present writer with the aid 

! of Lord Northbrook's family, and based on 

| private papers and official documents, 1908; 

| see also Sir Henry Cotton, Indian and Home 

Memories, 1911.] B. M. 

BARKER, THOMAS (1838-1907), pro- 
fessor of mathematics, born on 9 Sept. 1838, 
I was son of Thomas Barker, farmer, of 
! Murcar, Balgonie, near Aberdeen, and of 
his wife Margaret. Three other children 
| died in infancy. He was educated at the 
grammar school, Aberdeen, and at King's 
College in the same town, where he 
graduated in 1857 with great distinction in 
mathematics. He entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge, as minor scholar and subsizar 
in 1858, became foundation scholar in 
1860, Sheepshanks astronomical exhibi- 
tioner in 1861, and came out in the mathe- 
matical tripos of 1862 as senior wrangler ; 
he was also first Smith's prizeman. He 
was elected to a fellowship in the autumn 
of 1862, and was assistant tutor of Trinity 
till 1865, when he was appointed professor 
of pure mathematics in the Owens College, 
Manchester. He held this post for twenty 
years, during which the college advanced 
greatly both in resources and in public 
estimation. To this progress Barker's high 
repute as a teacher greatly contributed. 

Barker's ideals as a mathematician 
differed much from those that were current 
in most colleges and universities of the 
country at the time. He was a follower of 
De Morgan and Boole ; like them he was 
interested in the logical basis rather than 
in the applications of mathematics, and he 
endeavoured to set forth the processes of 
mathematical reasoning as a connected 
system from their foundation. His pre- 
sentment of the subject was consequently 
not attractive to ordinary students, but 
on the more gifted minds which came 
under his influence it made a deep im- 
pression. His severely critical habit made 
him diffident of publication, but his success 
as a teacher is attested by the number of 
distinguished pupils on whom he exercised 
a great and possibly a determining in- 
fluence. These include John Hopkinson, 
[q. v. Suppl. I], J. H. Poynting, A. 
Schuster, and Sir Joseph John Thomson. 

After resignation of his chair in 1885 he 
lived in tranquil retirement, first at Whaley 
Bridge and afterwards at Buxton. His 
mathematical interests were varied by 
an almost passionate study of cryptogamic 
botany. He died unmarried at Buxton 




on 20 Nov. 1907, and was buried in the 
Manchester southern cemetery. By his 
will he provided for the foundation in the 
University of Manchester of a professorship 
of cryptogamic botany, and for the endow- 
ment of bursaries for poor students in 
mathematics and botany. 

[Tho Times, 22 Nov. 1907, 7 Dec. (will) ; 
Manchester Guardian, 23 Nov. 1907; Man- 
chester Univ. Mag., Doc. 1907.] H. L-B. 

(1833-1908), dean of Peterborough, born 
at Matlock on 5 May 1833, was younger son 
(of five children) of Henry Barlow, curate in 
charge of Dethick, near Matlock, and after- 
wards vicar of Pittsmoor, Sheffield, by his 
wife Elizabeth, only daughter of John 
Hagger, of Sheffield. William, sent first 
to the grammar school and then to the 
collegiate school at Sheffield, won a school 
exhibition and a scholarship in classics at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
matriculated in October 1853. He took 
honours in four triposes a rare achievement 
(16th junior optime and third in second class, 
classical tripos, 1857 ; second in first class, 
moral sciences tripos, and second class in 
theological examinations, 1858). He also 
won the Carus Greek Testament (bachelors') 
prize, 1858. He proceeded M.A. 1860, and 
B.D. 1875. Incorporated M.A. of Oxford 
through Christ Church (1874), he proceeded 
B.D. and D.D. there in 1895. 

Barlow was ordained deacon on 30 May 
1858 and priest on 10 June 1859, serving the 
curacy of St. James, Bristol. When the new 
ecclesiastical district of St. Bartholomew 
was formed out of this poor parish and 
a church built in 1861, he was the first 
vicar (1861-73). After a brief incumbency 
of St. Ebbe's, Oxford (1873-5), he was 
appointed in 1875 by the committee of the 
Church Missionary Society principal of their 
college, in Upper Street, Islington, for the 
training o f missionaries. Barlow quickly 
succeeded in improving the numbers and 
course of training. In 1883 he helped 
to collect 18.000/. for the enlargement 
of the society's headquarters in Salisbury 

In 1882 Barlow was appointed vicar of 
St. James, Clapham, and in 1887 was 
promoted by the trustees at the wish of 
the evangelical leaders to the vicarage of 
fllington, the ' blue ribbon ' of their 
patronage. Barlow's tenure of this im- 
portant benefice greatly strengthened his 
influence as an evangelical leader. He was 
made trustee of the Peache, the Aston, and 
the Sellwood Church Patronage Trusts, 
which governed about 200 English and 


Welsh benefices. The annual Islington 
Clerical Meeting, founded in a small way 
at the vicarage by Bishop Daniel Wilson 
[q. v.] in 1827, greatly expanded after 
Barlow took the management of it in 1888, 
and it became the rallying-point of the 
evangelicals. From 1887 to 1894 he was 
official chairman of the Islington Vestry, 
and when the local government act, 1894, 
took away the right of the vicar, the vestry 
continued to elect him to the chair 1895- 
1899, entitling him to be J.P. for London. 
Barlow, who was made a prebendary 
in St. Paul's cathedral by Bishop Creighton 
in 1898, accepted in May 1901 Lord Salis- 
bury's offer of the deanery of Peterborough. 
Though a convinced evangelical, he 
attempted no changes in the manner of 
service at the cathedral, contenting himself 
with taking the 'north-end' position at 
Holy Communion. He raised money for 
further repairs in the north transept and 
the clerestory of the choir. 

While actively engaged in the manage- 
ment of the chief evangelical, missionary, 
and educational institutions, he was a 
member of Bishop Creighton's round-table 
conference at Fulham Palace on the Holy 
Communion (1900) ; served on the prayer- 
book revision committee of the lower 
house of Canterbury convocation which 
was appointed on 15 February 1907 ; was 
examining chaplain (1883-1900) to Dr. J. C. 
Ryle [q. v. Suppl. I], bishop of Liverpool, 
and select preacher both at Oxford and 
Cambridge. He mainly owed his wide in- 
fluence to his shrewdness in counsel, his 
knowledge of men, and his ability to draw 
out opinions from others without parading 
his own. He died at Peterborough on 
10 May 1908, and was buried beside his 
wife on the south side of the cathedral. 
A portrait in oils is at the deanery. 

Barlow married on 15 Aug. 1861 Eliza 
Mary, eldest daughter of Edward Pote 
Williams, of Upton Park, Slough. She 
died at Peterborough on 4 Oct. 1905. They 
had three sons and three daughters. Tho 
eldest son, Henry Theodore Edward 
Barlow (1862-1906), was honorary canon of 
Carlisle, and rector of Lawford, Essex. The 
second son, Clement Anderson Montagu, 
LL.D., was elected unionist M.P. for 
South Salford in December 1910. 

[Life of W. H. Barlow, by Margaret Barlow 
(with portraits), 1910 ; E. Stock, History of 
Church Missionary Society, 1899, voL iii. ; 
E. Stock, My Recollections, 1909, pp. 75-6, 
&c. ; The Times, 11 May 1908; The Times 
Literary Supplement, 17 November 1910, 
p. 447; Record, 15 May 1908; Crockford, 
1908 ; private information.] E. H. P. 


9 8 


1902), civil engineer, born at Woolwich 
on 10 May 1812, was younger son of Peter 
Barlow [q. v.] and brother of Peter William 
Barlow [q. v. Suppl. I]. After educa- 
tion at home by his father he received 
three years' practical training, at first 
in the machinery department of Woolwich 
dockyard, and then at the London Docks 
under Henry Robinson Palmer, the en- 
gineer-in-chief. At twenty he was sent 
by Messrs. Maudslay and Field to Constan 
tinople, where he spent six years on the 
erection of machinery and buildings for 
the manufacture of ordnance for the Turkish 
government. For the Porte he also 
reported on the lighthouses at the mouth 
of the Bosporus in the Black Sea, and the 
work suggested a paper, which he com- 
municated to the Royal Society, on the 
adaptation of different modes of illumin- 
ating lighthouses (Phil. Trans. 1837, p. 211). 
For his services in Turkey he was decorated 
with the order of the Nischan-el-Iftikar. 
On returning to England in 1838 he 
became assistant engineer on the con- 
struction of the Manchester and Bir- 
mingham railway, in 1842 resident 
engineer on the Midland Counties railway, 
and in 1844 resident engineer to the 
North Midland and the other lines which 
were amalgamated during that year to 
form the Midland railway. Of the Mid- 
land railway he became principal engineer- 
in-charge, and in 1857 he removed as the 
company's consulting engineer from Derby 
to London. The saddleback form of 
rail which bears his name was invented by 
him during this period (of. his patent 
No. 12438 of 1849); and between 1844 
and 1886 he took out, either alone or in 
conjunction with others, several other 
patents relating to permanent way. In 
1862-9 Barlow, who carried out many 
improvements of the Midland railway, laid 
out and constructed the southern portion 
of the London and Bedford line, including 
St. Pancras Station with its fine roof 
(opened 1 Oct. 1868; cf. Proc. Inst. Civ. 
Eng. xxx a 78). Meanwhile in 1860 he 
designed, with Sir John Hawkshaw [q. v. 
Suppl. I], the completion of the Clifton 
suspension bridge (cf. ib. xxvi. 243). 

Concurrently with his constructional 
work Barlow carried on many scientific 
researches. In 1847 he observed certain 
spontaneous diurnal deflections of the 
needles of railway telegraph-instruments, 
as well as spasmodic movements correspon- 
ding with magnetic storms. These he 
attributed to electric currents on the 

earth's surface (cf . his paper in Phil. Trans. 
1849, p. 61). Another communication to 
the Royal Society in 1874 (Proc. xxii. 
277) describes the ' logograph,' an instru- 
ment which he devised for recording graphi- 
cally the sound waves caused by the human 
voice, and which was a forerunner of the 
telephone and phonograph. But his chief 
scientific inquiries concerned the theory of 
structures. In 1846 he presented to the 
Institution of Civil Engineers (Proc. v* 
162) a paper * On the Existence (practi- 
cally) of the Line of Equal Horizontal 
Thrust in Arches, and the Mode of deter- 
mining it by Geometrical Construction.' 
Later he investigated practically the 
strength of beams (cf. three papers in 
Phil. Trans. 1855, p. 225 ; ib. 1857, p. 463 ; 
and Proc. E.S. xviii. 345). In 1859 he 
made experiments on continuous beams, 
which indicated the advantages of increas- 
ing the depth of such beams over the points 
of support (cf. his patent No. 908 of 1859). 
Barlow was often consulted on engineer- 
ing principles, as well as on large structural 
designs. He was a member of a com- 
mittee of engineers formed in 1868 to 
investigate the applicability of steel to 
structures, and after he had urged the 
advantages of steel in his address to the 
mechanical science section of the British 
Association in 1873, the board of trade 
appointed a committee of inquiry (on which 
he served) which recommended (1877) the 
6J tons limit of working-stress for steel. 
Barlow was a member of the court of 
inquiry into the Tay bridge disaster (1879) 
which counselled a precise calculation of 
the stresses due to wind-pressure, and he 
served on the board of trade committee 
which defined an allowance of 56 Ibs. per 
square foot for such pressure. 

Consulted by the directors of the North 
British railway in regard to reconstruction 
of the Tay bridge, he recommended an 
independent viaduct, which was commenced 
in 1882 and opened for traffic 20 June 1887 
(for a description by Barlow's son, Crawford, 
see Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. 1888, xciv. 87). 

Barlow was one of three consulting 
engineers to whom the railway companies 
concerned referred the question of bridging 
the Forth after the collapse of the Tay 
bridge [cf . art. FOWLEB, Sir JOHN", Suppl. I], 
and he submitted two designs (suspension 
bridges with braced chains) ; but the type 
of bridge proposed by (Sir) Benjamin Baker 
[q. v. Suppl. II] was adopted, with certain 
modifications in the piers to meet objections 
taken by Barlow. 
Barlow attained a chief place in his 




profession. Of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers he became a member on 1 April 
1845 ; he was elected to the council in 1863, 
and was president in 1879-80 (Address in 
Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Ix. 2). He received 
in 1849 a Telford medal for a paper 
' On the Construction of the Permanent 
Way of Railways, &c.' (Proc. Inst. Civ. 
Eng. ix. 387). He was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society on 6 June 1850, and 
was a vice-president in 1880-1. In 1889 
he was elected an honorary member of 
the Societe des Ingenieurs civils de France. 
In 1881 he and Sir Frederick Bramwell 
[q. v. Suppl. II] were appointed the first 
civil members of the ordnance committee. 
He was one of the judges of the centennial 
exhibition at Philadelphia in 1875; was 
elected a member of the Athenaeum club 
honoris causa in 1881 ; and was a lieut.- 
colonel in the engineer and railway volun- 
teer staff corps. 

Barlow practised from 1857 to 1866 
at 19 Great George Street, Westminster, 
and from 1866 onwards at 2 Old Palace 
Yard. In 1874 he took into partnership 
his second son, Crawford, and his assistant, 
Mr. C. B. Baker. 

He died on 12 Nov. 1902 at his residence, 
High Combe, Old Charlton. He married 
SeSna Crawford, daughter of W. Caffin, of 
the Royal Arsenal, by whom he had four 
sons and two daughters. His portrait in 
oils, by the Hon. John Collier, is at the 
Institution of Civil Engineers. 

[Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng., vol. cli. ; Men and 
Women of the Time, 1899.] W. F. S. 

1905), philanthropist, born in Dublin on 
4 July 1845, was younger son of John 
Michaelis Barnardo, who, born at Hamburg 
in 1800, had settled in Dublin as a whole- 
sale furrier and had become a naturalised 
British subject. The Barnardo family, of 
Spanish origin, left Spain for Germany in 
the eighteenth century on account ol 
religious persecution by the catholic church. 
Thomas John's mother was the daughter 
of Andrew Drinkwater, who belonged 
1" an old quaker family, long settled in 
Ireland. She was a woman of strong 
religious convictions and exercised abiding 
influence upon her family. The son, after 
attending private schools in Dublin kepi 
by the Rev. A. Andrews and the Rev. J 
liundas, became at fourteen a clerk in a 
wine merchant's office in his native city 
Iwt he subsequently gave up the employ 
n lent on growing convinced of the evils o: 
intemperance. During the protestant re 
ligious revival in Dublin of 1862 he wa< 

converted,' the date of conversion being, 
iccording to an entry in his Bible, 26 May 
862. Soon after, he devoted his spare 
ime to preaching and evangelising work 
n Dublin slums, until the call came to him 
/o go as a missionary to China. 

With a view to that work, he came to 
London in April 1866 and settled in Coburn 
Street, Stepney, under the guidance of the 

v. Hudson Taylor, the founder of the 
3hina Inland Mission, and of Henry Grattan 
Guinness [q. v. Suppl. II]. In Oct. 1866 
ic entered the London Hospital as a 
missionary medical student, becoming a 
icentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons 
Edinburgh on 31 March 1876 and a fellow 
on 1 6 April 1 879. Whilst pursuing his studies 
in East London he joined the Ernest Street 
ragged school and became superinten- 
dent. He preached in the open air, visited 
common lodging-houses and slums, and 
volunteered for service in the district 
during the cholera epidemic of 1866-7. 
Whilst thus engaged he was impressed by 
the number of homeless and necessitous 
children in the East End, and he gave up 
his intention of going to China in order 
to devote himself to their interests. On 
15 July 1867 he founded the East End 
Juvenile Mission for the care of friendless 
and destitute children. The work rapidly 
developed, and in December 1870, under 
the patronage of Lord Shaftesbury, ho 
opened a boys' home at 18 Stepney Cause- 
way to provide for destitute lads. This 
institution developed into the immense 
organisation known as * Dr. Barnardo's 
Homes.' His next step was to purchase, 
in 1873, a notorious public-house known aa 
' Edinburgh Castle,' Limehouse, and to 
convert it into a mission church and coffee 
palace for working-men, which became 
the centre of his evangelistic work. The 
' Dublin Castle,' Mile End, was similarly 
treated in 1876. In 1874 Barnardo opened 
a receiving house for girls, and on 9 July 
1876 he started the Girls' Village Home, 
Barkingside, Essex, with church and schools. 
On 20 Aug. 1882 he sent for the first time 
a party of boys, and a year later a party 
of girls, to Canada for training and settle- 
ment there. In 1887 he established offices 
in Toronto, Canada, with distributing homes 
and an industrial farm. In 1886 he adopted 
in England the boarding-out system as an 
integral part of his scheme. In the same 
year he opened the Babies' Castle at Hawk- 
hurst, Kent, for 100 infants (9 Aug.). 

Barnardo's work grew with amazing 
rapidity, both at home and in Canada, until 
the waif and destitute children in his daily 

H 2 




charge numbered about 8000. Before his 
death in 1905 he had rescued and trained 
59,384 destitute children and had other- 
wise assisted as many as 250,000 children 
in want. Over ninety homes and agencies 
were founded and maintained by him. 
The Young Helpers' League which he 
formed in 1891, under the patronage of 
Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck, 
who became the first president, and later of 
Queen Alexandra, aimed at banding together 
the children of the rich in the service of 
the sick and suffering poor. The income 
of the homes was wholly drawn from 
voluntary sources, and rose from 214J. 155. 
in 1866 to 196,2862. 11s. in 1905, making 
a total of nearly 3,500,0002. 

In 1877 charges reflecting on Barnardo's 
disinterestedness and good management 
were submitted to arbitration and fully 
refuted. He then conveyed the pro- 
perty to trustees. On 20 April 1899 the 
homes were incorporated under the Com- 
panies Act, and became known as ' The 
National Incorporated Association for the 
Reclamation of Destitute Waif Children, 
otherwise known as " Dr. Barnardo's 
Homes." ' In 1903 Queen Alexandra 
accepted the office of patron. The cardinal 
principle of Barnardo's homes, * No destitute 
child ever refused admission,' was never 
forsaken even when his financial resources 
were temporarily exhausted. The religious 
teaching of the homes was stated in the 
title-deeds to be protestant, and every child 
admitted into the homes was to be brought 
up in the protestant faith. Barnardo fre- 
quently came into conflict in the law courts 
with Roman catholic authorities, who 
claimed to recover from the homes children 
of catholic parentage. Between 1889 and 
1891 Barnardo was involved in much 
litigation on such grounds. Ultimately an 
equitable agreement was reached without 
prejudice to the protestant character of 
the homes. 

Barnardo died at Surbiton on 19 Sept. 
1905 from heart failure. In a message of 
condolence from King Edward VII and 
Queen Alexandra he was called * that 
great philanthropist.' A public funeral 
was accorded him at his Girls' Village 
Home, Barkingside. There a memorial 
room was opened on 30 June 1906, and 
on Founder's Day, 1908, a beautiful monu- 
ment fashioned by Sir George Frampton, 
R.A., who gave his services gratuitously, 
was erected over his tomb. A national 
memorial was organised to free his homes 
from debt, and their prosperity is now 
firmly established. 

On 17 June 1873 he married Syrie 
Louise, only daughter of William Elmslie 
of Lloyds and Richmond, Surrey, who 
survives him with two sons and two 
daughters. Three sons predeceased him. 

[Memoirs of the late Dr. Barnardo, by Mrs. 
Barnardo and Rev. James Marchant, secretary 
of the National Memorial Council, 1907 ; 
original books and documents in Dr. Barnardo's 
Homes ; private sources.] J. M-T. 

BARNES, ROBERT (1817-1907), 
obstetric physician, born at Norwich on 
4 Sept. 1817, was second son and second 
child of the six children of Philip Barnes, 
an architect and one of the founders of 
the Royal Botanic Society of London, by 
his wife Harriet Futter, daughter of a 
Norfolk squire. The father, also of an 
old Norfolk family, claimed descent from 
Robert Barnes [q. v.], the Marian martyr. 
Educated at Bruges from 1826 to 1830 and at 
home, where one of his tutors was George 
Borrow, author of ' The Bible in Spain,' 
Barnes began his medical career in 1832 
as an apprentice in Norwich to Dr. Richard 
Griffin, founder of an association of poor- 
law medical men. When his family 
moved to London he continued his medical 
work at University College, the Windmill 
Street school, and at St. George's Hospital. 
After becoming M.R.C.S. in 1842 he spent 
a year in Paris, where he paid much atten- 
tion to mental diseases ; on his return to 
London after unsuccessfully competing for 
the post of resident physician at Bethlehem 
Royal Hospital, he settled in general 
practice in Netting Hill and engaged in 
literary work on the ' Lancet.' His ambition 
i was to become a medical teacher. He 
soon lectured at the Hunterian School of 
Medicine and on forensic medicine at 
Dermott's School, and was obstetric surgeon 
to the Western general dispensary. He 
graduated M.D. London in 1848, and in 
1853 became L.R.C.P. and in 1859 F.R.C.P. 

On 1 April 1859 Barnes was elected 
assistant obstetric physician, and on 14 July 
1863 obstetric physician, to the London 
Hospital. From the London Hospital he 
passed on 24 April J1865 to a like post 
at St. Thomas's Hospital, where he had 
lectured on midwifery since April 1862. 
In 1875 he left St. Thomas's Hospital, 
where he was dean of the medical school, 
to become obstetric physician at St. George's 
Hospital; there he was elected consulting 
obstetric physician in 1885. He thus had 
the rare distinction of lecturing on mid- 
wifery at three great medical schools in 
London. He had also acted as physician 
to the Seamen's Hospital, the East London 




Hospital for Children, and tho Royal 
Maternity Hospital. 

Barnes took a prominent part in found- 
ing the Obstetrical Society of London in 
1858 and was president in 1865-6. But 
a dispute with tho council of this society 
led him in 1884 to establish the British 
Gynecological Society, of which he was 
honorary president until his death. The 
justification of the schism was the 
antagonism of the old society to the per- 
formance of ovariotomy and other im- 
portant operations by obstetricians. Barnes 
was one of the pioneers of operative 
gynaecology, and the cause he advocated 
gained the day. The two societies were 
united in the obstetrical and gynaecological 
section of the Royal Society of Medicine 
in 1907. 

At the College of Physicians Barnes 
delivered the Lumleian lectures ' On Con- 
vulsive Diseases in Women ' in 1873 and 
was censor (1877-8). He was elected 
honorary fellow of the Royal College of 
Surgeons in 1883 ; of the Medical Society 
of London in 1893 (ho had given the Lett- 
somian lectures in 1858), and of the Royal 
Medical and Chirurgical Society at the 
centenary meeting of 1905. 

A leading teacher and gynaecologist 
in London. Barnes was a rival of James 
Matthews Duncan [q. v. Suppl. I] both in 
debates at the Obstetrical Society and in 
practice. One of the first to work at the 
minute pathology of obstetrics, he influenced 
the progress of obstetric medicine. His 
name has been attached to an obstetric in- 
strument and to a curve of the pelvis. He 
expressed with decision his very definite 
opinions, and his mental and physical 
vigour was shown by his learning Spanish 
when over eighty-five and by rowing out 
to sea and bathing from the boat until he 
was eighty-nine. He was a director of the 
Prudential Assurance Company (1848-9 ; 
18841907), amassed a considerable fortune, 
and gave liberally to medical institutions, 
among others to the medical school of 
St. George's Hospital, where the pathological 
laboratory is called after him. He died 
at Eastbourne on 12 May 1907, and was 
buried there. A portrait by Horsburgh 
is in possession of his family. 

Barnes married: (1) Eliza Fawkener, 
daughter of a London solicitor ; (2) Alice 
Maria, daughter of Captain W. G. Hughes, 
of Carmarthenshire, D.L. and J.P. for 
that county. By his first wife he had one 
son, Dr. R. S. Fancourt Barnes, and two 
daughters, and by his second wife one son 
and one daughter. 

Besides thirty-two papers in the ' Trans- 
actions of the Obstetrical Society,' and an 
official report on scurvy at the Seamen's 
Hospital, 1864, Barnes was author of : 
1. * Obstetrical Operations,' 1870 ; 3rd ed. 
1876; translated into French. 2. 'Medical 
and Surgical Diseases of Women,' 1873; 
translated into French. 3. ' Obstetric 
Medicine and Surgery,' 2 vols. (with his 
son, Fancourt Barnes), 1884. 4. ' Causes 
of Puerperal Fever,' 1887. 

[Brit. Med. Journ., 1907, ii. 1221 ; informa- 
tion from his son-in-law, H. Robinson, M.D.] 

II. D. R. 

BARRETT, WILSON [originally 
WILLIAM HENRY] (1846-1904), actor 
and dramatist, born at the Manor 
House Farm, near Chelmsford, Essex, 
on 18 Feb. 1846, was eldest son of 
George Barrett, a farmer, by his wife and 
cousin Charlotte Mary Wood. The family 
was of old Hertfordshire descent. Two 
brothers, George Edward (1848-1894), an 
excellent low comedian, and Robert 
Reville (d. 1893), with a sister, Mary 
Brunell, were also on the stage, and the 
three were in 1872 members of Barrett's 
travelling company. 

Owing to family reverses, Barrett began 
life as a printer in London, but in 1864 made 
his first appearance on the stage at the 
Theatre Royal, Halifax, where he was 
engaged for ' general utility.' He was 
seen three months later at the Adelplii 
theatre, Liverpool, and shortly afterwards, 
purchasing a ' fit-up ' theatre, he started 
management at Burnley in Lancashire 
with disastrous results. Returning to 
stock work, he played ' the heavy business ' 
at Nottingham, under Mrs. Saville. At 
Aberdeen he met on a starring visit 
Caroline Heath (1835-1887), actress and 
reader to the Queen, and after a short 
wooing he married her at Brechin on 31 
July 1866. For many years he lent support 
to his wife's leading roles, and her reputation 
overshadowed his. 

On 26 June 1867, at the Surrey theatre, 
London, Barrett played at very short 
notice Tom Robinson in * It's never too late 
to mend,' in place of Richard Shepherd, 
the actor-manager, who had lost his voice. 
On 29 June he performed Archibald 
Carlyle to Miss Heath's Lady Isabelle in 
' East Lynne.' In this role he was 
welcomed by the press as a painstaking 
newcomer to the London stage. For the 
autumn season of 1867 he joined F. B. 
Chatterton's company at Drury Lane, and 
subsequently travelled in the provinces 
with Miss Heath and a company of his own. 




He was at the Queen's, Dublin, in May 1869, 
and for the rest of the year at the Princess's, 
Edinburgh, playing Mephistopheles in 
'Faust' on 9 Oct., Master Ford in 'The 
Merry Wives of Windsor,' and Triplet to 
Miss Heath's Peg Woffington on 10 Dec. 

In 1874 Barrett became lessee and 
manager of the Amphitheatre, Leeds, and 
on 8 March 1875 first produced there 
W. G. Wills's drama ' Jane Shore,' with 
himself as Henry Shore and Miss Heath in 
the title character. Husband and wife 
toured in these characters with great 
success. The Amphitheatre, Leeds, was soon 
burnt down, to Barrett's loss, but in 1878 
the Grand Theatre was built at Leeds by a 
syndicate, and Barrett becoming lessee 
opened the new house on 18 Nov. as 
Benedick in ' Much Ado.' Meanwhile in 
1877 he had assumed control of the Theatre 
Royal, Hull, and both the theatres remained 
under his control during his career in 

Barrett first became manager in London 
on 20 Sept. 1879, when he opened the Court 
Theatre, with his wife as chief actress. 
On 13 Oct. he created there the part of the 
Rev. Richard Capel in ' A Clerical Error,' 
the earliest play by Mr. Henry Arthur Jones 
to be produced in London. Barrett's wife 
soon withdrew from the stage owing to 
failing health (she died in retirement on 
26 July 1887). Under Barrett's auspices 
at the Court, Madame Modjeska made her 
first appearance in London, playing Con- 
stance in ' Heartsease ' on 1 May 1880, and 
speedily winning popularity. Barrett was 
Mercutio to her Juliet at the Court (26 
March 1881) and Friar John to her Juana 
Esteban in Wills's tragedy * Juana ' (7 May). 
He had appeared as Romeo to her Juliet 
at the Alexandra, Liverpool (1 Sept. 1880). 
On 4 June 1881 Barrett began his notable 
management of the Princess's Theatre with 
Madame Modjeska still in his company. 
His first conspicuous successes were achieved 
with Mr. G. R. Sims' s melodramas ' The 
Lights o' London' (10 Sept.) and 'The 
Romany Rye' (10 June 1882). In both 
Barrett played the leading part with good 
effect, the first piece running for 286 nights. 
On 16 November Messrs. H. A. Jones and 
Henry Herman's excellent melodrama 
' The Silver King ' was first produced, and 
Barrett scored a triumph as Wilfred 
Denver, the piece running for 300 nights. 
W. G. Wills and Henry Herman's poetic 
drama ' Claudian,' with Barrett in the 
title-character, followed on 6 Dec. 1883 
and maintained the tradition of success. 
The mounting of this play, with a sensational 

earthquake scene, was applauded by Ruskin, 
who wrote : ' With scene-painting like 
that, this Princess's Theatre might do more 
for art-teaching than all the galleries and 
professors of Christendom.' Barrett gave 
a striking impersonation of the boy- 
poet in Messrs. Jones and Herman's new 
one-act drama ' Chatterton' (22 May 1884). 
He revived ' Hamlet ' (16 Oct.), and by his 
new readings and his youthful interpretation 
of the Prince provoked controversy ; but he 
failed to satisfy rigorous critical standards. 
The production was repeated for 117 nights, 
by way of forcing a rivalry with (Sir) 
Henry Irving at the Lyceum (for analyses of 
Barrett's Hamlet see CLEMENT SCOTT'S Some 
Notable Hamlets and WILLIAM WINTER'S 
Shadows of the Stage, second series (1893), 
chap, xxvii. ). With the revival of ' Hamlet ' 
Barrett's fortunes at the Princess's declined, 
and although his tenancy lasted another 
eighteen months, he thenceforth enjoyed 
few successes. 

From an early period in his career he had 
essayed playwriting in addition to acting, 
and during his later sojourn at the Princess's 
and throughout his subsequent career he 
relied largely on Ms own pen for his plays, 
either in collaboration or alone. In 1885 
he wrote, with Mr. H. A. Jones, ' Hoodman 
Blind,' a melodrama which ran for 171 
nights (produced 18 August 1885), and 
also a romantic drama, ' The Lord Harry,' 
which he produced without success 18 Feb. 
1886. With Mr. Sydney Grundy he wrote 
a blank verse tragedy, * Clito,' which, 
though splendidly mounted, again failed 
to attract (produced 1 May 1886). 

In the summer of 1886 Barrett left the 
Princess's heavily in debt, and went to 
America with his entire company and 
accessories. After producing ' Claudian ' 
with success at the Star Theatre, New York, 
on 11 Oct. 1886, he made a profitable 
six months' tour. He revisited America 
five times: in 1890, 1893, 1894, 1895, 
and 1897, often for only a month or two, 
and producing there some new pieces from 
his own pen. 

On 22 December 1887 Barrett began a 
brief management of the Globe Theatre 
in London. The venture began well with 
' The Golden Ladder,' a drama by himself 
and Mr. George R. Sims. Morning perform- 
ances of old plays were given early in 1888, 
and on 22 Feb. Barrett played Claude 
Melnotte for the first time in London. On 
17 May he w r ent back to the Princess's, 
opening there with ' Ben-my-Chree,' an 
adaptation of Mr. T. Hall Caine's novel 
' The Deemster ' by himself and the novelist. 




This was the beginning of a somewhat 
extended collaboration. Small success 
attended the production at the Princess's 
of ' The Good Old Times,' a play from 
the same pens (12 Feb. 1889), or of 
Barrett's own drama, ' Now-a-days : a 
Tale of the Turf ' (28 Feb.). 

On 4 December 1890, after his second 
American tour, he opened the new Olympic 
Theatre, London, with 'The People's 
Idol,' by himself and Victor Widnell. 
An impersonation of the Stranger in 
Thompson's old play of that title was 
followed on 21 April 1891 by * The Acrobat,' 
Barrett's version of Dennery and Fournier's 
'Le Paillasse' (1850). During a provin- 
cial tour he first played Othello at the 
Court Theatre, Liverpool, on 22 Oct. 
1891. Barrett still retained control of 
the Grand Theatre, Leeds, and there he 
now brought out three new pieces of his 
own, 'Pharaoh '(29 Sept. 1892); his first, 
and best, version of Hall Caine's novel 
'The Manxman' (22 August 1894), in 
which his Pete was probably the best of his 
later characterisations ; and for the first 
time in England ' The Sign of the Cross,' 
an adroit amalgam of popular religion and 
crude melodrama (26 Aug. 1895). which had 
been originally produced at the Grand 
Opera House, St. Louis, on 27 March 1895. 

On 4 January 1896 Barrett opened 
management of the Ljnic Theatre, London, 
with ' The Sign of the Cross,' which ran 
prosperously for a year and restored 
his long precarious fortunes. There 
followed at the Lyric ' The Daughters of 
Babylon,' by himself (6 Feb. 1897). In 
May he was seen there as Virginius and 
Othello. After a last visit to America, and a 
first visit in 1898 to Australia, Barrett in 
1899 succeeded Irving as manager of the 
Lyceum, but the experiment was a failure. 
A new drama by himself and Mr. L. N. 
Parker, ' Man and His Makers ' (produced 
7 Oct.), was unfavourably received, and re- 
vivals of ' The Sign of the Cross,' ' Hamlet,' 
and ' Othello ' attracted small audiences. 

Meanwhile he continued to bring out new 
pieces by himself at provincial houses. 
During 1902 he also paid a second visit 
to Australia, and on his return he brought 
out at the Adelphi in London (on 18 Dec.) 
' The Christian King,' a piece of his 
own which was first seen at the Prince's, 
Bristol, 6 Nov. In this he played Alfred of 
Engleland. Next year he toured in ' In 
the Middle of June,' yet another of his 
dramas, first produced at Middlesbrough 
(11 June 1903). On 9 June 1904 he paid 
a three weeks' visit to the Shakespeare 

theatre, Liverpool, and after producing 
his last now play, ' Lucky Durham,' made 
his final appearance on the stage as Wilfred 
Denver. He died in a private hospital 
in London on 22 July after an operation 
for cancer, and was buried in Hampstead 
cemetery. He was survived by two sons, 
Frank and Alfred, and by a daughter, 

Barrett's features were cast in a classic 
mould and his presence was manly and 
graceful. Hence his predilection for clas- 
sical impersonations. But his articulation 
suffered either from a defect in his utterance 
or from an affectation of delivery, and his 
method of acting was usually stilted. In 
melodrama he presented heroic fortitude 
with effect. His dramas made no pretence 
to literature. They aimed at stage effect 
and boldly picturesque characterisation 
without logical sequence or psychological 
consistency. His portrait as Hamlet was 
painted by Frank Holl, R.A. 

Besides the pieces by himself already 
mentioned he wrote (among many others) 
' Sister Mary,' with Clement Scott 
(produced at Brighton 8 March 1886) ; and 
a dramatic version of Mr. Hall Caine's 
novel ' The Bondman ' (produced at the 
Chestnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, 
Dec. 1893). He also published one or 
two novels, based on his own plays. 

[Arthur Gocldard's Players of the Period, 
1891; Boyle Lawrence's Celebrities of the 
Stage, 1899; J. C. Dibdin's Annals of the 
Edinburgh Stage, 1888; Notes and Queries, 
llth ser. iii. 225 and 276; Broadbent's 
Annals of the Liverpool Stage ; Dramatic 
Notes, 1881-1885; Theatre Magazine, Dec. 
1891 ; Dramatic Year Book for 1892 ; 
Col. T. Allston Brown's History of the 
New York Stage, 1903; William" Archer's 
Theatrical World for 1895 ; Daily Telegraph, 
23 July 1904 ; New York Dramatic Mirror, 
30 July 1904 ; private information.] 

BARRY, ALFRED (1826-1910), primate 
of Australia and canon of Windsor, born 
at Ely Place, Holborn, on 15 Jan. 1826, 
was second son of Sir Charles Barry 
[q. v.], architect, whose ' Life and Works ' 
he published (1867 ; 2nd ed. 1870), and 
elder brother of Edward Middleton Barry 
[q. v.], whose Royal Academy lectures on 
architecture he edited with a memoir in 
1881. His mother was Sarah, daughter of 
Samuel Rowsell. His youngest brother is 
Sir John Wolfe Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., the 
civil engineer. Educated at King's College, 
London, from 1841 to 1844, Barry proceeded 
in 1844 to Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
in 1848 he was placed fourth among the 




wranglers, Isaac Todhunter [q. v.] being 
senior, and seventh in the first class of 
classical tripos, C. B. Scott and Brooke 
Foss Westcott [q. v. Suppl. II] being 
bracketed senior. He also won the second 
Smith's prize, the first going to Todhunter. 
Barry was elected a fellow of Trinity the 
same year. He graduated B.A. in 1848, 
proceeding M.A. in 1851, B.D. in 1860, and 
D.D. in 1866. 

Ordained deacon in 1850 on the title 
of his fellowship, and priest in 1853, Barry 
became in 1849 vice-principal of Trinity 
College, Glenalmond, the seminary of the 
Scottish Episcopal church. In 1854 he 
became headmaster of Leeds grammar 
school. From 1862 to 1868 he was 
principal of Cheltenham College, and 
during his tenure of office there were 
built the gymnasium (1864), the junior 
school (1865), and five of the boarding 
houses. He was made a life member of 
the college council in 1893 (Cheltonian, 
May 1910). 

In 1868 Barry was appointed, in succession 
to Richard William Jelf [q. v.], principal 
of King's College, London, of which he 
had been a fellow since 1849. Here 
Barry arranged that students for the 
theological associateship could attend even- 
ing classes for two years, without sacrificing 
their employment by day, devoting their 
whole time to their college course only 
in their third year. He encouraged the 
establishment of a ladies' branch of the 
college at Kensington, a scheme carried 
out in 1881. 

In 1871 Gladstone made him a residen- 
tiary canon at Worcester, and in 1881 
transferred him to a similar office- in 
Westminster Abbey. Appointed honorary 
chaplain to Queen Victoria in 1875 and 
chaplain in ordinary 1879, he also held the 
Boyle lectureship 1876-8. He published 
the first series as 'What is Natural 
Theology?' (1877) and the second series 
as 'The Manifold Witness for Christ' 
(1880). He was made D.C.L. of Oxford in 
1870 arid of Durham in 1888. 

After refusing the see of Calcutta in 1876, 
Barry in 1883 accepted the see of Sydney, 
Australia. With the office went the metro- 
politanate of New South Wales and the 
primacy of Australia and Tasmania. He was 
thus head of * a general synod embracing 
all the dioceses of Australia and Tasmania ' 
(BARRY, Ecclesiastical Expansion, 1895, 
p. 255; Digest of S.P.G. Records, 1895, 
pp. 761, 766). He was consecrated in 
Westminster Abbey on 1 Jan. 1884, West- 
cott preaching the sermon (Life and 

Letters of B. F. Westcott, 1903, ii. 1, 2; 
E. STOCK, History of C.M.S., 1899, iii. 
311-312). Misfortune attended his departure, 
He sent on his entire library, lectures, and 
manuscripts in a vessel which was lost by 
shipwreck. Queen Victoria and others 
showed their sympathy by endeavouring 
to replace the books. 

Barry's vigour of intellect adapted itself, 
to the unfamiliar conditions and conceptions 
of colonial life, and his good judgment and 
clearness of utterance stood him in goocZ 
stead, when he presided over the provincial 
or the general synod. He successfully 
urged the Australian church to accept in 1886 
missionary responsibility for New Guinea. 
Barry's residence in Sydney was not 
prolonged enough to give his abilities their 
full opportunity there. For private reasons 
he constantly revisited England during the 
five years of his Australian episcopate. He 
vacated his office in 1889. 

Having been vainly recommended for 
various English sees, e.g. Chester in 1884 
(J. C. MACDONNELL, Life and Correspond- 
ence of W. C. Magee, 1896, ii. 255), 
Barry devoted himself to helping bishops 
at home. From 1889 to 1891 he was 
assistant to A. W. Thorold [q. v.], 
bishop of Rochester, and in 1891 he 
took charge of the diocese of Exeter 
during the absence in Japan of Bishop 
Edward Henry Bickersteth [q. v. Suppl. 
II]. From 1891 till his death he was 
canon of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 
In 1892 he was chosen Bampton lecturer 
at Oxford, taking as his subject ' Some 
Lights of Science on Faith.' He was 
Hulsean lecturer at Cambridge for 1894, 
and gave a masterly review of the * Eccle- 
siastical Expansion of England in the 
Growth of the Anglican Communion.' From 
1895 to 1900 he held the rectory of St. 
James, Piccadilly, rendering episcopal assist- 
ance in central London to Frederick Temple 
[q. v. Suppl. II], bishop of London. After 
1900 he confined himself to his canonry at 
Windsor. He represented the chapter in 
the lower house of convocation from 1893 
until 1908. He died in his sleep at his 
residence in the cloisters, Windsor Castle, on 
1 April 1910, and was buried in the cloisters 
at Worcester Cathedral, beside his only 
daughter, Mary Louisa (d. 1880). He 
married, on 13 Aug. 1851, Louisa Victoria, 
daughter of T. S. Hughes (d. 1847), canon of 
Peterborough. She survived him with two 
sons. A portrait painted by Sir Edward 
Poynter, P.R.A., was presented to Mrs. 
Barry by his King's College friends in 1883. 

Of fine presence and with a sonorous 



voice, Barry was an effective speaker and 
preacher. A broad churchman, he avoided 
enthusiasm, and his manner seemed 
distant and unsympathetic save to his 
intimates. His chief works, apart from 
separate sermons and the lectures already 
mentioned, were : 1. ' Introduction to 
the Study of the Old Testament,' 1856 
(incomplete). 2. ' Sermons preached in 
the Chapel of Cheltenham College,' 1865. 
3. * Sermons for Boys or Memorials of 
Cheltenham Sundays,' 1869. 4. 'The 
Architect of the New Palace at West- 
minster,' a reply to a pamphlet by 
E. W. Pugin, 2 edits. 1868. 5. 'The 
Atonement of Christ,' 1871. 6. 'Sermons 
preached at Westminster Abbey,' 1884. 
7. 'First Words in Australia,' 1884. 8. 
' Lectures on Christianity and Socialism,' 
1890. 9. 'The Teacher's Prayer-Book,' 
1884; 16th edit. 1898, a popular handbook. 
10. 'England's Mission to India,' 1895. 11. 
' The Position of the Laity in the Church,' 
1895, 12. 'The Christian Sunday; its 
Sacredness and its Blessing,' 1905. 13. 
' Do we Believe ? The Law of Faith 
perfected in Christ,' 1908* 

[The Times, 2 April 1910; Guardian, 8 April 
1910; Crockford, Clerical Directory, 1909; 
Burko's Family Records ; private information.] 

(1849-1902), politician, born in Brooklyn, 
New York, on 24 August 1849, was 
eldest son of Ellis Bartlett of Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, a graduate of Amherst, 
and a good classical scholar, who died in 
1852. His mother was Sophia, daughter of 
John King Ashmead of Philadelphia. On 
the father's side he was directly descended 
from Robert Bartlett or Bartelot, of 
Sussex, who landed on Plymouth Rock 
from the ship Ann in 1623 and married 
in 1028 Mary, daughter of Richard Warren, 
\vlu> had sailed in the Mayflower in 1620. 
On his mother's side he derived through 
her father from John Ashmead of Chelten- 
ham, who settled in Philadelphia in 1682, 
and through her mother from Theodore 
Lehman, secretary to William Penn, first 
governor of Pennsylvania. 

Ellis and his younger brother, William 

Lehman Ashmead, now Mr. Burdett-Coutts, 

uere brought to England in early boyhood 

by their widowed mother, and were edu- 

<1 at a private school, The Braddons, 

at Torquay. Ellis showed precocity in 

classics ; but illness interrupted his studies, 

i't in history, of which aided by 

an admirable memory ho early gained 

a wide knowledge. On 16 Feb. 1867 he 

matriculated from St. Mary Hall, Oxford, 
but soon migrated to Christ Church. A 
taste for politics asserted itself at Oxford. 
Becoming the recognised leader of the 
conservative party in the Union, and an 
ardent champion of Disraeli, he was elected 
president in Easter term 1873, defeating 
Mr. Asquith by a large majority. He was 
also prominent in athletics. He graduated 
B.A. at Christ Church in 1872 with first- 
class honours in law and history, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. 1874. After leaving Oxford 
he became an inspector of schools 1874-7, 
and an examiner in the privy council office 
(education department) 1877-80. On 13 
June 1877 he was called to the bar from 
the Inner Temple. 

With a view to ascertaining the truth 
regarding the reported ' Bulgarian atroci- 
ties ' of 1876, Ashmead Bartlett visited 
Servia, Bulgaria, and Roumelia in 1877-8, 
and was a witness of barbarous outrages 
committed by Bulgarians and Russians 
on the Turkish inhabitants in Roumelia. 
He conceived the strongest distrust of 
Russia, and returning to England began 
a vigorous campaign against that power 
by speech and pen. In 1880 Lord Beacons- 
field assigned to him what was practically 
the ' pocket borough ' of Eye, in Suffolk. He 
held the seat until it was disfranchised 
under the redistribution bill of 1884. In 
1885 he was elected for the more popular 
constituency of the Ecclesall division of 
Sheffield, for which he sat until his death, v/ 
Energetic in his loyalty to the conserva- 
tive party, he chiefly devoted himself both 
inside and outside the House of Commons 
to advocacy of British imperialism. In 
the House he was untiring in attack on 
liberal foreign policy and, notably in his 
first parliament, proved a constant tor- 
ment to Gladstone. But a tendency to 
grandiloquence excited in parliament 
the impatient ridicule of his opponents. 
Outside the House he quickly gained an 
exceptional reputation as a platform speaker 
which he maintained throughout his public 
life. He was probably in greater demand 
among conservative organisers of great 
popular meetings than any other speaker, 
and invariably roused the enthusiasm 
of his audiences to the highest pitch. 
His organising capacity was also of much 
service to his party. He was chairman of 
the National Union of Conservative Associa- 
tions for three years, 1886-7-6, and he 
carried on a ceaseless propaganda on 
behalf of his principles and his party by 
pamphlets, articles, and letters to the press. 
In March 1880, too, he started ' England,' 


1 06 


the first conservative penny weekly news- 
paper. Tliis venture, which rendered great 
service to the conservative cause, he con- 
ducted in its original form until June 1886. 
Continued in a somewhat different shape 
until 28 May 1898, it was a constant drain 
on his resources, and helped to involve him 
in financial embarrassments which clouded 
the closing years of his life. 

On the accession of conservatives to power 
in June 1885 Ashmead Bartlett became 
civil lord of the admiralty, and he returned 
to the office in July 1886 on the formation 
of Lord Salisbury's second administration. 
He showed himself an industrious official, 
retired on the fall of the government 
in Aug. 1892, when he was knighted. On 
the outbreak of war between Turkey and 
Greece in 1897 Sir Ellis proceeded to 
Constantinople, where the Sultan conferred 
on him the grand cordon of the Medjidieh, 
and he joined the Turkish army in the field. 
He was present at the defeat of the Greeks 
at Mati and was among the first non- 
combatants to enter Tyrnavo and Larissa. 
He was afterwards taken prisoner by the 
commander of a Greek warship and carried 
to Athens, but was soon released. 
When the Boer war broke out in South 
Africa in Oct. 1899 Sir Ellis went to the 
front and witnessed some early stages of the 
campaign, in which two of his sons took part. 
He died in London, after an operation for 
appendicitis, on 18 Jan. 1902, and was buried 
at Tunbridge Wells. 

He married in 1874 Frances Christina, 
daughter of Henry Edward Walsh, and had 
issue five sons and three daughters. His 
eldest son, Ellis Ashmead Bartlett, is well 
known as a war correspondent. 

Ashmead Bartlett' s published works in- 
cluded ' Shall England keep India ? ' (1886) ; 
* Union or Separation ' (1893) ; ' British, 
Natives and Boers in the Transvaal; the 
Appeal of the Swazi People ' (1894) ; ' The 
Transvaal Crisis ; the Case for the Uitlander 
Residents' (1896); ' The Battlefields of 
Thessaly' (1897). 

A portrait by Ernest Moore of Sheffield, 
painted in 1895, belongs to the family. A 
cartoon by ' Spy ' appeared in * Vanity Fair ' 
in 1882. 

[The Times, 20 Jan. 1902 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon., and Men at the Bar ; private infor- 
mation ; cf. Lucy's Gladstone Parliament, 
1880-5, pp. 150 seq. ; and Unionist Parlia- 
ment, 1895-1900, pp. 145 seq.] J. P. A. 

TOPHER TROUT (1842-1910), founder 
of the National Penny Bank, born at 
Rectory Place, Hackney, on 22 Nov. 1842, 

was son by his second wife, Julia Anna 
Lucas, of Robert Bartley of Hackney, of 
the war office. After early education at 
Blackheath, at Clapton, and at University 
College school, ho entered in 1860, as 
science examiner, the science and art 
department at South Kensington, of the 
education branch of which Sir Henry Cole 
[q. v.], father of his chief school friend, was 
the head. In 1866 he was made official 
examiner, and remained there until 1880 as 
assistant director of the science division, 
which was responsible for the establishment 
of science schools through the country. 

Since 1870 Bartley had written several 
pamphlets on social questions, especially 
on thrift and poor law and on education. 
His first published work, ' The Educational 
Condition and Requirements of One Square 
Mile in the East End of London' (1870; 
2nd edit. 1870), was quoted by William 
Edward Forster during the discussion of 
the education bill of 1870. In 1871 followed 
' Schools for the People,' which treated 
of the historical development and methods 
of schools for the working classes in England. 
From 1873 to 1882 he edited with Miss 
Emily Shirreff [q. v.] the journal of the 
Women's Educational Union, which aimed 
at the general improvement of women's 

Poverty and its remedy also claimed his 
attention. In 1872 he read a paper before 
the Society of Arts on old age pensions, 
urging that help should be given in old age 
to those who had made some provision for 
themselves. Twenty-one years later he 
laid before the House of Commons a bill 
for old age pensions, which embodied his 
earlier principles ( BOOTH, Pauperism and 
the Endowment of Old Age, 1892, p. 350). 
For the encouragement of thrift among 
the masses he published in 1872 twelve 
penny ' Provident Knowledge Papers,' 
which he supplemented in 1878 with his 
' Domestic Economy : Thrift in Everyday 
j Life.' In 1872 he started the instalment 
club at 77 Church Street, Edgware Road, 
which enabled workmen to buy tools or 
clothes by regular weekly payments. The 
foundation of the Middlesex Penny Bank 
at the same address followed the same 
year. In 1875, in conjunction with Sir 
Henry Cole (whose daughter he had married 
in 1864) and others, Bartley established the 
National Penny Bank; its main object 
was to encourage thrift among the work- 
ing classes on a purely business basis. 
The scheme met with rapid success, and 
since its foundation over 2,900,000 
accounts have been opened, and more 




than 22,000,000 deposits have been 
made ; 180,000 depositors hold over 3 
million pounds, and 26 million pounds 
have passed through the bank, while 
fourteen district branches have been 
established in London. Meanwhile Bartley 
had devoted himself to the question of 
poor law reform. In * The Poor Law in 
its Effects on Thrift ' (1873) he urged im- 
provement of the system of out-door relief. 
Other works, 'The Village Net' (1874) 
and ' The Seven Ages of a Village Pauper ' 
(1875), give dark pictures of the existing 
poor law system ; in 1876 appeared his 
* Handy Book for Guardians of the Poor.' 

In 1880 Bartley resigned his post at 
South Kensington to stand for parliament 
in the conservative interest. He unsuccess- 
fully opposed Henry Fawcett [q. v.] at 
Hackney in March of that year. From 
1883 to 1885 he was chief agent to the 
conservative party. In 1885 he was re- 
turned for North Islington, and retained 
that seat till 1906. He was narrowly 
defeated in November 1907 at a by-election 
in West Hull. In the House of Com- 
mons Bartley, although a fluent speaker, 
strenuously advocated the curtailment of 
parliamentary speeches ; in 1891 he voted 
against his party in opposition to the 
free education bill brought in by the 
Salisbury government and played a 
prominent part in obstructing the chief 
measures of the liberal government (1892-5). 
Bartley was created K.C.B. in November 
1902, and was long J.P. for London and 

He died in London on 13 Sept. 1910 after 
an operation, and was buried in Holtye 
Churchyard, near Shovelstrode Manor, 
East Grinstead, his country house. He 
married in 1864 Mary Charlotte, third 
daughter of Sir Henry Cole, K.C.B., and had 
issue four sons and one daughter, who with 
his widow survived him. His second 
son, Douglas Cole Bartley (6. 2 Oct. 1870), 
barrister, succeeded him as managing 
director of the National Penny Bank. A 
bust of Bartley by Mr. Basil Gotto is in 
possession of Lady Bartley at Shovelstrode 
Manor, East Grinstead ; a replica was 
placed in 1911 at the head office of the 
National Penny Bank, 59 Victoria Street, 

Bartley published, besides the works 
already mentioned : 1. ' A Catalogue of 
Modern Works on Science and Technology,' 
1872. 2. ' Toys ' (' British Manufacturing 
Industries '), 1876 ; 2nd edit. 1877. 3. ' The 
Rhine from its Source to the Sea,' translated 
from the German, 1877. 

[Information supplied by Douglas C. 
Bartley, Esq. ; The Times, 15 Sept. 1910 ; 
H. W. Lucy, Diary of the Salisbury Parlia- 
ment, 1886-1892, pp. 288-9 ; Diary of Home 
Rule Parliament, 1892-5, pp. 259-201. 
Charity Organisation Review, Sept. 1892.] 

W. B. 0. 

BARTON, JOHN (1836-1908), mission- 
ary, born at Eastleigh, Hampshire, on 31 
Dec. 1836, was sixth child of John Barton 
(1798-1852) by his wife Fanny, daughter 
of James Rickman. His ancestors were 
Cumberland quakers. Bernard Barton 
[q. v.] was his uncle. His mother died in 
1841, and her only sister, Josephina, brought 
up her family. 

After education at schools at Bishop 
Waltham and Highgate, John matriculated 
from Christ's College, Cambridge, at 
Michaelmas 1855. He soon decided to 
enter the mission field, and founded 
the Cambridge University Church Mis- 
sionary Union. Graduating B.A. in Jan. 
1859 (M.A. in 1863), he was ordained in 
September 1860 and sailed in October for 
Calcutta. After receiving priest's orders, 
he proceeded to Agra. There he helped 
in superintending the missionary college 
with an attendance of 260 students, and 
the orphanage at Secundra (five miles away) 
with 300 children. He was transferred to 
Amritsar in May 1863, and was appointed in 
1865 principal of a new cathedral missionary 
college at Calcutta. From 1871 to 1875 he 
was secretary of the Madras mission, twice 
visiting the missions in South India. During 
1870-1 and again during 1876-7 he did 
secretarial work at the Church Missionary 
House in London. From 1877 to 1893 he 
was vicar of Holy Trinity Church, Cam- 
bridge, but was absent in Ceylon for four 
months in 1884, and during 1889, after 
refusing offers of the bishoprics of both 
Travancore and Tinnevelly, was in charge 
of the latter district. In 1 893 he refused t he 
call to a bishopric in Japan, and left Cam- 
bridge for London to become chief secretary 
of the Church Pastoral-Aid Society, whose 
' forward movement ' he organised with 
immense vigour. Of massive build, Barton 
was a born organiser, and 'a giant for 
work ' ; he was a keen botanist, geologist, 
and mountaineer. He died at Weybridge 
on 26 Nov. 1908, and was there buried, 
a tablet and memorial window being placed 
in Holy Trinity Church, Cambridge. 

He married twice: (1) in May 1859, 
Catherine Wigram (d. 1860) ; and (2) in 
October 1863, Emily Eugenia, daughter of 
Charles Boileau Elliott. His second wife, 
six sons, and two daughters survived him. 


1 08 


A son, Cecil Edward Barton (d. 1909), 
missionary in the Punjab, was rector of 
Rousdon, Devonshire, and joint author of 
' A Handy Atlas of Church and Empire 
. . . showing British Possessions' (1908). 

Barton published ' Remarks on the Ortho- 
graphy of Indian Geographical Names,' 
reprinted from 'Friend of India '(1871); 
'Missionary Conference Report' (1873), and 
' Memorial Sketch of Major-General Edward 
Lake, Commissioner of Jalundhur' (2nd 
edit. 1878). A map of India, made largely 
by him while in Calcutta, was published in 
1873, and is still in use. 

[Life, by his son, Cecil Edward Barton (1911); 
The Times, 1 Dec. 1908 ; private information.] 

O ~fi^ ^J 

BARON BURTON (1837-1909), brewer and 
benefactor, born in Burton-on-Trent on 
12 Nov. 1837, was elder son of Michael 
Thomas Bass, brewer [q. v.], by his wife 
Eliza Jane, daughter of Major Samuel 
Arden of Longcroft Hall, Staffordshire. 
Educated at Harrow and Trinity College, 
Cambridge, he graduated B.A. in 1859, 
M.A. in 1863. Bass on leaving the 
university at once entered his father's 
brewing business, and was soon well 
versed in all branches of the industry. 
By his energy he did much to extend 
its operations, became head of the firm 
on the death of his father in 1884, and 
to the end of his life never relaxed his 
interest in the active management. The 
firm, which was reconstructed in 1888 
under the style of Bass, Ratcliff & Gret- 
ton, Ltd., has buildings covering over 
160 acres of land, employs over 3000 men, 
pays over 300,OOOJ. a year in duty, and has 
a revenue of over 5,000,OOOZ. per annum. 

Bass entered parliament in 1865 as liberal 
member for Stafford, represented East 
Staffordshire 1868-85, and the Burton 
division of Staffordshire 1885-6. He proved 
a popular member of the house, and 
was a personal friend of Gladstone. His 
father having refused both a baronetcy 
and a peerage, Bass was made a baronet 
in vita patris in 1882, with remainder to his 
brother, Hamar Alfred Bass, and his heirs 
male ; Hamar Bass died in 1898, leaving 
his son, William Arthur Hamar Bass, heir 
to the baronetcy. Bass was opposed to 
Gladstone's home rule policy in 1886, 
but on other great questions he remained 
for the time a consistent liberal, and 
presided on 9 March 1887 when Francis 
Schnadhorst, the liberal party organiser, 
was presented with a testimonial of 
10,000 guineas. He was raised to the 

peerage on Gladstone's recommendation 
on 13 Aug. 1886 as Baron Burton of 
Rangemore and Burton-on-Trent, both in 
co. Stafford. 

The growing hostility of the liberal 
party to the brewing interest as shown in 
their licensing policy and the widening of 
the breach on the Irish question led Burton 
to a final secession from the liberals, and 
he became a liberal unionist under Lord 
Hartington and Mr. Chamberlain. After 
1903 he warmly supported the latter's policy 
of tariff reform, and he led the opposi- 
tion to Mr. Asquith's licensing bill in 1908, 
which was rejected by the House of Lords. 

Always genial, outspoken, and good- 
humoured, Burton was a personal friend of 
King Edward VII, both before and after his 
accession. The king frequently visited 
him at his London house, Chesterfield House, 
Mayfair, at his Scottish seat, Glen Quoich, 
and at Rangemore, his stately home on the 
borders of Needwood Forest, near Burton. 
The king conferred upon him the decoration 
of K.C.V.O. when he visited Balmoral 
in 1904. 

He was a deputy-lieutenant and a 
J.P. for Staffordshire, and a director 
of the South Eastern Railway Company. 
An excellent shot, he was long in com- 
mand of the 2nd volunteer battalion of the 
North Staffordshire regiment, retiring in 
August 1881 with the rank of hon. colonel. 
He built and presented to the regiment the 
spacious drill-hall at Burton, and gave 
for competition at Bisley the Bass charity 
vase and a cup for ambulance work. 

Burton's gifts and benefactions to the 
town of Burton were, like those of his 
father, munificent ; together they presented 
the town hall, which cost over 65,OOOZ. 
He gave club buildings to both the 
liberal and the conservative parties in 
succession ; he constructed, at a cost of 
about 20,OOOZ., the ferry" bridge which spans 
the valley at the south end of Burton, 
and afterwards freed the bridge from 
toll at a cost of 12,950Z. and added an 
approach to it over the marshy ground 
known as the Fleet Green Viaduct 
in 1890. As an acknowledgment he 
accepted a piece of silver plate, but he 
declined the proposed erection of a public 
statue. As a loyal churchman he gener- 
ously contributed towards all diocesan 
funds, but will chiefly be remembered 
as a builder of churches. St. Paul's 
Church at Burton, built by him and 
his father, is a miniature cathedral ; its 
cost in first outlay was 120,0002., a sum of 
40,OOOJ. was provided for its endowment, 




and large sums in addition for improve- 
ments and embellishments. Another fine 
church, St. Margaret's, Burton, was also built 
by father and son, and they erected St. Paul's 
Church Institute at a cost of over 30,000/. 

Burton had a cultivated taste as an art 
collector, and Chesterfield House, his 
residence in Mayfair, which he bought of 
Mr. Magniac, was furnished in the style 
of the eighteenth century and contained a 
choice collection of pictures by English 
artists of that period, which became widely 
known owing to his generosity in lend- 
ing them to public exhibitions ; Gains- 
borough, Reynolds, and Romney were 
represented both numerously and by 
masterpieces. His more modern pictures 
were at Rangemore, and included some of 
the best works of Stanfield, Creswick, and 
their contemporaries. 

Burton died after an operation on 1 Feb. 
1909, and was buried at Rangemore church. 
He married on 28 Oct. 1869 Harriet 
Georgiana, daughter of Edward Thornewill 
of Dove Cliff, Staffordshire, by whom he 
had issue an only child, Nellie Lisa, born 
on 27 Dec. 1873, who married in 1894 
James Evan Bruce Baillie, formerly M.P. for 
Inverness-shire. In default of male issue, 
the peerage, by a second patent of 29 Nov. 
1897, descended to his daughter. 

By his will he strictly entailed the bulk 
of his property to his wife for life, then 
to his daughter, then to her descendants. 
The gross value exceeded 1,000,OOOZ. He 
requested that every person and the 
husband of every person in the entail 
should assume the surname and arms 
of Bass, and reside at Rangemore for at 
least four months in every year. 

A portrait by Herkomer, painted in 
1883, is at Rangemore. Another (also by 
Herkomer), painted in 1896, and presented 
by Lord Burton to the Corporation, is in 
Burton Town Hall, a replica being at 

A memorial statue of Lord Burton in 
King Edward Place, by Mr. F. W. Pomeroy, 
A.R.A., was unveiled on 13 May 1911 
(Burton, Chronicle, 18 May 1911). At 
Rangemore there is a bust, by the same 
artist, presented by public subscription 
to Lady Burton. 

[G.E.C., Complete Peerage, 1889; Burton 
Evening Gaz., 2 Feb. 1909; The Times, 2, 6, 
and 8 Feb., 16, 18 March 1909; Fortunes 
made in Business, 1887, ii. 409 seq. ; 
Who's Who, 1907; Debrett's Peerage and 
Baronetage ; Sir Wilfred Lawson and F. C. 
Mould's Cartoons in Rhyme and Line, 1905, 
p. 31 (caricature portrait).] C. W. 

1902), antiquary, born on 14 Jan. 1853 at 
Kensington Gate, London, was eldest son of 
Thomas Bates, barrister and fellow of Jesus 
College, Cambridge (1834-49), by his first 
wife, Emily, daughter of John Batten of 
Thorn Falcon, Somerset. The Bates family 
had been established in Northumberland 
since the fourteenth century, but their con- 
nection with the Blayneys of Gregynog,Mont- 
gomeryshire, introduced a strain of Celtic 
blood, and Cadwallader himself was named 
after a cousin, the twelfth and last Lord 
Blayney (d. 1874). His great-uncle was 
Thomas Bates [q. v. Suppl. I], stockbreeder, 
whom he commemorated in an elaborate 
biography, entitled ' Thomas Bates and the 
Kirklevington Shorthorns ' (Newcastle-upon 
Tyne, 1897). Entering Eton in 1866, he 
left two years later owing to serious weak- 
ness of eyesight. In 1869 he proceeded to 
Jesus College, Cambridge; but the same 
cause compelled him to take an aegrotat 
degree in the moral science tripos of 1871. 
He proceeded M.A. in 1875. After leaving 
Cambridge, Bates, who was an accomplished 
linguist, travelled much in Poland and the 
Carpathians, paying frequent visits to his 
uncle, Edward Bates, who resided at Schloss 
Cloden, Brandenburg, Prussia. In 1882 he 
succeeded on his father's death to the family 
estates of Aydon White House, Heddon, 
Kirklevington, having already inherited his 
uncle's Prussian property. Although his in- 
terests were mainly antiquarian, he had prac- 
tical knowledge of farming, and was partially 
successful in building up again the famous 
herd of Kirklevington shorthorns, which had 
been dispersed in 1850 [see BATES, THOMAS, 
Suppl. I]. In 1882 he purchased from the 
Greenwich Hospital commissioners Langley 
Castle near Haydoa Bridge, and spent large 
sums on its restoration. As a magistrate 
and deputy-lieutenant Bates took his full 
share of county business, and in 1890 served 
the office of high sheriff of Northumberland. 
In later years he developed a taste for 
hagiography, and in 1893, while on a visit 
to Austrian Poland, he was received into the 
Roman catholic church. His indefatigable 
historical labours told on his health. He 
died of heart failure at Langley Castle on 18 
March 1902, and was buried in the castle 
grounds. On 3 Sept. 1895 he married 
Josephine, daughter of Francois d'Echar- 
vine, of Talloires, Savoy, who survived him 
without issue. The representation of the 
family devolved on his eldest half-brother, 
Edward H. Bates, now Bates Harbin. 

Bates was a recognised authority on the 
medieval history of Northuinbria. In 




' Border Holds ' (1891), a minute study of 
Northumbrian castles, he showed thorough- 
ness of research and sedulous accuracy. 
His design of completing the work in a 
second volume was unfulfilled. His popular 
'History of Northumberland' (1895) 
suffered somewhat from compression, but 
remains a standard work. Bates also 
assisted both as critic and contributor in the 
compilation of the first six volumes of a 
' History of Northumberland ' (Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, 1893-1902), designed to complete 
the work of John Hodgson [q. v.]. He was 
a vice-president of the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries, and from 1880 a frequent con- 
tributor to ' Archseologia ^liana.' He 
left some unfinished studies on the lives of 
St. Patrick and St. Gildas, 'The Three 
Pentecosts of St. Colomb and Kille,' 
and 'The Early Paschal Cycle.' A col- 
lection of his letters, chiefly on anti- 
quarian subjects, was published in 1906. 

[The Times, 20 March 1902 ; Ushaw Mag., 
July 1902 ; Letters of C. J. Bates ed. Rev. 
Matthew Culley, Kendal, 1906 ; Archaeologia 
yEliana, 1903, xxiv. 178 seq., memoir by Dr. 
Thomas Hodgkin ; private information from 
the family.] G. S. W. 

BATESON, MARY (1865-1906), his- 
torian, born at Ings House, Robin Hood's 
Bay, near Whitby,on 12 Sept. 1865, was the 
daughter of William Henry Bateson [q. v.], 
Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
by his wife Anna, daughter of James 
Aikin. She spent practically all her life 
at Cambridge. Educated first privately, 
then at the Misses Thornton's school, 
Bateman Street, Cambridge, afterwards at 
the Institut Friedlander, Karlsruhe, Baden, 
1880-1, and finally at the Perse school 
for girls, Cambridge, she became in 
October 1884 a student of Newnham 
College, of which her parents had been 
among the first promoters. She won a 
first class in the Cambridge historical 
tripos in 1887, being placed second in 
' an exceptionally good year.' Next year 
she began to teach at her own college, 
of which she was an associate, and was 
long a member of the council and a 
liberal contributor to its funds. With 
occasional interruptions she continued to 
lecture there for the rest of her life. She 
furthered the interests of Newnham in 
every way in her power, and was popular 
among students and teachers, although her 
zeal for historical investigation made 
routine teaching or educational discipline 
secondary interests with her. She dis- 
liked and sought to amend the system 
of historical study prescribed by the 

Cambridge tripos, and was at her best in 
helping post-graduate students. She took 
a prominent part in procuring the estab- 
lishment of research fellowships at Newn- 
ham. In 1903 she accepted one of these 
recently founded fellowships, and when 
it lapsed three years later resumed her 
teaching. Her historical work often re- 
quired her to travel to libraries and archives, 
and when she was at home she lived, sur- 
rounded by her books, in her own house 
in the Huntingdon Road. She left her 
library and all her property to Newnham 
at her death. Her memory has been 
appropriately commemorated there by the 
foundation of a fellowship which bears 
her name. 

Mandell Creighton [q. v. Suppl. I], when 
professor of ecclesiastical history at Cam- 
bridge, first awoke in Miss Bateson a zeal 
for historical scholarship. At his sugges- 
tion she wrote as a student a dissertation 
on 'Monastic Civilisation in the Fens,' 
which gained the college historical essay 
prize. By aphorisms of good counsel, 
Creighton checked a tendency to dissipate 
her energy in public agitation on the plat- 
form or in the press in the cause of political 
liberalism and women's enfranchisement, 
of which she was always a thorough-going 
advocate (see CREIGHTON, Life and Letters, 
i. 108-9). He persuaded her that her main 
business in life was to ' write true history ' 
and pursue a scholar's career. 

She proved an indefatigable worker, 
and made herself a fully trained 
medievalist. Continuing her study of 
monastic history, she published in 1889 
her first work, ' The Register of Crabhouse 
Nunnery,' for the Norfolk and Norwich 
Archaeological Society. In 1890 she first 
contributed to the ' English Historical 
Review' (v. 330-352, and 550-573), of 
which Creighton was then editor; she 
wrote on the ' Pilgrimage of Grace.' The 
most solid result of her monastic studies 
was her article on the ' Origin and Early 
History of Double Monasteries,' published 
in ' Transactions of the Royal Historical 
Society ' (new series, xiii. 137-198, 1899). 

Miss Bateson in 1899 turned to muni- 
cipal history. The corporation of Leicester, 
the chief town of Creighton's diocese, 
entrusted to her the editing of extracts 
from its archives. In her municipal 
research she received much help from the 
writings and advice of Frederic William 
Maitland [q. v. Suppl. II], whose whole- 
hearted disciple she soon became. Her 
work at Leicester resulted in the three 
stout volumes called ' Records of the 



Borough of Leicester,' vol. i. 1103-1327 
(1899) ; vol. ii. 1327-1509 (1901) ; vol. iii. 
1509-1603 (1905). It was not only a 
scholarly edition of an important series of 
texts, but the elaborate introductions ; 
showed real insight and grasp of her stub- j 
born material. She pursued her study of j 
local history in editing ' The Charters of | 
the Borough of Cambridge' with Prof, j 
Maitland (1901) and 'The Cambridge Gild 
Records' (Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 
1903). For the same society she issued, 
in 1903 and 1905, two volumes of ' Grace 
Book B,' containing proctors' accounts, 
148&-1511 (' Luard Memorial ' series, vols. ii. 
and iii.). This was her chief contribution 
to Cambridge University history. Cam- 
bridge libraries, especially the manuscript 
collections at Corpus, often provided her 
with material. From them came the texts 
for an edition of the hitherto unprinted 
poems of George Ashby [q. v.], a fifteenth- 
century poet (Early English Text Society, 
extra series, pt. Ixxvi. 1899), and ' The 
Scottish King's Household and other 
Fragments ' (Scottish History Soc. Mis- 
cellany, ii. 1-43, 1904). Her interest in 
mediaeval bibliography, a fruit of her 
monastic studies, she illustrated in her 
edition of a sixteenth-century ' Catalogue 
of the Library of Syon Monastery, Isle- 
worth, 1898 ' and in her collaboration with 
Mr. R. L. Poole in editing from a Bodleian 
manuscript the note-book which contains 
the materials collected by Bishop Bale 
for his second edition of his ' Catalogue of 
British Writers ' (Index Britannia Scrip- 
torum quos ex variis bibliothecis non parvo 
labore collegit loannes Baleus. Anecdota 
Oxoniensia, 1902 ; for her share see preface, 
pp. xxv-xxvi). She contributed the biblio- 
graphy of British and Irish mediaeval his- 
tory to the ' Jahresberichte der Geschichts- 
wissenschaf t ' for 1904 and 1905 (xxvii. 
iii. 186-234, in German, 1906; and in ib. 
xxviii. iii. 79-107, in English, 1907). Her 
conjoint interest in municipal and monastic 
history is well brought out in one of her 
latest articles on the topography and anti- 
quities of the borough and abbey of Peter- 
borough in ' Victoria County Hist., North- 
amptonshire,' ii. 424-60 (1906). Yet she 
seriously studied periods of history besides 
the Middle Ages. She published a ' Narra- 
tive of the changes of the Ministry, 1765-7,' 
told by unpublished letters of the Duke of 
Newcastle (Royal Historical Society, ' Cam- 
den' series, 1898), and in 1893 she edited 
* A Collection of Original Letters from 
the Bishops to the Privy Council,' 1564 
(pp. 6-S4)(Camden M isceUany, 1893, vol. ix.). 

Unduly modest in postponing continuous 
literary composition, Miss Bateson spent 
many years in editing, calendaring, and 
compiling. But gradually the full ex- 
tent of her powers was revealed. Her 
papers on the * Laws of Breteuil,' in the 
' English Historical Review ' (vols. xv. and 
xvi. 1900-1), showed that she was a scholar 
of the first rank, able to grapple with the 
hardest problems, and possessed of rare 
clearness and excellent method. Here she 
gave the death-blow to the ancient error 
that a large number of English towns base 
their institutions on the laws of Bristol, 
whereas the little town of Broteuil in 
Normandy is the true origin. Her last 
and in some ways her most masterly 
contribution to early municipal history 
was her two volumes of ' Borough Customs,' 
edited by her for the Selden Society, 
with very elaborate introductions (vol. i. 
1904 ; vol. ii. 1906). Her method of arrang- 
ing extracts of the custumals according to 
their subject-matter was only possible to 
one who had complete command of her 
extensive material. Maitland anticipated 
that the book would fill a permanent place 
'on the same shelf with the "History 
of the Exchequer," and the " History of 
Tithes." Neither Thomas Madox nor 
yet John Selden will resent the presence 
of Mary Bateson' (Collected Papers, iii. 

The freshness and individuality of Mary 
Bateson's work showed to advantage in 
her occasional efforts at popularising know- 
ledge. Her 'Mediaeval England, 1066- 
1350 ' (' Story of the Nations,' 1903), is an 
original and brightly written survey of 
mediaeval social life. She contributed 
much social history of modern times to 
Social England' (1895-7), and gave a 
striking instance of her versatility by writ- 
ing on ' The French in America ( 160&-1744) ' 
in the ' Cambridge Modern History,' vii. 
70-113. To this Dictionary she contributed 
109 articles between 1893 and 1900, chiefly 
on minor mediaeval personages, but show- 
ing thoroughness of research and sedulous 

In 1905 Miss Bateson was Warburton 
lecturer in the University of Manchester. 
In 1906 she accepted the appointment 
as one of the three editors of the projected 
' Cambridge Mediaeval History,' of which 
vol. i. appeared in 1911. In spite of her 
fine physique and vigour, she died on 
30 Nov. 1906, after a brief illness, and after 
a funeral service in St. John's College chapel 
was buried at the Cambridge cemetery, 
Histou Road. 




Miss Bateson had an immense variety ol 
interests. High-spirited, good-humoured, 
and frank, she was innocent of academic 
stiffness, provincialism, or pedantry. She 
delighted in society, in exercise, in travel, 
in the theatre, in music, and in making 
friends with men and women of very 
different types. Outside her work, what 
interested her most was the emancipation 
of women and the abolition of imposed 
restrictions which cripple the development 
of their powers. 

[Personal knowledge and private informa- 
tion ; article by her Newnham colleague, Miss 
Alice Gardner, in Newnham College Letter, 
1906, pp. 32-39, reprinted for private circula- 
tion ; notice by Miss E. A. Me Arthur of 
Girton College in the Queen, 8 Dec. ; The 
Times, 1 Dec. 1906; Manchester Guardian, 
3 Dec., by the present writer; Athenaeum, 
by Prof. F. W. Maitland, reprinted in his 
Collected Papers, iii. 541-3, 1911, a masterly 
appreciation.] T. F. T. 

BAUERMAN, HILARY (1835-1909).. 
metallurgist, mineralogist and geologist, born 
in London on 16 March 1835, was younger 
son, in the family of two sons and one 
daughter, of Hilary John Bauerman by 
his wife Anna Hudina Rosetta, daughter of 
Dr. Wychers. His parents migrated from 
Emden, in Hesse Cassel, to London in 
August 1829. On 6 Nov. 1851 Hilary was 
entered as one of the seven original students 
of the Government School of Mines at 
Jermyn Street. This school became in 1862 
the ' Royal School of Mines,' and the degree 
of associate of the Royal School of Mines 
was then conferred on Bauerman. In 1853 
he went to the Bergakademie at Freiburg in 
Saxony to complete his studies, and on his 
return to England in 1855 he was appointed 
an assistant geologist to the Geological Sur- 
vey of the United Kingdom. In 1858 he went 
to Canada as geologist to the North American 
boundary commission, and after the com- 
pletion of its labours in 1863 he was inter- 
mittently engaged for many years in 
searching for mineral deposits and survey- 
ing mining properties in various parts 
of the world, chiefly by private persons 
or by companies, but also by the Indian 
and Egyptian governments (1867-9). This 
exploratory work carried him to the 
following countries : Sweden and Lapland 
in 1864, Michigan in 1865, Labrador in 
1866, Arabia, the shores of the Red 
Sea and the Gulf of Aden in 1867-9, 
Savoy in 1870, Missouri in 1871, Bengal, 
Borar and Kumaon in 1872-3, Northern 
Peru in 1874, Murcia and Granada in 1876, 
Asia Minor in 1878, N. and S. Carolina, 
Colorado and Mexico in 1881, Brazil in 

1883, Arizona in 1884, Cyprus and Portugal 
in 1888. 

Meanwhile he was also engaged in 
making his chief contributions to technical 
and scientific literature. His well-known 
work on the 'Metallurgy of Iron' was 
published in 1868, and reached its sixth 
and last edition in 1890. Of his two 
text-books on mineralogy, ' Systematic 
Mineralogy' came out in 1881 and 
' Descriptive Mineralogy ' in 1884. Lastly, 
in 1887 he collaborated with J. A. Phillips 
in revising and enlarging the latter's 
' Elements of Metallurgy,' which was 
originally published in 1874 (3rd edit. 
1891). ' 

In his later years Bauerman devoted 
himself mainly to teaching. In 1874 he 
first acted as an examiner of the science 
and art department. In 1883 he was 
lecturer in metallurgy at Firth College, 
Sheffield. In 1888 he succeeded Dr. John 
Percy [q. v.J as professor of metallurgy 
at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. He 
retired from the post in 1906, keenly 
interesting himself until his death in the 
developments of metallurgy and mining. 
Despite partial deafness, which increased 
with his years, his prodigious memory 
and his genial manner made him a highly 
successful teacher. He was an indefatig- 
able and versatile worker, his favourite 
hobbies in later years being crystallography 
and geometry. He died, unmarried, at 
Balham on 5 Dec. 1909, and was cre- 
mated at Brookwood. By his will, after 
payment of bequests and subject to the 
lapse of two lives, the income from the 
residue of his property of 12,OOOZ. was 
devoted to the encouragement of the study 
of mineralogical science in connection with 
the Royal School of Mines. 

Bauerman wrote much for the technical 
journals, and occasionally contributed 
papers to the transactions of the Geologi- 
cal Society, the Iron and Steel Institute, 
and other learned societies. He was a 
fellow, and for some time a vice-president, 
of the Geological Society; an associate 
member of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 
by which he was awarded the Howard 
prize in 1897 ; an honorary member of 
the Iron and Steel Institute, and also of 
the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 
which awarded him its gold medal in 1906 
in recognition of his many services in the 
advancement of metallurgical science. 

[Engineer, 10 Dec. 1909, p. 604; Mining 
Journal, 18 Dec. 1909 ; Journ. Iron and Steel 
Inst. 1909, pt. ii. p. 305; Nature, 16 Dec. 
1909; Geol. Mag., Jan. 1910; The Times, 

Baxter i 

10 Dec. 1909 ; Register of Associates of the 
Royal School of Mines, London, 1897 ; 
Who's Who in Mining and Metallurgy, 1908 ; 
private information supplied by Bedford 
McNeill, one of the executors.] T. K. R. 

BAXTER, LUCY (1837-1902), writer on 
art, chiefly under the pseudonym of LEADER 
SCOTT, born at Dorchester on 21 Jan. 1837, 
was third daughter of William Barnes [q. v.], 
the Dorsetshire poet, by his wife Julia Miles. 
Lucy Barnes began writing at eighteen, 
and from the small profits of stories and 
ma^a/ine articles saved enough to visit 
Italy, a cherished ambition. There she 
met and in 1867 married Samuel Thomas 
Baxter, a member of a family long settled 
in Florence, which then became her home. 
For thirty-five years she was a well-known 
figure in the literary and artistic life of the 
city, and in 1882 was elected an honorary 
member of the Accademia clelle Belle Arti. 
For thirteen years her residence was the 
Villa Bianca, outside Florence, in the 
direction of Vincigliata and Settignano. 
Among those, with whom she was associated 
in literary research was John Temple Leader 
[q. v. Suppl. II], a wealthy English resident 
at Florence, who owned the castle of 
Vincigliata. Her literary pseudonym of 
'Leader Scott' combined the maiden 
surnames of her two grandmothers, Isabel 
Leader being her mother's mother and 
Grace Scott the mother of her father. 

Leader Scott's principal publication was 
* The Cathedral Builders ' (1899 and 1900), 
an important examination of the whole 
field of Romanesque architecture in relation 
to the Comacine masons. Though neces- 
sarily based on Merzario's 'I Maestri 
Comacini,' * The Cathedral Builders ' shows 
much original observation and research and, 
if its arguments are not always conclusive, 
the international scope of the work and its 
wealth of illustration render it a storehouse 
of information and a useful introduction to 
an unfrequented field of speculation. The 
intention of the work is to attribute the 
entire genesis of mediaeval architecture to 
masonic guilds derived, so it is supposed, 
from the Roman Collegia. 

Apart from this work and numerous 
magazine articles, Leader Scott published : 

1. 'A Nook in the Apennines,' 1879. 

2. * Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea del 
Sarto,' 1881. 3. 'Ghiberti and Donatello,' 

1882. 4. ' Luca della Robbia,' 1883 (these 
three volumes in the 'Great Artists* 
series). 5. ' Messer Agnolo's Household,' 

1883. 6. c Renaissance of Art in Italy,' 
1883. 7. 'A Bunch of Berries,' Bun- 
gay, 1885. 8. * Sculpture, Renaissance 



and Modern,' 1886. 9. 'Life of William 
Barnes,' 1887. 10. 'Tuscan Studies and 
Sketches,' 1887. 11. 'Vincigliata and 
Maiano,' Florence and London, 1891. 12. 
' The Orti Oricellari,' Florence, 1893. 13. 
' Echoes of Old Florence,' Florence and 
London, 1894. 14. ' The Renunciation of 
Helen,' 1898. 15. ' Filippo di Ser Brunel- 
lesco ' (' Great Masters ' series), 1901. 16. 
'Correggio' (Bell's 'Miniature Series of 
Painters'), 1902. She translated from the 
Italian ' Sir John Hawkwood,' by John 
Temple Leader and G. Marcotti (1889). 

Lucy Baxter died at the Villa Bianca 
near Florence on 10 Nov. 1902; she was 
survived by her husband, a son, and two 

[Athenaeum, 22 Nov. 1902 ; information 
from Miss Grace Baxter.] P. W. 

1908), lawyer and author, born in London 
on 22 June 1817, was second son of Edward 
Baylis, D.L. and J.P. for Middlesex. Sent 
to Harrow school, near which his father was 
then living, in 1825, at the early age of seven, 
he spent nine years there, leaving as a 
monitor in 1834. In 1835 he matriculated 
as a scholar at Brasenose College, Oxford, 
graduating B.A. in 1838 and proceeding 
M.A. in 1841. In 1834 he had already 
entered as a student of the Inner Temple ; 
but he practised for some time as a special 
pleader before being called to the bar in 
1856, when he joined the northern circuit. 
He became Q.C. in 1875, and two years 
later a* bencher of his inn. From 1876 to 
1903 he was judge of the court of passage 
at Liverpool, an ancient court of record 
with local jurisdiction wider than that of a 
county court. He was an active volunteer, 
retiring in 1882 with the V.D. as lieutenant- 
colonel of the 18th Middlesex rifles. Re- 
taining his health and vigour almost to the 
last, he died at Bournemouth on 4 Oct. 
1908, and was buried in the cemetery there. 
He married on 14 Aug. 1841 Louisa Lord, 
youngest daughter of John Ingle, D.L. 
and J.P. for Devon. His third son, Thomas 
Erskine, was called to the bar in 1874. 

Baylis published in 1893 ' The Temple 
Church and Chapel of St. Anne,' an 
historical record and guide, which reached 
a third edition in 1900, and is still in 
use as a standard guide-book. A man 
of wide interests and great mental acti- 
i vity, Baylis was a vice-president of the 
Royal United Service Institution, to the 
museum of which he presented an autograph 
letter from the signal officer on board the 
Victory at Trafalgar, explaining the sub- 
stitution of ' expects ' for ' confides ' in 





Nelson's famous signal. In his pamphlet 
on the subject, 'The True Account of 
Nelson's Famous Signal' (1905), he dealt 
with the question whether Nelson per- 
manently lost the sight of one eye. He 
was one of the founders of the Egypt 
Exploration Fund, drafting the original 
articles of association, and attending the 
committee meetings with regularity. 

As a lawyer, Baylis is chiefly known for 
a treatise on domestic servants, ' The 
Rights, Duties, and Relations of Domestic 
Servants and their Masters and Mistresses ' 
(1857 ; 6th edit. 1906). Other works were : 
' Fire Hints ' (1884) ; * Introductory Ad- 
dress on the Office of Reader or Lector 
and Lecture on Treasure Trove, delivered 
in the Inner Temple Hall, Michaelmas 1898 ' 
( 1901), and * Workmen's Compensation Act ' 
(1902; 7th edit. 1907). 

[Personal knowledge ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

J. S. C. 

BAYLISS, SIR WYKE (1835-1906), 
painter and writer, born at Madeley, Shrop- 
shire, on 21 Oct. 1835, was second son of 
John Cox Bayliss of Prior's Leigh and Anne 
Wyke. His maternal grandfather was 
Dr. Wyke of Shrewsbury, to whom Darwin 
was articled as a pupil. His father was a 
railway engineer and a successful teacher 
of military and mathematical drawing. 
At an early age Bayliss showed an aptitude 
for drawing, and studied under his father, 
from whom he obtained the sound know- 
ledge of perspective and architecture 
which influenced his later career, as a 
painter. He worked also in the Royal 
Academy schools and at the School of 
Design, Somerset House. From the first 
his interest lay entirely with architecture, 
and his whole life as an artist was spent 
in painting, in oil and water-colour, all 
the beauties of the Gothic style in the 
interior of cathedrals and churches. In an 
exceptionally narrow range of subjects he 
was a sincere and accomplished executant, 
painting with sound draughtsmanship and 
strong colour ' not merely architecture but 
the poetry of architecture.' At the Royal 
Academy he exhibited twice, sending * La 
Sainte Chapelle ' in 1865, ' Treves Cathedral ' 
and ' Strasbourg Cathedral ' in 1879. His 
best work was given to the Royal Society 
of British Artists, of which he was elected 
a member in 1865. In 1888 he became 
president of the society in succession to 
James McNeill Whistler [q. v. Suppl. II], 
and till the close of his life held this 
office, for which his geniality, wide 
artistic sympathies, and energy were well 
adapted. Among the pictures which he 

himself selected as his most important 
works are : ' La Sainte Chapelle ' (R.A. 
1865), ' St. Laurence, Nuremberg ' (Liver- 
pool, 1889), 'St. Mark's, Venice' 
(Nottingham, 1880), 'St. Peter's, Rome' 
(R.B.A. 1888), and * The Cathedral, 
Amiens ' (R.B.A. 1900). 

Bayliss also won reputation as an 
author. The best known of his books is 
' Rex Regum' (1898 ; library edit, revised, 
1902), an elaborate study of the traditional 
likenesses of Christ. In his ' Seven Angels 
of the Renascence ' (1905), a blending of 
fact and sentiment, he gives his views 
upon seven selected great masters and 
their influence upon the art of the 
Middle Ages. Among his other publica- 
tions were ' The Elements of Aerial 
Perspective' (1885) ; * The Witness of Art ' 
(1876 ; 2nd edit. 1878); The Higher Life 
in Art' (1879; 2nd edit. 1888); 'The 
Enchanted Island' (1888); and 'Five Great 
Painters of the Victorian Era' (1902; 
2nd edit. 1904). Bayliss also published 
a short volume of poems, entitled ' Ssecula 
Tria, an Allegory of Life' (1857), and 
contributed to ' Literature ' in 1889 (v. 387, 
414), ' Shakespeare in Relation to Ms 
Contemporaries in the Fine Arts.' Before 
his death he completed ' Olives, the 
Reminiscences of a President,' which was 
edited by his wife and published, with 
a preface by Frederick Wedmore, in 1906. 

Bayliss, who was elected F.S.A. in 1870, 
was blighted by Queen Victoria in 1 897. He 
died at his residence, 7 North Road, Clapham 
Park, on 5 April 1906, and was buried at 
Streatham cemetery. A memorial is hi the 
church of Madeley, Shropshire, his birth- 
place. He married in 1858 Elise, daughter 
of the Rev. J. Broade of Longton, Stafford- 
shire, but left no issue. Two portraits of 
him, by John Burr and by T. F. M. Sheard, 
R.B.A., belong to Lady Bayliss. 

[The Times, 7 April 1906; Who's Who, 
1906; Contemp. Review, Aug. 1898; Graves's 
Royal Acad. Exhibitors ; ' Olives,' his own 
reminiscences ; private information.] M. H. 

BAYLY, ADA ELLEN (1857-1903), 
novelist under the pseudonym of EDN"A 
LYALL, born at 5 Montpelier Villas, 
Brighton, on 25 March 1857, was youngest 
of the three daughters and son of Robert 
Bayly, barrister of the Inner Temple, by 
his wife, Mary Winter. Her father died 
when she was eleven and her mother three 
years later. A delicate child, she was 
first educated at home, then in the house 
of her uncle and guardian, T. B. Winter 
of Caterham, and finally at private 
schools at Brighton (cf. The Surges Letters, 



1902, a record of her youthful days). 
After leaving school she lived successively 
with her two married sisters. Until 
1880 she resided at Lincoln with her elder 
sister, who had married John Henchman 
Crowfoot, canon of the cathedral. From 
1880 till death her home was with her 
younger sister, wife of the Rev. Humphrey 
Gurney Jameson in London until 1881, in 
Lincoln 1881-^t, and after 1884 at East- 
bourne, where she devoted much time and 
money to charitable and religious causes. 
With strong religious feeling she combined 
through life an earnest faith in political 
and social liberalism. She was a secretary 
of the Eastbourne branch of the Women's 
Liberal Association, and a warm supporter 
of women's suffrage. 

Under the appellation of EDNA LYALL, 
which she formed by transposing nine letters 
of her three names and made her permanent 
pseudonym, Miss Bayly published in 1879 
bee first book, ' Won by Waiting,' a juvenile 
story of a girl's life, which attracted at 
the time no attention, but was reissued, 
to her annoyance, in 1886, after she 
b<vamo known, and by 1894 was in a 
13th edition. There followed in 1882 her 
second novel, ' Donovan ' (3 vols.), which 
dealt with her religious beliefs and spiritual 
ex perienccs. Although only 320 copies were 
sold, the book won the admiration of 
Gladstone, who wrote to Miss Bayly 
in 1883 of its first volume as ' a very 
delicate and refined work of art.' An 
intelligent review in the ' National Re- 
former ' led to a correspondence with 
Charles Bradlaugh [q. v.], many of whose 
political convictions she shared. In spite 
of her dissent from his religious views, her 
liberal sentiments resented his exclusion 
<>u religious grounds from the House of 
Commons (1880-5). She thrice subscribed 
to the fund for defraying his electoral 
expenses. After his death on 30 Jan. 1891, 
si m wrote for the press (in June) the appeal 
for a memorial fund, and subscribed to it 
her royalties for the half-year, amounting 
to 200J. With Bradlaugh's daughter, Mrs. 
Bradlaugh Bonner, she formed a lasting 
friendship. Meanwhile, on some notes 
supplied by Bradlaugh Miss Bayly based 
iu-r novel 'We Two' (1884, 3 vols.), 
j'icl to 'Donovan.' The career of 
the secularist hero, Luke Raeburn, vaguely 
bs that of Bradlaugh, although the 
main theme is the conversion of Erica 
Uai.-lmrn, the secularist's daughter, to 
Christianity. ' We Two ' established the 
author's reputation, and drew ' Donovan * 
from its threatened oblivion. For the 

copyright of these two books she received 
no more than 50. But with the publica- 
tion in 1885 of * In the Golden Days,' an 
able historical novel of the seventeenth 
century, her profits grew substantial. * In 
the Golden Days ' was the last book read 
to Ruskin on his deathbed (COLLINGWOOD, 
Life of John Ruskin, 1900, p. 403). It was 
dramatised later by Edwin Gilbert, but 
had no success on the stage. * Donovan,' 
' We Two,' and ' In the Golden Days ' 
are Miss Bayly's best books. 

Miss Bayly's popularity was thenceforth 
secure. In 1886 a stranger falsely claimed 
in public to be * Edna Lyall,' and a report 
also circulated that the authoress was in a 
lunatic asylum. Miss Bayly met the false- 
hood by announcing her identity, and the 
experience suggested her ' Autobiography of 
a Slander ' (1887), a brief study of the evil 
wrought by false gossip, which enjoyed an 
immense vogue and was translated into 
French, German, and Norwegian. 

Two of her succeeding works expounded 
anew her political convictions. An ardent 
home ruler, she in ' Doreen,' an Irish novel 
(1894) which was first published in the 
* Christian World,' presented the Irish revo- 
lutionary leader, Michael Davitt [q. v. 
Suppl. II], in the guise of her hero, Donal 
Moore. Gladstone, writing to her 25 Nov. 
1894, commended ' the singular courage with 
which you stake your wide public reputa- 
tion upon the Irish cause.' In 1896 she 
championed the Armenians against their 
Turkish oppressors in her comparatively 
unimpressive 'The Autobiography of a 
Truth ' (1896), the profits of which she gave 
to the Armenian Relief Fund. Strongly 
opposed to the South African war, she 
spoke out with customary frankness in her 
last novel, ' The Hinderers ' (1902). 

An attack of pericarditis in 1889 had 
left permanent ill effects. Miss Bayly died 
on 8 Feb. 1903 at 6 College Road, East- 
bourne. The body was cremated and the 
ashes buried at the foot of the old cross in 
Bosbury churchyard, near Bosbury Hill, 
Herefordshire, a place which figures in her 
novel 'In Spite of All' (1901), and of which 
her brother, the Rev. R. Burges Bayly, was 

Slight in build and of medium height, 
with dark brown hair and dark grey-blue 
eyes, Miss Bayly was fond of music and 
of travelling, and described her tours in 
vivacious letters. Her style is always 
clear and pleasant. She developed a genuine 
faculty of constructing a plot, and she was 
especially happy in the characterisation 
of young girls. But her earnest political 

i 2 




purpose, which came of her native horror 
of oppression and injustice, militated against 
her mastery of the whole art of fiction. 

In 1906 a memorial window by Kempe 
was placed in St. Peter's Church, East- 
bourne (built 1896), where Miss Bayly had 
worshipped and to which she had presented 
the seats. She had given in 1887 a peal of 
throe bells to St. Saviour's Church, named 
Donovan, Erica, and Hugo, after leading 
characters in her three chief books. 

Other works by Miss Bayly are : 
1. 'Their Happiest Christmas,' 1886. 2. 
' Knight Errant,' 1887 (a story of the life 
of a public singer, suggested by her acquaint- 
ance with Miss Mary Davies, formed 
while travelling in Norway). 3. ' Derrick 
Vaughan, Novelist,' 1889, dedicated to 
Miss Mary Davies, an embodiment of Miss 
Bayly's literary experiences, first pub- 
lished periodically in ' Murray's Magazine.' 
4. ' A Hardy Norseman,' 1889. 5. ' Max 
Hereford's Dream,' 1891 (new edit. 1900). 
6. ' To Right the Wrong,' 1892, an historical 
seventeenth-century novel, first published 
in * Good Words.' 7. ' How the Children 
raised the Wind,' 1895. 8. 'Wayfaring 
Men,' 1897, a story of the stage. 9. ' Hope 
the Hermit,' 1898, a Cumberland tale of 
the days of William and Mary, which had 
run through the 'Christian World,' of 
which 9000 copies were sold on the day of 
separate publication. 10. ' In Spite of All,' 
1901, an historical tale of the seventeenth 
century, originally written as a drama and 
produced without success at Eastbourne by 
the Ben Greet company, 4 Jan. 1900, then 
at Cambridge, and finally at the Comedy 
Theatre, London, 5 Feb. 1900. She also 
wrote a preface to ' The Story of an African 
Chief by Mr, Wyndham Knight - Bruce, 
1893, and on Mrs. Gaskell in ' Women 
Novelists of Queen Victoria's Reign,' 1897. 

[J. M. Escreet, Life of Edna Lyall, 1904 ; 
The Times, 10 Feb. 1903; Athenaeum, 14 Feb. 
1903; G. A. Payne, Edna Lyall, 1903; 
H. C. Black, Notable Women Authors of the 
Day, 1893, with portrait ; private informa- 
tion.] E. L. 

BEALE, DOROTHEA (1831-1906), 
principal of Cheltenham Ladies' College, 
born on 21 March 1831 at 41 Bishopsgate 
Street Within, London, was fourth child 
and third daughter of the eleven children 
of Miles Beale, a surgeon, of a Gloucester- 
shire family, who took an active interest 
in educational and social questions. His 
wife, Dorothea Margaret Complin, of 
Huguenot extraction, was first cousin to 
Caroline Frances Cornwallis [q. v.], to early 
intercourse with whom Dorothea owed 

much. Educated till the age of thirteen 
partly at home and partly at a school at 
Stratford, Essex, Dorothea then attended 
lectures at Gresham College and at the 
Crosby Hall Literary Institution, and 
developed an aptitude for mathematics. 
In 1847 she went with two older sisters to 
Mrs. Bray's fashionable school for English 
girls in Paris, where she remained till the 
revolution of 1848 brought the school to 
an end. In 1848 Dorothea and her sisters 
were among the earliest students at the 
newly opened Queen's College, Harley 
Street. Their companions included Miss 
Buss and Adelaide Procter [q. v.]. In 
1849 Miss Beale was appointed mathema- 
tical tutor at Queen's College, and in 1854 
she became head teacher in the school 
attached to the college, under Miss Parry. 
During her holidays she visited schools in 
Switzerland and Germany. At the end of 
1856 she left Queen's College owing to dis- 
satisfaction with its administration, and in 
January 1857 became head teacher of the 
Clergy Daughters' School, Casterton, West- 
morland (founded in 1823 by Carus Wilson 
at Cowan Bridge, the Lowood of Char- 
lotte Bronte's ' Jane Eyre ' ; cf . DOROTHEA 
BEALE, Girls' Schools Past and Present, in 
Nineteenth Century, xxiii.). At Casterton 
Miss Beale' s insistence on the need of reforms 
led to her resignation in December follow- 
ing ; many changes in the management 
of the school were made next year. In 
1906 Miss Beale established a scholarship 
from Casterton School to Cheltenham. 

While seeking fresh work Miss Beale 
taught mathematics and Latin at Miss 
Elwall's school at Barnes, and compiled 
her ' Students' Text-Book of English and 
General History from B.C. 100 to the Present 
Time,' for the use of teachers (published 
Aug. 1858 ; 5th edit. 1862). 

On 16 June 1858 Miss Beale was chosen 
out of fifty candidates principal of the 
Ladies' College, Cheltenham, the earliest pro- 
prietary girls' school in England, which had 
been opened on 13 Feb. 1854 with eighty- 
two pupils on a capital of 2000/. With 
Cheltenham the rest of Miss Beale's career 
was identified. When she entered on her 
duties there were sixty-nine pupils and 
only 400Z. of the original capital remained. 
For the next two years the college had a 
hard struggle. In 1860 the financial arrange- 
ments were reorganised, and by 1863 the 
numbers had risen to 126. Thenceforward 
the success of the college was assured. 
In 1873 it was first installed in buildings 
of its own, which were enlarged three years 
later, when there were 310 names on the 




books. In 1880 the college was incor- 
porated as a company. The numbers then 
had reached 500. Numerous additions were 
made to the buildings between 1882 and 
1905. In the present year (1912) there are 
over 1000 pupils and 120 teachers, fourteen 
boarding houses, a secondary and a kinder- 
garten teachers' training department, a 
library of over 7000 volumes, and fifteen 
acres of playing-fields. 

As early as 1864 Miss Beale's success 
as a head-mistress was acknowledged, and 
in 1865 she gave evidence before the 
endowed schools inquiry commission, the 
seven other lady witnesses including Miss 
Buss and Miss Emily Davies. The evi- 
dence, published in 1868, gave an immense 
impetus to the education of girls in Eng- 
land [see GREY, MARIA, Suppl. II, and 
SHIRREFF, EMILY, Suppl. I]. In 1869 Miss 
Beale published, with a preface by herself, 
the commissioners' ' Reports on the Edu- 
cation of Girls. With Extracts from the 
Evidence.' It is a remarkable exposure 
of the low average standard of the teaching 
in girls' secondary schools before 1870. 

Miss Beale perceived that the absence 
of all means of training teachers was a 
main obstacle to improvement. A modest 
endeavour to meet the need was made by 
a friend at Cheltenham in 1876. Next year, 
on her friend's death, Miss^ Beale undertook 
to carry on the work. The progress was 
rapid ; a residential training college for 
secondary women teachers, the first in this 
country, called St. Hilda's College, was 
built in Cheltenham, and opened in 1885. 
It was enlarged in 1890, and incorporated 
under the Companies Act in 1895. In 
order to give teachers in training the 
benefit of a year at Oxford, Miss Beale 
purchased in 1892 for 5000/. Cowley House, 
Oxford, which was opened as St. Hilda's 
hall of residence for women in 1893, and 
was in 1901 incorporated with the Chelten- 
ham training college as 'St. Hilda's Incor- 
porated College.' The students at St. 
Hilda's Hall, Oxford, are mainly but not 
exclusively old Cheltonians. A kinder- 
garten class was also started by Miss Beale 
iieltenham in 1876, and a department 
lor the training of kindergarten teachers 
i followed, and became an integral 
part of the college work. 

In 1880, mainly with a view to supplying 
a link l.-ct \\ ccn past and present pupils, Miss 
I'x.ilc i'.miMled 'The Cheltenham Ladies' 
College Magazine,' and remained its editor 
until her death. With the same aim, 
she established in 1884 'The Guild of 
the Ladies' Cheltenham College,' which 

now (1912) numbers 2500 members. On 
26 Oct. 1889 the guild started in Bethnal 
Green the Cheltenham settlement, which is 
now carried on as St. Hilda's East, a house 
built by past and present pupils and opened 
on 26 April 1898. An earnest church- 
woman of high church principles, Miss 
Beale, who was guided through life by deep 
religious feeling, instituted at Cheltenham 
in 1884 Quiet Days devotional meetings 
for teachers generally at the end of the 
summer term, when addresses were given 
by distinguished churchmen. 

Outside her college work Miss Beale 
associated herself with nearly every effort 
for educational progress, and with local 
philanthropic institutions. She was presi- 
dent of the Headmistresses' Association 
from 1895 to 1897, and was a member of 
numerous educational societies. In 1894 she 
gave evidence before the royal commission 
on secondary education, of which Mr. James 
Bryce was chairman. In collaboration 
with Miss Soulsby and Miss Dove she 
embodied her matured views on girls' 
education in ' Work and Play in Girls' 
Schools' (1898). She identified herself 
with the movement for women's suffrage, 
being a vice-president of the central 

Miss Beale's activities remained unim- 
paired in her later years, despite deafness and 
signs of cancer, which became apparent 
in 1900. On 21 Oct. 1901 the freedom of 
the borough of Cheltenham was conferred 
on her. On 11 April 1902 the university of 
Edinburgh awarded her the honorary 
degree of LL.D., in recognition of her 
services to education. Eleanor Anne 
Ormerod [q. v. Suppl. II], the entomologist, 
was the only woman on whom the degree 
had been previously conferred. The staff 
at Cheltenham presented her with the 
academic robes. 

Miss Beale died after an operation for 
cancer in a nursing home in Cheltenham, 
9 Nov. 1906. The body was cremated at 
Perry Barr, Birmingham, and the ashes 
buried in a small vault on the south side 
of the Lady chapel of Gloucester Cathedral. 

From the time of her appointment to 
Cheltenham until her death Miss Beale 
devoted her life to the welfare of the college 
and to the improvement of girls' educa- 
tion. Living frugally, she spent large sums 
of her own money on the college, and at 
her death made it her residuary legatee, 
her residuary estate amounting to 55,000/. 
As a teacher Miss Beale's main object 
was to kindle a thirst for knowledge rather 
than merely to impart information (cf. for 




her method in teaching English literature 
her Literary Studies of Poems New and 
Old, 1902). She herself taught literature 
and the exact sciences equally well, and she 
attached chief importance to the teacher's 
personality and character and mental out- 
look (cf. Addresses to Teachers, 1909). The 
most original features of her organisation 
of the college were the rule of silence among 
the pupils, the absence of prizes, the weekly 
hearing of marks in every class by the 
principal herself, whereby she gained 
knowledge of the progress of every girl in 
the college, and the placing of the boarding- 
houses there are now fourteen under the 
direct supervision of the college authorities. 
A benevolent despot in her government of 
the college, she allowed large liberty of 
procedure to those members of her staff 
who showed capability. Open-minded and 
willing to experiment in new methods, 
she combined business ability with the 
enthusiasm of a reformer and shrewdness 
with a mystical idealism. 

Miss Beale was of short stature, with an 
expressive face and a beautiful voice. Her 
bearing was somewhat cold, shy, and 
reserved, but to her intimate friends she 
was tender and sympathetic. A portrait 
in academic robes by J. J. Shannon, R.A., 
presented to her by old pupils on her 
jubilee, 8 Nov. 1904, hangs in the college 
library. Another portrait, also in the 
college, was painted in 1893 by Mrs. Lea 
Merritt at the request of the council. A 
miniature painted by Florence Meyer was 
bequeathed to the college by Miss Mary 
Holmes Gore in February 1907, and a 
marble bust by J. E. Hyett was presented 
to the college in May 1905. Another bust 
in white plaster a better likeness than Mr. 
Hyett's modelled by Miss Evangeline 
Stirling in 1893, was presented loy the artist 
to St. Hilda's Hall, Oxford, in May 1905. 
A bronze tablet to her memory, with 
medallion portrait by Alfred Drury, A.R.A., 
is in the Lady chapel of Gloucester Cathe- 
dral ; a stone tablet by L. Macdonald 
Gill, with an inscription, is in the college, 
and a memorial fund has been formed for 
the benefit of the staff past and present, 
and of old pupils who may be in special 

[Raikes, Dorothea Beale of Cheltenham 
(with reproduction of Shannon's portrait), 
1908 ; History of the Cheltenham Ladies' Col- 
lege, 1904; The Times, 10, 17, 19 Nov., 4 Dec. 
1.906 ; Journal of Education, Dec. 1906, Jan. 
1907 ; Cheltenham Ladies' College Magazine, 
Memorial Number, 1906; private information.] 

E. L. 

BEALE, LIONEL SMITH (1828-1906), 
physician and microscopist, born at Bed- 
ford Street, Covent Garden, London, on 
5 Feb. 1828, was son of Lionel John Beale 
(1796-1 871), surgeon, who wrote on physical 
deformities (1830-1) and on the laws of 
health (1857) and was the first medical officer 
of health for St. Martin's in the Fields. His 
mother was Frances Smith (1800-1849), 
third daughter of James Frost Sheppard. Of 
his three sisters, Ellen Brooker (1831-1900) 
married William Watkiss Lloyd [q. v. 
Suppl. I], author of ' Essays on Shake- 
speare,' and Miss Sophia Beale is a painter 
and author. 

Educated first at a private school and 
then at King's College School, Lionel be- 
came a medical student at King's College, 
London, and at King's College Hospital. In 
1841 he was apprenticed to an apothecary 
and surgeon at Islington. In 1847, after 
matriculating at the University of London 
with honours in chemistry and zoologv, 
he went to Oxford as anatomical assistant 
to 'Sir Henry Wentworth Acland (1815- 
1900) [q. v. Suppl. I], then Lee's reader 
in anatomy at Christ Church. In 1849 
he obtained the licence of the Society 
of Apothecaries, and at the request of 
the government board of health made 
a house to house visitation at Windsor 
during the cholera epidemic. In 1850-1 he 
was resident physician at King's College 
Hospital and graduated M.B. Lond. (1851). 
He never proceeded to the degree of M.D. 
In 1852 he taught the use of the microscope 
in normal and morbid histology and phy- 
siological chemistry in a private laboratory 
at 27 Carey Street, and next year at the 
early age of twenty-five he succeeded 
Robert Bentley Todd [q. v.], to whose 
teaching he always acknowledged a deep 
debt, in the professorship of physiology 
and general and morbid anatomy in King's 
College ; Thomas Henry Huxley was an un- 
successful candidate. Beale shared the duties 
for two years with (Sir) William Bowman 
(1816-1892) [q. v. Suppl. I], who had been 
Todd's assistant. In 1869 he gave up 
the chair to become professor of patholo- 
gical anatomy, and was made at the same 
time honorary physician to the hospital. 
Although an energetic lecturer and teacher, 
he continued to pursue enthusiastically 
histological and physiological research 
by aid of the microscope. 

In 1876 he was promoted to the pro- 
fessorship of medicine. A slight attack of 
cerebral thrombosis which scarcely im- 
paired his vigour led to his retirement from 
the professorship as well as from the 




acting staff of the hospital in 1896. He 
was thereupon nominated emeritus pro- 
fessor and honorary consulting physician. 
His lectures on medicine, although they 
included a useful series ' On Slight Ail- 
ments, their Nature and Treatment ' 
(1880; new edit. 1887), did not as a rule 
supply teaching for examination purposes ; 
but if the audience was small, it was 
stimulated by Beale's scientific insight. 

At the Royal College of Physicians Beale 
became a member in 1856 and a fellow in 
1859. In 1871 he was awarded the bien- 
nial Baly gold medal for his physiological 
work in relation to medicine. He delivered 
the Lumleian lectures in 1875 on * Life and 
Vital Action in Health and Disease.' He 
was frequently examiner to the college, 
a member of the council in 1877-8, censor 
1881-2, and curator of the museum 

From early life Beale was a voluminous 
writer, reading over 100 papers on 
medical subjects between 1851 and 1858 
before scientific and medical societies. Of 
his many separately published books, the 
earliest, * The Microscope and its Applica- 
tion to Clinical Medicine ' (1854), came out 
when he was twenty -nine and foretold his 
ultimate position as one of the most brilliant 
of English microscopists, who not only intro- 
duced new methods of microscopic research 
but also showed the value of the microscope 
to diagnosis in clinical medicine. The 
word ' practical ' replaced ' clinical ' in 
subsequent editions of this work, the 
fourth and last of which appeared in 
1870. There followed in 1857 ' The Use of 
the Microscope in Clinical Medicine'; in 
later editions, the fifth and last of which 
appeared in 1880, the title was changed to 
' How to Work with the Microscope.' 

In 1858 he published a small book, 
' Illustrations of the Constituents of the 
Urine, Urinary Deposits and Calculi ' 
(2nd edit. 1869), and in 1861 a larger 
work * On Urine, Urinary Deposits, and 
Calculi, their Microscopical and Chemical 
Examination' (12mo; 2nd edit. 1864, 
with ' and Treatment, &c.' added to 
the title; American edit. 1885). Other 
important early works were 'On the 
Structure of the Simple Tissues of the 
Human Body ' (1861 ; German trans. 
1862) and 'The Structure and Growth of 
the Tissues, and on Life ' (1865). 

Beale's scientific promise was acknow- 
ledged in 1865 by his election as fellow of 
the Royal Society, where he delivered the 
Croonian lectures in the same year on ' The 
Ultimate Nerve Fibres distributed to the 

Muscles and to some other Tissues.' In 
1868-9 he lectured at Oxford for the 
Radcliffe trustees on ' Disease Germs.' 
He embodied his conclusions in two books : 
' Disease Germs, their Supposed Nature ' 
(1870), and 'Disease Germs, their Real 
Nature, an Original Investigation' (1870). 
Both were reissued in ' Disease Germs, 
their Nature and Origin' (1872). In 1870 
there appeared his 'Protoplasm, or Life 
and Matter' (4th edit. 1892), and in 1872 
his ' Bioplasm, an Introduction to the 
Study of Physiology and Medicine.' In 
his works on germs Beale foreshadowed 
by virtue of ms microscopic methods of 
investigation some of the most modern 
conceptions of bacterial disease, antici- 
pating by fully five years the microbic 
theory of disease and also Pasteur's doctrine 
of ' immunisation.' 

Beale was the first physiological in- 
vestigator to practise the method of 
fixing tissues by injections and so prevent 
the alterations which result in them from 
uncontrolled post-mortem changes. He 
also treated tissues with dilute acetic acid, 
which enabled him to see delicate nerve 
fibres almost as well as they are seen by 
modern intra vitam staining methods, and 
he introduced carmine in ammoniacal 
solution as a stain for differentiating be- 
tween the component parts of the tissues. 
By means of the staining effects of carmine 
he was able, after a close study of tissues 
in various conditions, to draw a distinction 
between the 'germinal ' matter or ' bioplasm,' 
as he called it, and the ' formed ' matter of 
the tissues. Beale's discoveries also in- 
cluded the pyriform nerve ganglion cells, 
called 'Beale's cells,' and he showed the 
peculiar arrangement of the two fibres 
which he thought (incorrectly, as later 
inquiry shows) were prolonged from them. 
An unusually good draughtsman, Beale 
illustrated his books profusely with graphic 
drawings by himself, many of which were 
coloured, and all were drawn strictly to 
scale. He made the drawings direct upon 
the boxwood blocks, and even engraved 
many with his own hand. Beale's drawings 
of Beale's cells are still reproduced in 
standard works on histology. All his 
microscopic specimens are in the possession 
of his son and are still improving in clearness. 

In later life Beale was president of the 
Microscopical Society (187&-1880) and 
fellow or member of numerous European 
and American medical or scientific societies. 
He also acted from 1891 to 1904 as 
physician to the pensions commutation 
board and as government medical referee for 




England. To the close of his life he specu- 
lated much on philosophical and religious 
themes. His mental attitude is disclosed 
in his 'Life Theories' (1870); * Life 
Theories ; their Influence on Religious 
Thought' (1871), and ' Our Morality, and 
the Moral Question, chiefly from the 
Medical Side' (1887). In discussing * vitality 
and vital action' (cf. Lancet, 1898) he 
pronounced strongly against 'atheism,' 
* materialism,' ' agnosticism,' ' monism,' 
and ' free thought.' His religious point 
of view was that of a broad churchman. 
He treated the f differences between man 
and animals as absolute, but he failed to 
defend his scientific position quite clearly, 
or to draw into controversy as he hoped 
fellow men of science. 

Beale's intimate friends included Edward 
Thring (1821-1887) [q. v.], headmaster of 
Uppingham, Sir Henry Acland, Victor 
Carus of Leipzig, Sir William Bowman, and 
Henry Wace, dean of Canterbury. An in- 
defatigable worker, he took no real holiday 
after 1858. He eschewed alcohol and ate 
little meat. An enthusiastic and skilful 
gardener, he made his country home at 
Weybridge known amongst horticulturists, 
chiefly by his culture of palms and 
Japanese plants, and in a small green- 
house at 61 Grosvenor Street, where he 
lived for forty-five years, he successfully 
grew orchids and other hothouse plants. 
In 1900 he suffered from a second attack of 
cerebral haemorrhage. In 1904 he left Wey- 
bridge, where he had been living since 1885, 
for Bentinck Street, the house of his only 
surviving child, Peyton Todd Bowman 
Beale, F.R.C.S. He died there from 
pontine haemorrhage on 28 March 1906. 
He was buried in Weybridge cemetery. 
He married in 1859 Frances, only daughter 
of the Rev. Peyton Blakiston, M.D., F.R.S., 
of St. Leonards, formerly of Birmingham ; 
she died in 1892. 

Beale was of moderate height and of 
sturdy build, with remarkably abundant 
hair, which retained its brown colour up to 
the age of seventy. A portrait by H. T. 
Wells, R.A., exhibited in the Royal 
Academy (1876) and the Paris exhibition 
(1878), belongs to his son, and a memorial 
tablet in bronze, designed, worked and 
erected by his son, is in King's College 

Besides the works cited and contributions 
to periodicals Beale's publications include : 
1. ' On Some Points in the Anatomy of the 
Liver of Man and Vertebrate Animals,' 
1856. 2. 'Tables for the Chemical and 
Microscopical Examination of Urine in 

Health and Disease,' 1856. 3. ' On De- 
ficiency of Vital Power in Disease,' 
1863. 4. ' New Observations upon the 
Structure and Formation of Certain 
Nervous Centres,' 1864. 5. 'The Liver,' 

[Information from Mr. Peyton Todd 
Bowman Beale, F.R.C.S., and Miss Sophia 
Beale ; Lancet, 7 April 1906 (with portrait 
from photograph) and 16 Oct. 1909; Brit. 
Med. Journal, 7 April 1900 ; Index Catalogue, 
Surgeon General's Office, Washington ; Beale's 
own books ; Proc. Roy. Soc., 1907, 77 B.] 

E. M. B. 

1909), Scottish landscape painter, born in 
the parish of Haddington in 1831, was son 
of Adam Brown, farmer, and Ann Beattie. 
He removed at an early age to Edinburgh 
and was educated at Leith High School. 
Having early shown a taste for art, he was 
apprenticed as a glass -stainer to the well- 
known firm of Messrs. Ballantine, and 
here his artistic tastes were so rapidly 
developed that before his apprenticeship 
was completed he entered the Trustees' 
Art Academy, then under the charge of 
Robert Scott Lauder [q. v.]. Among his 
fellow-students of this period and com- 
panions of a later time were William Bell 
Scott [q. v.], Horatio MacCulloch, Sam 
Bough, and George Paul Chalmers [q. v.]. 
In 1848, when seventeen years of age, he 
exhibited a picture, ' On the Forth,' at the 
Royal Scottish Academy, and from that time 
till his death he was always represented 
at the annual exhibitions. His skill and 
accuracy as a draughtsman led to his 
being employed to make illustrations for 
several medical works ; and his care and 
discretion as an artist brought him much 
employment in restoring pictures for 
Henry Doig, art-dealer, Edinburgh, whose 
daughter he married in 1858. To extend 
his experience he studied for a long time in 
Belgium, there using water-colour as his 
principal medium, though his chief 
work was done in oil-colour. He found 
English subjects for his pictures in 
Surrey, Kent, and Yorkshire, but his main 
themes were Scottish highland landscapes. 
He was a pioneer among the Scottish 
' out-of-door ' artists, frequently complet- 
ing his pictures directly from nature 
a practice which explains his vigour and 
realism. In 1871 he was elected an 
associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
and in 1884 an academician. His diploma 
picture, dated 1883, is a characteristic 
highland landscape, ' Coire-na-Faireamh,' 
now in the Scottish National Gallery, 




Edinburgh. Representative works by 
him are in the public galleries at 
Liverpool, Manchester, Oldham, and 
Bolton. He was a frequent exhibitor 
at the Royal Academy, London, and also 
at Glasgow and other Scottish exhibitions. 
In his later years he adopted a more glow- 
ing scheme of colour than in his earlier 
work ; but his pictures were always notice- 
able for their realistic line and tone, and 
for their technical excellence. Beattie- 
Brown died at Edinburgh on 31 March 1909. 

By his wif% Esther Love Doig, he had 
three sons and six daughters. The eldest 
son, H. W. Jennings Brown (1862-1898), 
showed promise as a portrait and figure- 

[Cat. Nat. Gall, of Scotland (42nd edit.); 
Scotsman, 1 April 1909 ; Graves's Royal Acad. 
Exhibitors ; private information.] A. H. M. 

BARON GRIMTHORPE (1816-1905), lawyer, 
mechanician and controversialist, born 
at Carlton Hall, near Newark, on 12 May 
1816, was eldest son of Sir Edmund 
Beckett, fourth baronet (1787-1874), who 
assumed the additional surname of Denison 
by royal letters patent in 1816 and re- 
sumed his original surname by the same 
process on succeeding to the baronetcy in 
1872. The elder Sir Edmund was con- 
servative M.P. for the West Riding in 1841 
and again from 1848 to 1859. Beckett's 
mother, who died on 27 March 1874, was 
Maria, daughter of William Beverley of 
Beverley, and great-niece and heiress of 
Anne, daughter of Roundell Smithson of 
Millfield, near Harewood, and widow of Sir 
Thomas Denison, judge of the king's bench. 

Educated at Doncaster grammar school, 
Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
Beckett Denison graduated B.A. as thirtieth 
unmgler in 1838 (M.A. 1841, LL.D. 1863). 
He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn 
in 1841, became a Q.C. in 1854, a bencher of 
lu's inn in the same year, and its treasurer 
in 1876. He soon acquired a large practice, 
chiefly in connection with railway bills, 
becoming famous for his severe cross- 
examination and retentive memory. Ad- 
vancing rapidly in his profession, Beckett 
Denison had by 1860 become recognised 
as the leader of the parliamentary bar, 
though his powers of sarcasm and assertive 
manner stood him in better stead with 
committees and rival counsel than his 
knowledge of law. He was very tenacious 
of the rights of the inns of court, and 
strongly resented any attempt to interfere 
\\itli them. Keeping a keen eye on his 
fees, he accumulated a large fortune. 

He ceased to practise regularly after 1880, 
though he still accepted an occasional 
brief. Succeeding his father in the baronetcy 
on 24 May 1874, Beckett Denison followed 
his example by discarding the second sur- 
name. As Sir Edmund Beckett he was 
appointed chancellor and vicar-general 
of the province of York in 1877, an office 
which he held until 1900. Beckett was 
created a peer by the title of Baron Grim- 
thorpe of Grimthorpe, Yorkshire, on 17 Feb. 
1886, with remainder to the issue male of 
his father. 

Meanwhile Grimthorpe showed an excep- 
tional versatility of interest in matters 
outside the law, and conducted numerous 
controversies on ecclesiastical, architec- 
tural, scientific, and other topics with 
vigour and acrimony. His earliest energies 
were engaged in theological warfare. In 
1848 he published 'Six Letters on Dr. 
Todd's Discourses on the Prophecies 
relating to the Apocalypse,' a strenuous 
polemic. The controversy on marriage 
with a deceased wife's sister then engaged 
his attention, and between 1849 and 1851 
he produced four pamphlets in favour of 
that cause, the most important of which 
was * A Short Letter on the Bishop of 
Exeter's [Dr. Phillpotts'] Speech on the 
Marriage Bill.' To the end of his life he 
supported a measure of relief. 

As chancellor of York he became the 
attached friend of the archbishop, William 
Thomson [q. v.], but did not hesitate to 
criticise episcopal proceedings with freedom, 
when he disagreed with them. A strong 
advocate of reform in church discipline, he 
gave evidence before the royal commission 
of 1883, and drafted a disciplinary bill of 
his own with racy notes, which he sent to 
the commissioners. There followed an out- 
spoken * Letter to the Archbishop of York 
on the Report of the Commission on 
Ecclesiastical Courts.' Together with Dean 
Burgon [q. v. Suppl. I], he took exception to 
the revised version of the New Testament, 
publishing in 1882 'Should the Revised 
New Testament be Authorised ? ' and a 
rejoinder to Dr. Farrar's answer to that 
Suppl. II]. Much alarmed by the spread 
of ritualism in the Church of England, 
he became president of the Protestant 
Churchmen's Alliance, which held its in- 
augural meeting in Exeter Hall in 1889. 
The Lincoln judgment of 1890 [see KING, 
EDWARD, Suppl. II] stirred him to write 
what Archbishop Benson called a ' furious 
letter,' entitled ' A Review of the Lambeth 
Judgment in Read v. the Bishop of 




Lincoln' (A. C. BENSON'S Edward White 
Benson, ii. 373). Benson acknowledged 
Grimthorpe's assistance on the church 
patronage bill of 1893, when he produced 
' a set of amendments really helpful.' The 
measure was reintroduced and passed its 
second reading two years afterwards with 
Grimthorpe's approval. When, later, in 
1895, Lord Halifax moved the second 
reading of a divorce bill, amending the 
Act by which the clergy were compelled 
to lend their churches for the remarriage 
of those guiltily divorced, Grimthorpe 
* treated this relief as an attempt to secure 
the "supremacy of the clergy," and vitu- 
perated the archbishop of York as a Solon 
and Janus.' 'I never,' wrote Benson, 'saw 
spite so open in the house before ' (ibid. ii. 
641). Not long before his death, Grim- 
thorpe eagerly supported Sir William 
Harcourt [q. v. Suppl. II], who was 
denouncing ritualistic practices in a series 
of letters to * The Times.' His standpoint 
through all his disputes was strongly 
erastian and orthodox, as he understood 

Architecture, especially on its ecclesiastical 
side, also long occupied Grimthorpe's mind. 
In 1855 he published ' Lectures on Gothic 
Architecture, chiefly in relation to St. 
George's Church at Doncaster. ' This parish 
church, having been burnt down, was 
rebuilt by Sir George Gilbert Scott [q. v.], 
with suggestions from Grimthorpe, who 
contributed liberally to the funds. Grim- 
thorpe, while expressing admiration of 
Scott's work, was mercilessly sarcastic at 
the expense of Scott's rivals ; Scott on his 
side admitted Grimthorpe's generosity and 
strenuous support of sound architecture, 
but ungraciously added that ' he has an 
unpleasant way of doing -.things, which 
makes one hate one's best work' (SCOTT'S 
Personal and Professional Recollections, 
173). Grimthorpe next published 'A Book 
on Building, Civil and Ecclesiastical, with 
the Theory of Domes and of the Great 
Pyramid' (1876; 2nd edit., enlarged, 
1880), which again contained many shrewd 
hits at the architectural .profession. In 
it are enumerated the buildings which he 
himself had 'substantially designed,' in- 
cluding the Church of St. James, Doncaster, 
in which Scott had a hand (ib.) ; St. Chad's 
Church, Headingley; Cliffe parish church 
in the East Riding; St. Paul's, Burton- 
on-Trent; the tower-top of Worcester 
Cathedral; Doncaster grammar school, 
and the extension of Lincoln's Inn library. 
His influence is also to be traced in the 
injudicious restoration of Lincoln's Inn 

chapel in 1882, but his contemplated 
demolition of Sir Thomas Lovell's gate- 
house in Chancery Lane was happily 

The architectural enterprise with which 
his name is inseparably connected came 
later. Living in a house at Batch Wood, 
St. Albans, designed by himself, ' the only 
architect with whom I have never quarrelled,' 
he was much interested in the unsound 
condition of St. Albans Abbey, and the 
endeavour of the St. Albans reparation 
committee to fit it for cathedral and 
parochial service. He subscribed gener- 
ously to the funds, contributing, from first 
to last, some 130,000/., and interfered freely 
with Scott the architect. ' The leader,' 
wrote Scott in 1877, ' among those who 
wish me to do what I ought not to do is 
Sir Edmund Beckett ' (ib. 357). In 1880, 
various parts of the building being in 
danger of falling down, and the committee 
having exhausted its funds and being 
3000Z. in debt, Grimthorpe obtained a 
faculty to 'restore, repair and refit' the 
church at his own expense. He set to 
work with characteristic zeal, and by 1885 
the nave was finished. But his arbitrary 
treatment of the roof and new west front 
and his insertion of windows in the termi- 
nations of the transepts excited the fiercest 
criticism, and he returned blow for blow. 
In favouring a high-pitched roof, instead of 
the existing flat roof, he found himself at 
sharp issue with George Edmund Street 
[q. v. Suppl. I], but nothing could divert him 
from his purpose (A. E. STREET'S Memoir 
of George Edmund Street, 242-7). Meanwhile 
Henry Hucks Gibbs, afterwards Lord 
Aldenham [q. v. Suppl. II], had obtained 
a concurrent faculty to restore the high altar 
screen, and a conflict of authorities ensued. 
In 1889 the case came before Sir Francis 
Jeune [q. v. Suppl. II], chancellor of the 
diocese, the point really at issue being 
Gibbs' s right to fill up the central place on 
the high altar with a crucifix. Grimthorpe 
conducted his own case against Sir Walter 
Phillimore and Mr. C. A. Cripps, Q.C. 
Neither side was completely successful, but 
Gibbs was eventually allowed to erect the 
crucifix. Grimthorpe described his part in 
the St. Albans controversies in ' St. Albans 
Cathedral and its Restoration' (1885; 2nd 
edit., revised and enlarged, 1890), which, 
though purporting to be a guide-book, is 
also a somewhat vehement review of old 
I arguments with 'Street and Co.,' 'sham 
critics of shams,' and others. 

Through his long life Grimthorpe was 
further busy over mechanical inventions, 




working at them with his own hands. In 
1850 he published a clearly written and 
instructive work, ' A Rudimentary Treatise 
on Clock and Watchmaldng.' It passed 
through eight editions, with some changes 
of title, becoming in 1903 'A Rudimentary 
Treatise on Clocks, Watches and Bells, 
with a new preface and a new list of great 
bells and an appendix on weathercocks.' 
His articles on clocks, watches and bells in 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' which were 
reprinted separately, were based on this 
work. He designed the great clock for the 
International Exhibition of 1851, made by 
Kihvard John Dent [q. v.] ; it is now at 
King's Cross railway station. In the same 
year he undertook, in conjunction with 
(Sir) George Biddell Airy [q. v. Suppl. I] 
and Dent, the construction of the great 
clock for the clock-tower in the Houses of 
Parliament, Westminster. The design was 
Ms, as an inscription records, and it in- 
cluded his new gravity escapement, in 
which a pendulum weighing 6 cwt. is kept 
going by a scape wheel weighing little 
more than a quarter of an ounce ; this is 
known as the ' double three-legged gravity 
escapement,' and was inserted in 1859. 
Grimthorpe also prepared the specifications 
for the bell commonly called * Big Ben,' 
after Sir Benjamin Hall, commissioner of 
public works. The clock and * Big Ben,' 
like most of Grimthorpe's undertakings, 
involved him in fierce controversies, and 
he waged battle for sixteen years with the 
office of public works, with Sir Charles Barry 
[q. v.] the architect, with Sir George Airy, 
who withdrew from the undertaking, and 
others. In the libel action, Stainbank v. 
Beckett, turning on the soundness of the 
lx-11, he was cast in 200Z. damages (1859). 
(For an excellent, if disputatious account 
of the Westminster clock, see BECKETT'S 
Rudimentary Treatise, 8th edit. ; also the 
Journal of the Soc. of Arts, 13 Jan. 
1854, and the Horological Journal, xv.). 
(irimthorpe was elected president of the 
Horological Institute in 1868, on condition 
that he should not attend dinners, and 
was annually re-elected, though not always 
without opposition. In the preface to 
the eighth edition of the 'Rudimentary 
ii -atise' he stated that he had 'either 
directly or indirectly ' designed over forty 
clocks, ' including those at Westminster and 
St. Paul's (with the great peal of bells), and 
in many other cathedrals and churches, 
as well as town-halls, railways stations 
and others in several of our colonies.' The 
new clock at St. Paul's Cathedral, which 
was constructed after his specifications, was 

finished in 1 893 ; ho said of its makers, 
Messrs. John Smith of Derby, that they 
* would clock you in the best way and as 
near eternity as possible ' (SINCLAIR'S 
Memorials of St. Pants Cathedral, 430-4). 
Grimthorpe's services and advice were 
always gratuitously given, and no municipal 
council or country clergyman, who ap- 
proached him with due deference on the 
subject of clocks or bells, ever appealed to 
him in vain. 

In 1852 Grimthorpe invented an in- 
genious lock, but it proved to be too 
elaborate for commercial success ; it does 
not appear to have been patented. The 
wide scope of his scientific knowledge was 
further proved by a clever little handbook, 
' Astronomy without Mathematics ' (1865). 
He died at Batch Wood, St. Albans, 
on 29 April 1905, after a short ill- 
ness, aggravated by a fall. He was 
interred by his wife's side in the north-west 
side of the burial-ground of St. Albans 
Cathedral. His personal estate was valued 
at 1 ,562,5002., and he left a complicated 
will with many codicils which was the 
cause of prolonged litigation. He had 
married on 7 Oct. 1845 Fanny Catherine 
(d. 1901), daughter of Dr. John Lonsdale 
[q. v.], bishop of Lichfield. Leaving no 
issue, he was succeeded in the baronetcy 
and in the peerage (by special remainder) by 
his nephew, Ernest William Beckett, born 
25 Nov. 1856, who had been M.P. for the 
Whitby division of Yorkshire since 1885. 

Lord Grimthorpe, who owed his peerage 
to his activity in ecclesiastical matters, 
I combined with his architectural skill and 
I mechanical genius, possessed a manly in- 
tellect and varied talents. If he won his 
position at the bar by his self-assertive 
personality rather than by learning, his 
knowledge of horology was unquestioned, 
and he had a genuine grasp of architectural 
principles, though he was inclined to be 
ruthless in carrying them out. His mind, 
unfortunately, was given to cavil, and, 
troubled by no doubts on any subject, he 
rushed into print, often without provoca- 
tion. In his ecclesiastical controversies he 
at times appeared in an unamiable light. 
I His faults were, however, outweighed by 
! the strength of Ms friendships, the large- 
ness of his generosity, and his kindness 
i towards those who stood in need of help. 
j He was tall and stern of aspect and was 
! always faithful to early Victorian costume. 
Besides the works cited Grimthorpe wrote 
his father-in-law's biography, ' The Life 
: of John Lonsdale, Bishop of Lichfield, 
I with some of his Writings' (1868); and 




'A Review of Hume and Huxley on 
Miracles' (S.P.C.K. 1883), which Bishop 
Harold Browne considered one of the 
best books in defence of the Christian 
faith. Of kindred purpose was his volume 
* On the Origin of the Laws of Nature ' 
(1879). His masculine common sense 
appeared in 'Trade Unionism and its Re- 
sults' (1878), a hostile criticism which he 
originally wrote as letters in ' The Times.' 
A cartoon portrait by 'Spy' appeared in 
'Vanity Fair' in 1889. 

[The Times, 1 May 1905 ; Guardian, 3 May 
1905 ; Law Times, 6 May 1905 ; Horological 
Journal, June 1905, art. by F. J. Britten 
(with portraits).] L. C. S. 

BEDDOE, JOHN (1826-1911), physician 
and anthropologist, born at Bewdley, Wor- 
cestershire, on 21 Sept. 182G, was son of John 
Beddoe by his wife Emma, only daughter 
of Henry Barrer Child of Bewdley. 

Educated at Bridgnorth School, he read 
for the law, but soon entered University 
College,London, where he began the study of 
medicine. After graduating B.A. at London 
in 1851, he pursued his medical studies at 
Edinburgh University, qualifying M.D. in 
1853. For some time he was house phy- 
sician at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. 
During the Crimean war Beddoe served at 
Renkioi on the medical staff of a civil 
hospital, afterwards proceeding to Vienna 
to complete his medical training. He sub- 
sequently made an extended continental 
tour, and then in 1857 began practice as 
a physician at Clifton. He was physician 
to the Bristol Royal Infirmary (1862-73), 
and consulting physician to the Children's 
Hospital there (1866-1911). He was elected 
F.R.C.P. in 1873. Retiring from practice in 
Bristol (1891), he settled at Bradford-on- 
Avon, Wiltshire. 

Beddoe began active researches in 
ethnology during his early wanderings in 
Austria, Hungary, Italy, France, and other 
countries, and ultimately he became an 
authority on the physical characteristics 
of living European races. Much of his 
work was pioneer, and was carried on 
when researches of the kind were little 
valued. But Beddoe's unflagging industry 
and stimulating zeal influenced profoundly 
the development of anthropological science 
at home and abroad. 

In 1846, when twenty years old, he began 
observations on hair and eye colours in the 
West of England, continuing these in 
Orkney (1852), with amended methods. 
There followed a long series of kindred 
observations, as time and areas served. 
In 1853 he published 'Contributions to 

Scottish Ethnology,' and fifty-five years 
afterwards, in 'A Last Contribution to 
Scottish Ethnology,' a paper before the 
Royal Anthropological Institute, he sur- 
veyed the intervening progress (Journ. 
Roy. Anthrop. InsL xxxviii.). In 1867 
he received from the Welsh National 
Eisteddfod a prize of 100 guineas for the 
best essay on the origin of the English 
nation, subsequently embodied in ' The 
Races of Britain' (1885). His racial 
data on ' Stature and Bulk of Man in the 
British Isles ' appeared with critical obser- 
vations and deductions in 1870 (Memoirs 
Anthrop. Soc. Lond. iii.). A paper, ' De 
1'Evaluation et de la Signification de 
la Capacite cranienne,' which he com- 
municated in 1903 to ' L'Anthropologie ' 
(vol. xiv.), met with hostile criticism from 
Mr. M. A. Lewenz and Prof. Karl Pearson, 
F.R.S., in a joint paper in ' Biometrika ' 
(vol. iii. 1904). Beddoe replied in the 
' Journal of the Royal Anthropological 
Institute ' (vol. xxxiv. 1904) at the same time 
as he published there ' The Somatology of 
Eight Hundred Boys in Training for the 
Royal Navy,' a series of detailed colour- 
observations and head-measurements. Later 
(ibid, xxxvii. 1907) he sent a paper ' On 
a Series of Skulls collected by John E. 
Pritchard from a Carmelite Burying -ground 
in Bristol.' 

Beddoe was a foundation member (1857) 
of the Ethnological Society, president of 
the Anthropological Society, 1869-70, and 
of the (Royal) Anthropological Institute, 
1889-91. In 1905 he delivered the Huxley 
lecture of the institute on ' Colour and Race ' 
(Journ. Roy. Anthrop. InsL xxxv.), and re- 
ceived on that occasion the Huxley memorial 
medal. He served on the council of the 
British Association 1870-5, and as chairman 
of the anthropological department of Sec- 
tion D, at the Bradford meeting in 1873, de- 
livered an address on the ' Anthropology of 
Yorkshire.' He was joint author of the 
association's ' Anthropological Instructions 
for Travellers.' 

He was elected F.R.S. on 12 June 1873. 
In 1891 the University of Edinburgh 
conferred the honorary degree of LL.D., 
and he delivered there the Rhind lectures 
in archaeology, on ' The Anthropological 
History of Europe,' of which the substance 
appeared in the ' Scottish Review ' in 1892. 
Shortly before his death Beddoe expanded 
the MS. of the lectures for issue in volume 
form. Beddoe was made Officier (Ire classe) 
de I'lnstruction Publique, France, in 1890, 
and he was a member of the chief continental 
anthropological societies. In 1908 the 




University of Bristol elected him honorary 
professor of anthropology. 

One of the founders in 1875 of the Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Archgeological Society, 
he was president in 1890 ; in 1909 president 
of the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society, and at the time of his death 
president of the British Kyrle Society. 

Beddoe's 'Memories of Eighty Years' 
appeared in 1910. He died at Bradford- 
on-Avon on 19 July 1911. In 1858 he 
married Agnes Montgomerie Cameron, 
daughter of Rev. A. Christison and niece 
of Sir Robert Christison, first baronet 
[q. v.], and had issue one son, who pre- 
deceased him, and one daughter. 

A portrait of Beddoe, painted by Miss 
E. B. Warne, and purchased by private 
subscription in 1907, was presented to the 
Municipal Art Gallery, Bristol. 

[Beddoe's Memories of Eighty Years, 1910; 
Proc. Roy. Soc., Anniv. Address, 30 Nov. 
1911 ; Nature, 27 July 1911 ; The Times, 
20 July 1911 ; Man (with portrait), Oct. 
1911; Brit. Mod. Journal (with portrait), 
5 Aug. 1911 ; Lancet, 29 July 1911 ; Men and 
Women of the Time, 1899; Trans. Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Archseol. Soc. xxxiii. ; 
llept. Bristol Kyrlo Soc. (with portrait), Oct. 
1911.] T. E. J. 

RICK RILAND (1826-1905), antiquary 
and genealogist, born at Sutton Coldfield 
rectory on 12 July 1826, was eldest of 
five sons of William Riland Bedford, 
rector of Sutton Coldfield, Warwickshire 
(d. 1843), by Ms wife Grace Campbell, 
daughter of Charles Sharpe of Hoddam, 
Dumfriesshire. Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe 
[q. v.] was his mother's brother. After 
education at Sutton Coldfield grammar 
school, Bedford won a Queen's scholarship 
at Westminster school in 1840, and passing 
head of the list qualified for a studentship 
at Christ Church, Oxford. An attack of 
scarlet fever denied him the advantage of 
his success, and on 6 June 1844 he matricu- 
lated as a commoner at Brasenose College. 
In 1847 he was secretary of the Union 
Society when Lord Dufferin [q. v. Suppl. 
II] was president. He graduated B.A. 
in 1848 and proceeded M.A. in 1852. In 
1849 ho was ordained to the curacy of 
Southwell, Nottinghamshire, and in 1850 
he succeeded his uncle, Dr. Williamson, 
as rector of Sutton Coldfield. He held the 
post for forty-two years, and was rural dean 
for twenty-five. 

Bedford was an acknowledged authority 
on the antiquities of Sutton Coldfield, 
which he described in 'Three Hundred 

Years of a Family Living, being a History 
of the Rilands of Sutton Coldfield ' (1889), 
and ' The Manor of Sutton, Feudal and 
Municipal ' (1901). He was well versed 
in heraldry and genealogies, and was a 
frequent contributor to ' Notes and Queries.' 
From 1878 to 1902 he was chaplain of 
the order of St. John of Jerusalem, and 
in his capacity of official genealogist he 
compiled many works dealing with the 
history and regulations of the knights 
hospitallers, including * Malta and the 
Knights' (1870; 2nd edit. 1894), 'Notes 
on the Old Hospitals of the Order of St. John 
of Jerusalem ' (1881), and a history of the 
English Hospitallers (1902) in collaboration 
with R. Holbeche. 

Bedford was a keen cricketer in the early 
days of the game. On 20 July 1856 he 
founded ' The Free Foresters,' an amateur 
wandering club with headquarters at 
Sutton Coldfield, and he recorded the 
fortunes of the club in his ' Annals of the 
Free Foresters from 1856' (1895). He 
was also an expert archer and frequently 
attended the meetings of the Woodmen of 
Arden at Meriden, Warwickshire, winning 
the Arden medal on 16 July 1857. In 
1885 he published ' Records of the Wood- 
men of Arden from 1785,' and contributed 
to the volume on ' Archery ' in the Bad- 
minton series (1894). In addition to the 
works already mentioned his chief publica- 
tions were a * Memoir of C. K. Sharpe,' 
his uncle, written from family papers (1888), 
'The Blazon of Episcopacy' (1858; 2nd 
edit. 1897), and ' Outcomes of Old Oxford ' 

Bedford died at Cricklewood on 23 Jan. 
1905 ; his ashes were buried after cremation 
at Golder's Green. He married: (1) on 
18 Sept. 1851, Maria Amy, youngest 
daughter of Joseph Houson (d. 1890) of 
Southwell, Nottinghamshire ; (2) in 1900, 
Margaret, daughter of Denis Browne. He 
had by his first wife seven sons and three 

f Westminster School Register, 1764-1883, 
p. 19 ; The Times, 25 January 1905 ; Wisden's 
Cricketer's Almanack, 1906 ; Annals of the 
Free Foresters, 1895 (with portrait) ; Memories 
of Dean Hole, p. 7 ; Notes and Queries, 10th s. 
iii. 120 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Brasenose College 
Register, 1509-1909, i. 532.] G. S. W. 

BEECHAM, THOMAS (1820-1907), 
patent medicine vendor, was born at 
Witney, Oxfordshire, on 3 Dec. 1820, being 
the son of Joseph and Mary Beecham. 
About 1845 he opened a chemist's shop 
in Wigan, South Lancashire, and there 
invented a formula for pills, his first patent- 




medicine licence being dated Liverpool, 
8 July 1847. In 1846 he married. In 1859 
he removed his business, still quite small, 
to the then new township of St. Helens, 
half-way between Wigan and Liverpool. 
At St. Helens he picked up, from the 
chance remark of a lady who purchased his 
pills, the phrase ' worth a guinea a box,' 
which he made the advertising motto of his 
concern. In 1866 his elder son, Joseph, 
joined the business, and infused into it 
a highly enterprising spirit. In 1885 the 
present head-factory and office-buildings 
in Westfield Street, St. Helens, were built 
at an initial cost of 30,OOOZ. Joseph 
Beecham then visited the United States, 
and established a factory in New York, 
since followed by factories and agencies 
in several other countries. In 1887 the 
father bought an estate, Mursley Hall, 
near Winslow, Buckinghamshire, where he 
farmed till 1893. In 1895 he retired from 
active work in favour of his son Joseph. 
After an extended tour in the United States 
he built a house, Wychwood, Northwood 
Avenue, Southport, Lancashire, where he 
died on 6 April 1907, leaving a large personal 
fortune, and his share in an immense busi- 
ness. In South Lancashire he was well 
known as an eccentric public benefactor. 
By religion he was a congregationalist. 
Besides his son Joseph (6. 1848), mayor of 
St. Helens in 1889-99 and 1910-12, who 
was knighted in 1912, he had a second 
son, William Eardley Beecham (&. 1855), 
a doctor practising in London. 

[The Times, 8 April and 5 June (will), 1907 ; 
Chemist and Druggist, 13 April 1907 ; private 
information.] C. M-N. 

1908), neurologist, born in London on 
12 June 1854, was eldest son of Charles 
Beevor, F.R.C.S., and Elizabeth, daughter 
of Thomas Burrell. He received his early 
education at Blackheath proprietary school 
and at University College, London. Pursu- 
ing medical study at University College 
Hospital, he proceeded M.R.C.S. in 1878, 
M.B. London in 1879, M.D. London in 
1881. In 1882 he became M.R.C. P. London, 
and in 1888 F.R.C.P. After holding the 
appointments of house physician at Uni- 
versity College Hospital, and resident 
medical officer at the National Hospital 
for the Paralysed and Epileptic, Queen 
Square, W.C., he went abroad in 1882-3, 
and studied under the great teachers, 
including Obersteiner, Weigert, Cohnheim, 
and Erb, at Vienna, Leipzig, Berlin, and 
Paris. On his return in 1883 he was 
appointed assistant physician to Queen 

Square Hospital, and to the Great 
Northern Hospital in 1885. In course of 
time he became full physician to both 
institutions, offices which he held until 
his death. 

From 1883 to 1887 Beevor was engaged 
with (Sir) Victor Horsley in experimental 
research on the localisation of cerebral 
functions, especially with regard to the 
course and origin of the motor tracts. 
This work crystallised the truth of the 
results obtained by previous investigators, 
j and established the reputation of the 
authors (Phil. Trans, clxxxi. 1890; also 
1887-9). In 1903 Beevor delivered the 
Croonian lectures before the Royal 
College of Physicians, on ' Muscular Move- 
ments and their Representation in the 
Central Nervous System ' (published in 
1904), a classical piece of work entail- 
ing prodigious labour and painstaking 
observation. In 1907 he delivered before 
the Medical Society of London the 
Lettsomian lectures on ' The Diagnosis 
and Localisation of Cerebral Tumours.' 
He contributed many papers on subjects 
connected with neurology to ' Brain ' 
and other medical journals, and in 1898 
he published a ' Handbook on Diseases 
of the Nervous System,' which became 
a leading text-book. His most important 
work, however, was embodied in a 
paper on ' The Distribution of the Different 
Arteries supplying the Brain,' which was 
published in the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions of the Royal Society ' in 1908. After 
many attempts, he succeeded in injecting 
simultaneously the five arteries of the 
brain with different coloured substances 
held in solution in gelatin. By this means 
he determined exactly the blood supply 
to different parts of the brain, and showed 
that the distribution of blood is purely 
anatomical, and does not vary according 
to the physiological action of the parts. 
Until this work was published, no book 
contained an accurate description of the 
cerebral arterial circulation. The import- 
ance of Beevor's discovery was not only 
from the anatomical side but also from 
the pathological, for it enables the physician 
to know the exact portions of the brain 
which are liable to undergo softening 
when any particular artery is blocked by 
a clot of blood. 

In May 1908 he went by invitation to 
America. There his lectures on his own 
subjects were received with enthusiasm at 
Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, and 
Boston by the members of the American 
Neurological Society, and by those of the 




American Medical Association at their 
fifty- ninth annual session. In 1907-8 he 
was president of the Neurological Society, 
and on its amalgamation with the Royal 
Society of Medicine he became the first 
president of the corresponding section, and 
died in office. For ten years he was hon. 
secretary to the Association for the 
Advancement of Medicine by Research. 

He died from sudden cardiac failure, 
on 5 Dec. 1908, at his residence in Wimpole 
Street. He married on 7 Feb. 1882 Blanche 
Adii u\ daughter of Dr. Thomas Robinson 
Loulain, who with a son and daughter 
survive him. He was buried at Hampstead 

An enlarged photograph hangs in the 
committee -room of the medical board 
of the National Hospital, Queen Square, 

Becvor ranks amongst the great authori- 
ties on the anatomy and diseases of the 
nervous system. He possessed great intel- 
lectual power, energy and industry, and 
was unsurpassed in accuracy of observa- 
tion. As a recorder of facts he was con- 
scientious and precise. Yet he was so 
imbued with scientific caution, that he 
often hesitated to publish his own observa- 
tions when they seemed at variance with 
tradition and accepted teaching. 

[Lancet, 19 Dec. 1908 ; Brit. Med. Journal, 
12 Dec. 1908 ; Presidential Address, Royal 
College of Physicians, 1909.] L. G. 

BEIT, ALFRED (1853-1906), financier 
and benefactor, born at Hamburg on 
15 Feb. 1853, was eldest son of Siegfried 
and Laura Beit. The father was a merchant 
belonging to a well-known Hamburg 
family, Jewish by race, Lutheran by religion. 
' I was one of the poor Beits of Hamburg,' 
the son once said, implying that another 
branch was better off than his own. Beit 
was educated privately, and at seventeen 
rntrrr.d the Hamburg office of a firm of 
South African merchants, D. Lippert & 
Co., his kinsmen. With a view to qualifying 
to act as a representative of the branch of 
this firm, just extended from Port Eliza- 
Ix-th to Kimberley at the diamond mining 
(rut ic in Griqualand West, Cape Colony, 
pent 1874 at Amsterdam, where ho 
obtained a knowledge of the diamond 
trade at first hand. Early in September 
1875 he sailed for Cape Town, and pro- 
oeeding to Kimberley by waggon was one 
of Lippert's representatives there until 
1878, when he revisited Hamburg. His 
Amsterdam training enabled liim to see 
that Cape diamonds, so far from deserving 
their current repute of being an inferior 

product, were generally as good as any in 
the world, and were being sold in Africa 
at a price far below their worth in Europe. 
Accordingly borrowing 20002. from his 
father by way of capital, he returned to 
Kimberley in the same year, and set up 
under his own name as a diamond merchant. 
Foreseeing the growth of Kimberley, he is 
said to have invested most of his capital 
in purchasing ground on which he put up 
a number of corrugated iron offices. For 
twelve of these the rent ultimately received 
by him was estimated at 18002. a month, 
and later he is believed to have sold the 
ground for 260,0002. 

In 1882 he became associated in the 
diamond business at Kimberley with J. 
Porges and Julius Wernher. The latter, 
who was created a baronet in 1905, was a 
young Hessian who, having fought in the 
Franco-German war, had come out to South 
Africa as a qualified architect and surveyor. 
In 1884 Porges and Wernher returned to 
England and constituted the London firm of 
J. Porges & Co. dealing in diamonds and 
diamond shares, and after 1888 in gold 
mines as well. Beit was sole representa- 
tive of this firm at Kimberley until 
July 1888, when he made London his 
headquarters, although his subsequent 
visits to Africa were frequent. On 1 Jan. 
1890 the firm of Wernher, Beit & Co. re- 
placed J. Porges & Co., in the same line of 

When settled at Kimberley, Beit made 
the acquaintance of Cecil John Rhodes [q. v. 
Suppl. II], and while close business relations 
followed he felt the full force of Rhodes's 
personality. Yielding to its fascination, 
he became Ms intimate friend, accepting 
his ideas and aspirations with enthusiasm. 
He soon joined Rhodes on the board of 
the original De Beers Diamond Company 
(founded in 1880) and played an important 
part in Rhodes's great scheme of the 
amalgamation of the chief diamond mines 
of Kimberley as De Beers Consolidated 
Mines. The scheme took effect in 1888 
after Beit had advanced to Rhodes without 
security a sum of 250,0002. Under Rhodes's 
influence, Beit, who had become a naturalised 
British subject, thoroughly assimilated, de- 
spite his foreign birth, the patriotic spirit of 
British imperialism, and was in politics as all 
else a strenuous supporter of Rhodes. His 
association with Rhodes became the chief 
in! crest of his life. The two men rendered 
each other the best kind of mutual assist- 
ance. Without Beit, Rhodes was puzzled, 
or at least wearied, with the details of 
business. Without Rhodes, Beit might have 




been a mere successful gold and diamond 

Meanwhile the gold-mining activity in 
the Transvaal Republic, which first began 
at Barberton in 1884, had spread to the 
conglomerate formation of Witwatersrand, 
familiarly known as the Rand, where 
Johannesburg now stands. The Rand was 
declared a public gold-field on 20 September 
1886. Early in 1888 Beit paid it a 
visit, and before leaving Kimberley he 
arranged provisionally that Hermann 
Eckstein should establish a branch of his 
firm on the Rand, trading as H. Eckstein 
later H. Eckstein & Co. To the development 
of the Transvaal gold-mines Beit signally 
contributed. Perceiving the possibilities of 
the Witwatersrand, he acquired a large in- 
terest in the best of the outcrop mines, which 
soon became valuable properties. But his 
chief stroke was made in 1891, when he 
revisited South Africa and illustrated his 
characteristic perception of possibilities. 
Adopting the suggestion, in face of much 
expert scepticism, that it might be possible 
not only to work the outcrop but to strike 
the slanting reef by deep level shafts, at 
some distance away from the outcrop, he 
evolved, and devoted capital to testing, 
the Great Deep Level scheme. Beit was 
the first to recognise the importance of 
employing first-class mining engineers. 
With their aid he proved the scheme to 
be practicable, and to its success the 
subsequent prosperity of the Rand is 
chiefly due. In the whole deep level 
system Beit's firm were forerunners and 
creators ; other firms followed later in 
their footsteps. 

Beit was deeply interested in the scheme 
of northern expansion which Rhodes 
had formed early in his South African 
career. On the formation (24 Oct. 1889) of 
the British South Africa Company for the 
administration of the extensive territory 
afterwards known as Rhodesia, Beit became 
an original director. He first visited the 
country in 1891, entering the country by 
the old Tuli route, and travelling by 
Victoria to Hartley. He joined later the 
boards of the various Rhodesian railway 
companies. His loyal support of Rhodes 
had its penalties. Like all who had 
a great stake in the Transvaal, he sym- 
pathised with the reform movement in 
Johannesburg of 1895 and shared the 
general impatience with the rule of 
President Kruger. Beit was concerned with 
Rhodes in placing Dr. (later Sir) Starr 
Jameson with an armed force on the Trans- 
vaal border (Dec. 1895). After nebulous 

intrigue with Johannesburg there followed 
the raid into the Transvaal. Beit's share in 
this blunder cost him 200,0002. Censured 
for his part in the transaction by the 
British South Africa committee of the 
House of Commons in 1897, he re- 
signed his directorship of the Chartered 
Company, although the committee re- 
lieved him of any suspicion that he 
acted from an unworthy financial motive. 
During the South African war of 1899- 
1902 he spent immense sums on the 
imperial light horse and on the equipment 
of the imperial yeomanry, and before and 
after the war he poured money into land 
settlement, immigration, and kindred 
schemes for the development of South 

Meanwhile Beit pursued other interests 
than politics or commerce. With a genuine 
love of beautiful things he formed from 
1888 onwards, under the guidance of 
Dr. Bode, director of the Berlin Museum, 
a fine collection of pictures and works of 
art, including Italian Renaissance bronzes. 
He finally housed these treasures in a 
mansion in Park Lane, which Eustace 
Balfour built for him in 1895. Of painting 
he had a thorough knowledge, and among 
his pictures were the ' Prodigal Son ' 
series of Murillo, six pictures acquired 
from Lord Dudley's Gallery, and many 
of the finest examples of the Dutch and 
English schools. 

On Rhodes's death in March 1902 Beit 
succeeded to much of his friend's position. 
He became the chief figure on the boards 
of the De Beers Company and of the 
Chartered Company, which he rejoined in 
that year. He was also one of Rhodes's 
trustees under his will. In all these 
capacities he faithfully endeavoured to 
do what Rhodes would have done. His 
health had long been feeble, and in the 
autumn of 1902, when he visited South 
Africa for the purpose of examining with 
admirable results in the future the 
organisation of Rhodesia, he had a stroke 
of paralysis at Johannesburg. Through 
Dr. Jameson's skill he rallied, but never 
recovered. But his interests were un- 
slackened. He identified himself with the 
movements for a better understanding with 
Germany and for tariff reform. He bore 
witness to his enlightened colonial interests 
by founding at Oxford in 1905 the Beit 
professorship of colonial history and the 
Beit assistant lectureship in colonial 
history, besides giving a sum of money 
to the Bodleian Library for additions to 
its collections of books on colonial history,. 




In the early spring of 1906 he was sent 
to Wiesbaden on account of heart trouble. 
By his own wish he was brought home to 
England, a dying man, and passed away 
at his country residence, Tewin Water in 
Hertfordshire, on 16 July. He was buried 
in the churchyard there. 

Beit, who was unmarried, was survived 
by his mother, two sisters, and his younger 
brother Otto, and while providing liberally 
for various relatives and friends he left the 
residue of his fortune to his brother. At 
the same time his public benefactions, 
amounting in value to 2,000,0002., were 
impressive alike by their generosity to 
England and Germany, and by their 
breadth of view. To the Imperial College 
of Technology, London, was allotted 50,0002. 
in cash and De Beers shares, valued at 
the testator's death at 84,8432. 15s. To 
Rhodesia, for purposes of education and 
charity, 200,0002. was bequeathed to be 
administered by trustees. King Edward's 
Hospital Fund and the trustees of Guy's 
Hospital were left 20,0002. each. Rhodes 
University at Grahamstown received 
25,0002., Rhodes Memorial Fund 10,0002., 
and the Union Jack Club, London, 10,0002. 
Funds for benefactions in the Transvaal, in 
Kimberley, and the Cape Colony were also 
established. Two sums of 20,0002. were 
left to his executors for distribution to the 
charities of London and Hamburg re- 
spectively. Finally 1,200,0002. passed to 
trustees for the extension of railway and 
telegraph communication in South Africa, 
with a view to forwarding the enterprise 
known as the Cape to Cairo railway. With 
admirable sagacity Beit made his public 
bequests elastic. Thus, while bequeathing 
an estate at Hamburg as a pleasure-ground 
to the people of that city, he provided 
that twenty years later Hamburg might 
realise the estate and apply the proceeds 
to such other public objects as might 
seem desirable. Two of the bequests 
200,0002. for a university at Johannesburg 
and 50,0002. destined for an Institute of 
Medical Sciences lapsed into the residuary 
estate owing to the schemes in question 
being abandoned, but Mr. Otto Beit in- 
timated Ms intention of devoting the 
200,0002. to university education in South 
Africa, and the 50,0002. was made by him 
the nucleus of a fund of 215,0002., with j 
which he founded in 1909 thirty Alfred 
fellowships for medical research in 
memory of the testator. Beit also left j 
t the National Gallery the picture known 
as 'Lady Cockburn and her Children,' 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; and to the 


Kaiserliche Museum in Berlin another by 
Sir Joshua, * Mrs. Boone and her Daughter,' 
together with his bronze statue ' Hercules ' 
by Pollaiuolo. His large Majolica plate 
from the service of Isabella d'Este was 
bequeathed to the Hamburg Museum. 

A wealthy financier of abnormal intuition 
and power of memory, combined with 
German thoroughness of method, Beit had 
nothing in common with the financial 
magnate. He was no speculator in any 
ordinary sense, acquiring property whether 
on the Rand or elsewhere solely with the 
object of seriously developing it. He did 
not gamble, and advice on speculative in- 
vestments which he always gave reluctantly 
was far from infallible. Shy and retiring 
to excess, he was devoid of social ambition, 
and was little known beyond a small circle 
of intimates who included men in the high 
position of Lord Rosebery and Lord Hal- 
dane. An active sympathy with every 
form of suffering and an ardent belief in 
great causes led him to distribute vast 
sums of money, but his benefactions were 
always made privately with rare self- 
effacement. He was the target through 
life for much undeserved abuse. The 
terms of the will give the true measure of 
his character. 

A statue was unveiled at Salisbury, 
Rhodesia, on 11 May 1911. 

[Personal knowledge ; private information 
from, among others, Mr. Otto Beit, Sir Julius 
Wernher, Bart., and Sir Starr Jameson ; Sir 
Lewis Michell, Life of Cecil Rhodes ; Tho 
Times, 17 July and 21 July 1906 (account of 
will).] C. W. B. 

MOBERLY (1847-1911), manager of 'The 
Times,' born in Alexandria on 2 April 
1847, was youngest child of Thomas Bell, 
of a firm of Egyptian merchants, who was 
on his mother's side first cousin of George 
Moberly [q. v.], bishop of Salisbury. 
Moberly Bell's mother was Hester Louisa, 
daughter of one David, by a sister of the 
Miss Williams who accompanied Lady 
Hester Stanhope [q. v.] on her sojourn in 
the East. The two Misses Williams were, 
it is said, wards of William Pitt. Lady 
Hester was Mrs. Bell's godmother. An 
accomplished musician and above the 
average of her tune and sex in general 
cultivation, Mrs. Bell first married a naval 
chaplain named Dodd, and by him had a 
son who became a general in the Indian 
army. By her second marriage with 
Thomas Bell she had four children who 
grew to maturity, but only the youngest 
displayed striking ability. 




Both Bell's parents died when he was 
a child, and he was sent to England to be 
brought up by an aunt who lived in Clapham. 
He attended for a time a little day school 
in Stockwell, and afterwards went to a 
school kept by the Rev. William Clayton 
Greene at Wallasey in Cheshire, where he 
was chiefly distinguished by his aptitude 
for mathematics. He was engaged in 
preparation for the Indian civil service 
when he developed a tendency to con- 
sumption and was sent back to Egypt 
in 1865. There he entered the service 
of his father's old firm, Peel & Co., in 
Alexandria, and in 1873 he was admitted 
as a partner. 

But his heart was never in business, and 
a taste and aptitude for journalism had 
already asserted themselves. Even in his 
schooldays he had been in the habit, it is 
said, of writing to the newspapers ; and 
having succeeded immediately after his 
arrival in Egypt in 1865 in establishing 
an informal connection with ' The Times,' 
he lost no opportunity of practising his 
pen as an occasional correspondent. He 
left the firm of Peel & Co. in 1875, and 
thenceforth devoted his main energies to 
journalism. Always an omnivorous reader, 
he had continued his education during the 
years he spent in business and with practice 
had acquired a fluent and vivacious style. 
With the opening of the Suez Canal and the 
adventurous finance of Ismail, the Khedive, 
Egypt was now becoming a subject of 
international interest, and Bell's ready and 
incisive pen and access to 'The Times,' 
coupled with his political insight and his 
knowledge of all the actors on the stage 
of Egyptian politics, soon made him a 
power. In company with two friends he 
founded the 'Egyptian Gazette' (1880), 
long the only successful English newspaper 
in Egypt. His great opportunity came with 
the Arabi revolt of 1882 and the subse- 
quent British occupation. He had now been 
recognised by ' The Times ' as * Our own 
correspondent, 1 and one of his greatest 
achievements in that capacity was his 
telegraphic description of the bombard- 
ment of Alexandria, at which he was present 
on board the Condor with Lord Charles 
Beresford. In 1884, when he was about 
to start with the Gordon relief expedition, 
he met with a serious accident, which 
detained him in hospital to his intense 
chagrin '' and left him slightly lamed for 
life. He continued, however, at Cairo 
to play a prominent part in the events by 
which the Egyptian question was gradually 
unravelled. 'He was an ideal corre- 

spondent,' ' The Times ' wrote of him after 
his death, ' alert in observation, quick and 
sagacious in judgment, prompt in execution, 
rapid and yet never slovenly in composition, 
never sparing himself and never letting 
an opportunity slip. He knew everyone 
worth knowing in Egypt, and enjoyed the 
confidence of all who knew him. It is no 
secret that Lord Cromer had a warm 
personal regard for him and always enter- 
tained a high opinion of his sagacity, 
regarding his judgment on Egyptian affairs 
as pre-eminently sound and exceptionally 
well informed.' His interest in Egyptian 
politics embraced the welfare of the Egyptian 
people as well as the international relation. 
He published in these years ' Khedives 
and Pashas,' an appreciation of the leading 
Egyptian personalities of the time, in 1884 ; 
a pamphlet on ' Egyptian Finance * in 
1887 ; and ' From Pharaoh to Fellah,' a 
series of historical and descriptive sketches, 
in 1888. 

In 1890 he was summoned to England 
by the chief proprietor of ' The Times ' to 
take up the post of manager in succession 
to John Cameron MacDonald, who had 
recently died. The moment was critical 
in the history of the paper, for it had suffered 
a heavy loss of money and a serious blow to 
its prestige during the proceedings, then 
just concluded, of the Parnell commission. 
Bell threw himself into the task of repairing 
the damage, financial and other, with the 
energy of a giant. Devotion to the interests 
of ' The Times ' soon grew with him to be 
a religion. He was proud of its power and 
influence and of its long record of public 
service, and he had a deep conviction of 
the importance of upholding its best tradi- 
tions and so maintaining its efficiency as a 
regulating force in English public life. He 
brought to his new task, at which he toiled 
with little rest for the remainder of his life, 
an acute and ingenious mind, great quickness 
of apprehension, insight into character, 
unfailing resource, and executive ability of 
a high order. He laboured incessantly 
to improve its business organisation. 
During his management an independent 
literary organ, ' Literature,' ran in associa- 
tion with the newspaper from 1897 to 1901, 
when it was replaced by a weekly ' Literary 
Supplement ' to ' The Times ' ; other 
supplements, ' Financial and Commercial ' 
and ' Engineering,' were subsequently 
added. Bell was the first to establish a 
system of wireless press messages across 
the Atlantic. His interest in foreign 
affairs was always especially keen, and he 
was able to effect many notable improve- 



ments in the organisation of ' The Times ' 
service in that field. He was an ardent 
imperialist, and by his creation or 
improvement of news services as well as 
by his personal influence he did no little 
to further that cause. 

Bell's overflowing energies prompted him 
to utilise the resources of ' The Times ' for 
many enterprises that were strictly beyond 
the bounds of journalism. He acquired for 
the newspaper in 1895 the MS. and copy- 
right of Dr. Moritz Busch's ' Bismarck : 
Some Secret Pages of his History ' which 
he published through Macmillans in 1898 
(3 vols.)- But ' The Times ' itself under- 
took an ambitious series of publications, 
including ' The Times Atlas ' (1895), a reprint 
of the ninth edition of the * Encyclopaedia 
Britannica* (1898) with supplementary 
volumes (1902-3), and the well-known 
' History of the South African War.' (7 vols., 
1900-9). Another of Bell's enterprises 
was c The Times ' Book Club, established in 
September 1905, which provided a circulat- 
ing library gratuitously for subscribers to 
the newspaper, frankly with a view to 
increasing its circulation. A furious con- 
flict followed with publishers and book- 
sellers, who deemed their interests injured 
by the club's practice of selling off second- 
hand copies soon after publication. Bell 
defended the club's position unflinchingly, 
and gave way only after two years' stubborn 
resistance. In the course of the struggle he 
attacked many publishing methods, and one 
result of his strenuous polemic was a general 
reduction in the selling price of books. 

Down to 1908 * The Times ' was owned 
by a large number of proprietors without 
definite liability, but legal proceedings 
arising out of conflicting rights compelled 
in that year a reconstitution on the prin- 
ciple of limited liability, and it was mainly 
owing to Bell's diplomacy and exertions 
that the transition was smoothly effected. 
When * The Times ' publishing company 
was formed in 1908 he became managing 

Of a commanding personality Bell was 
for many years a well-known figure in 
London life and society. In person he was 
tall and massive of frame and of a con- 
stitution that seemed never to know ill- 
ness or fatigue. But unsparing labour 
eventually weakened his heart, and he 
died suddenly in ' The Times ' office, 
while writing a letter on some question of 
newspaper copyright on 5 April 1911. He 
was buried in Brompton cemetery. 

He married in 1875 Ethel, eldest daughter 
of Rev. James Chataway, by whom he had 

two sons and four daughters ; the eldest 
daughter died before him. 

A portrait painted by Mr. Emile Fuchs hi 
1904 is in the possession of Bell's widow. 

[The Times, 6 April 1911 ; Encycl. Brit., 
llth edit., s.v. Newspapers and Publishing ; 
family information and personal knowledge.] 

W. F. M. 

BELL, HORACE (1839-1903), civil 
engineer, born in London on 17 June 
1839, was son of George Bell, merchant, of 
Harley Street, London, by his wife Frances 
Dade, of Norfolk. Educated in France 
and at Louth, Lincolnshire, he began 
engineering at fifteen, under Mr. John 
Wilson, in Westminster, served as appren- 
tice to Messrs. D. Cook & Company of 
Glasgow, and spent some time later in 
the workshops of the Caledonian rail- 
way. After employment on the London, 
Chatham and Dover railway he entered 
the Indian public works department as a 
probationary assistant engineer on 1 July 
1862. At first he was employed on the 
Grand Trunk road in the Central Provinces 
(1862-70). On 1 April 1866 he became an 
executive engineer, and in that capacity, 
after a few months on the Chanda railway 
survey, served on the Indore (1870), the 
Punjab Northern (1874), the Rajputana 
(1875), and Neemuch (1878) state railways. 
On the opening of the Punjab Northern 
in 1883 he was mentioned in the list of 
officers employed, and was congratulated by 
the viceroy. Promoted a superintending 
engineer on 1 Jan. 1880 and a chief engi- 
neer, third class, on 22 Oct. 1890, and 
first class on 31 Jan. 1892, he was suc- 
cessively (1881-4) chief engineer of the 
Dacca-Mymensingh railway surveys, and 
(1884-7) chief engineer to the Tirhoot state 
railway, of which for a time he was also 
manager. He received in 1887 the thanks 
of the government of India for services 
in connection with the completion of the 
Gunduck bridge on that railway. His next 
employment was as engineer-in-chief on the 
surveys for the Great Western of India 
and the Mogal-Serai rail ways. From 8 Aug. 
1892 until his retirement in June 1894 he 
was consulting engineer to the government 
of India for state railways, acting for a 
short time as director-general of railways. 

Bell published ' Railway Policy in India * 
(1894), which dealt with constructional, 
financial, and administrative matters. A 
paper by him, ' Recent Railway Policy in 
India' (1900), was reprinted from the 
4 Journal ' of the Society of Arts. For natives 
of India he published at Calcutta a * Primer 
on the Government of India ' (3rd edit. 1893) 





and ' Laws of Wealth ' (1883) ; both were 
adopted in government schools. 

On leaving India he established himself 
as a consulting engineer in London, and 
under his guidance were carried out the 
Southern Punjab railway (5 feet 6 inches 
gauge), 1897, and the Nilgiri mountain 
railway, a rack railway of metre gauge 
opened in 1899 (Minutes of Proceedings 
Inst. Civ. Eng. cxlv. 1). He was elected an 
associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
5 March 1867, and a member 30 Jan. 1892. 
In 1897 he was elected to the council, on 
which he served until his death. He died 
at 114 Lexham Gardens, W., on 10 April 
1903, and was buried in Brompton cemetery. 
By his wife Marcia Napier Ogilvy he had 
issue four sons and five daughters. One 
son and three daughters survived him. 

[Min. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. cliii. 3.19 ; 
The Times, 11 April 1903 ; History of Services 
of the Indian Public Works Department.] 

W. F. S. 

baronet (1816-1904), metallurgical chemist 
and pioneer in industrial enterprise, born 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 15 Feb. 1816, 
was eldest son (in a family of four sons 
and three daughters) of Thomas Bell 
(1774-1845), a native of Lowhurst, Cum- 
berland, by his wife Catherine (d. 1875), 
daughter of Isaac Lowthian of Newbiggin 
near Carlisle. Of his brothers, Thomas 
(1817-1894), who followed him in the 
management of the Walker works, took an 
active part in the early development of 
the Cleveland salt deposits, whilst John 
(1818-1888), a practical geologist, gave 
valuable advice to Lowthian in con- 
nection with mining properties. His sister 
Mary Grace (d. 1898) married George 
Routledge [q. v.], the publisher, and 
Katherine (d. 1905) married William Henry 
Porter (d. 1895), to whom the original idea 
of the patent anchor is due. 

His father removed to Newcastle in 
1808 to enter the service of Messrs. Losh & 
Co., merchants, who were then launching 
out into the manufacture of both alkali 
and iron. In after years he joined the 
.firm, which became known as Messrs. Losh, 
Wilson & Bell, of the Walker Ironworks, 
Tyneside. The family of Bell's mother 
had long been tenants of the Loshes of 
Woodside, near Carlisle. To his parents' 
association with the Losh family (one of 
whose members in conjunction with Lord 
Dundonald had pioneered the Leblanc soda 
process in this country) Lowthian Bell owed 
his early introduction to chemical and 
metallurgical technology, then on the eve 

of a period of remarkable development and 
advance. His father, who early discerned 
the important bearing of physical science 
upon industrial problems, gave his son 
an adequate training in physics and 
chemistry. After completing his school 
education at Bruce's Academy, Newcastle, 
Bell spent some time in Germany, in Den- 
mark, at Edinburgh University, and at the 
Sorbonne in Paris ; finally he went to 
Marseilles to study a new process for the 
manufacture of alkali. 

In 1835, at the age of nineteen, Lowthian 
Bell entered, under his father, the office of 
Messrs. Losh, Wilson & Bell, in Newcastle, 
and a year later joined his father at the 
firm's ironworks at Walker. In 1827 
there had been erected at these works 
what was considered then to be a very 
powerful rolling mill capable of turning out 
100 tons per week of bar iron ; the puddling 
process was installed in 1833, and five 
years later there was added a second mill 
for rolling rails. John Vaughan, the super- 
intendent of this mill, by virtue of his char- 
acter and practical knowledge about iron, 
exercised on the young man a powerful direct- 
ing influence. In 1842, owing to a shortage 
of pig iron, the firm decided to put down 
a blast furnace plant, the erection of which 
was carried out under Bell's superintendence. 
The first furnace was designed for smelting 
mill cinder, but on the addition of a second 
furnace in 1844 experiments were made, 
extending over twelve months, with Cleve- 
land ironstone from the neighbourhood of 
Grosmont. The use of Cleveland ore was 
for the tune abandoned, but these initial 
experiments at Walker prepared the way 
for the opening-up of the Cleveland iron 
industry some six years later. 

In 1842 Bell married Margaret, second 
daughter of Hugh Lee Pattinson [q. v.], the 
chemical manufacturer. In 1850, in part- 
nership with his father-in-law, he started 
chemical works at Washington near Gates- 
head, where he built a house and resided 
for nearly twenty years. 

About 1866 a single blast furnace adjoin- 
ing the chemical works was built by Bell in 
partnership with others, and the exhaust 
steam from the blowing engines was 
utilised for heating water to be used in 
Pattinson's white lead process. The furnace 
was blown out in 1875. There was also 
established about 1860, at Washington, a 
manufactory of aluminium under a very 
ingenious process discovered by the dis- 
tinguished French chemist St. Claire 
Deville. This was the earliest and for many 
years the only source of aluminium in 




this country. Improvements in manu- 
facture rendered Deville's process obsolete, 
and the works were abandoned before 1880. 
In 1874 Bell sold his interest in the 
Washington business to his partners, who 
included Robert Stirling Newall [q. v.], 
husband of his wife's sister. 

Meanwhile Bell's main energies were 
occupied elsewhere. On 1 Aug. 1844 he 
and his two brothers, Thomas and John, 
leased a blast furnace at Wylam-on-Tyne 
from Christopher Blackett, thus inaugu- 
rating the firm of Bell Brothers, and next 
year, on the death of his father, Lowthian 
Bell also assumed the chief direction of the 
Walker works. The furnace at Wylam 
had been built in 1836 on lines typical of its 
epoch, and it continued in working until 
1863, when it was finally blown out. 

At Wylam the trials of Cleveland ore 
which Bell had begun at Walker continued 
under his direction. Before long Messrs. 
Bolckow & Vaughan, at their Witton Park 
furnaces (county Durham), commenced 
to smelt Cleveland ore with such success 
that they decided to erect three blast 
furnaces near Middlesbrough in close 
proximity to the new ore supplies. Bell 
was not slow to profit by this example. 
In 1852 his firm acquired a lease, from the 
Ward-Jackson family, of important ore 
supplies at Normanby, and ultimately, 
in 1854, they started their Clarence works, 
with three blast furnaces, on the north 
bank of the Tees opposite Middlesbrough, 
then a very small and newly incorporated 
borough. The only rival works in the 
district were those of Messrs. Bolckow, 
Vaughan & Company and of Messrs. Coch- 
rane & Company. These three firms were 
the pioneers of the Cleveland industry. 

Early difficulties arose over the carriage 
of the ore. Messrs. Bolckow & Vaughan 
supported the endeavour of the Stockton 
and Darlington Railway Company, an 
undertaking in which Messrs. Joseph and 
Hmry Pease had a very large interest 
[see PEASE, EDWARD], to monopolise 
the carriage of the whole of the Cleve- 
land ironstone. In becoming lessees of 
the Normanby royalty and in building 
the works at Clarence the Bells had asso- 
ciated themselves with Ralph Ward Jack- 
son, the younger brother of the tenant for 
life of the Normanby estate. Jackson had 
11 an active part in the development 
of the West Hartlepool Harbour and 
Railway Company, which had acquired 
collieries in the county of Durham. In 
the result Messrs. Bell joined Jackson in 
promoting the construction of another 

railway, the Cleveland Railway, to bring 
the ironstone to the banks of the Tees. 
The first portion of this railway, seven 
miles in length, ran from Normanby 
through the Jackson estate to the Nor- 
manby jetty on the river Tees, where 
the ironstone was shipped in barges to a 
wharf at Clarence on the Durham side. 
Parliamentary sanction was only obtained 
after repeated severe and expensive contests. 
It is said that the seven miles of railway 
cost the builders 35,000/. in Parliamentary 
expenses alone. A proposed extension of 
the railway from Normanby to Skelton 
and then to Lof tus with a view to developing 
other property was again the subject of 
very severe Parliamentary contests. The 
result, however, was commensurate with 
the expenditure, for the great field of iron- 
stone lying to the south and east of Guis- 
borough was thereby opened. The Skelton 
extension of the railway enabled Bell 
Brothers to obtain in 1858 an important 
tract of ironstone on the Skelton estate. 
There the little-known bed of ironstone, 
ten feet thick, had been reckoned so far from 
any railway that it would ruin anyone who 
undertook to work it. Limestone quarries 
were also acquired in Weardale, until 
ultimately the firm owned all the supplies 
of raw material required for their Clarence 

A great depression of trade followed 
the Cleveland developments. Jackson's 
speculative enterprises were ruined, and 
the West Hartlepool Harbour and Rail- 
way Company went into liquidation. Bell 
Brothers acquired certain of the company's 
colliery properties and these the firm 
subsequently developed largely and added 
others to them. The North Eastern 
Railway Company took over the railway 
and harbour, and also purchased by nego- 
tiation the Cleveland railway. As a part 
of the transaction Lowtliian Bell became 
a director of the North Eastern in 1865, and 
held the office till death. 

Subsequently Bell's firm turned its 
attention to the manufacture of steel. 
As a result of experiments on a large scale 
for the utilisation of Cleveland pig iron in 
the manufacture of steel, open hearth 
furnaces were erected at Clarence, and steel 
was first made there in Jan. 1889. After 
carrying on the manufacture for two years, 
Bell and his partners satisfied themselves 
of the feasibility of their plan, and entering 
nto negotiation with Messrs. Dorman, Long 
& Co., a leading firm of manufacturers who 
were among the first to manufacture rolled 
steel girders in this country, they formed in 




1899 an amalgamation, and important steel 
works were built at Clarence. The Clarence 
works are now producing about 1000 tons 
of pig iron daily, and 4000 tons of ingots 
and 2400 tons of finished steel weekly. 

Yet another industry was added later 
to the wide range of the firm's activities. 
The discovery (during boring operations 
for water) of rock salt at a depth of 1200 
feet below the surface on the south side 
of the river Tees by Messrs. Bolckow & 
Vaughan in 1862 induced Messrs. Bell Bros., 
in 1874, to sink a bore-hole near their 
Clarence works. The result was that salt 
was encountered at a depth of 1127 feet 
below the surface ; the salt bed at this 
point being about eighty feet thick and 
estimated to contain about 200,000 tons to 
the acre. It was not, however, until 1881, 
when Thomas Bell suggested (after inde- 
pendent thought) the adoption of a special 
mode of winning the salt, which (as he sub- 
sequently found) had been long practised 
near Nancy, that the firm proceeded to 
realise this new asset. Two years later 
they were making 320 tons of salt per week. 
The firm of Bell Brothers in all its branches 
became in Lowthian Bell's lifetime a 
gigantic concern employing in its mines, 
collieries, and ironworks some 6000 work- 
people. Bell was always active in numerous 
directions beyond the immediate and varied 
calls of business. He constantly travelled 
abroad, and closely studied the conditions 
of iron manufacture in foreign countries, 
especially in America. His work in applied 
science almost excelled in importance his 
labours as an industrial pioneer. In both 
capacities his eminence was soon universally 
acknowledged. Taking an active part in 
the establishment of the Iron and Steel 
Institute in 1869, he filled the office of 
president during 1873-5, and was the first 
recipient of the Bessemer gold medal in 
1874. He helped to found in 1888 the 
Institution of Mining Engineers, of which 
he was president in 1904. He was also 
president of the Institution of Mechanica] 
Engineers (1884), of the British Iron Trade 
Association in 1886 and of the Society of 
Chemical Industry (1889). In 1895 he was 
awarded the Albert medal of the Society 
of Arts, and in 1900 the George Stephen- 
son medal from the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, as well as a Telford premium 
for a paper on rails in Great Britain. 

Bell's scientific attainments rank very 
high. ' For the last fifty years of his life 
he had few superiors in general knowledge 
of chemical metallurgy and he was an 
unrivalled authority on the blast furnace 

and the scientific processes of its operation * 
cf. Roy. Soc. Proc. 1907, p. xvii). Between 
.869 and 1894 he embodied in papers in 
<he Iron and Steel Institute's * Journal ' 
)he results of exhaustive experimental re- 
searches. Among the most important 
vere : * The Development of Heat and 
ts Appropriation in Blast Furnaces of 
Different Dimensions ' (1869) ; ' Chemical 
Phenomena of Iron Smelting ' (1871 and 
1872) ; ' The Sum of Heat utilised in 
smelting Cleveland Ironstone ' (1875) ; 
' The Separation of Carbon, Silicon, Sulphur, 
and Phosphorus, in the Refining and 
Puddling Furnace, and in the Bessemer 
Converter ' (1877) ; ' The Separation of 
Phosphorus from Pig Iron' (1878); and 
' On the Value of Excessive Addition to the 
Temperature of the Air used in Smelting 
Iron' (1883). 

The outcome of Bell's experimental 
researches upon blast furnace practice, in 
which he was assisted by Dr. C. R. A. 
Wright, was published in 1872 in his 
classical * Chemical Phenomena of Iron 
Smelting ; an experimental and practical 
examination of the circumstances which 
determine the capacity of the blast furnace, 
the temperature of the air and the proper 
condition of the materials to be operated 
upon ' (translated into French, German and 
Swedish). In his research on the blast fur- 
nace he had taken full advantage of contem- 
porary research and invention and advanced 
beyond them. He explained the economy 
of hot blast which James Beaumont Neilson 
[q. v.] demonstrated in 1828, and indicated 
the limits beyond which it could not be 
pushed in practice ; Bunsen and Playfair, 
by the analysis of the gases at various 
levels of the furnace, had proved the main 
source of avoidable loss in current blast 
practice, and had elucidated the chemistry 
of the process ; Bell amplified and com- 
pleted their work both by establishing a 
true basis for estimating the ' heat balance ' 
of the furnace, and by determining once and 
for all the main sequence of the chemical 
changes as the descending charge of ore, 
fuel, and flux met the ascending furnace 
gases ; finally he supplemented the inven- 
tions of regenerative stoves made during 
1860-5 by Edward Alfred Cowper (d. 1895) 
and Thomas Whitwell, which rendered 
high blast temperatures possible and led to 
the construction of much larger furnaces ; 
Bell demonstrated on scientific grounds how 
far the furnace dimension could be increased 
in the interest of fuel economy, apart 
from any purely mechanical difficulties. 
In his book he fully expounded the various 




lavs which regulate the process of iron- 
smelting. He showed that no advantage 
can possibly accrue from an increase in 
height or capacity of the furnace beyond the 
limits which would permit of the gases 
leaving the throat at a temperature of 
about 300 centigrade. The accumulated 
experience of the forty years since Bell wrote 
has abundantly confirmed the general 
validity of his conclusions. 

Beil's next separate publications were 
the fruit of his study of the American iron 
industry. Their titles were * Notes of a 
Visit to Coal and Iron Mines and Works in 
the United States' (1875), and ' Report on 
the Iron Manufacture of the United States 
of America, and a Comparison of it with that 
of Great Britain' (1877). To a volume on 
the American industry, published by the 
Iron and Steel Institute in 1890, he con- 
tributed a paper, ' On the American Iron 
Trade and its Progress during Sixteen Years.' 
In 1884 was published, in London and 
New York, Bell's second great scientific 
treatise, * The Principles of the Manu- 
facture of Iron and Steel,' for which he 
received in 1892 the Howard quinquennial 
prize of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 
He had acted as a juror at the Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 1878, when he received the legion of 
honour, and this work was his report made 
at the request of the board of management 
of the British Iron Trade Association, on 
the condition of the manufacture of iron 
and steel, as illustrated by the Paris ex- 
hibits. The book reviewed the economic 
condition of the industry as well as the 
scientific aspects of the actual manufactur- 
ing processes. At the close he made an 
authoritative comparison of the economic 
conditions of the principal iron- producing 
countries, a favourite subject of his study, 
while a suggestive review of the problems 
connected with the elimination of im 
purities from pig iron included an account 
of his own experiments on the phosphorus 
elimination in the manufacture of steel 
in the Bessemer converter [see THOMAS, 
SIDNEY GILCHBIST]. Bell evolved a method 
of elimination which was for a time used 
at Woolwich, at Krupp's works in Essen 
(where, however, it had been independently 
invented), and also in the United States 
But it was superseded by the final develop 
ment of the basic Bessemer process patentee 
by Messrs. Thomas & Gilchrist in 1879. 

Bell also found time for many offices 
in public life. He was twice mayor o: 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 1854-5 and again in 
1862-3, and deputy lieutenant and high 
sheriff for the county of Durham in 

884. In 1868 he contested in the liberal 
interest without success the constituency 
f North Durham, but was returned with 
Sir) Charles Mark Palmer [q. v. Suppl. II] 
n 14 Feb. 1874. This election was 
declared void on petition, and Bell was 
defeated at the following bye-election. 
On 29 July 1875 he was, however, returned 
!or the Hartlepools, and he sat in parlia- 
ment for that constituency till the dissolu- 
tion of 1880, but took little part in its 
proceedings. In recognition of his many 
services to science and industry, he was 
lectedF.R.S. in 1875, and on 21 July 1885, 
on the nomination of Gladstone, he re- 
ceived a baronetcy. He was made an hon. 
D.C.L. of Durham (1882), LL.D. of Edin- 
rargh (1893) and Dublin, and D.Sc. of Leeds 
University (1904). He was an active 
promoter and supporter of the Armstrong 
College at Newcastle, and a tower which he 
*ave to the building is called by his name. 

His intellectual vigour was unimpaired to 
the end of his long life ; he died on 20 Dec. 
1904 at his residence, Rounton Grange, 
Nbrthallerton, and was buried at Rounton. 

Bell's wife died in 1886, and in her memory 
ae dedicated to public uses his house, 
Washington Hall, and its grounds ; it is now 
used as a home for waifs and strays of that 
city under the name of Dame Margaret's 
Home. Of his two sons and three daughters 
biis eldest son, Hugh Bell, succeeded him 
both in the baronetcy and in the direction 
of the firm. His second son, Charles 
Lowthian, 6. 24 March 1853, died on 8 Feb. 
1906. His second daughter married the 
Hon. Edward Lyulph Stanley, now Lord 

Bell's portrait was twice painted by 
Henry Tanworth Wells in 1865 and in 
1894; the earlier picture now belongs to 
Lord Sheffield, and the later picture was 
presented by * friends in Great Britain, 
Europe and America ' to the corporation of 
Middlesbrough. Sir Hugh Bell possesses 
a replica of the second portrait, together 
with a painting by Sir William Richmond, 
R.A., which was presented to Bell by the 
electors of the Hartlepools. A fifth portrait, 
by Frank Bramley, A.R.A., was painted 
for the North Eastern Railway Company, 
and is in the company's offices at York. 

[Proc. Roy. Soc., 1907, A. xv; Journ. 
Iron and Steel Inst., 1904, ii. 426 ; Trans. 
Inst. Min. Eng., 1905 ; Engineering, 23 Dec. 
1904 ; also Mr. Greville Jones's papers, Messrs. 
Bell Bros. Blast Furnaces from 1844 to 1908 
in Journ. Iron and Steel Inst., 1908, iii. 59 ; 
Burke's Baronetage ; private information.] 

W. A. B. 




BELL, JAMES (1824-1908), chemist 
born in co. Armagh in 1824, was educated 
privately and at University College 
London, where he studied mathematic 
and chemistry, the latter under Dr. Alex 
ander William Williamson [q. v. Suppl. II" 
In 1846 he became an assistant in th 
Inland Revenue Laboratory at Somerse 
House, which had been established to carrj 
out the provisions of the Tobacco Act o 
1842, and was successively deputy princi 
pal from 1867 to 1874, and principal fron 
1874 till his resignation in 1894. The worl 
of the laboratory was not long restrictec 
to the examination of tobacco, but wa. 
extended to the value of brewing materials 
the denaturing of alcohol for use in manu 
facture, and other matters affecting the 
excise. When the Food and Drugs Act o 
1872 was amended in 1875, Bell was made 
chemical referee when disputed analyses o: 
food were brought before the magistrates 
In this capacity he elaborated method: 
for analysing chemically such articles o 
food as came within the operation of the 
Act, and in this work he made a high 
scientific reputation. Bell was also con- 
sulting chemist to the Indian government 
186994. His researches into the grape 
and malt ferments were published in the 
'Excise Officers' Manual' (1865) and in the 
'Journal of the Chemical Society' in 1870. 
Many of his general results were embodied 
in his work on ' The Analysis and Adulter- 
ation of Foods' (3 pts. 1881-3; German 
transl., Berlin, 1882-5). His ' Chemistry 
of Tobacco' (1887) is another valuable scien- 
tific study. Bell's work was recognised 
in 1884 by his election as F.R.S., and he 
obtained the degree of Ph.D. from Er- 
langen in 1882 and received the hon. D.Sc. 
from the Royal University of Ireland 
(1886). He was made C.B. in 1889. He 
was a member of the Playfair committee 
on British and foreign spirits, and served 
as president of the Institute of Chemistry 
188&-91. Bell died at Hove on 31 March 
1908, and was buried at Ewell. He 
married in 1858 Ellen (d. 1900), daughter 
of W. Reece of Chester, and left issue one 
son, Sir William James Bell, alderman of 
the London county council (1903-7), who 
possesses a portrait in oils of his father, 
painted by W. V. Herbert in 1886. 

[Proc. Roy. Soc., 82A 1909, p. v ; Analyst, 
xxxui. 157 ; Nature, Ixxvii. 539 ; The Times, 
2 April 1908.] R. s 

1908), civil engineer, born in London on 
27 June 1839, was youngest son of William 
Bell, merchant, of Aldersgate Street, 

London, who was subsequently official 
assignee in bankruptcy. Educated at 
private schools, and apprenticed in 1855 
to Messrs. Wren & Hopkinson, engineers, 
of Manchester, he became in 1859 a pupil 
of (Sir) James Brunlees [q. v. Suppl. I]. 
For Brunlees he was resident engineer in 
1863-5 on the Cleveland railway in York- 
shire, and in 1866-8 on the Mont Cenis 
railway (on the Fell system), for which he 
superintended the construction of special 
locomotives in Paris in 1869-70. While 
in charge of the Mont Cenis line he rebuilt 
for the French government the route 
imperiale between St. Jean de Maurienne 
and Lanslebourg after its destruction by 
flood. He was elected a member of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers on 4 May 
1869. In 1871 he set up in private practice 
in London. In 1872-5 he carried out 
waterworks at Cadiz for a company which 
failed and involved him pecuniarily. With 
Sir George Barclay Bruce [q. v. Suppl. II] 
he constructed, during the same period, a 
railway for the Compagnie du chemin de 
fer du vieux port de Marseille. 

In 1880 Bell took service under the 
colonial office in Jamaica, where his chief 
professional work was done. Until 1883 
he was engaged in reconstructing the 
government railway in Jamaica between 
Kingston and Spanish Town, extending the 
line to Ewarton and Porus, and later to 
Montego Bay and Port Antonio. The 
governor, Sir Henry Norman, who re- 
cognised Bell's capacity and energy, ap- 
pointed him in 1886 a member of the 
legislative council. Next year he became 
director of public works and held the office 
'or nearly twenty-one years with admirable 
results. Under his direction the mileage 
of good roads was extended from 800 to 
near 2000 ; 110 bridges and most of the 
modern public buildings were built, and 
works for water-supply, drainage, and 
ighting were carried out. He unsuccessfully 
>pposed with characteristic frankness the 
transfer, in 1889, of the government railways 
;o an American syndicate, which proved a 
ailure, the government resuming possession 
n 1900. He was made C.M.G in 1903. 
Bell resigned his appointment in March 
.908, and returned to England in failing 
tealth. He died in London on 29 May 1908. 
He married (1) in 1864 Rebecca (d. 
868), daughter of Alexander Bell Filson, 
ID. ; and (2) in 1882 Emilie Georgina, 
laughter of Frances Robertson Lynch, 
lerk of the legislative council of Jamaica. 
3y his first marriage he had a daughter 
nd a son, Archibald Graeme, now director 




of public works in Trinidad, and by his 
second marriage he had two daughters 
and a son. 

[Min. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. clxxii. ; The 
Times, 1 June 1908.] \V. F. S. 

BELLAMY, JAMES (1819-1909), 
President of St. John's College, Oxford, 
born on 31 Jan. 1819 in the school house of 
Merchant Taylors' School, then in Suffolk 
Lane, was elder son in the family of two 
sons and three daughters of James William 
Bellamy, B.D. The father (of an old 
Huguenot family settled in Norfolk and 
Lincolnshire) was headmaster of Merchant 
Taylors' School from 1819 to 1845. His 
mother was Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Cherry, B.D., headmaster of Merchant 
Taylors' School, London, from 1795 
to 1819. In 1822 the father, while 
still headmaster, became vicar of Sellinge, 
Kent, a living which he held till his 
death in 1874. The son James entered 
Merchant Taylors' School in June 1826. 
' The Merchant Taylors' Magazine ' 1833^ 
contains three poems by him. On 11 June 
1836 he was elected scholar (leading 
to a fellowship) at St. John's College, 
Oxford, matriculating on 27 June. In 
1841 Bellamy graduated B.A., with a 
second class in classics and a first class in 
mathematics. He proceeded M.A. in 1845, 
B.D. in 1850, 1872 ; was ordained 
deacon in 1842 and priest in 1843, and 
settled down to the ordinary life of a college 
' don.' He held the college offices in turn, 
made a very efficient bursar in his year 
of office, was a successful tutor (but had 
no belief in supplying his pupils with 
knowledge ready made), and until 1871 
was precentor, with charge of the choristers, 
the college having a foundation for 
choral service [see PADDY, SIB WILLIAM]. 
He was a keen and capable musician, a 
devoted admirer of Handel, and a friend 
of John Hullah [q. v.] and other musicians. 
His fine collection of music was given in 
trust, after his death, by his sister, Mrs. 
Tylden, to form the nucleus of an historical 
library of music in Oxford. 

Bellamy took a prominent part from the 
first in the general life of Oxford. He was 
librarian of the Union Society in 1841, 
and became an important member of the 
conservative party in the university. 
Without professing full sympathy with the 
tractarians, he was an admirer of J. H. 
Newman, whose sermons at St. Mary's 
he attended, and was intimate with Charles 
Marriott, Dr. Pusey, and their friends, 
and he supported them by his vote in 
congregation. He was in later years 

regarded as Dr. Pusey's adviser in academic 
matters. He examined for the university, 
and occasionally took private pupils. One 
of these was Robert Gascoyne Cecil, 
afterwards Marquis of Salisbury [q. v. 
Suppl. II], with whom he remained on 
cordial terms till his death. During the 
vacations he occasionally visited Germany, 
where he studied music, but his home was 
with his father in Kent. 

Shortly before the death, on 4 Nov. 1871, 
of Dr. Wynter, the President of St. John's, 
he accepted the college living of Crick, 
Northamptonshire ; but he never entered 
upon the duties, being elected President 
of his college on 7 Dec. 1871. In that 
capacity he actively controlled its business 
for over thirty years. Serious financial em- 
barrassments from time to time threatened 
its prosperity, but his coolness helped to 
surmount the difficulties. When in 1888 it 
was necessary to reduce the emoluments of 
all members of the foundation by 22 per 
cent., Bellamy made good the deficiency, 
out of his own purse, to all the open 
scholars of the college, and, in conjunction 
with the Merchant Taylors' Company, to 
those from Merchant Taylors' School. 
This benefaction was continued until the 
need ceased. 

With the Merchant Taylors' Company 
the old-standing relations of the college 
were especially cordial during Bellamy's 
presidentship. He delighted in his annual 
visit to the school on * Election Day ' 
(11 June), and at the dinner with the 
company in the evening he always 
spoke both thoughtfully and wittily. On 
25 June 1894 the court bestowed on him 
the honorary freedom of the company. 
He was admitted on 14 July. 

Meanwhile at Oxford Bellamy won an 
influential position, mainly due to his 
determined and straightforward character, 
his capacity for business, and his entire 
absence of self-assertion and self-seeking. 
He was a member of the university 
commission 1877-9, and a constant 
attendant at its sessions, criticising 
the proposed reforms with acuteness, 
and presenting a bold front to any change 
which he regarded as revolutionary in the 
statutes either of his own college or of 
the university. A scheme presented by 
the college in December 1877, which pro- 
posed to retain the clerical restriction for 
the presidentship and for one-tliird of the 
fellowships, was rejected, but the connec- 
tion made by Sir Thomas White [q. v.], 
1555, with certain schools, was retained. 
From 1874 till 1907 Bellamy was a 




member of the hebdomadal council. 
From 1886 to 1890 he was vice- 
chancellor in succession to Benjamin 
Jowett, whom he had known from child- 
hood but with whom he disagreed on almost 
every subject. In both positions he 
exercised sound judgment, clearly and 
trenchantly expressed. From 1895 to 1907 
he held the sinecure rectory of Leckford, 
Hampshire, paying the income into the 
college funds. For many years he was 
leader of the conservative political party 
in Oxford, and meetings at the times of 
contested elections were held in his house. 
Till extreme old age, Bellamy retained his 
powers. An admirable raconteur, with a 
great fund of reminiscence, he was a 
genial host, and a pointed speaker at college 
gatherings, whose sharp criticism and wit 
were never tinged with ill-nature. Up to 
his ninetieth year he sang the service in the 
college chapel on stated days, in perfect 
tune and with remarkable power of voice. 
Failing health led him to resign the presi- 
dentship on 24 June 1909. Retiring to 
Ingoldisthorpe Manor, the Norfolk property 
which he had inherited from an uncle, and 
where he had proved himself an admirable 
landlord, he died there on 25 Aug. 1909. 
He was buried in the churchyard adjoining 
his garden. His estate was sworn at over 
300,OOOZ. His portrait, painted by Frank 
Holl, R.A., presented in 1887, is in the hall 
of St. John's College, Oxford, and a drawing 
by W. Strang, A.R.A., executed in 1907, 
is in the common room. A mural tablet 
is in the college chapel. 

[W. H. Hutton, History of St. John Baptist 
College; The Times, 28 'August 1909; Court 
Minutes of the Merchant Taylors' Company ; 
Register of St. John's College, Oxford ; private 
information.] W. H. H. 

1911), actor, was youngest son of John 
Chippendall Montesquieu Bellew [q. v.]. 
Born at Prescot, Lancashire, on 28 March 
1855, he was educated at the Royal Grammar 
School, Lancaster, and though originally 
intended for the army, he drifted into the 
navy, and for some time served on the 
training ship Conway under Sir Digby 
Murray, leaving it for the merchant service, 
in which he remained intermittently for 
several years. Subsequently he went to 
Australia, and during a four years' sojourn 
amid very varied employment made his 
first appearance as an actor, appearing at 
Solferino, New South Wales, in 1874, as 
Eglinton Roseleaf in T. J. Williams's old 
farce ' Turn Him Out.' He returned to 
England in August 1875, and almost 

immediately secured an engagement with 
Helen Barry, making his first appear- 
ance on the English stage at the Theatre 
Royal, Brighton, on 30 Aug. 1875, as Lord 
Woodstock in Tom Taylor's ' Lady Clan- 
carty,' performing under the name of 
Harold Kyrle, by which he was known 
until the end of 1878. Coming to London, 
he made his London debut at the old Park 
Theatre, Camden Town, on 16 Oct. 1875, as 
Roseleaf in * Turn Him Out,' and was 
next engaged at the Haymarket Theatre, 
where he first appeared on 17 Jan. 1876 as 
Paris in * Romeo and Juliet,' with Adelaide 
Neilson [q. v.]. He was then engaged 
by the Bancrofts for the old Prince of 
Wales's theatre in Tottenham Street. 
Returning to the Haymarket, he made 
his first notable success there on 3 Feb. 
1877, when he played Belvawney in 
Gilbert's comedy ' Engaged.' The follow- 
ing year he supported Adelaide Neilson 
as leading man in ' Measure for Measure,' 
' Twelfth Night,' and other plays. 

In Dec. 1878 he was engaged by (Sir) 
Henry Irving for the opening of his Lyceum 
management, and there he played Osric in 
' Hamlet,' Glavis in ' The Lady of Lyons,' 
and De Beringhen in ' Richelieu.' In Sept. 
1879 he joined Marie Litton's company 
at the old Imperial Theatre, achieving 
success as Frederick in George Colman's 
comedy ' The Poor Gentleman ' and Jack 
Absolute in ' The Rivals,' while his 
Orlando in ' As You Like It ' was univer- 
sally regarded as one of his best efforts. 
Subsequently he was seen to advantage in 
London as Charles Surface in * The School 
for Scandal ' and in less important parts, 
while in the provinces he achieved success 
with his own company as Fabien and 
Louis in ' The Corsican Brothers ' and 
as Romeo. Leaving for New York in 
1885, he played at Wallack's Theatre there, 
chiefly in old comedy parts. 

After his return to London in 1887 he 
commenced at the Gaiety Theatre, on 
27 June, a long artistic association with 
Mrs. Brown-Potter. Forming a company 
in the autumn, they toured for ten years 
through England, Australia, America, 
South Africa, and the Far East, their 
repertory including such plays as 
' Antony and Cleopatra,' * Romeo and 
Juliet,' * Camille,' * She Stoops to Conquer,' 
' As You Like It,' ' La Tosca,' and ' David 
Garrick.' Brief appearances in London 
during this period were made in three 
plays of his own composition : ' Hero and 
Leancbr,' at the Shaftesbury, June 1902; 
' Francillon,' at the Duke of York's, Sept. 




1897; and Marat in 'Charlotte Corday,' 
as well as in Sims and Buchanan's * The 
Lights of Home,' at the Adelphi, July 1892, 
and Claude Melnotte in ' The Lady of 
Lyons,' at the Adelphi, Jan.-Feb. 1898. 

At the termination of his partnership 
with Mrs. Brown-Potter he appeared at the 
Criterion, Nov. 1898, with (Sir) Charles 
Wyndham, in ' The Jest,' but soon rejoined 
Irving at the Lyceum (April 1899), where he 
appeared as Olivier in Sardou's ' Robes- 
pierre.' Later in the year he returned 
to Australia, and interested himself in 
mining ventures, which proved profitable. 
From Jan. 1902, when he reappeared at 
Wallack's Theatre, New York, until his 
death he was entirely associated with the 
American stage. His new parts, which 
were few, included Raffles, in the play of 
that name (1903), Brigadier Gerard (1906), 
and Richard Voysin in 'The Thief (1907). 

Belle w was an actor of ease and distinc- 
tion, with a beautiful voice, handsome, clear- 
cut features, and a courtly bearing. He died 
of pneumonia while on tour at Salt Lake 
City, Utah, on 2 Nov. 1911, and was buried 
in a cemetery on the Boston Post Road, 
New York. He was unmarried. 

[Personal recollections ; private corre- 
spondence ; The Theatre, Nov. 1882 and Dec. 
1897 (with photographs) ; M.A.P., 13 Sept. 
1902 ; The Green Room Book, 1909 ; The 
Bancrofts' Recollections, 1909; New York 
Dramatic Mirror, 8 Nov. 1911 (with portrait); 
The Stage, 9 Nov. 1911 ; New York 
Dramatic News, 18 Nov. 1911 (with portrait).] 

J. P. 

BELLOWS, JOHN (1831-1902), printer 
and lexicographer, born at Liskeard, Corn- 
wall, on 18 Jan. 1831, was elder son of 
William Lamb Bellows by his wife Hannah, 
daughter of John Stickland, a Wesleyan 
preacher. The father, of nonconformist 
stock, joined the Society of Friends soon 
after his marriage, and started a school in 
1841 at Cam borne, Cornwall, from which 
he retired in 1858 ; removing to Gloucester, 
he died there in December 1877 ; he 
published a memoir of his father-in-law 
(1838 ; 3rd edit. 1855), educational treatises, 
and pamphlets on quaker principles. 

After education by his father, John was 
apprenticed to a printer at Camborne at 
fourteen. In 1851 he became foreman of 
a small printing business in Gloucester, 
and in 1858 started for himself, intro- 
ducing the first steam engine in the town. 
His business prospered and grew to 
large dimensions. Meanwhile he studied 
philology, mastered French, soon made 
the acquaintance of Max Muller [q. v.], 

and opened a correspondence with Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, which lasted twenty-five 
years, and with Prince Lucien Bonaparte, 
rtie philologist. A rapid journey abroad 
n 1863 impressed Bellows with the need 
of extending the supply of dictionaries in a 
portable form. In 1867 he compiled and 
printed on strong thin paper, made by a 
Scots firm for Confederate banknotes 
which had failed to run the Charleston 
blockade, his ' Outline Dictionary for 
Missionaries, Explorers, and Students of 
Language.' Max Muller compiled a key 
alphabet and an introduction. There 
followed an * English Outline Vocabulary 
of Chinese, Japanese and other Languages ' 
(1868), and ' Tous les Verbes, French and 
English ' (5th thousand 1869). 

In 1870 he helped to distribute in France 
a fund raised by the Friends for non- 
combatant sufferers at the seat of the 
Franco-German war, and described his ex- 
perience in letters to his wife published as 
' The Track of the War round Metz' (1871). 
He was already (since 1861) working hard 
with the aid of French friends on a pocket 
' French-English Dictionary.' The first 
edition of 6000, printed entirely by hand in 
12mo, mostly in diamond type, appeared 
in 1872. It was dedicated to Prince Lucien 
Bonaparte. French-English and English- 
French vocabularies were both printed on 
the same page. The title ran * The Bona 
Fide Pocket Dictionary, Le Vrai Diction- 
naire de Poche, on an entirely new System, 
revised and corrected by Auguste Beljame, 
B.A., Alexandre Beljame, M.A., and John 
Sibree, M.A., 1872.' The issue was ex- 
hausted in twelve months ; a second edition 
with many new features was published in 
1876, and an enlarged edition was issued 
by Bellows's son, William Bellows, with the 
assistance of MM. Marrot and Friteau, in 

Bellows studied archaeology as well as 
philology, interesting himself in Palestine 
exploration as well as in that of Roman 
Britain. When making excavations for 
building new business premises at East- 
gate House, Gloucester, in 1873, he dis- 
covered traces of the Roman city wall (see 
his papers in Proc. Cotteswold Naturalists' 
Field Club 1875, and Trans. Bristol and 
Gloucester Archceol. Soc. 1876, i. 153-6). 
In 1892 he and a Friend, J. J. Neave, went 
on a mission to the persecuted dissenters, 
the Dukhobortsi (spirit- wrestlers), in Russia, 
who had refused to bear arms. Bellows 
travelled through the Caucasus nearly to 
the Persian frontier, and paid two visits to 
Count Tolstoi, with whom he corresponded 




to the end of his life. Four years later he 
again visited Tolstoi while making plans 
on behalf of a committee of Friends for 
the transportation to Cyprus and Canada 
of the Dukhobortsi. In May 1901 he 
visited New England, where his friends 
were numerous, and he received from 
Harvard University in June the honorary 
degree of M.A. 

He died at his house on the Cotteswold 
Hills on 5 May 1902, and was buried at 
Painswick. Bellows wore to the end the 
quaker dress, and used the simple language 
in vogue in his youth. He was a teetotaller, 
and a vegetarian from 1890. He married 
in January 1869, at Clitheroe, Lancashire, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Mark Earnshaw, 
surgeon, of that place. His wife, four sons, 
and five daughters survived him. 

Besides works already mentioned and 
papers in antiquarian periodicals, Bellows 
published : 1. ' A Winter Journey fron 
Gloucester to Norway in 1863,' 1867 

2. ' Two Days' Excursion to Llanthony 
Abbey and the Black Mountains,' 1868 

3. ' Ritualism or Quakerism ? and Who 
sent thee to baptise ? ' 1870. 4. ' A 
Week's Holiday in the Forest of Dean, 
1881, many times reprinted. 5. * Chapters 
of Irish History,' 1886. 6. ' William Lucy 
and his Friends of the Cotteswold Club 
Thirty-five Years Ago,' 1894. 7. ' Evolu 
tion in the Monastic Orders, and Survivals 
of Roman Architecture in Britain ' (' Proc 
Ootteswold Naturalists' Field Club'), 1898 
8. 'The Truth about the Transvaal War 
and the Truth about War,' 1900, translated 
into French and German, 

He was the inventor of a cylindrical 
calculator for rapid and accurate reckoning 
of workmen's wages, and compiled a series 
of concentric calculators for converting 
the metric system into English equivalents 
and vice versa. 

[Life and Letters, by his wife, 1904 ; Morse's 
Life of 0. W. Holmes, 1896; Life of Max 
Miiller, 1902, vol. i. ; Hoar's Autobiography, 
ii. 449; Nature, 1902, Ixvi. 113; Elkinton's 
Doukhobors in Russia, 1903 ; The Times, 
6 May 1902 ; Boase and Courtney, Biblio- 
theca Cornubiensis, i. 20 ; Smith's Catalogue 
of Friends' Books.] C. F. S. 

BEMROSE, WILLIAM (1831-1908), 
writer on wood-carving, born at Derby on 
30 Dec. 1831, was second son in a family 
of three sons and one daughter of William 
Bemrose of Derby, founder in 1827 of the 
printing and publishing firm of William 
Bemrose & Sons of Derby and London. 
His mother was Elizabeth Ride of Lich- 
field. His elder brother, Henry Howe 

Bemrose (1827-1912), was conservative 
member of parliament for Derby from 1895 
to 1900 and was knighted in 1897. 

After education at King William's 
College in the Isle of Man, Bemrose, like 
his ^ brother Henry, joined his father's 
business. The business, which .passed to 
the management of the two brothers on 
their father's retirement in 1857, grew 
rapidly in all directions. A publishing 
house was established in London, with 
branch offices at Leeds and Manchester, and 
the printing works were repeatedly extended, 
Bemrose, although always active in the 
printing business, pursued many other 
interests. In middle life he became a 
director of the Royal Crown Derby Porce- 
lain Works, and thus helped to revive an 
important local industry. 

Bemrose chiefly devoted his leisure to 
travel and to a study of varied forms of 
art, on which he wrote with much success. 
Practising in early life artistic pastimes like 
wood-carving, fret-cutting, and modelling in 
clay, he compiled useful manuals concerning 
them for the instruction of amateurs which 
were well illustrated and circulated widely. 
The chief of these was his 'Manual of 
Wood-carving' (1862), the first work of 
its kind in England, which attained standard 
rank, reaching a twenty-second edition in 
1906. There followed 'Fret-cutting and 
Perforated Carving ' (Derby, 1868) ; ' Buhl 
Work and Marquetry' (1872); 'Paper 
Rosette Work and how to Make it ' (1873) ; 
' Instructions in Fret-cutting with Designs ' 
(1875) ; and ' Mosaicon : or Paper Mosaic 
and how to Make it ' (1875). 

Meanwhile Bemrose's association with 
the local pottery led him to publish three 
authoritative works on china. The first, 
' The Pottery and Porcelain of Derbyshire ' 
(1870), he wrote in collaboration with 
A. Wallis. But ' Bow, Chelsea and Derby 
Porcelain' (1898) and ' Longton Hall 
Porcelain ' (1906) were solely his own. 

Bemrose was also a clever amateur 
painter in oils and water-colours and 
collected pictures, china, and articles of 
' vertu,' especially rare specimens of 
Egyptian art, which he acquired on visits 
to the East. In 1885 he published a 
sumptuously illustrated and finely printed 
' Life and Work of Joseph Wright, A.R.A., 
commonly called Wright of Derby.' He 
also wrote on technical education and 
archaeological and ceramic subjects. 

Bemrose, who was elected a F.S.A. 
n 1905, played an active part in local 
affairs of Derby. He was chairman of the 
Derby Art Gallery Committee, a member of 




the Derbyshire Archaeological Society, and 
vice-president of the Derby Sketching Club. 
A member of the Derby school board from 
1879, he was its chairman from 1886 to 1902, 
and was a founder and for many years 
chairman of the Railway Servants' Orphan- 
age. A pioneer of the volunteer move- 
ment, he retired as lieutenant in the 1st 
Derby volunteers in 1874 after seventeen 
years' service. He died at Bridlington, 
while on a short holiday, on 6 Aug. 1908, 
and was buried at the new cemetery, Derby. 

Bemrose married (1) in 1858 Margaret 
Romana (d. 1901), only daughter of Edward 
Lloyd Simpson of Spondon, by whom he 
had five sons and one daughter ; (2) in 
1903 Lilian, daughter of William John 
Gumming, M.R.C.S., of Matlock, and widow 
of Alderman William Hobson of Derby, 
proprietor of the ' Derbyshire Advertiser.' 
His second wife survived him. 

[The Times, 8 Aug. 1908; the Derby 
Express, 8 Aug. 1908 ; private information.] 

S "F 1 T* 1 

BENDALL, CECIL (1856-1906)^ pro- 
fessor of Sanskrit at Cambridge, born at 
Islington on 1 July 1856, was youngest son 
in a family of six sons and three daughters 
of Robert Smith Bendall, a tradesman in 
London, by Ms wife Elizabeth Kay, daughter 
of William Holmes. A precocious child, he 
attended the City of London School from 
1869 to 1875, under Dr. Edwin Abbott 
Abbott. There he gained a Carpenter 
scholarship in 1871. As a boy he developed 
a keen taste, which he retained through life, 
for ecclesiastical architecture and monumen- 
tal brasses, as well as for music, especially 
the work of Bach and Palestrina. From 1873 
onwards he was taught Sanskrit at school, 
his teacher being Mr. George Frederick 
Nicholl, afterwards professor of Arabic 
at Oxford, who offered to instruct a few 
of the more promising classical scholars. 
Bendall made rapid strides in the language. 
In October 1875 he went to Cambridge as 
minor scholar in classics and Sanskrit 
exhibitioner of Trinity College. During 
seven years' residence in the university he 
read Sanskrit with Prof. Edward Byles 
Cowell [q. v. Suppl. II], whose influence 
decided the direction of his career. In 
October 1877 he migrated as a scholar to 
Caius College, graduating B.A. as fifth 
in the first class in the classical tripos in 
1879. He was fellow of Caius from 1879 to 
1886. Meanwhile in the summer of 1879 
he attended Prof. Benfey's lectures at 
Gottingen on the Veda and on Zend, and in 
1881 gained a first class in the Indian 
languages tripos at Cambridge. He had 

already in 1880 contributed an annotated 
abridgment of 'The Megha-Sutra,' with 
translation, to the 'Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society' (n.s. xii. 286 seq.). 
In the October term of 1881 he gave 
lectures in Sanskrit to classical students 
and to Indian civil service candidates 
studying at the university, and he com- 
pleted in 1883 at Mr. Henry Bradshaw's 
suggestion a still indispensable ' Catalogue 
of the Buddhist Sanskrit MSS. in the 
University Library of Cambridge,' which 
had been initiated by Prof. (Swell. In 
the introduction, Bendall for the first time 
showed systematically how palseograph .* 
determined the age of Sanskrit MSS. In 
1882 he left Cambridge to become senior 
assistant in the department of Oriental 
MSS. and printed books in the British 
Museum, and he held the post till his 
retirement, through ill-health, in 1898. 
While at the museum he published for 
the trustees catalogues of the Sanskrit and 
Pali books (1893) and of the Sanskrit 
manuscripts (1902). 

He also engaged in professorial work, 
holding the chair of Sanskrit at University 
College, London, from 1885 to 1903. 

With the aid of grants from the Worts 
fund at Cambridge he twice visited Nepal 
and Northern India for the acquisition of 
MSS. for the Cambridge University library. 
On his first visit (1884-5) he obtained 
some 500 Sanskrit MSS. and nine inscribed 
tablets (cf. J. F. FLEET, Inscriptions of the 
Gupta Dynasty, p. 184). Of this visit he 
gave an account in his ' Journey of 
Literary and Archaeological Research in 
Nepal and Northern India' (1886). To 
the Royal Asiatic Society's ' Journal ' 
(1888, pp. 465-501) he contributed extracts 
from the Sanskrit text, with translation 
and notes, of ' The Tantrakhyana,' a 
collection of Indian folklore, which he had 
discovered in a unique palm-leaf MS. 
during this visit to Nepal. A second 
visit followed his withdrawal from the 
British Museum (1898-9) and resulted in 
the acquisition of some ninety MSS. (see 
Roy. Asiat. Soc. Journal, 1900, p. 162). 
Elected in 1883 a member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, he was from 1884 a member 
of its council. He frequently read papers 
at the meetings of the International Congress 
of Orientalists, and was delegate for his 
university in 1899 and 1902. 

In 1901 he succeeded Robert Alexander 
Neil [q.v. Suppl. II] as university lecturer 
and lecturer to the Indian civil service 
board at Cambridge. In 1902 he became 
curator of Oriental literature in the univer- 




sity library. Next year, on the death of 
his old teacher, Prof. Cowell, he was elected 
professor of Sanskrit in the university, 
delivering on 24 Oct. his inaugural address 
on ' Some of the aims and methods of 
recent Indian research.' He was made 
honorary fellow of his college in 1905. 

Bendall, who combined a lifelong devo- 
tion to music with many other social gifts, 
died on 14 March 1906 at Liverpool after 
a long illness, and was buried at the Hunt- 
ingdon Road cemetery, Cambridge. He 
married at Esher on 19 July 1898 a French 
lady, Georgette, daughter of Georges Joseph 
Ignace Jung, and widow of G. Mosse of 
Cowley Hall, Middlesex, but had no issue. 
She became a member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society in 1901, was author of 
'Practical Lessons in Cookery for Small 
Households ' (1905), and died on 24 Dec. 1910 
at her sister's residence in Paris. 

Bendall was a sound textual critic, 
an expert in Indian palaeography and 
epigraphy, and an inspiring teacher. The 
Tibetan language was within his range 
of knowledge. His most important pub- 
lished works dealt with the Sanskrit Bud- 
dhist literature of the Mahayana, which 
he made his special study. They were : 
1. * Qiksasamuccaya ' (an important com- 
pendium of Buddhist doctrine), Sanskrit 
text with critical notes published in ' Biblio- 
theca Buddhica ' by the Imperial Academy 
of Sciences at St. Petersburg, 1897-1902. 
Bendall, who had discovered the work in 
Nepal, was engaged with Dr. W. H. D. 
Rouse on its translation at his death. 2. 
' Subhasita-samgraha,' text with notes, 
Louvain, 1903'. 3. (with Louis de la Vallee 
Poussin) ' Bodhisattvabhumi,' Louvain, 

By his will he left his Oriental palm -leaf 
MSS. and printed books to Cambridge 
University (for description see Journal 
Royal Asiatic Soc. 1900, p. 345, and April 
1907). His residuary estate after Mrs. 
Bendall's death was assigned to the 
foundation of a prize for Sanskrit at 
Caius College, a small sum being allotted 
to the formation there of an Oriental 
library for junior students (The Times, 
18 June 1906). Part of his valuable 
musical collection was acquired by the 
Fitzwilliam Museum. 

[The Times, 15 March 1906 ; will, 18 June 
1906; Who's Who, 1906; Journal, Roy. 
Asiat. Soc. n.s. 1906, xx. 527 seq. (notice 
by Prof. E. J. Rapson) ; In Memoriam Cecil 
Bendall, by H. T. Francis (privately printed), 
1906; Cambridge Review, 26 April 1906; 
private information.] W. B. O. 

BENHAM, WILLIAM (1831-1910), 
hon. canon of Canterbury and author, was 
born on 15 Jan. 1831 at West Meon near 
Petersfield, Hampshire, where his grand- 
father and his father, James Benham, suc- 
cessively held the position of village post- 
master. He was educated at the village 
school, built by the rector, Henry Vincent 
Bayley [q. v.], who made him his secretary, 
and taught him Greek and Latin. At his 
death Bayley left instructions that the boy's 
education should be continued, and he was 
sent in 1844 to St. Mark's College, Chelsea, 
recently established under the headmaster- 
ship of Derwent Coleridge [q.v.], to be trained 
as a schoolmaster. On completing his course 
he taught in a rural school, and was tutor to 
Sir John Sebright between 1849 and 1852. 
Then by his own exertions and the help of 
Archdeacon Bayley's family he was enabled 
to attend the theological department of 
King's College, London, where the influence 
of F. D. Maurice permanently affected 
his religious position. In 1857 he was 
ordained deacon and priest in 1858. 
Appointed divinity tutor and lecturer in 
English literature at St. Mark's, Chelsea, 
still under Derwent Coleridge, he then 
first exhibited his gift as a teacher and 
his power of stimulating character. He 
remained at Chelsea until in 1865 he became 
editorial secretary to the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge. At the 
same time he engaged in Sunday ministerial 
work as curate of St. Lawrence Jewry, 
under Benjamin Morgan Cowie [q. v. 
Suppl. I]. From 1866 to 1871 he was also 
professor of modern history at Queen's 
College, Harley Street, in succession to 
F. D. Maurice. 

Meanwhile his preaching attracted the 
attention of Archbishop Longley, who 
made him in 1867 first vicar of the newly 
formed parish of Addington, where the 
archbishop resided. The health of the 
primate was giving way. Benham assisted 
him as his private secretary during 
the anxious period of the first Lambeth 
Conference in 1867, and was with him 
at his death in 1868. Comparative leisure 
at Addington enabled Benham to increase 
his literary work. He produced an edition 
of Cowper's poetry in 1870, worked on 
a commentary on the New Testament, and 
published in 1873 his well-known * Com- 
panion to the Lectionary ' (new edit. 1884). 
With Tait, Longley's successor in the 
Archbishopric, Benham 's relations at Ad- 
dington grew very intimate. Tait gave 
him the Lambeth degree of B.D., made 
him one of the six preachers of Canterbury, 




and in 1872 bestowed on him the import- 
ant vicarage of Margate. Here Benham 
"restored the parish church, was chair- 
man of the first school board of the 
town, and made the Church Institute a 
centre of intellectual and spiritual life. But 
he found time to edit the memoirs of 
Catherine and Craufurd Tait, the wife and 
son of the archbishop (1879 ; abridged edit. 
1882). In 1880 Tait made him vicar of 
Harden, and in 1882 he was appointed 
rector of St. Edmund the King with St. 
Nicholas Aeons, Lombard Street. That 
benefice he held for life. 

He made St. Edmund's Church a preach- 
ing centre of exceptional intellectual force 
and impartiality ; ' Lombard Street in Lent ' 
(1894), the title of a course of addresses 
by various preachers, presented the kind 
of sermon which he thought a City church 
should supply, in order to attract the 
business man in the luncheon hour. In 1 888 
Archbishop Benson made Mm hon. canon of 
Canterbury, and in 1898 Hartford University, 
U.S.A., granted him the degree of D.D, He 
was Boyle lecturer in 1897, and rural dean 
of East City from 1903 till his death. 

Benham's literary activity was always 
great. His collaboration with Dr. Davidson 
in the writing of the ' Life of Archbishop 
Tait' (1891) was the most important of his 
later works. His editorship of the long 
series of cheap reprints entitled the ' Ancient 
and Modern Library of Theological Litera- 
ture ' was a laborious and laudable effort 
to popularise good literature. But the 
characteristic work of the last twenty years 
of his life was the lightly written series of 
miscellaneous paragraphs which he contri- 
buted to the ' Church Times ' week by week 
under the heading 'Varia' and with the 
signature of ' Peter Lombard.' He died of 
heart failure on 30 July 1910, and was buried 
at Addington. Benham was twice married : 
(1) to Louisa, daughter of Lewis Engelbach, 
by whom he had three daughters ; (2) 
to Caroline, daughter of Joseph Sandell of 
Old Basing, Hampshire, who survived him. 

Besides the works mentioned, and a trans- 
lation of * The Imitatio ' (1874 ; new ed. 1905), 
Benham's chief works were : 1. ' The Gospel 
according to St. Matthew . . . with Notes,' 
1862. 2. 'The Epistles for the Christian 
Year with Notes,' 1865. 3. 'The Church 
of the Patriarchs,' 1867. 4. 'A short 
History of the Episcopal Church in the 
United States,' 1884. 5. 'Winchester' (in 
'Diocesan Histories'), 1884. 6. 'Sermons 
for the Church's Year, original and 
selected,' 2 vols. 1883-^. 7. 'The 
Dictionary of Religion; an Encyclo- 

paedia of Christian and other Religious 
Doctrines, . . . Terms, History, Biography,' 
1887; reissued 1891, begun by J. H. 
Blunt. 8. 'Winchester Cathedral,' 1893; 
illustrated, 1897. 9. ' Rochester Cathedral,' 
1900 (both in ' English Cathedrals'). 10. 
'Mediaeval London,' 1901 and 1911, with 
Charles Welch. 11.' Old St. Paul's Cathedral,' 
1902. 12. 'The Tower of London,' 1906 
(all three in the 'Portfolio Monographs'). 
13. ' St. John and his Work ' (' Temple ' 
series of Bible handbooks), 1904. 14. ' Old 
London Churches,' 1908. 15 'Letters of 
Peter Lombard,' 1911, posthumous, with a 
preface by Archbishop Davidson. 

[Memoir by his daughter, Mrs. Dudley 
Baxter, prefixed to the Letters of Peter Lom- 
bard, 1911 ; The Times, lAug. 1910 ; Treasury, 
Oct. 1902; Men and Women of the Time, 
1899 ; Crockford's Clerical Directory.] 

R. B. 

1902), botanist, born at Clapham, Surrey, 
on 24 June 1833, was second son of William 
Bennett (d. 1873), a tea-dealer. Like his 
parents, he was a member of the Society of 
Friends. The father, a good field botanist, 
was intimate with the naturalists Edward 
Newman [q. v.] and Edward and Henry 
Doubleday [q. v.] ; he published ' A Narra- 
tive of a Journey in Ireland in 1847 * and 
' Joint-stock Companies ' in 1861, and in 
1851 retired to Brockham Lodge, Betch- 
worth, Surrey, where it is said that he 
bred emus to the third generation. His 
mother, Elizabeth (d. 1891), wrote some 
religious books (JOSEPH SMITH, Friends 1 
Books, supplement, p. 56). Bennett's elder 
brother, Edward Trusted (1831-1908), 
at one time edited the ' Crusade,' a tem- 
perance magazina Save for some months 
in 1841-2 at the Pestalozzian School at 
Appenzell, Bennett was educated at home. 
Long walking tours in Wales, the west of 
England, and the lake district, undertaken 
by Bennett with his father and brother, 
were reported by them in the ' Phytologist ' 
(iv. (1851), 312, 439 and (1852), 757-8). 
On the last occasion they called upon 
Wordsworth at Rydal Mount, and he 
accompanied them up Fairfield to show 
them Silene acaulis. 

Bennett attended classes at University 
College, London, and graduated B.A. from 
the University of London in 1853, with 
honours in chemistry and botany, pro- 
ceeding M.A. in 1855 and B.Sc. in 1868. 
After leaving college he acted for a short 
time as tutor in the family of Gurney 
Barclay, the banker. In 1858 he started 
business as a bookseller and publisher at 




5 Bishopsgate Street Within, London. 
Besides works by his father and mother 
he issued the early poems of the Hon. John 
Leicester Warren, afterwards third Baron 
de Tabley [q. v.], a fellow botanist. In 1868 
Bennett gave up business, was elected a 
fellow of the Linnean Society, and became 
lecturer on botany at Bedford College and 
at St. Thomas's Hospital. From 1870 to 
1874 he was biological assistant to Dr. (now 
Sir) Norman Lockyer, while editing the 
newly established paper 'Nature.' After 
writing on pollination and the Order 
Polygalacece for Sir Joseph Hooker's 
' Flora of British India ' (vol. i. 1872), 
and for Martius's ' Flora Brasiliensis ' 
(1874), Bennett, who knew German well, 
performed what was, perhaps, his greatest 
service to British botanical students, by 
translating and editing, with the assistance 
of Mr. (now Sir William) Thiselton-Dyer, 
the third edition of Julius Sachs's * Lehr- 
buch der Botanik' (1875). He also trans- 
lated and edited Professor Otto Thome's 
'Lehrbuch,' as 'Text-book of Structural 
and Physiological Botany,' in 1877. 

On Alpine plants Bennett published 
three works : ' Alpine Plants,' translated 
from the { Alpenpflanzen ' of J. Seboth, 
in four volumes, with 100 plates in each 
(1879-84); 'The Tourist's Guide to the 
Flora of the Austrian Alps,' from the 
German of K. W. von Dalla Torre (1882), 
with better illustrations ; and ' The Flora of 
the Alps . . . descriptive of all the species of 
flowering plants indigenous to Switzerland 
and of the Alpine species of the adjacent 
mountain districts . . . including the Pyre- 
nees' (2 vols. 1896-7), with 120 coloured 
plates from David Wooster's 'Alpine Plants.' 

In 1879 Bennett became a fellow of the 
Royal Microscopical Society, and thence- 
forth mainly confined his researches to 
cryptogamic plants, especially the fresh- 
water algae. He re- wrote the section on 
cryptogams for Henf rev's ' Elementary 
Botany ' (4th edit., by Maxwell Masters, 
1884) ; and in the ' Handbook of Crypto- 
gamic Botany,' an original work, which 
he undertook with George Robert Milne 
Murray [q. v. Suppl. II] in 1889, he wrote 
of all groups containing chlorophyll. From 
1897 he edited the ' Journal of the Royal 
Microscopical Society.' He died suddenly 
from heart disease, on his way home from 
the Savile Club, on 23 Jan. 1902, and was 
buried in the Friends' burial-ground at 
Isleworth. He married in 1858 Katherine, 
daughter of William Richardson of Sunder- 
land, who predeceased him, leaving no 

Described by Professor Vines, in 
presidential address to the Linnean Society 
for 1902, as ' a laborious student and a 
conscientious teacher of botany,' Bennett 
was a contributor to the ' Journal of 
Botany,' ' The Popular Science Review,' 
the ' Reports ' of the British Association, 
and other scientific periodicals. Among 
his minor publications were : ].. ' Myco- 
logical Illustrations,' with W. Wilson 
Saunders and Worthington G. Smith, 1871. 
2. ; Introduction to the Study of Flowerless 
Plants,' 1891. 3. ' Pre-Foxite Quakerism,' 
reprinted, with additions, from the ' Friends' 
Quarterly Examiner,' 1894. 

[Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 
1902, 155-7 (with photographic portrait) ; 
Journal of Botany, 1902, 113; Proceedings 
of the Linnean Society, 1901-2, 26 ; Nature, 
Ixv. 34 ; Gardeners' Chronicle, 1902, i. 85.] 

G. S. B. 

(1837-1907), surgeon, born at Charlotte 
Quay, Cork, on 9 April 1837, was youngest 
child in the family of five sons of Robert 
Bennett, recorder of Cork, by his wife Jane, 
daughter of William Saunders Hallaran, 
M.D., of Cork, who made some reputa- 
tion as a writer on insanity (Cork, 1810 and 
1818). His grandfather, James Bennett, 
was also a physician in Cork. A kinsman, 
James Richard Bennett, was a distinguished 
teacher of anatomy in Paris about 1825. 
An elder brother, Robert Bennett, served 
all through the Crimean war, and retired 
in 1886 with the rank of major-general. 
After education at Hamblin's school in 
Cork, and at the Academical Institute, 
Harcourt Street, Dublin, he entered Trinity 
College, Dublin, in 1854, and in 1859 
graduated B.A. and M.B., also receiving 
the new degree of M.Ch., which was then 
conferred for the first time. He pursued 
his professional studies in the school of 
physic, Trinity College, and in Dr. Steevens', 
the Meath, the Richmond, and Sir Patrick 
Dun's Hospitals. In 1863 he became a 
fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in 
Ireland, without having become a licentiate. 
In 1864 he proceeded M.D., and was 
appointed university anatomist in Dublin 
University, the post carrying with it the 
office of surgeon to Sir Patrick Dun's 
Hospital. In 1873 he became professor of 
surgery in Trinity College, and curator of 
the pathological museum. These posts, 
with the surgeoncy to Sir Patrick Dun's, 
he held till 1906. In 1880 he was 
president of the Pathological Society 
of Dublin. From 1884 to 1886 he was 
president of the Royal College of Surgeons 




in Ireland; from 1894 to 1897 he was presi- 
dent of the Royal Academy of Medicine 
in Ireland; and from 1897 to 1906 he 
represented the University of Dublin on 
the General Medical Council. During the 
viceroyalty of the Earl of Dudley (1902-5) 
he was surgeon to the lord-lieutenant, 
and in 1900 he was made honorary fellow of 
the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 

Bennett was an authority on fractures of 
bones. His best work is the collection of 
fractures and dislocations in the patho- 
logical museum of Trinity College. This 
was begun by R. W. Smith, whom he 
succeeded as curator in 1873, and was 
formed by Bennett into one of the most 
important collections of the kind in the 
kingdom. He spent years in compiling 
a catalogue furnished with notes and 
clinical histories, but it remained 
unfinished. He frequently published 
communications and reports dealing 
with the surgery and pathology of 
bones. In 1881 he described before the 
Dublin Pathological Society a form of 
fracture of the base of the metacarpal bone 
of the thumb previously unrecognised 
(Dublin Journal of Medical Science, Ixxiii.). 
It closely simulates dislocation and is 
now universally known as * Bennett's 
fracture ' ( MILES and STBUTHERS, Edin. 
Medical Journal, April 1904). As an 
operating surgeon he was one of the 
earliest in Ireland to apply Listerian 
methods. As a teacher, he was forcible 
and practical, and he enlightened the 
driest subject with touches of humour. 

Bennett died on 21 June 1907 at his 
residence, 26 Lower FitzWilliam Street, 
Dublin, and was buried at Mount Jerome 
cemetery, Dublin. On 20 Dec. 1870 he 
married Frances, daughter of Conolly 
Norman of Fahan, co. Donegal, and first 
cousin of Conolly Norman [q. v. Suppl. II]. 
He had two daughters, of whom one, 
Norah Mary, survived him. Two bronze 
portrait medallions by Mr. Oliver Shep- 
pard, R.H.A., were placed respectively 
in the school of physic, Trinity College, 
and in Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital by 
subscription of his pupils. A bronze 
medal, to be awarded biennially to 
the winner of the surgical travelling 
prize in the school of physic, also bears 
on one side Mr. Sheppard's portrait of 
Bennett, and on the other a metacarpal 
bone showing * Bennett's fracture.' 

[Obituary notice in Dublin Journal of 
Medical Science (by Sir J. W. Moore), July 
1907 ; Cameron's History of the Royal 
College of Surgeons in Ireland; Todd's 


Catalogue of Graduates in Dublin University ; 
Dublin University Calendars ; MS. Entrance 
Book, Trinity College, Dublin ; private 
sources and personal knowledge.] R. J. R. 

BENT, SIB THOMAS (1838-1909), 
prime minister of Victoria, born at Penrith 
in New South Wales on 7 Dec. 1838, was 
the eldest son in a family of four sons 
and two daughters. His father, having lost 
money in Sydney, came to Victoria in 1849 
and began Hfe again, first as a contractor in 
a small way of business, then as a market 
gardener, near McKinnon in the Brighton 
suburb of Melbourne ; here he soon 
managed to build and run an inn called 
the Gardeners' Arms. From the age of 
eleven Bent worked with his father, and 
for education depended on his own efforts. 
Characterised from youth by cheery ' push ' 
and enterprise, he started a small market 
garden in 1859, taking his own produce 
weekly to market in a rough cart. In 1861 
he became rate-collector for Brighton. 

In 1862 Bent made his entry into public 
life by becoming a member of the Moorabbin 
shire council, of which he was afterwards 
president on twelve occasions. In 1871 
he entered the Victoria parliament for 
Brighton, defeating, to general surprise, 
George Higinbotham [q. v. Suppl. I], one of 
the greatest public figures in Australia. 
He represented the constituency with one 
short interval throughout his career. In 
1874 he resigned his position as rate- 
collector on being also elected to the 
Brighton borough council, to the business of 
which he devoted himself despite political 
calls. Gradually he made his way in 
parliament and became the life and soul of 
the attack on (Sir) Graham Berry [q. v. 
Suppl. II], and a leader of the ' party of 
combat.' As whip for the opposition in 
1877 Bent prevented the Berry govern- 
ment from getting a majority for their 
reform bill, and eventually in January 1880 
brought about the fall of that ministry. 

In March 1880 Bent joined the ministry 
of James Service as vice-president of the 
board of public works, but went out with 
his colleagues in August of the same year. 
In July 1881 he resumed the same position 
under the title of commissioner of rail- 
ways and president of the board of land 
and works in the ministry of Sir Bryan 
O'Loghlen. In this capacity he was 
connected with the * octopus ' railway bill ; 
and he was to some extent discredited by 
his tendency to over-sanguine advertise- 
ment. O'Loghlen's government lasted till 
March 1883, when for a time Bent led the 
opposition, but his temperament was little 




suited to such a task and he was displaced 
by a more conciliatory leader. In October 
1887 he was defeated by one vote as 
candidate for the office of speaker of the 
assembly. Almost immediately afterwards 
he was elected chairman of the first railways 
standing committee, and in that capacity 
for two years did much solid work. In 

1892 he was elected speaker, and held the 
office, for which he had few qualifications, 
for nearly two years. During these years 
1887-94 he with six others was engaged 
in the ' land boom,' which at first seemed 
likely to give him a huge fortune and in 

1893 left him practically a ruined man. 
Thrown out of the assembly in 1894, Bent 
retired to Port Fairy, and devoted himself 
for the next six years to dairy farming. 
During that period he was defeated 
ignominiously at South Melbourne. But 
in 1900 he was elected for his old con- 
stituency, Brighton. On 10 June 1902 he 
joined William Hill Irvine's ministry as 
minister for railways and works, and 
though on 6 Feb. 1903 he parted with the 
railway work to another minister he bore 
the brunt of the great railway strike of 
May 1903. On Irvine's retirement Bent 
became prime minister (16 Feb. 1904). 
His ministry lasted over four years, and 
in that period passed many measures 
aimed at improving the conditions of 
life amongst manual workers and their 
economic position. 

In 1907, after a serious illness, Bent paid 
a long visit to England, where he completed 
the arrangements for the new Victoria 
agency building, Melbourne House, Strand. 
Returning in August 1907, he still held 
the reins for over a year ; but on 1 Dec. 
1908 was defeated on a vote of want of 
confidence. At his request the governor, 
Sir T. G. Carmichael, dissolved parliament. 
Bent was defeated at the polls, and a com- 
mission was appointed by the new govern- 
ment to investigate charges made against 
him on the hustings. Out of this ordeal 
he emerged with general credit. But the 
strain of work proved fatal. He died on 
17 Sept. 1909. A state funeral was 
accorded him ; he was buried at Brighton 

Bent was made a K.C.M.G. in 1908. 
Rough and uncultivated, shrewd and 
strong, Bent was ' one of the most interest- 
ing and remarkable figures in the public 
life of Australia.' At his public meet- 
ings he would break off an argument to 
sing or recite, indulging in ' execrable 
songs, purely Bentian jokes, extraordinary 
reminiscences ' all prepared to serve as 

' impromptus.' In parliament he displayed 
unusual power in gauging the temper and 
feelings of members. The keynote of 
his policy as premier was opposition to the 
labour party. Unorthodox and even un- 
principled in his methods, and apt to take 
the shortest road to his end, he always 
boldly accepted the responsibility for his 
actions. He showed courage in all concerns 
of life. 

Bent married twice. His first wife (born 
Hall) died childless. His second wife 
(born Huntley) died in 1893, leaving one 

Bent Street in Sydney appears to have 
been named after the father as owner of 
a corner lot (Melbourne Argus, 18 Sept. 

[Melbourne Age, Melbourne Argus, 18 Sept. 
1909 (both of these papers have a rough 
portrait) ; The Times, 18 Sept. 1909 ; Mennell's 
Diet, of Australasian Biog. ; John's Notable 
Australians.] C. A. H. 

1902), architect, born at Doncaster on 
30 Jan. 1839, was third surviving son of 
Charles Bentley by his wife Ann, daughter 
of John Bachus of that town, and received 
his education at a private school there. 
In boyhood he made a model of St. George's 
Church, Doncaster, from notes and measure- 
ments taken before its destruction by fire 
in 1853, and when Sir George Gilbert Scott 
[q. v.] began the rebuilding in 1854, Bentley 
frequented the fabric and rendered some ser- 
vices to the clerk of works. In 1855 he acted 
as voluntary superintendent in the restora- 
tion of Loversall Church, and there tried his 
hand at carving. Meanwhile his father, who 
deprecated an artistic career, placed him for 
a short tune with Sharp, Stewart & Co., a firm 
of mechanical engineers at Manchester ; but 
in August 1855 Bentley entered on a five 
years' indenture with the building estab- 
lishment of Winsland & Holland in Lon- 
don. Next year his father died, and 
Richard Holland, a partner of this firm, 
recognising his promise, placed him (1858) 
in the office of Henry Glutton, an architect 
in extensive domestic and ecclesiastical 
practice, who had joined the Church of 
Rome. Bentley took the same step in 
1862, and in the same year, though invited 
by Glutton to join him in partnership, pre- 
ferred the risks of independence and took 
chambers at 14 Southampton Street, Covent 

While waiting for commissions Bentley 
continued the sketching and modelling 
which had already occupied his evening 
eisure, and often made for other architects 




designs for work in metal, stained glass, 
and embroidery. He submitted designs at 
the exhibitions of London (1862) and Paris 
(1867). For St. Francis's Church, Netting 
Hill (the scene of his own baptism by Car- 
dinal Wiseman), he designed the stone 
groined baptistery, font, and porch, as well 
as the altars of St. John and the Blessed 
Virgin (with paintings by his friend, N. H. 
J. Westlake), a jewelled monstrance, and 
at a later date the high altar. In 1866 
he undertook for the poet Coventry Pat- 
more [q. v.] the adaptation of an old Sussex 
House, Heron's Ghyll, near Uckfield. His 
work betrayed from the first conscientious 
anxiety for perfection in detail and sound- 
ness of construction. He regarded archi- 
tectural competitions as inimical to art. 

In 1868 he transferred his office to 13 
John Street, Adelphi, began the Seminary 
of St. Thomas at Hammersmith (now the 
Convent of the Sacred Heart), at the time 
his best work, and designed the altar and 
reredos of the Church of St. Charles, Ogle 
Street, Marylebone. In 1884 Bentley built 
in the style of the Renaissance the large pre- 
paratory school (St. John's) in connection 
with Beaumont College at Old Windsor. 
For some years (beginning in 1874) he spent 
much thought and labour on the internal 
decoration and furniture of Carlton Towers, 
Selby, for Lord Beaumont. 

For thirty years he was engaged at intervals 
on the Church of St. Mary of the Angels, 
Westmorland Road, Bayswater, where he 
designed additional aisles, a baptistery, 
and various chapels. The Church and 
Presbytery of Our Lady at Cadogan Street 
(1875) and the Church of St. Mary and the 
Holy Souls at Bosworth Road, Kensal New 
Town (1881) are simple examples of Bentley's 
brick construction. In 1885 he built the 
unfinished portion of Corpus Christi Church, 
Brixton, in Early Decorated style. 

For the Redemptorist Fathers he did 
varied work at Bishop Eton, Liverpool, and 
Clapham. To the Church of Our Lady of 
Victories at Clapham he added a fine Lady 
chapel (1883), a transept, stained glass win- 
dows, and a monastery completed in 1894. 
For the Church of St. James, Spanish Place, 
London, he designed several altars and some 
s. His fine Church of the Holy Rood at 
Watford was with its schools and presbytery 
in hand from 1887 to 1892. Other works 
M fre a house (Glenmuire) for E. Maxwell- 
Steuart at Ascot and a private chapel in the 
neighbourhood for C. J. Stonor (1885-90). 
In 1897 he built with stone and red-brick 
in the early fifteenth-century style the 
Convent of the Immaculate Conception for 

Franciscan nuns at Booking Bridge, near 
Braintree. The screen and organ case of 
St. Etheldreda's, Ely Place, Holborn, are 
from his designs. 

Bentley also had commissions from the 
Church of England. In 1893-4 the two 
City churches of St. Botolph came under 
his care. For St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, 
he provided external repair as well as 
internal decoration, and for that at Aldgate 
he designed numerous interior embellish- 
ments, notably the fine cornice of angels 
bearing the shields of the City companies. 
Similar works were done at Holy Trinity, 
Minories, and St. Mark's, North Audley 
Street. For St. John's Church, Hammer- 
smith (designed by William Butterfield 
[q. v. Suppl. I]) he schemed a morning 
chapel, organ case, sacristy, and general 
decorations. In 1899 he built a new church 
at Chiddington, Penshurst. 

In 1894 came the great opportunity of 
his life. Cardinal Vaughan [q. v. Suppl. II] 
called upon him to design the Roman 
catholic cathedral of Westminster. The 
conditions laid upon the architect were 
that the church should have a nave of 
vast extent giving an uninterrupted view 
of the high altar, and that the methods 
of construction should not be such as to 
involve undue initial expenditure of either 
time or money. On this account a strong 
preference was expressed in favour of 
Byzantine style. 

Bentley perceived that his design should 
be preceded by special foreign study, and 
though not in robust health set out in 
November of the same year for a tour of 
Italy. Visiting Milan (especially for Sant' 
Ambrogio), Pavia, and Florence, Rome 
(where the work of the Renaissance dis- 
appointed him), Perugia (which with Assist 
delighted him), and Ravenna, he came at 
last to Venice, where cold and fatigue com- 
pelled him to rest before he could study 
St. Mark's. 

His natural wish to proceed to Constanti- 
nople was frustrated by the prevalence there 
of cholera, and returning to London in 
March 1895 he was ready by St. Peter's and 
St. Paul's Day (29 June) for the laying of 
the foundation stone. 

The cathedral is outwardly remarkable 
for its tall campanile and its bold use of 
brick and stone (for description see Archi- 
tectural Review, xi. 3, by W. R. LETHABY, 
and Builder, 6 July 1895, 25 Feb. 1899, 
23 June 1900). The design is throughout 
marked by the greatest simplicity, largeness 
of scale and avoidance of trivial ornament. 
Internally the vast nave consists of three 





bays measuring 60 feet square and each 
surmounted by a concrete dome. A fourth 
bay nearest the nominal east forms the 
sanctuary and beyond it is an apse. The 
nave is flanked on each side by an aisle ; 
outside the aisles are the many chapels. 
When first opened for worship, and before 
any progress had been made with the 
marble decorations, the interior effect was 
a triumph of pure form. The construction 
was remarkable, Bentley having set himself 
to avoid any structural materials but brick- 
work, masonry, and concrete. ' I have 
broken,' he said, ' the back of that terrible 
superstition that iron is necessary to large 
spans ' (Memoir by CHARLES HADFIELD in 
Architectural Review, xi. 115). 

In 1898 Bentley was summoned to the 
United States to advise on the design 
and construction of the Roman catholic 
cathedral at Brooklyn, for which he pre- 
pared a scheme. 

Seized in November 1898 with paralytic 
symptoms, which in June 1900 affected 
his speech, he died on 2 March 1902 at his 
residence, The Sweep, Old Town, Clapham 
Common, the day before his name was to 
be submitted to the Royal Institute of 
British Architects for the royal gold medal 
(R.I.B.A. Journal, ix. 219). He was buried 
at Mortlake. 

Bentley had married in 1874 Margaret 
Annie, daughter of Henry J. Fleuss, a 
painter, of Diisseldorf, and had four sons 
and seven daughters, of whom one son and 
one daughter died in infancy, and the 
remainder survived him. His third son, 
Osmond, succeeds, in partnership with Mr. 
J. A. Marshall, to the architectural practice, 
and his eldest daughter, Mrs. Winifred Mary 
de 1'Hopital, is engaged on her father's bio- 
graphy. There is in the possession of the 
family a portrait in oils by W. Christian 

[R.I.B.A. Journ., 3rd series, 1901-2, ix. 
437 (memoir by T. J. Willson) ; Architec- 
tural Review, 1902, xi. 155, and xxi. 18 
(art. by Halsey Ricardo) ; Builder, 1902, 
Ixxxii. 243 ; Building News, 1902, Ixxxii. 339 ; 
information from Mr. Osmond Bentley.] 

P. W. 

(1842-1908), diplomatist, born in London on 
12 Aug. 1842, and descended from a French 
family originally resident in Auvergne, 
which settled in England after the French 
revolution, was elder son of John Brodribb 
Bergne, a valued member of the foreign 
office for fifty-six years (1817-1873), who 
acquired a high reputation both at home 
and abroad as an authority on matters 

connected with treaties and diplomatic 
precedent. Educated at schools at 
Brighton and Enfield and at London 
University, where he passed the first B.A. 
examination, John Henry entered the 
foreign office as a clerk on the diplomatic 
establishment after passing a competitive 
examination in 1861, was appointed an 
assistant clerk in 1880, and promoted to be 
superintendent of the treaty department 
in 1881. He held that office until 1894, 
when he became superintendent of the 
commercial department and examiner of 
treaties. This position he held for eight 
years, doing much valuable work in the 
development of the commercial depart- 
ment and particularly in the arrangement 
of its relations with the board of trade, 
and in introducing a more regular and 
complete system of reports on commercial 
and industrial subjects from diplomatic 
and consular officers hi foreign countries. 
He was occasionally employed abroad on 
business which came within the sphere of 
his permanent work, and on which he was 
possessed of special knowledge. In 1875 
he assisted the British agent before the 
international commission, which sat under 
Article XXII of the treaty of Washington, 
to assess the amount to be paid by the 
United States to Great Britain in return 
for the fishery privileges accorded to the 
citizens of the United States under 
Article XVIII of that treaty, and on the 
meeting of the commission at Halifax in 
1877 he acted as secretary and protocolist 
to it. In September 1887 he was appointed 
secretary to Mr. Joseph Chamberlain's 
special mission to Washington to adjust 
certain questions relating to the North 
American fisheries. For his services he 
received the K.C.M.G. in 1888, having 
been made C.M.G. in 1886. In 1885 he 
had been second British delegate at the 
international copyright conference held at 
Berne, and signed the convention which was 
there agreed upon (9 Sept. 1886). While 
at Washington in 1887 he was deputed to 
discuss the copyright question with the 
United States department of state. In May 
1896 he signed at Paris as British delegate 
the additional act to the international copy- 
right convention of 1886. He was appointed 
a member of the departmental committee 
on trade marks in 1888, and was sent as 
British delegate to the conference on in- 
dustrial property held at Rome in 1888, 
at Madrid in 1890, and at 'Brussels in 
November 1897 and again hi 1900. From 
1898 onwards he was constantly employed 
in the negotiations for the abolition of 




bounties on the export of sugar, was one of 
the British delegates at the conferences held 
in Brussels on this question in 1899 and 
1901, and signed the convention concluded 
on the latter occasion 5 March 1902. In 
1903 he was appointed the British delegate 
on the permanent commission established 
under Article VII. of that convention, and 
attended the various meetings of the com- 
mission, furnishing reports which were laid 
before parliament and which were marked 
by his usual power of terse, lucid explana- 
tion. He served as a member on the royal 
commission for the Paris exhibition of 
1900. He retired from the foreign office 
on a pension on 1 Oct. 1902, but his em- 
ployment on the special subjects of which 
he had an intimate acquaintance continued. 
He received the C.B. hi 1902 and the 
K.C.B. hi the following year. In Novem- 
ber 1908 he served as British delegate at 
the international copyright conference at 
Berlin, and died there of a chill on 15 Nov. 

Though scarcely an author in the ordinary 
sense of the term, Bergne rendered im- 
portant services to the Authors' Society, 
of which he became a member in 1890, and 
after his retirement from the foreign office 
served on the committee of management, 
and copyright sub-committee, acting as 
chairman of the general committee (1905-7). 
He contributed to the ' Quarterly Review,' 
' Blackwood's Magazine,' ' The Spectator,' 
and other periodicals articles on subjects 
with which he was professionally well 
acquainted (including the * Halifax Fishery 
Commission,' the 'Law of Extradition,' 
' Anglo-American Copyright,' and ' Queen's 
Messengers ' ). He was also an accomplished 
mountaineer and well-known member of 
the Alpine Club from 1878 to death. His 
father had been known as an expert 
numismatist; he was himself a collector of 
Oriental china. 

He married in 1878 Mary a Court, 
daughter of Rev. S. B. Bergne, and had 
two sons, the elder of whom was killed in 
an accident near Saas Fee in Switzerland 
in January 1908 ; the younger, Evelyn, 

[The Times, 16 Nov. 1908 ; Author, 1 Dec. 
1908 ; Alpine Journal, xxiv. 499-501 ; Foreign 
Office List, 1909, p. 397.] S. 

1905), colonial governor, born in the Island 
of Barbados, West Indies, on 2 Nov. 1819, 
was eldest son of General Sackville Hamilton 
Berkeley, colonel of the 16th regiment of 
foot. The father, who descended from a 
branch of the family of the earls of Berkeley, 
served at the capture of Surinam in 1804, 

of the Danish Islands of St. Thomas, St. 
John and St. Croix in 1807, and of Martinique 
in 1809. Sir George's mother was Elizabeth 
Pilgrim, daughter of William Murray of 
Bruce Vale Estate, Barbados. Educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, which he entered 
on 3 July 1837, he graduated B.A. in 1842, 
and soon returned to the West Indies, where 
his active life was almost wholly passed. 
On 11 Feb. 1845 he was appointed colonial 
secretary and controller of customs of 
British Honduras and ex-officio member 
of the executive and legislative councils. 
While still serving in that colony he was 
chosen in 1860-1 to administer temporarily 
the government of Dominica, and on 8 July 
1864 was appointed lieutenant-governor 
of the Island of St. Vincent. During his 
tenure of office in 1867 an Act to amend and 
simplify the legislature substituted a single 
legislative chamber for the two houses 
which had been in existence since 1763. 
He was acting administrator of Lagos 
from December 1872 to October 1873, 
when he was appointed governor hi chief of 
the West Africa settlements (Sierra Leone, 
Gambia, Gold Coast, and Lagos). The 
Gold Coast and Lagos were soon erected 
into a separate colony (24 July 1874), 
and Berkeley was recalled, so as to allow 
of a new governor (of Sierra Leone and 
Gambia) being appointed at a reduced 
salary. While on his way home in June 
1874 he was offered, and accepted, the 
government of Western Australia, but did 
not take up the appointment, being sent 
instead to the Leeward Islands as governor 
in chief. There he remained until 27 June 
1881, when he retired on a pension. He 
was created C.M.G. on 20 Feb. 1874, and 
K.C.M.G. 24 May 1881. 

Berkeley died unmarried in London 
on 29 Sept. 1905, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery. 

[Colonial Office List, 1905; The Times, 
2 Oct. 1905 : Oliver's Hist, of the Island of 
Antigua, 1899, iii. 319 ; Hart's Army List, 
1863 ; Dublin Univ. Matric. Book, 1837 ; 
Colonial Office Records.] C. A. 

(1837-1901), Anglo-Indian administrator, 
born at Bristol on 21 Dec. 1837, was 
son of James Fogo Bernard, M.D., of 
16 The Crescent, Clifton, by his wife 
Marianne Amelia, sister of John, first Lord 
Lawrence [q. v.]. He was educated at 
Rugby, which he entered in 1851, in com- 
pany with his cousin, Alexander Hutchin- 
son, eldest son of Sir Henry Montgomery 
Lawrence [q. v.], and C. H. Tawney, whose 
sister he afterwards married. In 1855 he 



accepted a cadetsliip at Addiscombe ; 
but in the following year he received a 
nomination to Haileybury in the last batch 
of students at that college. After gain- 
ing prizes in mathematics, Persian, Hindu- 
stani, and Hindi, he passed out in 1857 at 
the head of the list for Bengal. His early 
service was in the Punjab, and afterwards 
in the Central Provinces, where he was 
secretary under two chief commissioners, 
Sir Richard Temple [q. v. Suppl. II] and 
Sir George Campbell [q. v. Suppl. I]. 
The latter appointed him his secretary 
in 1871, when he became lieutenant- 
governor of Bengal ; and he accompanied 
the former as secretary in his famine tour 
through Madras and Bombay in 1877. 
In the following year he became secre- 
tary to the government of India in the 
home department. In 1880 he officiated 
as chief commissioner of British Burma, 
being confirmed in 1882. Except for a 
short interval, he held that office until 
his retirement in 1887. This long period 
included anxious negotiations with Thi- 
baw, king of independent Burma, the 
brief war that ended in Thibaw's de- 
position, the annexation of the upper 
province, and the tedious process of paci- 
fication. Sir Charles Bernard came back 
to England in 1887, in order to take 
up the appointment of secretary at the 
India office in the department of revenue, 
statistics, and commerce. He finally 
retired in 1901, after a continuous service 
of forty-three years. He died on a visit 
to Chamonix, on 19 Sept. 1901, and there 
he was buried. He was created C.S.I, in 
1875, and K.C.S.I. in 1886. He married 
at Calcutta, on 23 Oct. 1862, Susan 
Capel, daughter of Richard Tawney, 
rector of Willoughby, Warwickshire. 
His eight children survived him. The 
eldest son, James Henry, after following 
his father into the Indian civil service, 
died of cholera, together with his wife 
and other members of his household, at 
Chinsura, Bengal, in November 1907. 

Bernard was possessed of inexhaustible 
energy in both body and mind. At 
Rugby he was prominent in the football 
field, and at Calcutta he won a cup for 
single rackets. In India he had the 
reputation of being the hardest worker in 
a hardworking secretariat ; and at the 
India office it was said of him that he under- 
took the duties of every subordinate in 
his department, including those of the 
messenger. In 1887 he delivered an address 
before the Royal Scottish Geographical 
Society at Edinburgh on * Burma: the 

New British Province.' In 1889 he 
compiled a valuable report on Indian 
administration during the past thirty years 
of British rule, which was laid before 
Parliament. In 1891 he wrote a confiden- 
tial minute on opium, in view of a debate 
in the House of Commons in April of that 
year. In 1893 he saw through the press 
the posthumous memoirs of his friend, 
Sir George Campbell. In politics he was 
a liberal. The Bernard Free Library was 
built as a memorial to him at Rangoon. 

[Personal knowledge ; Sir Richard Temple, 
Men and Events of my Time in India, 1882 ; 
J. H. Rivett-Carnac, Many Memories, 1910 ; 
Sir Henry Cotton, Indian and Home Memories, 
1911; Sir Charles Crosthwaite, The Pacifica- 
tion of Burma, 1912.] J. S. C. 

1904), divine, second son of Charles Ber- 
nard of Eden Estate, Jamaica, the descen- 
dant of a Huguenot family, by Margaret, 
daughter of John Baker of Waresley 
House, Worcestershire, was born at Clif- 
ton on 11 Nov. 1815. Mountague Bernard 
[q. v.] was his brother. After private 
education he matriculated in December 
1833 from Exeter College, Oxford, and in 
1837 was placed in the second class of 
the final classical school. He graduated 
B.A. in 1838, when he won the Ellerton 
theological prize with an essay * On the 
Conduct and Character of St. Peter.' In 
1839 he was awarded the chancellor's 
prize for an English essay on * The Classical 
Taste and Character compared with the 
Romantic.' In 1840 he was ordained 
deacon and licensed to the curacy of Great 
Baddow, Essex. Ordained priest in 1841, 
he succeeded to the vicarage of Great 
Baddow, where he remained until 1846. 
After working for a short time as curate 
of Harrow-on-the-Hill, he became in 1848 
vicar of Terling, Essex. He showed a 
keener interest in the cause of foreign 
missions than was usual at that time. 
He was thrice select preacher at Oxford 
in 1858, 1862, and 1882. In 1864 he 
delivered the Bampton lectures on * The 
Progress of Doctrine in the New Testament ' 
(5th edit. 1900). 

Of strong evangelical sympathies, Ber- 
nard was appointed by Simeon's trustees 
to the rectory of Walcot, Bath, in 1864. 
There Bernard's gifts of organisation were 
called into play. He increased the church 
accommodation and built St. Andrew's 
church and schools. In 1867 the bishop 
of Bath and Wells collated him to a pre- 
bendal stall in Wells Cathedral ; and next 
year the dean and chapter elected him 



to a residentiary canonry. He succeeded 
to the chancellorship of the cathedral in 
1879, and from 1880 to 1895 represented 
the chapter in convocation. 

Bernard was as zealous a cathedral 
dignitary as he was an energetic town 
rector. He revived the cathedral gram- 
mar school, at his own cost provided build- 
ings for it, established a high school for 
girls, and interested himself in the general 
parochial life of Wells. An evangelical 
whom all trusted, though unfettered by 
party conventions, Bernard was a frequent 
speaker at the Islington clerical meeting, 
He resigned Walcot in 1886, and went to 
live at Wimborne. In 1901 he retired 
from his canonry, retaining only the unpaid 
office of chancellor. He died at High Hall, 
Wimborne, on 7 Dec. 1904. Bernard com- 
bined the qualities of the student and the 
man of affairs, of the wise counsellor in 
private and the clear, cogent teacher in 
public. He married in 1841 Caroline, 
daughter of Benjamin Linthorne, of High 
Hall, Wimborne ; she died in 1881, leaving 
two sons and seven daughters. 

Besides the works noticed, Bernard 
published: 1. ' Before His Presence with a 
Song,' 1885 ; 2nd edit. 1887. 2. 'The Central 
Teaching of Jesus Christ,' 1892. 3. ' Songs 
of the Holy Nativity,' 1895. 4. 'The 
Word and Sacraments,' 1904. 

[Guardian, 14 Dec. 1904 ; Record, 9 Dec. 
1904; The Times, 8 Dec. 1904; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; E. Stock, History of the C.M.S., 1899, 
ii. 359, 387 and iii. 10 ; private information.] 

A. R. B. 

BERRY, SIR GRAHAM (1822-1904), 
prime minister of Victoria, born at Twicken- 
ham, England, on 28 Aug. 1822, was son of 
Benjamin Berry, a retired tradesman, by 
his wife Clara Graham. After education 
at Chelsea he was apprenticed to a draper 
and silk mercer there, and subsequently 
in 1848 or 1849 opened a small shop 
in the King's Road. Emigrating to 
Victoria in 1852, he went into business as 
a general storekeeper and wine and spirit 
merchant at South Yarra, Prahran. In 
1856 he revisited England on business con- 
nected with his father's will. 

In 1860 he purchased in Victoria a 
newspaper called the ' Collingwood 
Observer,' and in the next year entered 
the legislative assembly of Victoria as 
member for East Melbourne. At the 
general election in August 1861 he was re- 
turned for Collingwood as an advanced 
liberal protectionist. He supported the 
ministry of Sir James McCulloch [q. v.] in 
its struggle with the legislative council, 

which refused to sanction the assembly's 
imposition of protectionist duties (1863-6). 
But when McCulloch failed in his plan of 
' tacking ' the customs bill to the appro- 
priation bill, and sought to borrow from a 
bank in order to meet the public expen- 
diture, Berry withdrew his support. In 
the ensuing election (1865) McCulloch 
routed all opponents, and Berry, losing his 
seat, was out of parliament for three years. 

In 1866 Berry purchased the ' Geelong 
Register,' amalgamated it with the]' Geelong 
Advertiser,' and settled in Geelong to edit 
his new venture. He shortly stood for 
South Grant and was beaten ; in 1868 he 
became member for Geelong West. On 
12 Jan. 1870 he became treasurer in the 
government of John Alexander Macpherson, 
but the ministry fell almost immediately 
after his first budget speech. On 19 June 
1871 he entered the ministry of Sir Charles 
Gavan Duffy [q.v. Suppl. II] as treasurer, but 
resigned on 21 May 1872: a private member 
attacked him in the house for having ap- 
pointed his father-in-law to a local post of 
some emolument, and to avoid embarrassing 
the government he resumed the status of a 
private member. The charge was investi- 
gated by a select committee which never 
reported (see Victorian Parl. Deb. 1872, 
xiv.). Six months later the ministry went 
out of office. 

In August 1875 Berry for the first time 
became prime minister and chief secretary. 
Introducing a land tax bill which was 
intended to strike at the undue accumula- 
tions of large holders, he was defeated, and 
on the refusal of his application for a dis- 
solution Sir James McCulloch (20 Oct. 
1875) returned to power. A great fight 
in the assembly followed ; the ' stonewallers,' 
as Berry's followers were called, were met 
by what was known as McCulloch's 'iron 
hand.' In the intervals of parliamentary 
attendance Berry stumped the country, 
denouncing McCulloch's government and 
making a good impression. At the general 
election in May 1877 Berry obtained an over- 
whelming majority. He failed to form a 
coalition with James Service and the 
prominent opponents of McCulloch, and 
with a less representative cabinet set to 
work on a series of highly controversial 
measures. He revived the main features 
of his old land bill, and endeavoured to 
carry the payment of members, first by 
tacking a resolution to the appropriation 
bill and then by framing a separate bill to 
authorise the payment. A stern fight with 
the upper house produced an administra- 
tive deadlock, which lasted from May 1877 

Berry ij 

to April 1878. On 'Black Wednesday,' 
8 Jan. 1878, money to pay the services 
failed, and Berry, consistent with his pre- 
vious views, preferred the dismissal of public 
servants to borrowing. This strong measure, 
though generally condemned, had the 
effect of weeding the overcrowded depart- 
ments. In April 1878 a compromise was 
effected, and Berry sought anew to 
strengthen the power of the lower house. 
But the other chamber offered uncom- 
promising resistance. At the very end of 
the year he came to England with Charles 
Henry Pearson [q. v.] in the hope of 
inducing the central government to pass 
an Act for amending the Constitution of 
Victoria. His mission is locally known 
as * the embassy.' He was recommended 
to try other methods. On his return in 
June 1879 he introduced a reform bill, 
and early in 1880 appealed to the 
constituencies. He incurred defeat, and 
on 5 March 1880 Mr. Service took office 
for less than six months. On 3 August 
1880 Berry was once more prime minister 
and reached a working compromise with the 
upper chamber, whereby the franchise 
qualifications for the upper chamber were 
reduced. On 9 July 1881 he was defeated 
in parliament and resigned. 

The political passion roused by Berry's 
policy had paralysed administration and 
became known as the ' Berry blight.' 
Rest was sorely needed and a sort of 
sufferance government carried on the 
administration till 1883. Then at a 
general election Berry and Service found 
themselves at the head of equal numbers 
in the house. On 8 March 1883 a coalition 
government was formed with great benefit to 
the colony ; a new Public Service Act and 
a Railways Management Act, both aimed 
at the evils of patronage, were amongst its 
achievements. In May 1883 Berry repre- 
sented the colony at the general postal 
conference at Sydney, and won golden 

In February 1886 Berry resigned office 
and proceeded to London as agent general 
for the colony. In June 1886 he was 
made K.C.M.G. He represented Victoria 
at the colonial conference of 1887. 

Returning to Melbourne in 1891, Berry 
represented Victoria at the federal con- 
vention of that year ; he re-entered parlia- 
ment in April of 1892 as member for East 
Bourke Boroughs, and joined William Shiel's 
ministry as treasurer. In 1894 he was elected 
speaker in succession to (Sir) Thomas Bent 
[q. v. Suppl. II], and held that office with 
success till 1897, when he lost his seat. 

2 Besant 

An annuity of 500Z. a year was voted by 
the new house of assembly. 

Save that in 1897 and 1898 he repre- 
sented his colony at federal conventions at 
Sydney and Adelaide, Berry thenceforth 
lived in retirement until his death at 
Balaclava on 25 Jan. 1904 ; a public 
funeral at Boroondara cemetery was 
accorded him. 

A self-made man, without education, a 
democratic leader with a fervent belief in 
democratic principles, and a fluent speaker, 
he was no violent demagogue. According 
to Mr. Alfred Deakin, afterwards prime 
minister of the Australian commonwealth, 
* he had the pronounced gift of general- 
ship both in the house and in the country ; 
was a resolute and far-seeing premier and 
a fighting chieftain, conspicuously able, 
earnest, and consistent' (JOHN'S Notable 
Australians; cf. Victorian Parliamentary 
Debates, Ixxxvii. 763). 

Among his other honours was the cross 
of the legion of honour, which he received 
as commissioner of Victoria at the Paris 
Exhibition of 1889. 

Berry was twice married : (1) in 1846, 
to Harriet Anne Blencowe, who died in 
1866, leaving eight children; (2) in 1869, 
to Rebecca Madge, daughter of J. B. Evans 
of Victoria, who survived him ; by her he 
left seven- children. 

[Heaton's Australian Diet, "of Dates ; 
Mennell's Diet, of Australasian Biog. ; Blair's 
Cyclopaedia of Australasia; Melbourne Age, 
26 Jan. 1904, and Argus of same date ; 
Leader 30 Jan. 1904 ; The Times, 26 Jan. 
1904 ; Who's Who, 1901 ; private informa- 
tion.] C. A. H. 

BESANT, SIR WALTER (1836-1901), 
novelist, born on 14 Aug. 1836 at 3 St. 
George's Square, Portsea, was fifth child 
and third son in a family of six sons and 
four daughters of William Besant (d. 1879), 
merchant, of Portsmouth, by his wife Sarah 
Ediss (d. 1890), daughter of a builder and 
architect, of Dibden near Hythe. His 
eldest brother, William Henry Besant, 
F.R.S. (6. 1828), senior wrangler (1850) 
and fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge 
(1853), became a mathematician of repute. 
Mrs. Annie Besant (b. 1847), theosophical 
lecturer and author, was wife of his brother 
Frank, vicar of Sibsey, Lincolnshire, from 
1871. Much of Walter's boyhood is described 
by him in his novel * By Celia's Arbour.' 
As a boy he devoured his father's small 
but representative library of the English 
classics. After education at home, he was 
sent in 1848 to St. Paul's grammar school, 
Portsea (now a Wesleyan chapel), where 





his eldest brother had been captain. After 
the closing of the school, Besant was at 
home again for eighteen months, and 
in 1851 went to Stockwell grammar school, 
which was affiliated to King's College, 
London. While there he made, on half- 
holidays, short excursions into the City, 
studying its streets and buildings and 
developing a love of London archaeology 
and history which absorbed him in later 
life. Having spent three terms at King's 
College, London (1854-5), where Dean 
Wace and Canon Ainger [q. v. Suppl. II] 
were among his contemporaries, he matri- 
culated at Christ's College, Cambridge, 
in 1856. At Christ's his undergraduate 
friends included his seniors, Charles Stuart 
Calverley, W. W. Skeat, (Sir) Walter 
Joseph Sendall [q. v. Suppl. II], and (Sir) 
John Robert Seeley, as well as John Peile 
[q. v. Suppl. II], who was of his own 
age. He was bracketed with Calverley 
for the gold medal for English essay at 
Christ's in 1856, and won the prize offered 
by Calverley for an examination in the 
* Pickwick Papers ' at Christmas 1857, 
Skeat being second. After graduating B.A. 
as 18th wrangler in 1859, Besant gained the 
special bachelor's theological prize, made 
some unsuccessful attempts at journalism in 
London, and then was appointed a mathe- 
matical master of Leamington College, 
with the intention of taking holy orders 
and becoming chaplain there. In 1860 he 
enjoyed a first experience of continental 
travel, on a walking tour in Tyrol with 
Calverley, Peile, and Samuel Walton. Re- 
jecting thoughts of holy orders, he ac- 
cepted in 1861 the senior professorship at 
the Royal College, Mauritius. Among his 
colleagues was Frederick Guthrie, F.R.S., 
with whom he was on very intimate terms 
until Guthrie' s death in 1886. Friends on 
the island also numbered Charles Meldrum 
[q. v. Suppl. II], whom he succeeded 
at the college, and James Dykes Campbell 
[q. v. Suppl. I]. He proceeded M.A. at 
Cambridge in 1863. His vacations were 
devoted to the study of French, both old 
and modern, and to essay writing. At the 
end of six and a half years he was offered 
the rectorship of the college, but he refused 
it on the ground of ill-health. He finally 
left Mauritius for England in June 1867, 
visiting Cape Town and St. Helena on his 
way home. 

Thereupon Besant settled in London 
with a view to a literary career. Next year 
he was engaged to write leading articles 
on social topics in the ' Daily News,' and 
published ' Early French Poetry,' his first 

book, the fruit of recreations in Mauritius. 
Though loosely constructed, the work 
presents much valuable information in a 
readable style. Encouraged by the book's 
reception, he contributed articles on French 
literature to the * British Quarterly Review ' 
and the ' Daily News,' besides a paper on 
' Rabelais ' to ' Macmillan's Magazine ' 
(1871). These were collected in ' The 
French Humourists from the Twelfth 
to the Nineteenth Century ' (1873). Later 
French studies were ' Montaigne ' (1875) ; 

* Rabelais ' (in Blackwood's foreign classics, 
1879 ; new edit. 1885) ; ' Gaspard de Coligny ' 
(1879 ; new edit. 1894, in the ' New Plutarch ' 
series of biographies, of which Besant was 
general editor 1879-81) ; and * Readings in 
Rabelais' (1883). He was author also of 

* A Book of French : Grammatical Exercises, 
History of the Language' (12mo, 1877). 
Besant especially helped to popularise Rabe- 
lais in England. Joining the Savile Club in 
1873, he formed in 1879, chiefly among its 
members, a Rabelais Club for the discussion 
of Rabelais's work. The club lasted ten 
years, and to its three volumes of * Re- 
creations ' (3 vols. 1881-8) Besant was a 
frequent contributor. 

Meanwhile Besant identified himself 
with other interests. In June 1868 he 
became secretary of the Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund, a society founded in 
1864 for the systematic exploration of 
Palestine. The salary was 200/. a year, 
afterwards raised to 300Z. Besant held the 
office till 1886, when pressure of literary 
work compelled his retirement; but he 
remained honorary secretary till his death. 
He devoted his pen to the interests of the 
fund with characteristic energy. In colla- 
boration with E. H. Palmer [q. v.], professor 
of Arabic at Cambridge, with whom in his 
secretarial capacity he grew intimate, he 
wrote in 1871 ' Jerusalem : the City of 
Herod and Saladin ' (4th edit. 1899; fine 
paper edit. 1908), and he edited the ' Survey 
of Western Palestine' (1881). On Palmer's 
death in 1882 Besant wrote a sympathetic 
but uncritical * Life ' of him. He also gave 
an account of the society's activities in 
' Twenty-one Years' Work, 1865-86' (1886), 
which was revised in ' Thirty Years' Work, 
1865-95 ' (1895). Of the subsidiary Palestine 
Pilgrims Text Society for the translation 
of narratives of ancient pilgrimages in 
Palestine, which was founded in 1884 with 
Sir Charles Wilson as director, Besant was 
likewise secretary. 

An accident diverted Besant's energy 
to novel writing. He sent early in 1869 
an article on the Island of Reunion, which 




he had visited from Mauritius, to * Once a I 
Week.' No acknowledgment was received. | 
By chance Besant discovered at the end of 
the year that the paper was published with 
many misprints in the issues of 16 and 
23 Oct. Besant expostulated in a letter 
to the editor, who proved to be James 
Rice [q. v.]. Rice offered a satisfactory 
explanation, and courteously requested 
further contributions. Besant wrote a short 
Christmas story, * Titania's Farewell,' for 
the Christmas number of the journal 
(1870). Friendly relations with the editor 
followed, and in 1871 Rice asked Besant 
to collaborate in a novel, the plot of which 
he had already drafted. The result was 
' Ready Money Mortiboy,' which first 
appeared as a serial in ' Once a Week ' 
and was published in three volumes in 1872. 
The book was welcomed by the public with 
enthusiasm. The partnership was pursued 
till Rice's disablement through illness in 
1881. The fruits were 'My Little Girl' 
(1874), 'With Harp and Crown' (1874), 
'This Son of Vulcan' (1875), 'The Golden 
Butterfly,' a triumphant success (1876), 
' The Monks of Thelema ' (1877), ' By Celia's 
Arbour' (1878), 'The Chaplain of the 
Fleet' (1879), and 'The Seamy Side' 
(1881). Besant and Rice also wrote jointly 
the Christmas number for ' All the Year 
Round ' from 1872 till 1882. The division of 
labour made Rice mainly responsible for 
the plot and its development, and Besant 
mainly responsible for the literary form (see 
RICE, JAMES, preface to Library edit, of 
Ready Money Mortiboy, 1887, and Idler, 
1892). With Rice Besant further wrote 
an historical biography, ' Sir Richard 
Whittington ' (1879 ; new edit. 1894), and 
made his first attempt as a playwright, 
composing jointly ' Such a Good Man,' a 
comedy, produced by John Hollingshead 
at the Olympic Theatre in Dec. 1879 
(HOLL:ENGSHEAD, My Lifetime, i. 38-9). 
Besant made a few other dramatic 
experiments in collaboration with Mr. 
Walter Herries Pollock. In 1887 they 
adapted for an amateur theatrical company 
which played at Lord Monkswell's house at 
Chelsea, De Banville's drama ' Gringoire ' 
under the title of ' The Balladmonger.' 
It was subsequently performed by (Sir) 
H. Beerbohm Tree at the Haymarket 
Theatre (Sept. 1887) and at His Majesty's 
Theatre (June 1903). With Pollock, too, 
Besant published ' The Charm, and other 
Drawing-room Plays ' in 1896. 

While Rice lived, Besant made only one 
independent effort in fiction, producing in 
1872 an historical novel, ' When George the 

Third was Bang.' On Rice's death, he 
continued novel-writing single-handed, pro- 
ducing a work of fiction of the regulation 
length each year for twenty years, besides 
writing the Christmas number for ' All the 
Year Round' between 1882 and 1887 and 
many other short stories. The plots of 
Besant' s sole invention are far looser in 
texture than those of the partnership, and 
he relied to a larger extent than before on 
historical incident. In ' Dorothy Forster ' 
(3 vols. 1884), which Besant considered his 
best work, he showed ingenuity in placing 
a graceful love story in an historical setting. 
' The World went very well then ' (1887), 
'For Faith and Freedom' (1888), 'The 
Holy Rose ' (1890), and ' St. Katharine's 
by the Tower' (1891) deal effectively 
with English life in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. Besant's treatment 
of current society is for the most part 
less satisfactory. But two of his pieces 
of modern fiction, ' All Sorts and Condi- 
tions of Men' (1882) and 'Children of 
Gibeon ' (1886), achieved a popularity in 
excess of anything else from his pen, but 
on other than purely literary grounds. 

Besant, in whom philanthropic interest 
was always strong, had made personal 
inquiry into the problems of poverty in 
East London, and in these two novels he 
enforced definite proposals for their solu- 
tion. The second book dwelt on the evils 
of sweating, and helped forward the move- 
ment for the trades-organisation of working 
women. The first book, 'All Sorts and 
Conditions of Men,' which was mainly a 
strenuous plea for the social regeneration 
of East London, greatly stimulated the 
personal sympathy of the well-to-do with 
the East End poor. In this novel Besant 
depicted a fictitious ' Palace of Delight,' 
which should cure the joyless monotony of 
East End life. Besant helped moreover to 
give his fancy material shape. A bequest 
of 13,OOOZ. left in 1841 by John Thomas 
Barber Beaumont [q. v.], with the object of 
providing ' intellectual improvement and 
rational recreation and amusement for 
people living at the East End of London,' 
was made the nucleus of a large public 
fund amounting to 75,OOOZ, which was 
collected under the direction of Sir Edmund 
Hay Currie, with Besant's active co-opera- 
tion, for the foundation of an institution 
on the lines which Besant had laid down. 
The Drapers' Company added 20,000/. for 
technical schools. Ultimately, Besant's 
' People's Palace ' was erected in Mile End 
Road, and was opened by Queen Victoria 
on 14 May 1887. The Palace contained 





a hall the Queen's hall capable of hold- 
ing 4000 people for cheap concerts and 
lectures. There were soon added a swim- 
ming-bath, library, technical schools, winter 
garden, gymnasium, art schools, lecture 
rooms, and rooms for social recreation. 
Besant actively engaged in the manage- 
ment, was leader of the literary circle, and 
edited a ' Palace Journal.' But the effort 
failed, to Besant' s regret, to realise his chief 
hope. Under the increased patronage and 
control of the Drapers' Company, the educa- 
tional side encroached on the social and 
recreative side until the scheme developed 
into the East London Technical College, 
and finally into the East London College, 
which was in 1908 recognised as a branch 
of London University. A portion of the 
People's Palace was maintained under that 
title for social and recreative purposes, but 
it became a subsidiary feature of the in- 
stitution (see article by SIR EDMUND HAY 
CURBIE in Nineteenth Century, Feb. 1890; 
cf. Century Magazine, June 1890, and 
Guide to the People's Palace, 1900). 

At C. G. Leland's suggestion Besant 
took, in 1884, another step in promoting 
beneficial recreation. He initiated ' The 
Home Arts and Industries Association,' 
which established evening schools through 
the country for the voluntary teaching 
and practice of the minor arts, such 
as wood-carving, leather-work, fretwork, 
weaving, and embroidery. There are now 
some 500 schools, and annual exhibitions 
of work are held. Besant also suggested 
in 1897 the Women's Central Bureau for 
the employment of women, hi connection 
with the National Union of Women 

At the same time much of Besant' s 
public spirit was absorbed by an effort to 
improve the financial status of his own 
profession of author. In 1884 he and some 
dozen other authors formed the Society of 
Authors, with Lord Tennyson as president 
and leaders in all branches of literature as 
vice-presidents. The society's object was 
threefold, viz. the maintenance, definition, 
and defence of literary property ; the con- 
solidation and amendment of laws of 
domestic copyright; and the promotion of 
international copyright. Besant, who 
organised the first committee of manage 
ment and was chairman of committee 
from 1889 till 1892, was the life and sou] 
of the movement throughout its initial 
stages. On 15 May 1890 he started, with 
himself as editor, ' The Author,' a monthly 
organ of propaganda. He represented the 
society at an authors' congress at Chicago 

with Mr. S. Squire Sprigge) in 1893 and 
jave an account of its early struggles and 
growth. In his lifetime the original 
Membership of sixty-eight grew to nearly 
2000. The society's endeavour to secure 
copyright reform under his direction proved 
substantially successful and influenced new 
copyright legislation in America in 1891, in 
Canada in 1900 and in Great Britain in 1911. 
But Besant' s chief aim was to strengthen 
the author's right in his literary property 
and to relieve him of traditional financial 
disabilities, which Besant ascribed in part 
to veteran customs of the publishing trade, 
n part to publishing devices which savoured 
of dishonesty, and in part to the unbusi- 
nesslike habits of authors. His agitation 
brought, him into conflict with publishers 
of high standing, who justly resented some 
of his sweeping generalisations concerning 
the character of publishing operations. 
Like other earnest controversialists Besant 
tended to exaggerate his case, which in 
the main was sound. The leading results 
of his propaganda were advantageous 
to authors. He practically established 
through the country the principle that 
author's accounts with publishers should 
be subject to audit. He exposed many 
fraudulent practices on the part of dis- 
reputable publishers, both here and in 
America, and gave injured authors a ready 
means of redressing their grievances. At 
Besant's instigation the society's pension 
fund for impoverished authors was started 
in 1901. In 1892 he established an Authors' 
Club in connection with the society, and in 
1899, in his ' The Pen and the Book,' he 

tave his final estimate of the authors' 
nancial and legal position. In George 
Meredith's words, Besant was ' a valorous, 
alert, persistent advocate ' of the authors' 
cause and sought ' to establish a system 
of fair dealing between the sagacious 
publishers of books and the inexperienced, 
often heedless, producers ' (Author, July 
1901). In 1895 Besant, who had already 
advocated the more frequent bestowal on 
authors of titles of honour, was knighted 
on Lord Rosebery's recommendation. He 
had been elected in 1887 a member of the 
Athenaeum under Rule II. 

In Oct. 1894 Besant entered on what he 
considered his greatest work, which was 
inspired conjointly by his literary and public 
interests. He resolved to prepare a survey 
of modern London on the lines on which 
Stow had dealt with Tudor London. With 
the aid of experts, he arranged to describe 
the changing aspects of London from the 
earliest times till the end of the nineteenth 




century. Preliminary studies of general 
London history he embodied in * London " 
(1892 ; new edit. 1894), * Westminster 
(1895), 'South London' (1899), 'East 
London ' (1901), and ' The Thames ' (1902). 
He was also general editor from 1897 of 
' The Fascination of London,' a series of 
handbooks to London topography. But the 
great survey was not completed at his death, 
and, finished by other hands, it appeared 
in ten comprehensively illustrated volumes 
after his death, viz. : ' Early London ' 
(1908), 'Medieval London' (2 vols. 1906), 
' London in the Time of the Tudors ' (1904), 
' London in the Time of the Stuarts ' (1903), 
' London in the Eighteenth Century ' (1902), 
' London in the Nineteenth Century ' 
(1909), 'London City' (1910), 'London 
North ' (1911) and 'London South' (1912). 
He also originated in 1900, with (Sir) A. 
Conan Doyle, Lord Coleridge, and others, 
the ' Atlantic Union,' a society for enter- 
taining in England American and British 
colonial visitors. Becoming a Freemason 
in 1862, he was hon. sec. of the small 
society, the Masonic Archaeological In- 
stitute. Some eighteen years later he 
was member of a small Archaeological 
Lodge, which, originally consisting of nine 
members, now has 2000 corresponding 
members scattered over the globe. He 
long resided at Hampstead, where he was 
president of the Antiquarian Historical 
Society, and vice-president of the Art 
Society. He was elected F.S.A. in 1894. 

Besant died at his residence, Frognal End, 
Hampstead, on 9 June 1901, and was buried 
in the burial ground in Church Row 
attached to Hampstead parish church. 
He married in Oct. 1874 Mary Garrett 
(d. 1904), daughter of Eustace Forster 
Barham of Bridgwater, and left issue two 
sons and two daughters. His library was 
sold at Sotheby's on 24 March 1902. 
Bronze busts by (Sir) George Frampton, 
R.A., were set up in the crypt of St. Paul's 
Cathedral in 1901 and on the Victoria 
Embankment, near Waterloo Bridge, in 
1902. A portrait, painted by John 
Pettie, R.A., and exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1887, now belongs to his 
elder son. A portrait was also painted by 

Besant was of a thick-set figure, with 
bushy beard, somewhat brusque in manner, 
but genial among intimate friends, generous 
in help to struggling literary aspirants, 
and imbued with a high sense of public 
duty. His methodical habits of mind and 
work, which were due in part to his mathe- 
matical training, rendered his incessant 

labour effective in very varied fields. In 
his own business of authorship his practice 
did not always cohere with his principle ; 
by selling outright the copyrights of his 
novels he contradicted the settled maxim 
of the Authors' Society that authors should 
never part with their copyrights. He had 
no love of priests and religious dogma, 
and tended to depreciate the religious 
work of the church in the East End of 
London (see Nineteenth Century, 1887), but 
he admired and energetically supported the 
social work of the Salvation Army. 

Of Besant' s novels written alone after 
Rice's death fifteen appeared in the three- 
volume form (at 31s. 6d.), and were soon 
reissued in cheap single volumes. These 
works were: 1. 'All Sorts and Conditions 
of Men,' 1882. 2. ' The Revolt of Man,' 
1882. 3. 'All in a Garden Fair,' 1883. 
4. 'The Captain's Room,' 1883. 5. 
' Dorothy Forster,' 1884. 6. ' Uncle Jack,' 
1885. 7. 'Children of Gibeon,' 1886. 

8. ' The World went very well then,' 1887. 

9. 'Herr Paulus,' 1888. 10. 'For Faith 
and Freedom,' 1888. 11. 'The Bell 
of St. Paul's,' 1889. 12. ' Armorel of 
Lyonesse,' 1890. 13. 'St. Katharine's by 
the Tower,' 1891. 14. ' The Ivory Gate,' 
1892. 15. ' The Rebel Queen,' 1893 ; Dutch 
trans. 1895. There followed, with two ex- 
ceptions, in single volumes at six shillings, 
16. ' Beyond the Dreams of Avarice,' 
1895. 17. 'In Deacon's Orders,' 1895. 

18. ' The Master Craftsman,' 2 vols. 1896. 

19. 'The City of Refuge,' 3 vols. 1896. 

20. ' A Fountain Sealed,' 1897. 21. ' The 
Changeling,' 1898. 22. ' The Orange Girl,' 
1899. 23. ' The Fourth Generation,' 1900. 
24. ' The Lady of Lynn,' 1901. 25. ' No 
Other Way,' 1902. ' The Holy Rose,' 1890, 
and * A Five Years' Tryst,' 1902, were 
collections of short stories in single 
volumes. ' Katharine Regina ' (1887 ; 
Russian trans. 1888) and 'The Inner 
House' (1888) appeared in Arrowsmith's 
Shilling Library. 

He was also author of ' The Eulogy of 
Richard Jefferies' (1888), 'Captain Cook' 
1889), 'The Rise of the Empire' (1897), 
and 'The Story of King Alfred' (1901). 
[n 1879 he wrote 'Constantinople,' with 
William Jackson Brodribb [q. v. Suppl. II]. 
There appeared posthumously ' Essays and 
Historiettes ' and ' As we are and as we 
may be ' in 1903, and his ' Autobiography,' 
edited by S. Squire Sprigge, in 1902. 

[Autobiography of Sir Walter Besant, ed. 
by S. Squire Sprigge, 1902; The Author, 
1901, and passim; The Times, 11, 13, and 
17 June 1901 ; Athenseum, 15 June 1901 ; 




Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly State- 
ment, 1901, pp. 207-9; Forum, July 1902; 
Review of Reviews, Sept. 1893 (art. by John 
Underbill) ; Nineteenth Cent., Sept. 1887 ; 
private information.] W. B. 0. 

1908), archdeacon of Brecon, born on 1 May 
1821 at Beaufort, Breconshire, was eldest 
of three sons of William Hibbs Bevan 
(1788-1846), then of Beaufort, but later 
of Glannant, Crickhowell (high sheriff for 
Breconshire 1841), by Margaret, daughter 
of Joseph Latham, also of Beaufort, but 
originally from Boughton-in-Furness. With 
a stepbrother, Edward Kendall, the father 
carried on the Beaufort Iron Works, 
trading as Kendall & Bevan, until 1833 
(J. LLOYD, Old S. Wales Iran Works, 
178-189). The youngest brother, George 
Phillips Bevan (1829-1889), wrote popular 
tourists' guides for Hampshire, Surrey, 
Kent, the three Ridings of Yorkshire, War- 
wickshire, the Wye Valley, and the Channel 
Islands (between 1877 and 1887, and re- 
peatedly reprinted) ; industrial geographies 
of Great Britain and Ireland, France, and 
the United States (London 1880) ; and in 
conjunction with Sir John Stainer a hand- 
book to St. Paul's Cathedral (1882) (see 
The Times, 10 August 1889). 

After Bevan's education at Rugby under 
Dr. Arnold, he matriculated from Balliol 
College, Oxford, on 14 Dec. 1838 ; but he 
almost immediately removed to Magdalen 
Hall (now Hertford College) on being elected 
Lusby scholar there. He graduated B.A. 
in 1842, with a second class in the final 
classical school, and M.A. in 1845. In 1844 
he was ordained deacon, and in 1845, after 
a short curacy at Stepney, he was admitted 
priest and presented to the living i of 
Hay, Breconshire, by Sir Joseph Bailey, 
who was married to his mother's sister. 
This living, though a very poor one 
without a parsonage, he held for fifty-six 
years, his private means enabling him to 
contribute largely to the restoration of 
the church, the erection of British schools 
and of a town clock and tower, besides build- 
ing a parish hall at his own expense. He 
was also prebendary of Llanddewi-Aberarth 
in St. David's Cathedral, 1876-9; canon 
residentiary of St. David's, 1879-93; arch- 
deacon of Brecon from 1895 till 1907 (when 
at his resignation his son Edward Latham 
was appointed in his place); proctor for 
the diocese of St. David's, 1880-95; ex- 
amining chaplain to the bishop, 1881-97; 
and chaplain of Hay Union, 1850-95. He 
was offered, but declined, the deaneries 
of Llandaff (in 1897), St. David's (in 1903), 

and St. Asaph. On resigning the living 
of Hay in Nov. 1901 Bevan retired to Ely 
Tower, Brecon, where he died on 24 Aug. 
1908; he was buried at Hay, where his 
widow, who died on 23 Oct. 1909, was 
also buried. He is commemorated in Hay 
Church by carved oak choir stalls and a 
marble chancel pavement, given by his 
family in August 1910. The St. David's 
diocesan conference in 1908 resolved on 
founding a diocesan memorial to him. 

Bevan married on 19 June 1849, at 
Whitney Church, Herefordshire, Louisa, 
fourth daughter of Tomkyns Dew of 
Whitney Court, by whom he had three 
sons and four daughters. 

Bevan was a moderate churchman, who 
believed in enlarging the powers of the 
laity. He was a great linguist, and had a 
literary knowledge of Welsh, though he 
never preached in it. His general attitude 
to Welsh questions was that of a critical, 
scholarly anglican. He is best known for 
various pamphlets or printed essays and ser- 
mons in defence of the Welsh Church, which 
include : ' The Church Defence Handy 
Volume' (1892) and ' Notes on the Church 
in Wales ' (1905). During the last twenty 
years of his life he was regarded as an 
authority on the history of the Welsh 
Church, but probably his only work of 
permanent value on the subject is his 
History of St. David's' in the S.P.C.K. 
series of diocesan histories (1888). 

Besides contributing numerous articles 
to Smith's ' Dictionary of the Bible,' Bevan 
was also author of three works on ancient 
geography ' A Manual ' (1852) ; ' A 
Student's Manual,' based on [Dr. Smith's] 
' Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography ' 
(1861, 12mo); and' A Smaller Manual' (1872, 
12mo) as well as of ' A Student's Manual of 
Modern Geography, Mathematical, Physical 
and Descriptive ' (2 vols. 1868, 12mo ; 
7th edit. 1884), .which was translated into 
Italian and Japanese. 

[Western Mail, 25 and 28 Aug. 1908; 
Guardian, 26 Aug. 1908 ; Church Times, 28 
Aug. 1908 ; an excellent Welsh notice in 
Ceninen Gwyl Dewi, 1909 ; private information 
from his eldest daughter, Mrs. Dawson of 
Hartlington Hall, Yorkshire.] D. LL. T. 

(1837-1908), Irish lawyer and genealogist, 
born in Dublin on 11 Jan. 1837, was son 
of Edward Bewley (1806-1876), licentiate 
of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons and 
Physicians, Ireland, by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Thomas Mulock of Kilnagarna, 
King's County (1791-1857). Entering 
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1855, he obtained 




a classical scholarship in 1857, and a 
first senior moderatorship and gold medal 
in experimental science in 1859. In 1860 
he graduated B.A. and in 1863 M.A. 
Subsequently (1885) he proceeded LL.D. 
In 1861 he obtained the degree of B.A., 
ad eundem, and also that of M.A., with 
honours and first gold medal in experimental 
science, in the Queen's (afterwards Royal) 
University of Ireland. Called to the 
Irish bar in 1862, he practised successfully 
for some years, and in 1882 took silk. 
From 1884 to 1890 he was regius professor 
of feudal and English law in Dublin Uni- 
versity, and in 1890 became a judge of the 
supreme court of judicature of Ireland, and 
judicial commissioner of the Irish Land 
Commission. Owing to declining health he 
retired in 1898, when he was knighted. He 
was elected F.S.A. 10 Jan. 1908, and died 
at Dublin on 27 June following. 

Bewley married in 1866 Anna Sophie 
Stewart, daughter of Henry Colles, a 
member of the Irish bar, and by her had 
two sons and one daughter. 

Bewley spent his leisure in genealogical 
pursuits. He was a frequent contributor 
to the * Genealogist,' ' Ancestor,' and other 
genealogical periodicals. His most im- 
portant researches were privately printed. 
His three books, 'The Bewleys of 
Cumberland ' (1902) ; ' The Family of 
Mulock' (1905); and 'The Family of 
Poe' (1906), are sound and patient in- 
vestigations into family history ; in the 
monograph on the Poe family he proved 
that Edgar Allan Poe was descended 
from a family of Powell, for generations 
tenant-farmers in co. Cavan. Bewley 
was also author of ' The Law and Practice 
of Taxation of Costs ' (1867) ; ' A Treatise 
on the Common Law Procedure Acts ' 
(1871) ; and joint-author of ' A Treatise 
on the Chancery (Ireland) Act, 1867 ' (1868). 

[The Bewleys of Cumberland, 1902; The 
Times, 29 June 1908 ; Dublin Nat, Libr. Cat. ; 
Irish Times, 28 June 1908.] D. J. O'D. 

(1825-1906), bishop of Exeter, only son of 
the Rev. Edward Bickersteth (1786-1850) 
[q. v.] by his wife Sarah, eldest daughter 
of Thomas Bignold of Norwich, was born 
at Barnsbury Park, Islington, on 25 Jan. 
1825, when his father was assistant secretary 
to the Church Missionary Society. Edward 
Bickersteth (1814-1892) [q. v.], dean of Lich- 
field, and Robert Bickersteth [q. v.], bishop 
of Ripon, were his cousins. Brought up 
at the rectory of Watton, Hertfordshire, 
which his father accepted in 1830, Edward 
remained faithful through life to the 

earnest evangelical piety of his family. At 
fourteen he determined to take holy orders. 
Educated entirely at home, his tutor was 
Thomas Rawson Birks [q. v.], his father's 
curate, and subsequently his son-in-law. 
In 1843 he matriculated from Trinity 
College, Cambridge. In 1847 he graduated 
B.A. as a senior optime and third classman 
in classics. He proceeded M.A. in 1850, and 
hon. D.D. in 1885. His comparatively low 
place in the class lists was atoned for by his 
unique success in winning the chancellor's 
medal for English verse in three successive 
years, 1844^-5-6 (a volume of ' Poems ' 
collected these and other verses in 1849). 
Later, in 1854, he won the Seatonian prize 
for an English sacred poem on ' Ezekiel,' 
which was also published. Ordained deacon 
in 1848 and priest in 1849 by Bishop Stanley, 
Bickersteth was licensed as curate-in-charge 
of Banningham near Aylsham. On a failure 
of health in 1851 he became curate to Christ 
Church, Tunbridge Wells. In 1853 he was 
appointed by Lord Ashley, afterwards earl 
of Shaftesbury, to the rectory of Hinton 
Martell near Wimborne, Dorset, and in 1855 
he accepted the important vicarage of Christ 
Church, Hampstead. 

Bickersteth remained vicar of Christ 
Church, Hampstead, for thirty years. His 
incumbency furnishes a typical example 
of the pastoral ideals of current evangelical 
piety. He insisted on the value of retreats 
and quiet days. In 1879 he established 
daily services in his parish and recommended 
the open church. His devotion to the 
Church Missionary Society was hereditary. 
Throughout : his Hampstead incumbency 
he was a member of the committee, and 
the yearly contribution of his congregation 
ultimately reached 1000Z. He paid two 
long visits to the East, mainly to encourage 
missionary work, in 1880-1, when he 
visited India and Palestine, and in 1891, 
when he went to Japan. When he was 
a deacon he composed for the jubilee of 
the Church Missionary Society the well- 
known hymn ' O Brothers, lift your 
voices,' and fifty years later he composed 
another for use when he presided over 
the centenary of the society. He also 
impartially supported many church and 
diocesan societies which lacked earlier 
evangelical sanction. 

While at Hampstead Bickersteth won 
a wide recognition as a religious writer in 
both verse and prose. In 1866 he published 
' Yesterday, To-day, and For Ever ; a 
poem in twelve books,' which achieved re- 
markable popularity among religious people. 
It was estimated that 27,000 copies were 




sold in England and 50,000 in America; 
the seventeenth English edition appeared 
in 1885. The poem embodied in copious 
flowing blank verse the account of heaven 
and the last things given in the Apo- 
calypse. It supplied evangelicals with 
poetry that did not offend their piety, and 
took for them the place held by Keble's 
' Christian Year ' among another school 
of churchmen. As literature it has the 
\\rakness of nearly all imitations of Milton. 
Bickersteth was a voluminous writer of 
hymns. In 1858 he brought out * Psalms 
and Hymns,' based on his father's ' Christian 
Psalmody' (new edit. 1860). A second 
effort, to which he gave the title ' The 
Hymnal Companion to the Book of Common 
Prayer,' soon superseded in evangelical 
parishes all other compilations ; there were 
two editions, one with and one without 
annotation (1870; revised and enlarged 
1876, and 1880). About thirty of Bicker- 
steth' s own hymns are in common use, the 
best-known being * Peace, perfect peace,' 
which appeared in ' From Year to Year ' 
(1883 ; 3rd edit. 1896), his best collection 
of scattered verse (JULIAN, Dictionary of 
Hymnology, pp. 141, 342). Bickersteth's 
religious writing in prose includes a 
' Practical and Expository Commentary on 
the New Testament' (1864), intended 
especially for family use, of which more 
than 40,000 copies were sold. Of his 
devotional works * The Master's Home 
Call, or, Brief Memorials of [his daughter] 
Alice Frances Bickersteth, by her Father' 
(1872; 3rd edit, in the same year) 
circulated most widely. 

In January 1885 Bickersteth was ap- 
pointed dean of Gloucester, but immedi- 
ately after his institution the prime minister, 
Gladstone, pressed upon him the bishopric 
of Exeter, in succession to Frederick Temple 
[q. v. Suppl. II], who was translated to 
London. Bickersteth's appointment was 
probably intended as a counterpoise to the 
nomination of Edward King [q. v. Suppl. II] 
to the see of Lincoln. Both bishops were 
consecrated in St. Paul's Cathedral on 
St. Mark's Day, 25 April 1885, when 
Canon Liddon preached on the episcopal 
office. Bickersteth carried forward many 
reforms in the diocese which Temple had 
initiated, notably the employment of the 
canons of the cathedral in diocesan work. 
Despite his gentleness, Bickersteth's 
spiritual gifts as a pastor made him a 
potent influence. His hospitality was 
comprehensive. For five months in 1891 
In 1 was in Japan and Bishop Barry officiated 
in his absence. In 1894 he presided over the 

Church Congress at Exeter, and in an open- 
ing address advocated compulsory retire- 
ment from clerical work at seventy unless 
a medical certificate of efficiency could be 
produced. The death of his son Edward, the 
bishop of South Tokyo [q. v.], in 1897, was 
a heavy blow, and after a serious attack of 
influenza in the spring of 1900 he resigned 
his see. After five years of illness, he died 
on 16 May 1906, at his residence in West- 
bourne Terrace, London, and was buried 
at Watton. 

In 1898 his portrait, a three-quarter 
length in oils, was painted by A. S. Cope, 
and given to the bishop to be kept in the 
Palace, with a replica for Mrs. Bickersteth. 
A memorial monument was placed in 
Exeter cathedral. 

Bickersteth married twice : ( 1 ) in February 
1848 his cousin Rosa, daughter of Sir 
Samuel Bignold of Norwich; she died in 
1873, having borne him six sons and 
ten daughters ; (2) in 1876 his cousin 
Ellen Susanna, daughter of Robert Bicker- 
steth of Liverpool, who was the devoted 
companion of his later life and survived 
him without issue. 

Besides the poetical works already men- 
tioned Bickersteth published ' Nineveh, a 
poem ' (1851), and ' The Two Brothers and 
other Poems ' (1871 ; 2nd edit. 1872). 

His prose work included, besides 
charges, sermons and the works cited, 
1. ' Water from the Well-Spring . . . being 
Meditations for every Sunday,' 1852 ; 
revised and reissued 1885. 2. ' The Rock 
of Ages ; or Scripture Testimony to the one 
Eternal Godhead of the Father and of the 
Son and of the Holy Ghost,' 1859, 1860; 
new edit. 1888. 3. ' The Blessed Dead : 
what does Scripture reveal of their State 
before the Resurrection?' 2nd edit. 1863. 

4. ' The Second Death ; or the Certainty 
of Everlasting Punishment, &c.' 1869. 

5. 'The Reef and other Parables,' 1874; 
2nd edit. 1885. 6. 'The Lord's Table,' 
1884; reissued as 'The Feast of Divine 
Love; or The Lord's Table,' 1896. 7. 
'Thoughts in Past Years,' 1901, a volume 
of 18 selected sermons. 

[F. K. Aglionby, Life of E. H. Bickersteth, 
1907 ; The Times, 17 May 1906 ; information 
from son, Dr. Samuel Bickersteth, vicar of 
Leeds.] R. B. 

SHRAPNEL (1823-1904), general and 
colonel commandant royal artillery, born 
on 30 July 1823 at Cleeve Court, 
Somerset, was eldest surviving son of 
Thomas Shrapnel Biddulph of Amroth 
Castle, Pembrokeshire, prebendary of 


1 60 


Brecon, by his wife Charlotte, daughter of 
James StiUingfleet, prebendary of Worcester 
and great-grandson of Edward Stillingfleet 
[q. v.], bishop of Worcester. His paternal 
grandmother was Rachel, sister of Lieut. - 
general Henry Shrapnel fq. v.], whose 
surname he added to his Christian names 
in 1843. 

Destined for the church and with expec- 
tation of a considerable fortune, Biddulph 
was being educated under a private tutor, 
when speculations in South Wales coal 
mines brought about such serious reverses 
that the family seat was sold and his career 
was changed. He entered the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy at Woolwich on 19 Nov. 
1840, and while a gentleman cadet was 
awarded the Royal Humane Society's 
silver medal for saving a comrade from 
drowning in the canal at the Royal Arsenal on 
25 Aug. 1842. Becoming second lieutenant 
in the royal artillery on 17 June 1843, and 
first lieutenant on 26 April 1844, Bid- 
dulph served for three years in Bermuda, 
and then at various home stations until 
1853, being promoted second captain on 
4 Oct. 1850. When war was declared 
with Russia in the spring of 1854 he was 
ordered to Turkey with the British army 
as adjutant of the royal artillery. 

From Varna, in September, Biddulph 
accompanied the army to the Crimea, 
where he took part in the battles of the 
Alma, Balaklava, Inkerman, and the Tcher- 
naya. He served in the trenches during 
the siege of Qebastopol as assistant engineer, 
and was present at the repulse of the Rus- 
sian sortie on 26 Oct. 1854, and in the three 
bombardments. After the final assault of 
the Malakoff by the French, he was sent 
by Lord Raglan to ascertain from the French 
commander whether he could retain the 
position, and received the laconic and 
well-known answer 'J'y suis, j'y reste.' 
Biddulph was afterwards attached to the 
quartermaster-general's staff, and became 
director of submarine telegraphs in the 
Black Sea. As a sportsman in the Crimea 
he won the grand point-to-point race of the 
allied army in front of Sebastopol. For 
his services Biddulph was mentioned in 
despatches, given a brevet majority on 12 
Dec. 1854 and a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy 
on 6 June 1856, and received the British 
war medal with four clasps, the Turkish 
medal, the French legion of honour, and 
the Turkish medjidie, fifth class. 

When the war was over he was employed 
on special telegraph construction service 
in Asia Minor until 1859, and on his return 
to England was on the committee of the 

first Atlantic cable. After serving in Corfu 
until 1861 he went to India on the amal- 
gamation of the royal and Indian armies, 
was promoted brevet colonel on 14 Aug. 
1863 and regimental lieutenant- colonel on 
10 Aug. 1864. On 20 Feb. 1868 he was 
appointed deputy adjutant-general for 
royal artillery in India, on 30 March 1869 
was promoted major-general, and on relin- 
quishing his staff appointment at the end 
of five years was created a C.B., military 
division, on 24 May 1873. After a visit 
home on furlough, Biddulph returned 
to India in Sept. 1875 to take up 
the command of the Rohilkhand district. 
Two years later he was given the com- 
mand of the Quetta field force in the 
Afghan war, 1878-9, and he held 
successively the command of the second 
I division of the Kandahar field force, and 
! of the Thai Chotiali field force. He was 
present at the occupation of Kandahar 
j and the action of Khusk-i-Nakhud. His 
' march with the Thai Chotiali field force 
| on his return to India in 1879 was made 
! through a country which had never been 
visited by British troops, or even by any 
i European traveller. In spite of preliminary 
negotiations the force was not allowed to 
make a peaceful progress, although Bid- 
dulph carefully observed his orders to avoid 
| irritating the tribes on the route. Repeated 
' acts of hostility were threatened by the 
i natives, and at Baghao the first column was 
j seriously assailed by 2000 Kakars under 
; Shah Jehan of Zhob and other chiefs. But 
I Biddulph surmounted all difficulties, and 
took farewell of the force in a general order 
dated Mian Mir, 16 May 1879. For his 
services in this war he was mentioned in 
despatches, received the thanks of both 
houses of parliament and the medal, and 
was promoted to be K.C.B. on 25 July 1879. 
In 1880 Biddulph was given the command 
of the Rawal Pindi district in India, and 
during his command entertained the Amir 
of Afghanistan at the grand durbar of 
1884 and the Duke of Connaught on 
his tour of inspection in 1885. Biddulph 
was promoted lieut. -general on 13 Feb. 
1881, colonel commandant of royal artillery 
on 14 July 1885, and general on 1 Nov. 1886, 
when he left India for good. On his 
return to England he was for three years 
president of the ordnance committee. 

Biddulph retired from the service under 
the age regulation on 30 July 1890. He was 
offered but refused a colonial governor- 
ship. From 1879 to 1895 he had been 
groom-in-waiting to Queen Victoria and 
from 1895 an extra groom -in- waiting 




successively to Queen Victoria and King 
Edward VII. From 1891 to 1896 he 
was keeper of the regalia at the Tower 
of London. On 25 May 1895 he was 
made G.C.B., and in the following year was 
appointed gentleman usher of the black 
rod. That office he held until his death. 
An all-round and enthusiastic sportsman, 
he was also an accomplished painter of 
landscape in water-colour. 

Biddulph died at his residence, 2 White- 
hall Court, on 23 July 1904, and was buried 
at Kensal Green cemetery. He married in 
1857 Katherine Stepan, daughter and co- 
heiress of Captain Stepan Stamati of 
Karani, Balaklava, commandant of Bala- 
klava, by Helen, daughter and heiress of 
Paul Mavromichalis of Greece. Lady 
Biddulph died on 27 Sept. 1908, and was 
buried beside her husband at Kensal 
Green. Biddulph's five sons, all of the 
military service, survived him, together 
with two of his five daughters. 

An oil portrait by Sylvester was painted 
in 1887, and another by A. Fletcher, which 
was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1904, attracted the attention of King 
Edward VII, who caused a copy to be 
made for Buckingham Palace. Both origi- 
nals are in possession of Sir Michael's 
daughter, Miss Biddulph, at 15 Hanover 
Square, London. 

[The Times, 25 July 1904 ; Men and Women 
of the Time, 1891 ; Royal Artillery Record ; 
Royal Artillery Institution leaflet, August 
1904 ; H. B. Hanna, The Second Afghan War, 
3 vols. 1899-1910; private information.] 

R. H. V. 

BIDWELL, SHELFORD (1848-1909), 
pioneer of telephotography, born at Thet- 
ford, Norfolk, on 6 March 1848, was eldest 
son of Shelf ord Clarke Bidwell, brewer, of 
Thetford, who married his first cousin, 
Georgina, daughter of George Bidwell, 
rector of Stanton, Norfolk. Educated pri- 
vately at a preparatory school in Norfolk, 
and then at a private school at Winchester, 
Bidwell entered Caius College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B. A. (as a junior optime 
in the mathematical tripos) in 1870, LL.B. 
(with a second class in the law and history 
tripos) and M.A. in 1873. Called to the bar 
at Lincoln's Inn on 27 Jan. 1873, he joined 
the south-eastern circuit, and practised for 
some years, but finally devoted himself to 
scientific study, specialising with success in 
electricity and magnetism and physiological 
optics. To friendships formed among mem- 
bers of the Physical Society of London, 
which he joined in 1877, he traced the 
beginning of his scientific interests (see 


his Presidential Address, 1898). Obscure 
and apparently paradoxical phenomena 
fascinated him, and he showed exceptional 
subtlety and ingenuity in endeavours to 
account for them. About 1880 he began 
investigations into the photo-electric pro- 
perties of the substance selenium, which led 
to an important practical application. On 
11 March 1881 he lectured at the Royal 
Institution on * Selenium and its Appli- 
cations to the Photophone and Tele- 
photography,' and described an instrument 
which he had devised for electrically trans- 
mitting pictures of natural objects to a 
distance along a wire. ' It is so far success- 
ful ' (he said) ' that although the pictures 
hitherto transmitted are of a very rudi- 
mentary character, I think there can be no 
doubt that further elaboration of the in- 
strument would render it far more effective. 
Should there ever be a demand for tele- 
photography, it may in time turn out to 
be useful ' (see also Nature, 10 Feb. 1881). 
A paper ' On Telegraphic Photography,' 
read at the York meeting of the British 
Association in 1881, further described 
the invention. The character of other of 
Bidwell's scientific inquiries is indicated 
by the titles of the following papers : 
'The Influence of Friction upon the 
Generation of a Voltaic Current' (Proc. 
Phys. Soc. iv.) ; 'On the Electrical Re- 
sistance of Carbon Contacts ' (Proc. Roy. 
Soc. xxxv.) ; 'The Electrical Resistance 
of Selenium Cells ' (Proc. Phys. Soc. v.) ; 
' On a Method of Measuring Electrical Re- 
sistances with a Constant Current' (Proc. 
Phys. Soc. v.) ; ' On the Sensitiveness of 
Selenium to Light, and the Development 
of a Similar Property in Sulphur' (Proc. 
Phys. Soc. vi.) ; ' On an Effect of Light upon 
Magnetism ' (Proc. Roy. Soc. xlv.) ; ' On 
the Changes produced by Magnetisation 
in the Dimensions of Rings and Rods 
of Iron and of some other Metals ' (Phil. 
Trans, clxxix. A.) ; and ' On the Forma- 
tion of Multiple Images in the Normal Eye ' 
(Proc. Roy. Soc. Ixiv.). 

Bidwell's interests extended to meteoro- 
logy, and in 1893 he lectured at the Royal 
Institution on ' Fogs, Clouds, and Light- 
ning,' and before the Royal Meteorological 
Society, of which he was a fellow, on ' Some 
Meteorological Problems.' 

Another of his Royal Institution dis- 
courses, ' Some Curiosities of Vision' (1897), 
appeared in an enlarged shape as ' Curiosi- 
ties of Light and Vision ' (1899). Bidwell, 
who was a skilful lecturer, was also a clear 
and sound writer. Many papers on physics 
appeared in ' Nature * and the chief 




scientific periodicals, and for the * Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica' (tenth and eleventh 
editions) he wrote the article * Magnetism.' 

Elected F.R.S. on 4 June 1886, he served 
on the council 1904-6. He was president 
of the Physical Society 1897-9, and a member 
of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 
In 1900 the University of Cambridge 
conferred on him the honorary degree of 

He died at his house, Beechmead, 
Oatlands Chase, Wey bridge, on 18 Dec. 
1909, and was buried at Walton cemetery. 
He married in 1874 Wilhelmina Evelyn, 
daughter of Edward Firmstone, rector of 
Wyke, near Winchester, and had issue one 
son and two daughters. 

[Proc. Phys. Soc. xxii. ; Journ. Inst. 
Elect. Eng. xlv. ; Quart. Journ. Roy. 
Meteorol. Soc. xxxvi. ; Roy. Soc. Catal. 
Sci. Papers ; Nature, 30 Dec. 1909 ; Foster's 
Men at the Bar; The Times, 25 Dec. 1909: 
will, 3 Feb. 1910 ; Electrical Review, 31 Dec. 
1909 ; Engineering, 24 Dec. 1909 ; Men of the 
Time, 1899.] T. E. J. 

BIGG, CHARLES (1840-1908), classical 
scholar and theologian, born on 12 Sept. 
1840, at Higher Broughton, near Man- 
chester, was second son of Thomas Bigg, 
a Manchester merchant, by his wife Sarah, 
daughter of Charles Elden. Educated at 
Manchester grammar school, Bigg was 
elected to a scholarship at Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, 26 March 1858. He had a 
brilliant academical career, obtaining first- 
class honours in classics in moderations in 
Michaelmas term, 1859, and in the final 
schools in Easter term, 1862, and carrying 
off the Hertford scholarship for Latin in 
1860, the Gaisford prize for Greek prose 
composition, with a Platonic dialogue, in 
1861 (printed in that year), and the Ellerton 
theological essay in 1864. The appointed 
subject for this essay, ' The Life and 
Character of St. Chrysostom,' directed 
him to the field of study which he was 
to make his own. He graduated B.A. in 
1862, M.A. in 1864, and D.D. in 1876, 
being ordained deacon in 1863 and priest 
in 1864. Becoming a senior student ,and 
classical tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, 
in 1863, he acted as one of the classical 
moderators from 1862 to 1865. In 1866 
he left Oxford to become second classical 
master at Cheltenham College, whence he 
passed in 1871 to the headmastership of 
Brighton College. To this period of his 
life belong school editions of portions of 
Thucydides, books i. and ii. (1868), and of 
Xenophon's'Cyropsedeia' (1884, 1888). 

Resigning his post at Brighton in 1881, he 

returned to Oxford to serve as chaplain to 
his old college, Corpus Christi, and to devote 
himself to severe study of the early history 
of the Christian church, and its relations 
to pagan writers and especially to pagan 
philosophers. The fruit of these researches 
appeared in his Bampton lectures on ' The 
Christian Platonists of Alexandria,' de- 
livered and published in 1 886. These at once 
won him recognition as an exact scholar 
and an acute philosopher and theologian. 

In 1887, on the presentation of Corpus 
Christi College, he became rector of Fenny 
Compton, in Warwickshire. His diocesan, 
Henry Philpott, bishop of Worcester, 
made him his examining chaplain in 1889, 
and honorary canon of Worcester, 1889- 
1901. In 1891 he became examining chap- 
lain to Mandell Creighton [q. v. Suppl. I], 
bishop of Peterborough. At Oxford he was a 
select preacher in 1891, and again in 1900, 
and a theological examiner in 1891-3 and 
again in 1897-9. When Dr. Creighton was 
translated to London in 1897, he asked Dr. 
Bigg to continue acting as his examining 
chaplain, and assigned to him, in October 
1900, a leading part in the Fulham Palace 
conference. To this period of his lif e belong 
editions, with thoughtful introductions, of 
various standard devotional works, such as 
' The Confessions of St. Augustine' (1898), 
' The Imitation of Christ ' (1898; new edit. 
1905), and William Law's 'Serious Call' 
(1899 ; new edit. 1906), and a strongly con- 
servative edition of, and commentary on, 
* The Epistles of St. Peter and St. Jude ' 

Bigg found his true sphere of work in 1901, 
when he succeeded Dr. William Bright 
[q. v. Suppl. II] in the regius professor- 
ship of ecclesiastical history at Oxford, 
with which was associated a canonry of 
Christ Church. His professorial lectures 
were exhaustive expositions of historical 
biography. A frequent preacher in the 
University church and in the cathedral, he 
enlisted the attention of widely different 
classes of hearers (Dr. FRANCIS PAGET, 
bishop of Oxford, in his preface to The Spirit 
of Christ in Common Life, p. vi). Both as 
lecturer and preacher he was distinguished 
by quaint simplicity of thought, originality 
of expression, and dry humour. He was also 
proctor for the chapter of Christ Church in 
the lower house of convocation. He was 
taken ill suddenly at Christ Church on 
13 July 1908, having just sent to press the 
most important of his works, ' The Origins 
of Christianity.' He died on 15 July, and 
was buried in the Christ Church portion of 
Osney cemetery, near Oxford, Bigg married 




on 2 Jan. 1867, at Kersal Moor, Manchester, 
Millicent, daughter of William Sale, a Man- 
chester solicitor, and had issue three sons 
and a daughter. 

Besides the works already noticed, Bigg's 
chief publications were : 1. ' Neoplatonism,' 
1895, in the popular series of ' Ancient 
Philosophies.' 2. 'The Doctrine of the 
Twelve Apostles ' (Early Church Classics), 
1898. 3. 'Wayside Sketches in Ecclesiasti- 
cal History,' 1906, nine lectures on Latin 
writers of the fourth and fifth centuries. 
4. * The Spirit of Christ in Common Life,' 
1909, a collection of addresses and sermons. 
6. 'The Origins of Christianity,' 1909, a 
summary of the history and thought of the 
church in the first three centuries. 

[Foster, Oxford Men ; Crockford, Clerical 
Directory; The Times, 16 July 1908; Oxford 
Mag. xxvii. 7 ; Guardian, 1908, p. 1230 ; 
Oxford Times, 18 and 25 July 1908 ; apprecia- 
tion by W. R. Inge, since Dean of St. Paul's, 
in Journal of Theological Studies, Oct. 1908 ; 
Life of Mandell Creighton, 1904, vol. ii.] A. C. 

1904), architect and archaeologist, fourth 
son of Charles Birch by his wife Emma Eliza 
Cope, was born at Canonbury on 2 Jan. 
1842, and educated at Darnell's private 
school, Islington. At the age of sixteen 
he was articled to Charles Gray, architect, 
and was afterwards (about 1859-60) with 
an architect in Worcester, and then with Sir 
M. Digby Wyatt and Mr. Ewan Christian. 
For a tune in active practice as an archi- 
tect (in Chancery Lane and in Devereux 
Court, Temple), he designed amongst other 
works the interior of Acton Reynald Hall, 
Shrewsbury, for Sir Walter Corbet, baronet, ! 
and in 1884 the scheme of redecoration | 
for the church of St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, j 
London. For several years he devoted | 
much of his leisure to the re-arrangement 
of J. E. Gardner's well-known collection 
illustrating the topographical history of 
London (now the property of Major 
Coates). In 1884 he designed for the Health 
Exhibition at South Kensington the pic- 
turesque and accurate Old London street, 
the first attempt ever made to reproduce 
old London on such a scale. His original 
water-colour drawing of the street was 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1886. 
The street itself, with its church tower, 
gates, wall, &c., cost nearly 14,OOOZ., and 
contained shops of the Elizabethan period 
fitted up at the expense of the City Livery 
Companies (WELCH, Mod. Hist, of the 
City of London, p. 367). It formed a 
highly popular exhibit, and was afterwards 
shown in America. 

Elected an associate of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects in 1875, 
Birch served as vice-president of the 
Architectural Association from 1871 to 1873, 
and as president in 1874^5 ; was hon. 
secretary of the London and Middlesex 
Archaeological Society from 1877 to 1883, 
and Cantor lecturer to the Society of Arts 
in 1883. He became F.S.A. in 1885, and 
in 1894 was appointed curator of Sir John 
Soane's Museum. For many years he 
took a leading part in the affairs of the 
St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society, many 
papers by him being printed in its ' Trans- 
actions.' He was one of the original mem- 
bers of the Architectural Company, formed 
in 1869, of the Artists' Volunteer Corps. 

Birch is best known as an author by his 
' London Churches of the Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth Centuries,' a splendid folio 
published in 1896. He also published : 

1. * Illustrations of an Old House in Lime 
Street ' (with R. Phene Spiers), folio, 1875. 

2. ' London on Thames in bygone Days,' 

Birch died unmarried on 10 May 1904, 
at Soane's Museum, and was buried in 
Islington cemetery, Finchley. 

[Builder, 17 May 1884, 21 May 1904; 
Journal of Royal Inst. of Brit. Arch., ser. 3, 
xi. 396-7 ; Proc. Soc. Antiq., series 2, xx. 
296-7 ; private information.] C. W. 

BIRD, HENRY EDWARD (1830-1908), 
chess player, born at Portsea, Hampshire, 
on 14 July 1830, was son of Henry Bird, of 
a Somerset family, by his wife Mary. His 
father afterwards kept a shop in south 
London. Bird's schooling was scanty, 
but he educated himself and as a boy 
developed notable powers of memory. In 
1846 he became clerk to an accountant in 
London, and was afterwards partner in the 
firm of Coleman, Turquand, Young & Co. 
During the financial crises of 1847, 1857, and 
1867 Bird was greatly occupied in pro- 
fessional business, and between 1860 and 
1870 he paid four visits to Canada and 
America. To railway finance and manage- 
ment he devoted his special attention, giving 
evidence before the parliamentary com- 
mittee on amalgamations of home rail- 
ways in 1868 and framing the statistical 
tables which still govern the Great Eastern 
railway. He wrote pamphlets on railway 
accounts, a comprehensive * Analysis of Rail- 
ways in the United Kingdom' (1868 fol.) 
and 'A Caution to Investors' (1873). 

But Bird's serious interest through life lay 
in chess. He learned the moves by watch- 
ing the games at Raymond's coffee house 
near the City Road Gate in 1844, moved 

M 2 




thence to Goode's, Ludgate Hill, and so to 
Simpson's, in the Strand, where the pro- 
fessionals at first gave him the odds of 
queen. Buckle, the historian, who was con- 
sidered the first amateur in England and 
who did not mind hard work, soon found 
Bird too much for him at the odds of 
pawn and move. In 1851 in the great 
international tournament he played 
eighteen games with the great Anderssen 
with an even result, and later played 
Boden, Harrwitz, Lowenthal, Falkbeer, 
Wisker, Mason and others. With the 
dignified Howard Staunton [q. v.] he only 
played two games on even terms and won 
both, but this at a date when Staunton's 
best days were over. In 1866 he played a 
match of twenty games against Steinitz and 
was only beaten by seven to six (seven 
being drawn). He was a friend of Steinitz's 
rival, John Hermann Zukertort [q. v.], who 
lived near him in Heygate Street, Wai- 
worth Road. In 1879 he won first prize in 
the Lowenthal tourney against Blackburne, 
Mason, and McDonnell, and in the same 
year took the first prize at Gouda, winning 
nine and a half out of ten games and 
first prize in the B.C. A. tournament (1889), 
not losing a single game. At Venice in 
1873, Paris in 1878, Nuremberg in 1883, 
Hereford in 1885, and Manchester 1890 he 
was among the prizewinners. His last 
appearance as a public player was at the 
London tournament in 1899, where, how- 
ever, he took a low place. 

Bird had long since retired from pro- 
fessional work and his resources failed. 
Members of the St. George's Chess Club 
purchased an annuity for him, which 
enabled him to spend his last days in 
comfort. He died at Tooting on 11 April 
1908. He married young and was left a 
widower in 1869. 

Well known for his rapidity (R. J. 
Buckley says he once played three games 
in ten minutes at Simpson's, scoring 
one and a half), dash, and eccentric 
openings (KBP2 is often called Bird's 
opening), Bird was the most popular 
referee of his time and answered more 
questions about chess than any man living. 
In chivalry and enthusiasm for chess as a 
pastime, in pluck, and in readiness to play at 
a moment's notice for stakes or no stakes, 
Bird had no equal. After Staunton, 
Blackburne, and Burn he probably ranks 
next among English masters of the last 
sixty years. Unfortunately his patience 
and judgment were very inferior to his power 
of combination. As a problem composer 
he was not great. His books, discursive 

compilations of mediocre value, include : 
1. ' Chess Masterpieces,' 1875. 2. ' Chess 
Openings,' 1878 (reviewed by Steinitz in 
'Field,' Dec. 1879). 3. 'Chess Practice,' 
1882. 4. ' Modern Chess,' 1887 and 1889. 

5. ' Chess History and Reminiscences,' 1893. 

6. ' Chess Novelties,' 1895. These last two 
were dedicated to his favourite opponent 
and patron, W. J. Evelyn of Wotton. 
Among his opponents at the chess clubs and 
divans were Buckle, Bradlaugh, Isaac Butt, 
Lord Randolph Churchill, Ruskin, and 
Prince Leopold. For a time he was chess 
correspondent of ' The Times.' 

[Who's Who, 1908 ; The Times, 16 April 
1908 ; Chess Mag., 1908, 211, 248, 303 ; Chess 
Monthly, March 1889 (portrait) ; McDonnell's 
Knights and Kings of Chess ; Lee and Gossip's 
Chess Player's Mentor; Fortnightly Rev., 
Dec. 1886 ; Bird's Chess History (portrait), 
and Chess Novelties, 1895 ; Sketch, 21 Aug. 
1895.] T. S. 

BIRD, ISABELLA LUCY (1831-1904), 
traveller. [See BISHOP.] 

1907), Anglo-Indian judge, born at Belgaum, 
Western India, on 29 May 1837, was third son 
of fourteen children of General Christopher 
Birdwood, deputy commissary general of 
the Bombay army (of an old Devonshire 
family), by his wife Lydia, eldest daughter 
of the Rev. Joseph Taylor, agent of the 
London Missionary Society in the southern 
Mahratta country. His great-grandfather, 
Richard Birdwood, mayor of Plymouth in 
1796, and his grandfather, Peter Birdwood, 
were both agents at Plymouth of the East 
India Company. His eldest brother is 
Sir George Birdwood (b. 1832). 

Educated successively at the Plymouth 
new grammar school and at Mount Radford 
school, Exeter, he matriculated at Edin- 
burgh University in 1851, and distinguished 
himself in mathematics. In October 1854 
he entered Peterhouse, Cambridge, and 
graduated B.A. in 1858 as twenty-third 
wrangler in the mathematical tripos and 
with a second class in the natural science 
tripos. At once elected to a fellowship at 
his college, he took eighteenth place in the 
Indian civil service examination. He pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1861, LL.M. in 1878, and 
LL.D. in 1889, when he was called to the 
bar at Lincoln's Inn. In Oct. 1901 he 
was elected an honorary fellow of Peter- 

Arriving in Bombay on 26 Jan. 1859, 
he served successively in Thana, Broach, 
Surat and Ahmedabad as assistant col- 
lector. In 1863 he became under-secretary 
in the judicial, political and educational 




departments and secretary to the Bombay 
legislative council. In June 1866 he went 
to Kathiawar as first political assistant, but 
in 1867 returned to Bombay as acting 
registrar of the high court. In Dec. 
1871 he was appointed judge of the Ratna- 
giri district, being subsequently transferred 
to Thana and then to Surat. In Ratnagiri 
he won a reputation for independence, 
by deciding against the government 
cases challenging the legality of the oper- 
ations of the revenue survey department. 

In February 1881 Birdwood went to 
Karachi as judicial commissioner and judge 
of the Sadr court in Sind. He effected 
steady improvement in the work of the 
subordinate courts in the province. Ho 
also laid out on a new design the Karachi 
public gardens, some forty acres in extent, 
establishing there a fine zoological collec- 
tion. He stimulated the volunteer movement 
by serving in the local corps. From Jan. 1885 
to April 1892 he was judge of the Bombay- 
high court, and from April 1892 to April 
1897 was judicial and political member of 
the Bombay council. His term of office 
coincided with the outbreak of the plague 
epidemic, the great famine of 1897, and the 
political unrest leading to murderous 
outrage at Poona. In June 1893 he was 
created a C.S.I. He was acting governor 
of the presidency in the brief interval 
between Lord Harris's departure and Lord 
Sandhurst's arrival (16 to 18 Feb. 1895). 
While efficiently performing his judicial 
and political duties he actively interested 
himself in educational and scientific move- 
ments. He had been a fellow of the Bom- 
bay University since 1863 and dean in arts 
in 1868, 1880, and 1888. He was vice- 
chancellor in 1891-2. He was president 
of the botanical section of the Bombay 
Natural History Society, and compiled for 
its 'Journal' (1886, vols. i. and ii.) a 
comprehensive catalogue of the flora of the 
Matheran and Mahabaleshwar hill-stations 
(reprinted separately, Bombay, 1897). He 
A\;IS for many years president of the Agri- 
Horticultural Society of Western India.' 
Between 1871 and 1890 Birdwood ably 
edited, either solely or in collaboration 
N\ith Mr. Justice Henry J. Parsons, vols. 
iv. to xi. of the Acts and Regulations in 
force in the Bombay presidency, commonly 
known as West's code. 

After his return to England in April 
1897 he collaborated with Mr. Justice 
Wood Renton and E. G. Phillimore in a 
revised edition of Burge's 'Comment- 
aries on Colonial and Foreign Laws ' 
(1907 ; vol. i.), editing the Indian portion. 

He practised before the privy council on 
Indian appeals, and in the important case 
of the Taluka of Kota Sangani v. the State 
of Gondal (No. 58 of 1904) he, with Sir 
Edward Clarke as his leader, obtained a 
judgment upholding the sovereignty of 
the Kathiawar chiefs, and sustained the 
contention that their courts are outside 
the appellate jurisdiction of the British 
courts. To the ' Journal of the Royal 
Society of Arts ' he contributed (1898) 
valuable sketches of the history of plague 
in western India. At Twickenham, where 
he finally settled, he was active in local 
affairs and did much philanthropic work. 

He died of pneumonia at his residence, 
Dalkeith House, Twickenham, on 21 Feb. 
1907, and was buried at Twickenham 
cemetery. He married on 29 Jan. 1861 
Edith Marion Sidonie, eldest daughter of 
Surgeon-major Elijah G. H. Impey of the 
Bombay horse artillery and postmaster- 
General of the Bombay presidency ; by 
her he had a daughter, wife of General 
R. C. O. Stuart, inspector-general of 
ordnance in India, and five sons, all of 
whom served in the army in India ; the 
eldest son, Capt. H. C. T. Birdwood, R.E., 
died at Umballa in 1894 and the second son, 
Brigadier-general William Riddel Bird- 
wood (6. 1865), was military secretary 
to Lord Kitchener while commander-in- 
chief in India (1905-10). An engraved 
portrait by Walton & Co. is in Mrs. 
Birdwood's possession. 

[Representative Men of India, Bombay, 
1889 ; India List ; The Times, 23 Feb. 1907 ; 
personal knowledge ; information kindly 
supplied by Sir George Birdwood.] 

F. H. B. 

BIRRELL, JOHN, D.D. (1836-1901), 
orientalist, elder of two sons of Hugh Birrell, 
architect, by his wife Margaret Smith, 
was born at Drumeldrie, Newburn parish, 
Fife, on 21 Oct. 1836. His only brother, 
George, an architect, died in 1876 at the age 
of thirty-seven. After attending the parish 
school and Madras College, St. Andrews, 
Birrell entered St. Andrews University as 
first bursar in 1851, and after a brilliant 
course graduated M.A. in 1855. The next 
two years, with thoughts of the Indian 
civil service, he passed at Halle, sojourning 
with the orientalist, Prof. Roediger. The 
Indian Mutiny altered his plans, and, 
returning to St. Andrews, he completed 
in 1861 at St. Mary's College the training 
for the ministry of the Church of Scotland. 

Licensed as a preacher in 1861 by St. 
Andrews Presbytery, Birrell for two years 
held the post of tutor at the College Hall, 




St. Andrews. In 1863 he became assistant 
to Dr. Robertson at Glasgow Cathedral, and 
in 1864 he was presented by the senatus 
of St. Andrews, then patrons of the 
living, to the parish of Dunino adjoining 
that of St. Andrews. He was there able 
to maintain his hold on academic life. 
He was examiner in classics in the United 
College, St. Andrews, in 1862-6, for some 
years assisted Dr. John Cook, professor 
of church history, and was clerk to the 
Senatus Academicus. In 1871 he was 
appointed by the crown to the chair of 
Hebrew and Oriental languages in St. 
Mary's College, St. Andrews, and proved 
himself a painstaking, broad-minded, and 
lucid teacher. His abilities were widely 
recognised. He received the degree of 
D.D. from Edinburgh University in 1878, 
and he was a member of the Old Testament 
revision committee. 1874-84. He was the 
first chairman of the St. Andrews school 
board, and held the position for sixteen 
years. Examiner of secondary schools in 
Scotland from 1876 to 1888, he originated 
and carried out with great success the 
scheme (afterwards superseded by the 
system of leaving certificates) of university 
local examinations at St. Andrews. 

Birrell died at St. John's, St. Andrews, 
on 31 December 1901, and was buried in the 
cathedral burying -ground of the city. On 
3 June 1874 he married Elizabeth, daughter 
of James Wallace of The Brake, Dunino, 
and had by her three sons and two 

[Private information ; personal knowledge ; 
St. Andrews Citizen, 4 and 11 Jan. 1902:] 

T. B. 

BIRD) (1831-1904), traveller and authoress, 
born on 15 Oct. 1831 at Boroughbridge 
Hall, Yorkshire, the home of her maternal 
grandmother, was eldest child of the Rev. 
Edward Bird (d. 1858). The Bird family 
was long settled at Barton-on-the-Heath, 
Warwickshire, and William Wilberforce 
[q. v.] and John Bird Sumner [q. v.], 
archbishop of Canterbury, were kinsmen. 
Miss Bird's mother, Dora, second daughter 
of the Rev. Marmaduke Lawson of Borough- 
bridge, was her father's second wife. Both 
parents were strongly religious, and 
Isabella inherited pronounced evangelical 
views. Her childhood was passed in her 
father's successive benefices, Tattenhall in 
Cheshire from 1834 to 1842, St. Thomas's, 
Birmingham, from 1842 to 1848, and from 
1848 onwards at Wyton, Huntingdonshire. 
At Tattenhall, Isabella, who suffered 
through life from a spinal complaint, 

lived much in the open air, learnt riding, 
becoming in after years an expert and 
fearless horsewoman, and was trained to 
observe objects of country life. At Birm- 
ingham she began to help in Sunday school 
work, and started her literary career by 
writing in 1847 an essay in favour of fiscal 
protection which was printed for private 
circulation at Huntingdon. At Wyton 
she learnt rowing on the Ouse. In 1850 
she underwent an operation for spinal 
trouble ; and in the summer of 1854, when 
she was twenty-two, being recommended a 
sea voyage for her health, she visited a 
cousin in Prince Edward Island. Seven 
months were spent on this trip, which 
extended to Canada and the United States. 
It was the first of her travels, and she 
recorded her experience in ' The English- 
woman in America,' published in January 
1856 by John Murray the third (1808-1892) 
[q. v.], who became at once her publisher 
and her personal friend for life. 

In 1857-8 she revisited America for the 
sake of health. At the suggestion of her 
father she studied the current religious 
revival in the United States, and described 
it in serial articles in ' The Patriot,' 
which were collected in 1859 as ' The 
Aspects of Religion in the United States of 

Meanwhile Miss Bird paid, with her 
family, constant visits to Scotland, and on 
her father's death in 1858 she, her mother, 
and only sister, Henrietta, made their home 
in Edinburgh. For her sister she cherished 
the closest affection, and after her mother 
died they continued to live together, when 
Isabella was resting from travel, and letters 
to her sister from distant parts formed 
material for many of her books. Her sister 
had a cottage, too, at Tobermory, in the 
Island of Mull. Miss Bird grew to be 
especially interested in the social and 
spiritual welfare of the people in the West 
Highlands ; she co-operated with Lady 
Gordon Cathcart in crofter emigration to 
Canada (1862-6), and in 1866 personally 
visited the settlers in Canada. She also 
wrote much for magazines, including papers 
on hymns in the ' Sunday Magazine ' 
(1865-7), and in the 'Leisure Hour' she 
described in 1867 a tour to the Outer 
Hebrides in 1860. In 1869 she attacked 
the slums and povertv of Edinburgh in 
' Notes on Old Edinburgh.' 

Miss Bird's health was still bad ; much 
of her writing was done while she lay on 
her back, and she failed to benefit by a 
trip to New York and the Mediterranean 
in 1871. In July 1872 she started for 




Australia and New Zealand, and recovering 
her health went on in 1873 to the Sandwich 
Islands. There she stayed for six to seven 
months, and then spent the autumn and 
early winter of 1873 in America, mainly in 
the Rocky Mountains, where her riding 
powers came into play. This tour lasted 
in all eighteen months, and the outcome 
of it was two notable volumes ' The 
Hawaiian Archipelago. Six Months among 
the Palm Groves, Coral Reefs and Vol- 
canoes of the Sandwich Islands' (1875), 
a book of interest to men of science as 
well as to the general reader, and 'A 
Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains ' 
(1879), a collection of letters originally 
published in 1878 in the * Leisure Hour,' 
which was subsequently translated into 

While at home at Edinburgh in 1876-7 
she closely studied the microscope, and 
engaged in the promotion of the national 
Livingstone memorial, to take the form of a 
college for the training of medical mission- 
aries. These interests brought her the 
acquaintance of her future husband, Dr. 
John Bishop, who was her sister's medical 
adviser. In April 1878 she set out for 
Japan, where she spent seven months 
travelling through the interior and visiting 
the country of the hairy Ainos in the island 
of Yezo. After five weeks in the Malay 
Peninsula (January and February 1879), 
she reached England in May 1879 by way 
of Cairo and the Sinai Peninsula, where 
she contracted typhoid fever. This tour 
supplied material for * Unbeaten Tracks in 
Japan' (1880) and 'The Golden Cherson- 
nese and the Way thither' (1883). In 
June 1880 her sister died, and on 8 March 
1881 she married Dr. Bishop, ten years her 
junior, at St. Lawrence's Church at Barton- 
on-the-Heath, the Warwickshire home of 
her father's family. Her husband died 
after a long illness at Cannes in March 1886. 

Thenceforth Mrs. Bishop largely devoted 
herself to the cause of medical missions, 
which she considered ' the most effective 
pioneers of Christianity' (STODDART, 
p. 325). In 1887 she studied medicine at 
St. Mary's hospital, London, and in 1888 
was baptised by Spurgeon by way of conse- 
cration to the missionary cause, not as 
joining the baptist denomination. At the, 
end of 1887 she was in Ireland while the 
' Plan of Campaign ' was in operation, and 
described the episode in ' Murray's Magazine ' 
in the summer of 1888. She left for India 
in February 1889. Proceeding to Cash- 
mere, where she came into close touch with 
the Church Missionary Society, she went 

on to Lesser Tibet, and described it in 
' Among the Tibetans,' published by the 
Religious Tract Society in 1894. She 
was back at Simla in October, and soon 
travelled from Karachi to Bushire, thence 
to Bagdad and Teheran, an ' awful jour- 
ney ' ; and through the Bakhtiari country, 
Western Persia, Kurdistan, and Armenia to 
Trebizond on the Black Sea. She reached 
London again in December 1890. An 
intention to establish a hospital at Naza- 
reth was frustrated by the opposition of 
the Turkish government. Instead, she 
founded in the early stages of this long 
and adventurous journey the John Bishop 
Memorial Hospital in Cashmere, and the 
Henrietta Bird Hospital for Women near 
Amritsar in the Punjab. In 1891 she 
published ' Journeys in Persia and Kur- 
distan,' as well as two articles in the 
' Contemporary Review ' on the persecu- 
tion of the Christians in Asiatic Turkey, 
entitled ' The Shadow of the Kurd.' Her 
meetings with the Nestorian Christians on 
her difficult tour added to her zeal for 
mission work. In a missionary address 
given by her in 1893 on * Heathen Claims 
and Christian Duty' (published in 1905 
by the Church Missionary Society as ' A 
Traveller's Testimony ') she said that she 
had ' been made a convert to missions, 
not by missionary successes, but by seeing 
in four and a half years of Asiatic travelling 
the desperate needs of the un-Christianised 

By 1890 Mrs. Bishop's fame was fully 
established as a traveller and a missionary 
advocate. She addressed the British Asso- 
ciation in 1891, 1892, and 1898, was made in 
1891 a fellow of the Royal Scottish Geo- 
graphical Society, and in 1892 a fellow of 
the Royal Geographical Society, to which 
no lady had previously been admitted. 

In January 1894 she left England once 
more, and was absent for three years and 
two months, till March 1897. Through 
Canada she passed to Japan, Corea and 
China. Four visits were paid to Corea ; 
on the first she explored the Han river and 
crossed the Diamond Mountains to the east 
coast of the peninsula. After a visit to 
Chinese Manchuria, she went up the Yangtze 
and into the interior of China, through the 
province of Szechuan to the borders of 
Tibet, thus spending fifteen months and 
travelling 8000 miles in China alone. On 
her way she founded three hospitals as 
memorials to her husband, parents, and 
sister, one in Corea and two in China, as well 
as an orphanage in Japan. On her return 
to England she published * Korea and 




her Neighbours' (Jan. 1898) and 'The 
Yangtze Valley and Beyond ' (November 
1899) dedicated to Lord Salisbury. 

Mrs. Bishop was a keen photographer, 
and in 1900 published a collection of 
' Chinese Pictures,' notes on photographs 
made in China. In December 1900, though 
nearly seventy years of age, she went to 
Morocco for six months, but illness pre- 
vented her from writing more than an 
article in the * Monthly Review ' on her 
experiences. Another visit to China was 
contemplated, but her health entirely 
gave way, and after many months of illness 
she died at Edinburgh on 7 Oct. 1904 ; 
she was buried at the Dean cemetery. 
In 1905 a memorial clock to her sister's 
memory, the * Henrietta Amelia Bird ' 
memorial clock, was erected at Tobermory 
from funds bequeathed by her for the 

Mrs. Bishop was small in stature, quiet 
in speech and manner, and was a traveller 
of extraordinary courage. Fearless on 
horseback, she explored alone the most 
dangerous and barbarous countries. A 
keen observer with a retentive memory, 
she was a fluent speaker and had great 
power of vivid narrative. A restless 
disposition led her, even when not travel- 
ling, constantly to change her home in 
England and Scotland. Her love of travel 
was stimulated by chronic ill-health, the 
repeated losses in her family, which pro- 
duced a sense of loneliness, and above all 
by her missionary enthusiasm. ' A critical 
but warm supporter of missions, especially 
of medical missions,' she held that Christ- 
ianity should be presented to natives 
as far as possible through native teach- 
ing. She combined with a sympathetic 
interest in native races love of adventure 
and zeal for scientific study. Her valuable 
records of travel and the extent of her 
wanderings give her a place among the 
most accomplished travellers of her time 
(Geographical Journal, July to December, 
1904, p. 596). 

[Life of Isabella Bird (Mrs. Bishop), by 
Anna M. Stoddart, 1906 ; Women of Worth, 
by Jennie Campbell, 1908 the Adventures of 
a Lady TraveUer ; The Story of Isabella Bird 
Bishop, by Constance Williams, Sunday 
School Union, 1909 ; Annual Register, 1904*; 
The Times, 10 Oct. 1904 ; Geographical Jour- 
nal (Roy. Geog. Soc.), July to Dec. 1904.] 

C. P. L. 

BLACKBURN, HELEN (1842-1903), 
pioneer of woman's suffrage, born at 
Knightstown, Valencia Island, co. Kerry, 
on 25 May 1842, was only surviving 

daughter of Bewicke Blackburn, civil 
engineer, manager of the Knight of Kerry's 
slate quarries on Valencia from 1837. Her 
mother was Isabella, youngest daughter 
of Humble Lamb of Ryton Hall, co. 

The father (1811-1897), who left Ireland 
for London about 1859, was an ingenious 
inventor (cf. Indexes, 1854-63, Patent Office 
Library). The Blackburn steam car which 
he patented 1877 was an early anticipa- 
tion of the motor-car (see Field, 23 Nov. 
1878, p. 660 ; W. W. BEAUMONT'S Cantor 
Lectures, 1896, p. 29 ; his Motor Vehicles, 
1900, i. 41, 320; and RHYS JENKINS'S 
Motor Cars, 1902, p. 116). Blackburn 
also patented improvements in velocipedes ; 
his death at the age of eighty-five resulted 
from an accident while riding near Tun- 
bridge Wells, on 13 Jan. 1897. Some 
relics of Charles I which he inherited were 
sold subsequently to King Edward VII. 
Miss Blackburn, who early developed 
literary and artistic tastes, soon interested 
herself in the woman's suffrage movement. 
From 1874 to 1895 she acted in London 
as secretary to the central committee of 
the National Society, which was founded in 
1867. But she frequently visited Bristol, 
and from 1880 to 1895 was also secretary of 
the Bristol and West of England Suffrage 
Society. A series of historical portraits of 
notable women which she formed for the 
International Exhibition at Chicago of 1893 
she presented to the women's hall of 
University College, Bristol. She was sole 
editor of the ' Englishwoman's Review ' 
from 1881 to 1890 ; from that year Miss 
Ann Mackenzie was joint editor with her. 
In 1895 Miss Blackburn gave up most of her 
public work to look after her father. She 
was well versed in the history of the suffrage 
movement, and her ' Women's Suffrage : 
a Record of the Movement in the British 
Isles ' (1902) remains the standard work. 

She died at Greycoat Gardens, West- 
minster, on 11 Jan. 1903, and was buried 
at Brompton cemetery. A crayon portrait 
by Miss Guinness, on her retirement from 
the Bristol secretaryship, was presented to 
University College there, and hangs in the 
women students' room. By her will she 
bequeathed her excellent library of books 
upon women's interests to Girton College, 
Cambridge. A loan fund for training 
young women, established in her memory 
in 1905, is administered by the Society for 
Promoting the Employment of Gentle- 

Besides the books cited, Miss Blackburn 
wrote : 1. ' A Handbook for Women engaged 




in Social and Political Work,' Bristol, 1881 ; 
new edit, enlarged, with two charts, 1895. 
2. * Because : Reasons why Parliamentary 
Franchise should be no longer denied to 
Women,' 1888. 3. (with E. J. Boucherett 
[q.v. Suppl. II]) ' The Condition of Working 
Women,' 1896. 4. * Words of a Leader,' 
1897. 5. (with N. Vynne) 'Women under 
the Factory Acts,' 1903. 

[The Times, 12 Jan. 1903 ; Englishwoman's 
Review, xxxiv. 1, 73; information from Miss 
FitzGorald, Valencia Island ; personal know- 
lodge.] C. F. S. 

(1830-1902), divine and social reformer, 
born at Dundalk on 30 Dec. 1830, was second 
son of Travers Robert Blackley, of Ashtown 
Lodge, co. Dublin, and Bohogh, co. Ros- 
comnion. His maternal grandfather was 
Travers Hartley, M.P. for Dublin city 
1776-1790, and governor of the Bank of 
Ireland. Blackley's mother was Eliza, 
daughter of Colonel Lewery, who was taken 
prisoner by the French at Verdun. In boy- 
hood (1843-5) Blackley was sent with his 
brother John to a school at Brussels kept by 
Dr. Carl Martin Friedlander, a Polish political 
refugee, whose daughter he subsequently 
married. There he acquired proficiency in 
French, German, and other foreign languages. 
In 1847 he returned to Ireland, entered 
Trinity College, Dublin, graduated B.A. in 
1850, M.A. in 1854, and took holy orders. 
In 1854 he became curate of St. Peter's, 
Southwark ; but an attack of cholera 
compelled his retirement from London. 
From 1855 to 1867 he had charge of two 
churches at Frensham, near Farnham, 
Surrey. He was rector of North Waltham, 
Hampshire (1867-83), and from 1883 
to 1889 of King's Somborne with Little 
Somborne (to which was added Upper Eldon 
in 1885). In 1883 he was made honorary 
canon of Winchester. 

Meanwhile Blackley, who was an energetic 
parish priest and was Igeenly interested 
in social questions, carefully elaborated 
a scheme for the cure of pauperism by a 
statutory enforcement of thrift which had 
far-reaching results at homo and abroad. 
In November 1878 he contributed to the 
' Nineteenth Century ' an essay entitled 
' National Insurance a Cheap, Practical, and 
Popular Way of Preventing Pauperism,' 
and thenceforth strenuously advocated a 
scheme of compulsory insurance, which the 
National Providence League, with the earl 
of Shaftesbury as president, was formed in 
1880 to carry into effect. Blackley at the 
same time recommended temperance as a 
means of social regeneration. His views 

reached a wide public through Ms writings, 
which included ' How to teach Domestic 
Economy ' (1879), ' Collected Essays on the 
Prevention of Pauperism ' (1880), * Social 
Economy Reading Book, adapted to the 
New Code' (1881), 'Thrift and Indepen- 
dence ; a Word for Working-men ' (1884). 

Blackley's scheme provided that all 
persons between eighteen and twenty should 
subscribe 10Z. to a national fund, and 
should receive in return 8s. a week in 
time of sickness, and 45. a week after 
the age of seventy. The plan was urged 
on the House of Lords by the earl of 
Carnarvon in 1880 (Hansard, cclii. 1180), 
and was the subject of inquiry by a select 
committee of the House of Commons 
from 1885 to 1887. The majority of the 
boards of guardians in England and Wales 
supported the proposals ; but the commons' 
committee, while acknowledging Blackley's 
ingenuity and knowledge, reported ad- 
versely on administrative and actuarial 
grounds (2 Aug. 1887). At the same time 
the friendly societies, which Blackley had 
censured in his ' Thrift and Independence ' 
(pp. 75 and 80), regarded the principle of 
compulsion as a menace to their own 
growth, and their historian and champion, 
the Rev. John Frome Wilkinson, sharply 
criticised Blackley's plan in * The Blackley 
National Providence Insurance Scheme ; 
a Protest and Appeal ' (1887). Blackley's 
plan, although rejected for the time, 
stimulated kindred movements in the 
colonies and in foreign countries, and led 
directly to the adoption of old age pensions 
in England by legislation in 1908, while 
the national insurance scheme which 
received parliamentary sanction in 1911 
bears some trace of Blackley's persistent 
agitation (Quarterly Review, July 1908 ; 
HERBERT PAUL, Modern England, iv. 372). 

In 1887 Blackley, who was director of 
the Clergy Mutual Insurance Company, 
made proposals to the church congress which 
led to the formation of the ' Clergy Pension 
Scheme ' and of a society for ' ecclesias- 
tical fire insurance.' In" the autumn of 
1889 Blackley, whose active propagandism 
brought him constantly to London, became 
vicar of St. James the Less, Vauxhall 
Bridge Road. There he enlarged the 
schools, and built a parish hafl. and a 
vicarage. He died after a brief illness 
at 79 St. George's Square, on 25 July 1902. 
He married on 24 July 1855 Amelia Jeanne 
Josephine, second daughter of his Brussels 
tutor, Dr. Carl Martin Friedlander, by 
whom he had issue one son, who died in 
infancy, and two daughters, who with his 




widow survived him. Brasses were put 
up in Blackley's memory in the churches of 
St. James the Less, North Waltham, and 

Blackley, whose Irish humour and 
eloquence made him an attractive platform 
speaker, was an accomplished linguist and 
a capable parochial organiser. His published 
writings, besides sermons, review articles, 
short stories, and the works mentioned 
in the text, are: 1. 'The Frithiof Saga, 
or Lay of Frithiof,' a translation in original 
metre from the Swedish of Esaias Tegner, 
bp. of Wexio, Dublin, 1857 ; American 
edit. New York, 1867; iUustr. edit. 1880. 

2. (with Dr. Friedlander) 'A practical 
dictionary of the German and English 
languages,' 1866 (pocket edition, 1876). 

3. ' Word Gossip,' 1869, a series of fam- 
iliar essays on words and their peculi- 
arities. He was also editor (with [James 
Hawes) of the ' Critical English [New] 
Testament,' an adaptation of Bengel's 
* Gnomon,' 1866, 3 vols. His ' Collected 
Essays' (1880) was re-issued in 1906, 
under the title of 'Thrift and National 
Insurance as a Security against Pauperism,' 
with a prefatory memoir by his widow, who 
zealously aided in propagating his views 
of social reform. 

[Memoir by widow prefixed to re-issue of 
Collected Essays, 1906 ; The Times, 26 July 
1902; Charles Booth, Pauperism and the 
Endowment of Old Age, 1892, pp. 182-7 ; 
Charity Organization Review, Sept. 1892; 
Journal of Institute of Actuaries, Oct. 1887, 
xxvi. 480-8 ; Frank W. Lewis, State Insur- 
ance, a Social and Industrial Need, 1909; 
private information.] W. B. 0. 

1910), the first woman doctor of .medicine, 
born at Counterslip, Bristol, on 3 Feb. 1821, 
was third daughter of Samuel Blackwell, 
a Bristol sugar refiner. The father, a well- 
to-do Independent, emigrated with seven 
children in August 1832 to New York. 
Here Elizabeth and her sisters continued 
their education and became intimate with 
William Lloyd Garrison and other anti- 
slavery friends. When Elizabeth was 
seventeen they removed to Cincinnati, 
where her father died suddenly, leaving his 
family of nine unprovided for. In order 
to support their mother and younger 
brothers, Elizabeth and her two sisters 
started a day and boarding school. They 
joined the Church of England, and became 
enthusiastic politicians and keen sup- 
porters of the movement for a wider educa- 
tion of women. They were intimate with 
Dr. Charming and studied the writings of 

Emerson, Fourier, and Carlyle. In 1842 
the school was relinquished. Elizabeth 
became head of a girls' school in 
Western Kentucky, which she left after 
a term owing to her dislike of slavery. 
Resolving to become a doctor in spite 
of the discouragement of friends, she 
studied medicine privately while con- 
tinuing to teach in North Carolina and in 
Charleston. After three years she vainly 
applied for admission to medical schools 
at Philadelphia and in New York. In 
October 1847 she formally applied for 
entry to the medical class at a small 
university town, Geneva, in Western New 
York State. The entire class, on the in- 
vitation of the faculty, unanimously 
resolved that * every branch of scientific 
education should be open to all.' Outside 
her class she was regarded as ' either mad 
or bad.' She refused to assent, save by 
the wish of the class, to the professor's 
request to absent herself from a particular 
dissection or demonstration. No further 
obstacle was offered to her pursuit of the 
medical course. She graduated M.D. (as 
'Domina' at Geneva, N.Y.) in January 
1849, the first woman to be admitted to 
the degree (cf. gratulatory verses to 
'Doctrix Blackwell,' 'An M.D. in a 
Gown,' in Punch (1849), xvi. 226). 

In the following April she came to 
England, was courteously received by the 
profession on the whole, and shown over 
hospitals in Birmingham and London. In 
May, with * a very slender purse and few 
introductions of value,' she reached Paris, 
and on 30 June entered La Maternite, a 
school for midwives, determined to become 
an obstetrician. After six months' hard 
work she contracted purulent ophthalmia 
from a patient and lost the sight of one 
eye. Thus obliged to abandon her hope 
of becoming a surgeon, she, on returning 
to London, obtained (through her cousin, 
Kenyon Blackwell) from James (after- 
wards Sir James) Paget, dean of St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital, permission to study 
there. She was admitted to every depart- 
ment except that of women's and children's 
diseases, and received the congratulations 
of Mrs. Jameson, Lady (Noel) Byron, 
Miss Rayner (Mdme. Belloc), Miss Leigh 
Smith (Madame Bodichon), the Herschells, 

in 1854 acted as assistant to Sir James 
Simpson [q. v.] in Edinburgh, but declined 
an urgent request to go to the Crimea. 
Elizabeth went back to America in 1850, 





and was refused the post of physician to 
the women's department of a dispensary 
in New York. She spent her leisure in 
preparing some excellent lectures on the 
physical education of girls ( ' Laws of Life,' 
New York, 1852). In 1853 she opened 
a dispensary of her own, which was incor- 
porated in 1854 as an institution of women 
physicians for the poor, and developed 
into the New York Infirmary and Col- 
lege for Women. Joined in 1856 by her 
sister Emily, who had now also qualified 
at Cleveland, and by Marie Zackrzewska 
(a Cleveland student in whose educa- 
tion she had taken much interest and the 
third woman to qualify), she opened in 
New York in May 1857 a hospital entirely 
conducted by women. Opposition was 
great, but the quakers of New York gave 
valuable support from the first. In 1858 
Elizabeth revisited England and gave 
lectures at the Marylebone Literary In- 
stitution on the value of physiological and 
medical knowledge to women and on the 
medical work already done in America. 
Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham 
welcomed her, and she issued an English 
edition of ' Laws of Life ' (1859 ; 3rd edit. 
1871). A proposal was made to establish 
a hospital for women's diseases, to which 
the Comtesse de Noailles, the Hon. Russell 
Gurney, and others contributed hand- 
somely. Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell's name 
was placed upon the British medical 
register on 1 Jan. 1859, ten years after she 
had qualified. 

Again in America, Elizabeth joined her 
sister in a rapidly growing hospital practice. 
Students came to them from Philadelphia. 
At the outbreak of the American civil war 
they established the Ladies Sanitary Aid 
Institute and the National Sanitary Aid 
Association, and organised a plan for 
selecting, and training for the field, nurses 
whose services did much to win sympathy for 
the entire movement. In 1865 the trustees 
of the infirmary obtained a charter. The 
Blackwells would have preferred to secure 
the benefits of joint medical instruction, 
but, failing this, they organised a full course 
of college instruction, with hygiene as one 
of the principal chairs, an independent 
examination board, and a four years 
course of study. Elizabeth delivered the 
opening address on 2 Nov. 1868, and helc 
the first professorship of hygiene. Dr 
Sophia Jex-Blake (d. 1912) was among 
her first students. In twenty years free 
and equal entrance of women into the 
profession of medicine was secured in 

Elizabeth returned to England with a 
view to the same end. She settled in 
Jurwood Place, Marylebone, where in 1871, 
-t a drawing-room meeting, the National 
lealth Society was formed. She lectured 
) the Working Women's College on ' How 
o keep a Household in Health ' (published 
870), and on 'The Religion of Health' 
3rd edit. 1889) to the Sunday Lecture 
Society, but in 1873 her health gave way 
and she travelled abroad. At the London 
School of Medicine for Women, opened in 
875, she accepted the chair of gynaecology, 
he took an active part in the agitation 
against the Contagious Diseases Act. 
During a winter at Bordighera she 
wrote ' The Moral Education of the Young 
considered under Medical and Social 
Aspects,' which under its original title, 
Counsel to Parents on the Moral Educa- 
ion of their Children,' was refused by 
welve publishers, and at last appeared 
through the intervention of Jane Ellice 
Sopkins [q. v. Suppl. II] (2nd edit. 1879). 
She also contributed an article on * Medicine 
and Morality ' to the * Modern Review ' 
'1881). Miss Blackwell delivered the 
opening address at the London School of 
Medicine for Women in October 1889, and 
revisited America in 1906; but an acci- 
dent in Scotland enfeebled her in 1907, 
and she died at her home, Rock House, 
Hastings, on 31 May 1910, in her ninetieth 
year. She was buried at Kilmun, Argyll. 
A portrait from a sketch by the Comtesse 
de Charnacee, Paris, 1859, hangs at the 
London School of Medicine for Women. 

Her other writings are : 1. ' The Human 
Element in Sex,' 1884; new edit. 1894. 
2. * Purchase of Women ; a Great Economic 
Blunder,' 1887. 3. 'Decay of Municipal 
Representative Government,' 1888. 4. ' In- 
fluence of Women in Medicine,' 1889. 5. 
' Erroneous Method in Medical Education,' 
1891. 6. 'Christian Duty in Regard to 
Vice,' 1891. 7. ' Christianity in Medicine,' 
1891. 8. 'Why Hygienic Congresses 
Fail,' 1892. 9. 'Pioneer Work. Auto- 
biographical Sketches,' 1895. 10. ' Scientific 
Method in Biology,' 1898. Many of these 
were republished with additions in ' Essays 
in Medical Sociology ' (2 vols. 1902). 

[The Times, 2 June 1910 ; Medical Times, 
May and June 1849, pp. 560, 613, 633 
(' Domina Blackwell'); Mesnard, Miss E. 
Blackwell et les femmes medecins, 1889; 
Miss Blackwell's works; Hays, Women of 
the Day, 1885.] C. F. S. 

DUFFERIN AND AVA (1826-1902), diplomatist 




and administrator, was born at Florence 
on 21 June 1826. Vice-admiral Sir Henry 
Blackwood [q. v.] was his uncle. His father, 
Price Blackwood, fourth Baron Dufferin and 
Clandeboye in the Irish peerage, at one time 
captain R.N., married Helen Selina, one 
of the three famous daughters of Thomas 
(Tom) Sheridan [q. v.], her sisters being 
Jane Georgina, wife of Edward Adolphus 
Seymour, twelfth duke of Somerset, and 
Caroline Elizabeth Sarah Norton, the Hon. 
Mrs. Norton [q. v.]. Dying ; on 21 July 1841, 
he entrusted his son, then at Eton, to the 
guardianship of Sir James Graham. The 
boy's mother {see SHERIDAN, HELEN SELINA] 
exercised a potent influence on him. After 
leaving Eton in April 1843 he spent eighteen 
months with her at home before he went 
up to Christ Church, Oxford, 1844-6. On 
finishing his residence at Oxford he spent 
the next ten years in managing his Irish 
estates, widening his circle of friends, and 
acquiring by travel a first-hand acquaintance 
with the near East. At the same time he 
identified himself with the liberal party, 
and being advanced to the English peer- 
age took his seat as Baron Clandeboye, 
31 Jan. 1850, in the House of Lords. He 
became lord-in-waiting to Queen Victoria 
during the ministry of Lord John Russell, 
26 June 1849 to 1852, and again under Lord 
Aberdeen, 28 November 1854 to 1858. He 
also established his reputation as a speaker, 
supporting (18 April 1853) Lord Aberdeen's 
motion for an inquiry into the management 
of Maynooth College, and speaking to an 
attentive house at considerable length 
(28 Feb. 1854) on landlord and tenant right 
in Ireland. His favourite recreation was 
yachting, and the Foam, which carried 
him to the Baltic in August 1854, gave 
him an opportunity of proving not only 
his seamanship but his presence of mind 
and courage. He got on board H.M.S. 
Penelope and the Hecla during the siege of 
Bomarsund; and not satisfied with his 
experiences of a naval action he advanced 
on foot into the French trenches, where 
he displayed notable strength of nerve. 
In February 1855 he made his first start 
in the field of diplomacy as attache to 
Lord John Russell's mission at the con- 
ference convoked at Vienna for the purpose 
of bringing the Crimean war to an end. 
The conference proved abortive. At the 
end of seven weeks Lord Dufferin returned 
to his yacht and achieved reputation as a 
brilliant writer by his account in ' Letters 
from High Latitudes ' of his voyage in 1856 to 
Iceland, Jan Mayen, and Spitzbergen. His 
only other publication was ' Mr. Mill's Plan 

for the Pacification of Ireland examined' 
(published in 1868). He otherwise reserved 
his marked literary powers for official use. 
Tours which followed to Egypt, Constanti- 
nople, and Syria added fresh knowledge 
and experience and prepared him for his 
official career. 

On 30 July 1860, at the age of thirty -four, 
he was appointed British commissioner to 
assist Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, Lord Dalling 
[q. v.], the British ambassador at the 
Porte, in inquiring into the massacres in the 
Levant and other districts of Syria with 
a view to preventing their recurrence. 
Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, and 
Russia named representatives to assist the 
Sultan in establishing order. But when 
it came to devising practical measures, 
French ambitions, the Sultan's insistence 
on his sovereign powers, popular feeling 
in Russia, the implacable blood feuds be- 
tween Christian Maronites and Mussalman 
Druses, and the attempts of guilty Turkish 
officials to make scapegoats of the Druses 
interposed difficulties which seemed inter- 
minable. Lord Dufferin by his tact, 
firmness, and political sagacity found a 
way out of the labyrinth. His proposal to 
appoint an independent governor selected 
by the Porte and approved by the Powers 
was finally adopted the Syrian population 
being brought under a Christian governor 
nominated by the Porte with administrative 
councils appointed by the several communi- 
ties. French hopes were disappointed to 
an extent which Lord Dufferin had occasion 
to realise during the concluding part of his 
diplomatic career, but his government 
(May 1861) conveyed to him ' the Queen's 
gracious approval of all his conduct,' and 
other Powers warmly recognised his ability, 
judgment, and temper. He was made a 
civil K.C.B. on 18 June 1861. 

For the next few years Lord Dufferin 
engaged in political work at home. On 
6 Feb. 1862 he moved in the House of 
Lords the address in answer to the 
Queen's speech and referred to the death of 
the Prince Consort in terms which touched 
Queen Victoria's heart. He received the 
riband of St. Patrick on 17 June 1863, and in 
the following year was made lord-lieutenant 
of co. Down. On 16 Nov. 1864 he obtained 
in Lord Palmerston's administration his 
first ministerial appointment as under- 
secretary for India, and in 1866 was trans- 
ferred to the war office in a like capacity. 
In 1868 Gladstone became prime minister, 
and Dufferin was included in the new 
liberal ministry as chancellor of the Duchy 
of Lancaster without a seat in the cabinet. 




On the other hand he was advanced in the 
peerage to an earldom on 13 Nov. 1871, and 
he rendered useful service as chairman of a 
royal commission on military education. In 
1872, on the retirement of Sir John Young, 
Lord Lisgar [q. v.], the second governor- 
general of confederated Canada, Lord 
Dufferin was nominated his successor, and 
entered on duties calculated to give full play 
to his talents. 

Lord Dufferin was installed in office 
on 25 June 1872. It was a critical period 
of Canadian history. The federal union 
which was inaugurated in 1867 was com- 
pleted after the arrival of Lord Dufferin 
by the admission to the dominion of 
Prince Edward Island on 1 July 1873. 
What was needed was to kindle the 
imagination of the population thus 
brought together, and inspire the several 
provinces with the true spirit of con- 
federation, familiarising both them and 
the United Kingdom with the conception of 
a great nation within the empire. Some 
angry controversies had fanned into flame 
passions which tended to disunion rather 
than consolidation. The rebellion in Mani- 
toba of Louis Riel [q. v.] against the new 
constitution had been quelled in 1870, 
but Riel and his lieutenant, Lepine, had 
escaped. Under Lord Dufferin's rule Riel 
was returned to parliament in Oct. 1873 as 
member for a constituency in Manitoba and 
evaded arrest, while fanning fresh resistance. 
Lepine, however, was captured and sen- 
tenced to be hanged in 1875, a sentence 
which Lord Dufferin commuted to one of 
short imprisonment. Another source of 
disturbance of a different character was 
the delay in completing the Canadian 
Pacific railway. After the opening of the 
second parliament of the united dominion 
at Ottawa in March 1873, a storm was raised 
over alleged fraudulent practices of Sir 
Hugh Allan, to whom the contract had 
been granted. The ' great Pacific scandal ' 
led to the prorogation of parliament, a 
commission of inquiry, and the retirement 
of the conservative premier, Sir John 
Alexander Macdonald [q. v.], in favour 
of his liberal rival, Alexander Mackenzie 
[q. v.], who remained premier from Novem- 
ber 1873 to October 1878. Yet, despite 
the angry turmoil, Lord Dufferin, by his 
personal influence and stirring speeches, 
pacified the agitators, filled the minds of 
Canadians with pride in their dominion, 
and impressed his own countrymen at 
home with a new conception of a Greater 
Britain. A speech of his at Toronto was 
described by the 'Spectator' (26 Sept. 

1874) as restoring to politics their ' glow 
and spring.' On 26 May 1876 he was 
made G.C.M.G. In his farewell address to 
Canada in Sept. 1878 he boasted with truth 
that he left Canadians ' the truest-hearted 
subjects of her Majesty's dominions.' He 
infected them with his own visions of a 
glorious future, and at the time no greater 
service could have been rendered to the 
dominion and the Empire. In June 1879 
he received the hon. degree of D.C.L. 
from Oxford. 

Meanwhile in Feb. 1879 Dufferin became 
the British ambassador at St. Petersburg. 
The appointment was made by Lord Beacons- 
field, the conservative prime minister, but 
it involved no severance from the liberal 
party. To maintain friendly relations with 
Russia while insisting upon unwelcome 
restrictions imposed by the Treaty of 
Berlin, and upon the complete observance 
of engagements undertaken in regard to 
central Asia and Afghanistan, was no easy 
task. The political situation was over- 
shadowed by the prevalence of nihilism, 
which was already manifesting itself in 
attempts on the Emperor's life. It must 
therefore have been a relief to Lord 
Dufferin when in June 1881 his own party, 
which had returned to office, transferred him 
as Ambassador to the Porte. Dufferin's 
first important task at Constantinople was 
connected with the demarcation of the 
frontier of Greece, and the introduction of 
reforms into Armenia. 

In September 1881 the revolt at Cairo 
of Ahmed Arabi Bey against the Khedive 
Tewfik Pasha laid on Dufferin difficult 
and delicate responsibilities. The Sultan 
professed readiness to despatch his troops 
to restore order and Turkish control, 
but neither England nor France was 
prepared to agree to that course without 
imposing strict conditions and limitations. 
Recourse was had to a conference which 
was willing to accept the Sultan's inter- 
vention with a proviso which he deprecated. 
The long negotiations led to little result. 
In the summer of 1882 England took 
forcible action single-handed, after France 
declined co-operation. Arabi Bey was 
defeated at Tel-el-Kebir on 16 Sept. 1882, 
and the process of reorganising the Khe- 
dive's administration under British auspices 
was commenced. Throughout the negotia- 
tions at Constantinople Lord Dufferin by 
his tact and quiet resolution secured for his 
country liberty of action without unneces- 
sarily provoking the susceptibilities of 
foreign governments, and prevented any 
attempt on the part of the Porte to ignore 




its engagements to the protecting Powers. 
He became consequently the central figure 
in the transactions at the Turkish capital. 
In October 1882 Gladstone's government 
sent him to Cairo to complete the work he 
had begun. He was directed to reconstruct 
the Egyptian administration ' on a basis 
which will afford satisfactory guarantees 
for the maintenance of peace, order, and 
prosperity in Egypt, for the stability of 
the Khedive's authority, for the judicious 
development of self-government, and the 
fulfilment of obligations towards foreign 
powers.' His notable Report of February 
1883 was the outcome of these instructions. 
At the same time he recognised the 
possibility that Turkish authority would 
be restored, and it was in order 
to provide ' a barrier ' against that 
intolerable tyranny that he advocated a 
generous policy ' of representative institu- 
tions, of municipal and communal self- 
government, and of a political existence 
untrammelled by external importunity.' 
He called into being the legislative council 
and the assembly. Experience has since 
suggested that Egypt was not ripe for 
representative institutions even of the 
limited character which Dufferin devised, 
but Lord Dufferin's aims and motives were 
in the circumstances quite intelligible. 
He received on 15 May 1883 the cordial 
thanks of the British government, and 
on 15 June promotion to the G.C.B. Dis- 
appointment followed. As Dufferin ad- 
mitted, the Hicks disaster in the Soudan 
in Nov. 1883, and Gordon's fateful mission 
to Khartoum next year, which he was not 
in a position to foresee, ' let in the deluge.' 
On the retirement of George Frederick 
Samuel Robinson, Lord Ripon [q. v. 
Suppl. II], from the governor-generalship of 
India on 13 Dec. 1884 Dufferin was nomin- 
ated to succeed him. The post was far more 
responsible and onerous than any he had 
previously held. But his special gifts of 
tact and conciliation and his interest in 
land questions were the precise qualities 
that were needed at the outset. When 
Lord Ripon left India it was distracted 
by angry controversy over the Ilbert bill, 
and by Ripon's unfinished schemes of self- 
government. The Indian press and congress 
party were agitating for constitutional 
changes, while in Bengal, Oudh, and the 
Punjab the relations of landlord and tenant 
were strained, and beyond the frontiers the 
Amir of Afghanistan was uncertain regarding 
British intentions and the position of his 
boundaries on the side of Russia. In this 
condition of unrest Lord Dufferin's personal 

magnetism and tact were at once called 
into play. By natural disposition and politi- 
cal profession favourable to reform and 
self-government, he had not forgotten his 
experiences in Egypt. In his speeches 
and published * Resolutions ' he enjoined 
on all sections of the population ' the 
need of unity, concord, and fellowship,' 
and ' the community of their interests.' 
Inviting the co-operation of educated 
Indians, and promising them a larger share 
in provincial affairs, he condemned incen- 
diary speechifying, and refused to relax 
his grasp on the supreme administration. 
The ' parliamentary system ' he put on one 
side as impossible. But he sanctioned a 
legislative council and a university at 
Allahabad for the North-west Provinces, 
and advocated the enlargement of the legis- 
lative councils elsewhere, with powers of 
interpellation and the right of discussing 
the provincial budget of each year. His 
dealing with the land question was equally 
reasonable, and he held the balance true 
between landlord and tenant. By Act VIII. , 

1885, which Lord Ripon had advanced 
to its penultimate stage, the Bengal land- 
owners were obliged to concede occupancy 
rights to their tenants who had cultivated 
their lands in a village for twelve years, and 
to accept certain limitations on their right 
of enhancing the rent. On the other hand 
the landowner's right to a fair share in 
the increased value of land was affirmed, 
facilities were created for settling disputes, 
and provision made for a survey and record 
of rights. In Oudh, by the Rent Act XXII. of 

1886, tenants at will secured compensation 
for improvements, and were guaranteed 
possession for seven years in conditions 
which placed the landlords' rights on a 
just basis. By the Punjab Act XVI. of 1 887, 
the rights of occupancy and profits of agri- 
culture were judiciously divided without 
undue opposition. 

At the same time the Amir of Afghani- 
stan was charmed with his reception by 
Dufferin at Rawal Pindi in April 1885, and 
was so completely reassured as to the nature 
of the assistance he would receive if an un- 
provoked attack were made on him, that 
neither the Panjdeh conflict (1885) with 
Russia, nor in 1888 the rebellion of his 
cousin Ishak Khan, shook his confidence. 
Sindhia, the leading Mahratta sovereign in 
India, was gratified by the restoration of 
the Gwalior fortress in 1886, and cordial 
relations were established with all the 
native princes. While Lord Dufferin suc- 
cessfully pursued his work as conciliator 
Lady Dufferin in August 1885 instituted 





the ' National Association for Supplying 
Female Medical Aid to the Women of India.' 
The scheme touched the heart of the people, 
and its value was recognised by Queen 
Victoria, who bestowed on Lady Dufferin 
the royal order of Victoria and Albert as 
well as the imperial order of the Crown of 

Lord Dufferin's policy included measures 
for strengthening British rule. He im- 
proved railway communications with 
Quetta and the Afghan border ; he increased 
the army by 10,600 British and 20,000 
Indian soldiers, introduced the linked 
battalion and reserve system into the 
native army, and constituted a new force 
of Burma military police. By the annexa- 
tion of Upper Burma he completed the 
work of consolidation begun by Lord 
Dalhousie. King Thibaw having murdered 
most of his father's house, and refused to 
redress the wrongs inflicted on a British 
trading company, assumed a defiant 
attitude. Recourse to war became impera- 
tive. Mandalay was occupied on 28 Nov. 
1885 by General Prendergast, and after 
his kingdom was annexed on 1 Jan. 1886 
Sir Charles Bernard [q. v. Suppl. II] estab- 
lished a British administration. Other 
military operations during Dufferin's rule 
were in 1888 the expulsion of the Tibetans 
from a position which, taking advantage of 
the British policy of non-interference, they 
had seized at Lingtu within the protectorate 
of Sikkim, and expeditions against various 
clans of the Black Mountain on the North- 
west frontier. 

Lord Dufferin retired from India in 
December 1888. For his Indian services 
he received advancement to a marquisate hi 
1888, and on 29 May 1889 the city of London 
made him an honorary freeman. Early 
in 1889 he resumed his diplomatic career as 
ambassador at Rome. Italy, encouraged 
by her position as a member of the triple 
alliance, and stimulated by her past tradi- 
tions, was then seeking compensation for 
her exclusion from Tunis in a policy of 
adventure in East Africa, thus dissipating 
her economic energies and courting disaster. 
On 24 March 1891 Dufferin concluded with 
the Marchese di Rudini the protocol which 
defined the respective spheres of British 
and Italian influence in East Africa. Apart 
from the work of the embassy his leisure 
time was passed pleasantly in visiting the 
scenes of his father's closing years and 
places of family interest. Proof of his 
high reputation at home was given by his 
election as lord rector of St. Andrews Uni- 
versity in April 1891, when he delivered an 

address to the students full of admirable 
and practical advice. On the death of Lord 
Lytton, British ambassador in Paris, in 

1891, he was transferred in December to 
the British embassy in Paris, where he re- 
mained until 13 Oct. 1896. Lord Dufferin's 
earlier exploits in the Lebanon, Egypt, and 
Burma, in which he was deemed to have 
ignored French interests, led a party in 
France to assail the new British ambassador 
with criticism and quite unmerited sus- 
picion. The French nation was passing 
at the time through a disturbing series of 
events the Panama canal scandals in 

1892, the funeral of Marshal MacMahon in 

1893, the assassination of President Carnot 
in June 1894, and the abdication of his 
successor, M. Casimir Perier, in the following 
year. The British ambassador defended 
himself with vigour against the imputation 
of hostile designs which were entirely 
foreign to his character, and though 
perhaps he never attained in Paris the full 
amount of popularity which he commanded 
elsewhere, he succeeded in gaining the confi- 
dence and regard of the French government. 
By the part which he took in the discussion 
of the Siamese question he contributed to 
the satisfactory settlement of a possible 
cause of conflict with France. Siam was 
a near neighbour of Burma and of the 
Malay states, and a line of British Indian 
frontier as far as the Mekong had been 
traced. On the east, however, the kingdom 
was exposed to peaceful penetration and 
even hostile attack from the possessions 
of France in Cochin China. The agree- 
ment signed by Lord Salisbury and the 
French ambassador on 15 Jan. 1896 secured 
the independence of the central part of 
Siam, fixed the ' Thalweg ' of the Mekong as 
the limit of the possessions and spheres of 
influence of the two powers, and included 
a provision for delimitation in Nigeria. 
Other differences with France in the Congo 
and elsewhere were adjusted, and when Lord 
Dufferin, having completed his seventieth 
year, retired from official life he left Paris 
in 1896 with every public assurance that he 
had rendered excellent service towards the 
improvement of relations between the two 

Lord Dufferin had become warden of the 
Cinque Ports in 1891, but he resigned the 
office in 1895 in order that he might spend 
the rest of his days at Clandeboye in quiet 
attention to his own affairs. Civic and 
academic honours still flowed upon him in 
a constant stream. He was made hon. 
LL.D. of Cambridge in 1891, was given 
the freedom of Edinburgh in 1898, and 




was elected lord rector of its university in 
1901. But misfortune put the finishing 
touch to a career of previously unbroken 
success. Through an error of judgment he 
was induced in 1897 to accept the chair- 
manship of the London and Globe Finance 
Corporation, a financial company connected 
with the mining markets, of whose affairs 
no one except the managing director, 
Whitaker Wright [q. v. Suppl. II], had 
any knowledge. In Dec. 1900 he resigned 
his position in order to attend the bedside 
of his youngest son, Frederic, of the 9th 
lancers, who was severely wounded in South 
Africa but recovered. Dufferin, however, 
soon learned that the corporation was in 
difficulties, and at once resumed his position, 
courageously facing the storm. The mischief 
was widespread. On 9 Jan. 1901 (see The 
Times, 10 Jan.) Lord Dufferin explained his 
position to a meeting of shareholders in a 
' manly and touching address,' and his own 
honour and spirit were unimpeached. But 
he had associated himself with a specula- 
tive business which he could not control, 
and thus ruined others, while bringing 
heavy losses upon his own family. 

This disaster, together with the death of 
his eldest son, Lord Ava, who had been 
wounded in the South African war on 
Waggon Hill in Jan. 1900, clouded the close 
of a brilliant life. He delivered his rectorial 
address to the Edinburgh students on 14 
Nov. 1901, and soon after his return to Clan- 
deboye broke down in health. He died there 
on 12 Feb. 1902, and there he was buried. 

Dufferin married on 23 Oct. 1862 Harriot, 
daughter of Archibald Rowan Hamilton, 
at Killyleagh Castle, co. Down. His wife 
survived him with three sons and three 
daughters. He was succeeded in the title 
by his son Terence Temple, a clerk in the 
foreign office. 

A statue of him by Sir Edgar Boehm, 
R.A., was erected by public subscription in 
Calcutta, and another by F. W. Pomeroy, 
A.R.A., in Belfast. Several portraits of 
him by Swinton and Ary Scheffer as a 
young man, and by Frank Holl, Benjamin 
Constant, and Henrietta Rae in later life, 
are at Clandeboye, in addition to a bust 
by Marochetti. A painting by G. F. 
Watts is in the National Portrait Gallery 

[Life of the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, 
by Sir Alfred Lyall, 2 vols. 1905 ; The Mar- 
quess of Dufferin and Ava, by 0. E. D. Black, 
1903 ; Lord Cromer, Modern Egypt, 2 vols. 
1908; Lord Milner, England in Egypt, llth 
edit. 1904; Speeches in India by Lord 
Dufferin, 1890; L. Eraser, India under 
Cur/on and after, ! 1911; Hansard's Parlia- 

mentary Debates ; Parliamentary Blue Books 
on India and Egypt; The Times, 13 Feb. 
1902 ; Annual Register, 1902.] W L-W 

(1829-1911), physician, born at Hindon, 
Wiltshire, on 7 March 1829, was only son of 
George Blandford, a medical practitioner 
who practised successively at Hindon, 
Hadlow in Kent, and Rugby. After edu- 
cation at Tonbridge school (1840-1) and 
at Rugby under Dr. Arnold (1841-8) 
Blandford matriculated at Oxford from 
Wadham College on 10 May 1848 ; he gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1852, M.A. and M.B. in 1857, 
and M.D. in 1867. He began his medical 
studies at St. George's Hospital, London, 
in October 1852, was admitted a licentiate 
of the Society of Apothecaries in 1857, 
and M.R.C.S. England in 1858. In 1865 he 
delivered his first course of lectures on 
insanity at St. George's Hospital, and 
remained lecturer on psychological medi- 
cine until May 1902. At the Royal 
College of Physicians of London he became 
a member in 1860 and was elected a 
fellow in 1869 ; he acted as a councillor 
in 1897-9, and delivered the Lumleian 
lectures in 1895, taking as the subject 
'The Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Prophy- 
laxis of Insanity.' 

Early in Blandford's career he became 
acquainted with Dr. A. J. Sutherland, like 
himself an Oxford medical graduate, who 
was physician to St. Luke's Hospital. 
Blandford often visited the hospital with 
Sutherland and took the holiday duty of 
the medical superintendent, Henry Stevens 
(cf. Minute of Committee, October 1857). 
From 1859 to 1863 he was resident medical 
officer at Blacklands House, a private asylum 
for gentlemen, owned by Dr. Sutherland. 
In 1863 he began to practise in lunacy 
privately, first in Clarges Street, then in 
Grosvenor Street, and finally in Wim- 
pole Street, and acquired rapidly a large 
connection. He was appointed visiting 
physician to Blacklands House and its 
successor, Newlands House, Tooting, as 
well as to Otto House, posts which he 
retained until he retired from London in 
1909. He was also for many years visiting 
physician to Featherstone Hall, Southail, 
and to Clarence Lodge, Clapham Park, 
both private asylums for ladies. From 1 874 
to 1895 he was the principal proprietor of 
the asylum at Minister House, Fulham, 
and when the premises became unsuitable, 
owing to the growth of London, Blandford 
pulled them down and converted the 
property into a building estate. 

For forty-four years from 1857, when he 




became a member, he identified himself 
prominently with the Medico-Psychological 
Association of Great Britain and Ireland. 
A member of the council and of the educa- 
tional and parliamentary committees, he 
gave as president in 1877 an important 
address on lunacy legislation, in which he 
described the evolution of the lunacy laws 
in tlu's country down to the Acts of 1845, 
1853, and 1862 which were then in force. 
In 1894, as president of the psychological 
section of the British Medical Association, 
he delivered an address on the prevention 
of insanity, in wlu'ch he made an important 
pronouncement on the development of 
neurotic affections attributable to the 
increased demands of modern life on the 
IHTVOUS system ; he was of opinion that 
no man or woman should marry who has 
had an attack of insanity. From 1898 until 
his death he took an active part in the 
' After Care Association ' established to 
help poor patients who have been dis- 
charged from asylums for the insane. At 
the time of his death he was president of 
the Society for the Relief of the Widows 
and Orphans of Medical Men. 

After his retirement from London he 
settled at Tunbridge Wells, where he died 
on 18 Aug. 1911 and was buried. In 
1864 he married Louisa, only daughter of 
the Rev. George Holloway, by whom he 
had two sons and two daughters. Bland- 
ford was athletic in early life, and belonged 
for several years to the 2nd (South) Middle- 
sex volunteers. He was also interested in 
art, literature, and music, showing skill 
in water-colour sketching and collecting 
from an early period Whistler's etchings, 
besides contributing a few unsigned articles 
to the ' Cornhill Magazine.' 

Blandford's chief work was an admirably 
practical and comprehensive text-book, 
' Insanity and its Treatment ; Lectures on 
the Treatment, Medical and Legal, of In- 
sane Patients ' (Edinburgh 1871 ; 4th edit. 
1 892). The book was reissued in America, 
n itli a summary of the laws in force in the 
United States on the confinement of the 
insane, by Isaac Ray (Philadelphia 1871 ; 
3rd edit, with the Types of Insanity, 
an illustrated guide in the physical diag- 
nosis of mental disease, by Allan McLane 
Hamilton, New York 1886). A German 
translation by Dr. H. Kornfeld appeared 
at Berlin in 1878. Blandford also wrote 
valuable articles on ' Insanity ' in the 
second (1894) and third (1902) editions of 
* Quain's Dictionary of Medicine ' ; * Pre- 
vention of Insanity ' and ' Prognosis 
of Insanity ' in * Tuke's Dictionary of 


Psychological Medicine' (1892); and 'In- 
sanity ' in the ' Twentieth Century Practice 
of Medicine ' (1897). He was a frequent 
contributor to the 'Journal of Mental 
Science,' to the first twenty-four volumes 
of which he prepared an index. 

[Journal of Mental Science, 1911, Ivii. 753 ; 
Lancet, 19.11, ii. 733; Brit. Med. Journal, 1911, 
ii. 524; private information.] D'A. P. 

BLANEY, THOMAS (1823-1903), 
physician and philanthropist, of Bombay, 
was born at Caherconlish, Pallas-green, co. 
Limerick, on 24 May 1823. Of humble 
origin, he went out to Bombay with his 
parents when only three. Ten years later 
(1836) he was apprenticed to the subordi- 
nate medical department of the East India 
Company. He served ' up-country ' for 
eight years, but returning to Bombay in 
1847 entered the Grant medical college 
as a government student in 1851, and 
attended classes there for four years. 
After reaching the post of apothecary at the 
European general hospital on Rs. 100 per 
mensem, he was invalided from the service 
in 1860. He rapidly founded a largo 
private practice among all classes and /aces 
in the city. In 1867 he published a pam- 
phlet on ' Fevers as connected with the 
Sanitation of Bombay ' ; during the pre- 
valence of famine in southern Indian in 
1878 he identified relapsing fever. When 
plague betrayed its presence in 1896, he 
was foremost in detecting its true nature, 
and realised the gravity of the situation, 
which was much under-estimated by the 
health department of the municipality. 
Known as ' the jury-wallah doctor,' because 
he served as coroner from 1876 to 1893, 
he was held in great local repute profession- 
ally, and grateful native patients often 
remembered him in their wills. All his 
large earnings, save the small amount 
needed for Ms simple style of life, were 
given to the poor and to causes which 
won his sympathy. He made it a rule to 
take no professional fee from a widow. 
For many months he provided in his 
own home free tuition and a midday 
meal for. children of ' poor whites.' More 
than seventy children were thus cared 
for, and ultimately, under the name of the 
Blaney school, the institution was taken 
over and maintained for a time by a repre- 
sentative committee. 

In civic affairs Blaney first came into 
notice by the vigour with which he condemned 
in the local press, under the pseudonym 
of ' Q in the Corner,' the wild speculation 
of the period (1861-5). In 1868 he was 
appointed to the bench of justices, which 




had restricted powers of municipal adminis- 
tration, and when a municipal corporation 
at Bombay was established in 1872 he 
was one of the original members, retaining 
office until his retirement from public life. 
He was elected to the chair on four occasions 
between 1877 and 1893. A member of the 
municipality's statutory standing com- 
mittee responsible for the civic expenditure 
for nine years, and its chairman from 1890 
to 1894, he refused the fees payable for 
attendance, and thus saved the rates about 
1000/. An eloquent speaker and an 
ardent but always fair fighter, he exercised 
a wise and salutary influence on civic 
polity. He successfully resisted the efforts 
of a powerful English syndicate to obtain 
control of the water supply, the adequacy 
and efficiency of which under municipal 
management were his special care. He 
was chairman of the joint schools committee, 
a member of the city improvement trust, 
and a fellow of the university. The 
government of India appointed him sheriff 
of Bombay in 1875 and 1888. He was 
created a C.I.E. in May 1894, and on 
2 June of the same year a statue of him 
in Carrara marble, by Signor Valla of Genoa, 
for which upwards of Rs. 22,000 (1460Z.) 
were subscribed by his fellow-citizens, was 
unveiled, opposite the Bombay municipal 
buildings, by Mr. H. A. Acworth, I.C.S., 
then municipal commissioner. Four years 
later the infirmities of age compelled 
Blaney's relinquishment of both civic 
and professional work. His liberality 
had deprived him of means of support, 
but a few fellow-townsmen provided for 
his simple needs. He died unmarried on 
1 April 1903, and was buried at Sewri 
cemetery next day. 

[Times of India, 3 June 1894 and 2 April 
1903 ; Bombay Gazette, 2 April 1903 ; Mac- 
lean's Guide to Bombay ; personal know- 
ledge.] F. H. B. 

(1832-1905), geologist and zoologist, born on 
7 Oct. 1832 at 27 Bouverie Street, London, 
was eldest of four sons of William Blanford 
by his wife, Elizabeth Simpson; Henry 
Francis Blanford [q. v. Suppl. I] was a 
younger brother. At fourteen he left a 
private school at Brighton for Paris, where 
he remained till March 1848. After a serious 
illness he spent two years in a mercantile 
house at Civita Vecchia, returning to Eng- 
land in 1851, when he joined his father's 
business of carver and guilder, studying 
at the school of design, Somerset House. 
Next year he followed his brother Henry 
to the Royal School of Mines, gaining 

at the end of the two years' course the 
duke of Cornwall's and the council's 
scholarships. In 1854 he studied at the 
mining school of Freiberg in Saxony, and 
late in the autumn both brothers left Eng- 
land for India with appointments on its 
geological survey. 

Their first work was to examine a coal- 
field near Talchir, about 60 miles N.W. of 
Cuttack in Orissa. The chief results were 
the separation of the coal measures into an 
upper and lower division and the discovery 
of boulders in the fine silt of the Talchir 
strata which Blanford rightly concluded 
bore marks of ice action. At the out- 
break of the mutiny he was busy sur- 
veying, and had a narrow escape, in 
returning to Calcutta where he joined the 
volunteer guards. The danger ended, he 
resumed work in the field, and was engaged 
in 18589 on the Rariganj coalfield. After 
November 1860 he spent two years in 
investigating the geology of Burma, dis- 
covering an extinct volcano near Pagan, 
and making extensive zoological collections. 

In November 1862, on returning from 
leave in England, he was raised to the post 
of deputy superintendent, and employed 
during the next four years in the survey 
of the Bombay presidency, determining 
among other things the age of the Deccan 
traps. Late in 1867 he was attached 
to the Abyssinian expedition and accom- 
panied the troops to Magdala, making 
large collections, both geological and zoo- 
logical. Work on these occupied much time 
after his return to India in October 1868, 
and brought him to England on six months' 
service leave ; the outcome was his valuable 
book, ' Observations on the Geology and the 
Zoology of Abyssinia ' (1870). 

He resumed field work in India, and by 
the end of the season of 1871 had traversed 
nearly the whole peninsula on foot or horse- 
back. Attached to the Persian Boundary 
commission, he went to Teheran, visited 
the Elburz Mountains, and returned to 
England from the Caspian by Moscow, 
arriving home in September 1872. The 
hardships of this expedition affected his 
health, and during two years' enforced 
leave he prepared a volume for the 
report of the boundary commission (pub- 
lished in 1876). Some important work on 
the geology of Sind was done after his 
return to India in 1874, but his time was 
chiefly occupied by office duties in Calcutta. 
Here he joined with his chief, Henry 
Benedict Medlicott [q. v. Suppl. II], in 
writing a ' Manual of the Geology of India ' 
(1879), fully one-half of which was Blan- 




ford's work. Ho was again home on 
furlough from 1879 to 1881, during which 
he attended the geological congress at 
Bologna. After ho returned to India in 
October 1881, field work brought on an 
attack of fever which rendered retirement 
from the service prudent. Settling in 
London he recovered liis health and took 
an active part in scientific societies, writing 
numerous papers, and editing for the govern- 
ment of India a series of books on the 
fauna of British India. To this series ho 
contributed two volumes on the mammals 
(1888 and 1891) and two on birds (vols. iii. 
and iv., 1895 and 1898) ; he was engaged 
at his death on a volume on the land and 
fresh-water molluscs, which was completed 
by Lieut. -colonel H. H. God win- Austen, 
and published in 1908. At the Montreal 
meeting of the British Association in 1884 
he was president of the geological section ; 
he also took part in the Toronto meeting 
and visited Vancouver Island in 1897. He 
was secretary, member of council, vice- 
president, and treasurer, as well as presi- 
dent, of the Geological Society (1888-90), 
delivering addresses on the nomenclature 
and classification of geological formations 
and on the permanence of ocean basins, to 
which he gave a guarded adherence. The 
society awarded him the Wollaston medal 
in 1882. He was elected F.R.S. in 1874, 
receiving a royal medal in 1901. The 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him 
by Montreal University in 1884, the Italian 
order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus in 
1881 ; and he was made C.I.E. in 1904. 
His published papers are nearly 170 in 
number, and embrace a great variety of 
subjects. ' His many-sided accomplish- 
ments gave him a notable place among geo- 
logists, geographers, palaeontologists, and 
zoologists.' He was master of the Cord- 
wainers' Company 1 900-1 . He shot well, and 
on the whole enjoyed good health till near 
the end. He died in London on 23 June 
]905. He married in February 1883 Ida 
Gertrude, daughter of Mr. R. T. Bellhouse, 
an artist. His widow survived him with 
two sons and a daughter. 

[Nature, Ixxii. ; Geol. Mag. (with por- 
trait), 1906 ; Quarterly Journal of Geological 
Soc., 1906 ; Proc. Roy. Soc. Ixxix. B, 1907 ; 
information from T. Blanford, Esq. (brother) ; 
personal knowledge.] T. G. B. 

MARVELL (1818-1908), classical scholar, 
born at Hampton Court Green on 29 Sept. 
1818, was third son of Hugh Blaydes 
(1777-1829) of High Paull, Yorkshire, and 
of Ranby Hall, Nottinghamshire, J.P. 

and high sheriff for the latter county; 
his mother was Delia Maria, second daughter 
of Colonel Richard Wood of Hollin Hall, 
Yorkshire. James Blaides of Hull, who 
married on 25 March 1615 Anne, sister of the 
poet Andrew Marvell, was a direct ancestor. 

After his father's death in 1829, Blaydes 
was sent to a private school at Boulogne, 
and thence, on 14 Sept. 1831, to St. 
Peter's School, York, where he became 
a free scholar in June 1832 and gained 
an exhibition before matriculating at 
Oxford, 20 Oct. 1836, as a commoner of 
Christ Church. John Ruskin, about five 
months his junior, was already a gentleman 
commoner there, and Thomas Gaisford 
[q. v.] was dean (of. RUSKIN, Prceterita, 
1900, i. 371). In 1838 A Blaydes was elected 
Hertford scholar and v a student of Christ 
Church, and in Easter term 1840 4 was placed 
in the second class in literee humaniores 
along with (Sir) George Webbe Dasent 
[q. v. Suppl. I] and James Anthony 
Froude [q. v. Suppl. I], He graduated 
B.A. in 1840, proceeding M.A. in 1843. 

After a long tour (which he described 
in family letters) through France and 
Italy in 1840-1, finally spending a week 
in Athens, he returned to Oxford in Aug. 
1841. and issued an edition of Aristo- 
phanes' * Birds ' (1842), with short Latin 
notes. Ordained deacon in 1842 and priest 
in 1843, he accepted the college living of 
Harringworth, Northamptonshire. Harring- 
worth was Blaydes' home for forty-three 
years (1843-86). A staunch ' protestant,' he 
joined on 10 Dec. 1850 the deputation from 
his university which, headed by the Chan- 
cellor, the Duke of Wellington, presented an 
address to Queen Victoria against the ' papal 
aggression' (The Times, 11 Dec. 1850). 

But Blaydes' interest and ample leisure 
were mainly absorbed by classical study. 
In 1845 he published an edition of a second 
play of Aristophanes the ' Acharnians.' 
In 1859 he published in the ' Bibliotheca 
classica ' three plays of Sophocles. The 
reception of the book was not altogether 
favourable, and a difference with the pub- 
lishers (Bell & Daldy) led him to issue 
separately the four remaining plays with 
Williams & Norgate. He reckoned that 
he gave more than twenty years to Sopho- 
cles, and, with intervals, more than fifty to 

Blaydes resigned his benefice in 1884, and 
from 1886 lived at Brighton. In 1907 he 
moved to Southsea, where he died, retaining 
his vigour till near the end, on 7 Sept. 
1908 ; he was buried in Brighton cemetery. 

Scholarship meant for Blaydes what it 

N 2 


1 80 


had meant for Elmsley at Oxford, for 
Person and Dobree at Cambridge. With 
the later and more literary school of Sir 
Richard Jebb in England and von Wilamo- 
witz-Moellendorff in Germany he had small 
sympathy. Verbal criticism and the dis- 
covery of corrupt passages mainly occupied 
him, and his fertile and venturesome habit 
of emendation exposed his work to dis- 
paragement (N. WECKLErtf in Berliner 
philologische Wochenschrift, 28 Jahrgang, 
1908, No. 20). Yet not a few of his emenda- 
tions have been approved by later editors 
(S. G. OWEN in BURSIAN'S Jahresbericht uber 
die Fortschritte der classischen Altertumswis- 
senschaft, 1909 ; Biographisches Jb. pp. 37 ff .) 
His own views on the editing of classical 
texts will be found in the introduction to 
his * Sophocles,' vol. i., and in the preface 
to 'The Philoctetes of Sophocles,' 1870. 
The University of Dublin made him hon. 
LL.D. on 6 July 1892 ; he was also a Ph.D. 
of Budapest, and a fellow of the Royal 
Society of Letters at Athens. 

Blaydes made a hobby of homoeopathy 
and delighted in music, being an accom- 
plished singer and naming his third son, 
George Frederick Handel, after the com- 
poser. To St. Paul's school, where his eldest 
son was a pupil, he was a munificent bene- 
factor. In 1901 he presented to it the 
greater part of his classical library, amount- 
ing to 1300 volumes, with many framed 
engravings, principally of Italian scenery, 
now hung in the dining hall. In following 
years he gave many specimens of marble 
from the Mediterranean basin, together with 
more pictures, books, and a large collection 
of curios. The ample fortune which his first 
wife brought him he spent to the amount of 
30 ; 000/. on his studies, collections, and 
the printing of his books. 

Blaydes married firstly, in 1843, Fanny 
Maria, eldest daughter and eventually (on 
the death in 1874 of her only brother, Sir 
Edward Henry Page-Turner, 6th baronet) 
one of the co -heiresses of Sir Edward 
George Thomas Page-Turner, of Ambrosden, 
Oxfordshire, and Battlesden, Bedfordshire ; 
she was killed in a carriage accident, 
21 Aug. 1884, leaving issue three sons and 
four daughters. Blaydes' second wife was 
Emma, daughter of Mr. H. R. Nichols. 

Blaydes' principal publications were : 1. 
* Aristophanis Aves,' 1842. 2. ' Aristo- 
phanis Acharnenses,' 1845. 3. ' Sophocles,' 
1859 (vol. i. of the ' Bibliotheca classica ' 
edition). 4. The 'Philoctetes,' ' Trachi- 
niae,' ' Electra,' and ' Ajax ' of Sophocles, 
1870-5. 5. ' Aristophanis quatuor fabulse,' 
a collection subdated 1873-8. 6. ' Aristo- 

phanis comici quse supersunt opera,' 1886. 
7. ' Aristophanis coriioedisc ' his best work ; 
in 12 pts. dated 1882-1893. 8. Nine sets 
of ' Adversaria ' on various authors, 1890- 
1903. 9. '^Bschyli Agamemnon,' 1898; 
' Choephoroi,' 1899; ' Eumenides,' 1900. 
10. ' Spicilegium Aristophaneum,' 1902 ; 
' Spicilegium Tragicum,' 1902 ; ' Spici- 
legium Sophocleum,' 1903. 11. ' Sophoclis 
(Edipus Rex,' 1904 ; ' CEdipus Coloneus,' 
1904 ; ' Antigone,' 1905 ; ' Electra,' 1906 ; 
'Ajax,' 1908; 'Philoctetes,' 1908. 12. 
' Analecta Comica Grasca,' 1905 ; ' Analecta 
Tragica Grseca,' 1906. 13. 'Miscellanea 
Critica,' 1907. 

[The Pauline, No. 170, pp. 172 ff. (with por- 
trait) ; Oxford Magazine, 29 Oct. 1908 ; pri- 
vate information ; Foster's Alumni Oxon.l 

W. G. F. 

LAND, fourth baronet (1839-1909), 
political writer, born at Blennerville, 
co. Kerry, on 5 Sept. 1839, was only 
son of Sir Arthur Blennerhassett, third 
baronet (1794-1849), whose ancestors had 
settled in Kerry under Queen Elizabeth, 
by his wife Sarah, daughter of John Mahony . 
An only sister, Rosanna (d. 1907), became 
a sister of the Red Cross, and described 
her arduous labours in South Africa in 
* Adventures in Mashonaland ' (with 
L. Gleeman, 1893). Both parents were 
Roman catholics. Rowland succeeded to 
the baronetcy on the death of his father 
in 1849. After being educated first at 
Downside, under the Benedictines, and 
then at Stonyhurst, under the Jesuits, he 
matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, 
but left without a degree for the Univer- 
sity of Louvain. There he took a doctor's 
degree in political and administrative 
science, ' with special distinction.' He 
afterwards, in 1864, studied at Munich, 
where he formed a lifelong friendship 
with Dollinger. Finally he proceeded to 
Berlin, where he became acquainted with 
many leading politicians, including Prince 
Bismarck. A frequent visitor to France in 
later years, he came to know the chief men 
of all parties under the second empire. 

About 1862 Blennerhassett became inti- 
mate with Sir John Dalberg (afterwards 
Lord) Acton [q. v. Suppl. II], with whose 
stand against later developments of ultra- 
montanism he had a strong sympathy. 
The discontinuance by Acton in December 
1863 of the ' Home and Foreign Review,' 
a Roman catholic organ of liberal tendencies, 
suggested the possibility of establishing a 
journal the main objects of which should be 
political and literary ; and Blennerhassett 




found the money for starting the ' Chronicle,' 
a political and literary organ of liberal 
Catholicism, under the direction of Mr. 
T. F. Wetherell. Blennerhassett and Acton 
were of great service in searching for com- 
petent foreign correspondents. The first 
number appeared on 23 March 1867, and 
the last on 13 Feb. 1868. As Gladstone 
predicted, it proved too Roman catholic for 
liberals, and too liberal for Roman catholics, 
and its early support of home rule for 
Ireland iuil her prejudiced its chances of 
success. Save on ecclesiastical questions, 
the paper seldom expressed Blennerhassett's 
opinions. The ' Chronicle ' lacked sympathy 
with the reasoned imperialism which de- 
veloped out of Blennerhassett's early 
admiration of Bismarck and engendered 
a faith in the superiority of German to 
English methods of progress. His early 
desire that England should learn from 
Germany passed into a strong desire that 
she should prepare herself for the rivalry 
which the new German ambitions were 
making inevitable. Thus with him foreign 
policy grew to be an absorbing interest. 

Meanwhile Blennerhassett took an active 
part in Irish politics. In 1865 he entered 
parliament as liberal M.P. for Gal way City. 
But he lost the confidence of the priest- 
hood owing to his association with Dollinger 
and Acton, although he declined to join the 
new community of Old Catholics. In 1874 
he stood for Kerry, his native county, 
and represented it till 1885. In that 
interval his attitude on the home rule 
controversy completely changed. From a 
lukewarm supporter of home rule as a 
parliamentary movement under Butt and 
Shaw, he became an active opponent of 
it as a national movement under Parnell. 
Defeated in Kerry at the general election 
of Nov. 1885, he did not re-enter the House 
of Commons. 

During his parliamentary career Blen- 
nerhassett was mainly concerned with 
Irish university education and the Irish 
land question. His speeches on Fawcett's 
Irish university bill in 1871, and on Glad- 
stone's Irish university bill of 1873, which 
he supported, showed an intimate know- 
e of continental universities. He re- 
gretted Gladstone's exclusion of modern 
history and moral philosophy from the 
curriculum, and pressed the system 
borrowed from Germany of duplicate 
faculties in the same university. In 1872 
he moved the second reading of a bill for 
the purchase of Irish railways. In regard 
to the land question he anticipated the 
legislation of 1903 in a confidential rncmo- 

I randum, dated April 1884 (afterwards 
[ printed), suggesting the appointment 
of a commission to convert large tracts of 
Irish land into peasant properties, by 
buying the estates of landlords willing to 
sell, at twenty-two years' purchase of the 
judicial rent. 

After his retirement from the House of 
Commons he continued to play a part in 
Irish public life. He was a commissioner 
of national education and a member of the 
senate of the Royal University. From 
1890 to 1897 he was an inspector of reforma- 
tory and industrial schools ; from 1897 to 
1904 he was president of Queen's College, 
Cork ; and in 1905 he was made a member 
of the Irish privy council. During these 
years he constantly wrote with fulness of 
knowledge on political subjects in 'The 
Times,' the ' Daily Telegraph,' the ' Nine- 
teenth Century,' the * Fortnightly Review,' 
the ' Deutsche Rundschau,' and, especially 
at the end of his life, in the ' National 
Review.' He deeply regretted the change 
in the papal policy on the election of 
Pius X, and the retirement of Cardinal 
Rampolla, though he admitted the provoca- 
tion given by the French government, and 
the difference between the modernism of 
the Abbe Loisy and the liberal Catholicism 
of his youth. A ready talker as well as writer, 
he died on 22 March 1909, at 54 Rutland 
Gate, the house of his daughter, and was 
buried at Downside. On 9 June 1870 
he married the Countess Charlotte 
von Leyden, only daughter of Count von 
Leyden, of an old Bavarian family, whom 
he first met in Rome four months earlier ; 
she survived him. He left two sons, of 
whom Arthur Charles Francis Bernard suc- 
ceeded to the baronetcy ; an only daughter, 
Marie Carola Franciska Roselyne, married 
Baron Raphael d'Erlanger (d. 1897). 

Blennerhassefct published several of his 
speeches in parliament and his inaugural 
address on 'University Education' at 
Queen's College, Cork, 1898. He edited 
Ringhoffer's * Bernstorff Memoirs ' in 1908. 
[The Times, 24 March 1909; the Home and 
Foreign Review; Acton and his Circle, by 
Abbot Gasquet, 1907. The publication of 
some of Blenncrhasset's scattered papers, 
nnclor the editorship of Lady Blennerhassott, 
is in contemplation.] D. C. L. 

BLIND, KARL (1826-1907), political 
refugee and author, was born of middle- 
class parents in Mannheim, in the grand 
duchy of Baden, Germany, on 4 Sept. 1826. 
Educated at the Lyceum, Mannheim, and 
then at Karlsruhe, where he won gold and 
silver medals, he proceeded in 1845 with a 




scholarship to Heidelberg University, and 
there studied jurisprudence, literature, 
archaeology, and philosophy. At Mann- 
heim, the centre of the German radical 
movement, he had imbibed revolutionary 
principles, attaching himself to the 
extreme party which aimed at a united 
Germany under a republican government. 
At Heidelberg he actively engaged in 
political agitation, helping to form 
democratic "clubs among undergraduates, 
soldiers, and citizens, and contributing 
to the advanced nationalist press of 
Baden, Bavaria, and Prussia. For writing 
an article in 1846 in which he hotly 
denounced the punishment of a free- 
thinking soldier, Blind was arrested on 
a charge of treason. He was acquitted 
on trial through the eloquence of his 
advocate, Friedrich Hecker, leader of the 
advanced liberal group in the Baden 
Reichstag, but he was dismissed from 
Heidelberg University shortly afterwards, 
and lost his scholarship. He continued his 
studies at Bonn, and pursued his violent 
propaganda there. He repeatedly revisited 
Heidelberg in disguise to take part in 
political meetings of the students. For 
the secret distribution at Diirkheim, near 
Neustadt, in 1847 of a treasonable 
pamphlet entitled ' Deutscher Hunger und 
Deutsche Fiirsten ' he was arrested for 
the third time, and with the lady who 
became his wife was condemned to im- 

In March 1848 the year of revolution 
throughout Europe Blind took part in 
the democratic risings in Karlsruhe and 
other towns in Baden. He was present 
at Frankfort during the meetings of the 
Vorparlament, the gathering of advanced 
liberals, and with Hecker, Gustav von 
Struve, and other leaders of the republican 
party, agitated for the body's continuance 
as a permanent national assembly. He 
was wounded slightly in a street riot in 
a conflict with the police, and in April 
joined Hecker in the republican rising near 
Lake Constance. Proscribed by the Baden 
government, he took refuge in Alsace, but 
was there accused of complicity in the 
June rising in Paris. Imprisoned at Strass- 
burg by order of General Cavaignac, who was 
trying to repress the revolutionary move- 
ment in France, he was taken in chains to 
the Swiss frontier. Re-entering Baden, he 
was prominent in the rising under Struve 
at Staufen (24 Sept. 1848), and was with 
Struve taken prisoner at Wehr by some 
members of the ' city guard ' soon afterwards. 
Sentenced to eight years' imprisonment, 

he was placed in the underground case- 
mates at Rostatt, and ultimately, in May 
1849, removed to Bruchsal. The revolu- 
tionary movement spread thither, and 
Blind was released by a party of armed 
citizens. The revolutionists soon established 
at Offenburg under Brentano, on 1 June 
1849, a provisional government for Baden 
and Rhenish Bavaria, and Blind was 
sent as its representative on a political 
mission to Paris. Implicated there in 
Ledru-Rollin's movement against Louis 
Napoleon, the president of the new French 
republic, he was arrested on 13 June, 
sentenced to perpetual exile from France, 
and, after arbitrary imprisonment for 
two months in La Force, was conducted 
to the Belgian frontier. He was there 
joined by his wife and children. In 1852 
he was in turn exiled from Belgium, 
owing to pressure from Louis Napoleon's 
government, and coming to England, settled 
with his family at Hampstead. 

Blind, though never naturalised, thence- 
forth made England his permanent home, 
and for more than half a century devoted 
himself without intermission to literary 
support of ' nationalism ' and democratic 
progress in Germany and elsewhere. His 
house at Hampstead became a rendezvous 
for political refugees from Europe, and 
filled a prominent place in the history 
of all advanced political movements. 
He welcomed to England Mazzini, who 
became an intimate friend, and whom he 
introduced to Swinburne. At Garibaldi's 
reception in London in 1864 he spoke 
on behalf of the German community. He 
entertained Ledru-Rollin, Louis Blanc, 
Karl Marx, Kinkel, and Freiligrath. It 
was his especial aim to enlist and educate 
English public opinion on behalf of the 
German revolutionary cause. In 1863-4, as 
head of a London committee to promote 
the independence of Schleswig-Holstein, 
he acted as intermediary between the 
leaders of the Schleswig Diet and the 
English foreign office. An ardent champion 
of Polish freedom, he was in com- 
munication with the revolutionary 
government at Warsaw during 1863, and 
in lectures which he delivered throughout 
England and Scotland denounced Russia's 
oppression of the Poles. His pen was 
active in support of the North during 
the American civil war, of Germany 
during the Franco-German war, 1870-1, of 
Greece in her various disputes with Turkey, 
and of Japan in her war with Russia in 
1904. For his 'services to Greece he was 
decorated by King George of Greece with 




the order of St. Andrew. He also 
strenuously advocated the claims to 
independence of the Egyptian nationalists 
from 1882 onwards, and of the Transvaal 
Boers from 1878 till his death. 

Apart from current politics, Blind wrote 
much on history and on German and Indian 
mythology, contributing to leading reviews 
in England, Germany, America, and 
Italy. Among his better known articles 
were biographical studies of Freiligrath, 
Ledru-Rollin, and the Hungarian states- 
man, Francis Deak, ' Zur Geschichte 
der republikanischen Partei in England ' 
(Berlin, 1873), and ' Fire-Burial among 
our Germanic Forefathers ' (1875), which 
were reprinted in pamphlet form. To his 
advocacy was due the foundation of a 
memorial to Feuerbach the philosopher 
at Landshut, and the erection of monu- 
ments to Hans Sachs, the cobbler bard of 
Nuremberg, and to Walther von der 
Vogelweide at Bozen in 1877. 

Blind died at Hampstead on 31 May 
1907, and was cremated at Golder's 
Green. He married about 1849 Friederike 
Ettlinger, the widow of a merchant 
named Cohen, by whom he had one 
son, Rudolf Blind, an artist, and one 
daughter. Mathilde Blind [q. v. Suppl. I] 
was his step-daughter; Ferdinand Cohen 
Blind, who attempted Bismarck's life in 
Unter den Linden on 7 May 1866, and 
then committed suicide in prison, was his 

A bust of Karl Blind is in the possession 
of his daughter, Mrs. Ottilie Hancock. 

[The Times, 1 June 1907; Illustrierte 
Zcitung, 6 Sept. 1906 (with portrait); 
Vapereau, Dictionnaire des Contemporains ; 
Men and Women of the Time, 1899 ; Eugene 
Oswald, Reminiscences of a Busy Life, 1911 ; 
Hans Blum, Die Deutsche Revolution ; 
Brockhaus, Conversations-Lexicon ; autobio- 
graphical articles on the years 1848-9 by 
Blind in the Cornhill Magazine, 1898-9.] 

S. E. F. 

(1822-1905), author, born on 13 April 1822 
at 51 Portland Place, London, was sixteenth 
and youngest child of Thomas Henry 
Liddell, first Baron Ravensworth, by his 
wife Marion Susannah, daughter of John 
Simpson of Bradley Hall, co. Durham. She 
was educated at home, and in December 
1841 became maid of honour to Queen 
Victoria, resigning in July 1845. On 
4 Sept. 1845, at Lanesley church, co. 
Durham, she married John Arthur Douglas, 
second Baron Bloomfield [q. v.], and ac- 
companied her husband on his diplomatic 

missions, going at first to St. Petersburg, 
thence to Berlin (1851-60), and to Vienna 
(1861-71). There were no children of 
the marriage, and after her husband's 
death at his residence, Newport, co. 
Tipperary, in 1879, Lady Bloomfield settled 
at Shrivenham, in Berkshire, to be near her 
sister, Jane Elizabeth, widow of the sixth 
Viscount Barrington. When Lady Barring- 
ton died on 22 March 1883, Lady Bloomfield 
removed to Bramfield House, about two 
miles from Hertford. Here she exercised 
much hospitality and interested herself in 
the affairs of the village. 

In 1883 she published ' Reminiscences of 
Court and Diplomatic Life' (2 vols.), 'a 
constant ripple of interesting anecdote,' as 
Augustus J. C. Hare described Lady Bloom - 
field's conversation (cf. Story of My Life, 
1900, vol. vi.). She edited in 1884 a 
' Memoir of Benjamin, Lord Bloomfield * 
[q. v.], her father-in-law, in 2 volumes. 
Her last work, * Gleanings of a Long Life ' 
( 1902), collected extracts from her favourite 

Lady Bloomfield, a ' grand dame ' of an 
old school, kept up her friendship with 
Queen Victoria and her family, and de- 
lighted in social intercourse with all classes. 
While deeply religious on old, low church 
lines, she was tolerant and charitable. 
She founded in 1874 the Trained Nurses' 
Annuity Fund, and built and endowed alms- 
houses on her husband's estate near New- 
port, co. Tipperary. She sketched well in 
water-colours, and her sketches formed a 
sort of diary of her journeys. She was 
an accomplished musician, playing the 
organ ; was a good billiard player, and an 
excellent gardener. 

She died, after a long illness, at Bramfield 
House on 21 May 1905, and was buried in 
the family mausoleum beside her husband 
in the churchyard of Borrisnafarney, King's 
County, Ireland. 

[Lady Bloomfield's Reminiscences of Court 
and Diplomatic Life, 1883 ; The Times, 23 May 
1905 ; Allibone, Diet, of Eng. Ldt., Suppl. 1 ; 
Burke's Peerage, 1907 ; private information.] 

E. L. 

O'RELL') (1848-1903), humorous writer, 
born in Brittany on 2 March 1848 and 
educated in Paris, served as a cavalry 
officer in the Franco-German war, was 
captured at Sedan, set at liberty early in 
1871, and severely wounded in the second 
siege of Paris. In 1 872 ( having been retired 
on account of his wound) he came to Eng- 
land as correspondent to several French 
papers, and four years later became French 




master at St. Paul's school, wrote several 
manuals and edited texts. In 1887, under 
the pseudonym of * Max O'Rell,' which he 
permanently adopted, he dedicated to John 
Bull his ' John Bull et son lie,' a vivacious 
picture of English eccentricities and racial 
characteristics. It was translated by his 
English wife (born Bartlett) and achieved 
a success so rapid as to determine the 
writer to abandon his teaching career, 
successful as it had hitherto proved, for 
one of popular writing and lecturing. There 
flowed from his pen in rapid succession 
'John Bull's Womankind' (1884), 'The 
Dear Neighbours' (1885), 'Friend Mac- 
donald ' (1887), ' Drat the Boys ' (1886), in 
collaboration with Georges Petilleau, ' John 
Bull, Junior' (1889), 'Jonathan and his 
Continent' (1889), 'A Frenchman in 
America ' (1891), ' John Bull and Co.' (1894), 
' Woman and Artist ' (dedicated to his wife, 
1900), 'Her Royal Highness Woman ' (dedi- 
cated ' to the nicest little woman in the 
world,' 1901), 'Between Ourselves' (1902), 
and 'Rambles in Womanland' (1903). All 
of these were written originally in French 
and were produced almost simultaneously in 
English. Many were translated into other 
languages. In 1887 and 1890 he lectured 
in America; in 1893 with his wife and 
daughter he made a round of the English 
colonies, his readiness as a speaker and 
lecturer ensuring him a welcome every- 
where from people who like to see their 
foibles presented in a humorous light. In 
1902 he settled in the Champs Elysees 
quarter of Paris as correspondent of the 
' New York Journal ' and wrote in the 
French 'Figaro' in support of the entente 
cordiale between England and France. He 
died of cancer in the stomach at 9 Rue 
Freycinet on 25 May 1903, and was buried 
in the church of St. Pierre de Chaillot. A 
tolerant, shrewd, and on the whole impartial 
observer, on lines inherited from Voltaire, 
About, Taine, and Jules Verne, Blouet mixed 
a good deal of flattery with his smart and 
witty banter, and with the leverage thus 
gained was able now and again to tell an 
unpalatable truth, not entirely without 

[The Times, 26 May 1903 ; Illustr. Lond. 
News, 30 May 1903 (portrait) ; Nouveau 
Larousse ; Men and Women of the Time ; 
Blouet's works.] T. S. 

K.C.B. (1809-1905), Paris banker and 
promoter of French railways, born on 
16 March 1809 at the family seat, Bellamour, 
near Rugeley, Staffordshire, was second 
son of Edward Blount (1769-1843) by his 

wife Frances (d. 1859), daughter of Francis 
Wright of Fitzwalters, Essex. The Blount 
family, the head of which was settled at 
Sodington, Worcestershire, and at Mawley, 
Shropshire, was a staunchly catholic 
house of ancient lineage. The father, who 
was second son of Sir Edward Blount, 
sixth baronet, of Mawley Hall, was active 
in the agitation for catholic emancipation, 
was secretary of the Catholic Association, 
joined with Daniel O'Connell in founding 
the Provincial Bank of Ireland, and was 
whig M.P. for Steyning, Sussex, in tho 
unreformed parliaments of 1830 and 1831. 

Of Edward Blount' s four brothers, none 
of whom married, Walter Aston, the eldest 
(1807-1894), was Clarenceux king of arms. 

In spite of the catholic fervour of the 
family, Blount was sent as a child to the 
neighbouring grammar school of Rugeley, 
of which the vicar was master. At home 
at Bellamour he gained a useful knowledge 
of French from Father Malvoisin, an 
emigre priest. In 1819 he went to St. 
Mary's College at Oscott near Birmingham. 
There he stayed until 1827 

After a short experience of commercial 
life in the London office of the Provincial 
Bank of Ireland, he entered the home office. 
Through his father's influence he went 
much in youth into whig society, and occa- 
sionally attended the breakfast parties 
at Holland House. In the autumn of 
1829, the first Lord Granville, British 
ambassador in Paris, appointed him an 
attache to the Paris embassy. Next 
year he was transferred to the consulate at 
Rome. At Rome he made the acquaint- 
ance of Cardinals Weld and Wiseman ; 
and at the palace of Queen Hortense 
he first met her son, the future 
Napoleon III. In 1831 he left Rome to 
join the Paris banking firm of Callaghan 
& Co. With his father's help, he soon 
started the bank of Edward Blount, Pere et 
Fils, at No. 7 Rue Laffitte. The business 
proved successful, and he afterwards joined 
Charles Laffitte (nephew of the financier 
and statesman, Jacques Laffitte) in forming 
the new firm of Charles Lamtte, Blount 
& Co., Rue Basse du Rempart. 

Meanwhile Blount mainly devoted his 
energies to the promotion of railway enter- 
prise in France. In 1836 France had 
only one short line between Strassburg 
and Bale. In 1838 the French govern- 
ment's bill for the construction of seven 
great trunk-lines under the control of the 
state was defeated, and the way thrown 
open to private enterprise. Blount 
offered M. Dufaure, then minister of 




public works, to construct a line from 
Paris to Rouen, proposing to raise 600,OOOZ. 
in England and the same amount in 
France, on the minister's undertaking to 
give a guarantee for the third 600,000/. The 
proposal was accepted, and a company 
(the Chemin de fer de 1' Quest) was formed 
by Blount, who became chairman. The 
.directors were half French and half Eng- 
lish ; capitalists who aided the venture 
included Baron James Rothschild and 
Lord Overstone. The law authorising 
Blount's firm to construct the railway 
from Paris to Rouen was signed by King 
Louis Philippe on 15 July 1840. The 
line, which was designed by Joseph 
Locke [q. v.], with Thomas Brassey as 
contractor, was opened on 9 May 1843. 
To gain a thorough knowledge of railway 
management, Blount learned engine-driving, 
spending four months on the London and 
North Western railway. Mr. Buddicom, 
the locomotive manager of the L. and 
N.W.R. at Liverpool, brought over fifty 
English drivers for the French railway, 
which prospered from the first. Blount 
remained chairman for thirty years, With 
his partner, Laffitte, Blount next con- 
structed in 1845 the line from Amiens to 
Boulogne by way of Abbeville and Neuf- 
chatel, and subsequently (1852-3) he was 
administrator of the lines from Lyons to 
Avignon, and between Lyons, Macon and 

To King Louis Philippe, who gave 
Blount every encouragement, he professed 
deep attachment, and on the outbreak of 
the revolution of 1848, ho helped members 
of the royal family to escape to England. 
The revolution caused the failure of his 
bank, and, though the creditors were event- 
ually paid in full, he had to retire to St. 
Germains to economise. With the aid of 
Brassey and other wealthy friends he 
started in the autumn of 1852 a third 
banking business under the style of Edward 
Blount & Company at No. 7 Rue de la 
Paix. The venture prospered. Blount 
acted as banker to the Papal government. 
After the war of Italian independence 
of 1859, and the annexation of the Papal 
States to the new kingdom of Italy, he had 
the delicate task of arranging the transfer 
of the financial labilities of the Papal 
States to the new. Italian government, and 
the conversion of the papal debt. 

On the outbreak of the revolution in Paris 
on 4 Sept. 1870, he wound up the affairs 
of his bank and transferred the business 
to the Societe G6nerale of Paris, of which 
he became president. When the Prussians 

threatened to besiege Paris, he sent his 
wife and family to England, but remained 
in the capital with his son Aston through 
the siege. His letters to his wife give a 
vivid picture of its horrors. Lord Lyons, 
the British ambassador, left for Tours on 
17 Nov. and in the absence of all the officials 
of the English embassy Blount took 
charge of British interests, being on 24 Jan. 
1871 formally appointed British consul. 
During the siege, and especially at its 
close, he with (Sir) Richard Wallace and 
Dr. Alan Herbert distributed the money 
and food contributed in England to relievo 
the besieged. He dined with Bismarck at 
Versailles after the fall of the city, and left for 
London at the end of March 1871. He was 
convinced that England should have come 
to the rescue of France, and he expressed 
his views with frankness, when on his 
arrival in England he breakfasted with 
Gladstone, the prime minister, Lord 
Granville, the foreign minister, being a 
fellow guest (of. The Times, 16 March 1905). 
For his services he was made C.B. on 
13 March 1871, becoming K.C.B. (civil) on 
2 June 1878. He was also a commander 
of the legion of honour. 

In 1894 Blount resigned the chairman- 
ship of the Chemin de fer de 1' Quest. 
A popular agitation condemned as a mili- 
tary peril the control by a foreigner of 
the railways of the country. The French 
government handsomely acknowledged 
Blount's services, and his fellow directors 
elected him honorary president. He long 
maintained his position in English and 
French society in Paris, and was for many 
years president of the British chamber of 
commerce there. His financial interests 
extended beyond France. He was a 
director among other ventures of the 
General Credit and Finance Company 
(afterwards the Union Discount Company 
of London) and of the London Joint 
Stock Bank. Devoted to the turf, be was 
largely interested in the stable of the 
Comte de Lagrange, on whose death in 
1883 he kept a small stable of his own. 
He was a member of the French Jockey 
Club, and was reputed a good whip. 

In June 1901, owing to his advanced age, 
he retired from the presidency of his bank- 
ing concern, the Societe Generate of Paris, 
and leaving France, was made honorary 
president. He then settled at his Sussex 
home, Imbrrhorne, East Grinstead. He 
dictated his interesting recollections to 
a neighbour, Dr. Stuart J. Reid, who 
published them in 1902. 

He died at East Grinstead on 15 March 



Bodda Pyne 

1905, aged ninety-six, and was buried in 
the family vault at the cemetery of St. 
Francis, Crawley, Sussex. He was a 
staunch adherent of the Roman catholic 
church, for which community he built a 
school near Birmingham, and a church 
at East Grinstead. 

On 18 Nov. 1834 he married Gertrude 
Frances, third daughter of William Charles 
Jerningham. She died on 9 Nov. 1907. Of 
his two sons and three daughters, he was 
survived only by his younger son, Henry 
Edmund Blount. 

Two paintings of Blount, one by Ricart 
of Paris (circ. 1850-60), and the other by 
J. A. Vinter (1866), are at Imberhorne. 

[Recollections of Sir Edward Blount, ed. 
Dr. Stuart J. Reid, 1902 (portrait) ; Debrett's 
Peerage ; The Times, 16 and 20 March 1905 ; 
Men of Note in Finance and Commerce, 
1900-1 ; Athenaeum, 4 Oct. 1902.] C. W. 

(1829-1908), composer of songs, born at 
Hamburg on 4 Oct. 1829, was son of 
Abraham Lucas Blumenthal. Destined 
from youth for the musical profession, he 
studied under F. W. Grand in Hamburg and 
under C. M. von Booklet and Sechter in 
Vienna. He entered the Paris Conserva- 
toire in 1846, studying the piano under Herz, 
and also under Halevy. In 1848 he settled 
in London, becoming pianist to Queen Vic- 
toria and a fashionable teacher, and was 
naturalised as a British subject. He pub- 
lished numerous fugitive piano pieces and a 
very large number of songs, some of which, 
such as * The Message ' and ' The Requital ' 
(1864) and 'We Two' (1879), achieved a 
lasting popularity. His more ambitious 
attempts at composition attracted no 
attention. A pianoforte trio and a * Mor- 
ceau de Concert for Piano,' both early 
works, were printed ; but his published 
' Albums of Songs ' alone represented his 
characteristic work. 

He died on 17 May 1908 in Cheyne Walk, 
Chelsea. He married in 1868 Leonie Sou- 
voroff Gore, leaving no issue. In accord- 
ance with his wish, his widow assigned 
the valuable copyrights of his songs to 
the Royal Society of Musicians. His 
portrait, painted in 1878 by G. F. Watts, 
R.A., was presented by his widow to the 
Royal College of Music. 

[Grove's Diet.; Musical World, June 1908; 
Musical Times, June 1908 ; personal inquiry.] 

F O 


(1832-1904), soprano vocalist, born in 

London on 27 Aug. 1832, was youngest 
daughter of George Pyne, alto singer (1790- 
1877), and niece of James Kendrick Pyne, 
tenor singer (d. 1857). She studied singing 
from a very early age under (Sir) George 
Smart, and in 1842, at the age of ten, made 
a successful appearance in public with her 
elder sister Susan at the Queen's Concert 
Rooms, Hanover Square. In 1847 the 
sisters performed in Paris, and in August 
1849 Louisa made her debut on the stage 
at Boulogne as Amina in ' La Sonnambula.' 
Lablache offered to take her to St. Peters- 
burg and Moscow, but she declined because 
the engagement would have involved her 
singing on Sunday, to which she had a 
strong objection. Some years later Auber 
made her an advantageous offer to appear 
at the Opera Comique in Paris, which she 
refused on the same grounds. Her first 
original part was Fanny in Macfarren's 
' Charles II,' produced at the Princess's 
Theatre on 27 Oct. 1849. On 14 Aug. 1851 
she performed the Queen of Night in Mozart's 
' II Flauto magico ' at Covent Garden, and 
during the season fulfilled many important 
oratorio and concert engagements. In 
August 1854 she went to America with 
William Harrison (1813-1868) [q .v.], and 
was received there with great enthusiasm, 
staying through three seasons. On her 
return to England in 1857 she went into 
partnership with Harrison, lessee of the 
Lyceum and Drury Lane Theatres, for the 
performance of English opera. The Harri- 
son -Pyne enterprise was inaugurated with 
success at the Lyceum on 21 Sept. 1857, 
and was transferred to Covent Garden next 
year, where the performances continued 
each winter till 19 March 1862. No other 
undertaking of the kind lasted so long. 
Nearly a dozen new operas, by Balfe, 
Benedict, Glover, Mellon and Wallace were 
produced, but the success of the venture 
was not maintained. Pungent, not to say 
derisive, notices in ' The Musical World ' 
finally assisted to kill the enterprise. 
Subsequently Miss Pyne transferred her 
services to Her Majesty's Opera House 
and the Haymarket. In 1868 she married 
Frank Bodda, the baritone singer. She 
then retired from public life and success- 
fully engaged in teaching in London. 
Her husband died on 14 March 1892, aged 
sixty-nine. She received a civil list pension 
of 70Z. in 1896, and died without issue 
in London on 24 March 1904. Her sister 
Susan, who married Frank H. Standing, 
a baritone vocalist known as F. H. Celli, 
died in 1886. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music; Brown and Stratton's 




Diet, of Musicians ; Musical World, 1857 ; 
Athenseura, 26 March 1904; Musical Times, 
April 1904 ; Kuhe's Reminiscences ; H. Saxe- 
Wyndham, Annals of Covent Garden ; Hays' 
Women of the Day, 1885.] F. C. 

1911), vice-chancellor of Leeds University, 
born at Aston, Birmingham, on 29 May 
1848, was only son in a family of one 
son and one daughter of Jonathan Boding- 
ton (1794-1875), miller, by his wife Anne 
Redfern (1818-1894). He entered King 
Edward's School, Birmingham, in 1860, 
and thence proceeded to Oxford as a scholar 
of Wadham College in 1867. He won the 
Hody exhibition for Greek in 1870, and in 
the following year a first class in the final 
classical school. Graduating B.A. in 1872, 
he proceeded M.A. in 1874. After hold- 
ing successively assistant masterships at 
Manchester grammar school and West- 
minster school, Bodington was elected in 
1875 fellow and tutor of Lincoln College, 
Oxford, and lecturer at Oriel College. His 
fellowship was of the old kind which lapsed 
unless its holder took holy orders within a 
fixed period. Bodington, who remained a 
layman, ceased to be a fellow of Lincoln 
in 1885 ; the college elected him to an 
honorary fellowship in 1898. 

Meanwhile he had left Oxford in 1881 
to become the first professor of Greek at 
Mason College, Birmingham. He only 
retained the chair for one session, being 
appointed in 1882 professor of Greek and 
principal of the Yorkshire College, Leeds. 
With the steady growth of the Yorkshire 
College Bodington's life was thenceforth 
identified. Founded in 1874, the college 
was exclusively concerned with science till 
1878, when an arts course was added to 
the curriculum and the college became a 
place of education in all branches. In 1884 
it was united with the Leeds school of 
medicine, and in 1887 was admitted as a con- 
stituent member of the Victoria University, 
a federation of Owens College, Manchester, 
and University College, Liverpool, which 
had been established in 1880. From 1896 
to 1900 Bodington served as vice-chancellor 
of the Victoria University, and when in 
1903 Manchester and Liverpool obtained 
charters for separate universities, he actively 
promoted the foundation of an independent 
University of Leeds. With the help of Lord 
Ripon [q. v. Suppl. II], afterwards first 
chancellor of the university, he was success- 
ful in raising a fund of over 100,000/., 
which it was stipulated should be subscribed 
before the royal charter was granted. On 
the inauguration of the newly constituted 

university (18 Aug. 1904) Bodington 
resigned his chair of Greek, and was nomi- 
nated vice-chancellor. In this capacity he 
did much to bring the university into touch 
with the typical industries of Leeds, by 
providing the appropriate scientific and 
technical instruction. At the same time 
be always strove hard to secure a wider 
appreciation of art and literature as an 
integral part of the university course 
of study. His administrative ability was 
generally recognised in the county, and he 
took an active interest in the educational 
development of the West Riding and 
in archaeological discovery. He was a 
zealous member of the territorial association, 
a magistrate of the West Riding from 1906, 
and president of the Leeds literary and 
Philosophical Society (1898-1900). Victoria 
University conferred on him the hon. degree 
of Litt.D. in 1895, and Aberdeen that of 
LL.D. in 1906. Bang Edward VII opened 
the new university buildings at Leeds in 
June 1908, and in the following November 
conferred the honour of knighthood on 
Bodington. He died after a short illness 
at Headingley, Leeds, on 12 May 1911, 
and was buried there. He married on 
8 Aug. 1907 Eliza, daughter of Sir John 
Barran, first baronet, of Chapel Allerton 
Hall, Leeds. She survived him without 

[The Times, and Yorkshire Post, 13 May 
1911 ; the Gryphon, the Journal of the 
University of Leeds, May 1911 ; private in- 
formation from Lady Bodington.] G. S. W. 

(1827-1907), architect, born at Hull on 14 
March 1827, was youngest son of William 
Hulme Bodley, M.D. of Edinburgh, who 
practised as a physician at Hull, by his wife 
Mary Anne Hamilton. The father, who 
traced his descent to the family of Sir 
Thomas Bodley [q. v.], and derived the 
surname from Budleigh (Bodley) Salterton 
in Devon, removed his practice from 
Hull to Brighton in his son's youth. At 
Brighton young Bodley met] as a boy 
George Gilbert Scott [q. v.], then a rising 
architect. One of Bodley's sisters married 
Scott's brother. Astudyof Bloxam's 'Gothic 
Architecture' roused Bodley's interest in 
the subject, and with his father's per- 
mission he became Scott's first pupil and 
went (1845-6) to reside with his master 
in Avenue Road, Regent's Park. The 
pupilage lasted five years and later brought 
him into association with Thomas Garner 
[q. v. Suppl. II], afterwards his partner. 
But Garner only joined Scott's office in 1856, 
when Bodley was twenty-nine years of age, 




and they were not, as is sometimes supposed, 
contemporary fellow pupils. 

Bodley, who first exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1854, had little opportunity of 
independent practice before 1 860. He lived 
in Harley Street with his mother, and con- 
ducted his work, which he carried out almost 
single-handed, at home. His first work was 
the addition of an aisle to a church at 
Bussage in Gloucestershire for Thomas 
Keble [q. v.], brother of John Keble [q. v.]. 
This was rapidly followed by other com- 
missions, of which the chief were the 
churches of St. Michael and All Angels, 
Brighton ; of Stanley End, Gloucestershire ; 
of France Lynch ; St. Martin on the Hill, 
Scarborough (consecrated 1863) ; All Saints' 
in the same town ; All Saints', Cambridge ; 
St. Michael, Folkestone, and St. John the 
Baptist, Tue Brook, Liverpool (1869). 
Bodley also designed in 1869 a number of 
villas at Malvern and many parsonages. 

The representative ecclesiastical buildings 
which Bodley produced in the decade 
1860-70 may be classed as his first 
period, though in certain points of style 
and development they differ vastly 
from one another. The Brighton church 
(St. Michael) shows the first revolt of a 
strong genius against its teacher. ' Tired 
of mouldings ' in his pupilage, he here sets 
himself to avoid their use and obtains an 
effect with flat bands and unchamfered 
arches which is surprising in its vigour. The 
church has since been altered by another 
hand. St. Michael's, Scarborough, comes 
nearer to the method of other English Gothic 
designers. It shows the influence of the 
French examples of the thirteenth century, 
but its details are original and by no means 
simple copies. 

In 1869 Bodley and Garner formed a 
partnership which lasted until 1898. The 
offices of the partnership were in Gray's 
Inn, first in South Square, later in Gray's 
Inn Square, but both Bodley and Garner 
for many years personally worked out their 
own detail drawings each in his own house at 
Church Row, Hampstead. Between 1869 
and 1884 the collaboration was as a rule so 
complete that it is impossible to differentiate 
the authorship of individual works. But 
in the later years of the union the two 
architects adopted methods of divided 
labour and gave individual control to 
separate works. On joining Garner, Bodley, 
by a spontaneous impulse and not by the 
prompting of his partner, developed in his 
work a freer and richer style which was later 
in its mediaeval prototypes. The two 
churches most typical of their style at 

this epoch are those of the Holy Angels, 
Hoar Cross, and of St. Augustine, 
Pendlebury. Outwardly the latter church 
(1874) owes its effect to its giant simplicity. 
It is constructed on the principle of 
internal buttresses, the narrow aisles 
being simply formed by piercings or arch- 
ways in stout walls which connect the 
nave piers with the outer wall. The tracery 
of the rich east window is an original 
development of fourteenth- century models. 
The church at Hoar Cross is an example of 
generous profusion in a small compass. It 
was built for the Hon. Mrs. Meynell Ingram, 
a patron who left the architects an unstinted 
field for the display of genius. Other 
churches of this period were St. Salvador's 
at Dundee, All Saints', Cambridge 
(opposite Jesus College), which is said to be 
the first fruits of the combination with 
Garner, and St. Michael's, Camden Town, 
a church which returns once more to earlier 
Gothic inspirations. 

To Bodley's personal activity belonged 
subsequently the churches at Clumber and 
Eccleston, built respectively for the dukes 
of Newcastle and Westminster on the same 
munificent conditions as those prevailing 
at Hoar Cross. These churches Bodley 
claimed as his favourite works. To the 
same category belong the Community 
Church and other buildings for the Society 
of St. John the Evangelist, Cowley, Oxford ; 
the church of the Eton Mission at Hackney 
Wick ; Chapel Allerton, Holbeck near Leeds ; 
St. Aidan's, Bristol ; St. Faith's, Brentford ; 
churches at Homington and Warrington, 
and that of the Holy Trinity in Prince 
Consort Road, South Kensington. 

Bodley rarely submitted designs in com- 
petition. In 1878, to his great disappoint- 
ment, he failed to secure the building of 
Truro Cathedral, which fell to John Lough- 
borough Pearson [q. v. Suppl. I]. Similarly 
he competed in the practically abortive 
(first) competition for the cathedral at 
Liverpool. An award was indeed made, 
the design of (Sir) William Emerson being 
premiated ; but the site and scheme were 
abandoned till 1903, when a new competition 
was instituted and Bodley was appointed 
one of the assessors. He had the satisfac- 
tion of joining in the selection of Mr. G. 
Gilbert Scott (grandson of his former 
master), with whom he was subsequently 
associated as consulting architect. 

On both Oxford and Cambridge Bodley 
left his mark. He competed in vain for the 
Oxford ' Schools,' which were entrusted to 
Mr. T. G. Jackson, but the successful work 
done by Bodley & Garner (chiefly the latter) 




at Magdalen College, Oxford, was also the 
outcome of a limited competition, George 
Edmund Street [q.v.], Mr. Basil Champneys, 
and Wilkinson of Oxford being the rivals. 
With his partner, too, he built the tower 
at the S.E. angle of ' Tom quad ' at Christ 
Church, and the master's lodge at Univer- 
sity College, designing also the reredos at 
Christ Church. At Cambridge ho had the 
rare distinction of adding to Bang's College 
a group of buildings to which his name has 
been attached, and he built the chapel 
at Queens' College. Bodley & Garner's 
ecclesiastical building and decoration also 
included the cathedral of Hobart Town, 
Tasmania ; the churches of St. Germain and 
St. Saviour at Cardiff ; All Saints', Danehill ; 
All Saints', Leicester ; the Wayside Chapel 
at Woodlands, Dorset, and churches at 
Eckenswell, Horbury, Skelmanthorpe. 
Norwood, Branksome, and Epping. The 
firm engaged at the same time in some 
domestic and official work, which included 
River House, Tite Street, Chelsea (1879), 
and the school board offices on the Thames 
Embankment (since added to). 

The dissolution of partnership in 1898 was 
a perfectly friendly separation not perhaps 
unconnected with Garner's reception into 
the Roman church. Subsequently in 1906 
Bodley, who held several advisory appoint- 
ments to cathedral chapters at York 
from 1882, Peterborough from 1898, as well 
as at Exeter and Manchester and was also 
diocesan architect for Leicestershire, was 
invited to prepare in conjunction with Mr. 
Henry Vaughan of Boston (Mass.) plans 
for the episcopal cathedral of SS. Peter 
and Paul, Washington, a monster church to 
seat 27,000 persons and to cost from ten to 
fifteen million dollars. Bodley was already 
well advanced in his scheme when his death 
took place. 

In 1882 Bodley became A.R.A., and R.A. 
in 1902. For many years he held aloof from 
the Royal Institute of British Architects, but 
in 1899 he received the royal gold medal, 
was elected a fellow, and served for two 
years on its council. In the same year he 
was appointed British representative on a 
jury to adjudicate on designs for the Francis 
Joseph Jubilee Memorial Church at Vienna. 

Bodley, who in early life was energetic, 
even athletic, a good walker, a keen angler, 
and a passable cricketer, was struck down 
in middle age by a serious illness, due to 
blood poisoning contracted in the pro- 
fessional examination of some infected 
vaults, with the result that through later 
life he was troubled with lameness. This 
disability had little effect on his energy. 

From Hampstead he moved in 1885 to 
Park Crescent, thence (about 1890) to 41 
Gloucester Place ; about five years later he 
took as a country home Bridgefoot House, 
Ivor, Bucks, which he forsook in 1906 for 
the Manor House of Water Eaton on the 
banks of the Upper Thames, where on 
21 Oct. 1907 he died. In 1872 Bodley 
married Minna Frances, daughter of 
Thomas Reaveley of Kinnersley Castle, 
Herefordshire, and had one son, George 
Hamilton Bodley, who survived him. 

Bodley fills an important position in the 
history of English ecclesiastical architecture. 
If Pugin, Scott and Street were the pioneers 
whose work went hand in hand with the 
Oxford movement in its early days, Bodley 
is their counterpart in the last quarter of 
the nineteenth century. Between 1870 and 
1880 he and his partner stood alone as 
experts in the propriety of internal church 
decoration, and thence to the end of his life 
Bodley was justly looked upon as combin- 
ing ecclesiological knowledge with sound 
taste (especially in colour decoration) to a 
degree which few rivals could approach. 
A friend of William Morris, Burne Jones, 
Madox Brown and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 
he secured their collaboration (as at St. 
Martin's, Scarborough) and imbibed their 
spirit. C. E. Kempe was started by 
Bodley in his career of glass staining, and 
the depot for the sale of fabrics and deco- 
rative materials opened in Baker Street 
under the name of ' Watts ' was in great 
measure Bodley's own enterprise. Many a 
church designed by other architects gained 
its decorative completion from Bodley's 
taste. Even Butterfield's noble church, 
St. Alban's, Holborn, owes to him its font- 
cover and rood. 

Among his pupils were Henry Skip worth, 
Prof. Frederick M. Simpson, and Messrs. 
Edward Warren, J. N. Comper, C. R. 
Ashbee, F. Inigo Thomas, and Walter 
Tapper. Sir Robert Lorimer was also for a 
tune in the office. 

Impatient of ceremonies, avoiding when 
possible even the stone-layings of his own 
buildings, he was yet a gracious prime war- 
den (1901-2) of the Fishmongers Company. 
Singularly deficient in ordinary business 
habits, he nevertheless contrived to com- 
plete in the most intricate detail a large 
number of important buildings, and though 
he observed his engagements punctually, he 
never kept a written list of appointments. 
Stories, mostly true, are told of sketches 
pencilled on cheques, and even of architec- 
tural drawings in a bank pass-book. Some of 
his apparent negligences in correspondence 




were intentional. Bodley would always have 
his own way in architecture, and if a client's 
letters were importunate, they would receive 
no answer. His drawings, excellent in 
their results, were not very beautiful in 
themselves, and he was no great sketcher ; 
but he had an unrivalled power of absorbing 
and retaining in memory the features and 
details of any building he admired. Bodley 
published in 1899 a volume of verse, largely 
sonnets, neat in diction but of small poetic 
power. He was elected F.S.A. in 1885, and 
received the honorary degree of D.C.L. at 
Oxford at Lord Curzon's installation as 
chancellor in 1907. 

[R.I.B.A. Journal, xv. 3rd series, 13, 145, 
and xvii. 305; Builder, xciii. (1907) 447-8 
(with full list of buildings) ; Graves's Royal 
Academy Exhibitors ; private information 
from Mr. Edward Wan-en, F.S.A.] P. W. 

BODY, GEORGE (1840-1911), canon 
of Durham, born at Cheriton Fitzpaine, 
Devonshire, on 7 Jan. 1840, was son of 
Josiah Body, surgeon, by his wife Mary 
Snell. He was educated at Blundell's 
school, Tiverton, from 1849 to 1857, and 
subsequently entered St. Augustine's 
Missionary College, Canterbury. But his 
intention of undertaking missionary work 
abroad had to be abandoned owing to ill- 
health. In 1859 he matriculated from St. 
John's College, Cambridge, and graduated 
B.A. in 1862, proceeding M.A. in 1876. 
Subsequently he received from Durham 
University the degree of M.A. ad eundem 
(1884) and that of hon. D.D. (1885). 
Ordained deacon in 1863 and priest the 
following year, he served successively the 
curacies of St. James, Wednesbury (1863-5), 
of Sedgeley (1865-7), and of Christ Church, 
Wolverhampton (1867-70). In these places 
he sought to bring the teaching of the 
tractarian movement home to the working 
classes and rapidly made a reputation as 
a mission preacher. Nominated rector of 
Kirby Misperton, Yorkshire, in 1870, he 
took an active part in the parochial mission 
movement. In 1883 he was appointed 
' canon-missioner ' of Durham by Bishop 
Lightfoot, and for twenty-eight years 
carried on fruitful mission work among the 
Durham miners. 

Body's varied activities covered a wide 
area. He was proctor in convocation for 
Cleveland from 1880 to 1885, and for 
Durham in 1906, vice-president of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
(1890), and warden of the Community of 
the Epiphany, Truro (1891-1905). His 
sermons were remarkable for the directness 
and sincerity of their appeal, and he col- 

lected large sums for mission work. He was 
select preacher at Cambridge (1892-4-6 
and 1900-4-6), and lecturer in pastoral 
theology at King's College, London, in 
1909. He also acted as examining chaplain 
to the bishop of St. Andrews from 1893 to 
1908. He died at the College, Durham, 
on 5 June 1911. He married on 25 Sept. 
1864 Louisa, daughter of William Lewis, 
vicar of Sedgeley, who survived him 
with three sons and four daughters. 
A miniature painted by Mrs. Boyd is in 
the possession of Mrs. Hutchings, 11 
Filey Road, Scarborough, and a black- 
and-white drawing by Lady Jane 
Lindsey belongs to his son, Mr. L. A. 
Body, of the CoUege, Durham. In 1911 a 
memorial fund was raised for the mainten- 
ance of the diocesan mission house and of 
a home of rest for mission workers among 
Durham miners. 

Body combined evangelical fervour with 
tractarian principles. Although he was a 
member of the English Church Union, his 
sympathies were broad, and his conciliatory 
attitude during the church crisis concerning 
ritualism in 1898-9 exercised a moderating 
influence on the militant section of the 
high church party. In addition to many 
separate sermons his published works, 
which were mainly devotional, included : 
1. ' The Life of Justification,' 1871 ; 6th 
edit. 1884. 2. ' The Life of Temptation,' 
1873; 6th edit. 1885. 3. 'The Present 
State of the Departed,' 1873; 9th edit. 
1888. 4. 'The Appearances of the Risen 
Lord,' 1889. 5. ' The School of Calvary,' 
1891. 6. 'The Guided Life,' 1893; new 
edit. 1899. 7. ' The Life of Love,' 1893. 

8. ' The Work of Grace in Paradise,' 1896. 

9. 'The Soul's Pilgrimage,' 1901. 10. 'The 
Good Shepherd,' 1910. 

[The Times, 6 June 1911 ; Guardian, 9 June 
1911 ; Blundellian, June 1911 ; Eagle, Dec. 
1911 ; private information.] G. S. W. 

(1834-1906), bishop of Selkirk, born 
on 20 Jan. 1834, at No. 11 Park Road, 
Regent's Park, N.W., was fourth son of 
Charles Carpenter Born pas by his wife 
Mary Steele Tomkins of Broughton, Hamp- 
shire. The father, whose family was of 
French origin, was serjeant-at-law and leader 
of the western circuit, and is said to have 
been the original of Dickens's ' Mr. Serjeant 
Buzfuz.' He died suddenly on 29 Feb. 
1844, leaving his widow with five sons and 
three daughters poorly provided for. 

Educated privately, William received 
strong religious impressions, his parents 
being strict though not narrow Baptists. 




On 7 July 1850 he was publicly baptised 
by immersion at John Street chapel by 
Baptist Wriothesley Noel [q. v.]. Having 
been articled in 1852 to the solicitors' 
firm of his brother, George Cox Bompas, 
and being employed during 1857 by Messrs. 
Ashurst, Morris & Co., he studied in his 
leisure for orders in the church of England. 
He was confirmed in 1858, ordained deacon 
in 1859, and licensed to curacies at Sutton- 
in-the-Marsh, 1859-1862, New Radford, 
Nottingham, 1862-3, Holy Trinity, Louth, 
Lincolnshire, 1863-4, and Alford, 1864-5. 

Bompas was accepted by the Church Mis- 
sionary Society on 1 May 1865, to relieve 
Robert (afterwards archdeacon) McDonald, 
who had broken down at Fort Yukon on 
the Arctic circle (of. STOCK, Hist. Church 
Missionary Society, 1899, ii. 394). He was 
ordained priest in St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 
on 25 June 1865, by Robert Machray 
[q. v. Suppl. II], who was consecrated 
bishop of Rupert's Land the day before. 

After a journey of 177 days he reached 
Fort Simpson on the Mackenzie river on 
Christmas morning 1865. In due time he 
arrived at Fort Yukon in July 1869. 
Thenceforth his life was a ceaseless round 
of journeys from station to station Forts 
Norman, Rae, Vermilion, Chipewyan, Simp- 
son, and Yukon teaching the Indian and 
Esquimaux children, systematising various 
Indian dialects, and sometimes acting as 
' public vaccinator ' (CODY, p. 131). 

In 1872 Bishop Machray created 
three new sees out of Rupert's Land. 
Bompas was consecrated bishop of one 
of them, Athabasca, in Lambeth parish 
church on 3 May 1874, by Archbishop Tait. 
On 4 Sept. 1876 he held a synod of his 
new diocese, consisting of one archdeacon, 
two other clergymen, two catechists, and a 
servant of the Hudson Bay Company. In 
1884 there was a further subdivision of 
Bompas's diocese into ' Athabasca,' i.e. 
the southern part, with the Peace river 
district, and ' Mackenzie River,' i.e. the 
northern and less civilised portion, stretch- 
ing from the sixtieth parallel to the Arctic 
circle. Bompas chose the latter. In 
August 1886 he held the first synod of 
his new diocese at Fort Simpson. Once 
more, in 1890, there was a division of 
Bompas's diocese. The eastern portion, 
stretching to Hudson Bay eastward and 
to the Arctic regions northward, became 
' Mackenzie River,' while to the western 
portion, which as the more remote he again 
chose for himself, Bompas gave the name 
of ' Selkirk,' subsequently altered to 
< Yukon.' 

The discovery of gold on the Klondyke 
and the creation of Dawson City in 1897 
changed the character of his see. Bompas, 
who preferred itinerating among Indians, 
passed his closing years at Caribou Crossing, 
an important railroad centre, whose name 
was changed to * Carcross.' There he carried 
on a school for Indian children and built 
a church which he consecrated on 8 Aug. 
1904. In 1905 he resigned his bishopric 
and welcomed his successor (I. O. Stringer). 
Declining a pension, he desired to start a 
mission on Little Salmon river, but died 
suddenly at Carcross on 9 June 1906. With 
the exception of his visit to England for 
consecration in 1874 he remained continu- 
ously in Canada for over forty years. 

On 7 May 1874 he married his first 
cousin, Charlotte Selina, daughter of Joseph 
Cox, M.D., of Fishponds, Bristol, for many 
years in practice at Naples. They had no 

Bompas was author of 'The Diocese of 
Mackenzie River' (1888) and 'Northern 
Lights on the Bible ' (1892), both embodying 
his experiences and observations of travel. 
More important publications were his 
primers and translations of portions of the 
Bible, the Prayer Book, hymns, prayers, 
&c., in Slavi (for Indians on Mackenzie 
river), in Chipewyan, in Beaver (for Indians 
on the Peace river), and in Tukudh (for 
the Loucheux Indians). These were pub- 
lished by the S.P.C.K. and the Bible 

HENRY MASON BOMPAS (1836-1909), 
county court judge, the bishop's youngest 
brother, born on 6 April 1836, studied at 
University College, London (B.A. London 
University, 1855; M.A. 1857, mathematical 
gold medal ; LL.B. 1862), proceeded to St. 
John's College, Cambridge (5th wrangler, 
1858), and was called to the Bar by the 
Inner Temple, 1863 (bencher, 1881 ; trea- 
surer, 1905). Like his father he joined 
the western circuit, becoming recorder of 
Poole in 1882 and of Plymouth and Devon- 
port in 1884. In 1891 he was appointed 
commissioner of assize for South Wales, 
and in 1896 county court judge (circuit 
No. 11), with his centre at Bradford. He 
resigned shortly before his death, which took 
place in London on 5 March 1909. Judge 
Bompas, who was for many years an active 
volunteer, remained through life a Baptist, 
and took a keen part in denominational 
affairs. He married, at Westminster chapel, 
Rachel Henrietta, eldest daughter of Rev. 
Edward White, on 20 Sept. 1867, and left 
three sons and four daughters (The Times, 
6 March 1909). 




[H. A. Cody, An Apostle of the North, 
Memoirs of W. C. Bompas, 1908 ; Robert 
Machray, Life of Robert Machray, D.D., 1909 ; 
E. Stock, History of Church Missionary 
Society, vols. ii. iii., 1899 ; private informa- 
tion.] E. H. P. 

1906), primate of all Canada, born at Truro 
on 15 Sept. 1815, was son of John Bond, 
grocer, of that town, by his wife Nanny 
Bennett. He received his early education 
at Truro and in London. Subsequently 
emigrating to Newfoundland, he became 
a lay reader there, and after studying at 
Bishop's College, Lennoxville, was ordained 
deacon at Quebec in 1840 and priest in 
1841 . For two years he acted as a travelling 
missionary in the region between the 
southern shores of the St. Lawrence and 
the American frontier, his headquarters 
being at Russeltown Flats and Napierville. 
Under instructions from George Mountain 
[q. v.], bishop of Quebec, he organised 
missions in the district, and founded 
schools in connection with the New- 
foundland school society. In 1842 he 
settled as a missionary at Lachine and in 
1848 was appointed curate of St. George's, 

Bond's connection with this church 
remained unbroken for thirty years. He 
succeeded to the rectory in 1860, and during 
his incumbency the church buildings in 
Dominion Square were erected together 
with the school house and rectory. In the 
inauguration of Christ Church cathedral 
chapter and the diocesan synod he played 
a prominent part. In 1863 he was nomin- 
ated rural dean and in 1866 canon of Christ 
Church. During the campaigns of 1866 
and 1870 against the Fenian raiders Bond 
served as chaplain to the 1st Prince of 
Wales' s rifles. He became archdeacon of 
Hochelaga in 1870, and dean of Montreal 
in 1872. In 1878 the synod, recognising 
his organising capacity, elected him bishop 
of Montreal in succession to Ashton Oxen- 
den [q. v.]. Bond waived his claim to the 
title of metropolitan of Canada, which 
had previously been associated with the 
bishopric. The higher rank passed with 
his assent to the senior bishop, John 
Medley [q. v.] of Fredericton. In 1901 
Bond's bishopric was raised to the dignity 
of an archbishopric, and he then assumed 
the title of metropolitan of Canada. In 
1904, on the death of Robert Machray 
[q. v. Suppl. II], archbishop of Rupertsland, 
he succeeded to his dignity of primate of 
all Canada. 

Bond lived to see a rapid expansion of 

the Anglican church in Canada, and during 
his long episcopate seven new bishoprics 
were created. In his dealings with his 
clergy he showed broad sympathies and 
sound business qualities. Without learning 
or eloquence, he rose to eminence through 
sheer force of character. A pronounced 
low churchman, he actively co-operated 
with nonconformists, but his conscientious 
devotion to evangelical principles did not 
prevent his living on cordial terms with the 
Roman catholic population. Good relations 
with other denominations were fostered 
by his strenuous advocacy of temperance. 
In Montreal he strongly supported the 
cause of municipal reform and helped to 
found the Citizens' League. He served as 
secretary of the Colonial and Continental 
Church Society Schools in Ontario (1848- 
1872) and was active in promoting the 
welfare of the Montreal Diocesan College. 
He was also president of Bishop's 
College, Lennoxville, which conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of M.A. 
in 1854 and subsequently that of D.D. 
and D.C.L. He was made LL.D. of McGill 
University in 1870. He retained his vigour 
till the end, and died at Bishop's Court, 
Montreal, on 9 Oct. 1906. He was buried 
there in the Mount Royal cemetery. In 
1841 he married Eliza Langley (d. 1879) 
of St. John's, Newfoundland. He left one 
son, Col. Frank Bond, and a daughter ; 
two sons and one daughter predeceased 
him. In his memory the Archbishop Bond 
chair of New Testament literature was 
endowed at Montreal Diocesan College, 
where there is a portrait in oils by R. 
Harris, C.M.G. (1890). Another painting by 
E. Dyonnet (1892) is in Verdun protestant 

[The Times, and Montreal Gazette, 10 Oct. 
1906; Montreal Daily Witness, 9 Oct. 1906; 
Guardian, 17 Oct. 1906; Dent, Canadian 
Portrait Gallery, iii. 454; F. S. Lowndes, 
Bishops of the Day, 1897 ; R. Machray, Life 
of Robert Machray, 1909.] G. S. W. 

BONWICK, JAMES (1817-1906), Aus- 
tralian author and archivist, born in London 
on 8 July 1817, was eldest son of James and 
Mary Ann Bonwick. His grandfather was 
a farmer and maltster at Lingfield, Surrey. 
Educated at the Borough Road school, 
Southwark (cf. BONWICK'S account in An 
Octogenarian's Reminiscences, 1902), he 
was appointed master of the British 
School at Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, 
in June 1834, when not quite 17, and showed 
efficiency as a teacher. During 1836 he 
was master in a large boarding-school at 
Bexley. In June 1837 he was appointed 




to the British School at Liverpool. In 
1840 he and bis wife he married in this 
year were chosen by the Borough Road 
school committee, acting on behalf of the 
government of Van Diemen's Land (now 
Tasmania), to conduct the Model Schoo 
of Hobart Town, where they arrived on 
10 October 1841. 

Bonwick, resigning this appointment in 
1843, opened a school on his own account, 
After eight years in Van Diemen's Land, 
he removed to Adelaide in 1849 and started 
a school at North Adelaide. From Adelaide 
he joined in the rush to the Victorian 
goldfields in February 1852, and returning 
to Melbourne published the * Life of 
Gold Digger,' and started in October 1852 
the ' Gold Diggers' Magazine,' which proved 
a failure. For a time he was an unsuccessful 
land agent. 

From July 1856 to the end of 1860 he 
was an efficient inspector of denomina- 
tional schools in the colony of Victoria. 
Partial paralysis due to a coach accident 
on one of his tours of inspection led to 
his resignation. He then took up lecturing, 
and opened a school at St. Kilda, near 
Melbourne, which he carried on until his 
permanent return to England in 1884. Then 
he was soon appointed archivist to the 
government of New South Wales, and 
until midsummer 1902 he was actively 
employed in collecting material for the 
official history of the colony. Two volumes 
were completed and issued (1889-94). 
After 1894 a change of plan was effected 
and the documents were printed in extenso 
under the title of ' Historical Records 
of New South Wales.' Seven volumes 
appeared between 1893 and 1901, bringing 
the record down to the opening years of 
Governor Macquarie's term of office. 

Bonwick died at Norwood on 6 February 
1906, and was buried in the Crystal Palace 
district cemetery, Beckenham, Kent. He 
married on 17 April 1840 Esther, daughter 
of Barnabas Beddow, a baptist minister 
of Exeter, and had three sons and two 

Bonwick was a voluminous writer on 
many subjects, but his contributions to 
early Australian history are alone of per- 
manent value. The most noteworthy of 
these are * The Last of the Tasmanians ' 
(1870); 'Daily Life of the Tasmanians' 
(1870); 'Curious Facts of Old Colonial 
Days' (1870); 'First Twenty Years of 
Australia' (1882); 'Port Phillip Settle- 
:t ' (1883); 'Romance of the Wool 
'"rade' (1887); and 'Early Struggles of 
.he Australian Press' (1890). 'An Octo- 

VOL. Lxvn. SUP, n. 

genarian's Reminiscences ' (1902) gives a 
complete list of his works. 

[The Times, 8 Feb. 1906; Geographical 
Journal, xxvii. 1906 ; Mennell's Diet, of 
Australasian Biog., 1892 ; An Octogenarian's 
Reminiscences, 1902 ; personal knowledge.] 

C. A. 

1905), novelist, born at Glenosmond, 
Adelaide, South Australia, on 13 Oct. 1867, 
was eldest of three sons of Thomas Wilde 
Boothby, member of the South Australian 
house of assembly, by his wife Mary 
Agnes, daughter of Edward Hodding of 
Odstock, Salisbury, Wiltshire. His grand- 
father, Benjamin Boothby (1803-1868), a 
native of Doncaster, emigrated with his 
family to South Australia in 1853 on 
being appointed second judge of the 
supreme court of South Australia, and was 
removed from office in 1867 by the South 
Australian parliament owing to his objec- 
tions to the Real Property (Torrens) Act. 
His uncle, Josiah Boothby, C.M.G., born 
at Nottingham, was permanent under 
secretary for the government of South 
Australia from 1868 to 1880. 

About 1874 Boothby was sent to England, 
and received his education at Salisbury. 
In 1883 he returned to South Australia, 
and in 1890 became private secretary to 
the mayor of Adelaide. During this period 
he devoted himself to writing plays without 
success. In October 1888 he produced a 
melodrama at the Albert Hall, Adelaide, 
entitled ' Falsely Accused,' and in August 
1891 at the Theatre Royal ' The Jonquille,' 
a piece founded upon incidents connected 
with the French revolution. Of a roving 
disposition, he made in 1891-2 a journey 
across Australia from north to south ; 
and in 1894 published ' On the Wallaby,' 
in which he described in a lively style 
bis travelling experiences. In the same 
year he settled in England, first at Cham- 
pion Hill and afterwards near Bourne- 
mouth, where he devoted himself to 
novel-writing and occupied his leisure 
in collecting live fish and breeding horses, 
cattle, and prize dogs. He died unex- 
Dectedly of influenza at his house in 
Boscombe on 26 Feb. 1905, and was buried 
n Bournemouth cemetery. 

The many stories which Boothby wrote 
at an exceptionally rapid rate during his 
ast ten years were crowded with sensation, 
howed an eye for a dramatic situation, and 
mjoyed a wide vogue, but he had small 
acuity for characterisation or literary 
tyle. He produced in all fifty-five 
volumes. He was at his best in his earlier 




studies of Australian life in ' A Lost 
Endeavour' (1895), ' Bushigrams ' (1897), 
and * Billy Binks, Hero, and other Stories ' 
(1898). His best known novel, *A Bid 
for Fortune, or Dr. Nikola's Vendetta' 
(1895 ; 2nd edit. 1900), first appeared as 
a serial in the ' Windsor Magazine,' Its 
success led Boothby to prolong his hero's 
mysterious adventures through many sub- 
sequent volumes, including * Dr. Nikola ' 
(1896), ' Dr. Nikola's Experiment * (1899), 
and 'Farewell Nikola' (1901). 

On 8 Oct. 1895 Boothby married Rose 
Alice, third daughter of William Bristowe of 
Champion Hill. She survived him with 
two daughters and one son. 

[The Times, 28 Feb. 1905 ; Athenaeum, 4 March 
1905; Adelaide Chronicle, 4 March 1905; 
Adelaide Advertiser, 28 March 1905 ; Bourne- 
mouth Guardian, 4 March 1905 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; private information.] G. S. W. 

BARON GLENESK (1830-1908), proprietor 
of the 'Morning Post,' born at Cambridge 
on 27 Dec. 1830, was elder son in the family 
of two sons and a daughter of Peter 
Borthwick [q. v.], editor of the ' Morning 
Post,' who belonged to a Midlothian branch 
of the ancient Borthwick family of Sel- 
kirkshire. His mother was Margaret 
(d. 1864), daughter of John Colville of 
Ewart, Northumberland. After education 
at a school in Paris and at King's College 
School, London, Algernon in Sept. 1850, 
before he was twenty, was sent to Paris 
as foreign correspondent of the * Morning 
Post.' The finances of the paper were at 
a low ebb and compelled the utmost eco- 
nomy. Algernon's work was controlled by 
his father, but he quickly proved himself 
a journalist of ability and resource. He 
witnessed the coup d'itat of 1851, and gained 
access to the Emperor Napoleon III 
and the leading public men in Paris. 
His later letters were warmly praised 
by Lord Palmerston, whose intimate 
connection with the 'Morning Post' was 
a matter of common knowledge and 
who, after reading one of Algernon's 
letters, declared that the young corre- 
spondent was the only man besides him- 
self fit to be foreign secretary. On the 
death of Algernon's father on 18 Dec. 1852 
the proprietor, Mr. Crompton, appointed 
Algernon, then twenty-two, his father's 
successor as editor. The ensuing years 
were full of labour and anxiety. Great 
efforts were needed to render the paper 
secure and profitable : and upon Algernon 
devolved the care of his mother and her 
younger children. In 1858, on Oompton's 

death, the ownership of the paper passed 
to Mr. Rideout, Crompton's nephew. 
Borthwick made an offer of purchase, which 
was not accepted, and he remained editor, 
I with a share in the profits and the promise 
of first offer in the event of a sale at 
Rideout's death. Borthwick quickly 
acquired full control of the paper. 
Foreign affairs specially interested Mm. 
He kept in close communication with 
ministers and diplomatists whose acquaint- 
ance he had made in Paris, and he main- 
tained the intimacy with Palmerston which 
his father had begun. In 1864 Borthwick 
varied his serious editorial work by joining 
Evelyn Ashley [q. v. Suppl. II], Lord 
Wharncliffe, and James Stuart Wortley 
in producing a periodical called the ' Owl.' 
The experiment, which ran on somewhat 
frivolous lines, was a forerunner of 'society ' 
journalism. The writers dealt freely and 
anonymously with private and personal 
matters. Amongst the many regular or 
occasional contributors were Lord Hough- 
ton, Bernal Osborne, Sir Henry Drummond 
Wolff, Sir George Trevelyan, and Mr. Gib- 
son Bowles. The paper only appeared when 
the editors found it convenient usually 
once a fortnight during the summer, and 
the profits were spent mainly on dinners. 
In an early number an imaginary letter from 
M. Mocquard, secretary to Napoleon III, 
drew from him an official repudiation. 
The comments on foreign politics usually 
mingled gravity with caricature. The 
' Owl,' which proved unexpectedly success- 
ful, lived for six years, and only died in 
1870, when Borthwick was deprived of 
the leisure necessary to its conduct. 

In 1872 Borthwick, while retaining full 
direction of the ' Morning Post ' and main- 
taining and extending in the paper's 
interest his interviews with leading men 
at home and abroad, installed Sir William 
Hardman (d. 1890) in his place of 
working editor of the 'Morning Post.' 
In 1876, on the death of Rideout the 
proprietor, with the aid of a loan which 
he was able in a few years to repay, he 
became the owner. Although the paper 
was producing a good income, he in 1881, 
against the advice of his friends and with 
personal misgivings, reduced the price from 
3d. to Id. In the event he was amply 
justified. At the end of seven years the 
revenue had been multiplied tenfold. 

Meanwhile Borthwick was playing a 
prominent part in public life. With the 
family of Napoleon III, Borthwick con- 
tinued intimate relations after the fall 
of the Empire, and he was a very active 




promoter in 1879 of the scheme to erect 
a statue in Westminster Abbey as a 
memorial to the Prince Imperial. Owing 
to opposition in Parliament the statue 
was eventually placed in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. At the general election 
of 1880 he stood unsuccessfully as a con- 
servative for his father's former constitu- 
ency at Evesham. He was knighted on the 
resignation of Lord Beaconsfield's govern- 
ment in April 1880. 

On 19 April 1883, on the occasion of 
unveiling Lord Beaconsfield's statue at 
Westminster on the second anniversary of 
his death, an article in the ' Morning Post ' 
inaugurated the devotion of that day to an 
annual national celebration of the states- 
man's memory. Borthwick also claimed 
that the Primrose League, the details of 
which Sir Henry Drummond Wolff [q. v. 
Suppl. II.] devised, owed its first suggestion 
to the 'Morning Post.' Borthwick never 
ceased to take a prominent part in the con- 
duct of the league. When the constituencies 
were rearranged after the Redistribution 
Act (1885), Borthwick, who had paid 
special attention to conservative organisa- 
tion in Chelsea, became conservative 
candidate for South Kensington, and was 
returned by a majority of over 2000 in 
November. His majority was increased 
next year, and he was unopposed in 1892. 
In the House of Commons he played 
no conspicuous part. His most success- 
ful achievement was in 1888, when he 
carried a measure amending the law of 
libel in the interest of newspaper 
editors. The political question to which 
he attached most importance was that of 
tariff reform^ which was known while 
he was in the House of Commons as 
'fair trade.' The 'Morning Post' had 
always opposed free trade from the days 
when it supported Lord George Bentinck 
in 1846, and Borthwick never wavered 
in his ccjivictions. He attached himself 
closely to Lord Randolph Churchill, whose 
fortunes he never forsook, and whose fall 
he always deplored. But he had entered 
Parliament at a time of life (fifty-five) when 
it was hardly possible to succeed. In 1887 
he was created a baronet on the occasion 
of Queen Victoria's Jubilee, and in 1895 
he retired from the House of Commons 
on being raised to the peerage as Baron 
Glenesk. At the same time he made 
over the control of the ' Morning Post ' to 
his only son, Oliver. 

Glenesk's social position grew with the 
prosperity of his paper. In 1870 he 
had marr