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Full text of "Venice : its individual growth from the earliest beginnings to the fall of the republic"

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Presented to the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 

In/ the 

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE 
LIBRARY 



1980 



VENICE 



Part I, Volume II 



VENICE 



DT 



POMPEO MOLMENTI 

Translated from the Italian by 
IIoBVTio F. Bnow>, Liiti?h 
Archivist and author of "In 
and Around Venice," etc. 



Part I 



Venice in the Middle Ages 

a volumes 

Part I! 
Venice in the Golden Age 

a volumes (ready Spring of 1907) 

Part III 
The Decadence of Venice 

a volumes (ready Fall of 1907) 



Six volumes, 8vo 
Sold only in two-volume sections 
Per section, j5.oo net 



A. C. McCLURG & CO., PiBLisiiEns 










I 111 I II) 1 _■ liom fhc " Maricgnla " 
the School of St. Julin llic Evangelist 



(Diplomatic Hall of the State AicbivesJ 



A' 



50315 ■•■ 

.!> VENICE 



ITS INDIVIDUAL GROWTH FROM '^E~'.r^<* 



>i'^-r- 



EARLIEST BEGINNINGS TO THE; ^^^ * 



FALL OF THE REPUBLIC .^..,^,.i^ 



BY 



-^ ajr 



POMPEO MOLMENTI / 

TRANSLATED BY HORATIO F. BROWN 



Part I — THE MIDDLE AGES 
Volume II 



CHICAGO 
A. C. McCLURG & CO. 



LO:fD<¥?fc IffKi MtRRAT BERGAMO, ISTITUTO n 



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fP^ MURRAT BERGAMO, ISTIILTO l«CUu» j ,.jij> 















Copyright, 1906 
Bt The Universitt Press 



EKTERED AT STATIONERS HALL, LOUDON 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



Published, October i3, 1906 



til 



THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, U. S. A. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Chapter IX 

Costume I 

Chapter X 

Manners and Customs 23 

Chapter XI 

The Industrial Arts 6i 

Chapter XII 

The Fine Ai^ts 96 

Chapter XIII 

Culture 189 

Documents i-yy 

Index 225 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

A reduced page from the " Marlegola " of the School of St. John 

the EvangeHst (Diplomatic Hall of State Archives) . . Frontispiece 

Carrying the relics of S. Marco into the church. A mosaic (XIII 

century) of the facade of S . Marco 3 

Form of ducal cap — the Doge Antonio Venier (iSSa-iiJoo) ... 6 

Ducal Caps 6 

Types of the people (XIV century) from a codex of the XIV century 

(Guggenheim Collection) 10 

Venetian Costumes (XIV century) 12 

Venetian Costume (XV century) — detail of a picture by Carpaccio 

in the Academy i4 

Venetian Costumes (XV century) — details of a picture by Carpaccio 

in the Academy 20 

Burial Customs — from the " Falti dei SS. Filippo e Giacomo" 

(Mosaic of S. Marco, XIII century) 2^ 

Sepulchral urn of General Jacopo Cavalli (i384), by Paolo di Jaco- 

bello dalle Masegne. (Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo) . . a4 

" Civitas Veneciarum " — from " Breydenbach Peregrinatio " . . 82 

Attitudes of Prayer. (" Opus penitentiale" — State Archives) . . 34 

Attitudes of Prayer. (" Opus penitentiale " — State Archives) . . 36 
A Venetian Wedding (XV century) — from a painting of Giovanni 

d'Alemagna and of Antonio Vivarini ; in the Academy ... 4^ 

Playing Cards (Museo Civico) 56 

Glass nuptial cup, attributed to Angelo Beroviero (Museo Civico) . 66 

Ancient glass phial, discovered in excavation (Museo Civico) . . 66 

Standard or penant of Sa. Fosca (i366). (Museo di Torcello) . . 74 

BasilicaofS. Marco — The Pala d'Oro 78 

Outside Gate of Bronze at S. Marco, work of Bertuccio Orefice 

(i3oo) 86 



viii ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Ceiling in the Sala dell' Albergo della Scuola dcUa Cariti (XV 

cenlurj) go 

Palazzo da Mosto ai Santi Apostoli (IX century) g8 

Church (ia5o-i338) and Tower (iSGi-iSgG) of Sa. Maria del Frari loa 

S. Marco io4 

Ducal Palace. Great Window Facing the Harbour io6 

The Contarini-Fasan Palace (XV century) io8 

La Qi' d'Oro (XV century) IIO 

Part of the Arch of the Months in the Church of S. Marco ... iia 

Statues on the Architrave of the Presbytery of S. Marco (XIV 

centviry) Ii6 

Bas-relief in painted wood (XIV century) in S. Donato di Murano . ia6 

Jacobello del Fiore — The Coronation of the Virgin (i/iSa) (Royal 

galleries of Venice) i34 

Angels holding in their hands the organ called "IVinfale " in a bas- 
relief of the XV century. (Sacristy of Sa. Maria della Salute) i6a 

Guarino Veronese — medal of Matteo da Pasti i6a 

Gasparino Barzizza — from a print of M. Pitteri i6a 

Cardinal Bessarione. (Painting of the XVI century — Library of 

S. Marco) l64 

Portrait of the Beato Lorenzo Giustiniani by Gentile Bellini. (At 

the Academy) l68 

The Last Supper 17a 

Christ led before Pilate — from the book " Passio Domini Nostri 

Jesu Christi," printed at Venice in i45o 172 



VENICE IN THE 
MIDDLE AGES 



T 



CHAPTER IX 

COSTUME 

HE Venetians readily assimilated the gorgeous and 
variegated costumes of the East at the time when 
commerce Avith the Levant began to bring Avealth 
in its train. All the same they did not abandon the 
native simplicity of their dress, and as though to pre- 
serve the tradition of their ancestors, the Eneti, they 
continued to prefer blue as a colour. A plain shaAvl 
fell from the head over the shoulders of the women ; 
the girls, jealously guarded, were not alloAved to show 
themselves in the streets without a white silk veil which 
covered their face and a large part of their figure. 
Perhaps the white ninziolelo of the Venetian women 
and the tonda of the Chioggian preserve traces of the 
custom to this day. The men of the people Avore a 
mantle like a Roman military cloak, a short tunic, and 
hose buttoned tight at the shin, or else bands wound 
round their legs ; they had bonnets and hoods, and 
grew long hair and beards. 

The upper classes, on the other hand, wore magnifi- 
cent costumes, especially the Doge, Avhose official robes 
resembled very closely the style of an Eastern em- 
peror^: a long cassock reaching to the ankles, held by 
a girdle at the Avaist ; a rich mantle, fastened at the 

1 Ramusio, P., De Bella Constantinopoliiano, etc. Venetiis, NicolinI, 
i634. 

VOL. II. — I 



2 A^ENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

right shoulder by a golden brooch ; a round cap with 
a button on the top, or else a fine circlet of gold about 
the brows. ^ \cnetian matrons wore stately dresses 
of gold or silver webs, reaching to the ground and 
gathered in at the waist by a golden girdle, loose cloaks 
with a band of fur coming over the shoulders like a 
stole, bonnets with gold ornaments, and long, loose- 
flying hair. At church festivals a circlet of finely 
chiselled gold was worn and a long mantle of em- 
broidered silk reaching to the ground. ^ The pall 
(palio), of Avhich we have tradition in the seventh 
century as being worn by Venetian ladies of the upper 
rank, was a sleeveless tunic of Eastern cut, beneath 
which appeared the corslet or chemise open at the 
breast and laced across by cords. On their feet they 
wore shoes with wooden soles or elegantly embroidered 
slippers. 

The mosaics of the twelfth century In the atrium of 
San Marco, and the later but more remarkable mosaics 
of the facade, representing the translation of the 
saint's remains into the church, show us how the early 
Venetians dressed. The Doge, who is on the point of 
entering the basilica with his suite, wears a purple 
tunic, purple stockings, and on his head a red biretta 
shaped like a mitre. Behind him come the nobles 
in cloth cloaks, embroidered and gathered at the Avaist 
by a belt. In the left-hand corner is a group of ladies 
surrounding the Dogaressa, who is remarkable for her 
more elaborate costume. She wears a jewelled crown 
on her head, a long red mantle descends in heavy 

1 Buoncompagni, in his De obsidione Anconae (Rer. It. Script., Vol. VI, 
p. 939), says that in 1174 the Doge wore not a cap, but a fine circlet of 
gold (aureum circiihtm in vcrtice dcfcrl), and that it was only twenty years 
later that a golden crown, studded with precious stones, was adopted. 

2 Vecellio, Habiti ant. et mod. di tulto il moudo {Donna nobile malrona 
Veneliana anlicd), T. I. Venetia, iSgo. 



COSTUME 3 

folds from her shoulders, and a red girdle gathers in 
her pale blue embroidered dress. Her attendant dames 
show a great variety of costume. One has her blond 
hair crowned by a golden diadem, a blue mantle falls 
from her shoulders ; another has her hair confined by 
ribbons of various colours ; another has a band all 
round her face ; a fourth wears a purple cloak lined 
with green, beneath which one catches a glimpse of 
a violet dress embroidered in silver. These ladies hold 
by the hand two little boys who are carrying a train 
of red and blue divided lengthAvise. This mosaic is 
not earlier than 1200, but shows costumes of the pre- 
ceding period, which still betray Byzantine influence. 

After the twelfth century the dignified Oriental cos- 
tume gradually gives way to the fashions which caused 
Dante to lament the decay in the ancient manners of his 
native town. In the thirteenth century Ricobaldo of 
Ferrara ^ describes Italian dress as rude and uncouth : 
the men in rough woollen cloaks, the Avomen in jupons 
of fustian ; none wore golden ornaments. But early in 
the trecento the Dominican Galvano Fiamma ^ describes 
the young Milanese as dressing alia spagnuola, aaIiIi 
close-fitting jerkins ; while De Mussis, a chronicler of 
Piacenza,^ laments that the young men of his country 
were in the habit of shaving half their heads and wear- 
ing a zazzera or close-fitting cap, while they adopted short 
jerkins and such tight-fitting hose as to be positively 
immodest. These long cloth hose were wrought in 
silk, gold, silver, and pearls, and were attached at five 
points to the short upper jerkin. 

1 Compil. Chronolofjica (Rcr. II. Script., Vol. IX, p. 2^7). 

2 Cronaca inedita (Lib. XVIII, Cap. 6) quoted by Muratori, Antichitd 
Italiane, Diss. XIV. 

3 Placenlinae urbis, ac nonmtJlarum nobiliam turn in ea, turn per Ilaliam 
famiUarum descriptio {Rer. It. Script., \ol. XVI). 



4 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

The women adorned their heads with gold nets, 
and, according to De Mussis, they always wore long 
rohes of velvet with a silver belt and great sleeves that 
s^A■ept the ground, ending in a point. Giovanni Villani 
chides the women of his day for having already " tra- 
scorse in ornamenti di corone e di ghirlande d'oro e 
d'argento e di perlc, e pictre preziose, e reti intrecciate 
di perle, e altri divisati ornamenti di testa di grande 
costo, e simile, di vestiti intagliati di diversi panni e 
di drappi rilevati di seta e di piii maniere, con fregi di 
perlc e di pietrc preziose al petto con diversi segni e 
lettere." And Franco Sacchetti, ridiculing the constant 
change of fashion, exclaims, " Se un arzagogo apparisse 
con una nuova foggia, tutto il mondo la piglia, . . . 
Che fu a vedere gia le donne col capezzale tanto aperto 
die mostravano piii giu che le ditelle I E poi dierono 
un salto e feciono il collaretto infmo agli orecchi. . . . 
Le donne vanno in cappucci e mantelli. I piii dei gio- 
vani senza mantello vanno in zazzera. Elle non hanno, 
se non a torre le brache, ed hanno tolto tutto." ^ 

We see these new fashions represented in Venice on 
the Pala d'oro (i3/^4), and in the mosaics of the baptis- 
try of San Marco (i343), the magistrates in their caps 
and red birettas, and the Doge Andrea Dandolo on his 
knees before the crucifix. There is another mosaic in 
the chapel of Sant' Isidore (i355), also in San Marco, 
which shows us, among others, the Doge Domenico 
Michiel. Again Ave find the same costumes in the 
matriculation roll of the Pelizeri cVovra vera (i324), 
and in the Capilolare of the Doge Andrea Dandolo 
(i3/i2).2 

The new fashion adopted in Italy shows the women 
with long dresses open in front and girdled round the 

1 Nov. CLXXVIII. 2 Museo Civico, in the Miniature room. 



COSTUME 5 

waist, and the men with fancy hose and tight sleeves 
and a soft bag-shaped bonnet ; examples occur in the 
miniatures of the Capitolare degli ufflciali sopra il Lido, 
in the Mariegola della Scuola di Santa Maria di Valverde, 
and the Mariegola di San Giovanni Evangelisla, in the 
Capitolare dei Consiglieri, in some of the Promissioni 
Ducali,^ in the Capitolari dei Procuratori di San Marco 
(1867), in the Mariegola della Scuola di San Teodoro,^ in 
the Leggenda di Santa Margherila, the Cronaca of RafTaino 
Caresini,^ and in the Codice-Erbario of the fourteenth 
century.* 

The manuscript already cited, " Lewis of France his 
Visit to Purgatory," preserved at Saint Patrice in Brit- 
tany, gives us examples of the new fashion, — the men 
with a kind of ducal cap on their heads, or a bonnet 
falling down on the shoulder, and a very peaked front, 
cloaks tied at the neck and reaching not lower than 
the knees, large sleeves, and tight-fitting hose. The 
women wear dresses with long trains, short waists low 
cut, and have long-jDointed shoes that turn up ; in 
place of the ancient bonnet they have their hair plaited 
like a garland. 

In a manuscript containing the legendary account of 

1 All these are of the fourteenth century, and are at the Archivlo di 
Stato. 

2 Museo Civico, in the Miniature room. 

' The legend of Saint Margaret in Venetian verse of the thirteenth 
century is to be found in Codex Marciano Ilal. 13 del fondo antico; this is 
the famous codex of ancient Italian poems to which Mussafia and others 
have drawn attention. The script is of the fourteenth century. This 
text has recently been edited and collated with other MSS. by B. Wiese, 
Eine alllombardische Margareihen-legende, Halle, ISiemayer, 1890. — The 
Chronicle of Raffaino Caresini is also in the Marciana, It. CI. Ml, 770. 

* In the Guggenheim collection at Venice. Cfr. De Toni, Sopra un 
Codice-Erbario Medioevale {atti del R. 1st. Veneto, Vol. IX, Serie VII, 
1897-98). 



6 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

the visit of Pope Alexander III to Venice,^ we see the 
Doge with a crimson mantle and an ermine cape, and 
the councillors in robes of green, red, and violet, with 
round hats or white caps on their heads. The fullest 
development of this style of dress is to be found in the 
costume of the company of " The Hose," which lent to 
the Venice of the late middle ages such an air of elegance. 
The young bloods, members of the club, wore fancy 
doublets of silk velvet, embroidered in gold and fitting 
tight to the body, with a belt at the waist. The sleeves 
were slashed, but tied together at points by ribbons, 
leaving puffs of the white shirt to come through. The 
hose were tight fitting and striped lengthwise in colours; 
the shoes were pierced at the toes ; on the shoulders a 
cloak of cloth-of-gold, damask, or crimson velvet, with 
a hood on the lining of Avliich was embroidered the 
device of the club. From under a red or black cap, 
hanging over the ear and adorned by a jewel, escaped 
the locks of hair, bound round by a ribbon, and so long 
and abundant that in i462 a Camaldolese monk, Fra 
INIauro Lapi, wrote to the Doge Cristoforo Moro advis- 
ing him to stop the youths from wearing capiUaturas 
nimis longas, utfaciunt mulieres.'^ 

The pictures of Garpaccio, Gentile Bellini, and Gio- 
vanni Mansueti are our most precious documents in 
the matter of costume. These painters, though rep- 
resenting the magnificent external setting of the already 
triumphant Renaissance, nevertheless bear testimony to 
the private life of the Venetians of the earlier period ; 
they show us the aspect of the houses, the style of dress 

1 Leggende dei gloriosi apostoJi Pietro e Paolo, di S. Alban e della Veniita 
a Venezia di Alcssandro III, Miisco Civico, Cod. Membr. of Che earljr 
fifteenth century. Bibl. Correr Cod., n. i497- 

^ Cicogna, her.. Vol. VI, p. 763. 




'"i- V 










^m 










COSTUME 7 

and adornments, which still retained the imprint of the 
middle ages. In fact that movement of ideas which 
carried art and letters back to antiquity had no effect 
for a long time on costume, nor did it ever revive the 
ample robes nor the toga of the Roman epoch. 

We have evidence as to other curious costumes of the 
early fifteenth century in some little pictures attributed 
to the school of Lazzaro Bastiani,i now in the church 
of Sant' Alvise. There we find biblical characters in 
contemporary Venetian dress; for example, Solomon 
and the Queen of Sheba stand one on each side of a 
canal crossed by a wooden bridge. The king is in a 
robe of golden samite, with hair dressed alia belliniana; 
the queen is in a robe of velvet damask soprarizzo, with 
hair gathered into a knot at the back of the neck. In 
another of these pictures Rachel has a most curious 
costume ; it is open at the side, letting the leg be seen ; 
the breast is displayed, and her hair is dressed to re- 
semble the Doge's cap. 

In addition to the paintings we have also documents 
which afford an ample but occasionally obscure com- 
ment ; they dwell at length on the most minute details 
of costume and give us their names, which are not, 
however, always easy to interpret. 

^ These eight little pictures are held by some to be a modern <'orgery. 
Other critics of weight, such as Ruskin, consider them as the very earliest 
work, of Carpaccio. Gustav Ludwig more plausibly attributes them to 
the school of Lazzaro Bastiani, in whose shop Carpaccio must have learned 
the rudiments of his art. As illustrations of costume they appear to us 
most valuable. The eight pictures used to be upon the organ loft of 
the church of Santa Maria delle Vergini and were bought, so Cicogna 
says (her., T. V, p. 624), by the Abbe Francesco Driuzzo in iS^a, and 
given to the church of Sant' Alvise. They represent: i. Rachel at the 
well. 2. Jacob and his brethren before Joseph. 3. Tobias and the 
Angel. 4- Nebuchadnezzar's dream. 5. Job. 6. Moses and the Golden 
Calf. 7. Joshua and the fall of Jericho. 



8 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

To begin ^villl, they show us the Doge in greater 
pomp and magnificence than in the earher years. The 
cap of crimson velvet, formed hke an ancient mitre, 
and generally known later on as the Corno Ducale, 
came to assume the shape of a Phrygian cap, and in 
the thirteenth century the Doge Rinicri Zcno gave it a 
golden circlet, while Lorenzo Celsi (i36i-i365) added 
a golden cross on the top. This Doge always appeared 
in public in white. In 1^78 Niccolo MarccUo made the 
cor/io entirely golden. The stockings always remained 
purple, the tippet of ermine was lengthened and fastened 
by golden buttons, and the mantle also, which by the 
law of 1820 the Doge was bound to wear on solemn 
occasions, was likewise of cloth-of-gold. Another law, 
of 1339, added still further to the splendour of the 
Doge's state, and at the opening of the fifteenth century 
he began to appear in public entirely clad in cloth-of- 
gold, his head covered by a white cap of finest linen, 
tied under the chin, and the ducal corno studded Avith 
precious gems, among which one shone with special 
lustre in the forefront of the crown under a tiny cross. ^ 
In his private habit the Doge's cap, robe, and socks 
Avere of red. 

Nor was the Dogaressa's costume in any way inferior 
in splendour, — a trailing robe, a dress of gold brocade 
open in front and lined with ermine, the head covered 

^ "Tunc longevus ipse dux, venerancla canitie spectandus, lata est cla- 
mide aurati palii usque ad tcrram dimissa vestitus. Cuius ducale caput 
perspicuo tele parva candens infula decorat, ligulis sub mento connexis, supra 
quam exaurato palio, decus ducalis dignitatis, alia imponitur infula major, 
palulurn parte emiiientiore cornuta; sed qua rotunditas eius caput circuit, 
immcnsi sapliiri immense genime valoris inexlimabilis oculos visentibus 
stupore peripiunt. Sed precipua gemmarum una in anteriore vertice 
capitis eminet, cui super est auri crux parva relucens." Marini, A., De 
ponipa diicalus, op. cit. 



COSTUME 9 

by a long white veil on which reposed a ducal cap in 
miniature. 

When the Venetians gave up Oriental costume the 
nobles and magistrates adopted, as official dress for 
state occasions, the long robe lined with fur. The 
colour of the robe varied with the office; thus. Senators 
wore a purple robe, violet Avas the colour for the 
Savi Grandi and the Consiglieri Ducali, red belonged to 
the chiefs of the Council of Ten and to the Avogadori 
and the Grand Chancellor. The stole [stola), a broad 
band of cloth, Avas of tlie same colour as the robe and 
hung from the shoulder. By a law of i36o, doctors 
were alloAved to Avear the robe of a noble, but it must be 
black, fastened to the collar by iron clasps. The bonnet 
and cap, Avhose place Avas taken later on by the berretla 
a tozzo, were supplemented for a long time by the use 
of the hood or cowl (caputeum). We read, for instance, 
that the father of the Doge Lorenzo Celsi refused to 
throw back his capuzzale in the presence of his son until 
the latter put a cross on the top of the ducal bonnet to 
compel reA^erence (i36i), and even Avhen they began to 
adopt caps and hats of leather, beaver, cloth-of-gold, 
and cloth of A^arious shades bedecked Avith ribbons, the 
use of the hood did not die out {supra caputeum habebat 
cappellum). The point of the hood fell over the left 
shoulder and Avas drawn over the right shoulder by a 
long fillet, Avhich Avas the origin of the stole. 

Women's headgear assumed all sorts of bizarre forms : 
hoods soAvn AA'ith pearls, turbans of linen or cloth-of- 
gold (balzum), caps (hugoli) and snoods of embroidered 
or jewelled velvet, nets of gold or silk, veils of gold or 
silver web,^ bands, fdlets, ribbons, frontlets, drezadori, 
dreziere, zoie (tiaras) of precious metal or of rich stuff 

1 Vecellio, Habili, p. i64- 



lo VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

studded with gems.^ Their dresses too were of various 
fashions : cuUcllatae, of cut-out work/'^ lislatae, of appHque 
work, hands of other stulf running in vertical lines or 
crisscross, ad uncle de panno aureo, or incision, inlagU, 
or slashed, frapae.^ The sleeves {cabitalid) were close 
fitting down to the elhow {comco) in the dress called do- 
galina, or else loose and long, in which case the dress was 
called alia ducale. Another kind of sleeve was known as 
a corlelazzo, or pointed sleeve ; they were open length- 
wise and gathered together here and there by knots of 
ribbons or by golden buttons ; the sleeve was adorned 
Avith embroidery or jewels. 

Many and various are the names for dresses; for 
example, the cappa, which was not only a headgear but 
also a skirt, la casacca {zacha or jacket), the chlamys, 
the petticoat {carpet fa), the mantle (sioca, crosina), the 
over cloak (gahhano or barlollo), the jupon (zube), the 
vest or waistcoat {yarda caori), the suprasirjna and 
epilogi, overcoats,^ the 5/ro/>o/i^ or sashes, the cotardite, 
boccarde, varnaconi (nightgowns).'' The variety of stuffs 

1 In an inventory of the property left by the Doge Francesco Dandolo, 
in i34i (see Appendix, Documents C, n. VII), we find Una :oia incasata 
el habel Iresdccim taselos de rubinis et smaldis et perils. 

- Muratori, Anlkh. Hal., Vol. I, p. Sig. 

' The slashings and piercings became so common that in some countries 
the making of them became a special business, the workmen being called 
affrappalore . See Verga, E., Le leggi suntuarie Milanesi, p. i3. IMilano, 
1898. 

* " Epitoglum est genus vestis quod togae superinduebatur." Ducange. 

^ Cecchetti {La Vita del Vene:iani, etc. Venezia, 1886) says that the 
slropolo was a headgear or ornainont for women. Monticolo, when 
reviewing the book (Arch. Slor. Ilal., T. I, Serie V, p. 267), holds with 
more reason that stropoh is the ancient strophiohim or strophio, a sash 
used in Roman times by girls, Avho wore it round their body just below 
the breasts. 

® Un uarnason de camelin is mentioned in the will of Sofia, Avidow of 
Marco Barbarigo (December, 1807), Arch, di Stato, Cancellaria Inferiore, 



COSTUME 11 

was great, and so too of colours, crimson, amaranth, ^ 
serantesimo , iabi (damask),^ taffeta, zendado ^ (a kind 
of taffeta), catasamitto or bavela (samite), red serge 
{sarzd) or red or green velvet were used for tunics, 
or cloth either white, indigo, or turquoise blue, livido 
(ash-colour), biavo (pale blue), festechin (nut brown), 
beretin (gray), vergato (maroon), morello (murrey 
coloured), mis to (pepper and salt), sbiavato^ (dull blue). 
Handsome mourning robes of black Avere worn both 
by women and men, and the men allowed the beard 
to grow as a sign of grief after it had ceased to be a 
mark of honour or nobility. ^ 

Rogiti d'Arpo Giovanni, B*. D. Perg. s. n. In the will of a certain Giovanni 
di Jesolo (October 36, i34i) we read: " Capa e gonela de scarlato en- 
uarotada costa soldi XLIII de grossi e po costa soldi II de grossi uno 
uarnazion de scarlato, e poi costa soldi X de grossi uno uarnasion rosado 
e una capa rosada costa soldi XII de grossi." Arch, di Stato, Procurator! 
di San Marco de citra, Tcstamenli, fasc. i, n. 81. 

1 Samiti dCoro occurs in the Liber Plegiorum under date of February 33, 
1234. 

3 Tabi, the Latin tabilis, was a kind of damask, copied by the Turks. 
See Merkel, Tre corredl Milanesi {Dollelt. deW Istil. Stor. It., p. 167. 
Roma, 1898). 

* Zendado was a web in very common use from the ninth to the seven- 
teenth centuries. It was spun out of raw silk, dyed various colours, but 
chiefly red. It was used for sacred vestments and ordinary dress ; it was 
also used for hangings, covers, ensigns, banners, etc. Monticolo, Capitolari, 
etc., p. II, n. 3. 

* Cecchetti, La Vita, etc. (Le Vesli), passim. After the close of the 
fifteenth century, in an inventory of the shop of the late Ser Andrea 
Benedito in Rialto, we find mentioned "zentanini chermesini, Velluti 
Alessandrini, rasi d'ogni colore, panni d'oro e d'argento, damaschi, tutti 
misurati a braccia e a qiiarte." Arch, di Stato, Inq. di Stato, Reg. Test., 
B'. 913 (January 3o, 1478). 

5 In ancient times the custom of wearing a beard was so common that 
people even wore false beards, alia grega, as they were called. Sanudo 
(Vite dei Dogi, p. igS, ed. Monticolo) says: "iiaS Ritornato il Doge 
Domenico Michlel da Terra Santa fu preso nel Consiglio che attento 
YinitianI tutli portavano barba a la grecha, che pi 11 non la potesscro 
portar si noo quelll che avesse corrotto." The habit of letting the beard 



la VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Buttons ployed a large part in the dress both of men 
and women. Tiiey were called peroli,^ from their pear- 
like shape, and were made of gold, silver, enamel, 
amber, crystal, and pearls; there were also acorn-shaped 
and bcll-sliaped buttons made of gold or enamel ; the 
asole and passeti were hooks and eyes and clasps of silver 
ad manicas tunice (^ansoli magni argentei inaurali) ^ ; we 
find also golden network (niagelae),^ gold or jewelled 
buckles (bochele), frixalare of gold or pearl,* pianette 
or large flat buttons of silver, tondiid, plaques of some 
precious metal, bordi (trimmings), cordelle (braid), 
frange (fringes), doppioni (flounces), baveri^ (lapels). 
To this kind of ornament belonged the embroideries 
in coloured pearls^ and the plaques with the family 
coat displayed,^ or with ciphers or mottoes in letters of 
gold or silver, whence the robes were called litleratae ; 
they were of very ancient origin derived from the East. 
If the robes bore figures of birds or other animals they 
were called uccellatae and scullatae. Other ornaments 



grow as a sign of mourning lasted for long. Sanudo {Diarii, Vol. VII, 
p. 5oii) says: " Adi 36 oltobre (i5o8) la mattlna fo in Collegio ser Cristo- 
fal More luogotenente in Cipro con barba per essergli morta la moglie 
venendo di Cipro." 

1 In a list of the trousseau of a niece of Giovanni della Borca (April 6, 
i3oo) we find, among other things, " peroli d'anbro VII soldi III de grossi ; 
frixadiira i de perle e frixadiira i d'auro soldi XIII de grossi peroli d'ar- 
cento," etc. (published by Bertanza and Lazzarini, op. cit., p. i3). 

* See in Appendix Documents C (Inventario del Doge Dandolo). 
" Merkel, op. cit., p. i56, n. i3. 

* In the trousseau of the daughter of Marco Gritti (April, iSoo) we 
find unafixadura d'nro e iin bolpsor una ccnlara d'argenlo, una drecera d'oro. 
Arch, di Stato, Giudici del Petizion, Serie Petizion, iSoo-iSaS. 

6 Cecchctli, La Vita, etc., passim. 

* We find them recorded as early as ia5o. Gay, Ghssaire, s. v. 
broderic. Paris, 1887. 

T " Unum suprasignum de calasamito ad arma dc cha Dandolo." 
See Appendix, Documents G, Inventario del Doge Dandolo. 



COSTUME i3 

were the belt (centure or cingoli), made of strips of silver 
with filagree work in between, and with buckles of 
chiselled, incised, or repousse-work, and the centi or 
cinti, girdles of leather or of stuff, from which Avas sus- 
pended a bag of knitted silk with gold thread running 
through it and with fringes with steel tassels, or else 
a little knife in a sheath, or, after the German fashion, 
a spoon of rare Avorkmanship.^ 

The neck was adorned by strings of pearls or beads 
or chaplets called paternostri, made of amber, coral, or 
silver. The fingers were loaded with rings, not always 
of precious stones,^ but sometimes of false gems, turned 
out in the glass factories of Murano. They wore gloves 
either of chamois leather or of silk, and even at this 
early date the Venetian glovers were world renowned.^ 
Footgear was of many shapes and colours : cloth-of- 
gold, red, embroidered, slippers, shoes, boots, sandals 
of leather, wood, or cork. The streets, as yet unpaved 
and muddy, encouraged pattens, which, as time went 
on, became an object of luxury, and sometimes reached 
the height of a metre and a half, and led not infre- 
quently to dangerous falls. The government accord- 
ingly stepped in, and in i43o forbade the use of these 
exaggerated pattens, in view of the fact that women 
with child, if they fell, might seriously injure themselves, 

^ Sansovino, Dial, di tutte le cose notabUi che sono in Venetia, etc. 
Venetia, i56i. The centureri had their shops near the Merceria di Saa 
Giuliano. 

^ In the inventory of the Doge Lorenzo Celsi's gems (i366), published 
by Cecchetti (La Vita, etc., p. lai), we find recorded certain cruzete 
auree, adorned with sapphires, pearls, rubies, emeralds, balas rubies, and 
a silver seal with a coat of arms, many jewels, with pearls, a quantity of 
rings with diamonds, turquoises, and other gems, a silver chatelaine cum 
curadente, unum pironem argenteum cum manico de zaspo. 

' Schultz, Das hojische Leben zur Zeit der Minnesdnger (Zeitschrift fur 
Romanische Phil., Vol. VII). 



i4 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

and miglit give birth to filios aborlivos in perdiiione 
corporis el animae suae} 

The poem attributed to Sanguinacci, already quoted, 
thus describes Venetian Avomen : 

Con atti adorni, assai politi e Lelli, 
Le domic vcdi andar con lal maniera 
e con la fresca ziera 
che '1 par che Ic vegna del Paradise. 

Le vanno llcte con polite vise 

con ricchi fermarelti in su la spalla 

le veste che non calla 

d'oro, de seda e recami de perle. 

dio, quanto piazere c da vederle 
a qualche festa, talor piu che zento 
con tanto adornamenlo 
le par reine de gran couti nate. 

Le fodre de lor veste sbardellate, 
martori vedo, e vari, e armelini 
che val tanti fiorini 
che faria guerra a Troia, se ancor fosse. 

This love of sumptuous dress ^ gave an impetus to 
trade, and the products of every country found a ready 

1 Arch, di Stato, M. C, March 3, \!\?>o. 

' As a document illustrating the luxury of the early Renaissance, see 
the description of the trousseau of Lvicrezia Contarini, engaged to Jacopo 
Foscari in i44i (Corner, Fl., Opuscula qaattuor, etc., p. 167. Venetiis, 
1758). The bride had among other dresses a gown of gold brocade with 
short sleeves, another of cloth-of-gold fringed with crimson and with open 
sleeves, lined with vair, with a train a yard and a half long, another with 
a gold and purple ground lined with ermine, another with sleeves reach- 
ing to the ground, called arloile, in watered silk brocade, and so on. 
There is also mention of a hair comb with great pearls, and a shoulder 
brooch with a great diamond, pearls and balas rubies, worth three thousand 
five hundred ducats. — Doglioni (Le cose not. di Venezia, p. 20. Venetia, 
MDCLXXI) cites the following note, taken from the books of the UfBcio 
del Proprio : " ligS. Luca di Sier Lorenzo dalla tela, pagamcnto di 
mobili di casa : Una veste pavonazza da donna con maniche a cortelazzo 
— Un barbazon de carisea bianca ricamato a guazzaroni — Una vestura 
di scarlato con pianete d'argcnto con una filza di perle al collaro — Una 
vestura verde con campanelle d'argento, brazzoni e centurino verde — Una 




^K^ETI\^ CusTLME ( XA century) — detail 
of a picture by Carpaccio in the Academy 



COSTUME i5 

market in Venice. Stuffs that came from Ormuz in 
Persia were called ormesinl, and Damascus gave its 
name to damaschi. From France came the cloth called 
moslaroli (Montreuil, Monsterelium), stanforti (eslames), 
rasi (from Arras), sanfomei (from Saint Omer).^ Other 
webs were brought in large quantities from Florence, 
Milan, Monza, Verona, Vicenza, Padua ; Avhile Armenian 
velvet was highly appreciated, especially in the four- 
teenth century. A stuff much in vogue was camelotto 
(Arabic kheml, khemla) ; it was woven from camels' 
or goats' hair and had a woolly surface. It was made 
chiefly in Cyprus, at Famagosta and Nicosia.^ There 
were also the coarse stuffs used by the people, called 
schiamne (from Slavonia) and rasse (from Rascia^ or 
Servia). In this abundance of stuffs the trade of 
dressmaking flourished. In the thirteenth century it 
was divided into two branches, — the sartori da veste 
and the doublet makers, zuparii, magistri de zupis et 
de cooperioribus, whose business was confined to mak- 
ing jupons and bed hangings.* There were also the 
furriers {yaroteri or pelizeri dovra vera, peliparii operis 
vaire) and the pelisse-makers. 

veste pavonazza a maniche aperte — Una veste morella a maniche aperte 
fodrata di armellini da donna — Una veste pavonazza a maniche a comeo 
— Una veste da donna morella sotto cappa con friso d'argenteria al cavezzo 
ed alle maniche — Ua capuccio di scarlatto." See Appendix, Documents 
C, n. VIII. The inventory of the property of the patrician Giorgio 
Ruzzini (i453). 

1 Milani, Sei tavolette cerate scoperte in una antica torre di Casa Maiorfi 
in Fivenze. Firenze, 1877. 

2 Munstero, in his Cosmografia universale, speaking of the island of 
Cyprus, writes thus: "Ex pills etiam caprarum pannus conCcitur, cui 
zambellottum hodie nomen est." 

3 The black cloth called rascie was used in later times to cover the felze 
of the gondola. The stuff was sold in a calle which comes out on the 
Riva degli Schiavoni and is still called calle delle rasse. 

* Cecchetti, La Vita, etc., p. 66. 



i6 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

From the eleventh century onwards lapels and 
collars of lambskin or Ivnx were in common use ; 
while sables, fox skins, pole-cat, marten, vair, and er- 
mine were all highly prized, and were made up with 
gold fittings. In fact these dresses represented so high 
a value that they were frequently left by will for the 
adornment of churches, or passed as heirlooms from 
one generation to another, which accounts for the fre- 
quent repetition of the word uxade (second-hand) in 
inventories.^ 

But notwithstanding this superfluity of stuffs, of gold, 
of gems, this sumptuousness of dress, this costly 
change of fashion, it is remarkable that we find but 
slight reference to body or household linen. From 
certain phrases we gather that it was not the custom 
to change the under garments often ; for instance, a 
chemise must have been an object of luxury if, in 1807, 
a certain Sofia Barbarigo leaves ' ' una delle soe camese 
nove a dona Reni et una a dona Donado."^ Again 
Giovanni Dandolo, of the parish of Santa Marina, leaves, 
in 1820, to his wife Caterina many chests containing 
linen, veils, shawls, and his bed " con II coltre una 

1 The will of Doge Rinieri Zeno, dated July 7, 1368 (Arch, dl Stato, 
Procuratori di S. Marco de Citra, B* 289) has the following passage: 
^' Pellem nostram melioirm ad aurum diniitlimus Ecclesiae Sancti Marci in 
hac forma, ut inde fieri debeat Pluviale pro Primiceriis ejus Ecclesiae." In 
the will of Lucia, wife of the Doge Marco Barbarigo, who died in 1^96, we 
read: "Dimitlo Dominae Margaritae priorissae hospetalis omnium sancto- 
rum de Muriano meam vestem do saia novam et ducatos quinque, aliam vero 
vestcm meam cum cappa magna dimitto duabus filiabus meis monia- 
libus." Arch, di Stato, Sez. Notarile, Alti Rizzo Cristoforo (186-I), July 
16, 1^96. Jacopo d'Albizzotto Guidi describes the richness of the men's 
dress, made of silk or scarlet cloth, lined in winter with marten, sable, 
or lynx, in summer with ermine or vair. 

2 Arch, di Stato, Sez. Notarile, Test, di Sofia ved. di Marco Barbarigo, 
cit. 



COSTUME 17 

a scaioni et I'otra blanclia et con II apcra [pair] de 
ninzoli."^ The chemises embroidered in gold and sil- 
ver {inlistatae da collo et da mano de auro batudo) ^ men- 
tioned in inventories can have been worn only on great 
occasions to show up through the slashings of the dress. 
We have record, however, of drawers, which are com- 
monly supposed to have come in with the cinquecento 
only .2 Among linen webs in high esteem we find camhri 
(cambric), renso (from Rheims), boccassino, a plain linen 
cloth which the Egyptians bleached to such Avhiteness 
and fineness of surface that it might be taken for silk. 
Under this same name of boccassino they made in the 
west a cotton stuff which resembled fustian.* Table- 
cloths and napkins also came into use, and the rich had 
theirs embroidered with silken borders (^cum capitibus 
laboratis de seta).^ It is certain, however, that cleanli- 
ness, comfort, and refinement in the home were lack- 
ing. The Venetians, even the less well-to-do, cared only 
for the outAvard appearance of luxury, and we get the 
following mordant verses by a satirist of the trecento : 

1 Arch, di Stato, Sez. Nolarile, Test, di Giovanni Dandolo di Santa 
Marina, November, 1820. Rog. Bianco Micliele, B^ io33, reg. s. n. 

2 Bibl. Marciana, Carta di corredo dotale del 11 ho (CI. VII, Cod. 
DLI, c. 67a and c. 189a). 

2 It is afErmed that the earliest mention of drawers is to be found in 
the trousseaus of 1582 (Verga, E., Le leggi sunt, e la decadenza dell' indus- 
tria a Milano, p. 21. Milano, 1900). But in i3oo, in a codicil to a ^vill, 
we find that the priest Marco Navagero leaves to his niece Lena tuti so 
drapi de doso et soe mutande ct soe zoiete (published by Bertanza and Laz- 
zarini, op. cit., p. i5). In an inventory of i3o8 (see Documents C, Inven- 
torii, n. II) we find "par I mutandaruin." In inventories of the fifteenth 
century mudande are constantly mentioned (see Appendix, ibid., Invent., 
n. XII). 

* Heyd, Hist, da commerce du Levant au Moyen-Age, ed. fran^.. Vol. 
II, pp. 702, 703, 700. Leipzig, 1886. — Gay, Gloss. , Vol. I, p. 181. 

° See Appendix, Invent, del Doge Dandolo. 
VOL. u — 2 



i8 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Tale die porta in doso gli ermelini 
C di zondado vano I'odcralti 
cli'e fitli lor anchor no son paghalli 
non ano in casa pan no i' botte vini ; 

non s" no da mular lor pan! lini, 
8 cho' mantegli vanno dimezatli ; 
porton solcte chalzcrlti (sic), 
tal che impegna borse e choltelini. 

Po' volgo charlta e torno a lor mogllere : 
con qnalro aneli vano inanelate, 
die bastere' sc foson cliavaliere ; 

chi Ic mirase soto inpingniolale, 
le lor cliamicie sono assai piu ncre 
che no le more quando u ben morale ; 

cmpionsi il corpo di pome c di pore, 
tuto quel ano non fano bucbale.^ 

The temptations of luxury wrought a change in an- 
cestral simphcity, and the government at length began 
to grow anxious. On May 2, 1299, the Great Council 
appointed a commission of tAventy-seven members, who 
passed sumptuary regulations, especially as regards wed- 
ding ceremonies.^ The number of guests and presents 
was limited ; the bride was not allowed to have more 
than four dresses in her trousseau ; each dress was to 
be composed of petticoat, gown, and mantle, nor might 
she embroider her wedding gown with pearls beyond 
the value of twenty soldi di grossi. No one might 
wear embroideries above the value of five lire di piccoli, 
and pearl headdresses (drezadori) Avere forbidden, as 
likewise gold or amber buttons (cavezatare) on the 

^ Sonetto fato per Viniriani per mano di maestro Antonio Beccari da 
Ferrara (Bibl. Riccardiana di Firenze, Cod. iio3, c. 126 b). 

2 Foucard published the documents (Statuto inedil. delle nozze Venez., 
Venezia, i858), and Monticolo has reedited them more accurately in the 
Capitolari, etc., p. 189. 



COSTUME 19 

edges of the dress if they cost more than ten soldi ell 
grossi. No one was allowed to possess more than two 
pelisses of vair, or one fur mantle lined with taffeta.^ 
Some years later (i334) restrictions were laid on the 
extravagance in dress, on the embroideries of gold, 
on the use of pearls, of rare furs, of long trains, pre- 
cious girdles and chatelaines that hung from them.'^ In 
i36o all Venetian women were forbidden to wear boche- 
tam or other gems, or silver girdles above the value 
of twenty ducats ; reticules embroidered with pearls, 
rouge pots of gold or silver, pearl or mother-of-pearl, 
were illegal, and a woman's whole outfit Avas not to 
cost more than forty lire di grossi.^ As to the males, 
boys under twelve might not wear gold, silver, pearls, 
velvet, vair, ermine, and so on ; youths from twelve to 
twenty-five were allowed belts, provided they did not 
exceed the value of twenty-five ducats.* Other provi- 
sions restrained display in mournings. ^ The Senate 
continued to issue edicts modifying or condensing 
their previous laws and always attacking the vanity of 
women. Noav they would limit a bride's dresses to the 
value of two hundred ducats" ; now they would abso- 
lutely forbid robes of cloth-of-gold or silver," linings of 
gold, silver, or brocade,^ pelisses of marten, ermine, or 
lynx. 9 In i44o long trains were forbidden, but all in 

^ Arch, dl Stato, M. C, Fractus, p. 94, May 2, 1299. 
2 Law of i334 (Senato, Misti), quoted by Romanin, Vol. Ill, p. 347- 
8 Arch, di Stato, Avogaria del Comun, Deliberazioni, reg. P, fol. 4 t°, 
May 21, i36o. 

* Arch, di Stato, loc. cit. 

5 Ibid., Senato, Misti, reg. 24, p- 91, August 7, i348. 

® Ibid., ibid., reg. 55, p. 102, March 29, i425. 

"> Ibid., Senato, Terra, reg. 3, p. 198 t, February 23, i455, M. v. 

* Ibid., ibid., reg. 6, p. 196 t, February 20, 1472, m. v. 
8 Ibid., ibid., reg. 10, p. i84 t, December 10, 1489. 



20 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

vain ; nay, the Avomen invented a certain kind of gold 
and jewelled loop^ for holding them up, and Mauro 
Lapi in liis letter to the Doge, already cited, recom- 
mends ne miilieres tarn longas caiidas in veslimcntis 
habea/tl, et per lerram traha/d, quae res dialoUca est. 

The most important provisions were those taken in 
Septemher and November of 1/476. On October 4, 
1476, the Milanese ambassador, Leonardo Botta, wrote 
to Duke Sforza that the \ enetian people had reached 
tanla las'wita di pompa che le done non sarieno corn- 
parse se non tenessero ad minus tanlo atorno zoye el 
frappe per V''^ (5000) ducati ; the Republic therefore, 
on September 18 of that year, had published a decree 
circha el moderare de le spese. This decree, which Bolta 
quotes in its most important points, forbade costly em- 
broideries of gold and pearls, and limited the value of 
jewels, chains, rings, and belts. ^ A further decree of 
November, 1476, prohibited the use of silver or other 
embroidery, also point lace worked with gold or silver 
thread, all dresses or ornaments that had pearls or gems 
" exccpto una coUadena per la vesta over sula zorneda, 
non portando cappa," but not above the value of five 
hundred ducats. There Avcre the most minute instruc- 
tions on the subject of buttons and pianette of gold, 
silver, or silk, about robes of cloth-of-gold, of satin, 
or of damask, about chains of the precious metals, 
about gems, pearls, cushions, curtains, bed-quilts, and 
counterpanes made of cloth-of-gold, cloth-of-silver, bro- 
cade, velvet, satin, taffeta, richly embroidered in gems 
and pearls. 2 The Doge, his Avife and kinsfolk, AAcre, pro 

1 Rossi, Race. Cost., Vol. III. 

^ Motta, E., Spigolalure dell' Archivio di Stato Milanese (Arch. Veneto, 
T. XXVI. p. 24',)- 

" Arch, di Stato, M. C, Regina, p. 160, November 17, i^yS. 



COSTUME 21 

honore ducafus, exempt from the action of these laws, 
but this exception only contributed to render the laws 
abortive ; they were always eluded by a thousand Aviles 
and artifices. The State even came down to actual 
details of tailoring, but ended by achieving nothing. 
For if excessive luxury is unworthy of a strong and 
active race it does not he with the government to cor- 
rect it by legislating directly on the subject. The only 
result was an open or a latent rebellion against the 
sumptuary laAvs of an executive famed for its rigid 
insistence on the observation of its regulations. The 
government, by forbidding what it could not prevent, 
imperilled its prestige. The officers of State undertook 
personally to denounce transgressions, but to no pur- 
pose. For example, the Avogadori di Comun, one 
Sunday in Carnival, noted that the wife of the patri- 
cian Giovanni Zorzi was wearing a dress of white 
silk with sleeves and collar of illegal cut ; they declared 
both the dressmaker and the lady to have incurred the 
penalties contained in the law of i/ioo. A similar fate 
befell the wife of Pietro Contarini of San Pantaleone 
in i4oi.^ In 1437 the Patriarch Lorenzo Giustinian en- 
deavoured to curb the luxury of the women, and, under 
pain of excommunication, he ordered that " tutte le 
donne non dovessero '^portar soda e drezza, e code de 
veste, ne oro ne argento ne perle in testa, e slonghino li 
maneghetti." ^ But the patrician dames presented tAvo 
petitions to the Pope, one from Cristina Correr, the 
other from Felicia and Benedetta Dona and other noble 
ladies, begging leave, for the honour of their caste, the 
reverence due to their parents and their OAvn beauty, to 

1 Arch, di Stato, Avogaria del Comun, DeliberazionI, Reg. A, 10, 
p. 3, February 18, i/Joo. 

* Cron. quoted by GallicciollI, Vol. I, p. 4o6. 



32 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

wear their gorgeous robes, their jewels, circlets, rings, 
brooches, sandals, etc.^ The Pope, on payment of four 
ducats and one grosso, gave the permission they sought 
for three years' time, and feminine vanity, which has 
ever been too strong for the law, won the day. 

1 Monlicolo, Capilolari, pp. 189 et scq. 



T 



CHAPTER X 

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 

HE changes in fashions and in costume recorded 
in the last chapter indicate and illustrate the 
changes and transformations in manners and 
customs. 

There was an old tradition, accepted by some writers, 
which serves to mark the simple ideas of the earlier 
Venetians. R is said that in the very first years of 
the Republic the people, under Daulo Tribuno, decreed 
that all Venetians should folloAV the same modest mode 
of life and dress. ^ But gradually Byzantine habits, 
without their efleminacy, however, became universal, 
not merely in dress, but also in the customs of daily life, 
and held their own longer in the Venetian lagoon than 
in any other part of Raly. Greek princesses came to 
Venice as brides of Venetian nobles. Venetian patri- 
cians were frequently invited to the Byzantine court, 
and Eastern civilisation Avas gradually introduced and 
modified customs and manners. The wife of the Doge 
Domenico Selvo (107 1), daughter of an emperor of Con- 
stantinople, and the last Greek princess who came to 
Venice, brought from her home modes of life which 
left a profound impression upon her contemporaries, 
for she surpassed all they had ever seen or heard of 
in the way of luxury. The princess bathed in scented 
waters, sprinkled her body with perfumes, and dipped 

1 Doglioni, Flist. Yen. Venetia, iSgS. 



24 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

her face in morning dew, which was collected for her by 
slaves. She never touched her food Avith her lingers, 
but had it cut for her by her eunuchs and carried it 
to her mouth by a sort of golden tAvo-prongcd fork, 
qmbusdam fiiscinalis aureis aiqiie bidentihus — as San 
Pier Damian tells us in a passage Avherein he bursts 
forth in bitter invective against the luxurious habits 
of the Dogaressa.^ The Venetians themselves looked 
on her conduct as sinful, and the terrible disease of 
which she died was considered as a judgment from 
heaven. But though Venice condemned, in the person 
of the Greek princess, Byzantine splendour, corruption, 
and laxity, the Venetians none the less assimilated 
the art, costume, and habits of the Eastern capital. 
Oriental manners infected Venetian customs even in the 
rites of the Church. Baptism Avas by immersion 2; 
and it Avas not administered till comparatively late, 
even after several years had elapsed ; communion Avas 
given in both kinds and it Avas forbidden to celebrate 
tAvice in the same day upon the same altar. ^ Gallic- 
cioUi thinks that the custom of several priests assist- 
ing at extreme unction {oliare) Avas also derived from 
the Greeks. The dying persons Avere laid upon the 
floor, Avhich AAas covered Avith ashes, while the bell 

^ Damiani, Petri, Opera Inst. Monialis, T. Ill, Cap. XI. The fork, 
called in Venetian pirbn, was introduced from Greece. The Greek word 
irdpeiv (to pierce) and the late Greek word ireipovvLou (a fork) prove it. 
See Flecchia, Postilla elimologica (Arch. Glottologico, Vol. II, pp. 3i3- 
817. 1878). 

^ In San Giacomo dall' Orio is a marhle holy water basin which seems 
at one lime to have served as a font in the days of immersion. The 
font of SS. Maria e Donato at INIurauo is of great beauty. It is cut in a 
square block of Greek granite and appears originally to have been a Roman 
tomb. It was brought from Altino, probably in the seventh century. 
The funeral inscription was left intact and has been reproduced by 
Mommseii. 

3 Gallicciolli, Vol. Ill, pp. 3, 6, 8. 




(M 




(B) 



A — Blrial customs — from the " Fatti del SS. Filippo e Giacomo" 
(mosaic of S. Marco, XIII century). B — Sepulchral urn of General 
Jacopo Cavalli ("iSS'i), by Paolo di Jacobello delle Masegne. (Church 
of SS. Giovanni e Paolo) 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 35 

summoned the faithful and in the street they chanted the 
"Miserere" and other psahns.^ DoAvn to the twelfth 
century tombs were placed in church porticoes. 
Later on, the government permitted great personages 
to be buried in the church itself, which thus came to 
be adorned with magnificent sepulchral monuments. 
As is the custom still in the East, while the body was 
being lowered into the grave all the relations gave vent 
to shrill cries and tore their hair. Almost immediately 
after death the corpse was carried to the tomb, wrapped 
in a sheet or in matting covered with cloth. Neither 
silk nor other precious material was used for cerecloth 
except for those Avho in life had held public offices. ^ 
In the early days even the Doge was buried without 
pomp the day after he died. It w^as only in i36i, 
on the death of Giovanni Dolfm, that the body of 
the prince, with golden spurs, baton, and shield, lay 
in state for the first time in the Hall of the Signori di 
Notte, while the Dogaressa and a train of ladies went 
down into Saint Mark's, where they remained an hour 
in prayer.^ 

1 Gallicciolli, Vol. II, pp. SaS, 826. 

2 '• . . . Quod tampro bono animarum quam pro evitandis expensis 
inordinatis et inulilibus aliqua persona deinceps sive masculus sive femina, 
non portetur ad sepulturam, nee sepeliatur vestita in habitu silicet secu- 
lari, alio silicet quam de cilicio, seu stamegna, vel alio habitu minoris 
valoris, sub pena librarum L. parvorum pro qualibet persona portata vel 
sepulta contra premissa ; quam penam solvere teneantur heredes vel com- 
missarii persone huiusmodi, seu alii vel alie, ad quos eius bereditas vel 
bona plus spectarent, exceptatis tamen ab hac strictura et ordinatione doc- 
toribus, juristis, militibus et medicis. . . . Quod omnes masculi vel femine 
nunc et de cetero habitatores et habitatrices Veneciarum teneantur ad 
omnes stricturas etcrdines supradictos sicut alii et alie cives. . . . Quod 
Palatium Ducale ab omnibus predictis slricturis et ordinibus ac consultis 
per sapientes, protinus sit exemptum. . . ." (Arch, di Stato, Senato.Afisti, 
reg. 16, p. 70, June 20, i33i.) 

' Sansovino, Venetia, Lib. XI, p. 489. 



a6 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

But contact with the cfrcminate habits of the East 
did not sap the vigour of llie hardy Adriatic seafolk, 
who were ever called upon and ready to overcome the 
resistance of nature or to face a human foe. 

In the dawn of civic life at Rialto hardihood in adven- 
ture went hand in hand with simple faith and austere 
habits. Every class of citizen, from the Doge to the 
humblest fisherman, attended midnight services. Early 
in the morning the people were called to work by the 
sound of a bell called the marangona, so named after 
the carpenters, or marangoni, the most numerous class 
of artisans in the city, especially at that period, when 
most of the houses were built of wood. At nine o'clock 
and at midday the sound of a bell again summoned the 
labourers to a modest meal ; and three hours after sun- 
down every one was housed while the rialtina rang out 
the curfew. The ancient names of kalends, nones, and 
ides — retained only among the learned — had passed 
out of use. The year, even in public deeds, began with 
the first of March {more Veneto),^ and the days of the 
month were numbered successively from the first to the 
last. Every day of the year, at the hour for meals, all 
work came to a standstill, — not a sound was to be heard 
in the shops, men and women met round the board. 
The fare was frugal, composed of vegetables, fruit, fish, 
wild duck, beef, pork, and, above all, kid and Avild boar, 
as is suggested by the vast quantity of their bones found 
a few feet below the surface. All food was highly 
spiced. 

We have no documentary evidence as to the price 
of food earlier than the law of Sebastian Ziani (1178) 

1 As an early instance of the year Indicated more Veneto, we have the 
■will of Orso Partecipazio, Bishop of Olivolo, dated 853. Gallicciolli, Vol. I, 
p. 434. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 27 

which made important provisions as regards butchers, 
bakers, taverners, pouUerers, fishmongers, etc.^ The 
scale pubhshed by the Doge fixing the maximum prices 
of food took as its unit the Veronese hra, a httle less 
than the Italian lira. We find that wine of Avhatever 
kind, except Greek wines, cost two soldi the libbra,^ 
beef also two soldi the libbra ; a thousand libbre of oil 
cost twenty-five lire. Among the fish mentioned we 
get the sturgeon, the trout, the ray, which cost three 
and a half soldi the libbra ; tench and dried pike cost 
three soldi; other fish — gudgeon (^0), tench, (meg la), 
red mullet (barbone), the scorpene or sea-scorpion (scar- 
pena), gurnard [hicerna), gray mullet (variolo or bran- 
cino), dory (orata), flounders {passera), soles (sogliola), 
eels [anguilla), pike (laccio), carp {cavedagno) — cost 
two soldi and a half the libbra. Corn cost from sixteen 
to seventeen soldi the bushel [staio), wine twenty soldi 
the barrel, and four hundred eggs fetched twenty soldi. ^ 
Within the narrow circuit of the lagoon and in 
spite of their simple and modest manner of life, the 
quiet Avas frequently broken by internal broils or by 
the bustle of departure on venturous voyages or martial 
enterprises. While the men were at sea or in the field 
the women passed the interval betAveen the agony of 
farcAvell and the joy of the return in tending the 

1 Arch, di Stato, Due, B" 6. The statute was pubhshed by Dr. G. 
Trevisanato (Ven., tip. del Commercio, 1862) and more accurately by 
Monticolo in the Miscellanea of the Deputazione Veneta della Storia 
Patria, Vol. XII, p. 81. Venezia, 1893. 

2 The Capitolare of the Coopers' Guild (Monticolo, Capitolari, etc., 
p. 162) gives us much information as to the capacity of casks in use in 
Venice of the thirteenth century. The measures were fixed by govern- 
ment for purposes of customs and lading. 

3 Liber Plegiorum, Regesti published by Predelli, n. 7, aS, i5a, 317, SaS. 
335, l^bo, 564, 710. 



28 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

family and in prayer. But in these early days the 
women do not stand out in the pages of Venetian his- 
tory, and only a name here and there helps us to re- 
construct the picture. We see the haughty Dogarcssa 
Valdrada Candiano sweeping through the halls of the 
Ducal Palace, as later on there passes by the vision of 
the fair and sinful wife of Domcnico Selvo. Not many 
years later Tcodora Selvo is succeeded by Felicia, wife 
of Vi tale Michiel (1096-1102), type of the modesty and 
womanly virtues of her day, in contrast to the pec- 
cant Greek princess. Felicia Avas eminently pious and 
charitable ; indiiferent to all the glories of her state, she 
shrank from any display, and found her only joy in her 
faith and in her devotion to her family. She was 
gracious in speech, modest in bearing ; the goodness 
of her soul shone out in the sweetness of her counte- 
nance,^ We also hear of another Michiel, Anna by name, 
only daughter of the Doge Vitale II (11 56-1172), re- 
markable for her virtues. Several ancient chroniclers 
relate that when, in the war against the Emperor Em- 
manuel (1170), all the Giustiniani who had taken part 
in it were wiped out, and of that illustrious lineage not 
one remained save Niccolo, a Benedictine monk in the 
monastery of San Niccolo del Lido, Anna Michiel, by 
the leave of Pope Alexander III, wedded the monk. 
The tale is confirmed by writers of authority; but it 
may be that the chroniclers only meant to say that one 
branch and not the whole house of the Giustiniani was 
destroyed, for we find many patricians of the name still 
alive at this date.^ The chronicles assert that twelve 
children were born to Anna and Niccolb. When this 

1 So runs the Latin inscription on Felicia's tomb, on the left-hand 
side of the great door of San Marco. 

2 Sanudo, Vite deiDogc, ed. Moniicolo, p. a65, n. 2. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS ag 

family had groAvn up their father returned to his cell, 
after founding a monastery on the island of Costanziaca, 
to which his wife Anna retired, and there took the vows 
along with her three daughters, Marta, Margherita, and 
Bortoletta. 

The Christian religion strengthened and organised 
domestic morality and improved the condition of 
women, and it was the women who chiefly raised those 
numerous churches and monasteries which filled the 
estuary ; it was their influence which kept alive the 
family bond in the midst of a population which was 
rapidly growing bold and warlike under the impulse of 
new needs and new aims. The women, leading the 
life of modest housewives, watched over the sanctity of 
the home, conjugal fidelity, and the innocence of the 
children . 

Herodotus has recorded the custom of the ancient 
Eneti, while still in their lUyrian home, of marrying all 
the nubile daughters on the same day. That custom, 
derived from the Eneti, was still alive among the early 
Venetians, as is proved by the legendary rape of the 
Marie from the church of Castello. We have further 
testimony in old chronicles and in the ancient Matricola 
dei Casselleri (i 4^9), which says : ' ' Antigamente la con- 
suetudine de Venesia era che tutte le novize de Venesia 
quando le se sposavano erano sposate nella giesia de 
San Piero de Castello per el Vescovo nel zorno de 
Messier San Marco, che vien a di 3i de zener."^ 
Others, again, affirm that not all the brides of Venice 
were wedded on the last day of January, but only 
twelve girls dowered by the community. 

At the close of the eleventh and the opening of the 
twelfth century a wave of emotion, political and religious, 

1 GalllccioUi, Vol. II, p. 1753. 



3o VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

swept over Europe, stirring all hearts, touching the 
intellect and modifying manners and customs. When 
entire nations took the Gross for the liberation of the 
Holy Sepulchre, martial valour, w hich till then had been 
rude and fierce, was tempered by more gentle emotions, 
and in those ranks of men clad in mail the religious 
sentiment mingled with the impulses of a chivalry which 
not only brought into the human mind the softening 
grace of new ideals, but enjoined the duty of protect- 
ing the weak. Woman appeared in a halo of poetry ; 
and on the plains of Syria and under the walls of the 
mystic Sion religious fervour went hand in hand with 
the gracious vision of a woman which accompanied 
the crusader through the perils of the field. 

The Venetians during the Grusades shared the dan- 
gers of battle and the glories of victory with the most 
renowned knights of Europe, but, already strong in 
civic virtues, felt no need to insure courtesy and chival- 
rous conduct by law ; and to them it seemed a strange 
thing that men Avho donned the coat of mail and girded 
on the sword of a cavalier should be required to take an 
oath to defend the rights of the weak against the strong, 
and to protect women and children from danger and 
outrage. The Eastern temperament, ever strange and 
fantastic, enveloped the rules of chivalry with a novel 
charm, though they could never have been without effect 
upon the Venetians, who during the Grusades not only 
sailed the seas, traded, and founded colonies, but in- 
evitably widened their horizon and brought home ideas 
that were helpful to the arts. 

Venice after tlie Crusades assumes a new aspect. 
The ancient social structure disappears, the national 
outlook embraces a wider scope, private life becomes 
refined. For though it is true that the crusading spirit 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 3i 

was not received with enthusiasm in Venice, still it did 
not, as many hold, find mere indifference ; the ^ ene- 
tians were 23rofoundly moved by the spectacle of such 
multitudes of men inspired by a sentiment wliich sent 
them to suffer, fight, and perish for an ideal. As a 
matter of fact, we find a hospital on the Giudecca for the 
housing of pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem as early 
as the tenth century, and another on the island of Sant' 
Elena in the eleventh; a third at Castello, and a fourth 
on the island of San Clemente . The government granted 
shelter to the warrior monks who fought for the Holy 
Land, and the Knights Templars established a hospice 
for them near the church of the Ascension ; the Knights 
of Saint John of Jerusalem had another at San Giovanni 
Battista dei Friulani, while a third was opened by the 
Teutonic order at the Santissima Trinita. But the 
Venetians lent a still more powerful support to the Cru- 
saders by joining arms with them in the reigns of the 
Doges Vitale Michiel, Ordelafo Falier, and Domenico 
Michiel, and proved again and again that Venice was 
inspired not merely by commercial greed but also by re- 
ligious fervour.^ To be sure, the Venetians never forgot 
their commercial and political interests in their zeal for 
the faith; they intended to secure for themselves a 
market in every corner of the globe. But their so-called 
egoism displayed itself in a profound attachment to their 
country and their race; and these greedy hucksters, 
these selfish adventurers — as they are sometimes un- 
justly called — had at bottom a genuine belief in objects 
high and serious ; the merchant not seldom became a 
hero. And so it was that while the \enetians lent their 
potent aid to the Crusaders, they never stifled the trading 
instinct, they never neglected to enlarge their borders. 

^ Sagredo, La Repubblica di Vcnezia, pp. t>4 et seq. Padova, 1887. 



32 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

These lords of the sea knew how to w^ed the passion of 
Christianity to commercial enterprise, and welded the 
aspirations of the faith with the interests of their country, 
proving by their action not only how vain and sterile is 
an idealism which consumes itself in morbid dreams, 
but also that the mere production of riches will lead to 
ruin unless it be tempered, legalised, almost we would 
say sanctified, by the serene and life-giving breath of 
tlie ideal. So true is it that the universal religious 
movement exercised a powerful influence on this cautious 
nation of merchants, that Venice has even been accused 
of bigotry, as being the slave of a sort of official super- 
stition of a quite peculiar kind, which led the State to 
pay high prices for the bodies of saints and other relics, 
and the Doge to receive them in solemn procession.^ 
As a matter of fact, the Venetian fleet, which in 1097 
had been acting with the Crusaders in Syrian waters, 
brought back, the following year, from Myra the remains 
of San Niccolb, and the translation of the relics to the 
church on the lido was recognised by the people as a fes- 
tival which conferred an honour on the State. In iio5, 
when the body of San Stefano was brought to Venice, 
the Doge Ordelafo Falier took the cofier containing the 
holy relics on his shoulders and devoutly carried it to 
his own boat. So, too, in ii25, the Doge Domenico 
Michiel, on his return from the Holy Land, brought to 
Venice the body of Sant' Isidore, the martyr of Chios. 
It is impossible, even for the most hostile critic of Venice, 
to believe that such acts of piety were always and 
everywhere inspired merely by the political acumen 
of those rulers of the State, from whose number, 
by the way, came Gerardo Sagredo, who in 10^7 met 

^ Burckliardt, La Civilla del Rinascimcnto. tr. Vol. I, p. 99. Firenze, 
1876. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 33 

martyrdom in Hungary, and won the honours of the 
altar. 

Amid the stress of business or the clash of arms 
there were many who sought the quiet of the cloister. 
We hear of whole families abandoning the world to 
assume the monastic habit; for example, in ii84, 
Manfredo de Gonzo, his wife, and his son Albert took a 
vow to follow the instructions of Priest John, agent for 
the Abbess of San Zaccaria, and after granting the 
family estate to the monastery they became lay members 
of the Community. 1 The churches raised by private 
generosity were frequently handed over to some con- 
ventual establishment "cum totis thesauris magnis vel 
parvis, sive aurum, argentum, acre, ferrum, palios seri- 
cos vel laneos, atque lineos de altaribus, quam de silcis 
seu de mapulas, et cuncta omnia sanctorum, etiam libros 
divinos diurnales atque nocturnales." ^ Donations to 
monasteries were of common occurrence for many 
years ; occasionally entire estates were ceded to them, 
as in the case of Leonardo Michiel, son of the Doge 
Vitale II, by his will, dated August, ii84, drawn up by 
Domenico Arduino, parish priest of San Giovanni 
Evangelista. Michiel made the Abbess of San Zaccaria, 
Casotta, and her successors executrices of the deed; he 
constituted the abbess heiress of his personalty to the 
value of eight hundred and fifty lire, and to the convent, 
where he desired to be buried, for the benefit of his own 
soul and those of his wife, his father, and his relations, 
he left his vineyards, salt pans, lands, waters, all his 

1 Arch, di Stato, Irtd. gen. dell' Arch, di San Zaccaria, February 37, 
and April 12, 11 84. 

2 Ibid., Chiesa di San Luca, Catastico di San Benedetto, n. 3, ioi3, 
C. I. — Giovanni and Domenico, sons of Martino Falier, give to the Mon- 
astery of the Blessed Michele Arcangelo in Brondolo the church of San 
Benedetto on the Canal of Rialto (February, ioi3). 

VOL. II — 3 



34 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

freehold properly in Chioggia.^ It was a common 
tiling for a teslalor to devise a sum of money for 
laminaria ecclesiae^ over and above the tithe of his 
properly which it was the custom to leave to pious 
objects and for the benefit of the clergy.^ Many wills 
express the hope that on the Judgment Day the souls 
of donors will reap the benefit of gifts left to the 
church^ ad pios usus Ecclesiae et pauperum.^ Nor 
are instances rare in which a widow Avould receive 
her widow's weeds from the hands of a priest and with 
religious ceremonies, taking the vow of perpetual 
chastity, and retiring forever into a little cell either in 
the roof or over the portico of some church where she 
would spend the remainder of her days in mortifying 
the flesh by fasting and penance.^ Such women were 
called recluse or romite, and gradually came to form the 
corporations known as pinzocchere, who accompanied 
the dead to the grave. 7 There were many of these her- 
mitages in the city, and we fmd them attached to the 
churches of San Giovanni Evangelista, San Maurizio, 
Sant' Agnese, San Samuele, Santa Margherita, SS. 
Gervasio e Protasio, San Boldo, Santi Apostoli, San 
Cassiano, Santa Maria Nuova, San Francesco della 
Vigna, and Sant' Angelo.^ In the same way religion 
was frequently bound up with superstition, and the 

1 Arch, di Stato, Ind. gen. del mon. di S. Zaccaria, Test. Leg. Comm., p. 85. 

2 Gallicciolli, Vol. II, p. 193. 

* As an instance, see the will of Angelo Pesaro (iSog) published by 
Sagredo in his book on the Fondaco dei Turchi, Milano, i860. 

* Baracchi, Carte del 1000 e del 1100 trascr. daW Archivio Notarile 
(Arch. Veneto, T. XX, p. 837^. 

6 Corner, Fl., Eccl. Venctae, Decas III, p. 4oo. Venetiis, 
MDCXXXXIX. 

6 Gallicciolli, Vol. II, p. 1785. 

' Mutinelli, Del Costume Veneto, p. 89. Venczia, i83i. 

* Corner, Fl., op. cit. 




•\TTnUDESOF PllAVER. 

•'0|nis [)cnilct)tiale " 
— bidle Archives ) 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 35 

various forms of praying, the postures assumed, Avere 
supposed to affect the elFicacy of the prayer.^ But in 
Venice, unhke other cities, mysticism and religious 
superstition were not allowed to debase the mind, for 
the Venetian government, ever cautious and watchful, 
took care to moderate the impulses of the heart or of 
the imagination by the dictates of common sense ; it 
encouraged religious zeal, it is true, but it also held in 
check that exaltation which might have led its citizens 
to forget the true interests of their country. 

The Republic not only placed a limit on the number 
of the churches and monasteries, but blending the obli- 
gations towards their country and their God, when the 
war of Chioggia was raging in iSyg, it called on all 
the friars who were by laAv liable for guard duty at the 
Ducal Palace to take up arms against the foe. The 
friars refused, and pleaded their vows, and Avere there- 
upon at once expelled from the State. ^ Those very 
Doges who received with profound piety the relics of 
saints, those same statesmen who took every care to 
foster religion, loved their country and their families 
above all, fought for their freedom, and looked upon 
a man as mad who thirsted for sufTerino^ and martvrdom, 
who craved for pain and intoxicated himself by the 
sharpness of his agony. 

Venice did not escape the presence of those companies 
of flagellants which sprang up everywhere in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries ; nay, the very earliest Guilds of 
Devotion were called scholae hattutorum because the 
brothers lashed themselves with scourges and certain 
instruments called scopae, known later on as " disci- 

1 Arch, di Slato, Opus penitentiale Petri Pictaviensis. Cod. of twelfth 
century in the Sala Diplomatica Regina Margherita. 

2 GalliccioUi, Vol. II, p. 1812. 



36 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

plines." ^ But such aberrations of mysticism were 
sternly checked by the government, who would not 
permit, except on very special occasions, the spectacle 
of processions passing through the streets to the chant 
of hymns and prayers, and the furious lashing of bare 
backs. Hoc factum est in omnibus aliis civilaiibus, praeter- 
quam Veneliis sapienlibus, so writes Girolamo da Forli. 
And in iSgQ, when the processions of the Bianchi, 
men and Avomen dressed in white with faces veiled, 
chanting litanies and orisons, reached Venice under 
the protection of the Florentine Dominican Giovanni 
Domcnichi, afterward cardinal and beatified, of the 
priest Leonardo Pisani and the patrician Antonio So- 
ranzo, the Signory forbade the lugubrious sight, and 
the constable of the Council of Ten, meeting the pro- 
cession at SS. Giovanni e Paolo, snatched from the 
hands of the leader the crucifix and, as a chronicler 
reports, rompe le brace del Crucifisso e desfece la 
processione. Domenichi, Pisani, and Soranzo were 
banished.^ 

Charity found fervid apostles in Venice, such as the 
blessed Pietro Acotanto (d. 1187), Avho reduced him- 
self to beggary by giving all he had to the poor.^ The 
helpless received support from the charitable, and in 
977 an hospital Avas erected in the Piazza di San Marco. 
This was followed by many others ; some were called 
Case di Dio and Avere destined to shelter pilgrims ; 
others AAcre open to the poor and the infirm. In i3i2 
the citizen Naticliero Cristian erected an asylum for 
tAventy infirm paupers ; it stood near the Calle del 

1 An enormous "discipline" is carved above the door of the Hospital 
of the Battuti at Serravalle, in the province of Treviso. 
'■' Cicogna, her., ^ol. M, p. i-ii- 
* Corner, Fl., op. cit., Dccas I, p. 97. 





Attitudes of Prayer. 
("0|)iis jieiiilontiale" 
— Stale Arcliixes) 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 37 

Morion at San Francesco della Vigna ; about i3/i3 a 
pious friar, the Franciscan Pieruzzo of Assisi, begging 
from door to door, gathered enough money to hire some 
houses for the shelter of foundhngs. Soon after, he 
opened another institution at San Giovanni in Bragora, 
which exists to this day under the title of della Pieta. 
In 1 357 Bartolomeo Verde built a hospital for fallen 
women who wished " redire ad penitenciam et contri- 
cionem."^ In every detail of life the greatness and 
the gentleness of this people, so unjustly judged by a 
celebrated chronicler, Fra Salimbene of Parma, in 
the thirteenth century, make themselves apparent. 
"Veneti," writes Salimbene, " avari homines sunt et 
tenaces et sujDcrstitiosi, et totum mundum vellent sub- 
iugare sibi, si possent ; et rusticiter tractant mercatores 
qui vadunt ad eos, et care vendendo, et multa passagia 
in diversis locis in suo districtu ab eisdem personis 
eodem tempore accipiendo." ^ And yet these rude, 
avaricious, grasping, superstitious people accept new 
ideas, are not insensible to love and pleasure, readily 
adapt themselves to a mode of life very different from 
that of their early years to which they had been so long 
accustomed. The courteous usages of chivalry found 
a congenial soil in the blithe nature and soft speech of 
the Venetians, and Venetian knights learned to break 
a lance for their mistress's eyes, and to wear the colours 
of her who conferred the guerdon. The women readily 
appeared in public and joined in parties of pleasure, 
seeking amusement and listening Avith satisfaction to the 
songs and music of their youthful lovers, to their serven- 
tesi and tenzoni and cobbole learned from troubadours of 
France. 

1 Arch, dl Stato, Gr., XIII, c. 6 (October 5, iSSa). 

2 Salimbene, Parm. ord. min., Chron., p. 252. Parma, 1857. 



38 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

As at Trcviso, in the Marca Amorosa, this new zeal 
for culture and refinement was illumined by the figures 
of noble ladies such as Cunlzza da Romano and Gaia da 
Camino, daughter of the buon Gherardo, made immor- 
tal in Danlc's verse, ^ so at Venice new and graceful 
habits of life Avere introduced by noble foreign ladies who 
came to wed Venetian patricians. The Doge Ordclafo 
Falier (i 102-1 116) had as wife Matilda, cousin of Bald- 
win, King of Jerusalem. Two sons of the Doge Vilale 
Michicl II (11 56-1 172), Leonardo Count of Osscro and 
Niccolo Count of Arbe, married, the one the daughter 
of the Prince of Servia, the other Maria a niece of King 
Stephen of Hungary. After the fall of Constantinople 
we have the marriage of the Doge Pietro Ziani with 
Costanza, daughter of Tancrcd, King of Sicily ; also the 
wedding of a niece of the dead Doge Enrico Dandolo 
with Maganipan, Ban of Servia. A little later another 
Sicilian princess came to Venice. Pietro Ziani was suc- 
ceeded in 1229 by Jacopo Tiepolo, who had, by his Avife 

^ Cunizza, sister of Ezzclino rla Romano, ■wedded in 1222 Rizzardo of 
Sambonifacio ; she fled from her hushand's house with her lover, the trouba- 
dour Sordello di Goito. Then she left Sordello and fled with a Trevisan 
noble, called Bonio. Cunizza ended her days in Tuscany, in penitence for 
her light loves, devoted to charity and to prayer, and Dante places her among 
the beatified. Gaia da Camino, too, enjoys no good repute. First comes 
Jacopo della Lana, who, glossing a verse in Dante's Purgatorio, XVI, i4o, 
whose meaning is obscure, declares that Gaia fn donna di tale reggimento 
circa Ic delcilazioni amorose, ch'cra nolorio il siio nome in iutta Italia. And 
Benvenuto da Imola doubles the dose : " Ista erat enim famosissima in tota 
Lombardia, ita quod ubique dicebatur de ea : Mulier quidem vere Gaia et 
\ana ; et ut breviler dicam, Tarvisina tota amorosa ; quae dicebat domino Riz- 
zardo fralri suo: Procura tantum mihi ju\enes procos amorosos, et ego pro- 
curabo libi puellas formosas. Malta jocosa sciens praeterea de foemina 
ista, quae dicere pudor prohibet." Many commentators repeat the -vAords 
of Jacopo of Benvenuto ; many others, on the contrary, declare Gaia to have 
been not only of surpassing beauty but also the very mirror of virtue. 
Her fame has recenUy been vindicated on the authority of documents. 
See Marchesan, Gaia da Camino nci doc. trevisani, etc. Treviso, igoi- 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 89 

Maria Storlato, three sons : Pietro, who, as Podesta of 
Milan, led the troops of the second Lombard League 
at Gortenova, was defeated and perished miserably in 
Apulia ; Lorenzo, Count of Veglia, elected Doge later on ; 
and Giovanni, Count of Cherso and Ossero. Jacopo 
Tiepolo, the Doge, was left a widower in 12^2, and 
married Madonna Yaldrada, daughter of Roger, King 
of Sicily, by whom he had a son and a daughter, and 
thus the vigorous blood of the Normans was mingled 
with blood of the Venetian patriciate. Lorenzo Tiepolo, 
elected Doge in 1268, Avedded the daughter of Boe- 
mondo of Brienne, King of Servia. This princess Avas 
received in Venice Avith great rejoicings. She exercised 
a poAverful influence over her husband, and sought to 
increase the family Avealth by marriages. For her 
eldest son, Giacomo, she secured an heiress of Dal- 
matia, mistress of lands and castles ; for her second 
son, Pietro, an heiress of Vincenza, who brought him 
vast riches.^ Foreign sovereigns also sought their 
Avives among Venetian Avomen ; a lady of the Dandolo 
family became Queen of Servia, and about 1276 ^ a very 
beautiful Tommasina Morosini ^ was Avedded to the son 
of AndreAv II, King of Hungary, called Stephen, AA^ho 
had been driven from his country. Tommasina had a 
son, named Andrew after his grandfather, and this 
youth made good his rights and mounted the Hunga- 
rian throne in 1290, bringing back Avith him his mother, 

1 Sanudo, Vite dei Dorji (Rer. It. Script., Vol. XXII, p. 563). 

2 Not in 1262, as many historians afTirm. Sanudo has the following 
remark: " Sotto Jacopo Conlarini doxe, re Stefano tolse per Mojer 
madonna Thomasina, fia de Miser Andreaso Morcxin." The Doge Con- 
tarini reigned from 1278 to 1280. 

3 An inedlted chronicle by Donato Contarini is preserved in the 
Imperial Library at Vienna (Cod. del Cat. Viennese, MS. 6260, p. 66 t°). 
Contarini says that Tommasina was " molto belia et spiciosa et de grandis- 
sima maniera." 



4o VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

whom he associated with himself in the government. 
In 1 29 1 the Great Council resolved to send an embassy 
to escort the queen, and attached to her person Gio- 
vanni Correr, procurator of San Marco. When, after 
the death of King Andrew, Hungary was shaken by 
revolution, Tommasina returned to Venice and passed 
the rest of her days in modest retirement in a palace 
' ' a San Zulian in la ruga dietro le case del Monasterio 
di San Zorzi, avanti che si arriva al ponte delle Bal- 
lote." ^ She died about the beginning of the fourteenth 
century. 

Love, too, which is the most significant guide to the 
ideas and sentiments of a race, began to assume a new 
aspect in its chief manifestations, engagement and mar- 
riage. The old customs gradually disappeared ; the 
brides were no longer all assembled together in a 
church ; the rites and the customs of the obscure 
middle ages died away. John the Deacon has left us 
some account of early princely marriage ceremonies 
when describing at length the wedding of Giovanni, 
son of the Doge Pietro Orscoto II, to Maria, daughter 
of Argiropulos and niece of the Emperors Basil and 
Constantine at Constantinople, in ioo4. The patriarch 
imparted the benediction in the Imperial Chapel to 
the pair, who wore golden crowns, the gifts of the two 
Emperors. On the conclusion of the ceremony, they 
presented Maria and Giovanni to the court and laid 
their hands on the heads of the couple. The wed- 
ding feast lasted three days, and the Imperial family 
and the great officers of State were present throughout. 
But the description of this princely wedding, celebrated 
according to Byzantine usage, will hardly tell us what 
were the marriage ceremonies of the Venetians in the 
1 Contarini, Don., del Cat. Viennese, MS. 6260, p. 66 t°. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 4i 

middle ages. Unfortunately we have only a few docu- 
ments, and none earlier than the twelfth century, which 
throw a feeble light on this point, The dies desponsa- 
iionis, on which the couple plighted their troth, Avas 
clearly distinguished from the dies nupliariim, the wed- 
ding day, which was almost always a Sunday, and the 
ceremony Avas accompanied by solemn rites, and in the 
presence of relations and neighbours who brought gifts 
for the bride. The woman was not always free in the 
choice of a husband, and very often the engagement Avas 
arranged by the father Avhile the bride was yet a child, 
the father binding himself to supply a fixed doAver (re- 
promissd). The preliminaries of the contract were ar- 
ranged by matrimonial agents ; the bridegroom gave, as 
a pledge to the bride, a ring and pearls, and the fulfil- 
ment of the contract Avas guaranteed by sureties.^ Be- 
sides the doAver, which consisted of real and personal 
property, the bride brought to her husband the arcella 
and in later times the cofano and cassone, the casket and 
coffer which contained her jewels and her trousseau, 
correda cum gemmis et ornamentis , her dresses of silk and 
her linen. ^ The trousseau was shown in public, and the 

^ Besta, Enr., Gli antichi usi nuziali del Veneto e gli Statuti di Chioggia. 
Torino, 1899. 

2 "In nomine Domini Dei et Salvatoris nostri Jehsus Christi. Anno 
domini millesimo centesimo quinquagesimo sexto mense decembris indic- 
tlone prima Rlvoalto. Testificor ego quidem Conradus manduca caseum de 
confinio Sancti Moysi, Quod quando desponsavi Mariotam filiam meam in 
romanum mayrano, dedi sibi unam arcellam cum suis ornamentis, valentiem 
inter totum libras denariorum veronensium quinquaginta. Et in die lune 
misi sibi pro dono libras denariorum veronensium viginti quinque; scilicet 
secundum quod rationale fuerunt et valuerunt ille res, quas sibi tunc 
misi. In pasca misi sibi, pro dono capitium unum de auro valentem libras 
denariorum veronensium quinque: hoc scio et per verum dico testimo- 
nium." (Arch, di Stato, Arcbivio San Zaccaria, Esteve.) Marriage con- 
tracts speak de omnibus indumentis serlcis et lineis et omnibus indumentisque 
more dantur feminis. (Ibid., March, 1108, Quitanza di dote di Pietro 
Malacia.) 



hi VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

day after the wedding, at Easter and on the birth of 
the first child the bride received further presents from 
her husband and relations. Tlie Venetian donum dies 
lunae was derived from the Lombard morgengab, the 
present the husband gave to the wife quando primo 
cognovit earn in coniugio} The first instance of the 
mundio or morgengab in Venice is at the wedding of 
Gualdrada, sister of the Marquis Ugo of Tuscany, to 
the Doge Pietro Candiano IV, Avho gave her, pro 
morganationis car la, the fourth of his estate. The 
Statuto of Chioggia in certain of its clauses, compiled 
in 1272 and 1291, gives us some curious details of 
marriage ceremonies. These clauses, which may be con- 
sidered as the oldest marriage laws of the Veneto, show 
that the day of the marriage contract was distinct from 
the day of the solemn transdaclio sponse ad domum. 
The day before the wedding was observed in a peculiar 
fashion ; the bridegroom made a formal visitatio to the 
bride, and according to Roman custom was expected 
abluere caput. The visit of the bride to her father's 
house {revertalia) eight days after the wedding was 
celebrated by a banquet to relations and friends, when 
presents were exchanged, — shirts, breeches, ribbons 
for the men, distaffs and spindles, rocham cum fusis, 
slippers and pattens, subtellares et zoculos, for the 
women. ^ 

With the growth of ideas and the change of circum- 
stances, greater freedom Avas introduced into marriage 

^ We have found a curious instance of the morgengab in a document 
of September, 1201 (Arch, di State, Arch, di San Zaccaria, Estei-e), which 
records that Marino Valarcsso married Modcsta, and that primo die lunae 
nuptiarum suarum cum surrexil a latere sua, he gave her six silver marks, 
while the neighbours sent her nine golden rings. See Molmenti, La 
Dogaressa di Venezia, p. 4o. 

* Besta, Enr., op. cit. 




A Venetian ^^ coding (\V century) — from 
a painting of Giovanni d'Alemagna and of 
Antonio \ ivarini ; in llie Acadt'iny 



VV 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 43 

customs. We have a description of a marriage in a 
noble family during the war of Chioggia, written by 
Francesco di Yannozzo.^ The Paduan poet is writing 
in a vein of mockery or of satire, but that does not 
detract from the value of this curious picture taken 
from the life : the guests, men and women, all of noble 
houses, assemble in the bride's home on the Campo 
di San Polo ; they crowd round the couple to whom 
questions are put : 

A vu dona Rebosa da ca' Moro, 

ve plaxe per marido 

ser Afenido da ca' Malipier? 

e cosi consente en esso? .... 

Et allora essa response : messer si ; 

Et a ti, Afenido da ca' Malipier, 

te plaxe per mojer 

e Yuostu qua cosi per to sposa 

donna Rebosa 

et en essa consenti? 

Then, the ring having been placed, the young men 
present are requested to play and to sing : 

E cos'i 11 versi sona 
madona Semprebona 
da ca' Zustinian 
li prese tutti do per man 
e feseli ballar . . . 
E co' la canzon fo' riva 
'lo grida, c'ogn'om I'oldiva, 
ver lo spozado: 
Se dio te varenta el novizado 
e se Dio te varda da mal morir 
plaquave de dir una canzon! 

The bridegroom then sings a madrigal, but one of his 
groomsmen addresses verses and advice to the bride, 

1 Published by Grion in the appendix to the Tratlato di AStonio.fi^ 'A 
Tempo, cit., p. 827. »v >*^;''^; 



A4 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

telling her never to do anything to displease her 
husband : 

E quando cb'el bien de nolle 
che lu \e' ch'i son irado 
Non penzar ch'io le dia botte 
fatle arenle al mio costado. 

The bride blushes, but says : 

taxe, brigada, 
ch'io vo' dir una ballada; 
Ardente mio tnarido 
caro frar dolze, affenido 
el e ver ch'io son to sposa 
e vardareme de far cosa 
che me tu sepi, io te 'nde sfido. 

E quando ch'el sara de nolle 
se lu vien apiornado 
ei le dare tanle bolle 
che lu non gavera del flado, 
e se avesse a zo pensado 
no'nd averia tolto marido. 

And here the quarrel threatens to end in bloAvs, but 
is quieted by the announcement of a good dinner, and 
the priest completes the pacification. 

The simplicity of ancient customs gave way before 
the mockery of the new spirit which held them up to 
ridicule in verse and in the novel. But family life in 
Venice was sound at heart and in body, and Venetian 
mothers took care to rear sturdy offspring for the 
Stale. AVhile in other countries the casuistry of love 
or a strange mystical exaltation tended to dissolve 
the family bond, the Venetian Minorite, Fra Paolino 
(d. 1 344), writing under the form of advice and coun- 
sel, lets us see what was the aspect of a Venetian family. 
The man sought a wife of his own age, and chose her 
well made in body, as therefore being likely to bear 
him fine children. In direct opposition to the ideas 
of chivalry, the man was not to be guided by the opinion 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 45 

of his wife, who was incapable of giving sound advice, 
owing to the natural defect and weakness of her physical 
formation.^ 

But love was not only a favourite subject for men of 
letters ; it also played a prominent part as a subject for 
the decorative arts, and its various phases which end 
in matrimony are rendered Avith a rude but convincing 
vigour by an unknown sculptor of the end of the 
Trecento, in the details of a capital in the outer colon- 
nade of the Ducal Palace. The artist shows us the 
man making love, marrying, giving presents to his wife, 
kissing her, in bed with her ; he becomes a father, 
caresses his son and, lastly, bcAvails his death, A\e 
have another representation of mediaeval marriage in 
the " Matrimonio di Santa Monica," a picture now in 
the Accademia at Venice, which once formed part of the 
" ancona " painted by Antonio \ ivarini and Giovanni 
d'Alemagna for the church of Santo Stefano in Venice. 

When the first breath of the Renaissance passed over 
society, profoundly modifying national customs, the ars 
amaloria and the ceremonies of marriage became more 
refmed, the presents grew richer and more elaborate, 
and ivory diptychs Avere delicately carved with scenes 
and stories of an amorous character.^ The diptychs 
were given, according to ancient Roman custom, at 
marriage, along with the nuptial casket, carved in bone, 
which took the place of the earlier and ruder arcelle, 
and Avas meant to hold the AA'edding jcAvels. To the 
Latin hymns and prayers in use at Aveddings Avere added 

^ De regimine rectoris di Fra Paolino Minorita, ed. Mussaiia. Vlenna- 
Firenze, 1868. 

^ Grevembroch has a sketch of a curious diptych in the form of a comb, 
with this more curious inscription : ditUco nuziale di eburnea fattara a 
modo di peltine per vezzosa sposa promessa in premio a vittorioso e formidabile 
gueniero. 



46 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

nuptial odes ^ which breathe a new atmosphere. This 
gaiety of temper and of habit breathes throughout the 
following love scene, described witli such lively realism 
in the verses of Lionardo Giustinian, a well-known 
writer born in i388 and dead in l^^6. Here we 
have the mother telling the daughter that she had seen 
a zoveneto under the windows, half hidden behind a 
corner, kissing a kerchief that belonged to the maid ; 
the girl replies quite frankly : 

— Madre mia, volunlera 
el vero a te dirolo ; 
stando al balcon jersera 
col fazoleto al colo, 
non sazo in che maniera 
a terra el me cadette ; 
costui come lo vette 
lo el tolse . . . 



— Figlia, se '1 tuo piacere 
e pur con onesta 

te '1 voglio conccdere 

e de te aver piala, 

rispetto voglio avere 

al fior degl'anni tuoi ; 

ma dime, se tu vuoi, 

quanto temp' e ch'el t'a vagheza? 

— Madre, I'e quasi un anno 
ch'el me dono la fede ; 
ma el m'ama tanto piano 

che alcun non se n'avvede. . . . 

The mother, who knows from experience, warns her 
daughter not to put too much faith in this love appar- 
ently so timid and discreet : 

1 Jacopo Morelli (Operetle, cit., Vol. I, p. i45) cites, as the oldest wed- 
ding song, an epithalamium for the marriage of Jacopo Balbi and Paola 
Barbaro, daughter of Francesco, composed in i453 by the Hungarian 
Giovanni Cesinge, better known as Giano Pannonio. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 4? 

— Figlia, tu sai ben I'arte 
d'amare alia coperta ; 
ma de lui non fidarte 
e non te far si certa : 
r e picno in ogni parte 
de bti vezzosi amanli 
con soi falsi sembianti; 
chi troppo crede ne riman gaba. 

— Madre, chiaro comprendo 
che costui m' e fidele, 
d'amor el va languendo 

al sol 6 a le stele ; 

e meraviglia prendo 

ch'el sia tanto costante 

a le fatiche tante 

che sua persona ha per mi dur^. 

But love does not last unless fed by sight, and so the 
mother replies : 

— Ma stagli ascosa un mese 
fagli dispetti assai 

e alora vederai 

sta tanta fade che te ven porta, 

— lo zamai non farazo, 
madre, tanta dureza, 
anzi gli niostrerazo 
ogni di pill dolceza 
fin ch'io viverazo 
con piacier el convegno. 
Da mi el ha un gran pegno 
che, s'el lassassi, e' ne seria impazza. 

— Figlia, che pegno e questo? 
che vuol dir sta parola? 
parlame manifesto, 
dimmelo ormai, fiola 1 

Or me lo dizi presto 

non me tegnir suspesa! 

Figlia, ben t'azo intesa, 

io vedo ben che la cosa e spazza I 

The girl, however, is listening not to the warning 
words of her mother, but for the coming of her lover, 



A8 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

who announces his presence by spitting, whereupon the 
girl runs to the window. 

— Madre, finire al tuto 
voglio sto mio sermone, 
el mio amaule e venuto, 
io zir voglio al balcone : 
spudar I'azo sentulo, 
da lui me sento chiamare, 
me voglio aprescntare. 
Stalle con Dio, clie io son aspelta.^ 

Although with the introduction of luxury corruption 
no doubt infected the manners and customs of Venice, 
there still remained a healthy vein of simplicity, the 
heritage from ancient times. An apparent bond of easy 
familiarity still subsisted between nobles and people; 
for instance, on Ascension Day the people of Poveglia 
presented the Dogaressa with a purse full of copper 
coins, that, as they said, she might buy herself a pair 
of slippers. But about the throne of the Dogaressa, 
in the palaces of the patricians as well as in the humble 
abodes of the poor, the hfe of the womenfolk proceeded 
so quietly, unostentatiously, and modestly that we can- 
not now recover many of the details. Chronicles and 
ancient documents hardly more than give us the names 
of women, — strange names, dead now along with their 
owners, — and Httle they help us to conjure up the 
likeness of a Felicia, an Alidea, a Teodora, Aloica, 
Tommasina, Bertuzza, Falasia, Campagnola, Fidiana, 
Canziana, Diadema, Engranata, Uliosa, Zardina, Ohm- 
piade, Icia, Cavalcante, Ciattarella, Beriola, Casotta, 
Vivalda, Rucca, Altafiore, Suordamor, Istriana, Birida, 
Galifora, Reconfilinia, Donina, Lodola, Pantasilea, 

1 Giustinlan, L., Poesie edite ed inedile, n. 23, ed. B. Wiese. Bologna, 
l883. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 49 

Agrismonia, Fina, Creusa, Soprana, Zaratina.i and so 
on. 

But the growing license which began to invade even 
the convents cannot dim the fame of certain gentle 
ladies, the Countess Tagliapietra, Giuliana di CoUalto, 
and Eufemia Giustinian, Avho from the long corridors 
of their nunneries looked out, in tears and terror, upon 
the changing times ; recluses to whom the Church con- 
ceded the honours of beatification. 

Meantime, in order to safeguard public morals, the 
government passed law after law with ever severer 
penalties. Let us take an example or two. Certain 
crimes were sharply punished, and during the twelfth 
century Ave find that parents who had prostituted their 
offspring were flogged, branded and imprisoned ; pimps 
were imprisoned, branded, tortured and banished. At- 
tempts on the honour of a married Avoman were pun- 
ished by imprisonment and fine ; adulteresses who to 
the public scandal had left their husbands' houses were 
condemned to imprisonment for life. Rape on minors 
incurred the loss of a hand or of the eyes or even 
hanging. A AA'oman from Constantinople guilty of 
infanticide Avas burned alive between the columns of the 
Piazzetta, inter duas columnas comburatur taliter quod 
moriatur? 

The Promissione al maleficio of July 2^, 1282 
(Cap. XXVII), provides: " Se alcun disverzenera per 
forza alcuna zovene, over ha vera violentemente da far 
con donne maritade o con femine corrotte se '1 confessara 
il delitto, over sara per testimonii convinto tutti doi li 
occhi perdera." But Paulo Steno, of San Geremia, did 

1 Museo Civico, MSS. Dolfin Gradenigo, n. 66, a MS. of the eigh- 
teenth century containing a Nota di nomi stravaganti di gentildonne veneziane. 

2 Cecchetti, La donna, etc. cit. [Arch. Veneto, T. XXXI, pp. 334 et seq.). 

VOL. II — 4 



5o VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

not lose his eyes, in spite of the fact that one night in 
1343 he penetrated into the chamber of Saray, daughter 
of Pietro Faher, of San Maurizio, and raped her Avhile 
two of her servants, Beta, a German, and Zanino, held 
the unhappy victim doun. Steno was condemned to 
a year's imprisonment and a fine of three hundred lire ; 
Zanino was imprisoned for six months and then banished, 
while Beta, who had fled, was condemned, in absence, 
to the loss of her nose and lip and to perpetual banish- 
ment.^ Malta inonesla et turpia commilunlar in ecclesia 
et porlica et platea Sancti Marcl, so runs a decree of the 
Maggior Consiglio of March, i3i5 ;2 and as a matter 
of fact we find the patrician Marco Grimani expelled by 
the custodians of the building for trying to rape a girl 
in the atrium of the church ; he Avas condemned to a 
fine of three hundred lire, one hundred of which went 
to the girl.^ 

In 1 388 Alvise, son of the Doge Antonio Venier, 
received a far severer punishment. He "was courting 
the wife of the patrician Giovanni dalle Boccole and 
had a quarrel with her ; to spite her family he hung two 
heavy bunches of horns on her husband's door, with an 
inscription insulting the wife, sisler and mother-in-law 
of dalle Boccole. He was fined one hundred ducats 
and imprisoned for two months.^ In prison he fell ill, 
but the Doge his father would not say a Avord on his 
behalf, and he died. Neither a great name nor power- 
ful relations availed to save Michele Morosini from the 
rigours of the law Avhen condemned for housebreaking 
and attempted violation ; nor Paolo da Canal and Marino 

1 Lazzarini, Marino Falicro, cit., pp. 67, 58. 

^ Lorenzi, Monumenti per servire alia Storia del Palazzo ducale, P. I. 
Venezia, 18G8. 

8 Arch, di Stato, Raspe, III, fol. ^7. June 9, i363. 
* Ibid., ibid., IV, fol. 27 t'. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 5i 

Buora, Avho climbed a window and raped Maddalena, 
wife of Giaconno Cervato ; nor Giorgio Loredan, who 
abducted a girl, Maria Torresani,^ from a convent, and 
others Avhom it would be tedious and disgusting to enum- 
erate. A law of September 22, 1288, severely punished 
bigamy, also pimping by servants for their masters. 
Those ' ' qui iuraverunt quod ille qui voluerit contra- 
here matrimonium cum aliqua non habet uxorem, si 
inventum fuerit eum habuisse uxorem tempore contract! 
matrimonii, debeant frustari, et bullari, et bannizari 
perpetualiter." ^ 

Before the date of the Council of Trent the presence 
of a priest was not considered essential to a marriage, 
which was frequently celebrated merely in the presence 
of witnesses or groomsmen. Such a marriage could be 
annulled, and in this way people managed to marry 
several wives. Some of these scandalous abuses are 
recorded in old memoirs and trials in a language 
that is a curious blend of Low Latin and dialect. 
They evoke for us some highly coloured scenes from this 
scandalous side of Venetian life. One day in October 
of i4^3, a certain Peter of Trent, brush-maker, passing 
through the parish of SS. Gervasio e Protasio, stopped 
before the house of Cattaruzza, widow of Giovanni 
Bianco ; and seeing her at the windoAV addressed her 
thus : 

" Madonna cateme qualche fante per mi." 

" Bruto mato," she replies, "me vorrestu mai far 
messetta ? " 

" lo non dico cussi," answers Peter, " io dico per 
mia muyer." 

" Ben cussi si," cries Cattaruzza, and remembering a 

1 See Raspe, April 5, i34o, October lit, i35i, March 4, i383. 

2 Arch, di Stato, M. C, Deliberazioni, Pilosus, fol. 20 t°. 



5a VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

girl of her acquaintance she adds, " In fe de Dio io te ne 
cattero una. Tornerai doman qua." Next day accord- 
ingly Peter turned up again and found a beautiful girl 
called Maria awaiting him along with a certain Domenico 
Moxe, who addressing the couple asked if they wished 
to be married as God and the Holy Church ordain. 
Pietro and Maria both said " Yes " and gave their hands ; 
they then made their eolation de hrigada and afterward 
consLimaverunt matrimonium. 

In i/i53 a certain Giacomo, in the service of Giovanni 
da Crema, was living with his master in the house of 
Lazzaro Tedesco, qui tenehal hospiles ad septimanam in 
confracta S. Lucae. Among his boarders was a certain 
Chiara. One day Giovanni and Chiara summoned Gia- 
como and Avished him to be witness to their marriage. 
Giovanni turning to Chiara said, " Chiaro io te tojo per 
mia mujer," and she replied, " Et io te toglio per mio 
marito, et son contcnta." Giacomo, when examined 
before the judge, said, " Et cosi el dito Zuane in quella 
ora la sposa con un annello, et in quella notte se ne 
ando tutti do a dormir insieme, et per tutti vegniva 
tegnudi marito e mujer et cosi chiamadi et reputadi." 

In i/i56 a certain Beatrice Francigena, on her way 
back from Treviso, went to the house of a relation 
called Zanina, where there were lodging by chance 
two men called Falcon and Antonio Remer. Nothing 
could be more simple and ingenuous than the evi- 
dence given by Zanina in court ; it runs thus : ' ' Dum 
ibi starent in colloquio, dictus Falconus dixit dictae 
Beatrici : 'A mo, Beatrixe, tu me fa si bel onor? 
Tu sa che te ho da la man, e tu e anda a dar la man 
a un altro ? ' Et ipsa rcspondit : ' Credeva che tu me 
calefassi, die tu me fcssi beffe.' Et dictus Falconus 
dixit : ' Quel che te ho promesso el te vojo prometter de 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 53 

bel nuo.' Et ambo praedicti iverunt in camera domus 
dictae testis ibique dictus dixit : ' Beatrixe, tu sa che 
tu xe mia.' Et ipsa respondit : ' Madi si.' Et tunc ipse 
tetigit manum Beatricis dicendo : ' E no toco altra 
mujer che ti.' Et ipsa respondit: ' Et mi no toco 
altro marido che ti.' " ^ 

The government, which always kept a watchful eye 
on morals, sought to regulate prostitution even as early 
as i3i4- In i36o further steps were taken with that 
object. The prostitutes who are recognised as omniiio 
necessarie in terra ista were forbidden to occupy com- 
mon lodging houses, or to go about the city except on 
Saturday, and were restricted to a district at Rialto 
called the Gastelletto.^ 

From the end of the twelfth and all through the thir- 
teenth century many laws were enacted to check elec- 
toral corruption, smuggling and theft, and to regulate 
bankruptcy ; dishonest public servants were banished ; 
tenants who failed to pay their rents were punished. ^ 
From September till the end of the Carnival suppers 
and parties where women were present were forbidden 
unless the women Avere relations of the householder ; 
and in order to remove multa inepta et vana, it was 
declared illegal to entertain males or females post sonum 
tertiae campanae between Michaelmas and the first day 
of Lent. 4 Oaths and insults were also punished by law, 

1 GalliccioUI, Vol. II, pp. 1769, 1770, 1771- 

2 Arch, di Stato, M. C, Novella, i354-i384, p. 78. See Lorenzi, 
Leggi e memorie Ven. suUa prostituzione. Yenezia, 1870. 

' Arch, di Stato, Signori di Nolle al Criminal, Capilolare, I, foil. 4 t°, 
9, 38 t', 48 t% 52 ts 57, etc. 

* ". . . Quod nunc et de cetero a festo sancti Michaells de mense septem- 
bris usque per totum carnisprivium aliqua persona cuiuscumque condicionis 
existat, non audeat, nee propter nuptias, nee aliqua alia occasione in dome 
sua facere cenam vel convivium dominarum, exceptis sororibus, nuribus, 
neplibus et cognatis sponsi et ex parte sponsi, seu illius qui eas haberet in 



54 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

and in lSo^ a decree was issued that quilibel tarn mas- 
culus qiiam foemina qui tarn injuria allerius quam aider 
nominabil vermum canem perdat soldos viginli} 

Even Petrarch, who was much attached to Venice, 
complained of the foul language and excessive license of 
the Venetians. If this license, however, reached the 
limits appointed by State censorship, or, worse still, 
if it conveyed an insult to the State of Venice, terrible 
punishments inevitably followed. In i/io4 a certain 
Frenchman called Rizzardo was hanged for saying he 
would like to wash his hands in Venetian blood. ^ On 
May i6, i4o/i, the Council of Ten condemned Lodovico 
Conlarini to lose his hand for having published cari- 
catures una sub nomine Serenissimi Principi noslri el 
altera sub nomine Advocalorum Comunis, with scurrilous 
mottoes, offensive not merely to the honour of the 
Doge, sed etiam contra honorem et statum nostrum.^ 
The honour of the State, however, was protected from 
menace and from insult by the vigilant eyes and ears 
that guarded it, either in the hope of obtaining 
a reward or per zelo ed amore per la patria, to 
use the words of that gentleman of the Grioni 
family when declining a reward for having denounced 



convivio vel in cena, intelligendo neptes filias filiorum vel filiarum, fratrum 
vel sororum . . . quod prohibeatur et publice proclametur quod a festo 
sancti Michaelis usque primam diem quadragesime nulla persona cuius- 
cumque condicionis existat, possit nee debeat relinere aliquam personam, 
masculum vel feminam ad nuptias in cena nee etiam in domo absque cena 
post sonum tercie campane exceptis servlloribus consuetiset oportunis. . . . 
Insuper ad aliquas nuptias que fient allquo tempore anni, nullus debeat 
molestare, aufferre vel retinere sponsam sive noviciam. ..." Arch, di 
Slato, M. C, Spiritus, fol. log, February i3 (m. v.); Novella, fol. i34» 
May i5, i356. 

^ Ibid., M. C, Magnus, fol. 69 t\ January 4, i3o3 (m. v.). 

^ Tassini, Condanne, etc., p. 49- Venezia, 1867. 

^ Arch, di Stato, Cons. X., Misd, reg. 16, fol. 119 t". 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 55 

Crassioti, the thief of the jewels in Saint Mark's 

treasury.^ 

It would be no easy task to follow the legislation in- 
tended to restrain the spirit of gambling. In iiyS 
Niccolo Barattieri, as a reward for having raised the two 
columns of the piazzetta, obtained leave to open in the 
space between them a gaming saloon for games other- 
wise illegal. 2 After this we find a long series of acts to 
^^anise and control games of skill and of hazard; 
sime of these games, such as chess, dice, drafts {tavo- 
leite), knuckle-bones (paletti), skittles (zoni), racquets 
(la palla), conqueror {le uova), tip-stick (il pandolo), 
chequers {la tria), hazard {la zara), we can identify ; of 
others, such as biscia, lame, biribissi, scargalaseno, we 
have no idea what they were like.^ There are various 
laws of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries which 
compel the payment of gambling debts under personal 
and pecuniary punishments, but prohibit gaming cum 
taxilUs, or with ovi or dacli or zonos el taballelas, under 
or in front of the portico of San Marco, in the little 
courtyard, the chambers or doorways of the Palace, in 
the Doge's stable, in the church of San Basso, or under 
the loggia at Rialto, in inns or taverns, or under the 
sottoporticoes of the city.* Another act warns inn- 
keepers not to harbour aliquem hominem vel personam qui 
ladel ad aliquem ludum cum iaxillis ; another forbids pro- 
fessional gamblers to settle in Venice under pain of 

1 Arch, di Stato, Cons. X., Misti, rcg. 26, fol. 119 t°. 

2 Barattieri " dimando che'l fosse lecito a cadaum zuogar sopra li gradi 
di ditte colone e che zuogo li pareva et che quantita si volcsse senza alcuna 
pena, et cussi fo concesso tal grazia." Sanudo, Vite dci Dogi, ed. Monti- 
colo, p. 287. 

8 Cecchetti, Giocolieri e giuochi antichi di Venezia (Arch. Veneto, T. 
XXXYIII, p. 426). 

* Arch, di Stato, M. C, •Jommc, June aS, 1278, Rcg. II, fol. 55. 



56 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

imprisonment, flogging and branding; another punishes 
lusores cam taxUUsfalsls.^ Many of tliese acts were re- 
called, and so we go on between prohibitions and con- 
cessions till we come to January 20, 1890, on which 
date we fmd an order of the Signori di Notte which 
mentions unurn par cartarum a ludendo} It has been 
erroneously supposed that playing cards were invented 
in Venice in the fourteenth century,^ but the invention 
is far older and does not belong to Venice, though it is 
certain that the making of cards was quickly introduced 
into the city ; as early as ilxlxi we find the card-makers 
complaining of foreign competition.* 

It was impossible that in a city like Venice, full of life 
and passion , of business and of pleasure , overflowing with 
wealth, the emporium of trade between East and West, 
the haunt of every kind of stranger, manners should 
preserve their primitive purity ; and in fact we fmd the 

1 Arch, di Stato, M. C, Comune (June 6, 1278), Reg. II, fol. 54 t°. 
Capitolare I dei Signori di Notte, foil. 3 t° and 4 (May 19, 1299). M. C, 
Capricornus, fol. ^2 t" (May 18, i3o7). Grazie, XIII, fol. lit" (February 
la, i352). 

^ Dolcelti, Le bische e il giuoco d'azzardo a Venezia, Appendice V. 
Venezia, 1903. 

• Merlin, Sur I'origine des cartes a jouer, p. 67. Paris, 1870. See also 
Bullet, Recherches hist, sur les cartes a jouer (Lion, 1757), and Singer, 
Researches into the History of Playing Cards. London, 1816. 

* Remusat, Mem., 2* serie, T. VII, p. alt"]. The Museo Givico of 
Venice has a pack of playing cards made in Venice in the fifteenth cen- 
tury ; they are very big and have plain backs. The face of the card is 
covered with delicate arabesques in blue and red and dotted with little 
gold flowers. The border is silvered over a raised line of body colour, 
decorated by tiny punch-marks. The figures of two suits, denari and coppe, 
are in gold similarly decorated ; bastoni are red and blue alternately, with 
hilt and tip gilded. Spade have their mountings in gold and a silver blade 
(Lazari, Notizie delle opera d'arle e d'anlichita della Raccolta Correr, p. 272. 
Venezia, 1859). Cicognara (Memorie spetlanti alia St. della calcografia, 
p. iSg. Prato, i83i) thinks these are the cards referred to in the decree 
of the Senate of October 11, i44i. 




Pl\yin(; (Jaiids. (Mlseo Civicoj 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS By 

illustrious head of the State, Andrea Dandolo, involved 
in an illicit love affair. For Ascension tide of iS/iy 
there came to Venice Isabella Fieschi, wife of Luchino 
Visconti, a very beautiful woman, with all the gifts of 
body and mind save modesty. The Doge was caught 
by the charms of this light lady, and throwing to the 
winds the duties of his high office he embarked on a 
scandalous intrigue with the Visconti, as is reported by 
historians. 1 Isabella, it is true, Avas not a Venetian, but 
Venetian Avomen themselves enjoyed no good repute, 
and even at this date their facile manners gave food for 
pungent satire. An anonymous poet,^ running over 
the list of Avomen Avho " fan fallo," dedicates to Venice 
the following mordant verses : 

De le done de Veniexia 
dir ve voio zertamenle ; 
lor mariti non aprexia 
una paja veramente ; 

anzl vanno arditamente 
e po' i porta loro in mano, 
con preti e con mondano 
ogni dl va a far raxone. 

El conven pur che raxone 
de le done die fan fallo 
come san metier in ballo 
lor mariti per raxone. 

The poet, however, has the same to say of the Paduans, 
Trevisans, Vicentines, and Veronese. 

1 Azario, Chr. (Rer. It. Script., Vol. XVI, col. SaS). Corio, St. di 
Milano, P. Ill, Gap. IV. Historians say it was the Doge Francesco Dan- 
dolo who had this intrigue with Isabella Visconti. But Francesco Dandolo 
was Doge from 1828 to iSSg, while Isabella did not come to Venice till 
1347, when Andrea Dandolo was on the throne. 

2 Gasini, Rime inedite dei sec. XIII e XIV (in II Propugnatore, Vol, XV, 
P. II, p. .347, 1882). 



58 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

More vulgarly offensive is Sercambi, who at llie close 
of the fourtecntli century pretends to divert with his 
stories a company of Tuscans Avho had fled from the 
plague. He mocks and jeers at the cities of Italy, but 
chiefly at Venice, pia cVinganni plena che iVamore ; and 
speaking of light women he says serventi all omo al 
modo di Vinegia, dove sono piiillosto vaghe della carne 
che del paneA The farther we come down in the fif- 
teenth century, the blacker grows the picture of Venetian 
manners. The great and Avealthy city had now become 
a sink of iniquity, if we are to believe the savage 
invectives of certain authors, Avhich give a peculiar 
stamp to this restless period of humanistic culture. 
Poggio Bracciolini, for instance, one of the most 
turbulent of these spirits, alludes, in one of his ob- 
scene Facetiae,"^ to the infidelity of Venetian women. 
But among the many violent attacks on Venetian cor- 
ruption let us take a very singular one. The author, 
under the name of Plinias Veronensis, writes to his 
friend Ovidio Nasone on this subject, and describes the 
visit paid to Venice by the noble Veronese family of 
Nogarola (i438-i4/io). He attacks the loose life of 
Antonio Nogarola and his sisters Bartolomea and Isotta, 
— the same Isotta so lauded by contemporary men 
of letters, but accused by an anonymous author of 
Sapphic vices, — vices of which we, at all events, find 
not the smallest trace in the female life of the lagoons. 
Let us hear the violent indictment: " Existimabam 
antea in hac regia urbe, que tamquam sentina quedam 
omnium divitiarum et opum merito vocari posset, in- 
genuos esse mulierum animos, qui vel nullo pretio ad 

^ Sercambi, Novelle inedit., taken from the Codex Trivulzianus CXCM, 
ed. Renier. Nov. 75, 90 (De malilia muUeris adultera). Torino, 1889. 
2 Poggii, Opera Facetiae, p. 483. Basileae, i538. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS Bg 

stupram possent aut ad adulterium adduci, vel si ad- 
ducerentur non nisi nobiles et prestantissimo quosque 
deligerent iuvenes : in quo ad modum sane me fefellit 
opinio. Nam earum magna pars adeo proclive in 
Venerem se prone prosternunt, et unum quemque 
scurram amplectantur seque submittant iuvenibus 
humili de plebe creatis mirabile et inauditum fere 
apparet, ' si tibi contigerit capitis matrona pudici.' ^ 
Antiquum et vetus est alienum concutere lectum et 
sacri genium conterrere fulcri. Has rapuit sedes Papho 
Cytarea relicta. Ex mullis satyris et nonnullis etiam 
scriptoribus rerum preteritarum accepimus, cum Ro- 
mana civitas longe pacis mala pateretur, numquam in 
muliebri sexu hoc tam detextabile fuisse inventum, ut 
mulier super mulierem palpitaret. Nunc Vedia iam 
lamhit Cluviam, iam Flora Catullam ; preterea sanctum 
nihil est ab inguine tutum. Et nempe si ego, cui hec 
preclarissima civitas antea fuerat incognita, exaustis 
ferme omnium pecuniis et in reipublice non parva 
iactura talia longe a mestitia et reipublice dolore ab- 
horrentia conspicio, facile ex hoc auguror coniectura : 
quid fieret, si imprescntiarum ita floreret, quemad- 
modum audio jam floruisse ? sic Venerem exorant 
humiles natumque suum. Yicta iacet patrie pietas 
omnisque pudor. Vidi, vidi multotiens gladiatorem 
quemdam et filios etiam cuiusdam parasiti, vidi aliquos 
scribas, lenonumque pueros, multosque alios, qui omnes 
precario questum faciunt, aut etiam tales, quales ex 
umili summa ad fastigia rerum extollit quotiens voluit 
fortuna iocari, solere multarum mulierum in se con- 
vertere oculos " 2 : exaggerations, no doubt, as is always 

1 Juvenal, Sat. VI, V, Itg. 

2 Segarizzi, Niccolb Barbo Patr. Yen. del Secolo XV e le accuse contra 
IsoUa Nogaivla. (Extract from the Ciormle Slor. della Let. It. Torino, 
1904.) 



6o VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

the case in these violent partisan attacks, but still not 
all calumny ; for in Venetian society there was already 
the trail of perverted passions and abuse of the senses. 
True, the other cities of Italy were no better, and 
Petrarch declares that ' ' il lenocinio liberamente passeg- 
giava, e offesa gemava in ogni canto la pudicizia, cal- 
pestata la verecondia, cacciato in bando il pudore." 
Giovanni Boccaccio shocks the Jew Abraham by re- 
counting the vices of Rome, and laments that Egyptian 
effeminacy has invaded the peninsula, con disfacimento 
of all Italy. The avarice of the priests, according to 
Dante, kept the Avorld in poverty ; Sacchetti says that 
nei chierici ogni vizio dicupidita regnava ; Santa Caterina 
of Siena calls the clergy of her day ribaldi e haratlieri, 
che furavano il sangue di Cristo. We must observe, 
however, that until the Renaissance radically changed 
the character of society, virtues and vices in Venice were 
more sharply defmcd and contrasted. The violence of 
the emotions and appetites Avould not admit those hypo- 
critical palliations and opportunist concessions which 
pleased a later and more refined age. Love and lust, 
contempt for this world's goods and boundless greed, 
dignity and abjectness, stood in sharp contrast to each 
other throughout the middle ages, and it seemed as if 
men rejoiced in violent passage from the purest heights 
to the depths of blackness. Yet notwithstanding the 
corruption which was undermining the ideals of life, 
Venice still preserved for many years the vigour of her 
public and private virtues, and was active in the develop- 
ment of her colonies and her commerce, courageous in 
war, prudent in her legislation, industrious in the accu- 
mulation of wealth. 



^' •«*,•; ;^, 



CHAPTER XI 
THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 

IN the early years of Venetian history we find the 
most dehcate artistic workmanship appHed to the 
adornment of the churches, the only buildings at 
that time constructed with splendour and magnificence. 
The refugees from the Roman municipia of the main- 
land brought to their lagoon homes the traditions of 
classical art, and on these Roman traditions were grad- 
ually grafted elements native to Venice itself or im- 
ported from the artistic Avork of the barbarians. For 
if it is true that classical traditions transformed much 
of this barbaric work, still it cannot be denied that cer- 
tain characteristics of the Gothic, Lombard and Prankish 
style assumed a permanent place in the art products 
of the West. Gothic art Avas both rich and varied ; 
and the objects found in Gothic tombs, jewels and 
ornaments, of which some specimens may be seen in 
the Museum of Cividale, are characterised by a sin- 
gular caprice of form. Lombard work is less distin- 
guished but more delicate, owing to its closer contact 
with the conquered Italian races ; Theodolinda's treas- 
ury, preserved at Monza, is a proof. Exquisitely grace- 
ful and in certain respects masterly is the work of the 
Carolingian period. ^ Roman art undoubtedly had a 
profound effect upon the barbarians, but they adopted 
the principles and the methods of that art to suit 

1 Venturi, Storia deW arte, etc., Vol. II, pp. io6, i34, lyO. ^--jq r**^ 

n\ 



sf 






62 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

themselves and applied them to their own native de- 
signs, which were well known to the Venetians, thanks 
to their frequent relations, both political and commercial, 
with the conquerors of the mainland. But high above 
both barbaric art, which was assimilating to itself so 
much of Latin art, and classical Roman art, which was 
in rapid decline and growing daily ruder, shone out 
the art of Byzantium, whose home was chiefly in 
Ravenna and in the islands of the Venetian lagoon. 
Greek masters came to Ileraclea, Equilio, Torcello, 
Malamocco, Rialto, and taught the Venetians the style 
and the methods of the most refmed artistic workman- 
ship. A document of the highest value for the history 
of these artistic industries which were either native 
to the lagoon or were imported and flourished there, 
is the deed of gift executed by the Patriarch Fortu- 
natus (808-826) in favour of his church of Grado.i 
There we read of silver railings for the high altar, of 
ciboria, gold and silver statues, slufTs woven with gold 
thread, wrought in foliage and arabesques, with pearl 
stars, sparkling with rubies and sown with diamonds ; 
purple hangings embroidered with the story of the 
Epiphany ; fine linen cloths with inwoven scenes from 
Bible story ; lamps in the form of crowns ; silver can- 
delabra in the form of a grille ; gilded vases ; great 
golden censers. The same document also says that 
for the restoration of the baptistry of Grado Fortu- 
natus, who was a leader of the Francophil party, 
summoned, possibly with a political intent, magislros 
de Francia, and that to France he had sent one of his 

^ Ughelli, halia Sacra, Vol. V, p. iioi. See also the will of Giusti- 
oiano Partecipazio (829), in which mention is made of ornaments in gold, 
bronze and pearls for the church of San Zaccaria. Cod. Dip. Padovano dal 
sec. VI aW XI {Atli delta Depulazione Venela di Stoiia Pallia). 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 63 

precious chalices to be altered and adorned. Here, then, 
we find appearing in the lagoon, side by side with the 
Greeks, the masters and the artistic style of other 
nations. All the same in the genesis of Venetian art 
the chief place belongs to the East, though we must 
admit that Venice knew how to draw inspiration 
from other quarters as well. The architects of the 
primitive churches were Byzantine ; Byzantine the ar- 
tificers who adorned the walls and vaults Avith mosaic ; 
Byzantine in character the leading arts, such as that 
of ivory carving, which flourished in the East and was 
quickly imported into Venice. The episcopal throne 
at Grado was adorned Avith carved ivories like the 
sellae ciirules of the ancients ; this throne came from 
Alexandria, and tradition says it Avas the gift of the 
Emperor Heraclius to the church of Grado. ^ The 
so-called throne of Maximianus, probably of the fifth 
century, 2 is also Byzantine ; it is preserved in the 
sacristy of the duomo at Ravenna. Tradition has it 
that the Doge Pietro Orseolo II sent it as a present 
to the Emperor Otho IIP in return for duo imperialia 
ornamenla auro miro opere acta. All that is certain 
is that John the Deacon, in December, looi, on the 
orders of the Doge, took to Ravenna a throne made of 
ivory plaques — cathedra elephantinis artificiose sculpta 
tabulis — carved in relief; but it is not proved that this 
is the throne of Maximianus. 

1 Venturi, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 467. Prof. Laudedeo Testi, in his Osser- 
va:. crit. suUa St. dell' Arte del Venturi {Arch. Stor. ltd., Disp. I of 190a) 
has proved, by a passage from Giovanni Candido, printed ia iSai, that 
the throne was still at Grado in that year. " Calhedram qua Alexandriae 
Marcus Evangelista praesederet vidimus in Sacrario Gradensi laceram ebore 
consertam." Candido, Commentari Aquileiensi, iSai, Lib, III, p. i3. 

^ Venturi, op. cit., p. 408. 

^ Ricci, Ravenna, p. 69. Bergamo, 1902. 



64 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

The Greeks taught the Venetians the art of organ- 
building, as we know from the case of Priest Giorgio, 
a Venetian who in 826 made the organ for Aix-la- 
Chapelle ; but, on the other hand, the twelve bells sent 
by the Doge Orso Partecipazio, in 864, as a present to 
the Emperor Basil appear to have been something new 
in Constantinople, and the chroniclers assure us that it 
was then that the Greeks first learned the use of bells. ^ 
Even the arts inherited from Rome Avere vitalised by the 
master craftsmen of the East. That commonest of all 
mosaics called terrazzo, which was used for the floors 
of Venetian houses from the very first, was adapted 
from Rome. It was made of chips of marble of various 
colours, held together by a paste made of lime and 
pounded bricks, well beaten down and then smoothed 
by the action of the grindstone ; but in order to make 
these mosaics more beautiful for the floors of churches, 
Greek masters were sent for, even as early as the sixth 
century. These masters set out the little cubes of 
stone following the outlines and details of figures (opus 
vermiculaluni) or geometrical designs {opus tesselatum). 
The pavement of the church of Grado dates from the 
sixth century and is an instance of the opus vermicu- 
lalum ; the design is graceful and the names of the 
donors are introduced ; the stones employed are white, 
black, red, and yellow. The floor of Torcello belongs 
to the seventh century ; it is executed in carefully 
chosen marbles ; the design is in circles or wheels, and 
so much was it admired that the Cronaca Altinate de- 
clares that it gave its name della Roda to the village near 
it. The floor of the abbey church of Sant' Ilario e Bene- 
detto belongs to the ninth century ; its design is copied 

1 Muratori, Ann., T. V, p. 67. Lucca, MDCCLXIII. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 65 

from the pavements of ancient Roman villas and early 
Christian churches.^ 

Roman tradition and Byzantine teaching are also 
found united in giving rise to that most beautiful of all 
the Venetian artistic industries, glass-work. The art 
must have existed in Venice from the earliest times, for 
excavations have laid bare fragments of coloured glass 
and marrine, while the important objects in glass pre- 
served in the museums of Aquileia, Cividale, Udine, and 
Portogruaro would lead us to suppose that a glass-factory 
was not far off. When Constantine summoned the mas- 
ters of the art to his capital, they went in such numbers 
that one of the gates of the city was named the gate 
della Vetreria, and the art died out almost entirely in 
the West. After the fall of the Empire it continued 
to flourish in Alexandria and in some cities of Syria, 
Greece, and above all at Constantinople, Avhere they 
worked in mosaics, coloured glass, and enamel. 

Along with the pavement mosaicists {mosaicisti per 
terrain),'^ who worked at Grado, Torcello, and Sant' 
Ilario, there came also the workers in figure mosaics 
for walls and vaults, — a decoration that was appreciated 
though rarely employed in edifices of the pagan period, 
though it received more honour in early Christian art. 
Without mentioning Rome or Constantinople we may 
recall the splendid examples of this art in the fifth cen- 
tury mosaics of the archiepiscopal chapel, the baptistry 
of the Orthodox, and the mausoleum of Galla Placidia 
at Ravenna, the city that exercised the strongest artistic 
influence on Venice. The material employed in Byzan- 
tine mosaic is, for the most part, cubes of gold enamel or 

' Cattaneo, L'architettura in Italia dal sec. VI al Mille c, pp. 69 and 236. 
Venezia, MDCCCLXXXIX. 

2 Pasini, Guide de la Basilique St. Marc, p. 6. Schio, i883. 

VOL. II — 5 



66 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

of coloured glass, various in shape and never smoothed. 
As the art of mosaic is so closely allied to the glass- 
worker's craft, we may well believe that the Byzantine 
master^ mosaicists helped the Venetians to perfect them- 
selves in the making of glass,- — an art not entirely lost 
among the refugees of the lagoons,^ at least as far as 
common objects were concerned. 

The origin of the Venetian glass industry is, beyond 
doubt, obscure. The first notice of it that we have is in 
a document of 1090, where we find mention of a cer- 
tain Pelrus Flabianus phiolarius ^ and in the by-laws of 
the glass-blowers' guild (Jioleri), dated April 4, 1271.^ 
The industry, how^ever, was already flourishing and 
placed under the direction of the Giustizieri by the 
beginning of the thirteenth century.*^ It is highly 
probable that the guild was even older than this date, 
and that in its early life it was governed by oral tradi- 
tions, as was the case with the guild of smiths in the 
eleventh century." 

The art of glass-making, in common with all the more 
artistic industries of Venice, received a remarkable im- 
pulse from the capture of Constantinople (120A). The 
fame of the artists, both Byzantine and native, Avho 
worked in Venice and were known by the common name 

1 Magister musilei, — such is the name given to a certain Marco la- 
driomeni, a Greek, in ii53. Gecchetti, Monografia della Velr. Ven. e 
Muranese, p. 7. Venezia, 1874. 

^ Turgan, Les grandcs usines Verreries de Murano. Paris, 1870. 

8 Bussolin, Guida alle fabbr. Vetrarie dl Murano. Venezia, i843. 
Laljarte, Hist, dcs arts industriels. Vol. Ill, p. 878. Paris, 1876. Ger- 
spach, L'art de la verrerie, p. J18. Paris, 1892. 

* Ducale di Vitale Faliero del 1090, quoted by Gecchetti, loc. cit. 

* Preserved at the Arch, di Slato and illustrated by Monticolo, L'arte 
del fioleri a Venezia {N novo Arch. Veneto, T. I, p. i37). 

'' Liber Plegiorum, Reg. ed. Predelli, n. l49- 
^ Monticolo, loc. cit., p. i38. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 67 

of mosaicistl di Venezia, was certainly widespread, for at 
the beginning of the thirteenth century we find a certain 
Florentine, Andrea Tafi by name, who came to the 
lagoons to learn the business. This Tafi, partly by 
bribes and partly by promises, carried off to Florence 
the Greek Apollonio, master-workman at San Marco. 
The Chronicler, Martino da Canal, in 1268, speaking 
of the procession of the craft guilds, makes mention 
of the glass-workers con scarlatli e freg'i cVoro e ricche 
ghirlande di perle e guastade ed oricanni ed altreltali 
vetrami gentill} 

As early as 1278 the larger part of the glass-workers 
were settled in Murano under the protection of San 
Dona to. But there must have been a considerable 
number of glass-blowers in Venice itself, for a decree 
of the Consiglio Maggiore, dated JXovember 8, 1291, 
with a view to freeing the city from all industries Avhich 
were either a nuisance or unhealthy,^ ordered the re- 
moval of the glass-furnaces at Castello to ]Murano, 
though in the following year leave was granted to 
make a certain kind of glass {veriselli) in Venice, but 
only in small furnaces which must be five paces away 
from any inhabited building.^ 

The by-laws of the bottle-blowers, dated 127 1, which 
with additions come doAA-n to November 19, i3ii, and 
are called the mariegola of the art after the middle of 
the fifteenth century, were Avritten in the dialect, and 
contain but few technical rules. The guild, which 
paid customs to the Doge, was composed of OAvners, 
master-Avorkmen and apprentices {discipuli).'^ The 

^ Da Canal, Cron., cit., p. 626. 

2 Tanners were obliged to live on the Giudecca. 

* Arch, di Stato, M. C, Pilosus, foil. i5 B, 22 A. 

* Monticolo, loc. cit., p. 157. 



68 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

trade regulations prescribe the number of the furnaces 
(fornace el forncllo qui Juiheal Ires bocas), necessary to 
secure a pure and flawless glass ; the wood employed 
for the furnaces must be either elm or willow (cum lignis 
de honario el I'ujnis de sulicis) ; the shape and number 
of bottles to be made ; each bottle is to have a blue 
band round the top Avith the government mark (circulo 
lacuro cum bulla comunis) ; the material to be employed 
in making the glass, and so on.i The Republic favoured 
and protected the growth of the glass-industry, and the 
Murano workman who left the State Avas treated as a 
traitor ; it AA-as also strictly forbidden to carry out of the 
country either raAV material or tools employed in the 
manufacture of glass. The glass-Avorkers of Murano 
enjoyed the rank of cilladlni originari, and the sons of 
a Venetian joatrician Avho had Avedded the daughter of a 
glass-bead maker, did not forfeit their right to a scat in 
the Great Council, but after going through the ordinary 
proof before the Avogadori, Avcre inscribed in the Libro 
d'oro just as though they had been the offspring of a 
noble marriage.^ 

The circulo lacuro Avith Avhich bottles were marked 
is the earliest germ of coloured glass, Avhich Avas sub- 
sequently produced, from 1817 to i33o, by a certain 
Giovanni fioler of Murano, melior in dicta arte, aliquo 
alio. This coloured glass AA'as used for windoAvs ; and 
in i3i8 the factories of Murano recei\'ed a commission 
to supply the stained glass AvindoAvs for Assisi ; in i335 
Master Marco, glass-painter, decorated the AvindoAvs of 
a chapel in the Frari ; in i/ioo the Duke of Milan sum- 
moned Tomasin Axandri, a Venetian, to paint the Avin- 
dows in the Duomo ; in i4o/i another Venetian, named 

^ Capilulare de Fiolariis, loc. cit., p. 817, n. 5, 7, 36, 38. 
^ See Decree of December 22, 1876. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 69 

Niccolo, also went Avith his son to Milan to Avork in the 
Duomo.^ 

The trade of making riiUi, those little roundels of 
glass for windows, was of great antiquity ; and, if we 
are to believe some Avriters, between i365 and 1869 
capital letters in glass had been invented by a certain 
Natale, a Venetian not to be confounded with Pietro de 
rSatali, Bishop of Jesolo." We know for certain that 
in the thirteenth century spectacles (vitrei ab oculis ad 
legendum), an invention due to the Florentine Sal vino 
degli Armati, dating from the year 1286, began to be 
manufactured in Venice ; they were made of rock crys- 
tal or yellow quartz and Avere imitated in glass, and 
from this imitation of quartz in glass came the great 
business of the bead-makers, per /at or conierie,^ started, 
perhaps, about the beginning of the Quattrocento, for 
criticism has destroyed the legend of Domenico Miotti 
and Cristoforo Briani, Avho it was said, on the sug- 
gestion of Marco Polo, founded the celebrated industry 
of making beads, Avhich were employed in trading with 
all savage races along the Asiatic and African coasts and 
frequently had the value of coin. The perlaio, or bead- 
maker, a ferrazza e a spiedo, took the long tubes of 
glass, cut them into short fragments, ran a fine iron 
wire (spiedo) through them, and Avorked them over the 
fire till they came out rounded like pearls (mar^/AenVe). 

We do not knoAv Avho Avas the inventor of those 
famous mirrors of stainless glass AA^hich Avent to adorn 
the halls of princes and from France to Persia 

^ Gecchetti, Monogvajia, cit., pp. lo, i3. 

- Cicogna, her., Vol. YI, p. gSG. 

* The "word conterie signifies every kind of cylindrical bead made in 
Venice. Margheriles mean the round beads which are manufactured from 
hollow tubes of glass ; the word comes from the Greek fiapyapiTT]^ — pearl, 
gem. 



70 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

rendered famous the little island of Murano. Docu- 
ments of the thirteenth century frequently contain the 
AA^ord speghrius ; in 1817 there is record of a German 
master-Avorkman at Murano qai vitrum a speculis labo- 
rare sciehat. But the German A>'ent back to his OAAn 
place, leaA'ing his partners in Murano AAitli more alum 
than mirrors, and for a long time to come looking- 
glasses yvevQ still made of steel. In the mariegola dei 
Marzeri, belonging to the scATntcenth century, aa'C fmd 
a notice of a certain Yincenzo Redor, avIio came from 
Germany in 1/120, as i/iventor et fondator di specchi 
cristallini ; but this statement lacks documentary sup- 
port. Not that AA^e exclude the probable presence of 
German AAorkmen at Murano, but German glass-AAorkers 
and their AAork cannot liaA^e been held in much account 
in Germany itself if it be true that the Emperor Frederic 
III, A'isiting Venice in i452, and receiving the present 
of a magnificent serAace of Murano glass, ordered his 
buffoon to upset the table on AAdiich it stood, remarking 
that had the service been of gold, it Avould not have 
been so easily broken. On his return more solid, and 
to his taste more agreeable, gifts Avere offered him. 

The Museo Civico of Venice contains a fine speci- 
men of mediaeval Murano glass-Avork in the precious 
Avedding goblet of blue glass covered Avith coloured 
enamel and gold, aaIiosc date is about 1^4^40. Within 
a gold border enclosed by tAA'o bands of golden ara- 
besques are tAA-^o portrait medallions, of a maid and 
of a youth. On either side are groups, one shoAving 
six Avomen galloping towards a fountain, the other 
the fountain itself, Avith four naked Avomen bathing 
in it, Avhile tAvo others stand on the brink. Lazari 
thinks that this is the Avork of Angelo BeroA'iero of 

^ Cecchetti, Monograjia, p. 11. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 71 

Murano, the most exquisite artist in a family of famous 
artificers which begins with an Antonio /)/ito/arm5, work- 
ing at Murano in the thirteenth century.^ Of Angelo 
we have records in l^2^, and his contemporaries are 
profuse in their praise both of Angelo and of his sons 
as incomparable makers of goblets and vases of blue, 
milky white, chalcedony, and turquoise glass, adorned 
with gold reliefs, graffiti, enamelled figures, etc. After 
the death of their father and brothers the business was 
carried on at the sign of the " Angiolo " by Giovanni 
and Maria Beroviero, with whom resided the secret of 
enamelled glass. The secret of the method was stolen 
by a servant of Maria, called Giorgio, most likely a 
native of Spalato, nicknamed ballarin from a defect in 
his legs which gave him a mincing gait ; the sobriquet 
descended to his family. 2 Giorgio opened a furnace, 
acquired fame and riches, and died leaving several sons 
who carried on the art with great success. ^ 

Among the artistic industries of Venice least affected 
by Byzantine influence was the potter's art, which 
OAved more to Roman tradition. Excavations in the 
estuary have brought to light Roman amphorae of terra 
cotta, long and thin in form ; vases Avith elegant handles ; 
lamps in the shape of triangular shields, or open, Avith 

1 Lazari, Notilia, etc., p. 96. A beautiful enamelled glass plate in the 
Museum at Trent is also attributed to Beroviero. The Museo IVazionale 
at Florence has another blue glass goblet of Murano work. It is the 
property of the Societa Colombaria fiorentina. It has a double border of 
enamel round the lip and round the stem, -which is fluted and relieved in 
gold. The bowl represents the triumph of Justice. On a car drawn by 
two wild beasts sits a woman under a baldachino, with sword and scales. 
She is surrounded by a train of women, two of whom have the emblems 
of Charily and Strength. She is preceded by other Avomen representing 
Arithmetic, Temperance, Abundance. 

2 Cicogna, her., Vol. \I, p. 468. 

8 Levi, C. A., L'arte del Vctro in Murano e i Berroviero. Venezia, iSgS. 



72 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

the burner llirust out and llltle ears pierced so as to 
allow tlicm to be hung up. Pottery never ceased to be 
made in the lagoons, and about the eleventh century 
the potters began to apply a red or yellow glaze to their 
earthenware. 1 ihcy covered the unbaked pots with a 
fine coating of Vicenza clay, and immersed them in 
a bath of tartar and sand from the Lago di San Gio- 
vanni, called terra ghella^ The shape of the pots, and 
their decoration with leaves in graffito or in paint, on 
the inside only, the outside being left in the rough, 
clearly show Arab or Moorish influence. Various laws 
of the fourteenth century prove that the guild of the 
pollers (sculellariorum de pelra), whose statutes bear the 
date i3oo, was already flourishing in Venice, and there 
is record of a donna Francesca scudelera, who at the 
time of the war of Ghioggia oflered to her country one 
thousand ducats.^ After the middle of the fourteenth 
century the scodellai took the name of bocaleri, jug- 
makers, and formed a confraternity under the protec- 
tion of San Michele. 

When, about 1/1/42,'* Luca della Robbia discovered the 
way to glaze the surface of works of plastic art, the 
industry soon began to flourish in Venice. Between 
i45o and 1470 the vault of one of the chapels of San 
Giobbe was covered with terra cotta, most probably 
glazed by Florentine workmen ; and about the same 
date and probably by workmen from Faenza, the 

^ Piccolpasso, Cipriano, 7 tre Ubri dell' arte del vasaio; ed. di Pesaro, 
1879. 

■-' Ibid., ibid. 

8 Urbani de Gheltof, Sludi intorno alia ctramica Veneziana. Venezia, 
1876. 

* At Perelola as earl^ as iA-^i2 we find the background of the Christ 
and part of the architecture painted and glazed by Luca; and in 1^43 the 
lunette with the resurrection over the door of the new sacristy. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 78 

pavement of the sacristy of Sant' Elena, of which no 
trace is now left, Avas laid in square tiles, each of Avhich 
bore an eagle in blue on a white ground with the Avord 
" lustiniani." ^ 

Porcelain, shoAA-n to the Venetians for the first time by 
Marco Polo on his return from his voyages, AA'as not made 
in Venice earlier than the fifteenth century. It became 
the fashion after Sultan Abulfer Hamer, in 1/461, sent 
the folloAving presents to the Doge Pasquale Malipicro : 
" Benzoi rotoli 3o ; legno aloe rotoli 20; due paia 
tappeti ; una ampolletta di balsamo ; teriaca bossoletti 
1 5 ; zuccheri moccari pani l^i ; zuccheri canditi scattole 
5; Zibetto, un cornetto; porcellane pczzi 20, cioe 7 
piattine, 5 scudelle, 4 grande et una piccola, jiiattine 5 
grande, 3 scudelle una biaua et 2 bianche."^ Porce- 
lain, which used to be so rare among the Venetians as 
to be considered a gift fit for princes, soon began to be 
made in Venice, if we can trust a letter of 1/170, Avhich 
speaks of a maestro Antonio archimista, aaIio had opened 
a furnace at San Simcone, Avhere he -p^^oduced porcelane 
trasparenti et vaghissime, die pareno venuti da barbaria 
etforse megliori} 

Contact Avith the Orient kept alive that keen sense of 
colour Avhich Avas one of the peculiar gifts of the \ene- 
tians. It Avas from the East that the Venetians brought 
their stuffs and silks of vivid dyes. The account given 
by the monk of San Gall is Avell knoAvn ; he says that 
the courtiers of Charlemagne in 876 bought from Vene- 
tians in Pavia robes adorned Avith peacock's feathers, 
sashes of purple, cloths and silks of every hue. 

1 Lazari, Nolizia, p. 77. 

2 Sanudo, Vite dei Dorji (Rer. It. Scr^ipt., Vol. XXII, pp. I169-1170). 

3 It is a letter of a certain Padre Lielmo da Bologna, published by 
Urbani in the Bolleilino d'Arli, etc., An. I, 1877, p. 81. The source of 
the document is not given. 



74 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Charlemagne himself, though of austere and simple 
hahils, yet loved to wear a Venetian tunic, so say the 
Prankish writers ; and a fragment of a law enacted by 
Doge Otto Orseolo (1009), inserted in the Chronicle 
of John the Deacon, tells us that the Doge and his 
assessors held a public inquiry as to the markets where 
Venetian traders sold the valuable pallii, webs of silk 
manufactured in Venice. ^ 

We find no trace of the cultivation of silk at this 
date among the Venetians, and the raw material must 
have been brought from Spain, Sicily, the Abruzzi, and 
Dalmatia.^ As early as the twelfth century the looms 
of Venice produced the cloth-of-gold and of silver, and 
the crimson damask, which during the middle ages used 
to adorn the Avails of palaces and castles throughout 
Europe. Nor had Venetian artificers to go far afield to 
find specimens of the liandiAvork of the more indus- 
trious foreign nations. Ravenna was a meeting-place 

^ " Inquisicio facta est de pallie que portabant per loca Italie veni ego 
Otto dux in publico placito cum maiores indices nostrae terrae, mediocres 
ct niinores teslificaverunt Badovario Bragadino et Mauricius Maurreceni et 
Dominicus Florcncius Flabianicus, quod in nullis pnrtibus Italiae debuis- 
scnt pallia portare vel venundare, nisi a Papia et a Mercato Sancti Martini 
{de Strada) et Olive (Olivolo)." Cron. del diac. Giovanni, p. 178. 

2 Farlati, lUyricum sacrum. Vol. V, p. 226 (Episcopi arbenscs). Under 
Madias sive Afaius et Arbcni, we find the following: "In nomine Domini 
Dei, ct Salvatoris nostri Jcsu Ghristi, anno ab incarnatione eiusdcm 1018, 
mensc Julio, indict, prima, in civitate Arben. Spondentes spondemus, 
promittentes promitlimus nos quidcm Maius Episcopus diclae civilatis 
Arbcn. simul cum Tribuno . . . Bellala Priore nostro, una pariler cum 
Clero ct populo, habilante in civitate supradicta, cum successoribus, sen 
ha^rediluis noslris, vobis D. Othoni seniori noslro Duci Venctorum et 
Dalmaticorum, et successoribus vestris tributum dare omni anno, libras 
de seta serica decern." In a letter of Alaj i4, 1280, written by Grcgorio 
Dolce, a jurisconsult residing in Venice, we hear of a parcel de seta de locis 
Torcelli sold to the merchant Alberto di Manfredi. Urbani do Gheltof, 
Les Arts ind. a Venise, p. i3^. Yenise, i885. But we cannot be sure of 
the authenticity of this last document. 




St\kd\rd or ponnant of Sa. Fosca (i366). 
(Miisco tli Torccllo) 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 75 

for "workmen of all countries. For example, as a speci- 
men of Carolingian loom-work, we still have those 
marvellous three stripes of embroidery, belonging to 
the first half of the ninth century and known as the 
Velo di Classe, because they came from the convent of 
Classe, and also the delicate Avork of the casula of 
Giovanni Angeloptcs Avliich dates from the tenth cen- 
tury. ^ The mariegola of the Scuola di San Teodoro 
alludes to a Venetian embroidery of 1009, and to an 
altar cloth of crimson taffeta with three embroidered 
figures; of the same nature, too, must have been that 
piece of embroidery in quo est virginis Marie mortem 
designatam, which Enrico Morosini left to the monks 
of San Salvatore in 1206 ; ^ also the pani Theotonici 
made for the church of San Francesco in Treviso by 
Marco, a painter living in Venice, — stuffs that find a 
place in the famous inventory of the notary Forzetta. 
This embroidered or Avoven Avork, of Avhich we have a 
magnificent example in the standard or banner of 
Santa Fosca at Torcello (i366), AA^as knoAA^n as pictus, 
either, as Muratori observes, because it may be said to 
have been painted AA'ith the needle, pic t as acu, or in 
reference to the cartoon of the designer Avhich it closely 
followed. The high pitch of excellence achieved by 
the art of Aveaving or embroidering is illustrated by the 
handsome piece of embroidered silk executed in the 
fifteenth century and until lately preserved in the church 
of Sant' Alvise, Avhence it passed to foreign hands ; it is 
thus described by Boschini : ' ' Apparamento fatto tutto 
di Ponto o ricamo di seta, oro e perle, et ivi si vede tutta 

' CipoUa, II Vclo di Classe (in the Gallcrie i\az. Ital., Vol. Ill, pp. igS- 
2^9. Roma, 1897). Venturi, La Casula di Giovanni Angeloptes, same 
work and vol., p. 258. 

^ Urban! di Gheltof, Degli arazzi in Venezia, p. 63. Venezia, 1878. 



76 VEMGE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

la Passione di Grislo : opera veramente singolare et rara 
Pitlura, fatta con I'ago dalle monaclie di quel monas- 
terio." 1 There is also the tradition of an ancient inven- 
tory of precious objects and rich stuffs, given in i/i43, 
by the Bishop Tomaso Tomasini Paruta to the nuns 
of the Gorpus Domini. 2 It is said to have included 
pluviali (copes) cremesini con li fregi recamadi d'oro e 
de seda, a Santi bcllissimi ; pianede (chasubles) de pano 
de seda, of various colours, con la croxe d'oro recamada 
a Santi; gloves and socks of tadela and slippers of 
clolh-of-gold, e rocheli de tela zenlil. Among other 
precious objects we find " Pani do d'altar, uno die ha 
uno Grucefixo, in zenochion messer lo A escovo con 
I'habito di messer San Domenego con fiori e topoleti 
su per el pano el si e de tafeta de cremesin." 

The industry of silk weaving, which received a re- 
markable impulse in i3i6 from the craftsmen of Lucca 
expelled by Castruccio, who spread over Italy, France, 
Germany and England,^ always found a warm support 
from the Venetian government. With that intent the 
Maggior Consiglio and the Senate carried decrees against 
the importation of silks and velvets (February, i365), 
against the adulteration of raw material (July 20, iSga), 
against the importation of any silk stuffs not made in 
Venice (July i3, 1/410). They regulated the number 
of looms, limited to five for each weaver (January i5, 
I A 1 8). Permission to exercise the art was personal and 
not transferable (August 25, 1^22). The dyes were to 

1 Boschini, Le ricche mineve dclla Pitt. Ven., p. 456. Yenezia, 
MDCLXIV. 

2 Agoslini, Not. istor. crit. intorno la vita e le opere degli Scriltori Vene- 
ziani. Vol. I, pp. 476 et scq. Vciiczia, INIDCCLII. 

* In 1 309 the Lucchesi creeled a confraternity in Venice under the 
protection of the Vollo Santo. The oratory of the Volto Santo stood near 
the church of the Servites ; some remains of it are still to be seen. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 77 

be cremese, lana grana and verzin (July 5, i^og); pro- 
vision was taken for the quality of the work in silk, 
cloth-of-gold and cloth-of-silver (August i3, 1462).^ 

The art of tanning hides and making leather was no 
less important ; both were sold in the Levant and in 
Spain. Venice, first among Italian cities, produced, 
towards the close of the fourteenth century, stamped 
leather in imitation of the Oriental fabric. 

The treasury of San Marco still preserves some re- 
mains of the vast and splendid booty Avhich fell to the 
share of Venice on the sack of Constantinople.^ The 
goblets of gold enamel, the reliquaries dating from 
the tenth century, the bindings of various codices blaze 
like jewels and recall an age of sumptuous magnifi- 
cence. Nor was Constantinople the sole source from 
which artistic Venice enriched itself. Dalmatia, where 
Roman art had showered its treasures, more especially 
in the temple of Diocletian at Spalato, yielded many 
and beautiful objects to the lagoons. Bronzes, marbles, 
jewels, hangings, arms, all went to adorn the triumph of 
Venetian soldiery ; while admiration for these treasures 
served as a stimulus to native craftsmen and infused fresh 
vigour into the arts of the glass-worker, the mosaicist, 
the goldsmith, the metal workers, the weavers of wool 
and silk. 

But even before the conquest of Constantinople had 
opened new fields for artistic industry and introduced 
new modes of life, certain \enetian arts were already well 
established. Venetian goldsmiths' and jewellers' work 
had become so famous that in an inventory of the chapel 
of Saint-Denis in France the magnificent cross made 
for the Abbot Sugger, who died in 1162, is described 

^ Bini, I Lucchesi a Venezia. Lucca, i858. 

* Riant, Exuviae sacrae conslantinopoUtanae, Ginevra, 1877. 



78 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

as having " trente-hult grands sapliirs assis sur grands 
fermcillctz d'ora jour a quatrc demi-compas de facoii de 
venise. ' 

The trade in gems and gold ornaments, which 
Venetians brought from the East and sold in Europe, 
■was active. Jewelry of the finest and most delicate 
Avorkmanship, omnes orienlallum divitias,^ was brought 
by Venetians chiefly to the fairs at Pavia and the cities 
of Western France, such as Limoges, where, according 
to a tradition that lacks all foundation, the Doge Pietro 
Orseolo, Avhen in exile (998), is said to have introduced 
Venetian artificers to leach the craft of glass enamel- 
ling. It is, however, by no means improbable that 
certain specimens of Byzantine enamel may have been 
brought by Venetians to Limoges, and have helped to 
develop the industry for which that city became famous.^ 
Enamel was employed for the decoration of church 
plate, and in the miniatures on metal which adorned 
altars and reliquaries. The most magnificent specimen 
of this Avork during the middle ages is the Pala d'oro 
of San Marco. It was ordered in 97G at Constantinople 
by the Doge Pietro Orseolo I, and was enlarged and 
enriched with gems and modified in form, first by a 
Greek artificer in iio5 and then by Venetians between 
1209 and 1 345. It is composed of sacred figures in 
Byzantine enamel run into gold plates. Its width is 
three metres forty-eight centimetres, its height one 
metre forty centimetres. Before the fall of the re- 
public the Pala had i3oo great pearls, 4oo garnets, 

1 Pasini, Sul froniale dclV altar maggiore in San Marco di V'enezia. 
Venezia, 1881. 

2 Monaclii Sangallensis, De gestis KaroU imp., L. II, § 17 (Mon. Germ. 
Hist., Vol. II, p. 760). 

* De Verneilli, L'arch. hyzantine en France, p. iSa. Paris, i85i. 




'S. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 79 

90 amethysts, 3oo sapphires, 3oo emeralds, i5 rubies, 
75 balas rubies, 4 topazes, 2 cameos.^ 

The Pala d'oro in the parish church of Carole is also 
a striking example of Byzantine craftsmanship. It is 
composed of six squares of silver-gilt repousse Avork ; 
two belons: to the tentli and four to the twelfth cen- 
tury. Other specimens are the thirteen plaques of 
the same material and of like date -which belonged to 
the Pala of the duomo at Torcello and are now in the 
museum of that island, and the Madonna and Child, 
once in the cathedral of Torcello and now in the South 
Kensington Museum. Under such masters and with 
such models native industry made striking advances, 
till, about the close of the twelfth century, it "was able 
to produce such a Avork as the edicola, or gilded bronze 
Pax,'^ engraved with the burin in borders and figures 
in enamel, now preserved in the Museo Civico ; and, 
in 1290, the beautiful Pala of silver-gilt belonging to 
San Salvatore, composed of five horizontal compart- 
ments adorned Avith figures of saints and borders, the 
earliest work of importance produced by Venetian gold- 
smiths. 

Other important branches of the same art were 
filigree work and those fine golden chains, first of 
all called entrecosei,^ but now knoAvn as manini, or 

1 Veludo, La pala d'oro, in Paslni's II tesoro di San Marco. Venezia, 
Ongania, 1887. 

2 The Pax departs from the Byzantine style and betrays the notes of 
Italian art in its earliest stages. Lazari holds it to be a specimen of Vene- 
tian work, and assigns it to the close of the twelfth or the beginning of the 
thirteenth century on the ground of its resemblance to the earliest Venetian 
mosaics and to the primitive work of Venetian painters. But the influence 
of Byzantine art has not entirely disappeared. Lazari, Nolizia, pp. io4, 
180.' 

3 So called from their lavoro intrecciato (Mulinelli, Lessico Veneto). Gal- 
licciolli is in error in stating that they were made of spirals, not of rings. 



8o VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Venetian chain, a cliarming ornament made of tiny 
rings Avliicii a ridiculous fashion confmcd to the women 
of the people. Ancient inventories make mention of 
necklaces cum crysoliio or cum topatio or cum smaragdo 
pulcherrimo or cum lapide vetuslo el miro opere sculpture 
immissum serpenlem. In a Avill of iiaS Pietro Enzio 
leaves to his daughter unum parum de enlrecoseis aureis, 
quas ei date fiant in die despoiisacionis sue el cupam 
meam argenteam.^ Another will of 1190 speaks of 
valuahlc plate, including duas cupas de argenfo unam 
sculplam cum apostolis, aliam puram de argenfo.- Other 
documents of the eleventh to the fourteenth century 
refer to gold, gems, rings, to cupe argentee facte ad 
nielo (1090), to ancUi doro (ii3o), to coppe, nappi 
e cucchiai d argenfo (1177),^ to uno anulas aureus ad 
arma de cha Dandulo ad smaldos} Venetian goldsmiths 
seem to have been especially famous for their rings. ^ 
It is certain that after learning their art from Byzantine 
masters they received important commissions from all 
quarters; for example, Marino Nadal in I225 was 
charged by the Emperor Frederic II to make him a 
golden crown set with pearls and gems {zoia\^ The 
will of Pietro Vioni, December 10, 1264, speaks of a 
tauleri doppio (a folding board) for playing chess or 
marelle, which was wrought in crystal, jasper, silver, 
and other precious stones and pearls ; and the like 

^ Monumenta Ecclesiae Venotae Sancti Moysis, etc., p. 20. Veneliis, 
1758. 

2 Codice del Piovego, p. i58. 

3 Some of these documents have heen arranged in the series Mani- 
morte at the Archlvio di Stale, and are cited by Gecchelti in the Arcliivio 
Venelo, T. XXXVI, p. iG3. 

* See Appendix, Doc. C, Inventarii, n. VII. 

5 Melani, Svaghi arlistici femminili, p. i88. Milano, Iloepli. 

6 Arch, di State, Lib. Plegiorum, Reg. Predelli, n. 333. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 8i 

were also used to adorn saddles. Yioni further pos- 
sessed goblets of crystal con argiento e cho pietre e cho 
perle} We find the opus Venelicum frequently appear- 
ing in the inventories of churches and of shrines. In 
1296 Charles II of Naples enriched the treasury of San 
Niccolo of Bari Avith various precious objects in opus 
Venefiarum ;^ and in i3oo the Venetian ambassadors 
present the same sovereign "with a handsome set of 
silver plate. The inventory of the Holy See, com- 
piled in 1295^ under Boniface YIII, gives us urceum 
de argento de opere Veneiico ad fdum cum diversis 
imaginibus sub cristallis ; the great cross of silver re- 
pousse in the cathedral of Padua, dating from the 
thirteenth century, is also the work of artificers under 
Byzantine influence. In the Trecento we read of res et 
iocalia tarn de auro quarn de argento, of cutelli a tabula 
a manicis lefanti cum varetis de argento, of cuppe 
dargento cum pedibus inauratis cum smaldis coopertis 
ad opera francisca, of silver drinking cups ad opera 
turchesca, of piruli d'ambra da olire, and even of 
curadentes de argento.'^ In i334 a certain Master 

1 The document was published by Cecchelti in the Archivio Veneto, 
T. XXXVI, p. i63. 

2 The document in the archive of San Niccolo di Bari is dated from 
Naples [apud Casirum novum) April i5, 1296, and frequently mentions opus 
Venetiarum {Perg. Angioine, Vol. I, n. 60) : " Karolus secundus, etc. Notum- 
facimus universis presentibus pariter et futuris, quod cum ad ampliandam 
et augmentandam ecclesiam beati Nicolai de Baro etc., subscript as res 
tradendas specialiter duximus anno etc. Videlicet . . . milrias tres 
quarum una est lapidibus et pernio ad opus Venetiarum, alia est de 
samilo violeto cum pernis et alia tola alba circumdata pernis indicis. 
Item . . . vas quodam argenteum cum cohopertorio et pede et cum 
lapidibus, pernis et smallis de opere Venetiarum pro reliquiis con- 
servandis. Item . . . duo magna candelabra de cristallo munita argento 
ad opus Venetiarum." 

^ Invent, de omnibus rebus inv. in thes. Sedis Apostol. 
* See Appendix, Doc. C, Inventart, nn. I-Vlll. 

TOL. II 6 



82 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Mondino of Cremona, goldsmith in Venice, sold to 
the King of Cyprus for eight hundred ducats a clock of 
such delicate workmanship that it had cost him a large 
part of his lifetime to make it.^ The art of engrav- 
ing gems must also have been known, for the inventory 
of the notary Forzctta (i335) records certain teste in 
precious stones (cameos) along with others in bronze, 
and among the medals is mentioned a j)Oi'trait of 
the patrician Morosini. 

Byzantine influence dominated Venetian goldsmiths' 
work for many years ; it is obvious in the silver bind- 
ing for the Epistolario in the duomo of Treviso (early 
fourteenth century) and in the silver repousse reliquaries 
of the same epoch, which contain the heads of Saints 
Abdon and Sennen, the arm-bones of Saints Sergius 
and Bacchus, the feet of Saint George and of Saint 
Abdon in the cathedral at Chioggia. But Byzantine 
tradition itself was slowly beginning to feel the influ- 
ences of the North ; the two tendencies blended to- 
gether are to be seen towards the close of the twelfth 
and all down the thirteenth century in certain Vene- 
tian work, as for example in the Capitular Cross of the 
thirteenth century in the church of San Raflaele ; in 
the ostensories of silver-gilt repousse work of the 
fourteenth century ; in Sant' Eufemia on the Giudecca, 
San Luca, and Santo Stefano ; in the great cross, the 
work of Marco Benato (iSg^), above the architrave 
of the presbytery in San Marco ; in the reliquary 
(1871) containing a fragment of the Flagellation 
column in the treasury of San Marco ; in the reli- 
quary in Santo Stefano (1896) ; in another at Santi 
Ermagora and Fortunato, containing the hand of the 
Baptist. By the beginning of the fifteenth century 

^ Lazari, Noiizia. p. 180. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 83 

Venetian goldsmiths^ had groAvn more ready to admit 
the style of other schools, — the French, for example, — 
as is evident in the reliquary of San Tommaso, but more 
especially the German ; both being introduced by the 
foreign artificers who found a ready welcome in the 
lagoons. The German goldsmiths left many notable 
works of art in Venice, such as the reliquary executed 
in 1/172 for the nuns of Santa Marta by Joliann Leon 
of Cologne, recently sold to the Rothschilds of Paris ; 
another executed in 1/492 for the church of San Salva- 
dore by Conrad Herpel. As a matter of fact the Gothic 
style was better adapted for church ornaments, and 
even the celebrated family of Da Sesto ^ who Avere such 
remarkable innovators, did not abandon that form. The 
founder of the house was Giacomo Da Sesto, buried at 
Santo Stefano in ll^o^ ; he had a son, Bernardo, father 
of Lorenzo and Marco, grandfather to Bernardo, son of 
Marco. This Bernardo Avas the ablest of his family ; 
witness the splendid work at Vcnzone and Gemona.^ 
The famous workshop of the Da Sesto continued active 
for many years, and it may be that it produced the ad- 
mirable banner stand of silver gilt in Santa Maria delta 
Salute, and the canopy of silver gilt for the altar of San 
Marco, the gift of Pope Gregory XII (Angelo Gorrer) to 
the Bishop of Castello in i4o8.* 

^ The statutes of the goklsmilhs' guild, which bear the date 1263, 
wore adopted by the Comune of Brescia in 1284 (^ alentini, Gli Statuti di 
Brescia, p. 5^. Venezia, 1898). The Venetian goldsmiths were united in 
a confraternity under the protection of Sant' Antonio abate ; their altar 
and tomb were in San Giacomo di Rialto. A decree of the Maggior Con- 
siglio (March 28, i33i. Liber Spiritus) compelled them to concentrate near 
the Rialto. They were forbidden to open shops in other parts of the 
city. One of the streets at Rialto bears the name of Ruga dccjli orefici. 

2 Molinier, Venise, ses arts dccoratifs, etc., p. Ii5. Paris, 1889. 

2 Urbani de Ghcllof, Les arts ind., p. 22. 

* Lazari, Notizia, p. 181. 



84 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

At the close of the middle ages the Venetian gold- 
workers were absolutely devoted to llie German model. 
The reliquary of the Cross, preserved in the church of 
San Giovanni Evangehsta, is a notable specimen of 
early fifteenth century Avork ; so arc the two silver 
candelabra, with ogival arches, foliation, and figures, as 
well as the reliquary containing the arm of Saint 
George in the treasury of San Marco ; ^ the chalice of 
San Samuelc, and the pectoral of silver gilt and enamel 
at San Pantaleone, which church also possesses a silver 
ostensory, partly cast and partly repousse, finely 
chiselled, in the form of a hexagonal ogival lantern ; 
another ostensory at San Luca, with its cup of rock 
crystal. 2 From among the crowd of anonymous artists 
we recover the names of Vittore Assandri, Ognibene, 
Leone Sicuro, a certain Livio believed to be a Floren- 
tine, Livio d'Astore, Giacomo Filippo da Padova, author 
of a silver gilt cross studded with gems in the treasury 
of San Marco, and Master Antonello, who in 1^76 
made a cross of silver gilt and crystal for the Albanian 
Confraternity. 

The art of the goldsmith for many years went hand 
in hand with the art of the workers, the fusers and 
engravers, of other metals. Many members of the 
craft handled alternately the chisel and the gouge of 
the goldsmith, the die and the punch of the mintcr, 
the plane and the file of the founder. To say nothing 
of the sect, pitchers of chiselled bronze, which found 
their way to the North, we have specimens of still more 
beautiful work in the two vases, belonging to the 
fourteenth century, of blue enamelled bronze with shell 

^ Molinier, op. cit., p. 216. 

2 "Atlidel Cong. Eucharisticodi Venezia"(i897), Catalogo della Mostra, 
pp. XXI, XXII, LVIII. Venczia, 1898. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 85 

decoration in white, green and blue, noAV in the Museo 
Civico of Venice.^ We cannot ignore, though it has 
escaped general notice, the influence of Saracenic art on 
Venetian workers in metal. The delicate style of the 
vases and goblets chiselled by Saracenic workmen who 
received such support in Italy from Frederic II, found a 
natural home in a city of Oriental character like Venice, 
which soon became an active centre of this branch of 
the industry. The vases, 2 goblets, dishes, beakers, 
candelabra, censers Avhich issued from Venetian work- 
shops, where doubtless many Eastern hands were still 
employed, are of the most graceful form, with exqui- 
site arabesques and intarsia of delicate contour, engrav- 
ing and colour. Later on, in the sixteenth century, 
we come across the name of an Eastern master frequently 
engraved on saucers for ices and on the vases of Vene- 
tian origin, noAV preserved in the South Kensington 
Museum ; he was called Mahmud-El-Kurdi, and proba- 
bly came from the country of the Kurds, on the banks 
of the Euphrates ; he brought Avith him the traditions 
of metal work in Mesopotamia.^ But even before his 
day, during the middle ages, other Arab artificers must 
have served as masters to the Venetians, from Avhose 
shops came metal Avork in bronze and gold of exquisite 
taste Avhich blended Latin genius Avith Oriental fancy. 

Bronze-founding also made rapid advance toAvards 
perfection. The bronze gate, with intarsia of Aarious 
metals and figures of saints in grafitto, standing in the 

1 Museo Civico, Elenco degli oggetti esposti, p. i88, n. 910, 911. 

2 "Les inventaires des XIV et XV siecles en mentionnent quelques- 
uns. Ces vases sent de cuivre. On les fabriquait principalement a Venise, 
et ils passaient en Occident pour des ouvrages de Damas, c'est a dire 
d'Orient." Viollet-le-Dnc, Diet, du mobilier, 2' partie, p. iiJ8. 

* South Kensington Museum, The Art of the Saracens in Egypt, Stanley 
Lane-Poole. 



86 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

vestibule of San Marco, is the work of Venetian artifi- 
cers of the twclfUi century. It was ordered, as its 
inscription records, by Leone da Molino, Procurator 
of Saint Mark's in 1112 : Leo da Molino hoc opus fieri 
jussit. The two bronze candekdjra in San Giorgio in 
Italo-Byzantine style, belong to the thirteenth century. 
The name of the master goldsmith and founder Bcr- 
tuccio of the fourteenth century appears upon another 
door in the facade of San Marco : MCCC. Magisler 
Berlucius Aurifex me fecit. Bells Avere adorned with 
figures and inscriptions ; for example, those of San 
Pietro di Castello (iSiq), and of San Zaccaria (i333), 
cast by Jacopo and Nicola da Venczia ; the bells of 
Santa Marta, removed to the campanile of Santa Fosca, 
Avhich had figures of the Madonna and of Santa Fosca, 
the monogram of the founder, and this inscription : 

+ MCCCXLVn +IN TEMPORE. DNE. FERINE. DUODO. ABADISE. 
S. MARTE.^ 

Besides Bertuccio, Jacopo, Nicola, and Master Leo- 
nardo d'Avanzo, who in i332 cast the bronze gates of 
the Baptistry at Florence from designs by Andrea 
Pisano, we find mentioned, among founders of the 
fourteenth century working in Venice, Bonacosso, Ma- 
rino, and Giovanni teutonico. If Venetian master- 
founders Avere of such repute in the Trecento as to be 
called to Tuscany for so important a Avork as the cast- 
ing of the Baptistry door, aac need not reject Ruskin's 
conjecture that the lion on the column of the Piazzetta 
is the Avork of Venetian founders of the thirteenth 
century.^ Others, hoAvevcr, hold that the lion, Avhich 
was once gilded, came from Greece ; Avhilc others, again, 

^ Cicogna, Iscr., Vol. V, p. i5o. 

- Boni, // leone di San Marco {Arch. Slor. dell' Arte, anno V, p. 3o6. 
Roma, 189a). 




o 
o 

CO 



a 
'J 



u 

u 

H 

C3 



C 



o 

U 






C 



Q 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 87 

maintain it is Etruscan, or Assyrian, or Indian, or 
even Persian work of the epoch of the Sassanides.^ 
The art hoth of the engraver and of tlie die-sinker were 
certainly far advanced, as is proved by the coinage, for 
in 1284 the State minted the golden ducat, quite the 
most beautiful coin of its day. In i3o8 Giovanni 
Albizo, intagliatore delle stampe (die-sinker) in the mint, 
enjoyed a great reputation ; while in the reign of Antonio 
Venier (i 882-1 4oo) we find the Da Sesto family work- 
ing there. The art of the medallist Avas revived by the 
great painter Vittor Pisano, called II Pisanello, born 
about i38o at San Yigilio on the Lake of Garda. The 
influence of Bartolomeo Bellano, of Como, sculptor 
and founder, who lived at Padua in Donatello's time, 
made itself felt in Venice as well, and in the middle of 
the fourteenth century we find such excellent artificers 
in medals as Paolo da Ragusa (i45i c), Giovanni 
Boldu (1457), Guidizzani (i46o c.).^ 

Blacksmiths' work rivalled the art of the goldsmith and 
the engraver ; most delicate specimens, lamps, casquets, 
and so on, were produced in hammered iron and 
damaskeen in gold and silver. In the earliest middle 
ages the smiths were under the protection of the Doge, 
and their confraternity signalised itself in the victory 
over the Patriarch of Aquilera in 11 62, Avhich gave rise 
to the festival of Maundy Thursday. In the thirteenth 
century the craft was divided into the smiths (fabbri), 
strictly so called, and the sword-makers (spader i), to 
whom were united the corieleri, vagineri, frezeri, and 
corazzeri. The workshops of these craftsmen gave their 
name to many streets in the city.^ Armourers and 

1 Venturi, St. delV Arte, Vol. II, pp. 543, 5/14- 

2 Armand, Les medailleurs italicns des XV cl XVI sieclcs. Paris, i883. 
8 The spadai (sword-makcrs) joined the knife-makers and sheath-makers 



88 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

collections of arms were in high esteem in a city of 
such warlike character as Venice. Cross-hows of fine 
workmanship Avcre manufactured in steinhock horn ^ 
and witli a magazine that allowed them to fire eight 
consecutive shots. Such was the how made in i4ii 
hy a certain Giacomo Gaiardo and sold to the Portu- 
guese amhassador for seventy-six ducats of gold ; by a 
single pull of the trigger it launched no less than fifteen 
darts. '^ Morions and coats of mail for the common 
soldiers, and for the oflicers suits of armour of the 
usual kind, helmet, jerkin, arm-piece, gauntlets, thigh- 
piece, knee-piece, and shin-guard, such as we see in the 
statue of Giacomo Cavalli (i384) on his tomb in SS. 
Giovanni e Paolo, were all made in Venice. Helmets 
and cuirasses for tournaments, of various designs, were 
imported from abroad. As early as 1817 we have 
notice of an armoury in the Ducal Palace,^ where, among 
other weapons, were preserved the cuirass, morion, 
and steel buckler, beautifully wrought, the sword with 
its silver-gilt hilt and velvet scabbard embroidered Avith 
silver, said to have belonged to the Doge Sebastiano 
Ziani (i 173-1179). 

Wood carving, of which we have very early notice, 
showed grace even in the commoner objects. The 
Avoodcn brackets carried on columns and pilasters, to 
be found in most buildings, were carefully finished and 

and erected a confraternity in 1297. Their shops were near San Giuhano, 
in the street still called the Spadaria. At the entrance to the Spadaria is 
carved a shield of the fourteenth century with a lion passant ahove three 
swords. The arrowsmiths {frezeri) were congregated in a quarter of San 
Marco still called the Frezzaria. The corslel-makcrs gave their names to 
a street at Sant' Antonino. The most ancient guild of smiths gave their 
name only so late as the sixteenth century to a street near San Moise. 

1 Monticolo, Capilolari, p. 171 {CapUolaredeifabbricantidibalestre, §1). 

2 Lazari, IS'olhia, p. 244- 

* Arch, di Slato, M. C, Clericus-Civicus, fol. 96 V°. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 89 

displayed elegant lines. A specimen is to be seen in 
the loggia of the Ducal Palace, wrongly called the 
loggia of Ziani. The panels of the doors of palaces 
were carved and ornamented in the purest taste ; for 
example, the door of the Palazzo Soranzo, now Van 
Axel, and the fragments of the door of the Palazzo 
Bernardo, preserved in the Museo Civico. Even finer 
work was made in the monasteries, whore wood 
carving and intarsia, known as alia certosina, and 
introduced from the East, were carried to a high perfec- 
tion. Elaborate frames of carved and gilded woodwork 
surrounded the early paintings, and the wood-carver 
supplemented the work of the artist not only by foliated 
ornament but by adding statues and bas-reliefs, either 
gilded or coloured, as in the panel in San Donato in 
Murano. The frame round the Ancona by Lorenzo 
Veneziano at the Accademia, lately restored, was carved 
by a sculptor who placed his name, Caninus sculptore 
(1337), beside that of the painter. Contemporary with 
Zanino was Catarino, son of Master Andrea, who carved 
the altar frontal with thirteen groups in high relief, 
once in the church of the Corpus Domini and now in 
the Museo Civico.^ 

Among all the carvers of the fourteenth century the 
family of Moranzone was the most distinguished.^ Some- 
times the carver and the painter were one and the same 
person. It is supposed that Giovanni d'AUemagna 
made the pinnacles, open work, arabesques, and ribbon 
patterns which surround the figures painted by him in 
company with Antonio Yivarini. Very fine examples 
of this fantastic woodwork are the Ancone of San 

^ Elenco del Museo, p. 198, n. 99. 

'•* Paolctti, L'Arch. e la Scult. del Rinascimento in Venezia, Part I, 
p. 80. Venezia, 1898. 



90 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Zaccaria, and the one which used lo be in the oratory of 
the Volto Santo dei Lucchcsi, a drawing of which 
Grcvembroch has preserved for us.^ Other artists fol- 
lowed, and at length we come to the modern era, though 
the new ideas had not as yet taken so firm a hold as 
to cause a complete breach with the style of the middle 
ages. But a change came over the style of the wood- 
carver, and made itself felt most distinctly in the work 
on those coffers which were intended to hold wedding 
trousseaus. A new, though imperfectly defined idea of 
taste led the artist to add to the ornamentation in the 
mediaeval style still fuller carvings of leaves, satyrs, 
masques, fantastic monsters, and little pictures painted 
by the best masters. Belonging to the close of the 
middle ages are certain ceilings wrought with a mag- 
nificence never equalled. Sofitado meravijoso, so con- 
temporary documents describe the ceiling in the Scuola 
di San Marco, finished in i463. The ceiling of the 
Scuola della CaritaAvas executed between i46i and i/i64 
by Marco Cozzi of Vicenza ; the design has a border and 
groups of leaves, and in each panel is a cherub with 
eight wings. These cherubim of eight wings gave rise 
to a quaint tale still repeated. It is said that a certain 
Cherubino Aleotti, called also Ottali, proposed to the 
brethren of the Scuola della Carita, that he decorate the 
Hall of Assembly at his own cost, provided he might 
carve his name in some corner. The brethren refused to 
allow him this distinction ; but Cherubino was deter- 
mined to hand dow n to posterity his seraphic Christian 
name and the eight wings of his surname, and so caused 

1 Grevembroch (Mon. Ven., P. I, p. lio) has written under his draw- 
ing: " Maestoso allare di legno da famiglie Lucchesi accolte con Privilegio 
di Originaria Veneta Cittadiiianza, cretlo nel loro Oratorio del Volto Sacro 
ai Scrvi, e consacrato I'anno 1876. " 




Ceii,i>g in the Sala dell' Alhergo dclla Scuola 
della Carita. (XV century) 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 91 

this rebus to be adopted as the design for the roof, which 
led to this fantastic explanation. The ceiling of the 
neighbouring Sala dell' Albergo is probably earlier. 
The carving which surrounds the four Evangelists be- 
trays the inlluence of the new style, but the figures of the 
Evangelists themselves have all the qualities of the older 
art. Much of the earlier Venetian furniture, which the 
change in fashion doomed to perish in the fire or in the 
hucksters' shops, was certainly wrought in carving and 
intarsia by the Moranzone, the Canozii, the Scalamanzo, 
by Francesco and Marco Cozzi of \icenza, and by Gio- 
vanni, son of \ icenzo. Lorenzo Genesino of Lendinara, 
nicknamed Canozio, Avas the founder of a whole family 
of famous carvers and sculptors, to whom we owe the 
beautiful choir of the Santo at Padua, destroyed by 
fire in 1779. In Venice we have the choir of San 
Zaccaria (i46o-i464), carved by the brothers Francesco 
and Marco Cozzi. Marco, Avorking alone, made the 
choir of the Frari (1^68), and, in partnership with his 
son Giovanni, the choir of the duomo of Spilimbergo. 
He died in i485. Another Marco from Vicenza, prob- 
ably also belonging to the Cozzi family, completed the 
choir of Santo Stefano, begun by Leonardo Scala- 
manzo in i48i.^ 

As in the art of the goldsmith, so in the wood-carver's 
art, the French, and more especially the German, crafts- 
men exercised a strong influence, — an influence which 
acted as a check on what might well have been extrava- 
gant in Venetian art which drew its inspiration from 

^ It was usually thought that the choir of Santo Slefano was entirely 
the work of Marco Vicetilino and was completed in i^gS, hut a document 
published by Federico Stefani (Arch. Vcneio, T. XXIX, p. igS) proves 
that Ihechoir was begun in ^Si-i^Sa by Leonardo Scalamanzo. Sec also 
the article by V. Barichella in the Archiuio Veiielo, T. XXX, p. 449- 



93 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

the East. Not German merchants only, but German 
artificers, came to Venice, and in such numbers as to 
erect their own sciiole and confraternities.^ Long before 
Giovanni Enrico de Allemania, to Avhom the Venetian 
government granted a safe conduct to Rome in i/iSg, 
sprang into fame; long before Isabella d Este, in i5i6, 
earnestly besought a crucifix from the chisel of Michele 
tedesco, a famous sculptor then living in Venice, — many 
a Northern artificer was to be found in Venetian work- 
shops, from the most ambitious to the most humble ; 
from the German goldsmiths whom we find working 
along with Venetian craftsmen, to the German boot- 
makers, who formed a guild in i383. We meet with 
German inscriptions on many artistic objects of that 
date ; for example, on the well of the Palazzo Soranzo 
at San Polo we read, Helf Iler Got. On the other hand, 
the Northern spirit, w Inch in the middle ages inspired so 
many of these subsidiary arts, itself caught the first rays 
of the Renaissance dawn, and produced in Padua the 
splendid workmanship of the Carrarese medals ; while 
the French sentiment appears in charming conjunction 
with classic tradition coming to life again in ivory Avork of 
which the Venetian estuary was, as w^e have already seen, 
an ancient centre. In very early times Utui, or pastoral 
staves, were made partly at Byzantium, partly in Venice 
and its adjacent islands ; ^ so also diptychs, portable 
altars, reliquaries, pyxes, chalices, and other sacred 
vessels ; above all, those little wooden coffers covered 
Avith ivory Avhich are common in museums. The 
plaque of ivory preserved in the Museo Civico^ must 

1 Simonsfcld, Der Fondaco, op. cit., p. 857. 

^ Schneider, Leber das Kairosrelief in TorceUo und ihm verwandte B'.ld- 
werke. Wien, 1896. In 1898 in the tomb of Bishop Buono Balbi of 
Torcello (d. I2i5) was found an ivory pastoral staff. 

2 Lazari, Notizia, etc. Venturi, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 517. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS 98 

have belonged to a coffer of the third or fourth 
century. 

Ivory is found in conjunction Avith silver repousse 
sometimes, as in the binding of the Gospels pre- 
served in the church of San Pietro in Carnia, a 
Byzantine work of the tenth or eleventh century. 
Hundreds cf objects, casquets, frames, combs, toys, 
chairs carved in painted bone, hunting horns and so 
on, must have issued from \enetian workshops, espe- 
cially from those of the comb-makers (pellenerl), who 
were formed into a guild as early as the thirteenth 
century. It was not, therefore, by chance that at the 
close of the fourteenth century Baldassare di Simone 
d'Aliotto, of the Florentine branch of the Embriachi, 
chose Venice as his dwelling place, and in the midst 
of his alfairs as banker and political agent for Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti, Count of Virtu, ^ found time to open 
shops for the sale of artistic ivory work.^ The Avealth 
of tlie Venetian nobility and the proximity of the chival- 
rous courts of iSorthern Italy made Venice a favourable 
place for the sale of Avorks of luxury and art. Tliis 
Baldassare, Genoese by blood, Florentine by birth, Vene- 
tian by adoption, seems to have united in himself the 
spirit of these three great cities, and his Avorkshop, Avhere 
he AA'as surrounded by a number of master-hands and 
apprentices, carvers, and intarsia workers, offers us a 
most admirable specimen of an art manufactory in the 
middle ages. BetAA^een 1896 and i^og Baldassare's shop 
sent out the famous triptych or pala for the Certosa of 
Pa via, the coffers (cassoni eburnei) ordered by Gian 

^ Archivio Slorico dell' Arte, serie II, anno II, p. 29. 1896. 

2 Schlosscr, Die Wcrkslalt dcr Embriachi in Venedig. (la the twelfth 
volume of the Jahrbuches der kunsthisiorischen Saminlungen des Allerhochsten 
Kaiserhauses. Wien, 1899.) 



94 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Galeazzo Visconti, which were afterwards altered and 
sent to the monastery of Pavia, and are now preserved 
in the casa Cagnola ^ at Milan, all of them models of 
supreme delicacy. Wliite bone and intarsia work are 
blended together ; the subjects — the story of Paris, 
of Mallabruna, of Pyramus and Tliisbe, of Jason, the 
Virtues, cupids bearing shields, and so on — are the 
subjects common to the colfers which issued from 
the firm of Embriachi. Besides the Visconti, the Em- 
briachi had as patrons great French families like the 
Dukes of Burgundy and Berry, in whose inventories 
we find recorded colTers which probably came from the 
famous Venetian workshop. This work in dazzling 
white bone even came into competition with the ebony 
work of the French craftsmen, whose portable altars, 
mirror frames, games, etc. had found much favour 
both in Italy and Germany, but after the opening of the 
twelfth century were on the decline. 2 The bone-work 
of Venice answered the same purposes, but the inspira- 
tion of the designs was different. The art OAved its 
prosperity, which was continued during the next cen- 
tury, to the energy and ability of a single craftsman, 
Baldassare.^ 

The Cronaca of Martino da Canal describes Avitli 
vivid simplicity a fete of the middle ages wherein 

^ Schlosser, op. cit. 

2 Ibid. 

' Other members of the Emliriachi family besides Baldassare and his 
sons, also look up their abode in ^enice. We find a Ser Andrea in the 
middle of the Quattrocento living at San Basegio (Basilio) ; the brothers, 
Ser Giovanni and Ser Antonio, who died in i43i and i433, were owners 
of a workshop of ebonists at San Luca ; Ser ISicolo, mentioned in i4i2; 
three sons of Ser Antonio, Geronimo, Domenico, and Lorenzo (this last died 
at Florence in i483, and was buried in Santa Maria Novella), who in i433 
wound up the business of their father and uncle with the assistance of the 
Florentine ambassador Giuliano Davanzati. Paoletti, L'arch. e la scult. del 
Rin., cit., P. I, p. 8a. 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS gS 

were blended the arts and crafts and riches of the day. 
When Lorenzo Tiepolo was elected Doge in 1268, the 
craft guilds of Venice went to salute the new head of 
the State. There Avere the glass-blowers ; the smiths 
with their banner and with garlands on their heads ; 
the furriers in ermine and doublets of samite and 
tafleta ; the weavers with silver cloth tippets ; the tailors 
in white with crimson stars ; the Avool-carders with 
olive crowns on their heads ; the masters of the cotton- 
spinners with cloaks of fustian ; the quilters with 
garlands of gilt beads and Avhite capes sown with fleurs- 
de-lys ; the cloth-of-gold and cloth-of-purple makers 
with hoods of cloth-of-gold and gilt beads ; the mercers 
in silk ; the pork-butchers in scarlet ; the fishmongers 
in cloaks lined with vair ; the barbers with garlands on 
their heads ; the goldsmiths wearing sapphires, emeralds, 
diamonds, topazes, jacinths, amethysts, rubies, jaspar, 
carbuncles. Under the loggias and in the courts of 
the Palace each guild set forth its wares on benches 
and boards, and offered the earliest, and perhaps the 
most notable, example of an industrial exhibition. In 
the midst of festivals like these and surrounded by 
such visions of splendour we draw to the close of the 
old days. 



CHAPTER XII 
THE FL\E ARTS 

ROMANESQUE architecture, which was in full 
decline by the end of the fourth century, pro- 
duced but little during the next two centuries. 
The massive tomb of Theodoric (d. 526) alone is 
worthy of the great Roman emperors and of him who 
sought to imitate them. But this decline Avas arrested 
by the advent of the Byzantine style, which assimilated 
and preserved some of the characteristics of Roma- 
nesque. The Italian homes of Byzantine art were 
Ravenna — suffice it to name those striking buildings 
Sant' Apollinare Nuovo and San Vitale — and Venice, 
which attracted Greek artificers from Byzantium and 
perhaps from Ravenna itself. As illustrations of Byzan- 
tine architecture of the sixth century in the lagoons, 
we may take the duomo and baptistry of Grado, and 
the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie in the same 

city. 

When, owing to the Lombard invasion and the 
wretched condition of the whole of Italy in the seventh 
century, foreign artists abandoned the peninsula, native 
Ralian art grew ruder and ruder. ^ The church of 
Torcello (c. 6^I) belongs to this epoch, though it has 
frequently been renewed and restored. Of the origi- 
nal structure nothing remains but the apse, and two 

1 Cattaneo, L'Arch. in Italia dal Sec. VI al Mille circa, p. i8. Venezia, 
Ongariia, 1888-1889. 



THE FINE ARTS 97 

semicircular niches in brick are all that exists of the 
baptistry belonging to the same date. 

In the eighth century, when the fury of icono- 
clasm was raging in Constantinople, many Greek 
artists in revolt against Leo the Isaurian ^ sought Italy 
once more, and by preference Venice. Under the re- 
newed instruction of Greek masters, who applied to 
Venetian buildings a profusion of delicate ornamenta- 
tion, Italian art recovered, and the following century 
gave birth to the Italo-Byzantine style whose decoration 
copied Byzantine models with a rude and still uncertain 
touch. On this Italo-Byzantine style was grafted the 
art of the Como masters, who, starting from Como 
and its district, Mendrisio, Lugano, Bellinzona and 
Magadino, spread over Europe and carried with them 
everywhere the imprint of their method. Venice also 
possessed monuments of Lombard art. We have tradi- 
tion of celebrated masters, ^ even in the earliest days ; 
and it was they, no doubt, who built the baptistry at 
Concordia (ninth century), the abbey church of Saints 
Ilario and Benedetto (c. 820), the new facade to the 
duomo of Torcello (88/i), and the neighbouring church 
of Santa Fosca (about the close of the ninth century), 
of which work nothing remains but the small lateral 
apses. But these first early attempts at a national art 
left no notable result ; they died away before the re- 
newed influence of Byzantine art, Avhich, especially in 
the tenth century, reached great splendour in Con- 
stantinople, where the Macedonian dynasty (867-1057) 
re-evoked the glorious days of Justinian. Already as 

1 Pauli Diaconi, Hisloria Langobardorum, VI, ^Q, in the Mon. Germ. 
Rerum Langobardicarum el lialicarum. Hist. Script. VI-IX, p. i8i. Accord- 
ing to Paul the Deacon, the Venetians had resolved to elect an emperor, 
but were dissuaded by the Pope. 

2 Ugheili, Italia Sacra, V, iioi-iio3. 

VOL. II — 7 



98 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

early as 820 the Emperor Leo V had sent Greek 
arcliitects to the lagoons to build the monastery of San 
Zaccaria ; and it is probable tliat nine years later the 
Doge Giovanni Partccipazio employed these same ar- 
tiiicers on the church ol" San xMarco. We still lind nmch 
sculpture of tlie ninth century, clearly the work of 
Greek chisels, in the church of San Marco, which was 
restored by Greek workmen after the fire of 976 ; and 
the numerous fragments of bas-reliefs in the Greek 
manner which are built into the walls of houses or 
preserved in museums and antiquity shops, prove that 
Byzantine masters were employed upon the religious and 
civil buildings in the new city. ^\ e may observe the 
traces of Byzantine work, perha^DS of the ninth cen- 
tury, in the facade of a house looking on the Rivo 
delle Beccarie, near the Calle Sansoni ; in the house 
on the Grand Canal at San Cassian, in which the 
painter Favretto died ; in the Palazzo Da Mosto at the 
SS. Apostoli ; in a house next door to the Prefecture ; 
in the side door of the church of the Carmine and in 
a house on the Riva del Carbon close to the Palazzo 
Dandolo.i 

About the year io63 the Doge Contarini determined 
to rebuild San Marco, ^ and there is no doubt that By- 
zantine artists had a large share in the work, especially 
if we consider the plan and the arches, which are pure 
Byzantine. But it is equally certain that Lombard 
workmen were employed along with the Orientals, 
and thus San Marco became as it were a workshop in 
which the two styles, Byzantine and Lombard, met and 

^ Caltaneo, op cit., p. a54. 

2 Giustinian Bernardo says, " Accitis igitur ex Constantinopoli primariis 
architeclis" (see Documenti delta Basilica di San Marco, p. 33 1. Venezia, 
1886). 



THE FINE ARTS 



99 



were fused together, giving birth to a new style, pccu- 
har to the district, Avhich we may fairly call Vencto- 
Byzantinc.^ Belonging to this style, which marks an 
artistic revival, are the churches which had porticoes '^ 
on their facades ; they were built between the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries, and are now either destroyed or 
altered. Such were San Zaccaria, rebuilt about 1176 
on the site of Partecipazios older church, San Giacomo 
di Rialto, Sant' Agnese, San Vitale, San Silvestro, and 
San Giovanni DecoUato (1107), which has suflcred the 
least from restorations. In the estuary we have the 
duomo of Caorle, with its singular circular campanile 
(io38), the only example in the Veneto, and the great 
church at Jesolo (eleventh century) in the form of a 
Latin cross with nave and two aisles, each ending in 
an apse, and three foavs of superimposed windows. 

Gradually Italian and Venetian ^ artificers came to 
supersede Byzantine workmen, even outside of Italy. 
In France a Venetian colony settled at Limoges be- 
tween 977 and 989. In the eleventh century two 
Venetian nobles founded a monastery at San Leonardo, 
not far from Limoges ; and in the twelfth century * we 
get the church of Saint-Front at Perigueux, whose 
chief feature is the cupola,'^ and whose design may 
possibly have been inspired by Saint Mark's at Venice. 

^ Cattaneo, Storia Architettonica della Basilica (in La Basilica di San 
Marco, p. 189. Venezia, 1892). 

^ External porticoes were used as cemeteries and as the place for the sale 
of pious objects. They were mostly destroyed. An example remains in 
the portico of San Giacomo di Rialto, though largely renovated. 

8 The white marble door of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Roma was 
executed in the eleventh century by a Giovanni from Venice : johan.>e3 

DE VEXETIA ME FECIT. 

* Built after the fire of iiao, which burned down the old church dating 
from 980. 

* Do Verneilh, L'Arch. Byzantine, cit., pp. i33, i36. 



loo VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Venetian art, gradually abandoning Byzantine models, 
adopted new forms which show the influence of Ro- 
manesque, the style Avhicli after looo began to affect 
European architecture so strongly. Some critics deny 
the influence of Romanesque on Venetian art, though 
they recognise the presence of certain Romanesque 
characteristics; for example, the lion or other animal 
used to support the columns of the pronaos in sacred 
buildings. Of this use we have an instance in the 
calf and the two grifllns with a human head in their 
claws, Avhich serve as bases to the columns of one of 
the great Avindows on the south side of San Marco ; 
and another example in the two lions of the cam- 
panile of San Polo, the one Avith a human head, the 
other Avith a serpent in his jDaAvs, — the remains of 
a door of some ancient Lombard church. ^ But far 
more important monuments than these go to prove 
that Byzantine art, having reached its apogee in Venice, 
gradually underwent a transformation and adopted new 
forms under the influence of Romanesque. It is quite 
certain that in the twelfth century the Ducal Palace, 
the dwelling of the Procurators, built by the Doge Ziani 
(i 178-1 179), and the Palace of the Memmo family 
at San Marcuola, visited as a Avonder by the Emperor 
Frederic II in 1282, must all have been Romanesque 
buildings Avith some admixture of Byzantine elements. 
Of this style Ave still have examples in the Fondaco 
dei Turchi at San Giovanni Decollato, in the Palazzo 
Dandolo (noAV Farsclti), the Palazzo Loredan at San 
Luca and the Palazzo Businello at Sant' ApoUinare. 
This ncAV Byzantine-Romanesque style shoAvs also some 
touch of Saracenic introduced through Byzantium, but 

1 Selvatico, Sulla Arch, e sulla Scult. in Venezia, p. 83. Veaezia, 
1847. 



i 



THE FINE ARTS loi 

it soon developed characteristics of its OAvn, such as 
the horseshoe arch; after the year looo it flourished 
in Southern France and in Sicily. As a fact, Sara- 
cenic influence is to be noted in various Venetian 
buildings of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ; for 
example, in the remains of the houses in the Campo 
dei Mori, in Marco Polo's house at San Giovanni 
Grisostomo, in the Falier house at the SS. Apostoli, 
where they say the Doge Marino Avas born in 1278, 
and in the arch over the door of the treasury of San 
Marco. Other traces of this blend of Byzantine, 
Romanesque and Saracenic Ave find in the entrance 
gate to the Corte Morosini at San GioA^anni Grisostomo, 
in a door in the Rio Sant' Antonio, in the arch over the 
AA'ater door of a house at San Toma, in a ruined palace 
on the Rio San Pantalcone, in a door on the Campo 
San Luca, in the arch of the Palazzo Contarini at Santa 
Giustina, in the upper-floor AvindoAvs of Palazzo Quirini 
at Rialto. 

The dwelling-houses of this period usually ended in 
tAvo little toAvers at each angle, and on the ground floor 
there was almost ahvays a portico carried on columns 
and open in front, also a covered vestibule or atrium. 
The main stair, as a rule, AA-as at the back of the atrium 
to the right; sometimes, hoAA-ever, in the middle of the 
Avail that divided the atrium from the peristyle.^ The 
facade AAas of brick ornamented by carved and moulded 
string courses of stone or by painted friezes. In 
Gentile Bellini's picture of the procession in the piazza 
of San Marco, painted in i/jQO, ^\e see close to the 
campanile the hospital of San Marco, erected in the 
latter half of the thirteenth century. It has semi- 
circular arches Avilh a high stilt, and under the Avindows 

1 De Bejli^, L'habilation Byzantine, p. 196. Gronoble-Paris, 1902. 



I02 VEMCE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

of the first floor runs a frieze of symbolical ani- 
mals on a red ground. Among the many anonymous 
creators of such beautiful buildings, one name alone 
has come down to us, that of Niccolo Barattieri, a 
Lombard certainly, perhaps a Como master-builder. It 
Avas he Avho designed the first Rialto bridge of wood in 
the twelfth century, completed the massive toAver of 
San Marco (c. 1175) and raised on the piazzetta the 
two columns which had been brought from the East. 

At the close of the twelfth and the opening of the 
thirteenth century a great change came over architec- 
ture, which, especially in ecclesiastical buildings, began 
to adopt the ogivale or Gothic style, solid yet grace- 
ful, dignified yet light. The pointed arch, employed 
by the Saracens as early as the ninth century and 
very common in Sicilian architecture of the eleventh, 
where we find blended the characteristics of Byzantine, 
Saracen and Norman styles, is to be met Avith even in 
Venice long before the thirteenth century. In San 
Marco we have specimens of the pointed arch, and the 
bases of certain columns anticipate the designs met with 
in French-Romanesque when in process of developing 
the pointed arch ; others again seem twin with Gothic 
churches of the North, while certain architectural mo- 
tives seem to forecast details characteristic of the North. 1 
But at this period the pointed arch in Italian build- 
ings is chiefly employed as a decoration, not as a fully 
developed structural principle ; it is in the West that 
it received its complete organisation as an element in 
construction. In France, in iioo, we already find 
groined ceilings in three churches, Sainte-Croix at 
Quimperle, Saint-Victor at Marseilles, and the abbey 
church at Morisac, and also in the cloister at Morienval, 

^ Gattaneo, St. Arch., cit., p. 186. 




a 



c« 



o 



a 
o 



oo 



I 

o 




THE FINE ARTS io3 

where the capitals are still Romanesque. After these 
comes the groined crypt of Saint-Gilles (1116) and 
many other churches in Avhich, between 11 35 and 
ii5o, the new style is developed; the Cistercian monks 
were its most active propagators, and it Avas welcomed 
in Germany, in England and in Scandinavia, where the 
arch Avas at once thrown high up toAA^ards the heavens 
AA'ith crockets and pinnacles. The Cistercians of Bur- 
gundy introduced the style into Italy, and in the Sabine 
country they built abbeys and churches Avith pointed 
arches recalling the type already established in France. 
The oldest specimen of this Italo-Cistercian Avork is 
the abbey of FossanuoA^a (11 80-1 208) betAA-een Piperno 
and Terracina.^ But Gothic style in Italy was trans- 
formed and modified by the temper of the nation, and 
e\'en in buildings Avhere the pointed arch was employed 
Ave fmd the Romanesque straight line prevailing, and 
the characteristics of the old style blended with ogees, 
crockets, pinnacles, groining, spiral columns, as in 
the Tuscan Gothic of Santa Maria del Fiore and of 
Giotto's ToAver. In Venice Gothic found a happier 
clime, and took a character all its OAvn from the nature 
of the place in which Oriental ideas Avere still alive. 
Its flourishing period begins in the thirteenth and 
closes in the middle of the fourteenth century. The two 
finest specimens of ecclesiastical Gothic are the Francis- 
can church of Santa Maria Gloriosa, commonly called 
the Frari, begun in i25o and finished in i338,^ and 

^ Then follow the churches of Casamari ('iao3-i2i7), Arabona (i3o8) 
and San Galgano (i2i8-i3o6). Enlart, Origincs francaises de I'architecture 
gothique en llalie. Paris, 1894 (fasc. 66 of the Bibl. des Ecoles francaises 
d'Athencs el de Rome). 

2 The campanile of the Frari was begun in i36i and carried to the 
ground level by Maestro Giacomo Celcga ; his son Pier Paolo completed it 
in i3f)6. In the fifteenth century the church of the Frari was partially 



10^ VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

the Dominican church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, an 
improved copy of the former, still unfinished in i385. 
Other ecclesiastical huildings in this style, in great part 
restored, remodelled, or disfigured, are San Giacomo 
dair Orio (i225), the Servi (i3i8), Santo Stefano 
(i 325), San Gregorio (i 3/^2), Carmine (i 3/18), Madonna 
deir Orto (i35o), Scuola della Carita (1377), Sant' 
Elena (i4i8). At the beginning of the fourteenth 
century the ogival style appears in the basilica of San 
Marco in some of the windows of the facade and in the 

Cr 

rose-window of the soutli transept, and more markedly 
still in certain decorations and architectural motives in 
the baptistry and in the chapel of Sant' Isidoro, the one 
completed and the other begun by Andrea Dandolo 
(i 3/13-1 354) and finished by Giovanni Gradenigo 
(i355).^ Artists, perhaps Tuscans, were invited to 
assist in the decoration of San Marco ;^ among them 
may have been that Pietro who was intrusted with the 
marble incrustations of the basilica and who must cer- 
tainly have seen San Miniato and Santa Maria del Fiore 
and may even have worked there. In i365 the builders 
began to superimpose upon the Byzantine arch the 
inflexed pointed arch, and after half a century the facade 
appears with all its happy vesture of sculpture, carving, 
statues, foliation, ribbons, arabesques, every conceiv- 
able sort of decoration piled upon the arches, heaped 
upon the cornices, running along the edges, twining 
about the niches. 

So too the lagoon facade of the Ducal Palace 
(i3/io) clearly shows in every detail, idea, line, mass, 

renewed, like so many ancient churches. In Carpaccio's picture of Saint 
Gerome and the lion in S. Giorgio degli Schiavoni we see the original 
Gothic church with its portico. 

1 Catlaneo, St. Arch., cit., p. 2o3, 

- Ihid. ibid., pp. aoa 2o5. 




c 



en 



THE FINE ARTS io5 

composition, decoration, the Gothic style of the Trecento, 
with essentially Venetian characteristics ; for the Palazzo 
Ducale is, above all things, an artistic creation in har- 
mony with its place and date. It is vain to inquire the 
name of its architect. It is the work of a nation, not 
of an individual, and its true creator was that powerful 
aristocracy which built the palace as its monument and 
its fortress. The artists went to the tomb unrecorded; 
one succeeded another in the inheritance of plans, 
models, implements; they sought their satisfaction in 
the play of their intellect rather than in the flattery of 
fame ; they cared nothing that their own names should 
be lost in the great collective glory which centred in 
the sublime edifice. The architect — murer, taiapiera, 
marangon, whoever he was — and his band of decora- 
tors who so skilfully carried out his ideas, are one and 
all lost in obscurity, while lying legends seek to render 
illustrious the name of a traitor.^ We possess very few 
documents of that date, but they are quite sufficient to 
destroy the tale which tries to make Calendario the 
author of so marvellous a piece of Avork, and to bring 
to light, among the many who are forgotten, the 
prototaiapiera, or master-mason, Pietro Basseggio, who 
died in i35/i, and master Enrico, proto or clerk of the 
works for the State. ^ But if the documents and registers 

* Tradition, accepted by chroniclers and historians, asserts that the 
author of the Gothic facade and of much of the sculpture of the Ducal 
Palace was Filippo Calendario, who played a prominent part in the con- 
spiracy of Marino Falier and was hanged with a gag in his mouth from the 
loggia of the palace he himself had restored. Calendario was a stone- 
mason and owner of marani or barges for the transport of stones, and it is 
not unlilicly that he worked at the palace and carried material there; but 
we must reject the assertion that he was the architect of the building, for 
not a single document names him as master-mason. Lazzarini, Filippo 
Calendario (Nuovo Arch. Vcn., T. VII, p. 4 2 9). 

'^ Paolelti, L'Arch. e la Scull, del Bin. in Ven., P. I, p. 10, 



io6 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

have almost all been burned or consumed by time, a 
close examination and comparison of the magnificent 
sculptural decorations reveals the fact that the facade is 
a monument of collective art, with the imprint of 
Venice strong upon it and with traces of a foreign 
chisel, possibly French. The facade towards the piaz- 
zetta, fmished according to the Cronaca Zancarola in 
i/j/ia, shows a scheme and architectural lines correspond- 
ing absolutely with the earlier facade towards the mole ; 
not so the decorative details, which, although belonging 
to the same style, still prove to what a high pitch the 
sense of form had been developed. 

Some historians of art claim that the direction and 
also the execution of all these works were in the hands 
of Giovanni Buono, of his son Bartolomeo, and of 
Pantaleone, said to be brother to Bartolomeo, whereas 
he was not even a relation. We know from documents 
of 1 438 and l^^2 ^ that Giovanni and Bartolomeo Buono, 
Venetians, were the authors of the Porta della Carta 
{l^3g-l^^S). Another document of i463 leads us to 
believe that Bartolomeo and Pantaleone Buono com- 
pleted other work in the interior of the palace,^ but that 
is not enough to justify us in declaring that they were 
the architects of the Avhole building, with its broad 
and heavy facades each pierced by six great windows, 
resting, by a happy architectural anomaly, on the airy 
loggia of pointed arches, which again rests on a portico 
with a colonnade. Decorative and symbolical art has 
lavished its treasures on the capitals ; there we find 
represented myth, history, the arts, the sciences, vir- 
tues, vices, the zodiac, plants, flowers, fruit, armour. 

1 Gualandi, Mem. orig. ital. riguard. le B. A., Serie VI, p. lo5, doc. 
n. 189. Bologna, i8/|0 1845. 

2 Paolctli, op. cit., P. I. 




l)l(,M. I'M.ACt;. ( illliAT \\ INDOW FaCIM; THE 1 1 \ lUiU I II 



THE FINE ARTS 107 

This bright and happy-looking building, all statues, 
trophies, arabesques, hardly seems to be the seat of a 
government surrounded by mystery, especially if we 
compare it with the menacing piles to be found in other 
Italian cities, the Palazzo della Signoria, for example, 
constructed, as Machiavelli said, to lodge tyrants the 
more safely, or the fortalice of the Estensi in Ferrara 
with its drawbridges and posterns, which seem even 
now to threaten and intimidate.^ 

At Venice, even in private houses, that wealth of 
decoration, that sense of the picturesque, so deeply 
rooted in the Venetian temperament, made itself felt. 
Ogival architecture Avith its Avayward ornamentation 
held its own for long in Venice, and it was only after 
the middle of the fijfteenth century that it gave way 
to the more sober harmonies of the classic style. The 
Tuscan Michelozzo Michelozzi, one of the architects by 
Avhose precept and example Greek and Roman archi- 
tecture returned once more to the place of honour, 
accompanied Cosimo de' Medici to Venice during his 
exile in i/i33. Vasari tells us that in Venice he made 
numerous plans and models for houses. But Miche- 
lozzo's grave designs were overridden by the Gothic 
play of fancy which is to be seen in all its glory in 
the Palazzo Ariani at San Raffaele, the Palazzo degli 
Ambasciatore at San Barnaba, Palazzo Contarini at 
Santa Giustina, Palazzo Bernardo on the Grand Canal 
near the Madonnetta, Palazzo Bernardo at Sant' Agos- 
tino, Palazzo Corner at Santa Margherita, Gritti-Badoer 
at San Giovanni in Bragora, Cavalli at San Vitale, 
Pisani at San Polo, Bragadin-Carabba at Santa Marina, 
Foscari at San Barnaba, Dona (now Giovanelli) 
at Santa Fosca, Dandolo on the Riva degli Schiavoni, 

1 Sjmonds, II Rinasc. in Italia, trans, p. 54- Firenze, 1879. 



io8 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

and in the graceful angle window of Palazzo Priuli 
at San Severo. On the facades of palaces the most 
sumptuous results are obtained by arches carved in 
borders or in high relief, by columns arranged in 
couples or in groups, by tlie graceful balustrades of 
the balconies, the deep-cut cornices, the quatrefoil 
piercings in the upper part of the Avindons. The 
body of the facade, when it Avas not veneered in 
precious Oriental marbles or covered with frescoes, 
was painted red, and round the Gothic windows and 
beneath the cornices and string-courses, across the free 
spaces of the walls, ran ribbons adorned Avith foliation, 
panels and borders painted in geometrical patterns, 
or delicate gilded ornamentation.^ Such architectural 
fancies smile on us even more gracefully from the 
facade of the little Contarini-Fasan Palace or from 
the Ca' d'oro on the Grand Canal. The first is a veri- 
table piece of lace-work in stone ; the balconies are 
designed with marvellous elegance. The second is 
one of the most beautiful buildings of Venice and 
commands instant admiration. Marino Contarini, 
the patrician artist Avho conceived the building and 
brought it to birth, took the trouble to keep a minute 
account of the cost in a notebook, Avhicli is now a docu- 
ment^ of the highest value, aiding us not merely in the 

1 The Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice has two pictures : one, by 
Vellor Carpaccio, painted in i;i 9^, represents the Patriarch of Grado cast- 
ing out a devil; the other, by Gentile Bellini, painted in i5oo, represents 
the miracle of the Cross. In Carpaccio's picture we see the Grand Canal 
and the Rialto Bridge, in Bellini's the fondamenla and bridge of San 
Lorenzo. Both show us Gothic palaces -with red facades and gilded cor- 
nices to the windows, rich in graceful ornament. Facades adorned with 
graffito work, such as one finds at Genoa, are rare in Venice. An example 
may be seen in a house near the Scrvi at Padua, and in others at Treviso. 

•^ The notebook is preserved in the Archivio di Slalo. See Cecchetti, 
La facciala delta Ca* d'oro {Arch. Venelo, T. XXXI, p. 202). 




The Contarim-Fasan Palace (XV century) 



THE FINE ARTS 109 

history of the building in all its details, but serving 
also to illustrate the private life and activity of the 
men who gave to Venice such noble examples of art. 
Contarini, who was thoroughly versed in design, be- 
gan his work in 1^2 1, and had the assistance and 
advice of Marco d'Amadeo, a master-builder, and of 
Matteo Rcverti, a Milanese sculptor, who were joined 
later on by Giovanni Buono and his son Bartolomeo. 
Otiier artists, Antonio Busetto, Antonio Foscolo, Gas- 
parino Rosso, called da Milano, Giacomo da Como, 
Marco da Segno, Giovanni degli Angeli, called Roma- 
nello, Martino Frisoni da Como, Giovanni Frisoni da 
Milano, and Andrea da Milano — artists of whom we 
know nothing — Avere called in to create the facade, 
the land door, and the outside staircase in the court-- 
yard. This band of artists applied themselves to the 
work, and capitals, balconies, cornices, arches, battle- 
ments, cusps, armorial bearings, all the wealth of delicate 
ornamentation sprang to life from the marble. Not 
a detail Avas neglected. On April 9, 1/127, Bartolo- 
meo Buono, in his own and his father's name, ac- 
knowledged the receipt of twenty golden ducats Avhich 
xe per parte del pozal (the Avell-head) el qual mi Borto- 
lamio i die far per soldi 20 al d\, and lower down we find 
a note to the effect that Buono took two hundred and 
three days to complete that magnificent well-head in 
red broccatello marble of Verona, which is adorned Avith 
four great heads issuing from acanthus leaA^es at each 
of the angles and Avith figures of the ^ irtues seated on 
lions in the intermediate spaces. The sculptured dec- 
oration of this facade AAas nearly completed by i^3i, in 
Avhich year Contarini made a bargain Avith Martino and 
Giovanni Benzon per inveslir de malmoro into qaelo che 
manca. In a short time the Avork Avas finished and 



no VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

the facade appeared in all its exquisite elegance, with 
that happy breach of symmetry, so valuable for the 
general harmony, which led the artists to give us a 
wing upon the left but none upon the right hand side. 
Ncvertlielcss Conlarini does not seem to have been 
content. He desired to cover not only the inner 
chambers but also the marble facings of his palace 
with the most delicate tints. Just as the walls of the 
rooms when not actually hung with stulTs Avere painted 
in imitation hangings, frequently composed of red rings 
with yellow outlines on a green ground, of Avhich 
we have specimens in the mural paintings lately laid 
bare in the Frari and in Santo Stefano, so gold and 
azure and red were employed to enliven and diversify 
the uniform colour of the marbles on the outside 
walls. The sculpture and marble crockets with which 
the ogival style adorned the severe arches of San 
Marco were all painted and gilded, as we see them 
in Gentile Bellini's picture of the Procession. Con- 
tarini, too, would have the facade of his new house 
in colour, and for that purpose he summoned Mastro 
Zuan de Franza, pen tor de Sant' Aponal. The con- 
tract between the patrician and Master Giovanni, signed 
on September i5, i43i, calls up to us a vision of 
the front of the Ca' d'oro a blaze of colour and flashing 
with golden ornamentation whence it took its name. 
For the sum of sixty gold ducats Master Giovanni, aided 
by his son Francesco, by Master Niccolo di Giovanni 
di Santa Sofia, by Master Pignuolo, sta a Riva di Biasio, 
by Master Gerardo di San Luca, and by Master Vasco, 
penlor spagnuolo, gilded the roundels, the shields, the 
lions, arches, foliation of the capitals, and painted the 
beams in ultramarine of the finest quality laid on in 
two coats ; he painted the battlements with wliite-lead 




Lv {'.\ i)"<)iu) (^W c'fiilur\) 
(Golden House) 



THE FINE ARTS iii 

veined to look like marble, and the Byzantine string- 
courses carved with vine tendrils he coloured wliitc on 
a black ground.^ By i434 the many-coloured monu- 
ment in all the richness of its magnificence was com- 
plete. From Contarini's notebook of expenses Ave 
gather how much care was bestowed on the little 
columns, the capitals, and other ornaments of the 
open staircase. These staircases, either quite open 
or protected by a roof, which run up from the court- 
yards, surrounded by battlemented walls, form one 
of the most picturesque features of Venetian archi- 
tecture. Many have shared the fate of the Ca' d'oro 
staircase and been destroyed ; but examples are still 
to be seen in the Corte della Terrazza and in the Pa- 
lazzo Loredan at Giovanni e Paolo, in the Palazzo Bembo 
at the Celestia, Palazzo Contarini della Porta di fcrro 
at Santa Giustina, Palazzo Zantani at San Toma, Pa- 
lazzo Sanudo (now Van Axel) at the Miracoli, Palazzo 
Cappello at San Giovanni Laterano, Palazzo Priuli at 
San Severe. 

Hand in hand with architecture came sculpture, 
which, down to the close of the twelfth century, pre- 
served the spirit and the form of Byzantine art. The 
churches still contain many capitals, balustrades, am- 
bos, ciboria, thrones, basins, and sarcophagi in this style ; 
and on the walls of many secular buildings we get 
pilasters, friezes, patcras, roundels, all of them the work 
of Byzantine sculptors or of Venetian artists taught by 
Byzantines. In the eleventh century Byzantine in- 
fluence is visible in Venetian decorative work, of which 
we have characteristic examples in ornamental plaques 
with figures of animals, peacocks, lions, griffins, de- 

1 Boni, La Ca' d'oro e le sue decorazioni poUcrome (Arch. Veneto, T. 
XXXIV. p. 1 1 5). 



112 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

lightfully interwoven with vine tendrils, foliage, flowers, 
palms, pomegranates. But we must bear in mind 
that the plastic arts developed slowly in the lagoons. 
Tlie tombs of the Doge Vitale Falier (d. 1096) and 
of the Dogaressa Fehcia Michiel (d. iioi), both in 
the atrium of San Marco, at one time thought to 
be the work of Venetian sculptors, are really, espe- 
cially the latter, composed of fragments of earlier 
sculpture carefully fitted together, and of graceful 
Byzantine balustrades of the tenth century between 
columns. Even in the eleventh century they used 
Byzantine bas-reliefs of the seventh century, found, 
perhaps, at Altino or Aquileia, to make the sar- 
cophagi of tw^o Doges, Giacomo Tiepolo (d. 12/19), 
which stands under a canopy on the facade of San 
Giovanni e Paolo, and Marino Morosini (d. 1262) in 
the vestibule of San Marco ; and it is quite certain 
that the four magnificent Byzantine columns of the 
ciborium of San Marco (sixth century), covered with 
Gospel story, are not, as some assert, the work of 
Venetian chisels.^ 

Meantime France was producing work of exquisite 
beauty at Paris, Tours, Romans, Nimes, Aries, at 
Saint-Gilles, at Chartres, at Amiens, at Auxerre ; while 
the southern provinces of Italy began to adorn their 
churches with flowers, animals, and symbolical figures 
in full or half relief, of such masterly execution as to 
justify the conjecture that the great genius of Nicola, 
commonly called Pisano, must have seen the light and 
received its early education in Apulia, where art came 
into vigorous existence sooner than in Tuscany. 

In the twelfth century two sculptors of daring 
genius, Guglielmo and Niccolo, left notable productions 

1 Tcsti, L., Osscrv. cr'U. suUa St. delV Arte del Venturi, cit. 




Part of the Arch of the Months 

in llic flliurcli (if ?. ^larco 



THE FINE ARTS ii3 

in the churches of Cremona, Piacenza, Ferrara, in 
the duomo and in San Zeno at Verona, wliere they 
founded a school which sent out many able artists. 
The Veronese chisel is said to be discernible in some 
of the reliefs of the Cappella Zeno in San Marco and 
in the bas-reliefs of the Birth of our Saviour in San 
Giovanni Elemosinario.^ Between 1178 and 1196 
Benedetto Antelami completed his admirable works at 
Parma, Borgo San Donnino, and perhaps at Cremona, 
and it is certain that the great example of this Como 
master was not without its effect in Venice. We trace 
the inspiration of Antelami, or rather of his followers, 
in the fragment of a bas-relief representing the Adora- 
tion of the Magi, which was once in the church of 
SS. Filippo e Giacomo and is now in the Seminary at 
the Salute, also in the group known as the Sogno di 
San Marco, in the depositary of San Marco, and in 
some figures of prophets in the Cappella Zeno.^ The 
triumph of Antelami's, or rather of Italo-Romanesque, 
art, however, is to be found in the arches of the great 
door of the Basilica, where a fme but anonymous 
master has represented the various trades pursued by 
men, and the months of the year. 

But throughout this revival of art Byzantine sculp- 
ture held its own in Venice with tenacity, and though 
it adopted certain characteristic notes of the W'^estern 
style, it continued during the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries to put out work of purely Oriental quality, 
such as the Christ on the Cross, once in the convent of 
the Santo Spirito and now in the Museo Civico ; the 
Madonna who bears on her breast the head of the 
Child, at Santa Maria Materdomini ; two other reliefs 
also representing the Madonna, one on the outside of 

1 Venturi, op. cit., Vol. Ill, p. 248. ^ Ihli., ibid., p. 347- 

VOL. n — 8 



ii4 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

the south wall of SS. Giovanni c Paolo, the other, 
with two half figures of angels, on the outer wall of the 
Frari ; a Madonna enthroned with angels and saints in 
the apse of San Polo ; another on the back wall of 
Santa Maria Maddalcna ; yet another in Santa Caterina 
at Mazzorbo ; the two angels of the holy-water basin in 
the chapel of Sant' Isidoro at San Marco ; the four 
angels near the pinnacles of the central cupola of San 
Marco. ^ The emancipation from Byzantine tradition 
was completed in the Trecento, during which Venetian 
sculpture, Avith Gothic models especially before its eyes, 
acquired a freer style, as in the elTective statue of the 
Blessed Simon in the church of San Simeone Grande, 
executed by Marco Romano in iSiy. The two groups 
at the angles of the Ducal Palace, Adam and Eve 
and The Shame of Noah, are also full of vigorous 
expression. In the fine head of Noah especially there is 
a close resemblance to the statue of the blessed Simon. ^ 
But these early germs of a strong and simple art did not 
develop rapidly, and we catch only the faintest note of 
a genuine artistic sentiment in the rude forms of other 
statues executed later than those we have been discuss- 
ing. Take, for example, the two figures of the \irgin, 
one by Arduino Taiapiera (i34o) in the cloister of 
Santa Maria del Carmine, and the other by an unknown 
artist over the door of the Scuola della Carita (i3/i5) ; 
the bas-relief in the court of San Giovanni Evangelista 
(18^9) ; the three bas-reliefs in the museum of the 
seminary, one a Saint Antonio (i355), another San 
Giovanni Battista (i36i), the third a Madonna (i363) ; 
San Martino on horseback with the mendicant and the 

^ Gabelenlz, Mitielalterliche Plaslik in Venedig, pp. l4S and i54. 
Leipzig, 1 903. 

^ Ruskin, Sloncs of Venice, Vol. I. 



THE FINE ARTS ii5 

Doge (1370) at San Giovanni Evangelista ; Saints 
Theodore and George on horseback (close of the four- 
teenth century) in the baptistry of San Marco ; tlie two 
figures of San Sccondo (iSyy) and San Cristoforo 
(i38/i) on the door of the Scuola della Carila ; and so 
on. Although no one would believe that these works 
Avere contemporary with the magnificent tombs at 
Dijon, so full of grace and nobility, Avhich the Flemish 
masters Claude Sluter (d. i/io5) and Claude Werve his 
nephew executed at the close of the Trecento, still they 
have an importance of their own as being the first 
efforts of that free and liberal style Avhich preceded the 
Renaissance. 

The passage to Gothic style is more clearly indicated 
in the numerous sepulchral monuments Avliich in 
Venice, as elscAvhere, assume two forms, the slab and 
the sarcophagus.^ Of the former, belonging to this 
period, not many have come down to us. The sar- 
cophagus in its primitive form is Avithout figures, and 
has merely the family coat-of-arms placed between two 
crosses, as, for example, on the tombs outside SS. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo. The sarcophagus Avith figures has 
usually five compartments, the central containing one 
or more figures, the two on each side empty, each 
end again having figures. Of these monuments the 
sarcophagus of the Doge Soranzo (d. 182 7) in the 
baptistry of San Marco is the oldest example ; others 
are to be seen at SS. Giovanni e Paolo, at the Frari, 
at Santo Stefano, at Santa Caterina, the Carmine, and 
San Giorgio Maggiore. These are all fourteenth-cen- 
tury AA'ork, chiefly by Venetian masters, among Avhom aa^g 
may mention Jacopo Lanfrani, reputed author of the 

1 Gabelentz, op. cit., pp. 242-262. See also Meyer, A. G., Das vene- 
zianische Grabdenkmal dcr Fruhrcnaissance. Berlin, 1889. 



ii6 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

sopulcliral monument to Taddco Tiopolo (d. i347) ^^ 
San Domcncio, Bologna, and another monument to 
Giovanni d' Andrea Calderini (d. i3/i8), now in the 
Museum at Bologna. 

At the close of the Trecento Venetian sculpture, 
now freed from all Byzantine tradition, did not remain 
content with a servile imitation of Gothic art, hut 
spread its Avings for a still wider flight and drew ideas 
of heauty, dignity, newly inspired by the great art of 
Tuscany. In fact the Tuscans were the source of ideas 
for two of the most distinguished artificers of the 
middle ages, the brothers Jacobello and Pietro Paolo 
Dalle Masegnc. They took their surname from the 
paving-stone (Masegne) in which their family dealt, 
and with a charming modesty described themselves as 
tajapiera, stone-cutters. These two Venetian brothers 
probably made the marble tomb, adorned with delicate 
bas-reliefs, for Giovanni da Legnano, reader in canon 
law, which once stood in the cloister of San Do- 
mcnico at Bologna, but is now in the Museum. The 
splendid marble ancona of the high altar in the church 
of San Francesco at Bologna, completed about 1896,^ 
is certainly the work of the Dalle Mascgne. In iSqq 
the two sculptors were at Milan, employed in the duomo 
and afterwards in the castle at Pavia, by the Duke 
Gian Galeazzo.^ In their own city the Dalle Masegne 
have left us the statues of the Virgin, the evangelist, 
and the twelve apostles (iSg^), which stand upon the 
architrave between the choir and the nave [iconastasis) 
in San Marco ; also the Virgin and four saints (1397), 

^ Davia, Mem. stor. art. int. alia tav.Jhj. sal maggiore alt. delta ch. di S. 
Francesco, etc. Bologna, i848. 

2 Nava, Mem. del Duomo di Milano, Vol. I, pp. 8i-8a. Giulini, Mem. 
di Milano, vol. XI, pp. 456, 598. 



THE FINE ARTS 117 

on the architrave of the chapel of San Clemente, — works 
which, hy their modeUing, vigorous even though a Httlc 
heavy, and for their vivid presentment of life, demon- 
strate the excellence of the artists and show that Vene- 
tian sculpture, unlike Venetian painting, Avas on the 
road towards perfection from the very outset. The 
monument to the Doge Antonio Venier^ (d. i/ioo) in 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo is attributed to the brothers 
Dalle Masegne ; while the great window in the Ducal 
Palace facing the lagoon is certainly the work of Pietro 
Paolo. Jacobello had two sons, Antonio, who up to 
i^ii was working in the duomo of Sebenico in Dal- 
matia, and Paolo, the author of tAvo fine sepulchral 
monuments, one to the Commander Jacopo Cavalli 
(d. i386) in SS. Giovanni e Paolo in Venice, the other 
to Prendiparte Pico (d. lSg^) in San Francesco at 
Mirandola. On both monuments the artist placed the 
following inscription, curious in its naivete : 

qst oper\ dintalgio efato in piera 
Un Venecian lafe chanome Polo 
Nato di Jacomel chataiapiera ^ 

These Dalle Masegne in Venice in the fourteenth 
century give us the earliest instance of those families 
who, like the Buono and the Lombardo in later times, 
carried their art to a high perfection. 

Among other monuments Avhich came from the Avork- 
shop of the Dalle Masegne, or Avere completed later by 
their pupils, we must reckon the tombs of the Doge 
Marco Corner and of the Dogaressa Agnese Venier 
and her daughter Orsola, in the church of SS. Giovanni 
e Paolo, some statues on the facade of the Madonna 

* Selvatico, Arch, e Scult. in Venezia, p. laa. 
' =■ Che h taiapiera. 



ii8 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Dcir Orto, and the Madonna over the main door of the 
Frari, a graceful figure in ^vhich Cicognara wrongly 
thought he recognised tlic chisel of Nicola Pisano. 

The masters of the Buono family, whom we have 
seen working on the Ducal Palace, mark the transition 
from mediaeval to Renaissance art. And in fact the 
slender grace of the Renaissance makes itself felt not 
only in the Porta Dorata or Porta della Carta, which 
resemhies a piece of marble lace-work and had an 
azure ground and gilded ornamentation, but also in 
other masterpieces of the Buono family, among which 
suffice it to mention the lunette on the door of the 
Scuola di San Marco and the bas-relief that used to be 
above the door of the Scuola della Misericordia. The 
Buono family, erroneously believed to have been the 
architects of the restorations in the Ducal Palace, are 
also credited with the better part of the sculpture on 
the palace. A certain resemblance in manner might 
lead us to ascribe to Bartolomeo Buono the statue of 
the archangel Gabriel at the angle of the facade next to 
the Porta della Carta, ^ but we must absolutely exclude 
the theory that these Venetian masters produced the 
sculpture which adorns the new part of the palace. As 
we have already observed, the works on the palace Avere 
a sort of school to which flocked artists from all 
parts of Europe. For example, Ave find mention of a 
Master Andrea taiaplera de Milan, who in 1^26 Avas 
intrusted Avitli the carvings on the capitals, and a 
Francesco da PadoAa ^ employed on the same Avork in 
i43o. At the opening of the fifteenth century, before 
Donatello came to Padua, many Tuscan sculptors AA-ere 
employed in Venice. The Judgment of Solomon at the 
northAvest ancfle of the facade is the Avork of a notable 

^ Paolelli, op. cit., p. i. ^ Ibid., ibid. 



THE FINE ARTS 119 

Tuscan sculptor, and the capital beloAv it is signed by 
two solii fiorenlini, probably Pietro di Niccolo da Firenze 
and Giovanni di Martino da Fiesole, who in 1/12 3 
carved the tomb of the Doge Tomaso Mocenigo in SS. 
Giovanni e Paolo. ^ 

Tuscan, too, are the sculptures of the great windows 
on the principal facade of San Marco, as well as numer- 
ous statues and decorations on the cusps and arches of 
the Basilica ; all of it probably work intrusted, about 
i4i5, to the distinguished artist of Arezzo, Niccolo di 
Piero Lamberti, called Pela.^ In the church of the 
Frari the equestrian statue of the general Paolo 
Savelli (d. i/io5), carved in Avood, reveals a Tuscan 
origin ; so, too, the terra-cotta adornments, gilded and 
coloured, which enrich the monument of the blessed 
Pacifico, completed in 1^37, are probably to be ascribed 
to the Florentine Giovanni di Bartolomeo detto il 
Rosso (d. lASi), the author of the Brenzoni monument 
in San Fermo at Verona. On the other hand, Venetian 
artists worked outside the lagoon. In i4i3 Filippo, 
stone-cutter of Venice, carved the monument to Paola 
Bianca Malatesta (d. 1398) in the church of San 
Francesco at Fano, a work in Gothic style, rather late, 
but broad and original in treatment. ^ 

Venetian sculpture drew new life and a new direction 
from the Avork and the teaching of Donatello, Avho in 
l^^^ came to Padua and there left the admirable 
equestrian statue of Erasmo da Narni, called Gat- 
tamelata, and the high altar of the Basilica di Sant' 
Antonio. The great Florentine visited Venice several 

1 Zanolto, II Palazzo ducale, T. I. 
- Paolelti, op. loc. cit. 

* Zonghi, A., Rcpertorio dell' antico arch. com. di Fano {Arch. Stor. 
dell' Arte, anno 1888, p. 33o). 



120 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

limes from Padua, and must have had friendly relations 
with the artists of that city ; he presented the chapel of 
the Florentines, at the Frari, with the wooden statue 
of Saint John the Baptist. 

Painting developed in Venice far more slowly than 
cither architecture or sculpture. The Cronaca Altinale 
records pinlores qui Damarzi appellali sunt, picluram 
facere sciebant and mentions a Marlurius magisler pic- 
iurae ; but we know that picLura covered mosaics, of 
which we have the earliest specimens in the churches 
of Grado, Torcello, and San Marco. The mosaics of 
the duomo at Torcello, which represent the Inferno, 
Paradiso, and the Last Judgment ^ with a breadth of com- 
position and a poAver of idealisation that are truly mar- 
vellous, are believed by some to belong to the seventh 
century,^ more probably they date from the eleventh.^ 
The church of San Marco also was adorned Avith mo- 
saics, multis ac variis coloribus,^ from the earliest times ; 
but the most ancient of the mosaics, still preserved, 
though for the most part restored, do not date from 
beyond the eleventh century. 

If the Byzantine style marks a period of true great- 
ness in the history of art, avc must not forget that, like 
Egyptian work, it was rigidly bound up with public 
institutions, religious ceremonies, festivals, buildings. 
Certain cycles of Bible story, common to all Christian 

^ Gayet, Uart Byzantine. Dessins dc Charles Erard. Paris, 1901. 

^ Sig. Rupolo, architect of the restorations on the duomo at Torcello, 
is in error in believing that the mosaics of the inner wall belong to the 
close of the seventh century. See IV, Rcla:. dell UJf. Rcgionale, p. i38. 
Veuczia, 1899. 

" Bouiilet, Le jugcment dernier (Notes d'art el d'arch., iSgi- iSgB). 
Detzel, Christliche Ironographie, S. I, cap. VI, 1894. Kraus, Geschichte der 
Christlichcn Kunst, T. II, p. SgS. 

* Translatio cor-x}ris Sancli Marci evangcliste, quoted by Monticolo, Intorno 
alia cronaca del diacono Giovanni, p. 19G. Roma, 1889. 



THE FINE ARTS 121 

art, were reproduced century after century, and the 
scenes, taken from Genesis, in the atrium of San 
Marco, the work of the twelfth century, find their exact 
counterpart in the miniatures of the fifth century which 
adorn the Cottonian Bible at London, a precious 
monument of Byzantine art.^ Accordingly Byzantine 
painting, whether on panel or on canvas, remained 
within the strictest hmits of ritual and symbolism, 
obeying conventional rules laid down with all the pre- 
cision of dogma. 2 Perhaps we may reckon among 
the number of artists of this kind the Greek Theo- 
phanes, who about the beginning of the thirteenth 
century, is said to have opened in Venice a school of 
painting from which came the Gelasi of Ferrara.^ 
Venetian painters, obeying the influence of their Greek 
masters, repeated the figure of the Madonna, under the 
permanent forms prescribed by Byzantine orthodoxy ; 
for example, about the beginning of the thirteenth 
century we have that picture of the Madonna with an 
aureole of precious stones and a background of gold 
leaf, ascribed by tradition to Saint Luke, which stands 
noAv on the altar next to the chapel of Sant' Isidoro 
in San Marco.* Patriotic sentiment has induced many 
writers to assert that painting flourished in Venice 
earlier than in other Italian cities, because in 1290 we 

^ Tikkanen, La rappr. delta Genesi in S. Marco, etc. (Arch. Star, dell' Arte, 
Vol. I, pp. 313, 357, 348. Roma, 1888). 

■•^ Byzantine painters had fixed rules laid down in a code which pre- 
scribed the subjects they might handle and the manner of treating them. 
Panselinus, a noble of Mount Athos, is the author of the earliest of these 
handbooks. He lived in the eleventh century. Didron, Man. d'ic. chr. 
grec. lat. Paris, i845. 

8 We know nothing more than the name of these Gelasi. See Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle (St. delta Pitt, in Italia, Vol. IV, pp. 88, 89). 

* Veludo, Imagine dclla Madonna di San Marco. Venezia, 1887. 



122 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

find established in the lagoons a "painters'" guild. ^ 
But the members of this guild, which v/as numerous, 
according to Zanetti, certainly did not treat their art 
in any new spirit, and were cither workers in mosaic 
or rude decorators, not to be distinguished from gilders, 
cofferers, mask-makers, house-painters. At the Archivio 
di Stato and in the Register of the Giustizieri Yecchi 
we have the by-laws of the Venetian painters, com- 
piled in December, 1271, and brought down, with the 
regulations of each succeeding year, to March 18, i3i i.^ 
But there is not a word as to the methods of the Venetian 
artificers ; technical rules refer chiefly to the way in 
which these artists are to decorate coffers, saddles, 
bucklers, shields, morions, with stamped leather. The 
painters' guild, unlike other guilds, had two Gas- 
taldi, or Avardens, — one of the religious confrater- 
nity, the other of the craft, — with different dignities 
and functions. 3 The rules of the guild did not differ 
essentially from those of other confraternities. Saturday 
was a day of rest, and the signal to cease work was 
given for painters as for carpenters, by the bell 
called the marangona, in the campanile of San Marco. 
" Nullus de arte predicta [that is, painters] non audeat 
nee presumat laborare nee facere laborari in die sabbati 
postquam pulsaverit tintinabulum que pulsat pro ma- 
ran gonis ad sanctum Marcum sub pcna soldos X." The 
same fine was applied to those who used insulting lan- 
guage to the ofilcers of the guild, — aliqua rusticitatem 
gaslaldioni ant siiis ojjicialibus . Apprentices (piieri ad 
adiscendum arlem) Avere paid either in money (ad pre- 

1 Zanelti, A. M., Delle p'Utura Veneziana e della opere pubbl. del Ven. 
maestri, L. I. Yenezia, 177 1. 

^ The Capilolarc was published, with notes, hy Montlcolo in the Nuovo 
Arcliivio Vcnelo, T. II, p. 33 1. 

2 Monticolo, loc. cit., n. i, p. 35i. 



THE FINE ARTS 128 

clum) or in food {ad pancm et vinum). In order to 
control the work executed and to render inspection 
easy, coffers might be offered for sale only in the shop 
of the man who had painted them (m propria slalione) ; 
all painted goods put upon the market (scuH, rodelle, 
cophani de navicias, arcele, plafene, mensori, tahule ad 
comedendum, ancone) must be varnished to preserve the 
colours. 1 

It is in these ancone, sacred images painted on wood, 
that we find the origin of Venetian painting. Only 
a name here and there remains to us of all these early 
wielders of the brush, — Master Giovanni Filippo, son 
of Master Giovanni Scutario,^ a Vendramin, whose widow 
made a will in 1299. The names died out, and all that 
remained was some picture displaying an almost infantile 
lack of skill ; for example, the crucifix, on panel, be- 
longing to the altar of the Capitello at San Marco, or 
the wooden tomb of the blessed Giuliana of CoUalto 
(d. 1264) in the convent of Sant' Agnese. Both are 
ugly, and yet the crucifix was executed about 1290 ^ and 
the tomb in 1297,* when the sun of Giotto had already 

^ Monticolo, op. cit., passim. 

2 Zanelti, A. M., op. loc. cit. 

^ We get the date of this crucifix from the story that it was profaned 
in 1290 by some miscreant. Caffi, Pittori in Venecia nel sec. XIV (Arch. 
Veneto, T. XXXV, p. 67). This is not the sole instance of insults to sacred 
images. In iSGg Giovanni Marino, goldsmith, slashed and scraped with 
a sword pictures in several churches. Cecchetti, Nomi di pillori e lapicidi 
anlichi (Arch. Veneto, T. XXXIII, p. 5o). Sacred pictures ordered by 
private individuals were frequently bequeathed to churches. We also 
have notices of the cost of such pictures. Giacomo Gualengo, of Chioggia, 
in 1877 paid one hundred and twenty ducats of gold for a picture destined 
for the church of San Giovanni Battista in Chioggia ; Giovanni Sanudo 
Torsello, sixty ducats of gold for a painting for San Zaccaria. Cecchetti, 
op. cit., p. ^g. 

* Cicognara and Lanzi say the tomb was painted in 1264, the year 
of Giuliaua's death, but Zanotto is nearer the truth in ascribing it to the 



124 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

risen. Two other poor paintings of this period are a 
Madonna in San Giovanni Evangehsta, with the signa- 
ture Franciscus pinsis (sic), and a Christ in the sepulchre 
by a Master yi/?(7c/a5, in the Musco Civico. Nor do the 
missals, psalteries, and codices yield any better result. 
The art of illumination, so helpful to the student of 
early painting, flourished much later in Venice; and 
that distinguished Venetian miniaturist, Giovanni Gai- 
bano, Canon of Conselve, found few to imitate his 
magnificent Epistolario di rito palriarchino, completed 
in 1260, and enriched by sixteen illuminations on a 
gold ground with foliated and braided initials, which 
is preserved in the duomo of Padua. It is true that 
we are not without books of devotion, ofTices, psalters, 
choir-books, profuse in ornament and illumination ; and 
two of genuine Venetian origin may be seen at the 
Museo Civico, — one is an office for the dead, in a 
style that reminds us of Carpaccio, and the other, more 
ancient, is a Choral Missal (fourteenth century), in 
which among other miniatures we have the portrait of 
the Doge Marino Zorzi, a friar, and a San Domenico. 
Some think that the splendid office of the Durazzo 
family, now in the Museo Civico-Beriana at Genoa, ^ 

year 1297, the year in -which the body of the beata was found. The tomb 
is preserved in the inner chapel of the monastery of the padri Cavanis at 
Sant' Agnese. It is a -wooden cassone, which -was presumably decorated on 
the exterior. Now there is nothing left but a tasteless daub of the Sctte- 
cento. On the inside of the cover there is a painting which at first sight 
seems Byzantine, but a closer inspection shows that it has been painted over 
the outlines of earlier Byzantine figures. It represents Saint Biagio and 
Saint Calaldo on foot and the blessed Giuliana kneeling. The inscriptions 
over each figure have also been repainted. 

1 Belgrano, Delia vita privata dei Genovesi, p. 119. Genova, 1875. 
The Bibliothcque Nationalo in Paris possesses a book of prayers adorned 
with most delicate miniatures, believed to be Venetian. Foucard, Delia 
pitt. sui manoscrilti di Ven. ("Alti dell' I. R. Ace. di Venezia," 1857). 
Waagen, Kunslwerke und KunsUer in England und Paris, 1887-1839. 



THE FINE ARTS i25 

is from a Venetian brush. But in fact the dreamy 
and patient art of the illuminator, born in the shadow 
of the cloister, found no propitious soil among a busy, 
bustling people like the Venetians, and Venetian mini- 
ature is happiest not in works of devotion but in 
statute books of the State or of the guilds. The 
figures of the Doge and of the magistrates appear in 
the initial letters, which are illuminated in graceful 
and varied patterns of filets and pearls and flowers 
and butterflies and birds, in the Promissione Ducale of 
Francesco Dandolo (1828), in the Capilolari del Con- 
siglieri Ducali (middle of the fourteenth century), in 
the Capitolare del Procuralori di San Marco (iSGy). 
Similarly the humble brethren of the craft guilds are 
represented in their Mariegole, as gathered under the 
mantle of the Virgin. We may quote, by way of re- 
markable examples, the Mariegole of the furriers, of 
the Scuole di San Teodoro, dei Santi Giorgio e Trifone, 
di Santa Maria di ^'alverde.•^ We must also mention 
among the miniatures the coloured illustrations of 
various books of travel, and the maps and sailing charts 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.^ Nor should 
we omit those figures of saints, rudely painted by 
artificers called miniasanti, on little slips of parch- 
ment, Avhich used to be distributed to the devout 



1 See Chapter IX. The earliest Promissione ducale with miniatures is 
that of Francesco Dandolo, preserved in the archives, along with the Capi- 
lolari of the Consicjlieri ducale and of the Procuralori the Mariegola di Santa 
Maria Valverde. The earliest illuminated Capitolare (iS^a) is the Mariegola 
of the Pelizeri d'ovra vera (hegiiining of the fourteenth century) and of the 
Scuola di San Teodoro, both in the iMuseo Civieo. See Cheney, Remarks 
on illuminated official manuscripts of the Venetian Republic, s. 1.. 1869. 

2 Bratti, Min. Veneziani (in the Nuovo Arch. Veneto), p. 5. Venezia, 
igoi. 



126 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

in churches and among the guilds of devotion and of 
trade. 

In the more precious illuminations of the Trecento 
we find the characteristics of the Bolognese school, — 
the golden arabesques, the heavy foliage, in heraldic 
style, and the favourite colours, azure, carmine, rose. 
We know that Venice gave hospitality to many artists 
from Bologna,^ the city where illumination had reached 
the highest point under such masters as Franco, said 
to be a pupil of Oderisi da Gujjbio, and Niccolo di 
Giacomo.^ The art of the Bolognese miniaturists, 
originally confined by its very nature to the treatment 
of small designs, proceeded to develop by a careful 
study of other schools and by more liberal teaching, 



^ Among Bolognese painters Avho lived in Venice there are recorded, 
first of all, Giovanni da Bologna, with whom Moschetti has dealt in the 
Rassegna d'arle (anno III, fasc. II and III). We have the following notice 
of Giovanni : Jolianncs de Bononia piclor in contracta Sandi Luce de Veneliis 
(1389). (Arch, di State, Sez. INotarile, Test. INicolo de Ferrantibus, Busta 
436, n. 535.) Ancient documents record, among other Venetian illumi- 
nators, Simon aminiator (i33G), Franciscus aininiator prcsbitcr (i34o), Rai- 
mondo di Santa Maria Nuova, Andrea Amadio, Giacometto Veneziano, 
Ventura da Vcnezia, etc. (Gecchetti, Nomi di pitt., etc., loc. cit., p. 45). 
On ihe other hand, we find at this time many Venetian artists who went to 
Bologna. Here are some names taken from the Archivio di Stato in 
Bologna: March 9, i343, Rigo q. Manfredo di Venezia, pi^io/'e, accused 
of having assaulted Domenico da Modcna, servant of Einoldo, a German 
soldier belonging to the company of Giovanni della Torre. (Atti Giudlziali 
deir anno i343, n. 786, p. 9.''4.) — i38a ; the company of Notaries, wishing 
to restore the old pictures and to place new ones in their church, resolve 
that, if a capable artist is not to be found in Bologna, they will send to 
Venice, " ubi dicitur et creditor esse magna ars de talis tabulis et figuris." 
(Socicta dci Nolai, Provvisioni, Vol. 1876, Segn. ^, fol. 11.) — November 3, 
1389 ; a warrant for payment to Zannino da Venezia, for having painted 
the arms of the King of France in the audience hall of the Palazzo pubblico. 
(Provvisioni, scrie III, Mandati, Vol. for i38g, n. ^2, under date.) 

2 Malaguzzi-Valeri, La Minialara in Bologna dal XIII al XVIII sec. 
(Arch. Slor. ItaL. T. XVIII, 1896). 



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in S. Donato di Murano 



THE FINE ARTS 127 

but in Venice it failed to rise to the dignity of a wider 
pictorial field. The earliest Venetian pictorial monu- 
ment Avith a sure date belonging to the fourteenth cen- 
tury, but anonymous, is a bas-relief in wood, gilded 
and painted, now in the basilica of Santi Maria e 
Donato in Murano.^ In the middle is San Donato in 
Episcopal habit ; at his feet two kneeling figures repre- 
sent the Podesta of Murano, Donato Memo, and his 
wife. The inscription is one of the earliest examples of 
the Venetian dialect and runs thus : Corando MCCCX 
indicione Mil in tempo de lo nohele homo Miser Donato 
Memo honorando podesta de Muran facta fo questa an- 
chona de Miser S. Donado. Belonging to the year 182 1 
are the remains of the tomb of the blessed Leo Bembo, 
carved in wood. It used to stand in the chapel of 
San Sebastiano attached to the church of San Lorenzo. 
That chapel has long since disappeared, and the re- 
mains of the monument are now preserved in the 
cathedral of Dignano in Istria.- Still another painting 
on panel is used to fill the ogival arch over the tomb 
of the Doge Francesco Dandolo (iSSg). Many other 
anonymous works of this period have either been lost 
or destroyed ; for example, the portraits of the Doges 
from i34o to 1867 ^vhich were in the Sala del Maggior 
Consiglio, and the story of Pope Alexander III and the 
Emperor Frederic, painted in the chapel of San Niccolo 
in tiie Ducal Palace.^ On the other hand, the docu- 



^ Cicognara, Selvatico, and others class this monument amongsculptures, 
Cavalcaselle {Storia della Pitt., Vol. IV, p. 266) among paintings. In any 
case it displays tlie qualities of both. 

2 CafB, op. cit. Caprin, Marine Istriane, p. 3io. Trieste, 1889. 

• Arch, di Stato, December 11, iSig, Maggior Consiglio, Deliberazioni, 
Liber Fronesis, i3i8-i325: "Quia Ecclesia Sancti ISicolai de Palalio est 
tola nuda picturis Capta fuit pars, quod denarj qui pervcnient de bonis 



128 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

mcnts preserve the names but not the works ot* many 
painters of the Trecento, even indicating tlieir dwell- 
ings. There are, however, a few pictures whose authors 
are known. From the hand of Master Paolo (fl. i332- 
i358) — called to paint in i346, for the chapel of the 
Ducal Palace, an ancona now lost ^ — we have a panel 
at the back of the Pala d'oro in San Marco ; this 
picture he and his sons, Luca and Giovanni, executed 
in 1 345 ; also an ancona in three panels brought from 
the disused church of San Grcgorio to the Accadcmia, 
and other paintings at Piove di Sacco in the province 
of Padua, at Yicenza, at Sigmaringen and at Stuttgart. 
The painter is evidently still trammelled by the tradi- 
tions of rigid ritual. Nor arc his contemporaries farther 
emancipated, though their work is not lacking in a 
certain attractive naivete. Take Niccoletto Semitccolo 
(fl. i35i-i4oo), whose Legend of San Sebastiano (1367) 
in the Chapter Library of Padua is not without merit ; 
or Catarino and Donato, who in 1372 painted in com- 
pany the remarkable Coronation of the Virgin, now in 
the Quirini-Slampalia gallery in Venice, wdth another 
picture by him ; or Jacobello Bonomo, who in i385 
painted an admirable ancona for the church of Sant' 
Arcangelo di Romagna ; or Giacomo Alberegno, the 
painter of the Crucifi'^d Christ in the Accademia ; or 



quondam cuiusdam de cha Crippo mentecapli, quibus Commune debet suc- 
cedere debeant expendi, et ipsi in laborcrio picturaruni dictae ecclciiae 
pingendo in ea Listoriae Papae quando fuit Veneliis cum Domino 
Imperatore." 

^ Arcb. di Stato. An account of expenses for the Palace, Procuratla de 
Supra, Archivio Fabbriceria della Basilica di San Marco — Processo i8o, Busta 
77, i3^6: "Die ao mensis Julii dedimus ducatos lO auri magistro Paolo 
penlore Sancti Lucae pro pcnturam unius Ancbonae factae in Ecclesia 
Sancti ^icolai de Palatio." 



THE FINE ARTS 129 

Stefano, parish priest of Sant' Agnese, avIio flourished be- 
tween 1 354 and 1 384. We have indications of stronger 
vitahty in the Avork of Niccolo di Pietro, the painter 
of the Vergine (i394), now in the Accademia, and of 
the aiicona executed in i/io8 for the Amadi, whose 
central panel now adorns the altar of Santa Maria 
dei Miracolii and of Lorenzo Yeneziano, who flourished 
between i357 and 1379 (?). His work, preserved in 
the Accademia of Venice and Vienna, in the museums of 
Venice and Padua, and in the cathedral of Vicenza, rises 
above that of his contemporaries, and we may consider 
Lorenzo as the best of these trecentisti, for Antonio 
Veneziano, of the family of Longhi, cannot be reckoned 
a Venetian, since he lived and died in Tuscany, where, 
in the Campo Santo of Pisa, he painted the beautiful 
frescoes representing the story of the blessed Ranieri. 

These Avorks of the primitives are adored by the 
devout in religion and in art, not so much for their 
intrinsic value as for a certain air of mystery and 
suggestiveness Avhich they possess. It is, however, 
remarkable that these early pictures, in spite of their 
childlike ignorance of drawing, are ablaze Avith a colour 
as rich and deep as Ave could expect to find in a school 
of painting already well developed. This feeling for 
colour, so characteristic of Venetian painting from its 
very outset, found its natural element in the climate 
and the race, in that vaporous atmosphere Avhich 
blunts all rigid outline in the objects seen, and envelops 
them in an ethereal ambient Avith a thousand strange 

1 Niccolo di Pietro signed himself Nicholaus filius magistri petri pictoris 
de Veneciis qui moratur in chapite pontis paradixi. An altar piece of 1894 
in the Accademia di Venezia is by this master. On a cross carved by Caterino 
Moranzonc and painted by Niccolo for the Augustinian monks of Verucchio 
we read : MCCCC Nicolaus Paradixi Miles de Veneciis pinxit et Catharinus 
sancti luce incixit. 
VOL. II — 9 



i3o VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

reflections of light. Genius, of course, takes its attitude 
towards the beautiful from the varying circumstances of 
race, of atmosphere, of climate. Tuscany produces a 
school whose note is grace and purity of design ; Venice 
gives birth to an art which in its rich and mellow har- 
mony of colour reproduces the sensuous splendour of 
its natural surroundings. But this passion for colour 
had already found exjjression in Venetian architecture, 
where a brilliancy of polychromatic effect was obtained 
by precious marbles and mosaics, rude in design, but 
blazing with the magnificence of gold and colour ; and 
in consequence, the colourist's art, finding satisfaction 
in the harmonies of variegated marble, was slow to 
apply itself to panel or to fresco, even when painting 
was coming into vigorous life, not only in other regions 
of Italy, but also in the cities that lay close to Venice 
on the mainland. 

During the earliest period of painting two Venetian 
cities, Verona and Padua, hold an imj)ortant place. 
Even in the darkest middle ages Verona was not with- 
out some tincture of the art,^ while the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries give us the masters Ognibene,'-^ 
Poia, Bartolomeo, Guglielmo, Guidotto, il Turone, one 
of whose panels is in the Museum of Verona, Martino, 
and Stefano da Zevio. From this same village of Zevio 
came Altichiero, who had for partner and follower 
another distinguished Veronese artist, Jacopo d'Avanzo, 

^ The paintings in the chapel of S. Nazaro at Verona belong to the tenth 
and eleventh centuries. Cipolla, Una iscrlz. dfl 96G e le piu anticlic piU. 
Veron. (Arch. Veneto, T. XXXVII, p. Ai3). The mural paintings in the 
crypt of San Fermo Maggiore, in San Zenone, and San Siro e Libera, 
come later. Crowe and Cavalcascllc, St. della Pitt., Vol. IV, p. i^o. 

^ This name, unknown hitherto, was found by Prof. C. Cipolla recorded 
in a parchment of the Archivio of the monastery of San Fermo Maggiore, 
dated May G, laCS {Arch. Veneto, T. XXI, p. i43). 



THE FINE ARTS i3i 

not to be confounded with mediocre Bolognese Jacopo 
Avanzi. Altichicro Avorkcd in Verona and also in 
Padua, in the Palazzo del Capilanio and in the Sala 
dei Giganti in company AA'ith a certain Ottaviano Pran- 
dino of Brescia, and in the Santo and in the neighbour- 
ing chapel of San Giorgio in parlnershijD Avith Jacopo 
d'Avanzo (1876), who also produced other work of 
great beauty. 1 Allichiero and d'Avanzo, who improved 
on the manner of Giotto, may be called the precursors 
of the pictorial Renaissance in Italy, and it Avas on their 
work that the great Pisanello built his style. 

In these early days of the art Padua adorned herself 
with the marvellous works of Giotto (b. c. 1267, d. 
1337) in the Scrovegni Chapel (i3o3-i3o6), and can 
further boast of having given birth to one of the best 
masters of the Trecento, Guariento, Avho in i365 A\'as 
invited by the Venetian Republic to work in the Ducal 
Palace. There in the Sala del Maggiori Consiglio he 
painted the fresco of the Paradiso, covered later on by 
Tintoretto's great canvas of the same subject. Vasari 
also records Giusto de' Menabuoi as a Paduan. He 
and Cennino Cennini came from Florence to Padua, 
and found a patron in Francesco da Carrara, Avho shoAv- 
ered honours upon them and granted them the citizen- 
ship. Menabuoi painted the chapel of the Cortellieri 
at the Eremitani in frescoes Avliich unfortunately were 
destroyed in 16 10. Later than the year 1/420 Giovanni 
Miretto, a Paduan, and some brother artists decorated 
the Great Hall with scenes illustrating the influence of 
the stars and the seasons upon human life. 

But before the great style of Giotto asserted itself, 
some of the painting in North Italy shoAvs the inspira- 

^ Notizia d'opere di disegno, published by Jacopo Morelli. EJ. Frizzoni, 
pp. 10, 78, and 80. Bologna, i884. 



i32 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

tion of Franco-German chivalrous art ; we have a sure 
proof in ccrtahi monumenls slill existing at Treviso, 
notably in the Loggia dei Cavalieri, probably built 
towards the close of the twelfth century. The paint- 
ings in this loggia which still survive the ravages of 
time and of man were executed towards the close of the 
eleventh or the beginning of the twelfth century, and 
olTer us one of the oldest representations of the chivalric 
period in Italy. They are inside the loggia and run 
in two bands ; the lower has lovers in couples, gro- 
tesques and figures taken from the Bestiari and books 
of symbolic designs such as the Phislologi and the Lapi- 
dari, Avhich used to delight the middle ages. In the 
upper row we get the siege of Troy, one of the favourite 
subjects of chivalry. On the facade of the loggia are 
painted scenes of chivalry, knights proceeding to the 
tourney, heralded by trumpeters and followed by noble 
ladies and troubadours. Other precious monuments 
of pictorial art exist in Treviso ; for instance, the frieze 
of the Great Hall where the Parliament of the Trevisan 
Marches used to meet, — the frieze represents chimeras, 
monsters, episodes of the chase and of the tourney ; 
or, again, the frescoes which were detached from an 
old house and taken to the Museum, — these belong 
most likely to tlie end of the thirteenth century, and 
show us the deeds of the Paladins, and love scenes 
taken from the French cycle. These various flowers of 
a foreign seed, transjiorted and reared in Italy, are our 
surest proof of the influence of the North upon the 
peninsula. 

Although the city where ' ' Sile e Cagnan s'accom- 
pagna " cannot compare with ^ erona and Padua, the 
homes of great seignorial houses, nevertheless Treviso 
of the fourteenth century may boast her services to 



THE FINE ARTS i33 

painting and her place in the history of that art. The 
names of the earhcst Trcvisan painters are those of 
Gabriele Villa and his son, of Master Pcrenzolo (dead 
by 1 355),^ son of Angelo the painter, and several others 
whose works are unknown.^ To this period belong 
the frescoes of the story of Saint Ursula, remarkable 
for a vivacity of feeling which has already freed itself 
from the trammels of tradition and is seeking to reach 
the truth. These frescoes were in the church of Santa 
Margherita, and have now been taken to the Museum.^ 
They are ascribed, on the ground of analogy of treat- 
ment, to Tomaso da Modena, a painter who about the 
middle of the Trecento became famous beyond the 
Marches of Treviso. Though Tomaso Avas not a native 
of Treviso,* he lived there for long, and there produced 
his most notable works, among them his masterpiece 
in the chapter-house of the Preaching Friars of San 
Niccolo, — a frieze of saints, pontiffs, cardinals, friars, 

1 In the oft-quoted inventory of Oliviero Forzetta, Master Perenzola is 
represented by a picture in quo sunt omnia animalia et omnia pulcra. 

2 Paoletti, Raccolta di doc. inediti per servire alia sloria della pitt. 
Veneziana. Padova, 1895. 

' Bailo, Drgli affreschi salvati nella demolita ch. di S. Manjherita. 
Treviso, i883. 

* Some make Tomaso a Modenese, others a Trevisan, others again & 
Bohemian. In one document he is called Maiith or Meylo, Latin Mulina. 
Tiraboschi (Bibl. Mod., T. IV, P. II, p. ^8l) reclaims for Italy and for 
Modena the honour of having given birth to the famous artist. Federici 
(Mem. Trev., cit., p. 5i) and Schlosser [Tomaso da Modena und die Altere 
Malerei in Treviso. Wien, 1898) endeavour to prove that Tomaso was born 
in Treviso, and that da Modena is a family, not a locative name, as in ihe 
case of Veltor Pisano the Veronese, and Girolamo da Carpi the Ferrarese, 
the Lombard! of Venice, and so on. Later writers (Bertoni and Vicini, 
Tomaso da Modena. Modena, igoS) proved by documents that Tomaso 
Barisino was born in Modena in i325 ; that he probably lived at Treviso 
from i3/i6 to iSog ; tliat after i36o he was at Karlstein in Bohemia, at the 
court of Charles IV, and very likely died in Modena in the first months of 
1879. 



i34 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

sitting in their cells in contemplation. On the dado of 
the four walls tlio provinces of the order, the monas- 
teries of Lower Lomhardy, and the Generals of the 
Dominicans, in chronological sequence, are recorded 
in roundels. 

Other towns and districts of the Veneto boast their 
painters in the fourteenth century, — Niccolo da Gemona 
(fl. i33i) ; Simon da Cusighe, near Belluno (fl. i35o- 
i^iG); Bernardo, also from Belluno, — rude and un- 
skilful craftsmen, it is true, but their existence proves 
that a vital force was stirring in the world of art. At 
Venice, on the other hand, not even at the opening of 
the Quattrocento, when splendid works of architecture 
and sculpture began to adorn the city, did the art of 
painting acquire new life ; nor can we discover the 
ideas and the notes of a new artistic conception in the 
midst of much enthusiasm and sincerity of enterprise 
and of production. The master who appeared on the 
threshold of the new era, Niccolo Pietro Paradisi, still 
retains something of the earlier Gothic-Byzantine style, 
though his work reveals the influence of Giotto, as, for 
instance, in the crucifix of Verrucchio, painted in i4o4.^ 
This explains why the intelligent rulers of the State, 
when they intended to decorate the Hall of the Palace, 
after calling in the Paduan Guariento in i365, sent for 
Gentile di Niccolo di Maso da Fabriano (iSyo-i/iag .►*) 
and for Vettor Pisanello (i38o-i/i5i) the Veronese in 
i^ii. It was to these two artists, who covered the 
ample Avails of tlic Ducal Palace w4th their composi- 
tions, that Venice owed the first impulse towards a new 
artistic life. Their influence is seen on the timid arti- 
ficers of the early Quattrocento, struggling to free 

1 Niccolo calls himself Paradisi because he lived near the Ponte de* 
Paradiso. 




Jacobello del Fiore — The Coronation of the 
\irgin (i432). (Royal galleries of Venice) 



THE FINE ARTS i35 

themselves from convention, such as Francesco de* 
Franceschi Donato Bragadm ; Fra Antonio of Ncgro- 
ponte, whose Madonna in San Francesco della Yigna 
we must mention ; Jacobello del Fiore, painter of tlie 
Coronation of the Virgin (i432), the first work of large 
dimensions produced by the Venetian school ; Michele 
Giambono, who, in the mosaics of the Cappella del 
Mascoli in San Marco (i45o), reproduces with suffi- 
cient sincerity the magnificent buildings, the sumptuous 
adornment of the houses, the rich vesture of various 
hues, which seem to play with a greater freedom of 
light and movement amidst the rigid uniformity of By- 
zantine saints in their conventional attitudes of prayer 
who are scattered over the vaults of the church. The 
work of Giambono is of importance, for, not without 
some grounds, it is supposed to reveal the hand of An- 
drea del Castagno, who made a brief sojourn in Venice, 
and in all probability must have exercised some in- 
fluence on Venetian painting. To this epoch also 
belongs Carlo Crivelli, a powerful genius and a splen- 
did colourist, who, however, did not work for long in 
Venice, which city he abandoned in i468 for the 
Marche. This contrast betAveen slavish addiction to 
convention and freshness of artistic feeling becomes 
more apparent still in the work of Antonio Vivarini 
(born at Murano in i/ii5 and died in 1/176). About 
the year i44o he opened a shop in Venice near Santa 
Maria Formosa, — one of those primitive workshops 
where, as Cennino Cennini remarks in his Trattato, 
they made every kind of object that had any connec- 
tion soever with the art, and turned out altar-jDieces 
complete with their paintings and carved frames. The 
workshop of \ivarini welcomed, between i44i and 
1449, as assistant, Giovanni d'Alemagna, the well-known 



i36 VEMCE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Joannes Alemannus, from tlic school of Cologne ; and 
two other fine spirits of the Vivarini family, Barto- 
lomco and Alvise, brother and son of Antonio, were 
also educated there ; while Quirizio and Andrea da 
Murano were followers of the style. These first elTorts 
to raise and vivify the Venetian school of painting 
found help from the school of Padua, where a great 
revolution had been initiated by Squarcione (iSq/j-iAv^) 
and carried out by Andrea Mantegna (i43i-i5o6), — 
a revolution which entirely changed the method and 
aspect of the art. Under the illuminating influence of 
Mantegna and Donatello the Venetian school was en- 
abled to assimilate other elements from the study of 
the ponentini. The active and frequent commercial re- 
lations between Venice, Flanders and Germany brought 
to the notice of the Venetians the works of many 
northern artists, — Van Eyck (i/iaG-i/i/io), Van dcr 
Weyden( 1899-146/1), Memling(i435-i/i9o), and others 
whose names are to be met in the catalogue of Morelli's 
Anonimo. Two pictures, the Paradiso (i/i44) and the 
Madonna enthroned with the four Doctors of the Church 
(i/i46), painted by Antonio Vivarini and Giovanni 
d'Alemagna, by their brilliant colouring reveal the 
influence of the North. The earliest dawn of that art, 
which was aftersvards displayed by Giorgione and 
Titian, may be still better noted in the work of Jacopo 
Bellini, a master of a lofty genius, who, however, even 
in our own day, is better known as the father of Gio- 
vanni and Gentile and as the father-in-law of Mantegna, 
than for his own rare merits. lie was tlie true founder 
of the early Venetian school, and among his compa- 
triots, even of the best period, had none to surpass him 
in masterly grasp of the antique harmoniously blended 
with a realistic rendering of actual life. We have but 



THE FINE ARTS 187 

scanty information as to his career, which began about 
i4oo and closed about 1/170.^ He sprang from humble 
origin. His father, Niccolo, was a tinsmith. As a 
youth Jacopo found neither instruction nor help among 
the conventional painters of his native toAvn ; but the 
new methods introduced into the lagoon by Pisanello 
and Gentile da Fabriano soon brought him to appre- 
ciate the masterly delicacy of their art. He became a 
devoted pupil of Gentile, and followed his teacher to 
Florence. There an incident reveals to us the quick 
temper of the young Venetian painter ; in 1/12 4, in the 
course of a brawl, he thrashed Bernardo, the son of Ser 
Silvestro di Ser Tomaso, and was condemned to prison, 
Avhere he stayed till his adversary generously declared 
that he pardoned the assault.^ In 1/129 Jacopo came 
back to Venice with his wife, Anna, who bore him 
Gentile and Giovanni. He worked much in Venice, 
Verona, Ferrara, where he was brought into happy 
rivalry with Pisanello, and in Padua, where very likely 

1 Molmenli, / pittori Bellini (Stadi e ricerche di storia d'arte. Torino, 
1892). Cantalamessa, L'arte di J. Bellini {Ateneo Veneto, Marzo-Aprile, 
1896). Paolctti and Ludwig, Neue archivalische Beitrdge zur Geschichte der 
Venezianischen Malerei (Repertorium fur Kunst wissenschaft. Berlin and 
Stuttgart, X\II Band, 1899). 

2 This declaration has been preserved to us, and confirms the accuracy 
of all the biographies, from Vasari downward, which affirm that Jacopo 
was a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano, for he is so described in the document. 
Adolfo Venturi, however, has raised a doubt, on the ground that in the 
document Jacopo is called the son of Pietro, whereas other documents 
prove him to have been the son of Niccolo, who made his will in i^a^- But 
Cantalamessa very properly observes that in order to upset so old a tradi- 
tion more is required than a disagreement in names, which might quite 
well have arisen from the carelessness of a clerk. Further, argues Can- 
talamessa, the document was damaging to the reputation of Jacopo, a 
stranger in Florence, who, in a fit of resentment and under the necessity 
of preserving intact his fair name in Venice, very hkely gave a false name 
for his father. It is a case where the accused and the witness are one and 
the same person. Cantalamessa, op. cit., p. 11. 



i38 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

he knew Donatcllo and had professional relations with 
Manlegna, to whom he gave his daughter Nicolosia in 
marriage. Donatcllo taught him some of the secrets 
of tlie great Tuscan masters, while from Mantegna he 
learned how to study and worship classical sculpture. 
Among the few works of his rescued from the ravages 
of time and of man, we still possess two Madonnas, one 
in the Tadini Gallery at Lovcre, the other in the Acca- 
demia at Venice,^ and a crucifix in the Museum of 
Verona. But as a convincing proof of his mastery in 
comparison with the tentative timidity of his contem- 
poraries, we need only cite the admirable draAvings 
in the British Museum and in the Louvre. They dis- 
play a rich and varied fancy, coupled with a severe 
study of antiquity, which brouglit Jacopo to that per- 
fection which he himself attained and left as a legacy 
to his sons and his pupils. Jacopo Bellini not only 
sowed the first seeds of the great Venetian school of 
painting, but laid down its laws, indicated its aims, gave 
it the imprint, which was developed, in later years, on 
grander lines, but was never changed.^ With him comes 
to a close the middle ages, and the art of painting begins 
to look forward to the glory of the Renaissance which 
Avas destined to steep Venice in ncAV splendours. 

^ To these two Madonnas some, not without good grounds, wish to add 
a Madonna in the Louvre and another belonging to Jean Paul Richlcr in 
London. Ricci, / dipinti di Jacopo Bellini (Emporium, ISovember-Decembcr, 
igoS). G. Cagnola, Intorno a Jacopo Bellini (Rassegna d'arte, March, 
190A). 

^ Cantalamessa calls him il capilano della schiera portentosa, and Lafe- 
nestre (Venise, p. XI) le vvai fondaicur de Vdcole Vi^nitienne. This view of 
Jacopo Bellini's place is not new ; as early as the seventeenth century it 
was announced by Piacenza [Giunie at Baldinucci, Vol. IL p. 62, 1770). 



CHAPTER XIII 
CULTURE 

DURING the period of her early growth Venice 
devoted her whole attention to the formation of 
her constitution, and was entirely absorbed in 
war and commercial enterprise. It is true that the 
city was adorned Avitli buildings, both religious and 
civil, which displayed all the grace of the Byzantine 
style, and that the government fostered artistic indus- 
tries; but architecture^ intimately associated as it is 
with the civil and religious life of a State, aims at 
delighting the eye rather than at meeting the needs of 
the citizen, while artistic industries are in close con- 
nection Avith commercial enterprise. In neither case 
was art for its own sake the immediate object. We 
may take, indeed^ as a proof of their liking for the 
arts, the fact that the Venetians brought back to their 
country, as trophies of victory, monuments of high 
artistic value ; but far above all other considerations 
in their minds, as in the minds of the ancient Romans, 
was the sentiment of national pride and martial spirit, 
and in the excitement of victory or the confusion of 
the sack every object of any value Avas carried off to 
adorn the temples and the homes of their native city. 
Impatient of all refinements, the grooving State, in its 
rude republican vigour, did not achieve the accom- 
plishment of the arts, nor did it lend itself to the en- 
couragement of letters, which in the earlier years must 



i/jo VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

have all but starved. Liferarum studiis operam non 
dabanf, says Cardinal Agostino Valicr, and adds : si 
qui fuerunt, qui Uteris delectarentur, erant perpauci} 
Although we hear that the Patriarch Paulinus, as early 
as 733, was a master of belles let (res, and record re- 
mains of some learned bishops of Olivolo,^ general 
education must have been at a very low ebb if some 
of the Doges, Pietro Tradonico and Tribuno Memo 
for example, could not write, and had to sign docu- 
ments by a sirjuum manus.^ It is, of course, true that 
the condition of other Italian cities was no better ; in 
825 the Capitolare of Lothair affirms that learning 
cunctis in locis Regni Italici funditus extincta.^ 

Nor, as time went on, did Venetian learning approach 
the glory of Venetian arms. In the eleventh century 
we find mention of Domenico Marengo, Patriarch of 
Grado, learned in Greek, of San Gherardo Sagredo, 
who was a theologian, and of some chroniclers whose 
works have for the most part disappeared. The oldest 
chronicles Ave possess belong to the end of the tenth 
and the beginning of the eleventh century : they are 
the Cronaca de singulis patriarchis nove Aquileie ; the 
Chronicon gradense, attributed to Vitale IV Candiano, 
Patriarch of Grado ; the Cronaca Veneziana of John the 
Deacon, capellanus ducis Venetiarum, the latest notice 



1 Valerii, Aug., De cautione adhihenda in edendis libris, etc., c. 48. 
Patavii, 17 19. 

2 Gallicciolli, Vol. II, p. 1718. 

* In the will of Orso, Bishop of Olivolo (835), the notary writes signum 
manus excellentlssimo Petro (that is, the Doge Pietro Tradonico). Cfr. 
Gloria, Cod. Dipl. Pad. Venezia, 1877. Among the witnesses to the deed 
founding the monastery of San Giorgio Maggiore (986) we get: signum 
manus Tribuni ducis (that is, the Doge Tribuno Memo). Cfr. Ughelli, /(. 
Sacra, Vol. V, p. 1200. 

* Leges Lombardicae (Rer. It. Script., Vol. I, P. II, p. i5i.) 



CULTURE i/ii 

of whom is in ioi8,^ and the Cronaca Altinate, so 
called hecause one of the several fragments of which 
the chronicle is composed, refers to Altino. Of these 
various fragments some belong to the tenth, others to 
the eleventh century. ^ Belonging to the twelfth cen- 
tury we have the Annali Veneti ; the Storia dei dogi di 
Venezia from 1102 to 1229, a codex in the Patriarchal 
Seminary at Venice ; the Cronaca of Marsilio Zorzi, 
the lost account of the apparition of San Marco, 
written by Zenone, abbot of San INiccolo del Lido, and 
the Hisforia de translatione Sancti Nicolai by an anony- 
mous monk of San rsiccolo. The thirteenth century 
gives us another anonymous account of the apparition 
of San Marco, and the Relatio de pace Veneta, which 
took place in 1 1 7 1 . The authors of these chronicles 
were almost all clerks, who, in the midst of universal 
ignorance, preserved the sacred legends, and in their 
theological studies give us the first dim hght of literary 
culture. 

Poetry had no share in brightening the infancy of 
this culture. The vast and silent spaces of the lagoon 
would seem made to unlock the divine fount of song, 
and yet the muses were never held in high esteem in 
Venice, or, perhaps, it would be truer to say they 
were never worthily wooed, and never attained any 
great influence upon general culture, even Avhen refine- 
ment had reached a high standard. The genius of 
the Venetians was always more inclined to matters of 
trade, to political discussion, to severe studies, than 
to the graces of verse and song ; and if we find a 

^ Monticolo, Cron.Ven. antichiss., preface. 

2 Simonsfeld, in his edition (Man. Germ. Hist., XIV), has omitted the 
interpolated passages, and for his text has adopted Cod. Vat. 5378 (saec. 
XIII) with the variations in the MSS. at Dresden, in the Patriarchal Semi- 
nary at Venice and in the Marciana, Lat. CI. XI, 124. 



i/ia VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

superabundant crop of hislorico-political verse centring 
round tlie glories of the Republic, it lias no literary 
value whatsoever, and was, in fact, merely an instru- 
ment in the hands of the government for tuning public 
opinion.^ Before the year looo not a single line of 
verse is to be met with in any of the documents, and 
the only example of poetry belonging to this epoch is 
the inscription in honour of the Patriarch Elia when 
he completed the walls of the church of Grado. 

Alria quae cornis vario formata decore 
Squallida sub picto coellatur marmore lellus 
Longa veluslatis scnio fuscavcrat aetas 
Prisca en cosserunl magno novitalis honorl 
Praesuli Hollas studio praestanti beati 
Haec sunt tuto pio, semper devota timori. 

We must not, however, conclude that the Venetians 
were entirely lacking in a delicate sense of poetical 
emotion ; its presence is proved by the crop of legends 
which gathered round San Marco, and lend a wholly 
peculiar value to the statuary, the columns, the precious 
marbles of the building. There is the rock that Moses 
struck to draw water for the thirsty people ; the marbles 
that saw Christ announce the divine message to the 
people of Tyre ; the stones bedewed by the Baptist's 
blood ; portraits of the Redeemer carved at Jerusalem ; 
likenesses of the Madonna painted by Saint Luke ; cruci- 
fixes that sprinkle gouts of gore if a sacrilegious hand 
but touch them ; columns of the judgment seat of Pilate 
on which the bleeding Christ had leaned ; symbolical 
figures designed by the Abbot Gioachino di San Fiore, 
who was gifted with the spirit of prophecy. Mid the 
sombre shadows of the church, from the roof and 
the walls, peopled by saint and prophet, were heard 

^ Medio, La Storia della repubblica di Venezianella poesia. Milano, 1904. 



CULTURE i43 

mysterious voices presaging some judgment of God. 
Sucli dreams as tliese were scope enough lor the naive 
faith, the simple sentiment, the exuberant fancy of the 
Venetian people, without recourse to poetry in verse or 
song. And so pocsie delayed her advent, and what there 
was, merely re-echoed the poetry of France. The 
"joyous art," which had reached perfection in Pro- 
vence, found a welcome throughout the entire Yeneto, 
especially at Treviso, at the courts of the Ezzetini and 
of the Gaminesi, and in the great castles that crowned 
the hills of the Marca Amorosa. Some flower of culture 
from the Languedoc was transplanted even into Venice 
itself, where down the vie one might hear the nouvels 
chansons et chansonetes et coubles,^ and where, in the 
second half of the thirteenth century, the patrician Bar- 
tolomeo Zorzi, savis horn de sen natural, could ben Irobar 
e cantar in the soft Provencal tongue.^ Made prisoner 
by the Genoese, and hearing his country insulted by the 
Ligurian Bonifacio Calvi, the Venetian poet replied in 
a sirventese, beginning : 

Mout fort me sul d'un chan meravIUatz. 

Another example of graceful French verse has been 
preserved for us in the poetry of the Venetian lady 
Cristina, born about i363, daughter of Tommaso Pisani, 
Councillor of State and later on summoned to the court 
of the French King Charles V. Seldom in the middle 
ages has poetry expressed emotion or the very depths 
of grief in accents of truer or profounder feeling,^ 
than in the verses of this lady, who, left a widow at 

1 Da Canal, Cron. dcs Venic, cit. 

2 Levy, E., Dor Troub. B. Zorzi, p. 36. Halle, i883. 

* CEuvres Podtiques de Christine de Pisan, published by Maurice Roy. 
Paris, i886. 



i44 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

twenty-five by the death of Stefano du Castcl, sought 
solace in devotion to her children and in learning, 
which alone enables us to face the changes and chances 
of this mortal life ; 

Carqui bien I'a, trop est grant son pouvoir. 

She dedicated herself to the severest studies, and from 
her poetry, suffused with tendercst melancholy, she 
passed on to her Enseignements moraux, her Epitres sur Ic 
Roman de la Rose, to her Proverbes moraux and her 
Livre de Prudence. 

But besides the sumptuous lyric, the epic also found 
favour wdth the Venetians, the chansons des gestes, born 
in the north of France and written in langue doll. 
The Garolingian cycle, first chanted by the cantor es 
francigenarum, and then repeated by Italian cantastorie 
in mongrel dialect, became popular, and left their mark ; 
for example, the Via Emilia is still called the strada 
d' Orlando. French gradually mingled with the speech 
of our people, and here and there, blending with 
chivalrous romance, and with songs of the fair Isotta, 
of Ginevra, of Lancelot, of Fleur and Blanchefleur, we 
get fables concealing a satyric intent, such as Rainardo 
e Lesengrino, a Franco-Venetian version of Reynard 
the Fox.^ It was in French that Rusticiano of Pisa 
wrote doAvn the voyages Marco Polo dictated to him, 
probably in Venetian dialect ; and it was in French, 
the language la plus del'ilahle a lire el a oir que mile 
autre, that Martino da Canal, who lived in the second 
half of the thirteenth century, recorded the glorious 
deeds of Venetian arms. One of the earliest and one 

1 Published by E. Teza, Pisa, 1869, and by Putelli in tbe Giornale di 
Fil. Romanza, Vol. II, p. 186, ser ; also by E. Martin, Le Roman di Re- 
nard., Vol. II, pp. 358 seq. Strasburg, 1880. 



CULTURE i45 

of the warmest invocations of the blessing of Heaven 
upon the famous city of the lagoons, is to be found in 
the French of Da Canal : 

aide les Veneciens, et faites orison 
a notre Sieur Dieu, en qui nos bien creon, 
et a sa dame Mere, que Dieu nos fait pardon, 
et manteigne Venice sans nule discorde ; 
Pes, bone volonte, sans tirer male corde 
Soit en Venice. 

But the mighty influence of Rome still reigned 
supreme in the minds of men, and the Roman lan- 
guage still survived in all public deeds and in all the 
more important records of the State. It was in the 
Latin tongue that, about 1820, Bonincontro de' Bovi, 
a Bolognese, wrote an account of the visit of Alexander 
III to Venice ; de' Bovi was a clerk in the Venetian 
chancery, and, as he says of himself, verbo et opere 
iotas Venetas et Rivallensis. Bonincontro's account 
served as material for the poem on the same subject 
composed in i33i by Castellano of Bassano, and from 
his verses came a large number of the inscriptions 
which explained the paintings in the Sala del Maggior 
Consiglio.^ Belonging to the fourteenth century also 
are the Legendae de tempore et de Sanctis written by 
the Dominican Pietro Calo of Chioggia, the chronicle 
of a certain Marco which reproduces the Altinate and 
the Cronaca Da Canale, the so-called Stoina dei Fraii 
di San Salvatore, by Francesco Grazia, prior of that 
monastery (1377). Among the lost but often quoted 
works we get the Chronicon Venetum of Pietro Gius- 
tinian, who flourished about 1265, and the Memoriali 
of Piero Guilombardo, who lived about i33o.^ The 

1 Monlicolo, Note alle Vile dei Dogi del Sanudo, cit., p. An, nota I. 

2 Foscarini, Lett. Ven., Lib. II. 

■VOL. u — 10 



i46 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

chronicles of Andrea Dandolo the Doge (i354), of 
Benintendi de' Ravagnani, Grand Chancellor of the 
Republic (d. i3G5), andof his successor Raflaino Caresini 
(d. iSqo), — wlio found a contemporary translator, 
— of Lorenzo dc Monacis, Grand Chancellor of Crete 
in 1 389, who died at a great age in 1/129,1 all enjoy 
a wider repute. The work of Dandolo, Avhich comes 
down to 1339, stands highest in esteem on account 
of its lofty point of view and its copious information 
drawn from documents now for the most part lost. 

Latin poetry too had its votaries, such as Giovanni 
the grammarian, the Ducal Grand Chancellor Tan to, 
and a preaching friar who, in i3i6, wrote Latin verses 
on the birth of a lioness Avhich Frederic King of Aragon 
had sent to the Doge Giovanni Soranzo ; Albertino 
Mussato sent a reply also in verse. ^ 

But literary Latin was the patrimony of the few. 
In actual life the language had long ago been corrupted 
under the pen of notary and scribe, who, in the effort 
to adopt the traditional forms of the Latin tongue to the 
daily actions of the people, tacked on Latin termina- 
tions to the words which in the mouth of the common 
folk had now for some centuries constituted what was 
virtually a new language. And here arise the ques- 
tions : When did the vernacular come into use and how 
was it constructed ? When do we find the earliest 
records of that speech which came to be now weighty 
and solemn in assemblies, now soft and caressing in 

^ Although Lorenzo lived well into the fifteenth century, his chronicle 
does not pass beyond the Trecento ; it was published in the eighteenth 
century under this title: "Chronicon de rebus Venetis ah urbe condita ad 
annum millesimum trigentesimum quinquagesimum quartum, sive ad con- 
jurationem Ducis Falelri." 

2 Monticolo, Poesie lalinc d.^l principio del sec. XIV {Propagnatorc , new 
series, Vol. Ill, P. II, p. a.'ii Bologna, 1890). 



CULTURE i47 

verse and song ? We must not plead that such ques- 
tions cannot be answered with precision, eitlicr for 
the Venetian dialect or for any otlicr. Dialects had 
their origin at the same epoch which saw the ethno- 
logical combinations that created the race, and are 
explained by those developments. Thus in ancient 
Venice two diverse forms of low Latin clashed with 
each other, — the one which Ave call ladina, that 
dialectical group to which belongs, for examjile, the 
ancient Lpeech of the Bellunesi and Friulani, and the 
other a speech which we will call Venetian proper, in 
which the modifications and corruptions of the Latin 
tongue are less profound and differ considerably from 
those which characterise the dialects of Lombardy or 
Emilia. These differences between the true Venetian 
type, which ended by completely effacing Latin, and 
the Lombard or Emilian and other mainland types are 
naturally to be explained by the diversity of the in- 
digenous races upon which the Latin language was 
imposed. But these differences are produced essentially 
by the diverse ways in which the original native lan- 
guages, according to their varying qualities and vigour, 
reacted on and modified Latin ; that is to say, it is from 
the diverse words in which Latin Avas broken down by 
the native speech, not by the retention of either Avords 
or idioms from that speech, that the various dialects 
came into existence. Some have thought they dis- 
covered in the Venetian dialect a strong morphological 
resemblance to Greek, but they have overlooked the 
fact that the many Greek Avords introduced by trade in 
more or less recent times, and in return for the many 
Venetian words adopted by Greek, have nothing to do 
with the fundamental structure of the Venetian dialect. 
That dialect presents the characteristics of great softness, 



i48 VEiMCE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

and has peculiarities of grammar, vocabulary and 
phonetics which deserve to be studied by the rigid 
methods of modern philology, beyond the point where 
these peculiarities are patent to the ear : for example, 
the frequent use of diphthongs ; a slight drag on the tonic 
vowels, which lends to the language a curious chant- 
like quality {canlilenci), especially observable in the 
natives of Ghioggia and Burano ; the accent, now so- 
norous, now tender ; the prolonged ultimate syllable, — 
which, as time Avent on, came to be truncated in nouns, 
adjectives and infmitives, at least in Venice itself though 
not in all the adjacent islands of the lagoon ; the 
repetition of the adjective instead of the superlative ; 
and many another characteristic which need not be 
recorded here. We have no earlier examples of the 
vernacular in public deeds than some mariegole of 
the thirteenth century, and some acts of the Podesta of 
Lido Maggiore (i3i2-i3i9).^ Dialect came to be used 
in chronicles, and Giovanni Lucio, in his De Regno 
Dalmatiae el Croaliae, cites two, also recorded by Fos- 
carini,'-^ which are earlier than the fourteenth century. 

But the abundant crop of moral and religious poetry 
in Lombard and Venetian dialects indicates that it must 
have had many cultivators in the lagoons ; it is certain 
that the ascetic and didactic poems of Giacomino da 
Verona, Bescape, Bonvesin da Riva, Uguccione da 
Lodi, were in circulation in Venice itself, for in the 
very earliest copies they are found along with anony- 
mous poems which betray Venetian dialectical forms. ^ 
We may go even further : the recent publication of 
Venetian texts proves that a varied literature in the 

^ See Ascoli'.s profound studies in the y\rrhivlo rjhttohgico Ualiano, Vols. I 
(Venezia antica. pp. 448-405), III (244-284) and"lV (356-3G7). 
2 Foscarini, Lett. Ven., Lib. II. 
* Mussafia, Mon. ant. di dialetti Hal. Vienna, i864. 



CULTURE idg 

native dialect was flourishing in the lagoons, — we 
find, for example, both sermons and romances. 
Romances, indeed, are not confined to the hybrid 
Franco-Venetian language, but are to be met with in 
pure Venetian, though the hybrid held its own for 
many years down into the fourteenth century, and the 
chief of the Franco-Venetian troubadours, Niccolo da 
Verona, flourished in the middle of that century.^ 

Already from the heart of Italy ncAv and purer forms 
of speech and of poetry began to spread over the pe- 
ninsula ; and the constant commercial relations between 
Tuscany and Venice are sufficient to explain how it 
came about that Venetian Avriters were led to imitate 
Dante and his early friends and foUoAvers. At Tre- 
viso, where the traditions of the troubadours still 
survived and flourished, where at the close of the thir- 
teenth and the opening of the fourteenth century we 
find a university regularly established and constituted, ^ 
a whole band of able rhymesters on love and politics ^ 
made its appearance with the fourteenth century. The 
leader and master was Niccolo de' Rossi, who com- 
posed songs on the philosophy of love in the manner 
of Cavalcanti, and political sonnets in which he dreams 
of an Italy united under the sceptre of a single sovereign 
crowned by the Pontiff.* Along with his own poems 
he copied into his note-book, which has come down 
to us,^ other poems bearing the names of the most 

^ Crescini, Di una data imporlante nella storia della epopea Franco- 
Veneta. Venezia, 1896. Di Nicolb da Verona. Yenezia, 1897. 

2 Marchesan, L'Vniversita di Treviso nei secoli XIII e XIV. Treviso, 
1893. 

3 Marchesan, op. cit., Cap. V. 

* Sonetti incditi di Mess. Niccolo de' Rossi da Treviso, published by 
G. Navone. Roma, 1888. 

5 MS. Barberiniano XLV, 47. autograph of Niccolo de' Rossi. 



i5o VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

illustrious contemporary Tuscans, — some of whom 
were in exile at Venice or in the Veneto,^ — and also 
poems by his fellow citizens, such as Gualpertino da 
Codcrta and Albcrtino Girologo, or the exiled Vene- 
tian, Niccolo Quirini.2 ^\iq illustrious family of 
Quirini gave to ^ enice, in the early years of the Tre- 
cento, another and far greater poet, Giovanni Quirini, 
the friend of Dante, who challenged him in a set of 
sonnets. Quirini is worthy to stand at the head of that 
noble band of Venetian rhymers which a century later 
Leonardo Giustinian pictured in his poem, the Lean- 
dreide,^ as being passed in review by the divine 
Alighieri. Thanks to recent research, that band is no 
longer what it seemed some years ago, a mere list of 
names.* Of Quirini alone we now possess upwards of a 
hundred compositions,^ among them several exquisite 
ballads or danzette, as he calls them, which we might well 
suppose to be the work of one of the very best Florentine 
poets of the dolce stil nuovo, and certain sonnets in 
which he speaks of the Divina Commed'a, or mourns the 
poet dead a few weeks after he had been to Venice on 

^ It would seem that the Lucchese Pletro Faitinelli spent the years of 
his exile at Venice. His poems are in the Barbcrini MS. Pietro, son 
of Dante Alighieri, died at Treviso. Fazio degli Uberti probably lived at 
Padua ; his father was Podesta there for some years. 

2 Marchcsan, op. cit. Canzone d'amore di Mess. N. Quirini, ed. by 
L. Biadene. Asolo, 1887. Sei sonetti di Mess. N. Quirini da Venezia, ed. 
O. Zenatti. Bologna, 1887. 

3 An uncritical edition of the Leandreide saw the light in Poesie di 
mille autori inlorno a Dante Alighieri, Vol. II, 1890. For a critical 
bibliography see R. Renier in the Giornale Stor. della letl. ilal., Vol. XXV, 
1895, pp. 335 et seq. 

* Lazzarini, Rimatori Vencziani del secolo XVI. Padova, 1887. 

^ Morpurgo, 7?ime inedile di Giovanni Quirini e Antonio da Tempo. 
Roma, 1 88 1. Dante Alifjhifri e le nuove rime di Giov. Quirini (BuUet- 
tino della Societa Dantesca, Vol. I, fasc. 7). Olio ballate di G. Quirini. 
Prate, 1896. 



CULTURE i5i 

a mission of peace, or defends his memory from the 
posthumous attacks of Gecco d'Ascoh. In the Lean- 
dreide Quirini is followed by Giovanni Foscarini, 
between i35o and iSgo, better known in arms and 
in politics than in letters ; by Bonaventura BalTo, a 
preaching friar, to whom Petrarch addressed one of 
his Senili ; ^ by Antonio dalle Binde, a Paduan by 
birth, but living in Venice, Avhere he was hanged from 
the loggia of the Ducal Palace for his share in Marino 
Falier's conspiracy;^ and by others. JNext Ave come 
to a writer of higher poetical claims, Jacobello or 
Belletto Gradenigo, who fdled many posts, both in and 
outside Venice in the late Trecento. In iSgo, being 
then Podesta in Padua, he turned all the four Gospels 
into terzets, making a single consecutive poem, — an 
enormous labour ; the original manuscript has reached 
us, and on the first page Ave have a portrait of the 
author in a A^ermilion gOAA^n.^ Gradenigo also tran- 
scribed Avitli his OAvn hand a remarkably fine codex of 
the Divina Commedia, and challenged in sonnets Fran- 
cesco di Vannozzo, a Trevisan at the court of the 
Carrarcsi. We have other poets, not included in the 
list of the Leandrcide, but not uuAvorthy of record never- 
theless : Leonardo Pisani, AAriter of hymns at the time 

1 Lazzarini, op. cit., p. ^ii. 

2 Ibid., Un vimatore Padorano del Trecento (per iVozze Rossi-Teiss). Ber- 
gamo, 1897. Before joining the conspiracy Dalle Binde must have been 
a persona grata to the Signory of Venice, for he addressed a sonnet, in per- 
sona del Doge, to Antonio da Ferrara, asking news of the Venetian victory at 
Algliero (i355). 

^ The Codex of the Quattro Evangeli is in the R. Museum at Berlin, 
Hamilton Collection, n. 247. For notices of Gradenigo, besides Lazzarini, 
op. cit., pp. 45, 5i, see 0. Zenatti in the Rivista critica delta lett. ilal., 
V. 3. Tambellini, II codice dantcsco gradenighiano (in the Propugnatore, 
new series. Vol. IV, p. i58). Mazzoni, / qualtro Vangeli, concordali in 
una da Jacopo Gradenigo (in the " Atti e Memorie dell' Accad. di Padova," 
Vol. VIII, disp. 3). 



i5a VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

of the processions of the Bianchi, whom he and the 
Florentine Giovanni Domenichi hrought to Venice ; 
and Pietro Natah, author of a catalogue of saints in 
Latin and of a poem in Venetian-Italian describing in 
terza-rima the visit of Pope Alexander III to Venice. 
Natali was Bishop of Jesolo, hut seems to have been a 
man of depraved habits, if it be not a calumny that 
he caused himself to be conveyed inside a Venetian 
nunnery concealed in a box.' 

In prose, Fra Paolino, a Minorite, composed and 
dedicated to Marino Badoer, Duke of Candia, between 
i3i3 and i3i5, the little treatise De Regimine rector is, 
wherein, in purest Venetian dialect, he instructs the 
father of a family in the virtues private and public. 
The work is a theoretical dissertation, packed with the 
usual apothegms, and divided in the usual scholastic 
fashion ; nevertheless we can read, not without inter- 
est, some of its pages which reflect faithfully enough 
the habits of the time. 

It was in this same dialect employed by Fra Paolino 
that the people sang their country, their religion, their 
loves. Love was the theme of the young men in the 
fields, and Ave have records of whole parties fined for 
singing out of season. In the streets one might hear 
sonnets satirising the nobility,- or long poems on the 
prowess or the astuteness of the Republic ; as in iSyS, 
when the State was at war with the Lord of Padua, 
and the women of the people going ad putheum pro 

1 Lazzarini, Rlmatori, etc., p. 65: "Petrus Natalis episcopus equilinus, 
ivit ad Romanam Curiam et volendo paliare culpam suam de excessu quern 
commisit faciendo se porlari latentcr ad unum de nostris monasteriis in 
uno cofEno conatur dicere aliqua contra dominum Palriarcham." 

2 In 1 366 a certain Francesco, a goldsmith, was acquitted of a charge of 
having made " aliquam canlionem vel sonetum in obprobrium nobilium 
Veneciarum." See Lazzarini, Marino Falicro, p. i84. 



CULTURE i53 

auriendo aquam would stay per unum pedum ad audien- 
dum canere uriam cancionem facia de novo de paduanis} 
We have but few examples of these antique popular 
songs ; only a fragment here and there has been found 
by chance on the back of some notarial parchment or 
in some public register, such as the Lamenlo dclla sposa 
padovana per la partenza del marito crocialo, discov- 
ered on a contract in the archives of the Papafava 
family. 2 More important was the discovery in the first 
volume of the Deliberazioni of the Maggior Consiglio,^ of 
some lines from the Divina Commedia and a sonnet attrib- 
uted to Dante, and, side by side with these illustrious 
rhymes, some love-songs in purest Venetian, proverbs, 
and toper's saws ; * and then, as if to give us a lifelike 
picture of the lazy loafer Avho thus scribbled over the 
register, Ave get the words " Caro compare, andemo 
a conseio a piar ! " and close by — very much to the 
point as far as the Councillors of the Republic are 
concerned — Ave get the famous sonnet of Guinizelli : 

Omo ch'e savio non corre lezero, 

ma pensa e guarda quel che vol mesura ; 

poi ch'a pensato, reten lo pensero 

in fin a tanto ch'el ne I'assecura, etc. 

These warning lines recall to mind the verses carved 
on a marble seat to the left of the Porta della Carta 
as you enter the Ducal Palace ; they are graven on a 
tablet held up by two angels : 

L'om po' fare die impensar : 

e vega quel o' che li p6 incliontrar. 

1 Arch, di Stato, Avog. di Comun., Raspe, III, fol. ^i. 
' It is a fragment of a Venetian moral or didactic poem. See Lazza- 
rini's edition in the Propugnatore, 1888, II, pp. 3o2-3i3. 

• Morpurgo, in the Giornale di FUohgia, Vol. IV, p. ao4, n. 3. 

* " Chi ben beve hen dorme; Chi ben dorme mal no pensa ; Chi mal no 
pensa mal no fa ; Chi mal no fa in Paradiso va ; Ora ben beve, che Paradises 



i54 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

On the piazza some merry-andrew — maybe a friend 
of Stecclii and Martellino,^ two well-known buflbons, 
who certainly stopped in Venice — would run through 
his repertoire of songs, hardly suited for politer ears,^ 
to the joy of the crowd that hustled about him. 
But in the world of letters, what was all this in com- 
parison with Tuscany, which already could boast her 
three great masters who gave language, style and 
spirit to the whole of Italian literature ? In Venice 
literary culture was so rare among the middle and 
lower classes that even in the fourteenth century a 
judge who could not read was not unheard of, — as, 
for instance, Michele Pampulo, judge at Caorle, qui 
nesciens scribere pro se, scribere rogavit the celebrated 
Bertaldo ; ^ and another judge in Chioggia, who in 
1 33 1 signed by a mark, signum Petri jervasio judicis 
scribere nescieniis .^ This, however, does not mean that 
there was not to some extent an intellectual revival ; and 
without actually believing that in the thirteenth century 
the Trevisan Niccolo Boccasino, who mounted the pon- 
tifical throne as Benedict XI, taught grammar to the 
children of the Quirini family, while living in Venice, 
it is quite certain that in this same century public read- 
ings in holy wTit were instituted ; the sublime or the 
difficult passages of Scripture {ctUiora et subtiliora) were 
explained in Latin, while the passages referring to con- 
duct^ Avere expounded in the vernacular ; while philos- 
ophy, especially the physics, metaphysics and ethics of 
Aristotle, were also made the subject of close study. 

^ See Decameron, Giorn. II, ISov. i and F. Sacchetti, ISov. 144. and the 
Rivista critica delta led. ital., IV, 167. 

2 Casini, Rime ined. del sec. XIII e XIV., cit. 

8 Besta, Jacopo Bertaldo, cit., p. 122. 

* Arch, di Slalo, Proc. di San Marco, Misti, B. 3i5. 

' Sanudo Torsello, Seer. Fidel. Crucis, L. Ill, P. XV, c. 33. > 



CULTURE i55 

The great scries of diplomatic reports, a splendid 
monument of Venetian political wisdom, begins in the 
year 1268, when a rule was laid down requiring every 
ambassador, on his return from his mission, to present 
to the Senate a memorandum of what he had seen and 
observed during his service abroad. The earlier of 
these rclazioni have been lost ; the later only are pre- 
served in the Archivio ; but it was the Venetian envoys 
of the middle ages who laid down the lines upon which 
Venetian diplomats of a later day proceeded in the dis- 
charge of their task. These men knew and observed 
the larger part of the world, and present their picture 
of it with a depth of insight and a vigour of form never 
surpassed. We have a further proof that the Venetian 
aristocracy was cultured as a class in the large number 
of them who, thanks to their fame for wisdom, were 
called upon to fill the post of Podesta in the various 
cities of Italy. ^ Indeed the number grew so great that 
the Republic was compelled to pass a law ^ by which 
Venetians were forbidden to accept a Podestaria, or, as 
they said, anclar in signoria, if there was a possibility 
that their services might be required by the State. 

Little by little the study of law, philosophy and 
letters began to take root. The University of Padua, 
founded in the thirteenth century,^ was fostered by 
the Carraresi, enlarged and protected by the Republic, 
and became a centre of learning whence a new light was 
shed over the intellectual world when, in i/io5, Padua 

^ The earliest instance of a Venetian patrician acting as magistrate in 
a foreign city belongs to the year 1186, when Matteo Quirini was pra;tor 
at Treviso. Burchellati, Commcntor'mm Mem. Hist. Trev., L. Ill, p. 547- 

^ The law was repealed in 1277. 

2 In 1222 Bishop Giordano opened this university, and called to it the 
famous Dominican Albertus Magnus ; Gosia the Bolognese lectured on 
law. Fa,ccio\&i\, Fasti Cymnasii Patavci i. Patav., 1757. 



i56 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

passed under the dominion of Venice. The city of 
Venice itself also summoned teachers of renown, such 
as Donato del Casentino and Giovanni di Conversino 
da Ravenna ; and Domenico Lconi, Marco Giorgi the 
Servite, Alberto Alberli, Federico Renoldo, and Nic- 
colo Muzio ^ Avrole on theology and philosophy. Nor 
were legal studies neglected during the first half of the 
thirteenth century. Pantaleone Giustinian, parish priest 
of San Polo, Tomaso Centranico, Giovanni Michiel, and 
Stefano Badoaro Avere appointed by the Doge Jacopo 
Tiepolo to codify the statutes. In the second half of 
the same century the Doge Rinieri Zeno named a com- 
mission composed of Pietro Badoaro, Marino Dandolo, 
and Niccolo Quirini to revise the nautical code. Jacopo 
Bertaldo wrote on jurisprudence, and in the schools of 
Venice w^ere to be found such famous teachers as Sera- 
fino da Bologna (i3o2) and Uberto di Cesena (i3i8).^ 
In 1 342 Andrea Dandolo, who came under the influence 
of the celebrated Cremonese jurist Riccardo Malombra,^ 
opens the list of noble Venetians who took their doctor's 
degree.^ Dandolo Avas rapidly followed by the Doges 
Giovanni Gradenigo and Marco Cornaro, who dis- 
tinguished themselves in the faculty of laAv, as did 
other patricians : for example, Simone Moro and Marco 
Pesaro in the thirteenth century ; and in the next cen- 
tury Niccolo Morosini, Avho lectured on the decretals at 
Bologna, Padua and Parma ; Piero Dandolo and Piero 
Morosini, who read canon laws the first at Bologna, the 
second at Padua ; Antonio Bernardo, who in Padua 
held the chair of civil law ; — all of them brilliant 

^ Agostini, Scrittori Venez. cit., Pref. XLIV, XLV, 
2 Agostini, op. loc. cit. 

• Besta, Jacopo Bertaldo, p. ii5. 

* Sandi, III, a6i. 



CULTURE i57 

examples of those profound studies which went to ren- 
der the Venetian patriciate eminent in pohtical science, 
of which Marin Sanudo Torsello's admirable work is so 
striking a monument. 

The government paid more and more attention to 
public instruction ; to the humble dominies (magistris- 
coli) of the earlier days succeeded the readers, the 
teachers of the abacus and of grammar, the rectors and 
doctors of the schools in the various quarters of the 
city.^ Not only did foreign professors receive the citi- 
zenship, but students were granted subsidies from the 
public purse : as, for example, Fra Francesco di San 
Tommaso, to allow him to go to the University of 
Perugia (i333) ; Fra Marino Eremitano, to go to 
Paris, in order that efficiatur sapientissimus teologus 
quod est honor civitatis nostre (i334) ; Fra Michele 
Neri, come e cos lame, also to go to Paris to study 
(i35o).^ Private persons, too, endoAved scholarships 
for the benefit of the studious, or left libraries of vol- 
umes in costly leather bindings {cohoperti de corio). 
The patrician Giacomo Gradenigo (i34o) bequeathed 
by will a Bible estimated at eighty golden ducats and a 
Seneca Avorth forty ; in the estate of the Doge Lorenzo 
Celsi (i365) there is mentioned unum librum de Dante 
in quo sunt toti tria libri.^ But these students of science 

1 Cecchelti (Libri,'scuole, etc., in the Arch. Ven., T. XXXII, p. 353) 
has gathered from documents a number of names of masters, teachers, 
scholars, and schools. In February, 1087, we find " Domenico del fu 
Domenico, magistriscolo di San Gregorio." Later on, Fra Giordano, teacher 
to the Knights Templars (1249); Master Corbattino, "lector gramaticae 
S. Pauli" (i3o5); Saracinus, "qui legit leges in canonica" (i3o8); 
" Nicolaus doctor scolarium Sancti Cassiani " (i3i4) ; " Paolo, doctor in the 
school at San Fantino " (i33o); "Antonius Calaber magister gramatice" 
(1387), etc. 

2 Ibid, ibid., p. 3^3. His subsidy was quindlci ducati d'oro. 
' Cecchelti, loc. cit., pp. 332, 345. 



i58 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

and of letters were not always peaceful citizens. On 
March 29, 1372, a certain Bartolonico di Firenzc, who 
regebal scolas in co/ilrata S. Cassia/d, having quarrelled 
in the campo Sant' Apollinarc with a colleague named 
Forahosco, (jui docebat abacum, was stabhed, A cer- 
tain Gerardo, a Roman, rector of the school at Sant' 
Apollinare, was summoned as a witness ; all he could 
say was that while he was busy teaching his class [dum 
esset in catedia docens scolares suos), he heard quasdam 
voces in modum qaerele} Grammar, la gvamnialica, 
indeed fdled so large a place in men's minds, that it 
even became a woman's Christian name,^ and exercised 
so strong an influence upon the temper that it was some- 
times the cause of broils even among the people. One 
evening in July, 1867, a certain Hermann, a German 
servant, found himself at Santa Maria Maddalena, near 
the house of Andriolo the silk-mercer ; he saw Andriolo 
himself sitting at a window reading a book. The 
German, qui sciebat bene gramaticam, began to argue 
with Andriolo about his favourite study, and the dis- 
cussion grew so hot that the too learned townsfolk ended 
in a slanging match, contendere cum verbis injuriosis.^ 

The study of hygiene also went hand in hand Avith the 
study of physical science, and Venetian regulations as 
regards medicine are monuments of prudence. The by- 
laws of the Doctors and Apothecaries * date from April, 
1258, and precede the Florentine statutes by half a 
century. Tlie regulations are admirable, considering 

^ Cecchetti, loc. cit., p. 355. 

^ Gramatica uxor Petri Spatarii S. Geminiani (anno i342). 

* Cecchetti, loc. cit. 

* Arch, di Stato, Giustizia Vecchia, B. I, reg. I. These statutes were 
published first by Alvisi (i858), then by Foucard (iSSg). They have been 
republished by Monticolo in the Capitolari dclle arli Vene:., pp. i45, 109. 
Mouticolo does not give aprile, 1258, as the absolutely certain date for the 
statutes of the apothecaries. 



CULTURE i59 

that at that date the science of medicine was a prey 
to the most extravagant superstitions, so that we find 
Pietro d'Abano bcHeving in the influence of the con- 
stellations, and teaching that bleeding Avas salutary 
only during the second quarter of the moon. The 
guild of doctors and apothecaries was governed by a 
prior and two consuls ; it included physicians (^fisici) 
and surgeons [cirologi da piaghe), approved by the Col- 
legio and by a grace passed in the Maggior Consiglio. 
Several of these were stipendiaries of the government ; ^ 
towards the close of the Trecento they summoned to 
Venice the two famous Bolognese doctors, Taddeo and 
Mondino, to teach medicine. ^ Physicians and surgeons 
had their rooms for consultations and for cure ; the 
barber-surgeons were allowed to keep their shops open 
during the closing hours at Rialto.^ In this earliest 
dawn of the science Ave come across the names of some 
physicians Avho achieved fame, — Barnaba Dardano, 
and Giovanni and Girolamo, Venetians, who taught in 
the University of Bologna.* Surgery was not left in 
the hands of quacks ; a laAv of 1821 provided that no 
one might practise unless he had been examined by 
some university and had received his doctor's degree.^ 
In 1826 a law compelled both physicians and surgeons 
to attend a course of anatomy at least once a year ; ^ 

1 We often find the Maggior Consiglio voting to summon to Venice ad 
salarium famous physicians, and even agreeing to pay the fictus domus. 

^ Alvisi, Considerazioni sull' arte medica di Ven. dal X al XV sec. 
Venezia, i858. 

3 Cecchelti, La Medicina in Venezia nel 1300 {Arch. Ven., T. XXV, 
pp. 36i et seq.). 

* Agostini, op. cit., Pref., p. L. 

5 Romanin, II, 897, III, 363. 

^ Dissection was carried on at various places ; in the church of Saa 
Paternian, the Hospital of SS. Pietro e Paolo, the convent of the Car- 
melites, the convent of Santo Stefano, the Frari, the school of San Teodoro, 
and in some private houses. 



i6o VEMGE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

another laAv of i3G8 required them to meet once a 
month for the discussion of cases. The rules imposed 
on doctors Averc admirable ; they were required to 
swear that they would not protract sickness, and that 
they would supervise the apothecaries hut have no 
share in the profits, non habere societalem cum aliqiio 
apotecario. The apothecaries, on the other hand, were 
bound to make up prescriptions for electuaries, syrups, 
unguents, and plasters well and honestly. ^ The charge 
for prescriptions might not amount to more than ten 
soldi, and the prescriptions were open to examinaloribus 
vel examinatori qui per tempora eruril a justiciariis con- 
stituti. The government put down adulteration by 
burning the condemned goods in public at Rialto and 
by inflicting heavy fines. The druggists had to take 
an oath that they would carry on their business legaliler 
in omnia electuaria sirupos impiperatos et omnes confec- 
tiones et omnia alia ad suam artem spectantia.^ 

The arts that help to brighten life were by no means 
neglected in Venice, and music above all Avas held in 
honour and esteem. It had a high tradition among the 
refugees who settled in the lagoons, for Saint Jerome in 
the Gronicon of Eusebius, speaking of Aquileia in 879, 
declares that the choir clergy of that city Avere like the 
chorus of the blessed in heaven : Aquileienses clerici 
quasi chorus heatorum habentur.^ In a growing city 
hke \enice joyous events were celebiated Avith music ; 

^ Spices and drugs, like pepper and ginger, enter freely into prescrip- 
tions of the time. Sugar was used in cases of lung affection. It was called 
rosato when flavoured with rose water, violato when flavoured with 
violets. 

2 Laws of the thirteenth and fourteenth century. Cfr. Dian, Cenni 
stor. sulla Farm. Veneta, P. I, p. 3o. Venezia, 1900. 

^ Chroniconim Euseh'd Pamphilt, inlerpvete Hicronimo (in Mai, Scriptorum 
Veterum nova coUectio, Tom. VIII, L. II, p. 4o5. Roma, i833). 



CULTURE i6i 

for instance, on the reception of the body of San 
Marco in 828, when the people came out Avith dance 
and song, so that one heard tola urbs tripadiis et 
caniis personare} The Cronaca AUinate, recording 
the entry of some great personage, and mentioning 
some of the customs of the time, says : Cum campanis, 
cantihus et citharis erant praesiollenies . We have, too, 
an old tradition that Leonardo Veniero, abbot of the 
monastery of San Giorgio from ii56 to 1194,^ was a 
master of music and of song. In the fourteenth cen- 
tury, among other festivals for the recovery of Candia 
there was a great competition between the best musi- 
cians in Italy, and Francesco Landino, surnamed degli 
organi or il Cieco, the most famous composer and 
singer of ballads and madrigals, carried off the prize. 
The contest, over which the Doge Lorenzo Celsi 
presided, accompanied by Petrarch and by Pietro 
Lusignano, King of Cyprus, included poetical and 
musical compositions, both choral and instrumental ; 
each author executed his own piece and accompanied 
it on the various instruments of the time.^ A well- 
known illuminated song-book, in the Laurentiana at 
Florence,* has the portrait of the illustrious author 
and the words and music of many of his compositions, 
among them, no doubt, the ones he wrote for the 
Venice competition. Here is an example: 

Partesi con dolore 
El corpo, vita mia, 
E nella tua balia 

1 Sabellici, Reram Venelarum, Dec. I, Lib, II. Venetiis, 1^87. 
- See Zappert, Vita Beati Petri Acotanli. Also Gicogna, her., V, 628. 
3 Roberti, Due gari musicali a Venezia {Rivista Contemporanea, 1888, 
I. 61. 68). 

* Autori diversi Madrigali, Cactie e Ballaie. Med. Pal. d. 37- 

VOL. II II 



i62 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

Riman ranima c '1 core, 
Piangono gli occliI lenti 
Che, du tc dilungatl, 
Non isperan contcnti 
Viver, ma tormentali. 

Music in Venice was assisted by the soft dialect and 
the character of the place, the very home of pleasure. 
It may seem strange that a people wholly bent on 
facing the realities of life and caring little or nothing for 
poetry, should have taken such delight in the delicate 
art of music. Yet the very earliest records assure us 
that music was eagerly cultivated, and that musical 
instruments were numerous and very skilfully made. 
From the island of S. Giorgio in Alga came Priest 
Giorgio of Venice, who about 8i5 learned from the 
Greeks the art of organ building, and became so 
expert that he offered to build an organ mirifica arte ^ 
for Louis the Pious in the church of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
We hear, too, of other kinds of musical instruments, 
the Rigabello, the Torsello, the Ninfale. What the 
Rigabello was like we do not know ; it appeared on the 
tomb of Lorenzo Celzi (d. i365) in the church of 
the Celestia, destroyed by fire ; nor are we any better 
off as regards the Torsello, which may have been a kind 
of lyre. On the other hand, a bas-relief of the fifteenth 
century, which was on the facade of S. Maria della 
Carita and is now in the sacristy of the Salute, gives 
us the form of the Ninfale ; it was a little organ slung 
round the shoulders of the player, Avho touched the 

^ " Georgius quidam presbyter de Venetia, cum Baldoino comite Foroi- 
uliense veniens, organumydrailicum Aquisgrani fecit." Enhardi Fuldcnsis, 
Annales (Pertz, Mon. Ger. Hist., I, 35o). We get many forms of ancient 
musical instruments in Jacobello del Flore's Coronation of the Virgin 
The wind instruments most in use were the trumpet, the pipe, and the fife 
Cecchelti, Appunti sugli slrumenti musicali, etc. (Arch. Veneto, T. XXXV, 
pp. 74 et seq.). 





^^^^ 



MA' 

■ e ■ 

f 








A — Angels lioldiii^' in tlioir liaiuls tlie orpan called " ^linl'a!e " in 
a bas-relief of the \V ccnturv. (Sacristry of S. Maria della Salute.) 
B — (iuariiio \ eronese — medal of Matteo da Pasli. G — Gaspariuo 
Barzizza — from a print of M. I'ittori 



CULTURE i63 

notes with his left hand while the right worked a pair 
of small bellows. In the year i3oo the Republic es- 
tablished the Cappella Musicale, and among tlie papers 
of the Procuratori di San Marco which still exist, we 
immediately find notices of organs. The first is dated 
June 8, i3i6, and refers to a Maestro Zuchcto, re- 
storer of the organ of San Marco, which was rebuilt 
in 1 364 by Master Giacobello.^ Then in the fourteenth 
century we come across other organists and organ- 
builders, such as Francesco da Pesaro, pulsaior or- 
ganorum ecclesie Santi Marci, a Domenico Datolo, a 
Luciano ab organis, a priest Andrea da San Silvcstro, 
organist at a salary of thirty ducats, a Giovanni Taglia- 
pietra with a stipend of twenty-eight ducats including 
the blower, menator organorum, two Servile friars, 
Antonio and Filippino, and a Fra Giacomo of the Eremi- 
tani.^ There were also women organists, and Ave hear, 
in June, :34i, of a Regina, sonatrix, uxor Pizoli, 
who is at law Avith a certain Dardo Cauco ^ about an 
organ left in her charge. Organs Avere played in boats 
on the water and in the small canals, to accompany 
the aubades, mattinate or albate, as they were called. 
Joyous bands of young men in gondolas were wont to 
invoke a blessing on their loves by saluting the rising 
sun to the strains of music and of song accompanied by 
the organ, cum organis causa matutinandl } The love of 
the graceful arts, Avhich Avas ever on the increase, proves 
that Venetian culture had already long left behind the 

^ Caffi, Si. Delia musica sacra nella gia Cappella ducale di S. Marco, etc., 
p. 53. Venezia, i854. 

^ Cecchetti, Appunli sugli strumenti mus., etc. (Arch. Veneto, T. XXX, 
p. 74)- 

' Archivio Veneto, T. XXXIV, p. 897. 

* See the quotations by Cecchetti on p. 5a, T. XXI of the Archivio 
Veneto. 



i64 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

darkness of the middle ages, and it is difTicult for us to 
understand the accusations of otiiisa et hestiale ignoranza 
launched by Dante against the Venetians, were it not 
certain that his letter which contains the attack is apocry- 
phal and Avas in all probability written by Doni him- 
self.i In this letter Dante, who was ambassador from 
Guido da Polenta, says that, on presenting himself 
before the Maggior Consiglio, opening his discourse in 
Latin, he was begged ccrcare alcuno interprele o di mutar 
favella, and that he, partly in amazement and partly 
in contempt, concluded his speech in Italian, though 
the Venetian councillors understood but little even of 
that. The conduct of Petrarch would go to prove these 
charges unjust. He was devoted to Venice, and left her 
a portion of his library ; ^ he found in Venice una elelta 
di amici, di cui non so se siavi migliore, among them 
being the Doge Andrea Dandolo and the Grand Chan- 
cellor Benintendi dei Piavegnani. And when we reach 
the threshold of the ncAv culture, Avhen in the fifteenth 
century the revival of learning swept over the peninsula, 

^ The letter, addressed to Guido da Polenta and subscribed L'umil servo 
vostro Dante Alicjhicri Fiorenlino, was published by Anton Francesco Doni in 
his Prose antiche di Dante, Petrarca et Boccaccio ct di molti aliri virtuosi 
ingegni. Firenze, i547. 

2 This donation was the beginning of the Public Library. But the 
larger part of Petrarch's books have disappeared. In i635 the Benedictine 
Father Forlunato Olmo found in a room over the great door of San Marco 
a certain number of books. He thought he recognised some as belonging 
to Petrarch, and sent a list to Tomasiui, who published it in his Petrarcha 
Redivivus (Patavii, i635, pp. 85 et seq.). Those codices passed to the Mar- 
ciana, and Antonmaria Zanetti described them in the appendix to his Lat. 
et Ilal. D. Miirci Bibliotlu'ca, pp. 207 etseq. Among the supposed Petrarcan 
codices the most interesting is the Lexicon Gumanicum, which has some 
verses in the vulgar, attributed to Petrarch. But De Nolhac, after care- 
fully examining the codex, absolutely denies that there is any of Petrarch's 
writing in it; whereas he thinks that he has found the original of the 
Seniles, dictated by Petrarch, and here and there annotated in his own hand. 




(>\Ki)iNAi. Bessarione. (Painting of the \\ I centur} 
Library of S. Marco) 



CULTURE i65 

we do not find that the Venetians, already so rich in 
practical experience, were lacking erudition. 

We have a sure proof that letters had begun to live 
and to flourish at Venice in the fact that distinguished 
humanists, like Pier Paolo Yergerio, born at Capo 
d'Istria about 1870, came and settled and made his first 
studies there; that about 1^07 Gasparino da Barzizza 
taught there ; that Guarino of Verona, the apostle of 
Greek and Latin culture, held a chair there from i/ii4 
to 1419 ; that Vittorino Rambaldonc, better known 
under the name of his native city Feltre, the true 
founder of modern education, opened a school there 
between i4i4 and i4i8.i And to these we must add 
Giampietro da Lucca, translator of certain works of 
Petrarch ; Francesco and Giovanni Mario Filelfo, Paolo 
della Pergola and Perleoni. To Venice, too, before the 
fall of Constantinople in i453, came learned Greeks: 
Leonzio Pilatus,^ on his way to Avignon, and Manuel 
Chrysolaras and Gemistos Plethon. From i433 to 
1437 Giorgio Trapezuntius taught in Venice. Later on, 
when Constantinople fell, many a Greek refound his lost 
fatherland in Venice and lent powerful aid to the dif- 
fusion of Greek culture. First among these we must 
reckon Cardinal Bcssarion, avIio in i468 presented 
his precious manuscripts to the Republic. They 
were deposited in the Ducal Palace until effect could 
be given to the resolution of i422 for the creation 
of a public library. Bcssarion himself, in his deed 
of gift addressed to the Doge Cristoforo Moro, declares 
that he desires to intrust his manuscripts to the city 
which was the meeting-place of the learned of all 

^ Gerini, Gli scrittoi-i pedagojici Hal. del sec. XV, pp. lO, 42, 270. 
Torino, 1896. 

^ Zenatli, Dante e Firenze, pp. 377-380. Firenze, igoS. 



iCG VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

nations, and where the Greek fugitives had found a 
second Byzantium. 

Under such incentives culture went hand in hand 
with martial valour and commercial sagacity, and, 
thanks chielly to the clergy and tlie nobility, the study 
of letters grew apace. Lorenzo Giustinian (b. i38o, d. 
i4G5), appointed the first Patriarch of Venice, when, in 
1^5 1, the title and the jurisdiction of the. Patriarchs of 
Grado were transferred to the Bishop of Castello, was 
born not only to honour and bless his native land by 
his virtue and his charity, which won him, while still 
living, the veneration due to a saint, but to his religious 
fervour he added a profundity of learning displayed 
in his various commentaries on Holy Writ ; and before 
we reach the ncAV era we find three Venetian pre- 
lates devoted to philosophy and letters, and eventually 
reaching the supreme honours of the Tiara : Angelo 
Correr, as Gregory XII (i4o6) ; Gabriele Condulmer, 
as Eugenius IV (i43i), and Pietro Barbo, as Paul II 

(i/i6A). 

Tentative at first, but varied and copious, was the 
development of Venetian culture ; and between the 
close of the fourteenth and the opening of the sixteenth 
century many were the learned men to whom Venice 
gave birth. Fantino Dandolo taught Roman law at 
Padua ; Marco Lippomano, Antonio Dandolo, Agostino 
Michiel, Zaccaria Trevisan, Niccolb Contarini, were all 
famous jurists. Barbone Morosini is styled by Biondo 
jure consullissimus, and Lodovico Foscarini c/iiarissimo 
giurisperiio by Pius 11. Not only at Padua, where the 
atmosphere of study levelled, at least in appearance, all 
social distinctions, but also in Venice herself, patricians 
of the highest rank and prestige taught in public. 
About the middle of the fifteenth century Domenico 



CULTURE 167 

Bragadin held a chair, and almost at the same time 
Lauro Quirini expounded the ethics of Aristotle to the 
young nohility, who flocked to his classes in such 
numhers that he was forced to deliver his lectures in 
the Merchants' Hall at Rialto.^ Down to the middle 
of the fifteenth century we come across many ecclesi- 
astics who, though raised to high rank, continued to 
cultivate and protect letters : Lodovico Barbo, Tomaso 
Tomasin, Paruta, Fantino Dandolo, Piero dal Monte, 
Lodovico and Pietro Donato, Jacopo Zeno, Fantino 
Yalaresso, Gregorio Correr, Lorenzo Zane, Domenico 
Domenichi, and the learned Ermolao Barbaro (b. i4io). 
Bishop of Verona. In the leisure left them from public 
cares not a few nobles dedicated themselves to philoso- 
phy and to letters, collected manuscripts, and kept up a 
literary correspondence with the most distinguished 
humanists ; such were the two Zaccaria Trevisan, Nic- 
colo and Paolo Barbo, Lodovico Foscarini, Francesco 
Contarini, Andrea Zulian, Zaccaria Barbaro, Bernardo 
Giustinian, Marco Lippomano, the Barbarigo, and the 
Avell-known Pietro Tomasi who is so frequently lauded 
in humanistic correspondence as a collector and student 
of manuscripts and also as a physician. Among the 
many patricians who by their studies lent distinction to 
their country, the austere figure of Francesco Barbaro 
(1398-1454), a fine Latinist and Grecian, who filled 
numerous embassies, governed many cities of the main- 
land, held Brescia against Piccinino, and finally reached 
the dignity of Procurator of San Marco, stands out in 
impressive vigour and activity.^ The magistrate, the 

^ Agostini, op. cit., T. I, p. 200. 

2 Cfr. Quirini, A. M., Diatriba praeliminar'is ad Fiancisci Barbari el 
aliorum ad ipsum epistolae. Brixiae, 1741- Sabbadini, Centotrenta letlere 
inedite di F. Barbaro. Salerno, i884. Wilmanns, in Gottingische gelehrte 
Anzejgen, i884, n. 21. 



i68 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

soldier, the merchant, the scholar, the artist were 
frequently united in one person. Take, for example, 
Carlo Zeno, victor of the Genoese, who opened his 
house at Sant' Agostino to all persons of culture. 
Another patrician who coupled with the science of 
government the most exquisite artistic taste, who 
united the practical common sense of daily life with the 
pursuit of ideal beauty, Avas Marino Contarini, to 
whom we owe the conception of the Ca' d'oro, one of 
the most graceful architectural monuments of the Avorld. 
The same hand that signed commercial contracts des- 
tined to bring in untold wealth, or subscribed statutes 
which displayed the most striking political acumen, 
was often able to design the graceful foliations of a 
capital. Jacopo Foscari, the luckless son of the Doge, 
collector of pictures, statues, armour, acquired the repu- 
tation of a munificent patron of the arts, and was himself 
so nobly bred to letters that Lauro Quirini addresses 
him thus: " tu vir doctrina atque optimarum litterarum 
studiis eruditus." 

Side by side with this literature of the scholarly classic 
school, ran a fresh stream of popular poetry, usually 
set to music. From the boats that glided over lagoon 
or canal rose the joyous sound of song ; the immemo- 
rial, pungent spirit of the Venetian populace escaped 
into the open, that there it might indulge itself in a 
realism tempered by a sense of beauty, and not without 
a certain malicious smile. This popular poetry is repre- 
sented in Venice by Leonardo Giustinian (b. i388), a 
learned humanist in Avhom erudition had not blunted 
the sensitiveness to natural beauty and a love for the 
genuine native manifestations of the popular muse.^ A 

^ The Canzonelte of Giustinian have lately been republished by B. Wiese, 
op. cit., and by G. Morpurgo (Canzonelte e Strambotti in un codice Veneto 




I'dHTHMT of the Beato Lorenzo Giusliniani 

Ijv (iriiiilc Bellini. (At the Academy) 



CULTURE 169 

master of music no less than of verse, Glustinlan created 
a new style in song and new metres for his poems, 
called after him giusliniane ; they at once met with 
popular favour, and soon spread all over the peninsula, 
first in numerous manuscript copies and then in 
edition after edition as soon as printing was invented. 
He wrote the music for his own songs, and took the 
keenest delight in the art to which, as he himself 
says, " mi trae la natura stessa, che mi guido per facile 
via al pieno possesso di ogni genere di musica." In 
these ballate and canzonelte Giustinian, like Poliziano 
and Lorenzo il Magnifico later on in Florence, repro- 
duces, while refining, the whole repertoire of love-songs 
so dear to the people ; and by a vivid and sometimes 
even suggestive realism, hut always with a fine artistic 
sense, he represents the entire gamut of lovers' 
quarrels, the quaintest dialogues between mother and 
marriageable maid, betAveen mistress and servants who 
have been playing the pimp — scenes drawn from the 
life and of convincing realism. This quick and lively 
poet was a friend of Traversari, of Poggio, of Filelfo, 
and fdled many high offices, among them the Procu- 
ratorship of San Marco. A letter of his addressed to 
Guarino of Verona, Avho was his master, gives us a 
pleasant picture of the simple life he led at Murano, the 
little island /)a/t7a e bella} 

del sec. XV. Firenze, i883). These publications have been supplemented 
by Wiese himself and by Mazzoni. For Giustinian's place in the litera- 
ture of his day see Rossi, II Qualtrocenlo. Milano, Vallardi. V. Cian, while 
illustrating un codice ignoto di rime volgari apparteniUe a B. Castiglione. 
Torino, 1900 (Giornale stor. ddla lett. itai, XXXIV-XXXV) has intro- 
duced us to a whole group of popular poetry by Giustinian and others. 

1 Published by R. Sabbadini in the Giornale slor. d. lett. ital.. Vol. X, 
pp. 36a et seq., and more accurately by F. Kovati and G. Lafaye in their 
Anthologie, pp. 35 et seq. 



I70 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

The poetry of Alighierl, which illuminates the whole 
of his own century, found in the following century 
admirers in the lagoons as Avell. As a proof that Italy's 
greatest poet was studied in Venice, we may mention 
that Fra Matleo Ronto translated the Divina Commedia 
into Latin, and that Paolo Alberti, a Scrvite, wrote 
an ExpUcatio Danlis Aligerii} Bernardo Giustinian 
(b. i4o8), son of Leonardo, wrote his Storia di Venezia 
in Latin, the first example of a serious and Avell-ordered 
historical work on the Republic ; but the chronicles 
of Venetian proAvess compiled by Pietro Giustinian, by 
Filippo de' Domenichi, by Girolamo Minotto, by Pietro 
Dolfin, Donato's Vite del Dogi, and Bertucci Venier's 
Annali, are compiled in a hybrid Venetian-Italian. 

Although it Avould seem that culture was still the 
privilege of the upper classes, for almost all these 
writers we have mentioned were of noble birth, and 
many of them clerics, still knowledge was beginning to 
spread, to break out from the narrow confines, and to 
penetrate the university, the natural home and guardian 
of liberal learning. If we look closely, we shall find 
signs of this dawning freedom which was to waken 
the human spirit to new life. When, in lAyo, Pope 
Paul II, of the patrician family of Barbo, granted the 
privileges of a university to the CoUegio delle Arti lib- 
erali, founded about a century earlier, and named as ex 
officio Chancellor the parish priest of San Giovanni in 
Bragora, where he himself had been born, the Vene- 
tian government refused to allow the new university to 
confer degrees in other faculties save those of philoso- 
phy and medicine ^ ; degrees in law and theology were 

1 Agoslini, op. cit., T. II, p. 61 1. 

2 The diplomas of the Venetian university had a seal of red wax in- 
closed in a metal box. The seal represented Saint Luke seated in his chair, 



CULTURE 171 

reserved to the University of Padua. It is said that 
the reason for this resolution Avas a desire to prevent 
loss or injury to Padua, but it is not too much to 
heheve that the real intention was to withdraw from 
ecclesiastical influence the studies most nearly con- 
nected with questions of government. 

Venice, which proved her intellectual vitality in so 
many noble ways, was the place where the discovery of 
printing met with the greatest success. Without em- 
barking on vain speculations as to the pretended inven- 
tion of printing by Panfilo Castaldi of Feltre, it is quite 
certain that at the time when Gutenberg in Germany 
invented the art of printing with movable characters, 
Venice already knew the use of blocks, and was print- 
ing choir-books, missals, figures of saints, playing-cards 
— carie da zugar e figure depente slampide, as we read 
in the mariegola of the Painters' Guild, dated iklxi. 
In all probability the blocks for the Passio D. N. Jesa 
Christi, usually thought to be the earliest instance of 
xylography in Italy, ^ were cut in Venice about the 
year i4oo. It would seem that in Venice too, before 
1^70, the priest Clemente da Padova had already, by 
himself and Avithout direct teaching from anyone else, 
discovered the secret of movable types ; 2 in any case 
Venice was the city where the new art reached the 
height of beauty and perfection, where the government 
encouraged and protected it by wise laws and privileges, 

with the bull crouching at his feet. In the exergue was the lion of San 
Marco and the legend " Sigillum CoUegii Fisicorum Yenetiarum." 

^ Prince d'Essling, due de Rivoli, Le premier livre ocylographique ilalien 
imprime a Ven. vers llibO. Paris, igoS. This opinion is comhated, but 
without sufficient reason, by Bouchot (La Revae de I' Art. Paris, December 
10, igoS). Bouchot thinks the blocks are the work of a ISorthern artist. 

2 Marzi, Giovanni Gutenberg e I'llalia, p. 91 {Bibliofilia, Vol. II, Disp. 
3, 4> 5. Anno 1900). 



172 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

where foreign printers met with the readiest welcome.^ 
John of Speyer settled in Venice, perhaps in i/iSy,' 
and in 14G9 obtained from the Doge a monopoly in 
typography for five years. ^ That same year he printed 
the Epistolae ad familiares of Cicero, and immediately 
afterwards Pliny's Natural History ; at his death, in 
1/470, he left incomplete the De Civitate Dei of Saint 
Augustine. His brother Vindelin continued the work 
with remarkable activity down to 1/177, publishing as 
many as sixty-eight editions.* In 1^70 a no less dis- 
tinguished artificer, Nicholas Jenson, established himself 
in Venice. He came from Sommevoir in Champagne, 
and was hailed by his contemporaries as a prince in his 
art ; he was die-sinker in the mint at Tours, and Avas 
sent by Charles VII to Mainz to discover the secret of 
the new invention, but instead of returning to France 
he came to Venice. Other great printers of the last 
twenty years of the Quattrocento, who worked in 
Venice, are Christopher Valdarfer of Ratisbon (1470), 
John of Cologne, Adam Rot, Clementino da Padova, 
Renner of Heilbrunn (1/171), Antonio of Bologna, Leo- 
nard of Basel, Christoforo Arnoldo, Gabriele da Tre- 
viso, Leonard Aurl (1471), Filippo Pincio, Sale da 

1 Castellani, La stampa in Venezia dalla sua origine alia morte di Aldo 
Manuzio seniore. Venezia, 1889. 

* Ludwig, Conlratli fra lo stampador Zuan di colonia e i saoi soci. 
Venezia, 1901. John of Spcycr married Paula, daughter of an Antonio 
da Messina — not, as Ludwig supposes, the famous Antonello da Messina, 
born probably in i43o, and who only came to Venice about i^~5 and then 
not for long. La Corte-Cailler, Antonello da Messina. Messina, igo.'i. 

* " Per annos quinque . . . nemo omnino sit qui velit possit valeat 
audeatve excrccre diclam artcm imprimendorura librorum in hac inclyla 
civitate Venetiarum ct dislrictu suo, nisi ipse magister Johanes," etc. Arch, 
di Stato, Collegio, Notatorio, 19, p. 55. 

* Marzi, / tipografi icdeschi in Italia durante il sec. XI (in the Festschrift 
zum fiinfhundertj'dhrigen Gcburtstage von J. Gutenberg, by 0. Harlwig. 
Leipzig, 1900). 





L-'U-^^ti^'St'^.M&iiiSireJuir.-iiir.i/^^ 



CULTURE 173 

Padova, Mark of Heilbrunn, Nicholas of Frankfort, 
Jacopo Rossi, a Frenchman (1/473), the priest Lorenzo 
d'Aquila (1A7A), John Manthen, Bernard Pic tor, Peter 
Loslein, Erard Ratdolt (1470), Antonio Bartolomeo 
da Bologna, Marco de Conti, Gerardo Alessandrino, 
Andrea da Cataro, John of Leoviller (1476), Jacopo di 
Luna, Domenico Siliprandi, Guerino, Guglielmo Gallo, 
Bruno Valla, Tomaso da Alessandria, Adam of Rotwil, 
Andrea da Corona, Theodor of Reynsburg, Rinaldo da 
Nimega (1477), Bonino Bonini, Marino Saraceno, 
Antonello Moneta, Bernardino Celere di Lovere (1478), 
Georg Walch, Bartolomeo de Blavis da Alessandria, 
Nicola Girardengo da Novi.^ The first Venetian 
printer was Filippo di Pietro (1472).^ 

Such varied activity of intellect and of industry 
in Venice destroys all confidence in the hostile 
remarks of Poggio Bracciolini in his Dialogue De 
Nobilitate, in which he accuses the Venetian patriciate 
of ignorance and worse. ^ Poggio himself sought to 
palliate his attack, hut that did not suffice to allay the 
just resentment of the Venetians, who found a worthy 
mouthpiece in Lauro Quirini.* Quirini was fully 
justified in asserting that the Venetian nobility possessed 
every title to respect, even if measured by the standard 

1 Tessler, Stampatori in Venezia nel sec. XV {Arch. Veneto, T. XXXIV, 
p. 193). 

2 Castellani, L'arte della stampa nel Rin. Ital. Venezia, Ongania, 1894. 
' Poggio, Opera, op. cit., p, 67. 

* Poggio charges the Venetians with being factious, and alleges that 
they admitted scoundrels to the nobility. We do not possess Quirini's 
original reply, which was probably vigorous, more vigorous than his 
polite letter to the physician Tomasi (see Anecdota Vencta nunc primum collecla 
ac nolis illuslrata studio fr. Joa. Bapt. M. Contareni. Venetiis, 1757, pp. 
65 et seq.) in which he refutes Poggio. Segarizzi, Lauro Quirini Vmanista 
Ven. del. sec. XV. ("Mem. della R. Accademia delle Scienze di Torino." 
Vol. LIV, 1904,) 



174 VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

of the most cultured and civilised races. Even in our 
own day unjustly severe judgments have been passed 
upon Venetian culture. Many foreign scholars of weight 
declare that learning Avas starved in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and that down to the days of Aldus Manutius, 
Avhat little there was existed in haughty and exclusive 
isolation, that the aristocracy as a whole remained 
absolutely indiflerent to the humanistic movement, that 
only a few rare exceptions among the nobility em- 
braced the new learning from personal inclination.^ 
It is true that the genius of Venice found more vigorous 
expression in the figurative arts than in letters; but 
even without going so far as to accept the benevolent 
appreciation w hich asserts that Greek culture in Italy 
spread from Venice and not from Florence, 2 avc may 
affirm that in the revival of classical antiquity Venice 
had her place ; not, to be sure, in the sense in 
which humanistic studies came to be considered the 
sole end of life, for in Venice everything was meas- 
ured by a due sense of proportion, nor could a wave 
of erudition ever have obliterated the characteristic 
notes of the race. On the shores of the lagoons a 
Gemistos Plethon, who sought to restore the gods of 
Greece, or a Pomponius Leto, avIio Avorshipped no 
other deity but the deity of Roma, and kept the anni- 
versary of the immortal city by bending the knee 
before an altar erected to Romulus, could never have 
found a congenial home. The State of Venice was 
strong enough in wealth and Avisdom to dispense 
Avith the purchased praises of the erudite, of the 

^ Voigt, H Risorgimento deW antichita class., trad. pp. ijio, 4i i- Firenze, 
1888. Burckhardt, La civilta, etc., cit., Vol. I, p. 98. 

^ Firmin-Didot, Aide Manuce el I'Hellenisme a Venise, p. 28. Paris, 
1875. 



CULTURE 175 

grammarians, the collectors and annotators of manu- 
scripts, of the poets, who thronged the Courts of the 
Italian Despots, where they were received with honours, 
highly salaried, and even relieved of all taxation, as 
befell the envious and avaricious Bracciolini, but Avere 
expected to pay the price in adulation so mean and shame- 
less as to forfeit all respect. Venice, if she did call to 
her service the learned, did not do so to purchase facile 
compliments, but to instruct her youth, destined to 
high public office, and to open schools for the teach- 
ing of gramaticam. rethoricam et alias scientias aptas ad 
exercitium Cancelleriae ab bene scribere} 

Thus was tlie Republic strengthened and fortified in 
the prudence and wisdom of her children. Supremacy 
in the social scale is always dependent on intellectual 
quality. No State can pursue its career with success if 
divorced from the valid support of the intelligence in 
all its various manifestations. States may rise and 
flourish on the strength of their enterprise, but when 
a people has once achieved the height of its grandeur, 
when it begins to feel the failure of youthful vigour, it 
turns to the need of rest and recognises repose and 
comfort. By the end of the fifteenth century the mis- 
tress of the seas had reaped the harvest of her energy, 
of her activity, of her sacrifices ; but her splendour, 
which had already touched its apogee, noAv began to 
pass into the region of culture and of art, and already 
held in itself the earliest germs of decay. 

^ Arch, di Stato, M. C, Dcliberazioni, R. 39, fol. i44- 



DOCUMENTS 



Document A — FAVOLE SULLA FONDAZIONE 

DI YENEZIA 

JEdificatio civitatis Venetiarum 

Anno a nativitate Christi. la ultimo anno Innocentij papc primi nati- 
vilate aljuensis aponensis patris Innocentij, Regno pataviensium fcliciter et 
copiose florente, Regentibus rem pubblicam Galiano de Fontana et Simeone 
de Glanconibus et Antonio Calvo de manis consulibus, Imperante Honorio 
et Theodosio filio Archadij, decretum est per Consules pataviensium et 
sancilum, ac per electos primarios seniores popularium aedificare urbem 
circa Rivum altum et gentes circumstantium insularum congregare ibidem 
Terram unam potlus quam plures portuales habere, classem paratam tenere, 
exercere et maria perlustrare. Et si casus bellorum accideret hostiumve 
potentia cogeret, sotiorum illic habere refugium, et vissa gothorum insania 
et moltitudine, verebantur et recordabantur quod in anno Christi ccccxni 
ipsi gothi cum eorum rege Alarico venerunt in Italiam, et ipsam provintiam 
igne et ferro vastatam rehnqiierunt et ad urbem processerunt, spoliantcs 
eandem etcetera que alibi scribuntur. Unde patavienses, motum gothorum 
ahas factum et qui eo tempore fiebat a parte australi et occidentali meluentes, 
anno praedictio scihcet 42 1 die xvi martij decreverunt urbem portualem et 
refugialem construere circa hostias fluvij Realti, ubi dicitur Rivus altus, 
quem qui ex collectis insuHs maris et lacunarum et gentibus de provintia 
venuti fuerunt, voluerunt Venelias appellare. Et missis illuc tribus con- 
suUbus qui super fuerunt per bienium dispositionis operis die xxv martij 
principium fundamenti actum fuit circa horam meridiei. Nomina con- 
sukun quos misserunt sunt hiTC videlicet: /|2i Albertus Fallarus, Tomas 
Candianus, Genus Daulus. Consules missi de 423 fuerunt Lucianus Gixi 
Maximus Lucius, Ugo Fususcus. 

In bora qua factum fuit principium civitatis Venetiarum, dispositiones 
planetarum et corporum et parlum copH tales fuerunt ut scripta pacta sic. 
Et sciendum quod prajdicta bora baraba per et collatione minus duobus 
annis proximis et sex mensibus et quinque diebus, fuit ante octave sphere 
gr. a, ante i3. 5. 49 in diminuendo ut patet per argumentum eius qui sunt 
signa 3 gr. i3. M. 44 o 47 deinde post figuram cceli in a?dificatione ut 
dictum est significatum fuit ut apparet. 

Mille quatercentum Domini cum fluxerit ortus 
Octaginta simul quintum non finiet annum, 
Ecce novus coluber validus deprehcnsus ab armis 



i8o 



DOCUMENTS 

Adriacis fugict. Ligiirum quoque desert urbes 
Confusus potius muiido qiiam iungerc clemens, 
Perfida luscoruin rabies lum jirodcrit illi 
Atque potens Genua; populus qui fa?dere falso 
Ispanuin Latijdominnm sibi iungerc quoeret : 
Se Tibriin cedent raptores atque liranni 
Italia nam fata paraiit reguare Leoiiein. 



^^ Taurus 1^ . aa 
^^ Caput draconis ag. 
^^ Luna i4. a8 


.;/\ 


Pisces 10. ao Jup. i3. i / 

dircctus ^r 
^ Mcrcuri 8. I\k ^r 


^^ Gemina- . 


/ 


^V Ariclis ^r 


^^ rum ^r 




^^ dircctus ^r 


Geminii ^^/^ 

30- '9 y^x 


Aries i. 39 

Sol. k. 39 

Venus 4.13 

dircctus 


>^X Aquarius 
y\. 1(3. ^9 


f Cancer 34- aa 


>< 


Capricornus a^. aa ) 




/ 

Mars li. aS 
.retrogradus 
Libra 4. 39 


^/^ Sagittarius 
^r^^ ao. ag 


^r Salurnus 


V 


^r Cauda ^V 


^r rctrogradus 
^r Virgo lo. ao 


V 


X draconis ^V 

ag. a8 X 

Scorpio 4. a a ^^ 



(Daila dispersa Reccolta Stefani di Venezia.) 



Document B — SALINE 



968 (!>) MARZO. RiALTO 

II doge Pietro Candiano III, insieme col flglio, cede a ^larlino di Domenico 
Caiicaui una Saliiia del nuincro ili alciuie costruite in un terreno del 
Governo, verso un moggio di sale all' anno. 

In nomine domini dci ct salvatoris nostri iesu christi imperantibus 
dominis nostris Constantino et Romano eins filio magnis imperaloribus 
Anno autem, imiierio Costantino quadragesimo sexto / et Romano eius 



DOCUMENTS i8i 

filio duodecimo, mense marcii indicione i Rivo alto. Pro eo quod salinas 
preparatas usque ad absitorias in tempore tolos vestros consortes dedistis et 
tradidislis in curtis palacii de illas quas ellevaslis in ipsa pallude et terrenis 
que dicitur de arcones que est proprietas palacii nostri et illam vobis largi- 
vimus fundamentum salinarum conslruendum tenenle toto ipso fundamcnlo 
sicut se comprendit ab uno suo capile in palude amuriancnse et alio in ter- 
rena palacii nostri uno latere in comenzaria que vadit ad Torcellum et alio 
in comenzaria barbarani Idco nos Petrus dec auxiliante dux veneticorum 
filio . . . domino Petro duci Candiano una paritcr cum itemque ducc fillo 
meo cum successoribus nostris ab bodie damus tradimus atque concedimus 
tibi Marlino fdio Dominico Cancani et ab beredibus ac proheredibus posteris- 
quevestris pro futurum possidendi hoc est una sallina de illas quas ellevastis 
in predicta pallude et terrenas palacii nostri tolas ipsas sallinas uno cor- 
pore coniunclas ab uno latere, in alio in Felice da Molino et alio in Marino 
fratri suo simul jaglaciones et transiaglaciones suas et porciones de terrenas 
suas juxtas istas tuas sallinas una cum introitos et exitos suos et vias suas 
sicut ad nos ceteros pertinentibus tibi ut secundum vestram promissionem 
quantum cum consortibus de ipso fundamento nobis et in nostro palacio 
scribere fecistis et eam observantes et adimplentes ab bac die in Dei nomine 
ipsas sallinas habeas teneas possideas jure dominioque tuo in perpetuum 
\indices ad que defendas tuisque beredibus ac pro seu posteris relinquas 
habendi tenendi vendendi donandi commutandl vel quia quid vobis placuerit 
faciendi nuUo tibi bomine contradicente salvo censo ad en . . . nostro 
palacio id est pro uno quoque rotante anno sel modio uno pro una quaque 
sallina quando levaveris de eas usque ad decern modias de salle et si minus 
de decern modias per annum levaveris tunc tres dies pro ipsa sale censum 
in nostro palacio dare debeas ipsum predictum censum salvum et cunctam 
in tuo capite secundum ipsam promissionem per solvere debeas. Quum in 
legibus caute preceptum est ut cum semel traditum fuerit vel donatum nullo 
modo revocetur. Et si venundavcris ipsas sallinas quintellum sit salvum in 
nostro palacio. Veruntatem placuit nobis ut si ipsas sallinas ad venunda- 
dum venerit et de tua prole non fuerit qui eas comparare non possit non 
debeatis ea in extranea persona venundare nisi in noslro palacio. 

Si nosfer palacius tantum precium dare noluerit ilium in tempore sicut 
ipsas sallinas apreciatas fuerit. Quod si noster palacius emere noluerit 
tunc potestatem habeatis ipsas sallinas venundare cui volueritis salvo quin- 
tello et censo de nostro palacio. Et damus vobis licentiam tollendi tetrara 
de terrenis de nostro palacio et loto de palude de nostro palacio ad concian- 
dum et restorandum ipsum fondamentum sallinarum tantum hec omnia ut 
supra legitur cum accessus et egressus et vias et junctorios suos et jaglaciones 
suas et omnia ad se pertinentibus ita unus ab alio viam non contradicatis 
non in eundo ncque rcdeundo. Quod si quocumque tempore contra banc 
cartam ire temptaverimus nos autcm nostris successoribus ct aliquid 
vobis sub traere voluerimus et adimplente vos promissionem vestram et 
ab omnibus hominibus vos defensare noluerimus aut non potuerimus qui 



i8a DOCUMENTS 

vos (le infrascripla re cxpcllcre volucrit ex parte vcl ex totum aul contra hanc 
carlani ire tcmplavcrimus tunc componcrc promitto cum meis succcssoribus 
tibi el luis hcredibus auro obrizo libra una. Et promittimus vobis cum 
noslris succcssoribus conciare nostras porciones de aggeres omnique tempus 
quando opus fuerit quod si nolucrimus cl dngnum pro bac vobis ad creverit 
componere dcbeamus vobis argenli libra una cl hec carta maneat in sua 
Crmilale. 

(Arch, dclla Fabbrica di S. M. c Donalo di Murano ; copia del sec. XIV.) 

Documents C— INYENTARI 



l300 APRILE (?) 

Res que portaverunt Ambaxatores qui ivcrunt ad Regem K/arolum/. 
Cope ij . con pe dorate M/arca/iiij . unze j . scarsa 

Cope xij . 2>iane M* vij . unze iiij 

scudele xx . gramde M* xx 

iaieri ij . gramdi M* iiij . unze iij 

Sasore xx . pizin M" viij . unze j . scarsa 

cusleri x . dargento blanchi Unze x . quarta j •/. 

cusleri x . endorali Unze \j . quarta iij /. 

Suma peia qucsto argento M* xlvi . unze ij . quarta j. 

Pesa XX cusler darzento unze xij . quarta j. 

Item pesa iiij taieri darzento M* viij . unze ij •/. 

Item cope ij luna coverclata e laltra ceza (senza) coverclo pesa M* iiij . 
quarta v. 

Item pesa cope x plane M" vi . quarta j •/. 

(Archivio di Stale in Yenezia — Libri Commemoriali, i, c. 3.) 

II 

i3o8 

Hec sunt res invente per magistrum Paganinum quas misil potestas 
Laureli millesimo trigenlesimo octavo die xx octubris vu° indicionis. 

Primo in una valixia: 

Item serabulam j. 

Item incerulam j. 

Item cpithogium j . virgulatum. 

Item tuaicas ij . de saia nigra. 



DOCUMENTS i83 



Item peciam j . saie grise circha brachia u. 

Item agnclinam j . cum manegotis. 

Item armutias ij . de nocte. 

Item par j . zocolorum. 

Item par j . sutclarium. 

Item polem (sic) j . elefanti. 

Item infulam j . de nocte. 

In uno sacho : 

Item celvereras I'j. 

Item par j . cirolhecarum de maia. 

Item epitbogium j . floratum pelis. 

Item epitbogium j . viridi disfloratum. 

Item tapedum j. 

Item galerium j. 

Item in uno cofano : 

Item tovaliam j . a manu. 

Item par j . mutandarum. 

Item facolos ij . a capite. 

Item epbitogium j . de saia sanguinea floratum cendati. 

Item mensales ij . a tabula. 

Item linteamina ij. 

Item sacbum j . cum seda de vetis. 

In altero cofano : 

Item onerium j. 

Item mensale j . a tabiila. 

Item coltram j . bocarani. 

Item copam j . maseri. 

Item raminos ij. 

Item caputeum j . scarlati et blavi. 

Item linteamina ij . cum capitibus virgulatis. 

Item facolum j. 

Item tovaliaj. 

Item floraduram j . onerij. 

Item bragerium j. 

Item soldos xv . denariorum bononiensium quos habet cancelarius. 

Item candelas xxxi de cera. 

Item par j . scapiuorum. 

Item cascos vj. 

(Arcbivio di Stato in Yenezia — Commem. i, c. i34.) 



i84 DOCUMENTS 



m 

i3ii 

Lan Mcccxj . mccrcdi a xviiij jors de may . Ge jaques de conroi 
escuiers inorisignor charle frcre du roi dc france balllai a miquel albert de 
la contrade de sante vide . Ic clef de case morisin devant saint angle en le 
remanant du fornimcnt dcs gallces monsignor dc sus diet est cest a dire 
de V . galces et de un loiiig que sunt derier saint gregor a venise et les 
parties don dit remanant dou forniment sont celes quil sensuit. 

baillais audit miijucl rimes condist artimons v . lvi . Item remes tersa- 
rols in . viij . Item rimes dou loinc Lxiij . Item remes rous cl . Item 
arbrcs vj . Item preses dantencs ii . Item remes xiij . Item scales v . Item 
rampegon de fer j . Item taulef de roure que sont in met la sale xiij . 
Item tailes et ragles de supercbe oultre celes qui sont en la cambre per 
forniment lxxx . Item chevron de fraine l . Item ligname que est labore 
de rimes por pendre darbalestres et sobrensegnes quant mess. p. fu a saint 
agostin . Item lances longes que bone que mouvaisses ex . Item arbalestres 
que rotes que saines lx . bandres lx . Item baines de fer vl . Item manece 
de nur iij . Item contone de fer ij . Item colare roin de fer xiij . Item A'ans 
de place ij . Item baillai au dit micbel en une cambre sur canal ligname 
dalbede et dontes fomer banc pie de banc balcstrere et autre lignam que 
besogne es galies . Item stropi ccl . Item lancon petit in . uij . Item cle- 
crabres de sus sovre ast dalbede vj . Item en le dite cambre cbe veron de 
france v . Item aches viij . Item dans cxxx . Item chapias de fer vij . 
Item escns que bons que mauvaises vij . Item en le cambre de sous la 
cambre haunt sont ais dalbede et autre ligname . Item barili x . Item 
masteli vj . Item ferali viiij . Item pique de fer xij - Item peles de fer 
iij . Item le fust dun petit engin fare de rimes . Item pirie ij . Item quri- 
pial et autre sarte bone que peut pesser circa libre ifij . Item rampegon 
evastade iiij . Item elune des ij cambre ou estoit la sarthe si sont demores 
en j . mont toutes les capelles en anellees de sarte que sunt besogne pour 
V . galies et un loing. 

Toutes ](x chesses de sus deiles je jaques de cauroi laisai au dit michel 
alberlh cla case desus dite et de la dite casse li baillay la clef lan et le ior 
de sus dit . et ai du dit michel itel escrit . fait dc sa main et seele de son 
seel et iaimis por plus grant verite mon seel en ceste escrit et ne veull que 
nesuoe chose se vende au comun de venise . tant que iaie parle a mon- 
signor mess . karle . ne a autre persone et iusques adont quele dit michel . 
ait commandament dou dit monsignor mess, karle . ou letre escrite de ma 
main. 

(Archivio di Stato in Yenezia — Commcm. ii, c. 52 tergo.) 



DOCUMENTS i85 

IV 

1 327 

Millesimo trecenteslmo vigesimo septimo . Indicione decima, die 11' 
Marcij. 

Iiifrascripta sunt tnercimonia et res Venetorum eiistencia in navi Vene- 
torum cuius est patronus Marinus Longo de Veneciis, capla per subditos 
Regios. Que mercimonia et res liquido esse Venetorum infrascriptorum 
constat, tain per dictum et scripturam ipsorum quorum sunt, quam per 
quaternos et sacramentum illorum, qui vendiderunt ipsa, quam eliam per 
libros et quaternos officialium diversorum comunis Veneciarum quibus de 
dictis rebus in Veneciis, dacium est solutum. Que omnia et singula in 
favorem et subsidium veritatis licet expediens non foret cum alias sint clare 
ostensa ad cautelam tamen infcrius seriosius denotantur. 

In primis namque sunt balle duodecim de matarellis que sunt brachia 
VI . Ill . Lix viri providi ser ISicolai Zaparino et sociorum de Veneciis, 
quorum partem ut constat per quaternos Comunis emit ipse ISicolaus ab 
Henrico Amadey . et partem ab Henrico de Sanzemberg in Veneciis in 
fontico die xv . juiij proxime preteriti, et partem die penultimo dicti 
mensis a Laurencio de Sanzemberg, et partem die v septembris proxime 
ellapsi a Nicolao de Sancemborg, quorum preciuma scendit computatis 

c 

brachiis ij . lxxv . canevacie pro vultura et alijs expensis in summa libra- 

c 

rum M . iiij . xiviiij soldorum xv . ad grossos. 

M C 

Item libre xxiiij . XLiiij."' ferri in virgis m iij . xxxiiij"" icolai prefati, et 

sociorum, quod sicut constat, emit a Nicoleto sapa de Veneciis, die xxviij 



augusti proxime preteriti, cuius precium in navi onerati est librarum viij . 
iiij." soldorum vij . ad grossos. 

Item libre iij . xvj . Raminis in peciis v . xxivj . Nicolai predicli et 
sociorum quod emit ut constat a viro nobili ser Paulo Signolo, die iii" sep- 

tembris proxime ellapsi, cuius precium est in navi onerati librarum iiii . 
iLiiij."' soldorum xij . ad grossos . quod quidem Ramen est in barilis viiij. 
Item libre viiij . ix . stagni in fassiis iiii" ISicolai sepedicti et sociorum 
quod emit a Marco Acotanto de Veneciis, die xxviij . Augusti proxime pre- 
teriti, cuius precium est in navi onerati librarum c . xx . soldorum viiij . 
denariorum iiij." ad grossos. 

Item libre ij . c XLvij . Raminis in peciis iij . lxv . in barilis viij . 
Nicolai antedicti et sociorum predictorum quod emit ut constat a ser 
ISicoleto Zucholo de Veneciis, die vi septembris proxime preteriti cuius 
precium est in navi positi cum expensis librarum iij . xv . soldorum xvij . 
ad grossos. 



i86 DOCUMENTS 

Item brachia ij . c . xxvij . de matarellis in ballls iiij." Nicolal et 
sociorum prcdictorum quod emit die v seplcmbris jircdicli, a Corado do 
ISeuslal sicut constat cuius prccium est cum expensis in navi positi librarum 

a 

iiij . Lxxvij : soldorum xviiij . ad grosses. 

Suinma ergo tolum predictuin predictorum Nicolai ct sociorum libra- 

H 

rum iij . V . Lxxxxiiij." soldorum viiij . denariorum x . ad grosses. 

Et est sciendum quod omnia niercimonia supradicta diclus ISicolaus et 
socii mitlebant Mcssanam in manibus Mazie Delarama Veneti dcgentis 
ibidem tamquam in manibus procuratoris eorum. 

Prelcrca habucrunt et oneravcrunt in navi predicta, Nicolaus et Petrus 
Micliacl et Marcus petenarius veneti ballam uiiam pannorum iiii. de 
borsella, quos cmerunt a Stefano de Pozo venelo, die xiiij . augusti pre- 
dicti, et involuti fuerunt in una pecia pani matarelli, quorum precium est 
bbrarum xviij . soldorum iiij . denariorum viij . grossorum. 

Item babucrunt prescripli trcs in navi prefata libras m . xxiiij."' Rami- 
nis in virgis in barillis tribus, quod emerunt ut constat a prescripto IS'icolao 

c 

Zucholo, die ij° septembris suprascripti . Item libras iiij . vij . Raminis in 
folia in barili uno quod emerunt a Leonardo a bacilli Veneto die xj" sep- 
tembris prescripli cuius tocius Raminis prccium est librarum xij . soldorum 
j . grossorum, quod quidem Ramcn Tunisium duccbatur que omnia silicet 
panni et ramen cum dicta navi similiter cum aliis mercibus supradictis et 
infradicendis, fuerunt et sunt per subditos Regies ut premittitur arrestata 
in damnum et iacturam non modicum et gravamen Yenetorum omnium 
predictorum et infrascriptorum. ^ 

Item fuerunt onerati in dicta navi planconi iiij . Lxxivj . virorum 
nobilium ser Marini Faletro et ser Fredcrici Dandulo . virorum providorum 
Nicolai Zaparini et sociorum predictorum, et nomine eorumdem, quorum 

e 

quidem planconorum iiij . miltebant Symoni Andree degenti Panormi ad 
omne risicum et fortunam ipsorum Yenetorum, licet pecuniam ipsorura 
sen precium quod convenerant ipsi Veneti in Yeneciis, nomine vendicionis 
cum dicto Symone Andrea, vel cum alio nomine ipsius Symonis in Yeneciis 
receperunt Veneti prelibati ante missionem seu extractionem dicti ligna- 
minis de ccrla quanlitate casei dicti Symonis quod in Yeneciis erat tunc, 
quod per modum barali loco solucionis dicti lignaminis, sicut in talibus 
more mcrcalorio fieri consuevit receperunt et prccium lignaminis prefati 
secundum baratum mercati prefati fuit unzias xxx quodlibet centenarium 
dictorum planconorum, sicut hoc omnia clare constant, unde semper fue- 
runt et sunt dicti planconi vcnetonim predictorum, quousque in Panormo 
ipsos libera non consignarinl Symoni antedicto secundum pactum et con- 
dictionem prescriplam, qui planconi similiter cum dicta navi sunt per 
subditos regios arrestati, et sic si perdcrcntur, vel perirent dicti planconi 
nostris Venetis et non alicui alij depcrircnt. 

Item onerate fuerunt merccs et res infrascripte virorum nobilium 



DOCUMENTS 187 

Gabriells, Andree ed Andrioli Pisani Venetorum sicut clare constat super 
navi scri|)ta supra. ^ 

In primis videlicet brachia viiij . Lxj . •/. . do matarellis in peciis 
xxvij . quas cmeruut prout liquet die penultimo augusti predicti a Con- 
rado de Salcemberg . Item brachia m . vfi . lxvj . de matarellis in peciis 
xiviij . empta per predictos die prefato a Rigo de Sanzemborg . Item 

M 

brachia ij . c . Lxxvij . de matarellis in peciis xxxiij . empta die xiij" . 
dicti meiisis per predictos Vcnctos a Jacobo de Verire . Item brachia 

ij . vj . xxij . de grisis Mutinc in peciis iLiij . empta die ixvij . augusti 
prefati a Petro de Rozio . Quam quidem pannorum quantitatem eorum 
ijisi Veneti millcbant Messanam viro provide lohanni Coppo de Veneciis 
mercatori ct factori eorum in hac parte, sicut etiam eorum juramento clare 
constat . Item merces infrascripte in pluribus cassis silicet groppi cc . Liij . 

M r 

accuum diversarum manerierum . Item milliaria xxvij . viij . anulorum . 
Item milliaria xv . clavorum a cassella . Item ligalium unum de corallis . 
Ilcm duodene centum de paternostris de cristallo in uno ligacio . Item 
duodcne cclx . cultellorum . Item fasij xx . fillorum de ferro . Item Rime 
cartarum cxiij . Item milliaria xij . de siblotis . Item zenzeli xviij . 
Raminis . Item dezedali vi . c . Item sacum unum peciarum de cristallo . 
Item milliaria xxx . brochetarum , Item duodene viij . candellariorum . 

c 

Item vella marchisana iij . v . Item duodene xiij . streglarum . Item 
milliaria cc . lx . de paternostris . Item duodene speculorum . iij •/. Item 
milliaria xv . accuum, et accus vi . Quas omnes merces dictorum nobilium 
de ca Pisani dicti nobiles cum dicta navi mittebant ut supradictum est. 

Item fuerunt onerata super navi sepedicta nomine Filippi de la Rama 
nostri Veneti licet Mesane conversetur et habitet libre xvj . c . x . ferri, 
quod emit prout constat in Veneciis, die xxiij . augusti iam dicti a Christo- 
foro Sapa Veneto venditore ferri. 

Item onerate fuerunt super navi iam dicta, milliaria iiij . et libre v . l . 
ferri, providi viri lohannis Cupo Veneti que dicto lohanni mittebat Paulus 
Bereta Venetus in Messana, ut habetur clare per testimonium et sacramen- 
lum utriusque, quod ferrum emit in Veneciis, sicut constat dictus Paulus 
a Nicolao Bono de Veneciis mercatore ferri pro soldis xx v •/. grossorura 
quodlibct milliarium, quod per totum asccndit, computatis grossis i . pro 
naulo pro quolibet milliario summam librarum v . soldorum xviiij . denari- 
orum X . grossorum . Quod quidem totum ferrum fuit ct est in virgis 
cc . Lxiiij . in ligaciis xxxiij. 

Que omnia supradicta fuerunt similiter per subditos regios arreslata et 
iutromissa indebile delinentur. 

(Arch, di Stato in Venezia — Gommemoriale in, c. 28.) 



i88 DOCUMENTS 



V 

iKFR.VSCRirXE SIST RES, QUE SUNT IH DOMO MEI CoSSTASTINI, ET PRIMO O 
CAPS.V CONVESTUS FRATRUM PREDICATORUM DE TaRVISIO. 

In primis cusmeli duo 

Item cultrc albe trcs 

Item panni arasura quatuor 

Item zalonum blavum unum 

Item lincolum unum 

Item Tascheta una 

Item decrctus unus 

In barilli uno. 

In primis prima pars prime Sume sancti Tome. 

Item prima pars secundc eiusdem. 

Item secunda sccunde eiusdem. 

Item Tercia pars eiusdem. 

Item concordancie blibie. 

Item de similitudinibus et exemplis. 

Item dicta Sancti Thome super quibusdam libris Ar. (Aristotilis). 

Item Istorie passionis et quidam sermones. 

Item sermones de Sanctis secundum fratrem lacobum de Losano. 

Item sermones de Dominicis et de Sanctis in alio volumine. 

Item de auctoritatibus sanctorum et quedam cronicha. 

Item super simbolnm fidci ct quidam sermones. 

Item quidam sermones de dominicis et de Sanctis. 

Item Sermones de dominicis secundum fratrem Dominicum de Varagine. 

Item Encbandion sancti Augustini. 

Item de exemplis naturalibus et moralibus. 

Item pantheon. 

Item bestiarium. 

Item extraciones multarum epistolarum Geromini. 

Item sermones per totum annum. 

Item de indulgcnlijs conccssis ordini predicatorum. 

Item postille et moralitates secundum fratrem Thomam anglicum. 

Item miracula de beata virgine. 

Item vaticinium Gcremie. 

Item questiones litterales super libris de anima. 

Item privilegia concessa ordini predicatorum. 

Item sermones de Sanctis secundum fratrem Michaelem de Firmo. 

Item Ysac de vita contemplaliva. 

Item Secretum Secretorum Aristotilis. 

Item dialogus Ugonis de Sancto Vitore de anima. 



DOCUMENTS 189 

Item dyalogus beati Grcgorij in hombucino. 

Item capitula feriarum et dominicariim sermonum de quadragesima. 

Item scrmones secundum fratrem Antonium de Parma. 

Item quartus Sententiarum eiusdem. 

Item exlracioncs Senece in bombucino. 

Item soliloquiorum sancti Ysidori. 

Item de abstinencia et quidem sermones. 

Item tabulla super decretalcs. 

Item tabula super tractatu de avibus. 

Item suma de canibus. 

Item proverbia Petri Alphonci, et multorum philosophorum. 

Item sermones fratris Benedicti. 

Item ystoria Apolonij Tirij. 

Item naturalia fratris Alberti in bombucino. 

Item unus quaternus de experimentis in bombucino. 

Item oratio Origcnis et tractatus auctoritatum sanctorum. 

Item certe coUaciones de dominicis et feris in bombucino. 

Item excepta de Svetonio de duodecim thesauris in bombucino. 

Item tabulla super dicta beati Tome. 

Item unum parium tabullarum. 

In altero barili. 

In primis tabulla super quarto sententiarum sancti Tome. 

Item questiones de veritate. 

Item breviarium unum cum martirologio. 

Item sccundus sententiarum Sancti Tome. 

Item sermones dominicales. 

Item unum breviarium. 

Item unum misale. 

Item secunda secunde sancti Tome. 

Item Suma Monaldi. 

Item metapbisica Aristotilis. 

Item sermones dominicales fratris Jacobi de Voragine. 

Item Tractatus de Corpore Christi. 

Item Suma magistri Brocardi theotonici. 

Item beati Gregorij Niseuij Episcopi, de homine. 

Item sermones quadragesiniales fratris Jacobi de Varagine. 

Item primus sententiarum sancti Tome. 

Item prima secundi sancte Tome. 

Item liber pbisicorum cum alijs sex Ar. (Aristotilis). 

Item reglstrum veritatis maioris sume confessorum. 

Item unum breviarium. 

Item de veritate cbatolice fidei sancti Tome. 

Item liber qui incipit verba Ylarij. 



igo DOCUMENTS 

Item liber decimus seplimus moralium. 

Item tabulla Sume abreviate. 

Item capitula in librum primum dialogorum. 

Item sermones in Jeiunio. 

Item sentenlia super librum phisicorum bcati Tome. 

Item sermones dominicalcs fratris Jacobi de Varagine. 

Item scriplum sancti Tbome super librum de anima Ar. (Aristolilis). 

Item extracioues de llbro de proprielatibus rerum. 

Item sancli Tbome super methaphisica Ar. (Arislotilis). 

Item Evangelia exposila secundum bealum Tbomam. 

Item certe legende Sanctorum. 

Item metapbisica Ar. (Arislotilis). 

Item legende fratris Jacobi de Varagine usque de sancto Heusebio. 

Item opus morale per exempla avium, animalium et pisium. 

Item collaciones sanctorum in bombucino. 

Item sancti Tbome super libro de anima. 

Item unus quaternus in bombucino, qui incipit: lux vera. 

Item una suma Brochardi. 

Item liber sententianuTi pro parte. 

Item unus quaternus in bombucino qui incipit : bee sunt generaliones. 

Item unus quaternus in bombucino, qui incipit : notabilia sanctorum. 

Item unus quaternus in bombucino, qui incipit : ad summum pontiCcem. 

Item tres quaternos de colacionibus. 

Infrascripti libri inventi fuerunt in uno barilli, 
videlicet libri. 

de polentia Dei. 

de dlctamine. 

de quatuor virtutibus. 

declamaciones Senece. 

Cronica fratris Martini. 

Breviarium. 

de gestis Apolonij magni principis. 

de virtutibus berbarum. 

de tabulla per alfabetum super dictis sancti Tbome. 

de Beata vita. 

de quatuor virtutibus. 

de postilla super epistola beati Paoll ad bebreos. 

de Sermonibus. 

de conservanda sanitate. 

de virtutibus et vitijs. 

de sermonibus de temporibus. 

de tabulla per alphabctum. 

P. MoLMESTi, La Sloria di Venezia nella Vila Privata. — P. I. 



\ 



DOCUMENTS 191 

de sermonibus. 

de arte veleri. 

de sermonibus. 

de Miraculis Virginis. 

do sermonibus . xl. 

de sermonibus de temporibus. 

super libro etbicorum. 

de lucidario. 

de prologo dialogorum Sancti Augustini. 

de Anibale. 

de colacionibus pro comunione. 

de kalendario. 

de racione super libro posteriorum. 

de sermonibus. 

de sermonibus. 

quaterni. 

de Anibale. 

de colacionibus sanctorum. 

de glosis Thome super libro posteriorum. 

et super libro physicorum de discrecione mundi. 

de falacijs beati Tome. 

de anima. 

de exposicione sancti Thome. 

de exposicione beall Thome super Matheum. 

de sermonibus in papiro. 

de sermonibus super libro posteriorum sancti Thome. 

Item certi alij quaterni. 

Item tres cusini. 

Item in una capsa : 

In primis quatuor calices et quatuor patene de argento. 

Item una ancona in una capsella de ligno. 

Item reliquie in uno cristallo de gloriosa Virgine Maria. 

Item una chaseta de avolio cum reliquiis intus. 

Item una cuppa de masero cum paternostris ed una cruce de cristalo. 

Item una ymago sancte Marie de alabastro. 

Item unum busolum cum certis reliquijs intus. 

Item unus anuUus de argento cum duabus comiolis. 

Item una ymago Christi de alabastro. 

Item unum paramentum fulcitum cum una camisia. 

Item unum camixum cum omnibus suis pendicijs excepta plancta. 

Item unum paramentum fulcitum. 

Item anchoneta parva. 

Item una anchonetta parva. 

Item duo busoleta. 



192 DOCUMENTS 

Item qiiatuor corporalia. 

Item ccrta privilegia iu uno sacheto de corio. 

Item duo manutergia. 

Item undecim fazoli a capite. 

Item unum biretum de sirico. 

Item unum sachetum cum argento intus. 

In una capsa de peco : 

In primis tres cultre albe. 

Item tria paria linteaminum de lana. 

Item unum par linteaminum de bambaiio. 

Item unum camexum sine gramitis. 

Item duo manutergia. 

Item sex camisiae. 

Item una camixia descusita. 

Item due mutande. 

Item due sacbete. 

Item unus pannus laboratus de lino. 

Item novem covertelle. 

Item certe pecie da naso. 

Item certa tella de lino. 

Item unus liber Ysiodori. 

Item certi quaterni et scripture. 

(Arcbivio di Stato in Venezia — Commemoriale v, c. no.) 

VI 

i363, DIE xvi" Ja>u\rii (more vexeto) 

Nota rerum inventarum in monasterio Sancti Georgij maioris 

Infrascripte sunt res que invente fuerunt in monasterio sancti Georgij 
maioris de Venecijs, per nos Tbomam de Bonincontro, et Nicolaum de 
Conto notarios ducalis aule, qui de mandato dominij missi fuimus ad 
dictum locum die suprascripta. 

In primis invenimus Galices argenteos fulcitos vij . inter magnos et 
Comunales. 

Item Turibulum unum magnum de marchis circha v et unum Comunale . 

Item Cruces argentheas comunales tres, una quarum est smaldata, et 
minor earum habet de ligno crucis. 

Item fiistos ij eburneos ab episcopo. 

Item paramenta a sacerdole fulcita vij bona. 

Item paramenta duo ab abbate pulcra, et maxime planetas de sirico et 
auro laboratas. 

Item candelabra duo cristalina. 

Item aacbonam unam de ligno auratam cum flgura sancti Georgij. 



DOCUMENTS 198 



Item tapeta iij. 

Item plevialia vetera xij. 

Item paramenia ab altare xiiij do pannis siricis inter que est unum 
novum. 

Item mantilia viij manutergia viij ab altare. 

Item cossincllos ab altare v inter magnos et parvos. 

Item candelabra magna erea stantia circha altare magnum iiij". 

Item cortinas slantes circha dictum altare v. 

Item candelabra magna erea ad altare sancti Stcfani quatuor. 

Item candelabra duo magna erea ad altare sancte Marie. 

Item brachium sancti Georgij ornatum de argento cum uno anullo auri 
cum uno pulcro et magno ballassio in digito, solum in una cassa sua 
consueta. 

Item in una alia capsa altari Sancti Cosme et Damiani, Reliquias 
Sancti Cosme et Damiani, videlicet petia xx et Sancti Panthaleonis et 
Sancte Barbare ossa v . et cassas duas plumbeas parvas cum reliquijs et 
schatulam unam cum alijs Reliquijs. 

Item in una alia capsa altaris Sancti Jacobi, testam Sancti Jacobi, cum 
multis alijs Reliquijs. 

Item in una alia capsa altaris Sancti Pauli Martiris, corpus totum 
integrum Sancti Pauli. 

Item in altare Sancti Heustacbij, totum corpus integrum Sancti 
Heuslachij. 

Item in altare Sancti Cosme, Corpus Sancti Cosme confessoris, et unum 
lapidem Sancti Stephani cum pluribus alijs Reliquijs. 

Item in uno alio altare Capud Sancti Felicie confessoris et brachium 
Sancte Lucie cum tota manu. 

Item omnia altaria ecclesie dicti loci bene fulcita sicut decet temporibus 
feriatis. 

Item par unum organorum in dicta Ecclesia. 

Item librum unum intitulatum Sinonima et librum confessionum beati 
Augustini super Cantica Cauticorum scriptum de littera antiqua. 

Item antiphonarium unum, scriptum de littera antiqua. 

Item librum unum, intitulatum Regule patrum scriptum de littera 
antiqua. 

Item librum unum intitulatum Corector et medicus scriptum de lit- 
tera antiqua. 

Item librum unum intitulatum de vita Sanctorum scriptum de litlera 
antiqua. 

Item librum unum Apocalisis scriptum de littera antiqua. 

Item librum unum novum sermonum tam Evangeliorum dominicalium 
quam forialium scriptum de littera cursiva. 

Item librum unum sermonum pulcrum scriptum de littera moderna. 

Item Breviarium unum vetus. 

Item Messale unum pulcrum scriptum de littera moderna bona, qui 

VOL. U I 3 



igd 



DOCUMENTS 



incipit, dominica prima de advenlu domini in litteris rubels, et finit, 
muncra divina, fulcitiim corio viridc. 

Item Messale unum cum corio viride quod incipit in prima carta per 
omnia secula seculorum amen, ct finit, fac nos quesumus Dominc. 

Item Messale unum fulcilum de corio rubeo cum clavis scriptum de 
littcra modcrna, iiicipientcm in prima carta, Dens qui nobis anima sancto- 
rum Virginum, et finit, Introjtus in honore Virginis Marie. 

Item Messale unum fulcitum de corio rubeo, incipicntem in prima 
carta Credo in unum Deum, et finit in ultima, Suscipe munera quesumus 
Domine. 

Item librum unum orationum fulcitum de corio albo cum clavis, 
incipientem in prima carta A. B. G. D. in ultima finit, nota quod in festo 
nee per oclavam officium beate Marie Virginis. 

Item librum unum antiquum incipientem Epistola a pascbale, et finit, 
Deus qui beate Virginis Marie. 

Item librum unum fulcitum de corio nigro qui incipit in prima carta, 
beatus qui non abijt in consilio Impiorum, 'A finit. Fides catolica quam 
nisi quisque fideliter firmiterque crediderit salvus esse non poterit. 

Item librum unum de trinitate qui incipit, domino glorioso Carolo 
Imperatori, et finit occurrerunt ei fratres. 

Item librum unum de lillera aaliqua qui incipit, de promissione Dei, 
et finit, post banc vitam beatissimus. 

Item librum unum Ezechielis dc corio rubeo. 

Item librum unum scrmonum cum corio viride. 

Item librum unum sermonum dominicalium venerabilis fratris Luce 
cum corio nigro. 

Item librum unum cum corio albo prefatii Cassiani abbatis super 
instituta monachorum. 

Item librum unum de ordine abbatum et clericorum. 

Item librum unum cum corio rubeo de sancta Trinitate, editum a 
quodam Boemio Romanorum consule. 

Item librum unum Evangelliorum. 

Item antifonarium unum magnum antiquum et pulcrum cum corio albo. 

Item librum unum cum corio albo genesis magnum scriptum de llttera 
anliqua. 

Item librum unum magnum exposlclonum Evangcllorum secundum 
Mathcum. 

Item librum unum magnum dc littera antlqua beati Gregorij urbis 
Rome qui incipit in prima carta, de litteris rubels In Christ! nomine, 
prologus beati Gregorij. 

Item librum unum magnum cum corio nigro et cum clavis silicet Ysaye 
profete dc littera antlqua. 

Item librum unum magnum beate urbis Rome cum corio nigro. 

Item Antifonarium unum de littera antlqua incipientem In prima carta 
vei . . . cum danaberis et finlentem salve regina, cum corio albo. 



DOCUMENTS 196 

Item librum unum copertum de corio piloso magnum qui vocalur 
antifonarium noturniim, super salmos. 

Item librum unum copertum dc corio nigro cum ciavis quadratis qui 
vocatur Lecunale qui incipit in prima carta, in nomine domini amen, et 
finit in ilia hora est nostri exitus semper intuenda. 

Item librum unum copertum de corio nigro cum ciavis qui vocatur 
legendarius qui incipit in prima carta de littera rubca domiuica pasque, 
sermo Sancti Augustini, finit non solvitur ergo lex. 

Item legcndarium unum de corio nigro cum ciavis incipienlem dc 
litteris rubeis, incipit liber lectionum, et finit, Kato in Betbelem, domino 
salvatore. 

Item bibiam unam in magno volumine copertum de corio nigro cum 
ciavis, incipientem Trinitas, et finlcntem Deus autem pacis. 

Item librum unum copertum de corio albo cum ciavis intitulatum 
Marlirologium incipientem in prima carta de fitteris rubeis, incipit mar- 
tirologium, et finientem in ultima si quis autcm hoc attentare presumscrit. 

Item unum antifonarium de corio albo fulcito cum ciavis qui incipit, 
ego plantavi, appollo rigavit, et finit o doctor optum (sic) Ecclesie sancte. 

Item salterium unum cum corio albo qui incipit in prima carta kallan- 
darium, et finit in ultima verbum superbium prodiens. 

Item oracionale unum cum corio albo cum ciavis qui incipit in prima 
carta fratres exeuntes de cochina et finit in ultima credo in unum Deum. 

Item antiphonarios duos. 

Item linarium unum. 

Item unum alium salterium. 

\tem ordinarium unum. 

Item salterium unum romanum. 

Item responsatorium unum cboopertum de corio albo cum ciavis quad- 
ratis qui incipit in prima carta de litteris rubeis in commemoracione Beate 
Marie Virginis, et finit benedicamus Domino. 

Item libros duos graduales pulcros et magnos. 

Item Evangelistarium unum pulcrum cum corio rubeo. 

Item passionarium unum magnum cum corio albo et cum ciavis qui 
incipit in prima carta, Incipit vita Sancti Marciliani. 

Item alium passionarium cum corio nigro bonum et pulcrum incipiens 
de litteris rubeis vegilia Epifanie. 

Item librum unum sermonum antiquum sine corio cpii incipit in prima 
carta sabato sancto sermo bcati Geronimi. 

Item librum unum cum corio albo et ciavis qui vocatur liber exsposi- 
cionum evangeliorum incipientem in prima carta, in dominico die sancto 
pasce, et finit erat quidam archii)resbiler. 

Item epistolarium unum bonum et pulcrum cum corio rubeo. 

Item messale unum novum et pulcrum cboopertum de corio rubeo 
incipiens per kallandarium, et finiens, Deus qui beatum Gerardum. 

Item antiphonarium unum comune sine tabulelis. 



196 



DOCUMENTS 



Item librum qui vocatur Malaclii idcst librum regum quarlum qui 
incipit crcsccnio vcro fidellum nunicro, ct finit, Explicit Malachiia liber 
rcgum quarlus. 

Item unum aliud messale cum paoDO sirico laboralo ad aurum. 

Itoin circa duodecim libros parvi voluminis vetcris et parvi valorls la 
uno armario sagrastie. 

(Arch, di Stalo in Venezia — Commemonale vii, c. i5.) 



VII 

Inventari delle cose lasciate DAL DOGE Francesco Dasdolo (m. 1339). 

In nomine Dei eterni amen. Anno ab incarnatione domini nostri Jesu 
Christi millesinio trecentesimo quadragesimo primo mense August! die 
undccimo inlrante indicione nona Rivoalti. 

Cum nobiles Viri domini Bertiizius de Canale Paulus Bellgno, et 
Nicoletus Sanulo, indices petitionum ex suo officio et iusticia ad peticioncm 
et querimoniam infrascripti Johannis Dandulo filii quondam nobilis \ iri 
domini Gratoni Dandulo olim filii clare memorie domini domini Francisci 
Dandulo quondam Veneciarum Dalmacie, atque Chroacie ducis nee non 
dominatoris quarte partis et dimidie tocius Imperii Romanic preciperent 
seu precepissent Psobis infrascriptis Ysabete Dandulo rclicte et ISicolao 
Contareno quondam cognalo et nunc ambobus commissariis suprascripti 
domini Francisci Dandulo quondam ducis veneciarum ut de omnibus rebus 
et bonis dicte commissarie que apud nos et ad quemlibet Nostrum sunt in 
prescnti faceremus seu fieri facicnius inventarii carlam ad perpetuam rei 
memoriam. Volentes igitur scqui per omnia mandatum dictorum domi- 
norum Judicum peticionum, banc inventarii cartam duximus faciendum 
per virtutem et potcstatem unius testamenti carte complete et roborate 
manu IS'icolay dicti Pistorini ducatus veneciarum cancellarii et notarii 
rogale scripts anno Incarnationis domini nostri Jesu Christi millesimo 
trecentesimo trigesimo nono Indicione octava die martis vigesimo sexto 
octubris Rivoalti, Quod fieri fecit Illustris dominus Franciscus Dandulo 
Dei gracia Veneciarum Dalmacie atque Chroacie dux dominus quarte 
partis et dimidie tocius Imperii Romanie, In quo imprimis equidem suos 
fidey commissarios constituit et esse voluit nobilem coniugem suam domi- 
nam Isabctam ducissam ct nobiles viros dominum Androam Michaelcm 
comitem arbensem carissimum nepotem suum, et dominum ISicolaum 
Contarenum cognatum suum, ut secundum et infra et inter alia sic legilur 
in eodem. Omnia autcm alia bona nostra mobilia et immobilia dimittimus 
et esse volumus sub gubernatione et dispositione dicte domine ducisse 
coniugis nostre In vita sua Ita videlicet quod de fructibus et proventibus 
ipsorum in vita sua ut predicitur possit disponere ordinare et facere tam 
pro victu suo honorabili quam pro viclu et alimcnti infrascriptis nepotis 



DOCUMENTS 197 

nostri filii naturalls quondam Gratoni fillii nosfri. Quem nepotem noslrum 
cum ipsa consorte nostra esse et manere volnmus quam eciam pro anima 
nostra et filii nostri prcdicti et alliorum propinquorum nostrorum sicut 
sue libuerit voluntati. Cui etiam consorti nostre ducisse relinquimus 
libere ultra suam doctem, et ultra id quod sibi per cartam tcnemus omnes 
sues pannos tam lineos quam laneos quam etiam cuiuslibet alterius speciei 
et res et jocalia tam de auro quam do argento ordinatas pro suo usu, seu 
quas pro suo usu haberet ut de ipsis possit facere suam omnimodam volun- 
tatem. Et liceat ipsi domine ducisse vendere de bonis nostris mobilibus 
pro solvendo et salisfaciendo sibi de sua dote et de eo quod sibi tenemus 
per cartam, et pro satisfaciendis nostris debilis si qua forent. Ita tamea 
quod propterea et etiam de admiuistratione sua nullatcnus unquam 
tcneatur reddere rationem, et iterimi infra dcdit preterea et coiitulit 
suprascriptis commissariis suis post obitum siuim plenissimam virtutem et 
potestatem inquirendi, placitandi, respondendi, advocatores precepta et 
inlerdicta toUendi, legem petendi, sententias audlendi et consequendi, 
intromit tendi atque excuciendi omnia sua bona et havere a cunctis suis 
debitoribus et a quibuscumque personis et apud quemcumque ea vel ex 
eis inveniri poterunt cum cartis et sine cartis per curiam et extra curiam 
et securitatis cartas et omnes alias cartas necessarias et quidquid aliud 
necesse fuerit facicndi et cetera ut in ea legitur. Et quia idem supradictus 
Kobilis Vir dominus Andreas Michael nunquam intromisit ad tempus 
specificatum in statuto dictam commissariam ipsius quondam dicti domini 
ducis, idcirco mauifcstum facimus Nos suprascripti — Itsabetta Dandulo 
relicta et Nicolaus Contareno quondam cognato et nunc ambo commissarii 
suprascripti domini Francisci Dandulo quondam ducis Veneciarum quod 
hec infrascripta sunt bona et res dicte commissarie apud nos inventa ad 
presens videlicet : 

Imprimis octo lecti magni cum octo plumaciis de pignolato vergato. 
Item due traponte magne et due traponte parve de pignolato. Item una 
cultra de cendato torlo vermeio. Item una cultra de cendato viridi torto. 
Item una cultra de cendato sanguineo torto. Item una cultra abinde zala 
et sanguinea cendati torti. Item una cultra de catasamito vermeio. Item 
due cultre de catasamito zaio. Item ima cultra blanca de Zipro. Item 
due cultre albe veteres. Item duo lecti cum duobus plumaciis a familia. 
Item novem lecti a familia et traponte undecim de lana et capizalia un- 
decim parva. Item duo clapi de samito vermeio qui crant in obsequio 
ipsius qtiondam domini ducis et domine ducisse in solempnitatibus. Item 
una cortina de peciis et due corline abinde de cendato torto zalo et vermeio 
absque supralecto. Item una cortina de cendato viridi torto que sunt pro 
tribus facicbus in uno clapo. Item una cortina abinde cum celo, et unum 
cocholarium viride et vermcium abinde. Item sex clapi de cortinis de 
velesio zalis et vermeis. Item unum vexillum imperiale cum suo schiflb. 
Item duo paria linteaminum magna et nova. Item sex paria linteaminum 
a lecto magno. Item duo paria linteaminum a valise. Item duodecim 



198 



DOCUMENTS 



paria linloaminnm a Iccto magno. Item unum par linteaminum de vclcsio. 

Item unum clapus dc manlililjus brachja quadraginla sex. Item triginta 

mantilia inter bona et Vetera sivc non bona. Item unum mantile magnum 

cum capilibus laboralis de sola. Item triginta toalie inter bonas et veteres. 

Item octo mantilia a credenlia. Item una loalia cum capilibus de seta. 

Item unum manlilc ct una loalia nova cum capitibus dc seta. Item 

quatuor toalie longe nove. Item tria mantilia nova. Item septem toalie 

nove que se tenent insiniul. Item decem octo brachya de tella ad ponen- 

dum super pannum que sc insimul tenent. Item unum fazolum magnum. 

Item quatuor ta[)eta magna pulcra. Item tria alia tapeta. Item tria 

tapeta quasi vctera. Item una carpeta francisca investita de tella viridi. 

Item unum zalon scachatiuii iuvestitum de tella zala. Item una umbrela 

magna a buccnloro ab inde dc panno sctc et auri investita de tella zala pro 

buzenloro. Item unum felzum pro plato de panno veluto et de seta cum 

armis da cha Dandulo in circha investitum ab inde. Item sex banchalia 

francisca. Item quatuor banchalia abinde laborata in Veneciis. Item 

quatuor sclabinc magne pro plato ct barchis. Item una coraza alba cum 

vantis et gamberiis et una capcla ct una galea et unum par subtelarium de 

curaza et una maza dc fcrro. Item viginti alie coraze cum suis colariis et 

vantis precio soldorum triginta grossorum. Item decem capele et unum 

epitogium de fcrro. Item octo panziere et quatuor colaria ct due manize 

et quatuor vanti de maja. Item septem spate et unus cutellus a ferire. 

Item quatuor cutelli a tabula a manicis Icfanti cum varctis de argento. 

Item cjuatuor alii cutelli a tabula a manicis nigris de bufalo cum varctis 

argenteis. Item due cbonche magne de rame. Item quatuor bacilli 

magni. Item sex bacilli parvi. Item quindecim ramini inter magnos et 

parvos de latono. Item tria paria linteaminum a lecto quondam domine 

dncisse. Item duo paria linteaminum a lecto Zanini Dandido. Item 

viginti paria linteaminum a familia vctera. Item quadraginta scuta. 

Item duo epitogia desfornila de panno cardlnali que fuerunt et esse 

debuerunt pro usu quondam dicti domini ducis. Item quatuor tunice 

dcsfornite de panno cardinali. Item duo epitogia desfornita de panno 

scarlato. Item ima tunica de sarza vermeia. Item unum epitogium et 

una tunica de panno scarlato desfornita incisa et non completa. Item octo 

bracliia de panno cardinali. Item duo capuzia de panno cardinali iuforata 

de varota. Item tria capuzia de parmo scarlato inforata de varota. Item 

unum capuzium do panno scarlato ct unum capuzium de panno cardinali 

inforata de cendato. Item duo capuzia de sarza vermeia investita dc 

cendato. Item duo zambeloti dc cendato vermeio, Item unum epitogium 

ct ima pelis de veluto vermeio inforata de varota a domina. Item una 

cappa dc veluto vermeio et viridi inforata dc varota a domina. Item unum 

suprasignum dc catasamito ad arma da cha Dandulo inforatum de tella 

viridi. Item quinquc bandiere de cendato ad arma da cha Dandulo et duo 

pencUa de cendato ad arma da cha Dandulo et una bandiera de tella ad 

arma da cha Dandulo. Item tres anchonc. Item undecim coffani infcrati 



DOCUMENTS 199 

inter bonos et non bonos sive vctcres. Item due arcelle dc paredanis. 
Item unum coffanotum longum adoplerlis. Item una cassella longa ado- 
plerlis. Item duo cassoni veteres. Item una cassella magna nova. Item 
una cassella magna a merchatore. Item unum banchum a tribus coltis. 
Item sex pilizoni de agnelina inter bonos et veteres ab bominc. Item 
quatuor pilizoni de pelis leporinis ab homine. Item sex zube de bocharano 
que fuerunt pro usu quondam dicti domini ducis. Item alii panni et 
vcstimcnta et vestimenta (sic) vetera que portant sive deferunt in dorso 
femine in domo. Item viginli septem orieri investiti de tella alba. Item 
duo orieri de cendato vermeio cum gramitis de auro in medio. Item 
unus orier de veluto viridi cum gramitis auri in medio ad opera aqui- 
larum. Item tres orieri de samito vermeio. Item duo orieri de camocha 
viridi. Item unus orier de camocba blavo. Item quinque orieri de 
panno de seta. Item duo slatere cum uno blombielleno. Item unus 
sachus et dimidius lino pleni. Item una pezia de pignolato. Item unus 
liber institute. Item unus liber si licet legende sanctorum. Item unus liber 
digestus. Item unus liber antiquus. Item unus liber Prosperi. Item 
unus liber dyalogorum sancti Grcgorii. Item unus liber statutorum 
Veneciarum. Item unus liber Ysopi. Item unus liber cronice. Item 
unus liber Donati. Item unus quaternus statuti navium. Item alii 
quaterni cum duobus libris franciscis. Item unus liber decretalium. 
Item unus liber de expositione vocabulorum. Item unus liber blibie 
complete. Item unus liber fratris Thomaxii. Item unus liber Donati 
conipositus per vulgare et latino. Item duo Boecii in uno quorum est 
poesia novella. Item unus liber epistole beati Eusebii. Item unus liber 
de doctrina. Item unvis liber Flavii qui babet corium viride. Item unus 
libellus medicine. Item duo quaterni scripti in cartis _de bergameno et 
unus alius quaternus de translacione corporis beati Stephani protho- 
martiris qualiter de Constantinopolim conductum seu translatum fuit 
Venecia. Item duo peteni de lefanto. Item due flimbaie sive pedes de 
auro cum perils laboratis cum quatuor rocbis pro utroque ipsorum pedum. 
Item una cappa parva de auro a domina. Item quatuor lebetes de bronzio. 
Item tres coldiere de rame. Item septem lebetes de petra. Item tria 
frissoria de rame. Item tres cochome de rame. Item duo spedi de ferro. 
Item quatuor patelle de rame. Item una caldiera magna de rame. Item 
tres catene ferree. Item sex cavedoni de ferro. Item tres cavedoni magni 
de ferro. Item due catene magne de ferro. Item uno spedo longus cum 
duobus pedibus de ferro. Item due alie coldiere de rame una magna et 
altera parva. Item quatuor lebetes magni de bronzio. Item duo lebetes 
de petra. Item duo frissoria unum magnum et alterum parvum de rame. 
Item duo trepie vctcres de ferro. Item tres selle ab equis veteres. Item 
duo frena equorum. Item una masena de petra ad faciendum salsam. 
Item due cuppe de argento cum pedibus inauratis cum smaldis coopertis 
ad opera francisca. Item unum bocbal de argento coopertum inauratum 
cum smaldis. Item quatuor cboclearia de argento inaurata. Ita nonaginta 



200 DOCUMENTS 

scptcm choclcaria dc argcnto alLa. Item sex incisoria sivc taicri de 
argcnto. Item oclo scutcUe parve dc argento. Item ocio scutclle magne 
de argeiito. Item oclo uapi de argento ad opera turchcsca. Item due 
ciippe de argcnto una quarum est inaurata et altera non. Item una 
scatula de argcnto magna alba. Item una saliera de argcnto inaurata 
cooperla cum smaldis. Item duo pironi niagni dc argento inaurati. Item 
una caza de argento alesivio. Ilcm^ unus botazellus de argcnto albus a 
Icraqua. Item una cuppa de maserata cum pede argenti inaurata. Item 
una Centura de argento sine capite furnlta solununodo alccnzer. Item due 
spalicre a novicia fornite perlis et smaldis cum catenis de argento ct cum 
smaldis inauratis. Item unus anulus aureus cum uno rubino. Item duo 
candclabria de argento inaurata cimi pedibus laboratis ad Icones. Item 
una trumbcta longa do argcnto. Item una scudclcta de argcnto pro cirio 
albo. Iste res sunt in manibus mei prcdicti Nicolay Conlareno videlicet. 
Imprimis iinus pirulus dambro da olire cum una flubaia de seta sanguinea. 
Item duo anuuli auri parvi, unus quorum babct balassum vermilium a 
cantonis octo et alter sephvrum ab octo canlonis. Item unus annuliis 
aureus ad arma da cha Dandulo ad smaldos. Item duo annuli auri magni, 
unus babct balassum quadrum a qualuor cantonis et alter sapbyrum ab 
octo augulis. Item unus curadentos de argcnto. Item libre viginli due 
solidi sexdecim denarii novcm grossorum parvull decern octo cum illis 
libris treccnlis que sunt de rcpromissa uxoris Zanini Dandulo suprascripti 
nepotis quondam dicli domini ducis Yencciarum et pro laziis libre due 
solidus unus dcnari quatuor grossorum de quibus Marclicsina debet babcre 
libras decern grossorum pro sua filia. Item dcbent excuti a palatio pro 
una sententia libre decem octo grossorum solidi sex denarii duo grossorum 
et parvuli viginti duo que nondum sunt excusse ex eo quod nos com- 
missarii recurere debemus advocaloribus comunis. Item debent excuti 
ab uno comitum de Vcgla solidi octo et denarii decern cum dimidio 
grossorum pro regalia. Item unum scripgnum dicte commissarie ad 
tenendum et conservandum intus et dcnarios et alias scripluras commissarie 
predicte quondam domini ducis. Iste infrascripte res sunt deputate ad 
usimi uxoris Zanini Dandulo prcdicti. In primis una roba de sago albo 
silicct tunica et varnacbia infrisata ipsa tunica et varnacbia, sed varnacbia 
est inforata de cendado blavo et tunica habet pirolos intaiatos de argento 
inaurato. Item unum epitogium ad undo de panno aureo, et dc panno 
cardinali furnitum cappis argcntcis et inforatum de varotis. Item unum 
epitogium et una tunica de panno sblavado et scarlato infrisata, ct ipsum 
epitogium est inforatum de varota ct fornitum ansolis magnis argenteis 
inauratis et ipsa tunica esi furnita de pressuris argenteis inauratis. Item 
unum epitogium de auro inforatum de varotis. Item una tunica de 
scarlato infrisata de perlis. Item una tunica et unum epitogium de panno 
viridi inforatum pelle grisea. Item due zube de cendato una quarum est 
laborata ad imdas de condato viridi et sanguinco. Item unum rubinum de 
meselo et de calabriato. Ilom unum rubinum de auro ad intaj cum 



DOCUMENTS 201 

gramitibus. Item una zoia incasala et habet tresdecim taselos de rubinis 
et smaldis et perlis. Item unum filum de pcrlis centum et decern septem. 
Item recepit suprascripla domina ducissa a comite Bartholomeo et a comite 
Nicolao junior! de Vegla libras octo solidos sex denarios octo grossorum. 
Item recepit a comite Marco filio quondam domini IS'icolay comitis majoris 
de Vegla libras sex et solidos tres grossorum. Item recepit libras sexdecim 
solidos decern octo denarios novcm grossorum a palatio de rebus venditis. 
Item recepit libras quindecim solidum unum denarios novem grossorum a 
domino Nicolao Conlareno prcdicto. Item recepit pro lignis ab igne 
venditis libras tres solidos novem grossorum. Item recepit libras decern, 
solidos decern grossorum de pannis et vestimentis quondam dicti domini 
duels venditis quando ipsa exivit de palatio. Quos omnes suprascripto* 
denarios ipsa expendidit in reparatione et aptatione domorum et proprieta- 
tum positarum in confinio sancti Pauli et sancti Salvatoris et in distri- 
buendo pro anima ipsius quondam domini ducis et pro aliis necessariis. 
Signiim suprascriptorum commissariorum qui bee rogaverunt fieri. 

Tempore domini Angeli Suriano judicis peticionis in sua curia michi 
notario ipse dixit quod non elevarem dictum istrumentum nisi aliter alias 
michi diceretur — postmodum domini advocatores comunis et fuit dominus 
Pelrus Zane qui michi prccepit inslrumentum predictum fieri in publicam 
formam et sic feci de autoritate domini ducis et suorum consiliariorum 
propter mortem testium. 

Infrascriptis duobus testibus morte preventis qui erant testes rogati se 
subscribere in suprascripta inventarii carta, de mandato et autoritate 
domini domini Andree Dandulo Dei gratia Veneciarum Dalmacie atque 
Chroatie ducis suique minoris et maioris consilii, cum subscriptione ipsius 
domini ducis et quatuor suorum consiliariorum qui fuerunt isti, silicet 
dominus Paulus Donato, douiinus Johannes Lauretano, dominus Johannes 
Quirino et dominus Stephanus Marijoni. In millesimo trecentesimo 
quadragesimo nono mense septembris die dccimo nono intrante indicione 
tercia Rivoalti. Ego presbiter Victor canonicus ecclesie sancti Marci et 
notarius complevi et roboravi dictam inventarii cartam et ipsam dedi 
suprascripto Johanni Dandulo et ideo de atramento circumdedi. 

Testes Bertolinus de Cremona filius quondam Baldesarini de Quageis 
de viscinatu sancti sepulcri, et Jacobinus de Parma filius quondam Bernardi 
de Parma ambo de confinio sancti Cassiani. 

(Venezia, Archivio di Stato, Sezione Notarile, Cancelleria inferiors — 
B, aig. Not. Vettore, Canonico di S. Marco.) 



202 DOCUMENTS 



VIII 

InVENTARIO DELLE cose LASCIATE DAL PATRIZIO GlOHGlO Rl'ZZINI, MORTO WEL 
VIAGGIO DA VE>E2IA AD ALESSANDRIA (l^53) 

In nomine Dei eterni Amen. Anno Incarnationis Dominice millesimo 
quadringcntesimo quinquagesimo tcrlio, indicione prima, die vero martis 
oclavo mcnsis lanuarii in molo Motoni in galea capetanea. Invcntarium 
omnium rcrum et bononim viri nobilis scr Gcorgli Ruzini qu. ser Francisci 
dcfimcti in galea Bernarda ad viaginm Alcxandrie capetaneo spectabili et 
gcneroso domino Francisco Lauredano qu. magnifici domini Petri olim 
procuratoris ccclesie Sancti Marci cuius anima rcquiescat in pace Dei 
niisericordia, que invenla fuerunt post eius mortem in dictis galeis Cape- 
tanea et Bernarda. Factum de mandate prefali domini capctanei prescntis 
et sic precipientis in presentia viri nobilis ser Andree Navaierio qu. nobili 
Bernardi balislario de pupi dicte galee Capelanee, ser loanne Barbaro qu. 
domini Stephani et scr Pelro Alemanti scr domini Barlholomei et mei 
presbiteri Christophori de Flore veneti notarii, nee non dicti domini 
capctanei capelani. (Ad instantiam commissarie qu. ser Georgii Ruzino.) 

In primis in uno cophano forato. 

Una vestis de scharlato cum manicis a cultelazo fulcita de lupis cerveriis. 
Una vestis de scharlato dupla fulcita de pano beretino. 
Una cnputia paonatia. 

Una cassetla de anzipresso nova cum duabus camixiis et duabus mu- 
dandis novis. 

Unum par caligarum de scharlato. 

Una diplois de scharlato. 

Una gona nigra fulcita de albertinis. 

Unum par linteaminum. 

Unum galerium dc lana nigrum. 

Unum par caligarum nigrarum pro sotularibus veterum. 

Una mudanda de lana beretina. 

Unus saculus cum garofalis cuxitus. 

Unus mantelinus viridis simplex de pano nigro. 

In una capsa aquaternis. 

Una capseta d'anzipresso cum duobus paribus sotularium. 
Unum par zocholorum batantlum. 
Sex maiuoli de zcra alba. 
Unum mazetum de spago pro litteris (?). 
Tres pecteni eburnei ligati in una carta. 

Unum ligazetum c»im pectenis duobus ligneis et duobus eburneis ligatis 
m una carta cum aliquibus acubus ligatis in una carta. 



DOCUMENTS 2o3 

Unum biretum viride simplex de grana. 

Uniim Liretum duplnm nigrum. 

Quatuor candele depicte. 

Unum mazetum candelarum albarum pro mensa. 

In fiorio dicte capse. 

Duo mazeti candelarum albarum minularum. 

Septem maioli de cera alba. 

Unum fazitergium velus. 

Quatuor fazoli cum capitibus di sirico ad moreschum. 

Duo naxitergia de ixaro sine capitibus ligali in una carta. 

Unum par cirotecarum de corio albo. 

Unum marsupium de corio albo cum ducatis duobus auri et cum libris 
13 parvorum soldis I3 et tornexiis soldi 53. Que tornexia data fuerunt 
Simoni Ruzini olim suo famulo qui asseruit dictum marsupium cum supra- 
scriptis denariis inventis intus fore suum. 

Unus saculus de catupatia cum grosis L. 34, sol. i6, de quibus prefatus 
dominus capetanius extrassit ducatos quinque videlicet libras triginta 
parvorum qui fuerunt pro expensis sue mense sibi factis a Yenetiis usque 
in Alexandriam. 

In una cistela. 
Tres camixie. 
Tres mudande. 

Una diplois de zendato de grana. 

Unus cultelus panescus cum suo cuUelino deargentato cum sua vagina. 
Una diplois de fustaneo albo cum uno cultelino apenso. 
Unum par caligarum solatorum nigrarum. 
Unum par chaligarum nigrarum prosotularum. 
Unum aliud par chaligarum nigrarum solarum. 
Duo paria scharpetarum albarum novarum. 
Una tacbia de tella. 
Unum facitergium 
Una seola pro panis 
Unus pectenelus 
Duo quaterni parvi scripti 
Unum speculum parvum 
Una zentura nigra de siri-] 
cho deargentata ► in una scbatola longa. 

Una gona nigra dupla I 
Unum par sotularium veterum. 
Unus petiarolus ct unum pugilarc. 
Unum biretum simplex nigrum. 
Unus charnalorus florenlinus cum aliquibus scripturis intus. 



in uno cbarnarolo de tella. 



2o4 DOCUMENTS 

In una capsela a scripluris. 

Unum facitergium veins cum uno petio panni paonatii ligatum. 
Unum ligalium bindarum filli crudi. 
Una carta cum sfringis rubeis. 
Unum ofitiolum. 

Duo stelle eburnee pro pectene non laboratc. 
Unus pectenellus cburneus. 
Unus liber sui computi pan'us. 
Aliqua folia carte ad scribcndum. 
Unus partitor argenteus et deauratus. 
Unum par tabularum pro scribendo. 
Una ampula revoluta in aliqua tclla. 
Duo raxorii. 
Unus lapis pro aguario. 
Unus temperator. 
Una tocha auri ed argenti. 

Unum scbarnutium cum bagatinis venetis intus. 
Alique madasse spagi ad suendum. 
Unus cbarnarolus de tella. 

Unum marsupium de corio veteri in quo erat et est. 
Unus anulus aureus de bulla cum zerto slgno. 
Duo ducati auri. 

-Monete solditorum gr. 3 sold. 3. Una moneta morescha argentea et 
duo tornexia. 

In uno stramatio. 
Una carpeta veteri. 

Unum letexelum de tella alba cum pluma. 
Una cultra vetus cum bindis rubeis et blavis. 
Duo chusini cum suis entemelis. 
Una capa pro galea rubea fulcita de pano albo. 

In manibus trium bominum a remo a porta dite galea capetanee. 

Una cofa plena caparis chuxita ) . . ,. . 

TT r 1 • 1 •. ^ unius maenitudmis. 

Una cola plena ruxis chuxila ) ° 

Una cofa plena seminibus papagalorum, minor illis, quas dicti tres 

homines dixerunt habuisse a dicto predefuncto ad nabulum pro uno ducato 

de Alexandria usque Venetias. 

In galea Bernarda ap^id famulum PizoH. 

Unus papagalus cum sua cbcba coperla de chanipatia. 

Notum fatio qualiter omnia suprascripta fuerunt posita in dictis capsig 
que clause fuerunt cum suis clavibus. Et deinde dicte capse bulate fuerunt 
super suis seris cum bulla Sancti Marci manu prefati domini Capetanei, 



DOCUMENTS 2o5 

quarum capsarum claves consignate fuerunt immediate per dictum domi- 
num Capetanium michi notario infrascriiJto, presentibus suprascriplis. 

(\'enezia, Archivio di Stato, Sezione Notarile, Notaio Cristoforo Del 
Fiore, protocollo l!^!^Q-I!^oo, c. 5, busta 83.) 



IX 

Invextario di f:<.v cas.v borghese (i454) 

In nomine Dei eterni Amen. Anno incarnationis dominice millesimo 
quadringentesimo quinquagesimo quarto, indicione secunda, die vigesimo 
septimo mensis lunii Rivoalti. In domo qti. ser Yenturini qu. loannis 
defuncti de confinio Sancti Cassiani, cuius anima requiescat in pace Dei 
misericordia. Inventarium omnium rerum et bonorum existentium in 
dicta domo dicti predefuncti, inventarum post eius mortem, factum et 
scriptum per me notarium infrascriptum in presentia testium infrascripto- 
rum ad instantiam et de voluntate venerabilis viri domini presbiteri Andree 
de Pactis et providi viri ser Andree Magazano vel veluti Comissariorum 
dicti predefuncti pro maiori parte, de quibus rebus et bonis inventis in 
predicta domo non notata fuerunt multa que dicta fuerunt esse pro pignore 
a pluribus personis a sua olim uxore et Marco eius filio et non fuerunt 
notata et posita in presenti inventario sed separata in certis copbanis et 
capsis eiistentibus in dicta domo in presentia viri providi ser Antonii Fero 
scribani ad ofTitium lustitie Yeteris, Pasq\ialini diaconi ecclesie Sancti 
Pauli, et Francisci qu. Antonii Corna testium vocatorum et rogatorum et 
mei presbiteri Cbristophori De Flore Yeneti notarii. 



In duabus suis cameris simul et semel in sua camera 



P- 



Duo lecta magna. 

Unum lectum pro cariola. 

Unum leteielum pro cuna. 

Septem capizalia. 

Sex cusineli. 

Unum par lintearium magnorum, unum novum et unum vetus cum 
capitibus. 

Una cultra blava laborata cum leporibus incisis satis bona. 

Una cortina de tella de sancto Gallo deaurata cum floronibus. 

Unum quadrum cum ymagine Domine INostre tenente figuram Cliristi 
mortui super brachia cum suo armariolo. 

Unus puerulus ligneus et depictus. 

Una spata cum sua vagina apensa in muro. 

Duo tapeta vetera. 



ao6 DOCUMENTS 



In UDO cofano novo. 

Quatuor brachia dimiti albi. 

Una investitura de carixea alba porlata cum brazalis de veluto albi et 
cremexini cum suis manichelis fulcita do planelis argcnteis. 
Una zorncta dc carixea cum guazarouis. 

Una vestis de pano paonatio pro viro fulcita de cendato de verzi. 
Una vestis morela fulcita de zendato torto de grana. 
Una vestis morela fulcita de zendato nigro. 
Una vestis nigra ugnola portata et frustrata. 
Unum caputium nigrum bonum. 

Unum manicbetum de veluto nigro videlicet de zetani. 
Unus fazolus cum capitibus de syricbo vergatis. 
Unnm biretum nigrum duplum et vetus. 
Una gona turcbina fulcita de blancbeto fracta et lagerata. 

In uno alio cbofano novo. 

Unum chavetium de tella de Candida bracbiorum XXV*. 

Unum aliud cbavetium de tella de Candida bracbiorum XXX'*. 

Unus mantellus de mostovalerio vetus. 

Unum biretum nigrum longum ct vetus. 

Unum aliud biretum nigrum longum et bonum. 

Unum doctrinale de bona carta novum et gloxatum. 

Unum mantellum blavum et vetus. 

Unum par regularum Guarini de bona carta. 

Una guarnatia de pantiis girorum. 

Una carpeta vetus fulcita de pellibus. 

In un cofaneto novo. 

Tres tatie argentee una magna et due parve, que postea posite fuerunt 
in secundo copbano, quia dictus copbanetus remansit vacuus. 

In una capsa de talpono. 

Unum linteamen seu nenzolus de quator tellis cum capitibus desfilatis. 

Unum mantile longum vergatum in capitibus de blavo. 

Unum mantile vergatum cum capitibus albis grosum sed bonum. 

Una camixia pro viro nova. 

Unus nenzolus operatus de tellis tribus. 

Duo entemele nove. 

Tres fassie nove. 

Una scbufia. 



DOCUMENTS 207 



In uno cofaneto parvo posito in dicta capsa erant anuli infrascripti et 

infrascripte res. 

Una vera aurea laborata cum stelis. 

Unum balasium chogolegnum ligatum in uno anulo aureo boni colons 
cum una fossa. 

Due vergete auree una maior altera. 

Tria scharnutia cum aliquibus maietis argenteis et planetis XVII. 

In una capsa de albeto. 

Una diplois de pano rubeo satis bona. 

Unum biretum longum nigrum ct portatum pluries. 

Unus nenzolelus pro chuna operatus. 

Una entemela. 

Una zenturia de siricbo alexandrina fulcita argento. 

Una veta pro pueris nigra cum schaietis argenteis. 

Quatuor petia unius chadenele argentee veteris. 

Una filzia planetarum bonarum numero centum. 

Una veta de scharlato veteri pro pueris cum aliquibus copoletis 
argenteis. 

Una zenturia tessuta creraexina pro viro larga et fulcita argento. 

In una carta plicata due torchexie paucissimi valoris, et una dupla 
nibea. 

In uno copbaneto depicto et discoperto. 

Unus saculus cum argentis fractis. 

Tria coclearia argentea et vetera. 

Unus pometus argenteus cum ioldano Intus. ■ 

Una veta de veluto cremexino. 

Unum naxitergium novum de siricbo. 

Quatuor naxitergia laborata cum siricbo. 

Unum par manicbetorum de damascbino viridi vetus. 



Inal 



la camera. 



Una cultra blava cum zoiis vetus. 
Una cultra blava scbieta et bona. 
Unum par linteaminum vetus. 
Unus zolonus tessutus pro lecto vergato. 
Unus canipelus pro burcbo. 
Una alzana. 

Sacbi pro formento ct farina numero XLII. 

Unus sacbus similis cum lino intus pro medictate sacbi adbuc non 
laboratus. 



2o8 DOCUMENTS 

In uno cophano vetere. 

Unus fazolus vergatus. 

Duo paria chaligarum solatarum et bonarum. 

Unum chapetium panni viridis clari et alti brachiorum V balneatarum 
et zimatarum. 

Unus mantellus niger ct vetus. 

Una vestis paonalia vctus cum manicis rotondis. 

Unum copertorium de cendato cum bindis nigris et rubcis. 

Una investitura de pano mostovalerio fulcita planetis et macetis 
argenleis. 

Una vestis de grana pro viro cum manicis a cubito. 

In uno alio cophano vetere. 

Unus mantellus niger ct vetus. 

Unus corparolus de zendato viridi fulcitus de blandita. 
Quatuor petia blanchete novo. 

Unum capetium pani viridis alti brachiorum IV" balneatarum et 
cimatarum. 

Una investitura de charixea viridis in quartis noviter tincta. 

Unum copertorium de molato vetus et fulcitum pclibus agnelini. 

Unum capetium pani de sex rubei brachiorum IV". 

Unum capetium pani largi cupi balneatarum et cimati brachii unius. 

Unus mantellus pani mostovalerii bonus cum fenestrelis. 

Una carpela de molato viridi et vetus. 

Una investidura pro puero panni viridis et rechamata. 

In una capsa de talpono. 

Due petie de tella de quibus aliquantulum et parum inzisum fuit quas 
bulavi manu mea sigillo unius mei annuli tautum in uno capite unde 
incisum fuit. 

Una alia petia telle Integra. 

Unus sacus plenus tella pro tinteaminibus adhuc non inzisis cum suis 
panclis quern sachum etiam ego notarius infrascriptus bullavi dicto sigillo. 

Alique madasie fiUi crudi, videlicet V°. 

In una alia capsa de talpono. 

Duo linteamina nova. 
Unum linteamen vetus. 

In una alia tertia capsa de talpono. 

Unus centus niger pro viro cum franzis fulcilo argento. 
Unus pectcnis de avolio et operatus et depictus auro. 



DOCUMENTS 209 

Unum capizelum de veluto cremexino. 

Unas piguolatus beretinus pro pucro non complelus cum brazalis. 

Unum capctium pani bassi viridis pro pari uno caligarum. 

Duo tobalee nove cum capilibus vergatis de blavo. 

Unum par manichorum de scharlato. 

Unus zentus viridis absque argento. 

Una scbuphia laborata cum syricho cremexino non completa. 

Una corda de paternostri de ambra nigra cum uno pomo argenteo et 
deaurato. 

Duo coclearia argentea vetera. 

Quatuor vete pro pueris una de veluto albo et cremexino et alie de 
veluto plurium maneriorum. 

Unus fazoletus laboratus cum sjricho cremexino non completus. 

In uno cophaneto ferato. 

Unus liber de carta bombicina magnus, novus et non scriptus cum suo 
alphabeto. 

Unus alius liber eiusdem quantitatis scripture. 

Multe alie scripture ad refuxum. 

Unum par tabellarum pro scribere, scripte cum aliquibus scripturis. 

In una alia capseta de talpono habente duas seraduras. 

Una entemela nova habente intus quatuor naxitergia et unum fazi- 
tergium. 

Una entemela vetus babens intus fassias sex novas. 

Quatuor zenturie rubee et veteres fulcite argento. 

Due zenturie virides veteres et fulcite argento. 

Unum par manitectorum de zentani viridi novorum. 

Unum par manitectorum de damaschino paonatio brochatorum auro et 
novorum. 

Duo entemele nove. 

Tria brachia de fostagno albo. 

Duo facitergia cum capitibus de siricho albo. 

Unum facitergium cum capitibus blavis. 

Unus nenzoletus factus ex duobus fazolis chuxitis in unum cum capiti- 
bus vergatis cum syricho. 

Unus nenzolus vctus. 

Una libra fiUi crudi. 

In una capsa de talpono. 

Una enlemella habens intus fillum crudum laceratum et male guberna- 
tum, et nil aliud crat in dicla capsa. 

VOL. II — 1 4 



2IO DOCUMENTS 

Per domum hie el illlc in diversis locis. 

Una arzela nova pro furioa tenenda. 

Una credentia parva. 

Duo bazilia. 

Unus raminus parvus. 

Unus lavelius de metallo. 

Tria sechia magna de rainine. 

Tres chatini de stagno. 

Unus lavelius de terra. 

Una chaldarola stagnata. 

Una alia absque slagno. 

Tres calene de ferro. 

Duo paria de chavedonis. 

Due banclie francesche. 

Una tabula de ancipresso pro manducare de supra. 

Una moleta pro stizare. 

Una spinazia pro lino. 

Unus cboncolis vetus. 

In Canipa. 

Una buta unius amphore plena vino cocto. 
Una butexella cum azeto numero quarte X*"". 

(Venezia, Arcbivio di Stato, Sezione Notarile, ISotaio Cristoforo del 
Fiore, protocoUo i449-i45o, c. 8, busta 83.) 



Documents D — ATTI GIURIDICI 

I 

107a (?) APRILE. Rl.^LTO 

Attestazione di Domenico Rosso d'esser stato presente ad una querela 
fatta da Domenico suo nipote contro Domenico Serzi per 9 sporte di 
allume. 

In nomine domini Dei et Salvatoris nostri lesu Christi . Anno incar- 
nacionis eiusdem redeniptoris nostri / millesimo septuagesimo secundo 
mense aprilis indicione decima Rivo alio . Breviarium carte recor/dacionis 
facimus nos Dominicus Roso . die quadam dum essem ante presencia 
dom^ini Dominici Contareni ducis tunc ibi venit Dominicus Roso nepoti 
meo . et proclamavit se supra Dominico Serzy quod sibi retinebat / novem 
sportas de alumen quod Johannes Martinacio de castello ei per ilium / de 
Alexandria missum habebat . tunc Dominicus Serzy dixit / nolit Deus 



DOCUMENTS an 

dixit Dorninicus Scrzy verura dedit michi lohannes Marti/nacio ipsum 
alume ut dedisscm ilium ad uxor eius . dixit Dorninicus Rose / ncpoli 
meo ego abeo testes quod lohannes Martinacio niisit michi ipsum alum/me 
propter quod michi debitor est . unde per legem sibi vadimonium dedit / 
comprobandi ego inde fide iussor sum . testificavit michi Dominico 
Premar/co per bore Urso Pladuni quia ipso alumme comparatum fuit ad 
nomen / Dominico Roso ut audivit et a Dominico Roso missum fuisscd . 
Johannes / Clius meo testificavit michi dum venit ad Mothones . depre- 
cavit ilium Do/minico Serzy ut reccpissed in sua navim novem sportas de 
allumme cjuod / lohannes Martinacio mitlet ad Dominico Roso consoprino 
meo / et sue servo . ipse dixit non possumus c^uod caricatus sum. lohan- 
nes Musulino testificavit michi quod invenit loquentem Dominico Serzy 
cum lohanne / filio meo et deprecavit ut ilium misi sed alumme in sua 
navim quod inde / pertinebat Dominico Roso . testificavit michi Petrus 
Bollo dum ipso / alumme missum fuit in sua navim . audivit quod ipso 
alumme / fuissed Dominico Roso . et suo servo ilium navigavit . et dum 
rationem / de caricum fecimus semper dicebal Dominico Serzy quod ipso 
alumme fuissed Dominico Roso . et Dominico Muysolo semiliter michi / 
testificavit . quod semper atidivit in Alexandria et in navim sive de / hore 
Dominico Serzi quod predictas novem sportas de alumme fuis/sed Domi- 
nicus Roso . quod lohannes Martinacio eas illi misised / et manifestavit 
michi Urso Pladuni pro teste . et filio Quirino . et Grego/rio de Torcello. 

Ego Dominicus Roso fide iussor manu mca siibscripsi. 

Ego lohannes testis subscripsi "Xi X testium idest lohannes Fuscari. 

O Dominicus Fuscari. 

lohannes filius Dominico Ur- 



Ego Dominicus testis 
Ego lohannes testis 



^ — sovolo. 



Ego leremias presbiter notarius ut audivi ex hore de suprascripto fide 
lusso/re complevi et roboravi. 

(Archivio di Slato in Venezia — Archlviodel monastero di San Zaccaria- 
— Pcrgamene.) 

II 

1086 APRILE. RiALTO 

Paolo Salomonc di Rialto dichiara a Domenico del fu Pietro Pantaleo, 
pure di Rialto, di aver ricevuto novo documenti rclalivi a certa 
proprieta. 

In nomine domini Dei et salvatori nostris lesu Christi . Anno / ab 
incarnacione eiusdem redemptoris nostri millesimo octuagesimo / sexto . 
mense Aprili . Indictione nona Rivoallo. Post / dcfensionis cartam quam 

P. MoLME^TI, Lu Storia di Vene:ia nclla Vila Privaia. — P. I. 



2ia DOCUMENTS 

mihi fccisli de ipsa proprietale / Icrrae el casae ct suae divisionis de orto 
quam / Dominicus Capiiliiicollo cognatus tuus mihi transa/ctavit per 
finnitalis cartas quas inde mihi fecit / ut in eis coutinelur ; Manifeslus 
sum ego quidem / Paulus Salomon habitator in rivo alto cum meis / 
hercdibus . tibi Dominico Pantalco fdio quondam Petri / Pantaleo et luis 
hcredibus; quia habeo apud me / receptas novem carlulas ad ipsam sup- 
rascriptam proprietatem / pcrtinentes . Quarum est una diiudicati cartula 
quam / Otto dux fecit cum coeteris hominibus Venetiae . ad Costanlinum 
grecum Voris iusto prati de Costan/tinopoli ; de proprietale lohannis 
Graliadci . Est una / documenli carlula quam fecit Dominicus fdius bonae 
memoriae Dominici / Mauri ad lohannem filium Martini Graliadei. Est 
securitatis / cartula quam Constanlinus qui nominalur Voris grecus fecit 
/ Martino et lohanni anibobus fratribus flliis lohannis Gratiadei . / Est 
caucionis cartula quam fecit Dominicus clericus filius bonae memoriae / 
Dominici Bragadini ad lohannem Florencium continentem de cape/tanea 
denarios exmeratos mancusios duocentos . Est caucionis / cartula quam 
fecit Marlinus Graliadei pariter cum Marina / uxore sua ad Ardradum 
qui dicebalur Boniverlo de / civitate \erona continentem de capetanea 
seplem miliaria / de lana, et libras denariorum veronensium quadraginta 
quinquc , / Est securitas de super omnia quam fecit Marlinus Gratiadei 
/ venelicus ad Ardradum de civitate Verona . Est caucionis / cartula quam 
fecit Marlinus Gratiadei insimul cum Marina / uxore sua ad Dominicum 
Caputincollo continentem de cape/lanca libras denariorum ducenlas . Est 
sequens eius securitas / quam similiter Marlinus Graliadei insimul cum 
Marina uxore / sua fecit ad Dominicum Caputincollo de super tola terra 
et / casa sua cum tola sua vinea ibi coniuncla . Est documen/tum quod 
fecit Johannes filius Divizo ioculatoris ad Martinum / Gratiadei de una 
pecia de terra coelo tecta. Unde promit/lens promillo ego quidem prae- 
nominatus Paulus Salomon ti/bi iam diclo Dominico Pantaleo . ut si 
fuerit clare / factum quod hinc in anlca usque ad quinque annos expletos 
tam suprascriplae novem carlulae quam una decima carlula quae / est 
breviarium quod fecit Petrus Caputincollo ad Dominicum / Caputincollo 
fralrem suum de ipso muro qui reiacet in ca/pile de sua et illius caminata 
tibi opus exliterint / Icgendi in placito ad defensandum me propter supra- 
gcriptam de/fensionem quam mihi fecisti ; tunc prenominatas decem 
carlulas / tibi oslendere et presentare debeam ad luam et meam / defen- 
sionem usque ad completos islos quinque annos . Quod / si haec omnia 
non observavero et non adimplevero . / et prenominatas decem carlulas 
cum tibi opus fuerint osten/dere et presentare noluero aut non potuero in 
pla/cito vel ubi tibi nccesse fuerit ad legendum ad luam / et meam defen- 
sionem ut supra Icgilur ; et aliquod dampnum / pro eis tibi accreveril . et 
fuerit clarefaclum usque / ad suprascriplos completos islos quinque annos . 
tunc componere promitto / cum meis haeredibus tibi et tuis haeredibus 
auri libras quinque . et haec / promissio in suprascripto ordine in sua 
maneat firmitate usque ad suprascriplum terminum / 



DOCUMENTS 



si3 



Signum maniis suprascripti Pauli qui hoc rogavit fieri. 
Ego Dominicus testis subscripsi. 
Ego Petrus rogalus testis subscripsi. 
Ego Slefanus testis subscripsi. 

*^~ZsiJi^f\, (Notitia testium) Idest Dominicus 
filius boni Michaelis. 



!r9<- 



Petrus Maurus. 
Stefanus Carosus. 



~ ^^ Ego Dominicus clericus et / notarius complevi ct roboravi. 




(Archivio di State in Venezia — Archivio del monastero di San Zac- 
caria — Pergamene, p. 5 ; S. Zulian.) 



Ill 

lOgS OTTOBRE. RiALTO 

Attestazione di Martino Vetulo, prete di San Provolo, circa questioni sopra 
una siepe del Monastero di San Zaccaria. 

In nomine domini Dei et salvaloris nostri lesu Christi . Anno / ab 
incarnacione eiusdem redemptoris nostri millesimo nonagesimo / octavo 
mense Octubri Indictione Scptima Rivo / alto . Breviarium teslificacionis 
facimus omnes quorum / nomina et manu subter conscripti et affir/mati 
sumus qualiter pro certo scimus secundum quod / huius scripture ordo 
subterius manife/stabitur . Igilur ego quidem Martinus presbiler Vetulus 
/ de accclesia sancti Proculi testificor quia quadam / die misit me insimul 
cum sociis meis domina / mea abbalissa ad Aurium Dommarcum ; quia / 
in tempore illo quando ipse occupabal cum / sepe ; quod ipse mittebat 
terram sancti Zacha/riae . a comprchenso capite de ipsa piscina / in anlea. 
Sic vcro diximus ei . dominae Auriae / mandat tibi interdicendum omnibus 
modis / domina nostra abbalissa quod non inlermiltas terram / sancti 
Zachariae . ad hoc ille dixit nolil Deus sed / magis volo . de meo ibi dare . 
preter hec / autem venit ipse venit nobiscum ante domina / nostra abbalissa 



2i4 DOCUMENTS 

et tali modo locutus est dicens . / Karissima domlna rogo te ut dimittas 
islum scpem modo / proplcrca quia nulla possessio est . ct cum / supra- 
scriptum sepcm veteroscat; dimiltam tcrram / tuam et inlromiUam mcam 
. et in his dictis / domina nostra abbatlssa quievit . Ego Al/bertus presbiler 
de suprascripla aecclcsia sancti Proculi . quadam /die post obitum predicli 
Aurii Dommarci / fui ego insimul cum Marlinum presbiterum de / Salelum 
quando eius relictam recuperabat ipsum / sepcm et nos ei interdiximus ex 
parte suprascriplae / dominae nostrae abbatissae et ilia dixit . / tale respon- 
sum facio vobis sicut primilus / suprascriptus vir meus indc fecit . Huius 
rei / hordiuem nos predict! testes Andrcam presbiterum / Marlinacium et 
notarium ut superius patet scri/bere rogavimus . Signum manus supra- 
scripti Mar/tini presbiteri qui hoc rogavit fieri. 

Ego Albertus presbiter sancti Proculi manu mea subscripsi. 
Ego Andreas presbiter et notarius / complevi et roboravi. 

(Arcliivio di Stalo in Venezia — Archivio del monastero dl San Zac- 
caria — Pergamene, b. i ; S. Provolo.) 



Documents E — FORME DI DOCUMENTI 

I 

I056 MAGGIO 

Quietanza di prcte Fiorenzo, figlio di Domenico Giovannaci Bragadini, a 
Domcuico Cenzalesso dei legali a suo favore lasciati dal fu Giovanni 
Ferrario. 

In nomine domini Dei et salvatoris nostri lesu Christl . Anno In/carna- 
cionis eiusdem redemptoris nostri millesimo quinquagesimo sexto / mense 
madio indictionc nona rivo alio . Plenam et ir/revocabilera sccuritalem 
mitlo ego quidcm Forentius presbiter / filius Dominico lahanaci Bragadino 
cum meis successoribus / tibi Dominico Cenzalesso et tuis heredibus . De 
su/porlola dimissoria magna vel parva . Quod Johannes / Fcrarius nepoli 
atque commisso tuo milii largi/vit cum ad hobitum venit . Nunc autem 
post suum / hobitum per omnia inde me delibcrasti . et super to/ta eius 
propriotas terra et casa secundum quod tu illam da/lam hahes ad Pctronia 
relicta lohanni Sanudo . ct ad / eius heredes . remanet in eorum polesla- 
tem ad / faciendum quodcumque ad eis placuerint / Eciam de super totum 
omnia et in omnibus que ah / inicio de qualicumque re usque modo insi- 
mul ha/buimus . Ut nullis diebus nullisque tcmporibus / aos requirere 
aut compcUcre debeamus per nullum in/genium non parvum neque 
magnum . non de nullis / rebus vel speciebus . Quoniam die presenti 
venimus / in iudicio et per sacramentum omnia et in omni/bus inter nos 




DOCUMENTS 3i5 

cisimus finivimus . atque Irans/acle dcliberavimus . ct nichil remanzit / cle 
ulla re cle sub coelo quod homo cogitare potest / quod vos amplius requircre 
debeamus . Quod si / quocumque tempore de suprascriptis omnibus capi- 
tulis aliquid / requirere temptavcrimus . componere promitto cum / meis 
successoribus tibi et tuis heredibus auri libras quin/que . haec securilas 
maneat in sua firmitatc. 

f Ego prcsbiter Florcncius manu mea subscripsi. 
f Ego Tobia testis subscripsi. 
■f Ego Marinus testis subscripsi. 
■{■ Ego lohannes testis subscripsi. 

(>'otitia testium id est) Tobia filius lohani / de Aequilo. Marinus 
filius lohanni Mi/chaeli . lohanes / Gradonicus. 



Ego Leo diaconus et notarius / complevi et roboravi. 



(Archivio di Slato in Yenezia — Archivio del monastero di San Zac- 
caria — Pergamene, b. 24 ; Estere.) 



II 

1078 LUGLIO. RiALTO 

Felice Moro, pievano nella chiesa di San Salvatore, figlio di Domenico, 
cede a Pietro e Paolo di Checio pellicciaio un terreno in quella par- 
roccbia per lire di dcnari 3o, e pel censo annuo di 6 libre d'olio. 

In nomine Domini dei et Salvatoris noslri lesu Christi. Anno incarna- 
cionis eiusdcm redemploris nostri millesimo sepluagesimo octavo . mensis 
Julii indictione prima Rivo alto . Igitur ego quidem Felix Maurus pleba- 
nus ecclesie sancti salvatoris filius Dominici Mauri conscenciente mihi 
domno Heinrico Contareno castellano episcopo seniori et consoprino meo 
cum meis successoribus ad hodie in Dei et Christi nomine dans damus 
atque transactamus vobis Pelro et Paulo ambobus fratribus filiis Gecii 
pilizaii et vetris heredibus imperpetuum et prefuturum possidendum hoc 
est unani peciam de terra quae est de pcrtincnlla prcdictae nostra ccclesiae 
sancti Salvatoris quam nos per hanc libelli cartara vobis damus et transac- 
tamus . habentem in longniludine sua plus minus pedes septuaginta uno et 
semissa . et in latitudinem suam tola equaliter plus minus pedes viginti 
novem et semissam . Uno capite tetente in calle prediclae nostrac ecclcsiae 
lato pedes tres iusta rlvum ubi est aliquantiim de fundamcnta . unde 
habere dcbes inlroitum et exitum atque iunctorium et jaglacionem . Alio 
autem capite teneute iu terra prediclae nostrae ccclesiae . Uno latere 



2i6 DOCUMENTS 

firmat in callc iamdictae nostrac accclcsiae domini Salvatoris latus pedes 
tros . qui re>olvit ipse callis a coniprcenso prediclo rivo iusla terram 
Vilalis Stcphano usque in alio calle suprascriptae nostrae ecclesiae . Unde 
tu cum tua fainilia ct cum parenlibus et amicis ire et redire deheas sursum 
alquc deorsuni in die vol in node nullo tibi homiiie contradiccnte . Alio 
vcro latere prcdiclac Icrrae finnat in pissina prcdictae mcae ecclesiae imde 
habere debes introilum et exitum atque iunclorium et jaglacionem . usque 
in pedes quinquaginla do longniludine . banc namque totam prenomi- 
nalam dcsignalain pcciam do terra cum omni longnitudiiie ct latitudine 
cum capilibus et lalcribus suis . et cum cuncta ibi haljcnte el perlinente 
ab intus et foris cum suis iacentiis suae tam subtus terram quam supra 
terram adesse noscuntur plenitcr in tua damns et transactamus plenissi- 
mam polestatcm habendi . tenendi . edificium supra edificandi . vendendi . 
donandi . comulandi . et in perpetuum possidcndi aut quicquid inde tibi 
placuerit faciendi nullo tibi homine contradiccnte . Unde nobis et nostrae 
accclcsiae dedistis libras denariorum Iriginla . quia nichil remansit quod 
vos inde amplius requlrere dcbeamus . Tamcn vcro stalulum habemus inter 
nos ut omni anno in festivitate domini Salvatoris nobis et predictae nostrae 
ecclesiae dare debealis libras de oleo sex tantum . et si usque ad completos 
quinque annos transgressi eritis quod omnique anno ipsam luminariam 
non dederitis nobis ct predictae nostrae ecclesiae . tunc ad completos quin- 
que annos ipsam predictam terram in nostrain ct de nostra accclesia 
deveriiat polestatcm ad faciendum cjviodcumque nobis placuerit . et si 
unqam tempore ipsa terra venundala fuerit nobis et nostre ecclesiae quin- 
lellum persolvere debealis et inde in antea suprascriptum censum ct quin- 
iellum semper salvum esse debet nobis et predictae nostrae accclcsiae et 
nos sive successores nostri omnique vigesimo iiono anno vobis et hercdibus 
ac proheredibus vestris renovare promiltemus . Quod si unquam tempore 
a nobis vel ab aliquibus personis hominum pulsalus vel evictus fucris et 
minime vos inde in omnibus defensore noluerimus aut non potucrinius ab 
omnibus queslionanlibus vel calumpniantibus hominibus qui te de supra- 
scripta re expcUcre voluerit ex parte vel ex toto aut contra banc cartam ire 
temptaverimus . et omnique vigesimo nono anno istum libellum tibi 
renovare et rcdinlcgrare noluerimus aut non potucrimus recte pcrsolvente 
vos suprascriptum censum et quintellum ut supra diximus nobis et predictae 
nostrae aecclesia componere promittimus cum nostris successoribus vobis 
et vestris heredibus auri libras quinque . et post solutum promissum 
maneat bee libelli ct defensionis carta semper in sua firmitate . Quam 
scribere rogavimus Dominicum Saturninum clcricum notarium el ecclesiae 
sancti Cassiani plebanum. 

Ego Heinricus per misericordiam Dei castellanus episcopus manu mea 
subscripsi. 

Ego Felix Mauro diaconus vicarius aecclesiae sancti Salvatoris m . m . 
s . s . 



DOCUMENTS 317 

Ego Boncius testis subscripsi 
ego Petrus " " 

" Dominicus " " 

(Notilia leslium) idcst Bonofilius Justus 

Petrus Fuscarus Dominicus Maurecenus 
(S. t.) Ego Dominicus clericus et notarius complevl et roboravi. 

(Archivio di Stato in Venezia — Archivio del monastero di San Zaecaria 

— Pergamene.) 

HI 

1 176 GIUGKO. RiALTO 

Garlotta di San Zulian, ricevuli a preslito da Giovanni, tintore di San 
Basso, soldi 20 di denari di Verona, per mesi sei, si obbliga a dar- 
gliene 4 d'interesse, e gli asslcura il capitale sopra una casa di legno 
da essa abitata. 

In nomine domini Dei et salvatoris nostri lesu Christi. Anno domini 
millesimo Centesimo Septuagesimo sexto mense lunii inditione nona rivo 
alto . Manifesta sum ego quidem Garlota de confinio Sancti Juliani cum 
meis successoribus . Quia recepi de te namque Johaane tintore de confinio 
Sancti Bassi et tuis heredibus solidos denariorum veronensium viginti . 
quod mihi dedisti et prestitisti in meis utilitatibus peragendum . quoi 
apud me retinere debeo a modo in antea usque ad medium annum . prode 
vero inde tibi dare debeam solidos veronensium qualuor . et ad ipsum 
terminum per me vel per meum missum tibi vel tuo misso dare et delibe- 
rare suprascriptos tuos suprascriptos viginti soldos veronenses cum toto 
suprascripto suo prode . Quod si non observavero omnia ut superiuj 
legitur ; tunc omnia in duplum caput et prode tibi dare et reddere 
debeam . pro maiori autem firmitate pono tibi nexu fiducie in loco pignoris 
cunctam et super totam meam fabricam ligneam in qua nunc resideo posita 
supra terra domini ducis. Ut si minime fecero te ad deliberandum ; ad 
suprascriptum terminum eo ordine ut superius legitur ; tunc tribuo tibi 
poteslatem accedere et intromittere et dominare suprascripta tua pignora ; 
et tamquam per legitimum documentum possldere vel quicquid inde tibi 
placuerit facere nuUo tibi homine contradicente ; et insuperinde in antea 
caput el prode et duplum prode laborare debeat de quinque sex per annum 
tpud suprascripta et predesignata tua pignora tantum. 

Signum suprascripte Carlote que hoc rogavit fieri 

Ego Johannes Staniario testis subscripsi 

Ego Dominicus Tuscano testis subscripsi 

Ego Marcus Grilioni diaconus et notarius complevi et roboravi. 

(Archivio di Stato in Venezia — Archivio del monastero di San Zaecaria 

— Pergamene.) 



2i8 DOCUMENTS 



Documents F — TERRENI VENDUTI E CEDUTI 

I 

io3i. Chioggia 

Giovanni Venerio Bolli yende a Marlino Bianco ed Orsono Nadal un ter- 
reno in quel di Chioggia per 4 dcnari. 

In nomine domini Dei ct salvatoris anno ab incarnacione ejusdem 
rcdemptoris / nosiri lesu Christi miliesimo trigesimo primo, imperante 
domno Roma/no magno et pacifico imperalorem anno aulem imperii cius 
iccvmdo post / hobitnm Constantinus . . . indicione tertia decima in 
Clugia Scribcre / rogavi Dominicum presbiterum et notarium hauc pagi- 
nam documcnti ego quidcm lohannc filius Vcnc/rio Bolli cum meis hcre- 
dibus venditore qui cartulam Iradidit et propriis manibus ad / firmauit, 
testisquo subscribere vel signum sancte crucis fieri rogavit. Constad 
enim / mo quidem ab hodie sub dupla rei distrassise distrassi vendidisse 
ven/didit ; atque tradidisse el tradidit obtimo et absoluto ; absque omni / 
reprehcnsione : vobis Martino Blanco insimul cum Urso Natali compara/ 
torcB in perpetuum et ad heredibus banc proheredibus seu et postcrisque 
Ycstris profu/turum possidendum . hoc est una pccia de terra vacua et 
disculta posila in loco ucl in caplte da cavana. . . / in territorio plcbis 
Clugie vico maiore et ipsa terram ichi advenit / de lohanne Urso filio bene 
memorie Urso lohanni venetico. per donacionis cartulam / Extcndenle ipsa 
nominata terra in longitudincm suam habet pedes / centum, et in lati- 
tudincm suam similiter centum a si uullis aut coheren/lem et possidentem 
la . . . capite firmante in . . . lio / in . . . firmante in Pelro Lupa . . . 
endi / quarto coque latere firmante in yos comparatores cum vestros con- 
sortes / una cum introicto et exoito suo per terram et per aqua sicut ad 
lohanne Urso dona/tore meo ucl ad me possessam fuit. Ita vobis supra- 
Rcriptos comparatores in omnibus / tradidinuis possidendum . habendi . 
tenendi . vendcndi . donandi . commu/landi et usque in perpetuum pos- 
sidendi et quicquid vobis placucrit faciendi nuUo vobis hominem conlra- 
dicentem non propincum neque extrane/um precium autem placitum . 
hac difinltum seu rccepum . adquc complctum / de vobis apud me per 
omnia habeo . de dinarios exmeratos mancusios / quatuor et medio . tanlos 
ct nihil exinde remansit quod nos ampli/us requircre debeamus . quod si 
cocumque tempore annobis uel a quibuslibet personis . / pulsalus aut 
evictus exinde fueritis . ct vo? minime stare ot defensa/re nolucro aut non 
potuero ab omnibus queslionanlibus vel calumni/antibus hominibus qui 
V08 de suprascripta terra expelere voluerit . ex parte vel / ex tola . tunc 
suprascriptum precium una cum omni mclioracionem ipsius / rei duplo 
cum meis heredibus vobis et vestrisque heredibus restituere promitli/mus . 



DOCUMENTS 919 

et insuper componere auro libra una . et post solulo proslimo haec paglna 
/ docnmcnli maneat In sua firmitate. f Signum manus suprascripto lohanni 
qui fieri rogavit 

•f signum manus Venerio testis 
■\ signum manus Pctro testis 
f signum manus Sambatino testis 

Notitia testium id. e. Venerio Bolli ; Petro Stefano/ Sambatino lohanni 
de Stefano. 

Ego Dominicus presbiter et notarius complevi et roboravi. 

(Archivio dl Stato in Venezia — Archivio del monastero di San Zaccaria 
— Pergamene ; Chioggia.) 

n 

1098 GENNAio. Chioggia 

Vitale abitante nel vico di Pellestrina, avendo ricevuta a livello per anni 
29 dal convento di San Giorgio Maggiore di Venezia una pezza di 
terra in Pellestrina, si obbliga di contribuire per censo annuo, 3 soldi 
di Verona, un paio di polli, e se la ridurra a vigneto, il terzo del 
prodolto del vino. 

In nomine domini Dei et salvatori lesu Christi. Anno domini mil- 
lesimo nonagesimo hocta / vo mense januario . Indlcione septima. In 
Clugia . Post libelli . cartam quam no / bis fecistis promittens promitto 
. ego quidem Vitalis . abitator . et comora / tor . in vico . Pelestine . 
cum meis . heredibus . Vobis domnus . Cariman / nus Dei gratia abbas 
sancti Georii . Justa curtis palacii . et vestro cather / vato . monacorum 
. huius . vestri monasterii . et vestris . succcssoribus . / pro ideo , 
quod Yos . a mihi . dedistis . una vestra . pecia de tera . dissculta que / 
est do ipsa . de vestra eclesia . posita in teritorio . vico Pelestine . / et 
earn mihi dedisli . amodo in nantea . usque in viginti et novem annis / 
expiclis . ad aliis . libellis . rcnovandls . mihi . et heredibus . ac pro- 
heredibus / meis cum capitibus . et lateribus . suis . cum suis abenciis 
ct pcrtinenciis / et cum introilis . et exoitis . suis . per terra et per 
aqua . sicut ad ipsa Dei / ecclcsia vel et ad vos possessam fuit, vel sicut 
manifestad . in libelli . cart / a quam mihi factam . abctis . Ut amodo 
. in nanteam . debeam . ilia laborare / et cultificare cum suos fosados . 
cum omne . meum . precio . et expendio / vel impedimcnto . et red i turn 
vel propter censum . inde vobis dare debeam / per omnique anno . in 
festivitate sancti Martini solidos ires veronenses . et uno / pario de puli . 
similiter . per unumquemquem anno . in festivitate sancti Marti / ni . ad 
vos ct ad vcstros . successorcs . ct si in ipsa terra . vinca edificabo . et / 
vobis placucrit . recipere . terciam partem . vini mundi . tunc ego 
vel / mcos . hcredes . vobis vel in ipsa Dei . eclesia dare . et persol- 
vere . vobis debeam / absque fraude . vel ingenio . et si terciam partem 



220 



DOCUMENTS 



vini . mundl . vos aiit / veslros successores . non vult reciperc . tunc 
ego. vel mcos . horodes prcnomina/los . (re solidos . de dinariis vcro- 
nenses . cum prenoniinato pario . de puli / sicut supra leitur . omni 
anno . vobis et in vesira . cclesia dare et persolvere de/beam ad ipso 
tormina in fcslivitate sancti Martini. Ilec omnia hobserva/re et adin- 
plcre . promillo . Quod si non observavcro . ct non adimple / vero, 
vobis omnia, sicut supra leitur . componere promitto . cum meis / here- 
dibus vobis et veslris . succcssoribus . auro libras duas . et hec promissio 
ut / supra continot . maneat in sua firmitatc. 

■j- signum manus soprascripto Vitale . qui hoc rogavit fieri. 

f signum manus Pclro . testis. 

■j- " " Bonus homo " 

j '• " Dominico 

testium idest Petro Pacegano. 
Bonus homo de Palestina. 
Dominico frater Yitalis. 





Ego Albertus presbiler ianuarius et notarius complevi et 
roboravi. 



(Archivio di Stato in Venezia — Archivio del convento di San Giorgio 
Maggiore — Pergamene, busta I.) 



Document G — GIURAMENTI DEI CAPI DI 
CONTRADA E DI DUODENA 



luro ad sancta dei evangelia proficuum et honorem Veneciarum et 
quod simul cum sociis mcis vel eorum altcro studiosus ero et solicitus ad 
faciendum scribi omnes homines mce contrate a lxx annis infra et a xvi 
supra tarn qui sunt ad presens in Yeneciis quam qui sunt extra Venecias 
et ipsis scriplis presentabo domino duel et suo consilio et secundum 
ordinem per ipsum dominum ducem et suum consilium milii datum 
dividam ipsos homines moo contrate per duodcnam vel alitor sicut mihi in- 
iunctum fuerit computando mc in eis ot omnia ordinamenta et preccpla per 
dominum ducem et snum consilium mihi facta que facere debeam ipsis 
hominibus mee contrate faciam eis et unicuique eorum sicut mihi precepta 



DOCUMENTS 221 

fuerlnl . et est sciendum qxiod pro predictis faciendis et operandis et 
complendis possum et debeo ponere homines et personas ad sacrameiitum 
penam et penas imponere sicut milii et sociis meis vel eorum altero vide- 
bitur et si quis rebcUis fuerit auferam ei dictam penam quam si auferre 
non potero dabo ipsum et ipsos pro cadutis domino duci ad hoc ut pena 
per nos imposita eis lollalur. Et quocienscumque dominus dux pro me 
miserit studiose ibo ad eum et inteUigam que mihi dixerit super hoc et ea 
sludiosus ero ducere ad complementum. et eciam omnes illos qui non 
iuraverint obedieuciam faciam eos iurare obedienciam et (omnes ?) creden- 
cias mihi dictas per dominum ducem tenendas esse nenebo (sic) et nuUi 
dicam ullo modo bee et alia quecumque dominus dux addere minuere vel 
mutare voluerit attendam et observabo bona fide sine fraude. 

(Venezia, Archivio di Stato. — Atti Diplomatic!, Misti N. I33 A.) 

luro ad evangelia sancta dei ego qui sum capud mee contrate quod 
simul cum sociis meis vel eorum altero infra octo dies postquam recepero 
presens capitulare ibo ad officium furmenti et ab eis accipiam sive accipi 
faciam totum illud frumentum quod ipsi michi dare volent, quod dividam 
bona fide sine fraude remote odio, precio, precibus vel amore inter gentes 
dicte contrate et infra tercium diem postquam dictum frumentum per me 
receptum fuerit dabo cuilibet illam frumenti quantitatem quam videro 
convenire secundum proprietatem cuiuslibet ad grossos viginti in monetis 
quolibet stario et non dabo de dicto frumento aliquibus pistoribus sive 
oretariis nee alicui pcrsone pauperili que non posset accipere sive emere 
frumentum ad fonticum quos denarios teneor excussisse infra dies quin- 
decim postquam dictum frumentum dedero, ab illis quibus datum fuerit et 
illos denarioi dabo et consignabo dominis ofiicialibus frumenti et si forte 
aliqui non solverent ad terminum eis dabo pro cadutis de soldis quinque 
pro quolibet stario diclis ofiicialibus frumenti qui excutere debeant capitale 
et penas si forte aliquis nolet nolet (sic) accipere sive recipere de dicto 
frumento illud poni faciam ante eius hostium et omnes expcnsas que facte 
fuerint tam in caricando quam in disscaricando quam in dando poni faciam 
pro rata cuilibet stario non posendo accipere ultra parvulos sex taliter 
quod comune habeat dictos grossos viginti de stario et non accipiam 
aliquem mensuratorcm pro mensurando dictum frumentimi sine licencia 
dominorum de frumento sub pena que eiusdem eisdem videbitur afTerenda. 

(Venezia, Archivio di Stato. — Atti diplomatic!, Misti N. laa H.) 

Curo alle vangnelle sante de dio eo che sum cavo de mia conlrata che 
cum li mei compagnoni o chiun algum de illi enfra quarto die da chello 
presente capitolar me sera dato o ad alchum de li mei compagnoni scrivero 
o faro scrivere mi e li mei conpagnoni e tuti e cescadun homeni de la mia 
contrata da anni iv en suso enchia ad xxxv e si ali moi conpagnoni como 
a tuti li ollri sovraditi eo comandero che ^asscadim debia aver recovrado 



223 DOCUMENTS 

una bona balleslra e soficienle e bene adparciada de cordc e de crocho 
la qiial sia soa pro[)ria ciuliia xv die dachco li avrro falo lo dito comanda- 
meiilo sopto pcua de soldi xl, per casscudim salvi et cxceplati quclli che 
inanileslamentre ami cl alii niei conpagiioiii od ala niaior parte de nui 
parcra si povrl chelli no possa soslcriir Ic spensarie dela balleslra cl cncavo 
del dilo lermene de xv. die eo sum tegnudo veder la moslra dele dicle 
ballestre toiando sagramenlo ad caschadun che la sea soa propria ct non 
tolla ad empreslcdo e tiili rpicili che al dito termcne no niostrcra le soe 
ballestre sicome dilo de sovra daroli en scrilo ali inquisilori del niio scslaro 
per cazudi infra lerco die dapo che li sera cacudi in la dita pena e qucslo 
sum tegnudo ad aver fato infra lo dito lermene soplo pena de soldi xl, per 
casscadun lermene ancora parliro si mi con li mei conpagnoni cum tuti IL 
altri sovra diti ballcsteri per dexcne per casscaduiia dcllc quale eo con- 
stiluero uno cavo lo quale ami et alii mei conpagnoni od alia macor parte 
de nui parera plu utelle et a casscadun cavo eo daro en scrilo quelli dclla 
soa dexena e daroli lo so capitollar lo qual me sera dado per la corle macor 
e torolli sagramento osservar quello e quelli cavi com le soe dexene daro 
inscrilo ali inquisilori partando li nobelH per si et quelli de povollo darte 
per si e non posso meter quelli de povol con li nobelli e per tute queste 
cosse a far et complir posso meter persone ad sagramento et imponer pena 
et pene cosse commo ali mei conpagnoni o alia ma^or parte do nui parera 
et tuti quelli che ericorcra en quelle pene che per nui fosse melude daroli 
inscrilo ali sovraditi euquisitori per cacudi infra lerco die dapo che li sera 
cacudi in le dite pene e queste cosse de aver fate e conplidc infra xxii die 
dapo che lo presente capitollar me sera dado o algun de li mei conpagnoni 
soplo pena dollri. il, soldi. 

(Venezia, Archivio di Stalo. — Alii diplomatic!, MIsti N. 122 D.) 

Guro ale sante evangele de dio eo chi son cavo de desena cheo ordenere 
cum quelli dela mia dexena. che ogno di de fesla solcmpnc dechia ameco 
anno. Excepto lo di de Nadal lo di de vencr sanclo lo di de Pasqua. ct 
Ic . i i i . fesle de le scolle foe lo di de sen Marco ct la vigilia et lo di de 
sancla Maria, et la domenega de carlevar. nui siemo ensenbre a ballcslar 
ali bersagi de Venezia. o a lidho de sen ISicolo. o altro. la omne parera 
dentro dal vescovado de Venexia dredo disnar. e se avere ordenado da esscr 
ad alcum bersaio de Venexia sun tegnudo da esser eo et tuti queli de la mia 
desena alo dito bersaio ananti che basta la campana del conscio. ese conscio 
non fosse ananti che baste le campana de sen Marco la dita hora del 
conseio la qual sonera doatanlo de longo deco che fa nona solo pena de 
grossi . i i . CO et li altri solo pena de grossi . I . e dcvemo star et 
balcslar conlinuamente et puramenle sen^a alcuna falacia cum le noslre 
ballestre che sia bone et sufllciente et no sen de parlir de chi a vespero che 
sonera . in la contrada che nui ballesteremo solo le dite pene . e se alcun 
dela mia desena vollesse andar a ballcslar cum soa brigada che non fosse 
de mia desena posage andar cum mia liconcia . alidando clli cheli non toia 



DOCUMENTS 2q3 

la licencia seno per andar a ballestar et destar et defar co che di'to si co 
cum li altri . e son tegnudo tal scli ascusa qual seno de darii en scripto 
per cacudi ali inquisitori deli ballisteri del mio sexter per tuto lallro di 
seguenle . per sacramenlo et solo pena de grossi . i i i i . per ogna 
fiada cbeo fallisse de darli en scripto ali diti inquisitori sicome dilo e seli 
avere scusa vadase a escusar ali inquisitori deli sexteri . e le scuse che li 
po escusare ali soi inquisitori sie queste . se elli fosse stadi enfcrmi quelo 
di cheli avesse fallidho o che li non fosse stadi en la terra chelo di . ochel 
fosse andado a quella hora ad alcun morto . o visitar . o se nocc fosse en 
casa soa chelo di . eciamdeo queste caxon per sacramento e se per alcuna 
dele dite caxon eo non de podesse esser . eo laserai uno de quelli de la mia 
dcsena che me parera en mio logo et daroli sto capilolar . e ello sia 
tegnudo de recever lo capitolar et de far loficio sicum sum eo quandeo ge 
son . soto pena . de grossi . i i i i . ogna fiada che lo recusasse de 
recever lo capilolar et de far loficio . e son tegnudo de dar enscripto per 
cacudo ali dili inquisitori ogna fiada chelo recusasse lo plu tosto cheo 
pore. 

(Venezia, Archivio di Stato. — Alii diplomatici, Misti N. laa F.) 

^uro ale sanle vagnielle de dio io che son chavo de dexena chio orde- 
nere con quelli de la mia dexena che ogno die de festa solene coe questo 
ano uccc . xii . y . de chalende davril de chia ogni sancli da queslo in 
avanti dale chalende de marco de chi a ogni sancti driedo disnar nui seremo 
insenbre a balestrar ali bersai de veniesia e ali . i i . de sancto Nicholo 
coea queli che e fati per locomun o che sta a far e se io avere ordenaJo da 
eser ad algun bersaio et son tegnudo da eser con queli de la mia desiena 
alo dilo bersaio avanti che basla la chanpana che souera a san Marcho • 
deverao star a balestrar conlinuamentre e puramentre senca alguna falicia 
con le nostre baleslre che sii bone e soficiente e no se devemo parlir da 
chi a che nu avcremo trato colpi . i . tracando e balestrando dali banchi o 
che se senta soto li bersai over da quelo logo de chia lo mantelo delo bersaio 
dalaltro chavo o che se la tera levada con li segni e devesemo cencer 
caschun lo so crocho e tirar caschun la balcslra con la qual elo devera 
balestrar e da poi chio chavo sere conto a barsaio la che nu averemo 
ordcnado balestrar avegna che tuti queli tuti queli (sic) de la mia desiena 
no sia conti posa caschun de la mia desiena che sera la a balestrar e trar li 
soi colpi e se io no fose conto alo dito bersaio debiame aspetar e no bale- 
strar de chi a che la campana sera bastada mo bastada la chanpana tal se io 
sero vegnudo qual suijo no sere vegnudo posa trar e balestrar li soi colpi e 
poi andar per soi fati e caschun de mia desiena che fa inprestedi che no 
vigncra fara et oservara como e dilo chacera in pena de grossi . vi . per 
caschuna fiada et io che son chavo chaco in pena delo doplo seio faco 
inprestedi e li oltri che no fase enprestedi chaca in pena de grossi . i i . 
per caschuna fiada e io chavo delo doplo seio no faco imprestedi e se algun 
dela mia desiena volese andar a balestrar con soa brigada che no fose da 



324 DOCUMENTS 

mi desicna posande andar con mia licencla afidando eli chcli no toia licenria 
seno per andar a baleslrar e do star e de far co che e dito de sovra e salNO 
ogno ordrnamcnlo fato o chc se fascse sovra deco e so legnudo per chac.udo 
caschuii dela niia desiena die falisc e no obscrvasc tal scli ascusia qual 
seno in scrito alinqiiisitori delo sestier per tuto lollro die sequente per 
sagrameiilo e solo pena de grossi . xii . per ogni 6ada dacljio falise de 
darli salvo seio li avese dado parola noli dare per chacudi e seli avera scusia 
vadase a sciisiar ailinqui^itu^i ele scusie clieli po scusiar sie queste seli fose 
itadi enfermi in quelo die clie li avese falido o cheli no fose stadi in la tera 
in quelo die o che fose stado si rio tenpo che lo no podese eser stado 
baleslrado o cheli fose andadi in quela ora ad algiin morto o a visitar o se 
noce fose stade in quelo die a chasa soa eciamdio quesle chasion no podese 
eser io lasere un de queli dela mia desiena che me parera in mio logo « 
dareli questo chapitolario elo sia tegnudo de receverlo e de far loicio sicomo 
eo quando eo de son soto pena de grossi . iii . per ogna fiada cheli 
recusiase de receverlo lo chapitolario e de farlo dito oficio e son legnudo 
de darli in scrito ali ditl inquisitori per cbacudl ogna fiada che li recusiase 
infra ter^o diebus. 

(Venezia, Archivio di Stato. — Alti diplomatici, Misti N. laa G.) 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Adriatic, benediction of the, i, 212 
Agostini, cited, ii, ^Gn. 
Aix-la-Ghapelle, Treaty of, referred 

to, i, i54 
Alchemy used for the falsification 

of coin, i, 160 
Altino, i, 12 
Amuriana, i, 12 
Anafesto, Paoluccio, first Doge, i, 

73-74 
Anastasii Bibliotecarii, cited, i, 

I24n. 
Ancone, the, form the origin of 

Venetian painting, ii, 128 
Aquileia, duomo and baptistry at, 

i, 63 
Arch, pointed, use of the, ii, 102, 

io4 

Architecture, Venetian, ii, 96-1 11 ; 
Byzantine and Lombard Avork in, 
97, 98 ; Veneto-Byzantine style, 
99 ; influence of the Romanesque, 
100; Saracenic influence, loi; 
Gothic art in, 102 

Archives of Padua, i, 19 

Archivio di Stato, cited, i, i57n., 
iSgn., ff. 

Arezzo, Nicolo Gieco d', on Venice, 

i. 92 
Armand, cited, ii, 87 
Armingaud, cited, i, ii8n. 
Arsenal, i, aS, 69 
Art of the Veneti, i, 3 
Arzana, i, 68 

Ascension Day, festival of, i, 2X2 
Ascoli, cited, ii, i48n. 
Atlases, i, iAi-i42 



Austere habits, ii, 26 
Azario, cited, ii, 57n. 

Bailo, cited, ii, i33 

Bancogiro of Venice, the, i, i5o 

Banks and banking, i, i5i ; full 

liberty in the banking business 

given, i5i 
Baracchi, cited, ii, 3iin. 
Barattieri, cited, ii, 55n. 
Barbaro, Giosafatte, journey of, i, 

i4i 

Barberino, cited, i, i34n. 

Bardi, Girolamo, quoted, i, ai3 

Bardo cucullus, i, 5 

Bazar, i, 127 

Bead making, ii, 69 

Belgrano, cited, ii, I24n. 

Bellemo, cited, i, i4on. 

Bellini, Jacopo, life and work of, 

ii, i36 
Bells, early use of, ii, 64 
Bcrchct, cited, i, i4in., i42n. 
Bernardo, Giustinian, quoted, i, 

47n. 
Bernardo, Trevisan, cited, i, 27n. 
Bertaldo, Jacopo, his Splendor, i, 

95. 97 
Bertanza and Lazzarini, cited, i, 

55n., Sgn. 

Besta, Enrico, cited, i, 93n., 94n., 
gSn., 97n., io3n., io4n., io5n., 
I07n., loSn., logn., iiin. 

Besta, Fabio, cited, i, i46 

Bibione, i, 10 

Bills, of exchange, i, i5a ; protest- 
ing a bill, i5a 



228 



INDEX 



Bini, cited, i, gin., ii, 7711. 
Blanqui, cited, i, i/j5n. 
Boccaccio, on Venice and the Vene- 
tians, i, 89 
Bocconio, Marin, conspiracy of, i, 85 
Bohmcr, cited, i, ii6n. 
Bonaldi, case of, i, 100 
Boncompagno da Segna, quoted, i, 

45 
Boni, cited, i, 3an., ^in., ii, 86n., 

iiin. 
Boschini, cited, ii, 76n. 
Bollle-blowcrs, guild of, ii, 67 
Bouiliet. cited, ii, lao 
Bowmen, training of, i, 197-199 
Bracciolini, Poggio, his account of 

Niccolo de' Conti's voyage, i, i4o 
Breydenbach, cited, i, 35 
Bricks, i, 49 
Bridges, i, ag 
Bronze work, il, 84-86 
Brown, Rawdon, cited, i, ii8n. 
Bucintoro, the, i, 2i4 
Bull-fights, i, ao3 
Bullo, cited, i, i4on. 
Buono family, masters of the, in 

architecture, ii, 118 
Burchellati, cited, i, 85n. 
Burial rites, ii, a4, a5 
Byzantine architecture in Venice, 

ii, 96, 98, III 
Byzantine art employed in church 

decoration, ii, 63 
Byzantine influence, in Venetian 

goldsmith work, ii, 78, 8a ; in 

painting, lai 
Byzantium, its relation to Venice, i, 

ao-ai 

Ck d'oro, palace of, architecture 

and decoration, ii, 108-111 
Caffi, cited, i, 5gu., ii, ia7n. 
Caloprini, the, i, 166, 167 
Campanile, the, i, 3a-33, 5a, 64 
Canal, Martino da, quoted, i, ii5 



Canals, i, 37, 3o 

Candiani, the, i, i64, 167; story 
of Elena and Gerardo Guoro, i, 
166 

Canestrini, cited, i, 63n. 

Cannaregio, scslierc of, its ex- 
tent, and the churches contained 
therein, i, 25 

Cantalamessa, cited, ii, i37n. 

Caorlc, i, 10 ; cathedral at, 63 

Capitolaro of the Signori di Nolte, 
i, 4a-43 

Caprin, cited, i, ion., ii, i27n. 

Caprule, i, 10 

CarahcUese, cited, i, laon., 1370. 

Carnival, the, i, 216 

Caroklo, cited, i, 68n., la^n. 

Carpaccio, Vittore, painting by, i, 
56 

Casini, cited, ii, 57n., i54n. 

Cason, cited, i, 69n. 

Cassiodorus, his letter to the Trib- 
unes, i, i3-i5, 17 

Castcllani, the, rivalry with theNico- 
lotli, i, 201 

Castello, sestiere of, its extent, and 
the churches contained therein, 
i. a4 ; the religious centre of the 
city, 37 

Castelnuovo, cited, i, i5on. 

Castrum Ollvoli, i, 24 

Cathedral of Venice, i, a5 

Cattaneo, cited, ii, 65, 96 

Cavallcaselle, cited, i, 53n. 

Cecchetti, cited, i, 28n., 3on., 38n., 
4in., 5on., 59n., 85n., 94n., 
loon., io3n., ii, i5, 49, 55n., 
690., i57n., fl'. 

Chains and necklaces of gold, ii, 

79' 80 
Charity, ii, 36 
Charts, i, i4i 

Child labour prohibited, i, 188 
Chimneys, i, 5i 
Chioggia, i, l3 



INDEX 



229 



Chroniclers, early, li, i4o, i4i 
Chronicles of John the Deacon, 
and of the Doge, Andrea Dandolo, 

i. 7 
Chronicon Gradense, i, 7 

Churches, i, 62-67 ; lowers of, 

64; adornment of, ii, 61 

Cihrario, cited, i, io3n. 

Cicogna, quoted, i, 85n., 2o3n. 

Cinque Savii alia Mercanzia, i, 

133 

Cipolla, cited, i, I3, ii, 75 
Cistercian work in architecture, ii, 

io3 
Citizens, order of, i, 169-175; the 
grand chancellor chosen from, 
170; citizenship de intus and de 
extra, 170, 173; the require- 
ments for entering, 173 
Citizenship, Venetian, acquired by 
foreigners, i, 173, 178 ; granted 
to the well-deserving and to those 
remarkable for their ability, 174, 
176 ; sought as a safeguard on 
the sea, 176 
Cleanliness in dress, ii, 16, 17 
Clergy, relation to people and 
Doge, i, 73-76 ; authority and 
independence secured for, 168 
Cod. Trevisaneo, cited, i, 200 
Coinage, early use of imperial, in 
Venice, i, i53 ; earliest coin 
minted in Venice, i54 ; value of 
the various coins, i57-i5g ; 
protection of, 160-162 
Coins of Louis and Lothair, i, i52, 

i53 
Colonies, i, 120 

Colour, Venetian feeling for, ii, 139 
Columns, brought from Constanti- 

no[)lc, i, 36 
Commcmoriali Reg., cited, i, I74n. 
Commerce, i, 110-137 
Commercial treaties, i, 116 
Comune Yenetiarum, i, 73 



Consiglio Minore, i, 81 
Consoli dei Mercanti, i, 133 
Conspiracies, 85-88 
Constantinople, trade with, i, 117, 

I30-I2I 

Consuls, i, I30 

Contarini, Ambrogio, journeys of, 

i, i4i 
Contarini, Donato, cited, i, i72n., 

ii. 39 

Contarini, Giovanni, will of, i, 83 

Contento, cited, i, 6on. 

Conti, ISiccolo de', journey of, i, 

i4o 
Corner, cited, ii, 34n 
Corruption of manners and morals, 

ii, 56-6o 
Council of Forty, i, 81 
Council of Ten, i, 86 
Courts, i, 123 
Credit, theory of, was in full exercise 

in Venice in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, i, 1 53 
Crime, laws of, i, Ii3-ii3 
Cronaca Altinate, i, 7 
Cronaca di INIarco, cited, i, 3 10 
Crolfa, cited, i, 78n. 
Crusades, effect of, on Venice, ii, 

3o 
Culluris, cited, i, iSsn. 
Culture, Venetian, ii, 189-175 

D.4. Canal, Chronicon, cited, i, 

2o6n., ii, i43n. 
Dalle Masegne, Jacobello and Pietro 

Paolo, ii, 116, 117 
Damiani, Petri, cited, ii, 34 
Dandolo, the, i, 168 
Dandolo, Chronicon, i, 7 ; cited, 

32n., 78, 74, Ii5n. ; quoted, 

75n., 76 
Dante, imitation of, by Venetian 

writers, ii, i49. i5o 
Davia, cited, ii, Ii6n. 
De Beyli6, cited, ii, loin. 



23o 



INDEX 



Dc Monacis, cited, i, igin. 

De Verncilh, cilerl, ii, 7811., ggn. 

Dcniers of Louis and Lothair, i, i53 

Dialect, Venetian, ii, i'i7 

Districts of Venice, 1, 24 26 

Doge, origin of, i, 72 ; relation to 
the people and the clergy, 78-76 ; 
election of, 73-76 ; council of, 76; 
attributes of, 76 ; change of 
method of election of, 81 , 82 ; his 
visit to Santa Maria Formosa on 
the fote of the Marie, 211 

Dolcetti, cited, ii, 56n. 

Dolfin, cited, i, 222 

Domonichelli, cited, i, i38n. 

Domcnico Sclvo, Dogaressa, ii, 23 

DonatcUo, ii, 119 

Dorsuduro, sesliere of, its extent 
and the churches contained 
therein, i, 26 

Ducal Palace, i, 69, 67-68 ; archi- 
tecture and decoration of, ii, 
100-107 ; paintings, i34 

Ducal seal, i, 174 

Ducat, coining of the, i, i56 ; value 
of the, 169 

Dwelling-house architecture, ii, 
lOi, 107 

Earthquakes, i, 46n. 
Embroidery, ii, 76 
Enamel work, ii, 78 
Eneti, the, i, 7 
Enlart, cited, ii, io3 
Equilio, i, II 
Este, i, 3 
Euganei, the, i, 2 
Export, rcgiilations governing, i, 
128 ; amount of, 126 

Factions in the islands of the 

lagoons, i, 19-22 
Falier, Doge Marino, conspiracy 

of, i, 86-88 
Falsification of coin, i, 160 



Family life in Venice, il, 44 

Federici, cited, i, 63n. 

Ferrara, cited, i, i5in. 

Ferries, i, 29 

Ferro, cited, i, 171 

Festa dclle Marie, i, 210 212 

Festivals, public, preserved internal 

quiet, i, 217 
Fetes, i, 2o3, 2o4, 208 ; religious 

festivals, 209 ; civil festivals, 209 
Fiamma, Galvano, cited, i, 5i 
Ficschi, Isabella, story of, ii, 67 
Fighting with fists, i, 201 
Filiasi, cited, i, 4i., 5n., 3in., 

6on., 1 i8n., i24n., 221 
Finance, i, i44 
Fincati, cited, i, i3in., i35n. 
Fires, i, 47 

Fischer, cited, i, i42n. 
Fishing, i, 200 
Fiamini, cited, i, 920. 
Fleets, i, i34 
Food, ii, 26 
Forced loans, i, i49 
Foreigners, treatment of, at Venice, 

i, io4 
Fork, use of, introduced, ii, 24 
Formaleoni, cited, i, i4in. 
Forze d' Ercole, sports of, i, 202 
Foscarini, cited, i, 93n., 94n., l38, 

ii, i48n. 
Foscarini, Giovanni, ii, i5i 
Frati, cited, i, 56n. 
Fulin, cited, i, 86n. 
Funds, public, i, i47, i49, i5o 

Gabele>tz, cited, ii, 11 4n., ii5n. 

Galleys, description of, i, i3x ; 
"great galleys," i32 

Galli, cited, i, 55n., 58n. 

GalliccioUi, cited, i, 34n., agn., 
48n., 5in., 53n., 6on., 64n., 
i9Sn., 209n., ii, 24, 34 

Gamba, his reproduction of poem at- 
tributed to Languinacci, i, I29n. 



INDEX 



a3i 



Gambling, laws against, ii, 55 
Gastaldi ducali, i, 78 
Gayet, cited, ii, 120 
Gechin, on Venice, i, 93 
Geography, science of, studied, i, 

Gfrbrer, cited, i. i5n., 75n., gSn., 
ggn., ii8n., ia4n., i68n. 

Ghirardini, cited, i, 3n. 

Gianotti, cited, i, 16 

Gibbon, cited, i, 129 

Giotto, ii, i3i 

Giudici del Comune, i, 122 

Giudici del Forestier, i, 122 

Giustinian Bernardo, quoted, ii, 98 

Giustinian, Lionardo, quoted, ii, 46 

Giustizieri, the, i, 179 

Glass work, ii, 65 ; origin and de- 
velopment of, 66-73 ; stained 
glass windows, 68 ; beads, 69 ; 
mirrors, 69 ; goblets and vases, 

Gloria, cited, i, 8n. 
Gold, coining of, i, i56 
Goldsmiths' and jewellers' work, 

ii, 77-84 ; Byzantine influence 

in, 78, 82 ; German influence 

in, 83 
Gothic architecture, development of, 

ii, 102 ; in Venice, io3-io5 ; 

sculpture, ii4-i 16 
Gradenigo, Piero, reform of, i, 84 ; 

quoted, 169 
Grade, i, 8, 10 
Grammar, study of, Ii, i58 
Grand Chancellor, institution of 

the oflice, i, 170 
Great Council, i, 80 ; duties of, 

81; constitution of, 82, 84; 

admission to, 169 
Greek manners brought in by 

Greek princesses, ii, 23 
Greenland, reached by Niccolo 

Zeno, i, i39 
Grion, cited, i, 88n., ii, 43 



Gualandi, cited, ii, 106 

Guglielmotti, cited, i, i3in., 2i5n. 

Guidi, Jacopo d'Aibizzotto, his 
poem on Venice, i, 39-4o, 93 ; 
his description of a bedroom, 56 

Guilds, i, 177 ; survival of, dur- 
ing the middle ages, 177 ; super- 
vision of the Giustizieri, 179 ; 
relations with the government, 
180 ; of devotion, national guilds, 
crafts-guilds, i83 ; government 
and constitution of, i83-i88; 
relief associations, 188; festivals, 
189; buildings of, 190 ; principles 
of, were the precursors of mod- 
ern political economy, 191 

Gulf of Venice, i, 121 

Halls, i, Sg 

Hegel, cited, i, 70n. 

Heraclea, i, 11 

Heyd, cited, i, lain., il, 17 

Hortis, cited, i, 90 

Hose, company of the, i, 2o3, 218 

Houses, foundations, i, 46-47 ; 
wooden, 47 ; disposition of, 48 ; 
of stone and brick, 48 ; construc- 
tion of, 49 ; loggias, 5o ; chim- 
neys, 5i; towers, 52; internal 
arrangements, 53-6o ; bedrooms, 
56—58 ; kitchens, 58 ; staircases, 
59 ; halls, 59 ; value of, 60 ; rent, 
61 ; adornments, 60, 61 ; lodg- 
ing-houses, 63 

Hunting, i, 200 

Hygiene and physical science, study 
of, ii, i58 

Illumination, art of, in Venice, ii, 

124-126 
Import, regulations governing, i, 

123 ; amount of, 126 
Industrial arts, ii, 61-95 
Inquisitori alia conservazione dei 

segreli di Stato, i, 86 



33a 



INDEX 



Inquisitori dci Dicci, i, 86 
Iron and steel work, ii, 87, 88 
Ivory and bone work, ii, 98 

Jaffe, quoted, i, ySn. 

Jesolo, i, II ; church at, 63 

Jews, their industry made to con- 
tribute to the national wealth, i, 
iga ; concessions to, 198 ; the 
Ghetto, 195 

John the Deacon, quoted, i, 5a ; 
cited, 77n., nan., ii6n. 

Julin, cited, i, Sgn. 

Justice, administration of, in the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries, i, 
98-ioa 

Juvenal, quoted, ii, Sgn, 

KoHLSCHUTTER, cltcd, i, 1170. 

Kraus, cited, ii, laon. 

Lagoons, the, i, 7-18 ; preservation 
of the conditions of, 43-44 

Latin, early Venetian chronicles in, 
ii, i45; Venetian corruption of, 
i46 

Lattes, cited, i, i5in. 

Law, i, 98-114 ; no written Vene- 
tian, before the twelfth century 
transmitted, 98; in the thirteenth 
century, 98; Statuto Veneto, 94 ; 
in earlier period, 94-98 ; sources 
of Venetian, 96-97 ; civil, before 
Venice became an independent 
State, 10a ; as to the rights of 
persons, ioa-io5 ; as to the 
rights of property, loS-iog; of 
navigation, 109-111 ; of succes- 
sion, iii-iia; of crime, iia- 
118 

Lazari, V., cited, i, io3n., ia5n., 
ii, 71 

Lazzarini, cited, i, 55n., Sgn., 88n. 
ii, 5o 



Learning in Venice, rare among the 
midcllc and lower classes, ii, i54 ; 
fouiuiiiig of the University of 
Padua, i55 ; teachers of renown 
in Venice, i56 ; public instruc- 
tion, 107 ; professors and students, 
167 ; noted men settled in Venice, 
1 65 

Leases of land, i, 107 

Leather work, ii, 77 

Lenel, cited, i, laon., lam. 

Leona, quoted, i, a8n. 

Levi, C. A. cited, i, iSan. 

Levy, E., cited, ii, i43n. 

Liber Communalis (Plegiorum), i, 
128 

Library, Public, in Venice, Pe- 
trarch's donation the beginning 
of, ii, i64n. 

Lidi, i, 8-9 

Lion, cited, i, 67 

Lion of San Marco, 1, 79 and n. 

Lira, value of the, i, 167, i58 

Liruti in Argclati, cited, i, i55n. 

Literature, Venetian, early chroni- 
cles, ii, i4o, i4i ; French verse 
in Venice, i43, i44; works in 
Latin, 1 45 ; poetry in Lombard 
and Venetian dialect, i48, i52; 
early poets, i5o-i52 ; street 
songs, 1 5a, 1 54; literature cul- 
ture rare, i54 ; diplomatic re- 
ports, 1 55 ; famous teachers in 
Venice, i56 

Loans to the State, i, i48; volun- 
tary, i48; forced, i49 

Lodging-houses, i, 62 

Loggia dei Cavalieri, paintings in, 
ii, i3a 

Loggie, i, 5o 

Lombard architecture in Venice, ii, 

97' 98 _ 

Lorenzi, cited, i, 86n., ii, 5on. 

Love and marriage, ii, 4o, 45 

Ludwig, cited, ii, 17a 



INDEX 



233 



Luxury, in dress, ii, i3-i8, aS ; 
regulated by the government, 
i8, ai. 

Magister militum, i, 77 

Magnocavallo, cited, i, i38n. 

Majurbio (Mazzorbo), i, 9, la 

Malaguzzi-Valeri, cited, ii, laCn. 

Malamocco, i, la ; earthquake in, 
46n. 

Malipiero, cited, i, i5on. 

Manfroni, cited, i, ii6n., i3i n., 
iSan. 

Manners and customs, ii, a3-6o 

Mantegna, ii, i36 

Maps, i, i3(), i4i-i4a 

Marchesan, cited, ii, i49 ff. 

Marin, cited, i, laon., laan. 

Marinelli, cited, i, i4in. 

Marini, cited, i, ai8n. 

Maritime tribunes, i, 70-73 

Markets, i, 137-139 

Marriage, ii, liO-!\6, 5i 

Masegne, JacobcUo and Pietro 
Paolo Dalle, ii, 116 

Masks, wearing of, i, 317 

Matrimony, i, io5 

Maundy Thursday, festival of, i, 
ai5 

Mauro, Fra, planisphere of, i, i4a 

Mayor, cited, i, iSgn. 

Medicine, science of, a prey to 
superstition, ii, 169 

Milanesi, cited, i, 39n. 

Milani, cited, ii, i5n.. Son. 

Mills, i, 3 1 

Mint, not established in Venice 
earlier than the ninth century, i, 
i53 ; minting of Venetian coins, 
ii, i54-i56 

Mirrors of stainless glass, ii, 69 

Missals, illuminated, ii, la/i 

Mocenigo, Doge Tomaso, on Vene- 
tian trade, i, 126, i3o 

Mocenigo, F. ISani, i, Aan. 



Molinier, cited, ii, 83n. 

Molmcnti, cited, i, 88n, ii, i37 

Mommsen, cited, i, 8n. 

Monachi Sangallensis, cited, ii, 78 

Monaci, cited, i, 88n. 

Monasteries, retirement to, ii, 33-35 

Money, use of the Roman coinage, 

i, i53; minting of Venetian coin, 

i54-i62 ; value of Venetian, 167. 

See Coinage 
Monpurgo, cited, ii, i5o 
Monticolo, cited, i, San., 38n., 

58n., 73n., i79n., i83n.,i85n., 

186, 187, 188, ii, aa 
Morelli, J., cited, i, i^m., aaon., 

ii, 46 
Morosini and Caloprini, feuds of 

the, i, 166 
Morpurgo, cited, i, 9an. 
Mosaics, floors of churches, ii, 64 ; 

figure work, 65, lao 
Moschetti, cited, i, gan. 
Mosto, Alvise da Ca da, voyages of, 

i, i4o 
Motta, cited, ii, ao 
Munstero, quoted, ii, i5 
Muratori, quoted, i, 5i, I79n. 
Music, in Venice, ii, i6o-i6a 
Musical instruments, ii, i6a 
Mussafia, cited, ii, i48 
Mussato, Albertino, cited, i, 8on., 

i45n. ; quoted, i, lai 
Mutinelii, cited, ii, 34 

Nativity of the Virgin, painting, i, 

.57 _ 
Nava, cited, ii, 116 
Navigation, law of, i, 109-111 ; 

early, i36-i4i ; study of, i4i 
IVavigalors, early, i36-i4i 
New men, i, 82, 84 
Newfoundland, reached by Niccold 

Zcno, i, iSgn. 
Nobles, i, i63; feuds of, i65, 168 ; 

discipline imposed upon, 168; 



234 



INDEX 



purchase of the title, 176, 177; 
familiarity between people and, 
ii, 48 

Olivolo, i, a 4 

Organ, useof, in Venice, ii, i6a, i63 

Oriental manners infect Venetian 

customs, ii, a4 
Orseoli, the, i, i6.'», 167 

Pace de Foroiulio, cited, i, aim. 

Padovan, cited, i, 38n., iSgn., 
i6on., i6in, I72n. 

Padua, painters of, ii, i3i ; Univer- 
sity of, ii, 1 55 

Painting, development of, in Venice, 
ii, i3o; Byzantine influence, ii, 
131 ; painters' guild, 133 ; art of 
illumination, 1 34-136; early panel 
paintings, 137 ; early painters, 
ia8, 129, i3o ; feeling for 
colour, 139 ; influence of 
Franco-German art, i3a 

Paoletti, cited, i, 6-jn., ii, io5n., 
ii8n., i33n., i37n. 

Papadopoli, cited, i, i54n., i6on. 

Partecipazi, the, i, i64 

Partecipazio, Doge Agnello, i, 33 

Pasini, cited, ii, 65n., 78n. 

Paths, in Venice, i, 37-38 

Patria potestas, i, io5 

Pauli Diaconi, cited, ii, 97 

Pavanello, i, 4ii' 

Pecchio, cited, i, i45n. 

Pennesi, cited, i, i4on. 

Pennies, Venetian, mentioned in 
ancient deeds, i, i55 

People, relation to clergy and Doge, 

i. 73-77 
Persons, laws as to rights of, i, 

io2-io5 
Pertile, cited, i, 93n., 95n., 97n. 
Petrarch, cited, i, 53n., 307n. ; on 

Venice, 90 ; gift of his library 

to Venice, ii, i64 



Pianta di Venezia, by Temanza, i, 

34. 

Piccolpasso, Cipriano, cited, ii, 720. 

Pietro, INiccolb di, ii, 139 

Pigeons, i, 37 

Pignoria, cited, i, 5n. 

Piovego, magistracy of, i, 43 

Plague, i, 44 

Planispheres, i, i4a 

Playing cards, introduction of, ii, 56 

Poetry, lack, of early Venetian, ii, 
i4i ; French verse in Venice, 
1 43, i4't ; in Lombard and Vene- 
tian dialects, 1 48; popular, set to 
music, ii, 168, 169 

Polo, Marco, his book. 11 Milione, i, 

i37 
Porcelain, work in, ii, 73 
Pordenone, Oderico da, i, i38 
Porticoes of churches, ii, 99 
Pottery, origin and development of 

the art of, ii, 71-73 
Predelli, R., cited, i, 4in., 93n., 

I ion., i48n. 
Printing, discovery of, met with 

great success, ii, 171 ; great 

printers, 172 
Professors and students in Venice, 

ii, 167, i58, 167 
Property, laws as to rights of, i, 

106-109 
Provveditori di Comune, magis- 
tracy of, i, 43 

QuADRi, cited, i, i38n. 
Quirini, Giovanni, ii, i5o 
Quirini, Niccolo, sonnet on Vene- 
tians, i, 88 
Quirini, Pietro, voyage of, i, l4o 

Rajn.v, cited, i, 2o3n. 
Regatta, the, i, 202 
Religious festivals, i, aog 
Renicr-Michicl, cited, i, 211 
Renier, R., cited, ii, i5on. 



INDEX 



235 



Rialto, i, 31, aS ; the business 
centre of the city, 87 ; history of, 
38 39 

Rialto bridge, i, ag 

Riant, cited, ii, 770. 

Ricci, cited, ii, 63n. 

Rivoalto, i, i3, 18 

Rivoli, duo de. Prince d'Essling, 
cited, ii, 171 

Roberti, cited, i, I78n., 186 

Rolandino, cited, i, ao4 

Roma, survival of the guilds, i, 
i78n. 

Romanesque architecture, its in- 
fluence on Venetian art, ii, 100 

Rossi, ISiccolo de', ii, lig 

Rossi, v., cited, i, 39n., 4on., 
56n., 73n., ']^n., lagn., ii, aon. 

RuUi, making of, ii, 69 

Ruskin, cited, ii, ii^n. 

Sabellici, cited, ii, i6in. 
Saccerdo, G., cited, i. Son., 5in. 
Sacchetti, Franco, on Venice, i, 91 
Sacerdoti, cited, i, logn., iion. 
Sagredo, cited, i, It'jn., i8on., 

iSan., iS^n. 
Sala del Maggior Consiglio, i, 69, 

67 
Salt-pans, i, 3i 
Salt-trade, i, ia4 

Salt-works of Venice, i, 16, 17-18 
Sandi, cited, i, ']^n., 94n., i5on. ; 

on early Italian law, 96 
San Donate, church of, i, 63 
San Giacomo di Rialto, i. 64 
San Marco, his journey from 

Aquileia to Ravenna, 8 ; his body 

brought to Venice, 79 ; lion of, 

79 and n. 
San Marco, church, i, 36, 60-67, 

ii, 98, i4a 
San Marco, piazza, i, 3a-35; 

sestiere of, its extent and the 

churches contained therein, a 5 



San Mauro, monastery of, i, 63 
San Polo, sestiere of, its extent and 

the churches contained therein, 

i, a6 
San Quintino, cited, i, i54n. 
Sanguinacci, poem attributed to, i, 

137139 ; quoted, ii, i4 
Santa Croce, sestiere of, its extent 

and the churches contained 

therein, i, 26 
Santa Maria delle Grazie, baptistry 

and church of, i, 63 
Sansovino, F., cited, i, 49n., ai6n., 

ii, i3n. 
Sanudo, Marin Torsello, cited, i, 

i5n., agn., 33n., 47n., 6in. ; 

quoted, 87 ; cited, ao3n., 316, 

333, ii, 73n. ; his book Liber 

Secretorum, etc., i, i37-i38 
Scherer, cited, i, ii8n., i34n. 
Schiavi, cited, i, I93n. 
Schlosser, cited, i, 53n., ii, 93n. 
Schlumberger, cited, i, 37n. 
Schultz, cited, ii, i3 
Schupfer, cited, i, 94n., gSn. 
Sclopis, cited, i, iion. 
Sculpture, Venetian, ii, 111-119; 

Byzantine inQuence, iii-ii3; 

Gothic models, ii4-ii6 ; Tuscan 

influence, 116 
Seamen, i, i35-i36 
Sea-power, Venetian, i, i4-i5 
Segarizzi, quoted, ii, 69 
Selvatico, cited, ii, 100, I17 
Senato, cited, i, i33n. 
Sercambi, cited, ii, 58n. 
Sestieri, i, a4-36 
Shipbuilding industry of Venice, 

i, i3o, iSa 
Ships, varieties of, 1, i3o-l3a; 

government, i33 ; commanders 

of, 1 34 ; owners of, i35 ; crews 

of, i35-i36 
Signori di Notte, i, 43-43 
Silk weaving and dyeing, ii, 74-77 



236 



INDEX 



Simono di ser Dino da Siena, on 

Venice, i, 90 
Simonsfeld, cited, i, San., Can., 

i38n., i78n. 
Slaves, condition of, i, io3 ; trade 

in, 124-136 
Smuggling, i, ia3 
Solmi, cited, i, i^Sn. 
Soresina, cited, i, i5i 
Speech, State censorship over, ii, 54 
Sports, i, 200 
State censorship, ii, 53-56 
Statute Veneto, i, 94 
Stefania, case of, i, 99 
Stumpf, cited, i, i56n. 
Subsidy fund, i, i5o 
Succession, laws of, i, 111-112 
Surgery, ii, 159 
Surnames of Venetians were pre. 

served through the dark ages, 

i, 164 

Tafel, cited, i, laon., lain., I24n. 

Tassini, cited, i, 211, ii, 54 

Tcmanza, cited, i, a7n., 47n-, 5in. ; 
quoted, 5o 

Tentori, cited, i, 85n. 

Terra Veneta, i, 6 

Thomas, cited, i, 900., laon., 
lain., i24n. 

Tiepolo, Bajamonte, conspiracy of, 
i, 85 ; his house razed, 86n. ; his 
Statuto Naulico, i, iion. 

Tiepolo, the, i, 168 

Tino, cited, i, 218 

Toaldo, cited, i, i4in. 

Tomba, i, 24 

Torcello, i, 11; church and bap- 
tistry of, 63 

Tourneys, i, 2o5 

Towers, i, 52, 64 

Trade, see Commerce 

Trade in cloths from various coun- 
tries, ii, i5 

Treasury, the, i, i46 



Treaties, commercial, i, 116 

Trcvisan, Mcolo, quoted, i, 29n. ; 
cited, 36n., 6in. 

Treviso, March of, i, 2o4 ; painters 
and paintings of, ii, i33; uni- 
versity at, 1 49 

Tribunes, i, 70-73, 76-77 

Turgan, cited, ii, 66n. 

Tuscan influence in Venetian art, 
ii, 116, 118 

Uguelli, cited, i, i55n., ii, Can. 
Universities, ii, 170 
Urbani de Gheltof, cited, i, 5 in., 
79n., ii, 72n., 75, 83n. 

Valerius, Aug., cited, ii, i4on. 

\annozzo, Francesco, on the Vene- 
tians, i, 88 

Veneti, their arrival and settlement 
in Italy, i, 1-2 ; their customs 
and their art in early times, 3 ; 
their history from 2i5 b. c. to 
the time of Romulus Auguslulus, 
4-7 ; their family life, 4-5 ; 
their dress, 5 

Venetian Estuary in Roman times, 

I. 7-9 

Venetians, the original, noble and 

patrician, i, i5-i7 ; occupations 
of the original, 17-18; factions 
in the islands in early times, 
19-22 

Veneto-Grecians, i, 21 

Veneto-Italians, i, 21 

Veneto-Romans, i, 21 

Venezia, the name, to what it was 
applied, i, 87 

Venice, origins, i, 1-22 ; of the 
mainland and of the lagoons, i3, 
33 ; what proportion of the origi- 
nal settlers were noble and what 
patrician, i5-i7 ; dependence of, 
on the Roman and Byzantine 



INDEX 



287 



Empires, 20-21 ; seat of govern- 
ment removed to Rialto, 22 ; 
the islands of, 23-24 ; districts, 
24-26; canals, 27; public paths, 
27 ; open spaces in the city, 27 ; 
aspect of the streets, paving, etc., 
28; bridges, 29; ferries, 29; 
canals, 3o ; salt-pans, 3i ; mills, 
3i ; piazza of San Marco, 32-35 ; 
beautification of the city, 35-37 ' 
Guidi's poem on, 3g-4o ; sanitary 
regulations, 4i-43 ; preservation 
of the lagoons, 43-44 ; houses, 
46-62 ; churches, 62-67 • Ducal 
Palace, 67-68 ; arzana, 68 ; 
arsenal, 69 ; constitution, 70-85 ; 
conspiracies, 85-88 ; verses on, 
88-92; laws of, 93-1 14; com- 
merce and navigation, ii5 i43; 
finance, economy, and currency 
of, 144-162 ; nobles and citizens, 
163-196 ; martial exercises, 
sports, and festivals, 197-222 ; 
costume, ii, i-23 ; manners and 
customs, 23-6o ; the industrial 
arts, 61-95 ; the fine arts, 
96-138 ; culture, 139-175 
Venturi, cited, i, 37n., ii, 63n. 
Verona, painters of, ii, i3o 
Verses on Venice, i, 88-92 
Villani, Giovanni, cited, i, 5i ; on 
Venice and the Venetians, 88 



Vinland, i, i39n. 

VioIlet-le-Duc, cited, i, 55n., ii8n. 
Visdomini alia Messetaria, i, 12a 
Visdomini da mare, i, 12a 

Weddings, ii, 4i. 43 

William of Apulia, quoted, i, 119 

Windows of stained glass, earliest 
manufacture of, ii, 68 

Women, place of in early days, ii, 
28, 29 ; chivalry toward, 37 ; 
marriage of, 4 1-48, 5i ; in the 
family, 44 ", laws for the protec- 
tion of, 49-53 ; infidelity of, 58 

Wood carving, ii, 88 

Zambler, cited, i, i20n., i27n. 

Zanetti, Girolamo, cited, i, 3on., 
i35n., 2i4 

Zanotto, cited, ii, iign. 

Zappert, cited, i, i36n. 

Zechin, see Gechin 

Zcno, Antonio, i, i39 

Zeno, Carlo, i, i39 

Zeno, Catarino, journeys of, i, i4o 

Zeno, Niccolb, his travels, i, i38- 
139; his compilation from An- 
tonio Zeno's manuscript, i, 189 

Zon, cited, i, 210, 2i5 

Zonghi, A., cited, ii, ngn. 

Zurla, cited, i, i37n., i42n. 



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