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Full text of "American forests"






AMERL 



FORESTRY 



.GAZINE OF 



\ f r 



J. 



hi 



THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



VOLUME XXV— JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1919, INCLUSIVE 



Abbott, Clinton G., article by. 
Allen, A. A, articles by 



793; 877; 

1001; 1228; 1291; 1419; 

Andrews, Eliza. F., article by 

Babbitt, W. H., article by 

Barnes, Will C, article by 

Benet, W. R., poem by 

Besley,. F. W.. article by 

Brown, Nelson Courtlandt, article by 

Burris. M. M., articles by 859; 

Butler. O. ML, article by 

Carson, William, article by 

Chapman, H. H., articles by 835; 

Cheyney. E. G, articles by 790; 792; 856; 1006; 1290; 

Clapp, Earle H„ article by 

Clark. W. Darrow, article by 

Clopper, H. S., article by 

Cook, Alice Spencer, article by 

Craft, Quincy R., article by 

Dana, Samuel T., article by 

Davis, R. O. E-. article by 

DeBoer, S. R., article by 

Demorlaine, J., article by 

Dow, Joy Wheeler, article by 

Faulkner, Ralph H., article by 

Faxon, R. IV. article by 

Ferguson. John, poem by 

Fraser, Donald A., poems by 1328; 

Gaskill, Alfred, article by 

Gates, Moody B., article by 

Graves, Henry S., articles by 907 ; 1109 ; 1281 ; 

Greeley, W. B., articles by 1093 ; 1379 ; 

Guise, C. H., article by 

Hammatt, R. !•".. article by 

Hawes, Austin F., article by 

Hill, Roland, article by 

Hulbert, Henrv W.. article by 

Illick, J. S„ articles by 1386; 

Kitts, Joseph A., article by 

Lange, D., article by 

Leopold. Aldo. articles by 1295 ; 



AUTHOR' 



Page 

.. 945 

931; 

1526 

. 1476 

. 1265 

. 798 

. 1467 

. 983 

1315 

1217 

1410 

1297 

1075 

1473 

947 

818 

1482 

1329 

1470 

1507 

1350 

1458 

1040 

819 

1155 

864 

1044 

1478 

154? 

1063 

1401 

1451 

1486 

1531 

1479 

1199 

1059 

1538 

1264 

1273 

1479 



1 V, ,0 

S INDEX </ /r it// 

I* /r 

/i ^ L 

' \ Wage 

Lewis, Lieut., article by 1206 

Lowdermilk, W. C, article by 1534 

Lyford, P. L., article by 1482 

MacDonald, Austin F., article by 1361 

Mason, David T., articles by 1187; 1469 

Mattoon, Wilbur R., article by 1547 

Maxwell, Hu, articles by 807; 845; 923; 973; 1208; 1343 

Mitchell, Guy E., article by 1480 

Moore, Barrington, article by 1113 

Owens, Vilda Sauvage, poem by 1220 

Pack, Charles Lathrop, articles by 771 ; 918 ; 985; 1053; 1391 

Pearson, C. H., article by 782 

Pratt, M. B., article by 1443 

Rane, Frank W., article by 1546 

Ridsdale, Percival Sheldon, articles by. 899; 963; 1027; 1137; 1251 

Riley, Smith, articles by 1260; 1465 

Riordan, M. J„ poem by 1450 

Sarett, Lew R.. poem by 1314 

Seaver, Fred J., article by 1475 

Sharpies, Philip P., article by 1415 

Shattuck, C. H., article by 1219 

Shufeldt, R. W., articles by. 801; 868; 937; 995; 1069; 1221; 1285; 

1465; 1481; 1531 

Simmons, J. R., article by 1205 

Sperry, Edward P., article by 1062 

Strayer, O. B., article by 1536 

Stuart, R. Y., article by 1193 

Swift, J. Otis, articles by 853; 1009; 1066; 1358 

Taylor, Arthur A., article by 1446 

Tillotson, C. R., article by 785 

Tourney. James W., article by 816 

Treen, E. W., article by 1551 

Tucker, Frank B., article by 1226 

Walker, Robert Sparks, article by 1485 

West, Clara L., article by 1523 

Wilson, Ellwood, articles by. 825; 889; 953; 1015; 1057; 1078; 
1238; 1241; 1302; 1371; 1428; 1492; 1558 

Wilson, McLandburgh, poem by 789 

Wylie, Lollie Belle, poem by 1474 

Zimmerman, H. E., articles by 823; 1450 



GENERAL INDEX 



Page 

Air, Photographing Forests From The 1206 

Aircraft to Fight Forest Fires, Army 1081 

Airplane Forest Fire Patrol in California— R. F- Hammatt. 1531 

Airplanes Find Forest Fires 1371 

Airplane Patrol in National Forests 1244 

Aliens with Appetites De Luxe, Excluding Enemy— Charles 

Lathrop Pack • •• • 1053 

Allies. Forest Casualties of Our— Percival Sheldon Rids- 
dale 899 

Alphabet Grown on Trees— H. E. Zimmerman 823 

American Army Got Its Wood, How the— Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale 1137 

American Forestry Forestry Association, War Service of 

the i "58 

American Lumberjack in France, The— W. B. Greeley 1093 

Annual Meeting. The Announcement of the 1530 



Page 

Appalachian and Piedmont, Regions, Erosion in the — R. O. 

E. Davis 1350 

Appalachian Mountain Club, Philip W. Ayers Elected 

President of , 922 

Appreciation, An — J. A. Woodruff 1092 

Arborists Meet 1430 

Architecture in Our National Forests and Parks, Landscape 

S. R. DeBoer 1459 

Army, French Forests for our — Percival Sheldon Ridsdale. 963 
Army and Training in Forestry, The National — James W. 

Tourney 818 

Army Got Its Wood, How the American — Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale 1137 

Artificial Limbs, Wooden — Hu Maxwell 807 

Ax ! Introduce Yourself to an 787 

Ayres Elected President of the Appalachian Mountain 

Club, Philip W '. 922 



( i ENERAL INDEX— Continued. 



Bagworm or Casket \V..rni, The— Fred J. Seaver 

Heaver \\'.>rk 

i. plant A- --poem by Lolrije Belle Wylie 

Belgium. Forest Restoration in 

Belgium's Foresti Blighted by the Hun— Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale . . . ., 

"Biddv," An Original Bird— Clinton G. Abbott 

Birds and Beasts. A Christmas Walk With— A. A. Allen... 

Bird. '•Biddy," An Original— Clinton G. Abbott 

Bird Department— By A. A. Allen: 

The Sandpiper* 

The Plovers 

The Waterfowl 

Rails, Gallinules and Coots 

The Herons 

The Gulls and Terns 

The Loons and Grebes 

A Christmas Walk With the Birds and Beasts 

Bird House Building Contest, Trenton's — M. M. Burris.... 
Birds as an Act of Patriotism, Protecting— Moody B. Gates. 

Birds in Winter, Care for the 

Boats and Their Manufacture, Wooden— Hu Maxwell 
Book Reviews : Department of Magazine — 



Page 

1475 
1472 

1171 

1177 

1251 
945 

125!) 
945 

793 

877 

931 

1001 

1228 

1291 

1419 

1526 

859 

1063 

781 

973 



France, the France I Love • • • 826 

Mrs. Allen's Cook Book 891 

Trees, Stars and Birds 891 

The Forest Ranger 1240 

Practical Tree Repair 1240 

Identification of the Economic Woods of the United 

States 1240 

Vacation Days in Colorado's National Forests 1241 

Trees of Indiana 1240 

The Book of the National Parks 1307 

Timber, Its Strength, Seasoning and Grading 1307 

Forest Management 1363 

The Condensed Chemical Dictionary 1500 

Forest Products — Their Manufacture and Use 1500 

The Hidden Aerial 1502 

Thrift and Conservation 1562 

1919 Forest Club Annual 1562 

Borers, Protect Locust Trees 1243 

Bouquets 1016; 1375; 1426 

Brave, A Garden of the— poem by Vilda Sauvage Owens. . . 1220 

Brazil Nut Tree, Uses of the— C. H. Pearson 782 

British Forests, War's Destruction of — Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale 1027 

Broadway, Guarding Forests Near 1552 

"Built-Up" Wood— O. M. Butler 1110 

Burgoy ne Elm, The 1480 

Burned Out, American Forestry Offices 1493 

California, Airplane Forest Fire Patrol in— R. F. Hammatt. 1531 

California's Redwood Park— Arthur A. Taylor 1446 

Camp, Cornell Foresters in— C. H. Guise 1486 

Campaign, Tussock Moth Caterpillar — M. M. Burris 1217 

Canada to Help France — Ellwood Wilson 1057 

Canadian Department, The— Ellwood Wilson.. 825; 889; 

952; 1015; 1078; 1241; 1302; 1370; 1428; 1492; 1558 
Canadian Forestry Corps Work in France — Roland Hill... 1199 

Canal Zone. Uncle Sam, Lumberman— W. H. Babbitt 1265 

Care for the Birds in Winter 781 

Cascara Stumpage Advertised on Siuslaw 972 

Casualties of Our Allies, Forest — Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale 899 

Caterpillars, A Simple Way to Destroy — Edward P. Sperry. 1062 
Central Park Trees Starving to Death — Charles Lathrop 

Pack 1391 

Chestnut Felled by Dynamite, Huge 1484 

China, Forests and Floods in — H. H. Chapman 835 

Christmas Tree, Travels of an English — ClaVa L. West... 1523 
Christmas Walk with Birds and Beasts, A— A. A. Allen... 1526 

Church Built from One Tree — H. E. Zimmerman 1450 

City Tree Planting — Aldo Leopold. Grating Solves 858 

Code and the Regime Forestier, The Forest — W. B. 

Greeley 1451 

College of Forestry Exhibit, Syracuse 1 iSS 

Community and Roads of Remembrance, The 1416 

Conference, Southwestern Forest Supervisors Hold Forest. 1005 

Conference, Tri-State Forestry 1565 

Congress, The Second Southern Forestry 1'itifi 

Conservation of Paper 1355 



Page 

Conservation. The Dry Kiln and— E. W. Treen 1561 

ular Service. DuBois to Enter 1172 

est, Trenton's Bird-House Building — M. M. Burris.... 858 

1 of Private Forest Cutting — \Y. Darrow Clark 818 

Control, Now for Forest hire— Alfred Gaskill 1642 

Cooperage Industry, Wood Used in the— Hu Maxwell 1208 

Coots, Kails, Gallinules and — A. A. Allen 1001 

Cornell Foresters in Camp — C. H. Guise 1486 

Course in Lumber Uses. University of Minnesota Offers... 1207 

Crater Lake Shell Hole !lll 

Cruising Timber — P. L. Lyford 1482 

Current Literature: (Department of Magazine) 828; 892; 

955: 1019; 1082; 1215; 1309 

Cutting, Control of Private Forest— W. Darrow Clark 818 

Cut-Over Lands, Use of 1296 

Dean of Foresters Retires, Dr. Fernow 1289 

Decade of Private Forest Planting in Pennsylvania, A — J. 

S. Illick 1588 

Desert Plants, Emergency Feed from 875 

Destruction of British Forests, War's — Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale 1027 

Destroying Female Trees — Aldo Leopold 1479 

Digest, Forestry 788; 881; 1008; 1296; 1356; 1408; 1490; 1575 

Disabled Men, Forestry Pursuits for 883 

Dixie, Forestry in 861 

Douglas Fir, The — poem by Donald A. Fraser 1478 

Douglass "Killed in Action," Lieut 1289 

Dry Kiln and Conservation, The — E. W. Treen 1551 

DuBois to Enter Consular Service 1172 

Dynamite, Huge Chestnut Felled by 1484 

Dynamite. Nurseryman Believes in— O. B. Strayer 1536 

Elm, The Burgoyne 1480 

Emergency Feed from Desert Plants 875 

Engineers Hoboken Sheet, Old Tenth 886 

Engineers. The Forest — Henry S. Graves 1109 

English Christmas Tree, Travels of An — Clara L. West.. 1523 
Erosion in the Appalachian and Piedmont Regions — R. O. 

E. Davis 1350 

Essay, Prize Offer for Forestry 1562 

Excluding Enemy Aliens with Appetites De Luxe — Charles 

Lathrop Pack 1053 

Exhibit, Syracuse College of Forestry 1488 

Extension Work in Forestry — A- F. Hawes 1479 

Farm Forestry, Terms Used in 1342 

Farm Timber Adds to Cash Return From Land, Sale of 

Surplus 817 

Farm Woodland Development under the Smith-Lever Act, 

The Possibilities of— C. R. Tillotson 785 

February — And Plant Life Still Sleeps in Northern Climes 

— R. W. Shufeldt 868 

Feed from Desert Plants, Emergency 875 

Female Trees, Destroying — Aldo Leopold 1479 

Fencing Materials from Forests — Hu Maxwell 923 

hern, (lathering the Spinulose Shield — Frank B. Tucker.. 1226 

Fernow, Dean of Foresters. Retires 1289 

Fire Control, Now for Forest — Alfred Gaskill 1512 

Fire Patrol in California. Airplane Forest — R. F. Hammatt. 1531 

Fire Losses, Prevention of Forest — Smith Riley ll'lill 

Fire, The Glory of the Redwoods Threatened by — M. B. 

Pratt Ill:: 

1'ires. Forest Destruction Prevented by Control of Surface 

—Joseph A. Kitts 1264 

Fires Occur, Why and How Some Forest 1354 

hires, The Northwest's Worst 1259 

Fir, The — poem by Donald A. Fraser 1328 

Fir, The Douglas — poem by Donald A. Fraser 1 178 

Firm of Foresters, New 1566 

Floors Made of Wood— Hu Maxwell 1348 

Floods in China, Forests and — H. H. Chapman 835 

Florida, The Gopher Tortoise of— R. W. Shufeldt I486 

Flowers of Maryland and West Virginia, State 1524 

Flowers, Phytophotography — Or the Science of Photo- 
graphing— R. W. Shufeldt (059 

For Them a Tree Is Planted There 1468 

For Them a Tree Stands There 1268 

Foreign Nursery Stock Inspection ]076 

Foreign Students of Forestry in America 1525 

Forest Casualties of Our Allies — Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale 899 

Forest lode and the Regime Forestier, The — W. B. Greeley. 1451 



GENERAL INDEX— Continued. 



id 



Page 

Forest Cutting, Control of Private Forest — W. Darrow 

Clark 818 

Forest Destruction Prevented by Control of Surface Fires — 

Joseph A. Kitts 1264 

Foresf Engineers, The — Henry S. Graves 110!) 

Forest Fire Control, Now For — Alfred Gaskill 1542 

Forest Fire Patrol in California, Airplane — R. F. Hammatt. 1531 

Forest Investigation 1218 

Forest Losses on the Italian Front — Nelson Courtlandt 

Brown ." 1315 

Forest Opportunity on Pine Lands in the South — F. W. 

Eesley 983 

Forest Plantation Upon Pikes Peak, National — Smith 

Riley 1465 

Forest Policy of France — Its Vindication — W.B.Greeley.. 1379 
Forest Research — In The War and After — Earle H. Clapp. 947 

Forest Restoration in Belgium 1477 

Forest School News (Department of Magazine) ... .1372 ; 

1425; 1496; 1560 

Fprest Service Offers Photographic Exhibits 1426 

Foresters and Lumbermen Home from France — David T. 

Mason 1187 

Foresters Edition of American Forestry, Announcement of. 1464 

Foresters, Jobs for Returning Lumbermen and 1159 

Forestry and Horticulture, Highway — Henry W. Hulbert.. 1059 

Forestry and Patience — Quincy R. Craft 1470 

Forestry as a Vocation — H. H. Chapman 1075 

Forestry Congress, New England 942 

Forestry Corps Work in France, Canadian — Roland Hill... 1199 
Forestry Digest. .. .788 ; 881; 1008; 1296; 1356; 1408; 1490; 1553 

Forestry, Extension Work in — A. F. Hawes 1479 

Forestry For Boys and Girls — By E. G. Cheyney : 

Squeakv Chipmunk Learns Something About Pine 

Seeds 790 

Squeaky Chipmunk Collects Some Seed 856 

Squeaky Chipmunk Makes a Discovery 1008 

Squeaky Chipmunk Finds Two More Vandals 1290 

Squeaky Chipmunk Sees a New Enemy 1473 

Forestry in Dixie 861 

Forestry, Insects in Their Relation to— R. W. Shufeldt.... 1221 

Forestry Pursuits for Disabled Mem 883 

Forestry — Relation of Wood to the Development of Civili- 
zation — William Carson 1297 

Forestry Situation in New South Wales, The 862 

Forestry — The National Army and Training in — James W. 

Tourney 816 

Forestry Units. A Letter from Chaplain Williams of the.. 885 

Forestry? Why Not a Secretary of — Frank W. Rane 1546 

Forests and Floods in China — Herman H. Chapman 835 

Forests and the Water Supply, National — Samuel T. Dana. 1507 
Forests Blighted by the Hun, Belgium's — Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale ....'. 1251 

Forests in the War, French — Barrington Moore 1113 

Forests in the War, Strategic Importance of — J. Demor- 

laine 1040 

Forests, The Guardian of Our — Alice Spencer Cook 1329 

Forests, Tracts Added to 1550 

Forty Maples — Poem 1356 

Forward with Tree Planting — Charles Lathrop Pack 985 

France, A Lesson from— Ralph H. Faulkner 1155 

France, Canada to Help— Ell wood Wilson 1057 

France, Canadian Forestry Corps Work in — Roland Hill.. 1199 
France, Foresters and Lumbermen Home from — David T. 

Mason 1187 

France — Its Vindication. The Forest Policy of — W. B. 

Greeley 1379 

France. The American Lumberjack in — W. B. Greeley 1093 

France. The Meeting of New and Old World Logging 

Methods in the Fir Forests of — W. C. Lowdermilk 1534 

France, To Help Reforest 789 

Freedom. In the F'urrows of — Charles Lathrop Pack 918 

French Forests for our Army — Percival Sheldon Ridsdale.. 963 

French Forests in the War — Barrington Moore 1113 

Fuel. Cutting Wood for 1536 

Fuel Wood by Weight, Sell 1012 

Fund. The Welfare 1163 

Furrows of Freedom. In the — Charles Lathrop Pack 918 

Garden of the Brave, A — poem by Vilda Sauvage Owens.. 1220 

Gardens! Victory — Charles Lathrop Pack 771 

Gathering the Spinulose Shield Fern — Frank B. Tucker... 1226 
'ia Training Foresters for the War Department 1080 



Page 

Giant Redwood, The— poem by M. J. Riordan 1450 

Glory of the Redwood Threatened by Fire, The— M. B. 

Pratt 1443 

Gopher Tortoise of Florida, The— R. W. Shufeldt 1465 

Grating Solves City Tree Problem 858 

Great Tree Maker", "The U58 

Grow, When Trees— J. S. Illick 1386 

Guardian of Our Forests, The— Alice Spencer Cook 1329 

Guarding Forests Near Broadway 1552 

Gulls and Terns, The— A. A. Allen 1291 

Harmless Fire-Bug, The— poem by E. G. Cheyney 792 

Harnessing a River— Guy E. Mitchell.". 1480 

Herons, The— A. A. Allen 1228 

Highway Forestry and Horticulture— Henry W. Hulbert.. 1059 

Highways, Trees and the— Philip P. Sharpies 1415 

Historic Trees, Lecture on 1246 

Hoboken Sheet, Old Tenth Engineers 886 

Honor Roll— Memorial Trees, National. .1204 ; 1270; 1333; 1433; 

1494; 1564 
Horticulture, Highway Forestry and — Henry W. Hulbert.. 1059 

Houston Urges Protection of the Forests, Secretary 822 

How the American Army Got its Wood — Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale 1137 

Huge Chestnut Felled by Dynamite 1484 

Hun, Belgium's Forests Blighted by the — Percival Sheldon 

Ridsdale 1251 

Idaho For More National Forests (Editorial) 944 

In the Furrows of Freedom — Charles Lathrop Pack 918 

Insects in Their Relation to Forestry— R. W. Shufeldt 1221 

Introduce Yourself to an Ax ! 787 

Investigation, Forest 1218 

Irving Along the Croton Aqueduct, With Washington — 

J. Otis Swift 1066 

Italian Front, Forest Losses on — Nelson C. Brown 1315 

Italian Government Buys Timber 844 

Jobs for Returning Lumbermen and Foresters 1159 

Kentucky, Forest Reserve for 1220 

Kiln and Conservation, The Dry — E. W. Treen 1551 

Kiln Drying Oak for Vehicles 911 

Landscape Architecture in Our National Forests and Parks 

— S. R. DeBoer 1459 

Large Trees, Transplanting 1198 

Lesson From France, A — Ralph H. Faulkner 1155 

Letter from Chaplain Williams of the Forestry Units.... 885 

Let Trees Tell Their Glory, Not Our Sorrow 1057 

Limbs, Wooden Artificial — Hu Maxwell 807 

Lincoln Memorial University 1308 

Locust, The Seventeen- Year— R. W. Shufeldt 1285 

Locust Trees from Borers, Protect 1243 

Logging Methods in the Fir Forests of France, The Meet- 
ing of New and Old World — W. C. Lowdermilk 1534 

Losses, Prevention, of Forest Fire — Smith Riley 1260 

Louisiana, Forestry in 1018 

Lowden Endorses Tree Planting, Governor 876 

Lumberjack in France, The American — W. B. Greeley 1093 

Lumbermen and Foresters, Jobs for Returning 1159 

Lumbermen Home From France, Foresters and — David T. 

Mason 1187 

Loons and Grebes, The — A. A. Allen 1419 

Maine Woods, Table of Native 1308 

Maker" "The Great Tree 1158 

Mandrakes ; Wild Lupine and Notes on the American Snap- 
ping Turtle— R. W. Shuefeldt 995 

Maples, Forty— (Poem) 1356 

Marketing Woodland Products, Ten Helps in 817 

Maryland. Spring in — poem by John Ferguson 1045 

Meaning, Monuments With A 1045 

Meeting-House, Renascence of The Modern — Joy Wheeler 

Dow 819 

Meeting of New and Old World Logging Methods in the 

Fir Forests of FVance, The — W. C. Lowdermilk 1534 

Meeting, The Annual 1530 

Memorial to Our Soldiers and Sailors, Roadside Planting 

as a— R. B. Faxon 864 

Memorial Tree, Washington's First 984 

Memorial Trees 1201 

Memorial Trees in 1920 1537 

Memorial Trees, Enthusiasm for 863 

Memorial Trees Planted for Soldiers and Sailors 913 

Memorial Trees, National Honor Roll. 1204; 1270; 1333; 

1433; 1494; 1564 



GENERAL INDIA Continued. 



Page 

Memorials, Trees for 7i9 

Mexi( -.mrre of Timber — Austin !•'. MacDonald. . . . 1861 

Mighty Tree, A (Frontispiece poem) 770 

Minnesota Offers Course in Lumber Uses, University of 1207 

Monument! with ■ Meaning 104G 

Mountain, Thunder — Henry S. Graves 907 

Mysteries and Revelations of the Plant World— D. Lange. . 1273 

■ loon Willow" Dving Mil 

Narcissus Bulbs, Fall is the Time to Plant 1308 

National Army and Training in Forestry, The— James W. 

Toumey ,v: ' ' • 

National Forest Plantation Upon Pikes Peak— Smith Riley. 1485 
National Forest Policy— The Proposed Legislation— Henry 

S. Graves 1281 

National Forest Policy— Discussion : 

The Proposed Legislation, by Henry S. Graves 1281 

A Discussion of Methods— R. S. Kellogg 1282 

Pennsylvania's Opinion — George H. Wirt 1283 

Control of Growing Forests — Alfred Gaskill 1281 

Forest Economics : Some Thoughts on an old Sub- 
ject — Wilson Compton 1337 

Mandatory Control Opposed — E. A. Sterling 1339 

Publicity Education Necessary — R. S. Maddox 1340 

A Lumberman's Viewpoint — Everitt G. Griggs 1340 

Leaseholds Interfere — G. L. Hume 1341 

No Half-Way Policies— J. E. Barton..: 1341 

A Forest Policy Badly Needed — Ellwood Wilson 1342 

A Policy of Forestry for the Nation — Henry S. 

Graves 1401 

A Program for Private Forestry — H. H. Chapman... 1405 

Let all Sides be Heard— R. D. Forbes 1406 

Forest Economics — H. H. Chapman 1473 

Classification of Lands and Our Forest Policy — 

George Drolet 1475 

Box Manufacturers Resolve 1475 

A Forest Policy — Frank L. Moore 1476 

National Lumber Manufacturers Resolve 1544 

A National Forest Policy — The American Paper and 

Pulp Association 1544 

Resolutions by the New York Conference on a 

National Forest Policy 1545 

National Honor Roll, Memorial Trees 1204 

National Forest Policy, Why and How. A 1049 

National Forests, Airplane Patrol in 1244 

National Forests and Parks, Landscape Architecture in Our 

— S. R. DeBoer 1459 

National Forests and the Water Supply — Samuel T. Dana.. 1507 
National Honor Roll, Memorial Trees.. 1204; 1270; 1333; 

1433; 1494; 1564 

National Lumber Congress, A 891 

National Park to Honor Roosevelt, A 855 

Natural History Department— By R W. Shufeldt 

Plants that Occur in Both North and South Atlantic 
States ; Together with Notes on the American 

Sparrow Hawk 801 

February — And Plant Life Still Sleeps in Northern 

Climes ' 868 

Various Parasitic Plants: With an Owl Story 937 

Mandrakes; Wild Lupine, and Notes on the Ameri- 
can Snapping Turtle 995 

Phytophotography — Or the Science of Photographic 

Flowers 1069 

Insects in their Relation to Forestry 1221 

The Seventeen-Year Locust 1285 

The Gopher Tortoise of Florida 1465 

An Interesting Spider from Florida 1481 

The Racoons of North America 1531 

Nature in the Nude 1525 

Nepperhan Valley in Winter Time. Walks in the Woods, 

The— J. Otis Swift 853 

New Brunswick Forest Service Staff Conference— Ellwood 

Wilson 1080 

New England Forestry Congress 942 

New England Mills, Scotch Lumber Cut by 1235 

New South Wales. The Forestry Situation in 862 

New York Forestry and Reconstruction 880 

North America, The Raccons of— R. W. Shufeldt '.'. 153] 

Northern Climes— February and Plant Life Still Sleens in 

-R. W. Shufeldt .... ggg 



Page 

Norway, American Lumber for 950 

Nurseryman Believes in Dynamite — O. B. Strayer 1536 

Nursery Stock Inspection, Foreign 1076 

Nut Trees, Uses of the Brazil — C. H. Pearson 7^.' 

Oak" The "Wye Mills— H. S. Clopper 1482 

Oddities in Tree Stems — Eliza F. Andrews 1476 

Old Tenth Engineers Hoboken Sheet ' SSt > 

Paid in Full— C II. Shattuck 1219 

Palisades in the Interstate Park. Summer Walks in the 

Woodland. Along the— J. Otis Swift 13 

Paper, Conservation of 1356 

Parasitic Plants; With an Owl Story, Various R. W. 

Shufeldt 937 

Park. California's Redwood — Arthur A. Taylor 1 146 

Patience, Forestry and — Quincy R. Craft 1470 

Patriotism, Protecting Birds as an Act of — Moody B. 

Gates 1063 

Paulownia Tomentosa Tree, The — Robert Sparks Wake:., i. 
Pennsylvania, A Decade of Private I'orest Planting in — J. 

S. Illick 1538 

Pennsylvania, Free Trees for Planting in 852 

Photographing Flowers, Phytophotography — Or the Science 

of— R. W. Shufeldt 1069 

Pictorial Memorial Trees 1537 

Piedmont Regions, Erosion in the Appalachian and — R. O. 

E. Davis , 1350 

Pigeons Aid Foresters, Carrier 1504 

Pigeons to Protect Forests 1306 

Pikes Peak, National Forest Plantation Upon — Smith Riley 1165 
Pine Growth in the South, Slash — Wilbur R. Mattoon.... 1545 
Pine Lands in the South, Forest Opportunity on — F. \Y. 

Besley 983 

Pines, The — poem by Lew R. Sarett 1314 

Planting as a Memorial To our Soldiers and Sailors, Road- 
side— R. B. Faxon 864 

Plant a Beech — poem by Lollie Belle Wylie 1474 

Planting, City Tree— Aldo Leopold 1295 

Planting, Forward with Tree — Charles Lathrop Pack 985 

Planting in Pennsylvania. A Decade of Private Forest — J. 

S. Illick 1538 

Planting Trees In a New Way 1018 

Plant-Life Still Sleeps in Northern Climes — February and 

— R. W. Shufeldt 868 

Plant World, Mysteries and Revelations of the — D. Lange. . 1273 

Planted There. For them a Tree is 1468 

Plants That Occur in Both North and South Atlantic 

States : Together with Notes on the American Sparrow 

Hawk— R. W. Shufeldt 801 

Plants ; With an Owl Story, Various Parasitic — R. W. 

Shufeldt 937 

Plovers, The— A. A. Allen 877 

Policy of Forestry for the Nation, A — Henry S. Graves.... 1401 

Policy — Why and How, A National Forest 1049 

Porto Rico is Planned, Reforestation of 1501 

Possibilities of Farm Woodland Development Under the 

Smith-Lever Act— C. R. Tillotson 785 

Prevention of Forest Fire Losses — Smith Riley 1260 

Private Forest Planting in Pennsylvania, A Decade of — J. 

S. Illick 1538 

Prize Offer for Forestry Essay 1562 

Profit. Pruning for— Will C. Barnes 798 

Protecting Birds as an Act of Patriotism — Moody B. Gates. 1063 

Pruning for Profit— Will C. Barnes 798 

Pyrenees, Scouting for Timber in the — R. Y. Stuart 1193 

Quebec, Seaplanes to be used for Forest Fire Patrol Work 

in 1238 

Racoons of North America, The— R. W. Shufeldt 1531 

Rails, Gallinules and Coots— A. A. Allen 1001 

Redwood Park, California's — Arthur A. Taylor 1446 

Redwood, The Giant — poem by M. J. Riordon 1450 

Redwoods Threatened by Fire, The Glory of the — M. B- 

Pratt 1443 

Reforest France, To Help 789 

Reforestation of Porto Rico is Planned 1504 

Regime Forestier, The Forest Code and the — W. B. Greeley 1451 

Remembrance," "Roads of 1334 

Remembrance," The Community and "Roads of 1416 

Renascence of the Modern Meeting-House — Joy Wheeler 

Dow 819 

Reorganization in Massachusetts (Editorial) 943 



GENERAL INDEX— Continued. 






Page 
Research— In the War and After, Forest— Earle H. Clapp. 947 

River, Harnessing A — Guy E. Mitchell 1480 

"Roads of Remembrance" 1334 

"Roads of Remembrance," The Community and 1416 

Roadside Planting as A Memorial to Our Soldiers and 

Sailors — R. B. Faxon 864 

Roosevelt, A National Park to Honor 855 

"Roosevelt" — poem by McLandburgh Wilson 789 

Roosevelt the Conservationist 788 

Rothrock. A Tribute to Dr. J. T ,„'. 1458 

Sale of Surplus Farm Timber Adds to Cash Returns from 

Land 817 

Sandpipers, The — A. A. Allen 793 

Saw, The New Spring 844 

Seaplanes to be Used for Forest Fire Patrol Work in 

Quebec 1238 

Secretary of Forestry? Why Not A— Frank W. Rane 1546 

Sentinels of the Forest 1489 

Service of the Trees, The — poem by W. R. Benet 1467 

Seventeen- Year Locust, The — R. W. Shufeldt 1285 

Scotch Lumber Cut by New England Units 1234 

Scouting for Timber in the Eastern Pyrenees — R. Y. 

Stuart 1193 

Slash pine Growth in the South— Wilbur R. Mattoon 1547 

Smith-Lever Act, The Possibilities of Woodland Develop- 
ment Under the — C. R. Tillotson 785 

Soldiers and Sailors, Memorial Trees Planted for 913 

Soldiers and Sailors, Roadside Planting as a Memorial to 

Our— R. B. Faxon 874 

South, Forest Opportunity on Pine Lands in the — F. W. 

Besley %3 

South. Slash Pine Growth in the— Wilbur R. Mattoon 1547 

Southern Forestry Congress, The Second 1566 

Spider from Florida, An Interesting— R. W. Shufeldt 1481 

Spinulose Shield Fern, Gathering the— Frank B. Tucker.. 1226 

Spring in Maryland — poem by John Ferguson 1044 

Spring Saw, The New 844 

Spruce Tree 573 Years Old 1363 

Squeaky Chipmunk Makes a Discovery— E. G. Cheyney... 1006 
Squeaky Chipmunk Learns Something About Pine Seeds — 

E. G. Cheyney 790 

Squeaky Chipmunk Collects Some Seed— E. G. Cheyney.. 856 

Squeaky Finds Two More Vandals— E. G. Cheyney 1290 

Squeaky Chipmunk Sees a New Enemy 1472 

State Flowers of Maryland and West Virginia 1524 

State News: (Department of Magazine) ....1299; 1364 ; 1432 ; 

1495; 1555 
Summer Walks Along the Palisades in the Interstate Park 

—J. Otis Swift 1358 

Surface Fires. Forest Destruction Prevented by Control of 

—Joseph A. Kitts 1264 

Starving to Death, Central Park Trees— Charles Lathrop 

Pack 1391 

Stems, Oddities in Tree — Eliza F. Andrews 1476 

Strategic Importance of Forests in the War — J. Demor- 

laine 1040 

Students of Forestry in America, Foreign 1525 

Syracuse College of Forestry Exhibit 1488 

Tree Stands There, For Them a 1268 

Tree Stems, Oddities in— Eliza F. Andrews 1476 

Tree, The Wishing — J. R. Simmons 1205 

Trees and the Highways — Philip P. Sharpies 1415 

Trees as Wireless Towers 1058 

Trees for Memorials 779 

Trees Grow, When— J. S. Illick 1386 

Terms Used in Farm Forestry 1342 

Terns, The Gulls and— A. A. Allen 1291 

The Federal Income Tax and the Forest Industries — David 

T. Mason ; 1469 

Thunder Mountain — Henry S. Graves 907 

Timber Census in the North-Eastern States, The — A. B. 

Recknagel 792 

Timber Cruising — P. L. Lyford 1482 

Timber in the Eastern Pyrenees, Scouting for — R. Y. 

Stuart 1193 

Timber, Mexico As a Source of — Austin F. MacDonald... 1361 

Tortoise of Florida, The— R. W. Shufeldt 1465 

Towers, Trees as Wireless 1058 

Training in Forestry, The National Army and — James W. 

Tourney 816 



Transplanting Large Trees 

Travels of an English Christmas Tree— Clara L. West...! 

Tree, Church Built from one— H- E. Zimmerman 

Trees in 1920, Memorial (Pictorial)....*. 

Trees, Memorial 

Trees Planted For Soldiers and Sailors, Memorial 

Trees, The Service of the— poem by W. R. Benet 

Tri-State Forestry Conference 

Trenton's Bird House Building Contest— M. M. Burris ! 

Turtle. Mandrakes, Wild Lupine and Notes on the Ameri- 
can Snapping— R. W. Shufeldt 

Tussock Moth Caterpillar Campaign— M. M. Burris ', 

Twentieth Engineers (Forestry) 

Organization of 

Record of Development and Production 

Employment Application Sheet 

The Welfare Fund ,, 

Uncle Sam, Lumberman, Canal Zone— W. H. Babbitt 

Uses of the Brazil-Nut Tree— C. H. Pearson ..." 

Various Parasitic Plants ; With an Owl Story— R. W Shu- 
feldt 

Vehicle Manufacture, Wood Used in— Hu Maxwell 

Versatility of Wood 

Victory Gardens !— Charles Lathrop Pack 

Vocation, Forestry as a— H. H. Chapman 

Wales, The Forestry Situation in New South 

Walks in the Woods— J. Otis Swift ., 

The Nepperhan Valley in Winter Time 

"Around Robin Hood's Barn," to the Grassy Sprain 

Wood 

Along the Croton Aqueduct— With Washington 

Irving 

Walnuts for Planting, Gather 

War and After. Forest Research In the— Earle H. Clapp. '. 

War, French Forests in the— Barrington Moore 

War Service of the American Forestry Association 

War's Destruction of British Forests— Percival Sheldon 
Ridsdale 



Washington's First Memorial Tree. 



Waterfowl, The— A. A. Allen 

Water Supply, National Forests and— Samuel T. Dana 

Weeks Law Policy, The 

Welfare Fund, The 

What "They Say" .' .'. 1016 ; 1375 ; 

When Trees Grow — J. S. Illick 

Why and How Some Forest Fires Occur 

Why- Not a Secretary of Forestry? — F. W. Rane 

Why We Need More Forest Research (Editorial)... 

Why Wood is Best— Alfred Gaskill 

Williams of the Forestry Units, A Letter from Chaplain 

Winter, Care for the Birds in 

Wireless Phone in Forest Work 

Wireless Towers, Trees as 

Wishing Tree, The — J. R. Simmons 

Wood by Weight, Sell Fuel 

Wood, Floors Made of — Hu Maxwell 

Wood for Fuel, Cutting 

Wood is Best, Why— Alfred Gaskill ,..., 

Wood Used in Vehicle Manufacture — Hu Maxwell 

Wood, Uses of — Hu Maxwell 

Wooden Artificial Limbs 

Wood Used in Vehicle Manufacture 

Fencing Materials from Forests 

Wooden Boats and Their Manufacture 

Wood Used in the Cooperage Industry 

Floors Made of Wood 

Wood, Versatility of 

Wooden Artificial Limbs — Hu Maxwell 

Wooden Boats and Their Manufacture — Hu Maxwell 

Wooden Ships 

"Wye Mills Oak" The— H. S. Clopper 



Page 

1198 
1523 
1450 
1537 
1201 

913 
1467 
1565 

859 

995 
1217 

1110 
1111 
1160 
1163 
1265 
782 

937 

845 
1567 

771 
1075 

8G2 

853 

1009 

1066 

792 

947 

1113 

1158 

1027 

984 

931 
1507 
1586 
1163 
1426 
1386 
1354 
1546 
1237 

991 

885 

781 
1375 
1058 
1205 
1012 
1343 
1536 

991 

845 

807 

845 

923 

973 
1208 
1343 
1567 

807 

973 

888 
1482 



Woodland Development Under the Smith-Lever Act, The 

Possibilities of— C. R. Tillotson 785 



/I I 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 

THE MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 

PERCIVAL SHELDON RIDSDALE, Editor 



July 1919 Vol. 25 



CONTENTS 



No. 307 

iiiiiiinin 



JMM 




K • ,'- r *&& *' v' s ^™ 






1 i 


^0' fp<f*~ >^ J*«t'*.*2i 


1^ 


- 


1* t*' 



A BEAUTY SPOT ON LAKE TAHOE 

This is a typical road, lake and mountain scene in the 
wonderful Tahoe country in Nevada. 



Foresters and Lumbermen Home From France — By D. T. Mason and 

P. S. Ridsdale 1187 

With nine illustrations. 

Scouting for Timber in the Eastern Pyrenees — By R. Y. Stuart 1193 

With five illustrations. 

Transplanting Large Trees 1198 

Canadian Forestry Corps Work in France^By Roland Hill 1199 

With two illustrations. 
Memorial Trees 1201 

With three illustrations. 

National Honor Roll — Memorial Trees 1204 

The Wishing Tree— By J. R. Simmons 1205 

With one illustration. 

Photographing Forests From the Air — By Lieut. Lewis 1206 

With two illustrations. 

University of Minnesota Offers Course in Lumber Uses 1207 

The Uses of Wood — Wood Used in the Cooperage Industry — By Hu 

Maxwell 1208 

With nineteen illustrations. 

Tussock Moth Caterpillar Campaign — By M. M. Burris 1217 

With three illustrations. 

Forest Investigation 1218 

Paid in Full— By C. H. Shattuck 1219 

With one illustration. 

A Garden of the Brave — Poem by Vilda Sauvage Owens 1220 

More Airplane Patrols for National Forests 1220 

The Roosevelt Redwood 1220 

Insects in Their Relation to Forestry— By R. W. Shufeldt 1221 

With seven illustrations. 

Gathering the Spinulose Shield Fern— By Frank B. Tucker 1226 

With five illustrations. 

The Herons— By A. A. Allen 1229 

With fifteen illustrations. 

Scotch Lumber Cut by New England Mills 1235 

Editorial: Why We Need More Forest Research 1237 

Seaplanes to Be Used for Forest Fire Patrol Work in Quebec — By 

Ellwood Wilson 1238 

Book Reviews , 1240 

Canadian Department — By Ellwood Wilson 1241 

Protect Locust Trees From Borers 1243 

Airplane Patrol in National Forests 1244 

Current Literature 1245 

Lecture on Historic Trees 1247 

Entered as second-class matter December 24, 1909, at the Postoffice at Washington, 
under the act of March 3, 1879. Copyright, 1919, by the American Forestry Association. 
Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage nrovided for in Section 1103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 11, 1918. 




A VIEW OF THE TOWN OF QUILLAN, EASTERN PYRENEES, WHICH MAJOR STUART DECLARES IS THE HOME OF THE 
A \lfc\\ ut int. iuw» ^ RE «, CH CO q KS and of a H i GH grade of pat e DES FOIE GRAS (PAGE 1193) 



BEST 




THE ENTRANCE OF THE RIVICR A> HI 



NEAR QUILLAN, EASTERN PYRENEES, INTO THE GORGE WHICH 
ITSELF EN ROUTE TO THE SEA (PAGE 1193) 



IT HAS CARVED FOR 



pillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilllllllllllllllllllllllllW 

I AMERICAN FORESTRY I 



VOL. XXV JULY, 1919 

W, IlilllllllllllilllM 



NO. 307 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiinii 

FORESTERS AND LUMRERMEN HOME 



FROM FRANCE 



BY MAJOR DAVID T. MASON, 20th ENGINEERS (FORESTRY) 

AND 
PERCIVAL SHELDON RIDSDALE, EDITOR OF AMERICAN FORESTRY MAGAZINE 



PRACTICALLY all of the foresters and lumbermen 
sent to France as members of the Twentieth En- 
gineers (Forestry) have returned home and been 
discharged from the service. They came back with the 
knowledge that they accomplished the job which was 
given them, that of supplying the United States Army 
with all the lumber and fuel wood it required, in a man- 
ner which won the admiration of all who know of the 
unceasing demands made upon them and of the difficul- 
ties which they had to overcome. They worked with the 
spirit which wins success and they return with an expe- 
rience and a training which will greatly increase their 
ability and render them much more capable than they 
ever were before of doing whatever work is assigned to 
them. 

The men who before the war were employed by the 
Forest Service will return to the Service in the same 



or better positions, those who gave up jobs with lumber 
companies learn that their jobs or better ones are waiting 
for them, and men of other vocations who joined the 
forestry and lumber regiment will have no difficulty in 
obtaining work, for their two years' training in France 
has made them better men in every way. 

The first of these forest and lumber troops arrived in 
France in October, 1917. The units comprised approxi- 
mately twelve hundred men. By the end of the month 
the several detachments into which the regiment was 
divided were at work in forests in eastern, southwestern, 
northwestern and central France. During the long wait 
for the sawmill equipment there was much preliminary 
work to be done, such as establishing camps, building 
roads, cutting and decking logs. A number of small 
French mills were leased or bought to start lumber pro- 
duction. The other units began to arrive at their stations 




MARITIME PINE LOGS BEING UNLOADED FROM NARROW GAUGE CARS INTO MILL POND IN PINE FORESTS IN SOUTHWESTERN 

FRANCE. AMERICAN 20- M MILL IN BACKGROUND 



1187 



1188 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



in France in December, 1918, and there was a steady flow 
of forest and lumber troops from America to France 
until by midsummer, 1918, there were about eighteen 
thousand Americans at work in the French forests. 
From the small amount of timber produced at first the 
output increased rapidly until for the month of Septem- 
ber, 1918, it consisted of forty-two million feet of sawn 
material, including four hundred forty thousand railway 
ties, of thirty-six hundred pieces of piling mostly over 
fifty feet long, of five hundred sixty thousand poles and 
of thirty-eight thousand cords of fuel. By this time 
there were eighty-one American sawmills at work. But 



able record in lumber production. At Pontenx, a lumber 
camp near Bordeaux, a set of curves showed graphically 
just what each shift at each mill accomplished each day ; 
each shift and each mill was trying for the high record, 
and the palm often changed hands. High monthly rec- 
ords were more prized than high daily records. To keep 
up the interest between districts in which the lumber- 
jacks were working, the central office of the regiment 
at Tours sent out each month the records for each of 
the eighty-one American mills finally operating in 
France. 

The best single day record is that of the twenty-M 




INTERIOR OF AN AMERICAN SAW MILL IN FRANCE, SHOWING ONE OF THE LOG CARRIERS WHICH THE FRENCH CHILDREN 

NEVER TIRED OF WATCHING 



still the prospective timber demands of the ever increas- 
ing American Army were not fully assured, and when 
the armistice brought fighting to an end in November 
work was well under way in the United States to more 
than double the number of forestry troops in France, and 
units amounting to twenty-four thousand men were being 
organized. 

Americans never work so happily and effectively as 
when they make a game of the job and compete with 
some one else or some other group doing the same sort 
of work. This characteristic helped win the war by 
driving more rivets and building ships faster than such 
work had been done before ; it helped in France building 
warehouses, unloading vessels and in reducing salients ; 
it was a valuable asset in the forest operations of the 
Twentieth Engineers (Forestry), which made a remark- 



mill at Levier in the Vosges. This mill, which had been 
overhauled and improved somewhat, cut 163,000 feet 
in twenty-four hours. The many other good records 
made by American mills in other parts of France, as 
well as the many different types of forest encountered 
and the different methods of operation will make the his- 
tory of the Twentieth Engineers an exceedingly inter- 
esting one. 

Before the work of the lumber regiment was well 
under way in the Landes a few small political clouds 
appeared momentarily in the sky. Timber was being 
acquired rapidly, but under the policy that not more than 
one year's cut would be bought ahead of any single mill ; 
the delay in the arrival of equipment made it look for 
a time as though the regiment would fall far behind the 
program ; some of the French were skeptical of the abil- 



FORESTERS AND LUMBERMEN HOME FROM FRANCE 



1189 




A LARGE LOAD OF MARITIME PINE LOGS OX AN AMERICAN MOTOR TRUCK IN SOUTHWESTERN FRANCE 



ity of the mills to cut even as much as the rated capacity. 
Peasants dependent upon the resin industry were fright- 
ened for fear that the Americans would destroy their 
means of livelihood by cutting too much timber. Timber 
merchants who hoped to sell timber to the Americans 
at fabulous prices were having their toes pinched by that 
effective steam roller — the requisition — which took the 
timber required at a reasonable price fixed by the French 
forest officers. Complaints were heard in the French 
Chamber of Deputies (corresponding to the Congress of 



the United States). The officers of the regiment were 
reminded of the early days of the Forest Service in 
America, when certain senators and congressmen were 
accustomed to make the most wild and ridiculous state- 
ments in the halls of Congress about the work of the 
Forest Service. Among the alleged acts of the Ameri- 
cans were the devastating of enormous areas of timber 
land by unrestricted cutting, the clearing of camp sites 
by the use of fire which escaped and ran for miles, and 
other equally indefensible acts. One of the chief mourn- 




. 20th REGIMENT MEN TRANSPORTING LOGS, BY MEANS OF "BIG WHEELS," TO THE BANK OF THE COURANT RIVER, AUREILHAN 

OPERATION, NEAR PONTENX, LANDES, FRANCE 



1190 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



ers was a timber merchant from Landes. The Minister 
of Agriculture agreed to send his Inspector General of 
Forests to look into the troubles. 

The Inspector General and a party of French forest 
officers arrived at Pontenx to visit the American opera- 
tions. They went over the ground carefully, but found 
no evidences of ruthless devastation. They found that 
fire had been carefully controlled, that the methods of 
cutting the forest followed absolutely those employd by 
the French. They were much interested in the work of 
driving the Courant River, and especially in the scheme 



camps; the kitchen was reached just in time to see the 
cook take a big batch of fine brown cookies from the 
oven; the hot cookies were greatly enjoyed, for such 
things were then forbidden in French civil life. A loaf 
of white bread, practically unknown in France for three 
years, was given to the Inspector General ; this was a 
most acceptable gift and was very pleasantly received. 
After this visit no more complaints of American methods 
were heard. 

The French sawmills, several of which were leased or 
bought for American use during the first few months 




CANAL AND CAR BRINGING LOGS UP TO THE HOIST INTO TH 
k LANDES, 

of drying out the trees in advance, for apparently the 
practice of driving loose logs was unknown in the 
streams of France. The larger mills were cutting at a 
rate astonishing to the French, for they were even 
greatly exceeding the regiment's own expectations. The 
mechanical ingenuity, the power, and the rapidity with 
which logs were reduced to lumber was admired by the 
French. They shrugged their shoulders, however, at the 
thick circular saws, for it gave them real pain to see so 
much of their precious wood going into sawdust ; a few 
moments, later, fortunately, their faces brightened when 
they saw the sawdust automatically fed into the "dutch 
ovens" as fuel, for the French are accustomed to drive 
their sawmills by power secured from the valuable slabs 
and edgings while the sawdust is generally a total loss. 
A little later the party was shown through one of our 



E AUREILHAN MILL OF THE 20th ENGINEERS NEAR PONTEXX. 
FRANCE 

after the regiment reached France, were objects of con- 
siderable curiosity to Americans. Although a few of 
these mills are housed in permanent brick buildings in 
connection with turpentine stills, the typical mill of the 
region was a very portable affair readily moved about 
from one small cutting area to another. Usually the 
main saw, which is frequently the only saw, is a very 
thin, narrow band saw ; sometimes a thin circular saw is 
used instead. The short logs, ten feet or less' in length, 
are placed by hand on the light saw carriage ; a crank 
turned by hand feeds the log against the saw. The lum- 
ber is edged on a very small, light carriage, which runs 
past the opposite side of the band saw from that on 
which the log is sawn ; the board is held down on the 
edger carriage by a hook at one end and by the hand 
of the operator at the other. Generally no trimming is 



FORESTERS AND LUMBERMEN HOME FROM FRANCE 



1101 



done. One of the mill hands carries the sawdust away 
in a basket. The mill is operated by a ten or twelve 
horse power engine. Ordinarily about four people are 
employed at such a mill, and they produce from two to 
three thousand feet of lumber per day. Many of the 
workers are women. In the woods, the logs are usually 
cut in lengths less than ten feet long to facilitate handling 
them at the mill and loading them upon the two-wheel 
carts which haul them to the mill. The logs are peeled 
in the woods and are given a chance to dry out to some 
extent ; this lightens the logs for handling and also 
makes sawing easier. 

An American notes at once the close utilization of the 
timber and the large amount of human rather than me- 
chanical labor used in French operations. The very high 



which can be worked hard and forced to yield a large 
daily production ; and these were days when a big output 
was wanted, even at the cost of some raw material. 

The first American mill to operate in the Landes was 
a ten-M mill which started sawing lumber at the Bellevue 
camp on the last day of 1917. In addition to the head, 
saw, this mill was equipped with edger and trim saws ; 
there was a blower to remove the sawdust. When this 
mill caught its stride it cut an average of twenty-seven 
thousand feet of lumber in the two ten-hour shifts. Its 
record cut was thirty-nine thousand seven hundred feet 
in one twenty-hour day. One night an accident to the 
engine stopped the mill ; fortunately there was available 
a French engine with just about enough power to operate 
the head saw ; this engine was placed at the end of the 




MAI 



;e logs decked at a m-m American mill in the sand dune country of southwestern France 



timber values and the low labor costs account for this 
situation. Just before the war, the French forest laborer, 
if a man, received from sixty cents to a dollar twenty 
cents, depending upon his skill, for ten to eleven hours' 
work per day; he lived at home and furnished his own 
food. The rate of pay for women was much lower. Dur- 
ing the war a muleteer was locally considered a "veri- 
table millionaire;" he demanded three dollars and a half 
for a day's work for himself, his team of mules and cart, 
whereas before he had received only half as much. 

The sawmills manufactured in the United States and 
sent to France for the use of the forest troops were in 
three standard sizes ; the bolter mill for small, short logs 
had a capacity of five thousand feet of lumber in ten 
hours; the "ten-M" mill had a rated capacity of ten 
thousand feet in ten hours ; and the "twenty-M" mill was 
designed to cut twenty thousand feet in a ten hour shift. 
All of these mills used circular saws, which cut a far 
heavier saw curf than the French mills; it is charac- 
teristic of Americans to use strong, heavy machinery 



mill, the belt was run across the log deck to the driving 
pulley of the head saw, and the mill went merrily on for 
several days, until the regular engine was repaired, cut- 
ting and edging eighteen thousand feet of lumber per 
day on the head saw. When this mill finally ran out of 
timber, the orders were to move it to a tract of timber 
at Sabres, a place twenty-five miles away ; it was con- 
sidered that five days was a reasonable time within which 
to make the move ; but by careful planning and organiza- 
tion, this mill was sawing lumber once more at Sabres 
forty-seven hours after the sawdust stopped flying at 
Bellevue. 

The parts for the twenty-M mills arrived more slowly 
and it took more time to build them than in the case of 
the smaller mills. The twenty-M mill at Labroquette, 
near Pontenx, was the first in its class to operate in 
France. Two other mills of this size at Bourricos and 
Aureilhan completed the Pontenx group of mills. April 
1, 1918, was the first day upon which all four of the mills 
of the district operated double shift ; on that day 



1192 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



they cut one hundred sixty thousand feet of lumber. 
The Aureilhan operation was, on account of the 
variety of methods involved, perhaps the most interest- 
ing of any which Americans conducted in the Landes. 
The timber tributary to this mill lay partly in the sand 
dunes near the coast and partly on flat, sandy ground 
further inland. After the timber was felled and cut into 
logs, much of it was moved by big wheels, bummers or 
trucks direct to the Courant River; the more remote 
dune timber was delivered to a narrow gauge railway, 
upon which horse-drawn cars transported the logs to 
the river. The logs were then driven down the river for 



Aureilhan Lake is a pretty little sheet of water five 
or six square miles in area. It was formed only a few 
generations ago when the sand dunes blocked the river 
channel. It is said that the ancient village of Aureilhan 
was buried in the lake. The Aureilhan mill was set near 
the edge of the lake, and a small canal was dug to bring 
the logs to the mill during the low water stage. The mill 
was connected with the French railway system by a spur 
about a half mile long. Immediately after it was sawed 
most of the product of the mill was placed in cars for 
shipment. 

The Bourricos mill, to which the logs were delivered 




A TIE MILL OF THE 20th ENGINEERS 



about four miles, caught in a boom at the point where 
the river flows into Aureilhan Lake, and towed across 
the lake to the mill. The maritime pine is so pitchy, 
sappy and heavy that there was some doubt at first as to 
whether the logs would float; a few logs tested showed 
that they would float, but they rode so low in the water 
that special measures were taken to reduce the weight ; 
several months before the logs were needed at the mill, 
the trees were felled and left for some time with their 
branches attached ; the leaves continued to function, and 
so drew much of the water out of the stems of the trees. 
The stream driving had to be very carefully handled, 
for with the loose sand bottom and banks there was con- 
siderable danger that if jams were formed the water 
running past would scour out large amounts of sand 
and form shallows below. 



by a narrow gauge logging railway, was set so near the 
French railway that only a short loading spur was 
needed. In the case of the Bellevue and Labroquette 
mills, however, it was necessary to build about four miles 
of narrow gauge railway to deliver their product at the 
Pontenx shipping yard, where it was loaded upon the 
broad gauge cars for final shipment. This narrow gauge 
line ran along the main street of Pontenx; the villagers 
no doubt cursed it many times, for it was operated day 
and night to keep the mill yards clear, and the trainmen 
took fiendish delight in blowing the whistle of the 
dinkey locomotive when most people wanted to sleep. 
At one time for several days, while the locomotive was 
broken down, motor trucks were used to tow the trains 
of lumber in from the mills. 

During the early stages of the Pontenx operations 



SCOUTING FOR TIMBER IN THE EASTERN PYRENEES 



1193 



there was such difficulty in getting cars in which to ship 
the product that a considerable amount of storage space 
seemed necessary ; the Pontenx shipping yard was there- 
fore laid out with a capacity of about three million feet 
of lumber. Although about a million feet did accumu- 
late in the yard soon after the large mills began to 
operate, a more plentiful supply of main line cars soon 
reduced the stock. No attempt was made to grade, dry 
or surface the product ; the market was all that an Ameri- 
can lumberman could imagine in his rosiest dreams ; the 
army wanted more than could be supplied. The ship- 
ments from Pontenx consisted principally of sawn rail- 
way ties, road plank, lumber, piling, and fuel wood. In 
the Pontenx yard, a loading crane was constructed which 
did effective work in lifting fifteen hundred to two thou- 
sand feet of lumber or timber from the narrow gauge 
direct into the main line cars. The French freight car 
of standard size holds ten tons, or about five thousand 
feet of the green maritime pine lumber; this is only about 
one-fifth of the amount of lumber ordinarily loaded in 
an American freight car. 

At one time while railway cars were still scarce, a 
fleet of more than one hundred motor trucks was as- 
signed to the work of hauling lumber from the mills in 
the Landes to a point near Bordeaux; a three-ton truck 
would do the work of a standard freight car, for whereas 
the motor truck made a one hundred or a one hundred 
twenty mile round trip in a day the freight car would 
take several days to deliver its load near Bordeaux and 
to return to Pontenx. 

The branch line railway upon which the Pontenx and 
Mimizan groups of operations were located served eight 



American mills distributed from eight to thirty miles 
from its junction with the main line railway through the 
Landes. The American traffic on the branch line, which 
grew to seventy or eighty cars of lumber and other forest 
products per day, soon greatly exceeded the French use 
of the line. Several rather antiquated locomotives were 
hired from the French, and American train crews 
handled the American products as far as the main line 
junction point. 

One of the serious problems of the Pontenx operation 
was the disposal of the great quantities of slabs and 
edgings which rapidly accumulated at the mills. In 
France no one would think of sending such material to 
be burned on a refuse pile, as is so commonly done in 
America. The army needed enormous amounts of fuel ; 
the problem was not that of finding a market, but of 
securing labor to handle the material and cars in which 
to make shipments. A blast furnace and iron foundry, 
which had been in operation for one hundred twenty 
years at Pontenx, was working at capacity to produce 
shells for the Allied armies. This plant needed a lot of 
charcoal and wood, much of which it was shipping in by 
rail for considerable distances. A satisfactory deal was 
arranged with this company, under the terms of which 
the Americans obtained a splendid tract of standing tim- 
ber, and the munitions company received all of the fuel 
wood in tops and branches remaining from the logging 
operations, and all of the slabs and edgings not needed 
for local consumption. The company furnished all of 
the labor to handle the material, part of which was made 
into charcoal before it was hauled to the munitions plant. 



SCOUTING FOR TIMBER IN THE EASTERN PYRENEES 



BY MAJOR R. Y. STUART, 20th ENGINEERS (FORESTRY) 



THE general American impression of French forests 
is that they are like American parks in appearance 
and that their products are so readily accessible for 
transportation and utilization as to give value to the 
smallest twig. This idea is not unfounded since in most 
parts of France these conditions are representative. One 
is apt particularly to reach this conclusion if he does 
not leave the usual course in rail and road travel. But 
there are parts of the country, devoted to tree growth, 
which are less accessible and sustained a greater shake 
up in formation than those more usually seen by the 
tourist. Units of the 20th Engineers operated in parts 
of the Vosges, Jura and Central Plateau that brought to 
their minds vivid memories of overhead skidders and 
donkey engines employed on their last jobs in the States, 
methods which permit ready handling of the products 
and large outputs but not recognized in France as suit- 
able companions for forest protection. 

As the demand for timber among the Allies increased it 
became necessary to investigate the situation in every part 
of the country regardless of the question of accessibility, 



which, it must be conceded, is a relative factor. Lack- 
ing boats and other transportation to bring timber to 
France every available tract became a prospective operat- 
ing chance. Tracts which previously had been passed 
up as too inaccessible or difficult to exploit loomed large 
as possibilities within which to place a mill and crew. 
Any job that was practicable from an operating stand- 
point was booked for a coming forestry engagement. 
Opportunities of their kind were not lacking in that the 
Americans having been late comers and bearing a repu- 
tation for tackling difficult industrial problems brought 
up for consideration as logging chances tracts which were 
accumulating surplus growing stock on account of their 
relative inaccessibility. 

It had been determined by preliminary inquiry and in- 
vestigation that there were some excellent stands of 
timber in the Pyrenees, the Aude and Tarn, and the Alps 
regions, but their general location in relation to the points 
of use made them unattractive so long as the mills and 
men available could be kept engaged in more accessible 
operating centers. The rate at which the Americans 



1194 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




QUILLAN. AUDE, IN THE EASTERN PYRENEES. THIS IS A GENERAL VIEW OF THE TOWN AND THE TIMBER DENUDED HILLS 
NEAR IT. THERE IS, HOWEVER, A LARGE SUPPLY OF GOOD TIMBER A SHORT DISTANCE FROM THE T0\V.\ 



landed and added to the already large demand for timber 
in the summer of 191 7 necessitated further and more 
careful consideration of these and other outlying regions 
as operating points. Accordingly, arrangements were 
made to scout for prospects throughout all of the South- 
ern Departments. To Captain P. A. Wilson, an exper- 
ienced British Columbia logger and mill man, and the 
writer was assigned the mission of covering the Depart- 
ments adjoining the Mediterranean from Toulouse, east 
to the Italian line. 

The most interesting prospect reported was on the 
Espezel Plateau, near Quillan, Aude. Captain R. C. Hall 
had been in that section in the early spring on a prelimi- 
nary reconnaissance from which it had been determined 
that the question was not whether the timber was there 
but rather whether it could be gotten out. Quillan 
is snugly situated on either bank of the Aude River, 
a short distance from its entrance into the gorge 
which it had carved for itself en route to the sea. 
From the town, surrounded by massive ranges, the 
timber situation did not look promising, but we were 
assured by the townsfolk that the prospect lay on the 
plateau above Quillan. 

A climb of 1,500 feet in 7 miles with an average grade 
of 4 per cent and numerous hairpin turns did not brighten 
our hopes of making a find. From the edge of the 
plateau one secured a general view of the timber pos- 
sibilities. Bounding the Espezel Valley were extensive 
ranges well timbered and apparently directly accessible 
from the valley floor. Our automobile indicator regis- 
tered 22 kilometers (14 miles) from Quillan, the nearest 
railroad point, whej» we reached the most accessible 



range. While the climb to the plateau and the distance 
to the shipping point continued to loom large in our 
calculations they were discounted somewhat when we 
gave attention to the timber itself. Others had also been 
impressed with the seriousness of the transportation 
factor for in no other way could one account for the 
retention of such fine stands in France. On the ranges 
encircling the plateau were exceptionally fine bodies 
of fir suitable in size and quality for the various war 
demands, including large products such as piling and 
structural timbers, so difficult to secure. We learned from 
the French foresters that a cut of approximately 194,000 
cubic meters (48,500,000 feet B. M.) could be secured 
from the State Forests in the group in strict conformance 
with the customary French cutting methods. This cut 
represents roughly the yield from these forests for four 
years. To an American forester in Army khaki visiting 
them after the spring drive of the Boche it appeared that 
a cut of twice the amount estimated would leave the 
forests well prepared to supply timber against the needs 
from future Boche onslaughts. 

The trees were well cleared and symmetrical, ranging 
from 12 to 36 inches in diameter, from 100 to 300 years 
in age, and from 80 to 125 feet in height. We observed 
some areas which would cut 60,000 feet B. M. to the 
acre. One veteran of at least 48 inches in diameter and 
135 feet in height was gaudily marked with a wide band 
of red paint, a mark of respect to his age and size. The 
Forest Brigadier expected all visitors in the region to go 
and see it. Some fungus and unutilized windfall, which 
are uncommon in French forests, were observed. Log- 
ging conditions were variable, the surface varying from 



SCOUTING FOR TIMBER IN THE EASTERN PYRENEES 



1195 



gentle and rock- free to boulder strewn and, in cases, pre- 
cipitous slopes. As a whole it was, as Captain Wilson 
expressed it "Some logging chance." 

We were convinced that the timber was there but the 
question of how to get it out was unanswered. That 
this could be done, and profitably, was evidenced by the 
fact that Spanish civilian contractors were hauling out 
four cubic meter (1,000 feet B. M.) loads of logs per 
trip to Quillan, from 20 to 35 kilometers (13 to 22 miles) 
distant, at from 25 to 35 francs per cubic meter. An 
average of two trips in three days was made, giving a 
return of approximately $28 per M feet B. M., or $19 
a day. A pair of stout oxen, a heavy two-wheeled French 



the logs from stump to mill. A railroad was dismissed 
because of the heavy and expensive rock work entailed in 
reaching the plateau with consequent extended period of 
time for completion. The established road bed was too 
narrow and tortuous to permit a narrow gauge installation. 
There was no favorable location for an incline, such an' 
artificial arrangement not having been provided for by 
nature in forming the topography. A cable, well installed, 
would work to advantage if cable were available, but cable 
was as scarce in France as bon-bons. So it narrowed down 
to a horse job for the woods and motor trucks for the haul 
to the railroad point, with the oxen and two-wheeled 
carts as a reserve. The disappointment of the writer is 




SO NARROW IS THE GORGE THROUGH WHICH FLOWS THE RIVER AUDE, NEAR QUILLAN, IN THE EASTERN PYRENEES, 

THAT THE ROAD HAD TO BE TUNNELLED THROUGH THE ROCK 



cart and plenty of "vin rouge" in a goat skin sack con- 
stituted the transportation equipment. At first blush the 
method seemed antiquated and inefficient but after observ- 
ing the manoeuvring of animals and loads through and 
over almost impassable places for stock one was forced 
to the Ford conclusion that "it takes you there and gets 
you back." My belief was that, all factors, including cut- 
ting restrictions, considered, a copious supply of oxen, 
two wheeled carts, "vin rouge" and select Spanish woods 
phrases would be the most economical transportation 
method for the operation. 

The American mind naturally turns to machinery to 
assist in meeting engineering problems and the examiners 
in this instance were not exceptions. Railroad, incline 
and cable were all considered as a means of transporting 



that he could not have seen the competition which would 
have ensued between the Spanish and American con- 
testants for the road and capacity loads. 

The next prospect for investigation was some fir timber 
on the State Forests of Hares and Carcanet, about 20 
miles above Axat on the Aude River. One follows the 
gorge previously mentioned in reaching these forests 
from Quillan and is more impressed with the attractive- 
ness of the country to the tourist in search of rushing 
streams and precipitous slopes than to the timberman in 
search of a mill prospect. Our earlier experience, how- 
ever, had taught us to reserve our decision until we were 
actually within the forest. 

The Hares and Carcanet were not so desirable as the 
forests in the Quillan group, but to those in need of 



1196 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



timber they offered the opportunity of securing excellent 
material. The French foresters estimated that under 
their customary methods of marking for the type a cut 
of 86,000 M3 (34,000,000 feet, B. M.) would be secured, 
representing in this instance a cut of 90 M3 per hectare 
(9,000 feet, B. M., per acre). The average tree approxi- 
mated 20 inches in diameter and 70 feet in height, and 
of lower quality than at Quillan. Defect was more 
noticeable. The surface was exceedingly rough and uni- 
formly steep, which, with a lack of substantial forest 
roads, made the forests very questionable for operating 
except under war conditions. Some patient and thrifty 
Frenchmen were engaged in hauling logs from the vicin- 



growth. If his offer was in good faith he merits the 
sympathy of his countrymen ; if made in bad faith he has 
since learned that the buying of timber by the A. E. F. 
was not wholly a paper transaction. 

We learned of a tract of mountain pine near Mont 
Louis, Pyrenees Orientals, reported to contain from 
80,000 M3 to 100,000 M3. Our trip to the tract from 
Axat was not without interest in that we picked up two 
French gendarmes en route to the nearest telephone, 12 
miles, to report the escape of two Boche prisoners, who, 
presumably with a Spanish confederate, were headed for 
the border. It may be remarked that even under the 
favorable chances for concealment in the mountains of 




ANOTHER VIEW OF THE TERRITORY AROUND QUILLAN, IN THE EASTERN PYRENEES. 

HIGH PLATEAU NEAR THE CITY 



THE TIMBER IS MOSTLY ON THE 



ity to Axat with oxen, making two trips a week. The 
plan of operation outlined for the A. E. F. was to skid 
and haul the logs by carts to the main road where the 
logs would be loaded on the tractors or trucks for the 
haul down the canyon to the proposed mill site at Axat. 
An amusing, yet provoking, incident in connection with 
our timber examinations near Axat was an offer for sale 
of 3,000,000 M3 (750,000,000 feet, B. M.) by an enter- 
prising American who apparently wanted to do his coun- 
try a bit. His claim of title covered a scope of country 
worthy of a favored nobleman. Vigorous mountain 
climbing and the use of field glasses revealed the fact 
that the only merchantable timber within the area defined 
was that on the forest of Hares and Carcanet, title to 
which had passed to the State 20 years ago. The remain- 
ing area was mountain tops, gorges and slopes with scrub 



that region the odds are strongly against the Boche 
having escaped the vigilant gendarmes. 

The timber department of the French Army (Centre de 
Bois), had already secured a liberal cession of the moun- 
tain pine and were engaged in operating it when we 
reached there. We were informed of a controversy which 
had arisen out of the cession, the Commune and the 
National Forest Service (Department des Eaux et Forets) 
disagreeing on the extent to which cutting on the forest, 
which was Communal, should be permitted. The Com- 
mune insisted that the timber be clear cut so that the 
land could be devoted to agricultural use. The Forest 
Service was equally insistent upon conservative cutting 
and the retention of the land for timber production on 
the ground that the balance between agricultural and 
timber land in the region should not be disturbed. The 



SCOUTING FOR TIMBER IN THE EASTERN PYRENEES 



1197 



latter, supported by higher authority, won out. 
Believing that the Quillan, Hares and Carcanet tracts 
would afford a sufficient opening for Pacific Coast log- 
gers to establish European reputations and put them in 
shape to exhaust the further possibilities of the region, 
we went in search of hardwoods to appease the woods 
appetite of our Eastern and Southern logging contingents. 
An offer of some beech and oak from the State forests of 
Cayroulet, Hautaniboul and Ramondens had been received 
which looked very promising as tie prospects. These 
forests form the greater part of Montagne Noire on the 
boundary between the Departments of Aude and Tarn. 
The old city of Carcassonne with its massive walls and 
towers is the historic landmark of the region. The "cite" 



was to clear cut but the French were unwilling to practice 
this method further until the results of experiments 
under way were known. About 10 years ago clean cutting 
on limited areas had been made and fir planted, on the 
ground that the value of fir in the region was greater than 
beech and oak. The plantations were thriving, giving 
every promise of success. 

The stands varied in size considerably under the sys- 
tem of management followed, which provided for periodic 
fellings whereby succeeding age classes were thinned and 
developed to maturity serving in turn as a nurse to suc- 
ceeding stands. The fight against the encroachment of 
holly was waged by requiring each timber operator to 
grub out the holly on the area from which he purchased 




A WILD BOAR (SAXGLIER) HUNTING PARTY NEAR QUILLAN, I N THE EASTERN PYRENEES. THE WRITER OF THIS ARTICLE, 
MAJOR R. Y. STUART, 20th ENGINEERS (FORESTRY) STANDS ON THE EXTREME LEFT 



and Montagne Noire attract many tourists in normal 
times ; the former at the time of our visit was a con- 
finement camp for some German officials. 

The demand for ties on the part of the Allies seemed 
insatiable, and for this purpose hardwoods were eagerly 
sought. Normally one would secure ties, of pine if 
necessary, from more accessible areas than Montagne 
Noire, but under pressure of war demand the Montagne 
Noire prospect looked exceedingly good. Eliminating 
portions of the forest which presented transportation 
problems incommensurate with the quantity of timber to 
be secured a cut of 18,000 M3 (4,500,000 feet, B. M.) 
was assured under the French system of marking. While 
a much heavier cut without injury to the forests seemed 
possible it was explained by the foresters that the en- 
croachment of holly in the openings would follow a more 
severe cutting. The alternative to secure a heavier cut 



the timber. Had the A. E. F. operated on these forests 
it would have been necessary for it to expend the time 
of 100 men for 30 days on this work or compensate the 
French Forest Service 30,000 francs for having the 
work done. With such care it is small wonder that 
beech 2 feet in diameter with a clear length of 40 feet 
and without defect was being produced. 

It proved unnecessary to begin operating in any of 
these regions, the summer drives of the Boche having 
developed into a boomerang by early fall, terminating in 
the procurement of a supply of timber to meet the needs 
of the Army of Occupation from German forests and a 
freer movement throughout France of material already 
produced. By December 1, the stage was reached where 
mills were being dismantled and arrangements made to 
wind up our timber affairs. Many of the men who, under 



1198 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




THE OLD CITY OF CARCASSONNE, WITH ITS MASSIVE WALLS AND TOWERS. IS THE HISTORIC LANDMARK OF THE REGION 
NEAR QUILLAN. WHEN THE WRITER WAS THERE IT WAS USED AS A CONFINEMENT CAMP FOR SOME GERMAN OFFICIALS 



other circumstances, might be shouting at oxen yoked to 
two-wheeled carts on the Quillan grade or grubbing holly 
on the Montagne Noire are seeing the picturesque Pyre- 



nees and the historic old city of Carcassonne on leave of 
absence. It may be that some of them are in citizens 
clothes in the States. 



TRANSPLANTING LARGE TREES 



[ ARGE trees are always transplanted with consider- 
*-* able difficulty and expense, and are far less likely to 
survive the operation than smaller ones. If trees above 
three inches in diameter are to be moved, it is best to 
have the work done by some one who has had experience 
in transplanting large trees. The most successful results 
are accomplished by means of a tree-moving machine. 
Such machines are made by at least two firms in the 
United States viz., John A. Wilkins, Indianapolis, In- 
diana, and Isaac Hicks & Son, Westbury, New York. 
With these machines, trees having a diameter as great as 
twelve inches can be safely moved. 

To those who may wish to attempt the transplanting 
of trees without engaging the services of an expert, the 
following suggestions are offered : 

In the fall, before the ground freezes, a trench should 
be dug around the tree which is to be moved, and as 
deep as the roots have taken hold on the soil, usually 
three to four feet, leaving a ball of earth from three to 
seven feet in diameter, depending on the size of the tree 
and the development of the root system. At the same 
time a hole should be dug where the tree is to be planted, 
making it deep enough so that the tree when planted will 
stand three to four inches below Its original level, and 
large enough to allow the filling in of one to two feet of 
good rich soil about the roots after the tree is placed in 
position. To prevent freezing, both the hole and the 
earth dug from it should be covered with straw. 

When the ball of earth has frozen the tree is ready 
to be moved. The smaller trees may be moved by rolling 
the ball of earth on a sledge or stone boat, the stem 
being supported upright to prevent injury to the limbs, 



in which position it may be drawn to the place of plant- 
ing. The ball of earth on larger trees should be raised 
to the surface by repeatedly leaning the tree to one side 
and filling. in under it with earth on the other. The crown 
of the tree should then be lowered to the ground and 
the ball rolled on a long sledge or stone boat by the 
aid of horses. The trunk should be held free from the 
ground by means of wooden horses or supports placed on 
the rear of the conveyance. The limbs should be tied up 
to prevent injury in transportation. In all these opera- 
tions plenty of burlap or other material should be used 
to prevent damage to the bark. Horses may again be 
used to roll the ball into final position and raise the stem 
upright. 

In all cases the soil should be firmly packed about the 
roots of the transplanted tree. To prevent their being 
thrown by the wind, the larger trees should be supported 
by three or four guy ropes, which should not be removed 
until the tree has become firmly rooted in its new site. 

It is very important that trees transplanted in this 
way should be watered during periods of drought for 
the first two or three years, or until the equilibrium 
between the root and branch systems, disturbed by 
the transplanting, has been restored. 

An experienced tree-mover states that of all our trees, 
the elms are most likely to survive when moved at a 
mature age. Other trees which may be more or less suc- 
cessfully transplanted are the maple, horse chestnut, 
catalpa, ash, linden, willow, poplar, and pin oak. Trees 
grown in the open are much better to move than those 
grown in the woods, and a large young tree is more likely 
to succeed than an old one of the same size. 



CANADIAN FORESTRY CORPS WORK IN FRANCE 



BY ROLAND HILL 



(Canadian War Correspondent) 



OF THE many experiences in quaint places in which 
the Canadians found themselves doing war duty 
those of the Canadian Forestry Corps can claim 
almost prior place. In 1917 Britain, France and Italy 
were all appealing for lumber — and more lumber. The 
Allied forces in Salonika were crying for it in the worst 
kind of way. Russia offered a supply if cutting could be 
organized. So into the four corners of Allied Europe 
were sent Canadian timber cruisers, men who had 
foraged through Northern Quebec, Ontario and British 
Columbia. Some of them could speak no language but 
their own, but they knew what they were after, and they 
could tell to the thousand how many billion feet could 
be cut from a forest. At one time, after three Ontario 
men had cruised Crete and Mudros, a Canadian mill 
outfit was started on its way to the picturesque Mediter- 
ranean. But the Royal Engineers decided to do the job 
and the Canadians were robbed of one of their quaint 
experiences. Parties were sent to Russia and were about 



to start operations when the distant rumbles of the 
revolution were heard and they were withdrawn. 

The best record of the Canadian Forestry Corps, out- 
side that done for the British was the supplying of every 
class of lumber direct to the French Armies from the 
Vosges and Jura Mountains on the Swiss border and 
from the Landes and the Gironde, south of Bordeaux, 
in sight of the Pyrenees. In the north Canadian uni- 
forms came to be known in the quaint mountain villages, 
and the peasants opened their homes to the strange men 
from across the Atlantic. Down in the Landes, where 
reigned a "dolce far niente" almost Spanish, the vigor 
and expedition of the Canadian wood choppers was an 
unceasing marvel. Some of the Canadians from Acadia 
found distant relations of the same names through Cabot 
and Cartier in the mountaineers of the Jura. 

One day in the early spring of 191 7, two Canadian 
officers chatting with the engineer of the Paris-Switzer- 




CANADIAN ROADMEN KEEP THE FOREST TRAFFIC WAYS IN GOOD CONDITION 



1199 



1200 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



land express told of the big engines that drove the 
Canadian Pacific trains over the big grades of the 
Canadian Rockies. They were critical of the toy French 
engines. They were invited to take the trip over the 
border into Pontlarlier, the sentinel town of the inter- 
national border. On they climbed, and when the end 
of the run was reached, two begrimed, but happy beings 
climbed off the engine honorary members of the French 
Railw avmen's Union. One man worked the engine up the 
winding grades and the other had stoked. One 
was a professor of Mechanics at McGill University, 
and the other was chief engineer for one of the 
biggest lumber companies in Ontario. That was the 
kind of material of which the Forestry Corps was made. 

When the timber famine 
came along the fighting 
fronts of Europe, the ex- 
treme east of the French 
lines and fortresses like 
Bel fort were pleading as 
urgently as the rest. There 
were huge forests but no 
material or men to cut them 
fast enough for military 
needs. Heavy timber 
meant the saving of 
Frenchmen's lives, so a 
bargain was struck that 
treble the amount cut and 
delivered by the Canadians 
in the Vosges and Jura, for 
the French armies would 
be delivered in standing 
timber near the British 
lines. In two weeks boilers 
and mills from the far away 
Dominion were installed in 
the mountains. The rail- 
way officials were their 
friends, and loading sidings 
were blasted out of the 
solid rock cuttings through 
the mountains. The peas- 
ants, who formerly cut the 

big trees, used to slowly bring them down the mountain 
roads by ox teams into the valley town where there were 
ancient mills driven by water wheels. Ten trees a day 
was a good average for the mill to saw. 

Then the Canadians came on the scene. There were 
many engineering difficulties to overcome. The supply 
of water for the big Nova Scotia boilers was solved by 
their own men and miles of piping were laid that defied 
gravity by artful pumping. Light railways were built 
through the forests and mud roads were macadamized 
by mountain rock which was crushed by our own outfits. 
In the various mills at the end of the war the output of 
all sizes of timber had reached 400,000 feet daily, more 
than the whole Jura produced in the year before hostili- 
ties broke out. Fifteen or twenty mills of Canadian type 





• 












. ' ' ' 







CABLE RAILWAYS BRING DOWN AN UNENDING SUPPLY OF 
LOGS IN THE VOSGES 



were distributed at strategic points — anyone coming on 
the scene might have thought themselves to be in Northern 
Ontario, or British Columbia. The clever engineers of 
the Forestry Corps were always willing to help the 
villagers. They showed them how to harness the rush- 
ing streams that irrigated the vine-clad slopes, and turn 
them into power for electric light or to run their wine 
presses. One Canadian major who had been in the 
wooden pipe business on the Pacific Coast gave up his 
trade secrets in the fraternity of war-time, and water 
systems were started in villages that for centuries had 
dipped buckets in the communal stream. 

In the south of France the huge pine forests which 
Napoleon planted for the peasants yield them fortunes 

in resin and turpentine. It 
is estimated that the value 
extracted from each tree 
per year is five francs. But 
in forty years the tree goes 
sterile, and there were mil- 
lions of these trees ready to 
be cut into railway sleepers, 
and inch planks badly need- 
ed for the war. The 
French Government had 
difficulty in buying them 
from the unsophisticated 
peasants. A government 
official went with a Bank of 
France cheque to close a 
deal with one old forester 
near the Spanish border. 
It was for a quarter of a 
million francs, and a for- 
tune for the old man. He 
tore the cheque up as 
worthless; he could only 
think in tree values, not in 
coinage. For several weeks 
the deal hung fire, and then 
he exchanged the sterile 
forest for a productive one 
fifty miles away, asking as 
his profit one hundred ex- 
tra trees. The rapidity with which the Canadians cut 
the forest amazed the Frenchmen, who called them the 
"madmen of Canada." They were all good friends, 
though, and hundreds of the poor folks who had never 
had the services of a doctor or been in the hospital were 
treated free by the kindly surgeons attached to the corps. 
As in the Vosges and Jura, the Canadians who worked 
in the Landes and Gironde also left the mark of the new 
world when peace called them back to Canada. The 
hospitals remain and funds have been raised for a French 
staff to keep them going. New railroads built by the 
men from overseas link up hamlets that never thought 
to see the ribs of steel. It was a quaint experience for 
the men from overseas, and it was a strange temporary 
awakening for the people of the Landes. 



MEMORIAL TREES 



THE MEMORIAL TREE, "the tree that looks at 
God all day and lifts her leafy arms to pray," has 
become the tribute of the people of the nation to 
those who offered their lives to their country in the 
Great War for civilization. In the tree planting the 
people find opportunity to express their love of him for 
whom the tree is planted. But the planting is not confined 
to doing honor to war heroes. Indeed the reports to the 
American Forestry Association show the people have 
seized upon tree planting as the finest way to mark cen- 
tennials, important events in church history, the date of 
town foundings and similar events. The United States 
government has just placed its approval on memorial 
tree planting with the announcement that Memorial 
Trees will be planted in West Potomac Park near the 
famous Lincoln Memorial in Washington. The Ameri- 
can Forestry Association made the suggestion for plant- 
ing of memorial trees the day the armistice was signed 
and since that time tree planting has . 

been taken up all over the country. ^fl ^~T3^ 

To the Christian Endeavor Socie- 
ties of the World the Rev. Francis 
E. Clark has sent a call for memorial 
tree planting, not alone in honor of 
war heroes, although thousands of 
churches are planting trees in honor 
of members of congregations who 
offered their lives to their country 
when the call came, but in honor of 
famous pastors, leaders in church 
work and to mark important dates 
in a congregation's achievements. 
This call has resulted in giving tree 
planting a great impetus not only all 
over the United States but all over 
the world. In the schools and colleges of the country 
tree planting has been taken up as the means for keeping 
green the memory of graduates in war work. George- 
town University, at its 130th Commencement, planted 54 
Lombardy poplars, one for each of her sons who gave 
his life to his country. These trees are marked with the 
bronze markers designed by the American Forestry Asso- 
ciation. The National Farm School near Philadelphia 
has consecrated a "Patriotic Grove" in which are planted 
trees for her war heroes, friends of the school, and 
"Festive Trees" marking dates of births, confirmations, 
betrothals and wedding anniversaries. This form of 
tree planting will doubtless spread for it is easily seen 
what a tree will mean to a man or woman if it was plant- 
ed to mark their birth. It is the same idea that is prompt- 
ing many college classes to plant memorial trees when 
entering or leaving a school. 

One of the most pretentious plans undertaken in tree 

planting was at the U.S.A. Balloon School at Fort Omaha, 

irado. Col. Jacob W. S. Wuest has directed the plant- 



WORLD WAR 

1917^1918 A 

JOHN A. DOE \ 
CO. M.327 INF. 

REGI5TEREO 

AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 

WASHIN6TON,D.C. 



This bronze marker for Memorial Trees may be 
obtained from the American Forestry Association. 
It costs $1.00. Send the name and regiment of 
the man for whom the marker is desired. 



ing of about six thousand trees. Of this number nearly 
one thousand are in memory of men who passed through 
that camp and the one at Fort Crook, and died in the 
service. The unique feature about this is that the plant- 
ing was done with the proceeds of "The Gas Bag," the 
official publication of the balloon school. The next of 
kin are marking the trees with the bronze marker of the 
American Forestry Association and registering the trees 
on the Association's national honor roll. The first chap- 
ter of the Daughters of the American Revolution to 
plant a memorial tree is the "Our Flag" Chapter of the 
District of Columbia. The tree was planted at the home 
of Mrs. Laura C. O'Hare. The League of American 
Pen Women was the first woman's organization to plant 
a tree in the District. This was planted at the home of 
Mrs. George Combs. 

In Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, a "Hero Grove" 
has been planted in honor of the California heroes of the 
war and at Camp Kearny, near San 
Diego, the Coloradoans of San Diego 
are planning to plant memorial trees 
in honor of the Colorado soldiers 
who passed through that camp. In 
the planting of trees to mark an im- 
portant date, the Memorial Tree at 
Camden, New Jersey, is perhaps the 
most interesting. The tree was 
planted to mark the 100th birthday 
anniversary of Walt Whitman, the 
"good gray poet," by the Whitman 
Park Improvement Association. But 
tree planting has spread around the 
world. The Ardlethan public school 
in New South Wales has planted 
memorial trees in memory of each 
Ardlethan soldier and in Queensland 30,000 trees have 
been planted in Anzac Park. Of this number 16,000 are 
for men who gave their lives at the call of the Mother 
Country. 

Another phase of tree planting with great possibili- 
ties is the planting of trees along the motor high- 
ways of the United States. Make these highways 
"Roads of Remembrance," says Charles Lathrop Pack, 
president of the American Forestry Association; 
who has issued a call to every county to co-operate 
with the road builders. This "Roads of Remembrance" 
idea is being furthered in Great Britain by an organi- 
zation of which Millicent H. Morrison is the secre- 
tary. The United States Army Motor Transport Corps 
now has a motor train crossing the country from 
Washington to San Francisco. Millions of dollars have 
been voted for good roads. 

With this in mind and the Army demonstration 
underway thousands of people are expected to urge beau- 
tifying these roads by the planting of memorial trees. 



1201 



1202 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



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I * * MEMORIAL TREES ARE BEING PLANTED in 

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AMERICAN FORESTRY 



1203 



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COLLEGES, MUNICIPALITIES AND INDIVIDUALS 

]: "" ' Il,,ll »»» l ' < m "i win urn mmmmmiimm mm mim mm iiuiimi m mil ummmmi iiimiim mi miiiiiumi minimi iiinunmuiiiii miiimil 




NATIONAL HONOR ROLL MEMORIAL TREES 

Trees have been planted for the following and registered with the American Forestry Association, which 
desires to register each Memorial Tree planted in the United States. A certificate of registration will be sent to 
each person, corporation, club or community reporting the planting of a Memorial Tree. 



Cordele, Georgia — John L. Gunn and J. B. Ryals, by 
United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

Washington, District of Columbia — Soldiers and Sail- 
ors, by "Our Flag" Chapter, D. A. R. 

Godfrey, Illinois — Ovid Radcliffe, by Summerfield 
School. 

Sterling, Illinois — Merrill Benson, Harry Heisman, 
Byron Lancaster. 

White Hall, Illinois — Francis Grimes, by White Hall 

Senior High School John Moore, by Junior High 

School H. D. McCracken, by White Hall Schools 

James M. Lyons, by White Hall Music Club. 

Collamer, Indiana — Boys of Collamer, by the school. 

Huntington, Indiana — Carl Grossman, Harry Satter- 
waite, Graham Scott, Elizie Erehart, Earnest Slocum, 
Alden L. Haller, Charles Beard, Charles Whitelock, 
Robert Mayne, Carl Timmer, Charles A. Smith, Hugo 
Taylor, Edward D. Hoover, James Sheller, Floyd Stuart, 
Garland Robbins, Elmer Fyson, Edward Hasty, by the 
Women's Civic Improvement League. 

Skowhegan, Maine — Twenty-sixth Division, by Re- 
formatory for Women. 

New Bedford, Massachusetts — Theodore Roosevelt, by 
New Bedford and Fairhaven Council of the Boy Scouts 
of America. 

Waltham, Massachusetts — Charles C. Bacon, by First 
Parish Church. 

Detroit, Michigan — Lieut. Col. G. B. Walbridge, Major 
Edwin Denby, Major John H. DeVisser, Capt. E. C. 
Barkley, Major Geo. C. King, Major W. C. Cole, Capt. 
Wm. Lawrence, Lieut. C. F. Clarke, Lieut. A. A. Leon- 
ard, Sergt. Jos. Durand, Jr., F. J. Campbell, A. A. Mac- 
Diarmid, A. N. McFayden, F. J. Robinson, S. W. Wirts, 
Irvin Long, T. G. Phillips, and A. G. Pittelow, by Detroit 
Rotary Club. 

Tipton, Michigan — Paul Gilbert and C. L. Bailey, by 
Spring Brook Lodge, K. of P. 

Gorham, New Hampshire — E. J. Bourasse, J. A. 
Guerin, N. P. Castonguay, Ernest Dupont, G. H. Went- 
worth, C. W. McGown, O. C. Reid, and W. S. Holmes, 
by Gorham Women's Club. 

Belleville, New Jersey — Michael A. Flynn, Thomas J. 
Mooney, Michael J. Murry, Harry C. Hoag, Charles A. 
Schaffer, Harry Blekiski, Fred W. Stockham, Charles 
McGinty, by St. Peter's Parochial School W. S. C. 

UM 



Bain. Jr., and H. M. Garside, by High School -Theo- 
dore Roosevelt, by School No. 5 George Eyre, George 

S. Smith, by School No. 1. 

Elizabeth, New Jersey — Former Pupils of William 

Penn School, by William Penn School Theodore 

Roosevelt, by Public School No. 12 Michael Gagli- 

ardo, Edward Corris, Benjamin Brower, by Public 

School No. 6 Former Pupils, by Philip Carteret 

School. 

Hackensack, New Jersey — Albert A. Kleiber, by First 
Baptist Church. 

Harrison, New Jersey — Charles E. Shanaburg, Donald 
Pegg, Thos. Krotik, Frank Policastro, Howard Quinn, 
Oscar Grell, by Edison Lamp Works. 

Cohoes, New York — Peter Charles Allery, William J. 
Burns, John J. Blanchette, John R. Bickley, Alphonse 
Briere, Charles F. Cunningham, Eugene Clements, An- 
thony Curro, John B. Durocher, Timothy F. Fennen, 
Sebastiano Guglielmo, Joseph Gadoua, Grover C. Jack- 
son, Harold W. Jewett, John Johnston, Ernest A. Jewett, 
John Jamieson, Thomas A. Jones, George A. Kelley, 
John A. Kilfoyle, George B. Lambert, James J. B. Light- 
hall, Patrick Molesky, Thomas F. Manley, Frank E. 
Plumley, Edward Pilawski, Arthur Palin, Charles R. 
Rowan, Joseph A. Ryan, William J. Rafferty, Edward 
T. Ruane, William J. Rocheleau, James B. Soden, Arthur 
V. Soden, Thomas C. Surprise, George Turcotte, Clar- 
ence Van Wagner, Walter F. Van Derker, Charles Ed- 
ward White, Raymond P. White, Dr. Clarence H. White, 
Robert Manogue, Edward Julian, George Burke, Leo M. 
Karanaugh, by Woman's Municipal Welfare League. 

Delhi, New York— Eric S. Dumbell, by H. M. Dum- 
bell. 

Reading Center, New York — Foster F. Jessop, Leon C. 
Smith, by Study Club. 

Ashtabula, Ohio — Harry Kochenderfer, John Green, 
Homer Dye, Casper Robert Keeney, and Fred Niles, by 
Ashtabula High School. 

Canton, Ohio — Earl Dister Dobbyn, by the East Can- 
ton School. 

Cincinnati, Ohio — General Foch, General Pershing, 
Joffre, Tim Willie, William Kluber, Field Marshall Haig, 
Edward Rickenbacher, Edward Roseler, Admiral Sims, 
E. McFarland, "Our Dead," "Heroes of Italy," King 
Albert, Woodrow Wilson, Ralph Wilkerson, Isador 
Dube, George Hedge, John Jentz, Quentin Roosevelt, 
William H. Taft, "Old Tiger," Gen. Peyton C. March, 



NATIONAL HONOR ROLL MEMORIAL TREES 



1205 



Theodore Roosevelt, by the Opportunity Farm School 

William Carter and Carl Koblinsky, by Mt. Airy 

School Walter Hawk, William Bailey Gentry, by the 

Alt. Lookout Business Men's Club Jacob Waechter, 

Alvin F. Zorb, F. A. Benzinger, W. H. Sohn, and Herman 

Koenig, by Vine School Albert Bauer, Robert Baum, 

Edward Sauer, William Strietelmeyer, William Ritter, 
Chester Price, William Painer, William Bierhorst, Will- 
iam Wagner, by Washington School Walter Volkert, 

William Nippert, Theodore Roosevelt, by Winton Place 
School. 

Goshen, Ohio — Louis Griffith, Edgar Cole, Guy Felter, 
Lewis Irwin, Floyd Waite, Clayton Fox, by Goshen Cen- 
tralized School. 

Marion, Ohio — Mrs. Mary A. Ruehrmund, Frederick 
Herman Harzer, Miss Elizabeth S. Ruehrmund, Mrs. 
Renata Ruehrmund Hinds, by Clara Ruehrmund. 

Berwyn, Pennsylvania — Lieut. Thomas L. Bolster, by 
Mrs. Thomas L. Bolster. 

Boalsburg, Pennsylvania — Alfred Calvin Witmer, by 

I. O. O. F. William F. Taylor, by the Red Cross 

Guyer Eugene Durst, by the Civic Club. 

Huntington, Pennsylvania — Corp. F. D. McEwen, 
Oscar P. Beck, Frank Palmer Hormmon, William Lister, 
William P. Spyks, Robert Bruce Houstine, W. Preston 
Kurtz, Howard Wise, Clair L. Hicks, Joseph F. Robison, 
Clarence E. Focht, Antonio Mardelli, by Ladies' Civic 
Club. 

Middleburg, Pennsylvania— Joseph Covert, Jackson 
l". Fessler, John H. Gundrum, William D. Hackenburg, 
John A. Hartman, William J. Hartman, Corp. E. H. Hot- 
tenstein, Samuel O. Lauver, Erman E. Lepley, Corp. 
John H. Miller, Roy A. Musser, Corp. George L. Mul- 
liner, Walter Page, Lieut. Wendell J. Phillips, Miles A. 
Renninger, Samuel M. Rine, Sherman I. Rowe, Sgt. 
Brewster C. Schoch, Grover Sholl, Hiram C. Steffen, Jr., 
Lieut. John W . Stepp, Ernest E. Stine, Ralph C. Spaid, 
Henry H. Sprenkle, Charles Treaster, Boyd M. Warner, 
Theodore Roosevelt, by Shambach and Wagenseller. 

St. Davids, Pennsylvania- — Lieut. Win. H. Sayen 
Schultz. One tree each by Emilie Sayen Schultz, Wayne 
Presbyterian Sunday School, Civic Club on Philadelphia 
Parkway. 

Brownsville, Tennessee — Soldiers and Sailors of Hay- 
wood County, by Brownsville Civic League. 

Nashville, Tennessee — Lieut. James Simmons Tim- 
othy, by Catholic Women Lieut. John W. Overton, 

by Robertson Academy. 

Cherrydale, Virginia — Frederick Wallis Schutt, by 
Ellen S. Wallis. 

Appleton, Wisconsin — William Hageman, August Zu- 
leger, Raymond Xeuenfeldt, Raymond Kluess, by Zion 
Lutheran School. 



THE WISHING TREE. 

By J. R. Simmons. 

This photograph shows the possibilities of the Ameri- 
can or white elm as a memorial tree. .The man who 
"constructed" this tree as an entrance to his home was. 
laughed at for his pains, but time has demonstrated that 




his faith was not misplaced. He took four sapling elms 
and planted them in a group, binding them together 
about twelve or fifteen feet from the ground. 

In time the trunks grew together, giving the appear- 
ance of a single tree "on stilts." It is known as the 
"wishing tree," and small boys and girls in the locality 
believe that by walking in and out among the four legs 
of the trunk, a wish made in the process will come true. 

The tree stands near the state highway in the town of 
Bridgewater, Massachusetts. 



T"i HE OLDEST tree on earth, at least as far as anyone 
-*- knows, is the Boo tree in the sacred city of Amara- 
poorah, Burmah. It was planted, the record says, in the 
year 288 B. C, and is, therefore, about 2200 years old. Its 
great age is proved by historic documents, says Sir James 
Emerson, who adds: "To it kings have dedicated their 
kingdoms in testimony of a belief that it is a branch of 
the identical fig tree under which Buddah reclined at Uoa, 
when he was undergoing his apotheosis." Its leaves are 
carried away by pilgrims as relics, but, as it is too sacred 
to be touched, even with a knife, they can only be gather- 
ed after they have fallen. — New York Commercial Ad- 
vertiser. 



PHOTOGRAPHING FORESTS FROM THE AIR 

BY LIEUT. LEWIS, R. A. F. 



SO FAR as I know, air photographs have not been 
used up to the present, for other than war work, and 
my experience with them has been entirely in that 
sphere. Such marvelous results were obtained from 
them during the course of the war, particularly during 
the latter part, when planes, cameras and operators were 
more efficient and ground interpreters became more 
familiar with their work, that I think it is the duty of 
those of us, who became experienced in their use, to 
pass that experience on to those in commercial life, who 
are most likely to find it of value. The timber industry 
seems to me to be one in which their use has great 
p o s s i bilities. 
For about a 
year of my 
stay in France, 
I was employ- 
ed in the Intel- 
ligence Depart- 
m e n t , and 
among my 
duties was the 
i n t.erpretation 
of aerial pho- 
tographs and 
the transfer- 
ring of infor- 
mation thus 
gained, to our 
maps. Of 
course we al- 
ready had 
maps on the 
country as it 
was before the 
war, but the 
defensive 
works con- 
structed on 
both sides 
would have necessitated elaborate surveys which, of 
course, it would have been rather dangerous to attempt 
in the vicinity of the front line trenches. By experience 
we learned to know the appearance on a photograph of 
the numerous defensive works in the enemy lines, trench 
systems, machine gun emplacements, trench mortar em- 
placements, gun pits, dug outs, wire entanglements, tele- 
phone lines, buried cable lines, and many other construc- 
tions became known to us, and the result was that our 
artillery could deal with these things, and the Canadian 
artillery have a decidedly efficient way of dealing with 
things that are bothering their brothers-in-arms, the 
infantry. 

The average height from which these photographs were 
taken was from 6,000 to 8,000 feet. Now, if such accurate 
1206 




AN INDICATION OF WHAT THE AEROPLANE CAMERA MIGHT DO IN MAPPING THE FORESTS 

OF CANADA 

There is a lamentable lack of forest maps in the Dominion. Some aviators claim they can distinguish 
tree species by examining stereoscopic photographs and by other methods. This, of course, would be 
only of general value and the ground cruise would always be necessary. Note the remarkable boldness 
of outline at 15,000 feet. (A photograph taken on the French front.) 



results could be obtained at these heights how much more 
could be done with photographs taken, say from 1,500 
feet, with nothing to ruffle the nerves of the opera- 
tors ? 

I understand that the Government is to establish an 
aeroplane or hydroplane forest patrol for fire ranging 
purposes. Why not have these planes fitted with photo- 
graphic outfits for the purpose of mapping that part of 
the country of which so little is known? The importance 
of it to the lumber industry seems to me, although not 
a lumberman, to be too great to be overlooked. I have 
found an idea of how this work might be done for the 

lumber c o m - 
panies. 

They might 
make arrange- 
ments with the 
Government to 
have their own 
limits photo- 
graphed, mere- 
ly paying rent 
for the machine 
while on their 
work, and the 
cost of the 
phot ographs, 
approximately 
$4.00 per doz- 
en. This would 
cut out the nec- 
essity for hav- 
i n g machines, 
operators, and 
cameras of 
their own. 

First of all, 
take the tim- 
bered area 
which carries a 
variety of trees, it need only be a small area. Have it 
accurately cruised, or better still, have a survey made of 
this one small area and have species of trees given and 
also condition of ground as to rock, outcropping, etc. 
Then have this area photographed at two seasons of the 
year, preferably in the spring, before the leaves come out 
on the deciduous trees, and then again when they are 
in full leaf. These photographs will be taken from a 
known altitude in order to arrive at a scale. Have them 
carefully analyzed in every detail and records made. 
They could then be used as standards in analyzing pho- 
tographs of any tract of timber land, and I am quite sure 
that an accurate estimate could be made of standing tim- 
ber, burnt over areas, areas fit for forestation and re- 
forestation and also the water in the vicinity. If photo- 



UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA OFFERS COURSE IN LUMBER USES 



1207 




HOW WOODED AREAS ARE DEFINED BY CAMERA FROM 15,000 FEET IN THE AIR 

The strips of white and grey in blocks represent cultivated land, the difference in shading being accounted 
for by various crops, hay, grain, stooked and uncut fields, meadow, etc. 

graphs were taken with a stereoscopic camera they could 
be viewed through a stereoscope and undulations of the 



ground which would tell the 
direction of the flow of streams 
observed. I should imagine, 
however, that the map would be 
sufficient to show this. 

If a stated altitude is mairi- 
tained in taking all the photo- 
graphs they will naturally be of 
the same scale and a continuous 
photographic map of any area 
can be obtained. Each company 
could have a natural photograph 
of its own limits hanging on the 
wall, could see exactly where 
logging is going on, and if they 
wish to do so, could keep track 
of the progress of the work. 

I do not for a moment sug- 
gest that photography would be 
a means of dispensing with 
cruising in the woods, but I 
think that it would be of great 
assistance to cruisers and event- 
ually they will all want to be- 
come enthusiastic interpreters of air photographs. — 
(From the Canadian Forestry Journal of March, 1919.) 



UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA OFFERS COURSE IN 

LUMBER USES 



! UMBER dealers, manufacturers of timber products 
-"-^ contractors and carpenters, who have need of 
specific instruction in the proper selection of the material 
used in their industry, will find in the course, "Lumber 
and Its Uses,", offered by the General Extension Division 
of the University of Minnesota, just what they have been 
looking for. The course is based upon R. S. Kellogg's 
text by the same name, and uses as supplementary ma- 
terial a large number of valuable pamphlets issued by 
lumber associations on grades, sizes, characteristics, etc., 
of the various woods. It also furnishes a valuable bibli- 
ography on such subjects as preservation and seasoning, 
Strength tests, grading and scaling, as well as in the gen- 
eral field. 

The kind and grade of wood selected for any use should 
be the one best adapted to that use, all things considered. 
The timber dealer must know the qualities of the material 
he handles well enough to select the best for his own use 
or that of his customers. If a cheaper timber properly 
preserved can replace a more costly kind, he should know 



it. Timber having been in use so long, it is falsely 
assumed that dealers know the material well. They do 
know it in a general way ; but it is only in recent years 
that specific information regarding woods has been 
sought in laboratory and testing room and given to the 
public. The matters of wood structures, of tests of 
strength, durability, preservation and other questions are 
now being settled in a scientific manner. Results of such 
tests are included in the correspondence course given by 
the University of Minnesota. 

Many persons are now interested in the use of wood in 
the manufacture of airplanes either as a matter of gen- 
eral interest or with the idea of becoming inspectors of 
these woods. It is, of course, impossible to train an in- 
spector in such a short course as this ; but much valuable 
information along this line can be obtained as a sound 
basis for future work. Only a true understanding of the 
qualities and peculiarities of wood structure can give an 
adequate idea of the difficulties encountered in this, or, 
indeed, in any form of wood manufacture. 



WE WANT TO RECORD YOUR MEMORIAL TREE PLANTING. PLEASE ADVISE 
THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



THE USES OF WOOD 

WOOD USED IN THE COOPERAGE INDUSTRY 

BY HU MAXWELL 



Editor's Note:— This is the thirteenth in a series of important and very valuable articles by Mr. Maxwell on wood and its 
uses. The series will thoroughly cover the various phases of the subject, from the beginnings in the forest through the processes 
of logging, lumbering, transportation and milling, considering in detail the whole field of the utilization and manufacture of wood. 



THE cooperage industry includes the manufacture of 
barrels, kegs, staves, heading, hoops, and other 
articles made of staves. 
The growth or decline of this industry from year to 
year cannot be conveniently shown, because the govern- 
ment compiles statistics only every five or ten years, and 
the cooperage 
a s s o c i ations 
have never 
brought figures 
together except 
in the most 
superficial way. 
It is known, 
however, that 
the cooperage 
industry is 
fairly stable 
and does not 
vary much 
from year to 
year. The 
greatest influ- 
ence recently 
has been the 
p r o h i b i tion 
movement 
which has 
t h r eatened to 
lessen the de- 
mand for bar- 
rels for spirit- 
uous liquors. 
Such barrels 
const itute a 
rather small 
part of the 
cooperage in- 
dustry as a 
whole, and the 
diminution in the output of whiskey barrels will not 
greatly lessen the cooperage production in the country. 
Similar changes have taken place before in the cooper- 
age business, as in the substitution of bags for barrels 
for cement, sugar, and flour; and pipelines and tankcars 
in place of barrels in the transportation of oil. In spite 
of such changes and fluctuations, the cooperage business 
has moved steadily on. What has been lost in one direc- 
tion has been made up in another. 




A MODERN WINE CELLAR 

This wine storage room is underground at the Cresta Blanca Winery, Livermore, California. A peculiar 
and very high-class of cooperage is used, the heads of the casks being oval instead of circular. The 
underground tunnel assures an even temperature and contributes to the perfection of the wine. Photo- 
graph by courtesy of the California Grape Protective Association, San Francisco. 



There are two kinds of cooperage, commonly dis- 
tinguished as "tight" and "slack." Tight vessels are 
intended for liquids ; slack for dry articles. Classes and 
grades come between the two extremes. The barrel that 
carries alcoholic liquors is considered the highest class of 
tight cooperage, while the vegetable barrel is typical of 

slack contain- 
ers. The slack 
barrel end of 
the business is 
the larger, 
judged by 
quantity of 
wood required 
in manufactur- 
ing the prod- 
uct ; but tight 
barrels demand 
a much higher 
grade of wood. 
The value of 
the slack stock 
used in the 
country is 
nearly fifty 
per cent more 
than the value 
of the tight 
material. Near- 
ly any wood is 
s u i t a ble for 
some kind of 
slack cooper- 
age, but only a 
few are ser- 
v i c e able for 
tight. 

A 1 1 cooper- 
age whet her 
tight or slack 
is made up of three parts, the staves, the heading, and 
the hoops. No barrel is constructed without all three of 
these, though certain patterns of veneer drums combine 
the staves and the hoops in the wooden sheet that forms 
the body of the vessel. No well defined line of demarka- 
tion separates the barrel from the hamper or stave basket, 
and sometimes it is not easy to say which is which. The 
manufacturing of the three parts often constitutes three 
separate industries, a mill or factory confining itself to 



UN 



THE USES OF WOOD 



1209 




A LABORATORY BARREL TEST 

The pressure is applied within and the amount of it is recorded for future reference. 
When the force becomes too great for the strength of the wood, the staves are forced 
apart or they break, or the head gives way, or the hoops may break and the barrel 
go to smash, which of course puts an end to the test. 



one of them alone. The three parts are often brought 
together by the user who assembles them as the barrels 
are needed ; but not infrequently a single factory turns 
out finished barrels which are then distributed to the 
users. The woods for the three parts are not always 
interchangeable. Heading woods may not be satisfactory 
for staves ; that for staves may be objectionable for head- 
ing; while hoop woods are not wanted for heading or 
staves. Steel is being substituted for wood in 
cooperage, there being steel barrels without a par- 
ticle of wood ; but the most common substitution 
is wire or strap metal for hoops. 

In the year 1909 there were in the United 
States 1,506 establishments producing slack coop- 
erage. They manufactured 2,029,548,000 staves, 
140,234,000 sets of heading, and 375,793,000 
hoops. Usually sixteen slack staves, two sets of 
heading, and from four to eight hoops make a 
barrel, but great variation occurs in different 
kinds of barrels and kegs. The values in the 
United States in 1900 were, staves, $11,477,399; 
heading, $6,138,881 ; hoops, $2,578,845. The 
following list shows the woods from which the 
slack staves were made, and the number made 
from each : 

Red gum, 416,570,000; pine, 306,621,000; 
beech, 268,237,000; elm, 245,172,000; maple, 
1 33.255,ooo; chestnut, 93,290,000; birch, 78,897,- 
000; basswood, 72,537,000; spruce, 72,219,000; 
ash, 71,705,000; oak, 66,675,000; cottonwood, 
66,260,000; tamarack, 28,832,000; cypress, 25,- 
673,000; tupelo, 22,500,000; sycamore, 17,831,- 
000; hemlock, 10,376,000; cedar, 9,410,000; yel- 



low poplar, 7,851,000; balsam, 6,037,000; Doug- 
las fir, 5,165,000; willow, 3,287,000; all other, 
1,128,000; total, 2,029,548,000. 

Room exists for considerable choice of wood 
for staves in slack cooperage, but not so much 
for containers of liquids. Flour barrels were 
once made principally of cottonwood staves, but 
elm has proved to be a good substitute. A white 
wood that presents a clean appearance is wanted, 
and it must be tough enough and strong enough 
to carry the load. It must be free from odor or 
taste that might injure the contents. The sugar 
barrel demands material of the same kind. 

Red gum leads all other woods because it is 
abundant and satisfactory. The shippers of but- 
ter, lard, meat, and other food products select 
the most suitable woods for their barrels. Custom 
has much to do with it, but not all ; for it is 
easy to understand that a pine barrel might taint 
food with the taste of turpentine. The hard- 
woods are demanded in three times the number 
for slack barrels as are the softwoods ; yet many 
commodities go to market in softwood barrels 
and kegs. Scrub pine is used for nail kegs and 
for containers of other small hardware. Timber 
which is fit for little else, and poles only a few 
inches in diameter, are sawed into staves. 

All of the stave woods listed above are likewise used 
for heading, except cypress ; but pine heading is con- 
sumed in twice the amount of any other, and beech stands 
second, with red gum third. The heads of various sizes 
are cut with special machines. Slabs from sawmills, are 
cut in rather large quantities into heading, and by com- 
bining a slack cooperage operation with lumber pro- 




HARD BUMPS IN PROSPECT 



This test was made at Madison, Wisconsin, by the Government, the purpose being 
to determine how much tumbling and bumping a filled barrel will stand before it 
bursts. Barrels get such treatment as this while being loaded and unloaded in the 
process of transportation by wagons, boats, steam trains and other methods. 



1210 



AMKRICAN FORESTRY 



duction, better utilization of the wood is secured. The 
coopers use the waste from the sawmill. Short and 
defective logs can be worked into staves and heading. 
Michigan leads all other states in slack cooperage pro- 
duction. 

In the production of hoops, Ohio leads all other states, 
and is followed in the order named by Indiana, Michigan, 
Missouri, and 
Arkansas. 
Woods suitable 
for hoops are 
not so numer- 
ous as those 
for staves and 
heading. 
Toughness and 
strength are es- 
sential in hoop 
woods, for the 
hoop must 
bend without 
breaking. Fol- 
lowing is a list 
of hoop woods 
and the annual 
outputof hoops 
from each in 
the United 
States : 

Elm, 339,- 
477,000 ; red 
gum, 9,877,- 
000 ; pine, 8,- 
321,000; birch 
6,051,000; 
beech, 3,560,- 
000 ; ash 2,020,- 
000; oak 1,160,- 
000 ; maple, 
731,000 ; 
spruce, 106,- 
000; bass wood, 
30,000 ; cedar, 
5,000. 

Though 
these figures 
were published 
under govern- 
ment authority, 
those purport- 
ing to give the 
production of 
pine hoops 
have been 
questioned by manufacturers who do not believe that so 
many pine hoops are made. The unfitness of pine for 
hoops throws suspicion on the figures. 

Two styles of wooden hoops are in use, the coiled and 
the straight. The coiled hoop is manufactured from logs, 




WHITE FIR KEG FOR SHIPPING GRAPES 

This product, both container and contained, is of California origin. The packing for the grapes is redwood 
sawdust instead of cork dust which is used in Spain in packing grapes for export. Large numbers of 
fir kegs are required by the shippers of grapes from the Pacific Coast to the eastern states and to foreign 
countries. Photograph by courtesy of the California Barrel Company. 



the wood being elm almosl exclusively; and the straight 
hoop may be so made, or it may be shaved from little 
saplings called hoop poles, each large enough for one or 
two hoops. If two hoops are made from the pole, it is 
first split down the center and a hoop is shaved from each 
half. The making of hoops from hoop poles was one of 
the earliest wood-using industries of America, and the 

history of the 
business would 
read like a 
romance, 
though it deals 
with no very 
startling events. 
Some of the 
earliest hoops 
made in this 
country bound 
fish casks in 
New England, 
tar barrels in 
the Carolinas, 
and tobacco 
hogs heads in 
Virginia and 
Maryland. . A 
number of 
woods were 
available for 
this commodi- 
ty. In New 
England the 
long, pliant 
whips of white 
or old field birch 
(Betula popn- 
U folia) were 
the best, and 
most of them 
still wore the 
bark on one 
side when they 
went on the 
barrel or keg. 
Further south 
hickory held 
its ground 
r.s a hoop pole 
wood against 
all rivals; and 
very early in 
Virginia's his- 
tory a writer 
sou nded the 
warning that so many choice young hickories were being 
made into hoops for tobacco hogsheads, that future 
hickory forests would suffer. Frequently thirty or forty 
hoops were used on one hogshead ; not all at once, but it 
was the custom to cut off the hoops and expose the tobacco 



THE USES OF WOOD 



1211 




CARVED HEAD OF AN OVAL CASK 

California wine makers take much pride in their oval casks which are 
of large size and great strength. The carving on the one here shown is 
a work of art. It is in the cellar of the Beringer Brothers, St. Helena, 
California. It was on exhibition at the San Francisco world's fair. 
Photograph by H. F. Stoll, secretary of the California Grape Protective 
Association. 

to view whenever a prospective buyer appeared, and 
afterwards replace the staves and put on new hoops. 

The hoop pole business was once active in nearly all 
the eastern and middle western communities, and the 
name "Hooppole" is carried by more than one county to 
perpetuate the memory of an early flourishing business 




A TYPICAL MOUNTAIN STAVE MILL 

Small plants like the one here featured are located near the source of 
timber supply, and after working up what is in easy reach, move on to 
another location and there repeat the process. The bolts are usually split 
in the woods and hauled by teams, or on cheap tramways, to the mill 
that saws the staves. It is an Arkansas scene. 

in this branch of cooperage. A number of woods, be- 
sides birch and hickory, are good for hoop poles. 

Extensive use is made of barrels and kegs as shipping 
containers, and in some places they compete with boxes 
while in others they hold the field to themselves. The 
life of a barrel is put down at one year by the trade, but 
that is not enough. A majority of barrels are used many 
times. They begin as sugar or flour barrels, and are then 
sold to the farmer for shipping his produce to market. It 



may be said that they are returned to him several times, 
carrying potatoes to the market on the first trip, and 
tobacco or lettuce on the next, each cargo being lighter in 
weight than the previous one, owing to the weakened 
condition of the barrel. Finally the barrel may serve 
out its life work as a trash receptacle, and in the end can 
be used for fuel. Thus it may be said that a barrel fills* 




HOUSE MADE OF BARRELS 

Empty barrels may serve purposes never meant by the makers. Above 
is a picture of a human abode constructed of barrels, near Evanston, 
Illinois. It was occupied by junk dealers as a home during several 
months, including winter weather when the thermometer fell to 19 below 
zero. Tarred paper served as a roof and a stove furnished heat. 

as useful a career as almost any other manufactured 
article, and its life is much longer than a season. 

The demand for barrels is constantly growing, because 
modern machinery has made it possible to make them for 
the trade cheaper than almost any other form of durable 
package. That it is the most convenient form of pack- 
age' has long been acknowledged. 

The heaviest demand comes from the cement business, 
and flour ranks next, closely followed by sugar and salt. 




WHY BARRELS OF WHITE OAK DO NOT LEAK 

Alcoholic liquors seep through the staves of most woods but not those of 
white oak, because its pores are plugged by a growth called tylosis. 
The above picture is from a highly magnified photograph of this growth 
in process of plugging white oak pores, preparing the wood for "tight 
cooperage." The illustration is by Miss Eloise Gerry in the Journal of 
Agricultural Research. 



1212 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



As containers for fence staples, bolts, nuts, nails, and 
packages for roasted coffee, spices, crockery, fruits, and 
vegetables, they follow in the order named. Glass manu- 
facturers, baking powder companies, liquor distillers, 
and candy, tobacco, and cheese packers are big users of 
barrels. The demand for barrels for molasses, oil, lard, 
and pork, is also enormous, while dry paint, glue, snuff, 
oatmeal, screws, castings, and general hardware articles 
annually increase the demand on the cooperage supply. 
Some woods are waterproof, others are not. Alcoholic 
liquors and 
some oils will 
pass through 
the pores of 
some woods 
where water 
will not go. The 
wood of which 
a whiskey bar- 
rel is made may 
absorb a gal- 
lon of whiskey, 
without any 
passing through 
the staves and 
escaping. Some 
woods are so 
porous that 
barrels made 
of them will 
not hold water 
very long. 
Coopers learn- 
ed by experi- 
ence that cer- 
tain kinds of 
wood made 
better s t a ves 
than others, 
when the bar- 
rels were in- 
lended for 
liquid. It was 
wholly a mat- 
ter of experi- 
ence at first, 
but later the 
m i c r o s c op~e 
helped to ex- 
plain why some 
are proof 
against seepage 
and others are not. All wood is more or less porous. 
It is made up of hollow cells, connected one with another 
by small openings, all microscopic in size; but some of 
the hardwoods have openings much larger than cells. 
They are tubes running through the wood, up and down 
the trunk of the tree, and are called pores or vessels. 
Some of them, as in oak and ash, are large enough to be 
seen by the unaided eye, by inspecting the end of a 




GAUGING PRESSURE ON THE BARREL'S SIDE 

When barrels are carried in the holds of ships and in barges they are often piled one upon another ten 
feet high or more. Not infrequently the superincumbent weight breaks the barrels in the lower tier. 
This test was made to obtain an idea what barrels lying on their sides will bear. 



freshly cut stick. These pores are responsible for the 
fact that some barrels will not hold liquid. It seeps 
into the pores and flows along them until it passes en- 
tirely through the staves and escapes. That is why 
wood with large open pores is not suitable for tight 
barrels. 

White oak has always been considered the best tight 
cooperage wood. Many years ago it was thought that 
no other could or should be used for certain liquid com- 
modities, but others have lately come into use. Yet, white 

oak has large 
pores, and a 
casual observer 
noting that 
c h a racteristic 
wouldconclude 
that it is not 
good for tight 
barrels, but ex- 
perience shows 
it to be good. 
Though it has 
large pores 
which may be 
easily seen, 
they are not 
open. They are 
closed as a bot- 
tle is closed 
with a cork, 
and liquid can- 
not enter. The 
plugging sub- 
stance, which 
is known as 
tylosis, is of a 
whitish color 
and is deposit- 
ed in the pores 
by the wood 
itself, in the 
progress of the 
tree's growth 
and maturity. 
It occurs prin- 
cipally after 
the sapwood 
has changed 
into heartwood. 
Red oak's pores 
are not plugged. 
Therefore, red 
oak is not suitable for the best kinds of tight cooperage. 
The condition of the pores, whether they are plugged 
or not, explains why fewer woods are available for tight 
than for slack cooperage. The following table gives the 
kinds and the number of tight staves made from each 
of several woods annually in this country : 

White oak, 217,019,000; red oak, 30,619,000; basswood, 
30,589,000 ; gum, 23,566,000 ; pine, 20,648,000 ; ash, 5,568,- 



THE USES OF WOOD 



1213 




SHOOKS READY FOR SHIPMENT 

A barrel consists of three parts, the staves, the 
heading and the hoops. That is true for all 
wooden barrels whether they are for dry com- 
modities or for liquids. The bundled material 
sufficient for one barrel is called a shook. It is 
much cheaper to ship a shook than the barrel 
after it has been set up and completed as a 
barrel. 



ooo; all other, 13,250,000; total, 341,- 
250,000. 

Only the best wood is used as bar- 
rels for alcoholic liquors; but some 
other woods will do for other kinds 




A BUNG BORING MACHINE 

Coopers have machines for nearly everything 
they do. The boring of bungs is shown in the 
above picture. The machine is designed to "bore 
and bush" in the same operation. The boring 
is a particular piece of work and if it is not 
done exactly right there will be trouble with 
leaks later when the barrels are filled with beer. 
Hand boring is apt to be defective. 



of liquors, such as brine for pork, 
vinegar for pickles, and for certain 
oils. 

Tight barrels are of several sizes. 
The strongest, heaviest staves are 
for beer barrels and kegs. The 
staves are manufactured by sev- 
eral different processes and are 
named accordingly, as sawed, hew- 
ed, and bucked and split. The tight 
cooperage industry is well distribut- 
ed over the country but is more im- 
portant in some sections than in 
others, depending largely upon the 
available supply of suitable timber 
in the various parts of the country. 
The leading states in annual pro- 
duction of tight staves are here 
given : 

Arkansas, 87,582,000; Kentucky, 
45,694,000; West Virginia, 40,402,- 
000; Mississippi, 39,052,000; Ten- 
nessee, 35,744,000; Ohio, 26,534,- 
000; Missouri, 22,420,000. 

The waste of wood in the manu- 
facture of tight staves in the past 
has been very great, but it is not 
now so great as formerly, because 
utilization is closer, and material 
which would have been thrown 
away formerly is now converted 
into other products. Much of the 
finest oak of the country was cut 
for staves in past years. The 
makers of this commodity went 
ahead of lumbermen in new terri- 
tory, and being first in the oak re- 
gion, they naturally selected the best 
oak trees, took the choicest portions 
of the trunks, and rejected the rest. 
They made no attempt to use 
wood which did not split well, and 
the stave maker's verdict: "It 
won't rive," was final and consigned 
the tree to the waste heap. It meant 
the abandonment of an oak trunk 
which might contain 3,000 or even 
5,000 feet of lumber. That does 
not often occur now, for a sawmill 
is usually within reach and what 
cannot be split for staves can be 
sawed for lumber, or the logs may 
be sent to a mill equipped to saw 
staves or heading. 

It was once a common situation 
in forests where stave makers were 
operating for the ground to be cov- 
ered with . refuse billets and bolts 
which were left to rot because they 




EXAMPLE OF TIGHT COOPERAGE 

The barrel here shown illustrates the class of 
cooperage known as tight. The barrels are in- 
tended to hold liquids. Not only must the joints 
be leak-proof, but the wood must not permit 
seepage through the pores. This barrel is of 
white oak, which is the highest grade of wood 
for tight cooperage. 



were not just what the operator want- 
ed. The workmen had no compunction 
when they left on the ground enough 
oak to make a thousand staves. Good 
trees were plentiful, and the stave 
makers turned their backs upon heaps 
of slightly defective bolts and went to 
work with their axes to fell other 




A BARREL TRUSSER AT WORK 

Machines have been devised and perfected for 
doing most parts of barrel making. The hand 
workman formerly did it all, from felling the 
tree to finishing the barrel, but appliances have 
been invented which need only to be set in 
motion and directed by the brain of man, and 
they will do the rest. 



1214 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




FIFTY-THOUSAND GALLON REDWOOD TANKS 

R XooTwl™yetbe^ ^ Hercules Powder. Company at Sa„ Die*,, Ca.ifornia. 

was supplied for .his illustration by the CalifonTa Redwood Assocfation! closeness with winch Us Joint, may be fitted. The photograph 




BARRELS WHICH HAVE SEEN BETTER DAYS AND BETTER DUTY 

^ig^nZ^&jir&^L™ l , heTht e ,o^Pn:? ,i i ru n „ O k r noi e n e bur,, ,0Cali,y *.&»*,*?• «* ,he •—-««, mm not be disturbed 

tne pnotograpncr is unknown, but the camera told an interest.ng story. It needs no embellishment. 



THE USES OF WOOD 



1215 




SETTING UP THE SLACK BARREL 

Shocks are often made near the source of the timber, but the barrel is frequently put together and com- 
pleted near the place where it is to be used. Skilled hands can do the work very rapidly. The illustra- 
tion shows apple barrels and is from the catalogue of J. D. Hollingshead, Louisville, Kenutcky. 



he could do all the work with- 
out going outside of his own 
family for assistance. Some 
stave making is still done along 
similar lines, but not much. Oak 
stumpage now has value, and it 
is pretty hard to carry on the 
smallest operation without the in- 
vestment of some cash capital. 
Less dependence is placed on 
hand labor than formerly and 
more in machinery ; and ma- 
chines are expensive. 

Bungs and faucets are listed 
as cooperage though they are 
sometimes considered as belong- 
ing to the subdivision of wood- 
enware which is regarded as a 
separate industry. The bung 
closes the opening in the barrel ; 
a spile or spiler is a small plug 
for closing a vent in a barrel 
or cask ; while a faucet or spigot 
is a contrivance for drawing 



trees. Even when the operator 
had no fault to find with his tim- 
ber, he usually left twice as much 
on the ground as waste as he took 
away as staves. Families living 
near the stave operations in the 
forests often secure sufficient 
waste oak to provide household 
fuel for years ; and most of it 
wa-, of such high grade stuff that 
it would have passed inspection 
by any furniture factory, had it 
been sawed into lumber instead 
of being split and slaughtered in 
the process of stave making. 

Staves were saleable at good 
prices at a time and in 
regions where no market for 
lumber existed, and for that 
reason the stave operator was 
in advance of the lumber- 
man in new country. Little capi- 
tal was required in making staves 
when the farmer owned plenty 
of good oak timber, could buy a 
crosscut saw for eight dollars, 
an ax for a dollar, iron wedges 
for a dollar, a free for the same, 
and could make his own maul, 
mallet, and wooden gluts ; and 
the fork of a log served him for 
a riving horse. Thus equipped, 
he was ready for business. He 
had few labor bills to pay, for 




Shows manner of split- 
ting timber into stave 
bolts where timber is of 
small diameter. 




Stave bolt quartered and 
heart split off. 




Shows manner of saw- 
ing pieces of heading from 
Bdlt by the'Head Sawing 
Machine. They are cut 1 
inch thick upon sap, 54 
inch thick at the heart, 24 
inches long. Two or three 
pieces are required to 
form a complete head. 






Shows manner of split- 
ting section for timber of 
large diameter into stave 
bolts. In making staves, 
as well as heading bolts, 
for oil and other tight 
work, it is ever and always 
necessary to keep with the 
grain of wood. 



Shows manner of saw- 
ing staves upon a cylinder 
stave machine. 



Shows section of log as 
cut, 3 feet long, for stave 
bolt. 




Bolt cut to uniform 
length on Bolt Equalizer 
ready for cylinder stave 
sawing machine. 




Shows heading prepared 
from tree same as in stave 
bolt. 



THE PROCESS OF SPLITTING STAVES 

Art, science and experience are necessary in the production of the best split staves. More skill is 
required to make them with maul, mallet and froe, than with saws. The accompanying series of 
diagrams is from the catalogue of the Oram Barrel Machinery Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 



1216 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




THE CHINE TEST FOR BARRELS 
The load is not applied squarely on the head or squarely on the side, 
but on the barrel's chine. Hoops and staves are alike subjected to the 
strain. This barrel stood about 17,500 
pounds. The test was made at the govern- 
ment laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, 
and was ce of a series on tight barrels. 



liquids from a barrel. The 
manufacture of these small 
wooden articles requires more 
than 21,000,000 feet of lumber a 
year, ninety per cent of which 
is yellow poplar which is the 
best bung wood known. It con- 
tains no hard and soft streaks, 
therefore, it may be cut with a 
smooth surface which insures a 
close fit without leakage. The 
wood is dense enough to prevent 
liquids from seeping through, 
but it imbibes sufficient moisture 
to swell the wood, insuring a still 
closer fit. Walnut and red gum 
have been used to a limited ex- 
tent for bungs and are quite 
satisfactory. Bungs are cut by 



machinery from lumber an inch or more in thickness. A 
larger quantity is made in Cincinnati, Ohio, than in all 
the rest of the United States combined. 

The faucet is seldom sold along with the barrel but 
is a separate article. It is made in many patterns and 
of many woods, among them being white pine, spruce, 
maple,, birch, beech, red gum, redwood, chestnut, cedar, 
walnut, and rosewood. A superstition formerly was to 
be met with that the wood of which a spigot was made 
exercised an influence upon the liquid which flowed 
through it; and for that reason molasses should be drawn 
through a maple spigot only, beer through one of birch, 
and cider through one of applewood. The applewood 
spigot was strongly insisted upon for cider, and it has 
been currently believed that much applewood is still con- 
sumed in the manufacture of faucets for cider barrels. 
The superstition must have lost its power if it ever had 
any, for an examination of statistical reports of wood- 
working does not show the use of a single foot of apple- 
wood for faucets in the United States. Sailors along the 
Atlantic coast in early years insisted upon equipping their 
water casks with white cedar faucets because of the 
reputed esoteric purifying qualities of the wood. Fish- 
ermen from New England and Canada, who drank spruce 
beer while on the New Foundland Banks, saw to it that 
their beer was drawn through no spigot but one made 
of spruce wood. 

Many small articles made of staves are commonly 
classed as woodenware rather than as cooperage, among 
such being pails, buckets, keelers, measures, tubs, tool- 
dishes, and piggins. These have bottoms but no heads. 
The exact definition is not very important, for cooperage 
is a term broad enough to include all of them. The 
making of cedar pails was once a very important occupa- 
tion in and about Philadelphia, the materials being both 
the white and the red cedars of that region, and the 
makers were known as "the cedar coopers." 




KEG STAVES OF CHESTNUT WOOD 
This photograph represents a scene in Maryland, and is published by the courtesy of F. W. Besley, state 
forester. The danger that chestnut forests would be speedily destroyed by blight induced many owners 
of such forests to work their timber into merchantable commodities as speedily as possible. ' 
makes excellent small staves. 



Chestnut 



TUSSOCK MOTH CATERPILLAR CAMPAIGN 



BY M. M. BURRIS, CITY FORESTER 



DURING the past few years the tussock moth cater- 
pillar has been doing very much damage to the 
shade trees of Trenton. Conditions were becoming 
unbearable. There were not sufficient funds to do any 
spraying on the street trees and so this pest continued 
its ravages unrelentlessly. 

There was but one thing to do — to collect and destroy 
the egg-masses on the cocoons. We followed the same 
procedure as in our bird house building contest and 
enlisted the services of the school children in a campaign 

to pick egg- 
masses, with the 
hearty co-opera- 
tion of the Com- 
missioner of 
Parks Burk, and 
Miss Ruth Scott, 
Director of Na- 




and habits of this pest, the damage done by it and the 
methods of eradicating it. The children were all inter- 
ested, and promised to do their bit. The moving picture 
houses were of great assistance to the cause by showing 
caterpillar slides, which were prepared by us. 

Through experience in the past, we discovered that 
prizes form a great incentive to children, and to prove 
to the children that the citizens of Trenton were actively 
interested in this campaign, it was decided to have some 
of the merchants offer prizes. The moving picture houses 
were first to of- 
fer prizes. Eight 
theatres offered 
three prizes 
each ; first prize, 
free admission 
for a three 
months' period ; 



THE VICTOR AND SOME OF THE SPOILS 

Kmil Jantz, a pupil of the McClellan School, 
who ranked highest in the number of individual 
is collected. 



ture Study in the Public Schools. 

A meeting was called for January 
28, which was attended by every 
principal and teacher interested in 
the preservation of our trees. Com- 
missioner Burk and I explained the 
purpose of the meeting and spoke of 
the destructive work of the tussock moth caterpillar. 
Enthusiasm prevailed and the teachers and principals 
pledged their support to this campaign, which was de- 
cided upon to start on February .10. 

We visited the various schools and spoke to the chil- 
dren on the tussock moth caterpillar. An excellent 
set of lantern slides was procured showing the life 





HARD AT WORK 

Pupils of the Harrison School busily engaged col- 
lecting the cocoons. Paper bags were often used 
as containers. 



ROOSTING HIGH 

These are some of the boys who worked so en- 
thusiastically and successfully in Trenton's 
tussock moth caterpillar campaign. 



second prize, free admission for a 
period • of two months, and third 
prize, free admission for a period of 
one month. In a short time we re- 
ceived 50 offers of prizes, ranging 
from a ton of coal to a pair of roller 
skates. Commissioner Burk also 
offered bronze and silver buttons to the boys and girls 
picking upwards of 500 cocoons. 

The campaign started on February 10 and ended on 
May 1. During this period of less than three months, 
the total number of cocoons collected amounted to 
2,961,932. The number of children having picked more 
than 500 cocoons was 421. Emil Jantz, led with 243,529; 

1217 



1218 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



Aoner Robinson collected 235,464; Benjamin Palby, 
213,550; George Nelson, 190,315; Elmer Manesevitz, 
158,500; Joseph Boduar, 126,392; Alex Elias, 106,347. 
These figures talk for themselves. The campaign was 
truly a successful one. The children are interested, and 
are becoming more and more enthusiastic about trees. 



Surely, these youngsters, in years to come, will be 
educated to the beauty and value of shade trees, and 
will see to it that the shade trees of this city are not 
neglected. The Trenton Times gave lots of publicity 
to the campaign and contributed in this way very sub- 
stantially to its success. 



FOREST INVESTIGATION 



FOR some time there has been a growing conviction 
on the part of foresters in the United States that 
the amount of silvical research conducted by all 
agencies, including the Federal Government, is very in- 
adequate. The war has emphasized this more than ever. 

The southern pine region is still our largest center of 
lumber production, and the naval stores industry, even 
though it has materially declined in the last 20 years, is 
still the world's largest center of naval stores production. 
The growing area of cut-over land in the South which 
is not being utilized for agriculture and on which for- 
est production, if there is any, is largely an accident, 
calls among other things for a much greater effort in 
forest research than has ever before been possible. Aside 
from the small amount of work which has been done by 
the Forest Service on the Florida National Forest and 
in co-operation with one agricultural station and in gen- 
eral studies, practically nothing has been done. Of funda- 
mental forest research in the southern pineries there has 
been little Or none. The South can be continued as one 
of our most important timber producing regions, but 
one basis for this must be a better knowledge of how 
to practice forestry. 

Hardwood production in the United States is cen- 
tered very largely in the Appalachians and neighboring 
States. This field has been covered during the past 25 
years by a series of investigations which have helped to 
answer immediate questions, but fundamental problems 
at the basis of the practice of forestry have hardly been 
touched. A very large acreage in this region, because 
of topography and soil, is most suitable for timber pro- 
duction including the woodlot, as well as the larger areas 
in which can be grown timber for the general market. 
Practically unlimited markets are immediately at hand 
and close utilization is possible. The number of species 
is very large and practically all of them have well-estab- 
lished usages. In this diversified forest many problems 
of silviculture require solution and some provision should 
be made for attacking them on an adequate scale. 

Similarly in the Lake States comparatively little has 
been done to lay the foundations for the practice of for- 
estry on the large areas of potential timberland which 
are now so largely waste. Continued timber production 
of both softwoods and hardwoods is possible on a large 
scale, but on the basis of present attempts at forest 
research the foundation for proper silvicultural methods 
can not be laid for many years to come. 

In New England there is a limited amount of forest 
research under way by a considerable number of agencies, 



no one of which is covering the field adequately. The 
Federal Government is doing practically nothing. It is 
probable that a reasonable effort by the Federal Govern- 
ment in this region would serve to round out and stimulate 
and unify the activities of other agencies so that the for- 
estry problems of the New England States could be 
solved within a reasonable time. In this region, as we 
all know, the evolution of lumbering and the gradual 
drift towards forestry has gone further than anywhere 
else. We now have probably a better opportunity for 
the practice of forestry on private lands than in any other 
part of the United States, barring mandatory provisions. 

Even in the West, to which the research activities of 
the Forest Service have had to be mainly directed during 
the last 10 or 15 years because of the necessity of infor- 
mation on which to base silvicultural practice in the 
National Forests, the extent of the work has been far 
from satisfactory. Within the last five years in order 
to put the work on a satisfactory basis at fewer places it 
has been necessary to reduce the work in California very 
materially, this in spite of the importance of the prob- 
lems which are pressing for immediate solution. The 
work in California should again be taken up and in other 
parts of the West it should be materially enlarged. 

There are also other lines of forest investigation which 
relate equally to all regions, as for example, forest 
mathematics, a subject which received more or less atten- 
tion in. the Forest Service some years ago but which it 
has been impossible -to. -cover in any satisfactory way 
during the last four ormve years. Here we have such 
problems as forest growth and yield, volume tables, 
scaling problems, and mathematical relationships between 
height, the diameter, volume, and form of trees, a large 
and important field on which the efforts of a number of 
men could be devoted for a number of years with results 
of the greatest importance to foresters and to the forest 
industries. There is another group of problems which 
could well be centered at a forest research laboratory, 
such as fundamental seed studies and forest biological 
studies in general. 

The time has now come for much closer co-operation 
in forest research between the Federal Government, the 
States, the forest schools of high standing, and the State 
Experiment Stations, with the latter particularly on wood- 
lot problems. Much more can be accomplished by some 
attempt at unification of effort of reasonable Federal 
assistance to the States or forest schools on lines of 
work mutually agreed upon, either in the loan of men or 
the allotment of funds, or in such other form as may 



PAID IN FULL 



1219 



seem most advisable. Such co-operation should, there- 
fore, be recognized as an essential part of the general 
program of enlarged forest research in the United States. 
It should be recognized that the success of the efforts 
to secure adequate recognition for this work must depend 
in a very material degree upon the demand for the 
work outside of the Federal Forest Service. The pres- 
ent Federal appropriations for silvical research as ap- 
proved by the House at the short session of Congress is 
about $78,000. The Senate Committee added $25,000 to 
this amount. It is believed that the general program 
above outlined could be carried out by an increase of this 
appropriation to $200,000, and at the next session of 
Congress an effort will be made to have this amount 
appropriated for the work. 



PAID IN FULL 

THE following is a brief sketch of Captain Homer 
A Smith Youngs, forestry official and university pro- 
fessor, who gave his life as the salient of St. Mihiel 
was wrested from the grasp of the Hun : Born in 
Stillman Valley, Illinois, September 26, 1892. Gradu- 
ated from Belvidere, Illinois, High School. Enrolled 
in the University of Idaho School of Forestry, Sep- 
tember, 1 910, where he won highest honors both 
as a student and a marksman, and specialized in 
Forest Engineering and in Grazing. Accepting a position 
with the Forest Service, District 4, as Chief of Party 
in charge of primary triangulation, he prepared the base 
maps for grazing reconnaissance on which he was later 
engaged for some time. Early in 1916 he was appointed 
Grazing Examiner for District 1, with headquarters at 
Missoula, resigning in September of that year to accept 
a teaching position in forestry at his Alma Mater. 

On January 5, 1917, he was married to Anne Geral- 
dine Parker, of Los Angeles, and in the same month he 
passed the examination for second lieutenant, receiving 
his Commission April 1. On May 15 he was ordered to 
the Presidio at San Francisco and was commissioned 
first lieutenant on June 5. On August 29 he sailed from 
Hoboken to join the 16th Infantry, which had crossed 
with General Pershing in July, and first saw active ser- 
vice at the front in November, 1917, where he distinguish- 
ed himself as a sniper because of his unusually accurate 
long-range marksmanship. In December he was sent to 
a British Army Scouting School for further training in 
methods of scouting and sniping, this training being 
further supplemented by observation and patrolling in 
the British trenches at the front. He received his cap- 
taincy on January 1, 1918, and on returning to his regi- 
ment was made regimental intelligence officer, in which 
position, he had charge of most of the patrols that went 
out from his Division — the famous First Division of the 
First Army. At Picardy he was seriously gassed and 
in the hospital for six weeks but again joined his regi- 
ment on the Champagne front where a shell, which ex- 



ploded in a dugout containing three officers, killed the 
other two and left Captain Youngs unconscious and ser- 
iously injured from shell-shock. After two months in 
Base Hospital No. 8 he again joined his regiment on 
September 1, and on September 30, in the great battle of 
St. Mihiel, he went over the top for the last time fighting 
in the Argonne Forest until October 4, when he received 
a severe wound in his right shoulder severing nerves 
which necessitated the amputation of his right arm on 
October 30. He was never able to bear the strain of 




A FOREST HERO OF THE WAR 
Capt. Homer Smith Youngs, Co. E, 16th U. S. Infantry. 

moving to a base hospital and on November 23 blood- 
transfusion was resorted to but he died on the morning 
of November 24, 1918. He now sleeps in Brizeaux 
Village, just south of the Argonne Forest. 

He leaves a young son, Homer Smith Youngs, Jr., 
whom he had never seen. 

Without ostentation, but with dispatch and thorough- 
ness, fearlessly and dauntlessly, his work was done. 
Those who knew him best loved and trusted him most. 
He died in the service of his country which he loved so 
well, and of whose splendid young manhood he was 
such a perfect type in every sense. His life ; his ex- 
ample; his supreme sacrifice, should not be permitted 



1220 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



to fade from the memory of American foresters and 
all those who enjoy the blessings of liberty and justice 
vouchsafed by such as he. 

His friend and teacher, 

C. H. Shattuck, 



A GARDEN OF THE BRAVE 
By Vilda Sauvage Owens, in The New York Times 

I sometimes dream that in the years to he, 
When France shall rise once more, resplendent, free, 
One lovely corner there shall be a grave — 
A Garden of the Brave. 

And in my dream I see a quiet nook, 
That nestles by a silver, running brook. 
Brave Belgians sleep within this lovely spot, 
'Neath blue forget-me-not. 

And close beside, where all is rest and peace, 
Acre on acre of the fleur de lis. 
Here where the very angels watch are keeping, 
The sons of France lie sleeping. 

Great masses of the wondrous wattle here, 
Where stanch Australians rest. And very near, 
A mighty avenue of maple trees, 
All gold and crimson, fling with every breeze 
A cloud of little winged seeds, that fly 
Where brave Canadians lie. 

Beneath a coverlet of shamrock rest 
Old Ireland's sons, her bravest and her best 
And hark! The music of the pipes! They play 
Always where buried Scotchmen sleep, they say. 
And purple thistles whisper in the dells 
To bonnie heather bells. 

Old England's roses here, the white and red, 
Where sleep in countless graves her gallant dead. 
Here, too, the tiny English daises grow. 
The soldiers loved them so! 

And further still, a little nook, yet dear, 
The friendly sunbeams love to linger here, 
Where glowing California poppies nod, 
And yellow goldenrod. 

I dream that as the years move on apace, 
We'll fare as Pilgrims to this hallowed place, 
And pause beside each fragrant, flowering glade, 
Or rest beneath the leafy maples' shade, 
And hold communion there in love divine, 
And pray, as at a shrine! 



FOREST RESERVE FOR KENTUCKY 

rpHROUGH the gift of the Kentenia-Catron Corpora- 
■*■ tion, which owns thousands of acres in Eastern Ken- 
tucky, the State has acquired a forest reserve of 3,400 
acres on Pine Mountain, Harlan County. The land is not 
underlaid with coal and has no agricultural value. It is 
the first reserve the State has acquired and J. E. Barton, 
commissioner of forestry and geology, who has been try- 
ing for several years to secure such a tract, said that it 
will afford an excellent opportunity to demonstrate refor- 
estation and the proper method of propagating trees and 
lumbering. 



MORE AIRPLANE PATROLS FOR NATIONAL 
FORESTS 

'TUYO additional routes in the patrol of national forests 
- 1 by Army airplanes, to give early warnings of fires 
in the forests, have been arranged by the War Depart- 
ment and the Forest Service, United States Department 
of Agriculture. The routes will be operated from Mather 
Field, near Sacramento, and were placed in operation 
June i, on the same day as two routes operated from 
March Field, near Riverside, California. 

The first route from Mather Field covers the North- 
ern Eldorado and Tahoe Forests on the valley side of 
the Sierras. It starts from Mather Field and proceeds 
to Placerville, Colfax, Nevada City, Strawberry Valley 
and Oroville, where the planes land at available fields. 
This route is to be covered in the morning of each day 
and the return trip made in the afternoon. 

The second route from Mather Field covers the South- 
ern Eldorado and Stanislaus Forests. Starting from 
Mather Field, the route goes to Placerville, Grizzly Flat, 
Rig Trees and to a landing near Sonora or Tuolumne. 
This route is covered in the morning and return trips made 
in the afternoon. Both of the Mather Field routes have 
a round-trip length of about 150 miles. 

Forest Service reports tell of a successful trial patrol 
undertaken recently. No difficulty was experienced in 
detecting fires in heavy timber at elevations of 6000 to 
10,000 feet. 




PLANT MEMORIAL TREES 



THE ROOSEVELT REDWOOD— FITTING TRIBUTE TO OUR LATE 
EX-PRESIDENT 

A monument that has stood for ages and will stand for ages to come is the 
giant redwood tree in the Yosemlte Valley which bears the name of 
Roosevelt. A more fitting tribute in memory of our late ex-president can 
hardly be imagined. 



INSECTS IN THEIR RELATION TO FORESTRY 



BY DR. R. W. SHUFELDT, F. A. O. U., ETC., 

MEMBER BELGIAN ORDER OF ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM 

(PHOTOGRAPHS BY THE AUTHOR) 



FOR the past half century and more, the immense 
host of insects that are, to a greater or less degree, 
inimical to our forest, fruit, and shade trees, have 
been under investigation by entomologists in both public 
and private life. The indefatigable workers in the various 
Federal departments at 
Washington and elsewhere 
have contributed an enor- 
mous literature to this sub- 
ject, covering every line of 
research embodied in the 
science ; while the results 
they have achieved have 
been of the most incalcula- 
ble value, not only to the 
country at large, but to 
those interested in trees of 
all kinds anywhere. This 
is true irrespective as to 
whether the latter be repre- 
sented by our most exten- 
sive private or governmen- 
tal forest owners, or by one 
having but a few trees un- 
der his care in any part of 
the United States, or in 
neighboring countries, 
whereon such insects occur. 
As stated above, a large 
part of this literature, re- 
ferring to the various for- 
est-insect problems, has 
been published by the 
Government, and particu- 
larly by the Bureau of En- 
tomology of the United 
States Department of Agri- 
culture, of which Dr. L. O. 
Howard is the Chief. 
While a fairly generous 
supply of these bulletins 
and other publications are 
issued, they by no means 




Fig. 1. THE LARVA OR CATERPILLAR OF THE REGAL MOTH 
{Cilheronia rcgalis); NATURAL SIZE, FROM LIFE 



This elegant larva of the Regal or Royal Walnut 
green color, with black and white markings. 



are brilliant scarlet, tipped with black. 
leaves of the sycamore tree. 



reach all they should, nor 
supply the demand for them by those interested in the 
subject at large. This being the case, any extension of 
the knowledge of such matters, in any of its departments, 
should be regarded with favor; and to this end popu- 
larization of various phases of the science will, from time 
to time, be the object of this section of American 
Forestry. In this work the bulletins issued by the 



Forest Insect Investigations of the Bureau of Ento- 
mology, of which Dr. A. D. Hopkins is in charge, have 
been especially helpful, while in addition to such aid a 
great many actual observations, extending over many 
years, have been made by the present contributor in the 

fields and forests. The 
observed phenomena thus 
studied will all be incorpo- 
rated as the material is 
worked up and illustrated. 
Almost without exception 
the photographs of the 
matter described have been 
made from such material ; 
and where certain insects 
have not been easily ob- 
tainable, they have been 
generously loaned the 
writer from the duplicate 
series in the United States 
National Museum collec- 
tions. For such courtesies 
thanks are especially due 
to Drs. E. A. Schwarz and 
Harrison Dyar; to Messrs. 
Carl Heinrich, J. C. Craw- 
ford, H. S. Barber, and to 
others associated with them 
in the Bureau. 

From the various sources 
of information brought 
down to us from the earli- 
est time to the present day, 
certain primary facts have 
been established. In the 
first place, the list of insect 
forms that attack forest 
trees in this country is not 
an especially long one, 
when we come to consider 
the enormous array of 
species that are entirely in- 
nocent with respect to any 
such charge. Many insects 
attack trees that have no claim to be classed as forest 
trees; while a formidable list of insects commit their 
depredations upon certain shrubs and plants, and never 
have anything whatever to do with trees. There are 
insects that feed only upon the leaves of forest and shade 
trees, causing damage to that extent alone ; some of the 
bark beetles devote their attention to fully grown and 



Moth is of an intense 

Its curious pairs of "horns" 

It is seen here feeding on the 



1221 



1222 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



sound trees, while other species do so wholly to dead 
or dying ones, or to fallen trunks of them in the forests 
and elsewhere. Then the roots of forest trees also have 
their special enemies, while others destroy the bark. 

In so far as forest trees are concerned, perhaps the 
most destructive insects are the bark beetles, of which 
there are quite a large number of species. These beetles 
have, in times past, utterly destroyed forest trees cover- 
ing hundreds of square miles, and they are committing the 
same depredations at the present time. They bore 
through the bark of pine, spruce, hickory, fir, and other 
trees — full-grown, healthy trees — and subsequently com- 
pletely girdle their main 



trunks, which 
kills the tree 



ultimately 
so preyed 
upon. 

In passing through the 
vast pine forests of the 
Southern States, as the 
writer has frequently done, 
one may plainly see the 
fearful devastation wrought 
by the various invasions of 
the common pine beetle of 
the South. Hundreds of 
square miles of dead pine 
and spruce trees may be 
seen in various stages of 
decay, the death having 
been caused by this pest. 
We may even observe the 
same class of destruction 
in its various stages in cer- 
tain areas within the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Great 
quantities of useful timber 
have thus been lost to the 
country and the industries ; 
while we may note simi- 
lar destructive work in 
progress, and at all stages, 
due to the operations of 
the spruce beetle in the 
forests of those trees in 
northeastern United States 




Fig. 4. ONE OF THE OLDEST BLACK WALNUT TREES IN THE 
ENVIRONS OF WASHINGTON, AND ONE THAT HAS PROBABLY 
SEEN FIFTY SUMMERS COME AND GO 

Trees succumb from all sorts of causes. Old age has overtaken this one; 
but it has also been struck by lightning; partly strangled by vines; fur- 
nished food for thousands of larvae, and weathered the gales of half a 
century. 



and southeastern Canada. 



"This species," says Doctor Hopkins, "caused the death 
of a very large percentage of the mature spruce over an 
area of thousands of square miles. In the aggregate 
many billions of feet of the best timber were destroyed. 
The large areas of this dead timber furnished fuel for 
devastating forest fires, with the result that in most 
cases there was a total loss." 

More particulars on this vitally important subject will 
be brought out in future issues of American Forestry, 
as well as observations on the destruction now in progress 
in our North American forests due to the attacks of other 
species of insects and their larvae in still other regions. 

Passing from these few introductory remarks on for- 
est beetles to moths, we enter upon one of the most 



attractive fields of inquiry and observation in the entire 
realm of biology. As in the case of all the biological 
sciences, it has its large literature, illustrated by thou- 
sands upon thousands of plain and exquisitely colored 
figures ; while upon the other hand there is the entire 
world of nature ever standing open to the investigator 
for the verification of all that is set forth in that litera- 
ture, and offering at the same time no end of new 
material for study and description. All this is equally 
true of the butterflies — a group so closely allied to the 
moths that they appear to almost run into each other. 
Now, in a great many instances, the larva? of caterpillars 

of both moths and butter- 
flies feed upon the leaves 
of trees of many descrip- 
tions, those of our forests 
as well as the shade trees 
of our towns and cities. 
These insects may be 
studied with a great many 
objects in view; but this 
field is so extensive that to 
enter upon it in any satis- 
factory manner would re- 
sult in the presentation of 
material far exceeding the 
limitations of the space at 
our command in the pres- 
ent connection. However, 
such information will be 
forthcoming from time to 
time, while right here it is 
proposed to briefly intro- 
duce one of the very hand- 
somest moths in our insect 
fauna. This is the Regal 
or Royal Walnut moth, 
atheroma regalis of Fab- 
ricius (Figs. 2 and 3). Its 
caterpillar is a most re- 
markable looking creature, 
and it is here shown life- 
size in Figure 1. A sum- 
mer or two ago, Mrs. Bert 
S. Elliott, of Washington, D. C, was good enough to 
furnish me with more than a dozen living specimens of 
this grand larva of our Regal moth, they being trans- 
ported on a big limb of a sycamore tree, bearing a great 
quantity of fresh leaves, which latter constitutes one 
of their foods in nature. In a reproduced photograph, 
this caterpillar is a rather tame-looking affair as compared 
with the living animal. To appreciate this, one must 
indeed see it in life, with its shiny, pea-green body, orna- 
mented on the sides by an interrupted series of black and 
white markings ; its red head and tail-plates ; red and 
black feet, and its remarkable, double pair of curved, 
red and black horns on the segments just back of the 
head. Smaller horns, too, are seen elsewhere on the body, 
as shown in the cut. Country boys call this catterpillar 



INSECTS IN THEIR RELATION TO FORESTRY 



1223 



the "Hickory Horn-devil," and generally destroy it upon 
discovery. It has an average length of some five and a 
half inches, and is the largest caterpillar in our insect 
fauna. It does not spin a cocoon, as many other large 
caterpillars do; on the other hand, sometime in Sep- 
tember, it works its way under ground, there to be 




SPECIMEN IX THE COLLECTION OF 
THE DARK BROWN PUPA IS SHOWN TO THE 



Fig. 2. MALE REGAL MOTH. VIEWED FROM ABOVE 
THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
LEFT. BOTH REDUCED ABOUT ONE-THIRD. 

Here is an instance in the insect world where the male of the species is conspicuously 

mate (see Fig. 3). 



transformed into the pupa here shown, in Figure 2, from 
which it emerges during the following July as an elegant 
orange-red moth, with the dainty white and yellow mark- 
ings here seen in Figures 2 and 3. 

This caterpillar feeds upon the leaves of the butternut, 
hickory, persimmon, sumach (Rhus), sycamore, and 
walnut trees. Of the last-named 
we have a victim in Figure 4. 
This moth is rare in the North 
and nowhere abundant ; while in 
the State of Georgia it is said to 
be double-brooded. In this 
genus atheroma we have at 
least two more species of these 
big moths, namely the "Pine- 
devil moth" (C. sepulchralis) 
and the Mexican Walnut moth 
(C. mcxicana). Of the former 
Doctor Holland says : "It ranges 
from the Carolinas northward 
to Massachusetts along the coast. 
It is not common in the valley 
of the Potomac ; and at Berkeley 
Springs I have found it abund- 
ant in the larval state in the 
months of July and August." 

The third species is found in 
Arizona and northwestern Mex- 
ico. To rear and study this elegant moth — indeed, any 
of our large moths — one has but to place the larvae or 
caterpillars in a large and thoroughly clean pine box con- 
taining about a foot or more of soft, dark soil. The top 
should have a fine wire-mesh cover that can be readily 
removed. Fresh leaves of the sycamore or other trees 
mentioned above should be fed to them every day and 



the unconsumed ones removed. After all the larvae have 
disappeared under ground, the box may be kept in a 
dry and moderately warm room until the following sum- 
mer, when your moths will be forthcoming — and what 
superb creatures they are upon emergence ! 

Butterfly larvae, of a great many species, genera, and 
families, also feed upon the 
leaves of various trees of the 
forest, and among them we find 
not a few representatives of the 
genus Papilio, which is a truly 
gorgeous assemblage of forms ; 
they may be reared from their 
chrysalids in the manner recom- 
mended in the last paragraph in 
the case of moths. 

A few miles west of Washing- 
ton, along the old Georgetown 
Canal, is a great place to meet 
with the Ajax Swallowtail — a 
butterfly of extreme beauty (Fig- 
ures 5 and 6). There is a good 
reason for finding the insect in 
that locality, as in the marshy area between the tow- 
path and the Potomac flourish many Papaw trees 
(Asimina triloba), and it is upon the leaves of these 
that the caterpillars of the various forms of this butter- 
fly feed. On one occasion, in this locality, the writer 
captured three of these lovely butterflies with one sweep 



smaller than its 




Fig. 3. A PERFECT SPECIMEN OF A FEMALE OF OUR REGAL WALNUT MOTH; NATURAL SIZE, 

AND VIEWED FROM ABOVE 

This well shows how carefully these moths are mounted in our great collection in the National Museum. 
In coloration, this is a very striking species, hence its name, "Regal." 

of the net, as they rested on the mud within a few feet of 
the Potomac. Upon reversing the net, two were taken 
and one escaped. Doctor Holland gives us a beautiful 
colored plate of these zebra butterflies in his "Butterfly 
Book," upon which five different subspecies of ajax are 
shown, as well as Papilio eurymeda of the same group, 
the one shown in Figure 5 of the present article being 



1224 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



Papilio ajax marcellus — male. Walshi is the winter 
form of ajax, the "chrysalids which have been exposed 
to the cold of the winter" produce it ; "the black bands 
of the wings are narrower and a trifle paler than in the 
other forms, the tails of the hind wings tipped with 
white, and the crimson spot on the inner margin near 




Fig. 5. FEW BUTTERFLIES IN EASTERN UNITED STATES CAN 
RIVAL IN BEAUTY THE FAMOUS "SWALLOWTAILS;" AND OF 
ALL THAT GROUP THERE IS NOT A HANDSOMER SPECIES THAN 
THE ONE HERE SHOWN, WHICH IS WIDELY KNOWN AS THE 
"ZEBRA SWALLOWTAIL" 

Butterflies of this zebra kind long puzzled the entomologists, for the reason 
that they_ were found to be seasonally polymorphic. The one here shown 
is the Ajax — a most remarkable insect. 

the anal angle forming a conspicuous bent bar." In 
flight, this butterfly has the appearance of being white, 
banded with black (as in the cut for the under side), with 
the wings emarginated with a broad band of black ; the 
red spot is quite conspicuous. It would seem that in 
certain localities these various types of Papilio ajax 
intergrade, making it a bit difficult sometimes to define 
and name them with absolute certainty. In any event, as 
it does a tree no good to have its leaves eaten up by 
caterpillars, and as the Papaw is a tree of some value 
along the streams that course through our forests, the 
caterpillar of this handsome butterfly must be considered 
in the light of an insect inimical to it. 

Speaking of the early stages of the genus Papilio, 
Holland says that "the eggs are somewhat globular, flat- 



tened at the base, and smooth. The caterpillars are 
cylindrical, smooth, fleshy, thicker in the anterior portion 
of the body than in the posterior portion, and are always 
provided with osmateria, or protrusive scent-organs, 
which, when the larva is alarmed, are thrust forth, and 
emit a musky odor, not highly disagreeable to the human 
nostrils, but evidently intended to deter other creatures 
from attacking them. The chrysalids are always attached 
by a button of silk at the anal extremity, and held in 
place by a girdle of silk about the middle. The chrysalids 
are, however, never closely appressed to the surface upon 
which pupation takes place." 

It is surely very remarkable how the caterpillar can 
attach the delicate little girdle of silk that goes about 
its waist, or the "button" at its abdominal extremity, 
during the transformation performed through pupation. 
It has not been the writer's fortune to observe this up 




Fig 7. WE HAVE HERE AN ENEMY OF THE BLACK OAK— A 
BEETLE KNOWN AS THE BROAD-NECKED PRIONUS {Prionus lali- 
collis) 

During the first two weeks in July, this big, black Prionus emerges at 
twilight, and may frequently be captured around the street-lights of 
eastern cities. This is a Washington specimen. 

to the present time, notwithstanding the fact that many 
papilionian larvae have been kept by him during their 
transformation to the pupa stage, and, after that, until 
the butterflies emerge from them. The suspending girdle 
is invariably adjusted with the greatest care, in the same 
place, with the head of the pupa above, and the very 



INSECTS IN THEIR RELATION TO FORESTRY 



1225 



firm fastening of the tip of the abdomen below. This, it 
will be seen, holds the pupa in such a way that the 
median longitudinal line of its body makes an acute 
angle with the plane of the surface to which it is attached. 

Thus hangs the pupa of a Papilio! But why it should 
apparently be obliged to be suspended in that manner, 
while the pupa of an Argynnis — such as one of our 
Silver-spots for example — should only be suspended by 
the end of the abdomen, is surely difficult to explain. 

As has already been noted in a previous paragraph, the 
larvae or cater- 
pillars of our 
moths and but- 
terflies feed 
upon the leaves 
of trees; but 
the beetles, up- 
on the other 
hand, are far 
more destruc- 
tive, for, as a 
rule, they at- 
tack the bark, 
the true wood 
within, and the 
roots. An ex- 
cellent example 
of such insects 
is seen in the 
Broad - necked 
Prionus (Prio- 
niis laticollis) 
of Drury. In 
Packard's re- 
port on Forest 
Insects we find 
a cut of this 
species, with 
figures showing 
the larva and 
pupa, after 
Riley. The 
beetle is illus- 
trated in the 
present article 
in Figure 7, 
which is from 
life. General- 
ly, this insect 
is discovered living in the trunks and roots of the trees 
known as the Balm-of-Gilead and the poplar; but Mr. F. 
Clarkson found, many years ago, specimens of this borer 
infesting the Black oak. He reported in the Canadian 
Entomologist (XVI, '95) that "their presence is quickly 
realized by the odor of the female, which is very power- 
ful, and can readily be detected 20 feet distant. I placed 
a female, immediately after emergence, in an uncovered 
jar ; and wherever I positioned it, on the piazza or 
elsewhere, the males were attracted from every direction. 




Fig. 6. ONE OF THE LOCKS ON THE GEORGETOWN CANAL IN THE EARLY SPRING OF 1919. 
A FEW MILES WEST OF WASHINGTON, D. C, AND A FINE LOCALITY FOR COLLECTING 

Some of the finest sycamores anywhere are to be found in this region; sometimes they are seen to be 

double, as in this view. 



I captured twenty males in a very few minutes. Oak 
Hill cannot boast of a Balm-of-Gilead or a Lombardy 
poplar, but it is famous for its oaks ; and while it is 
admitted that the former trees as mentioned by Harris, 
serve as food for the larvae, my observations indisputably 
prove that they feed also upon the roots of the oak." 
This beetle is of a blackish brown color, shiny, and 
exhibits no markings whatever. It is a strong flyer ; and 
when on the ground it gets along with considerable 
rapidity, especially when not impeded by the vegetation 

or the coarse, 
pebbly charac- 
ter of the 
ground or soil. 
F r equ ently 
they make their 
appearance i n 
the streets of 
our towns and 
cities at night, 
apparently at- 
tracted by the 
lights in the 
streets and 
w i n d o ws of 
our dwellings. 
This Prionus is 
s hard, strong 
beetle, requir- 
ing a pretty 
stiff blow to 
crush it. Its 
jointed antennae 
are of a fair 
length only, 
though stout 
and beautifully 
jointed with 
short joints. 
When at rest, 
each one ex- 
hibits a gentle 
curve outwards 
and somewhat 
backwards. Its 
eyes are rather 
large, while one 
of its most 
striking char- 
acters is the unusual width of its neck, which, upon 
either outer margin, presents a pair of pointed processes, 
one in the middle and one occupying the supero-external 
angle. Its outer wings or elytrae are granulated, and so 
rather roughish ; while mesially, the ultimate segment of 
the abdomen projects beyond them. Finally, we may say 
that its three pairs of legs, having the same color as the 
rest of the insect, are rather stout, but otherwise in due 
proportion to the size of the insect. 



GATHERING THE SPINULOSE SHIELD FERN 

BY FRAJNK B. TUCKER 



THE spinulose shield fern unexpectedly paid for my 
vacation several years ago. I never thought when 
I left New York late in August for a three-week 
vacation in the Green Mountains that I would return to 
the city with about as much money in my pockets as 
when I left. But such was the case. 

While in no way bound to hide the identity of the 
place in Vermont where this happy windfall befell me, 
I do so, lest I give the village — if such it may be called — 
too great a prominence. It has but two houses that take 
vacationists. The largest may have accommodations 
for 40 guests ; the smaller for a third this number. The 
native all-the-year-round population is about fifty. 

The hamlet, for such it 

really is, is delightfully 
situated in a dilation of a 
valley of a branch of the 
Deerfield River, some nine- 
teen hundred feet above sea 
level, with encircling sum- 
mits rising another ten 
hundred feet. Save for the 
daily trip of a quasi pub- 
lic stage, that hires itself 
out for passengers, mail, 
baggage and freight, and an 
occasional automobilist on 
a tour of exploration, the ■ 
place is unlinked to the 
busy world. And until the 
advent of the fern industry 
it contributed no article of 
commerce to the world. 

About ten years ago a 
shrewd eyed native of the 
locality saw a fortune in the 
perennial crop of the spin- 
ulose shield fern that for 
countless years had grown 
prodigally in the moist 

woods roundabout. Stories are told of the penury of his 
circumstances before he conceived the idea of marketing 
the ferns, contrasted with his present affluence ;but one and 
all acknowledge him as the benefactor of the community. 

The spinulose shield fern I have seen growing in lux- 
uriant abundance in the New England and Middle Atlan- 
tic States. Books on ferns state that it is to be found 
from North Carolina to northernmost Canada. I could 
not find it, however, in the mountains of western North 
Carolina, though I searched for it carefully. The books 
omit any mention as to how far west it grows — a question 
of some interest to me ; for I was told that the Vermont 
crop was sold mostly to the florists of Chicago and Den- 
ver. Three feet is about its maximum growth ; its width 
will average about one-third of its length. It is an ever- 




green, very hardy, of a darker, richer green color than 
the other ferns that grow indigenous with it, and of a 
feathery, lace-like texture. Brown fruit specks dot its 
underside at picking time, and its stalk is somewhat scurfy. 
It is very gregarious, six to a dozen or more stalks 
clustering about a common center, the clusters grouping 
themselves often into beds covering a considerable area. 
It grows in moist woods, being especially thick near 
water courses. It likes the cooling protection of bould- 
ers and of fallen, decaying trees. Often it takes root 
in the latter's crumbling, pulpy wood, or in some 
crevice of the former where a little soil has found lodg- 
ment, growing as hardy as its fellows in the fertile soil 

of the woods. 

Picking begins about two 
weeks before Labor Day 
and lasts about five weeks. 
Everyone is welcome to 
pick ; all are treated alike 
by the dealer. When the 
picking is good and the 
pickers numerous he pays 
them thirty cents for a thou- 
sand ferns, bunched. When 
the supply of ferns near his 
agency has been picked, 
and it becomes necessary 
to go deep into the woods 
"for them, pickers are not 
so numerous, and the price 
rises to forty cents a thou- 
sand. While in the spring 
of years when his sales 
have been heavy, some- 
times before the snow has 
left the ground, he pays 
them ninety cents for a 
thousand ferns, bunched. 
During the height of the 
picking season some fami- 
lies earn as much as ninety dollars a week, clearing some 
five hundred dollars during the season. To do this 
means working from early morning until late at night 
for every member of the family. The men folks start 
out early in the morning with big hampers, which they 
fill and deliver several times a day to their women for 
bunching, at which task the men also assist at night. 

The money the pickers receive is all profit, save for 
the cost of the thread used to bind the ferns into bunches. 
A few of the heaviest pickers do pay the larger land- 
owners a nominal amount for the exclusive privilege of 
picking on their land. This exclusive privilege, however, 
is of somewhat doubtful value; for though the land thus 
allotted is posted against the unlawful picking of ferns, 
little heed is taken thereof by pickers. 



READY TO START IN THE MORNING 



1224 



GATHERING THE SPINULOSE SHIELD FERN 



1227 



The land upon which I was privileged to pick as the 
guest of the owner was posted, but I saw many poachers. 
Conditions could hardly be otherwise. The country is 
very sparsely settled and unpatrolled, so that the cost to 
owners of enforcing the prohi- 
bition against fern picking is out 
of proportion to the privilege 
they grant. The notices, how- 
ever, have a moral effect, for 
each time I noticed poachers 
they hurriedly scurried away. 

Picking is not work — at least 
for those who do not do it for a 
livelihood. Mornings are long 
for early risers, at many sum- 
mer resorts, and would have been 
at my Vermont hamlet had it not 
been for the ferns. Each morn- 
ing after breakfast we started 
out for ferns. Our host very 
kindly loaned us hampers, into 
the largest of which, by careful 
arrangement, almost three thou- 
sand ferns could be packed. By 
noontime our hampers would be 
filled and our stomachs empty; 
for walking and climbing over 
the uneven ground of the woods, 
bending to pick the ferns and 
toting the hampers about made 
ravenous appetites. 

The woods in the year where- 
of I write were the cleanest I 

have ever known them. They were absolutely free of bugs and 
insects, of creeping and flying things of any nature whatever. Pick- 
ing under these circumstances was ideal, and was thoroughly en- 
joyed by all. Competition to be the first to fill a basket lent zest to 
the picking. Surprisingly little was said by the pickers, once they 
got started. Everyone took an absorbing interest in the work. 

and labored as if 
their very subsist- 
ence depended on 
getting the hamp- 
ers filled. A squir- 
rel looking on could 
not have but re- 
marked that we 
were as provident 
as he in supplying 
the winter's larder. 
To one picking 
for the first time a 
little difficulty will 
be e x p erienced 
during the first 
half hour or so of 
surely distinguish- 
ing the spinulose 
shield fern from the 
BUSY BUNDLING THE FERNS brakes that grow 




THE COVETED SPINULOSE SHIELD FERN 




all about it, often seemingly from the same root. This 
difficulty, however, is short lived. After a day's picking 
the question never arises in one's mind; while after a 
couple of days' picking, one can separate the fern from the 
brake with the fingers, the sense 
of touch serving to distinguish 
the stalk of one from that of the 
other. And it is this sense of 
touch that distinguishes the ex- 
pert picker from the beginner. 
A beginner chooses the ferns he 
picks solely by eye, and picks 
them one at a time. The ex- 
pert gauges the size and quality 
of the ferns almost by the feel- 
ing of their stalks ; and instead 
of gathering them one at a time 
his busy fingers take, in one op- 
eration, all those of the cluster 
that are of proper size. The 
ferns are not pulled up by the 
roots, but are broken off a few 
inches below the lowest frond. 

It is hard to say which is the 
more interesting — picking the 
ferns or bunching them. Per- 
sonally I prefer the picking, be- 
cause of the exercise it affords. 
But as to which is the more 
fascinating I must admit that 
the palm goes to the bunching. 
A few men picking by them- 
selves do their own bunching, 
tying the bunches with thread from a spool 
carried in the pocket and run through a but- 
tonhole. Most of the bunching, however, is 
done at night. A picker who does not do his 
own bunching, pays half what the ferns sell 
for to have them bunched. 

I have seen a room full of people alive with 
laughter and jovialty before bunching began, 
gradually subside into a seeming contented 
watching of the silent bunchers ; then as gradu- 
ally to take a livelier interest in the work, and 
finally to actively participate. Once the whole 




AFTER A GOOD MORNING'S WORK 



1228 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



room was bunching it became a silent race to see who 
would finish first, and who would have the greatest num- 
ber of bunches, for it was always something of a lottery 
as to how many ferns a basket 
contained. 

The ferns are put up in 
bunches of twenty-five. Each 
bunch must contain an assort- 
ment of sizes, varying from about 
nine inches to eighteen inches. 
The largest is laid on a table 
or other flat surface, and the 
others on top of it. The stalks 
of the twenty-five ferns are then 
bound together with a piece of 
thread. Time is not wasted to 
tie the thread ; the end is simply 
wedged between the stalks. 

T'ne bunched ferns are deliv- 
ered to the dealer usually in the 
same hamper used in picking 
them, with a memorandum of the 
owner's name and count. The 
dealer's agents verifies the count 
and so expert has he become in 
the handling of bunched ferns 
that he is able to tell pretty close- 
ly from the heft and appearance 
of a bunch whether it contains 
twenty-five freshly picked, well 
conditioned ferns. Saturday is 
pay day for the pickers. A 
record of the number of bunches 
delivered by each picker is carefully kept; and any time 
after the money arrives, a picker may collect his ac- 
count. The certainty of the pickers receiving their 
money when due, and the acknowledged fact that the 
industry is a boon to the hamlet, seem to have been 




ON THE WAY TO DELIVER 



elements in the success of this dealer. One's first thought 
on seeing this industry is to engage in it as a dealer 
rather than as a picker. But closer observation shows 
this to be easier thought of than 
done. An organization of quite 
a size is necessary for its con- 
duct. The ferns have to be kept 
in cold storage. The wastage is 
great, and considerable care is 
necessary to shield the fern from 
injury. If kept too long piled 
at the receiving station, it will 
begin to sweat, which is detri- 
mental to its preservation. It 
seems also to be subject to a 
blight, which attacks it as a 
brown discoloration, and pick- 
ers are warned to allow no such 
ferns to be found in their 
bunches. 

In the case whereof 1 wrue, 
the dealer had to pack his ferns 
in crates and truck them thir- 
teen miles to the railroad, which 
took them twenty miles farther 
to his warehouse. At his ware- 
house he had to reinspect, reas- 
sort and rebunch the ferns. From 
the locality where I picked he 
took ninety million ferns the 
previous year, how many more 
from other localities I did not 
hear. When he started business he must have found 
the nearby markets quite fully supplied, and had to 
develop new ones. In no other way can I explain 
his sending them to such a distance as Chicago and 
Denver from Vermont. 



A TTENTION is being given by the United States 
-^*- Forest Service to the importance of landscape engi- 
neering in the National Forests. One of the questions 
continually arising involves the proper way to lay out 
a summer camp site to make the most of the natural 
beauties of a location. Another has to do with the prin- 
ciple to be followed in running a scenic trail to insure 
the best views for the traveler. Still another deals with 
making ranger stations most attractive as dwelling places 
and the creation of designs which will best harmonize 
with the surroundings. To meet these and kindred 
questions Dr. Frank A. Waugh, an eminent landscape 
engineer of Amherst, Massachusetts, has visited a num- 
ber of the Forests where recreation use is especially 
important. His trip was made at the request of the 
Forest Service. As a result he has prepared a report 
setting forth some simple principles of landscape engi- 
neering applicable to the various questions. These are 
intended to provide a basis for correct landscape engi- 
neering practice in the National Forests. 



'T'HE National Lumber Manufacturers' Association, 
-*- with headquarters in Chicago, has compiled a handy 
reference of "Information on Wood and Where to Find 
it." This booklet is a directory of literature which may 
be had for the asking from the National Lumber Manu- 
factures' Association, California Redwood Association, 
North Carolina Pine Association, Northern Hemlock 
and Hardwood Manufacturers' Association, White Pine 
Bureau of St. Paul, Minnesota, Southern Cypress Manu- 
facturers' Association, Southern Pine Association, West 
Coast Lumbermen's Association, Western Pine Manu- 
facturers' Association and other sources, and is abso- 
lutely free. 

Some of the subjects covered include : Barns, bee hives, 
bird houses, boats, bridges, bungalows, cars, canoes, 
cattle sheds, chicken houses, corn cribs, dairies, docks, 
factories, farm buildings, fences, freight cars, furniture, 
garages, incubators, kitchen cabinets, schools, silos, toys 
and warehouses. 



THE HERONS 



(Family Ardeidae) 

BY A. A. ALLEN, PH. D. 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ORNITHOLOGY, CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



WHEN nature evolved the herons to enliven the 
shore, she did not take into account the avarice 
of man nor the vanity of woman. She created 
birds that should have stood for all time as the emblem 
of grace. Take away life and there remains an un- 
gainly mass of spindly legs and crooked neck worthless 
even for food. Nature might have expected, therefore, 
that the herons would be allowed to live and delight the 
eyes of man- 
kind forever. 
Unfortunately, 
however, she 
decorated cer- 
tain of them 
during the 
breeding sea- 
son with most 
beautiful and 
delicate plumes 
which retain 
their beauty 
even when rip- 
ped from the 
backs of their 
owners- Shrewd 
milliners, tak- 
ing advantage 
of the vanity 
of women and 
the relentless- 
ness of fashion, 
saw in these 
plumes great 
fortunes. Fash- 
ion and ignor- 
ance did the 
rest, so that to- 
day the most 
beautiful spe- 
cies, the egrets, 
are nearly ex- 
tinct. Indeed 
they might 
long since have 

been so had it not been for the determination of a group 
of bird lovers, who formed the National Association of 
Audubon Societies, and for the far-sightedness of a 
nature-loving President, Theodore Roosevelt, who set 
aside certain areas of waste land as Federal Bird Reser- 
vations to give the vanishing birds a last resort of safety. 
There are about ioo species of herons in the world, 
found mostly in tropical and subtropical regions, but at 
least a dozen are found in the United States and Canada. 




Photograph by O, E. Baynard 



WHERE AIGRETTES COME FROM 



They are worn on the back of the beautiful agret herons during the nesting season. Egret at nest at 
Orange Lake (Florida) Rookery, an island bought and guarded by the National Association of Audubon 
Societies. 



They vary in size from the least bittern whose body is 
not much larger than a robin's to the great blue heron 
that stands about four feet in height. In color they vary 
from the streaked brown plumage of the bitterns, through 
various shades of chestnut, blue and gray, to the snowy 
white of the egrets. They are variously ornamented with 
elongate feathers, either on the crown, foreneck, or as 
in the egrets, on the middle of the back. In the bittern 

there are some 
fluffy white 
f e a t h ers be- 
neath the wings 
that are dis- 
played during 
the courtship 
performances. 

The majority 
of herons are 
g r eg a r i ous 
birds, roosting 
and nesting in 
colonies. They 
scatter when 
fishing, how- 
ever, and hunt 
singly, e i t h er 
stalking quiet- 
ly through the 
shallow water 
or resting mo- 
tionless on the 
shore waiting 
for some hap- 
less fish to 
swim within 
reach of their 
j a ve 1 i n-like 
bills. One spe- 
cies, however, 
the reddish 
egret, is said to 
run rapidly 
through the 
shallow water 
in pursuit of small fish. Most herons nest in the trees 
or large bushes of extensive swamps but the bitterns 
nest on the ground in treeless marshes. Herons' nests 
are always poorly made structures of sticks, so thin that 
the pale bluish or greenish white eggs can usually be seen 
from below. 

Young herons are covered with long shaggy down 
when hatched and even before they acquire their real 
feathers, they are able to climb from the nest and cling 



1229 



1230 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




young. The process is rather difficult to describe in a 
few words but a glance at the accompanying photo- 
graph of the least bittern feeding its young should make 
it clear. 

Three members of the heron family in North America 
are called bitterns and they inhabit the reedy marshes 



Photograph by Verdi Burtch 

SKY SCRAPERS 

Great Blue Herons nest in the tallest trees of big swamps — Single trees 
sometimes contain from five to ten nests. 

to the branches using their wings and even their necks to 
assist them. If they drop into the water below, they are 
able to swim, using their wings as well as their feet for 
propulsion, but their heavy bodies sink until only the 
head shows above the surface. When alarmed in the 
nest or on the branches, the young herons stretch up 
their long slender necks and remain perfectly quiet so 
that they look more like sticks than like birds. They 
are fed in an unusual way. The old bird, having swal- 
lowed the fish or frogs whiCh it has caught, returns to 
the nest with them in its crop. The young bird then 
seizes, with a scissor-like action, the base of the bill of 
the old bird which turns its head on one side and vigor- 
ously but deftly disgorges the food into the throat of the 





Courtesy of National Association 



Audubon Societies 
THE COST OF A PLUME 
Thi» pathetic picture tells its own tale and needs no enlargement. 



NOT IN HIS ELEMENT 

Young herons are not meant to swim like ducks but they get there just 
the same when they fall from their nests into the water. 

rather than the tree covered swamps that are the favorite 
nesting places of the other herons. The American bittern 
is the larger of the two, being about the size of a large 
fowl, but of a very different shape, although some people 
call it the "mud hen." Its streaked brown coloration 
matches so closely the dead vegetation in the marsh that 
when quiet it is almost impossible to see. 
This camouflage is furthered by a habit 
which the bird has when alarmed, of 
pointing its bill toward the sky and pre- 
senting only its broadly streaked neck 
and breast toward the intruder. As one 
circles about the spot where he knows 
the bittern is hiding, the bittern also slow- 
ly rotates so as to present always the 
same color pattern which matches exact- 
ly the lights and shadows of the reeds, 
and when the wind blows over the marsh, 
causing the reeds to sway, the bittern 
seems to perfect the simulation by sway- 
ing with them. Early in April when the 
bittern returns from the south and con- 
cealment in the marsh is scarce, it is 
easily overlooked because it resembles 
some broken snag projecting from the 
water. One of the most striking charac- 
teristics of the bittern is its call which has 
given rise to the names "stake driver" 
and "plum puddin." Though not actual- 
ly very loud the sound is remarkably 



THE HERONS 



1231 



penetrating and can be heard for a distance of half a 
mile or more. The first part of the performance which 
sounds like the tapping of a wooden stake with a mallet 
is made by the bird snapping its long bill. Then follow 
some deep liquid notes that sound like the "working of 
an old fashioned wooden pump or "pouring water out of 
a huge jug ;" ooble-oob, ooble-oob, ooble-oob. The sound 
is accompanied by curious gulping contortions but the 
bill is not held in the water nor is it filled with water as 
was once supposed. 

The bittern nests on the ground, usually in the sedges 
fringing the marsh, but occasionally it builds its nest 
where the water is deeper. The eggs are about the size 
of small hens eggs and look as though they were stained 
uniformly with coffee. 

The least bittern looks like a fair sized bird when seen 
on the wing or when sneaking through the flags, but it is 




Photograph by O. E. Baynard 

SCENE IN A PLUME HUNTER'S CAMP 

Egret feathers mean the death of hundreds of birds and the starving of 
thousands of young. 

mostly neck and legs and its body is relatively small. It 
has much the same habits of concealment as its larger 
cousin but its notes are very different, resembling the 
distant croaking of a frog or the slow cooing of a dove. 
Its nest is a platform of rushes built above the water, 
usually in the cat-tails or reeds, and its three to seven 
eggs are more like those of other herons, being pale 
blujsh-white. 

The writer once had the experience of tramping 
through a marsh and discovering one of the nests of 
this bird and actually counting the eggs before he realized 
that the bird itself was standing on the back of the nest, 
so completely did it simulate the dead stubs of cat-tails 
all about it. This particular bird seemed not to know 
fear and when it finally realized that it had been seen, it 
assumed an entirely different, threatening attitude and 
prepared to defend its nest with vigorous blows from its 
sharp bill. 

A third species, the Cory least bittern, is practically 
identical with the common least bittern except that all 



of the parts which are buff in the least bittern are a rich 
chestnut in the Cory bittern. It is a very rare bird as 
only about thirty specimens have ever been found and 
inasmuch as these have been scattered over a large part 
of the range of the common least bittern, from Florida 
to Ontario, many ornithologists now believe that it is 




COFFEE COLORED EGGS OF THE AMERICAN BITTERN 

They are laid on a platform of reeds, usually in the dryer parts of the 

marsh. 

merely a color phase of the least bittern similar to the 
red phase of the screech owl. The term erythronism has 
been applied to this phenomenon where an excess of red 
pigment is developed. 

Of the true herons, the little green heron is undoubted- 
ly the commonest and most widely distributed. It is a 



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"BE IT EVER SO HUMBLE" 

A Green Heron approaches its crude nest of sticks in the willows fringing 

a pond. 

bird about the size of a crow and indeed at a distance, 
when on the wing, looks not very different, for, like 
other herons, it carries its head back on its shoulders and 
conceals its length of neck. It furthermore makes up for 



1232 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



its abbreviated tail by trailing its legs out behind. At 
close range, however, it is seen to be very different for, 
although it is not very green, it is certainly not black 




A BITTERN ROOST 

The Bittern pulls together the tops of the reeds with his long toes, gives 
them a twist and makes a comfortable bed on which to sleep above the 
water. 

like a crow. Its crown and wings are greenish but its 
conspicuous neck and breast are largely chestnut and its 
back is bluish gray. 

The little green heron differs from others of the true 
herons by leading a more solitary existence, seldom more 
than a single pair nesting in one clump of alders or 

willows. When 
f r i g h tened or 
upon taking 
wing, the green 
heron usually 
utters a rather 
harsh "skeow" 
and its vocal 
powers, even 
during the nest- 
ing season, are 
never much 
more musical. 

The next best 
known species of 
heron is the 
great blue heron, 
in some districts 
m i s named the 
"crane." It is 

PkotoorapH „y Verii BuruU *"? mUCh ^ 

er than the 

AN AMERICAN BITTERN "NOT AT HOME" 

green heron, 

When she does not wish callers she assumes ( j. , 

this position and usually goes unseen. Standing aDOUt 





But 



LOOKS LIKE A BITTERN 

an immature Black-Crowned 
Heron. 



Night 



four feet high and having a wing expanse of about six 
feet, even greater than that of an eagle. Its general color 
is grayish, lighter on the head and neck, with a black 
belly and a black 
stripe t h r ough 
the head. It 
nests in colonies 
in the larger 
swamps, usually 
in the tops of the 
tallest trees, one 
tree often con- 
taining from five 
to ten nests. The 
tops of the trees 
are usually kill- 
ed by the excre- 
ment of the birds 
but the herons 
continue to use 
the same trees 
as long as they 
will hold their 
nests. In some 
of the treeless regions of the west, the great blue herons 
nest on the ground in the marshes or in bushes on islands. 
The herons are 
powerful flyers, 
traveling with 
measured beats 
of the wings and 
occasionally sail- 
ing so that they 
are able to feed 
many miles 
from their nest- 
ing grounds. 
When the young 
are ready to fly 
in late July or 
August, they 
scatter to all 
parts of the 
country wher- 
ever there is a 
good feed ing 
ground. At such 
times they are 
unsuspicious and 
many are killed 
by the amateur 
marksman for, 
u n f o rtunately, 
even in such pro- 
gressive states as 
New York, they 
are not given 
protection by BIRD OR BROKEN reed? 

law. This is be- ^' ,e *-east Bittern assumes this position when 

alarmed and usually escapes detection. 




THE HERONS 



1233 



cause a few fishermen believe that they are destructive 
to trout when, as a matter of fact, trout form a very 
small part of the diet of a very few individuals and 
these could advantageously be dealt with in other ways 
than by removing protection from the entire species. 
Fortunately real sportsmen are as fond of the herons 




A NOVEL MARKET BASKET 

The Least Bittern brings back the fish and frogs to its young in its throat 
and regurgitates them as shown in the next picture. 

as they are of the fish and many an ardent disciple of 
Isaac Walton is willing to share even his trout stream 
with the herons for the sake of having them about. 

The same may be said of the bitterns which are 
likewise denied protection. Occasionally an unfortu- 
nate bittern takes up its residence in a marsh border- 
ing a trout stream and in his hunt for frogs and 
tadpoles may occasionally catch a trout fingerling. The 
vast majority of bitterns, however, live in the warm 
marshes where trout are never found and where they 
fall easy victims to the Sunday sports in their row- 
boats and the small boys with Flobert rifles hunting 
for the largest targets they can find. 

The black-crowned night herons are about the size 
of the bittern and indeed the immature birds closely 
resemble them though the adults are entirely different, 
being nearly pure white or pearl gray in color with 
black crowns and mantles. They are nocturnal in their 
habits, usually roosting in trees during the day and com- 



ing out at dusk when their loud "quas" are familiar 
sounds in parts of the country where they are found. 
They nest in large colonies like the great blue herons 
but usually in smaller trees and sometimes in woods 
even at a distance from water. 

The yellow-crowned night heron is a very different 
looking bird, confined to the marshes of the southern 
states and thence southward into the tropics. It nests 
in pairs along streams or associated with colonies of 
other herons. 

One of the commonest herons of the southern states 
is the little blue heron which, because of the lack of 
ornamental plumes, has been allowed to survive even in 
large colonies. It is about the size of the little green 
heron and like it has a chestnut head and neck. The 
crown is the same color as the rest of the head, however, 
and the entire upper parts are dark slaty blue. The 
immature birds are pure white except for the tips of 
the wings and look very much like snowy egrets but, of 
course, do not 
have the orna- 
mental plumes. 
Mottled individ- 
uals in the proc- 
ess of changing 
from white to 
blue are often 
seen. 

A somewhat 
larger species 
but similar in 
color, except for 
the white on its 
under parts, is 
the Louisiana 
heron which in 
parts of Florida 
still occurs in 
rookeries con- 
taining thou- 
sands of birds. 
A still larger 
species and 
much rarer is 
the reddish egret 
w h i c h differs 
from both the 
little blue and 
Louisiana herons 
"aigrette 




BREAKFAST A-LA-MODE (HERON) 

The old bird turns its head on one side and the 
young grasps the base of its bill. Breakfast is 
served by vigorous pumping of the old bird's 
throat. 



in having a tuft of about thirty 
feathers growing from between the shoulders 
during the breeding season. It likewise has a white 
immature phase which was once thought to be a distinct 
species and. called "Peak's heron." 

The best "aigrette" plumes are found on the two white 
egret herons' in which the "aigrettes," like the rest of the 
bird are snowy white. The larger egret approaches a 
great blue heron in size while the snowy egret is but 
little larger than the little green heron. Roth species 
have about fifty straight plumes growing from be- 



1234 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



tween the shoulders and extending beyond the tail. 
Forty or fifty years ago both species were common 
all through the south and especially in Florida but today 
they are the rarest of the herons. Were it not for the 
bird reservations and, the non-sale of plumage laws, it 




ONE OF THE RAREST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS— THE CRY 
LEAST BITTERN 

Many ornithologists believe it to be a color phase of the common least 
Bittern. Photograph of a wounded bird. 

is probable that they would now be practically extinct. 
Twenty years ago every woman of fashion wore 
"aigrettes" in her hair or on her bonnet. Today, if she 
does so she will be arrested as it is against the law to 
have them in one's possession. Doubtless they will now 
go "out-of -style" though there are still a few foolish 
individuals who cling to their once valuable plumes in 
the hope that the laws will be repealed and that they 
will once more come into fashion; and this in spite of 
the fact that they know that each set of plumes means 
the death of a breeding bird and the starving of a nest 
full of young. 

There is another white heron found in southern Florida 
called the great white heron. It is about the sizeof thegreat 
blue heron and has no plumes. There seems likewise to be 
an intermediate form between the Florida great blue or 



Ward's heron, as it is called, and the great white heron. 
It resembles the Ward's heron but has a white head and 
neck. It has been called Wuerdeman's heron but its 
true status is not yet known. 

In some parts of the country the herons are incorrectly 
called cranes, which, indeed, they resemble, the differ- 
ences between them being more of anatomy than gen- 
eral appearance. In flight the herons always carry their 
heads back on their shoulders while the cranes carry 




PRESENT BAYONETS 
A Least Bittern defending its nest when it knows it has been discovered. 

their necks fully extended. The herons bills are more 
or less angled while the cranes are rounded and the 
herons have all four toes well developed and on the same 
level while the cranes have the hind toe small and 
elevated. Cranes, moreover, are now rare in all parts of 
the country and have been practically exterminated 
in the east. 



/CARRIER pigeons will assist in protecting the for- 
^ ests of Oregon and Washington from fire, if ex- 
periments inaugurated in this district by Forest Examiner 
W. J. Sproat prove successful. Mr. Sproat has had 
some experience with the use of pigeons and believes 
they will be a valuable means of communication in 
emergencies and for carrying reports of fire and other 



messages. The matter has aroused interest in the district 
office, and the birds will be tried out on several of the 
forests during the coming fire season. Mr. Sproat will 
take back to Bend with him five pairs of the birds for 
use on the Deschutes. Supervisor Sietz also plans to 
try them out on the Cascade. 



SCOTCH LUMBER CUT BY NEW ENGLAND MILLS 



The report of the operations in Scotland of the New England Saw Mill Units has been pub- 
lished by E. C. Hirst, State Forester of New Hampshire, who was in charge of the particularly 
interesting operations. 



ABOUT a month after the United States entered the 
war the Massachusetts Committee on Public Safety 
learned that Great Britain was in distress for lack 
of skilled lumbermen and foresters to cut her timber. It 
was at once proposed that New England should raise, 
equip and send to England ten portable saw mill and 
logging units. The British gratefully accepted the offer, 
it was unofficially approved by Secretary of War Baker 
and receive the enthusiastic support of the Governors 
of the New England States. 

To work out the details of the undertaking and to make 
its operation effective the Massachusetts Committee on 
Public Safety appointed a committee of which the chair- 
man was W. R. Brown, of Berlin, New Hampshire, a 
director of the American Forestry Association and a mem- 
ber of the Lumber Committee of the Council of National 
Defense. The other members of the committee were : 
James J. Phelan, Vice-Chairman, Massachusetts Com- 
mittee on Public Safety; Harold G. Philbrook, Treasurer, 
Vice-President, Connecticut Valley Lumber Company ; 
F. W. Rane, Secretary, State Forester of Massachusetts ; 
George S. Lewis, Treasurer, Connecticut Valley Lumber 
Company ; Philip T. Dodge, International Paper Com- 
pany; H. W. Blanchard, H. W. Blanchard Lumber Com- 
pany ; Garrett Schenck, Great Northern Paper Company ; 
Hon. Herbert B. Moulton, Parker and Young Company ; 
I. B. Hosford, St. Croix Paper Company ; Martin A. 
Brown, Woodstock Lumber Company ; George E. Henry, 
J. E. Henry and Sons ; Samuel H. Boardman, President 
Eastern Shook and Wooden Box Association; J. M. 
Parker, St. John Lumber Company ; Marshall T. Wood, 
Lande Manufacturing Company ; H. B. Stebbins, H. B. 
Stebbins Lumber Company ; Chester C. Whitney, Perry 
Whitney Lumber Company ; J. H. Hustis, Receiver, Bos- 
ton and Maine Railroad ; L. S. Tainter, Conway Lumber 
Company; E. C. Hirst, New Hampshire State Forester; 
Forest H. Colby, Maine State Forester; W. O. Filley, 
Connecticut State Forester; J. B. Mowry, Rhode Island 
State Forester. 

It is significant of the scope and influence of the Amer- 
ican Forestry Association that of the 23 members of this 
committee twelve are members of the Association. This 
representation includes, in addition to Chairman Brown. 
-Messrs. Philbrook, Rane, Dodge, Blanchard, Martin A. 
Brown, Henry, Tainter, Hirst, Colby, Filley and Mowry. 

To send ten units for saw mill and logging operations 
in England involved the raising of a fund of $120,000. 
The cost of each unit is placed at $12,000. This money 
was provided over night. Through its Governor and its 



committee on public safety each of the New England 
States subscribed the sum required for a single unit. 
With six units thus provided for, there was no difficulty 
in raising funds for the four remaining units by private 
subscription among the paper manufacturers, lumbermen 
and timberland owners of New England. 

The following report on the work of the units is made 
by Manager Hirst : 

The commercial timber in Scotland is in plantations 
on large estates. There is practically no natural growth. 
The plantations were set out partly to afford game cover 
and partly on account of the land owners interest in 
timber growing. For many decades prior to the present 
war there was little commercial incentive for planting 
anywhere in the United Kingdom. Cheap transporta- 
tion permitted duty free lumber from Russia, Sweden, 
Norway, Germany and even America to be delivered to 
consuming centers in England and Scotland at such low 
prices that investments in home grown timber yielded a 
small and uncertain return. National emergencies have 
from time to time stimulated felling and planting. Thus, 
on a considerable part of the woodland operated by the 
New England Saw Mill Units the previous clear cutting 
furnished lumber for the Napoleonic Wars, and the trees 
planted soon after were of splendid size to furnish high 
grade dimension lumber during the last year. 

The most important commercial trees in Scotland are 
Scotch pine, larch and Norway spruce. The first named 
is that planted in largest amount, the trade name for the 
lumber being "Scots Fir." In quality the lumber is about 
half way between our white pine and Norway pine. The 
larch is a native of the Austrian Tyrol and although 
planted for centuries in Britain, seed is still obtained from 
the native home of the tree on the continent. The larch 
furnishes excellent structural timbers, but is springy and 
more difficult to saw to accurate dimensions than the 
others. The Norway spruce is a rapid grower and much 
like our white spruce. It is planted only on moist ground. 

The war found Great Britain in a serious situation in 
regard to timber for military purposes. Much greater 
supplies of timber were needed for war than had been 
anticipated and enemy submarine activities soon became 
a serious hindrance to securing timber from over seas on 
which the country had become accustomed to depend. It 
was necessary for the Government to organize a Timber- 
land Supplies Department, and then immediately to requi- 
sition and purchase timber from private estates for the 
war industries of Britain as well as the large amounts 
which it became necessary to ship across the Channel for 

1235 



1236 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



military purposes in France. Military contingents from 
the Dominions over seas were required to carry on lum- 
bering operations on a scale large enough to supply the 
war industries. It was to help out this serious situation 
that the New England Saw Mill Units were organized. 

The small timber supplies of Great Britain have been 
very heavily depleted by the war cuttings and these con- 
ditions have awakened the country to the need of larger 
areas of forests. The Reconstruction Committee of Great 
Britain have recommended the establishment of a For- 
estry Department in the Government whose duty it shall 
be to support a public policy of timber growing, adequate 
for the country. This Department was established prior 
to the termination of hostilities. 

The headquarters of the New England Saw Mill Units 
was at Ardgay, Ross-shire, Scotland, a village at Bonar 
Bridge Station on the Highland Railway, about fifty miles 
north of Invernes. A storehouse was built for the sup- 
plies needed for the mills and camp kitchens. Here the 
headquarters was located and the supplies for the men 
and horses were checked out to different units each 
week. All mills were located within five miles from 
headquarters, three operating on a timber tract purchased 
by the Government from Andrew Carnegie in Souther- 
land-shire and seven operating in a tract bought from 
Sir Charles Ross, in Ross-shire. These tracts were esti- 
mated to carry about 6,000,000 and 18,000,000 board feet 
respectively. The saw mill equipment arrived about the 
middle of July and lumber production got under way 
in August. 

When manufacture first began in August the lumber 
produced was sent to port for shipment to France. Later 
in the fall specifications for France were cancelled and 
from then on practically all shipments were made for 
British war industries. About 60,000 railroad ties were 
railed from our loading bank at Bonar Bridge and a large 
amount of 3 and 4-inch dimension timber was made. A 
considerable part of the dimension timber was cut for 
special requirements. Very little lumber was wasted in 
the slabs, as round edge boards were taken off the outside 
edge of the logs when sawing dimension material. A 
great deal of pitwood was produced in the woods opera- 
tions for use by the colliery companies. These were made 
from the tops and large limbs. This pitwood was graded 
into 3, 4, 5, and 6-inch diameter sizes, the length ranging 
from 6 to 14 feet. In cost accounting it is considered 
that one lineal foot of pitwood is equal to one board foot 
of manufactured lumber. The total production by the 
New England Saw Mill Units was 19,673,100 board feet 
of lumber and pitwood. t » 

Sir John Stirling Maxwell, under whose direction the 
New England Units worked in, said of them : "The 
ten mills played a notable part in providing fcr Great 
Britain's timber needs. Their output man for man 
through the twelve months of your stay has been the 
highest that any operation under the charge of the De- 
partment can show. The type of mill you brought over, 
standing as it does midway between the large mills of the 
Canadians and the small mills of this country, has proved 



admirably adapted to the timber you had to work and 
most economical of labor. While admitting the great 
benefit derived from the larger type of mill in providing 
the armies in France with quick supplies of trench timber 
and railway ties when speed was everything, most experts 
are agreed that the smaller type is likely to prove best 
in normal times in a country like this where the blocks 
to be felled are small and economy is the first object. 
Your mills represented a compromise between the two, 
singularly apt to the moment of your arrival. It would 
be easy to expatiate on the international value of your 
timely aid. It is on such acts that friendships are built. 
A gush of praise or gratitude can only spoil them and 
there has been nothing in the attitude of your colleagues 
or yourself to invite it. New England saw her help was 
needed and she gave it and we welcomed it. That is all. 
I>ut you and I know that we have not worked together 
without losing some oid prejudices for which newspapers, 
tourists and the too wide Atlantic are responsible, or 
without realizing how refreshing and fruitful the inter- 
course of friendly nations can be when they speak the 
same tongue and value the same things." 



CTATE Forester Alfred Gaskill, of New Jersey, has 
^ announced the purchase of 1,400 acres of timber land 
in Woodland township, Burlington County, by the State 
Department of Conservation and Development of New 
Jersey. This land increases the area of the Lebanon 
State Forest and joins several detached state-owned areas 
into a compact unit capable of more efficient management. 
There are now six state forests in Burlington, Ocean 
and Sussex Counties, each under the charge of a resi- 
dent forest ranger. The forests are being protected from 
fire and abuse, the production of timber is aided and en- 
couraged, technical forestry studies and experiments of 
value are carried on, timber and wood products are sold 
when their removal is beneficial to the forests, and mads. 
trails and camp sites are developed for public use. 



J GERRY CURTIS, for some time past Assistant 
* Forester of the city of Pittsburgh, has been ap- 
pointed Forester and landscape engineer for the Carnegie 
Steel Corporation, in charge of the extensive work in 
planting, etc., now under way in connection with the 
construction of several hundred new homes for employees 
of the mills. A "home beautification" policy has been 
adopted and the streets are to be lined with shade trees, 
the front-yards dotted with flower beds and shrubbery 
masses, while fruit trees and berries are to be used ex- 
tensively in the back-yards. The back-yard fences in 
the older settlements also are to be removed and hedges 
of barberry substituted. Back-yard garden clubs have 
been organized and prizes will be awarded each year for 
the best vegetable and flower gardens. The fact that 
special stress is to be laid on the training of the children 
in the care and protection of trees, shrubs and flowers 
plants promises well for the success of Mr. Curtis' plans. 



EDITORIAL 



WHY WE NEED MORE FOREST RESEARCH 



ONE of the biggest economic problems before the 
United States is the production of wood to meet 
the future needs of our growing population and 
industries. No one at all familiar with present conditions 
can doubt that a very serious shortage of timber, with 
attendant high prices, hardship for consumers, and 
hindrance to the economic development of the country, 
will be upon us within a very few years unless vigorous 
action is taken immediately to insure continuous forest 
production on forest lands. , 

A movement, which has already a large measure of 
popular support, is under way to bring about this con- 
tinuous production, not only from the public forests but 
also on the much greater area of privately owned forest 
land. But it must be borne in mind that the unanimous 
support of the public, of the law-making bodies, and of 
the forest owners themselves, will not suffice to insure 
the production of the right material in quantities suf- 
ficient to meet our future needs. Forest protection, con- 
servative cutting, reforestation, restriction of cut to an- 
nual growth, will result in continuous crops of some 
kind of timber, but if undertaken in a haphazard way 
will not result in continuous crops large enough to meet 
even our present needs, nor is it at all certain that we 
shall have either the sizes, grades, or even the species 
of lumber which will be needed. 

When good land is cheap, production and transporta- 
tion costs low or nil, population sparse, there is little need 
for study of methods to increase food production, or of 
selection of varieties to plant. The Indian in the Tropics, 
who has only to go out and gather food which grew 
without any effort on his part, has no need to indulge in 
agricultural research. But with a highly developed 
civilization, with its ever-increasing population and re- 
sultant decrease in per capita area of agricultural soil, 
with increasing costs of production, and with the neces- 
sity of carrying the products of the soil long distances 
to the consumer, it becomes imperative to investigate 
methods by which a maximum amount of food can be 
produced, at the lowest practicable cost, on soils best 
adapted for each particular kind of crop. It is also neces- 
sary that the production of different kinds of foods bear 
some relation to the requirements of the consumers for 
the various products. It would not do to devote all 
agricultural land to the raising of cereals,' for instance, 
even if it should be found that the maximum number of 
calories of food could be produced by doing so. 

In forestry the same rule holds. The "timber-miner," 
who only harvests what Nature produced, and cares 
nothing for the future, has no use for forest research. 
But for a growing nation, whose forests under present 
methods are producing but a fraction of its needs, and 
even under the best methods that can be applied with our 
present knowledge will produce little more than enough 
for merely present needs, such research is of fundamental 
importance. 

Foresters have yet barely scratched the surface in the 
study of American forests. It is not enough to know that 
certain methods of cutting in the Southern Appalachians, 
for instance, will be followed by reproduction, and that 
such reproduction will grow rapidly and produce valu- 



able timber. It is necessary to know what method will 
produce the most valuable limber, or the timber which 
will best meet the national needs, and at the most reason- 
able cost ; it is necessary to know just what species or 
mixture of species will succeed best under each given 
set of conditions ; it is necessary to be able to say defi- 
nitely in advance just what will be the yield of a given 
species managed in a given way on a specific tract of 
land, and what it will cost to produce it. 

From the standpoint of the private owner it will not 
be enough to say that by adopting such and such a 
method he will make a profit ; he wants to know how he 
can get the largest possible return from his investment 
in land, labor, and money. From the standpoint of the 
nation, it is not enough to know that certain methods 
will result in continuous forest production on forest 
soils ; it is necessary to know which of several methods 
will best accomplish this result, and what methods will 
insure the proper proportion of different sizes and of 
different grades of material, and of different species. 

We have reached a turning point in the development 
of forestry in this country. There are ample social, 
economic, production and growth data to clearly show the 
need for a change in our methods of handling our timber 
lands. No further data are necessary to prove to any 
intelligent observer of our forest conditions that unless 
our cut-over lands, unsuited for agriculture, are turned 
back into forest production, we shall in the near future 
be at a serious economic disadvantage. 

Foresters have a sufficiently well worked out plan for 
remedial legislation, and enough of basic knowledge for 
formulating some simple silvicultural procedure by which 
to maintain continuous production in each forest region. 
But even as it is, if the forestry profession were con- 
fronted tomorrow with the responsibility for drawing up 
a plan of management for all the forest lands of the 
United States, it would be put to a severe test, just as 
was the case at that time of the placing of the National 
Forests under forest management. 

The Forest Service found it necessary to establish 
eight or nine experiment stations to solve the technical 
problems that immediately arose in marking timber, in 
working out methods of brush disposal, methods to 
secure natural reproduction, methods of artificial refor- 
estation, and similar problems. If the profession, there- 
fore, is not to be content with merely securing some kind 
of growth on cut-over land, no matter how inferior it may 
be as compared with the original stand, but desires to be 
able to secure forest growth of the highest economic 
utility, it must set itself at once to the task of securing 
more fundamental facts upon which to base its practice 
on the vast area of privately-owned timber land. 

The only way in which such data can be obtained is 
by long-continued, painstaking, scientific research. They 
cannot be obtained in a year or in a few years as in 
the case of agricultural investigations which deal with 
annual or biennial crops, but require long periods. 

Is it not time that such research be started on a very 
much larger scale than has been undertaken hitherto, in 
order that when the mandate comes, we foresters shall 
rot be found lacking? 



1237 



1238 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



SEAPLANES TO BE USED FOR FOREST FIRE PATROL 
WORK IN QUEBEC 

BY ELLWOOD WILSON, EDITOR, CANADIAN DEPARTMENT 



THE Province of Quebec has reason to be 
proud of itself. After many difficulties, 
which at many times seemed insurmount- 
able, two seaplanes for use in forest fire 
patrol and mapping have been obtained and 
the first machine has been flown from 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Lac a la Tortue, 
a little village about two miles from Grand 
Mere, and is in actual use for patrol work. 
About three years ago the Directors of the 
St. Maurice Forest Protective Association 
discussed the practicability of using air- 
planes for patrolling, and a committee was 
named to look into the feasibility of the 
plan. They reported that it seemed prac- 
ticable and in nineteen seventeen an effort 
was made to get a machine and pilot, with- 
out success. In nineteen eighteen another 
effort was made to put the scheme into 
practice. On Christmas Day, 1918, Mr. 
Allard, the Minister of Lands and Forests, 
sent for the writer and told him that he was 
much interested in the idea and would con- 
tribute $2,000 toward an experiment. At 
the annual meeting of the St. Maurice 
Forest Protective Association a sum of ten 
thousand dollars was voted. The writer, 
after considerable study, decided that owing 
to the difficulty, amounting practically to 
an impossibility, of providing landing places 
for airplanes, that seaplanes were the only 
machines possible. It was learned that the 
Department of Naval Affairs of the Domin- 
ion Government had in storage at Halifax 
12 seaplanes turned over to it by the 
American Navy at the signing of the 
armistice. The Department was asked, 
through the Acting Minister, Hon. A. K. 
McLean, to loan two of these machines. 
After much consideration and discussion 
he agreed to loan them and an agreement 
was entered into to take over these ma- 
chines. The Minister of Marine, the Hon. 
C. C. Ballantyne, who had been absent in 
California on account of serious illness, re- 
turned to Ottawa and at once decided that 
he would not loan the machines, and he said 
that proper safeguards for their return to 
his Department had not been put in the 
agreement. However, after a long dis- 
cussion of the matter, he finally consented 
to allow the machines to be loane.l on the 
original agreement. Much credit is due 
to the two gentlemen named above for, 
their action in making possible this experi- 
ment. The Montreal Branch of the Aerial 
League of Canada also co-operated in help- 
ing to get these machines, by sending a 
deputation to Ottawa to see the Minister, 
and by many helpful suggestions. The 
President, Sir Charles Davidson, gave much 
needed legal advice and helped in other 
ways. 

The pilot engaged by the Association. 
Lieut. Stuart Graham, of Montreal, had 



had experience with both airplanes and 
seaplanes, having served in the Royal 
British Naval Air Service and having been 
decorated for sinking a German submarine 
after his engine had gone dead. He went 
to Halifax and with his engineer, Mr. 
Kehre, and with the help of the officers of 
the Halifax Station, assembled seaplane 
No. 1876. He left Halifax on the afternoon 
of June S and flew to St. John, New 
Brunswick, without any trouble except a 
fog which lifted just as he reached St. John. 
He remained there over night and left the 
next day for Lac Temiscouata, Quebec. In 
flying across the State of Maine, he en- 
countered a heavy thunderstorm and seeing 
a lake of the same shape as the one he was 
looking for made a landing, only to find that 
he was on Eagle Lake, Maine. He re- 
mained there over night and flew to Lake 
Temiscouata the next morning. He had 
ordered gas and oil sent there but it had 
not arrived so he was forced to take auto- 
mobile gasoline and go on to Riviere du 
Loup on the St. Maurice. On the morning 
of the 8th of June, the sea water was very 
rough and a high wind and strong tide, 
and in trying to take off the nose of the 
machine went entirely under water drench- 
ing Mrs. Graham, who was in the forward 
seat acting as navigator. He left Riviere 
du Loup at 1 P. M. passed over Quebec 
City at 2.25 and arrived at Three Rivers at 
3.10. Here he was met by Messrs. R. F. 
Grant, President, and Mr. Henry Sorgius, 
Manager, and Ellwood Wilson, a Director 
of the St. Maurice Association. At the 
wharf the Hon. J. A. Tessier, Minister of 
Roads and Mayor of the City of Three 
Rivers, formally welcomed Lieut, and Mrs. 
Graham, the Mayoress presenting Mrs. 
Graham with a bouquet of beautiful flow- 
ers. After a rest the party took the air 
at 6.50 and arrived at Lac la Tortue at 7.10. 
The trip was made without incident or mis- 
hap of any kind, the four hundred horse 
power Liberty engine never missing a 
stroke. The plane seems to be ideal for 
work over forests such as those in Quebec 
where lakes for landing abound. Its gaso- 
line capacity is a little low for long flights. 
The machine lands and takes off beauti- 
fully. Mrs. Graham has named the first 
machine "La Vigilance." Lieut. Graham 
leaves the nth of June for Halifax to 
bring up the second machine and will then 
commence his patrol and photographic 
work. Complete cost records are being 
kept and will be published at the end of the 
season. 

This is the first use of seaplanes in 
Canada for other than war purposes, the 
first flight of any kind ever made from 
Halifax to Quebec, and I think the first 
for commercial purposes ever made in Can- 



FORESTERS ATTENTION 

AMERICAN FORESTRY will gladly print free 
of charge in this column advertisement! of for- 
esters, lumbermen and woodsmen, discharged or 
about to be discharged from military st-rvicc, who 
want positions, or of persons having employment 
to offer such foresters, lumbermen or woodsmen. 

ARBORICULTURIST is open to an engagement 
to take charge of, or as assistant in City For- 
estry work. Experience and training, ten years, 
covering the entire arboricultural field — from 
planting to expert tree surgery — including nur- 
sery practice, and supervision in the care and 
detailed management of city shade trees. For 
further information, address Box 700, care of 
American Forestry. 

POSITION wanted by technically trained For- 
ester. Have had fourteen years experience 
along forestry lines, over five years on the 
National Forests in timber sale, silvicultural 
and administrative work; three years experi- 
ence in city forestry, tree surgery and landscape 
work. Forester for the North Shore Park Dis 
trict of Chicago. City forestry and landscape 
work preferred, but will be glad to consider 
other lines. Can furnish the best of reference 
Address Box 600, Care American Forestry 
Magazine, Washington, D. C. (1-3) 

YOUNG MAN recently discharged from the U. S. 
Navy, wants employment with wholesale lum- 
ber manufacturer; college graduate; five year's 
experience in nursery business; can furnish • 
best of references. Address Box 675. Care 
American Forestry Magazine, Washington, 
B. C. (1-3) 

WANTED: Young forester, preferably married, 
for clearing and maintaining woodland on small 
estate, operating private nursery, etc. Will pay 
$80 or better, depending on qualifications and 
experience. Six room residence on state road 
included Address Box 750, c/o American For- 
estry Magazine, Washington, D. C. (7-9 19) 

ada. The Managers of the various Com- 
panies which make up the St. Maurice 
Forest Protective Association have signi- 
fied their intention to inspect their timber 
limits from the air, and photographic maps 
will be made for any timber holders in the 
Association who wish them. 

A small station with living quarters and 
machine shop is to be prepared for the 
machines and the fullest possible use will 
be made of them. 



VALUE OF NUTS 

Nuts can and do take the place of meat in the 
diet with beneficial results, and with the grow- 
ing scarcity of meat due to the world war, they 
are bound to be in great demand at good prices 
in the future. 

The comparative food value to the pound in 
calories is shown by the following table: 

Round Steak 950 

Wheat Flour 1,650 

White Bread , 1,215 

Dried Beans_„ 1,605 

Raisins , 1,605 

English Walnuts 3,075 

Pecans 3,445 

It should be noted here that the true value of 
any article of food should not be measured by 
its cost, but by what it is worth to the consumer. 



ONE POPLAR BRINGS $11,000 

A yellow poplar tree of giant size, which for 
years had stood in the hills of the Cumberland 
Mountain, where it was an object of unusual 
interest, has already brought approximately 
$11,000 as a manufactured product. The tree was 
cut down by a local lumber concern and con- 
signed to a firm in Cincinnati. When sawn, the 
product totaled nearly 7,000 feet of first-class lum- 
ber, with several hundred feet second-class lum- 
ber thrown in. 

It is declared that this was the largest tree 
marketed from the eastern Kentucky fields within 
a half century. It was so large that for a num- 
ber of years the task of marketing it was a 
serious obstacle, there being few lumbermen who 
cared to try to cut it down. 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



1239 




QUALITY- EFFICIENCY-RELIABILITY 

Upon this foundation was built this, 
the Largest Saw Works in the World 

Keystone Saw, Tool, Steel and File Woiks 

HENRY DISSTON & SONS, PHILADELPHIA, U. S. 




A. 



HELP TO REFOREST FRANCE 

rpHE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION has undertaken the great task of helping 
-*- to reforest the shell-torn, war-shattered areas of France; and to aid also Great Britain, half 
of whose forests were felled; Belgium, whose forests suffered terribly, and Italy. 

The great humanitarian need, the prime economic importance, the broad constructive value 
of this work — all place it on a plane which gives it striking pre-eminence. Therefore, it is felt 
that every member of the American Forestry Association will desire to have a part, and as big 
a part as possible, in carrying out this program. 

B 



Y those who are competent to judge, it is asserted that the forests of France kept the Germans 
from Paris. How great a debt, then, does the world owe to them ! 



A MERICA can build no nobler memorial in Europe than by replacing the devastated forests of 
-^*- France, Great Britain, Belgium and Italy. ^Answer this appeal at once by sending your 
check for whatever amount you can afford, to the American Forestry Association. It will help 
to purchase the seed needed to replant the forests of our Allies. 

Checks Should Be Sent to 
THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

1 1 . 1 : L 1 1 L l 1 1 ' 1 1 1 L I r > L L r 1 1 1 4 • I i 1 1 L 1 1 M 1 1 IJ II ! M 1 11 1 1 1 ! I i . ^ 1 L 1 1 1 1 ; N I j L 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ I L J . i ^ . . : : 1 1 1 E t J : ^ . T 1 1 1 1 1 ; I ! I T I T U 1 1 1 U 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 T 1 1 1 L I I j 1 J 1 1 T h 1 1 1 1 1 N 1 1 : J 1 C 1 1 1 T J 1 1 1 S i i i 1 1 J J 1 1 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 11 1 [ I [ I ) J J J J 1 1 1 1 [ 1 1 ) : . . J ; ,' / 

Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1240 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



BOOKS ON FORESTRY 

AMERICAN FORESTRY will publish each month, for the benefit of those who wish books on forestry, 
* list of titles, authors and prices of such books. These may be ordered through the American Forestry 
Association, Washington, D. C. Prices are by mail or express prepaid. 



FOREST VALUATION— Filibert Roth 

FOREST REGULATION— Filibert Roth 

PRACTICAL TREE REPAIR— By Elbert Peets 

THE LUMBER INDUSTRY— By R. S. Kellogg 

LUMBER MANUFACTURING ACCOUNTS— By Arthur F. Jones 

FOREST VALUATION— By H. H. Chapman 

CHINESE FOREST TREES AND TIMBER SUPPLY— By Norman Shaw 

TREES, SHRUBS, VINES AND HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS— By John Kirkegaard 

TREES AND SHRUBS— By Charles Sprague Sargent— Vols. I and II, 4 Parts to a Volume— 

Per Part 

THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER— Gifford Pinchot 

LUMBER AND ITS USES— R. S. Kellogg 

THE CARE OF TREES IN LAWN, STREET AND PARK— B. E. Fernow 

NORTH AMERICAN TREES— N. L. Brltton 

KEY TO THE TREES— Collins and Preston 

THE FARM WOODLOT— E. G. Cheyney aad J. P. Wentling 

IDENTIFICATION OF THE ECONOMIC WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES— Samuel J. 



Record 



PLANE SURVEYING— John C. Tracy 

FOREST MENSURATION— Henry Solon Graves 

THE ECONOMICS OF FORESTRY— B. E. Fernow 

FIRST BOOK OF FORESTRY— Filibert Roth 

PRACTICAL FORESTRY— A. S. Fuller 

PRINCIPLES OF AMERICAN FORESTRY— Samuel B. Green 

TREES IN WINTER— A. S. Blakeslee and C. D. Jarvis 

MANUAL OF THE TREES OF NORTH AMERICA (exclusive of Mexico)— Chas. Sprague 

Sargent 

AMERICAN WOODS— Romeyn B. Hough, 14 Volumes, per Volume 

HANDBOOK OF THE TREES OF THE NORTHERN U. S. AND CANADA, EAST OF THE 

ROCKY MOUNTAINS— Romeyn B. Hough 

GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH THE TREES— J. Horace McFarland 

PRINCIPAL SPECIES OF WOOD; THEIR CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES— Chas. H. Snow 

HANDBOOK OF TIMBER PRESERVATION— Samuel M. Rowe 

TREES OF NEW ENGLAND— L. L. Dame and Henry Brooks 

TREES, SHRUBS AND VINES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES— H. E. Park- 



hurst 



TREES— H. Marshall Ward 

OUR NATIONAL PARKS— John Mulr 

LOGGING— Ralph C. Bryant 

THE IMPORTANT TIMBER TREES OF THE UNITED STATES— S. B. Elliott 

FORESTRY IN NEW ENGLAND— Ralph C. Hawley and Austin F. Hawes 

THE PRINCIPLES OF HANDLING WOODLANDS— Henry Solon Graves 

SHADE TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES— William Solotaroff 

THE TREE GUIDE— By Julia Ellen Rogers 

MANUAL FOR NORTHERN WOODSMEN— Austin Cary 

FARM FORESTRY— Alfred Akerman 

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF WORKING PLANS (In forest organization)— A. B. Reck- 



nagel 



ELEMENTS OF FORESTRY— F. F. Moon and N. C. Brown 

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD— Samuel J. Record 

STUDIES OF TREES— J. J. Levlson 

TREE PRUNING— A. Des Cars 

THE PRESERVATION OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER— Howard F. Weiss 

SEEDING AND PLANTING IN THE PRACTICE OF FORESTRY— By James W. Tourney... 

FUTURE OF FOREST TREES— By Dr. Harold Unwin 

FIELD BOOK OF AMERICAN TREES AND SHRUBS— F. Schuyler Mathews 

FARM FORESTRY— By John Arden Ferguson 

THE BOOK OF FORESTRY— By Frederick F. Moon 

OUR FIELD AND FOREST TREES— By Maud Going 

HANDBOOK FOR RANGERS AND WOODSMEN— By Jay L. B. Taylor 

THE LAND WE LIVE IN— By Overton Price 

WOOD AND FOREST— By William Noyes 

THE ESSENTIALS OF AMERICAN TIMBER LAW— By J. P. Kinney 

HANDBOOK OF CLEARING AND GRUBBLNG, METHODS AND COST— By Halbert P. 

Gillette 

FRENCH FORESTS AND FORESTRY— By Theodore S. Woolsey, Jr 

MANUAL OF POISONOUS PLANTS— By L. H. Pammel 

WOOD AND OTHER ORGANIC STRUCTURAL MATERIALS— Chas. H. Snow 

EXERCISES IN FOREST MENSURATION— Winkenwerder and Clark 

OUR NATIONAL FORESTS— H. D. Boerker 

MANUAL OF TREE DISEASES— Howard Rankin 



$1.50 
2.00 

2.00 
1.10 
2.10 
2.00 
2.50 
1.50 

5.00 
1.35 
1.15 
2.17 
7.30 
1.50 
1.75 

1.75 
3 00 
4.00 
1.61 
1.10 
1.50 
1.50 
2.00 

6.00 
7.50 

6.00 
1.75 
3.50 
5.(0 
1.50 

1.50 
1.50 
1.91 
3.50 
2.50 
3.50 
1.50 
3.00 
1.00 
2.12 
.57 

2.10 
2.20 
1.75 
1.75 
.65 
3.00 
3.50 
2.25 
2.00 
1.30 
2.10 
1.50 
2.50 
1.70 
3.00 
3.00 

2.50 
2.50 
5.35 
5.00 
1.50 
2.50 
2.50 



* This, of course, is not a complete list, but we shall be glad to add to it any books on forestry 
or related subjects upon request. — EDITOR. 



TREES OF INDIANA 

A new book of 300 pages on "The Trees 
of Indiana" has just been issued by the 
Department of Conservation of the State 
of Indiana. It contains a scientific de- 
scription and a full-page illustration of 
each of the native trees of Indiana. The 
qualities and uses of the wood are 
given and the value of each species for 
shade and for forest planting is discussed. 
This is a book that should be in the hands 
of every wood lot owner and of everyone 



who is interested in our native trees. It is 
especially recommended for teachers. It 
will enable them to teach their pupils to 
know our native trees. Any teacher can 
have as many copies as he can use to ad- 
vantage in his school work. This book is 
free for the asking, but since the supply 
is limited, if a copy is desired application 
should be made at once. Send your order 
to the Department of Conservation, office 
of the State Forester. Indianapolis, In- 
diana. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The Forest Ranger, by John D. Guthrie. 
Richard G. Badger, the Gorham Press, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Price, $1.50. This is a book 
of verses, collected and edited by John 
Guthrie, which he has been getting together 
for the past fifteen years. Many of them 
appeared originally in the pages of forest 
news letters issued on the different Nation- 
al Forests. Poetical or literary merit is 
claimed only for a few but they surely re- 
flect the daily life and work of the Forest 
Ranger in the wide and beautiful forest 
lands of the West. Some are frankly 
parodies, some rhymes and jingles and a 
few are songs most familiar to the ranger 
and hummed around his lonely camp fire 
on the trail. The desire of the editor to 
bring together and put on record a true 
expression of the spirit of these men who 
have heard the "call of the forest and of 
the distant places" is well met by the little 
volume. The book is prefaced by a charac- 
teristic letter from Gifford Pinchot, in 
which he says to the editor: "In collecting 
these verses, you have put me, with every 
other Forest Service man, deeply in your 
debt." Mr. Guthrie's work was a labor 
of love and we predict for it a warm wel- 
come, worthy of the spirit of its prepa- 
ration. 

Practical Tree Repair, by Elbert Peets, 
259 pp., il-, $2.00. Robt. N. McBride & 
Company, New York. 

No science is more firmly founded on 
known facts and methods than that of tree 
repair and the prevention of tree diseases. 
The author of this intensely practical book 
gives clearly and concisely complete in- 
struction covering the treatment of wounds, 
rot-fungi, boring insects, filling of cavities, 
bracing, materials used in filling, treatment 
of cavities without filling, etc. Illustrated 
from photographs and diagrams, this book 
is useful alike to the owner of a home and 
to the man who intends to take up tree 
repair work. 






Identification of the Economic Woods of 
the United States, by S. J. Record, $1.75. 
Revised and enlarged second edition, John 
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 

The main differences between this edition 
and the first (1912) are as follows: (1) 
The Key has been entirely rewritten and 
rearranged, several new woods are in- 
cluded and more of the common names are 
given ; (2) the lists of references and the 
general bibliography have been brought up 
to date; (3) an Appendix has been added 
which amplifies some of the subject matter 
of Part 1, and also includes considerable 
new data on wood structure. 

In grouping the woods in the Key more 
attention has been given to their general 
similarity than to special features, thus 
bringing together for effective contrast the 
kinds which are most likely to be confused 
in practice. Attempt has been made to 



CANADIAN DEPARTMENT 



1241 



have all of the descriptions comparable 
and. so far as permissible to make the 
gross characters the basis for separation. 
The microscopic features are printed in 
smaller type than the others, to avoid con- 
fusion and to simplify the use of the Key. 
It is comparatively easy to make a key 
for a given lot of wood specimens, but to 
take into account the range of variation of 
each wood is an extremely difficult task. 
Such a key must be the result of growth, of 
the accumulation of years of investigation 
and experience, and must always be sub- 
ject to revision as new data and new ma- 
terial become available. To this end the 
author enlists the co-operation of all read- 
ers of this magazine. 

Vacation Days in Colorado's National 
Forests. Issued by the Office of the Dis- 
trict Forester, District 2, this recreation 
booklet is guaranteed to create a longing 
in the heart of every reader for "the hills, 
whence cometh our help." And nowhere in 
our wide and beautiful country is this 
desire more fully met than in the "Switzer- 
land of America." The National Forests in 
Colorado hold an opportunity, and an invi- 
tation to those to whom the impulse comes 
to leave the heat of the city and business 
cares behind and follow the open road to 
the "still places." Nowhere else in the 
United States, and seldom in any land, 
may one look upon more majestic vistas 
of snow-capped mountain ranges, forested 
slopes, granite gorges, tumbling cascades 
and rolling plains than in these playgrounds 
of the people in Colorado. The climate is 
wonderful — a tonic of sunshine and pure 
air. filling one with vigor. Few places may 
be found which offer the seeker after rest, 
recreation and outdoor life so many oppor- 
tunities for enjoyment. The booklet de- 
scribes briefly the National Forests within 
the boundary of Colorado, stressing par- 
ticularly points of interest and the privileges 
extended to prospective visitors and con- 
tains as well practical advice and informa- 
tion regarding camping outfits, personal 
equipment necessary, etc. Further informa- 
tion may be had by addressing District 
Forester, District 2, New Federal Building, 
Denver, Colorado. 

"P NTOMOLOGISTS of the United States 
Department of Agriculture who last fall 
began an examination of the cranberry bogs 
of Michigan, Wisconsin, and the Pacific 
Coast which have received shipments of 
cranberry vines from New England report 
that they find no evidence of gypsy-moth 
infestations from such shipments. It had 
been feared that the moth had been car- 
ried on the vines to the western bogs. De- 
termination of the fact was necessary in 
order to know what control measures 
should be undertaken. In that connection 
the Department is making tests to deter- 
mine both the resistance of cranberry vines 
to intensive fumigation and the strength of 
fumigation necessary to destroy the eggs 
of the gypsy moth. 



CANADIAN DEPARTMENT 

BY ELLWOOD WILSON 

PRESIDENT, CANADIAN SOCIETY OF 
FOREST ENGINEERS 



\ 



The Laurentide Company, which was the 
pioneer in grinding hardwood for pulp in 
an experiment last fall, tried a further one 
this spring when seventy cords of mixed 
birch, beech and maple was barked in the 
drum barkers without any difficulty and 
ground into pulp. Owing to the irregu 
larity of the four foot sticks barking with 
knife barkers was soon proved to be un- 
successful but the drum barkers removed 
the bark, if anything, a little more easily 
from the hardwood than from spruce, the 
only difficulty was the weight of the wood 
which is harder on the conveyors. Begin- 
ning in August the Company will begin to 
use hardwood continuously. 



The meeting of the Woodlands Section of 
the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association 
took place on June 25 and 26. The first 
day was spent at the Berthier Nursery of 
the Provincial Government as the guests of 
Mr. Piche, Chief Forester. The Minister 
of Lands formally opened the air patrol 
and the seaplane arrived and left from 
Berthier for its first trip. The nursery 
was inspected and also the planting on 
drifting sands at Berthier and a fine stand 
of white pine which has been thinned and 
cared for for a number of years. There 
was also a general discussion of re- 
forestation and slash disposal. The meet- 
ing on the next day was held at Grand 
Mere and Proulx where the nurseries and 
experimental plantations were inspected and 
where tractors were, shown at work and 
a kerosene brush burner and gasoline fire 
pump demonstrated. An out door woods- 
man's lunch was served. A representa- 
tive of the U. S. Forest Service was pres- 
ent and a large number of representative 
pulp and paper and lumbermen were pres- 
ent with a number of Government and. 
private Canadian foresters. 



Two trees affected with blister rust 
have been found in a plantation of Scotch 
pine planted by the Laurentide Company 
and have been removed and burned. The 
white pine weevil has also attacked the 
same plantation and a fungous disease 
which has destroyed some of the terminal 
buds. This latter is now over. If Scotch 
pine is going to suffer in this way it will 
hardly pay to plant it in this section. 



Mr. H. G. Schanche, for many years 
with the Forestry Division of the Lauren- 
tide Company has become forester for the 
Abitibi Pulp and Paper Company, Ltd., of 
Iriquois Falls. They expect to start a 
nursery at once and begin reforestation on 
their cut-over lands. 



THE 




1337-1339 F STREET.N.W. 
WflSHINGTON.P.C. 

PeSI<aN^.RS 

flNP 

ILLUSTRATORS 

3 ^olor Process Work 
^lotrotypss 

Superior Qoality 
SS^ruic^. 

Phone Main 8Z74 



PLANT MEMORIAL 

TREES FOR OUR 

HEROIC DEAD 



In the St. Maurice Valley two large fires 
have been extinguished without loss of 
merchantable timber but with a large area 
of cut-over land destroyed. In the earlier 
days when the areas of timber cut over 
each year by the various operators were 
small and widely separated the danger 
from the heaped up debris was not serious. 
Today, however, when an area of 126 
square miles is being cut each year and 
when the operations of some of the com- 
panies are contiguous, a dry spell of eight 
or ten days and a high wind make such 
areas almost impossible to control and a 
terrible conflagration will be almost in- 
evitable. The large number of men re- 
quired to fight such fires makes them very 
expensive. The time has come when some 
Province-wide system of burning slash 
from lumbering must be inaugurated. 
Even if the cost should run to a dollar a 
cord, by being borne equally by all no hard- 
ship would be incurred and the cost would 



Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1242 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




There's Glory in Flowering Shrubs 

Almost any tree or shrub adds charm to the landscape. 
Those with showy flowers add just so much more 
beauty. Indeed, the most delightful landscapes are 
those where flowering trees are represented. They appear like 
the work of a master fairy on account of the masses of colors 
which vie with each other so harmoniously throughout the 
season. 

Think of all the rare floral gems that 
tint the landscape and keep the at- 
mosphere full of fragrance; there are 

many that are out of the ordinary, but 
these six are distinctly unusual and 
showy. The entire collection tor $5.00 
(purchased singly, $7.00). 



Japanese Dogwood 
Japanese Cornelian 

Cherry 
Japanese Bellflower 

Tree 



Sliver Bell Tree 

Chinese Christmas 
Berry 

Storax 



These and many others, equally delightful, 
arc described and illustrated in Hick's 
Monograph "Flowering Trees and Shrubs." 
Colored illustrations leave in your mind no 
room for doubt concerning results. Send 
for your copy today. 

HICKS NURSERIES 
Box F Westbury, L. I., If. Y. 



HILL'S 

Seedlings and Transplants 

ALSO TREE SEEDS 
FOR REFORESTING 

DEST for over half a century. All 
leading hardy sorts, grown in im- 
mense quantities. Prices lowest. Quali- 
ty highest. Forest Planter's Guide, also 
price lists are free. Write today and 
mention this magazine. 

THE D. HILL NURSERY CO. 

Evergreen Specialists 

Largest Growers in America 

BOX 601 DUNDEE, ILL. 



FORESTRY SEEDS 

Send for my catalogue containing 
full list of varieties and prices 

Thomas J. Lane, Seedsman 
Dresher Pennsylvania 



Orchids 



We t are specialists in 
Orchids; we collect, im- 
port, grow, sell and export this class of plants 
exclusively. 

Our illustrated and descriptive catalogue of 
Orchids may be had on application. Also spe- 
cial list of freshly imported unestablished 
Orchids. 

LAGER & HURRELL 

Orchid Growers and Importers SUMMIT, N. J. 



be borne by the consumers at large who 
are the real owners of the forests and who 
are most interested in their protection. In- 
dividual timber holders can cut off their 
timber, make a profit and go out of busi- 
ness, but the public cannot see their for- 
ests vanish. Wood we must have and the 
forests must be handled so as to perpetuate 
them. 



The Province of Nova Scotia has de- 
cided to employ a Provincial Forester and 
thus complete the proper policy for the 
whole of the forested provinces of the 
Dominion. 



The work of the Dominion Forestry 
Branch at the Petawawa Forest Reserve, 
under Mr. H. C. Wallin, in studying the 
growth, increment and so forth of the trees 
there will continue during the summer. 
Some valuable results were obtained last 
year and much is hoped from the research 
program now under way. 



Nursery Stock for Forest Planting 


TREE SEEDS 

SEEDLINGS Writ* {.., price, on TRANSPLANTS 

large quantities 


THE NORTH-EASTERN FORESTRY CO. 


CHESHIRE, CONN. 



The Commission of Conservation in co- 
operation with the Laurentide Company, 
the Riordon Company, the Abitibi Com- 
pany, the Province of New Brunswick and 
the Province of Quebec, will continue their 
research work under Dr. Howe into the 
growth, reproduction, mortality rate, etc., 
on cut-over pulpwood lands. The work 
will also be extended to burnt over coun- 
try. Plots have been laid out and treated 
in various ways. For instance, one plot has 
been cut clean and the debris burned in 
piles, another cut-over and the debris al- 
lowed to lie and the hardwood trees have 
been girdled. On others every seedling is 



tagged and numbered and the growth will 
be studied. An entomologist and an ex- 
pert in fungous diseases are with the party 
and will look after their respective fields. 
At the Laurentide Company plantations of 
various trees on different soils and with 
different aspects have been made, also dif- 
ferent mixtures of trees and mixtures of 
dominant and suppressed trees from the 
transplant beds. These will be measured 
and studied from year to year. Seed selec- 
tion is also being practiced and Scotch pine 
of the second generation is already growing. 



A DEPARTMENT OF FOREST 

RECREATION ESTABLISHED 

AT THE NEW YORK STATE 

COLLEGE OF FORESTRY 

A NEW department, that of forest recre- 
ation, has just been established at the 
New York State College of Forestry. This 
department will assist in the development 
of the work of the College, both along in- 
vestigational and instructional lines, in the 
proper uses of forest areas for public rec- 
reation purposes. The establishment of this 
department is in line with the endeavor of 
the College to make its work of real service 
to the people of the State and to increase 
the right use of forests and forest lands. 
This is the first department of forest recrea- 
tion to be established in a school or college 
in this country. 

With the great Adirondack and Catskill 
Forest Preserves, Palisades Interstate Park, 
Letchworth Park and some thirty other 
public forest reservations, the whole total- 
ing nearly two million acres, New York 
State has unique forest resources, capable 
of securing to its millions of people great 
public good in the way of recreational uses. 
Just as playgrounds are being established 
in villages and cities throughout the coun- 
try, where play may be organized and 
properly directed, so the forests of this and 
other States must be studied and developed, 
that they may be more effective playgrounds 
for the people of the State. 

This new department of forest recreation 
in the College of Forestry will be in charge 
of Prof. Henry R. Francis, who has made 
a specialty of this line of work and who 
during the past five years has been carry- 
ing on landscape extension work both in 
New York and Massachusetts. During the 
coming summer Professor Francis will be- 
gin systematic studies of forest and park 
areas in New York to prepare bulletins for 
recreational development, and late in the 
season will make a trip through the national 
forests and national parks of the West to 
see what has already been done by the 
National Government and by the Western 
States in developing the recreational possi- 
bilities of forest lands. 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



1243 



PROTECTgLOCUST TREES FROM 
BORERS 

PLANTATIONS of the locust tree can be 
successfully protected from the borer 
and grown profitably on a commercial scale 
if the trees are planted in thick stands or 
mixed with other trees, so as to produce a 
densely shaded condition during the first 
ten to fifteen years. Investigations of the 
United States Department of Agriculture 
showed that more trees were destroyed by 
borers in tracts which had been pruned 
occasionally, or closely grazed, or in which 
fire had killed out the underbrush, thus 
destroying the natural shade produced by 
weeds and shrubbery. 

The denser the underbrush about the 
trunks of the trees the less is the damage 
done by borers. Trees growing from two 
to three feet apart were seldom injured, 
while nearby isolated trees were riddled 
by borers. 

Condition Necessary for Borer Attack 
All trees and all parts of the tree are not 
subject in the same degree to attack by 
the borer. Rough bark provides crevices 
in which the borers deposit their eggs. 
Young trees, less than one and one-half to 
two inches at the base, are not attacked 
unless the bark is rough. On younger trees 
the borers are found at the base and near 
rough crotches. Trees with trunks more 
than five or six inches in diameter rarely 
contain the insects. On such trees the 
larger branches frequently are infested, but. 
such injury is seldom common enough to 
do much harm. Protection from borers is 
necessary for only a comparatively short 
period during the tree's growth. Under 
good growing conditions this time should 
not exceed ten years. 



Treatment , of Shade Trees 
The locust is widely planted for orna- 
mental and shade purposes. It is highly 
desirable, because it grows readily in a 
variety of soils and situations. It grows 
rapidly and forms a shapely crown when 
planted in the open. But it is frequently 
attacked by borers. This is because shade 
trees are planted singly and in the open, 
thus furnishing favorable conditions for 
attack. 

Young borers can be killed readily by the 
use of an arsenical spray. Spraying will 
be necessary only every two or three years, 
unless badly infested trees nearby are not 
treated. As a rule, spraying will not be 
needed after trees reach six inches in diam- 
eter. Trees of that size are usually im- 
mune from attack, but should be watched. 
Locusts make such desirable shade trees 
that they should not be neglected and al- 
lowed to become injured or destroyed by 
borers. The increasing value of black or 
yellow locust for many purposes makes it 
a profitable tree to grow commercially and 
emphasizes the importance of protecting it 
from the borer. Information concerning 
the care of both shade trees and commer- 
cial plantings of locust is included in Bul- 
letin 787, issued by the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

PLANT MEMORIAL TREES 

FOR OUR 
SOLDIERS AND SAILORS 




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ADVISORY BOARD 

Representing Organizations Affiliated with the 
American Forestry Association 



National Wholesale Lumber Dealers' Association Lumbermen's Exchange Empire State Forest Products Association 

JOHN M. WOODS, Boston. Mass. J. RANDALL WILLIAMS, JR., Philadelphia, Pa. FERRIS J. MEIGS, New York Citj 

W. CLYDE SYKES, Conifer, N. Y. FREDERICK S. UNDERBILL, Philadelphia, Pa.RUFUS L. SISSON, Potsdam, N. Y. 

R. G. BROWNELL, Williamsport, Pa. R. B. RAYNER, Philadelphia, Pa. W. L. SYKES, Utica, N. Y. 



Northern Pine Manufacturers' Association 

C. A. SMITH, Coos Bay, Ore. 

WILLIAM IRVINE, Chippewa Falls, Wia. 

F. E. WEYERHAEUSER, St. Paul, Minn. 



National Association of Box Manufacturer! 
B. W. PORTER, Greenfield, Mass. 
S. B. ANDERSON, Memphis, Tenn. 
ROBT. A. JOHNSON, Minneapolis, Minn. 



Carriage Builders' National Association 

H. C. McLEAR, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

D. T. WILSON, New York 

P. S. EBRENZ, St. Louis, Missouri 



New Hampshire Timberland Owners' 
W. H. BUNDY, Boston. Mass. 
EVERETT E. AMEY, Portland, Me. 
F. H. BILLARD, Berlin, N. H. 



Massachusetts Forestry Association 
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, Milton, Maas. 
FREDERIC J. CAULKINS, Boston, Mass. 
HARRIS A. REYNOLDS, Cambridge, Mass. 



California Forest Protective Association 
MILES STANDISH, San Francisco, Cal. 
Aeaociatlon GEO x WENDLING, San Francisco, Cal. 
GEO. H. RHODES, San Francisco, Cal. 



Minnesota Forestry Association 
W. T. COX, St. Paul, Minn. 
PROF. D. LANGE, St. Paul, Minn. 
MRS. CARRIE BACKUS, St. Paul, Minn. 



American Wood Preservers' Association 
MR. CARD, 111 W. Washington St., Chicago, 111. 
MR. JOYCE, 332 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 
F. J. ANGIER, Baltimore, Md. 



Camp Fire Club of America Southern Pine Association 

Philadelphia Wholesale Lumber Dealers' Ass'n w i L LIAM B. GREELEY, Washington, D. C. J. B. WHITE, Kansas Citj, Mo. 

J. RANDALL WILLIAMS, JR., Philadelphia, Pa O. H. VAN NORDEN, New York T. E. RHODES, New Orleans, La. 
Phil; ■ 



FRED'K S. UNDERHILL, Philadelphia, Pa. FREDERICK K. VREELAND, New York 



HENRY E. HARDTNER, Urania, La. 



Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1244 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



School of Forestry 

UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO 

Four Year Course, with op- 
portunity to specialize in 
General Forestry, Log- 
ging Engineering, and 
Forest Grazing. 

Forest Ranger Course of 
high school grade, cover- 
ing three years of five 
months each. 

Special Short Course cover- 
ing twelve weeks design- 
ed for those who cannot 
take the time for the 
fuller courses. 

Correspondence Course in 

Lumber and Its Uses. No 
tuition, and otherwise ex- 
penses are the lowest. 

For Further Particulars Address 

Dean, School of Forestry 

University of Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 



Forest Engineering 
Summer School 

University of Georgia 

ATHENS, GEORGIA 

Eight-weeks Summer Camp on 
large lumbering and milling oper- 
ation in North Georgia. Field 
training in Surveying, Timber 
Estimating, Logging Engineer- 
ing, Lumber Grading, Milling. 
Special vocational courses 
for rehabilitated soldiers. 
Exceptional opportunity to pre- 
pare for healthful, pleasant, lucra- 
tive employment in the open. 

{Special announcement sent upon 
request.) 



SARGtNT'S HANDBOOK OF 
AMERICAN PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

A Guide Booh for Parents 

A Standard Annual of Reference. Describes 
critically and discriminately the Private 
Schools of all classifications. 
Comparative Tables give the relative cost, 
size, age, special features, etc. 
Introductory Chapters review interesting de- 
velopments of the year in education— Modern 
Schools, War Changes in the Schools. Educa- 
tional Reconstruction. What the Schools Are 
Doing, Recent Educational Literature, etc. 
Our Educational Service Bureau will he glad 
to advise and write you intimately about any 
I or class of schools. 
Fifth edition. '910. revised and enlarged. 
788 page*. $8.00. Circulars and sample pages. 
POKIER E. SARGENT, 14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 



AIRPLANE PATROL IN NATIONAL 
FORESTS 

OATROL of national forests by Army 
airplanes to give early warning of fires 
developing in the forests began June I, 
according to arrangements completed with 
the War Department by the Forest Serv- 
ice, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture. On the same day observations cov- 
ering a large part of the Angeles National 
Forest were begun from a captive balloon 
stationed over the Army Balloon School 
near Arcadia, California. 

Two routes of airplane patrol work will 
be operated from March Field, twelve miles 
southeast of Riverside, California. Two 
planes will be used on each route, the routes 
will each be approximately ioo miles long 
and each route will be covered twice a day. 
This is the beginning of experimental 
work in which the adaptability of aircraft 
to forest patrol work is to be thoroughly 
tried out. If the tests prove successful it 
is expected that the airplane patrols will 
be extended before the end of the 1919 sea- 
son, and that airplanes will become a per- 
manent feature of the ceaseless battle 
against fires in the national forests. 

The airplane routes from March Field 
will afford an opportunity to survey about 
2,000 square miles in the Angeles and Cleve- 
land National Forests. The airplanes are 
not equipped with wireless telephone ap- 
paratus of such a nature that they can com- 
municate with the ground without the in- 
stallation of expensive ground instruments. 
Warnings of fires will be transmitted by 
means of parachute messages dropped over 
a town, the finder to telephone them to the 
Forest Service; by special landings made 
to report by telephone, and by returning 
to the base and reporting from March 
Field direct to the forest supervisor. Fires 
will be located and reported by squares 
drawn on duplicate maps, one to be in the 
possession of each airplane observer and 
another to be in the office of the forest 
supervisor. 

The observation balloon over the Ar- 
cadia Field is to be maintained at an eleva- 
tion of about 3,000 feet from 7 A. M. until 
2.30 P. M. each day. The student detach- 
ment learning observation now stationed at 
Mount Wilson will also render fire lookout 
service. Reports of fires from both the 
balloon observer and the Mount Wilson de- 
tachment will be telephoned to the Army 
Balloon School and transmitted to the 
Forest Service office at Los Angeles. A 
fire-fighting truck, with ten enlisted men, 
will be stationed at Arcadia as part of the 
fire-suppression forces and will be subject 
to the call of the Forest Service. 



IN MANY sections of the national forests 
it has been found impossible, without 
great expense, to maintain telephone wires 
or cables because of the havoc wrought by 
timber falling across the wires and by 
heavy snowslides. Therefore, wireless tele- 



phones are soon to be given a trial in the 
forests, and the Signal Corps of the Army 
has lent four combination sets of transmit- 
ting and receiving apparatus to the Forest 
Service of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

Equipment is to be installed on Mount 
Hood, at an elevation of about 13,000 feet, 
and another set is to be at the nearest forest 
ranger station, about twelve miles away. 
Two other sets are to be placed in the 
Clearwater forest region of Idaho, which 
is heavy wilderness country. 

Wireless telephones have never been 
tried in mountainous country, and interest 
centers in the results of the experiments, 
particularly in the effect on messages of 
high ridges between telephone stations. The 
Mount Hood experiment will show the 
practicability of talking from a high point 
to a low point, and the Clearwater forest 
experiment will demonstrate whether mes- 
sages can be communicated from two points 
of about the same elevation but separated 
by mountains. 

All the wireless stations will be estab- 
lished at lookout points, and will give warn- 
ings of fires developing in the forests, sup- 
plementing the regular facilities of the For- 
est Service. 

A CREW of treeplanters at Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, is now working under the 
direction of the Forest Service planting 
Douglas fir and Engelmann spruce on the 
high, barren slopes of Santa Fe Baldy, in 
the Sangre de Cristo range, on the Santa 
Fe National Forest. A large number of 
trees were planted last year, and 40,000 
more are now being planted. 

These seedling trees were grown from 
the seed of native forest trees at the Gal- 
linas forest nursery, where experiments 
have been conducted for several years by 
the Forest Service in the art of growing 
forest trees from seeds. The problem is a 
very difficult one, according to forest of- 
ficials, owing to the many technical ques- 
tions involved in the semi-domestication of 
wild tree species. These problems have now 
been solved, and the forest plantation on 
Santa Fe Baldy, as well as several other 
plantations in the region, have been sucess- 
ful, and conclusively prove that forest trees 
can be artificially grown in the southwest 
in spite of adverse climatic conditions. 

After getting a three years' growth in 
the Gallinas nursery, forty thousand of the 
seedlings were transported on pack-horses, 
with great difficulty, nearly to the summit 
of Baldy early this spring, where they were 
buried in the snow until weather conditions 
became favorable for planting. With the 
unusually moist, cool season, forest officers 
are very hopeful that a large percentage of 
the seedlings will survive and grow into a 
heavy stand of valuable timber in the 
course of the next two centuries. 

The work of growing the seedlings and 
starting the plantation has been carried out 
by Forest Examiner Herman Krauch. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 



1245 



CURRENT LITERATURE 

MONTHLY LIST FOR JUNE, 1919 

(Books and periodicals indexed in the library of the United States Forest Service.) 



FORESTRY AS A WHOLE 
Proceedings and reports of associations, forest 
officers, etc. 

Hawaii — Board of commissioners of agri- 
culture and forestry. Report for the 
biennial period ended Dec. 31, 1918. 
118 p. pi., maps. Honolulu, 1919. 

India — Andamans — Forest dept. Report 
on forest administration for the year 
1917-18. 39 p. Calcutta. 1919. 

New York state college of forestry. Syra- 
cuse university. The Empire forester, 
vol. 5. 104 p. il. Syracuse, N. Y., 
1919. 

Switzerland — Dept. de l'interieur — Inspec- 
tion des forests, chasse et peche. Etat 
des agents forestiers de la Suisse, 1919. 
25 p. Berne, 1919. 

FOREST PROTECTION 

Insects 

Craighead, F. C. Protection from the 
locust borer. 12 p. pi. Wash., D. C, 
1919. (U. S. — Dept. of agriculture. 
Bulletin 787.) 

Diseases 

International white pine blister rust con- 
ference for western North America. A 
brief report of the proceedings and 
recommendations. 4 p. Portland, Ore., 
1919. 

Fire 

Central West Virginia fire protective asso- 
ciation. Fifth annual report. 23 p. 
Elkins, W. Va., 1918. 

FOREST ADMINISTRATION 

United States — Dept. of agriculture — For- 
est service. Vacation days in Colo- 
rado's national forests. 60 p. il., map. 
Washington., D. C, 1919. 

FOREST UTILIZATION 

Lumber industry 

American hardwood manufacturers asso- 
ciation. Inspection rules on hardwood 
lumber, and sales code, effective Feb. 
1, 1919. 134 p. Memphis, Tenn., 1919. 

National wholesale lumber dealers asso- 
ciation. Report of proceedings, 27th 
annual meeting. 113 p. N. Y., 1919. 

United States — Federal board for voca 
tional education. For disabled soldiers, 
sailors and marines, to aid them in 
choosing a vocation ; the lumber in- 
dustry, logging, sawmilling. 15 p. 
Wash.. D. C, 1919. (Opportunity 
monograph, vocational rehabilitation 
series No. 19.) 

Wood-using industries 

Davis, Charles G. The building of a wood- 
en ship. 127 p. il., diagrs. Phila., Pa., 
U. S. Shipping board emergency fleet 
corporation, 1918. 

AUXILIARY SUBJECTS 
Description and travel 

Muir, John. Steep trails. 391 p. pi. 
Boston, Houghton Mifflin co., 1918. 



Engineering 

Johnson, J. B. Materials of construction 
5th ed. 840 p. il., diagrs., tables 
N. Y., J. Wiley & sons, inc., 1918. 

Erosion 

Fisher, M. L. The washed lands of In- 
diana : a preliminary study. 24 p. il. 
Lafayette, Ind., 1919. (Indiana — Agri- 
cultural experiment station. Circular 
no. 90.) 

PERIODICAL ARTICLES 

Tifiscellaneous periodicals 

Aerial age, June 9, 1919. — The properties of 
balsa wood, by R. C. Carpenter, p. 
640-1. 

Agricultural gazette of Canada, Mar., 1919. 
— Balsam injury in Quebec and its con- 
trol, by J. M. Swaine, p. 227-33. 

American city, Apr., 1919. — Classification 
and census of city trees, by A. F. W. 
Vicks, p. 368-70. 

Aviation, May 15, 1919. — Veneer body con- 
struction, p. 434-6. 

Bellman, Apr. 19, 1919. — Replanting the 
war forests, by R. H. Moulton, p. 

434-5- 

Botanical gazette, May, 1919. — A coniferous 
sand dune in Cape Breton Island, by 
L. H. Harvey, p. 417-26. 

Conservation, May, 1919. — Disposal of slash 
is prime essential, by C. Leavitt, p. 19; 
Technically trained foresters in de- 
mand, by C. Leavitt, p. 20; Forests as 
factors in reconstruction, by C. Lea- 
vitt, p. 22. 

Contemporary review, Apr., 1919. — Pros- 
pects of starting state forestry, by F. 
D. Acland, p. 386-95. 

Garden magazine, May, 1919. — Fair treat- 
ment for trees, by E. L. D. Seymour, 

P- I7I-3- 

Gardeners' chronicle of America, May, 
1919. — The appeal that trees make as 
memorials, by F. B. Meyer, p. 166-7. 

Journal of the Franklin institute, June, 
1919. — Tree telephony and telegraphy, 
by G. O. Squier, p. 657-87. 

New Zealand journal of agriculture, Apr. 
21, 1919. — The wood-borer and its con- 
trol, by A. H. Cockayne, p. 198-9; The 
ailanthus-tree for wood-pulp, by W. H. 
Taylor, p. 223. 

Progressive farmer, Apr. 12, 1919. — Getting 
the most out of the farm woodlands, by 
H. B. Krausz, p. 598, 619; Farmers' ex- 
perience meeting : getting more profit 
from farm timber, p. 600. 

Science, May 30, 1919. — The Roosevelt wild 
life experiment station, by C. C. Adams, 
P- 533-4- 

Scottish journal of agriculture, Apr., 1919. 
— Forestry and hill farms, by W. G. 
Smith, p, 197-203. 

U. S. Dept. of agriculture. Weekly news 
letter, June 4, 1919. — Want federal 
leadership in meeting forestry prob- 



The 

New York State 

College of 

Forestry 

at 

Syracuse University, 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

UNDERGRADUATE courses in 
Technical Forestry, Paper and 
Pulp Making, Logging and Lum- 
bering, City Forestry, and Forest 
Engineering, all leading to degree of 
Bachelor of Science. Special oppor- 
tunities offered for post-graduate 
work leading to degrees of Master of 
Forestry, Master of City Forestry, 
and Doctor of Economics. 

A one-year course of practical 
training at the State Ranger School 
on the College Forest of 1,800 acres 
at Wanakena in the Adirondacks. 

State Forest Camp of three months 
open to any man over 16, held each 
summer on Cranberry Lake. Men 
may attend this Camp for from two 
weeks to the entire summer. 

The State Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion of 90 acres at Syracuse and an 
excellent forest library offer unusual 
opportunities for research work. 



i 



UNIVERSITY OF MAINE 

ORONO, MAINE 

Maintained by State and Nation 

rpHE FORESTRY DEPART- 
■*■ MENT offers a four years' 
undergraduate curriculum, lead- 
ing to the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Forestry. 
****** 

Opportunities for full techni- 
cal training, and for specializing 
in problems of the Northeastern 
States and Canada. 

****** 

John M. Briscoe, 

Professor of Forestry 

****** 

For catalog and further infor- 
mation, address 

ROBERT J. ALEY, Pres't, 
Orono, Maine 



Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1246 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



Yale School of 
Forestry 

Established in 1900 

A Graduate Department of Yale 
University 

The two years technical course pre- 
pares for the general practice of for- 
estry and leads to the degree of 

Master of Forestry. 
Special opportunities in all branches 
of forestry for 

Advanced and Research Work. 

For students planning to engage 
in forestry or lumbering in the 
Tropics, particularly tropical Amer- 
ica, a course is offered in 

Tropical Forestry. 
Lumbermen and others desiring in- 
struction in special subjects may be 
enrolled as 

Special Students. 

A field course of eight weeks in the 
summer is available for those not 
prepared for, or who do not wish 
to take the technical courses. 



For further information and cata 
logue, address : The Director of the 
School of Forestry, New Haven, Con- 
necticut, U. S. A. 



Forestry at 

University of 

Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

A FOUR - YEAR, undergraduate 
course that prepares for the 
practice of Forestry in all its 
branches and leads to the degree of 

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 
IN FORESTRY 

Opportunity is offered for grad- 
uate work leading to the degree of 
Master of Science in Forestry. 

The course is designed to give a 
broad, well-balanced training in the 
fundamental sciences as well as in 
technical Forestry, and has, conse- 
quently, proven useful to men en- 
gaged in a variety of occupations. 
This school of Forestry was estab- 
lished in 1903 and has a large body 
of alumni engaged in Forestry work. 
For announcement giving 
Complete information and list 
of alumni, address 

FILIBERT ROTH 



lems, p. 1 ; More airplane patrols for 
national forests, p. 8. 

Trade journals and consular reports 

American lumberman, May 24, 1919. — New 
piers built of redwood, by C. W. Geiger, 
p. 50-1 ; First Port Orford cedar price 
list issued, p. 63. 

American lumberman, May 31, 1919. — Prac- 
tical accounting system for retail lum- 
bermen, p. 1, 44-6 ; Canadian forestry- 
corps in France, by R. Hill, p. 42-3 ; 
Makes progress in study of woods used, 
p. 50; Nature both destructive and con- 
structive, p. 53; "Boat ark," by W. C. 
Barnes, p. 55 ; Lumbering in the Philip- 
pines, p. 52-3, 60. 

American lumberman, June 7, 1919. — Sell- 
ing homes complete instead of raw 
material, p. 1, 50c. ; Southern pine 
beetle timber menace, p. 43. 

Barrel and box, May, 1919. — A scientific 
packing box, by C. P. Winslow, p. 49. 

Canada lumberman, June 1, 1919. — Review 
of conditions in England, by A. C. 
Manbert, p. 33-4 ; What vast spruce 
forests mean to Quebec, by E. Beck, p. 
41. 

Engineering news-record, May 29, 1919. — 
"Fire finder" for lookout stations of 
the Forest service, p. 1055. 

Hardwood record, May 25, 1919. — Syca- 
more veneers and lumber, p. 24, 26 ; 
How the ancients cut veneers, p. 26, 30 ; 
Live oak as source of veneers, p. 30. 

Hardwood record, June 10, 1919.— Kiln- 
drying specifications for lumber, by H. 
D. Tiemann, p. 21-6. 

Hub, May, 1919. — The advantages of wood, 
by A. S. Van Haltern, p. 11. 

Lumber, May 26, 1919. — How to handle ties, 
by W. E. Hallenbeck, p. 14; Various 
uses of oak, p. 16. 

Lumber, June 2, 1919. — Wood flooring holds 
popularity in England, by J. Y. Dun- 
lop, p. 12; American sawmill builders 
in France, by J. Woods, p. 13-15; 
American lumber manufacturers can 
profit from Scandinavian methods, by 
A. H. Oxholm, p. 15-16. 

Lumber, June 9, 1919 — Speed, the basis of 
modern forest fire fighting, by A. L. 
Dahl, p. 13-14. 

Lumber world review, June 10, 1919. — A 
talk about a national forest policy and 
what came of it, by E. A. Sterling, p. 
24-6. 

Mississippi Valley lumberman, May 30, 
1919. — State foresters meet, p. 23. 

'New York lumber trade journal, June 1, 
1919. — Lumber facts presented to In- 
dustrial board by National lumber 
manufacturers association, p. 19-20. 

Packages, June, 1919. — Increasing the use 
of wood barrels as containers, by C. C. 
Berry, p. 42. 

Paper, May 14, 1919.— The chemistry of 
wood pulp production, by A. Klein, p. 

15-19- 
Paper, May 28, 1919.— Possibilities of 
bagasse for papermaking, p. 23-4. 



Paper, June 4, 1919. — Paper research litera- 
ture: a list of contributions by mem- 
bers of the U. S. Bureau of chemistry, 
1904-1918, by E. O. Reed, p. 15-16; The 
use and abuse of pulp stones, by W. J. 
Campbell, p. 17-18; Pulp for the whole 
world in India, by W. Raitt, p. 19, 36. 

Paper, June II, 1919. — The constitution of 
cellulose, by W. H. Gesell and J. E. 
Minor, p. 15-17; War uses of pulp and 
paper, by A. G. Durgin, p. 28-9. 

Paper trade journal, June 5, 1919. — Finnish 
pulp for the American market, by J. de 
Julin, p. 34, 36. 

Pioneer western lumberman, May 15, 1919. 
— Opportunities for free education and 
special training in forestry, forest en- 
gineering and the lumber business, p. 
15-16; The general reconstruction situa- 
tion in Europe, by J. R. Walker, p. 
17-23- 

Pioneer western lumberman, June 1, 1919. 
— Killing a billion dollar industry, by 
J. A. Kitts, p. 9, 11; Development of 
heavy timber construction, by C. E. 
Paul, p. 14-15. 

Pulp and paper magazine, May 8, 1919. — 
Patronage and the national forest 
menace, by C. D. Howe, p. 448-9. 

Railway age, May 30, 1919— Recent de- 
velopments in railroad tie situation, p. 
1305-8. 

Southern lumberman, May 24, 1919. — 
Woods used in airplanes, by F. H. Rus- 
sell, p. 25. 

Southern lumberman, May 31, 1919. — For- 
esters of 7th district hold three-day 
conference in Asheville, p. 30; Princi- 
ples of a program for private forestry, 
by H. S. Graves, p. 36. 

Southern lumberman, June 7, 1919. — Value 
and durability of wooden ships clearly 
demonstrated, p. 22, 24; Argentine Re- 
public offers splendid market for lum- 
ber and wood products, by R. S. Bar- 
rett, p. 26. 

Timber trades journal, May 10, 1919. — The 
Gabriel raft at Ipswick, p. 734-7 ; Dan- 
ger of word "inexhaustible;" truth 
about Canadian timber, by B. E. Fer- 
now, p. 737. 

Timber trades journal, May 24, 1919. — Dis- 
abled soldiers and afforestation, p. 847; 
Tools for forestry work, p. 876. 

U. S. commerce report, May 20, 1919. — 
Exportation of wood from Brazil, by 
A. I. Hasskarl, p. 899; Development of 
trade in Trinidad fustic wood, by H. D. 
Baker, p. 924-5. 

U. S. commerce report, May 22, 1919. — The 
Belgian match industry, by C. R. Na- 
smith, p. 958; Australia objects to boxes 
showing insect borings, by W. J. Mc- 
Cafferty, p. 958. 

U. S. commerce report, May 26, 1919. — 
Great forest fires in Victoria, by A. W. 
Ferrin, p. 1017. 

U. S. commerce report, May 28, 1919. — 
The pulp and paper industry in Cana- 
da, by J. G. Foster, p. 1059-61 ; Siamese 



CURRENT LITERATURE 



1247 



exports of teakwood for 1918, by C. C. 
Hansen, p. 1061 ; List of firms and the 
lumber industry in Archangel, by F. 
Cole, p. 1063. 

U. S. commerce report, June 7, 1919. — Esti- 
mated production of quebracho ex- 
tract for 1919, p. 1239. 

U. S. commerce report, June 10, 1919. — 
Providing Italy with lumber, p. 1270-4. 

U. S. commerce report, June 11, 1919. — 
Dyestuff situation in Europe, p. 1286; 
Market for paper and office supplies in 
Trinidad, by H. D. Baker, p. 1298-9. 

U. S. commerce report, June 13, 1919. — 
British paper industry inquiry, p. 
1346-8; Progress of American ship- 
building, p. 1353. 

West Coast lumberman, May 15, 1919. — 
Russia's 7,000,000,000-foot lumber in- 
dustry prostrated, by R. E. Simmons, 
p. 23, 38; Character and distribution 
of the 1918 lumber and shingle cut of 
Washington, Oregon and Alaska, by 
T. J. Starker, p. 26, 30-2. 

West Coast lumberman, June 1, 1919. — 
Xew forest policy necessary, by H. S. 
Graves, p. 34, 38, 54a; How to make 
factory roof timbers last longer, p. 42-3. 

Wood-worker, May, 1919. — Keep the dry- 
ing plant in good repair, by E. U. 
Kettle, p. 29-30; Piling lumber for 
kilns, by E. X. Angus, p. 41. 

Forest journals 

American forestry, June, 1919. — An appre- 
ciation, by James A. Woodruff, p. 1092; 
the American lumberjack in France, 
by W. B. Greeley, p. 1093 1 108; the 
forest engineers, by Henry S. Graves, 
p. 1 109; Organization of 20th Engineers 
(Forestry) p. mo; 20th Engineers 
(Forestry) record of development and 
production, p. mi; French forests in 
the war, by Barrington Moore, p. 
1113-1135; how the American army 
got its wood, by Percival Sheldon 
Ridsdale, p. 1136-1154; a lesson from 
France, by Ralph H. Faulkner, p. 1155- 
1157; war service of the American 
Forestry Association, p. 1158; "The 
Great Tree Maker," p. 1158; jobs for 
returning lumbermen and foresters, p. 
1 159- 1 162; the Welfare Fund, p. 1163- 
1 167 ; donations to the welfare fund 
for lumbermen and foresters in war 
service, p. 1168. 

Australian forestry journal, Apr. 15, 1919. 
— An Australian forestry school, p. 
106; Formation of the New South 
Wales league of bush fire fighters, p. 
107; King of the Christmas tree, p. 
120-1 ; Fire fighting appliances, p. 122; 
Replanting war forests, p. 122-3; 
Eucalyptus in Ecuador, p. 123-4. 

Canadian forestry journal, May, 1919. — 
Trees are the best memorials, p. 195 ; 
How to plant memorial trees, by F. 
\V. H. Jacombe, p. 196-7; Suggestions 
for memorial planting of trees in parks 
and other places, by C. Dolph, p. 198; 
A business plan for western forests, 



by H. S. Graves, p. 203-5 ; A land of 
forests without forestry, by C. D. 
Howe, p. 212-16; A better plan of sell- 
ing public timber, p. 217-18; Canada 
starts aerial forest patrol, p. 220-1 ; 
Dangers of the locomotive spark, p. 
224; Beneficient effects of forest cover, 
by S. T. Dana, p. 230-1. 

Forest leaves, June, 1919. — A Pennsylvanian 
with a vision, by I. C. Williams, p. 
36-9; White pine blister rust, p. 47-8. 

Indian forester, Mar., 1919. — The regenera- 
tion of sal, by R. S. Hole, p. 119-32; 
Cause of the spike disease of sandal, 
by R. S. Hole, p. 133-9; The sailing 
vessel "Armenia," by A. Rodger, p. 
154-5; Buttons of wood, p. 158-9; The 
present condition of lac cultivation in 
the plains of India, by C. S. Misra, p. 
160-71. 

Quarterly journal of forestry, Apr., 1919. 
— Transport in relation to afforestation, 
by W. B. Brown, p. 81-93; A destruc- 
tive disease of seedling trees of Thuja 
gigantea, by G. H. Pethybridge, p. 
93-7 ; Government afforestation pro- 
posal, by P. T. Maw, p. 97-100; Plough- 
ing land before planting, by A. Walk- 
nigton, p. 133-6; Forestry in New Zea- 
land, by D. E. Hutchins, p. 139-40. 

Zeitschrift fur forst-und jagdwesen, Jan., 
1919. — Gedanken uber zweck und ziel 
der forstfirtschaft, by Kordgahr, p. 
1-6; Vorschlage fur die harznutzung 
1919 auf grund der beobachtungen und 
versuche in Chorin, by M. Kienitz, p. 
6-32; Achtet der niederen pflanzenwelt, 
by C. Frombling, p. 33-7. 



LECTURE ON HISTORIC TREES 

ANNOUNCEMENT is hereby made of 
an historical lecture now being given 
by J. R. Simmons, secretary of the New 
York State Forestry Association, in the in- 
terest of the promotion of forestry. If 
you are a member of a civic club, city club, 
school board, historical society, Red Cross, 
fraternal or other organization, tell your 
presiding officer about this. 

The lecture undertakes to show in a 
popular way how trees have affected the 
life of the community, the State and the 
nation. It is illustrated with fifty beautiful 
lantern slides, the only extensive photo- 
graphic collection of historic trees on 
record. p r £ t f the Lecture 

If given for public benefit where admis- 
sion is charged, under the auspices of clubs 
or other organizations, expenses plus 20 per 
cent of admission receipts is the regular 
rate; otherwise a charge of twenty-five 
dollars and traveling expenses is made. 

All funds received by the lecturer above 
his traveling expenses are to be expended 
for the cause of forestry in the State of 
New York. 

A date may be arranged by writing to 
J. R. Simmons, secretary of the New York 
State Forestry Association, Chamber of 
Commerce, Syracuse, New York. 



HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY 

DEPT. OF FORESTRY 
BUSSEY INSTITUTION 

/"VFFERS specialized graduate 
training leading to the de- 
gree of Master of Forestry in the 
following fields : — Silviculture 
and Management, Wood Tech- 
nology, Forest Entomology 
Dendrology, and (in co-opera- 
tion with the Graduate School 
of Business Administration) the 
Lumber Business. 

For further particulars 
address 

RICHARD T. FISHER 

Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts 



DEPARTMENT OF 
FORESTRY 

The Pennsylvania 
State College 



jt\. Forestry, covering four years 
of college work, leading to the 
degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Forestry. 

Thorough and practical training for 
Government, State, Municipal and 
private forestry. 

Four months are spent in camp in 
the woods in forest work. 
Graduates who wish to specialize 
along particular lines are admitted 
to the "graduate forest schools" as 
candidates for the degree of Master 
of Forestry on the successful com- 
pletion of one year's work. 



For further information address 
Department of Forestry 

Pennsylvania State College 

State College, Pa. 



Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1248 



AMERICAN KOKKSTRY 



THE 
SOUTHERN PINE ASSOCIATION 



Is an organization composed of 230 Southern Pine mills located in 9 Southern States, 
producing 6 billion feet of lumber annually. The foundation of the Association is 

"S-E-R-V-I-C-E" 



Service to the consumer by educating him to 
the proper uses of Southern Pine and its qualities ; 
and protecting him in his purchases by the main- 
tenance of uniform grades. 



Service to the dealer by bringing to his atten- 
tion the most improved methods of merchandizing 
and by creating markets for his goods through 
advertisements in national and local publications. 




Service to its subscribers through its Executive, Advertising, Inspection, Traffic, 
Cut-Over Land, Safety First, Engineering, Accounting and Statistical Departments. 

Southern Pine Association 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. 




PLANT MEMORIAL TREES FOR OUR HEROIC DEAD 



PLANT TREES 

PROTECT FORESTS 

USE FORESTS 



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This is the only Popular 
National Magazine de- 
voted to trees and forests 
and the use of wood. 



American Forestry Association 

1410 H STREET N. W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 

/ hereby accept membership in The American 
Forestry Association and enclose check for $ 

NOTE— American Forestry Magazine, a handsomely printed and illustrated monthly, is sent to 
all except $1.00 members, or without membership the subscription price is $3.00 a year. 

CLASS OF MEMBERSHIP 
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AMERICAN FORESTRY 

THE MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 

PERCIVAL SHELDON RIDSDALE, Editor 



August 1919 Vol. 25 



CONTENTS 

niiiiiniiiiiiii 



No. 308 




iraph by courtesy Brown & Dawson, IV. Y. 



THE CORYPHA TREE, AT ST. GEORGES, GRENADA 

This tree is remarkable for the (act that it lives ten 
years, bears (lowers and (ruit, and then dies. 



matter December 24, 1909, at the Post- 

it Washington, under ihe Act of March 3, 1879. Copyright, 

■ rican Forestry Association. Acceptance for 

mailing at special rale of postage provided for in Section 1103. 

October 3. 1917, authorized July 11, 1918. 



Belgium's Forests Blighted by the Hun — By Percival Sheldon Ridsdale 1251 
With twelve illustrations. 



The Northwest's Worst Forest Fires. 



Prevention of Forest Fire Losses — By Smith Riley. 
With seven illustrations. 



1259 
1260 



Forest Destruction Prevented by Control of Surface Fires — By 
Joseph A. Kitts 1264 



Uncle Sam, Lumberman, Canal Zone — By W. H. Babbitt. 
With five illustrations. 



For Them a Tree Stands There 

With five illustrations. 

National Honor Roll, Memorial Trees. 



Mysteries and Revelations of the Plant World — By D. Lange 
With fourteen illustrations. 



1265 

1268 

1270 
1273 



A National Forest Policy — The Proposed Legislation — By Henry S. 

Graves 1281 

A Discussion of Methods — By R. S. Kellogg 1282 

Pennsylvania's Opinion — By George H. Wirt 1283 

Control of Growing Forests— By Alfred Gaskill 1284 



The Seventeen-Year Locust — By R. W. Shufeldt. 
With four illustrations. 



1285 



Dr. Fernow, Dean of Foresters, Retires 1289 

Douglass "Killed in Action" 1289 

Graduates of the New York State College of Forestry Granted Amer- 
ican-Scandinavian Fellowship 1289 

Forestry for Boys and Girls — The Pine Woods Folk — By E. G. Cheyney 1290 



The Gulls and Terns— By A. A. Allen. 
With ten illustrations. 



1291 



City Tree Planting 1295 

Editors Take up Forest Matters 1296 

Forestry — The Relation of Wood to the Development of Civilization — 

By William Carson 1297 

With one illustration. 



Use of Cut-Over Lands. 



1298 



State News 1299 

Minnesota Kentucky 

Maryland Illinois 

New Jersey Georgia 

Canadian Department — By Ellwood Wilson 1302 

Pigeons Will Protect Forests 1306 

Book Reviews 1307 

Current Literature 1309 



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THI |i?rSn r ?Br- N SA?r.l ^ I ?SS, E ^?^T L ,S I ^ JM ^ I I 5 D -i CATES HOW THE GERMANS USED VAST QUANTITIES OF BELGIAN TIMBER IN- 
BUILDING ROADS ON LOW GROUND. THE TREES STILL STANDING ARE DEAD, SHATTERED BY SHELL AND GUN FIRE. 




THE CONDITION OF THE PARK OF A CHATEAU NEAR MERCK EN. BELGIUM. AFTER EXTENSIVE TIMBER CUTTING BY THE 
GERMANS AND SOME SHELLFIRE. NOTHING LIVING IS LEFT STANDING , - ulllwl ' B * !"*• 



Illlllllllllllllll!!lllllllllllllllllllllllllllll!llllllllllllllll!llllll!lll^ 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



VOL. XXV 

l)IIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII!l[|||||||||lllllllllllll!ll!li!!»llllllllllllllllllll!lll!llll!lllllllllllllllll!ll!llill!ll 



AUGUST, 1919 



NO. 308 



BELGIUM'S FORESTS BLIGHTED BY THE HUN 



BY PERCIVAL SHELDON RIDSDALE 



EDITOR OF AMERICAN FORESTRY MAGAZINE 



Brussels, Belgium. 

THE Germans practically destroyed the forests of 
Belgium during their four years' occupation of the 
conquered territory. A few small areas of wooded 
land still remain, but the trees are standing only because 
the Germans in their hurried retreat followed by their 
speedy acceptance of the armistice found insufficient 
time in which to complete their work of destruction. 

Several hundred million dollars' worth of trees were 
destroyed, and the four provinces of Hainaut, Liege, 
Luxemburg and Namur suffered most severely. 

Protests against the wholesale destruction of standing 
timber, and the deliberate damage of young growth so 
that it could not survive were made to General Baron 
von Bissing, Governor Gen- 



eral of Belgium, by the 
Belgian Forest Adminis- 
tration and by the Central 
Forestry Society of Bel- 
gium, without avail, and 
the systematic and scien- 
tific destruction of the for- 
ests and woodlands contin- 
ued during the entire period 
of the occupation. 

Belgium's forest area, 
1,299,450 acres constitut- 
ed about 17% of the entire 
area of the country, where- 
as one-fourth of the Ger- 
man Empire and one-third 

of Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemberg and Baden is in forest. 
As Belgium is without doubt one of the heaviest lumber 
consuming nations of the world, in view of the density 
of her population and the needs of her industries, these 
German forests will undoubtedly be compelled to restore 
the lumber Belgium has lost, but only the long years can 
restore her forests. Meanwhile, the effect of changes 
of climate due to loss of her forests may cause damage 
impossible to estimate, to add to the many injuries already 
sustained by this unhappy country. 

The situation is well expressed by a report of the 
< tntral Forestry Association of Belgium, of which Count 
Yisart de Bocarme, the heroic Mayor of Bruges, is presi- 
dent, which says: "In 1914 the wind of Liberty still 
blew in the rich foliage of our forests, which were, alas ! 



Belgium, eager for the restoration of her de- 
stroyed forests, has gratefully accepted the offer 
of the American Forestry Association to aid by 
presenting American forest tree seed. Belgium's 
director of forests, N. I. Crahay, has asked for 
quantities of the following seed: 

NOBLE FIR, GRAND FIR, WHITE FIR, SILVER FIR, 
WESTERN LARCH, DOUGLAS FIR, PORT ORFORD 
CEDAR, BALD CYPRESS, TIDELAND SPRUCE, PIN OAK, 
RED OAK, SUGAR MAPLE, SILVER MAPLE AND TULIP 
POPLAR. 

The American Forestry Association is now 
soliciting contributions to a fund to provide this 
seed and also to provide seed for the replanting 
of the devastated forests of France. 



soon to become acquainted with the axe of the vandals. 
For, during that dark period of fifty-two months, after 
committing every manner of crime, they also perpetrated 
the monstrous felony of laying low our forests ; for let 
us remember that they have cut down several hundred 
millions worth of our trees. 

"Everything went — venerable shade trees of the road- 
side, the parks, and the fields, elms and poplars ; experi- 
mental trees, exotic or curious; historical trees; forest 
trees such as oaks, ash, beech, or of the orchard, such 
as walnut trees ; massive growths of both deciduous and 
indeciduous varieties; forests belonging to the nation, to 
communes, to charitable institutions, or to private indi- 
viduals ; nothing was spared, old or young, tall timber or 

coppice wood, not even the 
bedding. 

"They had set out to 
leave nothing standing 
when they were finally com- 
pelled to let go under the 
irresistible pressure of our 
victorious troops, and in 
some cases left their cut- 
ting unfinished." 

Much was done by the 
Belgians during the four 
years in the effort to save 
some of the forests, to have 
the young growth protected 
even if the usable trees had 
to be sacrificed. Notes, 
protests, appeals, supplications, were made to the Ger- 
man officials, but all without other result than curt 
refusals to modify the orders for steady and systematic 
destruction which were being issued from time to time. 
To General Baron von Bissing was pointed out the 
fact, so familiar to every German officer, that a certain 
area of forest is absolutely essential to the prosperity 
and even the vitality of a nation, a truth put into applica- 
tion with jealous care in the various states of Germany. 
He was told that in Belgium for the last twenty-five or 
thirty years, the nation, the provinces, the communes, 
and numerous owners have united their efforts with a 
view to increasing the forested area, which was obviously 
insufficient, in view of the imperative needs of the nation 
in the way of timber, as well as out of consideration for 

1251 



1252 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



the numerous and valuable indirect services which forests 
render from the standpoint of climate, water supply, etc. 

It was also indicated that the forests were young and 
of recent creation, and their yield of lumber as well as 
their general output comparatively small, for the area of 
mere coppice wood and of timber of small value or utility 
constituted about one-fourth of the whole. 

Numerous plantations had been established, some in 
order to protect regions against dominating or drying 
winds, others for the sake of clothing hills and elevated 
plateaus with a view to preventing disastrous overflows 
of water courses which prevailed prior to the establish- 
ment of these plantations. The removal of these woods 
which served as a defense against the elements would 
cause not only considerable losses but even a public 



stipulations of the international convention signed at 
The Hague on October 18, 1907. 

"As a matter of fact, as regards the Government for- 
ests, article 55 of this convention provides that the occu- 
pying Nation shall be considered only as an administrator 
and usufructuary of this property and shall be obliged to 
administer it in accordance with the rules on usufruct. 

"Now, the exploitation of these forests is regulated 
according to the Belgian laws on the basis of methodical 
arrangements which determine the areas and amounts to 
be cut annually. 

"As regards the forests of communes and of private 
parties, article 52 stipulates particularly that requisitions 
in kind shall be made against communes and inhabitants 
only for the needs of the army of occupation. 




Sl'CH SCENES AS THIS IN BELGIAN FORESTS AND WOODLANDS ARE NOT UNUSUAL. THERE ARE SCORES AND SCORES 
LIKE THIS AND WORSE. THE DIFFICULTY OF THE PROBLEM OF RESTORATION IS APPARENT AT A GLANCE. 



danger as a result of the probable inundations, not only 
in Belgium but even in Holland, if, for instance, the hills 
of the basin of the Meuse and its affluents were stripped. 
It would certainly provoke legitimate protests on the part 
of the injured owners, who would find their crops re- 
duced in consequence of the absence of the shelters which 
protected them, or ravaged by the torrents which would 
be sure to arise following the denudation of the hillsides. 

The Forestry Society even pointed out that the stipu- 
lations of the international convention signed at The 
Hague protected the forests of occupied enemy territory, 
and said in an appeal to Von Bissing: 

"We arc compelled to protest against the seizure of our 
forests, all the more energetically because we consider 
ourselves protected in this highly grave matter by the 



"Now, it does not seem to us possible that the army of 
occupation alone could use the large quantities of wild 
pine, spruce, beech, oak, and walnut that have been cut 
down, taken out, and seized by the German military 
authority. 

"The same article also stipulates that these requisitions 
shall be in proportion to the resources of the country and 
of such a nature as not to impose upon the population 
the obligation of taking part in the operations of the 
war against their own country. 

"Now, according to the considerations set forth above, 
we are convinced that the timber that is now being taken 
is out of all proportion to the extremely limited timber 
resources of Belgium, which are already exceeded by the 
needs of the natives." 



BELGIUM'S FORESTS BLIGHTED BY THE HUN 



1253 




A WOODLAND NEAR MERCKEN IN BELGIUM, SHOWING THE REMAINS OF WHAT WAS ONCE A ROAD RUNNING THROUGH 
THE MIDDLE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. WOODLANDS IN THE DISTANCE WERE SAVED DOUBTLESS BECAUSE IT WAS TOO 
DIFFICULT TO GET OUT THE TIMBER. 



The effect of this protest may readily be guessed. Von 
Biasing, in a brief note, replied that the explanations 
could not induce him to revoke or modify the measures 
taken, and added that the cuttings were on so small an 
area that "it is impossible for any of the injuries which 
you fear to occur." The Forestry Society comment 
OH this was : 

"Let us merely say that it is a wonder that its author 
did not say that not only have we no injury to fear but 
that these cuttings were ordered in the interests of our 



people and of our forests." The Belgians, still brave, still 
hopeful, still deeply concerned, endeavored by submitting 
forceful statistics on the situation to Von Bissing to 
secure some modification of the campaign of destruc- 
tion. This was sent him : 

"We see there that the total area of indeciduous forest 
in the kingdom is 424,150 acres, divided into 138,685 
acres under the forestry administration and 285,465 
acres belonging to private parties. 

"The sale price of the exhaustive cuttings in the inde- 




Lh BOIS DES LUPINS, NEAR BOESINGHE. BELGIUM, SHOWING THE EFFECT OF HEAVY SHELLFIRE ON THE GROUND AND 
ON THE TREES, SUCH DAMAGE EXISTS FOR A WIDE AREA IN THIS SECTION. 



1254 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




THE PARK OF A BELGIAN ESTATE OCCUPIED BY THE GERMANS. HERE TIMBER WAS CUT AND PRACTICALLY ALL OF 
THE UNCUT TREES WERE KILLED BY FIRE AND SHELLS. MANY OF THE FINE PARK LANDS OF BELGIUM ARE IN A SIM- 
ILAR CONDITION. 



ciduous forests under the forestry administration having 
been 577,419 francs in 1910, we can infer from this that, 
for the total area of indeciduous forests, the proceeds of 
the exhaustive cuttings amounted in 1910 to approxi- 
mately 1,765,165 francs, representing a total volume of 
126,083 cubic meters. 

"According to the same data we find that in 1910, in 
regard to the provinces of Hainaut, Liege, Luxemburg, 
and Namur, as referred to in Your Excellency's answer, 
the area of indeciduous forests is 204,158 acres, the 
proceeds from exhaustive cuttings 859,615 francs, and 
the volume exploited 61,401 square meters. 

"The revenues of the preceding years are practically 
the same as those of 1910, and may be considered as nor- 
mal and as representing the maximum yield. 

"Now, Your Excellency writes us that, according to 
anticipations, the cuttings of indeciduous timber will not 
exceed an area of 4,940 acres in these four provinces. 

"This area will be taken from the growths offering the 
heaviest dimensions and representing a present value of 
12,500,000 francs at the least. 

"This quantity therefore considerably exceeds not only 
the maximum yield of the four provinces contemplated, 
of which we did not even deduct the forests comprised 
in the line-of-communications zone, but it also exceeds 
that of the whole country. 

"Under these circumstances, and inasmuch as it has 
already been necessary, for the needs of the Nation under 
present conditions, to dig deeply for the last two years 
into our forest reserve by means of extraordinary cut- 
tings, it is to be foreseen that, through the fellings con- 



templated, the resinous lumber resources of Belgium will 
be reduced beyond all proportion, if indeed they are not 
exhausted completely for the years to follow." 

To this Von Bissing, evidently short of arguments and 
without doubt somewhat peeved, said he was familiar 
with the statistics and "I cannot deduce therefrom any 
reason for suspending or modifying my instructions." 

There was nothing further to be done. The cutting of 
usable trees and the destruction of the young growth 
continued. 

The damage done to the various forests is indicated 
in the following reports of the Forestry Society now 
available : 

"The operations of the occupying nation had begun — 
one must break one's hand in in all things — by cutting 
down the resinous trees. As early as July 7, 1916, we 
were informed of the seizure of the resinous forests 
belonging notably to the communes of Chimay and 
Forges, to Mr. F. Brugmann in the territory of Escaillere 
and of the Riezes, and to Mr. Ch. Malengreau in the 
commune of Macquenoise. 

"The exploitation of the spruces on the Revers d'Oise 
and in Fagne, the two cantons belonging to the city of 
Chimay, and that of the wild pines, in the commune of 
Forges, was carried out quickly ; the case was the same 
with wild pines about sixty years old, planted as tall 
sentinels at the entrance of the oak groves of the com- 
mune of Salles and in regard to which they already dis- 
pensed with the formality of sending a notice of seizure. 
This latter cutting was exploited at the end of September, 
1916; it was the same way with some spruces which the 



BELGIUM'S FORESTS BLIGHTED BY THE HUN 



1255 



communes of Seloignes and Forges-Philippe owned on 
one of the heights of their forests of Thierarche. 

"It took more time to fell the splendid mass of spruces 
of the Hauts-Marais. This forest was assuredly the most 
beautiful of this kind that existed in Belgium, great 
spruces planted about 1862 and whose spires seemed to 
reach the sky in the darkness which their thick branches 
left on the ground. This beautiful mass no longer exists ; 
all the spruces, and with them large quantities of trees 
which grew in the forest proper, along walks and borders, 
all have disappeared for the satisfaction of the needs of 
the occupier, who never cared, of course, to indemnify 
the owner. What is more, for we can never get done 
telling the misdeeds of the Germans in Belgium, groups 
of exotic trees such as Japanese larches, Douglas firs, 
etc., remarkable for their vigor and their dimensions, 
found no more mercy before the axe of the vandals than 
did the ordinary spruces. 

"At the same time there were being exploited in Thier- 
arche, on the territory of Macquenoise, pine woods mixed 
with birch. The Germans had constructed a Decauville 
railroad in order to transport the timber to the railroad 
station at Momignies. On this track was a wheezy loco- 
motive pulling a car which contained at most one and 
one-half cubic meters of wood; and good people, good 
Belgians at that, were nevertheless admiring the spirit of 
organization of the usurpers ! 

"The quantity of oaks concentrated in the forests of 
the Chimay region and the situation of the forested areas 
with respect to the railroad stations adapted to the 
German enterprises, are likewise the reasons why the 



Thierarche forests had to suffer worse than those of 
Fagne. 

"In view of the stoppage of business the greater part of 
the communes had failed to sell the oaks of the cutting's 
of 191 5 and following. On the contrary all the white 
wood, which is suited to the manufacture of wooden 
shoes — the only local industry that kept up during the 
war — all the white wood had been sold as soon as the 
exploitation of the copse had permitted operations of 
timber selection. This was in fact all timber saved from 
the break-up and turned over to Belgian industry for the 
consumption of the interior of the country, but it was 
necessary to be disillusioned soon on this point also with 
respect to the honesty of our adversaries. 

"The high oak forests of Bourlers and Forges were 
attacked first ; while the felling of communal forests took 
place in violation of all rights and conventions. We 
must recognize that here at least the frenzied desire to 
injure and destroy the forest, to wipe out the forest 
reserve and all resources for the future, this bad desire, 
we will say, does not appear. Only the larger trees fell, 
and enough others were preserved so that the forest still 
has the appearance of high timber over a thin copse. 
However, all the big oaks are felled ; as a matter of fact, 
they constitute the bulk of the value. 

"While matters did not transpire so badly for these 
two communes, it was different with others, whose mis- 
fortunes we shall recite. 

"The forest of Monceau-Imbrechies, traversed from 
south to north by the road from Monceau to Seloignes, 
reached the facilities of the Seloignes-Monceau railroad 




STFRDY TREES IX A PARK IN BELGIUM WHICH SUSTAINED HEAVY SHELL AND MACHINE GUN FIRE AND STILL STAND, 

SKELETON DEAD, FILLED WITH BULLETS AND SHRAPNEL SCRAP. 



1256 



UIKRICAN FORESTRY 



station. It was one of the richest forests in the region, 
well served by two metaled roads, and situated between 
the railroad station and the locality which comprises many 
makers of wooden shoes, all being circumstances which 
gave value to the various classes of timber. Its big oaks, 
while not all of excellent quality, were known far and 
wide and offered dimensions little known elsewhere. One 
of these veterans measured 1334 feet at a height of five 
feet, and was 53 feet high ; it was named the Big Benefit 
Oak. Individuals from 6 feet to 8 feet in diameter were 
common there, those measuring from 8 feet to 11 feet 
were not rare, and there were several gauging 11 feet 
and over. Groups of beeches, modern and ancient, were 
met with and distinguished themselves by an exceedingly 



"The forest of Imprechies, a section of the same com- 
mune, was cut to the groixnd, or almost; it was stocked 
with about the same growth as that of Monceau, though 
a little less rich in big trees. 

"The commune of Beauwelz owned high timber oil 
copse, less thickly planted than the Monceau forests. ( )f 
all the oaks, beeches, birches, and maples nothing is left 
over almost the whole area. The "Decauville" railroad. 
constructed for the transportation of the resinous timber 
of the private forest, seems to have helped to consummate 
the ruin of the forest; the trees were felled there in the 
copses of all ages, from six to eighteen years! The 
birches and other timber that could be used in manufac- 
turing wooden shoes and for which the industry was 




ALL THAT IS LEFT OF A BELGIAN WOOD OCCUPIED BY BRITISH TROOPS WHEN THIS PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN WTEK 
THE ARMISTICE. IT IS THE BOIS TRIANGULAIRE, NEAR MERCKEN. ALL THE SKELETON TREKS STANDING ARE DEAD 
THE YOUNG GROWTH IS UTTERLY DESTROYED. 



rapid growth. Tall birches and big sycamore maples 
completed this fine high-timber forest. 

"To this forest were given the names of Tailles Andre, 
Benefice, Richots, Mauvais Pas, and> "Atelier; the cuttings 
dated from 1906 to 1917. Apart from the high timber, 
everything has disappeared : Secular oaks, groups of 
imposing beeches, tall birches, big maples, rooted saplings, 
staddles, moderns, ancients, superancients, young cadets, 
tall timber of young cuttings, reserves of middle age 
stature and old exploitations, everything was chopped 
down to within 20 inches of the ground, and dragged 
through copses of all ages to the roads by the pitiless 
cable actuated by a tractor. The copse is broken up, 
crushed, distorted, and destroyed. 



paying at the time at the rate of 70 francs per actual 
cubic meter, were cut down at the same time as the oaks. 
being cut up into logs for use in heating the fire boxes <>i 
the tractors and locomotives. 

"The Germans have ruined the commune of Beauwelz, 
and the indemnities the latter may be able to collect will 
not restore to it its forest wealth, which has hitherto 
been the uninterrupted source of its revenues, of wages 
for its woodsmen, and of raw materials for its makers 
of wooden shoes, all of which are factors of exchange 
and benefit to the whole locality. 

"These two communes have been hit harder than the 
others. Beauwelz was able some twenty years ago to 
escape inroads on its timber supply such as had been 



BELGIUM'S. FORESTS BLIGHTED BY THE HUN 



1257 







CONDITION' OF A WOODLAND NEAR MERCKEN, BELGIUM, SHOWING HOW THE DESTRUCTION OF TIMBER AND DAMAGE 
BY HF-AVY SHELLFIRE HAS TURNED FINE WOODLAND NEAR A WATERWAY INTO A SWAMP. 




ANOTHER VIEW OF WOODLAND DESTRUCTION NEAR MERCKEN. BELGIUM. NOTE THE SHATTERED TIMBER LYING IN 
AND NEAR THE SHELL HOLES. RESTORATION OF LAND AS BADLY DAMAGED AS THIS IS WILL BE A TEDIOUS AND 
COSTLY WORK 



1258 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




THE BOIS CHARPENTIER NEAR BISCHOOTE, IN BELGIUM, 
THE LAND HAS GONE AND IT IS A WATER-SOAKED, 



IS A SCENE OF UTTER DESOLATION. THE FOREST VALUE OF 
MUD-COVERED AREA MARKED BY NUMEROUS SHELL HOLES. 



caused elsewhere by the assessment of the "usage duties" 
of the old principality of Chimay; as a matter of fact, 
it bought all the trees which were to be sold for the 
benefit of the Prince of Chimay. The commune of Mon- 
ceau-Imbrechies was also reputed to have considerable 
savings. The Germans knew the smallest details of our 
affairs and we should not be at all surprised if they were 
aware of the financial situation of these two communes; 
they, who were fighting for justice ( ?), could it have been 
that they wanted their operations to bring about equi- 



librium in the forest wealth of our communes of Thier- 
arche ?" These reports do not cover the whole area of de- 
stroyed forests, facts about which are now being gathered 
and which will later be printed. A brief examination, 
however, of any of the destroyed forests indicates very 
clearly the truthfulness of the Belgian comment in sum- 
ming up their losses : "Such is the work of the Germans, 
of professionals, for it appears that it was professional 
foresters who were charged with designing and directing 
these henceforth famous exploitations." 




A SCENE IN THE BOIS DES LUPINS NEAR BOESINGHE, SHOWING THE GERMAN FORTIFICATIONS AND THE DESTRUCTION 

DONE TO TREES AND FORTIFICATIONS BY SHELL FIRE. 



THE NORTHWEST'S WORST FOREST FIRES 



AS this issue of American Forestry goes to press, 
the reports regarding the forest fires now raging 
in the Northwest show a situation of extreme 
gravity. The conditions are probably the worst ever 
faced in that region. The third and worst of three suc- 
cessive years of severe drouth has parched the country. 
High winds, heat, and electric storms, bringing lightning 
without rain, have heightened the peril. There are prob- 
ably more fires burning uncontrolled at the moment of 
writing than have ever been known since organized 
protection of the forests began. Twenty-five hundred 
men are on the fire lines in the National Forests, and the 
entire available surplus of labor in Northern Idaho and 
Western Montana has been gathered up by the Forest 
Service, and is not enough. 

The worst fire year of recorded history, from the 
standpoint of losses, in the same region was that of 1910. 
The great conflagration of that year began after the 
middle of August. Normally, conditions grow worse 
and worse until early September brings the beginning 
of the fall rains. 

What may come this year no man can tell. If an 
appalling disaster is escaped, it will be due in part to 
good fortune. At the best, there will be very heavy 
losses of property. The situation may any day reach a 
point at which the organized forces which are trying to 
hold the fires in check will be routed and put to flight 
before a vast and resistless, hurricane-driven sheet of 
flame. The Forest Service admits that already, though 
straining every nerve, it is having to give ground before 
some of the fires, seeking not their control but merely to 
limit, in so far as possible, their destructiveness by di- 
recting their course where they will do least harm. 

To know accurately what is taking place in a battle 
is proverbially difficult until the smoke clears away. 
With great forest fires a similar situation is created. It 
is unfortunate, but inevitable, that just now when spec- 
tacular losses are again directing public attention to the 
great need of better protection against these fires, it is 
impossible to make out fully why the efforts to control 
them have not been more successful. That can only be 
told when all the details can be studied and analyzed. 
Nevertheless, certain undeniable facts stand out. 

In 1910 the same region was swept by fires so wide- 
spread and devastating that it was hoped their record 
would stand unique for all time. The Forest Service 
met the situation heroically. Confronted with conditions 
the like of which it had never faced before, it won uni- 
versal commendation for the fight which it put up 
against great odds. In the light of the experience then 
gained it developed new methods and improved its or- 
ganization. It also sought from Congress larger author- 
ity to incur expenses in future emergencies of the same 
nature. 

The next year Congress provided an extraordinary 
emergency fund of $1,000,000. As the immediately 
following years happened to be exceptionally favorable 



this fund was cut, over the protest of the Forest Service, 
to $200,000 for the fiscal years 1913 and 1914, and to 
$100,000 for 1915, after which it was eliminated entirely. 

Again and again the Forest Service has been embar- 
rassed by delays in the enactment of the agricultural 
appropriation act until after the beginning of the fiscal 
year on July 1. In 1912 the bill became law August 10; 
in 1916, August 11; in 1918, October 1. In each of these 
years a "continuing resolution" made available in the 
interim at the rate of one-twelfth the previous year's 
appropriation each month. Since the heaviest expendi- 
tures of the Forest Service and the fire season fall in 
the summer months, the method is obviously inadequate. 
Through what shifts and devices the fire fighters have 
been employed, transported, equipped and fed this year 
because of delay can only be surmised, but very serious 
responsibilities must have been assumed and formidable 
embarrassments surmounted. The remedy is simple. Let 
Congress re-enact the million-dollar extraordinary emer- 
gency provision and make the fund available until the 
next year's appropriations can be drawn on. What is not 
needed will not be spent, but will revert to the Treasury. 
Public opinion should demand that this appropriation be 
made. 

It is also plain that the fund for co-operation with 
the States in forest fire protection should be largely 
augmented. The total is now $100,000, apportioned 
among 24 States. Montana's allotment from this fund 
for the current year is $3,000 and Idaho's $4,500. The 
figures speak for themselves. 

Further, it is imperative that radical measures be 
adopted to provide adequate salaries for Forest officers 
commensurate with the character of their responsibilities 
and with what private business enterprises are glad to 
pay the same men. The Forest Service is being starved 
out. Many men have left because they could not stand 
the economic pressure. In consequence green men have 
had to be put in where experience was of great impor- 
tance. Repeated efforts of the Forester to secure more 
adequate pay for his field force have been without avail. 

Finally, a more vigorous and determined public de- 
mand that forest fires throughout the country must be 
done away with, as nearly as this is humanly possible, 
must arise and find effective expression. Forest fires 
have become an anachronism. They belong to a heed- 
less and unenlightened age in the matter of forest con- 
servation. They must be fought on a nation-wide scale 
by private owners, the States and the Federal Govern- 
ment in co-operation. Protection of forests, including 
young growth, against fires must be made compulsory 
in all forest regions. Efficient methods must be developed 
under public leadership. Competent men must be em- 
ployed by the States and the nation, and politics must 
not be allowed to make their work ineffective. The time 
for indifference and neglect is past. If our lawmakers 
fail to recognize the fact they may have cause to re- 
gret it. 



1259 



PREVENTION OF FOREST FIRE LOSSES 



BY SMITH RILEY 



IT is well known the world (Tver that America of all 
nations is careless with fire and although her equip- 
ment for suppression is of the finest, our yearly 
losses from lire are enormous when compared with other 
nations. The explanation of this would seem to be a 
lack of thoroughness in adopting and practicing methods 
of fire prevention. Does this failure come from the 
typical American haste in 
doing all things? Is it 
that in our construction 
work we are in such haste 
to arrive at completion we 
cannot take proper precau- 
tions to prevent loss from 
fire? Or is it that the ease 
with which property is 
gained and insured makes 
one careless whether it is 
destroyed by fire or some 
other way? 

It is interesting to fol- 
low this line of thought in 
relation to forest fires do- 
ing enormous damage each 
year. These fires are from 
two causes, namely : Those 
started by man, and those 
started by lightning. A 
campaign of prevention 
should lessen and gradu- 
ally eliminate a large part 
of loss from the first cause, 
while a policy of suppres- 
sion must be applied to 
lightning caused fires. Lack 
of realization of the dam- 
age created by fire is cer- 
tainly responsible for the 
greatest loss by man-made 
fires and it is quite inter- 
esting to note the gradual 
decrease in forest loss in 
those regions where prog- 
ress has been made in educating t>fte public to the 
necessity of care with fire to prevent such loss. The 
most effective way of doing this seems to be the forci- 
ble bringing home of the realization, by drastic meas- 
ures, of the losses by fire and the need for cautious use 
of this element. 

In New York State the action of the Conservation 
Commission in forcing the railroads to burn oil in 
engines running over all forest roads during the tire 
season has been a big step towards public realization 




AX EFFECTIVE MEASURE OF FIRE PREVENTION 

This is a form of spark arrester which has been employed with good 
effect on locomotives in Colorado. 



of the necessity for fire prevention. In South Dakota 
the most has been accomplished by a suit against a 
railroad that caused a big loss by forest fire. 

Where the campaign for prevention has followed 
the principle of emphasizing the necessity of extreme 
care in any use of fire and the damage resulting to all 
forms of forest growth by its promiscuous use, much 

greater progress has been 
made towards a realiza- 
tion of need for public 
care in its use. In Min- 
nesota recognition is given 
to the policy of spring 
burning of logging slashes, 
which amounts to nothing 
more than setting out fire 
in such areas as soon as 
it will run in the spring 
and letting it burn. From 
a vantage point in the for- 
ested region one may count 
a dozen or more such fires 
when the season is on. 
There is no question that 
this promiscuous use of 
fire does much to deaden 
the realization of the dam- 
age done by fires and the 
public realization of the 
necessity of caution in fire 
use or the need of prompt 
action to stamp out fires 
gaining headway in dan- 
gerous seasons of the year. 
A public, understanding 
that fires are purposely 
set which destroy forest 
growth, is not going to be 
very keen in responding to 
a policy for putting out 
fires that may be burning 
this same type of forest 
growth. I feel sure the 
present losses and the lax attitude of the public toward 
this loss will continue in Minnesota wherever the pres- 
ent policy of spring burning is allowed to continue in 
a wholesale way. 

There is, therefore, a much keener realization of 
need for caution where fire is not promiscuously used 
and I feel sure that the problems of protection against 
fire loss will grow less and be solved with much greater 
promptness where the burning over of forest land is 
considered detrimental to the highest degree unless 



UN 



PREVENTION OF FOREST FIRE LOSSES 



1261 




AND THIS DESTRUCTION MIGHT HAVE BEEN AVOIDED 

This shows one of the many fires in the Black Hills Forest of South Dakota started by locomotive sparks 
before the employment of oil burning engines on all lines running through the forest. 

complete control is demonstrated as necessary and put 
into effect when such burning is done. 

While much remains to be done, what has so far 
been accomplished in gaining public recognition of the 
proper weight to be given fire losses is very gratifying. 
Railroad companies are realizing the necessity of plac- 
ing a value upon all trees from the largest to the small- 
est. A fire was recently reported near a railroad right 
of way. The railroad company's claim agents were 
sent to the area at once with instructions to ascertain 
whether the company was responsible for the fire, and, 
if so, to appraise the damage and offer to settle. In a 
recent juvenile court case, two boys convicted of leav- 
ing a camp fire burning were sentenced by the judge 
to take a two weeks' trip into the forest to study a 
burned area and report fully to the judge the damage 
done. 

The public when brought to a proper realization of 
the losses caused by fires and the need of care and 
prompt action for fire prevention and suppression, may 
become a fighting machine of the most effective kind. 
A fire starts; the individual who first sees it thereby 
acquires the responsibility of putting it out and, if this 
is not possible, of securing assistance promptly. Every- 
thing should be learned about the origin of the fire which 
is possible, so its cause may be fully understood. The 
man first upon the ground is in the best position to 
gain available information. 

There is attractive excitement in answering the call 
in light fire. A man who has answered this call once 
will always feel a quickening of the pulse and a desire 
to act when the call comes again. The need for quick 
action regardless of the hour, the necessity of matching 
one's wits against existing difficulties to secure imme- 



diate action to control the ele- 
ment that is steadily destroy- 
ing values it has taken years 
to create, brings a quickening 
of the pulse somewhat akin 
to that caused by a call for 
war. There is a big fire in one 
of the forests and an extra 
supply of equipment is needed. 
A wire has been sent to the dis- 
trict office for these things. 
The wire is received at 10.30 
P. M. The next train upon 
which these things can be 
shipped leaves at 2.30 A. M. 
The first thing is to secure a 
conveyance and assistance, get 
into the supply room, pack the 
needed supplies, rush them to 
the station and express them 
out. Here is a piece of work 
that has in it only keen zest 
for matching one's wits against 
obstacles and not fail to ful- 
fill the work of fire fighting 
for which one has been made responsible by the receipt 
of the telegram. A man who has been a ranger for 




CATCHING IT IN GOOD TIM I. 

This shows Mexican section bands putting out a fire started by a rail- 
road engine crossing the Pike National Forest. 



1262 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



many years said the one thing he regretted in leaving 
his position was losing the exhilarating excitement of 
going to and participating in controlling forest fires. 

Efficient organization is important because every man 
who answers to the 
call for fire fighting, 
and is well treated, 
that is, well trans- 
ported, well fed and 
bedded, will respond 
with zest to the work. 
Even a lazy man will 
feel a quickening of 
the pulse when he 
hears the call, like the 
dog and the child in 
the street when the fire 
engine goes dashing 
by. Prompt pay and 
good treatment are 
important factors that 
will in time make 
every man within strik- 
ing distance a fire 
fighter to be depended 
upon. Here is a gar- 
age in a small moun- 
tain town crowded 
with people 
mer. 











r f 


L 


\ 




i 


. { 








1 


1 


I 


■ 1 

JJlj 


J 1 


1 ' 

1 Nvy 


^Ijt* '^Vr& 




■ ; 




ma Hi 1 1 in i nan , 


W>* 


"^"» - >-TOHH 


bwhii 



BURNED OVER AREA— THE ECHO RIVER FIRE 

A public understanding that fires are purposely set which destroy forest growth is 
not going to be very keen in responding to appeals for fire protective measures and 
necessary control work, and must be' educated to it. 



in sum- 
Many men are employed in this garage when 
the season is on and a line of cars is run, by the com- 
pany owning it, through the forest to the nearest rail- 
road point. The administration is charged with the 



work of keeping fires out of the timber and the beauty 
of the forest growth along this road is of high value 
to the transportation company, so an agreement is en- 
tered into between the transportation company and the 

forest administration 
providing that the 
drivers of all cars upon 
the road will keep 
their eyes open and 
report any fires no- 
ticed. When the re- 
port of an existing fire 
is received at the gar- 
age, fire tools furnished 
by the Government are 
loaded into a car and 
a number of men work- 
ing in the garage are 
whirled away to the 
fire. The company is 
paid for the time of its 
men and cars. One 
who has seen the faces 
of these men on the 
road when they have 
been suddenly taken 
away from the me- 
chanical work of the 
garage and speeded 
into the open to fight fire, will understand the thrill 
of it. Efficient treatment must follow, else the men 
who respond will lose the zest of it. When the National 
Forests were first created there was no provision for 




HARD-WON REST FOR THE CREW 

This shows the fighters at the Camp Creek Fire on day "sleep shift" near the burning fire line. 

blankets and "tear it off." 



Utterly exhausted, they roll up in their 



PREVENTION OF FOREST FIRE LOSSES 



1263 



paying except by check from Washington and those 

working upon a fire would have to wait a month or six 

weeks for their pay. It was not uncommon in those 

days, in calling a man to fight fire, to be told he would 

not go because it took 

too long to receive the 

pay. Here is different 

example : A bank 

cashier staying with 

some friends in the 

mountains, was asked 

by the forest ranger to 

help with a fire. He 

did so and worked at 

it all day. The check 

he received for his 

work was to him a 

souvenir of a novel and 

exciting experience. 

In the future, should 

this man be in reach of 

a forest fire alarm and 

be available, he will 

respond just for the 

excitement of it. 

I have been told one 
loses his enthusiasm after fighting fire for a day or so ; 
that the forest rangers in sections where the fire seasons 
are long and intense, become so wearied they dread to 
answer the telephone for fear the message may be of 
a fire requiring mammoth exertion. It is true that when 




WHEN THE GHOST WALKED 
Here we see the forest officers paying off fire fighters at the termination of the work. 



the body is weary, enthusiasm lags, but where the seed 
has been effectively planted, a period of rest will work 
a complete change as one's enthusiasm comes again to 
the front. Those rangers at the beginning of the fire" 

season are keen and 
enthusiastic. When 
they become weary by 
overexertion, give 
them a rest of a week 
or so and see what a 
change for the better 
will take place. This 
element of thrill is a 
real factor; it pays 
well to cultivate it in 
all classes of men. The 
response will come 
from those who delight 
in action and the at- 
traction will be the 
zest of matching one's 
energies against an 
element of destruction 
beyond control. Effi- 
ciency in management, 
such as good and prompt pay, transportation, good 
food and bedding, leaves the way clear to develop 
this enthusiasm, whereas poor management in any 
one of these things would tend to obstruct or 
lessen this enthusiasm. 




FOR THE COMFORT OF THE INNER MAN 

Tiiis shows the thorough and methodical arrangement of the kitchen and commissary established near the fire line for the service of the men 

who are fighting the fire. 



FOREST DESTRUCTION PREVENTED BY CONTROL 

OF SURFACE FIRES 

BY JOSEPH A. KITTS 



FOREST fires in the United States destroy, year by 
year, more than the forest yield. It requires at 
least 250 years for a forest to reproduce itself, i. <•., 
the yield is not greater than two-fifths of one per cent 
per annum. The stand of timber is being cut at the rate 
of 3^ per cent per annum. It is evident that we must 
save the yield and augment natural reproduction by plant- 
ing, in order to insure a future supply. The situation is 
now so critical that the fire problem is one to which 
earnest thought and attention should be given until a 
solution has been proven, accepted and put into practice 
throughout the United States. 

Forest fires are of three types in effect — surface fires 
which spread over the surface of the forest floor, fed by 
the litter ; ground fires which smolder in the ground, con- 
suming the humus and sometimes the roots of trees ; and 
crown fires which destroy the entire forest cover. Crown 
fires start from the ground and the litter must be very 
heavy and very dry and inflammable to cause and 
sustain them. The humus must be very dry to sustain 
a ground fire. 

I have practiced for the past twenty-eight years, on 
my home lands in California, a method of prevention of 
crown fires learned from the Sierra Nevada Indians. 1 
have found this method successful in my second growth 
timber and also in prime forest where the accumulation 
of litter (the cause of destructive fires) was in consider- 
able proportion. This method has been highly satisfac- 
tory from every point of view and is here offered as a 
solution of the fire problem in the coniferous forests. 

The method consists in the burning of the forest 
litter, by surface fire control as described herein, during 
and at the end of the wet season, burning over by rota- 
tion from one-fiftieth to one-fifth' of the forest area each 
year, the periodical rotation depending upon the local 
rate of litter accumulation. The litter is then burned 
without danger from crown or ground fires and, if 
handled scientifically, aids natural reproduction, removes 
the excess underbrush, increases the forage, maintains the 
forest in a thrifty and healthy condition and renders the 
forest immune to destruction by fire at all seasons of 
the year. 

It is well known that the Indians practiced a periodic 
burning over of the forests. Literature on the subject 
has explained this in many ways excepting the one here 
given. When the California pioneer asked the Indian 
why he set so many fires, he replied, "Letum go too 
long — get too hot — killum all." He used the surface 
fire to burn the litter in order to prevent the crown fire 
which destroyed .everything. He may not have been 
very scientific but it must be admitted that his methods 
of preservation of the forests were highly successful 
when compared with present day destruction. The first 

ON 



growth trees are fire-marked throughout the northern 
Sierra Nevada forests; the indications of destruction by 
crown fires prior to the coming of the "Americans" are 
in small proportion and so indistinct as to point to fires 
very remotely in the past, if at all; and, the ages of the 
prime trees precludes the occurrence of crown fires for 
hundreds and thousands of years of aboriginal treat- 
ment. The pioneers found these forests open and 
clean ; today they are so encumbered with fallen trees, 
underbrush and other litter that complete destruction 
is the usual result of a summer fire. 

Consider the fires in the Crater Lake National Forest 
in 1910. (Forest Service — Bulletin 100). This forest 
has an. area of 1,166,600 acres, an estimated total stand 
of 10,197,000,006 feet B. M. and a rated annual yield of 
90,000,000 feet B. M. 60,891 acres, or 1-19 of the total 
area, was burned over, destroying 250,000,000 feet B. M.. 
or 1-40 of the stand of timber. One thousand men, em- 
ployed in fighting the fires, were found inadequate and 
five companies of United States troops were added. The 
cost of fire fighting to the Forest Service was $40,000. 
or 70 cents per acre for the area destroyed. One thou- 
sand acres of the burned-over area was reseeded at a 
cost of $3.00 per acre. The loss, then, cannot be esti- 
mated at less than $3.70 per acre. The timber destroyed 
was three times the annual growth, and, although the year 
1910 was an unusually dry one, it must be remembered 
that the average annual destruction, throughout the 
United States, is greater than the rate of growth. 

I recently had an opportunity to study the densely 
planted forests of France. It should be observed here 
that without these planted forests France could not have 
waged war for four years. Crown fires are unknown 
in these dense forests because the people gather the 
litter for fuel. It is not possible, of course, for us to 
go fagoting through our forests and we must dispose of 
the litter in some other manner. 

We use the backfire to remove the litter in order to 
stop a crown fire, and under most adverse circumstances. 
When the crown fire reaches the area backfired the live 
trees alone will not sustain it and it is stopped. Even in 
the drouth of summer, the backfire does little or no harm 
to the live trees. When the backfire is used to stop a 
crown fire, it only limits the destruction ; it may be used 
in the spring to prevent it. The backfire is a controlled 
surface fire working against the wind, which prevents it 
from becoming a crown fire. 

The following rules for surface fire control may be 
safely used by any engineer or forester experienced in 
forest fire fighting: 

1. Burn the forest litter, by means of surface fires, 
during and at the end of the wet season, in intervals of 
(Continued on Page 1306) 



UNCLE SAM, LUMBERMAN, CANAL ZONE 

BY W. H. BABBITT 



I DO not believe that it is very generally known that 
the United States Government is in the lumber busi- 
ness, actually operates a saw-mill, maintains lumber 
yards, sales department and all of the other establish- 
ments that go with the business. This is, nevertheless, 
a fact. The operation is on the Panama Canal Zone. The 
radical departure from the 
general policy of the Gov- 
ernment is, I believe, likely 
to be of interest to Ameri- 
can timbermen, and as the 
operations are being carried 
on in a new or little known 
field, the results obtained 
should also be of much in- 
terest. I hope my effort to 
impart these facts may not 
be too severely dealt with, 
if I also attempt to sketch 
in a little of the local color 
and a few of the human 
heart throbs, to lighten the 
otherwise heavy duty of the 
self-appointed historian. 

The business is a child of 
the war and was brought 
into being to supplant, as 
far as possible, by use of 
native species, lumber im- 
ported from the States, and 
thereby release shipping for 
war purposes. One ^ may 
wonder, if not conversant 
with the facts, why, when 
the canal is dug and duly 
operating, any great ship- 
ments of lumber were re- 
quired. One look at the 
machine shops, dry docks, 
foundries, etc., necessary to 
the maintenance of locks, 
dredges, liters and tugs of 
the operative departments 
of the canal where ships are 
repaired, or even built com- 
plete, or at the extensive 
car shops, where the rolling 
stock for the Alaskan railroads is being made up from 
old canal equipment, together with orders for foreign 
service and for the States, should be sufficient to convince 
one that raw material in quantity is, and will be, con- 
stantly required. 

Many millions of feet of lumber had to be cut to 
entirely supplant the shipments from the States. Could 




SHOWING DETAIL OF THE PECULIAR BARK OF THE LIGNUM 

VIT.E 

The wood is close-grained, heavy and very hard, and the tree, with its 
richly colored dark green leaves, its blue flowers and orange-red fruits, is 
in striking contrast to its arid surroundings. 



it be done? Well possibly, yes. There was machinery 
and men enough, but what about the timber? When 
garnered together from near and far, the facts were by 
no means imposing. It was known that the local forest 
contained trees that could be cut into sawlogs. Some of 
these trees had even been sawed" up on a little resaw rig 

prior to the birth of the 
new industry and furniture 
woods such as coco bolo, 
nazareno, mahogany and 
Spanish cedar of the cigar 
box variety, had been log- 
ged from the Zone since the 
old French days, and there 
it ended, for while saw- 
mills are plentiful on both 
coasts of Central America, 
none of them have ever 
cut commercial lumber, nor 
been successful in selling 
what they have cut, and 
from the point of view of 
a practical lumberman, the 
field was, and is, an entirely 
new one. 

The mill itself is not too 
imposing, a thirty-five foot 
band saw intended original- 
ly for resaw work in ship 
construction, on which the 
edging is also done, and a 
trimming and slab saw. 
The entire rig occupies a 
corner of the large planing 
shop, but it is gradually, 
like the camel of the fable, 
pushing the original ma- 
chinery out into the open. 
Roll ways were built to re- 
ceive the logs, since most 
of the timber was expected 
to be of floating hardwoods 
and a pond would not only 
be nearly useless, but 
would unduly excite the 
sanitary contingent, a pow- 
er to be reckoned with on 
the Zone. Please note that the first lesson to be learned 
by a newcomer, upon landing in the Isthmus, is to let 
sleeping dogs lie, for be it known that the ways of our 
Uncle Samuel are passing strange to the uninitiated. 

Dry kilns were also built and so was a burner to take 
care of the slabs. A logging camp was established on 
Gatun Lake and those in charge of it had the double duty 



1265 



12tki 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



of choosing the species to be cut from an endless variety 
of entirely unknown trees and of inducing the natives to 
contract for the cutting of the same, that having been 
found the most satisfactory way of handling the labor 
question in the tropics. Gatun Lake, along the shores of 
which the logging was to be done, is approximately 
twenty-five miles long by twelve in its greatest breadth 
and is a lake of a thousand arms and islands. It is an 
artificial body of water held by Gatun Dam eighty-five 
feet above the salt water level. It is a reservoir for 
lockage water and for hydro-electric power and is one 
link of the canal proper, frequently giving the woodsman 
the rather unusual spectacle of one of the world's largest 
ships quietly slipping along through the tall uncut forest. 




AN AVENUE OF WEST INDIAN ALMOND TREES 

The standing forest in the lake bed was only cleared 
from a few areas such as the canal channel and 
the anchorage basins, and the rising water flooded valley, 
hill, forest and farm to a depth of up to fifty feet, so that 
the lake is standing full of the skeletons of the former 
forest, or, what is worse to the logger, the snags of 
the trees that have rotted off at the water's edge and 
fallen, for these snags just below the water are as hard 
or a little harder than they were when green. The loggers' 
job was to cut these trees, often nearly as hard as iron and 
as heavy, roll them into the lake, float them through the 
snags and trees and load them on the cars at the railway. 
That we are getting the timber at all speaks well of the 
bush man, who is far from the indolent person he seems at 
first sight and is more the victim of conditions and lack of 
training, than a willing idler. He is doing the heaviest 
work regardless of the tropical discomforts of fever, in- 
sects, heat and rain. He has not the slightest knowledge 
of the American woodsman's tool, the machete, or 
brush knife, replacing with him all of the other imple- 
ments of either husbandry or logging; and it is only 



possible to induce him to give it up after a long season 
of education, but these men know the ways of the bush 
and will in time, learning the use of proper tools, be- 
come valuable workmen. 

Many were to be the surprises and the mortifications 
of the cruiser who selected the timber to be cut. It was 
not enough that he must witness the weird freaks often 
indulged in by some innocent looking tree of apparently 
decent habits and good timber form, but the result of 
his judgment came in for most rigid inspection. Criticism 
seemed to be free to every one and he was generally held 
personally responsible for the behavior of his selections. 
A typical failure in choosing a species was that scored by 
the espavay, from which tree the natives have hued their 
canoes since time began. It grows to a large size, is 
common everywhere, floats and seemed likely to be just 
what was wanted for a rough building material. Indeed, 
it had been, so rumor said, successfully sawed in various 
faraway places. The first difficulty was encountered 
when the saw struck the log. One side cut all right, but 
the other was like rope, such a bunch of fuzz I never 
thought could come out of a tree. The sapwood on a large 
log would be a foot through, white or yellow, with a woven 
winding grain; the heart was red, gritty, hard and so 




LIGNUM VIT-E, OR GUAYACUM, IN ITS NATIVE SURROUNDINGS 

brittle that a six by six would break from a three-foot 
drop. The sapwood was stronger, but was attacked by 
millions of boring beetles that would destroy a timber in 
a single night. To stop these ravages the lumber was 
put into the kiln the moment it left the saw and by this 
means was rendered immune to further attack, but under 
this treatment it took to winding, twisting and splitting 
beyond expression. 

Experiment finally showed that this species, treated to 
live steam and then dried under a shed with plenty of 
ventilation, while it showed a tendency to decay, could 
yet be used where strength was not required. The use of 



UNCLE SAM, LUMBERMAN, CANAL ZONE 



1267 




NOTE THE GROTESQUE SHAPES INTO WHICH THESE ALMOND TREES (ALMENDRA) HAVE BEEN BENT BY THE TROPICAL WINDS 



this species has been discontinued, the cost of saving it 
being disproportionate to the results obtained. 

Other trees were tried, some of their lumber would split 
open in the sun and continue the process down to near 
the excelsior stage. Others that when fresh from the 
saw, seemed strong, serviceable lumber, yet dried up to 
be as soft as cork, or became as brittle as chalk. Some 
had poison sap, some decayed within a few weeks, and 
nearly all were attacked by borers and beetles. 

Those first days were dark days indeed, but slowly one 
and another variety was found that stood all of the tests 
and proud indeed was the hour when lumber, actual lum- 
ber, fulfilling all requirements, began to pile up in the 
yard — lumber that one could trust alone over night with- 
out dire misgivings for the morrow. 

Three soft wood species have proven their value, but 
these, while very beautiful and useful, are not in sufficient 
stand to be of commercial importance ; indeed, it is diffi- 
cult to secure all that we need for our own uses, but the 
hard wood is a very different story. We have large 
stands of this and they should be of the greatest impor- 
tance to the trade. 

Lignum Vitce, generally well known, is plentiful and 
has been supplied to the various navy yards, where 
it has given entire satisfaction. It is a very large tree 
and is unbelievably strong and is heavy as well, about 
seven pounds to the board foot. The natives bring it in 
slung under a dugout canoe in logs up to forty inches in 
diameter and fifty feet long. 

Nispero, or bullet wood, is the local rubber tree and 
is the wood eternal. Timbers in the old Spanish forts 
along the coast are still sound after a century or so of 
exposure to the weather. This wood is springy as well 



as strong and splits well. What wonderful ties it would 
make, and this may be the eventual use of the timber, 
for the gum hunters in their rush for rubber have girdled 
every tree in the forest and all are dead or dying. These 
trees will, of course, stand for many years to come and 
may still be utilized. 

Almendra is a larger tree even than the Lignum Vitce 
and the most plentiful hardwood in the forest. It is unex- 
celled for fenders and heavy ship work requiring timber 
harder and stronger than oak. Some Almendra fenders 
were put on a heavy dredge between sections of white oak 
by way of a test, and within three months were reported 
as an absolute failure. This was a heavy blow to the some- 
what friendless individual that stood sponsor for the spe- 
cies used and great indeed was his relief when examina- 
tion proved that the Almendra stood without a mark while 
the white oak chafed to pieces. The crew, following the 
usual custom, jumped to the conclusion that the native 
species was no good. Indeed, I have found that the 
native substitute has to be far better than the timber it 
supplants in order to pass the willing and self-appointed 
critics. The climate is far from kind to any wood. Oak 
goes to pieces in about six months, sap pine in a few 
weeks, but the casual observer does not know this and 
judges native species with the behavior of lumber in 
the States. There are many other valuable woods of 
which we are learning slowly. Some day, perhaps, the 
sum of our knowledge will enable private capital to un- 
lock some of the vast storehouses of the interior (Gov- 
ernment operations will doubtless be confined to the 
Canal Zone). Heretofore the maze of worthless timber 
and lack of definite knowledge as to what really was 
merchantable has effectually barred the good timber 
from a long ready market. 



FOR THEM A TREE STANDS THERE 



GEORGES CUVIER was born in 1769— one hun- 
dred and fifty years ago. This pupil of Linnaeus 
is rated one of the greatest naturalists the world 
has ever seen. Perhaps only to the elect is the name 
Cuvier known, but people are noting the century and a 
half since he was born, so great has been the interest 
awakened in the planting of things. The planting of 
Memorial Trees easily takes the lead in this revival. In 
the planting of the living, growing tree the people of this 
country are erecting their own memorials not only to 
those who gave their lives to their country but to those 
who offered their lives. The planting takes many forms 
and is not confined to remembering war heroes. Just 
the other day the Whitman Park Improvement Associa- 
tion planted a tree in honor of Walt Whitman to mark 
the hundredth anniversary of the poet's birth. In many 
schools and colleges, graduating and incoming classes are 
planting Memorial Trees to come back to at future re- 
unions. One of the most far-reaching forms of co-opera- 
tion with the American Forestry Association is the call 
to the Christian Endeavor Societies of the World to 
plant Memorial Trees. This call has been sent out by 
the Rev. Francis E. Clark. 

All Memorial Tree planting should be reported to the 
American Forestry Association at once, so it may keep 
its honor roll of such planting complete. 

Following the suggestion made by the American For- 
estry Association that Memorial Trees be planted in 
honor of Jane A. Delano, of the Red Cross, the first 
tree reported placed in her memory was at Canton, Penn- 
sylvania, her home, by the Village Improvement Asso- 
ciation. Thirteen trees were planted on the playground 
maintained by that organization. One of these was 
planted in memory of Sidney R. Drew, the son of the 
actor, whose home was at Canton. Twelve trees were 
planted in a circle and the tree for Miss Delano was 
placed in the center. The exercises were opened with the 
singing of "America" and Mrs. Emmeline Leavitt, the 
oldest member of the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution in the state of Pennsylvania, said the prayer. Mrs. 
Frederick W. Taylor, the president of the Association, 
gave the address. Mrs. L. M. Marble, of the Canton Red 
Cross, a neighbor of Miss Delano, told of the Red Cross 
worker's love of the hills about Canton and how she had 
expressed a hope to return to them as soon as the war 
work was ended. Mrs. Charles H. Derrah was in charge 
of the exercises. The Canton honor roll will appear in 
an early number of this magazine. 

Another impressive ceremony was the dedication of the 
"Patriot's Grove," near Philadelphia, by the National 
Farm School. Here trees have been planted in honor 
of those who gave their lives to their country and in 
honor of those who offered their lives. A flag pole was 
dedicated to the memory of Henry F. Singer at the same 
time. In the list of speakers at this ceremony were Judge 
John M. Patterson, Edward Bok, John H. Mason, Joseph 

12C8 



Pennell, Harry W. Ettelson, Franklin Spencer Edmonds. 
Though not as large, of course, this grove is along the 
same idea as that one planted at the United States Army 
Balloon School at Ft. Omaha and Ft. Crook. At these 
places Col. Jacob W. S. Wuest has directed the planting 
of five thousand trees in memory of those who died and 
in memory of those who served from that camp of in- 
struction. Two of these trees are for Red Cross workers 
who died at the camp. These trees are being marked by 
the next of kin with the bronze markers designed by the 
American Forestry Association. This list will appear on 
the honor roll in a forthcoming number of the American 
Forestry Magazine, as will that of the National Farm 
School. A "Hero Grove" has been dedicated in Golden 
Gate Park, in San Francisco. At this dedication one of 
the most remarkable demonstrations was seen. Daugh- 
ters of the Golden West laid Wreaths of Remembrance 
on an obelisk in the park. These wreaths came from 
hundreds of towns and cities in California. The citizens 
joined in the biggest Community Sing the city had ever 
heard. A great community spirit is being born out of 
Memorial Tree planting. Coloradoans in San Diego are 
making plans to plant a Memorial Grove at Camp 
Kearny. Miss Isabella Churchill, the secretary of the 
Quadrangle Committee, 2170 Fourth Street, San Diego, 
has sent out a call to all Colorado people to help in mark- 
ing the spot where the camp is maintained, for it was 
through this camp many boys from that state passed. 

Another example of community work is the building 
of a Memorial Park at Reading, Massachusetts, in one 
day. Everything was planned weeks in advance and 
everyone had a place in the all day work. A wilderness 
was turned into a beauty spot and the honor roll from 
Reading will appear in American Forestry shortly. At 
Lynchburg, Virginia, Honor Oaks have been planted at 
a ceremony attended by a tremendous crowd. E. F. 
Sheffey, president of the board of aldermen, presided. 
Rev. Joseph B. Dunn and Dr. James D. Paxton took part 
in the ceremony, which was conducted by J. T. Yates, 
J. C. Woodson, and G. H. Read, of the Park Department. 
and a committee from the Woman's Club, of which Airs 
James R. Kyle was chairman. In Cincinnati, pupils of 
the Avondale School planted Memorial Trees and at the 
ceremony Leona G. Van Ness, of the third grade, dedi- 
cated the trees. Miss Annie L. Kinsella informs the 
Association that the little girl based her talk upon sugges- 
tions she found in three copies of American Forestry. 
Another school to plant Memorial Trees is the Municipal 
University of Akron, Ohio. The planting of Memorial 
Trees by the graduating class of Georgetown University, 
when fifty-four trees were placed in honor of her sons 
who gave their lives in the war, is the most extensive 
planting by a college thus far reported to the Association. 
The trees, Lombardy poplars, typical of France, were 
planted in "The Walks," which is surrounded by a nat- 
ural amphitheater of sloping, wooded hills. The trees 



FOR THEM A TREE STANDS THERE 1269 

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J LIVING MEMORIALS FOR THOSE WHO DIED I 

iiiiimmitiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiu iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinininiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 










1270 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



are marked with the bronze marker designed by the 
Association. Dr. Ernest LaPlace, of Philadelphia, deliv- 
ered the oration dedicating the trees. 

Making our motor highways "Roads of Remembrance" 
is a suggestion of the American Forestry Association that 
has been taken up throughout the country. The sugges- 
tion was made coincident with the start of the Motor 
Transport Corps' transcontinental run from Washington 
to San Francisco. Newton D. Baker, the Secretary of 
War, dedicated the Zero Milestone from which the truck 
train started. The Association urges planting of Memo- 
rial Trees, Memorial Parks and Memorial Groves with 
the routes of the motor highways in mind. Indeed, the 
erection of any form of Memorial should keep the routes 
in mind, the final result being one vast chain of Memorial 
Drives that will make the country easy to see and at the 
same time the most famous touring country in the world. 
With France as an object lesson and the United States 



facing a road building era involving the expenditure of 
half a billion dollars, there is a fine opportunity to do 
something big in an educational way for forestry by 
having the people, by county units, beautify these road- 
ways. The beauties of French roads are widely known. 
A Roads of Remembrance campaign has been taken up in 
Great Britain. In France road building is going forward 
that will connect the cemeteries and the famous battle- 
fields. We in this country do not have these battlefields 
and cemeteries to connect, but in connection with the 
erection of memorials of one kind and another, why can- 
not a definite plan be worked out whereby the memorial 
can be placed within easy access of the motor highways ? 
Then, with the proper planting of Memorial Trees having 
been done in the meantime, we will have a countrywide 
memorial which will be worth while and a fitting tribute 
to the men who answered their country's call. 



NATIONAL HONOR ROLL, MEMORIAL TREES 

Trees have been planted for the following and registered with the American Forestry Association, which 
desires to register each Memorial Tree planted in the United States. A certificate of registration will be sent to 
each person, corporation, club or community reporting the planting of a Memorial Tree. 



WASHINGTON, D. C— By Georgetown University: John 
B. Ahearn, James C. Amy, Melvin M. Augenstein, Joseph 
Baumer, David L. Bawlf, J. A. Beck, Charles T. Buckley, 
Douglas G. Cameron, M. J. Carroll, Thomas C. Carver, John 
Cissel, Edmund J. Crowe, Walter P. Desmond, Dennis R. Dowd, 
Jr., Ralph E. Donnelly, Julian N. Dowell, James P. Dunn, Alex- 
ander P. Finnegan, Arnulf Gloetzner, James L. Goggins, August 
DeY. Green, Robert M. Hanford, Harold Hall, Maurice L. 
Harding, Warren G. Harries, Albert Holl, Charles W. House, 
Grandville Jones, Louis J. Joyce, John J. Keady, Joseph T. 
Keleher, William L. Kelly, James L. King, John Lyon, Ernest 
P. Magruder, John Mahlum, John W. Marino, John A. Martin, 
Joseph G. McDonald, William F. McNierney, William F. Mil- 
tenberger, T. J. Moran, Leo Malcolm Murphy, Frank Murray, 
Joseph A. Parrott, Edward S. Pou, Gilbert Sanchez, William A. 
Sheehan, Francis M. Tracy, A. G. Vanderlip, Julian Robert 
Worthington. 

CANTON, PA. — By Village Improvement Association: Jane 
A. Delano, director general, nursing department, Red Cross; 
Leroy G. Clark, William Mandeville, Gordon B. King, Corp. 
Sidney R. Drew, Mack M. Jenkins, Ernest Williams, Sgt. Ray 
Myron Crandle, Paul Turner, J. Howard Wilcox, Howard Soper, 
Leon C. Wilcox, Corp. J. Harry Mason. 

CHAMBERSBURG, PA.— By Falling Spring Presbyterian 
Church : Lieut. James G. Nixon. 

CORAOPOLIS, PA.— By Coraopolis High School: John 
Arthur Holmes, Vance Hays, John Wesoloski, David Pugh. 

DEVON, PA.— By Mrs. Emory McMichael : Lieut. William 
Bateman. 

EAST STROUDSBURG, PA.— By White Oak Run School: 
J. L. Strockbecker. 

MIDDLEBURGH, PA.— By Shambach and Wagenseller: 
Charles F. Mitchell. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA.— By National Farm School: Louis 
Berkowitz, Jacob Bledenthal, Morrie A. Deutsch, Jerome L. 
Goldman, Lieut. Jesse Warren Guise, Simon C. Hellman, Joyce 
Kilmer, Roy Stewart Marlow, Dr. G. M. Neuberger, Sgt. 
Harry Polinsky, William C. Rees, Byron H. Reis, Capt. Eugene 
Rice, George Burton Rosenthal, Alexander J. Roth, Lester B. 
Rothschild, Mortimer Strauss Rubel, Henry F. Singer, Solomon 
Spicker, Milton Stern, Bernard W. Traitel, Eli Wittstein, Lieut. 



Ralph Anspack, Herman L. Artzt, Nelson H. Artzt, Justin S. 
Bamberger, Eli D. Bernheim, Harold B. Blumenthal, Albert 
Coons, Jerome Drucker, Isadore J. Faggen, Samuel Faggen, 
Leon Feigenbaum, Ensign Milton Stanley Getz, Herbert F. 
Goldstein, Jacob F. Goldstein, Ralph Gutlohn, Julian A. Hill- 
man, Sgt. Isaac L. Hyman, Dr. Leopold Max Jacobs, Reuben 
Jacobs, Charles S. Kaufman, Corp. Walter Kaufman, Sgt. Man- 
fred R. Krauskopf, August Manasses, Dr. Jacob L. Manasses, 
J. DeRoy Mark, Leonard George Needles, Isadore Oppenheimer, 
G. Sidney Reinheimer, Leon W. Reinheimer, Herbert D. Reis, 
Eli M. Rohrheimer, Sgt. Jerome H. Rose, Sgt. S. Ralph 
Schwarzschild, J. Leonard Sessler, Arthur Shoenberg, Arthur 
Silverberg, Edwin H. Silverman, Leonard Sostmann, Capt. 
Camille Stamm, Morris H. Starr, Arthur A. Strouse, Frank L. 
Teller, Ensign Jerome L. Teller, Philip H. Weinberg, Gustave 
L. Winelander, Stanley S. Wohl, Myron Albert Zacks. 

VALLEY FORGE, PA.— By Daughters of the American 
Revolution : Lieut. Warren T. Kent. 

HIGHTSTOWN, N. J.— By the High School : Harold Fones, 
Lewis Forman, Samuel Piatt, Jr. 

HOBOKEN, N. J.— By the High School : Frank LaPointe. 

JERSEY CITY, N. J.— By Schools Nos. 1 and 1G : Frank 
Braitsch, Louis Cohendet, Alexander Brady, Henry Johnson, 
George Devlin, Joseph Weinert ; by School No. 4 : Dr. Leonard 
M. Kalaher ; School No. 5 : Boys of Neighborhood ; School No. 
19: Michael Keaveny, Harry R. Holler, Louis Halperin, John 
J. Doris, Michael P. Smith, Thomas O. Dorward, Anthony 
Mafarra, James T. Barke, William H. Reuter; by School No. 21: 
Boys who had attended School No. 21; by School No. 30: Roy 
Losey; by School No. 32: Max Frank, Francis Dillon, Frank 
Sardoni, James Mason; by School No. 33: Roosevelt, Victory, 
Peace, Foch, Wilson, Pershing. 

NEWARK, N. J.— By Memorial Tree Committee: Sgt. 
Irving C. Olstrum; by Boy Scouts of America: Theodore 
Roosevelt. 

PARK RIDGE, N. J.— By Free Public Library: Edward B. 
Abrams, Charles F. Stalter, Fred H. Pysner, Martin F. Cas- 
teloni, Lester McGinnis. 

PLAINFIELD, N. J.— By Watchung School: Holmes E. 
Marshall, Russell Hall, John H. Down, Benjamin H. Giles. 

RAHWAY, N. J.— By Wilfred Smith: Lieut. Henry W. 
Cleary. 



NATIONAL HONOR ROLL, MEMORIAL TREES 1271 

gum, miiiimiiiiiiiiiiuiimiiiiiii minimi in imiimiiiiiiiiimii nun in inn imiiiiiini m mini « m mmiiii limn in I iimiiiiiii urn i i mm iiiiiiiiiiimiin iiiimiiiiiiu n i j 

I TREE PLANTING BRINGS OUT COMMUNITY SPIRIT | 

liiuiiin, unmiiiiiiii miiiiiiiiiiiini immiiiiiiiiii i iiminniiiii iiiiiiiiimimiiiiii minimi imiiiiimu nun mi iiiimiimiiiiiiim minimi nun mm iiiimiih uuiiumim imiiiium iimiimimiiii m. 




Upper— A community sing was one of the features of tree planting in San Francisco, and this picture shows what interest can be 

aroused when the "gods' first temples" are used. 

Lower — Part of the throng at Lynchburg, Virginia, when memorial trees were planted. 



1272 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



RED BANK, N. J.— By the High School: Lieut. Herbert O. 
Tilton. 

SOUTH ORANGE, N. J.— By St. Andrew's Church: John 
W. Weir. 

TRENTON, N. J.— By Mrs. Elizabeth O. Hunter: Lieut. E. 
Oliphant. 

WEST ORANGE, N. J.— By West Orange High School: 
James Sayers, Miles Suarez. 

ASHVILLE, N. Y — By members of Ashville Grange 694 : 
H. Vincent Moore. 

COLLINS CENTER, N. Y— By. the High School: Dr. 
Herbert W. Mackmer. 

DOLGEVILLE, N. Y.— By Boy Scouts of America: Theo- 
dore Roosevelt. 

MOUNT VERNON, N. Y— By Westchester Woman's Club: 
William Wiley Hayward. 

NEW YORK CITY— By Mrs. Regina Rubel : Lieut. Solomon 
Rubel. 

OGDENSBURG, N. Y— By St. John's Episcopal Church: 
Frank M. Hanbidge, George Ashwood, Frank S. Harper, Clar- 
ence Merris, Charles Holbrook, Clarence W. Streeter. 

SYRACUSE, N. Y.— By St. Patrick's Church: Sgt. John J. 
Hogan, Raymond Koagel. 

VALATIE, N. Y— By Chatham Union School: Miss Cath- 
erine Smith, Soldiers and Sailors. 

COLUMBIA, TENN. — By Business Women's Association : 
Lieut. Clarence H. Fry, Lieut. J. C. Wooton, Sgt. Joe B. Warren, 
Walter D. Goodwin, Clifford Earl Hutchinson, C. W. Hamilton, 
Jr., Corp. James W. Wilson, Horace Hickman, Melvin White, 
Eli Richard Haywood, William Rufus Crumley, Corp. Eugene 
W. Huckaby, Walker Fitzgerald, Tom Workman, Corp. Herbert 
L. Griffin, Lieut. Robert B. Gilbreath, John Thomas Richardson, 
Corp. Basil O. Blocker, Wilson D. Holman, Robert A. Hays. 
Capt. Meade Frierson, Jr., John Will Thompson, Rex Bernard 
Vestal, Osey Jones. 

KNOXVILLE, TENN.— By Park City Presbyterian Church: 
Lieut. William Hugh Eckel, Dick Dickson. 

NASHVILLE, TENN.— By Fall School : Guy R. Only, Ray- 
mond F. Houston, John W. Weber ; by Tarbox School : Capt. 
Charles Duncan, Harold Goodwin, Marshall Goll, Emmet 
Manier, Carter Milan, Ed J. Walsh, Dan Wasserman, Walter 
S. Yarbrough. 

GREEN BAY, WIS.— By Mrs. C. Richard Murphy: C. Rich- 
ard Murphy; by Miss Jessie DeBoth : Lieut. E. R. DeBoth; by W. 
D. Fisk: Hiram Fisk, Arthur C. Neville, Sgt. William H. Livie; 
by P. H. Martin : Lieut. John Martin, Lieut. Jerome Martin, 
Joseph Martin ; by Mrs. Margaret Parmentier : Capt.. Jules M. 
Parmentier, Capt. Douglas Parmentier ; by Mrs. Arthur Mc- 
Carey : Major Arthur McCarey ; by Mrs. M. E. McMillan: 
Myron McMillan; by Mrs. Frank H. Hoberg : Lieut. Leroy 
Hoberg; by Mrs.- J. P. Lenfesty ; James Nuss; by Mrs. Her- 
bert MacPherson : Capt. Leland Joannes, Kenneth Hoeffel ; by 
Mr. J. R. North : Reynolds North, Ludlow North ; by Mrs. 
Mitchell Joannes : Lieut. Frederick Kendall ; by Mrs. W. E. 
Collette: William Harold Collette; by Mrs. R. C. Buchanan: 
Frederick C. Parish, Edward Tyrakoski ; by Mrs. Fred L. G. 
Straubel : Major Clarence Welse Straubel ; by Kellogg Public 
Library : Patrons of the library ; by Mrs. S. D. Hastings : 
Women's Committee of Brown County Council of Defense ; by 
Mrs. A. C. Neville: the nurses of Brown County; by the Coun- 
try Club: Lieut. Harry Howland Fisk, Lieut. Robert S. Cowles, 
John Parrish, George Van Laanan, John Vance Laanan, Capt. 
V. I. Minahan; by Junior High School: Lieut. Reginald 
Calkins. 

AKRON, OHIO— By Students of the Municipal University: 
Thomas B. Welker, Thomas J. Quayle, John Laube, Lee W. 
Pitzer, Bernard Adler, Ray A. Bohl ; by The Boy Scouts of the 
Goodrich Rubber Company : 250 trees for Theodore Roosevelt. 
CINCINNATI, OHIO— By West Fork School: Roman J. 
Heis, Henry W. Deucher ; by Pleasant Ridge School : Lloyd 
McArthur, Earl L. Parrott; by Westwood School: John Henry 
Koenig, Dr. Clement Laws, Anthony Schwab, Jens Paterson, 
Edwin Harder; by Oakley School: Norman Le Roy; by Bond 



Hill School : Hanley Masters, Walter Volkert ; by Carson 
School: John Rowan, Walter Sang; by Whittier School: 
Lovett Channel, Clifford Paddack, Wesley McKinney, Harold 
Van Matre ; by Eighth Grade Civic Club: The Heroes, William 
Heiert, Our Fallen Heroes ; by Seventh Grade Civic Club : 
Frank Wagner, Ralph Wagner. 

.ELMWOOD PLACE, OHIO— By Elmwood Place High 
School : Homer L. Gilbert, William H. Peters, Ralph D. Breckel. 

TWINSBURG, OHIO— By Boy Scout Troop No. 1 : Orland 
Bishop. 

BAXTER SPRINGS, KAN.— By Baxter Springs Women's 
Club : Nathaniel Burns, Harry E. Davis, Albert McCoy, Frank 
Morford, Frederick Young, Leonard Armstrong, Clarence Mc- 
Cullough, Albert Schroeder, Grover C. Taylor, Francis Roland 
Romack, Clinton West, Harry G. Smith. 

LAWRENCE, KAN.— By Lawrence Public Schools: Mark 
Beach, Albert Ellis Birch, Max Brown, John Wilfred Charlton, 
Charles Luther Cone, Everett Demerritt, Eli Ferril Dorsey, 
Ralph Ellis, Herbert Jones, Thomas Kennedy, Harry Ziesenis, 
Artemus McCliire, Clark William McColloch, Glen Otis, Ross 
Rummell, Oliver Cromwell Tucker, John, Tupper, Theodore 
Rocklund. 

DETROIT, MICH.— By Juvenile Detention Home: Lieut. 
Clifford B. Ballard. 

TIPTON, MICH— By the Red Cross: E. Leroy German. 

FORT OMAHA, NEB.— By United States Army Balloon 
School : John Na^el, George Joseph Pahl, Maude Mae Butler, 
Walter P. Peterson, George H. Williams, Zell S. Killingsworth, 
Vernon G. Heverly, Dan A. Jacobs, Albert A. Bachand, John J. 
Nimmo, Albert L. Mower, Oscar K. Westberg, Hugh Scanlan. 

NORFOLK, NEB— By the High School: Charles Hyde, 
Harry Koenigstein, Roy McCaslin. 

SUTTON, NEB.— By Mrs. A. W. Clark: Louis Case, Daniel 
Zimmerman, John P. Pauley. 

AURORA, IND. — By Aurora Women's Research Club: Dewey 
H. Hauck, Henry Scharf, Russell Winkley, Bernard Burke. 
Frederick S. Steele, William Keith Ross, Charles Bildner, Jphn 
Bildner. 

EVANSVILLE, IND.— By Mrs. William fgleheart : Lieut. 
Douglas Viele. 

GOSHEN, IND.— By Chamberlain School : Mayor Daniel J. 
Troyer. 

CAIRO, ILL.— By Cairo Women's Club: Claude C. Robin- 
son, Corp. Leonard A. Clifford, Paul Cochran, Lieut. Paul Clen- 
denen, Hans Miller, Joseph Glynn, James Herring, Corp. George 
Mills, Arthur Lieberman, Morrin Langon, Cecil M. Reynolds, 
Dan Crowley, Jesse Lewis, Eddie Street, Edward Mart!n, David 
Brice, James Johnson, Charles F. Stokes, Willis Holland, 
Hunter Barksdale, James Bowden, Thomas Scarber, Lieut. Al- 
bert Stout, Sgt. Frank Gibson, Felix Eakins, George Coleman, 
Will Smith, Robert S. Courtney. 

BELLEVILLE, ILL.— By School No. 2: William T. Smith; 
by School No. 4: Carmine Carcuccio; by School No. 3: George 
A. Younginger, Charles E. Morgan and George J. Kalvio. 

CARBONDALE, ILL— By Capt. John Brown: Donald 
Forsythe, Curtis Allison, William Watson, Lieut. Arthur R. 
Carter. 

WHITE HALL, ILL.— By White Hall Round Table: Charles 
Martin; by White Hall Domestic Science Association: John 
Fisher; by White Hall Art League: Amos Walker. 

ELGIN, ILL— By Mrs. Edgar Post: Helen Penrose. 

STAFFORD SPRINGS, CONN.— By Anna Handel: Madi- 
son Willis. 

NORFOLK, VA— First Christian Church : Shirley Owens. 

DIXIE, WASH.— By Dixie School : James Lauritson, Oliver 
Hastings. 

TACOMA, WASH.— By Stadium High School: William 
Campbell, Malcolm Johnstone, Herman Uddenburg, Charles 
Huckaba, Elmer Anderson, Wilbur Cook, Arthur Wales, Clyde 
Moore, Duane Shields, Asa Purkey, George Muir. 

MT. VERNON, WASH.— By Washington School: William 
Hilliker. 



MYSTERIES AND REVELATIONS OF THE PLANT WORLD 



BY D. LANGE 

(WITH PHOTOGRAPHS BY THE AUTHOR) 



THE GREAT Swedish naturalist Linnaeus, the father 
of modern scientific nomenclature, described about 
10,000 different plants. Since his time scientific 
explorers have gone out to all parts of the earth to con- 
tinue the census of the plant world, but to this day the 
census is still so far from complete that every year a 
hundred or more field men can each bring large collec- 
tions of new species to the great herbariums of Europe 
and America. So vast has grown the number of plants 
discovered and described that if Linnaeus could come 
back to his be- 
loved Upsala, 
he would be 
lost in his own 
realm, for his 
modest census 
of 1 0,000 plants 
has grown to 
the bewildering 
total of 250,000 
and wiil very 
likely pass 
300,000 before 
the last returns 
are in, if in 
fact, there will 
ever be any last 
returns. 

Of this vast 
number of 
plants probably 
about 10,000 
are trees rang- 
ing in size from 
the dwarfs, 
four feet high 
to the giants 
that reach 
nearly four 
hundred feet 
toward the 
clouds. About 
150,000 species 
would be class- 
ed as flowering 
plants, includ- 
ing grasses, 
herbs, trees, 
vines and small 
woody p 1 a nts 
of all kinds. 

The delicate 
fronded ferns 




The great Mississippi 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF THE 
River starts 



and their allies, the highest of the flowerless plants, would 
be represented by about 3,000 species mostly from tropi- 
cal regions; and the tiny mosses, the humble pigmies 
among leaf-bearing plants, would add 16,000 species to 
the list. 

The remarkable plants known as algae, which float as 
threads of green scum, or live as little green balls in 
water or moist places, or grow in the sea like the giant 
kelp, swell the census by at least 15,000. 

The list would close with about 65,000 of that wonder- 
fully d i v erse 
class of vege- 
tables forms 
known as fun- 
gi. This class 
inc 1 u d e s the 
small one-celled 
yeast plants, 
the par asitic 
blights, rusts 
and smuts, the 
v a 1 i ous um- 
brella - shaped 
fungi popularly 
known as 
mushro oms 
and toadstools, 
the puff balls 
and many oth- 
ers. Each one 
of the 300,000 
species lives 
and grows in 
its own pecul- 
iar way, but of 
very few do we 
know anything 
that approaches 
a complete life 
history. 

Among this 
countless 'host 
of plants some 
species like 
certain orchids 
are so rare that 
several thous- 
and dollars 
have been paid 
for one plant, 
while others 
flourish in as- 
sociat ions so 



FATHER OF WATERS" 
roots of 



a small beaver stream under the 
Itasca Forest, Minnesota. 



a fallen tamarack in 



1273 



1274 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



great that they cover large sections of whole continents. 
The best known but not the only examples of the latter 
are the grasses of the North American prairies, the con- 
ifers of our evergreen forests, and the broad-leaved trees 
of our great deciduous forest. 

The heart of the great deciduous forest was the Ohio 
Valley. This forest consisted of an association of many 




THE SHOWY ORCHID 

One of the most beautiful flowers and readily identified as an orchid by 
its characteristic odor and taste, differentiating this class from all 
other plants. 

species, and a century ago, it stretched almost without a 
break from the Atlantic Coast to Western Minnesota. 

North of this broad-leaved forest extended a belt of 
evergreens to the limit of trees into sub-arctic regions and 
westward to the treeless plains. This vast forest con- 
sisted however of comparatively few species. In its 
southern region the white and Norway pines were the 
dominant trees. They grew taller and lived longer than 
any other species, and where fires or storms had not 
interfered for a century or two they had crowded out, 
or at least suppressed every other kind. 

Farther north, especially on poorly drained lands, the 
black spruce becomes dominant, while vast swamps, too 
wet for the spruce, are covered with tamarack, which on 
better and higher land was crowded out by pines, spruces 
and other species. 

From Illinois to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains 
stretched the largest grassy meadows of the world, known 
as the prairies. 

The question why these great fertile regions re- 
mained treeless is not easily answered. Over a 
part of the prairies the rainfall is insufficient to meet 
the great demands of trees for water. For con- 
trary to the popular idea, forests do not cause rain- 



fall, but an abundant rainfall makes forests possible. 

However, over a large part of the prairies other fac- 
tors have operated against the spread of trees. The 
grasses developed early in the geological history of North 
America, and when the plains first emerged from the 
sea, the grasses were able to cover the soil before the 
trees could reach the new land. The compact unbroken 
sod formed by their roots made it difficult for trees to 
secure a footing, but wherever the soil was broken by 
streams and the waves and ice of lakes, trees and shrubs 
have successfully invaded the great plains and now fringe 
every lake and river. 

Nearly all the prairie grasses and flowers are perennials 
well fitted to resist annual or occasional severe droughts. 
Nor could millions of grazing buffaloes and the fires 
started by lightning or by primitive man harm the under- 
ground rootstock of these plants. To seedling trees, 
however, a fire means almost certain destruction. 

On the western plains in the Bad Lands region and in 




SKUNK CABBAGE— FIRST FLOWER OF THE NORTHERN STATES 

AND CANADA 

The large seeds have most likely been scattered by bears. 

the foothill country the short grasses are rendered still 
more drought-resistant by having their roots protected 
by hard impervious sheaths. These grasses produce the 
black-root sod, which western ranchers and pioneers em- 
ploy as building material, and the walls constructed of 
black-root sod are almost as durable as those built 
of brick. 

Leaving out of consideration here the rather complex 
problem of plant distribution over the Black Hills, the 
Rocky Mountains and the Great Basin we reach on the 



MYSTERIES AND REVELATIONS OF THE PLANT WORLD 



1275 



Sierra, the Olympic and the Cascade Mountains the 
grandest and most remarkable forest of the world, which 
stretches from California northward to the limit of trees 
in Alaska, through more than two thousand miles of 
latitude. 

From California to Puget Sound is a forest of enor- 
mous redwoods, yellow pines, Douglas firs, western 
hemlock and other evergreens, including the remarkable 
isolated groves of giant sequoias containing trees of 
almost incredible size and age. But not only the great 
sequoias but also the redwoods and firs are giants, often 
reaching a height of two hundred to three hundred feet. 
In these forests the little Douglas squirrel and a number 
of small birds live permanently in the tree tops and, as 
one boy expressed it to me, 



V.Vi 



can only be studied through 
a telescope. 

In extent, in density, in 
the kinds and size of their 
trees, these forests have no 
rival on our planet. 

Besides the fascinating 
questions regarding the 
size, the distributions and 
survival of their component 
species they present another 
perplexing problem : They 
are the most exclusively 
coniferous forests in the 
world. Broad-leaved trees 
here and there make up six 
per cent of the whole, but 
in many regions they form 
only a small fraction of one 
per cent. 

Very few representatives 
of our eastern forest re- 
gions can be found here. 
There are no elms, no 
hickories, no chestnuts, 
no catalpas, persimmons, 
sassafras, magnolias ; no 
linden, no tulip trees, no 
locusts ; and many other 
whole genera found from 
the Atlantic coast to the plains are entirely absent. 

Several oaks, a few maples, one birch, one ash and an 
alder are among the scant representatives of broad-leaved 
trees, but they seem to live only by sufferance in a forest 
which everywhere presents an unbroken array of the 
somber spires of the conifers. 

In preglacial times the coast region did possess elms 
and beeches as well as gum trees, magnolias and chest- 
nuts. Why these and others have disappeared never to 
return is one of the great riddles of the plant world. 

In some regions of the earth, a rankly growing vege- 
tation has almost suppressed human and animal life. 
This is true of the great rain-soaked beech forests of 
temperate South America, which Darwin describes so 



well in his journey on the Beagle, and of the tropical 
forests of Africa. Another illustration of this dominance 
of plant life is furnished by the great tropical forests of 
the Amazon Valley of which the English naturalist and 
collector, Bates, has furnished us a classic account in 
"The Naturalist on the River Amazon." In tropical 
Africa human dwarfs have found a refuge in the im- 
penetrable forest, and the monkeys of the Amazon Val- 
ley are compelled to live in the tree tops. 

The greatest development of higher animal life has 
taken place in open and comparatively dry regions. Semi- 
arid South Africa is the home of the greatest number of 
species of big game, while the buffalo herds of the North 
American prairies and the caribou herds of the Arctic 

tundras, are equalled no- 
where else on earth. 

The length of life 
among plants varies even 
more than among animals. 
The edible inky mush- 
room produces its um- 
brella-shaped column over 
night. A few days later 
the whole plant has de- 
liquesced into a patch of 
black ink, and within a 
week not a trace is left of 
its existence. 

The giant sequoia, on the 
other hand, has outlived 
the great empires of hu- 
man history, enjoying a 
vigorous growth for three 
or even four thousand 
years. No fungus or in- 
sect pest is able to harm it. 
Its top reaches three hun- 
dred and fifty feet toward 
the sky and if storms, 
lightning and resulting fires 
did not at last bring it 
down, it seems that it 
might live and grow for- 
ever. And when, in the 
end, the giant trunk has 
crashed to earth amongst the smaller trees surrounding 
it, a long depression in the soil tells of the big tree even 
centuries after forest fires have consumed the enormous 
mass of sound wood, to which fungus, insects and the 
tooth of time could do no harm. Some of the giants 
still growing in Mariposa Park were already big trees, 
as New England and Minnesota measure trees, when 
Abraham pastured his flocks in Palestine. 

Curious and innumerable are the methods of traveling 
adopted by plants. Most plants can, of course, travel 
only as seeds, although there are not a few exceptions 
to this rule. 

The advantage of the first comer, the squatter, one 
might say, plays an important part in the world of plant 



?! 



*; ffe 



WH& 



A RIVER BOTTOM FOREST OF YOUNG ELMS 

The seeds of the elm, birch, maple and ash are carried by both wind 
and water. 



1276 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



life. The cotton tufted seeds of willows and poplars, 
and the little winged seeds of the white birch are carried 
by the wind in every direction, and they are produced 
in such abundance, that every nook and patch of bare 
soil receives its supply. The result is that these trees 
generally reach vacant land sooner than any of their 
competitors. The bare mud-flat left by a flood, the 
railroad gravel pit, the burnt-over and cut-over pinery 
are nearly always pre-empted by willows, poplars, or 
birches because their seeds are much more widely dis- 
seminated than the seeds of any other northern trees. 
Poplars and birches, however, are short-lived trees, and 
within a century the dominant pines will supplant them. 

Shrubs and trees, as well as vines and herbs, that de- 
pend on birds for the dissemination of their seeds run 
the wind-planted species a close race. Woodbine and 
wild grapes, elder, dog- 
wood and hackberry, wild 
cherries and plums, straw- 
berries and raspberries 
spring up as if by magic as 
soon as the lumberman, fire 
or storm have cleared the 
ground for them. 

Of many plants it is not 
very difficult to discover 
their methods of traveling. 

The seed of maple, pine 
and dandelion sail like par- 
achutes away from the par- 
ent plant. The gold-dotted 
hedges of jewel weed, or 
touch-me-not, which mirror 
their delicate flowers and 
foliage in the dark, silent 
water of northern beaver 
ponds are planted by the 
beavers themselves as they 
travel and work on their 
dams ; while birds in their 
daily and seasonal flights, 
plant those remarkable 
gardens of many kinds of 
wild fruit, whose presence 
on widely separated islands 
and mountains and in the 
depth of isolated canyons delights both the eye and the 
palate of the explorer. 

There are, however, numerous instances of plant dis- 
tribution which present most interesting puzzles to 
naturalists and foresters. 

The limber pine is a fairly common tree at an altitude 
of six thousand feet in the Rocky Mountains. It is 
not found on the stretch of two hundred miles lying 
between the Rocky Mountains and the Black Hills, but 
on the trail to Harney Peak, in the heart of the Black 
Hills, at an altitude of about six thousand feet, stands 
a grove of about twenty-five limber pines, the only trees 
of that kind thus far discovered in the Black Hills. How 
they traveled over the intervening two hundred miles is a 




GIANT COTTONWOOD GROWING CLOSE TO THE RIVER 

A Cottonwood will grow eighteen feet high from a seed in three seasons 
Within sixty years it is a giant. 



mystery. One of the most puzzling cases of plant migra- 
tion or distribution is that of the devil's club. This plant is 
a common shrub in the moist forests of the Pacific coast 
and in certain localities in the Rocky Mountains, where, 
on account of its countless sharp spines it is the terror 
of woodsmen and timber cruisers. It is not found in the 
forests touching the Great Lakes, except in several spots 
on Isle Royale in Lake Superior. By what means it 
traversed the intervening thousand miles of plain and 
forest and established itself on an island in Lake Superior 
seems an insolvable riddle. 

One possible solution must not be overlooked in such 
cases as that of the devil's club and the limber pine. 
They may be cases of a remnant vegetation, just as 
scattered groves of giant sequoias are undoubtedly only 

the remnants of former 
large sequoia forests. 

Such remnants are not 
rare. On Sheep Mountain, 
in the Bad Lands of South 
Dakota, I found isolated 
groves of yellow pine sepa- 
rated by a distance of fifty 
miles from the yellow pine 
forests of the Black Hills. 
I was much surprised to 
find that porcupines had 
killed a large number of 
these trees that were try- 
ing to maintain their hold 
on life under severe condi- 
tions of climate and soil, 
for one naturally thinks of 
porcupines as inhabitants 
of moist northern forests. 

There has just lately been 
discovered a natural grove 
of jackpine in the driftless 
area of Minnesota, in 
Houston county, the most 
southeasterly county of the 
state. These trees are out- 
posts of a former period 
and were left far behind, 
as the belt of evergreens 
retreated northward with the vanishing continental gla- 
cier. On their shaded sandy hillside these northern trees 
may keep a foothold for centuries to come, although the 
jackpine forest has moved fully a hundred miles north. 
The case of the Kentucky coffee tree has been a mys- 
tery to me ever since I first saw its odd, bluntly ending 
branches on a winter ramble in a Minnesota woods. The 
tree bears large bean-like pods containing big hard-shelled 
seeds resembling somewhat in appearance roasted coffee 
beans. The great pods remain on the trees through the 
winter. Neither the pods nor the beans float in water 
and are, of course much too heavy to be carried by the 
wind. The seeds are as hard as pebbles, and, as far as 
I have been able to discover, no birds or animals eat 



MYSTERIES AND REVELATIONS OF THE PLANT WORLD 



1277 



them. I kept a dozen of them in water for a year and 
found by frequent weighing that they did not absorb 
even a grain of water; but I also found that if they are 
planted in fall they will sprout in the first or second 
spring following. One seed I gave to a tame gray 
squirrel. He drilled a small hole through the shell, but 
dropped the seed as soon as he had reached the meat. 

The tree, although one of our rarer forest trees, is 
fairly well distributed from Tennessee to Ontario and 
from Pennsylvania to the Indian Territory, but it grows 
in small colonies, often miles apart. It is found on rich 
bottom lands and on islands in large lakes. It may be 
that grouse occasionally swallow the seeds as they swal- 
low pebbles, for it seems impossible that the seeds could 
reach islands without the 
aid of some bird. It is 
likely that the passenger 
pigeons in days gone by 
distributed the seeds of the 
coffee tree. 

A small cactus, the joint- 
ed opuntia, is widely dis- 
tributed in arid regions 
from New Mexico north- 
ward. In some mysterious 
way it has reached many 
dry rocky ledges in humid 
Minnesota and Wisconsin. 
A few years ago on a canoe 
trip on Lake of the Woods 
I found a fresh joint of 
this cactus among the 
boulders of the Ontario 
shore in adensely wooded re- 
gion. How the plant reach- 
ed this spot has remained 
a secret to me. 

A whole book of miracles 
might be written on the 
mutual adaptations between 
flowers and insects. That 
many flowers are adapted 
to cross-pollination by in- 
sects is a fact of common 
knowledge, but that some 
of these adaptations have 
been perfected, one might say, beyond perfection, is not 
so generally known. 

All our species of milkweed':., for instance, depend for 
pollination absolutely on insects. The peculiar structure 
of the flowers makes any other method impossible. More- 
over the work is restricted to wasps and to large butter- 
flies and moths. Small insects, even those as large as 
houseflies and honeybees are not strong enough to pull 
the anthers, shaped like tiny saddle-bags, out of their 
sheaths. To those insects the honey-filled and sometimes 
actually honey-dripping milkweed flowers are like so 
many baited traps, as deadly and remorseless to the hun- 
gry insects as the steel traps of the fur hunter are to 




A WONDERFULLY BEAUTIFUL SPECIMEN 

This stately white pine was planted for shade and ornament near a city 

home. 



bears and beavers. Their feet are caught on the specks 
of sticky gum, which mark the joint of the two halves 
of the saddle-bag anthers. Trapped in this manner they 
are held prisoners until they die, and their shrivelled" 
bodies may be found on almost every patch of milkweeds. 
One might think that the powerful bumblebee and the 
milkweed would make ideal partners, but such is not the 
case. These remarkable plants, which not only flow with 
honey, but also invite their insect guests by a strong 
honey scent, are utterly ignored by the big hungry bum- 
blebee, who have, for some unknown reason, acquired a 
passion for the purple of the clover and the blue of lobe- 
lias and gentians ; although to the human observer, getting 
honey out of these flowers seems a truly laborious task. 

The closed gentian, found 
in bloom in this latitude 
from the latter part of Au- 
gust to the middle of Octob- 
er, furnishes one of the 
most remarkable cases of 
adaptation of a flower to 
bumblebees. The striking 
whirls of beautiful sky-blue 
flowers are evidently a 
kind of bill-board advertise- 
ment to bumblebees. But 
these magnificent blue flow- 
ers, often made still more 
conspicuous by being deli- 
cately tipped with white 
seldom open. Day and 
night, in sunshine as well 
as in rain and fog, they 
remain tightly closed. Many 
observers have been led to 
conclude that this fine au- 
tumn flower had abandon- 
ed cross-pollination and re- 
sorted to self-pollination ; 
however, careful observa- 
tion has convinced me that 
such is not the case. The 
bumblebees do get into 
these closed gentians. In 
fact, I do not think they 
miss a flower on those 
plants that grow in the open, where the gentians are not 
hidden by tall grasses. 

With great care the hard working bumblebee selects 
a flower that has not been pumped dry by a buzzing 
competitor. Then, with his strong, and long proboscis 
:..he finds the opening in the closely folded floral segments. 
"With his head he pries the five segments apart and now, 
literally standing on his head he kicks and pulls himself 
with great effort into the blue honey well, until only his 
defensive posterior and a pair of legs remain partly 
visible, and if he is not a good sized bumblebee he dis- 
appears altogether. I watched one on a sunny September 
day, and I thought he worked harder than any other 



1278 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



bee I had ever observed. He examined flower after 
flower, many he rejected without opening them, in some 
he remained only an instant, but in one he stood on his 
head for fifteen seconds. Why does his tribe ignore the 
inviting flowing wells of the milkweeds and work labor- 




OPEN GROVE OF BUSHY RED CEDAR ON SHEEP MOUNTAIN 
The seeds of the red cedar are planted by the bi 

iously on such difficult flowers as clovers and lobelias 
and the refractory closed gentians? And why does not 
this flower open like other gentians? Are the perma- 
nently closed flowers only -a device to keep out feeble un- 
bidden guests, or do they also serve to exclude dew, 
rain and frost, which might injure the delicate floral 
organs inside? 

We all know trees and other plants by their leaves, 
which in shape, size and position display endless variety. 
Is there a meaning to all the dif- 
ferent shapes and positions, or 
are some of them just accidents 
that have no meaning? 

In general it may be said that 
each plant has evolved or is try- 
ing to evolve that shape, size or 
position of foliage, which serves 
best under its special environ- 
ment to intercept the most fa- 
vorable amount of sunlight and 
to regulate best the absorption of 
carbon dioxide from the air and 
the evaporation of water into the 
air. But why have nearly all the 
oaks adopted the lobed pattern of 
foliage as their own, while the 
large pea and bean family almost 
unanimously favor the pinnate 



ly produced for protection against specific dangers. 
Cattle will not allow young hazel, oak and most other 
trees and shrubs to survive in a pasture, but the thorn- 
apple bushes will flourish because their sharp thorns 
keep away the browsing cattle. 

There is a certain tree, the 
honey locust, which I venture to 
say no boy has ever climbed, al- 
though the tree is common and 
well known from New York to 
Illinois and from Texas to On- 
tario. Around the trunk most 
formidable, branched thorns 
stand out, some reaching almost 
two feet in length with the thick- 
ness of a man's finger. The lo- 
cust trees and their relatives have 
a tendency to run to thorns. Do 
the murderous looking thorns, 
set like bristling bayonettes 
around the trunk, perform a 
useful function, or are they 
merely a case of a family trait 
run riot? Perhaps they keep 
opossums, raccoons and bears 
from climbing the trees and de- 
vouring the sweet seed-pods, but I have had no oppor- 
tunity to prove this surmise. 

Each plant or family of plants produces certain sud- 
stances which possess a characteristic taste and odor and 
other generic qualities. 

Practically all the orchids of the world contain a sap 
of an odor and taste so characteristic that a blind person, 
with his hands tied, might distinguish orchids from other 
plants by using only his sense of smell and taste ; but 



IN THE BAD LANDS 
rds. 




or divided form? The maples 
all adhere to their well-known 

family pattern, and no conifer departs from the needle- 
shaped foliage of pines and spruces. 

Certain plant structures and substances are evident- 



SCRUBBY WHITE PINE ON ROCKY ISLAND OF LAKE OF THE WOODS 
A most attractive spot, and well patronized by vacationists. 

thus far no botanist has discovered the meaning of 
the peculiar fluid of the orchid family. 

All the conifers of the world produce rosin or pitch. A 



MYSTERIES AND REVELATIONS OF THE PLANT WORLD 



1279 




WHITE 



HEARTS, OR 
BREECHES' 



"DUTCHMAN'S 



How they travel from woodland to woodland 
still a mystery. 



very large num- 
ber of compos- 
ites, the typical 
prairie flowers, 
also produce 
small a m o unts 
of rosin, and the 
foliage of nearly 
all of them emits 
the pungent odor 
of rosin. 

Trees are al- 
ways exposed to 
attacks from two 
hosts of ene- 
mies, fungi and 
insects. A wound 
in a conifer im- 
mediately causes 
a flow of rosin. The rosin embalms, so to speak, any 
fungus spores or insects that might find their way into 
the wound. The liquid rosin soon hardens and seals up 
the wound and, in the course of years, new wood grows 
over the antiseptic covering. The function of rosin 
in defending trees against insects was well shown in 
recent years after the great devastation caused in the 
yellow pine forests of the Black Hills by several species 
of bark-boring beetles. Fires and drought had weaken- 
ed the trees and gave the beetles a great advantage for 
several years, so that they 
destroyed thousands of 
acres of fine forest. Then 
the government organized 
its forest service and pre- 
vented fires. Rainy sea- 
sons also returned, and the 
beetles began to be found 
dead in their tunnels under 
the bark drowned in the 
flow of rosin of the healthy 
and vigorous trees. 

The meaning of the poi- 
son in the loco-weed of the 
western plains seems fair- 
ly clear. It protected the 
plants from extermination 
by the herds of wild buf- 
falo, who evidently had 
learned to avoid it, for none 
of the early observers speak 
of finding "locoed" buffa- 
loes. Domestic cattle, on 
the other hand have not yet 
learned to avoid it and are 
often killed by it, especially 
in seasons of poor pasture 

But what is the mean- 
ing of the alkaline poison bluebells 
in the poison ivy and poi- The method of dl8S(:inination o{ 



son sumach? Would it have the same effect on 
browsing animals that it has on the skin of many 
humans? The poison evidently has no injurious ef- 
fect on birds, because they eat freely of the white, 
berries and scatter the seeds far and wide. 

Certain plant 
forms, although 
they must be 
fairly common 
in nature, are 
neverthe less 
rarely found by 
naturalists and 
botanists. 

The little 
green floating 
duckweeds, 
abundant on 
every pond in 
late summer, sel- 
dom produce 
their simple 
flowers and al- 
though I have 
been familiar 




BLUE ANISE-FLOWER OR GIANT HYSSOP 

The method of dissemination of this lovely flower 

is also unknown. 



with the plants since boyhood schooldays, I have never 

found the flowers. 
The jointed scouring rushes, also known as horsetails 

or equisetae, grow from small dust-like spores. They are 

common plants, but it is al- 
most impossible to find 
them in their first, or pro- 
thallium stage. Only once, 
in the month of July, did 
1 find them as little green 
lumps on moist earth which 
had been pushed up from a 
lake bottom by a railroad 
fill. Many ferns are very 
common, but very few bot- 
anists and lovers of flowers 
have ever found the small 
heart-shaped fern babies 
except in greenhouses. 

The beautiful pink-and- 
white moccasin flowers are 
fairly common in their 
favorite localities, moist 
meadows and spruce and 
tamarack swamps. But 
something seems to be mys- 
teriously wrong with their 
methods of pollination and 
seeding. Many of the flow- 
ers remain unpollinated, 
and, of the millions of min- 
ute seeds produced, very, 
of Scotland very few ever start a new 

this delicate flower i, unknown. P^t. One Could not find 




1280 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




ROSIN WEED 

It grows twelve feet high and is the giant among 
prairie flowers. 



CLOSED GENTIANS 

Flaunting beautiful sky-blue flowers to tempt 
the bumble-bee. 



BLUE LOBELIAS 

The seeds of this dainty flower are probably 
scattered by the wind. 



a seedling to a thousand adult plants. By the most care- 
ful search I have not found more than a dozen all told, 
and when a seed does start, it produces a most frail 
plantlet. Its stem, during the first season grows scarcely 
an inch high, the leaves are mere specks, and its tiny 
rootlets do not reach the soil through the thick cushion 
of moss on which the seedling nearly always starts. 

Every year, however, the root approaches by a kind of 
hook-shaped growth a little nearer- to the soil below, but 
I estimate that it must take a seedling from five to six 
years to establish itself as a vigorous plant whose future 
is assured. If nature had evolved a really successful plan 
of pollination and seeding in the moccasin family those 
beautiful plants should be a hundred times as numerous, 
for the mature plants are vigorous and hardy 
perennials. 

One of the most widely distributed plants over the 
whole northern hemisphere is the pale-green peat moss, 
sphagnum. It covers thousands of square miles in Eu- 
rope, North America and Asia ; but it has almost aban- 



doned the sexual method of reproduction, and the little 
spore capsules characteristic of all mosses are rarely 
found. I have traveled over and camped near peat bogs 
and marshes ever since my early boyhood, but only once 
have I found the brown spore capsules, and that was in a 
small rocky basin on an island in Lake Superior at the 
entrance to the harbor of Grand Marais. I took the 
plants home to my room in the hotel, and in the evening 
as I was reading by lamplight, my attention was attract- 
ed by several explosions, just barely audible. I began to 
watch my moss plants. The warmth of the room had 
dried the capsules to the explosive stage and every time 
one of the little shells burst, a tiny brown cloud of 
spores Was thrown into the air. It was the most inti- 
mate performance in the great drama of the plant world 
which it has ever been my good fortune to witness. The 
scene was enacted on an August evening more than ten 
years ago, and every summer since then, I have looked 
for the little brown shrapnels of sphagnum but I have 
never found them again. 



A NATIONAL FOREST POLICY 

THE PROPOSED LEGISLATION 

BY HENRY S. GRAVES 

FORESTER, U. S. FOREST SERVICE 



THE NEED OF A NATIONAL FOREST POLICY TO PROVIDE FOR THE PERPETUATION OF OUR TIMBER SUPPLY IS 
APPARENT TO FORESTERS, LUMBERMEN, TIMBERLAND OWNERS AND EVERYONE. WHAT THIS POLICY SHALL BE, HOW 
IT SHALL AFFECT PRIVATELY OWNED TIMBER LANDS, NATIONAL, STATE OR MUNICIPAL HOLDINGS, AND HOW A POLICY 
MAY BE ADOPTED AND ENFORCED, IS NOW THE SUBJECT FOR DISCUSSION. 

AMERICAN FORESTRY MAGAZINE OPENS ITS COLUMNS TO ARTICLES ON ANY AND ALL PHASES OF THIS IMPORTANT 
TOPIC, AND OPINIONS ON THE SUBJECT WILL BE WELCOMED.— EDITOR. 



ANY program of forestry which is comprehensive 
enough to anything like meet the needs of the 
country must involve the practice of forestry on 
privately owned timberlands. In my judgment this will 
not be brought about merely by educational method?. 
These have been tried for twenty years practically with- 
out result. There must be some requirement on the part 
of the public as to forest protection and as to forest 
renewal. The requirement must be nearly as possible 
equalized in all sections of the country and in all States 
so that no section or State will be placed at disadvantage. 

The Forest Service has given considerable thought 
recently to the principles which must underlie any efforts 
toward the attainment of this desirable end. We have 
reached the conclusion that a satisfactory measure of 
success can be attained only through some plan of co- 
operation between the States and the Federal Govern- 
ment, with the States the active agents for carrying 
the plan into effect and with the Federal Government 
stimulating action and aiding the States. 

We have worked out some of the principles which it 
seems to me should form the foundation of the system to 
be built up through the necessary legislation by the Fed- 
eral and State Governments. 

The principles of legislation requiring the practice of 
forestry on private lands are briefly as follows : 

1. The first step should be a Federal act authorizing 
the Secretary of Agriculture, in co-operation with any 
State, to formulate plans for forest protection and for 
the control of timber cutting within that State. Such 
plans should become effective only after the State legis- 
lature had passed appropriate legislation, including ade- 
quate appropriation to co-operate with the Federal Gov- 
ernment in putting them into effect. The Secretary of 
Agriculture should also be authorized to accept plans for 
protection or cutting which have been adopted by any 
State. Section 2 of the Weeks Law dealing with co- 
operative fire protection would therefore be superseded. 
The act should carry an appropriation. 

2. Farm woodlands should be specifically exempted 
from the provisions of the act, for the reason that pro- 
tection and conservative cutting for this class of forest 
can best be brought about through the education and 
demonstration work authorized by the Smith-Lever Act. 
The Secretary of Agriculture should be authorized, in 



co-operation with the State, to define farm woodlands 
and distinguish between them and commercial timber- 
lands. 

3. All commercial timberlands and all cut-over lands 
on which a commercial forest (as distinguished from a 
farm forest) could be grown should be subject to the 
provisions of the act. But the Secretary of Agriculture, 
with the approval of the State, should be authorized to 
exempt any of such lands where it is demonstrated that 
the surface of such lands is more valuable for other 
purposes than for the production of timber and where 
such lands are immediately to be used for the more 
valuable purpose. 

4. Owners of timber should not be compensated 
either by the State or by the United States for expenses 
incurred in carrying out the provisions of the act where 
only the renewal of the forest is concerned. But such 
owners should be compensated either by the State or by 
the United States (if by the latter, in the discretion of 
the Secretary of Agriculture) in the following instances : 

(a) Where for protection of the watersheds or for 
other protective purposes it is necessary that the timber 
should remain standing. 

(b) Where as a reserve of timber for future supply it 
is necessary that cutting should be deferred. 

(c) Where it is necessary to remove the timber in 
order to prevent the spread of insect depredations or 
injury from other causes. 

5. Every State accepting the provisions of the Fed- 
eral act should itself have enacted legislation : 

(a) Which provides adequate fire laws with suitable 
penalties for violation thereof ; and 

(b) Which not only prohibits the violation of such 
rules and regulations as might be prescribed by the State 
and the Secretary of Agriculture in respect to the cutting 
of timber or the removal of any products thereof, and 
provides a penalty for such violation, but prohibits the 
shipment and sale of forest products manufactured from 
timber cut or worked in violation of such rules and regu- 
lations. 

(c) Which establishes an adequate administrative ma- 
chine for making the laws effective, and appropriates 
funds to meet the conditions of co-operation. 

6. Federal participation should be based upon the 
precedent of co-operation with the States in policies of 



128! 



1282 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



education and development and upon the commerce 
clause of the Constitution. The Federal act should pro- 
hibit from interstate shipment any forest products cut 
or removed in violation of State law. (Ref. Act prohib- 
iting shipment of intoxicants from wet into dry states.) 

7. The State Forester, or other official with corre- 
sponding authority, should be charged with the respon- 
sibility of administering the law. He should be ap- 
pointed to a position in the Forest Service in order to 
exercise the authority granted to the Secretary of Agri- 
culture. The police powers of the State should be ex- 
tended to the necessary Federal employes. Administra- 
tive supervision of the work should be exercised by the 
Forest Service. 

8. The expenditure of Federal funds should be au- 
thorized on the basis of the Federal Government paying 
not to exceed one-half of the cost. The remaining half 



would be paid by the States either from their general 
funds or from special funds raised by tax levies, such 
as the timberland tax in Maine, the severance tax in 
Louisiana, and the compulsory patrol tax in Washington 
and Oregon. 

Any Federal funds which might be necessary for the 
purposes of compensation described in paragraph 4 
should be carried in a companion act having in view pri- 
marily the acquisition of forest lands by the Federal 
Government. 

9. In consideration of the Federal co-operation and 
aid offered under the plan, any State which accepts it 
will be urged to enact legislation that will relieve stand- 
ing timber from burdensome taxes by placing a nominal 
tax on the land and deferring the tax on the timber 
until cut. 



A DISCUSSION OF METHODS 

BY R. S. KELLOGG 

SECRETARY, NEWS PRINT SERVICE BUREAU 



THERE is no doubt about the necessity for a na- 
tional forest policy and that it should be speedily 
inaugurated if we are to have anywhere near ade- 
quate timber supplies in the not very distant future. I 
am heartily in accord with the discussion and the inten- 
tion to keep the matter before the public until the way 
is paved for the beginning of the solution of the prob- 
lem. Anything that I may say, therefore, is a criticism 
of methods and details and not as opposition to the 
general purposes, with which I am in sympathy. 

After giving the matter very serious consideration, I 
am unable to approve most of the nine provisions set 
forth in Forester Graves' statement on the principles of 
legislation requiring the practice of forestry on private 
lands. I don't believe that it is either practical or expe- 
dient to compel the practice of forestry upon private 
lands through the interstate commerce provisions of the 
Constitution : 

First, because as shown in a matter upon which there 
is so much public sentiment as that of child labor, the 
attempt to accomplish desirable reforms through indirect 
means has twice fallen down ; and 

Second, because a coercive program of this sort would 
immediately alienate and render hostile a large propor- 
tion of the timberland owners, thus demonstrating once 
more the statement made a long time ago by high author- 
ity that "forestry is practiced everywhere except in the 
woods." 

In my judgment it is not practicable to line up all the 
timber states in the multitude of details that program 
of "mandatory forestry" requires. Even in the one 
single matter of forest taxation — concerning which for- 
esters and timberland owners have been in substantial 
agreement — little progress has been made after years of 
agitation. How much longer will it take to make prog- 
ress in matters in which foresters and timberland owners 



are in opposition? As a matter of fact, we are now- 
coming to see that the States are very loath to make lax 
concessions to any one enterprise or form of industry, 
and while I am in entire sympathy with the suggested 
changes in forest taxation, I still carry in the back of 
my head the idea that after all if forestry is a business 
proposition it must pay dividends under business con- 
ditions. 

Politics always plays havoc with forestry. There 
would be no limit to the trouble that would result were 
forestry made compulsory upon the private owner 
through enactment and regulation by Congress and 
forty legislatures. 

It seems to me that the time has come when the pro- 
fessional foresters of the United States should be frank 
enough to acknowledge what those who have had prac- 
tical experience saw long ago, namely, that the growing 
of large sized timber of the ordinary commercial species 
is an operation too long in time, too hazardous in risk, 
and too low in rate of return to attract private capital, 
and that an attempt, national or State, to force private 
capital by legal enactment to engage in undertakings 
that are not profitable is doomed to failure. Forestry 
must be economically sound or it will not succeed. 

My suggestions of constructive nature are : 

First: A timber census and land classification to de- 
termine what we have in the way of present supplies and 
the areas which may be properly classified as affording 
opportunity for future and permanent supplies. 

Second: A great enlargement and extension to all 
appropriate parts of the country of the purchase of 
cut-over lands, for which ample precedent has been estab- 
lished in the White Mountains and Southern Appa- 
lachians. 

Third : Much more vigorous and general extension of 
Federal co-operation in fire prevention along the line of 



A NATIONAL FOREST POLICY 



1283 



the Weeks Law, coupled with such additional measures 
as may seem best in the different States to reduce the 
fire hazard and afford opportunity for natural reproduc- 
tion. The States can go a long way in fire control and 
the mandatory principle can be applied here much more 
successfully than it can be applied to either cutting or 
reforesting operations on private lands. 

Fourth : The acquirement of a reserve supply of mer- 
chantable timber in the West through the outright pur- 
chase of timberland financed by the issuing of timber 



bonds or perhaps the carrying of a reserve supply in 
private ownership through some form of co-operation 
with the State and national governments. 

I am just as strongly in favor of a great increase in 
the area of publicly owned timberland (national, State 
or municipal) and an increase in the scope and effective- 
ness of fire prevention measures as I am opposed to 
either Government operation of saw mills or the placing 
of compulsion upon the private owner to grow timber 
upon his land in case he is not so disposed. 



PENNSYLVANIA'S OPINION 

BY GEORGE H. WIRT 

CHIEF FOREST FIRE WARDEN OF PENNSYLVANIA 



"WE HAVE VISED THIS REPLY. APPROVE IT. AND HAVE DIRECTED THAT IT SHALL REPRESENT THE ATTITUDE OF THE 
PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY.'— ROBERT S. CONKLIN, COMMISSIONER OF FORESTRY. 



rT^HERE is no question in my mind as to the necessity 

\ for a national forestry program, and I see no reason 
why such a program should not be worked out im- 
mediately. This program should be preceded by a short 
and concise statement, setting forth just what is neces- 
sary to be accomplished in order to provide the economic 
factors which can be obtained only by a rational hand- 
ling of the forest areas of the country, and reasons why 
these things must be provided for as indicated by the 
present demands for forest products and the present 
inability to have these demands satisfied. 

Necessarily, the methods by which the end in view may 
be accomplished will differ in different states and in 
different forest regions. In the first place I believe that 
the most essential factor in the national program must 
continue to be the educational work. I cannot endorse 
your statement to the effect that the education of the last 
twenty years is practically without result. We have had 
forestry education in Pennsylvania since 1870, and I am 
convinced that the results are more than commensurate 
with the efforts put forth. If any fault is to be found it 
is with the lack of method, organization, and persistency 
in educational activities and with the inappropriateness 
and generality of the material used by national, state, 
association, and private forces. 

My first suggestion, therefore, in the national program 
is for a co-operative scheme by reason of which the 
national, state, association, and private educational ac- 
tivities may be made effective and kept continuously so. 
The foresters of the country do not need to be persuaded, 
because of the facts which they have at hand and with 
which they are familiar. When the facts which we have 
are made common knowledge, there will be little or no 
question as to the outcome. 

Along with the educational campaign, the state and 
nation must collect exact information in order to back 
Up the claim for a continued forestry activity. We must 
have more complete and definite information as to the 
actual amount of timber available and the amount of 
timber growing or capable of being grown in the 
country. There must, also, be continued researches 



which will lead to the conservation of present supplies 
and the bringing of wood growers and wood users to- 
gether satisfactorily. 

Both state and nation may continue as fast as their 
educational campaign will produce means, to extend 
public forests and to manage them properly. They must 
also recognize the community interest in the protection 
of forests and work out to the best possible advantage 
necessary means for helping the timber owners to protect 
the forests from fire and destructive agencies. The tax 
question also must be solved. 

This leads directly to the matter of legislation. There 
must be some law, and, while it is possible in some cases 
to obtain satisfactory laws without the support of a 
public understanding the necessity for the law, yet such 
cases are rare and where such law is obtained its enforce- 
ment is very unsatisfactory. So in each part of a na- 
tional program we are brought back to the necessity for 
an educational campaign, not for a short period of time 
but continuously. 

I cannot say that I endorse a program which implies 
upon the part of the national government anything more 
than what may be necessary to assist the states to do 
their work satisfactorily. The present co-operation un- 
der the Weeks Law might be extended for the protection 
of forests from fire. I can see no reason for national 
legislation working to the control of timber cutting 
within the states, nor do I see any necessity for the 
national government spending money within any of the 
states in connection with farm woodlands, except that 
it might be specifically stated within an amendment to 
the Smith-Lever Act that the state colleges which receive 
national funds under this act must assist the farmers in 
the management of the same as a part of the general 
farm education required. 

With respect to compensation of forest owners for 
what are distinctly protection forests, I would say that 
this ought to come under the forest purchase laws either 
of state or nation and such lands should be bought out- 
right under the right of eminent domain, if necessary, 
without necessitating the review of private operations. 



I2S4 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



It strikes me that the plan to enter the various states 
under a co-operative agreement upon a fifty-fifty basis 
other than for educational purposes and for what may 
be distinctly of national value in the protection of 
streams affecting several states, is unwise. 

I also consider it extremely unwise to create an or- 
ganization such as would be created under item No. 7 
of principles of legislation. Each state forestry asso- 
ciation would necessarily be under obligations to the 
national officials. 



It strikes me that the most important service the na- 
tional government can render in the national program 
of forestry is to act as a clearing house for the various 
activities of the states and to keep all of the foresters 
informed as to national and local conditions, so that the 
officials of each state may have at hand information 
which may be of value in avoiding errors and in taking 
advantage of methods which have proved to be success- 
ful, and to continue such investigations as it is impossible 
for any state to continue by itself. 



CONTROL OF GROWING FORESTS 
BY ALFRED GASKILL, STATE FORESTER OF NEW JERSEY 



BEYOND all question there is need for serious con- 
sideration of the forest situation in this country. 
Though that situation is in no essential way dif- 
ferent from what it has been for years, the necessity 
for effective action is accentuated by the evidence, now 
clear to every observer, that there is an insufficient re- 
placement of the waning store of timber in this country. 

What should be done cannot be decided offhand, or 
by any man. A full discussion of the conditions, oppor- 
tunities, and needs in each section of the country must 
precede the formulation of a policy. 

A policy to be truly national must have in mind the 
necessities of the nation as a whole, yet with full recog- 
nition of the facts that the greater part of the forest 
lands in this country are in private possession and under 
state, not federal, control. 

The discussion of the problem thus far has seemed 
to confuse the situation as represented by the stumpage 
holders, chiefly in the West and South, who are over- 
loaded, and as represented by the public interest in grow- 
ing, as distinguished from mature, forests. The first 
condition should be resolved by economic, chiefly finan- 
cial, measures ; the second demands the best thought of 
every forester, to the end that the next generation shall 
have enough lumber. 

And I cannot agree with some foresters that the lum- 
bermen have no interest in the question. That their 
interest is largely, or solely, financial is a fact, but present 
conditions must change radically before lumbering can 
become localized and permanent. So long as virgin 
timber remains it will be an attraction to exploiters, and 
I can see no escape from the conclusion that we must 
suffer the exploitation of most of our virgin stands 
before silviculture finds opportunity to take hold. 1 
have never believed, and do not now believe, that for- 



estry can play any large part in lumbering operations 
dealing with virgin timber. 

The proposal lately made that forest owners be com- 
pelled to handle their properties under the advice of 
foresters is of doubtful wisdom. Desirable as it is to 
make the nation's stock of high grade lumber last longer 
than it now promises to last, there seems to be no argu- 
ment to support the proposition that property interests 
in standing timber shall be sacrificed to a hope rather 
than a promise, much less a guarantee, that what is 
spared now can be realized on after a while. 

If this view is radical it springs from a conviction 
that there must be a greater assurance than there now 
is in any part of the country that an investment in grow- 
ing timber — not mature timber, is a safe investment. 
Before we can approach the owners of timber lands with 
any chance of securing results, before we can hope to 
impress legislatures and publicists with the reasonable- 
ness of our program, three things must be established ; 
first, the fitness of a given area for continued use 
(through one rotation at least) as forest; second, security 
against destruction ; and third, assurance of the total, or 
ultimate, tax levy. 

The situation is critical but not hopeless by any means ; 
a constructive policy probably can be based upon en- 
couragement to woodland owners by the Federal Gov- 
ernment and by the states ; upon active instruction and 
help to the smaller woodland owners — similar to that 
furnished farmers ; upon fire protection; and upon a 
modified tax practice ; all of which will tend to establish 
an insurable interest in growing forests. 

I emphasize tTie phrase "growing forests." To my 
mind the key of the situation is there — not in control 
over forests already mature, and which under every sil- 
vicultural law should fall to the ax as speedily as pos- 
sible. 



r F , HELP in meeting war needs, the United States 
•*■ Forest Service in 1918 continued its efforts to secure 
full utilization of the forage resources of the National 
Forests. In 1917, because of the war, 23,000 more cattle 
and 71,000 more sheep were placed on the National For- 
ests of California than had ever been grazed on them 
previously. In 1918 the numbers were still further in- 
creased by 18,000 cattle and 114,000 sheep. 



'T'HE tallest trees of the United States, says the Canad- 
■*- ian Forestry Journal, are the California redwoods or 
the Douglas fir. Both claim the distinction of being the 
tallest, and it is an even match between them. A maxi- 
mum of about 350 feet is the greatest, though a little 
more than that has been claimed. There is no question 
that in trunk diameter the redwood, that species known 
as sequoia, is the champion. 



THE SEVENTEEN-YEAR LOCUST 



BY DR. R. W. SHUFELDT, C. M. Z. S. 

(PHOTOGRAPHS BY THE AUTHOR) 



THE din created by the droning hum of an immense 
army of seventeen-year cicadas (they are not 
locusts, though generally called locusts) has been 
heard coming from the trees and bushes in many places 
during the past several weeks. The continuous hum of 
millions of these curious insects is heard throughout the 
entire day, 
from early 
morn until sun- 
down. 

From the 
ninth to the 
twelfth of 
May, especially 
where there are 
mostly maples 
and oaks, there 
appeared per- 
fect hosts of 
curious, dark 
amber - colored 
creatures that 
helplessly 
crawled about, 
each making an 
effort to reach 
something that 
it could creep 
up upon. Min- 
gled with these 
were many 
"locusts" of the 
kind here 
shown in Fig- 
ure 2. Thou- 
sands of the 
helpless horde 
were crushed 
underfoot. In 
some cities and 
towns the side- 
walks were ab- 
solutely s 1 i ]>- 
pery with the 
mashed bodies 
of the victims, 
while hundreds 
of thousands 
of others had 
escaped this 
fate through 

climbing UP On Fie. 1. DRIED, EMPTY "SKINS" OF THE SEVENTEEN YEAR CICADA, ATTACHED TO THE 
& v LEAVES AND FLOWERS OF THE MAPLE LEAF VIBURNUM. THERE IS ONE PERFECT INSECT 

the trees, near the middle of the picture, slightly reduced. 




fences, and other supports in their neighborhoods. 
These "bugs" do not bite or sting, and they fall into 
a very interesting family of insects known as the 
Cicadidce, being popularly called locusts, cicadas, and 
sometimes harvest-flies. However, they must not be in 
any way confused with the various species of grasshop- 
per-like insects 
that are the 
true locust, such 
as our Ameri- 
can locust 
(Schisto c e r a 
americana), or 
with those that 
during various 
periods of his- 
t o r y formed 
the great flights 
in the Old 
World. Such 
phenomena are 
more or less 
fully described 
in some of the 
very oldest 
works we have, 
as the locust 
swarms of an- 
c i e n t Egypt. 
Many thought- 
less people take 
our seventeen- 
year cicada to 
be identically 
the same spe- 
cies ; and, too, 
as a rare oc- 
c u r r ence, we 
still meet with 
some pious, old 
dame who 
shudders at the 
sight and sound 
of these harm- 
less hordes, 
drawing a long 
breath when 
the "flight" is 
over and the 
people have es- 
caped the pun- 
ishment follow- 
ing upon some 



128.5 



! 2X6 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



willful misdemeanors of the nation. Of these cicadas 
there are a number of species, all looking very much 
alike, some being very large and some very small, with 
color in general agreement ; their common appearance is 
well shown in the cuts illustrating this article. Several 
species are found in Europe and several still different 
kinds in the Americas. All true cicadas belong to the 
Order Hemiptera, and constitute the typical genus of 
the family Cicadidce. All are of comparatively good size, 
the males having under their wings peculiar little "drums" 
wherewith they make the humming note so familiar to 
all, while the female has a most interesting history. She 
deposits her eggs from about the end of May through 
the entire 
month of June ; 
these are dis- 
covered to be 
in pairs in the 
twigs of many 
kinds of oaks 
and other trees, 
and are very 
small, spindle- 
shaped objects. 
In the case 
of this seven- 
teen-year cica- 
da, the larvae 




hatch out in 
about six 
weeks from the 
time the female 
lays the eggs ; 
they then im- 
mediately fall 
to the ground, 
into which they 
burrow, to 
spend the next 
seventeen years 
of their lives, 
remaining only 
a few days in 
the pupa stage. 
During all this 
time, their only food consists of the juices of the roots 
of certain trees, they being provided with the means of 
sucking the roots. 

It has been shown that the female is quite indifferent 
to the kind of tree, shrub, or brush into the twigs of 
which she deposits her eggs. Often much harm is thus 
done to fruit trees, such as the apple and pear; and 
so severe is the treatment sometimes and the number of 
punctures sustained, that the death of the tree fellows. 
Peach trees have been thus destroyed, proving the cicada 
to be, in many instances, a harmful insect. When cherry 
trees are selected, the exuding gum usually seals in the 
egg or young, and they never come to anything. Some 
females show wonderful fecundity, the line of minute 



MENS OF 1919. FROM LIFE AND NATURAL SIZE 
FORE-PAIR OF LEGS. 



punctures for the eggs on the twig often having a length 
of more than two feet. 

At the time these cicadas laid their eggs in the grooves 
they cut in certain trees, along towards the middle of 
June, the effects very soon became apparent. Especially 
was this true in the case of all the species of oaks, chest- 
nut oaks, and sassafras shrubs. The big twigs thus 
operated upon by the insect had all the leaves beyond the 
line of punctures die and turn a deep tan color. Some 
large oaks thus wounded presented a mottled appearance 
at a little distance, the general body of the tree retaining 
its normal dark green foilage, with the dead, brown 
patches irregularly distributed all over it. In general, 

the tree sus- 
tained no other 
injury. 

Mr. S. S. 
Ra th vo r, of 
Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, 
gives interest- 
ing facts in the 
life history of 
these cicadas 
saying, in part, 
referring to 
the eggs and 
young of the 
seventeen -year 
Cicada; "many 
people who en- 
deavor to study 
the insect fail 
to produce the 
young by keep- 
i n g branches 
containing eggs 
in their studios. 
I so failed in 
1834 and 1851, 
and indeed I 
have never 
heard that any 
one has suc- 
ceeded in that way who has kept them for any length of 
time. In the brood of 1868 the first Cicadas appeared 
in a body, on the evening of the second day of June. The 
first pair in coitu I observed on the 21st, and the first 
female depositing on the 26th of the same month. The 
first young appeared on the 5th of August. All these 
dates are some ten days later than corresponding obser- 
vations made by myself and others in former years. 

"On the 15th of July, I cut off some apple, pear, and 
chestnut twigs containing eggs, stuck the ends into a 
bottle containing water, and set it in a broad, shallow 
dish also filled with water, the whole remaining out of 
doors exposed to the weather, whatever it might be. The 
young continued to drop out on the water in the dish 



E EMPTY SKIN-CASE. WASHINGTON SPECI- 
NOTE THE DISPOSITION TO ADVANCE THE 



THE SEVENTEEN-YEAR LOCUST 



1287 



for a full week. I could breed no Cicadas from branches 
that were dead and on which the leaves were withered, 
nor from those that from any cause had fallen to the 
ground ; this was also the case "with Mr. Vincent Bernard, 
of Kennet Square, Chester County, Pennsylvania. After 
the precise time was known, fresh branches were obtained, 
and then the young Cicadas were seen coming forth in 
great numbers by half a dozen observers in this country. 
As the fruitful eggs were at least a third larger than 
they were when first deposited, I infer that they require 
the moisture contained in living wood to preserve their 
vitality. When the proper time arrives and the proper 
conditions are preserved, they are easily bred, and indeed 
I have seen them evolve on the palm of my hand. The 
eyes of the young Cicadas are seen through the egg-skin 
before it is broken." 

Some thirty-five years ago, the late Professor Charles 
Valentine Riley, an entomologist of great distinction, 
published an excellent cut, giving an upper view of a 
seventeen-year cicada, with its wings spread; two views 
of the pupa; a twig showing the position of the eggs, 
and a larva. They were all the size of nature, and the 
illustrations appeared later on in many kinds of publi- 
cations ; but for some reason the figure of the larva was 
omitted — perhaps for the reason that it was not quite 
accurate. 

The writer believes it was Professor Riley who first 
discovered that there was in the South a thirteen-year 
cicada ; he always believed that the seventeen-year broods 
were northern and the thirteen-year ones southern — the 
dividing line being at the thirty-eighth degree of latitude, 
approximately, overlaps taking place at certain points. 
He predicted accurately the probable emergences for 
certain years, and the insects did not fail him but put 
in an appearance in millions on schedule time. 

Professor Riley pointed out that the development of 
the larva is extremely slow, being not more than one- 
fourth its full size when six years old. As it moults 
more than once a year, there must be some twenty-five 
or thirty changes of its skin when in its subterranean 
abode, which is not over two feet below ground during 
the first six or seven years of its existence. At this time 
it is in an oval cell which Professor Riley showed was 
more often away from roots than near them. Packard 
states : "Yet it can descend to great depths, one writer 
stating that he found it 20 feet below the surface. As 
the time approaches for the issuing of the pupa, it grad- 
ually rises nearer and nearer to the surface, and, for a 
year or two before the appearance of any given brood, 
this pupa may be dug up within one or two feet of the 
surface." 

During the present invasion of these insects, the round 
holes where these cicadid nymphs came out were ex- 
tremely numerous around many trees and in pathways 
through the woods. Upon several occasions, when turn- 
ing over fallen logs, the writer discovered the pupa had 
made a chimney closely resembling the corresponding 
achievement of the common crayfish ; this has been 
noticed by other observers. Out at Linden, Maryland, 



the twigs of the lower limbs of hickories, oaks, and 
maple-leaved viburnums were seen to be literally covered 
with the empty cases of the nymphs or pupae of this 
cicada (Fig. 1). They also covered small cedars not 
over two feet in height, as well as many bushes. This 
was upon the 25th of May, 1919. A few of the perfected 
insects were distributed through these interesting and 
very striking groups, and the "music" of the latter had 




Fig. 3. DEAD CICADAS PINNED OUT ON A "SPREADING BOARD" 
FOR PRESERVATION IN A COLLECTION. THE LARGE UPPER 
ONE IS THE COMMON FORM OR "HARVEST-FLY" OF THE EAST. 
NATURAL SIZE. WASHINGTON SPECIMENS, COLLECTED BY THE 
AUTHOR (1919). 

just begun in the trees and shrubbery the day before. 

What strikes us first upon looking at one of these 
seventeen-year cicadas, when it is alive and in full health, 
is its beautiful coral-red eyes, set off by its dark greenish- 
black body. All about the base of its wings and costal 
margins of the same, the color is of a deep, rich, and very 
brilliant orange. The sexes are distinguished by the 
presence of the ovipositor in the female, which is quite 
conspicuous. 

While this emergence was on, the writer collected 
over an hundred of these cicadas, with as many pupae 



1288 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



and empty cases. They were carefully studied and also 
used for photography, the illustrations accompanying 
this article being made especially for it. 

The nymphs dig out of the ground through the use 
of their strong and enlarged fore-feet, the matured insect 
subsequently emerging from a slit down the back. All 
of this is seen in Figure i through carefully regarding 
the several specimens. Sometimes we meet with cases 
where the insect died when only partly out of the case. 
In still others the wings crumple up, and the helpless 
insects crawl about on the ground. Probably there are 
also other kinds of deformities. 

In flight, the seventeen-year cicada is not at all rapid, 
nor is that flight, as a rule, long sustained. Most often 
it is in a straight line or on a long curve, either ascending 
or descending. They are very loath to move in a rain- 
storm, or when wet from 
any cause. There is no 
trouble in catching the adult 
insects, and when held in 
the fingers they commonly 
emit a loud, humming 
noise ; should the wings be 
free to move at such times, 
they whirl them rapidly, 
thus adding to the fuss they 
make. On even ground, 
this cicada walks with great 
deliberation, bringing the 
fore-pair of legs to the 
front with marked cicadian 
dignity at regular intervals. 
Frequently, when on the 
ground, one may get over 
on its back, when it will 
violently whirl its wings in 
its efforts to right itself 
again. In warm, dry 
weather they are far more 
active than when the air is 
chilly and damp. 

When observing children capture these "locusts" they 
will call your attention to the W near the upper, outer 
angle of each fore-wing and with a dubious shake of their 
heads predict that a war is near at hand. This is backed 
up by inviting attention to the reddish color on the wings 
of our larger species of cicada, where this ominous W is 
also to be seen. As the Cicadidce have been in existence 
for a great many thousands of yeais, during which time 
millions of men have been slain in wars, this harmless 
superstition is hardly worthy of a smile. Strange to 
relate, however, we have many "grown-ups" among us 
who are firm believers in this and similar "signs." 

This family of Cicadidce contains many other species 
besides the thirteen-year and seventeen-year ones ; a 
larger one of the eastern United States is well known. 
It comes along during the "dog days" of summer or a 
little later, and its "song" is indicative of the approach 
of early autumn. Rarely do we hear more than one or 



MAP SHOWING THE "HOSTESS" STATES— TERRITORY IN 
THE PERIODICAL CICADA (LOCUST) APPEARED IN 1919. 



DOTS INDICATE 
COLONIES. 



two of these together — in cities usually from the shade 
trees along the streets. The "song" has a definite begin- 
ning and ending, and is not a continuous hum as is the 
case with the seventeen-year fellow. 

There are a number of tropical species ; and out West 
a very cute little form, much lighter in color, that the 
writer has observed in thousands on the sage brush on 
the prairies. This probably is the one that Dr. Frank 
E. Lutz refers to in his work, a Fieldbook of Insects, 
when he says: "Of the genus Cicada (as now limited, 
Tettigia), the small hieroglyphica (Plate XXII.), with an 
almost transparent abdomen, may be found in pine bar- 
rens, and is our only species." (P. 84.) 

Kirby, in his Text-Book of Entomology, figures Thopha 
saccata, Amyot, and says that it is an Australian insect, 
remarkable for the large drums of the male. It is rusty 

brown ; the thorax is band- 
ed with black and yellow, 
and the abdomen is black." 
From tip to tip, this giant 
among the Cicadidce meas- 
ures five and a half inches. 
Three very fine species 
inhabit China, and others 
are found in South Africa. 
The big one of the East 
Indies (Dundnbia impera- 
toria Westw. ) measures 
over eight inches across the 
spread wings ! 

Kirby remarks that the 
"Cicadas are improperly 
called "locusts" both in 
America and Australia. In 
countries where they 
abound, the larger species 
keep up a perpetual chirp- 
ing, and they and other in- 
sects make the woods re- 
sound with their song at 
almost all hours of the day 
and night. Hence, I have been assured by travellers who 
have spent some years in the Tropics, that nothing struck 
them so much on their return to England as what seemed 
the death-like stillness of our woods, and that it was 
months, or even years, before they were able to divest 
themselves of the impression that it was always winter." 
Were such travelers able to hear the din created by the 
thousands of the seventeen-year cicadas "singing" in 
concert in the trees, they would most assuredly have but 
slender grounds for such complaint. 

One of the very best accounts of our cicadas is given 
us by Dr. L. O. Howard, in his well-known Insect Book, 
fully illustrated by many of Riley's excellent cuts. These 
last include the "young Earva" of the seventeen-year 
species, which stands in evidence of Doctor Howard's 
belief in its accuracy. 

"The ultimate fate of this interesting species," says 
this eminent authority, "is undoubtedly extinction, and its 




WHICH 
LARGE 



DENSE AND SMALL DOTS SCATTERING 



THE SEVENTEEN-YEAR LOCUST 



1289 



numbers are rapidly growing less. One of the com- 
paratively few insects upon which the English sparrow 
feeds with avidity is the periodical cicada, and many 
thousands of them are destroyed by sparrows each time 
they make their appearance and before they lay their 
eggs." One interested in cicadas should certainly read 
this valuable account by Doctor Howard. According to 
Lutz, the adults live only a week or so, "to recompense 
them for the long period of preparation." 

Further on the same author remarks that "there are a 
score, or more, of different broods, each of which has a 
rather definite — often restricted— distribution and time 
of emergence. Suppose there are three such broods in' 
your neighborhood. One of them (that is, the adults) 
may have appeared in 191 1; its next appearance would 
be 1928. Another might be 1916, 1933, and so on. As a 
matter of fact, these are actual broods, although they 
may not be the ones of your neighborhood. However, the 
example shows that we may have seventeen-year cicadas 
oftener than every seventeen years, to say nothing of 
the possibility of laggards or extra-spry individuals, in 
various broods, which do not appear on schedule time." 

It has been pointed out that many thousands of these 
cicadas came forth on the streets in Washington. This, 



be it noted, could only happen where the ground, for 
seventeen years or a little more, had not been sealed 
over, either by some structure or other having been 
erected upon it, or by the making of cemented sidewalks" 
and impenetrable roadways. As Washington very ex- 
tensively encroached upon its former environs during the 
time this brood of cicadas were enjoying the seventeen 
years of subterranean existence, many hundreds of acres 
being sealed over, it is apparent that all the cicadas in 
those areas perhaps millions of them, could not come to 
the surface at the appointed time, and thus perished at 
the points where they arrived at such impassable bar- 
riers. It is claimed that this factor of destruction will, 
in time, exterminate this interesting insect — an idea that 
surely is quite unbelievable ; though to a certain extent 
it may keep their numbers down, as does the extensive 
warfare waged upon them by the "English Sparrows" in 
and about our cities. 

Extinction or no extinction ; war or no war ; sparrows 
or no sparrows — in the month of May, 1936, common 
reckoning, we shall, with absolute certainty, see an emerg- 
ence of our seventeen-year cicada where the present 
hordes have appeared. 



DR. FERNOW, DEAN OF FORESTERS, RETIRES 
T\R. B. E. FERNOW, Dean of the Faculty of Forestry, 
U University of Toronto, retired on July 1. Dr. Fer- 
now intends to return to the United States and, if his 
health permits, to continue his labors in authorship which 
have already won him much distinction. The success of 
the College of Forestry at Toronto mirrors Dr. Fernow's 
unsparing giving of himself for the advancement of the 
science of forestry in Canada. One cannot over-empha- 
size the discouragements he met and overcame in found- 
ing a new and unfamiliar branch of technical training, 
the youngest of the engineering professions. As a Direc- 
tor of the Canadian Forestry Association, Dr. Fernow 
was a great believer in educational propaganda and assist- 
ed it at every opportunity. 

He became Chief of the Division of Forestry, United 
States Department of Agriculture, in 1886, a position 
which he filled until 1898. In addition to his official 
work, he was a constant promoter of all biological investi- 
gations leading to a broader understanding of the prin- 
ciples of forestry. In 1883 he was elected secretary of 
the American Forestry Association, and also held the 
position of chairman of the Executive Committee, and 
finally first vice-president of that organization. The 
degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred on Dr. Fernow 
by the University of Wisconsin in 1897. He took up his 
duties at Toronto University in 1907. 



DOUGLASS "KILLED IN ACTION" 

A REPORT from the Adjutant General practically 
**■ confirming the death of Lieut. C. W. H. Douglass 
reads as follows : 

"Lieut. Charles W. H. Douglass, Signal Corps, prev- 
iously reported missing in action since June 11, 1918, 
now reported killed in action, same date." No further 
details are available. 

Lieutenant Douglass was a graduate of the New York 
State College of Forestry and at the time of his enlist- 
ment in the Aviation Service, was associated with P. S. 
Ridsdale, editor and secretary of the American Forestry 
Association. His loss is keenly felt. 



HOMES built of wood were practically the only struc- 
tures unscathed in the severe earthquakes which 
devastated parts of the island of Porto Rico, ac- 
cording to reports made to the National Lumber Manu- 
facturers' Association — a high tribute to the durability of 
this forest product in building work. 



GRADUATES OF THE NEW YORK STATE COL- 
LEGE OF FORESTRY GRANTED AMERICAN- 
SCANDINAVIAN FELLOWSHIP 

ly/TR. HENRY M. MELONEY, of Bordentown, New 
-L" Jersey, who was graduated from the New York State 
College of Forestry, at Syracuse University, with the de- 
gree of B. S., in June, 1918, has just accepted appointment 
to a technical fellowship for the study of forestry, lumber, 
and paper and pulp manufacture in Sweden, under the 
American-Scandinavian Foundation. Ten college and uni- 
versity men from America will be sent to the Scandinavian 
states under the American- Scandinavian Foundation for 
study and research. Two of these fellowships are in 
forestry and the others in mining, electrical engineering, 
etc. The fellowships carry $1,000 and are of one year's 
duration. Mr. Meloney is planning to leave for Sweden 
in August and will specialize in lumbering and logging 
engineering. 



1290 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




THE PINE WOODS FOLK 



SQUEAKY FINDS TWO MORE VANDALS 




QUEAKY liked to gossip about 
as well as anyone and he did 
a good deal of it when he had 
a chance, but there was nothing 
lazy about him. When there 
was any work to do he settled 
right down to business and fin- 
ished the job. So when Mrs. Squeaky told 
him that she had located a big supply of 
acorns he was as anxious as she to transfer 
them to their store room. 

"Where are they?" he asked as they bobbed 
off through the woods together. 

"In the old hollow maple stub, right oh the 
ground." 

Squeaky stopped very suddenly and looked 
at her with doubt in his eye. "But Johnny 
Woodmouse lives there," he exclaimed. 

"No, he doesn't," Mrs. Squeaky replied, 
proud of her news. "Porky told me this morn- 
ing that Mrs. Woodmouse went out on the 
snow one night last winter and the owl caught 
her." 

"But he did not catch Johnny and the chil- 
dren?" he asked, still hesitating. 

"No, but Johnny left as soon as the snow 
melted, to look for another wife, and he took 
the children with him. They have been gone 
six weeks." 

Squeaky no longer hesitated. He raced 
along with his smart little wife to the old 
maple stump. She disappeared between two 
of the big roots and he found a small hole 
between them that led into the big hollow 
stump. There must have been a bushel of 
acorns on the floor of the hollow. 

"I did not even know that there was a 
ground hole into this stump," Squeaky ex- 
claimed admiringly. 

"I found a tiny little hole there in the rotten 
wood," Mrs. Squeaky explained proudly, "and 
dug it out. You see, the adorns came from 
up there." 

Squeaky looked up and saw a small hole 
leading into the hollow above where Johnny 
Woodmouse had lived. All the acorns had 
run down through this hole. They started to 
work at once. With an acorn in each cheek and 
another in his teeth, Squeaky started out, but 



he could not make it. He had to take an acorn 
out of one cheek before he could get through 
the hole. He made a great fuss about it, but 
finally went on with the two acorns. While 
he was gone Mrs. Squeaky, who was of a 
more practical turn of mind, cut the hole a 
little larger so that her packed cheeks would 
go through. 

Squeaky was on his second trip when he 
saw a junco hopping along apparently picking 
something out of the air every little while. 
Squeaky's curiosity was aroused at once. 
What was the junco eating? He went over 
that way and found that the junco was pick- 
ing the seed caps off of the tiny little pine 
seedlings and taking the top off of the seed- 
lings with them. Squeaky was very much 
excited, but he could not talk with his mouth 
so full. As it was against his principles to 
lay down a load, he hurried home with it as 
fast as he could go and tore back to the junco. 

"Hey," he called as soon as he was within 
earshot, "do you know that those are pine 
seeds that you are eating?" 

The junco looked a little disgusted. "I 
thought they tasted like them," he replied. 

"Well, that's what they are," Squeaky cried. 
"They stick on top of the seedling when it 
comes out of the ground. Every time you pull 
off one of those you pull off the top of the 
seedling with it and kill it. We shall never 
have any pine trees if you go around every- 
where doing that." 

The junco looked at him curiously. "You 
eat the seed, don't you?" he asked. 

"Certainly," said Squeaky, "but — " 

"Well, then," said the junco as he flew away 
to another patch of seedlings. 

Squeaky was almost stunned. He had al- 
ready scolded Porky, Cottontail and the junco 
for destroying pine trees and now he had sud- 
denly discovered that he had probably kept 
more pine trees from growing than any of 
them. Probably had destroyed more than any- 
body else, except Chatter* Box. 

It made Squeaky very thoughtful, but it did 
not stop him from hurrying on to help Mrs. 
Squeaky, and by evening the whole bushel of 
acorns was safe in their store house. 






THE GULLS AND TERNS 



(Family Laridae) 

BY A. A. ALLEN 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ORNITHOLOGY, CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



TO THOSE who go down to the sea, there is no 
bird more familiar than the sea gull. It matters 
not that there are fifty different kinds of gulls in 
the world with as many different names. All of the 
long winged graceful white birds that follow the ships 
the world over, or congregate in large flocks in the 
harbors, are everywhere called sea gulls and always will 
be. Absolute masters of the air they are, for no storm 
is so severe that they cannot still be seen, now circling 



with scarcely a mark of any kind. Immature gulls are 
uniformly darker than the adults, being dusky or grayish, 
changing gradually during the first two or three years 
to the plumage of the old birds. 

Gulls vary in size from that of a pigeon to that of an 
eagle although they are always more slender than the 
latter. As a group they are larger than the terns though 
a few of the terns are larger than the smallest gulls. 
The majority of terns are about the size of slender 




Photograph by Herbert K. Job 



AN AVIAN SNOW STORM 
Royal and Cabot's terns nesting. Breton Island Reservation, Louisiana. 



high overhead, now gliding close to the waves, now sail- 
ing apparently straight into the wind without a move- 
ment of the wings. Sometimes they sail for hours by 
the stern of the ship taking advantage of the air currents 
and never moving their wings except to alter occasionally 
the angle at which they are held. Again they are seen 
tossing about on the waves for they have webbed feet 
and can swim like ducks. 

The majority of gulls are pure white except for pearl 
gray mantles and black tips to the wings, but some have 
the mantle darker, others have the head black during the 
summer, while still others have the entire plumage white 



pigeons but some are not much larger than the largest 
swallows. Indeed they are sometimes called "sea swal- 
lows" because of their long pointed wings, deeply forked 
tails, and light, airy flight. 

Terns do not often sail like the gulls but few birds 
excel them for gracefulness. With measured strokes of 
the wings, almost suggestive of the motion of a butterfly, 
and with their bills directed downward as they watch the 
water, they beat back and forth along the coast hunting 
for small fish. Once a flock of terns locates a school of 
fish, a scene of intense animation follows. The buoyant, 
rhythmic flight gives way to a series of daring plunges 



1281 



1292 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



and they dart from a considerable height into the sea, spearing the small 
fish with their pointed bills. In this method of feeding they differ entirely 
from the gulls which have hooked bills and feed upon dead fish that they 
find floating on the surface. 

Gulls and terns are much alike in their nesting habits for the majority 
of species build crude nests or lay their eggs in simple depressions in the 

sand or on the rocks, with little 
or no pretense at nest building. In 
this respect and also in their eggs, 
which are olive or drab in ground 
color, rather heavily marked and 
sharply pointed, they are quite 





similar to the sandpipers and plov- 
ers. Indeed they resemble the 
shorebirds in other respects and 
in many anatomical characters as 
well so that most ornithologists 
today put all of them together in 
one major group or order. 

The commonest and best known 
of the twenty-five species of gulls found in North America is the herring 
gull. It is found throughout trie northern hemisphere, nesting from northern 
United States and northern France northward, and wintering from the 
southern part of its breeding range south to the Gulf of Mexico and the Med- 
iterranean. It is common in winter 
in New York harbor and in other 



Photograph by G. A. Bailey 

THE BLACK TERN IN SUMMER 

In this plumage the head and underparts are black 
— an unusual plumage for this family of birds. 



Photcaraph by G. A. Bailey 

A TERN POST 
A black tern in full plumage. In this plumage it 



harbors, following the ferries and 
swooping down to pick up pieces of 
bread or refuse thrown into the 
water. It follows also the garbage 
scows in dense clouds and is every- 
where a valuable scavenger. In 
the interior the herring gulls are 
common on all of the Great Lakes 
and larger bodies of water that do not freeze over, and whenever the 
ground is not covered with snow, they make sorties to the uplands, often 
long distances from water, where they find grasshoppers, beetles, and 
grubs. Gulls always roost on the water, however, so toward night they can 

be seen return- 
ing to the lake 
just as they left 
it in the morn- 
ing. While on 
the lake, in ad- 
dition to picking 
up dead fish, 
they occasional- 
ly rob the loons 
and mergansers. 
S o m e t imes a 
dozen or more 
gulls hover over 
the spot where 
these birds are 





r holograph by G. A. Bailey 

A SIMPLE HOME 

The gulls build crude nests and the terns usually 
none. This is the nest of a Caspian tern on an 
island in Georgian Bay. 



Photograph' by G. A. Bailey 

CAMOUFLAGE IN NATURE 

Young gulls and terns are almost impossible to see against the lichen 
covered rock. Here arc three young herring gulls. 



fishing waiting for one of them to make a catch, and 
then they will swoop down at it before it has time to 
swallow its prey. Usually the gulls are so persistent that 
the diver finally drops the fish, and the gulls fall upon it 
and begin fighting among themselves. The herring gulls 



THE GULLS AND TERNS 



1293 




rt K Job 



"AN OFF HOUR FOR HOUSEKEEPERS" 
Laughing gulls, Breton Island Reservation, Louisiana. 

usually select a rocky island for a nesting site and pull 
together small piles of drift weed for nests. They 
usually lay three eggs which vary from drab to olive 
or bluish white in ground color, irregularly spotted with 
lilac and shades of brown. The young birds are covered 
with down when hatched, and, like the adults, are able 
to swim. They are cared for by their parents, however, 
until they learn to fly. Their downy coat is mottled 
with buff and gray so that when they crouch they are 
almost invisible against the lichen covered rocks. 

A somewhat smaller and more migratory species is the 
ring-billed gull which scarcely 
can be distinguished from the 
herring gull at any distance. It 
migrates as far south as Mexico 
and Central America and rarely 
winters as far north as New 
York State. The chief differ- 
ence between it and the herring 
gull is that in the adult plumage, 
it has yellow legs instead of pink 
and has a black band across its 
bill. The immature birds can 
be distinguished at greater dis- 
tances because the ring-billed 
gull has a pure white tail marked 
by a subterminal black band 
while the immature herring gull 
has half or all of the tail dark. 

A somewhat smaller and more 
maritime species is the kittiwake, 
so called from its note. It has 
nearly the same pattern of colo- 
ration as the herring and ring- 
billed gulls with more or less 
black on the flight quills. Three 
larger species, the glaucous gull, 



the Iceland gull, and the Kumlien 
gull are distinguished by the 
absence of black on the pri- 
maries. These are northern 
species found rarely on our 
coast in winter and they can be 
distinguished from one another 
only by experienced observers. 
A more distinctly marked large 
gull, in fact the largest of them 
all, is the great black-backed 
gull which differs from all the 
others in having the mantle a 
deep slaty black. It is a martime 
species and seldom visits inland 
waters. 

The smallest of the North 

American gulls is the Bonaparte's 

gull which in its breeding dress 

has the entire head slaty black. 

It takes at least two years to 

acquire this plumage, however, 

and it is worn only during the summer so that white 

headed birds are much more often seen. It is more 

migratory than the other species, nesting in the far north 

and seldom wintering north of the Southern States, many 

individuals continuing their winter rovings to Mexico 

and Yucatan. 

A more southern black-headed gull is the laughing 
gull which nests in the salt marshes along the coast 
from Massachusetts south to Venezuela, retiring in winter 
to the Gulf coast and even to Brazil. This denizen 
of the South is somewhat smaller than the ringed-billed 




Photograph by Herbert K. Job 



Arctic tern on nest. 



THE GREATEST OF ALL TRAVELERS 
This bird is said to migrate 22,000 miles a year. 



Matinicus Rock, Maine. 



1294 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




in North America. They are easily distinguished from 
the gulls by the points already mentioned but many of the 
species are distinguished from one another only by the 
closest observation. The commonest color pattern is 
similar to that of the gulls being largely white with pearl 
gray mantles, but in the breeding season all the typical 
species have the whole top of the head black. Most of 



Photograph by Herbert K. Job 

ON THE SEA CLIFFS 
Kittiwakes, nesting on Great Bird Rock, Magdalena Islands. 

gull but considerably larger than the Bonaparte's. 

In the Mississippi valley and west to the Rockies 
there is a very similar black headed species called the 
Franklyn's gull. It is the least maritime of all the gulls, 
reaching the sea coast only during its winter quarters, 
which stretch from Louisiana to Peru and Chili. During 
the summer it frequents the 
prairie country feeding princi- 
pally upon locusts and other in- 
sects, often following the plow- 
man for the grubs that are turn- 
ed up by the plough. It is this 
species that the Mormons believe 
saved their first settlers from 
starvation by consuming the 
black crickets which threatened 
to destroy all their crops. In- 
deed they have recently erected 
an elaborate fountain and monu- 
ment in Salt Lake City dedicat- 
ed "to the gulls which saved the 
early settlers from starvation." 

Along the Pacific coast there 
are three common species, the 
glaucous-winged, the western, 
and the California gulls, which 
are not found in the east. They 
are white-headed species, not 
strikingly different from the her- 
ring gull. 

Ten of the fifty species of 
terns known to science are found 




Photograph by Herbert K. Job 

AN UNUSUAL PERCH FOR A GULL 
Herring gull solicitous for its nest, Matinicus Island, Maine. 

them, likewise, have deeply forked tails. They vary in 
size from the least tern which is not much larger than a 
swallow, to the royal and Caspian terns which are about 




y?-F~$=>t 



Photograph by Herbert K. Job 



LIKE A MANTLE OF SNOW 
Royal and Cabot's terns nesting, Breton Island Reservation, Louisiana. 



THE GULLS AND TERNS 



1295 



the size of ringed-billed gulls. The Caspian tern is a 
somewhat larger species than the royal and has a 
less deeply forked tail. It is likewise more northern in 
its distribution. The common tern (or Wilson's tern), 
the Forester's tern, the Arctic tern, and the roseate tern 
are all much alike being about fifteen inches long and 
having the typical tern coloration. They are, however, 
somewhat different in habits and distribution, the com- 
mon tern being the most widespread and generally seen. 
Close observation will distinguish the Arctic tern by its 
grayer underparts and uniformly deep red bill, the com- 
mon tern by its white throat and grayish breast, and bill, 
red only at the base. The Forester's tern can be dis- 
tinguished by its pure white underparts and dull orange 
bill and the roseate tern by its delicate tint of pink on 
the underparts. 

The Arctic tern is the most maritime of them all and 
is said to have the longest migration of any bird, some 
individuals nesting well within the Arctic Circle and 
some wintering well within the Antarctic, requiring an 
annual pilgrimage of about 22 thousand miles. The 
Forester's tern is more of a western species and is more 
marsh loving than the others, nesting in grassy marshes. 
The common and roseate often nest together on some of 
the islands off the Atlantic coast but the roseate is more 
southern of the two extending its breeding range to north- 
ern South America. The gull-billed tern is a nearly 
cosmopolitan bird but is found in North America only as 
far north as Virginia. It is quite easily identified by its 
short heavy bill and less deeply forked tail. 

The least maritime of all the terns is the black tern 
which frequents the marshes of the interior. It is easily 
distinguished in its breeding dress by its black head and 
underparts but during the winter these are white and it is 
not so different from the other terns except that its upper- 
parts are darker. 

There are two tropical terns, the sooty tern and the 
noddy tern which are common on the Florida keys and 
some of the islands off the Gulf coast where they nest 
in colonies of thousands. The sooty tern can be dis- 
tinguished from other terns by its black upperparts and 
the noddy tern by its black underparts, as well as upper- 
parts, only the top of the head being white. 

In the days when the feather trade was at its height, 
thousands of tern skins of all species were shipped to 
the New York markets and the breeding colonies all 
along the Atlantic coast were almost wiped out. Indeed 
even after some of the nesting islands were set aside as 
refuges and protected by wardens, hunters congregated 
in boats near the islands and baited the birds up to them. 
In this way they were still able to kill hundreds of them 
because the terns have the unfortunate habit of hovering 
over a wounded companion and returning again and 
again, even though shot at, as though they would succor 
him. It was not until through the efforts of the National 
Association of Audubon Societies and a few far-sighted 
Senators and Congressmen that the non-sale of plumage 
laws were passed. These laws forbade the sale of the 
plumage of native birds, and made it possible to save 



the few remaining terns. Now the birds are beginning to 
increase and to nest where they have not been found for 
years. The least tern alone, seems unable to recuperate 
from the verge of extermination to which it was forced 
and it is still a rare bird all along the Atlantic coast 
where once it was extremely abundant. 



CITY TREE PLANTING 

ALDO LEOPOLD, secretary of the Chamber ' of 
-*"*- Commerce at Albuquerque, New Mexico, tells how 
that city conducted a tree planting campaign which 
offers valuable suggestions to other commercial organi- 
zations. The first step was to appoint a committee of 
private citizens experienced in tree planting. This com- 
mittee drew up a set of specifications embodying the 
consensus of their opinions as to the best species of trees 
to plant and when, the best size of stock, and the exact 
methods of shipment, storage, distribution, planting, and 
the after care which is necessary to produce the best 
results under the conditions existing in Albuquerque. 
The specifications were then published in the local news- 
papers, and private parties were asked to submit bids, 
giving the cost per tree for which they would agree to 
meet the specifications. On a given date all bids were 
reviewed by the committee, and those bidders whose 
prices were reasonable were investigated as to their per- 
sonal reliability and experience and the reliability of the 
nursery with which they did business. Certificates of 
recommendation were then issued to all the bidders who, 
in the opinion of the committee, were fully qualified to do 
the work. 

The committee then appointed a trained forester as 
inspector. The certificates of recommendation stipulated 
that any work not complying with the specifications as 
interpreted by the inspector would result in the for- 
feiture of the certificate of recommendation. All holders 
of certificates were then encouraged to proceed to solicit 
business in the regular manner of private contractors. 
These certified contractors commanded the confidence 
of the public and were aided by an extensive advertising 
campaign. This was conducted by the Chamber of Com- 
merce with the full co-operation of the local newspapers. 
Large numbers of trees were ordered by property owners 
who had in former years deferred tree planting because 
they were not satisfied with the service rendered by un- 
regulated contractors. A total of over one thousand trees 
were planted, and so far 95 per cent of them are growing 
and doing well. Under the extremely difficult conditions 
obtaining in the Southwest, this is a very exceptional 
showing. The public is well satisfied. The annual plant- 
ing of trees will be at least trebled, and the contractors 
state that they will never work under any other system. 



A FOREST FIRE IS A REAL ENEMY 
Carelessness causes many fires. Are you care- 
less? Never leave your camp fire without making 
sure it is completely out. We won the war to defend 
Democracy. Must we now fight forest fires? Are you 
careful with fire in the forest? Burning matches 
cause fires. Break your match in two before throw- 
ing it away. If you discover a forest fire, put it out. 



1296 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 






EDITORS TAKE UP FOREST MATTERS 

NEWSPAPERS ANSWER CALL OF AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 
AND OPEN COLUMNS TO DISCUSSION OF BIG QUESTIONS 



A NATIONAL forest policy for the United States, 
"Roads of Remembrance," plans for reforesting 
France, Belgium and Great Britain, and the plant- 
ing of Memorial Trees, for all of which the American 
Forestry Association is campaigning, have received the 
hearty indorsement of the editors of the country. 

In an editorial on beautifying the roads of the country 
the Atlanta Constitution outlines the suggestion of the 
American Forestry Association and says, "This is an ex- 
cellent idea. The movement in all its phases is commend- 
able and it is one to which the public should give hearty 
indorsement." The Association urges that County Units 
plan memorials of various kinds with the good roads in 
mind so the memorials be easy of access and that the roads 
for which millions are to be spent be marked with memo- 
rial trees. "The advantages of having highways set with 
trees are a great many," says the Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, Gazette, "and few undertakings of so small com- 
parative cost are calculated to give as big a return for 
the money invested as the 
planting of trees along the 
highways wherever such 
work is practicable." 

Fruit trees are advocated 
for roadside planting by 
the Portland Oregonian, 
and so are nut trees. "This 
is an established custom in 
Europe," the Oregonian 
points out, "and a practice 
worth thinking about." The 
Pittsburgh Post praises the 
Boy Scouts for planting 
walnut trees and adds : 

"This is particularly timely in view of the warning just 
issued by the American Forestry Association that the 
country faces a timber shortage." The Columbus, Ohio, 
Dispatch says : "If the people of this country do not 
begin planting black walnuts they will make the mistake 
of their lives." The "Haskin Letter," a feature used by 
many newspapers, carries a column on "Roads of Re- 
membrance," pointing to the opportunity to beautify the 
country and at the same time impress the need of a 
national forest policy. The Washington Times and the 
Washington Herald give generous space to the article 
and the Washington Star uses nearly a column in telling 
of the Association's suggestion for tree planting along 
the drive to connect two of Washington's famous parks. 
Dr. Frank Crane, in his daily editorial, used by about 



CALL TO MEMBERS 

Enlist for service with YOUR ASSOCIATION. The 
need of a national forest policy will be doubly im- 
pressed upon the editor of your paper if you point out 
this need to him. Write a short statement of facts, sign 
your name as a "member of American Forestry Asso- 
ciation," and send the copy to the editor of your news- 
paper. 

Discuss local park and tree situations with the editor 
for he wants to know the public opinion and values it 
highly. Where trees need attention tell him and you 
will find ready response, for the editors of the country 
are keen to help. 



one hundred of the biggest newspapers, indorses the 
Association's Memorial Tree campaign. 

In an editorial, "Trees as Memorials," the Boston Post 
says: "The sentiment is one which appeals directly and 
strongly to the heart of our people. The American For- 
estry Association is aiding the governments of Great 
Britain, France and Belgium in their schemes for repair- 
ing the forest devastation wrought by the Hun and com- 
pelled by their own military needs. To restore and beau- 
tify the world for which our boys fought and sacrificed 
so bravely is their best and most enduring monument." 
The London Mail, speaking of the ravaged forests, says : 
"England in one regard looks strangely like those parts 
of Belgium where the Germans have resided. You see 
wherever you go acres of sawdust chips in place of van- 
ished forests." The Mail then goes on to give the plans 
of Mr.Acland, of the Woods and Forest Department. 
Under the heading "Trees for France," the Goshen, In- 
diana, Democrat says : "It is a practical suggestion. 

America can send almost 
any desired variety of tree 
or shrub." The Indianapo- 
lis Star points to "a recent 
survey of the forests in 
France by the secretary of 
the American Forestry As- 
sociation," and adds that 
"the situation presents a 
tremendous problem not 
only for the nations in- 
volved but for other coun- 
tries as well." "America's 
natural resources have 
been the salvation of Eu- 
rope," is the way the Boston Globe puts it, while the 
Buffalo Evening Nezvs quotes the figures from the Amer- 
ican Forestry Magazine to show the need of increased 
planting. The Baltimore Sun, Minneapolis Journal, New 
York Times and many other papers quote the magazine 
for a column on the destruction of the forests in the battle 
areas. The Dayton Herald quotes the Association's 
"Dont's" for forest fires and points to the need of a 
national forest policy, saying, "Only the United States 
lags." The San Francisco Examiner uses an eight col- 
umn box across the top of the first page on a telegram of 
congratulation to San Francisco upon the dedication of 
its Hero Grove. These are but examples of the way 
the editors of the country axe. co-operating in, t))£ drive 
for a national forest policy. 



FORESTRY— THE RELATION OF WOOD TO 
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION 

BY WILLIAM CARSON 



VWT E HEAR much and read much of the Coal Age, 
" the Iron Age, the Age of Steel — and their influ- 
ence on civilization. In our own time we have been im- 
pressed with the amazing changes brought about by 
iron and steel. We traverse continents on rails of steel; 
span broad rivers with bridges of iron and steel; ply 
the seven seas in ships of steel, and soar through the air 
in machines with steel frames. With steel tools and 
machines the luxuries of yesterday are brought in reach 



tributed to all the ages. And though its functions have 
been in the quieter walks of life, less glorious and spec- 
tacular than iron and steel, its contribution to man in 
his struggle onward and upward has been no less bounti- 
ful. 

Even before the dawn of history, man was dependent 
on it for his existence ; and on every frontier down to 
our own day it has been one of man's chief reliances. 
It has been more than an influence; it has been essen- 




Courtesy of The White Pine Bureau 

THE "OLD FAIRBANKS HOUSE" AT DEDHAM, MASSACHUSETTS 

The oldest house in America now standing in practically its original condition, again with the possible exception of the 
shell and adobe houses of Florida and California, is the "Old Fairbanks House," at Dedham, Massachusetts, the central sec- 
tion of which was built in 1636. The picturesqueness of this old, weather-beaten house, nestling beneath a wealth of over- 
hanging elms and breathing the sweetness and charm of old New England, has an appeal unequalled by any other of the 
early Colonial houses. Although its unpainted white pine siding has stood exposed to the severe_ New England climate for 
almost three centuries, it is still almost perfectly preserved — a testimonial to the lasting qualities of wood. 



of all, adding immensely to the comforts and enjoyment 
of life; and with other steel tools we fashion guns that 
hurl masses of steel twenty miles through the air and 
kill myriads of men. Truly the influence of iron and 
steel has been stupendous — stupendous beyond our con- 
ception. 

Yet, though iron and steel are mere tyros as com- 
pared to wood, no period has been designated the Wood 
Age. No particular period could be. Wood has con- 



tial — indispensable. Man first took refuge in the tree 
and with its branches built his fire to cook his simple 
meal. With his wooden club he went forth to provide 
food for himself and his family. He lightened his first 
journeys with a staff of wood, and as he became more 
venturesome floated down the water-courses on a log. 
When love of home conquered his roving disposition 
he scratched the ground with a stick and sowed his seeds, 
and in time made his first plow of wood. As the cen- 



1297 



.298 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



turies wore away and the great migrations came, wood 
was once more destined to play a leading role. On 
wooden wheels and in wooden boats man went forth to 
the ends of the earth — from Asia westward to Europe — 
and from Europe across the Atlantic to the New World. 

As man pushed forward the frontier of civilization, 
commerce grew. We marvel at the millions of tons of 
freight transported annually on steel rails and steel 
ships ; but centuries must pass before steel's tonnage 
can equal the traffic that has gone up and down the 
highways of the earth in wooden ships and on wooden 
wheels. 

But wood has done more than provide man with his 
necessities and comforts. His earliest efforts in sculp- 
ture and carving were formed from wood. There stands 
today in the Gizeh Museum in Egypt a wooden statue, 
the oldest record of man's achievement in sculpture. If 
Moses saw it, he must have looked upon it in wonder, 
for it was 2000 years old before he was born. We think 
of wood as something perishable, as something that 
soon decays ; yet here is a wooden statue, 6,000 years 
old — older than any stone or marble statue in existence. 
In passing it may not be amiss to remark that the oldest 
living things on earth are the giant Sequoia trees of 
California. 

And in music — from the first hammerings on a wooden 
tom-tom to the symphony orchestra — wood instruments 
have thrilled man in all ages. No instrument of brass 
can produce the range and variety of tones or approach 
the human appeal of the wooden violin. The metal 
strings of the piano get their tone and quality from the 
white pine sounding-board. 

Sometimes, too, I surmise that wood has been rather 
lavishly used in making the heads of some of our 
statesmen. 

In this land of ours, wood — and especially white pine 
— has been a powerful influence in shaping her destiny. 
When the colonists came to New England and New 
York they found an abundance of white pine distributed 
over the country. The ease with which it could be 
worked made it readily accessible for sheltering the set- 
tlers and their stock. And later it gave expression to 
their culture and love for the beautiful in those stately 
houses and those dignified churches which still stand 
as sound as when they were built and give inspiration 
for so many of the beautiful architectural designs of 
today. 

The history of the early Colonies repeated itself in 
the upbuilding of the great Middle West. The pioneers 
who came to the Mississippi Valley settled along the 
rivers and creeks where there was timber available or 
where it could be transported by water. The necessity 
for wood, with which to build their homes and barns, 
and for fuel, kept them from the more fertile prairies 
ready for the plow that lay back from the streams. As 
the settlers became more numerous the great white pine 
forests bordering the Great Lakes and the Mississippi, 
Chippewa and St. Croix Rivers were tapped, and they 
have ever since been serving the needs of the country. 
Fortunate indeed were the settlers to have such an abund- 



ant supply of wood that was light, easily transported, 
easy to work, durable and good for practically all uses 
to which a soft wood can be put. 

It is impossible to conceive the development of the 
Middle West without the white pine forests of Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Certain it is that the 
fertile plains of this great granary must have lain un- 
productive many years longer had not such an adaptable 
building material been so close at hand. And think what 
it means today that this vast region is producing food 
for us and for our Allies. The products from "the 
bread-basket of the world" — from the country of white 
pine houses and white pine granaries — may save civili- 
zation from the deadliest attack ever aimed at its pro- 
gress. 

And in this world crisis we of America and our Allies 
once more turned to wooden ships to save the day — to 
keep the supply of food unbroken for those who fought 
with us that democracy might rule the world and that all 
peoples might live together in peace and justice. Wood 
has been a powerful factor in the upbuilding of civiliza- 
tion — and we in our day have seen it one of the deciding 
factors in saving that which it has through the countless 
ages so laboriously helped to build. — (White Pine Mono- 
graph.) 



USE OF CUT-OVER LANDS 

A PRELIMINARY study of cut-over timberlands in 
-^*- the south, with a view to determining their best 
utilization, is being planned by Dr. H. C. Taylor, chief 
of the new Bureau of Farm Management of the Agri- 
cultural Department, and Dr. L. C. Gray, head of the 
new Division of Land Economics in that Bureau. Co- 
operation in this work is expected from State authorities, 
especially those connected with state agricultural colleges 
and experiment stations, and also from the various organi- 
zations interested in the development of the south. 

The work this year will be limited by the appropriations 
made by Congress for the Bureau of Farm Management, 
which are not as large as requested by Secretary Houston. 
In considering the problem of utilizing southern cut- 
over lands to the best advantage, it is planned to first 
mobilize data already in the possession of various 
branches of the government that bear upon the subject. 
If funds admit this will be followed up next year with 
a more extended investigation in a number of localities 
in the southern states. These investigations should in- 
clude an intensive study of certain questions related to 
the colonization and development of cut-over lands and 
this should result in assembling a mass of detailed data 
that will be of great use in bringing about agricultural 
development in the southern states, particularly the 
coastal plain area extending from Virginia to Texas, in 
which is situated the bulk of the pine stump lands. 



T> B. MILLER has been appointed State Forester of 
-"-*•* Illinois and assumed his new duties on July 1. The 
state forestry work is under the direction of the State 
Natural History Survey Division and is located at Ur- 
bana. 



STATE NEWS 



1299 




MINNESOTA 
'"PHE Minnesota Forest Service is just 
closing a deal with the Pine Tree Lum- 
ber Company for the purchase of approxi- 
mately 6,000,000 feet of virgin pine timber 
within the boundary of Itasca State Park, 
the consideration, $13.00 per thousand for 
white and Norway pine, $9.00 for spruce 
and $5.00 for jack pine; the land, about 
two thousand acres, together with the 
miscellaneous timber will constitute a gift to 
the State. It is valued at $25,000 to $30,000. 
One of the groves on this land, a magnifi- 
cent stand of Norway and white pine, has 
been named the "Theodore Roosevelt 
Grove." 

Itasca State Park and Forest was well 
provided for by the 1919 Legislature. As 
a result, the summer hotel property at 
Douglas Lodge has been greatly improved, 
a number of new buildings are being erect- 
ed, including a large restaurant, to be known 
as the "Forest Inn." An electric light 
plant has been installed, thus reducing a 
considerable element of fire danger, four- 
teen sections of land on the west side of 
the forest will be bought, the necessary 
money being provided for the purpose. The 
State Forester has just arranged for the 
grazing of one bunch of sheep, twenty-two 
hundred head, along the west edge of 
Itasca Park and Forest. The Forester has 
contended for some time that the grazing of 
sheep in this kind of country, where there 
is so much grass, weeds and brush, would 
afford the best kind of fire protection. It 
is believed also that little, if any, harm 
would be done in the woods, since stock 
will not eat the little coniferous trees so 
long as there is an abundance of other 
forage. There was some question as to 
the advisability of permitting sheep graz- 
ing because of the possible effect on game 
range, but the location of the grazing area 
with respect to the feeding grounds of the 
deer safeguards this feature. Also, on ac- 
count of the late entrance of the sheep, 
there will be no danger of their trampling 
the nests of ground-nesting birds. There 
is another feature worth watching in this 
connection. It has been difficult to obtain 
natural reproduction of pine in portions 
of Itasca Park owing to the dense growth 
of brush and small vegetation. There is a 
probability that sheep grazing will bring 
about more favorable conditions for pine 
reproduction through a partial removal of 
the brush and trampling of the soil to 
prepare it for the seed. 

If this experiment works out satisfac- 
torily, it will be the beginning of a great 
industry in that part of the State because 
there is range for several millions of sheep 
during the summer months. Sheep might 



be brought from Montana and other Rocky 
Mountain States about the first of July, 
fattened on the abundant forage in the 
timber country of northern Minnesota and 
then sent to the stock yards of South St. 
Paul and Chicago. The Forester is con- 
vinced that the forest fire danger in Min- 
nesota will be greatly reduced with the 
increase of stock grazing in the wooded 
districts. Fires in the woods do not run 
readily and are easily controlled wherever 
the grass, weeds and under brush has been 
even moderately eaten down by stock. 



much for summer cottages have been hit a 
body blow by free camp sites on Forest 
Reserves. The State's five Forest Re- 
serves are open with few and easy restric- 
tions to those feeling the summertime call 
of the wild. Camp sites have been selected, 
marked, and made ready by the State. Get- 
ting your "pick" is free of red tape; all the 
camper has to do is sign an application, 
send it in, and pitch his tent. 



MARYLAND 

VK/ ITH special war activities practically 
concluded, the Maryland State Board 
of Forestry has well under way numerous 
new projects of prime importance to for- 
est owners and timber users of that State. 
The summer's field work has been arrang- 
ed to develop various brand — new and use- 
ful activities, and to push to completion 
projects already undertaken. 

An intensive study of willow culture, with 
new opportunities opened by the war, will 
shortly be finished and published. Volume 
tables have been or are being prepared for 
every commercial tree species in Maryland. 
Thousands of taper measurements of hard- 
wood and softwood trees have been secured 
in sections of the State where these varie- 
ties reach commercial importance. Sets 
of curves are built on these at headquarters, 
and in the very near future Maryland will 
have its own volume tables to use and 
enjoy. These will be published, and made 
available to all requiring accurate, and 
localized, information in measuring, buy- 
ing and selling forest products. They will 
not only include, as usual, lumber and 
cordwood, but will be made applicable also 
to all forest products for which each tree 
is fitted and used, in board feet or cubic 
contents. State co-operation is being ex- 
tended forest owners in the practical im- 
provement of their timbered holdings, for- 
esters from the Board directing marking 
and estimating, and if necessary super- 
vising cutting, on tracts from a few to sev- 
eral hundred acres in size. This work is 
well received, since it secures the owner 
reproduction of the best, removal of the 
poorest, and sale of material for what it 
is worth. In connection with and in exten- 
sion of this, experiments in cheap and 
effective tree-killing are under way, meth- 
ods employed, both old and new, being by 
mechanical and chemical means. Proper 
treatment of public trees is still assured 
through application of Maryland's Roadside 
Tree Law, and active supervision of all 
operations by the Board. 

Profiteering landlords who charge too 



In co-operation with various private com- 
panies and progressive individuals, experi- 
ments in Loblolly pine reproduction on the 
Eastern Shore are being carried out. In- 
formation desired is on the best methods 
of securing N. S. R. in Loblolly. Sample 
plots are carefully laid out, and results will 
be watched until conclusive. 



Ten years ago Maryland's wood-using 
industries were the subject of research and 
report. Recently, knowing these results to 
be old and the data no longer authentic, 
the Board took up a canvass of the sub- 
ject. Much interest was manifested by the 
various industries approached, and prac- 
tically 100 per cent co-operation gain- 
ed in the preparation of a new and com- 
plete report, well illustrated, on "The 
Wood-Using Industries of Maryland." It 
is now in the hands of the printer, and 
will be issued shortly. Both study and 
subsequent report represent, exclusively, 
State work. 



NEW JERSEY 
"TOR several years State Forester Alfred 
Gaskill has been urging owners of 
woodland to give their timber a little care 
and attention, in order that its value and 
productiveness might be increased. It has 
been the practice in this State and else- 
where to cut off the woods without care 
or thought of the future, and then allow 
Nature to do the best she can in replacing 
the abused timber growth. The following 
results of a "thinning" experiment in the 
so-called "scrub oaks" of Burlington Coun- 
ty prove that such attention is profitable. 

A portion of the Lebanon State Forest 
was selected for the demonstration. The 
tract consisted of a rather dense stand of 
young oaks from ten to twenty feet tall, 
growing on sandy soil of low fertility. 

Two similar plots of approximately one 
acre each were laid out, and the trees on 
each counted and measured. Then plot 
No. 1 was "thinned" to relieve its over- 
crowded condition. Enough crowded, 
weakened and suppressed trees of the poor- 
est species were removed to give the re- 
maining trees the proper amount of light 
and growing space for their best develop- 



1300 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



125 MILLION FEET 

NATIONAL FOREST TIMBER 
FOR SALE 

Location and Amount. — All the mer- 
chantable dead timber standing 
and down, and all the live timber 
marked or designated for cutting 
on an area of about 6,000 acres of 
Government land in T. 44 N., R. 
4 E. ; T. 44 N., R. 5 E., and T. 43 
N., R. 5 E., within the watershed 
of Fishhook Creek, St. Joe Na- 
tional Forest, Idaho, estimated to 
be 33,000 M. B. M. green white 
pine; 9,000 M. B. M. dead white 
pine; 30,000 M. B. M. Engelmann 
spruce; 13,000 M. B. M. cedar; 
12,000 M. B. M. white fir and hem- 
lock; 10,000 M. B. M. larch and 
Douglas fir; 5,000 M. B. M lodge- 
pole pine, balsam fir and yellow 
pine saw timber, 60,000 cedar poles, 
more or less ; and an unestimated 
amount of cedar posts, piling and 
shingle bolts. About 4,000 acres of 
privately owned timber in the 
same watershed is also available 
for purchase from the Northern 
Pacific Railway Company. 

Stumpage Prices. — Lowest bid con- 
sidered $2.50 per M for green 
white pine; $1.00 per M for spruce 
and yellow pine; 50 cents per M 
for all other species and dead 
white pine; and special rates for 
cedar products of various dimen- 
sions. 

Prices will be readjusted at the 
end of the third, sixth, ninth and 
twelfth years. 

Period for Removal. — A period of 
fifteen years will be allowed for 
the removal of the timber, with two 
additional years within which to 
construct initial improvements. 

Deposit.— With bid, $10,000.00 to ap- 
ply on purchase price if bid is ac- 
cepted, or refunded if rejected. 
Ten per cent may be retained as 
forfeit if the contract and bond 
are not executed within the re- 
quired time. 

Final Date for Bids.— Sealed bids 
will be received by the District 
Forester, Missoula, Montana, up 
to and including September 23, 
1919. The right to reject any and 
all bids is reserved. Before bids 
are submitted, full information 
concerning the character of the 
timber, conditions of sale, deposits 
and the submission of bids should 
be obtained from the District 
Forester, Missoula, Montana, or 
the Forest Supervisor, St. Maries, 
Idaho. ' 



ment. Plot No. 2 to serve as a check or 
control, was not thinned. 

Seven years later, in June, 1919, neither 
tract having had any attention except pro- 
tection from fire, the plots were again 
measured and the following results were 
noted: Plot No. 1 (thinned plot) had 380 
living trees, the volume of which was 
10.03 cords per acre, or an increase of 5.57 
cords, not counting the one cord removed 
by thinning. Plot No. 2 contained 558 
living trees, with a total volume of 8.63 
cords, or an increase of less than a cord 
(.91 cords) for seven years' growth. In 
other words the thinned plot almost doubled 
its wood volume in seven years, while the 
adjoining unthinned plot in the same time 
increased less than nine per cent. For- 
estry pays ! The State Forester is ready 
to help anyone interested in such a project. 



KENTUCKY 

E. BARTON, Commissioner of Geology 
and Forestry, announces at this time 
that the Kentenia-Catron Corporation will 
transfer to the State of Kentucky for use as 
a State Forest Reservation approximately 
3,400 acres of land on Pine Mountain in 
Harlan County. The gift of this land to 
the State is in fee simple, subject only to 
existing contracts for the removal of cer- 
tain timber on the area. The gift is made 
through Mr. Charles H. Davis, the Presi- 
dent of the Company, and Mr. W. W. Duf- 
field, Agent of the Company for Kentucky. 
The gift of this land to the State for pur- 
poses of a state forest is the biggest 
stimulus to the management of timber 
tracts under effective forestry principles 
that the movement in the State to this end 
has yet seen. The Kentenia-Catron Cor- 
poration has always had a keen interest in 
the forestry problems of the State and the 
concrete way which they have now taken to 
show this interest is worthy of their ef- 
forts heretofore in the same direction. The 
area has a mixed stand of hardwoods, com- 
mon to the region, and includes some pines. 
The management of this tract on scientific 
forestry principles will serve as an excellent 
example of what can be accomplished un- 
der these conditions in the Southern Ap- 
palachian region. Active steps will be 
taken to put the area under effective ad- 
ministration at an early date. Immediate 
measures will be taken looking to the pro- 
tection of the timber on the tract from fire 
and other destructive agencies. 



ILLINOIS 

'T'HE Quincy, Illinois, High School has 
a forestry club, the purpose of which 
is to save the trees we have now and to 
plant others. A Science Club, of the same 
city, composed of twelve or fifteen en- 
thusiastic nature students, has secured a 
small tract of land and is growing on it 
such forest trees as pecan, persimmon, wal- 
nut and chestnut, which are to be trans- 



planted to suitable locations as the club 
members take their weekly hikes. 

The University of Illinois has an ex- 
perimental forest tree plantation begun in 
the spring of 1871 from which some inter- 
esting data should now be secured. An 
appropriation of $1,000 was made in 1869 
by the Legislature for trees and seeds. 
Thirteen acres were planted on prairie soil 
under the direction of Prof. T. J. Burrill, 
horticulturist and botanist, and G. W. Mc- 
Cluer, M. S., assistant horticulturist. It is 
located at the experimental farm, on Lin- 
coln Avenue. Forest records were kept 
for 1871, 1872, 1876 and 1886 by Professor 
Burrill, in which are stated the amounts 
expended for plants, planting, cultivation, 
etc., and the receipts from thinnings. 
European larch, elms, spruce, white pine, 
soft maple, basswood, black walnut, Bur 
oak, red oak and hickory are the species 
which have done best. The forest is 
fencedi and is used to some extent by the 
residents of Urbana as a park. 



GEORGIA 

"EXTENSION Forester Zimm devoted 
the month of July to the Extension 
Schools, which are held in connection with 
the District Agricultural Schools. One 
phase of the work which Mr. Zimm is em- 
phasizing is the preservative treatment of 
fence posts, shingles, and other farm tim- 
bers, and he has succeeded in establishing 
a small treating plant for demonstration 
purposes at each District School. 

Vocational work in forestry and agri- 
culture is receiving considerable attention 
at the Georgia State College of Agriculture. 
Approximately 150 rehabilitated soldiers 
have been sent to the College for special 
work and the Vocational Board states that 
preparation should be made to accommodate 
a total of between four and five hundred. 

In connection with the program for High- 
way Construction and Improvement, to be 
conducted co-operatively by the State and 
the Federal Government, the Georgia State 
Highway Commission has recommended 
that the establishment of roadside trees be 
given consideration at the same time. The 
Georgia State Forest School, through the 
Extension Forester, has agreed to co- 
operate with the Highway Commission in 
this phase of road improvement. 

A bill introduced in the Georgia General 
Assembly provides for the placing of 
all forestry matters in the hands of the 
Board of Trustees of the Georgia State 
College of Agriculture and empowering the 
Board to appoint a State Forester. The 
bill is the result of a conference of in- 
terested persons of the State and Mr. 
Peters, of the U. S. Forest Service. It is 
believed that the passage of this bill will 
enable the State to give proper attention 
to this most important of all natural re- 
sources — the forest. The bill has the en- 
thusiastic support of the lumbermen of 
the State. 



Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



1301 



Creosoted Water Tanks — 
Home - Made — 

The species and condition of wood specified for the 
creosoted water tank, shown below, permit employment of 
the Open Tank Process either at the shops of consumers 
or at the mills. 




Loblolly pine is available at many isolated mills, 
which because of their location cannot economically 
supply lumber treated by pressure process. How- 
ever, they could equip themselves to creosote by the 
Open Tank Process — providing they will meet the 
necessary requirements of seasoning and framing. 

Lumber and timber, as specified, can be purchased 
from many sources by consumers, manufactured as 
required and creosoted by the Open Tank Process 
with Carbosota Creosote Oil, either at the building site 
or shops. The treating tanks, etc., required for 
creosoting can be made portable or stationary. 

The Open Tank Process is not recommended as a 
substitute for the empty-cell pressure processes, where 
the latter is practical, but as a means of creosoting and 



making this grade of lumber available for the pur- 
pose, under conditions where the empty-cell pressure 
process cannot be employed. 

The Open Tank Process is efficient and compara- 
tively economical, but requires a refined, coal-tar 
creosote oil. That means Carbosota Creosote Oil 
which conforms to U. S. Railroad Administration 
Specification R-828-A. 

Carbosota is merely a trade-mark which guarantees 
an absolutely uniform, highly refined, pure, coal-tar 
creosote oil, physically fit for non-pressure treatments, 
and chemically of the highest preservative value. 

(Green wood cannot be effectively creosoted by non : pressure proc- 
esses. It should be air-dry. In regions of moist, warm climate, wood 
of some species may start to decay before it can be air-dried. Excep- 
tion should be made in such cases, and treatment modified accordingly.) 




Knowles Type Creosoted Water Tank erected at Mattoon, III., by the 
Illinois Central R.R. (Creosoted by Empty-Cell-Rucping Process 
5 lbs A.R.E.A. No. 1 Coal-Tar Creosote Oil per cubic foot.) 



THE salient features of this type of tank, 
and the several factors that warrant 
recommending the Open Tank Process, are 
quoted from an address by C. R. Knowles, 
Supt. of Water Service, Illinois Central Rail- 
road, published by the Southern Pine Associa- 
tion, in a pamphlet entitled "Southern Pine 
Tanks." 

" The timber used in Loblolly Pine, coming under the 
general specifications for tank timber except that no 
restrictions are made as to heart or sap. The timber 
is air seasoned, and should be permitted to season 
for three months in favorable weather." 

" A very important feature in the construction of these 
tanks is that all timber more than 1 inch in thick- 
ness is framed before treatment to secure the maxi- 
mum life from the treated timber. The work of 
framing the tank before treatment, is given such care- 
ful attention that it is rarely necessary to bore a hole 
in the treated timber during the field erection of 
the tank." 

"In water tanks, however, there is always an inter- 
mediate condition of moisture in which the wood 
is dry on the outside and wet on the inside, thus 
promoting rapid decay." 

" It is difficult to point out any portion of the tank 
more susceptible to decay than another, although 
decay in the tops of the staves is more noticeable, 
and the timber probably decays more quickly here 
than in any other part of the tank." 



New York 


Chicago 


Philadelphia 


Cleveland 


Cincinnati 


Pittsburgh 


Birmingham 


Kansas City 


Minneapolis 


Seattle 


Peoria 


Atlanta 


Youngstown 


Lebanon 


Washington 



The 




Company 



Boston 

Detroit 

Salt Lake City 

Duluth 

Columbus 



St. Louis Johnstown 

New Orleans Latrobe 

Nashville Baltimore 

Milwaukee Buffalo 
Richmond 



Bethlehem Elizabeth 

THE BARRETT COMPANY, Limited: Montreal 



Bangor 
Toronto Winnipeg 



Dallas 
Vancouver 



Toledo 
St. John, N. B. 



Halifax, N. S. Sydney, N. S. 



1302 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




WHEN YOU BUY 

PHOTO -ENGRAYINGS 

buy the right kind— That is, the 
particular style and finish that will 
best illustrate your thought and 
print best where they are to be 
used. Such engravings are the real 
quality engravings for you, whether 
they cost much or little. 
We have a reputation for intelligent- 
ly co-operating with the buyer to 
give him the engravings that will 
best suit his purpose— 
Our little house organ "Etchings" is 
full of valuable hints— Send for it. 



B. A. CATCHEL, Pn 



C A. ST1HS0N. Vice-Pra. 



GATCHEL & MANNING 

PHOTO-ENGRA VERS 

In one or more colors 
Sixth and Chestnut Streets 

PHILADELPHIA 



SALE OF TIMBER, KLAMATH INDIAN 

RESERVATION. 

CLIFF BOUNDARY UNIT. 

SEALED BIDS, MARKED OUTSIDE "BID, 
Cliff Boundary Timber Unit" and addressed 
to the Superintendent of the Klamath Indian 
School, Klamath Agency, Oregon, will be re- 
ceived until 12 o'clock noon, Pacific time, Tues- 
day, September 23, 1919, for the purchase of tim- 
ber upon about 10,000 acres within Townships 33 
and 34 South, Ranges 7 and 8 East of the Wil- 
liamette Meridian. The sale embraces approxi- 
mately 100,000,000 feet of yellow pine and sugar 
pine. Each bid must state for each species the 
amount per 1,000 feet Scribner decimal C log 
scale that will be paid for all timber cut prior 
to April 1, 1924. Prices subsequent to that .date 
are to be fixed by the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs by three- year periods. No bid of less 
than three dollars and seventy-five cents ($3.75) 
per 1,000 feet for yellow and sugar pine and one 
dollar ($1.00) per 1,000 feet for other species of 
timber during the first period will be considered. 
Each bid must be submitted in duplicate and be 
accompanied by a certified check on a solvent 
national bank in favor of the Superintendent of 
the Klamath Indian School in the amount of 
$10,000. The deposit will be returned if the bid 
is rejected but retained if the bid is accepted 
and the required contract and bond are not 
executed and presented for approval within sixty 
days from such acceptance. The right to reject 
any and all bids is reserved. For copies of the 
bid and contract forms and for other information 
application should be made to the Indian Super- 
intendent, Klamath Agency. Oregon. 

Washington, D. C, July 14, 1919. CATO 
SELLS, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 



PLANT MEMORIAL 

TREES FOR OUR 

HEROIC DEAD 



CANADIAN DEPARTMENT 

BY ELLWOOD WILSON 

PRESIDENT, CANADIAN SOCIETY OF FOREST ENGINEERS 



A T the summer meeting of the Wood- 
lands Section of the Canadian Pulp 
and Paper Association, mentioned in our 
last number, a discussion of vital importance 
to the forests took place. The work of 
fire prevention for the past seven years 
has shown conclusively that cut-over areas 
are the most liable to have fires started in 
them, and once started these fires are the 
most difficult to extinguish and do the 
greatest amount of damage. A few years 
ago when the areas cut over each year were 
comparatively small and often widely sepa- 
rated, a fire in a lumbered area only de- 
stroyed a small section, but now that the 
yearly cut has so increased, over two hun- 
dred per cent, and whole river valleys now 
are practically cut-over the situation is be- 
coming very serious and some steps must 
be taken to dispose of the debris from log- 
ging. It is the general opinion of foresters 
and many lumbermen that the present 
method of cutting to a diameter limit is 
unwise, unscientific and wasteful. The 
coniferous trees, being shallow-rooted blow 
down, the remaining hardwoods soon form 
a dense cover and prevent the growth of 
the conifers and those trees which are left 
under the supposition that they will form 
a future crop, if they do not blow down, 
make practically no growth as they were, 
for the most part, suppressed. It has also 
been shown that where clean cutting of 
conifers and most of the hardwoods is prac- 
ticed, a dense growth of spruce and balsam 
appears at once. The proper method to be 
adopted should be that of clean cutting of 
both conifers and hardwoods, brush burn- 
ing and then management of the stand. By 
management is meant the proper thinning 
of the natural regeneration and the re- 
moval from time to time of the undesirable 
species. The time has certainly come when 
we should realize that to get the most out 
of the forest we must handle it according 
to the proper principals. Forest farming 
has its rules just as agriculture has and 
they must be followed and must be applied 
by men who know them and who have the 
necessary technical training. We can no 
longer continue to treat our forests as 
mines and use up our forest capital. Meth- 
ods of cutting must be revised, slash must 
be disposed of and systems of management 
put into practice if we are to have forests 
in the future. 



Clyde Leavitt, Forester to the Commis- 
sion of Conservation and the Dominion 
Railway Board, was operated on in Ottawa, 



June 25, and at last reports was doing 
very well. 



Mr. F. W. Reed represented the U. S. 
Forest Service at the meeting of the 
Woodlands Section and took part in the 
discussion. Mr. Sterling, of James D. 
Lacey and Company, and Mr. R. S. Kellogg, 
of the News Print Service Bureau, were 
also present. Mr. Craig, of the Commission 
of Conservation; Mr. G. C. Piche, Chief 
Forester of Quebec; Mr. Prince, Chief 
Forester of New Brunswick; Mr. R. H. 
Campbell, Director of Dominion Forestry 
Branch ; Mr. Avery, of the Spanish River 
Pulp and Paper Company; Messrs. Yberg 
and Jewett, of the Riordon Pulp and 
Paper Company; Mr. Galarneau and 
Mr. Nix, of the St. Maurice Paper Com- 
pany; Mr. Cressman, of the Wayagamack 
Pulp and Paper Company ; Mr. Sweezy, of 
the Royal Securities Company; Mr. Kiffer, 
of the Quebec Forest Service ; Captain 
Tremblay, of the Donnacona Paper Com- 
pany; Mr. Schanche, of the Abitibi Power 
and Pulp Company, and Messrs. Arnold 
Hannsen and R. W. Lyons, of the Lauren- 
tide Company, were among the Canadian 
foresters present. 



The new classification of the Canadian 
Civil Service has just been published and 
the salaries for foresters are so low that 
no man who has taken four years at college 
and a technical two years' course there- 
after can afford to work for the Dominion 
Government. Foresters have been rated 
lower than any other professional men. 
The result will be that the service will soon 
lose all its good men. Salaries in many 
cases are far below those that the present 
incumbents are receiving and in one case 
a position has been reclassified and will 
hereafter receive less than its present holder 
received on commencing nearly ten years 
ago. The schedule is as follows : 

Some comparisons are of interest. The 
Dominion Entomologist is to receive 
$3,900 to $4,800; the Dominion Foresters, 
$3,600 to $4,500. A geologist is to receive 
$3,300 and UP; a forester, $1,680 to $2,100. 
The Director of the Forest Products Labo- 
ratory is to receive only $3,120 to $3,600. 
In most cases Provincial Governments are 
paying better salaries, as do also private 
concerns. Practically the whole of techni- 
cal staff of the Forest Products Laboratory 
has been engaged by private concerns. As 
inevitably the management of Government 
Forests must come into the hands of tech- 
nical men, and as they constitute such a 



Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



1303 




QUALITY- EFFICIENCY- RELIABILITY 

Upon this foundation was built this, 
the Largest Saw Works in the World 

Keystone Saw, Tool, Steel and File Works 

HENRY DISSTON & SONS, PHILADELPHIA, U. S. 




• ICD.I PAr.O". 



A. 



HELP TO REFOREST FRANCE 

rpHE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION has undertaken the great task of helping 
-*- to reforest the shell-torn, war-shattered areas of France; and to aid also Great Britain, half 
of whose forests were felled; Belgium, whose forests suffered terribly, and Italy. 

The great humanitarian need, the prime economic importance, the broad constructive value 
of this work — all place it on a plane which gives it striking pre-eminence. Therefore, it is felt 
that every member of the American Forestry Association will desire to have a part, and as big 
a part as possible, in carrying out this program. 



B 



Y those who are competent to judge, it is asserted that the forests of France kept the Germans 
from Paris. How great a debt, then, does the world owe to them! 



A MERICA can build no nobler memorial in Europe than by replacing the devastated forests of 
-^*- France, Great Britain, Belgium and Italy. ^Answer this appeal at once by sending your 
check for whatever amount you can afford, to the American Forestry Association. It will help 
to purchase the seed needed to replant the forests of our Allies. 

Checks Should Be Sent to 
THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



1304 



CANADIAN DEPARTMENT 



Evergreens for All Year Beauty 

Screens — Hedges— Windbreaks 




Many places lose their beauty when the leaves 
fall in Autumn. There is nothing in the landscape 
to sustain interest. 

Other places remain attractive and cheerful 
ooking. They have plenty of color. The cold 
winds are tempered. There is 
as much fascination in rambling 
about the grounds in winter as 
in summer. 

^EVERGREENS make the 
difference when nature has 
wrought her worst havoc with 
snow and sleet, their beauty is 
only intensified as they bend 
fantastically under their icy load 
and glisten with crystal drapery. 

Plant In Augutt or September 
if you are ready, or later if neces- 
sary. Whenever you plant and 
whatever you plant, it is guar- 
anteed-IF YOU GET IT FROM 
HICKS. Get our special prices now 
on several thousand evergreens 
2-8 ft. high. We must clear from 
leased land. Very highest quality 
in root and top. 

HICKS NURSERIES 
Box F Westbury, L. I., K. Y. 



HILL'S 

Seedlings and Transplants 

ALSO TREE SEEDS 
FOR REFORESTING 

"DEST for over half a century. All 
leading hardy sorts, grown in im- 
mense quantities. Prices lowest. Quali- 
ty highest. Forest Planter's Guide, also 
price lists are free. Write today and 
mention this magazine. 

THE D. HILL NURSERY CO. 

Evergreen Specialists 

Largest Growers in America 

BOX 601 DUNDEE, ILL. 



FORESTRY SEEDS 

Send for my catalogue containing 
full list of varieties and prices 

Thomas J. Lane, Seedsman 
Dresher Pennsylvania 



Orchids 



We are specialists in 
Orchids; we collect, im- 
port, grow, sell and export this class of plants 
exclusively. 

Our illustrated and descriptive catalogue of 
Orchids may be had on application. Also spe- 
cial list of freshly imported unestablished 
Orchids. 

LAGER & HURRELL 

Orchid Growers and Importers SUMMIT, N. J. 



Nursery Stock for Forest Planting 


TREE SEEDS 

SEEDLINGS ic* /,„ „„■„, „„ TRANSPLANTS 

large quantities 


THE NORTH-EASTERN FORESTRY CO. 


CHESHIRE. CONN. 



HOW TO PRUNE YOUR TREE.S 

Always use a pole saw and pole 
shears on the tips of the long branches. 

Do not "head back" or cut off the 
top of a tree except where the tree is 
old and failing, and then under special 
instructions. 

Be as sparing and as judicious in 
pruning as possible, and do not raise 
the branches so high as to make the 
tree look like a telegraph pole. 

Commence pruning the tree from the 
top and finish at the bottom. 

Make every cut as close and parallel 
to the trunk as possible. 

To make the cut perfectly smooth the 
saw must be well set and sharp. 

Leave no stubs, dead and dying wood, 
or fungus-covered branches behind 
you. 

Do not fail to cover every wound with 
coal tar, not allowing it needlessly to 
run down the trunk. 

Do not remove several large branches 
on one tree at a time. They must be 
removed gradually, the work extending 
over several seasons. 



large share of the natural wealth of the 
country the effect of putting such responsi- 
bilities on the shoulders of second-rate men 
will be disastrous. 



The patrol flights of the seaplanes of the 
St. Maurice Forest Protective Association 
have commenced and are proving practical. 
It is easily possible to locate forest fires 
at forty to fifty miles and if they are not 
too far from a lake or a river the plane 
crew can descend and extinguish them. A 
forester who made a flight recently reports 



that the various timber types can easily be 
distinguished and that photographs taken 
from the air will make most satisfactory 
maps. 

Forest fires of large size are reported in 
the Cochrane and Cobalt districts and some 
cut pulpwood is reported destroyed. 



The Aftenposten, a daily newspaper pub- 
lished in Christianis, Norway, has an article 
on Silviculture and Social Conditions in 
Canada, which refers to the work of the 
Laurentide Company and gives photographs 
of its nursery and reclamation work. It 
says that labor conditions in Canada are 
better than those in Norway and that 
Canada is getting ahead of Norway in for- 
estry matters. The article was written by 
Mr. W. Rolsted, who is in charge of the 
Royal Forests. 



The Province of New Brunswick has 
issued a circular letter appealing to school 
teachers and pupils to co-operate in pre- 
venting forest fires and to try and tell 
people how they can aid this great work. 
It explains how to build and extinguish a 
camp fire, how to notify a fire ranger in 
case a fire is discovered, and describes the 
uses and necessity for keeping our forests. 



In forestry, as in every other movement 
for better conditions education is the most 
important thing. Legislation, especially if 
repressive, arouses antagonism, and often 
defeats its aim. Education of all, from the 
child to the adult, brings the best and quick- 
est results. The writer is reminded in this 
connection of an incident which he witness- 
ed while '.iving in Switzerland. A bill was 
brought before the legislature for compul- 
sory old age insurance. A few months be- 
fore the bill was to be voted on the govern- 
ment sent around to every city, village and 
hamlet, lecturers who discussed both sides 
of the question impartially, giving figures 
of the cost of such a scheme, the results 
attained in other countries and all possi- 
ble information. When the time came for 
the vote, the people knew just what they 
were doing and had thoroughly discussed 
the thing among themselves. It has been 
said that for twenty years forestry propa- 
ganda has been carried on in the United 
States and is still without appreciable re- 
sult. The trouble has been that the propa- 
ganda has not reached the people and has 
not been sufficiently intensive. It has been 
too technical and has not aimed at one re- 
form at a time. It has tried to cover the 
whole field. People who have always been 
interested in the forest are reached but the 
great mass of the people see the question 
still as one of more or less academic inter- 
est only. It must be brought home to them 
more directly. 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



1305 



DAVEY TREE SURGEONS 




Estate of Mrs. A . M. Booth, Great 
Neck, Long Island, New Yorki 



The tribute of W. G. Woodger 
to Davey Tree Surgery 

Broad Lawns, Great Neck, Long Island, New York. 
The Davey Tree Expert Co., Inc., Kent, Ohio. 

Gentlemen: I felt it my ducy to write you a few lines in praise of 
the work of your representative and men on several fine trees on the 
estate of Mrs. A. M. Booth, most especially the very fine work done 
on a grand willow tree, not quite two years ago. 

My employer is most gratified with the work and thinks there is no 
equal to The Davey Tree Expert Company. The men are extremely 
keen on their work and know it thoroughly. I am very interested in 
their work and think them worthy of great praise. 

Yours truly, 

W. G. WOODGER, 

Garden Superintendent. 

The saving of priceless trees is a matter of first importance on every 
estate. Davey Tree Surgery is a fulfillment of the maximum expecta- 
tions of those who love and value trees. A careful examination of 
your trees will be made by appointment. 
THE DAVEY TREE EXPERT CO., Inc., 108 Elm St., Kent, Ohio 

Branch Offices with telephone connections: New York City, 225 Fifth 
At*.: Chicago, 814-816 Westminster Bid*.; Philadelphia, 8017 Land 
Title Bldg.; Boston, 18 Pearl Street, Wakefield. Write nearest office. 




Loss of this magnificent willow 
would have been irreparable. 
Note below how Davey methods 
have bound the branches together 
with rigid steel rods, and filled the 
cavities sectionally with concrete 
to allow for the swaying of the tree 



Permanent representatives avail- 
able in districts surrounding Bos- 
ton, Springfield, Lenox. Newport, 
Hartford, Stamford, Albany, 
Poughkeepsie, White Plains, Ja- 
m;ii';i. Montclair, New York, 
Philadelphia. Harrisburg, Balti- 
more Washington, Richmond, 
Buffalo, Toronto, Pi ttsburgh.Cleve- 




land. Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee. 
Canadian address: 252 l.augau- 
chitere West, Montreal. 

Kvery real Davey Tree Surgeon is 
in the employ of The Davey Tree 
Expert Co., Inc., and the public is 
cautioned against those falsely 
representing themselves 




John Davey, Father of Tree Surgery 



1306 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY 

^ 

DEFT. OF FORESTRY 
BUSSEY INSTITUTION 

/"OFFERS specialized graduate 
training leading to the de- 
gree of Master of Forestry in the 
following fields : — Silviculture 
and Management, Wood Tech- 
nology, Forest Entomology 
Dendrology, and (in co-opera- 
tion with the Graduate School 
of Business Administration) the 
Lumber Business. 

For further particulars 
address 

RICHARD T. FISHER 

Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts 



School of Forestry 

UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO 

Four Year Course, with op- 
portunity to specialize in 
General Forestry, Log- 
ging Engineering, and 
Forest Grazing. 

Forest Ranger Course of 

high school grade, cover- 
ing three years of five 
months each. 

Special Short Course cover- 
ing twelve weeks design- 
ed for those who cannot 
take the time for the 
fuller courses. 

Correspondence Course in 
Lumber and Its Uses. No 
tuition, and otherwise ex- 
penses are the lowest. 

For Further Particulars Address 

Dean, School of Forestry 

University of Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 



FOREST DESTRUCTION PRE- 
VENTED BY CONTROL OF 
SURFACE FIRES 
(Continued from Page 1264) 
from five to fifty years, the periodical rota- 
tion depending upon the local rate of litter 
accumulation. The litter is then too wet to 
cause crown or ground fires. 

2. Do not light fires in the forest litter 
after the humus becomes dry. A wet humus 
serves as an index to the safe firing season 
and prevents ground fires. 

3. Do not light fires while a high wind 
is prevailing. 

4. Burn the snags in mid-winter when 
the conditions are unfavorable for fires. 

5. Fire the lodgments of litter while 
conditions are still unfavorable for surface 
fires. 

6. Light the first fires over the areas of 
least litter and least density of stand. 

7. Backfire from the barriers. These 
barriers may be roads, trails, canals, barren 
and cultivated areas, recently burned-over 
areas, bodies of water, ice and snow, and 
barriers scraped for the purpose. 

8. Burn over the southerly slopes while 
the snow is on the north slopes. 

9. Burn downward from the tops of 
the slopes. 

10. Fire the ridges before the slopes and 
the slopes before the ravines. 

11. In initiating fire control, the order 
of burning should be as follows for a five 
year rotation : 

1st year — Standing dead trees. 

2nd year — Ridges. 
3rd year — South slopes. 
4th year — North slopes. 

5th year — Ravines. 
These rules will often conflict and re- 
quire a logical interpretation to fit the local 
conditions. No firing should be done with- 
out a thorough investigation of the litter 
conditions, topography, barriers, species and 
ages of trees and a study of the fire re- 
sistance of various species of trees. Stand- 
ing dead snags, fallen trees, underbrush, 
limbs, cones, leaves, needles, weeds and any 
dead and inflammable material should be 
included as litter. 

The importance of fire as a silvicultural 
agent in the coniferous forests has been 
recognized in that it has become the gen- 
eral practice to burn over cuttings to in- 
sure reproduction. The fires must be con- 
fined, of course, to moderate surface fires 
as would be possible if the foregoing rules 
are used. Fire is an aid to reproduction 
as it creates favorable conditions for the 
germination of the seeds, by removing com- 
petition, preparing the seed bed, opening 
the closed cones and releasing the seeds, 
temporarily driving away seed eating ro- 
dents, and removing insects and fungus. 
Fire serves to keep a forest clean and 
healthy by removing the insects and fungus 
diseases which have their origin in the 
rotting litter on the forest floor. The use 
of fire is a silvicultural method particularly 
adaptable to the coniferous forests because 



of their great fire resistance and the fire 
favors the more valuable species and the 
high-limbing sports. A young conifer tree 
will withstand the intense heat which kills 
all but the topmost branches and the ef- 
fect is similiar to that in the pruning of a 
fruit tree — more vigor is put into the trunk 
and the new growth. 

Our attempt to maintain the non-fire 
policy has shown that forest fires are in- 
evitable where the forests contain a large 
proportion of inflammable litter. The de- 
struction by fire increases as the litter in- 
creases. "Fire prevention." so called, simply 
delays the burning up of the last conifer 
tree where it stands. 

The use and control of the surface fire is 
the solution of the fire problem in the 
coniferous forests. 



PIGEONS WILL PROTECT FORESTS. 

'"PHE War, Navy and Interior Depart- 
ments, according to information just re- 
ceived by the Manufacturers Aircraft Asso- 
ciation, New York, are co-operating in the 
forest patrol. The idea of such a guard 
against timber fires occurred simulta- 
neously to the Forest Service and to the 
air service of the Army. Now comes the 
Navy Department with the offer to estab- 
lish pigeon lofts in the forest reserves and 
to provide the forest airplane patrol with 
carrier pigeons whose duty it would be to 
carry messages direct to home relief sta- 
tions whenever a fire is discovered. 

The pigeon branch of the Navy is ex- 
panding under the direction of Lieutenant 
McAtee, and recruits are now sought for 
this service, which is so closely akin to 
aviation that it is under the same general 
administration. 

During the war there was no opportunity 
to train men for this important duty, but 
now a special school has been opened at 
Anacostia and twenty enlisted men are re- 
ceiving daily instruction in the training 
and keeping of carrier pigeons. At the 
same time these men have opportunity to 
put their learning to practical uses. 

The pigeon branch of the Navy has 2,500 
birds. Plenty are available for the forest 
patrol. Experiments are going on con- 
stantly in the effort to increase the effi- 
ciency of the birds. Pigeons took an im- 
portant part in naval warfare overseas. It 
has been proved that pigeons can fly at a 
speed at least equal to that of a sea plane 
or flying boat. 



A REAL COMPLIMENT. 
"We have been a member of your Asso- 
ciation for some time and receive from 
month to month your magazine, which is 
certainly an up-to-date periodical along the I 
line for which it is intended. We con- 
gratulate you on the work you are doing in 
the Association in educating the people 
as to the necessity of not only conserving 
the present standing timber but also the 
possibility of producing new growths." 
Haines Lumber Company. 



Please mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



1307 



BOOK REVIEWS 

"The Book of the National Parks," by 
Robert Sterling Yard. Charles Scribner's 
Sons, New York. Price, $3.00. The author 
of this book possesses all the attributes 
necessary to contribute to the success of 
such a work, being an official in the Depart- 
ment of the Interior and so thoroughly in- 
formed on his subject, as well as a writer 
of note and an enthusiastic lover of the 
out of doors. His book is a valuable con- 
tribution to the slowly growing literature 
on our national park system. It will fill a 
long-felt want, carrying, as it does, in in- 
teresting fashion, an account of the histori- 
cal, scenic, geologic and recreational fea- 
tures of the parks ; and treating in a popu- 
lar way the geologic and other scientific 
features. It is well illustrated and has 15 
maps and diagrams. 



"Timber : Its Strength, Seasoning and 
Grading," by Harold S. Betts. McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, New York. Price, 
$3.00. The preface states that this book 
is intended primarily for engineers, manu- 
facturers and users of lumber and of vari- 
ous special classes of wood material, and 
students of engineering and forestry. Much 
technical information in readily accessible 
form is available regarding almost every 
class of structural material with the excep- 
tion of wood, and this book will in large 
measure supply this deficiency. 



THE 



N/fflH 




1337-1339 F STREET.N.W. 
WASHINGTON,"*. 

eri<oRflL7€RS 
P^SI<3N^RS 

AMP 

ILLUSTRATORS 

3 ^olor Pro^ss Work 
^lotrotypss 

Superior Qoality 



Phone f\ain 8Z74 



C Buy War W^ Saving Stamps ) 



FORESTERS ATTENTION 

AMERICAN FORESTRY will gladly print free 
of charge in this column advertisements of for- 
esters, lumbermen and woodsmen, discharged or 
about to be discharged from military service, who 
want positions, or of persons having employment 
to offer such foresters, lumbermen or woodsmen. 

POSITION wanted by technically trained For- 
ester; college graduate, 37 years of age and 
married. Have had seven years' experience in 
the National Forests of Oregon, California, 
Washington and Alaska. Also some European 
training. At present employed on timber sur- 
veys as chief of party in the Forest Service. 
Desire to make a change and will be glad to 
consider position as Forester on private estate, 
or as city Forester. Will also consider position 
as Asst. Superintendent of State Park and 
Game Preserve in addition to that of Forester. 
Can furnish the best of references. Address 
Box 820, care American Forestry Magazine, 
Washington, P. C. 

ARBORICULTURIST is open to an engagement 
to take charge of, or as assistant in City For- 
estry work. Experience and training, ten years, 
covering the entire arboricultural field— from* 
planting to expert tree surgery— including nur- 
sery practice, and supervision in the care and 
detailed management of city shade trees. For 
further information, address Box 700, care of 
American Forestry. 

POSITION wanted by technically trained For- 
ester. Have had fourteen years experience 
along forestry lines, over five years on the 
National Forests in timber sale, silvicultural 
and administrative work; three years experi- 
ence in city forestry, tree surgery and landscape 
work. Forester for the North Shore Park Dis- 
trict of Chicago. City forestry and landscape 
work preferred, but will be glad to consider 
other lines. Can furnish the best of reference. 
Address Box 600, Care American Forestry 
Magazine, Washington, D. C. (1-3) 

YOUNG MAN recently discharged from the U. S. 
Navy, wants employment with wholesale lum- 
ber manufacturer; college graduate; five year's 
experience in nursery business; can furnish 
best of references. Address Box 675, Care 
American Forestry Magazine, Washington. 
D- C. (1-3) 

WANTED: Young forester, preferably married, 
for clearing and maintaining woodland on small 
estate, operating private nursery, etc. Will pay 
$80 or better, depending on qualifications and 
experience. Six room residence on state road 
included Address Box 750, c/o American For- 
estry Magazine, Washington, D. C. (7-9-19) 

WANTED— Position as MANAGER of WOOD- 
LANDS; thirty years* experience ; will care 
for, replant and develop woodlands. Roy 
Maguire, Box 810, care American Forestry 
Magazine, Washington, D. C. 



m 



ADVISORY BOARD 

Representing Organizations Affiliated with the 
American Forestry Association 



Si 



National Wholesale Lumber Dealers' Association Lumbermen'! Exchange Empire State Forest Products Association 

JOHN M WOODS. Boston. Man I. RANDALL WILLIAMS, JR., Philadelphia, Pa. FERRIS J. MEIGS, New York City 

W. CLYDE SYKES, Conifer, N. Y FREDERICK S. UNDERHILL, Philadelphia. Pa RUFUS L. SISSON, Potsdam, N. Y. 

R. G. BROWNELL, Williamsport, Pa. R. B. RAYNER, Philadelphia, Pa. W. L. SYKES, Utica, N. Y. 



northern Plae Manufacturers' Association 

C. A. SMITH, Coos Bay, Ore. 

WILLIAM IRVINE, Chippewa Falla, Wia. 

F. E. WEYERHAEUSER. St. Paul, Minn. 



Rational Association of Box Manufacturers 
B. W PORTER, Greenfield, Maaa. 
S. B. ANDERSON, Memphis, Tenn. 
ROBT. A. JOHNSON, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Carriage Builders' national Association 
H. C. McLEAR, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
D. T. WILSON, New York 
P. S. EBRENZ, St. Louis, Missouri 



New Hampshire Tlmberland Owners' Association [!!;J: 
W. H. BUNDY, Boston, Mass 
EVERETT E. AMEY, Portland, Me. 
F. H. BILLARD, Berlin, N. H. 



California Forest Protective Association 
MILES STANDISH, San Francisco, Cal. 
GEO. X. WENDLING, San Francisco, Cal. 
II. RHODES. San Francisco, Cal. 



Massachusetts Forestry Association 
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, Milton, Mass. 
FREDERIC J. CAULKINS, Boston, Mass. 
HARRIS A. REYNOLDS, Cambridge, Maaa. 



„..., ......... _ Camp Fire Cluh of America 

Philadelphia Wholesale Lumber Dealers' Ass n W , LLIAM B . GREELEY, Washington, D. C. 
Ud^^^iVhIS feW*"** F.-Q,H_VAN NORDEN, rfew York 



iladelphia. Pa. 



FREDERICK K. VREELAND, New York 



Minnesota Forestry Association 
W. T. COX, St. Paul, Minn. 
PROF. D. LANGE, St. Paul, Minn. 
MRS. CARRIE BACKUS, St. Paul, Minn. 



American Wood Preservers' Association 
MR. CARD, 111 W. Washington St., Chicago, III. 
MR. JOYCE, 332 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 
F. J. ANG1ER, Baltimore, Md. 

Southern Pine Association 
J. B. WHITE, Kansas City, Mo. 
T F RHODES. New Orleans, La. 
HENRY E. HARDTNER, Urania, La. 



1308 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



BOOKS ON FORESTRY 

AMERICAN FORESTRY will publish each month, for the benefit ol those who wish books on forestry, 
a list of titles, authors and prices of such books. These may be ordered through the American Forestry 
Association, Washington, D. C. Prices are by mail or express prepaid. 



FOREST V ALU ATION— Filibert Roth 

FOREST REGULATION— Filibert Roth 

PRACTICAL TREE REPAIR— By Elbert Peets 

THE LUMBER INDUSTRY— By R. S. Kellogg 

LUMBER MANUFACTURING ACCOUNTS— By Arthur F. Jones 

FOREST VALUATION— By H. H. Chapman 

CHINESE FOREST TREES AND TIMBER SUPPLY— By Norman Shaw 

TREES, SHRUBS, VINES AND HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS— By John Kirkegaard 

TREES AND SHRUBS— By Charles Sprague Sargent— Vols. I and II, 4 Parts to a Volume— 

Per Part 

THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER— Gifford Pinchot 

LUMBER AND ITS USES— R. S. Kellogg 

THE CARE OF TREES IN LAWN, STREET AND PARK— B. E. Fernow 

NORTH AMERICAN TREES— N. L. Britton 

KEY TO THE TREES— Collins and Preston 

THE FARM WOODLOT— E. G. Cheyney aad J. P. Wentling 

IDENTIFICATION OF THE ECONOMIC WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES— Samuel J. 



Record 



PLANE SURVEYING— John C. Tracy 

FOREST MENSURATION— Henry Solon Graves 

THE ECONOMICS OF FORESTRY— B. E. Fernow 

FIRST BOOK OF FORESTRY— Filibert Roth 

PRACTICAL FORESTRY— A. S. Fuller 

PRINCIPLES OF AMERICAN FORESTRY— Samuel B. Green 

TREES IN WINTER— A. S. Blakeslee and C. D. Jarvls 

MANUAL OF THE TREES OF NORTH AMERICA (exclusive of Mexico)— Chas. Sprague 

Sargent 

AMERICAN WOODS— Romeyn B. Hough, 14 Volumes, per Volume 

HANDBOOK OF THE TREES OF THE NORTHERN U. S. AND CANADA, EAST OF THE 

ROCKY MOUNTAINS— Romeyn B. Hough 

GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH THE TREES— J. Horace McFarland 

PRINCIPAL SPECIES OF WOOD; THEIR CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES— Chas. H. Snow 

HANDBOOK OF TIMBER PRESERVATION— Samuel M. Rowe 

TREES OF NEW ENGLAND— L. L. Dame and Henry Brooks 

TREES, SHRUBS AND VINES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES— H. E. Park- 



hurst 



TREES— H. Marshall Ward 

OUR NATIONAL PARKS— John Mulr 

LOGGING— Ralph C. Bryant 

THE IMPORTANT TIMBER TREES OF THE UNITED STATES— S. B. Elliott 

FORESTRY IN NEW ENGLAND— Ralph C. Hawley and Austin F. Hawes 

THE PRINCIPLES OF HANDLING WOODLANDS— Henry Solon Graves 

SHADE TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES— William Solotaroff 

THE TREE GUIDE— By Julia Ellen Rogers 

MANUAL FOR NORTHERN WOODSMEN— Austin Cary 

FARM FORESTRY— Alfred Akerman 

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF WORKING PLANS (in forest organization)— A. B. Reck- 



nagel 



ELEMENTS OF FORESTRY— F. F. Moon and N. C. Brown 

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD— Samuel J. Record 

STUDIES OF TREES— J. J. Levison 

TREE PRUNING— A. Des Cars 

THE PRESERVATION OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER— Howard F. Weiss 

SEEDING AND PLANTING IN THE PRACTICE OF FORESTRY— By James W. Tourney... 

FUTURE OF FOREST TREES— By Dr. Harold Unwln 

FIELD BOOK OF AMERICAN TREES AND SHRUBS— F. Schuyler Mathews 

FARM FORESTRY— By John Arden Ferguson 

THE BOOK OF FORESTRY— By Frederick F. Moon 

OUR FIELD AND FOREST TREES— By Maud Going 

HANDBOOK FOR RANGERS AND WOODSMEN— By Jay L. B. Taylor 

THE LAND WE LIVE IN— By Overton Price 

WOOD AND FOREST— By William Noyes 

THE ESSENTIALS OF AMERICAN TIMBER LAW— By J. P. Kinney 

HANDBOOK OF CLEARING AND GRUBBING, METHODS AND COST— By Halbert P. 

Gillette 

FRENCH FORESTS AND FORESTRY— By Theodore S. Woolsey, Jr 

MANUAL OF POISONOUS PLANTS— By L. H. Pammel 

WOOD AND OTHER ORGANIC STRUCTURAL MATERIALS— Chas. H. Snow 

EXERCISES IN FOREST MENSURATION— Winkenwerder and Clark 

OUR NATIONAL FORESTS— H. D. Boerker 

MANUAL OF TREE DISEASES— Howard Rankin 

THE BOOK OF THE NATIONAL PARKS— By Robert Sterling Yard 

THE STORY OF THE FOREST— By J. Gordon Dorrance 



$1.50 
2.M 

2.00 

1.10 
XII 

2.00 
2.50 
1.50 

5.00 
1.35 
1.15 
2.17 
7.30 
1.50 
1.75 

1.75 
3.N 

4.00 
1.61 
1.11 
1.5* 
1.5* 
2.00 

CM 

7.50 

6.00 
1.75 
3.50 

5.00 
1.5* 

1.5* 
1.50 
1.91 
3.5* 

2.50 
3.5* 
1.50 
3.00 
1.00 
2.12 
.57 

2.10 
2.20 
1.75 
1.75 
.65 
3.00 
3.50 
2.25 
2.00 
1.30 
2.10 
1.50 
2.50 
1.70 
3.00 
3.00 

2.50 
2.50 
5.35 
5.00 
1.50 
2.50 
2.50 
3.10 
.65 



* This, of course, is not a complete list, but we shall be glad to add to it any books on forestry 
or related subjects upon request.— EDITOR. 



LINCOLN MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY 



I INCOLN Memorial University, situated 
in the heart of the Cumberland 
Mountains, is offering for 1919 a one 
year course in its School of Forestry 
which combines practical field work on the 
University's forest tract of 2,000 acres with 
theoretical and practical studies. It does 
not attempt to cover all the technical 
courses offered at many other schools of 
Forestry but does hope to combine enough 



practical and technical training in its short 
intensive course, to develop a well qualified 
forest workman. This is a co-educational 
undenominational institution with a total 
enrollment last year of 493 students. Its 
policy is to provide at a low cost a practical 
education for ambitious young people, par- 
ticularly for the white youth of its own 
section of the country. 



TABLE OF NATIVE MAINE WOODS 

TVTINETEEN different kinds of native 
Maine woods are used to make a 
handsome and unique table for the Direc- 
tors' and General Conference Room in the 
offices of the Eastern Forest Products 
Association at Bangor. The table is eight 
feet long and three feet wide with five 
legs. The top is made of six boards six 
inches wide, of the following woods ; white 
ash, birdseye rock maple, black cherry, 
curly yellow birch, beech and quartered 
white oak. 

The legs are of elm, hickory, chestnut, 
butternut and mahoganized yellow birch. 
The ledge boards are of sycamore, white 
birch, brown ash and cherry birch. Under 
the margin of the top is a plate to give 
a thick top effect which is made of white 
pine, hemlock, white cedar and red spruce. 
With the exception of the mahoganized 
leg, each piece is in natural finish and the 
effect is beautiful. 

The table was the idea of H. G. Wood, 
Executive Secretary of the Association, 
and was made by Morse & Company, at 
Bangor, a member of the Association. The 
boards of birdseye maple and curly birch 
are exceptionally choice and are said by 
many to be the handsomest they have 
ever seen. 



PLANT MEMORIAL TREES 



FALL IS THE TIME TO PLANT NAR- 
CISSUS AND TULIP BULBS 

'T'ULIP bulbs should be planted in Octo- 
ber, preferably about the middle of the 
month, and narcissus bulbs may be plant- 
ed up to the middle of October, but prefer- 
ably about the first of the month, accord- 
ing to specialists of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. 

The bulbs should be planted in loose, 
rich soil, devoid of rank, or unrotted, or 
poorly incorporated manures. It should 
be dug to a depth of from 12 to 15 inches. 
The tulip bulbs should be set 5 inches apart 
and 4 inches deep and the narcissus bulbs 
about 10 inches apart and 5 inches deep. 

If they are to be grown in pots or window 
boxes, light rich soil should be used. 
Place 1 to 2 inches of cinders or broken 
pots in the bottom of the pots or boxes 
to insure good drainage. After planting, 
place the pots or boxes out of doors and 
cover them with about 4 inches of ashes 
or sand ; or they may be placed in a dark 
cool room or cellar for a few weeks, until 
the bulbs have formed a quantity of roots. 
They may then be brought into the light 
and heat for flowering. Keep the soil well 
moistened from time of planting, but avoid 
overmoistening, for if kept too wet the 
bulbs will decay. 



Please Mention American Forestry Magaiine when writing advertisers 



CURRENT LITERATURE 



1309 



CURRENT LITERATURE 

MONTHLY LIST FOR JULY, 1919 

(Books and periodicals indexed in the library of the United States Forest Service.) 



FORESTRY AS A WHOLE 

Black, Robson. The child's book of the 
forests. 15 p. il. Ottawa, Canadian 
forestry assn., 1919. 

Proceedings and reports of associations, forest 
officers, etc. 

Indiana — State board of forestry and State 
park committee. Report for the year 
1918. 21 p. Indianapolis, 1919. 

Michigan agricultural college— Forestry 
club. The M. A. C. forester, vol. 4. 
rj p. il- East Lansing, Mich., 1919. 

Oregon— State board of forestry. Eighth 
annual report of the State forester for 
the year ending Dec. 31, 1918. 22 p. 
Salem, Ore., icacj- 

South Africa— Forest dept. Annual report, 
1917-18. 43 p. Cape Town, 1918. 

Sweden — Statens skogsforsoksanstalt. 
Meddelanden, haft. 16, nr. 1-3. 66 p. 
maps. Stockholm, Sweden, 1919. 

Uganda— Forestry dept. Annual report, 
1917-18. 11 p. Entebbe, 1918. 

Western Australia — Woods and forests 
dept. Report for the half-year ended 
30th June, 1918. 17 P- Perth, 1919. 
FOREST EDUCATION 

Lincoln memorial university — School of 
forestry. The story of the need for 
forest rangers and skilled lumbermen, 
and of the practical course in forestry 
at Lincoln memorial university. 4 p. 
Harrogate, Tenn., 1919. 

Xew York state college of forestry, Syra- 
cuse university. Announcement of 
courses. 42 p. il. Syracuse, N. Y., 
1918. (Circular no. 25.) 

FOREST DESCRIPTION 

Whitford, H. N. & Craig, R. D. Forests 
of British Columbia. 409 p. pi., maps. 
Ottawa, Commission on conservation, 

1918. 

FOREST BOTANY 
Deam, C. C. Trees of Indiana. 299 p. il. 
Indianapolis, Ind., 1918. (Indiana- 
State board of forestry. Bulletin no. 

3-) 

SILVICULTURE 

Planting 

Stephen, J. W. Making best use of idle 
lands in New York. 53 p. il. Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., 1918. (N. Y. state college 
of forestry, Syracuse university. Cir- 
cular no. 19.) 

FOREST PROTECTION 

Insects 

Snyder, T. E. "White ants" as pests in the 
United States and methods of prevent- 
ing their damage. 16 p. il. Wash., 
D. C, 1919. (U. S.— Dept. of agricul- 
ture. Farmers' bulletin 1037.) 

Fire 

Canadian forestry association. About camp 
fires. 8 p. il. Ottawa, 1919. 

Southern St. Lawrence forest protective as- 
sociation. Second annual report. 27 p. 
Quebec, 1918. 



FOREST POLICY 

Great Britain — Ministry of reconstruction. 
Reconstruction problems. 11: Com- 
mercial forestry. 16 p. London, 1919. 
FOREST ADMINISTRATION 

Roulleau de la Roussiere, R. Le cheptel 
forestier et le fonds des forets. 23 p. 
Paris, Association nationale d'expan- 
sion economique, 191 8. 

National Forests 

U. S. — Dept. of agriculture. Mountain 
playgrounds of the Pike national for- 
est. 17 p. il., map. Wash., D. C, 
1919. (Department circular 41.) 
FOREST ENGINEERING 

Barns, F. R. With the forest regiments in 
France; 10th and 20th engineers (for- 
est). 11 p. il. Chicago, American 
lumberman, 1919. 

FOREST UTILIZATION 

Lumber industry 

Graves, H. S., Lumber exports and our 
forests. 15 p. Wash., D. C, 1919. 
(U. S. — Dept. of agriculture — Office of 
the secretary. Circular 140.) 

Wood-using industries 

Canada — Dominion bureau of statistics. 
Census of industry, 1917. Pt. 4, sec. 4: 
Pulp and paper, 1917. 63 p. Ottawa, 
1919. 

Johnsen, B. and Hovey, R. W., comp. 
Utilization of waste sulphite liquor; a 
review of the literature. 195 p. Ot- 
tawa, 1919. (Canada — Dept. of the in- 
terior — Forestry branch. Bulletin 66.) 

Lightfoot, G. Paper pulp ; possibilities of 
its manufacture in Australia. 39 p. 
Melbourne, 1919. (Australia — Advis- 
ory council of science and industry. 
Bulletin no. II.) 

Technical association of the pulp and paper 
industry. Papers and addresses pre- 
sented at the annual meeting, 1918. 
64 p. N. Y., 1918. 

AUXILIARY SUBJECTS 

Mountaineering 

Associated mountaineering clubs of North 
America. Bulletin. 30 p. N. Y., 1919. 
PERIODICAL ARTICLES 

Miscellaneous periodicals 

Aerial age, June 23, 1919. — -The general 
uses and properties of plywood, by B. 
C. Boulton, p. 724-7. 

Bulletin of the Pan American union, June, 
1919 — Forests of Brazil, p. 695. 

Conservationist, Jan., 1919. — Fighting fires 
on Long Island, by W. G. Howard, p. 
3-6. 

Johns Hopkins alumni magazine, June, 
1919. — In praise of forestry, by C. H. 
Shinn, p. 241-4. 

Journal of political economy, Apr., 1919 — 
Reconstruction and natural resources, 
by R. Zon, p. 280-99. 

Munsey's magazine, July, 1919. — Replanting 
the forests, by R. H. Moulton, p. 351-3. 



Yale School of 
Forestry 

Established in 1900 

A Graduate Department of Yale 
University 

The two years technical course pre- 
pares for the general practice of for- 
estry and leads to the degree of 

Master of Forestry. 
Special opportunities in all branches 
of forestry for 

Advanced and Research Work. 

For students planning to engage 
in forestry or lumbering in the 
Tropics, particularly tropical Amer- 
ica, a course is offered in 

Tropical Forestry. 
Lumbermen and others desiring in- 
struction in special subjects may be 
enrolled as 

Special Students. 
A field course of eight weeks in the 
summer is available for those not 
prepared for, or who do not wish 
to take the technical courses. 



For further information and cata- 
logue, address : The Director of the 
School of Forestry, New Haven, Con- j 
necticut, U. S. A. 



Forest Engineering 
Summer School 

University of Georgia 

ATHENS, GEORGIA 

Eight-weeks Summer Camp on 
large lumbering and milling oper- 
ation in North Georgia. Field 
training in Surveying, Timber 
Estimating, Logging Engineer- 
ing, Lumber Grading, Milling. 
Special vocational courses 
for rehabilitated soldiers. 
Exceptional opportunity to pre- 
pare for healthful, pleasant, lucra- 
tive employment in the open. 

(Special announcement sent upon 
request.) 



SARGENT'S HANDBOOK OF 
AMERICAN PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

A Guide Book for Parents 

A Standard Annual of Reference. Describes 
critically and discriminately the Private 
Schools of all classifications. 
Comparative Tables give the relative cost, 
size, age, special features, etc. 
Introductory Chapters review interesting de- 
velopments of the year in education — Modern 
Schools, War Changes in the Schools, Educa- 
tional Reconstruction, What the Schools Are 
Doing, Recent Educational Literature, etc. 
Our Educational Service Bureau will be glad 
to advise and write you intimately about any 
school or class of schools. 

Fifth edition, 1919, revised and enlarged, 
786 pages, $3.00. Circulars and sample pages. 

PORTER E. SARGENT, 14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 



1310 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



Forestry at 

University of 

Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

A FOUR - YEAR, undergraduate 
course that prepares for the 
practice of Forestry in all its 
branches and leads to the degree of 

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 
IN FORESTRY 

Opportunity is offered for grad- 
uate work leading to the decree of 
Master of Science in Forestry. 

The course is designed to give a 
broad, well-balanced training in the 
fundamental sciences as well as in 
technical Forestry, and has, conse- 
quently, proven useful to men en- 
gaged in a variety of occupations. 
This school of Forestry was estab- 
lished in 1003 and has a large body 
of alumni engaged in Forestry work. 
For announcement giving 
Complete information and list 
of alumni, address 

FILIBERT ROTH 



DEPARTMENT OF 
FORESTRY 

The Pennsylvania 
State College 



»**«*♦»«* 



A PROFESSIONAL course in 
Forestry, covering four years 
of college work, leading to the 
degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Forestry. 

Thorough and practical training for 
Government, State, Municipal and 
private forestry. 

Four months are spent in camp in 
the woods in forest work. 
Graduates who wish to specialize 
along particular lines are admitted 
to the "graduate forest schools" as 
candidates for the degree of Master 
of Forestry on the successful com- 
pletion of one year's work. 



For further information address 
Department of Forestry 

Pennsylvania State College 

State College, Pa. 



Producer, June, 1919. — The forest service 
and the stockman, by W. C. Barnes, 
P- 5-9- 

Rhodora, May, 1919. — Necessary changes in 
botanical nomenclature, by O. A. Far- 
well, p. 101-3. 

Rhodora, June, 1919. — Tsuga americana, a 
final word, by O. A. Farwell, p. 108-9. 

Saturday evening post, May 3, 1919. — What 
we learned about wood, by A. M. Rud, 
P- 37-8, 93- 

Scientific American supplement, May 10, 
1919 — Prosthesis of the lower limb, p. 
290-1, 304; Keeping the propeller dry, 
by M. E. Dunlap, p. 292-3 ; The cedars 
of Lebanon, by A. Henry, p. 295 ; Some 
things that might be used, by J. Wad- 
dell, p. 298-9, 304. 

Scientific American, May 17, 1919.— A log 
house of colossal proportions, p. 513. 

Scouting, June 5, 1919. — What trees and 
how to plant them, by G. B. Sudworth, 
p. 12-14. 

U. S. Dept. of agriculture. Weekly news 
letter, June 25, 1919. — Farming and in- 
dustry to be helped by forest products 
laboratory, p. 5-6. 

Trade Journals and consular reports 

American lumberman, June 14, 1919. — Ex- 
periments develop plywood for air- 
craft, p. 44; To effect equitable cross- 
tie purchasing, p. 49-50; With Ameri- 
can engineers in French forests, by W. 
B. Greeley and C. S. Chapman, p. 54-5. 

American lumberman, June 31, 1919. — 
Wood is the cheapest material for resi- 
dence construction, p. 1, 41 ; Build tiny 
town to promote home owning, p. 45. 

American lumberman, June 28, 1919. — 
Seeks views on plan for a national 
forest policy, by H. S. Graves and R. 
S. Kellogg, p. 43. 

American lumberman, July 5, 1919. — A na- 
tional forest and lumber policy, by B. 
A. Chandler, p. 1, 52-3 ; Proposed Dept. 
of public works, by A. T. North, p. 
39-40; Federal tax on timber stumpage, 
by I. Skeels, p. 42-3 ; A discussion of 
the effects of kiln drying on the 
strength value of Douglas fir, by C. A. 
Plaskett, p. 50-1 ; How matches are 
manufactured by one process, p. 53; 
Seeking economy in pulp manufacture, 
. P- 64. 

Engineering news-record, June 26, 1919. — 
Results of long-time tests of creosote- 
treated fence posts, by C. H. Teesdale, 
P- 1254- 

Hardwood record, June 25, 1919. — Russian 
lumber industry, by R. E. Simmons, p. 
34- 

Journal of industrial and engineering 
chemistry, July, 1919. — The tannin con- 
tent of redwood, by C. C. Scalione and 
D. R. Merrill, p. 643-4. 

Lumber, June 16, 1919. — Driving long leaf 
pine on the Courant, by J. B. Woods, 
p. 15-16, 18. 

Lumber, June 23, 1919.— Making paper 
from wood, p. 15-17. 



Lumber, June 30, 1919. — A typical forestry 
lumbering district, by J. B. Woods, p. 
13-14; Lumber imported by France, by 
W. N. Taylor, p. 15-18; Spencer and 
tie producers fail to agree, p. 33-4. 

Lumber, July 7, 1919. — A broad program of 
forestry needed, by H. S. Graves and 
R. S. Kellogg, p. 13-14, 16-17. 

Lumber world review, June 25, 1919. — The 
lumber industry and what it must do 
to be saved, by L. C. Boyle, p. 23-9. - 

Paper, June 18, 1919. — The suitability of 
second cotton linters, by O. Kress and 
S. D. Wells, p. 19-32; Alcohol from 
sulphite liquor, by R. H. McKee, p. 34, 
36; Essentials of woodpulp testing, by 
F. M. Williams, p. 36, 38; Baobab fiber 
ideal papermaking material, p. 38; War 
time uses of paper, by A. G. Durgin, p. 
46-52. 

Pioneer western lumberman, July 1, 1919. — 
Immense California pine forests sur- 
vive three and one-half centuries of 
fire, by R. F. Hammatt, p. 8-9. 

Pulp and paper magazine, June 5, 1919. — 
The balsam injury in Quebec and its 
control, by J. M. Swaine, p. 527-9. 

Pulp and paper magazine, June 19, 1919. — 
Splendid forest reserve of Alberta, by 
C. Stewart, p. 575. 

Railway review, June 21, 1919. — Timber 
preservation in car construction, by H. 
S. Sackett, p. 957-9. 

Southern lumberman, June 14, 1919. — 
Twenty-five business men form unique 
class at forest products laboratory, p. 

34- 

Southern lumberman, June 28, 1919. — Ade- 
quate forestry program should accom- 
pany expansion of foreign trade, by 
H. S. Graves, p. 30; Observations on 
Finnish and Scandinavian industry, by 
A. H. Oxholm, p. 31-2. 

Southern lumberman, July 5, 1919. — Steps 
for preservation of Appalachian for- 
ests urged, p. 36. 

Timber trades journal, June 7, 1919. — 
Wood drying kilns, p. 930-1 ; Ancient 
trees, p. 933 ; The durability and decay 
of wood ; by H. Stone, p. 946-8. 

Timber trades journal, June 14, 1919. — 
Trees for planting in Wales ; Quercus 
pedunculata, by A. P., p. 977 ; The pine- 
beetle, p. 979; The elasticity and flexi- 
bility of wood, by H. Stone, p. 987-8; 
Our forestry policy, p. 1016. 

Timberman, May, 1919. — Forest fires cost 
west $6,500,000 in 1918, p. 32; Dipping 
treatment for prevention of sap stain, 
p. 35 ; Lumber industry of Russia and 
Siberia, by R. E. Simmons, p. 36-7, 
65-6, 68-9; Effect of the war on the 
forests of France, by C. S. Chapman, 
p. 41-2; Lumber requirements of 
France to be twenty billion, p. 42 ; Aus- 
tralia plans forest products laboratory, 
p. 43 ; Redwood pipe proves its supe- 
rior qualities, by H. B. Worden, p. 48; 
Potash from wood ashes, p. 70; Idaho 
timber sale laws, p. 71. 



Please mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



CURRENT LITERATURE 



1311 



Timberman, June, 1919.— Aerial logging 
system for rough country, p. 35; The 
Wolfe mechanically driven saw, p. 41 ; 
The koa, one of Hawaii's remarkable 
trees, by C. S. Judd, p. 47; U. K. has 
eye on Russian timber supply, p. 689; 
Sustained annual yield management, by 
B. P. Kirkland, p. 88, 90; The private 
owner and conservation, by C. S. 
Smith, p. 93 ; Proper care of airplane 
woods, by F. J. Hallauer, p. 97, 99, 101. 
U. S. commerce report, June 14. I9!9 — 
Shooks needed in the Canary Islands, 
by G. K. Stiles, p. 1366-7. 
U. S. commerce report, June 23, 1919 — 
Paraguayan quebracho extract produc- 
tion, by H. H. Balch, p. 1529; High 
prices of building materials in Eng- 
land, by A. Nutting, p. 1530-1. 
U. S. commerce report, July 7. 1919-— Rus- 
sian chemical-pulp industry, by A. H. 
Oxholm, p. 89. 
Veneers, July, 1919.— Control of warping 
in plywood, p. 17-18; Veneer possibili- 
ties in phonographs, by W. N. Y., p. 
27-8. 
West Coast lumberman, June 15, 1919. — 
With the camera in an all motor truck 
camp, by H. Geithmann, p. 34-5, 42. 
Wood turning, July, 1919. — Growing. scarci- 
ty of timber is cause of grave concern, 
by A. F. Hawes, p. 12-13; Woods re- 
sisting insects and worms, p. 18. 
Wood-worker, June, 1919. — Drying black 
walnut gunstocks, by W. P. Palmer, 
p. 27-8. 
Forest journals 

American forestry, July, 1919. — Foresters 
and lumbermen home from France, by 
David T. Mason and Percival Sheldon 
Ridsdale, p. 1187-93; Scouting for tim- 
ber in the eastern Pyrenees, by R. Y. 
Stuart, 1193-98; Transplanting large 
trees, 1198; Canadian forestry corps 
work in France, by Roland Hill, 1199- 
1200; Memorial trees, 1201-1203; Na- 
tional Honor Roll of Memorial Trees, 
1204; The wishing tree, by J. R. Sim- 
mons, 1205; Photographing forests 
from the air, by Lieut. Lewis, R. A. F., 
p. 1206-1207; University of Minnesota 
offers course in lumber uses, p. 1207; 
Wood used in the cooperage industry, 
by Hu Maxwell, p. 1208-16; Tussock 
moth caterpillar campaign, by M. M. 
Burris. p. 1217; Forest Investigation, 
[). 1218; Paid in full, p. 1219; A garden 
of the brave, by Vilda Sauvage Owens, 
p. 1220; Forest reserve for Kentucky, p. 
1330; More airplanes patrols for nation- 
al forests, p. 1220; Insects in their rela- 
tion to forestry, by R. W. Shufeldt, p. 
1221-1225; Gathering the spinulose 
shield fern, by Frank B. Tucker, p. 
1226-1228; The herons, by A. A. Allen, 
p. 1229-34; Scotch lumber cut by New 
England mills, 1235-36; Why we need 
more forest research, 1237 ; Seaplanes 
to DC used for forest fire patrol work 
in Quebec, by Ellwood Wilson, p. 
1238; Boole reviews, p. 1240; Canadian 
Department, by Ellwood Wilson, p. 
1241-42; Department of forest recrea- 



tion established at New York State 
College of Forestry, p. 1242; Protect 
locust trees from borers, p. 1243; Air- 
plane patrol in National Forests, p. 
1244; Current literature, list for June, 
1919, p. 1245-47; Lecture on historic 
trees, p. 1247. 
Canadian forestry journal, June, 1919— ' 
The first flying patrol of forests, by S. 
Graham, p. 243-4; Forestry progress in 
Newfoundland, by J. D. Gilmour, p. 
245-7; Airship service in forest areas, 
by J. Barron, p. 249-50; In prevention 
of shade tree butchery, p. 251-2; Block- 
ing sand dunes with trees, by G. C. 
Piche, p. 253-4; Planning a prairie tree 
plantation, p. 255-7; The great forests 
of South America, by P. F. Martin, p. 
264-6; The new definition of forestry, 
by H. P. Baker, p. 267-9; Machines to 
fell trees, p. 276. 
Indian forester, Apr., 1919. — Forest policy 
in Burma, by H. C. Walker, p. 173-87; 
Felling, by H. W. Bicknell, p. 187-92; 
Analysis of some morphological char- 
acters of Bombay woody species from 
an oecological standpoint, by L. J. 
Sedgwick, p. 193-9; Development of 
little used timbers, by R. S. Pearson, p. 
200-4; Some experiments carried out 
with treated and untreated timbers, p. 
205-6; Pencil factory and tan-stuffs, p. 
213-21. 
Journal of forestry, May, 1919. — A plea for 
assertion, by F. E. Olmsted, p. 471 ; 
Present status of forest taxation in the 
United States, by M. K. McKay, p. 
472-89; How can the private forest 
lands be brought under forest manage- 
ment, by W. N. Sparhawk, p. 400-6; 
Public control of private forests in 
Norway, by S. T. Dana, p. 497-502 ; A 
forest policy for Louisiana, by R. D. 
Forbes, p. 503-14; Aerial photography 
and national forest mapping, by R. 
Thelen, p. 515-22; Suggestions for in- 
struction in range management, by A. 
W. Sampson, p. 523-45 ; A forest 
reconnaissance of the Delaware penin- 
sula, by R. M. Harper, p. 546-55; An 
example of private forestry in the Ad- 
irondacks, by H. L. Churchill, p. 601-3; 
Public control of forest dwellings in 
Norway, by S. T. Dana, p. 603-4 ; Pub- 
lic control of water power in Norway, 
by S. T. Dana, p. 604-5 > The cascara 
bark industry on the Suislaw national 
forest, by T. T. Munger, p. 605-7; A 
commercial and silvical tree study of 
Sitka spruce begun, by T. T. Munger, 
p. 607-8; Spruce gum in the northeast, 
p. 608; The lumber industry in Mon- 
tana, p. 609; Wood fuel in Argentina, 
p. 610. 
Montana forest school news, May, 1919. — 
Planting survey in Dist. 1, by W. I. 
White, p. 1, 3; Mining timbers, by G. 
Phillips, p. 1, 4. 
New York forestry, July, 1919. — The job 
ahead, by F. Roth, p. 5-9; How the 
Massachusetts forestry dept. co-op- 
erates with the county farm bureaus, 
by H. O. Cook, p. 9-10; American aid 
in reforesting France, by C. L. Pack, 
p. 10-12; Memorial trees, by J. R. Sim- 
mons, p. 12-15; The use of our state 
forest reserves, by B. A. Chandler, p. 
19-20. 
North woods, Apr., 1919.— How to prevent 
dangerous forest fires, bv T. A. Kitts, 
p. 21-8. 
Yale forest school news, July 1, 1919. — The 
Yale school of forestry, by J. W. Tou- 
m ?y, P- 35-7; War activities of the 
forest products laboratory, by O. M. 
Butler, p. 37-9. 



UNIVERSITY OF MAINE 

ORONO, MAINE 

Maintained by Stale and Nation 

ryHE FORESTRY DEPART- 
*■ MENT offers a four years' 
undergraduate curriculum, lead- 
ing to the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Forestry. 
****** 

Opportunities for full techni- 
cal training, and for specializing 
in problems of the Northeastern 
States and Canada. 
****** 

John M. Briscoe, 

Professor of Forestry 

****** 

For catalog and further infor- 
mation, address 

ROBERT J. ALEY, Pres't, 
Orono, Maine 



The 

New York State 

College of 

Forestry 

at 

Syracuse University, 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

UNDERGRADUATE courses in 
Technical Forestry, Paper and 
Pulp Making, Logging and Lum- 
bering, City Forestry, and Forest 
Engineering, all leading to degree of 
Bachelor of Science. Special oppor- 
tunities offered for post-graduate 
work leading to degrees of Master of 
Forestry, Master of City Forestry, 
and Doctor of Economics. 

A one-year course of practical 
training at the State Ranger School 
on the College Forest of 1,800 acres 
at Wanakena in the Adirondacks. 

State Forest Camp of three months 
open to any man over 16, held each 
summer on Cranberry Lake. Men 
may attend this Camp for from two 
weeks to the entire summer. 

The State Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion of 00 acres at Syracuse and an 
excellent forest library offer unusual 
opportunities for research work. 



mimiiiiii 1 



1312 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



"S-E-R-V-I-C-E" 

THAT SPELLS 

SECURITY! 



SERVICE is the basic working principle of the Southern Pine Association, an organization of 
the leading manufacturers of Southern Pine. 

That SERVICE embraces practically every interest related to the Southern Pine industry and 
practically every person having to do with Southern Pine. For those who take advantage of it, it is a 
guarantee of faithful performance from the sawmill to the consumer. For the Architect and Engineer, it 
is a safeguard against substitution — the insurance on "getting what you specify." 

Southern Pine Association 

Interstate Bank Building 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. 





PLANT MEMORIAL TREES FOR OUR HEROIC DEAD 



PLANT TREES 

PROTECT FORESTS 

USE FORESTS 







H 1 




"I 


"" 


nM Mw ■*-« irmrtn m ». ■» - I Mun IMMa 





This is the only Popular 
National Magazine de- 
voted to trees and forests 
and the use of wood. 



American Forestry Association 

1410 H STREET N. W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 

/ hereby accept membership in The American 
Forestry Association and enclose check for $ 

NOTE— American Forestry Magazine, a handsomely printed and illustrated monthly, is sent to 
all except $1.00 members, or without membership the subscription price is $3.00 a year. 

CLASS OF MEMBERSHIP 
Subscribing Membership ..........$ 3.00 

Contributing " 10.00 

Sustaining " 25.00 

Life " 100.00 

Patron " 1000.00 

Annual Membership, without Magazine ....... 1.00 

Canadian Postage 25c extra; Foreign Postage, 50c extra. 
($2.00 of the fee is for AMERICAN FORESTRY.) 

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no 



I AMERICAN FORESTRY | 

THE MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 

PERCIVAL SHELDON RIDSDALE, Editor 

September 1919 Vol. 25 CONTENTS No. 309 

llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilDIIIIIIIIIIIIII! 



The Pines — Poem, by Lew. R. Sarett Frontispiece 

Forest Losses on the Italian Front — By Nelson Courtlandt Brown 1315 

With twenty-six illustrations. 

The Fir— Poem, by Donald A. Fraser 1328 

The Guardian of Our Forests — By Alice Spencer Cook 1329 

With nine illustrations. 

National Honor Roll, Memorial Trees 1333 

"Roads of Remembrance" 1334 

With five illustrations. 
A National Forest Policy — Discussion of the Proposed Legislation: 

Forest Economics: Some Thoughts on an Old Subject — By Wilson 

Gompton 1337 

Mandatory Control Opposed— By E. A. Sterling 1339 

Publicity Education Necessary — By R. S. Maddox 1340 

A Lumberman's Viewpoint — By Everitt G. Griggs 1340 

Lease Holds Interfere — By G. L. Hume 1341 

No Half-Way Policies— By J. E. Barton 1341 

A Forest Policy Badly Needed— By Ell wood Wilson 1342 

Terms Used in Farm Forestry 1342 

The Uses of Wood— Floors Made of Wood— By Hu Maxwell 1343 

With ten illustrations. 

Erosion in the Appalachian and Piedmont Regions 1350 

With five illustrations. 

Why and How Some Forest Fires Occur 1354 

With two illustrations. 

Conservation of Paper 1355 

Tree Planting Taken up by Many Editors i 1356 

Summer Walks in the Woodland — Along the Palisades in Interstate Park 

—By J. Otis Swift 1358 

With six illustrations. 

Mexico as a Source of Timber — By Austin F. Macdonald 1361 

Spruce Tree 573 Years Old 1363 

Book Reviews 1363 

State News 1364 

California Louisiana North Carolina Pennsylvania Texas 
Colorado Michigan Oregon Virginia Wisconsin 

Canadian Department — By Ellwood Wilson 1371 

Airplanes Find Forest Fires 1371 

Forest School Notes 1372 

Bouquets 1375 



Entered as second-clasl matter December 21. 1909, at the Postoffice at Washington, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyright, 1919, by the American 
ion. Acceptance for mailing at special rate oi pottage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 11, 1918. 



I'l'iii'lillHlllii'i'iriiiiiiir'iiiiii' !i;n;n;;i;;;!iiii!i:i!i .;;■;' -;i 








THE PINES 

(An old legend) 

BY LEW. R. SARETT 

Vv hen the rolling waters covered the earth, 

The mountains learned to love the waters. 

Vv hen the whispering ocean rolled away, 
The hills grew lonely for its music. 

They prayed to the Spirit to send, the sea hack 

To sing again to the mountains. 
Then the Father planted the murmuring pines 

At the root or the hills, in the quiet valleys. 
To sing or the sea in the winds of twilight; 
To ripple and sigh in the hreezes or evening. 



..in ;.»...: 



am 



■iiiiiii 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



VOL. XXV SEPTEMBER, 1919 NO. 309 

liiniiinuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiUiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiH 



FOREST LOSSES ON THE ITALIAN FRONT 



BY NELSON COURTLANDT BROWN 

U. S. TRADE COMMISSIONER 
(Photograph* by Courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters') 



UNTIL October, 191 7, the fighting along the Italian 
front had been 'restricted almost exclusively to 
the mountainous regions. The line, until that 
date, stretched from the mountains of the Carso region 
and the upper valley of the Isonzo along the Carnic and 
Julian Alps to 
S w i t z erland. 
The high di- 
vide along the 
crest of these 
mountains con- 
s t i t u t e s the 
natural boun- 
dary between 
Italy and Aus- 
tria, and the 
small region 
about Trieste 
and the upper 
valley of the 
Trentino con- 
s t i t u t e s the 
"Italia Irre- 
denta" for 
which Italy has 
largely been in 
t h e struggle. 
Before the un- 
fortunate re- 
treat from 
Caporetto the 
Italian front 
was longer 
than the entire 
Western front 
in France and 
Belgium, a fact 
which is gen- 
erally not appreciated in this country. The total length 
formerly was about five hundred miles. For the year 
preceding the signing of the armistice, the length of the 
Italian front was about two hundred and twenty miles. 
Fighting in this rugged and precipitous Alpine country 




Photograph by courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 

YOUNG AND SCATTERED FOREST GROWTH IMMEDIATELY BACK OF THE LINES ON THE 
HIGH ASIAGO PLATEAU— PURPOSELY LEFT TO PROTECT MEN AND SUPPLIES GOING TO AND 
FROM THE FRONT LINE TRENCHES. IT WAS PRACTICALLY WINTER THROUGHOUT THE 
YEAR ON THE HIGH ITALIAN ALPINE FRONT WHERE A CONSIDERABLE PART OF THE 
LINES WERE FROM 6000 TO OVER 9000 FEET IN ELEVATION. 



was naturally carried on under the most extreme physical 
hardships. Correspondents who have been on all of the 
fronts have informed me that the tremendous physical 
difficulties encountered on the Italian front have far 
exceeded those of any of the other fronts and one can 

easily under- 
stand this when 
seeing how the 
men live and 
fight and bring 
up their sup- 
plies under 
those most un- 
usual condi- 
tions. The first 
impression one 
has is that it is 
difficult enough 
to merely exist 
in that precipi- 
tous Alpine re- 
g i o n without 
attempt i n g to 
maintain a 
fighting front 
and to bring 
up heavy guns 
and enormous 
q u a n tities of 
supplies which 
fighting in that 
country in- 
volves. 

For the last 
year of the war 
the Italian 
front ran par- 
tially across the 
flat Venetian plain, the Piave River forming the boundary 
from the Adriatic Sea to Valdoppiana, where it crossed 
the Piave River and rose sharply from the flat plain to 
the higher altitudes of the Alps. There is a most abrupt 
change from steep mountain topography to the flat plains, 

13 15 



1316 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




Photograph by courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 

ITALIAN INFANTRY AWAITING THE ORDER TO ADVANCE TO THE COUNTER ATTACK 
ALONG THE RAILWAY NEAR NERVESA ON THE MORNING OK JINK. 24, 1918, JUST AFTER THE 
AUSTRIAN'S HAD CROSSED THE PIAVE RIVER IN THEIR ATTEMPT TO REACH VENUE. 
PADUA AND MILAN. SOME OF THE BITTEREST FIGHTING OF THE WAR TOOK PLACE HERE 
AND AFTER TWO WEEKS OF CONSTANT STRUGGLE THE ENEMY WAS FINALLY HURLED 
BACK ACROSS THE RIVER WITH AN ESTIMATED LOSS OF 250,000 MEN DURING THE LOWEST 
EBB IN THE MORALE OF THE ALLIES, THE ITALIANS MADE A GREAT STAND AND FINALLY 
WON ONE OF THE GREATEST VICTORIES OF THE WAR. 

somewhat similar to the sharp rise of our own Rocky 
Mountains from the flat Colorado prairie. The line 
crosses Monte Grappa, Monte Rossa, dips down across 
the Val Brenta, crosses the high Asiago Plateau, dips 
once more in the double valley on each side of Monte 
Cimone and across Lake Garda, then rises across the 
highest parts of the Alps, including the Posilipo and the 
Posubio, to the Swiss border. 

Through the kindness of the Italian war officials and 
the General Staff it was my privilege to investigate the 
conditions along practically the whole Italian front, in- 
cluding both the lines along the flat Piave River plain 
and the higher mountain country as well. Captain 
Scaravaglio, of General Headquarters, proved to be not 
only a courteous and gracious host but a most intelligent 
and well-informed officer on the conditions at the front. 
He had summered and tramped over a good section of 
this mountainous country. He said the whole mountain 
front had never been a heavily forested section. The 
upper slopes contained scattered stands of silver fir and 
Norway, spruce, while the lower slopes, particularly in 
the gulches and ravines, contained open stands of chest- 
nut and oak. There was a good deal of young growth 
and middle-aged timber, and sporadic attempts had been 
made at reforestation on the more favorable locations. In 
some of the upper valleys, particularly on the Asiago 
Plateau, there were good stands of silver fir and Norway 
spruce, running from eight to twenty thousand board 
feet per acre or more. 

As a result of continual fighting and heavy artillery 
bombardment, the whole mountain front has been practi- 
cally cleared of all evidences of timber growth, in many 
cases the upper soil being so dotted with shell holes that 



not a living plant is in evidence. 
Stumps of trees here and there 
give evidence of former stands 
of timber and shattered and 
broken trunks stand out like 
skeletons against the sky, the 
only remains of former timber 
growth. 

The whole mountain section 
immediately appeals to one as be- 
ing the most urgent subject for 
reforestation and it will require 
considerable effort and much 
money to bring back this beauti- 
ful mountain region to even the 
sparsely forested condition which 
it presented prior to the war. 

Along the Piave River front, 

the country on both sides is one 

of the most fertile agricultural 

regions of the world, as the crop 

statistics substantiate, so that 

generally speaking, there has 

been little forest destruction. 

While on the battlefield of Mon- 

tello a few days after the Aus- 

trians had been repulsed with 

great losses from their advance beginning June 15 across 

the Piave, an excellent opportunity was given to study 

the effects of shell and gun fire in an old chestnut grove 

back of the little village of Nervesa which had been used 




Photoural'h by eourtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 

A COLUMN OF AUSTRIAN PRISONERS, GUARDED BY ITALIAN 
SOLDIERS, PASSING THROUGH ONE OF THE PICTURESQUE OLD 
WALLED TOWNS HACK OF THE PIAVE FRONT EN ROUTE TO 
CENTRAL ITALY FOR VARIOUS KINDS OF EMPLOYMENT THE 

ITALIAN GUARDS MAN BE DISTINGUISHED BY THEIR STEEL 
HELMETS. 



FOREST FOSSES ON THE ITALIAN ERONT 



1317 



as the point of crossing on pontoon bridges by the Aus- 
trians. The trees had been torn to pieces as if a com- 
bined hurricane and electrical storm which had hit every 
tree, had recently destroyed the whole section. When a 
shell hits a tree the contact fuse causes an explosion and 
the shattering of the trunk or limb in both directions so 
that a severe splintering effect is the result. On Monte 
Grappa, which is the keynote of the whole mountain 
front, acre after acre has been literally "chewed up" by 
successive bombardments until the whole surface was a 
mass of shell holes. Near Monte Cimone not only the 
picturesque little Alpine villages but nearly every living 
thing in the form of a tree of any size has been destroyed 
as well. West of Lake Garda, the front was commonly 
above timber line at elevations of from 6,000 to 9,000 
feet above sea level. Little damage to forest growth 
consequently is evident in those sectors. 

Reforestation strikes the imagination at once as being 
the only salvation for this situation. The land is too 
rough and rugged to be suitable for agriculture and much 
of it is so rocky and precipitous that it is not even suitable 
for development into a grazing proposition. Before the 
war many parts of Italy were in serious need of refor- 
estation but now that the war is over Italy should devote 
a large share of her efforts along the lines of reforesta- 
tion in the devastated forest regions overlooking the 
fertile valley of the Veneto. 

Undoubtedly the happiest and most contented in all 
Italy during the war were the Austrian prisoners. Ask- 
ed if they wished to go back to their native land, the 
invariable answer was that even if they had an oppor- 





fkoiograpk by courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 



A MACHINE GUN LOCATION ALONG THE FRONT LINKS BORDERING THE PIAVE RIVER. 
THIS IS A COMMON IOK.VI OF PROTECTION FROM MACHINE GUN FIRE AS WELL AS 
ARTILLERY AM> ENEMY AIRPLANES. 



THE FRONT LINE OF TRENCH ON MOXFENERA, AN OUT- 
LYING RANGE FROM MONTE GRAPPA, THE KEYNOTE OF THE 
ITALIAN MOUNTAIN FRONT. THIS HILL WAS FORMERLY 
FAIRLY WELL FORESTED. SCANT REMAINS OF TREES ARE 
SEEN IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND. IN THE DISTANCE IS THE 
PIAVE RIVER, FLOWING ACROSS THE FLAT VENETIAN PLAIN. 
ON THE RIGHT OF THE RIVER IS THE MONTELLO, WHERE THE 
AUSTRIAN'S BEGAN THEIR BIG OFFENSIVE OF JUNE 15, 1918. 

tunity to get back, either by stealing away or by ex- 
change of prisoners through Switzerland, they would 
only be ill-fed, harshly treated, 
and forced to fight at the front 
once more. This prospect held 
out no attraction to these prison- 
ers at all. Especially was this 
so in the case of the Hungarians, 
the Czechs, the Slovaks and the 
Slovenes. 

It had always been a matter of 
interest what a country like Italy 
actually did with several hundred 
thousand of these prisoners, that 
is, whether they were kept in 
barbed wire stockades or em- 
ployed on some useful and pro- 
ductive work. They are actually 
found doing almost everything 
in the way of physical labor 
throughout Italy. One finds 
them chiefly on railroad work, 
on construction of bridges, homes 
for refugees, clearing land, farm 
work, and all sorts of forestry 
work, and saw mill and woods 
work. 

They are always used in small 
squads of from twenty-five to 
fifty or sixty and one is surprised 
at the comparatively small mini- 



1318 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




AM ATTACK OF THE ITALIAN INFANTRY ACROSS NO MAN'S LAND ON A HIGH PLATEAU. 
THE BARBED WIRE ENTANGLEMENTS HAVE BEEN BROKEN OR LOWERED BY THE 
ARTILLERY FIRE, PERMITTING THE TROOPS TO PASS THROUGH. THE FORMER VEGETA- 
TION HAS BEEN ENTIRELY SWEPT AWAY BY GUN AND SHELL FIRE OR CUT OFF AND 
UTILIZED FOR FUELWOOD, SHELTER, TRENCH TIMBERS AND OTHER PURPOSES, BY THE 
TROOPS. 

ber of armed guards that go with them. It was quite a 
customary sight to see only one armed Italian soldier 
guarding a bunch of prisoners. Asked about the danger 
of escape, almost always the invariable answer was that 
the men were so happy and contented that there was no 
danger whatever of their attempting to get away. Their 
only fear was a possible exchange of prisoners, in which 
case, there was anything but a pleasant prospect in 
store for them. The casual traveler in Italy was 
struck at once with the seri- 
ous need of reforestation that is 
apparent almost everywhere. The 
ever-present rugged mountain 
topography in the Swiss and 
Savoy Alps of the north, the 
Apennines running almost the 
entire length of the peninsula, 
the Calabrian range in the south, 
and the mountains of Sicily pre- 
sent many glaring needs of re- 
forestation. Added to this situa- 
tion, the Italian forestry officials 
have been forced to cut many of 
their splendid forests to meet 
the great war emergency. Aus- 
trian prisoners have, in many 
cases, been used to reforest these 
cut-over areas. Many of them 
have already had experience in 
reforestation activities in Aus- 
tria and so are proficient in the 
work. The Italian forestry of- 
ficials have adopted an excellent 
plan, that of replanting immedi- 
ately all areas cut over, and every 
effort is made to bring back the 
denuded areas to a well-timbered 
state once more. Many experi- 
ments have been made in refor- 
estation at the Royal Experiment 



Station at Vallambrosa, where 
there are seven nurseries, total- 
ing about eighteen acres, and 
which have a capacity of about 
one million plants a year. As a 
result of these experiments, they 
have found that Abies Pectinata 
(Silver Fir) will produce the 
best results. For the past three 
years, before the war ended, Aus- 
trian prisoners had been prepar- 
ing the seed beds at some of the 
State forestry stations in the 
Apennines, as well as doing the 
actual work of transplanting and 
field planting. In the seasons of 
the year when there is no plant- 
ing or nursery weeding, or other 
work associated with reforesta- 
tion to be done, the men are 
employed about saw mills and in woods work, cutting 
down the mature timber, and on the work of transporting 
the logs to the mill, and in road and construction 
work associated with the general improvement of the 
forests. 

Aside from silver fir, in some locations Norway spruce 
and Scotch pine are used for reforestation and to a 
limited extent some chestnut is planted. There is con- 
siderable beech on the higher mountains of Central Italy 




Photograph by courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 

ITALIAN INFANTRY IN ACTION ALONG THE PIAVE RIVER FRONT BELOW NERVESA WHERE 
THE AUSTRIANS MADE ONE OF THEIR THREE CROSSINGS IN THE BIG OFFENSIVE OF 
JUNE 15. 1918. NOTE THE CROOKED CHARACTER OF THE TRENCHES IN ORDER TO RENDER 
AS INEFFECTIVE AS POSSIBLE ARTILLERY FIRE DIRECTED AGAINST THEM. THE BRUSH 
IS AISO PILED TO DISGUISE THE EXACT LOCATION OF THE TRENCHES. THE RIVER 
VARIES FROM ONE QUARTER TO OVER A MILE IN WIDTH BELOW THIS POINT. 



FOREST LOSSES ON THE ITALIAN FRONT 



1319 



but this is al- 
ways left to re- 
forest itself 
naturally. For 
reforesta t i o n 
work, silver fir, 
spruce and pine 
seedlings are 
kept in the seed 
bed for two 
years and for 
three years in 
the transplant 
beds. Before 
the war it cost 
about six lire, 
or about $1.20 
per 1,000 to 
produce these 
five - year - old 
plants. At that 
time, labor cost 
from 75 cents 
to $1.25 per 
man per day. 
The planting 




Photograph by courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 

AN INTERESTING PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING THE METHOD EMPLOYED IN CAMOUFLAGING A 
HIGHWAY ALONG THE ITALIAN FRONT WITH BRUSH AND BRANCHES. PLAITED STRAW. 
WICKER WORK, MATTINGS, AND CLOTH WERE ALSO COMMONLY USED. GREAT QUANTITIES 
OF LUMBER, POLES AND TIMBERS WERE USED IN THE WORK OF CAMOUFLAGING THE 
HIGHWAYS, MUNITION DUMPS, ARTILLERY LOCATIONS, ETC. 



cost has been 
materially low- 
ered where 
Austrian pris- 
oners were 
used, because 
the wages paid 
were compara- 
tively lower 
and the cost of 
feeding the 
men was only 
about 20 cents 
to 35 cents a 
day per person. 
In setting the 
plants out in 
the field on 
areas recently 
clear- cut of 
mature timber, 
the silver fir 
plants are plac- 
ed one and one- 
h a 1 f meters 
apart in every 



alone, before the war, cost about 20 to 24 lire per 1,000 direction, that is, the spacing is not prepared in rectangu- 

plants, or from $4.00 to $4.80. The total cost, therefore, lar shape as is customary in this country. The pine and 

of the plants placed in the ground would be from $5.20 chestnut transplants are placed only two meters apart, 

to $6.00 per 1,000 plants. For the past three years this It has been found that planting can be successful in both 




Underwood and Underwood 



TRULY A "NO MAN'S" LAND. 



THIS IS THE SHELL-TORN FOREST ON THE PEAK OF MONTE GRAPPA OVER WHICH THE ITALIANS DID THEIR FIGHTING TO 
STOP THE AUSTRIAN OFFENSIVE OF JUNE 17, 1918. STUMPS OF TREES AND SHATTERED AND BROKEN TRUNKS STAND OUT 
LIKE SKELETONS AGAINST THE SKY, THE ONLY REMAINS OF FORMER TIMBER GROWTH. 



1320 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




Italian Official Photograph 

A HEAVILY SHELLED PORTION OF THE AUSTRIAN TRENCHES AFTER THEIR CAPTURE 
BY THE ITALIANS. NOTE THE "CHURNED" APPEARANCE OF THE GROUND AND EFFECT 
ON THE TREE GROWTH OF THE VICINITY. 

the spring and fall, but particularly in the Apennine 
Mountains of Central Italy centering about Tuscany. 
Planting usually begins in March on the lower slopes, 
while at the higher elevations, running up to three and 
four thousand feet, planting is done as late as the middle 
of April and even as late as early in May. The plan of 
reforestation calls for improvement cuttings every ten 
years and at maturity the whole areas are clear-cut 
and replanted at once. 

Silver fir is usually cut when mature at ninety years of 
age. Beech is cut at from ninety 
to one hundred and twenty, un- 
less desired at an earlier age for 
charcoal purposes, and the 
Scotch pine and spruce are cut 
at from one hundred to one hun- 
dred and twenty years. The of- 
ficials have decided to plant pure 
forests, that is, an area is planted 
with pure fir or pure pine, as it 
has been determined that the 
quality is inferior when these 
trees are grown in mixed forests 
in that region. 

While at Boscolunga, one of 
the most important State forests 
along the crest of the Apennine 
Range between Florence and 
Bologna, there was an oppor- 
tunity afforded to see just how 
the Austrian prisoners worked 
and lived and felt about their 
life as captive prisoners in a 
foreign land. In talking with 



them they all seemed satisfied 
with what they were doing, all 
certainly looked well-fed, and 
none of them expressed a desire 
to get back before the war was 
over. One bright and husky 
young Hungarian had had two 
ringers cut off in an accident in 
the saw mill, but in reply to a 
question about whether or not 
lie wished to return, he said that 
he wanted to remain there after 
the war and get employment in 
the saw mill if they would take 
him. The manager said he was 
one of the best workers about 
the place and he hoped that he 
would remain after the war, as 
he found him one of the most 
faithful and efficient among those 
in his employ. The men slept 
in clean and commodious bunk- 
houses which reminded one so 
much of some of those attached 
to the Ranger stations in our 
national forests in the west. Each man had a clean, 
separate bed and the food was the same as that given 
to the Italian soldiers. A typical daily menu would be 
about as follows : For breakfast, war bread and coffee 
(practically the same as is served in all the hotels, that is, 
without butter, sugar, marmalade or preserves, etc.). 
For dinner at noon they received a thick vegetable soup 
or stew, and macaroni, with bread and a little wine. For 
supper, they received usually "Risotto" or rice, served 
up in one of the many styles for which the Italian chefs 




AN OBSERVER'S LOOK-OUT CAMP IX THE HIGH MOUNTAINS OF THE ALPINE FRONT. PRO- 
TECTED FROM DETECTION MY THE ENEMY BY THE SURROUNDING FORESTS. THIS WAS 
TAKEN IN THE HIGH MOUNTAIN FRONT BETWEEN THE BKF.NTA AND PIAVE RIVER 
VALLEYS. IN THE DISTANCE IS SHOWN ONE OF THE DEEP INTERIOR VALLEYS OF THE 
MOUNTAIN FRONT. 



FOREST LOSSES ON THE ITALIAN FRONT 



1321 



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Photograph by courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 

A COMMUNICATION TRENCH IN A HEAVILY SHELLED PORTION OF THE ITALIAN FRONT. 
THERE WAS FORMERLY A GOOD FOREST GROWTH IN THIS SECTION BEFORE THE WAR. 
ALL TREE GROWTH NOT DESTROYED BY THE TERRIFIC SHELL FIRE WAS USED BY THE 
SOLDIERS FOR FUEL PURPOSES. FOR TRENCH FACING, DUG-OUTS, DUCK-BOARDS, ETC. 

are famous, bread, coffee and tea, and a dish of vege- 
tables, such as beans, potatoes, or meat hash. One might 
ordinarily ask if there were no desserts served. How- 
ever, no sweets, such as cake, pudding, pie, etc., were 
served anywhere in Italy during the war. The only 
dessert offered at the hotels 
was fruit and occasionally some 
cheese. 

By way of contrast with these 
well-fed, happy and contented 
prisoners, an opportunity was af- 
forded at Genoa to see how some 
of the repatriated Italian pris- 
oners returning from Austria ap- 
peared. We helped to feed a 
whole trainload as they came 
from Switzerland, and the poor 
soldiers were the most emaci- 
ated men that can possibly be 
imagined. They fairly fought 
for the food which was rushed 
to them at the car windows. 
Another trainload of returned 
prisoners from Austria stopped 
a short while later and the food 
could not be served because the 
men were in such serious condi- 
tion that they could not be fed 
the coffee, chocolate, eggs, 
sweet chocolate, fruit, etc., which 
the Red Cross organizations had 
prepared for them. The men 



were too weak to rise from their 
bunks on the train, and the glar- 
ing eyes, sunken cheeks, and 
pallid complexions bore silent 
witness of their terrible treat- 
ment in Austria. We were in- 
formed that many of the poor 
boys died before they reached 
their destination at the hospitals 
along the Italian Riviera. 

Many acres of land have been 
reforested in Italy during the 
war, not only by Austrian pris- 
oners but by women, men past 
the military age, and by young 
boys and girls, but after the war 
throughout Italy there will be a 
great need for reforestation of 
these devastated acres and the 
denuded and bare mountain 
slopes. No one appreciates these 
needs better than do the Italian 
forestry officials themselves and 
there are plans already under 
way to provide funds whereby 
most rapid progress can be made. 
By way of comparison with 
forestry in this country, the situation in Italy is most 
interesting. The first impression in visiting Italy is 
the vast resources in timber growth in this country, the 
great variety and individual size of the tree species, a 
well defined and supported national forest policy and the 




Italian Official Photograph 

IN ONE OF THE BEST SPRUCE FORESTS NEAR THE LINES ON THE ASIAGO PLATEAU NEAR 
THE VAL PREVIA SO OFTEN MENTIONED IN THE COMMUNIQUES FROM THE ITALIAN 
GENERAL HEADQUARTERS. VERY LITTLE OF THE FOREST ON THE HIGH ALPINE FRONT 
WAS AS FORTUNATE AS THIS IN ESCAPING THE ARTILLERY FIRE OF THE ENEMY. EVEN 
THIS FOREST HAD BEEN HEAVILY CUT OVER TO PROVIDE MUCH NEEDED TRENCH TIM- 
BERS, CAMOUFLAGE POLES AND FUELWOOD FOR THE TROOPS. 



1322 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




BARRACKS OF THE ITALIAN TROOPS ON A PROTECTED SLOPE 
IMMEDIATELY BACK OF THE FRONT "SOMEWHERE" IN THE 
ITALIAN ALPS. NOTE THE TELIFERRICO USED TO BRING UP 
SUPPLIES AND TAKE DOWN THE WOUNDED. 

most highly developed lumber manufacturing industry, as 
compared with similar features in Italy. 

Forestry in Italy may be described as a direct reflec- 
tion of her political and economic history. It must be 
remembered that Italy, although old historically, is young 
politically, and that until comparatively recent times, 
she has passed through a rapid succession of political 
changes which have wrought great havoc not only with 
her forests, but her industrial and economic development 
as well. Italy is often regarded in this country as a land 
of old historical associations, of interesting old Roman 
ruins, the land of poetry, painting and the opera — a sort 
of "dream land" which annually attracts its large quota 
of tourist travel. This impression is quite a natural 
one, but Italy is much more than is most often associated 
with it. The war has greatly unified and strengthened 
the nation, and with the development of her important 
water power properties and the conversion of her great 
munition plants to peace-time activities, her industrial 
future is well assured in spite of the lack of such import- 



ant fundamentals for development as coal and iron 
resources. 

For many centuries and until the year 1870, Italy was 
under Austrian and Spanish rule or was largely made of 
small individual kingdoms, principalities and papal states, 
which were highly jealous of each other. As a result 
of these long continued and seriously disturbed condi- 
tions, forestry has suffered severely. Early Roman 
records show that the practice of forestry was considered, 
and even adopted in some of its primitive forms, in the 
days of the old Roman Republic as written records of 
Pliny and Horace give evidence to posterity. Although 
one is impressed with the small size of trees, and the 
unsatisfactory condition of a large portion of the Italian 
forests, there are many evidences still extant which bear 
witness to the fact that the country was, at one time, well 
forested. The Italian peninsula is essentially a mountain- 
ous section, and the greater part of the entire Apennine 
Range was once well covered with beautiful forests. 
For example, in such splendid old structures as the 
Palazzo Vecchia in Florence, there are many large beams 
up to 16 x 16 inches in cross-section, and some even as 
large as 20 x 24 inches, and from 50 to 70 feet in length, 
which have been in constant service for practically a 
thousand years. 

With the establishment of the present unified Italian 
Kingdom in 1870, forestry in Italy received considerable 
attention from the government authorities, but there were 
many difficulties and drawbacks in the way of govern- 
mental control, and the better handling of the forest re- 
sources. In the first place, the government was embar- 
rassed with the lack of sufficient available funds, and 
most of the forests had been so heavily cut over and 
burned that there was a scant remnant of the original 
forest cover. Then too, the old practice of cutting the 
young and growing forests for charcoal had a most 




Photograph by Nelson C. Brown 

THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT IN- 
SPECTOR AT ABETONE IN THE FOREST OF BOSCULUNGO. THE 
FOREST INSPECTOR HAS HIS HOME HERE, AS WELL AS OFFICE. 
THIS IS A FAVORITE RESORT OF THE ITALIANS DURING THE 
HOT DRY SUMMERS. 



FOREST LOSSES ON THE ITALIAN FRONT 



1323 



deteriorating effect on the condition of the forests. 

Just prior to the outbreak of the great war, however, 
forestry in Italy received a new impetus with the estab- 
lishment of a much larger and better organized technical 
force and provision by the government for a greatly 
increased appropriation for operation and maintenance. 

The total area of Italy, including the islands of Sicily 
and Sardinia, consists of about 71,500,000 acres, which 
is equivalent to the combined area of the states of New 
York and Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Connecticut and 
New Jersey. Within this comparatively small area, a 
population of 36,000,000, more than equivalent to one- 
third of this country is congested. 

Of the total area of Italy, only 17.64 per cent is now 
covered with forests. Italian forestry officials estimate 




Photograph by Nelson C. Brown 

A VIEW IN THE LUMBER YARD OF A SAW MILL OPERATED EX- 
CLUSIVELY ON WAR ORDERS IN CENTRAL ITALY. WOMEN 
WERE COMMONLY EMPLOYED IN YARD WORK OF THIS KIND, 
AS SHOWN IN THIS PICTURE, OWING TO THE SCARCITY OF MEN 
THE LUMBER SHOWN IN THIS VIEW IS BEECH. THE BEST 
BOARDS WERE SELECTED AND USED FOR AIRPLANE PRO- 
PELLERS, THE REMAINDER BEING USED FOR TRENCH TIMBER, 
BARRACKS. ARTILLERY WORK, AND FOR MISCELLANEOUS 
NAVAL PURPOSES. 

that at least 32 per cent of the total area of the country 
should be covered with forests. The production of 
wood is only one of the several important factors enter- 
ing into the necessity for better forestry in Italy. The 
maintenance of a continuous water flow for her water 
power properties, for example, is one of the very most 
important features. The prevention of erosion on the 
steep mountain sides, is also an important feature of 
forestry and its function in Italy. Moreover, the aesthetic 
side of forestry in Italy has not been neglected any more 
than in this country. In fact, aestheticism plays such an 
important part in the national life of the people that the 
development of her forests along this line, combined 
with its recreational features, are destined to play a very 
important part in the future of Italian forestry. Already 
certain state forests have been set aside and designated 
as summer resort forests, where cutting is only to be 
permitted to maintain the forests in best condition, and 




Photograph by courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 

A HIGH LOOK-OUT FROM THE TOP OF A LOMBARDY POPLAR 
ALONG THE ITALIAN FRONT. VANTAGE POINTS SUCH AS THIS 
MADE EXCELLENT OBSERVATION POSTS TO DETECT ENEMY 
MOVEMENTS. 

they are not to be regulated along the usual forestry 
principles. 

Of the 12,565,000 acres of forest in Italy, which is 
equal to about the total forest area of New York in this 
country, a large share is located in the mountains. About 
6,700,000 acres are classified as being located in the 
mountains, and about 3,800,000 acres in the lower hills, 
the remainder being in the valleys and on the plains. 
Only 3.8 per cent of the total area of forests in Italy are 
owned and controlled by the Central Government. This 



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Photograph by Nelson C. Brown 

LUNCH TIME ON THE RESERVE LINE AT LOSSON ABOUT A 
MILE FROM THE FRONT LINES ON THE LOWER PIAVE RIVER 
FRONT. JUST BEFORE THIS PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN THIRTY- 
FIVE AUSTRIAN SHELLS WERE DROPPED IN THIS VILLAGE 
DOING CONSIDERABLE DAMAGE TO THE CAMPANILE TOWER 
SHOWN IN THE BACKGROUND. 



1324 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



i» equivalent to only 270,000 acres as compared to the 
vast area contained in onr national forests, which em- 
braces a total of about 160,000,000 acres. 

The municipalities and communes in Italy are very 
important owners of forest property, the total per cent 
being 43.2, while the private owners, lumber companies, 
etc., own 53 per cent of the total area. Large areas of 
forests are still retained by many old ancestral estates 
which have been handed down through the same family, 
for the past several centuries. On some of these estates 




Photograph by courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 

DURING A LULL IN THE FIGHTING AT ONE OF THE ITALIAN- 
BATTERIES BELOW CAPO SILE IN ADRIATIC TIDEWATER. ON 
THE LEFT ARE SOME LARGE NAVAL GUNS PROTECTED WITH 
SAND BAGS, ETC. THE ITALIAN OFFICER ON THE RIGHT IS 
PROFESSOR DINO BIGONGIARI OF THE ROMANCE LANGUAGE 
DEPARTMENT OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY WHO WENT BACK TO 
ASSIST HIS NATIVE LAND ON THE OUTBREAK OF WAR. BACK 
OF HIM IS AN OUTDOOR DINING ROOM PROTECTED WITH CAM- 
OUFLAGE AND THE WRITER STANDS NEXT TO HIM. 

the forests are being handled on scientific principles of 
forestry, but most of them present an exceedingly poor 
appearance. 

The number of tree species in Italy is probably greater 
than in any other country in Europe. All of the trees 
found in the Mediterranean section are to be seen in 
Italy, whereas on the higher elevations, tree species 
which are commonly found in Northern Europe, in such 
countries as Norway, Sweden and Finland are frequently 
found. The greatest variety is among the hardwoods. 
Bnt the total variety of species does not compare with 
those found in this country. For example : It is esti- 
mated that there are at least 500 separate and distinct 
tree species found in this country, whereas in Italy, there 
are only about sixty. As against about fifty important 
commercial species, in this country, there are only about 
eight in Italy. The hardwoods, broadly speaking, occupy 
89 per cent of the total forest area of Italy. A good 
share of this is oak and chestnut forest, the size and 
general appearance of which is very disappointing to one 
familiar with the splendid virgin hardwood forests found 



in the Appalachian and lower Mississippi Valley sections 
in this country. 

The conifers or soft woods occupy only 6.9 per cent of 
the total forest area. On this very small area, however, 
the very best part of the commercial lumber is con- 
tained. In fact, some of the soft woods are the only 
trees which grow to a size comparable in diameter and 
height to some of our better soft wood stands in this 
country. These are limited to the higher elevations of 
the Apennine Mountains and the Alps of Northern Italy. 
In these limited sections, silver fir and Norway spruce 
are often found up to 140 feet in total height, and some- 
times, from 40 to 50 inches in diameter. Stands of silver 
fir planted 100 years ago produce 75,000 to 100,000 board 
feet per acre as a maximum. Some limbwood and tops 
for fuelwood and the manufacture of charcoal are also 
yielded from these heavy stands. The remainder of the 
forest area of 4.1 per cent is made up of mixed hard- 
woods and soft woods. It is very evident, therefore, that 
the two seldom grow together. 

The oaks are the principal hardwoods found in Italy 
and there are four species, namely, two white oaks, one 



"^^ 


^■M^_ 




« 






*981^ ^ ^ 


s 


BE— ■JArJLp^V^^C^^fTia^HT"^^' '"" 





Photograph by Sclson c . BtottM 

THOUSANDS OK SILVER FIB LOGS CUT CLEAN ON ONE OF THE 
ITALIAN NATIONAL FORESTS, ALONG THE CREST OF THE 
APENNINE MOUNTAINS. BEFORE THE WAR THIS FOREST WAS 
CONSIDERED SO REMOTE AM) INACCESSIBLE THAT THE LUM- 
BER COULD NOT BE MARKETED AT A PROFIT. WITH THE USE 
OF HUNDREDS OF MOTOR TRUCKS AND AN OVERHEAD CABLE 
SYSTEM, THESE LOGS WERE BROUGHT DOWN AND UTILIZED 
FOR THE WAR PROGRAM. BEYOND THE FALLEN LOGS AND BE- 
FORE THE YOUNG STANDING TIMBER MAY BE SEEN ROWS OF 
YOUNG TREES PLANTED IN THE STRING OF 1»« AFTER A "WAR 
CUTTING-' HAD BEEN MADE. 

red oak and one live oak. Cork oak and a few other oaks 
of little importance, are also found, but, aside from the 
cork oak, are of negligible value. The two white oaks 
are the Quercus sessiliflora and Q. pedunculate. The 
red oak is the Q. cerrus, and the live oak is the Q. ilex. 
.Most of these oaks seldom attain a diameter of 20 
inches or a total height of 70 feet. Probably 40 to 60 
per cent of the total area of oak forests are periodically 



FOREST LOSSES ON THE ITALIAN FRONT 



1325 



cut off at an early age, for the making of charcoal which 
is in heavy demand in Italy. 

The demand for charcoal is probably the greatest 
single factor preventing better forestry in Italy. Sprout 
forests of only from fifteen to thirty years of age are 
frequently cut off for charcoal, and the trees are seldom 
permitted to grow large enough to yield lumber. 

Silver fir and Norway spruce are, next to oak, the 
most important producers of lumber and forest products 
in Italy. There are a few fir forests in Calabria, in the 
toe of Southern Italy, which have been so remote from 
transportation facilities that the cost of cutting and 
transporting them to market was greater than the cost 
of importing lumber from foreign sources. The silver 
fir and spruce forests are restricted to the higher eleva- 
tions of the Apennine Mountains and the Alps, bordering 
Switzerland and Austria. Although restricted in area, 
these forests grow to such splendid height and size, and 
so densely, that they are the most important forests from 
the viewpoint of lumber production in all Italy. Some 
of the most dense and heavily timbered forests in all 




iraph by Xvlson C, Brown 

A HAPPY, SATISFIED, WELL-FED HUNGARIAN PRISONER WORK- 
IN!; ON ONE OF THE ITALIAN STATE FORESTS HIGH IT IN THE 
ALPINE MOUNTAINS OF TUSCANY. 

Europe may be found at an elevation of about 2,000 feet 
at Boscolungo, Valombrosa and Mandrioli. The spruce 
is the same tree (Picea excelsa) which is so important 
in lumber production in Sweden, Finland and Northern 
Russia, and which is widely sold in the English lumber 
market under the name of white wood. In general 
characteristics and properties, it very closely resembles 
the Adirondack or Canada spruce. It has been widely 
planted in this country for both commercial planting and 
for decorative purposes. The silver fir is very similar 
to the balsam fir in the Northeast, but it grows to a very 
much larger size. Its scientific name is Abies pectinata. 
All of the trees found growing in Italy which have 



similar names to those used in this country, are of the 
same botanical family, but they all differ somewhat in 
the character of the wood, nature of the leaves, fruit 
and bark. 

There are five varieties of the pine family in Italy. 
They are found growing chiefly along the shore lines of 
the peninsula. They are a particular feature of the 
Italian Riviera where they lend a most pleasing aspect to 
the already attractive landscape. All of these pines are 
very similar in general appearance, and seldom attain a 
height of over sixty feet or twenty-two inches in 




Photograph by Nelson C. Brown 

FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT INSPECTOR 
OF THE FOREST OF BOSCOLUNGO. MR MARTI NETTI OF FLOR- 
ENCE, MR. CAMILLO PAR1SINI. CHIEF ENGINEER OF FOREST 
CUTTINGS FOR THE ITALIAN ARMY, AND l'ROF. GIUSEPPE Dl 
TELLA OF THE ROYAL FORESTRY COLLEGE AT FLORENCE. 

diameter. They yield a soft, light and workable wood 
which is rather inferior on account of large knots and 
other defects. They are commonly referred to as "um- 
brella" or stone pines. Oftentimes the lower branches are 
trimmed up leaving a short but broad crown which 
gives the effect of an umbrella. One of these pines is 
the same Scotch pine, or redwood as it is called in the 
English lumber market (Pinus sylvestris) which is one 
of the most important lumber producing trees of Europe, 
and is exported in large quantities from Norway, Sweden, 
Finland and Russia: Another is the well-known Cembran 
pine which is held in very high esteem for wood carvings 
of all kinds, and more especially for the world famous 
Florentine frames and woodwork so much of which is 
made and exported from Tuscany in Central Italy. 

Next to the pines, the Italian beech (Fagus sylvatica) 
is the most important wood produced in Italy. It is a 
favorite wood used for making charcoal. It is also used 
for boxing and crating stock, flooring and for fuel wood. 
In general appearance, it resembles very closely the beech 
found in this country, but it grows much smaller and is 
more defective than the beech found in our native for- 
ests of Wisconsin and Michigan. 

The Italian poplar is regarded very highly, especially 
for the purposes of making interior frames of airplanes 



1326 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



and for miscellaneous wood work purposes. It is much 
stronger and heavier than the native poplar and cotton- 
wood found in this country. There are two species of 
Italian poplar. 

It is estimated that there are over 1,000,000 acres of 
chestnut forests alone, in Italy. It is composed entirely 
of one species which, in external appearance, resembles 
the American chestnut, but which seldom grows to such 
large size. Its greatest utility is in the production of 
sweet chestnuts of which around 800,000 tons were pro- 
duced in Italy during the year 1918, and furnished an 




Photograph by Nelson C. Brown 

A LOG YARD IN ONE OF THE FOREST OPERATIONS FOR THE 
WAR PROGRAM. THIS VIEW WAS TAKEN IN THE UPPER 
CASF.NTINE VALLEY IN TUSCANY, IN CENTRAL ITALY. NOTH- 
ING WAS ALLOWED TO WASTE ON THESE CUTTINGS, THE LUM- 
BER BEING USED FOR BARRACKS, ETC., AND THE SMALL PIECES 
BEING USED FOR FUELWOOD AND CHARCOAL. EVEN THE 
LIMBS AND BRANCHES WERE USED FOR TRENCH FACING AND 
CAMOUFLAGE PURPOSES AT THE FRONT. 

important part of the Italian food supply. In fact, it 
may be truthfully said that most of the Italian chestnut 
is protected and cultivated more for the production of 
the nuts than for the production of wood. 

The larger size chestnut trees are used for poles, 
piling, vineyard stakes, barrel staves and miscellaneous 
lumber purposes. Most of the chestnut forests, however, 
grow on poor, rocky soil above the vineyards and olive 
groves, and the individual trees are exceedingly crooked, 
small and mis-shapen. They are not the kind of tree 
which lends itself readily to production of good lumber 
for this reason. 

Italian larch (Larix Europea) is found only in the 
Alps of the north, at a very high elevation. It is only 
found as a scattered tree in the coniferous forests of the 
Alps and has never played an important part in the 
lumber markets owing to its scarcity. Its wood is very 
highly valued, however, on account of its strong, durable 
qualities. 

There is a variety of other woods found in the Italian 
forests, and only one is of any commercial importance, 
namely, walnut (Juglans regia). This tree is found 
growing here and there with other kinds of hardwoods. 



It is very highly prized as it is a wood of excellent quali- 
ties for use in cabinet, high-grade furniture and flooring 
work. It is even exported to South America where it is 
held in great demand. It is also used for wood carving, 
inlaid work, paneling and interior finish. 

Other woods are alder, cypress, elm, mulberry, maple, 
birch, ash and eucalyptus. 

Italy is one of the most important lumber importing 
nations in Europe. It annually brings in about 1,000,000,- 
000 board feet, valued at over $35,000,000 to make up the 
deficiency of its local supply. During the war this normal 
importation was practically shut off, and the native for- 
ests were depended upon to supply a large share of not 
only the normal demand, but for the requirements of 
the war program, which were exceedingly large in Italy. 
As a result of this situation, the Italian forests have 
been very heavily depleted, and whereas they supplied 
nearly half of the total amount of lumber and forest 




Photograph by courtesy of the Italian General Headquarters 

AN OLD ROMAN MOSAIC UNCOVERED IN DIGGING TRENCHES 
ALONG THE ITALIAN FRONT IN THE JULIAN ALPS. IT WAS 
PROBABLY PLACED HERE ABOUT 2000 YEARS AGO TO MARK THE 
BOUNDARIES OF ONE OF THE ROMAN PROVINCES OF THAI- 
TIME. ROMAN COINS HAVE ALSO BEEN FOUND IN PREPARING 
TRENCHES ALONG THE FRONT LINES 

products required in the country before the war, it is 
estimated that the local production will play only an 
insignificant part in the future. 

First, the spruce and silver fir adjoining the battle- 
front were cut off, and then the oak, beech and chestnut 
forests of the northern provinces of Lombardy, Venetia 
and Piedmont. This was done chiefly to save trans- 
portation to the front because the Italian railways were 
very heavily loaded by the necessities of the war pro- 
gram. They were called upon not only to send troops, 
ammunition and other supplies to the men at the front, 
but they were also used for the transporting of English 



FOREST LOSSES ON THE ITALIAN FRONT 



1327 



and French troops to ports on the southern coast where 
they were embarked for points in Macedonia, Mesopo- 
tamia and Palestine. At first, only the largest and best 
trees were cut, but as these became depleted, the sec- 
ondary and more inferior trees were cut and the work 
progressed to the central, and even the southern provinces 
of Italy. Finally even the forests which had been classi- 
fied as summer resort forests belonging to the state, had 
to be cut. The sacrifice of these beautiful forests such 
as Valombrosa, Camaldoli, Boscolunga, and others, 
severely hurt the Italian pride in their native forests. But 




Photograph by Nelson C. Brown 

A LARGE STATE NURSERY AT BOSCOLUNGA IN THE MOUN 
TAINS NEAR FLORENCE. THE SEED BEDS CONTAIN SILVER FIR 
WHICH AFTER TWO YEARS ARE TAKEN TO THE TRANSPLANT 
AREAS AND AT THE AGE OF FIVE YEARS ARE SET OUT IN THE 
FORESTS ON THE RIGHT IS AN AUSTRIAN PRISONER EM- 
PLOYED IN WEEDING THE SEED BEDS. ON THE EXTREME LEFT 
IS PROFESSOR GIUSEPPE DI TELI.A OF THE ITALIAN ROYAL 
FORESTRY COLLEGE SPEAKING TO THE FOREST INSPECTOR OF 
THE DISTRICT TO THE LEFT OF THE AUSTRIAN PRISONER IS 
MR CAMILLO PARISINI. GENERAL MANAGER OF ONE OF THE 
LARGEST LIMBER COMPANIES CUTTING STATE TIMBER FOR 
WAR EMERGENCY PURPOSES. 

the sacrifice was necessary for the winning of the Great 
War. The splendid state forests in Tuscany, Abruzzi 
and even in Calabria, were cut for the maintenance of a 
big army of 5,000,000 men at the front. 

The effect on the Italian forests, therefore, must be 
very apparent. Italian forestry which was assuming 
considerable importance prior to the war, has received a 
serious set back, and damage has been done which will 
require a century or more to replace. 

The personnel of the Italian forestry service, which is 
known as the "Servizio Forestale," is exceedingly high. 
It has a number of excellent, trained specialists on various 
phases of forestry, and it compares very favorably with 
the service of any of the other European nations. Prior 
to 1910, the Service received only meager support from 
the government as the annual appropriations only 
amounted to $150,000. However, since that year, the 
annual appropriations were raised to 5,000,000 lire which 
is equal to about $1,000,000. By way of comparison with 
our forest service in this country, which has, roughly, 



about five and a half million dollars for an area* of 
160,000,000 acres, this is exceedingly good. Since the 
entrance of Italy in the war, however, in 191 5, the 
annual appropriation was cut to 3,000,000 lire, which is 
equal to about $600,000. These amounts include the 
support of the Royal Forestry College at Florence, and 
two ranger schools. The schools had no students on 
their rolls, during the war. The Forestry College re- 
ceived an equivalent of about $40,000 annually both be- 
fore and during the war. It was founded as early as 
1869 at Valombrosa, and it continued there at the old 
monastery until 191 1 when it was moved to Florence. 
The two ranger schools are located at Valombrosa and 
at Citta Ducali in the province of Abruzzi. The former 
had 150 students before the war, and the latter, 300. 
The organization of the Italian Forestry Service con- 
sists of the director general in charge, who has his head- 
quarters in the Ministry of Agriculture at Rome. Under 
him there are 13 chief inspectors, 47 inspectors, 28 assist- 
ant inspectors, 16 head rangers, 175 rangers, 425 briga- 
diers and 2,400 guards. The Forestry Service has 




ON THE ASIAGO PLATEAU A SHORT DISTANCE FROM THE 
FRONT LINES WHERE SMALL PATCHES OF SILVER FIR AND 
NORWAY SPRUCE. PROTECTED BY THE TOPOGRAPHY. HAVE 
SURVIVED THE SHELL FIRE AND CUTTING FOR WAR PURPOSES. 
NOTE THE GREAT MASS OF BARBED WIRE ENTANGLEMENTS 
READY TO BE THROWN ACROSS THE ROAD IN CASE THE FRONT 
LINE IS BROKEN THROUGH BY AN AUSTRIAN ATTACK. 

recently announced that wounded soldiers will receive 
preference for all of these positions in so far as they 
are physically able to perform them. 

During the year 1914, the total receipts from the state 
forests was 1,309,427 lire, whereas the expenses were 
only 1,148,371 lire, leaving a net profit of 161,056 lire, 
which is, roughly, equivalent to about $32,000. 



1328 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



In the management of the Italian State Forests, silver 
fir has been demonstrated to be the most successful tree. 
Its chief advantages are that it is easily regenerated; it 
grows rapidly ; it is comparatively free from insect and 
other attack, and it yields a wood of excellent quality for 
the lumber market. It is usually cut at from 90 to 100 
years of age, and the areas are replanted immediately 
with five-year old trees. The latter are kept two years 
in a seed bed, and three years in transplant beds. They 
are spaced one meter apart each way, and it costs from 
aDout 26 to 30 lire, or roughly, from $5.00 to $6.00 per 
thousand trees for reforestation. An improvement cut- 
ting is made every ten years. Since the forestry policy 
was instituted in Italy in 1867, and down to June 30, 
1912, 39,932 hectares or about 100,000 acres of forest 
land has been reforested at an expense of 15,085 lire, 
which is equivalent to about $3,000,000 according to the 
official Italian statistics. The forestry officials have ap- 
proved a reforestation policy of 81,764 hectares or about 
200,000 acres, which only awaits funds for rapid 
execution. It is estimated that over 1,000,000 acres of 
forest have been completely destroyed and devastated 
along the Italian front during the war, and it is believed 
that the only solution to the difficult problem is refores- 
tation. 

To supply her enormous lumber needs Italy can now 
look to only Switzerland, the United States and Canada. 
Before the war she imported about 75 per cent of her lum- 
ber from Austria and about 7/9 of her wood pulp from 
Germany and Austria. Switzerland is normally an im- 
porter of lumber and can not long keep up its export, so 
that Italy will probably have to depend upon this country 
and Canada for all we can possibly send her. 

Before the war Italy's home production of lumber 
was far short of her needs and great quantities of soft 
wood especially were imported. Since the war the 
situation has become more serious, all the more so be- 
cause the war was fought in the precise region of Italy 
that is richest in soft wood. Not only the damages of 
war but the uneconomical use caused by the urgency of 
the demands for lumber for war needs caused the dis- 
astrous depletion. Soft woods and poplar in the war zone 
are said to have been forced to yield two or three times 
their normal production. 

The new provinces to be added to Italy as a result of 
the war will give her new forestal riches, especially as 
most of the wood in the added territories is of the kind 
not common in Italy. But it is hardly sufficient to de- 
crease even slightly the gravity of the situation and Italy 
must import large quantities of lumber in the coming 
years because of the increased demand of her industries 
and the necessity of rigorously sparing the forests situated 
within her old confines to allow them time for regrowth. 



"IVr L. CAREY, forest assistant in the Olympic Na- 
-L '• tional Forest, has discovered what he believes to 
be the largest spruce tree in the world. It measures 16 
feet in diameter 4J/£ feet above the ground. It is on the 
south side of the Solduck River. The top was broken 
off 150 feet above the ground. 



THE FIR 

By Donald A. Fraser 

O Forest Fir! 

Standing so straight and so slender. 

Gigantic, yet slender; 

Spreading thine arms so benignly 

In benison over thy kindred. 

Why dost thou shiver and groan. 

And moan like a spirit in anguish? 

Dost hear the far axe being sharpened. 

The blades that shall sever thy heart-strings, 

And lay thee a-low in thy glory? 

Moan not; for to all comes a season 

When Earth calleth back what -was 

borrowed; 
So he who shall shatter thy life-dream. 
In turn shall his life-dream be shattered. 
Then moan not, O Forest Fir slender, 
And groan not in anguish and sorrow; 
But stretch forth thine evergreen fingers 
And touch on the strings of the wind-harp 
A melody sweet and caressing, 
A pean of love and forgiveness; 
And breathe o er the world so ungrateful 
Thy resinous odors of healing. 
Right on till the axe shall incise thee. 
Perchance when thy last groan is uttered. 
And the thunderous crash of thy death- 
plunge 
Shall melt in the aisles of the forest. 
That God will begin a new era 
For thee, a new lease of achievement; 
And thus thy proud death shall accomplish 
Far more than thy bourgeoning life-span, 
O Forest Fir, 
Standing so stately and slender! 



THE GUARDIAN OF OUR FORESTS 

BY ALICE SPENCER COOK 



~ 



UNCLE Sam's handy man" is what we call the 
forest ranger, the man who guards our National 
Forests, for his duties are probably more varied 
than any other officer in the Government Service. His 
life and activities are much of a mystery to the average 
citizen. Even in the western States where the National 
Forests are 
largely lo- 
cated, little is 
known of the 
men who pro- 
tect the timber 
resources o f 
the State, 
watch over t he- 
water courses 
and the game 
and stock, and 
patrol in gen- 
eral the great 
mountain 
reaches. 

When t h e 
Service was 
pew, the only 
qua lifications 
demanded of 
him were those 
of a woods- 
man or a cow- 
boy. "Book 
learning" was 
unessential, so 
long as he 
could swing an 
ax and ride a 
horse. He 
blazed the trail 
through untrod 
forests and 
over unnamed 
peaks, but he 
was not up on 
the "technical" 
stuff and, with 
the buffalo and 
bison, the pio- 
neer and his 
prairie schooner, he had to go. The advancing strides of 
civilization demanded a scientific knowledge of the 
woods and engineering ability and forest schools soon 
turned out the requisite number of these college trained 
nxii, whose education in the theory of the management 
of the forest, supplemented by practical experience in 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 



IIKKK IS FOUND REALIZATION 



Easy of access, what could be more soul-satisfying to 
at evening? Lake Chelan is in the Chelan 



various lines of woods work, made them capable of per- 
forming their varied duties. 

So the ranger has gradually developed from the un- 
educated, though faithful, frontiersman, to the clear- 
eyed, weather-bronzed young fellow with a vast amount 
of initiative and tact, a combination of cattleman, sur- 
veyor, timber 
cruiser, fire ex- 
pert, telephone 
linesman, and, 
most of all, a 
first-class 
woodsman. 

The little 
o 1 d. weather 
beaten shack 
has given way 
to a substan- 
tial cabin, fur- 
nished by the 
Gove rnment, 
and costing 
about $1,000, 
which is situ- 
ated near the 
largest town in 
h i s district. 
These cabins, 
which are in- 
variably paint- 
ed green and 
have "Old 
Glory" floating 
above them, 
are very at- 
tractive look- 
ing. In addi- 
tion to a rent- 
free cabin, the 
ranger is fur- 
nished with all 
the fuel he re- 
quires, so he 
is never har- 
assed with the 
coal bills 
which bring 
furrows of care 
He must, how- 
a ranger 



the lover of beauty than this view of Lake Chelan 
National Forest, guarded by our rangers. 



to the brow of many a city dweller, 
ever, furnish his own horse, and a horse to 
is as necessary as a ship to a sailor; but pasture is fur- 
nished by the Government. 

Each ranger has charge of about 200,000 acres, and 
is assisted by guards, who belong to the old school 



1329 



1330 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




which demands brawn in addition to brain. One of his 
duties is to lay out the mountain trails, which he does 
with great engineering precision, oftentimes, of neces- 
sity, through thick underbrush and up steep mountain 
sides. 

He puts in the telephone lines, which, as will be seen 
later, are ab- 
solutely essen- 
tial in the safe 
guarding o f 
the forests, and 
on the forests 
where there is 
grazing, he has 
supervision of 
the Govern- 
ment grazing 
permits, which 
means that he 
must assist in 
p r o t e c t i ng 
the sheep 
from wolf 
attack, make 
proper water- 
ing places for the stock, and see that the herders move 
their stock on other grazing lands before the grass is 
eaten so short that it will not come up again. He must 
also count the sheep, checking them for loss and for 
pasturage charge. He supervises in part the timber 
sales, cruising 
or making an 
estimate of the 
timber, and, 
after it is cut, 
scaling it so 
that the Gov- 
ernment will 
derive the 
proper income 
from it. 

He welcomes 
the campers 
who enter his 
domain, ad- 
vises them of 
the safest 
trails, the best 
fishing 
streams, and 
the happy 
hunting 
grounds, which 
in this case 
does not mean the Indian's paradise, at the. same time 
warning them, very politely of course, as becomes a 
model host, not to leave their camp fires burning. 

Near Portland and Seattle, there are two immense 
national playgrounds, which are open to the public for 



IN THE DARK WATCHES OF THE NIGHT 
A wonderful cloud effect in the forest. 




READY TO MAKE CAMP FOR THE NIGHT 

The many visitors to the National Forests appreciate the value and necessity of the work done by the 
forest rangers, ever alertly on guard, day and night. 



camping purposes. The public is invited by folders, 
advertisements, etc., and is more than welcome to 
camp there for any length of time. For their conven- 
ience, the rangers erect, here and there, stone fire places 
for cooking purposes, and sees that the campers are 
supplied with quantities of wood for fuel. It is the 

boast of the 
ranger that 
the water in 
the mountain 
streams is pure 
and fresh, and 
he makes good 
his boast by 
keeping the 
streams free of 
refuse of all 
kinds. 

One play- 
ground, 47 
miles from 
Portland, Ore- 
gon, on the 
highway which 
extends along 
the Columbia River, is visited every pleasant Sunday 
by from 2,500 to 3,000 people, some to spend the day, 
and some the week-end or longer. They fish, hunt, or 
wander along the trails back into the mountains, whose 
wild and rugged beauty is balm to the heart of the city 

dweller. Fre- 
q u e n t signs 
tell where the 
trails lead 
and rude but 
s t o r m-proof 
cabins, sup- 
plied with fuel, 
are erected at 
frequent inter- 
vals, as a re- 
fuge when 
lost. 

The Govern- 
ment also is- 
sues free use 
or nominal 
charge permits 
to anyone who 
desires to put 
up a hunting 
lodge, and is 
given a piece 
of land, com- 
prising about an acre, for this purpose. Timber for 
the cabin is furnished free of charge and is never 
missed, for in the Northwest there are from 50,000 to 
200,000 feet of timber to the acre, and 5,000 will build 
the average house ; there is enough timber on every 



THE GUARDIAN OF OUR FORESTS 



1331 



lated districts. The teacher lives with the family for 
the nine months of the school year, in their little wick- 
i-up, 18 miles from the nearest railroad. This may 
sound very romantic until one remembers that the 



acre to build from 10 to 40 houses. These permits are 
usually taken up by people in Washington and Oregon 
who wish to spend a few weeks or months in hunting 
and fishing. The tourists from the East usually take 
the main traveled roads, instead 
of the untried trail dear to the 
heart of the true Westerner. 

It is a curious fact that ap- 
proximately 75 per cent of the 
rangers are married to school 
teachers. You will wonder 
where all the school teachers 
come from in this sparsely set- 
tled region. This is partly ex- 
plained by the fact that every 
district has at least one teacher, 
regardless of the number of 
pupils. Since 25 per cent of all 
receipts from the National For- 
ests go to the counties in which 
they lie, to be used for schools 
and roads, they can well afford 
to employ a teacher at an at- 
tractive salary. An additional 
10 per cent is expended by the secretary of agri- Indians in that part of the country are not the "six-foot in their 
culture upon the roads and trails constructed stockings" type, which romance and the movies love to picture. 

primarily for the benefit of | : 1 They are short and heavy set, and many of them are 

settlers within the forests. In 
one district in Washington, 




HOME OF A RANGER 
Typical ranger cabin in the less mountainous districts, Washakie National Forest, Wyoming. 



there are but two "children," 
one a boy of 22 years of age, 
the other a girl of nine. These 
children are half breeds, their 
mother a full-blooded Indian, 
the father a white man, 




blind, owing to their unsanitary mode of living. They are 
neither energetic nor industrious, and are quite content to live 
in rude little huts, made by bracing a few logs against each 
other, and in these huts they live all winter long, with only an 
open fire to keep out the bitter cold. They live on fish, mostly 
salmon, which come up the mountain streams in the spring, mid- 
summer and fall, to spawn, but never get back to the ocean, as 
those which are not caught are dashed against the rocks and 
killed, or, having accomplished their purpose in life, die 



AN UNUSUAL BIT OF SCENF,RY IN A NATIONAL FOREST 

Spruce trees, with crowns whipped into peculiar, fantastic shape by the 

winds. 

"squaw man," as he is scornfully called in that section 
of the country. But these youngsters receive individual 
attention seldom accorded to children in the more popu- 




RANGERS PLANTING FISH 

The rangers co-operate with the State fish and game commissions and are 
instrumental in planting, in the mountain streams, billions of fish fry, 
which play no unimportant part in the food supply of the country as well 
as furnish a means of recreation for city sportsmen. 

a natural death. The Indians dry the fish which they 
catch by hanging them on the sides of their cabins. 



1332 



AM KRICAN FORESTRY 



These mountain streams are also well stocked with 
trout planted there by the rangers. The minnows are 




BUILDING A TRAIL UNDER DIFFICULTIES 

Frequently, in order to maintain the proper grade of a trail, it is necessary 
to remote obstructions of various kinds, such as trees, rocks, and even 
immense boulders, sometimes larger than the ordinary dwelling house. 
In the last case, this is accomplished only by the use of dynamite. 

furnished by the state fish hatcheries and are sent out 
in 10-gallon milk cans, which the ranger takes up the 
streams on eight or ten pack horses. And thus, the 
supply of trout is renewed each year and is ever abun- 
dant for the campers. 

In some of the National Forests, the rangers have 
attempted to secure the utilization of wild fruits in their 
communities by organizing picnics for the purpose of 
gathering these fruits. In the mountains of the South- 
west, there are large quantities of wild grapes and 
cherries which make excellent jellies, while in Wash- 
ington and Oregon, wild strawberries and huckleberries 
are found in great abundance. 

But the chief duty of the ranger is to guard the for- 
ests from fires and fight them when they occur. During 
the course of the fire season, there are sometimes as 
many as 500 
fires in a dis- 
trict, ranging 
in size from a 
few square feet 
to hundreds of 
acres. Owing 
to the unusu- 
ally dry sea- 
son and the 
many logging 
operations now 
located adjoin- 
i n g national 
forest timber, 
the number of 
forest fires, and 
danger from 



them has greatly increased. You will wonder how so 
many fires could be started in the forests, far from human 
habitation. These are the three chief causes : railroads, 
campers and lightning. 

It would be impossible to properly guard the forest 
were it not for that modern miracle, the telephone. 
There are from 40 to 100 miles of telephone line in each 
National Forest, extending along the principal tracks 





RANGER COUNTING SHEEP 
A band of sheep at Dutch Joe Corral, Bridger National Forest, Wyoming, 



READING SNOW SCALE 

This is important since the amount of snow fall determines to a great 
extent the fire hazard for the following summer, as well as the supply 
of water available for irrigation purposes. 

used by miners, campers, etc., and on up to the lookout 
stations on the mountain tops. Three of these lookout 
stations are situated on mountains over 10,000 feet high, 
which for 2,000 feet from the top are perpetually covered 

with ice and 
snow and re- 
semble huge ice 
cream cones. 
And there, 
t h o usands of 
feet beyond the 
timber line, in 
little cabins, or 
lookout sta- 
tions, car ried 
piece by piece 
up the steep 
mountain 
trail, men are 
stationed a 1 1 
through the 
fire season to 



NATIONAL HONOR ROLL, MEMORIAL TREES 



1333 



watch for the thin spires of smoke which mean the begin- 
ning of a forest fire. 

When a fire is lighted, sometimes 25 to 30 miles 
away, he estimates its exact location by means of in- 
struments for that purpose, and then calls up the ranger, 
who immediately rushes to the scene of the fire all the 
men at his disposal. If the fire promises to be more 
than a small one, he telephones or telegraphs to the 
nearest city for help. In case of a very bad fire, several 
hundred men are hurriedly gotten together and hastened 
to the fire. Fire fighting instruments and cooking equip- 
ment are already on hand and every one works day and 
night till the fire is under control. Not long ago, a fire 
was started by lightning way back in the mountains, 15 
miles from the nearest habitation. In the course of an 
hour and a half after the fire had started, or at least after 
the smoke had risen through the trees, the ranger had 



five telephone calls informing him, not only of the fire 
but also of its exact location. This shows how closely 
the forests are guarded and explains why most fires are 
not more serious, than they are. But even with the great- 
est precautions, a smouldering fire left by careless 
campers, sparks from the smoke-stack and live coals 
from the fire of a passing train, or a lighted match 
thrown in some inflammable material in the forest, com- 
bined with an east wind, will often wipe out in an hour 
what nature has taken hundreds of years to create. And 
not one in a hundred upon reading the startling headlines 
in his favorite daily, "Millions in Lives and Timber 
Lost," realizes the brave fight that is made to keep this 
loss down. But what of the khaki-clad ranger, who with 
eyes quick and keen, dices with death in a losing game? 
He is "among the missing," and it's all in the day's 
work. 



NATIONAL HONOR ROLL, MEMORIAL TREES 

Trees have been planted for the following and registered with the American Forestry Association. 



BERKELEY, CAL — By Luther Burbank Intermediate School: 
Edward Werner, John Gazanago, James Gimbel, Rollie Ramos, 
Martin Dall, Cladius Vinther. 

MIDDLETOWN, CONN.— By Dr. Kate C. Mead: Arthur 
Leonard Johnson. 

NORWICH, CONN.— By W. I, T.'s First Congregational 
Church: William Morgan Durr; by Mrs. James L. Case: Wil- 
liam E. Perry. 

WASHINGTON, D. C— By Mrs. George Combs: The Pa- 
triots of the War. 

COMMERCE, GA.— By First Baptist Church: Ellis Luthi. 

TIFTON, GA.— By Harding Methodist Church : Joe J. Mon- 
crief, Richmond Lovett. 

KASBEER, ILL.— By Public Schools: Claus Larson, Walter 
Paden. 

MURPHYSBORO, ILL— By Public Schools: Will Connelly, 
Will Richards, Peter Weber, Ernest H. Rowald, Thaddeus Lee. 

ROCKFORD, ILL.— By Memorial Tree Committee: Theodore 
Roosevelt, Soldiers and Sailors of Rockford. 

SPRINGFIELD, ILL.— By Enos School: Miss Alice K. 
Flower. 

WHITE HALL, ILL.— By White Hall Senior High School: 
Francis Grimes; by White Hall Round Table: Charles Martin. 

CLAY CITY, IND.— By Betsy Ross Club: Robert Andrew, 
Edwin Shonk, Samuel Knipe, Jacob Miller, Russell McGriff, 
Albert Werremeyer. 

EBENEZER, IND— By Miss Cora Grapy : Elmer Andrews. 

ELIZABETHTOWN, IND— By Women's Welfare Club: 
Kent Voyles. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— By Country Club: Lieut. H. C. 
Colburn, McCrea Stephenson, Reginald Wallace Hughes ; by 
Arsenal Technical High School: Alfred Sloan, Franklin Burns, 
Ralph Burns, Ralph Gullett. 

MUNCIE, IND.— By St. John's Universalist Church: J. R. 
Hummel. 

COUNCIL BLUFFS, IOWA.— By Second Presbyterian 
Church : Lieut. Richard E. Cook, The Honor Roll. 

HARTFORD, KY— By Mrs. S. O. Keown : Boys from Ohio 
County, Kentucky. 

PADUCAH, KY.— By Robert E. Lee School: Norman E. 
Lovell, Harry Cornwell. 

HARWICK, MASS.— By Park Commissioner: Leslie M. 
Clark, Valmer H. Bassett, Earle M. Chase, Clarence L. Berry, 
Josiah D. Nickerson. 

MARBLEHEAD, MASS.— By Tree Warden Stevens: Lieut. 
Charles H. Evans, Irving E. Brown, John A. Rouiily, William 
I' larry. ) 



RANDOLPH, MASS.— By Stetson High School: Lieut. John 
B. Crawford, Thomas D. McEnelly, Daniel J. McNeill, Lieut. 
Thomas W. Desmond, Charles G. Devine. 

READING, MASS.— By Reading Park Commission: Ernest 
H. Leach, Clarence S. Eaton, Lieut. Edward J. Haines, Stan- 
wood E. Hill, Thomas E. Meuse, Timothy E. Cummings, Wil- 
liam A. Riley, Corp. Edward Walsh, Ralph E. Morey, William 

A. White, Sgt. -Major William G. Britain, Jr., Carl L. Coombs, 
Sgt. Chester G. Hartshorne. 

EAST LANSING, MICH— By Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege: R. S. Welsh, I. D. MacLachlan, F. E. Leonard, W. R. 
Johnson, L. Crone, A. F. Edwardsen, W. T. McNeil, H. J. 
Sheldon, T. W. Churchill, E. E. Ewing, N. F. Hood, D. Mc- 
Millan, E. E. Peterson, F. I. Lankey, D. A. Miller, L. P. Harris, 
S. D. Harvey, H. R. Siggins, L. J. Bauer, G. W. Cooper, F. H. 
Esselstyn, L. K. Hice, C. M. Leveaux, G. S. Monroe, J. S. 
Palmer, W. H- Rust, O. N. Hinkle, O. C. Luther, L. T. Perrottet, 

B. F. Smith, G. J. Williams, H. B. Wylie, E. Halbert, S. R. 
McNair, W. B. Lutz, O. W. Wissmann. 

LANSING, MICH.— By Eclectic Society of M. A. C. : George 
Monroe, Hugh Wiley, Samuel McNair. 

MOUND, MINN.— By Public Schools : George Kohler, Mar- 
tin Shabert. 

LAUREL, MISS.— By Dr. W. P. Davis: Lieut. Marvin 
Stainton, D. S. C. 

BOWLING GREEN, MO.— By Reading Club: Erritt Sidwell. 

FORT OMAHA, NEB.— By United States Army Balloon 
School : Maurice A. Reed, Oscar F. Lindh, Frank A. Kaczkow- 
ski, Frederick T. Kaulitz. 

CAMDEN, N. J. — By Whitman Improvement Association : 
Walt Whitman. 

ELIZABETH, N. J.— By School No. 15: Theodore Roosevelt, 
Vincent Carroll. 

RAHWAY, N. J.— By Mrs. Leillie Burt: John Franklin Burt. 

BROOKLYN, N. Y— By American Association for Planting 
and Preservation of Trees : Louis Goldberg. 

MOUNT VERNON, N. Y.— By Jefferson School: Theodore 
Roosevelt. 

SYRACUSE, N. Y— By Oakhurst Grammar School: How- 
ard Levy. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO— By Cummins School: Robert Schro- 
der; by Linwood School: Albert Mider, Grant Long; by Gen- 
eral Protestant Orphan Asylum : Charles Banger, Charles 
Stratmeyer. 

COLUMBUS, OHIO— By the Altrurian Club: Sgt. W. E. 
Wolfersberger. 

NEW LEXINGTON, OHIO— By Mr. A. D. Fowler, Scout 
Master : Theodore Roosevelt. 



"ROADS OF REMEMBRANCE 



•n 



IN THE days when all Gaul was divided into three 
parts the wise men knew the value of good roads. 
The Appian Way, built in 312 B. C, is still an ex- 
cellent highway and France today has good roads, for 
she began building them in 1556. In 1820 Macadam, the 
English highway engineer, introduced his methods into 
France. In this country, however, the good roads idea 
had to pass through the "crank" stage and then the "en- 
thusiast" stage until now the country has a road building 
program under way that will cost about a half billion 
dollars, counting state and federal activities. Good roads 
have suddenly become a business proposition and they 
should also become a basis for the beautification of the 
country and something more than a strip of concrete 
baking in the sun in summer and smothering in the snow 



bridges and libraries, all to be included in one country- 
wide plan or unit. 

Here in our own country Minneapolis has the greatest 
plans for a memorial drive under way, for the Board of 
Park Commissioners there is planning for fifty years 
from now. Theodore Wirth, the superintendent, is go- 
ing ahead with plans by which he claims Minneapolis 
will have one of the show places of the American conti- 
nent in 1950. Improvement of the Glenwood-Camden 
Parkway has been begun and C. M. Loring, "the father 
of the park system of Minneapolis," has set aside 
$50,000 for the care of the trees. The vase type of elm 
is to be used and these trees are now being shaped in 
the nurseries in order to be ready for planting in the 
spring of 1921. There will be six rows of trees for 




DEDICATION CEREMONIES 

Thirty-six trees were planted at the Michigan Agricultural College in honor of the graduates who gave their lives in the war. A memorial tablet 

imbedded in a big boulder was unveiled. 



drifts in the winter. To avoid this the American For- 
estry Association has pointed, as a solution, to "Roads 
of Remembrance" — the planting of memorial trees, 
memorial groves and even memorial forests at such places 
as are deemed best. We hear much of memorials but 
why not let memorial of stone wait until the proper set- 
ting along a "Road of Remembrance" can be found? 
Memorial tree planting on a big scale is planned accord- 
ing to William Carroll Hill, secretary of the Pilgrim 
Tercentenary Commission, in connection with the three 
hundredth anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims' 
in 1920. Daniel Boone died in 1820 and as there 
is now a Boone Memorial Highway the American 
Forestry Association has suggested that memorial trees 
be planted along the road to mark the centenary. There 
are several proposed highways in honor of Colonel 
Roosevelt, the leading apostle of the great outdoors. In 
Great Britain memorial plans are of the widest scope, 
for they include housing, "Roads of Remembrance," 



nearly two miles and four rows of trees for one mile. 
The trees will be planted 60 feet apart in both directions. 
Cincinnati, too, has under consideration a wonderful 
plan for a memorial drive that includes the widening of 
Fifth Street in the down-town section, and connecting 
up with a boulevard now in existence. James P. Orr, 
who, with F. W. Garber, the architect, was first to sug- 
gest the plan is enthusiastic for memorial tree planting. 
In Canada, the Ontario Highway Association has plans 
up for a highway from Ottawa to Sarnia, across the 
river from Port Huron, where the Victory Highway 
cuts across Michigan. This in turn connects with the 
Lincoln Highway which crosses the Jefferson Highway 
near Ames, Iowa. The Jefferson Highway runs from 
New Orleans to Winnepeg. Thus it will be seen there 
are great possibilities for memorial tree planting along 
an international drive. The tree planting in Michigan 
is assured and the stretch of the Jefferson Highway in 



1334 



"ROADS OF REMEMBRANCE" 



1335 



Louisiana has been planted with Victory Oaks. Governor 
Pleasant of Louisiana, and a party of motor enthusiasts, 
have just completed a run from New Orleans to Winnepeg. 
Memorial tree planting this fall will be done on a bigger 
scale than ever before. Inquiries have been coming into 
the Association for three months in regard to proper plant- 
ing and the registration of the trees on the national honor 
roll. From every section of the country requests are coming 
for the bronze marker to identify the individual tree. East 
St. Louis has big plans under way for tree planting, and 
plans are going forward to interest the entire city by plant- 
ing memorial trees and thus allowing the citizens themselves 
to have a big part in beautifying the city. Mayor Henry B. 
Chase of Huntsville, Alabama, has just informed the Asso- 
ciation that the 
Grace Club, of 
which Mrs. 
Owen Graham 
is president, 
plans a memori- 
al avenue for 
fifty-four boys 
from that coun- 
ty who lost their 
lives. The town 
of South west 
LaGrange, Geor- 
gia, has memori- 
al tree planting 





plans under way, so Mayor C. O. Coleman ad- 
vises. The Bingham, Mexico Chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, of which 
Mrs. S. J. Whitney is the regent, has planted a 
large number of memorial trees. The Michigan 
Agricultural College has dedicated 36 trees in 
honor of men from that school and Prof. A. K. 
Chittenden has sent in the names for enrollment. 
The city of Dallas will take up memorial tree 



Tbe picture In the center is of the famous elm at Huntington, Indiana, which was saved by changing the plans of the Christian Science Church 
there. The picture in the oval and the one below, by the Times-Star, show the possibilities of a "Road of Remembrance" planted with Memorial 
Trees, similar to the plan Cincinnati now has under consideration. 



1336 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



planting on a big scale, Alfred MacDonald reports, and 
the Evening Post, of Worcester, Massachusetts, has taken 
up the campaign there for a memorial grove. Prof. F. A. 
Boggess, of the University Hall School, of Boulder, Colo- 
rado, reports a very interesting program in connection 
with the dedication of a memorial tree in honor of four 
former students who gave their lives to their country. 
An avenue of flags leading to the tree was a unique fea- 
ture of the program in which the pupils took part. 
Schools and colleges are taking up memorial tree plant- 
ing extensively not only in honor of students and gradu- 
ates but to mark their own graduation. Thus it will be 
seen these classes will have trees of their own to come 
back to at the reunions held ten and twenty years later. 
Lester Park, the most beautiful and best known park 
in Ogden, Utah, was, in April, the scene of a very un- 
usual ceremony in the annals of the Forest Service. The 
members of the office of the District Forester, located in 
that city con- 
gregated in the 
park for the 
purpose of ob- 
serving Arbor 
Day and to 
pay respect to 
the memory of 
three co-work- 
ers in Forestry 
who sacrificed 
their lives in 
the world con- 
flict. Forest of- 
ficers are par- 
ticularly inter- 
ested in the 
planting of and 
caring for liv- 
ing trees, and 
a fitting meth- 
od of honoring 
them was believed to be in planting trees, since two of 
the men had especially fitted themselves for this particu- 
lar line of work and the other was an active member 
of the Forest Service at the time of his death. These 
three men were Captain Homer S. Youngs, Lieutenant 
Hubert C. Williams and Forest Ranger Rudolf E. Mel- 
lenthin. The first two died in France and the last was 
killed while arresting a draft evader. 

District Forester L. F. Kneipp, who made the principal 
address, said in part: 

"There are few things that man can do to show his 
faith, his gratitude and his ideals which are more simple 
than the planting of a tree — and yet, there are few things 
that are more effective. A tree is a living memorial, often 
more enduring than marble or bronze. A tree is a thing 
of beauty and of inspiration ; a living token of the wonder 
and glory of nature; a symbol of service. 

"For the life of a tree is a life of service. It gives a 
touch of beauty to a barren waste ; it enriches the ground 
upon which it stands and protects it from the destructive 
elements ; it affords the birds of the air a nesting place and 




MEMORIAL TREES PLANTED FOR FORESTRY BOYS 



kneipp, Assistant District Foresters Fenn, Morse, Metcalf and Woods and other 
members of the United States Forest Service observing Arbor Day and commemorating fallen heroes by 



K, 



District Forester 

members of the United States Forest Servici 

planting black walnut trees in Lester Park, Ogden, Utah. 



shelter from the storms; it tempers the keen edge of the 
blizzard and the blasting touch of the drouth ; its buds and 
its leaves are marvels of decorative beauty, and its fruits a 
source of sustenance and life. Even the end of life is not 
the end of a tree's service ; to the contrary, the end of life 
opens new fields of service and utility which add immeasur- 
ably to our civilization and our culture and our happiness. 
"Because this is true, it follows naturally that one who 
loves trees must love beauty and unselfishness ; must cherish 
high ideals and lofty traditions. The mere planting of a 
tree is an example of unselfish service, for few men can 
live to enjoy the full fruit of their labor and none can help 
but share the reward with their fellowmen. 

"It is not surprising that when the call came to save the 
world from the threat of barbarism the men who loved 
trees, who worked among trees, were quick to respond. It 
is not surprising that men like Youngs and Williams and 
Mellenthin gladly sacrificed themselves that their ideals 
might endure, ideals that to them meant more than life itself. 
'"Nothing that we can do to honor their memory; to 
display our gratitude and appreciation, could be more fitting 

than that which 
we are doing to- 
day. May we 
not hope that 
these trees we 
are planting here 
will stand for 
generations, liv- 
ing m e m o r ials. 
not only to these 
men who made 
the supreme sac- 
rifice, but also to 
the ideals which 
they cherished 
and for which 
they gave their 
lives?" 

At the con- 
clusion of Mr. 
Kneipp's ad- 
dress, a black 
walnut tree 
was- planted in 
memory of 
each of the three men and a short history of the life of 
each was given by a member of the Service. 

The people of the country are all interested in trees as 
never before. Through tree planting they will see the 
value of groves, through groves they will see the value of 
forests, through forests they will quickly see the value of 
a national forest policy. The ground work for big things 
is being put in place by the Association. Every member 
can have an important part in this work by co-operating. 
Tell your friends of the work of your association. Keep 
your editors informed. Take the lead in tree planting 
in your own community. The American Forestry Asso- 
ciation has ready an ideal program for a tree planting 
day and wherever you see such activities planned, inform 
those in charge that your association will be glad to help 
in every possible way. Each member will get out of the 
association just what she or he puts in it. The oppor- 
tunity for returns in satisfaction, in the promotion of the 
community spirit which bloomed during the war, and in 
the betterment of your country, were never greater than 
in co-operation at this time in the work the American 
Forestry Association has before it. Let there be many 
trees as a memorial to your endeavors. 



A NATIONAL FOREST POLICY 



AMERICAN FORESTRY MAGAZINE HEREWITH PUBLISHES SOME MORE OPINIONS REGARDING THE NEED OF A NATIONAL 
FOREST POLICY AND THE KIND OF A FOREST POLICY PROPOSED BY UNITED STATES FORESTER, HENRY S. GRAVES. COL. 
GRAVES' OUTLINE OF THE PRINCIPLES OF SUCH A POLICY WAS PRINTED IN THE AUGUST ISSUE OF THE MAGAZINE. 
FORESTERS, LUMBERMEN AND TIMBERLAND OWNERS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY HAVE BEEN INVITED BY THE AMERICAN 
FORESTRY ASSOCIATION TO EXPRESS THEIR VIEWS ON THIS VITALLY IMPORTANT SUBJECT.— Editor. 



FOREST ECONOMICS : SOME THOUGHTS ON AN OLD SUBJECT 

BY WILSON COMPTON 
SECRETARY-MANAGER, NATIONAL LUMBER MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION 



NO well-informed American denies the need for a 
national plan for efficient forest utilization and 
adequate replacement of timber. But this is only 
the statement of a problem, not of its solution. Although 
there may be general agreement as to the nature of the 
problem, a veritable encyclopedia of argument and dis- 
cussion might not suffice to secure agreement as to the 
answer. 

Most of the public discussion of Forest Policy has 
heretofore originated among the foresters. Some of the 
policies publicly advocated may represent the general 
opinion of the profession. "Public opinion," however, we 
have learned, is not the opinion of the most people but the 
opinion of those who talk the most, or the loudest. It is 
therefore of doubtful propriety to attribute to the pro- 
fession as a whole the sensationalism and faddism of a 
few men having apparently no permanent attachment to 
a substantial forestry enterprise, whose concepts of forest 
economics are apparently quite unsoiled by contact with 
the facts of industry, and whose self-constituted inter- 
pretation of the public interest is vague and mocking. 

As a plain citizen, interested in whatever will promote 
national welfare, I am glad to contribute what I can to 
clearing away the haze which, it seems to me, has for 
years enveloped the discussion of future forests and 
timber supplies, in relation to the industrial life of 
America. In the discussions of this in recent years, it 
seems to me, a number of points have frequently been 
overlooked and other points of doubtful validity have 
been sometimes taken for granted. 

A mere enumeration of these with a brief and rather 
abrupt explanation is all that a short space will permit. 
The future permanent supply of standing timber as a 
raw material for industry is a problem of economics. 
How much timber, what kinds of timber, where it should 
be located, what lands should be timbered, and how the 
timber should be used, cannot be determined by applying 
principles of forestry. These questions will be cor- 
rectly answered only by appeal to the experience of 
business and industry, in the light of all the complex 
economic needs of the nation and in consideration of the 
experiences of other countries under similar circum- 
stances. When the nation's timber needs have been 
determined — then the principles of forestry correctly 
applied may show how these needs can best be met. 



Whether or not it is good forestry to have forests for 
the sake of having trees, it is not good economics. 
Forestry cannot safely construct its own kind of eco- 
nomics without considering the nation's needs for the 
products of all other industries, which are taken from 
the same land which might otherwise grow trees, and 
which are made by the same labor which might other- 
wise make wood products — and then assert that a pro- 
gram of forest renewal based thereon is a correct inter- 
pretation of the public interest. 

Fourteen Points to Consider. 

To anticipate the probable denial by some reader that 
the points here commented upon have ever been advocated 
by any conservationist or by any forester, I wish to say 
that each one has been advocated to me either in personal 
conversation or in correspondence. I have never had, 
however, the impression that the views held by some 
"conservationists" and some foresters actually represent- 
ed the views of their respective professions as a body. 

1. Possession of cheap and plentiful timber is not 
necessarily a symptom of national wealth. 

The great forests of original timber did and do add greatly to 
national wealth. But a permanent policy that would perpetuate 
the original quality of merchantable timber or any large propor- 
tion of it might, and probably would, involve a national waste 
through employing soil, capital and labor for a less profitable 
use when a more profitable use was available. Low prices for 
forest products at the expense of relative scarcity and high 
prices for other commodities is not safe public economy. 

2. Removal of original forests from the soil of the 
United States without provision for forest renewal on 
most of the land thus cleared is not necessarily a national 
misfortune. 

Classification of land in the light of all the complex agri- 
cultural and industrial needs of the nation is basic in any ra- 
tional plan. The scarcity that is most impressive nowadays is 
not the scarcity of trees, but the scarcity of trees near to the 
centers of lumber consumption. But although impressive it is 
not conclusive. It is by no means improbable that a compre- 
hensive survey of the needs of forest industries in the light of 
all other industrial needs would show that the public interest 
will best be served if the permanent commercial stands of timber 
are confined to the mountainous country of the Far West, the 
Appalachian and White Mountain region, and rough country 
elsewhere. It might be exceedingly wasteful, for example, to 
maintain under forest more than a small proportion of the cut- 
over Southern pine lands. Certainly the ambitious South would 
resent an effort to maintain the South permanently as an in- 



1338 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



dustrial frontier, such as has been its substantial status here- 
tofore. 

There is neither reason nor truth in the slogan that: Where 
a tree is cut another tree should be grown. Such a policy, pur- 
sued throughout this land, would entail great waste in the use 
of the nation's resources. It is the thoughtless cry of those who 
believe that nature left unaided and undisturbed should be the 
universal regulator of the economic life of mankind. 

3. The fact that old trees are being cut down faster 
than new trees are growing up does not of itself signify 

public loss. 

It may mean the diverting of some of the productive energies 
of the nation into more profitable channels than would be offered 
by the forest industries. The United States is passing through 
the same evolution of changing lumber requirements experienced 
by many other countries. During the past 15 years the per 
capita annual consumption of lumber has declined from more 
than 500 board feet to approximately 300 board feet, as against 
150 feet in Germany immediately before the war, 102 feet in 
England and 90 feet in France. 

4. The virtual disappearance of certain species of 
timber is not necessarily detrimental to public welfare. 

For commercial purposes many species are readily inter- 
changeable. Practically the same things which are now made 
from a hundred commercial species could be made and the same 
uses and comforts derived therefrom — from a dozen different 
species well selected for permanent growth. The elimination 
from commerce of certain species, provided adequate substi- 
tutes are preserved, would involve no necessary impairment of 
public wealth. 

5. Not only is it not necessarily, but it is not even 
probably true, that all the lands in the United States 
better suited for growing trees than for growing any- 
thing else, should be used for growing trees. 

To use an extreme contrast: If 95 per cent of the land of 
the United States were better suited for pasture land than for 
any other purpose would 95 per cent be used for that purpose 
and we become a nation of herdsmen? Or, if 60 per cent of the 
area of this country were better suited for growing trees than for 
agriculture or stockraising, would 60 per cent be so used and 
the United States then have lumber enough to house five times 
the number of people it could feed? 

But this doctrine is being publicly preached as ideal ! 

6. The disappearance of forest industries in certain 
regions because of exhaustion of nearby timber supplies 
is not necessarily either a local or national misfortune. 

Clearing of the land has frequently paved the way for in- 
dustrial and agricultural expansion which has produced greater 
wealth than did the forest industries in their prime. It would 
be a waste of labor, as well as of capital, to attempt to continue 
an industrial enterprise under conditions which would have re- 
turned, as the result of a day's labor, a product worth only 
$1,000, when the same labor, and the same amount of capital, 
under more favorable available conditions of employment would 
have returned a product worth, say $2,000. 

Surely there is no public economy in making a wasteful use 
of capital and of human effort. Yet this doctrine is being pub- 
licly advocated. 

7. Economically the original timber in the United 
States is in large part a "mine" and not a "crop." 

The business of lumber manufacture is no more the business 
of growing trees than the business of flour milling is the busi- 
ness of growing wheat. Men who buy timber and operate saw. 
mills are not foresters any more than persons who buy coal 
lands and operate mines are geologists. The business of the 
lumber manufacturer is to make boards out of trees and if he 



does that well he is performing the best public service that his 
industry can render. 

It is not his business to make more trees out of which some 
one else some day may make more boards. By fortuitous cir- 
cumstance the lumber manufacturer is likewise usually an 
owner of land, some or all of which may have greatest ulti- 
mate usefulness in reforestation. But this ownership of po- 
tential forest land does not put the owner under obligation — 
moral, social or legal — to undertake the growing of trees when 
to do so would be unprofitable, any more than the ownership of 
potential farm land obliges the owner to raise farm crops when 
he could do so only at a loss. 

If the growing of timber is an appropriate private enterprise, 
which I doubt, the interest of the public (provided it is well 
informed) in the maintenance of permanent timber supplies will 
find expression in some form which will result in economic 
conditions making profitable private enterprise in growing 
timber. If it is not an appropriate private enterprise the sooner 
adequate provision is made for doing it as a public enterprise 
the better. Public agencies would under such conditions ex- 
perience no difficulty in acquiring from present owners the 
lands appropriate for use in reforestation. 

Public indifference and inactivity cannot, however, encumber 
the private owner of timber lands with the responsibility for, or 
expense of, doing something the public should do, but does not. 

8. Local shrinkage of employment for labor, caused 
by vanishing forest industries in certain regions, has 
been by no means an unmixed evil for labor. 

Employment at higher wages has usually been secured by re- 
moval to similar industries in other regions, or to other in- 
dustries in the same region, the higher prices for the products 
resulting from increasing scarcity of raw material, making the 
payment of higher wages possible. Temporary dislocation of 
labor has always accompanied at some stage the industrial use 
of exhaustible natural resources. 

9. The idleness of some of the cut-over timber lands 
is the inevitable temporary result of clearing the forests 
from lands upon which maintenance of permanent forest 
growth would be poor public economy. Agriculture, 
stockraising or other purposes will eventually absorb 
these lands. 

10. The idleness of other of the cut-over timber lands 
is the inevitable result of clearing the forest from lands 
upon which regrowing of a new forest would be poor 
private economy. 

If the public needs these lands to be reforested before the 
time when enlightened self-interest — which is the essential 
driving force of all business and industry — induces the private 
owner to engage in timber growing, the public should itself 
engage in reforestation of lands appropriate therefor. 

11. The owner of private property in timber lands 
legally acquired is under no different or greater obliga- 
tion to use his land permanently to grow timber than the 
owner of agricultural land is to use the land to grow 
crops if the growing of crops is unprofitable. The public 
need for food is at least no less than the need for lumber. 
Lands on stony hillsides in remote New England are 
scratched into agricultural productivity which would not 
be even sniffed at in the more fertile country of the 
Middle West. 

12. The legal obligation upon the owner of property, 
an obligation that is universal and should be enforced, 
so to use it as to do no damage to another's property and 
to do no public injury, does not include an additional 



A NATIONAL FOREST POLICY 



1339 



obligation to make a specific positive use of it such as 
may benefit the public at large although at individual 
loss to himself. 

Failure to reforest cut-over lands is not to do a public injury. 
On the contrary, private reforestation enterprises today on most 
of the cut-over land would, on the whole, be a public loss because 
it would involve a relative wasteful use of the nation's resources 
of labor and capital. 

13. If the public is interested in any use of timber 
lands or of cut-over lands different from that which the 
enlightened self-interest of the owner may dictate, the 
public which is the beneficiary should pay the additional 
cost. 

A single class of private property may not be singled out to 
sustain a burden, in behalf of the public as a whole, which is not 
imposed upon other classes of private property. 

14. The maintenance in idleness of cut-over land is 
declared to be wasteful. 

The larger truth would seem to be that it is wasteful to main- 
tain cut-over land in such state of idleness as does not furnish 
safeguard against fire and ravage which destroys the natural 
reproduction of desirable species. 

The idleness itself is not always wasteful. In many instances 
the expenditure of labor upon such land to return it to produc- 
tive uses is still more wasteful because it withdraws the labor 



thus expended from other fields to which it could have been 
more profitably devoted. 

Timber and forest economics cannot be dissociated from 
the intricate and everchanging economic relations of all in- 
dustry. But it would seem safe to assume that protection 
against fire and ravage made universal and uniform among all 
timber properties, so as to involve no unequal burden upon any 
competitor, will be adequate to guarantee, by natural replace- 
ment, the future of the timber supply at least till such time as 
the permanent forest needs of the United States, and the most 
economical way of supplying those needs, can be made more 
apparent. 

A uniform national policy of forest protection and of public 
acquisition of cut-over lands appropriate for permanent foresta- 
tion should be adequate and practicable. But the duty of the 
public should be not confused with the public obligation of pri- 
vate industry. The specific public obligation of the lumber in- 
dustry is to do well its task of making and selling boards. 
Along with all others in the nation it shares in the obligation 
to provide adequate forests for future industry. But this is an 
obligation common to all and not exclusive upon the lumber 
industry or upon present owners of its raw material. Being so, 
the burden of provision for the future should be borne by the 
public which will profit therefrom, and not by a single industry; 
lest thereby it undermine the very industry whose future it seeks 
to safeguard. Economic forces which rule all productive activ- 
ities will overwhelm a forest policy set up in defiance of them. 



MANDATORY CONTROL OPPOSED 
BY E. A. STERLING, FOREST ENGINEER 



|"T seems to me that a discussion of Col. Henry S. 
*■ Graves' "Principles of Legislation" necessary for the 
enforcement of a national forest policy is premature and 
that the fundamentals of the situation should first be 
clearly established. 

In taking this attitude I want to emphasize that the 
desirability of a sound, national forest policy is fully 
appreciated, and that whatever is said is in keeping with 
the request for frank comments and with a sincere desire 
to assist in developing the subject. The complexity of 
the problem is also realized, and it is largely for this 
reason that I believe- the first step should be the estab- 
lishment of basic principles, which are sufficiently sane 
and obvious to be generally accepted, rather than the 
creation of arbitrary provisions based on proposed 
legislative action, which it would be extremely difficult 
to attain unless it was accepted and approved by all 
concerned. 

While this is in no sense an attempt to outline the 
fundamentals, I will attempt to summarize below a few 
of the points which seem pertinent. 

1. It is frequently stated, without explanation or figures, that 
private forest lands must be put under long-time management if 
an adequate timber supply is to be assured. To carry convic- 
tion, and show how much and why this private land is needed, 
would it not be helpful to develop the following: 

(a). The probable lumber consumption at the end of, say 
30 and 40 years and thereafter, based on the curve of past con- 
sumption in relation to the normal increase in population, and 
the replacement of wood by substitutes. 

(b). The sustained annual output from national forests, be- 
ginning, say 30 years hence, when the supply will be much more 
needed than now. 



(c). The prospective future output from state forest lands 
and from the private lands being operated under definite long- 
time management. 

(d). The forest-producing land needed in addition to the 
above, to give an adequate sustained output. 

The object of working out the points under No. 1 and 
its subheadings would be to ascertain as definitely as 
possible the amount of forest-producing private land 
needed to supplement the ultimate supply from sources 
now assured. It is a major premise in any proposition 
to know what is to be accomplished. Having estab- 
lished this, the next step is to find means for its consum- 
mation, which it would seem could be worked out pro- 
gressively as follows : 

A. The acquirement by states, as far as they can be per- 
suaded to do so by publicity and legislation, of the cut-over and 
otherwise unproductive lands, which can be acquired at a rea- 
sonable price and reforested with promise of success. 

B. The much more limited possibilities in the encouragement 
of municipal forests by acquirement, reforestation and otherwise. 

C. The encouragement of private, long-time forest practice 
by reasonable tax legislation and co-operative fire protection, 
wherever feasible. This development has been very slow in the 
past because of the economic factors which prevent the profit- 
able use of capital in such enterprises, but it is reasonable to 
expect that market and general economic conditions in this re- 
gard will change materially in the next 30 years, and that long- 
lived corporations, and particularly wood-consuming organiza- 
tions, will take steps to grow successive forest crops to exactly 
the extent that it can be made profitable. 

D. A continuation and extension of the federal purchase of 
forest lands, both forested and cut-over, and their inclusion 
under an established technical and administrative policy. 

It is my personal opinion that under the existing 
political and economic situation a policy aimed at the 



1340 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



mandatory acquirement of private lands will fail ; ( 1 ) 
because the public has not been convinced that it is 
necessary; and (2) for the reason that sufficiently strong 
opposition would immediately develop to not only defeat 
such a policy, but to jeopardize any forest policy. 

One hears a great deal about the enormous areas of 
cut-over land more suitable for forest growth than agri- 
culture. If this is the case, is it not a logical step to as- 
certain the amount and condition of such land and re- 
deem it before taking over the commercial timber, which 
is to supply the demand for lumber? If the private 
forest lands are to be reduced to a cut-over condition 
before the government, by mandatory action or other- 
wise, steps in and imposes methods and systems which 
will reproduce such forests, why should we not start 
with the lands which are in a cut-over condition today ? 
To be sure, the expense of regeneration would be less if 
the timber was cut more carefully to start with, but if 
we have some 200,000,000 acres which are practically 
unproductive at present, is it not the truest kind of con- 
servation to put this into productivity first? At the 
same time, every possible effort might be made in the 
way of tax and fire legislation to prevent existing forests 
from becoming waste when cut over, this probability 
being helped by increasing lumber and stumpage values. 

A suggestion, which I certainly hope will not be mis- 
understood, concerns the co-operative basis necessary in 



developing an acceptable and practical policy. Since 
private timberland owners are primarily interested in the 
policy which has been outlined in your "Principles of 
Legislation," would not the whole matter be better re- 
ceived, and get a fairer hearing if these private owners 
were consulted and their opinions and co-operation asked, 
both as timberland owners and as citizens, who have the 
best interests of the country at heart? 

The gulf which has always existed between business 
interests and the government, it seems to me, could be 
narrowed in this case if the timber owners were made 
more fully cognizant of the situation as regards a na- 
tional timber supply, and the federal and state officials in 
turn learn of the responsibilities pertaining to the use 
and returns on capital invested in timber. The govern- 
ment official can whole-heartedly consider the best good 
of the people as a whole because his check comes regu- 
larly from the United States Treasury out of funds sup- 
plied by these same people. The business man, on the 
other hand, may be equally interested in public welfare, 
but in order to live and to conserve the capital entrusted 
to his care, must assume responsibilities and follow 
policies which are often criticized because the critics 
have an entirely different point of view. 

This expression of my personal views is in the spirit 
of helpfulness and in keeping with the request for a 
frank discussion. 



PUBLICITY EDUCATION NECESSARY 
BY R. S. MADDOX, STATE FORESTER OF TENNESSEE 



T UNQUALIFIEDLY concur with Colonel Graves' 
■*■ opinion that there must be a strong national policy in 
order to control adequately the great issues confronting 
us today. 

Colonel Graves has covered the main problems in a 
very clear and thorough manner. In connection with 
this big plan I would suggest that in Tennessee and the 
entire south, publicity education direct from the seat 
of the Federal Government, co-operating with the States, 
is necessary in this scheme. Tennessee is not different 
from many other States in permitting the neglect of her 
forested lands and timber problems through lack of knowl- 
edge. A sure sentiment is growing but it needs co-opera- 
tion which culminates in action. This result, I believe, 
will be achieved most rapidly through a systematic co- 
operative campaign between Federal and State Govern- 
ments. 

Reclamation of waste lands in Tennessee is one of the 



big issues in forestry. It is most vital to the State and 
in addition the results from reclamation projects are 
more or less rapid and wholly successful. These ex- 
periments being carried on in different sections with 
individual landowners help to make a substantial senti- 
ment for forestry and thus help other forestry problems 
which we all recognize as of paramount importance. This 
phase of forestry should be included as a specialty wher- 
ever possible in any national policy. 

Stimulation of forestry on lands under private owner- 
ship as stressed by Colonel Graves cannot be too much 
emphasized as applied to Tennessee. Here, with the 
exception of State and Federal owned lands compara- 
tively small in acreage, the holdings are in the hands of 
individuals and companies. These privately owned lands 
thus embrace the great bulk of the natural resources and 
should secure, therefore, direct effective co-operative 
assistance from the Federal Government. 



A LUMBERMAN'S VIEWPOINT 
BY EVERITT G. GRIGGS 
PRESIDENT, ST. PAUL & TACOMA LUMBER COMPANY 



I BELIEVE that a national forest policy should be 
established by the co-operation of the Forestry De- 
partment and practical operators who are continually 
facing taxation problems and operating costs. So 



much theory is advanced in matters of this kind that 
men who are engaged in the business become disgusted 
with the plans advanced. It certainly would seem that 
the history of the lumber business, as it has spread across 



A NATIONAL FOREST POLICY 



1341 



the continent, should develop a plan which would protect 
the future supply of our lumber. It is apparent that very 
little will be done in conserving a product that has no 
ultimate value, and the tendency in the past has been to 
criticise lumbermen and operators for organized efforts 
to control the product or secure a price for a commodity 
which is so essential. 

Forestry is practiced in foreign countries, where the 
value of stumpage has reached a point that reproduction 
can be carried out. Where stumpage is so cheap that 
the private operator cannot see any investment value, 
and where the cupidity of the tax gatherer forces sacri- 
ficing the timber in order to meet the needs of the com- 
munity, timber is going to be looked upon as a detriment 
to the land rather than a benefit. 

The State of Washington eliminates speculative values 
in timber, but sells its lands from time to time to oper- 
ators who must remove the timber within a definite 
period, say, one or two years. While this eliminates 
speculative value in purchasing for future rise, yet it 
forces on the market the entire tract after it is purchased. 

In my judgment, the chief problem confronting the 
timber owner today is the matter of taxation, and if this 



could be properly solved and a man who could afford to 
hold timber was enabled to retain it until the demand 
warrants its cutting, a good many of our problems would 
be disposed of. As it is now the timber pays a tax every 
year, and an increasing tax, until it is cut off. No more 
destructive method of timber holdings could be imagined 
than this system. 

It would seem, in view of the fact that there is such a 
wide divergence of opinion as to the actual standing 
timber of the country, that the Government, through its 
Forestry Department, might employ the Aeroplane Serv- 
ice to take views from above of every representative 
stand of timber in the country, and in this way formulate 
a policy and an actual determination as to the value of 
the timber stands throughout the country. There are a 
good many things that require the backing of Uncle 
Sam to finance, and I believe the lumbermen generally, 
at least the progressive ones, will co-operate in every 
way with the agencies of the Government if the problems 
that confront them are approached from a practical 
viewpoint, and not altogether from theoretical or aca- 
demic stands. 



LEASE HOLDS INTERFERE 

BY G. L. HUME 

VICE-PRESIDENT MONTGOMERY LUMBER COMPANY, SUFFOLK, VIRGINIA 



T DO not believe that under the present existing laws 
■*■ and conditions in this section that the proposition for 
such a National Forest Policy as outlined by U. S. 
Forester Graves would be practical, especially in the 
North Carolina pine belt. This is principally due to the 



fact that the majority of the timber is held on lease holds, 
that is, the lumbermen own the timber but not the 
land. In fact, in only a very small per cent of the 
cases do the same parties own both the timber and 
the land in fee. 



NO HALF-WAY POLICIES 
BY J. E. BARTON, COMMISSIONER OF FORESTRY FOR KENTUCKY 



T HAVE read with the keenest interest the address by 
-*- Colonel H. S. Graves on "The National Lumber and 
Forest Policy," delivered before the American Lumber 
Congress at Chicago in April, 1919, and am heartily in 
support of the remedial measures advocated there. No 
half-way policies in connection with the establishment of 
a broad and adequate national and state forest policy 
will meet the situation. It is necessary to formulate a 
stiff program and adhere rigidly to it before any progress 
can be made in legislation which will adequately 'provide 
for the perpetuation of our forest resources as a part of 
the national life of the nation. As has been repeatedly 
stated, the recent war has certainly demonstrated the 
weakness and the incompleteness of the policies and pro- 
grams already in operation. These merely scratch the 
surface and the broad problem of privately owned timber 
lands is not touched. There is no reason, with the amount 
of waste lands at the present time in the individual states 
and in the United States, that sufficient forest reserves 
cannot be provided adequately to assure a sufficient sup- 
ply of timber for the country for an indefinite period, 
but this is going to be possible only through clear-cut, well 

\ 



defined and vigorous legislation on the part of the states 
and the Federal Government, and adequate co-operation 
among all agencies concerned, in seeing that the details 
of such legislation are conscientiously carried out. So 
far as Kentucky itself is concerned, there is already 
plainly evident that the definite change from large perma- 
nently located saw mills, backed by large bodies of timber 
of sufficient size to warrant the expenditure for large 
plants to small minor operations, cutting isolated bodies 
of timber or returning to cut inferior varieties left during 
the initial operations. The interpretation of this situation 
means that the virgin stands of timber have disappeared 
or will be gone in the immediate future. Any program 
looking to the establishment of a policy which will 
assure the timber resources of the country indefinitely 
would involve these features : 

(1) A complete and accurate inventory of the re- 
maining timber resources of the individual states and of 
the nation. 

(2) Extensive investigations in the matters of yield 
and growth, upon which, at the present time, there is, 
over large regions, little or not satisfactory data. 



1342 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



(3) A thorough study of the tax situation, which in 
large numbers of the states makes not only undesirable, 
but in most places impossible, the holding of the timber 
land by private individuals with the view to maintain 
such lands in forest crops. Forest taxation laws, so far 
as feasible, should be uniform throughout the states, and 
certainly throughout definite timber regions, so the same 
advantages may accrue to all individuals throughout 
the region, and certainly throughout the individual states. 

(4) A very definite plan for the purchase of lands 
by the states to be retained as a nucleus for extensive 
state forests in the future, such purchases to be backed 
by adequate appropriations. 

(5) Increase in appropriations on the part of the 
Federal Government for co-operation with the states 
under the Weeks Law, looking to adequate fire protec- 
tion to the forests within the state boundaries. 



(6) Increased purchases on the part of the govern- 
ment in the eastern part of the United States particularly 
of lands for national forests. 

(7) Rigid legislation in regard to the cutting of 
timber, brush disposal, replanting areas suitable for tim- 
ber crops and other measures necessary to the perpetua- 
tion of the forests of the nation. 

(8) Regulation of the disposal of timber more in 
accordance with the law of supply and demand, and less 
in accordance with the exigencies of local conditions in- 
duced by taxation and other features. 

The question of freight rates and transportation loom 
large in the present problem. And such matters as 
organization within the trade to avoid waste, effective 
marketing both at home and abroad and to avoid over- 
cutting of present available supplies demand nation-wide 
study and concerted effort of all interest involved. 



A FOREST POLICY BADLY NEEDED 
BY ELLWOOD WILSON, PRESIDENT CANADIAN SOCIETY OF FOREST ENGINEERS 



A DISCUSSION of the proposals of U. S. Forester 
-^*- Henry S. Graves for a national forest policy is 
most appropriate. 

The time has certainly arrived when the exploitation 
of forest lands must cease and they must be managed for 
sustained yield. The cutting over of timber lands, leav- 
ing them in an unproductive state, cannot be allowed to 
continue. The theory that a man can do what he likes 
with his own property, unless his use of it damages his 
neighbor or the public welfare must be applied to private 
owners of timber. The speculative purchase of virgin 
timber lands, the rush to cut and market the cut, denuding 
the lands and overstocking the markets, may have made a 
few timber "barons" but has in no sense been a benefit 
to the country at large. The time has now come when 
we must imitate the countries of Europe which have 
passed through the same crisis. 

Whether Colonel Graves' program is just the right 
one or not is not certain, but the idea of regulation is 
absolutely right. The timber lands of the country must 
be kept productive and those lands which are suitable 
only for tree growth must be made productive. It is a 



question whether the mere regulation of cutting will 
make such lands productive, probably in many cases 
artificial regeneration must be resorted to, but in any case 
the country at large must take the question up and find 
a solution for it. The most satisfactory plan would be 
for the holders of timber to realize the situation and by 
consultation with foresters initiate steps to perpetuate 
their timber, thus acting not only in their own interest 
but in that of the country at large. 

It would seem that the whole matter was one of 
education and that an intensive propaganda should be 
commenced and carried on. One very good way of 
bringing home to lumbermen the necessity for better 
methods is through the banks which advance them money 
and who hold their bonds and other securities. Boards 
of trade are also interested, also rotary clubs. News- 
papers of course should be reached, especially in locali- 
ties where timber lands are situated. School children 
should be reached not only because they are future 
citizens, but because they often educate their parents. 
Other methods will readily suggest themselves to those 
with experience in such work. 



TERMS USED IN FARM FORESTRY 



T^HE increased interest in the subject of private for- 
-*- estry, particularly with reference to farm forestry, 
has brought about the general acceptance of the term 
"woodland" or "woods" instead of the original one of 
"woodlot." 

A large proportion of the woodland in the eastern 
United States is in irregularly shaped tracts, spreading 
out over ridges, ravines, slopes, swamps and poor lands, 
whereas "woodlot" carries the idea of a small sized, regu- 
larly shaped, and, in a large section of the country, 
fenced tract. When applied to the large or irregularly 
shaped tracts, it is obvious that the word inadequately 
describes the conditions. "Woodlot" probably originated 
in New England and seems fairly well established there. 



So long.as only conditions like those in New England were 
considered, "woodlot" was accepted as adequate, but in 
the last few years farm forestry has been developing 
rapidly throughout the country. The private forestry 
movement is of tremendous importance not only to the 
owner of woodland, but to the whole community in which 
he lives or in which the timber occurs. It is extremely 
desirable that the success of the movement should not be 
hindered by the use in forestry literature of a term which 
does not fit the conditions. 

"Woodland" and "woods" are more satisfactory, more 
expressive, and avoid the possibility of creating confusion 
in the minds of the people over mostsections of the country 
where the word "woodlot" has never been in local use. 



THE USES OF WOOD 

FLOORS MADE OF WOOD 

BY HU MAXWELL 



Editor's Note:— This is the fourteenth story in a series oi important and very valuable articles by Mr. Maxwell on wood and its 
uses. The series will thoroughly cover the various phases of the subject, from the beginnings in the forest through the processes 
of logging, lumbering, transportation and milling, considering in detail the whole field of the utilization and manufacture of wood. 



IN some respects and for some 
has no equal. It is attractive 
able to the touch, contains low 
erties, is nearly 
impervious to 
water, and the 
degree of hard- 
ness or soft- 
n e s s desired 
may be secured 
in a measure 
by careful se- 
lection of the 
wood. Wide 
choice of color 
is possible. The 
material is easy 
to cut and 
work, is fairly 
light, strong 
enough to meet 
most of the de- 
mands likely to 
be made upon 
it, sufficiently 
hard to offer 
necessary re- 
sistance, and 
i t s cheapness 
places it with- 
in the means 
of those who 
need floors. 

The range of 
choice as to 
cost, figure, 
hardness, col- 
or, and dura- 
bility is exten- 
sive. When all 
of these fac- 
tors are con- 
sidered, wood 
is found to 
head the list of 
floor materials 
in this country. 
If it does not 
occupy that 
position in 



The most important fl 
floes not measure with 
is so abundant that it 
to eastern states. 



kinds of floors wood some other countries, it is due to scarcity there. Wher- 
in appearance, agree- ever wood can be had at a reasonable cost, and in 
heat-conducting prop- adequate quantity, and of suitable kinds, it holds first 

place as stock 
of which floors 
are made. The 
principal argu- 
ment against it 
is its tendency 
to burn readi- 
ly. Its use is 
somewhat lim- 
i t e d by fire 
laws in towns 
and cities. 

It has been 
many times 
demonstrated 
that properly 
laid wooden 
block floors re- 
sist fire in a re- 
markable man- 
ner. In t h e 
Baltimore fire, 
pavement of 
such blocks, 
exactly similar 
to those laid in 
floors, passed 
with little in- 
j u r y through 
the conflagra- 
tion. It h a s 
been noted, 
likewise, that 
the overturn- 
i n g of caul- 
drons of molt- 
en metal in 
foundries, 
where floors 
of such blocks 
are in use, do 
less injury to 
the floors than 
would be ex- 
pected. The 
blocks, under 
such circum- 




DOUGLAS FIR FOR FLOORING 

ooring material in the region west of the Rocky Mountains is Douglas fir. It 
some of the eastern flooring woods in hardness, but it is moderately hard and it 
has no rival in the western part of the United States, and it also finds its way 



1343 



1344 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



stances, burn with such extreme slowness that the floor 
is not usually put out of use. 

Wooden floors formed parts of some very ancient 
buildings. Occasionally the floors and roofs were of 
wood while 
other material 
formed the 
walls. Traces 
of wooden 
floors are 
found in some 
of the prehis- 
toric stone 
buildings 
which are sup- 
posed to have 
been erected 
by ancestors of 
Indian tribes 
of New Mex- 
ico and Ari- 
zona. Such 
floors may 
have been only 
poles and small 
logs closely fit- 
t e d together, 
or two or more 
layers crossing 
at right angles ; 
but the floor 
was an essen- 
tial part of the 
architect's plan 
and of the 
builder's work. 

The evolu- 
t i o n of the 
wooden floor 
has been inter- 
esting and its 
history long. 
The neolithic 
man may have 
floored his camp with brush cut with a stone knife and 
spread over the snow or the wet sand to keep his feet 
out of the water or off of the ice. No records of such 
have come down from the stone age, but they doubtless 
existed. Be that as it may, miners in Alaska make brush 
floors yet to hold their feet above the snow, water, and 
slush when they pitch their tents for the night's camp 
during their cross-country expeditions. After packing 
a heavy load on his shoulders all day, or driving a team 
of huskies, the traveler in the far northern country 
selects his night's camping place, and one of the first 
things he does to make his camp ready is to cut spruce 
brush, spread the branches for a floor, start a fire in his 
sheetiron stove, and then remove his boots to give his 
tired feet a rest. The branches keep his feet dry though 




PACIFIC COAST MAPLE 

Most maple flooring is cut east of the Missis- 
sippi river and north of the Ohio. It comes from 
the common sugar tree, generally known as hard 
maple. Some maple flooring is cut on the Pacific 
Coast from the Oregon maple. It is not abundant 
but the flooring is generally satisfactory. It is 
not quite so hard as the eastern maple. 



snow or water may cover the ground beneath. Thus, 
what was probably the oldest pattern of wooden floor in 
the world is still in use, having undergone no change 
since the days of pleistocene men who hunted the saber 
toothed tiger in California and the hairy elephant in 
Siberia. 

The American pioneers floored their cabins with wood 
before they had sawmills for cutting lumber. Most of 
the earliest huts in the forest had puncheon floors, if 
they had any except the ground, for dirt floors were not 

then uncom- 
mon and they 
were used 
when wood 
was abundant. 
The surface of 
the ground 
was smoothed, 
tramped hard, 
and it was fre- 
q u e n 1 1 y the 
only floor the 
cabin knew. 
Rural politi- 
cians of early 
days some- 
times liked to 
parade the in- 
formation that 
they were 
"raised in a 
cabin with a 
dirt floor." 
They seemed 
to imagine that 
it was a credit 
to them, while, 
as a matter of 
fact, it was an 
admission and 
confession of 
ordinary lazi- 
ness, because 
no man had 
any excuse for 
living very 
long in a cabin 
with a dirt 
floor in those 
times and 
places of 
abundant tim- 
ber. 

Punch eon 
floors were 
common. They were made of split logs, flat sides up, 
and smoothed with ax or adz, and fitted edge to edge. 
In the California redwood country, houses somewhat 
pretentious in dimensions were often floored with split 




RKD OAK FLOORING MATF.RIAL 

Manufacturers of flooring find much excellent 
material for their output in the mature trunks 
of northern red oaks. This wood is not usually 
as highly figured as the white oak, but it is 
naturally higher in color and that may offset 
any deficiency in the figures of the quartered 
wood. It is frequently well figured. 



THE USES OF WOOD 



1345 



puncheons, not only the 
first stories, but the second 
as well. Redwood splits so 
perfectly that puncheons a 
foot or more wide and two 
or three inches thick can be 
rived in shape nearly as 
perfect as sawed lumber. 
Jn eastern hardwood re- 
gions, during the years 
when split floors were be- 
ing made, the finest floor- 
ing puncheons were of ash, 
because of the facility with 
which that wood splits. 
Chestnut and oak were also 
favorite puncheon timber. 
Split boards suitable for 
floors were often made into 
doors for the cabins, when 
sawed stock was not con- 
venient. Those who want- 
ed something a little better 
than split puncheons for 
floors, and could not pro- 
cure lumber from a saw- 
mill, had recourse to the output of the whipsaw operated 
by hand power. Floors and doors were the first places 
in cabin building to be filled by sawed lumber. When it 
became more plentiful, the entire cabin was built of it, 
but that was not the case at first. 

It remains true, however, that floors conforming to 
civilized standards were not common till sawed lumber 
became available. The older and ruder wooden floors 
were really makeshifts. Nevertheless, even when after 
sawed lumber was to be had, some preferred to adhere to 
the old punch- 
eon size in 
providing 
flooring lum- 
ber, that is, 
they wanted 
planks as large 
as could be 
had, and some- 
times they 
were much 
thicker than 
necessary. 
Floors strong 
enough for 
factories were 
put in resi- 
dences. At the 
present time, 
flooring lum- 
ber is pre- 
ferred in strips 
from two to 
four inches 




METHODS OF SAWING FLOORING 

Flat grain, edge grain and quarter-sawed stuff all come from the same 
log. The name given the stock depends upon the manner in which the 
boards are cut. Any wood may be quarter-sawed, but better results are 
obtained from oak than from most others, because the quartered grain 
in oak is more easily seen. 




FLOORING ON SEA AS WELL AS ON LAND 

A large bill of lumber is required annually to floor the better class of boats, for all flooring is not 
destined to remain on land. ( Some of the handsomest floors to be seen anywhere are put in vessels, 
and wood gives as good service there as in any other situation. 



wide and an inch or less in 
thickness ; but there was a 
time when the house 
builder imagined that the 
wider the flooring lumber, 
the better. Modern prac- 
tice prefers the narrow 
strips. They give less 
trouble on account of 
shrinking and swelling. 
The openings where the 
strips are joined edge to 
edge take up the swelling 
of the wood in damp 
weather ; and the shrinkage 
in dry weather is distribut- 
ed among the many cracks 
and is not much noticed. 
But the wide flooring 
boards of many years ago 
might shrink or swell half 
an inch per plank, causing 
unsightly cracks to open 
and close with the changes 
of the seasons, or the alter- 
nating wet and dry spells 
of weather. Such behavior did not seem to be regarded 
as a very serious matter then. An old house in Pike 
County, Pennsylvania, was torn down after the pitch 
pine floors had served 160 years and were still service- 
able, and the size of the flooring planks amazed the 
modern mill-men who saw them. The planks were two 
feet wide and an inch and a quarter thick. Such a floor 
would be out of fashion now, though when the old Pike 
County house was built, the wide pine flooring planks 
doubtless excited the admiration of all who saw them. 

The length of 
service to their 
credit is proof 
of the excel- 
1 e n t wearing 
qualities of the 
northern pitch 
pine, a w o o d 
which deserves 
a better repu- 
tation than has 
been accord- 
ed it. 

Most mod- 
ern floors are 
made of woods 
modera tely 
hard. No such 
custom was 
strictly ad- 
h e r e d to in 
former times. 
In the white 



1346 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



pine country many floors were made of that extremely 
soft material. It was a favorite wherever it was 
known. It was convenient, cheap, and it worked easily. 
A similar custom prevailed in far western regions in 
regard to redwood and sugar pine. Convenience, in 




ROUGH FLOORING STOCK 

Seasoning is one of the first and most important processes through which flooring is passed in its 
preparation for the planing mill. It may be dried in kilns in a few days, or it may receive its season- 
ing in the air. That process takes longer but the seasoning by air is always popular. 

many instances, counted for more than the length of 
service that might be expected when the wood was laid 
in floors. Even a floor of white pine would last several 
years, and builders seldom looked farther ahead than that. 

Clear white pine is quite soft and as floors it wears 
rapidly if subjected to much use; but the knots are hard 
and wear slowly. Consequently, white pine floors be- 
come very uneven after a few 
years. Every knot becomes a 
high place and the clear wood be- 
tween wears away, leaving va\- 
leys between the knots. Hard- 
wood floors wear more regu- 
larly. With them less difference 
in hardness exists between the 
knots and the clear wood. 

The usual kind of modern 
floor is known as tongued and 
grooved, or it may be known as 
matched. Such has been in use 
hundreds of years, but there are 
different sorts of tongues and 
grooves. Generally the tongue is 
cut in one edge of the flooring 
piece, the groove in the other, 
and these pieces fit edge to edge. 
Sometimes both edges are 
grooved and a flat dowel, made 

as a separate piece, fits in both and serves as a tongue 
for both. The Egyptians seem to have been acquainted 
with that method of joinery, so it dates back a long time. 
Carpenters and planing mill operators have exercised 
their ingenuity in devising and laying new kinds of floor- 



ing. The chief purpose of all is to provide a floor that 
is practically waterproof, dust proof, airtight, and which 
will remain solid and presentable under heavy wear and 
for a long time. 

Some floors are laid double, the lower being known as 
the sub-floor, while the upper 
layer forms the visible finish. 
The sub-floor is not seen un- 
der ordinary circumstances, and 
the lumber in its construction 
need not be selected with a 
view to its appearance. It is 
not subject to direct wear 
and for that reason the wood 
is not required to be hard, 
though it must be strong enough 
to safely carry all the load 
placed on it. Such is really 
a two-ply floor, and the boards 
of the two plies generally cross 
each other at right angles, or 
obliquely. The top layer is for 
show as well as for service, and 
in most instances a fine hard- 
wood is selected, one that looks 
well and wears long. This floor 
may consist of narrow strips matched side by side and 
end to end, and perhaps of less than half an inch in 
thickness. It is not necessary to use thick lumber for 
this top floor because it is supported by the sub-floor, 
which carries the load. The principal advantage in using 
thin lumber for the upper floor is that it effects a saving 
of valuable wood. The thin shell is sufficient. 




Oti^. 



■\ 




BLOCK FLOOR IN* LARGE FACTORY 

The floor shown in the above illustration is made of redwood blocks of 4x6 inches surface and a depth 
of two and a half inches. It is doing service in a shipbuilding plant on the Pacific Coast. Such 
blocks have become popular in certain kinds of plants where wear is heavy and the elements of decay 
are active. 



Manufacturers and users of flooring lumber make 
much use of the term "grain." That word is common 
with most people who deal with dressed and finished 
lumber. The term is not understood in the same way 
by all people who employ it, but the flooring people give 



THE USES OF WOOD 



1347 



it a precise and definite meaning. Flat grain and edge grain are the 
most common terms. The former is applied to lumber sawed tan- 
gentially, that is, off the side of the log in the same way that the slab 
is taken off. Edge grain flooring is cut radially ; that means, the saw 
is set to cut from the sap to the heart. The same method is known 
as "quarter-sawing." When the sawing is done from the sap to the 
heart, the edges of the annual growth rings are exposed to view in 
the flat surface of the flooring strips, hence the name, edge grain. In 
this instance, "grain" is synonymous with annual ring. When an edge 
grain floor has been laid and is ready for use, the exposed surface, 
that which takes the wear, shows the edges and not the flat sides of the 

growth rings. These rings 
may be visible in the floor 
as one walks across it. 
At any rate, they may 
usually be seen if a care- 
ful examination is made. 
Such is not the case if the 
floor is laid of flat grain 
lumber. It presents a 
different appearance. 

One kind may be pre- 
ferred in one situation, 
another in another. It is 
partly a matter of taste, 
partly a matter of utility. 
Edge grain flooring is 
stronger, harder. and 
wears better, according to 
claims of some ; but this 
claim is at times open to 
question. The kind of 
wood and the rate of 
growth have something to 
do with the appearance of 
the floor. The question as 
to which is the best is still 
unsettled, but if one kind 
were unquestionably bet- 
ter than the other, the pub- 
lic would long ago have 
found it out, and the best 
kind would be in use to the 
exclusion of the other. 





(Courtesy Maple Flooring Manufacturers Ass'n) 

A BEAUTIFUL BEECH 
In 



{Courtesy Maple Flooring Manufacturers Ass'n) 
THE GROWTH OF CENTURIES 

A long, large trunk, clear of brandies, is a guarantee 

tad maturity in maple, and it is from such 

trunks that the highest class of flooring stock is 

ed. Trees which will cut a thousand feet of 
good maple flooring arc ahove the average, though an 

onal tree overruns that figure. 



ii the forest this tree often attains a height of 120 
floors 01 parquetry are to 140 feet, with smoothly rounded bole as sym- 
, -, r l i i • i nietrical as the pillar of a cathedral. The bark is 

DUlIt Ot nlOCKS, Strips, and light gray. The wood is close-grained, hard and 
i , ™, , . , strong and excellent for use as flooring. 

borders. They should 

not be confused with the block floors which are popular in factories. 
'1 hose of parquetry are in the best class and may be quite expensive. 
It would not be wholly inappropriate to call them "wooden tile" floors, 
because in pattern they resemble tile. Woods of different and con- 
trasting colors are selected, because beauty is the object sought in such 
a floor, and it is produced by contrasts and harmony. Nothing would 
be gained if all component parts of such a floor were alike in color. 

The woods may have colors imparted to them by artificial means, 
by employing stains and dyes. As white a wood as holly may become 
a substitute for as black a wood as ebony; birch may take the place 
of red mahogany; and yellow poplar may answer for woods of deep 



1348 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



colors ; but it is better to use woods which naturally have 
the desired colors, because stains and dyes may not pene- 
trate much beneath the surface and after a little wearing 
down by use, the real tones of the woods may appear and 
betray the counterfeit. 

Floors of parquetry may be built in place, block by 
block, strip by strip, and border by border; or they may 
be made in factories, the pieces all matched ready for 
laying in sections. One style of such flooring is called 
wood carpet, 
though it is 
more properly 
a floor -cover- 
ing than the 
floor itself, and 
that is what is 
implied when 
the name car- 
pet is used. 

Some floors 
are not meant 
to resist much 
wear. Quite 
soft woods an- 
swer for such. 
Floors of that 
sort are often- 
est seen in 
large store 
windows in- 
tended for 
show, and in 
alcoves and 
on balconies 
where mer- 
chandise is dis- 
played and few 
persons ever 
walk, except 
window trim- 
mers, decora- 
tors and jani- 
tors. Very soft 
woods like 
white pine and 
basswcod will 
stand all the 
wear to which 
they are com- 
monly liable in 
such situations. 

Factory and 

warehouse floors are of a wholly different kind. They 
must stand rough usage, and the wear is often excessive. 
Heavy trucks and barrows trundle over them, and the 
surface of the boards, if the floors are of lumber, are 
apt to be splintered by the grinding and crushing action 
of wheels, or splintered or dented by the fall of heavy 
bodies. This holds true of warehouses in particular, the 




SOUTHERN TIMBER FOR FLOORING 

Flooring is made in the South as well as in the North, and each kind has a field to fill. The ahove 
picture represents a forest scene in Georgia where trees of different kinds grow intermingled, and among 
them are some possessing great value as flooring stuff. Softwoods and hardwoods grow side by side. 



floors of which must be strong. To secure this condition, 
sometimes the sub-floor is made of planks several inches 
thick, and over this is laid a thinner floor of hardwood 
to receive the immediate wear. By that arrangement, the 
surface is kept fairly smooth. In many instances, the 
flooring in a factory or a warehouse is of edge grain 
lumber, such being less liable than plain planks to split 
and splinter under rough usage. 

Another kind of flooring common in factories, mills, 

breweries, tan- 
neries, and sta- 
bles, is made 
of blocks, set 
in a way to ex- 
pose the end 
grain to wear. 
These blocks 
are similar to 
those used in 
paving streets. 
It is customary 
to set such 
blocks on a 
plank floor as 
a foundation, 
and after the 
blocks are in 
place, they are 
treated with a 
dressing of tar, 
pitch, sand, as- 
phalt, or some 
similar mate- 
rial. This fills 
the interspaces 
between the 
blocks and 
makes the floor 
solid and tight. 
The end- 
grain of the 
blocks forms 
the surface of 
the floor. It 
wears better 
than the side 
of the block, 
because the 
ends of the 
wood fibers 
bruise slightly, 
forming a com- 
pact, felt-like mass, resembling a cushion, and this resists 
wear in a remarkable manner, and at the same time it is 
sufficiently soft to deaden and neutralize the jolts and 
jars caused by passing trucks or by the dropping of 
heavy objects. It is a yielding and semi-noiseless floor, 
and for that reason it is popular for certain kinds of 
buildings. The employment of wooden blocks as flooring 



THE USES OF WOOD 



1349 



material is rapidly extending. Many factory floors are 
constantly damp, which condition is due to the nature of 
the business carried on. Under such circumstances, de- 
cay is liable to attack wood. 

The usual combination of warmth and dampness con- 
duces to speedy decay, unless measures are taken to 
counteract it. Such measures are well understood and 
are within easy reach. They consist of preservative treat- 
ment with certain chemicals, creosote among others, 
which retard the development of decay and prolong the 
floor's period of usefulness. This treatment is possible 
with all wooden floors, but is oftenest met with in those 
made of blocks set on end. The preservative treatment 
is applied to the wood before it is laid in the floor. 
Wood kept always dry has no occasion to be given treat- 
ment to hinder decay, since dry wood does not rot. 
Some woods in their natural state resist decay much 
better than others, when they are employed as flooring 
blocks, and with some of them the application of pre- 
servatives may be dispensed with. Usually woods of 
deep color in their natural state are less subject to decay 
than are those of light color, but this is not a universal 
rule. Among woods which in their natural state resist 
decay well are walnut, locust, redwood, osage orange, 
cypress, heart yellow pine, catalpa, mulberry, mesquite, 
and red cedar. These are suitable for flooring blocks 
for warehouses and factories where the causes of decay 
are active. Other woods may last a long time if given 
the proper preservative treatment. 

All kinds of commercial woods are occasionally em- 
ployed as flooring. None is so soft that it cannot fill 
certain places; none so hard that it is universally re- 
jected. Those as white as balm of gilead and holly fill 
certain places in this industry, as also do those as dark 
as ebony and dialamban. Those light of weight, like 
arborvitae and white pine, are acceptable as floor material, 
and no less so are the heavy woods like lignum-vitae and 
salmon gum. 

It is not possible to quote precise statistics to show the 
kinds of wood made into flooring and the annual output 
of each. Statistics have not been kept in a way to show 
this. Figures relating to flooring production, compiled 
by the government, include certain other products, and 
the totals only are given, the separate items not being 
presented. Tables which contain figures on flooring, 
contain also such items as siding, ceiling, doors, sash, 
blinds, and frames for windows and doors, all thoroughly 
mixed in the totals, and it is now impracticable to sepa- 
rate them. 

It is safe to conclude that the leading floor woods are 
yellow pine, Douglas fir, oak, hard maple, and hemlock. 
Probably half of all the flooring cut in America is made 
from the five here named. But the list of flooring woods 



does not end there. Birch, yellow poplar, beech, chest- 
nut, cypress, gum, and many more meet a large demand. 
Each possesses qualities which give it value. 

Maple is very hard, takes a smooth finish, has no figure 
except the birdseye of an occasional tree. It is among 
the whitest of our woods. Its strength rates very high, 
and its stiffness is excelled by few woods of this country. 
Eight species of maple occur in the United States, and 
probably every one is made into flooring except the vine 
maple, which is too small; but only one of the maples is 
prominent as flooring material. It is the hard maple of 
commerce. The silver maple (often called soft maple) 
is probably second among the maples as wood for floors. 

Most of the fifty-odd oaks in the United States might 
be made into flooring and many of them are so utilized ; 
but most oak flooring is of white oak, of which there are 
several important species. Oak falls below maple in 
hardness, stiffness, and strength ; but it ranks high in 
these three qualities, and in addition, it is always more 
or less figured, and many persons use it because of the 
figure, particularly when quarter sawed. The red oaks 
.are good stuff, but their color is not quite so satisfactory 
as that of white oaks. 

Birch flooring is in a class with sugar maple in hard- 
ness, stiffness, and strength, and two species, yellow and 
sweet birch, supply most that goes to market. Beech 
floors have never been quite so popular as maple and 
birch, but beech is an excellent wood, very hard, stiff, 
and strong, and its tendency to wear smooth makes it 
popular, for dancing floors. In damp situations it stands 
more wear than other woods, and this makes it desirable 
for factory floors. 

The leading pine flooring is manufactured from south- 
ern long-leaf pine, which is hard, strong, and it is often 
figured by growth rings. Douglas fir, from the region 
west of the Rocky Mountains, is now much used for 
flooring, and it measures about with long-leaf pine. 

Red, black, and cotton gums are employed in ware- 
houses and factory floors where heavy planks are used. 
These woods are tough and last well under truck wheels 
and in other situations where rough usage is met. 

Block floors are of pine, fir, and redwood principally, 
but many other woods contribute. 

Perhaps six billion feet of wood are yearly worked 
into floors of various kinds in this country. This total 
is based on estimates and does not represent exact figures ; 
nor does the total include the sills, joists, and other sup- 
porting and supplementary timbers which sustain the 
floors. The relative amounts of hardwoods and soft- 
woods are difficult to estimate; but probably softwoods 
are more than half, the leading softwoods being yellow 
pine, fir, and hemlock, and the principal hardwoods oak, 
maple, beech, and birch. 



EROSION IN THE APPALACHIAN AND PIEDMONT REGIONS 



BY R. O. E. DAVIS 



THROUGHOUT the South Atlantic States the exces- 
sive erosion of the soil is probably more marked 
than in any other section of the country. The re- 
sults of this excessive erosion are worst in the Piedmont 
section of the coast states. There are many factors in- 
fluencing the rate of erosion, but the character of the soil 
causes a marked difference in the rates of erosion under 
the same conditions. 

The heavy clay soil of the region erode fairly rapidly 
developing the shoestring type of gully with rounded 
edges. Where 
soils somewhat 
lighter with a 
higher percent- 
age of sand 
parti cles in 
them are en- 
countered, the 
type of erosion 
is that of the 
gully with ver- 
tical sides, or 
the caving gul- 
ly type. Differ- 
ences in the 
soil and subsoil 
influence pro- 
foundly the 
c h a r a cter of 
erosion. Silty 
soils or clayey 
soils with sub- 
soils of a sandy 
c h a racter ex- 
hibit the most 
rapid and most 
difficult c o n - 
trolled erosions. 

The regions of the South subject to excessive erosion 
are in a number of soil provinces, but the greatest amount 
of eroded soil occurs within the Appalachian and Pied- 
mont regions. It is in the Piedmont Plateau, near the 
"Fall line," that the greatest difficulty is experienced in 
dealing with erosion. The Fall line forms the boundary 
between the Appalachian and Piedmont provinces and it 
is here that the rapids occur in the various streams in 
their course from the mountains to sea. 

The soils of the entire section are mainly residual, i. e., 
derived from the underlying rock and in general the 
topography of the region conforms to the structural char- 
acter of the underlying layers. While erosion has affect- 
ed the relation between the surface form and rock con- 
figuration locally, especially in the southern portion of 




CLEAR AND STRIKING EVIDENCE OF WHAT EROSION WILL DO 



A gully in the lowlands has gradually eaten its wa 
rain adds to the length 



the region, the main ridges correspond with the position 
and the prevailing northeast and southwest direction of 
the more resistant rocks. 

In localities where the surface is smooth the soils lie 
directly over the rock from which they are derived, but 
on slopes a considerable movement to lower levels has 
taken place mainly through the action of water. Outcrop 
of rock is frequent, but by far the larger part of the area 
is covered with a soil mantle of sufficient depth for the 
support of forests. Much of it is so steep that it is not 

s u i table for 
cultivation, and 
is best adapted 
to forests, graz- 
ing or small 
fruit pro duc- 
tion. The prin- 
cipal soils are 
the loams, clay 
loams, silt 
loams, sandy 
loams, clays, 
fine sandy 
loams and stony 
loams. 

In the south- 
ern Appalach- 
ian region the 
forests on the 
hill and moun- 
tain sides have 
maintained an 
open and por- 
ous soil; kept in 
this c o ndition 
by the cover- 
Each ; n g £ leaves 
and debris of 
the forest. The rains falling on the forest floor never 
reach the soil with unbroken force, so that the finer soil 
particles are not pounded and stirred and carried off in 
the water which flows over the surface. The velocity 
of the moving water is so reduced that where the forest 
covering is intact erosion is almost a negligible quantity. 
Where this rate of erosion is slow there has been estab- 
lished gradually a state of equilibrium between the slopes 
and rainfall. This slope remains practically constant for 
very long periods if the conditions are not changed. 
There is a slow movement of material, but this is not 
sufficient to disturb the general contour or to injure the 
vegetal covering. Only occasional cloud-bursts or ex- 
ceedingly heavy rains produce a visible effect on the 
soil surface conditions. 



y back into the hill of this Georgia pine forest, 
and breadth of the gulch. 



1350 



EROSION IN THE APPALACHIAN AND PIEDMONT REGIONS 



1351 



It is true throughout the 
Appalachian region that the 

streams which flow from 
the wooded mountains car- 
ry very little sediment. 
Even the cases in which 
such streams appear turbid, 
much of the suspended mat- 
ter is of organic origin. It 
is also characteristic of 
such streams that they rise 
more slowly after a storm, 
remain in flood for a longer 
period of time, and fall 
more slowly than similar 
streams in non-wooded 
areas. The Geological Sur- 
vey has pointed out the 
characte ristics of such 
streams in the Appalachian 
region of North Carolina 
and Tennessee. Cane River 
from Mount Mitchel and 
streams in the Lake Toxa- 
way section never become 
muddy, although often 
greatly swollen from con- 
tinued rains. These streams 
are in equilibrium with the land through which they 
flow. This equilibrium will be disturbed only by clear- 
ing the land, which causes a change in the relation of 
surface slope to stream gradient. 

It is not un- 
common to find 
the contrast to 
this condition 
in loca 1 i t i e s 
where the for- 
est has been de- 
pleted eit h e r 
partly or com- 
pletely by lum- 
bermen. Often 
in the snagging 
of logs the 
trenches form- 
e d f u r n i s h 
drains down 
which the ac- 
cumulated 
water rushes 
With great ve- 
locity. It is the 
work of a very 
short time to 
cut these 
trenches into 
g u Hies which 
often devastate 





A 




Ti 

k 







THE SACRIFICE OF THE TREES 

A small wash too long neglected in a soil especially, susceptible to erosion 
has resulted in a gulch which even the fine forest of Georgia pine cannot 
stop. _ With every storm some mighty tree becomes a sacrifice to the 
appetite of this voracious monster. 




THE GULCH APPROACHES-THREATENING DESTRUCTION 

The removal of the forest covering has resulted in the formation of a gulch which has already forced its 
way across the road and is threatening to swallow up this farmhouse. 



great areas. Frequently in 
the Piedmont region the 
erosion begins near the low- 
lands and, in certain types 
of soil, gullies are develop- 
ed that extend for great dis- 
tances even into the forests. 
In some sections of the 
Appalachian region where 
the forest has been remov- 
ed from the mountains or 
steeper hillsides, denudation 
has taken place until good 
sized areas of the under- 
lying, bare rock are expos- 
ed. Much of the mountain- 
ous land is too steep for 
cultivation. The removal 
of the forest is due mainly 
to lumbering operations. It 
is this type of activity that 
is most destructive. The 
trees are cut without much 
regard to size or position 
and as soon as the lumber 
has been obtained the lum- 
bermen move on to fresh 
fields, with ruthless disre- 
gard to the later effects on the land recently divested of 
its forest covering. 

In the Piedmont section the more devastating effects 
from erosion occur because this land is not too steep for 

cultivation and 
there has been 
extensive clear- 
ing of the land. 
The soils are of 
the same origin 
and very simi- 
lar to the soils 
of the Appala- 
chian region 
proper, so that 
from the re- 
sults apparent 
in one region 
can be determ- 
ined largely 
what will he the 
outcome of ex- 
tensive clearing 
in the other. 

The type of 
soil has a great 
influence on the 
rapidity with 
which bad ef- 
fects from ero- 
s i o n become 



1352 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



evident. It is possible on some types of soil, most notably 
the heavier clays, to cultivate on rather steep hillsides 
without serious damage from erosion. But even here 
continual vigilance is necessary to avoid the ultimate ruin 
of the land. On soils of a lighter character, or loamy 
condition, erosion is very destructive if once the land be- 
comes gullied. On the other hand, soil of an open, porous 
nature is easily dealt with if the proper precautions are 
maintained to stop any indication of surface washing. 
The fact that stream flow is greatly influenced by the 
presence of forests is so well known that it is almost 
trite to refer to it. However, when we consider the 
enormous damages each year from floods, as well as the 
cost of continual dredging of streams to maintain open 
channels for navigation, it becomes imperative that the 
forests' influence be emphasized. As already pointed out, 
many of the Appalachian streams rising in the mountain 



show that floods are increasing in frequency and height. 
The evidence collected in this region shows that the 
Kiskimmitas and Youghiogheny rivers are the most im- 
portant rivers in producing floods at Pittsburgh. The 
two streams drain extensively deforested areas of about 
the same size, with heavy precipitation and a high rate of 
run-off. In consequence of this deforestation both rivers 
collect and move their floodwaters to Pittsburgh in about 
the same time. This is but one of the worst instances 
where removal of the forest covering results in disaster 
to the low lying country. 

Much of the erosion in forest is started by careless 
handling of logs. Under conditions where excessive 
erosion would not take place if care were exercised in 
handling cut timbers, the "snaking" and dragging of logs 
result in the formation of smooth depressions into which 
water gathers and drains from the steep hills. The 




THE DEVASTATING RESULT OF EROSION 

A one-time fertile valley in Tennessee ruined by a covering of sand brought down from the nearby hills, deprived of thin forests and subjected 

to erosion. 



forests are clear and free from sediment ; but many, and 
they are fed invariably from watersheds, in part, at 
least, cleared of their forests, carry a heavy burden of 
sediment. 

The Flood Commission of Pittsburgh appointed to 
investigate the cause of floods at Pittsburgh and to recom- 
mend means of removing the danger, reported that ex- 
tensive deforestation of the drainage areas of the Alle- 
gheny and Monongahela Rivers by giving a higher rate 
of run-off, has been the cause, in part, of the increase in 
frequency and height of floods along these and the Ohio 
rivers. It is furthermore well known that the carrying 
capacity of the river channels at Pittsburgh has been 
considerably reduced in the last fifty years. The records 



rapid cutting of these depressions quickly results in the 
formation of gullies which advance into sections other- 
wise not susceptible to erosion. 

The peculiar climatic and soil conditions of the South- 
ern Appalachian region, especially, are conducive to the 
development of gullies. In some localities erosion start- 
ed in the manner described continues to work its way 
back into the hills, constantly increasing in depth and 
width the eroded section with numerous gullies starting 
from the sides, until immense areas are devastated and 
the gullies formed almost defy the ingenuity of man to 
check their progress. 

The removal of vegetable covering from the hills has 
resulted in a largely increased burden of solid material 



EROSION IN THE APPALACHIAN AND PIEDMONT REGIONS 



1353 



in the rivers. This sediment is carried to the lower lying 
regions and much of it is deposited in the stream beds. 
The river channels become so filled that navigation is 
greatly hindered, or constant dredging must be resorted 
to. In addition, where storage reservoirs have been built 
by constructing dams, the sediment is deposited in the 
reservoirs and reduces their capacities. In fact, in some 
places it has been found inadvisable to try to maintain 
storage reservoirs, and the practice has been adopted 
simply of keeping open a channel. This results, of 
course, in the loss of much power. One of the power ex- 
perts employed in developing the power from some of the 
streams in the South, testified before the Agricultural 
Committee of the House of Representatives a few years 
ago that the capacity of certain reservoirs was so much 
reduced that in a few years only the flow of the rivers 



being farmed began to erode. But with increased value 
of lands the necessity of utilizing that already cleared 
becomes constantly more and more impelling. 

Reclamation is of two classes; lands reclaimed for 
cultivation and those for forests. The same methods 
that are used in prevention must be used in reclamation. 
Where lands are reclaimed for purposes of cultivation, 
methods are adopted to increase the porosity of the soil, 
thereby assuring the ready absorption of water, and to 
retard the velocity of water not absorbed and flowing 
over the surface of the soil. The incorporation of or- 
ganic matters in the soil, the growth of deep rooted 
crops, green manuring, sodding to pasture, deep plowing, 
the use of various forms of terraces and hillside ditches 
are some of the more common methods employed to pre- 
vent erosion and to reclaim eroded soils. 




w—sar 




LAND RUINED FOR AGRICULTURE BY GULLYING 

A deforested area near the Tennessee-Mississippi line which has resulted in the formation of numerous gullies and has ruined the land for 

agricultural purposes. 



would be available for power. A report from the Geo- 
logical Survey on the amount of silt carried by some of 
these rivers, states that the Susquehanna carries to the 
sea, annually, 240,000 tons, the Roanoke, 3,000,000 tons, 
the Alabama, 3,039,000 tons, the Savannah, 1,000,000 and 
the Tennessee, 11,000,00 tons. It is but reasonable to 
assume that at least half of this wastage of soil material 
is preventable. 

In discussing reclamation it is well to remark that it is 
infinitely better to practice prevention than to apply 
reclamation. However, there is no denying the fact that 
the damage has been wrought in many places, and meth- 
ods of reclaiming the devastated areas must be consid- 
ered. In the past, with cheap land, it has been easier 
and less expensive to move to new lands, when those 



The forests have been removed from some soils that 
should never have been deprived of their natural growth. 
In such sections the devastation has been almost unbe- 
lievable and the only feasible method of utilizing in any 
way these lands is by reforesting. The type and kind of 
trees best suited, for the work must be determined for 
the individual localities. 

From inquiry and personal inspection of the worst 
eroded sections of the Appalachian region, it has been 
found that practically all of the lands now useless can 
be utilized by reforesting. The benefits of such a course 
can hardly be exaggerated. The losses entailed in manu- 
factures, power development, navigation, and flood con- 
ditions now amounting to millions yearly, will be greatly 
reduced if not largely eliminated. 



WHY AND HOW SOME FOREST FIRES OCCUR 



Til II tremendous forest fires which swept the forests 
of the northwest during July and August, costing 
millions of dollars to fight and causing damages 
amounting to many millions of dollars more were due 
to what? 

This interesting question is well answered in a letter 
dated August 2, to American Forestry, by R. H. Rut- 
ledge, acting district forester of District No. I, which 
includes the national forest area of northern Idaho and 
.Montana. The fires were due to a dry year, the third in 
succession. Lightning, railroads, campers and brush burn- 
ing started most of the 909 discovered on this forest 
area in July. Almost one-fourth were due to unknown 
causes, and twenty-seven were incendiary. 

A terrific thunderstorm on July 31 resulted in fifty 
fires being started by lightning. 

"This is the third dry year in succession for District 



I," says Forester Rutledge. "The snowfall last winter 
was far below normal and in many localities spring pre- 
cipitation was insufficient, many places having been with- 
out rain for over three months. High winds have pre- 
vailed quite generally for some sixty days and the atmos- 
phere has been charged with electricity to such an extent 
that dry electrical storms have been constantly occurring. 
As a result the forest floor is as dry as a powder-house 
and because of excessive transpiration the leaves of conif- 
erous trees have become so combustible as to be almost 
explosive when subject to ignition. 

"While human agencies have been responsible for 
some of the fires this season, lightning has been by far 
the most prolific source of trouble. Dry electrical storms 
have started a great many fires in the most inaccessible 
parts of the forests where it has been impossible to get 
men and equipment on the ground quickly. In numerous 



"Ml 


w^^C * 


... «H ►. *?T. 
















■ft 




^ Jfr" 


f ; 1|kjl 


Iff* 


* Id K 

• 




TWO UNUSUAL FIRE PICTURES SHOWING TREE STRUCK BY LIGHTNING AND ITS SPEEDY DESTRUCTION. 



Live yellow pine tree, 125 feet high in the Selway National forest, struck 
by lightning about 2.30 in the afternoon. Bolt struck at point indi- 
cated, followed down tree to a large limb on right hand side of tree at 
upper edge of flame showing in picture. At that point it entered body of 
tree, followed down inside, splitting it through and through but did not 
break it off. 15 or 16 feet below bolt emerged, and continued down on out- 
side of tree to ground in 3 distinct paths. Smoke was seen coming out 
of the split portion of tree shortly after bolt struck. 

1364 



The second picture shows the split portion of the tree more throughly 
burned, and at one point will be observed a hole burned through the tree. 
The tree fell, completely destroyed by fire, twenty -four hours after it 
was struck. There now remains only a blackened fire scarred trunk 20 
feet high. Picture presented by Supervisor Fenn, of the Selway National 
Forest, Montana. 



WHY AND HOW SOME FOREST FIRES OCCUR 



1355 



cases it has required from three to six days for fire 
fighters to reach a fire from the nearest railway point. 
And when it is remembered that equipment and supplies 
for the men must be transported on pack horses over 
rough mountain trails and kept on the line at all times, 
the difficulties of the situation will be appreciated. Under 
these conditions it can be understood readily how light- 
ning-set fires in these remote places become raging con- 
flagrations before the fight against them can be begun. 

"In spite of the difficulties handicapping the fire organi- 
zation, District i has made a remarkable record for 
efficiency, even though a very large acreage in the aggre- 
gate has been burned over and many bad fires are still 
burning. 

"Commonly fires due to preventable causes are near 
lines of transportation and communication and can be 
discovered and suppressed before they assume serious 
proportions, but the reverse is true where lightning fires 
occur. Not infrequently in the most inaccessible moun- 
tainous regions ten, fifteen, or twenty fires are started 
within a few minutes by a single electrical disturbance. 
Sometimes these blazes are scattered over quite a large 
extent of territory, often they are close together and 
before it is possible to start the fight against them they 
coalesce and form one big fire which, if the wind is 
blowing freshly, soon reaches the tops of the trees and 
develops into a crown fire that defies human efforts to 
combat it so long as the wind continues." 

The area of fires was as follows: One-quarter acre 
or less, 427; one-quarter to 10 acres, 295; over 10 acres, 
187, a total of 909, while the total acreage burned was 
201,014 acres. 

The causes of fires were as follows: Railroads, 179; 
campers, 131 ; brush burning, 96; lumbering, 9; lightning, 
240; incendiary, 27; miscellaneous, 8; unknown, 219. 

"The great majority of these fires have been put out 
or are now definitely under control and no longer dan- 
gerous although still being watched. At the close of 
July 30, there were not more than 25 fires running un- 
controlled, mostly in the mountains of Idaho. On that 
date approximately 3,500 fire fighters were on the line, 
this, of course, not including the force of rangers, guards, 
lookout men, smoke chasers, and other regularly em- 
ployed forest officers, numbering about 1,500 men. 

"Detailed reports on file from the several national 
forests of the district cover the situation only up to the 
dose of July 30. During the night of July 31, over 
fifty fires were started by one severe electrical storm 
that ran along the westerly slopes of the Bitter Root 
Mountains in Idaho forests. These fires have been mere- 
ly reported by wire, their extent or precise locations not 
yet having been determined by the field officers. They 
were scattered over a territory embracing roughly 4,000 
square miles. Does this single night's experience convey 
an idea of what the forest Service fire organization in 
Districl 1 is contending with?" 

I'. C, Wilfong and his crew met with a most trying 
experience during the Selway fire on Crooked Creek on 
July 24. They were trapped at a point where three 
fires met. and their camp with provisions, clothes, etc., 



was burned. The party saved themselves only by lying 
in the Selway River for 35 minutes with wet blankets 
over their heads. Their train of thirteen pack horses 
was caught in the track of the fire, but they had been 
taken to a bunch grass hill, and only one horse was lost. 
The pack saddles were burned from the backs of the 
other horses. 

Mr. Wilfong says of his experience: "There was no 
way out of it, we were cornered and we plunged into the 
water, keeping our faces above the surface. We put 
wet blankets over our heads for the heat was so intense 
that our flesh would have been burned if we had not 
taken that precaution. The roar of the flames was 
tremendous but we were comparatively safe. 

"Once I raised the blanket a little to peek and see how 
the fire was going and what do you think I saw ? There 
was a big bear perched on a rock right at my feet and 
looking over at me like he was ready to jump. I guess 
he thought I was a rock. We exchanged glances for a 
while and I am willing to bet that he wasn't any more 
scared than I was, but as soon as he recovered from the 
surprise, he turned tail and away he went. It was the 
last I saw of him." 



CONSERVATION OF PAPER 

T^ CONOMY in the use of paper will release vast quan- 
- Li tities of chemicals which are urgently needed. 

A pound of paper wasted means from 1 to 3 pounds of 
coal wasted. 

Cutting down the use of paper 25 per cent would mean 
6,000,000 tons less freight for the railroads to haul and 
would at the same time save 2,500,000 tons' of coal. 

Old magazines, books, stationery, etc., are used in 
making books, writing, and other forms of paper. 

Paper that comes around purchases at the store is 
made over again into new paper, cardboard, cartons, 
paper boxes, paper bags, etc. 

One hundred pounds of soft white paper shavings will 
make 90 pounds of new paper. 

One hundred pounds of old magazine paper will make 
80 pounds of new paper. 

One and one-half million tons of book and writing 
paper were made last year from old paper. 

One hundred pounds of old folded newspapers will 
make 85 pounds of new paper box board. 

Two and one-half million tons of various kinds of 
paper box board were made last year from old papers. 

One hundred pounds of old cotton rags will make from 
65 to 75 pounds of paper pulp ; this pulp will make only 
2 per cent less than an equal amount of paper. 

One hundred pounds of new cotton rags will make 80 
pounds of paper pulp. 

One hundred pounds of old collars, cuffs, pillowcases, 
or sheets will make 80 pounds of new paper. 

Woolen rags are converted into shoddy and shoddy 
converted into wool. The shrinkage from shoddy to 
wool is the same as from raw wool to finished wool, 
namely, about 3 per cent. 

One hundred pounds of wool saved or reclaimed pro- 
vides sufficient material for 25 suits of clothes. 



1356 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



TREE PLANTING TAKEN UP BY MANY EDITORS 

NEWSPAPERS OPEN COLUMNS TO DISCUSSION OF LIVING MEMORIALS AND 

"ROADS OF REMEMBRANCE" IDEA 



T> EADERS of the New York Times find 
•^ the columns of that paper have been 
opened to a discussion of the merits of 
roadside tree planting. The New York 
Times had a fine editorial on the American 
Forestry Association's campaign for "Roads 
of Remembrance" in which it said: "The 
American Forestry Association is doing 
good service in linking the causes of roads 
and forestation. The Road of Remem- 
brance and the shaded highway have a more 
intimate connection with the general prob- 
lem of reforestation than may at first ap- 
pear. Very soon they will become bases 
for the advance, of veritable armies of 
trees. Nature unaided may be sure, but 
she is slow. The industrious squirrel car- 
ries acorns, hickorynuts, walnuts and chest- 
nuts a rod or so before he buries them— 
and fortunately often forgets his cache. 
The winds carry the seeds of maple, pine, 
and linden a little further. But for reasons 
at which the forester can only guess there 
are vast prairies and waste lands without a 
useful tree. The shaded highway will cross 
them and the shade trees will scatter their 
seeds and nuts in the nearby country. 

"He who plants a tree is building the 
world of the future. In twenty years a 
maple will grow to a sturdy tree, with 
dense if not widespread shade. And in 
that time, when wind and soil are favorable, 
it is already parent to groves of young 
maples marching from the highway across 
lands that have hitherto been waste." 

This brought out many letters from read- 
ers who advocated fruit and nut tree plant- 
ing. The Times has devoted several edi- 
torials since the first one answering some 
of the letters and sticking mainly to the 
planting of shade trees. The first letter 
printed was from Alida (Countess) von 
Krockow who pictured the roadside fruit 
trees of Europe. George J. Horowitz, 
formerly of the Ambulance Service with 
the French Army, wrote about the virtues 
of the French roads. Dr. Robert T. Morris 
contributed a letter, as did Henry Wood- 
ward Hulbert on the planting of trees. The 
Times gives the members of the American 
Forestry Association a first hand lesson on 
what can be done if the members will take 
up these subjects with their newspapers. 
The editors are keen for just such dis- 
cussions and while they may not always 
agree with the writer they are glad to give 
space to constructive thought. Every mem- 
ber of the association should discuss the 
need of a national forest policy with the 
editor of his paper and tell him what the 
American Forestry Association is doing. 



Forty Maples. 
A Yankee farmer fourscore years ago 

Set forty maples by the highwayside; 
Twenty tall saplings stood in either 
row; 
The farmer viewed them with a silent 
pride. 

They grew apace; there children school- 
ward bound 
Loitered in spring to pick the blood- 
root flowers; 
There many a bird found sanctuary 
ground, 
And laborers refuge from the sudden 
showers. 

They waxed in size and beauty when the 
beams 
Of our mid-summer sun's unpitying 
beat; 
Here dusty drivers paused to rest their 
teams, 
And cattle sought a shelter from the 
heat. 

They statelier spread; when autumn's 
pageant came, 
And all our valley donned its festal 
dress, 
Rose forty pillars lit with crimson flame, 
To stir man's spirit by their loveli- 
ness. 

But years passed, and the farm fell to a 
hind — 
A prosperous, pushing hind from 
overseas, 
Who, with the full contempt that marks 
his kind, 
Felled in his blasphemy those forty 
trees. 

At times like that one's peaceful spirit 
longs 
For the fierce justice of an elder day, 
For the stern sense that trifled not with 
wrongs, 
And did not deem that punishment is 
play. 

Who, save for need, destroys a goodly 
tree, 
Does mischief; and who wantonly 
may kill 
Forty such trees does murder, and 
should be 
Hanged forty fathom high on Gallows 
Hill. 
— G. S. B. in the New York Tribune. 



In the Review of Reviews, Elbert Francis 
Baldwin details the devastation in France 
and Belgium and tells of the plans of the 
American Forestry Association for helping 
in the restoration of these forests. Dr. 
Frank Crane, who writes for a syndicate 
of newspapers, has devoted another edi- 
torial to forestry, this time to the "Roads 
of Remembrance" idea and also urges co- 
operation with the Association in its work 
abroad. This editorial appears in such 
papers as the Chicago Daily News, the New 
York Globe, the Washington Star, Phila- 
delphia Bulletin, Atlanta Journal, Kansas 
City Star, Cincinnati Times-Star, Buffalo 
News, Pittsburgh Chronicle-Telegraph, St. 
Louis Star, St. Paul Dispatch, Des Moines 
Capital, Milwaukee Journal, Sacramento 
Bee, Dallas Times-Herald, Omaha World- 
Herald, Binghamton Press, Houston Post, 
Richmond News Leader, Oakland Post, 
Boise Statesman, Baltimore Star and many 
others. Here is where the members should 
co-operate with the Association by writ- 
ing an appreciation to the editor of the 
paper in which such features are used. 
Leslie's Weekly has a generous editorial on 
the value of tree planting and the New 
York Herald takes up the question of better 
fire protection for forests by saying "with 
summer fires of unusual severity sweeping 
the extensive timber lands of Montana, 
Idaho and Washington, the American For- 
estry Association is urging the lumbermen 
to forward their views as to the steps to 
be taken for the better protection of the 
woods." The Herald then goes on to 
point to the losses. 

The Trenton Times-Advertiser devotes a 
long editorial to roadside tree planting and 
points to the fact that "if this work is 
properly carried out it would mean in time 
a memorial highway across the United 
States. No finer memorial can be built 
than a tree bordered highway and aside 
from tender sentiment connected with such 
an undertaking there can be no better in- 
vestment for any community." The Denver 
News calls attention to the fact that the 
"president of the American Forestry Asso- 
ciation has issued a call to the people to 
beautify their highways as memorials to 
the men who fought for world freedom. 
Good roads and tree planting go hand in 
hand. Federal and local authorities are 
attending to the road building but it will 
require voluntary citizen effort to get trees 
planted." The Washington Times points 
to the famous Potomac Drive made famous 
by its trees and adds "here is a logical 
proposition. The roads are to be built. A 



TREE PLANTING TAKEN UP BY MANY EDITORS 



1357 



road is more than a way to get some place." 
The subject of permanent Christmas 
trees that has been urged by the Associa- 
tion is taken up by the Milwaukee Journal 
under the heading "Waste of Good Tim- 
ber," the Hoboken Observer and the South 
Bend News. The Milwaukee Journal says 
on this point : 

"Trees adapted to Christmas use have 
survived the ills and perils of infant life. 
Barring accidents, they are sure to live 
grow, and flourish. It is savagery, if one 
views it rightly, to destroy them. Yet men 
who would not harm a full-grown tree 
hack down treelings without pity or re- 
morse. But if we are to have trees for all 
time, young trees must be saved." 

"The idea of planting trees as memorials 
for our soldier boys who will not return is 
a beautiful one," says the Ohio Farmer as 
we find it quoted in the Freder'icktown, 
Ohio,* Press. "The Christian Endeavor 
Societies have been making a concerted 
movement toward planting memorial trees 
at the original suggestion of the American 
Forestry Association" the Times Journal of 
Bowling Green, 
Kentucky, points 
out. The Kansas 
City Star wants 
to know "why a 
billion dollar 
town is content 
to look like thirty 
cents ? " And 
points to the 
city's shabbiness 
in the way of 
vacant lots. 
Prompt action is 
urged by the 
Hamilton News 



has had two editorials on forestry and re- 
prints the editorial from the New York 
Times in full, with a two-column head and 
the Western Newspaper Union has sent 
out a special feature on "Roads of Remem- 
brance" illustrated with several pictures. 
"Grit" uses a half-page feature on memorial 
tree planting and the International Syndi- 
cate of Baltimore has used half-page arti- 
cles on forestry in general and memorial 
tree planting several times. The news 
services, the Associated Press, the United 
Press, the International News Service and 
the Universal Service are all using news 
stories of activities in forestry. The Chris- 
tian Science Monitor used a half column 
on the need of a national forest policy, and 
followed it with an editorial on the "World 
Call for Wood," which concludes that the 
"need of the hour is to overcome the inertia 
that has always operated to keep the ade- 
quate handling of the forest situation in 
this country behind the actual require- 
ments." In opening the editorial the Moni- 
tor points out that "what the people of the 
United States could accomplish if every 



FAMOUS ELM SAVED IN HUNTINGTON, INDIANA. 

The famous Elm Tree at Huntington, Indiana, has been saved by the entire 
change of architect's plans for a church which is to be erected by the Christian 
Science Congregation of that city. In a report to the American Forestry Associa- 
tion Daniel Shaeff, who led the movement to save the tree, announces that the arch- 
itect, Samuel A. Craig, will so redraw his plans that the tree will be left with 
plenty of root space, and that he will leave out the organist's room and the Sun- 
day School classroom in order that the branches may have plenty of space. This 
movement, in which the congregation is glad to join, is perhaps one of the most 
unique ever adopted in order to save a tree. The picture of this tree appears on 
another page of the magazine. 



or we will find "this country will have 
committed economic suicide," says that 
paper in urging a national forest policy and 
fire protection for our forests. The 
Journal of Portland, Oregon, reprints the 
editorial from the New York Times on the 
work of the Association with a letter from 
I. X. Lipman, an enthusiastic Oregonian, 
who points out the advertising Oregon is 
getting because of its good roads. "Re- 
plenish the forests," says the New Orleans 
Item, and points to what Kansas and Illi- 
nois, known as prairie states, are doing in 
foresting the land. "It is a melancholy 
fact," says the Item, "that few persons are 
willing to take steps in time to keep a 
natural resource from becoming exhausted." 
The Burlington, New Jersey, Enterprise 



person having an interest in land would 
intelligently and persistently raise the trees 
which his land could conveniently allow 
space for, has never been measured, unless, 
negatively, through the obvious waste of 
tree opportunities every where." It would 
seem the editor had every member of the 
Association in mind when he wrote that 
sentence and a more urgent call for co- 
operation could scarcely be phrased. 

In Montreal the Daily Star deplores the 
fact that trees are fast disappearing from 
the streets of that city and calls for action. 
In the Atlanta Constitution we find con- 
tinued co-operation with the Association in 
an editorial on the terrors of a forest fire. 
The San Diego Sun urges that a tree be 
planted every time one is cut down and the 



Concord Monitor says, "had the forest poli- 
cy of this country been what it should 
have been we would have timber for our- 
selves and for Europe and to spare." The 
Houston Post is of the opinion that "what 
the country needs is a strong movement to 
induce the planting of trees similar to the 
movements that have resulted in such in- 
creased production of food for war pur- 
poses." The San Francisco Chronicle 
takes up the "Hero Grove" in Golden Gate 
Park at length. The Boise Capital News, 
in an editorial on the planting of memorial 
trees by the war mothers, says : "Though 
the final dedication may be a great public 
affair, there is something singularly appro- 
priate in this private planting of trees by 
the people who, when all is said and done, 
care more than anybody else." 

The Manufacturers' Record of Baltimore 
seldom has an issue in which the subject of 
forestry is omitted. The Chicago Tribune 
has taken up the question of the Forest 
Preserve near Chicago and calls upon the 
people to help preserve it by keeping their 
hands off the beautiful things in the pre- 
serve. To quote 
the Tribune: 
"W h y worry 
about the ex- 
tinction of the 
bison and elk 
and not care a 
continen t a 1 
whether the 
things which are 
native hereabouts 
live or die?" The 
lack of shade 
trees along Har- 
risburg's streets 
is the subject of 
a stirring editorial in the Evening News of 
that city. The Bethlehem Times is devoting 
as much as a column a day to features from 
the American Forestry Association. The 
Worcester Post is urging the planting of 
memorial trees in that city and has asked 
the Association for all data on the subject 
of tree planting. To print a list of 
the newspapers using news from the Asso- 
ciation would be to print the directory of 
such publications. The greatest of oppor- 
tunities for members of the Association is 
at hand. Their co-operation will bring 
forestry to the front in each locality. Now 
is the time to act by writing to your 
editor and sending to the Association 
anything you see dealing with the for- 
estry problem. 



TO SAVE CALIFORNIA REDWOODS FOR AUTO ROADS. 

A movement has been started to save the California redwoods along the roads. "The plan is for the purchase by the 
State of a strip on either side of state roads in the redwood country, along which the giant trees shall be left untouched," 
says the San Francisco Chronicle, "as a memorial of the great groves of the past and a keen delight to the traveler 
through that region." Edward E. Ayer, of Chicago, who motors through the region every year, has reported to M. H. 
de Young of San Francisco that in some sections "a battlefield could not look worse than where the lumbermen have 
been cutting down these giants of the forest." 



SUMMER WALKS IN THE WOODLAND 



ALONG THE PALISADES IN THE INTERSTATE PARK 
BY J. OTIS SWIFT, AUTHOR OF WOODLAND MAGIC 



(PHOTOGRAPHS BY THE AUTHOR) 



THERE is an order of holy men who go about the 
world doing good to inanimate things. You will 
know them by the far-away, detached look in their 
deep eyes when you meet them in the crowded streets, 
and by the way they have of looking away over the 
roof-tops as if used to great spaces and lofty mountains. 
You will come upon them in the waste places, in the 
shade of the deep woods, 
on the margin of the brook, 
the pitcher plant-haunted, 
quaking peat of the bog, 
and walking lonely hill 
paths in the cool of the 
evening. Then you will dis- 
cover that the far-away 
look in their eyes has gone. 
In its place is quick flash- 
ing attention to every 
drooping leaf, bent twig, 
lichened ledge, rabbit path 
and flitting thrush. These 
men are priests of the Order 
of Nature. Sometimes they 
are old and bent, with palms 
calloused by the plough 
handles and the pruning 
hook. Again they are 
youths with soft treading 
feet and poet's mouths. But 
all are holy, for they have 
received their initiation as 
children in the secret places 
of the deep forests and 
their lives, among other 
things, are consecrated to 
loving, appreciating and 
caring for inanimate trees, 
shrubs, plants and mosses 
that animate nature — in- 
sects, birds, animals and 
men, may be happier. This 
is the ancient order to which 
Pliny, Linneas, Asa Gray, 
Donald Mitchell and Thoreau belonged, and to which 
you and I are initiates. Its members are the sort of 
men of whom women, children, dogs and wild creatures 
are never afraid and are usually trustful and fond. 
There is a secret bond of fellowship between them and 
every living thing in the wilderness and waste places. So 
come, this September morning, and we will make a pil- 
grimage from Hastings-on-Hudson, across the river to the 




ONE OF THE NEW AUTOMOBILE 
MAJESTIC CLIFFS OF 



great Palisades Interstate Park, the most weirdly beau- 
tiful spot about the American metropolis. 

This park is being developed by the Palisades Inter- 
state Park Commission representing both States of New 
York and New Jersey, with jurisdiction along the west 
bank of the Hudson from Fort Lee, New Jersey, to 
Newburg, New York. The Commission has acquired 

all of the Palisades section 
extending up to the tops of 
the cliffs from Fort Lee to 
the State line opposite 
Hastings, and it is a little 
out of this wonderland we 
will visit today, for we can- 
not hope to explore the 
summer camp for the mili- 
tary training of youths 
south of Nyack, rugged 
Hook mountain at the top 
of the Tappan Zee, the big 
Bear Mountain tract a few 
miles south of West Point, 
or the Harriman Park sec- 
tion of 30,000 acres run- 
ning west from the Hudson 
towards Tuxedo, all in one 
day. This great park, as 
wild and romantic in places 
as a bit out of the heart of 
the Rockies, has been made 
possible through money and 
land appropriated by New 
York and New Jersey, 
through the gift of 10.000 
acres of land and $1,000,- 
000 by Mrs. Mary W. Har- 
riman, and gifts by other 
individuals of various par- 
cels of land, an aggregate 
of nearly $2,000,000. It 
all lies at the doorway of 
New York City so that a 
scrub-woman -may spend 
her day-off in forest depths under the shadows of the 
frowning palisades for a few pennies and a few minutes' 
time in getting there on the ferry. 

We go down to the wide blue river at Hastings, and 
row over to the shadow of the cliffs, dropping down 
with the tide to Alpine, opposite Yonkers. We are seek- 
ing solitude, and find it in spite of the fact that thousands 
of people landed here at Alpine last Sunday and were 



ROADS WINDING ROUND THE 
THE PALISADES. 



13S8 



SUMMER WALKS IN THE WOODLAND 



1359 



swallowed up by the precipitous paths, jungles jand 
hillside forests in a few minutes. We have certain things 
to say to Mother Nature, and must sit in front of stone 
altars in inner recesses of the vast rock -heaps at the foot 
of the purple crags, jumbles of broken trap from the 
size of a man's head to a house, hurled down by frosts 



hinterland, cover stretches of the rock heap. In this 
grow all — I am sure — of the trees and shrubs indigenous 
to the locality. Then, rising majestically in sheer wall, 
fissured battlement, detached pinnacles and weather- 
scarred, time-colored precipices, to a height of between 
300 and 500 feet, begin the Palisades. They are of a 
lava rock called trap which was 
penetrated as a sheet into the 
Triassic sandstones. Next to 
Niagara Falls they form one of 
the most widely known natural 
phenomena in America, probably 
because of their nearness to one 
of the world's great cities. The 
awesomeness of their dizzy height 
as we look up, contrasted with the 
simple sweet beauty of beds of 
wild spikenard or False Solomon's 
Seal, tall meadow rue, bloodroot, 
wild ginger, white baneberry, 
black cohosh, wild bergamot, 
pipsissewa, and clumps of moun- 
tain laurel, pink azalea, bayberry, 
blueberry, black-cap raspberry 
and blackberry, growing all 

THE ENTRANCE INTO ONE OF THE HUNDREDS OF BEAUTIFUL WOOD PATHS IN THE PARK. arounc l, appals US. The beautiful 

twelve-mile fringe of sloping land 




of untold ages, and make our confession. We must 
ponder upon the persistence of this thing we call Life 
and which is all around us from the crawling partridge 
berry vine, woodbine and honeysuckle, binding the 
rocks together, to the earth cur- 
rents palpitating in the solid 
ledges and rising with the sap in 
giant old oaks, tulips, black 
birches, and sycamores, towering 
above. Leaving the little white 
house that was Cornwallis' head- 
quarters in the Revolution, and 
nestles now at one of the nine 
docks for steamers at the foot of 
the Palisades, we plunge up a 
tiny hidden foot path toward the 
bottom of the crags. A scarlet 
tanager flutters along ahead to 
lead us away from her nest, dis- 
covered at the end of a black 
birch's limb. A chipmunk sits on 
a mossy log and stares, and a gray 
squirrel scolds from a black oak. 
At once we are as far from civili- 
zation as if we were lost in the 

Adirondacks. From the shore of the river the fallen 
rock debris rises at an angle of forty-five degrees or 
everal hundred feet in places. Ages of erosion that 
started, perhaps, with the deluge, leaf-mould from cen- 
turies of vegetation, earth deposited when the Hudson 
was an unthinkably big stream, draining the Laurentian 



under the Palisades is a paradise for artist, naturalist 
and geologist. Although the State Commission of Con- 
servation, headed by George W. Perkins, has spent much 
money and done an incredible amount of work building 




AT THE FOOT OF THE CLIFFS STILL STANDS THE QUAINT LITTLE WHITE-WASHFD HOUSE 
WHERE CORNWALLIS. IN LONG GONE DAYS, MADE HIS HEADQUARTERS. 

bathing beaches, lawns, boat lagoons, winding paths, 
automobile roads, log comfort stations, bridges, piers, 
masonry walls, causeways, and monster rustic pavilions 
that would have decked a Roman emperor's gardens, the 
vast wilderness of the park remains untamed and is its 
greatest asset. "The Commission is doing its best to 



1360 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




ON THE LIP OF THE CHASM— FAINTLY 
VISIBLE IS THE OPPOSITE SHORE LINE 
AND A STEAMER WENDING ITS WAY UP 
THE BEAUTIFUL HUDSON. 



preserve the great natural beauties and advantages which 
God in His wisdom conferred upon the land over which 
it has supervision." Here and there, lost in the tangles 
of sumac, wild cherry, black haw, alspice, sassafras and 
elderberry are 
deserted, tum- 
bled-in cellars 
of colonial 
houses that 
were places of 
i m p o r t a nee 
when the Red 
Coats were 
chased across 
the river by 
Wa shington's 
troopers, but 
now overgrown 
by woodbine 
and wild 
grapes. The 
pink and white 
roses of the 
colonial wom- 
en, planted to 
celebrate the 

love of happy homes, have gone wild and bloom lux- 
uriantly, running back to Nature. An hundred old 
fashioned herbs and flowers that in the course of almost 
three centuries have escaped from the gardens up over 
the cliff tops have dropped their seeds over the dizzy edge 
and taken root below. It is a bird, animal and tree 
sanctuary, we find as we leave the path two hundred 
feet up and turn along one of the new automobile roads 
the Commission is cutting under the lower edge of the 
cliffs. We 
climb up over 
the slides of 
broken trap to 
the top of the 
age-old crags 
at one of the 
places where 
ascent is pos- 
sible and creep- 
ing tremblingly 
to the lip of 
the chasm look 
away south to 
the great city 
sweltering in 
its heat and 
noise, to the 
ships dotting 
the harbor and 
river, down to the dock half a thousand feet below us ; 
to Yonkers across the stream, to Graystone once the 
home of Samuel Tilden, just above; to Hastings where 
Farragut lived ; Dobbs Ferry where nestles on the hill- 
side the home of the late Robert G. Ingersoll ; Irvington, 






•• f •.»■.- i 




vrajfij!; KFi *jVr 




Bbri"9Hi^ 





















LOOKING DOWN ON THE DOCKS. HALF A THOUSAND FEET BELOW. THIS SPOT AT THE 
TOP OF THE PALISADES AFFORDS A MAGNIFICENT VIEW OF THE SURROUNDING COUNTRY. 



the home of Washington Irving, and Mystic Sleepy 
Hollow lost in the blue haze beyond Tarrytown. Five 
miles above us on the west side of the river, glancing 
along the Palisades, rises Indian Head, the highest shelf 
of the cliffs, the profile of the old savage, tossed there, 
it is said, from a blanket in the hands of Hendrick Hud- 
son's sailortnen, looking out of the crags in surprise at 
the changes since his descendants sold their heritage to 
the Dutch West India Company for a mess of pottage, 

or a blanket, or 
something. 

It is all over- 
p o w e r i n gly 
beautiful and 
inspiring, and 
we know we 
can never ade- 
quately describe 
it, but as we 
look there 
comes up from 
a treetop grow- 
ing out of the 
rocks below us 
the clear sweet 
music of a 
song - sparrow 
saying, "tweet, 
tweet - flitter," 
which is non- 
sense, but heav- 
enly music nevertheless, and far more indescribable than 
a marvelous landscape. Descending the crags to where 
in a deep cool nook, among broken rocks as big as 
hayracks, a spring pours out, cold and crystal, for our 

blessing. We 
drink, and lying 
on the mosses, 
staring up at 
the cliffs and 
blue sky be- 
yond, feel our 
littleness. Here 
in the silence 
the spirit of the 
place comes to 
us like a quiet 
caress. 

As the sun 
sinks behind us 
we go down 
winding road- 
ways and paths, 
among deep 
forests with 
occasional glimpses of the river below caught through 
openings in the dense mat of treetops where the 
thrushes chant, to the landing— drifting home in 
our boat on the broad silver river in the moon- 
light. 



THE PATH WINDING ROUND THE CLIFFS, 
FROM WHICH DELIGHTFUL GLIMPSES OF 
THE RIVER FAR BELOW MAY BE HAD. 



MEXICO AS A SOURCE OF TIMBER 

BY AUSTIN F. MACDONALD 



A FEW years will often work startling transforma- 
tions in the motives and desires of a people ; and 
not the least wonderful is the change which was 
wrought in the lives of the American people by our par- 
ticipation in the great world conflict. In 1916 we were 
busily engaged in the absorbing task of making money, 
we were looking for profitable opportunities to invest 
that money. In 1918 our sole aim was to win the war, 
and foreign investments, no matter how alluring, did 
not appeal to us. But now America has emerged tri- 
umphant from the struggle, and the present time marks 
the dawning of a new era of prosperity. Once more 
American capital is seeking satisfactory opportunities 

v — 



valued at $495,257. While these figures are not large 
when considered by themselves, relatively they are very 
important, for the forest products during the year 1913 
formed approximately one-eighth of the total exports 
of the country. We must not conclude, however, that a 
comparatively small export of lumber means a lack of 
forests in Mexico. On the contrary, it merely signifies 
that the great forest areas have not yet been developed 
and are still awaiting exploitation. The Republic has 
been estimated to contain 479 square leagues of thick 
forests and 18,134 square leagues of wooded land. Its 
forests are rich in every variety of the precious woods, 
besides great areas of commercial timbers. Because of 



6» 




"«* 



Exp 



lanatlon: 

I Temperate Zone Forest Area. 
■■ Tropical Forest Area. 




^> 



«£> 



* 9 o Or 

"1 



for investment, and intelligent information on this sub- 
ject is rapidly becoming an urgent need. 

There is, perhaps, no bit of advice which the American 
business man has heard more frequently in the past than 
the suggestion to invest in Mexican timber. Just what 
kind of timber, and in just what part of Mexico, seems 
to have been entirely immaterial. Strangely enough, en- 
thusiasm about this timber seems to have been in inverse 
ratio to the actual amount of knowledge concerning it. 
The purpose of this article is to state concisely the ex- 
tent of Mexico's timber resources, and the location of 
these forested areas. 

In the year 1913 the Republic of Mexico exported 
mercial timber valued at $3,365,131, and dye woods 



the lack of laborers and the difficulty of transportation, 
and because of the presence of precious metals, exploita- 
tion went on very slowly for over two centuries. Now, 
however, the people are beginning to realize the vast 
wealth of their forested areas and are developing them 
' at a rapid rate. Wasteful methods of hauling and cut- 
ting which are at present being employed will if con- 
tinued lead to deforestation. More scientific exploitation 
is needed, and it must come quickly. 

One must not conclude from these introductory re- 
marks that all Mexico is one vast forest. There are 
great stretches of waving grain and of the crops of a 
more tropical agriculture, and there are vast areas that 
are uninhabited deserts. For the purposes of this paper 



1361 



1362 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



the country may be conveniently divided into three dis- 
tricts. The first of these is' the great tropical forest 
belt. This covers almost the entire peninsula of Yuca- 
tan, as well as the small states of the southeast which 
border on the Gulf of Campeche. Some tropical woods 
are also found along the Pacific littoral in the far south- 
west. 

The second area is the Temperate Zone Forest Belt. 
This is located in the northwestern section of the Re- 
public, extending northward almost to the American 
border. It begins from 100 to 150 miles west of the 
Pacific coast, and extends eastward over a large strip of 
territory. Between these two districts is the Treeless 
Belt, some of which is cultivated, but much of which is 
arid. 

It is from the Tropical Forest Belt that logwood and 
the other dye woods come. Logwood is found in the 
southern part of the State of Yucatan, which is in the 
extreme north of the peninsula of that name along the 
Gulf of Campeche, and over the entire eastern section of 
the peninsula. Its exploitation has been neglected for 
several years. Since the demand for the product was 
revived, however, several ineffective attempts have been 
made to resurrect the industry in the Peninsula of Yuca- 
tan. These in many instances have not survived the 
effort to obtain sufficient labor. In the forests of Quin- 
tana Roo there are piles of cut logwood which are not 
available because laborers cannot be obtained to haul 
them. This difficulty, coupled with the inaccessibility of 
the product, makes exploitation very difficult, and to a 
large extent impracticable at the present market price. 
A lack of vessels is another difficulty which must be met 
when the product finally reaches the town of export. 
This logwood is used for dyeing materials and in the 
manufacture of ink. The largest exportation of the 
product at present is from the State of Tabasco, which 
borders on the Gulf of Campeche. This is practically 
the only export of the state. During two months in 
1916, 4,371 tons were exported, valued at $327,127. All 
of it was shipped to the United States. 

In the Tropical Forest Belt are also found mahogany, 
ebony and other precious woods. Along the Gulf of 
Campeche, particularly in the southwestern part of the 
Peninsula of Yucatan, are great forests of mahogany 
and Spanish cedar. These are chiefly in the hands of 
American and native companies, who export considerable 
quantities. From July, 1911, to June, 1912, mahogany 
and Spanish cedar, valued at $1,236,000, were shipped 
from the small town of Carmen alone. Large areas of 
the cedar are also found in the interior of the peninsula, 
but a lack of transportation facilities has made their ex- 
ploitation almost impossible up to the present time. All 
along the eastern coast of the Republic, particularly in 
the southeast, although to a lesser extent further north 
as well, are found tracts of mahogany in paying quanti- 
ties. The State of Nuevo Leon, which is situated in the 
extreme northeast some distance from the coast of the 
Gulf of Mexico, has the chief area of ebony, which is 
being exploited rapidly. To the east of Nuevo Leon, di- 



rectly on the coast, are large forests of mahogany which 
have not yet been developed. 

By far the largest part of the forest products already 
exported have come from the Tropical Forest Belt. The 
Temperate Zone Forest Belt has until very recently been 
practically undeveloped, and it is from this region that a 
great increase in the lumber industry may be expected. 
This area is a broad belt in the northwestern part of the 
Republic, with its western edge about 150 miles from the 
Pacific Ocean. The Sierras which traverse Mexico from 
north to south are well wooded on both their eastern and 
western slopes. Pine is the commercially important tim- 
ber, the principal varieties of which, in the order of 
importance, are yellow short leaf, yellow long leaf and 
Weymouth. Some oaks, cedars (the kind generally 
known as cedars in temperate zones) and other hard- 
woods occur. Thirty-six separate and distinct varieties 
of hardwoods have been found in the region. In the 
short leaf pine, trees are quite common measuring from 
four to four and one-half feet in diameter and running 
60 feet without a limb. Spruce and fir are also found in 
quantity, although pine constitutes approximately three- 
fourths of the Temperate Zone Forest Belt. The rich 
timber resources have scarcely been touched, mainly be- 
cause of inadequate transportation facilities. In the 
whole region, covering approximately 75,000 square 
miles, there are less than 1,000 miles of railroads. When 
new roads which are contemplated or in course of con- 
struction have been completed vast tracts of virgin forest 
land will be ready for exploitation. 

One must not imagine, however, that there is at 
present no development of this belt. Some exportation 
is now taking place, the timber being mostly white pine 
of an excellent quality. Turpentine and rosin of a high 
grade are secured as by-products. In the State of Chi- 
huahua, for example, which is one of the leading lumber 
states of the Temperate Zone area, the forest products 
of the State for 1909 amounted to $1,214,784, consisting 
principally of pine, $574,236; oak, $548,766, and mes- 
quite, $43,991. 

From all of this it may be seen that Mexico has large 
areas of timber, both of the cabinet and of the com- 
mercial woods. Here are splendid opportunities for the 
investment of American capital, if the problems raised 
by a lack of labor and of transportation facilities can be 
successfully overcome. The woods of the Temperate 
Zone Forest Belt are said to rival in quality those of the 
United States, and it is only a matter of time when both 
forest belts will be exploited on a large scale. Is this 
development to be carried on by American interests, 
or by the European capitalists who already domi- 
nate Mexico financially? American business men must 
decide. 



CONSIDER THE WOODLOT TO KEEP 
IT PRODUCTIVE 



BOOK REVIEWS 



1363 



BOOKS ON FORESTRY 

AMERICAN FORESTRY will publish each month, for the benefit of those who wish books on forestry, 
a list of titles, authors and prices of such books. These may be ordered through the American Forestry 
Association, Washington, D. C. Prices are by mail or express prepaid. 



FOREST VALUATION— Filibert Roth 

FOREST REGULATION— Filibert Roth 

PRACTICAL TREE REPAIR— By Elbert Peets 

THE LUMBER INDUSTRY— By R. S. Kellogg 

LUMBER MANUFACTURING ACCOUNTS— By Arthur F. Jones 

FOREST VALUATION— By H. H. Chapman 

CHINESE FOREST TREES AND TIMBER SUPPLY— By Norman Shaw 

TREES, SHRUBS, VINES AND HERBACEOUS PERE .1NIALS— By John Kirkegaard 

TREES AND SHRUBS— By Charles Sprague Sargent— Vols. I and II, 4 Parts to a Volume— 

Per Part 

THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER— Gifford Pinchot 

LUMBER AND ITS USES— R. S. Kellogg 

THE CARE OF TREES IN LAWN, STREET AND PARK— B. E. Fernow 

NORTH AMERICAN TREES— N. L. Britton 

KEY TO THE TREES— Collins and Preston 

THE FARM WOODLOT— E. G. Cheyney and J. P. Wentling 

IDENTIFICATION OF THE ECONOMIC WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES— Samuel J. 



Record 



PLANE SURVEYING— John C. Tracy 

FOREST MENSURATION— Henry Solon Gra -es 

THE ECONOMICS OF FORESTRY— B. E. Fernow 

FIRST BOOK OF FORESTRY— Filibert Roth 

PRACTICAL FORESTRY— A. S. Fuller 

PRINCIPLES OF AMERICAN FORESTRY— Samuel B. Green 

TREES IN WINTER— A. S. Blakeslee and C. D. Jarvis 

MANUAL OF THE TREES OF NORTH AMERICA (exclusive of Mexico)— Chas. Sprague 

Sargent 

AMERICAN WOODS— Romeyn B. Hough, 14 Volumes, per Volume 

HANDBOOK OF THE TREES OF THE NORTHERN U. S. AND CANADA, EAST OF THE 

ROCKY MOUNTAINS— Romeyn B. Hough 

GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH THE TREES— J. Horace McFarland 

PRINCIPAL SPECIES OF WOOD; THEIR CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES— Chas. H. Snow 

HANDBOOK OF TIMBER PRESERVATION— Samuel M. Rowe 

TREES OF NEW ENGLAND— L. L. Dame and Henry Brooks 

TREES, SHRUBS AND VINES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES— H. E. Park- 



hurst 



TREES— H. Marshall Ward 

OUR NATIONAL PARKS— John Muir 

LOGGING— Ralph C. Bryant 

THE IMPORTANT TIMBER TREES OF THE UNITED STATES— S. B. Elliott 

FORESTRY IN NEW ENGLAND— Ralph C. Hawley and Austin F. Hawes 

THE PRINCIPLES OF HANDLING WOODLANDS— Henry Solon Graves 

SHADE TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES— William Solotaroff 

THE TREE GUIDE— By Julia Ellen Rogers 

MANUAL FOR NORTHERN WOODSMEN— Austin Cary 

FARM FORESTRY— Alfred Akerman 

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF WORKING PLANS (in forest organization)— A. B. Reck- 



nagel 



ELEMENTS OF FORESTRY— F. F. Moon and N. C. Brown 

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD— Samuel J. Record 

STUDIES OF TREES— J. J. Levison 

TREE PRUNING— A. Des Cars 

THE PRESERVATION OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER— Howard F. Weiss 

SEEDING AND PLANTING IN THE PRACTICE OF FORESTRY— By James W. Tourney... 

FUTURE OF FOREST TREES— By Dr. Harold Unwin 

FIELD BOOK OF AMERICAN TREES AND SHRUBS— F. Schuyler Mathews 

FARM FORESTRY— By John Arden Ferguson 

THE BOOK OF FORESTRY— By Frederick F. Moon 

OUR FIELD AND FOREST TREES— By Maud Going 

HANDBOOK FOR RANGERS AND WOODSMEN— By Jay L. B. Taylor 

THE LAND WE LIVE IN— By Overton Price 

WOOD AND FOREST— By William Noyes 



THE ESSENTIALS OF AMERICAN TIMBER LAW— By J. P. Kinney 

HANDBOOK OF CLEARING AND GRUBBING, METHODS AND COST— By Halbert P. 

Gillette 

FRENCH FORESTS AND FORESTRY— By Theodore S. Woolsey, Jr 

MANUAL OF POISONOUS PLANTS— By L. H. Pammel 

WOOD AND OTHER ORGANIC STRUCTURAL MATERIALS— Chas. H. Snow 

EXERCISES IN FOREST MENSURATION— Winkenwerder and Clark 

OUR NATIONAL FORESTS— H. D. Boerker 

MANUAL OF TREE DISEASES— Howard Rankin 

THE BOOK OF THE NATIONAL PARKS— By Robert Sterling Yard 

THE STORY OF THE FOREST— By J. Gordon Dorrance 

FOREST MANAGEMENT— By A. B. Recknagel and John Bentley, Jr 

THE FOREST RANGER AND OTHER VERSE— By John Guthrie 



$1.50 
2.00 
2.00 
1.10 
2.10 
2.00 
2.50 
1.50 

5.00 
1.35 
1.15 
2.17 
7.30 
1.50 
1.75 

1.75 
3.00 
4.00 
1.61 
1.10 
1.50 
1.50 
2.00 

6.00 
7.50 

6.00 
1.75 
3.50 
5.00 
1.50 

1.50 
1.50 
1.91 
3.50 

2.50 
3.50 
1.50 
3.00 
1.00 
2.12 
.57 

2.10 
2.20 
1.75 
1.75 
.65 
3.00 
3.50 
2.25 
2.00 
1.30 
2.10 
1.50 
2.50 
1.70 
3.00 
3.00 

2.50 
2.50 
5.35 
5.00 
1.50 
2.50 
2.50 
3.10 
.65 
2.60 
1.60 



* This, of course, Is not a complete list, but we shall be glad to add to it any books on forestry 
or related subjects upon request.— EDITOR. 



SPRUCE TREE 

T.\ making a survey of the spruce forests, 
where the airplane cutting was carried 
on during the war in the Grays Habor 
spruce district, the Forest Service found 
a tree 573 years old, according to its rings. 
The tree was felled in clearing to make 
the military camps safe after a limb had 
fallen and menaced the roof of the officers' 
quarters. The tree is close to the Olym- 
lighway, eleven miles north of Hump- 
tstips. 



573 YEARS OLD 

The stump was 11.6 feet from the ground 
level. The tree was a sapling some two 
inches in diameter when Columbus was 
discovering America. Though not the 
oldest spruce on record, it is premier in 
age during the present survey. 

An effort is being made by the depart- 
ment to get the age of the largest type of 
Sitka spruce in each of the various air- 
plane enterprises. More than 500 trees 
have been listed to date. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

JPOREST MANAGEMENT, by A. B. 
Recknagel and John Bentley, Jr., John 
Wiley & Sons, New York, price $2.60. The 
book contains a condensed and simple 
treatment of the following subjects : Forest 
mensuration, Forest organization, Forest 
finance, and Forest administration and it 
is written in such a manner as to be read- 
ily understood and used by the layman, 
timber owner and manager. Non-profes- 
sional students of forestry in colleges and 
universities and in professional courses not 
post-graduate grade, will also find it of 
value as a text. 

Forest Management occupies the middle 
ground between the highly technical and 
the very elementary textbooks and intelli- 
gent study of the principles advocated in 
this book will stimulate the practice of 
forest management by owners of timber 
land — large and small, public and private — 
to the end that this important natural re- 
source may be systematically maintained 
and developed. 



RED GUM TREE YIELDS BALSAM 

OF TRADE VALUE 

XpEW people in the South, where the red 
gum tree (Liquidambar styraciflua) 
grows, apparently are aware that the gum 
which exudes from this tree when its sap- 
wood is wounded has commercial value. 
This "sweet gum," as it is commonly called, 
is similar in properties and composition 
to the commercial product obtained from 
a tree (Liquidambar orientals) indigenous 
to Asia Minor and known in commerce as 
"Oriental storax." 

According to the United States Forest 
Products Laboratory at Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, small amounts of the dried gum have 
been used for some time in the manufac- 
ture of chewing gum, but since the war 
curtailed the supply of oriental storax 
considerable quantities of the fresh "sweet 
gum" or "American storax" have been put 
on the market to replace the imported 
product. 

As much as $2 a pound has been paid to 
collectors of the gum and second hands 
have sold it for from $2.50 to $3 a pound. 
These prices, however, are inflated and it 
is probable that in normal times the gum 
would not bring more than 50 cents to $1 
a pound. 

Storax is used in the manufacture of 
perfumes, tobacco, adhesives and phar- 
maceutical preparations, and contains cin- 
namic acid and cinnamic alcohol, both of 
which are in demand. 



PLANT MEMORIAL TREES 



13(54 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



STATE NEWS 



CALIFORNIA 

'T'HAT public sentiment in California in 
favor of forestry is steadily growing 
is shown by the measures which passed 
the last Legislature and received executive 
sanction. Besides the general appropria- 
tion bill which carries items of salaries, 
support and printing of the State Board of 
Forestry, ten other measures which have 
to do with forestry in California were 
passed. 

A new board of forestry was created to 
consist of five persons, the State Forester 
and four persons appointed by the Gover- 
nor, one of whom shall be familiar with 
the timber industry, one with the livestock 
industry, one with the grain and hay in- 
dustry, and one at large. Another measure 
provided for the prevention and suppres- 
sion of forest fires which are defined as any 
fires burning uncontrolled on any lands 
covered wholly or in part by timber, grass, 
grain or other inflammable vegetation. 
The State Board of Forestry was author- 
ized to divide the state into districts, em- 
ploy district fire rangers and pay fire- 
fighting expenses under specified condi- 
tions. It was provided that co-operative 
agreements for the prevention and sup- 
pression of forest fires or for reforestation 
and afforestation purposes might be en- 
tered into with federal, county, municipal 
and private agencies. An appropriation of 
$25,000 for the biennial period was made 
to put this measure into effect. 

In addition, a number of forested and 
brush-covered regions in the state were 
given protection through the following ap- 
propriations for the biennial period: 

Fighting forest fires, etc., in the San 
Dimas Canyon in the San Gabriel Moun- 
tains, $1,600; fighting forest fires in the 
San Gabriel Canyon in the San Gabriel 
Mountains, $3,000; prevention of forest 
fires in the San Antonio Canyon in the 
San Gabriel Mountains, $5,000; for refor- 
estation, construction and maintenance of 
fire lines and trails, Angeles National 
Forest, $5,000; prevention and extinguish- 
ment of fires in Tamalpais forest fire dis- 
trict, $5,000. 

The above appropriations were made on 
the condition that the various agencies re- 
ceiving direct benefit from this protection, 
such as the San Dimas Fruit Exchange, 
Azusa Irrigation Company, San Antonio 
Water Company and Tamalpais forest fire 
district contribute an equal amount. 

Law enforcement measures were strength- 
ened through an amendment to the Penal 
Code that requires an effective spark ar- 
resting device to be installed on any gas 
tractor, oil-burning engine, gas-propelled 
harvesting machine or auto truck harvest- 



ing or moving grain or hay, and the 
carrying of two suitable chemical fire ex- 
tinguishers by harvesters and hay presses. 
The section regarding the leaving of camp 
fires unextinguished was strengthened by 
the substitution of the words, "Without 
some person in attendance" for "upon de- 
parture." 

A chapter in the Civil Code was revised 
and now gives the United States the right, 
heretofore limited to the state and counties, 
of recovering in a civil action of double 
the damages sustained from fires through 
wilfulness, malice or negligence, as well 
as the actual damages if the fires occurred 
accidentally, and the full costs incurred in 
fighting any such fires. 



COLORADO 

A CTING upon the advice of the State 
Forester, the State Board of Land 
Commissioners has definitely committed 
itself in favor of effecting an exchange of 
school lands, chiefly sections 16 and 36, 
lying within the National Forests of the 
State, for an equal acreage and value of 
lands to be chosen in one or two bodies 
within some National Forest, in order that 
a State Forest may be created and handled 
under forestry principles. 

The State Forester, together with Crosby 
Hoar, of the United States Forest Service, 
has examined within the Rout, White 
River and Arapaho National Forests areas 
which might serve the purpose of the State. 
During the summer a crew of National 
Forest men are examining State lands 
which have not been examined by the 
State Forester, and the Forest Supervisors 
are assisting on other National Forests. 

Preliminary to this exchange the State 
Forester has reported on nearly 28,000 
acres of State land within National For- 
ests, but the total area of such lands is 
approximately 115,000 acres. 

The timbered school lands in the past 
have been administered with great handi- 
caps due to the small areas in single 
bodies, scattered all over the mountainous 
portion of the State, and under laws and 
regulations which were not conducive to 
good forestry practice. 

It is believed that the proposed exchange, 
which is in a preliminary stage at present, 
will result, if effected, in marked advan- 
tage to the State and in considerable ad- 
vantage to the United States Forest Serv- 
ice, which will not have to contend with 
the administrative disadvantages of hold- 
ing within the boundaries of National For- 
ests certain alienated areas. 



LOUISIANA 
'"PHE Commissioner of Conservation, with 
the approval of the Forestry Advisory 
Board, has formally promulgated the spark 
arrester regulations called for by the 
Louisiana law passed in 1918. Louisiana, 
which has so many excellent forestry laws, 
feels proud to join those few states in the 
Union which have laws requiring the use 
of proper spark arresters and ash pans on 
the trunk lines and tram roads of the state. 
So far as we know the regulations for 
wood-burning locomotives and skidders 
are the first passed by any state ; wood as 
a fuel is not used to any extent today in 
logging operations except in the South, 
where our splendid fat pine knots make a 
mighty fine substitute for coal. The regu- 
lations as issued require coal burning loco- 
motives to be equipped with "cabbage- 
head" stacks and solid ash pans. The coal- 
burning regulations require no more than 
what is already the standard equipment on 
the great majority of railroads in the 
United States and are modeled along the 
lines of the British Columbia and New 
York regulations. There will be, however, 
a tightening up of the inspection under our 
regulations. Skidders and loaders or other 
portable engines used in the woods must be 
equipped with screens in or over the smoke 
stacks. 

The way the lumbermen and railroads of 
the state have co-operated with the Depart- 
ment of Conservation in these matters is a 
very hopeful sign. Two conferences called 
by the department in March, one for the 
tram roads, the other for the trunk lines, 
were very well attended and gave an op- 
portunity for everyone to be heard. A great 
many of the tram roads did not wait for 
the issuance of the spark arrester regula- 
tions to begin to install the devices recom- 
mended by the conference, but got busy at 
once and ordered the equipment. Other of 
the tram roads were found to have used 
cabbage-head stacks and similar device; 
for many years and they were unanimous 
in boosting the department's efforts to elim- 
inate railroad fires. 

Never again when the fire warden talks 
to the Louisiana farmer or stockman about 
preventing fires in the woods can that indi- 
vidual come back and say "why do you pick 

onus? These dummy engines 

and locomotives set more fires in a day 
than we do in a week. Why don't you get 
after them?" We feel that if the farmers 
and stockmen will give us as good co-op- 
eration as the lumber companies and trunk 
lines seem to be willing to give us under 
the new regulations, we shall soon have the 
fire situation in Louisiana eating out of our 
hands. 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



1365 



" The Dessert Berry of the Nation * * 

The Erskine Park Everbearing Red Raspberry 

The Erskine Park Everbearing Red Raspberry is a seedling from the old 
reliable Cuthbert, discovered on the Westinghouse Estate (Erskine Park) at 
Lee, Mass., by Mr. Edward Norman. This magnificent estate is in the midst 
of the beautiful Berkshire Hills, with a temperature in winter of 30 or 40 degrees below zero, so that the hardiness of this berry 
is unquestioned. The estate is surrounded by the summer homes of many wealthy people, and much to the surprise of his 
neighbor gardeners and not without a deal of personal satisfaction, Mr. Norman furnished large, luscious raspberries through- 
out the fall for various dinner parties. 





These berries are commented on by all who have seen and tasted 
them as the most delicious and best raspberry they have ever eaten. 
Mr. Baker of Hoosick. Falls, N. Y., writes us as follows, regarding 
this remarkable berry: 

"In the season of 1916, Mr. George M. Darrow of the United States 
Department of Agriculture was traveling from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, visiting fruit growers to obtain information on berries for 
bulletins published by the Department of Agriculture Mr. Darrow 
had visited this estate before, and was most favorably impressed 
that this berry was far ahead of the St. Regis and Renere, and when 
it became known it would replace these varieties. The plant is by 
far the strongest growing raspberry I have ever seen. It branches 
like a tree, and it also has the largest and most roots of any variety 
with which I am acquainted. It is perfectly hardy and the berries 
are very large." 

Of this berry we cannot say too much in praise, and we predict 



that once known, it will be a standard for planting in every garden 
and considered a necessity. 

The Renere and St. Regis have been the standard up to the preseni 
time. In the Erskine Park we have a berry that far surpasses either 
of these; a raspberry that is a delight to eat, each berrv being of 
largest size, with its delicious melting flesh, full of rich creamy juice, 
highly flavored and sweet as honey. 

Conceive the joy and satisfaction of having such berries on your table 
all through the autumn, the source of wonder to your neighbors, that 
you can pick the finest raspberries until the snow flies. On November 
the 20th we cut a large branch of the Erskine Park with blossoms, 
green berries and ripe fruit upon it. 

We have not as yet been able to propagate any large quantity 
of this magnificent berry, but what we have are the finest Bearing 
Two-Year Old Plants, heavily rooted and branched that will bring 
a full measure of pleasure and satisfaction to the planter. 




Strong Field Grown Bearing Plants, per six, $3; per twelve, $5; per fifty, $15 

One dozen plants set this fall will produce more fruit than two dozen plants set 

next spring. Plant this fall. 

Send for our Free illustrated Catalogue which describes 
the "WORLD'S BEST" trees and plants for youi garden 

GLEN BROS., Inc. Glenwood Nursery 1873 Main St., Rochester, N.Y. 





QUALITY- EFFICIENCY- RELIABILITY 

Upon this foundation was built this, 
the Largest Saw Works in the World 

Keystone Saw, Tool, Steel and File Works 

HENRY DISSTON & SONS, PHILADELPHIA, U. 




S. A. 



Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1366 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



234,000,000 FEET 

NATIONAL FOREST TIMBER 



FOR SALE 

Location and Amount. — All the 
merchantable dead timber 
standing or down and all the 
live timber marked or desig- 
nated for cutting on the 
Clover Valley Logging Unit 
embracing about 26,000 acres 
in T. 23 N., Rs. 14 and 15 E., 
T. 24 N., Rs. 12, 13, 14 and 15 
E., and T. 25 N., Rs. 12 
and 13 E., M. D. M. estimated 
to be 165,000,000 feet B. M. 
of yellow and Jeffrey pine, 
7,500,000 feet B. M. of sugar 
pine, 49,500,000 feet B. M. of 
white fir, 4,000,000 feet B. M. 
of Douglas fir, 450,000 feet B. 
M. of red fir and 7,500,000 
feet B. M. of incense cedar 
saw timber, more or less lo- 
cated within the Plumas Na- 
tional Forest, California. 

Stumpage Prices. — Lowest rates 
considered, $3.00 per M. feet 
for yellow and Jeffrey pine, 
$3.50 per M. feet for sugar 
pine, $1.50 per M. feet for 
Douglas fir and incense cedar, 
$.75 per M. feet for white fir 
and $1.00 per M. feet for red 
fir. For material unmerchant- 
able under the terms of the 
agreement to be removed at 
the option of the purchaser, 
for which payment is required 
by the Forest Service, fifty 
cents per M. feet. Rates to be 
redetermined by May 1, 1924. 

Deposit.— With bid $10,000 to 
apply on purchase price if bid 
is accepted or refunded if re- 
jected. 

Final Date For Bids. — Sealed 
bids will be received by the 
District Forester, San Fran- 
cisco, California, up to and in- 
cluding October 15, 1919. 

The right to reject any and 
all bids is reserved. 

Before bids are submitted 
full information concerning 
the character of the timber, 
conditions of sale, deposits, 
and the submission of bids 
should be obtained from the 
District Forester, San Fran- 
cisco, California, or the Forest 
Supervisor, Quincy, Califor- 
nia. 



MICHIGAN 
HPHE past summer found the compart- 
ment line construction work practically 
completed on two State Forests, the Fife 
Lake and the Ogemaw. On each of these, 
a compartment line has been built on the 
government land subdivision survey lines 
around each forty acre tract, excepting 
where swamps or lakes interfere. The Fife 
Lake Forest contains 7182 acres and the 
Ogemaw 4284 acres, and the compartment 
line systems are 112 and 57 miles long, re- 
spectively. 

In addition to the systems built on these 
two forests there are some 380 miles on the 
other State Forests, and the present sys- 
tems will be strengthened with more line 
until each forest is equipped as is each of 
the two mentioned. 

These two forests are, probably, the first 
in America to be so equipped. Since the 
cpnstruction and maintenance of the lines 
entails considerable cost, it is interesting 
to note, as offsetting the cost, their value 
in a general way to the forest in the light 
of our own experience. To be sure Eu- 
ropean foresters long ago were satisfied 
that the construction of compartment lines 
was essential to the efficient operation of 
their forests, and the more intensively 
managed forests of Europe are now well 
provided. 

The lines, as we construct them, are 
cleared of brush and trees to a width of 
sixteen feet, all stumps are removed to a 
width of twelve feet, and a strip ten feet 
wide is plowed and harrowed. The line is 
reharrowed or is disced as necessity arises, 
to remove all grass, ferns, brush, etc., which 
may start on it. A clean dirt road results. 
They are the streets of our forests. 

As streets they serve the same purposes 
and have much the same relative value to 
the forest as do the streets to a city. 
Along them, one may quickly drive to any 
fire which may arise, and as the streets of 
a city act as barriers to the spread of fires, 
and as bases from which fires may be 
fought, so do the compartment lines of the 
forest. Indeed, their value as a means of 
protecting the woods from serious damage 
by forest fires is, perhaps, their greatest 
value at present, and as their use for this 
means is readily observed, they are gen- 
erally called fire lines. It is along the com- 
partment lines that telephones are strung, 
and it is they that, in large measure, bear 
the vehicular travel over the forest. 

The compartments correspond in bound- 
aries with the government land subdi- 
visions, and as each land subdivision is de- 
scribed, so is each compartment line bound- 
ing it. Thus we have as names for our 
forest streets, the names of subdivision 
lines, for example: north eight line section 
36; east and west quarter line section 2; 
line between sections 11 and 12; etc. The 
name of the line indicates its precise posi- 
tion in the forest. 
The forest is, by the lines, divided and 



marked out on the ground (not along on a 
map) into units of area suitable for admin- 
istration purposes. If the Custodian wishes 
to plant a compartment with young trees, 
he knows that the area is bounded by com- 
partment lines, and that its location is un- 
mistakable ; also that he can get to it with 
a team, if, indeed, not with his Ford. 

If the State Forester wishes to undertake 
special surveys or studies or examinations 
on any particular piece of land, he knows 
that he can reach it quickly, and that the 
ease of his work will be immeasurably 
heightened through the use of the compart- 
ment lines. It is only the forester who has 
hunted for section corners and lines in or- 
der that he might locate his position, who 
can really appreciate this one value of the 
compartment line system in the efficient 
conduct of a forest business. 



The Forestry Section of the Michigan 
Agricultural Experiment Station is mak- 
ing a study this summer of the rate of 
growth of forest plantations and also nut 
tree plantations. The study includes costs 
of establishing, care and maintenance and 
also intermediate and final returns where 
possible. The results of the study will 
probably be published some time during the 
coming winter. 



The Michigan Legislature recently 
passed a law to encourage the planting of 
nut-bearing and other food-producing 
trees along State trunk highways and other 
roads built in this state. The law makes 
it the duty of the State Highway Commis- 
sion and the State Commission of Agri- 
culture to look after the setting out of such 
trees and of the State Agricultural College 
and the Public Domain Commission to 
distribute stock at nominal cost to local 
officials and private individuals who will 
set it out. Trees are to be planted at in- 
tervals of 20 to 40 feet along the roads. 
This law is in keeping with the policy of 
encouraging tree planting announced by 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



NORTH CAROLINA 
'"PEN years ago the United States Forest 
Service, in co-operation with the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, 
made a study of the Wood-using Industries 
of the State, the results of which were pub- 
lished by the Survey as Economic Paper 
No. 20, "Wood-using Industries of North 
Carolina." This report is now out of print 
and as there is a continuous demand for in- 
formation on this subject, the Survey has 
determined to revise thoroughly and bring 
up to date this report and publish the re- 
sults in connection with the forthcoming 
bulletin on the "Forest Conditions of Pied- 
mont North Carolina," in which portion of 
the State most of these industries are sit- 
uated. 

Inquiry cards have been printed and are 
being sent out to a revised list of firms ask- 



STATE NEWS 



1367 




"Pin Oak, t inch caliper, 23 feet high" 

Westchester County, 



AMAWALK 
NURSERY 

has thousands of 

MEMORIAL TREES 



Thousands of large sized 
evergreen and deciduous 
trees are growing in the 
Amawalk Nursery. We can 
supply hundreds of nursery- 
grown, matched specimens 
for memorial planting. Our 
facilities for shipping by 
truck or freight are unex- 
celled. 

Send for Catalogue 
Phone Yorktown 128 



Visit the Nursery 

AMAWALK 




"Norway Maple, 6 inch caliper, 27 feet high" 
New York 



ing information as to the amount, kind, 
quality and value of wood used, and the 
amount and kind of products manufactured. 
A special effort is being made to compare 
the past with the probable future source of 
supply. Ten years ago North Carolina fur- 
nished ninety-six per cent of the wood 
used in her industries ; it will be interest- 
ing to see to what extent this has been 
changed by the undoubted rapid reduction 
in the amount and quality of timber avail- 
able. 

Besides the several large summer schools, 
covering six weeks study, in session at the 
higher State institutions of learning, there 
are being held this year for the first time 
some forty-five schools of four weeks dura- 
tion for teachers, under the joint control of 
the State and County authorities. The at- 
tendance and the work accomplished at 
these local schools have been most en- 
couraging. It is at these summer schools, 
held usually at the county seats, as well as 
at the Teachers' Institutes (two weeks 
term), that the State Forester is lecturing. 
With a lantern and a set of slides, he is 
visiting the majority of the summer schools 
in the Piedmont and eastern sections of the 
State. The general topics are "conserva- 
tion" and "forestry" as they apply especial- 
ly to North Carolina conditions. An out- 
line of the different forest types is given, 
the uses of the forest touched upon not 
only as to their products, but their value 



for recreation and for soil and water protec- 
tion ; while forestry practice for this State is 
illustrated and explained. Suggestions are 
made to the teachers as to how they may 
interest the children in the observation and 
study of trees by excursions, school col- 
lections, Arbor Day observance, etc. They 
are urged to recommend the planting of 
shade trees around schools and homes, the 
reservation and planting of roadside trees 
and the planting and dedication of Memo- 
rial Trees. 



OREGON 

A T a recent meeting in Portland, Oregon, 
of the trustees of the Western Forestry 
and Conservation Association, plans were 
ratified for reorganizing the scope and per- 
sonnel of the association to cover far more 
broadly than ever before both the western 
protective work and the economic problems 
confronting the entire industry. 

Favorable action was taken on a co-op- 
erative plan proposed by the Oregon Forest 
Fire Association, under which Col. C. S. 
Chapman, manager of the latter, will take 
charge of all the fire and similar local work 
in the five states. The five-state association 
will furnish him assistance to develop 
technical fire fighting methods and law en- 
f oi cement, also increased facilities for ed- 
ucational work with industry and public on 
protective matters. 
Besides these increased activities in the 



Northwest, the Western Forestry and Con- 
servation Association will engage more 
constantly, both independently and in co- 
operation with the National Lumber Manu- 
facturers Association and other lumber and 
timber organizations, in working out larger 
industrial questions and in getting recog- 
nition of western needs from governmental 
agencies. By being relieved of western fire 
matters, E. T. Allen, who has spent much of 
the past three years in Washingt6n, will 
devote himself almost entirely to this work 
in the east. Much of his earliest attention 
will be given to relations between the lum- 
ber industry and the Treasury Department 
in working out the new revenue laws affect- 
ing income and profits taxation. 



PENNSYLVANIA 
"FORESTER Paul Mulford, in charge of 
the Stone Forest and Asaph nursery re- 
ports that he is raising seedlings in his nur- 
sery from seed collected from white ash 
frees which were set out in a plantation on 
the Stone Forest in 1907. The trees bore 
their first seed in 1914 and have been pro- 
lific seeders each year since then, except in 
1918 when a late frost killed the immature 
seed. He also reports a heavy attack of 
white pine weevil, especially on southern 
exposures, and states that European larch 
under an advance growth is making only 
about one-fourth as great a height growth 
as in the open. 



Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1368 



THE 



wt 




1337-1339 F STREET.N.W. 
WflSHIN<3T0N,P.C. 

flWP 

ILLUSTRATORS 
3 Color Pro^ss Work 

Superior Qoality 

Phone Main 8Z74 



SALE OF TIMBER, KLAMATH INDIAN 

RESERVATION. 

CLIFF BOUNDARY UNIT. 

SEALED BIDS, MARKED OUTSIDE "BID, 
Cliff Boundary Timber Unit" and addressed 
to the Superintendent of the Klamath Indian 
School, Klamath Agency, Oregon, will be re- 
ceived until 12 o'clock noon, Pacific time, Tues- 
day, September 23, 1919, for the purchase of tim- 
ber upon about 10,000 acres within Townships 33 
and 34 South, Ranges 7 and 8 East of the Wil- 
liamette Meridian. The sale embraces approxi- 
mately 100,000,000 feet of yellow pine and sugar 
pine. Each bid must state for each species the 
amount per 1,000 feet Scribner decimal C log 
scale that will be paid for all timber cut prior 
to April 1, 1921. Prices subsequent to that date 
are to be fixed by the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs by three-year periods. No bid of less 
than three dollars and seventy -five cents ($3.75) 
per 1,000 feet for yellow and sugar pine and one 
dollar ($1.00) per 1,000 feet for other species of 
timber during the first period will be considered. 
Each bid must be submitted in duplicate and be 
accompanied by a certified check on a solvent 
national bank in favor of the Superintendent of 
the Klamath Indian School in the amount of 
$10,000. The deposit will be returned if the bid 
is rejected but retained if the bid is accepted 
and the required contract and bond are not- 
executed and presented for approval within sixty 
days from such acceptance. The right to reject 
any and all bids is reserved. For copies of the 
bid and contract forms and for other information 
application should be made to the Indian Super- 
intendent, Klamath Agency, Oregon. 

Washington, D. C, July 14, 1919. CATO 
SELLS, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

FORESTER wanted as Division Firewarden in 
New Jersey. Must have professional training 
and some experience. Salary $100 to $120. Eligi- 
ble for promotion to Assistant Forester. Civil 
Service examination can be taken after pro- 
visional appointment or by mail. Box 810, care 
American Forestry Magazine, Washington, D. C. 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 

FORESTERS ATTENTION 

AMERICAN FORESTRY will gladly print free 
of charge in this column advertisements of for- 
esters, lumbermen and woodsmen, discharged or 
about to be discharged from military service, who 
want positions, or of persons having employment 
to offer such foresters, lum bermen or woodsmen. 

POSITION wanted by technically trained For- 
ester: college graduate, 37 years of age and 
married. Have had seven years' experience in 
the National Forests of Oregon, California, 
Washington and Alaska. Also some European 
training. At present employed on timber sur- 
veys as chief of party in the Forest Service. 
Desire to make a change and will be glad to 
consider position as Forester on private estate, 
or as city Forester. Will also consider position 
as Asst. Superintendent of State Park and 
Game Preserve in addition to that of Forester. 
Can furnish the best of references. Address 
Box 820, care American Forestry Magazine, 
Washington, D. C. 

ARBORICULTURIST is open to an engagement 
; to take charge of, or as assistant in City For- 
estry work. Experience and training, ten years, 
covering the entire arboricultural field — from 
planting to expert tree surgery— including nur- 
sery practice, and supervision in the care and 
detailed management of city shade trees. For 
further information, address Box 700, care of 
American Forestry. 



An Opening For One Hundred 
Foresters 

The position is that of Division Firewarden; 
the territory is approximately one-third of the 
State of New Jersey; the work is general 
administration of all forest fire matters 
together with attendance at large fires, in- 
vestigation of the causes of fires, supervision 
of the personnel of the local firewarden ser- 
vice, about one hundred men, and responsi- 
bility for the publicity and propaganda fire 
prevention work in the territory. The com- 
pensation is $1,200 to start, with every likeli- 
hood of increase shortly, the qualifications are 
that a man shall be a graduate o. some repu- 
table technical forestry school. The reason 
for requiring technical training is that ad- 
vancement may be either in the forest fire 
work or in the technical forestry activities of 
the Department and in addition the incumbent 
is called on during the slacker season for for- 
est fire work, to do technical and propaganda 
forestry work in his territory. Apply Box 830, 
care American Forestry, Washington, D. C. 



POSITION wanted by technically trained For- 
ester. Have had fourteen years experience 
along forestry lines, over five years on the 
National Forests in timber sale, silvicultural 
and administrative work; three years experi- 
ence in city forestry, tree surgery and landscape 
work. Forester for the North Shore Park Dis- 
trict of Chicago. City forestry and landscape 
work preferred, but will be glad to consider 
other lines. Can furnish the best of reference 
Address Box 600, Care American Forestry 
Magazine, Washington, D. C. (1-3) 

YOUNG MAN recently discharged from the U. S. 
Navy, wants employment with wholesale lum- 
ber manufacturer; college graduate; five year's 
experience in nursery business; can furnish 
best of references. Address Box 675, Care 
American Forestry Magazine, Washington, 
D C. QJI) 

Man to be discharged lroin tne Army Septeiuuer 
30th desires position in forestry work, with lum- 
ber or railroad company or assisting in investi- 
gations of utilization of wood products. Would 
accept position in other work. Is married man, 
graduate of Michigan Agricultural College, 1913. 
Has had experience in orchard work, clearing 
land, improvement cuttings, planting and care of 
nursery, pine and hardwood transplants, orchards 
and larger trees, grading and construction of 
gravel roads, and other improvement work. Has 
executive ability and gets good results from men. 
Please address Box 860, care of American 
Forestry Magazine, Washington, D. C. (9-11) 

Forester A. C. Silvius in charge of the 
Buffalo State Forest in Pennsylvania has 
established a recreation park within his 
forest. It has been named Crystal Spring 
Park, covers an area of about three acres, 
and is located on one of the main highways 
of the State. 

A forestry literature box has been in- 
stalled in which popular publications on 
forestry are placed. These publications 



are a source of recreation to the visitors 
during their stay at the park, and a means 
of disseminating information pertaining to 
forestry, for the publications are free of 
charge and may be taken home by the visi- 
tors. Approximately 2,000 bulletins and 
leaflets have been distributed during the 
past four months. Forester Silvius is using 
this practical means of convincing the 
guests who visit the park that he is trying 
to give them real service and the Buf- 
falo Forest is open to the public and being 
developed so that it will yield large quanti- 
ties of desirable wood and furnish the best 
form of recreation to all who are fortunate 
enough to visit it. 



District Forester Walter D. Ludwig, 
Johnstown, Pennsylvania, reports that a 
number of destructive forest fires occurred 
during the first week of July. At this sea- 
son of the year forest fires are usually rare, 
but on July 4 a fire started which destroyed 
more than $1,000 worth of pulpwood be- 
longing to the West Virginia Pulp and 
Paper Company. 

Hereafter any person who desires to 
make a business of pruning shade trees in 
Johnstown, Pennsylvania, must pass an ex- 
amination given by District Forester 
Walter D. Ludwig. If the applicant satis- 
fies the requirements of the examiner, a 
license is issued to him upon the payment 
of a one dollar fee. 



VIRGINIA 
C EEDLINGS and transplants for refor- 
estation in Virginia will be available 
for the first time this fall planting season 
from the Virginia State Forest Nursery. 

Evergreens are being grown exclusively 
up-to-date. They include three species of 
pine and Norway Spruce. The pines are 
the well-known white pine (pinus strobus), 
which is native throughout the mountainous 
parts of the State and the higher parts of 
the Piedmont section ; the shortleaf pine 
(pinus echinata), which is the predominat- 
ing tree in the Piedmont section of the 
State, and is also found over much of the 
mountainous part; and the loblolly pine 
(pinus taeda), which is decidedly the pre- 
dominating tree in the Tidewater or Coast- 
al Plain section of the State, and occurs 
scatteringly, and grows rapidly in the Pied- 
mont section of the State. These three 
pines are expected to predominate in re- 
forestation in Virginia, each in its own 
section of the State, because of their rapid 
growth, dense stands, and early and large 
yields of much-needed material. 

The Norway spruce has been planted 
with much success in many of the Northern 
States, and is expected to thrive in Vir- 
ginia, at least in fairly cool and moist 
situations. It also grows rapidly and in 
dense stands, producing useful wood. 

The number of trees which are expected 
to be available for use this fall and next 
spring is as follows: white pine, trans- 



STATE NEWS 



1369 



plants, 17,000; shortleaf pine, transplants, 
13,000, and seedlings, 1,400; loblolly pine, 
transplants, 8,000, and seedlings, 7,500; and 
Norway spruce, transplants, 1,000. 

Rules for the disposal of these plants 
will probably provide for distribution to 
public institutions free of charge, and to 
land-owners in Virginia at a cost low 
enough to encourage reforestation and 
based on the cost of raising them. Trees 
of the species and sizes desirable for forest 
planting are not grown by any commercial 
nursery in Virginia, and it is expected that 
the example of the State will result in such 
nurseries putting such material on the 
market after the market has been de- 
veloped by the State. 

The State Forest Nursery is located at 
Charlottesville, Virginia, a junction point of 
the Southern and Chesapeake and Ohio Rail- 
roads, on ground belonging to the Univer- 
sity of Virginia and placed at the disposal 
of the State Forester free of charge for this 
purpose. 



TEXAS 
JLf R. ALFRED MACDONALD, a grad- 
uate of the Harvard Forest School, has 
been appointed City Forester for the City 
of Dallas. City forestry is new in Texas, 
Dallas being the only municipality boast- 
ing of such work. Many other Texas cities 
have beautiful trees and splendid possibili- 
ties and it is to be expected that they will 
follow the lead set by Dallas when the 
benefits of such work are appreciated. 



A resolution was recently passed by the 
State Legislature advocating the planting 
of pecan trees along state and county high- 
ways. The pecan is the official State tree 
and although it is not suited to conditions 
in all parts of Texas, yet there are many 



Anyone ca 



use it 



Perhaps you have put off blasting 
your stumps with Atlas Farm 
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the work required skill and ex- 
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know about stump blasting. Thousands 
of farmers are using Atlas Farm Powder 
for all kinds of farm improvement work, 
and most of them had no more experience 
than R. C. English, Port Matilda, Pa., 
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"I had never used explosives before ana 
had never seen a stump blasted. But it 
was no trouble at all after I looked at the 
pictures in your book." 
Write now for "Better Farming with 
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illustrations. The coupon at the right 
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PLANT TREES 

PROTECT FORESTS 

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American Forestry Association 

1410 H STREET N. W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 

/ hereby accept membership in The American 
Forestry Association and enclose check for $ 

NOTE— American Forestry Magazine, a handsomely printed and illustrated monthly, is sent to 
all except $1.00 members, or without membership the subscription price is $3.00 a year. 



CLASS OF MEMBERSHIP 
Subscribing Membership ......... 

Contributing " .......... 

Sustaining . . . . . . . . . 

Life " 

Patron " 

Annual Membership, without Magazine . . . 

Canadian Postage 25c extra; Foreign Postage, 50c extra. 
($2.00 of the fee is for AMERICAN FORESTRY.) 

Name _ 



$ 3.00 

10.00 

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This is the only Popular 
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and the use of wood. 



City 
PLANT MEMORIAL TREES 



Pirate mention American Forestry Magaiine when writing advertiieri 



1370 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



EVERGREENS 
GUARANTEED 




This is the Time 
to Plant. 
And as things 
will happen we are 
■»»»»■■ clearing a block of 
Pines that are growing on 
leased land. Every one 
Root-Pruned and in the 
pink of condition to trans- 
plant. Here is your chance, 
if you act quick, to 
get highest quality 
Evergreens, guar- 
anteed to fit your 
soil and climate, at 
a saving of 33-1/3 
to 50%. 

HICKS 
NURSERIES 

Box F 
Westbury, L. I. 
N. 



Orchids 



We arc specialists in 
Orchids; we collect, im- 
port, grow, sell and export this class of plants 
exclusively. 

Our illustrated and descriptive catalogue of 
Orchids may be had on application. Also spe- 
cial list of freshly imported unestablished 
Orchids. 

LAGER & HURRELL 

Orchid Growers and Importers SUMMIT, IT. J. 



^Sa\ ■»■ a^hSlM^Kv mw" '^v^Uhf 






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Have a "Fleur de Lis" Iris Garden 

Is there a little nook in your garden where you 
can rest and "chum" with the glorious flowers named 
after the Goddess of the Rainbow? Truly, every 
color of the rainbow may be found in the hardy Iris, 
or Fleur de Lis, a flower whose fascinating beauty 
must have been meant to bring peace and rest to human- 
ity. Learn to know Irises at their best by planting 

Child's Select Named Fleur de Lis 

Like glowing velvet and scintillating precious 
jewels, Ins, in their season, eclipse in beauty every 
other flower in the hardy border. To enable you to 
know Iris as we love them, we offer postpaid, 

20 best named Garden Iris, all different, for $1.25 
10 best named Japan Iris, all different, for $1.25 
Both collections, with 3 Iris Pumila, for $2.25 
In superfine mixture, 20 Garden or 1 Japan, $1.00 

We grow acres of Irises, Peonies, Lilies and 
other hardy bulbs and plants for all planting. 

We also specialize in Hyacinths, Tulips, Narcissus, 
Crocus, Freesias, etc. Shrubs, Vines, Berries and winter 
flowering plants in great variety. Large Catalog Free. 

JOHN LEWIS CHILDS, Inc., Floral Park, L. I., N. Y. 



Nursery Stock for Forest Planting 
TREE SEEDS 



SEEDLINGS 



Write for price* on 
large quantities 



TRANSPLANTS 



THE NORTH-EASTERN FORESTRY CO. 
CHESHIRE. CONN. 



PLANT MEMORIAL 

TREES FOR OUR 

HEROIC DEAD 



HILL'S 

Seedlings and Transplants 

ALSO TREE SEEDS 
FOR REFORESTING 

~D EST for over half a century. All 
leading hardy sorts, grown in im- 
mense quantities. Prices lowest. Quali- 
ty highest. Forest Planter's Guide, also 
price lists are free. Write today and 
mention this magazine. 

THE D. HELL NURSERY CO. 

Evergreen Specialists 

Largest Growers in America 

BOX 501 DUNDEE, ILL. 



FORESTRY SEEDS 

Send for my catalogue containing 
full list of varieties and prices 

Thomas J. Lane, Seedsman 
Dresner Pennsylvania 




WHEN YOU BUY 

PHOTO -ENGRAVINGS 

buy the right kind--That is, the 
particular style and finish that will 
best illustrate your thought and 
print best where they are to be 
used. Such engravings are the real 
quality engravings for you, whether 
they cost much or little. 
We have a reputation for intelligent- 
ly co-operating with the buyer to 
give him the engravings that will 
best suit his purpose-- 
Our little house organ "Etchings" is 
fall of valuable hints-Send for it. 

H. A. GATCHEL. Pre*. C A. ST1NS0N. Via-Pra. 

GATCHEL & MANNING 

PHOTO-ENGRA VERS 



one or more co. 



lors 



In 

Sixth and Chestnut Streets 

PHILADELPHIA 



miles of highway which could be beauti- 
fied by planting these sturdy, graceful 
utility trees. 



WISCONSIN 
'"PO put its discoveries into practical use 
as soon as pos ible, the Forest prod- 
ucts Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, has 
adopted the plan of sending out at short in- 
tervals a sheaf of so-called "Technical 
Notes." These notes are not too technical, 
however, for the average wood worker. 
They are simply practical suggestions 
backed up by many tests, on such subjects 
as how to build boxes and crates, make 
waterproof glue joints, prevent decay in 
wood, tell commercial woods apart, or keep 
doors from shrinking and swelling. The 
notes are distributed in quantity to the 
wood-using associations, to technical 
schools and colleges, and upon request to 
all others who might benefit by them. 

A knowledge of the properties of wood is 
as essential for aircraft repair men as for 
aircraft builders. The new school for air- 
plane mechanics at the Great Lakes Naval 
Training Station will give Navy aircraft 
repair men a thorough training in the 
selection and treatment of airplane woods. 
Instructors in this school have been de- 
tailed for some time to the Forest Prod- 
ucts Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, to 
collect information for use in their courses. 
The laboratory is also furnishing the school 
material for a text book on wood identifi- 
cation, inspection, conditioning and testing. 



CANADIAN DEPARTMENT 



1371 



CANADIAN DEPARTMENT 

BY ELLWOOD WILSON 

PRESIDENT, CANADIAN SOCIETY OF FOREST ENGINEERS 



'T'HE Canadian Forestry Association is 
just sending on the road, for the sec- 
ond season its "Forestry Car." This is a 
special car fitted with all sorts of fire fight- 
ing apparatus, a miniature nursery, samples 
and pictures of wood manufactures, mov- 
ing picture apparatus and lectures. This 
car is sent to regions which have large 
timberlands or industries and also stops 
for lectures in the larger cities. Audiences 
of 600 at one meeting are not uncommon. 
This kind of propaganda has proved most 
effective, especially in districts which have 
been foci of forest fires in the past. Mr. 
Black, the Secretary, is to be congratulated 
on his cleverness in devising novel propa- 
ganda methods in the efficient way in 
which he has carried them out. 



Sales of timberlands in Ontario, recentht 
made by the Government have realized the 
highest prices ever paid, in one case 
$22.00 per thousand feet, standing. 



The Government of New Brunswick has 
again advanced the dues on timber (jut on 
Crown Lands by one-third and has put into 
force new cutting regulations. This will 
mean an increase in revenue of $150,000 if 
the cut is the same as last year. Spruce, 
pine, tamarack and cedar will pay $3.50 per 
thousand instead of $2.50; hemlock, fir and 
poplar $3.00 instead of $2.00. Spruce and 
white pine shall be cut not less than 12 
inches in diameter measured inside the bark 
not less than 12 inches from the ground. 
Jack pine, or "Princess Pine" as it is called 
locally, not less than 10 inches. Fir not 
less than 9 inches. A fine of $50.00 per tree 
in addition to the regular stumpage is im- 
posed. Trees must be utilized to a six 
inch top and a penalty of $7.50 per thou- 
sand will be imposed for all usable ma- 
terial left in the wood in contravention o 
the regulations. In case of fire or blow 
down the Government may compel the li- 
censee to cut and remove such timber be- 
fore it becomes unusable. If he does not 
remove such timber he must pay the stump- 
age in any case. Trees killed by fire or 
budworm shall only pay two-thirds the 
stumpage of sound trees. New Brunswick 
is advancing rapidly along forestry lines 
and should be heartily congratulated. 



The Brown Corporation has bought a 
hydroplane for mapping their timber lands 
and has decided to undertake planting 
operations on their holdings in the United 
States, planting four trees for every one 
they cut. They are undertaking this as a 
patriotic duty. We hope there will be more 
like them, and venture the statement that 



after fifteen or twenty years they will be 
very thankful that they were so patriotic 
and far sighted. 



In traveling through southern Quebec 
and northern Maine much damage to 
balsam and spruce by budworm was 
noticed. 

Plantations of Scotch Pine in Quebec are 
showing damage from white pine weevil, 
from a fungous disease and from a rust. 
Several trees are showing this years shoots 
falling off and it looks as if the damage is 
due to mice. Altogether this species does 
not seem to be a good one to plant. 



Norway spruce plantations are doing re- 
markably well, growth this year being in 
many cases from two to three feet. Planta- 
tions made in 1914, four year old stock, 
are now six feet and over on fair soils. 



Fires in the Prairie Provinces have been 
disastrous this summer and have been 
very difficult to control. Northern On- 
tario has also suffered quite a little. 

! _ 

Arrangements are being made by Dr. 
Howe of the Commission of Conservation 
with a number of the large paper and lum- 
ber companies to have certain areas cut 
this next winter under regulations drawn 
up by him and under the supervision of his 
men. This will mean some additional 
slight cost of logging but will furnish very 
important information in regard to the ef- 
fect of different systems of cutting. Such 
co-operation is very valuable and should be 
encouraged and as widespread as possible. 



AIRPLANES FIND FOREST FIRES 

T> EPORTS to the Forest Service, United 
States Department of Agriculture, 
from the national forests in California, 
where Army aviators are making daily 
flights in search of forest fires, indicate 
that the innovation has been decidedly 
successful and that air patrols of the 
forests will prove so valuable that they 
will eventually become a permanent part 
of the work to shield the great woodlands 
from conflagrations. Numerous fires have 
been discovered in their early stages by the 
aviators and have been reported immedi- 
ately to the forest rangers. It is believed 
that considerable loss has been prevented 
by such early discovery. Lack of suitable 
landing places in this rugged country has 
proved a handicap in some instances and 
has caused a belief in certain quarters that 
dirigible balloons will finally be found 
more suitable than airplanes for forest 
flying. 



& 



9 



i$ 



Illustrating the hardy, healthy stock grown at 

lUttle ®ttz .lfarmsf 




£ 



For Planting Now 



6 Ornamental Evergreens $r* 
All 2 ft. High or More 7% 

DELIVERED TO YOUR DOOR FOR " 
{Remittance to accompany order) 
Collection includes i Juniper, t Silver Fir, i Blue 
Spruce, i Douglas Spruce, i Arborvitae, i Pine— all 
choice, lugh quality stock raised at Llltle Tree 
Knriui from best seed. 



Plant this half dozen evergreens now. Make it part of 
your vacation fun. Have the satisfaction of doing it your- 
self. These evergreens will become rooted and well 
established at once and next spring will start new growth 
promptly with the season. Thus you gain eight months 
in growth and joy. Beautiful now and all winter. 

This unusual offer is made because we have faith In our 
trees. They are our best salesmen. If we can get you 
acquainted with our stock you will become an enthusiastic 
tree planter. Why? Because our trees live. 75^ of our 
business is with regular customers— the best evidence that 
our trees and service please. We have made this intro- 
ductory offer small so as to lie available to all. 



& 



lUhietEreejFarmg 

(Near Boston) 
MIW.l!!i:s OF 

American Forestry 

Company 



# 



Dept. D 15 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 



(BOX BARBERRY) 

^*" The New Hardy Dwarf Ed(inEand low Hedfe — 9 

Originators and Introducers 
THE ELM CITY NURSERY COMPANY 
W00DMIINT NURSERIES, Inc. 
Box 205, New Haven, Conn. 
Send for Box-Raiheiry folder and generalnur- 
sery Catalogue. Fall Planting Recommended 



OUR ADVERTISERS ARE 
RELIABLE 



(£> 



| Send, also, for " The book of Little Tre« Ftrat." | 

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Please Mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1372 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



The 

New York State 

College of 

Forestry 

at 

Syracuse University, 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

UNDERGRADUATE courses in 
Technical Forestry, Paper and 
Pulp Making, Logging and Lum- 
bering, City Forestry, and Forest 
Engineering, all leading to degree of 
Bachelor of Science. Special oppor- 
tunities offered for post-graduate 
work leading to degrees of Master of 
Forestry, Master of City Forestry, 
and Doctor of Economics. 

A one-year course of practical 
training at the State Ranger School 
on the College Forest of 1,800 acres 
at Wanakena in the Adirondacks. 

State Forest Camp of three months 
open to any man over 16, held each 
summer on Cranberry Lake. Men 
may attend this Camp for from two 
weeks to the entire summer. 

The State Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion of 90 acres at Syracuse and an 
excellent forest library offer unusual 
opportunities for research work. 



DEPARTMENT OF 
FORESTRY 

The Pennsylvania 
State College 



A PROFESSIONAL courae in 
Forestry, covering four years 
of college work, leading to the 
degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Forestry. 

Thorough and practical training for 
Government, State, Municipal and 
private forestry. 

Four months are spent in camp in 
the woods in forest work. 
Graduates who wish to specialize 
along particular lines are admitted 
to the "graduate forest schools" as 
candidates for the degree of Master 
of Forestry on the successful com- 
pletion of one year's work. 



For further information address 
Department of Forestry 

Pennsylvania State College 

State College, Pa. 



FOREST SCHOOL NOTES 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
f\F the three faculty members who were in 
in the army, Major David T. Mason 
was the first to return. After being with 
the school for two months, he was borrowed 
for the rest of this year by the Treasury 
Department and will be in Washington 
until January 1st as timber expert. 

Captain Donald Bruce returned to take 
up his work in Forest Engineering on June 
1st after 21 months service in France. 
While with the A. E. F. he was engaged 
in securing from the French the timber 
which was later cut by the 10th and 20th 
Engineers. 

Captain Emanuel Fritz took up his 
duties as Assistant Professor of Forestry, 
in charge of the work in forest products on 
July 1st, after nearly two years in military 
service. 

Professor Walter Mulford, head of the 
Forestry School, has been given added ad- 
ministrative duties and responsibilities in 
the recent reorganization of the College of 
Agriculture. He is now Director of Resi- 
dent Instruction and chairman of the ad- 
ministrative committee, in which capacity 
he will have direct supervision of the en- 
tire student body of the College of Agri- 
culture. In spite of this added work he 
plans to give his usual forestry courses 
next spring. 



Dr. Charles H. Shattuck, who was with 
the school as professor of Forestry from 
August 1917, until January of this year, has 
gone into private work with his brother 
at Idaho Falls, Idaho. 



Professor Woodbridge Metcalf has just 
returned from a trip to the southern part 
of the state in connection with his study of 
eucalyptus plantations and the supervision 
of the Santa Monica Forestry station. He 
spent a few days with Supervisor Tillotson 
of the Cleveland National Forest on an in- 
spection trip in the San Jacinto Mountains. 



Charles E. Van Riper (20) has brought 
his bride with him from France and in- 
tends to complete his college course. 

A. E. Wieslander (15) was married in 
June to Miss Mabel Holmes of Berkeley. 
He has taken his bride to the Lassen Na- 
tional Forest where he is engaged as Forest 
Assistant. 

Myron E. Kruger (16) stopped in for a 
visit on his way from France to Linton, 
Oregon where he has accepted a position 
with a large lumber company. 

Alex. Muzzall (16) paid a visit on his way 
to Sumatra where he has gone to manage 
some of the Goodyear Rubber Company 
plantations. 

Lieutenant Ansel Hall (17) has just re- 



turned from some very interesting work 
under Colonel Greeley in France and is re- 
turning to his work with the National 
Park Service. He has been assigned to a 
district in the Yosemite National Park. 

C. O. Gerhardy (20), G. W. Byrne (22) - 
and J. E. Pemberton (22) are getting some 
logging experience with the Hammond 
Lumber Company, Eureka, California. 

R. C. Burton (14) is with a reconnais- 
sance party on the Lassen National Forest 
this summer but will return to his work at 
the Santa Cruz High School in the fall. He 
is giving the only High School forestry 
course in California. 

R. W. Beeson (20) is at Ephraim, Utah, 
at the Great Basin Experiment Station for 
the summer, working on grazing recon- 
naissance. 



COLORADO AGRICULTURAL 
COLLEGE 

nURING March, 1919, some 25 or more 
soldiers who had suffered wounds or 
gassing or had developed incipient tubercu- 
losis were sent to the Colorado Agricul- 
tural College by the War Department to be 
given instruction along lines decided upon 
by Government advisors and the voca- 
tional soldier students in order that recu- 
peration could be effected at the same time 
that training useful for later life could be 
given. Undoubtedly giving them something 
to do actually accelerates their physical 
improvement. 

One young marine who had worked in 
citrus groves in Louisiana before the war 
is studying horticulture and, in the De- 
partment of Forestry, is studying, as a 
minor subject tree repair work with the 
view of repairing fruit trees, using the 
methods employed by "tree surgeons." 

Another Marine who was gassed at 
Chateau Thiery is fitting himself to be a 
forest ranger. 

Others are pursuing agricultural or 
mechanical subjects. 

Almost without exception these soldiers 
display much enthusiasm in their studies 
and make good progress in spite of de- 
ficient early schooling in some cases. Ac- 
customed as they are to discipline, they 
make ideal members of the student body. 

The amount of work assigned to each is 
determined by his physical condition, since 
his health improvement is given first con- 
sideration. 



IOWA STATE COLLEGE 
T^HE Forestry Class of the Iowa State 
College has just completed a months 
camp on the Arapaho National Forest in 
Colorado. The men have been engaged in 
various Forest service operations, such as 
timber marking, scaling, logging and him- 



FOREST SCHOOL NOTES 



1373 



bering which has enabled them to gain ex- 
perience along the practical lines of for- 
estry. The camp was established in the 
lodgepole — Englemann Spruce country, 
where there are extensive lumbering opera- 
tions which enabled the students to secure 
good experience along the utilization end of 
forestry. The class returned to Ames the 
first of September to continue the forestry 
work. 



INDIANA 
T IEUTENANT T. I. Taylor, who re- 
cently returned from one year's service 
with the aviation force overseas, is now 
practicing City Forestry at Evansville, In- 
diana. Mr. Taylor was graduated from 
the Forestry Department of Purdue Uni- 
versity with the class of nineteen seventeen, 
leaving the University early for training 
in the Aviation Service. While in France, 
Lieut. Taylor had an exceptional opportun- 
ity of visiting many of the French State 
Forests. 



Private Troy Fox, who returned from 
France in July after nearly two years' ser- 
vice with the Twentieth Engineers, has 
taken a position with the Forest Service 
in District 1. Private Fox reports some 
very interesting experiences in the forests 
of France, but much prefers the United 
States to the Landes. 



Prof. Burr N. Prentice, who is in charge 
of the Department of Forestry at Purdue 
University is in the Northwest this sum- 
mer in the employ of the Office of White 
Pine Blister Rust Control in the Bureau of 
Plant Industry. Co-operative work is be- 
ing carried on in the five needle pine 
States of the west, to prevent the extension 
of the blister rust scourge into western 
territory. 

The prospects are bright for a record 
registration in the Department of Forestry 
at Purdue University. Practically all up- 
per class students will return, and elemen- 
tary courses are going to be crowded. 



MICHIGAN 

r PHE Forestry Department of the Michi- 
gan Agricultural College is planning on 
collecting seed this fall from a white pine 
windbreak at the college. Two years ago 
110 pounds of seed were obtained from this 
windbreak, which is half a mile long and 
consists of a double row of trees, spaced 
about 10 feet apart. The trees are 22 
years old and have been bearing seed for 
some time. This was the first attempt that 
had been made, however, to collect the 
seed. The seed was collected by boys 
climbing the trees and cutting off the 
cones with a sharp blade on the end of a 
six-foot stick. The department has called 
the attention of farmers to the fact that 
at present prices there might be consider- 
able money in collecting seed from wind- 
breaks or even from individual trees of 
rfrtain species. 



During the spring term 106 freshmen 
took the course in farm forestry at the 
Michigan Agricultural College. This 
course is required of all students in the 
agricultural course. It covers the care and 
management of farm woodlands, planting, 
utilization of timber, basket willows, maple 
sugar making and other activities con- 
nected with the woodlot or better utiliza- 
tion of waste lands. 

Through the courtesy of the Barrett 
Company the Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege has obtained the use of a portable post 
treating plant, consisting of a tank, firebox 
and accessories. This plant will be loaned 
to farmers without charge other than 
transportation. Many farmers who have 
only a few posts to treat do not feel justi- 
fied in getting special equipment, or do 
not understand the correct methods to use. 
The Forestry Department of the College 
plans to give demonstrations in various 
parts of the State. 

Mr. E. C. Mandenberg, the Forestry Ex- 
tension specialist of the college, has re- 
turned after a year's absence on war work. 
The Michigan Agricultural College was 
the first agricultural college to employ a 
man full time for such work. The college 
has had a forestry extension man for the 
last six years. 

During the past spring the college 
shipped 180,000 trees from the forest 
nursery for planting in the State. Since 
1909 over 2,100,000 trees have been shipped 
from the nursery. This is enough to plant 
an area of 2,000 acres. During the war 
but very few trees were sold, but the 
nursery is now getting back to its normal 
output. The trees used are largely trans- 
plants about 10 inches high. 



IDAHO 

'T'HE School of Forestry, University of 
Idaho, at the request of the state board 
of land commissioners, has made a recon- 
naissance study of the state lands at Big 
Payette Lake for the purpose of working 
out a plan for the development of the timber 
resources of the tract and the recreational 
facilities of the water front. As a basis for 
recommendations to the state land board, 
the University party is making a topo- 
graphic map of the tract and an estimate of 
the timber. 

The state lands adjacent to the lake com- 
prise some thirteen thousand acres, and 
the timber on about twenty-five hundred 
acres was sold last March. The contract 
under which the sale was made provides 
that the trees to be cut shall be marked or 
otherwise designated by the state agent in 
charge, that the timber left shall be pro- 
tected from damage in logging operations, 
that the stumps shall be of a certain height, 
and that the brush shall be piled and burned 
or otherwise disposed of to the satisfaction 
of the state agent. Frank G. Miller, Dean 
of the School of Forestry, has been desig- 
nated by the land board as state agent and 



r 



Yale School of 
Forestry 

Established in 1900 



A Graduate Department of Yale 
University 

The two years technical course pre- 
pares for the general practice of for- 
estry and leads to the degree of 

Master of Forestry. 
Special opportunities in all branches 
of forestry for 

Advanced and Research Work. 

For students planning to engage 
in forestry or lumbering in the 
Tropics, particularly tropical Amer- 
ica, a course is offered in 

Tropical Forestry. 
Lumbermen and others desiring in- 
struction in special subjects may be 
enrolled as 

Special Students. 
A field course of eight weeks in the 
summer is available for those not 
prepared for, or who do not wish 
to take the technical courses. 



For further information and cata- 
logue, address: The Director of the 
School of Forestry, New Haven, Con- 
necticut, U. S. A. 



Forest Engineering 
Summer School 

University of Georgia 

ATHENS, GEORGIA 

Eight-weeks Summer Camp on 
large lumbering and milling oper- 
ation in North Georgia. Field 
training in Surveying, Timber 
Estimating, Logging Engineer- 
ing, Lumber Grading, Milling. 
Special vocational courses 
for rehabilitated soldiers. 
Exceptional opportunity to pre- 
pare for healthful, pleasant, lucra- 
tive employment in the open. 

(Special announcement sent upon 
request.) 



SARGENT'S HANDBOOK OF 
AMERICAN PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

A Guide Book for Parents 

A Standard Annual of Reference. Describes 
critically and discriminate] y the Private 
Schools of all classifications. 
Comparative Tables give the relative cost, 
size, age, special features, etc. 
Introductory Chapters review interesting de- 
velopments of the year in education — Modern 
Schools, War Changes in the Schools, Educa- 
tional Reconstruction, What the Schools Are 
Doing, Recent Educational Literature, etc. 
Our Educational Service Bureau will be glad 
to advise and write you intimately about any 
school or class of schools. 

Fifth edition, 1 919. revised and enlarged, 
786 pages. $3.00. Circvlars and sample pages. 

PORTER E. SARGENT, 14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 



Please mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1374 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



School of Forestry 

UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO 

Four Year Course, with op- 
portunity to specialize in 
General Forestry, Log- 
ging Engineering, and 
Forest Grazing. 

Forest Ranger Course of 
high school grade, cover- 
ing three years of five 
months each. 

Special Short Course cover- 
ing twelve weeks design- 
ed for those who cannot 
take the time for the 
fuller courses. 

Correspondence Course in 
Lumber and Its Uses. No 
tuition, and otherwise ex- 
penses are the lowest. 

For Further Particulars Address 

Dean, School of Forestry 

University of Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 



r 



UNIVERSITY OF MAINE 



ORONO, MAINE 



Maintained by State and Nation 

THE FORESTRY DEPART- 
MENT offers a four years' 
undergraduate curriculum, lead- 
ing to the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Forestry. 
****** 

Opportunities for full techni- 
cal training, and for specializing 
in problems of the Northeastern 
States and Canada. 
****** 

John M. Briscoe, 

Professor of Forestry 

****** 
For catalog and further infor- 
mation, address 

ROBERT J. ALEY, Pres't, 
Orono, Maine 



placed in charge of the logging operations 
for the state. . 

The plan of cutting adopted is intended 
to preserve to the utmost the scenic value 
of the lake slopes. For the most part, the 
timber immediately along the lake shores 
will be left intact, a salvage cutting only 
being made here. 

The terms of this contract constitute an 
important innovation in the management of 
timber sales on state lands in Idaho, and 
are attracting wide attention. 



Dr. Henry Schmitz, of Washington Uni- 
versity, at St. Louis, has just been called to 
the faculty of the School of Forestry. He 
graduated with honors from the School 
of Forestry, University of Washington, 
Seattle, in 1915. In September, 1916 he was 
appointed a fellow in the Shaw School of 
Botany of Washington University, St. 
Louis, from which he graduated in June, 
1919 with the degree of Doctor of Phil- 
osophy, writing his thesis on the "Relation 
of Bacteria to the Decay of Wood." From 
July, 1917 to January, 1919, Mr. Schmitz 
was in the U S. Naval Reserve Force 
where he served with distinction. He has 
had practical experience in the forests of 
the Northwest with both the U. S. Forest 
Service and private concerns. Dr. Schmitz 
comes to the School of Forestry with the 
best endorsements from those who know 
his work. Dr. G. T. Moore, director of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, says of him, 
"As an investigator he has shown himself 
capable of conducting high grade work in- 
dependently, and there is no reason why he 
should not make a distinct mark for him- 
self because of his ability in research." 



I. W. Cook, associate professor of 
forestry was with the Rose Lake Lumber 
company during the summer, engaged on 
stumping appraisal work. 



NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE OF 
FORESTRY 

ii'T'AKE the Returning Soldiers Back," is 
the policy of the New York College of 
Forestry at Syracuse, at the head of which 
is Dean Hugh P. Baker, who won a commis- 
sion as captain of infantry. Five return- 
ing soldiers have been given positions in 
the faculty of the college. All are men who 
were formerly with the college, and the ap- 
pointments are as follows : Russell T. 
Gheen, formerly with the extension depart- 
ment, later with the Southern Pine Associa- 
tion, captain in field artillery, returning 
to the extension department for special 
work in New York state, particularly for 
lecture work. 

Reuben T. Pritchard, assistant professor 
of silviculture, first lieutenant with Battery 
F, 345th Field Artillery, of Texas ; George 
H. Cless, Jr., formerly of the extension de- 
partment, later with the National Lumber 
Manufacturers association in charge of ex- 
hibits, first lieutenant with trench mortar 



battery in Italy, and in charge of a military 
commission to investigate food supplies in 
Hungary and Serbia after the armistice ; 
Oliver M. Porter, Captain Quartermaster 
Corps, with troops in Europe, former fac- 
ulty member; Allan F. Arnold, formerly 
with the extension department, who re- 
turns as sergeant, but with a special cita- 
tion for bravery in action. 



New Professor of Forest Extension 
Warren B. Bullock, former Milwaukee 
newspaper correspondent and magazine 
writer, has been madt professor of forest 
extension at the New York State College of 
Forestry, Syracuse, New York, marking 
what appears to be a new campaign of ad- 
vocacy of forest development. Mr. Bullock 
has been in newspaper work in Milwaukee 
nearly 20 years, as reporter, editor and head 
of the news bureau bearing his name. He 
became interested in forestry while pub- 
licity manager of the National Lumber 
Manufacturers' Association. 

The selection of Mr. Bullock for the 
eastern work evidently is a part of Dean 
Baker's plan to go to the people of the 
State with his advocacy of modern forestry 
methods. 



PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE 
OF FORESTRY 

'"PHE Freshmen Forestry Camp of the 
Pennsylvania State College, was held 
on a 1400 acre tract of young timber near 
Lamar, Pennsylvania, which is about 30 
miles from the College. This is the per- 
manent camp site for Freshmen. 

The Sophomore Camp was with the Cen- 
tral Pennsylvania Lumber Company at 
Laquin, Pennsylvania. The lumber mills at 
Laquin and Masten were studied and the 
logging operations at Hillsboro. Side trips ' 
were taken to study the many wood-using 
industries in the region. 



Professor George R. Green, who has 
been in charge of the section of wood 
technology at the Naval Aircraft Factory, 
Philadelphia, returned to State College 
during July to give the work in Forestry 
and Tree Identification in the Summer 
Session of the College for teachers. 



Lieutenant W. G. Edwards, Assistant 
Professor of Forestry, has returned from 
France where he was with the 10th 
Forestry Regiment and later with the 20th 
Regiment. He will have charge of the 
courses in lumbering. 



The Forestry Department has recently 
been placed in charge of the 200 acres of 
woodlands on the college farms which 
cover 1500 acres of land. 

An arboretum will be started in the fall 
which will include all the woody vegeta- 
tion indigenous to the state of Pennsyl- 
vania. 



FOREST SCHOOL NOTES 



1375 



PENNSYLVANIA STATE FOREST 
ACADEMY 

f~\N August 13 three seniors completed 
their 144 weeks' course at Mont Alto. 
Four other seniors will return in September 
and work until January 1 to cover work 
missed while in the Army or Navy. In all 
seven men will complete work for their 
B. F. in 1919. 

Four other service men will return to 
school this fall, entering the second and 
third year classes. All service men will 
then have returned to school, except two 
who have received permanent Lieutenances 
in the regular army. 

On September 2, with the beginning of 
the new school year, 33 men were enrolled 
at the school. The faculty consists of : Prof. 
E. A. Ziegler, A. M., Forestry and Survey- 
ing; Prof. VV. M. Drake, M. S. F., Forestry; 
Prof. George S. Perry, B. F., Forestry; 
Prof. C. J. Harris, M. S., Biology; Prof. 
Eugene P. Deatrick, Ph. D., Chemistry and 
Soils. 

The Legislature adjourning in June 
granted an increased appropriation for 
1919-20. 



The chestnut blight is at the height of its 
attack and the school forest is losing in ex- 
cess of 100,000 cords of its growing stock 
on its 23,000 acres. Forester Staley will sal- 
vage probably 20 per cent of this through 
sale of tie stumpage, sale of poles, extract 
wood and some lumber taken out by forest 
employes. The students have here an ex- 
cellent study of the utilization of second 
growth hardwoods which will be the prin- 
cipal product of the young state forests for 
a considerable period. The gross income 
for 1919 will be about $12,000. 



Prof. J. S. Illick has severed his con- 
nection with the Forest Academy and is 
now Chief of Division of Silviculture of the 
Department of Forestry with his office at 
Harrisburg. 



With deep regret the school announces 
the loss of Andrew L. AuWerter, Class of 
1919, the only undergraduate to fall in ac- 
tion in France. He had enlisted in the 
Marines and fell in the fighting in the 
Argonne shortly before the armistice. 



FOREST FIRES DETECTED 
BY AIR SERVICE 
r T , IIE importance of the army Air Serv- 
ice at this time when disastrous forest 
fires are raging in Montana, Idaho, Wash- 
ington and Oregon, not now under aerial 
fire protection, is indicated in California 
where the Air Service has been the means 
of detecting many fires which have been 
quickly extinguished. 

During the week ended July 19 flying of- 
ficers of the March, Alessandro and Rock- 
well fields made a total of 65 flights cover- 
ing 7,707 miles in a little more than 100 
hours and discovered ten fires. For the 



four weeks ended July 19, 259 flights were 
made and 27 fires discovered. 

The balloon division is doing superior 
work from its Ross field, Arcadia station, 
and so intense is the interest in the work 
that the commanding officers are par- 
ticipating personally in observations. 



WIRELESS PHONE IN FOREST 
WORK 

'"PHE Forest Service wireless telephone 
has been successfully tried out in 
Portland. As a result instruments will be 
installed on Mount Hood for use in case 
of forest fires. One station will be at the 
summit of the 11,000-foot snow clad peak 
and the other at the Zigzag ranger station. 
The test which was made recently by C. 
M. Allen, telephone engineer of the Forest 
Service at a distance of eight miles was 
eminently successful. 



BOUQUETS 

"Permit me to add my measure of praise 
concerning the improvements in American 
Forestry. Not only is it a pleasure to look 
at but the contents are interesting to every- 
one who loves the out-of-doors." F. F. 
Moon, Santa Barbara, California. 

"My advertisement in your July issue has 
been entirely satisfactory, and from the 
various answers received I have made a 
satisfactory selection." Frederick Osboni, 
New York City. 

"The magazine is, in my opinion, both a 
typographical and artistic gem, in the 
special field of its usefulness." — Mrs. 
Rufus Choate. ^ 

You have such splendid articles and illu- 
strations in American Forestry — it always 
seems a clear echo of a delightful tramp." 
— Julia A. Thorns. 

"I have taken American Forestry for sev- 
eral years, and have found it more and 
more useful and instructive." — Homer I. 
Ostrom. 

"I appreciate the information American 
Forestry brings me each month." — W. A. 
Wells. 

"I am greatly interested in your work 
and regard your publication as both val- 
uable and fascinating."— Charles Nagel. 

"I certainly enjoy the articles in Ameri- 
can Forestry by Dr. Shufeldt and also the 
ornithological articles by Dr. Allen." — 
Wm. E. Menzel. 

"It is very gratifying to find that Ameri- 
can Forestry is attracting so much atten- 
tion. I certainly think that the special 
June number was a great credit, and the 
July issue was also extremely interesting." 
—Chester W. Lyman, New York City. 

"I read, with great interest, the maga- 
zine of the Association and certainly think 
it is a 'dandy.' I look forward to its ar- 
rival each month and would not miss it for 
anything." 

Allison M. Richards. 






HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY 

DEPT. OF FORESTRY 
BUSSEY INSTITUTION 

/^kFFERS specialized graduate 
training leading to the de- 
gree of Master of Forestry in the 
following fields : — Silviculture 
and Management, Wood Tech- 
nology, Forest Entomology 
Dendrology, and (in co-opera- 
tion with the Graduate School 
of Business Administration) the 
Lumber Business. 

For further particulars 
address 

RICHARD T. FISHER 

Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts 



Forestry at 

University of 

Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

A FOUR - YEAR, undergraduate 
course that prepares for the 
practice of Forestry in all its 
branches and leads to the degree of 

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 
IN FORESTRY 

Opportunity is offered for grad- 
uate work leading to the degree of 
Master of Science in Forestry. 

The course is designed to give a 
broad, well-balanced training in the 
fundamental sciences as well as in 
technical Forestry, and has, conse- 
quently, proven useful to men en- 
gaged in a variety of occupations. 
This school of Forestry was estab- 
lished in 1003 and has a large body 
of alumni engaged in Forestry work. 
For announcement giving 
Complete information and list 
of alumni, address 

FILIBERT ROTH 



Pirate mention American Forestry Magazine when writing advertisers 



1376 






AMERICAN FORESTRY 



GRASS 

By John J. Ingalls 

Late Senator of Kansas 




Southern Pine Association 



"/-><RASS is the forgiveness of Nature— her constant 
I -r benediction. Fields trampled with battle, saturat- 
V* ed with blood, torn with the ruts of cannon, grow 
green again with grass, and carnage is forgotten. Streets 
abandoned by traffic become grass-grown like rural lanes, 
and are obliterated; forests decay, harvests perish, flowers 
vanish, but grass is immortal. Beleagured by the sullen 
hosts of winter, it withdraws into the impregnable fort- 
ress of its subterranean vitality and emerges upon the 
solicitation of Spring Sown by the winds, by wandering 
birds, propagated by the subtle horticulture of the ele- 
ments, which are its ministers and servants, it softens the 
rude outline of the world. Its tenacious fibers hold the 
earth in its place, and prevent its soluble components 
from washing into the sea. It invades the solitude of 
deserts, climbs the inaccessible slopes and forbidding pin- 
nacles of mountains, modifies climates and determines the 
history, character and destiny of nations. Unobtrusive 
and patient, it has immortal vigor and aggression. Ban- 
ished from the thoroughfare or the field, it bides its time 
to return, and when vigilance is relaxed, or the dynasty 
has perished, it silently resumes its throne, from which it 
has been expelled but which it never abdicates. It bearsno 
blazonry of bloom to charm the senses with fragrance or 
splendor, but its homely hue is more enchanting than the 
lily or the rose. It yields no fruit in earth or air, and yet 
should its harvest fail for a single year famine would de- 
populate the world. " 

The South 's future depends upon full utili- 
zation of its vast idle acreage, in agricultural 
pursuits, live stock raising and reforestation. 

Cut Over Land Department 

Southern Pine 
Association 








/271 

wiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii" 

| AMERICAN FORESTRY | 

THE MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 

PERCIVAL SHELDON RIDSDALE, Editor 

I>lll!!lllllllllll!Hllllllllllllllll!llttlllllllllllllHII»ll illlUinillllllllllllllllllllilllll Illllllllllll!l«!l![l!llllllllllllllll!lllllllllllll!llllin IHIIIIUIIIIII IIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIiWIIIII HIIHJI!IWIIll[tIfU»)^HflHIH(m»^IRilH1lllllllliil Illllllllllllllllllli [Hllllllllllllllllllllll illll Illllllll 

October, 1919 Vol. 25 No. 310 




CONTENTS 

"Roads of Remembrance" — Frontispiece 1378 

The Forest Policy of France— Its Vindication— By W. B. Greeley 1379 

With eight illustrations. 

When Trees Grow— By J. S. Illick 1386 

With nine illustrations. 

Central Park Trees Starving to Death— By Charles Lathrop Pack 1391 

With thirty illustrations. 

A Policy of Forestry for the Nation— By Henry S. Graves 1401 

A Program for Private Forestry — By H. H. Chapman 1405 

Let All Sides Be Heard— By R. D. Forbes 1406 

What They Say as to a Forest Policy 1408 

Forest Fires and "Roads of Remembrance" 1409 

"Built-Up Wood"— By O. M. Butler 1410 

With seven illustrations. 

"Napoleon Willow" Dying 1414 

With one illustration. 

Trees and the Highways — By Philip P. Sharpies 1415 

With three illustrations. 

The Community and Roads of Remembrance 1416 

With three illustrations. 

The Loons and Grebes— By A. A. Allen 1419 

With twelve illustrations. 

Timber Resources of the Northwest 1424 

Forest School Notes 1425 

Forest Service Offers Photographic Exhibits 1426 

Canadian Department — By Ellwood Wilson 1428 

Arborists Meet 1430 

State News 1432 

National Honor Roll, Memorial Trees 1433 

Forest Fire Peril Ends 1439 



NOTICE TO OUR READERS 

As this magazine goes to press announcement is made of 
a severe fire in the offices of the American Forestry Associa- 
tion in which many of the valuable records, papers and all 
back issues of the magazine, etc., have been totally destroyed. 
It will be necessary to ask that any letters of inquiry or other 
correspondence addressed to the Association within the last 
ten days be repeated. Delays in the conduct of the current 
business of the Association and the issuance of the magazine, 
AMERICAN FORESTRY, must necessarily follow, and 
indulgence and leniency is asked of our members. 

P. S. RIDSDALE. 



Entered as second-class matter December 24, 1909, at the Postoffice at Washington, 
under the act of March 3, 1879. Copyright, 1919, by the American Forestry Association. 
Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized July 11, 1918. 



LLAO ROCK 
The famous sentinel In Crater Lake, National Park. 



TO THE BANKERS OF AMERICA 




Roads of 
Remembrance 



}> 



FT is the suggestion of the American 
Forestry Association, made the day 
following the signing of the armistice, that 
trees be planted in honor of America's 
soldiers and sailors, both as memorials 
to the dead and as tributes of appreciation 
to the living for their offer of service. 

The Memorial Tree planting idea strikes 
a patriotic chord which should receive 
the support of the Bankers of America. 
For it is but the beginning of a great for- 
ward-sweeping desire and determination 
on the part of the people of America to 
see their cities and parks and local, as 
well as transcontinental, highways beauti- 
fied with handsome trees and their forest 
resources enriched through a deepening 
and broadening of conservation methods 
and reforestation. 

In connection with the movement, there 
is a plan proposed which would provide 
for a county unit system placing memorial 
tablets to the men who gave their lives 
for their country, the tablets to be placed 
on the county courthouse or on memorial 
highways extending from county to 
county, preferably at the points where 
these roads enter adjoining counties. 

Cities large and small throughout the 
nation are showing their approval of 
"Tribute Trees." In our parks and 
along our highways they will serve as a 
living tribute to American heroism. They 
will mark our ' 'Roads of Remembrance. ' ' 



I 



i 



THIS TITLE PAGE FROM THE BURROUGHS CLEARING HOUSE. A PUBLICATION FOR BANKERS, 
IS AN EXAMPLE OF THE FINE CO-OPERATION THAT IS BEING GIVEN THE CAMPAIGN OF THE AMER- 
ICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION FOR MEMORIAL TREE PLANTING AND ROADS OF REMEMBRANCE. 
HERE IS A PUBLICATION DEVOTED TO BEST BUSINESS METHODS YET ITS EDITOR IS QUICK TO SEE 
THE OPPORTUNITY IN MEMORIAL TREE PLANTING FOR BETTER ROADS WHICH MEAN BETTER 
BUSINESS AND A BETTER COUNTRY. JH 







nn 



^;in:n!n:-- :::■!!■■ ■ .:i'i!;!:'- : ■ - r :.; : ; !:::^ ■ ..!ii!!i!i:i:;;,: :..:!i:iiii!!!!iii:- -.; in:-;: ■■. .::::i:!:!i!i!i!:,:: ■ I'liinii:!!!;; : ■■ ^ii'^iMiiiiiii^MiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiM;: ;■ ■r'.iiiiriiiiiiiniiiiMiMii;!:^- ; Mi.:, ; ^ ; ii!;:: 1 :.-. ■ .■:; li-: 1 " ;; ;m ■; .,: i: j^ 

I AMERICAN FORESTRY 



VOL. XXV OCTOBER, 1919 NO. 310 

^iiiiiinniiiiiuiiiiiiiini 

THE FOREST POLICY OF FRANCE-ITS VINDICATION 

BY W. B. GREELEY. LIEUT.-COL. ENGINEERS 



C?T~1RANCE will perish for want of wood," exclaimed 
JP Colbert in 1669. The fears of this far-sighted 
Minister of old France, which led to a revision of 
forestry laws that has profoundly influenced all subse- 
quent legislation, might indeed have been realized in this 
great war. Wood was one of the most vital military 
necessities ; and France had to supply from her own for- 
ests not alone the needs of her own vast armies for four 
and a half years but also the larger part by far of the 



element of national strength in the greatest crisis of her 
history. 

The development of this policy has not been smooth 
and uninterrupted. It has suffered setbacks. It has re- 
flected the social and political upheavals of the last two 
centuries. It has been influenced by changes in eco- 
nomic conditions and emphasis. Certain chapters in its 
history bear a striking resemblance to the disposal of 
public timberlands in the United States. As a whole, it 




A TRAINI.OAI) OF LARGE HARDWOOD LOGS 



MM ONE OF THE ROTHSCHILD E; 



iTES BY THE 20th ENGINEERS 



timber used try the British, Belgian, and American forces. 
The American operations alone required 450,000,000 feet 
of timber and 650,000 cords of fuelwood, and less than 
one per cent of this enormous quantity was brought from 
the United States. For the abundant supplies of timber 
directly available to the battle lines, the Allied world 
must thank the patience and foresight with which the 
French nation has built up its forest resources. Apart 
from its value to her peace-time life and industries, the 
forest policy of Prance has been vindicated as a capital 



is a fruitful field of study for the American forester and 
economist. Particularly at the present time, when the 
war has brought- home to us 'the weakness and danger of 
our own indifference toward the forest resources of the 
United States, is it opportune to take note how similar 
problems have been worked out in France. I hope, in 
subsequent articles, to describe a few of the more impor- 
tant features of French forest policy, the "regime for- 
estier" — its backbone, private forestry in France, and the 
fight against sand dunes and mountain torrents. I shall 

1379 



1380 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



try now to give a picture of French forestry in the broad, 
— its historical setting, the national conceptions which it 
expresses, and what it has accomplished.* 

The forestry ordinances of the "ancien regime" con- 
tained a mass of detailed restrictions, designed not only 
to prevent a diminution in the forested areas but also to 
control the methods of cutting and using timber. Hard- 
wood sprout forests could not be cut before the age ol 
ten years ; and then a certain number had to be reserved 
to produce large timber. The age when large trees 
might be cut and methods of securing regrowth were 
carefully defined. The needs of the royal navy were pro- 
tected by requiring special sanction from the king before 
large timber could be cut within 10 leagues of the sea or 
2 leagues of a navigable river — a regulation which calls 
to mind that the first forestry legislation of the United 
States was the reservation of oak and cypress lands for 
the supply of the American navy. 

This forestry code was in keeping with the whole rural 
legislation of the times. The freedom of land owners 
was restricted at almost every turn by royal decrees. 
Vineyards could not be planted in certain cantons. The 
fallowing of land at stated periods was obligatory in 
nearly all forms of culture. It is significant that the 
public interest was but a secondary and incidental object 
of these onerous restrictions. The king regarded him- 
self as the guardian of his people ; and sought to 



*Much of the material for these articles has been taken from 
Guyot's Cours de Droit Forestier. 



protect his subjects against injuries to their own interests. 

The great outburst of democracy and individualism in 
the French Revolution unceremoniously threw this maze 
of restrictive legislation out of doors. The free citizen 
of the new era was released from all guardianships. A 
law of 1791 declared that the forests of private owners 
ceased to be under control of the State. Their owners 
were free to cut or destroy as they saw fit. During the 
succeeding half century a large number of private forests 
were wiped out. Even after public control of the denuda- 
tion of private woodlands was restored, its application 
was extremely lenient for many years. Authorizations to 
destroy 489,000 hectares (1,222,500 acres) were granted 
subsequent to 1828, no records prior to that date bein.^ 
available. The demand for cereals, particularly in 
northern France, had much to do with the large aggre- 
gate decrease in the forested area of the country, for 
many of the French forests in the plains occupied land 
similar in character to that under cultivation. In south- 
ern France and in her mountains, the predominance of 
pastoral industries led to a gradual diminution in the area 
of woodland from excessive grazing. 

Modern French writers are agreed that this suddenly 
gained liberty of the Revolution was abused ; that the 
transition from the restrictive guardianship of the sov- 
ereign to the new regime of "laissez faire" was too rapid 
and the land owners too inadequately prepared to use 
their freedom. But the movement as a whole was an 
inevitable and necessary part of the change from the old 




' 



AN AMERICAN SAWMILL AMONG SAND DUNES WHICH WERE BARREN WASTES 75 YEARS AGO 



THE FOREST POLICY OF FRANCE— ITS VINDICATION 



1381 




ANOTHER OF THE SAWMILLS OF THE 20th ENGINEERS IN THE VOSGES MOUNTAINS 



political and economic order to the new. It extended 
indeed to the state forests, sequestered properties of the 
crown and nobility. Particularly during the period from 
1814 to the end of the second Empire, a large number of 
state forests were alienated under the theory that it was 
wise to convert this public property into cash and that 
the land would best contribute to the economic welfare of 
the country under private ownership and use. These 
alienations carried no restrictions as to cutting or denu- 
dation and in the case of most of them reforestation was 
left to chance. 

The most interesting feature of this history is not the 
extent of the reaction but the rapidity and effectiveness 
with which French common sense and French conserva- 
tive instinct toward natural resources reasserted them- 
selves under the very freedom of democratic institutions. 
As early as 1803, a law restored public control of the 
extent to which privately owned forests might be de- 
stroyed. And in 1827 was adopted the "code forestier" 
which, with minor modifications, has remained to the 
present day as the corner stone of French forest policy. 
The forestry code aimed primarily to establish the basis 
for administering and perpetuating the forests in all 
forms of public ownership. But the conceptions under- 
lying it are of special interest as illustrating the attitude 
of the French toward their forest resources as a whole — 
private as well as public ; an attitude which finds expres- 
sion in practically all the subsequent legislation. 

The French conceive of their forests as standing apart 
from other forms of real property because of (1) their 
peculiar nature from the standpoint of principal and 
interest and (2) their public utility. The trees compos- 



ing a forest at any given time represent its capital, or 
growing stock, together with certain quantities of wood 
which have been produced by that capital and comprise 
its expendable revenue, which will be realized from time 
to time by cutting. Revenue and capital are thus inter- 
mingled ; both are readily convertible into money ; and 
the danger of reducing the forest capital of the country 
by unwise or ill-timed lumbering is always present. 
Furthermore, a forest once ruined by abuse restores itself 
slowly. While a few years can efface the effects of poor 
farming, a century may be required to restore a forest 
capital reduced or destroyed by imprudent cutting. On 
the other hand, their public utility demands that the 
forests of the country be extended rather than reduced. 
Forests figure largely in the public policies of France 
because the French know that, aside from their direct 
econofnic value, forests hold the soil on mountain slopes, 
prevent erosion, stop the devastation of shifting sand, 
preserve the sources of their rivers and their marvelous 
inland waterways, and maintain the atmospheric humid- 
ity necessary for the cultivation of the valleys. Hence 
the necessity of special and restrictive legislation, going 
far beyond the terms of the common law, even beyond 
the provisions of the penal code, to preserve the integ- 
rity of French forests, public and private alike. 

This conception is well expressed in Guyot's discus- 
sion of the laws against the destruction of privately 
owned forests.* "This legislation constitutes a remark- 
able anomaly in our civil law concerning the legal obliga- 
tions imposed on private property. In principle, the 
private owner is free to use and enjoy his property, free 

♦Cours de Droit Forestier, Livre V., Par. 1659 



1382 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



also to dispose of it and to change it as he pleases. The 
prohibition of denudation applies to but one class of 
landed property, the forest. An agricultural proprietor 
can transform his property, make a meadow of a culti- 
vated field, a pasture of a vineyard ; but such changes 
are forbidden to the forest owner. He must preserve his 
property in a forested condition even when he might 
profit by a change. This lucrative operation is forbid- 
den him in the public interest. He might, indeed, be 
indemnified for the heavy burden which is imposed upon 
him. But he can seek no compensation, no remittance of 
taxes, no special favor. 

"How shall we justify an intervention of the state so 
exceptional, a limitation so extraordinary upon the rights 
of every private owner? It can be explained only by 
the special nature of forested property. It is this char- 
acter peculiar to itself which has prompted the enforce- 
ment of a forestry regime upon public owners like the 



of administering Forests owned by the state, the com- 
munes, and by public institutions, based upon continuous 
production and the cutting of no more than the current 
growth. It contains its own, distinctive, and complete 
penal system for the protection of these properties. Its 
penal code is almost taken bodily from that existing 
under the "ancien regime" and differs profoundly from 
the modern penal laws of France. Its basis is the fine, 
imposed in accordance with fixed and arbitrary sched- 
ules, which are obligatory upon the courts and leave 
the judge no discretion to consider mitigating circum- 
stances. These penalties are set forth in minute detail, 
even to the imposition of heavier fines, in cases where 
trees are cut at night or with a saw because such tres- 
passes are more difficult to detect. The- forest officers 
themselves exercise many judicial functions in the pun- 
ishment of trespasses. They may even enter that strong- 
hold of French individual liberty, the home, without 




MULE TEAM BRINGING MARITIME PINE LOGS TO A MILL IN SOUTHWESTERN FRANCE 



communes. The forest once destroyed is so slow to 
reestablish itself that future generations must be guar- 
anteed against abuses by the present generation. If the 
country needs wheat, nothing is easier than to increase 
the culture of cereals from one year to another; but if 
the need be for wood, the creation of new forests will 
require long years during which the public interests will 
suffer gravely." 

The most striking examples of this solicitude for the 
preservation of their forests are found in the French 
code for the administration of publicly owned forests 
and the laws restricting the denudation of woodlands 
in private ownership. In each appear significant excep- 
tions to the general principles which the individualistic 
and liberty-loving French have incorporated in their 
legislation since the revolutionary period. The "code 
forestier" not only defines in precise terms the methods 



warrant, in search of evidence that offenses have been 
committed. 

The laws concerning private forests impose no pre- 
scribed methods of cutting other than the obligation 
resting upon every owner not to destroy his forest with- 
out prior warrant from the state. Such warrants may 
be issued by the Minister of Agriculture upon a favorable 
report from the Conservateur of Waters and Forests, 
but may be refused on the ground that the proposed 
denudation would be injurious to the protection of moun- 
tain soils from erosion, to the protection of inland areas 
from shifting sand, to the sources of streams, or to the 
public health. It is to be noted that the right to destroy 
a forest can not be withheld on the grounds of the needs 
of the country for timber, although many attempts have 
been made to incorporate such a provision in the law. 
The teeth of the legislation concerning the denudation of 



THE FOREST POLICY OF FRANCE— ITS VINDICATION 



1383 



private forests are found in the severe fines which are im- 
pose! if the destruction of a forest actually takes place, 
without warrant, and in the discretion of the Minister 
to order the reforestation of the land by planting. If 
this is not done by the owner within three years, it may 
be done by the state at the owner's cost. It makes no 
difference whether the denudation was intentional or not. 
The penalties are applicable if a forest actually disap- 
pears as the result of severe cutting or grazing. 

These restrictive measures constitute but one phase of 
the forest policy of France. Its constructive features 
are equally striking. Foremost among them in com- 
manding the admiration of the forest engineers in the 
American Army stands the conquest of the sand dunes on 



pine under a cover of brush or herbaceous plants. Their 
success led to the adoption in 1810 of a systematic plan 
for controlling the dunes by the French government. 
State forests were established in part of the territory ; but 
much of the planting was done on communal and private 
lands, under the principle of the state's paying the costs 
and then retaining the use of the land for a sufficient 
period to recoup itself from the forests established. 

The stabilization of the dune belt was actually accom- 
plished in about sixty years, but the impetus given to the 
planting of maritime pine by private owners and com- 
munes has extended the forests of this valuable tree over 
almost the entire area of sand plains in southwestern 
France. The departments of the Landes and Gironde 




Underwood and Underwood — British Official Photograph 

GERMAN TRENCHES SMASHED UP BY BRITISH GUN FIRE IN THE BATTLE OF FLANDERS. THIS GIVES AN IDEA OF THE AMOUNT 

OF TIMBER USED IN FIELD FORTIFICATIONS 



the southwestern coast and the conversion of the old bed 
of the Atlantic Ocean, formerly a thinly populated 
stretch of sand and marsh, into one of the most produc- 
tive regions of France. Adjoining the South Atlantic 
Coast, is a belt of sand dunes covering some 350,000 
acres. During the 18th century, the inland movement of 
these dunes, which traveled from 30 to 80 feet a year, 
buried entire villages and farms and threatened to de- 
stroy the economic life of the entire littoral. Experi- 
ments were begun by French engineers as early as 1784 
in stabilizing the dunes by sowing the seed of maritime 



contain today 1,500,000 acres of private forests, by far 
the greater part of which were established by planting. 
The forests of this region, created almost wholly by hu- 
man foresight and patience, contained nearly a fourth of 
the timber of France at the outbreak of the war and were 
one of the most important sources of supply for the 
French, British and American Armies. The 20th Engi- 
neers cut ties and sawlogs from state forests in the dunes 
themselves which, sixty years previously, were not only 
wholly unproductive but a menace to the country. And 
aside from the production of timber, the afforestation of 



1384 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



the Landes has created the naval stores industry of 
southern France, drained its malarial marshes, enor- 
mously increased its population,, and built up the produc- 
tivity of its agricultural lands through the extensive 
cropping of forest undergrowth and litter for the ferti- 
lization of farms. 
A similar struggle, not yet ended, has been waged with 




BRUSH FROM FRENCH FORESTS USED IN REVETTING TRENCHES 

the mountain torrents which have seriously eroded por- 
tions of the French Alps, with resulting floods and the 
destruction of agricultural lands in the valleys below. 
One of the worst effects of the sudden removal of restric- 
tions upon the use of private lands, brought about by 
the Revolution, was the destruction of many forests 
in the high mountains and the excessive grazing of moun- 
tain pastures. Effective legislation to combat these perils 
was long held back by the difficulty of harmonizing the 
vigorous public action needed with French conceptions of 
individual liberty and initiative and by the conflict of* 
interests between the pastoral folk of the mountains and 
the farmers of the plains. The terrible floods of 1859 
prompted the enactment of a law for the reforestation 
of the mountains (July 28, 1860). It provided for the 
establishment of restoration areas within which refor- 
estation and other measures would be undertaken by the 
state and by communes and private agencies with state 
aid. All forests within restoration areas, of whatever 
ownership, were placed under the administration of the 
Waters and Forests Service in conformity with the con- 
servative requirements of the "regime forestier." Addi- 
tional laws passed in 1864 and 1882 provided for the 
restoration of grass cover on denuded mountain lands 
under certain conditions and for various preventive 
measures in the mountain zone generally, particularly 
the regulation of grazing. 

Some phases of this attempt to check torrential erosion 
in the mountains have not been successful, and the prob- 
lem is a very live one in France today. The most effec- 
tive steps yet taken have been the reforestation of lands 
owned by the state or communes and the purchase of 
mountain forests by the central government. This is 



directly analogous to federal purchases of forests on the 
headwaters of navigable streams in the United States 
under the Weeks Law. While the French government 
has ample authority to add to its state forests, by pur- 
chase, in any part of the country, such acquisitions have, 
up to the present, been limited to mountain regions in 
connection with restoration projects. Many French for- 
esters and economists advocate the extension of the pub- 
lic holdings in other sections, particularly in the oak for- 
ests of the plains where the timber of large size and high 
quality needed by industries like shipbuilding may not 
be grown by private owners. 

Coupled with the laws restricting the freedom of the 
private owner in France to destroy his forest, is a series 
of constructive measures designed to promote the pro- 
duction of timber on private lands. Tax exemptions, 
in varying degrees, are extended to forest plantations 
during their first thirty years. The exemption is com- 
plete in the case of seeded or planted land on the slopes 



















f 




•" 







BINDING FAGOTS OF BRUSH FOR USE AT THE FRONT 

or summits of mountains, on sand dunes, and on land 
previously barren. If the planted land was under culti- 
vation during the preceding decade, three fourths of the 
taxes are remitted. If the land has been fallow for ten 
years or more, it remains taxable but the assessed value 
of the bare land can not be increased for thirty years. 

Other laws encourage the formation of local associa- 
tions of forest owners for the joint administration of 
their properties. (The "syndicate" so common all over 
France for collective action in various enterprises). 
Such associations may extend from cooperative protec- 
tion against fire or trespass to the complete management 
of timbered areas. And by a statute enacted in 1913 the 
services of the state foresters are offered to private 
owners or associations, at cost, in the protection or ad- 
ministration of their properties. Such measures, aiming 
to reduce the cost of technical management of timber- 
lands, are especially adapted to the conditions in France, 
where timber values are high and forestry practice is 
general and well understood. 

Private timberlands, in fact, comprise over two-thirds 
of the forest resources of France. 18.7 per cent of her 



THE FOREST POLICY OF FRANCE— ITS VINDICATION 



1385 



area is forested, or about 23,455,000 acres. The three 
million acres of state forests represent but 12 per cent 
of this total while another 20 per cent, owned by com- 
munes and other public agencies, is also under state 
administration. The rest is in private hands. The be- 
lief is common that the area of forests has been reduced 
below the minimum essential to sustained national pros- 
perity and there is a strong demand in many quarters for 
extending the state forests, particularly in the mountain 
regions in connection with the checking of erosion and 
protection of water sources. But the results obtained by 
painstaking care in handling the limited resources of 
France are truly remarkable. Imagine a third of the 
population of the United States crowded into an area less 
than that of Texas and still supplying 70 per cent of their 



at the outbreak of the war amounted to 100 board feet 
of lumber and half a cord of fuelwood from every acre 
of forest land in France. 

This does not, however, tell the whole story of what 
France has accomplished in forest conservation. Due 
to the conservative temper of their race, forest owners, 
public and private alike, have not cut as much as they 
might; they have not used the full current revenue from 
their timber capital. They had accumulated a surplus 
by the outbreak of the war probably equal to four and 
a half billion feet, or twice the usual yearly cut. This 
surplus, together with the uniformly well-stocked and 
productive condition of their forest lands, was a prime 
element of national strength in the great struggle. The 
longer the 20th Engineers operated in France, the more 




A MILL OF THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN THE DUNES OF SOUTHWESTERN FRANCE 



timber and all of their fuelwood from the current pro- 
duction of their forest lands. 

Prior to the war, there were cut yearly from the forests 
of France 2,250,000,000 feet of timber and 4,670,000 
cords of fuelwood. In addition to these amounts, some 
400,000,000 feet of timber and 167,000 cords of fuel were 
obtained yearly from trees planted along roads and 
canals, from farm hedges, and from the plantations of 
poplar which are a common feature of farms throughout 
central and northern France. It is probable that France 
contained, in 1914, at least 150 billion feet of merchant- 
able timber. The adequacy of her forest resources, 
however, was judged — not by the quantity of stumpage 
but by the current yield of forest land. The yearly cut 



timber their scouts located. Our early conceptions of 
timber shortage in France were constantly revised up- 
ward. The enormous demands of the allied armies could 
have been met for one or two years longer without cut- 
ting seriously into the growing stock of the country. 

The progress of France in forestry, like that of any 
other country, is of course an intimate phase of her own 
historical and economic evolution, the result of her pecu- 
liar physical conditions and the racial characteristics of 
her people. Its special interest to Americans lies in the 
fact that it is not a policy created by imperial edict — 
but the freely adopted regime of an intensively demo- 
cratic and individualistic people. It would be futile to 
(Continued on Page 1424) 



WHEN TREES GROW 



BY PROF. J. S. ILLICK 

CHIEF, BUREAU OF SILVICULTURE, PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY 



NOTHING about the numerous processes of trees is 
more readily comprehended than that they grow, 
for the results of growth are so obvious, and in 
some cases striking, particularly in temperate regions 
where annually a period of vegetative rest alternates 
with a period of vegetative 
activity. 

The belief is prevalent 
that trees grow throughout 
the general growing or 
vegetative seasons, which 
embraces the middle states 
from 150 to 200 days, and 
extends from the last kill- 
ing frost in the spring, that 
is, when the leaves of the 
larches, birches, cherries, 
and maples appear, to the 
first killing frost in the 
autumn when the leaves ex- 
hibit their autumnal colo- 
ration. This, however, is 

a mere supposition, for most of the native and introduced 
forest trees in the vicinity of Mont Alto, Pennsylvania, 
make ninety per cent of their height growth in less than 
forty days. . , 

The following tabulation, based on data obtained in 
Pennsylvania, lists five representative species of forest 
trees, gives the date in spring when the growth of each 



DO YOU KNOW THAT 

Trees make nine-tenths of their height growth 
in less than forty days? 

Most trees start growing in April and stop 
growing in May or June? 

Trees grow twice as much at night as during 
the day? 

Some trees grow steadily during the growing 
time and others rest for days and then continue 
their growth? 

That two rings may sometimes represent only 
one year's growth ? 



starts, indicates the percentage of the total growth of 
the season opposite specified dates, and schedules the 
progress, duration, and cessation of growth. 

Not all forest trees begin to grow at the same time. 
Some start early in spring while others begin rather 

late. The Wild Black. 
Cherry, Primus serotina is 
the first forest tree in the 
vicinity of Mont Alto to be- 
gin height growth. The 
elongation of its twigs 
starts about the fourth of 
April. The Domestic 
Cherry, Prunus avium, be- 
gins its growth about four 
days later than the native 
Wild Black Cherry. The 
Sweet Buckeye, Aescuhts 
octandra, begins about 
April 6, White Pine, Pin us 
Strobus, about April 18, 
Tulip Tree, Liriodendron 
Tulipfera, about April 25, and Norway Spruce, Picea 
Abies, about May 6. The date when the different species 
start the elongation of their twigs depends upon the in- 
herent tendency of the species and the factors of the 
environment. The late opening of the buds of Norway 
Spruce is not a local characteristic, but an inherent ten- 
dency, for records from Germany show that they usually 




EUROPEAN LARCH IN FULL FOLIAGE 

A coniferous tree which sheds all its foliage 
each autumn. Lower buds begin to swell early, 
leaves emerge rapidly, but elongation of shoot 
does not begin until about the middle of May. 



1386 



TERMINAL SPRAY 
PINE 



OF PITCH 



I. ATE SPRING 



AWAKENING 

SPRUCE 



OF NORWAY 



Showing the original and the second 
growth of the season. Fictitious rings 
are regularly formed when, a prolonged 
resting period occurs within the grow- 
ing season. 



During early May the buds usually begin to 
swell. Elongation of the twigs begins at the base 
of the trees and proceeds upwards. 



WHEN TREES GROW 



1387 



open after May 8, and in the extreme northern part 
after the end of May. On the other hand, factors of the 
environment, such as latitude, altitude, exposure, shade 
and shelter, also have a strong influence on the starting 
time of the season's growth. As a rule, buds open about 
two and one-half to three days later with each degree 



Growth 
Starts 


Wild 
Black 
Cherry 


Sweet 
Buckeye 


White 
Pine 


Tulip 
Tree 


Norway 
Spruce 


April 4th 


April 6th 


April 18:h 


April 25th 


May Otli 


April 1.5 


7.5% 


67.5% 


00.0% 


00.0% 


00.0% 


May 1 


15.0 


H.t 


12.1 




1.2 


CO.O 


May 15 
June 1 
June 15 
July 1 


25.0 

42.5 
62.5 
87 5 


•- 

■ - 


100.0 


46.2 
92.1 
988 
100.0 


r - 
00 


23.4 
588 
88.8 
97.4 


8 


22.4 

74.1 

99.2 

100.0 




July 15 


97.5 






98.9 




August 1 


100.0 






100.0 





of latitude and about two to two and one-half days later 
with each 350 feet of altitude. White oak begins its 
growth from seven to fourteen days later on northern 
than on southern exposures on the Mont Alto State For- 
est. Trees with small and partially or completely im- 
bedded buds such as Honey Locust, Black Locust, Ken- 
tucky Coffee-Tree, Tree of Heaven, and Catalpa, begin 
growth relatively late. Nature seems to protect the 
tender growing points of these trees from the cold of 
winter by placing them within small buds which are 
almost completely imbedded within the twigs. This 
means of adaptation also protects the tender new growth 
of spring from late frosts, for the small and deeply im- 
bedded buds are not stimulated so early in spring as 
large exposed buds ; hence, the resultant vegetative 
growth usually appears after the damaging frost period. 

Pennsylvania is the meeting ground of many northern 
and southern forest tree species. The northern follow the 
mountains towards the south and the southern extend 
northward through the valleys. The distinctly southern 
species, which are decidedly sensitive to Spring frosts, as 
a rule, begin the elongation of their shoots rather late, 
that is, after the danger period of frost damage is past. 
The Eastern Catalpa. supposedly a native of the South 
Atlantic States, does not leaf out until the latter part of 
May. Likewise other southern species, such as Persim- 
mon, Kentucky Coffee-Tree, and- Bald- Cypress postpone 
the beginning of their vegetative elongation until late 
spring. 

The range of the period during which the height 
growth of forest trees ceases is longer than that during 
which height growth starts in the spring. The Sweet 
Buckeye, Aesculus octandra, usually completes its growth 
at Mont Alto as early as May 10 to May 15, and by 
June 15 one can find full-sized winter buds. This species 
is the first to complete its height growth of the season. 
Most species of forest trees in southern Pennsylvania 
cease growing during the latter part of May and the 



early part of June. Only a few species continue their 
growth into July. On June 10, 1919, 1 examined 79 
different species of trees in the' vicinity of Mont Alto, 
55 of which, that is 70 per cent, had already ceased 
growing in height. On June 18 and 19, 1919, I examined 
50 species of trees in the vicinity of Bedford, Pennsyl- 
vania, and found that the height growth of 40 had already 
stopped. This is an unusually high percentage of growth 
cessation, and is probably due to the extremely cold 
period during the early part of May, followed immedi- 
ately by an unusually hot period during late May and 
early June. Such extreme temperatures and the" abrupt 
transition from one extreme to the other are potent fac- 
tors in retarding growth and in extreme cases may cause 
entire cessation of growth. The White Pine, which 
usually stops growing in the vicinity of Mont Alto about 
June 15, but may continue to grow as late as June 30, 
ceased growing this year (1919) about June 3. It is the 
writer's belief that 85 per cent of the forest trees of 
Pennsylvania have already (June 20, 1919) completed 
their normal height growth for the season. Of the 
remaining 15 per cent of the Tulip Tree, Sycamore, and 
the Larches are prominent species, which may continue 
to grow until the middle or latter part of July. By the 




THE WHITE OAK MAY TAKE A REST 

The large fully developed leaves are the result of the original growth of 
the season. After resting for 20 days, growth was resumed, and the ter- 
minal shoot bearing immature leaves is the result. 

first of August the normal height growth of all the forest 
trees of Pennsylvania has, as a rule, ceased. 

In order to determine the progress of the height growth 
each species must be examined by itself, for each indi- 
vidual species possess distinctive inherent growth charac- 
teristics. Some place their growth without a break, while 



1388 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



others place it by leaps and bounds alternating with rest 
periods. In this respect the method of working followed 
by trees, and growth surely is work, differs little from 
the methods of other organisms, including man. Rarely 
does any organism work continuously, but rest periods 
are usually, and sometimes frequently, interspersed be- 
tween the periods of work. Rest periods, however, 
should not be regarded as synonymous with idleness, for 




JUST BEFORE HEIGHT GROWTH STOPS 

The twigs of Norway Spruce take a decidedly drooping position for a few 
days just prior to the cessation of height growth. 

they are normal prerequisites to the optimum function- 
ing of all organisms. Without them no organism can at- 
tain optimum efficiency nor maintain health. 

Few comprehensive statements can be made regarding 
the growth behavior of forest trees during the growing 
season. There is wide divergence between the height 
growth behavior of Wild Black Cherry, Sweet Buckeye, 
White Pine, Tulip Tree, and Norway Spruce. Yet, in 
spite of this wide divergence the fundamental features of 
the growth procedure throughout the growing season 
may be summarized as follows : Growth begins slowly, 
after a variable period rises rapidly, then reaches a maxi- 
mum which is maintained for a short while, finally falls 
gradually to a minimum, and then ceases completely. 

The actual growth is, however, less regular than charts 
indicate, for the rate of growth usually exhibits a certain 
rhythm or periodicity. It progresses by leaps and bounds 
alternating with rest periods, which may be of long or 
short duration. Rest periods of short duration occur 



frequently and at irregular intervals, but are hard to 
detect with instruments of ordinary precision. Rest per- 
iods of longer duration are also common and readily 
measurable. 

The height growth of a Chestnut Oak, Quercus Prinus, 
tree during the 1918 growing season showed the terminal 
shoot started to grow on April 17 and continued its 
elongation until May 23, when the first upward thrust 
ceased. A resting period of 24 days followed and on 
June 16 growth was again resumed and continued until 
July 13, a period of 27 days. The first growing period 
extended over 34 days during which the terminal shoot 
elongated a total of 10 inches, that is an average of 
approximately one-third of an inch per day. This was 
followed by a cessation of growth for 24 days when the 
second and final elongation of the season began. The 
second growing period extended over only 2j days during 
which the terminal shoot elongated a total of 13.5 inches, 
that is an average of one-half an inch per day. Such a 
periodicity of growth is not unusual, but rather peculiar to 




TAKING A DAILY MEASUREMENT OF GROWTH 

The terminal twig of Norway Spruce is the last to begin its elongation. 
but by the end of the growing season it exceeded all others in length. 
Some trees grow in height more than one-inch each day during the grand 
period of growth. 

certain species. Pin Oak, Black Oak, Chestnut Oak, and 
Pitch Pine frequently begin to place a second growth 10 
to 25 days after the original growth of the season has 
ceased. 

The period during spring and summer when height 
growth does not progress may be regarded as a resting 
period, a recuperative period, or a period of preparation. 



WHEN TREES GROW 



1389 



The trees apparently rest but in reality they are preparing 
for the next upward thrust which may be longer than the 
original advance. Furthermore, the writer believes that 
the recurring rest periods may become a rather fixed and 
regular feature of the growth of certain species. This 
is certainly true in the case of normal young Pitch Pine 
in the vicinity of Mont Alto which exhibits annually 




AFTER HEIGHT GROWTH HAS CEASED 

Immediately following the completion of height growth the twigs of Nor- 
way Spruce assume an erect position, hegin to stiffen, and develop winter 
buds. 

a cessation of growth for a period of two to three weeks. 

The rate of tree growth not only fluctuates throughout 
the growing season but also during each day. The maxi- 
mum growth usually occurs late at night, apparently after 
the preparation and translocation of food and other 
essential materials becomes less active, and the minimum 
growth falls in the afternoon of each clear day when 
the greatest activity in the manufacture of starch and 
sugar is in operation. 

About 20 trees of each of the four species given in the 
following tabulation were measured regularly at 7.30 
!'. M. and 7.30 A. M. for a specified period. The derived 
results for height growth during the day and at night 
are given in the following tabulation: 

SPECIES DAY NIGHT 

Tree of Heaven 35% 65% 

Tulip Tree 40% 60% 

Norway Spruce 18% 82% 

White Pine 39% 61% 

Average 33% 67% 



This tabulation shows that trees grow about twice as 
much at night as during the day. By using instruments 
of greater precision the percentages would no doubt be 
changed somewhat, but the general comparative rate of 
growth would still stand unchanged. 

To some persons it may appear that the problem of 
growth behavior of trees has only an academic appli- 
cation. This point of view is, however, untenable for 
there is an economic side to the study. If conducted in 
a scientific manner it will supply the basic data for the 
preparation of a rational schedule for transplanting in 
the nursery and setting out trees in the woodlot and 
forest. Foresters, silviculturists, and plant physiologists 
recommend that planting and transplanting operations 
should be conducted when the material to be planted is in 
a dormant condition. No fault can be found with their 
recommendation, but in order to execute it properly one 
must know when trees really are dormant. This can 




A "DOUBLE-HEADER" OF HEIGHT GROWTH OF CHESTNUT OAR 

Height growth often proceeds by leaps separated by rest periods of var- 
iable duration. The original growth of the season bears mature leaves, 
while the second period of growth is characterized by a sparse setting 
of immature leaves. 

be ascertained best by determining when trees grow, since 
growth is so evident and measurable, and whenever trees 
are not growing they are dormant, that is, in a static con- 
dition, the duration of which is hard to determine. 

Furthermore, such a study facilitates the preparation 
of a schedule for field work covering the problem of 
growth. That determination of the quantitative and 



1390 



AMKK1CAN FORESTRY 



qualitative growth on cut-over lands is one of the most 
important and urgent problems in American forestry is 
conceded by the most authoritative foresters. This is 
one of the four major problems which the chairman of 
the forestry committee in the Division of Biology and 
Agriculture of the National Research Council recom- 
mends as worthy of immediate and thorough considera- 
tion. Heretofore, we have generally been instructed 
that the height growth of the season cannot be accurately- 
ascertained until late in fall or during the winter months 
when the weather is rela- 
tively unfavorable for field 
work and the days rather 
short. Consequently, it now 
follows that since trees 
actually cease growing in 
height in May or June, no 
reasonable exceptions can 
henceforth be filed against 
the collection of height 
growth data immediately 
after the cessation of 
growth in summer. 

It should be understood, 
however, that the problem 
WHEN TREES GROW 
is but a prelude to the 
major problem, which is 
far more comprehensive, 
and includes also a study 
of diameter and volume 
growth of the stem and the 
growth of roots, all of 
which should be under- 
taken ; for the results de- 
rived therefrom would be 
of great economic value. 

A knowledge of WHEN 
TREES GROW also aids 
in the determination of the 
best time to peel bark. Bark- 
can be peeled satisfactorily only when the sap is abundant 
and active. Briefly, the bark peeling season coincides 
with the growing season of trees, even to the extent that 
lumbermen recognize a "second sap" period during June 
in Chestnut Oak trees. This furnishes practical proof 
that the second period of growth recurrs rather regularly 
in this species. The second period is usually short and 
the bark does not peel so satisfactorily as in the first 
period of the season. It is, therefore, reconimendable 
that the period of active growth be accurately determined 









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THE OLD AND THE NEW 

Not an evergreen tree decorated with candles but a Pitch Pine witli it 
characteristic erect new growth. 



for each species, the bark of which is peeled, in order to 
determine the exact limits of bark peeling season. 

A thorough study of the growth of trees will also 
furnish much-needed information to the legal profession. 
Many legal decisions concerning boundaries and titles 
hinge on the question whether each growth ring repre- 
sents the growth of one season, or if fictitious rings arc 
sometimes formed. The writer examined a large number 
of Pitch Pines and Chestnut ( >ak trees and found that 
tktitious rings are regularly formed when a prolonged 

resting period occurs within 
the growing season. Hence, 
in some cases two rings 
represent the growth of a 
season, instead of one an- 
nual ring. 

The problem — WHEN 
TREES GROW is not only 
of technical interest and 
economic value but might 
be used as a means of de- 
veloping real tree apprecia- 
tion among the children of 
our public schools. The 
best soil in which to plant 
love for trees is the heart 
of childhood and woman- 
hood. The present lack of 
a fuller appreciation and a 
more compelling warmth 
towards the out-of-doors in 
which we daily move and 
often toil is largely due to 
the kind of education prac- 
ticed in the past and still 
retained in a few ultra-con- 
servative communities. It 
is pedagogically criminal to 
instruct the boys and girls 
of the United States con- 
cerning the Eucalyptus trees 
of Australia, the Big Trees of California, the Yew 
trees of England, and the Cypress trees of the South 
without mentioning the White Oak, Chestnut, Tulip tree 
or White Pine which may stand near the schoolhouse 
door. And merely to mention the names of these trees 
is not sufficient This simply serves as an introduction, 
but if the children are also instructed concerning their 
growth and other activities they begin really to know 
these trees, and will continue to observe and study 
their habits. 



WE WANT TO RECORD YOUR MEMORIAL TREE PLANTING. PLEASE ADVISE 
THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



CENTRAL PARK TREES STARVING TO DEATH 



BY CHARLES LATHROP PACK 



PRESIDENT, AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 



TREES in Central Park, New York City, are starving 
to death. Four thousand or more have died since 
191 7. Three thousand of the dead have already 
heen removed, the others will be taken out in the next 
few months. Hundreds are dying now and many of them 
may be considered a total loss. Some of the weak and 
sick are to be given special treatment in the endeavor 
to save them and they may be saved. 

Various causes contribute to the present deplorable 
condition of the trees in this famous park of the largest 
city in the United States, causes which in one way or 



selection of species for planting, and methods for better- 
ing conditions of the unhealthy trees which remain stand- 
ing, and their report indicates that much can be done to 
improve the situation. 

Park Commissioner Francis D. Gallatin and City For- 
ester J. S. Kaplan have, for several months, been closely 
studying the causes which result in the failure of certain 
species of trees to thrive and they have already adopted 
measures to improve soil conditions and provide the trees 
with more nourishment. This will undoubtedly be effec- 
tive in many instances but it will not be thoroughly effec- 






DEAD WHITE ASH 

An example of the effect of hard packing of the 
soil about the roots, dense grass sod, and full 
exposure to sun and wind. This tree is near 
72nd Street and 5th Avenue and hy proper 
ul'l doubtless have been saved. 



NOURISHMENT LACKING 

A typical surface soil condition along Fifth 
Avenue. Note the shallow spreading root sys- 
tem and hard packed soil about the base of 
the tree, one of the conditions which lead to 
the starvation of the park trees. 



DEAD LINDEN 

This tree of fine dimensions was killed by the 
bad surface soil conditions. This part of the 
park is often thrown open to children and other 
visitors for play and the earth is hard packed 
wherever it is not grass coated. 



another affect tree growth in a great many city parks 
throughout the country. What has happened in Central 
Park may happen in many other parks, and the measures 
being taken to save the stricken trees which remain 
should be carefully studied hy park commissioners and 
city foresters of other cities in order to aid them in over- 
coming similar conditions which may exist under their 
jurisdiction. 

The American Forestry Association engaged two ex- 
pert foresters to make a careful examination of the trees 
in Central Park, the soil and the climatic conditions, the 



tive because of the fact that some species of trees, planted 
many years ago, are not suited to withstand the hard- 
ships which they encounter in the bark: The relief meas- 
ures will aid them, but, perhaps, only temporarily, while 
permanent relief may be obtained only by the removal 
of such species as will not thrive and their replacement 
with trees so hardy that they will withstand both the 
soil and climatic conditions which make careful selection 
of species and great care of those selected imperative. 

There are some 60,000 trees in the park and about 
4,000 of them were killed during the Garfield winter, 



1391 



1392 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



(Qi 7-1918. While the cold was severe, zero weather 
continuing for a long period, the trees which died would, 
in the large majority, have withstood the winter had they 
not been weakened by long years of malnutrition. 

The chief handicap which species with a deep root 
system have to face is the fact that the soil in Central 
Park is only from two to five feet deep and that at a 
depth of five feet there is a heavy clay which the roots 
cannot penetrate. Consequently, when a tree reaches 
an age at which its roots should go deeper than five feet 
the clay prevents penetration and the trees lack sustenance. 

In many cases the experts making the examination for 
American Forestry found that trees would be greatly 
aided by the earth at their base being broken up. Num- 
bers of trees were being choked by the hard earth cover- 



poplars, fourth, the lindens and last, the maples and 
several other species. 

There are a great many varieties of trees suitable to 
park planting and practically all of them vary in some 
way from each other in their requirements of soil, mois- 
ture, etc. Let us look over several species commonly 
found in Central Park in regard to their soil and moisture 
requirements. Take the elms. In general, the elm is one 
of the species found most often in Central Park. It is 
used on the outer edge to shade the walks surrounding 
the park, on the Mall, and often is met with throughout 
the interior. Many of them are rapidly approaching 
death. The once famous cathedral aisles of elms along 
the Mall have gone entirely, and along the borders of the 
parks on Fifth Avenue, Eighth Avenue and the two end 




DYING TULIP 



DEFOLIATED BEECH 



A YELLOW TINE 



The soil about this tree was packed hard by the This 22-inch tree was an out-crop of rock. This tree suffered from a shallow soil, a windy 

constant playing of children and the grass kept The soil packed hard and exposed to full site, and exposure of the soil to direct rays of 

using up the soil moisture beyond the bare sunlight about the roots makes it impossible the sun. The result is stunted development and 

ground. The tree is slowly dying. for the tree to thrive. early death. 



in<j their roots or by heavy grass growth close around 
them decreasing their nourishment. 

Climatic changes, smoke and dust also undoubtedly 
adversely affected the trees but these are conditions which 
cannot be overcome and trees hardy enough to cope with 
them should be planted whenever new planting is under- 
taken. 

The Dead and Damaged. 

Of the 3,000 dead trees removed in the last two years 
the greater number were Oriental plane trees which had 
been frost cracked and killed by the 13 degrees below 
zero weather of the Garfield winter. Next in number of 
dead were the elms, third came the oaks and Lombardy 



streets of the park one can scarcely find an elm of healthy 
appearance. The other species of elm have apparently 
withstood the strain better but they, too, are seldom to 
be found in strikingly vigorous condition. 

Being so much used, the elms' ability to endure the 
very trying conditions in Central Park is of great im- 
portance. Let us see what the requirements of the elm 
are for best development. A well known authority upon 
dendrology writes of the elm : "It never occurs (natural- 
ly) on dry upland (on account of root habit). In the 
juvenile stage the root is shallow and spreading, rarely 
reaching a greater depth than three feet six inches the 
first year, while the shoot may be twice as long. A 



CENTRAL PARK TREES STARVING TO DEATH 



1393 



typical swamp type. At maturity the root system is 
wholly superficial, rarely penetrating the soil to a greater 
depth than two and one-half feet. The tree attains its 
largest size and best proportions on deep, moist, fertile 
bottomlands. It does particularly well on fine silt and clay 
lands that retain the moisture in the surface layers, so 
that till soils and uplands soil that retain moisture in the 
surface layers will support this tree. The soil is not im- 
portant where the moisture conditions are suitable." 
From this it can be seen that the elms are able to grow 
well in Central Park, but it is not as a whole a very good 
site for it, much of it being upland and not too well 
watered. The elms growing there, therefore, would be 
living nearer the boundary line between sickness and 
health that would be the case with some other species, and 
a sudden succession of changes in growing conditions or 



found entirely defoliated but frequently thin crowns are 
apparent. English oak, red oak and scarlet oak were 
found in excellent condition although some showed signs 
of deterioration by being stagg-headed, i. e., with dead 
tops. 

The beech is another heavy sufferer. In fact if any- 
thing it has suffered even more severely than the elm, 
only not being plentiful it strikes the attention less. The 
beech does best on a deep, rich soil, but any soil with 
plenty of moisture in the central layers will maintain it. 

The Oriental plane tree, or sycamore, is a common tree 
in Central Park, and an excellent one for such planting, 
being bothered by very few insect or fungus attacks, and 
being very hardy. It is badly injured by severe frost, 
however. 

The lindens are often to be seen in the park, but are not 




mm 



ALMOST DEFOLIATED BEECH 

Note thick grass about the tree and the expo- 
sure to the full light of the sun from the direc- 
tion of the camera — the southeast — where the 
chief sunlight conies from resulting in the de- 
pleted vitality of the tree. 



DEAD ELM, FINE OAK 

The elm is in typically "park" conditions, 
open to the sun and wind and with grass 
abottl the roots. The pin oak has half of its 
roots protected from sun and wind by the 
natural undergrowth of the forest. 



POOR AUSTRIAN PINES 

In general none of the evergreens do very 
well in the trying conditions of Central Park. 
Note the short tree in the dense grass. No 
really fine and strong Austrian pine was found 
in the park. 



attacks from insects or fungus enemies would have a very 
severe effect upon them. 

Another very common tree is the pin oak. To quote 
from the Manual of the Trees of North America, by 
Sargent: "Borders of swamps and riverbottoms in dee]), 
moist, rich soil" are the sites best suited to this tree. It 
is self-evident to anyone who knows Central Park that 
the pin oak will only occasionally find such sites in 
Central Park. This tree also, then— as situated in much 
ol Central Park, must be growing under a handicap and 
therefore will be more easily injured by changed or in- 
jurious conditions. At the present time it is seldom 



as hardy under city conditions as a number of other trees, 
requiring for best development a deep, rich, fertile, moist 
soil. It is also much subject to insect attacks. 

The Catalpas are trees of great vigor of growth, and 
are often met with in Central Park. They also do best 
on a deep, rich, moist soil, but having deeply penetrating, 
wide spreading root systems, they are less affected by 
surface drying of the soil than many other species. 

One of the most beautiful of all the trees in Central 
Park is the tulip tree or yellow poplar. Growing to a 
great height and with deep, wide spreading roots, it will 
do splendidly on soils that are not too shallow and which 



13P4 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 






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DEAD TREES AT SOUTHERN END OF THE RAMBLE 

On this slope, which was made up of a fairly heavy clay soil with rocky outcrops nearby, there 
were dead hickories, red maple, tulip tree, and pin oaks, all of about the same size and pretty 
close together. Note the tops of the dead trees against the sky. 



are not too dry. Its 
best growth is on 
rich, fertile, deep 
soil. 

A tree with much 
the same kind of 
root system as the 
tulip is the cucum- 
ber tree. Natural- 
ly the species is 
only found on deep, 
moist soils, and 
when so placed 
grows into a tree 
of large size and 
great beauty. It is 
found in several 
places in Central 
Park. 

The silver maple 
is very common but is a poor tree on 
account of the brittleness of the wood, 
being often badly injured by winter 
storms. It is a poor tree to plant, but a 
number of them are found in Central 
Park. 

Another common species of tree often 
met with in Central Park is the Norway 
maple. This is a species from Europe 
and is the most hardy and most resistant 
of all the maples for city planting. It 
should, therefore, do well in Central 
Park. 

There are a number of hard maples in 
the park, and they make a handsome 
ornamental tree. The species requires 
for its best growth plenty of moisture 
in the surface soil and preferably a great 
deal of humus in the soil also. 



FINE ELM STRANGLED BY THE SIDEWALK 

The space- about the trunk is only about two and one-half feet wide, and the asphalt sidewalk 
and drive have smothered the roots. This fine old tree is on the corner of 59th Street and 5th 
.▲venue, and, with proper treatment, would have been a fine shade tree for many years to come. 



The red maple which is common in 
Central Park is really a bottomland tree ; 
at least, it grows best in moist, even in 
wet soils, although it also is found on 
uplands. It is apt to suffer from lack of 
moisture when planted away from 
streams or lakes. 

Horse chestnuts and buckeyes are very 
frequently encountered in Central Park. 
Their natural site is along streams and 
on rich bottomlands with plenty of mois- 
ture in the soil. They are living under 
a strain whenever they are planted on 
dry sites.- 

The honey locust and the black locust, 
also found in the park, are both trees with 
deep, wide spreading roots, and able to 
grow on a great variety of soils, the latter 
heing especially able to stand very hard 
conditions. For the 
best development, 
however, they both 
need deep, fertile, 
moist soil. 

Scattered occa- 
sionally through 
the park are the 
b o t a n i cal freak 
trees called the 
Gingko or Maiden 
Hair tree. This 
species comes from 
China and is in 
America e n t i rely 
free from all ene- 
mies and fungus or 
insect world. It is 
very hardy and will 



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ALL THAT IS LEFT OF THE FAMOUS CATHEDRAL AISLES OF ELMS ALONG THE MALL 

The young elms on the right without foliage are recently planted, and should come out in 
one or two years like the small elms on the extreme right. But the condition of the large 
elms on the left— which have not reached the age limit for this tree makes the planting of more 
of the same species on the same site open to question. 



CENTRAL PARK TREES STARVING TO DEATH 



1395 





A CLUMP OF WHITE PINES 

Shallow soil — a rocky outcrop was only about 75 feet away — exposure to wind and to the direct 
rays of the sun, no shading of the ground under the trees, all work together with the dust- 
laden air of the city to stunt and kill these trees which are capable of making splendid 
growth on a favorable site. 



grow well almost 
anywhere. It is a 
very striking tree 
in general appear- 
ance, and one of 
the best of city 
trees. 

A n other exotic 
species is theAilan- 
thus, or Tree of 
Heaven, also from 
China. Like the 
Gingko, this spe- 
cies is very hardy 
and will thrive 
where most other 
species would die. 
It is even more 
hardy than the 
Gingko, and is do- 
ing well in the park. 

The wild black cherry is very com- 
monly found in Central Park, especially 
in the northern portion on the forested 
<>ns. It will grow on many varieties 
of soil, and the moisture conditions are 
not exacting, but they must be uniform 
for the tree to attain large size. 

The white ash is also a common tree 
in Central Park and its crown is fre- 
quently thin owing to the hard condi- 
tions it has to face. It is a tree which is 
rather exacting in moisture requirements, 
but will reach large size when it is on a 
well-watered, porous soil. 

The common COttonWood often en- 
countered in Central Park is another tree 
with a good deal of capacity for stand- 
ing city conditions as long as it has 



WHERE HEAVY CLAY HINDERS TREE GROWTH 

About this little drinking fountain the soil is a very heavy clay— almost like putty. This 

has been the means of the death of the three trees in the background. The tree on the right 

has been killed by the placing of an asphalt walk right up to it on one side and from appear- 
ances to within a foot or so on the other. 



plenty of moisture in the surface soil. 
Its soil requirements are much less 
important than its moisture demands. 

Of the evergreens, none do really well 
in the dust and bad air of the city, while 
of the pines, the white pine is often 
found in Central Park, but it needs 
abundant and constant moisture in order 
to attain to its best growth. 

The Austrian pine is another frequent 
factor in the make-up of Central Park- 
scenery. It is hardy and can withstand 
city conditions fairly well, although, of 
course, influenced by them to some ex- 
tent, and is not as healthy in Central 
Park as it should be. 

These species of trees are in general 
the principal trees met with in Central 
Park. Now, let us examine the park 
and see what suc- 
cess has been made 
in growing them 
there. Taking 
them in order of 
their resistance to 
hard conditions : 

The elm is in a 
class by itself and 
how it has suffered 
is told in a prev- 
ious paragraph. 

The beech, not 
so plentiful as the 
elm, has perhaps 
been more injured 
than any other spe- 
cies in the park. 

Next in order 
come the red 
maple, and the lin- 




THE ELMS ALONG FIFTH AVENUE 

This picture was taken in the second week in September. Note the loss of foliage and the hard 
packed soil around the base of the trees. There was little or nothing to shade the soil about 
these trees from the sun. ' 



1396 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



den. These two trees were rarely found to be in good 
condition and often were found partially if not wholly 
defoliated. 

A group of four species comes in at this place in the 
list, tulip, pin oak, white ash, Austrian pine. They were 
seldom found entirely defoliated but frequently their 
crowns were very thin. The tulip poplar sometimes had 
line form but with small, poor foliage. 

Another group contains cottonwood, English oak, red 
oak, scarlet oak and sycamore, and these in many cases 
showed signs of deterioration by having dead tops, al- 
though many are still in good condition. 



Sometimes the soil will be badly drained and will tend 
to collect and hold too much moisture, having the 
tendency to smother the roots of the trees by shutting 
off all air. Then again, the soil may be shallow and will, 
therefore, tend to dry out very quickly, thus leaving the 
trees without water. Then the condition of the sub-soil 
may make a great difference in the tree growth. If the 
sub-soil is very heavy and impermeable to water and to 
the roots of trees, it will greatly impede tree growth if 
it is too close to the surface, or it prevents moisture from 
coming up from below into the surface soil. Under 
such conditions breaking up the sub-soil with dynamite 




THE WHITE BIRCH 

Nowhere is the European white birch found 
really doing well in Central Park and here 
it had splendid forest floor conditions with 
plenty of shade and humus, but it did not 
thrive despite these. 



FAST FALLING ELMS 

American elm near 59th Street, 15 inches in 
diameter and planted on an east slope where 
the full effect of the sun on the ground will 
be felt most. Note the dense cover of grass 
about the roots of the tree. 



POOR RED MAPLES 

This tree was nearly defoliated. The soil was 
very shallow and there was a large, rocky 
outcrop just to the left of the picture. Many 
of the other red maples in the park are like 
this one. 



The last class of all, containing trees which showed 
little or no sign of any kind of having suffered contained 
the Ailanthus, Gingko, cucumber, Norway maple, Catalpa. 

Deplorable Soil Conditions. 

Soil conditions in Central Park are undoubtedly the 
most severe handicap to the health of the trees. Most 
common trees desire a fairly deep, well-drained loamy 
soil with plenty of humus (decayed vegetable matter) 
mixed in with it, especially in the surface layer of three 
to six inches. If too loose and sandy the rain water will 
soon drain off and leave the trees waterless, and if the 
soil is too heavy, like a fine dense clay, the water falling 
on it will tend to form pools on the surface and evapo- 
rate and be lost to the trees that way. Also a heavy clay 
soil will tend to interfere with the growth of the roots. 



has been proved to be effective. Again, hard packing of 
the surface soil by people walking upon it, covering the 
soil with cement or asphalt walks or roads will tend to 
impede tree growth. Now, many of these difficulties 
and hindrances to tree growth exist in Central Park 
today. Shallow soil is very common, often only a few 
inches covering up the rock below. Heavy impermeable 
clay is also present in places. A hard packing of the soil 
around the bases of the trees is quite noticeable along 
Fifth Avenue. And exposure of the soil to evaporating 
winds and to the direct rays of the sun is everywhere 
common. Add to this the frequent proximity of asphalt 
walks and drives and the frequency of a dense sod of 
grass growing under the trees, and it is easy to see how 
difficult it is for a tree to secure normally good soil con- 
ditions in Central Park. 



CENTRAL PARK TREES STARVING TO DEATH 



1397 



Now it has been the duty of officials of the Park 
Department ever since it was organized to know these 
things, to realize the handicaps with which the trees 
have had to contend and to take measures to overcome 
these handicaps. That this has not been done by the 
Park Department officials in the past is evident by the 
condition of the trees today and the difficulties with 
which the present Park Department officials have to 
contend. The trees would be in much better condition 
had they been properly nourished. They should have 
been carefully and skillfully fertilized, the shallow soil 
could have been enriched year after year and if it had 
been, the trees would have been hardier, stronger and 
better able to withstand the rigors of the Garfield winter 
as well as the climatic changes of the past few years. 



in its annual report for 1919, which said, "The New York 
City parks bear very noticeable marks of the exceptionally 
cold winter, 1917-1918. In the spring of 1918 it was 
observed that many trees and plantations failed to put 
forth their leaves, and as the season advanced it was 
found that they had died either from the intensely cold 
winter or from cold weather and weakened condition 
due to disease. The great privet plantations along Park 
Avenue, some of them fifteen years old, were practically 
destroyed. The privet hedge around Claremont Inn on 
Riverside Drive had to be cut back to within a foot of the 
ground or entirely replaced. All over the city the privet 
showed damage in various degrees and it is estimated 
that the loss of this ornamental shrub alone amounted 
to $75,000. 




A DYINC CATAI.PA 



This very large and picturesqut catalpa is ol'l 
and the open situation, grass and exposure to 
wind and sun is proving too much for it. It 
uill probably last hut a few more years. 



A TYPICAL TULIP 

Note the small size of the leaves, the soil 
packed around the base of the tree by the 
visitors and the grass on all sides. The 
foliage of a healthy tulip is much larger. 



A BLACK WALNUT 

Standing on the top of a steep rise, surrounded 
with heavy grass sod and exposed to the full 
sunlight and wind, the soil conditions for this 
large American black walnut are very bad. 



Even the elms, now so pitiful in appearance, could 
have been given such care, that they would have thrived 
even under the adverse conditions which they had to 
face. They have done well in other cities and in other 
parks where the soil is just as shallow and where they 
had many difficulties to overcome and they did well 
use they were given plenty of individual attention. 

It is essential in park management that the Park 
Commissioners and the City Forester should be absolutely 
fnc from political influence and should be provided with 
sufficient funds to do their work well. Political forestry 
cannot be successful. 

Attention was given to the tree losses of the park by 
the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society 



"Next to the privet the greatest sufferer was the plane 
tree, or Oriental sycamore. This tree was particularly 
free from pests and was planted in the belief that it would 
be immune from winter killing. These trees were large- 
ly in the streets where their loss is particularly grievous 
as it is hard to make trees grow in New York streets 
on account of pavement, gas leakage, damage by auto- 
mobiles, etc. 

"Other trees which were killed included turkey oaks, 
horse chestnuts and lindens. In Central Park there were 
perhaps 400 turkey oaks, 5,000 lindens and 3,000 horse 
chestnuts. These trees fell easy victims to the weather for 
they had been defoliated and their vitality sapped for 
three years in succession by the tussock moth. 



1308 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




TWO FINE HICKORIES 

In the northern part of the park there is a good 
deal of natural forest growth and while some 
of the trees there have died most of them are 
doing well. These hickories, as is apparent, 
have taken hold finely. 



HEALTHY RED OAK 

The soil ahout this tree on the West Drive 
was loose and untramped down. The small 
fence has had a tendency to keep the people 
on to the walk. The grass would be better 
absent from under the tree. 



FINE HONEY LOCUST 

The honey locust seems to do very well in the 
park even when the site conditions are not 
ideal. It would be a good thing to plant more 
of them, even if they are difficult to prune on 
account of the thorns. 



"The one tree of all the nursery-grown trees in the 
park that seems to have suffered no damage is the 
Gingko. Not one has been found to be killed and few have 
frost cracks. Even the solitary Gingko planted by Li 
Hung Chang at General Grant's tomb, which is one of 
the most exposed places in the city, weathered the winter 
without harm, while the bladdernut tree, planted by 
the same personage at the same time, immediately adja- 
cent to the park, was all but destroyed. 

"In January, 1919, Commissioner Berolzheimer an- 
nounced that over 3,000 dead trees had been removed in 
his jurisdiction up to that time." 

Relief Measures Adopted. 

The Department of Parks makes the following an- 
nouncement regarding the situation : "Park Commis- 
sioner Gallatin has announced, as a result of extensive 
investigations, a definite programme for the restoration 
and stimulation of the trees in Central Park. 

"Through the acquisition of a 'K' machine for pulling 
dead trees and stumps out of the ground, it has been 
found that the basic trouble with the trees in Central 
Park is the fact that the native sub-soil is of a stiff im- 
penetrable clay, and that the reason trees die after they 
grow to be about one or two feet in diameter, is because 
of the inability of the roots to secure nourishment after 
they reach this clay sub-soil. 

"It is very fortunate that we were able to secure a hand- 
power pulling machine, which made it possible to tear 
out stumps practically intact, as it discloses this condi- 
tion very frankly. This situation was known to the 



planners and builders of Central Park as very frequently 
in the removal of a stump of this nature, earthen pipes 
of two inches in diameter are found, which were placed 
both horizontally and vertically through the clay, and 
occasionally a large group of boulders was piled im- 
mediately under the newly planted tree, designed proba- 
bly for the purpose of breaking up the clay so that the 
roots could firmly establish themselves. 

"It is the opinion of Forester J. S. Kaplan that unless 
something is done to remedy this situation, it will never 
be possible to grow trees larger than from two to three 
feet in diameter in Central Park. 

"Commissioner Gallatin has concluded that sub-surface 
blasting is the remedy most likely to be successful and 
most easily and cheaply to be tried. 

"As a result of a conference with representatives of 
the DuPont Powder Company, arrangements have been 
made to take one lawn in the lower end of Central 
Park for experiments in this direction. Holes will be 
drilled about 18 feet apart, and a light charge of dynamite 
placed in each hole. with the object of shattering this 
cementatious sub-surface clay. 

"This practice has been successfully carried out among 
orchardists elsewhere, and it is highly probable that 
marked results will ensue from this treatment. This work' 
is to proceed immediately after the leaves fall this year. 
It is also intended to plant several trees on this lawn in 
blasted holes. 

"If this experiment proves successful it is Commis- 
sioner Gallatin's intention to request sufficient money to 
treat practically all of Central Park in the same way." 



CENTRAL PARK TREES STARVING TO DEATH 



1399 




A HEALTHY PIN OAK 

Note the bushes which shelter the soil about 
part of this fine young pin oak in the Ramble 
from the direct rays of the sun. This helps 
very much in making the tree strong and vigor- 
ous as readily seen. 



A SPLENDID COTTONWOOD 

The Cottonwood is a river bottom tree and 
here close to the Swanboat Pond it has shown 
its capacity to develop into a beautiful orna- 
ment for the park. It is, undoubtedly, an 
ideal site for this species. 



VIGOROUS ENGLISH ELM 

The English elm stands the conditions of the 
park better than the American elm. This tree 
had very good site conditions for it had been 
cultivated about the roots which were shaded 
by rhododendrons. 



The Experts' Opinion. 

The experts report to American Forestry that under 
the head of unfavorable soil conditions they have found 
in Central Park shallow soil, heavy impermeable clay and 
hard packing of soil around trees. 

Under the head of species especially sensitive to the 
Central Park conditions they have found elm, beech, red 
maple and linden. 

Trees which will make fair growth in Central Park 
under specially favorable conditions there they have 
found to be tulip, pin oak and white ash. 

Trees that have demonstrated their ability to do really 
well in many sections of the park, they have found to be 
cottonwood, English oak, red oak, scarlet oak and 
sycamore. 

For practically any sites in the park, even the unfavor- 
able places, either the Ailanthus or Gingko can be always 
counted upon. 

The cucumber, Norway maple and Catalpa will all 
grow splendidly when on their proper sites in the park. 
Off of their proper sites they will not do so well there. 

In regard to meteorological conditions influencing trees 
during the last twenty years it is clear that : 

i. There has been a decided decrease in rainfall. 

2. Much of this decrease has been in the summer 
months when needed most. 

3. There has been a decided decrease in relative 
humidity in the past five years. 

4. There has been an increase in the wind movement 
in the past five years. 



5. The trees have been subjected to a very severe frost 
in the winter of 1917-1918. 

With all of these factors before us it is only natural 
to seek to come to some conclusion as to what the cause 
of the present situation of the park is and from that to 
reach out for a solution. Briefly the conclusion as to 
the cause of the present situation of Central Park, is that 
no one single, but a combination of causes all detrimental 
to the successful maintenance of Central Park trees are 
operating. None of these conditions alone would en- 
tirely bring about the present situation and therefore the 
changing of any one will not cure it entirely. All must 
be taken into consideration arid all must be worked upon. 

The Conclusion. 

The conclusions reached by the experts follow : 

1. Selection of only such species of trees for plant- 
ing as have proved either entirely hardy under present 
conditions or at least have done well on certain special 
sites in the park. This, of course, applies only to the 
planting of trees on a large scale, specimens of arboricul- 
tural interest being entirely another matter. 

2. Special attention to the establishment and main- 
tenance of proper surface soil conditions under the trees. 
It is the soil-moisture conditions of the trees which is 
the one great thing to watch out for in dealing with trees 
anywhere and especially in a park where the trees are 
planted singly and are exposed to severe drying condi- 
tions of the surface soil around them. The establishment 
and maintenance of proper conditions for preserving 
soil-moisture in Central Park might entail : 



1400 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



(a). Cultivation of soil around all trees of special 
interest or value, and the more the better. 

(b). Mulching or covering the soil about the trees 
with manure, dead leaves, etc., during the winter. 

(c). Planting trees in small groves or "woodlets" 
and keeping them in the form of small patches of natural 
forest (leaving the leaves and small twigs to decay on 
the ground and so form a natural mulch). 

(d). Underplanting the larger trees with more shade 
enduring species which would shade the ground, protect 
from wind and so prevent drying out. 

These suggestions would perhaps cost a great deal of 
money or a change in the principal present-day policy of 
the park management but is not the end worthy of such 
expense and change? To anyone passing through the 
park on any bright day in the warmer months the value 
to human life — especially child fife — of the open, out- 
door stretches of natural growth, so different from the 
narrow, dirty, noisy streets in which most of the park 
visitors were born and now live, is ample to warrant a 
great increase in expenditure by the city to save and 
energetically maintain the tree growth within this, the 



most famous of all American city parks. At the present 
time and under the present system many of the trees of 
the park are much retarded in growth and a large number 
have died. Some of these latter have been of large size 
and fair age, but it is clear to the careful observer that 
practically all of them should have lived for a good many 
years longer and there is good reason to believe that if 
proper care and enough money had been devoted to them, 
they would still be shading the walks and lawns instead 
of going to the woodpile. Now, when too late the trees 
are dead and the expense of taking them out and plant- 
ing new ones comes up, while the public waits for years 
for the new tree to attain good enough proportions to 
fill the blank left by the dead specimen. 

The situation confronting New York as a result of 
these findings will, perhaps, fit many other cities in the 
United States. We have all seen beautiful trees "just 
die" and the layman is at a loss to understand why they 
should. The New York park officials are alive to the 
situation, and are trying to improve it while knowledge of 
just what is best suited to Central Park conditions is of 
the utmost value to every city forester and park depart- 
ment official. 



PLANT MEMORIAL TREES FOR OUR HEROIC DEAD 




THE NORWAY MAPLE 

This tree has been benefited by having the soil 
about it cultivated to some extent and also 
shaded. More than that, it is not on a windy 
site. It thrives under these conditions. 



THE GINGKO 

Note the peculiar outspreading branches. All 
of the gingkos that were noticed in the park 
were growing well. There are, tn this coun- 
try, no insects or fungi which attack this tree. 



CUCUMBER TREES 

These two large trees in the Ramble show the 
good development of this species under con- 
ditions favorable to it. Compare their appear- 
;uk-c with others not so well situated. 



A POLICY OF FORESTRY FOR THE NATION 






BY HENRY S. GRAVES 
UNITED STATES FORESTER 



AMERICAN FORESTRY MAGAZINE HEREWITH PUBLISHES SOME MORE OPINIONS REGARDING THE NEED OF A NATIONAL 
FOREST POLICY AND THE KIND OF A FOREST POLICY PROPOSED BY UNITED STATES FORESTER HENRY S. GRAVES. COL. 
GRAVES' OUTLINE OF THE PRINCIPLES OF SUCH A POLICY WAS PRINTED IN THE AUGUST ISSUE OF THE MAGAZINE 
AND A FURTHER OUTLINE IS PUBLISHED HEREWITH. FORESTERS, LUMBERMEN AND TIMBERLAND OWNERS THROUGHOUT 
THE COUNTRY HAVE BEEN INVITED BY THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION TO EXPRESS THEIR VIEWS ON THIS 
VITALLY IMPORTANT SUBJECT.— EDITOR. 



A NATIONAL policy of forestry seeks the protec- 
tion and beneficial utilization of our present forest 
resources, the renewal after cutting of forests on 
lands not needed for agriculture and settlement, the sta- 
bility of forest industries and of satisfactory conditions 
for forest workers, and the restoration of forest growth 
on lands now unproductive and idle. 

The public interests in the continuance of forests jus- 
tify and require direct ownership of extensive areas, 
and also participation by the public in working out the 
problem of protection and renewal of private forests. 
A program of forestry for the nation should include 
action by the public through the Government and the 
States, action by land owners and operators, and the 
means of uniting the efforts of all for the achievement of 
a common purpose. 

The service of forests is not alone local ; it is national 
as well. For the products are widely distributed without 
reference to State lines, the industries are engaged in 
interstate business, and the protective benefits of forests 
often extend far beyond the localities where they are situ- 
ated. It is the function of the Federal Government to 
take the leadership in formulating a national economic 
policy that gives consideration to the relationship of 
all forests to the industrial life of the country. The 
central Government alone can bring about concurrent 
and harmonious action within given regions. Its re- 
search and educational work may be directed to the 
problems of the nation and of regions that comprise 
more than one State. Representing the whole Nation, 
the Government can stimulate and guide local action 
where individual States by their own efforts would fail. 
The Government can act to organize all agencies affected 
by the forest problem in a united undertaking to in- 
augurate and carry out a program of forestry. 

The States have not only the function of handling 
the public forests owned by them, but they have also 
a direct responsibility in the protection and continuance 
of private forests. In this, the Federal Government 
should take part to meet interstate and national prob- 



lems, to stimulate action by the States, and to bring into 
harmony the efforts of the different States. In the prob- 
lem of private forestry, the Government would work 
through and in cooperation with the States. The leg- 
islation affecting the private owner in the matter of pro- 
tection and continuance of forests should be by the 
States. The Government should help the States in 
formulating plans and developing methods and by direct 
assistance in carrying them out. The assistance offered 
by the Government should be contingent upon the States 
taking legislative and administrative action to provide 
for the protection and renewal of their forests. 

A national policy must recognize the problems of the 
private owner of forests. Greater security of forest 
property from fire, better returns from timberland in the 
long run, and more stable industrial conditions must be 
sought. A program in which the public participates and 
recognizes industrial problems, like taxation, would 
enable private proprietors to handle their forests in a 
way not to be a public injury but to serve in building up 
the localities in which they are situated. 

Public Forests. 

There should be an extensive program of public 
forests, owned by the Nation, by the States, by muni- 
cipalities, and, too, by quasi-public institutions and or- 
ganizations. The public forests today comprise about 
25 per cent of the total forest area of the country. They 
should be extended to include ultimately from 40 to 50 
per cent. 

In any plan of extensive public holdings, whether 
Federal or State, provision should be made for return- 
ing to the communities a share of the receipts, as is done 
in case of the National Forests, or otherwise to com- 
pensate them for withdrawing the lands from taxation. 

The Federal Government should not only provide 
adequate support properly to protect and develop its 
forest properties; it should also rehabilitate, by planting 
if necessary, the depleted and wasted cut-over and 
burned lands. 



DURING THE LAST SIX MONTHS THERE HAS BEEN A GREAT DEAL OF DISCUSSION REGARDING THE NEED OF A NATIONAL 
POLICY OF FORESTRY AND WHAT SUCH A POLICY SHOULD COMPRISE. DURING THAT PERIOD I HAVE HELD MANY CONFER- 
ENCES WITH FORESTERS, LUMBERMEN AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN THE QUESTION IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY, 
AND HAVE PRESENTED CERTAIN PRINCIPLES WHICH I BELIEVE SHOULD UNDERLIE SUCH A POLICY. 

I HAVE RECEIVED MANY INQUIRIES REGARDING VARIOUS POINTS IN THE POLICY AS I HAVE SET IT FORTH. I HAVE 

THEREFORE PREPARED A STATEMENT MORE COMPREHENSIVE THAN HERETOFORE IN ORDER TO CLARIFY THE OBJECTIVES 

AND WHAT STEPS SHOULD BE TAKEN TO ATTAIN THEM. THIS STATEMENT MAY BE OF INTEREST IN CONNECTION WITH THE 

DISCUSSION OF A NATIONAL POLICY OF FORESTRY. 

HENRY S. GRAVES. 



1401 



1402 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



National Forests. 

The Federal holdings should be extended by purchase, 
by exchange of stumpage for land, and by placing under 
permanent administration forest lands now in the un- 
reserved public domain. 

The program of acquisition should seek two classes 
of forest land : 

1. Areas needed for the protection of water re- 
sources, to prevent erosion, for recreation and other gen- 
eral public purposes. These should include both virgin 
forests and cut-over lands. 

2. Cut-over lands, with the purpose of insuring the 
production of lumber and other products and of estab- 
lishing demonstration areas and centers for Federal 
cooperation with States and private owners. 

The present Weeks Law program contemplates the 
purchase of about one million acres in New England 
and five million acres in the Southern Appalachians. 
This program should be completed as fast as is compat- 
ible with public financial conditions, and should be ex- 
tended to include other important areas needed for water- 
shed protection and other general public service. Lands 
acquired for protective purposes as well as those for 
lumber production should be distributed through all 
forest regions of the country. 

The acquisition of cut-over lands by exchange for 
stumpage would serve to consolidate and block out the 
National Forests of the West. This principle has already 
been recognized in several special laws applicable to 
certain Forests. 

There are still forest lands in the public domain which 
should be added to the National Forests. There are 
several million acres of such lands outside of Alaska. 
The great forests of the interior of Alaska should also 
be placed under adequate protection and administration. 

State Forests. 

The States should establish public forests, with the 
same general objectives as the Federal Government, 
and with special reference to the economic and industrial 
needs within their boundaries. Many western and south- 
ern States still own forest lands received from previous 
grants from the Government; these should be placed 
under permanent forest administration, with provision 
for the settlement of areas suited to agriculture. Lands 
reverting to the States for taxes or otherwise should, 
where practicable, be retained arid used to build up 
permanent public forest reservations. 

Other Public Forests. 

Every encouragement should be offered to munici- 
palities to establish public forests or woodland parks. 
These may be necessary to protect the local water sup- 
plies, or to serve as public recreation grounds; and in 
many instances they may yield products that will help 
in a material way to reduce local taxation for schools 
or public works. Permanent institutions and organiza- 
tions of a quasi-public character should also be encour- 
aged to acquire forests and handle them on the basis of 
continued production. 



Private Forests. 
The safeguarding and perpetuation of forests on 
private lands are possible through an organized system 
of protection, through the prohibition of destructive 
processes that produce waste lands, and through the 
promotion of constructive and entirely practical meas- 
ures of forestry. The participation, liberal cooperation, 
and direction of the public in working out the problems 
involved are necessary for success. 

Fire Protection. 
The objectives of fire protection are : 

1. To prevent destruction and injury to standing 
timber by fire. 

2. To safeguard young growth already established 
within the older timber and on cut-over lands. 

3. To promote natural reproduction so far as this 
can be done by fire protective measures. 

Effective fire protection is achieved only through a 
joint undertaking between the public and private agencies 
in which all lands, regardless of ownership, are brought 
under an organized system. Such a system requires : 

1. An effective service for preventing forest fires 
and detecting and suppressing those which may be 
started. Such a service already exists in a number of 
States. 

2. Improvements needed for the prompt detection 
and suppression of fires. These include roads, trails, 
lookout stations, properly located stations for rangers, 
bases for airplanes when these are used, and so on. 

3. Measures to reduce the inflammability of the for- 
ests. These may consist of lopping the tops, as is prac- 
ticed in parts of the East ; or burning the brush in piles 
as conducted in many pine stands on the National For- 
ests ; or burning over at the proper season cleared areas, 
protected by fire lines, as in heavy Douglas fir stands ; or 
in felling dead snags, as is required in many National 
Forest timber sales; and in other measures. In some 
places fire lines may be desirable, as practiced in southern 
California ; or carefully controlled burning at the proper 
season of strips and selected areas, as is practical in 
certain open pine forests. Uncontrolled light burning 
should be prohibited everywhere. 

4. A vigorous campaign of education of the public 
regarding the danger of forest fires and the need of 
cooperation on the part of every user of the woods. 

5. A systematic campaign of law enforcement, m 
which all citizens should be asked to cooperate, to punish 
those who by carelessness or intent start fires or permit 
their spread. 

There should be incorporated in the forest laws of 
every State requirements to bring all forest owners into 
the protective system, and to extend it to all cut-over 
and unimproved lands in the State, together with the 
disposal, by lopping or burning, of dangerous slashings 
and other special measures that the local conditions may 
require. 



A POLICY OF FORESTRY FOR THE NATION 



1403 






There should be provided by the State the administra- 
tive machinery necessary to carry out the work effec- 
tively. 

The public should share in the burden of protection. 
The division of cost will necessarily vary in different 
States, as is now the case among those States which have 
inaugurated such a system. The public may properly 
bear the cost of the State-wide patrol system, including 
overhead, inspection, lookouts, and similar items, and a 
portion of the fire suppression costs. 

In general, the cost of the preventive system should 
be shared about equally between the public and the 
owner of the land. At the present time assistance by 
the States and the efforts of the private owners alike are 
inadequate. Measures like brush disposal are essentially 
a part of the logging operations and should be a charge 
against it. 

The Federal Government should grant liberal aid in 
fire protection, far greater than at present. Its aid 
should be contingent on the State's inaugurating and 
carrying out such a system as above described. This 
financial help should not exceed in amount that appro- 
priated by the State. 

As in fire protection, the spread of dangerous insect 

infestations and diseases requires the aid and direction 

of the public. Both the National and State Governments 

should participate and appropriate liberally to check the 

depredations. 

Forest Renewal. 

The renewal of forests on lands not required for agri- 
culture and settlement is an essential feature of a national 
policy of forestry and an effective program should be 
worked out in each State, backed by appropriate legis- 
lation and efficient administration, which will achieve 
this object on private as well as on public property. As 
in the case of fire protection, forest renewal on private 
lands requires the participation and aid of the public. 

There are two problems of forest renewal ; first, the 
restocking of lands already cut over and now in a condi- 
tion of waste ; and second, that of providing for natural 
reproduction as the timber is cut. Where there is still 
seed or seed-bearing trees on cut-over lands, continued 
fire protection may in many cases suffice for restocking. 
Where there is no chance for natural reproduction, plant- 
ing or sowing will be necessary. The public will have 
to take over a large portion of these lands and restore 
them to productivity. In many other cases owners may 
be' induced to restock their waste lands as a business 
undertaking. 

Provision for forest renewal should be made at the 
time of cutting. Sufficient restocking of the average 
private tract can be accomplished by natural reproduc- 
tion without resort to planting or other intensive meas- 
ures. On certain types of forest, renewal will result 
from fire protection alone. In many instances of 
unrestricted exploitation, however, fire protection alone 
dues not suffice to secure renewal and to prevent the 
lands becoming waste. If protection alone does not suf- 
fice to secure forest reproduction, the owners should be 



required to adopt such measures as may be necessary to 
accomplish this, with cooperative aid by the public in 
working out the problem as a practical undertaking. 
As in the case of fire protection, the additional measures 
necessary for forest renewal should be made a part of a 
systematic program in which the public and private 
owners engage in a joint undertaking with a common 
objective. 

The first steps in this undertaking are to determine 
in each region : 

1. The circumstances under which fire protection 
alone will not suffice to prevent wasting of the land 
under prevailing methods of lumbering. 

2. The additional measures necessary to secure con- 
ditions favorable for natural renewal. 

3. The classes of land upon which forest growth 
should be continued. 

4. The cooperation that should be given by the public 
to make feasible in practice the measures that may be 
necessary for the owners to take. 

5. The legislation needed to bring these measures 
into practice, as a part of the State's program of for- 
estry. 

As in the case of fire protection, the plan for special 
measures and for forest renewal should be worked out 
through State legislation and administration, with the 
assistance and backing of the Government. The Federal 
Government should seek to secure concurrent action by 
the States within given economic regional units, to bring 
about uniform standards of practice, to conduct experi- 
ments and research, to grant material aid in various 
ways, and to act as a coordinating agent to bring to- 
gether the different local agencies into full cooperation. 
The Government should make its assistance to the States 
contingent upon effective action by the latter. 

Measures of forestry upon private lands sought by 
the proposed program fall into two classes : first, those 
necessary to prevent the lands becoming waste after 
lumbering; and second, those which seek a maximum 
production of timber and other products. The first class 
of measures should be required on all lands that ought 
to remain in forest growth. The measures to secure 
maximum production are of a more-intensive character. 
They should be encouraged in every way but would not 
be obligatory. They involve a larger initial invest- 
ment, and they render a larger ultimate return to the 
owner. Under the second class fall such measures as 
planting where needed, leaving a larger number of seed 
trees, cutting in favorable seed years, leaving medium 
sized trees even though now saleable for a second cut or 
for cover, various kinds of thinnings of second growth, 
organization of the forest work on a basis of sustained 
annual yield, and so on. Experiments should be con- 
ducted by the public to establish and make generally 
known the best practice in each region. Advice by pub- 
lic officers should be freely afforded. Planting stock 
should be offered at cost by the public. Taxes should 
be adjusted to encourage owners to undertake the meth- 
ods found to be most efficient, and other measures of 



1404 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



aid given as indicated in the last section of this state- 
ment. 

Every encouragement should be afforded to bring 
about close utilization of timber in the forest and to pre- 
vent losses in the handling and use of the manufactured 
product. This will be accomplished largely through 
cooperation and research, in bringing information to 
the knowledge of operators and users of wood products. 
It is a problem of investigation and industrial education, 
in which the public should take the leadership. 

Public Assistance and Cooperation. 

In a national policy of forestry the public itself should 
assume certain responsibilities and it should assume cer- 
tain burdens. It should cooperate with and assist pri- 
vate owners in carrying out their part of the undertaking. 
The measures of cooperation fall under the following 
heads : 

1. Fire Protection. — As already indicated, the public 
should directly share the burden of fire protection, espe- 
cially in a preventive system and in the cost of suppres- 
sion. 

2. Assistance in Forestry. — The public should assist 
owners in working out plans for cutting that will pro- 
mote natural reproduction, in planting, and in other 
measures of forestry. The State should offer planting 
stock at cost and cooperate with the owners in estab- 
lishing plantations. 

3. Taxation. — The States should adopt a form of 
taxation calculated to encourage good forest practice. 
The present methods of taxation, with their lack of 
uniformity in application, often tend to promote prema- 
ture and wasteful cutting and to discourage forest re- 
newal. To promote action by the State, the Federal 
Government should assist the States to investigate the 
current methods of taxation, their effect in causing pre- 
mature and wasteful cutting and in increasing the diffi- 
culties of holding cut-over lands for tree growth, and 
should assist in drafting model tax laws applicable to 
various forest conditions. 

4. Forest Loans. — Existing legislation concerning 
farm loans should be extended to include loans for the 
purchase and improvement of forest lands, to encourage 
the holding of lands previously acquired, where the pur- 
pose of the owner is to hold and protect cut-over lands 
or those having growing timber, to reforest lands by 
seeding or planting, or to use other measures in pro- 
moting forest production. To obtain the benefit of such 
loans, which should be for a maximum period of 50 
years, the land owner should enter into a specific obliga- 
tion to retain the land in growing timber and protect and 
care for it during the life of the loan. 

5. A Survey of Forest Resources. — Funds should be 
provided whereby the Federal Government in coopera- 
tion with State and private interests may make a survey 
of the forest resources of the country. This would 



determine the quantities of timber suitable for different 
industrial uses, the current consumption of forest prod- 
ucts, the probable requirements of the different regions 
for material, the possible production of the forests by 
growth to meet these requirements, and other matters 
which will aid in developing the national forest policy. 

6. Land Classification. — The public should cooperate 
in land classification to aid owners to put their lands to 
the most productive use. The public should aid in bring- 
ing settlers upon lands suited to agriculture, discourag- 
ing speculative undertakings that lead to the deception 
of innocent investors and efforts for the colonization of 
lands unsuited to the purpose. Land classification would 
indicate the classes of lands which should be devoted to 
the production of timber, either permanently or pending 
a development which would make possible their suc- 
cessful settlement. 

7. Research Work. — Adequate funds should be pro- 
vided to enable the Government and other public agen- 
cies to carry on investigative work needed in carrying 
out a national policy of forestry. This would include 
investigations on a larger scale than at present in deter- 
mining the best methods of forest practice, and also 
research in forest products. 

The National Program. 

A program for the nation must be an aggregate of 
local programs adapted to different conditions, and cor- 
related and standardized through the Federal Govern- 
ment to meet the broader requirements of the whole 
country. A national program cannot be put into effect 
in its entirety at once. Local programs will also probably 
have to be worked out by steps. Some States are al- 
ready able to go forward more rapidly than others, 
partly because of their financial strength and partly be- 
cause experience has already demonstrated the methods 
of protection and forestry required to secure results on 
the ground. 

The initiation of a national policy of forestry requires 
as one of the first steps the passage of a Federal law 
that recognizes its objectives and provides authority and 
means for the Government to extend cooperation with 
the States in the protection and perpetuation of the for- 
ests under their jurisdiction along the foregoing lines. 
At the same time, Federal appropriations for the pur- 
chase of forest lands should be greatly increased. 

Much can be accomplished pending such a law. Thus, 
there should be at once a joining of hands in a most 
vigorous campaign for fire protection, that will educate 
the public to the dangers from fire and lead to more 
effective action in all forest regions. Individual States 
should go forward with plans for better legislation and 
larger support of forestry. But the passage of a basic 
Federal law with the aid that the Nation can offer 
would make possible the inauguration of a policy that 
would secure results impossible without such national 
action. 



A POLICY OF FORESTRY FOR THE NATION 



1405 



A PROGRAM FOR PRIVATE FORESTRY 

BY H. H. CHAPMAN 
PROFESSOR OF FORESTRY, YALE FORESTRY SCHOOL 



'TMIE agitation for securing forestry practice on private 
-*■ lands is due ; first, to the rapid destruction of the 
forests on lands privately owned, a nation-wide condition ; 
second, to the growing need for forest products ; third, 
to the inadequacy of the method of public ownership of 
forest lands to solve the problem on a quantitative basis, 
because of the small percentage of forest lands publicly 
owned. 

I believe absolutely that public ownership and manage- 
ment is the best method of growing timber, and this is 
generally admitted by foresters and economists. But 
owing solely to the expense and slowness of the process 
of acquiring title to lands now owned privately, foresters 
are seeking means to check the destruction of forest 
values on private lands and preserve their productiveness. 

Private owners have a keen appreciation of forest 
values of all kinds, including stumpage value of merchant- 
able timber, protective value of forested slopes, aesthetic 
value of parks, and even commercial value of half grown 
timber. But their general desire is to realize or cash 
in on these values by sale of property or timber, or by 
turning the forest products into cash. In the process, the 
forest as a productive "plant" or property is wrecked or 
gutted as effectually as the Huns stripped the factories 
at Lille — and it takes just about as much patient invest- 
ment and far more time to restore such forest property 
to productiveness. 

Lumbermen, especially sawmill men, representing as 
they do the business of converting forests into cash, con- 
duct their business logically on this basis and as a class 
are not interested in what becomes of the land as forest 
land after cutting. Most of them will admit this and 
justify it. Many are interested in forestry, provided they 
themselves do not have to practice it. Most of them 
resent, and desire to avoid, criticism for this policy, but 
since it is the logical economic plan for them to pursue as 
far as they have been able to figure it out, they go ahead 
on those lines, cutting out their stumpage, and abandoning 
the worn out mill and plant on completion of the cut. 

For this policy the lumberman need not be considered 
either crazy, stupid, or criminal. He is a good average, 
short-sighted American, differing in no way from other 
operators who desire to skim the cream of a project, and 
with far more logic behind him. It pays the farmer who 
owns his soil to maintain its fertility, but the renter often 
resorts to skimming. It pays any business to adopt meth- 
ods for securing permanence, with reduced depreciation 
and labor costs and greater efficiency — but the lumberman 
has not been able to compute the profit in maintaining 
and renewing his raw material by the slow growth of the 
forest species, which does not keep pace with his mill 
rapacity, based as it is on large output and low manu- 
facturing costs. 



Self interest and public interest do not always coin- 
cide, but they are seldom diametrically opposed. The 
public benefit requires the curbing of selfish activities, 
and this usually results in the curtailment of immediate 
financial profit whose acquisition would result directly in 
public loss perhaps of a permanent character. By this 
curbing of greed, a business may even be made unprofit- 
able. This usually indicates that the public benefits of 
this business do not offset the injuries and damage re- 
sulting from its conduct. 

If a business is necessary to public welfare, which is 
the only excuse for its existence, public regulation will 
soon cause an adjustment which makes it possible to 
continue as before, and usually at an equal profit. 

The short-sighted policy of utter destruction of pri- 
vate forest property, like the placer gold mining of the 
west, may have to be terminated in the public interest, for 
several reasons. We will continue to need forest prod- 
ucts, grown on these lands, after the present supply is 
exhausted, if we are to continue to enjoy our present 
standard of living and not retrograde like the Chinese. 
Waste land incapable of agricultural use is an economic 
plague spot in a community, which can be cured by re- 
storing forest values. Productive land, whether forest or 
agricultural means taxes, roads, schools, population, 
markets, prosperity and character. The reverse means 
poverty, lack of transportation, ignorance, degeneracy, in- 
sanity, and pauperism. If the reader does not believe 
this it is because he has never investigated conditions 
where such causes have operated for two generations. 
Those who destroy forest values create prosperity during 
their operations, but insure a permanent condition of 
destitution to follow. 

We are passing through a transition stage in this coun- 
try, when the process of skimming our national resources, 
soil, forests, and minerals, is giving way to permanent 
ownership and management. What is the lumberman 
going to do with his skinned forest land in the future ? 
The process of selling it off to prospective settlers as agri- 
cultural land will be more and more curtailed by the 
interference of the same public interests, which, slow to 
awaken, now bid fair to adopt the principle that land 
must be suitable for agriculture before being disposed of 
to such investors. This is another example of interfer- 
ence with immediate profits, because of public good ! 
Are such land owners going to oppose the educational 
efforts of the government, and the attempts of states to 
secure land classification for fear it might prevent them 
from unloading worthless lands on prospective farmers? 
The corollary of the operation of skinning the forest is to 
skin the settler. Yet there is evidence that many such 
land owners balk at this process, and sincerely desire to 
find some true values and real uses for their cut-over 



1406 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



lands — any use except forestry, for of this they are firmly 
persuaded that it is impractical, impossible, and un- 
profitable. 

My own belief is that it is going to become increasingly 
impractical, impossible and unprofitable for owners of 
forest land which is non-agricultural in character to do 
anything else with it except to grow timber upon it, and 
that the process of passing the buck by exchange of 
ownership does not relieve the purchaser of the problem, 
nor will it suffice very much longer for such land owners 
to seek to nullify the efforts of foresters to emphasize 
these conditions, by applying the damning epithet of 
"theorist." Those lumbermen who did service in France 
know that forestry is not a theory. They also know that 
our economic conditions are rapidly approaching those 
of France. Foresight on our part is needed as much as 
it was for the French. They applied it— will we? 

Close study of many areas of timber land in the south 
and elsewhere has convinced me that the skinning process 
applied to these operations actually loses money to the 
operator compared with that of reserving a small per 
cent of the less matured trees, and that reproduction even 
of Longleaf pine is easily obtainable by the use of simple 
and easily applied measures of protection. But the aver- 
age timber land owner does not wish to believe this and 
looks only at the difficulties. He is not in the forestry 
game and refuses to enter it or even consider it. 

If the cure for this deadlock lies in legislation we must 
secure the following conditions : 

First, the risks of timber production as a business must 
be reduced. This means better fire protection, better 
laws for exclusion of tree diseases and insect pests, and 
better enforcement. 

Second, proper tax legislation. This means a workable 
tax law removing the annual tax from timber, and im- 
posing instead a products tax. We have no workable 
laws at present. 

Third, actual land classification into agricultural and 
forest lands. If anyone thinks this is easy he is no 
farmer. 

Fourth, capable, trained, non-political state depart- 
ments of forestry with both the knowledge of forest 



technique and silviculture which will enable them to ad- 
vocate intelligent measures of forest regulation, and the 
power to enforce such measures. 

Finally, we may be in position to secure by regulation 
the measures needed to preserve the forest land from the 
destructive processes which now characterize private 
operations. 

If we begin at the other end of this chain of develop- 
ment, what do we get? Restrictive measures, of course, 
designed to force private owners to practice forestry. 
These measures will be formulated by politicians, or leg- 
islators, ignorant of the technique of forest production, 
and will be almost certainly impractical and calculated to 
defeat their own ends, like much of the "diameter limit" 
legislation which seems to be the first thought of such 
statesmen. Having passed such laws, we will have poli- 
ticians to enforce ( ?) them — and they will be evaded 
or repealed. We will find it impossible to enforce them 
on land claimed to be agricultural and there will be no 
authoritative classification of such lands, hence no possi- 
bility of actual enforcement. Meanwhile the same legis- 
latures which seek to regulate the owner of land will con- 
tinue to sanction increasing burdens of taxation on stand- 
ing timber, and may fail to provide an adequate system 
of fire protection to insure the survival of the plantations 
or young timber which they seek to force the owner to 
raise. 

The development of forestry by states has been by no 
means negligible. Progress has been made in securing 
good and workable fire laws. Experiments have been 
attempted in reform of state tax legislation as affecting 
forests, and a determined effort has been made to keep 
forestry out of the miasma of party politics. But this 
latter struggle resembles the labors of Sisyphus, who, as 
soon as he succeeded in rolling the stone to the top of 
the mountain, witnessed its smashing descent into the 
depths. The biggest problem we have in this entire 
forestry movement is how to secure and keep trained 
men in charge of state forestry organizations, for with- 
out such men, we will' never get even halfway up the 
slope of achievement in the program of securing actual 
forest production on private forest lands. 



LET ALL SIDES BE HEARD 

BY R. D. FORBES 

SUPERINTENDENT OF FORESTRY, LOUISIANA DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 



T~\0 we need a national forest policy, and if so just 
*-* what form should this policy take? The lumbermen 
and the foresters of the country seem to be getting to- 
gether rapidly to solve this problem. Their getting 
together, however, reminds one of a couple of cats, with 
their tails tied together, hung over a clothes line. If 
you don't believe that, read some of the recent discus- 
sions in the lumber journals, notably the Lumber World 
Review of Chicago. A great many articles on national 



forest policy from far abler pens than the present writer's 
will have appeared in the columns of American Fores- 
try, and instead of addressing himself to an attempt to 
shed new light on the subject, he would like to make a 
suggestion- as to one means of remedying the lack of co- 
operation between the lumberman and the forester in 
solving this problem. 

No one can read the various articles pro and con 
which have appeared in the press of the day without 



A POLICY OF FORESTRY FOR THE NATION 



1407 



feeling that the cause of disagreement between the for- 
esters and the lumbermen is a lack of understanding of 
each other's point of view. There has been a lot of good 
time wasted on both sides demolishing arguments that 
were never raised, or statements that were never made, 
by the opposition. And as usual under such circum- 
stances, the less a man knew, the more positive he has 
been in his statements. Lumbering and forestry have 
been too far apart in the past. It is not at all necessary 
that every forester be a lumberman or every lumberman, 
a forester, but it certainly is essential that the forester 
be acquainted with the basic economic facts upon which 
the lumber industry rests, and that the lumberman under- 
stand the principles of forestry, before either can discuss 
a national timber land policy in an adequate and con- 
structive way. 

To emphasize these truths, there follows a quotation 
from Professor R. C. Bryant, of the Yale Forest School, 
who is in the very front of the small group of foresters 
who have a thorough understanding of the lumber busi- 
ness. He says: "It is one of the weak points in the 
profession (the forestry profession) that as yet we have 
not developed forester-economics who can speak authori- 
tatively on the many vital problems affecting forests and 
forestry. . . . Why are not foresters called into consul- 
tation by courts and Government agencies on questions 
involving tariff legislation, export policy, lumber trans- 
portation, and like issues? It is, I think, largely be- 
cause we have been content in the past to devote our 
attention to the problems which seem more closely related 
to forestry and have neglected the broader economic 
phases of the subject, which did not seem at the moment 
of so great interest or of such vital importance." On the 
other hand, to prove the contention that the lumbermen 
are very inadequately acquainted with the foresters' aims 
and work, let me ask our lumbermen friends how many 
of them have ever discussed forestry with professional 
foresters, or read articles on forestry subjects in the 
Journal of Forestry, which is the official organ of the 
Society of American Foresters, and reflects current opin- 
ion in the profession. American Forestry has for years, 
of course, endeavored to place forestry before the pub- 
lic, but its efforts have necessarily been confined to brief 
and popular presentations ; exhaustive and more or less 
technical discussions were not suited to its purpose. 
Certainly the meaning of forestry has been sadly twisted 
by some of the lumbermen when they have discussed it 
in the past, and this is reasonably attributable to the lum- 
bermen's failure to inform themselves, through reading 
and study, on forestry subjects. 

To remedy this situation why not let us all go back to 
school temporarily and take an examination on the sub- 
ject of forestry and the lumber industry? Let the offi- 
cials of the National Manufacturers' Association appoint 
a committee, preferably a one-man committee, to draft 
half a dozen questions regarding the broad economic con- 
ditions underlying the lumber industry. Let these ques- 
tions be such that an intelligible answer to all six can be 



made in 3,000 words. Let the Society of American For- 
esters appoint a similar committee to draft six questions 
on the fundamentals of forestry, which can likewise be 
adequately answered in 3,000 words. Then let a long- 
suffering jury of about five men, or any number deemed 
advisable, be chosen by joint action of the Lumber Manu- 
facturers' Association and the Society of American For- 
esters to grade the replies received to both sets of ques- 
tions. Every contestant would be known to the judges 
only by a key number, and be required to reply to every 
one of the twelve questions. Allow the contestants access 
to all of the literature on forestry or the lumber industry 
that they may care to delve into (for the good of their 
souls or for the purpose of answering the questions) and 
require all the papers to be in at the end of a three-months' 
period. Finally let the associations named or any other 
good and interested citizens put up a substantial sum in 
the form of cash prizes, say $500, to be divided among 
the three best writers. Other details could be worked out 
very simply, but for the benefit of all concerned the 
writer suggests that in judging the papers plainness of 
language and avoidance of technicalities be considered a 
virtue second only to knowledge of the facts. 

I at once hear the sneer of the self-made man, who 
says : "Some smart aleck from a college can write a bet- 
ter paper than a lumberman who has been knocking out 
his 100,000 feet a day for the last 25 years. An exami- 
nation on paper is no fair test of a man's abilities. Put 
the same college youth, at the head of a sawmill and log- 
ging job and see how long he would last." In reply, let 
me say first that it would hardly be practicable to test our 
contestants out except in some such way as I have sug- 
gested. Secondly, let me call the objector's attention to 
the fact that the United States Forest Service, headed 
by a technical forester and directed in all of its branches 
by either technical foresters or men who have grown up 
with the forestry profession, today administers 150,000,- 
000 acres of land, has charge of about 18 per cent of the 
stumpage in the United States, and employs some 2,500 
men every year. It expends around $4,000,000, and takes 
in about $3,500,000 annually, and will soon be self-sup- 
porting. It is a bigger concern than any lumber company 
in the world, and in spite of entire lack of precedents it 
has, within fifteen years, built up a very efficient organi- 
zation. Any man who has been Supervisor of a million 
acres of national forest land in the west and has handled 
successfully the tremendous multitude of details con- 
nected with the administration of that million acres is no 
mere dreamer, but an exceedingly practical business man. 
The forestry profession is composed 99 per cent of men 
who have been in the business not over 20 years, and 
considering their youth and the difficulties which they 
have encountered, no fair-minded man can deny that they 
have done much hard and exceedingly practical work. 
Let us make a test of the foresters' knowledge, as com- 
pared to the lumberman's knowledge, of the whole field 
of forestry and lumbering. 



1408 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



WHAT THEY SAY AS TO A FOREST POLICY: 



r PREE culture and tree conservation 
should be taught and practiced. — Chi- 
cago Tribune. 

The American Forestry Association is 
doing good service in linking the causes 
of roads and forestation. — New York 
Times. 

It is a subject calling for a national 
forest policy. — St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 

The statistics are certainly alarming.— 
New York Tribune. 

We must plant trees as we plant corn. — 
Hamilton, Ohio, Republican-News. 

We still refuse to learn from the coun- 
tries of the Old World. — Florida 
Times-Union. 

An appalling indictment of Ameri- 
can carelessness. — Cleveland Press. 

This is a matter of first import- 
ance. — Rochester Democrat and 
Chronicle. 

In times of peace the loss of fifty 
millions in property at a single time 
would stir the world. — Cincinnati 
Times-Star. 

From every side is heard words 
of praise for the American Forestry 
Association. — Chicago Evening Post. 

The increase of trees and shaded 
highways will add millions to the 
scenic value of the country. — Minne- 
apolis Journal. 

Nor have we been able to think of 
a more lovely memorial than a col- 
lonade of trees. — Cincinnati Enquirer. 

We should seek to have the two 
improvements go hand in hand — re- 
forestation and road construction. — 
New Orleans Times-Picayune. 

The American Forestry Associa- 
tion earnestly aims to promote the. 
beautification of public highways. 
— Salt Lake Tribune. 

The American Forestry Associa- 
tion's efforts should be pushed and 
in the South especially it should be 
given the encouragement which it merits. — 
Charleston, S. C, News and Courier. 

It is to be hoped the American people 
will take kindly to the plan of the American 
Forestry Association, not only as a matter 
of sentiment, but as a matter of comm<sh 
sense. — Lincoln, Neb., Star. 



following a trip to the battlefields, writes : 
"It is the silence I can't get over. Heaven 
knows Chateau Thierry and the villages of 
the Marne were not silent places in '17 and 
'18. There were men and noise there 
then. All round about you on this lonely 
road are the dancing poppies and above 
you is the Chemin des Dames with its 
silent and suffering trees. The trees, in- 
deed, seem to feel the woe of war more 
than any other thing in nature. Gas almost 
seems to break their hearts, so sad and 
broken is their appearance. These pale, 
withered birch stumps and the joyous, 



IMPROVING THE SCENERY 




Development of a practical highway sys- 
tem and regrowing of our vanished forests 
are two cardinal points of the Chicago Tri- 
bune's "Middle West Program" as outlined 
in a stirring editorial on the need now of 
waking up and going to it in a business 
way. Contrasted with the picture the 
Tribune paints is the view of a writer in 
the London (England) Morning Post, who, 



(San Francisco Chronicle.) 



careless poppies are strangely contrasted 
legacies of war." 

With this picture in mind turn again to 
the Tribune which says : "The forests of 
Wisconsin and Michigan were once the 
source of great wealth and throughout the 
Mississippi Valley can be profitably restor- 
ed and new areas of growth established. 
The drainage and climate of the middle 
west call for trees. We know what de- 
forestation has done for such countries as 
China. The states should include this sub- 
ject in their public policy and carry on 
well considered programs suitable to their 
own conditions. Planting along roads 
should be encouraged, on hill tops and 
slopes, and on land less available for crops. 
Public forest preserves should be increased. 



Tree culture and tree conservation should 
be taught and practiced." 

For the economic side of forestry we 
find the editors most keen. From the 
Scientific American we find the Boston Post 
quotes this expression of opinion : "And 
finally to meet the domestic and foreign 
demand at the same time, we are clearing 
out our forest resources at a rate which 
brings the end of our wood-using industries 
plainly in sight — not in the next generation, 
but in this one— not in the next 50 years, but 
well inside the next 20 — and all because 
we have no government forest policy big 
enough or broad enough to handle 
the situation." Commenting upon this 
the Post says : "Surely there ought 
to be wisdom and energy enough in 
the land, and especially in its Con- 
gress, to act upon these valuable 
suggestions. Treeless China should 
serve as a plentiful warning." The 
Globe-Democrat of St. Louis calls 
for a national forest policy, basing 
its editorial on figures sent out by 
the American Forestry Association. 
"Conservation of our forests still 
left, and the methodical planting of 
trees," says the Globe-Democrat, "are 
clearly demanded. It is a subject 
calling for a national forest policy 
and the steady attention of Congress. 
Timber is as essential as wheat for 
the general welfare of the country, 
perhaps more so as a fundamental 
economic matter." In the Hamilton. 
Ohio, Repvblican-Newt we find that 
"we must plant trees as we plant 
corn." The editor points out that 
"there are limitless tracts that will 
grow timber but will not grow food 
crops, and the scientific preservation 
of these forests by replacing all cut 
trees is a form of conservation to 
which our horse sense ought to 
direct us to turn without further de- 
lay." The importance of forestry to the 
high cost of living is taken up by the 
New York Tribune which calls attention 
to the statement by Charles Lathrop Pack 
on the need of a national forest policy and 
uses figures in the call, "What Shall We Do 
About It?" on the front page of the 
American Forestry Magazine. "The sta- 
tastics are certainly alarming," says the 
Tribune. "Of 850,000,000 acres in our origi- 
nal forest area but one-fourth now re- 
mains. Nor is an adequate supply being 
grown. So it is up to the people as in- 
dividuals. Apparently despairing of getting 
a national forest policy, Mr. Pack makes 
an appeal to his fellow-citizens." Accord- 
ing to the Florida Times-Union, "we still 
refuse to learn from the countries of the 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



1409 



FOREST FIRES AND "ROADS OF REMEMBRANCE 



9? 



Old World the advisability of forest con- 
servation." The value of a forest policy 
to France is pointed out in the Evanston, 
III., News-Index, which says : "If there 
had been the same ruthless destruction of 
trees there as there has been here, there 
would have been little wooded territory 
left for the emergency in which the future 
of the nation lay in the balance." The 
Ohio State Journal calls attention to the 
year by year stand of the Association for 
tree planting and adds : "War brought an 
unusual demand for lumber and great areas 
were stripped to supply pressing needs. 
If we will not aid in growing trees we 
should not complain if growing scarci- 
ty makes us pay high prices for lum- 
ber." Forest fires come in for a great 
deal of attention on the part of the edi- 
tors. "In times of peace, the loss of fifty 
millions in property at a single time 
would stir the world," says the Cin- 
cinnati Times-Star, "but we have be- 
come so accustomed to colossal figures, 
that today, we take but passing notice 
of them. Future generations, how- 
ever, will take notice when lumber be- 
comes an article more scarce and more 
expensive even than it is today." In 
the Democrat and Chronicle of Roches- 
ter, the editor further extends the in- 
vitation of the American Forestry 
Association for expressions of opin- 
ion on a national forest policy and in 
pointing to forest fire losses, adds : 
"This is a matter of the first import- 
ance. There is enough information 
now in the hands of the government 
and other forestry agencies to cut 
down fire losses materially." The 
Cleveland Press calls the situation "an 
appalling indictment of American care- 
lessness. With the passing of our for 
ests we will lose a great national in- 
dustry that yearly employs 830,000 peo- 
ple and supplies $1,500,000,000 worth 
of products." The Toronto Globe sug- 
gests that returning soldiers be put to work 
in fire patrols. The Daily Northwestern of 
Oshkosh, Wisconsin, calls attention to graz- 
ing sheep and their ability to diminish the 
fire hazard. The Houston Post points to 
fire losses and says : "It was a stern re- 
minder that provision must be made for 
better fire protection. The nation will 
repent its folly in days to come, in ex- 
orbitant lumber prices." The Bulletin of 
Maysville, Kentucky, says: "We are de- 
stroying our forests much faster than we 
are planting new ones and renewing old 
ones. In the case of preventing forest 
fires, the old adage that an ounce of pre- 
vention is worth a pound of cure is par- 
ticularly applicable, for the cure is a mat- 



ter of decades." In the opinion of the 
editor of the Akron, Ohio, Press, "forest 
fires can be cut in two if human careless- 
ness is eliminated." The Post of Cincinnati, 
says that in the passing of our forests the 
"lumber supply will be in the hands of 
the timber interests of Canada," and "it 
does not require many fires, such as now are 
raging in the northwest, to counteract all 
efforts at conservation." 

As to roadside planting the Chicago Eve- 
ning Post says : "From every side is heard 
praise for the American Forestry Asso- 



REAL SERVICE 



Flushing Daily Times. 

The announcement by A. E. Davenport, 
chief of the construction department of the 
Texas Oil Company, that the fine old elm 
tree on the Whitestone avenue side of the 
property of the company has just acquired 
would not be destroyed, will be appreciated 
by every resident of Flushing. 

That the tree would have come down under 
ordinary circumstances cannot be doubted. 
The Daily Times, in calling attention to the 
matter the day the announcement was made 
that this company had purchased the property 
and was planning the construction of a big 
service station, at once crystallized sentiment 
in favor of saving it. 

The value of the elm as a specimen of its 
kind is demonstrated. by the active interest in 
its behalf by the American Forestry Associa- 
tion. Although located in Washington and 
busily concerned with the larger questions of 
conserving the forests of the country, Mr. 
Ridsdale did not hesitate to come to the aid 
of this single tree. 

The value of the service frequently rendered 
by newspapers to the 'community in which they 
are located and of the worth of an organiza- 
tion like the American Forestry Association 
are so clearly demonstrated in this instance 
that further comment would be superfluous. 



ciation for the good service it is doing in 
linking the cause of roads and forestation. 
The trees are intended to be memorials 
for our soldiers who died in France and 
to their comrades who have come home 
bearing victory. Roads thus shaded and 
beautiful are called "Roads of Remem- 
brance." In the Tribune of Salt Lake City 
we find that "this day, fraught as it is with 
great significance to the people of Utah, 
seem to be a propitious time to direct 
attention to the work of the American 
Forestry Association in its efforts to foster 
the 'Roads of Remembrance' idea. Roads 
and the observance of this pioneer anni- 
versary go well together. In 1847 roads 
were the crying need of those who traversed 
the great plains and endured untold hard- 



ships to bring civilization to these valleys." 
Speaking of the Motor Transport Corps 
cross-country demonstration, the Tribune 
continues : "The American Forestry Asso- 
ciation is actively interested in the dem- 
onstration, its immediate aim being to 
promote the beautification of public high 
ways by inducing states, counties, and rural 
communities to line their thoroughfares 
with trees." The Journal of Minneapolis 
points to the scenic value of tree planting 
and says : "The American Forestry Asso- 
ciation has taken up the idea of tree 
planting along public highways. Aside 
from the sentiment expressed and the 
loyalty that will naturally be stimu- 
lated by this action, the increase of 
trees and shaded highways will add 
millions to the scenic value of the 
country and much more in the ma- 
terial value of the trees themselves. It 
would, indeed, be a blessing to this 
land if these 'Roads of Remembrance' 
should cause us to plant in America a 
tree for every tree destroyed in the 
war." 

"It is to be hoped." says the Lincoln 
Star, "that the American people wi' 
take kindly to this plan of the Ameri- 
can Forestry Association, not only as 
a matter of sentiment but also as a 
matter of common sense." The editor 
of the Cincinnati Enquirer views road 
side tree planting in this way : "Nor 
have we ever been able to think of a 
more lovely memorial of human life 
nor a more highly appreciated bene- 
faction than such a collonade of trees." 
In The State of Columbia, South Caro- 
lina, we find the editor goes into dis- 
cussion with the New York Times as 
to the value of various trees for 
memorial highways. The State con- 
cludes a well-shaded road would tend 
to allay the speed mania for "no one 
wishes to dart too swiftly through an 
avenue of beauty." The Times Recorder 
of Americus, Georgia, points to the hearty 
approval that has been given the Asso- 
ciation's plan. 

The Times-Picayune of New Orleans 
points to the campaign of the American 
Forestry Association to restore our forests 
and adds : "We realize, even more than 
the French, the necessity of forests, and 
it is but natural that we should seek to 
have the two improvements go hand in hand 
■ — reforestation and road construction — and 
that the idea of planting trees along side 
the roads should be strongly advocated." 
The Rcfublican-News of Hamilton, Ohio, 
asks "what better suggestion than that of 
so-called 'Roads of Remembrance' for 
memorials?" 



rr 



BUILT-UP WOOD 



•>-> 



BY O. M. BUTLER 



ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY 



RESEARCH in forest products, stimulated by war 
requirements, forecasts a far-reaching movement in 
the peace-time utilization of wood in new forms. 
One field of possibilities in particular stands out. In it 
lumbermen and foresters should be especially interested, 
because rapid advancement within the next ten or twenty 
years may be expected, and developments in this field 
may have a marked influence on the industry and the 
profession. This domain is the utilization of wood in 
built-up forms. 

The trend of utilization is already strong in this direc- 
tion. Built-up wood is by no means new. Before the 
dawn of history, the Horse of Troy, we have been led 
to believe, was a built-up wooden "steed of tremendous 
height," and on through the ages wood has been used in 
forms that were "built-up" in one sense or another. The 



in the same way. During the war, built-up structural 
beams were approved by both the National and Chicago 
Boards of Fire Underwriters to meet the shortage of the 
large sizes of structural timbers, while lattice trusses of 
light-weight timber with the principal supporting mem- 
bers made of built-up stock were developed for govern- 
ment use to span walls as far as ioo feet apart. Recogniz- 
ing that it would be a mistake for lumbermen and archi- 
tects generally to adopt this form of construction without 
first having conclusive data as to the efficiency of Specific 
types or standards of built-up designs, the Forest Prod- 
ucts Laboratory now has under way, in co-operation with 
the National Lumber Manufacturers' Association, a series 
of mechanical tests on full-sized, built-up beams. 

A number of factors may be mentioned as influencing 
this trend toward the larger use of built-up wood. New 




EXPERIMENTS ARK BEING CONDUCTED UPON A WIDE VARIETY OF WOODKX ARTICLES AT THE FOREST PRODUCTS LABOR- 
ATORY TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH THEY MAY BE MADE FROM LAMINATED STOCK. THE AIRCRAFT PROPELLED 
IS TYPICAL OF THE SUCCESSFUL COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF LAMINATED CONSTRUCTION. THE OTHER ARTICLES ARK AS 
YET PURELY EXPERIMENTAL IN CHARACTER ALTHOUGH THE TESTS ALREADY CONDUCTED INDICATE THE POSSIBILITY OF 
SECURING VERY SATISFACTORY SERVICE FROM LAMINATED ARTICLES. 



term, as here used, however, refers to the fabrication 
from smaller material of special forms or types of lumber 
to replace or to serve as substitutes for full-sawn or 
solid material. Two general methods of building up 
wood in this manner are now in use ; one employs glue, 
and the other, nails, bolts, wooden pins, and other forms 
of fastenings, to hold the different parts or laminations 
together. 

Glued laminations are quite widfely used for the manu- 
facture of a great variety of material for inside pur- 
poses, such as furniture, toys, mill work, etc.; but it has 
not found extensive application commercially for exterior 
or semi-exterior requirements, because the ready failure 
of the glue used when joints became exposed to rain or 
extreme changes of moisture conditions. 

Laminated beams, girders, and stringers are now built 
up of thin pieces of lumber bolted together and used for 
structural purposes in the same manner as solid timbers 
of the same cross section. Tension members in truss 
design and, in fact, entire trusses have also been built up 

1410 



and more accurate knowledge of the mechanical and 
physical properties of wood and of the materials and 
methods essential in perfecting built-up construction is 
stimulating interest in its commercial possibilities. The 
knowledge gained through intensive research during the 
war relative to making glues of great strength and mois- 
ture-resistance and relative to methods of conditioning 
and protecting wooden laminations or parts has turned 
attention to the possibilities of the exterior use of built- 
up wood. 

A second factor is the regional depletion of forests 
and the necessity that manufacturing plants in those re- 
gions resort to closer utilization of the remaining timber. 
Experience has shown that in such localities utilization 
becomes increasingly intensive, while the price of lumber 
likewise increases, thus permitting forms of utilization 
involving increased cost to manufacturers. Closely allied 
to this factor is the decreasing supply of large-sized tim- 
ber from which solid beams or timbers in structural sizes 
can readily be obtained. War demands emphasized only 



"BUILT-UP WOOD" 



1411 



too clearly the increasing scarcity of high-grade structural 
timber and the necessity of providing built-up substitutes 
that will be practically as serviceable as the solid material. 

A third factor — now more potential than immediate in 
its influence but which in the long run will undoubtedly 
exercise great pressure — is the growing economic neces- 
sity of making the national wood supply go further by 
utilizing material now wasted and by adopting more eco- 
nomical forms of construction and use. 

The airplane exemplifies more than any other one 
thing the possibilities of built-up wood. It represents 
accomplishment under the propulsion of necessity and 
intensive application. During the early days of the war 
and, in fact, even after America's entrance, it has been-. 




BUT LITTLE IS KNOWN AT PRESENT CONCERNING THE EFFI- 
CIENCY OF BUILT-UP AXLES AND BOLSTERS SUCH AS THOSE 
SHOWN IN THE ILLUSTRATION. THEY WOULD UNDOUBTEDLY 
BE STRONG ENOUGH TO DO THE WORK EXPECTED OF THEM, 
BUT NO DATA IS AS YET AVAILABLE TO SHOW HOW MUCH 
RESISTANCE THEY WOULD HAVE AGAINST EXPOSURE TO THE 
WEATHER AM) THE SHOCKS INCIDENT TO USE. 

said thai ISo per cent of the French propellers had to be 
rejected before use because strains and stresses in the 
wood brought about by changing moisture conditions had 
rendered them practically useless. The propeller proba- 
bly represents the most refined requirements of glued-up 
wood from the standpoint of manufacturing practice. It 
is essential that the propeller be so perfectly manufac- 
tured and finished that changing weather conditions will 
not pull it apart, weaken it, or even throw it out of bal- 
ance or trackage to an infinitesimal degree. By the close 
of the war, these difficulties had been largely overcome 
through intensive studies of glues, protective wood fin- 
ishes, and the effect of moisture upon wood. 

The wing beam of an airplane illustrates another major 
problem in the use of glued-up wood because it must meet 
very precise strength requirements. Despite this fact, it 
was found by experiments that laminations of spruce, 
glued-up with strong waterproof glue, made a beam which 
was equal in strength requirements to a solid beam of the 
same dimension. The United States, England and France 
had actually approved such beams in their specifications. 
While laminated beams of many different designs were 
used to a limited extent by Germany and the Allies during 



the early years of the war, the advantages of such beams 
became so apparent towards the end of the war that sev- 
eral of the Allies specified them to the exclusion of solid" 
beams. While there are at present no glues available that 
are equal to wood in tensile strength, it is possible to join 
wood so that it will resist tension satisfactorily by making 
long scarf joints, the area of which is much greater than 
the cross-sectional area of the pieces to be glued. Like- 
wise, scarf joints are used satisfactorily in beams, where 
both tension and compression stresses must be resisted. 
There is, of course, more wastage of material in the scarf. 
It will be apparent that the solution of the problems 
involved in aircraft manufacture has general application 
in many other directions and the successful development 
of glued-up wood for exterior use under exacting air- 
craft requirements forecasts with seeming certainty its 
ultimate application to the diversified wood-using indus- 
tries. There is, however, one very vital problem not 
encountered in airplane manufacture, and that is success- 
ful protection against bacteria, to which glued joints are 
now particularly subject, especially when exposed to 
conditions of dampness. Recent experiments, however, 




IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LAMINATED BOWLING PINS THE 
MATERIAL OF THE PROPER SIZE AND KIND IS FIRST SUR- 
FACED ON TWO SIDES AND THEN GLUED UP INTO A BLOCK AND 
SET ASIDE FOR A WEEK OR LONGER TO ENABLE THEM TO 
REACH A STATE OF EQUILIBRIUM. 

have yielded results which indicate quite conclusively that 
it is possible to make a glue which will be both waterproof 
and bacteria-proof without decreasing its strength prop- 
erties. 

The successful use of large built-up columns, trusses, 
and structural timbers of similar character is more un- 
certain, on account of the difficulty of designing satisfac- 
tory joints and fastenings to meet the tremendous strains 
to which they must be subjected. Another problem at- 
tending their use is the shrinking of the wood after they 
are put in place and the consequent loosening of bolts and 
joints. Further refinements in drying practice, however, 



1412 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



should go far toward solving this difficulty. In the ex- 
periments now under way to determine the possibilities 
of various built-up forms for heavy structural use and 
the efficiency of different types of joints and fastenings, 
glued laminations are not 
yet being used, although it 
is not improbable that when 
the effect of aging on the 
strength of glue becomes 
definitely established, glued 
joints may find structural 
application. 

For smaller wooden arti- 
cles, built-up wood has im- 
mediate application not 
only in replacing solid ma- 
terial but in extending the 
utilization of small sizes 
and low grades. Some of 
these possibilities are for 
wagon tongues, bolsters, 
wheel hubs and rims, plow 
beams, sled runners, auto- 
moblie bodies, gun stocks, 
agricultural implements, ath- 
letic goods, artificial limbs, 
hat blocks, ladder rails, 
shoe lasts, porch columns 
and outside doors. The 
Laboratory has already made up as experiments 
sets of maple bowling pins and shoe lasts, oak wheel 



IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LAMINATED BOWLING PINS THE 
BLOCK HAVING BEEN ROUGHED OUT ON THE BAND SAW IS 
PUT IN THE TURNING LATHE AND TURNED TO THE PROPER 
PATTERN. AFTER A SUITABLE FINISH HAS BEEN APPLIED THE 
PINS ARE READY FOR TEST. 




mercial practicability will undoubtedly time its wide- 
spread or general adoption. As a manufacturing process, 
laminated construction is in a great many cases more 
expensive than solid-wood construction, and there is an 

element of waste in the 
large amount of saw kerf. 
It would appear offhand 
that, so long as present dif- 
ferentials in the prices of 
thin and thick lumber and 
in various species prevail, 
built-up wood will have 
great difficulty generally in 
meeting competition. But 
this is not altogether the 
case and for the following 
reasons : 

1. The drying or seasoning 
costs are lessened by laminated 
construction since thin lumber 
can be much more rapidly dried 
and with less loss than thick 
lumber. 

2. The manufacturing loss 
in solid wood, especially where 
steam bending is required, as 
in wheel rims and certain kinds 
of furniture, promises to be 
very greatly reduced by lami- 
nated construction. 

3. Scrap ends and waste 
material may often be fully utilized in built-up wood. 

4. In the manufacturing of certain articles now requiring 
select high grades, low grades obtained at cheaper prices may 
be substituted. 

5. Built-up wood makes possible better and more uniform 
seasoning of stock, and this in turn, makes possible a more 
serviceable article and tends to eliminate price competition. 

6. The location of the nation's main sources of timber supply 
in the far West will tend to make possible the local utilization 
of built-up wood from other species in eastern and middle 



f \ JBfi 


- B^^^^^ 




fHgi -A *** aA 




KK^mSmmi 



LAMINATED BOWLING PINS READY FOR TEST. THE TEST CON- 
SISTS OF ACTUAL SERVICE IN A BOWLING ALLEY, A RECORD 
BEING KEPT OF THE NUMBER OF GAMES PLAYED WITH THE 
PINS. 

rims, wagon bolsters and tongues and walnut gun stocks. 
These articles are now made commercially from solid 
wood, but the experiments are in laminated construc- 
tion, with the use of waterproof casein glue in some cases 
and blood albumin in others. The bowling pins, under 
actual preliminary test in a local alley at Madison, gave 
the same service as the solid pins. The testing of the 
other laminated articles has not yet been completed. 

While the field for laminated construction of the fore- 
going character is very extensive, the factor of com- 




AFTER 250 GAMES THESE LAMINATED HOWLING PINS ARK STILL 
IN SERVICEABLE CONDITION, IN FACT THIS PARTICULAR SET 
IS, TO ALL INTENTS AND PURPOSES THE EQUAL OF SOLID PINS. 

western regions, at prices comparable with or even below those 
of solid wood shipped in from distant regions. 

These conditions, it will be apparent, will have a direct 
bearing upon the final costs of built-up wood. It is 



"BUILT-UP WOOD" 



1413 



significant that even under the price conditions existing 
today a suprisingly large number of laminated articles, by 
efficient utilization and manufacture, is being produced 
and marketed in competition with the solid form of con- 
struction. 

Another factor with which built-up wood will have to 
contend for its general adoption is that of buyers' preju- 
dice or custom. Custom has a strong hold upon the 
average person, particularly the rural citizen, in relation 
to the tools and equipment which he uses in his work. 
The average farmer, for example, will have to be shown 
that a laminated wagon tongue or bolster is serviceable 
and "worth the money." In the immediate development of 
markets for built-up wood intended to replace solid 
wood, price competition 
will, therefore, be neces- 
sary to establish the ser- 
viceability of many articles. 

To the average forester 
and lumberman a general 
transition to built-up wood 
probably appears far dis- 
tant or doubtful. The 
limits of its commercial 
practicability are, to be 
sure, indeterminate and 
problematical, but, from 
the standpoint of satisfac- 
tory service, there seem to 
be no limits to its possible 
substitution for most forms 
of solid wood. Even built- 
up railroad ties and tele- 
phone poles, while extreme 
examples, are by no means 
beyond the realm of possi- 
bility. Further research 
may be counted upon to 
make available glues that 
will be absolutely imperv- 
ious to moisture and bac- 
teria, and to determine ac- 
curately the factors of 
safety for all different 
types and forms of built- 
up wood. It will then 
become possible to use it 
with intelligence, economy, 
fail to be impressed by the possibilities of built-up wood 
as a factor of utilization. Not only would it make pos- 
sible the saving of a large percentage of present woods 
and mill waste, but conceivably it would revolutionize 
beneficially the present milling and grading practices for 
many species. Select and clear material, the value of 
which is now lost in under-sizes or discounted by low 
grade classification, could be utilized and valued on the 
basis of the number of clear cuttings produced, the 
method being somewhat the same, only far more inten- 
sive ; as that now used with the more valuable hardwoods 
and shop grades of softwoods. This general practice 




TWO TYPES OF LAMINATED SHOE LASTS ARE ILLUSTRATED IN 
THIS PHOTOGRAPH. THE UPPER LAST IS MADE WITH VERTI- 
CAL LAMINATIONS AND THE LOWER ONE WITH HORIZONTAL 
LAMINATIONS. THESE LASTS ARE USED IN THE MANUFACTURE 
OF SHOES AND RECEIVE A MUCH HARDER SERVICE THAN THE 
ORDINARY SHOE TREE. THE SOLID LASTS ARE USUALLY MADE 
OF MAPLE AND BIRCH AND THE LOSSES INCURRED IN THE 
SEASONING OF THE BLOCKS AND THE MANUFACTURE OF THE 
LASTS ARE NORMALLY RATHER GREAT. SEVERAL SHOE FAC- 
TORIES ARE COOPERATING WITH THE FOREST PRODUCTS 
LABORATORY IN TESTING OUT THE SERVICEABILITY OF THE 
LAMINATED LASTS. WHILE NO DEFINITE RESULTS HAVE AS 
YET BEEN OBTAINED, PRESENT INDICATIONS ARE THAT LAM- 
INATED LASTS. BUILT UP WITH WATER-RESISTANT GLUES 
WILL BE QUITE SATISFACTORY. 

and safety. One cannot and utilization standards, 



would, in turn, stimulate similar refinement in stump- 
age valuation and would go far toward valuing the tree 
on its actual contents of clear material. In brief, the in-- 
fluence of defects upon surrounding clear material would 
be reduced to an almost negligible minimum, while milling 
practices would automatically be adjusted to an intensive 
manufacture either of small-dimension material for lami- 
nated manufacture in the wood-using industries or to 
standardized built-up, ready-to-use building lumber for 
the retail trade, or both. Furthermore, other species of 
wood now more or less unusable could be brought into 
use — eucalyptus, for example, because of the practica- 
bility of drying it satisfactorily in small dimensions. 
A general utilization movement of the intensiveness 

suggested above would nat- 
urally exercise a direct in- 
fluence upon the practice of 
forestry. Instead of man- 
aging timber lands on long 
rotations, the raising of 
young forests under short 
rotations would be practi- 
cable, and foresters in 
working out their silvicul- 
tural plans would give spe- 
cial weight in the selection 
of species to their economic 
value for laminated or 
built-up use. Short rota- 
tions, in most instances, 
mean greater quantity pro- 
duction, higher financial re- 
turns from forest invest- 
ments, and enhanced soil 
values, while a wider range 
of species utilization, which 
laminated construction 
makes possible, would tend 
further to increase quantity 
production. 

Forestry has great diffi- 
culty in many regions in 
commending itself as a 
profitable or desirable fi- 
nancial investment because 
of the long rotations neces- 
sitated by present lumber 
but built-up wood would 
largely remove that difficulty by making practicable com- 
paratively short rotations for all species and the greater 
utilization of quick-growing and so-called inferior species 
now discredited with the trade and of low commercial 
value. It would, therefore, transform many now un- 
attractive forest projects from unprofitable to profitable 
investments and stimulate the practice of private forestry 
in all parts of the country. 

The utilization of young forests naturally raises many 
questions relative to seasoning, durability, mechanical 
properties, etc. One is apt to think that it will intensify 
drying difficulties on account of the increase in percent- 



1414 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



agt- of sapwood, bat such is not the case. On the other 
hand, sapwood simplifies the drying problem because of 
the fact that it dries; more easily and better than heart- 
wood. Likewise, the sapwood of most species, excepting 
that of hemlock, white spruce, and certain fir, takes pre- 
servative treatment better than heartwood, although it 
is not probable that this greater penetration will give 
greater durability than well-treated heartwood. While 
in the case of most hardwoods, second-growth young 
timber is superior in strength quality to older or mature 
timber, this is not true for all conifers. In fact, the 
reverse is more nearly the rule, but the differences are 
not too great or serious to be met satisfactorily by devel- 
oping methods and standards of laminated construction 
in accordance with which the required strength for spe- 
cific purposes will be obtained. 

From the broad standpoint of forest conservation, 
built-up wood justifies thoughtful public and professional 
consideration. The tremendous annual loss to the nation 
of wood wasted under present methods of logging, milling 
and manufacture, is like the weather; it is much talked 
about but relatively little is done about it. For every foot 
of wood utilized we have to admit that two feet are 
wasted in woods, mill and factory. At the same time 
lumbermen admit that ten years hence the remaining 
large bodies of southern pine will be cut out. The coun- 
try's main storehouse of timber will then be the west 
coast, two to three thousand miles removed from the 
principal consuming markets of the country. When that 
comes to be the case, the East and Middle West will 
begin to feel the full effect on the price of lumber gen- 
erally of a transportation cost of from $10 to $20 per 
thousand feet. Furthermore, public measures making 
mandatory the more economical utilization of our forest 
resources may be expected in a relatively few years. It 
is, therefore, wise and forehanded to determine in the 
meantime the directions along which a sane and 
sound national utilization policy for the future may 
be shaped. 



H 



"NAPOLEON WILLOW" DYING 

EAVY with memories of Napoleonic glory and 
whispers of quiet St. Helena, the old tree which 
came from the aisle of willows at the Emperor's grave 
some forty years ago as a slender shoot to be trans- 
planted to the Woodside estate of John Morris Phillips 
is dying. Today it is in the care of the city of Newark, 
part of the little park at Elwood Place which the Phillips 
estate presented to the city in 1892, and tree surgeons are 
busy on the tree, with cement for the gaping cavity at 
the base of its trunk and all the remedies known to 
science. But the willow, which has aged early, is world 
weary, and its wide, drooping branches are symbolic of 
a fast and steady decline. 

In the days when the old Phillips estate, which holds 
a place in the city's history for 200 years, dominated the 
Woodside section with its twenty green acres. John 
.Morris Phillips, lover of beautiful trees and shrubs, took 
delight in putting out new ones from his fine nursery. 
Besides trees,, he had another enthusiasm — Napoleon 




Photograph by courtesy of the Nrwark Bvtning Nrms 

THE FAMOUS "NAPOLEON WILLOW" AT ELWOOD PLACE 
The photograph shows the dying branches on the wonderful old tree. 

Bonaparte. Fine prints of the little Corsican, memoirs 
and documents galore bearing upon his career, were 
stored up at the Phillips' homestead in a collection that 
never seemed to stop growing. But one day there came 
an incident that combined the two loves of John Morris 
Phillips — a friend of his who had gone on a trip around 
the world had stopped off at St. Helena and there taken 
a shoot from the clump of willows that surrounded the 
great exile's original burial place. 

The young tree was duly set out on the broad lawn 
facing Elwood Place, and from that time on it was the 
favorite of old Mr. Phillips. Set in among the elms and 
maples in what is now a city park, it is still the aristocrat 
of the lawn. Thirty-five years ago Mr. Phillips died, 
and the estate today is not of the size that it used to be. 
Neither have the same understanding hands that cared 
for the willow been there to care for it in the old way, 
for the Napoleonic tradition died. 

City officials may worry about it — Carl Bannwart of 
the Shade Tree Department has ordered that it be given 
special care — attendants may potter around at the broad 
base of its trunk, and the curious may speculate, but the 
willow of St. Helena is dying. 



TREES AND THE HIGHWAYS 

BY PHILIP P. SHARPLES 

ROAD ENGINEERING EXPERT OF THE BARRETT COMPANY 



A MAX from New England carries through the 
length of his life a picture of a village street with 
high arching elms overhead beneath whose grateful 
shade he was wont to linger on his way from school in 
the first hot days of June. The elm is still there and 
ever will be the most attractive tree for highway planting. 

Highways are built not for today, but for tomorrow 
in a long vista into the future. It behooves the engineer 
of today to look ahead. He 
can lay out a highway in 
the most approved fashion 
and put upon it a surface 
adapted to the traffic of the 
minute, but in the end the 
only permanent part of the 
way is the location and 
this our experience tells us 
is likely to be handed down 
through the generations to 
come. 

What more fitting gift 
can we bestow upon pos- 
terity than the chance to 
enjoy roadways well locat- 
ed and lined with noble 
trees ! 

The details of tree plant- 
ing require the co-operation 
of the engineer, the land- 
scape architect and the for- 
ester. Rare is the man who 
combines the talents of all 
three and the majority of 
trees must be planted on an 
experience and common 
sense basis. 

The engineer must de- 
termine the width of the 
road and the likelihood of 
change so that the trees 
may be placed where they 
will not be disturbed in 
the future. It is also up to him to tell if there should 
be planted trees of varieties that give dense shade, or, if 
such trees should be placed only on the north side of 
the road, for there are road locations that require sun 
and warmth to keep their surfaces in traversable condi- 
tion the year through. It may be necessary in swampy 
forest locations to ruthlessly cut the trees away from 
the sides of the road to prevent too much dampness. 

The landscape architect must decide the most effec- 
tive placing of the trees, not alone for the present, but, 
with his imaginative eye, for the future. He must also 




decide the kind of tree suited to the view 'and to the 
surroundings. Elms may be desired or a quicker grow- 
ing tree like the maple or the linden. A swampy soil may 
call for the weeping willow or swamp maple. His 
problems are numerous, from the placing of an elm in 
New England to the designation of eucalyptus and palms 
in southern California. He may even throw up his 
hands and tell you that neither the giant cactus nor 

the live oak will thrive and 
there can be no successful 
planting without irrigation. 
The Lincoln Highway has 
miles and miles of these 
problems in Nebraska, 
Wyoming, Utah and Neva- 
da. Nothing but sage 
brush grows and yet even 
that, as vegetation, has a 
charm in the desert. 

The landscape architect 
has other subjects than 
trees to consider and, per- 
haps, the time is not far 
distant when shrubs and 
flowers may be considered 
for our roadsides in our 
more settled communities. 

The hawthorne hedges 
and the roadside gardening 
of old England are ex- 
amples for the future. The 
possibilities in this country 
are not indicated in the 
park work of our larger 
cities. 

The forester (and the 
arboriculturist is included) 
must indicate the kinds of 
trees suited to soil and 
locality, which ones will 
stand drouth and which 
ones water. He must indi- 
cate the kinds that must grow in groups for self-protec- 
tion and which opes can stand alone battling the winds, a 
sentinel and a landmark on some commanding hill. He 
too must devise the plans for transplanting and must 
attend the nurslings until they are established and care 
for them in the future. 

In contemplating the future, let us not forget to save 
and cherish what we already have. The engineer should 
attempt to save the noble specimen on a new location, the 
landscape architect should attempt to utilize foliage 
already on the location and the forester should attempt 



THE MONARCH OF FOREST TREKS 

Redwood* on the California State Highway, mar Miranda. As Mr. Sharp- 

Irs says, the reconstruction of the battle areas in France is an easy 
task compared to replacing such trees as these. 



1415 



1416 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 




ON THE WILLIAM PENN HIGHWAY, NEAR YELLOW 
PENNSYLVANIA 



SPRINGS, 



This gives a good idea of what needs to be done to make our motor 
routes "Roads of Remembrance." . Note the most unattractive 



. of Remembrance." - 
stretch of barns and teleeraoh noles on the rieht of the road. 



to save for the future what our ancestors have left us. 

The national forest reservations are a wonderful step 
in saving for the future some of the beauties nature has 
bestowed upon us. More must be done. The great state 
highway project should be made to mean more, and in 
building such highways advan- 
tage should be taken of natural 
beauties that can be preserved. 

In Humbolt County, Cali- 
fornia, a new state highway is 
in process of construction. It is 
flanked with noble redwoods 
dating from before the time of 
Christ. Unless public sentiment 
bestirs itself, the trees along this 
great aisle of the cathedral of the 
woods are doomed to the saw 
and the mill. The man-made 
buildings destroyed in devastated 
France are easier to restore than 
one of these ancient monarchs of 
the forest. 

The problems of tree planting 
and tree saving have only been 
briefly touched upon. It is to be 
hoped that the example of 
France and England may not be 
lost on our soldiers who have 
been across and that we may 



look forward to roads and streets better kept and more 
artistically treated. 

THE COMMUNITY AND ROADS OF 
REMEMBRANCE 

POSSIBILITIES of highway tree planting pointed 
■*■ out by Philip P. Sharpies in the article are only 
limited to the number of miles a road may extend. 
The community spirit that was reborn of the war may, 
with the planting of "Roads of Remembrance," be kept 
alive and bring about a more united country. The great 
burden of our roads is civilization. A striking example 
of what may be done is seen in the plan worked out at 
Dryden, Michigan, by Major-General George O. Squier, 
chief signal officer of the United States Army. The 
General took a green scum covered mill pond and con- 
verted it into a beauty spot by building a miniature 
dam. A small club house was erected on the side of 
a hill. The General demonstrated right in his own home 
town that the beauties of a place are seldom seen by the 
people who live there. The result was that the little club 
house has become a real country club and it is the meet- 
ing place of the farmers of that county. The boys and 
girls of the farm community now enjoy this interesting 
place. Let our good roads program include such com- 
munity centers and the planting of memorial trees such 
as General Squier is going to have planted at his home 
town and we will shortly have a transformed farming 
community. 

Nearly every State in the Union is alive to these 
possibilities and various organizations are backing plans 
for memorial drives and victory highways. The Rotary 
Club at Bluefield, West Virginia, is one of the first 
branches of that organization to plan a memorial drive 




A BEAUTIFUL STRETCH OK ROAD AT TOPSFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS 



This shows the wonderful possibilities for Memorial Tree planting along the good roads now under con- 
struction. Compare this picture with that of the William Penn Highway in Pennsylvania. 



THE COMMUNITY AND ROADS OF REMEMBRANCE 



1417 



although the Detroit Rotary Club has planted memorial 
trees for its members. The Rotary Club of Hamilton, 
Ohio, is going in for tree planting as a memorial on an 
even bigger scale for that organization will plant memorial 
trees for the soldiers of Butler County. Perhaps one 
of the most unique forms of hearty response to the call 
of the American Forestry Association for memorial tree 
planting is found in the Burroughs Clearing House maga- 
zine. This publication, which goes to the banks and 
bankers of the country and is devoted to office manage- 
ment and efficiency, gives a full page to "Roads of Re- 
membrance" and urges the bankers of the country to 
visualize the possibilities for a better country and better 
business in the building of good roads and their beauti- 
fication. 

Frederick Stuart Greene, State Commissioner of High- 
ways for New York, has outlined a plan whereby his 
department will plant fruit and nut bearing trees along 
the roads. On this point Commissioner Greene says : 

"The productive fruit or nut from these trees would 
be ripened at just about the time we now lay off our 
patrolmen or repair gangs and instead of laying these 
men off they could be used to harvest the crops which 
the trees produce and with the number of trucks which 
the government is now turning over to the department 
these crops could be quickly and economically transported 
to markets. 

"The yield from trees planted along our highways 
represents but a small part of their value to the State. 
There are few things we can do toward lengthening the 
life of a road more effective than the planting of trees 
so that the pavement is shaded. On some of our mid- 
summer days it is not unusual to find a temperature of 
from 115 to 125 degrees on the pavement itself where 
it is subjected to the direct rays of the sun, whereas the 
same pavement under the shade of a tree will show at 
the same time not more than 90 degrees of heat. 





WHAT LARGE M ANLFACTURING CONCERNS CAN DO I.N MEMORIAL TREE PLANTING 



This picture shows the avenue leading to the works of Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., of Philadelphia. 
The management planted this avenue of Norway maples twenty-three years ago. Why cannot every 
manufacturing plant in the country plant a memorial avenue in honor of their men who offered their 
Jives to their country? 



By American Photo Service. 

PERSHING PLANTS A MEMORIAL TREE 

One of the first things (after the cheering) when General John J. Pershing 
arrived in New York from over seas, was the planting of a memorial 
tree in Central Park. This pin oak from the Amawalk Nursery was 
planted as a memorial to the men who lost their lives in the war. The 
General also planted a memorial tree in Independence Square, Philadelphia. 

"It is during these hot days that we most frequently 
get our sudden showers. The temperature of the water 
from one of these showers runs from about 65 to 70 
degrees. On an unshaded pavement we have, therefore, a 
sudden drop in temperature from say 120 degrees to 65 
degrees, or 55 full degrees. On a pavement protected 
by the shade of trees we have a 
drop of from 90 to 60 degrees, 
or a total of 30 degrees, just one- 
half the change in temperature 
of an exposed pavement. 

"The stress and amount of 
shrinkage set up in a pavement 
which is subjected to the sudden 
change of 55 degrees are a detri- 
ment to any type of road. Fur- 
ther than this, with an unexposed 
pavement this sudden change in 
temperature is more gradual, due 
to the fact that the leaves of the 
trees retard the water to some 
extent and the pavement does 
not get the full rainfall at one 
blow." 

The soldiers, now back from 
France, are the strongest advo- 
cates of good roads for they 
know their value as perhaps no 
other one set of men know it. 



1418 



AMERICAN FORESTRY 



This point of view is told in the Anioroc News, which was 
published by the American Army of Occupation at 
Coblenz in these words: 

"The most urgent necessity of our country is good 
roads — permanent roads that can be used twelve months 
in each year. The roads of America today are abso- 
lutely inadequate, inefficient, and antiquated. They are 
not designed to carry heavy traffic. It is a vital problem, 
this question of good roads, one that reaches down into 
the very foundation of our social and economic scheme of 
life, for roads are the clearing hous