(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A practical Arabic grammar"

^/?v 

A PRACTICAl 



ARABIC GRAMMAR 



PART II 



COMPILED BY 

** ;?* 



COLONEL AfOGREEN, p.*. 

AUTHOR OF ' MODERN ARABIC S1ORIFS ' 

*A PRACTICAL HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR' 

ETC. ETC. 



FOURTH EDITION, ENLARGED AND REVISED 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1909 



HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW YORK 
TORONTO AND MELBOURNE 



p; 





I :C II 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 

THE printing of Part II has taken much longer than 
was anticipated. Commenced in July, 1884, it is only just 
completed. The success of Part I, the entire first edition 
of which was exhausted in nine months, leads me to hope 
for a similar result with Part II. The selections have been 
made with great care, with a view to a progressive course 
of reading, to be extended at the discretion of the student, 
and for which I would recommend the following books : 

(1) Lukman's Fables, in Charbonneau's Edition, Paris, 

Hachette, 1883. 

(2) The looi Nights, Cheap Edition, in 4 vols., 8vo, 

Beirut, 1880. 

(3) Kalilah wa Dimnah, Beirut, 1884. 

The short series of facsimile letters are nearly all re- 
productions of actual petitions and letters, and these have 
been substituted for Appendix II, promised in the Preface 
to Part I. 

My best thanks are due to all those who have so kindly 
taken the trouble to point out the mistakes in Part I, and 
to assist me with their advice. I would recommend a 
complete study of the Appendix to those who are desirous 
of obtaining more than a colloquial knowledge of the 
language. 

A. O. GREEN, MAJOR, 

BRIGADE MAJOR, E.E. 
CAIRO : 

March 30, 1885. 



A 2 



PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION 

FOB the first time I have been able to publish a com- 
plete edition of this Grammar ; the work is, however, now 
finished, and I can only hope that the time and labour 
which have been spent upon it have been, and will be, 
of service to those of my brother-officers, who may have 
occasion to commence the study of Arabic. 

I cannot lay down my pen without expressing my 
thanks to the Printer to the University of Oxford, for the 
very admirable manner in which this work has been put 
through the Press. To my mind the type leaves nothing 
to be desired. 

A. 0. GREEN, 

MAJOR, R.E. 
CHATHAM : 

May 1 6, 1893. 



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION 

THIS edition of Part II has now been revised so as to 
conform with the system of transliteration adopted in the 
fourth edition of Part I. 

I shall feel highly indebted to any one who will take 
the trouble to write and point out any mistakes they come 
across, which in a work like this must be large, no matter 
how many revisions one makes oneself. 

A. 0. GREEN, COLONEL. 
VERNATTS, CAMBERLEY: 
March 21, 1908. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 7 

SELECTIONS TROM ARABIC ATTTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 53 

ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS . . . 91 

Transliteration of Letters and Manuscripts 93 

Translation 109 

VOCABULABY: ENGLISH- ARABIC 115 

VOCABULARY : ARABIC-ENGLISH 200 

APPENDIX : COMPARATIVE TABLE OF CLASSICAL AND MODERN ARABIC 

FORMS AND EXPRESSIONS 243 

I. Nouns 243 

II. Adjectives 255 

III. Pronouns 258 

IV. Numbers 264 

V. Verbs 267 

VI. Prepositions 283 

VII. Adverbs 284 

VIII. Conjunctions 286 

IX. Interjections 287 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES 
IN PART I 



Exercise 1. 

A high house. The high house. The big boy. An easy lesson. 
The rich merchant. A xich merchant. The pious boy. The rain 
is heavy. The father is good. The good brother. The weather 
is bad. The horse is fine. The house is high, The man is poor. 
The horse is strong. The weather is fine. The brother is good. 
The boy is idle. The man is rich. The garden is large. The 
lesson is easy. 

Exercise 2. 



Exercise 2 a. 

Ragil tieyib. Et-tdgir el-gjharii. Hov-a battal. El-howa kwyls. 
Dars sahl. El-akh kesldn. Ab tieyib wa er-rayil faqlr. Er-ragil 
d-faqir keslan. El-matar qowl. 

Exercise 3. 

The man is happy. The town is large. The tree is tall. 
A rich merchant. He is happy. The girl is pretty. She is wise. 
The mother is ill. The garden is large. The large garden. I am 
happy. He is idle. The mother is pious. She is good. Thou (m.) 
art rich. Thou (/.) art poor. The sister is happy. The brother 
is ill. The lesson is hard. The boy is idle. The girl is polite. 
The uncle is rich. The aunt is rich. The rain is heavy. The 
horse is fine. The judge is learned. The book is useful. I am 
rich. Thou (m.) art sick. He is learned. Thou (m.) art poor. 
The horse is useful. The street is long. 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 
Exercise 4. 



l> v lfil _ JU v=~ 
JSUJI UJl" 



Exercise 4 a. 

JRa$n7 ^&ant ^a lint faqirah. Ragilfaqlr wa tagir gJianl. El-ab 
ft-iieyib 'ayyan. Ed-dart tawll wa sab. Shdri' tawil wa bet 'all. 
El-Tdtab naft. En-nalir 'arid wa 'arriiq. El-husan el-iswid wa el-bet 
el-abyad. El-qadl el-dqil wa el-adib. 'Audi husan naft. 'Andak 
el-kitab el-ahmar. fJua 'andoh bet keblr wa genenah saglfirah. 
'Andha dars sab. Et-taldb ahmar walakin el-amab asfar. 

Exercise 5. 

The horse is very strong. The bread is exceedingly dear. He 
was a clever man. I am a German. He is a Frenchman. The 
book is very useful. The quarter is wide. The sister is always 
pleased. The father is always busy. The minister is very busy. 
The night is very pleasant. The weather is too bad. The water 
is cold. I was ill. The ink is black. The rain is too heavy. The 
night is very fine. The paper is white. The house is high 
enough. The room is wide enough. The tree is high. The room 
is pretty. I was present. He was in the house to-day. The man 
is very tall. She was in the house (at home) yesterday. There 
was rain in the night. The judge was just. She was a blind 
woman. I was always in the room. The king was generous. 
There was rain yesterday. The air is cold to-day. The well is 
deep enough. 

Exercise 6. 

lit _ b,lfJ1 i^Vl ^ ^UJt ^ _ ^Ul^iT^J, u ^\ ^ 

0-J1 






KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 9 

Exercise 6 a. 

Kan el-esh tieyib ketlr embarih. Kan el-qddi fil-odah en-maluir 
da. Ana hunt fl'l-bet d-yom. El-barusianl tamelll fi'l-genenah. 
Kan d-husanfis-sikkah wa d-marah kanet fl'l-bet. Et-tayir ragil 
shatir kefir wa hua daiman mashghul. El-licwa lean 'al embank 
walakin Ma bdrid wa baljal kefir el-yom. Esh-shagarah Ichadra 
cs-sama zarqa ed-daliab asfar wa el-ma iswid. El-mar all mashghu- 
lah wa mabsutah. 

Exercise 7. 

Is he diligent 1 Was he ill? "Was she sick? Art thou 
contented? Not hungry. Not thirsty. He was not present. 
Who is he ? I am not rich. I am not stupid. Art thou not clean? 
The water is extremely cold. The night is exceedingly pleasant. 
Where is the gun ? The gun is in the corner. Where is the 
book ? The book is in the cupboard. What book is in the cup- 
board? Where is the bottle? The bottle is in the magazine. 
Were you not there ? I was not there. She was there last month. 
Is he not hungry ? Is she not thirsty ? The day is very pleasant. 
There was rain in the night. The bread is very dear. Is there 
no news ? Is there any water ? There is no water. The quarter 
is broad enough. The paper is too black. The paper is not white 
enough. Has the horse no grass ? No, he has no grass, but he 
has chopped straw. The merchant tfras a very clever man. The 
judge was poor. The minister was always busy. Who is this man ? 
He is a German. Who is this lady? I think she is a French- 
woman. Who is the gentleman? The camel is thirsty. There 
is wine. Where were you yesterday? I was at home. Where 
is she? She was in the garden. You were not here to-day. 
The dog is thirsty, and the cat is hungry. I am tired. 



Exercise 8. 

- o~i gjjs it^ll Uu* J* _ ^ 

ut _ 



10 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 




Exercise 8 a. 

Akan et-tdgir mashgul fis-suq embdrih ? Hal 'andhd el-mar ah 
qazdzah niblt ? Akdn er-ragil el-faqlr kesldn fi'l-genenah ? Ana 
mush 'ayyan en-nahdr da waldkin embdrih kunt. Man hiya 
el-mar ah (ellatl) fl'sh-shdri' ? Fen el-bunduqlyah ? El-bundu- 
qiyah fl'l-bet iva, el-kalb fi'l-genenah. Kdnet esh-sJiams hamiyah 
fish-shahr el-mddl waldkin dilwaqt er-r~ih bdridah wa el-howa 
battal Fl fulas fid-dulab el-azraq ? Aiwah fl fulus hendk ? 
Hal 'andoh el-husdn hashish wa moyah ? Ld wcddkin * and oh tibn 
nidlf wa shdlr. El-gamal 'aishdn lakin el-husdn gidn. 

Exercise 9. 

Air is "an exceedingly light substance. The days in winter are 
extremely short. The stars are shining bodies in heaven. The 
plants and trees are fixed in the ground. It (/.) is dear and 
beautiful. Is the country of Cashmere pleasant? Yes, it is 
exceedingly pleasant. Is the kingdom of Persia large 1 Yes, it is 
very large. The book is useful. The books are useful. The 
brother is big. The sister is small. Where are the brothers? 
They are in the town. Where are the sisters? They are in 
the garden. The neighbour (m.) is a very clever man. The 
neighbour (/.) is a pious woman. They are not rich. They were 
poor. The houses are large. The houses are very high. The 
books are useful. "Where are the books? The books are in 
the cupboard. Is he not hungry ? Yes, he is hungry. No, he is 
not hungry. Art thou not thirsty ? No, I am not thirsty, I am 
tired. They were not contented. They were angry. I was 
surprised. We are not surprised. The quarters are too broad. 
The halls are very fine. The merchants are good men. The 
neighbours are not good men. The weather is good to-day. 
The weather is bad and the street is muddy. God is generous. 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 11 

Exercise 1O. 



JU. _ iaii. jJb 

u 

Ubli. 

-Ul _ b 



Exercise 10 a. 

En-naggarin wa el-Jchaiydtm rigdl mashgliulin wa shaiirln. 
Hdrat el-medinah 'andah tea tawilah. Saat en-nahdr qasirah 
fl'sh-shita. Hal abwdb el-buyut fl Idlad maftuhaJt? Gibal. 
el-bildd dl 'aliyah wa el-anhdr 'amlqah. Kdnu mulilk el-agam 
rigdl hvyinn kefir. Ma kuntesh ente fil-genenali embdrih ? Ld 
ana kunt fl'l-medinah. Ana kunt khdif ketir en-nahdr da. En-nds 
rahma waldkin d-haiwdndt mush- rahimah. El-akhwdt wa el- 
akhawdt mush fil-gerienah. El-md muakkar Idkin en-nibit tieyib. 
Hal 'andak khel wa gimdl tieyibah ? 

Exercise 11. 

This is strange. This is the truth. Truly this was so. This 
thing is not good. This town is agreeable. This town is populous. 
That man yonder is lame. That man over there is renowned in 
war. I was at home at that hour. These people are polite. This 
tea is very good. This butter is cheap. This youth is wise. This 
girl is wise. This horse is weak. The horse is dear at this price. 
This rope is not long enough. I was at home to-day. The hats 
are too large. These books are dear. Is there any news 7 No, 
there is none. What news is there to-day ] There is no news 
to-day. There is nothing new. What o'clock is it? It is four 
o'clock. How much is the bread? Bread is now four piastres 
the pound. How much is meat ? Meat is now three piastres the 
pound. The searon (of the year) is three months. Every four 
weeks (make) one month. The nights are short and the days 
long. Life is short and science long. 



12 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Exercise 12. 



b 

j ISAM j 11* <_UJ b jJLJl 1j* -^ u-A^P </ b 
b jlfJl^*. ^/-J _, i, 

bp. JU jfij&*^. gjJOa. Aa.U V U ^ _ A 

b jil - 
cuiT lit - c~Jl 



Exercise 12 a. 

En-nas dot kanu mashgkulm kellr fl'l-medlnah embarih. Aid 
dikha el-balad kanu mciMurln bi'l-harab. Esh-shai da rikhls 
kafayah walakin en-niblt dak ghall hi z-ziyadah. Bi't-tahqiq 
da she 'agib kefir. Howa el-balad da lallf giddan fi sh-shita walakin 
harr biz-ziyadah fl fasl es-sef. Dikha el-medlnah ma'murah. Fish 
khabar en-nahar da fl'l-medlnah. La ma fl wala hagah gidldah. 
Sir el-esh kan ghall bi'z-ziyadah fl's-suq embarih. Bikam kdn 
er-ratl ? Kan b'taldtah ghurush er-rall. El-haU da tawll bi'z- 
ziyadah wa hua mush tieyib. Es-saali kam btl-lel kunt cnte 
fl'l-bet? Ana kunt fi'l-bet es-sa'ah khamsah. Zak esh-shabb 
mitmaddin ketlr. Es-sahlhe fl Jidza el-amr ? 

Exercise 13. 

This will be a useful thing. This will be useless. Will you 
l)e at home to-night 1 I shall be at home tomorrow at two 
o'clock. Shall you be at home to-day? I shall be at home 
to-night at seven o'clock. Where will you be at eight o'clock? 
We shall be in the garden at nine o'clock. Who are you ? I am 
the captain of the ship. How will the matter be ? Where is he 
now ? He is in the garden. Is the garden far from here ? The 
garden is not far. It is near here. Bring a bowl and two glasses 
of wine. Bring a light. Boy, bring the lamps. Were the two 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 13 

brothers in one house? The river was small between the two 
towns. Is there a broad river near here? From what country 
are you? From Syria. Whence is the road? From Baghdad. 
I am busy from morning till evening. This horse is for sale. How 
much for this horse ? For ten pounds. Are you well ? Thank 
God, I am quite well. Grapes are good this season. The dog is 
a faithful and watchful friend of man. Drinking, eating, and 
sleeping are necessary things for man. How much water is there 
in the well ? How many soldiers are there in the fort ? How 
many horses or mules are there in this town ? How much wheat 
is there in the market ? 

Exercise 14. 

icUl dliA vj>* f^ uk~*J u-i^" ^+i->. (J ^* 
US t _ LUJl lii iijJLl c aJS 



- i 
_ lf-j (^^ f j^ ^} (J^ ( 

tf& } 



U* Jj 

T^ ^ **"!* 

JA ^i^i i^* 1* jui _ 



Exercise 14 a. 

<?Aer bald min hena fi bet kwyls wa busldn millh. Akun henak 
8-saah tdldtah bukra. Fl qala qarlb el-medlnah dikha ben en-nahr 
wal-gibal ? Aiwah fl qala sagh'trah walakin hlya mush qarlb 
en-nahr. Kam 'askarl flha ? Khamsah ow sittah. Yd walad ! 
hat nur wa kasen wa qazdzah niblt. El-husdn sdhib lieyib Ifl-insdn. 
El-kalb hdris fil-Ul lazim loh er-ruqdd fi'n-nahdr. Kam rdgil 
$ekun hddir fi's-suq bukra ? Qadd esh min el-moyah fi'n-nahr ? 
Fih kafdydh. Min en el-waladen dol ? ffuma min bughddd. 
Min hua abukl yd bint wismoh e ? Fish fuliis fl's-sanduq da ? 
Nctam flh arbadk khamsah gjturdsh. Hal es-sanduq min hadld ? 
La walakin hua gdmid ketlr. 



14 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Exercise 15. 

Is yonr father living ? Yes, sir. What is his name ? His 
name is Hassan. What is his age ? Fifty years. And what is 
your mother's age 1 My mother's age is forty years. What is the 
age of your sister ? My sister is twenty years old. She is still 
young. She is not old. From what country are you 1 I am from 
Aleppo. What is your name 1 My name is Mahmud. "What is 
your age ? I am forty years of age. And what is your sister's 
name ? Her name is Fatmah. Where is your gun 1 My gun is in 
the corner. Where is your book 1 Our book is in the cupboard. 
Where is your brother? Our brother is in the garden. Our 
garden is far from the town. Is not your garden also far ? No, 
sir, it is not far. Is it near here ? Yes, sir. My horse is weak. 
This garden is very dear at this price. Their clothes are new. 
Our clothing was not ready. Their house is large and new. 
Where were you to-day ? I was in their garden to-day from seven 
o'clock until nine. May your day be happy (good day) ! How 
are you ? Well, thank God ! How is your father ? Our father 
was ill. Your brother was ill too. Good night ! 

Exercise 16. 

u^i> ^jJjfeJIj (3}*\ /J* 

f 

U 



ell* ii-J _ A*J- AcUl 5 iLlll 



J5 



Exercise 16 a. 

Khaddam abuya wcil-baghlen bituoh kanu ftl-gerienah fl haza 
es-sabah. Azayy (aze) abukum en-nalmr da ? Hua 'ayyan ketlr 
wa umml aldan. Ram sanah 'umroh ? 'Umroh arbfln sanah 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 



15 



voaldkin ummi lissa shdbbah. Hal bintak tthdbbah ow 'aguzaJt, ? 
Sar 'umrhd 'asharah sinm bil-naftdr da. lamoh e el-khadddm illl 
kan fl betak embank ? Ismoh 'all w'ism akhuh 'abd-alldh. Fis- 
saah kam yekunu ashdbuhum wa girdnufium fl basdtln el-rwlik ? 
Fl'l-lelcih dl qainb es-saah sab'ah. Akhwat melik el-agam el-etnen 
kdnd fi medlnah bupliddd waldkin d-melik kan fl baladoh. Hal 
es-sikkah dl dugjirl ben el-medlnah wal-balad ? El-kitab bitaak 
waldkin d-waraq wal-aqldm bitul. Kam qalam 'andak ? Taldtat 
ow arba'ah. Hdt'hd ll Iiena. 

Exercise 17. 

Have you not got a pen 1 I have pens, ink, and paper. Boy, 
bring the pen and the inkstand. Have they (any) books ? Yes, 
they have one book. Has he any children? Yes, sir, he has 
three. Are they big ] No, sir, they are small. How many 
brothers have you ? I have none. She has two brothers. Have 
you any black cloth? Yes, sir, I have some black broadcloth. 
She has new clothing. Have you not got a watch 1 Yes, I have 
a new watch. We have a large house. Is this your house ? We 
shall have plenty of money. They will not have enough money. 
I shall not be afraid. I shall have fifteen piastres a week. How 
old is she? In four days' time she will be thirteen years old. 
Where were you yesterday? I was in the garden. With whom 
were you there ? With my father. Where was your brother ? 
He was with me to-day. Where is your sister ; was she also with 
you ? He has three piastres with him in his pocket. Her brother 
was with us. How old art thou 1 I am nineteen years old. She 
is sixteen years of age. Wheat is very dear now ; its price is 
1 20 piastres an ardab. The weight of this diamond is three carats. 
Did it rain in the night ? There was no rain ; perhaps we shall 
have rain to-day. 

Exercise 18. 



.- b 



- C; UI fc 



b 



16 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



1 JS 
41)1 J-fr JJ M So-Lst Ul il U ii 



Exercise 18 a. 

Abuya 'andoli Kusanen wa taldtah bagltal wa tamantasher gamal. 
Fen awldd ukhtak ennahar da. Kanu es-saah 'askarah jil- 
gen&nah walakin dil-waqt hum yimkin fl'l-let waya ummuhum. 
Man kan wayydk fil-medmah embarih ? Waladen sahibi 'abd- 
allah wa bint er-rdgil da. El-Ttusan dak da'if kan qowl kafayah 
embarih yimkin hua ta'ban min es-safar. Kam min el-fulus fl 
kls akkuk da ? Flh itnasher qirsh wa ginelien. Hua ghanl ketlr 
ma' oh fulus qadd kida. Hal yekun 'and et-tugar almas fl's-suq 
el-gum'ah d-yayah ? Ma 'arafsh walakin ana iftikir yekun fih 
'and 'abd-allah et-tagir. 

Exercise 19. 

My book is on the table. Is not your hat on the table ? My 
knife is on the bedstead. Where is my handkerchief? Your 
handkerchief is not here. Your handkerchief is in the cupboard 
on the left. Where is her book? Her book is on the bedstead 
to the right. This house cost me forty purses. This garden cost 
him three purses. This house is too dear for me at this price. 
This garden is for sale. For how much ? For seven purses. It 
is too dear for me. These boots are narrow for my feet. This 
book is difficult for us. In his opinion this will be useless. In 
my opinion this will be a useful thing. We are afraid of them. 
Do not be afraid of me. Was he not wrong 1 He is right. Every 
day he has only one lesson. I have two lessons to-day. She has 
a dowry of 3000 dinars. My monthly wages are forty piastres. 
She has two children. No quiet for the envious. This merchant 
has much money. Have you got English knives and forks ? Have 
you not any money with you ? Yes, I have twenty piastres with 
me. We have two purses with ug. This is a good shop, every- 
thing in it is good. There is no use in ignorance. I have a claim 
against him. How much does he owe you ? He owes me ninety- 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 17 

three piastres. This woman has a claim against me. I owe her 
forty pieces of silver. You owe us 1000 piastres. How much 
do I owe her ? You owe her forty-three piastres, i I owe you 
nothing at all. 

Exercise 20. 



b 
U u Ualc ^A _ ^y je L~* d JJLC J 



-p ^Jb 



Exercise 20 a. 



El-farshaK dikha tawilah giddan 'alek. Hlya khamsat aqddm 
faqat fit-tul. Fi bet kwyls 'alal-gebal wa ma oh ~bustan Jceblr 
qarlb en-nahr. Hua bita mm ? Hua bita abu sdhibl 'abd-allah. 
Bikam wiqif'aleh ? Kallifoh b'ishrin alf dinar. Kcvh el-bet ghali 
ketir bidak et-taman. Bisahih 'andak el-haqq wa li.ua lil be dil-waqt. 
Bikam, ? Binusf et-taman. Ed-dars da sab keilr qowi 'alayya 
('aleya). La tikhaf minnoh. Lil-askarl da den 'alek. Yequl loh 
'andak khamastashar qirsh. Hua gJialtan ma loh 'andl wcda bdrah. 
Kam shaliriyatak ? Shahmyati talatin qirsh wdl-akl w&sh-shurb. 
Da {ieyib ketir. 

Exercise 21. 

Everything has a beginning, and everything will have an end. 
We are all of us under his thumb (hand). You are all under my 
orders. Muhammed owes Hassan 100 francs. How much does 
Muhammed owe you? Muhammed owes me fifty pounds. The 
prince always has ten men with him. Our brother is good to 
every one. Was the river broad between the two towns? Yes, 
it was broad and deep. Is he your friend ? Yes, he is my friend 
and partner, and everything between us is in common. There were 

II B 



18 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

two feet between me and him. This house is ten paces in length 
and nine in breadth. This room is seven paces broad and the game 
in length. This town is eight miles in circumference. There is 
a superfluity (liLJ) of everything in this country. There is (both) 
good and evil in life. He is as old as I am. I am not his equal 
in knowledge. I am not as learned as he is. You are as bad as 
I am good. He owes (is indebted) as much as you. We have as 
much as you. Zeinab is not so beautiful as Hind. The judge 
is not so rich as the merchant. This cotton is as white as snow. 
He has no understanding. He is as if he were a man without 
mind. Is there no danger to horses and mules on this road ? No, 
there is no danger. 

Exercise 22. 

5J ^ Ud 
OsJ1 U 35JL b 



U Jt, 

b _ ** *IU A . e 



,* 
ir J uy 



Exercise 22 a. 

mitll walakin bint 'ammak ma hish ze ukhthd. El-qutt 
ma hush kebir zel-kalb. Qadd ma er-ragil da faqlr qadd ma et-tagir 
dikha g&arii. La hua ghanl qadd et-tagir lakin mush karlm 
qaddoh. Hal 'andak fulu.8 ketlr ? 'Andi mill ma 'andoh min 
el-fulus walakin mush kafdyah litaman haza'l-bet. Hal el-ma 
barid ? Na'am ya sldl hua barid kat-talg. Hat U shwyyeh fl 
kubbayah Vishrab. Qadd e genenat 'ammak kebirah ? Talha arbiin 
khatwah wa 'ardhd khamsah wa taldtln. Fihd zuhiir wa nabdtdt 
washgar kefir. 

Exercise 23. 

The season is three months. There are four seasons in the 
year, viz. spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Autumn is the 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IX PART I 



19 



season for fruit. The hofse is man's companion (partner) both in 
garrison and war. Man has eyes for the sense of sight, and ears 
for the sense of hearing. The varieties of animals are numerous ; 
the flesh of the ox, the calf, and of cows is useful as food for man, 
and the milk, also, of cows and goats. What is the population of 
Egypt ? The population of Egypt, leaving out Cairo, is 2,900,000. 
The population of Austria is 40,000,000. This was the advice 
of my father and mother. Life in this world has many ups and 
downs. From the earliest times knowledge was diffused in the 
countries of the east. How is the lady ? She is well, thank God ! 
Who was the cause of this ? I was not the cause of this. Boy, 
bring the tea-caddy. What is your father's profession 1 My father 
is a gentleman. What trade is his uncle ? His uncle is a gold- 
smith. He is the father of the poor and miserable. Fear of God 
is the head (chief) of wisdom. The wise man in the country of his 
birth is like gold in its mine. 



Exercise 24. 



^ JUt tftt J*? Jc JoU^a _ U ^^J-q u^ tfW O-i. 

utf dttH r &* J^l - c^ wty ^ >L^^ yb. - U 
j C U3\ j \j\ g ^{^y ,b. (/^ - c >Ji j^JI j j.1 

c ^ wljioit lit o5^ ^ csJUU v^. ^j c^ -^ V^ 8 *^U 

^\A\ c-rf - ^ w-1 -^JU ^,1 i^jy.l b .LJI jjJJ 
/ / *^^ ^x / "* *x " 

^>l ^Ua. !j5 J5 JLJ^ jjT* Jji.1 iLJa. ^^Jj *^ *-^ '- - 

^Jfc3 jb;^ -jll 8JL*J ^jO -. .> JL^J _ Ij^. 




UJI JJLC j^JI 




j Jle 



f (*** Biflr 

b L^aJ 



***' 



(ill)) 



B 2 



20 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Exercise 24 a. 

Bet el-qddl mush ba'id ketlr min hena. Hua faqat 'dla bud talatat 
amydl min hena. Bandt 'amml kwylsdt walakin awlddoh qablhln. 
Ahad khadddm el-melik ban ma* akhl fl's-suq embank. Ehda bandt 
el-amlr kdnet ma' ummJwt fl's-sabdh fil-genenah qarlb en-nahr. 
Fen akh bawdb sdhibak dil-waqt ? Ana aftikir innoh rah lis-suq 
cn-nahdr da. Abu zogat akhl 'alim ketlr. Ismoh e ? Set el-qddl 
wa bustdnoh kwylsln kefir walakin genenat akhoh mush kwyisah 
qadd keda. Husdn abuya el-gidid qowl ketlr wa kwy'is giddan. 
Tamanoh kam ? Kan tamanoh alf dinar daTiab. Bab el-medlnah 
'all world ketlr wa ma mid min khashab. Kanfl shamidan faddah 
keblr 'alas-wfrah fl'l-odah bitaetl wa kan flh sham'. Gib ll luqmat 
'esh wa kubayat ma lainnl gidn wa 'atshdn ketlr. Kan et-tdgir 
fis-suq 'andoh alf wa {aldtmlyah wa khamsin ratl shdi wa talatah 
qandtlr sukkar wa nusf w'arba *mlyah wa khamsin dira gokh 
iswid wa abyad fl dukkdnoh. El-genenah dl tulhd talatmlyah 
wa khamsah khatwdt wa 'ardhd taldfah wa sittln wa'l-bet- illl flhd 
irtifaoh arbiln qadam. Kam wazn saklbat (bdlat) el-qutn dl ? 
Wcznhd qantdr wa talatat arba* taqrlban. Da ze ba'doh 'andl. 

Exercise 25. 

This man is highly intellectual. The merchant is a very kind 
man. This judge is an illustrious and eminent person, well versed 
in affairs, by the intelligence of his administration. There was 
a sultan in Egypt, who was most just, a carer for the safety (of 
his people), generous, and possessed of all good qualities ; and he 
had a wise minister, who was a master of science, mathematics, 
and (elegance of) -style. He had two sons ; the name of the elder 
was Shemseddin Mahmud, and of the younger, Nureddin Ali. We 
arrived at a well-ordered island, which was well wooded and full 
of birds. I had a father, a merchant, who was a very wealthy man. 
One of the merchants was very rich in goods, a dispenser of favours, 
and the owner of slaves and servants, and he had a number of 
wives and children. This minister is wise, of keen understanding, 
and an upright administrator. The king was of great eminence 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 



21 



and lofty power, and he had immense wealth and a strong army, 
and he had three daughters and one son, and he was possessed 
of great knowledge, goodness, intellect and statesmanship. 



Exercise 26. 




Exercise 26 a. 

^5*a el-ragil karim en-nafs sharlf el-asl. Hal en-nas dol bulletin 
ow kesldmn faqat ? El-ashgar wal-gibal fil-Uldd dl ketirat el- 
alwan. Tugwr el-medlnah dikhd ashab ashghal tieyibln ketlr walakin 
ashab ed-dakaJdn hena ma liumsh nashltm wala shdtirln. En-nas 
fl zaman muhammad md kdntish hurrin el-afkdr icala ashab 'adl. 
Muhammad kdn 'abd alldJi tea nilr ed-dln. Ism wazir el-khallfah 
nur ed-dm kdn shems ed-dln 'all wa kdn zil 'Urn wa sahib tndl 
w'ashgJsal. Loh taldtat awldd wa binten. Kdn iam el-walad 
el-awwal 'all wat-tdnl muhammad iva't-tdlit hassan w'ism el-bintcn 
zenab wa hind. Kull awlddoh kdnil shugudn ketlr ahl 'ilm wal- 
bintln imrdten gamllaten u-a husndt es-slrah. Ahad muldk el-aga-m 
kdn naushirwdn el-'ddil icaldkin nar ed-dln hakim tilk el-bildd 
aldn wa hua zdlim. Wisilnd ila medlnah ma'murah ketlr an ica 
kdn ahlhd ashab mdl wa husnln es-slrah wa aid adab ica basdtlnhd 
zdt zill wa tuyur. 



22 PBACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Exercise 27. 

Lead is heavier than iron. This river is broader than the river 
Nile. She is prettier than her sister. The light of the moon 
is less than the light of the sun. A wise enemy is better than 
an ignorant friend. A live dog is better than a dead lion. There 
is no longer river in the world than the blessed river Nile. The 
moon is forty-nine times as small as the earth. The sun is thirteen 
hundred thousand times larger than our globe. He is greedier 
than a dog. There is no one more avaricious than he is. Might 
is right. Solomon was the wisest of mankind. The Mediterranean 
is the largest &ea in the world. The mountain of Kaf is the 
greatest mountain in the world. The Himalayas are the highest 
mountains in the world. The diamond is the most valuable of all 
jewels. Liberality in the poor is the highest form of generosity. 
To-day is the shortest day in the year. The stars are shining 
bodies in heaven, and the brightest among them is the sun. Many 
animals have stronger senses than man; thus, with the dog, its 
sense of smell is both stronger and keener. Europe is a more 
populous portion than all the other parts of the world, and its 
inhabitants are also very well educated. Asia is four times larger 
than Europe. 

Exercise 28. 



_ J 



^l^L eilll J^JI 

ju. _ ^ssj Ckj 5 

J53l ^ J^l jj^JI JUj J^l tt^J JU ^ LJU l 



Exercise 28 a. 

Dari? akhiik en-naJidr da ashal min embdrth. En-nas dol gahilin 
Jcetlr wcddkin aJtl bilad el-agam Ussy, aghal. El-howa akkaff min 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 23 

el-ma wa'l-hadld akhaff min er-rusas. Hal genenat abuk atwal 
min dlf lliya atwal bi mayat khatwah w'aard keilran. Fih 
wdhid tagir fis-suq (illl Ma) sahib ashgkal wismoh 'abd-er-rahman 
walakin akhuh fi medlnat buyMad ghjanl aktar minnoh wa akhuh 
hena ajtani aktar min el-kull. El-melik sullmdn kan ahkam en-na* 
wa kan ak-ar garni' muluk zamdnoh Indian w'ilman wa taqwa. 
Gibal auroba 'dliyah walakin gibal amerika a'all wa gibal el-hind 
a'ali min el-kull. El-fti haiwan nafi walakin el-gamal anfa 
wal-husdn el-anfa'. 

Exercise 29. 

What did you eat this morning? I ate until I was satisfied. 
We ate until we were satisfied. The girl ate until she was satis- 
fied. You ate and drank until you were satisfied. They neither 
ate nor drank. Where were you yesterday ] I was looking fa* 
you. Where did you go, we looked for you yesterday ? Did you 
look for us to-day ? No, we did not seek you. I wrote you a note. 
I wrote this letter to you. We wrote two letters to you. You 
did not write us an answer to the first letter. We wrote you 
another letter. Why did they not write us an answer ? Why did 
you not smoke ? What is this book ? From whom did you take 
it? I took it from my uncle's son. We took money frBm our 
father. Did you not know what occurred 1 No, sir, we did not 
know what happened. I heard strange things to-day. What did 
you learn ? I learnt nothing. I had heard much about him. We 
had not heard much about her. Had you sought her the day 
before yesterday ? No, we had not looked for her the day before 
yesterday? You had written this letter in haste. He had not 
understood this letter. I had not understood this letter. They 
had heard much about us. She had not known what occurred. 
We arrived at a pleasant island. Your dear letter arrived at the 
most auspicious hour. 



Exercise 30. 

c 

au jjj,- 



</' 



24 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



J* - g^cj 
gjufe 00^ * _ Ull V J15 </ gt^ll ^^U _ J, J 



^LsJl iSyj ,^0^ ^^cj 8^5 UJJLC - b 

5 U _ 



Exercise 30 a. 

Ana katabt gawab ila umml fl haza's-sabah waldkin akhl lean 
Jcatab liha gawab awwdl embdrih. ' 'Ammetl ma katdbetsh li en-nahar 
da. Wazir d-melik ragil hakim wa 'alim katab wa targam kutub 
kefirah. Hal er-ragil darab el-husdn b'asd ow bikurbdg ? Dardboh 
mardran b'asd 'ala rdsoh. MdfaUimetsh el-imrdt e qal lilid el-qadl. 
Hlya kdnet betidah khdlis. Le md katabtsh loh gawdb? Ana 
katabt loh waldkin hua kdn rah. Mimm samit ente kkabar el-harb 
fi's-suddn embdrih ? Fl gawdb min 'ammi. E kdn 'andukum 
li'l-futur es-sabdh da ? Kdn 'andnd qahwa.li w'esh wa bed wa 
fawdkih. Esh-shdi ahabb 'aleya min el-qahwah fi'l-futur. Md 
fahimtish er-rdgil qdl e? Ana quit loh inn kaldmoh kdn ghcr 
ndj? wa bila ma'na. 



Exercise 31. 

lit _ ijac i5 



\ ^VjVlj ^LJl 

jut 



Ui J^ - . 

eU. - 



U> - CJ 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 25 

Exercise 31 a. 

Awldd el-madrasah darasu durilsuhum bi igtihdd ketir fi'l-lel. 
El-itdliy&ni dahan abwdb wa shabdblk el-bet biliydqat 'azlmah. 
Ana samit inn el-askar kdnu qatalu kuU rigdl el-inedinah wa 
h aba s H hull en-nisd wa'l-awldd. Allah ya'rif es-sahih e waldkin 
d-khabar baited qowl. Le el-khadddm ma kanassh wa Id masah 
ardiyat el-odah bitaetl f Ana uzunn lainnoh (Itannoh) kesldn. 
El-khwdgah lane kdn muallim 'dlimfil-arabl wa targam d-qurdn 
vfal-alaf lelah U'l-inklizi. Wazan esh-shdi 'asharat artal wa's-sukkar 
khamastdshar. Hal khitmt el-gawdb ? Na'am yd ndl. Klmdoh 
baqa ila'l-bostah. Misik et-tifl fl adru'oh wa lamas rdsoh Vydoh. 
Man 'amal tdwilaJt el-khashab di ? 'Amalhd en-naggdr wa'l- 
kursii/en dol keman. Hal ente ga'alt el-bauwdb yiqfl el-dbwdb 
wa sh-shabdblJc taht ? Ld yd sidl lissa. Baqa fmil keda qawdm. 

Exercise 32. 

What are you doing? I am writing to my father. We are 
writing a letter besides the one we have written. Where are we 
going? We are going to the provost-marshal. He is going (or 
goes) to school. She is going to market. Do you not smoke ? I do 
not smoke. Why do you not drink wine ? Do you know Arabic ? 
Yes, I know a little. He is returning from hunting. He returns 
from Constantinople. He understands Turkish, but does not know 
the affairs of Constantinople. Does he know how to read ? He 
cannot read. Do you know this man? Do you not know this 
man ? Yes, I know him well. He does not understand this. That 
which I understand, thou dcst not understand. What are you 
doing ? We are doing whatever appears fitting to us. You have 
no right to do this thing. You are not acting like a wise man. 
This business will not end well. This affair will end well, please 
God I Where do you live ? We are living in the town. I always 
live in the country. Where do they live 1 Is the house in which 
they live far from here ? You acted like a friend. I acted to the 
best of my ability. All right, you did well. Did you hear us ? 
Yes, we heard you, but we did not UDderstmid your words. We 
had not understood that which we had heard. You have not gone 



26 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

out yet ? No, sir, we have not gone out yet. What has happened 1 
The soldiers struck me with their swords on the head. We wrote 
two letters besides those which we had written. 

Exercise 33. 

The wisest man is he who perceives the consequences (of any- 
thing). The most wicked man is the educated man, who makes 
no use of his learning. Everything in the hand of the slave 
belongs to his master. He is contented with whatever Gcd has 
appointed to him. The highest part of the body, which is the 
chest, contains the heart and the lungs. I sent you the things 
"which you were seeking. Contentment profits health and soul too. 
The spring is the most pleasant season of the year, and during it 
everybody goes out into the gardens. Europe has many manu- 
factories, which were the cause of the wealth of her people. The 
continent of Europe ends in a southerly direction in three peninsulas, 
the first of which is Spain, the second Italy, and the third Turkey. 
Fog is a sea of vapour, which becomes fine drops of water. 

Exercise 34. 

\ IS ! _ U J\ J*J _ lt3 d 

j^ Jp ^ J* _ iu Uj* J 

Ul ^ ^J iX^W JjJI J && JLll u Ul ^ Js*b 

\ U Ul 



I* bl 
J* - ^1 COA.J ^LJi JLc iL*js& JU j 



U Ul 



Exercise 34 a. 

AIM Vyektub gawab fl'l-odah bita'etoh. Tiin.il e hena ? Ana 
aq{a el-gokh f ala shan el-kheydt illl rculh yimil ll badlah niinnoh. 
Hal Uaa ragil mugtahid wa yimil el-badlah bl'l-agal ? El-husan 






KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 27 

illl shuftoh fi's-suq embdrih kdn ixwid wana a'rif sdhiboh ittl 'auz 
yebioh. Ana md aqdarsh asadak ma 'andish fulus. Atarif en-nds 
ilti gau libeti fi'l-medinah embdrih wa galasu fi'l-hosh taht esh- 
shagarah el-kelnrah ? Ana mfra'rifhumsh waldkin shiribu dukhkhdn 
wa qahwah lil-misa wa baden kharagu. Diklw, er-rdgil el-aguz 
'dlim ketir yarif 'Urn el-hisdb wa hadls d-qurdn. Hal tishrib 
ente shwyyeh nibit wa isigdrah ? La kattar kterak kelir ana ma 
ishribsh dukhk^dn wa shurb en-nibit bar am 'and'nd. 

Exercise 35. 

J 



ISA!! J- - U C UJ1 J j-t 



sii . 



Exercise 35 a. 

Fi'l-bilad dikha nahr 'arid ketir w'umqoh 'isifln taldfin qaddam. 
Hal hua sari' qadd md hua 'arid wa 'amiq ? Lau kunt katabt loh 
embdrih Tkdn rdh libet akhl fis-sabdh da. Fasl esh-shita altaf 
fusul es-sanah fi barr masr liann el-lel mush band ziyddah wa 
Id en-nahar hdr ziyddah. Shirib el-kalb el-moyah fik-kubbdyah 
waldkin md kdnsh akal el-lahm 'alal-ard. Hott el-moyah gambl 
'alaa-sufrah di wa hdt shwyyet nibit. Kull she ndfi l~il-insdn hua 
fi'd-dunya 'ala shdn illi 'anduhum sabr yesadu anfasuhum. 

Exercise 36. 

Where are you going to 1 To Tantah. Where are you going 1 
To Ghezeereh (the island). Is he walking or riding ? We do not 
know. ' Where is your brothei 4 ] I do not know. He is sitting at 
his work. Where does he live? He lives downstairs (below). 
I live upstairs (above). Where is the tribe pitched ? The tribe 
is camped in this place. Do you not understand me ? I do not 
understand. He understands nothing. Do you know Arabic? 



28 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Yes, I know a little. What is the weather like ? The weather 
is bad. It is raining slightly. From which way does the wind 
come? From the east. How are you? I am only so so. My 
head is giddy from too much work. Sit down a little. Sit in 
front of us. Sit there ! Boy ! do your work. Open the door. 
Shut the door. Light a pan of fire. Open (p.) the doors. Shut (p.) 
the windows. Groom, wash the horse. "Wash his head with soap. 
Will you kindly do me a favour, sir ? Go into the house and bring 
out a bowl of water. Put on your coat. Dress yourself well, the 
air is cold out. Learn your lesson by heart, my son. Go to school. 
Sit with the wise, and shun the ignorant. Listen to the words 
of your teacher. Let us go to the garden to-morrow. Do what 
appears fitting to you. Act according to orders. What did you 
do? I translated this chapter. What did you do? We trans- 
lated this letter from German into Arabic. What are you doing ? 
I am playing with my sister. Does this horse please you? This 
horse pleases me very much. This horse does not please us. 
I had arrived before him. You had arrived after us. He had 
entered the house before us. I had gone out. We returned from 
hunting before you. If the weather keeps like this we will go 
into the garden. If the weather is bad we will remain at home. 
He who keeps silent never repents. He who digs a well for his 
brother will surely tumble into it (himself). 

Exercise 37. 

_,*! _ yjj *Uc * ^ju ^\& AJ\ dlU y\ o**~ lit 
lit _ j*xil 



- u 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 29 

i *A5^ 
UxZJ - 41)1 ^ ^ eill JJ>S uJLlN jli yi CJ^ 

>! ^ 

e^Jfi 



Exercise 38. 

Was he sitting on the chair ? Yes, he was sitting on the chair 
in front of the table. Did he understand ? I do not know whether 
he understood or not. What were you doing ? We were smoking. 
We were not drinking wine. What was she doing 1 She was 
spinning. What were they doing to you ? They beat me. They 
will have finished their work before you return from market. When 
I return from the town you will have done your work. I shall 
have finished by six o'clock. At what house are you staying? 
At the house of my cousin (uncle's son) Sayyid Abd Allah. 
Common longcloth is made of linen and flax. Cotton is obtained 
from a small tree, and is spun, and calico made from it. Wool 
is the product of the sheep, and from it is made felt. The doors 
of the houses, the windows, tables, and cupboards are made of 
a white wood, and painted with paint of various colours. The 
caps which are used by man are made out of the skins of animals, 
and also of silk. They make kites of paper painted with oil. 
The kite is tied with string. Metals are buried in the earth. 
Manufactured gold and silver contain a small quantity of copper, 
the amount of which is known by the touchstone. Europe is more 
populated than all the rest of the portions of the globe, and its 
countries are full of towns; and its farms are cultivated with 
the greatest care. The day and night are divided into twenty-four 
hours, and the hour is divided into sixty minutes. This book was 
printed in the city of Cairo, at the Boulack press, in the year 1301. 

Exercise 39. 

^-^^r u ^ 1 

\j\ oj> oot ol* IX i 



30 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

U </- 431 J J/j < 



f ^ u^cl 1 lit- ^\ till - Ji, XJJJII j 



; L.\ cu^ - ((8% or) 







Exercise 40. 

The doorkeeper opened the door of the house with the key. 
The writer was sitting in the quarter writing a letter for the 
peasant Did the carpenter saw the wood with the saw? Tell 
my servant to sweep the study well with the broom. I am 
going out now to the meeting (party) at the Tiouse of my friend 
Ahd-el-Kareem Pasha. The cook was in the kitchen cooking the 
food for the travellers, who were sitting outside the rest-house in 
the shade of the large trees near the river. Go to Mr. So and So's 
study and give him this letter. The mosque of El-Azhar is an 
assembly of the learned in Cairo. The travellers did not stop at 
this stage, but at the second stage from here. The sun rises in 
the east and sets in the west. This paper is not ruled with the 
ruler. The Boulack press is the most complete press in Egypt, 
and this is due to the energy of its enlightened and clever director. 
I did not find my friend at his house, and they informed me that 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 31 

be was sent for to the meeting. H. H. the Khedive, Tewfik Pasha, 
visited the school belonging to the Ministry of Public Instruction, 
and will honour all the schools by visiting them. The priest is 
standing in the mosque, praying. If you please lend me a key. 

Exercise 41. 
.01 - o~n j jio, C UJU> * J^Jl ^ Jyuu jf^W 

Jo i-ji -. UjJl j X*U.^t^A 8/bUJI^x- 

*j l> J^Jl i^}U/fl ^X> J5 
-UJI ' 

. J U 



eLJl ( ^3 ool 

* **^ (J <^ 



O ^-*-*-^ ^- O t& 9* * * "'^ jraa^ ^ ^ ^ * ^ O 

l*,^^ &i^ - bl^ yJ w.^5 I J J^ vJO JU^ ^..^j ^^ 

s ^jjo jjjjj (JT ji ,.M 5^^ cjt j^t 9 J J\S ^^j^y 



Exercise 42. 

How is your brother ? I do not know. I wrote him two letters, 
but he has not answered. He has not answered yet. From the 
hour of his departure we have had no news of him. When are 
you going to start ? I shall leave the day after to-morrow. Shall 
you go by land or sea ? I am going by steamer. If you would 
write me a letter, I will answer at once. Fulfil your promise. 
May God cause you to arrive safely. They informed me about this 
business. Inform me if you get the money. I sent it you by 
post, but you did not reply. This business will not succeed in 
your hands. Did you let him know from the beginning 1 I had 



32 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

told him about it a long time ago. He took out the purse from 
the old man's pocket, and taking the key out of it, he opened the 
saddle-bag and took one of the two purses ; he then put back the 
other purse, and shut the saddle-bag, and replacing the key in 
the bag put it in the old man's pocket. How is your father? 
Give him my kind regards (i. e. wish him well on my part). It 
appears he is a good man. He showed piety. He mediated 
between his brothers and took them into partnership in his 
business. This is a big affair in my opinion. This is a good 
idea. This saddle-bag will do capitally for these clothes. If you 
please, sir, give me a little coffee. With all my heart (on my eyes 
and head). Thank you 1 Boy, finish your work 1 I finished this 
work in three hours. Boy, go up on to the roof, and bring down 
the mosquito curtain which we spread in the sun ! This is not 
her watch. It is out of order. Send it to the watchmaker so that 
he may repair it. 

Exercise 43. 



s U l^J ^ u_i^o wl Jyb JJ1 (aJy^V j^U 0*^1 Ul 

- as), iolT^ J j 



J* - * f & 

u a ^ ik-^jb. iiijo. ut _ i-xjb j 

^ JLJ1 

lit . ^J, uJU UJl U b Jl 
csU clo 4)1 



G il 



^ ^JVjIflJ JJJI ^ j^U. b j^5 'J J^ oP ^ ^ 

i 

J> 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 33 

Exercise 44. 

During the night the river froze owing to the severity of the 
cold. You are such a proud individual that no one can speak to 
you. This town is large and all the inhabitants are courteous 
and polite. Everybody does just whatever appears right in his 
own eyes with the greatest politeness. It is not in our power to 
have been born rich. Do not interfere with me in what I am 
doing. I shall not interfere with you in that. I am accustomed 
to reading in the evening. He dare not go out at night. He 
bargained with the seller about the price of the goods. Do not 
oppose me in what I am doing. They fought four against seven. 
The accused was recognized by the engineer who was with the 
general at the time he was betrayed, for he also was struck with 
the very same dagger and wounded many times. The before- 
mentioned accused had been found hidden in the garden in which 
the assassination took place, and in the garden itself was found the 
dagger with which the general was wounded, and several other 
things belonging to the accused. The before-mentioned accused 
was questioned as to his name, age, place of abode, and profession. 
He replied that his name was Suleiman, that he was twenty-four 
years of age ; then, that he was an Arabic clerk by profession, and 
his abode was at Aleppo. He was questioned about the people to 
whom he wrote yesterday. He replied that they had all gone 
away. He was asked how it was possible for him not to know 
any one of those to whom he wrote during the past few days, and 
how they had all gone away. He answered that he did not know 
those to whom he used to write, and that it was not probable. 

Exercise 45. 

Hunger and thirst destroyed him. Place food and drink before 
him. Hunger and thirst are destroying me. Boy, put some- 
thing to eat and drink before me. He is very diligent and learns 
well. I am his teacher, and I teach him twice a week. "What 
has happened ? It does not seem that he knows what happened. 
When are you going to set out 1 It is my intention to go away 
next month. My father went away last month. Can you move 
n c 



34 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

this stone? This stone is too heavy for me, I cannot move it. 
Boy, wash the horse. Take down the mosquito curtains. Make 
the hed, and send the watch to the watchmaker so that he may 
repair it. It is impossible for me to do that which has heeu 
arranged for me. He is very rich; he can spend one hundred 
piastres a week. How much can you spend a month? I can 
spend three hundred piastres a month ; but during the last month, 
I only spent two hundred. Can you tell me where Mr. Shakur 
el-Khooree lives ? Yes, he is at present interpreter in the office 
of the paymaster of the English army in Cairo, but I cannot tell 
you where he lives. Neither plants nor trees are capable of move- 
ment by themselves for they are fixed in the earth. 

Exercise 46. 



Jl 



J! ^ 



JJ Ley J y^Jul lt u^q - ^^^ -** ^^ -XJLfr UljJ 



^5,3 ut v= 



- dbb c*JI J i^jt lit u^YTil * $) iJ^ls JlL 

-t ut, u 



^v uu ^ju^b ggiJi i jui- 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 35 

Exercise 47. 

He is small and weak, and notwithstanding all this, he exerts 
himself a great deal. He played instead of working. You only 
think of play. He had already washed himself, and had dressed 
when I entered. This town is large and contains several markets. 
He borrowed two hundred piastres. The number of the population 
of Austria amounts to forty millions. I was obliged to go out. 
We were obliged to go out. Work, but slowly, and do not hurry 
yourself. If we place ourselves in front of the sun in the middle 
of the day, then we have the east on our left, and the west on 
our right ; the south in front of us, and the north behind us. The 
air which fishes breathe is found in the water. Air is an exceed- 
ingly light substance, and from its movements arises wind, which 
colours the sky azure. Water drops from the air in the form of 
rain. The year is divided into twelve months. The lunar year is 
composed of 354 days. Brass is composed of three parts of copper 
and one part of zinc. Bell metal is composed of 78 parts (okes) of 
copper mixed with 28 parts (okes) of tin. The minister is a wise 
man and experienced in affairs. He is a man in debt from borrow- 
ing people's money. He borrowed from the merchants until at 
last he greatly increased his debt. Metals are always mixed with 
other substances. Tin expands less than iron. The minister 
ordered the slave to be brought before him. What are you waiting 
for, sir? I am expecting the slave with the key of the house. 
Mankind and all animals only live by breathing air. The greatest 
diligence is incumbent upon you in the acquirement of knowledge. 




36 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

_ Jlk> 




y eUj !/*(jj ji '3,1 

* - r 1' IC^-IM: 
.^ t i. (<y;c Jj AjJb 



Exercise 49. 

Your father loves your brother more than you do. There are 
people who prefer truth to sugar. People always like leisure more 
than service. This cloth is very dear, we want some cheaper 
than that. Here it is ; how do you like it 1 It is incumbent on 
mankind to love virtue. Do you not like drinking wine ? No, 
I do not like it. I like making improvements in my house. 
"Would you like some bread and a little butter? Do you like 
eating apples ? I think that you like play. I think that you will 
fulfil your promise. We had not thought that they were going to 
start to-morrow. What is the matter with the clock so that it 
does not strike ; perhaps it is spoilt ? As soon as noon arrives 
(strikes) we sit down to table. Where does this road lead to? 
This shows me that his words are wanting in sincerity. The dog 
smells things at a greater distance off than man. Boy, lock the 
door with the key or only close it! Draw the curtain. Set 
the chairs out for me, and put them in their places. Put the food 
on the table. Pile up the plates and the wine-glasses. Wash the 
horse and put the saddle and bridle on him. How many paras are 
there in the paper, count them? Stretch your feet out to the 
extent of your quilt (i. e. cut your coat according to your cloth). 
O, my son ! pay attention to everything until you talk well. 
According as I pay attention, so I shall learn. The world is cold 
without. We feel the cold in the room. If you rub two pieces 
of sugar together a slight spark will be produced. I adhered to 
my intention. 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN TART I 37 

Exercise 50. 



, cr o. 

l i l 



Jji Jl 

\ *j>l JJJ feUJl 
U ljTj5 jJb eUl e^lil^J - A^jjCiU AXJI>. j U 

yj -. Lr \ ^ (Jj\) j^UJl ooi 
J-s? -/- illL^^ii^ l^ \ju. 




Exercise 51. 

He had arrived by steamer. When lie arrives in Cairo he will 
send you a book. I had fallen from the horse. The birds were 
falling from the trees owing to the severity of the cold. Alisfor- 
tune falls on those who are least expecting it. This box holds 
three and a half pounds. This room holds eight or nine people. 
This place will not hold us. Not a penny has reached us from 
you. You promise according to your hopes. My head aches 
every night for an hour or two. Her eyes ache. There are many 
people who love me more than you. The air which fishes breathe 
is found in the water. Metals are found buried in the earth 



38 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Too much drinking brutalizes the intellect. "What did this bcok 
cost you (stand you in) 1 The climate of this country does not suit 
my constitution. The first duty of the child is obedience. 



Exercise 52. 

y.Ul Jte, j cr * uliJLJI Jc**- ^ J 



Ja _^. J\ j IL 

l ^01 u^U JJ! U ^U ^ v^*^" Ul - jj 



r UJl 5JJC J! u Jl li 



u - 



e4*Jl 



Exercise 53. 

I saw you yesterday in the bazaar. "We have not seen you for 
a long time. I am delighted to see you well. We went yester- 
day to the pasha's at the Boulack press. She went with her 
brother. My friend died of his disease after ten days, and he 
was always at the point of death. All the soldiers of the English 
Army will soon leave this country. The climate of this country 
does not suit their health. I might have gone, but since last year 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 39 

until now I had not again thought about it. And where do you 
wish to go ? I want to go to Italy. Yesterday I saw something 
large in the court, which the porters brought from Boulack. What 
was it ? How did you sleep last night ? I sat up during the past 
night and slept little. I did not sleep, because my uncle had 
asked people to Eupper. What is the meaning of this ; you are 
sleeping without your clothes ? Yes, sir, with only a shirt. Are 
you not afraid of catching cold ? I always sleep clad. I am afraid 
of the dampness of the night. I sleep on the roof without cover. 
I cannot stand the heat, but when it gets cold I sleep clothed. 
How are youl How did you sleep during the night which has 
passed? Sleep well and arise in health. Where are you going? 
I am unwell, my head swims. Do what appears fitting to you. 
The moon revolves round the earth. 

Exercise 54. 
V iUN ij* 



rJ |t _ 



O Uj ^s ioCU Aa-U (J* ^U*)! ^1 

u ^=> u u a - 

u a 



I3lj J-JI 



" ** o'.ii -o * ~ 3 s "o -.*!>-. o^ *-*o*^- 

Uij ^' Jt. jj-,1 jJL. lli-o. Ij^c^Jsi jib j J*, jac Jo.jj 
ijij jj ^ Jill ^ SUs fiil *lsljl 

*" - Q rf 



^ 

UU if J6i ^ jj^Jl eUJ Jc LjT J^I ^? '\\] jl^t) iZL*. 

ii jit jL ^jilL" LLJ JJu ^Z c^lt G* 'j^J! H^ii^ u 

: ' 






40 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Exercise 55. 

Truly this appeared so to me. The tray seems made of brass. 
You would do better to say that it seems made of iron. This 
house looks like the fort. The convent which you see there 
appears like a palace. From the first it was apparent that this 
thing was right. What has become of him? After being poor 
he became rich. Boy, bring me a little water for me to wash. 
Very good, sir, I will bring it to you directly. Give me a little 
coffee. Yes, sir, I am going at once. Sir, Mr. So and So wants 
you. What does he want 1 ? I do not know. Go and inquire. 
Tell him that I am busy. Tell him that I have gone out. O, sir, 
he knows that you are at home. Go now and keep a sharp look- 
out there. Yes, sir, I will not move from here. "What does this 
boy want who is kissing my hands 1 What is the matter with you, 
you are sad? Never mind, sir I My head is giddy, the heat 
annoys me. Do you know how to swim in the river ? Certainly I 
know how to swim, (and) I swam in the sea. "Well, but do you not 
know that some one was drowned yesterday ? For how much will 
you sell me this horse ? I have no intention of selling my horse. 
At what price is a pair of large skins sold? For two hundred 
piastres. Is not corn sold in this village ? How is it sold ; cannot 
you bring us some of it 1 Cannot we send a portion of it 1 Tell 
the peasants to bring us something to eat. We will keep them 
safe, never fear. Bring us three camels on hire. Find five 
donkeys for us. Most of the animals you brought us are weakly. 
There are three camels and four mules among them which are 
not fit for service ; you must bring us others. Come along ! let 
us go to market. Go with us (an$) let us take a walk. Go straight 
and do not dawdle on the way. Yes, sir, I will not stop any- 
where. Go home, but go straight and at once. Come, stand up ! 

Exercise 56. 

I ain soon going to my village. Is your village far from here ? 
Yes, sir, it is far. Does one go by land or by sea ? One goes by 
land. Are you going to ride or walk 1 We are going to ride, for 
one goes through the mountains. Bring me a little fire. What 






KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 41 

do you want to do with it ? I want to dry the hed. Bring the 
box in which are the needle and scissors. What do you want 
to do with them ? I want them ; I wish to sew ihis skull-cap with 
silk. What are you doing? This is not befitting your position. 
He is a man famous in war between brave people. Welcome ! 
We are glad to see you (your coming bestowed a blessing on us). 
It is a long time since we saw you. We longed to see you. Please 
take a rest. May God increase your favour. Gold is not altered 
by air, and if it alters, its change will be only slight. White iron 
is called steel. If we melt sand and alkali in the fire glass is 
produced therefrom. Heat changes the surface of the water, and 
causes it to rise as mist. Ten stars are distinguished among 
the heavenly bodies, because they change their places, and these 
are called planets. If the moon appear by the side of the sun, it 
is called a crescent. Copper is a poisonous material, therefore it 
requires to be tinned. The guest is in the hands of the host. The 
ordinary red colour is procured by dyeing with the root of the 
madder. Who is he that you say is. in the habit of begging for 
charity (alms) ? The light of the moon is derived from the sun. 
See what the host does with his guest 1 Silk is taken from small 
worms reared in houses until they become cocoons ; then they tuni 
to white butterflies, and the silk is taken from these cocoons. 



Exercise 57. 



U <JU*a. da.\a. OJO U IIJ V 



.L, js jj\ jo; dy*t ^ t 




42 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

slU ^ l^vj JljJ jj. ^ J* J-JI 
^ I: _ s*rt\$ V, stS" JJJI 



jil w A r - i 



Ji jiil i5i ^ J^^^Cj tij,^^ jjxi y^C G MJ^- 

* Jaw ^ dbajlT (/il wllUl UU j UJ 



Exercise 58. 

Is the house where you live, and to which we are going, far 
from here 7 Are we going to walk or ride ? We did not forget 
our promise. I thought that he would be pleased. He was not 
pleased with him. Will you hire my house of me 1 I let him my 
garden. How much is this cloth 1 It is twenty piastres the ell. 
You have an exceedingly nice watch. It is at your service (take 
it freely). Thank you, but how much is it 1 What did you pay 
for it 7 The gentleman sold it for thirty pounds. It is not dear, 
and it is a good watch. If you are pleased with it, it is at your 
disposal. Thanks for your kindness, I do not want it, sir. The 
judge bought his neighbour's garden for one thousand dirhems. 
For how much did you buy this horse? I bought him for two 
hundred pounds. For how much will you sell me this donkey? 
That is too dear for me, I cannot buy him. If I had had money 
by me, I would have bought this book. They bought fifty ells of 
velvet at one hundred piastres the ell. When you have quite sold 
all our gcods, buy us nails instead. Will you not be found at 
home to-morrow 1 You will find the book underneath the table. 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 43 

When shall we begin lessons ? I waited a full hour for him. Do 
not let us wait for you. Wait for me at nine to-day. For how 
much did you sell your horse ? I sold my horse for a thousand 
piastres. You told me that yesterday, many times; but to-day 
I have forgotten it. What did they call the boy 7 They called 
him Jacob, the son of Abd-allah the son of Zeid. 



Exercise 59. 

fclg iJU 1=^1 - i^UJI^-. J ^Lsy j* V UU 



i,Uil ii*c ^ruJ U - c~-Jl vju 
l V -. *j)j3 CA^ 11 O.J1 j eb J-- o^iiJl JA _ wlxj 
lit _ JU - ut *J5U &. 



J Oua- JA J^ U 

lit - C ;U1 JLC ehL JM v 

cuii 



l JS 



2 o5P m -s&. ui ^ jt ^Ji, ^> s^Ji jOilii 



.-* e *-x* '*' o - *.. * V *^ ^> 

* c^^' **' ^^ -v^r ^ ^* 




44 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Exercise 60. 

At what time will you take the emetic ? I will take it early 
to-morrow. Did he take a carriage ? I will take you on my side. 
May I get my uncle's consent 1 We will take a pigeon to eat with 
us. We shall not get in without any money. Take a loaf of bread 
in your pocket. Take a little milk. Eat and drink. Take this money. 
Indigo is derived from the juice of a plant. The majority of plants 
draw their nourishment through their fruit and roots, and hence 
medicines are derived therefrom. The metal from which iron is 
derived is a substance mixed with red earth. The ornament 
which is made of silver has one-fifth of copper in it. The rebels 
took many of our army prisoners. The captain ordered me to 
come to him the next day and begin the work, but I could not 
come before now. The sick man recovered, and I congratulated 
him on his recovery. Who will venture to resist the Government 1 
God pities us as the father pities his son. The ministry was 
formed to-day with Nubar Pasha at its head. I have commenced 
the study of the Arabic language, and am now reading in the new 
book. Riaz Pasha refused to accept the ministry except under 
(certain) conditions. I heard that my neighbour has let a flat of 
his house, and wants to let the other. Do not ask me about 
to-day's news, for it is as (black as) pitch. We are delighted to 
gee you, sir, (your honour has pleased us.) May God keep you. 



Exercise 61. 

^JJI j \jfj 

* f f f 

IJUfc U-JJjJ Ul Xjl _ 



- 

sll ^^u* sjl J\S . (j\ J15 U 

JJt </ dJyb J gj U 

(gj4B. U "Jlj 

l Jji lJ^iS' (oSll (js v JaJ (*Ut l lil 



st I* 



TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 45 

J JjM OJU _ fiUU JLaJj (S)^ ^JO 4)1 



ir 

* 



of o o, o- o- -o- ^r o-o o* -o ^o = o - ^ , 

a \ J&> Jj$ && ,> jCjj O-JI >l JS yjUJl^a^-U _ ii, 

36 .u _ 



i 



Ilii j" uCi ^ Cw^s Ls ((ill ) jlu 



Exercise 62. 

I shall return late to-day. The father is coming late to-night. 
Was the king pleased with the ministers 1 We are highly delighted 
to see you. You have pleased us to-day. Give us the pleasure 
(of your company) to-night. No, please excuse us. You are 
without excuse. He refused to come until now. He must come 
at this hour. He came to me at seven o'clock. He has not 
been to me. Where have you been to ? I looked for you yesterday. 
I did not come to you because the mud and slush were so bad. 
You came to me at four o'clock. I came to Austria in the year 
1883. If I had known, I would not have come alone. Stay till 
I come back. I am coming to fetch you at four o'clock. He 
thought that I should not come. Shall you come to-day? For 
God's sake, come ! Is it a long time that you are staying in this 
country? About a year. The tailor is coming the day after 
to-morrow. The winter is drawing near. 



46 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Exercise 63. 

He acts according to the orders which he receives from the 
minister. Whence does he give them (their) salary ? I want you 
to come together; because if you were to come by yourself he 
would be jealous. Tell them to come and not be afraid. It is 
now going on four months that I am here. Are you not coming ? 
Whence does he come ? He comes from Alexandria. We will leave 
this until next week. I saw my father in my sleep. I came and 
found you going to bed. Did you ever see or hear of such a man 
in your life ? I have seen few people so well informed as he is. 
I can only see one house. The face of the moon which we see, 
is the one we always see, and we never see the other side. The 
size of the moon at its rising appears as large as the sun, and the 
stars are only seen as bright points, and being so far off, we see 
them so small. If God wills, everything will come to pass. What 
God wills, happens ; and what He does not will, does not happen. 
Command us as you will. Ask what you desire. If you like, then 
I will direct you to his house. 

Exercise 64. 




J^ Jj ^\ AJO,l ^ 

it** 6 - **- ** ^JJ 



ir 



ili^ JLiI JJJ il ^ ^* 

ilni isf ^Ii ^ ji2 SbjL ij i^iJ J,^* 3 JA J,^ j* 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 47 



i di 

- ivJ ttj ,3 LJI . 



Fable I. 

THE DEEE AND THE FOX. 

Once upon a time a deer being thirsty came to a spring of 
water to drink, and the water was in a deep well, Now, how- 
eyer much he tried to reach it, he was unable to do so. The fox 
on seeing him said, ' O brother ! you did wrong in not thinking 
how to get out before you descended (into the well).' 

Fable 2. 

THE DEER AND THE LION. 

Once upon a time a deer frightened by hunters fled away into 
a cave, where a lion entered and strangled him. The deer then 
said to himself, ' Woe is me ! how unlucky I am ; I fled away from 
man to fall into the hands of one who is much more powerful/ 

Exercise 65. 

jJUl 




48 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 




^ * - o -^.. -**/' ~~~? * - - - v* ^ 

jjUJl r l5Cj US ^Ai - v^U j^^j j 



Fable 3. 

THE BABBITS AND THE FOXES. 

Once upon a time there was war between the vultures and the 
rabbits. The latter went to the foxes to demand an alliance with 
them, and help against the vultures. So these said in reply to 
them, ' had we not known you, nor known with whom you were 
fighting, then we would have done so.' 

Fable 4. 

THE WOMAN AND THE HEN. 

A woman had a hen, which used to lay a silver egg every day. 
The woman said in her own mind, if I increase its food, it will 
lay two eggs a day; but when she increased its food, its belly 
burst and it died. 

Exercise 66. 

ULS iujl>. i 



, JU1 



KEY TO EXERCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 49 



!H> 



Id 

* Ji 



- *fli jy j'ii 'ii iLj. uiiT ts M\IU - j^f c 



3i f ui. Gi 'J u 



ill jll G 



J^ jlti Gtj yilS JJ^[ u cJj ^ j^ u>* ijji?- j* JltTuiI 

w - ^s o* ^ o* -r5 *- -- *o ' o - * o 
* C5J^* ^ li^ J C>il 8^0 8^ ^ py-Jl J* 32 ^** VL* 

Fable 5. 

THE BOY. 

A boy once threw himself into a stream of water and did not 
know how to swim. And when he was on the point of drowning, 
he called out for help to a man who was passing by in the road. 
He came to him and began to scold him for tumbling into the 
river. The boy said to him, ' Oh, save me first from death, and 
blame me (as much as you like) afterwards ! ' 

II D 



60 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Fable 6. 

THE BLACKSMITH AND THE DOG. 

A blacksmith had a dog, which was always asleep as long as 
the blacksmith was at work; but whenever he gave over work 
and sat down with his companions to have a meal, the dog got up. 
The blacksmith said to him, ' Oh, you bad dog, how is it that the 
noise of the hammering, which causes the very earth to tremble, 
does not awake you, yet you get up directly you hear the sound of 
chewing 1 ' 



j il ^\5^3J ^ /4? M: 11 ^ 




-^* *-^ O^ fO ..>..- -^0*0 

oVl^ v^XJ LJ^ oJL- J JU j^.jA 



KEY TO EXEKCISES AND STORIES IN PART I 51 

p 

* ii j^ j* 



M,J ^ 



Fable 7. 

THE LION AND THE TWO BULLS. 

Once upon a time a lion attacked two bulls, but they both 
defended themselves by butting at him with their horns, so that 
he was not able to get between them. But when he was alone 
with one of them, he deceived him and promised that he would 
not oppose them if he would only separate from his companion ; 
but when they did so, he throttled them both. 

Fable 8. 

THE WOLVES. 

Some wolves found some cow-skins soaking in a pool of water, 
and nobody was by. So they all agreed together to drink up all 
the water until they reached down to the skins, and then to eat 
them up. But they all burst from the great quantity of water 
which they drank and died, and they had not (even then) reached 
the skins. 

Exercise 68. 

JUjjC*!! oJ$1 HUj 
Jj3 ^jJI JsM Jl ^U 




D 2 



52 PKACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART H 



iv 



. J* J** 

H'jj ijJLJl ^ii. i>)~ U^.^LLii.Vbj eTiUj-JI tt^> 

*-^* -** o - - - .- y' . * o - 

IAJA>! Ij^^l V ,jl 8-flJ gi JUiJ . &**>JifiJ 1 Jl ^y? 

'I ji3l <e i ,c= 



^U 
u u 






I A 

uu ^ " p * ' 



jJ J4& jit /iUl ill alii 8 



U* illl Jlw - V vllU -. i* ciu il JUS - 



.i ui u - 

JJIfl i 



* 



SELECTIONS 



FROM 



AEABIC AUTHOES AND NEWSPAPEES 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 55 

3UU1 
JJ *o 



^01 ri fj > > LUJ i^UJI j^i/j^ o^L 
ijWi yjil i^l ^ ^ U 
J-JI^-i / i-^UI y ixliJl J ^JLJI 

Jl 



n 
LuVl 



56 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



,1 



J ^i\ J\ jJlC p & AJUJI ^ ^ Uft ^ ^ 

4Ji *, ^"jTuu Jlfij J ^^Jb ,Uij*Jl -bt, SJUI i/U! 



UU ^ jJJ j* wl iZ,^ 



n ^ l^^^i\ Jl Jadl J^j ^ Juillll i5U^l 



JU5! ULi? dJjjj J^lj ^iS l^ J5" J ^ Si ^t Jl 

i, . J^N >- J tfifl 1i* C ^>J v* /** 

^ ^ V^ c^ Xj ^ u ^ i/ JW ^- 
J^Jl" j U.- ^^dl^Tjk 

U J>j . c ^i ^ Vj U 

* i 



1 Jl ^. r ? ^ ^ 

Jl 4^ jj ^ 



W 

j ^0 wU ^^^ tP;^ ^^ l*) 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 57 



iUI j. 11501 wjjl U bfa V 



e)Jj jjo y Jb 

" 



. i^l illl J* j iJSOij iyJl ^ J/lSoV U 

^J ijftJl ^ cU U lcl l^JL* Jj^ofill JjjJl uyU 



JUV1 j JUJ1 

i, cU Jli l~ c^lia*M Ulj ^^1^1 ^ Li Jjt) J^J J 

1 ja "3U JUV1 



SJLJb 



Ul i1 l3jjL l^ IjoL J-v J/150^ JjjJl d)U. ^ JJU UV, 
il ^ i 
J1 L. 



lUUlj 



Jidl ^ dJLJLl Jl c^loi JAi ((^JilJCjl ^Ull) J 



58 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

j 



rr 

l JUb ^ 
L* Jl J-MxU ^ X>yi * 



** f 

J\ Jl 

. JUiii Ajii *un c 

J i 



J U sx JO ( 

IU U* 3 



! ^ fcU tf ^ Ulj V ^ ^ uJ^ * 
ik-yi ii\yjJL1 J &J 



jf ui U3ij J^ ]^j^, ^jji A.^-n ^u ^^u jT jc^iifliu 



3U iJU j J^jJI 8^/U r U1 



Jl *bl .kfl 1 



f.k 



w J 
J-J 1^1 ^ 3U J^JI jj^ eUi 



Ult J3j J^uJLl J l^lk. 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 59 
JM> f. iJLJjJIj P 

Jt ^ ^ l^t, 



H f jb is 



UI Lt, -\m 



J-J1 iU u^ yp/wJl ^UJl 
Jj^JI ^ UlW il^U. * 



i ^ o^ jJl i^d! i 
J JU3 U U U^ I^yj5 Lil 

J> ^J1 ^b i-^Jll i^y-il urfi^J Vj iU c^UuJ A**? 3 - 

i. 5 ilJJ jufc 



i jJJ L->Lll ^^ ijo. A* 



i~, n 



&\ i^S vJi j ,/LJI 

^j 

l li 



V* - 
ji&\jL*j . ^\ ^ -ui 

JU JXl ^Ls Jl C;*^^ <ia>^> ;t* ^Ai ,.ix>,U iJL 

^. 1\ . _*. 

LJ^IJM" i->-i- a-*, J ( ^_>^ZJI .^<ol .vj . v^l^l ^ 

UJJl J^.^:J l^i* ojy,Vlj JU^l 



60 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

U VI 



x-JV ii^jU L-Jj o^oU ^ylj . AJj^d! eJJUU * . <+ 

l . iiUI 



. wl J ^ ^ e^ Jl^.^1 J^l^i UiLl J5, aJ^I 
il oil Jy1 Uilj JU. ^U J^iJ dLJ ^.1 a l *kU ^ . 
rtl J ^1^1 jjaftt w c-^5o U JUVI ^ jL, \j Lt, Joo 
U1U ^1 jJLjjj U3U1 ^ Usl^ l*^ yfr ij lii^ JLw 

Jl AJLS'^. ^ elJjJj 14*^1 J^V ljL-jt U Lu5l Li 



u. jjoct J*?- 5 J> . vW 

US j5^ sJ^Ua. a-J^> JJiA 



jJJ,!! ^ ^.JLiU ^jLo/ll ^3 Ct ^ j ^^ US 
J JllI^ o^Jl^^l ^ ^ U y^-JI Jc 



l^Jl dJU^j JLo^l iJUXl ^jJJ-J AJ!^ ^AXJ ey^J 

^ C^UiU ^ ^ 

r .JI 1 j^ C L^ j J ^yi uJj^bJl iiH U, ^1 J-,t 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 61 

^i u> 



*-, U JJ* . 



dLJi J> Jj . c^Jl y_ -L-. J 



Juo 



* Jjt> 
AJ^JI i. ^i U-l i^J^. JI U! usJ Jj 



ii LJ J\s^l> J! - iU 

^ J* d* J 1 
IX 



62 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



Jl 1 :?.... AST* v^i ^ w!^*c yJx-^jt ft* Ojb ljl JaaJ 



>W1 ^ U c 



*>. 

b au 



u 



J> 

*; **$ V- c^** 



* C^ 

Ji 

lib 

a ^ 
iiuJI 



Jli 

ji jtJi ji j^" ^ui jjc -uvi ^^ *i> a 

V UJ! 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 63 
ifclU J* UjM Ufctf^l dLo Uijtfl J^U vk-U JIU, *4 



! U*j e,j3LI JbU. J*! U j*^ v^ 



eJLL" 



^. **^. y^ ^o 3li^jSo\ ctU .%**!/.! CUD. JU 

* Aill A*a.lS AatLflJl 



64 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



lib 
VI wu-3 V JU t/ ^ wj^. ^1 SLlS 

^ LtUj. H-^-I >Ji ^ c> ! uu 
u s^tu jc ^j l-i ac ij5 u JL 

jj 8^jj\ liuO, ji i 



bJl Jl 

Jj v^l ^ J^u^ 
lj^ Jl 5y J-^t, ^ 



y^lUl ^^ *V -Aib M UJJI 

5Ul. ^1531 



J 

SJUi 



^. l^JI 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 65 



Jl 1^3 



J! L_w GuJ dLJU 



l^ Jl Jio jb. ^-o 

u Ui- ^Ji ji 

iiV J Jl5j U^ajl J 

^ t) J'iJj alii J\ >UU e^Ul 

jut ist 



jjfc J^T ISAJI ^ ^JiJl UJ JlfiJ 

USA w\ J db^i jJI bUJj Jw Uj VUi J1 

J) ^Isi>j JUJ ^ p^Xi-U 5Jl uJ-^UJ^ X) ^^ ^^ irJ 

AJ ji^il J\ 5U_j Uj^ti J^l * Ujj ^cU^ JJ 



-o Jjjjj o^ li.UI a il ur -jl* JjJ ^-Jl islJS J 
U W ill Li 



II E 



66 PRACTICAL AHABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



|j jlJb. j 
bt ^l^ J> ^ 

U KU Vj^tt, ^U j^J Ijyb ifclil .1* oi-* UU 
U! idf-ffi* fjiuto a l *LJ1 
l^Jb jt ^Ij ^S ejjlj^ xiliJj j> 

^* 



a wl jjblj jlU J *i>.U eUUI u-i*. ^ y-A^ jA-t 
~*LJI 



l u L,j 



Li**- ^1 
^35) ^U i^Vij Jl^V ^ iJ^lU i* j 



Us^JULN (j j Ji* llUl A*J^. ^Juis 
l Ut uUc^.^i VSAO j J^ uUit ^jJI UU1 
l 



U.U1 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 67 



JlJ 

, CxJ 
^JJl jJJI jut, ^ 

ut 



5bj?* 

. f 

lit J>b>Tj 



c^*j jj x elt 
dLo. 



LJUj 



j^S'^t ^ Jclill Ubt Ij^t ^ du> ij^o 



3b-l 



J^ J 1 = 



U Jic J 



tS 



jfa? U JJLC^ IS 



l j .>U* 

^v* i^ 
J-a. U, 



. 



Jb 



E 2 



68 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Jl lyJUy il ^ *~oU l^ ^ J UU 



igi jj* -yvt j 

3 



-j3 JUj lib ^.^^o. ju O^J Jj llUl 
LU V UI eylet let \ {4*** eJJl3 



b 



J! 5JL J^yj t5JJl Jc ^ 

^ tfj^ L^ j^Mjt jfLJI ^ i*i\ jAftt ^ JfcVI 

" 



J J^JJ ^Ua^-S 
Ul \2jcJ, j^VI jjleVb ^yi^l,)! 

t*^ J -^^ t 5 - J* u 



^'j 1*^ 



fcl -], 



SELECTIONS FBOM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 69 



llU ts, l 

r y. ^ u 

ibldl j 

4 c> 



(jrn i^, 

U j ^ J 

>* 
iiUI kJI c JjJ U.I c j^. c VI 



^ J^ UU1 u 

i^y, yu.Ua.1) uUst j 

glLJI ^ v^ll ^ wjj*2 U J* y^J ^JI L^\3 Jl 



\A J^J j^Jl c ^ y^US aL^li Jl ^ ^ iiJJI Jl 
JL>I llUl j]S (s-Jj) y^sj^s x/L-c ^ J;-^ ^4*0 
15 Jl j^J^^. !j->t, j^ Jl 



u-^ 



-bjlLI 



70 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, TART II 



Ij U^J*, V 

j l^J 



-..fij AJ l 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS ANJ) NEWSPAPERS 71 

J iJb ^^ ij-V *kj 
j u. i>. 0->-, r UUj 

Ui jAlt, U^ Jl S _ Joc -U 






JUiJl * JA Ji ^ U u^*> -JU U Ul ul ^.^A 



u 



pis 
pU ijlayi j^ oJLioJ 



Jil U s^ib dbjAJ Jyb M >53i ^ uT*- J^ UI 
JA^U Jl sj 



JUi - ul VJ p^l 1j* J Uj dbjJl J^J - elijJlj jl Jy> 
l jj/ sa^j ^V c^jJJ Lp. p^Jl ^ju-. 



J\S uJ^Jl ebjJl - UU - eLAi c - T U 



JU* Uxu ^;^> UUj uJJI JUi -. gjJU wU *W U 

Ul 



UjLi dbjJl l^ji ^JSCl JUj l 
jbj icUl JA J dbjJl Jlw 



72 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

u llo5JI y b^ib ^ J Jli, to jyJl ft) ^ ^yJI J*;U 
^ \Tl^ ,U ^ } U - ^U* ,/U, rJ J\ ^ J 1 tftt 

a. ljuk JS s_j ^ JU sjl ^(1 s&i l^jjl IJ^J! ^j -5) l~ 

Gcti c-/ jdl J J^ ^ VLw* 1 <J****) ^j*-* 
Jl "^Ij iW J J^ffJ lil ^ _ 
U_ J^^ ^ ^ rfSu Jl jJ, UI ^ pJ 

*y JaJI jL 

W b ^.5.1 ^ jyu ^Ul 

^JJl Uj ^iJI ) JUj - IJLC .juJ ^jJI U u 

WjUl C>^. Uj AJT^ 5-Jj j.^ A>U j } f\ IJAj JJc .> 



J JU* - Ull ) 

U 

-^ ^ J^J J-Jl - elk 



ell l^jJ UU V 
.Ul *-, Ul* - ^Uj ^dl ^^iJ - (sU 5 - jj li^-U ujU elk JaJ 

t5 jJl ^A Uj Jl^J J oJlftJ L)U Ki 5 ttU^j La- Jc ^j2^ 

JUi . ^ \y$ csilx) _^53i csJi^ 1 IJA ei^ eUl 
g JlS e)^ u^ U-J JS . t^ 



ttl U 

- r *tfl IJA ^* U-swdiJJ- J^ A) ^l ^JCJ aU 

J JyJ u t ^ j, 



eJUi - c 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 73 



elil 

. dUu J?j M. J^ ^ u^bJI ell 
! - U - ^ Ul U ^Uil to. 
U 3 J U^ JU tf Ui ]^T^ to- . 

JA u \ii5Jl 1)1 l> (.^Jl ^ J J\5^ .. 

*W {%>> ^^ u^ ^* ^^1^ *1 < f/j Jy 
J*M J^Jjr 

J-S w 



U. U - C LJI 



J^t, ^yJI -1 ^ b JlSj^U! Jl - 
U^^o^l^Wl w_3^j~CtJi u* 
Jl v^l gj^ Jte jj - ( 
^ 

u \5d 



JJJ1 J^t U _ iU 



74 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

(manger) **U. ^ (tied) A^* U^J- JS^ ^Uj j^5 (cattle-pen) ^^ 
AVI ^ Uj-j -.^Vl i-A-Ls^. UaJua.1 (close together) ( ^y 

cslJ ^LXJ* i>.l Jl .w &* ojl l^- eil L.IA (vigilant) ..jllaA*!! bl 
*IX1 eJb^j (sifted) Jj^iil^^Jl (sU^Lj <sli^ (sprinkling) (j^Jlj 

(plough-yoke)^Jl (neck) ^ Jc ^J^ ^ (ploughing) 

u uu$t ^ _ ^^i (splitting) JAJ ^i^T ji ^i j;i ^ 

^.rJlj i-^all Ji (insults) ijU^ll clyl (suffered) ^Isl j ^ J ^S^ 
(flayed) OkiJ***^ (eyelid) jVa&.l e^J J5j ^IsJl (labourers) pCpl c 



(stink) ^y 1^ (filth) i-Ur J JJJ1 
u.* a l&;U <-JU! J^ (sprinkled) ^^ 

y Ull Jj CK^U^ USlj (agreeable) 
(except) IJP U*sj U^^. (sl> ^> 



Ul 



(bull) 
^ 
dL.U 



J J?" r 1 

,d- ( ful1 ) 



\ U - (despised) 
Jl jJb et^ ijy (called) d 
(advice) ^oill <j.xJ et\ J* 
U' ts^-c auJ, ^ 



f* ~0- .,- ss* 



~Q~- O- m 



(^l^j (endure) ^U? j v T >/^l V], (return) ^5 U^ ^Jl (prayer) 
g Aj li^Lb i^lJj c^j/^Jb (at one time) L\3 \* r *\JjA\ (kinds) v 3U-ol iJii 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 75 

T^5 (melted butter) UAJ l^-Ac ^>^ (hash) L-^l\ ^ ^c- b Jlfj 
(guest) j-> b eUc 4)b iJ JUj jJ ^1 (looked towards) oJbJIj 

- Uls- jtf u^ 1 i>' ^ * J 1 * 3 " - H^ 11 "* O* v^ ^ J* 
(chewing) i^ (mouth) **i djs^l jJ u \^j ^^s?- 3 " ^ JS ^V Jlii 

j (kind after kind) c^ Jjo C: 



- r \yi ^ tfjJl, b (I have finished) o ft fc<f j5 Jw* J J\5 ^ 
^ JlS ^ - (sweetmeats) ^3111 j^jj, Ij 
U Jwt J JUi _ iibjjl JA ^ v^lkaJI j^ 
J ^. (smacked his chops) wlj-i.1 j &* e)ts^^ftj U '.^\ Uj uylj^l 
UTeLk At prft ^. (filled) -3b-^ (jj^, b c>^ ^ J.I i) JlS 

u? t> J 15 ^ - (*> ^ J 1 ^ 
i^jj J^Jl JlS J JUiVI !A 
^ Jl jj c-yij Uj5 (takes food) 
Jlii (a good digestion to you) l^ ILi* J*^^ J J^i "^/^ *^" 
(intoxicated) ^^C &-JJ J>. jt J duiUJb ill dl^* J*-' d 
oi-^ ijal Jr^Jl (slapped) JJj jj JLs, ^ (violence) J^J1 ^ 
1 i* (5^1- b ^t JUi _ *k- b Ijjk U J^l JUi - ioWb wltj 
U - C >X\ eb]^j (delicious) JoJJJl oUUL (fumes^li? 
jj lit Uj ^i-** eUi ojt^l. ilj Jls^ bjji, iil- 5 eU- 5 j*t 
ut J _ Tjot j^l^J Vj (companion) ^Jo ,j^i (pardoned) 
" * (reposed) c ^j ^1 jf tj M yi^ f UJl 



J, - JU j (cattle) ^y ^ Jl^ ^ JU 

^ (skilled)^*-*. JAJ (open country) i^Jl ^j sJ^L* u l> 

(revealed) t Ity ,lS.IUj 11 iiJ "^ - (agriculture) 



76 PBACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



iU ULl! 



( retinue ) {^*J (*^ vW \ c>j ^y* V^j -lj (court) 
fojj* J Jlu ^^jJl ^^.U ^ e)U 
ii -. (an alms) iSj-o *^i* uJ^j (porters) ^.5*^ Jl 
J*ji - (choose^bjJj ^ U J^ (sUU 
U ^li-o ljb--j jj >u~j (a quadrangle) 
uJ^ ^ ^ 3l p? - 

Cjl*. *.yi cr -* GtJl (chief place) *,Ju* jj 
w. (greeted) ^J^ 1 c^l* J^l UU - 



JLCJ J (starving) A^U oolj SjiJI JA ^ jy^ lil ll 
(basin) os^k, lyU ^ r jil J^ (called) ^ 

^^1^* U - (water-jug) 
\Ld> (^ U *Jo 
dinner-tables) jolXl 
(ashamed) L ^- J V 

^t j^r ju* - 

Jlu . wiL> j j^l UA c 
J J.1 JUj -jil IU ^ ^ Vj 
J JlS f - (fun) c ^ (joke) 

^l (girl) 5>;U. (baked) 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 77 

ii -.1 I- " 

IU & 4)1 i U> 



41! u-J Uyfaa. J^U J\i J.A5 fcU J JUi csllcj 



U ^j JlS - ^ JlS - ^li cuilj oU: iS. ^ L M g\ JUJ 
y* Ul ^ J jli *i^i.t (^JJLff ^j^l ^yll c^U JU JiS 

^t Jl5 J^S J (^JJIC JU -. Jtfll ^1 JlU . 

dJ^ C li4i u ^ Ul ib JlS - 
l[j Jl5 _ 1* iJUJj J^ 
^ ^ Ul JlS _ Jill 
b Jlii - 41! l \3i U U---5 



b JUi 

JlS . djuLc ^w r l IJA JlS Uc U^MJ e^lll ^ elU 13]^. 
flj ^^Ll\ !A ^ c jy y^S C - J5l oSju, lilj JUi eU &>i U 
JI Jc UL Ul ^ ^ ^U U5i c vj jlsJI U--531 u^-o 
Jls - ^3 L?y ^1 ^ b jCf j^ JUJ - pJL uJ-Jl ^ 
. ^.Ul JU ^^L,! Jc ^.J- J^ lit ^ c-^t U lit 

3l J 



78 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

^LiiU iO Ji-lj tj^Jl -/*'j *t*- <J1 ** j j%^li ^ftj Jic J-J^ 

Cllill Jiol * jll /lc ,y~xJl A^.. J ..wu^-XJl Jl JJxl -. 
w V V^ ^ ^ w - Q,^ p- u^ , J T. 



J ! 



lit j Jl5 ^jJI Ua^iT ^ Ub 
J^t ^ v 



b JU* 

U lit J\s ^ Jls 
JU . ,t ^ Jte 
*JU* 



i, JU eU3 Jls J^t JUi o^ 
l J ^J 

lit JU 



.-. lijJLC U ^ UJL!*., b 

^ 'jXr 1111 ' v 

U J(5 _ ij j yjf Ij y^JI "I Si H J/ lit, 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 79 



(non est) J*^" ill! *lA~Jj (end) JbUJI djb > o^ 

^ JUJ - dJi cJi/J Jto - /U! jj 
ili (conquered)^i (silent) c-L, ^ (angry) ^.j ! 
dU^j (dismissed) c^^ *Jk ^U. ^ Vj c^. J^ Vj 
jl; djc^ (loser) J.U dU ejL o^ jUU -J (melted) ^ JJ pU* 
I^ U _ J^U eUlc [Jn^j (dishonourable) J jU. (friend) e^>lij (spoil) 
UJb elLU Jlii - db>.U U J Jlii ^ (cries) jC ^j Jc eUll Juc 
.*^ (pride)^ s^loSj (nonsense) yl s,^ (ganie)^J JJj ^Jl& 

(dismissed) ^^ wlkcU *JI 



J JU i^aJl ^Ut ^ J*^ UjJC jjlTs,^)! jl> J.liT, i 



, JU 

g^UM ^lll j U iiJI all- J c-SjMyJ J 

iiiJl ujJ^J Aj *U3^ u^o Jat 



' 



lit, ^tt U iiJl aJu* lit 



f. J l^^ ^ 

J l$b i^LIj ^!3^ Joe duiU! s^Ja. Jl ^ ^ Jwll 



c u c 



lit JU - J,*o UU yu* - r UH U* 11. b 

- J\S -.^jj 



80 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

(repentance) +j)\ eb (descend) Jj* ty (proof) 

,>UJI i^tj dLill Jftl JuJ ^J\ JUi _ (punishment) 

^ ill-, Jbu dllU JUi _ ^U U *^ (/ Jbu - (rectitude) 

Ul dAU At ^>l ^jJl JUi -j^^ li^jj (legs) l^L, Jc iJU 

jj, Jill U, eUll JU - iLiJl ^ j Jlil 15|, JU ^ ^ 

j - ^ ^UJt i*U^\ j Jlil JUi J jj| Jc U^ (mixed) 

yLoJ! J^Ll (bends) l^JUt iU- Jc JL W y-Jl jt u 
* ^15J (bent) ilO. (crooked) i^ iUJI oolT^j iJLiJl 
* jL db fltUil 



i^Sjl% U^ (preached) Vr Ai- ^,1^ ^ dlUI J*fr a l J-3 

(gently) ^ JUi - yU- (tribe) JT ^ J^ 
,T,i JU* - (slli U^ JUi - ^Ut ^ i2c>. II* ^U (order) 
eU! w. oJ^ - ^^U Si elUl Juc ^ dLu^k ^. U 
(appointed) Jfytf a t J.5 u. (promised) U 

*& k ^ J J^ - r ^l c^J ^ ( was fal ) J^ ~ 
UJt sU Vj (forbid) ^^iJ, (obey) yjjjd ^ UJL/ /U 

(imitate) (jJc&Lil . u ^loij V^ (advise) ^^uJ^ (refrain) 
ly yj>t ^ u l ! , - ^jjl. ^t (obeyed) 
I; Ji- j^lS a lj u-flj u^ c/* i^ 5 ^ *-*<* (advice) b 
i^t (chained) .Jujls .. Jati U^*-, ^.^ XloJl 
vpbs U / Uiytj (blood) U5U J (exalted) ^U^ U, r t (bridles) 
,j (completes) Abfj eyUUl (kinds) v_J^3 ^lo v-J^ct JA ^ H ^l 
l^i JjJl i.\5l ^ ^jsP jJ (priesthood) l^i\ cuilS^ ^li . c 
^JJl I^LA* U,J^*j (rope) 1^1 Uc (put away) 1^1L>1^ l^L*- (emptied) 
4)1j Ul (deseit) ^^ jj ^ (separated) ,JL 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 81 



(vessel) ^ J ^yJo. u lT <^jJ^ lju> JUS -oil &jZ\ 3^y\ 
^U Ul Ja^.Vl (water-carrier) *U J (breasts) ^H-Sj *^- -J 
JUJ J^CU - (years) ^\ j^ uT Jjt ^ - f li\ Ul ^io^l ^ 
i^U>1j ^^ iX^l ^>l *\j\ JlAi. o :.->. j (joints) OLojl <^> J> : ^1 j 
^ JJ^ Ui dL^jj JU. o,,... JJ J.^U ^01 JUi - JU 
^1 JJ jt-ij j JU-^ ^1 J-J ,7.U- j^Jj oJj-* JLs _ ->^^ 



j u Ui _ i r uii 



Jli. 

-^* 2 * (with languor) UjT s-ix-ij j (lust) s^J^ vx^ j 
* eU . 



(skilful) j*\* (JJ&> ^ jlj (China) ^-Jl dOU ^1 J-S 
(conveyed) j-oar*!^ *J1 J~^ f$j^ *^ > . i^^^ 1 ^^ 3 

^J*axJ\ v^-o. -^*; (a portrait) Vll* ^^ojJIj ^_^i5Jl ^ s-.lc.jJi l< 
A!.;^ i^ (tablet) ix^ ^ J ^5.:. (custom) ibUJl ^Jc (palace) 
(sparrow) j^Aoc V^J **^^* *]^. iiV?:-*. (ear of corn) 

(movement) i^Jj (speech) jkjl^c dJo ^ liJl, (belie) j5o Vj 

^ i 

> (hastened) .^b^ (hang) Ju I .::*. ^*lj dili diill ^-^*- fr b 

jL (termination) *LLfijl Jl J^ (pay) 
(fault) ^^ 



Cc (expose) p-/-'- - 

II F 



82 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



U ilj J*iJl J JUi _ SJbJ j*> i&J (lick) jjJb J^ ^ JlS 
4 oils ^.^ c>S.x* JUi _ 



f) -LJ1 C^> (addicted) C^ai JS eJjUl ^^o J J-J 
(girls) s_il-J ^fljq U]^ eUj ^ (forbidding) 

y^jj J,!, l^J JlU _ UA 
1^1 J (bestow me) ( j+* (female slave) Aj,UI 

oxuS 1^3 (alone) ^J>. IJli J l^Ay J *J-o! U (5/L-. j cslUl 
L i^SJ V cJliiJ 8-15 ^ l^ (settled) Jfe jp* ** (abstained) 
v^^y _ oJUi Jl (accepted) l^.UU cyl^ ^. ^/^ dl^t JL* 
\zJ~j\ JS oJO j _ 8^^j Uli. ^ ^ oJba. j Cy-, iJk (placed) 
b A U Jlii-iJlil csUs JC^AJ U* (rushed) ^i^ lJf> ettU Jl 

1 JUi - -^~ ijU juk^ ^s 

^il IJ* ^ (approved) ^.^sj^U 



U dil-. Jl ^ J-^t ^Ij ^Ul ell. (emperor) ^ J J--J 
lU (palace) ^^^(1 u-^U (name of a king) ^I^J^Sl 



(irregularity) U-U^cl j-o^-a. ^^xi ^ (/,.* c^-jVl (inspected) 
^ (averse) C^A^J^^ o-o (sUi J JJ>J (site 
(compel) l^l/l dLUl^ ^ 

J^ oJL^ oj^ U 
jJl IJA a l J^^ J>j (stability) i.lfii-^ 
U-J ^ Vj aUi ^ UJ (historically related) # 

-^ti _ eiU (remained) ^. 
4 (rejoicing) 1^^* 



(vowed) _ (wife) i^j . UJ -UJI <>J 

JUi (divorce 

(fault) 



(did you do) ^ U J\5, 
J\5 - 

p. L _ (price of blood) >o.> |^3y ji> (prison) 

* iUo ijjJl 



(builders) cr juyi 

f *^' b ^lill JUi 
(inverted) oJaoU ^. j^ oJiS JU^ U ^JLiJl JU> (erected) 



(guest) L_ft^-> -Ac (asked) ^U-J *^s ^yuo a l JJ 
}}) 



J-* 11 /- U* *}}) ^ (raised) - J~c ,ui 



i 1 2 



84 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

^L*JI Gt/ 3) vlX'^pJlj si 5 J Js^Jl y pit GU - J (disease) 



- o -0- O O* 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 85 



9 - .* o 9 o~ 



e ( flo ds) J^ (disposition) jJLil ^,-^j (humility) 



' * 



.. 






b (come) ^U iZ^ j^ll G lie ^ licl J JUi _ ^T US 
1)2 Ui _ p2.1 Ji^ ^ jijS Ul ^ 5U \LI l^JI (enjoy) JLl:l 

- ; i! e;> jl ^ ^ s ^ ( tail > ri* s? r* 

^ * ^ -- ^ o T - ^ c -- -- * o" 

oi^-i^ (came to bis senses) jljl U> _ vJLc I'.:. wo 

f^ / - ,0* '^ 

*J yiii wU^l !; (soil) 

C * - C * O ^ -" 

P (know) (jj ^Jl o^/. U 



* o- 



oo ^o* *o - - ' >o*~ * 

riven out) ^ja^it* (unbidden guests) 



(disgrace) u j^lj ^ (disgrace) 



t r 



(sheep) Li (beast of burden) a.^..> J*>. 



b 

- ( silent ) 






86 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

(precipitation) {^C\\ ^ Jli *LJ$1 J^i (postponing) ^iti 

l (celerity) i^j 



U (spring) ^li J^ JU _ k* Jl ^ (chamois) jl 
*JjJ (mourned) ^^a? _ *LU ^ (shadow) JL.=> ^LL _ U^^A) 



(glad) -i.ilj (was joyous) ^_*.,j (limbs) s-^JI^J (slimness) 

' 



uu _ 

Icj j!Iil J Jii UU (overtake) i_^xj pii (plain 

O ^ - - 9 $**** * Oo ^ - *" * it ^ O * 

e JU.i ^-5j ^j^W ^^ (overtook) .ii ^s^ ( j^>. (crossed over) 
M (despised) oo,Ijl (jjll ^lil G\ J jVpl wj* 

no-~ 

(confided) jj 






-. ^ U^JL-O 

(increased) cyJou^U (clothes) c->W-M ^ 
P^A uyllil U\ U LJVI U \5^T tU (blew) oioc^ (gales of wind) 



Ji ^- l^j (wrapped) ujjlj >J^ ^. (gathered up) ~* 



ju-a. ^ sjLj (stripping) li. ^ jpl^jJU JLs y-^ 

-,-o o > O ^^o- 2 e - O 

l A*^b <j -- M (arose) oJ^il LJL (gusts) J 
iVl (the scorched land) *Ll^Jl (heated) o.r. 



SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC AUTHORS AND NEWSPAPERS 87 



(two cocks) ^/\X>t> i 
(went) Jj CaJ^t ^*1 (dunghill) s^jlS J^ \^3\ ZJ+ jjtCu 



* * * (hid) l 

O * *- f ** --.--- -* ^ O - ^O^ 

(wings) ^Us 3 - (flap) j^ J*^ jJ^ (roof) J*-, J^J (ascended) 



(boast)^i^i (crow) 



j (lawful) ji . u ij li.l (swooped) 

5. . * * -o^ o' 
* (formidableness) b *^ Jji3 ^s^i J\ 



(swallow) (^jlkaeJu V 
*/ '^ 

_ (livelihood) &A g U ^ (become partners) iS^L-ll * iLkJJl^ j> 



t *.o * +, t *** - ', 

^-. Ujt- \JA (slaughtered) i^B*4j ^.^LJl (caught) 



" ' - - - 



- 

(resemble) USLij V ^ (associate) 



(flew) 

~ ' o*-- 

(celerity) ic^. c^Uai *U j^U- ii** Ijya (wall) JoJW 
cJU* - 

*UI ^ cJ (miserable) 



88 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



(a wolf) 
(sucking-pig) C^jLi. (seized) 

- O -.*- > -^O 

JU .. *j-. &jj*U JL-^| (noet) 

^ o - ^ - o o - o - 

Uju IjwA C J* (remained) o.**:> J 

O ^ * - Crf ^ .. ^ * ^ 

x* ^*AJ "i( JiJaJI ^ (possessed) ^^^JLj L ^\ 

S JI (keeps) 



^ ^ - O 



(thrown) ll*-. (file) 



^1)\ I.L (bled) J^4 *-iQj w^-ll> (licked it) H.^-T Jllb _ 

o' " -" 00 * c * f -- t * ^O ^.- 

i] ^1 J^ ^-A^ >^ U^ ^j (swallowed) wJLj ^A^ _ (blood) 

P O P O - >O- *^ ^ ^ ) t ~ 

(spends) jxij ^^ bju. lju> kuUj JlJ (split) 

* 0> - o- * f' ' -O 

^--x *i &Jl ,j (uselessly) ^_^.^JI 



. 

bli J J^Jj (heibs) JiJl (irrigating) 

*>3^* J.-^ >AJ ^kllil (beautiful) Jjj (jungle) 

^iiJij (withered) Jjj.il fir" </>4^ ^-*j (attendance) 

9 
i^J I!AJ i!lt (reared) i^J t^il u^ ^y^"^;^ J^ (perished) 



Jli-J 



' - O - , - O t 

1 



, ... # *o* '- *-*.,- * .0 



intending to) ^^ *Lil ^ 

^ -Jt^l (muddy) ^ b _ (wash 

^ U iLT ^^1)^ ISl Z j& %) u^'Q^ (cannot) 

* (its nature) 






(two snakes) ^/XA 



(biting each other) ^,1 **1 *} jjitis cr ^* 

-- -f_o^ o '"To^-. o -* o" ^ * - 

i U^j (made peace) oaf^U (came) oJ\ j5 t5/*-l *^ 



(more wicked)^!* eU* ijl 






. 



ENGLISH AND ARABIC 
LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 



92 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 





ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 93 



TRANSLITERATION OF LETTERS AND 
MANUSCRIPTS 

No. 1. 

J/a*r, 25 sibtimbar, 1884. 
Sa'adatlu mudlr assiut el-afkham. 

Natatharraf b'tnn nu^hjbir hadritkuin innoh qadd sdr tasfir 
alfen 'askarl inkllzl min hena wa mu'hum indyeten wa khamsin 
husdn wal-argah inmthum yasalu li'assiut yom el-khamis d-wdqi 
tdlatln el-hddir wa kes innuhum sayabqu henak taldtat ayydvn, 
numil min himniat saddatkum igrd et-tadblrat wat-tashhlldt 
lihusuluhum 'ala ma'unah luhum wa 'aliq lil-khl muddat ef-tald(at 
ayydm d-mazkurah wa zdlik 'ala hisdb el-hiikumah el-inkllziyah 
wa yekun lihadritkum el-fadl effendim. 

Ed-dal 
el-imdd. 



94 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 




ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 95 






No. 2. 

fl 30 sibtimbar, 1884. 

'Izzatlu kolonel Man Idshmu'awin arkan harb gesh el-ihtilal 
el-afkham. 

B'ayadl et-takrim akhadtu ndhar tdrikhoh shuqqat 'izzatkum 
Wail bihd tatlubu minna taqdlm ma ydzam min ma'unat lil- 
'asdkir wa 'aUq lil-kkel el-qadimat tlena bitarlqulium ila donkolah 
wa 'aleh nafidkum inna musta'addin li tatimm margkub 'izzatHum 
bikull gahdna mal-mammlriiyah wa sanaqadam lihadritkum 
akhtran hisaban 'an kull ma surif wa innl aghtanim hdzVl-fursah 
li taqdlm ihtir a/mat i el-mumtdzah li 'izzatkum effendim. 

(Ed-da'i) 
(d-imdd) 
(d-khitm) 



96 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 






ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 97 



No. 3. 

Masr.fl 22 aktobar, 1884. 

Min dlwdn arhdn harb gesh el-ihtildl. 

Ila hadrat d-Jcolonel ytisuf cffendl qomanddn {awatH el- 
iskindiriyah. 

Seyidi 

Akunfl ghdyet min el-mamnuniyah inn alisantum bi 'amal 
el-ittifaqat el-ldzimah li hadrat el-bdshmuhandis gesh d-ihtilal konoh 
yazur et-taudbl el-rnuqlmah 'ala fumm rozettah fara min en-nil 
wa h-ua yequm min el-iskindirlyah ila rozettah biqatdr es-sa'ah 
sab'ah wa khamstdsher daqiqahfl sabdh yom el-ahad d-qddini. 

Atasharraf b'ann akun liktitn 

Seyidi 
Khadiman mutl'an. 

etc. etc. 



ir 



98 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 





ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 99 



NO. 4. 

Masr,fl 24 aktcbar, 1884. 

Liganab d-majur grin muhandis liyesh el-ihtilal. 

Effendini, band'a 'ala ialab hadritkumfl gawdb tar'ikh 22 aktobar 
1884 biwaqtoh saddama gawab ila hadrat el-yiiz bashl mustsifa 
sarir illazi biwazifat qomandan tjuwabl bughaz rozettah mulinan 
loh b'inn yekiin 'ala istidad binmyabalat haffrat el-bashmuhandis 
fil-mahatiah wa ba'doh yetashamof btma'yetoh ila lawCibl 
el-mazkur dqkhil qarib qaT liagl titmliti tfdaboh. 

Ed-dai 
Kolonel yusuf, qomandan tawabi d-iskindiriyali. 



6 2 



100 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 













ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 101 



No. 5. 

Saadatlu effcndim waJdl mudvriyat el-malariyah. 

Inn stekh en-ndhyat d-balad el-malariyah el-mazkurdh f'innoh 
qadd istau'a 'ala akhad g^z etncn baqar mm shakhs el-mad'u 
ah mad min en-nahyat d-tnazkurah w<i bimd inn stiekh el-balad 
el-mazkurah akhad istauldh el-goz el-etnen baqar el-mahqi 
'annulium'biwagh el-iqtiddr wal-bahtdn wa'z-zulin. 

Ed-dal 

ibrdhim mursl. 



102 :; PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



s 



\ 




ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 103 



No. 6. 

Min mudlriyat el-matariyah fi 31 aktdbar, '84. 
Saadatlu effendim muhaftz masr. 

B'muqtada el-afddah illatl waradet ilena- akhlran el-mamdiyah 
Vism ibrahim mursl et-tdba li mudiriyatna mulinat b'ann el-bad 
min mushdikh el-mud/iriyah taalluqnd taaddu 'a/a almad, ahad 
faUahin el-mudirii/ah bi akhad goz bagar khdssatoh loh walal-igmdl 
yu'amiliihum Jiz-zulm wal-qasawat fd-amal min saadatkum bad 
tl-ittla 'ala hdza t'amarufil-musaadah liagl raf hdzi et-taaddiyai 
khaufan min inn tattasil Ha asaab hclat min hdzl wal-amr 
li man waUh effendim. 

'dbduJcum el-muti 

ahmad raf a at 

bdMatib d-mudlriyah. 



ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 105 



NO. 7. 

Marud qollirl derkah (Turkish). 

Muqaddim hdza lil-hadrat el-khediwiyah wal-a'tab el-karimah 
'abdukum mar'ashfi ahmad yusvf. 

Effendim innl kunt ydwarl (Turkish) sawdrl milhim agha wa 
sdr wuqu'l min el-hiisan, fa sar, shall ydl el-yusra wa gar a 
d-kasjf 'alend bima'rifat hakimbasla e\-galiat el-mazkurah. Fa 
min agl zalik gar a raftl fi slahr aghustus '83 wa lam, taharrar 
bil-raftiyah d-isdbah illazi asdbatni fa' and hudun lil-mahrusah 
a'radt 'an haza el-khusus llagl tariib el-ma'dsh ll hash d-gdrl fa 
liwdsitat 'adam qed d-isoibat bil-raftiyah fa sdr ihrdmi min 
el-ma'dxh wa hes innl gjiarib ed-diydr wa min bildd el-atrdk wa 
Us maugud 'andi nuqud li tarhlli libilddl fa altamis shumid 
en-nazar bi safeyratl 'ala taraf el-mlri lies innl owsibt wa lam 
aleq lil-khiddmuh wa Id maugud ahadan ya'ul harakat ma'dshl 
tea ma kullan fa'l-amr mufawad effendim. 

banda mar'ashll ahmad yusuf. 

Ma'dshdt u'arad ddkhil zarf min el-ma yat es-saniyat fi 10 
muharram sanat 1301. 



106 PRACTICAL ABABIC GBAMMAB, PABT II 




/ 







ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 107 

/ . 





.i 

\ 









II 








JStf&Tofa b-sfe-j ff- vltf 1 

$&>&4" ^M^$^ 

Ajbfr^t^uttp* 




! JifjH> u'*?*i 



108 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

No. 8. 

Ma'rud qollerl derkah. 

Muqaddim hdza lianrii 'abclukum nassdr shahdwl min ndhyat 
et-turfdyah qism gartah mudlriyat el-kheriyat wa ma na'rud 
'annoh lis-siyddah : 

Inn 'abdukum min sulk el-askariyah min dortingl aldi (Turkish 
for 4th regt.) biyddah wa lidai md asdbanl fl nazarl wa kafah 
'an md anzur bih makhluqdt allah wa sa'l 'ala qut 'aylatl. Fa 
qadd kdn tarattab Una ma'dsh mablagh (79) lisa' at wa sab'in 
ghjrsh wa kdn gdrl sarfuhum ilena shahrl lighdyet 'asharat 
aktobar sanat '83 wa min n min sanat tarikhoh sdr sarf 
Una mablaali. 'ashrun ghirsh wa sdr inqatd 59 wa 'abdukum 
mustihiqq zdlik lianni kaf en-nazar kulliyan wa ma'l min 

i andf \ izukur\ iwulidatuhum\ 

el-atfdl -I nafar r wa \ nafar L radi wa \ nafar L fa yeki'n 

'3)^1) i 

'aylatl khamsat ashkhds khildfl 'ddim/in el-iktisdb v:a lam Una 
'iqdrdt tasd'id Una 'ala'l-ma'ashfa min zdlik qadd tagdsarl bihdza 
el-ard wa bih rdgin min mardhim wall naamatnd bisarf md sdr 
inqatd'oh minrii lamni mustahiqqoh lil-qut ed-daruri wa nada'u 
ileh bitul el-umr wa'l-i?z wa'dawdm anal-lei watrdf en-nahdr 
ejfendim. 

Banda 

Mashrdh 'dldh. 

Ma'dshdt : war ad ddkhil zarf min el-ma'yat es-sariiyah fl 
saba'ah ragab sanat 1301." 

Yufaz. 



ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 109 



TRANSLATION 



No. 1. 

Cairo, 25th September, 1884. 
His most honoured Excellency the Mudir of Assiout : 

"We have the honour to inform your Excellency that 2000 
English soldiers have started from here with 250 horses ; and it is 
probable that they will arrive at Assiout on Thursday, the 3Oth inst. 
and as they will remain there three days, we trust to your Excellency's 
energy to make arrangements and facilities for supplying them with 
provisions and fodder for the horses during these three days, on pay- 
ment by the English Government, and your Excellency will oblige. 

Yours truly (address for equals), 
(Signature.) 



No. 2. 

Assiout, 30th September, 1884. 

; 

To H. E. Colonel Clery, Adjutant General, Staff of the Army of 
Occupation. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your 
Excellency's note of this day's date, in which you request us to supply 
what is necessary in the way of provisions for the soldiers and forage 
for the horses, which will come here on their way to Dongola, and 
beg to inform you that we are eager to execute your Excellency's 
wishes to the fullest extent, and are honoured thereby, and we will 
forward to your Excellency finally an account of all that has been 
expended, and I seize this opportunity to express to your Excellency 
my most profound respect. 

etc. etc. 



110 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, TART II 



No. 3. 

Cairo, 2 2nd October, 1884. 

Head Quarters. 
Sir, 

I should feel obliged if you would make arrangements for 
the Commanding Royal Engineer to visit the forts at the mouth 
of the Rosetta branch of the Nile. He will leave Alexandria for 
Ro&etta by rail at 7.15 a.m., on Sunday next. 

I have the honour to be, 

Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) A. O. GREEN, Major, 

Brigade Major, R. E. 
To Colonel YUSUF EFFENDI, 

Fort Commandant, 

Alexandria. 



No. 4. 

Cairo, 24th October, 1884. 
To Major GREEN, 

Engineer, 

Army of Occupation. 
Sir, 

In compliance with your honour's request by letter of 22nd 
October, 1 884, 1 immediately forwarded a letter to Captain Mustapha 
Sarlr, who is in command of the Boghaz Forts at Rosetta, directing 
him to meet H. E. the Commanding Engineer at the station and 
to accompany him to the above Boghaz Forts in a sailing-boat 
and carry out all his requests. 

(Signed) Colonel YUSUF, 

Fort Commandant, 

Alexandria. 



ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 111 



No. 5. 

To H. E. the deputy of the district of Matariyah. 

(This is to complain) that the headman of the district of the 
above village of Matari}-ah (that he) has seized by force a pair of 
cows from a man named Ahmad, belonging to the above district, 
and also that the headman of the above-mentioned village has 
seized the above pair of cows by way of violence, fraud, and 
oppression. 

Yours, 

IBRAHIM MUBSI. 



No. 6. 

From the district of Matariyah, 

3 ist October, 1884. 

To H. E. the Prefect of Cairo. 

In accordance with the report that has reached us lately, 
signed by the name of Ibrahim Muisi, belonging to our district, 
explaining that some of the headmen of the district, which is in 
our charge, have threatened a cultivator (named) Ahmad, of the 
district, to take away a pair of cows, his own property, and (that) 
in general they are acting towards them with tyranny and 
oppression, we hope from your Excellency that after enquiring 
about this (matter) you will give some order by way of assistance 
with the view to remove these threats, as we are afraid it may 
reach a more difficult condition of affairs than this. 

(And the order to whom is the authority) i.e. as in duty bound. 

Your obedient Servant, 

AHMAD RAFA'AT, 
Chief Clerk of the District. 



112 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



No. 7. 

Petition to His Highness. 

Your slave Maragbli ASinad Yusuf ventures to bring the 
following to the notice of H. H. the Khedive, and to the threshold 
of (his) generosity. 

Sir, I was a mounted guard of Milhira Agha and fell off my 
horse and my left hand became paralysed and I was examined by 
the knowledge of the chief doctor of the before mentioned (agha). 
And in consequence of that I was discharged in the month of 
August, 1883, and my discharge certificate does not mention the 
accident which injured me, and when I came to Cairo I petitioned 
about this particular matter in order to arrange my pension in 
accordance with regulations, and because the accident was not 
registered in the discharge certificate, I was thereby deprived of 
pension, and since I am a stranger in these parts and came from 
the country of the Turks and have no money to enable me to 
return to my own country, therefore, I beg that you will kindly 
see that my travelling expenses may be defrayed by the government, 
for I am disabled and not fit for service, and there is no one to look 
after me and provide for my subsistence, and in any case everything 
will be as your Highness may direct. 

Your Slave, 

MAKASHLI AHMAD YUSUF. 

Pensions (office) : Received in an envelope from H. H.'s Court 
officials on the zoth of Muharram, 1301. 



ENGLISH AND ARABIC LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS 113 



No. 8. 

Petition to His Highness. 

This (petition) is presented on behalf of your slave Nassar 
Turfayah, in the Gartah district of the Mudiriyah of 
Khairiyat, and (in regard to) what was represented about him to 
the throne : 

(Be it known) that your slave (was) in military employ in 
the 4th infantry regiment, and through an accident to my eyesight, 
I am unable to see my fellow men, or to provide for my family. 
And a pension of 79 piastres had been granted to me which was 
paid to me monthly up to the loth October, 1883, and from the 
nth of that date 20 piastres (only) have been paid me, and 59 
have been deducted. And your slave is deserving of this (i. e. the 
piastres) for I am totally blind and have three female children and 
one male infant at the breast and their mother, which makes my 
family five persons besides myself, (who) are not fit to work, and 
we have no property which might assist us towards subsistence. 
Therefore, I have ventured (to approach Your Highness) with this 
petition, and we are thereby hopeful of the pity of the dispenser 
of our favours for the repayment of what was deducted from me, 
because I am deserving of it for my livelihood, and we ever pray 
both night and day for (Your Highness') long life, reign and 
prosperity. 

Your Slave, 

Mentioned above. 

Pensions (office) : Received in an envelope from H. H.'s Court 
officials on the 7th of Ragab, 1301. 

To be guarded. 



ii 



I 



VOCABULARY 



NGLISH-ABABIC 



NOTE In the following Vocabulary the infinitive is given in 
English, and the corresponding root or third person singular of 
the Preterite in Arabic. 



Abandon,^ hagar, t^J tarak. 
Abatis, is.jo&\ j^^ ^ };* 

mawani min el-ashgar el- 

maqtuah. 
Abide, ^& sakan. 

O f 

Ability, ijjJ qudrah. 

Able (to be), .J3 qadar. 

' ?^ 

Abominable, i* mafcruh. 

About, ^ 'an,^ dor. 
Above, j^s foq, ^s. 'ala. 
Abscess, -. \j khurrdg. 
Absence, *_>Uc gjiiydb. 
Absence from parade, ^ -l*JI 
jiy.UaJl d-gj&yob min eb-tabur. 
Absence, leave of, ijU-t agazah. 



Absent, u-ole g&aib. 
Abyssinia, ^iJJ el-kabash. 
Accept, JJ qabil. 
Accident, ij^U hadsah. 
Accompany, <jA rafaq. 
According to, e.^^ hasb. 
Account, L_>Lo. hisab. 
Accountant-general , 

uybL-J mudlr 'umum d- 

hisabdt. 



Accuse, ( \ tshtaka, 

(ashakka. 

Accused (the), ^^ mathum. 
Accustom, ^Jc SJc 'awwad 'ala. 



H 2 



116 PBACTICAL ARABIC 

Ache, A.^ waga', llT dlam. 
Acid, i^U hdmid. 
Acquainted, \_Jjlc 'arif, ^ *lk. 

mutalli 'ala. 
Acquire, J^ hassdl. 
Acquittal, i^J tabriyah. 
Act, Jju /a'aZ, J*c. 'amaJ. 
Active, ]*> nashit. 
Adapt oneself, j^J taauwad. 
Add, uJU rfa/, St; sad. 
Adhere, <sJlL5 tamassak. 
Adjutant, \s\ J^icU saghqol 



Admit, allow, JL* sdllam, 

** * 
wa^y, J^\ adkhal. 

Advance (go forward), ^JA 

addam. 
Advance (pay beforehand), uj 



Advance-guard, <jL.Ji laliah, 

J^\> bashddr. 
Advantageous, JU n^/f, 



Adversary, ^ Miasm (pi. ^>li 

mukhdsim), Txfr f 
Advertisement, ^ 
Advice, AS^ natrlhah (pi. J 

namyih), ^ ral. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Adze, *jjS qadum. 

Affair, is^" maslahah, J*c ' 

(pi. J^Uc ' 
Afraid, ujjl- 
Africa, JLw^jl afnqyah. 
After, jjti 6a'(7, Jl^ ^At'66. 
Afternoon, ^ec e asar, ^iaJI j 

6a'd fd-duhr. 
Again, ditto, <sLJj> kazalik, C 

aldan, ^\S kemdn. 
Against, opposite, ^ r 7a. 
Against (opposed to), jLs </tW(/ 
Age, ^*i 8inn,j+s. 'umr. 
Agent, J-X ?a^t? (pi. 



Agree, j^l^ wdfaq, ^Ju^i 
Agreeable, jj|^ muwa/iq, 



Agreement, J^i, ^ar| (pi. 



Aide-de-camp, ^jb yawar. 
Aim, ur ti nashslian. 
Aiming-drill, y+Hzft -A*> tallm 

et-tanshm. 
Air, ]^k howa. 
Alann, i-*. S kdbsali. 



Alight, J^tj nazal. 



VOCABULABY : ENGLISH -ARABIC 



117 



Alike, **t Jj ze ba'doh. 

Alive, ^ hayy. 

Alkali, Jj ?afo 

All, ftkull, ^f garni. 

Alliance, is&s? muhalafah. 

Almanac, jjti taqwim. 

Almond, jfjji lozah. 

Alms (give), JJ^J tasaddaq. 

Also, Lajl aidan. 

Alteration, j~*> tayj^/lr. 

Alum, ili, shabbah. 

s * 

Always, UA> c?otman J( JJ tamelli. 
Ambulance, ii^-Uii sbefaKhanah. 
Ambuscade, ( ^ t S kamln. 
America, (So 



s^i zakhirah. 
Among, ^^o ben. 
Amount, sum of money, J ...* 



Amount, total, SJU*. gumlah. 
Amusement, j^J /aAw. 
Anchor, ^-^ marsa. 
Anchovy, i^lu sandmurah. 
Ancient, -> J5 qadim, jf*ic c 
And, J toa. 
Anger, t^oe 
Angle, i zdwiyah. 



Angry, ^L-^Lc gkadban, ^AJ 

zalan. 

Animal, u^* haiucdn. 
Annoy, Jcj 2 f aZ, ilJ #Aa?. 
Another, ^*c j1j wdkid yher. 
Answer, v^W- gdwab. 
Ant, iU> JiawiZaA (pi. J^j namT). 
Ape (an), ^5 ytrd (pi. 
Apologize, jj^cj. i'toz&r. 
Appear,^ zahar, ^b 
Appear in person, u sr' shakhas. 
Appetite, i-i shahiyah, lJb\J 



Apple, ^l 

Approach, v->^5^ iqlarab. 

Appropriate, c-^-^ mundsib. 

~ *.o *o 

Approve, i^ai^l tstaswab. 
Apricot, u r..t<i mishmish. 
Arabic, ^^c 'arafo. 
Arch, i^lajJ qantarah. 
Architect, ^Ujt- mi'mdr, ll> 

bannd. 

Arise, 115 gam. 

Arithmetic, c-jL-il J^ *t7m el-hisab. 
Arm (the limb), cKi dh'rd* or c?trd c . 
Arms (weapons), -} 



118 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Around,^>U dalr, Jj hoi. Assemble, x^. gama*. 

Arrange, ^3j rattab, j& nazsam. Assist, ^Icl a' an, jcU sa ad. 
Arrangement, i^y tarttb. 
Arrears )( jlj baqi^l.J.^ bawdqi) 
Arrival, Jj *j wusul, ^xJ 



Arrive, 

Arsenal, ijU Ipbkhanah, 



Art, 

Art (profession, trade), 



Artful, j* makkar, jb 
Artichoke, i-Jyt^ kharshuf. 
Artifice, .jc ghadr. 
Artificer, jL* sani\ 
Artificial, J-^c 'amall, ^ 

istinai. 

Artillery, iLls^ tobglyah. 
As, () A;a, US leant a. 
As if. ^o ka-inn. 
Ascend, ii <aZa e . 
Ashes, ^Uj rumad. 

Asia, LJTasm. 

-"* 
Ask, JL, sa'/, ^Jii, faZaft 

Asleep, jU naim. 
Asparagus, ^^JU halyun. 



Assure, 3 1 akkad, j^*- haqqaq 
Assuredly, i5*iil jj ^7 haqlqat. 



madhush. 

At, v 6', W, jj^ 'anrf. 
Attack, ^s.* hagam. 
Attentive, XLU muntabih. 
Attire, JJL Aw/a/, cjl^l atwab. 
Auction, jijj* mazdd. 
Auctioneer, JV^ dallaL 
Auger, i*^!) barrlmah. 
Aunt, maternal, iJla. bhalah. 
Aunt, paternal, ^jJl^ tcalidi, 

s- 'ammah. 
Author, i6 1 4 mifsannif, c-J^ 

muallif. 

Autumn, cJb^ kharlf. 
Avarice, Ji 3 . ^*W. 
Avoid, ^ c-^s? tagannab min. 

- * ~ o 

Awake, awoke, ,iaft~J isteqa^. 
Awake, rouse, Lit eqaz, 



jj^i* makkruz. 

Axe, y-uys* (pi. u-y fas), 



Axis, ^^ mihwar. 
Axle, Ja^j dingil. 



VOCABULARY: ENGLISH- ARABIC 119 



B 

Back (the),> duKr. I Bark (to), & 'awwa. 

Bad, J\L. baal, ^radl,^ Barley,^ fjalr. 

aAamr. Barrack, iLsJ ^*W> 
Bad money, SJlL> iUi 'wto& ?tMo?. 

fadZafc. Barrel, J^> farwiZ (pi. 

Engage", ^ VA JUb'l &J. Barrel (of rifle), I^uJI 
. _ mdsurat el-banduqiyan. 

Baker, jO* M ^^ uir* J arran 

, , Barren (as soil),j^ 
Bald, >*L* <ww 

. . - , Barricade, ^ *acW. 
Bale, tejfardah. 

/ ^ , \ "Roqin i * , A ia tisht (pl cy*-* 

Ml, I/**** (fLjf fcww). 

7 I lushut)* 
Ballcartildge,^WcsUti/esAeAr 

Basket, J^ ^andtZ, c*- < 

,_ gj^ salfcih. 

Bamboo, <ji* ^ g&$> hind*. 

Bat, ^\j^5 wttwat. 
Banana, ;%* mo. 

J -..11 Bath, ^U hammam. 

Bandage, <_Jj ^ ra/rw/, i>U; 

_ ^ Battalion, ik,^\ or/a- 

rubat. 

Bank^fseaorriver),^^^^, Batten,!^ 
^ shall. Batfle, K 

maarikah. 
Banker, v_3L^ sarra/. _ 

'Tf y Bayonet, i-Xij- sun/ayan. 
Bankrupt (to become), ^lo/fos. ^ 

- w Be, ..jO ^aw. 

Barber, j^La. hallaq, tfj* mu- 

Beak, ,VLu minqar. 
zeyyir*. J . 

, , - _ "i 'i* Beam, $ kamarah. 

Bargain (to), r jL- sat^w, J^U >^ 

Beans, Jy /w^. 

Beans, French, iJ^-3 fasuliyah 



120 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Bear (to), J*. hamal. 

Beard, i*i. lehyah. 

Beast, \Jk>-) wahsh. 

Beat, \l>j* darab. 

Beater (sport), jjtllS nashsjfd-sh. 

Beautiful, rr~=* hasan. J**a- #- 



Become,^l^ ew*. 

Bed, (j^fyjirdsh, iJ^ wwrta&a^, 

i^ farshah. 

Bedstead,^-* sanr, o^ toM<. 
Beef, .5) ^ ZaAm baqar. 
Bees, Js? naAZ. 
Before (in front), J-.J gaJZ, ^1X5 

qudddm. 
Before (in time), J^l aivwal, ^L\ 

amdm. 

Beg, jll sa'aZ, ^3 taragga. 
Beggar,^*5i/a^Ir, jlsr 1 shahhdd. 
Begin, t^SL^ ibtada. 
Behind, Lj wara, ^_qj> khalf. 
Behold, l^A hodha, y& ah5. 
Belaying-pin, i^ sham ah. 
Believe, jj SS saddaq. 

Bellows, -A:A manfakh. 

Eelly, ^k* 

Below, 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Belt, shoulder, J1I. hammdlah. 
Belt, waist, 
hizam. 

Bend, JU 

Benefit, iojU /al(7a/i. 

Besides, Uc 'acfa, ^^ c2un, ^ 

^^ mew c?ww. 
Besiege, J\> Aasar. 
Bestow, ' u manah) ^^AJ wahab. 
Bet, Tyfcl. rdhan. 



Betray, ^ g&adar, ^ H 
Betrothal, i<ki. khutbah. 
Between, ^ 6e7i, 
Beyond, *l. wara. 



Bilious, c^^fl-> safrdwi. 

J> ier (pi. ; ^J> tuyur), 
r (pi. ^lafr asafir). 
Birth, ^^^. m^dd 
Bite, ^flC 'arfc?. 
Bitter, Jl* mwrr. 
Bivouac, A*^C 'ardiyah. 
Black, ^j***l aswad or iswid. 
Blacksmith, jll. hadddd. 
Blade, -.H 7A, s^ shafrah. 

Blame, ^i }am^ ^ wabbakh. 

<>" * 

Bless, ej^b 6ara&. 

Blind (adj.), 1 a'wTa. 



VOCABULARY: ENGLISH-ARABIC 121 

Boundary, j*& hadd (pi. ^j^>. 



Blood, 1> danim. 

Blossom, *j*j zahrah, ~S Icimm. 

Blow (a stroke), S^o darbah. 

Blue, jjj* azraq. 

Blunt, jIU. _yfcl Tnd/to Aurf dL 

Boasting, .liojl iftikhdr. 

Boat, I^K!* qarib, ^J$j* markib 

(pi. v-^ mardkib). 
Boatman, ^^-^j/* marakbi. 
Body, ~j>. 0tsm (pi. 



Boil (to), (Jc 
Boiler, o ^ 
Bold, ij gasur. 
Bolt, y-l^j dirbds. 
Bolthead, 
Bone, Joe c a 

Bone-setter,^Ls* mugabbir 
Book, V l/H*o& (pi. 
Boot, iU. gazmali. 
Bootmaker, uJlCL s 

gazmatl. 
Borrow, t 

istaddn. 
Bottle, gjl^S qazazah (pi. 



Bottom,^ 
Bough, g^i/ar (pi 



Bow, 

Bowl, il5 qullah. 

Box, (jjjL* sanduq (pi. jp 



Boy, j^tf sa6l, jjj vjalad. 

Braces, eyVC*. hammaldt. 

Brain, clo dimagh. 

Bran, i)U^ nukhalah, s^ raddah. 

Brass, ^-Is^ ne^ds. 

Brave, (J^ grarl, clsr* shuga. 

Brazier, J&*minqal, ^j&kanun. 

Bread, ( J^. 'esh t j^- khubz. 

Bread (rations), S^a. gerayah. 

Breadth, (^^c 'arrZ. 

Break,^jT kasar. 

Breakfast, J^A futur, i*jj/ 

tarwiqah. 
Breast, ^o sadr. 

* * O*Q ' B" 

Breathe, ji.t.-.-.-J istanthaq, 



Bribe, J-lo/. barfil, s^-i.. rashwuh. 
Brick, Ljj^L tob, J^/ qarmld. 
Bricklayer, l!L> banna. 
Bride, ^^c 'arzZ. 
Bridegroom, (j-c f arw. 
Bridge, (j 



122 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



Bridle, ^li. ligam. 

Brigade, y liwa. 

Bring, c^U. gdb,j*s* haddar. 

Bring (imp.),^aLl akdir, uyU hat, 



Broad, \j*j*- 'arid. 

Broil (to), (jyL shawa. 

Broom, A ... : muknisali, l2j^ 

magashsltah. 

Brother, ~t akh (pi. ii^ ibhwah). 
Browu,^*-,! asmar. 
Brush (a), SAjfurshah. 
Brush, ^ masah, (J aso nafad. 
Brute, S >^J bahimah (pi. ol^j 

bahayrm). 
Bucket, ^j c?Zw. 
Bug, ili baqqah (pi. Jj> fea^j). 



Bugler, 
Build, 



amnta?\ 



Building, i^l^c 'imwrah, JuLu 

bindyah. 

Bull,^ or (pi. ^J,*? < 
Bullet, ^Up ra. 
Burden, J^. AzmZ (pi. 

ahmal). 

Burn, t^L^i, ihtaraq. 
Burst, J*ij^ inshaqq. 
Bury, ^jjo dafan,j+a qabar. 
Business, Jii shugKl. 
Busy, JyJL mashghul. 
But, ^jW lakin, Jj 5aZ, 1*1 amma. 
Butcher, ^1^5 qa$sab,j\jfrgazzar. 
Butt (to), jJ watoA. 
Butter, ^^M* samn, sjy zibdali. 
Button (a), jj zirr (pl.^jl a^mr, 

^jl.j zarair). 

Buttress, ^*lc 'amud. 

*~& 
Buy, (^.^j, ishtara. 

Buyer, i^uiU mushtarl. 

By one,one, J.1j Jo*^ wdhidwahid. 



Cabbage, L-A^ kurunb. 

Cable, J-* AaW. 

Cable, telegraph, uJ elL, 



Cage, jjaftS 



Cairo, ^-^-o wzasr, 
masr el-qdhirah, 



Cake, 

Calf, JsP C 2>? (pi. 



VOCABULABY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



123 



Calico, +\- khdm, iiJb baftah. 
Call (name), JLL samma, JlJ sar. 
Call (to), t^lll nada, 3 oVa. 



muaskar, ^^ 'ardl. 
Campaign, if- safariyah. 
Camp-kettle, ^US qazdn. 
Caualjjlcy bughdZj Isj tir'ah. 
Candle, ju- sf<am. 
Candlestick, ^Ux*^ shamaddn. 
Cannon, *jj^* madfa. 
Cap, u^k ifarfrwA (pi. ^/-j^ 

tarabish), (jJS qalbaq (pi. jj^S 

qaldbiq). 
Captain, \jlk-S qabtan. ^^jjJ 

yuzbashi. 
Captivity,^ aw. 
Capture,JlIl aaar. 
Caravan, iUU ^o/ZZaA (pi. 

qua/U). 
Careful, ^/o^ AarT*, 

muhtaris. 

Careless, JU ^o/K. 
Carpenter, .ls^ naggar. 
Carpet, gjlsf- a^oefaA(pl. J-a. 

tagagid). 

Carriage, LJ^C 'arabiydh. 
Carrot, .*. 



Carry, /iama?, j, 
Cartridge, eU* feshtk, 

khartwh. 

Cash, vjjjj naqdiyah. 
Cask, J-t-y> 6aniZ (pi. 

bardmil). 

Cast (to), ^ rawa, Lj* Ijarah. 
Castle, LJLS ^aToA. 
Cat, Ls jw (pi. l>Utf w/f). 
Cataract, jil AofldZ. 
Catch, dL-. masak, ^^5 qabad, 



Catch (sporting), 
Cattle, ^Ij* mutcdshl. 
Cauliflower, ia^j^ qarnabU. 
Cause, ^^ z56 (pi. c_>L 



Cautious, j^ai* muhtariz. 
Cavalry, *JL^ khiyalah, 

sawdrl. 

Cave, i^li* magharah. 
Cease, jj; oi. 

Ceiling, C-B 5... saqf(^^ saquf). 
Celebrated, m-*-* mo8hhur. 
Centre, Ja-j wxzf. 
Centre-bit, Iki^ bunfah. 
Certainly, l. haqqan, J^S t 

fitei, 



124 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Certificate, sj^jJ tazkarah. 

Cesspit, i^* magru. 

Chain, iLJL silsilah (pi. J-X- 

saldsil). 

Chair, ^^ &wm. 
Chance (by), iijdb bi's-sudafah, 

LsUjl ittifdqan. 
Change (to), Jjj ~baddal,J^ ta- 

gl&yar. 

Channel, \gj magra. 
Chaplain (Christian), u-J!* qas- 

8l8. 

Chaplain (Moslem), *U1 imam. 

Chapter, J-oi/a*/, v^b lab. 

Character, xJ to6', g,^, sirah. 

Charcoal, ^fahm. 

Charge (to), "^ hagam. 

Cheap, uOj rakhw. 

Cheat (to), Ji giashsh, *i 

gfaadr. 
Cheek, iia.^ wagnah, JL. Khadd 

(pi. jyi. khadud). 
Cheerful, jj^** masrur, - 

farih. 

Cheese, iuej. gibnah. 
Chess, J^- shatarang. 
Chestnut, g^l jil abu'l-fanvah. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Chicken, jp farrtig, 

ketkut, ua^o sis. 
Chick-pea, u ^t^ hummus. 
Chief (a), ^, ^e^, jj 
Chief of staff, v^ ^ 

ra'w arkan harb. 
Child, jJj tt-aZarf (pi. ty, awl&d) 
Chimney, A '.VJ^ madkhanah. 



Chisel, 3Ljl azamah (pi. 



Choose^iLij ikhtdr. 
Chop (to), pifaram. 
Chosen^bi* mukhtdr. 
Cigarette, ^U^" segdrah. 
Circle, yb ddirah. 
Circumcision, j^l> <u/*^r, 

khitdn. 
Circumference, ^Jb (2atr, 

muhitt. 
Circumstance, JU AoZ (pi. 

ahwdl), ^.5^ sarf (pi. 



Citadel, ialS qaTah. 

City, AJLJJ* medlnah (pi. 



Civil (polite), c-5 muaddab. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



125 



Claim, J* haqq, ^ din, (Sf* 

da'ica. 

Clay, ^ . 
Clean, iJ-fo nazlf, nadlf, jt& 

tahir. 

Clever, j*\Z shdtjr, jiU. hadiq. 
Cleverness, AG\J> baraah, i^Uxi 

shat_drah. 

Climate, \yt liawa, ^-tu mandkh. 
Climb, Jy.^ zW, ,**;!. iriaga. 
Cloak, jj-y. burnus, 
Clock, A^L* sauh. 
Clod, dbj) 
Close (to), 
Cloth, (jiU5 qumdsh, y*. gokh. 

* - - 

Clothe (another), (jJ labbas, ( 

albaSj .^S kasa. 
Clothe (one's self), J-J 
Clothes, ^JA httdum, ^y tub, 

v Lo .%^ (P 1 - Vy atwab). 
Cloud, i^ls^ 1 sahdb, . gj&m. 
Clove, JAJ^ qoronfil. 
Club, ^^y?^ ddbbvs. 
Coachman, ,&*je- 'arbagi. 
Coal, <^ys?- ^s? /iAw hagari. 
Coat, i^-, r 
Cock, ebj dik (pi. 
Cock of a gun, eb- 



Coffee, 8^45 qahwah, JJ 

Coin, ilii 4 makh 

Cold, coldness, 

Cold, frigid, j.U bdrid. 

Collect, J lamm, A*. yama. 

College, iJj i-^j^ madrasah 

kuttiyaJi. 

Colonel, (/^y* witr dZdi. 
Colonel, Lieutenant-, ^la^jlS $ai- 

maqdm. 

Colour, ^ Ion (pi. jjl^l a/imn). 
Column (military), Jy ^o/. 

Comb, .Vi.f.a mis^. 
* ^ ^ ^ 

Come, *U. ^d, ^\ d<o. 

Come (imp.), jCj to'dZ. 
Comfort, consolation, aJLJ 

M 

ZtyoA, ^^-J tasalli. 
Comfort, ease, Ia.K 
Comfort (to), 
Commander, UjCa. Iv&umddr, 



Commencement, Ijcal ibtidd. 
Commerce, ^* matgar, i 



Commissariat, ^\^ komisar- 

yat. 

Committee, iii* lagnah. 
Common (inferior), ^ dun, 
haqir. 



126 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



Common (to several), &JLZ* musk- 

tarak. 
Companion, <jJ. raflq (pi. *Ui, 

rufaqa). 
Company, 5L*. gam'iyah, ^Js* 

magliSy A-sf* suhbah. 
Company (military), <sjy> buluk. 
Compare, u ^ gay as, Jj\3 qabal. 
Compare, accounts, ^U rfaAa. 
Compasses,^\lj> blkdr. 
Compassion, liii shafaqah. 

<r~Of * "Of 

Compel, ^1 alzam, -)*.\ ahwag. 
Competent, ^^l3 qddir. 
Complain, ^JliJ tashahka, ^^ f 

ishtdka. 

Complete, J*uka,mil )u d\t> khalis. 
Complete (to), 1st atamm, ^3 

tammam. 

Completion, J*j taloml. 
Conceal, ( j^\ alchfa, JS katam. 
Conceited, jyez* mutasawir. 
Conclude, finish, ^L khatam. 
Concrete, ^L.^. Jcharasan. 
Condemn j[to death), v^lb. 'J&. 

hdkam bil-mot. 
Condition (agreement), J^i, shart 

(pi. Jp^i shuriit). 



Condition (state), JU. hdl (pi. 

Jly>.t ahwal). 
Conduct (behaviour), dj 
Conduct (to), i^l sheya, 



,^5l a<7arr, u-^-^l a'taraf. 
Confession, ^l t^mr, 



Confidence, HJ fe^a^, 
mad, ^U7ci i'tiqdd. 

Congeal, I^J tagammad. 

Congratulate (to), I!A 
csKl> bdrak. 

~~ O 

Conjectured (to l)e), 



Conjunction, iUj waslah. 
Conquer, ^5 qahar, vl 

^3fatah,J&> zafar. 
Conquered (part.), 

lub. 

Conquest, jfat'h,j&> zafr. 
Consent, U, reWa, J^-S 
Consent (to), ^^ ridi, 
Consequence, iJU 'aqibah, Zxz 

natlgaTi. 

-- -Of 

Consider, esteem,-^! a'tabar. 



Consider, reflect, jlls ta'ammal, 
JJJLJ tafakkar. 



VOCABULAKy : 

Constantinople, Jj^*ls-l istdm- 

bul. 

Consul, J-<vi5 qunstd. 
Consult, Jjll shawar. 
Contagious, ij** muadl. 
Contain, *~j yasa', J*Ill ishta- 

mal, tjL\ ihtawa. 
Content, ^ radda. 
Contentment, IsliS qanaah. 
Continually, Ob ddiman. 
Continue, persevere, j+z~>\ ista- 



ENGLISH-ARABIC 127 

Cool, fresh, (^> tan. 
Cool (to), 3^> barrad. 

as ahmar. 



marr. 



Continue, without ceasing, Jlj U 

md zal, ^su\ U md infaqq, 

^ I* mdfatla. 
Contract, J^jo tahud, iJjU* mu- 

gawalah. 
Contractor, ^c^mutalihid, JjU* 

muqawil. 
Contrary, <-*& Mnldf, jLi didd, 



Convenient, _ r A~Ai mundsib, ^ 

mulaim. 

Converse (to), Cjja? tahaddas. 
Convey, remove, Jii naqcd. 
Conviction, ^.JjS tadnlb. 
Cook, 



Cook (to), to6a^. 



Copy (to), .-o nasakh. 
Cord, J-* Aa6Z (pi. JU.' a/^dZ). 
Cork, wlju- 8idddah,ii*\ felllnah. 
Corkscrew, i^Jj barrlmah. 
Corn, L^J* hubub, iic gj&Uah. 
Corn, Indian, g^i durah. 
Corner, ^ruk'n. 
Cornice, ( j^jj>kornlsh. 
Corporal, ^Uijl onbdshl. 
Corporal punishment, ^jte ^^-L-5 

^o^o* badarii. 
Correct, J-y wasal. 
Correspondent, ^J\5d mukdtib. 
Corrupt, ^Jtfdsid. 
Cost, ^ taman,j*~, si'r. 
Cotton, ^ ^w|. 
Cough (a), JU* WdZ, i5 quhhah. 
Council, u-ls? maglis (pi. ^Is* 



Count (to), Ic f ac?c?, ^Sl,^ A 
Countersign, -i.1 ashar. 
Countersign (military), tyj-*. 

barolcJi, i^Ull ajTMrnai el- 

mu'drafah. 
Country, *% bildd, Ub, rlf. 



128 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Crowd, *Uj zihdm, AJ^*. gauqah. 



Courage, iT^ garaah, 

shayaah. 

Course (of time), si* mvddah. 
Court-martial, <j~c- .Jbfmag 

^ 

Us 'askarl. 

Court of law, is? mahkamah. 
Courtyard, jjSp. hash. 
Covet, j *3e tama'fl. 
Cow, ^5i baqarah. 
Coward, ^W* gabdn, uJip 

khawwaf. 



Cradle, j^ mahd^j* saflr. 
Creak, xJJu tafarqa*. 



Cream, ikiS qashtoh. 
Create, $L khalaq. 
Creator, (j)l. IMliq. 
Credit (belief), ^Uicl itimdd. 
Credit (debt), ^j c?^. 
Credit (reputation), j^s\ i'tibdr. 
Crime, ^3 danb (pi. v-^Ji 



Crooked, ^^cl a wag. 
Crop, ^* mausam. 
Cross, _>JL aZl6. 
Cross (to),^c 'a6ar, JaS ga^a* 
Crow (bird), clj 



Crowbar, a.l:.g 'atalah. 



Crown, -U <agr (pi. ^,1^ tlgan). 
Cruel, JU* ?d/tm, ^\S qavi. 
Crupper, Js,l tA^w/, ^^JJ qisqon. 
Crushed (to be), u^^\ inliaras. 
Cry out, fj* sarakh. 
Cry, weep, ^o 5A:a. 
Cubic, v^JSCl muka'ab. 
Cucumber, .L* khiyar. 
Cultivate, CJA haras, \*fallah. 
Cultivation, ls^.\ ziraah. 
Cunning (adj.),^lxx makkar. 
Cup, -jJ qadah, ^Ur* fingan, 

ij& kas. 

Cupboard, ^Ji^ duldb. 
Curb, of a well,^Jl %fumm el-far. 
Curb-chain, ^UL aJLJi sihilet 

ligdm. 

Cure (to), (jJIS c?du;a, jj shafa. 
Curious (inquisitive) j^Jls^wte- 



Curious (strange), 

^.^c cfharib. 
Current, stream, 
Curry-comb, \+*S iiJoj. hadldat 

tlmdr. 
Curtain, S^ls-* sitdrah. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 

II el- 



129 



Curtain of fortification, 
bardah. 

Curve (to), JU mala, ^ hana. 

- >*, 
Cushion, JJL-~* niasnad, ilxJ tak- 

kayah, 'i jjf makhaddah. 
Custody, (j**. hubs. 
Custom, wlc 'dda7i. 



Customer, ^j zubun. 
Custom-house, ct),**- gumrak. 
Cut-, I qatja. 
Cutting off, i*j. gazmah. 
Cypress (tree), l^^ sarwah. 
Cyprus, u^J qobros. 



D 



khangar. 

Daily, Ujj yomlyan. 

Damage (to), jLc 'aUal. 
Damp, moist, \^o. ratb. 
Dance (to), ^j raqas. 
Dancing-girl, i^lS, raqasah. 
Danger, ^la*. Tchatar. 
Dangerously wounded, 
mukhtir. 



s tagdsar. 
Darkness, ijk zulmah. 
Darn (to), ^' rata. 
Date (fruit),^J iawr, Jj balakh. 
Date (time), 0,15 tarikh. 
Date (tree), ij^ nakhlah. 
Daughter, eo 2>tW. 



Day, p> yam (pi. AJ ay yam). 
u 



Day after to-morrow, ^5o 
W bukrah. 



Day, aU day long, 



Day before yesterday, ^-jU! J^\ 

awical embarih. 
Day, to-day, ^Jl el-ywn, b ^l^Jl 

ertrnaliar da. 
Deaf, t- ^L>l atjash. 
Dear (beloved), c-^o- /io5z6. 
Dear (not cheap), ^Jlt ghall. 
Death, u^j* mo<. 

Debt, jjp cZm, i3ljj-,l istidanah. 
Deceit, (J te. ghish, ^jz* ghurur. 
Deceive, cj^. khada\ 
Decide, determine, ^ja. gazam. 
Decide, judge, ji hakam. 
Decoration, AJJJ ^iwa/*. 
Decree (to), "SL hakam. 



130 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Deep, profound, (j**c 'amiq. 
Deep (the ocean), Jo^sM^s.-*. bahr 

el-muhlt. 

Deer, Jl^c. ghazal. 
Defeated (to be), Jj^jj^ inghaldb. 
Defend, ^ JIU. hdma 'an. 
Defile (narrow passage), JL5JJ 

zanqah. 

Delay,^*i.\5 tdfchlr, dLl^* muhlah. 
Delight, jj lazzoih. 
Deliver, liberate, JjuL. khallas. 
Deliver, surrender, jLI sallam. 
Demand, claim, 



^ ~ 

Deny, ^Lt^alab,J^\ ankar. 
Depart, -1^ raA,^jC sdfar, 
Department, c^s/ar*. 
Depend, rely, j*\ f i'taqad. 
Depot, ^^.Ll as. 
Depth, ij+e. 'umq. 
Derrick, jZs. 'eyar. 
Descend, Jjj nazal. 
Describe, C-B^ wasaf. 
Desert (to),Js* /ia^ar, ^3 taraJc. 
Desert, waste, ^A* qafr, \^ 
sahra. 

Deserter, w-^U harib, u\^ har- 
bdn. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

M * *0 



~ * o ^ o 



Deserve, (jsoJ istaTiaqq,\^s>'^J( 

istaugdb. 
Deserving, worthy, Jsr-- 6 mus- 

tahiqq. 

Desire, i^ raphbah, ^* murad. 
Desire, longing, ^ shdq. 
Desire (to), { ^\ ishtaha, JGlt 

ishtaq, c-^c, rayhab. 
Detachment, ^1^ widdd. 
Detachment, soldiers, 5^*, sari- 

yah. 

Detail (to), jli fassal. 

. * ^ ^ o t 

Detain, jjy: 'awimr^dL-ol amsaJc, 

u_iS^I awqaf. 

Detain (in custody), JL"li. Ar<t5a5. 
Detect, v s^S kashaf. 
Detection, discovery, 



Determination, Jo 
Determine, decide, . J qarrar. 
Detestable, xj^C> makruh. 
Detraction, scandal, i^s tulunah* 
Deviate, stray, U fa/t, JJ <fa^. 
Devil, ^Ua.JI* shaitau. 
Devotion (personal), u n -^a^ 
takhsls. 

Devotion (religious), iJ^'i 

***** 
Devour (to), u ^\ iftaras. 



VOCABULABY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



131 



Devout, JA|J zaJiid. 
Dew, <jjj nada. 
Diamond, ^U mas, 



! el-mas. 
Diarrhoea, JU1 is'hal. 
Dictionary, ^-^15 qdmus. 
Die (to), iI>U mat, Jj>j5 tawaffa. 
Differ (in form), ^ faraq. 

~ o 

Differ (in opinion), 

ikhtalaf. 
Different, \-d\s? muKhalif, 



Differently, ^i 
Difficult, v^juj 
Dig,^to. hafar. 
Digest, ^OA hadam. 
Dignity, i-tJ^-o martabah, 

s^araf, +\&* maqam. 
Diligence, ^UIA! ihtimam, 

igtihdd, j^ ^aAc?. 
Diligent, j^s* mugtahid. 
Dim, ^73r^> mutim. 
Diminish, ^^aj naqqas, 
Diminish, in value, Li* munhatt. 
Diminution, JJiaJ 



Dine, t5jjo taghadda'jaA fatar, 

^M ta'asha. 
Dinner, Uc f aA 



Direct, command,J!Il amar. 
Direct, instruct, Col adddb. 
Direct, point out, (j* hada t 



sawa 



Direct, straight, 

dugJyri,, ~&~~* mustaqwi. 
Direction, indication, jl^^ irsJiad, 

io.u ndhiyah, I^a. gahah. 
Direction, order, ^*1 awr, j,^^ 

buJcin. 

Direction, way, &Jo tariq. 
Directly, U.U. halama. 
Dirt, filth, 5JUj zubalaJi, -^ 

wasalch. 
Diiiy, *} uxisikh. 



Disappear, i_>U 

* Br 

Disappoint, C.A** Jchayydb. 

~ Z rC " 
Disapprove,JxJl ankar. 

Disaster, A ; >^,a muftlah. 
Discernment, ^AW tamy'tz, 



Discharge (accused), ^ ^c c ^/a 

'an,jSL& ghafar. 

Discharge (a gun), jilt atlaq. 
Discharge, dismissal, ( j'$b\ itldq, 

Jjc 'azl, oj, ra/<. 
Discharge (from prison), J** 

akhla sdbll. 



I 2 



13.2 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Discharge, leave to go, LAJ*J 

rukhsah. 
Discharge, pay, ^ wafa. 

-*- ^ 

Discharge, perform, J^c 'amdl. 
Discharge, performance, J^s 

'amal. 

* " f 
Discharge (to), j>U?l atlaq. 

Discipline, Au^ ^ L-j- zdbt wa 

rabt. 
Discontented, ^ 

radl. 
Discount, ,bUl isqdt, 

zil. 

Discover j^bi azkar, (-J^kashaf. 
Discieefc, u-^J labib. 
Disci imination,jUu\ imtiyaz. 
Disdain (to), ,^Ul akdn. 
Disease, *i^ da, \j0j* marad, Lc 

'aya. 
Diseased, u i^* marid, U LI: 

'ayyan. 
Disembark (to),^JJ JJ3 nazal 

li'l-barr. 
Disgraceful conduct, ~~d\ ^^LJl 

es-suliiq el-qablk. 
Disgusting, S^K^- mustakrah. 
Dish, < j^b tabaqt, ^sf sahn (pi. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Dishonest, ( .^\ j*& 

.jil khai/ln. 

Dishonesty, AJU* khiyanah. 
Dishonour, disgrace, \^+*- 'eb, 

.U 'ar. 
Dishonour (to),^,a. haqqar, ^U^ 

ahdn. 
Dismiss (remove from office), Jjc 

'azal, (Okj, rafat. 

Dismiss (send away), CJ^ seydb. 
Dismissal (off parade), j^^ 

dastiir. 
Dismount (a guard), ( Jjii s^all) Jki 

battal (el-qaraqol). 
Dismount (to), J^i nazaL 
Disobey, u2la. khdlaf, ^e- 'asa. 
Disorder, disturbance, JL. khalal. 
Disorder, sedition, a : 7,5 fitnah. 
Disperse, cu^ shattat. 
Display, exhibit^kl azliar, 
Display, spread out, 

Ji nashar. 
Displease, LUl aghaz. 
Disposition, xL> <a6'. 
Dispute (to), \!**K>. bahas, 

gadal. 

Dissension, Ax^ai. khusumah. 
Dissolve, Ji. /taWaf. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



133 



Distend, Jkj nafakh. 
Distinct, jli** mumtdz. 
Distress (to) , + gho 
Distribute, pj^ wazza', *~3 qas- 

sam. 
Ditch, ji j gliadir, <j| JJL'a. khun- 

duq (pi. Jj.ilii* khanddiq). 
Divide, --J qassam. 
Divine, ^^Jl ?7a7tl. 
Division, .* iJ taqsim. 
Division (military), iy Jirqah. 
Divorce (to), Jit toWay. 
Do (to), JxJ/a'aZ, J*c C awa7. 
Dockyard, iiL,^ tarsdnah. 
Doctor (medical), c-^*-^i tab'tb, 

J\*> hakim. 
Dog, ^ kelb or A:aZ6 (pi. i^^ 



Dollar, Jb, r^aZ. 

Dome, A."J qubbah. 

Door, ujb 6a6 (pi. ^\y\ abicab). 

Double (to), u_ficG dd'af. 

Doubt, suspicion, dli. shakk, ^_^ 

reb, i^J* shubhah. 
Doubt (to), dii 4^. 
Dough, ^.^sF 1 'agin. 
Dove, i*U. hamdmah. 
Down (under), c. 



Dowry ,^4* ??ja/ir. 

Drachm, ^4,^ dirham. 

Drag (to), v_> j. gazab,ja garr. 

Drain, (jj? magra. 

Drain-pipe, i,^-,U mdsiirah. 

Draw, along,^a. garr, ^s^sahab. 

Draw, delineate, '^ rasam. 

Draw, pull out, 'i& qala. 

Drawer, ii^ 1 ^ basbtakhtah. 

Drawers, ^^U libas. 

Dream, Ja. hilm, ^U manam. 

Dress, ^^U libas. 

Dross (to), ^S Jcasa, J.IJ labas. 

Drill, military, jj}b tdbur, .**! 

tallm. 
Drink (to), v*/- sAm'6. 

* 

Drink (to give), ( Ju, 
Drive out, 
Dromedary, 

^s* hugun). 

Drop (a), s^lo? qatrah, iloSJ mtqtah. 
Drought, JtaU A ss.'adamel-rnatar. 
Drown, jj^c gharraq, 
Druggist, ^Uac. *fldr. 
Drum, JJ, iraft?. 
Drummer, ( ^'^ trombetyi. 
Drunk, ^C sakrdn. 
Drunkard, 



farad, *** dafa. 
hagln (pi. 



134 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Dry, c-a-U ndskif. During, Jj U md ddm, Ul 

Dry (to), tjMO yabas, wi~ nashif. fl asnd. 
Duck, *Jai battak. 
Due, fitting, j&V Idiq, +j$ Idzim. 
Due, owing, UjJl w^\j wa06 eZ- 
wa/a, (jsf^*** mustahiq. 

Dumb, i-p.1 akhras, o5U safo'tf. 

Dwell, | jX- sakan. 
Dung, AK 5:aW. ^ 

Dwelling, ^jlXo makdn, Oww> 
Dunghill, iiK-o mazbalah (pi. 

Dye (to), i^ sabagh. 
\fo mazabil). 

T^ . i j it* Dyer, clL sabbdgh. 

Duration, ^1,^ dawam, ^J\ is- J ' C ' 

Dysentery, iAWi; zintdriyaJi. 



Dust,^Lc cfhubdr,\&s. 'ufdr. 

Duster, &j futtah. 

Duty, \~+!*\j wdgib, ^J* fard, 



E 



Each, j^lj J> iufl wdhid. 
Eager, jl^Lo mushtdq. 
Eaglej^J nwr. 

Ear, ^j jl udhn (pi. ^jUl adhdn). 
Early (adj.), ^Jo 6a^rl. 
Early (adv.), ^l> bdkiran. 
Earn, ^^~S kasab. 
Earth, ^1 ard. 
Earthenware,^^ fukhkhdr. 
Earthquake, ihJj zalzalah. 
Ease (repcss), i*^ rdhah. 
East, 
Easy, 



JLo mashriq. 



Eat, jf 1 

Ebony, (j^\ abenus. 

Edge, brink, .lii kandr, 



Edge (of knife), jo. 
Educate, ^yj ra6&a. 
Education, A*^> tarbiyah. 
Egg, ia*j 6e^a/4 (pi. ^ 
Egg-plant, jjlsr^. betingdn. 



Elbow, (j-9/> marfaq, cj> &w'a. 
Electricity, i^.iU. gddhbiyali, 
ijU^ kahrabaiyah. 



VOCABULARY : 

Elegant, uJb^U zarif. 
Element,^uc 'ansar. 
Elephant, J-J/2J. 
Elevate, J!c 'alia, j, rafa'. 
Elevation, p^l irttfa. 
Ell, cl ; 3 c/^tra . 
Eloquence, ixLii fasdkah. 
Embankment, ,-*>. ^rfw. 



ENGLISH-ARABIC 



135 



eSX~ rakib el-bahr. 



Embarkation, Vr ib^iU sa/ar 

bi'l-markib. 

Embezzle, u -ii>) l ikhtalas. 
Embrace, jpU 'dnaq. 
Embrasure, J^ mazghfd. 
Embroidery, P^> tatriz. 
Emery, ^JL* sanfarah. 
Emetic, \J^o^ mutarrish. 
Employ, give employment, Ji 

^ 0' O 

shagji^hal^ ^jscu-1 istakhdam. 
Employ, make use of, 

istamal. 

Employment, i.ji. khidmah. 
Empty (to), 
Empty, void, 



Emulate, jp.ll saftag'. 
Enable, y5 qaddar, Jjlf o^dar. 
Enamel, U* 



Encamp, -i. khayyam. 
Encampment,^-*** muaskar. 
Enclose, LCl aAaf. 
Enclosing, encircling, 

hU. 

Enclosure, ii>U^ ihdtah. 
Encounter, fight, v>J 
Encounter, meeting, slS^U muld- 

qah, AJ^LM musddafah. 
Encourage, xsJ^ shaggn'. 
End,^xi akhir, ^bi. khitam, \^\ 

intihd. 

" o - ^ -* 

End (to), a. ^-J tammam, ^ 

*o 

khatam, ( -^>\ anha. 
End(to),jp. ^-^intiha, Jf tamm. 
Endeavour (to), i^4j, igtaliad, 



Enemy, J 1 j^ft 'a^tZ (pi. Ij^l ado). 
Energetic^ijll* skatir, ^jU. hdzim. 
Energy, jujJ qudrah, A himmaJt. 
Engage, employ, dLjJ>. 
'ayyan fl khidmah, 

i 

istakhdam. 

Engage, pledge, j^ ta'ahhxd. 
Engaged, busy, Jy^- mash gh id. 
Engine^y.U bdbilr. 
Engineer, ^x*.^* muhandis. 
England, Ud^il inkilterrd. 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Estate, property, d^U amldk, 



i'tibar. 
wagheroh. 



136 

English, (jj>\ inkllzi. 
Enjoy, +3K3 tana'am, .V.7..'>^ in- 

basatt. 

Enjoy, possess, -j^j tasarraf. 
Enlarge, *1^ wassa ,*J kabbar. 
Enlist (to), iIJST iktatab. 
Enlistment, u^l^SVl el-iktitab. 
Enough, sufficient, ^jv kdfi. 
Enough, sufficiency, lAjlf kifd- 

yah. 

~ * Of 

Enrage, ^<&.\ aghdab. 
Enraged (to be), itel, igjitaz. 
Enrich, ^JLC! agjma. 
Enter, Ji.1 dakhal. 
Entertain (to), '^ 'azam. 
Entirely, iJXJb bi'l-kulliyah, 



Envelope (of a letter), 

ghulaf, i-jl^*. v tjb zarf gaivab. 
Envy, JUM&. hasad. 
Equality, AJJ 5 tasiviyah, Sl 



Equivalent, J.iU* muddil, (j^\ 

musdwl. 

Error, Jolc ghalat, Iki. khatd. 
Escape (to), Q nagd,jifarr. 
Escort (to), JL^. haras. 
Especially, l^aa. khususan. 



Esteem (t 

Et cetera, 

Eternal, ( 

Eunuch, jjli. khassi, U 

Europe, b^l aurobd. 

Even (adv.), ( ja. Aaa. 

Even, level, <j^ * mustawl. 

Evening, *L^ 7?zasa, *_LiLft 

'ashiyah. 
Event, Ax5! waqi'ah, ij^U. Aa- 



Ever, ^UV! ob dayim el-ayyam, 
Ujb ddiman. 



Every, 

Every one, ja.lj J5 A;w?Z wdhid. 

Everywhere, ,^k J5^ A;wZZ mat" 

rah. 

Evidence, wl^2 shahddah. 
Evil (adj.), (^ rac?^, ju-U/astW. 
Evil (an), ^, su,^> sharr. 
Evolution, s^li-* mandwarah. 
Examination, ^Is^^l imtihdn. 
Examine, ^s^ifahas, ^jss^H'm- 

tahan. 

Example, Jbu m'/o/. 
Example, warning, ^*c 'ibrah. 



VOCABULARY : 

Excavation, c*s? faht,je hafar. 
Exceed, u Is? tagdwaz. 
Excellent, J-il fddil, e,b ban, 

j^. geyid, Jlc 'dl. 
Except, ^ ilia, UU hdsha. \j& 

Wa, Mix khald, (jy siwd,jJi 

aher. 

Exception, Lis-,1 istifnd. 
Excess, fob) ziyddah. 
Exchange (an), JjJ-j tabdll, iJoL* 

mubddalah. 

Exchange (to), Jji badal. 
Excite, stir up, <^. harrak, \jaj>- 

harrad. 

Exclaim, *L* sarrah. 
Exclude, *j* {arad, ^j^\ akhrag. 
Excluded, forbidden, JJLs^ mu- 

harram, e-ji** mamnu. 
Excuse (an),^jc 'iidhr. 
Exercise, lesson, ^^^ dars, ^.^ 

tamrln. 
Exercise, recreation, i^U, riyd- 

dah, isr^ fushah. 
Exercise (to), ^U wara, CJJ* 

darrab. 
Exercise, usd, JUi-,1 istimdl, 

u-OpJJ tadrlb. 
Exile, jj nafa, *L tarad. 



ENGLISH-ARABIC 



137 



Exile (an), j^U {arid. 
Existence, ^y>.j wugud. 
Existent, *y>-)* maug-ud. 

*~~o 

Expect,^^o^ intazar. 
Expedition, i)U^. hamlah, a 

irsdliyah. 
Expel, *** dafa'. 
Expend, -J^ ?araf. 
Experience, .LiJxl ikhtibdr, i^s? 

tagribah. 
Expert, j^>- khabir, i^-J*. JA! 

ahl Jchdbrah. 

Explain, > sharah,j>^fassar. 
Explanation, ^^-JJ tafslr, ^ 

shark. 
Express (messenger), 

sd'l must 1 ag al. 

*** 

Express (to), Jail lafaz. 
Extension, jLc madd. 
Extensive, JuiJ^o madid, 

shadid. 

Extent, ^!jcu\ imtiddd. 
Extinguish, ( J\> tafa. 
Extortion, Jk zulm, 
Extract, -.^ic-.^ itttakhrag. 
Extraordinary, ^U nadir, 

*M\ khildf el-'ddah. 
Extreme, lAc. ghdyah. 



J t'azlb. 



138 



PEACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



Eye, ( ^A 'en (pi. ^^s. 'uyun). 
Eyebrow, 
hawdgib). 



Eyelash, 

rimush). 
Eyelid, ^ gifn (pi 



rimsh (pi. 



Fable, Lil^ khurafah, J 
Face, &.^ w;a#A (pi. ywj wuguh). 
Face, of a square,jjj yZ. 
Factory, J*^ martial (pi. J*U 



khdb. 
daf. 



'oc?t7. 



Faggot, sj^j. gurzah, 
Fail, be deficient, i 
Faint, ^ iwa/ia, 
Fair (fine), t_flJJ 
Fair (honest), 
Faith (religion), 

Iman. 

Faith (trust), 
Faithful, ,j.**l 
Fall ill, jit 
Fall (to), xSj waqa, JaL saqat. 
Fall in (military ),^>.lb A^J naubat- 

tabur. 

False, \ zur, i_>3o kddib. 
Falsehood, >jfkidb. 
Familiar (intimate), 

Uf. 



'eya. 



Family (in a house), il^c 'elah, 



Family (race), J*>1 asl, 

C.AMO nasab. 
Famine, las? qaht, cy*. 
Famous, ji^-i- mash'hur. 
Fan (a), A^* marwahah. 
Fancy, JU*. Jchaydl, ^ wahm. 
Far, far off, J^ 
Fare (food), ^jS 
Fare (price), ^ taman t jxt si'r. 
Farewell 1 (a)Jb\. khdtarak / 
Farewell (to bid), cS^ wadda. 
Farm, uji'ezbah, *\xAab'ddiyah. 
Farmer, c.\y> muzdri. 
Farrier, jlEL->. bettdr. 
Fascine, c**^ damat, st" suguqq. 
Fashion (custom), iblc 'ddah. 
Fashion (form), <jj ze, 

kasm. 
Fast (firm), I>^u mazbilt, 

gdmid, eu>U 



VOCABULARY : 
Fast (swift), *j? sari. 



ENGLISH-ARABIC 



139 



Fasten, u rabat, cuJ (dibit. 

Fat, ^^-n samin. 

Father, i+>\ ab, jJlj waKd. 

Fatigue, \^x> ta'ab. 

Fault, ^^- *eb, IA^AJ naqisah. 

Favour, i* minnah,Z+*j ni'mah, 

i_jjj marv-f. 
Favourable, ^^ mardl, jh|^- 

muwafiq. 
Favourite, J^i* mufaddal, ^^^s^~* 

mu8tahabb,j^z 'azlz. 
Fear, w^ khof, iiU* malchafah. 
Fear (to), ^JU. Ma/. 
Fear (to cause), -J^ Jchauwif. 
Fearful, <_*** mukhlf. 
Feast (festival), j*c 'id. 
Feather, i^, rl^aA (pi. ufyrish). 
Features, ^Jl -J 

el-ioagh, ( ^ t \sf mahdsin, 

maldmih. 

~- o* **~ 

Feed, 1 at 'dm, 



qdt. 

Feel (to), J! 
Fellow, companion, 
Felt (cloth), .>$ 
Female (a), st^ imrah. 
Female (gender), LJ 



Fence, enclosure, jJli ihatah, 

ijj^j zaribah. 
Ferocious, ^^aj wafahl. 
Ferry ,^ot mabar. 
Fertile, ^^it 
Fetch, ilU. ^a6. 
Fever, .^. humma. 
Few, JJUI ^aZtZ. 
Fiddle, ^5 ^5^, i^l^ riftafi, is? 

kamdngah. 
Field, Jf* ^ia^Z, L*c g&et, ^ 



Fig, AJL*J finah (pi. ^ <m). 
Fight, conflict, Jli5 ^ii 

A arb. 

Fight (to), i^U Aara&, JJlS ^dYaZ. 
Figure (shape), jXi shakl, 

surah. 

File (a), j^** mabrad. 
File, of soldiers, .Ua5 qatar. 
Fill, 5u wwiZa. 
Filter, jar, ^ Ir. 
Filth, i*,y nagdsah, ii. 



Find, JA.J wagad, Ji) laqa. 



Fine (beautiful), 
^ zarif. 



kwyls, 



140 



PRACTICAL ARABIC 



Fine (not coarse), ^ rafi or 

rufeyct. 

Fine (penalty), l*\f gharamah. 
Finger, x^o\ asbu (pi. j>L*1 

asabi'). 
Finish, J\ atamm, ^3 tammam, 

uflL* khalas, J^ST kamal. 
Fire,jU nar (pi. ^l^o nlran). 

"Of 

Fire, a gun, jpitl atfaq. 
Fire-engine, *Uk talumbdh. 

~*0* 

Fire, set on, ^^a.1 a/ira^. 

-o 

Fire, take, Jj/^, ihtarag. 
Finn, oj.ti /a6^ or s6^. 
Fish, ll, samakah (pi. 



Fit (fainting), ^tjLc ghushyan. 
Fit, proper, <jj^ Zat^, v^^U 

mundsib. 

Fix, o^ol os6a, ^| qarrar. 
Flag, banner, JLC 'a?am, s^xij 

binder ah, (j^. beraq (pi. <j$,lo. 



Flame, 

Flank, fortification, JasJ ibt (pi. 



Flank side, ^. f/aw6 or 
Flap (of saddle), ^ ij^ fakh- 
dat sarg. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Flash (to), j> baraq. 
Flask, AJLJL .9AI^^. 
Flat (ground), J^-*, 
Flat (house), 1L1 shctqqah. 
Flat, level, (j^- mustawl. 
Flatter, JH mallaq. 
Flax, ^Ui Jdttdn. 
Flea, *^^/-> bargjtut (pi. 



Flesh, r 

Fleshy, J* muUim, 

Flight (aerial), ^1^ teyaran 

Flight (put to), +* hazam. 

Flight (running away), . 

^J>A harb. 

Fling, ^g>j rama, ^y qau;v:as. 
Flint, ^ 

Flood (to), 

f 
Floor, ^jo~&>- hadld, ^>j\ ard. 

Flour, j.v*s j(fl^w, (Jf^^ dciqiq, 
Flow (of tide), .x* madd. 
Flow (to), (j^f* gara. 
Flower, S.AJ zahrah (pi. ..AJ ^ 



Fly (a), Sjbi dubbanah. 
Fly (as a bird),^\i far. 
Fly (run away), Jj /arr, 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH -ARABIC 



141 



ihr. 



Fodder, c_ilc 'a/a/, <jJb 'al'tq. 
Fog, vL-> dabab. 
Folded, t^jk* malwl. 

* * *** 

Follow, A-O tabi', JlL lahaq. 

Following, AJ'J tdbi'. 

Folly, iJjUa. hamaqah, aJ^a- <jra- 

Ad/aA, 

Fondness, j^ mawaddah. 
Food, uy^5 #ift, *Uk /a'am, Ixc 

g&idd, ij^ ma'unah. 
Fool, jk*^ ahmaq, Ja*- 
Foot, J^, n>Z (pi. J 
Foot, on, ^^.b das. 
Footstep, ^JS qadam. 
Forage, <_ ik 'aZa 
Forbid, ^3 waAa, *u mana. 
Force (power), i quwali. 
Force (to), J^ #a6ar. 
Force (violence), JLt zulm. 

& 

Forcibly, y^k-i\ idtiraran, \ 

a 

gobrctn, Loc ghasban. 



gabm, 



Ford, xlai* maqta. 
Forehefed, 



Foreign, 

aonatz. 
Foresight (gun), S^ 



gAarlb, 



Foresiglit (rifle), L'&* dibbdnah. 

Forest, iiU gjwkah (pi. v^ 

Forget, ^o nasl. 

Forgive, ^Ai ghafar. 

Fork, iS^l shjkaJi. 

Foim (figure), jXi, sAa&Z, 



Form (kind), L_Q--^ /. 
Form (method), 

sj^ls qaidah. 
Form (to), 



Former, 

addam. 

Fort, ixlS gafa/i, i*>U> tabiyah. 
Fortification, ( .^. h>sn (pi. c 

At^wn), j*!^^' istihkam. 
Fortunate, j..<^ said, ^ 

masud, CAS^* mubkhat. 
Fortune, fate, a-J qi#mah, xJV 



Fortune, property, eJJu ?;i?7^, 



Fortune, prosperity, o^- bakhf, 

Jjuu sa'cZ, ja. Aa^f . 

^^- 

Forward (to go), ^jJLj taqaddam. 

Foundation, 

Founder (to), j 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Frontier, jLa. hadd (pi. 



142 

Fountain, ( ^- 'en, j*~> yctnbtf 
Fowl, **! ter (pl.^^A* tuyur). 
Fox, eJUS talab. 
Fraud, &* mctKT, PJJJ ^fl^i^t?*. 
Free,JJ!. At^rr. 

^ ^ Of *+* 

Free (to), jj^cl a'<ay, ^^L. M 

/a?, jjitl a/^rt^. 
Free (to be), Jlij], intalaq. 
Freedom, A/p* hurriyah. 
Free will^l*^.! ikhliydr. 
Frenchman, (J)\~J/ fransdwi. 
Fresh, new, (jjb tarl, 
Friend, c ^i=*' habib y JJ^>. khalll, 



Friendship, iZs? muhabbah, L 

fiuhbah. 
Frightened, 
Frog, ACJA-J dufda'ah. 
Frog, of foot, ^jL-i daban. 
From, ^ mm. 

Front, Jj$ qudddm, &>.j wagli 
Front (in), JiUo muqdbil. 



Frost, jJL 
Frown (to), ' 

Fruit, i\>fakihah,j\J\ atmar. 
Fry (to), JJ qala. 
Frying-pan, AJ^A. meqlayah. 
Full, ^j^L maldn, Ji^ mumtali. 
Full moon,^jo 6tZr. 
Funeral, }ljL. gindzah, 



Fur, 'ijjfarwah. 

Furlough, vl^c A-ati.- rukhsat 

gJiiydb. 

Furnace, Sj5^ muqadah. 
Furnish (equip), j^a. gahhaz. 
Furnished (as a house), ^j^i- 

mafrush. 

Furniture, ^J* farsh, &\f\ atdt. 
Futile, J\L 6a/a?. 
Future, ^ aft, J-&~* mualaqbil. 
Fuze, i? 



G 



Gabion, 
'Gain (to), 

<a/a c , li rabih. 



sabat. 



ijcl tT 



Gaiter, ^Ul lamdq, jL tuzluq 



Gallop, ^ ramah. 
Gallop (a) ; , UL>^ durtenal. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



143 



Game (play), 

Game (sporting), j^ fed. 

Garden, i :. ;*. gerienah, ^b ~,\ 

bustdn (pi. ^j-JUj basdtln). 
Garlic, ^ <'3m. 
Garrison, Z~*U. hdmiyah. 
Gas, jo A. 

Gate, vU ftdft (pi. vly.l abwdb). 
Gather, ui gama. 
Gelding, ,Jai* mukhsft. 
Gemined, x!^. murassa. 
General,^ . .t. * mushlr, 

saraskar. 
General, Lieut., 
General, Major, t^J liwa. 
Generally, U^c 'wwwman, Die 



Generate (beget), jj/ 
Generosity, taram,Ui- sakhd. 



Generous, ^IjU. gawtvdd, 

karlm. 

Gentle, u-^W! /a/7/. 
Gentleman (Mr.), La.1^ khawd- 

gah, jJL, sey/^. 
Genuine, yjl* Mali*, 
German, ^U.1 ilmdnl. 
Get, Jla. hassal. 



Get up, IlS 7am. 
Gift, IWc 'a<d, iju 
Gimlet, i.VJj barrimah. 
Girdle (belt), ^S kamar, 



Girl, e^i> 6m<, i**^> sabiyah. 

Girth, ^Ija. hizdm, ix 

Give, ^Lil a'.(a, (jjul ahda. 

Give back, 3J rcwc/. 

Glacis, (^J^iJJ) ^** Sahara 

(lil-mitrds). 
Glad, ^jl^i farhdn, 



Glaring, ^1^ 

Glass, ^Uy 

Glass (a), ^u A;a5, ..JJ qadah, 

Liy kubbdyah. 
Globe (the), ^>fcwrraA. 
Glorious, JJ^. gdtll,js&* mufta- 

khar. 

Glory, jjs* magd, J^U. ^a/a/. 
Glove, U^1fa^(pl.< M jy^f{fd/), 

jji]^ ghivdntl, ^ jJl ed-diwdn. 
Glue, l^c ^tra. 
Glue-pot, ijJ 



Go, u-^S dhahab, l rdA, 






Go before, JI 






144 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Go by, jjll mada. 

Go out, ~J* kharag. 

Goat, j* maz, (J ^j tes. 

God, 41 allah. 

Gold, c^j dahab. 

Goldsmith, i^U saig/fc. 

Good, e-Jo tieyib, ( J~A hasan, 

j& kher, JU sa&'/j. 
Goods, *j>Uaj budai. 
Goose, Jj wizzah. 
Gorge, jlc^> bughaz. 
Gouge, 8^^ dofrah. 
Govern, Ji hakam. 
Government, 1^>. hukumah. 
Governor, ^Jl 

hafiz. 

Grain, corn, a.lc ghallah. 
Grammar, ^s? nahu. 
Grand, ^Joc 'azwi^j+A keblr, 
Grandfather, !!. 

Grandson, j 

^ ^* 

Grant, allow,jU.l agdz, ^ 

Grapes, \^. 'inab. 
Grasp (to), {sH* masak, 

qabad. 

Grass, ^JLc e iesA6, u ru.*,a. hashish. 
Grateful, ^5o, shakur. 
Grave, tomb, ^ ^6r, s^aa. hufraJi. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Graze (to), JiJJ yaraa. 
Grease, fat, ^ duhn, sr 1 shahm . 



.l akhdar. 
Greens, ^L-. khudrah. 
Grey, c y.lsr-' nT^a&^jj^)) abrash, 



Greyhaired, u^U shayib. 
Gridiron, ^ % L {)\JL shibbdk 

lahmaJi. 

Grief, 'Ic- ghamm. 
Grieve, * ghamm, J& zalani, 

(jj*-\ ahzan. 
Grind, ^P tahan. 
Grindstone, ^J\ er-raha. 
Grin (to),^JS kashshar. 
Groan (to), -.G nah, ^\ ann. 
Groom, u ^ f sals. 
Ground, ^ja>\ ard. 
Grow, ^ nama, c^o nabat. 
Grow, increase, jbj^ izdad. 



taraqqa. 

Guard (advanced),^ J-ib bdshdar. 
Guard (military), y^fkardkon, 

JjS^S qaraqol. 
Guard (rear),^1j^o^ dimddr. 
Guard (to), u ^, haras, &* hafaz, 
hama. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH- ARABIC 



145 



Guess, j'j> hazar, ( .^ khamman. 
Guest, c_c>> def. 
Guide (a), JJj daW. 
Guilty, +js? mugri'in, 
muznib. 



Gun, boat, ^U tarrddah. 
Gun, cannon, *.x madfa. 
Gun, sporting, iJ.u> bunduqiyah. 
Gunner, ,5^^ tobgl. 
Gunpowder, j 



H 



Habit, wU 'dJ7. 



Half, uJ^S w?>/. 
Halt, limp, '~jt 'arag. 
Halt, stop, t_iij waqqaf. 
Halter, for horse, u*\j ras. 
Hammer, ^i^U shakush. 
Hammer rifle. khuruz. 



Hammer, sledge, iS^k mairaqah. 



Hammer, stonebreaker'sys?" ^Ui 

kassdrah hagar. 

Hand, jj yad or ycZ (pi. j^jjl ec^i). 
Handkerchief, JiJ^u mandll. 
Handle, JLoJ qabdah. 
Handsome, J**a- gamll. 
Hang (a criminal), ^Li. shanaq. 
Hang up, jjic 'dllaq. 
Happen, (^ ^ara, j^\^ ittafaq. 



,^ltf sar, J-a hasal. 



Happy, ju 



mas'iid. 



Harbour, (~ mlna. 
Hard, ^^L> salib, (jjs qowl, 

gdmid, c _ >M jU yabis. 
Hard, difficult, 
Hard, unfeeling, 
Hare, ^\ arnab. 
Harm,^^ darar. 
Harness, *aJo fa^m. 
Harvest, jLis* hasdd. 
Haste, ilsP 'agalah. 
Hat, ikJ^. bumetoh. 
Hatchet, ^^U/as. 

*^o* 

Hate (to), u o*bl abghad. 
Hatred, A^^ butfdah t Z*>\} ka- 

rdhah. 

Have, see Part I, p. 45 et seq. 
Haversack, d7i.ii shantah. 
Hawk,jb 6a. 



Hay, 



hashish, 



c?ar7. 



He, 4 Awa, hil. 



146 



PRACTICAL ARABIC 



Head, ^ rds. 

Head, leader, <j~^ rals, jj\5 gold. 

Head- quarters, IA^ fj* markaz 

riydsah. 
Head-rope, ,L*+* simsar. 

Head-stall, (jlili bdshliq. 

~ *~ 
Head (to), ^ raas. 

Headache, ^^11 AS..J waga er-rds. 

Heal, J shafa. 

Health, & sahhah, iL\ 'afiyah. 

Hear, i^l sawi", i^^ istama. 

Heart, ^JLs ^aZ6 (pi. t-^Ls quliib). 

Heat, J. harr, L\^=>. hardrah. 

Heat (to), ,JU. hamma. 

Heavens, cy^U~* samdwdt. 

Heavy, JJo /o^t2. 

Heel, v_-*c 'aqab, ^^ kab. 

Height, cl^l irtifa,j\e. 'ullu. 

Heir, >^ ^aris. 

Hell, .^^ yahanna-m. 

Help (to), j^H sd'ad. 

Hen, Aa-U.^ dagdgah,&*ffarkhah. 

Henceforward, AJO L^*J /^ md 

bad, \Acla9 ^j^l ^ mm ^^aw 

fasdi'dan. 
Here, U* Tiena. 
Hidden, ^if mukhtafl. 
Hide (to), \akhfa*& Ma&fca. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

High, jjle 'all, x&j* murtafi 1 . 

Hill, jj tell 

Hinder, \^>j*3 taarrad. 

Hinge, i'.loi mufsalah. 

Hint, jpU,! ishdrah, ^^3 talmih. 

Hire, rent, (jjikira,, Ls*\ ugrah. 

Hire (to give on), (j"S 



~~ 
Hire (to take on),^a.l^J ista-gar. 

History, -j^lJ tdrikh. 

Hither, IIA jl i?a hena. 

Hitherto, ,jVl j\ ilal-dn. 

Hog,^pi. klianzir. 

Hold, ell* masak. 

Hole (in clothes), j^ 

Hole (in ground), ^- 

Hollow, iT^a. guraJi, ijti nuqrali. 

Holy, ^H JAO muqaddas,j*No taldr. 

Home (native land), ^^ watan. 

Honest, JL sdlih, ( ^t>\ amin. 

Honesty, AJU! amdnah. 

Honey, ^*~c. 'asal. 

Honour, dignity, u-s^i. sharaf, 

j*\ iftikhdr. 
Honour, rectitude, Lclii**!! isti- 

qdmah. 

Honour, reverence, /%]/^>-' ihtirdm, 
3 takrim. 



VOCABULARY : 

Honour (to), Ifi akram, +J. 

karram. 
Hoof^iU hdfir. 
Hope, J-*l amal, \aj ragd. 
Horizon (the), jiU*. khafiq, & 

ufuq. 

Horn, ^ qam (pi. ^J quriln) 
Horrible, v_3^i* mukhiif. 
Horse, ^L^a. husdn (coll 



Horse-breaker, .IjuS^ rulcbadar. 
Horseman, ^U far is, Jl^J>- 

Wieyal. 

Horse-sboe, JS 7ia7. 
Hospital, iJLLj-J isbitaliydh, 

^.A?...* mustashfa. 
Hot, ^jar 1 st/Mn, tU. Aarr. 
H6tel, Jj^-* manzal, i lo- 

kandah, sl^ khammarah. 



ENGLISH-ARABIC 

Hour, li 
House, 

-^ 

diydr, c^-> buyut). 
How, t fl*j kef, LJU> kef ?n 
How many, Skdm, kam. 
How much, kdm. 



147 



Hundred, JbU niayah or miyah. 
Hundredweight, ^IkiS qantdr. 
Hunger, c^. grtT. 
Hungry, U U^. ^TM an. 
Hunt, chase, j^ sec^. 
Hunt (to), 

taseyad. 
Hunter, ^I 

Hurricane, AJO-J zobdali. 
Husband, ^ o<7 

goz. 
Hut, dLU) zimlik. 



ana. 



Ice, :y. 6w, A5 <o7gr, J^lsj. galld. 
Idea, opinion, rm, 



Idea, thought, J^Jikr. 
** kedan. 



Idol, ^JLo sanam. 
If,^l ?aw, ^1 t'/m, Ul t'^ra. 
Ignorance, J^a. gahl. 
IU,sick, ^2^4 marid, ^^La'a 
Illness, \ji>j maraJ, Lc 'ayd. 
Illustrious, j^s* magid. 



K 2 



148 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Image, 5,-> surah. 



Immediate, ,JU. hdll,j*\A. Jiddir. 
Immediately, "Si*, hdlan. 
Immense,^j wafir. 
Imminent, u_a*i* munif. 
Imperfect, jjaJjU ndqis. 
Impertinent, **&*, saflh. 
Implement, tool, i)l dlah. 
Important (affair), ^ muhimni. 
Import (to), cJl*. galab. 
Impossible, Jl** mnhal, ( J>^^ 

gher mumkin. 
** 
Impostor, ^IX* makkar, ^Ili 

gLadddr. 

Imprison, JL^ habas, ( ^ sagan. 
Imprison (to be), ^-.ASSO^ inhabas. 
Improbable, J^s^^c yher muh- 

tamdl. 
Improper, ^..^lu j+s- glier mu- 

nasib. 

Impure, ^\->^^. grfoer khdlis. 
In, Jfi. 
Incapable, ,^ls *c gJwr qddir, 

Jac 3b bila 'aql. 
Incessant, ob daim, 

tawdsil. 
Inch, 



mu- 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Inclination, J** mel. 
Income, Jyx madkhul, 

irad. 
Inconvenient, u-^^- mut'ib 

(JJ\y yl&r muwajiq. 
Increase (to), ^ zdd,jkattar. 
Indebted, in debt, ^ ju niadyun. 
Indebted, obliged, ^j 



ntin. 



Indecent, uj^l 5b bila adab. 
Indigestion, ^OA + t adamhadm. 
Indigo, ilo riilah. 
Indispensable, *ji Idzim, 

muqtadi. 

Industrious, Ssr* mugidd. 
Inevitably, 
Infancy, i 
Infant, Jal, 

Infantry, jL> biyadah. 
Infection, (j'jAff 'adwa. 

~ ^ 3 ^^0,0 

Infer, ^ijl antag, '"-"~\ istantag. 
Inferior, ^s dun, ^J^l adna. 
Infidel, j^kdfir. 
Infirm, -J^ c?a'z/, :M mutall. 



tufuliyah. 
(pi. JUtl a/aZ). 



Influence, j^ti nufild,^\3 tdtlr. 

-O * "o 

Inform, ^*i.l akhbar^ khabbar. 



Information, 
i lam. 



khabar, 



VOCABULARY : 



Inhabit, 



, . 



ftfo- 



/ia/ 



Inhabitant, . 
(pi. JU1 

* ~ * 

Inherit, C^j waraj. 

Inheritance, o]^ wmw. 

- <^' 

Injure,^ darr, <ji\ aza. 

Injustice, Ak zulm, i*^l 

j^ 'acfawi 'adalah. 



Inkstand, 1jj dawdt. 
Innocence (of guilt), ie\j f baraah. 
Innocence (purity), i^> tahdrah. 
Innocent, c^j barl, ^ y * 



istafham. 
Inquiry, court of, <j-*is?^ u-%* 

maglis et-tahqiq. 
Insane, ^^s* magnun. 
Insect, ijl!?^ dibbdnah. 
Inside, within, ^ /t, Ji.b j fi 

dakhil. 

Inspect, ijLzj fattash. 
Inspection, ( J^IAJ teftish. 
Inspector, ^pLi* mufettish. 
Inspired (divinely), ^L. mulham. 
Instance (for), Sbu masalan. 



ENGLISH- ARABIC 149 

Instant (an), iJoll lahzah. 
Instantly, Jill J fi'l-hdl. 

Instead (of), ^ Vjj badalan min. 
~ ** -- 

Instruct, ^j! addab, Jbt 'allam, 

*^. 'arraf, ^.^ darras. 
Instruction, <^J.>lj ta'adlb. A.^ 

tarbiyah, cyl^Jjo ta'llmat. 
Instructor, ( ja.*r* J talwigi. 
Insubordination, ^L_SjVl -- 

'adani el-inqit/ad. 
Insulator, Jji* maghzit. 
Insult (to), ~^ shatam. 
Intellect, Jcc 'ajZ. 
Intelligent, ^-^J faJum. v-j-o 



Intention, dL^.j niyyah, j 

** o ^* > 

Intercede, >wJU tashaffa. 
Interest (advantage), tj^ 
Interest (of money), o , ribk. 
Interfere, Ji-ljJ tadakhal. 

~~ o~ 

Intei prct, ^3 taryam. 
Interpreter, ^U*-/ targumdn. 
Interrupt, jkc 'attdl. 
Interview (an), AJD.Uo muqdbalah. 
Intrenchment, ^^ tuwdl't, 

ijj* dincah. 

- , a 
Introduce, Jiot alMal, 

'arraf. 



150 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Introduction, Jlio! idkhcd, ->U,1 

irshad. 

Intrust, jt->j tcada. 
Invent, fj^*-\ ikktarrf. 
Investigation, O-a^- baht, 

tahqiq. 
Invisible, v^olc ghdlb, ^jiaJL 

gti&r manziir. 
Invisible (to become), c_>U ghab. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Invite, ^* dda, ^ 'azam. 
Iron, Jj>. hadid. 
Iron, for laundry, j^C makwah. 
Irregulai', ^o^^^c gjtier mu- 

rattab,j\^ shaz. 
Irrigate, (j^ rawa. 
Island, jf^jA. gazlrali (pi. 

gazair). 
Ivory, lc '(/, , sin. 



Jack, screw, *2>te- 'afritah. 
Jag, _> ,U ^J. rds el-harbl. 



Jar, %. garrah 



Jaw, 

Jealous, j^-*--c cfheyur, 



Jest, joke, ^lj* mazdh. 

Jest (to), (j?^-!, istaliza, 'Cl 



Jew, (3j^ yaliudl. 
Jewel, jJtja* gauhar (pi. 

gawahir). 

Join (to), J^j wasal. 
Joist, s^S Jcamarah. 



Journey,^*, sa/ar, J*^ raAl/. 

Joy, 

Joyful, 

Judge (a), ^IS ^a^. 

Judge, consider (to), Ji ^n?i. 

Judge, decree (to), ji hakam. 

^aJi qada. 
Judgment (decree), J^>- hukm, 



Jump (to), Li na1t,:ju qafaz. 
Junction, *+sf magma. 
Just, ^Is.-* muhiqq, J^U r adfi7. 
Justice, jj* ^ 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



151 



K 



Keel, 



qar el-markib. 



Keen (sharp), SU. hadd. 

*o- 

Keep, retain, jjbl abqa. 
Keep, take care of, JaiL 
Kettle, JbSU glalldyah. 
Key, UA miftdh (pi. 



Kick (to), (j-jj rafas. 
Kid, 
Kill, 

Kiln, ii^ koshah. 
Kind (adj.), uJ , k) ?a<7/, J 
shafuq, 



King, 



^ '(pi. 



Kind (sort), c^i no', U-BJL^ sinf 
(pi. cljil anwa', vjl^>l asnaf). 



ihsdn, 



Kindle, Jj walla. 
Kindness, (jJ, rifq, c 



Kingdom, 

Kink, t^JU multaivt. 

Kiss, A-^J bosah, iJuS 

Kiss (to), u-tj 6a, jls qalbaL 

Kitchen, --k matlakft. 

Kite, s^l^i> teyarali. 

Kite (bird), ^5-a sa^r. 

Knnpsack, AJJJJ^ garalandiyali. 

Knee, 5^ rukbah. 

Kneel, xSJ raka', ^jt. 



mafica. 



Knife, ,^- 
Knock (to), 



Knot, sjJc 'uqdali. 



Know, 



'*/, i 'alam. 



Knowledge, AJ-JU* mcirifali, At 



Labour, $$ kadd, 
Labourer, 



Ladder, Ju sillim. 

Lady, cU- '^, &\ kJtatfin. 



Lake, ^ac 3 . buherah. 
Lamb, * Jjj/>. khariif. 
Lame, -.^cl a rag. 
Lament (to), 1 
Lump, J 



152 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Lance, o]> mizrdq. 
Land, country, <^l ard. 
Land, ground, JJj barr, .lac 'aqdr. 
Language, ,jLJ lisan, ii) lughaU. 
Lantern, ^ili fdnus. 
Lanyard, for gun, J^- : vll J^a. 

Aa&/ el-kabsul . 
Lanyard, for sail, xUJI J*^ #aW 

eZ-jaZ". 
Large, great, ~^ke 'azim, j+. 

kebir. 

Large, wide, A~.\J wdsi'. 
Lark (the), i,ui qunbarah. 
Lashing, i^M fildsah. 
Last,^T dkhir. 
Lasting, ob ddim. 
Lastly, j^l akhlran. 
Latch (a), J&5 qufl, 1^15 ; 
Late, jjaj ball, (jj^ wukhrl. 
Late (the), deceased, 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Lawful, Cp, sbarl, J^l. Jialal. 

Lawsuit, (3ju da'wa. 

Lay, place, A-^ wada, L>. ^a/f. 

Lazy, ^^L-J keslan. 

Lead (metal), jj*l^ rusas. 

Lead (to), o\S gad, ,xiJ arshad. 

Leaf, 15^ waraqah (pi. 



Lathe, i^i* makhratah. 
Latrine, AJls. J ol adab-khanah. 
Laugh (to), (Ja^ dahik. 
Laughter, <gls^ ^'A^. 
Laundress, illlc ghassalah. 
Law, wi /^^, ^i, shar', ly 
shanah. 



Lean, thin, Jjj-4-* mahziil, eJ*s? 



Lean (to), .A-^ ittaka. 
Learn, JxS ta'allam. 
Learned, Jlc 'dlim (pi. * 



Lease, .Wi' ?^r. 

Leather, jAa. /7?'W. 

Leave, )U.! igazah, ^\ izn. 

Leave (to), d^i' tarak,^\~> safar. 

Left (hand), JU^ shimdl, .L-j 



Left (remaining), Jjli 
Leg, jL so</. 
I egacy, l^->^ wasiyyah. 
Legible, t^ib yuqra (is read). 
Leisure, i^sfadwal 
Leisure (being at), ^li fddl. 
Lemon, joj*J l&enun. 
Lend, u_iJL sallaf, \z\ adr 



Length, JjL till 
Leper, \joj>\ abras. 



Lessen, 

Lesson, 

Lest, ^i) ZmZZa. 

Let, allow, JL Mtf. 

Let (imp.), JL khalli. 

Let (a house), i^jSf \ a&ra, ^ 



VOCABULARY: ENGLISH-ARABIC 153 

Life, ,> 'umr, U>. haydh. 

Lift, *j rafa*. 

Light (a), jjj> nur(p\.j\y\ anwdr). 



o 

,jx*> sayltglar. 
durus). 






Letter, 



maktub, iJL^ 



risalah, *->\y=* gawdb. 



Letter (alphabet), v^^a. Aar/(pl. 

uJj^ Jwrw/). 
Lettuce, ,^,-i. ^as. 
Level, a plain, ^Ij^ mlddn, 



Level, smooth, c^ft mustawi. 
Level (to), 1EL sattah. 
Liar, i^l jT kadab. 
Liberal, f karlm, sdkJn. 



Liberation, aij /a^, sis? najah, 



Lick, 

Lie, recline, /Jj, ittaka. 
Lie (to), c_>3jT kadab. 
Lieutenant, ^^L* midazim. 
Lieutenant-colonel, ^15^15 qaima- 
qdm. 



Light (not heavy), u-M^. Ichaflf. 
Light (to), jjLi, sla'al, ^ nawwar. 
Lighten (to), ^ baraq. 
Lightning, j|^ barq. 
Like, as, e) ka (prefix). 
Like (similar), Jj* ?*#, ^i A?M, 
!oi wa.tlr, (j ze. 



Likewise, e)L] JjT kadcilik or 



Limb, joint, ^^ 

Limber, gun, ^_f- 'ar'ish. 

Lime, ^-13 kils,j+s* g~ir. 

Limit, j^a. hadd. 

Line (a), Joi. M a l? (p^ ^^ M 

tut), ^* saff(p\.^yu> sufuf). 
Linen, ^la kittdn, J-J <U. 



Linseed, (J \^S^ bizr kittan. 
Lion, ju*,l asad (pi. ^-1 wswcZ). 



Lip, ill shiffah. 
Liquid, xJU wiaz', JoLi saTZ. 
List, ^J^ kashf, I^lS qaimah. 
Listen, i^-^ istama\ ^ sagha. 
Litter, stable, J-.k-l 

istabli. 
Little, .*x^ saglfir, JJi5 



154 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Little (a), 5-JLS qalllan. 
Live, dwell, ( ^L, sakan. 
Live, exist, ^\e. 'ash. 
Livelihood, ^U* ma'ash. 
Liver (the), j/ kalid. 
Load (a gun), j^p 'ammar. 

.-a * 

Load (to), J^a. hammal. 

Loaf, <^J .., raghif (pi. A^.C^ 

argkifah). 

Loan, j^^S <?*f*d, I3UiJ istidanah. 
Lock, JiS ^ (pi. Jlwl og/aZ). 
Lock, canal, ic^J ju- s?Wc? ^V'a/t. 
Lock,gun,^U^l &siiddat ez-zinad. 
Lock (to), J^S g'ofaZ. 
Locust, ibj/>. garddah. 
Loiter, jl\53 takasal. 
Long as (as), ^b U ma dam. 
Long, lengthy, JjjL> tawil. 
Look at,^loi na^ar. 
Looking-glass, s* wtVa/i (pi. U^ 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Loose (to), jl hall, 
khalla. 



Loophole, c*UjT karnak (pi. 



Lord, 

*- o -* * * ^ 

Lose, A^> dayya', JAJ faqad. 
Lose, a cause,^*. kliasir. 
Loss, S,Lj>. khusarah. 
Loudly, Jlc cy^ai 6>5^ 'aft. 
Louse, il*S qamlah. 
Love, vSa. ^w65, ijsc* mahalbaJi, 

ij^s. 'ishq. 

Love (to), v-^*- /ia&&, j^s 'ashiq. 
Lover, j^U 'asA^. 
Low, J*L sa/t?, J,^.wa. 
Lucerne, LJ^*" [%-^-^P. barsim 

higazl. 

Luck, o^- 6aH<, Jit oZi f . 
Luck (bad), ^^ naAs. 
Luck (good), JlJl t 



Luggage, ( j&e. 'afsh, JUJI 
Lukewarm, ^U dafl, J>\* fatir. 
Lungs, iL riyah. 
Lupins, {J ^ tirmis. 



Mad, ^jix^* magnun. 
Madden, '^^ gannan. 



M 



Made (partic.), 



Madhouse, ^Is-^U maristan. 
Magazine, ^Jf makhzan. 
Magic, j3f sihr. 
Magician, j*\~* sdhir. 
Magistrate, ^>\S qddi. 
Magnificent, J.^la. gdlll, 

fdkhir. 
Maid, oa bint,^ bikr. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 155 

Mankind, ^LJl insdn, +*\ ^ 

barii ddam. 

Manner, behaviour, ij*** slrah, 
ser, i^b 1 



Maid-servant, i-^L*. gdiiyah, 



khddimah. 
Main body, ^U asas. 
Main-mast, ^*-5oi (j?,Ul es-sdrl 

el-kebir. 

Main- spring, *X c5^ 2/* Wlr. 
Mnjesty, ijop 'azamaJi, iJ^U. gra- 



Major, ^l^J binbasha. 
Make, J^c e a?;iaZ, ji/ 
Maker, J^lc a?/w7, .xiL 



Malingerer, ^^U^* mutamdrid. 
Mallet, iSlL* maddaqah, AJ b 



Man, J^ 

tmaw (pi. JU^ r?^a/, ^U as). 
Mane, ii,^ marafah. 
Manger, i_o.U.. malaf, 

madwid. 



Manner, mode, Jl^u manwdl. 
Manual exercise, La\^ riyddah, 



Manufactory, 

mamal, 12,.* warshah. 
Manufactured goods (cloth, &c.), 

j_pUS qumdsh. 
Map, ll^li. khdrlah. 
Marble,^*^ mar mar, Ji^ rukham. 
March (to), ( L* masha, 



Mare, ^j far as. 
Mark, Lo^lc 'aldmah. 
Market, jjj, Si7^ (pi. ^ 

wdq). 

Marriage, -.l^j zawag. 
Marriage (to ask in), \^a->.kh 
Marry, ^..tj tazauwag. 
Marsh, iilc ghabah. 
Marshal, field,^JU musjnr 
Martyr, Ju-1 shaldd (pi. 



Masculine, /X muzakkar. 



156 PRACTICAL ARABIC 



Mast, (j\*> sari. 

Master, J** mtfallim, j", 

<_.* U> sahib. 
Mat, 'ij~as> haslrah. 
Match (equal), ^J qarm. 
Match (lucifer), o 
Match (uniform), 4: 
Mathematics, a-~A^I 

'uliim er-riyadiyah. 
Matter, affair,^*! amr. 
Mattress, IJ,* martabah. 
Mean, sordid, ^*fe. haqir, 

khasis. 

Mean (to), jJJc 'ana. 
Meaning, ( JL* ma'na, 
Means, iJL* tcasilah, 



scyid, 



Meantime (in the), dJi 

fl ghudun zalik. 
Measure, (J ^Ja qiyas. 
Measure, grain, il. habbah. 
Measure (to), ^te qas. 
Meat, JL lahm. 
Medicine, \^ dawa. 
Medicine (the art), J^Jo tibb. 
Meet, J>^ laqa } uJjU sac?a/ 
Melon, sweet, ^1*2, shamdni. 
Melon, water, J> battikh. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Melt, \^>ji dautvib. 
Memorandum, s^ju* muzak- 

karah. 

Memory, i^lj zakirah,J^ zikr. 
Mend, become better, S*Z>\ insa- 

lah. 

Mend, improve, ~Ll aslah. 
Mend, repair, "^ rammam. 
Mention ,J^i zakar. 
Merchandise, ^ tigdrah, 



ir (\>\.\s2 tugar). 
Merciful, ^o^ rahlm. 
Mercury, j^oj zebaq. 
Merit, J-oJ fadl, jUb?"' istihqaq. 
Message, ilU^ risalah, v- 5^*. ^a- 



Messenger, 
Metal, ^Jjt* madan. 
Metal, road, JQ] 
Midday stables 

^JoJl twiar ez-zuhr. 
Middle, Ja-j wasat, 

(pi. u-Ui! ansaf). 
Middling, ^ ^ 6c 

mutawassit. 
Mild, ^ JaRw, 
Mile, J-w wlZ (pi. JU1 amyal) 



VOCABULARY : 

Militia, uJjj, radlf. 

Milk, ^ laban, ^^ }<*Kb. 

Mill, iijU tahilnah. 

Millet, I,* <frm*. 

Mince (to), "^i /araw. 

Mind, Jl) 6aZ, Jfc 'a 2 Z,>U Wa/ir, 



ENGLISH-ARABIC 

Ministry of War, JLo 
nazarat el-harblyah. 
Miracle, iusP^ ugubah. 



15 



Mine (a), U J~ ma'dan. 
Mine (military), ^ lagAam. 
Minister, ^ vcazir, jkk> nazir 

Ministry (Department), ^Uu 

nazdrah, \j])>* diwan. 
Ministry of Finance, ilJUl i^lloJ 

nazarat el-mallyah. 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, s^UaJ 

il..lil nazarat d- 
Ministry of Interior, 

nazarat ed-ddkhillyah. 
Ministry of Justice, iliU& S^Uai 

nazarat el-haqqdniyah. 
Ministry of Public Instruction, 

5uUj*xM v_5.\jtll .UaJ nazarat 

d-mdarif d-umuvniydh. 
Ministry of Public Works, ^UaJ 

?..*_>. H JlLi,^l nazarat d- 

ashghdl el-'umuimyah. 



Mirth, ^jfarah, ^ farab. 
Mischief, jjjLi* madirrah, y~ sit, 

ioi\ adiyyah. 
Miser, J^ 6ate/. 
Miserable, J& ^a^i, j5 
Misery, ijUl shaqdwah. 
Misfortune,^* 6aZa,i** 
Mist, ; U ) 
Mistake, 
Mistress, cU- si^, ^yl* khatun. 
Mitigation, v p-is? takhflf. 
Mix, -.1* mazag, Joli. khalat. 
Moderation, JUcI t'rtVd/. 
Modern, jjj,- gadld,ji\z mula- 

akhkhir, &s? muhdat. 
Modest, *.!*? muhtashim. 
Moment, iiJ^ daq'tqah. 
Monastery, ^3^ der. 
Money, y-.!* fulus, iijij 7107- 



Money-changer, v_ 
Monk, u.^^ ra/w'6. 
Monkey, ^^ 
Month, yA-- shahr (pi. 
7mr). 



158 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Mouth, j fumm, <sLo hanak. 
Move (to), aj!i harrak. 



Moon, .3 qamar. 
Moon, full, .Jo badr. 
Moon, new, J^U hilal. 
Morals, <jila.l akhlaq, c_>Ul adab. 
More (adj.), wbj Kiyaddh, 
aktar. 



Morning, ^> subh. 
Morrow, 1j cfhada. 
Morsel, i*5j luqmali. 
Mortar, building, i 



munah, 



Mortar (military), ^U hawin. 

Mortice, ,l.i naqdr. 

Mosque, j^r* masgid (pi. j^.L^ 

masagid), ;t*U- garni' (pi. A^W 

gawami'). 

Mosquito, (jy>\> ndmus. 
Mosquito-curtain, d^-^U namu- 

siyali. 

Mother, "\ umm, i'j,!^ walidah. 
Mountain, J^a. gabal (pi. JUa. 



Mourn (to), i . 
Mouse, ^U 



^j flrdn, 



Moustaches, -^]^i> skawarib, > 
shanab. 



Moved (to be), di 5 taharraL 



Movement, I^a. harakah. 
Much, ^iS 

^jlj wafir. 
Mud, Ja.^ 
Mule, Ji> 
Muleteer, Jli baghcfhal, < 

mukdrl. 

Munitions, 8^*3 zabhlrah. 
Murder, 
Murder (to), 
Murderer, 

Mushroom, i\ kamat. 
Music, AJJ 



Musician, ^j-i nobati, < ^s 

mtmgttgft. 
Musk, isJLw* wi?s^. 
Musketry instruction, 

.LJ1 *-.>/-- tallm darb 

ndr. 
Must (auxil. verb), the word 

Idzim (necessary) is used 

it in connection with 

principal verb. 



en- 



for 
the 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 
Mustard, Jj^*. khardal. 
Muster, jlj^J ta'ddd. 

-" -*-' 

Mutilate, AM-* saqqat t ^ 'aicwar. 

Mutiny, ^U-a-c 'asayan, 
'asdicah. 



159 



Mutton, ^jLi -- fo/*wi r/cmZ, ^.k 

^ ?/<m ghanam. 
Mutual, eJ^LJL* mu*ltarak. 
Myrrh, JL* murr. 
Myrtle, ^-1 a. 

y,^ sirr (pl.^j^-1 asrar). 



N 



Nail, spike, j\>... musmdr (pi. 



amwar. 



Nail (toe or finger), ^ik ?i//r (pi. 

^*ilkl azdflr). 
Naked, ^j^ 'aryan. 
Name, ^1 ism (pi. U-,1 asmd). 
Name (to), ( J^ i samma. 
Named, JjU~ musamma. 
Namely, viz., ^JLXJ yani. 
Napkin, &jfiitoh. 
Narration, AJ!^ riwdyah, A!^I 

qissah, ibi5Ca. hikdyah. 
Narrator, (^^ raial, jJU. hafa, 

C;ls^ muhaddis. 
Narrow, ,jli deyiq. 
Nasty, ^^ na^t>, wasikh, 

ish. 



Nation, L*\ ummah, *L mullah. 



Native, (^jJb baladl, jjyu muta- 

waltid, ^j wattam. 
Native land, ^j watan. 
Natural, J io tabl'i. 



Nature, temper, l*~k tabiah. 
Naughty ,^/-' ^^^^'j 



Naval, (^ 

Nave (of wheel), (jUU bdshliq 

Near, ^^ garlft. 

Nearly, js? nahw. 

Neat, uJJft) w2i/*, eJ^k ?ar 

Necessarily, jj ^ Id budd. 

Necessary, +ji Idzim. 

Necessaries (military), oU 

hag at. 
Necessity, +* luziim, \<\~*\ iq 

tidd, ** darurah. 



Neck, J^JLC 'unq, LJ>. raqabah. 



160 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Necklace, j&z 'iqd, ^j kirdan. 
Need, I&.U. hagah, jrW^ ihtiyag. 
Need (to), ^XLJ i^ag. 
Needle, iyj ibrah (pl.^.l ubar). 
Needleful of thread, i*y<iJU yl 

ibrat maldilmah. 
Needy, ^sa** tnuhtdg. 
Neglect, ilfii ghafldk, JU^ ihmdl. 
Neglect (to), jZal ahmal. 
Negligent, J*4. muhmil. 
Negress, &JU. garriyali. 
Negro, ^1^*** Sudani, ( ^-*-^ 

habashl. 
Neighbour, ^W. gar (pi. ^j^a. gl- 

ran). 

Neighbourhood, s^*a. glrah. 
Neither nor, "^ V Id wold. 
Nest (birds'), ^JLc. *ush,J>) wikr. 
Net r i^Cii shabakah. 
Never, fjjl abadan, 5 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Night, UJ ZeZa/i, JJ . 
Nightingale, JJl^. bulbul, 

'andalib. 

Nightmare, ( j*j>$k8b&9. 
Nimble, JJ^M rashlq. 
No, y^J Ze5, ? Zo. 
Noble, uJ^i. sharlf. 
Noise, i^ 5 daggah, 



New, J^Js*. gadid. 

*. khabar (pl.^U*.! 



Newspaper, iij^*. garidah. 
Next, c-A^S qarib, Jj\5 ^d6i7, 

<d/I, ^^\S qadim. 
Nice, 



Non-combatant, w- 

muhdrib. 
Non-comd. officer, 



glfcr 



None, j^ ^ Z 

Nonsense, ^bj^ hadayan. 

Noon, midday, any time from 

twelve to one, j$> euhr or 

duhr. 

North, JUi shamdl, g^ 6aA/i. 
Nose, c-til a/^o.U* nianakhlr. 
Nosebag, ili* miklddh. 
Not, " Za, ^*c p^^r, ^^J les. 
Not at all, ^kalla, lol asZa^i. 
Nothing, ^ V Za s/te. 
Notice, iia^^L. muldhazah, 

khabar, ^^ t'Zdw. 
Nourish, <^x ghadda, uy 
Novelty, j^s? mustayid, 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



161 



Now, jj^ll aldn, \^S^\ \JA hdza 

d-waqt. 
Number, jjs *adad. 

'adid. 



Numnah, iblp libbadah. 
Nuptials, v*^ 'urs. 



Nurse (a), ****.+ murdi'ah, 

dddah. 
Nut, (ji.u> banduq. 



Nut, for bolt, iJ^ samulah. 
Nutmeg, ^ gk \\ jjj*. goz et- 
&b. 







1 holloa, U 

Oak, Ij^L 6o?ZiZ<, ^jbjLjL- sindi- 

yan. 

Oar, v-3Ufl* miqddf. 
Oath, . 
Oats, 
Obedience, AP^ la ah. 



Obedient, Jt>li> ,(ai', juk. mutf. 
Obelisk, aL-. musallah. 
Obey, aiUta. 
Object (a mental), juaS qasd. 
Object (a visible), ia.U hdgah, 



*- 
Object (to), ^^JLC^ i'tarad. 



Objection, ^j^cl i'tirad, AJl 



Obligation, a favour, ^L^.1 ihsdn, 

il minnah. 
Obligation (something binding), 



Obligatory, ^J^J^ ilzdml, 

fardl. 
Oblige, favour, ^jc ^ maTin 'aZa. 

^-"o* 

Oblige, force, +\$\ alzam. 
Obscure, darkened, Jiio* muzlim, 

PM mutim. 

Obscure, difficult to understand, 
L* mughJiaq, ^^le ghdmid. 



Obscure, mean, J-.U. khdmtt, 
haglr. 



Observe, ,io>.V lahaz. 
Obstacle, SU mdni. 



Obstinate, JL-^C Wlc?, jjU* mu- 
dnid. 



Obstinate (io be), jjlc 'dnad. 



Obtain, j hassal, iL> balagh. 
Occasion, o5^ waqt, L*p fursaji, 



Occupant, occupier, v jj!^u ww- 
tasarrif, Jia^ muktall. 



162 PRACTICAL ARABIC 



Occupation, employment, 

'amal, J*i shughl. 
Occupation, military, J^ :; -..I 

ihtildl. 
Occupation, occupancy, <- 

tasarruf. 
Occupy, give employment, 



istakhdam. 

Occupy oneself, Jfc&i ishtaghal. 
Occupy, possess, ^j-oj tasarraf. 
Occur, *$j waqa, oj^a. hadas, 

\ji>f. 'arad. 
Occurrence, c^Sj wuqu, U 



Odd (in number), ^i /ar^, ~-S 



Odd, strange, ^^ gharib, Jt)jj 
ladl'. 



Offence, *L-,1 wa'aA, l 

mukhalafah, i^e*. garlmah. 
Offend, "*C\ asa, Jc>U p^?. 
Offended (to be), vJ^c ffhidib, 



Offer (to), ^ qaddam, 

ata. 

Office, bureau, ^y^ dlwan. 
Office, function, <_.^ai* mansab, 

iUj wazifah. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Officer, official, ,k>U> zdbit (pi. 

JoU*0 zubat?), As^kj i zu wot" 

zifah. 

Often, ^^^/lran,^f aktar. 
Often, as, Ufl* maJima. 
Oh ! ^^L b ya salam / 
Oil, OJ) e<. 
Old (ancient), jf^sc '0^7, ^jjtS 



Old (man), , shekh (pi. L 



Old (woman),jjs? 'ayuz. 
Olives, yj* zetun. 
Omelette, XsP 'aggah. 

- ** .,..0* 

Omit, ujXa. Aac?o/j JA\ ahjaal. 



Omnipotent (the), ^ Jj \J*j& 

qddir 'ala hull she. 
On, ^ 'a?a. 
Once, anciently, Qj5 gadiman, 



Once (a single occasion), 



Once (at), 



'aW-for, 



One, Ja.!j wahid. 
Onion, J^o basal. 
Only, Jaw/aga^ 
Open (adj.), Li* maftuh. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



163 



Open (to), *^J fatah. 
Opinion, ^ zann, <j^ rdi. 
Opinion, religious, 

hab. 

Opium, ^A\ afyun. 
Opponent, cjJU.* mukhalif, -ai. 

khasni. 

Opportunity, S^fursah. 
Oppose, i^trj-s- 'drad. 
Opposite (prep.), iJUs qabalah, 

*IJ tugdh, *UlJ tilqd. 
Opposite, facing (adj.), Jjliu mu- 

qdbil, Aol amdm, ol3 qusad. 
Opposition, iLU^. muqdlalali, 

JuJjU* muaradah. 
Oppress, Jli zalam. 
Oppression, JL> zulm,j^ gabr. 
Or, ^1 ow, ^1 am. 
Orange, u \>^. burtuqdn. 
Orator, u-A*Wb. Jchatib. 
Order (arrangement), c-A*5/ <ar- 

<^6, ^-ojJ tadbir, ^Uoi nizdm, 

ij^j ristdq. 
Order (command), A.!^ wasiy- 

yah, j*\ amr (pi. 

wtr). 
Order toIl awar. 



Orderly, iLJ^ murdscdah. 



Orderly-room (infantry), 
il^j^l niaktab el-crtah. 

Ordnance-store, ^ t~ 
himmdt. 

Origin, J^,l crsZ (pi. J^,\ 

Ornament, i^j dnaA. 

Ornamented, ^j* muzeyan. 

Orphan, ^^jo yatim (pi. ^bj 



Ostrich, pU3 nadm. 

Other, J>\ akhar, f. <jJ*-\ ukhra, 

j*s. glier. 

Out, *rjk* khdrig, jjj barra. 
Out of, ^ min. 
Outlet, js? makhrag. 
Outposts, ^5C*x]| Jj^l awail el- 

'aslar. iatJLL> faff ah, \zji$$ 

ilcUVl karakoldt el-amdmi- 

yah. 

Outside, -Ail ^fl'l-Jchdrig. 
Outside, surface, Ja*- sat'h. 
Over, ^/% 
Overcoat, l-ft 'a&a. 
Overcome, ^J^ gjialdb. 
Overflow, ji fa/a/t. 
Overseer,^l>l3 wa^ir. 
Overset, \^j qalab, JlSj rakas. 
Overtake, d pi adrak, ^^ lahiq. 



L 2 



164 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



Owe, ^j jule 'aUh den. 
Owl, ,o bum. 



Owner, ^^U sahib, <UU malik. 
Ox, i^o baqarah (pl.^S baqar). 



Pace, *j3 qadam, s^lai. khatwah. 
Pack of cards, ^ ,x- sladat 

waraq. 

Pack-saddle, -y*, sargr. 
Pack up (to), yJU ^oi.-? yihadir 

li's-safar. 

Packet (bundle), 'i^o surrah. 
Page (of a book), AS?" safhah, 

AJUS? sahifah. 
Pail, bucket, jb c?a/w. 
Pain, Jt*j wa<7a', Jl alam. 
Pain (to), ^.j ivagga. 
Painful, ^Ji a/iw^, /*a^ miigi. 
Paint (depict), ^1^ savwoar. 
Paint (to), c j^J lawwan y ^3 

dahan. 

Painter, ^pDu naqqdsh. 
Painting (a), <j5.i naqsh. 
Painting (the art of),aj tas- 



Pair (a), ^; o 
Palace, (jl^ sardl,^ qasr. 
sajra). 



sa'ilf 



Palisades (military), 

sherambul. 
Palm-branches, Ji* v5, 

&*. 

Palm of the hand, 

Palm-tree, 

Paper, j^ 

Paper (a sheet of), jf^ -, /arM 

wara^. 
Paper, blotting, u->l!i3 ^5,^ waraq 

nashshaf. 

Parade, ^U d6wr. 
Parapet, B^J dirwah. 
Parapet of fort, jLlu sitarah. 
Parasol, ^" t * shamsiyyah. 
Pardon, jc '/**, u!/^ &tf ran , 

.ix maghfirab. 
Pardon (to), ^ic gkafar, ^o 

safah. 

Pardon (to ask),^aaL:L^ istaghfar. 
Parents, ^jJlj waliden. 
Parlour, SJ^ ghurfah, jutJL* 

7o7'a^. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH- ARABIC 165 

Past, bygone, <J->1-* sabiq, ,r-l 

modi. 
Path, ~j++ mamarr, eIi-~ maslak, 



Parole, uJ^ ^ voad sharf, i)^l> 
bdrulah, i^Ull ijT ^t7ma 
el-mu'drafah. 

Parrot, *~* durrah, Uo babag]t&. 

Parsley, ^jJA) baqdunis. 

Part, portion, ja. 0M2, lH. hissah, 

Part, quarter, i^t toraf, ^U. 

ganib, JLa.U nahiyah. 
Partake, ^ ^Li^ idtiaratcfi. 
Part from, ^i^j faraq. 
Part (to), ^5 qassam. 
Particular, ^j*s? makhsus. 
Particularly, Le^aa. khusiisan. 
Partner, db^ sharUc. 
Partnership, iS^i. sharikaJi. 
Party, assembly, *^U. gamaah. 
Pass by, d>G /o^. 
Pass, cross (to), Jlc 'otar, JJi 

wwtrr. 



Pass on, 
Pass (the night), ^ 60^. 
Passage (of troops), ^* murur. 
Passenger ,^L marr^'L^ musafir. 
Passion (anger), ^-^ ghadab. 
Passionate, t-^ic ghadub. 
Passport, ^aJl j^ij tazkarat-es- 
*. gawaz. 



ience,^^> sabr. 
Patient (adj.),^^> 
Patrol, Ujj* dauriydh. 
Pattern, ^k..* mastarah. 
Pause (to), v^iSj waqaf. 
Paving, i>ib baldU. 
Pay (to), ^yj wo^a, (jll adda. 
Pay master, (-Jij 
Payment, li^ wafa, b! 
Pay-sergeant, ^^-cl 12)^. bul&k 
dmln. 

"" M 

Pea, iJp. bazallah, i-^J lubiyah. 

Peace, ^^L* salam, JL-> 

Peach, iSlJ^ 

Pear, ^lH!j kummitra. 

Pearl, ^ /tZZw (pi. J^| laaU). 

Peas, parched, ^lU. hummus. 

Peasant, ^> fallah. 

Pen, JLS qalani (pi. ^^Ls! aqldm). 

Penal servitude, ^UJ llman. 

Penalty, ie ghardmah, Jl5o 



Penetrate, Xi3 nafad. 
Peninsula, ji^ja. ^i #^tM gazirali. 



166 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



Penknife, 'i\j+* mibrah, JiJl sl^ 
mibrdt el-qalam, s^k* matwah. 

Pension, ^U* ma ash. 

People, JA! ahl, +ji qom. 

Pepper, ^t^flfil. 

Perfect, JJTfciira'J, Jti tarn. 

Perfection, JUS kamdl. 

Perform, J^c 'amal. 

Perfume,^kc 'itr. 

Perhaps, j*l la alia, j+> yimkin, 
LJ. rulhama. 



Perish, dUu* halak, ^.9 funl. 
Permanent, oolj sdbit, ^ > - - 

mustamir. 

Permission, jij(^\ agdzah, ^\ izn. 
Perpendicular, (*j^s- 'dmildt. 
Perpetual, ^jM abadi, oU c?awi. 
Perplex, Jli heyar. 
Perplexed, ^^a. terdn. 
Perplexed (to be), .Gall ihtar. 
Persevere, vlilj wazab. 
Persia, ^ 'agam. 
Person, ^asr* shaJchft (pi. 

a&khds),j.ij nafar. 
Person (a certain), ,j^U fuldn. 
Person (to appear in), 

shakhas. 
Personally, eylJJb bi'z-zdt. 



Perspire, ^c. 'araq. 
Persuade, AIJJ! aqna. 
Persuasion, advice, 



nasi- 



Petition, ^jo^- 'ard. 

Phrase, &+s* gumlah, S.Lc 'ibdrah. 

Physic (medicine), \j* dawd, -$& 

'ildg. 

Physic (science of), C^> tibb. 
Physician, r + + *\9 tablb, 

mttddw'i, *Ji. hakim. 
Piastre, J^ ghirsh (pi. 

ghurush?), 1 J^ qirsh (pi. 

qurush), (vulg.) cU ^J? ersh 



Piastre, half, (vulg.) ia 

ersh ta'rlfaJi. 
Pickaxe, i^l azmah. 
Pickles, jls^ tnukhallil. 
Picquet, l^^ dauriyah. 
Picture, i^ surah, ( j^Ji.i naqsh. 
Piebald, jfcl allaq. 
Piece, bit, ixlas qit'ali. 
Piety, (jyti taqiva. 
Pig, pijLi. khanzir. 
Pigeon, iU. hamdmah. 
Pillar, j^^c 'amild (pi. 

'awdmul}. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



167 



Pillow, ili* mukhaddah. 

Pin (u), ^y* dabbus. 

Pincers, LiU milqat. 

Pinch (to), yoj* qaras. 

Pine-apple, u-Ul ^ 'en en-nas. 

Pioneer, .$*& baltagl. 

Pipe, e^r- shibuk, I^oS qasabah, 

iJLayJ nargllah. 
Pistol, AS^* tabangah. 
Pit, hole, y AM/TO/*. 
Pitch, oJ; t/i. 
Pitch (to), tents, \^>j*> darab } 



Pity, iift-i. shafaqali. 
Pity (to), Jil s^a/ay, 

uJ^ ra'af. 
Place, position, 

mauda, *>}a* matrah. 
Place (to), i^j* wcula , LL Aa. 
Plague, pestilence, j^ 

bj wa5a, iJ^i. shpitah. 
Plain, clear, ^j fomif, 



Plain, ugly, ^l> bain. 
Plaister, *t*j* marham, SJj 

isJ labkhah. 
Plan, drawing, 
Plane, jack, rabuh. 



Plane, smoothing, l^fdrah. 

Plunk, CJ J /5A (pi. ^Jl a/M?aA). 

Plant (a), eAo nabat. 

Plant (to), ^.yc yharas. 

Plaster, ^Lo bayad. 

Plate, ^ ?aAw (pi. ^ye* suhim), 

iisr* saA/aA, jj, tjabaq. 
Play, sport, ^ /t'6, ioJ Zt'ia/t. 
Play (to), ^-J liib. 
Pleasant, t^o.^1 /a * mur- 

dl. 
Please (if you), 



* ^ 

Please (to), u-^s^c^ a gab, 

arda. 

Pleasure, jj lazzah surur. 
Pledge (a), u ^ ra/m. 
Plentiful, j\) wqfir, 
Plenty, ip katrah,^ wufur. 
Plough (a), yjlii fadddn, 

mihrat. 

Plough (to), jj>> karat. 
Plum, Jjjiy. barquq. 
Plumber, L^l- sankari. 
Plunder, I *> yayhma, 



Plunder (to), UrA ^i naltab. 
Plunge into, dC^ inJiauiak. 



168 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR. PART II 

Pocket, v-~a. geb. 



ar. 

shir. 

Point (of knife or needle), 

hadd, v\j ras. 
Point (to), Jc jS <7aH 'o?a. 
Policy, iuL* siydsah. 
Polish (to), jj sag-aZ, ^l 



Polite, 
Politeness, 

sah, J&. 

Politics^*) tftadblr, L~\~siyasah. 
Pomegranate, ^jVL rummdn. 
Pony,^o muhr. 
Pool, pond, ^jjtc ghadlr, o^}-* 

A5(i, Sp^sj. gorah, sS^> burkah. 



Populous, jy+*u* mamiir, 

vnahol. 

Port, haven, b** mind. 
Porter (carrier), Jl^. hammdl, 

jCi steydl. 
Porter (doorkeeper), Ljljj bau- 

wdb. 

Portion, i^o. hissah, S~* qismah. 
Portrait, io wm 



Portrait painter, ^^ musawwir. 
Possess, (*JJl* malak. 
Possessing, being the possessor 

of, is expressed by zu, v^U 

&dt, v^x^L* sahib. 
Possession, elU mulk, <-j|JLaJ tas- 

arruf. 

Possibility, u \^l imkdn. 
Possible, ( ^^ mumkin, J % ** 



Post, military, 5. markaz, A^J 



Postage, iJa-^JI s^ ugrat-el- 

bustah. 
Postage-stamp, ik*,y> iuJ timnah 

bustah. 

Potatoes, ^Jsllai batdtis. 
Pouch, i&kaffah. 
Poultice, isr*' labkhali. 
Pound (weight), JJ, rafZ (pi. 

Jll^l artdl). 

Pour, c-^xl* sakdb, \^~o sabb. 
Poverty, ^.9 faqr. 
Powder, v_ j^i*. svfuf. 
Powder, gun-, ^U bdriid. 
Power, ^JJI <p<drdh, Jx\ iqtiddr. 
Powerful, j& qddir,j.yc. 'azlz, 
shadld. 



VOCABULARY : 

Practice, olc 'ddah, Ly\+* mu- 
mdrasalky JU*XM,\ isti'mal. 

Praise, j-^ hamd, ~* madh, 
^. shtikr, US tana. 

Praise (to), JC1 shakar, JH ha- 
mad y I.S* madah. 

Pray, ^jl salla, W da a. 

Prayer, X saldh, lc^ cfw'a. 

Prayer (the call to), J\i\ addn. 

Preach (to), Jikj wa'az. 

Preacher, Jicl. t^aV^, 



Precious, costly, ( ^ (amin. 
Prefiwe, i*jJL muqaddamah, 

AoUj^ dlbdyah. 

Prefer, ^ raggah, ^^facldal. 
Preference, -**.j> targih. 
Prejudice (detriment),^-* darar. 
Prejudice (in opinion), u 

ta'assub. 

~f ^ *K*. 

Prepare, jcl add, LA 

haddar. 
Presence, i^-*^ hudur, 

hadrah. 

Present (a gift), AJJJA Jiadiyah, 
tuhfah, ,,i^JLi J . bakh- 



ENGLISH- ARABIC 169 

Present (to), JilS. bakhshash, 

J^Sj wahab. 

Present (to be),^*. hadar. 
Presently, now, ^U. hdlan. 
Preserve (to), protect, LJi. hafaz, 

j^ w?o<7, ,TjC, saw. 

President of court, (jJLx* u-^ 

ra'is maglis. 

Press, printing, AxJ^ matbaati. 
Pretence, claim. <jyz* da'wa. 
Pretence, pretext, excuse, JlxJ 

ta'allul, iL>. h'tlah, jjs. 'uzr, 

Icjl iddCa. 

Pretty, (J J^kivy~ts i J^*a. ganiil. 
Prevail, v_j ghalab. 
Prevent, ill mana*. 
Price, ^ taman, i*5 qlmah, 

j*~, si'r. 

Pride,^.S kibr, .jje. ghuruv* 
Priest, ^Ul imwin. 
** I amir. 



Present (not absent), -U hadir. 



Print, 

Prison, ^^sr* sagn, (J ^^. hobs. 

Prisoner, ^-.l asir, ^^ . y^ 



Privacy, in private, gj-U* 

wah. 
Private, soldier, Ju nafar. 



170 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Probable, ( ]^sf muhtamal. 
Proceed, go forward to, I^J> 

tawaggah. 
Proceed, go on, .j^ sadar, *z~\ 

istamarr, ^jju taqaddam. 
Proceedings, oT^a.1 igraat. 
Procure, jJia. hassal. 
Produce, bring forth, ^\ antag, 

Jcl acfhall. 
Produce, bring forward, ^jji qad- 

dam, Jj>! asdar. 
Produce (of cultivation), lie 

ghallah, J-la. hdsil, 



Profession, jLxJL* sanaah, I 

mihnah, JS bar. 
Profit, joU/dw?aA. 
Profitable, jiJL. mufld. 
Prolong, ji aZ. 
Promise (a), jcj wa'tZ. 
Promise (to), IEJ waad. 
Promotion, L^5 tarqlyah, 
Prompt, x^,, sa?-t*. 
Promptly, ^l&. Mian. 
Pronounce, JiL) Z/^. 
Proof, JJ^ dalll, ^U/J lurhan. 
Proper, (jj^ ^az^, C-A*.^ wagib, 
munasib. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Property, possession, 

JU rndl. 
Property, quality, i^li 

LLa sifah. 
Prophet, ^ watl. 
Proportion, ^.^-Uj tanasub. 
Proportionate, ^ U^- muta- 

ndsib. 

Proposal, \jojz- *ard. 
Propose, ^bjz 'arad. 
Propriety, iSLJ layaqah, i*^LLa 

munasalah. 
Prose,^i3 na.tr. 
Prospect, . 'asham, J*l amal. 

** ^,0** 

Prosper, Ijl o/faA. 
Prosperous, <j3j- vnuwaffaq, ..sj-lj 



Prostitute, A-^S? qahlah, i 
sharmvtah, iy^U 'ahirah. 
Protect, ^^a. Aa7wa,^U.l agdr. 
Protection, i^Ua. himayah, iiasls.'* 



Proud, Jz* mutakalbir. 
Prove, demonstrate, 5 larhan, 



Prove, test, ^p^.^ imtahan. 
Proverb, Jju tnasal (pi. Jli-l 



VOCABULARY . ENGLISH-ARABIC 



171 



Providence (divine), dJl ^Uc 'md- 

yat alldh. 

Province, M iyalah. 
Provisions, s^^o zakJdrdh, *lxi> 

tadm. 
Prudence, +js haztn, *J~AJ, basi- 

rah, ifitnaU. 

Publisher (of books),^iU ndshir. 
Pull, v>S. gadab, ^Js^ sahab. 



Pulley, *j bakarah. 
Pulpit, .*ju minbar. 
Pulse, ^J 



, tjj^ 'azzab. 



Punish, 

Punishment, v^ 

Pupil, scholar, Cujj tafmid. 



Purchase-money (military), i*. 

badallyah. 
Pure, chaste, ^JLS 
Pure, clean, jfclk tahir. 
Pure, unmixed, ^U. khalis. 
Purgative, ,L-~* mushil. 



Purpose, j-oS ^asc?, g^U irdda/i. 



Purse, u-ls (pi. 
Pursue, j^lt .(droc?, 
Push, x.9* dafa. 
Put, A-J w;ac?a', LI 
Put out, ji tall. 
Putty, ^^s** ma* gun. 



Pyramidi +j* haram (pi. 
ahram). 



Quail (a bird), J\^ samman. Quarter (a fourth), ^ rub'. 
Qualification, Ziu> ?i 



Quality, i^i-p keflyah, i 
mahlyah, 1 1 5. ; * manqabah, 



Quantity, ^IjJ^ miqddr, ' 

kammlyah. 
Quarrel (a), clp n?d f , ^L 



Quarrel (to), Q ttMofam. 



Quarter (region, district), i--a.lj 

ndhiyali, *\s hdrah. 
Quarters (niilitary),^ XiS qisjdaq. 



Queen, iXU malikah. 

*~0~ 

Quench, UJ1 a^/d. 
Question, 

,1^ 

Question (to), JU sa'a?, 



istufsar. 



Quick, A-, sari'. 



172 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR. PART II 



Quickly, ^i)l ^.U 'alal-for, 

qawam. 

Quicksilver, <j.oj zebaq. 
Quiet, peaceful, e^U sakit, 

sahin, <jjU hadl. 
Quiet, rest, A^ rahak, )& hudu. 
Quill (feather), risk. 
Quilt, v 



Quince, Ja-/-. safargal. 
Quit, iSfj tarak'^& hagar. 
Quite, jUJl> bi't-tamam. 
Quotation, j5 waj^, ^j^l 

^-LJil iqtibas. 
Quote, Jii naqal, u-xLS}, iqtabas, 

*\ aurad. 



Rabbit, * arnab. 

Race, AW\ 

Radish, 

Rags, eyl*^ ruq'at, J-oUj daabll. 

Raid, hi ghaza. 

Railway, j^L> or jj jli ix- teny 

or A^a el-hadid. 
Railway-station, iks^ mahaltoh. 
Rain,^k malar. 
Raise, XT, ra/a\ 
Raisins, v^^oj sa6^. 
Ramble, stroll, *13 c?ar. 
Rampart, ^J^ mitras. 
Rank (military), iJ, 
Rank (of soldiers), t_JU ,9 
Ransom, u 



i* mutahawwir. 
Rat, jjj^a. gardun, J* far. 
Rate (to), value at, ^ tamman 
Ration, bread, i^a. girayah. 
Ration return, c^LL** 

kashf tayinat. 
Rations, e^U^aJ tayinat. 
Ravage, waste, c. kharab, 



Iiavaged (to be), ^i 5 takharrab. 
Eaven (a), c.U zagh. 
Havine, (j*\j wadl, 
Raw (meat), ^ we. 



Rays, claw skua. 
Razor, 



(pi. 



Reach, balayh, J^ haatal 



Read, \j qard 

Reader, 

Reading (a), Jbl/ qirdyah. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH- ARABIC 173 

** ** 

Recognize, recollect ,^$jJ tazak- 

kar. 
Recommend, jjc .\il ashar 'ala, 



Ready, ^ mutaltayy, 

hddir. 
Real, 
Real, 
Rear, u-a.li khcdf. 
Rear-guard, ^buo dimddr. 
Rear-rank, ( J\^]\ <JLJ1 es-saff 

et-tdni. 

Reason, cause, ^~> sabab. 
Reason, intellect, Jae 'aql. 
Reasonable, J^5* maqul. 
Rebel, ^U 'as, iloc 'usah. 
Rebellion, ^L-ac 'isyan. 

Receipt, J^->j wusul> J*j /o5/. 

r -* 
Receive, take, get, ji.1 a&hadh, 

*1\ M istalam, J 

lW, JU 



Receive, welcome, J^ rahhab, 



"^ istaqbal. 
Recent, >jl. hddis, 



. gadld, 



hadls, 
tarif. 



Reckon, 
Recline, 



Aas6, IB We?. 



trwa- 



J^j wassa. 

Recommendation, i*-^J tausiyah. 
Recompense, U\ 



Reconnaissance, 



Recount, 

Recover, get well, jjGl afdq, (jj> 

ban. 

Recover, regain, *j^\ istaradd. 
Recovery (of health), *lil shifd. 
Recruiting, ^LjJ! 1J lamm el- 

'asakir. 

Red,^^! ahmar. 
Redden, grow red,J^.l ihmar. 
Redden, make red,J^. hammar. 
Red-lead, ^5^L, saldqiln. 
Redoubt, iiJ^b bdldnqah. 
Reeds, bus, 



R,e-enlisting, 

iktitab tdniyan. 
Reflect, consider ,^XJ fakkar. 
Reflect, throw back, 

'akas. 
Reflection, thought,^ tafakkur. 



n- 



174 



PRACTICAL ARABIC 



f 
Refrain,jyia-J, ihtaraz. 

- - ** o 

Refresh, yjk tarra, ^jZ~*\ t- 

tarah. 

Refusal, *t>l iba, clLz*! imtina. 
Refuse, ^\ aba, xz*\ imtana. 
Regard, esteem, j^s\ itibdr. 
Regard, relation to, i*.U mund- 

sabah. 
Regiment, i-L^l ortah, (jW 

dial 

Regimentals, (j^LSkasawi. 

~** *. 
Regret (to), c_aA5 tdassaf. 

Regular, \J^j* murattab, ^jy\3 

qdnuni. 

Regularity, v-^y tartlb. 
Rein, c.^> sura'. 
Reject, Ij radd. 
Rejoice, gladden, ~j*farrah. 
Rejoice (to), ^farih. 
Relation, narrative, & qissali, 

AJI\^. hikdyah. 
Relation, relative, t-^5 qarib, 

L^j> qarlbah. 

Relief (military),^L ghiydr. 
Religion, ^3 din, ^{^ iman, 
millah, i-il-p diydnah, 
J^ mazhab. 
Rely on, J^tj, itamad 'ala. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Remain, be left, ^j-ju baql. 
Remain, continue,^fl^ istajarr, 

j+iJ( f istaniarr. 
Remainder, ^l> bdqi. 
Remark (to), "^Ji Idhaz. 
Remedy, help, iijU* mudwanah. 
Remedy (medical), -^Lc 'ildg, 

*\j* dawd. 

Remembrance, i^i zilcrah. 
Remove, change abode, Ji!^ iw- 

taqal. 
Remove, take away, Jj naqal, 

^ nahhl, x) rafa. 
Rendezvous, j^ mauid. 

* TD-* - ^ 

Renew, *,*&. gaddal, ^U 'ac?. 
Renown, s^-i shuhrah. 
Rent (house), jj> t'ra, s^j.1 uyrah. 
Repair, mend, 



*^- " ** 

Repeat, ~J> karrar, jlcl a'dd. 

Repent, !>& <6, +> nadim. 
Replace, S? rac?c?, (^^c 'awwad. 
Reply (a), L-jl^a. yawdb. 
Reply (to), vljjla. gdwdb. 
Report (to), .^J qarrar, cQ,\ 



Repose, A^ rdhah. 

Reproach, ^ Idm, oj wabbakh. 



Reptiles, 

hashardt. 
Republic, 



VOCABULARY I ENGLISH-ARABIC 

haicdm, -uyLjL 



175 



- gam/iur (pi. 



^AUa. gamdhir). 
Request (a), ^^ 'ard, ^U^ 



iltimas, uJLi> talab. 
Request (to), liL fofcrf, 

t&OTWW. 

Resemblance, J*U tamfil. 



Reserve of trcops, ,ks?""~* mws- 



takfaz, 



ihtiydfi. 



Reside, ^^5. sakan, ( u qatan, 

^\ aqdm. 
Resign, ^j* 7..,^ istafa, Jil sdllam. 



Resignation, ^JLJ tasfom, 

isti'fa. 
Resist, \5 qawam, JtiU mdna. 






Resolution, resolve, ijtc e 
Resolve (to), ^c 'azam. 
Respect, o^sj takrim. 



Respecting, with reference to, 



sJ. bi-khusus. 
Rest (to), l^Llj, trfaraA. 
Restive, j\. AaJ, j^L5 qaluq. 
Restless, ^UlS qalqdn, 

gher mitrtdh. 
Restrain, check, *&j> dabat or 

zctbat. 



Result, if^ nafigah, J^U ^&n7. 
Retire, ^-*j^>\ insaraf, x^ raya\ 
el-khidmah. 



Retirement, 
insirdf. 



Retreat, sunset, *LII ii 



Return, come back, j^ raga. 
Return (to), give back, i 

ragga, ^ radd. 
Revenge, A^JJ naqmdh, 

intiqdm. 
Review, ^il^jti1 isti'ardd, 



'ard. 

-o* 

Revive, ^.1 ahya. 



Revolution, i_>^Ujl inqildb. 
Reward, \j*gaza, sUl^d mukdjdh. 
Reward (to), <^U. gmza, j 
Rheumatism, 

mafdsil. 
Rib, *U AT. 



waga 



Rice, 

Rich, ^. ghani. 

Riches, JL wioZ (pi. Jl^*l amtcdT). 

Ride, vl^J 

Rider, 



Ridicule (to), eU^ 3 tadahhdk, \j> 



hazd. 



176 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Eight, correct, sf sahlh, 



Right, just claim, <Ja. haqq. 
Right (not left), ^^ yamm. 
Kind, *j$ qisJirali. 
Ring, iiis* halaqah. 
Ring, seal, ^li. khatim. 
Riot, ijlttC 'asawali. 
Ripe, (j^~ * wwM^ot. 
Rise (as the sun), illt, iali\ 



Rise, stand up, . 

River, _^j nahr (pi. ,U3l an/jar). 

Rivet,jU musmar. 

Road, ji^ <ar^ (pi. 



Roast (to), tgj shawa. 
Rob, ^JI sara^. 
Robber, JU Zz>s (pi. 



Robe, ifSkiswdh, jjliaw qaftdn, 

IxU. TchaTah. 
Rock (a), 8^ saJchrah. 
Rocket, ^^- sdriikh. 

..* ^ -o - 

Roll (to), J j <&*, -y^o dahrag. 
Roof, Jx- saf A, ^-ft.p^ s7/. 
Room, chamber, ou-o 6d<, i-Jjl 
cc?a^, s^s* hugrah. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Room, space, *~,j tcasa. 
Root, J->l a v j^j^ ^'cZr. 
Rope, J-* AaW. 
Rose (a), ^ ward 
Rot (to), ^c 'alan, ^ 



Rough, ^..t.^ kliashin. 

Round about, Jja. AoZ. 

Round (circular),^ j^ mudawwar. 

Row (to), uJjJi qaddaf. 

Rub, dle.* daalc. 

Rub together, dl&. ^aH\ 

Rubble, j^o ddbsh. 

Rudder, lX> daffali. 

Rude, brutal, JoJLc gjhatiz, ^jf,'-* 

khushnl. 

Rug, JoLo busat. 
Ruin, devastation, ej^i>- kharab, 

\^>j taJchrlb. 

Rule, regulation, ^yU qanun. 
Ruler, governor, ^U. hakim, 
mutasallit, 



Ruler, instrument, 

larah (pl.^LL^ maaatir). 
Run, ^^SJ rakad, (j^ gar a. 
Rupture, ^J? qirq. 
Rust, !ju 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH -ARABIC 



177 



Sack, ijJ zaklbah, Jl^. guwal. 
Sacrifice (a), is^j ddoihah. 
Sad, ^^ kalb, ^+x+ <magh- 

mum. 
Saddle (of a donkey), AS-SJ, bar- 

daah. 

Saddle (of a horse), ~y- sarg. 
Saddle-bag, _p. Jfhurg. 
Saddler, ^ sarrugl, ^^, 



Safe, secure, \jj*\* mamiin, JL 

sdlim.. 

Safety, i*X*. sdldmah, ^,1*1 amdn. 
Sage (a), 5LoSc 'allamah. 
Sail (of a ship), cl^ shira, xJU 

qdl\ 

~~0* 

Sail (to make), As! a^Za*. 

Sailor, c^s 3 - bahrl. 

Salary, i^X*.t*. gamklyah, i-u^U. 

mdhiydh. 
Sale, AO 6e*. 
Salt, JL. wa?A. 
Salute, ^^ 
Sand, J^ 

Sand-bag, jkls raml. 

ii 



Sapper, j^s**^ laghamgl. 
Satan, ^jUa-wi. shetdn. 
Satisfaction, ^\j^ ridu:dn. 
Satisfied, contented (to be), 

Jcafa, ^>~\ arr/a, *Jjl aqna. 
Satisfied (to be), x^ shabi', 

( J^\ iktafa, Ljl iqtana. 
Satisfy, satiate, x+2* shabba, x+2*\ 

* O ** ^"^ ^"* 

ashba, jLiJl aqna. 
Sauce, laU salsd. 
Saucepan, iL. hallah. 
Saucer,^*r^ jjJs /afta^ saghlr. 
Savage, wild, ( j^^ wahsli. 
Save (economize),^ waffar. 
Save (from evil), ^. hafaz. 
Save (from hurt), Jjii*. khallas. 
Saw (tool), ^LiJL* minshar. 
Say, J>5 gaZ. 

Scale, balance, ^^ mlzan. 
Scale (of drawing), ^^La* miqyds. 
Scarabseus, ^jj/ta. guardn. 
Scarce, rare, .^lj nadir. 
Scent, Joe Vifr. 
School, i-^juft madrasah, ,,. ;d 



178 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Science, Jb c iZw, ^fann, 

hifanah. 

Scissors, ,^5* maqas. 
Scorpion, u.^5fc 'aqrab. 
Scoundrel, ^^ khablt. 
Scout, iJ^ tall'ah. 
Screw, jjSj>. birghl. 
Sea,^s. J . bahr. 
Seal (to), Isi. Maiam. 
Search, ( j^jfattash. 
Season, a y awjaw, Jxii fasl (pi. 



Seat (a), 
Secret (a), J!- 
Secret, private, 
lehafi. 



frr5, 



ra'a. 

Seed, Cjj ar*, , tj fo' 
Seek, vllL /a?o&, ^Lil fattash. 
Seem,^lj gahar. 
Seize, ,^5 qabad, ^L masak. 
Seldom, J^sli nddiran. 
Self, JJM^J wa/; myself, ^^ 

na/sl (see Gr., Art. 170). 
Sell, pU ^ c . 

^-^ .,., ftfQf 

Send, euxJ 6a'a/, J- 
shayya. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Sense (meaning), ( j*^ mana. 
Sense (understanding), J5c 'aql. 
Sentry, ^.U ^o/ir, 

dldeban. 

Sentry-box, AJ^ wardfyah. 
Separate, j^i- mufrad, 

munfasil, ^^ mafruq. 
Separation, ISjUx mufaraqah. 
Sergeant, L /Jjl shawlsh. 
Sergeant-major, ^^U. (jili bash 

shawlsh. 

Serious, important, j^* muJdmm. 
Serious, staid, V^A muhdb. 
Serpent, iJLa. hayi/ah, ^totJ 

ti'ban, ^j&\ o/a'a. 
Servant, ^^U. khadim, Jji. Jchad- 

dam, j^c 'a6c?, ^Xc yhulam 

(pi. jjlj^ ghilman). 
Service, ioj^*. khidmah. 
Servitude, *^^*c 'ibudiyah. 
Set (as a jewel), A^-O murassa*. 

Set, to (as the sun), cjU ^Aa6, 
* 
V,fr aharub. 

Several, L ^wt> ba'd, iilc 'iddah, 

j*p kefir. 

Several times, \^ miraran. 
Severity, SjLi. shiddah, sUj 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH- ARABIC 



179 



Sew, khayyat 
Shade, shadow, Jl* zitt. 
Shake, agitate, ^j nafad, ^ 
harab,j* hazz. 

* * + O 

Shaken (to be), v^k-il idtardb, 
jjJ.l irta'ad. 



Shallow, *JbU shayif. 

Shame, bashfulness, Js.* Tchagal. 

Shame, disgrace, *-- 



Shape, ^tfj dokan, sahm, 



Share, A^D. hissah. 

Share (to), divide, ~~3 qassam. 

Sharp, SU hadd, t^i cfan'6. 

Shave, jj^. hdlaq. 

Shawl, JU Aa^. 

She, jjfc Aiya. 

Sheep, JJLP glianam (pi. ^LLcl 

acjfenam) ; a sheep, as?* nagah. 
Sheet (of a bed), g3U wa^, 

v_aiyi sharshaf. 
Sheet (of paper), A^" {dlhlydh, 



Shell, 

Shell (military), SJ\j danah. 

Shelter (refuge), \J* mcilgd. 



Shine, *& lama, j^l ashraq, 

t % ** 



Ship, -A- markib (pi. u- 

maraJcib), ti'- -- saflnah (pi. 



Shirt, jjfl-^ qanus. 

Shoal, 2.li %aft. 

Shoe, ^ii. ^t^, u-lx madds, 

l^-'j tasumah, v^/ markub, 

JbU.^ sir may ah. 
Shoot, (^jS qawtvas, ^ rama. 
Shop, e^jiU. hanut, ^tfj dukkan. 
Short, ^*-i5 ^a^r. 
Shoulder, ^Jc^kitf (pi. 



Show (to), (j:'f ara, 

^-o* *- 

.4^1 azhar, jifarrag. 
Shut, j^JLc ghalaq, ^Jicl ayJdaq, 

$& qafal. 

Shut (to block), i: 5 acfrf. 
Sick, ill, ^- warlrf, u lT.c 



Side, u-*i=j- <7n6 (pi. u-AJU^ <7 
wanib), uJ^ )[ra/(pl. uJJ^L 
a/ra/). 

Siege, ^\ ^ t A/sar, i^la?* muha 
sarah. 



M 2 



180 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Sight, back, ^j sl5jLtJ ra- 

shdngdh tcarrdnl, 
Sight (gun), \3Uj nishangah. 
Sight, lateral, L5 *^. \XjULJ 

nishdngdh gamfci. 
Signal, mark, i-^U 'aldmah, 

ij\J*\ isharaTi, 

Signaller, ,^^^ i$haratgl. 
Signature, Lul imdd, L^Jlrmah. 
Silence, u^w sukut, o> t ^> fam^. 
Silkjj^. Aanr. 
Silver, ju! fadddh. 
Simple, Ja.*.) basit. 
Sin (a), 31 f*^ khatiyyah. 
Since, because, ^V ?mw. 
Since, from, JJL* mund. 
Since, then, oSJl dU ,,v 



saA; el-waqt. . 
Sincere, j^U ^, ^As? mukh- 

lis. 

Sincerity, ^^.1 ikhlas. 
Sing, ^LC ghanna. 
Singer, ^jju inughanni. 
Singing-girl, iiU 'alimali (pi. 

J|jc 'awdlim). 
Single, one only, 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Singly, TJ.!J Ua.1^ ivdhidan wd- 

hidan, \^ fardan. 
Sink, <j,c ghariq. JLLc ghatas. 
Sister, oi.i wM<. 
Sit, jjS qaad, Jjb. ^raZas. 



Single, unman icd, 



Skilful, jiU 
sMtir. 



mdJiii; 



Skill, ^,1^ mahdraJi, ^Uai 



Skin, jJk ^z'W (pi. ^U. gultid). 
Skin, water, A^ qarbah. 

4* ~ O rf * 

Skirmish (to), J>/i.i' tasharkhag. 
Sky,^y>. graw, UM. samd, elli falak. 
Slave, JL-C 'a5(^, is^U^ mamluk. 
Sleep (subs.), ^j nJwi, ^1.5, 

ruqdd. 

Sleep (to), III ndm. 
Sleeping, ^jU ndiin. 
Sleepy, ^jUxi nasdn. 
Sling (of rifle), ^jls qdish. 
Sling (of sword-belt), gjjb ta- 



Slip, j 
Slipper, ^- 
bantuflah. 
Slippery, j^ 



. bdbiig, 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH- ARABIC 



181 



Slow, slothful, -Jo bafl t 

rnuhmil, Jj*s* inatamahhil. 
Slowness, Jk> batu 



sagliir, JJL yaft/. 
Small, minute, j^Sj c/o^. 
Smash, ^Skassar. 
Smell, odour, issJi. raihah. 
Smell (to), 1 shamm. 



Smile (to)^ .- : " tabassam. 
Smoke (to), J^o dakhJchan. 
Smooth, pcU wa'tm, J^iax masqul. 
Snaffle, 3oj> qartimmah. 
Snipe, ^*-5o bakas&n. 

Snow, JLJ /aZ^r. 
^ -" 
Snow (to), JLJ tallag. 

SnuF, <J>jJ neshuq, Jo^t-j Ww<. 
So, \j* haJcazd, ak)'jS kazalik. 



So and so, such a one, o ^j fulan. 



So that, Jo likai, ^ hatta, 

kemd. 

Soak, J5 baU. 
Soap, i^y.l* sdbun. 
Society, A*S.** suhbah, iJ rufqah, 

l^x. gamiyah, sS^i. shirkah. 
Socks, eyl^a. gurdbdt. 
Soft, ^frb na'tw, ^ leyin, *~ 



j>.j 



rakhu. 



Sold, p 
Solder, 
Soldier, <jjLe. 'askarl. 
Solid, ^.^u matin, juU. gamid. 
Solitary, ^AJU mwnfarid. 
Some, ^i* 6a e rf. 
Something, ^ /t. 
Sometimes, ULa.1 ahyanan. 
Son, ^1 f6?i (pi. bl abna). 
Son-in-law,^^-o sihr. 
Song, Uc ghuna> 



Soon, Go^*, sanan, 



Soot, 

Soothe, JL mallaq. 

Sorrow, ( j^- huzn, Ic ghamm. 

Sony, v-a 1^ muta'assif, ^b 



Sort, kind, cy nau, JJ^l sAaW. 



nafs, 



Sortie, ixLL taTah. 
Soul, spirit, self, 

ruh. 
Sound, healthy, JL* sdlim, 



Sound, noise, cyj^> s5t. 
Soup, *>.)> shurbah. 
Sour, (.ioU. hdmid. 



South, c^ia- ganub, aJLS qiblah. 



182 



PRACTICAL ARABIC 



Space, <j* mada, muddah. 
Spade, IsH fashah. 
Span,^S, shibr (pl.^Liil aMar). 
Spar (of wood), +>j>. barium. 
Spark, jUpS, shararah. 
Speak, JU qal, J5o takallam. 
Spear, -^ rwnh (pi. -I*,! armah, 

~\*j rimdk). 
Special, ^jo^a-s* maklaus, ^U. 

Mas. 

Spectacles, ^\JSeu nazzarat. 
Speech, ^ mtft, Jal lafz. 
Speech, oration, jliU maqalah, 



Spend, u-j 

Spice, ^l^> luJiar. 

Spider, cyj-^-ff 'ankabut. 

Spill, JL^ *a66. 

Spilt (to he), u-A-aJj, insalb. 

Spin, jji grazed,. 

Spindle, J^U maghzal. 

Spirit, breath, ^ rw/ (pi. y 



Spit, j^> 
Spite, Ato 
Splendid, JJL>. 
Splendour, U U sAaw. 
SpHt, J shaqq, j sadcf. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Spoiled,^Ii* mulchassar, 

mutlaf. 

Spoke (of wheel), jny. barniaq. 
Sponge, ^*J\ isfing. 
Spoon, iftL. mal'aqah. 
Spot, stain, A*W buq'ah, ( ^ t shen. 
Sprained, ^+* mamlukh, 

maqsu', c/yd multawl. 
Spread, IaL> basat, I* 
Spring, fountain, ^c 'ea, 



Spring, jump, iU natiah. 
Spring, machine, d^-oj zimbrek, 

(j\i yay. 

Spring-time, *-^ ra6^ f . 
Sprinkle, ^ rashsh. 
Spur (a),jl*4* mahmaz. 
Spur (to), JCi hamaz. 
Spy, ^^-U. ^rasiTs. 
Squadron (military), u^J;- iJ,^l 

5r/a< saivdrl. 
Square (adj.), /*.^- murabba, 

ibjlj zdwiyah. 
Square, place, i>.l- sdhah. 
Stable, JJa-1 z^aiZ. 
Stack, iclo} badaah. 
Staff (military), t..^*. ^11 arHn 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



183 



Stag, deer, Jljc $azal. 

Stair, ia.^ daragah. 

Staircase, ^ darag. 

Stall, <jJo buks. 

Stamp (postage, etc.), Lo dam- 

ghahj j^^flJ naqsh. 
Stamp (to), '*&> taba', (J Z&j naqash. 
Stand still, t_aSJ waqaf. 
Stand (to), *& qdm. 
Star, nagm (pi. nayum), 
(pi. 



Starch (to), ^ nashsha. 
State, condition, JU MZ (pi. 



State, government, i-^Xs. hu- 

kumah. 

Station, J:JL manzil. 
Station, railway, Ah<* mahattah. 
Statue, Jlu ^i'wsa?. 
Stature, iu\5 gamah, jS qadd. 
Stay, remain, cuS makat, ^'JL^l 

istaqdm. 
Steady, 
Steal, 
Steam, J li ) . 6w^ar. 
Steamer, ^U^. cJy> markib bu- 



Steel, 

Step, 8^o. khatwah. 
Stern, grim, ^^^c 'abus. 
Stick, staff, W c asa. 
Still (nevertheless), <Lb 

777 a* A'wZ^ zalik. 
Still, quiet, U Aac?i, c 



Still (till now), Jll Jl z7a 

HJ Zwsa. 

Still (yet again), toil aidan. 
Stir (oneself), tsjji^ taharrak. 
Stir (something), c^* harrak. 
Stirrup, L->\5^ rakab. 
Stirrup-leather, i,^ zukhmah. 
Stockade, Jj^i. sherdmbul. 
Stocking, v^ gurab. 
Stomach, sjj^ ma'idah. 
Stomach-ache, sJjtU A^ too^a 

d-ma'idah. 
Stone,^s?' hagar (pl.^ls?-' ahgdr). 



Stoop, J 

Stop, cease, e)^S tarak. 

Stop, stand still, i_i3j waqaf. 

Store, granary, ISj shunaJi. 

Store, magazine, ^js? makhzan. 

Storm, *ji nau, i*>^ zMah. 

Stormy, laP 'aggdg. 



184 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Story, & qissah, 2>tf*. hikdyah. 
Stove, is? mihmah, yj f urn > 
Straight, ^3 qawlm, ^.fi^-*-* 

mustaqim, (j^e-i dughri. 
Straighten, Jj. 'addil, + qaw- 

wam. 
Strange, a stranger, u-*^ yharib 

(pi. l^c g&urdba). 
Strangle, (j-i^.^.1 ikhtanaq. 
Strap, ijZAi qdlsh,j~*> ser. 
Straw, ^ tibn, ^J qask. 
Stream, c^/f* migrd, J--*A masril, 

iJL* sdqiyah (pi. (jj^- sawd- 

ql) t isj> tirah. 

Street, S.U. hdrah, c,J& shdri*. 
Strength, j-i, shiddah, s^S quwah. 

o -- 

Strengthen, jj^sjiadd, (j^qawwa. 
Strengthening (confirmation), 

J3jul5 tashdld. 
Stretch, Ju madd. 
Stretcher, llll; naqqdlah. 
Strike, u^-i rfara!>, JJ /a<am. 
ei5, &\z.9 fatlah. 

J ** 

garrad, (j^c. 'arra. 

, jj,xi shadld. 
mutaallim, j^ 



String, 
Strip off, 
Strong, ( 
Student, 
talmid. 
Study (a), 



mektdb. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Study (to), J^j> daras. 

Stupid, j^Jij balid, j^a.\ ahmaq, 



Style, Aj-s? takrlr, LiJl inshd, 

A-fi^b larlqali. 
Subaltern, *j}U middzim. 
Subdue, *^&\ akhda', ,Jj ghalab. 
Subject, vassal, iT-Cj ra'iyyah 

(pi. tic, radycL). 
Submit, x^:^. Jchada*. 
Subsequent, following, Jte tall. 
Substance, isjL mdddah. 
Subtle, fine, (jJj raqlq. 
Succeed, attain, ^ nagdh. 
Succeed to something, L-!!.^ 

khalaf, ^ss. 'aqab. 
Success, ls^ nagdh. 
Succession, li^U. khitdfah. 
Succession (in), (J]yJ^. bi't-tawdll. 
Suck, ija* mass. 
Suckle, x^j radi 1 . 
Sudden, (^ls? fagdl. 
Suddenly, li) baghtatan, &. jc 

t " /T 7 *f ' > 

ala gwajlah, jjls? fagd at an. 

, - -o ^ 

Suffer, endure, J ; 1 ahtamal, 



Suffer, feel pain, ^J tawaggcf, 
JU tdallam. 



VOCABULARY : 

Suffice, J&kafa. 
Sufficiency, *>\& kifdyah. 
Sufficient, Jpkafi. 
Sugar, Jx-* sukkar. 
Sugar-cane, ^xl, u^*- qasab 

sukkar. 

Suit (clothes), A) Jo badlah. 
Sulphur, \^j^kibrit. 
Summer, i *~ sef. 
Sun, (JH ^ i shams. 
Sunrise, ^-t^^ c^LL talff esh- 

shams. 
Sunset, (JU ^}\ vj^ g&urub esh- 

shams. 
Superfluity, jlj) ziyadah, U^ 

rakhd. 

Supper, Lux 'ashd. 
Supply, J5 goddam, <^oi 



j>. warrad, u_3.- saraf. 
Support, aid (to), iUl a^Aa/, 



Support (military), i^lj 
diyah. 

~-eS 

Support, prop, jju-1 asnad. 
Suppose, ^t>j3 farad. 
Surcingle, ^ dakkur. 
Sure, certain, ^^ yaqln, 
muhaqqaq, j muwakkid. 



ENGLISH-ARABIC 185 

Surety, pledge, { j^o ddmin, 



Surface, u*.j tcagh (pi. ^ 

wuguli), Ja a/A. 
Surgeon, -Jj^- garrdh, 



Surname, ^.^1 layab. 

Surprise, ^L>. heyar, ( J^^\ ad- 



r, 



hash. 
Surprised (to be),^! 

^s^ tdaygab. 
Surprising, wonderful, *iJ 

dr, {jiAJ-o mudhish. 
Surrender (to), Ju sdllam. 
Suspicion, e- reb, 1. .1 



Swallow (to), iJb 6a/a'. 
Swear, +~\ aqsam, t^ila. Aa 7 a/. 
Sweat, j^ 'ara^. 
Sweep (to), J^Skanas. 
Sweet, jU Alta. 
Sweeten, ^ Aa??a. 
Sweetmeats, ^^ hulwiydt. 
Sweetness, j^l. ha^dwdh. 
Swell (to), ^, 5 icarim, -AXJ! in- 



Swift, AJy** san. 

Swim, ~ sabah, Ut 'dm. 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



186 

Sword, <*. aef (pi. 

ffuyuf). 
Sympathise, ^^ tawagga, 

taattar. 



Symptom, (j*>\j\ a rod, 

'aldmah. 

Syria, ^liJI^j barr esh-sham, 
Syringe, A.:J. huqnah. 



Table-spoon, 



Table, I j^U maidah> ij~* sufrah, 
lljlL tawlah, S|o]^ faraftizah. 

Table-cloth, g^Ji IU piad es- 
sufrah. 

Table-napkin, ^uJl iLy futah 



malaqat 



. u^liil adndb), 
Jii ^ (pi. Jb3l a^ya?). 
Tailor, Jolli. khayyat. 
Take, 3L* aMod. 
Take a walk, ^AJ tafassah. 

** *-^"O 

Take care, ^^JL*.^ ihtaras. 

Take down, J^i 

Take off, 3S ga 

Take out, jl s^ 

Talk, ill? tahaddas, IIXj 

allam. 
Talker (a), Jjl3 ^Z, 

takallim. 



Tall, J 

Tallow, ^sr* shahim. 

Tame, /o^ wadi', u- J1 a 



-^ 
Tan (to), ijj dabag&. 

V-' 

Tank, ^^ sahrly. 
Tape, Ja^l sAar^. 
Tar, ^^yaa qatran, c^j si/fc. 
Target, ,jliJ nishan. 
Taste (a), Jjj j ^57, ^xL {am 
Taste (to), ,j\j ^07 or zaq. 
Tax, tejjirdah, c^. JU 



Tea, (^U shai. 
Teach, Jic 'allam. 
Teacher, JU-o mu'allim, 



Teapot, 

Tear (a), A**^ dam'ah. 

Tear (to), ^j*. khazzaq, 

mazzaq. 
Tease, " 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



187 



Tell, kaka, Ma66ar, 

j\i qal 

Temper, x^L> tab', i*JL tali ah. 
Temple, jl tea/. 
Tender, soft, ^1) leyin. 
Tent, i-J> khcmah. 
Tent-peg, jJj watad. 
Terrible, J^f muhul. 
Terrify, <_jy> khatvwaf. 
Terror, J^ Jtol, Juc, rabah. 
Testimony, iol^i. shahddah. 
Text (of a book), ( ^ main, 
niauclua. 

l shakar. 
Thankful, ^^1 sha&ur. 
That (dem. pron.), (gjli zak (fem. 

dli tilk}. 
The, J1 eL 
Then, *J tumma, 

zoUk, dli il ts 

fiU fa'izan. 
There, 



There is, 
Thick, c 
Thief, ^Vp 



, JU ?t>s, 
harami. 



Thin, fine, 
Thin, lean, 



a a? nahlf. 



Thing, j^ she. 

Things, Lll ashyd, uyUU. hagat, 
a$naf. 



Think, xjorar, wn. 
Thirst (a), ^ila^ 'aj[<wA. 
Thirat (to), { J^c. 'atish. 
Thirsty, ^L^Wc 'cttshan. 
This, IJA Ao^a (fem. ju 
Thorn, iSyt. shofcah. 
Thought,^ fikr. 
Thread, ia-a. khet, ^js. ghazl. 
Threat, Joj^J taJtdld. 
Threaten, jj^J tahaddad. 
Thresh, ^j c^arcw, ^^ co^. 
Throat, jfla. halq,j zor. 
Throne, ^^c 'arsh^j* sarlr. 
Throw, -jb tarah, ^ } rama. 
Thumb, p\$A ibham. 
Thunder, j^ ra'ad. 
Thus, \jbkada or kida. 
Ticket, s^j tazkarah. 
Tie (to), jjc 'c^acZ, Jai^ rabat. 
Tiger, ^ nimr. 
Tile, j-^S qarmid, cjjL o6. 
Till (to), "J^fattah, i^. Aara 
Till, until, ^ Aaa, u t 

i7a an. 
Timber, u^ Jchashab. 



188 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Topsy-turvy, b+ak* mulakhbat. 
Torch, JjtJL* mish'al (pi. 



Time, ,jUj zamdn, oSj waqt. 

mada'l- 



Times (at all), J^ 

ayydm. 

Tin,^jjuoj qasdlr, ^.sue, safih. 
Tinman, c^L. sankarl. 
Tire (of wheel), ^LL taban. 
Tired, ^loo taban. 
Title, u-AftJ ?a^a&. 
Toast (to), (jj* shawa, ^^x*^. 

hammass. 

Tobacco, ^jUo dukhan, jLJ tabagh. 
To-day, ^Jl el-y5m, b^l^jJl cn- 

nahar da. 
Toe, ^b. 6a/m. 
Together, U^ ma'an, \ saiva, 



A* 7w 
Tomato, (j-jUj tamdtis, a 



To-morrow, 

Tongs, (sii>l mashik. 

Tongue (language), iij 

Tongue (organ), a 

Too, j^J> bi z-ziddah. 

Tooth, ^ 5zwn (pi. jjU-l asnfin), 

^j^o dirs (pi. ^Lol adrds). 
Top, cl 7, A!^> gimmah, $ .i 



Total, ii^. gumlah, **+* garni'. 

Touch, JJ.1X lamas, (Jt ^ mass, 


L<r &. gass. 

Touch-stone, dbs* mahakk. 
Towards, js? nahw, u-j^y ?i- 

taraf,jsf^ li-nahw. 
Towel, Zbjifutah, ^!^* mahzam, 

^Xij bashklr. 

Tower, _y 5wr^r (pi. ^ buriig). 
Town, ijLjju^ medinah (pi. ^ 



Trace (to), 1Z^ rasam. 

Trade, commerce, js~* matgar, 

plj tigdrali, jb aZ'. 
Trade, profession, lyx hirfah. 
Tradition, AJ^ riwdyah, 

halls, j^liu taqlld. 
Trail (military), ^^ duman. 
Train, railway, J^j 

g-a/r es-sikkat el-hadld: 
Transfer (to), Jju naqal. 
Translate, ^jS targam. 
Translation, A*^ targimah. 
Translator, ^L^ayJ turgumdn, 
a^u mutargim. 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 

Transparent, uJ&i shaffdf. 
Travel (to), ^iL- aafar, 

sdh. 
Traveller, ^iL~- musdfir, - 

seydh. 
Traverse, fortifications, i*LU . j 

dirwah qatiah. 
Tray, A.*:^ saniyah. 
Treacherous, ^^ khain. 
Tread, J^lo dds, ^^J wati. 
Treasure, y Idnz, iJh.i. khazd- 

nah. 

Treaty, sjj^Ux mudhadah. 
Tree, ysr*' shagarali (pi. it*" 1 ' 



Tree, saddle, ^y-Jl c-*^* khashab 

es-sarg. 
Tremble, JunJ^^ irtaad, 



Trestle, U*. sipd,\+*. humdr. 
Trial, endeavour, jjt^ aX 
Trial, experiment, i^J tagribah, 
muhdkamaJi. 



Tribe, 3JL^^ qalUlah (pi. 



Trick, i 
Trifling, petty, j^ 
haqlr. 



189 

Troop (cavalry), ^1> buluk. 
Trot^Ull eZ-^ar,to.l> khigdgah, 

tyj* harwalah. 

Trouble, ^*5 taab, >< tasdl'. 
Trouble, give (to), ^J&kallaf. 
Troublesome, JjLl shaqq, ^+* 

muzig. 
Trousers, U j.lW.;.> lantjalon, ^^L! 



True, J 

Truly, i^ftb bi'l-haqlqah. 
Tmmpet, jy. buq. 
Trust, JUCjl tWAw?, ^l % -? cl 
itimdd, 



Trust (to), I^L^ i'tamad, jXl 



Truth, Jla. Aa^, A o.c a. haqiqah. 
Try, endeavour, 3^11-J. 



Try (to), CJji. garrab, tf*\ * 



tahan. 

Tunic, iji~t sitrah. 
Turban, i*Uc 'amamah. 
Turkey (bird), ^^ db^ c?Z^ ru- 

mi, (^jjj c/inc/e (French). 
Turn oneself, 'fi ddr. 
Turn one's face, C^J tawaggah. 



190 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART 11 



Turn over, reverse, ^J5 qalab. 
Turn something, .bl addr, .j 

dawwar. 

Turn towards, j^Ll atraq. 
Turnip, c*aJ lift. 



Tusk, i_>U nab (pi. t^Ul anydb). 
Twice, repeatedly, ^.^ marra- 

ten. 

Twilight, L fLi shafaq. 
Tyrant, Ilb ?oZtfit. 



U 



Umbrella, 

iilox> mazullah. 
Unable, ja.U *a^ 
Uncertain, 



A shamsiyyah, 



gher mu- 

haqqaq, +^** j+P- ff^er malum. 
Uncle (paternal), *c e mm (pi. 

^c 'amum, +\+s\ a mam). 
Uncle (maternal), JU M? (pi. 

Jl^.1 akhwdl). 
Under, eus? ta#. 
Understand, Z$ fahim. 
Undertake, jjc +ys. 'azam 'ala, 

c.j& shara. 
Undertaking, ^ 'asm, 

'azimah. 
Undress (military), ^j^\ 

el-libs el-yomi. 
Undress (to), cp nazza 
jdS qala. 



arra, 



Unfaithful, ^li. kham. 
Unhappy, J& shaql. 
Uniform, AX ilj> ladldh tash 
Jdswah* 



iltihad. 

iccual, jJ^ ittahad. 



Union, 

Unite, 

Unjust, 

Unknown, J^sr* maghul. 



Unless, 



iZ?a, "J ZawZa, 



J U ma lam. 

Unlocked, Jya^c ^er maqful. 
Unpleasant, uJ.y^c ^ 

^J>j*j gUtr murdl. 
Until, Ji z7as j* Aaa. 
Unwise, J*l- gahil. 
Unworthy ^ju*. ^.e ^Ae?' ^a 

(Js?^* .*c ff/?tr mustahiqq. 
Up, upwards, upon, ^y . 



Upper, cl a7a. 



VOCABULABY: ENGLISH-ARABIC 



191 



Upright, *.5a. mustaqim, Jul 

rashid 

Uprightly (act), +\te~1 istaqdm 
Uprightness, i*Ui~\ istiqamah. 
Urgent, "+* muhimm 

mustagal, (Sj)j darurl. 
Urine, Jj> bol. 
Use, advantage, *A3 nafa, 

faldali. 

-- 

Use, be accustomed, ^ 

'awwad 'ala. 
Use, custom, s^lc 'ddah. 



ta- 



Use, experience, JUjc-1 isti'mal. 
Use, make use of, ^3^*5 tasarraf. 
Use, possession, uJ]Jl*J tasarruf. 

- ^ o ~ o 

Use, practise (to), 

mal. 
Useful, *>U nq/i f , 

Useless, 

Utensils, cy^l adawat. 

Utmost (the), ^o^ aqra, ij 

ghayat. 
Utterly, wholly, i 



Vacant, JU. B 

"* 

Vaccinate, 
Vain, JLb 
Vainly, Sltb 
Valise, {Jj]^ 
yat satc&ri. 
Valley, 



Valuable, 
tamm. 

Value, iJ qlmah. 
Value, priae (to), 
Value, rate (to), 
lamman. 



mugtfitarr. 



. gardbandi- 



(pi. ij^l aw- 



nafis, ^^ 



^ ftabar. 
qawwam, 



Vanish, 
Vanity, 
Vanity, 



idmahaU. 



takabbar. 



Vapour^U* bukhar,j\& ghaz. 
Variable, varied, -i-i- 



glieyir, v_6j.?ai* mukhtalif. 
Various, u-pbifc mukhtalif, 

mutanawwi. 
Vault, arch, 



Veal, JsP J. 7aAi V^. 
Vedette, xM> taldl\ ^b. 
dldeban sawdrl. 



Vegetables, ^LaJ*. khudar 
Velocity, ie,^ surah, 



192 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Velvet, iflJaS qatifah. 

Venture, dare, j^ Is 3 tagdsar, 

(_^U? tagdra. 

Venture, hazard,^LU khdtir. 
Verdict,^ qardr. 
Verify, (jJLs*. haqqaq, *.K rdga. 

T "If S 

v ery, U gijddan,j* kelir, (j^S 



Vessel, i_ markib, U W 
Veterinary-surgeon, 

hakim litari. 
Vex, cj^ sadda. 
Vexation, ^jjjG takdir, 



Vice, ib^, raztiah. 
Vice-regent, iUi* khalifah. 
Vice, smith's, u !l*, sadddn, i*j 



Victorious, v_J^ ghdlib. 
Victory,^? zafr,^ nasr. 
Vigilant, SXLL muntabi/t. 
Village,^ qaryah(ip\. (jja qura). 
Vine, pjkarm (pi. 
Vinegar, Ji. MaZ/. 
Violence, ^ raghm, 
J taaddl. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Violent, i^ic. 'am/, jj JJ- shadld. 
Virgin, ^j^c 'adra,^So 6t^r. 
Virtue, iL~*jfadllah (pi. Jj 



Virtuous, 

Visible, ^\7:^> manzur, 

zdhir. 
Visit (a), s^bj ziyarah, 

iftiqdd) oLc 'iyddah. 
Visit (to),^j ar, juftjLi^ iftaqad. 
Viz., i. e., 
Voice, v^ 
Volley, <jJ 
Volume (bound with leather), 

jL* mugallad. 

Volume, dimension, ^s?" hagm. 
Voluntarily, \s^\> touan, U^^^l 

ikhtiydran. 
Voluntary, t^LjLi.1 ikhtiydri, 

^>\j rddl, ^Jo lawal. 
Voucher, v-- ^ mustanad. 
Vow (to),JjJ nadar. 
Voyage }> ^^^ft-j sa/ar el-bahr. 
Vulgar, J^ c?am, "lie 'dmm. 
Vulgar (the), i!TU 'dmmah. 
Vulture,^J nisr i 



VOCABULARY: ENGLISH-ARABIC 



193 



Wages, i^ ugrah, dual* mahi- 

yah. 

Waggon, >^c 'arabah, tisf 
Wait, c-iSjj tawaqqaf. 
Wait for.^lSj, intazar. 
Wakeful, ^j^ sahran. 
Wakefulness,^ sahar. 
Walk (to), ^^ masha, 

tamashska. 

Wall, IwU Aaft,^ Zr. 
Wallet, ^J qdbur. 
Wall-plate, lt^,> bastillah. 
Walnut, ijja. ^o^aA. 
Wander, *b (iar,^Ll sar, 

ta/, JP rfaZ/. 

Want (desire), (jU-ll isftiiyaq. 
Want (need), ^L**! ihtiyag. 
Want (object of desire), ^^i 

gharad. 
Want (penury), ijL* maskanah, 

Zfofogah. 

Want (to), ^bJ 2^0^. 
Want, wish for, Jl^ ishtaq. 
War, t,. 
War (holy), 
War (to), 



Warm, yaf 8ukhn,j\. hdr. 
Warm (to), ^ sakhkhan. 
Warmth, heat, ijy*. hardrah. 
Warrant officer, Jj* sol 
Wash, jjj ghasal. 
Wash, before prayer, ^ ta- 

wadda. 

Wash oneself, jUifr! ightasaL 
AVasher (wheel), g,Lli shilbdrah. 
Waste, spend, uJ^J\ asraf y 



Wasteful, extravagant, 

musrif, v._p\.y* mutlif. 
Watch, guard, ^^a. haras, ji 

Ma/ar. 
Watch, observe, ^a.V lahaz, ^\ 

rdqab. 

Watch, time-piece, icL. sa'aA. 
Watch (to),jf sahir,jis. ghafar 
Watchmaker, ^Ul sadti. 
Water, *U md, &** moyaU. 
Water-bottle (military), t^j+j 

zamzamiyah. 

Water-carrier, ll~* saqqd. 
"Water-closet^li^ol adalkhanah, 
mustardh. 



194 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Wave, -p^ 6 >QMg (pi. ^Ul am- 

wag). 

"Wax, xi sham. 
"Way, (j^> tarlq (pi. j|^> turuq\ 
>abll (pi. J~* swfrwZ), 
mUa*. 
Weak, L-J..*^ cfa'lf. 
Weakness, i-fc^ Va/,jsP 'agaz. 
Wealth, JU mal, i)j> tarwah, j^ 



Wealthy, j 
Wear (clothing), 
Weary (become), 

dagir. 
Weary, tired, jjLxS taban, 



AVeary (to), 

afab. 

Wearying, ^^z* miti'ib. 
Weather, ^^ tags, \j* hawa. 
Weave, ^J nasag. 
Wedge, j.^JL-1 asfln (pi. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Welcome! L^-* marhaba, X*\ 
S^-*ij ahlan wa sahlan. 

Welcome, pleasing, J^i. maqbul. 

Welcome (to), j> uS.J rahhab b'. 

Well (a),^A.> 6lr, c^*- ^66. 

Well, good, u-^lt tieyib. 

Well, yes, ^ na'am. 

West, u-^i^ maghrib, ^Jc. gharb. 

Wet, JjL* mablul, \^>j ratib. 

Wharf, i_*-j<v ^^f^lf. 

What, U ma. 

What ? ^J^kef, \ e. 

Wheat, ^S qamh. 

Wheel, ils^ 'agalah, s^LL iarah, 
uj^j^ dulab. 

When, j| ?", 131 t>a, ll lamma, 

^ mata, ^a. Am. 
Whenever, IjL'T/mWma. 
Wliere, <ju^ Acs. 
Where ? ^1 en, ^ fen. 
"Wherever, W^> hetuma, \ ; >1 



Week, Ax^a. gum dli. 
Weep, ^3 5a^a. 
Weigh, ^ wazan. 
Weight, yj) wazn, Jjjj tuql. 
Weighty, J^gj <a^/. 



Whether, ^1 am, ^1 aw?. 
While (space of time), 



While, whilst, U*J fcewna, ^b U 

ma </am. 
"Whip, -k 



VOCABULARY : ENGLISH-ARABIC 



195 



Whirlpool, ^llt tieyar, JL.Ij' 

daunodmah. 
Whirlwind, ijjj zobaah, cJ 



Whisker, t^U sharib (pi. 

sfottxzrtft). 
Whisper (a), iLjwj washwasJiah. 



Whistle (to), ? a/ar. 

White, ^-o! (dryad (fern. L<i-~-> 

fteda). 

Whither, JU-*-Jl t7a A. 
Who, ^ jJl t7Za, ^Jl tTZoff, JLJ1 

tfft. 
Whole, entirely, A.\W gumlah, 



Whole, perfect, 
Wholesome, ^jU Aa/. 
Why? baZwioaa, ^ 
Wicked, -^ shanr, 



Wide, A-lj wdsi\ ^^ 
Widow, iLj! armalah. 
Widower, J^l armal, LjjU 'as/ 
Width, AJU- was ah, \>f- 'arc/. 



Wife, S^g 

i*j>. hurmah. 
Wild, deserted, q 
Wild, savage, ^. wahshl. 



Wilderness, ,..> 5arr, \sf Sahara. 



Wilful. 



, ,.. 



Will, intention, ib^l ird'Jah. 



Will, testament, i!L-j wasiyyah. 
Will (to), jy arod. 
Willing, ^^ rdrfi, j^ 
Win, ,^U: ghalab, ^ 
W T ind, ^ HA (pi. -b, rZdA). 
AVindow, <<*)tl.i shibbdk (pl.dLjLl 

shababik), 1->II> taqah. 
Wine, JL-w*J nabld or ?za&i,^* 

khamr, ^\j^ sharab. 
Wing, ,-Ujx gandh (pi. JLs 1 ^^ 

agnihah). 
Winter, bi, 5A?Va. 
Wipe, 111 masah, 
AVire, dUL 5/Z^;. 
Wisdom, o. hikmah. 
AVise, ,^5la. hak'im (pi. 



Wish (a), ^1^* murad, Z+e. rajh 
ba7i, L^J tamanna. 






Wish (to), ^1 arm/, jl^ racZ, .JL^J 

^rt/?^aw??rt. 

AVith, ^ ^, ft'. ** ?jK8 f . 
AVithers, tiJ.W harik. 
Within, Ji.b da-khil, La. giiica. 



N 2 



196 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Without, exclusive of, 



Without, outside, Vjj barra, U,l 

kliarigan. 
Witness, ju^Li. shahid (pi. 

shuhua). 

Witness (to), JL^ shahad. 
Woe, Jjj wcZ. 
Woeful, Jt* mugldm. 
Wolf, ^Ji <ft& (pi. M^ 
Woman, it^l imroh. 
Womankind, L-J 



Wonder (a), u-^^P 'aga 7 ). 
Wonder (to), i^^* 5 taaggab, 

~ ,0-0 

c.)^-,^ istagkrab. 
Wordeiful, *~*+* ' 'agib, >yjo 



Wood, forest, ^f>^ harsh, 



Wood, timber, ^^ka. hatab, ^^J 

khashab. 
Woods: 

Acacia, thornless, ^-J labbakh. 

Ash, i^o nishah. 

Beech, ^ aw. 

Box, jj-S) 6o^. 

Cypress, ^ saru. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Fir poles, 4" x 4", Jj^kJ ^ 

arg istambuli. 

Lance, for clubs, ^ shum. 
Mahogany, A .1. s-t~o mahu- 



Mimosa, 
Mulberry, ^y <^. 

M 

Oak, }j qarw, ^j 

Pine, white Turkish, 13' or 



bunfi. 
Pine, i" boards, iJii^ 



Pine, f " boards, oJl 

jj>Ai> banduq, 
Pine, ^ r/ boards, ^ waraq, 

i^ J& shikl bildduh. 
Pine, 3", 2 J", or 2" scantlings, 

i^x marlnah. 
Pitch pine, A.i-;f lidlali. 
Poplar, ^^. Awr. 
Sycamore, ;** gimmez. 
Tamarisk, Jj'l arf. 
Teak, J glvargltag. 
Tulip, -A-* sag. 
Walnut, jf* goz. 
Willow, ^_3lafl-> sufsctf. 
Wocdman, L->\ k hattab, ->Li-^ 



VOCABULARY: ENGLISH-ARABIC 



197 



Wool, w3j^ *tif. 
Word, itfkalimah, 
Words of command,^*! 

qomdndat amr 1 : 
Squad, * gama'ah. 
Fall in, right dress, <j>L>ljLo 

sapidbaq. 

Eyes front, (j^s dugkri. 
Attention,^l^jj zinhar. 
Quick march, (^U (J^r^ 

suratll marsh. 
Halt, .^ dur. 
Stand at ease, U- xJu^j ya- 

rinda sofa. 
Open order, ^.^JLi.5' (jf* 

safsaf garia atshilen. 
Close order, Jj^l { .^A3 

safsaf yaqin ol. 
As you were, sJj^> yarina. 
Forward, il^Jl ilairai. 
Right turn, ,j j \x* sagJifi dun. 
Lei. turn, ^ V^w> fo/d c/w?i. 
Right about turn, ^ <jj*> \ jJLo 

saghdan garia dun. 
Half right turn, Ut 3 

yarim sagM dun. 
Fours right, Uo ^3j 

c?er sagjia. 



Front, ^j iiNlc 'alaydh dun. 
Advance in fours from the 

right, *\j\J*j 

dan dor der ilairai. 
Company, right wheel, 

uJ^. ijLcL> luluk saghyana 

taf. 

Form square, Jj! il5 gara^ o^. 
Prepare for cavalry, $ (\y 

(y\jj)* sawarl karshu dar- 

waran. 
Shoulder arms, ^ ^U. has 

dur. 
Slope arms, J^l &jj^l cU dLiJ 

lufek sagh umu'.na ol. 
Order arnis,^ j uyU^ rahat dur. 

Present arms, ^ ^L, salam 

dur. 
Fix bayonets, tab ^s^** sungeh 

dik. 
Unfix bayonets, ^Xi 

sungeh endir. 
Double, e*ai ^/<. 
Prepare to charge,^!^ 

Jjl hugilmah hazir ol. 
Charge, ^s^ hugwn. 
Fire a volley, j^l^ilS tabur 

atish. 



1 The words of command which follow are nearly all Turkish, 



198 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Heady (load), y Jy ^L. silah 

dul dur. 

Present, u \^> nishan. 
Fire, ( J^\ dtish. 

From the left extend, c 
^JLi.1 soldan ashilen. 

On the centre close, I 

vi j~jjLj wasatah yaklasfuin. 
Dismiss, j^J dastur. 
Work, J*c f ama/(pl. JUcl amal), 



~ ~ * 

Work (to), Jsa^J, ishtaglial, 



Workman, *j'> mni', J*U'a-mz7, 

Jlii shaghgJtal. 
Workshop, J**)l Js* rtiahall d- 

'amal, ,j warshah. 
World, Uj dunya, JU 'alam. 
Worm, jj^ dudah. 
"Worn out (as clothes), ^b 

dayeb, ^&* muqatta y (jj^ 

muhtari. 

"Worship (place of), j** mabad. 
Worship (religious), i^'i 



Worship (to), 3J 'abad, l 
sagad. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Worth, merit, J-oi fudl, ^U 

istihqdq. 

Worth, price, a*J qimah. 
Wortliless, &J iJ ^ Z 

loh. 
Worthy, deserving, (js?-* 

tahiqq, ^^.^.Vi... , mustaugib, 

J*li-^ mustaJtil. 
Would that ! e^J Ze. 
Wound (a), .. ^wrA (pi. 



Wound (to), -/Ja. 

Wounded (to be), Q^!, ingarah. 

Wrap, uJJ /o^. 

Wrapped (partic.), (^J^JLa malfuf. 

Wretched, d>Uo sa'Z?/^, J j 

^^C** vnaskln, Ji-i, 
Write, 
Writer, 
Writing (a), iobT kitabdh, L 



Wrong, injury, Jlk ? 

Wrong, not right, Jalc ghcdat, 



Wrong, sin, Uoi. khata. 

Wrong (to), jlli salam,^ t'arr, 

a .. 

5 taadda. 



VOCABULAEY: ENGLISH-ARABIC 



199 



Yard (a measure), cl^ dira. 
Yard, of ship, &,l qaryah. 
Year, AJL-* sanah (pi. ^^ smw, 

cyljju. sanawat), *U 'd? (pi. 

Jjcl a team). 
Yeast, s^*> khamlrah. 
Yellow, juo\ asfar (fern, 



Yes, 06 naam, ij>\ aiwah. 
Yesterday, L/ *t am*, As^ 
barihah, -b*\ embdrih. 



Yet, however, Ul ammd, 

lakin, ty wa-illa. 
Yet, still, CJ Ztsa, Jt\ Jl t7a 



el an; not yet, UU Zz 

o ^^. -*0* 

Yield, produce, J^l a^hall, zi\ 

antag. 

Yield, surrender, J-* sdllam. 
Yoke (ox),^o wlr, <-jU ndf. 
Young, j-jfata, ^^ garu. 
Youth, I>li, sAd56 (pi. vU^ *!&- 



bob), cJ^ gada. 
Youthfulness, iS, shabubiyah. 



Zeal, ^ 

Zealous, .^e gheyur. 
Zephyr, Le a6d, **-o nasim. 
Zero, JL, *//;. 



Jy ttitya, c ^>]/*' kharasln. 
Zodiac, -. )yJl AaV?.;^> mantaqat el- 

burug. 
Zone, JioUu mantaqah (pi. 



VOCABULAEY 



ARABIC-ENGLISH 



NOTE In general words are to be looked for in this Vocabulary 
under their proper triliteral roots. For instance, : 1*^ a kitchen 
will be found under the root ^S> he cooked, etc. etc. The italicized 



vowels in parentheses (a), (i)> (u), after each verbal triliteral root, 
indicate the vowel-sound of the second radical of the third person 
singular of the aorist (vide Art. 126, Part I of Grammar). The 
Roman numerals in parentheses (II), (III), etc., indicate the form 
to which a verb belongs according to the table given in Art. 158 of 
Part I. 



\ 



\ (interrogative particle) what ? 
whether ? 



>\ for y\ (pi. cylyil) a father. 

f 

l (t) he was eternal. 

**^o 

Usjl beginning, commence- 

ment. 

. -* 

lx>l never ; at all. 

(pl'j*\) a needle. 
& ij^^l) a water-jug. 



son. 



jjfl (a) he came; there 

u llj^ and fern. ^ll^ two, from 

^ he doubled. 
j*\(u and i) he remunerated. 
J.l remuneration, wages, hire. 
j^a.1 rent, wages, pay. 
J^l (w and *) he appointed, fixed 
a term. 

*e * ^ 

jLl a cause, reason ; eUi 
on that account. 



VOCABULABY: ARABIC-ENGLISH 



jl.t (fsm: c^J^i) one, any one. 
<j*.l very foolish, a fool. 

* ** *o . 

^1 forj.l (^>Z. y\j*\ and s^j,) a 
brother. 

c J * -o * 

o^l for (sWl a sister. 






(t*) he took, began ; (VIII) 
ii^ he assumed, adopted. 
^* (t) he was last ; (HI)>f he 
kept back, retarded ; ^(3 
delaying, postponing; (V) 
^a.U he drew back, delayed. 

t-^ -*'* 

J*\ (fern. ijj>\) another, other. 
JTlast, final \^i\J^^\ 



l end, Day of Judgment. 

*\ (ptj>$) last, latter. 
~ -* 
v>t (<*) he was polished, polite. 

V>t good breeding, education. 

* * -J> 

v-^1 (pi. *b^l) polite, accom- 

plished, of good education. 
1ST Adam, the first man. 

-* mt 

(j*\ (i) it was copious ; (III) ^1 

hepaid,gave, performed, led. 

^ when, then, at that time; 

interj. lo I behold ! 
\ and jflS^ when ; then. 
M (a) he gave ear, proclaimed 
the hour of prayer, permit- 






201 

ted, allowed; (U) J,lThe 
proclaimed, announced; (X) 
(jilL.^ he asked leave. 

o 

*^ permission, leave. 
an ear. 



o* ^ * * 

l (/<?m. Jt^,\) four; ^. 



- - - 

^1 and ^! he dated (a letter, etc.). 
* - - " 
o,l5 (;;2. l^y) dating, a date; 

history, annals. 

0^1 (p?. Jj^l and ^t) the 
earth; land; a country, 
territory. 

~o* t ~* 

w^jl (j?Z. -*J.y) a hare, rabbit. 

-* oi* > 

Ju-l (pZ. juJ) a lion. 
^^t 
~>\ (i) he bound, took captive. 

0* 

.1 a ligament, joint. 
'-. t 
j~\ bound, a captive. 

S ~ Q 

**^>\ Islamism, Islam, the Mus- 

lim faith. 
1J a name. Vide UJ. 

' ,o^ 

ujfi! eminent, most noble. 

* ~ o * +o * 

*ui\ (pi. of *^) things, affairs. 
Jo\ (u) it was firmly rooted. 

*OJ 

J-ol foundation, base, root, 
origin. 

the evening; a noble 
steed. 



202 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



^ o* 



l, wcfe 



a barbarian, 



more especially a Persian. 

J/f (w) he ate; tm/>. ji; JS U 
eating. 

Of 

J5 1 whatever is eaten, food. 

o* 

J\ the definite article the. 

_x 

Jl race, family, people, posses- 

sor of. 

~< 

VI a neg. inter. particle t contrac- 

tion of 5U; as, *TI? Vi 
don't you hear ? 
VI for "3 $ that not. 

e *. O 

V^ for V ^ if not, unless, except. 

.* , * 
(j&\ (pi. y>$\) he who, him who. 

*- of * ~ 

(j?Z. of ^t-J) tongues, lan- 
guages. 
JI (a) he frequented, resided 

in; Jj^ltil ^5* the land 
we live in. 

*0* * # a 

i ill (^^. v 5jJl) a thousand. 

. a 

^Jl (a) he was in pain. 



1 painful, grievous. 

a god, a divinity. 



l the God, the true God; 
JU5 4li God the Most High. 

(in prayer) O God ! pro- 
vided that. 
(prep.) to, towards, up to. 



i a mother. 

=>* to- *t 

Ul but, yet; j*>. Ul but after; 
used in letter-writing for 
'these things being pre- 
mised/ 

l^ either, or. 

jU^a chief, Muhammadan priest; 

a sovereign, leader in prayer. 

^uUj^ the office of chief priest. 

^\ (u) he ordered, commaudQd ; 

( VI) Jc^i' plotted against; 

(YIII) J^jj, he submitted, 

obeyed. 

0* 

j^\ an affair, business, order. 
i * 

^Z. *l .^.f) a commander, 

ot f 

prnce; ^-^pj^*! com- 
mander of the faithful. 



or 



a man. 



a woman. 

1 the day before; 
yesterday. 

he confided, trusted. 
(a) he was secure, safe ; 
(IV) ^\ he made safe or 
certain ; he believed ; ^^ 

a true believer. 
~* 

Ul safety, safeguard. 

l. y\j\) time; ^1l now, at 
present. 



VOCABULARY : 

J that, to the end that. 

,Jl fc 

.* ** 

u l and jJl because. 

^\ and [ indeed, truly, he is, 

it is. 

IZ^t, but ; it is only this. 
Ul (ist pers. pron.) I. 
viol (2nd per s. pron. masc.)t\iou; 

(fern.) cJt. 

* - o - - ^ 

^UiS^ (from ^fij) revenge. 
ijJ^ the human race, mankind. 

- 

^L-jl, a human being, man (y. 
* -f 
^abl generally contracted 

into ^G). 
u\ the cose, 
(w and i) he married, 
people; a person; master, 
lord ; j\ jJl J*\ people of the 
house, domestics. 



ARABIC-ENGLISH 203 

Jjl or JT (w) he returned ; it 
ended. 

Jjl first, the beginning. 

. 

Vjl firstly. 

of 

)\ conj. or, either, whether. 

(j\ that is to say. 

1 whosoever, whichsoever; any; 

who? which? 
J&\ which of you ? 
Cojl likewise, also ; the same. 

** 9 -Z 

Jjl (;;Z. JjU) a stag, chamois. 

* -0 

uU^ faith, religion. 

where? whither? ^j) ^ 
whence ? 

j) (inter j.) O ! hear ! listen ! 
)\ a palace. 






c_> (insep. prep.) in, to ; by, with, 
jt (a) he dug a well. 



^Jb a well. 
5,lj a cold. 

cb for xo (t) he sold, bought, 
trafficked. 



valour, violence, harm. 

* * i" \ 

> (^?Z. Cjlsjl) investigation, 

proof, dispute. 
s?. (pi. ^i*. and^li) the sea. 
& (a) it exhaled. 
.Ur*. exhalation, fume, steam, 
vapour. 



204 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



Ji*. avarice. 

li-fr** (P^ *^fe) avaricious; 
a miser. 

IT (w) he separated, disjoined. 

s* . . '* 

jj separation, avoidance ; jo * 

there is no escape, it must 
be. 
bo (a) he began, commenced ; 

9*0* 

(II) Ijjl he produced, crea- 
ted; (VIII) bS^he com- 
menced, began. 

*' -..". 

*A> or j jj beginning, origin. 

yo (w) he hastened, anticipated. 

*-.-.-* 

haste, precipitation. 



J jj (a) and (III) jjj he changed, 
exchanged. 

*' - * o 

Jjj and JjJ~5 substitution, 
exchange. 

*~o~ 

iJji> change of clothes, suit. 
a ju> (^7. yjlxjt) the body, trunk. 

S> dry land, earth; ^LJlJj Syria. 
*' ' 

i^j the country, open plain. 

*j\ (u) it was cold. 

- S"0 

^> the cold ; ^-6 a file, 
j^j (u) it glittered, shone. 
<jj/>. (jP^ OJt^.) lightning. 
> (w)he stood firm; he kneeled, 



bent the knee ; (IV) jC> he 

*^ * 
blessed; ct^U* blest, pros- 



perous 

* ^ o *"* * 



(pi. ejj^) pool, pond. 
J> enough. 

+ of 

li-o a garden, pleasure-ground. 

~0f 

a gardener, florist. 
(tt) he expanded, stretched 
out, it was wide ; Jo^--* 
pleased, happy. 
^-wj (i) and (V) j**^ he smiled. 

-*^** 

> (w) he saw, beheld. 

-- * ^O? 

^oi (^Z.^Lol) the eyesight, eye. 
jf2 a seer J one possessed of 

sight. 
*- ^ 
^^j perception, penetration. 

Jk> (w) it was abortive, void; 

(III) jtj he abolished, 

caused to cease. 
Jlk> useless, inactive, lazy. 
^k> (w) it was hid, it lay con- 

cealed. 
JlJ (pi. y^iu.) the belly, 

interior. 

i^J (a) he sent. 
Sii (u) he was remote, distant; 

(V) il and (VI) iG he 

went to a distance, withdrew. 






VOCABULARY : 

after; &. distance, 
b far, distant. 

a certain one, some one, 
some. 

i the city of Baghdad. 
(pi. JU>) a mule. 

j&fy an ox, cattle. 
ijsb a cow. 
Jb (t) he remained; (II) jbf he 
caused to remain, preserved, 

saved. 

* .> 

lia duration, continuation. 

t*) he rose at dawn, he did 
(anything) betimes. 
&\) a virgin. 

J the time of dawn, morning, 
(t) he wept; (VI) JO he 
was moved to tears. 

weeping. 
Jj but, yet ; 5b without. 
Jj (w) he wetted, moistened. 
jL he sojourned, abode ; he was 
stupid. 

*-- -r.,0 + , 

jJb and gjJij (pi jib) a coun- 
try, district, town. 

JL.JJ stupid, stolid, obtuse. 
iL. (w) he reached, attained, 
came ; it came to one's 



ARABIC-ENGLISH 



205 



knowledge ; (HI) ip. he 
informed. 

dij that which conies or 
is brought to any one. 

_Ju fluent, eloquent. 



g^Jb maturity, perfection, 

attainment. 
i^Z. (i) he built, founded. 

Ul ( for (J$ a son. 

* O G~,~ 

oo (for S^L>) a daughter, girl. 
*lL a builder, architect. 

* Of 

^jUjLj building. 

* 0* 

i-JjuU a gun. 

L^J for^o (u) it was beautiful, 

it shone. 
* _ 
J^o beautiful, good, fair. 

**ftt*. (l 9 ^ ^dV*.) a ^ eag t ^ burden, 
a brute, an animal. 

- * -of 

v_>b (p^. v>V.O a &><*> gate; a 

chapter. 

ujl^> a doorkeeper. 
ol> for e*-i (a and t) he passed 

the night. 

*). (p/. eo) a house, tent ; 



(pi. c^Cjl) averse, couplet, 
he kissed, 
a kiss. 



206 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

^b for ,^^^0 (t) it was white. 
OwG (the hen, etc.) laid eggs. 

whiteness ; ^^ol (pi. 

white. 
LO an egg. 
cG for *o (i) he sold. 

xo act of selling; pU?->i pur- 
chasing. 

JjU (w and z") it appeared ; it was 
clear and distinct ; (II) 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

^Gl he revealed, manifested ; 
(III) ^J he elucidated, ex- 
plained, related; (V) ^3 
it was evident, it appeared. 

^ o 

yj-gj. between, among, in the 

midst of; 

Uo^and Uio whilst. 
^Uo explanation, relation. 

* ^ w** 

AJLO anything convincing, de- 
monstration ; j~+ manifest, 
clear. 



k5 () and (VIII) j^ViM followed. 
ju\5 a follower, sectary. 

^j-o straw, hay, fodder. 
i 2 " (u) he traded, trafficked. 



la? and IsJ a mer- 



chant, trader. 

c* commerce, traffic, mer- 
chandise. 

style in writing or speech. 
(prep.) under, beneath. 
i 5 (p^. t&^r) bench, throne, 
saddle, bed; IJ^XIl 
the capital, chief city. 



j' order, arrangement, govern- 
ment, politics. 
5 (a) it was earthy. 

fO* 

*j> soil, earth, clay. 

- * 

ujj^j' dust, soil, earth, 

,5 quadril he translated from 
one language into another. 

* -i o- 

^Ua^J an interpreter. 

iS^j (w) he left, abandoned ; he 

made or deemed. 

* / *-.\ 

jt-J (masc. AJU-J) nine. 

t^J (a) he was fatigued. 

c .- 

fatigue, labour, pain. 



VOCABULARY : ARABIC -ENGLISH 
wearied, oppressed, 
uf^ftj piety. 
eUj (dem. pron. fern.) that. 



207 

+3 (i) it was complete, concluded. 

.,Uj the whole, completion, 
J-J linen. 



* 

cuJ (w) it was firm, it remained, 

was permanent. 
OJ.tt firm, fixed, rooted. 
J? Orf, Jj) a fox. 
jjf (t/) he was heavy. 

JJtf weight, heaviness. 

* 
J*Ju heavy, grievous. 

* -- *- - * 

O>J (masc. JuiU) three. 

vli5 a third. 
JiS (w) it snowed. 

: ?~ * 9t 

JLJ (p?. ^-^5) snow. 

- * o.. 

1JU JL5 heavy, thick snow. 

* o > 

J and eu*S then, afterwards, 
it was fruitful. 



fruit. 



a single fruit. 

for ^jG (masc. A*J&) eight. 
- * -* " 

^U eighty. 

** 

^ price. 

(t) he bent, doubled. 

- * - ; 

^U second; *LJUhe midst, the 
middle; ^\ (fern. ^\) 
two. 

L> for I>y (w) he turned, 
changed. 

1Q and vjpT) clothes ; 
a coat, gannent. 
reward (in a future state). 
^U for ji^J (u) it was stirred up 
(dust, tumult, etc.). 

r : .- * - 

^ (^)Z. ^j^j) a bull; frenzy, 
madness ; a fool. 



208 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



tern. 
jll (u and t) he formed, created. 



(pi. JU>.) a mountain. 
Jki. (f) he was great, powerful ; 
he strove; it was new; (III) 
jli he made new, reno- 
vated. 
jg,x. new - 

Ux. violently, exceeding. 
y* (u) he drew, dragged. 
^L (a) he wounded, tore up. 

Ijji surgeon. 

g^. a bundle (of hay, grass, etc.). 
(i) it flowed, came to pass, 
occurred. 



i^U. (pi. 
slave. 
dJl> a boot. 



a girl, female 



an island. 

* -o* 



* (pi. j\^\) the body. 
*JL. causeway, embankment. 
* the body. 



. (a) he placed, made, ap- 
pointed, commenced. 



^Ra. (pi. LjUj-l) an eyelid. 
jl. (t) he was great 



trious. 

* * 



great, illus- 



(pi. .ajU) the skin, hide. 
(t) he sat down (on the 
ground in the Oriental 
manner); Jj (pZ. yJls?) 

an assembly, session. 

* " 

(j^yU. an assembly, accession 

to the throne, reign. 
jlZa. he collected, united; (IV) 

ilU. he had connexion with; 

(VIII) \jl\ M they assem- 

bled, agreed. 

x^i a number, multitude. 
jL*L collected, the whole. 
U ...>. together, altogether, 

entirely. 
icUi a body, band. 

a camel. 
jCL. beauty, comeliness. 



VOCABULARY : 
*a. handsome, graceful. 
~ota. a garden. 
la. (?) he shunned. 

* o J *!*/ * \" " \ 

the side. 

;a. (p?. i~a.l) the human hand 
or arm ; wing of a bird ; 
fin of a fish. 

o -o^ 

la. (pt. (^Ua.1) genus, race, 

kindred. 
* (a) he strove ; he laboured ; 

(VIII) Slia.j, he took pains ; 

Spa4 diligent. 
. ready. 
>. (a) he was ignorant, silly ; 

J*W (p 1 - JW) sillv >* an 

ignoramus. 
>. quarter, direction. 



ARABIC-ENGLISH 



209 

for ^ (u) he cut, split ; 
(II) vM lw answered, as- 
serted. 



Sli. for SJa. (w) he was generous, 

bountiful, good, famous. 
*- * 

i'^a. goodness. 

SJ^ good, excellent, 
jli for JJi (w) he transgressed, 
erred; he was unjust; he 
acted tyrannically ; (IV) 
jjUL he was neighbour to. 
JU. a neighbour. 
cli. for c^. (w) he hungered, 
p^a. hunger. 
^laLa. starving, hungry. 
*C for L! (t) he came. 

TO-' * f f 

army, troops. 



he loved, 



love, regard, 
*. a friend. 



(i) he confined, imprisoned. 

unto, until (time or place). 
ii 



(t) and (II) 
desired. 

^ ^. 

and 
affection ; 



(i) he limited. 
j. (;;Z. 3j!.) boundary, limit ; 



j\^. sharp, pointed. 
^. iron. 
Si Jo. a blacksmith. 
a. (a) it happened, it came to 
pass ; (II) oli he related, 



PRACTICAL ARABIC 
j.xi. a tale, 



210 

narrated ; 
tradition. 

jL (i) it was hot ; it glowed. 
J* (l^'jjJ/*') heat, fervour. 
*j* (u) he waged war. 

* o- / 7 * *f 

s-^a. (pi. vjy*) war. 

>J. (w) he ploughed, cultivated. 

cLi tillage, agriculture. 

vl^* a plough, coulter, 
(a) he was covetous. 

J^a. greediness, avarice. 

greedy, covetous. 
(u) it was in motion ; it 
shook; (III) eJ^a. he moved ; 
&. motion. 

(i) it was forbidden, un- 
lawful. 

that which the law for- 
bids ; 1^ sacred, inter- 
dicted ; first month in the 
calendar. 

(a) he sorrowed, mourned. 
(i) he reckoned, was of 
opinion, accounted, 
(i and u) he envied. 
li and S*JLi envious. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

(w) he was good, handsome; 
(II) ^iLl he did good, was 
liberal ; (X) ^L\ lie 
approved. 

beauty, splendour. 
^ (u) he cut the grass. 
<JL-f^- forage, fodder, hay, 

straw. 

*t~f , 
.U^. a horse. 

(a) it happened, arrived. 
(u) he was present, appeared ; 

*'**O ^ 

(FL)j^*\ he produced. 

o,. 

presence, majesty. 

present, on the spot, 
ready. 

Jol. and (II) JaL.1 (w) he placed, 
set or laid down. 

*-*- 

fuel, firewood, 
he dug. 

ia. he protected, guarded. 
Ji (i) it was right and proper ; 
(V) <jJLs? it was proved true. 

* o~ 

verification. 

* '> 

a. (^L jy) truth ; God. 
(u) he exercised dominion ; 
he passed judgment; he 
was learned and wise. 



VOCABULARY : ARABIC-ENGLISH 



211 



an order, a law. 
a. science, skill. 
*#L (pi. *l^L) a sage, philo- 
sopher; a doctor, physician. 
v^L. Aleppo. 

uJLL. (a) he swore ; made oath. 
S for^il (w) it was sweet, 

j>. (pZ. e^Si.) sweetmeat. 
". (w) he heated (the water); he 
became enraged ; (X) Isill 
he bathed. 
Ill* a warm bath. 
iUi a pigeon, dove. 

an a* 8 - 

(a) he praised ; ji praise ; 
s? much praised, a proper 
noun ; j^* praised, praise- 
worthy. 

*i (a) he was silly ; J^.1 a fool. 
) he carried, sent, imputed ; 
(a female) was pregnant. 
a porter, carrier. 

9 ~ 

ia. (pi. J^i) wheat. 



() and (VIII) ^&\ f he was 
in want of, he needed. 



(pi. ^>}j**) anything ne- 
cessary; necessity, want; 

~o t 

needy, indigent. 
s]f) sense, under- 
standing (the five senses). 
JeJU. (pi. ,jUa^) a wall, enclosure. 
JU. (pi. J]^*.l) a state, situation, 

or posture (of affairs). 
^ stratagem, deception, arfc, 

* * 9 

trick; JU? impossible, ab- 
surd; A.1U* guile, evasion; 
SJls*^ without evasion, un- 
doubtedly. 

for ^L (a) he lived. 
"A. alive ; an animal. 
'IX modesty, shame, 
life; bashfulness. 

c^lilj-*a.) a living 
creature, an animal. 
. Eve, the mother of mankind, 
a serpent ; du. (jCui. . 
^ or v~o. when, in whatever 

place. 
; U. for^^a. (a) and (V) J^s? he 

was confounded, amazed. 
^^ time, a pericd. 
'**. at the time when. 






o 2 



212 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



unbleached calico. 

(u) he was acquainted with ; 
(II)J^Ll and (III) ^ he 
informed, acquainted, told. 

- t "Of 

(pi. jUl) news, informa- 
tion. 
.*:*. (i) he baked ; :^ bread. 

Li. he sealed ; '> a seal, seal 

ring. 

*S>. (u) he served, waited on. 
ix j. service, duty. 
l^li (f;& *ll&.) a servant. 
(M) he went out; he re- 
belled ; (II) >f he sent 
out; expelled. 

* -3 

*. CpZ. jjW*-) a lamb. 

autumn, fall of the leaf. 
he stored, hoarded. 

o- ,^ 

Vj.*? (pi. ^li ) magazine. 

- - 

Ajl^-a treasury,store-chamber. 

luii. hard wood, 
^ii. hard, irough, strong. 
L (t) he disputed; (VI) ^S 
he engaged in altercation. 



fc (a) and (IX) J-l^ it was 
green ; ^L\ (fern. *H) 
green, 
fer jkL. (u) he stepped. 

. y^yoa.) a step, pace. 
(i) it was of light weight. 
Ljj-ftL light, agile, nimble, 
jl. (u) it was spoilt, corrupted ; 

he was intimate with. 
JlL disorder, defect. 
J^.U. an intimate friend. 

(u) he was free; it was 
pure and unadulterated, 
i. he followed, succeeded (to 
another) ; (IV) LiJU. he 
opposed, rebelled against. 
i opposition, hostility. 

after, behind. 
iJula. a successor, the Caliph. 
.->; succession, Caliphate, 
opposition, rebellion. 

r- *-o P 

filii^ various, different. 
^ (masc. aLw^b.) five. 
T,Jli fifty. 



VOCABULARY: ARABIC-ENGLISH 213 

.U.i.:J choice, election. 

good, better ; a gcod ac- 
tion. 

for lalL. (') he sewed. 
*. sewing, needlework, 
thread, a string, 
a tailor. 



a hog, pig. 

^ (pl^j^H) the scarabeeus 
or black beetle. 
> Mr., gentleman, 
for Liji. (a) he feared. 

e 

i 3j fear, dread, 
for X (t) he was well, or 



well off; (III) Jli. he gave 
the option ; (VIII) y\ he 
chose, adopted. 



Jli. for J-J*. (a) he imagined. 
JU*. a shadow, fancy, empty 
notion. 



it was behind, and in the 
rear; it passed; (III)jTJ he 
disposed, arranged, man- 
aged. 

jJ managing, aiTangement ; 
counsel, advice ; prudence, 

good sense. 

* * .. * 

^ (/?Z. ^U^) a domestic fowl, 

a hen. 

(w) he entered. 
t 
.j entering, entrance. 

(a and w) it smoked. 
- * - ot 

.^ (/?/. JLLi.^1) smoke, fumi- 
gation. 



he followed, attained, over- 
took, reached ; (II) eLil he 
comprehended; he hunted 
(it) down; (VI) ehljJi he 
reached, overtook, repaired, 
mended. 

(j)L Ia>\JS) a diihem, value 
about fourpence. 
IcS (u) he called, invited, prayed; 
invoked (a blessing); (VIII) 
,j-^\ he claimed, arrogated, 
boasted ; (X) ^lZ-1^ he in- 
vited, entreated. 

* _ft ^ 

a feast ; call, invitation. 



214 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

*iS (a) he repelled, paid. 
~^3 (t) he hid, buried. 
JS (t) it was slim, sleuder. 

ij?.i slimness, lightness. 

J*?S fine, keen. 
^l (pi ^$&) a shop. 

J.> (M) he led the way, directed. 

_ 

J*b prcof, argument. 

J5.i broker ; guide. 
*S for JIJ (;>/. *to) blocd. 
151 (w) he approached; it was 

low, base. 
Coi the world ; the present 

world (as being near us). 
^'iS base, ignoble. 
4-jli near, approaching. 

s 

^AJ (u) he anointed, greased, 

painted. 

* * 

'i\$ an inkstand. 



'IS for 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

for Jjj (w) he encircled, went 

round, moved in a circle. 
*1S (pi. jGo) a house. 
,5,3 a cycle, period. 

(it) he remained, con- 
tinued, persevered. 

always, perpetually. 
IlSH as long as endureth ; 

whilst, during. 

^,!S for J,JS (u) he was base, low. 
^ji under, short of, near, 

before. 

AJ^ the price of blood. 

a e }> 

db^ (pi. ttjgd) a cock, male bird. 
Jjb for ^j3 (i)he was indebted; 

he submitted, obeyed. 
^i religion. 
li (pZ. ^*jUj) a dinar, ducat 

(nine shillings). 
o ,l^o office, court, tribunal. 



li (demons, pron.) this, dJii that. 



UU or liUA why ? wherefore 
for what ? 
(7;?. vUi) a wolf. 



J ^i(?^)heremembered,recollected; 

he related, mentioned. 
J5i memory, mention, record. 
*j^3 mindful, of good memory. 



VOCABULARY : ARABIC-ENGLISH 



,$ jj reminding, admiration, 
ijfa* mentioned, worthy of 

note. 


6 obligation, conscience. 

*3i (f and u) he followed. 
pi. v^l) the tail. 
pi. c_^J3) a fault, an 
offence. 



215 

^ (a) he went, passed ; (III) 
> he gilded, ornamented, 
gold, money, 
i possessed of; endowed with ; 
(fern. vLli) nature, essence, 
jjlj for jijj (u) he tasted, 
joi the train, skirt; extremity 
of anything ; tail. 



(a) he was chief; he go- 
verned. 



, source. 
<J~-ij chief, leader, captain. 

*.*" 

A Ij. superiority, authority, 
s, 

(a) he saw, deemed. 
f0 - 
tfL an opinion, judgment. 

j^ a master, lord. 
a), (a and w) he bound, tied. 
y, (a) he was fourth ; he took 
one quarter; (III) i^T he 

*^0<f * O'S 

quartered; *~>\(masc.&jL>S) 

ttcS 

four ; U jjo. ; l forty. 
^ perhaps. 
jJ (t) he grew up, was educated; 

(III) ^JJ he brought up, 



educated ; JU^J education ; 
rearing. 

*^ (a) he returned, repeated. 
s^, returning, return. 

lj" (w) ne tied the feet. 
the foot, 



a man - 
(a) he departed, marched. 

i-- O 

iJLa., a journey, departure. 
aj (a) he pitied, he was com- 
passionate. 

*^o- 

i^ pity, compassion. 

jjC*, and -^ merciful, com- 

passionate. 
^j" cheap. 



216 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

y (u) he returned, replied, sent 

back. 
J (u) he bestowed (what was 

needful for subsistence). 

,jUlj good order. 

JL. he sent intelligence, an- 
nounced. 

* 9+ *ft 

(pl. J*j) ambassador, 
envoy; apostle, messenger, 
prophet. 

M*. anything sent (letter 

etc.). 
VI* (pl. \yy) character, custom ; 

sketch, drawing. 
Jij lead. 
"^* (a) he was pleased, satisfied ; 

(II) ^j \ he satisfied, con- 
tented. 

^ (a) (cattle, etc.) grazed. 
jji^I pasture-ground, 
llcj* flock ; subjects. 
JTftJ (a) he raised, lifted, left off; 

(VIII) *lf^ it raised itself; 

height. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

^ a traveller, companion. 
(a) he rode, mounted. 



S\ one who rides in or on 



anything; (III) CSj he 
arranged, disposed, placed. 
1>1S^ stirrup-iron. 

</J W a d (II) J^l he cast, 
threw, ehot, hit ; ^ 
thrown or fallen down. 

l\j for '^j (u) he went, rested ; 
(X) ^!i he took rest. 

4; ^- cW" soul> sl>5rit ' 

^ (;>?. ^(7,1) wind, air, 

vapour, odour, smell. 
3VJ" for Sj^ (w) he sought ; (II) 

IL\ he wished, willed, de- 

sired. 

**\j\ f will, mind. 
'^ Rome, Greece, the Turkish 

Empire. 
uJ^ the country (opposed to 

town). 



VOCABULARY : ARABIC-ENGLISH 



217 



jj^j fresh butter. 

c,j (a) he sowed ; cl^j a sower. 

JJblue. 

e 

c**j pitch. 

p (tt) he bound, fastened. 

pUj a (camel's) bridle or halter. 

U 1 ^ (*>* city) time, age. 

Lsi; (*) k e committed fornication. 

*j it shone, glittered. 

.IJ beauty, pride. 
jj a mate, fellow, husband; 
l~jj a wife; (Til) he 



united, gave in marriage; 
(V) jj he married. 



made a pilgrimage. 
JJI a holy shrine. 
Jlj for J^j (u) he removed, de- 
parted, quitted, left. 
J^5 J thou didst not cease. 
Slj for jj- (t) it was increased, 
enlarged. 

wGj increase, addition. 
*T JT'i 

Oo. Oil. 

uU * r '(Jfj (*) n e adorned, orna- 
mented. 
* 
iijj ornament, decoration. 



0*- 



(^ or v^.C a particle, prefixed 
to the aorist of a verb, 
restricting it to a future 
signification. 

JL. (a) he asked, inquired, 
begged. 

r>*" (pL vW) a cause, means. 

(a) he swam; (III) ~ he 
prayed, praised and glori- 
fied God. 



praising God. 

SA J)u5^ O God! Merciful 
God! O holy God! 

- *~-\ * *- 

(mrtsc. a*..*) seven; ^j^t^ 
seventy. 

ll (i and w) he went before, 
preceded, excelled. 

. 

^- (masc. Lz+>) for 

. ^ 

a lady ; ^.^u, sixty. 



sx 



218 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

Ss^ (u) he prostrated himself; 

*.- .... * .. 
adored; wls?* (pZ. juo.lsr)a 

prayer-carpet ; ls^ a place 
of worship, mosque. 
^f?> (u) he imprisoned. 
{ jx^ a jail, prison. 

~ ** f .... 

cjUr-) a cloud, vapour. 
a) he jeered, ridiculed. 

O > O-.Q ^ 

and <j*>/f~* a jester ; 
buffoon. 

^o- 

sr** a jest, joke. 
for js^ (w) he was liberal, 
generous ; i^U^ generosity. 
liberal, generous. 
J* a secret, mystery. 



(w) he saddled. 

* tf 
g\S? (pi. j > r') a lamp, torch. 

-lr> quick, prompt. 

^ (z) and (VIII) JD he stole, 

he took by stealth. 
>jL (pl.j^L) throne, bed, couch. 

* O - t 9 

Jo^ (pi. ^k**) flat roof, terrace. 
~*~ (a) it was propitious. 
Jl (a) he was happy, fortunate. 
^-^1 happy, prosperous. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 
j^L price, cost. 

*"O t 

table, large table-cloth. 

. * 9 

. c ^a-') a ship. 

* 

. u_iJL.) a roof, ceiling. 

' * 
JL, (t) and (II) jj-l he irrigated, 

watered, gave to drink. 
Lr (pZ. TlL) a butler. 

w) he was silent. 

l^" 

jXl silent, tranquil, quiet. 

sugar. 

(w) ho was fixed, settled; 
he abode, dwelt. 

a place of residence. 
* poor, miserable. 
. (aXX-j) road, cliaussee. 
ILL (pZ. J-Sl) a chain. 
JaL* (a) he was vehement, bold. 
J,(kU (pZ. ^11) king, em- 
peror. 
1C (a) he was sound, safe ; (II) 

~~03 

JL,\ he submitted, obeyed ; 
he became a Muslim ; (III) 
JL* he saved, delivered, 
saluted, submitted. 
^}L peace, safety. 

"O 

^LJ( f resignation, submission ; 
the faith of Islam. 



VOCABULARY : 
a believer. 
Solomon. 

xl (a) he heard. 

*,- * ~<? * 

ol>^ (pi. (*)U-l) fish. 

CL, for JZl (w) he was high ; (III) 
JIL he named. 

heaven, 
a name. 
a year. 

* o- 



ARABIC-ENGLISH 



219 



(pL Jj*-) a plain, level 
ground. 

) it was plain, flat, easy, 
for SJl (w) he was chief; 
he was black; (III) l he 



blackened ; (IX) Sjl^ he 
became black. 

*! t " 

u-- (jp?. s^L.) a chief, lord, a 
descendant of Muhammad. 

^ of * ,o^ 

-,\ (/em. *l^y-) black, 
blackness. 



a space of time, an hour. 
,jll for ^^t (u) he drove. 
JL (jp?. J,l^*) the leg. 
J[y* a market. 
j\^ for til (i) he went, departed, 

travelled. 

i+~~ conduct, mode of life, 
a sword, scimitar. 



tea. 
Ill the left side or quarter. 

jlQJl or lUM JJ.J Syria. 
,*jl an affair; character. 
\^i (i) he was young ; youthful. 
S->12 a youth, a man of 24 

to 40. 

il>ll ihe season of youih. 
- (a) he was sated, satiated. 



ili. similitude, likeness. 

spja. ju^* peninsula. 
ll forjl (w) he wintered. 

*l^ winter. 

^svi and jy-svi. (^?7. .lwll) a tree. 
is^ he was brave, valiant. 

1 (a) he personated, ap- 
peared ; (II) u as&JLl he con- 
veyed. 



PRACTICAL ARABIC 



226 

^L^. (pi. Jalixlt) a person, 

individual. 

s'jui* violence, strength. 

ij-1 intense, vehement. 
* OTjjZ (u and f) he sinned, he 
was wicked. 

J* (**.]/*) evil > harm - 

ji^ wicked, vicious. 

4 ^ 

c_^J. (a) he drank. 
u-jj- (u) he was high, noble; 
(II) 3^M he looked down 

upon. 

*. 
v ^r- noble, eminent. 

(u) (the sun) rose. 

O- 

Zj* the place of the sun's 

rising, the East. 
d (a) and (VIII) &L\ he he- 

came a partner, associate. 
j or </ (t) and (VIII) ^JI^ 

he bought, purchased. 

8 - f 

Joi. ?Z. daki bank of a river. 



. (u) he knew, perceived. 

J+> knowledge, poetry. 

*~ . _*>>., 

hair. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

(pZ. x^,) rays of the sun. 
he kindled, 
i (a) he employed, engaged. 

o t 

i occupation, business. 

busy. 
(li he doubted. 

.Xi (w) he thanked. 

* ^ 9 

.jXi grateful. 

(u) he fastened; (IV) jS2 
he resembled. 

(a) he smelt, inhaled. 

^ * * 9 

(jsl. ^^^4.) the sun. 

so ^ , J> 

>u-i (p2. cj*.^) wnx ; a candle. 
. the left quarter, the north, 
he witnessed, gave evidence. 

^ o > 

)Z. ^^i) a witness. 
, testifying, witnessing. 

~ * 

(pi. ^l^) honey. 



a poet. 
x, barley. 



desire, lust. 

(pi* j3-4-* and juj\j a month. 
\L for^y^ (it) he acquired; (II) 
\Z*\ he pointed out, advised, 
counselled, ordered. 

* Q ^ 

advice, suggestion. 
. deliberation, 
celebrated, famous. 



VOCABULABY: ABABIC-ENGLISH 
t 



221 



JU, for Jy, (u) he raised, re- 
moved. 
JU porter, carrier. 

jfji the tenth month of Arab 
year. 



AJ^ a little, gradually. 

*^ (-2^- *W-0 a thing, an affair. 

-tll for -wJti (w) he was aged. 

"* *o - ^~ ^ 

*>- (l^- *i^-) an 1^ ma11 - 
energetic, clever, cunning. 



^Jjli mast, pillar. 

11^ the dawn; "J^o the morn ing. 

(t) he was patient, endured. 

a boy, child. 
1^ (i) he was sound in (body) ; 

sincere ; isr" sincerity, good 

health, 
v^sr* (a) he associated with. 

companion, master, 

owner, possessed of. 

* 

society, intimacy, 
tt) he proceeded, flowed, 
ju^ (pi. Jjju^>) the breast; 
chief place, upper seat. 
(u) he was sincere, true; 
he spoke the truth, 
alms, charity. 



(t*) he was small, mean; 
(X)yIi.J he deemed little, 

despised. 

* 

(pi. j\x*} small, little, 



mnor. 



the second month of Arab 

year. 
JL> (w) he was good, honest; 

(IE) ' U he mended, fitted, 

made peace. 

* JU> just, sincere ; honest. 
"^ (w) he corked or stoppered. 
JyjL^ a chest, box. 
fC> (a) he made, constructed. 
AC.lL> )?. i\^> art, inven- 



tion, work. 

oZ. <_JU1) a species, kind. 



222 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

*-~o (pi. llltfl) an idol. 

iL& for Ji^l (u and a) he called, 

cried out. 
uy-> (pi. ey>l) a sound, 



voice, noise. 

for j'y> (u) he cut and di- 
vided ; (III) ~*> he formed, 

fashioned, drew, pointed. 
t f~t 
pl.jyo) form, image. 

drawing, picture. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

. , 
a painter. 

for c.yo (u) he cast, founded 






in metal; j a goldsmith. 
t 
* wool, a fleece. 

for SI^ (i and a) he hunted 
or fished. 
huntsman. 



prey, game. 
c-8. A .^> summer (i. e.May and June). 
China ; i^- Chinese. 



officer. 

mist, fog. 
x (a) he became tired, weary. 
<* (a) he laughed, derided. 
9 opposite, against. 

(i) he struck, beat. 



'ifx.0 weak, feeble, infirm. 
(2)1. cQ-f) a plain, farm, 
village. 

-jU for u_fl~* (i) he visited ; he 
was a guest. 
ju* a guest, visitor. 



for u-*-k (i and u) he prac- 
tised medicine, was skilful. 

a doctor, physician, 
medical art. 
(u) he cooked. 

a cook. 



a kitchen, 
(a) he marked, stamped. 

O " 

printing-press. 

stamped, printed. 
xi and **-!' nature, disposition. 
JJ? (pi. , !vi) a drum. 



VOCABULARY : 

a side, quarter, 

district, end. 

* t 
(pi. j;^) a road, way. 

a basin, bowl. 
ICi food, victuals. 

(pi. JUi!) child, infant. 
(u} he sought, inquired. 

intention, desire, 
(a and u) it (the sun or a 
star) ascended, appeared, 
rose. 

a 

ascending, rise, 
divorce. 

ablution, cleanliness. 
' ($ u-ijjjk) a peacock, 
a people, nation, tribe, 
a flood, deluge. 



ARABIC-ENGLISH 



223 



Jli for *$> (u) and (IT) J\Ll he 

was able, endured, could. 
isU> power, ability, strength. 
JlL for JjL (w) it was long ; it 
continued. 

Jy^ long, lengthy. 
* *~ 

J^L length, extent. 

c->lL for 4ZL (i) it was good; 
pleasing, delicious ; (III) 
JZk ^ e pleased, delighted. 
eJj good, sweet, fragrant. 

Jli for^L () he flew ; (X) Jlk^l. 
it flew far and wide; it 
dispersed itself abroad. 

-- s * 9 

j^> (pi. jj~z^>) a bird. 
^lIL a whirlpool. 

^ r - 

sLJ? a kite. 



-*' ** 

u-ip? he was witty, clever. 
J J (a) he ceased not, persevered ; 
(HI) jii he shaded, sha- 
dowed. 
- 

Jb (_>. J5lfe) shade, shadow. 

Jlil shady. 
JiJo (t) he was unjust, tyrannical. 

a tyrant, oppressor, 
tyranny, injustice. 



darkness, 
w) he thought, was of opinion. 
(u) and (i) he appeared, was 
manifest. 
(l&J$) the back. 

^ 

noon, midday. 
? exterior; clear, conspi- 
cuous. 

apparently ; outwardly. 



224 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



SJc (a) he adored, worshipped. 
jc (pi. S~) a servant, slave. 
wUc adoration, devotion. 
JI (u) he passed over, crossed. 
J^P and (II.) J^pf and (V) 
J^ and (V3H) 44% he 
wondered, marvelled ; it 
pleased him. 
JsP (t) he was weak, destitute. 

jjsP weak, frail, feeble. 

*- '- 

j^sP a frail old woman. 

JsP (a) he hastened. 
J&.U hastening, hasty. 

hastily. 

sP haste, hurry. 
,sP a term applied to foreigners, 
more especially to Persians. 
(u) he numbered, counted; 
(II) j^l he prepared, ar- 
ranged; (X) j^ll^ he got 
ready. 
SS number. 

SljJ^ preparation, readiness, 
skill, proficiency. 



J jc. (i) he dealt justly, adminis- 
tered justice ; deviated ; 
<VHI) j S it was tempe- 
rate, moderate, equal. 

5 <* 

J^U a just man. 
.j (i or u) he dwelt perma- 
nently (in some place). 
^,jll (pi. ^UI) a mine. 
HE for "s. (u) he passed by, 
transgressed, erred, was 
unjust, inimical. 
\~jje- beside, beyond, save. 

SJ>- * 'Of 

jjc (pi. *\e.\) an enemy. 

5 + * ~* 

ijljc enmity, hatred, strife. 

(u) it became sweet or 
palatable. 

l jc torture, punishment. 

?' 
.J.C excuse. 

. 
carriage, coach. 

he was lame from birth. 
(u) he met, came against; 
it happened, appeared ; pe- 
titioned j (IV) u^U he 
opposed. 



VOCABULARY: ARABIC-ENGLISH 225 



j^c (t) he knew, was acquainted 

with, discovered. 
v !i known, notorious. 



- 

i_jj A* known. 

* / 7 * " 
(l* J;, 



^Jc bridegroom. 

uty* W' L^];5) broad, wide. 

Li precious, dear, mighty, a 

king. 

cs^llfc (pZ. J&Ic) soldier, army. 
Jli houey ; honeycomb. 

of 

grass, green crop. 

s ~ ^ , -Jo 

(masc. ij^jz) ten; ^i^ 
twenty. 

(pi. j+jbas-) small bird, 
sparrow. 

({) disobeyed, rebelled 
against. 

He a staff, stick. 
jjhkc (o) he was thirsty. 

- - * - o - 

^^kc thirst ; ^jUiafr thirsty. 
Uac (w) received into his hands, 
he took ; (II) 'J^T he be- 

stowed, gave. 
- - 

Joe () it was grave, important. 

oc great, grievous. 

greatness, magnificence. 



for Ji (w) he obliterated, 

pardoned, forgave. 
* 
lc safety, health. 

he followed, it was conse- 
quent upon. 

(2*1. v-^Jjft) consequence, 
(t) he knotted, tied in a knot. 

\.) a scorpion, 
(i) he was wise, sensible. 
(i) it was turbid, muddy, 
box, coffer, caddy, 
(a) he pastured, foddered, 
hay, fodder, etc., forage. 

stable, stall, manger. 
(u) he depended, hung from ; 
(III) jli he suspended. 

suspension, exhibition. 
*4i (a) he knew, was learned. 
lllc the world, all created 
things. 

ormic (u) he was high, lofty ; 
(II) ,jl-J he was elevated. 
JU (fan. iJU) high, lofty. 
: upon, against. 
^lc noble, eminent, 
support, pillar, notable. 



II 



226 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

.".jc (a) he lived long ; JZ& life, 

age. 
" (u) he cultivated, built. 

.lit a building. 
J** deep, profound, 
jc. (a) he acted, constructed; 
(X) J^i-J^ he used, em- 
ployed, practised. 

(pl- J^O agent, gover- 
nor. 

*Lc (mac. ^cl ) blind. 

. off, from, from off; about, 
concerning, touching, o 

v^.lc grapes. 

jac with, near, at, among. 

jfl* the neck, throat. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

LC, (t) it signify, meant. 
^lo it means, i. e. 
* { Jjil meaning, moral (of a 

tale, etc.). 

soU custom, habit, usage. 
IU (u) he swam, floated. 
c!*lc a fault, defect, vice, 
^^c Jesus Christ. 
^Ic for ^Ic (t) be lived, enjoyed 
life. 

*o- ^*. -* 

^i^c bread ; AJI..WO and ^1*0 

living, livelihood. 
Jjlc for J^c (the water or the 
tears) flowed. 

^) an eve a ^ oun * a i n j 
(IV) *^Tlc he saw clearly. 



L>\. a wood, thicket, form. 

*- 

lilc end, extremity; neplus ultra. 

lj to-morrow, in the morning, 
'ilc food, nourishment. 

*o- 

js. treachery, ingratitude. 

-* 

Js- (u) he deceived, beguiled. 
* > 
^j. deception. 

L^C (u) he was absent, distant ; 
(the sun) set. 



a crow, raven. 
f- a stranger, alien. 

"o* 

^u the west, sunset. 
>ji (a) he desired, earnestly. 
^c he was immersed, submerged. 
Jj (i) he spun ; jjc spinning. 

Jl^ (^- U^f) g azelle ) fawn - 
lie for jc. (w) he attacked, waged 
war, invaded. 



VOCABULARY : 
jlc (i) he washed. 

< o * - Of 

tail) a branch, bough, 
a) he was angry, incensed, 
c angry, enraged. 
(i) he covered, forgave ; (X) 
^a.7^ he asked pardon, 
a) he was negligent, idle. 

careless, stupid, 
e () he overcame, conquered : 
(VII) uJLi-3], he was con- 
quered. 

,J for the most part, 
mistake, error. 
i) he shut or locked up. 
As. (a) he burned with lust, he 

desired. 
pSt (pi. lyUfc) a boy, lad, 

servant. 

Ic (u) he afflicted, distressed; 
(VII) "^ he was sad. 



ARABIC-ENGLISH 

t 



227 



* grief, Badness. 
\) sheep. 
s. (a) he enjoyed; was con- 
tented; (II) Ji* he en- 
riched; (X) Jill], he was 
contented. 
wealthy, rich. 



lc a song, musc. 



or 



a cave, den. 
v_)li for ^~c () he was absent. 
vl^ whatever is hidden. 
i**c slandering, backbiting. 
Jl for j.s. (i) he was jealous ; 
(IH)'JIi he changed; (V) 
^JLS it was changed. 
_*.c alteration; except; dif- 

ferent, other. 
^\ without, besides. 



< 9 an inseparable particle, rne&n- _sJ (a) he opened, unclosed, 
ing then, therefore; so that, j iiG opening, beginning, 
in order that. 

^U (/em. gjU) a mouse. 

< - 

iJiu poverty. 



-.v*j-- a key. 

I JLIJ. temptation, strife, sedition, 
^jiii hesought carefully, inquired. 



r 2 



228 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

K* (u) he poured forth. 
(a) he gloried over; (VHI) 
j&*\ he boasted, took credit 
to himself. 

jj*\ precious, excellent. 
* - 
^jUs a yoke of oxen. 

jj (i) he fled away. 

gj* (i) he separated, set free. 

?V* J ov Sadness. 

^yJ a chicken, the youug of any- 
thing. 

i Jjj a bale. 

u*j* a horse, a mare. 

u^j (u) he spread (a carpet), 
paved, laid down (flag- 
stones) ; u^j a bed, couch. 

i^J opportunity, leisure, rest. 

d J (a) he finished, ceased, 
cj^j leisure, freedom from care. 

fjj.9 (u) he separated, parted; 
(IV) Jju he quitted, left; 
(VIII) (j>jZj>\ f he was sepa- 
rated. 

9 ** O 

<j]^j] removal, distance. 
X~i (w) it was corrupt, vicious, 
jlli depravity, evil, rebellion. 

* ^ 

a dissolute person; pro- 
fligate. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 
^e (u) he was eloquent. 
i.U eloquence, clearness. 

*o - 

J-o* a chapter, division. 
ixLa silver, a penny. 

ij (u) it exceeded ; (III) j-1* 
he preferred, exalted ; (V) 
jJLaJ he excelled, conferred 
a favour, obliged, 
ii excellence, superiority, 
ii even, in the least, 
J^Li busy, meddling, officious. 
i (a) he widened. 
9 (a) he did, acted. 
u) he was poor. 
-JU poor, needy. 
9 poverty, destitution, 
only, 
he thought, remembered. 

'. 2]jJ*) fruit. 
^y* such a one, so and so. 
J^ (a) he ploughed, tilled. 

JJLS (pZ. u-jU) money, scale of a 
fish. 



9 and ^ the mouth. 



^ species, kind, art, skill. 
V^ porcelain cup, coffee cup. 



VOCABULARY t ARABIC-ENGLISH 



229 



^4 (a) he understood. 

(jji above, over, more than. 

Jy a kind of bean. 

SU for ili (t) he derived benefit ; 



(II) SGl he benefited, en- 
riched, 
jit advantage, profit, use. 
^ ($ jOO elephant. 



1^3 he was ugly, deformed, base. 

.-- deformed, ugly. 
^^J (t) he took, seized, grasped. 

--O* 

Jls (a) he accepted; (II) J_Jl he 
approached, began. 

^o rf 

J-J before. 

^,t Jli before that. 

o - o 

J-jj ^ formerly, before. 

f 

J-.5 at, near, with. 

jls ^A in respect of, through. 

JLL ..< (jpZ. JJUs) a tribe, race. 
Jls (w) he slew, killed. 
jS an affirmative particle, truly, 

indeed, verily. 
& (t) he was able, powerful. 

* o ^ 

^aJ measurement, decreeing, 
supposition, hypothesis. 

power. 

jj5 (u) he proceeded, wentbefore; 
(II) jjJ he brought for- 



ward, promoted, served up ; 
(V) ^^fij he advanced. 

* ~~ S ~0f 

^jj (pi. phsl) the foot, a step. 

~ 

jJjS before, in front of. 

oj5 old, ancient, former. 

5 (a and u) he read, intoned. 
* -^* 
jjl^S reading ; the Koran. 

>J (a) he approached, drew 

near, 
j^ near, nearly related. 

a loan, debt. 
U (^- u^5) a horn ; period. 

*^o- * -> 

1^5 (;;?. (j^Jj) village, town. 
sjf-S a bottle. 

JLs (^Z. lllsl) portion ; species. 
^_^ (i) he cut in pieces or joints. 

ulUs a butcher. 
Il^ a tale, history. 
Hi (i) he pursued, aimed at. 

1^5 aim, tendency. 



230 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

>U$ near, close to. 
3 (i) he decreed, determined ; 
(VII) { jaJ^\ f it was finished. 
^lS a judge. 
Ajlls justice. 

. iikj) a male or female cat. 
daa (a) he cut, separated. 

*0f 

^^09 cotton. 

jj9 (w) he sat down. 

(i and u) he returned from 
his journey.' 
a caravan. 
Jj> it was small, little, few. 
*A.9 small, little, few. 
A paucity, fewness. 
$ (pi. vjLi) the heart, mind. 

(pi. pSl.S) fort, castle. 
JiS (pi. *^s\) reed pen. 
^ corn, wheat. 
^S (pl.j\^\) the moon. 

o<- * . .. 

j^Lj (^'/. J^^liJ) lamp. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

* - o * 

jtuJ) hundredweight 



( = 100 ratls = 44 okes). 
Ap (a) he was contented. 

(a) he vanquished, overcame. 
*l3 a conqueror. 
bUJl victrix ; the city of 
Cairo, 
a bow. 

j for Jjii (w) he said, spoke. 
J^> (p?. j^sl) speech, saying. 
JU discourse, speech, 

pG for ^3 () he stood, arose. 

* 

pU a place, station. 

*- ^ o 

LftUUMtt erectness, stability. 
^JL^ww* erect, upright. 
1^5 tribe, multitude. 
(jy (a) he was strong, powerful, 
ijjj force, strength. 
<jv powerful, robust. 

a- ^ 

,J price, value. 

^ (l'^ uWj) a g ll ^> female 
slave, singer, musician. 






VOCABULARY : ARABIC- ENGLISH 



231 



e) (particle ofsimilitude)like, as; 
e) masc. and 12) /m. (affixed 
jyron. 2nd2>ers.) thee, thine; 
J,(f as if, like. 

(j-lT a drinking-cup, wine-glass. 
u) he was large, corpulent; 
magnified; (V) 
5 he was haughty, 
haughtiness, pride. 

pride. 
**2 grandeur. 
j^y great, large. 

* ^ * . o ^- 

JJ (pi. jLSl ) liver, zenith. 

{^CM ) male lamb, ram. 
he wrote. 

a letter, bcok. 

* - ~^ ^ 

. v sbSl ) the shoulder. 
u) it was abundant ; (II) 
j& \ and (III)^i5 he multi- 
plied, increased. 

* "^ 

j^S numerous, many, much. 

\jS like that, so, such. 
t^j(t) he lied. 

O.S 

~\>J$ whip, Coorbash. 



* s' 

^\*j> necklace of precious metal. 

* 0>X 

^j-p chair, throne, pediment. 

'*?(u) he was generous, 
o,) generous, bountiful. 

tt) he placed; (VIII) 
he hired, rented, 
he gained, acquired. 
Jli (t) he broke in pieces. 

, lazy. 

* ' x x 
^3^ftj) the hand, palm, 

fist. 

M) he was an atheist. 

jx 

3 impiety, infidelity, 
^.jo an infidel. 
^ (i) it \vas enough, 
iu Insufficiency. 
jS^the whole, all, every. 
$ by no means, not in the least. 

a c ^c> hound. 

w) he wounded ; (III) ^ 
he spoke to. 
* 5? speech, discourse, 
ijp a saying, word, 
how much ? how many '? 



232 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

J* (oblique St affixed pron. 2nd 
pers. pi. masc.) you, yours. 

U^ as, like as, sueh as. 

^US also, more, the like. 

(u) it was perfect, complete, 
perfect, accompli shed, 
full, adroit, expert. 

JUS perfection, excellence. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

.aO for * (u) he was on the 
point of. 

<-4>> (/^. *~$y) a star, planet. 
\j (i) he swept. 
Jb: for ^y(u) he was, he became, 
pretty, nice, fine. 
tp 1 ) a purse, 
in what manner ? 



J 



J (an inseparable particle, gene- 
rally used in the middle of 
a sentence) indeed, truly; 

also for J to, for ; as J to 

^ 

him ; el) to thee. 
J (an inseparable particle) to, 
fcr, towards, on account 
of; (prefixed to the aorist 
it gives it the force of an 
imperative), as J-<JLj let 
him assist. 

V no, not, there is not. 

< 

jjV because, since, in order to. 

^V proper, fitting. 

J (a) he put on (a garment). 

- *<. oar 

W (^- JO a garment, 
dress, clothes, 
milk, sap of a tree. 



# **i 

JJ>> a bridle, reins. 



- (a) he licked with his 

tongue. 
* *' 
(pi. +jL) flesh, meat. 

beard and whiskers. 
jj it was delicious. 

jjX) delicious, agreeable. 
^J (a) it was necessary. 
uCJ the tongue, language. 
(i) he slapped. 

- O ^ 

a blow, slap, box. 
*y pleasant, pretty, agreeable. 
.sl (a) he played, sported. 

^^ 

x) perhaps. 

(a) he cursed. 
iJ language, speech, idiom. 



VOCABULARY : ARABIC-ENGLISH 



233 



UU (u) and (VIII) uUl he 
wrapped himself up, folded 
up. 

jjd verily, truly. 

^{Ju name of a celebrated sage ; 

the Arabian J3sop. 
.jj (a) he met, opposed, saw. 
^XJ and ( j^ but, yet, still. 
J not (when prefixed to the 

aorist it usually gives it a 

past signification). 
U for what 1 why 7 wherefore ? 
Uli for what reason ? why so 1 
ll when, after that, not yet. 

(u) he touched or felt with 

his hand ; (VIII) J^ he 



sought for, searched, be* 
sought. 

J on this account, therefore, 
amusement, fun, sport, 
if, if but, had but, 
if not, unless. 

for .jj (u) he reproached, 
blamed, censured. 
(pi. ^y\) colour; species. 
J he (or it) is not. 
I am not 
thou art not, etc. 

* - *~O* -" 

J^J and jLUJ (pi. JLJ) night. 

5CJ by night. 

dJLJJI to-night. 
^.^J soft, delicate. 



ll that which, what, whatsoever ; 
not, nothing ; what 1 how ! 
what! t_I*U U how delicious! 

*!*/- i *r*'?\ t- *-- 

*u (pi. iU* and jy*i) for j^* 

water, sap, juice. 

.. * ^ c ^ 

^^U and ^LU diamond. 
* 
ijU a hundred. 

SJl* (p/. ^,l^) a file, rasp. 
ij when ? if at any time. 



(u) he resembled, was like, 
stream, canal, 
station, halting-place. 
Js^ place, station, quarter. 
II (w) he extended, stretched out. 
II* space of time, interval. 

^jl he stayed, dwelt. 
* * * 

town * 



234 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

^ (a) he passed by, departed, 
s^-ft once upon a time. 
\^ (a) he fell sick ; (VI) JCs 
he feigned sickness. 
9j* illness, disease, 
manliness, valour. 
jj^. (the Virgin) Mary. 
Jj2 temperament, constitution. 

* * *- 

p* (a) he jested, sported. 
(i) he seized, grasped. 

U* foi'j*** (u) he came in the 

evening. 

^ . 

*l~ the evening. 

^il (t) he walked, went. 
i^iiU (^. ^J^o) cattle. 
/^ Egypt. 

i*u (a and w) he chewed. 
x he passed by, went. 

(u) it rained. 
A* or il with, together with. 
JIT goat. 

iau> meaning, moral. 
'** a cave, cavern. 

the city of Mecca. 
(u) he plotted, devised ; de- 
ceived, cheated. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

* t^z 

(jXl (u) he was powerful ; (II) 

J&\ and (III) ^ he gave 
power, he rendered capable; 

^ *x'^ 

(V) J& he was able ; he 
possessed authority ; set- 
tled, took up his abode. 

^^ (pi. ^O ) a place, spot. 

SI (a) he filled; (VIII) -!JU 

he was filled. 
* ft &* a concourse of people. 
*J$Z full, filled. 

il* religion, faith ; nation, sect. 

II (a) he salted. 

^ o^ 

J. salt. 

dlil (t) he possessed, had do- 
minion, reigned. 

*0> *-,*o- 

and iXU-a a kingdom, 

dominion, power. 

* > t 
(pZ. djU) a king. 

c*!Ll (p7. ix|i) an angel. 
dJU a king, lord, possessor. 
il* a queen. 

C* for l*Jj from, that, which, 
^1 (pronoun of common gender, 
singular and plural) he who, 
they who, whosoever. 
^ from, from out of, of, for, 
than (after the com}), degree). 






VOCABULABY: ARABIC-ENGLISH 235 

5l$* gently, softly, slowly. 
*1>U for JJ^I (u) be died. 
vL^i death. 
eL~* (_p il>]j^) dead, extinct ; 

dying, moribund. 
JU for Jj. (u) be was wealthy. 
JU (pi. Jlp) wealtb, riches. 
JU for jl. (t) he inclined, he 
leaned ; (II) JUl he caused 
to lean, bend, incline ; 
biased. 



without, 

^ besides, notwith- 
standing. 
JJJJL* (pi. Ji^U-*) handkerchief, 

tablecloth, napkin. 
*j (a) he prevented, hindered, 
forbidden. 



I (a) be did anything slowly. 
J*T delay. 



* * " f . 

^U for ^lil men, mankind. 

jjAJsU lessened, wanting, defective. 

a gnat, mosquito, midge. 
a prophet. 
y*j prophecy. 

(u) (vegetation) sprung up, 
was produced, grew. 

o - * -- 

and e^'v-*J vegetiition, 
herbage, grass, vegetable. 

J*J wine, juice of the grape. 

*r 
^W a carpenter, joiner. 

* o .- * ~ r 

JJB? and ils? the honey-bee. 



(per*, pron. of the common 
gender, dual and plural ) we 
two, or we. 

^ for i (a and u) be went to- 
wards ; be aimed at ; j*? 
as, about, to, towards. 

JL^G (pi. ^y) a district, 
quarter, tract. 

*? S^> an( * *^ a P a l m -t r ee- 
Jo (a) he repented, regretted. 
* jj and i^ljj penitence, regret, 



sorrow. 

* - 



ojj a boon-companion, an 
intimate friend. 



236 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

*-... . ' 

ljj> calling, invitation. 

(S^ he called, invited. 
; jj (i and u) he vowed, dedi- 
cated* 
Jjj (i) he descended, alighted. 

099 

jLtj descent. 

3 (u and i) he referred, de- 
rived, attributed. 

i 

j origin, race, relationship. 
~~3 a gentle breeze, zephyr. 
3 (a) he forgot, neglected. 

~ O 

3 and s^-J (for the singular 

"O 

of which i*jj\ is used) 
women, the female sex. 

2J (u) he spread out, extended, 
scattered, diffused, propa- 
gated, promulgated, sawed, 
a saw. 

s 

^> (a) admonished, advised. 
^- * - 

^lj monitor, counsellor. 

** 

^o3 sincere, genuine. 

A^ admonition, advice, 
^^i (w) he assisted, aided. 

* - * - o* 

j^> (pi. jLaol) assistant, 
helper, defender, ally. 
(u) he halved. 

A 

i a half, the middle. 
Ju (a) he butted with his horns. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

Jlaj (u) he looked, gazed, beheld, 

observed, regarded, 
ujiiu (u) he was clean. 

Ljulfrj clean, pure. 
^i (a, u, and 2) it was convenient, 
soft, easy, agreeable; (II) 

+ ~o& 

j^jrjl he enriched, was 
bountiful. 

^xj excellent ! good ! well done ! 
jo (a particle of affirmation) 
good, well, be it so, yes. 

^56 soft, smooth. 

- 

^*xj affluence, pleasure. 

?--} wealth, opulence; a fa- 
vour, benefit. 

jj6 a number of persons, a per- 
son, private soldier. 

J*A3 (pi. tj-AJl) the soul, spirit, 
self. 

JU-AJ . J to himself. 
~~ " ~ 

~* (a) it was useful, profitable, 
v^ 

serviceable. 

3& useful, profitable. 
JA3 (t*) he paid ready money. 
j53 cash, ready money. 

^J&i (a) he painted, printed, 

*- 

Saj painting, carving. 

li a painter, sculptor. 



VOCABULARY : ARABIC -ENGLISH 



237 



j loss, damage. 

j violation (of an agreement). 

a drop, small portion. 
Jjii (u) he transported, carried 

from one place to another; 

(Vni) JJL^ he emigrated. 
'> (t) he was angry, ohid; (VIII) 

^ii^ he punished, retali- 

ated, 



*i revenge, vengeance. 
J& (a) and (II)^^ he denied, 
ignored, disavowed. 
one who denies. 

o* 

.^i) a tiger, panther. 
* (a) he dug a canal ; checked, 
chid. 

j\^) stream, river, 
canal. 
the day. 

( a ^ (^ e s^ake) bit; he 
punctured. 

(a) he forbade, prohibited ; 
(VIII) ^^ it came to an 
end, concluded. 
J prohibition, interdict. 



Jbl^J extremity, end, goal, 

boundary, excess. 
storm, tempest. 
U for i^3 (w) he supplied 

(another's place). 

for^jj (u) it shone. 

.. 

.Li fire. / 






^ (j^ a jl^O ^'g^ 1 ^ splendour. 

^ --. 

.Lft a candlestick, lighthouse, 

minaret. 
J-.JLA illustrious, splendid. 

* O* f of 

c^j (2>Z. pjyO species, manner, 

mode, kind, sort. 
JU for JjS (a and w) he bestowed, 

gave; presented,was liberal ; 

he got, obtained; (VI) J^lli 

he took (food) ; he received 

(gifts) ; jy a gift, present, 

favour. 
plj for ^j (u) he slept. 

^G (^.-^Wj) sleeping, asleep; 

a sleeper. 

*j3 sleep, dreaming. 
JG for jli (a and i) he acquired, 

obtained. 



238 



PRACTICAL AEABIC GRAMMAR, PART H 



J (and * when preceded by kasra, 
affixed pron. ^rdpers.masc.) 
him, his, it ; U (fern.) her, 
hers. 

IA behold ! here ! well ! she, it. 

v^>U give. 

HU here, in this place. 
j& (u) he abandoned, deserted, 
left; talked at random. 

Js (i) he attacked, surprised, 
charged, took unawares. 

*+ f #o 

a**.* and *js* a violent rush, 
ljufc (masc.) and j Ji (fem.) this. 
CJJ*> (u) he fled, vanished. 
*+j* old age, decrepitude (p/. 

* - -S * ^O -O j: 

r l^l); r ^ I the Pyramids. 
IjA (f) he put to flight, routed, 
in this manner. 



J and, too, also; (in swearing) 

by, as 4JJ\5 by God ! 
5 (interj.) oh ! alas ! 
J^jlj steamer, steam-engine. 
SjJ (from (J^J) a valley, river. 



^(interrogative particle) whether 
or not 1 

efll (t and a) he perished, died ; 
(II) eiut he killed, de- 
stroyed. 

o t 

(1A 4 A ruinous, destructive. 

iA energy, desire, courage. 

lla here. 

e)ll there (at a distance), 
ji (/>TOM. 3rrf ^er.) he, it ; ^* 

she, it. 
tSi lo! behold! Ut I3i behold 



me ! 



(pron.) they, those, 
(t) he soared, fell from a 
height. 

A air, atmosphere, 
crowd, uproar, thicket. 






i *. 

0-^) it was necessary, it 
behoved; (X) ^s>.^\ he 
deemed necessary; he de- 
served, was worth, merited. 
Jj necessary, proper. 



VOCABULARY : ARABIC-ENGLISH 



239 



necessarily, properly. 
w.**^i according to. 
.j (j**) he found, discovered; 

it wae found, existed. 
Jal found, extant. 



he hurt, pained. 
ache, disease. 

slj (^- j4-J) the face, aspect; 
(III) LJ he turned towards, 
despatched or sent ; (V) -p 
he turned to, set his face 
towards. 

jj (**-y_) he was alone, separate. 

* i" 

JA.I^ one. 

-!*., unity, solitude. 

* o - * t t 

OP*- Lpj*j) a w ^^ heast. 
j muddy. 

J ( c^j) he placed, deposited ; 
left at liberty, permitted ; 
abandoned, quitted; (III) 
cjj he bade farewell; (X) 
c^yH^ he requested (an- 
other) to keep a deposit; 
he committed, entrusted. 

c$ (imper.) leave, let alone. 
permit, grant. 



S adieu, farewell. 

. 

(<j>) he paid compensation 
for homicide, 
u^ blood-money. 
J^K a valley, river, 
j behind, beyond, after; be- 
sides. 

j) he became heir; (II) 
he bequeathed ; (III) 
he made heir to. 



- ,*.- 
j) and 8jj 



* - ^ 

sustained ; (X) jjj^ f he 

appointed vizier. 
* "^> 
1 1}} (jP^ *Vj j) a v ^ z i er > minister. 

J/ (u^) he weighed. 

to~ " 

^j weight, measure. 
jjU*^ scale, measure, rule. 



a goose. 



'*,'* ( '^Io) he was dirty, 
la^j the middle, centre. 
2J ( AlS) it was made spacious, 

wide. 

JL,|J or jL~j ample, roomy. 
J (J-4) he joined, united ; 
reached, attained, arrived 



40 PRACTICAL ARABIC 

at ; (II) J^y he conveyed ; 
(VIII) J*jl^ he adjoined ; 
arrival. 

9 joined, connected 
together; (II) Sjt and 
(III) jLJ he enjoined, com- 
manded, made a will, be- 
queathed. 

.*j a testator, guardian, exe- 
cutor, trustee. 

ju*j precept, command; last 
will and testament. 

*j) he placed, deposited ; 






(III) **c3\ f he was abased. 



position, situation. 
a place. 

abode, resided. 
native land, home. 



SJ (jj)he promised, threa-tened, 

foretold. 
iij (ioJ) he preached ; (VIII) 

JaaJ^ he was admonished. 

o- 

Joj a sermon, homily. 
Jac lj a preacher, monitor. 
j. (/5i) it was full, copious. 
JjlJ abundant, opulent. 



GRAMMAR, PART II 

fc Wft s suitable, apt, 
convenient; it succeeded; 
(HI)jSj he directed, assist- 
ed; (IV) J>ljhe assented, 
agreed to; (VHI) Jgl, it 
happened, occurred ; he 
agreed. 

-w 

JI^ consent, agreement. 
n by chance, accidentally. 

o- 

*j^j the favour of God. 
JilI agreeable, pleasant. 
. cy(5jl) time, season. 
^ immediately. 
c^i now. 

>) it fell out, happened, 
he fell upon or attacked; 
(II) jjl he surprised, 
attacked. 

cyj a fall, occurrence. 
Jjlj an event, news, history, 
story. 
sJ (uJJu) he stood, stopped, 

halted, was stationary. 
ij\j standing. 

j (iCj) and (III) ^ he estab- 
lished, confirmed, he was 
instant and urgent. 



VOCABULARY : ARABIC-ENGLISH 



241 



9 * 



he entrusted, com- 
mitted (his affairs to 
another); (V) J^P he 
trasted, confided (in God), 
was resigned. 

advocate, governor. 

^- 
^i-* resigned, reliant. 

j' (Ilj) she brought forth, 
bore, produced. 

j Q& > V) a son> c kiid. 

\j a father, parent. 
\jJlj parents, father and 
mother. 

* 

born ; offspring. 

ne P res ided over > ^ e 



governed ; (III) Jj he 



appointed to a government, 
set over ; he turned back ; 
(V) J^J he was appointed, 
he assumed ; he undertook ; 
withdrew; ran away; (X) 

-*-o ** O 

^7..>^ he had complete 
power and authority ; he 
mastered, obtained posses- 
sion of. 

j a helper, protector. 
heir-apparent. 
a lord, freed-man. 
my lord. 



ij a region, empire. 

fO *, "" 

Jjj woe, misery, misfortune. 
woe to thee I 



J^Jl alas \ woe (unto me, etc.)! 



^ (affixed pron.) me, mine. 

\J (interj.) ! tell me ! 

^.i\J dry, shrunk, withered. 

cyyG a ruby. 

'-z> (jLJ) he was deprived of 

his father. 
*>:!> fatherless, an orphan. 

ii Q 



j (pi. jjjl for Jjjl) the hand; 
paw of an animal. 

o (j*~) he was easy, gentle ; 
he played at dice ; (V)^I*J 
it was prepared, made easy. 

*CJ the left hand or side. 
t.J> easy, trifling. 



242 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

f 



the left hand or side, 
that is to sayj i. e. 

Jb (a) (II) jSt and (V) ^he 
was certain, he firmly be- 
lieved, he knew for certain, 
felt assured. 

^fj-Jb sure, certain, truth ; the 
true faith. 

5 ( a ) ke approached on the 

right side. 
- * -. 

' an Oft th ft s 



pledged with right hand); 

the right hand. 
* ^Q - 
AJL> the right hand or side. 

T the Jews. 

9 9 

Joseph. 
(pi. pG!) a day. 

j the first day, Sunday. 

- 

the second day, 
Monday; etc. etc. 

t 0*.0 

r> Jl to-day. 

u^j on one day, once upon a day. 



- -_o o - 



APPENDIX 

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF CLASSICAL AND MODERN 
ARABIC FORMS AND EXPRESSIONS. 



I. NOUNS. 

A. NUMBEB. 

1. The Singular. 

a. The termination of the nominative case, singular, of common 
nouns, without the article, is ( ) un, in the written or classical 
language; and of proper nouns, ( ) u; but in the vulgar or 
modern Arabic there is no termination ; thus, 

* - w 

masc. ^Li. khayyatun, vulg. JoU* khayyat, a tailor. 

L>\ kitabun, A^ kitab, a book. 

* * 
fern. A-IJJ-* mecfinatun, IJLJX* medlnah, a town. 

-, sikkatun) IxL sikkah, a road. 



masc. 



or 

^W* osmanu, 



fern. it\J fatimatu, 



maryamu, 

Jc 'adra'u, 

Q 2 



A^T arfaw, Adam. 
Uip 'osman, Osman. 
^LU fdiimah, Fatima. 

X* mekkah, Mecca. 
o^ mari/am, Mary, 
lixff 'adrd, maid. 



244 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

b. With the article, the termination is ( ) u, in the written 
language, and without any in the vulgar tongue ; thus, 

Lllil el-khayyatu, vulg. i>llil el-khayyat, the tailor. 

v_>Gfl d-kitabu, ^l^JI el-kitab, the book. 

iJLjjXI el-medinatu, ijjjil el-medinah, the town. 

ixlJl *8-8ikkatu t AxJl es-sikkah, the road. 

2. The Dual. 

With or without the article, termination ^,1 am, vulg. ^1 ew. 
irasc. ^l^U*. khayyalani, vulg. ^.^Ls*- khayyaten, two tailors. 

^jCUi kitabani, ^^iUS kitdben, two books, 

fem. ^lujju rricdinatani, (^-^.U medinaten, two towns. 

,, ^1^-X.JI es-sikkatani, ^.^XJl es~sikkaten, the two roads. 

Vide Part I, Art. 54 of the Grammar. 

3. The Plural. 

f. The regular or unbroken plurals: masculine termination 
with or without the article, J)j una, vulg. ^ In; feminine 
without the article, termination J>1 atun, vulg. v^l at ; feminine 
with the article, termination iLl atu, vulg. uyl a. 

- ' - ** 

masc. ^^U*. Knayyaiuna, vulg. ^.^U* knayyafin, tailors. 

- * - w 

i^yU>> hamnidluna, ^J^ fiammalin, porters. 

*0,0 

^^Lail el-maqtuluna^ ^J.^ail d-maqtulin, the slain, 

fern. uy^U hdratun, ^U Aaro<, streets. 

marratun, oL mar rat, times. 

es-sadtu, cyUUl es-sadt, the hours. 
Vide Part I, Arts. 22 and 23. 



APPENDIX 



245 



b. Broken plurals. The most common forms 

Form. Vulgar Pronunciation. Plural. 

ji* i^i garyah, village, <jf 
Jjti s->^^ kitab, book, 
i-4^* medlnah, towns, 

rastil, ambassador, J~^ 

:Ar, sea, .Is*. 



JUi 



H 

-0* 



JUM 



>. rlA, wind, 
a. gabal, mountain, 



>, heart, 

* " * 

Q.O 6e<, house, 

elL* melik, king, 

j^li shaJiid, witness, 

J> W hakim, judge, 

^J naAr, river, 

* o- 

Ja^ ^j foot, 

Jk matar, rain, 
page, 
!, time, 



/o, colour, 
rzZA, spirit, 
ftj -Si Sharif, noble, 
f ac?w, enemy, 



, < 



Ft/tyar. 



ij-i mud an. 



-b, rtaA. 
JU. ^riftfil. 
Jl^ rigdl. 
^ JiS qulub. 



muluk. 

shuhud. 
hukkdm. 
AJ! anhur. 
*j\ argul. 



amtar. 

awraq. 
cylS^I awqat. 
ij\\ alwan. 
Jl^l anffdh. 
^1^1 <wAra/. 
*ljkc1 a'cfd. 



246 

iLif 



j> 
~~ 



JU 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

O f 



^bjj. gandh, wing, 

i-X^ ra^/, loaf, 

J-jG /am, rider, 



*- * ';: < n 

jjsr aguz, old woman, 



^,+~i 



'aglbah, wonder, 

r * f 

^te gi&ddm, boy, 
-A5 ^, crown, 

boy, 
p , rcof, 

jJb balad, town, 
^53 /a^ir, beggar, 
iJlc 'dlim, learned man, *LJLc 

* * f ^~m 1 

m ^ J aft*6, doctor, 

JA\ a7t^, people, 

* 

J^J Ze7, night, 

(jjzi fatwa, decree, 
.jijfe sakrdn, drunkard, 

^U*. himdr, ass, donkey, 

*"* 

JL*C 'a6c?, servant, 

JSK* liagar, stone, 
Vide Part I, Art. 25. 



JJUi 



Quadriliteral Boots. 

dirhem, dirhem, ^\^ 

i qantarahf bridge, 



agnihdJi. 

argJdfali. 

fawdris. 

'agdyiz. 

'agdylb. 



man. 



z* tlgdn. 



suqfdn. 



i fuqara. 
'ulamd. 



U 



JUI J> 

Jp jy 



iJ fatdwa. 
<~> sakdra. 
hanwr. 



i^la?- higdrah. 



dardhim. 
i3 qandtir. 



APPENDIX 247 

.LJU *UL, eulian, Sultan, ^%* rtt^ solaOn. 



Ji-^5 qandil) lamp, 

*"l "" ' " 1 *' K M T *J 

iJLJljti j^Ju talmld, scholar, Ju JU (J^J^) J->5 talamidah. 

*'* . ** -* . 

M ^_og- f -l asquf, bishop, iJi5L,l iiJiL*i asdqifah. 

Vide Part I, Art. 26. 

Irregular Plurals. 

vl a&, father, plur. *U>Tvulg. *bT d6a and cyl^j 

abbahdt. 

.'. * -.', 

mother, cyl^l cyl^1 i/mmaAdi. 

son s *LLJ| *Lo\ abnd. 

!, daughter, cyli ,, y'uj 6aai. 

.^1 a^A, brother, s^l U^L > *)*^ ikhwat, <j^ 



c*l w^Ai, sister, 

jCij, insan, man, ^.Ul ^li wd^. 

S/-'^ * - O 

, woman, *LJ ^lJ *Uj nwo, ^i tV 



t?dw, and cyl^l twrd^. 
Vide Part I, Art. 30. 

Plural of Foreign Words, Vulgar. 

lib bdsha, Pacha, plur. ^jlib cr ei>Li,li bd-shaicdt. 

ua-y* khpgah, master, Mr., ,, ^^^^ khogat. 
Aa.1^. Jchawagah, merchant, ci>Uly>. khaioagaL 
i3 qunsul, consul, J->li5 qandsil. 

gunner, ils^t fobgiyak. 



248 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

j nimaawi, German, plur. ajfjL^ nimadwiyydh,. 

seldkddr, sword-bearer, aJ,1j.^L seldhdwriyah. 
Vide Part I, Art. 28. 

B. GENDER OP NOUNS. 
For the gender of nouns, vide Grammar, Part I, Art. 9. 

C. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 
1. In the Written Language, 
a. Without the definite article : 

T t DECLENSION WITH THBEE TERMINATIONS. 
Singular. 

Masculine. 

* " 
Nom. jU*. khabbdzun, a baker. 

G. D. Abl. jUL. khabbaziiiy of, to, or from a baker. 
Accus. jjCi. Tchdblazan, a baker. 

Feminine. 

Nom. Lia. gannatun, a garden. 

G. D. Abl. a-1^. gannatin, of, to, or from a garden. 
Accus. iia. gannatan, a garden. 

Dual. 

e -- -- o ^ 

Nom. (j];^ kfiabbazdni. &\zj** gannatdni. 

O rf O^ 

G. Accus. ^jL^ khabbazeni. &***- gannateni. 



APPENDIX 249 

Regular Plural. 

^ * - i a 

Nom. oli^*" ML a bbdzuna. u^U*. ganndtun. 



G. Accus. ^0* khabbazina. ^^ ganndtin. 



Broken Plural. 



* - 



Nom. JU^ rigdlun, men. *l j ntsa'tm, women. 

G. D. Abl. Jll, riffdlin. *LJ ntsa'in. 

Accus. ^IliL, rigalan. % lli nisd'an. 

II. DECLENSIOK niTE Tw:o TEBMINATIONS. 

Singular. 

Masculine. Feminine. 

~0f f - ~ 

Nom. ^Uic 'osmanu, Osman. ^JL ea6w, Zeinab. 



G. Accus. '^ic 'osmdna. i zenaba. 



Plural. 

Nom. lA\JS dardhimu, dirhems. Like the I. Declension. 
G. Accus. 'ohjl dardhima. 

1. With the definite article (I. and II, Declensions are the 
Singular. 






Nom. jWil el-khabbdzu, the baker, ll el-gannatu, the garden. 
G. D. AbL jL^i el-Mabbdzi. illf el-gannati. 

Accus. jCil d'khabbaza. '& el-gannata. 



250 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Dual. 

Masculine. Feminine. 

Nom. i^Ql el-khabbdzdni. ^l i;".U el-gannatdm. 

G. Accus. i^CjS el-khalbdzeni. ^ ^U el-gannateni. 

Regular Plural. 

- * -~ * 

Nom. ,.,.*,Lil el-khabbdzuna. ^ 



*. - >o " 0" ** 

G. Accus. ^^jjLfil el-khabbdzina. ^>\ :.U el-ganndti. 



BroVen Plural. 

Noin. J4^ er-rigdlu t the men. *CItf en-nisaic y the women. 

G. D. Abl. jC)l er-rigali. fCpI en-nisa'i. 

Accus. J er-rigctta. **L-Ill en-nisaa. 



c. Declensions with a following genitive : 

Singular (masc. and fern, the same). 
Nom. ^jUaLJljujC 'dbdu-s-sulldnij the slave of the Sultan. 



G. D. Abl. u (UjljIc 'dbdi-s-sultani, of, to, etc., the slave of the 
Sultan. 

Accus. ^UaLJijui *dbda-8-8uUani, the slave of the Sultan. 



Dual. 

Nom. ^UallJllSlc 'aldd-s-sultani, the two slaves of the Sultan. 

G. Accus. ^UaLJl^juc 'abddyi-s-sultdni, of, to, etc. 



APPENDIX 251 

Regular Plural. 

Norn. Ajjji\jjC Hwbbdzu'l-medinati, the bakers of the town. 

G. Accus. i-L^jilcUi Jehabbazi'l-medlnati, of, to, etc. 



Broken Plural. 

Nom. ^UJGlj^c 'abldu s-stdtdni, the slaves of the Sultan. 

G. D. Abl. ,jUaLJlju-i 'alUi-s-suliani, of, to, etc. 

Accus. ^IkLJU^c 'alOda-s-sultani. 

d. Declensions \vith an added suffix: 

Singular. 

Nom. 1&& kitabuhu, his book. *_IJL. gannatukum, your 

garden. 

G. D. Abl. lA^fkitabihi, of his book, etc. Xj*^ gannatikuin, of, etc. 
Accus. v(zl[ kitabahu, his book. JsluLa. gannatakum. 

Dual. 

^ ^ 

Nom. ^'oUS^Vci^oAw, his two books. JE* aranna<a^*uwi, your 

! . y , 

two gardens. 

o- -vV oVo-- 

G. Accus. j-oUS litabaihi, of his, etc. ^"'*- 
Regular PluraL 



# - 



Nom. VJ^* M a ^^^^ w > a is bakers. J^>U. ^anT^w^w, your 

gardens. 

G. Accus. jujCi. faabbaztid, of his, etc. J&Ii gannatikum, of, etc. 



252 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Broken Plural. 

Nom. -t^3 Jcutubuhu, his books. J>*\~i nisd'ukum, your 

women. 
Gr. D. Abl. *-J:$ kutMhi, of Lis, etc. J-*^ nisa'ikum, of, etc. 



Accus. 8-.;^ kutubahu, his, etc. r>*^~i nisaakum, your, etc. 



" f 99 B> * - .. "^' x^" 

NOTE UA, .A, and ^ are like ; t), <*), U, Ui, and O 6 remain 
unchanged like J>. All teiminations are the same before the (.$ 
of the 1st pers. sing. ; thus, ^.U3 my book, of my book, etc. etc. 

e. Irregular declensions : 



1. L_>1 abun, a father : +\ afe, n urotiier ; ^ hanun, littleness, 
jth E following genitive or suffix : 

~*t t* 

Nom. ^*c ^j\ a6w 'omara, the father of Omar. 

__ * * 
G. D. Abl. j+e. ^\ all 'omara, of, to the father, etc. 

-"*' "/* 

Accus. j+s. jul aba 'omara, the father, etc. 

t tt 
Nom. *jj abuhu, his father. 



G. D. Abl. s- a&iAt", of his, etc. 
Accus. G\ abahuy his father. 



2. ^3 w, master, possessor, with a following genitive : 

o *O 9 

Nom. CL*-LJ\ ^3 zul-beli, the owner of the house. 

Oo 

G. D. Abl. eu*-Jl <^i zl'l-beti, of the owner, etc. 
Accus. ollll Ij zal-beli, the owner, etc. 

*- r * t 

3. p famun, mouth (for y fiihuri), with a following genitive 

or suffix, forms the cases either regularly, as, Nom. j famu, Gen. 
, Ace. 'fama, orjfu, Jl, \fa. 



APPENDIX 253 

2. In the Vulgar Tongue. 
With or without the article with or without suffixes. 

Singular. 

Norn. J^J zed, Zeid. 

Gen. jjj ^ J*nJ Jjj zed, li-zed, min zed, of Zeid. 

jj; pli> tad* *ed, of Zeid. 

Dat. jjj J! J. jj^J Ze-*ed, t7a zed, to Zeid. 

Ace. (Cuj) J^J m? (zedan), Zeid. 

Voc. jjj b ^a 5(Z, O Zeid. 

Abl. jy ^ J^ ^ win ^e< ; f aw zed, from Zeid. 

Dual. 

Nom. c^t^ er-rdgvlen, the two men. 

Gen. c^y u^y ^ er-ragulen, li'r-ragtden, of the two 

men. 



1 pb t;,^^ I uf* *w er-rdgiden, bitd' er-ragulen, of 
the two men. 



Dat. i^-^N J _ c^t^ KV-ro0t*Ze, i/a er-rdgulen, to the 

two men. 

Ace. c^y er-rdgulen, the two men. 

Voc. >*y I ^? i^^; ^ y^ rdgtden, ayyultd er-rdgulen, (ye) 

two men. 
Abl. ^j-l^Jl ^ . ^^a^ll ^ *wi er-rdgulen, 'an er-rdgulen , the 

two men. 

Plural. 

Nom. c^i)^ el-khabbdzm, the bakers. 

Gen. ^ _ ^jU^ ^U^ el-kkabbdzin, li'l-khabbdzin, min el- 
^jtil cb ^lil Mo56dm, 6i7d' el-khabbdzin, of the 

bakers. 



254 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

Dat. ^jUil J\ _ ^Lsi 1 li'l-khabbdzin, ilal-khabbdzm, to the 

bakers. 

Ace. c$^ el-Tehabbdzm, the bakers. 

Voc. ^m \\ ^W*- ^ 2/ khabbdzin, ayyuhd el-khabbdzm, 

O bakers. 

Abl. ^UJ ^ c$^ cr* w * w el-khabbdzm, 'an el-khabbdzm, 

from the bakers. 

Nbm. sJ^-^ 'ab'idoh, his slaves. 

Gen. 5 J^*c ^ Ji**xJ * JL**C. 'abidoh, li-abldoh, min 'abidoh, bltd 1 

*~s- eta . 'abidoh, of his slaves. 

Dat. J^ Jl . J^oJ li- abidoh, ila 'abidoh, to his slaves. 

Ace. sA*-.c 'abidoh, bis slaves. 

Voc. j^*c b yd 'abidoh, his slaves. 

Abl. **X~ ^ *J^*^ ^ *m 'abidoh, 'an 'abidoh, from his 

slaves. 

On the genitive, vide Part I, Lessons XII and XIII. 

DERIVATION or SUBSTANTIVES. 

1 . Nouns of individuality, formed by the addition of 'i ; thus, 

*of . * * o , 

Js?, Js? nahl t bee, as a species, il* 3 , *ls? nahlah, a bee. 
* -- . *- ~~ 

.Ua., ^U>. hamdm, pigeon, iol*, i*Ua. hamdmah, a pigeon. 

*o* *^o- 

^jj,' *j) ward, rose, sj^^, ^ wardah, a rose. 

2. Names of professions, formed (a) by doubling the second 
radical and placing \ before the third ; thus, 

.T ta w 

jj> Mw6^, bread. jLa. jU> khabbdz, a baker, 
o. Me<, thread. LCi iC* ML a Vy^L a tailor. 
Vr, scent. jlii hz 'attar, a druggist. 



APPENDIX 255 

(b) By the addition of ^ ; thus, 

( j\^ t ^ bustan, garden. (j,-i^~~* ti^*-*. bustarii, a garden. 

I sword, s. j.^, suyufl, sword-maker. 

suyuf,) 

(saddle, *. , c*^ r- surugl, saddler. 

- "^ 



(c) By using the Turkish termination ^ gl ; thus, 
^c 'arabah, carriage. (^J* 1ara ^< l ff^> coachman. 

^jfclja. gawahir, jewels. ^j^A^aj. gawahirgl, jeweller. 

V^L <o6, cannon. (J$j i^9^j gunner. 

3. Names of nationalities, generally indicated by <_$ (^ ) ; thus, 

i nimsavn, German. (jrjL-3^ franswwi, Fr6HebffiaD. 

, Englishman. jUUajt italidnl, Italian. 

4. Diminutives. The first radical is pronounced with , the 
second with Z. ; thus, 

, dog. illi> vJ^^/e6, little dog. 

* - * 

man. J^>^ J^ rugel, little man. 

tosan, Hassan. ^Lo. ^^o. Awsam, little Hassan. 
^0^0^, fort. ^!L i-JS quleah, little fort. 



H. ADJECTIVES. 

A. GENDEB. 

1. The feminine gender is as a rule formed by the addition of 
i (i ) ah ; thus, 

- i*. - 

j.** ?a<fJiir, small. fern. lj^> l^ sagMrah. 

*- S^" -x^ 

tr, large. t^S l^S kebirah. 

'all, high. l^U iJU f d 



256 PKACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART TI 

2. Those denoting colour have the feminine form *& falctu ; 
thus, 

*.0* ft~~~Q~ 

a^\ abyad, white. fern. *U-o LLO bedd. 



asfar, yellow. *Tjj& \* safrd. 



.0.' 

,3j-.l as wad, black. lS^l b^ sauda.. 

ahmar, red. 



3. Those denoting bodily deformity also take the above form ; 
thus, 

a'rag, lame. fern. *\* U^c 'argd. 

ahdab, crooked. *lfj. UJA. hadbd. 

,,. , *7^o- 

a /wa, blind. *Wf- Uc amyd. 



~0* 



4. J^ J*-^ djchar t another. fern, u?^-' S^/*"^ ukhra. 
Vide Part I, Arts. 6, 7, 8. 

B. NUMBEB. 

1. The regular plurals in (^ _ ) ^ m, m. and (ul>l ) w\ at, f. : 

* w- ^ '" 

)?%i6, good. plur. ^.^-^ ^^-^ tieyibm. 

* to^ 

mqftuhah, open. cyla^i. eylp* maftuhat. 

2. Those denoting co&wr form the plural of both genders like 



, red. plur. 
\ afchdar, green. ^ii. ^-li. Tchudr. 

f 

aswad, black. 
white. 



APPENDIX 257 

3. Those denoting bodily deformity take the form ^$* fuldn 
in the plural of both genders : 

*'f . i i V" 

-yd a rag, lame. plur. ^U. 

<p\ a' war, one-eyed. ,, a 



4. A few of the forms in most common use of the broken plurals 
are as follows : 

JUj fial : jJj* kebir, large. plur. jS kibdr, kubdr. 

* - 

,, --! niellh, good. _jU mila/i, m'ldh. 

- -~- * ., 

afdl ; * ^i shenf, noble. v-JJ^ll ashrdf. 

* ^ 

^*U /fl^ir, piXtfr \jtefuqard. 

> wise. Mai 



fddlil : $*j\ armal, widowed. J..^ aramil. 



J-J'otf fadlil : ^^JU maskln, wretched. ^L-. maso&w. 
Vide Part I, Arts. 24, 31 e< 5^. 

C. DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 
Adjectives are declined in the same manner as substantives. 

D. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

1. The comparative takes the form jiil afal for both the 
singular and plural (the feminine form 1J is not used in the 



vulgar tongue): 

> kebir, large. J% \ aklar, larger. 

'dlim, wise. il a'lam, wiser. 



258 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

* * - * 

i-M-*- Jchafiff light. u-ftJl akhaffj lighter. 

jLiS qalll, little. JJl aqall, less. 

The comparative can be formed by the use of J& \ atyar, more. 

2. The superlative is formed, from the comparative either by 
prefixing Jl el, by the aid of a suffix, or by a following genitive. 
Its masc. plur. is of the form JJliT fa' alii ; ex. 

j>tfi\ el-akabir, the greatest, the great taken in its substantive 
meaning. 

Vide Part I, Lesson XIV. 

III. PRONOUNS. 
A. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 
Sing, ist pers. m. f Ul vulg. Ul ana, I. 

2nd pers. m. ool ool ente, ent', thon. 

/. ool CAJ|, jjl enti, thou. 

3rd pers. m. j& j* hua, he. 

,* / (^ " ^ h ~ iya ' slie * 

Plur. ist pers. m./ ^ ^ nahn ; ^\ , bl ?Awa, we. 

ooff 

2nd pers. m. ^j! ^.il entutn; \y-> \,j^\ entu, ye. 

/. ^\ not in use, ye. 

,, 3rd pers. m. 1* * hum; U* huma, they. 

/. ^A ^A hunna (seldom used), they. 

Dual 2nd pers. m.f. U-^l ,, ] f ye both. 

r not in use, j 
Ui J Itheyboth. 

Vide Part I, Arts. 8, u, 36. 



APPENDIX 259 

Suffixes. 

Sing, istpers. m./. L$~ ', <J vulg. L ; ,J */ nl. 

2nd pers. m. <s)-^- ,, <) a&. 

,, /. e ^ 12) ~> ^ *#j #/ kt f ki. 

3rd pers. m. s ,, i 7m, 0A. 

/. U U Ad. 

Plur. ist pers. m./. U lj nd. 

2nd pers. m. $- S kum. 

/. ^ not in use. 

3rd pers. m. 1* ^ Awm. 

/. ^4 ^A (rare) hunna. 

Dual 2nd pers. w. /. C? not in use. 

3rd pers. m./. C* not in use. 

Suffixes to prepositions : 
r* from : Jji* vulg. minnl, from me. J to: ^ vulg. ll, tc me. 

(51* minnak, from thee. eU lak, to thee. 

*w >, 

&j^ minnoh, from him. J ZoA, 7wA, to 

him. 
^ ' l^L minfidy from her. l^J liha, to her. 

u ,, minna, from us. UJ land, Una, to 

us. 
1+ minkum, from ye. Jo lukum, likum, 

to ye. 
^ minhwn, from them. ^J luhum, lihum, 

to them. 
B 2 



o* o 



260 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

^3 in : ^j vulg./fya, in nie. Jjz on : ^J^. vulg. 'aleya, on me. 

eJLlj /i&, in thee. ci*-^ 'aZe^, on thee. 

*^ fl'hi,fih, in him. jfci^ 'afc?A, on him. 

l^j //M, in her. L^Jlc. '^Aa, on her. 

iLj /ma, in us. ^^ 'aZe/ia, on us. 

f&i ? > ^tm, in ye. jK-k 'alekubn, on ye. 

. ^ : j flhum, in them. f-fc-i-^ > 'atehum, on them. 

Accusative of the personal pronoun formed from 15^ with the 
suffixes : 

Sing, ist pers. m. f. <J\Q "vulg- iyyaya, me. 



2nd pers. m. i*)^ iyydk, thee. 



3rd pers. w. tl3^ iyyaJi, him. 

/ \&\ ?y?/a/ta, her. 

Plur. ist pers. rn. /. ^^j, iyyand, we. 

o*J 

2nd pers. m. Ju^ ,, iyyakum, ye. 

"* 



3rd pers. w. liG^ iyyahum, them. 

/ * 1*1 
cr* ~* " 

Dual 2nd pers. m.f. litj^ 
3rd pers. m.f. UilJJ, 
Vide Part I, Lesson VIII. 

Suffixes used as possessive pronouns : 

(a) With a final consonant in the singular : 
^\^i vulg. ^y.Uj kitaJbij my book. 

kitabaJc, thy (w.) book. 



APPENDIX 261 

<sb\zf kitabik, thy (/.) book. 
JJ.13T u^sf tttabok his book. 
\f\zf kitaWxi, her book. 
LjLxS kitabnd, our book. 

kitabkum, your book. 



, their book. 



(6) With a final vowel in the singular : 

(jj>\ abuya, my father. 
abiik, thy (m.) fatlwr. 
thy (/.) father. 
*, his father. 
etc. etc. 

DuaL 

ljG my two books, vulg. "~JE 'tneyya, my two eyes. 
bl^J thy two books. eUi*c 'tnck, thy two eyes. 
UU3 his two books. -JL.C 'i-rieh, his two eyes. 
etc. etc. 

Regular Plurals. 

Of 

vulg. :.J...a mudiiriirii, my Moslems. 
muslimlnak, thy Moslems. 

muslimih, his Moslems. 
etc. etc. 

Vide Part I, Lesson VIII. 



o > 





262 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



B. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

There are none. They are replaced (a) by suffixes (see above) ; 
(b) by nouns, cbu mitd', property, goods (cb. bita' in Egypt), JL mal, 
property, possession, or j>. haqq, right, lawful possession, with the 
suffixes. 

Vide Part I, Art. 63. 



C. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Sing. m. !JA vulg. lla haza (JIUu = Ja hal); lj, b this. 

/. li sjufc hazl; (^i, t j^ t sj dl, this. 

Dual m. ^jljjk ^Jj* hazen, ^ den, both these. 

/. ^1^ ^A hatcn, ten, both these. 



Plur. m. fYJjfc *VjA howlai, Jj-U hadol,\ 

I these. 
Jjjj* hadoli, Jy dol, ) 

Sing. m. eJJA vulg. eJiju^ haddk, c*JU, c*JU c?a^, that. 

dukhua, that. 
hadik, dbi, db^ c?l>fc,' 
i*LJ ^^j \4>^ diklid, that. 

^Sj dikhlya, * 

Dual T. eiui jji. ,, both these. 

/. eUbi both these. 

Plur. dL)^|a ,, eU^IjA howldik, &Jjj)> hadolck,' 



hadolekl, 



dikhum, 



those. 



APPENDIX 

Sing. m. eUi vulg. elli, elllj zdlik, that. 

/ e&J ,, eUi tilk, that. 
Dual m. 



263 



Plur. w. 
Vide Part I, Lesson VI. 



D. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 



Sing. m. (J$\ vulg. 


(jjjl ellazi, * 


who, 


which. 


/ </ft 


jj\ #a<T, 


who, 


which. 


Dualw. JSb\ 






^ 


^? 




iJJl t7/I. 




/. ^yji 








Plur. m. ^iil ,, 


^JJl eZ^a^tTi, 


who, 


whom. 


/ tjM 


jjl^iH dlawatl^t 


who, 


whom. 


/o ~ 
\j* 


^ man. 


who. 




m. \^ 


U ma, 


what. 



Vide Part I, Arts. 133-136. 



m./. 



E. INTEBBOGATIVE PBONOUNS. 

^ vulg. ^ (man), mmy ^ 7/1171, who? 
f 

*-i^ (3\ e> what kind of 1 what ? 



w. 



U md, , 



wliatl 



Vide Part I, Arts. 16, 17. 



264 PKACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

IV. NUMBERS. 
A. CAEDINAL NUMBERS. 



i . in. da. ' \ vulg. 


Jck.1 ahad, 


/* e i 
l^**! 


^J*l eArfa, 


m. J\j 


J.lj ivdhid, 


/. ii.lj / 


j^.!j wdhidah, wahdaJi, 


2. m. ^ll^ 


^^ijl etnen, 


jr. ^jULU^ 


{ j^^\ etneten, 


* - ^ <* 

3. TW. JLJ3U 


AJ^J taldtah, 


y. v_jju )? 


^ f-atet, 


4. m. i^l 


i*^l arba'ah, 


/ ^.y 


suj aria', 


* - 0- 


V" 


5- w*. A^^-k 


A^^. khamsah, 


/ J 


u~** khams, 


: a 




6. w. AJU, 


A^I a^ 







/.. 
*~_A-AJ J} 


v= , 


7. Wl. AJt^* 


dx-^c StlQClh, 


./ ^^** ^ } 


^***i sat) 


8. w. i-oUi ., 


loUj tamanyah, 


/ U^ 


^UJ tamdn, 


^ o 




-^ * * > 


AjuwJ ^tVaAj 


-9 O 




/' *} ), 


^-J <*Va, 


10. m. pi 


^c 'asharah, 


/ ^ 


Jm 'ashar, 



APPENDIX 265 



II. m. jZS. Ja.1 1 


rulg. ^icjia.1 aAaa- aMar, \ 

V ahdash, 1 1 
^ic^jjfcl ihda- ashrah,} 


\"l\ 
12. in. j. uj' 


^icUjl etri'ashar, \ 


-"- -* -.--3 


lefridsh, tr 




, , ^Lg\ v ; > 1 e(neta-ashrah, ) 


etc. 


etc. etc. 


- /o 




20. ujtr^ 


c^ir^ 'fl^&nwi f" 


- * o - 






i^r^j J^'j wahid waashrln, r i 


etc. 


etc. etc. 


- *-- 




30. ^jy^lS 


^^J talatln, r. 


40. J^Jl 


c^*i>^ arba'm, p. 


50. ^jlIC 


^^^am^w, 


60. ^jjS-; 


)> ^^** *ttt*, i 


70. j^ei: 


^^^sab'ln, 


80. tjjiUS 


(^U5 famantw, A . 


*. t o 




go. vy~i 


( ^^ tisaln, ^. 


* - * - 




loo. AjU or -?^ 


iU or A*A may ah or miyah, \ . . 


200. u&b 


^^p.U or ,.^^0 mdyaten or mi/rn, r . . 


300. IjU c^Sj 


,, i**j3lj talat mlyah, tuUmiyah, r. . 


400. ijUxXl 


,, **+*>J\ arba' mlyah, rub'niiyah, i 6 .. 


etc. 


etc. etc. 


*o- 




1,000. L-dl 


v_^Jl elf, alf, i . . . 


-0* 




2,OOO. i^^Ji 


i^J^ elf en, r... 


3,000. t_3VUjSJ 


v_3^ UJ^Lj talat at-elaf t r. . 


etc. 


etc. etc. 


10,000. ^dU^JLC 


*-ji\ij. 'asharat-elaf, I .... 



266 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

1 1 ,000. UJ1 j& j&J Tiilg. i_j)l j& j^.1 ahddsharelf, 

* f f - 

100,000. i_aJl AJU t-jJI ju* rriiyatelf, 

etc. etc. etc. 

Vide Part I, Lessons VI, VII, IX, aiid X. 

B. ORDINAL NUMBERS. 



istm. Jjl vulg. Jjl, 


Jjl, ^J^jl awwal, awwall, 


^ t 


- M 


f jjf 


iJjp, Juljl aivwalah, awwal 


2nd wi. ,jij ,, 


Jl> *om. 


* 


TT 


-* 

/ A-^ , 


I-oU ianiyah. 


* - 

3rd m. eJtt 


CJU /fifi/. 


/ i^JU 


iLl) j ((llita/i, etc. etc. 


4 th ^jj ., 


^ rtlW. 


5 th J^'l 


^^-oli. khdmis. 


* -* 

oth ^^jLo ,, 


^^^1*1 sadis. 


3 " 




7th ^U 


\~, sabi'. 


8th ^3 


^U tamin. 


9th >u,G 


**Jj' <asi'. 


loth j^i ,, 


^ilc 'ashir. 


nth jsnj*\. 


j.(3\a> kadi 'ashar. 


etc. 


etc. etc. 


^ * o 




2oth Uj2/^ " 


^v^ic c a?4 r * )l - 


^ * 

2 1st UJI/"'^ ( ^ " ( 


.^iej^jU. Aac?i waashrin. 


34 th uy^j^J 


..wo^ij>t>li ra&r w;a talatln 



iyah, etc. 



etc. 
Vide Part I, Art. 107. 



APPENDIX 267 



V. VERBS. 
A. REGULAR VERBS. 

(Vide Part I, Lessons XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX.) 

Simple Tenses of the I. Form. 

ACTIVE MOOD. 

The Preterite. 

Sing. 3rd pers. m. ^ vulg. ^^ katab, he has 
f- Oul^J o>.-;> katabet, she has 
2nd pers. m. e*.*.i^ o^ katabt, thou hast 
>, / s^J , (J^ Ratabtl, thou hast 
istpers. m.f. \^S <^~f katabt, I have 
Dual 3rd pers. m. \> they both have 

> u / U-tsS they both have 

2nd pers. m./. iJIiT ye both have 

Plur. 3rd pers. m. \ \^ katabu, they have 



^ 

2nd pers. m. i^iS lyL.^5 katabtu, ye have 



ist pers. m.f. LU^J LjiS katdbna, we have 

The Aorist. 

Sing. 3rd pers. m. ^.JXj vulg. L-A$O yektul>, he writes. 
} > / c-^X-5 u-AixJ tektub, slie writes. 

* * . ^r 

2nd pers. m. ^.^^Xjf ^^iXJ tektub, thou writest. 



268 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

- ' x^ S" 

Sing. 2nd pers./. ^^^ vulg. ^^ tektubi, thou writest. 

'''^ " s 

ist pers. w./ c-^sS \ tfsM afac6, 1 write. 

Dual 3rd pers. m. uQ?^ tnev both write. 

*' o^, 

,, /. qjUiXj they both write. 

2nd pers. m.f. ^Ulx5 ye both write. 

Plur. 3rd pers. m. cJj-^o I^i5o yektubu, they write. 



2nd pers. m. ^-t^XJ ]j~X5 tektubu, ye write. 
- o > 5-, 





,, ist pers. m. /. ,_*!$ ^.^53 nektub, we write. 

The Imperative. 

Sing. w. clo^lvulg. v^S! uktub, write- thou. 

/. <^^ <_5^ uktvbl, write thou. 

Dual w. /. l^ol both write. 

Plur. m. W-^Si jj \j~$\ uktubu, write ye. 

/. JU^I write ye. 



Participle. 

clolS vulg. t-oO ^a^'6, writing. 

PASSIVE MOOD. 
The Preterite. The Aorist. 

It Aas been written, etc. vulg. It "s written, etc, 

Sing. 3rd pers. TO. 



/. e*^ kutibet. w-^XJ tuktab. 

~ o ' ' - o-' 

2nd pers. m. o-^ kutibt. u>^5Cs tuktab. 

o *^- * * ^* 

., /. ^.-f kutibti. ^^-..iXJ tuktab'ina. 



APPENDIX 

t 9 



269 



Sing, ist pers. m. /. \^+zfkiUibt. 
Dual 3rd pers. TO. 

/ 

2nd pers. TO. /. 
Plur. 3rd pers. TO. 



2nd pers. m. 
ist pers. TO./. 



uktob. 



rt .-;5o yuktabti. 



kutibtum, ta. L 



J nubtab. 



Participle. 

vulg. I_^LX* maktub, written. 



Pret. 
Aor. 
Imp. 
Part. 
Inf. 

Pret. 
Aor. 
Imp. 



Simple Tenses of the Derived Forms. 
(Vide Part I, Lessons XX, XXI, XXII.) 

II. FORM. 
Active. 

^.A 1 vulg. aktab. 

9 ^s* 

t-~j_ yuktib. 



Passive. 



yuktab. 



A^X! muktib. 



III. FORM. 



^4 yukattib. 



muktab. 



$ vulg. kuttib. 

5-^" 

Xj yukattab. 



270 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



Part. 


v_.^xJ vulg. mukattib. 


c-AJix* vulg. mukattab. 




t " 




Inf. 


u-*-~s tektib. 






IV. FORM. 




Pret. 


Uj^j'ovulg. kdtab. 


u^jyS vulg. foZto'6. 


Aor. 


u.^jlxj yukdtib. 


i_.*jlX5 ., yukdtab. 


Imp. 


uljtf Mtib. 




Part. 


^*Jl5Ci mukdtib. 


L3\& mwtea6. 


Inf. $1 


jlx^) u->Uo^ kitdb. 






V. FORM. 




Pret. 


e-A-i^J vulg. tekattab. 


^.^1^5 vulg. tukuttib. 




9 * ** -*^ 


/ *" ^ > 


Aor. 


u-^-^^j ,, yeiekattab. 


_^^5lL ,, yutakattab. 


Imp. 


o * *^- 

^_^i>o tekattab. 






* w ** ^f 


* V> ~r ~t 


Part. 


^^J.X^-0 mutekattib. 


U-^LXJL* mutekattab. 


Inf. 


c-*^X5 <^Ww6. 






VI. FORM. 




Pret. 


(^ AJlxJ vulg. tekdtab. 


JjjXj vulg. tukutib. 


Aor. 


c.olXi ,, yetekdtab. 


^IxL yutakdtab. 


Imp. 


v^jlXj tekdtab. 






* ^ -*' 


s *> * * 9 


Part. 


^.^J'uSCLo mutekatib. , 


_^J\XLo , , tnutekdtab. 


Iiif. 


u-Ajl5vJ tekdtub. 






VII. FORM. 




Pret. 


u^^Xjj, vulg. inkatab. 


v^,*5sj1 vulg. inkutib. 




9 ^ O" 


* * * o * 


Aor. 


u-^^-iJ ,, yenkatib. 


^^:XL> yunkatab. 


Imp. 


u^-XJ^ inkatib. 




Part. 


uyA^Xju munkatib. < 


^&^^ munkatab. 


Inf. 


V^S^^ inkitdb. 





APPENDIX 



271 





VIII. FOBM. 






- * 




Pret. 


*lSz[ vulg. iktatab. ^^ > 


vulg. uktutib. 




9 *** -* 9 + ** 9 




Aor. 


v^LiXi yektatib. ^LZ&J 


yuktatab. 




' o ~ 




Imp. 


u>-ji"^\ iktatib. 




Part. 


v^j^SC* muktatib. \_?'~-^~ 


,, inuktatab. 




^ o 




Inf. 


^>\^-f[ iktitab. 






IX. FOBM. 






o 




Pret. 


^^S\ vulg. iktabb. 




Aor. 


^.JL^j yektabb. 






0* -. *. 




Imp. 


^^-Ijl iktabib. 






t ~ ** 9 




Part. 


U.JX. ww^;ia65. 




Inf. 


tLC^f iktibab. 


~~ 




X. FOBM. 




Pret. 


uJX^ vulg. istaktab. ^.rV-^j 


vulg. ustuktib. 


Aor. 


^_, . t: A, "_fu-/u> ,, yestaktib. \_ 1 *.^5.^ v -> 


yustaktab. 


Imp. 


v^X-^-.l e 55 istaktib. 




Part. 


9 ** Q t * ~ 0, ~ Q t 

u.*^Xi-.~a inustaktib. \^& :. ... * 


mustaktab 


Inf. 


cjL^ * 1 istiktab. 






Verbs derived from Quadriliteral 


Boots. 




(Vide Part I, Arts. 120 and 219, 


) 




I. FORM. 




Active. Passive. 


Pret. 


-* - c *- o ^ 

^a.j vulg. dahrag r/** vu ^ 


g. duhrig. 




f o - 9 t ~~ ^$ 




Aor. 


^.^jj yudahrig. KJ*"** 


yudahrag. 


Imp. 


r-f-2 ,, dahrig. 




Part. 


^^j^. ,, mudahrig. r/*"** 


mudahrag. 


Inf. 


-\j** dihrag. 





272 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

II. FORM. 

-..o ..- o t 

Pret. 



,, 

Aor. rrS*"^- " yetadahrag. ^xa yutadahrag. 

o - 
Imp. ^y*-^ tadahrag. 

* Q ** s ~0 *,*> 

Part. />-^ ., mutadahng. ~J*"X* > mutadahrag. 
Inf. 



'S 

> 

a 



B. IRREGULAR VERBS. 

I. Surd or 'Doubled* Verbs. 

(Vide Part I, Lesson XXIII.) 

ACTIVE MOOD. 

The Preterite. 

Sing. 3rd pers. m. SJ vulg. 3^ radd, he has 

/ iLlj ^ raddet, she has 
2nd pers. m. c^o.^ oo^, raddet, thou hast 

o^-** w 

/. ^^ j^ raddefi, thou hast 

9 O~~ " < 

ist pers. m. f. e^^ ,. '^^ raddet, I have 

Dual 3rd pers. w. 1^ ,, they both have* ^ 

/. GIJ they both have 

2nd pers. w./. O^J ye both have 

Plur. 3rd pers. m. \^ Ij^ raddii, they have. 

, / u^J they have 

o f o - ut 

2nd pers. w. Jjj>. Lij.i raddetu, ye have 

o ><> 

>, ,, / ^^ ve have 

ist pers. w./. \>*. U^ raddena, we have 

Aor. 1^ vulg. yerudd. Imp. sing. ^^,1 vulg. ^ rwc?rf, 

Part. ^K radd, radid. plur. 



APPENDIX 273 

PASSIVE MOOD. 

Pret. IJ vulg. rudd. Part. ^ vu ]g. mardud. 

Aor. ^j yuradd. 

DEBIVED FOBMS. 
II. in. IV. v. VI. 



Active : 


Pret. jjl 


^J ;r ^ 


M 


A " ' 

Aor. *jj 


;r; -,- -- : - 





T V 

Imp. j^l 


*t> >:?]; ^-i/ 





Part. y 


*--* 9^ *-,-* 





Inf. j|Vj 


XOjJ ^U ^j"j 


Passive : 


Pret. ij 


'-' - 9 ^ tt 


" 


Aor. ^j 


^ ^ :> 


M 


Part. ^1 


**s ^ **/-> 




VII. 


vni. ix. 


Activft 


Pfof T*- 


- , 



X. 



Aor. 

Imp. 

Part. 

Inf. 

Passive: Pret. 
Aor. 

Part, 
ii 



274 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



II. Infirm or Imperfect Verbs. 

1. Verbs with ^ or <j as the first radical. 

(Vide Part I, Lesson XXIV et seq.) 







I. FORM. 


II. 


FORM. 


Active : 


Pret. 


^ ^T 


uJLs]f 


jg 






* - 0- 


s t 


f f 


-> 


Aor. 


1^,0 O * ^ \ 


<-M>. 


/SJ8 


n 


Imp. 


" \ 
^ jrA 


cjjjt 


i3 






^ 


* ' 


, > 


tt 


Part. 


^s ^. 


*-% 


j*r 





Inf. 


o^ o - 
t 6 a . .. \ 

**) JT* 


uJUd 


>-> 


Passive : 


Pret. 


* * ~ f 


uJSjt 


J 






t - I ~ 9 


- * 


*- 


M 


Aor. 




ujj^j 


^* 





Part, 




^ ^ 

U_9j^e 


*- 

-ry 



^r>! 

* HI I 



VIII. FORM. 
Active : Pret. v^sljl 

| 

Aor. 

Imp. 

Part. 

Inf. 

Passive: Pret. 
Aor. 

Part. 



Ji'l 



X. FOBM. 



APPENDIX 275 

2. a. Verbs with j as the second radical 
I. FORM. 

ACTIVE MOOD. 

Pret. Sing. 3rd pers. m. jt5 vulg. JU qcU, he has said. 
,, /. cJU eJ\5 qdlet, she has said. 
2nd pers. m. olj oiS quit, thou hast said. 
/. eJlS j& qulti, thou hast said. 
ist pers. m.f. ois CA\J quit, I have said. 
Dual 3rd pers. m. "5 .tliey both have said. 

/ fiii they both have said. 

2nd pers. m.f. U~i3 ye both have said. 

Plur. 3rd pers. m. yis yte g'dZiZ, they have said. 
/. ^15 they have said. 

2nd pers. m. JjLS lyJL5 qidtu, ye have said. 

. tot 

/ ^^Aj ye have said. 

ist pers. m.f. bis Ld qulna, we have said. 



Aor. j^fij vulg. 2/6^wZ. Imp. sing. Jj vulg. Jj5 jw/, qul. 

Part. JjU ^at7. plur. \i 



PASSIVE MOOD. 

Pret. J^,S vulg. qil. Part. J^i vulg. maqul. 

Aor. JUb 



s 2 



276 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

6 . Verbs with (S as the second radical. 

I. FOEM. 
ACTIVE MOOD. 
Pret. Sing. 3rd pers. m. cU vulg. c\> ba, he has 

e - > 

,, f. o^u ,, Oktb baetj she has 
,, 2nd pers. m. ooo \z+*\ bi't, thou hast 

/ o*l (J^ bi '* l > thou hast 

t o 

istpers. m.f. o*> ,, ojo 6t'X I have 



Dual 3rd pcrs. m. bb they both have\ 

/ Gib they both have pi 

2nd pers. m.f. V- 1 ye both have J 

Plur. 3rd pers. m. i^elT \jcb ba'u, they have 

/. ^ they have 

2nd pers. m. ^j ly^o ^"^, ye have 

/. 'JsL. ye have 

ist pers. m.f. ll*.> U*> 6t"wa } we have 



Aor. x^-o vulg. ycM'. Imp. sing. *,o vulg. 61* or be. 

Part. 



PASSIVE MOOD. 






Pret. **> vulg. 6^ f . Part. >t*-^ 

-9 

Aor. clj yuba. 



APPENDIX 277 

DERIVED FORMS of Verbs with ^ as second radical. 

n. in. iv. v. vi. 



Active : Pret, 

9 

Aor. JJb 

O * On- 

Imp. JJl Jy 

Part. J*JL Jy* 

Inf. 



^ 

Passive: Pret. jUsT fa 



Aor. 

Part. JU* jy* wb^ 5 -* J^- 



VII. VIII. IX. 

Active : Pret. JUi^ Jbl^ 

Aor. JUlj J^i 

Imp. 



* *-o t s ~ o * -o 

Part. 



Inf. 



Passive : Pret. 

Aor. JllL 

Part, jlill 



278 PRACTICAL AKABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

3. Verbs with j or (^ as the third radical. 

I. FORM. 
ACTIVE MOOD. 

Pret. Sing. 3rd pers. m. \j* ^ rama vulg. ^oj rada. 
/. eyji o^, ramet o^ radie 

* O - -" .. O - .. .. 

2nd pers. w. e>^ o~*, rame* o^ radii . 
/ vx^s. 

* 0^- 

ist pers. m.f. ^^s- 
Dual 3rd pers. m. \. 



Simpers, m.j 
Plur. 3rd pers. m. \^ \^ ramu 1^ radii. 

f ' C '~ 

2nd pers. m. o.2 ^*I. rametu 



^o.- ^_- ^ . 

ist pers. m./. Uc U ramend U~ radlna. 



Aor. jjjji.) ^^j 2/arwu ^^X yarc?a. 

^Oo O "" O 

Imp. til ^1^ ^rm* Lr*k ifda. 

Part. U rdml rddl. 



PASSIVE MOOD. 

9 - f 



Pret. 
Aor. 



SJ o - ft o- 

Part. 



APPENDIX 



279 



DERIVED FOBMS of Verbs with or (j as third radical. 



Active : Pret. 

Aor. . 

Imp. 

^rt. 

Inf. 
Passive : Pret. 

Imp. 
Part. 



n. 

-o* 



in. iv. 



V. 



*** 



cgfil 




VI. 

Active: Pret. Jjj3 

Aor. c5)lii 

Imp. jliJ 

Part. jllL 

Inf. jUj 

f 

Passive : Pret. 

Imp. 

Part. 



VII. VIII. 



- '.?: - 'A 
ol {& ^\ 



sg* 5 -! 

0-0- 



280 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

III. Hamzated Verbs. 

1. Verbs with I as the first radical. 
(Vide Part I, Lesson XXVHI.) 

I. II. III. IV. V. 

Active : Pret. J-J JJ>T Ji.1 SLT SLtj 

Of Of O ^ t*g ^ *- 

* \ J / j. ^ 

f Y * 5* **** * _xr *t~f 

T c f* s 7 * S - 

^ * ' 

Passive : Pret. jl j^jf jl.t 

Aor. 
Part. 



VI. VIII. 



O" -~- - 



Active : Pret. Jc.Lj and Jx^lJ j-ar^l and vulg. a 
Aor. ji 
Imp. j 

* ~~> , f -o, ., |, o , 

5, 1 art. J.L^ JL.UJ;^ JisH ft A Jti*"* Ji-uA 

- ^ -^7 

* ** ^P - . ^ ^ ^,.1 * O rt 

Inf. j 



Passive : Pret. S^ 



Aor. 

Part.Ji.UL* 



* - -~ - 






APPENDIX 281 



2. Verbs with t as the second radical. 



I. II. III. IV. V. 



Active: Pret. JU 



Aor. 



ft" %?' '3T' '**' 'V' 

J-"~2 p-iH (^~4 (^-M (**^ 



Part 

In 
Passive : Pret. 






o f ,Xo, 

Aor. 



Part. 



vi. vn. vin. x. 

Active: Pret. jJSj" ^\ 
Aor. ^JSIT ^JlL 



Imp. 
Part. 
Inf. j 

^ 

Passive: Pret. 
Aor. 



Pai-t, 



282 PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 

3. Verbs with t as the third radical. 
ACTIVE MOOD. 



Pret. Sing. 3rd pers.m. J^vulg. \^ Aor. 



Im P- ih*L 

*S-" * - 

2nd pers.m. uyl^S o^ Part. J^U t^ 



*-. o- 

istpers.m./cyj^ o^S Pass.: Pret. 

r>i j 'Vr ' 

Plur. 2nd pers. m. J .. ^j^ Aor. 

- * *o^ 

ist pers. Uj^S li^S Part. 



* - 



II. III. IV. V. 







Active: Pret. \j>\ \j>, l^b \r**\ 

of Jw- i ** ' '"" 

T * I **"" * I** 

Imp. (j^\ (5 } \ (jr.L> 

O 9 * ~t s . " f * *< 

Part, j; 
Inf. 
Passive : Pret. _^ . 

Part. 1^-6 l^-a *.L*-o I.-JL* 



55 



APPENDIX 



283 



.rf 



Js 



JLs 



VI. PREPOSITIONS, 

AND WORDS WHICH ARE USED AS SUCH. 

(Vide Part I, Lesson XXX et seq.) 

\.ila, to, until. ^j&'vvlg.'iwad, instead of. 

amam, before, in front j^e- gKer, except. 

of. j /*, in. 

b', bi, with, by. 
bad, after. 
ben, between, among. 
t', to, by (in swearing). 
taht, under, beneath. 
ganb,gamb,nexk, near. 
hatta, until, even to. 
hoi, round, around. 
kharig, besides. 
khalf, after, behind. 
dakhil, within. 
dun, below. 
'ala, on, upon, above. 
sa20a,besides,together 

with. 

'an, of, from, about. 
\ near, with. 



I, before (time). 
tiH, before^. 
qudddm, before 

(place). 

J qusad, opposite. 
J I', H, to. 

t, at, with. 

in, from. 

* - 
^Ji .,* ,, mtw yAgr, without. 

JJL* mundu, since, 
il 7?2a f , with. 
j w', twa, by (in swear- 
ing). 

*^ war a, behind, beyond. 
jo-. wasat, among. 



284, 



PRACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



VH. ADVERBS. 



(a) Of interrogation : 
I vulg. a ? 

o* 

J am ? 

JI hal, if? 

fy ilia, if not ? 

emta, when ? 

,, en, where ? 

fen, where? 

*n cn, whence ? 



(6) Of place: 

> 
UA vulg. /i^Ticf, here. 

-. ^ 

henak, there. 

,, Iwnalik, there. 
,, hahena, here. 
l^a. guwa, inside. 

(c) Of time: 



vulg. hallaq, \ 

hnow. 
dil-waqt,) 

^15, at any time. 



yet. 



vulg. le, 




how? 



J 

y azay, j 



barra, outside, 
oy, on top. 
taht, down below, 
il enma, wherever. 



ij vulg. ba'd bukrah, the day 

after to-morrow. 
l)Sf- gJtadwah, to-morrow. 
^C M?a, immediately. 

o ,- 

^!y> qawdm, directly. 



APPENDIX 



285 



l vulg. el-yom, Ho- > vul g- % early, now - 



r-da,j day. 



* 



C\ 



qabl em-\ the day JL> ,, bedri 
h 



fca'rfenj wards. 

, ) 

\ early. 
, ) 



bdrih, before 



day. 

,, ams, yesterday 

evening. 
lukrah, to-morrow. 



(d) Of quality: 

ilg. kefir, } 



- very. 
giddan,* 
kefir, much. 
qalil, little. 
Ii shwyyeh, little. 



,, wakhri, late. 

,, g/tdliban, after. 

md-abadan, never. 

ddiman, always. 



> vulg. kemdn, more (still). 

r bass, \ 

Y enough. 
kafayah,) 



V Id, no. 

U wa, \ 

U ma-sh, I not. 



^Us tamam, wholly. j lam, ) 

(e) Of affirmation and negation ; and others : 

-0 * / 

j_>l vulg. aiwah, \ \j5 vulg. kada, kida, \ thus, 

lij na'am, > yes. 1j5d hakada, ) so. 

6aZa, / Qj/fij taqrilan, nearly. 

J ,? ?a, U maan 



y,j, inna, ) 



yerilv - 



garni an, 



together 



286 



PKACTICAL ARABIC GRAMMAR, PART II 



VIII. CONJUNCTIONS. 

.Xjvulg.Za&m, 



*. r but. 

wa-amma, 

LX lamma, \ 



J 



waqt-ma, 

U.AsL* ,, sd'at-md, 

U.Jll. hdl-md, 

- " o 

LO_JJLC .. and-wa 

&% **, 

^ju ma^a, 

, - 1' 77 

U.J-5J qabl-ma, 



V-when. 



1 



before. 



^l.J^s qabl-an, 

o- 

hatta-ann, V until. 

Vhadd-md,) 



hes-ann, 



^^ min-hes- 



ann, 



- whereas. 



*a, 







K so that. 



("then, after- 
( wards. 

u.jjj qadd-md, as much, 
the 



.Uj5 qadd-ma, 

1 so much 
qadd-ma, ( the _ 



.jjt> ,, ba'd-md, 

r o^ 

Ljot) ba'd-ann, 

Jj 6aZ, but. 



[ after. 



jl OMJ, or. 
i_Ul amma-ow, either-or. 

2 

^1 am, or. 

o t (without 



mund-ann, ] 



since. 



u mund-md, ) 
3 wa, and. 
J fa, and, so. 

T laall, \ 

_ 
, rubbama,) 

a whilst. 



APPENDIX 287 

^Ivulg.ann, that. ^ vulg. w, 

, 

.ji liann, ) Ul i za . 

[ because. 

lainn,) -. , . f 

jJ lau, if. 

(yet. notwith- -o- 

C* " standing, V * 

' (therefore. 

US A-m, \ 
o [ like, as. 

U J^-* mi(l-md y ) 

IX. INTERJECTIONS. 

T vulg. 5, \ (l vulg. ayyuhd, 

l^jl U yd ayyuha, ) 
ah ! oh ! Ji! uff, faugh ! fie ! 

5 ,, deh, forwards ! on 1 




, allah ! 
Let us! 

[alas! woe! ,, , . . 

, J 4 yo, oh! indeed! is 

that so ! really ! 



END or PART ii. 



PRINTED IN ENGLAND 
AT THE GXrOKD UNIVERSITY TRESS 



BINDING CZ3T. OCT 2 8 1971 






PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SUPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



Green, Arthur Octavius 
6307 A practical Arabic grammar 



1915 
pt.2