H T S U LIBRART
3 3082 00527 ^^^3
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation
S3.50 The Copy
MURFREESBORO. TENNESSEE 3^130
Rutherford County Historical Society
Publication No. 10
Piiblication No. 10 has a dravdng of Whitehall, home of F. E.
Henderson in IC64. vfhen she v/rote her diary.
The sketch is by James C. Matheny, a member of the Rutherford
County Historical Society. Whitehall was built about I84O by Albert
Gallatin Henderson, During the Civil V/ar, Federal soldiers left the
marks of their bayonets on one of the back doorp of the old home.
After the v;ar the house passed into the hands of the George McDonald
family, and they lived there until I963,
In 1965 the old house was burned by vandals. All that remains
is the maple trees to mark the site of this old house on U.S. 70S at
the intersection vdth J, S, Young Road. "Wade," a small railroad
substation, v;as on this farm.
The Rutherford County Historical Society publishes two publi-
cations each year in January and July. These publications are not
copyrighted, because it is our belief that the history of Rutherford
County belongs to everyone. The society would appreciate anyone
using articles or material from o;ir publications to give credit to
the society and authors.
The Rutherford County Historical Society has tried to present
articles on all parts of the county and its people. Anyone having
an article for the publication is requested to contact Ernest Johns
in Sinyrna or during one of our meetings at the Police Building in
Murfreesboro at 7:30 p.m. on the third Monday of each month.
Thanks to Rutherford County Judge Ben Hall McFarlin and Mrs. Donna
Newlon for their assistance in publishing this book.
RUTHERFORD COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
PUBLICATION NO. 10
Published by the
RUTHERFORD COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
President Dr. Homer Pittard
Vice-President Mr. W. H. Westbrook
Recording Secretary Miss Louise Cawthon
Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer Mrs. Dorothy Matheny
Publication Secretary Mr. Walter K. Hoover
Directors Miss Mary Hall
Mr. Robert Ra gland
Mr. William Walkup
Publication No. 10 (Limited Edition-350 copies) is distributed to
members of the Society. The annual membership dues is $5.00 (Family- $7. 00)
v;hich includes the regular publications and the monthly NEWSLETTER to all
members. Additional copies of Publication No. 10 may be obtained at
$3.50 per copy.
All correspondence concerning additional copies, contributions to
future issues, and membership should be addressed to:
Rutherford County Historical Society
Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37130
RUTHERFORD COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
PUBLICATION NO. 10
The founding fathers and mothers of the Rutherford County Historical
Society were motivated by one overriding desire: to create among Ruther-
ford Countians an interest in the heritage of their community. Of course
there were important subsidiary reasons, the social factor not being the
least. Many people in the community have been brought together vdth his-
torical common interest being the vehicle. It should be said that the
profit motive has been one of the least of the motivators. However, the
Society has experienced remarkable solvency during its existence. One of
the most recent projects, the reprinting of Henderson's Storjr of_ Murfrees-
boro . is a case in point. Publication costs v;ere $4»25 per unit in ad-
dition to the inevitable exigencies of sales tax. The marketing price was
and is $5,00 per copy. Despite this, the magnanimity of Jesse C. Beasley,
Jr,, enabled the Society to distribute the rare volume with a minimal
mark-up and, thus, to show a handsome profit. As a result, revenue has
been generated from this and other ventures to finance additional projects
and to inprove the semi-annual publications.
The series of features that appear in this the tenth publication
place historical subjects of community interest in a permanent binding
for enjoyment now and in the future. Not enough can be said for the ef-
forts of dedicated Ernie Johns in collecting and preparing for publication
the materials that appear here and in those of the past. The Society owes
him a deep debt of gratitude.
THE FOLLOWING PUBLICATIONS ARE FOR SALE BY THE RUTHERFORD COUNTY HISTORICAL
SOCIETY, Box 905, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, 37130;
Publication # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8: Out of Print,
Publication # 6; Link Community; History of LaVergne; Fellov/ship Community;
and the Sanders Family. $3.00 + $.50 postage
Publication // 1% Hopewell Church, 1816-1883; Stones River Presbyterian
Church; Cripple Creek Presbyterian Church; Early Militia Order,
Petition by Cornelius Sanders for Rev, War Pension,
$3,00 -»- $,50 postage
Publication i^ 9: History of Dilton, $3,50 -i- $,50 postage
\UQ Rutherford Census ; With index, $5.00 ■(- $,50 postage
Deed Abstracts of Rutherford County, 1803-1810. Names of land owners and
other genealogical information from early deeds, $10.00 ■»- $.50 postage
Griffith; A beautifully illustrated bi-centennial publication,
"■—"—--^ $2.00 + $,50 postage
The St^ of M'lrfreerjboro. A reprint of C, C. Henderson, History of the
town and county, hardbound with an index. $5,00 -»- $.50 postage
Rutherford County Medallion; Approximately the size of a silver dollar
\d.th Rutherford County courthouse pictured on one side and the center
of Tennessee marker on the back, $2,00+ $.50 postage
Plate # 2: Pictures old Tennessee College in Murfreesboro
$5,00 -^ $,100 postage
Plate # 3; Pictures the Rutherford County Courthouse about 1900,
before it was remodeled. $6.00 + $1.00 postage
AVAILABLE FROM \miim WALKUP, 202 RIDLEY ST., SMYRNA, TENNESSEE, 37167:
Map of Rutherford County showing roads, streams, and land owners, dated 1878.
$3.50 4- $.50 postage
Cemetery Records published jointly with the Sons of the American Revolution:
Vol, 1 : Northwest portion of county including Percy Priest Lake area
and parts of V/ilson and Davidson Counties, 256 cemeteries with
index and maps. $10.00 + $.50 postage
Vol, 2: Eastern portion of Rutherford Co. and the western part of
Cannon Co,, 24.I cemeteries vdth index and maps,
$10,00 t- $,50 postage
Vol, 3; Southwestern portion of Rutherford County, 193 cemeteries,
index and maps. $10,00 + $.50 postage
Prepared by Mrs, Do Co Daniel, Jr,
IMPORTANT ; Publication 6f queries in this column is free to all
members as space permits » Each query must appear on a full sheet
of paper which must be dated and include member's name and address o
please type if possible. Queries should give as much pertinent
data as possible, ioe^ approximate/actual dates of birth, marriage,
death, etc. Queries must refer to RUTHERFORD COUNTY, TEKMESSEE
FA1»IILIE3 and immediate connections. Address all correspondence
relating to queries to the Society, P.O. Box 906, Murfreesboro,
No. 1 WILLmiS: Trying to piece together the V.'ILLIAMS families of
Rutherford Co, Anyone having any V/ILLIAMS information please
correspond o Particularly interested in descendants of David
MILLU'JS, Revolutionary War Pension records states b, ?7 fey
175^ Orange Coo, N.C. moved to Rutherford Co, CA 1799 » VJill:
dated July 1833/proved I7 November I834 lists children:
Elener, Ann, Thomas, Ifery, Cecily, John, Joseph, Ralf, William
and Elizabeth! Executors: Sons, Thomas and John. Believe
Joceph WILLLIIS mentioned by Goodspeed in Bedford Co., TN vas
David's sono Ilrs. D. C. Daniel, Jr., 2103 Foxd ale, Mui^freesboro,
TN_3 71:^0 or Jlrs. Elv is_ Rushing; ,_6'o^ N. Spring Street,
hiirf reesbor o , "TI'J 37130
■No, 2 EOV/EN; Need information concerning ancestors of Absalom EOWEN
(possibly BOIE, BOWIN) in I83O Rutherford Co. Census. Mrs. J.D.
■' "icClanahan, El Patio Motel, Spur Texas 79370 «
No. 3 PAISEY: Would like to exchange information on RAI-BEY of
Rutherford Co and Wilson Co., TN William RAI-iSEY, Revolutionary
from Mecklenburg Co., N.C. (Capt. Chas. Polk's Co, of Lighthorse)
to TN CA 1800, in I82O Rutherford Co. Census, d, CA I82U, buried
',;here? m. M-ariah Boyd, children: James, b. CA 1768 m, (1) Isabella
Hall (2) Martha Hall, her sister (3) Jane Ray; William, Jr,
bo CA 1780 m. Polly Overall, his descendants in Gibson Co,, TI^I
area; Robert b. CA 1788; John b, I793, d. after I855 Franklin
Co,, ALA m. Margaret Johnston in TN where', served in I8l2 Vfar
from Wilson Co, TN (Mrs. Dillard is descended from John); David;
I!:ariah; Ann; Polly are other children of William RAMSEY, James
and John RAMiSEY were in Alabama in 1830, Their descendants
live in Franklin Co., AIA. Mrs. Hazel Ramsey Dillard, ISl^i
Ridge Drive, Sheffield, AIA 35&bO.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
■■Of_Ft_J._ Henderson. 186^
by Jim and Betty Matheny 1
Peter Jennings; RevolutlonaiTr Soldier
'-^ by Eugene Sloan 36
v/ H enderson King Yoakum
by Eugene Sloan 46
Auggie McPeak's Grist Mill
by Pauline M. Dillon 59
^Me thodist axid_ Iturfreesboro in the Mid- Nineteenth
by Jerry H. Brookshire 61
i/ Li lliam, Robert_.and Natha niel Overall;
PioneerLSettlers at the Bluff
by Lula Virginia Ramsey McGee 78
Rutherford County Historical Society Membership
F. E. HENDERSON
On January 1, 1864 a pocket diary x:ao preoented to F. E. Henderson by
her father. Hot nuch is knOTjn about F. E, Henderson. She tjas the doi'shtor of
Albert Gallatin nendcroon, a cotton broker, and Elizabeth Love Henderson and
va3 one of eight children. Most of the days were spent at her much loved homo,
"l/hitehall", one of the stateliest and best furnished homes on the Nachvillc-
Uurfreesboro Turnpike. F. E. Henderson was the great aunt of Mrs, Virginia
VJoodfln, an active and loved member of the Rutherford County Historical Society.
It is by her generosity that this diary is being published.
The pages of the diary are yellowed and show the one hundred plus years,
but the reading divulges even more compassion and love by this young lady for
her family and fellow man. The contents of the diary cover a scope from sewing,
ironing, etc, , to helping soldiers from both the South and the North. Realizing
the fact that conething «ill be lost for the reader by not having the opportunity
to feel, hold, and decipher the actual daily entries, we are printing two samples.
The first, August 9, 1864, was written in ink with great flair and the style
indicative of the era. It suggests a quill or old type pen with split point.
The second, December 31, 1864, was done in pencil and let the person use one
single stroke and almost make the entries appear to be two different handwritings.
After spending many, many hours with this diary and a magnifying glass,
F, E. Henderson became very much a part of our lives, as though we lived each
day of 1864 with her, Ue feel that it will be as meaningful to all who read it.
Betty and Jim Matheny
1864. DIARY of F. E. HENDERSON
Aunt of Mrs. Virginia Woodfin
Transcribed by Betty and Jim Matheny
Presented to: F. E. Henderson
By: Her Father, Albert Gallatin Henderson
Friday. January 1. 1864. Very cold. I don't think I ever saw such cold
Saturday. January 2nd One gown. Many men to see for cold yet. Many men
to see for cold yet. One pair stockings, one apron.
Sunday. January 3rd Snowing today. I think it has turned warmer.
Monday. January 4-th Raining. The rain is melting the snow. Esq. Johns
came over and brought a note to me from Tommie. I sent her comb to her.
Tuesday. January 5th Snowing again. Grandma is sick. She was taken with
a pain in her side-suffered much.
Wednesday. January 6th Still cold. Have not seen a lady until today.
Aunt Nansie Smith came. Grandma has got better,
Thursday. January 7th Snowing again today. Buddy is setting his trap to
see if he can't catch some little snow birds. Squire Wade was married.
Friday. January 8th Esq. Bridges came over to see Pa on business. First
time I ever saw him.
Saturday. January 9th Pretty day. Snow on the ground. Mr. Jack Ward came
over in the evening.
Simday. January 10th Pa went to Mr. Tuck Davis, also Mr. Bryant. Uncle
John went to Mr. Harlen Gilly. Harlen has the measles. Dick Wade came to
Monday. January 11th Pa went to Nashville, also Uncle John. Did not go
back to school, Coramenced to make Ma a dress. Uncle John got us a guard,
Mr. Haver field. John Thomas came,
Tuesday. January 12th Mrs. Warford sent after her things that Pa got her
in Nashville. 1-tr. Hagar got a load of cotton,
V/ednesday. January 13th 1-trs, Ward came over. Told us she heard Jimmie
was a prisoner. Sister went home with her, came back in the evening, and
I went home v/ith the girls.
Thursday. January lAth Cloudy and cool. Stayed at Mrs. Wards until
everybody came home. The girls came home with me but went back. Miss Addie
Sikes and Aunt Nansie Smith to sew.
Friday. January 15th Cousin Frank Atkinson was here today. Buddy went
home with him. Cousin John Thomas left today. Mr. Haverfield has left.
Snow still on the ground,
Saturday. January 16th Went to Mr. J. J. Ward. Had quite a nice time with
those girls playing Old Maid with cards. Commenced to crosia some for a
Svmday. January 17th Raining all day. Ma and Pa went to Mr. Walden. Heard
Mr. Donagon was dead of Nashville.
^bnday. January 18th Pa went to Mr. George House. Mr. Peoples, Mrs. Peoples,
Mss Mattie People, Miss Kate McMurray came to go to Nashville with Pa.
Tuesday. January 19th Mrs. Peoples came over to see if the girls wanted
to go to Nashville. They went dovm to the station and waited until after
dark. >frs. Uilson and Capt. W came.
Wednesday. Jamjary_20th Pa went to Nashville. Mrs. Peoples and the
girls left. Isabelle Ward and Vie cane. Mrs. Johns and Mi-.. Johns came.
Fannie ;irrote to me. Cannonading at Franlclin.
Thursday. January 21 nt Mr. Ward came over. Cannonading in the direction
of Nashville. Pa returned from Nashville. Alley went home with Jimmie.
Friday^ JamjarY_22nd Ma went to Mr. J. J. Ward's—took Sister and the
baby. Isabella came home with her. Nearly finished my dress. Col. An-
derson here today,
Saturday. January 23rd V/ent to Mr. VJards. Isabella and I went to Mr.
Bryan. Stayed all night with Isabella. l-Irs. Vardell was here. Mrs. Ben
Ward was here,
Sunday. January 2Z.th Came home, found the house full of men as usual.
Monday. January 25th Did not go back to school. Mr. George House was
here, Mrs, Beet Ward was here.
Tuesday. January 26th Pa went to Nashville also Mr. Prater. Mrs. Hut son
and her sister here today. Sister went to Mr. Ward to stay all night.
V/ednesday. January 27th Sister came back. Beth and Mr. Ward came with
her. Stayed all day. Mr. Prater and Pa got home from Nashville.
Thursday. January 28th I'trs. Vanderford, Nat Nelson, Miss Tea Allen, Mrs.
Davis, Mss Mollie Johns, 1-frs. Johns, f'tiss Kate Jobe, Miss Ann Jobe, Sam
Maththis buying goods.
Friday. January 29th Mrs. Standavar, Mr, Col. Mannon, Mr. Captain Wilson
were here yesterday. Mandy, Mary, Ward, Fannie, Seward, Mrs. Ben Ward were
here. Sister went to Mrs. Donaway's.
Saturday. January 30th Miss Sallie White was here. The Federals are going
to leave the Stockade and go front to Chattanooga. Mrs. Ward and Josephene
Sunday. JanuarT^llst Raining a little. Mrs. Ben Ward was over. Mr.
Bryan and Pa v;ent to Lavergne, Miss Tea Allen, Mrs. Davis were here.
Monday. February 1, I864. Sister and I went to school. Mrs. Blackmoore
had many new scholars since I was there. Mrs. Blackmoore employed an
assistant, Mr. McClain. I got home sick the first day.
Tuesday. February 2nd Pa has gone to Nashville. Miss Sallie Edwards and
Mass Jobe came to see Mia and came to trade. Miss Addle sent me my head dress.
Wednesday.. February 3rd Pa has returned from Nashville. Vxs. Ridley and
Mrs. Thurston went to Nashville. Tommie Johns and Leroy stayed all night
Thursday, February ./^th Cousin Dick Henderson got here from the Southern
Army. Says the Rebels have got possession of Knoxville. Heard from brother.
Is well-- he is Lieutenant,
Friday. February 5th Cousin Tom Atkinson came after us to go home. IVhen
we were coming, ny horse tried to run away. Cloudy, turning very cold.
Saturday. February 6th Went to Mrs, Best Ward to get Mandy' s Algebra.
V/rote my composition. Raining this morning.
Sunday. February 7th Cousin Dick, Sister, Buddy, and my self went to
Cousin Frank Atkinson's to see Cousin Sue. She seemed very glad to see us.
V/ent to Mrs. Donaway.
Ifenday. February 8th V/ent to school. Mrs. Blackmoore was sick. Went
to see Tomnie Johns and Lucy. Saw R-uf" Johns.
Tuesday , February 9th Mr. McClain taught. Commenced studying Algebra.
Mrs, Blackmoore not much better,
Wednesday. February 10th A case of Small Pox at Mr, Mitchell's. Very
Thursday. February 11th No school. Uncle John and Buddy came after us.
Stopped to see Isabella, Saw a conpany of Negro soldiers.
Friday. February 12th Cousin Dick and Uncle John went bird hunting. Sister
and I v/ent over to I^. Ward's. Isabella and Victoria came to spend the
Saturday, February 13th Mrs. Ward came over. The girls went hone. VJent
bird hunting again. Cousin Dick, Uncle John, Mr. Hickman Weekley here,
Sunday. February Hth Cloudy and cool. Ma and Uncle John went to Mrs.
Best Ward, Alice and Bessie have the measles,
Monday. February 15th Turning cold, but rained, Mrs. Vaughn and 1-lr.
Vaughn v;ere here, Dick VJade here.
Tuesday, February I6th Very cold. No one here but Miss Sallie White and
Wednesday. Febrxxary 17th Very cold. Pa and Cousin Dick went to Nashville.
Cousin Tom and Sue went after Mandy Ward to come and stay all night with us,
Thursday. February 18th Cold, yet beautiful day. Sister and myself walked
with Mandy home. All quiet when we left, but very soon we heard that they
were conscripting negroes, and all of ours ran away.
Friday. February 19th Many men to see Pa, but he did not come home as we
Saturday. February 20th Spent the night at Mr. Ward's.
Simday. February 21st Cousin Dick came over. Isabella and Vic came home
with us. Cousin Dick and Ma went to Mr, Marlin's, Uncle John came. Walked
home with Isabella.
Monday. February 22nd Miss Bettie Pratt to see us. Pa went to Mr, George
W. Smith, Carried sister and I as far as Mr. Sikes — had a pleasant visit,
Mr. Cook and Will Wade here,
Tuesday, February 23rd Pa and Mr, Cook went to Nashville. Heard Rebel
Morgan attacked Gallatin. Mr. White came to guard us.
Wednesday, February 2Ath Cousin Tom and I went to Mr. Alden's. Went to
Mrs, Donaway to get her to knit my rebel. Walked over to Mr. Ward. He was
better, I think,
Thursday. February 25th Mrs. J. J, Ward came over to get Uncle John to
go with her to Lavergne to see Col, Smith about her negroes they pressed.
Mr, Sikes came.
Friday. February 26th Mrs. Huggins and Mrs. Hall came. Miss Lois Jobe and
Miss Mollie Carter came. Mrs, Lieutenant Hoke and Sergeant Stansel came to
get a bed to take to camp.
Saturday. February 27th Sister went to Mrs. Ward to see the girls. Stayed
all night. I went to Mr.. Ward's to get some of the girls to stay all night
with me, but could not stay. They came to see us.
Sunday. February 28th I went to Mrs. Ward to see how the girls were. Drought
sister home. Ma and Pa went to Mr, Sikes.
Monday. February 29th Raining,
Tuesday . Marc h 1 st 1 86^ Rain, hail and snow. Made Ida a apron and Eugene
a pair of drawers.
Wednesday. March 2nd Mr. Bryant came over. He and Pa went to Nashville,
Cousin Dick and sister went over to Mr. Ward to get the girls to stay all
night, Isabella came,
Thursday. March 3rd Big frost. Cousin Dick was sick last night. Isabella
went home. Pa got home — brought my braid,
Friday. March 4-th Mrs, Ward and Victoria came. Vic brought sister's crosia
braid. Gave her the braid to make mine,
Saturday. March 5th Warm day, A Yankee came to hear us play. He paid
us five cants apiece. He was drimk.
Sunday. March 6th Cousin Tom, sister, and myself went to Mr. Waldens.
Lost my knife, but found it again. Miss Strand.
Monday. March 7th Stayed all night with Mr. Chip. Serance and sister are
playing smart now. I went home with Miss Seranah Highton. Pa came after me
in the evening,
Tuesday. March 8th Miss Bettie Pratt and Mss Hoke came over— stayed until
after dinner. We all walked over to Mr. Ward's. Mrs. Hoke wanted a Confed-
Wednesday . March 9th Mj-s. Hord and Mrs. House v;anted to buy cotton seed.
Sister, Cousin Dick, and myself walked to Cousin Mat,
Thursday. March 10th Commenced to make me a dress. Sister finished her
dress. Went to Mr, Ward's and got Vic to stay all night with us.
Friday. March 11th Finished my dress. Pa and Ma went to Mr. Davis'. We
did not go home until evening. Sister and I went and stayed all night.
Saturday. I4arch 12th Mrs, Davis and Miss Tea Allen came to Mr. Ward's—
stayed all day. In the evening Ma and Pa came after us.
Sunday, March 13th Sister, Pa, and myself spent the day at Col. Anderson's.
Saw painting of Mr. and Mrs. Anderson that Mr. Macy painted.
Monday. March Uth Went to school. Mrs, Marlin and Mrs, Hoke came. Uncle
John and Cousin Dick went to Murfreesboro,
Tuesday. March 15th Pa and Cousin Dick went to Nashville. Ma sent Ida
and Ann over to l^trs. Ward's to get Isabella to stay all night.
Wednesday. March I6th Pa and Cousin Dick came from Nashville. Got a letter
from Aunt Mat— all's well.
Thursday. March 17th Pretty day. Turning cool, Mrs. Ward came.
Friday. March 18th Pretty day. Miss May and Mrs, Thomas came. Came after
us very late.
Saturday. March 19th Cousin Dick, Ma, and Ida went to Mr. Ualdens. Sister
and myself went and spent the night. Saw Mrs. Owens.
Sunday. March 20th Came home-sister and myself. Cousin Dick and Uncle
John and I and V W Mandy V/ard all went to church over the river. Grandma came.
Monday. March 21st Went to school.
Tuesday. I^farch 22nd Cool today. Bad rainy weather.
Wednesday. March 23rd Isabella and Victoria V/ard came. Esq. Sikes and
Miss Addie came.
Thursday. March 24.th Grandma and Ida spent the day at Mrs. Marlin's.
Mrs. Ward and I'frs. House came,
Friday. March 25th Raining. Esq. Sikes and Miss Addie came — took Allie
home with her. Pa came after us in the buggy.
Saturday. March 26th Went to Mr. Ward's. Vic cajne home with us and stayed
Sunday. March 27th Went to Mr. Marlin's. Finishing writing my composition.
Miss Bettie Pratt spent the night with us.
Monday. March 28th Went to school as usual. Miss Lucy Donohue and Jimmie
came to stay all night in order to go to Nashville the next morning.
Tuesday. March 29th Pa went to Nashville. Mr. and Mrs. Bryant came to go
to Nashville. Mrs, Ward came over. Charley quite sick. Miss Serena stayed
Wednesday. March 30th Pa came home from Nashville. Jim Creach's baby died.
Thursday. March 31st Mrs. Creach's baby was buried. I attended the burial.
Sprinkling rain in the evening,
Friday. April 1. 1864. Raining all day. Uncle John came after us. Mrs.
Vaughn came to our house.
Satvirday. April 2nd Mrs. Best Ward, Mary, Sister Jarrel, and Mrs. Rolston
Sunday. April 3rd Isabella and Vic, sister and myself, and Cousin Tom
went to Mr, .Walden's.
Monday. April /th I was sick — did not go to school. Mrs. Best Ward came.
Good deal of rain and hail.
Tuesday. April_5th Pa went to Nashville. Mr. Davis came.
Vfcdnesday,. April_6th Beautiful day. Very much like Spring. Pa came
Thursday. April 7th Mr. Sikes and Miss Addie came. Grandma came. I ^
crociaed a net for Ida,
Friday. April. 8th Rained. Charley and Katy sick.
Saturday, j^pril 9th Sister and I stewed some molasses. I and V came,
Mandy, Mary had quite a nice time pulling candy, I went home with I,
Stayed all night,
Sunday. April 10th Came home. I and V came. I stayed at home all day.
Monday. April 11th Going to school. Grandma went to Mrs, Ward's. Monday
evening Mrs, Marlln came.
Tuesday. April 12th Pa went to Nashville. Mrs. Farmer and Mrs. Hooker came.
Sqiiire Wade and Mr, Bryant came.
Wednesday. April 13th No one came to our house. Mrs. Ridley went to Nash-
ville. Pa returned from Nashville. I took the song, Lilly Dale.
Thursday. April 14.th Grandma went to Mrs. Best Ward's and spent the night.
Friday. April 15th Grandma came home. I returned from school. Mrs. Jack
Ward came and spent the day.
Saturday. April I6th Pretty day. Grandma, sister, and myself went to
Sunday. April 17th Mrs, Vanderford came, Mrs, Ward, Isabella, and Vic
came. Raining, We went to Sq, Johns' and spent the night.
Monday. April 18th Pa and Mr. Ward went to Nashville. Miss Serana stayed
with Ma tonight,
Tuesday. April 19th Miss Serana went home, Ida went home with her. Mary
and Eliza House came from Nashville with Pa,
Wednesday. April 20th Warm — very pretty day. Sister, Lucy Johns, and my-
self went to Mrs, Allen's,
Thursday. April 21st I'lrs, Blackmore went to Nashville, Tommy Johns and
I taught school. Ma, Pa, and Buddy came after us. Isabella and Mrs. Ward
Friday. April 22nd Went to Mr, Ward's to get Isabella to help me make a
dress. Did not finish it, Fannie Seward came here.
Saturday, April 23rd I am sick today. Went to Mrs. Donoway'so Stopped
at Mr. Walden's.
Sunday. April 24.th Raining. In the afternoon Uncle John, sister, and my-
self walked over to Mr, Ward's. Ifeny Ward, Bettie Jarrel, and Bettie Ward
Monday. April 2$th Went to school. Miss Serana came down and finished
Tuesday. April 26th Isabella came and stayed all night with Ma. Beautiful
Wednesday. April 27th Raining. Isabella went home. Took Katie with her
to stay all night,
Thursday, April 28th V/ent home with Tommie. Walked down on the river bank
where Ruffus Johns was fishing. He was going to bring to carry us home, but
Uncle J came,
Friday. April 29th The day of oiir picnic has come at last. I never enjoyed
myself more in my life. Had quite a nice ride back. Tommie came home with. me.
Saturday. April 30th Raining all day. Miss Serana went home. Mrs. Ward
and Mary came. I had a severe headache.
Sunday. May 1. 1864. Sick again. Many and Isabella Ward came, Tommie went
home. Isabella stayed all night with me. Pa and Ma went to Col. Anderson's.
Monday. May 2nd It is cool this morning. Sister did not go to school. She
went home with Isabella. Vic came home with her.
Tuesday. May 3rd Beautiful day. Pa went to Nashville.
Wednesday^. May /^th Pa brought me a nice pair of cloth garters and a muslin
Thursday. I-lay 5th Mrs. Vanderford, Miss Leda, Addie Sikes, Miss Bass,
Mandy, and Mary came. Sister and I went home with them and spent the night.
Friday. I fey. 6th Aunt Nancy Smith, Miss Mary Donoway, Miss Bettie Pratt,
Mrs. Jack V/ard, Vic, Mrs. Rooker, and Mrs. Spy Ward came. Sister sick.
Saturday ^_ May,. 7th Pa and sister went to Nashville. Miss Bettie Pratt sent
me two little pigeons. Miss Kate Jobe came and spent the day.
Sunday. May 8th Pretty day. Mr. Ward, Isabella, and Vic Ward came and spent
the evening. We all walked over to the old fort.
Mionday. May 9th Sister and I did not go to school. Miss Tea Allen commenced
teaching school. Alley, Ida, and Eugene went to school. Mrs. Vanderford
brought Car lie hat home. Mandy and Mary here.
Tuesday. May 10th Raining all day. The children did not go to school.
Charlie is sick.
Wednesday. May 11th Cloudy and raining. The children did not go to school.
Mrs, Best Ward.
Thursday. Miay 12th Pretty day. Mrs. Coleman here.
Friday. May 13th Beautiful day. Mrs. Ward, Bessie, Mrs. Ward, and Victoria
came. Sister went and stayed all night with Vic.
Saturday. May Hth Pa and I went to Nashville. Saw lie, and Mrs. Sheperd
and Willie Grigg. Received a letter from brother.
Siirday. I^ y.lSth Pretty day. Sister and myself went to Fir-s. Ward's. I am
very sorry to say that Eugene is a bad boy, and that when he goes to school,
he idles away his time. He is called a bad and lazy boy.
Monday, Fay I6th Went to school. Raining in the evening.
Tuesday.. May 17th Raining again.
Wednesday._.Mayi1 8th Itrs. Best Ward came over to see Ma and Grandma.
Thur sday:,_May;_1 9th Pretty day™very v;arm. Brother a prisoner. Went dovm
on the cars, threw a note off.
Friday. May 20th Beautiful day — very' warm. Came home from school — heard
Brother was a prisoner.
Saturday., MayiSI r,t . Very pretty day. Mrs. Blackmore came and left Ibllie
Thurston. Her and she v;ent to Walden's. Ma went to Mrs. J. Ward's, Ida
Sunday,. May ..22nd Pa returned from Nashville. Did not get to see Brother
but a fev; minutes. He v.'as well. Sister and I v/ent to Mrs. Sikes'.
Monday, May 23rd Went to school. Mrs. Blackm.ore sick. Toramie and I taught
Tuesday. May..2/,.th Mrs. Blackmore still sick. Toramie and I still teaching.
Raining, thundering. Tonmiie and I went over to get Mir. Bell to get him to
teach, but he '.rould not.
Wednesday, . .t'nyi.25th Mrs. Thurston and lies. Ridley went to Tommie, Mrs.
Blaclcmore right sick. Raining in the evening. I came hom.e from school.
Thursday t. .^^ay 26th Sister came home. Lucy and Mr. Johns came home with
her. We all walked over to Miss Tea Allen's school house.
Friday. May 27th Mr. Sikes came. Ma and Pa went to lAr, Sikes'. I expect
to go home with Lucy and stay all night. Walked down to the sulphur springs.
Saturday. MayiJSth Still at Esq. Squire John's. Enjoyed nyself very much
indeed. Mr, Johns, Tommie, Lucy, and myself took a ride down the pike.
Came back and went to the sulphur springs.
Sunday. Viay 29th Miss Mollie Johns sick. I went to church — heard a very
interesting sermon, l^fr. Johns and Tommie and Lucy came home with me.
Monday. Viay 30th Beautiful day. Mr. and Mrs. Vaughn came and spent the
day. I tucked some sleeves for sister. Did not go back to school.
Tuesday. Ma ;^Jl3t Very cold this morning. Some appearances of rain. I
wish I could see Tommie, I feel quite lonesome. This is the last day of May.
Wednesday. June 1st Beautiful day. Helped Ma to make her dress.
Thm-sday. June 2nd Mr, Hickman Weakley came here. Ma, sister, Charlie, and
Eugene went visiting. Raining very hard. Ma and the children could not get
home, Vic and Isabella stayed all night.
Friday. June 3rd They have gone home, and I am so onesome. I wish I could
see Tommie, my dear school mate. Mr. Garret was here from Nashville. Ma
and the children came home.
Saturday. June 4.th Cloudy, I think it will rain. Ann and Mary went to the
Sunday. June $th In the evening Cousin Dick, sister. Uncle John, and my-
self went to Sqxiire John^' and ^f^. Johns, Miss 1-bllie, and Toininie went down
to the Spring.
Monday^ June 6th I went to school. Rained in the evening.
Tuesday. June__7t h Aunt Nancie Smith came, Mr. Weekley and Gather went to
Nashville. Raining in the evening.
Wednesday. June 8th Raining in the evening. Pa returned from Nashville.
Thursday. June 9th Mss Tea Allen sick. The children did not go to school.
Mr. J, J. Ward also Frances Seward. Raining in the evening.
Friday. June 10th Sick yet, I came home from school. Aunt Nancie came
here. Rained very hard,
S aturday ,_. Jun e^ 1 1 th Pa went to Nashville. Cousin Dick, Mia, and I went
to Mr. Sikesl. Cousin Dick went to Murfreesboro. I stopped at Mrs. Donoway
to give 1-lary my dress to make,
Sunday, June 12th Meda Davis and Mr, Davis came. Uncle John, Meda,
sister, and myself went to Mrs. V/ard's. Grandma went to Jack Ward.
Monday. June 13th Beautiful day. Mrs. Ward and Mandy came. Mass Tea Allen
sick yet. Eugene sick yet. Tommie is sick,
Tuesday. June Hth Pretty day. No lady came. Very warm. Tommie is sick yet.
Wednesday. June 1!;th Beautiful day. Mrs. J. Ward here. The Yankees
searched Mr. Ewing Jones and Mrs. Ridley's house for arms — found none.
I went to see Tom.
Thursday. June I6th Miss Luda Sikes and Miss Bass here. Tommie is better.
Friday. June 17th We had compaxiy at school to hear us read our coinpositions.
Sister and I came home from school. Eugene is sick.
Saturday. June 18th Made me a dress.
Sunday. June 19th Went to Mr, Ward's. Looking for Tommie.
Monday. June ?Oth Went to school. Took a piece of music called Prize
Banner Polka. Tommie is sick, and I am distressed.
Tuesday. June 21st She is yet. I wrote her a letter.
Wednesday. June 22nd Sister and myself went to Squire Johns' to see Tommie.
We all went down to the sulphur springs.
Thursday. June 23rd Pretty day.
Friday. June 24.th We had a great deal of company to hear us read our com-
positions. Miss l^bllie Johns and Mister Ruff us Jolins came.
Saturday. June 25;th Grandma at Mr. Ward's. I made me a dress.
Sunday. Jtme 26th Uncle John went to Mr. Ward's. He is very sick with the
Monday. June 27th Went to school. Rode from hom,e, went to Mr. Walden, and
to Mrs. Donav/ay to get my dress.
Tuesday. June 28th Went to school. Pretty day.
Wednesday. June 29th Raining. Last day of school.
Thursday. June 30th Pa and Miss Eugenia A went to Nashville. Grandma uent
to Mr. Ward's. He is a little worse. Pretty day.
Friday. July 1 . 1 864- Beautiful day. Uncle John went to the picnic. Sister
and I did not go. Pa and Cousin Dick returned from Nashville.
Saturday, July 2nd Delightful weather.
Sunday. July 3rd Raining. I'fe, Cousin Dick, Sister, and Buddy went to Mr.
V/ard ' s .
Monday. July 4-th Cloudy.
Tuesday. July 5th Pretty day. Esq. Sikes and Guard came. Grandma went to
Mr. Ward's. Pa, Kate, and myself went to Squire Sikes',
Wednesday, July 6th Mrs. Jarrel and Sister came. Mrs. J. J. 'Ward came.
Thursday. July 7th Raining. Grandma came home. Vars. B. Ward came.
Friday. July 8th Raining. Cousin Dick went to Mr. Luck Davis' to see
Miss Drucia Davis. I wish I could see Tom, my husband. I am so lonesome
this evening. Tom came to see me.
Saturday, July 9th Cousin Dick went after Miss Drucia to go to the picnic.
I cried all day because I could not go. Beautiful day. I wish I was in
Heaven. Miss Mollie and Tom came Saturday evening. Had a very nice time.
Tom and I did not go to sleep until U o'clock.
Sunday. July 10th Uncle John came, and I went home with him.
Monday. July 11th Sister and I busy at work on her body. Got it done.
Mrs. Ward, l^s. Farmer, and Mrs. Blackmore came. I wish to the Lord I could
see Tom, my first my lasting only and my all, with the exception of Izonia.
Tuesday. July 12th Made my body.
Wednesday. July 13th 14ade me an under dress and tucked it.
Thursday. July l^th Commenced me a body.
Friday. July 15th Pa and Squire Wade came from Nashville.
Saturday. July I6th Miss Blackmore came over. Sister and myself went.
Mass Pattie Burton and Miss Ellie Winter came from Lebanon.
Sunday. July 17th Took a ride in the morning and also in the evening and
came home. Got home about dusk.
Monday. July 18th Grandma, sister, and Ma have gone to Mr. Sikes. I v;rote
a letter to Cousin Lou Beasley.
Tuesday. July 19th V& went to Mr. Sikes'.
Wednesday. July 20th Pa and Sister went to Nashville. Sent Brother a box
of provisions. Sister stayed all night at Mr. Read's. Mrs. Judge Ridley's
Thursday. July 21 st Sister dined at 14r. Jeff French's. Started home.
Friday. July 22nd Pretty day. Grandma and Uncle John started up the
country. Hear Esq. Jobes house was burned.
Saturday, July 23rd I went to Mr. Sikes' — stayed until after dinner. Miss
Addie and I iient to l-hirfreesboro. I went to Mrs. Elliott's — saw Miss Jimrnie
and Mrs. Will Elliott.
Sunday. July 24.th Uncle John and I went to Church. Went froi?. there to
Squire Johns!. Tommie not there. Saw Mrs. Dlackmore, Mrs. Ridley, and Mrs.
Brantwell. Lucy came home with us.
Monday. July 25th 14a and Pa went to Col Anderson. Spent the day. Some
ladies called to see Cousin Dick.
Tuesday. July 26th Made me a dress to have my photograph taken in. Pretty,
warm day. Oh! Hov; I could hug Tom if he was here. That letter from Tom — how
I long to see it.
Wednesday. July 27th Pa and I went to Nashville. Went to Mr. Jeff French
and spent the night. Enjoyed myself exceedingly v;ell. Had my photograph
Thursday. July 28th Mrs. French and I ^/ent to Dr. Reed's. Saw his lady —
very much pleased l.^dth her. Carae home from Nashville.
Friday. July 29th Sister and Lucy v;ent to Squire Johns'. Uncle John
v;ent to a picnic on Surges Creek.
Saturday. July 30th Mrs. Ward and Mandy came and stayed until after dinner.
Uncle John and I had a frolic throwing water on each other. Uncle John and I
went over to Mr. Ward's. He is better.
Sunday. July 31st Rainy, bad day. No company at all. Had fish for dinner.
Monday. August 1. 186^ Mrs. Ridley came. I went up to Mr. Walden's after
Miss Pattie Bur low. '//hen I got back, Sister had arrived from Squire Johns'.
Looks very much like rain.
Tuesday. Auf-ust 2nd Pretty day, very warm. Firs. J. J. Ward canie over.
Sister went home with her. Isabella came home with her. I went to Col A.
Wednesday. August 3rd Isabella went home. Pa went to Nashville. Rained
very hard about dinner. I scolloped some cuffs.
Thursday. August ^th Pretty day, very warm. Pa returned from Nashville,
Received letters from Aunt I-lat and Brother.
Friday. August $th Col. Anderson went down to our house to get the papers
and letters. Brought me my photograph. Tommy, Lucy, and 3cott Winter came
dovm to see me.
Saturday. August 6th Warm, pretty day. Yesterday Mrs. Vanderford and I
went to Mr. 3ikes~saw Delia and Louise Watkins. Pa and Uncle John went to
Sunday. August 7th Mss Eugenia and Col. A and myself went to Mr. lord's.
I'b. and Sister went to Mr. Wards. Saw Mandy and Kary, the two Rebel Commanders.
Monday. August 8th Kiss Eugenia commenced Mrs. A a dress. Fa came for me.
Sister at Mr. Sikes. Miss Addie went to Dr. Richardson.
Tuesday. August 9th Made one sleeve of Mrs. a. dress. I learned a new piece
of music, "Grand Russian March". Pretty, warm day.
Wednesday. August 10th Pa went to Nashville with Squire Wade. K-r. Ilite
came over and told us that Miss Lottie White shot a negro. She went on the
train this evening, Isabella stayed all night.
Thursday. Au.g:ust 11th T made a starch bag for I. She gave me a black
ring. Mrs. J. Ward came over and Judge Tinsley came. Commenced me a clove.
Pa came from Nashville.
Friday. August 12th Col. A. came down. Mr. Bryant came over. Ma and I
went to see Mrs. Dlackmore— she is very sick. Went to Esq. Johns'. Tom
came home with me.
Saturday. August 13th Uncle John, Tommie, and myself went over to Mit, Ward's.
Sister came home from Mr. Sikes. Pa went to Murfreesboro. Somebody stole
I4andy W, horse. Bod.
Sunday. August Kth Raining nearly all day. We all took a ride and got some
peaches. Tommie went home. Vic and Ifr. Ward and Charley came.
Monday. August 15th Mrs. Ward came. Rained. Mrs. Farmer and Mir. James'
little daughter came. Uncle John moved to his house. Nearly finished Uncle
Tuesday. August 16th Mrs. Vaughn and Mr, Vaughn came, some men froii: Nash-
ville came, I-lrs, Vanderford and Eugene came, and Uncle John and Grandma came.
Wednesday. August 17th I made a pillow slip for Uncle John. Raining yet.
Pa and Mr, Kible went to Nashville.
Thursday, August 18th Mr. King here, Mr. Vanderford, Sister, Cousin Tom,
Uncle J, and myself went over to Bachelor's Rest to see the house. Went to
the cave. We got some peaches. Pa returned from N. Got a letter from Brother.
Friday. August 19th Miss Fannie Sev/ards, Miss Farmer came. Col. ilnderson
came after Mrs. Vanderford. Very lonesome after she left. Ma, Pa, and Ida
went to Jim Basken's, Cousin Narcissy came.
Saturday. August 20th Jimiiiie Jones and Granville Ridley came. Buddy and
Eugene went home with Granville and got some pears. Pa and Sister went to
Murf reesboro .
Sunday. ^Au ^st 21 st Raining yet. Sister and nyself bought a watermelon.
I wrote a letter to Brother.
MondaYjt._ Au^ s t_ 22nd Very cool for August. Pa and Mr. Charley Alley spent
the day at Dick V/ade's. Mr. Coleman and Mr. Ward came. I finished my
underbody. Wrote a letter to Aunt Mat,
Tuesday, Aupust 23rd 1-lrs, Johnson and Mr, Sikes here. Several men here.
Grandma went to Mr. Marlin's, Cousin Dick and I went to Mr. Sikes. I made
a body to vsy dress »
Wednesday. August 22^th Pa went to Nashville. Pretty day.
.Thursday, Augus t 25th Jimmle W. arrived at Johnson's. Cousin Dick, Sister,
and nyself went to ^b?. Ward's. Went to see John. Miss Kate Hicks, Miss Ellen
Hicks, and Vic stayed all night. Pa got back from N. Pa received a letter
Friday. August 26th The ladies went to Mr. Furgerson. Mrs. Ward, Mandy, and
Isabella went to Murf reesboro. Pretty day. Somebody tried to get in the
house tonight. Uncle John stayed all night with us.
Saturday. August 27th Great many men. Col. Anderson, Miss Eugenia A. and
Eugene came. Miss Eugenia married. Uncle John stayed with us again tonight.
Sunday. August 28th Magnificent day. Miss Eugenia and inyself wrote a letter
to Willie, V/e all went to the sulphur springs. Had a delightful ride on
horseback. I-lr. Ward here.
Monday. August 29th Finished Kate's dress. Pretty day, little cool. Pa,
Miss Eugenia, Sister, and myself took a ride. Col. Anderson came, brought
Eugene Vanderford with him.
Tuesday. August 30th Mr. Sikes and MLss Addie came before breakfast. Mr.
Huggins and Allie Ridley came.
Wednesday. August 31st Pa and Uncle John went to Nashville. Wheeler, the
Rebel, came in with 8,000 men. Pa saw Tommie Black and a little fellow
Thursday. September 1 . 1 SGU Pa came home. Did not see any more rebels.
They have gone doim towards Nashville;
Friday. September 2nd Cloudy. Miss Eugenia went home. Ma went home with
her and stayed nearly all day. Granville Ridley, Allen Gooch, and John Espy
joined the Rebels. Hurrah for them!
Saturday. September 3rd Saw some Yankees and in a short time, some Rebels.
Then I saw some more Y. They were very much excited. Wanted to knov; if there
had been any grey-backs here. They formed in line of battle in front of the
house. They went on to Jefferson. Gen'l Steadman and his staff dined at
Squire Johns'. They came back about sundown. Said that they had driven
Wheeler out of the state.
Sunday. September /4th Gen'l Steadman and staff suppered here. I played on
the piano for them. Sunday, all quiet.
Monday. September gth Beautiful weather. Rain before dinner very much
unexpected. Grandiria moved over to King house.
Tuesday. September 6th Pretty day. No one to see us. Evening gathered
some cucumbers for pickles.
Wednesday. Septeinber 7th Mrs. Anbross Bass and I-1iss Eliza Dass car.e and
stayed until after dinner. I rained very hard, thundered and lightning.
A tree v/as struck very near the house.
Thursday, Septeinber 8th Cloudy, cut Ida out a dress, nearly finished it.
Cut out Buddy two shirts. Johnny came over in his cart. I played for
Friday. September 9th Via. finished Ida's dress. I'x. V/ard and Vic carae.
Stayed until nearly dinner. Meda Davis and Miss Kate Hicks came. Vx.
Huggins and Allie came. The wagon started to N with a bale of nev; cotton.
Saturday. September 10th Cousin Dick' and Pa went to Nashville. Big
Caroline went to Murfreesboro. Got a letter from Brother. He sent Pa a
very nice ring.
Sunday. September 11th Ifrs. Hord came. Col. A sent a letter dovm here
from Leakward Anderson stating that Aunt Mat and family had gone to Craw-
fordsville. V/e all went over to see Grandma.
I-fonday. September 12th Vxs, Slkes, Mss Luda, Miss Addie, Jeannie J.,
and Jessie J. came. Commenced to make Ma a dress. Uncle John came over.
Tuesday. September 13th Expected to go with Pa to Murfreesboro, but when I
got to Mr. S. Miss Addie was sick and would not go. Mrs. B came to car
house. Sister went with her to Mr. Walden's to spend the night. Mi's. V
came over to Vx, S. I came home.
Wednesday. September Hth Pa and Cousin Dick went to Nashville. Miss M^ary
and Martha Donav/ay came. Col. Anderson and several men came. Cousin Tom
and myself went to Mr. Walden's after sister. Pa and Cousin Dick and Mr.
Herman Weekley here, just returned from Huntsville, Alabama.
Thursday. September 15th Governor Johnson has called out the militia of
Tennessee — from 18 to 4-5. Kiiss Eugenia and Col, A came. Vxs. Sikes and N'lss
Addie and Dr. Black came and told us lirs. Watkins will take us to board to
go to school to Miss Sallie Nelson.
Friday. September I6th Miss Tea Allen, Mrs. Davis, Mrs. Ward, Miss Mary,
and Martha Donaway came. Sister and myself went over to see Grandma. Mrs.
Best Ward, Mr, Ward, and Vic came. The latter stayed all night. I wrote a
letter to Brother.
Saturday. September 17th I went to Murfreesboro with Miss Addie. Got
several little things. I stayed all night with Miss Addie.
Sunday. September 18th Uncle John and Ida came after me. Pa, Mr. Watkins,
Grandma, Sister, and myself went over to Mr«oWard.
Monday. September 19th Uncle John brought Sister and myself over to Mrs.
Watkins'. Went down to the school room. Miss Sallie Nelson is the teacher.
Tuesday. September 20th Knew all my lessons. I am studying history of
France. Spell and define Arithmetic. Beautiful day!
Wednesday. September 21st tollie Watkins came to school. Cloudy. I passed
under and over a natural bridge yesterday evening.
Thursday. September 22nd Cloudy. Went to school as usual. Knew all my
Friday. September 23rd Rained very hard in the night and some rain about
Saturday. September 24.th We all quilted right smart. Mj. Watkins went to
Dr. Black. He was better. I looked for Pa.
Sunday. September 25th. Dobb went home. I wrote a letter to Ma. I spent
the morning writing to Brother and Tom. Got my lessons in the evening.
Ktonday. September 26th Beautiful day. Two new scholars, Sallie Patent
and Mary Eliza House,
Tuesday. September 27th Cloudy. Coming home from school it rained, and we
all got ringing wet,
Wednesday. September 28th Pretty day. Pa came to Dr. Black's, and I
came down to Mrs. Watkins' with him. He brought us some clothes.
Thursday. September 29th Pretty day. I am very well satisfied up here.
I wish I could see Tominy,
Friday. September 30th Cloudy. Looks very much like rain. It rained
very hard in the night.
Saturday. October 1. 1864. Cloudy again this morning. I hope it won't
rain. It has rained.
Sunday. October 2nd Pretty day. Delia, Mary Eliza House, and myself went
to Mrs. Rucker. Miss Sue came down to see Mollie Wilkinson.
Monday. October 3rd Rained when we rode home from school.
Tuesday. October 4-th Rained all day. We rode to and from school. Aunt
Nancie Smith stayed all night at our house.
Wednesday. October 5th Cloudy day,
Thursday. October 6th Pretty day,
Friday. October 7th Delightful day.
Saturday. October 8th Most delightful day.
Sinday. October 9th Mrs. Watkins, Delia, and Mary Eliza House vent tn churrh
at Mr. Michelle. They saw Miss Mollie Pubbs.
Monday. October 10th All went to school. Most pretty day.
Tuesday. October 11th Very pretty day.
VJednesday. October 12th Pretty day. Brother is sick in prison. Ter V.'-idp.
Thursday. October 13th Pretty day. Heard Grandma was dead.
Friday. October 14.th Pretty day. Pa. came after Sister and myself to j^o
home. Mary Eliza went home.
Saturday. October 1 5th Pa and Cousin Jo Irby went to Nashville. I.'ncle
Pleasant and Uncle John went to Murfreesboro,
Sunday. October I6th Uncle Pleasant and Uncle Johnny went to Fellowship
to church. Great many men at our house.
Monday. October 17th Uncle John brought Sister and myself to V.rz. Wntkins.
Mary Eliza had come.
Tuesday. October 18th Went to school. I got a bad cold.
Wednesday. October 19th Cold yet. Mass Nannie Black and Miss Sullie Nelnon
stayed all night.
Thursday. October 20th Sister and Delia came home. Sister cut her dress
body. Miss Sallie walked home with us.
Friday, October 21st Pretty day. 'Willie and Sammy Butch knocked the
girls some hickory nuts.
Saturday. October 22nd I cut out my dress body. Hemmed Sister's d'^ess
skirt. She made my dress body. I sent a note to Ma by Dobb.
Sunday. October 23rd I got my lesson wrote off the definition. V/rote n
letter describing my visit south.
Monday, October 24.th Went to school. Callie Pajton had come back.
Tuesday. October 2$th Pretty day. Knew all my lessons. Sewed my dress
on the body and the sleeves in.
Wednesday. October 26th Rained. Mrs. Watkins sent the carriage after us.
Thursday. October 27th Rained all night. Mary House would not sleep with
me. Delia and myself came home. I called Jane and they would not let her
come with me.
Friday. October 28th Pretty morning. Mary Eliza House went hom.e.
Saturday. October 29th Cloudy and cool. Pa came to bring our clothes. We
finished our calico dresses.
Sunday. October 30th Pretty day. Mrs. Watkins, Louise, and Sister went to
Mrs. Rucker's — spent the evening. Louise and Sister stayed all night.
Monday. October 31st Pretty day. Mary Eliza House came back from home.
Tuesday. November 1. 1864- Beautiful day!
Wednesday. November 2nd Rained very hard.
Thursday. November 3rd Raining. We did not go to school. I cut my delain
dress out and made the body.
Friday. November /i^th Raining. Miss Mollie sick.
Saturday. November 5th Pretty day. Very cool. Miss Sue spent the night.
Miss Nannie Black and Miss Sallie Nelson came. Received a letter from Brother.
Sunday. November 6th Pretty day. Miss Mary £, House and Miss Delia Watkins
went up to Mrs, Rucker's to spend the night. Miss Sue sent for me to come.
We saw a rebel ,
Monday. November 7th Rained all day. We came home and went to school in
the carriage, .
Tuesday. November 8th Rained all day,
Wednesday. November 9th Raining all day, I am perfectly sick of rainy
Thursday. November 10th Beautiful day, I am very glad it has quit raining,
for I ajn expecting to go home,
Friday. November 11th Beautiful day, Mary £, House' Brother came and we all
went to Mrs. Watkins in a few minutes. Pa came after dinner. We were off
for home. We stopped in town and got two silk handerchiefs for Sister and
nyself and two con^josition books,
Saturday. November 12th Pretty day, I cut my calico body out and fitted it.
Mrs, Blackmore died at eleven o'clock Saturday night.
Sunday. November 13th Beautiful day. Uncle John, Sister, and myself
started to see Mrs, Blackmore and met Tonmie and Mrs, John. John's cousins,
Addie and Nelly, came to our house,
Monday. November Hth Uncle John, Ma, Sister, and nyself went to the funeral.
Mrs. Nevals stayed at our house while we were gone. Cousin Sue and Lucy came
to our house.
TuesdaYj_ Noveinber 1 5th Raining, Uncle John brought us back to school.
We stopped in Murfreesboro at Mrs. Elliott's — saw Miss Lilly Brown.
Wednesday „ Noveimber _1 6th Raining.
'Thursday,, NoveTiber. 17th Rained all day. I cut out my under dress and
Friday;, Novemb er _1 8th Rained all day, I cut out my blue dress and run
up the skirt, hemmed it, put the trimming around the skirt, and made the sleevcf
Saturda.y\t_ November 1 9.th Rained all dayo I sewed on my dress.
Sunday,_November_20th Rained all day. The river is rising. It is nearly
even vd.th the Mill Dam,
Monday_,_ November 21 sjt Went to school. It snowed very hard.
TugsdaY,,_ November_22nd Very cold. Snow on the ground.
Wednesday .__ Nov ember 23rd Very cold. Sister and I came home from school to
take a music lesson. Mary E. House is having her teeth fixed.
Thursday.,. November_ 2/i.th Dr. Walsh has not finished her teeth.
Friday, November 2 gth Pleasant. I'irs. V/atkins went to town. Mary House
went home. I am looking for the rebels.
Saturday... November _26th Raining all day. Finished my calico dress. I
washed my silk handkerchief. Little Sue came to see us. Dobb went home.
Sunday. November 27th Raining nearly all day. Miss Sue came. I was kept
busy getting my lessons and writing my letter.
Mo nd a V . No v ernb er 2 8 th Cloudy. I took a piece of music called "General
Stonewall Jackcon". Mary Eliza did not come back. Miss l-follie went to Dr.
Black's to spend the night. Heard good nev/s for all rebels. Got two letters
from Brother, Pa uent to Nashville.
Tuesday., Noveraber 29th Cloudy. The rebels are coming. Vlss Kollie came
home. Dr. Black started to I4irfreesboro, but the pickets told hira that he
could not bring out anything.
Wednesday ._Nov ember .30th I'^ary Eliza came. Very warm today — did not wear
my shawl to school. Cannonading very distinct. Received a letter from Ma,
I am going home in two weeks.
Thursday., December 1 . 1 864 Beautiful day. Heard some cannonading. Very
warm for the season. Pa is coming after us tomorrow,
Friday,. December 2nd Raining. Pa came after us. Met Judge Tinsley. He
and Pa had a long talk. 17e came by Mr, Sikes' and stopped. Brought Charley's
sack Kdss Addie braided for him, .
Saturday., Decem-ber 3rd Very cold. Uncle John went after Grandma. Judge
Tinsley and lady to see us. Some men here, not as many as usual. Rebels
came here in the night.
Sunday, December /.th Nice day. Some rebels spying around the block house,
iimong the squad was Dr. Ridley, The Yankees shot at him, but did not hurt him.
Monday. December $th Pretty day. The Federals evacuated the block house.
Rebels everyv;hcre. They burned the bridges and block house. Miss Addie
came and brought Annie with her.
Tuesday. Pecember_6th Beautiful day. General Forrest came up from Nashville.
Wednesday^_ December_7th Pa and Sister went to Esq. Sikes' to hear the
news. MTo Vanderford went home.
Thursday,., December, 8th Very cold. Uncle Charley went to camps, but came
back and spent the night. Enjoyed myself finely.
Friday ._._DeGnmber^_9th Cold. Uncle Charley WEnt to camp, but came back .Jith
General Forrest and spent the night. I had the honor of mending his pants.
Saturday.._Dec ember lOth Sleeting. Very cold. Went to camps.
Sunday .„. Dec ember _ l.l.th Uncle Charley spent the night with us.
Monday v^ December, 12th Snow on the ground. Uncle Charley took dinner with us.
Tuesday., Deceraber^l 3th Cloudy — very cold. Uncle Charley and Capt. Painter.
My l6th birthday. Was presented a ring from Ma.
V/ednesday .„ December 1 Ath Very cold. Uncle Charley spent the night.
Thursday. December 15th Warm, Uncle Charley went to camps. Thomas
attacked Hood. Great many Yankees killed. Fear Rebels.
Friday,^ December I6th Warm, Uncle Charley and Major Strains came for his
last time. Hood retreated.
Saturday ._December 17th Raining all day.
Sunday,. December 18th Raining all day. Cousin Dick and I went to Mr. Ward's.
Monday ,..„December 19th Raining all day. Yankees ventured out to work on
Tuesday. December 20th Very cold indeed, I-k and I are working en r;y dress.
Rained and hailed. All the rebels gone.
V/ednesday. December 21 st Snowing. Pa and I went to Mrs. V/atkins' after my
trunk. A good many federals here today and dined.
Thursday, December 22nd Very cold ineeed. Ma and I were working on n.y dress,
Friday. December 23rd Pa and Cousin Dick went to Nashville. Squire Johns
and Vjr. King here. Sewing on my dress. Getting ready for Christm^as.
Saturday. Decem ber 2Z.th Pa and Cousin Dick returned from Nashville v/ith
Christmas goodies. I made a pound cake and was kept quite busy preparing
for Christmas, We had a nice eggnog.
Sunday. December 25th Christmas Day. Ida and Buddy were invited to Vx.
Suggs to a Christmas Tree, I went to Mr, Johns' and Lucy, Isabella, Vic,
and Miss Lanny Burrus came,
Monday, _Dec ember_ 26th Cloudy. Buddy and Ida were Invited up to Vx. Griggs
to a Christmas Tree, I went to see Tominie. Got home late. Uncle John,
Sister, and myself went to Mr, Wade's to a party, my first attempt at dancing.
Tuesday,, December 27th Still cloudy, Ida came home. Mrs, Ward here.
Cousin Dick went to see Mass Drucia Davis. Ida came home from Vx. Griggs'.
Lucy came home with her, Mrs, V/ard here.
Wgdnesday.._. December 28th Beautiful day, I sewed on my bonnet. Emma Walsh,
Nelly Wade, Willie, and Tom Wade came. Also Miss' Settle Wade. and Cousin
Addie Vaughn spent the, night,
Thursday^. December 29th Cousin Addie, All of them left. Watt Wade here.
Made Jane clean up the parlor, Mir. Wade and Cousin Jo Irby here.
Friday, Decerriber 30th Kiss Bettie McLaughlin came to go to Nashville with
Pa. Raining a little. Grandma came home from Mr, Ward's. Mr. Vhrd shingled
Ida's and Kate's hair.
Saturday. December_31 st The whole face of the earth covered with snow.
It is shoe mouth deep, I finished my bonnet.
by Eugene Sloan
Tira hundred ycaro ago, a bitter test of loyalty of the men of the
Continental Arry tras cjqpGricnccd — the "Winter of Docpair" at Valley
Forge, Pcnncylvania .
Follo\d.ng the defeat at Germantown, the army of about 10,000
moved into the little valley among the hills of the Schuylkill River,
27 miles northwest of Philadelphia. With little food and hardly
enough clothing to protect themselves against the rigors of one of
the worst vrinters in colonial history, the arny morale deteriorated.
On DGCcnbor 23, 1777, General George VJashington wrote: "We have
this day no less than 2,873 men in can^j unfit for duty because they
are barefooted and othervdse naked."
But in that brave body of men who endured the harshness of that
winter were two men v;ho were to later make their homes in Rutherford
County. One of them v;as Peter Jennings — a black man — and the other,
Smith, at age 77, v;as to appear in the Rutherford County Coiirt ■
in September, 1832 to support the claim of Jennings, age 80, for a
Revolutionary War pension.
Jennings was a notable character in his day. According to a story
appearing in the ^'turfreesboro News Banner . November 22, 1900, the first
house erected on the comer of Vine and Church Street, a one-story
frame building, vias occupied by "a free Negro, named Peter Jennings, as
a baker." This was during the time Murfreesboro was the capital of
Henry G. Wray, former ai»chlvist for the Rutherford County Historical
Society, along with Ernest King Johns did considerable research in con-
nection \srith the study of Revolutionary War soldiers v;ho came to Ruther-
ford County after the v/ar. Mrs. Edna Fry has followed up this work
by studying the official records in Washington, D.C. Among her findings
is the affadavit of Peter Jennings of August 23, 1832:
State of Tennessee
August term 1832
On this 23rd day of August 1832 personally appeared before Henry
Trott, V. D. Cov/an, and James C. Mitchell Esquires, Justices of the
Court of Pleas and Qxiarters Session for the county and state aforesaid,
now sitting in open coxirt, Peter Jennings, a man of colour, a resident
of the tov/n of Murfreesboro in the County and State aforesaid, aged
eighty years, four months, and twenty-one days, who being first duly
sworn, according to law, doth on his oath, make the following declar-
ation, in order to obtain the benefit of the provision made by the Act
of Congress passed June 7, 1832. That he enlisted in the array of the
United States, according to the best of his recollection in the year
1776 with Corporal Edenton and when he entered the service he belonged
to the 5th Regiment of Artillery of Blacks in the Continental line,
under the following named officers; He belonged to Capt. Vener Angel's
Company in which a man by the name of Hawley, whose given name he does
not now remember, was first Lieutenant, and man whose name v;as Ray,
second Lieutenant, his given name not remembered. The regiment was
commanded by Col. Edward (Oney), and a man whose name was Halsey, was
first Major, and he thinks his given name was Joseph. Who his second
Major was, he does not remember. He thinks his regiment joined General
Washington's amy at West Point and, after remaining there a few days,
Torched to Saratoga, vhere they rcnnincd a considerable length of time.
At tho cr.nis tiro they ucre cncanpcd at Saratoga, thinks that Gen. Dick-
con or Dickcnccn xno encamped \rith a division of Virginia militia, and
he thinl:3 ha rcmcnbers Colonels Canipbell and Forguson v/ere there in the
Virginia nilitia, Aftor rcnaining at Saratoga several weeks, he thinks
Ms regiment v-as divided and part of it attached to the troops under
the ccrrrand of Gen. Greene, a part of it to the troops under the comnand
of Gen. Gates, a part of it probably to the troops under Gen. (Cadwallader) ,
and a part of it Gen. V/ashington retained \dth the troops under his
immediate ccrj::and. He remained with troops under Gen. Washington's
inmediats ccrmand, and he thinks the regiment to v/hich he was attached
v;as corsnndcd by Col. Clifford, to whose regiment a I'la j . Talbot belonged,
but he docs not remember whether he was first or second major. He does not
remember the number of Col. Clifford's regiment, nor does he remember
the Colonel's given name, nor the given name of Ik j . Talbot. He thinks
James Starling ^.-as at this time his Captain, and that his Lieutenant's
name j-.'as Dlccmfield, but his given name is not x^eiaciaoered . Shortly after
this division i.'as made of the black regiment, he thinks the battle of
Trenton took place, and he well remembers he was in that engagement. He
has a distinct recollection that on the night of the 25th of December
after he entered the service as a regular soldier, which would be Decem-
ber, 1776, if it was that year he enlisted, and he thinks it was Gen.
V/ashingtcn who crossed hJ.s troops over the Delavnre about nine miles
above Trentcn and marched upon the enemy and attacked them by surprise.
A part of the /jnerican forces, he thinks, were commanded by Generals
Ewing and Cad^.'allader, the foi^mer of v;hom belonged to the Virginia troops.
The forces under their command he thinks v;ere to cross the Delaware
higher up than the point at v/hich declarent crossed with General V/ashington,
and were to attack the left wing of the enemy, but he well remembers he
did not croG3 over, vihich he thinlco vras ouing to the ice, for it was vd.th
extreme difficulty that Gen. V.'achington got his troops over on accoiint
of the ice and the cxtrcne cold v;cathor. Cn account of Generals Ewing and
Cadv;allader failing to cross the river as hzd been previously arranged, we
uere corbelled to cake the attack \;lth such forces alone as crossed over
i-'ith Gon. IJachington. The cnezr;.! co little c;:pecting an attack from us,
•jcre thrcv.'n into great confusion, and \j3 obtained a coraplete victory over
them, killing many of them and taking ccvcral hundred prisoners, v;ho wore
principally Hessians. V/e also took a largo amoimt of milit^rj- stores, a
number of pieces of cannon, and a great many small arms. He thinks the
greater portion of the cneny's forces were killed or taken pri'soner. He
thinks there xras a Colonel commanding in the Hessian troops k' lied, but
he does not remember his name. There v;ere but few on the side of the
Americans killed and not many wounded; amongst the wounded ho thinks
there was a Captain ifeshington, remembered from his being of the same
name as his General VJashington. After this engagement he steles he
marched back across the Delaware \fith. the prisoners and captu- ed stores.
The prisoners, he thinks, were conducted to Philadelphia. In a few days,
however, he returned v/ith Gen. Washington to Trenton. They h?d not been
long in pocsecsion of Trenton when the British forces collected and
marched tovrard Trenton for the purpose of giving battle; in feet, they
had actually commenced firing on the American troops in the evening and
considerable cannonading took place between the two armies. 'Hhe firing
from our artillery somewhat checked their advance upon us, and night
coming on, they halted on the opposite side of a creek from us and
ceased firing. It was supposed that they intended making a general
attack upon us the next morning. We were ordered to light fires along
our lines in our front for the purpose, as declarent afterward discovered,
of deceiving the enemy. However, instead of remaining at the fires, we
were inarched off with all possible expedition toward Princeton, where some
regiments of the British troops were quartered. We reached there very-
early the next morning and made a vigorous attack upon them. Declarent
has a perfect recollection of an occurance which took place during this
engagement v/hich will never be effaced from his memory. A part of our
troops were driven back by the British and were thrown into much confu-
sion. Gen, Washington, perceiving it, seized a standard and rushed in
front of our troops and dashed several paces ahead toward the enemy,
exclaiming "Cone on boys," or some such expression. His example had
the desired effect of rallying our troops, and they followed the com-
mander v/ith renev/ed ardour. While Gen. Washington was betv/een the two
armies, at least one round was fired on each side, and he remained un-
touched. Soon after this occurrence the British troops gave way and
retreated into some public bioildings. VJo pursued them and kept up such
a play of artillery upon them, that all those who had taken refuge were
compelled to surrender to us. In this engagement the British were com-
pletely routed and defeated. Many of them were killed and wovmded and
a great number taken prisoner. The loss on the American side, he thinks,
was inconsiderable. He remembers that General Mucerj who he believes
belonged to the Virginia troops was severely wounded in this engagement,
and thinks he died shortly of his wounds.
After the battle at Princeton, we marched to Morristown and took
up vrinter quarters. There we remained until some time in the spring.
From Morristovm, he marched to Middlebrook; from there to Peek's-Kill
where some fortifications were erected. From this point he marched toward
the Delav;are River; and the army was occupied for several weeks in ad-
vancing and receding, marching and counterimrching, sometimes toward
Philadelphia and then toward the Delaware. This lasted for several
weeks until the battle finally ensued at Brandywine. This engagement
coicnenced early in the morning, the attack being brought on by the
British who ucre under the command of Gen. Cornwallis. They crossed the
creek about a mile above our forces and made an attack upon our rear.
V/e were about the same time attacked in front by a British General
v/hose name is now not remembered. The American troops were compelled
to retreat v/ith great loss. He thinlcs they retreated towards Chester,
and v/ore purcucd a considerable distance by the enerqy. He v/ell remem-
bers seeing Gen. Lafayette in this engagement and seeing him receive a
i/ound, v.'hich he thinks \.'as in his right leg. He also remembers that
there was another American General wounded, but he has forgotten his
name. He thirds Gen. Lincoln was in the battle. T\io or three weeks
after the battle of Brandywine, Gen, Washington, having received a
considercble reinforcement from Virginia, marched on Germantovm and
made an attack upon the British stationed there. The attack was made
early in the norning, and, from the sudden and unejqpected character,
the British forces were throvm into great disorder. It being a cloudy
foggy morning, it was difficult for our troops to keep in regular order,
which caused considerable confusion amongst us. Taking advantage of this,
the encry rallied from the confusion into v;hich they had at first been
throvm and drove back our troops. V/e v;ere, at length, compelled to re-
treat \ath great loss. In this engagement an American General — Nash —
v.-as Icilled. After recovering from the defeat, we marched to a place
called l.Tiite Ilash, v/here we remained sometime in expection of an attack
from the British, t;ho had taken a position not far distant from us.
They, however, withdrew vdthout malting an attack, and we v;ere marched to
Valley Forge, i:here we took up winter qxjarters.
Declarent was at the battle of Yorkto;m. '.-/hen he reached there,
Lafayette had been engaged in some severe fighting with the enemy.
The principal fighting, however, after we reached the place v;as v;ith
the artillery, with an almost constant cannonading kept up. He well
remembers the position of the. French fleet on the occasion, which had
taken a stand in the Potomac River to prevent Cornvrallis from being
reinforced by the British troops under the command of Gen. Henry Clinton.
He remembers that about two days before the surrender, fourteen of the
British soldiers deserted and came into the American encampment and
surrendered themselves, and that from them, we received a good bit of
information about the affairs in the enemy's camp. The surrender, he thinks,
was on the 18th of October, 1781. He has a most perfect recollection of
uhe circiimstances v;hich occured when Cornwallis surrended up his sword,
for he was present and saw this transaction. Cornwallis offe ed his
sword to Gen. V/ashington, who stepped back and declined taking it.
General Lincoln, who he thinks had been previously agreed should receive
it, stepped forvrard and accepted it from him. Declarent remained at
lorktovm several weeks after the surrender. He thinks he marched to
Winchester, Virginia with the British prisoners, and that Cornwallis
was in company. After he retiu-ned to Yorktown from Winchester, he
remained there five or six days, at the end of which time, he was dis-
charged from the service. He received a writien discharge from Capt.
Edgar, by whom his company had been commanded for some time. His former
captain had been compelled to retire from the service on account of bad
health, v.'hen Captain Edgar succeeded to the command. He lost his dis-
charge a few years after the war was over, he thinks, on the eastern
part of the Bahama Islands, where he was shipwi^ecked while on a voyage
in a merchantman bound from New York to Teneriff on a trading expedition.
It is impossible for declarent to remember every place through which
he marched during a service of five or six years, or to detail all the
occurrences id.th which he met during that time and in which he acted a
part. He can only pretend to state important transactions and occurrences
to which his attention was particularly directed by some peculiar cir-
ciunstance upon vfhich the mind vrauld then fasten, so as not to let escape
the recollection of the event.
Declarent enlisted in Providence, Rhode Island, where he at that
time resided. He was born at Pequanock, three miles east of Fairfield,
He has never received a pension for his services, and he hereby
relinquishes every claim whatever to a pension or annuity except the
present, and he declares his name is not on the pension roll of the
agency of any state.
Sworn to subscribed this day and year aforesaid.
J. R. Laughlin, Clerk His X mark (Peter Jennings)
And the said court do hereby declare their opinion that the above
named applicant vras a revolutionary soldier, and had served as he states.
H. Trott, J. C. Mitchell, V. D. Cowan
I, John R. Laughlin, Clerk of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions
of Rutherford County, Tennessee, do hereby certify that the foregoing
contains the original preceedings of the said coiirt, in the matter of
the application of Peter Jennings for a pension.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal of office,
this 23rd day of August 1832.
John R. Laughlin, Clerk
The attesting affidavits supporting the claim of Peter Jennings, which was
granted include the interesting fact that Jennings was recognized by Lafayette,
State of Tennessee
On the eighth day of September 1832, personally appeared before me,
William Gilliam, as acting Justice of the Peace for the County of Ruth-
erford and State of Tennessee, Elijah Smith, aged seventy-seven years
and twenty days, a resident of said Rutherford County, who, having first
dvily sworn according to law, doth upon his oath, say that he was a
soldier of the Revolutionary War, that in the winter of 1777 when the
American troops \fere quartered at Valley Forge, he was an assistant
forage master under one Cochlerow, and that he knew a man of colour who
belonged to the New England troops, and was in the artillery.
He is acquainted \dth Peter Jennings, a man of colour who now re-
sides in Rutherford County aforesaid, and he believes him to be the man
he knew at Valley Forge. He does not remember him by name so as to
state him to be the same man, but from his size and general appearance,
so far as he can remember, as it would correspond at so distant a period.
He believes him to be the same, and on frequent conversations with him
in relation to facts and circumstances which occiired then, which said
Jennings remembers, and which he is confident he could not have known
had he not been there, and especially from his narration of a man being
hung there, he is confident he is the same man, whom he then knew.
Subscribed and sworn to before me
W. M. Gilliam, J. P.
Murfreesboro, August 13th, 1828
Honorable Richard Rush
Sir, I herewith endorse you the petition of Peter Jennings, praying
for his dues as a Revolutionary soldier. The declaration set forth by
him is done from memory alone, and which he relates with freedom nnd
The general opinion here is that he served as a soldier in the
Revolution, which opinion was strengthened by his being recognized by ^
Gen. LaFayette in Nashville two years ago,
I believe the evidence set forth here combining partly with the
evidence now in possession will be satisfactory. If not, please say
v;hat other evidence is necessary.
Hoping to have the pleasure of hearing from you soon,
I am Respectfully,
William T, Christy
A record by Charles Ready certifies that Jennings died Jan. 22, 184.2.
The pension records indicate that during the last ten years of his life,
he received a pension from the United States Government.
Mike West, editor of Accent Magazine , a supplement of the Sunday
Daily News Journal , uncovered a tombstone in the old City Cemetery bearing
the name of Peter Jennings, identified as a Revolutionary War Soldier.
The modest oval stone is inscribed with a cross and was apparently erected
by one of the patriotic societies some years after Jennings ' death.
Henderson King Youkum
. • . by Eugene Sloan
There are tvo marble shafts of comparable cizo and close proximity
ia Oalcv/ood Cemetery in Huntsville, Texas, Each marks the resting place
of a prominent Tennessee soldier, .politician, and lawyer. There is no
evidence that the one from Lebanon and the other from Kurfreesboro ever
net in the "Volunteer State". Each^ beset by xmfortunate circumstances
in Tennessee^ vras to rise to undying fame following the "lone Star" of
Texas. ' ~ ■ "' ..- _ —
Henderson King Yoakum (1810- I856), a West Point graduate, polltican,
and historian, was a lav/yer and six-year mayor of Murfreesboro. In 18-^5
he left Tennessee, by his ovm admission impoverished by political
: In a single decade he was to gain fame as a soldier, real estate
entrepreneur, lawyer, and Kasonic leader deep in the heart of Texas.
Samuel Houston (1793-1863) practiced law in Lebanon before being
elected to Congress in 1823 and later Governor of Tennessee. Disillusioned
and dishonored, he went to live with his old friends among the Indians.
Called to become the military leader who defeated the Mexicans, he was
elevated to the presidency of the Republic of Texas and ]iiter to the
Texas governorship. When he lay dying Sam Houston requested that ho be
"buried beside rqy good friend, Colonel Henderson Yoakum". Houston is
known to have practiced law in Rutherford County courts while maintaining
his office in Lebanon, but this appearance was while Henderson Yoakum was
a cadet at West Point.
Dr. Homer Pittard, Rutherford County historian^ spent months in travel
and correspondence to coinpile a remarkable eto^y of a man who is remembered
in Texas by having a county naiaed in hi 3 honor, but who ha a fev; roots
left in Tennessee.
An* abridgment of a biographical sketch of Henderson King Yoakum
appearing in numerous publications has been put into local perspective
in a presentation by Dr. Pittard, made at a Rutherford County Historical
Society meeting in 1975.
Texas school children learn of Colonel Henderson King Yoakum in
cuch a factual sketch as this;
Henderson King Yoakum, the Texas historian, oldest son
of George Yoakum, and his vri.fe Mary Ann Kaddy, was born at
"Yoakvm Fort" in the famous PougII'c Valley section of
Tennessee, September 6, 1810. At the age of 17 he was appointed
to West Point llilitary Academy, vhore he graduated in 1832.
He married Kiss Eveline Cannon, daushter of Robert Cannon,
near the little tovm of Philadelpliia, Roane County, Tennessee
Soon after his marriage, Henderson Yoakum moved to Mur-
freesboro, Tennessee, and entered tho office of Jud£,e l-litchell
as a law student, soon was admitted to the bar and began
the practice of his profession in that town. He entered the
military service again in 1836 and cerved against the Indians
on the v/estern frontier, as a captain of a company under General
Edmund P. Gaines.
In 1838 he commanded another company in the Cherokee War.
Then on October 7, 1839, he ^/as elected as a member of the
Senate of the State of Tennessee, He made a splendid record in
the legislature, supporting both Jackson and Polk, and stood
strongly In favor of the annexation of Texas.
On October 6, l8/i5, he and hia family and relatives
arrived In Huntcville, Texas. The followin,'^ year he volunteered
as a private, but soon ciade first lieutenant, in the company of
Captain James Gillespie and took an active part in the war \d.th
Kexicoj, distinguishing hirsself in the Battle of Monterey. After
the close of the war, he returned to Huntsville and resumed the
practice of law.
He formed a close friendship v;ith Peter W, Gray, a proni-
nent Texan, who encouraged hiia in writing a comprehensive
history of Texas. In 1853 Ycalnom established a home seven
miles out from Huntsville, called "Shepherd's Valley", and it
1,'as here that most of his work on the famous history was done,,
(Southern History Research Marazine, 1936)
The Shepherd Valley house was constructed on lines of southern
architecture, with a wide hall through the center, large rooms with high
ceilings, and open fireplaces.
A Yoakum is said to have been in the Henry Hudson ex-pedition in the
New York area in 1611. Certainly, Valentine Yoakum appears in Peach
Creek, New York before moving to Greenbrier County in the present state
of West Virginia. There he established Yoakum Station in 1771, v;here he
and his family (with the exception of George) were massacred by Shawnee
George killed three Indians with an iron skillet and. being "swift
of foot and great strength", escaped. At the age of 25 he married hiargaret,
the daughter of Isaac Vanbebber. Among their children was George II, who
moved to Powell's Valley in Claiborne County. Tennessee about 1790.
Twenty-nine Yoakum families now live in Claiborne County, but none in
Roane County or in Monroe County, where Henderson King Yoakum's father
i.'aa a Justice-of-the-peace between 1815-1825.
Yoakum attended the "comnon schoolc of his conraunity" before being
recommended for West Point appointment by an Athens, Tennessee Congress-
man, James Coffleld Mitchell. The young Philadelphia, Tennesseean,
Henderson K. Yoakum was duly admitted April, 1828 to the United States
Milita::y Academy at Vest Point on a cadet warrant.
In 1833 he was graduated 21st in a class of 4.5 from the Academy, He
was the 682nd cadet to graduate from West Pointy
Soon after his commissioning, he married Miss Eveline Cannon, daughter
of Robert Cannon in Philadelphia, Roane County, Tennessee and moved to
Murfreesboro, In 1833 he resigned his commission in the array.
Congressman l'2.tchell reappeared in Yoakum's life when he became
his legal mentor after Yoakum resigned from the army and brought his
young bride to Murfreesboro, Mtchell liad become circvdt judge in the
eleventh district, including Rutherford County, where he served from
1830 to 1836. There is no record of how the 23 year-olc', ex-army officer
financed his studies or provided livlihood for his family while studying
law under guidance of Judge Mitchell.
Two interesting hints were discovered in a letter Eveline Yoakum
wrote to her mother. One of these leads to the conjecture that the Cannon
family was aiding their daughter. The letter has the cryptic statement
that, "Henderson started a French school, which will occupy but little of
his time and bo of some profit to us".
On July /», 1834-, Yoakum delivered an hour and a half address to the
"young men of Murfreesboro". Fortunately, this discourse has been preserved
by Q conteinporo.ry nev/spaper,. The speech was preceded by reading the
Declcn.ratlon of Independenceo In tho flowing rhetoric of thiR period,
this panegyric 13 illustrated from this excerpt;
"Our Revolutionary Fathern arc nearly all in a peaceful
grave. Those illustrious men, \/ho bequeathed to us the noble
inheritance that we now en joy 5 have nearly all gone to try
the realities of another worldj to reap the glorious fruits
of a well spent life allotted to the noble and worthy ....
others froa their age it is plain, that a few revolving suns
will carry them to another and better v/orld — and when it shall
please the GREAT SPIRIT so to do may they be able to report
in Keaven that all is well... They see before them no halycon
yearSp no sweet moments of repose. The bird of Jove v/as
about to grapple v/ith the Lord of the Ocean, the invincible
lion of Britian,"
Unfortuxiately, the Rutherford County court records of the 1835-4.5
era were destroyed, but there is evidence in the Register's records of
ample practice by Yoakum. These indirect references reveal speculation
in real estate, the administration of estates, and mortgage work.
In the I84.O census records, Henderson and his wife are listed as
thirty years of age, having five daughters under 15 years of age and one
female slave. The slave was apparently obtained from one William Bryant,
who had pledged "Killy" as collateral on a $300 note Henderson and an
associate held that was unpaid.
The Toakum residence, according to Dr. Pittard's finding, was located on
about the 1977 site of the Tennessee Employment Security Office on the cor-
ner of Vino and South Spriat^ streota in Mur.frefc&boro.
In 1837 Yoalcura was elected the loayor of ^furf^eosbo^o and sexn^ed for
oix years e A Democrat, Yoakum's political activity uas not confined to
local interest. He xras tho friend and loyal supporter of Andrew Jackson,
Martin Van Buren, James K. Polk and Sam Houston. James K. Polk announced
he would run for Governor at a party given in hie honor in Kurfreesboro in
1838. President Martin Van Euren was a visitor in ^iu^freecbo^o in 184.1.
During the bitter 1839 struggle between the Whigs and Democrats, Yoakum
vas elected to the Tennessee Senate. Among the bills he introduced was
one to abolish the office of superintendent of public instruction. He
wag successful in his opposition to the State Aid Act for i.nternal im-
provements. As co-sponsor with James C. (Lean Jiismy) Jones from the
House of Representatives, he recommended the use of convict labor for the
"lunatic asylum". This predates by more than 135 years a "pre-release
for labor" plan for use of convict labor in Tennessee today.
He cajivassed the state on behalf of candidates for national office
and debated John Bsll as a champion of Fartin Van Buren. He accused the
Vlhig candidate, General V/illiam Henry Harrison, of "selling white men into
In 184.2, when the General Assembly was in special session for the
purpose of redistricting the state, Yoakum appealed to James K. Polk,
requesting that, "Rutherford Co\inty not be sacrificed to political ex-
pediency". Polk took the steps necessary to insure the success of Yoakum's
Yoakum was a staunch foe of alcohol, recording in his diai-y shortly
after moving to Texas that "liquor and profanity are at present the dis-
tinguishing faults of the great men of Texas." How he reconciled this
philosphy as a member of the Sons of Temperance with the hard drinking of
his close friend, Sam Houston, is one of the perplexities of this military
man, politician and religionist. ,
There are a few scattered references to Yoakum in nicrofiltn copies of
■Rutherford County newspapers.
He frequently purchased land at sheriff's sales, and he is listed as
a surety on a 3^100 note for Allan Jarnegan.
In 1840 he was an attorney for the reclamation of a slave. In the
same year he was named as an elector from the eighth district (Rutherford
County) for the l^rtin Van Buren-Richard Johnson presidential ticket.
He was given the power of attoi-ney by W. Mo Earthman for the V/illiam
V/ebber estate to provide for Earthman 's mother He handled a deed of
truc^ relating to slaves for Francis S. Manning and a similar duty for
A conveyance of six acres of land purchased from John Fletcher for
$35.30 is recorded.
One evidence of closing his affairs in Murfreesboro in October,
184.5 is the sale of lot number 69 in Murfreesboro (possibly his residence)
at Church and Vine Street to James B. Blockington for $1,500.
Henry King Yoakum never lost his feel for the military. The "Alamo
fever" struck Murfreesboro in 1835 with reports of Davy Crockett's
death. When volunteers were called to support the war for Texas inde-
pendence, sixty-four men were enrolled in the Murfreesboro Sentinels, a
cavalry unit, with Yoakiun serving as captain. After less than a month,
when it appeared Texas v/ould be successful, the Sentinels were mustered
out. However, on June 29, 1836, Yoakum enlisted for six months service
under Gen. Edmund P. Gaines and served on the Sabine frontier. Returning
to Murfreesboro, ho was elected mayor, a kind of hero's award.
In 1838 the Cherokees were removed from East Tennessee and Georgia.
When the Cherokees refused to move west from the Hiwassee Purchase, a call
for 2,500 volxintcors wag made. On Miy 13, 1838 Yoakun enllotcd in the
First Regiment, Tennessee Infantry. Thirteen days later he was named
resinental colonel. In that capacity, he led the rej-jinent into the heart
of the Cherokee coimtry and ever after bore the title, "Colonel Yoakum".
He inia mustered out July 12, 1838,
IJhat in Murf rcesboro ^.-as contemporary vriLth Henderson Yoakum, less
than a decade after it had been the capital of Tennessee?
It trcis a ccTntnimity of about 1,000 population with established
Baptist, Presbyterian and Methodist churches. Yoakum was a trustee in
the Methodist Chvirch, established in 1836. Bradley Academy was well
established and Union University was founded in 184.1 . William Ledbetter
v;as clerk and caster, l/illiam Lillard, sheriff and Charles Ready, post-
caster. The Murfreesboro Female Academy v/as just opening. A slave
market vras on the north side of the courthouse yard. There were et
least three hotels — Washington on the east side of the square, Lytles on
the south,, and Allcan's en the west.
.Edwin Keeble was editor and publisher of the Central Monitor, a
weekly newspaper. That editor Keeblo Eatutalncd the legend of Fovurth
Estate conviviality is suggested by a bulletin in one edition of the
Monitor that read:
"The gentleman who unceremoniously took E. G. Keeble' s um-
brella from Colonel Smith's tavern on the 5th inst., is par-
ticularly requested to call and pet his cloak also".
Yoakum cade a hurried trip to Texas in Juno, 18/+5 and wrote his friend,
Martin Van Buren, "To ask how I like Texas is to ask how I liko the United
States — for variety of soil, climate, etc., it is equally as prcat".
Having decided, on Huntsvllle, Texas as his future home, Yoakum spent
the period from June to October 1845 in closing out his business interests,
selling his residence for 0l,5OO, and einbarkinp on the journey that was to
bring him fame and fortune in the Lone Star State. Accompanying him were
his wife, Eveline Cannon Yoakum, daughters Eliza, Kartha, I-lary, Anne, and
Emily. In Texas four other children were born to the Yoakxim's — Houston,
vho married Fannie Dailey; Robert who never married; George, who died
while in service with the 5th Texas regiment C.S.A. in Virginia; and
Henderson, who died at the age of ten. Mrs. Yoakum lived until 1867.
In his diary Yoakum records the stage coach trip to N^w Orleans and
then the steamboat journey to Huntsville. On his arrival he wrote:
"Yesterday ve went house hunting — the house is old, open,
leaky and smoky. In addition to all this, there has been a
severe, "northern" winter. Yet we have some sweet potatoes
and coffee, upon which we must nake otirselves as comfortable
as we can."
Eight years later he recalled the circumstances of the early winter
arrival in Texas with the statement, "When I arrived here eight years
ago, I had but a single dollar, and neither house nor land where-with-all
to feed and clothe my family; and besides a constitution broken down in
political warfare". In the letter to a friend, Thomas J. Rusl<i he said,
"I threw down the glove against 'Vhite Whiggery. I followed politics as
a profession and practiced it with the zeal of a lover . . . until I had
spent all I had made and my children cried for bread when I had it not to
On December 2, 1845 he obtained a license to pratice law in Texas and
qxilckly established himself as a successful lawyer. He became the personal
ccmr^alor for Cm nciir^tcrio lie ectinnollccl \rlth Ilounton on c.ll tjrpon of
;;'crcona.l ani poUtical prcblci-a . Jl?. dcfcrrlc;! Itrao Houcton on en arsault
end battery trial end c^-lncd a nictrialo
Hg appoarcd cnce attain in uniform, carving fro:a May l6 xrntil October 2,
1?<,6 as a lioutcnant in the 1st Recincnt, Tc3:as Movmted Rifles, partici-
pating vd.th distinotion in tho tattle of Monterey. He v/as mustered out a
colonel in the Texas ydlitia, a rank he retained xmtil his death.
An inventory of his estate in 1556-57, a decade after he cane im-
poverished to Huntsville, -evcaled the cuccess of his lai; practice and
land speculation. In addition to his residence in Huntsville, he ovmed
3,720 acres of land in Walker Coxmty, 1,065 acres in Polk County, 1,085
acres in Houston and Cherokee Coxmtics, 17 slaves, and other personal
property valued at 02,901,23.
Certainly tb^s \ra3 a remarkable achievement for the former nayor of
Murfreesboro vho had left Tennessee, "broken in health and fortvtne, the
victim of VJhite '.-fhiggery".
He aided in establishing the Andrew Fenale' Academy in Huntsville and
idth Sam Houston served as a member of the official board until the time
of his death. He served on tho Board of Aldermen in Huntsville, and in
1849 was appointed Attorney General by the Governor of Texas. He also
served as an active trustee of Austin College and became the High Priest
of the Texas Masonic Lodge.
Perhaps his most lasting fame came in the writing of a two-volume
History of Texas , From the First Settlement in l6S5 to its Annexation to
the United States in I84.6 . Dr. Pittard states that "it is a mystery how
Yoalcu^i found tir.e to compile this work, which the historian, Hubert H.
Dancroft, described as 'cno of the best, if not tho best history of Texnc'."
In November, 1856 Colonel Yoakum accepted an invitation to deliver
a Masonic address in Houston. While there he was stricken with a "tuber-
cular attack" in the home of Judge and lira. P. \1. Gray. On November 29,
at the age of 4.6, he died. The body was carried to Huntsville and in-
terred in Oakwood Cemetery. The moniiment in Oakwood Cemetery reads: "In
memory of the high appreciation of his character as a man, his usefulness
as a citizen, his ability as a lavorer, his fellow citizens have erected
this m-.-nument to Col. Henderson King Yoakum.
loakum County, Texas, of which Plain is the county seat, located
against the New Mexico border was named in honor of Henderson King Yoakum.
When San Houston was dying at his "Steamboat House" in Houston,
Texas, July 1863, he requested that he be buried beside his friend,
Col. Henderson King Yoakum.
Col. Henderson King Yoakum, transplanted Tennessean who became a
close friend and legal advisor for Sam rlouston.
Graveside marker for Col. Henderson King Yoakmri in Oakwood Cemetery,
Kiontsville, Texas. 3an Houston is buried nearby.
Rhea and McMlnn Coiinty Covirthousc records
U.S. Military Acndeniy records of rGCorninendation and George Yoakuin'vS
letter of assent for his son to sign the articles of obligation
for cervice, April 22, 1823
Letter from Eveline Yoakua to her nother, Murfreesboro, Tennessee,
April 3, 1333, now in the University of Texas, Austin
Sims, Hi story of Ruthe .-ford Coimty , pp.- SS-89
Austin (T3xas) College catalog, 1855-56, pp. 71-73
HandbooV of Texas . Vol. II, p. 945
The Texas banner , (Huntsville, Texas) October 6, 184-9
The Texas Bar Journal, September 22, 1970, an article by Bov;en C. Tatura Jr.,
' "A Texas Patriot", pp. 219-22^
Oakv/ood Cemetery Records, Huntsville, Texas
Houston Daily Post , October 26, 1908, q letter written by his son
Dallas Morning News, August 21, 1932, a featiire story v;ritten by
Evelyn M. Carrington, "Yoakum, Fiery Historian of Shepherd 'rj
Valley", p. 3 et, seq.
Book C, Probate Minutes of Walker County, Texas, p. 24.7, covering will
eind Inventory of Henderson King Yoakum's property.
Letter from Robert J. Suddar^h, Circuit Court Clerk of Rutherford CciLnty,
Tennessee January 15, 1969, concerning legal practice in Tennessee,
records were destroyed by Union operations against the Conf edez-acy,
UNCLE AGGIE McPEAK'S GRIST hCCLL
Mrs. Pauline M. Dillon
Uncle Aggie McPeak's grist mill was located in Rutherford County,
16th district, on a farm about 1/2 mile north of the Bradley's Creek
Baptist Church on Bradley's Creek and was owned by P. A. McPeak (Uncle
It vfas a two-story wooden building that partly hovered over a thick
rock-cemented sqiiare v;all or sl;iic&-way vd.th gates that could be raised
or lowered at each end to control the flow of the water. This sluice-
way contained the water wheel which was at the end of the mill dam.
This mill dam \!as made up of big thick rock-fence type rocks and covered
horizontally and securely with long wooden planks. The top of the dam
was mrach higher than the banks of the creek and was shaped like the
half of a house top that went sloping downward to the creek bed. The
dam formed a mill pond above the dam which reserved the water for the
power used in the grinding.
On the front of the bizilding was a porch. The patrons came to
mill on horseback vd.th their huge sacks of shelled com behind them and
would unload them on this porch.
Uncle Aggie would then roll the sacks of corn into the mill with
a two-wheeled, steel-tire push wagon or cart, take out the toll corn
with a small red cedar square box measure and pour it into a big unused
hog- scalding box with the other toll corn.
He would take the rest of the sack of com and pour it into a big
wooden hopper that was built abovo the big mill stones to be groiind
into Eeal. As tho corn \ras being groimd or crushed between these huge
mill stones, tho meal came out beneath in a little trough onto which
the patron's sack was fastened. Vflien finished grinding, Uncle Aggie,
the dusty miller, removed the sack of meal, tied it securely and the
patron would be on his way. Then came the next patron and so on.
Sometimes the mill stones needed sharpening, and it took a skilled
mill Wright to do the job. The one that came here was on old French-
man by the name of DeHaven who was a traveling mill wright. He came
by once or twice a year and sometimes would stay a week while doing
Uncle Aggie (P. A. McPeak) died in 1912. After that, his son,
Charlie W, McPeak, probably operated the mill intermittenly for a few
years, maybe until about 1918.
Now the mill is gone, also the mill dam and rock-wall sluice-
xmy. The heavy rains with their high flood waters gradually washed
There's nothing left of the old mill but the two huge mill stones
\Aich are reserved and kept in memory of the old Ifeicle Aggie McPeak
grist mill that he operated from 1878 - 1912.
Mrs. Pauline M. Dillon
From Down Memory Lane
METHODISTS AND MURFREESBORO IN THE MID- NINETEENTH CENTURY
by Jerry H. Brookshire
Murfreesboro and the nation experienced a critical and fascinating
period during the three decades of the 184.0's-60*s: the late antebellum
era, Civil War, and Reconstruction. The conditions during this period can
be partially revealed through studies of the various facets of life at the
time. This paper vdll examine one such aspect — Methodism in Murfreesboro -
with particular emphasis on membership patterns as affected by slavery,
Civil War, and Reconstruction.
Some brief introductory comments about the Methodist organizational
structure may be in order. The Methodist Episcopal Church had a quadrennial
General Conference. The church was divided into many subgroupings , called
"conferences," most of which were the size of a state or portion of a state.
Each conference held a yearly meeting called the Annual Conference; the
Tennessee Conference usually met in October. A conference was divided into
districts, over which were presiding elders (district superintendents) .
Then there was the local charge or circuit, consisting of one or more
chvirches, and to which would be appointed a pastor(s). In the Tennessee
Conference, appointments were usvially changed every year.
In 1844.-1845 a major split in the Methodist Episcopal Church occurred;
the ch\irch throughout most of the slaveholding states formed itself into
the Methodist Episcopal Chxirch, South, and the remainder throughout the
nation continued with the original name. Slavery was one significant issue
which brought about this split, and directly involved in this separation
were several men closely associated with Murfreesboro Methodism.
Methodism in America had struggled with the problem of slavery for
many decades. The 1784. conference which organized the Methodist Episcopal
Church for the newly independent United States forbade slave trade or ^
ownership by members and established a procedure for the gradual emancipation
by Methodist owners. At first, most preachers and laymen took this provision
seriously, but over the next three decades the General Conference gradvially
modified its anti-slavery position and even provided some local options by
Annual Conferences on the issue. In the Tennessee Conference there were
some heated debates, especially in 1819, but generally by the 1820's ^
slavery was becoming tolerated for several reasons. Throughout the south
the cotton economy was growing and slavery was becoming more pervasive,
and particularly in Tennessee, Methodists were evolving from "frontiersmen"
to more settled, more affluent people. Some preachers in Tennessee were
Harrying into slave-owning families, and moreover, some of the most vocal,
anti-slavery preachers were recognizing the change and were moving to non-
slave states.^ Following the 182A General Conference, the position was
that Methodist laymen could own slaves, but that slavery was considered an evil and an
official within the church could neither buy and sell slaves nor own slaves
(unless the law in his state prohibited emancipation), and even this
provision was not enforced.
Two important secondary sources on the chiirch separation are the per-
tinent sections of William Warren Sweet, The Methodi st Episcopal Church and
the Civil War (Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern Press, 1912) and Emory
Stevens Bucke, gen. ed., The History of American Methodism . 3 vols. (New
York: Abingdon Press, I964.).
^oda Lee Kennedy, "The Methodist Church in Tennessee, 1 800-1 82i;"
(Thesis, George Peabody College, 1929), pp. 59-62.
Within the United States during the 1830's and 18^4.0' s, abolition
jnovements became significant. Slavery became a very controversial issue
among Methodists, although the aboUtionists gained little support in the
1836 and I84O General Conferences. In the early 18.^0' s, the anti-slavery
movement grew stronger, and the issue at the \^UU General Conference pre-
cipitated a split in the church.
The General Conference met in New York in May and June of 18/W.. All
four delegates from the Tennessee Conference are associated with the Mui-- ^
freesboro church. Robert Paine had been its first pastor two decades
earlier, Thomas Madden bec&me its pastor six years later, and A. L. P.
Green was twice the presiding elder (district superintendent) of the Mur-
freesboro district. John B. McFerrin was never assigned to Murfreesboro,
but he often preached there on special occasions and was a close relative
of later pastors there; McFerrin edited the Southwestern Christian Advocate
located in Nashville and used it in 18iW.-4.5 to print letters and articles
by himself and others which strongly favored the separation of the church
and which criticized northern Methodists."^
The 184-4 General Conference experienced a heated debate which centered
arotmd Bishop James 0. Andrews of Georgia, who through marriage and inheri-
tance became owner of a few slaves in a state in which emancipation was
illegal. One motion at the General Conference proposed to remove him as
bishop since he owned slaves; the amended version which passed 110 to 68
retained him in office but suspended him from performing any duties as
bishop while he continued to own slaves. All four Tennessee delegates
^Lewis McCarroll Piirifoy, Negro Slavery ; The Moral Ordeal of
Southern Methodism . 18^4-1861 (Lake Junaluska, N.C.: Association of
Methodist Historical Societies, I966), pp. 81-82.
voted vdth the minority, and Green spoke passionately during the debate.
The long debate was not on slavery itself, for most delegates considered
Slavery a sin; that debate, as well as an earlier one at the Conference,
centered on the power of the General Conference to interfere in areas
affecting the duties of bishops. In fact, even after the split in the
church, the Methodist Episcopal Church included slave-holding states
(border states), and only in 186-^ did its General Conference prohibit slave
ownership by members.
At the 18^ General Conference, following the defeat of the southern
position on the Andrews case, McFerrin's motion was passed that a "Committee
of Nine" devise a method for a possible division of the church if Annual
Conferences in slave-holding states chose to form their own organization.
Paine chaired the committee and then explained and defended its "Plan of
Separation" in the resulting debates. The General Conference accepted it
Delegates from the southern Conferences then continued to meet for
another day in New York and agreed that their Annual Conferences should
determine their positions on separation and appoint delegates to a special
convention in Louisville in May 18^5- The Tennessee Annual Conference
later in 18U strongly supported separation^ and sent to Louisville ten
men. Four had attended the 18U General Conference and had signed the call
for the Louisville convention; of the other six, five are associated with
Murfreesboro as pastors or presiding elders: Fountain E. Pitts, J. W. Hanner,
^History of the Organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church , South,
vlth the Journal of Its First General Conference (Nashville: Publishing
House, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1925), pp. 95-96, Ul-U^- This
is a collection of pertinent documents.
^Ibid., pp. 101, passim .
^Ibid., pp. 182-85.
Joshxia Boucher,' Robert L. Andrews (its then presiding elder), and Ambrose
F. Driskill (Andrews' successor the next year). At Loudsville, Paine and
Pitts served on the important Committee of Organization and all ten voted
with the overwhelming majority to create a separate church, the Methodist -^
Episcopal Church, South.
Slavery and the relationship of white and black members within the -'
church was a crucial concern for the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.
Its first General Conference strongly recommended that there not be sep-
arate black congregations (called African missions or colored missions) -jf
within districts; rather, blacks and whites should belong to the same
congregations and worship together even though there would be segregation
in seating. Most supporters of that arrangement considered it better spir-
itually for blacks and whites alike (many clergymen stressed the equality
of souls) and also financially (for whites would have to support the "mis-
sions")- Despite that appeal, many churches and districts did not follow
that pattern. In antebellum Murfreesboro, where about half of the members ^
of the Methodist church were slaves, the worship arrangements for the blacks
varied throughout the period.
At times, apparently there were joint worship services by the two
races, for the old church building (constructed in 1823 ) and the new one
Boucher had signed a vigorous protest following the 1819 Annual
Conference for its refusal to admit on trial to the clergy a slave-owner.
John B. McFerrin, History of Methodism in Tennessee . 3 vols. (Nashville:
Southern Methodist Publishing House, 1869-73), 3: 160-161 .
^Organization . . . M. E. C . South , pp. 239, 24.8, 262-63.
°Piirifoy, Negro Slavery , pp. 14.6-14.7.
^History of Tennessee . . ..Rutherford . « ». (Nashville; Goodspeed
Publishing Co., 1886), p. 84-0.
which replaced it in 184,3'''' each had a gallery for slaves. Even so, most
services were separate according to G. T. Henderson, once its pastor and a "
long-time Murfreesboro Methodist during this period. Henderson wrote that
"negroes worshiped in the ^^8233 church every Sunday afternoon at 3 o'clock,
with Thomas Hartwell as their preacher," and in the 18^3 building, the "base-
ment was used by the negroes for general services and Sunday school purposes."
For most of this period, the whites and blacks were considered part of
the same "congregation," whether or not they actually worshiped together.
For other years, though, they were separate congregations. For the first
time in the official chiirch membership records, in October 184.5 no blacks were
listed on the Murfreesboro chiirch rolls; they and blacks from other churches
in the vicinity were in the "Stone's River African Mission" circuit. Al- ^
though that special circuit continued (with some interruption) until the war
years, from 184.7 iintil 1853 the Murfreesboro membership records again included .
both whites and blacks. In 1853 the pastoral assignment specified a "Murfrees-
boro' and col'd mis," indicating that there were two separate congregations ■"
sharing the same pastors. -^ The next year (1854) the two races were separated
into different charges with the creation of the Rutherford colored mission," "
vrtiich lasted only one year and whose preacher was Elisha Carr. For the next
Carlton C. Sims, ed., A History of Rutherford County , ^turfreesboro,
Tenn.: Carlton C. Sims, 1947] p. 196.
C. C. Henderson, The Story of Murfreesboro (Murfreesboro, Tenn.: News-
Banner Publishing Co., 1929), p. 131. Sims states that the basement was
"sometimes used for Negroes." Ibid.
"^There is no indication whether T. W. Handle or his assistant Abraham
Overall had specific responsibility for the black congregation.
three years (1855/56-1857/58) whites and blacks were listed in the same Mur-
freesboro congregation, but the next two years (1858/59 and 1859/60) Kurfrees-
boro was again an all-white congregation, and its blacks were included in the -
Stone's River African Mission. During the remaining two years (1860/61 and
1861/62) before the va.T interrupted, whites and blacks were again listed in
the same congregation (the 1862 membership figures recorded 24.3 whites and -
267 blacks). ^"^
Apparently in antebellum Murfreesboro, only occasionally did the blacks
and whites worship together in segregated seatings; the pattern was separate :4
worship services, especially by the 1840's. The constant separating of the
two congregations during the two decades before the Civil War indicates that
these were probably merely organizational or administrative changes and that
the races worshiped separately even when technically part of the same congre-
gation (or "station" or "church").
Preachers assigned to black congregations were white. A glimpse into "^
the worship services is fo\ind in a series of essays on Elisha Carr, who served
about half his ministry in black missions, including one year in Murfreesboro.
He disliked what he considered excessive or feigned emotionalism of blacks
diiring worship; he also was reputed once to have carried pebbles to throw at
those who slept during services. He believed he understood the "black character,"
""^The information found above in this paragraph is from the various
Tennessee Annual Conference reports in the yearly Minutes of the Annual Con-
ferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South . . . (Nashville: Southern
Methodist Publishing House) . Unfortunately, figures on membership totals may
not always be accurate, especially on black membership when at times "round
niunbers" seem to be used. Black membership in Murfreesboro in the IS^O's and
1850's generally ranged between 130 and 180. Since the Annual Conference
usually met in October each year, a church year is from October to October.
Membership figures are supposedly for that time of year; however, if whites and
blacks are listed in the same congregation then, that does not necessarily in-
dicate they were part of the same congregation for the entire preceeding year.
•^No information has been located on Thomas Hartwel] though most likely
he, too, was white.
and he preached to them to end their faults, be honest, and obey their mas-
ters. His views on blacks may have been very sirailiar to his friend, A. P.
L. Green, a slave-owner preacher vrtio believed the system of slavery under
good masters was beneficial to blacks for he felt that they were inherently
incompetent to control themselves. Jithin the black I'lurfreesboro congre-
gation were some members who had leadership positions and preached some sermons.
The postwar black congregation was listed as having four Qblack^ "local
preachers"; the pastor, Braxton James, had been such a preacher there while a ^
The Civil War came to middle Tennessee and Kurfreesboro in 1862. In y
late February, the Confederate army abandoned Nashville, and Murfreesboro be-
came the temporary headquarters of General Albert Sydney Johnston before he
moved south to fight and die at Shiloh in April. The Federal army took control
of Murfreesboro from the spring imtil the autumn of 1862, though possession was
temporarily interrupted by Forrest's raid in July. In the autumn, General
Brajcton Bragg' s Confederate army withdrew from its campaign in Kentucky to >kir-
freesboro in anticipation of an attack on Nashville. Instead, the Federal
forces advanced from Nashville and defeated the Confederates in the Battle of
Murfreesboro (or Stone's River, December 30, 1862 to January 2, 1863). Bragg's
army was forced back tov;ard Chattanooga, and the Federal army occupied Murfreesboro
""^A. L. P. Green, "The Rev. Elisha Carr." The Home Circle 7 (July I860):
28-29. William M. Green, "Pleasant Recollections of Rev. Elisha Carr," The
Home Monthly 4 (February, ^krch, April, and M^y 1868): 88-90, 111-13,
William M. Green, Life and Papers of A. L. P. Green , ed. T. 0. Summers
(Nashville: Southern Methodist Publishing House, 1877), pp. 167-68. Future
research into slave ownership and views on slavery by Murfreesboro Methodist
laymen and other preachers could prove rewarding.
^° Minutes of the Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church. . . ,
(New York: Methodist Episcopal Church), for 1866, pp. 258-59« From the records,
it is not clear v/hether or not James was included in that number of "local
preachers." See also James' obituary in the same publication, 1885, p. 342. y
thereafter. The Union forces built the massive Fort Rosencrans to protect
its major supply depot there and maintained effective control over the city
and its people.
The Murfreesboro Methodist church and the entire Tennessee Conference
was greatly disrupted by the war and enemy occupation. The Annual Conference
of October 1862 met in Cornersville, which was accessible and not in Union
•hands, and then it did not meet again until three years later, after the war
was over. Because of the confusion and uncertainty, practically no changes in
pastoral appointments were made at that 1862 conference. Actually, many pul-
pits were not being filled, for almost one-fifth of the clergymen of the
Tennessee Conference were serving in the Confederate army. Many others
left this area for Confederate controlled territory or remained "quietly at
home"; A. L. P. Green in 1869 asserted that Federal troops "arrested and sent
off to prison a considerable number of the Methodist preachers in Nashville
and its vicinity."
In 1862 George L. Staley was reappointed as the Murfreesboro pastor, but -
there is no evidence as to how long he continued to serve, since Conference
records were not kept between October 1862 and October 1865. Reappointed
as his assistant in 1862 was E. J. Allen, a "supernumerary" preacher who had
been the assistant in Murfreesboro since 1857 and who continued to serve within
the district as an assistant pastor in the postwar period. Allen was apparently
a permanent resident of Murfreesboro, and perhaps he led the congregation
Carter, History of the Tennessee Conference , pp. 14,7-51 .
^Green, Life and Papers of A. L. P. Green , p. 508.
*^' Information gathered by >fertha Ison, "Traveling Connection, Murfreesboro
First Methodist," 1: 90. No obituary exists to shed any light on the question.
^^See Minutes . . . J^.E.C . South for the appropriate years.
during much of the war period. G. T. Henderson, a former Murfreesboro pastor
and by then a permanent resident and a publisher in Murfreesboro, served as a
Chaplin in the Confederate army until "disabled by rheumatism . . . near the
close of the war." He then returned to the niinistry, and though it is not
clearly stated, he may have led the local church toward the end of the war.
There is not, thus, any solid information on whether or not the Methodist
congregation had an ordained minister during the last two and a half years
of the war.
The Civil War and Reconstruction affected church attendance and member-
ship, both of whites and blacks. Ore obvious feature was that some members
served in the Confederate army^ and thus were not in l-iurfreesboro during
part of the war. Another is that overall white membership seriously declined
beginning with the report of October 1861: 1859 (278), I860 (308), 1861 (251),
1862 (2.;3), 1863 and 186^ (no records), 1865 (229), 1866 (215).^^ One may
only speculate as to the causes of that decline: reduction of religious in-
terest, economic disruption, social instability, etc. Other features involving
membership and attendance were political controversies, loss of the church
building during much of the war, black members forming their separate congre- -/
gation(s), and the Methodist Episcopal Chvirch's attempt to establish a second,
and rival, white church in Murfreesboro.
At least one member withdrew from the church in a very passionate and
controversial dispute over loyalty to the Union or the Confederacy. Most of
^^This portion of Henderson's "obitviary" was written by him. Ison,
"Travelling Connection," 1: 27-32.
^This obvious generalization is based on a few pertinent biographical
sketches, especially foiind in Goodspeed's History ...Rutherford.. . , pp. 1019-
76, and ibid.
• "Minutes . . .M.E.C. . South , appropriate years.
the white members of the church strongly supported the Confederacy. One who
did not was James M. Tompkins, a prosperous farmer and merchant and successful
county political figure; he had served in several political positions, in-
cluding one term (1855-57) as a member of the General Assembly. In December
1861 he was elected a city alderman, and when in 1-lay 1862 the Federal author-
ities in Murfreesboro required all officials to take a prescribed oath, he -^
was one of the few who did; those who did not were removed from office. The
remaining aldermen then elected him mayor, a post he held for several months
until the war conditions ended the municipal and civil government. His polit-
ical activities were very unpopular in Murfreesboro in that chaotic year of
1862; he even had two sons in the Confederate army. This tension was re-
flected in the Murfreesboro Methodist church, where he was a member and a
steward. The controversy became so intense that he withdrew his membership
from the church that year, and although he expected to re-enter the church
later on, he finally decided against that and in 1868 joined the Cumberland
Worship service was fvu-ther interrupted by the war as the congregation
lost control of its building in 1862. As with many other large, sturdy,
brick structures in Murfreesboro, the Methodist church building vras taken over
as a hospital, first by the Confederates and then by the Union which held it
until 1865. The structure was severely damaged, and in 1873 it was so com-
pletely remodeled that it was rededicated. For at least part of the time that
^^James M. Tompkins, "Memoirs of James M. Tompkins ( 'V/ritten by Himself')"
and Homer Pittard, "Occupation ^ilyor: The Honorable J. M. Tompkins,"
Publications of the Rutherford County Historical Society 2 (Winter '•973),
pp. 32-36, 30-31; Biorrraphical Directory , Tennessee General Assembly, 1796-
1967 (Preliminary, No. 6) Rutherford County (Nashville: Tennessee State
Library and Archives, (19S8), p. 57; and biographies of two of his sons
(Robert and Albert G.) in Goodspeed's History . . .Rutherford . . ., pp. 'Ob/- ■
68. The blurred Tompkins memoirs have dates which may be read as 1882 and
1888 or 1862 and 1868; the latter are obviously correct since he died in 1870.
Tompkins wrote this memoir for his children to explain his actions to them.
Apparently he was deeply concerned about the religious controversy, for he ends
with that topic and he wrote this memoir only four months after he decided to
join the Cumberland Presbyterian church.
the Methodists were vdthout their building, they used the still incomplete
but "less damaged" Cumberland Presbyterian church for Methodist services.
A similar problem affected the black members. A history of a black Methodist -
church founded after the Civil War states that during that war, the blacks
worshiped in some of their houses, in the basement of the Methodist church
building, and finally in the Primitive Baptist church.
By the end of the war there was the new question of membership of now
freed black Methodists. Throughout the south, there was by the whites the
general acceptance of separate black congregations, with their own officials
and often their own [blackj pastors. Most white Methodist leaders hoped that
these black congregations would remain within the Methodist Episcopal Church,
South; special circuits and African missions were established or continued. -
The white Methodist leaders believed that the ending of slavery did not mean
that they should end their concern for aiding and perhaps controlling the
religious development of blacks. But black membership fell drastically,
especially as individual blacks and often entire congregations joined the
(independent) African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, or the Methodist Epis-
copal Church which sent "missionaries" to the south to serve both whites and
blacks. To counter or reverse this loss of membership, the Methodist Episcopal
Based nainly on Goodspeed's History. . .Rutherford . . . , pp. 837, 839-4-0;
also J. B. McFerrin, History of Methodism in Tennessee , 3: 34-7 (on his dedicating
the building), and C. C. Henderson, Story of Murfreesboro . p. 131 (on its retiirn
to the congregation in 1865).
^^hkttie D. Bracy, "The Development of the Negro Church in Rutherford
County" (undergraduate paper, Tennessee A. and I., 1944-), p. H. One of her
sources is a now lost work by Mrs. J. P. McClellan, "History of Key Memorial
Methodist Church," [n.p., n.d.^. The sequence of the locations of worship
is as given by Bracy, but one may wonder if not the loss of the church building
to the Methodists caused the black members to then worship in various houses
and then finally in the Primitive Baptist church.
Church, South, made an unsuccessful attempt to merge with the African Methodist
Episcopal Church in 1866. Then in general recognition that most blacks wanted
complete control of their own church organization, the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South, helped sponsor in 1870-71 the establishment of the Colored ^--
Methodist Episcopal Church. ^"^
In 1865 in the Kurfreesboro district (of the Methodist Episcopal Church,
South), an attempt was made to include all black members (200, obviously an
estimate) within one "African mission" circuit attached to a white circuit.
This failed, and from 1867 on there were very few black members, some having
joined the Colored Methodists, the African Methodists, or the Methodist
By the end of the war, the black Methodists in Murfreesboro were no ^
longer associated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The Methodist
Episcopal Church sent a northern missionary to Murfreesboro in 1865, but
the local black congregation was at first independent. It soon became affil-
iated with the African Methodist Episcopal Church, which ordained as elder
its local pastor, Breixton James. In October 1866, the Methodist Episcopal
Church held the founding meeting of its Tennessee Conference in Murfreesboro.
Probably while in town for the event, W. H. Pearne (presiding elder for the
Memphis district and a missionary to the south from a New York conference)
^Hunter Dickinson Parish, The Circuit Rider Dismounts ; A Social History
of Southern Methodism . 1865-1900 (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1938), pp. 163-76.
^ ^Minutes . . .M.E.C. . South, appropriate years.
^''Sims, Rutherford County , p. 189.
^^See footnote 42.
33 Minutes of . . .M.E.C. for 1866 (pp. 258-59 for the Tennessee Annual"
Conference, and p. 89 for Pearne, a missionary from the V/yoming Annual Con-
ference in New York state) .
preached to that local black Methodist congregation. He offered aid to the
chirrch, including aid to build a chapel (and probably to help pay the pastor •"
and help develop a Sunday School). All but eleven of the congregation of
about sixty to seventy agreed to join the Methodist Episcopal Church. The
eleven who renained as African Methodists were the nucleus of the future ^
Allen's Chapel; the bulk of the congregation which joined the Methodist
Episcopal Church later became Key Memorial. At this October 1866 Tennessee
Conference, the local minister, Braxton James, was "appointed" to the Mur-
freesboro "second charge," located in the Nashville Mission District. ^^
The Methodist Episcopal Church obtained for the congregation a lot for
the church building, and federal government allowed it to dismantle the Fort -^
Rosecrans commissary and rebuild it for its church, which was used until
about 1880.^^ A northern Methodist missionary to New Orleans about this
time explained and defended the Methodist Episcopal Church activities in the
south, esjiecially because blacks needed financial support for church buildings
and educational programs. By 1867, the Radical Murfreesboro newspaper,
Freedoms Watchman, noted a flourishing Sunday School at the "colored congre- ^
gation of 250 students and 24 teachers.-^' The church building was also used
for a school, its teacher being first a missionary from the north, then the \6
pastor, Braxton James, and later employees of the public school system.
^"^Ibid., and Bracy, "Negro Church in Rutherford County," pp. 14-15, 30.
In describing the Pearne visit, her sources gave the date as 1867; the
Minutes . . ■ M.E.C. indicates 1866.
^^Bracy, "Negro Church in Rutherford County," p. 15.
3^L. C. Matlack, "The Methodist Episcopal Church in the Southern Slates,"
Methodist Quarterly Review 54 (January 1872): 103-27.
^'^November 17, 1867.
3°Bracy, "Negro Church in Rutherford County," p. 15.
The local church was active in other ways too, for in 1867, a brush arbor re-
vival greatly increased its membership, apparently both through new members
and by regaining some others who had been members while slaves."^
The Methodist Episcopal Church also tried to create white congregations
in the south. During the war, the Federal government allowed its pastors
(missionaries from the north) to take over some buildings of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South, in occupied cities,^ a practice which was stopped -
when the war ended. Although one of Nashville's Methodist churches experi-
enced this,"* the Murfreesboro Methodist church did not. Northern mission-
aries were sent to Murfreesboro. The Ohio Annual Conference in October 1865
listed one of its pastors, Wesley Prettyman, as a missionary to Murfreesboro,
but if he did actually come to the town, he failed to establish either a
black or a white congregation. In October 1866 he was assigned to Atlanta.
A white congregation was organized in Miirfreesboro during or just prior to the
founding/ meeting in the town of the Tennessee Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church in October 1866.'^^ The pastor of this "Murfreesboro first
charge" for its initial two years was Amasa A. Brown, a missionary from the
-^^Ibid. Bracy mentions a "hundred conversions and two hundred added to
the church." This increase (though not the base number) coincides generally
with the records for appropriate years in Minutes of . . .M.E.C. which listed
1866 U2U members), 1867 (500), and then 1868 (650 members).
^ Street, Methodist Episcopal Church and the Civil War, pp. 98-99.
^ McFerrin, Methodism in Tennessee . 3: H9-50.
^ ^Minutes of . . . M.E.C. (Ohio Conference in 1865, Tennessee Conference
^^Freedorns Watchman . November 30, 1867, states it was organized "a ^
little over a year ago."
North West Indiana Conference who moved on to the Kansas Conference in 1868.'^
The church had "many obstacles. to contend against. "^^ One was the lack of a
church building; it held its services in McFadden's Hall. The most important
problem was membership. V/hite Methodist Episcopal churches in southern states
were expected to serve northern Methodists who were in the south and local
Methodists who opposed the church separation two decades earlier. Apparently
there were few of either in Murfreesboro,^° for the church soon died. The
membership figures were as follows: in 1866 when founded (40 members, 3 pro-
bationers, and 1 local preacher), 1867 (48, 47, and 2), 1868 (26, 1, 0),
1869 (21, 0, 0), and thereafter no pastor nor membership figures were given
and no mention of the church was made after 1871 .
The Civil War thus had a tremendous effect on the Methodist organization
in Murfreesboro. The Methodists in antebellum years, while divided into black
^Minutes of . .-.M.E.C. for appropriate years and annual conferences.
When Brown was mentioned as the Rutherford County SuperintendenL of Publi;;
Schools, he was described as a "Negro Methodist Episcopal minister" in Ihrtha
McCullough Bouldin, "A Decade in Rutherford County, 1865-1875" (Thesis,
Middle Tennessee State University, 1973), p. 24. No source was given, but it
seems incorrect considering his past and future assignments as well as his
Murfreesboro pastorate for the white congregation.
^ ^Freedoms Watchman , November 20, 1867.
^^Ibid. Also, listed were "0" buildings in the Minutes of . . .M.E.C.
for the appropriate years.
^ Mat lack, "The Methodist Episcopal Church in the Southern States," p. 106.
^ One nay speculate if Tompkins was a member. He left the Methodist Epis-
copal Church, South, in 1862 and finally joined the Cumberland Presbyterian
church in August 1868. It was the autumn of 1668 that the white Methodist Epis-
copal Church seemed to be failing; its membership was only half of the October
1867 figure, and also its missionary pastor left for a northern conference.
^" Minutes of . . .M.E.C. for appropriate years. Freedoms Watchman , ".•. ^'\
1867, fully displayed its bias by claiming that the membership was "almost the
average equal of any of our city churches."
and white congregations, were within the sane church (l-'iethodist Episcopal
Church, South), shared the same building, and often were within the same "charge"
and shared the same pastor. Shortly after the war there were at least four con-
gregations: a small black African Methodist Episcopal Church (future Allen's
Chapel), the larger black Methodist Episcopal Church (future Key Memorial),
the struggling and soon terminated white Methodist Episcopal Church, and the
white Methodist Episcopal Church, South. That latter congregation ("First
Methodist") did experience some reduction in its white membership, which
averaged about twenty percent lower in the first five postwar years than in
the five years preceeding the war, although by the next decade its membership
surpassed its prewar numbers. Though long lasting, not all the divisions
within Methodism in the mid-nineteenth century were pernanent. In 1938 the
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and Methodist Episcopal Church me^^ged.
This again brought I-lurfreesboro's white Methodists and most of its black
Methodists into the same denominational structure while still maintaining
Minutes of . . . M.E.C. . South for appropriate years.
William, Robert and Nathaniel Overall, Pioneer
Settlers at the Bluff
Copied from a handwritten report by: Lula Virginia Ramsey Mc'C!e(\
Jackson, Tennessee, February, 1908.
The Overalls were of Saxon origin. The first of whom we have any
knowledge was George Overall, who settled in Thuxted, Essexslii I'c, I'lngland
during the reign of Henry the Eighth. He died in 15 61 leaving two sons,
William and John. John was born in 1559 and died at Noi-wich in Kil!). IIi>
was educated at Johns College but later went to Trinity Colicgt' wIum^' he
became noted for his piety and great learning. Dr. Overall becann' Dean of
St. Pauls in London in 1601 and at the Hampton Court Meeting held by King
James the First in 1604 was the second man chosen of the fifty appointed
by the King James to translate the Bible. As everyone knows this Js llie
King James Version used for almost three hundred years. Dr. John Overall
wrote much^but his best known work was his Convocation Book. Di-. Ovei-all
was made Bishop of London in 1614 and died five years later in 1619.
There are many Overalls in England at the present time; and all both
in England and America, are descended from the same English stock. Many
claim descent from Bishop Overall, but others say that all in both countries
are descended from his elder brother William.
The Overalls came to America in 1698 settling in Prince William and
Stafford Counties, Virginia. William Overall of Stafford County, Vii'giiiia
had four sons, Jolin, William, Nathaniel and Robert. John went to
Frederick County, Virginia and married Sara Jane Froman. Their old
homestead is now a railroad station and post office called Overall, though
since the divisions made of the old Frederick County, it is now in Page
County. The old place is still occupied by one of the name. Miss Ilarriol
John and Sara Jane Overall had four sons and throe daughters- J olm,
William, Nathaniel, Robert, Mary, Nancy, and Christina. Of these seven^
only John remained in Virginia, the others all coming to TennesHcc-. John
married Elizabeth Waters^ and they had three sons; Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob. Two of these, Abraham and Jacob^ came to Tennessee in J 304.
Isaac remained in Virginia^ and his descendants live in Washington,
Philadelphia and Virginia.
William Overall went from Virignia to the Watauga settJemont in East
Tennessee^ and we find his name among those who signed the petition for
annexation to North Carolina^ which bore no date but was i-eceived in Ualejgh
When James Robertson set out from Watauga for the Cumberland to
found a settlement in a fairer land, he was accompanied by seven oIIkm-
white men. These were George Freeland, William Neely, James llanly,
Mark Robertson, Edward Swanson, Zachariah White and William Overall.
They left Watauga in the early spring of 1779 and reached the CumbcM-land
on Christmas Day. They made a crop of corn that summer near where
Nashville now stands. After the corn was made. Overall, Swanson and
White were left to keep the buffaloes from the corn, while the others
returned to Watauga with Robertson for their families and to induce others
to come with them that they might have a strong colony to make defense
against the savage foe when they would attack their forts. How fearless
must have been these three who remained in the wilds alonel
They were not molested during this time, but during the battle at the
Bluff, White was killed by the Indians and Swanson had an extremely narrow
escape; and many years after the 1794 Overall was Hlle^ bv this i^-'- ■-•hr::. '•^.•■
fought against so long and bravely.
Surely braver men have never lived than these Tennessee pioneers.
Gilmore in his "Advance Guard of Western Civilization", says "Nothing
more heroic is recorded of these people than the migration of three hundred
and eighty of their number from Watauga into the wilds of West Tennessee
under the lead of James Robertson in the winter of 1780. " Every name
should be rescued from oblivion and placed among the names of the heroes
of our Volunteer State.
They must have realized to some extent that they were laying the
foundation stones to a great commonwealth for Robertson is said to have
explained to Sevier when the latter was trying to persuade him to remain
at Watauga, "We are the advance guard of civilization and our way is across
the continent ." From this utterance, Gilmore must have obtained the title
for that intensely interesting book^ "Advance Guard of Western Civilization . "
Robertson returned to Watauga by the Kentucky trace as before, the
journey extending from November the first 1779 to Christmas Day. They
began at once erecting the fort and ten log houses at French Lick as to have
them in readiness for their families. This was the beginning of our fair
The women and children were coming by the long river route under
the leadership of John Donelson and a guard of thirty men. These women
and children numbered one hundred and thirty, ready to share the dangers
and toils and brighten the new homes for fathers and brothers and husbands.
Their trip by the Holstoru Tennessee , Ohio and Cumberland rivers took
four months and was attended by many dangers aThirty three perished by the
way. This journey has no parallel in^he hJ..'^ ;.o -7 o" ca.'- :"■■■■•■'.
Among the several hundred returning with Robertson and his i^ai'ty lo
the Cumberland settlement were William Overall 's two bi'othcrs, Nathaniel
and Robert and the Thomas brothers, John and Joshua. The Thomas and
Overall families became closely connected by marriages. William Ovcu-all
married Susanna Thomas, sister to John and Joshua. NathanieJ OvimmII
married Annie Thomas^ another sisterj and Nancy Overall, sis1(.M- of ihc
three Overalls, married Joshua Thomas. There were two other Overall
sisters'. Mary who married James Espy, and Christina who mari-ied a \1r.
Williams and moved to South Carolina. Within a few months after their
arrival at the Bluff early in 1780, Robert Overall was killed by Indians.
Joshua Thomas was killed during the Nickajack expedition, the only m.u^
killed in that raid; William Overall was killed in 1794; and James i'-lspy.
while Sheriff of Sumaer County. These were the sorrows the Indians
caused these families. Indeed few there were, if any, but experienced at
some time a like tragedy. It is said that, "from 1780 to 1794 they killc^d
within seven miles of Nashville one person in about every ten days. "
Robert Overall was never married. Overall's Creelv, a beaLitifLit
stream in Rutherford County, was named for him. William Overall li;itl
l^een a noted Indian fighter since the foundation of the colony. He was in
the battle at the Bluff and many other encounters with the Indians. lie;
left a family of four sons and one daughter.
Nathaniel Overall died in 1835 and his wife, Annie Thomas Overall,
died in 1844. He was in the battle at the Bluff, April 2nd 1781. when about
seven hundred Indians attacked the fort, which at this time had only thirty-
five men to defend it, some being away to protect other forts. Annie Thomas
was in the fort during this battle and helped to mould bullets and otherwise
assist the men in defense of their lives. She delighted in after years to tell
her children and grand children the thrilling accounts of those perilous times
and of how the women and girls so bravely assisted the men, moulding bullets
even at times taking a man's place at the port holes.
We need not search outside our own state annals to find examples of
the finest heroism. These men were as true patriots as those nearer the
coast who had battled with another enemy to gain freedom for their land.
These had a cruel and treacherous enemy to deal with and their families
were in greater personal danger. Many of these pioneers had been Revo-
lutionary soldiers too, in North Carolina and Virginia, and their lands on
the Cumberland represented the pay they had received for their services.
Nathaniel and Annie Thomas Overall had eight childreni Mary,
Robert, Nace, John, Sally, Abraham, Lorenzo Dow, and James.
Mary, called Polly, was born in 1783 and died in 1849. She married
William Ramsey, Jr. in 1805 and they had ten children. The father of
William Ramsey was William Ramsey, Sr. a native of Mecklenburg County,
North Carolina and a Revolutionary soldier and came to Tennessee just
after the close of the war. William Ramsey, Jr. died in Aug. 1833. Their
oldest child was Eliza who married Wm. Mathes and reared a large family.
The second child was perhaps Ann who married John McKee. She reared
five or six children. The third was Nathaniel Jefferson who married Frances
Young Davis of Davis County, Kentucky. Nathaniel Jefferson Ramsey was
born March 3, 1809 and died June 28, 1871. Frances Young Davis was l^orn
March 16, 1812 and died February 25, 1862. They reared five children;
their eldest^Polly Ann dying in infancy, 2nd William Baxter; 3rd Nathaniel
Preston; 4th Vibella; 5th John Wesley; 6th Ava Amelia. These five all
married and reared families. The fourth child was William Franklin who
married Nancy Knox. They had ten children: George W. H. , James W. J.. ,
David A. K. , B. F. , Granville J. , M.S.T., Robert N. , Daniel B. , Sarah
E. , N. Emilie, Emma J. , and G. F. The fifth child was Nace Preston who
married Polly Ann Davis of Davis County, Kentucky. They reared four sons
and five daughters: Greenville Henderson, Thomas Joiner, Robert Newton,
Mary Frances, William Davis, Gorilla, Rachel Leona, Sophronia and Ira.
The sixth child was Sarah Lucretia who was born March 16, 1815 and died
June 21, 1870. She married first William Elder and had one daughter, Martha,
and two sons, John Summerfield and James Monroe. These all died unmar-
ried. The seventh child was Nancy B. who was born May 16, 1816 and died
D ec. 30, 1891. She married John C . Berry and they had twelve children:
Mary E lizabeth, James L . , Parthenia, Martha Jane, Sallie E . Tennie C. ,
Texas A. , Aurelia, William Robert, Vitula F . , Lucy A . and the 12th died
in infancy. The eighth child was Blackmon Asbury born Soptembcf 20, 1818
and died March 25, 1891. He married Eliza Jett and they had four sons
and tnree daughters. The daughters all married and reared families, but
the sons died when small. The daughters were: Mary Alice, Eliza
Josephine and Susan Ella. The ninth child was Martha who married
Daniel Waddley. They had one daughter Martha who died young. The
tenth child was Pauline Jane who was born April 15, 1825 and died April
22, 1884. She married first Albert Kelly and had two sons William D. and
Albert. She married second Smith, and third Rev. George Johnston.
The second child of Nathaniel and Annie Thomas Overall was Robert
who was born June 11, 1785 and died in 1862. He married his cousin Mary
Espy^and they had twelve children .
The third child of Nathaniel and Annie Overall was Nace. He married
Amelia Davis of Davis County, Kentucky. Nace Overall was a MelhodJsl
Minister, as were two of his brothers. He had three sons and four daughters:
Baxter, Lee Ann, Nathaniel Webb, Robert A., Mary Frances, Elizabeth
and Vistula. Rev. Nace Overall and three of his nephews married sisters.
These were the daughters of Baxter and Mary (Webb) Davis of Davis County,
Kentucky. James G. Overall, son of Robert and Mary (Espy) Overall mar-
ried Rachel Webb Davis; Nace Preston Ramsey, son of William and Polly
(Overall) Ramsey married "Polly" Ann Davis; Nathaniel Jefferson Ramsey,
son of William and Polly Overall Ramsey, married Frances Young Davis.
Perhaps all were of the same type of womanhood as the writers grandmother,
Fanny Davis, a gentle, lovely. Christian, who lived with a song and died
with shouts of praise on her lips. Never having seen her, yet her grand-
children appreciate her influence, and will ever cherish the record of her
"She reaps as she sowed
Lo, this man is her son. "
Two of her sons were ministers and the other and his sisters repeated in
their lives the qualities of their sainted mother and father.
Nathaniel Jefferson Ramsey was born in Rutherford County, Tennessee,
March 3, 1809 and died in Gibson County, Tenn. June 28, 1871. Francos
Young (Davis) Ramsey was born in Davis Co.^ Ky. June 10, 1812 and died in
Gibson Co.^ Tenn. Feb. 25, 1862. They were married August 15, 1828 and
had six children ; Polly Ann (born Sept. 20, 1829, died May 24, 18:;o),
William Baxter (born Feb. 15, 1831, died July 14, 1865), Nathaniel Preston
(bornDec. 22, 1833, died Mar. 13, 1895). Vibella P . (born Aug. 27, 1838,
died Dec. 6, 1871) , John Wesley (born Oct. 7, 1840, died Nov. 4, 1901), Ava
Amelia (born Aug. 16, 1843-yet living NOTE; THIS WAS WRITTI':N IN 1908).
William Baxter married Mary Winfrey Askew^and they had two children:
Henry H. Ramsey (now living at Dawson Springs, Ky. ) and Willie Etta Ramsey,
who died at age thirteen.
Nathaniel Preston Ramsey married three times: first Callie McConnel,
and had one son, Alney Winfrey (born 1862 died 1903) ; second Judith Demaris
Waddy, and had three sons and three daughters^ Robert Waddy, Jefferson
(both living in Memphis Tenn.), Eugene Duncan (living at Clinton, Ky),
Mary Clark (married S. H. Mann and living at Forrest City, Ark. ), Frances
Davis (married Clayton Porter and living Clinton, Ky. ), and Gertrude Mahon
(married living in Baltimore, Md.); third N. P. Ramsey married
Mattie Holmes Waddy. She lives at Clinton, Ky.
Vibella P. Ramsey married Elisha F. Askew and had three children:
Emma, Ava and David.
John Wesley Ramsey married Victoria M. Heard, Jan. 3, 1866. She
was born June 21, 1846, now living in Bedford Co. , Tenn. , at Trenton.
Their children were: Lula Virginia, the writer of this sketch (she married
W. B. McGee of Trenton, Tenn.);Wm. Walter who married Jonm.' Robbins
of Jackson, Tenn. and now lives in Racine, Wise. ; Katharine J'lwc^l 1 Ilainsc^y;
Frances Irene (who married Herbert N. Davis and lives at Trenton, Tenn. ):
Minnie Lee (who married Homer S. Lain and lives at Trenton, Tenn. ); Tommic
Heard (who married Edwin E. Russell of Racine, Wise, and now lives in
Paris, France; Martha Davis (who married Webb H. Herl)ert and lives at
Ruston, La. )
John Wesley Ramsey was a loyal Confederate soldier, sei'vin.o; the four
years of the war. He was an honest upright hristian, beloved by a 1 1 who
knew him. To no man could words be more fitting- -"His life was gentJe,
and the elements so mixed in him that nature miight stand up and say 1o all
the world. This was a man. "
AvaA. Ramsey married J. W. Phillips. Their children died yoimg
except two daughters: lone married J. D. Wrather, ■:.-vl Doro^ •
William Ramsey, Jr. who married "Polly" Overall was born in
Alecklenburg County, North Carolina, the date not known to the writer and
died August, 1833 in Rutherford County, Tennessee. He was a Methodist
minister and a very consecrated ": ristian. His father, William Ramsey.
Sr.j was also a native of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. \\v stM-ved
three years in the Revolutionary War coming to Tennessee just after the
close of the war. The father of William Ramsey, Sr. whose name is not
known to the writer was one of that large company of Scotch- Irish wJio came
from North Ireland by way of Pennsylvania to North Carolina and other
Southern colonies before the Revolutionary War. His sons whose names
are known to the writer were: William, Robert, John, David, James and
daughters, Anne, Maria and Polly.
The fourth child of Nathaniel and Annie Thomas Overall was John who
married a Miss McLin. Some of their descendants live in Gibson County,
The fifth child of Nathaniel and Annie Thomas Overall was Sally who
married John Doak and moved to Texas. She was born September 15, 1800.
The sixth child of Nathaniel and Annie Thomas Overall was Abraham
who married a Miss White. He was a Methodist minister of some note.
His descendants live in Rutherford County, Tenn.
The seventh child of Nathaniel and Annie Thomas Overall was Lorenzo
Dow, born July 8, 1802, a noted Methodist minister and one of the founders
of McKendree Church, Nashville. He died unmarried.
'The eighth child of Nathaniel and Annie Thomas Overall was James^
who married Lucy Butler. Their descendants live in Tipton County,
Thus we see that three of the sons of Nathaniel and Annie Overall were
ministers, and if any of their descendants have been a dishonor to the name,
it is not known to the writer. That she is able to relate so little of these
brave noble ancestors and Cumberland pioneers, Nathaniel and Annie
Overall, the writer regrets exceedingly; but those who have heard those
thrilling accounts of Indian attacks and slaughter and those tales of pioneer
life, have passed away and left us no written accounts of these things. But
it is with pride we may name them for their courage, their patriotism,
their refinement, their gentle blood, and best of all, for those finer
qu-ilities characteristic of the disciples of the Savior of men.
Lula Vir.iinia ;ia::.Eey ]'.c^>cu
Two books have been written on the Overall Family. The first by
^:r.'^. T. 0. Kiger, ^029 Sunbeam Avenue, Chattanooga, Tennessee 37^11
contains about $00 pages and sells for :^15.00. In a letter from Vr,
Eakin Overall, he states that the article by Fxs. Virginia Ramsey
Kcaee on the Overall Family contains two errors. "John Overall Jr.
m:.\rried Kiiria Christa Froman, not Sara Jane"; also, "Eishop Overall
and his wife had no children."
The second book is by Krs. F. Earl Brltton, 133 Kingwood
Drive, Chattanooga, Tennessee 37^12 and is on the family of William
Jefferson Overall. It contains about 250 pages and costs 515.00.
A copy of this book is in the Tennessee Room at Linebaugh Library.
Index for Publication No. 10
Van Eur en
RUTHERFORD COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Inc.
las of December 15, 1977
Mr. &. Mrs. W. D, Adkerson
Mrs. H. F. Arnette, Jr.
Mrs. M. E. Arnold
Margaret J. Batey
Mrs. R. M. Blair
Miss Margaret Brevard
Dr. & Mrs. Fred Brigance
Dr. Jerry Brookshire
Mrs. J. W. Brown
Mrs. Lida N. Brugge
Mrs. Sara Bain Bunting
Mrs. Jean Caddel
Mr. & Mrs. J. D. Carmack
Colonel Charles R. Cawthon
Miss Louise Cawthon
Mrs. George Chaney
James L. Chrisman
George D. Clark
Mr. & Mrs. Woodrow Coleman
Dr. Robert Corlew
Miss Edith Craddock
Mrs. A. W. Cranker
Mrs. Martha C. Crutchfield
Mrs. Mary Lou Davidson
Mrs. Florence Davis
Mrs. W. H. Decherd
Mrs. Moulton Farrar, Jr.
Mrs. Charles H. Fay
Mrs. Robert Fletcher
Jack I. Inman
Mrs. Dallas Ison
Robert T. Jacobs
Ernest King Johns
Mrs. Buford Johnson
Mrs. R. H. Johnson
Dr. Robert B. Jones,
Dr. & Mrs. Belt Keathley
Miss Adeline King
Mr. & Mrs. George Kinnard
Dr. Howard Kirksey
Mrs. Lawrence Klingaman
William C. Ledbetter, Jr.
Mrs. Dayton Lester
Mrs. Lalia Lester
Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Lynch
Mrs. Louise G. Lynch
Jack R. Mankin
Mrs. Dotty Matheny
Mr. & Mrs. J. C. Matheny
W. C. McCaslin
Mrs. Fannie McClanahan
Mrs. Mason McCrary
Mr. & Mrs. Ben Hall McFarlin
Mrs. Elise McKnight
Mrs. Evelyn Merritt
Miss Luby H. Miles
Miss Clarice Miller
Donald E. Moser
Eugene R. Mull ins
Miss Alline Gillespie
Mrs. Carl E. Goodwin
Mrs. Robin Gould
Mrs. Judy L. Green
Mrs. C. J. Harrell
Isham A. Harris, Jr.
Mrs. B. H. Hibbett, Jr.
Mrs. James M. Hobbs
Charles E. Hodge, II
Mrs. John W. Hollar
Dr. Ernest Hooper
Miss Elizabeth Hoover
Walter King Hoover
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Hoskins
Mrs. David Naron
Lawson B. Nelson
Harry M. Patillo
Dr. John A. Patten
Charles C. Pearcy
Dr. & Mrs. Homer Pittard
Mr. &. Mrs. Wm. 0. Pointer
Mrs. Estelle Potts
Mr. & Mrs. Bob Ragland
Mr. & Mrs. Kelley Ray
Mr. & Mrs. Glen N. Rea
Dr. & Mrs. Fred Rolater
Mrs. Elvis Rushing
Miss Sara Lou Sanders
Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Sanders
Dr. & Mrs. Robert S. Sanders
Dr. R. Neil Schultz
Mr. & Mrs. John Shacklett
Mrs. J. Mahlon Sharp
Charles E. Shelby
Mrs. J. A. Sibley, Sr.
Colonel Sam W. Smith
Miss Dorothy Smotherman
C. Ray Stacy
Colonel & Mrs. E. C. Stewart
Mrs. Carl V. Stine
Stones River Chapter DAR
Mrs. Wm. II. Thompson, Jr.
Thurman Francis Jr. High School
Mrs. Earlin S. Todd
Jean Van Meter
c' L. VanNatta
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Van Sickle
Mrs. J. Wilbur Vaughan
Mr. &. Mrs. Wm. Walkup
Mrs. George F. Watson
Mayor & Mrs. W. H. Westbrooks
Miss Kate Wharton
Miss Virginia Wilkinson
Mrs. John Woodfin
Mrs. Jane Snell Woods
Mrs. Selene D. Woodson
Henry G. Wray
F. Craig Youree
WAR ^ '•
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Rutherford County Hist. Society
MIDDLE TENNESSEE STATE UNIVERSITY
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