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MIDDLE TN STATE UNIV. 



$5.00 



3 3082 01501327 8 

RUTHERFORD COUNTY 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Publication No. 34 






Mattie Ready and John Hunt Morgan 



976 
.857 
R931p 
V. 34 




1994 



Murf reesboro, Tennessee 37130 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/publication34ruth 






RUTHERFORD COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
PUBLICATION NO. 34 

Published 
by 
the 

Rutherford County Historical Society 

OFFICERS 

President Shirley F. Jones 

Vice President Charles Nored 

Recording Secretary Kirk McCrary 

Publication Secretary Walter King Hoover 

Treasurer Mary Cox 

Directors Robert Walden 

Mabel Pittard 
William Hall 

Publication No. 34 (Limited Edition - 600 copies) is 
distributed to members of the Society. The annual membership 
dues are $15.00 per family, which includes the two regular 
publications and the monthly Newsletter to all members. 
Additional copies of this and other publications may be 
obtained by writing to the Society. A list of publications 
available is included in this publication. 

All correspondence concerning additional copies, 
contributions to future issues, and membership should be 
addressed to: MlSu Library 

„^, r ,^ ^ „.^ T^ . ^ Middle Tennessee State UnlversJt 
Rutherford County Historical Society Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 
P.O. Box 906 
Murf reesboro, TN 37133-0906 

i.0-*03eS4 



IN 
MEMORY 

of 

ZADIE BOWLING KEY 
(Octoljer 20, 1921 - August 30, 1992) 



Publication 34 is dedicated to Zadie B. Key, a longtime 
member of our Society, whose contributions were many and 
varied. She served four terms as Treasurer, from 1988 to 
1992. Prior to that, she was editor of the newsletter and 
served on several committees, such as Historic Preservation, 
Sales, and Membership. She was also a member of our 
Executive Board. Zadie was a people-oriented, 
community-conscious, caring individual who strived to make a 
difference. The Rutherford County Historical Society is very 
appreciative of her efforts and dedication to our 
organization and consider it our privilege to honor her in 
this small way. 



The following Publications are for Sale by: 

THE RUTHERFORD COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
P.O. Box 906 
Murfreesboro, TN 37133-0906 

(All publications are $5.00 + $2.00 postage and handling) 

Publication 1: Rutherford County Marriage Records, 

(1851-1853), Bride Index, Rutherford County 
Militia Commissions 1807-1811, Rutherford 
County Offices and Officers (1804-1973), and 
Union: Murf reesboro' s Other University. 

Rutherford County Marriage Records, 
(1854-1856), Bride Index (continued), 
Rutherford County Militia Commissions 
1812-1820, Mayors of Murf reesboro, and a 
History of the Kittrell Community. 

Rutherford County Marriage Records 
(1857-1860), Bride Index, Griffith 
Rutherford, 1803 Census of Rutherford County, 
and Rutherford County Militia Records. 

History of Readyville, Artists Depict Battle 
of Stones River, and Census of 1810 and List 
of Taxpayers not in Census. 

The Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad 
(1845-1872), Rutherford County Post Offices 
and Postmasters, and the Rutherford Rifles. 

Publication 6: A History of the Link Community, History of 
Lavergne, Fellowship Church and Community, 
and The Sanders Family. 

Publication 7: Hopewell Church, Petition by Cornelius 
Sanders for Revolutionary War Pension. 



Publication 2; 



Publication 3 



Publication 4: 



Publication 5: 



Publication 8; 



History of Bethel-Leanna Community, the 
Crowders of Readyville, A view of the 
Battlefield of Stones River from New York 
Times (Sept. 2, 1865), Record of Jordan 
Williford, Revolutionary War Soldier from 
Records in U.S. Pension Office, Company Roll 
of Major Hardy Murfree (Sept. 9, 1778 from 
the National Archives). 



Publication 9: History of Dilton Community. 

Publication 10: 1864 Diary, Peter Jennings, Henderson Yoakum, 
Early Methodist Church, and Overall. 



Publication 11: State Capitol, Ben McCullough, Petition of 
Michael Lorance, Country Store, and Soule 
College. 

Publication 12: History of Smyrna, Sewart Air Force Base, 
Goochland, Index of Some Actual Wills of 
Rutherford County, 1802-1882. 

Publication 13: Tennessee College, Coleman Scouts, New 

Monuments in Old city Cemetery, and James 
Bole's Revolutinary War Pension. 

Publication 14: Murfreesboro Presbyterian Church, Kirks and 
Montgomerys, Russell Home, John Lytle's and 
John M. Leak's Revolutinary War Pension. 

Publication 15: John W. Childress Home (1847), Whigs 
in Rutherford County (1835-1845). 

Publication 16: Hart, Childress, Miles, Fosterville, Cherry 
Shade, William Cocke. 

Publication 17: Jefferson 1803-1813, Will Abstracts 
(1803-1814), Old City Cemetery. 

Publication 18: Railroad Stations in Rutherford County, Rion 
Family, Stones River. 

Publication 19: Footprints ... at Smyrna, V.A. Medical 

Center, Manson Family, Jenkin's Homes, Will 
Abstracts (Record Books 3 & 4), Rutherford 
County Historical Society, Early News, Sketch 
from Macon County, Illinois, 1981 in 
Rutherford County. 

Publication 20: Roads and Turnpikes of Rutherford County, 
includes many Rutherford County names. 

Publication 21: Jefferson Springs Resort, Lascassas Baptist 
Church, John Price Buchanan, Will Abstracts, 
1836 Tax Records of the 25th District. 

Publication 22: Ft. Rosecrans, Big Springs, East Main Church 
of Christ, Tax Records District 23 & 24 for 
1836, 1837, and 1849, Mathias Hoover. 

Publication 23: Harding House, Milton, Country Stores in the 

Jefferson Area, Will Abstracts Book 7, Tax 

Records of Districts 15 and 16 (1836, 1837, 
:.^ and 1849) . 

Publication 24: History of Medicine in Rutherford County. 



Publication 25: Legends and Stories of the Civil War in 
Rutherford County. 

Publication 26: A Yankee in Rutherford County, Literary 

Interest Expressed by VJomen in Rutherford 
County, Mt. Olivet and Hoovers Gap 
Methodists, My Years at Linebaugh Library. 

Publication 27: History of Central Christian Church, Alfred 
Blackman . 

Publication 28: Coleman Scouts (Henry B. Shaw, Leader; Sam 
Davis, Dee Jobe , Williams Roberts, William 
Manford Street, and others.) 

Publication 29: The Churches of Christ in Rutherford County, 
History of the Salem Methodist Church, and 
Municipal Officers of the Town of 
Murfreesboro 1818-1891). 

Publication 30: History of Rutherford County Farm (including 
insane asylum and the pest control center). 
Architecture of Rutherford County Farm. 

Publication 31: The Rutherford County Rifles (a group of 150 
young men from Rutherford County who 
volunteered for service in the Confederacy). 
Includes a list of these men and what 
happened to them. Article on Violence in 
Rutherford County. 

Publication 32: A Researcher's Guide to Rutherford County 

Records by David Rowe ; Jerry Sneak by Homer 
Pittard (discovered after his death). 

Publication 33: Census and Tax Records for First District. 

Publication 3^- Mattie Ready-John Hunt Morgan l-.'edding; Dement 
family; Two Gallant Leaders at the Battle of 
Murfreesboro . 



The following publications are also available through the 
Society: 

History of Medicine in Rutherford County , Part II (A 
collection of Biographies of Physicians Who Practiced in the 
area during the Nineteenth Century.) Robert G. Ransom, M.D. 

$16.00 + $2.00 postage 

Westbrooks , WilliamSf and Related Smothermans of Rutherford 
County . $14.50 + $2.00 postage 

Brothers and Others and Fosterville $21.00 + $2.00 postage 
(OUT-OF-PRINT) 

History of Versailles - OUT OF PRINT 

History of Ru therford County by C. C. Sims (pub. 1947) 
" $12.00 + $2.00 postage 

History of Ru therford County by Mabel Pittard (pub. 1983) 
$12.50 + $2.00 postage 

A History of Rutherford County Schools , Vol. 1 (Northern 

section of the County) $12.00 + $2.00 postage 

A History of Rutherford County Schools , Vol. II (Southern 
section of County, including Murf reesboro) 

$12.00 + $2.00 postage 

1840 Ruth erford County Census with Index 
$5.00 + $2.00 postage 

Deed Abstracts of Rutherford County, 1803-1810 

$5.00 + $2.00 postage 

Cemetary Records of Rutherford County ; 

Vol. I (Northwestern third of County and part of Wilson 
and Davidson Counties, 256 cemeteries with index and 
maps) $10.00 + $2.00 postage 

Vol ■ II (Eastern third of County, cemeteries with index 
and maps .) $10.00 + $2.00 postage 

Vol. Ill (Southwestern third of Rutherford County and 
the western part of Cannon County, 241 cemeteries with 
index and maps.) $10.00 + $2.00 postage 



The History of Rutherford County , Vol. I, 1799-1828 by 

John C. Spence $25.00 + $2.00 postage 

The History of Rutherford County / Vol. II, 1829-1870 by 

John C. Spence $25.00 + $2.00 postage 

A Civil War Diary by John C. Spence $25.00 + $2.00 postage 

The Pictorial History of Rutherford County by Mabel Pittard 
OUT OF PRINT 



Map of 1878 Rutherford County (shows land owners) 

$3.50 + $2.00 postage 

Available from Mrs. R.A.Ragland, P.O. Box 544, Murf reesboro, 
TN 37133-0544 

Marriage Records of Rutherford County 

$10.00 + $2.00 postage 



Table of Contents 



Morgan's Wedding Page 1 



Two Gallant Leaders at the Battle 

of Murfreesboro Page 23 



Pillar of Fire or Angelic Agency Page 49 
Charles Dement, Tennessee Pioneer Page S'^ 



History of Property at 214' East 

Main Street Page 62 



A Fifty-Year History of Murfreesboro 

Schools Page ?? 



Index Page 96 



MORGAN'S WEDDING 

by Shirley Farris Jones 

The Civil War was a time of uncertainty, especially 
for those living in the recently established Confederate 
States of America. Happiness was a brief interlude from 
the reality of the horrors and deprivations inflicted 
upon a people trying to protect their homeland. For 
some it was a bittersweet time of both joy and sorrow. 
Such is the story of Martha Ready of Murf reesboro, 
Tennessee and John Hunt Morgan of Lexington, Kentucky. 



John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama on 
June 1, 1825. The first of ten children of Henrietta 
Hunt and Calvin Morgan, John was named for his 
millionaire maternal grandfather, John Wesley Hunt of 
Lexington, Kentucky. Although Calvin Morgan tried 
various ways to become a successful businessman and 
provide adequately for his family, failing business 
ventures finally forced him to relocate to Lexington 
when John was six, thus becoming dependent upon the 
Hunt's for their livelihood and affluent lifestyle. 

John Morgan had inherited by birth the status of 
aristocracy. Very handsome, he was tall (6 feet) with a 



strong and attractive athletic body and exhibited 
excellent horsemanship. As a young man, he was very 
bashful and did not feel comfortable speaking before a 
group. His college career at Translyvania University 
proved quite disappointing and he was suspended for 
dueling in 1844. John entered the military in 1846, 
after two frustrating years of trying to "find himself", 
and was elected second lieutenant of Company K of the 
Kentucky Volunteers in the war against Mexico. He was 
then promptly promoted to first lieutenant of Kentucky's 
Mounted Volunteers 1st Regiment. He distinguished 
himself as a hero in the battle at Buena Vista, and 
although his enlistment was up, the war over, he wanted 
desperately to continue his military career. He had 
gained self confidence through his experiences of war, 
and enjoyed being welcomed home as the conquering hero. 
More importantly, he had distinguished himself as a 
Morgan of Honor 1 He had acquired one year of military 
experience, although discipline was lax and contempt for 
authority prevalent. This would shape his future 
military actions. 

Morgan settled down in Lexington and entered into 
business with his friend, Sanders Bruce. The Bruce 
family lived across the street from Hopemont, Morgan's 
ancestoral home, and were considered an established 
manufacturing family, wealthy, successful, and 



respected. Perhaps it was only natural that John Morgan 
should then marry Sanders' sister, Rebecca Bruce. He 
was 23 and she was 18 years old, on their wedding day, 
November 21, 1848. In 1853, after five years of 
marriage, she gave birth to their first and only child, 
a son, who was stillborn. From that point on, for the 
duration of her life, Becky would remain a victim of 
poor health, despite trips to various doctors and places 
in a fruitless attempt to find a cure for her 
afflictions. Becky, suffering from both the pain and 
humiliation of not fulfilling her role as wife and 
mother, turned to her mother for emotional support and 
to religion for comfort. After existing several years 
as an invalid, confined to bed for many months, she 
finally died on July 21, 1861. During this time, 
Morgan's behavior was typical of so many Southern 
gentlemen of his time — with Becky and his relatives, 
he was always respectful, yet Morgan never denied 
himself any of the wordly pleasures. He was known as a 
favorite among women, as well as a gambler and 
libertine. Morgan's brother-in-law and best friend, 
Basil Duke, expounded the Southern code of ethics when 
he pointed out that Morgan never attempted to be 
secretive or hypocritical about his diversions, and he 
never did anything "which touched his integrity as a man 
and his honor as a gentleman." Duke later wrote: "Like 
the great majority of the men of his class — the 



gentlemen of the South — he lived freely, and the 
amusements he permitted himself would, doubtless, have 
shocked a New Englander almost as much as the money he 
spent in obtaining them. ... General Morgan, with the 
virtues, had some of the faults of his Southern blood 
and country." 

Meanwhile, John's busines ventures, many of which 
were dependent upon the institution of slavery, 
flourished. By the late 1850' s, the Southern system of 
honor was wholly identifiable in the character of John 
Morgan, and he had established his identity and 
respectability as Captain of the Lexington Rifles, and 
entered into the romantic social life of antebellum 
Lexington. VThen all of this was threatened, John was 
more than ready to go to warl 

Kentucky found herself a state divided, unable to 
choose between North and South, and therefore took the 
position of peace and neutrality. Morgan, however, 
aligned himself with other Southern sympathizers in the 
state and the Lexington Rifles were among the first 
volunteer companies to join the State Guard, a newly 
created pro-Southern state militia organization, in 
1860. In September of 1861, the Lexington Rifles left 
to join Confederate forces and shorthy thereafter Morgan 
began his own type of warfare against the enemy that had 



driven him from his home. He entered into it with both 
intensity and enjoyment, which is apparent from his 
raids along the Green River. After General Albert 
Sidney Johnston's defensive line in Kentucky collapsed 
early in 1862, Morgan's command became part of the thin 
screen thrown out to protect Johnston's army from Union 
divisions under General Buell in Nashville, Tennessee. 
On February 27, 1862 Morgan moved his headquarters to 
near Murf reesboro. 

Martha Ready Morgan was born near Murf reesboro, 
Tennessee on June 21, 1840. She was the sixth of eight 
children, and the second of four girls, born to Colonel 
Charles Ready, Jr. and Martha Strong Ready. Mattie was 
known to be a "very attractive young woman of medium 
height, with a shapely figure, a fair, creamy 
complexion, large blue eyes, and dark hair." She 
attended Soule College in Murf reesboro and the Nashville 
Female Academy during the 1850 's. Col. Ready was a 
Murfreesboro attorney, who served Tennessee as a United 
States representative before the Civil War and a judge 
afterwards. While in Washington with her family, Mattie 
was known to be a favorite among society. She was "the 
first girl in Washington to wear a curl on her forehead, 
which was soon imitated by a hundred others." 

The Ready family was among the earliest and most 



prominent Rutherford County families. They were known 
to be strong supporters of the Confederacy, and offered 
hospitality to the officers encamped in the area, 
including the dashing cavalryman from Kentucky, General 
John Hunt Morgan, who arrived in Murfreesboro in late 
February of 1862. One day when Colonel Ready was 
visiting the army camp, he met General Morgan and 
invited him to dinner. He sent a slave home with word 
that "the famous Captain Morgan was coming. Tell Mattie 
that Captain Morgan is a widower and a little sad. I 
want her to sing for him." In a diary entry of March 3, 
1862, sister Alice describes a visit by General Morgan 
to the Ready home the previous evening: "... Morgan is 
an extremely modest man, but very pleasant and 
agreeable, though one to see him would scarcely imagine 
him to be the daring reckless man he is. An immense 
crowd collected at the front door to see him, two or 
three actually came in and stood before the parlor door 
... ." Although his stay in Murfreesboro was brief. 
Captain Morgan made quite an impression on the 21 year 
old beauty. Following an expedition to Gallatin, Morgan 
returned to Murfreesboro to find a Union cavalry 
regiment conducting a reconnaissance outside the town. 
He sent Mattie a note asking whether the town was clear 
of Federals. She hurriedly penned a reply: "They are 
eight miles from here. Come in haste," and handed it to 
a courier who returned to Morgan, ten miles to the 



north. A few hours later, in the early morning, Morgan 
appeared. He and Mattie talked until daylight and 
family tradition holds that they became engaged on that 
March nineteenth. At dawn John bade good-bye to Mattie 
by forming the soldiers on the square and leading in the 
singing of "Cheer, Boys, Cheer." 

Mattie was known for her spirit. One day, in the 
late spring of 1862 while Murfreesboro was under Federal 
occupation, she overheard some Union soldiers making 
unkind remarks about Morgan. She stepped in and gave 
the Yankees a royal scolding. When one of the soldiers 
asked her name she replied, "It's Mattie Ready nowl But 
by the grace of God, one day I hope to call myself the 
wife of John Morgan I" 

After a brief courtship, John Morgan presented 
Mattie with one of the most unusual wedding presents in 
history. Following a battle with Union forces in 
Hartsville, Tennessee more than 1,800 Federal soldiers 
were captured. General Morgan then had them marched to 
the Ready home in Murfreesboro where they were presented 
to Mattie on her front porch. That army of discomfited 
"boys in blue" came to be known as "Gen. Morgan's 
wedding present to his bride." 

The wedding of Mattie Ready and John Hunt Morgan 



was held a.t the Ready home near the Court House in 
Murfreesboro on Sunday evening, December 14, 1862. The 
Ready House was described as having been built in the 
1350 's, and being a two-storied wooden structure facing 
East Main Street along the whole block where Nations 
Bank is currently located. The house actually occupied 
the second lot along East Main Street; the first lot was 
an ornamental garden with twin magnolia trees right 
across from the Court House. Inside the house was a 
large hall with flanking parlors. One of these parlors 
served as the scene of the wedding. According to family 
records Mattie wrote in later years, "Mama and Papa's 
room was downstairs and the children's upstairs." 
Windows from the upstairs rooms opened onto Main Street. 
Colonel Ready's law office was in the east room on the 
ground floor. This grand home was the scene of much 
gaiety and hospitality — and headquarters for both 
armies during the war. 

The wedding was one of the great social occasions 
of the Confederacy. Groomsmen were Mattie' s brother, 
Horace Ready, an officer on General William J. Hardee's 
staff, and Col. George St. Leger Grenfell, an English 
soldier of fortune. General Leonidis Polk performed the 
ceremony, while Generals Bragg, Hardee, Cheatham, and 
Breckinridge looked on with the headquarters staff. 
President Jefferson Davis, in Murfreesboro the day 



before the wedding, had promoted Morgan to brigadier 
general . 

In an Augus^ 31, 1912 issue. General Basil Duke of 
Louisville recalled to a News-Banner reporter his 
memories of that great celebration. "...All the 
officers of high rank who could reach Murfreesboro had 
assembled for the wedding — General Bragg among them. 
Distinguished civilians were present in great numbers. 
The house was packed with people to its full capacity 
. . .and decorated with holly and winter berries — the 
lights from lamps and candles flashed on the uniforms 
and the trappings of the officers, and were reflected in 
the bright eyes of the pretty Tennessee girls who had 
gathered. ...The raven-haired, black-mustached Morgan, 
in his general's uniform, looking like a hero of 
chivalry, the bride, a girl of rare beauty, tall, 
dark-haired, and blue eyes, with a creamy complexion and 
perfect features, and standing before them, to perform 
the ceremony, in his full military uniform. Bishop Polk, 
himself a general of the Confederate Army, and Bishop of 
the Episcopal Church. ...Miss Ready's bridal dress was 
one of her best ante-bellum frocks, for it was not 
possible at that time to purchase material for a 
trousseau. . . . General Duke was certain that the bride 
could not have worn anything more becoming. He 
remembers that she wore a bridal veil. ... General 



10 



Morgan' s att-endants were as dashing a set of young 
soldiers as any bride could wish ah her wedding. ...Two 
or three regimental bands had been provided for the 
occasion. They were stationed in the house and on the 
porch, and there was plenty of music. Outside in the 
streets thousands of soldiers were assembled, who by the 
lighted bonfires, celebrated the wedding proper style, 
cheering Morgan and his bride." 

After the wedding there was a great supper served 
in the Ready mansion where the wedding party and invited 
guests feasted ... turkeys, hams, chickens, ducks, game, 
and all the delicacies and good dishes a Southern 
kitchen could produce were on the board, while Colonel 
Ready's cellar still had a sufficient stock of wine to 
provide for the many toasts proposed to the happy 
couple. After the wedding supper, the bands were called 
in and the gallant soldiers and Tennessee belles danced 
to their heart's content. 

Eight days after the wedding, on December 22, 1862, 
the newlyweds were separated when General Morgan and his 
command left for a raid into Kentucky. The second day 
of the raid, on December 23, 1862, he wrote Mattie that 
he hoped it would be finished within six days. 



"and then my precious one I shall try and get back 
to you as fast as possible and then my pretty one 



11 



nothing shall induce me to again leave you this 
winter. How anxiously I am looking forward to the 
moment when I shall again clasp you to a heart that 
beats for you alone. Do not forget me my own 
Darling and you may rest assured that my whole 
thoughts are of you. Farewell my pretty wife, my 
command is leaving I must be off." 



The raid was a great success, and John and Mattie 
hoped that it would help to dispel speculations that 
marriage came first, career second. Colonel Grenfell 
had participated in the wedding but said later that he 
had attempted to prevent it, as he felt that marriage 
would cause John to become cautious and less 
enterprising. And Mattie' s family had instructed her, 
"You must remember your promises, not to restrain the 
General in his career of glory, but encourage him to go 
forward." She promised, but she did not know what a 
profound influence she would have on his life and 
career. He was her hero; her knight in shinning armor. 
Following the raid he wrote, "The greatest pleasure my 
expedition has afforded is the knowledge that our great 
success will gratify and delight you." After the war 
Basil Duke stated that Mattie "certainly deserved to 
exercise over him the great influence she was thought to 
have possessed." There were hints that Mattie slowed 
Morgan down, took away his strength and courage, and 
sent his career on a downward spiral. The wedding came 
at the peak of his career, one day after his promotion 
to brigadier general. But instead of encouraging him to 



12 



set'ile down to regular cavalry service, the relationship 
with Mattie seems to have added to the psychological 
pressure to continue independent raids, even to the 
point of recklessness and insubordination. 

Mattie loved her husband deeply, and despite the 
hardships of the war, tried to be with him whenever and 
wherever she could. Three weeks after the wedding, 
following the Battle of Stones River and Bragg' s retreat 
from Middle Tennessee, Mattie, accompanied by her lovely 
sister Alice, was forced to take flight from home. (They 
did not see their parents again until after the war. 
The Ready house was used by Union General Rosecrans for 
his headquarters in Murf reesboro. ) Under escort by 
members of General Hardee's staff, they reached the army 
at Winchester, Tennessee. Three weeks after the 
wedding, on January 6, 1863, Mattie wrote: 



"... Come to me my own Darling quickly. I was 
wretched but now I am almost happy and will be 
quite when my precious husband is again with me. I 
can bear anything Darling when you are with me, and 
so long as I have your love — but when separated 
from you and I know that you are surrounded by so 
many dangers and hardships as you have been on your 
last expedition I become a weak nervous child. 
Have I not lived a great deal, love, in the last 
three weeks? When I look back now at the time, it 
seems three years. But in each hour I have passed 
through, there has always been one dear face ever 
before me. ... I have so much to tell you, and so 
very much to hear from you. Although I have heard 
nothing from you since you left Glasgow, I knew you 
had accomplished what you had in view — but oh I was 
so anxious for your safety. I had some dark days, 
dearest, and when the battle was raging around me 



13 



in such fury, and everybody from the 
commander-in-chief to the privates were praying for 
Morgan to come, I thanked God in the anguish of my 
heart that it was not for me to say where you 
should be. ... I love to write to you. Dearest, and 
your sweet letters always make me happy. It 
grieved me that I could send you no word of love 
from my pen while in Kty. Both-because it would 
have been a relief to pour out my heart to you, and 
then. Darling, I feared you would forget me. You 
left me so soon. ... Good night, my Hero. My 
dreams are of you." 



One of General Morgan's first priorities was to 
bring Mattie to his new headquarters in McMinnville. He 
wrote, "Am determined to have you near me. Cannot bear 
the thought of your being away from home and ray not 
being with you." Once she came, Mattie declared: "My 
life is all a joyous dream now, from which I fear to 
awaken, and awake I must when my Hero is called to leave 
me again. My husband wants me to remain with him, and 
of course I much prefer it. They say we are a love sick 
couple." This devotion to each other was reflected in 
John Morgan's military leadership. After long and 
strenuous marches, when even the strongest men were 
exhausted, he would ride another fifty miles to be with 
her. Mattie diverted his attention, and he lost his 
single-minded devotion to the Cause. One night, 
anticipating attack from the enemy, he wrote, "Altho I 
fully expected to be attacked today, still my thoughts 
were of you and not of war." Twenty-five miles from the 
hardships at the front of battle, John and Mattie 



1^ 



ext:ended their honeymoon into the spring. Nearly every 
afternoon they made an elegant appearance, riding 
horseback into the country — she in a beautiful black 
riding habit, hat, and veil, he in a blue roundabout 
jacket with brass buttons, blue pants tucked into shiny 
cavalry boots with spurs, and black felt hat fastened up 
at the side. A correspondent for the Richmond E nquirer 
observed that Mattie's "full-blown figure was certainly 
"apropos to the sterling manhood of Morgan. She loves 
him very ardently, and I doubt not that the affair was 
entirely one of the affections. They take long strolls 
every afternoon, and the evidences of attachment . . . are 
delicate and dignified upon both sides." 

With Middle Tennessee under Federal occupation, and 
Mattie choosing to remain with John behind Confederate 
lines, arrangements for Mattie's escape in case of enemy 
attack were always first and foremost in his mind. John 
provided an ambulance and wagon and kept her informed on 
the most feasible escape route. She kept her bags 
packed for immediate evacuation. On April 19, 1863, 
Colonel Robert Minty's Michigan cavalry burst through 
picket lines and into Morgan's headquarters at 
McMinnville. Two officers were seriously wounded while 
creating a diversion to give Morgan time to put Mattie 
in the ambulance and send her racing out of town. John 
and his headquarters escort escaped on horseback across 



15 



the fields. Mattie was captured but immediately 
released. 

This was a foretaste of what was to become habitual 
for Mattie — flights before the enemy, lonely vigils, 
brief intervals with her husband. In the summer of 
1863, during the Confederacy's "farthest north" raid. 
General Morgan was captured and imprisoned in Columbus, 
Ohio. He wrote to her two or three times a week in 
terms of cheer and confidence, but his concern for her 
steadily increased. During this time the "happy" days 
were over for Mattie. She and Alice became war-time 
refugees — in Knoxville, in Augusta, Georgia, in 
Knoxville again, and finally in Danville, Virginia. 
Mattie wanted to be as near Richmond as possible in 
order to do everything she could to speed up the parole 
of her beloved husband. When they heard that their 
brother Horace was wounded at Chickamauga, Alice hurried 
off to take care of him. Alone and desperately anxious, 
Mattie grew seriously ill. Her baby daughter was born 
prematurely and lived only a short time. 

General Morgan made his miraculous escape from the 
Ohio prison on November 27, 1863 (the day his daughter 
was born) and managed to reach Mattie in time for 
Christmas. It was later felt that John's overwhelming 
desire to be with her inspired this reckless plan. After 
the couple was reunited, they were more devoted than 



16 



ever. And more determined than ever to be together. 
They even made a covenant to this effect. Mattie 
accompanied him to Richmond in early January of 1864 for 
a nearly three month ovation in the capitol. They were 
wined, dined, and extensively made over. He was 
celebrated as the South' s great hero; Mattie enjoyed it 
all and continued to gain strength. 

At the end of March 1864, General Morgan was given 
command of the Confederacy's Southwestern Virginia 
Department (which included part of east Tennessee) and 
they moved to the headquarters in Abingdon, Virginia. 
This was Morgan's first and only departmental command 
and one of the most undesirable in the entire army. The 
next few months brought a different picture into focus. 
At this time in his career, Morgan was a very 
disenchanted man. There were clouds of suspicion and 
disgrace from previous unauthorized military actions 
hovering around him and a court of inquiry threatening 
to ruin his career. His intense love for Mattie was the 
only bright spot in his life during this dark time. On 
his way back to Abingdon from the Last Kentucky Raid, he 
wrote: "How very anxious I am to see you & to hold you 
in my arms. Do not think I shall permit myself to be 
separated from you again." His appearance indicated 
that he was a tired, sick man who had aged considerably, 
and Basil Duke, who had just been released from the Ohio 



17 



prison, was appalled at the change in Morgan. The new 
command was a mixed group, with many untrustworthy 
elements among them, while most of his former command 
was still in prison in Ohio. During the summer while 
operating in Greenville, Tennessee he revoked the parole 
of a Union officer whom a townswoman by the name of Lucy 
Williams had "befriended" and it was always believed by 
Morgan's family and friends that it was she who sought 
revenge. 

On August 28/29, 1864, General Morgan and his men 
once again rode off from Abingdon, Virginia to 
Greenville, Tennessee. Even though Tennessee was a 
Confederate state, it was widely divided, and this part 
of east Tennessee was very pro-Union. Though strongly 
advised to the contrary on separating himself from his 
men, Morgan selected the largest and most comfortable 
house in the area for his headquarters, that of Mrs. 
Catherine Williams, a friend of Mattie's family. Mrs. 
Williams had three sons, two of whom fought for the 
Confederacy and one for the Union. The Union 
soldier-son was married to Lucy, a woman of questionable 
character. Although there was no evidence to actually 
prove Lucy's betrayal as to informing the Federals of 
Morgan's whereabouts, it was generally accepted that 
this was indeed the case. She herself never denied the 
accusations and Joe Williams began divorce proceedings 



18 

almost immediately. He later visited the Ready family 
in Murfreesboro. 

Four days after leaving Mattie in Abingdon, a Union 
cavalry force, commanded by Military Governor of 
Tennessee Andrew Johnson's adjutant general, Alvan C. 
Gillera, surprised the Confederates and John Hunt Morgan 
was shot and killed by Union private, Andrew J. 
Campbell. (it was believed that Johnson, himself a 
native of Greenville, felt it his duty to promote the 
Union cause in the area and was particularly offended by 
Morgan being recognized as a hero by Southern 
sympathizers.) Morgan was the only headquarters 
officer killed, and many believe that he was murdered 
after surrender and his body desecrated. Others feel 
that he chose death over surrender and indefinite 
separation from Mattie. Perhaps the covenant he and 
Mattie had agreed upon previously entered into his 
decision to gamble on life, rather than death. This was 
on September 4, 1864 — the same day that Atlanta fell. 

Mattie learned of her husband's death and claimed 
his body under a flag of truce. Grief stricken and 
pregnant, she returned to Augusta, Georgia to stay with 
relatives. Seven months after the death of General 
John Hunt Morgan, Mattie gave birth to their daughter, 
and named her Johnnie. (Johnnie Hunt Morgan was born on 



19 



April 7, 1865, just two days before General Lee's 
surrender.) The child was a great comfort to Mattie in 
her grief. During the summer of 1865, Mattie and 
little Johnnie returned to her parents' home in 
Murf reesboro, where she devoted most of her time and 
energy to raising her young child and representing her 
late husband as the widow of a Lost Cause hero. Her 
home, her family, and the Southern way of life she had 
previously known were gone forever. The period 
following the war years was a difficult time for 
everyone, and the Ready family was no exception. In 
1870, in order to help alleviate the shortage of family 
funds, the "New Ready House" opened as a boarding house, 
with Mattie' s brother, Ex-Colonel Horace Ready, as its 
proprietor, "keeping a ledger of those who came to 
dinner and to spend the night." This was after the 
"Great Fire" in Murf reesboro in 1868, when perhaps the 
old house was either burned or badly damaged. 

Mattie remarried on January 30, 1873 after about 
eight years of widowhood. Her second husband was Judge 
William H. Williamson of Lebanon and they were the 
parents of five children. In the early 1880 's, Mattie 
was described in Prominent Tennesseans as "noted for her 
fine address, intellectual vigor and cultivation, her 
strength of character and devotion to her children. 
Handsome in person, and clothed with the graces of the 



20 



highest order of womanhood, she is naturally of great 
influence in the community." Martha Ready Morgan 
Williamson died on November 16, 1887 at the age of 47. 
Her love for Morgan was apparent even after death. On 
her tombstone is the following inscription, "Our Mother 
- First the wife of Gen'l John H. Morgan - And then of 
Judge Wm. H. Williamson." 

Six months after her mother's death, Johnnie 
married the Rev. Joseph W. Caldwell. On June 28, 1888, 
shortly after her honeymoon, Johnnie died of typhoid 
fever, thereby leaving no direct descendants of John 
Hunt and Martha Ready Morgan. 



21 



SOURCES: 

Article from the FREE PRESS , Murf reesboro, Tennessee, 
Sunday, February 28, 1988. 

Arnette, C.B. From Mink Slide to Main Street . Williams 
Printing Company, Nashville, TN, 1991. 

Jones, Katharine M., Ed. Heroines of Dix ie; Spring of 
High Hopes , Bobbs-Merrill , 1955. ~ 

Memoirs of General Basil W. Duke, interview with 

" NEWS -BANNER " reporter, Louisville, Kentucky, August 31, 

1912. 

Neff, Robert 0. Unpublished manuscript based on 
interview and information obtained from Mrs. Samuel B. 
Gilreath of Lebanon, Tennessee in 1985. Mrs. Gilreath is 
the granddaughter of Mattie and Judge Williamson. 

Pittard, Mabel. History of Rutherford County , Memphis 
State University Press, 1984. 

Ramage, James A. Rebel Raider; The Life of General 
John Hunt Morgan , The University Press of Kentucky — 
Lexington, KY, 1986. 

"Tennessee Historical Quarterly", Spring, 1991, vol. L. 
No . 1 . ' 



22 



Shirley Farris Jones is a staff member at Middle 
Tennessee State University, Mur f reesboro, Tennessee. She 
is currently serving her fourth term as President of the 
Rutherford County Historical Society. she also serves 
as Vice President of Friends of Stones River National 
Battlefield and 1st Vice President of the Martha Ready 
Morgan Chapter of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy. A direct descentant of three Confederate 
grandfathers, she is a member of the Real 
Great-grandaughter' s Club of the UDC. "Civil War history 
is more than just a hobby, it has been a "passion" since 
childhood," according to Ms. Jones, who has had several 
articles published previously in "Civil War Regiments," 
"The Journal of Confederate History," and the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy monthly magazine. This 
research was done in conjunction with Newmark Publishing 
U.S.A., Louisville, KY, for the "Orphan Brigade: 
Journey Through the Civil War" limited edition prints 
series by artist John Paul Strain. "Morgan's Wedding" 
was the sixth of this series to be released. 



TWO GALLANT LEADERS AT THE BATTLE OF MURFREESBORO* 
Harris D. Riley, Jr., M.D. 



*From the Children's Hospital of Oklahoma, University of Oklahoma 
Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 



"In the cedar-brakes that border the stream of 
Stone River, in Tennessee, was fought on the 
last day of 1862 an action that must always be 
memorable in the history of war. When first 
its story was flashed over the land, men only 
saw that a battle, fierce and terrible beyond 
all previous example in the West, had been 
delivered. . . . But when the true relations of 
this contest came to be apprehended, it was 
perceived to have a weight and meaning beyond 
that which attaches to any mere passage of 
arms--it was seen that it bore upon the whole 
life of the rebellion. . . .We readily discern 
that it is one of those few pivotal actions 
upon which, in very truth, turned the whole 
issue of the war (1)." 



This is how William Swinton in his The Twelve Decisive Battles 
of the War characterized the Civil War battle of Murfreesboro (or 
Stones River) in Middle Tennessee which took place on December 31, 
1862- January 2, 1863. As battles go, the fierce and far-reaching 
encounter at Murfreesboro between Braxton Bragg 's Confederate Army 
of Tennessee and William Rosecrans ' s Federal Army of the 
Cumberland ranks as one of the bloodiest ever (2). 

Heroes were numerous on each side at Murfreesboro. Of the 
many, I have selected two — one from each side — to tell about 
because of the key role each played in the battle. They were 
Brigadier General James E. Rains, Confederate States Army, 
commander of the 2nd brigade, McCown's division of General 
Hardee's corps (Fig. 1) and Colonel George Washington Roberts, 
United States Army, commander of the 3rd brigade, Sheridan's 
division of McCook's right wing (Fig. 2). Although they were 
opponents in the battle, there were certain pertinent similarities 
between them. Both were graduates of Yale University. Both 
belonged to the same social fraternity — Delta Kappa Epsilon. In 
civilian life both were attorneys. Both were killed leading 



23 



24 



charges in the battle. However, before looking at their individual 
roles, let us consider the general military situation, and 
particularly that in the Western theater, in late 1862. 

December, 1862--the last month of the first full year of the 
Civil War — showed a military picture quite different from that of 
the summer and early fall. Confederate arms had been victorious 
on the Peninsula in Virginia, at Second Manassas and for a time in 
Kentucky and at Sharpsburg in Maryland had held its position in the 
face of an army twice as large. Despite this there were foreboding 
signs for the Confederacy. In Virginia, Burnside's Army of the 
Potomac was obviously preparing for direct action against Lee at 
Fredericksburg; in Middle Tennessee, Bragg at Murf reesboro, 
southeast of Nashville, was confronted by a readying Rosecrans at 
Nashville, and on the Mississippi Grant was building up for a drive 
by land or by river against Vicksburg. In Arkansas, from New 
Orleans and along the Carolina, Georgia, and Texas coasts smaller 
forces were preparing to attack the Confederacy. Offshore there 
was always the naval blockade, although penetrated by the 
spectacular roaming of CSS Alabama. President Davis of the 
Confederacy, well aware of the threat of the poised Northern 
armies, was attempting to gather his widely spread forces together 
despite lack of men and materiel (3). 



On December 26, 1882, Major General William S. Rosecrans, and 2^ 
his Federal Army of the Cumberland numbering some 47,000 officers 
and men, launched an offensive southeast from Nashville, Tennessee. 
His immediate target was the Confederate Army of Tennessee which 
was at Murfreesboro blocking the main road and railway routes to 
Chattanooga. It was under the command of General Braxton Bragg 
and numbered slightly less than 38,000 troops (4). 

Rosecrans' army consisted of three corps commanded, from right 
to left, by Generals Alexander McD. McCook, George H. Thomas and 
Thomas L. Crittenden. Rosecrans' plan was to turn the Confederate 
left while refusing Crittenden's corps (5). 

The Union army required four days to march the 25 to 30 miles, 
being retarded by rain, fog, and the highly effective delaying 
tactics of "Fighting Joe" Wheeler's Confederate cavalry. In fact, 
the advance was virtually one continuous skirmish, in which the 
Federal infantry was forced to deploy at every hillcrest. The 
Union cavalry was not so well handled and as a consequence 
Rosecrans was ignorant of his opponent's moves while Bragg was well 
informed by Wheeler (6). 

By the evening of December 30, it was obvious to both 
commanders that preparatory maneuvering was over and the next day 
would see the onset of battle along the banks of Stones River. 
Interestingly, each was planning to attack the other's right. 
Early in the evening of the 30th Rosecrans sent orders to Major 
General McCook to have large camp fires built on his right to 
deceive the enemy, making him think that troops were being massed 
there. Murfreesboro has been criticized as a place to do battle 
because it was vulnerable to attack from several different 
directions ( 7 ) . 



The Confederate division of Breckinridge was left east across 
Stones River, northwest of Murf reesboro, while Hardee's other two 
divisions--McCown (4,500) and Cleburne (7,000) — moved into position 
opposite the Federal right. The Confederate center was held by 
Polk's two divisions: Withers (8,500) in front, and Cheatham 
(5,500) to his rear. McCown's division was to attack at dawn (8). 
The alignment of the opposing forces early on the morning of the 
Dec. 31, the first day of the battle, is shown in Fig. 3. 

Brigadier General James E. Rains commanded the 2nd brigade, 
one of three brigades of McCown's division directed by Major 
General J. P. McCown. Rains' brigade contained the 3rd and 9th 
Georgia battalions, the 29th North Carolina and the 11th Tennessee 
Infantry regiments, and the Eufaula (Alabama) light artillery. 
It was on the far left of the Confederate line (9) (Fig. 3). 




BATTLE-FIELDS OF 

Stones River Tenn. 

Dec. 31- Jan. 3 1862-3 



The Federal right, where the initial Confederate blew was ^ 
about to fall, was held by McCook's corps; Johnson's division 
(6,300) was on the extreme right flank, on the Franklin road, with 
the divisions of J. C. Davis (4,600) and Sheridan (5,000) extending 
left to the Wilkinson Pike. Negley's division (4,700), of Thomas's 
corps was in the center of the line. Crittenden's division of 
Palmer (4,400) and Wood (5,100) extended the line to the river. 
In conformity to the Union plan of attacking with their own left, 
two divisions were in assembly areas behind this f lank--Rousseau' s 
(6,200) of Thomas's corps, and Van Clave ' s (3,800) of Crittenden' s. 
Two of Thomas's divisions were absent: Mitchell's was garrisoning 
Nashville; Reynolds was pursuing General John Hunt Morgan's 
Confederate raiders. Only one brigade of Fry's division took part 
in the battle; one arrived on January 2 and the other was pursuing 
Morgan. Rosecrans had ordered his attack to start at 7:00 a.m., 
after his troops had eaten breakfast (10). 

Colonel George W. Roberts, U.S.A., commanded the 3rd brigade, 
one of three brigades of the 3rd division under the direction of 
Brigadier General Phillip H. Sheridan of McCook's right wing. It 
was made up of the 22nd, 27th, 42nd, and 51st Illinois Infantry 
regiments (11). It was located on the left of McCook's right wing 
(Fig. 3). 

Bragg gained the ascendancy in the battle by moving first. 
He ordered General Hardee commanding the far left of the 
Confederate line to attack the enemy at daylight on Wednesday, 
December 31, the attack to be taken up by Lieutenant General 
Polk's command in succession to the right flank (Fig. 3). 

As the 11,000 Confederate infantrymen of McCown and Cleburne's 
divisions moved in the half-light of early morning against McCook's 



extreme right, about at the juncture of Grisham Lane with the dirt 28 
road to Franklin, the full force of their attack fell on the 
brigades of Kirk and Willich of Brigadier General Richard W. 
Johnson's division of that corps. Kirk's men were up and under 
arms, with a strong picket line in their front; but just about 
dawn some of the horses of their artillery were unhitched and 
taken to water. It was at this moment that the yelling 
Confederates came swarming into them. The resulting confusion was 
compounded when General Kirk was mortally wounded in the first few 
minutes of the engagement. General Willich was not with his 
brigade, having gone to see General Johnson. His men were cooking 
and eating breakfast, their arms stacked. Willich, returning, was 
captured before giving an order. The surprised Federals fought 
gallantly, but over-matched and confused, were forced to retreat 
(12). 

McCown's 2nd brigade, under Brigadier General James E. Rains, 
had marched directly west, staying south of the Franklin road, then 
turned sharply north, sweeping across the road and around the right 
flank of the Union position. It led the Confederate attack. Also 
swinging around the Federal right wing and vigorously slashing at 
their right and rear was Brigadier General John A. Wharton's 
cavalry brigade, which succeeded in capturing about 1,500 
prisoners, a four gun battery, several hundred wagons, and 
generally spreading terror behind the front line. One of the 
Federal commanders said he saw cavalry on his right, infantry 
assailing his left, and heavy masses rushing to assault his front. 
The only alternative to annihilation or capture was to be at a 
rapid retreat (13). 

Two of the three Yankee brigades were overwhelmed. Leaving 



their artillery in the hands of the enemy, the brigades broke up 29 
and streamed back to the northwest (14). 

The Confederates were pressing with fury and driving the 
Federals on McCook's right, but they were paying a heavy price in 
lives. As his brigade slashed into the Union lines. General Rains 
himself was shot through the chest, falling from his horse 
mortally wounded. Rains' last words were, "Forward, my brave 
boys. Forward!" His men pushed on (15). A Captain McCauley, who 
was with Rains watched spellbound, then attempted to tell one of 
his men that Rains had been hit, only to have a bullet rip through 
his rib cage, knock him to the ground, and paralyze his right leg. 
McCauley states that the site at which Rains was killed was reached 
after driving the enemy approximately one and one-half miles (16). 
General McCown reported that Rains was shot through the heart at 
the moment the enemy was routed (17). Rains' brigade suffered 199 
casualties ( 18) . 




jf"-**--. 




James Edwards Rains was born in Wilson County, Tennessee, 
April 10, 1833 (19). He was the son of Rev. John and Lucinda 
Rains. His father's means being limited, young Rains was obliged 
to work to assist in the support of the family; up to his 
seventeenth year he had attended school but five months. At this 
time he entered Washington Institute, a seminary near Nashville 
and attended for one five-month session. He was then sent to 
Connecticut where he was under a private tutor for a few weeks. 
Rains then entered the sophomore class at Yale University (20). 
He joined Delta Kappa Epsilon. James Rains was greatly beloved 
by his classmates. After graduating from Yale in the class of 1854 
at the age of 21, he returned to Tennessee and assumed charge of 
Millwood Academy in Cheatham Co. (21). Rains held this position 
for two years and in his spare time prepared himself for the 
profession of law. He then entered the law office of John Trimble 
of Nashville and devoted himself to legal studies until admitted 
to the bar. Taking an interest in politics, he stumped Tennessee 
during the gubernatorial canvass of 1857, and made frequent 
speeches in behalf of the candidates opposed to the Democratic 
ticket. After the election, Rains became associate editor of the 
the Nashville Banner , the oldest political journal in Tennessee, 
and a long recognized exponent of Whig doctrines. He performed 
most effectively in this capacity during the one year period with 
the newspaper. In 1858, he resumed the practice of law and was 
elected city attorney of Nashville. During his term of office, he 
compiled and published in book form the corporation statues (22). 
On June 22, 1858 Rains was married to Miss Ida Yeatman, a 
step-daughter of U.S. Senator and Presidential Candidate John Bell 
of Tennessee. They had one child, a daughter born in 1859. In 



1860, he served as district attorney general for the counties of 31 
Davidson, Williamson, and Sumner (23). Rains was said to oppose 
secession and had voted for the Bell and Everett ticket in the 
presidential campaign of 1860 (24). However, he went with his 
native state of Tennessee when it seceded. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War Rains enlisted in April, 1861 
as a private in the 11th Tennessee Infantry. He was elected and 
commissioned colonel of the regiment on May 10, 1861, which was 
ordered to East Tennessee. During the winter of 1861-62, Rains 
occupied Cumberland Gap in East Tennessee, but was finally flanked 
out of his position by superior manpower in June, 1862. Rains' 
bravery at Cumberland Gap became well-known (25). When Kirby Smith 
advanced into Kentucky, he left Stevenson's division, including a 
brigade under Rains, to operate against Federal General Morgan in 
the Gap. For his services in forcing Morgan northward. Rains was 
promoted to brigadier general on November 4, 1862. He was made 
brigade commander and was assigned to Major General John T. 
McCowan's division of Lieutenant General Hardee's corps positioning 
near Murfreesboro (26). 

Brigadier General St. John R. Liddell, a brigade commander in 
Cleburne's division at Murfreesboro, states that on the night 
before the battle opened, he encountered "young General Rains of 
Nashville," now commanding a brigade under Major General McCown, 
in conversation with General Cleburne in a deserted house near the 
battlefield. Liddell goes on to state, "I soon found Rain (sic) 
to be an able and prompt officer. By reference to my locality the 
day before, he quickly made known to me my new position which had 
been taken in the dark. This brave young man was killed the next 
day at the head of his men. His death was greatly regretted." 



Professor N.C. Hughes, the editor of Liddell's Record , commented: 
"Not yet thirty. Rains had made his mark politically in middle 
Tennessee. As a lawyer turned soldier, he proved to be a leader 
and promised to become an effective general" (27). 

General John P. McCown, division commander, terming Rains "a 
gallant officer and accomplished gentlemen," praised his 
performance in the battle and his great value to the army (28). 





When McCown's men had exhausted their momentum, Cleburne moved 
up and continued the assault. Meanwhile the front brigades of 
Polk's left were driving in on the right of Cleburne and McCown, 
and Wharton's cavalry had swung around the Federal right and 
smashed at their right and rear (29) (Fig. 3). 

Following the rout of Johnson's division, the Confederates 
fell on Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis' division driving it 
back towards the Nashville Pike. Davis' troops were able to delay 
the Confederates only long enough for Brigadier General Phillip 
H. Sheridan to prepare his men to receive the first shock of the 
Southern attack. Sheridan's command, the left division of McCook's 
corps, received the first attack on terrain that was largely 
cultivated and thus had little cover. Nevertheless, they threw off 
three successive attacks made by the brigades of Cheatham and 
Withers from Polk's left (30). Robert's brigade was in the center 
of this ferocious fight (Fig. 3). 

About 9:30 a.m. Sheridan counterattacked with Robert's brigade 
and gained sufficient time to withdraw to a new position behind 
the Nashville Pike and at a right angle to Negley's division (31). 

Finally, however, as Cleburne pressed in on Wither ' s left, 
Sheridan was overpowered by the envelopment and the enfilading 
artillery fire and was forced to give way towards the Nashville 
Pike. Rousseau's division had been sent to Sheridan's support, but 
there was no stopping the fury of the Confederate drive. Rousseau 
was swept back, and even Sheridan was forced to withdraw. As 
Sheridan commenced to fall back, Patton Anderson's brigade of 
Wither 's division moved against the division of Major General 
Negley posted in a dense cedar glade on Thomas' right, near the 
Wilkinson Pike. Federal artillery raked the cotton field across 



33 



which Anderson's men had to advance, repulsing Anderson's first 
charge. But A. P. Stewart's brigade was brought up in support, 
and the Confederates charged again. The Federals fell back, 
abandoning eleven cannons, most of which had belonged to 
Sheridan's division, and which had caused such havoc (32). 

So determined and irresistible was the Confederate attack and 
follow-through that by 10:00 a.m. they had put Johnson's and Davis' 
division of McCook's corps to flight in a wide sweep of four or 
five miles to the Nashville Pike (Fig. 4). Sheridan's division was 
still fighting hard during this period. Indeed Sheridan's troops 
were never put to flight. Sheridan's left brigade under Colonel 
George W. Roberts bore the brunt of the attack by Anderson and 
Stewart. The first Rebel assault on Roberts was beaten back, and 
Roberts made a counterattack before he also retreated to join the 
remainder of Sheridan's command. Alexander F. Stevenson, whose 
42nd Illinois regiment belonged to Robert's brigade, recalled the 
scene: "Suddenly the grand form of Colonel Roberts could be seen 
riding in rear of the regiment, telling the officers not to let a 
shot be fired; Then, wheeling around the left wing, he rode in 
front of the regiment along the whole line, with his cap in his 
hand, cheering the men to endless enthusiasm and shouting to them, 
'Don't fire a shot! Drive them with the bayonet!'" Following the 
order to advance, the 42nd Illinois raced forward, causing the 
southerners of Manigault to retreat. However, the Illinoisans soon 
found themself surrounded by a host of southerners from the units 
of Polk and Wood. Sheridan attempted to establish a new line 
stretching east from the Gresham house and bending back to the 
north, where Roberts' brigade maintained its position immediately 
south of the Wilkinson Pike. Roberts led his brigade in a 



3^ 



desperate bayonet charge against the command of Manigault (33). 35 
But the strength of the Confederate attack was too great. Roberts' 
brigade threw back three infantry attacks while an artillery duel 
raged at a range of no more than two hundred yards. It was in the 
midst of this fighting that Roberts was killed (34). Stevenson, 
wrote that, after being hit by three bullets, Roberts gave the 
order that he be strapped on his horse. He was preparing to lead 
still another charge against the enemy when he died (35). Roberts 
fell about 10:45 a.m. (36). Robert's determined resistance delayed 
the attack on the Union right wing for a time, thus allowing the 
reforming of broken columns (37). His brigade suffered 566 
casualties (38). Although he lost three brigade commanders, 
Sheridan conducted a fighting withdrawal. By noon, however, 
Bragg' s first objective had been attained; the Federal line was 
doubled back like a jackknife blade until its right wing was at 
right angles to the original line of battle. But the Confederates 
were not able to deliver the knock-out punch (39). 





George Washington Roberts was of Welsh descent and was the son ^ 
of Pratt and Ann Wilson Roberts. His father had migrated from New 
England to Pennsylvania. George, the eldest son, was born in 
Chester County, Pennsylvania, October 2, 1833. He spent his 
boyhood days on the family farm and attended the schools of West 
Chester, Pa. He entered Yale University where he was a member of 
Delta Kappa Epsilon. He graduated in the class of 1857 with 
honors. On his graduation he first studied and then practiced law 
in West Chester, until March 1, 1859, when he removed to Chicago. 
Although successful in his profession there, he was determined to 
enter the army and began recruiting for the 42nd Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers. On July 22, 1861 he received his commission as major 
of the regiment, and on September 17 was elected lieutenant 
colonel. Upon the death of Colonel Webb on December 24, 1861, he 
was chosen colonel. With his regiment Colonel Roberts took part 
in the well-known march of General Fremont to Springfield, after 
which the 42nd went into quarters at Smithtown, Missouri. After 
the fall of Fort Donelson, the colonel proceeded with his regiment 
to Fort Holt, near Cairo, where he held command of the post, at 
that time garrisoned by the 42nd Illinois, 8th Ohio, and a battery 
of the 2nd Illinois Artillery. From there he was ordered to 
Columbus, Kentucky, after the evacuation by the enemy, and next 
proceeded to Island No. 10 on the Mississippi River (40). 

At Island No. 10, Colonel Roberts first made his mark as one 
of the heroes of the army. On April 1, 1862, in the midst of a 
fierce storm, he led a small expedition of 40 men in five small 
boats which successfully spiked the guns of the upper battery 
which allowed passage of Union gunboats. He gained further praise 
in the engagement at Farmington, Mississippi where he covered the 



retreat. He received praise from General Rosecrans for his 
performance in the seige of Corinth following the battle of Shiloh 
(41). In command of a brigade he distinguished himself in several 
skirmishes during 1862 in route to Nashville (42). 

Of powerful physique, he was as fearless as he was strong. 
It is said that, on one occasion in the early part of the war, he 
relieved a temporary blockade on a railroad by replacing a flat 
truck on the track single-handed (43). 

When Nashville was captured by Federal troops, Robert's 
regiment was assigned to garrison duty in that city. With the 
certainty that active operations in the field were impending, he 
was transferred at his own request to the army near Murfreesboro. 
In the ensuing battle, as previously related, he was killed. 

Among the most remarkable incidents of the battle was the 
tribute paid to Roberts by the Confederates who had witnessed his 
bravery while directing Sheridan's 3rd brigade. The Confederates 
dug a grave among the rocks and cedars. Major Luke W. Finlay, a 
Yale graduate, wrapped the body in his own military cloak and read 
the service of the dead over the remains; a military salute was 
fired and a bugler played taps. Last of all, a group of privates 
brought a large smooth stone and placed it on Colonel Roberts' 
grave, having chopped an inscription on the stone (44). 

General Phillip Sheridan, in his Memoirs , writes: "Colonel G. 
W. Roberts came to me in the re-organization. He was an ideal 
soldier both in mind and body. He was young, tall, handsome, 
brave, and dashing and possessed a balanced wheel of such good 
judgment that, in his sphere of action, no occasion could arise, 
from which he would not reap the best results." 



37 



Rosecrans, forced by advance to change his original plans for 
a flank attack on the Confederate right, gradually formed a 
formidable line along the Nashville Pike, making a desperate 
attempt to maintain communication with the rear. When the 
Confederates had bent back the Union flank to the Nashville Pike, 
Rosecrans brought Wood's and Van Cleve's division back from the 
east side of Stones River to bolster the retreating Federal 
defense (Fig. 5). As the Confederate drive against the Federal 
right began to slow down about 10:00 in the morning, Bragg called 
on Breckinridge to send from east side of the river, first one 
brigade and then two brigades, to Polk's support. Through a 
failure in communications, Breckinridge did not supply these 
troops to help Hardee's men who had encountered the fresh Federal 
line along the Nashville Pike. The new position of the Federal 
line created a sharp salient at the center and in this salient was 
a thick clump of trees covering about four acres. In and around 
this forest Rosecran assembled every available brigade not already 
in action, and backed them up with artillery on high ground in 
rear of the infantry division. The general area of this 
stronghold, referred to in the reports as the Round Forest, was 
defended against successive waves of furiously attacking 
Confederates throughout the rest of the day. Finally 
Breckinridge's brigades began to come on the field from across the 
river in accordance with the original orders and Bragg threw them 
into action as they arrived. One by one the Confederate brigades 
were hurled against the Round Forest position, with the courage 
and abandon that won the admiration of the defenders, but the wall 
of fire drove them back with terrific losses. At length, the 
short winter twilight deepended to darkness, putting an end to the 



38 



fighting, to the great relief of both exhausted and decimated 
armies ( 46 ) . 

Thus closed the first day of a battle which was really two 
separate battles, two distinct engagements separated by a day of 
relative inactivity. In this first day's fighting the Federals 
were driven from their positions on their right for a distance of 
four or five miles, and the Confederates held the field at the 
close of the day. Both armies had suffered shocking losses, but 
the Confederates were justified in feeling that the day was theirs. 
On December 31 the Confederates were so close to victory that it 
can be speculated how the Union army could have escaped disaster 
if Carter Stevenson's 7,500-man division had been present rather 
than detached to Mississippi (47). 

At the close of the first day of the battle on December 31, 
the body of General Rains and many other dead and wounded were 
taken to Murfreesboro. The stately little town had been converted 
into a hospital. A wounded Confederate wrote, "We saw.... the long 
black casket containing the body of our beloved General Rains, 
which cast a deep gloom over our spirits. His presence in battle 
had been equal to a regiment of men" (48). 

Rosecrans seriously considered retreating during the night but 
finally decided against it. New Years day was a day of relative 
inactivity. Bragg returned Breckinridge to his original position 
on the east side of the river. This move was countered by 
Rosecrans' ordering a division across the river where they formed 
a line of battle confronting Breckinridge. 

For a time on the morning of January 2nd, it seemed that the 
inaction might continue through another day. However, in the 
afternoon Breckinridge was ordered to cross the river and drive the 



jy 



Federals from the high ground west of the river. The Federals, 
however, had assembled all available artillery on the west bank of 
the Stones River which totalled 58 guns at McFadden's Ford. 
Breckinridge's advancing lines were met by murderous fire from the 
artillery and small arms delivered by the Union infantry. The 
over-all result was devastating and Breckinridge was forced back 
Sj^to his original position. He left 1,700 of his men dead and 
wounded on the field (49). 

On the night of January 3-4, 1863, Bragg withdrew his 
exhausted army towards Shelbyville. Rosecrans did not pursue. It 
was not until June that Rosecrans renewed operation in this area. 

The Federals lost 12,906 men and the Confederates 11,739. The 
historian Rope said, "Few battles have been fought which have 
better exhibited the soldierly virtues than the battle of 
Murf reesboro or Stone's River, the Confederate assaults were 
conducted with the utmost gallantry and with untiring energy. 
They were met with great coolness and resolution...." (50). 

Murf reesboro was a tactical victory for the Confederates, but 
Bragg lacked the strength to destroy Rosecrans' larger army or 
drive it from the field. From a strategic standpoint the campaign 
was a Union victory (51). 

"'Stones River!' What a host of memories comes back with the 
name!" wrote the author, Mrs. L. D. Whitson as she recalled the 
battle. "It seems but yesterday since we laid our hands on the 
cold, dead face of General [James] Rains, who was shot through the 
heart, killed instantly. ... It seems but yesterday since the screams 
of his sister, who refused to be comforted. .. .What must have been 
the feelings of the. . .young wife. .. .environed by Yankees 
in. . .Nashville, unable to come to him?" (52). 



40 



Because General Rains was a prominent citizen of Tennessee 
as well as a distinguished military figure, a minister requested 
permission from General Rosecrans to remove Rains' body to 
Nashville, his home, for burial. Rosecrans acceded to the request 
but responded: "You may have the corpse, sir; but remember 
distinctly that you can't have an infernal secession 'pow wow' over 
it in Nashville!" (53). For whatever reasons the disinterment was 
delayed. It was not until 1888 that General Rains' remains were 
transferred from the grave in Murfreesboro to the Mt. Olivet 
Cemetery in Nashville (54). 



^1 




CAPTIONS 



Fig. 1. Brigadier General Jcunes E. Rains, Confederate States Army. 
(Reprinted with permission from Yale in the Civil War , p. 
126). 

Fig. 2. Colonel George W. Roberts, United States Army. (Reprinted 
with permission from Yale in the Civil War, p. 138). 

Fig. 3. The alignment of the opposing forces on December 31, 

1862--January 3, 1863. The first day of the battle (Dec. 31) 
took place chiefly west of Stones River. The first position 
of Hardee's corp and two of his division (McCown and Cleburne) 
early on the morning of Dec. 31 can be seen in the lower left 
portion of the map. McCown 's division was first in the line 
against the Federal right. Rains' brigade is shown on the 
far left of McCown 's line. In the center of the map 
immediately south of the Wilkinson Turnpike the position of 
Roberts brigade of P. H. Sheridan's division early on the 
morning of Dec. 31 can be seen. 

Bragg and Rosecrans each planned to attack the others 
right flank, but Bragg seized the iniative by attacking first. 
By 8:00 a.m., Hardee's troops had advanced a mile crushing 
Willich's and Kirk's brigade. Bragg attained his first 
objective by 10:00 a.m., having driven the Federal right back 
to the line of the Nashville Pike, and put to flight Johnson's 
and Davis' divisions. Sheridan's division, including the 
brigade of Roberts, conducted a fighting withdrawal. 
Rosecrans assembled several brigades along with artillery at 
the Round Forrest, a salient in the area between the railroad 



and the river. The Confederates launched several charges on 
this strongly defended site but were unable to deliver a 
knockout punch. 

Most of the fighting on Jan. 2, 1863 took place on the 
east side of Stones River. The position of the 58 Federal 
guns on the west side of the river is shown. (Reprinted with 
permission of Battles and Leaders , III, p. 612). 

Fig. 4. The Nashville Pike out of Murfreesboro. By 10:00 a.m. on 
the first day of the battle Bragg had forced Rosecrans all the 
way back to the Pike. (Reprinted with permission from Battles 
and Leaders , III, p. 606). 

Fig. 5. Federal General Samuel Beatty's brigade (Van Cleve's 

division) advanced to aid the Union right. (Reprinted with 
permission from Battles and Leaders, III, p. 622). 



43 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT ^^ 



Appreciation is expressed to DeEtta Covey and Kristi Sue Stone 
for typing the manuscript. 



REFERENCES ^5 

1. William Swinton, The Twelve Decisive Battles of the War . 
New York: Vick and Fitzgerald, Publishers, 1873, 178. 

2. Frank E. Vandiver, Their Tattered Flags . New York: Harpers, 
1970, 170-1. 

3. E.B. Long, Civil War Dav-bv-Day; An Almanac , 1861-1865. 
Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1971, 291. 

4. Stanley F. Horn, "The Seesaw Battle of Stones River," Civil 
War Times Illustrated (Feb. 1964), 6-11, 34-39. 

5. Mark M. Boatner, III, The Civil War Dictionary . New York: 
David McKay Co., 1959, 803-811. 

6. Horn, "The Seesaw Battle...," 6-7. 

7. Ibid; Thomas L. Connelly, Autumn of Glory: The Army of 
Tennessee, 1862-1865 . Baton Rouge: Louisiana State 
University Press, 1971, 47. 

8. Boatner, The Civil War Dictionary , 805. 

9. James L. McDonough, Stones River — Bloody winter in Tenn- 
essee . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1980, 253. 

10. Boatner, The Civil War Dictionary , 805. 

11. McDonough, Stones River. . . , 235-36. 

12. Horn, "The Seesaw Battle...," 8. 

13. McDonough, Stones River. . . , 90-91. 

14. Ibid , 91. 

15. Time-Life Books, "The Struggle for Tennessee," The Civil War. 

(By James Street, Jr. and editors of Time-Life Books). 
Alexandria, Va. : Time-Life Books, 1985; Peter Cozzens, No 
Better Place to Die: The Battle of Stones River. Urbana and 
Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990, 141. 



16. McDonough, Stones River. . . , 92. ^^ 

17. U.S. War Department, War of the Rebellion; A Compilation of 
the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies . 
Volumes 128. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1880- 
1901, Series I, Vol. XX, Part 1, 913; hereinafter cited as ^. 

18. Ibid , 681. 

19. Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray . Baton Rouge: Louisiana 
State University Press, 1959, 250-51. 

20. Letter of July 30, 1985 from Wesley H. Poling, Director of 
Alumni Records Office, Yale University, New Haven, CT to 
author . 

21. Eliot Ellsworth, Jr., Yale in the Civil War . New Haven, CT: 
Yale University Press, 1932, 38-39. 

22. Letter of July 30, 1985 from Wesley H. Poling, Director of 
Alumni Records Office, Yale University, New Haven, CT to 
author. 

23. Warner, Generals in Gray , 250-51. 

24. Ellsworth, Yale in the Civil War, 38-39. 

25. Confederate Veteran , XVI, 390-91. 

26. Warner, Generals in Gray , 250-51. 

27. Nathaniel C. Hughes, Jr., Liddell's Record. St. John 
Richardson Liddell, Brigadier General, CSA. Dayton: 
Morningside Books, 1981, 107. 

28. James D. Porter, "Tennessee," Confederate Military History . 
Volumes 13. Atlanta: Confederate Publishing Co., 1888, VIII, 
60. 

29. Horn, "The Seesaw Battle...," 9. 

30. Ibid, 10-11. 

31. Boatner, The Civil War Dictionary , 805. 



32. Horn, "The Seesaw Battle...," 9. ^ 

33. Alexander F. Stevenson, The Battle of Stones' River Near 
Murfreesboro, Tennessee, December 30, 1862 to January 3_l 1863 . 
Boston: Jas . R. Osgood & Co., 1884, 54-57; Cozzens, No Better 
Place to Die, 117-118; Stanley F. Horn, The Army of Tennessee; 
A Military History . Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1941, 

201. 

34. McDonough, Stones River... , 107; Report of Brigadier General 
Phillip H. Sheridan, OR, Series I, Vol. XX, Pt. 1, 347-54. 

35. Stevenson, The Battle of Stones ' River. . . , 68. 

36. Report of Colonel L.P. Bradley, OR, Series I, Vol. XX, Pt. 1, 
370. 

37. Ellsworth, Yale in the Civi l War, 39. 

38. Hughes, Liddell's Record, 109; OR, XX, Pt. 1, 209. 

39. Horn, "The Seesaw Battle...," 9. 

40. John Fitch, Annals of the Army of the Cumberland, Phil- 
adelphia: J. B.Lippincott, 1864, 250-2; McDonough, Stones 
River.. . , 110; J. Smith Frithey, and Gilbert Cope, History of 
Chester County Pennsylvania, with Genealogical and B i o - 
graphical Sketches . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1881, 713. 

41. Fitch, Annals of .^.^ Cumberland, 251; Maurice Melton, The 
struggle for Rebel Island, No. 10. Civil War Times 
Illustrated , 18(April, 1979):4-15. 

42. Ellsworth, Yale in the Civil War, 40-41. 

43. Ibid. 

44. McDonough, Stones River. . . , 157. 

45. Phillip H. Sheridan, Personal Memoirs of P.H. Sheridan, 
General United States Army . 2 volumes. New York: Charles L. 
Webster Co., 1888, II, 210. 



46. Horn, "The Seesaw Battle...," 9-11. ^8 

47. Ibid , 11; McDonough, Stones River. . . . 219-220. 

48. McDonough, Stones River. . . , 164. 

49. Horn, "The Seesaw Battle...," 34. 

50. Boatner, The Civil War Dictionary . 807. 

51. Ibid ; Robert G. Albion, Introduction to Military History . New 
York and London: Appleton, Century Crofts, 1929, 246-7. 

52. McDonough, Stones River. . . , 211. 

53. Ibid . 

54. Warner, Generals in Gray , 251. 



Sarah F. E. Coopec's Essay. 

Soule Female College. 

Mupf treesbopo, Tennessee. 

A.D. June 26th 1855. 

In the year of the Ametrican Republic L.XXIX 



k9 



Pillar of fipe 
or angelic agency. 



How often are the protecting arms of angels thrown 
around us in the pathway of life. As a pillar of cloud by 
day and a pillar of fire by night. 

They mark our way, choose our steps, keeping us from a 
course which might plunge us into inevitable darkness, 
sorrow, or the tomb. 

Angels are with us wherever we roam on earth. Though 
distant from our native home, on lowland, sea, or mountains 
vast, they can wave their pinions over our youthful heads 
allowing us to heaven. 

They hover around us whispering words of love, beguiling 
us with delightful thoughts and often reminding us of those 
who have gone before us in triumph, and thus inspire us to 
follow them to heaven. 

"Angels our noonday walks attend, 
And all our midnight hours defend." 

It was an angel that appeared to the Israelites in a 
pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night, 
throwing the mantle of protection around them, shielding them 
from the enemy as they journeyed to the land of Promise. At 
one time they had been overcome, had not Divine Providence 
changed the pillar of fire to Egyptian darkness, enveloped 
their foes in cinnerian night, and shed on Israel a luster 
brighter than the sun. 

Have you not read of the angel that "heralded the birth 
of Christ?" when 

"Heaven bursted her azure gates and posessed Her spirits 
to the midnight hour." 

"There was suddenly with the angel, a great assembly of 
the heavenly host praising God in the highest, shouting peace 
and good will towards all men." The morning stars who sang 
together and the sons of God who proclaimed the eternal works 
of creation were angels. 

Was it not an angel that appeared to the wise men "as a 
star going before them" until they arrived at Bethlehem. It 
was supposed by some that this was a luninous sector prepared 
for the occasion. 

We cannot tell whether this is true or not, but as the 
problem is solved entirely by the rule of supposition we may 



suppose it a glorious angel that descended to Earth from his 
heavenly abode, to proclaim the advent of Christ to the lord, 
shepherds, as they were watching their flocks by night. 

Heavenly angels are spiritual beings, peculiarly holy, 
happy, innocent and virtuous; and the first in rank among 
created beings, they are also the most intelligent. The word 
angel profanely signifies a messenger. Angels are spiritual 
beings of great power and of understanding vastly superior to 
that of man. 

It is supposed that they can assume human forms at any 
time they choose. Besides this they are possessed of such 
great velocity that they can descend from the third heaven to 
minister to mortal woes. Meditations upon the nature of 
angelic beings are ever pleasing to the humble of Earth and 
often our dreams are peopled by legions of celestial 
visitants. Tn my own slumbers I have often seen their 
glorious forms. 

Their faces were fair, very fair, with flowing curls 
clustering thickly around their heads and shoulders. Their 
wings were white as snow and the tips of their feathers were 
lightly fringed with azure; such a contrast made them appear 
of matchless elegance. 

They were beautiful, exquisitely beautiful; and as I 
gazed T felt a longing to join their company. Glowing and 
Utopian as this may seem, angelic grace far surpasses our 
dreams and our highest conceptions of their beauty fall far 
below the reality. 

One evening lately I was thinking of angels at twilight, 
just as the glorious sun dipped and disappeared behind the 
western hills; leaving a golden hue of his gorgeous robe upon 
the closing gates of day. 

My spirit became so perfectly transformed in beholding 
the luminous bodies of the skies, as one by one they appeared 
from beneath a purple veil until the celestial globe was 
illuminated with millions of sparkling gems unrivaled by the 
diamond and marking the footprints of a God. In the 
enthusiasm of my heart I exclaimed I wish I was an angel. 
Then my enraptured spirit would take its flight to happier 
scenes beyond, where the sun is never concealed by a cloud, 
and where the flowers ever remain of a dazzling beauty. It 
seemed to me I heard angels whisper, saying arise and come 
with us and we will lead you to the sublime regions of 
eternity . 

You shall outstrip the wings of death, and the sorrors 
of time and change. I seemed to rise, to float upon the thin 
air, heaven spread out before me, and I was almost within its 
gates, but atlas! just then a mortal finger touched me and 



51 



broke my slumber, and the dneam dissolved. 

I traised my drooping head ftrom its hard pillow and lo! 
all was fancy. Yet angels were doubtless watching around me 
and weaving the fabric of my vision. 

Have you ever wondered what angel intercedes for you? 
Often when my brow has been parched with feverish heat and 
gentle winds fanned my burning cheek I have thought maybe 
that the motion was caused by the flitting of an angels wings 
above my pillow. If human feeling can tempt a spirit from 
heaven to minister to mortal woes surely a mother's love 
would bring her down to the sick bed of her child to fan the 
aching head with the wings of holy tenderness. 

Friends and associates may angels surround you as a 
pillow of cloud by day and a pillow of fire by night in all 
your daily walks through life; 

"Making earth an eden land 
And guiding time's departing hours." 

And finally when the angel of death knocks at your door, may 
the angel of the covenant who's flaming fire has directed 
your wandering footsteps through all the meandering of life 
gently bear you over the gloomy stream of death. 



Finis. 



Transcribed by Shirley F. Jones (1-25-94). 

Note: According to the 1850 Census of Rutherford County, 
Sarah F.E. Cooper, age 12, William H. Cooper, age 13, and 
Wise A. Cooper, age 10, were shown as living in the household 
of Joseph and Temperance Lindsey. Joseph is shown as being 
a 46 year old male who was born in North Carolina. He listed 
his occupation as a Clergyman of the Methodist faith. 
Temperance, female, age 70, was also born in North Carolina. 
The Cooper children were all listed as having been born in 
Tennessee. Based upon this information, Sarah would have been 
17 years old when the above was written. 




-i-;.;\H 



Figure 1 

Abner Demerit's Homeplace 

circa 1817 



53 



CHARLES DEMENT 
"Our Tennessee Pioneer" 

by Samuel H. DeMent, M.D. 

Charles Dement appears to be the first man of the 
aforementioned surname to enter the frontier lands of North 
Carolina beyond the mountains. The first record of his presence 
in these parts was in January 1792 in Sumner County, when he 
acquired 320 acres from James Wilson. ^ 

History records that Charles Dement left Bertie County, North 
Carolina in November 1790 at which time he sold his acreage to 
Henry Clay Milburn. ^ The land was located on Wanton Swamp on the 
Cashie River and numbered 2 00 acres. He was living on the land at 
the time of sale. ^ 

Charles Dement was an active juror in Bertie County, North 
Carolina from the period of November 1774 until 1779. He was not 
mentioned again in Bertie County until spring of 1783. Charles 
was probably the son of John Dement who first acquired a British 
Land Grant in November 1744. The Council at New Bern records his 



^North Carolina Land Grants I, p 379. Sumner County Archives 

^Bertie County North Carolina Court Minutes, Book P, p 114, 
Bertie Co., North Carolina. 

^Bertie County North Carolina Court Minutes, Book P, p 239, 
Bertie Co., North Carolina. 



54 



petition for 250 acres in Edgecombe County, North Carolina. * He 
is recorded in the Edgecombe County, North Carolina court minutes 
(Halifax County) and sold the acreage in 1751 to John Hardy. ^ The 
actual deed recorded the original land patent date as March 18, 
1744. A witness to the land exchange was William Dement. In 1751 
(September 6, 1;'51) John Dement acquired 400 acres from Daniel 
Highsmith on Cashie Swamp (Wanton Swamp) in the area now in the 
vicinity of Lewiston. ^ Two hundred acres of this land lying on 
the Northeast side of Cashie Swamp was sold to William Edwards on 
July 26, 1756.^ 

The William Dement mentioned previously also relocated to 
Bertie County, North Carolina where his name is recorded in 1769 
and 1778 (August 28, 1778) at which time he purchased land from the 
estate of the late Benjamin Rogers. ® A William Dement served in 
the American Revolution and his North Carolina pension land grant 



^Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. IV B, pp 708, 9, 11, 

1744. 

Halifax Co., North Carolina Real Estate Conveyences, Vol. IV, 
p 165, Halifax Co., North Carolina. 

^Bertie County, North Carolina Court Minutes, Book G, p 415. 
Bertie County, North Carolina. 

^Bertie County, North Carolina Court Minutes, Book H. , p 417. 
Bertie County, North Carolina. 

°Gamon D. Records of Estates of Bertie County, North Carolina. 
Raleigh: D Gamon Publis. Vol. I 1728-1744, 1762-1790, p 79, 1986. 



55 



was assigned to Archibald Lytle. ^ 

Charles Dement and his brother John Dement, Jr. acquired a 200 
acre land grant in Brunswick County, North Carolina (Oxpen branch 
of the Little Shallote River) in 1771. '° Both were listed in 1772 
Brunswick County tax records. In 1773 the 200 acres were sold in 
two 100 acre tracts to William Cause. ^^ On November 14, 1774, 
Charles Dement was deeded the remaining 250 acres that his father 
John Dement owned on Wanton Swamp. '^ Charles Dement signed an 
Oath of Allegiance to the independent government in either 1774 or 
1777. ^^ He apprenticed Mary Barfield in spinning and weaving in 
1777. ^* In 1779 Charles Dement registered his cattle mark (crop 
and nick under right ear; half moon over left) . '^ He was a member 



^orth Carolina Land Grant in Tennessee 1778-1791, p 184, 
Grant #1377. 

%orth Carolina Land Grant #139, Nov. 1771. NC St Archives. 

^^ Brunswick County, North Carolina Court Records, Book B, pps. 
94-96, 1773. 

^^Bertie County, North Carolina Court Minutes, Book M, p 242. 
Bertie County, North Carolina. 

^^Bertie County, North Carolina, Revolutionary War Papers, 
1774, 1777. North Carolina State Archives. 

^*Haun WP. Bertie County Court Minutes 1772-1780. Durham: 
WP Haun, Publis. Book IV, p 259, 1976. 

"ibid p 302. 



56 



of the North Carolina Militia from Bertie County. ^® In 1780, 18 
Militiamen and 112 draftees from Bertie County refused to march to 
Hillsborough, North Carolina until they had received bounty, since 
they were not supplied weapons. ^^ The Militia rendevoused with 
General Jethro Sumner's North Carolina Continentals in 1780. These 
patriots fought on the front line in several skirmishes and battles 
in the Southern campaign in 1781. '° Charles Dement was noted in 
Bertie County Court Minutes again in February 1783 as a juror and 
again in 1785 as guardian of Sarah Thomas. ^^ He was mentioned in 
1780 as the husband of Selah Thomas in her father's last Will and 
Testament. ^ Charles Dement is not mentioned in Bertie County 
after October 18, 1790. He may have inherited land from John 
Dement (father or brother) in Burke County, North Carolina. ^' 



^^Gandrud PJ, McLane BJ. Alabama Soldiers (Rev, War of 1812, 
& Indian Wars) Hot Springs: Arkansas Ances. Vol VI pp 66-67, 1979. 

^^Rankin H. The North Carolina Continentals. Chapel Hill: North 
Carolina Press, p 239, 1971. 

^°ibid, pp 247-51. 

^^aun WP. Bertie County, North Carolina County Court Minutes 
1781-1787. Durham: WP Haun, Publis. Book V, p 136, 1982. 

^Bertie County, North Carolina Court Minutes 1780, p 158, 
Bertie County, North Carolina. 

^^Huggins EW. Burke County, North Carolina Land Records 1779- 
1780 and Miscellaneous Records 1777-1780, Vol. II. Estate papers 
1777-1795. Easley: So Hist Press, p 164, 1987. 



51 



Charles was mentioned in tax records as owning 326 acres in Captain 
Adam's Company in 1790. ^ He sold several parcels over the ensuing 
years (presumably as an absentee landowner). On June 18, 1793, 120 
acres was deeded from Charles Dement to a son David Dement. ^ 
David Dement deeded the 120 acres to Mary Dement (widow of John) 
in 1797. ^* Mary later sold the land in 1800. 

On January 11, 1792, Charles Dement acquired 320 acres from 
James Wilson in Sumner County, North Carolina. He sold this land 
in 1815 to James Douglass. ^ On May 27, 1795, Charles Dement and 
William Standley of Sumner County acquired 1000 acres along the 
East Side of the Main Fork of the Stones River in Davidson County, 
North Carolina. The land was acquired from Noah (Aquilla) Sugg, 
a planter and minister. ^,^, Charles Dement later received the 
entire 1000 acres through the court from William Standley. Charles 
Dement was active in the Sumner County Court records from 1792 



^ibid. Tax Records 1782-1793, p 128. 

Muggins EW. Burke County, North Carolina Records 1775-1821, 
Easley: So Hist Press. #191, 1987. 

^'*ibid, #534. 

^Sumner County Deed Book, Vol. VII, p 396 Sumner County 
Archives. 

^orth Carolina Land Grants 1, p. 13 5, Tennessee State Arch. 

^^Carr J. Early Times in Middle Tennessee. Nashville: Stevenson 
and Owen, p 103, 1857. 



until July 1803. He was recorded as a Justice of the Peace in 
1800. ^ Sumner County court records are missing from 1804 until 
1810. Charles Dement received a Rutherford County Land Grant 
(#4550) in the 1st District for 680 acres on November 5, 1812 from 
assignee William Lytle. ^ The land was situated on the East Side 
of the Stones River near Jefferson. In 1809 and 1814 he received 
2 quarter sections of section #26 in the Mississippi Territory, 
Madison County (NW 1/4 and SW 1/4) and was a taxpayer in Madison 
County Alabama in 1815. He resided on the Madison County property 
at the time of his death in 1820. His son John Dement confirmed 
his burial site at Beaver Dam in his 1848 will. ^' 

Charles Dement 's impact on Middle Tennessee is best reflected 
by his descendants. Two of his sons, Abner and Cader, were among 
the first residents in Rutherford County. In fact, they signed a 
historic petition which established Rutherford County from its 
parent counties, Davidson and Williamson. ^ The petition was dated 



^Charles Dement, Secretary of State Revolutionary War Papers, 
North Carolina State Archives. 

^Rutherford County TN Deed Book, Book L, p 54. 

"Madison County, Alabama Public Library, Surname: Charles 
Dement -Government Entries, Madison County, Alabama. 

^^Madison County, Alabama Probate Records, Book 14, pps. 181- 
2. Huntsville, Alabama. 

^McBride R. "An 1803 Census of Rutherford County." Ruth. Co. 
Hist. Soc. No 3, pp 52-56, 1974. 



59 



August 10, 1803 and Rutherford County was organized on January 3, 
1804. They probably lived on the 1000 acre plantation on the Main 
Fork of the Stones River, in the Smyrna/Old Jefferson area today. 
Cader Dement was a large landowner and plantar who was given power 
of attorney by his father Charles on December 26, 1816. The land 
involved was the aforementioned 1000 acres plus the 680 acres on 
the East Fork of the Stones River. ^ Cader left many descendants 
in Middle Tennessee and served in the War of 1812. ^ Abner Dement 
acquired 3 land tracts totaling 816 acres from John Donaldson in 
1817 in the Lascassas area of Rutherford County. ^ The original 
private residence stands on the Cainsville Pike and is registered 
as a National Historic Site (Figure 1) . ^ Abner was killed by a 
slave, intestate, in 1825. ^^ His minor heirs were William, John 
& David, who were reared by Elizabeth Dement, Abner 's widow. ^ 



Rutherford County Court Minutes, Vol. K, p 4 62. 

■^oore JT (Ms) . Records of Commisioned Officers in the 
Tennessee Militia. 1796-1815. Baltimore: Geneal Publ. Co. p 235, 

1977. 

^Jernigan MP. "Rutherford County, A Long Look Back." The Daily 
News Journal, July 2, 1972. 

■'^est M. "Dement House to Enter National Historic List". The 
Daily News Journal. August 2, 1986. 

■'^Minutes of the County Court of Rutherford County, Book T, 
1824-5, p 189. 

^ibid, p 358. 



60 



John, when of age, remained on the residence. His brother David 
DeMent settled nearby along Bradley's Creek. David died in 1907 
having fathered 12 children by 2 wives. ^ He is buried behind his 
home, which still stands on Bradley's Creek Road. His great 
grandson, David Barton DeMent, Jr., was a prominent attorney in 
Murfreesboro. He also served in the State House of Representatives 
and Senate for 10 years with distinction. A World War II veteran 
he died at the age of 52. On January 26, 1965, a Senate Joint 
Resolution was adopted and later approved which recognized his 
numerous contributions (Figure 2) . ^ 

Yes, Charles Dement was a true Middle Tennessee pioneer and 
patriot, who immigrated to this area by covered wagon and flat boat 
from North Carolina several years before Tennessee statehood. Two 
of his seven sons were directly involved in the establishment of 
Rutherford County in 1804. Many of Charles' descendants remain 
in Rutherford County, and along with others who did relocate, 
continue to shape Middle Tennessee and the nation as educators, 
homemakers, law enforcers, physicians, ministers, agrarians, public 
servants, and etc. 



39 

DeMent SH. "Dement Family Bible Records." Bits of Dements 
Vol. 10 (1) pp 18-20, 1992. 

Joint Senate Resolution #6, Acts of Tennessee, 1965. 



Bmutt 3fnmt BJfsnluttnn No. fi 



-By- 



Atkini 


OutfhfieM 


Holbrook 


Pittea 


Ttylor 


Biird 


DuggCT 


KeUey 


Pipkin 


Teny 


Berry 


Flippiu 


Maddux 


Rty 


Todd 


Cuter 


Carlud 


Mithii 


Soodgrass 


Tuner 


OuBolm 


ConeU 


Motlow 


Siegill 


WiUcer 


Oiwford 


Guffey 


Nave 


Stewiit 




Ooucb 


HarviU 


03riea 


TalitfoTO 





61 



A Senate Resolution to the Memory of 

THE HONORABLE BARTON DEMENT 



of Muxfrecsboro 



Whereas, On June 17, 1963, there passed away lud- 
denly a veteran of many legislative battles, a man loved 
■sd respected by all legislators who knew him and worked 
with him during his six legislative terms, the Honorable 
Barton Dement of Murfreesboio; and 

Whereas, Senator Dement was often addressed in a 
■piiit of triendliness and fun as "The Great Man". This 
fond appellation, however, was more 6lting than not 
because of his outstanding service to his community, his 
Mate, and his nation; to his fellow citizens, he was truly 
a great man, a jealous guardian of the rights of individuals, 
of our constitutional system of checks and balances, the 
aanctity of the ballot box and our jury tystem; and 

Whereas, On the floor of the House or Senate, Senator 
Dement was a formidable opponent and an effective ally, 
sensitive to the merits of an issue, quick to spot phony 
arguments or false premises, with an unerring ability to 
go straight to the heart of a matter, cementing his posidon 
or demolishing an opponent's view with a few deft, probing 
questions; and 

Whereas, Senator Dement served the people of Ten- 
nessee with enthusiasm and ability in six consecutive 
lepslatures, beginning in I9S3 and ending in 1963, fint as 
• direct Representadve from Rutherford County in 1953, 
195S and 19S7, and then as a Senator representing the 
13th Senatorial District in 19S9, 1961 and 1963, and was 
an outstanding member of the legislative Council Com- 
mittee in 1957 and 1959; and 

Whereas, He also served well the people of his home 
town of MurfrcciboTO, not only u a member of the Qty 
Council from 1952 until the time of his death, but also u 
■ charitable citizen, who made no public display of his 



ADOPTED 



• y^V»*<-*Ay '^^^ /7^S' 



APPROVED: 



Vic««««>«/i^- 



J^J/JCS- 



good works, preferring instead to perform his charity 
quietly, privately, without fanfare or recognition; and 

Whereas, Senator Dement served his country in 
World War U; and, at the time of his death, was a member 
of the American Legion; Disabled American Veterans; the 
Chamber of Commerce; the American, Tennessee, and 
Murlreesboro Bar Associations; Stones River Country 
Gub; the Church of Christ; and was a Shriner, a Moose, 
a York Rile and Scottish Rite Mason, and a trustee of 
the Sam Davis Home in Smyrna, Tennessee; and 

Whereas, Senator Dement't passing will take away a 
little something from all of us, for from him by his example, 
we gained some of his strength, his vigor, his enthusiasm 
for taking on the many vexing problems confronting the 
legislative branch of government and through the legislative 
process, coming to workable solutions; 

Haw, Thereiore, Be it retolved by the Seruae oj the 
Eighzy-FourUx General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, 
The House of Representatives Concurring, That we by this 
Resolution express the sorrow that is ours at the loss of 
our dear friend and colleague. Senator Barton Dement, an 
outstanding public servant, a fine lawyer, a loyal Ten- 
oessean, and a patriotic American — truly The Great . 
Man". We will miu him. 

Be It further resolved. That a copy of this Resolution 
be sent to Senator Dement's wife, Mrs. Marie Dement, 
1603 Jones Boulevard, Murfreesboro, along with the 
prayers and best wishes of the members of the Eighty- 
fourth General Assembly for Mrs. Dement and her (our 
fine children — Andrew Jackson Dement, Sam Houston 
Dement, Debra Diane Dement, and Patrida Aiuette 
Dement 




Fiqure 2 



History of Property 

214 East Main Street 

Murfreesboro, Tennessee 



BY 

Henry B. Forrest 



62 



Rutherford County and Murfreesboro, Tennessee are rich because of its people, 
past and present, and because of their role in history. More historic homes and sites 
have disappeared than are left. Some homes and families have already gone without 
recognition. One of the remaining old homes is located at 214 East Main Street. In 
tracing the history of this property, it was impossible to separate it from the lives of 
those who owned it. Therefore this paper will focus on its owners and their lives; how 
the owners used the property throughout the years and how they use it today. 

The history of the property goes back into the earliest days of Murfreesboro. 
William Franklin Ly tie's parents were Scotch-Irish immigrants who came to America 
in the great immigration of the 1700's. From all records the Lytles came before 1724. 
They landed at New Castle, Delaware and from there went south to Pennsylvania. 
William Lytle was born in Pennsylvania in 1755. His family moved to North Carolina 
shortly after his birth. During the Revolutionary War, Lytle served as lieutenant and as 
captain. He was with Gen. George Washington when Maj. Gen. Charles Cornwallis 
surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781.^ He was transferred to the Fourth regiment 
where he served under his brother, Lt. Col. Archibald Lytle, until the close of the war.2 

Archibald Lytle received large grants of land in what is now Tennessee for his 
distinguished service. One of the grants included 4640 acres of land on the west fork of 
Stones River. Another grant of 2560 acres was located near the Harpeth River.3 
Archibald Lytle, however, did not live long enough to occupy his grant. He never 
married and willed his grants to his brother, William F. Lytle. Lytle's own land grant, 
for his services in the Revolutionary War, included acreage in west Tennessee. 

William Lytle came to Rutherford County sometime before 1800. He built a log 
cabin, gristmill, and sawmill. He later added a cotton gin and warehouses. In 1810 he 
began building a mansion near Lytle Creek. The mansion was razed in 1927. Haynes 
Brothers Supply Company now occupies the site.^ 



63 



Murfreesboro was originally called Cannonsburg in honor of Newton Cannon, 
governor to be of Tennessee, but it changed names in honor of Col. Hardy Murfree, a 
Revolutionary soldier. He held land granted by North Carolina as early as 1786.5 He 
had succeeded Lt. Col. William L. Davidson after Davidson was promoted to Brig. Gen. 
Griffith Rutherford's position. Davidson and Rutherford Counties were named in 
honor of these two men, respectively.^ 

Little is recorded about the recreation in the early life of the county, but there is 
reason to believe that in addition to hunting and target practicing, the men attended 
cock fights and horse races. There was a Bradley's race track near Murfreesboro before 
1820. Andrew Jackson is said to have won and lost small fortunes betting on races. A 
wager aggravated the enmity between Jackson and Newton Cannon. According to 
rumor, this wager cost Cannon all of his slaves. ^ 

The establishment of the Rutherford county court took place in 1804. The court 
first met at the home of Thomas Rucker, about 4.5 miles from the present 
Murfreesboro. The court continued to meet at various homes until a permanent seat 
of government was established. ^ In 1811 the legislature appointed seven 
commissioners to select a permanent seat of justice for the county. The legislature 
directed them to consider central locations with an adequate supply of good water. 
They were to secure sixty acres of land either by purchase or by donation. 

Several localities competed to become the seat of justice, since it would be a 
benefit to a successful community. Charles Ready offered Readyville. Also, Thomas 
Rucker and William Lytle offered their places. The commissioners visited and 
inspected the various places offered. 

The donators made determined efforts to influence the commissioners. They 
served sumptuous dinners during which the guests made many toasts and 
"excitement reached the boiling point."^ Then William Lytle invited the 
commissioners to his site. It is said that the lavish entertainment given and the 



64 



inducements offered accomplished the desired effect. The members voted in favor of 
the Lytle place. The commission suggested naming the new town after Lytle, but Lytle 
requested that they name it in honor of his close friend. Colonel Murfree, who had 
recently died in Williamson County. On 29 November 1811, the county seat was 
renamed Murfreesborough, later Murfreesboro.^O 

Lytle made only one stipulation, and this was that one lot be redeeded to him. 
The commissioners agreed, and he received the lot on the southeast corner of the 
square. ^^ At that time the lot was what is now a full city block. It is bordered on the 
north by East Main Street, on the south by Vine Street, on the west by Spring Street, 
and on the east by Academy Street. ^2 William Lytle apparently used this as an 
investment since he had already chosen his own homeplace. Throughout the years 
this lot was divided and sold in separate parcels. Lytle's surveyor, Hugh Robison, laid 
out additional lots from Lytle's property, and no doubt the financial returns on these 
lots were considerable. ^3 

According to the Central Observer 14 January 1979, the earliest Christian Church 
in Rutherford County began meeting in a log house on Vine Street near Lytle Creek. 14 
In 1860 the congregation bought the lot on the corner of East Main Street and Academy 
Street from Robert McLane and W.W. Ross for eighteen hundred dollars. ^ 5 jhis lot 
was part of the original lot redeeded to William Lytle by the agreement of 1811. In the 
early 1900s the congregation of the Christian Church disagreed about several doctrines. 
This is when the congregation at East Main and Academy Streets assumed the name of 
East Main Church of Christ.^^ 

William Lytle owned the lot to the west of the present church building until 4 
May 1840 when he sold it to Wilson Thomas for SISO.^'' Little is known about Wilson 
Thomas except that he served as mayor of Murfreesboro in 1844.^8 On 24 March 1841, 
four days after Thomas's deed was recorded, he sold the lot to William C. Fletcher for 
$250.19 



o5 



Allen Tait Gooch gave three hundred dollars for the lot 13 January 1843.20 in 
1814, when Gooch was eight years old, his family moved from North Carolina to 
Williamson County, and later they moved to Rutherford County. He and his wife 
made their home in Murfreesboro where he went into the mercantile business, 
probably in 1829. He later took a partner, William McKnight, and the business became 
known as "Gooch and McKnight Mercantile Business." In addition to his normal stock 
of goods, Gooch purchased a great deal of furniture for his brother's home, 
Goochland. 21 Goochland was part of the property bought by the State of Tennessee in 
1942 for the construction of Sewart Air Force Base in Smyrna, Tennessee. 22 

Allen Gooch sold three lots to his son-in-law, Jean Joseph Giers for five 
thousand dollars 17 September 1850. Fifteen hundred dollars was "in hand paid,"23 
and the balance to be paid in three notes for $1166.66, each note dated the deed date; 
two of them payable at twelve months intervals and the third at two years. One of the 
three lots adjoined lot eighty-two and was where Gooch's home was situated. 24 

Jean Joseph Giers was born in Bonn, Germany. His history is unknown until he 
resided in Murfreesboro. He wrote music and poetry and gave music lessons. He and 
Mary Lucinda Gooch were married 2 May 1849.25 in 1855 Giers purchased a resort hotel 
and twelve hundred acres of land fifteen miles south of Huntsville, Alabama. He 
named his holdings Valhermoso Springs which meant "beautiful valley" in 
Spanish. 26 Giers and his wife, and her parents, Allen and Elizabeth Gooch, all moved 
to Valhermoso Springs in 1855. Evidentally, Giers and Gooch became partners and 
made a successful resort hotel, where many dignitaries visited. 27 Giers became a 
member of the staff of the Washington Gazette in Washington, D.C.; he spent the 
winters in Washington and the summers in Valhermoso Springs. All of Allen 
Gooch's sons enlisted in the Civil War from that area of Alabama. They all fought for 
the Confederacy, but their brother- in-law, Jean Joseph Giers, was a northern 
sympathizer. Gooch affectionately referred to his son-in-law as "that damn yankee."28 



66 



Giers, most likely, had sold the three lots in preparation for his move to 
Alabama. He sold them to Madison R. Alexander 17 July 1852 for the same amount he 
had paid for them; five thousand dollars. Mr. Alexander was a native of Tennessee and 
one of the early settlers of Rutherford County. He married Catherine Suttle of Virginia, 
who was raised in a neighborhood near the one of Thomas Jefferson. She often spoke 
of Jefferson in glowing words of praise. Alexander was a well-known and prosperous 
farmer. 29 

In the decade before the Civil War, Rutherford County experienced a high point 
in agriculture. The agricultural expansion was the greatest ever known; nothing 
comparable ever occurring in any other years. 30 There was an increase in the 
establishment of business firms in Murfreesboro, and also a rapid expansion of 
turnpike companies. 31 This economic boom explains the enormous jump in land 
value as evidenced by the selling prices of lot eighty-two. 

Madison Alexander sold the three lots to James Bivins 6 November 1855 for the 
sum of $5050.32 After that sale the lots were again sold separately; lot eighty-two 
changed hands several times until John W. Burton bought it. Mr. Burton was an 
attorney and was mayor of Murfreesboro in 1860 and 1861.33 After the Civil War, he 
served as special judge of chancery, and as special judge on the State Supreme Court of 
Tennessee from 1878 to 1883.34 He sold the house and lot 10 December 1860 to 
Elizabeth Ledbetter Sublett for thirty-five hundred dollars.35 In this deed is the first 
reference to a house being situated on the lot. Therefore, a house must have been built 
there between 1855 and 1860. 

Mrs. Sublett was a descendant of William Lytle.36 After almost twenty years, lot 
eighty-two was once again owned by a member of the Lytle family. Elizabeth and 
George A. Sublett had married 29 May 1821. Sublett and his brother edited and 
published the first newspaper in Murfreesboro. It was the policy of the Courier to give 
the news rather than to mold public opinion.37 Nevertheless, according to Carlton 



6? 



Sims, the Subletts were not averse to molding public opinion. In 1828 they founded the 
short-lived National Vidette, vv^hose aim was to help elect Andrew Jackson president of 
the United States. The paper was anti-administration and very opposed to the 
reelection of John Quincy Adams.38 The Sublett brothers evidently did their share in 
introducing "opinions of the west into Jeffersonian Democracy."39 George Sublett was 
a charter member of the First Methodist Church of Murfreesboro.40 Elizabeth Sublett 
must have been a determined woman, because she joined the First Presbyterian 
Church 9 March 1834. The Subletts' four children were baptized there 1 October 1836. 
There is no record of George Sublett being a member.^! 

Elizabeth Sublett sold the house and lot to her daughter, Sarah A. Sublett 
Stewart 17 December 1866 for four thousand dollars.'^^ Sarah Stewart was the second 
wife of James W. Stewart who had been married to her sister, Mary M. Sublett, 30 
November 1847.43 Sarah and James Stewart were married 28 November 1850.44 Mr. 
Stewart had evidently died sometime before 1868 because Sarah Sublett Stewart was 
married to James Turner when the house and lot was sold 21 September 1868.45 s. H. 
Miller paid them thirty-five hundred dollars and sold it 7 September 1871 to J.F. 
Vaughan for twelve hundred dollars.46 The economy had reached a peak in 1860, but 
it was curtailed by the outbreak of the Civil War and the period of reconstruction that 
was to follow. The recession is evidenced by the decline of the land value in the 1871 
sale. 

Sarah J. Richardson Fowler paid J.F. Vaughan $1550 for the house and lot 17 
June 1873.47 Capt. Thomas B. Fowler and Sarah had married 6 February 1868. Captain 
Fowler was born in 1838 in Cannon County, Tennessee. He left home when he was 
twelve years old and came to Murfreesboro. He became a clerk in a bookstore and later 
became a bookkeeper in a dry goods store. He served in the Civil War until after the 
Battle of Franklin, where he lost a leg. He was revenue collector for Rutherford County 
in 1866 and 1867. As soon as he was well enough, he became a bookkeeper at the 



Savings Bank; later he became teller at the First National Bank. From 1870 to 1882, he 
was circuit court clerk. His last known position was cashier of Stones River National 
Bank.48 

In 1901 the congregation of the Christian Church needed a larger building. The 
elders were able to buy a section of land from Sarah J. Fowler. The parcel was ten feet 
wide to the west side of the church and ran to the south along the west boundary 
ninety-nine feet. The church paid five hundred dollars; one hundred dollars was the 
down payment and $133.33 was to paid each year thereafter for three years.49 The old 
building was razed, and a new building was erected. ^0 

Kate Bell Fowler Cranor, the adopted daughter of Captain and Mrs. Fowler,51 
inherited the Fowler house and lot upon the death of her mother; the exact date is 
unknown. Kate Bell Fowler was married to George F. Cranor. 

The Church of Christ began renovation plans in 1920. George and Kate Bell 
Fowler Cranor sold the elders of the church their house and lot for ten thousand 
dollars 20 October 1920.^2 a wing was built on the newly acquired property, measuring 
approximately fifteen feet in width and the same length of the original building. 

The Fowler house, as it was known, was used as a home for the ministers and 
their families. Minor changes were made in the matter of electricity, bathrooms, and 
window air-conditioning. 53 

At the present time, the Fowler house stands vacant. It proved unsatisfactory for 
the ministers to live in the house, because the families were disturbed at all hours of 
the night by troubled people who needed help. For a while, the house was leased, but 
this was not practical. The church was required to pay taxes on it if it was rented. After 
paying taxes and repairing the damages made by the tenants, the church discovered 
that using it as rental property was a losing proposition. 54 

It is believed that Captain Thomas Fowler and his wife, Sarah J. Fowler, had the 
present house built sometime between 1875 and the early 1880s. Speculation is that the 



69 



original house was severely damaged during the Civil War and was in an irreparable 
condition. 

The Fowler house is a two-story, red brick building. The walls are four bricks 
thick and stand on a rock foundation. These stones are twenty-five to thirty inches 
long and twelve inches thick. 55 The outside of the house is designed in the 
asymmetrical form of the Victorian style. It has a small front porch with a double-door 
entrance. On the left side of the porch, there is a two-story turret with three bay 
windows at both levels. The turret has a pyramidal cap.56 The roof and cap were 
originally made of pressed tin which had a design etched in it, but this has been 
replaced by a modern tin roof. 

The entrance hall leading to the stairway has an archway with the wood carved 
in various designs. The front parlor on the left of the hall is separated from the back 
parlor by two sliding doors, which reach almost to the fourteen feet high ceilings. The 
library is on the right of the hall with a small office directly behind it. The kitchen was 
originally a separate building, but now it joins the house in the rear. 

There is a massive stairway leading to the second floor which has three 
bedrooms; the master bedroom now adjoins a bathroom, which was probably once 
used as a dressing room or storage area. 

The floors are made of "fat" pine, and the wood molding is probably poplar. This 
is an easy wood to work with and was used abundantly in the 1880s. The fireplaces are 
srhall and shallow with low mantles made of cast-iron. The burning of coal and the 
use of cast-iron was popular during this period.57 There is ornamental plasterwork on 
the ceilings around the electrical openings. In the nineteenth century, coal oil lanterns 
were suspended from the ceilings and lowered for use. There is elaborate wood detail 
on the stairway newel posts. Other than this and the archway, there is little fancy detail 
which is prevalent in most Victorian houses. 58 



70 



This research project has been a most enlightening experience. The writer's 
respect for historians has increased tenfold. While tracing the history of lot eighty-tv/o, 
the novice researcher repeated many times, "If only land could talk!" Regrettably, the 
writer has left some missing links in the line of ownership of the property. Also, there 
is an abundance of unknown information about the owners and their families. The 
research has found, until now, all the owners to be prominent and honorable citizens. 
Nevertheless, it is always possible in tracing a family tree to find a horse thief hanging 
from one of the branches or to roll some skeletons out of the closets. In any case, lot 
eighty-two is well-worth investigating. 



71 



ENDNOTES 



1 William F. Lytle, Biographical Sketch, 1755-1829. Daughters of the American 
Revolution, Jackson-Madison Chapter Collection, William F. Lytle Collection, State of 
Tennessee Archives, Nashville. 

2 Mabel Pittard, Rutherford County. Tennessee County History Series, ed. Robert E. 
Corlew III (Memphis: Memphis State University Press, 1984), 29. 

3 Archibald Lytle, North Carolina land grant, 12 March 1784, original in 
Archibald Lytle Collection, State of Tennessee Archives, Nashville. 

4 William F. Lytle, Memoirs of the Lytle family, Lytle family genealogy 1703- 
1829, Lytle family events and photographs, William C. Ledbetter Jr. Collection, 115 
University, Murfreesboro, TN. 

5 Carlton C. Sims, ed. , A History of Rutherford County (Murfreesboro: Privately 
printed, 1947), 12. 

6 Sims, 26. 

7 Ibid., 31. 

8 C. C. Henderson, The Story of Murfreesboro (Murfreesboro: The News-Banner 
Publishing Co. , 1929), 4-5. 

9 Ibid., 28. 

^0 William C. Ledbetter Jr. of Murfreesboro, interview by author, 21 November 
1988, Murfreesboro, 115 University, Murfreesboro, TN, 

11 Ibid. 

12 Sanborn Map Co., July 1891, Murfreesboro, TN. Map 3, 1888-1897. 

13 Pittard, 26-27. 

14 Murfreesboro East Main, Central Observer, 14 January 1979, 1. 

15 Rutherford County Deeds, Transfer of title, Robert McLane and W.W. Ross to 
Christian Church, 5 November 1860, Book 11, 476. 

1^ East Main Church of Christ. Historical papers and photograph. East Main 
Church of Christ Collection, Murfreesboro, TN. 

17 Deeds, Transfer of title, William B. Lytle to Wilson Thomas, 20 March 1841, 
Book Y, 366. 



12. 



18 Henderson, 142, 

19 Deeds, Transfer of title, Wilson Thomas to William C. Fletcher, 24 March 
1841, Book Y, 372. 

20 Ibid. , Transfer of title, William C. Fletcher to Allen T. Gooch, 13 January 
1843, Book 13 January 1843, Book 1, 102. 

21 Virginia Gooch Watson, 'The Gooch Family in Williamson County, 
Tennessee," Williamson County Historical Society, Publication 10, Spring 1979. 28. 

22 Virginia Gooch Watson of Franklin, interview by author, 22 November 1988, 
Franklin, Executive House, Franklin, TN. 

23 Deeds, Transfer of title, Jean Joseph Giers to Madison H. Alexander, 17 July 
1852, Book 5, 562. 

24 Ibid. 

25 Edythe Rucker Whitley, comp. , Marriages of Rutherford County, Tennessee: 
1804-1872 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1981 ), 119. 

26 Watson, 29. 

27 Watson, interview. 

28 Watson, 29. 

29 The Goodspeed Histories of Maury, Williamson, Rutherford, Wilson, Bedford, and 
Marshall Counties of Tennessee (Nashville: The Goodspeed Publishing Co., 1887; repr., 
Columbia, TN. : Woodward and Stinson Printing Co., 1971), 1020. 

30 PhiHp M. Hamer, ed. , Tennessee- A History: 1673-1932 (New York: The 
American Historical Society, Inc. , 1933), vol. 2, 832. 

31 Pittard, 63. 

32 Deeds, Transfer of title, Madison H. Alexander to James Bivens, 6 November 
1855, Book 19, 279. 

33 Henderson, 142. 

34 Sims, 83. 

35 Deeds, Transfer of title, John W. Burton to Elizabeth M. Sublett, 10 December 
1860, Book 11, 549. 



73 



36 Ledbetter Collection. 

37 Henderson, 75. 

38 Sims, 108. 

39 Ibid. 

40 Ibid., 196 

^^ Edythe Rucker Whitley, comp.. First Presbyterian Church: Roster of Members 
1812-1846. Rutherford County Collection, Williamson County Library, Franklin, TN. 

^^ Deeds, Transfer of title, Elizabeth M. Sublett to Sarah A. Stewart Turner, 17 
December 1866, Book 14, 403. 

43 V\!hit\ey, Marriages, 114. 

44 Ibid., 124 

45 Deeds, Transfer of title, James Turner and Sarah A. Stewart Turner to S. H. 
Miller, 21 September 1868, Book 16, 61. 

46 Ibid., Transfer of title, S. H. Miller to J. F. Vaughan, 7 September 1871, Book 
18, 88-89. 

47 Ibid., Transfer of title, J. F. Vaughan to Sarah J. Fowler, 17 June 1873, Book 19, 
279-80. 

48 Goodspeed, 1035. 

49 Deeds, Transfer of title, Sarah J. Fowler to Christian Church, 4 May 1901, 
Book 41, 471. 

50 East Main Church of Christ Collection. 

51 Goodspeed, 1035. 

52 Deeds, Transfer of title, George A. Cranor and Kate Bell Fowler Cranor to 
elders of East Main Church of Christ, 20 October 1920, Book 64, 255. 

53 James Bailey of Murfreesboro, interview by author, 29 November 1988, 
Murfreesboro, 214 East Main Street, Murfreesboro, TN. 



74 

54 Judith Minnick of Murfreesboro, interview by author, 18 November 1988, 
Murfreesboro, East Main Church of Christ, Murfreesboro, TN. 



55 



Bailey. 



56 Lawrence Grow, ed.. Old House Catalogue (New York: MacMillan Publishing 
Co., Inc., Collier Books, 1982), 20. 

57 Ernest K. Johns of Smyrna, interview by author, 29 November 1988, 
Murfreesboro, Ernest K. Johns Construction Co., Murfreesboro, TN. 

58 Marcus Whiffin, American Architecture Since 1780: A Guide to the Styles 
(Cambridge, MA. and London: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1969), 1 IS- 
IS. 



75 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bailey, James. Interview by author, 29 November 1988, Murfreesboro. 214 East Main 
Street, Murfreesboro, TN. 

The Goodspeed Histories of Maury, Williamson, Rutherford, Wilson, Bedford, and Marshal 
Counties of Tennessee. Nashville: The Goodspeed Publishing Co., 1887; reprint, 
Columbia, TN: Woodward and Stinson Printing Co., 1971. 

Grow, Lawrence, ed. Old House Catalogue. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co Inc 
ColUer Books, 1982. 

Hamer, Phillip M., ed. Tennessee-A History: 1673-1932. Vol. 2. New York: The American 
Historical Society, Inc., 1933. 

Henderson, C. C. The Story of Murfreesboro. Murfreesboro: The News-Banner Publishing 
Co., 1929. ^ 

Johns, Ernest, K., Interview by author, 29 November 1988, Murfreesboro. Ernest K. 
Johns Construction Co., Murfreesboro, TN. 

Ledbetter, William C. Jr. Interview by author, 21 November 1988, Murfreesboro. 115 

University, Murfreesboro, TN. 

Lytle, Archibald. North Carolina land grant, 12 March 1784. Original in Archibald Lytle 
Collection, State of Tennessee Archives, Nashville, TN. 

Lytle, William F. Biographical Sketch, 1755-1829. Daughters of the American 

Revolution, Jackson-Madison Chapter Collection, William F. Lytle Collection, 
State of Tennessee Archives, Nashville, TN. 

Memoirs of the Lytle family, Lytle family genealogy 1703-1829, Lytle 



family events and photographs. William C. Ledbetter Jr. Collection, 115 
University, Murfreesboro, TN. 

Minnick, Judith. Interview by author, 18 November 1988, Murfreesboro. East Main 
Church of Christ, Murfreesboro, TN. 

Pittard, Mabel. Rutherford County. Tennessee County History Series, ed. Robert E. 
Corlew III. Memphis: Memphis State University Press, 1984. 

Rutherford County Deeds. Transfer of title, Robert McLane and W. W. Ross to 
Christian Church, 5 November 1860. Book 11, 476. 

.. Transfer of title, William F. Lytle to Wilson Thomas, 20 March 1841. Book 



Y, 366. 

• Transfer of title, Wilson Thomas to William C. Fletcher, 24 March 1841. 

Book Y, 372. 



1(^ 



. Transfer of title, William C. Fletcher to Allen T. Gooch, 13 January 1843. 



Book 1, 102. 



Transfer of title, Jean Joseph Giers to Madison H. Alexander, 17 July 1852. 



Book 5, 562. 

. Transfer of title, Madison H. Alexander to James Bivins, 6 November 

1855. Book 19, 279. 

_. Transfer of title, John W. Burton to Elizabeth M. Sublett, , 10 December 



1860. Book 11, 549. 



Transfer of title, Elizabeth M. Sublett to Sarah A. Stewart, 17 December 



1866. Book 14, 403. 



Transfer of title, James Turner and Sarah A. Stewart Turner to S. H. 



Miller, 21 September 1868. Book 16, 61. 

Transfer of title, S. H. Miller to J. F. Vaughan, 7 September 1871. Book 18, 



89-90. 

Transfer of title, J. F. Vaughan to Sarah J. Fowler, 17 June 1873. Book 19, 



279-80. 

Transfer of title, Sarah J. Fowler to Christian Church, 4 May 1901. Book 41, 



471. 



Transfer of title, George F. Cranor and Kate Bell Fowler Cranor to elders of 



East Main Church of Christ, 20 October 1920, Book 64, 255. 

Sanborn Map Co., July 1891. Murfreesboro, TN. Map 3, 1888-1897. 

Sims, Carlton C. ed. A History of Rutherford County. Murfreesboro: Privately printed, 
1947. 

Watson, Virginia Gooch. 'The Gooch Family in Williamson County, Tennessee." 
Williamson County Historical Society. Publication 10, (Spring 1979): 4-50. 

.. Interview by author, 22 November 1988, Franklin. Executive House, 



Franklin, TN. 

Whiffin, Marcus. American Architecture Since 1780: A Guide to the Styles. Cambridge, MA 
and London: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1969. 

Whitley, Edythe Rucker, comp. First Presbyterian Church: Roster of Members 1812-1846. 
Rutherford County Library, Franklin, TN. 

., comp. Marriages of Rutherford County, Tennessee: 1804-1872. Baltimore: 



Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1981. 



11 



TO: Murfreesboro City Board of Education 

FROM: John HdpgeJones 

DATE: March 5, 1990 

RE: A Review of School and School System Organization— A Personal Statement 

Reflecting Upon the Past, Present, and Future 

INTRODUCTION 

Changes are rapidly taking place in Rutherford County and Murfreesboro's education institutions. 
The history of where we are is relatively young and the opportunity window for change 
has again been opened- Because that window is now open, it is my responsibility to give 
you my perception of yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Because of my own limited time 
to do research, many of the dates which I will use will not be documented; it will be based 
upon my memory. Conclusions which I will draw will be my own, and I will attempt to 
refrain from making recommendations until the subjects are more fully researched and 
discussed. 



CHAPTER I 

A FIFTY-YEAR HISTORY 

Recently a young local businessman visited my office to discuss school system unification. 
He is a member of the Leadership Rutherford class which is addressing this subject. After 
talking to him for approximately one hour, I realized that I had given him a lesson in local 
school/school system history dating back approximately fifty years. When reflecting upon 
this, it occurred to me that many of our local officials now in decision-making roles are 
either younger than I or may not be natives of this community. I have often thought that 
Mr. Hobgood should write down his thoughts and his knowledge of education history dating 
back to the early 1900s. This would indeed be valuable, but I also realized that I possess 
knowledge and experience which provide information on where and why we are at this 
junction in today's local school organization and control. 

My father served on the Rutherford County Court from 1936 until 1972. I started to school 
at Rockvale in 1943. Dad always felt a need and expressed an interest in consolidating 



78 

the small schools throughout Rutherford County. I never heard hinn discuss school system 
unification. Because of this, I developed an early interest in the organization and control 
of local schools. 

When I started to school in 1943, Rutherford County had more than 50 schools scattered 
throughout the county. Many of these schools were one or two-teacher schools. Grades 
1-12 schools were located at Eagleville, Rockvale, Christiana, Kittrell, Lascassas, Walter 
Hill, and Smyrna. 

There was a dual system for the races with small schools for black children being scattered 
throughout the various portions of the county. Most all of these schools were one- or 
two-teacher schools. Holloway was the one central high school for black high school age 
children. Not only was there a dual school system, but there was also a dual pupil transportation 
program. An extensive separate pupil transportation program served the entire county 
with overlapping routes for black and white children. 

In those days elementary children went to school for eight months and high school children 
attended nine months. Schools were closed for approximately one month in the fall in 
order for children to stay home and pick cotton. Many children from rural share-cropping 
families dropped out of school early because of excessive absenteeism caused by staying 
at home to assist their families with picking cotton and other farm work. 

In Murfreesboro there were four elementary schools attended by Murfreesboro's elementary 
children. Several children from the county also attended these schools. It has been reported 
to me that children from upper income or so called "elite families" attended the Homer 
Pittard Campus School, at that time called the Training School. Children from middle 
income families enrolled at Crichlow Elementary, and children from low income families 
attended McFadden Elementary. The old Bradley Academy, which now houses our maintenance 
shop, was the elementary school for black children. 

Central High School, according to Mr. Hobgood, became a county high school sometime 
soon after World War I. Interestingly, Mr. Hobgood stated that the school originally started 
because many citizens across the county wanted to develop a football power house. Prior 
to that time, many Murfreesboro children had received their high school education primarily 
in private schools. At some point during the twenties and thirties, the principal of Central 
High School also served as the superintendent of the Murfreesboro City Schools. This 
is probably one of the reasons why Murfreesboro never developed a high school program- 
Murfreesboro's elementary schools encompassed grades 1-8. 



79 

Until the early 1950s, there was little change in the structure of the public school program 
as discussed above. Murfreesboro began to grow in the fifties in the Mitchell-Neilson, 
Reeves-Rogers, and Hobgood areas. Under Mr. Hobgood's superintendency, Mitchell-Neilson, 
Hobgood, Bradley, and Reeves-Rogers were all built during the 1950s; I believe in this 
order. Bellwood and Mitchell-Neilson Primary were not built until approximately 1964 
and 1965. During the period of the fifties there was little change taking place in Rutherford 
County in terms of school construction- Additions, of course, were being built to all schools. 
Portables on campuses became popular. The Smyrna area had grown and the 1-12 grade 
school in that area had split up into more than one school. The Smyrna High School was 
built sometime during the mid fifties. Basketball was the center of activity for all of 
the rural high schools. Central High School, under the coaching of Mr. Lee Pate, became 
a power house both in basketball and Football. They nearly always competed in state 
competition. 



DESEGREGATION 

In 1954, in Brown vs Topeka, Kansas , the dual system of public education which had historically 
separated the races was declared unconstitutional. Integration, however, developed slowly. 
School systems across the nation first met the requirements of the Brown Decision by 
establishing freedom of choice for all children. Obviously, there were few black children 
to enter all-white schools, and in this area, no white children entered all-black schools. 
By 1966 there were a few black children who had enrolled at Crichlow and only a handful 
at the other city schools. Not many black children attended Central High School and 
no white children enrolled at HoUoway High or Bradley Elementary. Practically no integration 
had taken place at the schools scattered throughout Rutherford County. 

Other suits to force desegregation began going through the court system of our country 
and forced desegregation became a way of life. Many school systems came under court 
order. Many boards and superintendents lost much of their control and school systems 
were placed under the control of the judicial system. During the latter part of the 1960s, 
both the black and white leadership of Rutherford County and Murfreesboro did an excellent 
job developing desegregation plans and rapidly integrated our school systems. Holloway 
High School was closed and became an annex to Central with most of the vocational courses 
being housed at old Holloway. In 1968 Bradley was closed as an all-black school and Crichlow 
was closed as a 1-8 grade school. Central, of course, became a fully integrated high school, 
and Crichlow and Bradley became seventh and eighth grade schools for the City of Murfreesboro. 
For the first time, Murfreesboro entered the pupil transportation business by establishing 



80 
simple shuttle routes from the Bradley and Crichlow schools to the perimeter schools 
and brought seventh and eighth graders from the perimeter schools back to Crichlow and 
Bradley. Crichlow and Bradley remained seventh and eighth grade schools until the fall 
of 1972 when Oakland and Riverdale were opened as high schools leaving Central available 
for a large seventh and eighth grade school. 

REAPPORTIONMENT 

Another important event was taking place in the nation up to and during the late 1960s 
which had an impact upon the history of our school systems. These circumstances had 
to do with the one-man, one-vote court decisions that were being made in the nation. 
In an earlier decade, courts had ruled that congressional districts must be reapportioned 
on a one-man, one-vote basis. They later ruled that state legislative districts must reapportion. 
Not until 1968 was there a ruling on local governing bodies related to the principle of 
one-man, one-vote. This ruling came from the United States Supreme Court and was 
applicable to the local governing body in Midland, Texas. 

A similar suit had been filed in Rutherford County against the Rutherford County Quarterly 
Court and against the Rutherford County School Board. Since the Midland, Texas suit 
was already pending before the United States Supreme Court, the local suits were held 
in local courts waiting for the Supreme Court ruling. The Rutherford County Quarterly 
Court, now called the Rutherford County Commission, was composed of fifty-four members; 
only four being from Murfreesboro, which at that time had approximately forty-five percent 
of the county's population. 

Likewise, the Rutherford County School Board was extremely malapportioned. There 
were eleven members of the Rutherford County School Board; only one representing the 
City of Murfreesboro. Obviously, this kind of representation contributed to very high 
provincialism for every community throughout the county making school consolidation 
almost impossible. Every magistrate and every school board member were elected by people 
who wanted to maintain the status quo, maintain their one- and two-teacher schools, and 
particularly maintain the six rural high schools which were the focal point for high spirited 
basketball games and other community activities. Practically no candidate had a Chinaman's 
chance for winning an election who became associated in anyway with the subject of school 
consolidation. Mr. Hollis Westbrooks defeated Mr. Wilkes Coffee in a bitterly fought 
campaign for the Tennessee Legislature in the early 1960s. The issue was reapportionment 



81 
and to everyone, reapportionment meant school consolidation. Mr. Westbrooks obviously 

represented the status quo on that issue. In 1966, I came much closer to winning a county-wide 

election. 1 was identified as a consolidation candidate for county school superintendent, 

but failed to win that election by 400 votes. 

RUTHERFORD COUNTY SCHOOL CONSOLIDATION 

As soon as the Midland, Texas decision was made regarding one-man, one vote at the local 
level, the Rutherford County Quarterly Court and Rutherford County School Board immediately 
set up a reapportionment plan. In fact, our local governing bodies reapportioned prior to 
Midland, Texas, making them the first local reapportioned county government entities 
in the nation. Some very progressive local citizens had been behind the local suit. Some 
of these citizens were elected to the newly formed Rutherford County Commission and 
Rutherford County School Board. The Commission was lowered to forty-two members, 
and the new School Board was composed of seven members. 

Many of the forty-two members on the new County Commission and seven board members 
did not represent areas of the County composed of the six rural high schools. Therefore, 
the stage was set for consolidation of many of Rutherford County Schools. The highly 
credentialed, qualified, and progressive county board that was elected around 1970 invited 
Mr, Hobgood, me, and other City officials to sit in with the county superintendent and 
board in the development of a consolidation plan for Rutherford County. Mr. Hobgood 
and I were quite actively involved in the proposal to build two new high schools at their 
current sites. The county commission agreed to the Board's proposal and the city agreed 
to waive certain rights to tax collections. A half cent sales tax was approved; a wheel 
tax was imposed; and some increase occurred in local property taxes. The county built 
Oakland and Riverdale High Schools which opened in the fall of 1972. 

SYSTEMS UNIFICATION DISCUSSIONS 

With a very progressive and highly credentialed county school board and recognizing a 
new county commission that was able to support school consolidatation for the first time, 
local city officials began to discuss with county officials the possibility of school system 
unification. Mr. Hobgood and Joe Sloan, Chairman of the Rutherford County School Board, 
using the Clarksville-Montgomery consolidation instrument as a guide, developed a school 
system consolidation proposal for Rutherford County-Murfreesboro. It had already been 
agreed that the available space at Central would become available for seventh and eighth 



82 
graders in the City of Murfreesboro. It was felt that the systems would unify and the 
logical use of the old Central High School building would be for seventh and eighth graders. 
It was perceived that the Crichlow facility needed to be closed for school use; therefore, 
the city school board agreed to turn over the seventh and eighth grades to the County 
school system. 

The unification proposal called for a superintendent appointed by the county school Board. 
This, along with rural suspicions, caused the 1972 vote on school system unification to 
fail. Once prior to this time, I believe it was in 1969, a referendum failed on the subject 
of changing the method of selecting the county superintendent to an appointed position. 
Another referendum was attempted on this subject in the late 1970s and it was also soundly 
defeated. 

In summary, because of the highly credentialed progressive school board, the newly created 
progressive county commission, the effort to consolidate the school systems, and the available 
space at Central, Murfreesboro lost its seventh and eighth grade program to Rutherford 
County, 

Most of us are aware of the changes and developments taking place in local school systems 
for the last two decades. Since 1970, there has been a change in the Rutherford County 
School superintendency every four years. Mr. Hobgood retired in 1975s, Dr. Swick left 
our school system in 1981, Roger Landers was superintendent for only seven months in 
1982, and I became your school superintendent in August, 1982. Since the opening of Bellwood 
and Mitchell-Neilson Primary School, there was no new school building opened in Murfreesboro 
City until 1987 with the opening of Northfield. During that period of time, several additions 
were made to Murfreesboro city school buildings. Classroom additions were added because 
of increases in federal and state requirements for special education and our own efforts 
to improve these programs. Additions were also made because of the new requirements 
for library space in elementary buildings and with the advent of the kindergarten programs 
in the early 1970s. Our schools were retrofitted for energy conservation in the late 1970s. 

There were few changes in schools during the seventies and early eighties because our 
pupil population stabilized during these years. In fact our pupil population had decreased 
by approximately 500 students during this period while the city's population was increasing 
by approximately 10,000. North Rutherford County experienced growth, and some school 
construction took place in the Smyrna and LaVergne areas. The county's $40 million plus 
building program got under way in about 1984. 



33 
SUMMARY 

From the foregoing history, I call your attention to the following: 

1. One prime reason for the existence of the city school system was the gross malapportionment 
of representation on the county court and county school board. 

2. The city never developed a high school program, among other reasons, because in the 
early years, the city school superintendent and the principal of Central High School 
were one position- 

3. The city lost its seventh and eighth program because of the anticipated approval of 
a unification plan and the available space at Central when the two new high schools 
were built. 

4. Desegregation played a major role in the forming of our school systems as we see them 
today. 

There is one other important reason for the justification of the city school system and 
that relates to the city's willingness to spend more for a quality education program. I 
will refer to this later in this presentation. 



CHAPTER n 

EVENTS SHAPING TODAY'S HISTORY 

There are several items under consideration at the state and local level which may have 
an impact on the Murfreesboro City School System. 

STATE OF TENNESSEE 

Several related discussions are taking place at the state level. First, is the suit which 
has been filed by 66 small rural counties against the State of Tennessee which relate to 
equity funding- Second, is the discussion regarding the Tennessee Foundation Program 
(TEP) which proposes to distribute state funds to local school districts by a basic education 
program (BEP); and, third, is the subject of state tax reform which is needed in order 
to adequately fund the state's public school program. Unification and capital outlay notes 
are also on the state agenda. 



84 



Rural Counties Vs. State 

The subjects interrelate, but let's look first at the suit filed by 66 small rural counties. 
Whether these counties win this suit does not seem to be of great importance at this 
time. Nearly all public officials, school administrators, and the public as a whole, 
acknowledge that a more equitable distribution of state funds should be implemented. 
Similar suits have occurred throughout the nation. The plaintiffs in Texas won their 
suit and the courts have called for reform in the Texas Foundation Program. Also, 
the most drastic example is in the State of Kentucky where the plaintiffs have won 
and the courts have called for a complete restructuring of the Kentucky Foundation 
Program for distributing its state funds. Our State constitution is written somewhat 
different from that of Kentucky causing many to speculate that Tennessee's rural 
counties will not win their suit but as indicated, this seems to be a moot issue. It appears 
that the Tennessee Legislature is sympathetic with the suit and are moving toward 
a system of redistributing state monies. 

The Foundation Program 

Our current foundation program dates back to 1956. The distribution formula was 
revised in 1978. Prior to 1978, state funds were distributed to local school districts 
on the basis of required positions needed to operate a school program and a few other 
categories which included maiirtenance and operation, pupil transportation, and provision 
of free textbooks. In 1978, the formula was changed to support school systems across 
the state on the basis of weighted average daily attendance with various weights being 
given to pupils according to their assigned grade level. 

I am on the state committee working on the new foundation program and we refer 
to it as the basic education program or the BEP. While I am not in total agreement 
with my colleagues on this subject, it appears they will go back to position funding 
if and when such a proposal is ever approved. The assumption is that every school 
and school system should have a certain number of positions in order to have an adequate 
education program. The number of teaching positions and most support positions will 
depend on teacher/pupil ratio requirements. For example, one guidance counselor 
for each 500 elementary children, one librarian for each 500; one assistant principal 
after you reach a certain point, a resource teacher, a supervisor, and a principals, 
etc., according to pupil enrollment. The proposed BEP calls for the state to furnish 
70 percent of the cost to meet the requirements for a basic education program, and 



85 
the local school districts across the state will supply 30 percent of the cost. The 70 

and 30 percents are averages, and the degree to which a school system varies from 

the average will depend upon the established relative wealth in that school district 

as compared with the rest of the state. The basic difference between the BEP and 

the current foundation program is that the current program is totally inadequate to 

meet the needs of education across the state. Since the state is doing such a poor 

job in meeting the education requirements, those school districts across the state who 

do not have the local wealth to provide an adequate program are not doing so. Those 

school districts across the state like Murfreesboro, Oak Ridge, Kingsport, and even 

counties of relative wealth which includes Rutherford are generally considered to 

be providing an adequate education program. Thus, when an adequate program depends 

heavily on local ability, a wide disparity develops from school district to school district 

across the state, 

Tax Reform 

The third subject is tax reform. In order to implement the proposed BEP, it is estimated 
that $400 million new state dollars will be needed. Most lawmakers believe that the 
sales tax is fully utilized. Our own Representative John Bragg presents an excellent 
case for this point- The elimination of all sales tax exemptions would bring in a significant 
amount of new funds to the state, but from my observation, lawmakers are not close 
to eliminating these exemptions. 

A state income tax is most frequently mentioned in reference to tax reform. Many 
believe Governor McWherter will most likely serve in the State House for another 
four years and that he is ready to advance such tax reform. But lawmakers are now 
saying that an income tax in Tennessee, if it is ever approved, will be approved under 
the provisions of a constitutional amendment. Assuming that all of the proper steps 
are taken and that in each step there is a green light given, lawmakers indicate this 
process would take at least six years. Therefore, many of us who had hopes of achieving 
tax reform because of earlier impressions are beginning to become pessimistic regarding 
its chance. 

State Discussions on Systems Unification 

Because of the foregoing discussions at the state level, other subjects are being generated 
which have a direct bearing upon the Murfreesboro City Schools. The average citizen, 



86 
and I'm afraid, the average lawmaker in the State of Tennessee, feel that 141 school 

districts in the 95 counties in the state is a factor contributing to inefficiency, waste, 

and the lack of equity in expenditures per pupil and thus a lack of equal education 

opportunity. Such positions are being promoted by William Snodgrass, Comptroller 

of the Treasury for the state. 

I admit that the above positions are debatable. But those of us who are students of 
school finance are aware that those assumptions are not really all that obvious. The 
Tennessee Municipal League has taken a stance in opposition to those points and does 
a good job in defending the role, nature, and need for city school districts. But in 
addition to Comptroller Snodgrass' role, it appears that city school districts do not 
have a great deal of support from the current commissioner of education as well as 
the state board of education. City school superintendents have been very sensitive 
to the statements made from the commissioner and from the state board regarding 
this subject. While the attack is generally levied at counties such as Gibson and Carrol 
where there are numerous small school districts, nevertheless, I suspect that in the 
long run, an effort will be made at the state level to consolidate districts into 95 county 
units. Unfortunately, the basis for this movement is a financial one and does not consider 
all of the other reasons why school districts should be allowed to operate as independent 
units separate and apart from county governments. Quality education is seldom mentioned 
nor is the right for certain geographical areas to tax themselves at a higher rate in 
order to produce a superior school system. 

In addition to the above, the governor has just employed Dr. Don Thomas, a well-known 
consultant from the State of Utah, to spend a year in Tennessee and take a look at 
Tennessee's education program and the means by which it is financed. Early indications 
from Dr. Thomas indicate that he will encourage school system consolidation. He 
already is speaking in terms of state incentives for promoting consolidation of school 
districts. Prior to this time, the discussion has been centered around disincentives 
for multiple systems. Basically they seem to be one and the same with just a different 
emphasis on the positive! I recently heard Dr. Thomas speak and he stated that he 
would be studying the issues of "adequacy, equity, accountability, and school governance" 
in the state. 

Capital Outlay Notes 

As a sequel to the above, the courts and Attorney General opinions are also playing 

a role in the current affairs of city and special school districts across the state. School 



87 
law requires that counties share bond proceeds with special and/or city school districts. 

Rutherford County has traditionally shared such bonds with us when those bonds were 

issued for elementary purposes. In the past, the city has received funds on the basis 

of our elementary children to the county/city total pupil population. Bonds for high 

school purposes, of course, have been waived. It is easy to see there is a mathematical 

discrimination against an elementary school system in regard to such distribution. 

In other words, we waive high school bonds but are paid a percent on elementary bonds 

equal to our elementary pupil count as a percent of the total K-12 enrollment. But 

counties have been able to go one step further. High schools have been built and former 

high schools have been converted to elementary use without sharing in bond proceeds. 

In recent years, the capital outlay note, or as some label it, the bond anticipation note, 
has become another instrument used by counties to circumvent city payments . The 
attorney general ruled last fall that it was not necessary for counties to share the 
proceeds of capital outlay notes, and capital outlay notes may be issued up to a fifteen-year 
period of time. Thus, if a county wishes to build an elementary school, it now has 
either the option to issue bonds or capital outlay notes. If it issues the latter for a 
fifteen-year period of time, it is in essence the same as a bond, except according to 
the current interpretation of law, the county no longer has to raise an amount to distribute 
to the city school system. 

The Tennessee Municipal League has recently introduced legislation which would place 
the same requirement on capital outlay notes as upon bonds. In my opinion this legislation 
has no chance of making it through the legislature. In fact, I am told that Representative 
John Bragg does not support this move and I personally talked to Senator Womack 
and he has indicated that he does not support this legislation. His statement was "that 
if cities are going to have school districts, they should be willing to support their districts" 
even at the cost of double taxation for this specific purpose. Needless to say, I was 
disappointed in Senator Womack's position. 

Local Events 

As you are aware, Rutherford County is discussing an extensive elementary school 
program. They are proposing schools for Lascassas, Rockvale, Kittrell, and Smyrna. 
These schools will be built with core facilities for 1600 pupils. It is proposed that 
the schools be completed in three stages: The first stage taking care of 800 pupils, 



op 

the second 1200, and the third stage 1600. The schools would incorporate grades K-8. 

The county has already ftpproved a million dollar capital outlay note for the purpose 

of purchasing four new school sites and taking care of maintenance needs. From what 

I can understand by reading the Daily News Journal , apparently the delay of purchasing 

school sites hinges on the location of the site at Rockvale. In a recent conversation 

with Superintendent Jerry Gaither, he indicated that he believes the county school 

board and county commission are almost reaoy to move on their plans for these elementary 

schools. He points out that crowding in the elementary schools is becoming a major 

problem with numerous portables being used throughout the county to alleviate overcrowing. 

Superintendent Gaither also went on to indicate the next high school for Rutherford 

County will most likely be somewhere in the area between Murfreesboro and Smyrna. 



CHAPTER III 



FUTURE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CITY SCHOOL BOARD 



What implications does the foregoing have for the Murfreesboro City School Board 
and the Murfreesboro City Council. Obviously most of what I referred to in Chapter 
II is outside of the control of the school board or the council. It appears to me, however, 
that the window is now open for some major decision making which will have long- 
range impact upon the Murfreesboro City Schools and education in our area. I believe 
there are three basic areas that we must study at this point: (1) the subject of 
unification of school systems and/or metropolitan government or some other organizational 
alternative for operating public schools in the area, (2) the scope of our present school 
program and consider broadening that scope to at least incorporate grades K-8 and 
maybe eventually locking toward a K-12 program for the city, (3) stay charted on 
our present course and develop additional K-6 schools when needed, (4) and study 
our financial resources. A more lengthy and intensive study of each of these four 
areas may be in order, but for the present time, I will provide you the benefit of my 
thinking on these subjects. 

UNIFICATION OF SCHOOLS AND/OR METROPOLITAn GOVERNMENT 

As you have read above, unification of school systems is a popular subject at the state 
level, and I find it is being discussed more and more locally. As indicated, the Leadership 



Rutherford group is currently studying the issue. Almost every-day someone brings 
this subject to my attention for comments. 

Up front 1 neither support consolidation of school systems nor do I oppose consolidation 
of school systems. I want it made clear that my vested interest should never be a 
factor in determining what is best for children's education in this area for decades 
to come. There are two major problems in having separate school systems in the same 
general locality. One is the ability to do long-range planning and the second problem 
is the misunderstanding which local citizens have regarding the nature of two separate 
school systems. Animosity and adversarial attitudes develop among the citizens of 
the county and city which generally should be seen as one community. 

When thoroughly investiaged the argument that separate school systems such as ours 
produce waste and inefficiency and that inequity in education opportunity are inherent 
does not hold water. It is my opinion that if school system unification takes place 
locally, there will be an immediate need created for additional tax payers' funds. 
The funds will be turned over to the present county organizational structure where 
it would be obliged to continue doing everything in a traditional and status quo manner. 
This would result in having to generate millions of new dollars for school purposes 
which may very well be wasted and not produce a better product. 

A large bureaucracy unwilling to meet the challenges of change, efficiency, and good 

management will not save money and most likely will not provide a better education 

program. Unification would require that top dollar cost in any given area between 

the two school systems would need to be achieved in all of those areas in the unified 

school system. For example, Murfreesboro operates a most efficient and very low-cost 

transportation program. Murfreesboro does not claim to give the same services that 

the county gives to most children in the county who use transportation services. Immediately 

tax payers inside Murfreesboro would have the right to claim the same quality service. 

The county does not operate a Classroom on Wheels program; rural citizens would 

have the right to demand one. Salaries for personnel would have to equal those paid 

by the higher paying school system- In the case of teachers, four county teachers 

for every one in the city system would need to be raised to the salary schedule level 

of the city school system. While this may be a very desirable objective, there is no 

guarantee that it would produce a better educated child. 

Given the fact that there is difficulty in long-range planning and that a perennial misunderstanding 
exists regarding the nature of two school systems, what are some of the alternatives 



90 
to unification of school systems? Traditional unification from what I have observed 

involved cities going out of business . In spite of the documents that might be drafted 

and agreements promulgated, in the long run, my observations indicate what happens 

is that the city quits and the county takes over. 

This is not an acceptable alternative to me. I do not support our school program being 
turned over to the county school board and to the county commission with only the 
hope that the total school program for county and city will be raised to the quality 
and quantity level we now possess. I do not see the current political organization and 
local governing structure capable of producing the high expectations, standards, and 
reputation claimed by Murfreesboro City Schools. I do not see the unified school system 
bringing to Murfreesboro the marketing value that we have brought to our citv. 

We should not shut the door completely to discussions on this topic. It appears that 
the state is not going to allow us to shut the doer, and we must be open minded citizens 
recognizing there are problems associated with two separate school districts. 

ALTERNATE NUMBER ONE— METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENTS 

A county and/or unified school system is the largest cost to local government. When 
administered only by the county government, it is excluded from certain taxing powers 
which are possessed exclusively by Tennessee municipal governments. Metropolitan 
government would prevent this. Also I am convinced that little would be accomplished 
in addressing long-range planning and especially the misunderstanding that occurs 
among local citizens if other branches of local governments were allowed to be separate. 

The Nashville media has not helped promote metro-government. It makes us keenly 
aware of all of the problems associated with Metro-Nashville. Recently Cecil Branstetter, 
the man who drafted that charter, acknowledged that a lot of revision is needed in 
the Metro-Nashville Charter. If we take the route of a metro-government, I would 
insist that we identify and circumvent those problems in the Metro-Nashville Charter. 

Also, we should be assured that the control of the school system would be placed into 
the hands of a board of education that was not provincial in its vested interest. The 
head of the school system should be an appointed chief education of fficerwhc is accountable 
to the board of education. Also I would like to make sure that the charter contdned 
provisions related to the organization and administration of the school system so that 



91 

elementary education would not become a step child to secondary programs, athletic 
activities, discipline problems, and secondary administration in general. 

OTHER ALTERNATIVES 

Another alternative could be a fiscally independent school district for the total county. 
This alternative would be similar to the one called for under the Metro-Nashville Charter. 
The guarantees listed above would need to be incorporated into such a school district. 
This alternative would make a board of education and the school district a complete 
governing entity capable of raising its own taxes, fully governing and implementing 
its own program. The school district would strictly be a creation of the state legislature 
and would be completely separate from any other local government entities. 

Another alternate could be similar to the above in which more than one school district 
would be created. There would be two districts, both county wide including the cities. 
One would be an elementary district and the other a secondary. Because of the large 
size of Ruterford County, it is conceivable that such an alternative would be good 
for the future of our community. Each of the districts would operate very similar 
to that as described above. The advantage of this alternative would be the guarantee 
that high emphasis would be placed on elementary education. 

EXPANDING THE SCHOOL GRADES IN THE MURFREESBORO CITY SCHOOLS 

The most urgent consideration is the possibility of incorporating grades seven and 
eight in the Murfreesboro City Schools. The window is open on this subject because 
we are adding classroom space for 1000 children beginning in August of this year. 
Being crowded is everybody's definition. But from a management standpoint, especially 
if we see the need to reorganize our school system and expand its scope, we would 
have space for the next two years to add the seventh grade. 

Another building or two would need to be started by next February and completed 
by August, 1992. The eighth grade would be added on this date; I believe there is much 
support for this proposal. The reason for the support lies in the fact that the county 
is proposing the construction of modern K-8 facilities throughout the countryside. 
These schools will handle up to 1600 pupils which will be financed in large part by 
monies paid by taxpayers who live inside the City of Murfreesboro. After our city 
children finish the sixth grade, they must attend school in an old facility in the middle 
of downtown which has not been well maintained. Also the large middle school is 



92 
a less desirable organizational structure for educating the adolescent and young teenao-er 

than the K-8 organizational structure which will be available for rural children. 

We have no guarantee that the county will issue school bonds for their elementary 
building program. 1 have received word through city sources that the county does 
intend to issue bonds instead of capital outlay notes. This certainly is the fair approach 
since Murfreesboro citizens will be major contributors to paying bonded indebtness. 
Immediate study and attention should be brought to this issue. 

While undocumented, because of the social changes that have occurred in recent years, 
adolescent peer pressures, desire to immediately gain their license for teenage behavior 
and to exercise independence; the middle school as it exists in Murfreesboro is not 
the optimum environment for our thirteen through fifteen year old children. I believe 
if we keep the adolescent in elementary school in a nurturing environment for two 
additional years and continue to provide an elementary program rather than a pre-high 
school program or a pre-teen environment for them, we would see a significant improvement 
in the quality of their education. 

Is such a move possible? Dr. Klaus, other staff members, and 1 have not yet been 
able to intensively research this proposal. 1 believe that we can add the seventh grade, 
approximately 500 students, for the next two years at a reasonable cost to city government. 
In 1992-93 when we open one or two new schools for grades 7 and 8, the cost would 
increase significantly. It does not necessarily mean that the cost will increase significantly 
to the city taxpayers If we can operate our schools at a more efficient rate than 
the county, then it is conceivable that the cost to the city tax-payers would increase 
very little. They would be paying more taxes through the city government and less 
through the county government. 

We currently are receiving approximately 19 percent of each education dollar collected 
by the county. Obviously if we increase our enrollment, this percentage will increase 
and the state contributions will increase proportionally. After the state adopts and 
implements the new basic education program, the City of Murfreesboro may be able 
to lower its financial support; thus, the city may gain greater control over the destiny 
of its students at little to no cost. 

There may be major problems associated with such a move. Would this move produce 
more or less efficiency in the county program? The first big question for the county 
would be the dispostion of the large school facility at Central, its staff, and program. 



93 

They might continue to operate it as a middle school for certain children whom they 
would bus into the city. They might close McFadden. Wishful thinking and the most 
immediate ideal option would be for MTSU to lease or purchase the building for its 
additional classroom space. Frankly, 1 have no idea how we could use it. For years 
we have labored over how to keep students in Bradley and Hobgood. Even if the building 
was restored to optimum conditions 1 think we would have problems in converting it 
into an elementary school that would be adeqrstely utilized. We might, of course, 
take the position that it would be the county's problem and none of our business. I 
doubt if we would want to do this because, after all, we are all tax-payers in our local 
community and it would have an impact upon each of us. 

At this point 1 have not given thought to the subject of expanding our school program 

on through the high school years. Jerry Gaither mentioned to me the possibility of 

the city taking over Oakland and allowing the county to build another high school between 

Murfreesboro and Smyrna. I do not believe that addressing this subject is necessary 

in order for us to look at the other subject of expanding our school system to incorporate 

grades seven and eight. 

In addition to the nurturing atmosphere of a K-8 grade school and the continuance 
of a more elementary approach to this child's curriculum, there are some advantages 
which 1 will mention. These include providing almost every child an opportunity to 
experience the various arts, music, languages, athletic programs, etc. These often 
become electives to the child who is enrolled in a large middle school. Conceptually, 
I can see Murfreesboro Recreation Department playing a big role in coordinating the 
various youth league programs so that every seventh and eighth grade boy and girl 
who wanted to take part, especially in basketball, baseball, and soccer, would have 
an opportunity to do so. Even in football, there could be a touch league. Through 
the Extended School Program, 1 could see many more children having the opportunity 
to be involved in instrumental music which would include not only band but piano, 
have exposure to several different foreign languages, and the visual arts. The opportunity 
for expanded school day will be enhanced. Flexible scheduling to provide services 
for more and more children will make for a more efficient program. Best of all, by 
keeping the children in a K-8 environment they would not be exposed so quickly to 
those societal elements which are creating problems for our youth. 1 think there would 
be a decline in drug abuse and in teenage pregnancy. I believe an increase in parental 
involvement would occur, particularly if extended school is offered. 



94 

III. STAY CHARTED ON SAME COURSE 

We can, of course, remain a K-6 school system. Should we decide to take this course, 
we will be placing ourselves in a position of accepting our lot as measured out by state 
and county governments. My foregoing discussion regarding seventh and eighth grade 
expansion indicates that severe dissatisfaction might occur because our children would 
be moved from our K-6 program to a middle school program perceived less desirable than 
the school organization provided for most children in Rutherford County. 

Growth trends in Murfreesboro indicate that we will be building another elementary school 
every three to five years. The rate of our growth will depend somewhat upon where the 
county places its new large elementary schools and the degree to which the county provides 
pupil transportation to these schools. Our own policy toward accepting county students 
and whether the county implements an ESP program will also be factors which will impact 
upon our future enrollment. 

Should we add to our scope of grades, we must be very protective of the quality and quantity 
of instruction that we are currently providing in K-6. We would not want the added responsibility 
detracting or detering our efforts to provide the K-6 child with the best education foundation 
possible. It would be unfortunate if we eroded our good reputation by assuming a larger 
responsibility. 

IV. FINANCIAL RESOURCES 

Resources to expand the scope of our school program may be within our reach. Continuing 
rate increases or instituting new tax sources obviously are not desired by anyone, but 
we all have a tendency to be willing to pay for what we want. Many rural citizens are 
going to be very excited over having a brand new school building in or close to their communities. 
I believe most city school parents would welcome an expansion of our schools through 
the eighth grade- 
It appears that sometime within the next few years the state legislature will address and 
bring about significant tax reform in Tennessee. Should this tax reform include anything 
that relates to an income tax, we can expect the state to take over some of the services 
currently being rendered by local governments. I would expect the state to take over 
a much larger cost for public education than it is currently assuming- 



Therefore, in the interim, Rutherford County and Murfreesboro have available a one-half 
cent sales tax option which could be assessed if approved in a public referendum. There 
have been no open discussions as to how the county intends to pay for its new buildino- 
program. My guess is they will look at the half-cent sales tax as a source. Should the 
county initiate a referendum on this option, any chances of approval will probably depend 
upon the vote coming out of the City of Murfreesboro. If we, at the same time, were 
proposing the construction of two more elementary schools and converting our program 
to a K-8 program, the sales tax option might be approved. Hopefully, this tax as well 
as other sales taxes would be rolled back when state tax reform is implemented. At the 
present time, 1 do not have the revenue figures such a tax would yield, but 1 am convinced 
that it would go a long way in financing both the county and city school building programs. 

CONCLUSION 

I have provided you with the foregoing in order for you to understand from my perspective 
why schools are organized in Rutherford County and Murfreesboro the way they are. 
I have also attempted to inform you of certain events taking place at the state and local 
level which indicate that changes are coming which have an impact upon us and; finally,! 
have attempted to show that we do not necessarily need to sit and wait and react in regard 
to those changes. We now have the opportunity to be pro-active, not reactive. I trust 
that you will study this document at length. 

I am sure that you have concluded that time is urgent on this subject. If we are going 
to make any move or consider making any move, the foregoing topics need to be opened 
up very soon. I am pondering my responsibility to open those topics before the public. 
Your suggestions or advice will be sincerely appreciated. Thank you very much. 



95 



INDEX 



96 



Abner, DeInen^. Home Place 52 
Angels 49-52 
Adams, Capt . 57 
Adams, John Quincy 67 
Alexander, Madison R. 66 



B 



Barfield, Mary 55 

Battle of Stones River 23,25,40 

Bell, John 30 

Bellwood School 79 

Bivens, James 66 

Bond Anticipation Notes 87 

Bradley Academy 75 

Bragg, Gen. Braxton 

25,27,38,40 
Bragg, John 85,87 
Brainsetter, Cecil 
Breckinridge, Gen. 
Bruce, Rebecca 3 
Bruce, Sanders 2 
Buell, Gen. 5 
Burton, John W. 66 



i, 9, 23, 24, 



90 
8,26,38 



86,87, 



Caldwell, Rev. Joseph 20 
Campbell, Andrew Jr. 18 
Cannon, Newton 63 
Cannonsburg, 63 
Capital Outlay Notes 

92 
Central High School 
Cheatham, Gen. 8 
Christian Church 68 
Classroom on Wheels 
Cleburne, Gen. 
Coffee, Wilkes 
Consolidation 
Cooper, Sarah 
Cranor, George 
Cranor, Kate Bell Fowler 68 
Crichlow School 78 
Crittenden, Gen. 25, 27 



76 



89 

26,27,31,33 

80 
81 
49-52 

68 



Davidson, Col. William 63 
Davis, Pres. Jefferson 8, 

24 
Dement, Abner 58,59 
Dement, Cader 58,59 
Dement, Charles 53,55-60 
Dement, David 57, 59, 60 
Dement, David Barton 60 
Dement, Elizabeth 59 
Dement, John J. 59 
Dement, John 53,54,56,58, 

59,60 
Dement, Mary 57 
Dement, William 57,59 
Desegration 79 
Donaldson, John 59 
Douglas, James 57 
Duke, Basil 3,9,11,16 



East Main Church of 

Christ 64,68 
Edwards, William 54 
Equity funding of schools 

83-85 
Extended school program 

93-94 



Finley, Major Luke 37 
Fletcher, William C. 64 
Foundation program for 

schools 84,85 
Fowler, Capt. Thomas 

67,68 
Fowler House 69 
Fowler, Sarah R. 67,68 



97 



Gaither, Jerry 88,93 
Cause, William 35 
Giers, Jean Joseph 65,66 
Gillen, Alvan C. 18 
Gooch, Mary L. 65 
Grant, Gen. 24 
Grenfell, Col. George St. 
Leger 8,11 



Landers, Roger 82 
Leadership Rutherford 89 
Lexington Rifles 4,9 
Liddell, Gen. St. John 31 
Lytle, Archibald 55,62 
Lytle, Capt. William 58, 
63,64,66 



H 



Hardee, Gen. 8,26,27 
Highsmith, Daniel 54 
Hobgood, Baxter 77,78,81,82 
Hobgood School 79 
Holloway High School 78 
Homer Pittard Campus School 78 
Hopemont 2 
Hughes, N.C. 32 
Hunt, Henrietta 1 



Incorporating K-8 program in 
schools of Murfreesboro 88, 
91,93,94 



Jackson, Andrew 63,67 
Johnson, Gen. Richard 28 
Johnston, Gen. Albert Sidney 
Jones, John Hodge 77,81,82 
Jones, Shirley Farris 22 



Kindergarten program 
Kirk, Gen. 28 
Klaus, Dr. 92 



82 



M 



McCook, Gen. 25-34 
McCowan, Gen. 26-33 
McFadden Ford 40 
McFadden School 78 
McKnight, William 65 
McLane, Robert 64 
McWherter, Gov. 85 
Metro-Nashville 90 
Metropolitan government 

90 
Middle School Program 80, 

82,92,93 
Milburn, Henry C. 53 
Miller, s. H. 67 
Millwood Academy 30 
Mitchell-Neilson Elera. 

School 79 
Mitchell-Neilson Primary 

School 79 
Morgan, Calvin 1 
Morgan, John Hunt 1-27 
Morgan, Johnnie 18-20 
Murfree, Col. Hardy 63 



N 



Nashville Female Academy 

5 
Negley, Gen. 33 
Northfield Elementary 

School 82 



Oakland High School 81 



98 



Pate, Coach Lee 79 

Polk, Gen. Leonidis 8,26, 

27,33,38 
Portable schools 79 



Rains, Gen. James 23-32,41 

Rains, Rev. John 30 

Ready, Alice 12, 15 

Ready, Col. Charles 5,6,10,63 

Ready, Horace 8,15,19 

Ready Home 8 

Ready, Martha 1,5-19 

Ready-Morgan Wedding 8-10 

Reapportionment 80 

Reeves-Rogers School 79 

Review of School Systems 77 

Riverdale High School 81 

Roberts, Gen. George Washington 

23-37 
Roberts, Pratt 36 
Robinson, Hugh 64 
Rosecrans, Gen. 23-25,37-41 
Ross, W.W. 64 
Round Forest 38 
Rousseau, Gen. 37 
Rucker, Thomas 53 
Rutherford County Quarterly 

Court 80,81 
Rutherford, Gen. Griffith 64 



School Consolidation 80 
Senate Joint Resolution 61 
Sims, C.C. 67 
Sheridan, Gen. Phillip 27, 

33-35,37 
Sloan, Joe 81 
Smith, Gen. Kirby 31 
Smyrna High School 79 
Snodgrass, William 86 
Soule College 5,49 
Standley, William 57 
Stewart, James 67 
Stewart, Sarah Sublett 67 
Stevenson, Alexander 7,34 
Sublett, Elizabeth Ledbetter 66 
Sublett, George 67 
Sugg, Noah 57 
Sumner, Gen. Jethro 56 
Suttle, Catherine 66 
Swinton, William 23 



Tax Reform and its impact 
on schools 85,94,95 

Tennessee Municipal 
League 86,87 

Thomas, Dr. Don 86 

Thomas, Gen. George 27 

Thomas, Sarah 50 

Thomas, William 64 

Trimble, John 36 

Turner, James 67 



Unification of Schools 
88,90 



Van Cleave, Gen. 27,38 
Vaughan, J.F 67 



Washington, Gen. 

George 62 
Westbrooks, Hollis 80 
Wharton, Gen. John 28 
Wheeler, Gen. Joe 25 
Whitson, Mr. L.D. 40 
Williams, Catherine 17 
Williams, Joe 17 
Williams, Lucy 17 
Williamson, Judge 19 
Wilson, James 53,57 
Womack , Andy 87 



Yeatman, Ida 30