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1887. '\ 





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1. Address of welcome 3-7 


2. The Study of Modern Literature in the Education of 

Our Time 8-16 


3. The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry i?-47 


4. The Teaching of a Foreign Literature in connection 

with the Seminary System 48-57 


5. The Face in the Spanish Metaphor 58-83 


6. Charleston's Provincialisms 84-99 


7. Bits of Louisiana Folk-Lore 100-168 


8. Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages 169-185 


9. Speech Unities and their Role in Sound Changes and 

Phonetic Laws 186-195 


10. Die Herkunft der sogenannten Schwachen Verba der 

germanischen Sprachen 196-209 


11. Some Specimens of a Canadian French Dialect Spoken 

in Maine 210-218 


12. On Paul's " Principien der Sprachgeschichte." 219-230 


13. A Study of Lord Macaulay's English 231-237 


14. American Literature in the Class-room 238-244 




Modern Language Association of America 





Members of the Modern Language Association : 

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN : I must give expression to the 
surprise as well as the pleasure I feel in welcoming to this 
University such a body as I see before me. When it is remem- 
bered that this is but the fifth Annual Convention of your 
Association, the success you have achieved must be considered 
remarkable. This success is due equally to the strong person- 
ality of your members and to the wide-spread, rapidly growing 
interest in the objects of your Association. You call yourselves 
the Modern Language Association of America ; your purpose 
is to confer as to the history and structure and literature of 
these languages, as to their true educational values and position, 
and as to the best methods to be used in teaching them. 

You represent a new and aggressive force in education ; you 
are the leaders in the attack now being made on the strong- 
hold of the classicists. I believe this attack is by you made in no 
reckless or destructive spirit. I doubt indeed if at the hands of 
any other body of men would the claims of the classics receive a 
more fair, judicious and firm advocacy. But still, I take it that 
one the chief objects of your meeting here is to emphasize and 
urge the claims of the great modern languages Spanish, Italian, 
French, German, most of all English to be regarded as of 

4 William Pepper, [1887. 

similar if not of equal value and importance in our educational 
system. This view is not peculiar to this country : it has been 
urged time after time by able educators abroad. Nor is it a 
new thing here in America. In this very University, as much as 
one-hundred-and-forty years ago, it was insisted on by FRANKLIN 
to whom more than to any other one man is due the forma- 
tion of this Institution as a cardinal principle in our system of 
teaching. Hear his witty and effective though extreme lan- 
guage : "at what time hats were first introduced we know not ; 
but in the last century they were universally worn throughout 
Europe. Gradually, however, as the wearing wigs and hair 
nicely dressed prevailed, the putting on of hats was disused by 
genteel people, lest the curious arrangement of curls and 
powdering should be disordered ; and umbrellas began to 
supply the place ; yet still our considering the hat as a part of 
dress continues so far to prevail, that a man of fashion is not 
thought dressed without having one, or something like one, 
about him, which he carries under his arm. So that there are 
a multitude of the politer people in all the courts and capital 
cities of Europe, who have never, or their fathers before them, 
worn a hat otherwise than as a chapeau bras, though the utility 
of such a mode of wearing it is by no means apparent, and it is 
attended not only with some expense, but with a degree of 
constant trouble. The still prevailing custom of having schools 
for teaching generally our children in these days, the Latin and 
Greek languages, I consider, therefore, in no other light than as 
a chapeau bras of modern literature." But despite this, it re- 
mains true that it is only of very recent years and more 
conspiciously and successfully in America than elsewhere that 
the high educational value of these modern languages has been 
maintained by large numbers of distinguished educators and 
that this doctrine has been represented by a body so dignified 
and influential as that which I have the honor of welcoming 
here tonight. 

We have nothing to do with the question of the necessity of 

Vol. in.] Address of Welcome. 5 

the classics in any and every system of education worthy of the 
name. We assume that to be conceded as beyond discussion. 
Could MILTON have written ' Paradise Lost ' or his ' Elegy on 
Lycidas'; or BURKE his oration against Hastings, or LANDOR 
his Dialogues, without a profound study of the classics ? Could 
have produced their immortal works without such study? What 
boots such questioning ? May the day never come when the 
glorious languages of HOMER, of PLATO, of SOPHOCLES ; and 
of CICERO, of VIRGIL, of HORACE shall not be recognized as 
the very keystone of the highest and most inspiring education 
which can be imparted ! But so, too, may the day never return 
when the rigid sway of an exclusive system shall prevail, which 
would force all to pursue the same beaten path of study or 
would deny them the priceless gift of education. If a college 
education be a good thing for a man to have, it should be good 
for a large proportion of the community. If anywhere in the 
world to-day it is desirable or possible that a university system 
shall be kept up for the benefit of a small and exclusive class, it 
is most certainly neither desirable nor possible to do so in 
America. Our colleges multiply rapidly. I rejoice to see their 
multiplication myself; each one becomes a focus of activity and 
growth. Concentration and wealth and the tremendous power 
of tradition and of prestige will come fast enough. But even 
with all this rapidity of growth, our colleges are barely main- 
taining their influence and hold over the swarming millions of 
our population. Had not a wise heed been paid to the chang- 
ing needs of our national life and relations, and to the changing 
aspects of our national thought, the influence of our colleges 
might have been far less than it is to-day. Believing as I do 
most earnestly, that the future safety of our precious institutions 
.depends more largely on the wide diffusion of thorough and 
advanced education than upon any other influence, I welcome 
gladly every development of our College and of our University 

6 William Pepper, [1887. 

system which brings it into closer touch with the intellectual 
needs of our people. 

Not only in the learned professions, but in every branch of our 
marvellously complicated commercial and industrial life, do we 
need men able to grasp instantly the new thoughts and facts which 
each day develop in whatever part of the world, and carefully 
trained to observe and to think correctly and to express clearly 
their opinions. The day of a universal language has gone and 
has not yet come again. Volapiik is dead before it is born. 
And yet the ceaseless activity 'of literary research, the marvel- 
lous productiveness of scientific investigation distance hopelessly 
the man who depends on the slow and uncertain study of trans- 
lations. The ever increasing closeness and complexity of com- 
mercial relations ; the growing concern which all nations must 
feel in the vast questions social, religious, political which are 
under discussion everywhere ; the striving after a closer touch 
with each other, even though universal arbitration, and a broad 
federation of state and church, belong to a distant golden day 
of higher humanity ; yet do these and countless other consider- 
ations urge the more general and earnest study of those lan- 
guages in which such mighty voices of the past and of the present 
speak on all that most concerns us. 

The development of a sound system of teaching modern 
languages will never encroach upon the true growth of classic 
study and influence. The evolution of the one will be matched 
by that of the other. Heredity will ensure increased receptivity ; 
and wiser methods will yield results in efficient scholarship, and 
in mastery of classic or of modern languages or of both, which 
will make our hesitating course of to-day seem weak indeed. 
Upon you, gentlemen, devolves a weighty duty, to urge stoutly 
the claims of the new while protecting the right privilege and 
position of the old. A deep public interest attaches to this 
meeting and to your proceedings here. The records of your 
past meetings show a constant growth. As representing the 
authorities of the University of Pennsylvania, and also the Local 

Vol. in.] Address of Welcome. 7 

Committee to whose efficient aid the arrangements for this 
meeting are so largely due, it gives me sincere pleasure to 
place at your disposal all our facilities, and to extend to you a 
cordial welcome at the beginning of this Convention which 
will, I trust, be no less successful and enjoyable than its notable 

James MacAlister, [1887. 

The Study of Modern Literature in the Education of 

Our Time. 



LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: The invitation to address you 
this evening was not accepted without considerable misgiving, 
and nothing but the urgent solicitation of your Secretary could 
have induced me to appear before an Association whose pro- 
fessional pursuits are in many respects so different from my 
own. The daily round of my duties is so far removed from the 
"quiet and still air of delightful studies" which the scholar so 
much covets that it is not very easy to take up a subject which 
implies constant intercourse with the great masters of literature 
and an intimate familiarity with the college and university work 
of our time. At the same time I may venture to say that, 
while my labors have been almost wholly in the field of element- 
ary education, I have not been unmindful of the important 
questions pertaining to higher education that have been so 
warmly discussed during the past quarter of a century. The 
question of educational reform touches schools of every grade, 
and no change can be made in any one department of school 
work without materially affecting all the others. While I beg 
of you to understand, therefore, that I shall speak of the points 
involved in this paper with great diffidence, what will be said 
may be taken as the result of careful observation and serious 

It would be difficult to find a stronger example of conser- 
vatism than the steadfast resistance of education to the changes 
which have been going on in almost every department of 
human activity for the past century. When modern education 
took its rise in the time of the Renaissance, it was inevitable 
that the studies prescribed for the schools should be based upon 
the ancient culture with which the new nations of Western 
Europe were then brought into contact for the first time. So 
overpowering was the revelation of beauty, of freedom, of 
nature, of the moral and intellectual dignity of man, contained 
in the literatures of Greece and Rome, that the best minds found 
in the classic poets, philosophers and historians, everything that 

1887.] The Study of Modern Literature of Our Time. 9 

seemed needful for the highest cultivation of mind and heart. 
Even religion had to yield to the seductive charms of PLATO and 
CICERO, HOMER and VIRGIL, and for a while popes and car- 
dinals busied themselves more with the teachings of the Academy 
and the legends of pagan mythology than with the doctrines of 
Christianity and the sufferings of the saints. As a knowledge 
of the civilization of the two great nations of antiquity was 
gradually unfolded by the researches and discoveries of the 
ardent scholars of Italy, an enthusiasm for culture in its noblest 
forms spread rapidly to the countries beyond the Alps, and 
within three or four generations, the intellect of Western Europe 
had been transformed from barrenness into fruitful activity ; its 
social life had ceased to be mediaeval, and had begun to take on 
those refinements out of which the graces and charms of modern 
manners have proceeded. 

The schools, which up to this time had been wholly controlled 
by the Church and which taught nothing but a little barbarous 
Latin and a great deal of scholastic philosophy, were deserted 
by the youth, eager to drink at the fountains of the new learn- 
ing which had been unsealed. A total reorganization of educa- 
tion became a necessity, and humanists and churchmen alike set 
to work to construct a curriculum based upon the classical writers, 
the study of which had become the occupation of the most en- 
lightened minds and the inspiration of every worthy effort in 
the domain of literature and philosophy. The result was the 
schools of STURM in Germany, of COLET in England, and of 
the Catholic seminaries founded by the Jesuits to counteract the 
liberalizing tendency of Humanism. In these schools Latin 
and Greek were the chief studies. Save The Divine Comedy, 
no great literary work had been produced since VIRGIL. To the 
.men of the fifteenth century, the classical writers contained the 
highest and best culture of which the human mind was capable, 
and they alone were considered worthy to train the intellect and 
form the taste. Latin was the only language which was deemed 
suitable for the expression of wisdom and eloquence ; it was the 
medium of intercourse between the learned, and the chief busi- 
ness of the schools, therefore, was to make their pupils accom- 
plished Latin scholars. 

Now all this was natural enough. Where could the men of 
the Renaissance go to satisfy their sense of beauty and their 
desire for knowledge but to the master spirits who had set these 

io James Mac A lister, [Vol. in. 

new aspirations and desires in motion ? The newly-formed 
European nationalities were still in their infancy ; their languages 
were just beginning to assume forms adequate to the expression 
of their intellectual and emotional experiences, and they found 
in the classical writers models which were calculated to excite 
their despair in proportion as they aroused their admiration. 
What we have a right to wonder at is that these nations, after 
they had grown to intellectual as well as political independence ; 
after they had realized the power and beauty of their own lan- 
guages ; after they had created literatures abounding in the pro- 
foundest philosophy, the noblest poetry, the most persuasive 
eloquence, the fairest romance ; after they had called into 
existence science with its deep insight into^nature and its con- 
trol of her mightiest forces ; the wonder is, I say, that these 
nations should still have insisted that there was nothing in their 
own achievements which could satisfy the mind seeking for 
knowledge and beauty, and that their schools still continued to 
train the intellect and to stimulate the heart almost exclusively 
upon works, access to which was possible only after the pro- 
longed and laborious study of the languages in which they 
were treasured up. 

Fifty years ago the same condition of things existed substan- 
tially in the great schools of Europe. The education which 
they furnished was almost wholly classical. The Latin and 
Greek languages held their place as the only basis of liberal 
culture. It was impossible, however, that men could much 
longer remain satisfied with an education founded exclusively 
upon a culture that was developed and formed under conditions 
so entirely different from those upon which they now depended 
for their success and happiness in life. A consciousness of the 
changes which society had undergone took possession of the 
best minds. The new relations in which man stood to nature, 
the difference in his modes of thinking, and the greater depth 
and wider range of his feelings, had changed to a considerable 
extent his idea of culture, and a modification of the educational 
curriculum to meet the demands which had thereby been 
created was seen to be an absolute necessity. Little by little 
the stronghold of the classicists began to give way before the 
advance of the modern spirit. After a good deal of vigorous 
fighting, science was given a place in the schools ; the study of 
history was extended so as to cover the modern development of 

1 887 ] The Study of Modern Literature of Our Time. 1 1 

society, and by-and-by the modern languages were permitted to 
appear upon the courses of instruction. 

But the controversy is by no means ended. With few excep- 
tions, the classical languages still maintain their ascendency in 
the leading schools of Europe and America, and an effort has 
recently been made in Germany to discredit the movement in 
favor of a more modern education, which has been in operation 
there for some time. In the United States, while a good deal of 
progress has been made, the ancient languages are, with two or 
three exceptions, still the back-bone of the college course. 
Elective studies are now a feature of the best schools, and 
liberal provision is made for science and modern languages ; 
but no school has yet placed the modern upon a footing of 
perfect equality with the classical languages ; and in the awards 
of academic honors and degrees, a discrimination is still made 
in favor of the old curriculum. 

No careful observer can have failed to notice the confusion 
which has attended these efforts at reform. There can be no 
doubt that at present most people find it rather difficult to 
realize in just what a liberal education consists. We do not 
need to go far to find the cause of this uncertainty. While the 
schools have been moving forward in the direction of the new 
education and have been striving to bring their courses of in- 
struction into harmony with the needs of our time, they have 
tenaciously held fast to the old order of things. The modern 
languages have been added to the curriculum, but Latin and 
Greek still remain. Such expedients as the elective and group 
systems have no doubt operated to prevent the worst results of 
this attempt to combine the new with the old from appearing as 
overpressure and as tending to the dissipation of the mental ener- 
gies of students; but I venture the statement that a system so much 
at variance with right methods of study, sound scholarship and real 
culture, cannot last a great while. Sooner or later we shall have to 
abandon making the classics the staple of a liberal education. 
The glamour which blinded the minds of the scholars who first 
beheld the glory of the ancient learning has gradually been 
fading out, and the kindling fires of the new culture are lighting 
up the whole expanse of man's activities. The school course 
has meanwhile been passing through an organic growth, and 
the final outcome will certainly be a distinct and self-contained 

12 James MacAlister, [Vol. in. 

scheme of education based upon the ripest achievements of the 
human mind in modern times. 

It may be extremely rash to say this. To many, it will no 
doubt seem the rankest kind of Philistinism. Perhaps this is 
not the time and the place for the expression of such an opinion, 
but I feel that perfect candor is called for in speaking of a sub- 
ject of so much importance. I may be allowed to state that I 
have come to this conviction from no disregard for the perennial 
worth of the ancient culture. I do not suppose for a moment 
that the classical languages will ever cease to be studied in our 
schools. I have the highest reverence for the masterpieces of 
literature which they have bequeathed to us, and I believe the 
time will never come when Athens will ceaee to be regarded as 
the greatest intellectual benefactor of mankind. I am sure I 
entertain as high a regard for classical scholarship as any one 
can who has not made it the business of his life. I must be 
frank enough to tell you, however, that my enjoyment of the classic 
writers has depended to a considerable extent upon following the 
advice of EMERSON : When I want to go to Cambridge I prefer to 
cross the bridge rather than swim the Charles river,' and my 
impression is that in this respect I am no worse off than some 
of the most ardent champions of the classical system of edu- 
cation. I trust, therefore, that I shall not be understood as argu- 
ing against the classics as unworthy of serious study by those 
who feel drawn to them, or that I can for a moment believe that 
it is not incumbent upon every one who is seeking a liberal edu- 
cation to cultivate as close an acquaintance with them as oppor- 
tunity may permit. My only contention is that the Latin and 
Greek languages have in our time no right to the supreme 
position which they have so long occupied in our education ; 
and that the best modern literature has at least equal claims as a 
means of discipline and culture in the schools. 

This is perhaps going a good deal farther than the general 
sentiment at present entertained respecting the reform of our 
higher education. It is now conceded that any scheme of 
instruction deserving of serious consideration must provide for 
the teaching of the modern languages. But, to my mind, there 
is a higher question involved in the discussion, and that is 
whether the modern languages open the door to those human- 
ities which must always remain the chief object of liberal culture. 

1887.] The Study of Modern Literature of Our Time. 13 

I am not concerned at this time with the philological value of 
the modern languages or with their merits as a means of mental 
discipline. The proceedings of this Association already show, 
aside from the extensive literature on the subject, that the 
principal modern languages afford ample opportunity for the 
exercise of the most searching scholarship ; and there is abun- 
dant testimony as to their practical utility in cultivating that 
crit'cal judgment which has been supposed to inhere exclusively 
in the ancient languages. Indeed, these are matters which I 
do not care to discuss before this audience. What I am de- 
sirous of showing is that the literatures of the modern world 
are entitled to the first place in the intellectual culture of our 
time, and should, therefore, be made the chief instruments of 
literary training in the schools. 

The range of modern literature is so great that it is not easy 
to present an estimate of its intrinsic worth in the short space of 
time at my command. There are four authors, however, who 
may be taken as types of the highest reach of the modern mind 
in the domain of letters, DANTE (if we may consider him as 
standing within the limits of modern history), CERVANTES, 
SHAKSPERE and GOETHE. In speaking of the permanence of 
literary fame, MR. LOWELL regards these writers as cosmopoli- 
tan because of the "large humanity of their theme, and of their 
handling of it." Their works have been translated into all 
tongues, and have become part of the universal literature of 
mankind. They have stood the tests applied to the master- 
pieces of antiquity, but still they are not placed upon the same 
level in the schools. We are tempted to ask the reason why. 
If, as MR. MATTHEW ARNOLD tells us, the aim of our culture 
is "to know ourselves and the world," we should certainly find 
in these mighty masters of the heart and its outgoings a knowl- 
edge of ourselves and the world. If the best means of reach- 
ing this end is to know " the best that has been thought and 
said in the world," where shall we find such exhaustless wit and 
wisdom, with such power and variety in the expression of it, as 
in the works of the four men whom I have named ? But when 
MR. ARNOLD comes to speak of the best that has been thought 
and said in the world, he falls back upon Greek and Roman 
literature as the only means of satisfying the ideal of culture ; 
and in spite of all that has been gained in behalf of the modern 

14 James Mac A lister, [Vol. in. 

languages, I fear that this is still the opinion of most of those 
who have the guardianship of our higher education. When we 
have passed beyond the school and arrived at intellectual 
maturity, we go to The Divine Comedy, Don Quixote, Hamlet y 
Faust, to gratify the finest traits of our being, and to find those 
aids which elevate and purify the mind. I cannot help thinking 
that these works can teach us more of ourselves and the world 
than the noblest efforts of the ancient writers, whose range of 
thought and experience was necessarily limited, as compared 
with their modern compeers. We need not deny to the Greek 
poets and thinkers that fortifying and elevating and quickening 
and suggestive power which MR. ARNOLD attributes to them, 
but they cannot minister to our need for Conduct, to our need 
for beauty, as do the poets and thinkers of the times in which 
the conscience and taste of men were moulded by influences to 
which the ancients were strangers. 

I have taken the leading representatives of modern literature 
as the strongest examples of what it can do for culture. But we 
need not stop here ; there are many others with which the culti- 
vated mind should keep companionship, and whose works may 
well find a place in the education of to-day. The highest ideal 
of culture may find material for training and growth in the stren- 
uous virtues and lofty imagination of MILTON ; in MOLIERE'S 
keen insight into human frailties, his depth of moral feeling and 
his overflowing laughter ; in the manly freedom and intellectual 
courage, the fine critical faculty and the unconventional art of 
LESSING; in the humanizing influence of SCOTT'S romantic 
creations ; in WORDSWORTH'S reverent worship of the eternal 
spirit of beauty which dwells in "air, earth and skies." The 
works of these men may not possess that perfection of form 
which chatacterizes the ancient classics ; but they are fuller of 
refreshment and delight to one who is seeking for spiritual 
nourishment. But then we are told that the modern writers are 
deficient in those charms of style which constitute the chief 
attraction of the classics. I will not undertake to argue this 
question ; but of this I am sure, that the cultivated mind need 
not perish for lack of beauty so long as it has fields so broad 
and inviting in which to roam. And is there not a little cant in 
a good deal that is said about the superiority of the ancient 
writers with respect to style ? I find that very few of my 
classical friends slake their thirst for beauty at the Pierian spring. 

1887.] The Study of Modern Literature of Our Time. 15 

As a general thing, they go to MILTON'S L' Allegro and // 
Penseroso, and GRAY'S Elegy, and SHELLY'S Ode to the West 
Wind, and WORDSWORTH'S Sonnets, and TENNEYSON'S Idylls. 
There are reasons obvious enough to the student of ancient 
history why the poetry of the Greeks, like their arts, stands 
apart from that of all other nations. No doubt their language 
had advantages which do hot belong to the modern tongues, 
but the finest minds of the recent centuries have not wanted the 
means of giving fitting expression to their loftiest imaginings 
and deepest thoughts. The poems I have just named may lack 
the qualities which the classicist needs for his enjoyment, but 
they are filled with a gracious charm for the cultured mind of 
to-day which cannot be found in the choicest treasures of 

But there is such a thing as narrowness of taste in the matter 
of style. While we must have fixed standards, the attributes 
of which have been determined by the best literary judgment, 
I think it is possible to mar our culture by too close an ad- 
herence to the conventional canons of criticism. A good deal 
must be sacrificed in keeping within the limits with which the 
purists are constantly striving to hedge us in. If these censors 
had their own way, some of the most inspiring books which the 
world holds would be placed outside the pale of culture. It 
may exhibit a sad depravity of taste, but I should think that 
young man unfortunate whose training made him incapable of 
reading with profit the fiery declamation of CARLYLE or the 
impassioned eloquence of RUSKIN. These writers may be 
deficient in simplicity and repose, but they have that divine fire 
which kindles lofty thought and noble endeavor in the mind 
which gives them entrance. 

So far, I have been discussing the claims of modern literature 
chiefly with reference to its power of satisfying the desire for 
beauty. If time permitted, there are other relations in which it 
might be presented that would, I think, help to justify its right 
to the chief place in the education of to-day. The more general 
diffusion of a correct taste, and the higher standard of culture 
among the educated classes that might be expected to follow 
placing the modern languages and their literatures in this posi- 
tion is a proposition which could be discussed with great profit. 
So, also, the question as to the deeper moral effect of modern 
literature as compared with ancient is one that would prove as 

1 6 James MacAHster. [Vol. in. 

interesting as it is important to my argument. But I pass these 
to ask your attention for a moment to the historical relations of 
literature in modern times. If to know the world is an essential 
part of our culture, we must be conversant with the history of 
the events which have determined its progress ; and I need 
hardly say that the events which stand most closely related to 
our own existence are the most important for us to understand. 
But the history of a nation is best read in its literature. 
DANTE'S poem is the truest record of the Middle Ages which the 
whole world of books contains. SHAKSPERE is the only histori- 
an of the heroic period of English history. ROUSSEAU is the 
main impetus of that great revolutionary movement which left 
nothing untouched in its onward march ^government, religion, 
manners, literature, education. WORDSWORTH and BYROX ex- 
press the two tendencies which have been struggling for the 
mastery of English thought for half a century. GOETHE reveals 
in his many-sided culture all the characteristics of his age. 
TENNYSON reflects the doubts and aspirations, the broad humani- 
ty, the expanding progress of our own era. This is a mode of 
viewing literature which enables us to see how wide are its 
relations to real life. The more we can invest our culture with 
human interest, the more vitalizing will it become, and the 
earnest spirit which CARLYLE inculcates will take the place of 
that dilettanteism which is as enervating to the scholar as it is 
false to the true ideal of refinement. The education which 
does not aim to prepare for the active duties of life, which does 
not relate our culture to the work we have to do in the world, 
fails of its highest end. This is what GOETHE means when he 
says : " At last we only retain of our studies what we practical- 
ly employ of them." I pray to be delivered from all narrow- 
ness, but I cannot avoid the conviction that the culture which is 
derived from the best that has been thought and said in the 
times that stand nearest to us, inheriting, as it does, all that is 
fairest and noblest in the achievements of the elder age, will be 
most likely to give us that type of manhood which the world 
has greater need of to-day than ever, a manhood true, free, 
brave, humane, holding firmly to the best that the race has 
achieved in the past and pressing forward with unfaltering faith 
to the ever-growing splendor which lies beyond. 

1887.] Albert H. Tolman. 17 

I. The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 


I. THE THEORY OF HEINZEL, Style and Metre connected. The 
Metre. Four accents versus Eight accents. The Alliteration. 


A. Conciseness and Vigor. 

A natural accompaniment of the alliterative metre. 
(a). Adapted to War Poetry, 
(b). Synonym instead of Pronoun, 
(c). Vigor of the Figures of Speech, 
(d). Simplicity of Sentence-Structure. 

B. Repetition of Thought with Variation of Expression. 

A natural accompaniment of Conciseness and Vigor. 
Repetition takes many forms. 

(a). The poetical Synonym (Epithet, Kenning). Synonym in- 
stead of Pronoun. DR. BODE. Extent of the Use of Ken- 
ningar. Prose and Poetical Diction. Stock Epithets, 
(b). Figures of Speech. Metaphor and Simile. HEINZEL versus 

GUMMERE. Mixed Metaphor. Allegory, 
(c). Parallelism, 
(d). Negative form of Statement. 

C. Disconnectedness. 

Harmc-ny of Style and Metre. 

(a). Transitional Particles, Few and Ambiguous, 
(b). Clauses Dependent in Construction, but not in Thought, 
(c). Return to a Dropped Thought. Crossed Repetition, 
(d). Clauses Independent in Construction, but Dependent in 

Thought (Parataxis), 
(e). Neglect of the Order of Time, 
(f). Absence of Climax, 
(g). Abrupt Transitions. 
<h). Pronoun Preceding its Noun. Ambiguous Pronoun. 

i8 Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. in. 

D. Freedom front the Sensual and Idealization of the Common. 

War Idealized. The Comitatus. Husband and Wife. 
Etiquette. Omission of unpleasant details. 

E. Seriousness. 

. Not the Result of Christianity. Moralizing. .Absence of 


F. Tenderness. 

The Elegiac Element. The Wanderer. 

Summary and Conclusion. 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 19 

The Style' of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 

The style of early Teutonic poetry is the whole of which my 
subject is a part ; but I shall not enter upon the more general 
ground. PROF. RICHARD HEINZEL in a monograph (' Uber 
den Stil der Altgermanischen Poesie,' Quellen und Forschungen, 
X) has treated this broader subject. He insists on connecting 
each peculiarity of the style of early Teutonic poetry with a 
similiar peculiarity in the Sanskrit Vedas, and considers the Vedic 
hymns to be the closest existing representative of an original 
Indo-European literature, of which all the individual literatures 
are descendants. He treats the separate nations and languages 
as mere transmitters of early characteristics, and as occasionally 
failing to do even that. Thus the* resources of poetry in any 
later literature, at least as regards the style, may be fewer than 
those seen in the Old Sanskrit, but cannot be more numerous. 

The simple objection to this part of PROF. HEINZEL'S paper 
is, that it is a "far cry" from the Vedic to the Norse and Anglo- 
Saxon. There is room enough between those extremes for all 
possible theories to drive abreast. FRANCIS B. GUMMERE, in 
his Doctor's Dissertation upon ' The Anglo-Saxon Metaphor ' 
(Freiburg, 1881), objects to PROF. HEINZEL'S method and con- 

The connection between metre and style in Anglo-Saxon is 
very close ; the metre often seems to have a compelling force 
which determines style. It would be going too far, however, 
to say that this is so ; that the Anglo-Saxon alliterative metre 
is the cause of which the Anglo-Saxon poetical style is the 
result. Unquestionably they are both results of a common cause 
or common causes, rather than one of them the result of the 
other. It will be enough if I call attention at various points to 
the intimate connection which exists between them. 

The followers of LACHMANN consider the alliterating long 
verse in all Germanic (Teutonic) poetry to consist of two half- 
verses of four accents each. The men of this school explain the 
later rimed poetry, both in Germany and England, our so- 
called L. M., C. M., and S. M. stanzas, as descended from the 
old alliterative verse ; and feel forced to assume eight accents 
(hebungen) for the alliterative full line. HEYNE, TEN BRINK, 
and our own PROF. MARCH accept this view. But a later and 
growing school deny this conclusion and the premises which 

20 Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. in. 

make it necessary. DR. FERDINAND VETTER, in 1872 (' Zum 
Muspilli und Zur Germanischen Alliterationspoesie,' Wien), set 
forth in full the arguments against the eight-accent school. 
MAX RIEGER, in 1876 (' Die Alt-und Angelsachsische Vers- 
kunst,' Halle), presented a complete treatise upon A.-S. metre, 
and advocated four accents to the full line. DR. J. SCHIPPER, 
the last writer upon A.-S. metre ('Altenglische Metrik,' Bonn, 
1882), restates the arguments of VETTER and the detailed 
results of RIEGER. The English metrists are also four-accent 
men, I think without exception ; and so is MR. GARNETT in 
this country. 

With reference to the difficulty of explaming the later rimed 
poetry of Germany, VETTER cuts the Gordian knot by declaring 
that the same influences which brought rime into Germany, 
brought in also a new line. (' Zum Mus. 'etc,' p. '24). On Eng- 
lish ground PROF. GUMMERE, of the four-accent school, in an 
article admirable for its clear-cut thoroughness, has sought to 
answer the question, " What became of the alliterative line ?" 
He maintains that the English heroic, or blank-verse, line " was 
originally a late form of A.-S. long verse, with a prevailing 
surplus of light syllables at the pause ; to this were applied the 
iambic movement, the light and shifting pause, and the Romance 
tendency to count syllables" {Am. Journal Philology, VII, i.). 
The result was the heroic line. Of course PROF. GUMMERE'S 
evidence does not amount to a demonstration of his position ; 
but certainly the objection of TEN BRINK that the four-accent 
school "leave the later development of Old English verse quite 
unexplained," no longer holds good. 

I am strongly of the opinion that the A.-S. verse had but 
four accents to the full line. Certainly this is the natural con- 
clusion from observing the A.-S. poetry, by itself. In the first 
two full lines of ' Beowulf there are seventeen syllables. Ac- 
cording to the eight-accent school, sixteen of these must con- 
stitute arses, hebungen, accents. That is, only one accented 
syllable, out of the first sixteen in this poem, has a syllable ex- 
pressed as its thesis or senkung. Moreover, half-lines with less 
than four syllables and full lines with less than eight syllables, 
are found (' Beo.' 25., 'Judith' 62), though these are rare and 
may require emendation. 

The alliteration, too, seems to distinctly demand a metre of 
2-2 accents. Two accented syllables of the first half-line, some- 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 21 

times only one, must alliterate with one such syllable in the 
second. It seems to me that an original metre of 4-4 accents, 
if we suppose it to have once existed, would have been lost, 
swallowed up, in a derived metre of 2-2 accents necessitated by 
the alliteration. This would easily happen in lines where we 
may suppose the alliterating accents to have been regularly 
placed ; for instance if Nos. 2, 4, and 6 should alliterate, or 
Nos. i, 3, and 5. Whenever the accents were not thus regularly 
placed, any attempt to bring out the alliteration strongly and 
clearly would cause confusion in the line; for instance if i, 4, 
and 5 should alliterate or 2, 3, and 7. These are a priori con- 
siderations, I know, but metre must be metrical. SCHIPPER is 
careful to say, in advocating 2-2 hebungen, that many syllables 
in the senkungen must have been quite strongly accented, and 
can be called unaccented only with reference to the predomi- 
nating stress of the accompanying hebungen. With reference to 
the connection of accent with quantity or time, a connection 
which is often questioned or denied for Teutonic poetry, I wish 
to note that MARCH, of the eight-accent men, declares that "the 
time from each ictus to the next is the same in any section " 
(' A. -S. Grammar,' 498, 5, b.). VETTER, also, of the four-accent 
men, approves of indicating the metrical reading of alliterative 
lines by the use of musical notation, and applies it to lines of 
especial difficulty (' Zum Mus. etc./ p. 41, Note}. 

RUFUS CHOATE once made an elaborate argument to prove 
that two car-wheels which seemed to be alike could not possibly 
be so. WEBSTER, the opposing counsel, replied by pointing to 
the wheels and thundering out to the jury, " Gentlemen, look at 
'em !" It is a blunt method of argument, but let any one put 
side by side the first fifty lines of ' Beowulf and DR, GUM- 
MERE'S translation of them into English four-accent lines which 
he thinks to be similar, and "look at 'em." I will assume, then, 
that we have a long line of four-accents, made up of two short 
lines, or half-verses, of two accents each.* We have seen that 
either one half or three fourths of the accents in each line must 
alliterate. The relative power of the different word-classes to 
draw to themselves the accent, and so the alliteration, is clearly 
defined. Nouns and adjectives, the nomen class, have the 

*This discussion is not brought down to date as it should be. Some important articles 
by PROF. SIEVERS had not been published when the first draft of this paper was written, 
and I have not been able to examine them. A. H. T. 

22 Albert H. To/man, [Vol. in. 

highest rank, and under ordinary circumstances cannot be 
passed over. Next come verbs ; then, adverbs ; and finally, 
pronouns and particles. These last cannot ordinarily constitute 
an arsis, but may if they have a strong logical accent. The 
prepositions an and big which alliterate in ' Beo.' 1936 and 3048, 
carrying the only alliteration of the first half line, are emphasized 
by being placed after their objects. 

A. Conciseness and Vigor. 

We now turn to look at the style of A.-S. poetry, where we 
shall find some natural results, or at least accompaniments, of 
this metre. The extreme emphasis resulting from accent and 
alliteration combined upon the same syllables naturally goes 
with a highly intense, vigorous style. And this we have. 
Anglo-Saxon poetry is always more than lively ; it is intense. 
DR. HEINRICH REHRMANN (' Essay concerning A.-S. Poetry, 
Jahres-Bericht, etc,' Liibben, 1877), speaks of "the strange 
emphasis of the whole Anglo-Saxon style." The great weight 
given to the nomen class in the construction of strong lines, and 
ne"xt after that class to the verbs, compels the poet to express 
himself powerfully and concisely. The verse demands strong 
nouns, adjectives, and verbs ; and these, of necessity, state the 
thought with brevity and power. The blows of the sturdy 
syllables, highly stressed in order to bring out the alliteration, 
must carry with them blows of expressed thought or action. 
The poet cannot retard the expression of a thought, but the 
moment it is broached he must hurl it forth. Says TAINE (Bk. 
I, Ch. I, Sec. V.): " The poet's chief care is to abridge, to im- 
prison thought in a kind of mutilated cry." This is partly 
true, and emphasizes what I have said. Thus we see that con- 
ciseness of language and extreme energy of expression constitute 
a central characteristic of A.-S. poetical style; and we see the 
natural connection of this with the alliterative metre. Of course 
we need not suppose that this characteristic was not as much in 
accord with the disposition of the poet, as with the nature of the 
metre. PROF. TEN BRINK remarks upon this feature of style 
as follows (p. 21) : " The lack in the Old English epic of the 
clearness and fine completeness of the Homeric, is at least 
partially made good by the greater directness of expression. 
The poet's excitement is not seldom imparted to the listener; 
in situations that seem to justify it this is very effective." 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 23 

(a). ADAPTED TO WAR POETRY. War is the leading subject 
of A.-S. poetry ; and this vigorous style is peculiarly adapted to 
that theme. 

(b). SYNONYM INSTEAD OF PRONOUN. A device of style 
which often increases this emphasis of diction is the use of a 
strong synonym or epithet instead of a simple personal pro- 
noun. This, too, is a necessity of the metre, and will be dwelt 
upon in another place. See B (a). 

(c). VIGOR OF THE FIGURES OF SPEECH. The remarkable 
vigor of the A.-S. figures of speech is one source of the abound- 
ing energy of this poetry. This feature will be considered later. 
See B (b). 

A.-S. sentence is as simple as it is strong. Says REHRMANN, 
" The simple principal sentence is the most popular form, . . ac- 
cesssory sentences [clauses] are employed as rarely as possible 
. . . Relative sentences are very frequent, of course, but they 
are always of the greatest simplicity." 

"The earl was for this the blither, 

Laughed then the bold man, gave thanks to the Creator 
For the day's work, which his Lord granted him." 

(Byrhtnoth, 146). 

I cannot agree with PROF. LOUNSBURY when he says of A.-S. 
poetry, " The construction of its sentences is often involved and 
intricate" ('Hist. Eng. Lang.', p. 26). 

B. Repetition of Thought with Variation of Expression. 
Here a difficulty arises closely analogous to that which the 
architect experiences in the use of iron as a building-material. 
It it easy to get strength, but hard to get volume. The pillar 
which is abundantly strong for its place, is yet too insignificant 
in size to be imposing. The Anglo-Saxon poet avoids this 
difficulty by repeating his ideas in every possible way, but not 
his words. The remorseless energy of the alliterative metre 

. uses up, devours, the thought so rapidly that repetition becomes 
a necessity. Thus A.-S. poetry progresses like a spirited horse, 
which takes a few long bounds forward, only to follow that by 

j much prancing and tossing without any advance. But this 
repetition of the main idea is made enjoyable by the constant 
variation of the language. Each repetition must emphasize 
some new phase or characteristic by the use of new terms. 

24 Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. in. 

Hence our second great principle of A.-S. poetical style is : 

Repetition of the thought with variation of the expression. 
; This repetition with variation takes many forms. A noun may 
' have three or four appositional phrases scattered through all 

parts of the sentence, or there may be complete parallelism of 

successive sentences, which is a favorite form of expression. 

But parallelism is evidently not a principle with the A.-S. poet. 

The principle is as we have stated it. He is as well satisfied to 
/repeat a subject or object, three or four times, and other elements 
\of the sentence not at all, as he is to construct a complete 

parallelism. I subjoin a few illustrations : 

A tumolt arose 

.Continually renewed. There stood *o the North-Danes 
Dreadful terror, to each one 
Of those who from the wall heard the weeping, 
The antagonist of God singing his terrible note, 
Unvictorious song, bewailing his pain 
The hell-fettered one. Beo., 783. 

The repetitions in the next two extracts show no tendency to 
form complete parallelisms. 

Then round the mound the battle-brave rode, 

Sons of athelings, twelve in all, 

Wished to tell their sorrow, bewail the king, 

Wreak their words, and speak of the man. Beo., 3171. 

. . . they (Constantinus and Anlaf ) might not laugh 

That they were better in the battle-work 

Upon the battle-stead, in the clash of banners, 

In the meeting of spears, the gathering of men, 

The interchange of weapons, which they on the slaughter-field 

Played with the offspring of Edward. (Brunanburh, 47). 

(a). THE POETICAL SYNONYM. From repetition with vari- 
ation, taken in connection with the predominant metrical power 
of the nomen class, springs at once the importance of epithet, 
or synonym, in A.-S. poetry. Indeed, it may be called the 
poetry of synonym. The metrical weakness of the pronoun, on 
account of which it frequently cannot be used, is one explanation 
of the great abundance of synonyms, epithets (Norse, Kennin- 
gar). If a king has drawn the sword upon his enemy, he will 
not strike him with it; but the noble lord, or the battle-bold 
one, will strike the hostile one, or the death-doomed one, with 
the ancient heir-loom, or the battle-gleam. Of course many 
simple personal pronouns are used, but the tendency to replace 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 25 

them with poetical synonyms is very evident. For example : 

(Holofernes) laughed and roared, vociferated and dinned, 

So that the children of men might hear from afar 

How the fierce-minded one stormed and yelled. Judith, 23. 

Sometimes the unemphatic pronoun and the emphatic epithet 
stand side by.side, instead of one forcing out the other; as is 
the case with the appositive adjectives in the following : 

Went then straight away 
The women twain bold-of-courage, 
Until they came strong-of-mind, 
The joyfully triumphant maids, out of that army, 
So that they clearly could see 
Of the beautiful city the walls glitter, 
Bethulia. They then adorned-with-rings 
Hurried forward their steps, 
Until they glad-of-mind had come 
To the wall-gate. Judith, 132. 

These synonyms, epithets, Kenningar, whether replacing pro- 
nouns or mere appositions and syntactically superfluous, are a 
central feature of A.-S. poetry. It is very plainly more fond 
~of using them than of repeating the action of the verb. This 
agrees with the metrical importance of the nomen class. HEIN- 
ZEL treats under a special head, as a feature of all early Germanic 
poetry, " Abgetrennte Apposition," or appositions which are 
separated from their nouns. But the distinction is not important 
for A.-S.; appositive expressions can come anywhere in the 
sentence after their noun or pronoun. It is perhaps even the 
exception for appositive synonyms to follow their antecedents 
directly. They are variously placed in the following extract 
from " The Battle of Brunanburh " (one of them is instead of a 
pronoun), 12 : 

The field flowed 

With the blood of the warriors, after the sun on high 
In the morning-tide, illustrious star, 
Glided over the valleys, God's bright candle, 
The eternal Lord's, until the noble creature 
Sank to his setting. 

It is very common for an epithet to close the sentence ; as here : 

They had rebelled against the defender of the Scylfings, 
The best one of the sea-kings, 

Of those who in the Swedes' kingdom distributed treasure, 
Illustrious prince, Beo. , 2382. 

26 Albert H. To/man, [Vol. in. 

The recent treatise of DR. WILHELM BODE, ' Die Kenningar 
in der Angelsachsischen Dichtung ' (Darmstadt und Leipzig) is 
very full and satisfactory. He divides the Kenningar into five 
classes, as follows : 

First, those which portray their subjects directly and fully ; 
as, " the bright king," for God ; " the black fiend," for the 
Devil ; Second, those which fix upon some particular part of 
the idea and present the thought by synecdoche ; as, " sword- 
play," for battle ; " shield-bearers," for warriors (these two 
classes are of the nature of epitheta ornantia) ; Third, meta- 
phorical Kenningar, the most numerous group ; as, " the sail- 
road" and "the cup of the waves," foi^the ocean; Fourth, 
Kenningar which embody a definition of their subjects; as, 
"slaughter-shaft," for spear; "soul-bearers, "for men; Fifth, 
episodic or allusive Kenningar; as, "Weland's work," for Beo- 
wulf's coat-of-mail ; " God's handy-work," for men. These 
five classes run together more or less. Strictly speaking, the 
term " synonym," which I have employed for the most part, is 
broader than either of the terms "epithet" and "Kenning," 
and includes all of the designations which can be used for a 
given idea. Hence it is the best term for my purpose. I am 
sorry that DR. BODE has not given all of those expressions for 
each of the ideas treated by him, which he considers to be 
literal (" Eigentliche Ausdriicke"), since the line between these 
and the Kenningar is a shadowy one. His lists, too, are still 
incomplete. He has fldda begang, as a Kenning for the 
ocean, but omits geofenes begang (Beo., 362); he has waetera 
gepring, but omits holma gepring (Beo., 2133.) 

I have collected with some care every noun in 'Beowulf 
and every noun-f-a genitive which is used to denote any one of 
the three ideas, ocean, sword, and ship. In order to secure a 
clear line of demarkation I have excluded all words which 
HEYNE gives as adjectives, even though they may occur also as 
substantives or appositives. With these exclusions I find forty- 
two simple and compound nouns in ' Beowulf which mean 
ocean, and ten nouns+genitives; twenty-nine nouns which mean 
sword, and two nounsH- genitives ; and twenty-one nouns which 
mean ship. Here are the lists. 

OCEAN : Brim, brim-l&d, brim-stredm, brim-wylm, g-stredm, 
edgor-stredm, eolet, farofi, Jtdd, fl6d-yft, ford, gdr-secg, geofon, 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 27 

heaf, heddu, ho'lm, holm-wylm, lagu-straet, hran-rtid, lagu, lagu- 
stredni, mere, mere-straet, sae, sae-ldd, sae-wylmas, segl-rad, 
stredm, sund, sund-gebland, swan-rdd, wad, waeg, waeg-holm, 
zvdlm, water, wdter-egesa, water-yd, wylm, yo~a, yd-gebland, yd~- 
gewin. Total, 42. 

Floda begang, Jidda g enipu, ganotes bad, geofenesbegang, holma 
gepruig, sidled a begong, wdteres hrycg, yd~a ful, yd a geswing, yda 
gewealc. Total, 10. 

SWORD : Beado-ledma, beado-mece, bil, brand, ecg, gfid-bil, 
gufi-sweord, gtifi-wine, haft-mece, heard-ecg, heoru, hilde-bil, hilde- 
ledma, hilde-mece, hilt, hring-iren, hring-mael, iren, Idf, ledma, 
mddum-sweord, magen-fultum, mece, secg, sige-waepen, sweord, 
waeg-sweord, ivaepen, yrfe-ldf. Total, 29. 

Fela Idfe, Idfe homera. Total, 2. 

SHIP: Bat, brenting, bunden-stefna, cedl, far, flota, hringed- 
stcfna, hring-naca, lida, naca, sae-bat, sae-genga, sae-wudu, scip, 
stefn, siind-wtidu, weg-flota, wudu, wunden-stefna, yo~-lida, [jV^]- 
naca. Total, 21. 

In the 350 lines of 'Judith' which remain to us, the poet 
varies with great skill his expressions for Holofernes, for 
Judith, for the Assyrians, and for the Jews. Within a few lines 
(9-20), for example, the Assyrians are termed heroes, retainers, 
shield -warriors, leaders of the folk, proud ones, companions-in- 
evil, bold corselet-warriors, hall-sitters, doomed ones, and brave 
shield-warriors (gumas, ^egnas, rondwiggende, folces raeswan, 
wlance, weagesi^ras, bealde byrnwiggende, flettsittende, faege, 
rofe rondwiggende). When' he mentions them again a few 
lines farther on (27-31), he does not begin repeating these terms, 
but calls them bench-sitters, liegemen, and nobles (benc-sittende, 
dryhtguman, dugu^r). Since prose does not need any such 
store of synonyms, many of these epithets are never found out- 
side of poetry. 

It is to be expected that these epithets will be sometimes 
used in a stock way, without a clear regard to their full force. 
Even Homer says, in similar fashion, (Iliad IX, 211), "Then 
the son of Menoitios kindled a great fire, the godlike man." 
But it does seem strange to find the course of the narrative 
actually contradicting the epithet employed, as in this case : 

The war-sword gave way, 
Naked in the contest, as it should not do, 
Excellent iron. Beo., 2585. 

Epithets which the narrative does not call for or explain are 

28 Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. in. 

quite common. (Cf. HEINZEL : l Ueber den Stil, etc.,' p. 32). 
It is usually clear that these are employed simply as general 
terms of praise or reproach. 

(b). FIGURES OF SPEECH. But simile and allegory are too 
conscious and elaborate for the Anglo-Saxon mind. Allegory 
is not found in ' Beowulf; and there are but five similes, as fol- 
lows : a ship sails away " most like to a bird "; the light from 
Grendel's eyes is " most like to flame "; his claws are " most like 
to steel "; the sword with which Beowulf kills Grendel's mother, 
melts away in her poisonous blood "most like to ice when the 
frost-fetters the Father unlooseth." This last simile and the 
only remaining one have each more trfan the necessary two 
words. The sword which Beowulf has snatched from the wall 
lights up the ocean-chamber 

Just as from heaven brightly shineth 
The candle of the firmament. 1. 1572. 

In really representative Anglo-Saxon poetry, the usage is 
very much as in ' Beowulf/ 

PROF. HEINZEL cites this great scarcity of the simile in Anglo- 
Saxon, when contrasted with the Vedas, and feels obliged to 
explain this " loss of the simile." He attributes it to the influence 
of Christianity, which he thinks to have permeated and trans- 
formed even ' Beowulf.' , The passionate character of the Norse- 
men, untempered by Christianity, explains, on the other hand, the 
11 survival of the simile " in Old Norse. It seems to me that few 
can agree with this. Is simile the language of passion ? and 
would the alleviating influence of Christianity drive it out? 
Most certainly not. TEN BRINK (' Early Eng. Lit.,' Eng. ed., 
p. 19) says, substantially, that the impetuous character of the 
Anglo-Saxons prevented them from using the simile. But 
HEINZEL makes the Old Norse keep it for that very reason. 
At any rate, the fact is that the Anglo-Saxons are fond of the 
metaphor and the similar figures of speech. These figures are 
more short and forcible, more nervous, than the simile. The 
metaphor is a flash of lightning, giving the maximum of light 
and heat in the minimum of time. It is plain, too, that those 
figures which can be complete in a single word, are naturally 
agreeable to the A.-S. metre with its hammer-strokes. MR. F. 
B. GUMMERE, as I have already said, has replied to PROF. 
HEINZEL ('Anglo-Saxon Metaphor,' Freiburg, 1881). His 

1887.] The- Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 29 

positions seem to me well taken, and they agree with TEN 
BRINK'S explanation of the scarcity of simile in A.-S. His 
statements are as follows, in substance : 

1. The passionate character of the Teutonic race is thorough- 
ly opposed to simile. This is seen in A.-S. and old High Ger- 

2. A.-S. does, historically, take its simile from foreign influ- 

3. The real task is to explain the presence of the simile in 
the passionate Old Norse. 

4. ' Beowulf is a heathen poem, with no positive Christian 

But let us look one moment at this assumed abundance of 
simile in Old Norse. Where in the literature are they found 
most plentifully ? And what is their character and importance ? 
I am not a student of Old Norse, but I have carefully looked 
through VIGFUSSON and POWELL'S translations of the earliest 
Northern epics in their 'Corpus Poeticum Boreale' (Oxford, 
1883). In the ' Atla-Kvi*sa? occupying eight octavo pages, 
there are no similes. In the 'Hamdis-Mal? occupying seven 
pages, there are seven similes, three in one place. In all the 
fragments of the ' Helgi Trilogy' covering twenty-four pages, 
there are four similes, three in one place. These pages are 
about equivalent to I2mo. pages, as the translation is printed at 
the bottom of each page. This is certainly not a great abun- 
dance of simile. Some of them are more highly developed than 
those in ' Beowulf,' but all are short. They bear no resemblance 
to the elaborate Homeric simile. 

MR. GUMMERE'S paper upon the A.-S. metaphor covers the 
ground so completely that I will refer all persons to it for 
details and for a very elaborate classification. He really treats 
the whole question of figures of speech in A.-S. poetry, as he 
brings metonymy and synecdoche under metaphor, discusses 
the rarity of the simile, and treats personification at length. 
On this general question I can agree with him, for the most 
part ; though I shall state my view somewhat differently : 

We cannot conceive a language sufficiently developed to have a 
literature unless the figures of Personification, Metaphor, Synec- 
doche, and Metonymy, are all present; that is, Personification 
and the figures which easily condense themselves into a single 

3 o Albert H. Talman, [Vol. IIL. 

word. Alt of these figurative words PROF. GUMMERE calls. 
" metaphors." Thus he uses metaphor in two senses. I should 
prefer to call them " tropes " as suggested by PROF. MINTO 
('Manual Eng. Prose/ p. 12). 

It may be questioned whether any of these figures are at first 
-employed consciously, except Personification, which, in primi- 
tive language is the most natural and the most literal form of 
expression. MR. GUMMERE says well, " A flexibility of terms- 
is the real origin of the metaphor" [that is, the " metaphor "] ; 
" Cynewulf is conscious of no metaphor in calling a bird's nest 
a lifts'" (house). Any one fond of children is familiar with this 
stage of language. Their words are few^and flexible, and are 
easily stretched to cover new ideas and objects. To a certain 
extent language is always in this stage ; I can drive the dog: 
" into his kennel" or " into his house?' I am not even sure that 
such phrases in A.-S. as '*the candle of the firmament," "the 
world-candle," etc., applied to the sun, were conscious meta- 
phors ; and a strictly unconscious metaphor is none at all to* 
those who first use it ; it is only one of the meanings naturally 
included in a word which is still undefined. A later precision in 
the use of terms causes these words to shrink up in content, like 
lakes in a drought, and many of these old uses of the words 
and old phrases containing them are left stranded high upon 
the beach as metaphors. Accompanying this increasing pre- 
cision of language, by which old words and phrases begin to be 
felt as figurative, there is the conscious origination of simple 
metaphors, metonymies, etc., but not at first of similes. This is 
the point at which we must place the language of the represen- 
tative Anglo-Saxon poetry^ whatever HEINZEL may think of 
its historic antecedents and relationships. TEN BRINK says of 
the A.-S. metaphors that "most of them were not felt to be 
figurative." This is not, as is so common in cultivated lan- 
guage, because the force once belonging to a metaphor has so 
faded out that it has become practically literal in its use. I am 
now speaking of words and phrases which have never yet been 
felt as figurative by their users, though they are such in our 
present use and to our present speech-consciousness. 

We see now why simile was so rare in A.-S. poetry and alle- 
gory almost entirely lacking. The poets were not yet sufficiently 
self-conscious, not capable enough of analysing their own men- 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 31 

tal processes, not well enough able to stand above the field of 
action and choose out scattered objects for comparison, to em- 
ploy elaborate and sustained simile. They were too vitally in- 
terested in what they said to be able to hoki it off and examine 
it coolly with a view to the most effective presentation. They 
did not wish to do this; and the strong shocks of the alliterating 
accents did not encourage fine-spun figures of speech. 
" Detailed and ample similes are first found in ' Christ,' " says 
TEN BRINK (p. 55). " There are but two, . . and these are very 
old ones that Cynewulf found in his originals." 

That the A.-S. poet was hardly conscious of his metaphors 
and certainly not of some of them, is clear from his perfect 
readiness to mix metaphors. <( The typical A.-S. metaphor," .as 
GUMMERE says, " is confined to one word, or at most to several 
words in the closest syntactical relation." One metaphor in the 
subject gives way to another in the verb, and perhaps to a third 
in the object. When Beowulf's sword would not wound Gren- 
del's mother, the poet says (1. 1524), "The battle-gleam would 
not bite," as though all well-regulated gleams were carnivorous. 
If a metaphor is preserved for a few words it is soon cast aside, 
as in this case : 

The wound-gates burst open, then the blood sprang- forth 

From the body' 's hostile bite. Beo., 1122. 

Here are the best instances that I have been able to find in 
"Beowulf of sustained metaphor: Wiglaf is trying to revive 

He began once more 

To cast water upon him, until the point of the sword 
Brake through the breast-hoard. Beo., 2791. 

until the wave of death 

Touched at his heart. Ibidem, 2270. 

, ... in him the love of woman 

Because of care-waves shall become cooler. 

Ibidem, 2066, 

.No one looked upon the cruel -prydo (or MddprySd) 

But he appointed for himself death-fetters firm, 
Twisted by hand, rlbidem, 1937. 

The vigor of the tropes in this poetry is wonderful. In ' Gen- 
sis ' (1384) the drowning of wicked men is thus expressed: 
" The waves of the King of glory drove the souls of the 

32 Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. in. 

impious ones from the flesh-garments." When the' 'Exodus' 
poet would tell us that no jesting words were uttered, he says, 
(43), " The hands of the laughter-smiths were closed." In 
describing the overthrow of Pharaoh's host the same poem 
says (63) "The mightiest of sea-deaths lashed the sky." It is 
refreshing to turn to such verse from modern triolets and ron- 
deaus. A striking instance of allegory is found in ' Genesis,' 
987-995. This we probably owe to theological influences. 
The tree of death, of which Adam and Eve have partaken, is 
made to extend its 1 myriad branches throughout all the earth 
and touch every child of man, " as it still doth " an Ygdrasil 
of evil. * 

(c). PARALLELISM. The principle of repetition with varia- 
tion often resulted in complete parallelisms, as complete as 
those of the Hebrew poetry. Complete parallelism does not 
seem to be a principle of A.-S. poetry, though it occurs very 
frequently and seems to have been sometimes consciously 
sought. Repetition of the thought with variation of the ex- 
pression necessarily took this form in many cases. Here are 
five successive statements of the fact that Beowulf's ship got 
under way : 

The sea-wood groaned ; 

Not at all there the wave-floater did the wind o'er the billows 

From its course hinder ; the sea-goer went, 

The foamy-necked floated forth over the flood, 

The bound prow over the ocean streams. 

These are good examples of A.-S. parallels. 

(d). NEGATIVE FORM OF STATEMENT. The second one of 
the above clauses differs from the rest in being stated in the 
negative form. I think that the rhetorical device known as 
" denying the opposite" is more frequent in A.-S. than in later 
English poetry, though it is of course very common in both 
In the A.-S. repetitions the desired variation of the expression is 
often assisted by " denying the opposite " of something already 
stated. The killing of the dragon by Beowulf is so important 
that it must be set forth in every possible way. Notice the al- 
ternative of positive and negative clauses : 

The slayer also lay, 

The terrible earth-drake, deprived of life, 
Oppressed by bale : the ring-hoard longer 
The twisted worm, might not control ; 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 33 

But the edges of irons took him away, 

The hard battle-sharp leaving of hammers, 

So that the wide-flyer, still from his wounds, 

Fell on the earth near to the hoard-hall : 

Not at all through the air did he go flying 

In the middle of the night, proud of costly treasures 

Showed his form : but he to earth fell 

On account of the hand-work of the battle-prince. 

Beo., 2825. See also ' Byrhtroth's Death,' 117-119. 

C. Disconnectedness. 

Every reader of this poetry is at once struck by the abrupt, 
disconnected manner in which its ideas are expressed. It is 
hard to generalize, however. Here and there, especially in the 
later poetry, passages can be found in which the rhetoric is really 
elaborate and the connections of thought are very fully indicated. 
This is true of that part of ' Genesis' which SIEVERS has shown 
to be closely related to the Old Saxon ' Heliand,' and which 
TEN BRINK calls the ' Later Genesis.' Of course antithesis is 
not uncommon, but we have an unusually clear-cut one in 
* Genesis,' 353. 

"Welled up within him 
Pride in his heart, hot was without him 
The grievous torment." 

A little farther on we have a striking instance of disconnected- 
ness made expressive. This gives us the rare figure, aposiopesis: 

Alas ! had I control of my hands, 

And could I for a time get loose, 

Be free for one winter-hour, then I with this troop 

But about me lie iron-bonds. 

The rope of fetters rides rne. Gen., 368. 

Ofermeito, arrogance, seems to be the strongest expression of 
this poet for the sin of Satan and his followers. It is used in 
three different places within twenty lines (332, 337, 351), and in 
such a way as to show that the poet has sought to arrange his 
expressions in the order of a climax. A striking instance of 
full and elaborate syntax is the following (Gen., 409-421) : 

If I to any thane lordly treasures 

In former years gave, while we in the good realm 

All blissful sate, and had sway of our thrones, 

Then he to me at no more acceptable time might with reward 

My bounty requite, if for this purpose 

Any one of my thanes would offer himself, 

34 Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. in. 

So that he upward and outward might go hence, 

Might come through these barriers and strength in him had 

So that with feather-garments he might fly, 

Whirl on the welkin to where all fashioned stand 

Adam and Eve in the earth-kingdom 

With wealth surrounded, and we are cast away hither 

Into these deep dales. 

In spite of such passages, however, the statements which I 
make under this head are true in general for representative A.- 
S. poetry. Here again I can call attention to the consonance of 
the style with the metre. If one is disconnected, so is the 
other ; for the lines of this poetry do not consist of " linked 
sweetness long drawn out," but of smalUgroups of vigorous 

transitional particles of A.-S. poetry are few and somewhat 
ambiguous. Says TEN BRINK (p. 20), " There is a certain 
poverty of particles, which are the cement of sentence-structure, 
and indicate the delicate shading in the relations of thought." 
TAINE remarks (I, I,V), "Articles, particles, every thing capable 
of illuminating thought, of marking the connection of terms, of 
producing regularity of ideas, all rational and logical artifices, 
are neglected. Passion bellows forth like a great shapeless 
beast ; and that is all." The quotation from TEN BRINK covers 
the ground ; TAINE, however, partly states the case, partly 
overstates it, and partly misstates it. He is right in connecting 
the poverty of the particles and the absence of fine shading of 
the thought with the all-absorbing energy of expression ; but he 
is wrong in thrusting aside as rude and worthless the poems 
which he cannot appreciate. A.-S. poetry is emphatic and 
intense always, and often excited and dramatic. It is only a 
natural consequence of this that it is disconnected and often 
inexact, and does not understand well how to "take inventory " 
in clear methodical fashion. It must not be compared with 
Homer for finish of style ; it knows not the consolations and 
refinements of the imperfect and the second aorist , but read it, 
Teuton ! and your heart-strings will twitch as if plucked by a 
hand reached from out the past. 

THOUGHT. I have said that the particles are also somewhat 
ambiguous. Indeed they sometimes mean practically nothing 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 35 

in poetry, from the fact that clauses which are subordinate in 
form may be in idea simply restatements of the main clause. 1 
Consequently a fact is liable to be stated as its own cause, or its 
own result, or as occurring at the time of itself, or in its own 
manner. This is disguised by the changed language of the new 
clause, and it is perhaps the desire to change the language 
completely that causes the logical force of the particle to be 
overlooked. We had an illustration in our last extract from 
1 Beowulf:' 

.... the edges of irons took him away, 
The hard battle-sharp leavings of hammers, 
So that the wide-flyer, still from his wounds, 
Fell on the earth near to the hoard-hall. 2829. 

This is not strictly a result of the dragon's death, but a re- 
statement of it with new particulars. 

TITION. I will next consider that return to a dropped thought 
which is often claimed to be a confusing feature of the A.-S. 
style. I should say that it is usually jarring rather than confus- 
ing. Says TAINE, "The poet's ideas are entangled; without 
notice, abruptly, he will return to the idea he has quitted, and 
insert it in the thought to which he is giving expression." Some 
of HEINZEL'S instances of" crossed repetition," in which the poet 
passes back and forth between two thoughts, are not practically 
different from ordinary repetition or parallelism. Take this case 
(King Hredel is mourning for his son who has been accidentally 
killed) : 

Always is remembered on each one of mornings, 

His son's departure ; he wishes not 

To live to behold within the palace 

Another heir, when this one hath 

By the power of death experienced these deeds. 

Sorrowfully he beholds in his son's dwelling 

The empty wine-hall, resting place of winds, 

Robbed of merriment; the rider sleeps, 

The hero in the grave ; no sound of the harp is there, 

Joy in the courts, as once there was. 2451. 

HEINZEL cites this passage because the son is first mentioned, 
then the house of the son, then the son again, and finally the 
house. He does not regard this is as causing any obscurity, 
and it plainly does not. What wonder if, in the account of 

?6 Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. in. 

Eve's creation in ' Genesis,' the poet calls our attention first to 
the Creator, then to Adam, and so back and forth? The 
balance of expression is preserved by this presentation of two 
thoughts, or two sides of one thought. In the same way it 
causes no obscurity if the writer in a long description or narra- 
tive turns for a moment to dwell upon some cause or circum- 
stance, only to return with renewed energy to the main theme. 
His coming back to the central topic is not strictly a " return to 
a dropped thought," though it may be called so. In this way 
the early Milton of the ' Genesis ' is enabled to increase the 
effectiveness of his portrayal of hell-torment. The brief refer- 
ence to the cause of the punishment, wljjch intervenes between 
the two parts of the description, is not at all foreign to the 
subject; yet DR. REHRMANN says (p. 19), " After two lines he 
returns once more to the same matter : 

They suffer torment, 
Hot fierce fire in the midst of hell, 
Burning and broad flames, also bitter smoke, 
Vapor and darkness, because they were unmindful 
Of thegnship to God ; their lust betrayed them, 
The pride of the angel [Satan] ; they willed not to obey 
The commands of the Almighty; they had terrible torment, 
Were felled then to the bottom of the fire 
Into the hot hell through folly 

And through arrogance : they sought another land, 
Which was devoid of light and full of flame, 

A vast terror of fire. 

Genesis, 323. 

PENDENT IN THOUGHT. (PARATAXIS). More striking cases 
than this last one of "return to a dropped thought" will soon 
be cited ; but we can see from this passage why it is that A.-S. 
poets are charged with leaving thoughts and returning to them 
at pleasure. It is because the A.-S. poetry expresses paratacti- 
cally, in independent clauses, those ideas of time, cause, manner, 
and accompaniment which we are accustomed to express syn- 
tactically, in subordinate clauses. Thus, there is nothing in the 
construction to indicate that the poet has not abandoned his 
first line of thought and taken up a new one. Hence, if the 
reader does not keep his own mind "on the key," he may fancy 
that the author is jumping about aimlessly. These vigorous 
paratactic constructions are a natural accompaniment of the 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 37 

poverty of the particles and the energy of the metre. A plainer 
instance of" return to a dropped thought," due simply to para- 
taxis, is found in 'Beo\vulf, 7 301 ff. The hero and his men 
have left their boat upon the strand to seek the court of Hroth- 

Then they went on their way (the boat remained still, 
Rested at its moorings the wide-bosomed ship, 
At anchor fast) ; the boar-likeness shone 
Over their visors adorned with gold. 

This backward glance at the ship as they leave it is not un- 
natural ; but, even if it were not so far prolonged, the passage 
of the mind once more to the warriors would be somewhat 
awkward and difficult because of this blunt, independent man- 
ner of stating thoughts which are really not unconnected. 

The following instance is still more striking ; but the return 
to a dropped thought could be expressed in a well-worded 
clause of cause or reason, without causing any jarring. There 
is no confusion, as the passage stands : 

The sword then began 

On account of the battle-gore in clots of blood 
The war-bill to vanish (that was a wonder), 
So that it all melted most like to ice, 
When the frost's fetters the Father unlooses, 
Unwinds the ice-ropes, He who has power 
Over times and seasons ; that is the true Creator. 
Took he not in that dwelling, the Weder-Geats' prince, 
More of rich treasures though he many there saw, 
But only the head [of Grendel] and the hilts together, 
With jewels adorned : the sword before melted, 
The etched brand burnt : the blood was so hot, 
The strange-spirit poisonous, who therein died. 
Soon was he swimming who lived through the strife, 
The war-rush of the foes, dived he up through the water. 

Beo., 1606. 

(e). NEGLECT OF THE ORDER OF TIME. In the accounts 
of battles and similar tumultuous occurrences an accurate order 
of time is often not observed. A mass of striking details are 
brought out in consecutive sentences, which details are not con- 
secutive in their appearance or occurrence. This often becomes 
what has been called " the method of interesting moments " 
(TEN BRINK). It is always a total effect that is sought, and 
this is often secured to a wonderful degree. Says PROF. TEN 

3# Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. nr. 

BRINK (p. 21): " The portrayals of battles, although infinitely- 
poorer in cast and artistic grouping, although much less realistic 
than the Homeric descriptions, ore yet, at times, superior to- 
them, in so far as the demoniac rage of war elicits from the 
Germanic fancy a crowding affluence of vigorous scenes, hastily 
projected in glaring lights or grim half-gloom." 

(f). ABSENCE OF CLIMAX. The language of these poems 
often seems somewhat hap-hazard and unarranged, simply 
because no clear order of climax is observed in the repetitions 
the appositives and parallels. The extracts have made this 
feature evident. Climax is so nearly an instinctive device with 
us moderns that one is not fitted to do justice to the power 
of A.-S. poetry until he becomes accustomed to the absence of 
it. A good illustration is furnished in two lines that have al- 
ready been cited : 

(They) Wished to tell their sorrow, bewail the king, 
Wreak their words, and speak of the man. 

Beonian, 3173. 

(g). ABRUPT TRANSITIONS. As an example of the abrupt 
transitions which are found in this poetry, notice how quickly 
Beowulf is transferred from the shore of the lake into the midst 
of his contest with Grendel's mother : 

The water-flood took 

The warrior strong : Then was a day's time 
Ere he the bottom-plain might perceive, 
Soon that discovered she who the cause of the floods, 
Eager for slaughter had held of fifty years, 
Grim and greedy, that there some one of men 
The house of the monsters sought out from above. 
She grasped then against him, the warrior seized 
In her terrible grip. 

Beo., 1495. 

NOUN. It is a characteristic of Anglo-Saxon poetry, directly 
connected with its vividness and not usually causing any obscur- 
ity, to introduce an idea with a pronoun ; so that a person or 
thing may be under discussion or employed in the narrative 
before it has been clearly named. Says HEINZEL (p. 7) : "A 
new conception floats so distinctly before the eyes of the poet 
that he introduces it with the pronoun as if well-known, and 
afterwards for the first time designates it unquestionably by its 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 39 

distinctive name." This preposed pronoun is noticed by all 
writers upon A.-S. style as frequently standing at the head of 
the sentence. But the idea that it introduces is usually one that 
has been already expressed or suggested, so that there is no 
confusion. R, g, 

That from home learned Hygelac's thane^ 

Good 'mong the Geats, the deeds of Grendel. Beo., 194. 

The " deeds of Grendel " have been mentioned in tiie preceding 
Hines, unless we agree with MULLENHOF that the poem once be- 
gan with these words. It is a similar feature of the style (noted 
by HEINZEL) that we do not learn the name of " Hygelac's 
thane " until he says to Hrofigar, one hundred and fifty lines 
later, " Beowulf is my name." A good instance of this feature 
comes in a passage just cited [c (g)], "Soon that discovered she, 
-etc." An instance of an entirely new idea introduced by the 
pronoun, but one easily understood from the context, is the 
following : 

Then Scyld departed at the hour of fate, 
The warlike one to go into his Lord's keeping-: 
They him then bore to the ocean's flood, 
His trusty comrades, as he himself bade. Beo., 26. 

Thus this preposed pronoun does not cause obscurity, and its 
'great vividness is its sufficient justification. With reference to 
the Anglo-Saxon pronoun in poetry, it must be freely admitted 
that it is not always clear which one of two possible references 
a pronoun is intended to have. 
D. Freedom from the Sensual and Idealization of the Common. 

It is now time to mention a feature of A.-S. poetry which 
must be always kept in mind. This feature is not connected in 
any way with the sharp impetuous alliteration ; indeed, it often 
seems to be hostile to it in spirit. It comes from the imagina- 

_ tive, poetical nature of the people, idealizing every experience. 

- I refer to the freedom from the sensual and the idealization of 
the common. REHRMANN rightly recognizes war and sorrow 
as the central ideas of this poesie ; but both are idealized. War 
is heroism not slaughter. Beowulf fights twice to save the 
followers of his father's friend, and dies fighting to save his own 

TAINE says (p. 62, Am. trans.), "Saxon poets painted war- 
fare as a murderous fury, as a blind madness which shook flesh 

40 Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. in. 

and blood, and awakened the instincts of the beasts of prey." 
To this statement I must, in all humbleness, give a plain denial. 
Except so far as all warfare is a " murderous fury," it seems to 
me positively untrue. 

We have no A.-S. love poems. The entire absence of the 
relation of lover and maid from this poetry, and the scanty 
references to that of husband and wife, are very striking. 
Woman appears but rarely, and then as the noble, honored 
spouse, chaste and dignified. She is her husband's best and 
dearest friend, bone of his bone. That this reticence concern- 
ing the most intimate of earthly relations did not come from 
coldness of heart, is certain. One clear indication that it did 
not is contained in two incomplete poeijjs: " The Lament of 
the Exiled Wife," " The Message of the Exiled Husband." 
Each of these tells of the " torture of exile." The message 
of the banished husband says to the wife : 

Himself now bids thee 

that thou stir the sea, 

When thou shalt hear on the cliff's edge 
The singing of the sad cuckoo in the grove. 
Then do thou let no living man 
Hinder thy going, stay thy journey ! 
Straightway the mere seek, home of the mew. 
Sit in the sea-boat, until thou far to the south 
Over the mere flood the man findest, 
Where the prince waits in hope of thee 

The man has no longing desires 

For steeds, nor for jewels, nor joys of the mead, 

For any treasures on earth fit for earls, 

O daughter of a prince, if he have not thee. 

The thousand years that separate us from this poem are but as 
one day : " Thanks to the human heart by which we live ! " 

I have yet to find an impure suggestion in A.-S. poetry. 
TEN BRINK says that "occasional sensuality" appears in the 
Riddles of Cynewulf ; but I doubt if the world has seen a purer 
literature. The very barbarism of our ancestors held firmly to 
some first-truths. 

The relation which is dearest of all to A.-S. poetry is that of 
lord and follower. This is free from fleshly taint, pure, ideal. 
Upon this pure, almost abstract relation, the Anglo-Saxon poet 
lavishes his loving attention. The retainer who deserted his 

1887-] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 41 

master in battle, were that master dead or alive, was forever 
disgraced. The Comitatus, Gefolgschaft, was Pan-Germanic. I 
know, but where else was it so spiritual, so noble ? What other 
nation so dropped from its poetry the love of man and woman 
and so fastened its attention upon the love of lord and follower ? 
Indeed, the true lord became exalted under this treatment to a 
very noble conception. He is the kind friend and guardian 
of all. Beowulf and Hrothgar grieve over the sufferings of their 
harrassed people. Every pang is their own. It reminds one of 
the Christian conception of Christ's followers ; that they constitute 
his very body this intimate, loving relation between king and 
people. ' The Wanderer,' one of the most touching poems 
ever written, is the lament of a poor solitary over his dear, dead 
lord-friend. Such a nation easily became Christian. Many 
religious applications of the relation of lord and follower appear 
in the poetry as a result of the introduction of Christianity. A 
favorite use of this conception was in order to express the love 
of Christ, the prince, toward the apostles or toward all true 
disciples, and their tender allegiance to him. Other sacred 
relations, too, were not unworthily typified by this central 
feature of A.-S. life. In the words of TEN BRINK (p. 38) 
" God himself, in his relation to angels and men, was conceived 
as the almighty prince, as the beloved chieftain ; the devil, as 
the faithless vassal who antagonizes his gold-friend; the heavenly 
throne was the gift-stool of the spirits." The harsh sounds both 
of war and grief are idealized into " songs." When Grendel's 
arm has been torn off, the Danes hear him singing " a terrible 
song," " an unvictorious lay" (Beo., 787). Beowulf's ringed 
blade " sang a greedy war-song " upon the head of Grendel's 
mother. And so with every class of sounds. 

The idealization of all that is common-place permeates A.-S. 
life and poetry. The poor, unlettered hind, Caedmon must 
sing in his turn. Over his barren life must be thrown the light 
of the ideal world. Etiquette is a prime consideration with the 
Anglo-Saxon; and no good warrior fails in the definite cere- 
monials which are evidently considered of very great importance. 
The poem * Beowulf is full of interesting details of court and 
warrior life. This life is all idealized, and nothing gross appears. 
Every person and object is exalted almost to" a state of per- 
fection, or is dismissed from sight and mention as completely 
bad. Hunferth alone, as HEINZEL notes, has any mixture of 

42 Albert H. To/man, [Vol. in. 

traits. The drinking itself is not a merely sensual pleasure. 
The warriors " bear themselves well " at the feast, declare their 
devotion to their lord, and promise to perform deeds of valor. 
This is not the influence of Christianity. Even when Christianity 
becomes, in different forms, the subject-matter of the poems, 
they are still thoroughly national. Christianity is a new wine 
in the old bottles (cf. TEN BR., p. 38). 

One cause of the fact already mentioned, that the battle- 
scenes in A.-S. poetry are not clear, is an indisposition to dwell 
upon wounds and slaughter. The poet delights in describing 
the preparations for a contest (see, for example, Cynewulf's 
' Elene/ 25 ff.). The dewy -feathered eagle soars over the com- 
batants. The wolf of the wold comes ^tealing forth and sings 
his terrible song. The warriors welcome the contest with bold 
words. But when the actual fighting begins, the poet takes 
refuge in striking generalities and powerful metaphors. The 
details of slaughter neither interest nor concern him. Such an- 
atomical details as Homer gives in describing wounds would 
disgust an A.-S. singer. And when the hero dies, the poet 
says, " he chooses the light of God," or " his soul goes from his 
breast to seek the glory of the sooth-fast," or " he departs on 
his journey forth." The imagination must be satisfied by a 
metaphor, rather than the sense by a strict description or narra- 
tive. In order to satisfy the imagination, also, causes, conse- 
quences, and accompaniments are often portrayed rather than 
the action or object itself, or at least more fully. The descrip- 
tion of Grendel's haunted mere shows this at its best : 

There may each night an evil wonder be seen, 
Fire on the flood ; so wise a man lives not 
Of the sons of men, that he knows its bottom : 
Although the heath-stepper pressed by the hounds, 
The stag, strong of horns, may seek the grove, 
Pursued from afar, he his life will give, 
His life on the shore, before he will therein 
Hide his head. That is no pleasant place : 
Thence the surging waves mount up 
War toward the clouds, when the wind arouseth 
Loathly weather, until the air darkens, 
The heavens weep. Beo., 1366. 

The self-control which enables the poet to turn aside and give 
three and one-half lines to this description of the flying stag 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 43 

refusing to enter the haunted lake even to save his life, is rare 
in A.-S. poetry ; but the general method of the description is 
eminently A.-S. The dry facts about the lake are not given, 
but their poetical values : you do not see the lake clearly, but 
you shudder. Notice how a full account of Beowulf's struggle 
with Grendel is avoided in the following lines : 

He (Grendel) seized then with his hands the firm-minded 

Warrior at rest ; he (Beowulf) reached out against 

The fiend with his hand, quickly he grasped 

The evil-minded one and leaned [sat] on his arm. 

Soon that perceived the hostile guardian 

That he had never met in the mid-earth, 

In the regions of earth, in another man 

A greater hand-grip : he in mind became 

In his soul frightened, not therefore could he sooner get away; 

His mind was death-ready, wished to flee into darkness, 

To seek the devil-band : there was no employment for him there 

Such as he in former days before had found. Beo., 747. 

Next the poet depicts at length the devastation of the beauti- 
ful wine-hall ; and then the effect of the contest upon the panic- 
stricken Danes who were listening. Thus there is no full ac- 
count of the combat itself, but a complete recital of such 
accessories and results of the combat as will tend to exalt our 

conception of it. 

E. Seriousness. 

There was an ethical sternness and a grand earnestness in the 
Anglo-Saxons, which was mirrored in an all-pervading serious- 
ness of style. Says TEN BRINK (p. 29), " A profound and 
serious conception of what makes man great, if not happy, of 
what his duty exacts, testifies to the devout spirit of English 
paganism, a paganism which the Christian doctrine certainly 
softened, but did not transform in its innermost nature." This 
temperament excludes from A.-S. everything which the poet 
feels to border upon the comic ; even evil and crime are ideal- 
ized into an unrelieved blackness and gloom which is too solemn 
to admit of mirth.. Cynewulf leaves out of his 'Juliana' several 
comical features in his Latin original. Within a hundred years 
of the landing of the missionaries from Rome, the Anglo- 
Saxons were the most intensely religious people on earth, the 
most active in missionary effort. HEINZEL would make their 
seriousness and tenderness, " Erweichung des Germiithes," to 

44 -\ Albert H. To/man, [Vol. UK 

be the result of Christianity. DR. GUMMERE has the whole 
weight of authority and the only natural interpretation of the 
literature on his side when he opposes this view. 

A great fondness for moralizing appears everywhere. The 
shortness and uncertainty of life are constantly called up. This 
is often an artistic blemish. A remarkable instance of moraliz- 
ing is offered in ' Beowulf,' when the hero has just killed 
Grendel's mother and so exterminated the hated race. King 
Hrothgar salutes him with a few courtly compliments, followed 
by a long moralizing speech of eighty-five lines (1701-1785). 
MULLENHOFF cuts this speech out, but it fits Hrethgar's 
character. At any rate some A.-S. poet wrote it, and some 
Anglo-Saxon poet put it into * Beowulf.' ^It matters not for our 
purpose whether this poet's name was A, or B, or C. At the 
moment of Beowulf's triumph, Hrothgar predicts the sorrows 
which shall surely come : 

Now the fame of thy strength 
Lasts for a time ; afterward it soon shall be 
That thee sickness or the sword shall deprive of strength, 
Or the grasp of fire, or the wave of the flood, 
Or the grip of the sword, or the flight of the shaft, 
Or cruel old age ; or the brightness of the eyes 
Shall fail and grow dark : it suddenly shall be 
That thee, great warrior, death shall overcome. 

Beo., 1762. 

He cites the vicissitudes of his own life, and at different points 
warns Beowulf against the sins which beset rulers. Some of the 
massive generalities in such passages are almost " Bunsbyisms " 
in their solemn saying of little or nothing ; 

Fate oft preserves 
The undoomed earl, if his strength holds out. 

Beo., 572. 

The beautiful close of ' Widsith ' is weakened by an expression 
like this. Passages which have a touch of the humorous to us, 
very certainly did not have it to the serious Anglo-Saxons. 
The poet of that part of ' Beowulf takes the following way of 
saying that Hrothgar's warriors did not dare to sleep in Heorat 
after Grendel's visits : 

Then was it easy to find one who elsewhere, 
More commodiously, rest for himself sought. 

Beo., 138. 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 45 

Cynewulf saw no absurdity in this : Elene says to the Jews : 

Ye with filth did spit 

On his countenance who for you the light of the eyes, 
A remedy from blindness wrought 
Anew through that noble spittle. 

El., 297. 

F. Tenderness. 

If the forcible style demanded by the alliterative metre was 
especially fitted to express vigor of thought and action and the 
rage of battle ; for what topics was the constant repetition, the 
great abundance of epithet, the endless ringing of all the 
changes upon a thought, especially adapted ? I have connected 
this, too, with the metre, though not so immediately. Can any 
device of style be better fitted than this ceaseless caressing of a 
thought for expressing grief, sorrow, especially in the milder 
forms of melancholy and tender memory ? And the Anglo- 
Saxons are as tender and thoughtful as they are brave. The 
vast problems of life and death oppress the hearts which do not 
quake before the enemy. The well-known comparison of the 
life of man to the flight of a swallow through a lighted hall and 
out into the darkness, finds an echo in almost every Anglo- 
Saxon poem that has come down to us. The extent to which 
MATTHEW ARNOLD often reproduced the tone of much of A.-S. 
poetry is marvellous. His paganism and Beowulf's have the 
same sad earnestness : " The wheel is come full circle." The 
blood of race is thicker than the water of culture. 

Elegiac pathos, tender mournfulness, is then, an important 
feature of A.-S. style. ' Beowulf is full of it. But it finds per- 
haps its most complete artistic expression in * The Wanderer/ 
This poem, while distinctly A.-S. in atmosphere, marks a higher 
grade of style and literary skill than is common. The author 
stands above his subject, even while identified with it in spirit. 
Instead of repeating the same ideas he employs new ones 
which arouse the same feelings ; new references and methods of 
approach, which yet have the same spiritual effect and relation- 
ships. Thus he constantly brings in fresh elements, while 
securing all the power which came from the more usual 
repetitions. All the different thoughts agree in illustrating the 
brief life, the unhappy lot of man. 'The Wanderer' has lost 
his dear lord and is friendless in the world. Hear him ! 

4 6 Albert H. Tolman, [Vol. in. 

Oft the fugitive findeth mercy, 

The mildness of God. Moody and weary, 

Wandering ever over the water-way, 

Hath he with hands of toil, homeless and sad, 

Stirred the sea, rime-cold. Rigorous fate ! 

General moralizing is followed and enforced by his own par- 
ticular misery with great pathos : 

The weary of mind may not withstand 

Fate, nor his fierce heart furnish him help ; 

Therefore do those thirsting for glory 

Oft their sad spirit shut in the breast-case. 

I, too, distressed with care, torn from my country, 

Oft have been forced, far from my kinsmen, 

My spirit within me with fetters to seal. 

Bitter his lot who long must forego 
The counsel and love, the care of his lord-friend. 
When sorrow and sleep stealing upon him 
Fast the poor lone one lock in their folds, 
It seems to his mind, the man-lord once more 
He embraces and kisses, and bends on that lap 
His hands and his head in homage, as once 
In days that are gone he knelt at the gift-stool. 
Then waketh from dreaming the desolate man, 
Fallen before him the waves of the flood 
Sees, and the birds, bathing and soaring, 
The hoar-frost, the snow mingled with sleet. 

His own past happiness and present grief are mirrored in 
much that he sees about him. Sorrow and death are the lot of 

The strength of the spears, weapons of slaughter, 
Brought death to the lords (Illustrious doom !); 
And beaten by rain stand the ramparts of stone. 
The earth in the frost-chains the falling storm binds, 
The terror of winter, and darkens the world ; 
The night-shadows fall, from the north rushes forth 
On the heroes of earth the hail in its fury. 

This is poetry ; and would be counted such in any cultivated 
nation, at any time. If we thus let our subject go out with an 
elegy and to a dead-march, it is only what A.-S. poetry is al- 
ways doing. Behind every joy and at every banquet, to the 
mind of the Anglo-Saxon, wait disappointment and sorrow. 
He will be heroic, because heroism is right and good ; but, 
whether by the gate of failure or by that of success, he knows 

1887.] The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 47 

that he will soon come where " sits the Shadow feared of man." 
Summary and Conclusion. 

It will be seen that I have treated the A.-S. poetry of all 
periods and all authors as a homogeneous whole. It can be so 
regarded in a general paper like this. Its epics have all elegiac 
passages and episodes. Its lyrics, whether warlike or elegiac, 
read like extracts from such epics as ' Beowulf/ ' Genesis,' and 
'Judith.' It will be seen, further, that the first three qualities 
of the style of this poetry which I have mentioned, pertain to 
the style in the strictest sense of that term, that is to the manner 
of saying what is said the grammatical and rhetorical devices 
employed in the expression of thought. The last three qualities 
are more general, and concern also the subject-matter of the 
poetry. The fourth quality, Freedom from the Sensual and the 
Idealization of the Common, points out the mental standpoint 
of the A.-S. poet his method of mental approach to his themes. 
The last two qualities, Seriousness and Tenderness, call atten- 
tion to his predominant emotions the settled, familiar experi- 
ences of his soul. 

48 Horatio S. White, [Vol. in. 

II. The Teaching of a Foreign Literature in connection 
with the Seminary System. 



It is my purpose to offer a few suggestions on the teaching of 
a foreign literature in connection with the so-called seminary 
system, to add a word regarding that system itself, and to in- 
quire to what extent the methods and scope of the instruction 
at German universities are available for our own institutions. 

As the question has been limited to the teaching of a foreign 
literature in the seminary or association of advanced students, 
the consideration of the study of English literature would then 
be only indirectly included, inasmuch as the methods would 
.need to be somewhat modified in order to conform to the 
student's greater familiarity with the language. That subject 
moreover has already received much attention at the various 
sessions of this Association, and one of our members, PRO- 
FESSOR T. W. HUNT of Princeton, published in the Andover 
Review for November, 1885, an article on " Desirable Methods 
in English Literary Study," which forms a valuable contribution 
not only with respect to the special topic which he treats, but 
also in regard to the general question of the study of literature. 

How, then, is a foreign literature best taught to advanced 
students ? 

As the instruction given must be adapted to the qualifications 
of the student, much depends upon his proficiency in the 
special language under consideration. I will assume, as our 
average student, one who has enjoyed at the start at least two 
years of preliminary linguistic training, in the proportion of 
from three to five exercises a week, and who has also enjoyed 
certain other advantages of study and reading sufficient to have 
developed in him a fair literary sense, and to have furnished 
him with an adequate amount of general literary culture. 

It does not seem necessary here to go into any detail regard- 
ing this preliminary work of the first two years. We may 
suppose that the student has been thoroughly grounded in the 

1887.] The Seminary System for Foreign Literature. 49 

grammar of the language, has been initiated into methods of 
word-formation and word-derivation, has examined the laws 
describing the relations between the various members of the 
Indo-European family of languages, has had some practice in 
rendering from English into the foreign language and in trans- 
lation at sight, has read a variety of selections from different 
authors illustrating a wide range of style, and has become 
familiar with a few masterpieces in poetry and in prose. In 
other words, our average student will be the average Junior, 
equipped, we trust, with a good knowledge of English and 
possessing some acquaintance with English literature, in addition 
to his special acquirements in foreign languages. 

That a knowledge of Greek and Latin also would be in- 
dispensable, no one perhaps would care to maintain ; but it 
would be folly to asser* that without a knowledge of the ancient 
classics a proper appreciation can be gained of the foundations, 
the drift, and the inspirations of modern literatures. 

The objection may be made that too much time is demanded 
for this preliminary study ; that our ordinary college courses do 
not admit the opportunity of carrying on the study of the 
modern languages for three or four consecutive years. We 
may be reminded that in some institutions of great dignity and 
age the modern languages have been optional branches, or have 
been required for only a limited number of hours at an advanced 
stage in the curriculum. To these objections the answer might 
be made that a period of two years so employed would seem to 
be the minimum of time possible for producing the training 
necessary, that institutions with an inadequate provision of time 
or teaching-force may expect to attain results correspondingly 
inadequate, and that the day is fortunately passing by in which 
the study of the modern languages is made merely auxiliary to 
the curriculum and treated without proper consideration of their 
natural and just requirements. The spread of the elective 
system is everywhere a powerful assistance toward this desirable 

After two years of such preparatory work, then, the student 
is ready for the advanced or seminary work. This term 
seminary with us seems to be employed to indicate a variety of 
methods in teaching, while the word itself is used in German to 
describe both the place of meeting and the exercise which is 
generally held there. These exercises abroad appear to range 

50 Horatio S. White, [Vol. in. 

in character from such as resemble quite nearly our ordinary 
recitation to those embodying the results of some independent ' 
investigation ; but the controlling principle is apparently the 
preparation of the work in connection with a special equipment 
under the leadership or guidance of the instructor in charge. 
The professor's own study may frequently be the scene of action, 
and the material furnished largely from his own supplies. 
There is sometimes a disposition to confine the term seminary- 
work to the most advanced stages of investigation, whether 
literary or linguistic. There is no real objection to this limi- 
tation, although in the interests of convenient nomenclature the 
larger field might be permitted to include the smaller. 

With respect to the equipment, the s^dent should have easy 
access to the following materials, and should be encouraged in 
their familiar and constant use. 

A collection of the best critical editions of the standard literary 
monuments of the language, beginning with the earliest records. 
As large a collection as possible of minor literary monuments, 
pamphlets, journals, correspondence, in short, of all original 
literary matter, however insignificant. A collection of general 
and special literary histories, including biographies, essays, 
monographs and miscellaneous articles. Finally the principal 
periodicals in the language, both learned and light. Few col- 
leges are able to furnish such an apparatus and the private 
library of the professor must frequently assist in filling the gaps. 
In those institutions, however, in which the library appropria- 
tions are distributed among departments, a comparatively small 
annual amount, judiciously expended, will be sufficient to 
provide gradually a respectable outfit. 

Beginnings of this kind have already been made. The 
special-alcove system at Harvard appears in a modified form at 
Baltimore, Ann Arbor, Cornell and elsewhere, and we trust that 
it will not be many years before quarters similar to the admir- 
able language seminary-rooms at Strasburg, or the well -furnished 
historical department at Johns Hopkins, may be deemed in- 
dispensable for teaching properly modern literatures. 

A few words may be added regarding the employment of this 

There should be careful study of the works of an author, and 
careful study of his life and times. The two lines of study are 
reciprocally illustrative, while the balance should decidedly 

1887.] The Seminary System for Foreign Literature. 51 

incline toward a direct acquaintance with the author's writings. 
Literary history, however, has also its distinct function and 
value, affording a clear outline and background for the special 
study of the author himself. 

The work may be performed in two ways : by the ordinary 
form of class-room instruction with recitation, lecture and com- 
ment ; and by subdivision of the work among different members 
under the supervision of the instructor, either assigning to the 
members of such classes different portions of the same general 
subject, with references to the proper authorities or sources, or 
allowing individual members to pursue individual courses of 
reading or independent lines of investigation, with frequent 
reports of progress. 

In regard to the question whether a written lecture or an 
address from notes be preferable in the course of such academic 
instruction, it has been argued that anything read from a written 
page may as well be printed and circulated for more careful 
study, and that the dictated phrase is lifeless in comparison with 
the spoken word. There is danger too that the lecture, once 
crystallized into a permanent shape, may not receive from year 
to year the revision which it needs. On the other hand, it is 
not always convenient or easy to publish at once the result of 
study and investigation, (although we have noticed that some 
Scotch students have recently attempted this for their professor, 
surreptitiously,) while the beneficial and attractive element of 
style and form is often absent from the extemporary effort. 
Perhaps the wiser. way would be to blend both forms of delivery. 

Without attempting here to lay down any detailed course of 
instruction, it may be said in general that the study of an author 
should not be divorced from the study of his age, but that the 
two sides of the examination should be jointly conducted. In 
like manner the minute study of individual works in respect of 
style and thought may well be associated with general reviews of 
groups of works. The function moreover of comparison is im- 
portant, the comparison, namely, between different works of 
the same writer composed at different periods in his career, or 
between different writers of the same school, or between differ- 
ent stages of development of the subject, as the drama, or be- 
tween different stages of growth of a national literature, or be- 
tween the literatures of different nations and their reciprocal in- 

52 Horatio S. While, [Vol. III. 

Illustrations will readily occur from our common experiences 
in teaching. 

The old German ' Messiads,' the ' Heliand ' and OTFRID'S 
' Krist,' when compared show many interesting points of con- 
trast. One may note the differing treatment of the Gospel nar- 
rative, and the difference in metrical structure, representing on 
one hand the strong and simple alliterative beat of heathen 
versification, and on the other, the influence of the gathering 
force of the Latin strophe of the Christian hymn, concealing 
within itself the melodious possibilities of assonance and alliter- 
ation with the more perfect melody of finished rime. Looking 
at the circumstances of the composition of the two poems, in one 
has been found an eloquent proof of the^rowth of Christianity 
among the unlettered peoples of the Saxon North ; in the 
other, an attempt to resist in the South the influence of a frivo- 
lous and pagan literature. The poems of WALTHER VON DER 
VOGELWEIDE, when studied in connection with his age, throw 
interesting side lights upon the social life of his time, and upon 
the contentions between Emperor and Pope. MARTIN LUTHER'S 
writings are scarcely intelligible without an examination of mid- 
dle High German, and in turn assist to an accurate analysis of 
modern German syntax. To describe the origin of the French 
or German drama, one must review ecclesiastical literature, and 
be familiar with the theatre of the ancients. The benefit is evi- 
dent of such courses as PROFESSOR CRANE'S lectures at Cornell 
on French society in the seventeenth century, based upon the 
voluminous memoirs, correspondence, and other literary 
memorials of that period ; or the course of PROFESSOR ELLIOTT 
at Johns Hopkins, in which the work of the year may be con- 
centrated upon a limited period in literary history, or upon the 
study of a small group of related dialects, or of a few important 
linguistic monuments. What useful material for a knowledge 
of the current impressions in Paris regarding European art and 
politics is afforded by HEINE'S miscellaneous communications 
to the Augsburg Gazette! What a field, too little cultivated, is 
afforded by the bulky correspondence of prominent literary 
characters ! Again, not the least beneficial phase of the minute 
study of the second part of Faust is afforded by the social and 
philosophical problems suggested, and by the discussion of the 
relations between the Classic and Romantic movements as de- 
picted in the " Helena." Not less attractive is the effort to 

1887.] The Seminary System for Foreign Literature. 53 

fathom the secret of the many erratic manifestations of genius 
of which every literature yields attractive and baffling illustra- 

A legitimate feature of such seminary work may be the ex- 
amination by students of new and relevant publications, whether 
edition or commentary or special treatise, and the presentation 
of critical notices of their contents. Others desire to discard all 
adventitious aids, and, leaving unconsidered whatever incrus- 
tations have clustered upon the shell, to penetrate to the heart, 
and to devote the energies of their students to the patient study 
of the bare untarnished text, the naked thought of the author 
selected. Such diversities of operations may yet lead to equally 
profitable results. 

As to the relation of the study of literature proper to the 
study of kindred subjects, one may say that although the 
teaching of literature be npt the teaching of history or of biog- 
raphy, both are essential as a background ; and that inasmuch 
as the province of what is called Culturgeschichte, a sort of 
literary biology, trenches upon literary history, it is also to be 
considered a necessary concomitant of literary studies. 

Another minor agency may be included, for its value in creat- 
ing or stimulating the student's interest, namely, the utilization 
of illustrative material by means of the stereopticon an agency 
at present gradually coming into more general use. Such 
material would comprise photographs, engravings, paintings, or 
similar artistic reproductions of persons, places, or events of 
literary significance, fac-similes of chirography, of manuscripts, 
of charters, and of everything connected with the science of 
diplomatics. Let me instance the reproductions of old French 
texts by GASTON PARIS ; the heliotype fac-similes of old manu- 
scripts published at Rome ; PROFESSOR ZUPITZA'S recent 
edition of ' Beowulf,' with the text and transliteration side by 
side ; the phototypes, in another field, of classic manuscripts 
like the Laurentian Sophocles and the Ravenna Aristophanes ; 
the autotypes of the Chaucer manuscripts in the British 
Museum ; the splendid and elaborate publications of the 
Socie"te de 1'Ecole des Chartes just appearing, which are to 
afford us in beautiful heliogravures reproductions of the most 
important documents relative to the national history and litera- 
ture ; and even the matter of illustration in such works as 
STACKE'S ' Deutsche Geschichte,' or KONNECKE'S ' Bilderatlas 

54 Horatio S. White, [Vol. nr.. 

zur Geschichte der Deutschen Literatur.' Material of this kind, 
which is often too expensive to be obtained by the separate 
members of a class, can readily be converted into lantern views- 
and be presented to a dass collectively, with appropriate com- 
ments, in connection with lecture courses or seminary work ; 
and such an expedient would obviate to a large degree the dis- 
advantages which his remoteness from the great libraries and 
museums of the world causes the American student to feel. 
Now for the first time does there seem in this way to be some 
outlook for more general paleographical studies on this side of 
the Atlantic. 

My remarks have been limited principally to the considera- 
tion of foreign literatures, leaving untouched the question of 
the proper methods for dealing with those fascinating and 
exceedingly important adjuncts of language-training comprised 
under the rubrics of comparative philology and phonetics. At 
a meeting of the American Philological Association a few years 
ago, PROFESSOR JEBP, of Glasgow, alluded to the current criti- 
cism that the work of American classical scholars concerned 
itself too much with grammatical and linguistic subjects, and 
was too often in statistical form. Certainly this is an honorable 
tendency, whether displayed with reference to ancient or to 
modern languages, and possibly the only caution needful might 
be the comment that the study of belles-lettres is equally 
arduous, equally exacting, demanding peradventure for finished 
culture in the teacher an even longer period of apprenticeship, 
and that it is equally fruitful in valuable results. 

From this standpoint the position of modern languages in 
German universities would perhaps not be entirely satisfactory 
as the norm for corresponding American institutions, although a 
tendency appears manifest yonder which promises ultimately a 
well rounded curriculum. In respect to German, at least, (and 
my impression is that the same observation will in some measure 
hold good with regard to English and French also,) an exam- 
ination of the courses offered will reveal that the literature since 
LUTHER has been subordinated to a somewhat absorbing study 
of the earlier dialects. The ordinary professorships have been 
almost invariably held by those whose chief interest lies in this 
earlier field, while the later period has been in the hands of in- 
structors of a lower rank. At Berlin, PROFESSOR SCHERER, 
literary historian as well as philologist, exhibited a fine type of 

1887.] The Seminary System for Foreign Literature, 55 

the many-sided and finished scholar. Yet a seminary room for 
'Germanic languages was finally ready to be occupied only in 
the year of his death, and the library of that seminary, although 
comprising the valuable private collection of MULLENHOFF, 
contained, when first made public, almost no literature after the 
fourteenth or fifteenth century. SCHERER'S successor, ERICH 
SCHMIDT, enjoys the distinction of holding perhaps the only 
ordinary professorship in Germany which is occupied by a 
scholar solely -devoted to modern German literature. And even 
this chair was first offered to one or two men of the other type. 
It is certainly no insignificant fact that this departure takes 
place at the largest and probably the leading university of the 

At Leipsic the conditions are somewhat similar. Although 
the instruction under ZARNCKE and HILDEBRAND, BIEDER- 
MANN and VON BAHDER and KOGEL, leaves little to be desired, 
and although some exercises are conducted there in connection 
with private libraries, the library of the German seminary is 
very nearly innocent of New High German monuments. 
Among the younger generation of scholars, too, in Germany we 
find that those who are devoted to the older dialects, as BE- 
HAGHEL at Basel, BRAUNE at Giessen, (now at Heidelberg,) 
KLUGE at Jena, PAUL at Freiburg, SIEVERS at Halle, STEIN- 
MEYER at Erlangen, are ordinary or full professors, while men 
like GEIGER at Berlin, HENNING at Strasburg, MINCR at 
Vienna, SAUER at Prague, SEUFFERT at Graz, STRAUCH at 
Tubingen, and others whose interests lie in more recent fields, 
are of the secondary grade. The older professors occasionally 
pay some attention to the later literature, and historians like 
ONCKEN at Giessen, or philosophers like KUNO FISCHER at 
Heidelberg or HAYM at Halle, divide their efforts at times 
between their special sphere and subjects in German literature. 
But it is fair to maintain that the preponderance of interest at 
German universities, and the field most favored for advance- 
ment to the doctorate, may be found in the more strictly 
philological studies of the earlier period. I will not presume to 
debate the wisdom of this tendency yonder, where the language 
courses in the gymnasiums are also to be reckoned in, nor to 
claim too much prominence for the counter-movement, which 
seems nevertheless to bring with it a widening of the outlook 
and a truer conception of proportion. But, whatever be the 

56 Horatio S. White, [Vol. in. 

task of the German university, it cannot be precisely the same 
task as ours, nor are its ways, while admirable necessarily to be 
our ways. The German university is largely a nursery for 
specialists, an invaluable training-ground for teachers and in- 
vestigators. Based upon the common schools, and affording 
the sole supply for the learned professions, it has an intimate 
and unshaken hold upon the nation. We, too, have an obli- 
gation to perform toward our nation also. The minor part of 
our own duty may be to train a limited number of bright minds 
in progressive and independent work ; the major portion of our 
labors must be consumed in helping large numbers of students 
to gain such a vantage ground of vision that their sympathies 
will be permanently enlarged, and their intellectual life possess 
a generous and catholic range whose influence will touch distant 
circles which we can never directly reach, but which ought to 
share whatever diversities of gifts a university may have at its 
command. Is there any better method of advancing this aim 
than the careful and sympathetic study of the noblest expressions 
of modern literary thought ? 

It has been the great privilege of many here present to draw 
liberally from the fountains of learning which spring so freely 
from Teutonic sources ; and the severe and successful methods 
there in vogue are exerting a powerful and not unfavorable 
influence upon our own higher education. But may we not 
retain our gratitude and acknowledge our manifold indebtedness 
without too general a surrender to foreign precedents ? Perhaps 
I may be permitted, in closing, to strengthen and make clear 
the position which I am endeavoring to maintain, by quoting 
some words from a memorable oration delivered by the Presi- 
dent of this Association upon a memorable occasion. At the 
Harvard Celebration last year, MR. LOWELL said : 

" It (i. e. the college earlier in the century), set more store by 
the marrow than by the bone that encased it. It made language 
as it should be, a ladder to literature, and not literature a ladder 
to language. 

"I think I see a tendency to train young men in the languages 
as if they were all to be editors (i. e. of manuscripts, texts, etc.) 
and not lovers of polite literature. Education, we are often told, 
is a drawing out of the faculties, may they not be drawn too 
thin ! I am not undervaluing philology or accuracy of scholar- 
ship. Both are excellent and admirable in their places. But 

1887.] The Seminary System for Foreign Literature. 57 

philology is less beautiful to me than philosophy, as MILTON 
understood the word, and mere accuracy is to Truth as a plaster 
cast to the marble statue ; it gives the facts but not their mean- 
ing. If I must choose, I had rather a young man should be 
intimate with the genius of the Greek dramatic poets than with 
the metres of their choruses, though I should be glad to have 
him on easy terms with both. 

" I hope then," MR. LOWELL concludes, " that the day will 
come when a competent professor may lecture here also for 
three years on the first three vowels of the Romance Alphabet, 
and find fit audience though few. I hope the day may never 
come when the weightier matters of language, namely, such 
parts of its literature as have overcome death by reason of their 
wisdom and of the beauty in which it is incarnated, such parts 
as are universal by reason of their civilizing properties, their 
power to elevate and fortify trie mind, I hope the day may 
never come when these are not predominant in the teaching 
given here. Let the humanities be maintained undiminished in 
their ancient right. Leave in their traditional preeminence 
those arts that were rightly called liberal ; those studies that 
kindle the imagination, and through it irradiate the reason; 
those studies that manumitted the modern mind ; those in which 
the brains of finest temper have found alike their stimulus and 
their repose, taught by them that the power of intellect is 
heightened in proportion as it is made gracious by measure and 
sympathy. Give us science, too, but give first of all and last of 
all the science that ennobles life and makes it generous." 

58 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

III. The Face and its Parts in the Spanish Proverb and 




Ale. de Zala : CALDERON, El Alcalde de Zalamea. 

Alex. : Libro de Alexandre (Rivadeneyra, vol. 57). 

Araucana: ERCILLA, La Araucana (Riv. \^1. 17). 

Austriada : RUFO, ,La Austriada (Riv. vol. 29). 

Celestina : La Celestina (Riv. vol. 3). 

Cr6nicas: Cr6nicas de los Reyes de Castilla (Riv. vols. 66, 68, 70). 

D. Q. : CERVANTES, Don Quijote (Riv. vol. i). 

Don. Habl. : El Donado Hablador (Riv. vol. 18). 

Duelo : BERCEO, El Duelo que fizo la Virgen Maria (Riv. vol. 57). 

Entremes: Entremes de Refranes (Sbarbi, Ref. vol. 7). 

Esp. Ger. : CSPEDES Y MENESES, El Espanol Gerardo (Riv. vol. 18). 

F. Cab. : FERNAN CABALLERO (Brockh. ed.), Gav. : La Gaviota ; Cal- 

lar : Callar en Vida y Perdonar en la Muerte ; Verano : Un 

Verano en Bornos. 
Garay, Cartas : BLASCO DE GARAY, Cartas en Refranes (Sbarbi, Ref. 

vol. 7). 

Garduna : SOLORZANO, La Garduna de Sevilla (Riv. vol. 33). 
Guerras Civ. : G. PEREZ DE HITA; Guerras Civiles de Granada (Riv. 

vol. 3). 

Guz. de Alf. : MATEO ALEMAN, Guzman de Alfarache (Riv. vol. 3). 
Haller: J. HALLER, Altspanische Sprichworter und sprichwortliche. 

Redensarten aus den Zeiten vor Cervantes. Regensburg, 1883. 
Jose" : Poema de Jose" (Riv. vol. 57). 

JRoiz : JUAN Roiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Cantares (Riv. vol. 57). 
Lances : CALDERON, Lances de Amor y Fortuna. 
Laz. de Tormes: Lazarillo de Tormes (Riv. vol. 3). 
Libro de Enx. : El Libro de los Enxemplos (Riv. vol. 51). 
Loores : BERCEO, Loores de nuestra Senora (Riv. vol. 57). 
L. Perez : CALDERON, Luis Perez el Gallego. 

Luna, Dial. : I. DE LUNA, Dialogos familiares (Sbarbi, Ref. vol. i). 
Marin, Cant. Pop. : F. R. MARIN, Cantos Populares Espanoles. 

Sevilla, 1882. 5 vols. 
Marques de Sant. : MARQUES DE SANTILLANA, Refranes (Sbarbi, Ref. 

vol. i). 
Medico: CALDERON, El Medico de su Honra. 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 59 

Mil. : BERCEO, Milagros de nuestra Senora (Riv. vol. 57). 

Obregon : V. ESPINEL, El Escudero Marcos de Obregon (Riv. vol. 18). 

Oj Com. Desc. : Ocho Comedias Desconocidas, dadas luz por Adolf 

Schaeffer. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, 1887. 2 vols. 
O Monast. : A. HERCULANO, O Monasticon (Brockh. ed.). 
Pintor : CALDERON, El Pintor de su deshonra. 
P. C. : Poema del Cid (Riv. vol. 57). 
Pr. C. : CALDERON, El Principe Constante. 
Puente : CALDERON, La Puente de Mantible. 
Purg. : CALDERON, El Purgatorio de San Patricio. 
Quevedo y Villegas : QUEVEDO Y VILLEGAS, El cuento de cuentos 

(Sbarbi, Ref. vol. 8). 

S. Dom. : BERCEO, Vida de San Domingo de Silos (Riv. vol. 57). 
S. Mill. : BERCEO, Vida de San Millan (Riv. vol. 57). 
Sbarbi, Floril. : Florilegio 6 Ramillete alfabe"tico de refranes y modis- 

mos, definidos por D. JOSE M. SBARBI. Madrid, 1873. 
Sbarbi, Ref. : SBARBI, Refranero General Espanol. 10 vols. 
Seguid. : SOTOMAYOR, Coleccion de Seguidillas (Sbarbi, Ref. vol. 4). 
Sold. Pindaro: CESPEDES Y MENESES, El Soldado Pfndaro (Riv. vol. 

Teatro Burl. : TRIGUEROS, Teatro Espanol Burlesco (Sbarbi, Ref. 

vol. 5). 
Tres Mar. Burl. : TIRSO DE MOLINA, Los tres Maridos burlados (Riv. 

vol. 18). 

Trueba : TRUEBA, Narraciones Populares. (Brockh. ed.). 
Vida : CALDERON, La Vida es Suefio. 
Villegas : A. DE VILLEGAS, Historia del Abencerraje y la hermosa 

jarifa (Riv. vol. 3). 
Wolf y Hof. : WOLF Y HOFMAN, Primavera y Flor de Romances. 

60 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

The Face and its Parts in the Spanish Proverb and Metaphor. 

Although much attention has been bestowed upon the Spanish 
proverb and idiomatic phrase from the ' Centiloquio ' of the 
MARQUIS OF SANTILLANA (first published 1496) down to 
SBARBI'S ' Refranero General Espanol ' (1878), this province ol 
the Spanish language is still far from being thoroughly searched, 
and much interesting material may yet be brought to light. 
Thus, to give but one instance, the proverb : a las veces mat 
perro roye bucna coyunda, corresponding to the French : sou- 
vent d mauvais chien tombe un bon os engueule and the English : 
' Into the mouth of a bad dog often falls a good bone,' is not 
found in any of the collections of proverbs with which we are 
familiar, but occurs in the works of the Archpriest of Hita, 
v. 1597: 

Dixele : Huron amigo, buscame otra coyunda : 
A la fe, dis, buscar6, aunque el mundo se funda, 
E yo vos la traer sin mucha baraunda, 
Que a las veses mat perro roye buena coyunda. 

It is with the object of contributing in a limited way to our 
knowledge of Spanish proverbial and metaphorical language 
that we have here arranged such expressions concerning the 
face and its parts as have collected in the course of reading. 
Our treatment does not claim to be exhaustive of the subject. 
As will be seen, much material is due to SBARBI'S ' Refranero ' 
which contains a number of writings otherwise not easily ac- 
cessible, while the Dictionary of the Academy has been drawn 
upon in a few cases only. In the first part of our work the 
proverbs and metaphors are arranged under the objects from 
which they are taken ; in the second part, according to the 
ideas which they express. 

I. The Objects from which Metaphors are taken. 

THE FACE AS A WHOLE. Spanish : car a, rostra, semblante, 

AND THINGS : No haber visto la car a al enemigo, not to have 
faced the enemy. No conocer la cara al miedo (d la necesidad} 
not to know fear (distress). 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 61 

No somos dos Maestres, dos Infantes, 
Cuando bastara ser dos Portugueses 
Particulares para no haber visto 
La cara almiedo. Pr. C. I, 12. 

De cara, de rostros, facing, forward : 

El que aqui muriere lidiando de cara 

Prendel yo los pecados, e Dios le abra el alma. P. C., 1704-5. 

Oras daban de rostros, oras de los costados, 

De ir en romeria estaban mal guisados. Mil., 887. 

La mujer y la sardina, de rostros en la cocina. SBARBI, Ref. 
V, p. 12 : cf. ibidem, vii, 102 : La mujer y la sardina, de rostros 
en la ceniza. Cara signifies \\\z.face of a coin, as in the phrase : 
jugar (echar) d cara y cruz, to toss for anything (cf. Gald6s, El 
19 de Marzo, p. 127); hence it stands for the coin itself: No 
tenga a mal el perder medio minuto en guardar estos cuatro 
pares de zapatos y estas dos caras de S. M., que leregalael que 
me mando aca". Teatro Burl., p. 104. 

Cara d cara, rostro d rostro, face to face, openly : 

.... Si la muerte me aguarda, 
Aqui, hoy la quiero buscar, 
Esperando cara d cara. Vida, III, 13. 

GuereMos ante Dios, donde rostro d rostro esta la verdad 
patente. Guz. de Alf., p. 292. cf. papo d papo (SBARBI, Ref. 
VIII, p. 92) and barba d barba, below. Querer (pretender) una 
cosa por su linda 6 bella cara, to claim something on the 
strength of one's good appearance, i. e. without efforts. Cf. 
below : por sus ojos bellidos. 

Saltar d la cara una cosa, means like the French sauter aux 
yeux to be self-evident, j Si se est&n Vds. queriendo como dos 
tortolillos ! que eso salta d la cara. F. Cab. Gav., p. 99. 
Mirame d la cara, asserts one's ability to accomplish a purpose. 
Mirame d la cara, que el casamiento se ha de hacer de haldas 
y de mangas. Quevedo y Villegas, p. 78. 

ERAL : Hence expressions like : La cara se lo dice ; en la cara 
se lo conoce. Lavar la cara d una cosa, to apologize for, to ex- 
cuse the defects of anything : Esto lo decimos en honor de la 
verdad y en favor de la exactitud del tipo que pintamos, y de 
ninguna manera por lavarle sufeisima cara la 6poca. F. Cab. 

62 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

Callar, p. 70. Hombre de dos caras, a double-faced man; Cara 
con dos haces, a double-face : Si Gomez, el escudero, te fuere 
ver, no le hables palabra, que es hombre de dos caras y se con- 
gracia con todos. Guz. de Alf., p. 353. 

Llevando estos haces dos 

Tendr cara con dos haces. O. Com. Desc. I, p. in. 

Salir d la cara d uno alguna cosa, to feel the consequences of 
doing anything : 

Pero, vive Dios, que es cosa 

Que ha de salirte d la cara. Ocho Com. Desc., II, p. 219. 

CHARACTER AND THE SENTIMENTS, such a^ courage, boldness, 
impudence, shame, fear, disposition. Hacer cara or rostro, to 
face against, to resist : 

Haced cara, y remftase a mi cuenta 
La defensa de todos. Austriada, p. 55. 

E como quier que (el marque's) fizo rostro losmoros 
los que estaban con 61 fueron disbaratados. Cr6nicas III, p. 384. 
cf. La Araucana, p. 47. 

<; Si hice a Dios rostro fuerte, 

Como me tratais asi ? O. Com. Desc., I, p. 126 ; 

Cf. Villegas, p. 507 ; Austr., p. 19, 117 ; Arauc., p. 83 ; D. Q. II, 
32. Sacar la cara^porun otro t to come to the defence of another : 
Asi, como aquel que se atrevia d sacar la cara en defensa de 
un amigo 6 de la verdad, era contradicho con acritud y recibido 
con burla. F. Cab., Clemencia, p. 230. Tener cara (rostro} 
para hacer una cosa, to have the face to do anything : 

Yo no lo se osmar ne lo se comedir 

Con que caras a nuestras casas podemos yr. Alex., 1454 ; 

Cf. Tres Mar. Burl., p. 486; D. Q. II, 34. No tuve cara para 
volver casa de mi amo. Guz. de Alf. p. 417. Nos veremos 
las caras, conveys a threat or challenge of defiance. Andar d 
cara descubierta, d rostro Jir me, to proceed openly, resolutely : 
Era una obrita nueva que, graeias a" Dios, no tenia por qu6 
dejar de parecer en publico con su cara descubierta. Teatro 
Burl., p. 125. Cf. Portuguese: Coma-se de rala; mas cara des- 
cuberta. O. Monast. II, p. 81. Daren cara (en rostro} d uno, (i) 
to reprimand one, (2) to give one offence : El diablo que no duerme, 
orden6 6 hizo que las gentes de los otros pueblos en viendo algu- 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 63 

no de nuestra aldea rebuznasen, como ddndoles en rostro con el 
rebuzno de nuestros regidores. D. Q. II, 25. Echar d la cara 
d uno alguna cosa, (i) to upbraid one for his faults, (2) to re- 
mind him of the benefits he has received : Sabeis, respondi6 
sonrie*ndose la sefiora, que los estranjeros nos echan en cara a 
los Espanoles el proceder siempre de lijero. F. Cab., Callar, p. 
39. Echarle a uno abajo la cara, to intimidate a man : 

A Dios, figurilla muda, 

Que podre" poco, 6 de dia 

Le echart abajo la cara. O. Com. Desc., I, p. 294. 

A similar figure is contained in the Spanish peasant maxim : 
Arada de Agosto : a ester cor ada da en rostro. August plough- 
ing is unfavorable to manuring. Haller, p. 612. Salir d la 
cara d uno, to fly in one's face, to insult : No son buenas las 
burlas que salen d la cara. Guz. de Alf, p. 292. Cf. the 
synonymous proverb: No son burlas las que duelen. D. Q. II, 
62. Caersele d uno la cara de verguenza, to be abashed, to be 
put to shame ; to be disappointed : Si le cae la cara de verguenza 
por su mala suerte. Trueba, p. 85. descarado, barefaced, 
impudent : 

Ni fraile descarado, ni al hombre callado, ni a mujer bar- 
buda, no les des posada, Sbarbi, Ref. X, p. 39 ; Quiero borrar 
aquel descarado capitulo, y poner en su lugar otro mas cortesa- 
no. Teatro Burl., p. 152. Caridelantero , immodest, forward : 
Rita, aunque caridelanterilla, en el fondo es una buena mu- 
chacha voluntariosilla. F. Cab. Familia de Alvareda, p. 18. 
Cariparejo, indifferent, cold : Estas mas caripareja que una 
duca, y mas fresca que una lechuga. F. Cab. Fam. de Alv., p. 
17. Al que al cielo escupe, en la cara le cae, who spits against 
heaven, it falls in his face : 

Qui arriba escupe, lo que non es razon, 

En el rostro li caye abueltas del grinon. Duelo 202. 

Mas vale verguenza en cara que mancilla en corazon. D. Q. 
II, 44. Cf. mas vale rostro bermejo que corazon negro. Diet, 
of Academy. Volver el rostro d uno, to forsake one : 

Que soy el deudor confieso ; 

No os vuelvo el rostro, y con eso 

La obligacion satisfago. Medico II, 17. 

Huir la cara (el rostro) d uno (una cosa}, to avoid : 

64 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

La espada 

Buscad, que venis sin ella, 
Que no os huir la cara, 
Capitan Ce"spedes. 
O. Com. Des. II, p. 276; cf. p. 191, 273; Esp. Ger., p. 264. 

Hacer buena cara (buen rostra), to be friendly disposed, to 
consent to or bear a thing : 

Estaba en mesa pobre buen gesto e buena cara, 

Con la poca vianda buena voluntad para. J. Roiz, 1345. 

Asegureos esto la f6 que de mi teneis conocida, y haced buen 
rostro la fortuna presente. Cervantes, Galatea, 1. 6 ; Cf. Esp. 
Ger., p. 192; Guerras Civ., p. 616; Garduna de Sevilla, p. 203, 
204. Poner (hacer) mala cara (mal nostro], to show dis- 
pleasure : 

Camila de industria hacia mal rostro Lotario. D. Q. II, 35 ; 
Humo y mala cara, saca la gente de casa. Sbarbi, Ref. IX, p. 
217. Torcer el rostro, to make a wry face, to show disfavor: 

Nunqua cierras tu puerta, nin popas nuTla cosa, 

Nunqua tuerces el rostro por fagienda costosa. S. Mill., 251. 

La cara de Dios, God's grace, is a popular and very poetic 
name of bread : Cuando no me cato, veo en figura de panes, 
como dicen, la cara de Dios dentro del arcaz. Laz. de Tormes, 
p. 82, and ibidem : Moria mala muerte, tanto que otra cosa no 
hacia en vie"ndome solo sino abrir y cerrar el area, y contemplar 
aquella cara de Dios (que asi dicen los ninos). 

II. Parts of the Face. 

I. THE FOREHEAD. Spanish: la f rente. Intelligence, 
Sentiment and Character are enthroned on the Forehead. 

The Spanish saying : En los ojos y en la f rente se lee el cor a- 
zon, answers to our English : In the forehead and the eye the 
picture of the mind does lie. Traerlo escrito en la f rente, to 
give unmistakable evidence of anything : 

Por esso deue el soldado, traer siempre escrila en la f rente, 
aquella coplilla que dize : 

Por la honrra 
Pon la vida, 
Y pon las dos 
Honrra, y vida 

Por tu Dios. Luna, Dial. fam. XII. 

Vete por do quisieres, que en la f rente lo llevas escrito que 
no te igua!6 en lijereza el hip6grifo de Astolfo. D. Q. II, 25. 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 65 

(a). INTELLIGENCE : Me la claven en la /rente, is a phrase 
strongly questioning the plausibility of a statement : ' Si hal- 
lares,' says Don Quixote to Sancho, ' que algun escudero haya 
dicho ni pensado lo que aqui has dicho, quiero que me le claves 
en la /rente: D. Q. II, 28. Cf. Teatro Burl., p. 78. Tu no 
tienes dos dedos de /rente, Remedies ; cuando quieres resolver 
un problema grave, sales con tales patochadas. Galdos, Dona 
Perfecta, p. 228. 

(b). SENTIMENT : The knitting of the brow, or running 
one's head against the wall, are images of anger : Quien se 
quisiere escandalizar, escandalicese, 6 de de /ruente en la pared. 
Libro de los Enx., p. 485. Fruncir, to frown (from * frontiare) 
is mostly used in the phrases /runcir el ceno and /runcir las 
cejas, to knit the brow : 

Fronzida trahe la cara, que era desarmado. P. C., 1744; cf. 2436. 

Thence the image of the knit brow was transferred to other 
objects, so \hz\.fruncir came to mean ' to curl,' ' to twist,' ' to 
plait,' and again by a further metaphor, ' to do violence to 
truth' (ct.fruncimiento, fiction, deceit). 

Andaua Myo id sobre so buen canallo : 

La cofiafronzida, Dios comoes bien bardado ! P. C., 788-9; cf. 2437. 

(c). COURAGE, BOLDNESS, IMPUDENCE \-Hacer {poner) 
/rente, and tener la/rente descubierta, to face, to resist : 

A omnes e a angeles esta dando refierta, 

Tien con gran coraje la /ruente descubierta. Alex., 2246. 

Pero diez Espanoles solamente 

Pusieron & la muerte osada /rente. Araucana, p. 13. 

In old Spanish /rontera seems to have been used in the same 
sense : 

Bien sabia al diablo tenerle lafrontera, 
Que non lo engannasse per ninguna manera. 

-S. Dom., 48 ; S. Mill., 53 : Alex., 437. 

Levantar la /rente, to show a bold front : (El orgullo) cual 
ningun otro levanla la /rente ante la virtud. F. Cab. Fam. de 
Alv., p. 25. Con la /rente lavada (serend), with assurance, with 
boldness : Rita era de estos seres que pisan con firme paso y 
/rente serend una senda torcida. F. Cab. Fam. de Alv., p. 58. 
Here may finally be mentioned the derivatives of /rente (i) 
a/renta, insult, affront ; a/rentar, to browbeat ; a/renloso, 

66 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

(2). THE EYE. Spanish : el ojo. The Eye is proverbial, 
(a) For its smallness and its position in the face : Colarse 
(meterse) como por el ojo de una aguja, to enter cautiously into 
a difficult matter. Sbarbi, Floril., p. 207. No saber uno donde 
tiene los ojos, to be very ignorant. Estar empenado hasta los 
ojos, to be deeply indebted. Diet, of Acad. (b) As the 
organ of sight: Ojo al badil, Attention !; La madre y el padre, 
que se estaban a" mas y mejor y dijeron : ' Esto va de rota ; no 
hay sino hacer de tripas corazon, y ojo al badil' Quevedo y 
Villegas, Cuento p. 71. Cerrados los ojos, blindly, implicitly: 
Para semejantes actos, que no son de muchos lances, cerrados 
los ojos se puede seguir su parecer. Obregon, p. 409. Tan 
luene de ojos quan luene de corazon ; (^ut of sight, out of mind. 
Marques de Sant., p. 146. Cf. the synonyms : d muertos y d 
idos no hay amigos, and : si te vi, no me acuerdo. Ojos que no 
ven, corazon que no quiebra (D. Q. II, 67) is our English: What 
the eye does not see, the heart does not grieve for. Ojos hay que 
de leganas se enamoran, tastes differ : Aunque, quien feo ama, 
hermoso le parece ; que ojos hay que de leganas se enamoran. 
Garay, Cartas IV. Cf. to this D. Q. II, 19 : El amor, segun yo 
he oido deci'r, mira con unos ahtojos que hacen parecer oro al 
cobre, a" la pobreza riqueza, y d las laganas perlas. Aunque 
esten sin leganas, los ojos se enganan, even the watchful may 
sometimes be deceived, Col. de Seguid., p. 192. Cf. Portuguese : 
Ha olhos inclinados a remelas, 

(i) Desire and Joy ; Entrarle d uno por el ojo derecho, to 
please one : Desde que te conoci6, dice que le entraste por el 
ojo derecho, y el pobre viejo te ha puesto un carifio . . . Gald6s, 
Dona Perf., p. 105. Bailarle d uno al ojo, to charm, to capti- 
vate one : Como yo fuese mozo barba poniente, y no de mal 
parecer, bailela al ojo al demonio de la moza. Don Habl., p. 
515; cf. p. 513. Ojos que bien se quieren, delej os se saludan. 
Entremes de Ref., p. 114. (2) Anger and Passion: Traerle d 
uno sobre ojo, to spy one's movements from jealousy or hostility : 
De eso procur6 yo guardarme, porque viendo que ya me traian 
sobre ojo, llamdndome el hablador, determine" dar cantonada a" 
mi senor. Don Habl., p. 514, cf. Obregon, p. 442. Tener 
sangre en el ojo, to have a keen sense of honor, to suffer no 
insult : ,; Hale sucedido algo por esto, que no sea proprio de 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 67 

hombres, y de hombres que tienen sangre en el ojo ? Teatro 
Burl., p. 93 ; cf. Quevedo y Vill., p. 20. 

(3). CHARACTER ; Ojos malos, d quien los mira, pegan su 
malatia, Evil associations corrupt good manners. Casting 
one's eyes down, is an image of hypocrisy : De quien pone los 
ojos en el suelo, no fies tu dinero. Llorar con un ojo, is another 
expression of hypocrisy or dissimulation : Hice una breve con- 
sideracion : Mujer de buena cara, moza y con hacienda, y que 
me ruega, y a" mi, que aun casi no me ha visto, no es ello 
demasiado bueno, ni aun mediano ; mejor sera" llorar con un ojo 
que con dos. Don Habl., p. 515. 

AS A VITAL PART OF THE BODY. Quebrarle d uno el ojo con 
una cosa, to disappoint, to provoke one : No pudo este filosofo 
satisfacerse mejor, ni quebrarle los ojos con mayor golpe y 
pedrada, que con llamarle hombre sin amigos. Guz. de Alf., p. 
286 ; Si sus madres les envian un barril de aceitunas cordobesas, 
cumplen con darnos un platillo, y nos quiebran los ojos con dos 
chorizos ahumados de la montana. Ibid., p. 344. Quebrar el 
ojo d una cosa, to hold in check, to repress : Las cosas hechas 
con buen peso, quiebran los ojo$ al exceso. Seguid, p. 34. 
Quebrar el ojo al diablo, to resist temptation : Asi que, senora, 
d6 vuesa merced en no usar lo que las otras, y quiebre una vez 
el ojo al diablo, y vera" como no falta quien siga sus pisadas. 
Don Habl., p. 509. Quebrar el ojo y untar el casco, answers to 
our English : to add insult to injury, Marques de Santillana 
(Obras, p. 519). Por quebrarle un ojo d uno quebrarse d si 
los dos : Mirad que sanan llagas, y n6 malas palabras ; y no 
querais/0r quebrarme d mi un ojo quebraros d vos dos; que a" 
las veces la sardina quiere saltar de la sarten, y da en las brasas. 
Garay, Cartas I. Cf. : No andes con ellos & ma'tame la yegua, 
y matarte he el potro ; no quieras por sacarles d ellos un ojo 
sacarte d ti los dos. Sbarbi, Ref. V, 21. Sacar los ojos d uno, 
to browbeat one into making some sacrifice, to abuse one.: 
Crie" cuervo que me sacase el ojo. La Celestina, p. 59. Pegar 
como pedrada en ojo de boticario, to be entirely out of place, in- 
appropriate : Para celebrar la boda de otra senora iglau en edad 
mi dona Irene, se hizo la siguiente redondilla, que le pega co- 
mo pedrada en ojo de boticario. Seguid., p. 129. Compare to 
this the German : Es passt wie eine faust aufs auge. Nohallarse 
una cosa ni por el ojo de la cara, to be very rare and precious. 

68 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

Sbarbi, Floril. p. 207. Las ninas de las ojos, has the force of the 
English : the apple of the eye (cf. Deuteron: XXXII, 10). Una 
storia que (el publico) no puede menos que estimarla sobre las 
ninas de sus ojos. Teatro Burl., p. 127 ; cf. D. Q. II, 33. No 
decir d uno ' buenos ojos tienes? not to speak to one at all : 
Pero todo el barrio le tenia respeto, y en sonando Juan Cara- 
millo, no habia alentado que se atreviese a" decirle : buenos ojos 
tienes. Teatro Burl., p. 93. For sus ojos bellidos (Cf. par su 
linda card) without trouble, without exertion : Pues no hay 
hombre tan leno que no entienda que cuando aquesto se hace, 
no es humo de pajas ni por sus ojos bellidos. Guz. de Alf., p. 
345 ; cf. Luna, Didl fam. IX. 

A few metaphors and proverbial phrases are taken from the 
eye-brow, la ceja, and the eye-lash, la pestana : Traer entre 
ceja y ceja una cosa, to have a design, a purpose : No me 
queda duda de que el Requejo mayor, ese poste vestido trae 
entre cejay ceja el proyecto de casarse con Lie's. Gald6s, El 19 
de Marzo, p. 41. Dar d uno entre ceja y ceja, to tell plain 
truths in one's face : La mozuela le habia dado entre ceja y 
ceja, con la del ma"rtes. Quevedo y Villegas, p. 70. cejijunlo, 
frowning : 

Al momento aquellos senores descontentadizos y cejijuntos 
hacian mil ascos. Teatro Burl., p. %2Quemarse las cejas, to 
study with intense application, ' to burn the midnight oil.' 
Diet. ofAcad. Cf. Portuguese : Queimar as pestanas. A similar 
idea is expressed by the phrase : Deshacerse las cejas : El que 
ma's sabido esta" , en la cumbre suele resbalarse y deshacerse las 
cejas, y el ma's levantado arbol con el tiempo se pierde. Don. 
Habl., p. 530. Here belongs also ceno, to which the dictionaries, 
singularly enough, only assign the derived signification ' frown/ 
' gloomy aspect,' though its original meaning ' brow ' survives 
in a number of expressions and uses, such as the following: 
Fruncir (arrugar} el ceno, to knit the brow. Rasc6se la cafre- 
za, fruncio el adusto ceno, y con lengua cada vez ms torpe, 
prosigui6 asi. Gald6s, Dona Perfecta, p. 194. 

Una caduca africana 

Espiritu en forma humana 

Ceno arrugado y esquivo. Pr. C. II, 38. 

The Spanish, like the English, speaks of the brow of a 
mountain : 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 69 

Deste monte eminente 

Que arruga al sol el ceno de su frente. Vida, I, i. 

Deste rtistico monte la espesura, 

Cuyo ceno, de robles coronado, 

Amenaz6 del sol la lumbre pura. Purg. i, 159,3. 

Este monte eminente 

Cuyo arrugado ceno, cuya frente 

Es d6rica coluna. L. Perez 2, 454,3. 

La ilustre Barcelona, 

Opuesta al ceno de unay otra cumbre. Lances i, 45,1. 

This also with regard to a bridge : 

Esa fabrica altiva .... 
En cuyo ceno la esfera 
Del sol descansa y estriba. Puente i, 213,1. 

One fails to understand how KRENKEL, in his excellent 
edition of Calderon's ' La Vida es sueno,' from which the above 
instances are quoted, could enumerate ceno under ' die Thatig- 
keiten des menschlichen Hauptes ' (Anhang, p. 5). The signifi- 
cation ' brow ' illustrated by the above passages, would seem to 
be an argument in favor of BAIST'S derivation of ceno through 
episcynium from dnvvtor, eye-brow {Rom. Forsch. I, p. 134-5). 

The derived meaning frown, severity (cf. episcynium^ Tertull. 
de pall.) is found in the following instances : Cogi61es la noche, 
que por ser la entrada del erizado noviembre vino con ceno. 
No hay Desdicha, p. 517. Ceno y enseno, de mal hijo hacen 
bueno, severity and instruction may correct a bad character. 
Sbarbi, Ref. V, p. 13. The moving of the brow conveys a sign; 
hence the Italian cenno, accennare and the Old Spanish afennar: 

Descobri6 e la faz (Uenus) quando ouo de fablar, 
Cataua contra Paris, compe9ol dacennar. Alex., 355. 

Pestana, the eye-lash, is used like nina: Teresa Panza, a" 
quien quiero mas que & las pestanas de mis ojos. D. Q. II, 70. 
The moving of the eye-lash is indicative of sudden emotions or 
impressions; hence the phrases : No mover pestana or sin pes- 
tanear (i) with undivided attention, (2) without flinching. 

(3). THE NOSE. Spanish : la nariz. (a) It is proverbial 
for occupying a prominent position in the face. The ignorant 
do not know where their nose is : Toma, toma ! Es que el 
maestro de escuela no sabe donde tiene las narices. Marin, 
Cantos Pop. I, p. 397. Traer d uno por la nariz, ' to lead one 
by the nose.' Diet, of Academy. Darse de narices, to meet : 
Si nuestras cartas no surten el deseado efecto de acortar distan- 

7 o Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

cias, me plantare" en Bornos continuar mi oficio de destine, 
porque no parece sino que esas dos medias naranjas, d pesar de 
haberse dado de narices, estSn la una en Fldndes y la otra en 
Aragon. F. Cab. Verano, p. 78. 

PERSON. A similar force attaches to the synonym romo, a : 
Yo he oido decir muchas veces y muchos discretes que si 1 
(el diablo) puede ntes os la dara" roma que aguilena. D. Q. 
jl ? ^g. According to another proverb, however, the Spaniard 
looks upon a flat-nose also as being essential to a pretty face : 

No hay hermosa si no toca en roma. Sbarbi, Ref. IX, p. 109. 

las narices, to turn up one's nose. Diet, of Academy. Dejar 
d uno con un palmo de (con tantas] narices, to have baffled 
one's efforts : Pero la princesa dejo todos los sabios con un 
palmo de narices, pues acert6 al vuelo todas las adivinanzas que 
se lo dijeron. Marin, Cant. Pop. I, p. 396. Cf. Italian : Rim- 
aner con tanto di naso, and the German : mit langer nase ab- 
ziehen. Hincharsele d uno las narices (i) to become very 
angry, (2) in regard to the sea and the rivers : to swell up high. 
Diet, of Academy. 

(d). Limpiarle d uno las narices, TO FLATTER ONE, TO BE 
AGREEABLE TO ONE : Al hijo de tu vecino, limpiale las narices 
y metele en tu casa. D. Q. II, 5. 


Sofrio lo bien el rey, estido bien pagado, 

Se ioguie"s dormiendo non yaria mas quedado, 

Nen nariz cambiada, nen rostro demudado, 

Nunca lo entendi6 nul omne per quexado. Alex., 2094. 

THE ORGAN OF SMELL. A fine nose is indicative of a keen 
understanding ; the Spaniard, however, does not speak of a fine 
or a good nose, but says : tener largas narices, or narices de 
perro perdiguero. A Spanish proverb declares : Hombre nari- 
gudo, pocas veces cornudo. Sbarbi, Ref. X, p. 36. 

The organ of smell is considered the seat of curiosity and 
suspicion : Meter las narices en una cosa, to meddle with any- 
thing. Diet, of Academy. Darle d uno en la nariz una cosa, 
to get scent of something, to suspect it. As the English familiar- 
ly speak of ' smelling a rat,' the Germans of ' einen braten 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 71 

riechen,' the French of ' sentir de loin la fricassee,' the Spaniard 
says oler el tocino (Guz. de Alf, p. 346) or, more seriously, oler 
el poste, ' to smell the pillar. ,; Como olistes la longaniza, y 
no el posted Laz. de Torm., p. 81 ; Oli el poste ; que como perro 
ventero todo lo buscaba. Don HabL, p. 566. So also in Portu- 
guese : cheirar o toucinho. In this connection may also be 
mentioned a phrase expressing surprise at undue familiarity : 
No se como nos olimos, que tan en breve nos conocimos. Guz. 
de Alf, p. 352. 

(g). SNEEZING is considered very significant (Cf. Grimm, 
D. Myth., II, p. 934-5). Thus it was of old a good omen with 
the Spaniards : 

Sali6 (el lobo) de aquel plado, corri6 lo mas que pudo, 

Vi6 en unos fornachos retozar a menudo, 

Cabritos con las cabras, mucho cabron cornudo, 

A la fe, dis, agora se cumple el estornudo. J. Roiz., 742. 

Estornudar is used figuratively for man's activity in the 
proverb : Cada uno estornuda como Dios le ayuda, everybody 
does the best he can. Seguid., p. 239. 

(4). THE MOUTH. Spanish : la boca. 

The mouth is proverbial for being instrumental in Speaking, 
Breathing and Eating, (a) SPEAKING : La mujer y la trucha 
por la boca se prende. Sbarbi, Ref. II, p. 210. Coser la 
boca, to ' sew one's mouth ' is the image of silence, as on the 
other hand descoser la boca, to ' unsew one's mouth,' of talking : 
Basto que te digo verdad, y cose la boca. D. Q. I, 52 ; (San- 
cho) no os6 descoser su boca hasta ver en que" paraba aquel asalto 
y prision de su amo. D. Q. I, 46. Hence descosido, an in- 
discreet talker, a madman : gridar como un descosido (Quevedo 
y Villegas, Cuento). Coser la boca, it may be remarked in 
passing, is also a metaphor for besar, to kiss : La una dellas 
llega"ndose d D. Quijote se le ech6 los pie's tendida de largo a" 
largo la boca cosida con los pies de D. Quijote. D. Q. II, 52. 
Miel en la boca, guarde la bolsa. Sbarbi, Ref. V, p. n. Boca 
que dice de no, dice de si : Importunate insistence may change 
a ' no ' into a ' yes.' Marques de Santillana (Obras, p. 508). Pe- 
gar la boca d la pared, to be silent : Sufrir y callar, como 
dicen, pegando la boca a la pared. Don Habl., p. 524. 


Respirar por la boca de otro, to be at another's beck and call. 

Tener el alma en los labios, to be dying, on the point of 
death : 

72 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

Ya tengo el alma en los labios, 

Muero sin ver, Sebastian, 

Castigados tus agravios, 

Muy grande priesa me dan. O. Com. Desc. II, p. 211. 

Traer el alma d los labios : 

Como sabe que te acercas, 

Quiere ganar por la mano, 

Que es temerario y valiente, 

Trayendo elalma d los labios. O. Com. Desc. II, p. 204. 

(c). EATING. 

The mouth indicates our desires and sentiment : Hacerse d 
uno la boca agua, to anticipate ardently some pleasure in pros- 
pect. Cf. English ' mouth-watering/ Hcchas estas diligencias, 
estaba ya haciendoseme la boca agua con la futura gloria y con- 
tentamiento que aguardaba recibir. Teatro Burl., p. 102. 
Torcer la boca, and lorcer los labios, to ' curl up one's lip,' are 
images for scorn and anger. 

Los befos se comie, tanto estaua yrado : 
Catando contro Poro maldezia el peccado. 

Alex., 1826. cf. Portuguese : Trazer alg. pelo deifo, to lead, to 
control one. 

(5). THE CHEEKS. Spanish : mejilla and carrillo. 

Mejilla is properly speaking the part of the face below the 
eye, whereas carrillo denotes the fleshy part from the mejilla 
down to the jaw. We shall begin with the latter. Comer 
(mascar} d dos carrillos, to eat with both cheeks, to eat heartily : 

No hay sino bailar apriesa, 

Y mascar d dos carrillos, 

Que en aquesta honrada empresa. 

Le mostramos los colmillos 

A la tropa portuguesa. O. Com. Desc. I, p. 281. 

From this habitual cooperation of both cheeks in eating is 
derived the further metaphorical meaning of the above phrase: 
to have two useful employments at the same time, ' to have two 
strings to one's bow '; and still another one, closely allied to the 
preceding : to derive advantage from two appointments by 
serving both at once. De quien tanto he recebido, es bien 
mostrarme agradecida, no le he de ser avarienta, con esto cosere" 
a" dos cabos, comere con dos carrillos, mejor se asegura la nave 
sobre dos ferros que con uno. Guz. de Alf., p. 192. Como yo 
lo era (hombre honrado), y con mas quilates que hierro de Viz- 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 73 

caya, comia a dos carrillos y hacia dos papadas. Esteb. Gonz., 
p. 304. A synonymous expression is : Tener el pit en dos 
zapatos. Tomarse a carrillos, was a phrase answering in 
Older Spanish to the modern ' bofetarse,' and carrellada corre- 
sponds to bofeton, a blow : 

Un ui^io (enuidia) que non sana por nulla melecina : 

Quier se tomar a carellos con quien se quier ayna. Alex., 2186. 

Dabanles grandes palos e grandes carrelladas, 

Co9es muchas sobeio, e muchas palancadas. Mil., 890. 

Compare andar al morro andar d golpes (Sbarbi, Ref. VIII, 
p. 30) Carriello, with the early Spaniards, was expressive of 
courage : 

Mester ha punnos duros, carriellos denodados, 

Ca espada nin lan^a non saben dafalagos. Alex., 444. 

Mejilla (O. Sp. maxielld] was looked upon as the mirror of 
sentiment, as may appear from the following passage : 

Daua (el ninno) grandes sospiros, ca tenie gran maziella, 
Parentage la rancura del cor enna maxiella. Alex., 45. 

An image of pensiveness, or grief, very frequently found in 
Old Spanish Poetry is the gesture of holding the hand to one's 
cheek. Thus the phrases ser, estar (tener) mano a maxiella 
signify to be pensive or afflicted. 


El huespet de Onorio que fue mal segudado, 
Sedie man a maxiella planiendo so mal fado. 

Mill. 209. Cf. Duelo34; Loores de Berceo 9 ; Alex. ,587; Wolf y 
Hofm. Primavera II, 200, 291. 

This expression is also found in prose-works of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, both in the metaphorical meaning 'to 
be pensive ' and in the literal sense of the gesture itself accom- 
panying pensiveness. Figuratively it appears to be used in the 
following passage : Andando en este cuidado solicito, dandole 
mil trasigos, me sente" & un lado de la plaza junto a una tendera, 
donde solia ser mi puesto y de mi teniente : y estando con la 
mano en la mejilla, determinando de pasar aunque fuera por 
mochilero si mas no pudiera, y aun segun estaba me sobraba, of 
decir : ^Guzmdn, Guzmanillo? Guz. de Alf., p. 231. The 
gesture itself is referred to Guz. de Alf., p. 281 ; El Esp. Ger., 
p. 264. 


74 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

Estando los maestros todos man amaxiella, 

El confessor precioso issio de sue capiella ; 

Violos dessarrados. la color amariella, 

Entendi6 que la cosa non era sin manziella. Mill., 229 ; 

Todos estos quebrantos, esta mortal manziella, 
Era mas afmcada en Leon e en Castiella ; 
Mas todo christiano sedie man a massiella, 
Ca pora todos era una mala postiella. Mill., 372. 

Redre"me de la duenna, et crei la fabrilla, 

Que dis : por loperdido non estes mano en megilla. J. Roiz, 169. 

Compare Alex., 958 : Cuemo sedie Alexandre mano al cora. 
fon. In conclusion may be mentioned a few other phrases ex- 
pressing gestures of grief and despair : Bater mis massiellas 
(Duelo, 28) ; romper las massiellas (Mil., 364); salir con las 
manos en la cabeza. Gardufia de Sevilla, p. 197. 

(6). THE CHIN being in Spanish named from the Beard 
(barba), by which it is covered, both may appropriately be 
treated together. 

Barba represents the whole face of which it is a part. Traer 
Bandar con) la barba sobre el hombro, to be on the alert, to be 
anxious : Entrdndose en la ciudad los dos a" buen paso, y guiando 
el Cojuelo, la barba sobre el hombro, fueron hilvanando calles. 
Diablo Cojuelo, p. 36. Ac se os guardar todo en mi escritorio 
con toda seguridad, y no andareis tanto la barba sobre el hombro 
en cuanto aqui estuvie"redes. Guz. de Alf., p. 313. The Beard 
is a characteristic mark of manhood, and to such a degree has 
it figured so in man's mind that it has become identified in 
signification with man himself, and his distinctive qualities, 
valor, honor, dignity and experience. 

(a). BARBA signifies hombre, guerrero : 

Merced ya, Cid, barba tan conplida. P. C., 268. 
El rey Alexandre, una baruafacera, Alex., 1558. 

Un macho y dos borricos, 
Con perdon de las barbas que me escuchan 
Se llevaron tambien los companeros. 

Lope de Vega, Ale. Ill, 127. 

Era el senor, con perdon de las barbas honradas que nos oyen, 
lo que llamamos zurdo. Soldado Pindaro, p. 303. 

Todos bien adobados, todos baruas punientes. 

Alex., 1143; cf. 1244. 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 75 

La ferrada echaron, en la cabeza le daban, 

Non la podian sacar, que mucho les pesaba, 

For rason que Yusuf della se trababa ; 

Pusieron hi esfuerzo, sali6 la bella barba P. de Jose", 36. 

Y ansi aquella barba blanca, 

Entre los demas culpados, 

Lleva los brazos atados, 

Que el alma se arranca. O. Com. Desc. II, p. 31. 

A la sombra de la barba cana, esta" la nina muy honrada. 
Sbarbi, Ref. IX, p. 82. In the language of the stage, barba is 
the one who acts the part of old man. Proverb : Callen bar- 
has y hablen cartas (D. Q. II, 7), it is idle for men to talk when 
evidence is clear. Arador de palma, no le saca toda barba. 
Cuales barbas y tales tobajas, give every one his due. Sbarbi, 
Ref. IX, p. 213. Barba signifies age: Me fui en la carroza 
con los duenas en su mismo traje, que en las barbas habia poca 
diferencia de mi & ellas, por ser mozo y lampino. Obregon, p. 


TUDE AND EXPERIENCE. As such it is the epitheton ornans of 
the Spanish warrior, as of the Cid, who is called el de la luenga 
barba (P. C. 1,226), el de la barba grant (ib. 2410; cf. 789, 
1240, 2059). Proverb : Barba pone mesa, que no pierna tesa, 
energy, not idleness, will ensure success. Marques de Santil- 
lano (Obras, p. 507). Barbar, to get a beard, has the meta- 
phorical meaning of ' deriving strength,' ' to become bold, 
assured : ' 

A costa de cuatro palos, 

Que el llegar aqui me cuesta, 

De un alabardero rubio 

Que barb 6 de su librea. Calderon, Vida, II, 2. 

Thus barbado signifies 'brave/ 'courageous' and, with the 
characteristic boldness of Spanish metaphor, is used as an at- 
tribute of alma the soul. In the sense of * a brave soul,' ' an 
intrepid heart ' we find alma barbada employed by Calderon : 

Seor Rebolledo, por mi 

Voace" no se aflija, no ; 

Que, como ya sabe, yo 

Barbada el alma , naci. Ale. de Zal. I, i. 

This very same metaphor occurs in Don Quijote, and seems to 
have been a puzzle even to BRAUNFELS and ORMSBY, the most 

76 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

recent and best translators of Cervantes' immortal work. San- 
cho answers the Distressed Lady in his characteristically 
playful way : ' De que sea mi bondad, sefiora mia, tan larga y 
grande como la barba de vuestro escudero, & mi me hace poco 
al caso ; barbada y con bigotes tenga yo mi alma cuando desta 
vida vaya, que es lo que importa' (D. Q. II, 38) which is in 
English : ' Whether my kindness, my lady, be as great as your 
squire's beard, matters very little to me : but/ (so continues our 
incorrigible punster Sancho) ' may my soul have a beard (be 
intrepid), nay even whiskers (and very brave indeed) when it 
shall have to depart from this life ; that is of importance to me/ 
The addition 'y con bigotes ' is one of those puns with which the 
language of Cervantes abounds, of a pi*ce with the following 
(II, 20) : 

Si a mano viene y aunque no sea sino al pie", where si d mano 
viene means ' perhaps.' Cf., in regard to signification, Portu- 
guese expressions like : ter cabello no corafao. 

OF A MAN. Stroking one's beard is a gesture indicative of 
pride or satisfaction over some successful deed. T\ms,prenderse 
d la barba is a metaphorical expression for ' to be proud of,' ' to 
boast of:' 

Pilato desti captivo fue mucho embargado, 
Segun que e"l digia, quitarse ya de"! de grado, 
Rescibieron los judios sobre si el peccado, 
Non se prendran d las barbas nunca dessi mercado. 

Loores de N. S., 64. 

Mesarse la barba, to pluck one's beard, is an expression of 
grief over some insult or injury received : 

Llorando esta de sus ojos 
Que es dolor de lo mirar, 
MesAbase los cabellos, 
Sus barbas otro que tal. 

Wolf y Hof. Prim. II, p. 290; cf. 182. 

Quien presta, sus barbas mesa: He who lends money, 
comes to grief. Sbarbi, Ref. X, p. 42. To pull a man's beard 
is considered an insult. Hence the Cid swears by the beard 
that no man ever dishonored : 

Algaua la mano, a la barba se tomo. 

' For aquesta barba que nadie non misso, 

Assis yran vengando don Eluira e dona Sol.' P. C., 3185-7. 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 77 

Proverb : Cuando la barba de tu vecino vieres pelar, echa la 
tuya a remqjar, when your neighbor's house is on fire, look to 
your own. Seguid, p. 67. Pelarse las barbas means also to 
show violent anger. Diet, of Acad. Subirse d las barbas, to 
be disrespectful to a superior : Y aunque cal!6 ent6nces, des- 
pues lloraba los quiries, y propuso de hablarle papo & papo, por 
que otra vez no se le subiese d las barbas. Quevedo y Villegas, 
p. 92. Desvergonzarse d uno en las barbas is synonymous with 
the preceding : Sabete que la tia sa"tira esa, porque no le libre" 
de soldado a un sobrino suyo mas malo que Gata, se me desver- 
gonzo en mis barbas, y mis espaldas me puso mas bajo que un 
cano. F. Cab. Clem., p. 138. Echarle d uno el galo en las bar- 
bas, to throw the blame or risk upon another: Dejense de fila- 
terias, que una por una ya estcin casados (dijo el licenciado) ; y 
si hablamos mas, nos echard el gato d las barbas, y volvere"mos 
las nueces al c&ntaro. Quevedo y Villegas, p. 94. Sacar la 
barba de verguenza d uno, to do one honor, ' to do one proud :' 
Encomendaron los deudos del difunto el que se habia de hacer 
& un grave religiose ; el cual, queriendo dar buena razon de siy 
sacar la barba de verguenza d quien le habia elegido, procur6 
desvelarse en estudiar conceptos etc. Sold. Pindaro, p. 302. 
Mentir por la barba, to lie by one's beard : 

No era, vive Cristo. 
Miente, senor, por la barba. Pintor II, 9. 

A beard of two colors is looked upon as a mark of faithlessness ; 
hence the proverb : Barba y pelo de dos colores, no la tienen 
sino traidores. Sbarbi, Ref. X, p, 35. 

(d). THE BEARD is proverbial for the care it requires as an 
ornament of the face. 

En la barba del ruin se ensena, is a proverbial phrase 
which neither the dictionaries nor the collections of proverbs 
seem to know, but which is sufficiently characterized as 
such in the following passage : Sent&ronle (al pobre mance- 
bo) en un banquillo, y puestos otros lienzos de jerga, segun 
eran gruesos, y con el color hollin, dejb la obra el maestro, y 
en su lugar entro el aprendiz acabar lo que su amo habia 
comenzado, y por el debid de decirse : En la barba del ruin se 
ensena. Don. Habl., p. 522. This proverb contains the same 
injunction as the well-known saying : fiat experimentum in re 
vili. No es todo hacer barbas, ' not everything is shaving 

7 8 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

beards/ is another phrase which, though it cannot be positively 
declared a proverbial expression, has at least the appearance of 
one. Vuestra merced mire c6mohabla, senor barbero, que no es 
todo hacer barb as, y algo va de Pedro a" Pedro. D. Q. I, 47. 
La barba mojada, lomala enjuta en la cama (Sbarbi, Ref. I, 1 1 1) 
is explained by the Marquis of Santillana as signifying that by 
proper exertion we obtain our ends ; it is therefore a synonym 
of the proverb quoted above : barba pone mesa, que no pierna 
tesa. Barba bien remojada, media rapada is a synonym of the 
proverbs obra empezada, medio acabada and el salir de la posa- 
da< es la mayor Jornada (Sbarbi, Ref. IX, p. 223). 

III. The Metaphorical and Proverial Expressions arranged ac- 
cording to the Ideas which they embody. 

I. The Family. 

A la sombra de la barba blanca esta" la nina muy honrada. 
Sbarbi, Ref. IX, p. 82. 

II. Social Intercourse. 

i. MEETING: Darse de narices. F. Cab. Verano; p. 78. 

2. ASSOCIATION : Evil associations corrupt good manners : 
Ojos malos, quien los mira, pegan su malatia. Diet. Ac. 

3. FAMILIARITY. Rebuke of undue familiarity: No s6 como 
nos olimos que tan en breve nos conocimos. Guz. de Alf., p. 
352. 4. LOVE. Out of sight, out of mind : Quan luene de 
ojos tan luene de corazon. Marques de Sant, p. 146. Cf. A 
muertos y a" idos, no hay amigos, and : Si te vi, no me acuerdo. 
Love is far-seeing: Ojos que bien se quieren, de lejos se 
saludan. Entremes de Ref., p. 114. To inspire one with love : 
Entrarle a" uno por el ojo derecho. Gald6s, Dona Perfecta, p. 
105. 5. FRIENDSHIP, ENMITY. Defend : Sacar la cara por 
un otro. Fern. Cab. Clem., p. 230. Forsake : Volver el rostro 
a" uno. Medico II, 17. Avoid : Huir la cara uno. O. Com. 
Desc. II, p. 276; Esp. Ger., p. 264. DEFIANCE, INSULT, 
QUARREL. Spite : Por quebrarle un ojo & uno quebrarse 3 sf 
los dos. Sbarbi, Ref. V, 21 ; Caray, Cartas I. Insult : Subirse 
las barbas a uno. Quevedo y Villegas, p. 92. Mesar la barba 
uno. P. C. 3185-7. To add insult to injury: Quebrar el 
ojo y untar el casco. Marques de Sant. (Obras, p. 519). Mal- 
treatment: Crie* cuervo que me sacase los ojos. Celestina, p. 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 79 

59. Dar en cara a uno. D. Q. II, 25. Echarle a uno abajo la 
cara. O. Com. Desc. 1, p. 294. Salir a la cara a" uno. Guz. 
de Alf., p. 292. Dar & uno entre ceja y ceja. Quevedo y Ville- 
gas, p. 70. For want of a better place, the Spanish peasant 
maxim : Arada de Agosto, a estercorada da en rostro. Haller, 
p. 612, may find mention here. Quarrel: Tomarse a carrillos 
=bofetarse. Alex., 2186. Carrellada, a blow. Mill, 899. Cf. 
andar al morro=andar & golpse. Sbarbi, Ref. VIII, p. 30. 7. 
POLICY : Miel en la boca, guarde la bolsa. Sbarbi, Ref. V, p. 
n. Al hijo de tu vecino, limpiale las narices, y me" tele en tu 
casa. D. Q. II, 5. 


' Into the mouth of a bad dog often falls a good bone : A las 
veces mal perro roye buena coyunda. J. Roiz, 1597. 
I.- Age. 

Me me en la carroza con las duenas en su mismo traje; que 
en las barbas habia poca diferencia de mi a ellas, por ser mozo 
y lampino. V. Espinel (Riv. 18, p. 453). 

II. Beauty. 

A flat nose is considered essential to beauty : No hay her- 
mosa si no toca en roma. Sbarbi, Ref. IX, 109. 

III. Death. 

To be expiring: Tener el alma en los labios. O. Com. 
Desc. II, p. 211. 

I. Intelligence, Stupidity. 

' In the forehead and the eye, the picture of the mind does 
lie': En los ojos y en la frente se lee el corazon. A large nose 
is indicative of intelligence : Hembre narigudo, pocas veces 
cornudo. Sbarbi. Ref. X., p. 36. A narrow forehead betrays 
stupidity : Tu no tienes dos dedos de frente. Galdos, Dona Per- 
fecta, p. 228. The stupid do not know where their nose is : 
j Toma, toma ! Es que el maestro de escuela no sabe donde tiere 
las narices. Marin, Cant. Pop. I., p. 397. 

II. Perception. 
To get scent of something : Darle uno en la nariz una 

8o Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

cosa. ' To smell a rat ': Oler el tocino. Guz. de Alf., p. 346. 
Oler el poste. Laz. de Tormes, p. 81 ; Don Habl., p. 566. Cf. 
Portuguese : Cheirar o toucinho. Even a clear eye may some- 
times be deceived : Aunque este"n sin leganas, los ojos se enga- 
fian. Seguid., p. 192. 

III. Evidence. 

To bear evidence of a thing : Traerlo escrito en la frente. D. 
Q. II, 25 : Luna, Dil. fam. XI. 

IV. Doubt. 

Me la claven en la frente. D. Q. 28 ; Teatro Burl., p. 78. 
V. Taste. ^ 

Tastes differ : Ojos hay que de leganas se enamoran. Garay, 
Cartas IV. Cf. Portuguese : Ha olhos inclinados a remelas. 
VI. Courage, Cowardice. 

Not to know fear : No conocer la cara al miedo. Pr. C. I., 12. 
To have the courage to do a thing : Tener la cara para hacer 
una cosa. Alex., 1454. To be reckless : Traer el alma los 
labios. O. Com. Desc. II, p. 204. To offer resistance : Hacer 
cara (rostro). Austriada, p. 55. Hacer frente, tener la frente 
descubierta. Alex., 2246 ; Araucana, p. 13. To proceed boldly : 
Andar a cara descubierta, rostro firme. Teatro Burl., p. 125. 
Levantar la frente. F. Cab. Fam. de Alv., p. 25. Courage : Car- 
riello denodado. Alex., 444. To become bold : barbar. Vida, 
II, 2. To have a brave heart: Tener barbada el alma. D. Q. 
II, 38; Ale. de Zal. I, i. To be afraid to speak to one : No 
decir uno ' buenos ojos tienes.' Teatro Burl., p. 93. 

VII. Truthfulness, Falsehood. 

Double-faced: Hombre de dos caras. Guz. de Alf., p. 353. 
Cara con dos haces. O. Com. Desc. I., p. III. Barba y pelo de 
dos colores, no la tienen sino traidores. Sbarbi, Ref. X, p. 35. 
The hypocrite weeps with one eye : Mejor me ser llorara" con 
un ojo que con dos. Don Habl., p. 515. 

VIII. Caution. 

To be circumspect : Traer la barba sobre el hombro. Diablo 
Cojuelo, p. 36 : Guz. de Alf., p. 313. Colarse como por el ojo de 
una aguja. Sbarbi, Floril., p. 207. ' When your neighbor's 
house is on fire, look to your own ': Cuando la barba de tu vecino 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 8t 

vieres pelar, echa la tuya a remojar. Seguid., p. 67. Beware of 
dangerous company : Ni a fraile descarado, ni al hombre collado, 
ni a mujer barbudo, no les des posada. Sbarbi, Ref. X, p. 39. 
Fiat experimentum in re vili : En la barba del ruin se ensena. 
Don Habl., p. 502. 

IX. Moderation, Modesty, Immodesty. 

. Reflection prevents excess : Las cosas hechas con buen peso, 
quiebran los ojos al exceso. Seguid., p. 34. 

X. Speech and Silence. 

La mujer y la tructra por la boca se prende. Sbarbi, Ref. II, 
p. 210. To be silent : Coser la boca. D. Q. II, 52 ; cf. descoser 
la boca, ib. I, 46. Pegar la boca a la pared. Don Habl., p. 524. 
Our intentions are subject to change : Boca que dice de no 
dice de si. Marques de Sant. (Obras, p. 508). Clear evidence 
renders discussion idle : Callen barbas y hablen cartas. D. Q. 


XI. Moral Firmness. 

To resist temptation : Quebrar el ojo al diablo. Don Habl., 
P- 597- 

XII. Wort, Energy. 

Every one does the best he can : Cada uno estornuda como 
Dios le ayuda. Seguid, p. 239. Energy alone leads to success : 
Barba pone mesa, que no pierna tesa. Marques de Sant. 
(Obras, p. 507); cf. ib. p. 514: La barba mojada, t6mala 
enjuta en la caina. Well begun is half done : El salir de la 
posada es la mayor Jornada. Sbarbi, Ref. IX, p. 223 ; cf. Barba 
bien remojada, medio rapada, and : Obra empezada, medio 
acabada. Woman's place is in the kitchen : La mujer y la 
sardina, de rostros en la cocina. Sbarbi, Ref. V, p. 12; cf. ib. 
VII, p. 1 02 : La mujer y la sardina de rostros en la ceniza. 
To wish for a thing without making any efforts : Querer una 
cosa por su linda (bella) cara ; por sus ojos bellidos. Guz. de 
Alf., p. 345 ; Luna, Dial fam. IX. 

XIII. Sentiment. 

i. HONOR, DISHONOR. To have a keen sense of honor: 
Tener sangre en el ojo. Teatro Burl., p. 93. As is the man, 
so the respect paid to him : Cuales barbas, tales tobajas. 
Sbarbi, Ref. IX, p. 213. To do honor to one, to be an honor 

82 Henry R. Lang, [Vol. in. 

to one : Sacar la barba de vergiienza a" uno. Sold. Find., p. 
302. Mas vale vergiienza en cara que manzilla en corazon. 
D. Q. II, 44 ; cf. Mas vale rostro bermejo que corazon negro. 
Diet. Ac. To feel ashamed, abashed : Caerle uno la cara de 
vergiienza. Trueba, p. 85. To DISAPPOINT ONE : Quebrarle 
a" uno los ojos. Guz. de Alf., p. 286 ; 344. To baffle one's 
efforts : Dejar uno con un palmo de narices. Marin, Cant. 
Pop. I, p. 396. 3. JOY AND PAIN. ' Mouth-wateringV 
Hacerse uno la boca agua. Teatro Burl., p. 212. To cause 
joy to one, to charm one : Bailarle uno al ojo. Don Habl., 
p. 515; cf. p. 513. To eat heartily: Comer dos carrillos. 
O. C. Desc. I, p. 281. 'What the eye does not see, the heart 
does not grieve for : Ojos que no venf corazon que no quiebra. 
D. Q. II, 56. To be pensive, afflicted: Ser (estar, tener) mano 
a maxiella. S. Mill. 209; cf. Alex. 587 ; S. Mill. 229, J. R. 169. 
Cf. Bater mis maxiellas. Duelo 28 ; Romper las massiellas. 
Mil. 364. Pulling one's beard is expressive of grief: Mesarse la 
barba. Wolf y Hofm. Prim. II, p. 290. 4. ANGER. Running 
one's head [against the wall is indicative of anger : Quien se 
quisiere escandalizar, escandallcese, e" de" de fruente en la pared. 
Libro de los Enx., p. 485. To knit the brow : Fronzida trahe la 
cara. P. C. 1744; 2436; fruncir (arrugar) el ceno: Gald6s, D. 
Perf., p. 104. To bear a grudge against one : Traer uno 
sobreojo. Don Habl., p. 514; Obregon, p. 442. The swelling 
of the nose is an image of anger : Mude de plaiica ; que se me 
van hinchando las narices. D. Salustero del Poyo, La Pr6spera 
Fortuna (Riv. 43,446). So the biting of the lips : Los becos 
se comie. Alex. 1826. 

XIV. Justice. 

i. CLEMENCY. To apologize for, to excuse a thing : Lavar 
la cara una cosa. F. Cab. Callar, p. 70. 2. SEVERITY. 
Severe treatment may correct a bad character : Ceno y enseno 
del mal hijo hacen bueno. Sbarbi, Ref. V, p. 13. To upbraid 
one : Echarle & uno el gato en la barba. Quevedo y Villegas, 
p. 84. 3. PUNISHMENT. To feel the evil consequences of an 
act : Salir la cara uno una cosa. O. Com. Desc. II, p. 219. 
Wrong comes back on the doer of it : Al que al cielo escupe, 
en la cara le cae ; cf. Duelo 202. 

XV. Advantage, Loss. 
To have two strings to one's bow : Comer a" dos carrillos. 

1887.] The Face in Spanish Metaphor. 83 

Guz. de Alf., p. 192 ; cf. Esteb. Gonz., p. 304. Synonym: Tener 
el pie" en dos zapatos. He who lends money, comes to grief: 
Quien presta, sus barbas mesa. Sbarbi, Ref. X, p. 42. 

XVI. Price, Value. 

To be of great value, priceless : No hallarse una cosa ni por 
el ojo de la cara. Sbarbi, Floril., p. 207. Estimar una cosa 
sobre las ninas de sus ojos. Triguero, Teatro Burl., p. 127; D. 
Q. II, 33; cf. las pestanas de mis ojos. D. Q. II, 70. 

XVII. Fitness. 

To be entirely out of place : Pegar una coso como pedrado en 
ojo de boticario. Seguid., p. 129. Cf. German: Es passt wie 
eine faust aufs auge. 

84 Sylvester Primer, [Vol. in. 

IV. Charleston Provincialisms. 


In every large city we find peculiarities in the language and 
customs which serve in the aggregate to mark its distinctive and 
individual character. They strike the stranger upon his first 
contact with its people as archaisms or as innovations, at least as 
developments peculiar to the place itself They are often, in- 
deed, heirlooms which the founders of the city have left it, in- 
valuable and sacred, whose historic worth is incomparable to the 
philologist and historian. Often a single expression, or even 
sound, or a peculiar custom, conveys an historic truth more 
forcibly to the attentive observer than long chapters of dry 
history. For words, sounds, customs, also have their history, 
and a word has often been called an epic poem. Moreover, 
these peculiarities set their seal, as it were, upon each of its 
citizens, identifying him with itself, and whatever distinction he 
may acquire, either at home or abroad, is reflected upon his 
native place. They carry us back, historically, to the fatherland 
of those pioneers who founded the city and peopled the ad- 
jacent country. They still preserve the kindred relations to the 
mother-country, even after those of a political nature have been 
severed. We may see this in those colonies of Greece which 
have left their impress upon the country colonized, observable 
after everything Greek had passed away. (cf. Lower Italy, 
Marseille in France, and Louisiana in this country). 

One might gather invaluable information bearing upon the 
history of a city simply by collecting and collating its stock of 
old and new words, and noting the change in its customs from 
decade to decade. It is not in the scope of this article, how- 
ever, to attempt such a thorough investigation as that would 
imply. I shall confine myself to the more marked peculiarities 
in the pronunciation, tracing it back to the age when the first 
settlers came over from England. Many sounds still current in 
the daily speech of the Charlestonians, especially the pronunci- 
ation of certain vowels and words, were brought from England 

1887.] Charleston Provincialisms. 85 

with the first colony in 1670. It is just after the close of the 
great Elisabethan period, Elisabeth having died in 1603. 
Therefore the language of the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury and the whole of the seventeenth century must form the 
basis of our comparison. In other words the grammar and 
pronunciation of Shakespeare will form the nearest approxima- 
tion to that of England at this time. , 

We are, however, confronted with a serious difficulty at the 
very outset, and one which every investigation of this kind in- 
volves. For " at any one instant of time," says ELLIS (E. E. P., 
p. 18), " there are generally three generations living. Each 
middle generation has commenced at a different time, and has 
modified the speech of its preceding generation in a somewhat 
different manner, after which it retains the modified form, while 
the subsequent generation proceeds to change that form once 
more. Consequently there will not be any approach to uni- 
formity of speech sounds in any one place at any one time, but 
there will be a kind of mean, the general utterance of the more 
thoughtful or more respected persons of mature age, round which 
the other sounds seem to hover, and which, like the averages of 
the mathematicians, not agreeing precisely with any, may for the 
purpose of science be assumed to represent all, and be called 
the language of the district assigned." An additional difficulty 
presents itself in the great and almost unprecedented change 
that has swept over the South since the late war, modifying not 
only the customs and habits of its people but changing likewise 
the whole tenor of their lives. The influence upon its language 
and literature, upon educational interests in general, has been 
exceedingly great and the final result cannot yet be foretold. 
During the last twenty years the conservatism of the Old South 
has been gradually retiring before the new and more progressive 
spirit and the pronunciation has undergone a more rapid change 
than ever before in its history. And the end is not yet. At 
the present day we are in a transitional stage of more than 
ordinary import, since the constant phonetic laws of change, 
ever in operation under all circumstances, have been accelerated. 
In our comparisons it will, therefore, be necessary to remember 
these facts and to make due allowance for the old and the new, 
for conservatism and progress. Furthermore, it must not be 
forgotten that there is a great and fundamental difference be- 
tween the American and English pronunciation. " The diver- 

86 Sylvester Primer, [Vol. in. 

gency of American and English phonetic practice," says BELL 
in ' Essays and Postscripts on Elocution,' p. 14, "seems to be 
less a modern departure on this side of the Atlantic, than a sur- 
vival of early English characteristics; just as many words which 
have been classed as Americanisms, are, in reality, old English 
terms which had dropped out of use in their native land." 
S'milarities may, therefore, be misleading and it will be well to be 
on our guard against them. Bearing these precautions in mind 
we may safely venture an average comparison of the pronuncia- 
tion in different sections of the country. 

A stranger in conversation with a Charlestonian first observes 
a slight shade of difference in the pronunciation of certain 
vowels and words. Peculiarities of trns kind are naturally 
more marked among the middle and lower classes, though the 
prevailing sound which a given letter may have acquired in any 
place pervades to a certain extent all classes of society. This is 
especially true of Charleston, which, from its very foundation to 
the present day, has ever been conservative ; it has also been 
seclusive in the sense that it has never had a large floating 
population of mixed nationality like so many of our American 
cities. Hence the facility with which it has preserved certain 
vowel sounds and grammatical phrases that have changed in 
other places with the influx of new influences, the rapid pro- 
gress of commercial and inland intercourse, and the varying 
population. Another important element tending to the preser- 
vation of older, or provincial, English pronunciations and 
phrases is to be sought in the fact that the South has ever been 
conservative in its literature and education. The good old 
English authors of the days of their forefathers have ever been 
their favorite reading, the earlier period having mostly the 
preference. Few books but well read has been their motto. In 
their education they have been just as conservative. They 
have not advanced with the rapid strides of the North and 
West, nor has the American features of our present educational 
system received so great encouragement at the South as in the 
more progressive sections. The South has added almost 
nothing to its development. In antebellum times the sons, and 
often the daughters, received the principal part of their edu- 
cation abroad, in England, France, or Germany, or in all of 
these countries. As a consequence their education has never 
been thoroughly American ; they have never thoroughly identi- 

1887.] Charleston Provincialisms. 87 

fied themselves with the American idea, have been but little 
influenced by American literature, have lived more under the 
influence of English ideas than the people of the North and 
West ; naturally enough the England they left when they came 
here. For they were too far from the mother country to feel 
the pulse that has been advancing England and have only seen 
and felt its faintest glimmer. Not that the South has not pro- 
duced any writers or poets. She has always had her represen- 
tatives in the field of literature, but they have ever been of the 
English school, or else peculiarly southern, never purely Amer- 
ican in the broad sense of the word. One good result has 
followed. They have hitherto not been flooded with vicious 
cheap literature to such an extent as the North and West. For 
the cheap literatures of England and Europe did not stray so 
far, only the standard authors being imported ; that of the 
North did not find its way to the South. Hence the tone of 
the reading public has been higher, though the proportional 
number of readers has been comparatively less. Reading has 
never penetrated so far downward into the lower strata of society 
as in England and in the North. Unfortunately the South has 
been precipitated into the whirl and bustle of progressive America 
and the taste of her youth is becoming vitiated by the floods of 
cheap books which have in a measure acquired a monopoly 
throughout the whole country in the reading world of the 
middle and lower classes. Conservatism is consequently pass- 
ing away to give place to the new order of things, and through 
her greater contact with the outer world Charleston is gradual- 
ly losing her older pronunciation and archaic forms and ex- 
pressions. The pronunciation of the vowels as taught in the 
schools is gradually superseding that of the fathers and mothers, 
and in a few decades the latter will have entirely passed away. 
How much of its old conservatism the New South will throw off 
is a question of the future. 

As " the essence of every living language lies in its sounds, 
not in its letters," which in England have not followed the many 
changes the sounds themselves have undergone in their de- 
velopment from the earliest period to recent times, it will be 
advisable to begin the investigation with those sounds of the 
spoken Charlestonian English peculiar to itself, and then insti- 
tute our comparisons and trace the sound back, historically, to 
its origin. This will lead us through the eighteenth, seventeenth, 

88 Sylvester Primer, [Vol. HI. 

and even as far as the sixteenth century in England, to which 
period the similar and divergent sounds of the North and West 
are also traceable, when not native growths. 

Since phoneticians have not yet adopted a uniform set of 
signs for the different sounds of the alphabet, I shall use those em- 
ployed by ELLIS, modified as the case may demand by those of 
SWEET, VIETOR, SIEVERS and other phoneticians, always giving 
authority. In discussing the vowels it will be more in accord- 
ance with scientific principles to begin either with the palatals 
or gutturals rather than to proceed in the usual order from a to 
u or i, and then retrace our steps to a and pass to i or u. Since 
it makes but little difference whether u or i be treated first, I 
shall follow the order indicated by SicfRM, ' Eng. Philol.,' p. 64 
(cf. also SIEVERS 4 Phon./ pp. 96-7) and treat them in the order 
i e a o u, considering in each case the intermediary sounds falling 
between the principal vowels. Then will follow the compound 
vowels and consonants. 

The long z-sound, like that of long o and u, is accompanied 
by the vanish, as in the pronoun he (pr. hiCi) ; but this sound ; 
which the words ear, here, hear, commonly have elsewhere, has 
not entirely replaced the older pronunciation of (ee) in there : 
(dheer), SWEET'S low-front-narrow, nearly like French pere,faire. 
In the more common pronunciation the words ear, air, tear (= 
lacryma), and tear (=to rend), are not distinguishable. Hear, 
care, fair, etc., belong to this class and will be treated under 
(<?). Pierce and the proper names Peirce, Pierce, Pearce (pr. 
piirs) always have the long /-sound and are never pronounced 
pers : (pers) as in New England. Either and neither fluctuate 
between (ii) and (ei) as elsewhere. In one word " tester " the long 
/-sound (tiistr) is the only pronunciation, whereas it always has 
the short sound of e in met elsewhere. In words from the Latin 
like simultaneous, etc ; the i is more generally pronounced (ii), 
rarely (i}, the more ordinary pronunciation in the .rest of the 
country and in England. It would seem to be the pronunciation 
of the educated. 

The long e is equivalent to (ee'y), but the shades of sound be- 
tween e and a differ slightly from those of the North and West, 
often approaching nearer those in vogue in England. Such 
words as care, there, Mary, which usually have the sound of a 
in at, cat, pat, (ae) hence kaea, dhaeJ, maearz are pronounced keeJ, 
dheeJ, etc. Here belong e'er, ne'er, ere, there, where, 

1887.] Charleston Provincialisms. 89 

bear, pear, tear (lacryma), tear (to rend), swear, wear, fair, hair, 
hear here, their, scarce, mare, pair, prayer, stair, chair, spear, 
despair, gear, dear, deer, appear, and others. This pronuncia- 
tion also prevails in England, though the other is possibly more 
frequent. My personal observation fails in this respect, so that 
I am obliged to draw my inference from the remarks of ELLIS 
and SWEET. Nor is it at all peculiar to the South ; it appears 
as an individualism in different parts of the country, especially 
with older people. The schools and the inexorable law of a 
" standard pronunciation " are rapidly suppressing this relic of 
an earlier age and one must observe the older people or the less 
cultured to hear it spoken most perfectly. Still even the most 
cultured people often use it, and I have also heard it from the 
platform and pulpit. It is very ancient, going back to CHAUCER 
and the earlier period of the language (cf ELLIS, E. E. P., p. 
262) where the spelling was mostly ee, occasionally ea. The 
latter spelling ea was introduced in the sixteenth century to in- 
dicate the pronunciation, just as oa in words like boar. " It was 
not till after the middle of the sixteenth century that anything 
like a rule appeared, and then ee was used for (ii), and ea for (ee)." 
(ELLIS, E. E. P., p. 78). " The introduction of ec, ea, was 
therefore a phonetic device intended, to assist the readers." 
ibid. p. 76. " The o which became (uu) was written oo, and the o 
which remained unchanged became oa." It is SWEET'S low- 
front-narrow and has been, especially treated by PROFESSOR 
TEN BRINK in the Anglia I, p. 526 ff., with special reference to 
CHAUCER. As near as can be determined at this late date, the 
sound of the present Charlestonian pronunciation in these words 
is identical with that of the earlier period of CHAUCER, and it 
can be traced through all succeeding periods of the language. 
I do not know as it is " exceedingly interesting, now, to find in 
CHAUCER hair written generally heer or here" as PROFESSOR 
SMITH, in the Southern Bivouac for November, 1885, considers 
it. For English spelling, especially in the present state, could 
show many very striking examples, not only of interest but of 
wonder, whether considered scientifically, historically, or prac- 
tically. At that time they tried to reflect the pronunciation in 
the spelling, and were at least consistent, though often failing in 
their attempt. It is, however, a matter of interest to be able to 
trace back a peculiar pronunciation to a remote period and ob- 
serve that it has actually maintained itself over five hundred 

90 Sylvester Primer, [Vol. in. 

years through all the vicissitudes of time and place and still re- 
mains as a monument of antiquity in the spoken language of to- 
day. Especially is this true in a language which has undergone 
such violent and frequent changes (phonetic) as the English 
during that long period. In the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries we find the same pronunciation of many of these words, 
though other pronunciations were also current. Thus in the 
seventeenth century we have (dhse-i) (for both there and their] as 
well as (dhee-i), etc. ; likewise tseJ, tshseJ (for tear, chair} in the 
eighteenth century, and also maeJ, dhaeJ, etc. But tiir, tshiir (a 
pronunciation often heard at the present day) were not uncom- 
mon then. When PROFESSOR C. F. SMITH (1. c.) says, how- 
ever, that the pronunciation (nee-i) etc., instead of niu, etc., 
" may be due to the principle in philology that the Germans call 
Lassigkeit (carelessness, laziness)," and that " it requires, for ex- 
ample, more effort to say (niu) than (neer), and this pronuncia- 
tion may be, in effect, the result of the same influence which 
makes the typical Southerner speak more slowly and drawl 
more than the Yankee," he errs in point of fact and history. 
How would that explain the (nee-i) etc., of CHAUCER, which 
PROFESSOR SMITH cites as being the same as the modern 
Charlestonian ? CHAUCER certainly had nothing of the typical 
Southerner in him. Nor did the later Britons who pronounced 
these words niu, etc., have any characteristics of the Yankee. 
Moreover, MAX MULLER has long ago assumed that phonetic 
change is due to the very Lassigkeit of which PROFESSOR 
SMITH speaks, and here we have the more difficult (according 
to PROFESSOR SMITH) following the more easy. Finally it re- 
quires no more effort to say (niu) than (neei), as every one can 
convince himself by trial. The real explanation lies in a differ- 
ent phonetic principle. A reference to ELLIS, E. E. P., p. 89 ff. 
would have given PROFESSOR SMITH a clearer idea of the pro- 
cess of the change from (ee) to (ii), a change more far-reaching in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries than now. Even at the 
present day we often hear very old people speak of a (tshiu) and 
(obliidzh) ; the very common pronunciation of (diif) for (deef ) 
is too well known to need mention here. We find the same 
change in the modern Greek and in the passage of the Latin to 
the modern Romance languages. ELLIS considers it due to " a 
remarkable tendency to thinness of sound owing to a predilection 
for the higher lingual or palatal vowels" (p. 89). "In the 

1887.] Charleston Provincialisms. 91 

sixteeenth century the spelling ee was introduced for those words 
in which the sound has actually altered to (ii), (ibid. 227), and the 
tendency since has been from ee to ii." These are only monu- 
ments of the early pronunciation retained at the present day. 
The words again, against, which have as a rule the pronuncia- 
tion (agEn, agEnst) in the North and West are almost always 
pronounced (agrni, agmist) in Charleston, a pronunciation which 
reaches back as far as the seventeenth century. The Latin pre- 
fix /?'*- generally has here the sound (ii) in words \fa.z predeces- 
sor, etc., (prii-dz-sess.1,) though (pred-/-sessj) is not uncommon. 
I mention here merely as an individualism a word which I have 
heard pronounced in a few instances in a peculiar manner ; it is 
the word very, which sounds, as near as I can determine, like 
(vz/) (SWEET'S low-mixed-narrow, p. 27). 

Speaking in general terms and not with that strict accuracy 
which a phonetician might demand, the #-sound stands between 
the palatal and guttural vowels, shading off towards e and i on 
the one hand and towards o and u on the other. The difference 
of sound observed in different localities result from the different 
shade or color adopted as the standard in any particular place. 
The pure #-sound, as in father, or its Italian sound, is rare in 
Charleston ; the tendency is rather to the se-sound, as in man, 
cat, sad. Thus/>#, ma are pronounced (pae, mae,) and not (pA, 
mA,) the more common pronunciation. Before the mute / fol- 
lowed by m we have the long (aese), as in bath. Thus calm, palm, 
psalm, are pronounced (kaeaem, paeaem, saeaem). This sound is 
frequently accompanied by the vanish (aeaea?). We also have 
the same sound for a and au when they precede/ (ff, gh), ft, 
n, nd, th, s (ss) and s tenuis ; ask, demand, ant and aunt, glance, 
bath, laugh, example, launch, grant, command, dance, past, 
gaunt, jaunt, etc., all of which have the sound (aeae) and never 
(aa), thus, (aeaesk, d/-maeaend), etc., and never (aask, dz-maand, 
etc). The short ae-sound reaches back to the early part of the 
seventeenth century and long (aese) to the middle of the same, 
but we also have (aa) in bath, ask, grant, as at present ; this may 
have been the more common pronunciation. Words in -aim 
were pronounced AAm (awn) in the seventeenth century and 
are now divided between (aam) and (sesem). What PROFESSOR 
SMITH really means by the writing calm, psalm, is difficult to 
say ; for the vowel a is here long and not short ; nor is the cir- 
cumflex the phonetic sign of any sound whatever ; it usually in- 

92 Sylvester Primer, [Vol. in. 

dicates mere shortness. The contest still going on in such words 
as gaunt, haunt, jaunt, daunt, etc., began in the early part, or 
middle, of the sixteenth century. The earlier pronunciation of 
(au), as in the German Haus, hence (gaunt), probably changed 
to (aa] or (aa), and then passed entirely to (AA), as in awn. In 
America we still retain the two latter : (gaant), in N. Y., and 
(gAAnt) in various parts of the country, and have also added the 
thinner pronunciation of (gaeaent) ; the latter is very common 
and seems to be gaining ground (cf. ELLIS, E. E. P., pp. 146, 
148). Some shorten the sound to (gsent). The sound (gAAnt) 
seems to have been the favorite in the seventeenth century and 
divides the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with gaeaent. 

In discussing the ^-sounds we pass almost impreceptibly 
from the palatal to the guttural vowels, of which we have already 
noticed those belonging more particularly to a proper. The 
three usual sounds of o, two of which are long as in no, more, 
and one short as in not, provided this ought not rather to be 
classed with the guttural sounds pf a, are found here. The o in 
not probably stands on the boundary line between guttural a 
and o. Like the other long vowels when not followed by a 
second vowel, the long 0-sounds are accompanied by the vanish, 
though in very rare instances the continental pure a is heard. 
It is my impression that we in America generally pronounce the 
o in no and more exactly alike, or begin them alike and the glide 
on the r alone makes a slight difference towards the end of the 
sound, while in England, and individually in Charleston also, 
possibly in other places, it frequently has the sound of a in all, 
war, of au in law (cf. VIKTOR, p. 35, ELLIS, 1. c.). I have often 
heard this sound in Charleston in such words as more, ore, etc., 
(mAAj, AAj). This sound is nearly like that in the word 
morning (mAjniq) and not at all like that in mourning (nwoim- 
inq), between which ELLIS and SWEET appear to make no 
difference. This sound o is, however, never heard in home, 
stone, etc., as is often the case in other parts of the country. 
The two words dog and God always have the sound AA ; as, 
dAAg, gAAd. We still distinguish between borne (b<wrn) and 
born (bArn), mourning (m#0rniq) and morning (mArniq), 
showing more conservatism than England, as this distinction 
reaches back to the seventeenth century (cf. STORM, ibid., p. 
93). The \\ordpoor sometimes receives the sound (poo-i) instead 
of (puu-i). The disappearance of the r after o, and under all 

1887.] Charleston Provincialisms. 93 

circumstances, is not so prevalent in this country as in England, 
so that we still make a distinction between lord (lAad) and laud 
(lAd). Cf. ELLIS and VIKTOR, ibid. The omission of r in more 
(m00j), door (d00j), etc., will be mentioned under the letter r. 
The Latin prefix {pro-} retains the long sound of o (oo) with 
most people, as programme, progress, process (pr<?0-), rarely 
(proogres, prooses), like o in on, odd. Modern English has 
developed a tendency to lengthen the short radical vowel before 
the letters r, I, and the combinations Id, mb, nd, ng, a tendency 
which can be traced back to CHAUCER. The words pond, bond 
are generally counted among the exceptions to this law, but here 
they are pronounced for the most part (pAAnd). The preposi- 
tion to is almost invariably pronounce \.oo exactly as in the time 

In English we have a less rounded (labialized, or, as SWEET 
with more justice calls it, absence of lip-pouting, or non-pro- 
jection of the lips), more open u than the continental ; the close 
u appears rather as an individualism with us. The pure w-sound 
as in too, mile (with a slight vanish of course) offers no variety, 
except that the pure short ^-sound is retained in words like 
natural, literature, etc., but we shall consider the omission of 
the /-palatal sound after t under dentals. That shade of the u- 
sound heard mput, book, pull, pudding, etc., has passed entirely 
over to its sound in but, hence the good majority of Charles- 
tonians pronounce these words p3t, bak, p3l, psdiq, or is it, 
perhaps, the close Scotch u in come up, SWEET'S low-back- 
narrow ? Not having accurately observed the Scotch sound I 
am unable to decide. ELLIS mentions the co-existence of the 
two sounds in many words, as tu p3t, bstshli. The first 
(tu p3t) is very common here, but the second (bstshli) seems 
more an individualism (LLIS p. 175). The same remark ap- 
plies to WALKER'S list of words given by ELLIS, p. 175. Some 
have one sound, some the other, but all may have the 3-sound 
with individual people. According to ELLIS the south of Eng- 
land has (3), while the north retains the older #-sound of the 
seventeenth century. The 3-sound is a later development. I 
have never noticed w3d for wuold, nor w3m^n for woman, but 
should not be surprised to hear it in individual cases. It is a 
pronunciation often heard in England and I have heard it' 
frequently with older people in Western New York and else- 
where. SHERIDAN gives a list of what he calls Irishisms, 

94 Sylvester Primer, [Vol. in. 

among which this sound takes a prominent place, and we 
recognize many of the Charlestonianisms just mentioned (bal, 
b3sh, p3sh, p3l, p3lpzt, p3d/n, ksshBn, fat, p3t, dr3v, str3v), 
all of which are relics of this seventeenth century pronunciation, 
adopted by the Irish when they accepted the English tongue. 
This sound is still heard in England and in various parts of 
America (generally with older people) and shows the tenacity 
with which certain sounds perpetuate themselves. The same 
may be said of all the peculiarities noticed. They date back 
without exception to the old country, and are not a new phonetic 
development in this country. 

The compound vowels offer but fj^w peculiarities. The 
digraph ei has the simple sound in the word leisure which has 
v the two pronunciations (lezru) and (liizh-i), the latter being the 
more general. The oi in words like boil, toil, oil, often has 
among the lower classes the vulgar pronunciation of (bail), etc., ' 
which then passes wholly over to (bail); for I consider the first 
element of the compound rather an a (cf. VIKTOR, ibid., p. 57) 
than the 21 in but, which ELLIS prefers. The employment of 
the ft-sound in but in this diphthong would seem affected in 
America. It is only mentioned here because the long i in mine 
in rare individual cases has the former sound (moin). The first 
element appears to be the o in not and the second the i in river ; 
for it passes from the vulgar pronunciation of b"il, tail, ail, to 
the correct one boil. The French beaute has given us beauty, 
written earlier bewie (beut?)- The modern French pronuncia- 
tion has not reacted upon this word, though it has upon a 
compound from the same root (beaufort) adopted into English. 
The North Carolina town Beaufort reflects the modern French 
pronunciation (b00fort), while the South Carolina town of the 
same name reflects the sixteenth century pronunciation of these 
words (beufort). I have not observed (sheu and seu) for show 
and sow, though they exist in Western New York. 

The consonants do not offer many variations from the normal 
pronunciation in other parts of the country, but a few peculiari- 
ties call for our attention. We will begin with the y and w 
which are nearest the vowels, to whichever class they may final- 
ly be placed. MR. % BRISTED in his 'Notes on American 
Pronunciation,' quoted by ELLIS, p. 1220, says : " The inhabi- 
tants of Charleston, and all the Southern and South- Eastern 
part of the State, pronounce initial w (whether at the beginning 

1887.] Charleston Provincialisms. 95 

of a word or syllable) like v. Like v to me ; perhaps you would 
call it bh or German w (which I own myself unable to dis- 
tinguish from v). This peculiarity is common to all classes, 
except those of the upper class who have lived in Europe or at 
the North ; they are not aware of it. I cannot find any Euro- 
pean origin for it. It is supposed to come from the negroes." 
ELLIS also quotes from a letter of PROF. MARCH: " A large 
part of the people of this region (Easton, Pennsylvania, U. S.), 
which was settled by Germans, do not use the teeth for English 
27, or make with w the usual English sonancy, and they are said, 
therefore, to exchange w and v: I dare say the facts are the 
same at Charleston, South Carolina, of which MR. BRISTED 
speaks. I have heard it said that the South Carolina change 
was started by German market gardeners about Charleston, but 
one would think that there must have been some general 
tendency to this lautversckiebung, or it could hardly have 
gained currency, as it has, among the proudest and precisest of 
colonial literary aristocracies." The fact of the matter is that 
the above statement rests upon a misunderstanding. The ex- 
change spoken of is entirely unknown here. 1 have never 
heard it myself, nor have any of my colleagues or friends, and 
some of them are native Charlestonians of over seventy-five, with 
excellent hearing and remarkable powers of observation ; such 
an abnormal sound as that would never have escaped them. In 
my German classes the students of German descent are inclined 
to pronounce the German w (bh) like the English, a fault 
which it is impossible to correct. The native Charlestonians, 
however, never make that mistake, but always pronounce it like 
our 'v. There is a large German and Dutch element here who 
speak a passably good English, who may exchange the two 
sounds under discussion, and this may have led to the mistake. 
I have never heard it, if they do. The opposite exchange of w 
for v is occasionally heard among the lower classes, and more 
rarely even among the higher. Thus we hear people speak of 
their ivocation, of being prowoked, etc. In the combination w\\ 
the h is always silent. When, where, etc., are pronounced (wen 

The American r certainly has a more distinct sound than 
ELLIS (E. E. P., p. 196; cf. also SWEET, Handb. of Phonet., p. 
1 86, STORM, Engl. Philol., p. 84, 105-106) seems to admit for 
England, although far different from the continental r, and 

g6 Sylvester Primer, [Vol. in. 

perhaps heard more in its effect upon the surrounding vowels 
than in any distinct sound of its own. But the practiced ear 
will always detect the distinct r-sound in such words as farther, 
lord, arms, burn curb, hurt, lurk, as compared v*\\\\ father, laud 
alms, bun, cub, hut, luck, which are by several phoneticians said 
to be identical in quality though differing in quantity. BELL 
in his ' University Lectures' (1887, p. 52) makes the following 
excellent distinction between the English and the American r : 
" The English r is abrupt and purely lingual ; while the Ameri- 
can r is comparatively long, as well as labialised." TRAUT- 
MANN in his book on ' Die Sprachlaute ' distinguishes three 
grades of the r under discussion : a) in accented syllables like 
fur, work, scourge, etc., where the r is long; b) in unaccented 
syllables where the r is half long, or sh^rt, or sometimes under- 
short, and has only the r-sound without the addition of a silent 
vowel, as fibre, acre, mere, care, beer, tear, fair, etc. ; c) the r- 
sound is very fleeting, leaning towards open French o in encore 
when a voiceless consonant follows, as sort, pork, course, but is 
more distinct when a voiced consonant follows as lord, board, 
form, etc. When the vowel a precedes, it is, however, almost 
inaudible, as in hard, harsh, harp, etc. But never in any of 
these cases does the r-sound, according to TRAUTMANN, entire- 
ly disappear, except in the pronunciation of the lower classes. 
These remarks apply in general to the pronunciation of the r in 
Charleston where there is always a perceptible r-sound. The 
final r differs in some cases from that in the North and West, 
and in England. I have never observed adventr, djunktr, lektr, 
neetr, pastr, piktr, skriplr, ledjisleetr, senvtr, eeprn, so often 
heard in other parts of the country, i. e. the pure r-sound after 
the dental instead of tjur or tshj* as in the standard pronuncia- 
tion. This sound may, and probably does, exist here. The 
vulgar pronunciation of windr, sindr (window, cinder) is 
frequent enough, as is the case with all the other peculiarities in 
the pronunciation of r mentioned by ELLIS, ibid., p. 201. We 
have already touched upon the disappearance of r-final in words 
like more, door (pr. move, doov), etc. It is a negligence similar 
to that of the dropping of g in the termination -ing, also very 
common here, less so at the North and West. In the case of r 
the vanish often disappears also and only moo, doo is heard. 

In passing to the dental series we observe first of all that the 
common terminations t/'ur, t/r, \.shr are not especial favorites in 

1887.] Charleston Provincialisms. 97 

Charleston. They are of course frequently met with in words 
like neefohur, neetshr, but are avoided in natshurvl or natshrvl 
litrvtshur, ledjisleetshr, etc., which are here pronounced natural 
litrvtur, ledjishleetur, etc., or sometimes even natjurvl, etc. 
This is the dividing line of the seventeenth century and the 
pronunciation has been retained here. 

The opposite tendency manifests itself in the guttural series 
where the similar change resulting from the introduction of an 
/-sound between k, g, and a following #-sound has modified the 
character in words like cart, garden (kjart, gjarden), etc. Here 
belong cart y kind, scarlet, sky, guard, guide, garrison, carriage, 
girl, etc., (pr. kjart, kjind, skjarlet, skjai, gjard, gjaid, gjardn, 
gjarisen, kjaredj, gjrl, etc.). This change can be traced as far 
back as the eighteenth century ( ELLIS, idid. p. 230) and pos- 
sibly existed even earlier. TRAUTM ANN explains this phonetic 
change thus : "Anstatt der iiblichen hintergaumiger und^hort 
man zuweilen, namentlich von alteren leuten, k und g, also die 
mit/andy gleichortigen mittelgaumenklapper. Was Walker 
und Smart fur eine art von eingescobenem i halten, istdashohe 
schleifartige nebengerausch welches die mittelgaumenklapper zu 
begleiten pflegt, und welches durch das abziehen der mittel- 
zunge vom mittelgaumen ensteht." Ibid,, p. 183. PREFESSOR 
C. F. SMITH in his article in the Southern Bivouac for Novem- 
ber, 1885, gives this as a peculiarity in Virginia also. It is not 
confined to Virginia and South Carolina. I have frequently 
heard it in Boston and Cambridge, Mass., and have no doubt 
that it is an individual peculiarity all over the country. Here it 
is the prevailing pronunciation. I have, however, never heard 
it called a " breaking" before, that expression is only applied to 
vowels as far as I am aware. This process is called the palatal- 
ization of the guttural, and is as old as language itself. The 
example " geard " is also very unfortunate, as that is not a g but 
the palatal g (cf. SIEVERS, p. 61 and 118, and TRAUTMANN, p. 
183). The modern yard is the reflex of the A.-S. geard while 
garden, though belonging to the same root, does not appear 
until CHAUCER'S time, and even then with the hard guttural g. 
Guide appears about the same time (CHAUCER) and comes to us 
through the Romance Languages, though of Teutonic origin ; 
hence it could not have been influenced in any way by the A.-S. 
Kind is A.-S. but did not have this pronunciation at that early 
date and probably not till the eighteenth century. 

98 Sylvester Primer, [Vol. in. 

The sound of s in assume, consume, ensue, pursuer, sue, suet, 
vacillates between sh, sj, s. I have heard all three sounds in one 
or another of these words, enshw. ensju, orensw. Assjwm, con- 
sj?*m, etc., is the pronunciation of the schools and educated 
classes, ashwm, etc., that of the careless and vulgar, while as^m, 
etc. belongs to the older pronunciation of the latter part of the 
sixteenth and early part of the seventeenth centuries, having 
been preserved here, though now seldom heard. This double 
contagion of developing an i before the u of such words, and the 
consequent passage of 5 to sh, has not spread to other words 
like suicide, suitable, etc., as was the tendency in England in the 
eighteenth century. The exchange of v for w in vocation, pro- 
voke, etc., has already been noticed under w. The older voice- 
less sound of th in with prevails here, w^dh never being heard. 
In all other cases the th and dh conform to the general usage 
throughout the entire land. 

The above is by no means intended to be a complete and ex- 
haustive account of all the peculiarities in the pronunciation, as 
that would imply an extended investigation into all the strata of 
society and the employment of competent persons to carry it on. 
I have only given such sounds as I have heard in my daily in- 
tercourse with the people without even attempting to exhaust the 
subject. I must again caution all not to understand the above 
observations on the peculiarities of Charleston pronunciation as 
applying to Charleston alone. The peculiar circumstances 
under which the whole country was settled would exclude any 
monopoly of sounds by any one place, and the different dia- 
lectical peculiarities of England would afford a sufficient variety 
of sounds, both in the mother country and in America, to make 
the comparison of the sounds heard in one place with those of 
another an interesting subject of investigation. Moreover, I 
have only attempted to treat those sounds based upon the 
earlier Anglo-Saxon and Romance element found in England 
after the conquest, leaving out of consideration the French 
Huguenot and German elements of the population, both of 
which offer interesting problems for the phonetician. Again 
the reflex influence of the negro element upon the pronuncia- 
tion would repay a careful study, and it is to be hoped that some 
one with a sufficient acquaintance with the Gullah dialect will 
some day give the world the result of a careful comparison of 
the mutual influence upon the language and pronunciation of 

i88y.] Charleston Provincialisms. 99 

both whites and blacks. I have not touched in this paper upon 
the grammatical part of the language, but have notes of interest 
which I hope some day to give to the public. 

Since writing the above I find by reference to my notes that I 
have forgotten to mention two varieties of interest. In com- 
menting upon the /-sound of the sixteenth century ELLIS re- 
marks (p. 105): " The fine sharp clear (i) is very difficult for an 
Englishman to pronounce, and although the Scotch can and do 
pronounce it, they not unfrequently replace it with (e) or (e), not 
(E). In this respect they resemble the Italians who have so 
frequently replaced Latin i by their e chiuso or (>). The Dutch 
may be said not to know (i), as they regularly replace it by (e). 
The English sound (z) lies between (i) and (e). The position of the 
tongue is the same as for z, but the whole of the pharynx and 
back parts of the mouth are enlarged, making the sound deeper 
and obscurer." There is a pronunciation of the sound (i) here 
which corresponds in a measure to that just described by ELLIS. 
The conjunction if is very frequently prouounced (ef), for that is 
the sound I always hear rather than (eT). I do not remember to 
have heard this sound in any other word. 

Again, the letter a has been influenced by the preceding w in 
the one word was, so that one hears (wA Az) instead of the ordi- 
nary (waas). In the pronunciation of many students the French 
oi therefore, sounds (wAA) and not (a/a) ; thus, (wAA), (IwAA), 
instead of (rze/a, lo/a). 

ioo Alcee Fortier, [Vol. ill. 

V. Bits of Louisiana Folk- Lore. 


Table of Contents. 


Introduction 101 

Tales Part 1 101-102 

I. " Piti Bronhomme Godron " 102-115 

Commentary on ' ' Ti Bonhomme Go rffon " 1 15-125 

II. " Compair Bouki 6 Compair Lapin No. i 125-126 

III. " " " " " " 2 127-128 

IV. ' " " " " " 3 -128 

V. " " " " " 4 128-129 

VI. " " " " " " 5 129-131 

VII. ' " " " " " 6 131-132 

VIII. Ein Vie* Zombi Malin 132-133 

IX. Choal Dje" I33-I34 

X. Ein Fame Ki tournin Macaque -134 

Commentary on above tales / . . . . 134-137 

Translation of Tales Part II 138-159 

Translation of " Ti Bonhomme Godron " 138-150 

" Compair Bouki 6 Compair Lapin No. i 151-152 

Choal Dj^ -152 

" Compair Bouki 6 Compair Lapin " 2 153~ I 54 

" " " " "3 -154 

<4 " " " " 4 154-155 

" " " " " 5 155-157 

" " " " " 6 157-158 

' ' Ein Vi6 Zombi Malin 158-159 

" " Ein Fame Ki tournin Macaque -159 

Proverbs, Sayings and Songs, Part III 159-160 

Proverbs and Sayings 160-161 

Songs 161-168 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 101 

Bits of Louisiana Folk- Lore. 


Folk-lore may appear to many persons as being of little im- 
portance, but the great interest which philologists take in it, is 
the best proof of its usefulness. I shall, therefore, give what I 
know of folk-lore in Louisiana, presenting the text, in the patois, 
of some popular tales, songs and proverbs, and making a few 
critical remarks about that most interesting dialect spoken by 
the Negroes in Lower Louisiana. 

I. Tales. 

It is quite difficult to make a complete collection of the negro 
tales, as the young generation knows nothing about them, and 
most of the old people pretend to have forgotten them. It is a 
strange fact that the old negroes do not like to relate those tales 
with which they enchanted their little masters before the war. 
It was with the greatest trouble that I succeeded in getting the 
following stories. 

While reading these tales, one must bear in mind that most of 
them were related to children by childlike people ; this accounts 
for their naivete. As to their origin, I shall not attempt to ex- 
plain it. I shall be satisfied to give the text and to comment 
upon it with regard to the morphology and idiomatic ex- 
pressions. Some of the tales, such as ' Ti Bonhomme Godron ' 
and the stories about Bouki and Lapin are probably to be found 
in all Creole speaking countries, but modified by variants in the 
different localities. I have heard negro women relate a story 
one way, and the next day, change it considerably. The 
Louisiana Creole tales are probably amplifications of some well 
known theme. The ' Arabian Nights,' or La Fontaine's fables, 
or popular tales from Europe, have doubtless been the origin of 
many of our local stories. It is nevertheless, interesting to note 
what changes have been made in the foreign tales by a race 
rude and ignorant, but not devoid of imagination and of poetical 

I give below ten tales, viz: 'Piti Bonhomme Godron,' 
' Compair Bouki e* Compair Lapin' Nos. i, 2, 3,4, 5, and 6, 

102 Alcee Foriier, [Vol. in. 

' Ein Vie Zombi Malin,' ' Choal DjeY ' Ein Fame Ki tournin 
Macaque.' I would like to give ' Mariage Mamzell Calinda ' 
written by DR. ALFRED MERCIER, and published in Comptes- 
Rendus de VAlhenee Louisianais, in 1880, but it has already 
been reproduced by PROF. J. A. HARRISON in the American 
Journal of Philology, Vol. III. The plot of this story seems 
to be universally known ; I have seen it twice in E. ROLLAND'S 
' Faune Populaire de la France,' Vol. III. 

I. Piti Bonhomme GodronS 

*Bonnefoi, Bonnefoi ; Lapin, Lapin ! 3Mo va raconte" 
* vouzote sein kichoge ki 6 ben drolle, com vouzote va oua, 6 ?ki 
te riv6 yen a lontan, lontan. 

Can zanimo t6 gagnin la terre pou ye Minnie 6 y nave" pa 
boucou 8 moune encor, Bon Dgi t6 ordonnin y6 9com fa pou pa 
manz ye" entre ye" minme, pa de"truit ye" minme, m6 k6 y6 t 
capab manze zerbe ave" tou qualite" fri k6 ye nav6 dan moune. 
a t vo mi6, pasque ye" tou so criatire 6 ke" ca t f6 li la peine 
can y6 te I0 tchu6 leine a lote ; me" k^ aussi vite ke" y6 sr6 manj6 
zerbe ave" fri, Li Bon Dgie, li sr6 pran plaisir pou t6 f y 
pousse encor aussi vite pou y plaisir. 

M6 ye pa cout6 le Maitre ! Michi6 Lion comanc6 "manz6 
mouton, chien manz4 lapin, serpent manz6 ti zozo, chatte manze' 
d6ra, hibou manz4 poule. Y mett6 y^ a manz6 entre ye" minme, 
y6 sre fini par d^truit ye minme, si Bon Dgi t& pa vini rt6 tou 
^a. Li voy6 ein gran 12 la s^cheresse pou pini y6 d6 y6 criaut. 
C6t6 ein kichoge ki ti ben drole tou de" minme, com vouzote 
a oua. 

J 3Lair t boucanin, com can y6 api bourl^ baton coton, t6 sem- 
bl^ com si ye" nave ein ti brouillard. Apres soleil couche, ciel 
t^ re"st6 rouge comme di f6 ! Temps en temps kke n^toile t6 
tomb6 en ho la terre. Lamer, fleve, lac, bayou, tou t pran 
baiss^, baiss, tou te baiss6 a la foi, jika y^ nav6 pa ein goutte 
dolo ki t rest. Ni la ros^e t6 pas tomb6 J ^bo matin pou 
mouill zerbe. 

Ah ! mo di vouzote, mo zami tou zanimo te" trouv y6 dan ein 
grand nembara. Y t6 ap6 'Snavigu^ partou, y& lalangue t^ ap6 
panne ; ye t6 vini m6g, m^g. 

Y6 nave parmi y6 ein doctair ki t p616 l6 Michi4 Macaque, li t6 

iN. B. The figures refer to the notes in the Commentary. 

1887.3 Louisiana Folk- Lore. 103 

batar sorcier, batar voudou. Ye" di li te connin boucou kichoge, 
me c6te" em ^grand parlair, piti faisair. Li di les ote zanimo k6 
ce'te' aforce k6 ye" t6 fe" p6che", que Bon Dgie" te" voye" tou malhair 
laye pou pini ye, ke" si y< nave parmi ye ki te" oule" paye, li sre 
pri pou la pli te" tombe". Li te" dija rissi plein foi, can li te 
mande" kichoge ; Bon Dgi dan ciel te" toujou coute" l8 so prie"re 

Ye" nave* aussi ein fame" volair la, ce'te" ^Michie" Rnard, ki te" 
manz tou poule ke" ye" nave" dan so voisinage. Li di les ote 
zanimo: "pas b6soin coute Doctair Macaque, ce" ein coquin, 
la pran vou lagent sans donnin vouzote arien pou 93. Mo 
connin li, ce ein canaille, vouzote pa ape" gagnin la pli ditou. Vo 
mie" nou fouille ein pi nouzote minme. C6 pa la peine conte en 
ho lote kichoge. Anon ! Hourrah ! tou souite, si vouzote com 
moin, pasque mo ben soif." 

Aster Michie Macaque di li. " Mo pense ben k6 to soif, 
pirate ke to ye", ast^r to fini manze tou poule ke y6 nav ici. 
20 Tap6 vini f^ to vantor ici." 

Maite Renard di : " Pou ^a, to ben menti, to connin ben ke 
hibou, fouine av6 blette ap6 manze tou poule, e to vini di ce 
moin. To connin si ye na ein volair, c6 toi, marchand pri^re." 

Tou lote zanimo, tig, lion, loup, ne"le"phan, 2I cocodri, serpent te" 
ape navigu^ pou cherch^ dolo ; ye to trouve ye tou rassembl^ 
pou tend^ dispite Doctair Macaque ave" Michi^ Renard. 

22 I fo mo di vouzote k si ein cochon connin grognin, chien 
japp^, loup hirl6, lavache begl^, chaque qualite zanimo gagnin 
ye" tchenne langage. Ein tig, ou ben lion, ou ne!6phant pa 
capab parle" la langue ein lote b6tail, chakenne parle so tchenne 
langage, me" can y6 tou ensemb chakenne compranne lein a 
lote : cochon a grognin, chien a jappe", ye" va compranne ye" ben, 
C6 pa com vouzote moune, si ein 1'allemand vini par!6 av6 ein 
Fran^ais ou ein Me"ricain, li pa 16 compranne, pas plis k6 si 
1'Anglais t6 parl^ av6 ein Pagnol ke pa compranne nanglais. 
Nouzote moune, nou blige" appranne la langue les ote nachion, 
si nou oul^ caus^ ave y&. Zanimo, c6 pa ca ditou; y6 com- 
pranne ye" minme com si y6 te" tou parle minme langage. 

Ast6r, fo mo fini di vou Michie Re"nard t6 pr^tende k si li te 
fe ein si grand s6cheresse, dipi ein an la pli t pas tombe en ho 
la terre, k tou zerbe t6 grille", e k6 nabe te ape" perde ye" feille 
6 ke ye nave pas ni fl6r ni fri, c6 pasque y6 nav6 pas niage dan 
ciel pou donnin nouzote dolo, 6 ke" ye* nav6 pas ein priere 

104 Alcee Fortier, [Vol. in. 

ka f6 la pli tomb6. " Tou dolo la rentr6 dan laterre, i fo vou 
foui!16 ein gran pi pou vou tou capab boi. Cout6 moin mo zami 
e vou va gagnin dolo." 

2 3Lion ki t6 le roi ouvri so la djole. Li rigi, la terre tremble 
aforce li parle" fort; li batte so flan av6 so la tchi6, ya t6 r6son- 
nin com a ein gros papa tambour y6 gagnin dan cirque. Tou 
lote zanimo couche" por terre. Li di com ya : Cr6 mille tonnair ! 
premier la ki va vini parle moin pou la priere ; mo va 
fout li ein kichoge ki li va connin moin. Comme si mo pa bon 
boug ! Ou ya mo d6ja manj6 ein lote b6tail ? C6 ben menti 
e moin mo di ke ti navoca R6nard, 2 5c6 ein vaillant ti boug ; 
li raison, i fo vou foui!16 ein pi pou vou gagnin dolo tou souite ! 
Vini ici, toi compair Bourriquet, ce towki gagnin pli bel la voie 
ici ; can to par!6 ya di ein trompette soldat. Ta couri partout 
verti tou zanimo k6 moin 16 Roi mo di com 9a i fo ye* vini 
fouille et gratte la terre pou vou gagnin dolo. Ca ye" qua pa 
ou!6 vini travail, ta rapporte* ye", 26 ta vini dr6t pou mo force" ye" 
f6 y6 part louvrage ou ben pay6 lote zanimo dan ye" place." 

A force Bourriquet t6 contan c6t6 li ki t6 gagnin pou servi 
gazette, li commenc6 braire k6 ya t6 assourdi tou moune. 

Alorse 2 ?Bourriquet la mate" 6 pi corcobie*, li te" ere li tap6 fe 
joli kichoge ; ya t6 rende li tou fier 16 roi te mett6 so confiance 
dan li, 6 pi ya t6 mette" li en position vini commande" lesotevini 
au nom 16 roi 16 Lion. Can li parti, li baiss6 so la tte, pi li voy6 
vous ein d6mi douzaine paire cou pi6 ; en minme tan li donnin 
vou ein p6tarade, ya t6 pareil comme si y6 te d6chir6 la coton- 
nade ! ^a ce so mani6re sali6 la compagnie can li contan. 

Alors, tou zanimo Bourriquet rencontr6 li di y6 k6 y6 t6 pa 
vini tou souite pou gratt6 6 fouil!6 la terre pou f6 ein pi pou y6 
gagnin do lo, pou sir, 16 roi 16 Lion t6 manz6 y6 tou cri. Y6 te 
tou si tellement pair k6 y6 tou vini, jis compair Lapin ki tap6 
grignott6 ein vi6 ti boute zerbe sec. Pas vini coute ya mo di 
toi, rest6 toujou la, 6 pa vini tou souite, ta oua ya 16 roi a f6 a\6 
toi. 28 Mo fout pas mal toi av6 16 roi tou ensemb, vini tou les d6 
ta oua comme ma rang6 vouzote. To capab couri au diab ; 
esqu6 mo boi moin? Ou ya mot6 jamin b6soindolo? Pou sir, 
c6 kichoge ki nonveau pon moin. To dija bite, sotte animal 
bossale, Bourriquet k6 to y6 ; mo jamin boi. Lapin pa boi, mo 
popa ni mo grand-popa t6 pa connin boi 6 com moin c6 ein 
vrai lapin, mo pa servi dolo. 2 9Lapin pa jamin f6 piti sans 
zoreille, to tend6. Si ye nav6 k6ke monne ki t6 tend6 toi y6 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 105 

sre capab ere ke" mo tein batar ! Couri, passe" to chimin, gran 
zoreille, pasque si mo pran toi a coup de fouette ici, ma montre" 
toi to chimin, ma fe toi trotte* pli vite ke" to jamin galpe dan tou 
to la vie, si to te connin moin com moin mo connin mo minme, 
to sre pa re"te" ici, *pou sire." 

Bourriquet la oua ce"te" pa la peine, li pran so chimin, me 
ml li t6 pa si bte fe so fion ave" so geste comme li te coutime. 
Li parti dret et can li rive cote le Lion, li di: " Mo maite, mo 
fe tou vou commission, tou zanimo ke" ye" na dan moune, tou jis 
compair Lapin ke" pas oule" tende" raison. Li di li pa bisoin 
dolo li fout ben tou dolo ye na dan moune. a ye ki besoin 
dolo, ye capab couri cherche li. De plis ke si vou pa contan, 
la pran vou, a coup de pie e" fe vou trotte raide. Vou pa gag- 
nin droit command! li, li libre, libre com lair, ^\\ pu gagnin 
maite, jis 3*Bon DjieV' 

Can le" roi tande" a li di ein tig ki te* la ave ein 1'ousse couri 
cherche compair Lapin, rite li, minnin li ici tou souite. " Pran 
garde, vouzote manze li en route, pasque vou va trape ein 
tourne" comme vouzote jamin trap! encor, mo garanti vouzote 
ke 33ma montre" vouzote coman cabri porte la tchie ; vouzote 
tend!, hein ? Eh ben ! couri aster." 

Ye" parti, ye" voyage" bon boute avan ye" rive". Tou tan la, les 
ote zanimo te" apl fouilll dir, chakenne te" gagnin so part louv- 
rage, minme ye tl quitte" ein bon morceau, pou la tache compair 
Lapin, avl 9a yl ki t6 couri pou rete" li. Y6 cherchl partout, 
dan la plaine, dan boi, en ho montague ; a la fin 34ye" vini bitte 
en ho compair Lapin ki tape manze" ein racine 35 Z erbe coquin ki 
te gagnin plein dolo ladan. 

Va connin ke lapin connin fouille 6 creze la terre , cl en ba 
la y6 pran ye" dolo dan racine. 

Dan minme moment ye rivl cotl li, compair Lapin te apl 
chant! 36 ein ti chanson li te fe en ho le roi. Li te" di ladan ke" le roi 
tl ein fouti sotte, k6 li pa capab gouverne", 6 so fame gagnin plein 
mari. (Compair Lapin tl ape ri li tou seul) e ke pltlte apre ye 
sre" fini fouilll pi la, li 16 roi te fe tou zanimo pay 6 taxe pou boi 
dan pi la ke ye te" cr6z6 avl yl la sie"r ! Mo pa si sotte moin, mo 
pa ape" couri travail. Range" les ote si ye" bte, moin 
mo fout ben le roi com chien fout ben dimanche. Trala la 
la etc." 

Tig la proche* tou doucement e pi li di li com a : " Borijoo, 
compair Lapin, mo mande vou ben pardon si mo derange" vou, * 

io6 Alcte Fortier, [Vol. in. 

m6 mo pa f6 par expr6s. Le roi 16 Lion ordonnin moin vini pou 
rete vou, mo blig6 cout6 li, vou connin : 3?Ravet pa gagnin raison 
divan poule ; c6 pou ca mo cqnseil!6 von pa f6 resistance, 
pasqu6 compair 1'ousse et pi moin na va blig6 manz6 vou. Pran 
mo conseil, vini tou tranquillement, p6t6te va sorti clair ; 38 VO u 
gagnin la bonche doux, va capab gage" Michi6 R6nard pou. 
d6fende vou, c6 ein bon ti navoca, li paspran'cher ; anon, vini !" 

Cau compair Lapin oua li t6 pa capab f6 autrement, li laisse" 
noffici6 16 roi r6te li. Y6 mette la corde dan so cou 6 pi y6 

Cau y6 riv6 proche la oft 16 roi t6 coutime reste, y6 rencontr6 
Doctair Macaque en route. Li di compair Lapin : Mo pense to 
tein 61eve Maite R6nard, to gagnin pou pa>ye ga cher, va ! To 
fouti, mo vie ; coman to ye aster ? To pa senti kichoge kap6 
fredi dan toi. / a va montre toi lire gazette 6 oquip6 toi la 
politique tou 16 dimanche, au H6 to couri tranquillement la 

Compair Lapin r6ponde li br6f : " Mo fout ben ca to capab di, 
vie Macaque ! E pi ta connin : 39B6f dan poto pa p6r, couto. 
Pai to la djole, fouti canaille, tap6 saye fe moin di tor, m6 p6t-6te 
ben la farce a reste pou toi, 4mo pencor rendi au boute quarante 
narpen to tende ; 4 T p6t-6te to minme avan lontan ta batte les 
taons. 4 2 Chaque chien gagnin so jou, c6 tou ca mo gagnin pou 
di toi." 

Alorse, com y6 t6 riv6 cot6 <3ein gros di boi k6 di ventt6 gett6 
par terre, Lion la t6 assite au ra la, Tig av6 1'ousse, so d6 
nofficier ki tap6 m6r6 compair Lapin di li : Roi, com ca 4 a la 
gaillard la, nou m6n6 li." 

Maite R6nard t6 proch6 fout doucement derrire compair 
Lapin, li di li dan so zoreille : " Can li va mand6 toi ^scofair to 
parle mal en ho li, di li com ca c6 pa vrai, ce Bourriquet la ki 
menti en ho toi pou f6 toi di tor. E pi flatt6 li plein, * 6 fe li 
bande compliment av6 kke piti cado, ta sorti clair. Si to f6 
com mo di toi, ta trouvi toi ben, autr6ment, si to ass6 bte pou 
di tou ca ki dan to tchor, pran gar pou toi, ta sorti sale. Mo 
garanti toi 16 roi va f6 ein salmi av6 toi." 

" Vou pa b6soin pair, Maite R6nard, mo connin ca mo doi f6 ; 
merci pou vou bon conseil, mo tein navoca mo minme." 

Compair Lapin 4?t6 gagnin doutance k6 ye sr6 vini r6t6 li 
pou tou a li t6 di, li t6 par!6 si mal en ho 16 roi 6 gouvern6- 
ment ; c6 pou ga li t6 mett6 so pli bel nabi av6 gros la chaine 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 107 

en or dan so cou. Li te di ein so voisin y6 r k6 ye pele Michie 
Bouki, av6 ki li t6 gran camarade, (li t6 lamoure so fame av6 so 
fi'e 6 li t6 dan la mison compair Bouki com si li t6 ch6 li) oui, li 
di compair Bouki: " Vou mand6 moin ou map6 couri faro com- 
me ca ; eh ben ! mo va pa tarde" couri cote" 16 roi et, com 4 8 ce 
la plime ki f6 zozo, c6 pou ca mo bil!6 moin faro com vou oua ; 
ga toujou fe bon effet av6 moune ki fier 6 ki b6te. 

Can 16 roi te* pare pou comanc6 proces compair Lapin, li di 
so garde mene prisonnier la pou li jige li. 

Alorse compair Lapin vanc6, li di com ga: " O Lion, mo cher 
Maite, to f6 di vini, ala moin, ca to ou!6 ? 

Lion la di li com ga : " Mo gagnin pou condan6 toi, pasqu6 
49to tro connin batte to la djole en ho moin, 6 pi to t6 pa oule 
travail pou fouil!6 pi nape fe* pou boi. Tou moune ape* travail, 
jis toi, 6 can mo voye* Bourriquet cherch6 toi, to di li ke* mo te" 
ein bon arien 6 ke* to sr6 m6n6 moin a coup fouette. Ta connin 
ke si ye" dja mette fouette en ho to do, moin mo te" jamin taille*, 
minme mo d6fin moman te pa fouti touche moin. fa to gagnin 
pou di, zoreille lorgue kap6 pande ; mo pense ce a force chien 
tayo course* toi ke to zoreille si longue, parle tou souite, ou ben 
sma erase toi com ein plaquemine ki ben mir." 

Compair Lapin te* pa perdi so sangfroid, li t6 connin tou ca 
s^te ein gros di vent ki pa mene la pli ni tonnair. Li frot6 so 
ne" ave* so d patte, pi li grouille so zoreille, li terne* -pi li assite 
6 li di : " L6 roi, ce" la jistice en ho la terre, com Bon Djie jiste 
dan so saint Paradis ! Gran roi, s^vou ki brave passe nouzote 
tou ensemb, va tende" la verite* : Can vou voye" Bourriquet cote" 
moin, li ki plis Bourriquet ke" tou Bourriquet yen a den moune ; 
li vini la mison can mo te* malade. Mo di li com ga : ' ta di 16 
roi ke mo ben chagrin mo pa capab couri aste*r, me* ala ein bel 
la chaine en or ; ta porte ca le roi en cado e ta di ^ma. gage 
quarante donze lote zanimo pou travail dan mo place pasque* ta 
di li ce kichoge tro ve*cessaie gagnin ein pi, ce* la vie ou la mort 
6 nou pa capab fe sans ga. Ye* na jis ein gran roi com li ki te* 
capab gagnin ein pareil lide" 6 asse la tte pou sauv6 nou tou. 
fa vou ere li di moin ? Li re"ponde moin ki li t6 fout ben la 
chaine 1'or, li pas manze* ga li ; S4 S i mo te" donnin li ein la manne 
ma'i ou ben di foin, oui li sr6 manze", m6 la chaine! p6t-ete 16 
roi t6 atte!6 dan chari ave minuve la chaine la li ti ben fach6 
porte li.' E pi li parti 6 li di moin: 'va toujou, .popa, mo va 
riv6 anvan toi ; ta connin k6 ssB6f ki divan toujou boi dolo clair. 

io8 Alc&e Forlier, [Vol. in. 

Mo pense li te ou!6 di ke li sr6 par!6 avan y6 te gagnin la chance 
tend6 moin. Com s 6 mo 16 16 roi cr6 mo pa ape fout li de blague, 
mo gagnin ein t6mo:n ki t6 la, ki tend6 tou mo conversachion. 
Si 16 roi ou!6 gagnin la bont6 cout6 li, s?la tend6 pareil com ca 
mo sorti di li.' " Alorse compair Lapin sali6 16 roi 6 li vini 
mette la chaine 16r dan so cou 6 pi li assite on cot6 6 li souri, 
tan li t6 sir k6 so cado t6 fe ein bon neffet pou id6 li sorti clair 
dan so tracas. 

Alorse Lion la di maite Renard par!6 vite : " Mo connin tou 
zaffair la, si to vini ici pou menti, ma cass6 to cou, to pa besoin 
balance to la tchi6 6 fe la grimace, com si tape manz6 fourmi. 
Anon, hourra ! par!6, mo pa gagnin tan." 

" Mo cher Maite, di R6nard, mo va fli vou tou com a t6 ; 
compair Lapin k6 vou oua ici, c6 rneilleir zami k6 vou gagnin- 
La preve c6 k6 li port6 ein gros la chaine Tor pou fe vou cado ; 
jamin va oua ein Bourriquet f6 ca, c6 pa pet-6te. Mo di vou 
k6 li c6 pli gran paillasse dan moune ; &Dan Rice pran virgt et 
un ans pou dress6 ein Bourriquet. Li di can minme ye donnin 
li $ioo,oco 59li pap6 recommenc6 jamin encor, jamin la entre- 
pran ein pareil job ; li lainnim mi6 dresse cirquante mille lion 
^pasqi^ ya manz6 li tou souite, ou ben la fe kichoge de bon 
av6 y6. Alorse, pou di vou, Michi6 Lion, vou ki roi tou 
zanimo, minme Bourriquet la, k6 vou t6 voy6 pou represente 
vou ninteret, 6l vini menti en ho vou, 6 compair Lapin, li blan 
com la neige. Malgre Doctair Macaque dan vou confiance, c6 li 
kap6 gouvernin en cachette 6 conseille tou moune 6 mett6 y6 
en r6volte centre 16 vou pou f6 ein ote gouvernement, ou minme 
Doctair Macaque av6 Bourriquet gognin pou gouvernin dan 
von place can ya r6issi fou vou dihor. C6 c,a yap6 saye dipi 
lantan, 6 c6 a moin av6 compair Lapin te ou!6 di vou/' 

Can 16 roi tend6 a, li di : "C6 bon, mo contan vouzote di 
moin a. To capab couri toi av6 compair Lapin, mo tchombo 
li quitte." 

M6 pendau ye tapi fe proc6s la, Doctair Macaque ave Bourri- 
quet t6 pens6 ca t6 pa sain pou y6 tou 16 de. 6z Ouchon ! y6 t6 
dija loin, ye chappe can y6 oua $a t6 ap6 chauff6 manvais cot6, 
6 3y6 fout y6 can raide, personne pa oua cot6 y6 pass6, aforce y6 
t6 ben cach6. 

Apris 93, compair Lapin 6 Maite R6nard tou 16 d6 rest6 dan 
minme paroisse ou 16 roi 16 f6 so residence. Maite R6nard s6 
to d6pit6 ou so pr6mi6 comis, 6 lote t6 6 4maite d'6quipage ; c6 li 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 109 

ki commande tou monne e fe tou lesotes travail pou fini fouille* 
pi la ave" ye* patte. 

A la fin, pi la te fini net ! Tou zanimo pran boi e" ye tou te 
vini gaillard encor. a fe Lionne vini gaillard aussi, e keke tan 
apre fa, li fe* douze piti ki te* jaune com Tor, ye* te tou pli joli 
1'ein ke" lote. A force 16 roi te contan, li pardonnin tou fa ki te 
condanne" dan penitentiaire, fa ye ki te exile" aussi li permette ye" 
vini encor. Cau li donnin ye la grace, li di ye* couri boi dolo 
dan pi la. 

Alorse, vou pet-y-cre* ke* Doctaire Macaque ave so complice 
Bourriquet tou le de sorti dan ye* trou e" ye vini encor parmi les 
ote ; me" ye pran espionnin e djette" tou ca ki te ape passe ou 
tou fa ye di. Ein jou ye" sencontre* Maite Re"nard ki te ape 
parle zaffair gouvernement pou augmente* taxe. Li ave corn- 
pair Lapin, ye te trouve" nave" pa asse 1'argent dan tre"sor piblic 
pou ye" te" vini riche vite. 

Can 'Doctair Macaque oua ye* tou le de ensemb, li pran souri. 
Li vance* cote ye, li salie, e" pi li di : "Anon ! blie tou ca ki te 
passe. 6 sCe pa la peine nou couri cherche tou vie papier laye", 
annon fe camarade e vive tranquille com bon voisin." Vou te 
ere y6 trop bon camarade can ye" separe". 

Doctair Macaque di so padna Bourriquet : " To oua, de" boug 
laye, compair Lapin ave" Maite Renard, ce de canaille, mo 
gagnin pou oua ye boute, ou ben ya bimin moin ; ce tou fa mo 

Com compair Lapin te* di li te* pa jamin boi dolo, can Lion te 
jige" li, le roi te* di li : " Pran gar to pa jamin saye" boi dan pi 
la, mole oua si ce* vrai ke" to jamin boi, 6 mo ordonnin tou moune 
dyette* toi." 

Vouzote 66 pale cr6 moin si mo di vouzote ke* ce* la v6rite 
Lapin pa jamin boi dolo, yen a toujou asse" pou ye* dan zerbe ye" 
manz6. M6 jis pasque* y6 t6 defend li boi dan pi la, compair 
Lapin te envi. Tou les ote zanimo te* tan vante* dolo la com li te* 
clair, com, li te* bon, 9a te donne li soif soif ; tou moment, li te 
altere" com si li t6 manze* Ma vianne sa!6 ki t6 ben piment6. 

Alorse li di com a : " Mo fout pas mal, ma couri boi a soir 
minme, mo oule* oua a ka pe"che* moin, mo ass6 malin pou ye* pa 
trap6 moin. E pi si ye* trape moin ma toujou trouv6 ^protec- 
tion fie le* roi ; ce" mo Dombo, la toujou trouve* k^ke moyen pou 
pa ye tracass6 moin, pasqu^ li capab fe boucou av6 so popa 16 

no Alcee For tier, [Vol. in. 

Li fe com li di, tou 16 soir, li t6 couri boi plain. Me a la fin li 
t6 ou!6 boi dan jou aussi. 

C6t6 ein drole pi, so dolo te* pa semb lote dolo, me" li t6 con- 
nin sou!6 pareille com ouiski. Selement, auli6 rendeein moune 
malade, apr6 chaque bitire vou t6 trouv6 vou boucou pli gail- 
lard. 6 ?Tou ca ye ki te vie" t6 ap6 vini j6ne encor ; minme 
16guime k6 ye" t6 ros6 dan jardin aye" dolo la. aussi vite vou 
coupe ye", lendimin y6 tou pousse" encor pli bel k6 jamin. 

Can compair Lapin commence" oua bon neffet dolo la, lidi com 
ca : " I fo mo gagnin pou dan jou aussi, ga f6 boucou di bien, 6 
com mo boucou pli vie" ke" fie 16 roi, fo mo vini aussi jeine ke li. 
Laisse" moin fe, mo va range" a. Di pa arien." 

fa f6 can li ti f6 noir, li pran ?so piti calebasse ki te" tchombo 
a p6 pres de bouteil, 6 li couri cote" pi la, 61i rem pli so calebasse. 
Me" li t6 pran si ben so precaution k6 la gard ye" t6 mett6 tou 16 
soir au ras pi te" jamin oua arien. 

Doctair Macaque av6 Bourriquet t6 f6 la gard tou tan pasque 
ye" t6 pa capab bli6 coman compair Lapin t tromp6 ye" si ben 
dan so proce"s. Aussite y6 te f6 serment ke ye sr6 trap6 li. Me" 
tou 93 y6 te" fe y perdi y6 la peine 6 ye" tan. Enfin ein bon 
jou Doctair Macaque vini trouve" Bourriquet so camarade e li di li : 

" Vini la mison cote" moin, ma montre" toi ein kichoge." Li fe 
li oua ein ti Bonhomme Godron. " C6 av6 ga mo 16 trap6 gail- 
lard la. Foi cila, com mo va capab prouve" ke" li coupab, mo va 
gagnin tou so Tagent, ke" 16 roi sra confisque pou donnin nou- 
zote, si nous d6noncin li." 

Y6 pran Ti Bonhomme la, y6 mett6 li dan ti chimin ou com- 
pair Lapin t6 blig6 pass6 au ra, au ra do lo, 6 pi ye parti. Y6 
connin y6 t6 pa b6soin djett6 ; Ti Bonhomme Godron t6 f6 so 
zaffair san moune t6 b6soin id6 li. Mo pa connin si compair 
Lapin te" dout6 kichoge, li vini ben tar soir la. 

Jamin li t6 riv6 minme Ih6re, m6 li t6 toujou gagnin dolo, 6 
y6 t6 pa capab trap6 li. Can li riv6 soir la y6 t6 pos6 Ti Bon- 
homme Godron, li oua ein kichoge ki noir. Li gard6 li lontan, 
li t6 jamin oua arien com ca anvant. Li tournin tou dr6t 6 li 
couri couch6. 

Lendimin soir li vini oua encor ; li proch6 pli proche, li gard6 
lontan, 7'H soucouy6 7230 la t6te. Dan minme moment ein 
73grounouille sott6 dan dolo : 74 Tchoappe. Compair Lapin 
cras6 a force li t6 pair : dan d6 sot li te rendi cote li. Li rest6 
trois jou sans vini, 6 Doctair Macaque 6 Bourriquet t6 comanc6 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. in 

desespere, y t comanc6 ere ke ce"t vrai compair Lapin t6 pa 
boi dolo di tou. Me" siffit li te prive ga te donnin li encor pli 
envi boi. 

" Oh tiens ! li di, mo fout ben ! ma risque", mo gagnin ein pe" 
1'agent ici, me" ? 5 la restan mo fortine cache" dan ? 6 gran ze"ronce. 
Si ye trape" moin ma paye la police ye va lach moin, e pi mo 
gagnin la protection fille le" roi tou le soir, li vini dan mo la 
chambre mo connin ??li lainmin moin com cochon lainmin la 
boue. Si li pa fe" kichoge pou moin, ga te" ben drole. E pi mo 
toujou dresse la police pou li lache ein nomme can nomme la 
gagnin 1'agent, e mo pense ye va pa fe nexception pou moin, 
pasque" ye sre perdi 1'agent, mo sre donnin ye. 

Alorse ga te rassire li, li parti le soir, li te fe ein bel clair la 
line ; moune te" promenin tar jou la, pasque" cete la fin printemps. 
7 8 Che"vrefeille te borne" Fair, moquair t ape chante dan pacanier ; 
ye nav6 ein ti divent ki t6 fe feille nabe danse", ga te pe"che per- 
sonne tende" li march^. 

Can li parti, tou moune te couche, jis 79chien ki tape jap6 
apres gros niage ki te" ape galpe divan di vent. " Ce mo tour 
aster, moin compair Lapin, mo gagnin pou boi, me ein boi 

Can li rive" cote Ti Bonhomme Godron, vie Ti Bonhomme te 
toujou la. Li te f6 chand dan la journin e godron la te mou. 
Compair Lapin gard6 li e li di : Hum ! Hum, ya asse lontan to 
dan mo chimin, mo pa vini pou boi, c ein kichoge mo jamin fe, 
me mo 16 baingnin a soir ; sorti dan 8o mo chimin. To ve pa 
reponde, hein? Mo di toi mo ou!6 baingnin, noiraud. 

Bonhomme Godron pa reponde, c,a t fe compair Lapin en 
colere ; li fout li ein tape, so la main reste colle". 

" Lach^ moin, ou ben mo va fout toi ave" lote la main." 
Bonhomme Godron pa r6ponde, li fout li earn ave" lote lamain, 
li reste" colle" aussite. 

" Ma fout toi coup pi6, si to pa Iach6 moin, fouti coquin !" 

Li fout li, me pie la reste colle" aussite e pi lote pie" aussite. 

Alorse, li di : " Tap6 tchombo moin pou ye f6 mauvais kich- 
oge av6 moin ; vouzote ape say6 vo!6 moin ; me" arr^te, ta oua, 
a ma f6 av6 toi. Lache" moin ou ben mo va fout toi ave" mo 
late"te 6 ma erase" to la djole." 

Com li di ga, li fout li, 6 ein milet te" pa fouti cognin fort com 
ga, aforce li t6 fach6. Me so latete, mo cher zami t6 rest6 colle 
aussite. Li pri, li ben pri. 

ii2 Alcte For tier, [Vol. in. 

Au jou, ein p6 avan soleil 16v6, Doctair Macaque av6 Bourri- 
quet rive. Can y6 oua compair Lapin la, ye* ri, y6 jour6 li. Y6 
pran ein charrete pou minnin li en prison. Tou di Ion chimin, 
y6 racont6 tou moune coman y6 t6 mett6 ein la trape pou trap6 
pli fame coquin ye" nav6 dans 1'inivers ; c6t6 ce fame compair 
Lapin ki te" gate" nom fi'e 16 roi, 8l li t6 sali so r6pitation hors 
service k6 y6nav6 pas ein prince ki t6 ou!6 mamzelle L6onine, 
aforce compair Lapin t6 couri pail!6 partout k6 mamzelle L6o- 
nine te so Dombo. 

Maite R6nard, ki tap6 passe", tend6 tou manvais parole Doc- 
tair Macaque av6 Bourriquet entho compair Lapin ; ga f6, li di: 
" Oui, c6 ben vrai, na pas com ein volair peu trap6 ein lote volair." 

Can charrette la t6 ap6 minnin compair Lapin en prison, tou 
a ye" ki tap6 pass6 dan chimin voy6 la fcrique av6 caillou, on 
compair Lapin, y6 f6 ein vrai paillasse av6 li. 

Can li te" divant 16 roi, li di com c,a : " Mo ou!6 connin c.a to 
gagnin pou di ast6r pou to capab sorti clair ici." 

Lapin r6ponde : " ^a mo capab di ; 82 can di boi tomb6 cabri 
mont6 ! Mo connin mo gagnin pou mouri jis ein foi, mo fout 
ben. Si c6 mo 1'agent y6 ou!6, tou ga y6 ki vini f6 ein bande 
conte en ho moin, mo garanti vou, y6 tromp6. Tan mo t6 lib, 
jamin Bourriquet ni Doctair Macaque say6 gagnin train av6 
moin, 8 3cochon marron connin ou y6 frott6. Mo garanti vou c6 
d6 fame sc616ra." 

" To pa doit parle com ga divant 16 roi, can mo la. M6 16 roi 
va gagnin pou jig6 toi dan ein piti moment." 

" 84 f a mo di, li ben di, mo par6 pou tend6 mo sentence." 
Apres 16 roi av6 tou so zami t6 consilt6 ensemb, y6 trouv6 com- 
pair Lapin coupable, 6 y6 condann6 li a mort ! Y6 ordonin li 
sr6 couri en prison en attendan ye t6 capab trouv6 ein bourreau 
bonne volont6 pou ex6quit6 li. 

L6 roi t6 pens6 li t6 d6barrass6 ein bougre ki trop malin pou 
li, 6 pi c6t6 pou veng6 li d6 c6 compair Lapin t6 compromette 
Mamzelle L6onine, so fi'e ; c6t6 ein vrai scandale. 8 sEin fi'e ki 
t6 mince, com ein di cane 6 dan cinq mois apr compair Lapin 
t6 sorti clair dan so proces, fie la t6 tournin gros com ein bari 
farine ; vou oua ben y6 nav6 kichoge ladan ki t6 pas ben ! 

Pendan compair Lapin te en prison, li tap6 zong!6 coman li 
sr6 trouv6 jou pou sorti 6 chap6 pou toujou. Li pens6 so 
zaffair t6 ben sale 6 c6t6 pli mauvais position li t6 jamin trouv6 
li. Li di com ga li minme : " Diab, tou a 86 c6 pa baptme 

1887.] Louisiana Folk-Lore. 113 

catin, mo cre"ben mo fouti! Enfin, com mo lasse boucou, si 
mo 8 ?dromi, ga va fe" moin di bien. Li couche pa terre, e ein 
piti moment apres li te ape ronfle. Li pran re"ve" bel Leonine, 
f i'e le roi tape" fe li signe pou di li pa be*soin pair, li va range" tou 
a ; alorse li re" veille contan. 

88 A la barre jou, jolie" la vini ouvri la porte so la prison, e pi li 
di li : "Ye trouve" ein bourreau bon volonte pou exequite" toi, me 
avan, ye gagnin pou coupe" to zoreille, ce" Bourriquet ki offri so 
service pou voye toi dan lote moune. Pran courage, mo vie" ; 
ga fe moin la peine pou toi ; to tein bon gagon, me" si to te pa 
risque si souvan, to te pa la ou to ye". To connin : * pran gar 
vo fnie passe" pardon/ aster li trop tar. Bon voyage, mocama- 
rade !" 

Dan minme moment la, sherif la vini ave so depite^ pou 
me"nin li ou ye* te* doi fe" li mouri. Ye rive au bor ein ti la 
rivie"re ; l'e"core te apic e ye te gagnin gran nabe, zerbe e pi 
zeronce partou. Ye choisi ein ti place clair. 

Can ye" rive, nave" plein mouue : Madame, Michie", plein nen- 
fant. Tou te" vini pou oua coman ye sre" tchue compair Lapin. 
Roi te" la av6 so famille. Mamzelle Leonine, fie le roi, t la 
aussite. 8 9Oh ! me" li te bel, ave" so chive tou boucle ki re" clair6 
com Tor dan soleil ! Li te" gagnin ein robe la mousseline blanc 
com la neige, ave" ein cintire riban ble", e pi ein couronne de rose 
en ho so la te"te. Zie" tou moune te braque en ho li. A force li 
te" bel. ye" blie compair ^ Lapin net, 9*ki te ap6 tremble com ein 
feille Hard. 9Oui, oua, li te" chagrin fini quitte in si gran 
fortine 6 ein si joli fame com fie le roi. 

a ki t^ fe" pli la peine, c6 can li pran pense p^t-ete Doctair 
Macaque ou ben Bourriquet te" maie" ave Mamzelle Leonine sito 
li sr6 mouri, pasque tou 16 de t6 vante y6 ke compair Lapin t6 
dan y chimin ; sans li, ye" t^ di p^t-ete te" na lontan zafifair t6 f. 

Alorse 1^ roi di : " Anon fini av^ tou a ; vanc6 Bourriquet 
cote" compair Lapin lire li so sentence." 

Le* roi te" 93donnin li so choix pou choisi so la mort com li te 
ou!6 : n6y6 dan riviere la ou ben bourle" vivan, ou ben penne 
dan nabe, ou ben coupe" so cou ave" ein sabe. 

" Oui, oui, di compair Lapin, 94tou ga ensemb, ou ben 1'aine 
ape" 1'ote ; si ga fe" vouzote tan plaisir mo mouri, mo ben, ben con- 
tan. Se"lement, mo t6 pair vouzote te" jett^ moin dan gran 
ze"ronce ; ga t6 dechir6 mo la peau, mo te" soufri trop ( lontan, 
pi serpen ave dgiepe te piqu^ moin. Oh ! non, non, pa ga 

ii4 Alcee For tier, [Vol. in. 

ditou ! Di 16 roi f6 tou, tou, cept6 jett6 moin dangran z6ronce } 
pou Tamou Bon Dji6 dan ciel ki gagnin pou jig6 vouzote com 
vouzote jig6 moin. 

" Han, Han, to pair z6ronce, Coquin, c6 souffri nou ou!6 oua 
toi, souffri, to tend6." 

Ye f6 si bande di train : "95 a ga y6, di 16 roi ki t6 proch6 au 
ra av6 Mamzelle L6onine, so fie, ki t6 vini pou oua si compair 
Lapin t6 mouri com ein brave, di moins, c6 ga tou moune t6 cr6, 
m6 c6t6 pou donnin li courage 6 rassir6 li. Can li t6 dan 
prison Mamzelle L6onine t6 f6 di li, can minme la corde t6 dan 
so cou, li sr6 riv6 en tan pou ot6 li 6 sauv6 li, pasqu6 li t61inmin 
compair Lapin plis k6 tou kichoge dan moune. 

Y6 racont6 16 roi av6 Mamzelle L6onine ga compair Lapin t6 
di 6 com li t6 pair y6 jett6 li dan z6ronce, li t6 pair tro souffri. 
9 6 Mamzelle L6onine vanc6, li di : " Popa, mo gagnin ein grace 
pou mand6 vou, mo connin vou hai compair Lapin, 6 moin 
aussite, pasqu6 li gat6 mo nom : eh ben ! mo 16 f6 vouzote tou 
oua tou ga ye di t6 menti. Mo 16 oua li souffri pou tou so conte, 
6 mo mand6 vou k6 y6 jette li dan zeronce 6 quitt6 li pourri la, 
ce ein ass6 bon place pou ein canaille com ga." 

Alorse, tou moune batte y6 la main, aforce y6 t6 contan. 
" Fout li, fout li, c6 la minme fo y6 fout li," di 16 roi, " fo li 
souffri, anon, vite, hourrah vouzote." 

Ast6r y6 pran compair Lapin a cate, y6 balanc6 li ein foi : pove 
djabe la t6 ap6 cri6 : " Non, non, pa dan z6ronce, dan di f6, 
coup6 mo cou, pas dan z6ronce." 

Y6 di : " d6 foi." "J6sus, Marie, Joseph, pa dan z6ronce !" 

Troi foi, Vap ! y6 voy6 li dan ein gran talle z6ronce. 

Com compair Lapin tomb6 dan so payis, li assite, li gratte so 
nin, soucouy6 so zoreille, 6 pi li di : " Merci. tou moune, mo t6 
pa cr6 vouzote t6 si b6te, m6 97 C 6 la minme mo moman t6 fe 
moin, mo ch6 moin ici, adieu, tou vouzote, mo connin 
ou map6 couri." 

Mamzlle L6onine aussite t6 contan, li t6 connin ou li sr6 contr6 
compair Lapin. 

Ca prouv6 vouzote ein kichoge, k6 compair Lapin t6 ein 
niprocrite 6 li plaid6 faux pou gagnin vrai, a prouv6 vouzote 
aussi k6 can ein fame lainmin ein nomme, la f6 tou ga nomme la 
ou!6, 6 f6 tou ga li capab pou sauv6 nomme la, 6 nimporte ou 
nomme a couri fame a couri joinde li C6 pou ga y6 di k6 
9 8 nimporte kichoge ein fame ou!6, Bon Dji6 aussite. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk-Lore. 115 

99Com moin mo te la can tou c.a rive, ye" voye" moin ici pou 
raconte" vouzote a. 
IOO Mo fini. 



This tale was written in 1884 by MR. ZENON DE MORUELLE, 
of Waterloo, La., and communicated to me by my friend, DR. 
ALFRED MERCIER. It is a genuine negro story, and illustrates 
admirably the peculiarities of speech and the quaint and some- 
times witty ideas of our Louisiana negroes. With the author's 
permission, I now reproduce it from the manuscript, slightly 
modifiying some expressions which appeared to me a little too 
realistic, and changing the orthography to make it accord with 
my own ideas of the phonetics of the Creole patois, cf. TRANS- 
ACTIONS of the MOD. LANG. Asso., 1884-5., P a 8' e I0 3- 

Page 102, Note i : Pitt Bonhomme Godron. In French, this ex- 
pression might be translated: " la Petite Sentinelle de Goudron, " 
as the little black fellow placed by the well is really a sentinel, 
being left alone to guard the precious water. 

This tale is exceedingly popular among our negroes, and is 
related with many variants. In one of them Compair Lapin is 
caught while stealing vegetables, and in Melusine for 1877 is 
another short variant taken from a Louisiana newspaper. In 
neither story, however, is the proverbial cunning of Brer Rab- 
bit as well exemplified as in MR. DE MORUELLE'S, tale. Here 
also, we see a real intrigue, naive and rude, but interesting, 
and such as an uncultured narrator, with a vivid imagination, 
may have invented. 

Pitt. Note here how the mute e is rarely kept in Creole : it is 
either changed into i, as from petit to pitt ; or more generally it 
takes the sound of e J%rm as k& for que, l& for /<?, thus losing 
one of the chief characteristics of the French language, the 
mute e, and rendering our Louisiana patois more akin to the 
other Romance languages, in this respect, than to French. 
This pronunciation of the e as <* reminds us of the Gascon 

The e mute of the French, in words ending in -ne sometimes 
becomes nasal in Creole ; as donnin, boiicanin, from donne, 
boucane. The nouns, however, ending in -ne keep the French 
sound ; asptaine, savane, laine. The negroes always dropping 
as many syllables as possible, the word pitt is generally pro- 
nounced tt. 


contracted into 

116 Alcee For tier, [Vol. in. 

P. 102, N. 2 : Bonnefoi, Bonnefoi ; Lapin, Lapin ! The negro narra- 
tor begins his story with* the words : " bonne foi, bonne foi !" 
good feftiT, good faith ! which signify that what is going to be 
said is strictly true, and no one must doubt it. The auditors, in 
their turn, reply: Lapin, Lapin! implying that they are not 
dupes, and are like the rabbit, which is the emblem of cunning, 
while compair Bouki, (the goat), is the incarnation of stupidity 
and credulity. 

Often also, the narrator says; "Tim, tim," and all reply: 
" bois sec, baton casse* dan macaque/' 

N. 3 : Mo va or mo ale, the future in patois, contracted into ma 

and male, viz : 

Ma raconte" 

na raconte 
va " 

In his article on "the Creole Slave Dances" in the Century 
for 1886, MR. CABLE quotes GOTTSCHALK'S celebrated " Quand 
patate la cuite na va mange" li!" and says: "still the dance 
rages on, all to that one nonsense line meaning only, ' When 
that 'tater's co&ked don't you eat it up!'" This is an entire 
misconstruction of the word na in the patois. It does not mean 
'not 'but is the future. The line is, therefore, far from being 

N. 4 : Vouzote Vous autres, pronounced as one word, with the 

r omitted. The process of agglutination is exceedingly com- 
mon in the patois of the negroes ; lari, dezef, dera, dolo. 

N. 5 : ein kichoge peculiar expression for une (quelque] chose. 

N. 6 : ben drolle. Adverbs of manner not formed by suffix 

-ment, but by ben or tr"e ; trl is very rare. 

N. 7 : Ki te rive yen a lontan qui etait arrive il y a longtemps. 

The past tenses of the Indicative are always formed by te from 
ete ; except the imperfect which takes te ape, ete aprls, to indi- 
cate progressive action. For the sake of concision, the te of 
the Preterit, etc., is often omitted, viz : mo te* rive", contracted 
into mo riv6; mo t6 ape" rive", contracted into mo tapd rive" etc., 
yen a. The verb avoir is rare in the patois ; gagnin from gag- 
ner being used instead of avoir, verb transitive ; avoir, auxili- 
ary, disappears. 

N. 8 : moune monde. The word moune always used for per- 

sonne, substantive : gran moune, piti moune. Personne, pro- 
noun, remains: personne pa vini. 

N. 9 : Com fa. While relating a story, the negro continually 

repeats this expression, stopping a moment, as if to recollect 
what he had to say : li di com ca, li fe" com ga. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 117 

P. 102, N. 10 : tc/me. The French ^becomes tch\ tchue (tug), tchui, 
(cut), tchombo (tenu) ; or k : to kenne (le tien). Ye sre nianze 
sre and sra used for conditional and future anterior. Ye. Ob- 
serve the use oiye as personal pronoun, subject, and direct and 
indirect object ; indefinite pronoun ; definite article. 

N. ii : Manz the g often softened into z. 

N. 12 : la sicker esse POU pini ye. It is very curious to contrast 
the theogony of the negroes with ours. As the drouth was 
often so severe in Africa, the natives thought that the end of 
the world would come in that way, by the want of water. They 
do not seem to have any tradition of the Deluge. 

N. 13 : Lair te boucanin. The word boucane for fumee used in 

Louisiana to designate principally the smoke from the chimneys 
of the sugar-houses ; la sucrerie boucane means that the grind- 
ing season (la roulaison] has begun. 

The description of the drouth is quite pretty : keke netoile te 
tombe en ho la terre. A few stars fell on the earth netoile, the 
n belongs to the word, de" netoile, troi netoile (deux 6toiles, 
trois e"toiles) en ho la terre. A funny expression is, tombe en 
haut la terre ; we might have expected tombe en das. 

N. 14 : bo matin De bonne heure-early. 

N. 15 : navigue for running about, a word used also in French 

by the common people, and here most picturesque, to navigate 
during a dreadful drouth, when the water had turned into 

N. 16 : Michie Macaque, li te batar s order, batar voudou. Dr. 

Monkey is the TartufTe of the story, and we are as well pleased 
' to see his hypocrisy punished, as when Moliere's false bigot is 
arrested by order of the king. The word batar here does not 
mean bastard, but half wizard, half voudou. The words 
sorcier and voudou are not synonymous. The sorcier or zombi 
is invested with supernatural powers, that is to say, he can 
predict the future, but he is not, like the voudou, a kind of high 
priest of an occult and wicked religion. 

P. 103, N. 17 ', grand par lair, ti faisair. A French proverb adopted 
by the negroes. We shall see later on that they have many 
proverbs, which might well be adopted by the French. 

N. 18 : so priere a li His prayer. An example of the dative said 

to be imported from San Domingo, and I believe, quite rare 
in Louisiana. Here is a stanza of a celebrated San Domingo 
song, in which we see three examples of the dative : 

Lisett to quitt^ la plaine, 

Mo perdi bonheur h. moue; 
Zids a m0ue'sembl6 fontaine, 

D^pi mo pas miriS tou. 
Jour-li quand mo coup(5 canne, 

Mo songe zamour a moue; 
La nuit quand mo dans cabane, 

Dans droumi mo tchombo tou. 

n8 Alcee Fortier, [Vol. in. 

P. 103, N. 19 : Michie Renard^hz part which Mr. Fox plays in this 
story is quite interesting. He shares with Brer Rabbit the 
honor of being the great trickster, and seems here to have 
recovered the cunning and rascality of the Renart of the 
thirteenth century. In our Louisiana tales, compair Lapin, as 
in Uncle Remus, is the great deceiver, while compair Bouki is 
always imposed upon, as was poor Isengrin, the wolf. Some- 
times, we see compair Torti, the tortoise, take the place of 
compair Lapin as the smart fellow, cf. DR. MERCIER'S tale, 
Athe"ne*e Louisianais, Vol. I. 

The Mr. Fox of this story is something of a libre penseur, 
and had he lived in the Middle Ages, would not have had the 
honor of being represented in stone among the ornaments of 
the great cathedrals. He deserves to live in the nineteenth 
century, he is such a shrewd and practical lawyer. 

N. 20: Tap'e vini f to vantor id. You are coming to play your 

braggart here The negroes are, very keen in perceiving the 
ridicules of men and satirize very sharply the braggadocio and 
the rodomont. They call the latter: ti coq jinga, a young 
rooster always crowing and ready to fight, but which flees at 
the first blow. 

N. 21 : cocodri the crocodile, a favorite of the negroes, who 

eat his tail with great relish. Sometimes, a negro will lie on 
his back in the sun for hours, and when asked what he is doing 
there, he will say : Mape* chauffe' dans soleil com cocodri. 

N. 22 : I fo mo di vouzote. The paragraph beginning with these 

words is curious, as showing the great difference between men 
and beasts. When all men came together to build the tower 
of Babel, they could accomplish nothing, owing to the confusion 
of tongues. Here, all animals understood each other and 
succeeded in their undertaking. Hence, Boileau was right, 
when he said : 

De tous les animaux qui s'e'Kvent dans I'air, 
Qui marchent sur la terre, ou nagent dans la met, 
De Paris au PeVou, du Japon jusqii a Rome 
Le plus sot animal, & mon avis, c'est 1'homme. 

P. 104, N. 23 : Lion ki t& U roi. Lion the king is quite un pibtre sire 
and may be compared to many a king in the chansons de geste 
of Charlemagne's cycle, when the great barons began to despise 
the feeble successors of the great emperor, and the trouvres 
gave a finer part in their works to the lords than to the king. 

N. 24: ein gros popa tambour. An amusing and very common 

superlative among tne negroes, and used with any word : ein 
gros popa nabe, ein gros popa recolte. Observe the a changed 
into o \r\.popa and moman. 

N. 25: c'e ein vaillant ti bougre. A fine little fellow. The 

word bougre although not elegant is energetic, and is general- 
ly used by the negroes instead of the milder word nomme. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk-Lore. 119 

P. 104, N. 26 : ta vini drttyou will come right off, A good example 
of the laconism of the patois ; three short words used, and 
the meaning is complete. 

N. 27 : Bourriquet \^^ donkey, takes the place here of Compair 

Bouki for stupidity. He and Dr. Monkey are a fine pair. His 
joy on being considered an important personage is comical, 
and his way of saluting the company is amusing, and the com- 
parison about tearing la cotonnade, (home : made nankeen) has 
a strong couleur locale. 

N. 28- Mo font pa mal toi ave le roi The word/ottt, although 

far from elegant, is so often used by the negroes that I see no 
harm in leaving it here. It is as if we wanted to omit damn 
from the vocabulary of the English speaking negro. 

N. 29: Lapin pa jamin fe piti sans zoreille. A proverb, cor- 

responding to tel p"ere, tel fils. Compair Lapin in this reply to 
Bourriquet speaks like a hero, he is not afraid, he is not one of 
La Foutaine's rabbits, he will make king Lion and all his court 
trot under his whip. 

P. 105, N. T>:pou sire It is quite strange how the negro patois, 
formed from the French, has abandoned the sound of the 
French u. This peculiar sound was probably 'too difficult to 
them, as it is to many of our pupils, and they changed our u 
to i or to on ; sur became sire, la nuit became la nouite. 

N. 31 : H pa gagnin maite, jis Bon Djie. To understand the 

boldness of Compair Lapin in daring to say that he has no other 
master than God, we must remember that the story is supposed 
to be related during the time of slavery; hence the horror of 
Bourriquet and the anger of the King. 

N. 32 : Bon Djie. Like the little children, the negroes always say 

Bon Djie, the Good God, using the adjective where we would 
merely say : Dieti. 

N. 33: ma montre vouzote coman cabri porte la tchie. A 

proverb I shall show you who I am "Je vous ferai voir de 
quel bois je me chauffe." The proverb in the patois is quite 
characteristic : the goat carrying his tail high in the air indi- 
cates a proud and independent nature. Such a dreadful threat 
was not out of place in order to prevent the tiger and the bear 
from eating Compair Lapin. King Lion never ate another 
animal, he was too kind a sovereign, but he knew the voracious 
habits of his great lords and wanted to punish his subjects 
himself; remember Louis XI at Plessis-lez-Tours. 

N. 34 : ye vini bitti en ho Compair Lapin. They stumbled 

upon Compair Lapin who was eating a root. The picture is 
here a real pastorale : Tiger and bear roaming over hills and 
valleys and suddenly falling upon their victim, who is innocently 
engaged at his meal, and drinking from the root of a cockle 
bur, which proved that he did not need the well of the King. 
We take an interest in him here as being persecuted. 

120 Alcee Fortier, [Vol. in. 

P. 105, N. 35 : Zerbe coquin a most unpleasant weed which grows 
but too luxuriantly in Louisiana and stops not only thieves, but 
honest men also, as I have often found out, to my great dis- 

N. 36: ein ti chanson li te fe en ho le roi. Compair Lapin's 
sarcastic nature shows itself in the little song which he sings 
here about the king. Lion is nothing but a George Dandin, a 
fool who is making other fools work for him, but the Rabbit, 
he does not care any more for the king than a dog cares for 
Sunday, and that surely is the climax to his contempt. Mo 
fout ben le roi com chien font ben dimanche, a negro proverb 
which is quite expressive. 

P. 106, N. 37: Rave pas gagnin raison divan poule. La raison du 
plus fort est toujours la meilleure. A proverb which I have 
heard hundreds of times, and which it would be very appropri- 
ate to place at the end of La Fontaine's fable " le Loup et 
1'Agneau;" it illustrates admirably the helplessness of the 
weak in presence of the strong. 

N. 38: vou gagnin la bouche doux. Your mouth is sweet. It 

is not by his eloquence, by his golden words that Compair 
Lapin will win his case, he is not a St Jean Bouche-d'or, but his 
hypocritical words will catch his hearers, as honey catches flies. 

N. 39: Bef dan poto pas pair couto lam resigned to my fate. 

This proverb is very true. While tied to be killed, the ox 
seems the emblem of resignation, and only shows his agony by 
his great rolling eyes. In his reply to Dr. Monkey's taunts, Brer 
Rabbit proves himself to be another Sancho Panza. He always 
has a proverb applicable to his situation. Here are three more 
of them : 

N. 40 : Mo pencore rendi au boute quarante narpent." -< Je ne 

suis pas encore a bout de force." This expression comes from 
the fact that it is impossible to attempt to run a race of forty 
arpents without being worn out long before reaching the goal. 
Lapin means by that that he has not given up all hope, in spite 
of his feigned resignation. 

N. 41 : Pet He to minme avan Ionian fa batte les taons A very 

strange proverb which may be translated : Perhaps, before long, 
you yourself will be in misery, that is to say, will have nothing 
to do but to chase away bugs and insects. The French expres- 
sion etre le dindon de la farce is curiously rendered by the 
negro : la farce a reste pou toi. 

N. 42 : Chaque chien gagnin so jou. Every dog has his day. 

Dr. Monkey need not fear, he will be caught one day. Our 
friend Rabbit is surely a great philosopher and could have 
governed an island as well as Don Quijote's celebrated esquireu, 

N. 43: ein gros diboi A large tree. Observe how very de- 

bonnaire King Lion is; his throne is not of gold, but an uprooted 
tree is a good seat for him. We might imagine seeing St. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 121 

Louis under his oak at Yincennes, were it not for the bribe 
which Lion receives most unblushingly from compair Lapin. 
P. 106, N. 44 : Ala gaillard la. There is the fellow, ala from voila. 

N. 45 : Cofer an example of agglutination from pourquoi faire. 

N. 46 : ~fe li bande complimen ave keke piti cado. Compliment 

him as highly as you can, and add a few presents. The expres- 
sion bande compliment has struck me as being well chosen : 
an arn^ed band of compliments taking the king by storm. 

N. 47 : te gagnin doutance\ have heard this word doutance for 

doute, not only among the negroes, but also among the 
Acadians. Also, the word part for pret. 

P. 107, N. 48: ce la plime ki fe zozo A proverb. One goes every- 
where with fine clothes. The contrary of the English saying: 
"all is not gold that glitters" and of the French proverb: 
" 1'habit ne fait pas le moine." I fear that in our days "ce* la 
plime ki fe" zozo " is too often correct. I like that word zozo 
very much, it is childlike and simple, like the former slaves. 

N. 49 : to trop connin batte to la djole en ho moin. You know 

too well how to beat your jaw about me. Observe the 
term en ho, universally used for sur, and often contracted into 
the simple word on: "li tomb on moin," etc. The whole 
discourse of the King is full of idioms. The reference to the 

N. 50: hound (chien tai'aut), and especially the comparison "ma 

cras toi com ein plaquemine ki ben mir," I shall mash you 
like a very ripe persimmon, have a real country air and prove 
that our narrator was no city man. 

N. 51 : cete ein gros divent ki pa menin la pli ni tonnair. 

Another genuine negro comparison. -King Lion was nothing 
but a bag of wind, but while speaking to him, Compair Lapin 
raises him to the skies. It is always the story of Ce"lime~ne and 
Arsinoe" in " le Misanthrope," Act III, scenes 3 and 4. 

N. 52 : vou ki brave passe nouzote. The word passe* for more is 

often used in the patois: In the proverb "prend gar vo mie" 
passe" pardon," and in the song "Tafia donx passe" siro," 
whiskey is sweeter than syrup. 

N. 53,: ma gage quarante donze lote zanimo. I shall engage 

forty twelve other animals. A strange way of counting of the 
negroes, but very common. The English speaking pupils find 
our French sixty /<fjustas strange. The quatre-vingts and 
quinze-vingts, borrowed from the Gauls, may also be com- 
pared to the quarante douze of the negroes. 

N. 54: si to te donnin li ein la manne ma'i. What could Bourri- 

quet have done with a gold chain ? Corn or hay was much 
better for him : 

" Mais le moindre grain de mil 
Serait bien mieux mon affaire." 

N. 55 : Bef ki divan tjujou boi dolo clair. " Le premier arrive* 

122 Alcee For tier, [Vol. in 

est le mieux servi:" indeed, the ox which arrives the first at 
the brook will drink clear water, whilst the others will find it 
muddy. These negro proverbs deserve really to be kept and 
explained, they are certainly very expressive. 
P. 108, N. 56 : mo le from mo oul I wish -je veux. 

N. 57 : la tende pareil com fa mo sorti di li He will hear the 

same thing which I have just told him. la tende\ future of 
tend6 (entendre) pareil com fa a peculiar expression, borrow- 
ed from bad French, just as mo sorti forje viens de. 

58 : Dan Rice Never was a man more popular with the negroes 

and the children than DAN RICE, and allusions to his circus are 
frequent in Louisiana, where BARNUM is hardly known. 

59 : li pape recommenct ein pareil job pap contracted from pa 

ap (pas aprs recommencer) job, an English word used by 
every one in Louisiana and adopted as French : il a un bonjob ; 
c'est \\r\jobber. ^ 

N. 60; pasque parce que because. 

N. 6 1 : vini menti en ho vous. A favorite negro expression ; 

observe the various uses of en ho. 

Kap gouvernin- kape* from qui est aprls ; another example of 
the laconism of the patois. 

- N. 62 : Ouchon A word created to represent the noise made by 
Dr. Monkey and Bourriquet when they ran off'; an onomatopoeia. 

N. 63: ye font ye can raide. They vanished, they disappeared. 

The energy of the expression cannot be rendered in English 
nor in French. I suppose that can means here le camp, a local 
word for quarters, and that fout can signifies to run away from 
the quarters, probably an allusion to the nlgres marrotis. 

N. 64 : maite d' equipage. The word equipage does not not refer 

here to the crew of a ship, but to the place in the sugar-house 
where are the kettles, the names of which are : la grande, la 
Propre, le flambeau , le strop, and la batterie, where the syrup 
becomes la cuite, which, when cool turns to sugar. Maitre 
d' equipage is, therefore, the man who superintends the work 
done at r equipage. 

P. 109, N. 65 : Ce pd la peine nou couri c here he tou vie papier laye 
It is useless to look for all these old papers, let by gones be by- 
gones. A good proverb in the mouth of the hypocritical Dr. 
Monkey, who with his foolish friend Bourriquet, was trying 
already to catch Compair Lapin at fault. 

_ N. 66: pale ere pas ale* ere", the future. You will not believe. 
Here, we are told that rabbits never drink ; but it is still the 
story of the forbidden fruit, Compair Lapin will drink because 
it is forbidden to him ; there must have been also an Adam 
among his ancestors. 

N. 67 : la viande sale ki te ben pimente. Well peppered salt 

meat. The negroes in Louisiana are very fond of pepper, and 
salt meat being given them as rations, the above comparison is 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 123 

very natural. I have often heard negro mothers say to their 
children : Toi, c piment, to fronte com di pice. You are as 
bad as red pepper, you are as insolent as fleas. 

P. 109, N. 68 : protection fie le roi. A true genitive, as in Old French. 

P. no, N. 69 : Ton fa ye ki te vie te ape vini jene encor. fa ye 
demonstrative pronoun, the forms of which are : cila, cila la, 
cila ye, cila laye, fa and fa ye. All who drank from the well be- 
came young again ; we see by this how the negroes adapt history 
and legend to their tales. Here is the famous well that PONCE 
DE LEON searched in vain, and which was to make him once 
more a young and elegant knight. Observe, however, what 
has been added by the narrator of our story : vegetables cut 
the day before would grow again if sprinkled with the marvel- 
lous water. This imagination of the people is what renders 
popular tales interesting, it is to see what changes are made in 
different countries in tales, which are probably everywhere the 
same in the main plot. 

N. 70. so piti calebasse. The calebasse, the gourd, when filled 

with dry peas was called chichicois, and was one of the many 
strange musical instruments of the negroes. 

N. 71 : li soucouye so la tete. Soucouye represents more for- 

cibly than secouer what CompairLapin did on seeing the black 
fellow by the well, we almost think that we hear the noise of 
Rabbit's big ears flapping against his head, in his surprise and 

N. 72 : so la tete. It is strange that the Creole patois has kept 

the article with the possessive adjective, when it is not done in 
modern French and rarely in Old French. 

N. 73: grounouille. A frog; often pronunced by metathesis 

gournouille. The bull-frog is called ouararon on account of its 
peculiar cry. When it is about to rain the negroes sing : 
"Crapo danse", grounouille chante",moman Miranda dan bayou." 

N. 74 : Tchoappe a word like Onchon used as an onomatopoeia. 
P. in, N. 75: la restan. It is curious to observe how the gender of 

a French word changes in its passage into the patois. 

N. 76 \gran zeronce. A word to be seen frequently in our 

tales, and referring principally to the blackberry bushes with 
which our Louisiana forests are so extensively covered. The 
zeronce are not to be invaded with impunity, as many a hunter 
has found out, on coming out of them with his clothes torn and 
his hands bleeding. We must remember, however, that they 
are the home of our friend Rabbit, who seems invulnerable to 
their thorns. 

N. 77 : li laimnin moin com cochon Idinmin la boue. He 

loves me as the hog loves mud, a comparison not elegant, but 
very correct and exceedingly popular. 

N. 78 : Chevrefeille te borne Idir. The description of this spring 

124 Alcee For tier, [Vol. in. 

evening is quite poetical, but the couleur locale is well kept, 
especially in this passage : 

P. ii i, N. 79. : chien ki tape jap^ apre gro niage ki te apt galp divan 
diveiit. The dogs which were barking at the large clouds 
which were running ahead of the wind. 

N. So : mo l baingnin asoir. I want to take a bath this eve- 

ning. The address of Compair Lapin to Ji Bonhomme Godron 
is amusing. He pretends at first that he does not want to 
drink the water, but only comes to bathe in the well, then he 
gets angry, loses his usual cunning and gets caught. 
P. 112, N. Si : li te sali so repitation hors service. A good expres- 
sion, her reputation was soiled out of service, as Compair 
Lapin had spread everywhere paille (Sparpiile) that he was 
Miss Le"onine's lover. 

N. 82 : can di boi tombe, cabri mout Proverb Quand on est 

ruine", chacun vous tourne le dos. . when the ^ree is down, 
be it the tallest oak tree, the goat can despise it and climb on 
it ; it is always the famous coup de pied del' due to the dying lion. 

N. 83: Cochon marron connin oh ye frotte. Another form of 

this proverb is : cochon marron pa frotte" ape" gorofie", The 
word gorofie", says MR. DE MORUELLE, comes by corruption from 
gare-aux-pieds. It is a tree with long and hard thorns, which 
the wild hog takes good care not to touch. The proverb might 
be translated thus: " le lache ne s'attaque jamais au brave," 
the coward never attacks the brave man. Dr. Monkey and 
Bourriquet would never have dared to insult our brave Compair 
Lapin, when he was in liberty. 

N. 84 : fa mo di, li ben di What I have said is well said. A 

sentence of great concision and force.. Lapin is quite sure that 
he is right : Magister dixit. 

N. 85 : ein fie ki te mince com ein dicanne e ki tournin gros com 

ein barifarine. A most singular and amusing comparison, a 
little coarse, but characteristic and expressive. 

N. 86: ce pa bapteme catin. A proverb. That is very serious, it 

is not the baptism of a doll catin for poupee is very common. 

P. 113, N. 87: dromi for dormi. There is a pretty negro dicton 
beginning with this word : dromi tromp6 moin, sleep has de- 
ceived me, I awoke too late. 

N. 88 : A la barre jou At dawn, that is to say, when the 
first streak of day is seen. 

N. 89 : Oh ! m lite be/. The description of Miss Le"onine's toilette 

is admirable, it shows the good taste of the negroes ; a dress of 
white muslin, with a blue ribbon, and a wreath of roses on her 
head, in the hottest sun, at noon, and yet all eyes were riveted 
on her, braque enho li. 

N. 90 : Oui, oua! an exclamation. Yes, indeed ! 

N. 91 : ki te apt tremble com ein feille Hard. Poor Compair 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 125 

P. 113, N. 92 : Lapin^ his bravery has abandoned him. How is he 

to get out of this bad scrape ? 

N. 93 : donnin li so choix pou choisi so la mort. Gave him 
his choice to choose his death. A funny pleonasm, which 
reminds us of our French monter en haut and descendre en das. 

N. 94: tou fa ensemb. All these at the same time. Compair 

Lapin chooses to be killed in three different ways at the same 
time, rather than be thrown in the thorns (grand zer once). 
P. 114, N. 95 : fa $aye. A very concise expression. "What is the 
matter ? 

N. 96 : Mamzelle Leonine vance. Miss Leonine plays here 

an interesting part ; she pretends to hate Compair Lapin, and 
begs that he be thrown in the thorns. It is, of course, to save 

N. 97 : c6 la minme mo woman te f moin A common dictou in 

the Creole patois. "I am at home here, that is my country." 
In French, we sometimes say: "Je suis sur mon fumier." 
Compair Lapin was indeed at home and saved. 

N. 98 \-Nimporte kichoge ein fame oule, Bon Dji4 aussite. 

An interesting translation of the famous saying: "ce que 
femme veut, Dieu le veut." 

P. 115, N. 99 : Com mo U la can tou fa rive. Of course, the narrator 
was always an eye witness of all he relates ; is not his motto, 
Bonne foi, Bonne foi? 

N. 100 : Mo fini. The end " Finis coronat opus." 

II. Compair Bouki e Compair Lapin. No. i. 

Ein jou Compair Bouki rencontre compair Lapin. Coman, 
li di, compair Lapin, ce vou ki la ? vou pa connin jordi ce" jou 
k tou moune ape" vende y6 moman pou mange. 

" Ah ! oui, di compair Lapin, moin aussite ma couri cherche 
mo moman 6 2 ma vende li pou ein chaudier di gri 6 ein chau- 
diere gombo." 

Aste"r ye" tou le" de parti. Compair Bouki couri marre" so 
moman av6 ein lacorde, e" pendan tan la 3compair Lapin marre" 
so kenne ave" ein fil zaraigne" et avan li monte* dan charrette li 
di com ga : " asteur, moman, sit6t va rive" c6te z6ronce, vasotte", 
e" va chape la mison." 

Compair Bouki veude so moman e re"tournin daus so char- 
rette av6 so chaudiere di gri et so chaudiere gombo. Pendan 
lape" revini, li oua ein lapin couche" dans chimin, ein pe" pli 
loin ein ote lapin ; li couri encor ein pe", et li oua ein ote lapin. 

Quand li rive* cote" troisieme lapin, li di : " Ce" pa possib, 
lapin laye* ape mouri faim aulie" vende y6 moman, laisse* moi 
descende trap^ ye*. 

126 Alcee Forfier, [Vol. nr. 

Li te*pa capab trap6 arien, pasque" cete compair Lapin ki te 
re" semblan mouri poll fe compair Bouki laisse so charrette, tan 
la, compair Lapin galope" cote" charrette compair Bouki, vole 
so de" chaudiere, ^coupe" la tche so choal, plante li dan la terre, 
inainin so charrette pli loin 6 couri cache". 

Compair Bouki revini cherche' so charrette, me li oua jis la 
tche so choal plante" dans la terre. 

Li commence fouille" la terre com li te ere" so choal e so char- 
rette te tombe" dans ein trou e" li pe"le moune pou id6 li. Tig 
sorti dans bois e" ide" compair Bouki fouille". 

Compair Bouki trouve Tig si gras ke" li morde li on so dos e" 
li chape. Tig mande compair Lapin ki a li capab fe" pou 
venge" li meme en haut compair Bouki. ^Compair Lapin dit : 
fo donnin grand bal, vini a soi chezmoin." 

Tig e" compair Lapin pren bon misicien e ye invite plein 
moune. Alors compair Lapin moute on so la garli e li com- 
menc6 chant6 : 

sVini dan gran bal 
a qui perdi y fame 
Bel n^gresse S^n^gal. 

Compair Bouki ki tende ^a galope cote compair Lapin et li 
crie" : c6 mo kenne fame, pas besoin invite" plice moune. 

M6 compair Lapin f6 comme si li pa tende" 6 li batte tambour 

e chante : 

63imion, carillon painpain, 
do. do. do. 

Compair Bouki entre" dan cabane compair Lapin e li pren 
Tig pou ein fame, pasque" li te* cach6 so labarbe 6 te bille com 
ein mamzelle. Quand bal fini compair Bouki reste" s61 av^ Tig 
ki donnin li ein bon vole" 6 chipe ave" compair Lapin. Astair ce 
pa tout. Tig 6 compair Lapin t6 pa connin cdte" compair Bouki 
t^ passe. Quand compair Lapin vini cote so cabane, li crie" ; 
bon soi, mo cabane, bon soi, e" li di : ce drole mo cabane ki 
toujour re"ponne, pa di arien jordi. 

Compair Bouki ki te" pa malin ditou, r6ponne : bonsoi, mo 
maite bonsoi : Ah ! nous tchombo li, di compair Lapin, couri 
cherche" di f&, nouzote va boucanin compair Bouki dan cabane la. 

Ye brile" povre compair Bouki, 6 compair Lapin te" si content 
k li sotte" com cabri et chante 

7A'ie, aie, aie, compair Lapin 
Ce ein piti be"te ki connin sott6. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk-Lore. 127 

(OIII. Cow pair Bouki Compair Lapin. No. 2. 

Ein jou, compair Bouki couri oua compair Lapin. Quand li 
entre dan cabane la, li oua ein gros chaudiere qui te" ap6 tchui 
de" van di fe" e a te senti si bon compair Bouki te pa capab reste 

Quand mange" la te" tchui, compair Bouki te gagnin aussi so 
par ; li trouve" a te bon ke li commence embete" compair Lapin 
pou connin ou li pren la vianne ki si bon. 

" Tan pri, compair Lapin, di moin ou vou pren la vianne la." 

" Non, compair Bouki, vous tro gourman." 

" Campair Lapin, mo pove piti ape mouri faim, di moin ou 
vou trouve la vianne la," Non, compair Bouki, vou tro coquin. 

Enfin, li embete" compair Lapin si tan, si tan : ke compair 
Lapin di " Goute", compair Bouki, mo va di vou mais fo pa vou 
di personne e i fo vou fe" com mo di vous. Vou connin bef 16 
roi ki dans la plaine e ki si gras, eh ben ! vou va pren ein sac et 
ein coutau, vou va guette quaud li ouvri so la bouche pou 
mange", 2 vou va sote" dans so la gorge, e quand vou rendi dans so 
vente, vou va commence coupe la vianne rnette dan vou sac , 
aster fe ben attention, pa coupe cote so tcher, pasque vous va 
tchue" li ; quand li va ouvri so labouche pou mange" encor vou 
va sote" de"hor e galope che vou, fo pas vou laisse personne 
oua vou. 

Lendimin matin compair Bouki pren so sac e so couteau, li 
galope" dan la plaine 6 quand Bef le roi ouvri so la bouche pou 
mange, li sote dan so vente et la li commence coupe la vianne et 
mette" dans so sac, coupe la vianne, mette dans so sac, ; pli li te ape 
coupe", pli li te" ape vance cote" tcher bef le roi, li oua la vianne la 
te si bel, si gras, li di, " ki a fe si mo coupe ein piti morceau, a 
va pas tchue li ; li pren so conteau, li coup6 ein morceau, tien, bef 
le roi tombe mouri et voila compair Bouki ki pli capab sorti 
dans so vente. 

Tou moune vini oua ki ga ki te rive, coman bef le roi ki te 
si vaillan, t6 mouri comme ga. 

Y6 di, faut nous ouvri so vente pou oua ki ga li te gagnin. 

Quand ye" fe ga, ki c,a y6 oua ? 

Compair Bouki! Ah ! compair Bouki, c6 vou ki tchue bef le 
roi, vou te" oule vo!6 la vianne, attend, nouva range" vou. 

Ye" prend compair Bouki, ye ouvri so vente, y6 ot6 so letripe 
et 3ye bourre li ave di sable, et ye" mette ein bouchon pou fer- 
min trou la. 

128 Alcte Fortier, [Vol. in. 

Quand compair Bouki tournin ch H, li t benhonte ; so piti 
galop6 vini oua bon la vianne li t6 port6, " Popa, donnin nou la 
vianne" Ya pas, mo piti " Oui, popa, kichoge senti bon en 
haut vous." 

Et piti ap6 vanc6, vanc6, compair Bouki ap6 tchoule, tchoul. 

Piti commenc^ senti bouchon la, y trouve" li senti bon pas- 
qu 4yav6 di miel en haut la; piti commenc6 sice bouchon, 
sic6 bouchou, tien ! voila bouchon ki parti, tou di sable sorti 6 
compair Bouki ki mouri dret la, li t6 plate par terre. 

( X )IV. Compair Bouki & Compair J^apin. No. 3. 

Ein jou, piti compair Bouki rencontre" piti compair Lapin ki 
t6 gagnin bel robe dimanche e" soulier n6f. 

Can y6 re"tournin ch6 ye" ; y6 mand6 y^popa cofer li pa don- 
nin y bel zabi comme kenne piti compair Lapin. 

Compair Bouki couri oua compair Lapin 6 li mand li, ou li 
pran tou bel kichoge li donnin so piti. 

Compair Lapin te pa ou!6 r6ponne mais compair Bouki 
embet6 li sitan k li di : " couri bich6 dan boi e can to va lasse, 
gad6 dans mili boi, to va oua ein gro nabe. Dromi en ba li et 
can to va re"veill6 di : " 2 nabe, comme to doux." Nab va di : si 
mo t ouvri, ga, to sr6 di ? " Toi, to va r^ponne : si to te", ouvri, 
mo sr6 ben conten. " Can nabe la ouvri, entre" didan, la va 
referme, 6 to sra oua plein joli kichoge, Pren ga to le, 6 di 
nabe : ' ouvri,' pou to capab sorti." 

Compair Bouki f6 ga compair Lapin t6, di, mais can li oua 
tout c,a ye" t^ gagnin dans nabe la li te" oule" pran sitan kichoge 
k6 li blie di " nabe ouvri." Nabe la t6 pou de" vo!6r ki t6 serr6 
y6 kichoge la dan, y6 r6vini dans bois 6 y6 trouve" compair 
Bouki ap6 vol y6 bitin. Mo pas b^soin di vou ke" y6 donnin 
pove compair Bouki ein si bon vo!6 k li t6 pa capab grouil!6. 
(i)V. Compair Bouki e Compair Lapin. No. 4. 

Compair Bouki 6 compair Lapin t couri ensembe oua Mam- 
zelle. Pendan y6 tap6 caus6, compair Lapin di comme ca 
mamzelle Iay6 : vou oua compair Bouki, li pa moune, li ce" ein 
choal mo popa laisse" moin en ne"ritage. Mamzelle y di : oh ! 
non, compair, nou pa capab cr6 c,a. Ast6r, compair Lapin 
re"tournin chez li, 6 can jou vini pou li couri oua mamzelle, li f 
ein bel toilette, et li couvri ave" lapeau cochon. 

Can compair Bouki rentr, li di: "Eh ben, compair, vou 
prte? " Compair Lapin r6ponne : " m^ non, vou pa oua coman 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore, 129 

mo couvri, mo fr6t et mo gagnin sitant mal au pied ke" mo pas 
connin coman ma fe pou marche*." 

Compair Bouki ki te toujou si bete, di: "monte* en ho mo 
dos, et can nou va proche pou riv6 vou va descende." 

Compair Lapin di : mo pa connin si mo va capab monte* on 
vou dos, me" ma seye." 

Sans compair Bouki oua, compair Lapin mette so ze*peron, & 
li monte on dos compair Bouki. 

Pendant li on dos compair Bouki, compair Lapin te 2 nec ape* 
grouille'. Compair Bouki mande" li ga li gagnin. " Ma pe" 
souffri sitant, ke mo pa connin coman assite." Compair 
Lapin di a, mais li tape" grouille" pou ote so lapeau cochon. 

Can ye* rive cote" la mison mamzelle laye, compair Lapin 
pique compair Bouki ave so ze*peron e compair Bouki parti 
galope. Compair Lapin sotte par terre e li entre dans la mison 

" Vou oua ben, ke mo te raison, quand mo di compair Bouki 
ce* ein choal mo popa te laisse" moin." 

(OVI. Compair Bonki Compair Lapin. No, 5. 

Ein jou bon matin, Compair Lapin le*ve et li senti la faim ape" 
gagne li. Li charche tou cot6 dan cabanne, li pa triv4 aien pou 

Li parti couri cote* Compain Bouki. Tau li rive*, li out Com- 
pair Bouki ape guignote' ein dizo. 

Eh ! Compair Bouki, mo te" vini dijine" ave toi ; mo oua to 
pa gagne* fame kichoge pou don mouen. 

Tan dire, Compair Lapin ; 2 na pi rention dans cabanne, jiche 
dizo cila qui rete". 

Compair Lapin zongle* tan. 

Eh ben ! Compair Bouki, si to ole", ma va couri la chache 
de*zef torti. 

Tope" ! allon, 3 n a couri tou souite. 

Compair Bouki pran so pagne* ave* so la pioce et ye" parti 
couri cote* bayou dan di boi. 

Compair Lapin, mo pa souvan couri la chache dezef torti ; 
mo pa boucou kone* trive ye" ben. 

Pa ke*t6, Compair Bouki ; mo tou tan trive" place kote" torti 
pondi dezef. Toi, ta fouye* ye". 

130 Alcte Fortier, [Vol. in. 

1 Kan ye* riv6 au ra bayou, Compair Lapin marce" douceman, 
ape" garde" ben, cote* ci, cot6 la. 

Ben to li rte* drete. 

Compeir Bouki, torti ere* li malin. Li grate" la te* av6 so gro 
pate et li pondi so dezef dan trou ; pi li mete* ti brin sabe on ye* 
et li parpille feille on so ni. To oua bite cila ? Ote* feille la ye* 
et grate* aye* to la pioce, sire ta trive* de*zef. 

Compair Bouki fe" c,a compair Lapin di li, et ye* oua ein ta 
de*zef ape* cle*re* dan trou la. 

Compair Lapin, to malin passe" mouen; mo ben contan 
gagn6 toi pou mo zami. 

Compair Lapin patage* de"zef ye", li done" la mok6 a Compair 
Bouki. * 

Compair Bouki, mo boncou faim, ma pe" manze* mo kenne 
de*zef ti suite. 

F6 com to ole* Compair Lapin mouen ma pe* porte* mo 
kenne c6te* mo fame pou fe y6 tchi. 

Ye* couri plin enco et ye trive* plin de*zef. Compair Lepin 
touzou manze* so kenne ; Compair Bouai pa leime d6zef cri ; li 
me"te* y6 tou dan so pagne*. 

Compair Bouki, mo commence lasse; mo cr6 tan mo tonrne*. 

Mo gagn6 ace* de*zef pou zordi, Compeir Lapin, allon no 
tour n. 

Tan ye* t6 ap6 couri divan, Compair Lapin zougle* li meme : 

Compair Bouki pa cone" trive* d6zef torte ; ce* mouen ki triv6 
y6, ye* t6 doi tou pou mouen. Fo mo f6 m^k6 pou gague* y6. 

Tau y^ proche rive* divan, Compair Lapin di : 

Compair Bouki, mo blie* porte" de*zef pou mo vie* moman. To 
te" doi ben prte" mouen ein douzene. Ma ranne toi y^ ein lotte 
foi. Compair Bouki donne li ein douzene, et ye* couri chakenne 
so chimin. 

Compair Lapin couri me*te* so douzene dezef dan so cabanne, 
pi li parti couri c6te* Compair Bouki. Tan li proce* cabanne 
compair Bouki, li comance* plene ape* tchombo so vante. Com- 
pair Bouki sorti dihor. 

a to gague*, Compair Lapin ? Samble* com to pa gaya. 

Oh nou ! Compair Bouki de"zef torte* ye" poisonne* mouen.* 
Can pri, vite couri charche* metcin. 

Ma couri tan vite mo capa, Compair. Si vite Compair 
Bouki parti, Compair Lapin couri dan kisine et tombe" manze" 
de"zef torti. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 131 

Meci bon dji6, ma manz6 mo vante plin zordi. Metcin la 
ret6 loian, mo gagne tan manze tou avan y6 vini. 

Tau Compair Lapin proce fini manz6 d6zef, li tende Compair 
Bouki ap6 parte dihor. 

Doctair Macaque, mo ben contan mo contr6 vou on chimin ; 
mo zami boucou malade. 

Compair Lapin pa perdi tern. Li ouvre" la finetre et sole 
dihor. Compair Bouki rentr6 dan cabanne, li pas oua Compair 
Lapin. Li couri dan kisine, coquil dezef parpille" tou partou 
Compair Lapin dija rendi dan clo. 

Compair Bouki rache" so chive", tan li colair. 

Li parte galop6 ape" Compair Lapin. 

Compair Lapin si tan manze" dezef, li pa capa galop6 vite. 

Tau 16 oua Compair Bouki sof6 16 tro proce, 16 fourr6 dan 
trou di boi 

Compair Bouki p61e Compair Torti ki t6 ap6 pass6 dan 
chimin, Compair Torti, tan pr6, vini gu6t6 Compair Lapin 
qui vo!6 tou to dezef. Ma couri charch6 mo la hache pou bate 
de boi la. 

Couri vite, Compair Bouni, ma guete cokin la ben. 

Tau Compair Bouki parti, Compair Lapin di : 

Compa : r Torte gard6 dan trou la, ta oua si mo gagne to 

^ Compair Torti 16v6 so la tte. 

Compair Lapin voy6 boi pouri dan so jies. 

Compair Torti couri lave so jies dan bayou : Compair Lapin 
sape t6 souite. 

Compair Bouki vini bate di boi, li oua Compair Lapin dija 

Li te si tan colair, li couri trive Compair Torti au ra bayou, 
et li coup6 so la tchie ave so la hache. 

Ce cofair la tchi6 torti coute com c,a jika zordi. 

(OVII. Compair Bouki et Compair Lapin. No. 6. 

Ain jour compair bouki, qui ta*p6 cr6v6 faim, courri 'oir so 
vi6 zami, compair' lapin. 

2 Li trouv6 li ape zoug!6 arien et en train nettayer poessons. 
Bouki mand6 li ou!6 li t6 prend tou ga. So vi6 zami cont6 li so 
1'histoire. Li di li : " To 6ir compair mo courri guette charrette 
poessons 3su chimin. Quand mo oir li proch6, mo couch6 dan 

132 Alcee For tier, [Vol. in. 

chimin comme si mo te mourri. Gouvernair charrett ' la des- 
cende tout ' suite pou ' ramasse" moin. Li secouille moin ain ' ti 
brain, et pi apres ga li jette" moin dan * so charrett ' dan ' ain tas 
poessons. Mo pas remuille" mo pattes com mait ' renard. Mo 
veille" ben vie" gouvernair-la jisque" & mo ' oir li te" ' blie moin, 
mo commence vite jette poessons dan ' chimin la jisque* ' a nous 
te* presse fait ain mille pli' loin, pi 'quan' mo jige" que mo t6 
gagnin assez, mo saute" par terre et mo ramasse* tou 'poesson 
la ye" que mo t fou dan ' chimin. 

Ye" te gagnin cent ou mille, mopa" compte" mo te* tro press6. 
Mo mette" y6 tout seul su mo do, pli vite qu6 mo te* capab,' et 
mo vini tout droet ' ici pou ' mange" ye*." 

Compair bouki zongle" ain bon boute li t gagnin ain pe* pair 
que si li t6 saye fait la meme chose li sf^ met li encore dan 

Compair lapin, qui ta pe guette" li avec so bon gie*, ' oir que" so 
zami ta p4 tro zongl. Li di li : ' Vi6 zami ta p6 crev^ faim, 
fai com ' moin, courri guette* charm, su chemin, et vo!6 tou ca 
to capab : et nous zaut va fai gran ' gala.' 

Vie bouki qui te* groumand t6 pi capab ' tchombo, li parti, 
courri couch6 dan ' chimin com si li te mouri pou m&me, li 
Iev6 so pattes y^ en 1'air pou mie" tromp6 moune. Quand gou- 
vernair charret' la proche tout pres, li oir vi6 bouki qui ta fe" so 
macaqueries, pou ' trompe" li, li descende en bas avec ein g r 
couarte 1'habitation, et donn6 li 5 einfouet qui te gagnin piment, 
di poivre et di sel, aforce ga te* brou!6. Compair ' bouki reste 
ain moi ' couch6 dan ' so lit apres ga. Ye* voy6 m^decin pou 
coudre so vi6 des zos. Li t^ pli gagnin ain seul la plume qui 
t6 reste" et li te" gagnin colique jusqu a" ' dan ' so bee. Ye" donn6 
li plein tafia pou donne" li la force ; ye* mette li dan gro bain f6 
avec gombo, et y& f li boir di th lorier tou temps apres ga. 

Quan compere bouki gueri, li jir6, mais ain pe" tar, qu^ corn- 
pair lapin sre" ' pli fou-li en dedans ain aut ' fois. 

Tou bouki lay^ qui pas coquins 
Douait gagnin peur d6 vi^ lapins. 


(')VIIL Bin Vit Zombi Malin. 

Ye* t6 gaignin ein foi ein prince qui te* tr^s riche. Ein jou, 
princesse so fille perdi ein gros diamant. Pendant li tap cri^, 
ein vi6 nomme vini dan la cou et di li ce* zombi. Prince la pro- 
mette li a li oule si li dit ou diamant la ye. Zombi jiste mand6 . 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 133 

trois repas e" dit li sra trouve bijou la. Ye" donnin li ein fame" 
dejenin 6 et quand li te" mange" tout, li dit : voila ein qui pris- 
Domestiqucs prince commence" tremble", pasque" ce" te" ye* qui te" 
vole" diamant la. Apris so dinain, zombi di : voila de* ki pris. 
Domestiques tremble" pli fort. Apre"s sonuper, zombi di : voila 
trois qui pris. Quand ye" tende ga, trois voleurs ye" tombe & 
ginou divant zombi 6 di ye" sre" rende diamant la si li pa di ye" 
maite arien. 

Aster zombi pran diamant la mette li, dans ein boule la mie di 
pain et j6te" li divant ein dinde dans la cou. Dinde la va!6 dipin 
avec diamant. Aster zombi couri cherche" prince et so fille et 
li dit ye" que" bijou princesse la dans la fale gros dinde dans la 
cou, et ke" si y6 tchie" dinde la ye" va trouv6 diamant la. Prince 
fe ga nomme la di et ye" trouve" diamant princesse dans la fale 
gros dinde. Prince te trop content e" li di que" vie" nomme la ce 
pli grand zombi dans moune. 

A la cour prince la tout moune ta pe" admire zombi la, mais 
keke jene" gen te pas bien sir si li te" ein vrai zombi, et ye" te oule" 
saye trape li. Ye prend ein criquette dans zerbe, ye" metfe" li 
dans ein boite et ye mande zombi ga ye" te gagnin la dan. Vi6 
nomme la te pas connin, et li di li mme: He" Criquette, 
to pris. So nom te" criquitte, mais nomme laye* te pas connin ga 
et ye cr6 k6 zombi te divinin k6 y6 gagnin ein criquette dans 
boite la. Aussite vie" nomme la passe pou grand zombi et ye" 
donne li plain bon kichoge, et ce"pendant li te" jiste malin et te 
gagnin la chance. 

IX. Choal Dje, 

J Choal D|e" te" gagnin ein vivie et li te Iaiss6 tou compair boi 
dan so vivie", cepte" Compair Lapin. Ein jou, li trape* Compair 
Lapin cote" so vivi6. " Si mo trape toi ap6 boi dan mo vivi6, 
ma f toi paye" ein lamende. Compair Lapin re"ponne li : Charit6 
bien ordonnee commence par soi m^me, 6 com vou maite, mo 
va pa boi dan vou vivie*." 

Ein jou, y6 tchue ein chivreuil, apres y& t& corche li, y6 jett6 
la po la ; Compair Lapin ramasse li 6 rentr6 so latte dans kenne 
chivreuil la, 6 couri boi dan vivie" Choal Dje". 

Can Choal D)'e" oua ca, li vance 6 mande" Compair Chivreuil ki 
5a li te gagnin k6 li tou marque" com ca. Compair Chivreuil 
rponne : 2 " ce Compair Lapin ki fe signe la croix on moin 6 ki 
mett6 moin dan 16tat cila 6 si vou pas quitte" li boi dan vou 
vivie la fe minme kichoge ave vou." 

134 Alcee Fortier, [Vol. in. 

" Eh ben ! vou capab di Compair Lapin, k6 li capab vini 
boi dan mo vivi6 av6 ton so camarade y6 ; mo ve pa li f min- 
me kichoge av6 moin." 

Compair Lapin couri ch6 li 6 ot6 lapo la 6 reVini av so 
camarade boi dan vivi6. 

Can Choal Dj oua li vini, li di li : boi autant ta ou!6, av6 to 

Compair Lapin t6 toujou plice malin k tou moune. 

( J )X. Ein Fame ki tournin Macaque. 

Yav ein foi ein michie, ki te gagnin ein champ pichetache. 
Tou le jou li t oua k k6keune ap6 mang6 ein rang pichetache. 
Li mand so fame ki ca ki mang so pichetache. So fame di 
c6 so frere qui mang6 y& tou 16 jou. Li^rap6 piti gafon la et 
li donnin li ein bon vole. Lendimain, li oua ein ote rang 
pichetache mange. Li trap6 piti gacon la 6 donnin li ein lote 
vol. Piti gacon la di : " ce trop fort, li toujou ap6 batte moin, 
fo mo fait mo frere oua ke c6 so fame ki mang6 so pichetache." 

Lendimin, li pa porte dinin so frere dan champ, m6 li di li vi- 
ni dan la mison 6 li sra montr6 li ki moune ki vo!6 so pichetache. 

Can y6 rentre, fame la vini servi y& dinin, aster, piti gacon la 
commenc6 chant6 : 

Tout man , tout mange tout, tout man tout mang tout. 

Fame la di : cofer tape chant6 53, mo pa oule to chante ca, 
chante laute kichoge. Non, c 9a mole chant6. 

Li continuin chante, 6 y6 oua fame la commence sott6, com- 
mence gratt, 6 enfin li tournin macaque. Li galop6 dan champ 
pichetache 6 li mang ein rang. 

" To oua ben, di piti la, ke c6 pa moin ki mang6 to piche- 
tache ; ce to fame ki tou 16 jou tournin macaque. 

Michi6 la vanc6 av6 ein baton cot6 macaque la, m6 li galope 
dan bois 6 monte enho eine nabe. 

Compair Bouki Compair Lapin. 

The stories about Compair Bouki and Compair Lapin are 
probably the most amusing of all our popular tales ; they are 
innumerable, and in all of them, the rabbit is victorious, playing, 
as I have already said, the part of Renart in the story of the 
thirteenth century. 'Jean Sot 6 Jean 1'Esprit' are tales of the 

1887.] Louisiana Folk-Lore. 135 

same kind, in which, of course, Jean Sot is Bouki and 1'Esprit 
is Lapin. I give several Bouki and Lapin stories, numbering 
them i, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

II. Compair Bouki Compair Lapin. No. i. 

Page 125, Note i : Compair, The real orthography of this word is 
probably comp'e with the r omitted, but I have adopted the 
spelling of the tales already published, such as DR. MERCIER'S 
'Mamzelle Calinda,' 

N. 2 : ma vende li pou ein chaudi'ere di gri e ein chaudi'ere gom- 

bo. I shall sell her for a pot of hominy and one of gombo. 
The idea is very amusing and quaint, but however absurd, 
Lapin knew the astounding stupidity of Bouki. 

N. 3: Compair Lapin marre so kenne ave ein fil zaraigne. 

Observe the cunning of Rabbit : Bouki has tied his mother with 
a big rope, but Lapin ties his with a cobweb, that she might 
run away in the zeronce* 

P. 126, N. 4: Coupe la tche so choal, plante li dan la terre. This 
stratagem of Compair Lapin is quite funny. Having stolen 
Bouki's cart, he cut the horse's tail and stuck it in the ground, 
so that his foolish friend might believe that the horse and cart 
had fallen in a hole. 

N. 5 : Vini dan gran bal. Compair Bouki was apparently a vert- 

galant, as he claims for his wife the beautiful negress from 
Senegal mentioned by Compair Lapin. He is, however, 
punished for his intended infidelity to Madame Bouki, and 
meets Tiger dressed as a woman, who gives him a good beat- 

N. 6 : Simion carillon painpain. These words have no meaning, 

and are merely sung for imitative harmony. 

N. 7: Ale, aie, aie, compair Lapin. A most popular refrain 

among the negroes, and sung when there is lively dancing. 

III. Compair Bouki e Compair Lapin. No. 2. 

P. 127, N. i : This story was written for me by my sister, MRS. N. 
LEBEUF, of Jefferson Parish, who has kindly helped me very- 
much in my collection of tales. 

N. 2 : vou va sotte dan so lagorge. The plot of this tale was 

probably taken from one of GRIMM'S 'Marchen,' but the con- 
clusion is of real negro invention. 

N. 3 : y& bourre li ave di sabe, eye mette ein bouchon pou fermin 

trou la. They stuffed him with sand and put a cork to stop 
the opening. 

P. 128, N. 4: yave di miel en ho la. There was honey on the cork, 
and Bouki's children licking it the cork came out and poor 
Bouki died flat on the ground. Quite a peculiar patricide ! 

136 Alcte For tier, [Vol. in. 

IV. Compair Bouki e Compair Lapin. No. 3. 

P. 128, N. i : This story seems to be based upon the celebrated tale, 
"Alibaba and the Forty Thieves," in the "Arabian Nights ;" it 
is, however, interesting to see how it is related by the negroes ; 
for instance, in the Oriental story, the mere "Sesame ouvre-toi," 
is sufficient to obtain an entrance into the cavern. In the negro 
story, there is a conversation between Bouki and the tree. 

N. 2: Bouki. "Nabe com to dou /" "Tree, how sweet you 

are!" The Tree. ''Si mo t6 ouvri, ca to sre* di?" "If I 
opened, what would you say ?" Bouki. " Mosre" ben conten." 
" I should be very glad." This last answer is delightfully naive 
and worthy of our friend Bouki. 

V. Compair Bouki Compair Lapin. No. 4. 

N. i : This story is very short, but is nevertheless amusing. It 

was probably the worst trick that Lapin ever played his friend. 
What ! to make the grave Bouki pass for a horse, mount on 
his back, spur him on, and make him gallop, in the presence of 
the mamzelle whom he was courting ! That was too bad ; 
c'etaif le comble ! 

P. 129, N. 2 : nee ape grouille. A peculiar expression. " Ne faisait 
que grouiller." 

VI. Compair Bouki e Compair Lapin. No. 5. 

N. i : The manuscript of this tale was given to me by DR. 

MERCIER, for whom it had been written by a colored man ; a 
copy of it was sent by the DOCTOR, with a translation in French, 
to M. EUGENE ROLLAND, and published by him in Volume V, 
of 'Faune Populaire de la France." I reproduce it here in 
order that my collection of Bouki and Lapin tales may be com- 
plete. It is one of our best Louisiana Stories. 

N. 2: na pi rantion dan cabane. Ration, an allusion to the pork 

and corn meal given to the field hands every Saturday on 
plantations. In this sentence na has a negative meaning, but 
n is the negative, and a is the verb. 

N. 3: na couri tou souite. Another example of the future in the 

Creole patois ; there is no negative here. The meaning is : we 
shall go immediately. 

P. 130, N. 4: Compair Torti leve so la ttte. The tortoise, who is 
generally as cunning as the rabbit, was as foolish here as Com- 
pair Bouki. As his stupidity had cost him his tail, he probably 
became cunning from that time ; there is nothing like experience 
in this world ! 

VII. Compair Bouki e Compair Lapin. No. 6. 
P. 131, N. i : This tale was taken from le Diamant, a periodical 
published in New Orleans for a few months this year, by MR. 
A. MEYNIER. The plot is evidently borrowed from ' le Roman 
de Renart.' 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 137 

P. 131, N. 2~ LI trouve li ape zongle arien A happy expression-, 
"reflecting about nothing." This rabbit was not like that of 
La Fontaine. 

N. 3 : su chimin, su mo do. This Is not good patois, it should 

be ; en ho chimm, en ho mo do. 

P. 132, N. 4; ein gro couarte r habitation. A terrible whip, twisted 
in four. 

N. 5: ein fonet ki te gagnin piment^ di poivre & di set. "A 

whipping seasoned with red pepper, black pepper, and salt." 
Poor Bouki was sadly used up. Let him hereafter beware of 

N. 6: Compair Lapin, that is what Man Henriette says, and I 

cheerfully add my advice to hers in bidding him good-bye. 

\\\\.Ein vie Zombi Malm, 

N. i : This story was communicated to me by a gentleman who 

had heard it related a hundred times to his children by their 
old negro nurse. I thought it was a genuine Louisiana story, 
and was, therefore, much surprised to find the almost identical 
tale in M, HOLLAND'S ' Faune Populaire de la France,' Vol. Ill, 
about the grillon, called grillet in Bouches-du-Rhone and in 
Switzerland. I give, nevertheless, the Louisiana version of the 
story, in our Creole patois. 

IX. Choal DjiL 

P. 133, N. i : A name given by the negroes to an insect which we 
call in French prie-Dieu, 

N. 2 : Ce Compair Lapin ki fe signg la croi on main. That 

gentle sign of the cross, which left a bloody mark, is an answer 
worthy of Compair Lapin. We see that our friend Rabbit is 
still at his old tricks. In bidding him good-bye, it is with the 
hope that he will mend his evil ways, for he may meet with 
another Ti Bonhomme Godron and not find Miss Leonine to 
help him out of his bad scrape. 

X. Ein Fame ki tonrnin Macaque, 

P, 134, N. i : This is a tale which I wrote almost under the dictation 
of a negro woman ; it is far from being witty, but is interesting 
as being a real folk-lore story. I may add here that it is quite 
a treat to hear a negro relate a tale. He not only speaks, but 
actually acts, making vehement gestures and often singing- a 
refrain or an air of his own composition.- 

138 Alc'ee Fortier, [Vol. in. 

Part II. 


I am going to relate to you something which is very funny, as 
you are going to see, and which happened a long time ago ! 

When the animals had the earth for themselves and there 
were yet but few people, God ordered them not to eat each other, 
not to destroy each other, but said that they might eat the grass 
with all kinds of fruits that there were on the earth. That was 
better, because they were all his creatures and it pained him 
when they killed each other ; but as quif kly as they would eat 
the grass and fruits, He, God, would take pleasure to make 
them grow again to please them. But they did not obey the 
Master ! Mister Lion began by eating sheep, the dogs ate 
rabbits, the serpents ate the little birds, the cats ate rats, the owls 
ate chickens. They began to eat each other, they would have 
destroyed each other, if God had not put a stop to all that ! 
He sent a great drought to punish their cruelty. It was a thing 
which was funny, nevertheless, as you are going to see. 

There was smoke in the air, as when they burn cotton stalks ; 
it looked as if there was a light mist. After sunset, the heaven 
remained red like fire. The sea, the rivers, the lakes all began to 
fall, to fall ; all fell at the same time, until there was not a drop of 
water remaining. Neither did the dew fall early in the morning 
to moisten the grass. Ah ! I tell you my friends, all animals 
found themselves in a great trouble. They were roaming about 
everywhere; their tongue was hanging out; they became thin, 
thin. There was among them a doctor who was called Mister 
Monkey, he was half wizard, half voudou. They said he knew 
a great deal, but he was a big talker, and did very little. He 
said to the other animals that it was because they had made so 
many sins that God sent them all these misfortunes to punish 
them, that if there were any among them who wanted to pay, 
he would pray to make the rain fall. He had already succeeded 
very often when he asked for something ; God in heaven always 
listened to his prayer. There was also a famous thief there, it 
was Mister Fox, who ate all the chickens there were in the 
neighborhood ! He said to the other animals : " Don't you 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 139 

listen to Dr. Monkey, he is a d .... rascal, he will take your 
money without giving you anything for it. I know him, he is 
a rascal, you will have no rain at all ! It is better that we 
should dig a well ourselves. We need not count upon anything 
else. Let us go ! hurrah ! right off, if you are all like me, for I 
am very thirsty." Then Mister Monkey told him : " I think 
indeed that you are hungry, you d . . . . pirate, now that you 
have finished eating all the chickens there were here, you are 
coming to play the braggart here." Master Fox told him : 
" You are a liar, you know very well that the owls, the polecats 
and the weasels are eating all the chickens, and you come and 
say it is I. You know that if there is a thief here, it is you, you 
d . . . . prayer merchant." All the other animals, tigers, lions, 
wolves, elephants, crocodiles, serpents were running about to 
look for water. They had all assembled to hear the dispute of 
Dr. Monkey and Mr. Fox. 

I must tell you that if a hog grunts, a dog barks, a wolf howls, 
a cow bellows, each kind of animal has its own language. A 
tiger or an elephant or a lion cannot speak the language of 
another animal, each one speaks his own language, but when 
they are together, they all understand each other the hog 
which grunts understands the dog which barks. It is not like 
us men, if a German comes to speak with a Frenchman or an 
American, he will not understand, any more than if an English- 
man were to speak with a Spaniard who does not understand 
English. We men are obliged to learn the language of other 
nations if we want to converse with them. Animals are not at 
all like that, they understand each other as if they spoke the 
same language. Well, I must tell you that Mr. Fox pretended 
that if there was such a drought, the rain not having fallen for a 
year, so that all the grass was parched up, and the trees had 
lost their leaves, and there were neither flowers nor fruits, it was 
because there were no clouds in the heaven to give water, and 
not a prayer could make the rain fall. "All the water has gone 
into the ground, we must dig a large well in order to have water 
to drink. Listen to me, my friends, and we shall find water." 

Lion, who was the king, opened his mouth, he roared, the 
earth shook, he spoke so loud ! He beat his sides with his tail, 
and it made a noise like a big drum in a circus. All the other 
animals lay flat on the ground; He said: " By the very thunder, 
the first fellow who will speak to me about prayers, I shall give 

140 Alcte Fffrfier, [Vol. or. 

him something which will make him know me. I am a good 
fellow, when did I ever eat another animal ? It is a lie, and I 
say that the little lawyer Fox is a fine little fellow. He is right, 
we must dig a well to have water immediately. Come here, 
Compair Bourriquet (Donkey), it is you who have the finest 
voice here ; when you speak, it is like a 'soldier's trumpet. You 
will go everywhere to notify all animals that I, the king, I say 
that they must come to dig up and scratch the earth, that we may 
have water. And those that don't want to work, you will report 
them. You will come right off that I may compel them to do 
their share of the work or pay some other animal to do it." 

Bourriquet was so glad he was to act as a newspaper, that he 
began to bray so loud that it was enough to render anybody 
deaf. " Depart, depart, said the king, or I shall strike you." 
Then Bourriquet reared, and thought he was doing something 
nice, he was so proud that the king had confidence in him, and 
then that gave him the opportunity to order the other animals 
to come, in the name of Lion, the king. On starting, he put 
down his head, then he kicked half-a-dozen times with both 
feet, and made a noise which was as if you were tearing up a 
piece of colonnade. That is his way of saluting the company 
when he is glad. 

Now, all the animals which he met, he told them that if they 
did not come immediately to dig up and scratch the ground to 
make a well, surely king Lion would eat them up. They were 
all so much afraid, that they all came, except Compair Lapin 
who was g;nawing a little piece of dry grass. " Don't listen to 
what I tell you, remain there, and don't come right ofT, you will 
see what the king will do with you." I don't care a d .... for 
you and the king together, come both of you, you will see how 
I'll fix you. You may go to the devil. Do I drink ? Where 
did I ever use water ? Surely, that is something new to me. 
You are a fool, donkey that you are, I never drink, a rabbit 
never drinks. My father and my grandfather did not know 
how to drink, and as I am a real rabbit, I don't use water ! 
Never did a rabbit have little ones without ears, you hear. If 
any one heard you he might believe that I am a bastard. Go 
away, you big ears, for if I take my whip, I shall show you your 
road, and make you trot faster than you ever galloped in your 
life. If you knew me as I know you, you would not have 
stopped here, surely. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk-Lore. 141 

Bourriquet saw that he could do nothing, so he went away ; 
but he was not as proud as when he started to tell all animals 
that the king ordered them to come to work. As soon as he 
arrived near the king, he said : " Master, I went on all your 
errands, I saw all the animals in the world, only Compair Lapin 
does not want to listen to reason. He says he does not need 
water, let those who need it look for it. Besides, if you are not 
satisfied, he will make you trot. You have no right to command 
him, he is free, free as air, he has no master, none but God." 
When the King heard that, he said to a Tiger who was there, to 
go with the Bear to arrest Compair Lapin and bring him here. 
" Take care you don't eat him on the way, for if you do, I'll give 
you such a beating as you never had before. You hear ? Well, 
go." They started, and travelled a good while before they 
arrived. During this time, all the animals were working hard, 
each one had his share of the work, and they had even left a big 
piece as Compair Lapin's task, and that of the two who had 
gone to arrest him. They looked everywhere : in the prairie, 
on the mountain, at last they fell on Compair Lapin, who was 
eating the root of a cocklebur which was full of water. You 
know that rabbits know how to dig up the earth and find water 
below, in the roots. 

At the same moment that they arrived near him, Compair 
Lapin was singing a little song which he had made about 
the king. He said in it that the king was a fool, and did not know 
how to govern, for his wife had many husbands and he was 
laughing to himself, and that perhaps, after they finished to dig 
that well, the king would make all the animals pay taxes to 
drink the water from the well they had dug with their sweat. I 
am not so foolish, I am not going to work for that fellow ! Let 
the others do it, if they are fools, I don't care any more for the 

king than a dog for Sunday. Tra la la etc., The tiger 

approached without making any noise, and then he said : 
" Good morning, Compair Lapin, I ask your pardon, if I disturb 
you, but I don't do it on purpose ; the king has ordered me to 
arrest you, I must obey him. You know that the weak must 
submit to the strong, this is why I advise you not to resist, 
because the Bear and I will be obliged to eat you. Take my 
advice, come quietly, perhaps you will come out all right ! Your 
mouth is sweet, you will get Mr. Fox to defend you ; he is a 
good little lawyer and does not charge dear ! Come, let us go." 

1^2 AlcZe Forfier, [Vol. in. 

When Compair Lapin saw that he could not do otherwise, he 
let the officers of the king arrest him. They put a rope around 
his neck, and they started. When they were near the 
dwelling of the king, they met Dr. Monkey on the way. He 
said; " Compair Lapin, I think you are a pupil of Master Fox, 
you will have to pay for it ; you are gone up, my old fellow. 
How are you now ? Don't you feel something getting cold 
within you. That \vill teach you to read the newspaper and 
meddle in politics on Sundays, instead of going quietly to mass ! " 

Compair Lapin answered briefly: " I don't care a d . . . . for 
anything you say, old Monkey ! And then, you know, he who 
must die, must submit to his fate. Just hush up, you rascal \ 
You are trying to injure me, but perhaps y^u will be the loser; 
I have not given up all hope ; perhaps, before long, you will be 
in trouble. Each one his chance, that is all I have to tell you." 
At last, they arrived at a big tree which had been thrown 
down by the wind, and where, the King was seated. The Tiger 
and the Bear, the two officers who were leading Compair Lap- 
in, said to the King : " Here is the fellow ! " " Haw ! Haw ! '* 
said the King, " we shall judge him immediately." Master Fox 
came slyly behind Compair Lapin, and told him in his ears: 
" When they will ask you why you spoke badly of the King, say 
that it is not true, that it is Bourriquet who lied to do you harm. 
And then, flatter the King very much, praise him and make 
him some presents, you will come out all right. If you do what 
I tell you, you will find it well for you. Otherwise, if you are 
foolish enough to say all there is in your heart, take care, you 
will come out all wrong. I assure you that the King will make 
hash with you." " You need not be afraid, Master Fox, I know 
what I have to do ; I thank you for your good advice ; I am a 
lawyer myself." 

Compair Lapin had suspected that they would come to arrest 
him ; he had spoken so badly of the King and the government. 
It is for that he had put on his best coat, and a big gold chain 
around his neck. He had said to one of his neighbors with 
whom he was quite intimate, and also with his wife and 
daughter, and who was called Compair Bouki, when the latter 
asked him where he was going so finely dressed : " Yes, Com- 
pair Bouki, I shall soon go to see the king, and, as it is the coat 
that makes the man, this is why I dressed so well. It always 
produces a good effect on proud and foolish people." When 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 143 

the king was ready to begin the case of Com pair Lapin, he 
said to the policemen : " Bring the prisoner here to be judged." 

Then Compair Lapin advanced, and said : " O Lion, my dear 
Master, you sent for me ; here I am. What do you want ? " 

The Lion said : " I have to condemn you, because you are 
always slandering me, and besides, you don't want to work to 
dig the well, which we are making to drink. Everybody is 
working except you, and when I sent Bourriquet to get you, 
you said to him, that I was a scoundrel, and that you would 
whip me ! You will know that if your back has tasted of the 
whip, I have never been whipped ; even my late mother did not 
dare to touch me ! What do you have to say ? You rascal 
with the long ears hanging down. I suppose they are so long, 
because the hounds have chased you so often. Speak right off, 
or I shall mash you, like a too ripe persimmon." 

Compair Lapin kept quite cool ; he knew that all that was a 
big wind that would bring neither rain nor thunder. He rubbed 
his nose with both paws, then he shook his ears, he sneezed, 
and then he sat down and said : " The King is justice on earth 
as God is just in his holy Paradise ! Great King, you who 
are more brave than all of us together, you will hear the truth. 
When you sent Bourriquet to get me, he who is more of a 
donkey than all the donkeys in the world, when he came to my 
house, I was sick. I told him : ' you will tell the king that I 
am very sorry that I cannot come now, but here is a fine gold 
chain, which you will present to the king for me, and you will 
tell him that I have forty twelve other animals to work in my 
place. Because that is too necessary a thing, to get a well ; it is 
life or death for us, and we cannot do without it. Tell him also 
that there is but a great king like him to have such an idea, 
and enough brains to save us all ! What do you think he 
answered me ? He replied that he did not care about a gold 
chain, that he did not eat that. If I had given him a basket of 
corn or some hay, he would have eaten it, but as to the chain, 
perhaps the king would hitch him up to the plow with that 
same chain, and he would be sorry to have brought it. When 
he went away, he said to me : ' Go on, papa, I shall arrive 
before you, you will know that the ox which is ahead always 
drinks clear water ! ' I suppose he meant that he would speak 
before I should have the chance to be heard ! As I want the 
king to believe that I am not telling stories, I have a witness 

144 Alc&e Fortier, [Vol. in. 

who was there, who heard all our conversation. If the king 
will have the kindness to listen to his testimony, he will hear 
the same thing I have just told him." Compair Lapin bowed 
to the king, and put the gold chain around Lion's neck, and 
then he sat down on one side smiling, he was so sure that his 
gift would produce a good effect and help him to come out 
all right from his trouble. Now, Lion said to Master Fox to 
speak quickly. " I know all that business, and if you come 
here to lie, I'll break your neck. You need not wag your tail 
and make such grimaces, as if you were eating ants. Come on, 
hurry ! I have no time." " Dear Master Lion," said the Fox, 
" I shall tell you how all that happened : Compair Lapin, whom 
you see here, is the best friend you have. The proof of it is 
that he brought a big chain to make you a present. You will 
never see a Bourriquet do that ; that is sure, because there is not 
in the world a greater clown than those donkeys. Dan Rice 
took twenty-one years to train a donkey ! He says that for 
$100,000 he would not undertake again such a job. He would 
prefer to train fifty twelve thousand Lions, because they would 
eat him up, or he would do something good with them. Well, 
I must tell you, Mr. Lion, you, who are the King of all animals, 
that same Bourriquet, whom you sent to represent you, came 
to lie on you, and as to Compair Lapin, he is as white as snow ! 
Although Dr. Monkey has your confidence, it is he who is 
governing secretly and advising all your people, and putting 
them in rebellion against you the King to establish another 
government, where that same Dr. Monkey and Bourriquet will 
govern in your place, when they will succeed in putting you out. 
That is what they have been trying to do for a long time, and 
that is what Compair Lapin and I wanted to tell you." 

When the king heard that, he said : " That is all right ; I am 
glad you told me so. You can go with Compair Lapin, I acquit 
him." But while they were hearing the case, Dr. Monkey and 
Bourriquet thought that it was not healthy for them to remain 
there, so they escaped when they saw that the wrong side was 
being warmed up, they vanished, and no one knew where they 
had gone, so well were they hidden. After that, Compair Lap- 
in and Master Fox both remained in the same parish where the 
king resided. Master Fox was his deputy or chief clerk, and 
the other was mate, that is to say, he commanded the others 
and made them work to finish digging the well with their paws. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 145 

At last, the well was completed ! All the animals drank, and 
they became strong again. The lioness recovered her health 
also, and some time after that, she gave birth to twelve little 
cubs as yellow as gold, and all as pretty as could be. The king 
was so glad that he pardoned all that were in the penitentiary, 
and he allowed the exiles to return. When he granted their 
pardon, he told them all to go and drink the water of the well. 
Then, you may imagine that Dr. Monkey with his accomplice 
Bourriquet came out of their hole to mingle with the others. 
But they began to spy and to watch all that was being done or said. 
One day, they met Master Fox who was speaking of the govern- 
ment affairs in order to increase the tax. He and Compair Lapin 
found that there was not enough money in the treasury for them 
to become rich quickly. When Dr. Monkey saw them both 
together, he began to smile. He came near them, he bowed 
and said : " Let us forget what has passed, we must not be 
looking for those old papers. Let us be friends and live quietly 
like good neighbors." You might have thought they were the 
best friends when they parted. Dr. Monkey said to his partner 
Bourriquet: "You see these two fellows Compair Lapin and 
Master Fox, they are d . . . . scoundrels. I must get the best 
of them, or they will beat me ; that is all I know ! " As Compair 
Lapin had said, when they judged him, that he never drank 
water, the king had told him: "Take care that you never try 
to drink water from this well, I want to see if you say the truth, 
and I order every one to watch you." 

You will not believe me when I tell you that it is true that 
rabbits never drink water, there is always enough water for them 
in the grass which they eat. But expressly because they had 
forbidden Compair Lapin to drink from that well, he wished to 
do it. All the other animals praised that water so highly : it was 
so clear, so good. That gave him such a thirst, that he felt at 
every moment as if he had eaten well peppered salt meat. He 
said to himself: " I don't care a d . . . . , I shall drink, and I 
shall see who is going to prevent me. Besides, if they catch 
me, I shall always have the daughter of the king to protect me. 
She will find some way of preventing them from troubling me, 
for she has much influence with her father. He did as he said ; 
every evening he drank his fill. But at last, he wanted to drink 
in the day time also. It was a strange well ; its water was not 
like any other water; it made people drunk like whiskey, only, 

146 Alcee Fortier, [Vol. in. 

instead of making you sick after you were drunk, it made you 
much stronger than before, and they were begnning to perceive 
that all those who were old were growing young again. Even 
the vegetables which you watered with it, if you cut them, the 
next day they would grow as fine as the day before. 

When Compair Lapin began to see the effect of that water, he 
said : " I must have some for the day also, it does me a great deal 
of good, and as I am much older than the daughter of the king, 
I must become as young as she. Let me be, I shall arrange it. 
Don't you say anything." Well, when it was dark, he took his 
little calebash, which contained about two bottles of water, he 
went to the well, and filled it up. But he was so careful that 
the guard, which they put every evening near the well, saw 

Dr. Monkey and Bourriquet watched all the time, because 
they could not forget how Compair J-apin had treated them 
whilst he was being judged. Therefore, they had sworn that 
they would catch hi'm. But in spite of all their efforts, they lost 
their trouble and their time. At last, one day, Dr. Monkey 
went to see Bourriquet, his comrade, and told him : " Come to 
my house, I have something to show to you." He showed him 
Ti Bonhomme Godron (a man made of tar) and said : " It is with 
that I want to catch the fellow ; as this time I shall be able to 
prove that he is guilty, we shall have all his money which the 
king will confiscate to give us for discovering all his rascalities." 

They took Ti Bonhomme Godron ; they put him in a little 
path, where Compair Lapin was obliged to pass, very near 
the water, and then they started ; they knew it was not necessary 
to watch ; Ti Bonhomme Godron would attend to him without 
needing anybody's help. I know not if Compair Lapin 
suspected something, but he came quite late that evening. He 
never came at the same hour, but he managed things so well 
that he always got his water, and no one could catch him. 
When he arrived the evening they had placed Bonhomme 
Godron there, he saw something black. He looked at it for a 
long time, he had never seen anything like that before ! He 
went back immediately, and went to bed. The next evening he 
came again, advanced a little closer, looked for a long time, and 
shook his head. At that moment, a frog jumped in the water 
Tchoappe. Compair Lapin flattened on the ground, as if crushed, 
and in two jumps he reached his house. He remained three 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 147. 

days without returning, and Dr. Monkey and Bourriquet were 
beginning to despair, and to believe that it was true that Compair 
Lapin did not drink at all. But it was enough for this one that 
it was forbidden for him to be still more anxious to drink. " Oh ! 
well," said he ; " I don't care ! I have some money here, but the 
remainder is hidden in the briars. If they catch me, I shall pay 
the police, and they will let me go. Besides, I have the 
protection of the daughter of the king ; every night, she comes 
to see me. It would be very strange, if she did nothing for me. 
Besides, I have always instructed the police to let go a man who 
had money, and I suppose that they will make no exception for 
me, for they would lose the money which I would give them." 
This reassured him. He started in the evening 1 ; it was a 

o ' 

beautiful moonlight night, and every one was out late prome- 
nading. It was the end of Spring : the honeysuckle perfumed 
the air, the mocking bird was singing in the pecan tree, there 
was a light breeze, which caused the leaves of the trees to dance, 
and the rustle prevented any one to hear him walk. Everybody 
was in bed, only the dogs, from time to time, were barking at 
the big clouds, which were fleeing before the wind. " It is my 
turn now; I, Compair Lapin, I am going to drink, but a drink 
that will count." He took his calebash. When he arrived at the 
place where Bonhomme Godron was, the old fellow was still 
there. It had been warm during the day, and the tar was soft. 
When Compair Lapin arrived there, he said : " Hum, Hum, 
you have been long enough in my way. I do not come to drink, 
that is a thing which I never do, I want to take a bath to-night ; 
get away from here." " You don't want to answer? I tell you 
that I want to take a bath, yo.u black scoundrel." Bonhomme 
Godron did not reply ; that made Compair Lapin angry. He 
gave him a slap, his hand remained glued. "Let me go, or I 
shall strike you with the other hand." Bonhomme Godron did 
not reply. He struck him cam with the other hand ; it remained 
stuck also! " I'll kick you, d . . . . rascal, if you don't let me 
go." One foot remained stuck, and then the other one. 

Then he said : " You are holding me that they might injure 
me, you want to try to rob me, but stop, you will see what I am 
going to do to you. Let me go, or I shall strike you with my 
head and break your mouth ! " As he said that, he struck, and 
a mule could not hit harder, he was so mad. His head, 
however, my dear friends, remained stuck also. He was caught, 

148 Alcte Far tier, [Vol. in. 

well caught. At daybreak, Dr. Monkey and Bourriquet arrived. 
When they saw Compair Lapin there, they laughed, they cursed 
him. They took a cart to bring him to prison, and all along the 
way they told the people how they had put a trap to catch the 
most famous rascal there was in the universe. It was the 
famous Compair Lapin who had so sullied the reputation of the 
King's daughter, that there was not a great prince who wanted 
to marry Miss Leonine, as Compair Lapin had spoken so much 
about his being her lover. Master Fox, who was passing, heard 
all the bad things which Dr. Monkey and Bourriquet were 
saying about Compair Lapin, and here plied; " Yes it is true, 
there is nothing like a thief to catch another thief." 

When they were taking Compain Lapin to prison, all who 
passed on the road threw bricks at him*, and they made a 
true clown of him. When he arrived in the presence of 
the King, the latter said to him : *' Now, I would like to hear 
what you can say to get out of this scrape." Compair Lapin 
replied : " When the tree falls, the goat climbs on it ! I know I 
can die but once, I don't care. If it is my money they want, I 
assure you that they will never see it. When I was free, never 
Bourriquet and Dr. Monkey tried to quarrel with me, the wild 
hog knows on what tree he must rub himself. I assure you 
that they are famous rascals." " You must not speak in that 
way before the King, but the King will try your &tse in a few 
minutes." " What I say is well said, I am ready to hear the 
judgment." After the king and his friends had consulted to- 
gether, they found Compair Lapin guilty and they condemned 
him to death. They ordered that he be put in prison until they 
could find an executioner willing to execute him. The King 
thought that he would get rid of a fellow who was too cunning 
for him, and then he would take vengeance on Compair Lapin, 
because he had injured Miss Le*onine's character in such a 
manner, that it was a scandal. 

While Compair Lapin was in prison, he was thinking how he 
would manage to escape forever. He thought that he was in 
the worst plight than he had ever been before. He said to him- 
self: "By Jove \ that is no child'splay I think that I am gone 
up. Well, as I am tired, let me sleep a little : it will do me 
good." He lay down on the floor, and, -soon after, he was 
snoring. He began to dream that the beautiful Leonine, the 
daughter of the king, was making a sign to him to tell him he 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 149 

need not be afraid, that she would fix everything all right. He 
awoke contented and at daybreak, the jailer opened the door of 
his prison and said to him : " They have found an executioner 
willing to execute you, but before that, they must cut off your 
ears ; it is Bourriquet who has offered his services to send you 
in the other world. Take courage, my old fellow, I am sorry 
for you, you are a good fellow, but you risked your life too 
often. You know that an ounce of prevention is better than a 
pound of cure ; now, it is too late. Good-bye, comrade." At 
the same moment the sheriff came with his deputies to take him 
to the place of execution. They arrived at the steep bank of a 
little river. There were tall trees, grass, and briars everywhere. 
They chose a clear space. When they arrived, there was a big 
crowd : gentlemen, ladies, many children. All had come to see 
how they were going to kill Compair Lapin. The King was 
there with all his family. Miss Leonine, the daughter of the 
King, was there also. Oh ! but she was so beautiful with her 
curls, which shone like gold in the sun. She had a muslin dress 
as white as snow with a blue sash, and a crown of roses on her 
head. The eyes of all were turned towards her; she. was so 
pretty that they forgot completely Compair Lapin, who was 
trembling like a leaf. Yes, indeed, he was sorry to leave such 
a large fortune and such a beautiful wife as the King's daughter. 
What pained him the most was to think that perhaps Dr. 
Monkey or Bourriquet would marry Miss L6onine as soon as 
he would be dead. Because they both boasted that Compair 
Lapin was in their way. Without him, they said they would 
have succeeded long ago. 

Now, the King said : " Well, let us put an end to all this ; 
advance Bourriquet, and read Compair Lapin his sentence. 
The King allowed him to choose his death, as he pleased : to 
be drowned in the river, burnt alive, or hung on a tree, or to 
have his neck cut with a sword. " Yes, yes, said Compair Lap- 
in, all that at once, or one after the other, if that pleases you so 
much that I should die, well, I am very glad. Only, I was 
afraid that you would throw me in those great thorns, that 
would tear my skin and I would suffer too much, and then, the 
snakes and the wasps would sting me. Oh ! no, not that, not 
that at all !" Tell the king to do all except throwing me in those 
briars ; for the love of God who is in Heaven, and who will 
judge you as you judge me ! " " Haw ! Haw ! you are afraid of 

150 Alcte Forfter, [Vol. in. 

the thorns ? We want to see you suffer, suffer, you scoundrel. " 
They were making such a noise that the King said : " What 
is the matter?" He came closer accompanied by his daughter, 
Miss L6onine, who had come to see if Compair Lapin was go- 
ing to die bravely ; that is to say, every one thought so, but she 
had come to encourage him and re-assure him, because she had 
sent word to him secretly, while he was in prison, that even if 
the rope was, around his neck, she, Miss Leonine, would arrive 
in time to take it off and save him, because she loved him more 
than anything in the world. 

They related to the King and to Miss Llonine -what Compair 
Lapin had said, and how much afraid he was to be thrown in 
the thorns and to suffer. Miss Leonine came forward and said : 
" Papa, I have a favor to ask you : I know that you hate Com- 
pair Lapin, and I also, because he has sullied my name. Well, 
I want to make you all see that what they said is not true. I 
want to see him suffer for all his stories ; we must get rid of him, 
and I ask you to throw him in the briars and let him rot there ; 
it is good enough for such a rascal." All clapped their hands, 
they were so glad. " Throw him in the briars, it is there indeed 
we must throw him," said the King ; " he must suffer. Quick ! 
Hurry ! "-They took Compair Lapin by each limb, they swung 
him once; poor devil, he was crying: "No, no, not in the 
briars, in fire, cut my neck, not in the briars." They said : 
" twice "-- Vap \ they threw him in a great bunch of thorns. 

As Compair Lapin fell in his native country, he sat down, 
he rubbed his nose, shook his ears, and then he said : " Thank 
you, all of you, I thought you were stupid, but it is here my 
mother made me ; I am at home here, and not one of you can 
come here to catch me. Good-bye, I know where I am going." 
Miss L6onine also was very glad, she knew where she would 
meet Compair Lapin that very evening. That proves one thing 
to you, that Compair Lapin was a hypocrite and pleaded false 
things to know the truth. It proves another thing, that when a 
woman loves a man, she will do all he wishes, and the woman 
will do all in her power to save him, and in whatever place the 
man may be, the woman will go to meet him. This is why 
they say that what a woman wants, God wants also. 

As I was there when all that happened, they sent me here to 
relate it to you. I have finished. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk-Lore. 151 

Compair Bouqui and Compair Lopin. No. i. 

One day, Compair Bouqui met Compair Lapin. " How, said 
he, is that you ? Don't you know that it is to-day that all 
persons are selling their mothers to have something to eat." 
"Ah ! yes," said Compair Lapin, " I, also, am going to get my 
mother, and I shall sell her for a kettle of hominy and one of gom- 
bo." Now, both of them started. Compair Bouqui tied his mother 
with a rope, and during that time, Compair Lapin tied his with 
a cobweb. Before he entered the cart, he said : " Now, mamma, 
as soon as you will arrive near the briars, you will jump down 
and run to the house." Compair Bouqui sold his mother, and 
returned in his cart with his kettle of hominy and his kettle of 
gombo. While he was on his way home, he saw a rabbit lying 
in the road, and a little further, another rabbit. He advanced a 
little more, and there was another rabbit. When he came to the 
third rabbit, he said : " It is not possible, those rabbits are 
dying of hunger instead of selling their mothers to get some- 
thing to eat, let me get down to catch them," He was not able 
to catch anything, because it was Compair Lapin who pretended 
to be dead, to make Compair Bouqui leave his cart. During 
that time, Compair Lapin ran to the cart of Compair Bouqui, 
stole his two kettles, cut the tail of his horse, planted it in the 
ground, and taking the cart away, went to hide himself. Com- 
pair Bouqui came back to look for his cart, but he only saw the 
tail of his horse planted in the ground. He began to dig in the 
ground, as he thought that his horse and his cart had fallen in a 
hole, and he called for help. Tiger came out of the woods, and 
helped Compair Bouqui to dig. Compair Bouqui found Tiger 
so fat that he bit him on his back, and escaped. Tiger asked 
Compair Lapin what he could do to take vengeance on Compair 
Bouqui. Compair Lapin said: "we must give a grand ball, 
come this evening to my house." Tiger and Compair Lapin 
engaged good musicians and invited many persons. Compair 
Lapin came out on the gallery, and began to sing : 

Come to the grand ball, 
Those that lost their wives, 
Beautiful negresses from Senegal. 

Compair Bouqui, who heard that, ran to Compair Lapin and 
cried out: " it is my wife, it is not necessary to invite any more 
people." But Compair Lapin pretended not to hear, and he 
beat his drum, and sang: " Simion, carillon painpain, Simion, 

152 Alcee For tier, [Vol. in. 

carillon painpain." Compair Bouqui entered Compair Lapin's 
cabin, and he took Tiger for a woman, because he had hidden 
his beard and dressed like a young lady. When the ball was 
over, Compair Bouqui remained alone with Tiger, who gave 
him a good beating and ran off with Compair Lapin. Now, 
that is not all : Tiger and Compair Lapin did not know where 
Compair Bouqui was. When Compair Lapin came near his 
cabin, he cried out: "good night, my cabin, good night," and 
he said: "that is strange, my cabin, which always replies, says 
nothing to day." Compair Bouqui, who was not at all cunning, 
answered : " good night, my master, good night." Ah ! we 
have him, said Compair Lapin, get some fire, we are going to 
give some smoke to Compair Bouqui in this cabin. They 
burned poor Compair Bouqui, and Compair Lapin was so glad 
that he jumped like a kid and sang : 

Aie, aie, aie, Compair Lapin, 

He is a little animal that knows how to jump. 

Choal Djt (The Horse of God). 

Choal Dj6 had a pond, and he allowed all the comrades to 
drink from it, except Compair Lapin and his comrades. One 
day, he caught Compair Lapin near his pond. "If I catch you 
drinking from my pond, I shall make you pay a fine." Compair 
Lapin replied : " Well ordained charity begins with one's self, 
and as you are the master, I am not going to drink from your 
pond." But one day they killed a deer, and after having 
skinned it, they threw away the skin. Compair Lapin picked 
up the skin and passed his head in it ; he then went to drink in 
Choal Dje"'s pond. When Choal Dj^ saw that, he advanced 
nearer and asked Compair Che"vre'il who it was that had mark- 
ed him in that way. Compair Che"vreil answered : " It is 
Compair Lapin who made the sign of the cross on me, and who 
put me in this condition, and if you don't let him drink in your 
pond, he will do the same thing with you." " Well, you may 
tell Compair Lapin that he can come to drink in my pond with 
all his comrades. I don't want him to do the same thing with 
me." Compair Lapin ran to his house, took off the skin, and 
came back with his comrades to drink in Choal Dje^s pond. 
When Choal Dj6 saw him coming, he said to him : " Drink as 
much as you want, Compair Lapin, with your comrades."- 
Compair Lapin was always more cunning than everybody else. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 153 

Compair Bouki and Compair Lapin. No. 2, 

One day, Compair Bouqui went to see Compair Lapin. 
When he entered the cabin, he saw a big pot, which was on the 
fire, and it smelt so good that Compair Bouqui could not stay 
quiet. When the food was cooked, Compair Bouqui had also 
his share and he found it so good that he kept on bothering 
Compair Lapin to know where he took such good meat Pray, 
Compair Lapin, tell me where you find that meat. No, Com- 
pair Bouqui, you are too greedy. Compair Lapin, my poor 
children are dying of hunger, tell me where you find that meat. 
No, Compair Bouqui, you are too rascally. 

At last, he bothered Compair Lapin so much, so much, that 
Compair Lapin said : " Listen, Compair Bouqui, I am going to 
tell you, but you must not tell anyone, and you must do as I 
tell you. You know the King's ox, which is in the pasture, and 
which is so fat, well, you will take a bag and a knife, you will 
watch when he will open his mouth to eat, you will jump in his 
throat, and when you will arrive in his belly, you will begin to 
cut the meat to 'put in your bag. Now, be very careful not to 
cut near his heart, because you would kill him. When he will 
open his mouth again to eat, you will jump out and run home. 
Don't you let anyone see you." The next morning, Compair 
Bouqui took his bag and his knife, and ran into the pasture. 
When the King's ox opened his mouth to eat, he jumped 
into his belly, and he began to cut the meat and to put it into 
his bag. The more he cut, the closer he came to the heart of 
the ox. He saw that the meat was so fine and fat, that he said 
to himself: " What will it matter, if I cut a little piece, that will 
not kill him." He took his knife, he cut a piece, lo! the ox of 
the king fell down dead, and Compair Bouqui could not come 
out of his belly. 

All the people came to see what had happened, how the ox 
that was so fine, had died like that They said : "we must open 
him to see what was the matter with him." When they did 
that, what did they see ? Compair Bouqui. " Ah I Compair 
Bouqui, it is you who killed the ox of the king, you wanted to 
steal meat, just wait, we are going to fix you. They took Com- 
pair Bouqui, they opened his belly, they took out his bowels, 
they filled him with sand, and they closed the opening with a 
cork. When Compair Bouqui returned home, he was very 
much ashamed. His children ran to see the good meat which 

154 Alc&e For tier, [Vol. in. 

he had brought. Papa, give us some meat There is none, my 
children. Yes, papa, something smells good on you. The 
little ones advanced, and Compair Bouqui backed, backed. 
The children commenced to smell the cork ; they found it smelt 
good, because there was honey on it. They began to suck the 
cork, to suck the cork. Lo ! the cork came out ; all the sand 
ran out, Compair Bouqui died on the spot. He was flat on the 


Compair Bouki and Compair Lapin. No. 3. 

One day the children of Compair Bouki met those of Com- 
pair Lapin who had on fine Sunday dresses and new shoes. 
When the little Boukis returned home, they asked their father 
why he did not give them fine clothes like those of Compair 
Lapin's children. Compair Bouki wenf to see Compair Lapin 
and asked him where he took the fine things he had given to 
his children. Compair Lapin did not want to reply, but Com- 
pair Bouki annoyed him so much that he said to him : " Go 
and cut wood in the forest, and when you will be tired, look in 
the centre of the forest, and you will see a big tree. Go to 
sleep under it, and when you will awake, say : ' Tree, how sweet 
you are !' The tree will say : " If I were to open, what would 
you say? You will reply : ' If you open, I shall be very glad.' 
When the tree will open, enter into it, it will close up, and you 
will see many pretty things. Take what you want, and tell the 
tree: ' open ! ' when you will wish to depart." Compair Bouki 
did what Compair Lapin had said, but when he saw all there 
was in the tree, he wanted to take so many things that he forgot 
to say : " Tree, open ! " 

The tree belonged to some thieves who hid their booty in it. 
They came back in the woods, and they found Compair Bouki 
who was stealing their goods. I need not tell you that they 
gave Compair Bouki such a beating that he could not move. 

Compair Bouki and Compair Lapin. No. 4. 

Compair Bouki and Compair Lapin went together to pay a 
visit to some young ladies. While they were speaking, 
Compair Lapin said to the young ladies: " You see Compair 
Bouki, he is not a person, he is a horse which my father has 
left me." The young ladies said : " Oh ! no, we can not believe 
that." Now, Compair Lapin returned home, and when came 
the day appointed for the visit to the young ladies, he dressed 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 155 

up fine, and covered his clothes with a hog's skin. When 
Compair Bouki came in, lie said :" Are you ready, Compair? " 
Compair Lapin replied : " But no, don't you see how I am 
covered up, I feel cold and I am suffering so much from my feet 
that I don't know how I am going to do to walk." Compair 
Bouki, who was always so stupid, said : -"Mount on my back, 
and when you will be near the house of the young ladies, you 
will get down." Compair Lapin said : " I don't know if I shall 
be able to mount on your back, but I shall try." Without 
Compair Bouki's seeing it, Compair Lapin put on his spurs and 
mounted on Bouki's back. While he was on Compair Bouki's 
back Compair Lapin was all the time moving. His friend 
asked him what was the matter. "I am suffering so much 
that I know not how to sitr." Compair Lapin said that, but he 
was trying to shake off his hog's skin. 

When they arrived near the the house of the young ladies, 
Compair Lapin stuck Compair Bouki with his spurs, and 
Compair Bouki started running. Compair Lapin jumped down 
and went into the house of the young ladies, to whom he said : 
" You see that I was right when I told you that Compair Bouki 
was a horse, which my father had left me/' 

Compair Bouki and Compair Lapin. No. 5. 
One day, quite early, Compair Lapin arose, and he felt 
hunger gaining upon him. He looked everywhere in the cabin, 
he found nothing to eat. He ran towards Compair Bouki. 
When he arrived, he saw Compair Bouki who was gnawing a 
bone. Eh ! Compair Bouki, I had come to take breakfast with 
you, but I see that you don't have anything famous to give me. 

Times are hard, Compair Lapin; there are no more rations in 
the cabin, only this bone left. Compair Lapin reflected a little. 

Well ! Compair Bouki, if you wish, we shall go hunting for the 
eggs of the tortoise. Agreed upon ! let us go right off. Corn- 
pair Bouki took his basket and his hoe, and they started 
towards the bayou in the woods. Compair Lapin, I don't often 
go hunting for tortoise eggs ; I don't know well how to find 
them. Don't trouble yourself, Compair Bouki, I find all the 
time a place where tortoises lay their eggs. You, you will dig 
them up. 

When they arrived at the bayou, Compair Lapin walked 
slowly, looking well on this side and on that side. Soon, he 
came to a dead stop. Compair Bouki, the tortoise thinks she is 

156 Alcee Fartier, [Vol. in. 

cunning. She scratches the ground with her big paw, and she 
lays her eggs in a hole, then she puts a little sand on them, and 
then she scatters leaves on her nest. You see this hillock? 
Take off the leaves, and scratch with your hoe, sure you 1 will 
find eggs. Compair Bouki did what Com pair Lapin told him, 
and x they saw a pile of eggs shining in that hole. Compair Lap- 
in, you are more cunning than I ; I am very glad to have you 
for my friend. Compair Lapin shared the eggs, he gave half to 
Compair Bouki. Compair Bouki, I am very hungry,"! am go- 
ing to eat my eggs immediately. Do as you want Compair 
Lapin, I shall take mine to my wife to have them cooked. 

They went on a long time still, and they found many eggs. 
Compair Lapin always ate his; Compair Bouki did not like raw 
eggs ; he put them all in his basket. Compair Bouki, I am 
beginning to be tired ; I believe it is time for us to return home. 
I have enough eggs for to-day, Compair Lapin, let us go 
back. As they were going towards the river Compair Lapin 
said to himself: Compair Bouki does not know how to find 
tortoise eggs ; it is I who found, they ought all to belong to me. 
I must make some trick to gain them. As they were nearly 
arrived at the river, Compair Lapin said : Compair Bouki, I for- 
got to take some eggs for my old mother. You would be very 
kind to lend me a dozen. I shall return them to you another 
time. Compair Bouki gave a dozen, and they went each on 
his way. Compair Lapin went to put his dozen of eggs in his 
cabin, then he went to Compair Bouki's. When he came near 
the cabin of Compair Bouki he began to complain and to hold 
his belly with both hands. Compair Bouki came out. What 
is the matter with you, Compair Lapin ? You don't look very 
well. Oh ! no, Compair Bouki, those eggs have poisoned me. 

I beg of you ; quick, run to get the doctor. I shall run as 
fast as I can, daddy. As soon as Compair Bouki started, Com- 
pair Lapin went to the kitchen and fell to eating tortoise eggs. 
Thank you, great Lord, I shall eat my belly full to-day. The 
physcian lives far, I have the time to eat all before they come. 

When Compair Lapin had nearly finished eating the eggs, 
he heard Compair Bouki speaking outside. Doctor Monkey, I 
am very glad that I met you on the road ; my friend is very 
sick. Compair Lapin did not lose any time ; he opened the 
window and jumped out. Compair Bouki came into the cabin, 
he did not see Compair Lapin. He ran into the kitchen, the 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 157 

shells of the eggs were scattered all about. Gompair Lapin was 
already in the fields. Compair Bouki tore his hair, he was so 
angry. He started to run after Compair Lapin. Compair 
Lapin had eaten so many eggs, that he was not able to run fast. 
When he saw Compair Bouki was pressing him too close, he 
hid into a hole in a tree. 

Compair Bouki called Compair Torti who was passing on the 
road. Compair Torti, pray come to watch Compair Lapin who 
stole all your eggs. I am going to get my ax to cut down this 
tree. Go quickly, Compair Bouki, I shall watch the rascal well. 
When Compair Bouki started, Compair Lapin said : Compair 
Torti, look in this hole, you will see if I have your eggs. Com- 
pair Torti lifted his head ; Compair Lapin sent some decayed 
wood in his eyes. Compair Torti went to wash his eyes in the 
bayou ; Compair Lapin ran off immediately. Compair Bouki 
came to cut the tree, he saw that Compair Lapin had already 
run away. He was so angry, he went to Compair Torti on the 
bank of the bayou, and he cut off his tail with his ax. It is for 
this reason that the tail of the tortoise is so short to this very 

Compair Bouki and Compair Lapin. No. 6. 

One day, Compair Bouki, who was dying of hunger, went to 
see his old friend, Compair Lapin. He found him thinking of 
nothing and occupied in cleaning some fish. Bouki asked 
where he had taken that. His old friend related his story to 
him. He told him : " You see, daddy, I went to watch for 
the fish cart on the road. I saw it coming; I lay down in the 
road, as if I was dead. The master of the cart came down right 
off to pick me off. He shook me up a little, and after that, he 
threw me in his cart on a pile offish. I did not move my feet 
like master fox. I watched well the old master, until I saw he 
had forgotten me. I began quietly to throw all the fish in the 
road until we had nearly gone a mile further, then when I 
thought I had enough, I jumped down and picked up all the fish 
which I had thrown in the road. There were one hundred or a 
thousand. I did not count, I was in such a hurry. I put them 
all by myself on my back, faster than I could, and I came 
straight here to eat them. Compair Bouki reflected a long while : 
he was a little afraid that if he tried to do the same thing, he 
would put himself again in trouble. Compair Lapin> who was 
looking at him with his good eyes, saw that his friend was 

158 Alcee Fortier, [Vol. in. 

reflecting too long. He told him : " Old friend, you are dying of 
hunger, do like me, go and watch for the cart on the road, steal 
as much as you can, and we shall have a grand festival." 

Old Bouki, who was greedy, could not resist; he started, he lay 
down on the road as if he was dead for true, he lifted his feet in 
the air to deceive people better. When the master of the cart 
came very near, he saw old Bouki who was playing his tricks to 
catch him. He came down with a big plantation whip, and gave 
him a whipping which had red pepper, black pepper and salt, it 
burned so much. Compair Bouki remained one month in his 
bed after that. He did not have a single feather left and had 
colics to his very beak. They gave him a great deal of tafia to 
give him strength ; they put him in a large bath made with 
gombo, and they made him drink some laurel tea all the time 
after that. When Compair Bouki was cured, he swore, but too 
late, that Compair Lapin would never deceive him again. 

All the goats which are not rascals 
Ojght to fear the old rabbits. 


Ein Vi Zombi Malin. The Cunning old Wizard. 

There was once a prince who was very rich. One day, the 
princess, his daughter, lost a big diamond. While she was cry- 
ing for her jewel, an old man came to the palace, and said that 
he was a wizard. The prince promised that he would give him 
anything he would ask, if he would say where was the diamond. 
The wizard only asked for three meals, and promised to find 
the jewel. They gave him an excellent breakfast, and when he 
had eaten all, he said: "one is taken." The servants of the 
prince began to tremble, because it was they who had stolen the 
diamond. After his dinner, the wizard said : " two are taken." 
The servants trembled still more. After supper, the wizard 
said : " three are taken." When they heard that, the three 
thieves fell on their knees before the wizard, and said that they 
would give back the diamond, if he promised to say nothing to 
their master. 

Now, the wizard took the diamond, rolled it up in a piece of 
bread, and threw it before a turkey in the yard. The turkey 
gobbled up the bread with the diamond. The wizard went to 
get the prince and his daughter, and told them that the diamond 
was in the turkey's stomach, and that they would find it, on 
killing the turkey. That was done, and the diamond was found. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk-Lore . 159 

The prince was very glad, and said that the old man was the 
greatest wizard in the world. At the court, everybody was 
admiring the wizard, but a few young men were not sure that 
he was a true wizard, and they wanted to catch him. They 
caught a cricket in the grass, they put it in a box, and they 
asked the wizard to tell them what there was in the box, The 
old man did not know, and he said to himself: " Well, Cricket, 
you are caught." His name was Cricket, but the people there 
did not know that, and they thought that the wizard had 
guessed that there was a cricket in the box. Therefore, the 
old man passed for a great wizard, and they gave him many 
good things ; and yet, he was merely cunning, and had had 

Ein fame Ki tournin Macaque. A Woman changed into a Monkey. 

There was once a gentleman who had a field of peanuts. 
Every day he saw that some one was eating a row of peanuts. 
He asked his wife who was eating his peanuts. His wife said it 
was his brother who was eating them every day. He then 
caught hold of the little boy and gave him a good beating. The 
next day, he sa\v another row of peanuts had been eaten. He 
seized the little boy and gave him another beating. The little 
boys aid , " That is too much, my brother is always beating me, 
I must make him see that it is his wife who is eating his peanuts." 
The next day, he did not carry his brother's dinner in the field, but 
he told him to come to the house, and he would show him who 
was eating his peanuts. When they came in, his wife approached 
to serve the dinner, and now the little boy began to sing .: 
*' Tou man. tou mange" tou, ton man, tou mange" tou." The 
woman said : " Why are you singing that? I don't want you 
to sing that, sing something else." " No, that is what I want to 
sing." He continued to sing, and they saw the woman begin to 
scratch, begin to jump, and at last, she became a monkey. She 
ran into the peanut field, and she ate a whole row. " You see," 
said the little boy, " that it is not I who eat your peanuts ; it is your 
wife who, every day, becomes a monkey." The gentleman 
advanced with a stick, but the monkey ran into the woods, and 
climbed upon a tree. 

Part III. 

In 1885, MR. L AFC A DIG HEARN, formerly of New Orleans, 

160 Alcte Fortier, [Vol. in. 

published ' Gombo Zhebes/ a little dictionary of Creole proverbs, 
in which are to be found fifty-one proverbs in our Louisiana 
Creole dialect. In my commentaries on the popular tales, I 
have given quite a number of proverbs which are not in MR. 
HEARN'S collection, and have explained their peculiar meaning. 
In those commentaries are also to be found the explanations of 
numerous idiomatic expressions of the Louisiana patois. Here 
are a few more proverbs and sayings which, I believe, have 
never been published. I am principally indebted for them to 
Proverbs and Sayings. 

Bon nageair, bon neyair. "On peut se noyer, mme ensachant 
nager." The best swimmer is often drowned. This is very philo- 
sophical and means that he who knows the most, often does not 
succeed, if he is rash and overconfident. The proverb might be well 
applied to Napoleon. Chakenne hale so cordon so cote. " Chacun 
essaie de tirer son e'pingle du jeu." In English, we might say: each 
one draws the blanket to himself. LAROCHEFOUCAULD would have 
liked this proverb, he who pretended that man was always actuated 
bv selfishness. Malhor pou tou mottne. " Nul n'est a 1'abri du 
malheur." No one is exempt from misfortune, or as MALHERBE 
says : 

" Le pauvre, en sa cabane oil le chaume le couvre, 

Est sujet ses lois, 

Et la garde qui veille aux barrifcres du Louvre 
N'e"n deTend pas nos rois." 

Camarde com chien ave chatte. "Us s'accordent comme chien et 
chat." Adaptation of a French proverb ; they agree like cat and 
dog. Hibou troitve ye piti joli. Almost the same as in French. 
We are blind to our children's defects. Milate, ce la crasse blanc 
ave neg. " Le mulatre est le rebut du blanc et du negre." A little 
too vulgar for literal translation, but expressing admirably the con- 
tempt of the full blooded negro for the mulatto. Ce jis la plime ave 
di Vencre li connin. A peculiar and picturesque expression. " He 
knows nothing but pen and ink," that is to say, he is a book-worm. 
Dan tan gran gou, patate pa gagnin lapo. When one is very hungry, 
one does not peal the sweet potato. It corresponds to the French 
proverb, " Ventre aflame* n'a pas d'oreilles." Avan bouric te gagnin 
mat o zie, mouche te vive. The fly lived before it needed to suck 
the sore eye of the donkey. This may be expressed in French : le 
soleil brille pour tout le monde, the sun shines for all ; or we may 
understand it to mean that no one is indispensable in this world. 
Mo lestoma ce pa gardemange. "Je dis ce que je pense." I say 
what I think. I keep nothing hidden in the sideboard. So lalangue 
pa gagnin dimanche. His tongue knows no Sunday ; it never stops. 
Moune /aye oule baingnin, e ye pa selemen gagnin dolo pou boi. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore, 161 

Those people want to bathe, and they don't even have water to drink, 
I saw in MR. HEARN'S ' Gombo Zhebes ' a proverb in the Martinique 
dialect which has the same meaning, although expressed differently : 
"' Canna pa ni d'leau pou li baingnein 6 li trouve" pou li nage"." 

Mefie fame-la, li pocrite com ein serpan dan zerbe. Beware of 
that woman, she is as hypocritical as a snake in the grass. Can vou 
jene et joli, fa passe vite com la saison de figue. When you are 
young and pretty, it passes quickly like the season of the figs. Ca- 
marade, jordi ce com de melon, fo vou mange cent pou trouve ein 
don. Comrades, to-day is like melons, you must eat one hundred to 
find one good one. Mette mo nom drette la par terre. Leave my 
name out of your disputes. Another example of the use of the 
favorite word drette. Mo t pa connin ki pou fe. "Je ne savais 
que faire." I did not know what to do. Gnia plice moune icite 
passe laba. There are more persons here than yonder. Marchan 
cibouye pa capab trompe marchan zognon. "Fin contre fin." Ca 
so metie meme. He excels in this, that is his profession. Mo pa 
connin boucou, me fa mo connin, mo connin ben. The little I know, 
I know it well. Very emphatic. Ein suppose. " Supposons," Let 
us suppose. Dein contini. " Sans .discontinuer." Without stop- 
ping. /// quiquiribou. He is dead. Va pe cherche laguerre. You 
are quarrelling me. 

The following is a list of a few genuine Acadian words and 
sayings; they may be of interest to my friends who occupy 
themselves with Canadian French : 

Aveugler, Arranger provisoirement ; Assire, Asseoir ; Arrogan, 
Ouragan ; Assolider, Consolider ; Apotiquer, Hypothe'quer ; An- 
valer, Avaler ; Canthaliques, Cantharides ; Cultivage, Culture ; A la 
demain, Pas a la main ; Dessaim, Essaim ; Ecopeau, Copeau ; 
Egouine, Scie ; Ganuchettes, De"mangeaisons ; Imposer, Empcher ; 
Pointuchon, Petite pointe ; Quimpailler, Marcher longtemps ; Resi- 
plre, Erysipele ; Tragedie, Chemin parcouru par un chevreuil ; Zibou, 
Hibou ; Zaigrette, Aigrette. 

The following information from an old Acadian will, doubt- 
less, be received most gratefully by our American astronomers : 
" La comete ne peut pas frapper la terre, parce que les cometes, 
ca tombe toujours dans la mer. Here is also important news to 
geographers : " Quand Varrogan a emporte" la Guadeloupe, 
on n'a rien senti au bayou Lafourche." 


In the Century Magazine for 1886, MR. CABLE has published 
many Creole songs. Most of them were well known to all 
Louisianians, and several are very pretty. There are, however, 

1 62 Alcte For tier, [Vol. in. 

some inaccuracies in the text ; for instance, the following song on 
page 225 is French, and not written in the Patois, viz : 

Voyez ce mulct la, Miche* Bainjo comme il est insolent. 
Chapeau sur c6te*, Miche" Bainjo, La canne a la main. 
Miche" Bainjo, Bottes qui fe" crin, crin, Miche* Bainjo. 

It should be in patois ; Garde* mile la, Miche* Bainjo, com li 
insolen. Chapo on (en ho) cote, Michi6 Bainjo, dicanne dan so 
lamain, Michi Bainjo, Botte kape* f< crin, crin, Michie* Bainjo." 
The song, however, as I have heard it many times is thus : 

Garde" piti milate, ti banjo ! Badine dan lamain, ti banjo! 
Chapo en ho cote", ti banjo. 

The word banjo is not a proper name but refers to the favorite 
musical instrument of the negroes. On^page 558, MR. CABLE 
speaks of the famous song about Mr. Pre'val, and says : " the 
number of stanzas has never been counted." It often happened 
that many stanzas were added to a song or to a poem, when it 
was very popular. The poems of Homer, among the ancients, is 
a good proof of this, and all students of Old French know the 
innumerable number of variants in the laisses of the chansons de 
geste. As to the song about Mr. Preval, the number of stanzas 
is well known, as the song has been published again and again, 
always in five foot verses. MR. CABLE, in his extract, has joined 
two verses into one, and destroyed the rhyme. Of course, in 
negro songs, the rhyme is far from being rich, and is generally a 
mere assonance as it is in la ' Chanson de Roland ! ' Sometimes 
there is no rhyme at all, but where there is one, it should be 
given. It would be easy to correct the hundred and one errors 
in MR. CABLE'S articles on the slave songs, but this would lead 
me too far ; my remarks are merely to show how difficult it is to 
write the Creole patois, without having made a special study of 

In the ' Guide to New Orleans,' a very interesting book 
published in 1885 by MR. W. H. COLEMAN, we find also several 
pretty negro songs, but so completely disfigured by errors in 
the text that it is difficult for a stranger to understand them. 
The real negro songs, that is to say, composed by the negroes, 
have hardly any rhyme, and still less rhythm. They are words 
with a pleasing cadence and harmony so as to be easily sung. 
Many are as satirical as the soties of the Middle Ages, some are 
love songs, some have reference to local customs, while others 

1887. 1 Louisiana Folk-Lore. 163 

have very little meaning, if any at all. Here is one which seems 
to be a satire, a personal vengeance : 

Mo cher zami, male" di zote tou 
Pou zote tou connin, pou zote re"pete" 
Ce" moin ki fe" chanchon la 
Ce" moin ki fe" chanchon la. 
Male" f4 zote tou danse" bambonla. 
Si zote oua Sabin can li galope", 
Li semble* lapin ki dan de'me'le'* 
Adie*, adie", michie" la poltronf 
Li bon pou mette" pou garde" cochon. 
Pou fe" rodomon 
Li crie" si fort 
Ye" te" ere" c6 lion 
Ki te" dan bois-fort. 
So colere tingne":}: 
Li couri cache" 
Dan pie* tetanic*. 
Can li re"vini cote" so cabane 
Li quitte" Laine" pou li bate so fame. 
Scie, Rosalie, scie" ; Rosalie scie" 
Li oule to la po pou li f soulie". 

This is a pretty song, and quite expressive : Sabin must have 
been a cowardly and braggadocio mulatto. The rhythm is 
comparatively very good. 

The following is an amusing popular refrain : 
Morceau cassave dan bouillon posson 
Ce" kichoge ki dou, ce" kichoge ki bon 
Tourne" co-dinde, tourne" co-dinde, tourne* co-dinde, 
Ce" macaque ki ape* joue* violon. 

Last summer, I wrote, under dictation of an old negro of St. 
Charles Parish, several songs which, I believe, have never been 
published. Here are a few which refer to plantation life and to 

the work done there : 

No. i. 

Michie Mogene 
Le"ve" bo matin,** 
Selle* so choual 
Couri dan d^ser.ff 
Li garde" louvrage 
Louvrage pa vance" 
Tou mo zami tende" ! \\ 
Vini oua, malhor gagnin moin. 

*DemdU, the same as zeronce. fThe feminine used emphatically for the masculine. 

\S'eteignit, was extinguished. 
** Bon matin, early. \\Champ, field. \\entendez, listen. 

164 Alcee Fortier, [Vol. in 

Tons les ans, ye" mande" bras nouveau, 
Tousles ans, ye" mande" chargemen, 
Tous les ans, ye" mande" rendemen. 
Ton mo zami, tende" ! 
Vini oua, malhor gagnin moin. 

No. 2. 

Si vou contan colomme* cila-la, 
Ce* ein colomme ki philosophe. 
Piti maite, mande" Michie" 
Si li contan colomme cila-la. 

Ya pa midi, 

Ya pa dimanche, 

Ya pa la nouitte. 

Piti maite, mande" Michie" ^ 

Si li contan colomme cila-la. f 

Lanne"e cila, male" marron,\ 
Mal6 mand^ Copal so la cle\ 
Piti maite mande" Michi6 
Si li contan colomme cila-la. 

No. 3. 

Ramass^ dicanne a riban 

Tomb^, ramasse". 
Ramass^ dicanne vi^ madame 

Tombe", ramasse. 

No. 4. 

Vi6 Michi^, ah ! bon Djte. 

Vou pal^ don moin tan pou mange" 

Donnin tan choual pou mange", 

Donnin tan beT pou mange", 

Pousse" mouton Missippi. 

Pale" don moin tan pou mange". 

Moulin, ye" pousse" charrette, 
Charrette, y6 pouss^ marreuse,** 
Marreuse, y^ pousse couteau, 
Me"nin vou dicanne dan moulin, 
Vie" Michie", ah! bon Dji4. 
Vou pale" don moin tan pou mange". 

The following songs, also given by the old St. Charles negro, 
are about miscellaneous subjects : 

*conome, overseer. fThere was no noon, there was no Sunday, there was no night for 

this overseer, work all the time. JRun away slave. **The woman who tied 

the canes in bundles. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 165 

, No. i. 

Michie" Mazureau 

Ki dan so bireau, 

Li semble" crapo 
Ki dan bailie dolo. 
Danse" Calinda \ h' \ 

Boumboum, boumboum. f ^ ' 
Mamzelle Ame"lie 
Li couri dan bal 
Li met cantchS* 
Li di ce" savate 
Danse" Calinda i 

Boumboum, boumboum. j ' ' 
A dix ze"re di soir, 
Soyain\ moin don do ! 
Moman moin mande" 
Cote" ma pale" 
Dans^ Calinda, etc. 
Mo gagnin piquan dan mo doi ; 
Mo mand4 Layotte ein lpingle. 
La r^ponse Layotte li f4 moin 
Li pa bon pou chien tende". 
Pencor oua pareille belle Layotte. 
Mo dija roule" ton la cote ) . 

Pencor oua pareille belle Layotte. J ^ ts ' 

No. 3. 

Joli son la plairi, (bis) 
Mo re"pond mo se'gre'. (secret) 
Mo pole" tende" langue m^ricain. (dis) 
Mo di vou mo piti maite, 
Yen a batimen on la mer, (bis) 
Rape" charg ne"g m^ricain. 

No. 4. 

Maringouin quitte" chivreil la plain, 
Li vini pren rivole\ on moin. 
Gournouille sorti dan foss4, 
Vini tchombo moin dan colle" ; 
Mand moin la rison, 
Cofer mo frapp< maringonin. 
Mo frapp6 mo 1'epole, 
Mo frapp6 mo lestoma 
Mo di, " maringonin c^ cila 
Ki vini pren rivole on moin. 
Maringouin, gouin, gouin, gouin, 
Li quitt^ chivreil la plairi, 
Li vini pren rivole on moin. 

*Shoe made of raw hide. fRubmyback. JVengeance, revanche. 

1 66 Alcte For tier, [Vol. in. 

As I have already said, the negroes sometimes sing for hours 
a mere refrain, such as this, which is exceedingly popular : 

Mape* couri dan bal, 

Dan bal, dan bal, 
Mape* couri dan bal, 

Dan bal, & soir, 

Here is a pretty little song : 

Si to lainmin li, If va lainmin toi. (bis}. 
Oh ! non, cher moman, mo pa connin If, 
Mo pa lainmin li, v pa connin li, 
Moin mo pa compran so langage "k li. 

Si to lainmin li, la fe* to bona^r. (bis) 

Oh ! non, cher moman, mo pa oule* marie", 

Michie" laye*, ce* mo pli gran terrair. (bis] 

The above songs are genuine folk-lore, being popular songs 
composed by negroes. The following song, composed evident- 
ly during the war, is very interesting. It was communicated to 
me by DR. PARRA, of New Orleans. I am in doubt whether it 
is of negro composition : 


Can moin Caillou parti marron TAfrique 
Pou te* vini cherche* la liberte*, 
Ye" te* di moin, dan pays I'Ame'rique, 
Ne*gue t6 joui de* la le*galite*. 

Can mo rive* dan pays l'Ame*rique, 
Mo nee tende* yape* tire" canon. 
L'ode*r la poude fe" moin trape* frisson 
Conf^d^r^ f6 moin gagnin colique. 

A Port Hudson, yankee fe" moin couri 
Race noire plante* drapeau 1'Union. 
Conf^d^r^ ki na pa peur mouri 
Va pluche" nou com ye* pluche* zonion. 

Capitaine Caillou frapp^ par la mitraille, 
Dan la plaine ye* laiss^ li pourri. 
Yankee laye*, c6 pa gran choge ki vaille 
Y6 f^ tue* n^gue sans tir4 gran profi. 

Can y^ vini cherch^ so la de*pouille, 
Y^ nee trouve' k^ d6zo mi!6 
Ki t m^l^ av^ la po grounouille 
Dan bourbi^ et pi dan rigo!6. 

1887.] Louisiana Folk- Lore. 167 

L'abbe* Lemaitre di nou dan so 1'dglise 
Confe'de're' va danse" Calinda 
Aforce ng be"te, ye" ere" tou so be"tise 
Meprise' li, li ce" ein naposta. 

Can vouzote va oua 1'ami Fernandez 
Di li fo pric* pou I'ame a Caillou, 
Di li me'fie' gros jige Bermudez 
Ki fe" sermen neye" li dan bayou. 

The following song was given me by Miss MARIE J. AUGUS- 
TIN as being a genuine Louisiana negro song : 

Ai'e ! Toucoulou 

Yo connin vou, 

Vou c^ youne morico 

Ya pa savon 

Ki ac6 bon 

Pou blanchi vou la poJ 

Coman va f6 vaillan djabaille, 
Vou ki lainmin bril!6, 
Kan blanc la yo va donnin bal, 
Vou pa capabe alle* 

Aie ! Toucoutou, &c. 

Kan tou milate a 
La cou michle' Lidor, 
D6zo pourri va pa gagne" 
Pou von donnin Midori 
Aie ! Toucoutou. 

Many gentlemen in Louisiana have written pretty Creole 
songs. The best were by MAJOR JOHN AUGUSTIN ; they were 
published in the New Orleans Times- Democrat. The following 
song is quite graceful : 


En ho zarbe dan manche, 
Zozo chante" dan branche, 

Et li contan 

Plis passe" blan 
Qui toujour f^ dimanche, 

Mo t'ape" coupe* canne, 
Tou chagrin dan savanne ; 

O ven di nor 

To souffle" for 
Pou pov ' ne"g ' dan cabanne J 

1 68 Alcee For tier. [Vol. in. 

Zozo chant^ z'amour a li 
Dan ciel cle"re" soleil siperbe 
Et ven pli dou caresse" z'herbe 
Qiie" chanson pape ou bengali. 

Mangeur penile" vini sur brise, 
Dan bee li pran joli zozo ; 
Coeur moin gonfle", mo songe" Lise, 
a blan te" vand, lot' bor do lo. 

En ho z'arbe dan manche 
Na pu zozo dan branche, 

Na pu z'amour 

Ni rien di tou 
Pou pov neg fe* dimanche ; 

Mo re"te" coupe" canne, 

Mo rentre" dan cabanne ; ^ 

O ven di nor, 

C'e"te" la Mor 

To soufle* dan savanne. 

Father ADRIEN ROUQUETTE (Chatah-Ima), our distinguished 
Louisiana poet, wrote a charming poem in the patois, " Zozo 

The largest collection of articles and poems written in the 
Creole patois by white men, is to be found in le Carillon, a 
weekly journal published in New Orleans in 1874 and 1875, by 
DR. J. M. DUREL,. The files of this paper were kindly placed 
at my disposal by my friend, MR. CHARLES DUREL, and I 
have read with great pleasure all the contributions written in 
patois. They are not only interesting for the study of the 
dialect, but as a souvenir of the troublous times of the White 
League in Lousiana, the articles and poems referring generally 
to the events of the day, and satirizing most bitterly and wittily 
the radical administration of MR. KELLOGG. 

The author of this paper hopes to make, hereafter, a more 
complete study of Louisiana popular literature. In the mean- 
time, he presents these " Bits of Folk-Lore" as his contribution 
to a very important and interesting science. 

1887.] Charles F, Kroeh, 

VI. Methods 0f Teaching Modern Languages* 


One of the most interesting subjects of study to the concien- 
tious teacher is that of methods of instruction. It is indispen- 
sable to his success that he should be familiar with all existing 
methods, so that he may intelligently choose that one, or that 
combination, which is best suited to his peculiar conditions. 
Generally the age of the pupils, the time allotted for instruction 
in Modern Languages, and the place these occupy in the curric- 
ulum by which I mean the object of studying them are be- 
yond our control. Modern Languages are studied, for example, 

1. As an accomplishment. 

2. Because other schools offer them, and with no special 
ulterior object, or with a vague idea of some intellectual benefit. 

3. To serve the purposes of a summer trip abroad. 

4. As a means of improvement in the use of one's native 

5. For general culture obtainable by reading foreign literature. 

6. For philological research or amusement. 

7. For acquiring the ability to consult foreign scientific and 
technical publications. 

8. For business correspondence. 

9. Because business, family, or friendly relations bring with 
them personal intercourse with foreigners. 

10. To teach them. 

It is evident at once, then, that no teacher can blindly accept 
the conclusions of another as to the best method of instruction. 
He must work it out for himself; and, to be able to do so, he 
must know all there is to be known on the subject. The pur- 
pose of the present paper is to lay before the Convention a brief 
description of various methods which have come under the ob- 
servation of the writer for the last twenty years in the hope 
that it may suggest comments and elicit valuable information 
from the experience of the members present. The great multi- 
tude of instruction books upon our shelves may be reduced to 

i yo Methods of Teaching Mod. Langs. [Vol. in. 

very few general modes of procedure that deserve the name of 
systems or methods. 

The Scholastic Method. 

When Latin ceased to be a living tongue, some schoolmaster, 
whose name has not come down to us, conceived the unlucky 
idea that the proper way to learn I^atin was by studying those 
excellent books of reference, the grammar and the dictionary. 
In proportion as boys learnt less and less Latin, more and more 
importance was attached to the study of grammar. Parents of 
an inquiring turn of mind, who wished to know the reason why 
their boys did not learn to read Latin very fluently after four 
to six years of instruction, were consoled or silenced with the plea 
that the scholars were receiving valuable ^nental discipline. 

The same method naturally came to be applied to modern 
languages, for it required a minimum of talent and exertion on 
the part of the teacher. In due time clear-headed men protested 
against such a process. Among others LOCKE, in England, and 
D'ALEMBERT in France proposed a different way. LOCKE says, 
if you cannot get a man to talk Latin to your children, the next 
best thing is by taking some easy and pleasant book, such as 
Aesop's Fables, and writing the English translation, made as 
literal as can be, in one line, and the Latin words, which answer 
to each of them, just over it, in another. These let them read 
every day over and over again, till they perfectly understand the 
Latin. Of the grammar, he recommended only the conjugations 
and declensions. In accordance with this plan, HAMILTON pre- 
pared a series of Interlinears to Caesar, Cicero, Xenophon, etc. 
When I went to school, however, it was considered nothing short 
of moral degradation to use such aids. There is indeed one 
valid objection to their use and that is the arrangement of Latin 
words in the English order of thought; but it is an objection 
that could be easily overcome by a skilful teacher. 
The Practical Method. 

The text-books of OLLENDORF, which were published about 
1846, are a type that has been most extensively imitated by AHN, 
OTTO, WOODBURY and a great host of followers. They embody 
another protest against the grammar and dictionary method, 
which I am happy to say now rests in peace, at least so far as 
Modern Languages are concerned. Their leading idea is prac- 
tice before theory, and although they have been subjected to 
much well deserved ridicule for the puerility of their examples, 

1887.] Charles F. Kroeh, 171 

they mark an important advance in the art of teaching languages. 
They contain a very large vocabulary of common words and 
phrases with their translation, and two kinds of exercises, one to 
be turned from the foreign language into English and the other 
for the reverse process. No grammatical aid is given except 
what may be gathered from an appendix and a few footnotes. 
The reaction against grammar was evidently too great. Sound 
instruction in language cannot be divorced entirely from gram- 
mar. The collocation of words, their inflection, agreement and 
government and the equivalence of different forms of expression 
must always form the basis of instruction. Technicalities can be 
dispensed with and there is no use in teaching formally what the 
pupil can be led to find out for himself. The attitude of the 
teacher in this respect might be expressed by the following 
questions : " Of what service is this matter which I am about to 
teach in the acquisition of the language ? " " Can I teach it in 
some other way than by rule ? " 

Robertsonian System. 

The Robertsonian system practised by PROF. T. ROBERTSON 
for over thirty years in Paris, appeared about 1852. It is a 
modification of the interlinear plan with notable improvements. 
A continuous story is given in forty short sections, each accom- 
panied by an interlinear translation and also an idiomatic trans- 
lation into correct English. The teacher is directed to read the 
first lesson five or six times to the pupil, who then familiar- 
izes himself with the spelling and the meaning of the words 
until he can write them correctly from dictation and from mem- 
ory. Each lesson of this kind is followed by a set of questions 
and answers made up of the words and phrases already learned 
and by a series of sentences to translate from French into Eng- 
lish and back again. These also contain nothing that has not 
been explained. The learner may then go on through the book 
in this way, skipping the second or theoretical part of each lesson 
and come back to it on the review, or he may take it at once. 
Under the heading of " lexicology," lists of words are given 
from time to time which are easily remembered by reason of 
their similarity to English. The whole is followed by twenty 
lessons more, in parallel columns for translation from and into 
French, and by a short synopsis of Grammar. 

This system is represented in Germany by what is called the 

ijz Methods of Teaching Mod. Lang's. [Vol. nr, 

'Toussaint-Langenscheidt' method which appeared in Berlin 
about 1860, in the form of thirty-six letters, each containing two- 
lessons. The basis of the French is CHATEAUBRIAND'S 'Atala* 
and of the English, DICKENS' ' Christmas Carol.' Each section 
is accompanied not only by two translations but by the pronun- 
ciation denoted in a most excellent manner. Besides the features 
of ROBERTSON'S book above mentioned, conversations on prac- 
tical subjects, correction of Germanisms, forms of letter writing, 
lists of idioms, war terms and an outline of literature are given. 
DR. CARL SACHS 'Encyclop. Worterbuch der franz. u. deutsch. 
Sprache ' contains the same system of pronunciation and is one 
of the best dictionaries in existence. 

Gaillartfs Modern French*Method. 

PROF. J. D.GAILLARD, now of New York City, has published 
a method which possesses considerable originality. Like 
ROBERTSON he uses a continuous story as its basis ; but, unlike 
him, he first teaches his pupils the pronunciation and the 
elementary principles of grammar including the verb and then 
gives a section of his story without the connecting words ; thus : 
s'appeler George d'Estainville issu famille huguenots 
exile's au temps persecution protestants Louis quatorze* 
The words are all in one column and the translation is given 
opposite. The teacher supplies the intermediate words mak- 
ing a connected narrative and the pupils repeat after him, first 
without sight of the books and then with the books open. They 
next prepare these lessons at home, by committing the different 
connected groups to memory so that they can speak and write 
them. When they come to class again, a dialogue of the follow- 
ing nature ensues between teacher and pupil : 

Teacher Notre h6ros, Pupil s'appelait George d'Estain- 
ville, Teacher II 6tait, Pupil issu, Teacher de 1'une de ces 
nombreuses et honorables, Pupil families de huguenots exi!6es 
au temps de la persecution, Teacher de la persecution, Pupil 
des protestants. 

The next step is conversation by question and answer. For 
this purpose a series of questions is given with interlinear trans- 
lation and to these the pupils reply by using the material just 
acquired. Conversation is also practised between pupils, one 
asking, the other answering. After some time they are required 
to give a continuous narrative of portions of the story and also 
to write them out from memory. After the twentieth lesson, a 

1887.] Charles F. Kroeh, 173 

mere sketch of suggestive words is given which are to be worked 
freely into a narrative. The features upon which most stress is 
laid are, that the words and phrases of the fundamental story 
are grouped according to the law of the association of ideas and 
that the subjects treated impart knowledge and excite interest by 
appealing to human feelings. It is claimed very justly that these 
features are of great service in helping the learner to remember. 
It remains to be added that the interlinear translation is idio- 
matic and does not give the meaning word for word, and that 
many of the subjects treated require a somewhat matured intel- 
lect. Too much must not be expected from the claim that the 
law of association has been followed. In our own language where 
we have to deal with familiar words, this law applies, and we can 
remember a series of words connected in sense like fire, bells, 
excited crowd, distracted mother, brave fireman, ladder, rescued 
child better than a series of disconnected ones like barrel, sky, 
to waltz, rooster, windy day. But in a foreign language where the 
words are still unfamiliar, the law of association is of little assist- 
ance at first. 

Marcel's 'Rational Method' 

CLAUDE MARCEL (about 1868) considers the ability to under- 
stand spoken language and to read of more importance than 
speaking and writing. He would have us begin the study of a 
language by reading at once without any previous preparation. 
His arguments and directions are as follows : To prevent mis- 
takes, do not pronounce the foreign language at all either aloud 
or mentally, but let the information enter through the eye alone. 
Pronounce instead the English equivalents of the passages under 
consideration. The book should be very easy and should con- 
tain a close English translation on the opposite page. The 
learner compares the two pages, sentence by sentence, and infers 
the meaning of as many words as he can. The use of grammar 
and dictionary is forbidden. To use the latter would be to sub- 
stitute the thumb and finger for the intellect. Read in this way 
five or six volumes two or three times over in three months. 
At first all is confusion, but light will gradually dawn because 
the most useful words occur the most frequently. On seeing 
them in different positions, we receive successive additions to our 
first impression and thus our knowledge of their meaning is 
gradually built up. By continuing to read we become more and 
more independent of the translation and finally discard it al- 

174 Methods of Teaching Mod. Langs. [Vol. nr. 

together. The art of reading in this way can be acquired with- 
out the teacher. The next step consists in training the ear to 
the art of understanding the spoken language. The teacher now 
reads aloud what his pupils have translated and they follow him 
without looking at the text and translate by ear. At first he 
reads slowly and by phrases and then gradually faster and more 
connectedly. After some time they will understand him when 
he reads what they have not prepared beforehand and when he 
speaks so rapidly that they have no time to translate. The art 
of speaking, adds MARCEL, will then follow as a necessary con- 

MARCEL considers narration better than conversation and 
asks " What conversation can there be between a master and his 
pupils ? " Accordingly he recommends delating anecdotes, his- 
torical facts and noteworthy events. His remarks are intended 
principally for the study of French, which he thinks a pupil of 
suitable age should be able to read with pleasure and speak with 
ease in eighteen months or two years. It will occur at once to 
an experienced teacher that his pupils will generally violate 
MARCEL'S directions as regards pronunciation. They will pro- 
nounce mentally according to the analogy of English and thus 
render it more difficult for themselves to acquire the correct 
sounds afterwards. Again, the spoken language corresponds so 
little to its conventional representation on paper, that the pupils 
previous silent reading will be of little service to him when he 
comes to hear the same text read by the teacher. As the time 
must come sooner or later when the sounds are associated with 
the letters, syllables, words and phrases it is difficult to see the 
advantage of postponing. Besides, if the sounds were taught 
first they would assist in remembering words. The combined 
memories of the eye and the ear would serve better than either 

The excellences in MARCEL'S method are his substitution of 
the intellectual processes of comparison and reflection for the 
use of grammar and dictionary, and his recognition of the im- 
portance of 'the conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns and short 
adverbs which constantly recur on every page. There are 
hardly three hundred of them and yet they are used more than 
all the remaining hundred thousand words of the dictionary. 
For languages like Greek, Latin and German, in which the collo- 
cation of words differs widely from English, an interlinear trans- 

1887.] Charles F. Kroeh, 175 

lation would be necessary to carry out MARCEL'S ideas ; but the 
words of these languages should not be taken out of their natural 
order and arranged after the English sequence as is done in the 
Interlinears of HAMILTON. Students should be led to under- 
stand them as they stand in the original, i, e., to take in the full 
meaning of each word or phrase as it comes without mentally 
re-arranging. My ' First German Reader ' and ' Die Anna-Lise ' 
are arranged on this plan for German. In French a number of 
books have been published besides MARCEL'S own. Among 
them may be mentioned MME. BARBAULD'S ' Lessons for 
Children/ ' French Children at Home/ ' Comment on Parle a 
Paris/ ' Le Voyage a Paris ' by WILLIAMS, and ROEMER'S 
* Polyglot Readers.' The latter are also intended for double 
translation. Books of this character are of especial value to 
those who study without a teacher. My experience does not 
incline me to agree with the idea that reading leads directly to 
speaking. If any teacher desires to discover why reading 
usually contributes so little to this end, let him ask a student to 
repeat from memory some simple idiomatic sentence of very 
moderate length which the latter has just read. He will rarely 
be able to do so; because, in fact, he has not performed any 
mental operation analogous to speaking. He may have perfect- 
ly understood the sense of the passage, but he has not transfer- 
red the words to his mind, nor treasured them in his memory, 
nor combined them with those already there. 

The Mastery System. 

THOMAS PRENDERGAST, an English writer of decided origi- 
nality, found about 1867 that lads who had been carefully 
drilled for three or four years in translating English into French 
and German grammatically, were incapable of putting ten words 
together idiomatically until they went abroad and learned by 
imitation ; also that in the examinations one who had the power 
of speaking a foreign language idiomatically was considered 
inferior in merit to those who had a thorough knowledge of 
grammar without that power. Children, he says, instinctively 
imitate and repeat chance combinations of unfamiliar sounds. 
Only after some weeks they begin to speak a few sentences, 
which they multiply by transferring words and phrases from 
one to another. The mastery system substitutes skilfully con- 
structed sentences for these chance combinations but conforms 
otherwise to the procedure of children. There are two hundred 

176 Methods of Teaching Mod. Langs. [Vol. in. 

or three hundred common words in every language, some of 
which necessarily occur in every sentence. The profusion of 
speech which we observe in children springs from their power 
of wielding these two hundred or three hundred words with a 
gradually increasing stock of nouns and verbs interspersed. 
To these words the learner should, therefore, devote himself at 
once. They should be arranged for him in a sufficient number 
of lengthy and complicated sentences to illustrate all the con- 
structions in use. Each sentence, moreover, should be ac- 
companied by a number of variations in which the same words 
are re-combined to form new idiomatic sentences. 

Now, for the manner of studying. Suppose, for example, 
that the first sentence is : " Unless we send word to the hotel 
immediately, we shall have no chance of obtaining horses, 
because there is a great demand for them." From this sentence 
about twenty-five sentences of various lengths would be given 
in which no other words are used. The original fundamental 
sentence is accompanied by an interlinear translation and the 
variations are accompanied by free translations. Each of these 
sentences must be learnt in the most perfect manner until they 
can be spoken with the utmost fluency, accuracy and prompti- 
tude. If a mistake is permitted in a single word or even in a 
single sound the system has been virtually abandoned. To 
insure this accuracy, the learner is advised to learn very short 
lessons, never to continue more than ten minutes at one time 
and to make from three to six such efforts a day. The most 
common error is to furnish the beginner with more material 
than he can retain. Perfect retention must be aimed at and the 
power of retention is much smaller than is generally supposed. 
The mastery of ten new words daily is far beyond the power of 
a person of average capacity and industry. Those who doubt 
this statement are invited to try the experiment fairly for thirty 
days. The beginner is not allowed to compose any sentences 
for himself. He is merely the recipient of a stock of practical 
sentences which in due time become models for other sentences. 

The reason for beginning with complicated sentences is that 
children do not discriminate between what we call simple and 
difficult constructions but employ the latter as readily as the 
former. So the learner must not disdain to commit them to 
memory and to reserve the solution of difficulties for future 
experience. During the first fortnight the beginner is not 

3.887.] Charles F. Krocli, 177 

allowed to trust his memory. In order that mistakes may be 
avoided, he must rehearse with the teacher before reciting and 
the teacher should prompt him at the slightest hesitation. 

When the first sentence and its variations are perfectly 
mastered, the second is taken up and the variations then contain 
the words of both, When two hundred words have been 
mastered in this way, the learner is permitted to use a table of 
terminations of the variable parts of speech and to vary the 
sentences given by changing the tense, person, and number of 
verbs, the case and number of nouns and pronouns, etc. He 
may also exchange congruous words as 'before' for 'after,' 
* came ' for ' went/ ' his ' for ' her,' ' to-day ' for * yesterday.' 
From two sentences of ten congruous words each we can thus 
make 1024 and from three 59049 variations. The thorough 
mastery of a few of these gives the command of all. During 
this course no reading must be done and no grammar or 
dictionary used. 

It will be seen that the acquisition of colloquial fluency is here 
considered as a purely mechanical process dependent upon the 
memory and not the intellect, and that composition is regarded 
as putting together idiomatic phrases by an intelligent effort of 
the memory and not as compounding sentences according to the 
prescription of the grammar. The great merit of PRENDERGAST, 
whose system has just been described largely by condensing his 
own phraseology, consists in formulating so exactly the 
problem to be solved in learning to speak a language. His 
solution of the problem, however, is one that involves mere 
drudgery unrelieved by any interesting exercise. 
The Meisterschaft System. 

The so called Meisterschaft System, by DR. S. ROSENTHAL, is 
directly based upon PRENDERGAST'S Mastery System of which 
its very title is a translation. The author claims that he has great- 
ly improved upon the original by confining himself strictly to the 
necessary phraseology of every-day life and adding only so 
much grammar as must be known for all practical purposes. 
This claim is well founded, so far as some of his model-sentences 
are concerned ; for they are certainly more useful than those 
given by PRENDERGAST while others have been but slightly 
altered. His directions for pronunciation (of French for 
example) are simply abominable, however ; and his means of 
imparting the vocabulary of two thousand or three thousand 

178 Methods of Teaching Mod. Langs. [Vol. in. 

words, which he considers necessary, is by giving them in long 
lists. COLLAR'S EYSENBACH'S ' German Lessons,' which I 
have just received seems to be an attempt to graft the PRENDER- 
GAST idea of beginning with sentences and their variation upon 
a grammatical course. It has the appearance of a very useful 

The Natural Method. 

Although there have been teachers probably ever since the 
time of PESTALOZZI and perhaps before, who availed themselves 
of object lessons to some extent in teaching languages, the merit 
of originating the so called Natural Method is due to GOTTLIEB 
HENESS in the same sense that the discovery of America is due 
to COLUMBUS rather than to the Norsemen. In 1865, while 
HENESS was explaining to a friend the advantage of object teach- 
ing as used in Southern Germany to help children in over- 
coming their dialects, the thought occurred to him that this means 
might be made of service in teaching German or any other 
language. About six months after he promised to teach the sons 
of several Yale College professors to speak German fluently in 
one school year of forty weeks, five days per week and four 
hours per day. In this undertaking he was so successful that 
he opened a school, taught his method to DR. L. SAUVEUR and 
engaged him to assist in French. The method has since become 
widely known especially through Dr. SAUVEUR'S publications 
and summer schools. 

The method consists in speaking only the foreign language in 
the class room, as though English were not in existence. The 
teacher begins with short sentences about some object in sight 
in such a way that the pupils cannot fail to understand him. He 
holds out a book, for example, and says: " Here is a book," a 
pencil and says : " Here is a pencil." Then, perhaps he puts the 
pencil in the book and says : " The pencil is in the book." 
Thus he continues by going through ordinary motions of every- 
day life, suiting the action to the words. By judicious question- 
ing, the pupils are led to reproduce the phraseology they have 
heard. It is like living in a foreign country under favorable con- 
ditions. Taking care to introduce but one new word or phrase 
at a time, the teacher continually combines in new ways the 
words already acquired by the pupils, and soon reaches a point 
at which it is rarely necessary for him to have recourse to panto^ 
mime or even to visible objects. His next step is to lead up to 

i88y.] Charles F. Kroeh, 179 

some easy reading by preparing his pupils beforehand for the 
new things and the difficulties to be encountered. His object 
in doing so is to enable them to read the piece as a native does, 
without the necessity of translating. When they have read the 
piece, he drills them conversationally on the phraseology until 
he has reason to believe that they have transferred it to their 
working vocabulary. Perhaps he finishes by making them learn 
the piece by heart. Grammar is taught in instalments as soon 
as it can be understood when explained in the new .language in 
my own practice about the tenth or fifteenth lesson. Trans- 
lation is postponed as long as possible. When the learner's 
vocabulary is sufficiently extensive, he is required to relate 
anecdotes, to condense stones he has read, to convert poetry 
into prose, etc. This is done both orally and in writing. At 
this stage it is claimed that he will enjoy all the beauties of litera- 
ture as a native does. There is now no further objection to his 
translating from one language into the other for the purpose of im- 
proving his style in both and of acquiring that nicety of dis- 
crimination which w r e admire so much in scholarly writers. 

Let us now examine the objections which have been made to 
this system. It cannot be denied, we are told, that the most 
natural process for learning a language is that through which 
little children pass. They listen to their mothers and com- 
panions, watch their facial expressions, gestures and actions and 
then imitate both the action and the accompanying words. But 
in this way ten or twelve years are consumed in acquiring a 
commonplace colloquial vocabulary. To this the child adds 
constantly with its increasing experience derived from inter- 
course, reading and study. The acquisition of knowledge gees 
hand in hand with the acquisition of terms expressed it, and the 
process never stops. Now, when a young man enters college 
at the average age of eighteen, it is manifestly too late for this 
lengthy and wasteful process with any other language. Besides 
the conditions will never again be the same as those under which 
he learnt his mother tongue. His own mental organism has 
changed. He has lost much of the spontaneous receptivity and 
plasticity of mind peculiar to childhood and has developed in 
exchange the faculties of comparison, reasoning and generaliza- 
tion. He is now, moreover, already in possession of the means 
for expressing his thoughts. The words of his vernacular have 
become thoroughly connected with the ideas they represent and 

iSo Methods fff Teaching Mod. Langs:. [Vol. in, 

have linked themselves to form a vast number of inseparable 
chains of phraseology. A new language must displace all this. 
His mind now runs in deeply worn grooves. Consequently the 
new language has not the same chance of success as the first, 
It has a habit to overcome. The older the student, the more 
firmly established the habit and the more extensive the vocabu- 
lary to be displaced. An adult will not be content with the 
commonplaces of children ; hence he must work much harder to- 
attain fluency. 

Reasoning similar to that which has just been given has led 
some writers who are imperfectly acquainted with the capabili- 
ties of the natural method to decide that it might be 
suitable to children but not to- adults. As in so many contro- 
versies, the difficulty here is in a name. The ' natural method ' 
is not the process by which children le^arn from their mothers. 
It is, or ought to be, a great deal better than that, though based 
upon it. It is natural in its basis ; but highly artificial in its 
development and hence the name by which it has become 
known is to a certain extent a misnomer. But we cannot 
change that now. We can only point out that the arguments 
just formulated do not apply to the natural method as it is, but 
only as it is supposed to be. It has been objected that the 
teacher is required to do a disproportionate share of the work ; 
that he must labor excessively to supply the place of dictionary, 
grammar and foreign surroundings to his pupils ; and that his 
memory must be under a continual strain to retain the exact 
vocabulary of all his different classes at every stage of their 
progress. A skillful teacher, however, will find means of light- 
ening his labors and overcoming these difficulties. Another 
objection that has been made is that the conversation necessarily 
turns upon trivial subjects; but my own experience has 
convinced me that this is true only at the outset and since many 
of my adult pupils even find great difficulties in these very 
commonplaces, I must conclude that these are a necessary evil. 
Fortunately it is only a brief one. It must not be supposed 
that the teacher is required to lower himself in any way in 
order to amuse his listeners by converting his illustrations into 
a farce. He must possess a thorough command of his language ; 
he must combine and recombine the vocabulary of his class 
ingeniously and skilfully so as always to be understood ; and he 
must have at his beck and call a wealth of illustrations, such as 

1887.] Charles F. Kroeh, 181 

proverbs, winged words, anecdotes and poetry that will not 
permit the attention of his hearers to flag for an instant. He 
wields over them the power of an orator and may use it 
for their highest mental and moral good. 

It has been objected that this method fails to bring into play 
the higher faculties ; and that it is folly to reject any philosophi- 
cal aids to the study of language, such as grammar and 
bilingual dictionaries. The first portion of this objection will 
never be made by any one who has successfully used the 
method even to a very limited extent. Such a teacher knows 
that his pupils are vigorously comparing and reasoning all the 
time and he leads them to make their own generalization as 
soon as they can do it in the language taught. I cannot con- 
ceive of any philosphical aid to the study of languages that the 
" Sprechlehrer " cannot avail himself of. He certainly can and 
does teach grammar as thoroughly as it can be done by the old 
way. It would be inconsistent to permit beginners to use a 
bilingual dictionary for several reasons. It promotes mental 
inertia, because it is easier to look up a word than to reason out 
its meaning from the context ; it is misleading because it makes 
the learner believe that words exactly coincide in two lan- 
guages, whereas they may only touch each other at one or two 
points and then each may have its own distinct figurative ramifi- 
cations, which are all natural enough provided we do not mix 
them, and lastly the very existence of English must be ignored 
during the lessons for reasons which will presently appear. 
Yet notwithstanding all these reasons, it would sometimes seem 
as though we had rejected a valuable aid by dispensing with a 
bilingual dictionary, especially when we consider that beginners 
have no others means of pursuing their studies out of the class 
room. They cannot of course use a unilingual dictionary until 
they have made considerable progress. But perhaps they had 
better not pursue their studies out of the class room at that 
stage. There is some room for a difference of opinion on this 
point. The advantage of the ' Natural Method 'over that which 
is based upon reading is obvious. It is hardly possible to hear 
a recitation of more than six moderate octavo pages in one hour 
if nothing else is done than " hear the lesson." If there are ex- 
planations and comments, the lesson must be shorter. Now it is 
not difficult to calculate that the conversation heard by the 
students in one lively lesson by this method would fill at least 

1 82 Methods of Teaching Mod. Langs. [Vol. nr. 

forty pages, as a fluent speaker uses about two hundred and 
fifty words per minute and a medium sized octavo page contains 
about three hundred words. 

The basis of all language whether literary or scientific is the 
phraseology of every-day life, and this can be learned only by 
imitation. In actual conversation there is no time to reason 
about the arrangement of words or to translate them from one 
language into another. We must think directly in the language 
we are speaking. Now, I am not acquainted with any other 
system than the natural method that has provided the means 
of doing so. Its great merit, in my opinion, consists in the fact 
that it leads the learner to associate the new vocabulary directly 
with objects and actions instead of their English names. The 
natural tendency of the learner is to translate the foreign 
phrases he hears and sees, but by this method he is soon con- 
vinced that he is wasting his time and only practising English 
by so doing because he can raise his hand, and say, " I raise my 
hand " in any language without the necessity of first thinking 
it in English. By means of these preliminary object lessons 
the habit of direct association is soon formed and this I consider 
their chief value. The student, morever, on seeing before his 
eyes objects and actions and hearing them described, must 
receive more vivid impressions and is, therefore, more likely to 
remember than where words only are associated together as in 
translation. After a foreign language has been studied for a 
while as a living tongue, that is to say, after a limited number of 
words and phrases, learned as described, have become grouped 
together in a great variety of ways and thoroughly incorporated 
with our brain fibre, reading will increase our command of the 
language just as it does in English and for the same physiologi- 
cal reason. Nothing is now so novel and strange as not to find 
something kindred in the brain to which it can attach itself ac- 
cording to the laws which govern the action of the memory. 
The proper time for systematically comparing two languages 
is when the 'student possesses a moderately good knowledge of 
both. I do not mean that all comparison should be postponed 
until then, only that such comparisons should not be made tlje 
basis of instruction. The student will unavoidably institute some 
for himself: but he will never know a language as a native does 
unless he has learned to utilize its power of explaining itself. 

I conclude from these considerations that the ' Natural Method ' 

1887.] Charles F. Kroeh, 183 

furnishes the most philosophical introduction to the study of 
languages which has ever been proposed for the class room. 
For study without a teacher, where reading is the sole object, 
the Interlinear System is recommendable for languages differing" 
widely in construction from our own, and the MARCEL System 
for those which do not. The ' Natural Method ' is, of course, in- 
terminable. Probably no teacher can pursue it to the point at 
which his pupils are able to express themselves in the new 
tongue as perfectly on all subjects within their range as they can 
in the vernacular. In my own course, I can go no further than 
to lay the foundation which has been so well formulated by 
PRENDERGAST. Then we must read as much as possible and push 
forward to the ultimate object of our course, the easy compre- 
hension of scientific and technological literature. The greatest 
difficulty I have to encounter is the imperfect training or total 
absence of training of the ear in our schools. The education of 
our young people is still conducted almost exclusively through 
the eye, by means of books. There is so little oral instruction 
that the pupils not only do not hear accurately, but have to learn 
the art of paying attention. To meet this difficulty I have pre- 
pared drill books on the pronunciation of German, Spanish and 
French for training the ear by systematic practice. By placing 
these books in the hands of students and giving them at least 
fifteen lessons in phonetics, I find when I begin conversation 
that my labor is very much lightened. 

Self -Instruction and The Class Room. 

Permit me in conclusion to describe how I should avail myself 
of various aids in acquiring a language myself. I should un- 
doubtedly begin by taking a course of lessons by the ' Natural 
Method ' until I was sure that my pronunciation was accurate 
and until I had mastered all the constructions. Then I should 
read a short grammar written in the language I was studying 
and thoroughly drill myself on the declensions and conjugations, 
especially the irregular ones, rejecting, of course, all that are 
likely to occur but rarely. The next step would be to read 
several thousand pages without consulting a dictionary, or at 
least without consulting it very often. This first reading must 
not be too difficult. It should consist of popular tales and even 
riddles, nursery rhymes and songs everything in fact that a 
native learns first in his own language. All the literature of a 
nation is full of allusions to these outgrowths of popular life and 

184 Methods of Teaching Mod. Langs. [Vol. in. 

many of them have enough intrinsic value to repay the trouble 
of storing them in the memory. Then I should ascertain what 
are the best contemporary novels and plays and read all the 
works of one good author first, because a man necessarily has a 
limited vocabulary and is obliged to repeat himself. I should 
select a writer of the realistic school whose realism confined 
itself to minute descriptions of the ordinary events of life ; for 
my object would now be to surround myself artificially with the 
advantages which can be derived otherwise only from a residence 
among the people whose language I desire to master. In all 
this reading, my constant endeavor is to avoid translating. 
Whenever I reach a good colloquial sentence, likely to be of 
service to me because it contains either phraseology that must 
be used in daily intercourse, or connectives, constructions or 
idioms peculiar to the language, I impress it upon my memory 
by repeating it once or twice. without looking at the book and 
as though I were actually speaking to some one. Then I mark 
the sentence ; and on finishing the volume, I renew my ac- 
quaintance with the marked passages by copying them in a note 
book. It is astonishing how naturally the material thus stored 
in the mind becomes available for the purposes of actual conver- 
sation. Not the identical sentences, but their peculiar turns 
come up as occasion arises to apply them. If no such occasion 
arises, we must create one artificially, or else all our labor is in 
vain. We must think in the new language daily ; that is, we 
must hold mental conversations with ourselves about familiar 
objects, about scenes and persons, and about our occupations; 
we must recall anecdotes and stories we have read ; in short, we 
must entertain ourselves as best we can in the foreign language 
during our walks, rides and moments of leisure and solitude. 

While we can do all this for ourselves, it is not so easy to 
carry out the principle of it in the class room. We may con- 
vince our students of the desirability of such a method of self- 
instruction and hold out to them the certainty of success ; but 
few, if any, will put it in practice, unless we make it impossible 
for them to avoid following our instructions. It is the nature of 
the youthful mind to study all lessons in precisely the same 
manner a lesson in language just like a lesson in geometry. 
To them, studying means reading a task until they understand 
it. The idea of practising has to be enforced. It will be 
desirable, therefore, in hearing a reading lesson to direct 

1887.] Charles F. Kroeh. 185 

students to mark and commit to memory certain sentences in 
such a way that they can repeat them the next day fluently and 
naturally after reading them over once. Any hesitation or false 
emphasis should be considered a failure. Then questions 
might be prepared which would compel students to combine 
their newly acquired vocabulary in various ways. By judicious 
selection, they will soon accumulate enough material to enable 
them to narrate in their own phraseology simple stories and 
anecdotes and eventually to condense longer narratives, to 
paraphrase poetry and to write compositions. 

I consider it very important to begin with the literature of the 
present day and not to meddle with classical writers until the 
daily newspaper no longer presents any difficulties. Then the 
student may approach the classics on a footing of equality with 
a native. Those who imagine that they are enjoying a foreign 
classic while they have to dig out the meaning laboriously are 
only deluding themselves. What they enjoy, if they honestly 
get any pleasure in the process, is the thought of the writer as 
it is conveyed in their own rendering and perhaps also the 
satisfaction of overcoming difficulty. They certainly cannot 
enjoy the intrinsic beauties of the original. Finally, I would 
earnestly recommend all teachers not to become wedded to any 
one system, however good or congenial, but to avail themselves 
of the excellences >of all. 

1 86 Gustaf Karsien, [Vol. in. 

VII. Sprecheinheiten und deren rolle in lautwandcl und 



Wesen und character des lautwandels sind von unseren her- 
vorragendsten sprachforschern schon so vielfach und eingehend 
behandelt worden, dass es kiihn erscheinen mag, wenn hier die 
sache nochmals zur sprache gebracht wird. Indessen wird die 
wichtigkeit des gegenstandes auch dieserfneuen kleinen beitrag 
noch rechtfertigen. In der that, wer auch nur iiber einen ein- 
zigen sprachgeschichtlichen fall ein eigenes urtheil haben will, 
der muss durchaus iiber gewisse fundamentale vorfragen sich 
zu moglichster klarheit durchgearbeitet haben. Es hilft nichts, 
andere an seiner statt denken zu lassen und dann am ende ein- 
fach ja oder nein mitzusagen ; der ganze vorgang will von 
jedem selbstandig erfahren und durchdacht sein. Dabei 
geschieht es dann wohl, dass der nachfolgende hie und da ein 
wenig von dem pfade des fiihrers abweicht. Soviel zur entschul- 
digung der folgenden bemerkungen ; sind dieselben vollig 
verfehlt, so moge die schwierigkeit, nach mannern wie ASCOLI, 
BRUGMANN, PAUL, SCHUCHARDT u. a. noch etwas von belang 
vorzubringen, uns wenigstens als mildernder umstand ange- 
rechnet werden. 

Zunachst beschaftigt uns die frage: was haben wir innerhalb 
der rede als element, als einheit anzusehen ? Es werden dabei 
leicht zwei verschiedene gesichtspunkte nicht geniigend aus 
einander gehalten. Einerseits gilt als einheit der ganze satz; 
auf der anderen seite aber wird auch mit einzel-lauten oder 
-elementen operiert. In der that sind beides einheiten, doch in 
verschiedenem sinne : der satz ist eine phonetische einheit, weil 
seine theile nicht intact und lose neben einander gereiht son- 
dern unter gegenseitiger beeinflussung und anpassung mit einan- 
der verbunden sind. Doch ist er nur eine einheit als p r o c e s s, 
als bewegung und lautbild. Er ist keine constante einheit im 
sprachschatze, das heisst, er wird, abgesehen von unten zu be- 
sprechenden ausnahmen in der seele nicht als lautliche einheit 
fortleben, kein erinnerungsbild der tonempfmdung und des 

1887.] Sprecheinheiten. 187 

bewegungsgefuhles entvvickeln. Zur ausbildung eines solchen 
erinnerungsbildes dient als gewohnlichstes mittel die wieder- 
holung. Einmalige oder seltenere eindriicke werden nur unter 
besonders giinstigen bedingungen stark genug sein, um einheit- 
liche erinnerungsbilder zu hinterlassen. Der satz, welcher ja 
normaler weise eine freie und augenblickliche combination 
logischer einheiten ist, wird auch in bezug auf seinen lautlichen 
ausdruck aus mehreren fertigen einheiten zusammengesetzt. 
Diese fertigen, bleibenden einheiten sind es, die wir 
hier behandeln wollen. Noch sei bemerkt, dass wir natiirlich 
nicht an einheiten denken, deren physiologische entsprechung 
quantitativ untheilbar seien. Dergleichen sprecheinheiten giebt 
es gar nicht, weder was die hervorbringende bewegung noch 
was den daraus resultierenden laut angeht : der laut, auch der 
kurzeste, ist schon an und fur sich das resultat combinierter 
luftschwingungen, und jede bewegung der sprechorgane kann 
quantitativ immer noch getheilt gedacht werden, so dass also 
eine wirkliche bewegungseinheit in der that nicht existiert. Eine 
sprecheinheit in unserem sinne kann also physiologisch theilbar 
sein und ist es unfehlbar ; doch miissen die theile in unserer 
vorstellung zusammengeschmolzen sein und dort ein 
erinnerungsbild hinterlassen. Diese einheitlichen erin- 
nerungsbilder sind es, welche bei allem lautwandel eine so 
hervorragende rolle spielen, und wir sind daher genotigt, die- 
selben als massstab an alles sprachmaterial anzulegen. Es wird 
sich dann herausstellen, dass ausser den sogenannten einzellauten 
auch lautcomplexe solche einheiten darstellen, indem sie 
neben den ersteren gesonderte erinnerungsbilder in unserer 
seele entwickeln. 

Noch dem oben gesagten wird man nicht einwenden wollen, 
dass, wer das bewegungsgefiihl fur das ganze hat, auch das fiir 
die einzelnen theile besitze und umgekehrt. Durch das erin- 
nerungsbild ist eine bewegung von anfang bis ende abgegrenzt, 
dauer und art der mitwirkung aller in betracht kommenden 
organe fest bestimmt. Zwar konnen wir eine bewegung 
absichtlich an irgend einem puncte abbrechen, aber diese abge- 
brochene bewegung ist dann eben nicht mehr dieselbe, sondern 
eine andere, welche bei geniigender wiederholung ihr eigenes 
erinnerungsbild entwickelt. Die bewegungen des arztes beim 
operieren, des malers, des musikers sind mechanisch und raum- 
lich alle enthalten in den einem jeden von uns gelaufigen be- 

1 88 Gustaf Karsten, [Vol. in. 

wegungen ; doch gehort iibung, das heisst ausbildung der 
bewegungsgefiihle dazu, um g'erade eine bestimmte bewegung 
genau auszuftihren. Auch kann man eine bewegung, die man 
z. b. mit fiinf fingern leicht macht, nicht sofort mit einem oder 
zwei fingern nachahmen; das ware zwar ein theil der friiheren, 
aber doch auch eine bewegung fur sich, fur die das bewegungs- 
geftihl erst eigens entwickelt werden muss. Kurz das be- 
wegungsgefiihl kann etwas einheitliches sein, auch wenn die 
wirkliche bewegung compliciert ist, und einheitliche 
bewegungsgefiihle fiir grossere lautgruppen 
konnen in def seele sich bilden getrennt von 
denenfiir die einzelnen theil e, aus welchen 
jene gruppen bestehen. <. 

Es werden nun natiirlich besonders solche lautgruppen zu 
einheiten zusammenschinelzen, die auch inhaltlich eine einheit 
bilden, also praefixe, suffixe aller art, ferner der theil eines 
wortes, der den meisten formen desselben gemeinsam ist und 
deshalb als stamm empfunden wird, sowie ganze worter in den 
am haufigsten vorkommenden formen. Dass das wort als 1 a u t- 
empfindung eine einheit ist, unterliegt keinem zweifel, da 
sich ja an dieses lautbild die bedeutungsvorstellung kniipft. 
Nach der lautempfindung aber richtet sich allmahlich auch das 
bewegungsgefiihl. Ferner wird jeder, der eine fremde sprache 
lernt, bemerken, dass selbst, wenn er die laute und sylben eines 
wortes einzeln ganz leicht und sicher nachahmen kann, er doch 
die aussprache des ganzen wortes haufig noch eigens einiiben 
muss, bis er aus den einzelnen bewegungen der organe eine 
ruhig fliessende, einheitliche reihe gemacht hat. Die schwierig- 
keit wird natiirlich nicht bei alien wortern die gleiche sein ; bei 
den meisten mag sie kaum bemerkt werden, bei anderen wird 
sie lange zeit ein stein des anstosses bleiben. Ja, auch wort- 
gruppen composita und kurze satze konnen zu einer festen 
einheit verschmelzen, wenn sie namlich haufig genug vorkom- 
men und inhaltlich so zusammenschmelzen, dass der gedanke 
an die einzelnen bestandtheile ganz in den hintergrund tritt und 
der ganze ausdruck zusammen eine idee wiedergiebt. So 
mogen besonders kurze sprichwoitliche wendungen, sowie kurze 
satze in form eines ausrufes, befehls nach und nach als unmittel- 
barer reflex einer bestimmten situation sich als einheit dem ohre 
und den sprechorganen einpragen. 

Sehen wir nun hier von sprachverkehr, sprachmischung und 

1887.] Sprecheinheiten. 189 

anderen bedeutenden factoren vollig ab und fragen wir nur 
nach der consequenz der lautlichen entwickelung am einzelnen 
individuum, so wird von unserem standpunkte aus die sache in 
etwas anderem lichte erscheinen, als sie bei PAUL, ' Principien ' 
s. 62, dargestellt ist. Dort heisst es : " Das bewegungsgefuhl 
bildet sich ja nicht flir jedes einzelne wort besonders, sondern 
iiberall, wo in der rede die gleichen elemente widerkehren, wird 
ihre erzeugung auch durch das gleiche bewegungsgefuhl gere- 
gelt. Verschiebt sich daher das bewegungsgefuhl durch das 
aussprechen eines elementes in irgend einem worte, so ist diese 
verschiebung auch massgebend fur das namliche element in 
einem anderen worte." 

Wenn nun auch allerdings die neben einander existierenden 
einheiten der laute, lautcomplexe, worte, wortcomplexe sich 
gegenseitig beeinflussen, so wird doch gerade bei dieser verket- 
tung der umstande eine merkliche verschiebung des bewegungs- 
gefiihles nur dann eintreten konnen, wenn die kleinen, die 
verschiebung allmahlich bewirkenden abweichungen von dem 
normalen iiberall gleichmassig nach ungefahr derselben richtung 
hin iiberwiegen ; es wird einer zufalligen abweichung viel weni- 
ger einfluss zugestanden, und das schwergewicht in die constante 
und gleichmassige wirkung lautphysiologischer ursachen fallen. 
Wir werden daher lieber sagen : Dieselbe ursache, die eine 
verschiebung eines elementes in einem worte bewirkt, wird 
unter gleichen bedingungen das gleiche element in derselben 
weise auch in alien anderen wortern beeinflussen. 

Auff allig und naherer betrachtung werth ist nun aber gerade 
eine erscheinung, die PAUL nicht beriihrt hat, dass namlich in 
wirklichkeit in den sprachen nicht nur gleiches unter 
gleichen umstanden, sondern auch nur ahnliches unter 
bisweilen recht verschiedenen bedingungen sich in 
gleicher Weise entwickelt. Ich glaubte friiher, das kame daher, 
dass unsere organe nicht im stande seien, so kleine unterschiede 
zu appercipieren und aus einander zu halten. Auch andere 
haben die sache so aufgefasst. Das ist aber irrig : erstens 
braucht ein unterschied der articulation, um zu wirken und sich 
zu entwickeln, gar nicht von Anfang an bemerkt werden ; es 
genugt, dass er da ist. Dann aber sind in wirklichheit jene 
unterschiede, die wir hier im auge haben, garnicht so geringe, 
sondern jedenfalls viel grossere, als jene minimalen abweichung- 
en vom normalen, die doch in ihrer gesammtheit den ganzen 
lautwandel ausmachen. 

Gustaf Karstcti, [Vol. in. 

Um die frage der losung naher zu bringen, miissen wir sie, 
praeciser, in zwei zerlegen : 

I. Wie erklart es sich, dass Laute in verschiedenen Wortern, 
unter verschiedenen Bedingungen doch denselben entwicklungs- 
gang einschlagen ? Wie kommen die langen reihen paralleler 
lautentwicklung, kurz, wie kommen lautgesetze iiber- 
haupt zu stande? Bei lautphysiologisch genauer ent- 
wicklung miisste sich weit mehr differenzierung einstellen, und 
jede lautniiance sich nach einem eigenen " lautgesetz " ent- 
wickeln. Die von SIEVERS' ' Phonetik,' p. 6., betonte harmonie 
des lautsystems is zwar fur die lautforschung von allerhbchster 
wichtigkeit und in der that ein moment, dessen erkenntniss 
unsere wissenschaft noch gewaltig forden^wird ; indessen, u'ber- 
all reicht doch auch diese harmonie nic'ht zur erklarung aus. 
Wie kommt es z. b., dass lat. au auf den meisten romanischen 
gebieten zu o contrahiert wurde ohne riicksicht aut" seine stellung 
in der silbe ? Contraction ware zu erwarten bei geschlossener 
silbe. In offener dagegen ist durchaus kein zug zu durchgang- 
iger vereinfachung bemerkbar; im gegentheil werden ja in 
offener silbe einfache vocale diphthongiert. Auch die bei 
SIEVERS' a. a. o. gerade als beispiel fur die harmonie des laut- 
systems angefiihrte germanische lautverschiebung ist doch in 
neuerer zeit in eine reihe von einzelerscheinungen zerlegt, 
welche mit einander nur in losem zusammenhange stehen, und 
jedenfalls ist der schone, einfache kreislauf von " Grimm's law " 
so ziemlich dahin. Wenn wir aber auf den immerhin nicht zu 
verkennenden parallelismus das hauptgewicht legen und z. b. in 
der verschiebung von medien zu tenues und von tenues zu 
affricaten oder fricativen etc. den eigentlichen kern des laut- 
gesetzes erblicken, dann diirfen wir wieder fragen : warum haben 
sich dann die labialen und gutturalen diesem zuge weniger 
gefiigt als die dentalen, warum sind, z. b., die labialen und gut- 
turalen median im ahd. nicht durchweg zu tenues verschoben ? 
Man sollte, glaube ich, in bezug auf medien tenues iiberall 
einen zustand erwarten, wie er sich in NOTKERS regel abspie- 
gelt. In der that reguliert sich auch in der neuhochdeutschen 
umgangssprache, soweit nicht durch dialektische beeinflussimg 
tonende oder tonlose nach anderen gefliisterte medien allein 
gesprochen werden, dass verhaltniss zwischen beiden so, dass 
tonende media nur noch tonenden lauten, sonst aber, also nach 
tonlosen und im satzanfange, der entsprechende tonlose laut 

1887.] Sprecheinheiien. 191 

gesprochen wird. Wie aber kommt es eben, dass in dialekten 
die eine oder die andere art allein entwickelt wurde? Bei 
jedem einzigen lautgesetz einer jeden sprache konnten wir mit 
recht d'eselbe frage stellen ; wir unterlassen es daher, noch 
rnehr einzelfalle anzufuhren, 

Ich habe diese erscheinung zu erklaren versucht als eine 
p r i m a r e assimilation von unmerkbar verschiedenem zu 
gleichem. Aehnlich, wenn auch vvohl etvvas verschieden, ist 
vielleicht SCHUCHARDT'S (Ueber die Lautgesetze, p. 8), aus- 
druck " rein lautl iche analogic" zu verstehen. Aller- 
dings ist, wie leider manches in dem iiberaus lehrreichen buche, 
auch die betreffende stelle so kurz und knapp gehalten, dass sie 
von PAUL (' Litteraturblatt,' 1886, p. 5) ganz anders aufge- 
fasst werden konnte. Es richtet sich doch wohl nicht italienisch 
<?, e nach fertigem uo, i.e, sondern schon bei beginn des 
lautwandels, der endlich zu u o, i e fuhrte, wurde <?, e in diese 
veranderung hineingezogen auch unter umstanden, die allein 
kein u o, i e erzeugt hatten. 

Indessen scheint mir in keinem falle der ausdruck lautliche 
analogic hier sehr gliicklich zu sein, da analogic nun einmal in 
der sprachgeschichte in wesentlich anderem sinne gebraucht 
wird. Die sache ist doch eben die, dass mehrere verschiedene 
lautniiancen durch dasselbe erinnerungsbild der bewegung und 
lautempfmdung vertreten werden. Diese aber, die erinner- 
ungsbilder, und nicht die einmal hcrvorgebrachten und 
dann fur immer vergangenen laute, sind das eigentlich 
bleibende und veranderungsfahige moment, mit 
dem wir zu rechnen haben. Dass wir nun nicht fur 
jede lautvariante ein eigenes erinnerungsbild entwickeln, ist im 
grunde begreiflich. Zur einpragung eines bewegungsgefiihles 
und lautbildes gehort, wie oben gesagt, iibung, wiederholung. 
Bedenken wir nun, dass ganz genau dieselbe lautniiance u'ber- 
haupt kaum wiederholt in der sprache vorkommt, so ist es klar, 
dass die einander ahnlichsten in der erinnerung verschmelzen 
miissen. Die unter augenblicklichen einflussen zu stande kom- 
mende lautvariante kann nur bei besonders gunstiger constella- 
tion ein eigenes erinnerungsbild hinterlassen ; meistens verbindet 
sie sich sofort mit dem bisherigen lautbilde und bewegungs- 
gefuhle zu einem ganzen und hat nur die wirkung, dass bei 
dieser assimilation das ganze moglicher weise ein wenig nach 
der seite des neu aufgenommenen hin modificiert wird. Daraus 

192 Gustaf Karsten, [Vol. in. 

folgt, class der historisch nachweisbare laut wan- 
del nicht in jedem einzelfalle als die directe 
folge lautphysiologischer einfliisse z u erklar- 
en ist. Das lautgesetz rep r as e n ti er t nur die 
summe der in alien lautnuancen sich geltend 
machenden einfliisse. Die richtung des lautwandels 
ergiebt sich gleichsam nach dem parallelogram m der krafte. 
Es kann entweder die einwirkung aller einzelnen lautniiancen 
eine sehr gleichmassige sein ; dann gleicht das gesammtresultat 
dem durch stereoskop oder photographisch aus verschiedenen 
einzelbildern gewonnenen gesammtbilde. Oder es kann aus 
irgend einem grunde die eine art von lautniiancen einen ener- 
gischeren einfluss iiben und bestimmencj auf den lautwandel 
einvvirken; dann ist dieser mehr zu vergleichen mit einem 
organischen wesen, das von jedem seiner eltern und voreltern 
etwas, aber doch die meisten ziige von einem bestimmten indi- 
viduum geerbt hat. In diesem falle fiihlt sich der lautphysiolo- 
ge versucht, den eigentlichen herd eines lautgesetzes naher 
zu umgrenzen. So z. b. scheint es als sei die entwicklung von 
gallisch lat. <? [ : ei] eigentlich lautphysiologisch nur be- 
griindet vor palatalen lauten, die weitere von e i : (a i :) o i nur 
nach velaren und labialen. Der a h d. lautwandel von silbenan- 
lautendem t : z hatte vielleicht seinen eigentlichen herd in der 
verbindung t-hp alatalem laut unter dem hochtone, 
wahrend tu, to wohl nie affriciert worden waren, wenn sie 
nicht mit t i, t e zu einem erinnerungsbilde gehort hatten, und 
so von anfang an mit in die verschiebung gezogen w'aren. Eine 
theilung nach art der hier angedeuteten liegt z. b. vor im ru- 
manischen ti, mentir, tin gegeniiber turma, tun, etc.; 
sowie in der spaltung von lateinischen c in c i, c e und c o, c u 
im romanischen. Wie feine unterschiede sich in bezug auf die 
wirksamkeit von endungsvocalen auf die stammsilbe beobachten 
lassen, hat unter anderen besonders ASCOLI aus den i t a 1 i e n i- 
s c h e n dialekten gezeigt. In den sprachen, in denen wir i- und 
w-umlaut beobachten konnen, scheint besonders / und (con- 
sonanz) umlautende kraft zu haben, und diese erst in zweiter 
reihe dem /', u (vocalis) zu theil geworden zu sein. In den ein- 
zelnen germanischen dialekten scheinen sich dergleichen 
gradunterschiede zu zeigen und auch im romanischen haben 
ASCOLI und, auf anderem wege, NEUMANN ahnliches statuiert. 
Dasselbe motiv, aus welchem hier das zustandekommen von 

1887.] Sprecheinheiten. 193 

lautgesetzen zu -erklaren versucht word en ist, wird andererseits 
auch bei der sprachspaltung zur geltung kommen, indem in 
den verschiedenen dialekten sich allmahlich verschiedenartige 
lautvarianten zu einem erinnerungsbilde gruppieren, und danach 
das letztere zu variieren begin nt. Wir bewegen uns hier aller- 
dings auf unsicherem gebiete ; im einzelnen wird man iiber 
wahrscheinlichkeiten v/ohl selten hinaus kommen und ohne 
grundlichste kenntniss und beriicksichtigung der einschlagigen 
lautphysiologischen fragen ware vollends der phantasie thiir und 
thor geoffnet. So sehr aber auch eine falsche anwendung un- 
serer anschauungsweise irrefiihren mag, so \vird doch das 
princip selbst zu recht bestehen bleiben : ganze reihen recht ver- 
schiedenartiger lautvarietaten schlagen nur deshalb die gleiche 
veranderung ein, weil sie in der in unseren vorstellungen le- 
benden sprache nur je einen vertreter, nur ein erinnerungsbil-d 
haben und durch dieses zusammengehalten werden. 

Dies fuhrt uns auf die frage: was haben wir denn in der 
sprache als geringste selbstandige einheit anzuseh- 
en? Die frage, ob sprachlaute oder sprachelem ente, 
nach HOLTHAUSEN ( Wochenschrift f. Klass. Phil., IV, 13) 
sprachstaben, ist in letzterer zeit mehrfach behandelt wor- 
den. Die antwort muss verschieden ausfallen, je nachdem wir 
die sache vom standpunkte der reinen phonetik oder der sprach- 
geschichte betrachten. Im ersteren falle mag man mit FLOD- 
STROM 1 von elementen sprechen, doch wird es nicht moglich sein, 
nur stellungselemente als haupttypen anzuerkennen und alles 
iibrige in die reihe der iibergangslaute zu versetzen. Was 
sollen wir dann von diphthongen sagen, bei denen doch von 
anfang bis ende die sprechorgane in bewegung bleiben ? Fer- 
ner wird auch bei fricativlauten zwischen verschiedenartigen 
vocalen, also in verbindungen wie ufi, is a die stellung stetig 
geandert. Auch h kann nicht immer aJs stellungselement gel- 
ten. Zwar mag zwischen zwei gleichen vocalen ein h gleich 

iMit unrecht ist neuerdings behauptet und vielleicht auch hie und da geglaubt xvorden, 
dass FLODSTR"M'S auffassung der " muten " schon die der alten und auch die KEMPEJLEN'S 
gewesensei. Wie wenig der ausdruck '* muten " beweist, zeigt ein blick auf die be: SEEL- 
MANN, 'Ausspr, d. Lat.' 292 ff., gesammelten grammatikerzeugnisse, und aus KFMPELEN 
vergleiche man s. 266, franz"s. Ausgabe s. 273, und manche andere stelle. Nat rlich 
wusste auch KEMPELEN, dass p, k, t wahrend des verschlusses durchaus stumm seien ; es 
fiel ihm aber nicht ein, die bewegungen des schliessens und offnens von der verschlussstel- 
lung ganz zu trennen. cf. a. a. o. "Si done 1'air est ainsi un pen comprimd par la pression 
des poumons, et que la langue se dJtache subitement de la partie molle du palais, Pair sort 
avec un bruit, et c e bruit est le k que devient encore plus intelligible lorsqu'il est suivi 
d'une autrelettre." 

194 Gustaf Karsten, [Vol. in. 

dem entsprechenden tonlosen vocal sein, 2 wenn man den wider- 
spruch im ausdruck nicht scheut; zwischen verschiedenen 
vocalen aber wiirde wahrend des h die zunge aus der stellung 
des ersten in die des folgenden vocals iibergehen mu'ssen und h 
ware als "tonloser diphthong" anzusehen. In der sprachge- 
schichte nun konnen wir iiberhaupt nicht mit sprachelementen 
operieren, weil da neben der genetischen auch die akustische 
seite eine hervorragende rolle spielt, stumme elemente aber kein 
lautbild erzeugen. Wir brauchen durchaus sprachlaute, 
und da glaube ich denn, es geht aus dem oben gesagten hervor, 
dass man in jeder sprache so viele einzellaute 
ansetzen sollte, als sich einfachsteerinnerungsbild- 
er nachweisen lass en, sei es aus^lirecter beobachtung, 
oder aus der geschichtlichen entwicklung. So w"ren als vor- 
stufen des rumanischen / und t im rumanischen latein zwei t- 
laute anzusetzen, wahrend im sonstigen latein es nur einen t- 
laut vor vocalen gab, wenn derselbe auch verschiedene 
varietaten hatte vor i und vor z/, etc. Ahdererseits wiirde ich 
die italienischen palatalen affricaten in amici und viaggio 
als Einzellaute ansetzen, weil die elemente, in die sich genetisch 
betrachtet jene laute zerlegen lassen, einzeln im italienischen 
nicht vorkommen. 

II. Wie kommt es, dass em wort, so vielgestaltig es auch 
in der sprache selbst ist, doch in den weitaus meisten fallen nur 
unter einer form fortentwicklung zeigt ? Gehen wir, wie 
es bei derlei betrachtungen allein zweckdienlich ist, von der 
beobachtung unserer eigenen aussprache aus, so finden wir 
einen unterschied, und zwar in vielen fallen einen recht merk- 
lichen, in der aussprache desselben wortes, je nachdem es ruhig 
oder erregt, schnell oder langsam, laut oder leise etc., articuliert 
wird, und zwar sind nicht nur energie und tempo, sondern auch 
die art der articulation verschieden. So entsprechen im d e u t- 
s c h e n dem lyrischen character mehr geschlossene, dem 
heroischen mehr offene vocale, wohl weil die erstere stimmung 
mehr zur langung, die letztere mehr zur kiirzung neigt. Wie 
kommt es nun, dass wir trotz alledem so selten spaltung von 
wdrtern verfolgen konnen, so selten, dass dieser eigentlich 
natiirliche vorgang iiberhaupt erst spat von modernen gram- 

aGanz abgesehen davon, dass h auf diese weise.zwar articuliert werden kann, aber nicht 
nothwendig und nicht liberall so articuliert wird, und dass daher systematisch der ausdruck 
" tonloser vocal " nicht genligt, sondern daneben die altere auffassung bestehen bleibt. Cf. 
SEELMANN, 1. c. 254. 

1887.] Sprecheinheiteri. 195 

matikern bemerkt und anfahgs nur von wenigen gelehrten in 
der lautforschung verwerthet wurde, bis er schliesslich unter 
" satzphonetik " registriert und als so selbstverstandlich angeseh- 
en werden konnte, dass jetzt wohl nur noch wenige active laut- 
forscher sich der erkenntniss seiner wirksamkeit verschliessen ? 

Wir fragen uns : wie ist iiberhaupt das gegentheil moglich? 
Weshalb konnenwir nicht vielfache spaltung in jedem einzigen 
worte geschichtlich verfolgen ? Die antwort liegt zum theil 
schon in dem unter nro. I behandelten ; doch reicht das dort 
gesagte hier nicht aus, weil in den verschiedenen formen eines 
wortes lautdifferenzen vorkommen, die nicht mehr varietaten 
desselben lautes, sondern direct verschiedene laute sind* Es 
kann nur das anfangs besprochene einheitliche erin- 
nerungsbild des wortes sein, welches alle die im laufe 
der rede unter den verschiedensten einflussen entstehenden varie- 
taten doch immer wieder um ein centrum gruppiert und darin 
aufgehen lasst. Abweichungen von diesem erinnerungsbilde, 
diesem idealworte konnen sich dann wieder nur unter 
besonders giinstigen umstanden vollig lostrennen und eine 
eigene gruppe bilden. Am ehesten wird das naturgemass 
moglich sein bei " half words," die je nach verschiedener func- 
tion im satze unter die verschiedensten accentuellen bedingung- 
en kommen, weniger bei "full words," deren gleichmassigere 
rolle im satze weniger schwankungen der betohung hervorrufen 
mag. Nur eben, wo mehrere worter sich zu compositen oder 
formelhaften ausdriicken an einander fiigen, sind bei engerer 
verschmelzung entfernung vom simplex und eigen entwicklung 

In der that sehen wir, dass gerade artikel, pronomina, hilfs- 
verba, praepositionen in den meisten fallen je nach betonung, 
folgendem anlaut, etc., differenziert erscheinen. Beim nomen 
und verbum lasst sich diese erscheinung seltener nachweisen; 
doch wird die lautforschung wohl noch manche spaltung der 
art anzunehmen haben als wahrscheinlichste losung sonst uner- 
klarlicher schwierigkeiten. 

ig6 Hermann Cottitz, [Yd. in. 

VIII. TTie Origin of the Teutonic Weak Preterit. 


The fact that the verbs in the Teutonic languages are divided 
into two classes according to the different formations of their 
preterits, gives the inquiry into the origin of the preterit of 
the so-called weak verb a peculiar interest to the student of Teu- 
tonic philology. The regular development of the strong 
preterit from the perfect active of the Aryan parent- speech has 
long been recognized, but the origin of the weak preterit is still 
an open question. Formerly the weak preterit was considered 
to Ibe formed by the addition to the verbal stem of the Aryan 
root dhe (or as it was formerly put, dha) "do/' Since the pub- 
lication by WILHELM BEGEMANN of his two monographs ' Das 
schwache Prateritum der germanischen Sprachen' (Berlin 1873) 
and ' Zur Bedeutung des schwachen Preteritums der germani- 
schen Sprachen' (ib. 1874), this composition-theory has gradu- 
ally been abandoned, for BEGEMANN showed that such forma- 
tions as mah-ta, kun-pa, wis-sa, etc. on the one hand, and nasi- 
da> habai-da^fullno-da, on the other, did not, as the early theory 
assumed, originally contain a dh in their suffixes, but rather a / 
in accordance with the similar formation of their participles. 
(e. g. Goth, mah-t-s and mah-td). However, his thesis, though 
supported with acumen and scholarship, was at first rejected by 
all who passed judgment upon it. But it has come to honor 
since the partial adhesion of WINDISCH and the full adhesion 
of MoLLER,the former in KUHN'S Beitrage ziir vergleichenden 
Sprachforschw*g>\\\\ (1876), p. 456 f., and the latter in KOL- 
BING'S Englische Studien, III (1880), p. ifof. 1 But the 
recognition of the fact that the characteristic of the weak preterit 
was originally a dental tenuis does not constitute a solution of 
the problem, but only the beginning of a solution. It still 
remains to inquire further into the source of this tense character- 

i Since this, PAUL, indeed, (Beitr. ge, VII p. 136 f.) once more attempted to save the dh 
which was believed to have been the origin of the dental of the preterit. But his attempts 
have been success ully refuted by MOLLEK, (ibid., p. 157, "Kunha. und das ^-Prateritum"). 

1887.] The Teutonic Weak Preterit. 197 

istic 2 and to explain the striking similarity in the formation of 
the weak preterit and the weak participle. 

BEGEMANN was of the opinion that the relation of the two 
formations is not external nor one of form merely, but that there 
exists an organic connection between them (Prat., p. 100). He 
endeavors to show that the preterit is, so to speak, an inflected 
participle. I do not believe that any one of those scholars who 
agree with BEGEMANN'S theory in general, would advocate 
this part of it with the like positiveness. I should rather believe 
that just on account of this part of his theory, so long a time has 
elapsed before its nucleus of truth has been generally recognized. 
But we certainly ought not to object to B. on the ground that 
an active preterit can not originate from a passive participle. 
In his second monograph, B. has proved that this is possible, 
and his discussions of the change of active (transitive) and 
medio-passive (intransitive) significations are well worth read- 
ing. But his demonstration leaves a gap at the critical point 
where it ought to be shown that the weak preterit of the Teu- 
tonic languages actually originated in this manner from the par- 
ticiple. It is not enough to point out that the Stammessiufe and 
the Anlaut of the suffix in both formations are the same. In like 
manner the stem and the Anlaut of the suffix in re -ray -pea and 
Te-tocK-cai correspond to those in TE-ray-^vo^ and rax-ro-s, 
but nevertheless the Greek perfect did not develop from older 

On the other hand, it has been attempted to prove a relation 
between the tense-characteristic of the weak preterit and the 
root-determinative /; but the result is a name only and no ex- 
planation. Moreover in verbs like upvit-T-v, pin-Too, dj^ap-r- 
dvG), plec-t-o, the so-called root-determinative can be compared 
with the dental in verbs, as Goth, al-p-an, stan-d-an y O. H. G. 
flech-t-an. But these verbs form a strong preterit : Goth, aialp, 
stop, O. H. G. flaht, and retain the dental through this whole 
conjugation. Consequently, we can hardly expect from them an 
explanation of the characteristic of the weak preterit. 

Lately the inquiry as to the origin of the dental tenuis of the 

2We find the same problem in the case of the Irish ^-preterite. But the latter does not 
concern us here, since there seems to be no historical connection with the Teutonic ^-preter- 
it, and the Irish, moreover, will hardly throw any light on the special conditions which 
pertain to the Teutonic weak preterit. But I should like to emphasize one point that it 
JOHN STRACHAN (BEZZENB, Beitr. XIII, p. 128, is right, then the t of the Celtic preterif 
must be interpreted according to principles similar to those which, later on, I employ in the 
ase of the dental of the Teutonic preterit. 

igS Hermann Calltfz, [Vol. nr. 

weak preterit has given way to the endeavor to explain the 
endings. This endeavor starts from the supposition, at first 
sight the most probable one, that the weak preterits descended 
from old imperfects or aorists.3 No one, I think, will pretend 
to say that these attempts at explaining the endings of the pret- 
erit have been convincing. Instead of criticising them in de- 
tail, I will endeavor in the following paper to explain both the 
dental and the endings from a point of view differing from those 
already mentioned. 

The ending of the weak preterit may be divided into two 
distinct groups. In the dual and plural of the indicative and 
optative the endings are the same as in the strong preterit, so 
that the tense-characteristic preceding ^the endings is the only 
difference between the conjugation, of preterits of weak and 
'strong verbs (in Goth, also the syllable -ed following the tense- 
characteristic, e. g. kun-p-ed-um, is special, while the other Teu- 
tonic languages require the original form to have been kun-p- 
um). But the endings of the weak preterit in the singular of 
the indicative are peculiar: Goth, nasi-da, nasi-des, nasi-da, as 
compared with the strong preterit nant, nam-t, nam. This fact 
admits hardly any other explanation than that the original in- 
flection of the weak preterit has been preserved in the indie, 
sing., but that the root has been remodeled after the strong 
preterit, i. e. the old perfect. For we cannot attribute this pecu- 
liar combination of strong and weak forms to the Old Aryan 
language. If, then, we consider it to be a recent Teutonic for- 
mation, we can hardly assume the three peculiar forms of the 
singular to have been ingrafted, so to speak, upon a conjugation 
in which a / preceded the strong perfect-endings. Had the 
singular of the weak preterit once shared the inflection of the 
strong perfect, this inflection would hardly have been given up. 
Moreover, in this case, the origin of those singular forms as well 
as of the preceding t could not be explained. It only remains 
to conceive the three persons of the singular as remnants of an 
old formation, and the remaining forms of the indicative and the 
optative as new formations, formed by the analogy to a familiar 
inflection. Looked at from this point of view the problem of the 
weak preterit assumes a more simple aspect. It is thus re- 

3 Thus MOLLBR, 1. c., KoGELin Zs.f. d. Gymnasialwesen, XXXIV, p. 407 (not accessible 
to me), KLUGE in PAUL and BKAUNE'S Beitr., p. 155, SIEVERS, ib., p. 561, BREMER, ib., 
IX, p. 34. 

1887.] The Teutonic Weak Preterit. 199 

duced to the question : How are these singular forms of the in- 
dicative to be explained ? 

I have called the singular-forms of the dental preterit pecu- 
liar, and this is true only of the active voice ; but when the passive 
is also taken into consideration the case will gain an entirely 
different aspect. In Gothic the endings of the first and third 
singular of the weak preterit, including the tense-characteristic, 
have their exact counterpart in the medio-passive endings of the 
present tense: -da (e. g. soki-da) in the two persons of the 
preterit, -da (e. g. sokja-da) in the two persons of the present 
passive. The d of the ending -da in the passive is to be derived 
from a primitive /, as also the tense-characteristic of the preter- 
it. This agreement in b'oth respects is so striking that it is 
surprising that no one heretofore has thought of examining it 
more closely. Is this a mere coincidence? Or are the singular- 
endings of the preterit really old medial-endings? 

We can frequently observe in the history of the Aryan lan- 
guages how old medial forms have crept into the inflection of 
the active, especially in those languages which gradually gave 
up the old middle. 

Within the Teutonic territory itself, BOPP (' Vergl. Gramm.' 
II 2 , 254) has declared imperatives such as Goth, atsteigadau, 
lausjadau, liugandau to be medial forms, (cf. SCHERER, Z. G. 
D. S. i99= 2 3io). In the Baltic and Slavic languages medial 
forms frequently occur in the active. Old Slav. v$d& is a medial 
form as shown by MIKLOSISCH* (' Formenlehre d. altsl. Sprache,' 
2d ed. 1854 252). In accordance with this view BOPP (' Vgl. 
Gr./ II 2 , 382 fol.) assigned the Old Slav, aorist-endings to the 
middle. SCHERER (Z. G. D. S. 226=^345) adds the mu of the 
i. Sing, of the Old Slav, aorist and the Old Pr. -ai in forms like 
asmai, assai. ' These medial-forms," says he, "were allowed 
in the later language to exist as not clearly understood side- 
forms." This opinion was corroborated by that of HANSEN (K. 
Z. 27, 615) that old Pr. assai and lit. esl and Old Slav, jest have 
a common basis *esai the ending of which corresponds to that 
of Goth, hilpa-za and Greek *<paivf.-6ai. And so we can in gen- 
eral assign to the middle the verbal endings of the 2nd sg. Old 
SI. -si and lit. -i (directly derived from -e which is retained in 

4MiKLOSiscH afterwards abandoned this opinion, the correctness of which is becoming 
more and more evident (cf. e. g. BOPP and SCHERER in the passages above quoted, and 
OSTHOFF, ' Perf.' p. 191). In the second edition of his ' Vergl. Gramm. d. slav. Spr.' (Ill, 
125) he declares the form v$d$ to be puzzling. 

2OO Hermann Collitz, [Vol. in. 

the reflexive, e. g. suke-s and sukl, cf. BEZZENBERGER, 'Z. 
Gesch. d. lit. Spr.' p. 194). The Old Irish replaced the early 
medial forms by a new formation with the characteristic r, but 
it has retained (as in the praesens secundariutn) remnants of the 
old middle with active meaning.* 

A comparison with the Latin perfect is especially pertinent to 
the discussion. " The Latin reduplicated perfect," says PICK 
(in Gottinger Gel. Anz. 1883, p. 586 f.) "was originally Perf. 
middle, and has only lost its medial character when the old 
middle perished in its separate meaning and was replaced by a 
new middle (deponent)." PICK then goes on to identify lat. 
dedl and Old Ind. dade, sieti and Old Ind. tasthe, etc. 6 

sThis is STOKES' opinion (in KUHN'S Beitr. z. VergljEprachf. VII, p. 6.) and I agree 
with him rather than with WINDISCH (K. Z. XXVII, 163) who went back to the Old- 
Aryan medial present. Perhaps the primitive medial endings have been preserved in an- 
other place in the Irish verbal-system. The distinction between an 'absolute' and * con 
junct ' inflection in Irish is, if I am right, independent of the existence or non-existence of a 
verbal particle, but finds its explanation in the fact that the absolute inflection is developed 
from the old middle and the conjunct from the active. At present it is not possible for me 
to pursue this discussion further and my remarks are only thrown out as a question, to 
which somebody else perhaps can give an answer. 

6Soon afterwards the same theory was proposed by OSTHOFF (' Zur Gesch. d. Perf.' 1884, 
p. 191 f.) and independently of FICK, as he says (p. 609). OSTHOFF also cites an essay by 
SPEIJER (Mem. de la soc. de ling. 5, p. 185 f.), which is not accessible to me, in which the 
-$ of the Latin perfect is explained in the same way. The fact that the same idea has been 
expressed independently by three different persons adds to the probability of its being the 
correct one. In this connection PICK'S hypothesis of the Latin v perfect (1. c., p. 594 f.) 
may be mentioned, according to which in forms like plev-i, gnlv-1 v is identical with the a in 
Old Ind./a-/nf, ja-j Afrit. Different views are expressed by OSTHOFF ('Perf.' p. 250 f.) 
and STOLZ (Iw. MILLER'S ' Handbuch d. klass. Altertumswiss.' 2, p. 231) who rather 
assume that the v perfect has been produced by late analogical formation according to 
certain w-roots, without bringing forward a valid objection to FICK'S opinion ; just as on the 
other hand G. ORTIUS (Berichte d. S chs. Ges. d. Wiss., Phil.-hist. Cl. 1886, p. 421 f.) 
and W. SCHULZE (K. Z. XXVIII, p. 266 f.) who derived the f-perfect from the old perfect 
participle in a round-about way without even mentioning FICK'S more simple theory. If, as 
I do not doubt, FICK'S supposition is in accordance with the facts, then also the tense- 
characteristic of the Latin z>-perfect has been developed from a part of the ending. In ad- 
dition, another remark may be in place. In Old Ind. (that is in the Vedas)the 3d Sing, 
perfect of stems in -a (as da, pro, etc.) generally ends in -<? (thus daddu , faprftu) in agree- 
ment with classic Sanscrit, but also rarely the Special Vedic ending -ft is met with (papra 
R. V. I, 69, 2; j'ahd R. V. VIII, 45, 37 according to DELBRUCK 'Old Ind. Verb.' p. 59). 
Hence there is a fluctuation between -d,n ai\d -d, without a corresponding difference in 
meaning, just as in the dual (dvau and dva, etc.). At length MERINGER, in an excellent 
monograph (K. Z. 28, p. 217 f.), has given the long desired explanation of the dual-forms. 
The change between -&u (-d,v) and a belongs as M. has shown, to the Sandhi-phenomena. 
The first ending is the older one; it has been retained before vowels in the primitive Ian-* 
guage. Before consonants the second ending has been developed by the elision of the v.- 
That the change between -au and & in the perf. should be considered in the same light, 
seems to be so natural that I should not think it worthy of special mention If I had not seen 
that MERINGER (p. 218, note) asserts that in the Rigveda the au of the dual is different 
from that of the perfect, and that BRUGMANN ('Grundriss,' p. 490 f.) is inclined to extend 
MERINGER'S explanation to locatives like agndu and agna but not to the forms of the 
perfect. The difference which MERINGER finds between the treatment of the dual and 
perfect in the Rigveda is easily explained, if we suppose that the falling together of the two 

1887.] The Teutonic Weak Preterit. 201 

Consequently no objection can be made to the proposition that 
medial endings have entered into the inflection of the active, 
and we may further investigate the so striking agreement be- 
tween the Goth, ending -da in the i. and 3. Sing, of the weak 
preterit and the homophonous endings of the present passive. 

Let us compare the endings of the Greek verbal system. The 
final vowels of the i. and 3. Sing, are always different in the 
active: cpepoa and (pepst, eSsi^a and ESF.I~F, etc. But in the medio- 
passive the auslaut of rad6o-/n-ai also occurs in the present 
rctddE-r-m and the same -07 occurs in the i. and 3. Sing, of the 
perfect and future middle. To the medio-passive of the Greek 
corresponds, as is known, the Gothic passive, but the future has 
been lost in Teutonic. Consequently, of the Greek verbal forms 
the perf. middle alone remains as offering an analogy to the 
endings of the ' weak ' preterit. And this would evidently 
agree with the fact that the Teutonic 'strong' preterit is identi- 
cal with the Greek active perfect. 

The above considerations and parallels between the endings 
of the weak preterit and the medio-passive in Gothic and Greek 
will rather serve to lead us to the right track than demonstrate 
that we are already on it. This demonstration we will now 

Our point of view implies the supposition that the medial 
quality of the old Teutonic perfect middle gradually withdrew 
behind that of the perfect, or, in other words, that the form 
grew indifferent to the modal quality (i. e. the difference between 
the medio-passive and active), and that its essential element was 
felt to be the element of tense, or the preterit quality. This 
agrees with the well-known fact that the distinction between active 
and passive function of the Teutonic verb is partly transferred 
into the old active forms, where this distinction then makes its 
appearance in different suffixes which were originally employed 

forms has taken place in the perfect earlier than in the dual ; so that in the Vedas the 
development which seems to be completed in classic Sanscrit, can be less distinctly traced 
in the perfect than in the dual. The reason why the falling together occurred earlier in the 
one case than in the other is evidently this : that the perfect forms were more seldom used. 
From the Statistics of AVERY, J. A. O. S. X, p. 250 and LANMAN, id. p. 340 the following 
relation is seen : 

a in the Dual : 1129 a in the Perfect : 2 

au 171 an " 45 

1300 47 

that is, one perfect to about twenty-seven duals. And SCHLEICHER ("Die deutsche 
Sprache,' p. 61.) has already remarked that those forms which are most rarely used submit 
most readily to analogy and the tendency to simplification. 

202 Hermann Collitz, [Vol. in. 

to form stems of the present system. E. <g.full-na " I am filled," 
is, despite its active inflection, the passive of full-ja "I fill;" 
fra-lus-na "I get lost," of fra-lius-a "I lose;" dis-skrit-na 
" I am torn" of dis-skreit-a " I tear," etc. In general the verbs 
in na-n, to a certain extent, replace the medio-passive class. 
Accordingly the weak preterit of these verbs has passive mean- 
ing ; for example, gaheilnoda sa piumagus ia'Srj 6 itals Matth. 8, 
3; usfullnoda pat a game lido eTthrjpGoSrj r) ypaprf, Mark. 15, 28, 
etc. Thus we perceive that there is in the Teutonic languages 
an essential shifting of the original relations of form and mean- 
ing in the expression of ' voice.' The old medial endings, it is 
true, serve in part to characterize the medio-passive, especially 
in the passive present of the Gothic, a the same time certain 
stem-forming suffixes assume intransitive-passive functions, so 
that now a part of those forms originally used both for ex- 
pression of tense and voice became free to serve in an exclusive- 
ly temporal sense.? 

Such a falling together and mixing of old medial forms with 
the active was rendered more easy by the circumstance that the 
former stood from the beginning very nearly related to the 
latter in meaning. Even in the two languages, the Greek and 
Old Ind., which most faithfully guarded the Old Aryan middle, 
active and medial inflections interchange regardless of any 
special distinction of meaning, and particularly in the case of 
different stem -formations ; e. g. Old Ind. si-sak-ti and sd ca-te 
(=EitTai, seguitur) " he follows ; " vidd-t and vived-a " found, 
obtained" and wved-6\ hdtdram agnim ni sedur: "they ap- 
pointed the Agni as priest" R. V. II, 6, n, and synonymous 
tdm (i. e. agnim} hbtdram ni sedire R. V. IV, 7, 5, Greek, 
yiyvGo'-tin-Go and yroo'-tio-juai ; st-jni and sd-o-juat; fia-ir 
beside /3if-6o-pai ; 7ta'-6x-^> 9 eitaS-ov, itEitovS-a and 
etc. These few examples might easily be increased to a long 
list. It is especially to be noted that in Greek a future middle 
is often used in an otherwise entirely active inflection, similar to 
the penetration of the perfect middle into the inflection of the 
active in Teutonic. 

So much for the modification of meaning. After this we have 

7 In a similar manner the above mentioned transposition from the active perfect into an 
inflection composed of active and medial elements, will have to be regarded in Latin. 
Evidently in the middle I-endings the temporal function prevailed, while, on the other hand, 
the function of the medio-passive without tense-meaning was exclusively conferred upon the 
r-endings and extended the sphere of the latter beyond its original boundaries. 

1887.] The Teutonic Weak Preterit. 203 

to show that the form of the weak preterit will admit a derivation 
from the medial perfect. We have to consider three points : 
the stem, the accent, the endings. The first point will easily 
be settled. Both in the case of the derivative verbs and the 
* preterko-praesentia ' the verbal-stem has the same form in 
the dental preterit and the dental participle. That is to say, 
the endings of the dental preterit, like the suffix- of the parti- 
ciple, are added to the "general" stem (as distinguished from 
the present-stem), and in case the stem allows various grada- 
tions it is added to the " weakest " form, thus offering an analogy 
to the formation of the old perfect middle as preserved in Old 
Ind. and Greek. 

Closely connected with this modification is the accentuation 
which determines the form of the stem. If the dental of the 
weak preterit was derived from Aryan /, it must have had the 
accent upon the ending, since on this condition only can the 
Teutonic d (or #) be explained according to VERNER'S law. 
But the perfect middle has the accent on the ending in Old 
Ind., the accentuation of which is most similar to that of the 
primitive language. Therefore only this question remains to be 
settled, whether the endings of the dental preterit can be 
identified with those of the old perfect middle in such a manner 
that at the same time the tense-characteristic of the preterits 
will find its explanation. 

Let us first inquire what was the original form of the ending 
of the singular of the medio-passive present and perfect. 
SCHERER, Z. G. D. S. 227=: 347, 2 has assumed that the endings 
in the sing. pass, were originally the same in Teutonic and 
Sanscrit : at, sat, tai in the present, at, sai, ai in the perfect. 
He thinks that the perfect has been lost and that in the present 
the endings by assimilation become tai, sai, tai, from which the 
Gothic. forms must have been derived. The falling together of 
the endings of the i. and 3. sing, was considered by SCHERER 
(p. 197 3O7 2 ) to have occurred in primitive Teutonic, thus 
agreeing with GREIN ('Ablaut,' p. 37) in his opinion that A.-S. 
hdtte (i. and 3. sing.)=Goth. haitada is a remnant of the passive 
in A.-S., and deriving O. N. heiii (i. sing.) from the same form. 
Meanwhile it was recognizeb dy SIEVERS (PAUL and BRAUNE'S 
Beitr. VI, 651 f.), that O. N. heiti goes back to primitive Teu- 
tonic *hait-ai t thus still containing the ending of the i. sing., 
which was thought by SCHERER to be the oldest form. The 

204 Hermann Collifz, [Vol. in. 

laws of auslaut to be considered in this connection are discussed 
by J. SCHMIDT, K. Z. XXVI, 42 f. 8 SCHMIDT arrives at the 
result that, analogous to O. N. heiti, the i. sing. pass, in Gothic 
was *haita. Accordingly the i. sing, differed from the 3. sing. 
not only in the primitive Aryan language, as SCHERER asserted, 
but even in primitive Teutonic as well, and the assimilation 
afterwards occurred within the separate Teutonic languages. 
The weak preterit underwent a process similar to the double 
formation of O. N. heiti as compared with Gothic haitada and 
A.-S. hdtte. The shorter form, O. N. heiti, corresponds to 
Goth, iddja, i. and 3. sing., "went," which is to be traced back 
to *iy-ai, the old perfect middle of the root ei- " go" (=Gr. eiut^ 
Lat. eo, etc.). The form which formerly^ gave rise to the most 
various interpretations^ and which KLUGE (' Beitr. z. Gesch. d. 
germ. Conjug.' p. 124) called the greatest puzzle of Teutonic 
grammar, readily finds its proper place in the Teutonic verbal 
system and in the province of the Teutonic laws of auslaut. 
iddja as i. sing, can be fully identified with Lat. il (from i-l and 
this from ii-i = *~iy-ai) which later changes with the new form 
wi (NEUE, 'Lat. Fomenl.' II, p. 397 f. and KUHNER, ' Ausf. 
Gramm. d. lat. Spr.' I, p. 504 f.) though oftener in the simplex 
than in the compounds like adii, redii (cf. OSTHOFF, * Perf.,' p. 
225, etc.) In Old Ind. the corresponding perfect occurs only in 
the active inflection (3. sing, iydya, 3. plur. iy&r). In the in- 
flection of the middle, the i., 3. sing, would be *zy and this 
would be the exact equivalent of Goth, iddja and not the active 
iydya, as was formerly supposed. 

Outside of the Gothic the only remnant of the pret. iddja in 
the Teutonic languages is retained in the Anglo-Saxon, &ode. 
Formerly the d of the Anglo-Saxon form was connected with 
the dd of the Goth, iddja, but MOLLER (K, Z. XXIV, p. 432, 

8 Concerning the treatment of final at in Teutonic, compare further: SCHERER, Z.G.D. 
S. 2 202, 205, 609; BRAUNE, P.-B. Beitr. II, 161 fol. ; PAUL ibid. 339 fol. and IV, 452 fol. ; 
LESKIEN ' Decl. im Slav. -Lit. u. Germ.' 126 f. ; MAHLOW, ' D. langen Vocale ' 53 f. and 
94 f. ; BKUGMANN, in his ' Grundriss,' p. 518, has followed the view of PAUL, without pay- 
ing any attention to SCHMIDT'S essay. But the explanation of the weak preterit advanced 
in this paper, if I am not mistaken, settles the question in favor of the opinion held by 

9 The older views about Goth, iddja are found in SCHERER Z.G.D.S. 204 = 3242 and note 
BEGEMANN, ' Prk't.' p. 67 ff. Since then MSLLER K.Z. XXIV, 432 note and KLUGH, 
' Germ. Conjug;' p. 125 ff. proposed to identify iddja with Old Ind. t'yant^ 3. sing, liyat and 
their opinion in the meanwhile has been adopted by several scholars. (Cf., for example, 
BREMER P.-B. Beitr. XI, 55 and BRUSMANN 'Grundris' p. 128, 516). The explanation 
given above avoids the supposition connected witn the theory of MOLLER-KLUGB that the 
old augment was preserved in Teutonic exceptionally in this case alone. 

1887.] The Teutonic Weak Preterit. 205 

note} and TEN BRINK (Zeitschr. f. dt. Alt. XXIII, p. 65 f.) 
recognized that the Goth, iddja is retained in the first syllable 
of eo-de, while the second syllable contains the A.-S. ending of 
the weak preterit added once more to the verb. (cf. KLUGE, 
' Beitr. z. germ. Conjug.,' p. 126; MOLLER, Engl. Stud. Ill, p. 
158 fol. and KOGEL, P.-B. Beitr. IX, p. 544). The eo of the 
first syllable is considered to be ija- by MOLLER and TEN 
BRINK. But it can also be derived from ijai- and we can assume 
that it stands in the same relation to Goth, iddja from *iddjai, 
as feo'j, feode to Goth, fijaip, fijaida. 

Besides Goth, iddja there is another preterit in Teutonic 
which is the i. and 3. Sing, in the direct development of the 
perfect middle of the Aryan parent speech: Anglo-Saxon dyde, 
Old Frisian dede, O. S. deda O. H. G. teta which are based on 
primitive Teutonic *de-dai. In this case the Old. Ind. presents 
the exact corresponding form : dadh-e (i. and 3. sing, of the 
perfect middle, in their forms not yet differing from the corre- 
sponding persons of the reduplicating present-stem), to which 
PICK, 1. c., has compared -didl in'Lat cre-didl (i. e. cred-didi) 
derived from dedt. This perfect must have been dhedh-ai in 
the primitive Aryan language. 

Goth, iddja and West Germ. *dedai are, as it seems, the only 
preterits which preserve the original form of the i. and 3. sing, 
perf. middle corresponding to the Old. Ind. formation. In the 
other weak preterits, i. e. the praeterito-praesentia and the de- 
rivative verbs, a dental precedes the ending -ai, thus correspond- 
ing to the 3. sing. perf. middle in Greek in -rcu. For this I give 
the following explanation. The present and perfect middle, had 
originally perhaps the same ending in the non-thematic forma- 
tion., Only the ''thematic" present stems, i. e., those stems 
which according to PICK'S theory (BEZZENB., Beitr. I, p. i f.) 
preserve the simple root in a dissyllabic form, produced from 
the beginning the 3. sing, in -tai instead of -ai. In the Rigveda 
we still find several " non-thematic " present forms in -e in the 

10 It has long been recognized that the first syllable of this form preserves the old redupli- 
cation. The explanation of the stem syllable has been so far through the Old. Ind. or Iran, 
perf. act. (e. g. BOPP, ' Vgl. Gramm.' II 2 so6; WINDISCH, K. Beitr. VII, p. 459; PAUL, 
P.-B. Beitr. IV, 464 f., KLUGE ' Germ, conjug.' p. 103 f.) or through the reduplicating im- 
perfect of the active (BEZZENBEKGER, Ztschr.f. dt. Philol. V, p. 475 ; MOLLER, Engl. Stud. 
Ill p. 159 and P.-B. Beitr. VII p. 469). 

11 With ved. dadhe, Teut. *dedai, perhaps we are allowed to identify also the form dede 
" fecit " or "posuit," which occurs three times in Old Gaulic inscriptions [cf. STOKES in 
BEZZENB. Beitr XI, p. 124, 125, 128 and 157]. It seems that final ai in Celtic changed at 
an early date to e [through ae} and afterward to e. 

206 Hermann Collitz, [Vol. in. 

3. sing, (cf. DELBRUCK, ' Altind. Verb/ p. 70). More frequently 
already here the 3. sing, also ends in -te (DELBRUCK, 1. c ; 67 f.) 
which is the rule in classic Sanscrit. In Greek the " thematic " 
ending has not only generally been adopted in the present, but 
has been carried over into the perfect which was sufficiently 
distinguished from the present by its stem. 1 * In the Teutonic 
languages the present tense only retained the thematic inflection 
(originally -at, -sat, -tai). If we agree with SCHERER that, cor- 
responding to the Old. Ind., the perfect of the Teutonic originally 
possessed the endings -at, -sai, -as (a view which is strengthen- 
ed by Goth, iddja and West Germ. *dedai as far as the -at of 
the i. and 3. sing, is concerned), it would lead us to give to the 
perfect the more usual ending of the present as in Greek. A 
confusion of tenses would be prevented by the difference in the 
stems. Thus the 3. sing. perf. obtained the ending -tai. The 
new form did not, of course, take all at once the place of the old 
one, but both were for some time promiscuously used ; modern 
-tai together with antiquated -ai. The same promiscuous use 
of both endings was transferred from the 3. sing, to the i. sing, 
of the perf. middle, since it had always been the custom in this 
tense to express i. and 3. sing, by the same ending. 

The intrusion of the ending -tai with the i. and 3. sing, of the 
medial perfect was facilitated by the fact that the initial conso- 
nant agreed with the initial of the suffix of the old passive 
participle in -to which always had the same tense-meaning and 
tense-characteristic as the perfect middle (excluding the redupli- 
cation, which in Teutonic has also mostly been lost in the 
perfect), (cf. above pp. 197 and 203). It can be shown that the 
participle had its effect in extending the use of the ending -tai** 
The dental has been carried over into the ending of the medial 
perfect only where a /-participle existed side by side with the 
perfect, i. e. in the preterit-present and derivative verbs. On 

12 In other words : The -ai and -tai in the primary ending of the 3. sing, middle consti- 
tute an original difference between the d- and mi- conjugation. If this view be correct, and 
it is supported by the Old. Ind. inflection, BRUGMANN'S suggestion ('Morph. Untersuch.' 
I P J 3 note and p. 147) that in the i. sing, -mai originally was the ending of " non- 
thematic," and -ai that of the " thematic " stems, becomes improbable. In accordance with 
the endings of the 3. sing, we would rather expect the reverse. In my opinion the i. sing, 
is sufficiently explained by assuming that in the middle it had the final -ai (without preced- 
ing -m) throughout. The Greek -ju-ai would then be considered as a new formation in 
analogy to -(5<r/ and -r<T7, just as -//;, -(5 (7), ~n of the active and this first appeared 
after that the reel of the 3. sing, of the thematic formation had become universal. 

13 In accordance with this BEGEMANN'S participle-theory is partly substantiated. But it is 
to be distinguished whether we derive the weak preterit directly from the participle, or 
attribute to the latter only a limited influence upon the development of the preterit. 

1887.] The Teutonic Weak Preterit. 207 

the other hand, in iddja and deda the old perfect endings have 
been retained without the -t, because they had no such parti- 

I have taken it for granted in this connection, that the i. and 
3. sing, had the same ending throughout in primitive Teutonic 
as is the case in all Teutonic languages (Goth, da, Anglo-Saxon 
-de, O. Fries, -de, O, S. -da, -de, O. H. G. -to), with the ex- 
ception of the O. N. (i. sing, -da, on the oldest runic inscriptions 
-do 1 * 3. sing, -de, -di}. But recently j s the priority has been 
attributed to the O. N. manner of inflection, taking the ground 
that the i. sing, had the ending -do or -don in primitive Teuton- 
ic, and the -da of the i. sing, in Gothic was shortened from do. 
The view which regards the weak preterit as an imperfect or 
aorist-form with an originally long vowel in the ending, 
encourages us to assume such a relation of the endings. But 
the difference of the i. and 3. sing, in O. N. admits also of 
another interpretation. In O. N. the indicative and subjunctive 
of the weak preterit have the same endings in the sing. : -a is 
the first, -er (*>) in the second, -e, (-) in the third person. 
The a of the first person in the Subj. corresponds to au in 
Gothic and primitive Teutonic. In O. N. the indicative of the 
preterit has been occasionally displaced, wholly or in part, by 
the Subjunctive : skylda is properly a form of the subjunctive as 
can be seen from the umlaut, likewise mynda, used in an indica- 
tive sense together with munda (cf. NOREEN, ' Altn. Gr.' 439, 
note 3). In these circumstances we may be allowed to consider 
with GiSLASON 16 the a of the i. sing, as tranferred from the 
subjunctive. It corresponds to Gothic and primitive Teutonic 
au\ as, for example, in dtta Gothic ahtau (NOREEN 113, 2"). 
Consequently the endings of the runic inscriptions, as tawido, 
worahto cannot be primitive, but this final o has through on been 
developed from primitive au. 

Besides the above considered i. and 3. sing., the 2. pers. sing. 

14 Cf. examples in NOREEN, 'Altn. Gr., 448, note i. 

15 Cf. the passages quoted above p. 198, Note 3. 

i6In Aarb g. f. nord, Oldk. og Hist. 1869, as I see from the account of M"BIUS, K.Z. 
XIX, 212. The objections made by PAUL in his and BKAUNE'S Beitr. IV, 464, against this 
view are not, as it seems to me, of great importance. PAUL replies, in the first place, that 
language tends more to compound old distinctions than to create new ones. My opinion 
has always been that differation is a factor no less important in the development of speech' 
than analogy, and that both go together in every period of the history of language. But 
even in case I could agree with PAUL'S theoretical point of view, that would not hinder me 
from accepting GISLASON'S explanation, since the latter implies that the indicative and 
subjunctive-endings in this instance had been made the same. 

208 Hermann Collitz, [Vol. in. 

has the characteristic ending of the dental preterit. For the 
latter I cannot give the remotest explanation. The secondary 
medial ending of the second person Old Ind. -thdj can, to be 
sure, be considered in this case. But, on the one hand, it is not 
probable that from the beginning a secondary ending should 
have been used in the second person together with the primary 
ending of the i. and 3. persons. On the other hand we are not 
even in the position to state with any certainty what form the 2. 
sing, had in primitive Teutonic. Goth, and O. N. point to -es, 
but O. S. and O. H. G. to -vs. In A.-S. (-es, -esf) in Fries. 
(-<?/) where the 2. sing, has the same vowel as the i. and 3. 
sing., levelling may have occurred. Perhaps, then, an East 
Germ, -es, West Gerrn. -ds must be assumed. But how can 
they be brought into relation with each other? Moreover, in 
one of the two old perfects middle without dental tense-charac- 
teristic, the second person has been formed in an entirely 
different way. The O.-S. deda and O. H. G. teta have for the 
2. sing, respectively dadi and tdti, and those forms evidently are 
older than those formed in harmony with the usual ending of 
the 2. sing. (A.-S. dydest, O. S. dedos) (cf. SCHERER, Z.G.D.S. 
203 =323 2 ). This leads further on to the yet unsettled inquiry 
into the formation of the 2. sing, of the strong preterits in West 
Germ. 1 ? Also the primitive -/ of the 2. sing, of the strong 
preterits in East Germ, is still waiting for an explanation ; 
KLUGE'S opinion that this / has taken the place of a correct p 
by means of transformation, appears to me only as a make shift. 
At present difficulties surround the formation of the 2 sing. perf. 
which we cannot yet penetrate. 

In my opinion, from the sing., or, to speak more exactly, from 
the i. and 3. sing., the -/ has been transferred to the Anlaut of 
all the endings of the weak preterit, while at the same time, the 
/ of the participle aided in giving to this consonant the function 
of a preterit element and in gradually raising it to the tense- 
characteristic of the weak preterit. Besides the formation of the 
Latin v- perf. already touched upon (p. 200), a parallel presents 
itself in the development of the r- deponents in Italic and Celtic. 
The characteristic of the deponent, as WINDISCH recently has 
fully shown in his instructive monograph : ' Uber die Verbal- 
formen mit dem character v in Arischen, Italischen und Griechi- 

17 V. FIERHNGER, as far as I know, is the last scholar who discussed this point. K.Z., 
XXVII, 430 f. 

1887.] The Teutonic Weak Preterit. 209 

schen ' l8 (Leipzig 1887), was originally merely a part of a 
limited number of personal endings, especially of the 3. plur. 
and not even originally purely medial endings. Thai beside 
the sing, forms of the indicative, the endings of the weak preterit 
which follow the dental, are developed from the strong preterit, 
has been stated above (p. 198). 

If we are justified in explaining the origin of the weak preterit 
in this manner, then the preterit-presents have not, as it was 
previously supposed, formed a new preterit after the pattern of 
the derivative verbs. Their peculiarity consists rather in this, 
that they have retained the original perfect middle i-n a preterit 
sense by the side of the active perfect with the meaning of the 
present. But in the case of the derivative verbs the perfect 
middle cannot be directly traced back to the primitive speech. 
We agree with MAHLOW ('Die langen Vocale,' p. 13) who says 
that the derivative verbs had only a present stem in Old Aryan 
time. The other tenses are newly formed in the several Teu- 
tonic languages after the analogy of the primary verbs. But, as 
in Greek and Latin, the inflection of the derivative verbs was 
fully developed in the other tenses as well as in the present, so 
we may assume that in Teutonic the t- preterit and t- parti- 
ciple must have been transferred into the inflection of the 
derivative verbs at a relatively early date. 

i&Abhandlui&end.S-:chs. GeselUch.d. Wissensch., Phil. hist. Q. Vol. X, No. -6. 

2io Edward S. Sheldon, [Vol. in. 

IX. Some Specimens of a Canadian French Dialect Spoken 

in Maine. 


These specimens are based on notes taken by me in August 
and September, 1877, in Waterville, Maine. I used selections 
from them at the first meeting of the Romance Philology Con- 
ference, at Harvard University, in the year 1886-87, to illustrate 
the use of phonetic spelling for philologi^l purposes and to il- 
lustrate also the regular character of sound changes in popular 
dialects. There is in Waterville, as in many other places in 
New England, a colony of French Canadians, who live by them- 
selves in a part of the village known as the Plains. My speci- 
mens were taken down in phonetic spelling from the mouth of a 
single person of this colony, who was employed as a servant 
girl at my father's house. It is a disadvantage that only one 
person's speech was thus observed, but she being uneducated 
I do not think she could write and am not even sure that she 
knew how to read at all her dialect was little if at all influenced 
by written French. She understood English well enough for 
most purposes, and all my questions were put in English, and 
she gave English translations when desired. I think there was 
hardly any possibility of her using a word not natural to her in 
consequence of any suggestion from me. I am not sure that 
her dialect was that of the whole French colony in Waterville ; 
indeed it seems to me that some double forms she used with the 
same meaning may have been due to her knowing words be- 
longing to originally different dialects. I have some reason to 
believe that at least one other French dialect than hers is or was 
not long ago spoken in New England. My observations are 
very incomplete, as I expected and intended to continue them 
later and did not use all the opportunities I had, but scanty as 
they are, they suffice to give some idea of the peculiarities of the 

My authority, L.L., was born in Maine at Skowhegan, but 
came quite young to Waterville. Her father was born in Canada ; 
I did not learn exactly where. I have lately spoken with one 

1887.] Specimens of a Canadian French Dialect. 211 

or two Canadian or American Frenchmen in Cambridge, and it 
has been suggested to me that the dialect is perhaps Acadian. I 
hope to get further information as to the dialect, or dialects, 
spoken in Cambridge. The sound-notation which I used was 
based chiefly on SIEVERS'S ' Grundziige der Lautphysiologie,' 
and my notes on the sounds are full enough to enable me to 
turn that notation into a somewhat more readily intelligible 
form without any sacrifice of accuracy. Any cases of doubt I 
shall indicate. It must be remembered that an exact description 
of the positions of the tongue is not and could not be given. 
The descriptions I give are of the sounds as they affected my 
ear, and are necessarily imperfect. They concern quality only 
not quantity. The signs used are the following : 

VOWELS, a as in English father. (PASSY'S a? See Phoneti- 
sche Studien, I, pp. 24, 26. The sound seems generally to lean 
towards a rather than towards d, and perhaps a should general- 
ly be written where I have a, so that to written French a would 
correspond 'a and a. Cf. PASSY'S remarks on a and a in the article 
already mentioned. In the dialect a appeared to be commonest 
as long or as accented and final, a or a to occur mostly before a 
consonant or as short. a as or nearly as English aw, au in 
' awe] ' haul.' See the remarks on a above. a intermediate 
between a and te. (PASSY'S a ? the sound often heard in English 
{ fast,' ' calf/ etc. ?) See the remarks on a above. ce as English 
a in ' hat,' ' had,' etc. Perhaps a ahould be written in many 
cases. e as French e. Two varieties appeared : 2 1 nearer ^ and 
2 nearer &. e as French e. / as French i. 6 as French o in 
' rose ' (presumably the same as PASSY'S o, or as SWEET'S mid- 
back-narrow-round). d perhaps the same as PASSY'S b, in 
French ' trop '; my notes here are insufficient ; it appears from 
them to be intermediate between 6 and d in sound. u as French 
ou. o as French eu in ' eux,' ' peu ' (PASSY'S 'o). b as French 
eu in ' heure,' ' peur ' (PASSY'S oi). u as French u. 9 (a turned 
e) as French " mute e" when this letter is pronounced. In all 
the vowels the lip-action is much stronger than in English. 

Nasal Vowels : d, e (the nasal of 2 1 ), & (=French in), o (the 
nasal of 0), #. The vowel e only occurs once or twice. I heard 
it with certainty in only one word (fsez 'fifteen'), and this pro- 
nunciation may have been an individual peculiarity. The 
vowel b is rather rare ; & generally appeared instead, but some- 
times, the same word was pronounced with b or , or an inter- 

212 Edward S. Slieldon? [Vol. ni- 

mediate sound. Thus the definite article in the masculine is 
usually but occasionally o 

CONSONANTS, b, d,f, k, /, m, n r p, s (never like 2), t, i\ w., 
y (ui French uz), z as in English ; g as in English ' go,' ' get;' 
r is rolled with the tip of the tongue, not uvular nor like the un- 
rolled English r (in *red') ; s as French ch ; I as French j; h is a 
strong aspirate, about like my English (or rather American) h y 
or the German 7z, or sometimes (before a front vowel) suggest- 
ing a hissed aspirate such as one of the German sounds of ch in 
' ich/ and possibly even voiced at times. I was unable to 
describe the sound satisfactorily. It seems to occur only at the 
beginning of a syllable, and followed by a vowel, and corre- 
sponds to the French z sound. This aspirate is one of the most 
characteristic features of the dialect. For s and z the lip-action 
(rounding and protruding) was strong, and she had for s what 
I suppose to be the individual peculiarity of weakening the hiss 
considerably, while the lip-action was so strong that a sort of /" 
was produced which accompanied the hiss. She accepted my 
J as correct. Her v z sounded almost like uz (with very short #) 
in consequence of the energetic lip-action; as in nez, almost like 
neuz = French 'neige.' I may also note a palatalized /, written 
/', presumably about the same as Italian gli y which my notes 
mention but once, as occurring plainly in the word d v zbl l (= 
French ' gueule '). In another place, however, I wrote dz'dl, 
perhaps mistakenly. 

Two combinations of consonants are noteworthy, is and dz. 
The former, is, corresponds to a t or k sound in ordinary French 
before a front vowel ; as, tsel= French ' quel,' tsu= French 'tu/ 
ptsi= French ' petit.' The other, dz, corresponds to an ordinary 
French y sound, especially to / mouille"e, or to /+j/, further to 
French g (as in English ' get ') followed by a front vowel, and 
also to French d followed by i ; as, in dredz = French ' oreille,' 
edzilidz= French, ' aiguille ' dzis = French ' dix.' 

As to quantity, of course 9 is always short. I have marked 
long quantity only when it was very plainly long, as d, c, etc. 
Where my notes indicate long consonants I now double the con- 
sonant ; such cases are rare. The accented syllable is usually 
unmarked, being clear from comparison with ordinary French. 
If marked it will be by . (dot) after the vowel, as <r, e-, etc. 

I arrange the specimens which follow so as to show first 
examples for h = French z ; ts = French /, k ; dz = French y, d, 

1887.] Specimens of a Canadian French Dialect. 213 

g\ and then give other words and phrases without much at- 
tempt at order. I preserve the word division of my notes, 
though it probably has not much phonetic value. The English 
translations are those given me at the time, the French equiva- 
lent words are by me. 

I. h = French v z ; also z = French z: 

i. gaho, kalefol stafamla (or la) = that woman's a 
gageons qu' elle est folle cette femme-la. 2. gaho, kdstomla e 
fu =that man's a fool = gageons que cet homme-la est fou. 3. 
g<zhe = French ' gager/ 4. helefet and 5. v zelefet^=\ have done 
it =je 1'ai fait(e ?). The second e was at least once plainly-^ not 
. But cf. Nos. 15, 1 6. 6. helefetedz~er and 7. v zelefetedzlr = l 
did it yesterday = French ..... hier. The penultimate e was 
very short and may have been e. 8. ezva wedzahe = I am going 
to travel je vais (or rather vas) voyager. Possibly b should be 
written for a. The w pronounced with lips protruded. 9. ze va 
make = I am going to eat = je vais manger. 10. sa gra he grad 
(cf. Nos. 22, 99) his stable is large = sa grange est grande. 

ii. la nez (or nmz, with very short u} = French, la neige. 
12. e'zden and 13. e^zsuiapredene = I am giving = je donne, je 
suis apres donner. No. 12 was defined as " I am giving all, the 
whole of it," No. 13 as "I am giving a great lot of something." 
Cf. Nos. 86, 87. 14. elzdentut, mwe = je donne tout, moi. Cf. 
No. 76. 15, e*zdzedene a liii =. I have given (it?) to him = je 
(le? lui?) ai donne" a lui. 16. ezdzedene a el = I have given 
(it ?) to her = ...... a elle. 

17. ezdzt ete dzer rakotre fsegzo (or perhaps kzb\ cf. No. 
33) = I walked yesterday and met some one = j' (y?) ai 6t6 
hier et rencontre* quelqu'un (from the plural quelques-uns, ap- 
parently). 18. ezdzivd = I am going = j'y vais. 19. zelgard 
= I am keeping it = je le garde. 20. ez va vwer dzu pidzl (or 
perhaps pidzT) = I am going to travel, see some places or cities 
= je vais voir du pays. I had not seen the origin of pidzi till 
PROFESSOR CHAPLIN suggested it. Cf. No. 51. 21. zavt- 
fretedzer = I was cold yesterday = j'avais froid hier. The 
penultimate e I was told could not be omitted. Cf. Nos. 6, 47. 

22. fsn (or uri) graz = a stable = une grange. Cf. Nos. 10, 
99. The was not very distinct, but different from the h in No. 
10. For another z = French, z see No. 23. 

214 Edward S. Sheldon, [Vol. nr. 

II. is French t or k followed by a front vowel : 
23. fsel dz k3 ta ? (or perhaps o v z} -= how old are you = quel 
age que tu as. 24. tsez = French, quinze. See the numerals, 
No. 120. 25. b (or ) bufse flowers, bouquet = un bouquet. 
26. i o de bufst = they have flowers = ils (and elles ?) ont des 
bouquets. 27. s& fam la "0 de tfr=French, ces femmes-la . . 
. . . 28. el butse (or bufset} e flbri = ... is in blossom = . . . . 
est fleuri. The e in el (the definite article) my notes do not 
mark. I think it was e. 29. etsii hit apredene a la inert are 
you giving everything to your mother = es-tu tout apres donner 
a ta mere. 30. dla mbtse = half == de la moitie. 31. ten bel 
krietsur French, une belle femme (creature). This was given 
as politer than No. 67. 32. pisi = littie = petit. The p was 
scarcely audible, but the lip motion was plain. 33. tsbkzdm = a 
few men = quelques hommes. The first vowel was b when pro- 
nounced plainly. Cf. No. 17. 

In No. 85 occurs the relative pronoun ki, not tsi, and in No. 
43 skedza seems to be also an exception to the rule that French 
k before a front vowel corresponds to Is in this dialect. The 
latter exception may be due to the preceding s, or both the former 
and the latter may belong properly to another dialect ; cf. the 
varying forms with h and 2 under I. 

III. dz = French y (consonant), g followed by a front vowel, 
d followed by i. 

34. dzol (or rather perhaps dzdt 1 ") in dzol sal = French, 
gueule sale. 35. / va mudze = it is going to rain ==,il va mouil- 
ler (in the sense of ' pleuvoir/ as in at least one dialect in 
France). 36. anZdziiidz = French, une aiguille. 37. bnbdz = 
French, un ceil. But cf. No. 73. 38. me ciozoredz French, 
mes deux oreilles. 39. bnbredz (perhaps rather oh ) = French, 
une oreille. 40. mzdzi=French, 'midi.' 41. i dziva (probably 
rather dz} = he is going = il y va (?). 42. a dzvia = she is 
going = elle . . . 43. bli tut apredene skedza = we are giving 
all, everything = on (lui ?) tout apres dormer ce qu'il y a (?). 
44. ma va baldzel plase = I am going to sweep the floor = moi 
vais balayer le plancher. 45. ma va baldlzel tdpi=. . . carpet = 
French .... tapis. 46. o va baldze = we are going to sweep 
= on va balayer. 47. ifzZfreidzer = it was cold yesterday 
faisant froid hier. Cf. No. 21. 48. odziva tut (or perhaps va) 
= we are all going on y va tou(te ?)s. 49. ma veil dzirtr 
(or perhaps vdl) = I am going to cure him moi vais le gue"rir. 

1887.] Specimens of a Canadian French Dialect. 215 

50. i e dziri = he is cured = il est gueri. 51. pidzi (or 
rather pidzi?} -= a place, city (?). See No. 20. 52. cTzubwa = 
wood = du bois. 53. rdzyte = nothing = rien. I also wrote 
erdzya, marking the e as " reduced," but my notes say that the 
r was a vowel though plainly rolled. Perhaps the y should be 
omitted. Cf. also vya No. 85. 

[54. sdkre mudzi, or possibly modzi. This I insert from memo- 
ry of my schoolboy days, when I occasionally heard it from 
other boys in somewhat mocking reference to the French 
Canadians to whom it was credited. The word mudzi, as PRO- 
FESSOR CHAPLIN, who indeed first reminded me of its existence, 
has suggested to me, is probably the French ' maudit.'] For 
other examples of dz, see Nos. 6, 7, 8, 15, 16. 17, 18, 20, 21, and 
the numerals, No. 120. 

IV. Other words and phrases : 

55. te*t = French, ' tete.' 56. sdz French, 'chose. 7 57. 
mabus = French, ma bouche. 58, & tivr= French, un livre. 
The r was hardly audible, but was not lost to the consciousness 
of the speaker. 59. lorn = French, F homme. 60. lezom = 
French, les hommes. 61. la fam = French, la femme. 62. 
lef<zm (^fdm ?) = French, les femmes. 63. <zn gra fam = 
French, une grande femme. 64. <zn grds fam = French, une 
grosse femme. Or on, but there was not much o quality. 65. 
< gratbm = French, un grand homme. 66. <s? grotbm =.- French, 
un gros homme. 67. ten be I fam. See No. 31. 68. Id e krbz 
= the water is deep = 1' eau est creuse. 69. bn&fiz French, 
un enfant. 70. sezbmla so fu = French, ces hommes-la sont 
fous. 71. sane = French, son nez. 72. la pit = French, la 
pluie. 73. stzyo = French, ses yeux. Cf. No. 37. 74. port = 
French, porte. 75. nu = French, nous. 76. twe = French, toi. 
Cf. No. 14. 77. vu = French, vous. Cf. No. 92. 78. vatce (or 
vd ?):=French, va-t' en. 79. /<^/^r=perhaps = peut-^tre bien. 
The d was not very distinct. 80. savapaba = French, ga (ne) 
va pas bien. 81. bokubte = French, beaucoup ( = tres) bien. 
82. s'avo = French, savon (probably). 83. li vii = l saw him 
and also I saw her = ? 84, a va vnir = she is going to come 
= elle va venir. 85. la via (sometimes nearly via} ki vy&= 
French, la voila qui vient. 86. / den and 87. ietapredene = he 
is giving = French, il donne, il est apres donner. See Nos. 12, 13. 
88. fo kz HZzot tut dddla (kz or a very short ke, I in liez 
very faint, dd or de with very short e~)= I must take them all 

2i6 Edward S. Sheldon, [Vol. in. 

out of there =r faut que (je? les?) 6te tou(te?)s de dela. 89. 
ttfu (not te ; but cf. No. 91) = you are a fool = tu es fou. 
90. tefol= French, tu est folle. 91. fetbfu = you're a fool = 
tu es un fou. 92. vuzetfu = French, vous tes fou. 93. tifu 
kom <z mas a balet = you're a fool like a broomstick = . . . . 
coume un manche a balai. 94. i f& fret = it is cold = il fait 
froid. 95. i f% so = it is warm = il fait chaud. 96. i bwe = 
he is drinking = il boit. 97. truve = to find = trouver. 98. 
ma va ekrir = I am going to write = moi vais e*crire. 99. 
sonetab e grad = his stable is large. Cf. No. 10. 100. la IwZ 
= the law = la loi. 101. & pye = a foot = un pied. 102. o 
pbdzbm = some men = un peu des homines. 103. ptipwa = 
father = papa. 104. le mbbl = walls ^of the room (?) = les 
meubles. 105. nwer = black = noir. 106. <znm'ezb = '& house 
= une maison. 107. &ns2l a ladder = une e"chelle. 108. 
<sn pl<zs (or plas?) = a place = une place. 109. Ion (with a 
short vowel) = moon == lune. no. sa vwe = his voice = sa 
voix. in. ce sj>& = a dog = un chien. 112. & sa (or rather 
sa) = a cat = un chat. 113. de sa French, des chats. 114. 
rwe = a king = un roi. 115. (En ren = a queen = une reine. 
116. cen wezo = a bird =.- un oiseau. 117. tesmfe = a road = 
un chemin. 118. (or 2) kanot = a boat = un canot. 119. 
fl'or = French, fleur. 120. The cardinal numerals i 20, 100: 
&, do, twa, kat, (katzom = French, quatre homines), s&k, sis, 
s2t, uit, rioff, dzis, oz, duz, trfrz, katbrz, ts'ez (not ts&z), sPz, 
dlisset, dziziiit, dziznoff, viz ; sa (or perhaps better sai). 

I have already intimated that perhaps not one French dialect 
only was spoken in Waterville at the time these notes were 
taken. In general the forms I have given point to ordinary French 
words and may be directly compared with them. Indications of 
one or more European French dialects as in part the source of 
this pne, perhaps .appear in some words or sounds; for example 
h = French v z in some cases, ts = French / or k, dz =- French y, 
g, d in certain cases. For ts French k followed by a front 
vowel, the Norman dialects offer many examples, and I think 
the other cases of fs and those of dl can also be parallelled to 
some extent in France. It is to the dialects of Normandy and 
Saintonge that one naturally turns for comparison after reading 
the papers thus far published by PROFESSOR ELLIOTT on the 
' French language in Canada/ 1 and that a correspondence in 

/ American Journal of Philology, VI, VII. 

1887.] Specimens of a Canadian French DialecL 217 

dialect forms, even though incomplete, should appear in Norman 
dialects can not surprise us. But it must interest us even more 
if any peculiar feature of the French dialect of Saintonge appears 
here, and it is only with some doubt that I direct attention to 
what seems such a connection. The h which corresponds to 
French z before a vowel is the feature I mean. It appears that 
the dialect of Saintonge regularly has, corresponding to French 
z, an aspirate which JONAIN (< Dictionnaire du patois Sainton- 
geais') so describes that it appears to have nearly if not exactly 
the same sound as h in the specimens I have given. He speaks 
of the sound as always aspirated "comme le jota arabe et 
espagnol, adouci .... II iaut litre ne au doux pays de Sain- 
tonghe pour bien saisir cette nuance d'aspiration " (p. 19). The 
same sound occurs for a French aspirated h, it seems (p. 21). 
He calls it " un peu guttural" (p. 28), and says (p. 227), li ll faut 
y mettre un peu le souffle espagnol." Of other correspondences, 
as fret ===== French, froid, I will not now say anything, as I have 
only begun to make comparisons with the dialects spoken in 

As a supplement I can now add some additional specimens 
taken from the pronunciation of M. J. ( = DZ), the mother of 
L.L., and written in a phonetic spelling essentially the same as 
that employed above. They were written at my suggestion by 
an inexperienced observer not familiar with spoken French. 
He writes b for both o and o. I add in brackets remarks of my 
own. M. J. was born in Cornville, Maine, can not read nor 
write, is forty-nine years old, has always lived in Maine, except 
a year and a half in Canada after being married : 121. Ize b&dz 
ami = I have many friends [ = j'ai bien des amis]. 122. han 
2 fs'd'kd I have some [ j'en ai quelqu(es)-uns. I doubt the 
correctness of the accent, and think the last letter should be <?.]. 
123. han deba = I have some stockings [ = j' en ai des bas]. 
124. he de kuto = I have some knives [=j' ai des couteaux]. 
125. han = I have some [ == j' en ai]. 126. ze ta s<z-po = I 
have many hats [ = j' ai tant de chapeaux]. 127. he s6 _ I am 
warm [ j'ai'chaud]. 128. heswi = I am thirsty [= j'ai soif 
The sign I English i in (hit), (pin), etc.]. 129. hefa = 1 am 
hungry] [= j'ai faim]. 130. pupa eba papa is good [ = papa 
est bon]. 131. pupa egra = papa is tall [= papa est grand]. 
132. ma g&'sa episi my son is small [mon garcon est 
petit]. 133. ma fig ebel -= my daughter is handsome [=-ma 

218 Edward S. Sheldon. [Vol. in. 

fille est belle]. 134. no Jig vien =? our daughters are coming 
[ nos filles viennent]. 135. mu'ma l&vyu do gro.ra = mamma 
saw two big rats (gro.ra in her dialect means either rats or big 
rats) [ maman ? deux gros rats. I doubt the correctness of 
the accent in mu-ma, and the last letter in the same word should 
perhaps be a. In Icevyii I think yu should be .]. 136. 
" ' Father' in her dialect is the same as in standard French, or 
perhaps the first e is pronounced more like ie in the modern 
French 'pierre.' " 137. "I don't think I have given all the 
various ways for 'I have' in the dialect. I will not say posi- 
tively, but it seems as if she said something like sf or 

hwf'e for ' I have.' " 

1887.] Julius Goebel, 219 

X. On Paul's ' Principien der Sprachgeschichte?* 


The scientfic confession of faith of the Neo- Grammarians, al- 
ready upon various occasions fragmentarily announced, has 
found its first systematic presentation in PAUL'S ' Principien der 
Sprachgeschichte/ which has just appeared in a second revised 
and enlarged edition. Inasmuch as this book reflects the views 
of a number of distinguished scholars who claim to have revolu- 
tionized linguistic science, it demands our attention a priori and 
necessitates an exposZ of its fundamental views and presump- 
tions : for this much commended New Method of the school of 
neo-grammarians must finally take its stand upon linguistic 
principles entirely different from those of earlier enquirers. It 
is these principles which determine the method even should 
they be as yet but half realized. A non-partisan critic will be 
little disturbed if the members of the new school boast of feeling 
greater earnestness on behalf of science than others, or if in any 
other way they recommend their new tendenz. He will endeavor, 
before all things, to follow out the historical development of the 
new principles, he will test their worth and authority, from which 
the propriety of their application would readily appear. 

The dogmatic-rationalistic form of PAUL'S book makes the 
understanding of the historical development of the new princi- 
ples difficult, inasmuch as it almost purposely conceals the 
connection with earlier efforts and quotes by preference 
the works of those who sympathize with the new movement. 
If efforts have not been wanting to follow our principles of speech 
individually back even to antiquity, I believe no one has yet 
undertaken to ascertain the origin of the entire manner of 
thought upon which these principle.^ rest. It is certainly true 
that the adherents of the new school represent a new mode of 
thought, but they err in proclaiming .this mode as an original and 
suddenly-appearing revelation. It has long been a well known, 
if not sufficiently emphasized fact, that the older linguistic 

"Translated from the German, by DR. T. McCABE, (University of Michigan). 

220 Paul's 'Prmcfpien.' [Vol. nr. 

science of the Germans had its roots in the soil of the poetico- 
philosophical views of the last century and became governed 
similarly to that philosophy of thought which the great literary 
revolution engendered and sesthetically realized in its literary 
monuments. This intimate connection seems in the almost 
prophet'c works of HERDER to be embodied, as it were, in one 
man : cf. his Uber den Ursprung der Sprache." How linguis- 
tic enquiry had its point of departure in poetic conceptions, is 
to be seen most clearly in W. VON HUMBOLDT'S linguistic 
studies as well as in JACOB GRIMM'S scientific activity. But a 
revolution was to take place in the intellectual life of the German 
people. Wearied of philosophical speculation, scientific effort 
turned toward a domain to which GOETHE, in particular, had 
already directed the method of historical observation as well as 
the idea of Evolution. Here, assuredly, nothing was to be 
gained by philosophical speculations. The matter, which was 
the subject of enquiry, and which had no direct relations with 
the thinking and feeling Ego, demanded practical experiment, 
the mechanical-mathematic method, the calmly calculating 
intellect. There was little room for analogical conclusions from 
the Ego, or for the intuitions of feeling, both of which had 
certified their riddle-solving might over all things which they 
sought to study concerning the historical development of the 
human mind. Where, in the previous period, the highest ideal 
had been Genius, in which the force of enquiring and effective- 
ly-realizing intuition had found its purest embodiment, we now 
find honor accorded to the combining intellect, and where this 
was wanting 1 , to material-accumulating industry. 

It was natural that the great triumph in the domain of 
natural science should invite the application of a similar method 
of enquiry in respect to the history of human intellectual life. 
After the new method had been tested by BUCKLE with appar- 
ently such brilliant success in the investigation of "Kultur- 
geschichte" after SCHLEICHER, and later WHITNEY had made 
a similar attempt with regard to linguistic science, appeared W. 
SCHERER to sketch with daring hand the new principles of 
linguistic science. In the preface to the first edition of his 
work : ' Zur Gesch. d. deutsch. Spr.,' as well as in various pas- 
sages in the book, we find for the first time a formulating of the 
main principles which he afterward, in the second edition, added 
to the chapter entitled ' Principien.' These main principles have 

1887.] Julius Goebel, 221 

since dominated discussions of a general nature up to the ap- 
pearance of PAUL'S book. That the method of natural science 
and of DARWIN were present to SCHERER'S mind as models is 
explicitly acknowledged. Inasmuch as he first makes use of 
speech phenomena of the present time in order to explain speech 
phenomena of the past, he maintains the regularity of phonetic 
change. Inasmuch as a struggle for existence has taken place 
between roots and words once existing, and since, further, 
apparent offenses against the regularity of phonetic change 
appear, it is necessary to explain these phenomena. The 
explanation offered is the presumption of two factors in particu- 
lar : Analogy and Differentiation. In addition to this, the study 
of the dialects as well as of the general conditions of civilization 
are recommended as a methodo-logical expedient. 

It is clear that thus not merely the entire trend of the new 
mode of enquiry was indicated but that the new method was 
already applied in individual departments ; nay more, even that 
in general the classification had been arranged which we find in 
the different chapters of PAUL'S work. Bearing in mind the 
deep veneration expressed by the Neo-Grammarians for the 
principle of causation, the unprejudiced observer will be surprised 
to remark how little they emphasize the causal relation existing 
between their predecessors and themselves, and how, while 
posing as creative geniuses, they do not omit the useful precau- 
tion of striving to be taken for such (cf. P. 6). That PAUL 
himself perfectly well comprehends that his work stands in con- 
nection with the above sketch of the general tendency of intel- 
lectual life is shown by his introduction, in which he endeavors 
to define the conception, the authority, and the task of the 
" Principienlehre," to which effort he has been led by the ex- 
ample of similar efforts in the department of natural science, 
although he would certainly energetically protest should any 
one see in his book a work which had been produced according 
to the principle of analogy or imitation. He, too, is desirous of 
inquiring into the ever abiding fundamental conditions in the 
process of historical development, but he knows right well that 
linguistic science is not to be treated simply as a natural science. 
Hence, following in the steps of others, he makes a distinction 
between natural science and what he calls " Kulturwissenschaft," 
and finds that the essence of the latter lies in the psychic factor 
which determines all culture or civilization ; that hence the main 

222 Paul's 'Principien? [Vol. in. 

task of the principles of this " Kulturwissenschaft " is, to state 
the general conditions under which the psychical and physical 
factors, while following out their own laws, work together to a 
common end. Since the fact that such a " Principienlehre " 
could not be obtained without definite preliminary metaphysical 
suppositions, or theories, frequently arrests PAUL'S attention, and 
since he gives us to understand that it is as a linguistic philos- 
opher that he desires to address us, we ask permission to test 
his philosophy somewhat more closely. 

Linguistic science belongs, of course, to this " Kulturwissen- 
schaft," and inasmuch as the latter, according to PAUL, is 
capable of displaying the most exact results, it is necessary to 
understand what he understands thereby. In the first place as 
to the name. Ordinarily the term " Geisteswissenschaft " is 
used, but PAUL rejects this because an intellectual culture or 
civilization without physical ground-work is unthinkable. The 
age of transcendental idealism which constructed everything 
from the Ego without taking cognizance of the physical factors 
in history, is long gone by. He who to-day speaks of man in 
the scientific sense has always the psycho-physical unity of 
human nature before his eyes, and it is this unity of which PAUL 
speaks. Here, where mind and nature, as it were, meet and 
bring forth a quite peculiar product, it was necessary to enter 
upon the character of natural science and that of the mind, or 
soul, as well as upon the difference of the cognition and of the 
method which results from that distinction. Here, before all 
things, it was necessary to show that the "Principienlehre" 
aimed at by PAUL is much more easily established in the domain 
of natural science, inasmuch as here every occurrence, every 
variation of the atom proceeds rigidly and mechanically, and 
shows itself to be the rigorous result of the Law of Cause and 
Effect. It also ought to have been shown that such a mechanical 
Law of Necessity does not obtain in the domain of the mind, or 
soul, inasmuch as our Consciousness is not divided into atoms 
but forms a unit, a unit endowed with freedom. It should also 
have been shown that because the principles of development are 
not the same, we are able to acquaint ourselves with those prin- 
ciples which obtain in the domain of nature. Further, since both 
a psychical and a physical element are contained in speech it 
becomes the duty of the philosopher to show how two principles, 
fundamentally distinct and connected with two entirely different 

1887.] Julius Goebel, 223 

domains, should here work harmoniously together in the creation 
of a single product. 

Whether this fundamental distinction has presented itself to 
PAUL'S consciousness, we cannot say, and owing to this want of 
certainty a genuine philosophical point of view is not disclosed 
by him. He does not become clear till he regards " Kulturwis- 
senschaft" as "Gesellschaftswissenschaft." He says, and rightly, 
that civilization first arises through the mutual influence of 
individuals upon one another; he indicates the process as to 
how this mutual influence proceeds, as well as the relation of the 
individual to the mass, and characterizes these as the peculiar 
tasks of the "Principienlehre." From a comparison drawn from 
the history of the evolution of organic nature according to 
which a higher organism arises from the co-operation of cells in 
accordance with the principle of the division of labor, he passes 
to a criticism of LAZARUS'S and STEINTHAL'S presumption of a 
" Folk-soul." PAUL is not satisfied with the presumption, 
because both these savants speak of a " Folk-psychology " 
which has the same relation to individual peoples as the com- 
mon psychology has to the individual person ; further, that it is 
as little correct to call the characteristics of single peoples a 
psychology as it would be to apply that term to the description 
of the mental characteristics of a single person. In his zeal to 
give these scholars a lesson upon the conception of psychology, 
PAUL has entirely forgotten that there is such a thing as descrip- 
tive psychology, which, inasmuch as it presents those general 
conclusions which are to be learned from the utterances and 
actions of many individuals, perhaps conducts to more abiding 
results than that highly prized psychology of rigid law which, 
as we shall see, is erected upon metaphysical hypotheses. Such 
a descriptive psychology is not by any means mere history as 
PAUL imagines. His chief stumbling-block, however, is the 
conception of LAZARUS and STEINTHAL above mentioned, of a 
Folk-soul, which he calls an abstraction and of which he utters 
a strong condemnation. The only reason he offers for his op- 
position to this abstraction, is that there is no such thing as a 
concrete Folk-soul, otherwise he indulges in declamation 
merely. We think it possible that we, in this regard, under- 
stand Paul better than he does himself. 

From the comparison with the procedure in the domain of 
organic nature already mentioned, it is seen that PAUL imagines 

224 Pant's 'Principien? [Vol. in. 

the mutual influence of individuals upon one another to be the 
same as that under which the individual cells unite for the 
production of a higher organism in accordance with the, prin- 
ciple of the division of labor. From his later expose, it be- 
comes clear that he lays down as a fact of fundamental importance 
that a purely psychic interaction is only accomplished within the 
individual soul, and that all communication between different 
minds, or souls, can only be accomplished by indirect and 
physical means. It is clear how PAUL obtains, from the above 
data, his mechanical materialistic conception of society. A 
number of individuals, only in their own soul capable of a 
psychical interaction, have found themselves, like the cells, 
constituting a Whole, that is to say, Society. But this thought 
is not new; there was no need of PAU*L'S borrowing it from 
natural science. We have, it is true, in reality to do with 
individual men only, of whom but a few believe in direct com- 
munication of mind, or souls, among themselves, as modern 
spiritualism teaches. Inasmuch as the fact has been observed 
from ancient times, the state, or society, has been regarded, from 
the days of the Sophists, of PLATO, and of ARISTOTLE, through 
the middle ages and up to modern times, either as a mechanical 
combination of individuals or as an animal organism. Since 
PAUL decides in favor of the first of these two views, he has by 
no means risen above the level of his forerunners, but has simply 
announced the mechanical materialistic mode of thought which 
he has borrowed from natural science. Society is neither a 
machine composed of human atoms nor is it a colossal organism 
animated by a Folk-soul, but a Reality consisting of psycho- 
physical, living, unities; in which the individual appears 
determined and, in its turn, determining this reality. Every 
attempt to construct psychologically a human being independent 
of society, is idle folly. The realization of PAUL'S idea of 
society is only to be found in a lunatic asylum or in a house of 
correction, the inmates of which are known only by the numbers 
they bear and in connection with whom there can be no mention 
of a "common spirit" or of a Folk-soul." 

It is therefore a violent contradiction when PAUL, compelled 
by the facts of experience, assumes a psychic interaction between 
the individual members of society. He does this inasmuch as 
he speaks of the transformation of indirect associations into 
direct, a transformation which, it is claimed, takes place within 

1887.] Julius Goebel, 225 

the individual mind, and the result of which is then carried over 
to other minds. One sees here that PAUL employs expressions, 
as indeed he does throughout bis entire book, which are borrowed 
from psychology. It is, therefore, high time that we examine 
his psychology somewhat more closely. These general discus- 
sions on which PAUL appears particularly to pride himself are 
assuredly only entered into in order to explain the nature of 
speech. Since he has expressed himself decidedly an enemy of 
abstractions, by the side of which he places his concrete Reality, 
since he has several times assured us that he, in scientific fashion, 
adheres closely to facts, a favorable judgment of h:s psychology 
Is roused by anticipation, 

. We cannot certainly forget "how PAUL in his zeal against ab- 
stractions, in his struggles after exactitude, arrived at that 
imaginary caricature of society. Hence we prudently ask here 
whether the psychologic picture of humanity which PAUL 
sketches accords with the reality. For if such is the case, the 
picture of society which we have criticized and which is described 
according to the natural science method, is correct. PAUL 
facilitates .for us the enquiry into the origin of his psychologic 
views by the acknowledgment that he regards psychology in 
the same sense as does HERBART, namely, as the science of the 
relation of conceptions among themselves. Although he, PAUL, 
avoids giving us his own ideas concerning the psychic processes 
In the individual, we can still tell from indications given, how he 
imagines them to take place. In the first place, he believes 
absolutely, with HERBART and his followers, that the most 
essential and characteristic activity of the soul consists in the 
power of mental representation, or conception, and that the 
Individual products of this activity, that is, these mental concep- 
tions, or ideas, combine in the soul in groups. Like HERBART 
and particularly like STEINTHAL, he lays great weight upon the 
fact that these groups, for the most part, remain in the soul in 
the darkness of the Unconscious, according to the law that 
everything that has once been in consciousness afterward remains 
in z^consciousness as an effective force. These groups of ideas, 
or conceptions, are a product of all that has ever entered into 
consciousness in the forms of speech by means of listening to 
others, or through our own utterances, or by thought. Intro- 
duced into consciousness in groups, it is in groups also that they 
remain in ^consciousness. At the same time the ideas, or 

226 Paul's ' Principled [Vol. in. 

representations in thought, of sounds following one upon an- 
other, and of the motions of the speech-organs proceeding one 
after the other, become associated in a regular order, or series. 
Series of sounds and motions become associated among them- 
selves. With both these, the ideas or conceptions for which 
the series serve as symbols, associate themselves ; and not merely 
the conceptions of word-meanings but also the conceptions of 
syntactic relations. And not merely the individual words, but 
longer series of sounds, entire sentences, associate themselves 
directly with the thought contained in them. 

These groups are to be distinguished from the categories 
which become abstracted by means of grammatical reflection. 
PAUL calls them, that is these groups, organisms which are not 
only to be found in continuous motion in every individual but 
which are always different according to the different individuals. 
These psychic organisms are, according to Paul, the bearers of 
evolution, that is, it is by them that evolution is effected. The 
sounds once spoken have no evolution. It becomes, therefore, 
the task of the linguistic investigator to present as faithful a 
picture as possible of the psychic organism. He must not 
simply enumerate all the elements of which they consist, but he 
must consider the relations they bear to one another ; he must 
show their relative strength, the many-sided influences to which 
they have been subjected among themselves, the degree of the 
closeness and constancy of these relations ; in short, to use a 
popular expression, he must show how the "Sprachgefuhl," as it 
were, works and acts. Further, according to PAUL, in order 
fully to describe the condition of a language, it would be neces- 
sary to observe accurately the procedure or activity of the 
groups of ideas relative to speech in every individual using 
speech, and then to compare in detail the results thus obtained. 
The general view of which we should then be in possession 
would show what was particular to the individual and what was 
general, for, be it remembered, use or custom, governs the 
speech of the individual only to a certain degree. The speech 
organism, however, cannot be directly examined since it rests in 
the unconscious. In view of the important r61e which the 
psychic factor plays not only in PAUL'S book but also in the 
works of his sympathizers, we cannot but be surprised that the 
delineation of the psychic factor is so short and meagre. Since 
it is a question here of a matter of the highest degree important, 

1887.] Julius Goebel, 227 

a matter on which, as we shall see, the entire later development 
of the subject depends, it was to be expected that the psychic 
process, as it rules in speech, would have received an exact 
elucidation and foundation. But PAUL has here evidently taken 
for granted that his readers are acquainted with HERBART'S 
psychology, and refers also to several passages in STEINTHAL'S 
work. He has incorporated the results of both in his book. 
There must, however, surely be some who are not exactly pre- 
pared to believe in the infallibility of the HERBART school of 

In the first place we ask : does the entire psychic activity of 
man consist in the power of mental representation or conception 
of ideas? It is known that this presumption of HERBART fol- 
lows upon the fact, that in his psychology he starts out from 
dogmatic metaphysical suppositions. In 'order to escape the 
contradictions which our conceptions gained from experience 
offer, and particularly the idea of mind (Geist) offers, HERBART 
defines the soul (Seele) as primary substance, as simple being. 
As such it, the soul, possesses no forces, or properties, neither 
ideas, nor feelings, nor desires. It knows nothing concerning 
itself or other things, it has no forms of perception or of thought, 
no laws of action or of will. The simple essence of the soul is 
unknown. Circumstances first put it (the soul) in possession of 
the power of conceiving, or forming ideas. These circumstances 
are, that many substances exist which, by coming together, 
make their quality and power effective and so, as it were, disturb 
the original quality or nature of the soul. The result of this dis- 
turbance is self-preservation on the part of the soul, and this 
self-preservation HERBART calls sensation, the only phenomenon 
really known to us. Upon this principle of self-preservation 
against disturbance rest the various phenomena of motion, of 
chemical affinity, of organization, of imponderation, as well as 
psychic phenomena. 

It is already clear, from what has been said, that HERBART'S 
metaphysical view is a materialistic one, that it rests upon an 
equalizing of mind and matter, and of this experience offers us 
no proof. Our experience teaches us rather that our intellectual 
activity does not rest merely upon the power of forming con- 
ceptions or ideas, an activity occasioned by the disturbances 
which the atoms produce around us. This would be to make 
our intellectual activity resemble the pictures upon the dead 

22$ Paul's 'Prmcipien* [Vol. nr. 

camera of a photographer. To say nothing of the contradictions 
which lie in HERBART'S conception of the soul, we know nothing 
of a soul whose ideas or conceptions are not connected with 
feelings or emotion and movements of the will. But since 
HERBART regards the soul as substance and thinks that it does 
not essentially differ from the atoms in nature, he applies the 
mechanical explanation, as seen in the domain of physical nature, 
to the elucidation of mental processes. Ideas conduct them- 
selves in entire accordance with the law of inertia and persis- 
tence, the one remains until dislodged by another. Again, the 
changes in our minds arise through the movements of ideas in 
exactly the same way in which changes in the domain of 
physical nature arise through the movements of matter. In 
doing this the mind, in perfect accord with its nature, naturally 
remains entirely without will. But who will be willing to admit 
that all that which we call life takes place in our mind like a 
chemical process, that not we but only our ideas really live, 
"dass wir geschoben werden wahrend wirglauben zu schieben"? 
In order to establish the mechanism of ideas or conceptions, 
HERBART ascribes to them those powers which we had believed 
to belong to the mind. Without assistance from the mind, the 
ideas arrange themselves, and group themselves like atoms 
round a centre. Just as it seems to us impossible that the mind, 
which has no power of receiving impressions, should suffer dis- 
turbances in consequence of accidental circumstances, so does 
this representation of conceptions, as endowed with forces, seem 
to us absurd. Were HERBART'S entire presentation of psy- 
chologic processes only an analogy taken from the physical 
world, it might escape criticism , but, as a materialist, everything 
he says is meant in earnest. The picture of an individual ruled 
by his ideas is that of a lunatic and not of a sane man. 

Through reproduction and association the groups, or masses, 
of ideas arrange themselves together of their own accord. 
Every activity of the mind : understanding, imagination, and 
memory, are claimed to consist in these groups. Accordingly 
everything is based upon the senses. HERBART has no idea of 
an inner experience which is based upon feeling or emotion and 
which produces a process in the mind that is independent of 
sensations. The insufficiency of his psychology, its incapacity 
to explain the higher elements of life, are particularly seen in 
his ^Esthetics which never rise above formal definitions. The 

1887.] Julius Goebel, 229 

same is true of his Ethics and indeed of all matters he treats, 
which do not proceed from the senses or the mental activities. 
It has therefore been properly said that, according to HERB ART, 
our self-consciousness, like all knowledge, is but a delusion, for 
a mind or soul of the nature of which we know nothingj and of 
which the entire activity is occupied with self-preservation, has 
no true knowledge of itself nor of the exterior world. All knowl- 
edge is then but a delusion. 

We can understand why PAUL adopted a psychology of 
which all the processes proceed with the necessity of natural 
operations, in which the mind is treated as an atom, as PAUL 
requires it to be in order to support his mechanical conception. 
We can now understand how he came to his atom-composed 
picture of society, how for him physical nature and mind are 
not fundamentally separated domains and that for him there is 
no necessity of the knowledge of nature and of a knowledge in 
relation to things of the mind or soul. After having arrived at 
his scientific conception by means of a psychology which is a 
combination of natural science and materialistic mechanism, he 
applies this conception to speech in which the mind and nature 
come in .contact, both of which latter, however, are, for him, one 
and the same. It seems to us however, that PAUL has commit- 
ted errors in his delineation of the psychic life. The vagueness 
and indefiniteness of the conception of the idea which we note 
in HERBART, are also apparent in PAUL. For instance, on 
one occasion he speaks of ideas in HERBART'S metaphysical 
psychologic sense, then under the same term he indicates that 
which has entered into consciousness in the form of speech, and 
finally he returns to the previous notions. Psychologic processes 
become a veritable spawn when PAUL enumerates the varied 
associations (referring to the principle of association) which, ac- 
cording -to his idea, form speech. Herein particular we remark 
the influence of HERBART'S ideas and it is sad to see how PAUL, 
the enemy of abstractions, who claims ever to deal only with the 
reality, with the actual individual, draws a picture which far 
more closely resembles some chemically produced homunculus 
than a living being. It was only through being led astray by 
the analogy of natural science that it was possible for PAUL to 
commit the mistake of calling his idea-groups, organisms. We 
know that HERBART, too, endeavored to establish a similar 
idea, that is, a kind of organism, inasmuch as he ascribed forces, 

230 Paul's ' ' Principien? [Vol. in. 

or powers, to the ideas, and in a way personified them. This is, 
however, but a play of the imagination. For nobody will digni- 
ty by the name organism that which is a mere aggregate of 
atoms, in this case ideas, which, by means of forces falsely as- 
cribed to them, have come together. Even the most ingenious 
machine is not an organism, for from this latter the idea of life 
absolutely cannot be disassociated. PAUL is therefore, in our 
opinion, under the greatest delusion when he identifies the de- 
scription of those automatic organisms and their relation to one 
another with the " sprachgefuhl," since speech-usage, as well as 
experience recognizes in the term "sprachgefiihl " something 
quite different from the psychological process described by him. 
For if the groups of ideas come together and act, or work, in 
the manner described by him, there can be no such thing as a 
subjective activity of the mind or soul as is implied in the word 
" sprachgefuhl." 

This is seen most clearly in the learning of a foreign language. 
I may know all the words in the German language, these may 
have associated themselves with my ideas, and have grouped 
themselves as organisms in PAUL'S sense, and still I would have 
no German "sprachgefuhl," and as long as I do not possess this 
I will not be completely master of the German language. It is 
true, PAUL speaks of this term "sprachgefuhl" as a popular 
one, nevertheless in its true meaning it would come nearer to 
the truth than to his own psychological terminology, concerning 
which we have found that it explains nothing. Further, since 
enquirers like SCHLEICHER, HILDEBRAND and others use the 
expression " sprachgefuhl " with good results, we need not be 
troubled by disdainful disapproval of PAUL, especially as he has 
nothing better to offer. He who uses the term " sprachgefuhl " 
takes for granted first of all, by using that very word "gefiihl," 
the living, working, spontaneous mind, or soul, of man and not 
the mind of a homunculus endowed with chemical properties as 
seen in PAUL'S system. It is a fact of fundamental importance 
that all our conceptions are permeated and animated by feeling 
and hence do not lead an atomlike, independent existence as 
HERBART and, with him, PAUL teaches. 

1887.] Henry E. Shepherd, 231 

XI. A Study of Lord Macaulay*s English. 


Nearly thirty years have elapsed since the death of LORD 
MACAULAY (December, 1859), a period sufficient to have wit- 
nessed the rise, the decline, and the decay of many reputations 
less brilliant than his own. (The year 1859 was fruitful in the 
death of eminent men of letters : HALLAM, DEQUINCEY, IRVING, 
PRESCOTT, MACAULAY.) It is the fate even of the finest genius 
to incur detraction, and in our era, MACAULAY has been the 
special victim of critics. He has provoked the polished 
cynicism of MR. MATTHEW ARNOLD, the cautious censure of 
BISHOP STUBBS, and received only the qualified approbation of 
one of his most discriminating biographers, the late Rector of 
Lincoln College. Save his nephew, MR. TREVELYAN, and MR. 
EDWARD A. FREEMAN,* few writers of our time are just in 
their appreciation of his genius, or in their estimate of his im- 
press upon the character of our language. Yet his influence 
upon the fortunes of English speech was never more potent than 
at present, and may be discovered by the critical student in many 
phases of our literature where its agency was not suspected. 
Let us endeavor to trace in detail some of the sources of LORD 
MACAULAY'S diction, some of the secret springs that impelled 
into activity the most perspicuous and fascinating prose style 
which has appeared in modern English literature. 

At the time of MACAULAY'S birth (October 1800), the great 
Romantic movement coincident with the last decades of the 
Georgian era, was approaching its maturity BYRON was twelve 
years old; COLERIDGE had produced his most characteristic 
poems ; TENNYSON was yet unborn ; the great apostle of Ro- 
manticism issued the first of his three supreme efforts in 1805; 
the triumphs of KEATS and SHELLEY were still in the future. 
The poetic diction of the eighteenth century was yielding to the 
theory of the spontaneous, in the political as in the intellectual 
sphere, old things were passing away, all things were becoming 
new. In this era and amid these quickening influences, MACAU- 
LAY was born. To trace the genesis of a great author's diction is an 

iSee 'Methods of Historical Study,' pages 105-6. 

232 Lord Macaulay's English. [Vol. in. 

instructive and delightful task. In the case of LORD MACAULAY, 
we have the assistance of TREVELYAN'S admirable biography, 
perhaps slightly colored by the partial tone of devoted affection, 
yet accurate in detail and fascinating in treatment. Strange 
as it may be, MACAULAY seems to have had little sympathy with 
the dominant literary tendencies of his own age. His tastes and 
affinities identified him with the eighteenth century, he studied 
the Ikerary creations of the Addisonian time with assiduous and 
affectionate care, and in the essay upon ADDISON, we have a dim 
intimation of the brilliant picture he would have added to the 
richness of our literature, had he been spared to complete his 
'History of England.' Yet the strongest and most abiding in- 
fluences are sometimes those whose agency is not suspected, or 
whose existence is least apparent. The revolutionary fervor of 
the period coincident with MACAULAY'S youth imparted a superb 
glow to a style formed by the delicate observance of aesthetic 
and artistic principles. It relieved it from the possible danger of 
degenerating into cold and inanimate rhetoric, by infusing some 
measure of that romantic ardor and creative energy which marked 
the "spacious times" of BYRON, SHELLEY, SCOTT and KEATS. 
The eloquence of BURKE, assuming a richer coloring with the 
flight of years, was an important influence in the formation of 
MACAULAY'S diction. The style of BURKE, as illustrated in 
many passages of his 'Abridgment of English History' (a work 
whose rare merits, philosophic wisdom and wealth of learning 
should have earned for it a more extended recognition than has 
thus far been accorded it) is suggestive and anticipatory of many 
characteristic chapters in the ' History of England.' In order to 
illustrate the accuracy of this general statement by concrete ex- 
amples, we have only to observe carefully the peculiar rhythm 
and cadence of numerous passages from the 'Abridgment,' 
and mark their resemblance to certain passages in the 
' History of England,' which have become part of the classic 
riches of our tongue. The rhetorical inspiration communicated 
by the diligent study of BURKE, the unconscious quickening re- 
ceived from the dominant creative impulses of his era, the fas- 
tidious care bestowed upon the Addisonian age, together with 
the influence of that mode of classical training once prevalent 
in the Universities, in which scrupulous regard was had to the 
inculcation of literary form rather than to a technical and ex- 
acting philological study these are the principal elements in 

1887.] Henry E. Shepherd, 233 

the evolution of that prose diction which has constituted one of 
the literary phenomena of our century. 

When we pass to the consideration of MACAULAY'S descriptive 
faculty, we find that the secret of his strength in this respect is 
largely due to the inspiration and example of SIR WALTER 
SCOTT. It is to SIR WALTER that both CARLYLE and MAC- 
AULAY are indebted for their power of calling back the banished 
ages. It is with the style and diction of MACAULAY that we are 
more especially concerned, and the investigating of his mode of 
historic presentation is scarcely within the scope of a philological 
discussion. The student of our literary development will re- 
member that the growth of MACAULAY'S power as an essayist, 
for it was in this capacity that he first acheived renown, is coin- 
cident with the period that saw the decline of the Georgian era, 
and the reversion to the supremacy of prose, as well as the rise 
of modern physical science and of comparative philology. The 
'Essay upon Milton' (1825,) first drew the eye of the literary 
world to MACAULAY. BYRON died in the year preceding (1824 ;) 
KEATS and SHELLEY in 1821-22; WALTER SCOTT in 1832. 
The year was also signalized by the death of GOETHE and 
CUVIER, and by the passage of the great Reform Bill. 

The style of MACAULAY was maturing throughout the period 
embraced by the decline of poetry and the reaction towards 
prose. Yet it was a prose which, with notable exceptions., was 
marked by hardness and coldness of style or colored by passages 
of unwonted glow and brilliance, such as suffuse the sermons of 
NEWMAN and the portraitures of RUSKINS. The classical and 
artistic nature of MACAULAY, stimulated by the study of Addi- 
sonian models, was too strongly developed to succumb either 
to the romantic tone of the departing era, or to the marked and 
powerful vein of prose-poetry which was so conspicuous a feature 
of the incoming literary dispensation. Still, his language absorb- 
ed some rays of that poetic brilliance, as the famous description 
of the Puritan character in the " Essay on Milton" abundantly 
attests. We find, then, as the basis of his style, the classical or 
artistic element which, so far as our own literature is concerned, , 
reaches its most graceful expression in the Augustan age of 
ANNE. By the blending of these elements, the classical or 
artistic, and the romantic, which formed an unconscious inspira- 
tion, together with the quickening power of BURKE'S majestic 
rhetoric, was matured the literary character of MACAULAY. He 

234 Lord Mqcaulay's English. [Vol. in. 

seemed to "take occasion by the hand," and there is no just 
cause of surprise that the resultant of such forces should have 
been an English style, the charm and power of which will last 
as long as the memory of our race and language. 

The investigation of that peculiar phase of our speech known 
in popular phrase as Euphuism, has a fascination for the student 
of our literary development. It has been traced to many lands 
and to varied influence : to Spain, to Italy and to the Platonic 
philosophy. A more rational solution would perhaps explain it 
as a characteristic at some period of its history of nearly every 
language, an intimate tendency rather than the resultant of ex- 
ternal forces. In its relation to the English tongue, Euphuism 
seems to have been an unconscious foreca^fe or anticipation of 
the modern prose style, which developed in English during the 
second half of the seventeenth century. Its charm lay largely in 
its novelty, for it was a departure from the orthodox standard or 
periodic sentence of which the lighter Elizabethan world had 
grown weary. It inculcated the graces of literary form by ex- 
ample, and the brilliant antithesis of MACAULAY displays in its 
perfected forms some of the characteristic traits of our Elizabethan 

A minute investigation of the inmost life of a literary epoch 
reveals the geminal or seminal forces whose matured vigor will 
be apparent in the following age. In the complex types of the 
Elizabethan time, may be discovered the dim beginnings of every 
succeeding development of our language and our literature. The 
philosophic student of our linguistic growth will encounter no 
difficulty in recognizing in the much travestied Euphuism of 
Elizabethan times, the prelude to the antithesis of MACAULAY. 
The fascination of his diction is the wonder and the despair of 
his imitators. It is a concrete illustration of Quintilian's ideal 
literary artist, he who not only writes so that he may be under- 
stood, but that he cannot be misunderstood. The lucidity of 
his language is one of the principal sources of his power. The 
mind in its habitual state averse from continuous or prolonged 
tension, is taken captive by the cadence of his periods and the 
judgment yields an almost unconscious assent to his bold 
generalizations and graphic delineations, however they may 
conflict with inherited prejudices or transmitted opinions. The 
investigation of his language would prove an attractive study to 
the critic who approaches it from the stand-point of musical 

1887.] Henry E. Shepherd, 235 

harmony. It was no native sensibility that quickened the ex- 
quisite melody of his phrases. 

That English is marred by an exuberance of cacophony is a 
truth of which every teacher of the delicate art of composition 
is painfully conscious. So notable a feature of our tongue is 
cacophony, that a truly melodious diction is rare of attainment. 
It is one of the merits of MACAULAY to have shaped out of 
contending forces, in a season of linguistic transition when 
revolt was assailing artistic principles and unfaltering confidence, 
in the stimulus of inspiration was superseding the painful pro- 
cesses, and the fastdious diligence of POPE and ADDISON, a 
style in which are fused by a happy process of synthesis th 
distinctive charm and the distinctive strength of two great 
epochs in our literary history. The rich development of prose 
poetry that followed in the wake of the Georgian era in no 
measure disturbed the symmetry of his style or marred the 
purity of his diction. The artist reigned supreme, however 
much of his golden coloring may have been reflected like some 
after-glow from the splendor of the preceding day. No trust in 
the '"spontaneous," no theory of inspiration quickening latent 
energy into dynamic force, modified that affectionate assiduity 
or abated that painful concentration by which he developed 
those prose harmonies that have become wrought into the 
texture and essence of our language. 

Among writers of prose, MACAULAY'S position is similar to 
that of TENNYSON among masters of verse. In each the artistic 
nature is the controlling power, but the fastidious mechanism of 
the Laureate was elaborated amid the cold and sedate environ- 
ment of the Victorian day, that of MACAULAY was at least 
quickened amid the glow and passion of the Georgian era. In 
the earlier works, his characteristic style is distinctly formed, and 
in the history of his literary evolution we have a refutation 
of that criticism which deals with so delicate a product of 
genius as literary form, as if i^ were regulated by arbitrary rule 
or determined by established convention. The harmony of his 
diction is distinctly foreshadowed in the rathe efforts of the 
Cambridge undergraduate, whence it expounds and develops 
until it ripens into the flower of perfect art in the serene 
splendor of his matured greatness. The moral law of art, the 
creed of literary purity, has rarely been maintained with 
more devoted faithfulness by any historian of any age. Upon 

236 Lord Macaulay's English. [Vol. in. 

this, rests his assured claim to perpetual remembrance. It is a 
cause of regret that the complex environment, the severe 
nervous tension, and paradoxical as it may seem, the wide em- 
bracing instrumentalities of common school machinery, should 
seriously disturb the conditions essential to the higher mode of 
literary culture. The inchoately formed mind, the typical pro- 
duct of the American school, is impatient of ideals and intolerant 
of idealists. SHAKESPEARE and BENJONSON were content with 
each others approbation and scorned the plaudits of the illiterate 
semi-savages for whose entertainment they wrote. The removes 
were vastly greater, Baconian philosophy, physical science, publ.'c 
school systems, all penetrating periodical literature, had not then 
leavened the whole lump and placed the idealist and the empiric, 
the scholar and the charlatan upon nearly coinciding planes in 
vulgar estimation. It "is the mob of gentlemen that read with 
ease," who disdain esoteric seclusion and shrink from mental 
effort' that regulate and. direct the tone and quality of modern 
literary production. Perhaps the saddest of all changes in our 
contemporary literature is the decadence of that scrupulous re- 
gard for structural beauty, the decline of aesthetic sensibility. 
The tendency has been marked since the death of MACAULAY, 
and we may assume the period introduced by the American Civil 
War, as a convenient terminus a quo from which to date its violent 
and stimulated action. IRVING and PRESCOTT, the first of whom 
reproduced the genial graces of ADDISON, the second of whom 
was our acknowledged chief in the art of historic composition, 
passed away the same year with MACAULAY, leaving no succes- 
sors in the charm of style, however much they may have been 
excelled in the technical elements of scientific accuracy and 
scholarly precision. 

Our modern school of philologists have, in disregard of 
literary form, sinned above all men that dwell upon the earth. 
The typical philologic style manifests that ripeness of corruption 
already referred to, which happily mocks at imitation, but retards 
the advance of philological acquisition by the uncouth .and for- 
bidding guise in which it is commended to us. When the fulness 
of decline shall have been attained and the reaction against 
literary licenes sets in, as set in it must, from sheer satiety if from 
no more exalted impulse, the chastness of MACAULAY'S English 
will be estimated by a generation to whom the spirit of rational 
appreciation has returned and from whom the demon of literary 

1887.] Henry E. Shepherd. 237 

impurity has been cast out. His true greatness may be in the 
future possibly in the remote future but of his abiding fame 
there is no ground of reasonable doubt. In the sphere of the 
intellectual as in the domain of the spiritual, the eternal verities 
must prevail, renown gendered by sciolism cannot withstand the 
scrutiny of the greatest of innovators. Our own age has well 
nigh forgotten the grand lesson of fidelity to truth as embodied in 
literary form, and that at a time when the vision of Verulam is 
passing from imagination into objectivity, and man " is taking 
all knowledge for his province." It is alleged by HARRIET 
MARTINEAU in her essay upon MACAULAY, that he was lacking 
in sensibility and deficient in every element of the pathetic. The 
charge is refuted by the whole tenor of his life, by his ''little un- 
remembered deeds of kindness and of love," by his "strong 
benevolence of soul," by the consecration of his energies to the 
welfare and happiness of others. 

I have endeavored to portray the literary character of LORD 
MACAULAY, to discover the sources of his strength, the secret 
springs of his power, and the grounds upon which his claim to 
immortality must rest : (a detailed presentation of any one of 
these phases of the subject would involve a more elaborate dis- 
cussion than is consistent with the rational limits of a mere essay). 
Most especially have I endeavored to inculcate the lesson taught 
by his life and enforced by his example, the lesson of faithfulness 
to literature as an art, the maintenance of its purity and its ideality 
above all considerations of expediency or material aggrandize- 
ment. That the lesson is one of supreme import to our genera- 
tion and to our contemporary literature, cannot be too earnestly 
insisted upon or too emphatically presented. Such a life as 
MACAULAY'S is given for our instruction, if we will but take heed, 
if we will no longer be content merely to reach "the limits of a 
vulgar fate," while literary art is sacrificed to profligacy and 
literary virtue is led astray by sensationalism. 

238 Albert H. Smyth, [Vol. in. 

XII. American Literature in the Class-room. 


The increased attention to the study of American Literature 
in our higher institutions, and the want of any good text-book 
to assist the teacher, seem to warrant the discussion here of the 
subject which I have ventured to bring before you, and which, 
I am well assured, holds a considerable place in the thought of 
many teachers of English. If there seem to be but little that is 
original in the following brief outline, and indeed much that is 
not new, it has nevertheless seemed to me worth while to 
emphasize the educational capabilities of our own literature and 
perhaps to suggest method in the study of it. It is certainly 
discreditable to us that we have done so little toward a faithful 
and affectionate study of what is purely native and national in 
our American writings. The text-books intended for use in our 
schools are, for the most part, sadly incapable. They are without 
critical ability, and are constructed usually upon the same pattern : 
a number of names of greater or less eminence in several 
departments of intellectual activity are set down in chronological 
order, with a few lines of biography concerning each. There is 
rarely any sense of proportion, the same space is given to a 
wretched poetaster like JAMES GATES PERCIVAL as to RALPH 
WALDO EMERSON. TYLOR'S ' History of American Literature 
is a permanent honor to American scholarship, a skilful and 
laborious examination of all the literary remains before 1765. 
PROFESSOR RICHARDSON'S unfinished 'American Literature' 
contains much that is interesting, but we still need for class use, 
a book from which teachers can teach, and from which students 
cannot ' cram.' 

Is it because it is so perilously modern that we shrink 
from making of our literature a theme for public instruction ? 
Is it because its language offers no peculiar attraction to the 
grammarian that certain learned and successful masters of 
English pronounce the subject to be "so unsatisfactory"? Or 
is it that our Literature is really so sterile and so empty of all 
stimulating thought and ideal interest that it need not enter 

1887.] American Literature^ 239 

seriously into the scheme of study of those even who have classes 
in eighteenth and nineteenth century English ? I fancy I see in 
the opposition where it exists, to the introduction into our 
old schools and colleges of the literature of America, the 
misconception of the aim and character of literary study. 
When one of the most scholarly of English statesmen and a 
profound student of history and literature, said to me recently 
that the expansion of English in the school and college curriculum 
had proved a failure, and that a return to the classics could alone 
save education from declining into mere information, his reason 
was not far to seek : the language in which the greatest literature 
of the world is contained does not offer stubborn enough resistance 
to the student to develop and discipline his mental fibre, and it 
was impossible for the scholar I have quoted to conceive of 
literature as a study apart from language. It seemed like a 
confession of a similiar view when a grammarian was recently 
elected to the Merton Professorship of English Language and 
Literature in Oxford, and it will be remembered that PROFESSOR 
FREEMAN in his defense of the electors clearly and candidly 
expressed his inability to see in Literature a distinct field of study. 
MR. CHURTON COLLINS in the Nineteenth Century for Novem- 
ber, 1887, accepted the challenge of the historian and answered 
in the affirmative, positively and intelligently, the question "Can 
English Literature be taught?" We have problems enough in 
the progress of a nation's thought and literary style to occupy 
the time of the college class-room and the University Seminary 
without importing others from philology which can be solved 
only by far different instruments. Literature can -by no possi- 
bility render its highest service to the cause of education until it 
has been divorced from philology. The seminary of the latter 
must be distinct from that of the former, for the mental equipment 
of a critic of literature is distinct from that of a student of 
language and cannot be obtained by the same processes. The 
ability to exhibit the process of the English drama as an evolution, 
or to trace the influence of the romantic revival in England upon 
Transcendentalism in New England is one thing, and gives to 
the investigator no peculiar right or power to trespass upon 
philological preserves. Anyone who has mingled much with 
young students whose enthusiasm for the great things of literature 
has been kindled, cannot fail to have seen, and with distress, 
that many enter our Universities every year only to suffer dis- 

240 Albert H. Smyth, [Vol. in. 

comfort while there, and to leave with their hopes all unsatisfied. 
The principles that underlie modern literary criticism are not 
taught, because the time, in an over-burdened department will 
not permit. The thought and style of the most conspicuous 
and far-shining men -of-letters are subordinated in the class-room 
to the minute niceties of the language in which they wrote. In 
nearly every case where a student of strong natural ability is 
constrained to the simultaneous study of both philology and 
literature he will either love the one and hate the other, or hold 
to the one and despise the other. American Literature may be 
therefore highly serviceable in education because it admits of a 
complete severance of literature from philology. 

The study of American Literature in ^>ur higher institutions 
would ultimately assist in the development of that literature, and 
would discipline in it the critical faculty. In the splendid pro- 
gress of English criticism in the past twenty years America 
has not participated. SYMONDS'S 'Predecessors of Shakspere,' 
SAINTSBURY'S explorations into Elizabethan literature, GOSSE'S 
studies in the transition-time from romantic to classical poetry in 
the late seventeenth century, take rank as creative work of no 
mean order. We are poorest of all in criticism. TUCKERMAN 
pleased us and we are content with WHIPPLE ! When we think 
of the high service that trained and faithful interpreters of poetry 
render to a nation, it will be hard' for us to over-rate the good 
results that might follow the extension of the English curriculum 
to include the genesis and brief history of American authorship. 
It is our precious property to hold the literature of our nation true 
to the higher ideals of life and its purpose. We may quicken a 
consciousness of the needs of that literature, and a devotion to it. 
We may re-awaken the old sentiments and aspirations that clung 
round the literature of the first half of the century, when the 
"coursers of the sun were just bounding from the Orient unbreath- 
ed," when the greatness of America was not her vast territory and 
boundless wealth, but when men would rather that America 
should beg her way along the highways of the nations and 
love the great invisible ideas of courage, patriotism, humanity ! 
Such efforts in the class-room by men zealous for 'the giant things 
to come at large/ may yet avert from our literature a threatened 
second period of conscious dependence upon foreign models. 

Again : the mutual action and reaction of the English and 
American Literatures from the beginning of the latter, make of 

1887.] American Literature. 241 

our Literature a highly interesting and important study. The 
English teacher, who, by happy circumstance, pushes his class- 
work into the recent centuries finds in both prose and poetry new 
thoughts created, and new ideals animated by the emergence of 
a new continent beyond the seas. The "still-vex'd Bermoothes," 
and "Virginia, Earth's only Paradise" became familiar to the 
frequenters of the great theatre of the Elizabethans. MICHAEL 
DRAYTON bade the knights-errant of the ocean hail, and pre- 
dicted of the new land that 

"As there plenty grows 
Of laurel everywhere, 
Apollo's sacred tree 
You, it may see, 
A poet's brows 
To crown, that may sing there." 

If there was a reflex influence upon England exerted by the 
discovery of the American continent, there was a much more in- 
teresting result attained by the growth of a transplanted scion of 
the Elizabethan stock in new surroundings and under novel con- 
ditions. Our first century is the story of dependence upon 
England. Our earliest poets, like BARLOW, FRENEAU, TRUM- 
BULL and HOPKINSON, had no idea of instituting a literature in 
any respect different from that in which they had been born and 
taught : 

"They stole Englishmen's books, and thought Englishmen's thought, 
With English salt on her tail, our wild eagle was caught." 

The study of our literature ought not to be begun, therefore, 
until the student has made some progress in English literature 
in its two important phases of Elizabeth and Anne. Our 
earliest prose continues the former, our first poetry reflects the 
latter. We must know ' Hudibras ' to know ' McFingal/ as we 
must remember SWIFT to understand ' Peter Porcupine.' It 
became necessary for me, two years ago, to prepare a course of 
study in American Literature for pupils in the highest grade of 
our public school system. I could find no assistance anywhere, 
not so much as a hint ; the oracles were dumb. The plans which 
I elaborated, experimented with, and abandoned as unsatisfactory 
were quite as many as the deserted chambers of DR. HOLMES'S 
mature Nautilus. My first surrender was of the entire first 
century, whose literary product I quickly found had no place 
in primary instruction. I then reorganized my class-work so 

242 Albert H. Smyth, [Vol. ill. 

that it might begin with BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, but I still found 
such slow and wearisome progress, and such pinched and meagre 
results, that I was glad to take the advice of MR. GOSSE and 
omit entirely the prosy group of minor writers who fill up the 
greater part of the eighteenth century. Unless the class is at 
the same time occupied with American history, in which event 
some consideration of the orators and statesmen of the Revolu- 
tion would be proper and profitable, it is, to my mind, best to 
begin the instruction in our literature with WASHINGTON 
IRVING. In 1807 FISHER AMES had declared it impossible for 
the American people ever to have a literature. The second year 
following began the refutation of Ames's assertion, a refutation 
triumphantly complete throughout the cefltury 1809 is the ever 
memorable date of the 'History of New York;' 1817 is 
similarly the first date in our true American poetry. It marks 
the appearance of Thanatopsis in the North American Review. 

The object of literary studies in the lower schools should be 
to kindle the imagination, form the taste, and train the judgment. 
The work of the High School teacher is well done if he begets 
in his students a love for literature, and, in some degree, imparts 
to them the power of distinguishing between good and bad in 
literary form. The college professor receives from him a pupil 
who has read intelligently, and with eager interest, the best 
utterances of the American mind in the nineteenth century, and 
in whom there is firmly lodged an understanding of the essential 
fact, that American Literature is a continuation of English 
Literature, and that, when best and proudest, it is true to the 
great tradition of English thought and English style. 

The first period of our history from the earliest colony until 
1760, furnishes abundant task-work for the college student. It 
is a study of slow variations from the original type. It is in- 
teresting as the period of Origins : interesting, too, on the 
historical side, as illustrating character. It is a common error 
to suppose that the minds of the grim Puritans of Massachusetts 
Bay were as bare of all imagination as their meeting-house of 
ornament. It was, indeed, an age of prose. The colonists had 
no notion of the possibilities of romance about them. But be- 
neath the grave and stern decorum of the countenance they 
wore, there lay the restless current of ambitious intellect. 

JOHN HARVARD was not the only Puritan who had 'walked 
the studious cloisters pale/ nor MILTON the only one who dared 

1887.] American Literature. 243 

praise a living play-wright and live forever with the great im- 
aginings of Shakespeare. There was never a better opportunity 
to study the growth of a national literature. Plymouth, Rhode 
Island, Maryland, the Carolinas, New York, a half score of col- 
onies, were planted on the Atlantic coast between 1607, when 
the Cavaliers found lodgment in Jamestown, and 1682, when this 
fair state arose, the handiwork of the Quaker aristocrat, the 
protege" of royalty, who came from a very nest of literature, near 
the quiet spot where the greatest of the Puritans wrote those 
minor poems which are his major poems, near the grave of 
WALLER and the home of BURKE, by the country church-yard 
where the undying ' elegy ' first breathed its marvellous notes. 
The different conditions and characters of these colonies would 
be the first theme for college study. Each held some one of the 
elements, that, perfected in retirement, were destined to combine 
and crown a new literature. For a century there was little in- 
tercourse between the colonists. The Cavalier built up his 
squirearchy in Virginia. The meeting-house became the centre 
of New England culture. There is a long, interesting, and most 
instructive series of changes through which English literary 
style passed in these isolated colonies, in the first hundred years, 
until the stress of political necessity translated the colonies into 
states, and a national accent was distinctly heard among the 
various voices of Cavalier, and Puritan, Quaker, Huguenot, 
and Catholic. The evolution is complete, all the laws of literary 
growth have been illustrated. It is the most instructive chapter 
in all the great book of literary history. And best of all the 
original documents exist and the student may be set upon the 
track of them. It may be made a master-key to the science of 

Last of all, the profounder problems which should engage 
the University Seminary are not wanting. I have time to hint 
at but a few of them. The enormous influence exerted by the 
first colleges, notably Harvard, and William and Mary, and the 
foundation in which we are now assembled, established by the 
Philadelphia- Bostonian, our first cosmopolite. The new de- 
parture taken by political debate after the publication of COB- 
BETT'S Porcupine Gazette, in which the spirit of SWIFT stirred 
and spoke, for COBBETT had learned the bitter trick of invec- 
tive at home, in Farnham, within a stone's throw of SIR WILLIAM 
TEMPLE'S Moor Park where SWIFT lived in early years. French 

244 Albert H. Smyth. [Vol. in. 

liberalism introduced during the Revolution, wasting the bases 
of Puritanism, united with the new romantic poetry of England 
to form that curious feature in our literature which called itself 
Transcendentalism, and of which ' Brook-Farm ' and the ' Dial ' 
were interesting results. Biographical studies of such singular 
phenomena as THOREAU, and WHITMAN, and the history of 
the literary accomplishments of the Argonauts of '49, all 
present but the slightest suggestion of the work which would 
open up before the Seminary. 

In BRYANT, equally with WORDSWORTH, may be studied the 
new way of regarding Nature which belongs to the nineteenth 
century, and is so actual an addition to our emotions. I mean the 
passionate love and adoration with whicji men regarded lonely 
nature. In BRYANT'S later poems, too, as truly as in SHELLEY, 
is expressed the mutuality of man and nature, the one giving to 
and receiving from the other, the haunting consciousness that 
there is a power resident in nature that can restore our hearts. 
There is power for culture, and there are resources for education 
in the resplendent group of writers between 1830 and 1860. 
And they can be studied by us in a profounder sense than by 
any other people, even by our nearest kindred. I will not 
speak of HAWTHORNE, that exquisite flowering into the finest 
art of all that was weird and romantic in the superstitions of 
Puritanism, who can perhaps be thoroughly appreciated only 
by a New Englander : I will speak of EMERSON. 

English scholars have, of late, labored mightily to account for 
the personality of EMERSON, and to fasten upon him a critical 
label. There can be no more conclusive proof that the guardian- 
ship and direction of the noble American literature that is to be, 
must rest mainly with American critics educated in our own 
schools, than the complete failure of the two most learned and 
skilful Englishmen, MATTHEW ARNOLD and JOHN MORLEY, to 
comprehend the place of EMERSON in American letters. He is 
worth more to us as an educational force than any modern 
European writer. Every book and lecture that emanated from 
his tranquil Concord home was a rebuke to our selfish material- 
ism, summoning us back to legitimate pieties and purity of 
thought. But the great service of EMERSON to the ethics and 
intellect of America will not be complete until the literature he 
loved, and of whose future he had such prophetic glimpses and 
such unshaken hope, will be a power for culture in our schools, 
our colleges, and our University Seminaries, and then, too, we 
may expect the coming of the ideal national literature which 
LONGFELLOW foreshadowed in Kavanagh forty years ago. 



Proceedings at Philadelphia, Dec. 28, 29,30, 

| 1887. 





Modern Language Association of America. 

The Fifth Annual Convention of THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSO- 
CIATION OF AMERICA was held at the University of Pennsylvania 
(Philadelphia) on December 28, 29 and 30, 1887. On Tuesday, 
December 27th, many of the delegates arrived in the City and met 
in the evening, in response to a cordial invitation noted on the pro- 
gramme, at the house of DR. WILLIAM PEPPER, Provost of the Uni- 
versity, where they had the pleasure of making the acquaintance of a 
large number of invited guests representing both the professional 
and commercial interests of Philadelphia. Many of the officers, 
furthermore, of colleges in the immediate vicinity of the city, such as 
Haverford, Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore, were also present and 
extended a warm welcome to the strangers. Arrangements having 
been previously made by the Local Committee for visiting, on 
December 28th, the institutions just mentioned, a goodly number of 
the delegates embraced the opportunity to see Bryn Mawr and 
Haverford in the afternoon, the weather in the forenoon being so un- 
favorable as to preclude an excursion to Swarthmore, much to the 
regret of many members of the Association who had hoped to join in 
this pleasure. In the evening, at 8.20 o'clock, the first session of the 
Convention was called to order in the absence of the President, 
(University of Virginia) who said : The Modern Language Associa- 
tion of America will now come to order and begin its Fifth Annual 
Convention. I have the honor of introducing DR. WILLIAM PEPPER, 
Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, who will give us an Ad- 
dress of Welcome.* 

After this Address was finished the Chairman made the following 
remarks : It is a matter of regret that the President of the Associa- 
tion, PROFESSOR JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL of Harvard University, is 
not here to respond in fitting terms to this kind welcome. The first 
Vice-president, PROFESSOR W. T. HEWETT of Cornell University, is 
absent in Europe, and therefore it devolves upon me to thank DR. 
PEPPER in the name of the Association for the words of welcome and 
the Icind greeting which he has extended to us. I doubt not from 
the traditional reputation of this city, that each member of the Asso- 

*See this Address in full, TRANSACTIONS, pp. 3-7. 

iv The Modern Language Association of America, 

ciation will receive a very warm reception, and will enjoy himself, in 
his brief stay here, to the fullest extent. 

I have now the honor of introducing PROFESSOR JAMES MAC- 
ALISTER, Superintendent of the Public Schools of Philadelphia, who 
will address the Association on "The Place of Modern Literature in 
the Education of Our Time."* 

When this paper was finished the Chairman remarked : " 

I thank PROFESSOR MACALISTER in the name of the Association for 
his eloquent and interesting address. I understand that REV. JOHN 
S. MACINTOSH, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, de- 
sires to make an announcement; 

DR. MACINTOSH, thereupon, made the following statement : "Some 
years ago I was called upon to preside at a meeting of a learned 
society on the other side of the water, where we had two such ad- 
dresses as we have heard -to-night such an^ address as my friend 
PROVOST PEPPER always gives, kindly, generous and graceful, and a 
lecture such as my thoughtful and busy friend PROFESSOR MAC- 
ALISTER is very able to make. After having had two such addresses, 
a true Hiberian got up and said : ' Now, Mr. Chairman, let us turn to 
the sinsible and practical part of the matter.' It is my duty to make 
one or two practical statements about the arrangements which we 
have made with the view of carrying forward the interesting and in- 
structive services of the Association proper, and of opening to the 
friends who have come to our city, the various places of interest 
which they may see and visit. In the name of our city and 
of the various institutions, associations and public buildings to 
which I shall presently refer and which are now thrown open to 
you, I have to say that you are assured a cordial welcome wherever 
you may go and that you will doubtless find features of variety that 
will form for you a relief and an invigorating distraction when you 
pass out from the more sober and solid discussions of the various 
sessions of your own proper body. 

For the information of our friends who are not members of the 
Association, I will say that the morning sessions begin at 9-30 and 
the afternoon sessions at 2-30. I am desired to say that these meet- 
ings are open to the general public, and those who interest themselves 
in the literary and linguistic studies of the modern period are cordially 
invited to attend the sessions of the Association. 

On the part of the local committee of arrangements, I have to 
state that the institutions mentioned in the programme are open to 
the members and friends of the Association.! The Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb should be added to that list. I 
have just received a communication from the Art Club of Philadel- 
phia, stating that it will be happy to have a visit from the members 
of the Modern Language Association, resident and non-resident, at 
its new club house to view the paintings now on exhibition. You 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS, pp. 6-16, for this paper. 
fSee Programme in full, Appendix i, at the end of this volume. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. v 

will find cards of admission at Parlor 104 of the Lafayette Hotel, to- 
morrow morning. I am however desired to state that any member 
announcing himself as such, will be admitted without a ticket. 

Now, Sir, this ordinary part of our proceedings may come to a 
close. I hope that I may be permitted to say that if there be any- 
thing in the power of the Local Committee or of its members which 
they can do to render the stay of the members in our city, agreeable, 
they will do it. 

I have also to announce that after these proceedings come to a 
close, a reception to the members of the Association and their friends 
will be held and all are cordially invited to remain. 

The Chairman then responded that he was sure we should all take 
great pleasure in accepting DR. MACINTOSH'S kind invitation and 
forthwith declared the Association adjourned to meet the next morn- 
ing according to announcement on the Programme (9.30 A. M.). The 
remainder of the evening was spent in social intercourse in the Uni- 
versity building where a delightful supper had been prepared for the 
refreshment of all those attending the meeting. 

The Second Session, on December 29th, was called to order at 10 
A. M. by VICE-PRESIDENT GARNETT and the reading of reports was 
immediately taken up. The Secretary, PROF. A. M. ELLIOTT 
(Johns Hopkins University), presented a brief statement of the pro- 
ceedings of the Fourth Annual Convention, held in Baltimore on 
December 28, 29, and 30, 1886, and then made the following remarks: 
Our membership has been gradually increasing since the last 
Convention. The rules with reference to admission have been more 
strictly enforced during the past year than ever before. We find a 
large number of professors in different parts of the country desiring 
admission to the Association and we now number about two hundred 
and fifty members. With reference to the publications of the 
Association, I would state that the members have received the 
TRANSACTIONS and the PROCEEDINGS of last year, which we con- 
cluded to print in one volume. Previously to this we had published 
separately the PROCEEDINGS which contained an outline of the papers 
with the discussions, etc., while the papers themselves were after- 
ward printed in full in the TRANSACTIONS. By publishing the two 
together we could leave out the abstracts and thus the cost of the 
printing was reduced. Besides the TRANSACTIONS and the PROCEED- 
INGS, we have issued Number iv. of the Modern Language Series : 
" Position of Modern Languages in the Higher Education," by PROF. 
EDWARD S. JOYNES (South Carolina College). This paper was con- 
sidered by the Editorial Committee to be one of great interest at our 
present stage of development. ^lt was read in 1876 and the Com- 
mittee thought it advisible to publish the essay under the auspices of 
the Association in order to show the striking difference between the 
position of Modern Languages in 1876 and in 1886 in our colleges. 
This is the only number that we have brought out in the Series this 

vi The Modern Language Association of America, 

year. As I stated at our last Convention, the necessity for this Series 
has been supplanted in a measure by private enterprise in the publi- 
cation of MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, which, when we entered on the 
publication of the Modern Language Series, did not exist. 

At our last meeting I was instructed to communicate with the 
German Modern Language Association which was formed a little 
more than one year ago at Hanover. A committee was appointed by 
the Baltimore Convention to draw up a Resolution containing our 
greetings to the sister organization ; this was adopted and I was re- 
quested to send it to the proper body in Germany. On the second 
day after the close of the meeting, this document was forwarded to 
PROFESSOR ADOLF EY, of Hanover, who was one of the most active 
workers in organizing the Hanover Convention. I was surprised to 
receive no direct answer to our communication, and when our TRANS- 
ACTIONS were printed I sent on a copy te the German Society. 
PROFESSOR EDWARD STENGEL (Marburg) then wrote to me that our 
Resolution had never been received and that nothing was known of 
it until the statement was seen in the TRANSACTIONS. I cannot say 
whether it went astray on this or on the other side of the Atlantic. 

There is another point that I wish to mention, namely, with 
reference to the formation of the Modern Language Association of 
Ontario, which had just constituted itself into an organized body, at 
the University of Toronto, when our last Conference met. To the 
sister organization we sent a telegram of sympathy and congratu- 
lation and I received a telegram in reply immediately after the close 
of our Baltimore Convention. I have the gratifying privilege of further 
announcing that this Canadian Association is now holding its Second 
Convention at the same place as last year and I have had the pro- 
gramme of their meeting placed on the bulletin board so that you 
may see what they are doing to-day. 

The next business was the reading of the Treasurer's Report; 
which was received and referred to an auditing committee consisting 
of PROFESSORS C. E. HART (Rutgers College) and H. A. RENNERT 
(University of Penn.). 


Cash on hand January i, 1887 $171.82 

Receipts for 1887 513-35 

Total $685. 17 

Expenditures 508.30 

Balance on hand Jan. i, 1888 $176.87 

On motion, the following committee was then appointed to suggest 
names of officers for the Association during the ensuing year: PRO- 
FESSORS H. C. G. VON JAGEMANN (Indiana University), EDWARD S. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. vii 

JOYNES (South Carolina College), ALCEE FORTIER (Tulane Universi- 
ty), W. L. MONTAGUE (Amherst College), C. SPRAGUE SMITH 
(Columbia College), A. H. TOLMAN (Ripon College), O. SEIDEN- 
STICKER (University of Pennsylvania), J. J. STURZINGER (Bryn Mawr 
College). , 

PROFESSOR J. M. HART (University of Cincinnati), then made the 
following remarks : I have been asked to introduce a motion for 
the appointment of a committee to advocate the repeal of the present 
duty on the importation of books. This is a matter in which I have 
long been interested and I should be glad to have the sanction of the 
Association given in favor of the repeal of the duty on all books. I 
believe that steps have been taken toward this end in at least one 
of our colleges, Vanderbilt University, and I think that similar 
measures have been adopted in Yale University. I feel that the 
sanction of this Association would add a good deal of weight to the 
movement which, I apprehend, all of us have been carrying on indi- 
vidually to a greater or less extent ; namely, trying to bring about a 
repeal of this tariff. I fancy that perhaps every member present has 
suffered directly, pecuniarily from this tariff and I believe that every 
one would be heartily rejoiced to see it effaced. We know how they 
regard it abroad; they look upon it as something cruel, a positive 
blot upon the civilization of America. We all ought to do everything 
in our power to remove this. I think that we import physiear^feod 
free of duty, and I do not see why America cannot also import 
spiritual food free of duty. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I am heartily in sympathy with the last 
speaker and I think that it would be well for the Association to take 
action on this matter. It seems to me that it is the duty and the 
privilege of this Association to cast its influence in favor of every 
good movement brought before it. I agree with the speaker that it 
is a shame that a duty should be levied upon the publications of 
foreign countries. 

PROFESSOR O. SEIDENSTICKER (University of Pennsylvania): I 
should like to ask the gentleman who offers this motion, whether he 
proposes the abolition of the duty on all books or only on those 
books printed in languages other than the English ? I suppose that all 
are well aware what tremendous opposition would be made by book- 
sellers in this country if the duty on English books were abolished. 
If we should limit our objection to the duty on foreign books printed 
in foreign languages, it would not meet with the same degree of op- 
position on the part of an influential party. 

PROFESSOR HART : I always go on the theory that ' half a loaf is 
better than no bread.' If I could not get all books free, I should be 
willing to compromise ; I do not see, however, why this Association 
should draw a line in favor of French, German, Italian, Spanish 
Chinese and Japanese as against our mother tongue. lam not pre- 
pared to admit that English books should be discriminated against 
any more than German or French. I happen to get more books in 

viii The Modern Language Association of America, 

the German language than in any other, but I do not see why we 
should not import such works as SYMONDS on the ' Predecessors of 
Shakespeare in the English Drama,' English works of history, chem- 
istry, mathematics and biology free of duty quite as much as the pub- 
lications in any other language. Of course we are at the mercy of 
Congress and if the manufacturers will give us all books but those in 
the English language free of duty we had better take them. We 
should, however, try for all that is possible. I have heard some ad- 
vocate the abolition of the duty on scientific books, but how are we 
to draw the line between what is scientific and what is not ? Who is to 
judge whether a particular book, say on the history of literature, is 
popular or scientific? Why should a book on German literature pub- 
lished in the English language be taxed 25$ while the same book 
published in another language is imported duty-free ? Why should 
Americans tax their own language and not that of others ? 

Several years ago, I asked MR. ROBERT CLARKE, a large bookseller 
of Cincinnati, what he considered to be the Aief cause of objection to 
the repeal of the duty on books. He thought that the opposition 
came chiefly from the manufacturers of illustrated children's books 
in this country. There is competition in this class of books. People 
buy these books by the looks of the cover rather than by the con- 
tents. In books there can be no direct competition. It does not fol- 
low because a French book is worth one dollar and an American book 
is worth one dollar and a quarter, that the French book will be 
bought in preference to the American. It seems to me that we can 
state this as a fact that there never can be any direct competition in 
books. Like other members of this Association, I have written books, 
and I can say that none of my books come into direct competition 
with any other book. The one may be better or worse than the 
other, but there is no direct competition. We should use all efforts 
to make books cheap. We have to pay out money for books, and 
the more we have to pay out, the harder it is for us to write our own 

PROFESSOR PAUL F. ROHRBACHER (Western University of Penna.) : 
I beg leave to differ from the assumption of the last speake^that 
English is the mother-tongue. It is not mine and we in Pennsylvania 
have as much right to claim German as our mother-tongue as English. 
It is spoken extensively in this state. I however heartily concur in 
the motion that works in all foreign languages, especially in German 
and French, 'should be admitted duty-free. I do not believe that 
England is the mother-country ; all Europe was the mother country 
and all the prominent languages, especially French and German, are 
mother-tongues. I hope that any movement made in this direction 
will include German and French. 

THE CHAIRMAN : It has been moved and seconded that a com- 
mittee be appointed to memorialize Congress to repeal the duty on 
books, and if we cannot get the duty off all books, at least off those 
published in languages other than the English. I think with respect 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, i88j. ix 

to this matter that it would be desirable if the committee, or as many 
of it as could do so, should go to Washington and lay the matter 
before the Committee of Ways and Means in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. I have had some experience in memorializing Congress. 
I have drawn up one myself and I have signed others, but I find that 
they do no good. If the Committee personally presents the views of 
this Association before the Committee of Ways and Means, it may 
have more effect. 

The question being on the adoption of the above motion, it was 
adopted, and the following committee named by the Chair : PRO- 
FESSORS J. M. HART (University of Cincinnati), WM. H. PURNELL 
(Frederick, Md.), H. S. WHITE (Cornell University), TH. W. HUNT 
(Princeton College), and HENRY R. LANG (New Bedford, Mass). 

PROFESSOR HART: I should rather be allowed to serve on the 
Committee without being its Chairman, especially if part of the duty 
is to go to Washington. It would be impossible for me to do this as 
I shall have to be in Cincinnati on the second of January. 

THE CHAIRMAN : That was simply a suggestion of my own; it is 
not incorporated in the origininal Resolution. 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University) : I have a 
resolution to offer which is not a repetition of anything that we have 
had. It is uniformly a mark of growth in an organization of this kind 
that certain phases of its activity organize within the organization at 
large. A number of members of this Association have been consult- 
ing with each other with regard to the possibility of organizing within 
this Association a branch, or a circle as it might be called, which 
shall represent the efforts especially directed to the study of phonetics. 
The study of phonetics is inseparable with the work of us all and yet 
it is a phase of the general subject of philology which, in its more 
exact details, is best relegated to specialists in the department of 
phonetics itself. Such branches, such wheels within wheels, are 
known to us in the Associations of other countries and I should like 
to test the feeling of the Association in this matter by offering as a 
motion that a committee be appointed by the Chair to consider the 
advisability of organizing a phonetic circle or section in this Associa- 
tion. The question being on the above motion, it was adopted, and 
the following committee appointed : PROFESSOR EDWARD S. SHEL- 
DON (Harvard University), DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins 
University), PROFESSORS HERMANN COLLITZ (Bryn Mawr College), 
SYLVESTER PRIMER (College of Charleston), GUSTAF KARSTEN (Indi- 
ana University), H. C. G. BRANDT (Hamilton College), H. C. G. VON 
JAGEMANN (Indiana University). 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University) : I recall the delay 
at the last meeting of this Association in the matter of the selection of 
a place for the future meeting, and I think that it would expedite 
matters if the following Resolution could be adopted. Resolved that 
a committee consisting of the persons hereafter named, be appointed 

x The Modern Language Association of America, 

to recommend at the close of the sessions of the present Convention 
a choice of place at which the next annual meeting of this Association 
may be held. I would suggest as the members of that committee the 
following: PROFESSORS J. M. HART (University of Cincinnati), A. 
(Tulane University), H. C. G. VON JAGEMANN (Indiana University), 
J. M. GARNETT (University of Virginia), TH. W. HUNT (Princeton 
College), and A. H. TOLMAN (Ripon College). 

The Resolution was adopted and the aforesaid gentlemen ap- 
pointed accordingly. 

PROFESSOR JNO. G. R. MCELROY (University of Penna.): I wish 
to state, Mr. President, on behalf of the University, that all the build- 
ings of the University are open to the members of this Association 
during their stay in the city. Upon this piece of ground enclosed by 
the same fence, are the medical quarters immediately to the west of 
this building where we now are, the dental school to the south-west. 
To the south is the hospital which will well repay a visit. At the 
corner of Pine and Thirty-sixth streets is the veterinary school, some- 
thing quite new in America, although not the only one. On Spruce 
street beyond thirty-seventh, is the biological school. All these 
buildings and any others belonging to the University will be open, 
and it is hoped that the members will find an opportunity to visit 
them. Now, Mr. President, I wish to make a motion that the dis- 
cussions upon the different papers read before this Convention, be 
limited, at any one time, to ten minutes for the member opening the 
debate and to five minutes each for the following speakers. Adopted. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I am requested to announce that when the 
Association adjourns at i o'clock, the members will find luncheon, in 
the hall which has been provided by our friends of the University. 
We shall now proceed to the reading of papers, and, as the programme 
is a long one, I would remind the members that the part of each paper 
to be read is restricted to thirty minutes. 

The first communication presented was by PROFESSOR A. H. TOL- 
MAN (Ripon College) : 

i. The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry* 

Discussion. DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University) : 
I am sorry that this important paper has necessarily been abridged 
in the reading. There are portions of the subject which have not 
been made as clear in the presentation as I know them to be in the 
paper itself. This is an eminently important paper. There is an 
advantage in considering a subject historically ; as we go back we get 
conditions of civilization and society which are simpler than those 
which now exist. This is particularly true in art and in literary 
composition. In the Anglo-Saxon, we have the new rhetoric, or 
rather the germs of modern rhetoric. When the aesthetics and the 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xi 

art of Anglo-Saxon literature is made clear, then we shall possibly 
have a true and simple basis for the further development of what we 
usually sum up under the head of rhetoric. We there get a simple 
language, but there is sufficient elasticity in its art-forms to reward the 
closest study. 

I quite agree with the writer in not committing himself to any 
necessary and fixed relation between meter and style. I think that 
PROFESSOR TOLMAN is quite right in thinking that the exact adjust- 
ment of the mutual influence of the one upon the other is not even a 
theoretic possibility. 

In the first division of the paper I should like to have heard a 
reference to the later theories on the structure of Anglo-Saxon verse, 
particularly to the doctrine advanced by SIEVERS. In the latter, I 
think we have the beginning of what will ultimately prove to be the 
true solution of the English metric art. He turns away from the 
theories of earlier scholars, which were based on the hypothesis that 
the word in isolation, must be studed as the primary unit in verse. 
The new theory is that words owe their stress to the conditions of 
their use. We join hands with the theory of stress-groups. We speak 
not in words but in groups of words. This gives us the true metrical 
structure. I should like to have seen this theory incorporated for it 
is by making use of these results that we are coming to a proper 
understanding of modern versification. 

There are some details to which I should like to refer if there were 
time. Classical and mediaeval poetry has received no consideration 
from PROFESSOR TOLMAN. How much he has learned from a study 
of mediaeval poetry is not stated. 

Another topic which I think is omitted, although it is stated nega- 
tively, is in regard to the effect of Christianity on this early poetry. 
There should be a heading "The result of Christianity ; " and a dis- 
tinction made between the Pre-Germanic and what was afterwards the 
Anglo-Saxon condition of things. The Anglo-Saxon had undergone 
definite preparation, and perpetuated the commitatus as modified by 
Christian influences. When the mind and the heart became recep- 
tive to the Lord and his disciples a modified body of thought filled the 
new poetry. 

The disciples are now war-like heroes fighting for their Lord. In 
'Exodus,' where the children of Israel are looking forward to the 
promised land, they also look forward to the beer-halls of the new 
country. The Christian lesson is accomodated to the old phrase. 
This point would be well worthy of discussion in this paper. 

I am glad that emphasis has been given to the fact that parellelism 
is not a " principle ', in Anglo-Saxon poetry." 

PROFESSOR TH. W. HUNT (Princeton College) : It is not 
necessary that we should define the term ' Style ' any further than it 
has already been defined. I understand it to mean a literary form in 
which thought is expressed. PROFESSOR TOLMAN has furnished us 
with a synopsis of his paper which shows that the paper is divided 

xii The Modern Language Association of America, 

into two sections, each consisting of three main parts, A, B and C ; 
and D, E and F. Beginning with the second section, I will say that I 
agree with the author. With reference to the ' idealization of the and common,' I should prefer some other word to sensual 
winch has come to mean immoral. Sensuous would be a better word. 
With regard to the seriousness of Anglo-Saxon poetry, we should 
make a distinction. Before the implantation of German Christianity 
through Romanism, the seriousness was not the result of Christianity. 
After the beginning of the Reformation in the sixteenth century, the 
seriousness was the direct result of Christianity. 

I cannot agree in any of the statements made with reference to 
the rhetorical structure. If we refer to the three great qualities of 
style : clearness, force and beauty, I hold that the Anglo-Saxon has 
but one, force. It is not direct, it is not concise, it is not clear. I do 
not see how directness and conciseness can be associated with discon- 
nectedness. What is said under the heading* B in regard to repeti- 
tion, is not in accord with what we understand as clearness of expres- 
sion and directness of address. I would confirm what PROFESSOR 
TOLMAN has said with reference to the tenderness of Anglo-Saxon 
poetry. This is somewhat remarkable when taken in connection with 
what is sometimes almost in the form of pagan vigor, anti-christian 
in one sense. 

PROFESSOR J. M. HART (University of Cincinnati) : There are one 
or two points brought out in the paper and in the discussion concern- 
ing which I may speak. I wonder very much how many those here 
present have gone over carefully from top to bottom every page of 
SIEVERS' work. For myself, I can say that I have read every line of 
SIEVERS. Possibly DR. BRIGHT has. I do say that until that is done, 
and until every one of us has read every line of Anglo-Saxon poetry 
according to SIEVERS' scale of a, b, c, d, e, we are not in a position to 
judge of the effect of Anglo-Saxon poetry on the mind through the 
ear. I was brought up on GRIMM himself, but I never succeeded in 
scanning fifty consecutive lines. It was . all higgledy-piggledy. I 
think that now I can read any line and understand what its movement 
is. Until we have done this, to us Anglo-Saxon poetry, old German 
poetry and Icelandic poetry will be something that we shall have to 
go all over again. 

With regard to style, I' partly agree and partly disagree with what 
has been said. The only point that I have worked out is the ' Beo- 
wulf.' There the style is both simple and difficult. The trouble is in 
the meaning of the words. There are hundreds and hundreds of 
words used of which I do not know the meaning. Until we know the 
exact meaning of the words we should hold our opinions in abeyance. 
As regards the general style, I think that this is always simple. I do not 
think that it is always direct ; I do not believe that the style of any 
poetry is direct. All poetry is more or less indirect and visionary. 
The trouble with Anglo-Saxon poetry, not knowing very much of the 
early language, is to recognize what is visionary and what is matter 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xiii 

of fact. The best plan is to get at the matter of fact, mainly 
on the laws in the church documents, in the glossaries, in the 
translations of the various Latin works rendered in the eighth, 
ninth and tenth centuries. After we learn this we shall be prepared 
to state rather more confidently than we can now what is visionary. 

There are other points to which I should like to refer but I shall 
not detain the Association any longer. I only desire to bring out the 
necessity for finishing up our present studies first, and the necessity 
of reading every line of Anglo-Saxon poetry in accordance with 
SIEVERS' system. 

The next Paper was by PROFESSOR HORATIO S. WHITE (Cornell 

2. The Teaching of a Foreign Literature in Connection with the 
Seminary System* 

Discussion. DR. JULIUS GOEBEL (Johns Hopkins University). I 
should like to make a few remarks with reference to this excellent 
paper. I certainly think that some of the statements are not quite 
correct according to my own experience. I do not think that the 
study of Modern German literature is so much neglected as PRO- 
FESSOR WHITE would seem to imply. Take the University of Leipsic 
for instance, w'here PROFESSOR HILDEBRANDT occupies the chair of 
Modern German. Although his work is somewhat connected with 
the older dialects, his lectures are on Modern German, that is since 
the Reformation. 

I think that PROFESSOR WHITE'S recommendation of a seminary 
for work in the modern languages and modern literatures is very 
much in place and ought to be encouraged in our -country. We 
should ask ourselves why it is that in Germany instruction in the 
University seminary is largely confined to the older dialects. I think 
that the reason is found in the fact that those who are members of 
the seminaries expect to be professors and teachers of Middle High 
German, and in order to become teachers it is necessary for them to 
show a knowledge of German with reference to the older dialects. 

I would ask PROFESSOR WHITE if he thinks that any real work in 
Modern German literature is possible if the student has not an exact 
knowledge of grammar ? The author referred to a comparison with 
Old High German documents. I would ask if it is possible for a 
student who does not wish to speak in commonplaces, to read these 
documents, unless he has a thorough knowledge not only of Modern 
German but also of Old High German and Middle High German. 
I agree with PROFESSOR WHITE that Modern German literature and 
the literature of other modern languages should be studied, but 
I cannot agree with him in -the disregard of the exact study of the 
philological problems of the language, which are represented by the 
documents of these modern languages. It is impossible for one to do 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

xiv The Modern Language Association of America, 

good, thorough, scientific work unless he is able to read the docu- 
ments in the older dialects, and to read them as the philologist reads 
them and not as a dilettante. 

PROFESSOR HORATIO S. WHITE (Cornell University) : I was 
only referring to the German system as a system. My object was to 
point out that it is practically impossible in this country to go to the 
extent that they do in Germany. The number of students who wish 
a knowledge of the older dialects probably does not exceed one per 
cent of the whole number studying German. My object was not to 
disparage a study of these dialects, but to point out that as a practi- 
cal matter, we are unable to pay much attention to them and that 
the bulk of our work must be in connection with the modern litera- 
ture. The necessary mental training should be acquired in the first 
two years. For an examination of the older dialects, a study of 
grammar is essential. 

My object was not to criticise German teaching: but I think, as I 
have already said, that the preponderance of study and attention in 
the German Universities is given to the earlier dialects rather than to 
the later literature. I have made a careful study of the courses of 
studies in the German universities and have personally visited eight 
or ten of them for that purpose. My opinion is that in our own work 
for many years to come we must devote our attention to Modern 
German literature. 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University) : I think that 
PROFESSOR WHITE has struck the key-note in his remarks. We 
must remember that our institutions of higher education are not so 
clearly marked and separated as we hope them to be. Differences 
may arise in a discussion of this kind from some of the speakers 
having in mind university work, while others may have in mind col- 
lege work. I think that literature of whatever period can be best 
studied by having all the conveniences of the seminary, that is to say 
a complete apparatus and all the appointments of easy access ; the 
student being given a theme and allowed to work it out for himself. 
It will be a question what the seminary of the college shall be. It 
will be another question what the seminary of the university shall be. 
The seminary of the college will be limited in comparison with that 
of the university. Necessarily the scope of study in the college will 
be kept down to modern periods ; in English, not going beyond 
Chaucer ; and it will be engaged most effectively with the predecessors 
of Shakespeare and onwards, where there is no difficulty in getting 
at the sources without the requirements of a preliminary training. 
In the university all periods must receive equally thorough treatment; 
there complete and especial scholarship in philology will be indis- 

We should keep clearly in mind that different kinds of work are 
being done in the colleges ; first there is strictly college work ; then 
there is a sort of over-lapping with what is in its essence university 
work. We see teachers in these colleges doing what they can in the 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, i8Sj. xv 

way of university work ; others who are situated so as to do university 
work under still other conditions will have a different theory. Theo- 
ries constructed on so complicated a basis may differ and be equally 

PROFESSOR C. SPRAGUE SMITH (Columbia College) : I am glad 
that this subject has been brought up. My general impression is that 
we are in danger of concentrating our attention more on philology 
and of neglecting literature to a certain extent. I think that both are 
equally deserving and that both are necessary. I agree with what 
PROFESSOR WHITE says and what others have said with reference to 
his views, that comparatively little can be done in the college work. 
So far as the college course is concerned very little philological work 
of a high order can be done. The student in the college will be 
drilled in the grammatical forms of the language which he will soon 
forget after he leaves the college. 

I wish however to speak more with reference to the higher work. 
There is where the danger presents itself to my mind. It strikes me 
that the two subjects of study can be well cultivated side by side and 
that the higher study of literature, as a science, the investigation of 
its laws, the comparing of literature with literature and the presen- 
tation of the results as an inspiration to literary development in this 
country, can well be pursued in our higher institutions side by side 
with the philological study. The object of the higher study of litera- 
ture should be the development of a higher conception of what is 
excellent in literature. I think, therefore, that there can be and that 
there should be in the higher lines of university study, parallel courses. 
I might refer to an attempt which has been made in Columbia but 
which has been only partially successful, and which owes its partial 
failure to the practical tendencies of the age. The plan consists of 
parallel courses within the college, confined almost wholly to the 
study of grammar and to becoming familiar with the languages 
themselves, but leading up to the special studies of language and 
literature, to the special studies of the philologist, and then a com- 
parative study of philology and a comparative study of literature. 
We have not yet realized our hopes in this matter. 

PROFESSOR H. C. G. BRANDT (Hamilton College) : It seems to me 
that PROFESSOR WHITE, as well as those who have discussed this 
paper, have wandered from the subject. If PROFESSOR WHITE 
wanted to prove that the seminary system is a great agency in the 
study of modern literature, I think that his position is quite correct. 
I think that even in Germany the seminary is used for that purpose. 
I agree with DR. GOEBEL that it is used more than PROFESSOR WHITE 
would seem to admit. When I was on leave of absence for a year 
and a half, I saw three different universities. I know that when I 
was at Freiburg, PAUL lectured on Schiller five times a week. This 
was not merely for specialists, but also for the general students both 
in language and history. 

I think that PROFESSOR WHITE did not emphasize this point : that 

xvi The Modern Language Association of America, 

in the German university seminaries, work need not be done that we 
have to do, I am now speaking only of modern literature. I think 
that we should not discuss which is the more important, philology or 
modern literature. If you are going to study certain subjects, you 
have to study Middle High German. I think too, that if we are 
going to study modern literature we should drop entirely the older 
literature, or also study the older forms of the language. I do not 
see how it is possible to do anything else. PROFESSOR WHITE has 
stated that two years were sufficient for a preliminary training. I 
would ask the writer if he thinks two years sufficient in the casjg of a 
student who enters the college or university without any knowledge 
whatever of the language ? I do not think that it is possible. I have 
not found it possible in my experience. I am connected with a classical 
college where all the students have studied Greek and Latin. Starting 
with that preparation, I can take a good deal of syntactical work for 
granted. In my course of three years wh^p I come to read the 
harder German literature, as the second part of Faust, the harder 
parts of Schiller and Lessing, I find it easy. From my experience, I 
should say that two years of work are not sufficient to undertake such 
a course as PROFESSOR WHITE has outlined. 

PROFESSOR HENRY WOOD (Johns Hopkins University): With 
regard to the number of students who are members of the German 
seminary in Johns Hopkins University, I would state that the average 
for the past three years has been twelve. It is not uncommon to have 
an under-graduate student clever in German, desire to take up one 
of the courses in Middle High German in place of some other branch. 
There is another point and that is, it is my experience that when a 
student comes to the university with the object of studying literature 
rather than language, there comes about a change in his views, and 
in a period varying from a few weeks to a year, he would be the one 
to blame his instructor the hardest, if he had not been put upon a 
short allowance of literature and a long allowance of active work in 
language. In my opinion the seminary is nothing if not historical 
and accurate. If it can not be made historical and accurate, the 
question would possibly arise whether or not it should be called a 
seminary at all. I doubt whether an instructor would be justified in 
calling one or two hours general discussion, a seminary. It strikes 
me that the danger in America would be that the seminary might 
become too comparative. The writer mentioned among other things 
as possible subjects of comparison the Atala and Halacyn. I regard 
the Halacyn as largely an art production, only it is a question from 
what point of view it is an art production. We must be very cautious 
in comparisons of this sort, and how we put such material before our 
seminaries if we are going to expect the best results. 

PROFESSOR HORATIO S. WHITE (Cornell University) : I am glad to 
hear PROFESSOR BRANDT say that two years are not sufficient time 
for preliminary training. I said in my paper that it was the minimum 
time that would be needed. I am also glad to hear that there are 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xvii 

other courses in Modern German in the German universities, but I 
must maintain that the preponderance of attention is given to the 
older dialects. 

DR. JULIUS GOEBEL (Johns Hopkins University) ; I am in favor of 
the study of Modern German. I believe that any work in the older 
dialects without a foundation of Modern German' is absolutely worth- 
less. I think that a student who is not equal to reading difficult 
Modern German is certainly not fit to study the older forms of dia- 
lect. It seems to me that this is frequently overlooked, and it is 
thought that a person who has a reading knowledge in Modern Ger- 
man can, as a matter of course, read the older documents and the 
older dialects. This is a great mistake and shows an utter lack of 
philological knowledge. A student who wants to read Middle and 
Old High German must have a perfect knowledge of Modern Ger- 
man. I therefore agree with PROF. WHITE when he recommends for 
the college seminary the study of Modern German literature. 

PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT (Johns Hopkins University): 
There are one or two points to which I should like to refer. PRO- 
FESSOR WHITE mentioned the material to which the student should 
be referred, and I think that he has made an admirable classification. 
There is one point, however, and that is before the young man gets his 
material, he knows nothing of what has been clone. This presupposes 
that before the student is given his material, he should have a knowl- 
edge of what has been done in his subject. I think that if he has an 
intelligent acquaintance with the history and development of his 
department ; if he has a knowledge of the sources to which he shall 
go, and correct method, he will be able to fight his own battles. 

Another point which I desire to emphasize is with reference to the 
extended use of journals. PROFESSOR WHITE referred to this in a 
general way. These give great variety of thought and treatment on 
the subject taken up. Futhermore, in regard to the modern phase of 
linguistic research. I think that in America we have started some- 
what on a wrong track just as the Germans did. We need to pay 
more attention to the correlatives of speech and to the correlatives of 
literature. We need to know more of the strictly historical pro- 
cesses of speech in order to draw our conclusions with reference to 
that which does not fall directly within the historical period. A cer- 
tain professor in Switzerland has brought forward a plan for the study 
of modern dialects. In this plan the sludent studies the dialects 
around him. In America, we have our dialect-phases in every town. 
We have a mixture of English with other languages. From a lin- 
guistic point of view, we have the opportunity of studying the cor- 
relatives of speech side by side. Speech was always produced as it 
is to-day, and we need to study what we find about us, to study the 
spirit of speech-making. 

In connection with this interesting subject, I have great pleasure 
in calling your attention to a matter which has developed or, rather 
has started on a sudden development in Germany, where they have 

xviii The Modern Language Association of America, 

taken up this subject not only for Western speech, but also for the 
Oriental languages. I know that one or two of our members are 
thoroughly informed with regard to this movement. I should like to 
have the Chairman call on DR. CYRUS ABLER who is conversant with 
this subject, and who can give us some valuable information touching it. 

DR. ABLER (Johns Hopkins University), being called on by the 
President, made the following remarks on the study of Modern 
Oriental Languages : Modern Oriental languages have for some time 
been studied in Europe, especially in those countries which held 
close commercial and diplomatic relations with the East. England 
early provided for training in Modern Oriental languages to fit men 
for the India civil service ; instruction was given at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, and books were especially prepared for the officers and 
officials in India. Austria established the Imperial Oriental Acad- 
emy in 1754, and France founded the Ecole speciale des langues 
vivantes orientates at the end of the last ceiftury. Germany made a 
new departure in the same line in October 1887 by opening an 
Imperial Oriental Academy in which Arabian, Persian, Turkish, 
Chinese and Japanese are taught. The plan followed in this school 
is to have two teachers for each language, a European for theoretical 
instruction, and a native for practical exercises in conversation. The 
German school has proved a marked success. Already one hun- 
dred and fifty students have enrolled themselves chiefly army 
officers, business men and officers of the civil service. G'ermany was 
the last great European power to establish such a school probably 
because she had no very close connection with the East. German 
trade and diplomacy are both developing in that quarter, however, 
and the nation feels the need of having in its service men who are 
acquainted with the Eastern tongue. At the Johns Hopkins University 
the importance of Modern Oriental languages is fully recognized and 
efforts are being made to develop courses in Modern Arabic and 
Abyssinian dialects. From a purely philological point of view the 
study of Modern Oriental languages has much in its favor. Philolo- 
gists are beginning to recognize the fact that sound change in ancient 
languages can best be studied by first becoming familiar with the 
phonetic processes of living languages. 

The study of the living Oriental languages is of great importance 
both from a practical and scientific point of view. 

PROFESSOR H. C. G. BRANBT (Hamilton College) : With regard 
to the study of living dialects, I must say that in what I call my 
seminary, I have half a dozen poems in the three German dialects 
struck off, and have the students read them. I want them to see 
the difference between the spoken language and the written language 
as they have read it in Faust and Lessing. 

PROFESSOR O. SEIBENSTICKER (University of Pennsylvania) : With 
reference to what has been said in regard to some of the German 
universities paying too exclusive attention to the ancient dialects, I 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xix 

think that if we should adopt a similar course, we should meet with 
great animadversion. A comparison of the ancient literature can 
only be useful after the student is thoroughly acquainted with Modern 
German. In Germany, the student of the University may be expected 
to have mastered in a great degree Modern German before he enters 
the university, while in our country the student of the university and 
college has to acquire this knowledge. It is therefore more incum- 
bent upon us to see that, before the older dialects are laid before him, 
he is fully up in a knowledge of Modern German. 

PROFESSOR HENRY R. LANG (New Bedford) next followed with a 
communication on 

3. The Face in the Spanish Metaphor and Proverb* 

Discussion. DR. HENRY A. TODD (Johns Hopkins University) : 
As the hour is late, I shall say only a word, but it seems hardly fitting 
to allow this paper to pass without some discussion. It comes from 
one who has gained authority by long experience and by the publi- 
cation of many results in this special line of research. It illustrates 
the fact that a subject pursued in a scientific manner will also present 
attractions as a matter of entertainment. There are advantages in 
the special consideration of a subject of this kind in that we have the 
idioms of the language brought into comparison with similar idioms 
in the language itself and in other languages outside. It has a wide 
bearing on the subject of folk-lore in general. For example, ' To go 
with the face uncovered,' we find an evident indication of the Moorish 
influence in Spain. So, in a thousand ways these studies thtfow light 
upon the subject of folk-lore. I should have been glad to suggest 
other lines of thought, but I shall detain the Association no longer at 
this time. 

At this point, the Convention adjourned to partake of the bountiful 
and delightful luncheon provided by the Local Committee in the Halls 
of the University building. A fine opportunity was thus offered, 
without loss of time, to renew the social intercourse of the previous 
evening and to make further acquaintance with the newly arrived 
members and with the visitors in attendance on the Convention. 

The Third Session was called to order at 2.30 p. M., PROFESSOR 
GARNETT in the chair, when a paper was presented by PROFESSOR 
SYLVESTER PRIMER (College of Charleston) on 

4. Charleston's Provincialisms * 

Discussion. PROFESSOR EDWARD S. JOYNES (South Carolina Col- 
lege) : I am sorry, Mr. President, that I can contribute so little to this 
discussion. I am from South Carolina and Charleston is in South 
Carolina, but the language of Charleston is not the language of South 
Carolina, The provincialisms are as strange to us in Columbia as they 
would be to Philadelphia and almost any where else in the country. 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full papers. 

xx The Modern Language Association of America, 

I say that the provincialisms belong to the dialect of the Charlestonese. 
In some of the examples cited in this paper, I think that the pronun- 
ciation attributed to the Charlestonese is the correct and general 
pronunciation of our country and is simply not the provincialism of 
New England. I may instance the word d-e-m-a-n-d, it is not a pro- 
vincialism to pronounce that demtind. 

The striking peculiarity of the provincialisms referred to, is that 
they are extremely limited in geographical area, and, as I have said, 
they are as strange to us in Columbia as they would be in Philadelphia 
or in New England. They are found only in the city of Charleston 
and in the exceedingly narrow limit of " low country" immediately 
surrounding the city. In our South Carolina University at Columbia, 
we mark a Charleston student by his pronunciation the first day of 
his arrival, just as we would mark one from Massachusetts or any 
other part of the country. This peculiarity^ known to us as Charles- 
tonese. Another peculiarity which is more marked here than any 
where else, and I doubt if it exists any where else, is that these are 
not confined to the uneducated, but reach up to the highest ranks of 
society. As PROFESSOR PRIMER has indicated, there is in Charleston 
a culture which has come down propagated through generations and 
it is precisely in these old families, in the proudest families of Charles- 
ton, that'you hear, in the most striking manner, these provincialisms. 
I suppose that in most parts of the country, provincialisms are con- 
fined to the vulgar and uneducated. This is not so in Charleston. 
They are, however, exceedingly pleasant to listen to and with the 
help of a little mimicry and only a little exaggeration, they can be 
made intensely amusing and thoroughly characteristic. 

I hope that PROFESSOR PRIMER will pursue this subject farther, for 
I think that he has not even glanced at all the elements which consti- 
tute this peculiar provincialism of which we are speaking. We of 
course know that provincialisms of this sort are necessary and im- 
portant from a historical point of view. PROFESSOR PRIMER'S re- 
marks have been limited mainly to English sources and English , 
influences. There is another element not the least important and 
which is a peculiarity of Charleston, that is the French influence. It 
is to be remembered that Charleston is a Huguenot settlement and 
that the French influence was, for generations, the prevailing and 
controlling influence. The majority of the old families of Charleston 
have French names, French blood and the accent of their French 
ancestry is still lingering in the provincialisms which have been here 
indicated. I feel sure that investigation continued in this direction 
would be equally fruitful. 

There is another influence to be considered which is felt to a degree 
experienced nowhere else in the South, that is the influence of the 
negro dialect. I feel satisfied that in the low country of South 
Carolina, so largely peopled by the colored race, there has been a 
marked reflex influence from the lowest strata of society upwards. 
There is another point which I shall mention if PROFESSOR PRIMER 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xxi 

will promise not to tell. It is said that we claim the virtues that we 
do not possess, and are quite silent in regard to those that we do 
possess. Charleston is very proud of her climate, yet I am satisfied 
that many of the provincialisms of Charleston are due to the moist, 
warm, I may say tepid climate, a climate that makes rest of all kinds, 
including rest of the vocal organs, pleasant. PROFESSOR PRIMER 
has correctly analysed many of these peculiarities by the law of the 
least effort which we know to be the prevailing law in pronunciation 
everywhere. I believe that the element of the Charleston climate is 
one of the predisposing causes to that laxity of effort in connection 
with the vowel sounds. 

I hope that PROFESSOR LANG, who has lived in Charleston for 
some time will contribute something in the discussion of this paper. 
I shall close with only one word. It seems to me that such discus- 
sions and such papers are peculiarly the province of this Association 
to gather up and preserve. These vanishing sounds, these provincial- 
isms all over our country are everywhere significant, and in many 
instances, indeed in all, if we could discover the hidden causes, pro- 
foundly instructive, carrying us back to the historical sources of lan- 
guage. As I have said, it seems to me peculiarly the province of 
this Association, to collect such matters and preserve them as records, 
if nothing more, in order that future philologists may reduce them to 
historical analogies. We have in the South those who are devoting 
themselves to work of this kind. Among them may be mentioned 
this is valuable work and work which, if not done by the members 
of this Association, is not likely to be done at all. The importance 
of this work was touched upon by PROFESSOR PRIMER. Now, under 
the prevailing and pervading influence of commerce, our education 
is becoming all over the country more and more universal. It is also 
becoming more and more mechanical, more and more uniform. The 
tendency is for these peculiarities and characteristics which are so 
valuable, to be gradually wiped out and disappear before the advanc- 
ing march of the universal common-school education, with its uniform 
measures, uniform standards and if some publishers could have their 
way, with uniform text-books. Under these influences, these peculiari- 
ties are vanishing. I am pleased to have the opportunity of empha- 
sizing the views expressed in the paper and of calling attention to the 
great importance of this line of work for an Association of this kind. 
Unless gathered up in the day in which we live, these characteristics 
of our common speech may in the next generation have ceased to live 
on the lips of men. 

PROFESSOR HENRY R. LANG (Swain Free School, New Bedford) : 
I was much pleased with PROF. PRIMER'S paper. I agree with PRO- 
FESSOR JOYNES that these provincialisms are not limited to the lower 
classes of society but belong to all classes. It has been my good 
fortune to come in contact with the better classes of Charleston 

xxii The Modern Language Association of America, 

society, with people who certainly consider that they belonged to the 
best classes and I think that they have some right to so consider 
themselves. It was exactly among these people that I heard such 
words as " koind " and " moind ;" " you are so koind ;" " I can not 
make up my moind." This peculiarity you will notice among the 
people of Charleston who belong to the English. It will not be 
found amoung the Huguenot descendants. There is one peculiarity 
which I think PROFESSOR PRIMER omitted. That is they speak of a 
tear [teer] as a tare. They would call a bier, a bear. 

I think that another valuable study on the Charleston language 
would be the idiomatic phrases. As PROFESSOR JOYNES correctly 
remarked, the negro element has an influence on the speech even of 
the best society of Charleston. This is largely due to the fact that 
the child learns its language from the negro nurse all through the 
South. It will be found that the language of the best society is the 
product of the cultivated speech plus the peculiarities of the negro. 
In Charleston, they have an expression, " He died on Pinkney's 
step." That means that he died like a poor laborer. They have 
many such expressions derived from the negro. 

PROFESSOR O. B. SUPER (Dickinson College) : I wish to make a 
remark on one point in PROFESSOR PRIMER'S paper and that is with 
reference to the pronunciation of one word. I refer to the word 
chair. I live in central Pennsylvania and there are people there who 
call a chair, a cheer. I do not know that this peculiarity goes any 
farther. I know that ordinarily they do not call a bear, a beer. A 
beer is quite a different sort of an animal according to my observation. 
This peculiarity belongs to the language of the Scotch-Irish. As the 
members of the Association are well aware, the Irish dialect has pre- 
served some of its archaic elements, so that at the present time by 
following the pronunciation of the Irishman we could get the pro- 
nunciation of the English two or three centuries ago. The pronun- 
ciation of this word is undoubtedly due to that influence. It is 
simply a survival of some of the old pronunciation. It may be ac- 
counted for in the same way in the case of Charleston, although I 
have not observed it in other words of the same character. 

REV. JOHN S. MACINTOSH, D. D. (Philadelphia) : Some years ago 
I was making a study of Chaucer and of the survival of Chaucerian 
English. I was down in the South of Scotland and having that pre- 
hensible turn of mind which one has when pursuing a particular line 
of investigation, my ear immediately caught actual words of strange 
sound and curious phrases. I said to myself these are survivals and 
having my clue, I worked it out in this way. Suppose we take a pure 
Chaucerian phrase and divide it say into eights, so that we may have 
three-fourths, one-half or one-fourth Chaucerian. Following this out, 
I found that in certain districts as in the Strathclyde, there are repro- 
duced in a remarkable manner, the pronunciation, accents and idioms 
which are unquestionably a survival of Chaucerian English. 

My friend has certainly struck one of the nails in this box on the 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887, xxiii 

head, if in Western Pennsylvania, in the Scotch-Irish districts, yon 
find these forms surviving. In certain of these districts in Pennsyl- 
vania old archaic forms survive that I have read in old documents in 
the North of Ireland. We should catch these things for they are 
vanishing. We are coming into a terribly levelling period where we 
have got uniformity on the brain, on the tongue and everywhere. We 
must remember that there is a streak of Scotch-Irish in Charleston. 
I do not say how it got there. Many of the illustrations given can be 
paralleled by others from the North of Ireland, the South of Scotland 
and certain parts of England at the present time. These must be 
taken into consideration in discussing this subject. 

REV. SAMUEL A. MARTIN (Lincoln University): I at one time 
spent a long period in the Scotch-Irish settlement in Washington 
county of this state, I was struck while listening to this paper with 
the remarkable parallelism which exists between the language of 
Charleston and that of Washington county. Three-fourths of the 
early settlers of Washington county are from the Strathclyde. 

I have often amused myself when first meeting a person by trying 
to determine by his speech from what part of the country he came. 
I have more frequently made the mistake between Charleston and 
the western part of Pennsylvania, than between any other two parts 
of the country. These are simple facts which I give for what they 
are worth. 

DR. HENRY A. TODD (Johns Hopkins University) : It is very like. 
ly that every one could parallel the statements made in this paper ; 
for many of these peculiarities are found in other parts of the country. 
It was, however, not the point of the paper to designate the peculi- 
arities elsewhere. 

The writer referred to a peculiar pronunciation of "very." As a 
matter of fact, GEO. AUGUSTUS SALA, who furnishes articles to the 
Illustrated London News, has called attention to the fact that it is 
almost an invariable peculiarity of Americans when abroad to call 
themselves " Amuricans." I think that the American, pure and un- 
diluted, when left to his own devices is very apt to mispronounce 
certain of his vowels. This is the same peculiarity that has been 
referred to in connection with the word " very." 

PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT (Johns Hopkins University) : 
There are a few points suggested to me by this paper. In the first 
place I desire to emphasize the great importance of such studies as 
this for our Association. I think that the object above all others of 
this Association should be to push forward into the work of our own 
country. I made this same remark last year and I think that it will 
bear repeating. The consideration of the influence of the different 
forms of foreign speech upon our English would be almost impossible 
to eliminate from this general subject. When PROFESSOR PRIMER 
states that he will take up the English only, I do not see how he can 
treat the English exclusively, because this is so thoroughly influenced 
by other languages. You have speech mixture from the very begin- 

xxiv The Modern Language Association of America, 

ning and in this connection we have to consider the French and the 
negro element. I know of no other country where the study of 
speech mixture could be so thoroughly carried out as in America. 
We have it on every hand. Around us in everything that we do 
pertaining to language we have this most important subject, psycho- 
logical and linguistic, of speech mixture staring us in the face. 

With reference to the Baltimore dialect, I remember shortly after 
my arrival in that city, a young lady said to me, " Pa " did so and so. 
I said "Is that the way you pronounce that word in Baltimore? I 
should say " Pa." " Oh ! Pa is so vulgar !" she replied. There are 
certain peculiarities which belong to almost every town. I only 
mention certain ones that struck me forcibly in the city just mention- 
ed. You never hear a Baltimorean say room ; he says roam (like u 
in pull) and not unfrequently gets down to rum. He never pro- 
nounces an r before an s; for example, he never says Charles Street, 
but "Chas street." He does not pronounce it as do the colored 
people who say "Chaws street." Before certain nasals, you never 
hear anything but the nasal sound. Yon never hear gentleman, but 
"gintlm'n." Some of these things are quite striking and remind me 
of peculiarities I have noticed in England. If one is walking down 
the Strand on Sunday morning when the omnibuses are going out 
to Wimbleton Camp, he will hear called out "Wimbleton Camp" 
but the same individual will say: "Are you going to the dance" 
(broad a) not the dance? Again, another point is the pronunciation 
of "worn out," which is exactly like that of " war-n " with the ex- 
ception of the length of the vowel sound : in the latter it is short ; in 
the former, long. I am reminded of another interesting point in 
Baltimore's popular pronunciation : they say Lord and they say 
Gord, not God. 

This subject it seems to me is an extremely interesting one for the 
members of this Association to turn their attention to at the present 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL GARNER (Annapolis, Md.): I have one or two 
remarks to make. The first was suggested by my first visit to Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. You will find in various parts of the country a cer- 
tain number of young ladies belonging to the most fashionable 
society who have a peculiar pronunciation, none of which I shall 
undertake to reproduce. I have no doubt that this affects fashionable 
circles and also the fashionable young men, generally such as are 
known as " dudes." This must have some weight in the general sum 
of influences which go to make up the dialect of any locality. I was 
especially struck with this in Kentucky. There was something so 
peculiar in the dialect of the best class of society in this city, that I 
determined to see whether or not it existed in other localities. I 
found that in Louisville this peculiarity was confined almost exclusive- 
ly to the young ladies. I think that in all large cities you will find 
something of this sort. I merely throw out these remarks as a sug- 
gestion to those interested in the subject. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, i88j. xxv 

PROFESSOR C. SPRAGUE SMITH (Columbia College) : This discus- 
sion suggests a new field and one which has been worked very little. 
I have an instructor in phonetics who has revealed certain secrets to 
me with reference to this subject. He produces forms of words with- 
out having heard them. This is a domain which may be worked with 
profit to determine whether everything is Germanic rather than 

PROF. H. C. G. BRANDT (Hamilton College): It seems to me that 
here is a good field for the phonetic section of the Association. We 
should keep one point in mind throughout and that is when we study 
the dialect of any city, we should have a sound notation which will 
correctly represent the sounds. We should not do as SCHMELLER 
did when he wrote his ' Bayrische Mundarten.' In giving a certain 
word, he would state that the vowel has the same sound as is found 
in the Bavarian word, so-and-so, but he never told us what the sound 
was. No one knew the value of the sound in Bavarian. A sound 
notation is very important in order to make our work scientific and 

THE CHAIRMAN, PROFESSOR GARNETT, (University of Virginia) : 
I wish only to make one remark. I do not like PROFESSOR JOVNES 
to shift upon the inhabitants of Charleston what are in reality South 
Carolina provincialisms. " Pear " is pronounced "peer" and even 
" there " is pronounced "theer" in other parts of South Carolina 
than in Charleston, 

PROFESSOR HENRY WOOD (Johns Hopkins University) then follow- 
ed with a communication on 

5. The Brief or Pregnant Metaphor in the Minor Elizabethan 


BALTIMORE, June i4th, 1888. 

To the Secretary of the MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION : 

The article on "Brief Metaphor in the Minor Elizabethan Dramatists" 
read by me at the last meeting of the MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION, will 
not be ready for printing in time for publication in the PROCEEDINGS of the 
Association. Owing to unforseen circumstances, I have not yet been able to 
subject it to the revision I considered necessary. For the information of those 
who may wish to see the printed article, I may add that it is my intention to 
offer it shortly for publication in the American Journal of Philology. 

Sincerely yours, 


Discussion. PROFESSOR J. M. HART (University of Cincinnati) : I 
feel unable to discuss this paper. The subject is one to me very 
difficult, and I think that really questions of comparative literature 

*As this paper is not published in the TRANSACTIONS, the Secretary desires to call atten- 
tion to the letter from the author, as given above, in explanation of the matter. 

xxvi The Modern Language Association of America, 

are harder to treat and harder to follow in a paper of this kind than 
are questions of comparative language. In a study of language we 
get certain primary principles from which all discussion necessarily 
proceeds and to which all discussion necessarily reverts, whereas in 
literature we have not such universal principles for its study as in the 
study of linguistics. Consequently when I attempt to follow such 
a paper as that of PROFESSOR WOOD, I find that I am continually 
slipping off. An example from one author suggests another example 
from another author and by the time I have finished the comparison, 
I find that the speaker has passed to something new. I infer that the 
paper is the result of careful study and wide reading ; some of it is 
familiar and some of it is new. I cannot say that I have studied all 
of the plays cited with the minuteness necessary for the reading and 
hearing of such a paper. Some of the shades of difference in the use 
of the metaphor did not present themselves to my mind as they have 
done to the mind of the author. All that l can say is that I hope 
that the paper will be printed, so that I myself as well as others shall 
have the opportunity of going over the various positions one by one, 
carefully and critically, comparing them with the facts which we are 
able to collate for ourselves. Such a study I shall be glad to pursue, 
and I know that it will be profitable as well as interesting. 

I am glad to have heard the paper and to have heard certain points 
put so positively as they have been done ; for instance that euphuism 
has nothing to do with metaphoric language. I have tried to incul- 
cate that to my pupils. When we pick up an English criticism, we 
find that everything is labeled euphuistic. I am therefore glad to 
see a distinction drawn between euphuism and gongoraism. I hope 
that the time will come when in America there will be chairs of 
literature as distinct from language ; chairs the occupants of which 
will make it their business to lay down for us laws for the critical 
study of literature which will do for us what the laws of GRIMM and 
others have done for language. Then when I come from Cincinnati, 
some one else from Boston and some one from Columbia, we shall 
know what to expect and shall know what is new. There is, Mr. 
Chairman, tog much cream in this paper for one meal. 

PROFESSOR A. H. SMYTH (Philadelphia) : The Elizabethan period 
was the most assimilative in English literature. The learning of 
Spain, Italy and France was received. I believe that the explanation 
of the euphuism and the important classical metres is to be found in 
the conscious effort of the Elizabethan poets to exalt their vernacular 
and to the appreciation of the classical works which for the first time 
were exhibited to their viewVy the renaissance. The most import- 
ant point of this paper is the notice taken of the persistence in the 
English language at its most assimilative time, of native style and 
native principles in the language of the English poets which had lain 
quiescent for a century and a half. We have on the one hand the 
appreciation of learning and the conscious imitation of contemporary 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xxvii 

foreign poets, and on the other hand a persistence in English poetry 
of native original English phrases and of native English style. 

DR. JULIUS GOEBEL (Johns Hopkins University) : To those inter- 
ested in this study, I would call attention to the book of HENCKELL, 
' Das Goethesche Gleichniss,' which will be found of interest in con- 
nection with this subject. 

PROFESSOR TH. W. HUNT (Princeton College) : One of the pleas- 
antest features in this Association is the tendency of men who devote 
themselves to the study of language to give attention to the study of 
literature. The study of PROFESSOR WOOD has been largely literary, 
it might be called a paper on English style. When I saw the notice 
of the paper, on the programme, I made up my mind that I should not 
understand it. I did not understand the title, and I do not under- 
stand it at the present time. I do not exactly understand the mean- 
ing of "brief" in connection with the word metaphor. The rest of 
the paper I think that I do understand. I was taught to believe that 
figurative language was simply an accomplishment, an ornate ele- 
ment of language, a kind of ornament to language ; that it did not 
constitute an element of style. Here we come on the remarkable 
point that figurative language has all the elements of style including 
clearness. It is the clear expression of the thought that makes up 
the beauty of the style. Here we have the important principle that 
the use of figures is not simply an embellishment, but gives a clearer 
and more forcible expression to what we call style. 

PROFESSOR O. SEIDENSTICKER (University of Penna.) : I am so 
fully impressed with the correctness of what has been said that 
metaphoric language is not an embellishment but the very life and 
soul of thought, that the other day when in another society the sub- 
ject of a universal language was discussed, I made the point that a 
universal language would be impossible, that while you might adopt 
words to express ordinary subjects, yet for all purposes of real life, it 
would be impossible to construct a language in which all nations or 
even a few nations would have an equal share, inasmuch as they 
differ so considerably in the use of metaphors. To some extent this 
rule applies to any two languages. You cannot translate from Ger- 
man into English or from English into German literally. What you 
have to do is to take the metaphorical system of one language and 
substitute it for that of another, but you cannot exchange one for 
another. You have to make a % double substitution. I am convinced 
that any attempt to contrive a universal language will be a failure 
except for such purposes where metaphor has no place, and this is a 
.very sparing use of language. 

PROFESSOR HENRY WOOD (Johns Hopkins University) : I should 
like to say a word in regard to the definition of 'brief,' which PRO- 
FESSOR HUNT says that he did not understand. I think that there is 
room for a new term which would include the four figures which I 
have mentioned. The Elizabethan play-wright has passages in which 
he is in a hurry, he has something to say which he must get off in a 

xxvi'ii The Modern Language Association of America, 

brief speech and he does it. What the Anglo-Saxon poet did because 
he was excited, the Elizabethan poet does because he must. I think, 
therefore, there is a chance for the introduction of a new term which 
will express the quality of the language. It makes no difference 
whether the adjective or the verb is brief. " Poison speaks Italian " 
may be given as an example. 

PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT (Johns Hopkins University) : I 
should like to make one or two remarks with reference to the Italian 
influence upon English at this period. Throughout all this period 
there must have been a strong Influence of the Italian forms upon the 
English. I was much impressed with this while working in the 
British Museum last summer. I was making a study of the influence 
of the Italian language proper upon the English, and I was naturally 
brought into contact with the purely literary study. After having 
worked up a sufficient amount of material from which I thought I 
might make a paper, I sat down to note sorrf of the books that had 
been translated into English and I came to the conclusion that the 
Italian works translated into our language, considering their number 
and importance, must have had a special influence upon it. I found 
the task of noting these translations so great that I had to give it up 
at the time with the hope, however, of continuing it on some future 
occasion. If we may judge by recent English and American writers 
who have been subject to Italian influence in a cursory way, we must 
admit a powerful influence from this systematic introduction of 
Italian thought and literary form at the time treated in this paper. 

An Italian expression used by CRAWFORD, the novelist, just occurs 
to me, and of which very few, unfamiliar with Italian, know the mean- 
ing : " What a piece of a woman is that," a direct translation of Che 
pezza di donna quella ! I have asked many persons what this 
means. They have usually thought that it means: " what an insig- 
nificant, a miserable woman that is." The Italian however signifies, 
as we know, " what a strong, buxom woman is that !" The Italian in- 
fluences must have done much for the coloring of the style of English 
speech during this period. We know that in the early part of the 
Elizabethan period, there was a perfect inundation of Italian litera- 
ture into England. To my mind one of the most interesting probkms 
in this connection would be to trace what the Italian had done to give 
coloring to the linguistic and literary products of this epoch. I can 
only work on the Italian side, but this certainly shows a powerful in- 
fluence ; the new dress was English but the thought in very many 
cases was wholly Italian. 

PROFESSOR ALC&E FORTIER (Tulane University) followed with a 
paper on 

6. Bits of Louisiana Folk-lore,* 

Discussion. PROFESSOR C. SPRAGUE SMITH (Columbia College): 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xxix 

With reference to this paper, I think that I can express in the name 
of the Association our delight with the charming subject which PRO- 
FESSOR FORTIER has presented. The remarks already made upon 
the value of linguistic studies, of local peculiarities of idiom which 
are now passing away, are applicable to this. This paper is valuable 
from a philological and also from a literary standpoint. There is 
very little original folk-lore in America and this is fast passing away. 
The charm of the tales is that they are presented to us in their original 

DR. F. M. WARREN (Johns Hopkins University): The subject 
of Folk-lore has received a great deal of attention in France especial- 
ly by COSQUIN, and in his book PROFESSOR FORTIER will find 
many references to the tales he has given. In reference to the first 
story, I would mention one or two points which I recall. In one 
tale dating back to the first part of the thirteenth century, Reynard 
the fox feigns death in order to get into a fisherman's wagon to eat 
his fish. In this case the fox is thrown into the wagon and eats the 
fish. We also have here one of the Pickard stories, where the goat 
who is represented by the sheep terrifies the tiger until the tiger's cub 
discovers that the sheep has no teeth, and the story ends as here by 
the tiger killing the sheep. Here the tiger beats the goat. 

It occurs to me from these two references that if PROFESSOR 
FORTIER compares his work with what has been done, he will find 
that the Creole stories of Louisiana, are a mixture of the folk stories 
of other countries, especially of those bordering on the North of 
France. I would especially ask PROFESSOR FORTIER that, in his 
further study of this subject before he publishes his book, he should 
compare his stories as far as possible with those published by 

PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT (Johns Hopkins University) : I 
wish merely to allude to one point. PROFESSOR FORTIER says that 
some of these stories correspond to some which have already been 
published in France and DR. WARREN has alluded to the same point. 
Some years ago when in a boat on the St. Lawrence river, I was 
much impressed with a song, which I heard. I thought that I had 
heard the song before and on listening closely I found that it corres- 
ponded to a song which has been published frequently and one 
which exists in various dialects. Mistral, the celebrated modern 
provencal poet, has embodied it under the title "Magali," in his 
charming book 'Mireio'; the theme has been treated in different 
languages. Mr. Ulrich printed it some years ago. The song repre- 
sents a lover talking to the girl he loves : She says that she will turn 
into a stag ; he will turn himself into a hunter to hunt the stag. She 
will then become a fish, and he replies that he will then become a 
fisherman. She says, I shall become a beautiful flower; he will be- 
come a gardener and pluck that flower. She goes on and finally says 
that she will become an angel and go to inhabit one of the stars. He 
too will become an angel and will live forever on the star with her. I 

xxx The Modern Language Association of America, 

was much impressed with the local coloring that it had assumed in 
Canada ; the beaver here is an important animal, and the beaver as 
well as other characteristics of Canadian life are brought into the 
song thus adapted to the customs of this Northern Country. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD S. JOYNES (South Carolina College) : I would 
suggest, Mr. President, the advisability of now adjourning until to- 
morrow morning and postponing the paper of PROFESSOR KROEH 
until that time. A number of the members who desire to hear the 
paper have special engagements this evening. In making a motion 
to leave the paper over until to-morrow morning, I would state that I 
have spoken to PROFESSOR KROEH, and he is willing to defer the 
reading of his communication. At the same time, he is perfectly 
ready to go on now if the Association prefers. 

The Association then adjourned till the following morning, at the 
hour (9.30 o'clock) named on the programme. 

In the evening, a brilliant social reception was given to the members 
of the Convention by the Pennsylvania Historical Society, at their 
spacious and elegant rooms, i3th and Locust streets. Both the 
numerous members of this society and several hundred of their 
friends who had been especially invited to share in their signal liber- 
ality, extended to the strangers present that cordial and hearty wel- 
come which has ever been an enviable characteristic of Philadelphia 
hospitality. On no other occasion of this kind, have the delegates to 
the annual Conventions of the MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION had 
better opportunity for becoming acquainted with a large proportion 
of the leading citizens of the community where the Conferences have 
been held. The energetic and efficient Local Committee had made, 
throughout, the most ample provision for the accommodation and en- 
tertainment of their guests and, aided by the generous co-operation 
of the Historical Society and the Penn Club, arranged for two social 
festivities that will be remembered as the happiest features of the 
Philadelphia Convention. 

The fourth session of the Association, (Friday morning, December 
3oth,) was called to order at 10 o'clock, by the Secretary. 

THE SECRETARY: I have been requested by our Vice-President to 
call PROFESSOR EDWARD S. JOYNES to the Chair, for our sitting this 

THE CHAIRMAN : I understand that DR. M. I. SWIFT (Hobart Col- 
lege) would like to bring up a little matter before we start on the 
regular busines of the morning. 

PROFESSOR M. I. SWIFT (Hobart College): I wish to call the atten- 
tion of those gathered here to a subject which is certainly interesting 
educators more and more and one which is just being brought for- 
ward in this country. In England it has taken a prominent place in 
education under the name of " university extension." The idea of 
this movement of course is to bring before all classes of people the 
advantages and results of higher education. The plan is for young 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xxxi 

men, specialists, to go out from the university, either those who 
have graduated or those who are pursuing advanced courses and to 
deliver lectures upon their specialities before the people. There are 
of course two ways in which this may be presented, either in the 
cities to those who are unable to enjoy the opportunities of higher 
education, or in the country towns where universities and colleges do 
not exist and where, therefore, the people areinlikemannerdeprived 
of such opportunities. This is a subject which interests not only one 
class of lecturers, but one in which all lecturers should be equally 
interested when the importance of the matter is once recognized. 

The advantages of such a system as I should like to present are 
one or two-fold. In the first place it is obvious that the bringing of 
the results of higher education before the people would be most 
stimulating, most instructive. What the people of the lower classes, 
especially of the cities, are calling for, is something of this sort. 
They want to feel that an interest is being taken in them. They 
want to feel that the results of the investigations which they help to 
support by their labors, and which they have not yet been able to en- 
joy, shall come to them and shall be directly helpful to them. These 
free lectures, as now carried on in England, accomplish this result, 
A large class of the people are ignorant of many of the principles of 
progress, of social advancement and of education. Now these 
principles, if our society is to progress and we are to have a well- 
rounded people, must be brought to the people themselves, and I 
know no better way of doing this than by university extension. 
Probably the greatest advantage which would arise from this is the 
advantage to the lecturer himself. We know that a young man who 
takes a college professorship, or a university chair or who teaches in 
any way, is subject to limitations which for several years often inter- 
fere with his efficiency. For example a young man wishes to accom- 
plish vastly more in a short time than it is possible for human nature 
to get through. The result is that he often crowds his students far 
more than he ought to do, and the strain is carried to the highest pos- 
sible point. Now if a young man has had no experience of the 
needs of education, if he does not understand the environment upon 
which he has to work, and how he is to modify his teaching, how is 
he to be a successful instructor ? The demands upon the educated 
man are far greater than that of mere specialistic teaching. A year 
of direct intercourse with the people, of work in the laboratory, for 
that is precisely what this would be, would give to the man intend- 
ing to teach that which, to-day, he does not receive. 

We know that the college is more or less out of sympathy, stands 
more or less apart from the needs of the people. If the college 
does not feel this, the people do feel it and the time will come, 
as a professor of this university remarked to me yesterday, when the 
college itself will begin to realize this more than it now does by the 
patronage withdrawn from it by the people. This is because the col- 
leges do not sufficiently study the public needs. You will find in one 

xxxii The Modern Language Association of America, 

of the old Princeton Reviews, a paper on this subject by PROFESSOR 
SUMNER, of Yale College, in which he speaks of the lack of con- 
fidence, on the part of the people, in the college which has grown up 
in the middle of them. Now, in some way, this must be met. I 
believe that if those who are to take college and university chairs 
could study the people, could understand what they are thinking 
about, could get away from the scholastic walls, where, as college 
and university students, they have been isolated for many years, if 
they could set aside their scholastic training for a time and learn 
what men who are living and working are about and what they want, 
it would be of incalculable importance to them and to education. 

What is the specific plan that is to accomplish this ? In England it 
has taken two forms. The University has sent out men in this way 
and has supported them. They have delivered lectures, twelve in 
number, one each week and on the following day in each case, they 
have conferences with those especially interested in the subject. 
This course of lectures can be repeated three times a year in different 
cities, as the movement develops. What is needed is a hall and a 
little money, almost nothing else. For one course, I believe that in 
England the expense is about $225.00. This course can be modified 
and four lectures or more if convenient can be given in the same hall 
in one week. This has been so developed in England that at- 
tendance upon these lectures for three years, entitles one to a year's 
standing in the University. If he desires to go to the University for 
a degree one year is taken off because of satisfactory examination 
upon these subjects. Another method is the formation of different 
societies in various towns and cities. These societies require a 
membership fee of perhaps five dollars and then all who belong to 
the society have the privilege of hearing these lectures. This is of 
course self-supporting and does not fall back upon the university for 

Almost all that we need in this country to start the thing is to have 
in some cities a hall and small accommodations to enable the lecturer 
to do his work. Reflect upon another advantage of this plan. How 
many young men are there who to-day are occupying prominent po- 
sitions as instructors who are limited in their means. Under such a 
system as this, young men of capacity can go out and lecture in this 
manner and prolong their period of study or investigation one or 
more years. This would give young men time to mature and it 
would give them such preparation that many of the failures that we 
have from young men undertaking to fill positions a little too early, 
would be avoided. I wish to mention only one other method and 
one other result which would follow from this system. How is it to 
be organised in country towns? If the professors of each college, or 
one professor of each college, scattered as the colleges are here and 
there, were to undertake the organization of this through the public 
schools, it would be very easy to send lecturers to the smaller places. 
I see two results that would follow from this. In the first place, the 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xxxiii 

public schools would be stimulated. The teachersof the schools would 
have advantages which to-day they sadly lack, and that problem 
which is staring us in the face to-day and which has not yet been 
solved ; namely, how are we to obtain a better class of primary 
teachers, would in great measure, I believe, be met. In the second 
place, that gulf which is now felt in education between the college 
and the public schools would be bridged, if not entirely, at least to 
some extent; the first steps would be taken. We know very well 
that any one expecting or hoping to teach in the college or university 
must be very careful that he does not allow himself to teach in the 
public school or get the name of having done so. On the other hand, 
a very small proportion of public school teachers have ever been 
inside of a college. If you talk with a public school superintendent, 
you will see that he is vastly more interested in the development of 
the normal school than of the college. They do not know much 
about the college and do not care to know much about it, possibly to 
their disadvantage. The coHege and school should be brought 
together. If our system of education is to succeed this must be 
brought about. In Germany the lower schools are connected with 
the higher schools much more closely than in America. If the col- 
lege professor will work in connection with the superintendent of 
the public schools in the neighborhood where his college is to get 
the university extension movement started, I think that much will 
be done to remove this difficulty. 

PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT (Johns Hopkins University) : 
I wish to state that DR. SWIFT wishes only to bring this matter before 
the Association this morning. We have no time to discuss it at 
present. In connection with the papers of this afternoon, there may 
be an opportunity to discuss it. 

THE CHAIRMAN. We shall now resume the regular order of 
business, beginning with the reading of PROFESSOR KROEH'S paper. 

PROFESSOR CHARLES F. KROEH (Stevens Institute of Technology, 
Hoboken, N. J.), then presented a communication on 

7. Methods of Teaching Modern Languages* 

Discussion. THE CHAIRMAN. It would be most impartial and 
impersonal on the part of the Chair to remind the Association, in 
advance of the discussion, of the flight of time. We have in addition 
to the discussion upon this paper, four papers to be read in two and 
one-half hours. I therefore take the liberty of reminding the Asso- 
ciation that our discussions must necessarily be brief and the papers 
themselves must be abridged, so far as may be possible without doing 
grave injustice to the subject-matter. With these remarks, I take 
pleasure in inviting PROFESSOR VON JAGEMANN to open the discus- 

PROFESSOR H. C. G. VON JAGEMANN (Indiana University) : It seems 
to me, Mr. President, that PROFESSOR KROEH has cut off discussion 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

xxxiv The Modern Language Association of America, 

by the last sentence of his paper in which he advises us not to confine 
ourselves to any one system but to take the best found in the various 
systems of teaching which have been proposed. It seems to me that 
nearly all writers upon this subject make the mistake of over-estimat- 
ing the importance of some one point in their teaching. I do not 
know that I have ever read a more interesting paper on the subject 
of methods than the paper of PROFESSOR HALE; of Cornell Universi- 
ty, on the Art of Reading Latin. Yet it seems to me that PROFESSOR 
HALE made the same mistake of thinking that one little thing in the 
acquisition of a language was all that it was necessary to pay at- 
tention to, but I think that if we bear in mind that there are many 
different elements which enter into the acquisition of a language and 
that we must not over-estimate the value of any one, there is no doubt 
that each one would choose for himself that method which is best 
adapted to his students. No one student can learn a language by the 
same method as another, and no two teachers can teach a language 
by exactly the same methods. I think that for this reason a large 
amount of the writing and talk upon the subject of methods has been 
useless. Every one has to judge for himself and it is very difficult to 
advise anybody on the subject. 

PROFESSOR L. A. STAEGER (Polytechnique Institute, Brooklyn, N. 
Y.) : I want to say only one word with reference to the different 
methods. I had occasion not long ago to write to MR. CHRISTERN, 
bookseller of New York, for certain books. In answer, I received a 
printed slip on which he said that the ROSENTHAL system was used 
in Germany and that what was in this system had been stolen from 
other writers. I therefore think that the name of ROSENTHAL, as 
applied to a system, does not merit our respect. In all other points 
I agree with PROFESSOR KROEH, especially in regard to the natural 

PROFESSOR O. SEIDENSTICKER (University of Pennsylvania): I 
was pleased to hear PROFESSOR KROEH mention for how many 
different purposes a language may be learned. I believe that the 
purposes for which German is learned may be classed under two 
heads : the commercial use of German and its scientific use. I think 
that according to the purpose for which German is learned and the 
time that may be devoted to it, the method should be adopted. In 
order to master the principles of German with the view of understand- 
ing it in a comparatively short time, so short a time as is generally 
meted out to us in colleges and universities, I think that the shortest 
possible way should be adopted to put the pupil in possession of 
those analytical processes that are necessary to understand German. 

If the object be merely to impart so much knowledge as may be 
required for speaking on ordinary topics of life, as PROFESSOR KROEH 
points out, I think that perhaps the natural method is the one which 
will answer best, especially if plenty of time is given, but if we have 
to wait until the student can understand in the language some of the 
rules required for analysis, too much time will be lost. I can say 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xxxv 

from my own experience that I have occasionally had pupils who 
understood German, that is to say, they had learned German at 
home in much the same way as it is imparted by the natural method, 
in other words their parents spoke German and they were able to 
converse on the ordinary events and occurrences of life with tolerable 
fluency and correctness. When, however, we came to the analysis of 
more difficult passages as found in GOETHE'S ' Ephigenie ' and in 
scientific language, they were at a disadvantage. Young Americans 
who had adopted the proper method of overcoming these difficulties 
by the ordinary grammatical method, would soon get the start of 
those who thought that they knew enough of the language to under- 
stand an ordinary book. I have found by experience that young 
Japanese students who labored under the double disadvantage of 
acquiring German through a foreign medium, would learn to under- 
stand German writers of considerable difficulty within a shorter time 
than those who came already furnished with a tolerable knowledge 
of German, but who had not gone through those mental processes 
for entering into the meaning of the more difficult words. 1 believe 
that we should adapt our method to the purposes for which we teach 
and to the circumstances in which we teach. If we are given only a 
few hours a week, say from one to four hours a week during part of 
the year, we cannot impart so much knowledge by the natural method 
as to teach grammar in the language which the pupil is about to 

PROFESSOR PAUL F. ROHRBACHER (Western University of Penna.) : 
I was particularly struck with the last remark of PROFESSOR KROEH. 
I think that every sincere and capable teacher will make his own 
method. I regard cleverness of even higher importance than genius 
or capacity. A clever teacher will adopt those methods which will 
bear the best fruits. We have too great a multiplicity of studies and 
I have had students who found it impossible to prepare their lessons 
because they had so many other studies to attend to. In speaking 
about cleverness and clever teachers, there is one fact to which I 
desire to call the attention of the Association, and it is that the clever 
teachers are not all confined to our own sex, but we find clever 
teachers in the other sex and some of them are in the midst of us and 
are members of our Association. I was at the meeting of the Asso- 
ciation last year and I am here this year, but I have never seen one 
of these ladies placed on a committee or give her opinion on any 
question that came up. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I must call the gentleman to order. We must 
limit the discussion to the narrowest bounds. There will be a time 
later when I shall listen with pleasure and in entire sympathy with 
the speaker, but I must insist that the speaker confine himself to the 
subject under discussion. 

PROFESSOR ROHRBACHER : I would therefore conclude by request- 
ing the Chairman to call upon Miss CARLA WENCKEBACH to express 
her views upon this subject. 

xxx vi The Modern Language Association of America, 

THE CHAIRMAN : I think that it would be improper and invidious 
for me to call upon any member who has not expressed a desire to- 
take part in the discussion. I should, however, be glad to hear from 
any lady or any other member of the Association. 

PROFESSOR C. SPRAGUE SMITH (Columbia College): I believe 
that we should first give the few principles necessary and apply them 
to the phenomena, and not give the student in any field of language 
any more than in anything else, the phenomena alone and let him 
discover the principles for himself, I think that there is a fallacy 
here, and I think that an error is made in the claims for the natural 
method based upon the assumption that the student must go into all 
the minutiae of grammar as was the rule in former times. I think that 
in the case of a bright student, the necessary grammar can be con- 
densed into a few pages. In my own experience, I have found that 
all that I needed of the grammar could be condensed into two or 
three pages. These I could quickly grasp iri^a day and a half. Then 
starting out with the language, you bring the phenomena which are 
words back to the principles which you have already learned and 
this gives a rational basis on which to work. After you are familiar 
with ordinary words and expressions, you can go over the ground 
carefully and exhaustively and master the language. Our object in 
studying languages in colleges is not to enable us to converse. That 
is impossible. What the student demands is the ability to read the 
language. That is the chief thing and it strikes me that by this 
method of giving them the main laws and then sending them out to 
collect the phenomena and compare them with the laws, we shall 
make true and rapid progress. 

PROFESSOR CHARLES F. KROEH : My object in presenting a paper 
on elementary instruction in this way, was to enable the higher 
instruction of which we hear so much, to be carried out. This I 
consider the only philosophical way. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I think that the author is to be congratulated 
upon the specific influence of his paper. We have two sorts of 
methods of teaching, the natural and the unnatural methods. PRO- 
FESSOR KROEH seems to have made for the present time, at least, a 
happy family of us all. 

PROFESSOR GUS/TAF KARSTEN (Indiana University) next followed 
with a contribution on 

8. Speech Unities and their rdle in Sound Change and Phonetic 

Discussion. PROFESSOR EDWARD S. SHELDON (Harvard Universi- 
ty): One of course finds a certain amount of difficulty in discussing 
a paper like this which is somewhat technical, before so many mem- 
bers all of whom cannot be expected to be interested in phonetic 
study. For myself I do not hesitate to say that much expressed in 
this paper is so attractive to me that I can hardly resist the temp- 
tation to express a full agreement with some, at least, and indeed 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xxxvii 

most of the views advanced in it. When I saw the announcement of 
the paper, I at first thought that the author meant by speech unities 
about the same as SWEET classes under the head of stress-groups. 
It appears that the idea is not exactly this, but something similar to 
it and in a certain sense, perhaps, identical with it. It seems to me 
that the distinction drawn between the new kind of speech unities 
and SWEET'S stress-groups is of great importance. As we study the 
operation of phonentic laws and the manner in which language is 
changing and the regularity of these changes so that we can see how 
the laws can be studied, as we study these, we are more impressed 
with the complexity of the problem before us. If in any given lan- 
guage we have a given law of sound change, we can study up about 
it. There are perhaps no real exceptions. When we have fully 
studied these laws we shall see that every sound changes in such and 
such a way in the language. We are not able to predict what changes 
will be made in any language. The reason is that we do not under- 
stand the language fully. As a matter of scientific study, we know no 
language, not even our own for such purposes as this, because we have 
never realised what* are the real unities in our speech or which we 
actually use as unities in our speech. We mean the unities which 
present themselves to our minds. These are not single sounds as 
PROFESSOR KARSTEN points out and not necessarily words. They 
may be groups of sounds, of syllables or of words. As far as one can 
understand from the simple hearing of a paper for the first time, the 
ideas advanced by PROFESSOR KARSTEN seem to be of great im- 
portance. We may fully accept them or we may not, but they will be 
of great use to us in our studies. I think that the complexity of the 
subject, which, at first sight, may seem to be greatly increased in 
view of the statements made by PROFESSOR KARSTEN, will on the 
contrary be diminished when we come to go farther and see how 
such views will work when we attempt to explain the phenomena of . 
linguistic change. We shall see phenomena which we should natural- 
ly call phenomena of analogy at work, although that word is some- 
what misleading and we shall be able to realise that the phenomena 
of linguistic change can be grouped under certain heads. I shall not 
take time to mention one o'r two examples that I have observed 
which seem to point in the direction of some of the illustrations 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University) : I think that 
this paper is altogether helpful in emphasizing the importance of the 
essential principles as based upon linguistic observation. It is very 
curious to observe how gradually the results of special study have 
been incorporated into specific theories. It occurred to me while 
PROFESSOR KARSTEN was reading his paper that there is one result 
of special phonetic study which has not been incorporated in the 
principles which he has presented, which are based upon those of 
PROFESSOR PAUL, namely the importance of having regard to what the 
Germans call " Articulationsbasis." I fancy that many changes in the 

txxviii The Jlfodern Language Association of America, 

language vvoi.ld be explained if we knew just what that Articulations- 
basis was. In a certain period of English we note a tendency to the 
palatilization of sounds. All sounds were spoken with that tendency 
and this occasioned many changes. . In modern English in civilised 
countries we have something which is the direct counter-part of this,. 
and that is the tendency to guttural sounds, so that we have 
"avvnswer" instead of answer. This is a factor which should be 
considered in a theoretical and philosophical basis for sound changes- 
In teaching one to speak German you must make it clear that he 
must not only learn isolated sounds, but also that in the main the 
organs must have a different position throughout. 

There is also a common-place observation necessary in connection 
with this subject that pertains to "fashion." I do not doubt that 
some of us have been in sections where strange practices were the 
fashion. I should dislike to say that original depravity has a part in 
causing an individual to see any beauty in tne nasal twang, so preva- 
lent in many sections. 

It may be stated that the term *' voiceless vowels" is due to art 
American philologist, PROFESSOR WHITNEY. 

As to the second chief division of the paper, the development of 
different forms under different stress, I think that each one may take 
a lesson home to himself. It is remarkable that the difference of 
accent in creating a difference in form in language has so long; 
remained' unobserved. We see this in such words as of and off, to 
and too, in which the only difference is a difference in stress. Differ- 
ences in stress go hand in hand with differences in syntactic usage. 

PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT (Johns Hopkins University) : I 
have only one or two observations to make. I am much gratified to 
see that PROFESSOR KARSTEN puts himself en record in so liberal a 
spirit as he has done in this paper. Some of us have been disposed 
to regard PROFESSOR KARSTEN as strictly a Jung Grammatiker, but 
when he announces such things as he has placed before us this morn- 
ing, we may claim that he rests upon the fence between the two sides. 
I agree with him in the majority of points which he makes. The idea 
that there are sound periods creating centres for other combinations 
is important and in accord with the general trend of science at the 
present day. I certainly am opposed to the theory that every 
language came from one language. I believe that the dialect inves- 
tigations of to-day show that to infinite centres were due the origin of 
the various periods of speech. The best attempt which has been 
formulated with reference to speech periods and centres is that made 
by PROFESSOR GROBER, of Strasburg, a few months ago. PROFES- 
SOR HORNING, in his recent dialect phonetic studies, shows that the 
theory is well substantiated with reference to the formation of popu- 
lar speech. This goes with the idea so favorably insisted on by 
PROFESSOR NEUMANN in his Satzphonetik that the sentence should 
be regarded as the linguistic unit, that it is not the word but the 
sentence which forms the linguistic unit. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xxxix 

THE CHAIRMAN : I am sorry that on account of the shortness of the 
time we shall be obliged to leave PROFESSOR KARSTEN on the fence, 
but we hope that in due time, he will get down on the right side 
which ever that may be. 

PROFESSOR HERMANN COLLITZ, (Bryn Mawr College) then followed 
with a communication -on 

9. Die Herktmftder sogenannten Schzuachen Verba der german- 
.is c hen Sprachen* 

The reader was called to order before the read-ing of the paper was 
.finished, as the allotted time had expired. 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University) : I move that 
PROFESSOR COLLITZ be permitted to read his whole paper. 

PROFESSOR H. C. G, BRANDT (Hamilton College) : I am opposed 
to that as we do not know how long this paper is going to be. Unless 
the writer can tell us that, I am opposed to the motion. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The Chair must call attention to the fact that 
justice is due in equal measure to all who are on the, programme, 
Our hour of adjournment is i o'clock. It is now past 12 o'clock and 
there are two more papers to follow this one. Of course it rests with 
the Association to extend the time or to allow any man the time on 
any one paper. Such time will, however, be at the sacrifice of the 
other papers upon the programme. 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL GARNER (Annapolis, Md.) : I object to the 
paper being continued any longer. This paper is of special interest 
and only half of us can understand it, I do not think that it is a good 
plan to encourage the custom of extending the time. In fact I think 
that half an hour is too long. 

The motion was then put and lost. 

THE CHAIRMAN: There are still five minutes due to this subject 
and it is for the Association to say whether it shall be devoted to the 
discussion or be allowed to PROFESSOR COLLITZ. 

A Member: I move that the five minutes be given to PROFESSOR 

PROFESSOR BRANDT : We have heard only the introductory part of 
this paper and there is no use of discussion. The reader has just 
come to the paper proper. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I will ask PROFESSOR COLLITZ to occupy the five 
minutes in such condensation as he may find possible. 

PROFESSOR COLLITZ then continued the reading of his paper. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I trust the Association will not think me unkind 
or deficient in interest in the subject-matter of the paper if I insist 
upon enforcing the rules as far as may be necessary. 

I would now invite PROFESSOR HART, of Cincinnati, to occupy the 
Chair during the remainder of this session. 

PROFESSOR J. M. HART (University of Cincinnati) then took the 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

xl The Modern Language Association of America, 

PROFESSOR EDWARD S. SHELDON (Harvard University) then pre- 
sented a paper on 

ro. Some Specimens of a Canadian French Dialect Spoken in 

Discussion. PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT (Johns Hopkins 
University): This paper strikes in the line which I have often empha- 
sized in this Association ; that is, the taking up, for investigation, of 
what we find about us. I was delighted when PROFESSOR SHELDON 
told me that he proposed to give us a communication on this subject. 

The paper is to me a very interesting one. This is, in the first 
place, a very difficult subject to treat. No one who has not tried it 
knows the difficulties that are encountered in classifying and arrang- 
ing material taken in this way. Of course with material drawn from 
a single person one cannot establish general laws ; one can only 
place before us the characteristics of the dialect in a general way. I 
think that we may proceed with this subject that the writer has 
brought before us this morning according to a process of elimination 
and first strike out certains things found in her spe.ech and then place 
her somewhere in the North of France. The characteristics, as 
pointed out by PROFESSOR SHELDON, belonging to the dialect of the 
Saintonge are also characteristics of some of the North French dia- 
lects. The difficulty of determining these points in any one individual 
are sufficiently evident to all who appreciate the subject at all. 

From what I have heard and from the examples that have been 
given, I would agree that the woman speaks a dialect mixture such as 
is frequently found in Canada. There are characteristics of both 
North and South French speech in her language, but the most prom- 
inent features, I should say, are those of the North of France. We 
find little oases of South French speech made in Canada after the 
scattering of the Arcadian settlements in Novia Scotia ; they came 
from South France originally and worked up through the lower 
counties. We frequently find little villages in the Province of Que- 
bec where nearly all the inhabitants belonged to these Arcadian 
settlements and where the old South French pronunciation is pre- 
served. I think it very likely that this woman had the dialect of the 
North of France and lived in one of these border towns where she 
was accustomed to the South French dialect. One reason why I 
should not put her in the South of France, that is to say either in the 
Saintonge or Angoumois districts, is that we do not have the speech 
contractions there such as we find in her speech. There is also a 
sort of svarabhactic effect, if I may use the term, carried out here 
between the consonantal combinations. This is very common in 
North France. It would be interesting to take these examples and 
compare them with- the phonetic representation of the Picard Dialect 
as presented by MR. EDWARD PARIS in his translation of St. Matthew 
into Picard, where there is a phonetic representation of the dialect. 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887, xli 

With reference to ch, where we have chel, for instance PROFESSOR 
SHELDON gave us chel. There is a curious mixture which would 
carry us to the South of France and the provincial dialect of the 
later stage of the North French dialect, particularly of Picardy. The 
ch sound has to-day gone almost into sh. I can speak from personal 
experience, having spent part of last summer in Picardy. Instead of 
saying chel they say shel. It is only the oldest people who use the 
palatalized form. Here is a characteristic which belongs both to the 
North and to the South. Taking the other characteristics, I should 
say that we must classify this dialect as belonging to the north, but 
to an older stage of the language than that which we now have in the 
present Picardy. The exception which PROFESSOR SHELDON men- 
tions is quite characteristic. With reference to chi, it is a curious 
fact that while in Picardy they always say shel for chel, they say ki 
for chi. 

There are other striking traits, such for instance as are sometimes 
found at the end of words ; for example, in the case of oredge, 
There we have a direct characteristic of South France. I do not 
know how we should get at the separation exactly of South and 
North French characteristics except by taking out features like these 
and classifying together those that belong to the North of France. 
There is one characteristic of the North of France dialect which I did 
not hear mentioned, that is the transference of the vowel in the com- 
bination re, (er, ar), etc. In all compound forms of re you find in the 
North of France, particularly in Picardy, this change. There are 
other things which place the pronunciation decidedly in the North of 
France. PROFESSOR SHELDON pronounces lout, rout. This is the 
sixteenth century pronunciation but it remains in Picardy to-day just 
as you find it in Canada. This may be reckoned as strictly a North 
French trait. In Picardy also the ^'-sounds have a wa sound. I 
would a say that possibly these forms came, in greater or less degree, 
from contact with the French of to-day. There are still many other 
things that would place this dialect in the north but I will take the 
time to mention only one or two of them here. With reference to the 
palatalization of the guttural sound k, this is found throughout 
Canada. They rarely say cure, but always kyure. The common 
people often run this into tchure. There is another characteristic 
which PROFESSOR SHELDON mentions and which would place the 
dialect in the north. In the east of Canada and in Nova Scotia 
I found a few years ago that the French a was preserved there as 
well as throughout a large portion of the St. Lawrence. I noticed 
there the form which PROFESSOR SHELDON speaks of as the broad a, 
such as is used on the St. Lawrence, in Picardy and in Normandy. 
In Nova Scotia, the inhabitants preserve the clear short a found in 
modern French. I think, then, that the prominent characteristics 
of this woman's dialect would place it the North of France. The 
whole paper is extremely interesting and is precisely what we want in 
our Association ; to collect what we find about us, is our great mission. 

xlii The Modern Language Association of America, 

PROFESSOR EDWARD S. SHELDON ; There is a little more to be 
said before assigning a North of France origin to this dialect. The 
sound ch is not peculiar to the north of France. There are other 
peculiarities to which I might refer, I think, to show that the type is 
of north or central France. The reason that I selected h is because 
there is no northern dialect which shows the sound of h similar to 
that of/ except that of the Saintonge. 

PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT : They have the h strongly 
aspirated in Picardy. In the translation of St. Matthew by MR. PARIS, 
you will find that his transcription represents the h as strongly aspi- 
rated h. This corresponds with other French authors. 

PROFESSOR GUSTAF KARSTEN (Indiana University) : I would ask 
PROFESSOR SHELDON under what conditions the a appears as aw ? 

PROFESSOR SHELDON ; I omitted that. How closely the two 
sounds in the dialect correspond I am not able to say. The sounds 
oi might possibly be due not only to the influence of ordinary French, 
but also to the different pronunciations of oi itself in different words. 

The next communication presented was by DR. JULIUS GOEBEL 
(Johns Hopkins University): 

ii. On Paul's ' Principien der Sprachgeschichte.'* 

Discussion. PROFESSOR GUSTAF KARSTEN (Indiana University): 
I am much gratified with the paper, and we are all much pleased 
that DR. GOEBEL has, at least, been paying attention to this subject. 
We all remember with some regret that two years ago he complained 
of the amount of publications of this kind occurring every year. It 
seems that he has paid more attention, in the meanwhile, to the 
subject and I am quite sure that we may expect good results from 
such conscientious earnestness ; but, -with reference to the present 
paper, I must say that I have some objections to make. 

In the first place, I cannot agree with the style that the writer has 
been pleased to use. I hope he does not mean to deny that PAUL 
has made all honest efforts to throw light directly upon the point in 
question. It is difficult to say much about my colleague's ideas 
because I have not fully understood them. Most of the paper is filled 
up with reports of PAUL'S ideas and philosophy accompanied by some 
supplementary remarks by the writer. This is more negative than 
positive. DR. GOEBEL appears not to have had time to give us his 
own ideas upon the subject. Whatever are his ideas on psycology 
and philosophy, I think that matters very little, and has little to do 
with linguistic investigation. Whether we accept an idealistic soul, 
or whether we consider it as a compound of notions and ideas, is a 
matter of little importance in a linguistic study. Whether or not the 
soul is able to control its own ideas, we cannot dispense with the con- 
sideration of words. Theologians agree that the universe has been 
created by a Supreme Being, but that does not prevent natural history 
from looking at the ways in which the universe developed. What- 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xliii 

ever may be our ideas with reference to psycology and philosophy, 
we must stick closely to the real. I think it would be better to defer 
my own ideas until I have read the paper. 

DR. JULIUS GOEBEL (Johns Hopkins University): I may state in 
reply to what has been said that my occupation with this study is as 
old in years as that of PROFESSOR KARSTEN, although I may not have 
progressed so far in the knowledge of it. The criticism which has 
been made seems a little sharp when we recall the criticism of those 
on the other side. They want their opponents to fall down in absolute 
subjection. I should also like to remark, that in my humble way I 
tried to give my ideas with reference to PAUL'S views. I forgot to say 
at the conclusion of my paper, that it was not my intention to consider 
the whole of PAUL'S book. I confined myself to the first two chapters. 
I admire the latter part of PAUL'S work where he gives the real re- 
sults of his labor. I do not think that PAUL is in perfect harmony 
with PROFESSOR KARSTEN. He seems to think that it is all philoso- 
phy and makes his entire book dependent upon these two chapters 
and it was on this account that I looked at these a little closer. 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University): I should like 
in the first place to say that I am entirely opposed to talking about 
sides in the discussion of a scientific question. We are in a free 
country and let us keep free. There are schools and factions which 
have grown up in Germany, but I am emphatically opposed to the 
importation of anything of that sort. Science is universal. Let us 
keep nothing but simple principles before us. PAUL himself gives us 
the best view in this controversy. He emphasizes more than do any 
of his friends the fact that he never intended to form a new school, or 
to be a leader in a new movement. Some of those who had been 
attracted by what he had written, had denominated it as new and so 
the term grew up. We must all agree that from PAUL, we have 
learned some things with a new emphasis and from him we have 
acquired some new working ideas. I know from personal knowledge 
that the most ardent of the adherents of PAUL do not insist upon any 
such thing as a new school. 

On motion, the Association then adjourned to meet at the hour 
indicated on the programme (2.30 p. m.) and partook of a second 
luncheon generously provided in the University Hall by the Local 
Committee. These luncheons in the university buildings were a 
great convenience to all those attending the Convention, in that they 
were thus enabled to save the time that otherwise would have been 
consumed in scattering about the city for the necessary refreshments, 
and the social features of the occasion were also, thereby, greatly 
promoted since the company was kept together and had an oppor- 
tunity of renewing the pleasant relations begun in their former re- 

For the Fifth Session (Friday Afternoon, December soth), the 
Association was called to order at 2.30 o'clock, PROFESSOR JAMES 
M. GARNETT in the Chair. 

xliv The Modern Language Association of America, 

Reports of committees were first called for. The Committee ap- 
pointed to audit the Treasurer accounts reported that they had found 
them correct. 

Committee to Memoralize Congress to remove the Tariff on Books : 
PROFESSOR J. M. HART (University of Cincinnati) : I had hoped to see 
some of the members of the committee before coming here. I have 
had a good deal of talk on the subject with PROESSOR PURNELL, and 
he and I have prepared a rough draught. I understand that the 
matter is left in our hands, we are to act in the name of the Asso- 
ciation and submit a paper to be presented to the Committee of Ways 
and Means at Washington. As I have stated, PROFESSOR PURNELL 
and I have made a rough outline of what we have to say, but I have 
not had an opportunity of presenting it to the other members of the 
committee. It might, however, be well to read what we have written 
to see if it meets the views of the members.* The points to which we 
have referred are the uanecessariness of th tax, the fact that there 
is no competition in books, and the fact that the tax bears upon those 
members of the community who are least able to bear financial drain. 
PROFESSOR EDWARD S. JOYNES (South Carolina College) : I move 
that this report as outlined be adopted and that its completion be 
referred with discretion to the special committee, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Executive Committee of the Modern Language 
Association. The motion was adopted. 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University): I think that 
this memorial should contain as many signatures of the members of 
the Association as it is possible to procure. While so many are in 
attendance, it might be desirable to provide the opportunity. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I suppose that the signature of the committee 
will be sufficient. 

PROFESSOR J. M. HART : It would not be possible to have this pa- 
per in such shape as to procure the signatures of those present at this 

DR. H. A. TODD (Johns Hopkins University) : This difficulty could 
be met by saying, that the report was unanimously adopted. 

Report of Committee on Nominations, PROFESSOR H. C. G. VON 
JAGEMANN, Chairman : The committee would call attention to the 
fact that it has been customary to leave those elected to the position 
on the Executive Council for three years and to change only one-third 
of the officers each time. The committee would make the following 
nominations : 

*The SECRETARY regrets that he is unable to give here the te'xt in full of the Memorial 
to Congress. He had thought to take a copy of it after it had passed around for the signa- 
tures of the members of the Committee ; through a misunderstanding, however, it was not 
returned to him and hence its omission in these PROCEEDINGS. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. xlv 


President, JAS. RUSSELL LOWELL, Harvard, 

Secretary, A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT, Johns Hopkins University, 
Treasurer, H. A. TODD, Johns Hopkins University. 



J. M. HART, Univ. of Cin., 
W. T. HEVVETT, Cornell, J. M. GARNETT, Univ. of Va., 

CALVIN THOMAS, Univ. of Mich., 

H. C. G. VON JAGEMANN, Univ. of Ind. 


J. M. HART, First Vice-President, 
SYLVESTER PRIMER, Second Vice-President, 
H. C. G. VON JAGEMANN, Third Vice-President. 


H. C. G. BRANDT, Hamilton, H. E. SHEPHERD, Charleston. 

The report was adopted. 

Report of the Committee on the establishment of a Phonetic Section. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD S. SHELDON (Harvard University) Chairman : 
The Committee recommends the establishment of such a section and 
also that the Committee be organized by the choice of a president and 
a secretary. The Committee suggests for President, PROFESSOR 
A. MELVILLE BELL, of Washington, and ior Secretary, PROFESSOR 
GUSTAF KARSTEN, of Indiana University. Adopted, 

Report of Committee to choose a place for the next annual conven- 

PROFESSOR J. M. HART (University of Cincinnati) Chairman : The 
Committee agreed unanimously, I believe, in spite of my individual 
protestations, to recommend Cincinnati as the place of the next 
meeting. I think that it was pre-arranged to select that place. I 
tried to convince the members of the Committee that in crossing the 
Alleghenies, they would take their lives in their hands, and that they 
must not expect such a reception as they have had in the East. Each 
member of the Committee, and I, also, for I like to go with the 
majority, voted for Cincinnati. 

I hope that you will come prepared for plain living, a great deal of 
work and less of the pleasures of life. Perhaps things may turn out 
better than I anticipate. Perhaps the hearts of the college graduates 
will soften, take you up kindly and treat you more generously than I 
can promise. The University of Cincinnati will do what its limited 
means will permit it to do. We call ourselves a University, but in 
reality we are nothing more than a college, with a faculty of ten or 
twelve and one hundred and twenty students. Our faculty is very 

xlvi The Modern Language Association of America, 

select as you have doubtless observed. We shall try to treat you 
warmly ; more than that I cannot promise. The report of the Com- 
mittee was adopted. 

Unfinished Business was next taken up. The Report of the Com- 
mittee, appointed last year, on the Grimm Memorial was called for, 
PROFESSOR HENRY WOOD (Johns Hopkins University), Chairman, 
stated : I made certain attempts to interest people in the subject, 
but was much disappointed. I understand that my colleagues on the 
committee so far as they made individual efforts met with little or no 
success. I was inclined to think and still think that there is more 
interest than appears, and that had I carried out the original idea of 
writing out a statement for the Executive Council to approve and 
which should appeal to our own members, something might have 
been accomplished. As far as I know, contributions would still be 
welcome for the purposes of a monument. I would therefore move 
that for the present, the committee be contimfed. Adopted. 

Report of the Committee on Publications. DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT 
(Johns Hopkins University) : I offered at the last meeting an outline 
of what an annual report on publications might be, instancing the 
practice of other learned societies, chiefly that of the London Philo- 
logical Society, and at the close of the meeting, a motion was passed 
without discussion, that some such report should be prepared by me 
and printed before the next meeting. It may seem strange that the 
printed report has not been produced. I at once preceded to engage 
men in the various departments to make contributions and succeeded 
in obtaining a large quantity of MS. In further conferences with 
the members of the Association, however, the matter assumed a very 
serious look and I finally concluded that I was not justified in start- 
ing on my own responsibility what would have to be regarded as a 
new publication of the Association. I think that the starting of a new 
publication should be referred to a special committee and should be 
carefully considered. It is a question to which we must come, if not 
now, soon in the future, whether or not we should publish a yearly 
summary of publications. There are such publications in Germany. 
It is a question whether these serve our purpose or whether we 
should inaugurate something new. 

I urge in extenuation of the charge that may seem to rest upon me 
of unwillingness to assume the responsibility of beginning something 
new which the Association might not have desired to carry out, that 
it would have involved a liberal use of money. I regret that my 
report has this unfavorable aspect. If the Association chooses to 
proceed in this matter, the MSS. which I have in my possession are 
at its disposal. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Does the chairman of the Committee make any 
special recommendation ? 

DR. BRIGHT : No. I do not. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The committee will consider itself discharged. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD S. JOYNES (South Carolina College) : I take 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, i88j. xlvii 

the liberty at this moment to offer a motion which I am sure will 
cause no division of opinion : 

Resolved that the thanks of this Association are due and are hereby 
heartily tendered to the University of Pennsylvania for their generous 
provision for its convenience and comfort ; to the local committee for 
its happy and complete arrangements, to the public institutions and 
Associations which have extended their hospitalities and to other 
friends for their courtesies, too numerous to be mentioned ; all of 
which entitle Philadelphia to be named and remembered as the City 
of Brotherly Love in every language known to this Association. 

Resolved that the Rail-road companies which have allowed reduced 
rates to members of the Association receive our hearty thanks. 

I find it impossible, Mr. President, in offering this motion to speak 
to it. I can compare the hospitalities of Philadelphia to nothing 
better than our own programme of proceedings and to the feelings of 
some, doubtless many, of us as we emerged from their electrical 
feasts, too full for utterance. I move the adoption of these reso- 

THE CHAIRMAN: I would suggest that the names of the Penn- 
sylvania Historical Society and of the Penn Club might properly 
appear in the resolutions. 

PROFESSOR JOYNES : It was intended to include these and other 
organizations under the phrase "the public institutions and Asso- 
ciations which have extended their hospitalities." To enumerate all 
would expand the resolution beyond its proper limits and to select 
any two would be perhaps invidious. The Resolutions were adopted. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD S. JOYNES (South Carolina College): I 
venture to trespass a moment longer upon the time of the Association 
and to offer another motion which I hope will receive unanimous 

Resolved that this Association recognises in the MODERN LAN- 
GUAGE NOTES under the management of PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL 
ELLIOTT, a useful auxiliary to its own work, and cordially commends 
the paper to the attention and support of the members of the Asso- 

Resolved that the Secretary be instructed to furnish MODERN LAN- 
GUAGE NOTES with a notice including the organization and the work- 
ing of this Association and further, to publish therein all official 
announcements required from time to time by this Association, and 
that the Executive Committee consider with discretion the question 
of publishing the proceedings of this Association in the MODERN 
LANGUAGE NOTES on such terms as may be agreed upon between 
the Committee and the editors. 

I have learned for the first time since I came here that there has 
been no official connection between the MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES 
and the MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION and that there has been 
no support of any kind tendered by the Association as an Association, 
to the paper which, besides the obligations under which it lays us as 

xlviii The Modern Language Association of America, 

individuals and scholars, we must see, is a powerful auxilliary to the 
general work of this Association as an Association. 

I desire to offer these resolutions as an expression on our part of 
the sense of that obligation, and as an official recognition of that 
paper, so far as may be, as the proper organ of this Association in 
making such announcements and publications as are proper to be 
made by the Association itself. The Resolutions were adopted. 

PROFESSOR CHARLES F. KROEH (Stevens Institute of Technology): 
I wish to call attention to a matter which may be of interest to the 
Association. Two months ago, I received a letter from a dear friend 
in one of the colleges, stating that owing to a misunderstanding 
among the faculty his self-respect would not permit him to remain any 
longer in that body and asking my co-operation in finding him a po- 
sition suitable to his attainments. The gentleman is an eminent 
mathematician, a man of family and in every way worthy of the con- 
sideration of his equals. * 

Now the fact that interests us in this connection is this, that on in- 
vestigating the means for placing such a man who should be able 
immediately to step into a position where his usefulness could be in- 
creased, there was an almost entire absence of agencies through 
which such information could be obtained. It struck me that a sim- 
ilar state of affairs might happen to any member of this Association 
at some future time and such member would be glad to find- some 
means of discovering where throughout this wide land such vacancies 
exist, and for that purpose I would offer the following resolution : 

Resolved that a committee be appointed to devise means for ob- 
taining information as regards vacancies that may occur in the chairs 
of languages in our higher institutions. 

THE CHAIRMAN : It does not seem to me that this would properly 
come under the business of the Association. If the Society desires 
that the resolution should be adopted, it is for it to say so. 

PROFESSOR JAMES M. HART (University of Cincinnati) : I would 
suggest that the resolution be amended by the substitution of the 
words " modern languages " for " languages." 

PROFESSOR KROEH : I accept the amendment. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD S. JOYNES (South Carolina College) : It is per- 
fectly clear to my mind that this matter is not only not germaine to 
the work of this Association, but might lead us far from all our pur- 
poses. This whole country is filled with teachers' agencies and we 
do not want to be intermediary between the vacancy on the one hand 
and the applicant on the other hand. I hope that the resolution will 
be withdrawn. If put into execution it will cause us a great deal of 

PROFESSOR KROEH : I am aware of the existence of these agen- 
cies, but I hardly think that the self-respect of the gentleman in 
question would permit him to place himself in their hands. My pur- 
pose was simply to offer a suggestion. If the resolution is not deemed 
proper, I will withdraw it. The resolution was withdrawn. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia,, December, 1887. xlix 

The next communication presented was by PRESIDENT HENRY E. 
SHEPHERD (College of Charleston) on 

12. A Study of Lord Machulay's English* 

[In the absence of the writer, the paper was read by PROFESSOR 
FELIX E. SCHELLING (University of Pennsylvania).] 

Discussion. PROFESSOR TH. W. HUNT (Princeton College) : We 
have scarcely heard enough of this paper to give us a basis for dis- 
cussion. Every one is familiar with the writing and the style of 
MACAULAY and each has his opinion, but enough of the paper has 
been read to give us its gist and to open the discussion. I do not 
know that there is any other prominent English prose author so diffi- 
cult to fix in his proper position as MACAULAY. I do not know that 
there is one about whom' there is so much difference of opinion 
among intelligent people. I have my own view. We must all admit 
that MACAULAY is a popular author; his books have been read to a 
large extent, but popularity is not the only mark of successful author- 
ship. An author may be popular and not occupy a very high posi- 
tion. MACAULAY is a readable author but readableness is not a 
necessary mark of distinction. 

There are two or three distinctive marks of excellence in MACAULAY, 
One is copiousness of diction. Another distinctive feature of MA- 
CAULAY'S style is its clearness. Few readers find difficulty in under- 
standing it. This is one great reason that he has been read so much* 
It is difficult to find in MACAULAY an ambiguous sentence or an in- 
volved structure ; he is remarkable for his narrative and descriptive 
style. Few have been so marked by a narrative and descriptive style 
in conjunction as has MACAULAY. These points must, I think, be 
conceded with reference to the excellence of MACAULAY. 

I wish to emphasize some of the defects in the works of MACAULAY. 
I have referred to these in a treatise on the subject and have nothing 
new to offer. I will reiterate the statements there made. Speaking 
of the copiousness of MACAULAY, I think that he is too copious, 
he is repetitive. He is what I would call a verbose writer. He tells 
us too much. He passes beyond the proper point. He states a 
point more than once and the reader becomes wearied by the repe- 
tition of the statement. He lacks condensation. Another radical 
defect is what I would call excessive word painting, an excess of the 
graphic style, paying so much attention to portraiture. I think that 
he carries this to excess, especially in history, for the description of 
events. If I were asked what I regarded as the distinctive defect in 
MACAULAY 's style, I should reach it best in this way by stating that I 
think he had a false theory of what style is. This may strike you as 
a strange remark. What I mean is this. He emphasizes what DE 
QUINCY calls the mechanology and does not sufficiently emphasize 
the organology. He emphasizes the form and does not sufficiently 
emphasize the thought behind the form. MACAULAY will do anything 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

1 The Modern Language Association of America, 

to obtain an antithesis. He is bound to secure the antithesis in spite 
of the thought behind it. What is style ? My interpretation is that it 
is the formulation of, or expression of, a thought for the sake of the 
thought and not for the sake of the form. In the case of MACAULAY 
it is the expression not for the sake of the thought but for the sake of 
the form. I have never received any intellectual impulse from it at all. 
He is a readable author and in a sense instructive with reference to 
history. I enjoy reading him, but have never been stimulated mental- 
ly by it. 

PROFESSOR). M. HART (University of Cincinnati): In the main I 
agree with what PROFESSOR HUNT has said, in giving his estimate of 
MACAULAY. I cannot derive any pleasure, nor I think profit from 
MACAULAY. I should not assign the same reasons that PROFESSOR 
HUNT has done. For years I was in the habit of teaching MACAULAY 
in this way ; it consisted in reading MACAULAY'S celebrated review of 
CROFER'S review of BOSWORTH, and then ffeading CARLYLE'S review 
of the same book. Nothing will reveal the thinness of MACAULAY'S 
style more than placing him alongside of CARLYLE. CARLYLE began 
writing as MACAULAY did. He began as an euphuist, that is he paid 
more attention to the structure of the sentence and the order of words 
than to the thoughts themselves. That te he paid attention to the 
mechanology rather than to the organology. In literature words are 
organisms. We want not a word, but precisely the word. As has 
been said there are many ways of doing a thing, but only one way of 
doing it well. So in a sentence there is only one word that expresses 
the exact sense. This is where CARLYLE is strong and where MA- 
CAULAY is weak. Another fault with MACAULAY is that he is like 
super-heated steam. Everything is urged beyond the average. It 
is not enough for MACAULY to say of a writer " he is good," " he is 
poor " or " he is weak," but " he is the best," " he is the worst " or 
"he is the weakest" writer that he has known. I went over the 
subject carefully when I was reading CARLYLE and MACAULAY. 

I think that the secret lies in this. PROFESSOR HUNT states that 
MACAULAY had a false view of style. I agree with this, but I should 
put it differently. I would echo a remark of MATTHEW ARNOLD, 
who at present seems to be in disfavor. He says of EMERSON that 
he writes with his eye on the object, while others write with the eye 
not upon the object, but upon the reader. MACAULAY writes as it 
were with some one looking over his shoulder saying " How well you 
have done it." 

PROFESSOR H. WOOD (Johns Hopkins University): When I read 
the title of this paper I expected that an attempt would be made to 
explain and illustrate MACAULAY by himself. He was evidently not 
at one with the style of his own age and that would seem to mark 
him out for special treatment from an analytical stand-point. I was 
disappointed at not hearing anything of that sort, but perhaps it 
would have been given in the illustrations. I also missed a reference 
to some valuable literature upon the subject, as for instance HUME on 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. li 

MACAULAY. In regard to the explanation of MACAULAY from outside 
sources, the arguments were not fully stated. His relation to BURKE 
was not clearly stated. With reference to what has been said in 
regard to euphuism, no definition was given of that tendency or 
quality of style and I think that in the present state of knowledge it 
would be better to omit that term in considering either MACAULAY or 
CARLYLE. I beg leave to state that the choice of words was a dis- 
tinctive feature in euphuism because parascenic antithesis was there 
the marked element. If you have an adjective in one half of the 
sentence beginning with p, you have another adjective or noun 
beginning with p in the other half of the sentence. That led to a 
most unfortunate choice of words. In this respect, I do not see that 
properly speaking there is any relation between euphuism and MA- 

PROFESSOR J. M. HART (University of Cincinati) : When I spoke 
of euphuism and euphuistic, I did not apply the terms with a special 
significance with regard to the choice of words but I meant to imply 
that CARLYLE and any good writer uses his words carefully to de- 
scribe the thought, or to express the object whereas euphuistic writ- 
ing consists in the use of words and adjectives to jingle with some- 
thing else. MACAULAY uses words and qualifying terms not because 
they convey the exact shades of meaning, but because they fit with 
other words. 

strikes me that we are losing sight of what is due to MACAULAY. I 
agree with what PROFESSOR PORTER, of Yale College, says : MA- 
CAULAY is an excellent author to put into the hands of a young man 
just beginning the study. In the same line, it may be stated that 
MATTHEW ARNOLD in discussing MACAULAY says that when people 
first begin to lead an intellectual life and to feel that they should do 
something beyond attending to their ordinary every-day business, 
you will find them buying MACAULAY. In every house in Australia 
along with Pilgrim's Progress and the Bible, you will find MACAULAY. 
As to obtaining intellectual stimulus from him, I can say that when 
young, I found MACAULAY fascinating but I feel that I have out-grown 
this. I was surprised in listening to the paper not to hear some 
reference to MACAULAY'S indebtedness to DR. JOHNSON. I think that 
a good deal of his antithetical tendencies is to be traced to that 

PROFESSOR ALBERT H. SMYTH, of Philadelphia, next followed with 
a paper on 

13. American Literature in the Class-room.* 

Discussion. PROFESSOR A. H. TOLMAN (Ripori College) : There 
is pleasure in listening to an author who makes himself so clear with 
reference to American literature in the high-school and academy 
class-room, to American literature in the College class-room and to 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

Iff The Modern Language Association of America, 

American literature in the University class, Jecture-room and in the 
seminary. In the academy class-room its importance cannot be over- 
stated. In the high-school and in the academy American literature 
has an important place. We need to get scholars interested and this- 
will interest them. In the university and the seminary, again, it 
seems to me that American literature will hold an important place. 
The advanced American scholar should study carefully, thoroughly 
and accurately the origin, development and growth and tendencies 
of American literature. 

In the intermediate class-room, in the college class-room, which is. 
where I teach, into my class-room, American literature as American 
literature has not entered. There are two standards, which I try to 
accommodate : the historical and the aesthetic. PROFESSOR SMYTH 
states that these objects cannot be accomplished. It seems to me 
that they must be. The student will lose if they are not accomplished. 
It seems to me that the two can and should* be accomplished. I do 
not like to add a third, that is a geographical. If we can satisfactori- 
ly teach the two standards that I have mentioned, the aesthetic and, 
the historical standard, it seems to me that we have done all that we 
can, and that we shall not do well to add a third, the geographical, 
or to say that with a geographical standard the works of prominent 
importance are the American. American literature as PROFESSOR 
SMYTH has stated refers to only one period of the history of the Eng- 
lish language and that the most recent. Our scholars will get that in 
magazines and other reading. We can tell them what is best and 
what should be read first. 

DR. J. W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University): I am glad that 
PROFESSOR SMYTH has so clearly marked the distinction between the 
various classes in which American literature could be studied, and 
the corresponding differences of aim and method in that instruction. 
I think that American literature does deserve a high place in our 
schools. There are problems there of development, as PROFESSOR 
SMYTH has so well shown. We have the beginning and the end, the 
origin and the gradual development of many an interesting problem. 
We have survived the speculations and misgivings of KAVANAGH, 
and are prepared to say with complacency, " Let us be natural, and 
we shall be national enough." We have a literature of our own : it 
is original enough, and that too without being all " spasms and con- 
vulsions." There are many problems that we can study with com- 
posure. How many understand the true significance of TRUMBULL'S 
' M'Fingal '? And has not MR. PAGE revealed the singulartruth that 
America in the nineteenth century has produced her own parallel to 
St. Francis of Assisi ? I therefore insist upon the importance of 
American literature for the purposes of advanced work as well as for 
elementary training. 

PROFESSOR HENRY WOOD (Johns Hopkins University): A few 
months ago, the editor of the Fortnightly Review sent out a request 
asking those who received it to state what they considered the finest 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, iS8j. liii 

piece in the English language. I noticed among others that were 
given, that LINCOLN'S speech at Gettysburg was considered by some 
to be the finest piece of English literature. The thought struck me 
then that where Englishmen are found so generously recognizing the 
excellence of the productions of this country which they deserve, 
whether we should not lose more than we should gain by persisting 
in using the term "American literature " on all occasions. I might 
here allude to the literature of Holland which cut loose from the lit- 
erature of Germany during the beginning of the new period, partly 
owing to political complications, partly owing to difference of 
language and considerably owing to national jealousy. The Swiss at 
the same time did not cut loose and we hear no considerable mention 
of Swiss literature. 

No one thinks of comparing the political importance of Holland or 
Switzerland with America. We stand politically upon our fee't and it 
has been shown that we can do so in literature and ask favors from no 
one. I call attention to this parallel because the Swiss have come in 
at the time of the revival of German literature, but the Dutch have 
never done it from that day. It would have been impossible for any 
influence to have spread from the Swiss colleges had they not pre- 
served their literature the same as that of Germany. 

PROFESSOR SMYTH'S paper was very interesting and in regard to 
the importance of American authors, I thoroughly agree with him. 

DR. JULIUS GOEBEL (Johns Hopkins Uuiversity) : With reference to 
the parallel drawn between Switzerland and Holland, I would state 
that the reason that the Swiss literature has had more influence upon 
the German literature than has the English or Dutch is not to be 
found so much in literary as in linguistic reasons. The Swiss language 
belongs to the High-German dialect and the High-German dialect 
has been the language of modern German literature, while the Dutch 
literature has been condemned to the same destiny to which the 
older German literature has been subjected. 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University) next followed 
with a paper on 

14. The University Idea, and English in the University. 

[Only the first half of this paper was presented, of which part the following is an abstract] . 

Wide-spread discussion of problems that are more or less involved in the 
theory of the entire system of our educational institutions has, within a limited 
number of years, produced all-important effects. The comprehensive doctrine 
that may now be presumed to be fairly established is one that is born of the 
historic sense. The legitimate teaching of history is by analogy. A statute, an 
institution, a formal or a personal agency is, at a given period and under given 
circumstances, effective by virtue of accomplishing the fitting thing at the fitting 
time. History teaches how emergencies have or have not been met, while there 
is also a recurring uniformity of relation between the members of what may be 
called the historic equation, the adjustment of varying means to varying ends. 
There is a growing disposition to apply these principles to our educational 
system. Our schools, colleges and universities must be released from anachro- 

fi v The Modern Language Association of America, 

nism, and made to conform to the vital and forward-pointing needs of the* 
present. Limiting our attention to one phase of this readjustment, the propo- 
sition may be stated that America is ripe for the University. America is not ripe 
for the English University, nor for the German University, and she has outgrown* 
the Institution of her Colonial days; but America as she is to-day America is ripe 
for the American University. 

England is to-day questioning the perfection of her old foundations Oxford 
and Cambridge. She is developing plans for reforming, transforming and ex- 
tending these organization*, and going a step further, declares that additional: 
Universities will be wanted which will vary from the old type. It is declared 
equally impossible and undesirable to reproduce the pattern of these old schools. 
Says MR. SEEI.EY : "Those old universities (Oxford and Cambridge) stand 
before us majestic as old trees, and they are trees, as I hold, still full of sap and 
vigor. But a tree is not a model ; you cannot make a tree, however much you 
desire it. Nor can you reproduce the curious organization which through special 
circumstances in a long course of time has grown up in our old universities. The 
mere forms no doubt you might reproduce, but the feness of them, their adap- 
tation to the environment, you cannot reproduce. Another Cambridge planted 
in Birmingham would be, as it seems to me, not really a Cambridge at all. And 
even if it were a Cambridge, many defects, many abuses, excusable enough in an 
old institution, which like other old institutions has traversed bad times, would 
be inexcusable when transferred, when deliberately reproduced.''* The Eng- 
land of to-day is not the England of a century ago, much less of five centuries 
ago. When therefore she would erect a new university she dare not sacrifice 
present efficiency to a sentiment for historic tradition. But MR. SEELEY does 
more than merely declare that England does not need another Cambridge or 
Oxford, These represent, he says, "the best type known to Englishmen," but 
" not the normal type," and so he approaches the question, What are the essentials 
of the normal university type ? But after two generations of educational reform, 
England is still so far from an approximation to this normal type, that MR. SEE- 
LEY finds it necessary to pave his way with prophecy: I look forward," he 
says, " to two great changes. In the first place England, which till lately has 
had but two universities, in the proper sense of the word, will have a dozen, and 
perhaps the United Kingdom will have a score; secondly, the true essence or 
ideal of a university will become clear to us, and the English university of the 
future will no longer be either a mere public school for older boys, or a mere 
young men's club, or a mere racing ground where the favorites of the betting 
world run for plates, called in this case Senior Wranglerships, Craven or Ireland 
Scholarships, but it will be well ! for the present I will only say it will be a 
true university." It were easy enough to parallel MR. SEELEY'S prophecy with 
a like vision of our own future. We too have a note of negatation to sound. 
There are features of our system for higher education which must be lopped off; 
others in a rudimentary state will need to be developed. And it is to be 
observed that a purely theoretic investigation of our educational problem, in 
which no reference is made to English conditions, has lead MR. GEORGE T. 
LADD to a conclusion which is a parallel to the first clause of MR. SEELEY'S 
prediction for England. "I venture to assert" says MR. LADD, "that not 
more than a half-dozen (?) universities should be developed in the entire country 
during the next generation. "t When investigations pursued along independent 
lines arrive at such a striking coincidence of results, we surely have no slight 
grounds for trusting the validity of the main argument. The unknown but 

*The Fortnightly Review, Nov., 1887. 
fScribner's Magazine, Sept., 1887. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia., December, 1887. 1v 

suspected ideal university is detected, simultaneously, from different points of 
observation by the unmistakable perturbations in the movements of the known 

Another important inference is to be drawn from the above coincidence, it is 
this, that the typical or ideal university of one country will differ little, and hard- 
ly at all in essentials, from the corresponding institution of an other country. In 
the crowning products of different educational systems there is necessarily a 
.closer agreement than between any corresponding members lower down in these 
systems. The lower forms partake of natural and local conditions which give 
variety of texture and of color; the pinnacles must pierce the free region of uni- 
versal science. This high degree of uniformity, moreover, implies a severe 
simplicity in the fundamental organization of the true university. MR. SEEI.EY 
offers the outline of a definition : " A university consists of class-rooms and 
professors. These are all the materials; to make a true university out of them it 
is only necessary that the professors should be truly competent, free, devoted to 
their subject, and original in the sense of studying at first hand, while the 
students must be single-minded, listening that they may know, not that they may 
pass an examination, or win a prize." "The idea," he goes on to say, "is 
simple ; if it is difficult to realize, this is just because it is so simple. A pure love 
of science, such as the professors ought to have, is not easy to find ; and in the 
overwhelming pressure of examinations it is difficult to find students who have 
leisure and freedom of mind for honest study." A further characterization of the 
^university teacher is that he is not to be a "schoolmaster," but one who "has 
his knowledge at first hand, who speaks with authority in his own department, 
and speaks to men." And the scope of the university is just as easy of state- 
ment : "The new university, which exists for study and research, aims especial- 
ly at comprehensiveness and universality. It neglects no subject, and tries to 
do justice to all." 

Such are to be the essential features of the new university of England, and they 
are those of the coming American university as well. A collection of professors, 
representing in the strictest sense the purely scientific aspect of their respective 
subjects ; men who for their day and generation are the embodiment of the pro- 
gress of science and knowledge ; who summing up in themselves the products of 
past endeavor, transmit the same with increment. They must be men through 
whom knowledge does not pass as a dead mass through a passive medium, but 
must rather be the soil in it. Knowledge is planted, that it may grow and 
flourish, bringing forth fruits and flowers in the sight of all men, and for the 
healing of the nations. / 

I hold that it were useless to pause at this point to consider at length the 
objection to the new university, on the ground that it is too ideal not sufficiently 
practical. By the side of this objection I place the inflexible statement that the 
true university must have no direct relations to practical ends. If the " practical " 
objection be valid then the establishment of a university .of this normal type 
would have to result in failure. And how, it may be asked, can it be shown a 
priori, that such would not be the inevitable issue. I answer, this is not a matter 
of mere theory. The ideal American University, is, potentially, in existence to- 
day. And this, too, is understating the matter. We must rather say, that the 
ideal American University exists to-day in disconnected though live parts and 
members, which need but the adventitious aid of local aggregation to become 
known in their true significance. 

What are the university elements which are thus declared ready for organiza- 
tion ? They are, first of all, represented in the graduate courses which some of 
our foremost colleges are with difficulty endeavoring to foster. The teachers of 

Ivi The Modern Language Association of America, 

these courses are those who though already charged with full service of secondary 
instruction in the College, are yet impelled by a devotion to science to bestow an 
imagined surplus of energy to the guidance and encouragement of the few eager 
students who, after their completion of the prescribed College course, are possess- 
ed of an indefinable, instinctive, feeling that there must be something more to be 
done, something more final and more satisfying, and who therefore continue to 
linger about the old halls, as if pleading that their echoes might tell of the 
mysteries that must surely be known to them. Elements of the new university 
are represented in the hundreds of American graduate students who yearly crowd 
the universities of Europe. There is a silent university at work represented in 
the many earnest private students of science and of literature that are debarred 
from the privileges of the two enumerated classes; men holding humble, useful 
positions in our schools, or higher positions in our colleges, with a devotion to 
truth, but without apparatus for research, who are with improvised keys fumbling 
at the wards of the locks that secure the treasures of true knowledge. Elements 
of the new university are represented in those of high and independent scholar- 
ship, whom the teacher's burden even cannot fcpce into the common mould ; 
men of large capacity and of elastic fibre, who are maintaining for us national 
claims in the republic of science. 

The existence of these elements surely calls for the speedy realization of our 
typical university ; a seat of learning, served in its chief features from the college 
on the one hand, and from the professional schools on the other ; where men of 
liberal training may hear from the lips of a master authoritative utterances, the 
last word, as the phrase goes, on every branch of human knowledge. But ' every 
branch of human knowledge ' is a large phrase, and, it may be asked, is not the 
university idea attainable within more modest limits ? The answer to the ques- 
tion brings us to the next important detail in our discussion. The true university 
idea consists in the quality of presentation, and not in the quantity or number of 
subjects presented. An institution that offers true university advantages for a 
single branch of science, or for a single sub-division of any science is to that ex- 
tent a true university. "The school of all schools in America which has had 
most influence on scientific teaching," says President JORDAN,* " was held in an 
old barn on an uninhabited island some eighteen miles from the shore. It lasted 
barely three months, and in effect it had but one teacher. The school at Penikese 
existed in the personal presence of AGASSIZ. When he died it vanished." That 
was a true university. Herein lies the practical solution of the question of how 
we are to attain to the establishment of our half-dozen Universities within the 
next few decades. The closing words of MR. LADD are to the point. " Final- 
ly," he says, " it is plain that the development of the university in this country 
involves a marked and permanent differentiation into two classes of the higher 
educational institutions now in existence. The vast majority of the ' colleges ' 
so-called, in this country should be content to remain colleges that is, places 
which make no pretence to carry men beyond such secondary education as is pre- 
paratory to a genuine university education. To improve the secondary education 
which they impart, and to make it somewhat worthy of the idea connected in the 
minds of our people with the word ' collegiate,' may well satisfy their highest 
ambition. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that the great majority of 
the institutions now called ' universities ' should renounce both the name and the 
pretence of the thing. Only those few institutions that have already acquired 
large resources and equipment for the highest instruction, and that can hope to 
draw from their own and from other colleges a sufficient constituency of pupils 

*' Science sketches/ A. S. McCLURG & Co., Chicago, 1888. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. Ivii 

already trained in a thorough secondary education, should strive to develop 
themselves into universities. Large means for scientific research libraries, 
museums, observatories, etc. are indispensable for this development. A comple- 
ment of professional schools, with their faculties, is also, if not indispensable, 
at least highly important." This summary, though I should modify some 
details, is yet in the main in exact agreement with the principles here urged. 
Pure science must be promoted ; our colleges are not, and should not be organ- 
ized to this end. In the absence, however, of special foundations for the 
promotion and transmission of pure science, our colleges, in evidence of strong 
vitality, have more and more exceeded their proper function, and have developed 
so much of a double function that the time has come for the dichotomy that shall 
save both lives. The college will, in consequence of this division, become 
clearer and more efficient in its mission, and the rich fringes of its unduly ex- 
tended borders will be woven into the strong texture of the true and independent 

The practical necessity of the present is that a beginning be made by some of 
our leading institutions, in the establishment of true university courses. Several 
institutions have the resources to do this at once. Let a cluster of efficient 
scholars, according to the conditions already named, be set free from all college 
or strictly professional teaching, to devote themselves entirely to the more 
abstract and purely scientific interests of their respective subjects, and a universi- 
ty is called into existence that will re-act, with inestimable advantage, upon our 
whole national system of education. 

Discussion. PROFESSOR J. M. HART (University of Cincinnati): I 
am quite sorry that DR. BRIGHT has only given us the first half of his 
paper; I had hoped that the discussion would be on the instruction 
of English in the university rather than on the idea of the university 
in general, not at all that I differ from him in any of his positions. 
My own attitude toward the paper is a good deal like that of the 
farmer's wife toward sunset when she sees her chickens coming home 
to roost. I think that I recognize some of my own chickens, not that 
there has been any borrowing of eggs, but they are of the same brood. 

What constitutes a university and wherein it differs from a college, 
were put in print by me many years ago ; you will find something on 
the subject in my work on the ' German Universities,' and still more 
in the Galaxy for June 1872. I agree with everyone who lays down 
the general rule that the college is distinct from the university. 1 
think that the college presupposes a different kind of teaching, a dif- 
ferent plan of instruction and a different aim. What should be the 
aim? In the college it is simplicity, or non-variety of subjects and 
sharply drawn limitations as to what shall be taught and then great 
thoroughness of methods. Thoroughness, I mean in the sense of 
discipline. The university should be a place where every man can 
learn everything, and there of course is freedom and latitude in the 
topics to be taught, and the object of teaching is not to enforce strict 
mental discipline, but rather to take young men and start them on 
the path that they have chosen. In other words, it should be the 
object of the university to encourage the utmost freedom of opinion 
that shall not degenerate into down-right license. My idea of a uni- 
versity is where a professor says, I think so and so, there are the 

Iviii The Modern Language Association of America, 

books, think for yourselves. If you agree with me, well, if you do 
not agree with me, the world will decide between us. I am sorry 
that DR. BRIGHT has not told us how this can be done in English. I 
have gotten the horse without the cart, or the cart without the horse. 
I should like to have the complete vehicle. 

PROFESSOR C. SPRAGUE SMITH (Columbia College) : There is one 
practical point which I should like to have seen made a little plainer, 
that is the question where we should have the university. There are 
two methods, two main ones at least. One is to construct the univer- 
sity on the basis of the academy, another upon the basis of the col- 
lege. I had reason to carefully study this subject and work it out 
historically and I came to the conclusion that the college was develop- 
ing towards the university but had not reached the university. The 
line of division falls inside of the college. It should not be built upon 
the college or the academy, but upon the period of the college course, 
which should be reorganized. This is tlie result of historical studies. 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT (Johns Hopkins University): I have ob- 
served throughout the discussions of this meeting that we need more 
and more to distinguish clearly and distinctly between college and 
university work. I consider this discrimination to be a proper sub- 
ject for discussion. If the university idea is clearly comprehended, I 
think that it is easy to pass to the consideration of any course within 
the university. I intended to give an outline of what I conceived to 
represent a university course in English. I have tried to indicate 
how we are to begin. I believe that the confusion which is admitted 
on all hands as existing at present in our college system can only be 
removed by making the beginning which I have indicated. I have 
shown that it would be proper for a few of our older institutions to 
make this beginning. I have shown whence the students will be ob- 
tained ; our young men will remain at home rather than go to Ger- 
many. I think that the time has come to make the beginning. To 
illustrate, not to leave these grounds, suppose that this institution at 
which we are assembled should establish a chair for the study of 
philology with a full equipment for teaching the best that can be 
taught in this department. The professor would have nothing to do 
but mind philological matters. His relations would not be merely 
local, but would associate him with all scholars everywhere working 
in this same department. He would be concerned in representing 
his subject theoretically and scientifically, and that would be a true 
university. So in chemistry or any other department. Necessarily 
such courses should be more and more concentrated at few favorable 
points. The university elements are in the country and we are ready 
for organization. 

PROFESSOR J. M. HART : I should like to know what DR. BRIGHT 
considers a university course in English. There are hundreds of 
questions in my mind which I should like to have seen considered. I 
have myself a class four hours a week in which I endeavor to do 
advanced work. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. lix 

DR. JAMES W. BRIGHT : PROFESSOR HART'S remarks seem to call 
for an outline of the second part of my paper. I cannot, in a few 
words, say much to the point. The university teacher must be re- 
leased from college work. We must not confound the two things ; a 
course of Englis^h in a university would call for a man to represent a 
thorough philological knowledge of the language at all periods, and 
of the literature in its historic relations, but so long as the human 
mind remains constituted as it now is I do not think that a thorough 
philologian can at precisely the same time be equally effective as a 
teacher of literature. Why not have half a dozen men for a great 
subject like English. Have as many men as you can get to teach well 
defined divisions of the subject, but I should not advise PROFESSOR 
HART to represent all these departments at the same time. I have 
great faith in PROFESSOR HART'S powers, but I have not seen the 
man who could do that. It does not matter what courses are offered, 
men will come and take what they want. Very little organization 
will be required and this is secondary in importance to the character 
of work done. 

PROFESSOR J. M. HART : Why not have three or four men ? The 
question resolves itself into one of dollars and cents. The question I 
should like answered is this, I have twelve hours to teach, four hours 
I can devote to English, I want to know in what way I can utilize that 
time, and whether or not it is advisable for me to take bright men 
and give them a chance to do something more than routine cramming? 
Whether I am not justified in giving them a chance to study? I do 
not think that the work will kill me, I do not believe that it will kill 

THE CHAIRMAN : The subject is one that has interested me for a 
number of years. In July 1875 I published an article on University 
organization. I attempted to detail the organization of the German 
Universities. I also expressed the hope in view of the establishment 
of the universities of Johns Hopkins and Vanderbilt that the close of 
the century might see a real American University. We are all glad 
to know that one of these is in a fair way to become such. The 
question resolves itself into one of dollars and cents. As soon as we 
get sufficient endowment for the institutions to develop into univer- 
sities we can get the men to put into the chairs. There is a wide dis- 
tinction between the college and the university course. The great 
difficulty in this country is that we have not the foundation which the 
Germans have, we have not the preliminary studies to prepare for the 
university. The leaven should work from above downwards. If we 
attempt to establish the university, the college will come up. 

PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT (Johns Hopkins University), 
should have followed with a contribution on 

15. The Earliest Works on Italian Grammar and Lexicography 
Published in England* 

*Cf. TRANSACTIONS in present volume for the full paper. 

Ix The Modern Language Association of America, 

but, owing to lack of time, the reading of this communication was 
omitted, the writer outlining, in a few remarks, the general plan 
which he had pursued in gathering the material for his paper during 
several weeks' work in the British Museum library. The object here 
is to treat the linguistic side exclusively of the earliest contact of 
Italian and English, reserving the literary side as represented in 
translations, paraphrases, etc., for some future occasion. 

THE SECRETARY : I want to make an apology for not presenting a 
list of names of those attending this convention. In Baltimore last 
year such a list was published within four hours after the ' copy ' was 
in. The list for the present convention was sent out yesterday but it 
has not yet been received ; I had hoped to have it ready for distribu- 
tion at this morning's session ; it will be sent to each member of the 
Association by mail. 

A suggestion has come to me that a committee be appointed to 
consider seriously a change of the time of trie year for holding our 
annual convention. This time of year has some advantages but it 
has many drawbacks. The members generally want to be with their 
families during this holiday season ; the inclemency of the weather 
renders it impossible for some to attend our meetings. It has there- 
fore been proposed that a committee take into consideration the ad- 
visability of suggesting a different time of the year for holding our 
annual conference. Some here present may not know how the 
Christmas hollidays came to be selected. Some years ago a letter 
was sent out to a number of modern language professors asking 
those who received it if they would like to come together during the 
holidays and talk over matters with reference to modern language 
work. I found to my astonishment that thirty or forty professors were 
willing to meet in New York. We did come together and every man 
talked as long as he wanted to. We did not settle on anything very 
definite, but it was decided that when we adjourned, we should meet 
again during the coming holidays, and so we did, thus continuing our 
gatherings at this season. I would suggest, Mr. President, that a 
committee take this matter into consideration. If it does not think it 
advisable at present to change, let it say so and recommend its con- 
tinuance as heretofore. 

I should have mentioned at the opening of the convention with re- 
gard to PRESIDENT LOWELL, that he was unable to be with us. He 
has been much under the weather since his return from Europe. I 
have received three letters from him within the last few days, in the 
last one he expresses deep regrets that he cannot be with us and makes 
some remarks which I thought it might be interesting to read here. 

I thought that these few sentences would be of interest as showing 
how deeply he is in sympathy with us. 

I would move that a committee of five be appointed to take into 
consideration the advisability of changing the time of year at which 
the annual convention of the Modern Language Association be held. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. Ixi 

The following committee was appointed : PROFESSORS EDWARD S. 
SHELDON, (Harvard University), C. SPRAGUE SMITH (Cornell Univer- 
sity), A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT (Johns Hopkins University), H. C. G. 
VON JAGEMANN, (Indiana University), ALCE FORTIER (Tulane Uni- 

The Association then adjourned to meet at Cincinnati during the 
holidays of 1888 on such dates as may be determined by the Execu- 
tive Council. 

.A goodly number of the Association remained in Philadelphia 
over Friday night and attended the delightful Social Reception 
tendered to the Convention by the Penn Club, at their Club House on 
Locust Street. This opportunity was particularly interesting for the 
strangers in that they had the pleasure of greeting here many of the 
leading litterati and scientists of the city whom they had not before 
met and with whom, owing to the select number of invited guests, 
they were able to become more closely acquainted than if the com- 
pany had been larger. The occasion was furthermore a fitting sequel 
to the intellectual and social pleasures of the conference and the 
members from a distance left the Club deeply impressed with the 
sentiment that no other city, perhaps, deserves more richly or is able 
to bear more appropriately the graceful epithet, City of Brotherly 




Modern Language Association of America 


December 28, 29 and 3O, 1887. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 


On Tuesday evening, December 27, Dr. William Pepper, Provost 
of the University, will receive the Delegates to the Convention in- 
formally at his house, 1811 Spruce Street, at 8.30 p. m. 

Provision will be made for visiting, on Wednesday, the places of 
interest mentioned below under ' ' Local Arrangements. ' ' Excursions 
to Haverford and Bryn Mawr Colleges (30 minutes from the city) or 
to Swarthmore College (about the same distance), may be made on 
Wednesday afternoon. 


December 28 (WEDNESDAY). 
8 p. m. 

1. Address of Welcome by Dr. WILLIAM PEPPER, Provost 

of the University of Pennsylvania. 

2. Address by Professor JAMES MACALISTER, Superinten- 

dent of Public Schools of Philadelphia. 
Subject: The Place of Modern Literature in the Education of 

Our Time. 

At the close of these exercises a Reception by the University to 
the members of the Convention will be given in the Univer- 
sity Buildings. 


December 29 (THURSDAY). 
9.3O a. m. 

<*. Reading of the Secretary's and Treasurer's Reports. 
b. Appointment of Committees. 
c. Reading of Papers : 

1. The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 

Professor A. H. TOLMAN, Ripon College, Wisconsin. 

2. The Modern Language Seminary System. 

Professor H. S. WHITE, Cornell University, N. Y. 

3. The Face in the Spanish Metaphor and Proverb. 

Professor HENRY R. LANG, New Bedford, Mass. 

\ p. m. 

Luncheon at the University to the members of the Association. 

2.3O p. m. 

i. Charleston's Provincialisms. 

Professor SYLVESTER PRIMER, College of Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

Ixiv The Modern Language Association of America, 

2. The Brief, or Pregnant, Metaphor in the minor Eliza- 

bethan Dramatists. 

Professor HENRY WOOD, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, Md. 

3. Bits of Louisiana Folk-lore. 

Professor ALCE FORTIER, Tulane University, La. 

4. Methods of Teaching Modern Languages. 

Professor CHARLES F. KROEH, Stevens Institute of 
Technology, N.J. 

8 p. m. 

A Social Reception given to the members of the Convention by 
the Pennsylvania Historical Society, at their Rooms, i3th and Locust 

FOURTH SESSION (more technical papers). 

December 3O (FRIDAY). * 

9.3O a. m. 

1. Speech Unities and their r61e in Sound Change and 

Phonetic Laws. 
Professor GUSTAF KARSTEN, Indiana University, Ind. 

2. Die Herkunft der sogenannten Schwachen Verba der 

germanischen Sprachen. 
Professor HERMANN CoLLiTZ.^ryw MawrCollege,Pa. 

3. Some Specimens of a Canadian French Dialect spoken 

in Maine. 
Professor E. S. SHELDON, Harvard University, Mass. 

4. On Paul's ' Principien der Sprachgeschichte.' 

Dr. JULIUS GOE.BEL, Johns Hop bins University, Mass. 
I p. rn. 

Luncheon at the University. 


2.3O p. m. 

a. Reports of Committees. 
b. Reading of Papers : 

1. A Study of Lord Macaulay's English. 

President HENRY E. SHEPHERD, College of Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

2. American Literature in the Class-room. 

Professor ALBERT H. SMYTH, Philadelphia, 

3. The English Curriculum in the University. 

Dr. JAMES W. BRIGHT, Johns Hopkins Univ., Md. 

4. The Earliest Works on Italian Grammar and Lexicog- 

raphy published in England. 

Prof. A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT, Johns Hopkins Univ. 
8 p. m. 

A Social Reception to the Members of the Convention by the Penn 
Club, at their Club House, S. E. cor. 8th and Locust Sts. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887, Ixv 


The Local Committee have secured reduced rates at the Lafayette 
Hotel, (Broad St. below Chestnut, three blocks from the Broad St. 
Station of the Penna. Railway) where rooms can be had on the Euro- 
pean or American plan, from $i per day for room alone and $3 per 
day for room with board. This hotel is recommended as the place of 
general rendezvous for members of the Convention. Other first-class 
Hotels, conveniently situated, are the Colonnade (rsth and Chestnut 
Sts.), the West End (Chestnut near i6th St.) and the Aldine (Chestnut 
above igth St.). 

The institutions and places of interest mentioned below will be 
open, by special invitation, to members of the Convention : 


Exhibition) MASONIC TEMPLE, 








Reduced rates have been obtained for the Railways belonging to 
the "Trunk Line Association," which makes a concession for per- 
sons going to the meeting from Trunk Line territory, that is, from 
Niagara Falls, N. Y., Buffalo, N. Y., Salamanca, N. Y., Pittsburgh, 
Pa., Bellaire, CX, Wheeling, W. Va., Parkersburg, W. Va. and points 
east thereof. The concession is a fare and a third, on Committee's 
Certificate, and the following Railways are included in this arrange- 
ment : 

BALTIMORE & OHIO (East of Parkersburg, Bellaire, and Wheeling), 
ALBANY (on business between points in New England and points west 
of, but not including, Albany), BUFFALO, NEW YORK & PHILADELPHIA, 
TRAL, PENNSYLVANIA (except locally between Philadelphia and New 
locally between Philadelphia and New York), PHILADELAHIA, WIL- 

Ixvi The Modern Language Association of America, 

For the Southern Passenger Association, the following Railways 
offer the reduction as noted for the Trunk lines : 

BILE & OHIO (Lines South of Ohio River), NASHVILLE, CHATTANOOGA 
South Carolina), PENNSYLVANIA (South of Washington), PETERSBURG, 

There is every prospect that reduced rates will also be obtained for 
the Central Traffic Association, covering the railways throughout the 
Western States. 

All persons desiring to attend the Convention are requested to 
make application immediately to the Secretary"of the Association, 
Prof. A. M. Elliott, Johns Hopkins University, stating by what route 
they intend to come, so as to obtain from him necessary identification, 
or orders entitling them to excursion rates on the above named basis 
of one and one-third fares for the round trip. 


The following gentlemen have kindly consented to serve as a Local 
Committee, and will be glad to show the delegates any courtesies in 
their power : 

Rev. John S. Macintosh, D. D., Chairman. 

Prof. Jno. G. R. McElroy, University of Pa., Secretary. 

Vice-President Wm. H. Appleton, Swarthmore College, 

James G. Barnwell, Librarian Philada. Library, 

Geo. H. Boker, President Fairmount Park Commission, 

Prof. Daniel G. Brinton, M. D., Univ. of Pa., 

Rev. Jesse Y. Burk, Secretary University of Penna., 

B. B. Comegys, 

John H. Converse, 

Brinton Coxe, President Penna. Historical Society, 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887, Ixvii 

L. Clarke Davis, The Ledger, Philada., 

Hon. Robert P. Dechert, Controller City of Philada., 

Samuel Dickson, 

Thomas Dolan, 

John Edmands, Librarian Mercantile Library, 

Prof. Geo. W. Fetter, Principal Girls' Normal School, 

President A. H. Fetterolf, LL. D., Girard College, 

John Field, 

Hon. Edwin H. Fitler, Mayor of Philada., 

Frederick Fraley, LL. D., President American Philosophical Society, 

Dr. Persifor Frazer, 

Horace Howard Furness, LL. D., Girard College, 

J. Campbell Harris, 

Hon. Henry M. Hoyt, Ex-Gov. of Penna., 

Prof. Edmund J. J?imes, Ph. D., University of Pa., 

Principal Richard M. Jones, Wm. Penn Charter School, 

Henry Charles Lea, 

Principal De Benneville K. Ludwig, Rittenhouse Academy, 

Prof. James MacAlister, Superintendent Public Schools, 

Rev. Wm. N. McVicar, D. D., 

President E. H. Magill, Swarthmore College, 

Principal Geo. F. Martin, Martin's School, W. Philada., 

Caleb J. Milne, 

David Milne, 

S. Weir Mitchell, M. D., President College Physicians and Surgeons, 

Provost William Pepper, M. D., LL. D., University of Penna., 

Samuel C. Perkins, President University Club, 

Hon. Henry Reed, Judge Court Common Pleas, 

Hugo A. Rennert, Instructor in French and German, University of Pa., 

President James E. Rhoads, Bryn Mawr College, 

Joseph G. Rosengarten, 

Felix E. Schelling, Instructor in English, University of Pa., 

Prof. Oswald Seidensticker, Ph. D., University of Pa., 

President Isaac Sharpless, Haverford College, 

John C. Sims, Jr., Secretary Pennsylvania R. R. Co., 

Principal E. Clarence Smith, Rugby Academy, 

Prof A. H. Smyth, Philada. High School, 

Edward T. Steel, President Board of Education, Philada., 

Justus C. Strawbridge, 

Prof. J. J. Stiirzinger, Bryn Mawr College, 
' Prof. Allen C. Thomas, Haverford College, 

R't Rev. O. W. Whitaker, D. D., Bishop of Penna., 

Jas. S. Whitney, Board of Public Education, Philada., 

Talcott Williams, The Press, Philada., 
.Casper Wister, Chairman Ex. Com. Philada. Library. 

4Sr"Delegates are requested immediately on reaching the city to register in Parlor C., 
Hotel Lafayette, where they will be furnished with a copy of a guide to Philadelphia. 






Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 


Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. yohns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 


(In addition to the above named officers) 


Williams College, Williamstaium, Mass. Washington, D. C. 


Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. University of Virginia, Va. 


Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. College of Charleston, S. C. 

J. M. HART, 

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, O. 


University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 


University of Indiana, Bloomington, Indiana. 



First Vice-President. Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 


Second Vice-President. College of Charleston, S. C. 


Third Vice-President. 


President, President, 


1525, 35th St., Washington, D. C. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md- 

Secretary, Secretary, 


University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind. /j Westminster Avenue, Roxbury, Mass. 



Adler, Cyrus, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Akers, J. T., Central College, Richmond, Ky. 
Allen, Alfred, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Allen, E. A., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 
Anderson, M. B., State University of Iowa, Iowa City, la. 
Andrews, G. L., U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y. 
Appleton, W. H., Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. 
Armes, Wm. Dallam, i3th and Brush Sts., Oakland, Cal. 
Armstrong, J. L., Trinity College, Randolph Co., N. C. 
Atwood, G. S., Linden Str. 17, II, Berlin, S. W., Germany. 
Augustin, Miss Marie J., Sophie Newcombe Memorial College, New 
Orleans, La. 

Babbitt, E. H., Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
Bacon, G. A., High School, Syracuse, N. Y, 
Bartlett, G. A., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 
Baskervill, W. M., Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. 
Bell, A. Melville, 1525, 35th St., Washington, D. C. 
Bendaleri, G., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Benkert, E., New Windsor College, New Windsor, Md. 
Benton, C. W., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Bernhardt, Wilhelm, High School, Washington, D. C. 
Binion, Samuel A., 605 N. Eutaw St., Baltimore, Md. 
Blackwell, R. E., Randolph Macon College, Ashland, Va. 
Bloombergh, A. A., Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. 
Both-Hendriksen, Miss Louise, 459 Franklin Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Bothne, Gisle, Luther College, Decorah, la. 

Bourland, A. P., Southwestern Baptist University, Jackson, Tenn. 
Bowen, B. L., Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine. 
Bradley, C. B., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 
Brandt, H. C. G., Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 
Bre'de', C. F., Friends School, Germantown, Pa. 
Bright, J. W., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Brinton, D. G., 115 S. yth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bronson, T. B., Military Academy, Orchard Lake, Mich. 
Brown, Arthur Newton, U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 
Buchanan, J. B., 28 Carondalet St., New Orleans, La. 

Ixx The Modern Language Association of America , 

Burnett, A. W., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Burnett, Percy B., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Galloway, Morgan, Jr., Oxford, Ga. 

Caufield, Arthur G., University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 

Carruth, W. H., University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 

Carter, Franklin, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 

Chase, G. C., Bates College, Lewiston, Maine. 

Cheek, S. R., Centre College, Danville, Ky. 

Clover, Bertrand, Columbia College, Madison Ave., New York City, 

N. Y. 

Cobb, J. T., Richmond, Ky. 

Cohn, Adolphe, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Collitz, Hermann, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mavvr, Pa. 
Colville, W. T., Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio. 
Comfort, G. F., University of Syracuse, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Cook, A. S., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 
Cordemann, Miss Bertha, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 
Cox, Wm. J., Lock Box 725, Hancock, Mich. 
Crane, T. F., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Curme, G. O., Cornll College, Mount Vernon, Iowa. 
Currell, W. S., Davidson College, Mecklenburg Co., N. C. 
Cyr, Narcisse, Europe. 

van Daell, A. N., New Atherton St., Roxbury, Mass. 

Davies, W. W., Ohio We^leyan University, Delaware, Ohio. 

Davvson, Arthur C., Lake Forest University, Lake Forest, 111. 

Deghue"e, Charles, 247 Harrison St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Denio, Miss E. H., Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

Deutsch, Wm., 2707 Walnut St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Dippold, G. T., Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Dodge, D. K., Columbia College, Madison Ave., New York City, N.Y. 

Dodge, P. D., Berea College, Berea, Ky. 

Dubbs, J. H., Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa. 

Easton, M. W., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Edgren, A. Hjalmar, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 
Edwards, Howard, Arkansas Industrial University, Fayetteville, Ark. 
Eggers, E. A., State University of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio. 
Eggert, C. A., University of Iowa, Iowa City, la. 
Ehrenfeld, C. L., Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio. 
Elliott, A. Marshall, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Fairfield, F. W., Tabor College, Tabor, Iowa. 
Faulhaber, Oscar, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hamp. 
Fay, C. E., Tufts College, College Hill, Mass. 

Fay, E. A., National Deaf-Mute College, Kendall Green, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
Fell, Thomas, St. John's College, Annapolis, Md. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. Ixxi 

Ficklen, Jno. R., Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. 

Fontaine, J. A., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Fortier, Alce"e, Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. 

Francke, Kuno, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Fretwell, John, Europe. 

Fruit, John Phelps, Bethel College, Russellville, Ky. 

Fuller, Paul, P. O. Box 2559, New York City, N. Y. 

Gaillard, J. D., 64 W. 5 6th St., New York City, N. Y. 
Garner, Samuel, Annapolis, Md. 

Garnett, J. M., University of Virginia, Albemarle Co., Va, 
Gaylord, F. A., 54 Garden Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Geddes, ]as., Jr., Boston University, Boston, Mass. 
Gerber, A., Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 
Gessner, Geo., P. O. Box 3349, New Orleans, La. 
Goebel, Julius, Hackensack, N. J. 

Gompertz, C. F., University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 
Goodrich, Frank, High School, North Adams, Mass, 
de Gournay, P. F., 55 W. Fayette St., Baltimore, Md. 
Grandgent, Charles H., 19 Wendell St., Cambridge, Mass. 
Greene, H. E., Garden City, Long Island, N. Y. 
Grossmann, Edw., 112 East 8oth St., New York City, N. Y, 
Groth, P., Tomkinsville, Staten Island, N. Y. * 

Grube, F. W., Central School, Court St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Gummere, F. B., Haverford College, Haverford, Pa. 

Hall, G. Stanley, Europe. 

Halsey, J. J., Lake Forest University, Lake Forest, 111. 

Harris, Charles, Southern Illinois Normal, Carbondale, 111. 

Harrison, J. A., Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va. 

Hart, C. E., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Hart, J. M., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Harter, G. A., Delaware College, Newark, Del. 

Harvey, John J., West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 

Haupt, Paul, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Havemann, W., Presbyterian College of the Southwest, Del Norte, 


Hempl, George, Europe. 

Hench, G. A., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Hewett, W. T., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Hintermeister, MissJ. M. E., Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 
Hitchcock, R. C., Straight University, New Orleans, La. 
Holden, C. C., Maupin's University School, Ellicott City, Md. 
Homing, L. E., Victoria University, Cobourg, Ontario. 
Howe, Miss Malvina A., Hartford High School, Hartford, Conn. 
Hubbard, F. G., 109 Elm St., Northampton, Mass. 
Hume, Thomas, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Hunt, T. W., College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 

Ixxii The Modern Language Association of America, 

Huse, R. M., Highland Falls Academy, Highland Falls, N. Y. 
Huss, H. C. O., College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 
Hyde, E. M., Ursinus College, Collegeville P. O., Pa. 

von Jagemann, H. C. G., Indiana University, Bloominton, Ind. 

Johnson, C. F., Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 

Johnson, H., Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine. 

Johnston, S. Rutherford, Parsons College, Fairfield, la. 

Joynes, Edward S., University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 

Karge", J., College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 
Karsten, Gustaf, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 
Kendall, F. L., Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 
Kent, Charles W., University of Virginia, Albemarle Co., Va. 
Kroeh, C. F., Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 


Lang, H. R., The Swain Free School, New Bedford, Mass. 
Leake, F., Williamstown, Mass. 

Learned, M. D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Leavell, R. M., Mississippi College, Clinton, Miss. 
Lefavour, H., Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 
Leroux, Jules, U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 
LeVy, Jules, 132 Huntington Ave., Boston, Mass. 
Lindsay, T. B., Boston University, Boston, Mass. 
Little, C. J., Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 
Littleton, J. T., Danville College, Danville, Va. 
Lodeman, A., Michigan State Normal School, Ypsilanti, Mich. 
Loomis, Freeman, Bucknell University, Lewisburgh, Pa. 
Lowell, James Russell, Deerfoot Farm, Southborough, Mass. 
Luquiens, Jules, Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
Lutz, F., Albion College, Albion, Mich. 
Lynes, J. C., Box 487, Jacksonville, Florida. 

McCabe, Thomas, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
McCabe, W. Gordon, University School, Petersburg, Va. 
McClintock, W. D., Chautauqua University, Richmond, Ky. 
McElroy, Jno. G. R., 1158. 2oth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
McKibben, G' F., Denison University, Granville, Licking Co., O. 
Mammes, August, High School, Springfield, O. 
Manning, E. W., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Marcoe, P. B., 42 Garden St., Cambridge, Mass. 
Martin, Samuel, Lincoln University, Oxford, Pa. 
Massie, Rodes, Charlottesville, Va. 

Matzke, J. E., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Maxwell, W. H., Superintendent of Public Instruction, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Michaels, Miss R. A., Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 
Montague, W. L., Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 
Miiller, Samuel, Box 631, Springfield, O. 
Murray, James O., College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. Ixxiii 

Nash, B., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Nelson, C. K., Brookeville Academy, Brookeville, Md. 
Nevin, Wm. M., 446 W. James St., Lancaster, Pa. 
Newton, J, K., Oberlin College, Oberlin, O. 

O'Connor, B, F., Columbia College, Madison Ave,, New York 

City, N, Y. 

Otis, C. P., Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass, 
Owen, E. T., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis, 

Page, F. M., University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn, 
Painter, F. V. N., Roanoke College, Salem, Va. 
Palmer, A. H., Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio, 
Patton, J. Mercer, Box 1133, Los Angeles, CaL 
Penn, H, C., State University, Columbus, Mo. 
Perkinson, Wm. H., University of Virginia, Albermarle Co., Va. 
Pernet, Emile, 1108 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pollard, John, Richmond College, Richmond, Va. 
dePont, P. R. B., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Porter, Samuel, National Deaf-Mute College, Kendall Green, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Primer, Sylvester, College of Charleston, Charleston, S. C. 
Purnell, W T m. H., Frederick Female Seminary, Frederick, Md. 
Putzker, A., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Raddatz, C. F., Baltimore City College, Baltimore, Md. 

Reeves, C. F., Pennsylvania State Coll., StateCollege, Centre Co., Pa, 

Rennert, H. A., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rice, J. C., Glenwood Collegiate Inst., Matawan, Monmouth Co., Pa. 

Rice, R. A., Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 

Richardson, F,, Collegiate School, Windsor, Nova Scotia. 

Richardson, H. B., Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 

Ringer, S., Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Ripley, A. L., Yale College, New Haven, Conn. 

Rohrbacher, Paul F., Western University of Pennsylvania, Allegheny 

City, Pa. 

Rose, C. J., Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y. 
Rougemont, A. de, 160 Washington Park, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Scarborough, Mrs. S. C., Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, O. 
Scarborough, W. S,, Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, O. 
Schele de Vere, M., University of Virginia, Albemarle Co., Va. 
Schelling, Felix E., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Schilling, Hugo, Wittenberg College, Springfield, O. 
Schmitz, H. J., Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Schmidt, H. M., University of Deseret, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Schrakamp, Miss Josepha, 715 Fifth Ave., New York City, N. Y. 
Scribner, G. A., Columbia Coll., Madison Ave., New York City, N. Y. 
Se"e, Rosalie, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

Ixxiv The Modern Language Association of America, 

Seidensticker, O., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Semmes, T. M., Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Va. 

Seybold, C. F., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, O. 

Sewell, L. W., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La. 

Sharp, R., Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. 

Sheldon, Edw. S., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Shepherd, E. C., Frederick Female College, Frederick, Md. 

Shepherd, H. E., College of Charleston, Charleston, S. C. 

Shortlidge, S. C M Media, Pa. 

Sicard, Ernest, Iowa College, Grinnell, Iowa. 

Siedhof, Carl, 32 W. Cedar St., Boston, Mass. 

Simonton, J. S., Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pa. 

Smith, C. Sprague, Columbia College, Madison Ave., New York 

City, N. Y. 

Smith, E. E., 4024 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Smyth, A. H., 118 N. nth St., Philadelphia^ Pa. 
Snyder, E., Illinois University, Champaign, 111. 
Spanhoofd, E., St. Paul's School, Concord, New Hamp. 
Spieker, E. H., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Spiers, I. H. B., General Wayne P. O., Delaware Co., Pa. 
Stager, L. A., Polytechnique Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Stengel, F. R., 443 E. 57th St., New York City, N. Y. 
Stoddard, F. H., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 
Stiirzinger, J. J., Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Super, O. B., Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 

Tallichet, H., University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 
Taylor, Julian, Department of State, Washington, D. C. 
Thorn, Wm. Taylor, Hollins Institute, Hollins P. O., Va. 
Thomas, Calvin, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Thomas, Miss M. Carey, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Thurber, Samuel, 13 Westminster Ave., Roxbtiry, Mass. 
Todd, Henry A., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Tolman, A. H., Ripon College, Ripon, Wisconsin. 
Toy, W. D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Tufts, J. Arthur,* Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hamp. 

Vail, C. D., Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y. 

Vermont, E. de Valcourt, 226 Fifth Ave., New York City, N. Y. 

Walter, E. L., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Warren, F. M., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Weaver, G. E. H., Swarthmore, Pa. 
Weaver, J. R., De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 
Wells, B. W., Friends School, Providence, R. I. 
Wenckebach, Carla, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 
Werner, Adolph, College of the City of New York, N. Y. 
Westcott, J. H., College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 
Wheeler, Miss Emily F., 108 Sixth St., Rochford, 111. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. Ixxv 

Whetham, Charles, Upper Toronto College, Toronto, Canada. 
White, H. S., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Whitelock, Geo., 10 East Lexington St., Baltimore, Md. 
Whittlesey, Mills, Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville, N. J. 
Wightman, J. R., 403 St. Paul St., Montreal, Canada. 
Wilcox, C. P., University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 
Wilson, Samuel T., Maryville College, Maryville, Tenn. 
Wipprecht, R., Agricul. andMechan. College of Texas, College Sta- 
tion, Texas. 

Wood, Henry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Woodward, F. C., University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 
Worman, J. H., Troy, N. Y. 
Wright, C. B., Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vt. 

Zdanowicz, Casimir, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. 

[Total, 269]. 




Adler, Cyrus, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Appleton, W. Hyde, Swarthmore College, Sdvarthmore, Pa. 

Babbett, Eugene H., Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Bacon, George A., High School, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Bernhardt, Wilhelm, Washington City High School, Washington, 

D. C. 
Both-Hendriksen, Louise, St. Catherine's Hall, Brooklyn, N. Y. (for- 

merely of Smith College). 

Bowen, B. L., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
Brandt, H. C. G., Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 
Bre"de", Chas. F., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Bright, Dr. James W. T Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Brinton, Dr. D. G., University of Penna., Philadelphia. 
Bristol, E. N., 29 W. 23d St., New York. 
Brown, Arthur Newton, U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Chambers, S. P., 1435 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Collitz, H., Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Denio, Elizabeth H., Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 
DuFour, A., 1311 i4th St., N, W., Washington, D. C. and Mills 
River, N. C. 

Elliott. A. Marshall, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

Fay, E. A., National Deaf Mute College, Washington, D. C. 
Fell, Thomas, St. John's College, Annapolis, Md. 
Fetter, George W., Girls' Normal School, Philadelphia. 
Fisher, H. W., lyth Ward, Pittsburgh, Pa., 903 Penn Ave. 
Fortier, Alce"e, Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. 

Garner, Samuel, Annapolis, Md. 

Garnett, James M., University of Virginia, Va. 

Goebel, Julius, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. Ixxvii 

Greene, Herbert Eveleth, Cathedral School of St. Paul, Garden City, 

Long Island, N. Y. 
Grossmann, Edw. A., Dr. John S. White's Berkeley School, N. Y. 

Harris, Abram W., Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. 

Hart, Rev. Charles E., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Hart, J. M., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati. 

Haupt, Paul, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Heath, D. C., 5 Somerset St., Boston. 

Hench, George A., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 

Himes, John A., Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, Pa. 

Holt, Jacob F., Central Hign School, 1935 Poplar St., Philadelphia. 

Hunt, Theodore W., Princeton College, Princeton, N. J. 

Huse, R.'M., Highland Falls Academy, Highland Falls, N. Y. 

Huss, H. C. O., Princeton College, Princeton, N. J. 

Hyde, E. M., Ursinus College, Collegeville, Montgomery Co., Pa. 

von Jagemann, Hans C. G., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 
James, Edmund J., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
Joynes, Edward S., South Carolina University, Columbia, S. C. 

Karsten, Gustaf, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Kayser, C. F., Newark High School, 137 Washington St., Newark, NJ. 

Kroeh, Charles F., Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 

Lang, Henry R., Swain Free School, New Bedford, Mass. 
Learned, M. D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
Leroux, Jules, U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 
Loomis, Freeman, Bucknell University, Lewisburgh, Penna. 

Manning, Eugene W., Johns Hopkins Prep. School, Baltimore. 

Martin, S. A., Lincoln University, Oxford, Pa. 

Matzke, J. E., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

MacAlister, James, Superintendent of Public Schools, Philadelphia. 

McCabe, Thomas, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

McElroy, John G. R., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Milne, Caleb J., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mitchell, Frances H., Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Montague, W. L., Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 

Montague, Mrs. W. L., Amherst, Mass. 

Nelson, C. K., Brookeville Academy, Brookeville, Md. 

Plumpton, Geo. A., New York. 

Pollard, John, Richmond College, Richmond, Va. 

Primer, Sylvester, College of Charleston, Charleston, S. C. 

Purnell, William H., F. F. Seminary, Frederick, Md. 

Rawlins, J. M., Martin's School, 3932 Pine St., Philadelphia. 
Reeves, Chas. F., Penna. State College, State College, Centre Co., Pa. 
Rennert, Hugo A., University of Pennsylvania, Philada. 

Ixxviii The Modern Language Association of America^ 
Rohrbacher, Paul F., Western University of Penna., Allegheny City. 

Schelling, Felix E., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
Schiedt, R. C., Franklin and Marshall College, Washington, Pa. 
Schmidt, H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Schmitz, Herman]., Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, N. Y., and Chau- 

tauqua College of Liberal Arts, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Se*e, Rosalie, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 
Seidensticker, Oswald, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
Smith, Charles Sprague, Columbia College, N. Y. City, New York. 
Smyth, Albert H., Philadelphia High School, Philada., Pa. 
Snyder, M. B., Central High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Spanhoofd, E., St. Paul's School, Concord, N. H. 
Spieker, Edw. H., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
Spiers, I. H. B., Penn Charter School, Philadelphia. 
Stager, L. A., Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Sterling, Wilson Miles, Kansas State University, Lawrence, Kan. 
Stiirzinger, J. J., Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Super, O. B., Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 

Thurber, Samuel, Girls' High School, Boston, Mass. 
Todd, Henry A., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
Tolman, Albert H., Ripon College, Ripon, Wis. 

Walther, H. J., Barnard School, N. Y. City, N. Y. 

Warren, F. M., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

Wenckebach, Carla, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

White, Horatio S., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Whittlesey, Mills, Lawrenceville School, John C. Green Foundation, 


Wightman, John R., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
Willis, H., Central High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Winchester, C. T., Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn, 
Wood, Henry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

[Total 98]. 



The following catalogue comprising forty states, three hundred and 
fifty-seven institutions, one thousand and seventy-six College Pro- 
fessors, Instructors and Teachers of modern languages, has been 
prepared on the basis of the material published at the end of last 
year's Proceedings. In getting up this revised index, blanks were 
sent out to all the colleges of the United States and the results as 
here given, are the statements of individual Professors in the depart- 
ments of Modern Languages. It is hoped that many of the inaccura- 
cies of the third record may not be found in the new list and that it 
faithfully represents the personnel in each modern-language depart- 
ment for a large majority of our colleges. 

The compiler takes pleasure in returning special thanks to those 
whose labors have made the present list possible. 


, Howard Col.ege, (East j %*. ^a^A. M. 

I French PL. D. Smith, A. M. 

2. State Agricultural and \ ^^^gteh^' ] E " Ladn 
(Aub h u?n) Cal lleg6 ' \ Modern^Langua^s-George Petrie, 

3. University of Alabama, 

English Benj. F. Meek, LL. D., Prof. 

of Eng. Lang, and Literature. 
R. M. Searcy, A. B., Instructor. 
French, )Wm. A. Parker, LL. D., 
German. \ Prof, of Mod. Langs. 
Spanish }. C. Calhoun, A.M., Prof. 

of Spanish. 


( English Howard Edwards, Prof, of 

English, French and German. 

Industrial University of : N T " , C zier ' J ns ^uctor in English. 
Ark-anns fFav/ttP Mlss Ida Pa ce, Instructor in English. 

Arkansas, (Fayet French-How* Edwards, Professor. 

Lieut. E. J. Fletcher, U. S. A., In- 
structor in French, 
t German Howard Edwards, Prof. 

Ixxx The Modern Language Association of America, 

ARKANSAS. (Continued). 

2. Little Rock University, 
(Little Rock). 

English Miss M. J. Brewster, Read- 
ing, Grammar, Orthography, Chi- 

Miss Ida J. Brooks, A. B., Rhetoric, 
English and American Literature. 
Rev. Alfred Noon, A. M., Prepara- 
tory Literature and Elocution. 
German, ) Francis H. Ellis, A. B., 
L French, f Latin and Greek. 


i. College of St. Augus- 
tine, (Benicia). 

2. Hesperian College, 

3. Pacific Methodist Col- 
lege, (Santa Rosa). 

4. Pierce Christian Col- 
lege, (College City). 

English Everet M. Ball, A. B., Natu- 
ral Science and English Studies. 


5. Santa Clara College, 
(Santa Clara). 

science ana .ngnsn btuaies. 
, } E. M. Wollank, A. M., 
^ > Latin, German, French 
' )0 and Music. . 

English Miss K. H. Elliott, M. S. 

Italian Mrs. H. W. Kennedy. 

English}. S. Austin, A. M., Prof, of 
Mental and Moral Philosophy and 

Modern Languages George B. Win- 
ton, A. M., Prof, of Ancient and 
Modern Languages. 

{English Prof. W. H. Baker, A. M., 
and P. T. 
German Prof. Chas. A. Young, B. A. 
French Prof. J. C. Keith, A. B. 

f English R. Bell, S. J., Prof, of Eng- 
lish Grammar. 

Rev. Jer. Collins, S. J., Prof, of Eng- 
lish Grammar. 
P. Foote, S. J., Prof, of English 

Grammar and Orthography. 
John Ford, S. J., Prof, of English 

Rev. E. J. Young, S.J., Prof, of Eng. 

Literature and Rhet. 
German F. Laslow, S.J., Prof, of 

French H. Raiders, S.J., Prof, of 

Italian Alex. Mazzetti, S. J., Prof, of 


Spanish]. Volio, S. J., Prof, of Eng. 
Grammar and Spanish. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 

St. Ignatius College, 
(San Francisco). 

CALIFORNIA. (Continued). 

( English W. Barry, S. J., Prof, of 
Classics, Eng. Gram., Arithme- 
tic and Penmanship. 

T. Roland, S.J., Prof, of Classics, 
Eng. Gram., Arithmetic and 

H. Harty, S.J., Prof, of Eng. Gram, 
and Penmanship. 

S. Haskins, A.M., Prof, of Book- 
keeping, Eng. Gram., Arithme- 
tic and Commercial Course. 


St. Mary's College 
(San Francisco). 

University of California, 

E. Luby, S. M., Prof, of Arithmetic, 

Eng. Gram, and Commercial 
P. Mans, S.J. 

F. Weis, S. J., Prof, of Classics, Eng. 

Gram, and German. 

German F. Weis, S.J. 

French?. Mans, S. J., Prof, of Maths., 
Higher Course of Christian Doctrine, 
Rhetoric, Classics and French. 

Spanish F. I. Prelato, S. J., Chaplain, 
Treasurer and Prof, of Spanish. 

( English Rev. Brother Peter. 

Rev. Brother Walter. 
{ German Rev. Brother Alphanus. 
| French Rev. Brother Fredlimid. 
t Spanish Rev, Brother Alphanus. 

English Cornelius B. Bradley, A. M., 
Asst. Prof, of the Eng. Lang, and 
Albert S. Cook, Ph. D., Prof, of the 

Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
Francis H. Stoddard, A. M., Instr. 

in the Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
German Albin Putzker, Prof, of the 

German Lang, and Lit. 
Henry Senger, A. M., Instr. in the 

German Lang, and Lit. 
7 , , ) Felicien Victor Paget, Instr. 

Spanish. \ - 

University of the Pacific, 
(San Jose). 

University of Southern 
California, (Los An- 

English- Monroe H. Alexander, Prof. 

of Eng. Lit. 
Lucy A. Booth, A. M., Preceptress 

and Teacher of Eng. and Maths. 
Modern Languages Sophie M.Jensen, 

Teacher of Modern Languages. 

English Ida B. Lindley, A. M., Prof. 

of Latin and Eng. Langs. 
J. P. Widney, A. M., M. D., Prof, of 

Eng. Literature. 
W. S. Bovard, Tutor in English 


Modern Languages W. S. Hall, A M., 
Asst. in Greek and Mod. Langs. 

The Modern Language Association of America, 

i. Colorado Coll., (Colo- 
rado Springs). 

2. University of Colorado, 

English (Literature}, 

Eloise Wick- 
ard, Prof, of 
E n g . Lit. 
and Ger. 

Modern Languages W i n t h r o p D. 
Sheldon, Prof, of Latin and Greek. 

English}. Raymond Brackett, Ph. D., 



Trinity College, (Hart- 

2. Wesleyan University, 

3. Yale College, (New ^ 

f English CTias. F. Johnson, A. M., 

Prof, of Eng. Literature. 
Charles D. Warner, L. H. D., Lec- 
turer on English Literature. 
French, "1 

Italian, [Rev. John J. McCook, M. 
Spanish, f A., Prof, of Mod. Langs. 
German. ] 

English Caleb Thomas Winchester, 
M. A., Olin Prof, of Rhet. and 
English Literature. 

7-.* ) Rev. George Prentice, D. 
French, ( D M Taft prof 

German. Modern Lan g U ages. 

English Henry A. Beers, Prof. 

Thomas R. Lounsbury, Prof. 

Edward T. McLaughlin, Tutor. 

J. Ernest Whitney, Instructor. 
German Frank Goodrich, Tutor. 

Albert S. Wheeler, Instructor. 

4. Sheffield Scientific Sc'h, 
(New Haven). 


Wm. I Knapp, Professor. 

French, } 
Italian, > 

English Thomas R. Lounsbury, Prof. 
German Albert S. Wheeler, Instr. 
French -W. D. Whitney, Professor of 

William I. Knapp, Street Prof, of 

Modern Languages. 
William Price, Instructor. 

i . Dakota Agricultural 
Coll., (Brookings). 


{English Miss Nellie E. Folsom, B. S., 
Prof, of Eng. Lit. and Lang. 
S. G. Updyke, A. M., Professor of 
History and Rhetoric. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 
DAKOTA. (Continued). 


English Wm. M. Blackburn, D. D., 

2. Pierre University, I President and Tutor. 


University of Dakota, 

University of North 
Dakota, (Grand 

I German George B. Saffbrd, Tutor. 
[ French (No teacher at present). 

( English William A. Scott. 

< German, \ S. W. Vance, Professor of 

( French. ) Modern Languages. 

T English Homer B. Sprague, M. A., 

"Ph. D. 

1 French, Mohn Macnie, Professor of 
[ German. \ French and German. 





[ English Albert N. Raub, Ph. D., 
President and Professor of the 
English Language and Literature. 

I Modern Languages G. A. Harter, A. 
M. Prof, of Math, and Mod. Langs. 


( English Rev. S. M. Shute, D. D., 
i. Columbian University, I Prof, of English. 

(Washington). ) French L. D. Lodge, A. M. 

German J. H. Gore, B. S. 

English Rev. Charles H. A. Bulkley, 
D. D., Librarian and Prof, of Eng. 
Lit., Rhetoric, Logic and Elocution. 
Rev. Jas. W. Craighead, D. D., Dean 
of Theological Department, Stone 
Prof, of Revealed Theology, and 
Instr. in New Testament Exegesis, 
Greek and English. 

French Miss Martha B. Briggs, Prin- 
cipal of Normal Department and 
Teacher of French. 

2. Howard University, 

3. National Deaf-Mute 
College, (Washing- < 

English}. B. Hotchkiss, M. A., Asst. 

Prof, of History and English. 
Samuel Porter, M. A., Emeritus 

Prof, of Mental Science and Eng. 

Languages &. A. Fay, M. A., Ph. D., 

Prof, of Languages. 

Ixxxiv The Modern Language Association of America, 



2. Bovvdon College, (Bow- 

Emory College, (Ox- 


University, \ 

S o u t h-\V e s t Georgia ( 
Agricultural College, -; 


English Mrs. Hattie W. Chase, 

Teacher of English Branches. 
Elma A. Stone, Teacher of English 

Eliza H. Merrill, Teacher of English 

Margaret Neel, Teacher of English 

Mary E. Sands, Teacher of English 

Julia E. Cole, Teacher of English 

Carrie E. Jones, Teacher of Latin 

and English. 
Edgar H. Webster, Principal of 

Normal Department. 

English Rev. F. H. M. Henderson, 
D. D., Prof, of English. 

French Miss Annie C. Mitchell, In- 
structor in French. 

English Rev, Morgan Callaway, D. 

D., Vice-Prest. and " Bishop G. F. 

Pierce" Prof, of Eng. Lang, and 

Modern Languages Rev. Julius Ma- 

gath, A. M., (Paris, Edinburgh), 

Prof, of Mod. Langs, and Hebrew. 

Modern Languages Rev. John J. 
Brantly, D. D., Prof, of Belles 
Lettres and Modern Languages. 

English Benj. T. Hunter, A. M., 
Prest. and Prof, of English and 
Ancient Languages. 

6. L T niversity of Georgia, j Modern Languages C. P. Willcox, A. 
(Athens). { M., Prof, of Modern Languages. 


( English -G. W. Sandt, A. M., Prof, of 

the English Lang, and Lit. 
German Rev. A. R. Cervin, Ph. D., 

Emeritus Prof, of Maths., Greek 

and German. 
Modern Languages C. L. E. Esbjorn, 

Prof, of Modern Languages. 
Swedish C. M. Esbjorn, A. M., Prof. 

of Swedish Lang., Lit. and Xianity. 
Rev. C. P. Rydholm, Asst. Prof, of 

Christianity and the Swedish Lang. 

and Literature. 

f English W. E. Churchill. A. M., Instr. 
in Rhetoric and English Literature. 

Augustan a College, 
(Rock Island). 

2. Blackburn University, 


Miss Carrie Nulling, Instr. 
in the Ger. and French 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. Ixxxv 

ILLINOIS. (Continued). 

Carthage College, f ^nglish- 
(Carthage). j 

f English}. H. Hill, A. B., Prof, of 

Greek and Belles Lettres. 

Chaddock College, I German Lydia K. Hornbeck, A. M., 
(Quincy). 1 Professor of German and Latin. 

j French Madame DeCoster Glavin, 
Instructor in French. 

Eureka College, 

6. Ewing Coll., (Ewing). 

7. German-English Col 
lege, (Galena). 

8. Hartsville College, 

9. Hedding Coll., (Abing- 

10. Illinois Coll., (Jackson- 

ii. Illinois Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, (Bloomington). 

12. K no x Coll., (Gales- H 

( English 

- Modern Languages Carl Johann, A. 

( M., Professor of Mod. Langs. 

( English John Richesor, A. M., Eng. 

John Washburn, D. D., English 

Miss S. A. Washburn, A. B. Rhet. 

and English History. 
[ German Mrs.Wilhemina A. M.Webb. 

f English Wm. V. Finke, A. M., Instr. 
in English Lang, and Lit. 

| German Rev. F. E. Hirsch, A. B., In- 
structor in the Ger. Lang, and Lit. 

f American Literature J. F. Funk- 

houser, A. M. 
J English Literature C. H. Kiracofe, 

A. M. 
German C. E. Kriebel, Teacher of 

Milsic and German. 

( Modern Languages M. F. Redington, 
A. M., Prof, of History and Mod- 
( ern Languages. 

f English Harvey W. Milligan, Prof, of 
History and English Literature and 
Instructor in Political Economy. 

j Thos. W. Smith. 

| French, \ Thos. W. Smith, Instr. in 

t German, f Rhet., Ger. and French. 

English Sue M. D. Fry, Professor of 

Belles Lettres. 
German Wm. H. Waite, M. A., Prof. 

of Latin and the German Langs. 

and Literature. 

English Victor E. Buehler, Prof, of 

Elocution and Oratory. 
J. W. Jenks, A. M., Ph. D., Prof, of 
Political Science, Eng. Lit. and 
Mrs. Sarah M. McCall, Instructor in 

Mathematics and Rhetoric. 
German Thos. R. Willard, Pr'of. of 

Greek and German. 
I French]. W. Jenks. 

The Modern Language Association of America, 
ILLINOIS. (Continued). 

Lake Forest Univ'ty, 
(Lake Forest). 

r English John J. Halsey, Prof, of Eng. 

Lit., Rhetoric and History. 
German A. C. Dawson, B. L. 

Levi Seeley, Ph. D. 
French A. C. Dawson, B. L. 


^Lincoln). Um ' VerSity ' j German-Albert McGinnis. 

15. McKendree College, 


Monmouth College, 

German Rev. Edwin C. Ferguson, 
A. M., Ph. D., Prof, of Greek, Ger- 
man, and Hebrew. 

English Miss J. C. Logue, A. M., 
Lady Principal and Harding Prof, 
of the English Language. 

German Misj> Clementine Calvin, A. 
M., Prof, of German and Elocution. 

( English}. G. Rover, A. M., Eng. 

17. Mt. Morris College, j Lang., Mental and Moral Science. 

(Mount Morris). ) French, \ E. J. Shan, B. A., Greek, 

L German, f German and French. 

18. North-Western 






Shurtleff Coll., (Upper 

St. Ignatius College, ^ 

English Mrs. N. C. Knickerbacker, 
A.M., Preceptress, Prof, of Hist, 
and English Literature. 

German Rev. F. Wm. Heidner, A. 
M., B. D., Prof, of the German 
Language and Literature. 

English R. L. Cumnock, A. M., Prof. 

of Rhet. and Elocution. 
Harriet A. Kimball, Ph. M., In- 
. structor in English. 
Chas. W. Pearson, A. M., Prof, of 

English Literature and History. 
German Geo. H. Horswell, Ph. D., 

Instructor in Latin and German. 
French Rena A. Michaels, Ph. D., 
Dean of Woman's College, and 
Prof, of French Lang, and Lit. 
Italian James Gill, Instructor in Vo- 
cal Culture, Singing and the Italian 

English Orlando L. Castle, LL. D., 

Prof, of Rhet. and Belles Lettres. 
Frenc/iMiss Ruth C. Mills, A. M. 
German David G. Ray, A. M. 

English Rev. James A. Dowling, S. 

J., Prof, of Rhetoric. 
German Aloysius Rot her, S.J., 

Second Academic Class-Prof, of 

French Rev. J. P. Leeson, S.J., Prof. 

of French. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. Ixxxvii 

22. St. Joseph's Diocesan 
College, (Teutopolis). 


St. Viateur's College, 
(Bourbonnais Grove). 

ILLINOIS. (Continued). 

' English Rev. P. Maurus Brink, O.S.F 

Rev. P. Clement Moorman, O. S. F. 

Rev. P. Cyriacus Stempel, O. S. F 

Rev. P. Hugolinus Storff, O. S. F. 

German Rev. P. Floribert Jaspers, 


Rev. Brother Leopold, O. S. F. 
Rev. P. Clement Moormann, O.S.F. 
\ Mr. Adam Mueller. 

Rev. P. Ignatius Reinkemeier, O.S.F 
Rev. P. Stephen Scholz, O. S. F. 
Rev. P. Cyriacus Stempel, O. S. F. 
FrencA-jRev. P. Michael Reiardt, O 

S. F. 
Rev. P. Ignatius Reinkemeier, O. 

S. F. 
{_ Rev. P. Hugolinus Storff, O. S. F. 

f English Rev. J. Finn, C.S. V., Prof. 

of Rhetoric. 

Rev. M. I. Marslie, C. S. V., Prest., 
Prof, of Belles Lettres and Church 
Rev. E. Rivard, C. S. V., Prof, of 

Rhetoric and Philosophy. 
Rev. Jas. F. Ryan, C. S. V., Prof, of 
( English and Geography. 

German Rev. L. Strauss, C. S. V., 

Prof, of German. 

French Rev. A. Lussier, C. S. V., 
Prof, of French and Book-keeping. 
Rev. C. Saulin, C. S. V., Prof, of 

Languages Rev. C. Verry, C. S. V., 
Prof, of Languages. 


University of Chicago, 

25. University of Illinois, 

f English Nathaniel Butler, Jr., Prof, of 

English Literature and History. 
] French, } Oscar Howes, Professor of 
\ German, f Modern Languages. 

f English}. C. Pickard, A. M., Prof. 

of English Literature. 
J. H. Brovvnlee, A. M., Prof, of Rhet 
and Elocution. 

German, \ Ed p wa f rd f S W d *> A ' M " 
I /r^, -h f Prof, of Mod. Langs. 

) Chas. E. Eggert, B.A.,Asst. 

26. Wheaton College, j French, / W. H. Fischer, Prof, of 
(Wheaton). ( German, j History and Mod. Langs. 


( English}. B. Dille, A. M., Principal, 
Eng. Lang., Metaphysics, Theory 
i. Northern Illinois Nor- | and Training. 

mal School, (Dixon, \ French Ferdinand Heft, Professor of 
Lee Co.). French. 

I German Rev. E. C. Sickels, A. M., 
Prof, of Ger. Lang, and Lit. 

Ixxxviii The Modern Language Association of America, 

i. Butler University, 

2. De Pauw University, 

3. Earlham College, (Rich- 

4. Franklin Coll., (Frank- 


English Harriet Noble, A. M., Demia 

Butler Prof, of English Language 

and Literature. 
Modern Languages Hugh C. Garvin, 

A. M., Prof, of Mod. Langs, and 


English Joseph Carhart, A.M., Prof, 
of Rhetoric, Elocution and Eng- 
lish Literature. 

Felix T. McWhirter, A. M., Ph. D., 
Asso. Prof, in Eng. Lit. and Rhet. 

Modern Languages Col . J . R . Weaver, 
A. M., Prof, of Political Philosophy 
and Modern Languages. 
Theodore L. Neff, A. M., Associate 
Prof, of Mod. Langs. 

English Wm. N. Trueblood, A. B., 
Prof, of Eng. Lit. and Elocution. 

1 Adolph Gerber, Ph. D., 
French, [ Prof, of French and Ger. 
German, j Elma C. Watson, Asst. in 

J French and German. 

English (The work is divided, each 
professor having a share). 

- D - 

5. Hanover College, (Han- \ 
over). I 

6. Indiana University, 

Modern Languages Rev. A. P. Keil, 
A. M., Mary Edward Hamilton 
Prof, of Latin and Modern Langs. 

English Orrin B. Clark, A. M., Prof. 

of the English Language and Lit. 
Henry B. Meiter, A. M., Prof, of 

Rhetoric and Elocution. 
James A. Woodburn, A. M., Associ- 
ate Prof, of Rhetoric. 
Germanic Languages Hans C. G. von 
Jagemann, Ph. D., Prof, of Ger- 
manic Languages. 
Carl. Osthaus, A. B., Instructor in 


Romance Languages Gustaf Karsten, 
Ph. D., Prof, of Romance Langs. 

English Rev. G. P. Jenkins, D. D., 
Pres. and Prof, of Mental and 
Moral Philosophy and Eng. Lit. 

German Monroe Vayhinger, A. M., 
Prof, of Maths, and German. 

French John H. T. Main, A. M., Prof, 
of Languages. 

English Mrs. Emma Mont. McRae, 
Prof, of Eng. Lit. and Lady Prin'l. 
Purdue University, (La ! Stanley Coulter, Prof, of Zoology and 
Fayette). Asst. Principal of Preparatory class 

French, } Augusta N. Jones, Instr. in 
[_ German, f French and German. 

7. Moore 's Hill College, 
(Moore's Hill). 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. Ixxxix 

INDIANA. (Continued). 

.,. , -11 /- i i 
Ridgeville C o 1 1 e g e, \ 


St. Meinrad's College, 
(Spencer Co.). 

ii. University of Notre 
Dame, (Notre Dame). 

German E. O. Dickinson, Prof, of 

Greek, Latin and German. 
French Not supplied at present. 

English D. Barthel, Professor. 

B. Goebel, Professor. 

Vincent Wagner, Professor. 

Nazarius W T erner, Professor. 
German Simon Barber, Professor. 

Gregory Bechtold, Professor. 

L. Schwab, Professor. 

N. Werner, Professor. 

Thos. Ag. Weskert, Professor. 
French B. Goebel, Professor. 
Italian Bede Maler, Professor. 

James Ziegenfuss, Professor. 

B. Huber, Professor. 
Spanish G, Wenzel, Professor. 

( English Rev, J. Coleman, C. S. C., 
English and Penmanship. 

John G. Ewing, A. M., M. S., Rhet, 
and Lecturer on Political Economy. 

Rev. John F. Fearnley, English Lit. 

Bro. Leo, C. S, C., English and 

Linneborn, C. S. C. 
BrQ phi , ip ^ c g c< p enman . 

ship and German. 
Rev. John Scheier, German Lang. 

and Literature. _ 

French Rev, J. Thilman, C. S. C. 
Spanish Rev. John M. Toohey, C. S. 

C., Spanish Lang, and Literature. 

12. Wabash Coll., (Craw- 

Agricultural College, 
(Ames, Story Co.). 


Amity College, 
lege Springs). 


| Arthur B. Milford, A.M. 
French Edwin R. Lewis, A. M., M. D. 


( English^ C. Barrows, A. M., Prof. 

of Latin, Eng. Lit. and History. 
Mrs. IdaM. Riley, Prof, of Elocution. 
A. S. Welch, A. M., L.L. D., Prof, 
of English*Lang., Composition and 

French, \ Miss Lily M. Gunn, Prof, of 
German, f German and French. 

English Rev. Henry Avery, A. M., 
Prof, of English Literature. 

German L. A. Sahlstrom, Teacher of 

Modern Languages Mrs, A, S. Tay- 
lor, A. B., Prof, of Greek and 
Modern Languages. 



The Modern Language Association of America, 
IOWA. (Continued). 

Central University of 
Iowa, (Pella). 

( English Lois Martin, M. A., Prof, of 

Rhetoric and Eng. Literature. 
German Kate Frances Keables, M. 
A., Prof, of German and Instr. in 
Academic Studies. 

French John S. Nollen, A. B., French 
and Greek. 

{English Henrietta A. Bancroft, Ph. 
B., Adjunct Prof, of Eng. Lit. and 
German, ) Geo. O. Curme, M. A., 
French. J Prof, of French and Ger. 

f English L. S. Battenfield, A. M. 
Drake University, (Des J L. W. Cushman, A. B. 

6. Iowa College, (Grinnell) -< 

Iowa Wesleyan Univ., 
(Mount Pleasant). 

8. Luther Coll., (Decorah). - 

Oskaloosa College 

f English Rev. Stephen G. Barnes, Ph. 
D., A. M., Ames Prof, of the Eng. 
Lang., Lit., and of Rhetoric. 

German]. M. Crow, A. M., Ph. D., 
Carter Prof, of the Greek Lang, 
and Lit., and Instr. in German. 

French Ernest Sicard, Ph. D., Bene- 
dict Prof, of the Latin Lang, and 
Lit., and Instr. in French. 

English, \ Ella S. Nicholson, A. M., 
French. \ Prof of Eng. Lit. and Hist. 
German Rev. W. Balke. A. M., Instr. 

in German. 

Rev. John Schlagenhauf, D. D., In- 
structor in German, 

English Rev. Chr. Naseth, A. M., 

Prof, of English and Augsburg 

L. S. Reque, A. M., Prof, of Eng. 

and Latin. 
German J. Holland, Instructor of 

German and Christianity. 
Norwegian Gisle Bothne, A. M., 

Prof, of Norwegian and Greek. 
A. Monrad, Cand. Mag. (Univ. of 

Christiania) Prof, of Norwegian 

and Latin. 

( English]. A. Battie, M. S., Prof, of 
, ! Philosophy and the Eng. Langs. 

1 Modern Languages Eva Seevers, A. 
M., Prof, of Hist, and Mod. Langs. 

10. Parsons College, (Fair- 

English Rev. T. D. Ewing, D. D., 
Pres., Armstrong Prof, of Mental 
and Moral Sciences. 

rr^vri, ) s - Rutherford Johnston, Ph. 

German ( D " (Tuebingen) Prof, of 

German, f Modem Langua ges. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 


12. State Univ. of Iowa, 
(Iowa City). 

13. St. Joseph's College, ^ 

IOWA. (Continued). 

('English Miss Rosa E. Lewis, A. M., 
ii. Penn College, (Oska- J Professor. 

loosa). I German, \ W. L. Pearson, Ph. D., 

L French, f Prof, of French and Ger. 

English Melville B. Anderson, A. M., 

Prof, of English Literature. 
Marietta Lay, Instructor in Rhet. 

and Elocution. 

German Mrs. J. J. Dietz, Instr. in Ger. 
Modern Languages Chas. A. Eggert, 

Ph. D., Prof, of Mod. Langs, and 


English Rev. J. J. Hanley, Master of 
Discipline, Prof, of Maths., Book- 
keeping and English Grammar. 
Rev. P. McMahon, Vice-Prest., Prof, 
of Philosophy, Latin and English 

Rev. T. J. Sullivan, Procurator, Prof, 
of Modern History, Physical Ge- 
ography, English Grammar and 

German P. Hoffmann, Prof, of Ger. 
J. Tegeler, Prof, of German. 

French Rev. J. Mortel, Professor of 
French, Latin, Greek, Maths., 
History, Geography, and Christian 

English Rev. Thomas McClelland, 
A. B., Prof, of Mental Philosophy, 
English Literature. 
Miss Edith M. Brooks, A. B., Instr. 

in English Literature. 
Miss Helen E. Martin, A. M., Prin- 
cipal of Ladies Department and 
Instr. in Higher Eng. and History. 

Modern Languages Rev. F. W. Fair- 
field, A. M., Prof, of Greek and 
Instructor in Modern Languages. 

I- ,. , ) Miss Adella G. Maltbie, A. 
English, ( M> preceptress; Prof, of 
German, j Rhet and Mod Langs 
French Andrew Stephenson, A. M., 
Secretary of the Faculty ; Prof, of 
Latin and Greek. 

{English}. S. Miller, A. M., Prof, of 
Eng. Literature and Rhetoric. 
German-\. A. Loos, A. M,, B. D., 
Prof, of History and German. 
Modern Languages 

14. Tabor College, (Tabor). -< 



xcii The Modern Language Association of America, 


i. Baker University, (Bald- 

2. Bethany College, 

3. Campbell Normal Uni- 
versity, (Holton). 

4. Gar field University, 

5. High land University, 

English Ida A. Ahlborn, M. L., Pre- 
ceptress and Prof, of English and 

G. W. Hoss, LL. D., Prof, of English 
Classics and Oratory. 

German Ida A. Ahlborn. 

English Miss Annie J. Hooley, De- 
partment of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
French, \ Miss Adelle C. Coleman 
German. ) French and German. 

English Mrs. Ella W. Brown. 

J. H. Miller. 
German A. L. Candy. 

English?,. J^Pinkerton, A. M., Prof. 

of English Literature. 
Modern Languages J. S. Griffin, A. 

M., Prof, of Modern Languages. 

English Rev. Duncan Brown, D. D., 
Pres. and Prof, of Mental and 
Moral Science, and English. 
Mrs. E. E. Herrick, Instr. in Eng. 
and Principal of Preparatory De- 

German, ) Rev. Daniel Kloss, D. D., 
French. f Prof, of Ger. and French. 

6. Kansas Normal Coll., 
(Fort Scott). 

Vickrey, A. B 
Elocution, Oratorical 

7. Kansas State Agricul. { English O. E. Olin, Prof, of English 
Coll., (Manhattan). { and History. 

f English E. H. Weller. 

J. A. Weller, A. M., Instructor in 

Elocution and Eng. Literature. 

German?.. H. Weller, A. B., Instr. 

in German and English Lang. 

8. Lane University, (Le 

Ottawa University 

10. S t. Benedict's Coll 

English Adelaide L. Dicklow, Pre- 
ceptress, French, German, Eng- 
lish Literature. 
A. S. Olin, English and Didactics. 

\ Adelaide 

( English Bede Durham, O. S. B., 

Grammar and Reading. 
Boniface Verheyen, O. S. B., Rhet. 

and Poetry. 
German Stanislaus Altman, O. S. B. 

Alphonse Filian, O. S. B. 
French Herman Mengwasser, O.S.B. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 



State University, (Law- 


Washburn College, 

KANSAS. (Continued). 

English Arthur Richmond Marsh, 

Prof, of English Lang, and Lit. 
Chas. Graham Dunlap, Asst. in Eng. 

German Wm. Herbert Carruth, Prof, 
of German andFrench Langs, and 

French Arthur Graves Canfield, Prof. 

of French Lang, and Lit. 
W. H. Carruth. 

Spanish Alcinda L. Morrow, Prof, of 

English Miss Amelia Merriam, Pre- 
ceptress, and Instr. in History 
and Eng. Lit. 

German, \ Miss Lilly M. Storrs, Instr. 

French. \ in French and German. 


Ella M. Kingsley. 

Kansas Normal School, j French, 
(Paola). { German. 

( English Viola V. Price, M. Ph. 
State Normal School, J Martha P. Spencer, Elocution and 
(Emporia). Literature. 

t German Emilie Kuhlmann. 


Berea College, (Berea). \ F ^ enc h, ) Miss Kate Gilbert, Instr. 
( German. \ in French and German. 

2. Bethel Coll., (Russell- \ 

( French James Henry Fuqua, A. M. 
. f English -H. A. Cecil, A. M., Pres. and 

3. Cecilian College, (Ce- Proprietor, Prof, of Maths., Book- 

cilian P O ) keeping, English and the Sciences. 

1 German, \ 
French. \ 

4 ' C T^ m U onT erSity ' j f J f J- T. Akers, M. A., Ph.D. 

5. Centre C ol 1 e g e, (Dan- j %?^- R - Ch - k - 

6. Eminence College, 

Georgetown College, 

Kentucky University, 

Belles LettresVJ. P. McCorkle, 
Belles Lettres and Latin. 

French Miss Anabel Giltner, 
Teacher of Painting, Drawing, 
French and Calisthenics. 

French R. M. Moon, Ph. B., Latin and 

French, Pro-tern. 
German R. H. Garnett, M. A., Greek 

and German. 
English Mark Collis, Prof, of the 

Eng. Lang, and Literature. 
Cfrniafi ) AIfred c - Zembrod, Prof. 
s~ I [ of the French and Ger- 
French. J Languages. 

xciv TJie Modern Language Association of America, 

KENTUCKY. (Continued). 

[ English -W. Y. Demaree, B. S., Asst. 

in Latin. 

9. Kentucky Wesleyan J German B. T. Spencer, A.M., Prof. 
Coll., (Millersburg"). ] of Ancient Languages. 

French -W. H. Garnett, Ph. B., Prof, 
of Mathematics. 

English W. F. Perry, A.M., Prof, of 
English Lang, an'd Lit., Elocution 
and History. 
German Wm. A. Obenchain, A. M., 

Prof, of Mathematics. 
J. B. Preston, M. A., Prof, of Ancient 


French Wm. A. Obenchain, A. M. 
J. B. Preston, M. A. 

English James E. Scobey, M. A. 
German Mies Jennie Scobey, A. M. 
French Miss Rosalie O. Lipscomb, 

10. Ogden College, (Bow- 
ling Green). 

ii. South Kentucky Coll., 


{English Rev. J. W. T. Culleton, Prof, 
of Latin, Eng. Lit. and Elocution. 
German Albert Schaedler, A. M., 
Prof, of Greek and German. 
French Rev. W. P. Makin, Prest. and 
Prof, of French. 

Kentucky Military 
stitute, (Farmdale) 


i. Centenary College of 
Louisiana, (Jackson). 

2. H.Sophie Newcomb 
Memorial College, 
(New Orleans). 

Jefferson College, (St. 
Mary's) (St. James). 

Modern Languages Col. B. W. Ar- 
nold, Prof, of Ancient and Modern 
Languages . 


Modern Languages T. A. S. Adams, 
A. M., D. D., Prof, of Hebrew and 
Modern Languages. 

' English Mrs. J. C. Nixon, Prof, of 

English and Rhetoric. 
French Miss Marie J. Augustin, Prof. 

of French. 
German}. Hanno Deiler, Prof, of 


Spanish. Mrs. S. J. Gomez, Prof, of 
{_ Spanish. 

English Rev. J. Joyce, S. M., Prof, of 

4th English Class and Arithmetic. 
Rev. C. Maguire, S. M., Prof, of 5th 

Eng. Class, Latin and Arithmetic. 
Rev. G. S. Rapier, S. M., Vice-Pres. 

and Spiritual Director, Prof, of 3rd 

English Class. 

German Rev. A. Braxmeier, S. M. 
French Rev. A Braxmeier, S. M., 

Prof, of Classics, French, German 

and Drawing. 
Rev. A. Guillemin, S. M., Prefect of 

Senior Division, Prof, of Commer- 
cial Course and French. 
Rev. B. Mader, S. M., Prefect of 

Senior Division, Prof, of Classics 

and French. 
Rev. M. Thouvenin, S.M., Pref. of 

Junior Division, Prof, of Classics 

and French. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 
LOUISIANA. (Continued). 


4. Louisiana State Univ., f English Thos. D. Boyd, A. M., Prof, 
Agricultural and Me- J of Hist, and English Literature, 

chanical College, (Ba- ] French, ) L. W. Sewell, Prof, of 
ton Rouge). 

German, f Modern Languages. 

Anglo Saxon, J 
German, j- Taught. 

French, } 

' English (Literature}}. S. Kelso, Prof, 
of Eng. Lit., Instr. in Higher Eng- 
lish Department. 

German C. Weiss, Prof, of Langs., 
Instructor of the German Lang. 
A. Borin, Prof, of Classics, 
Instr. in the French and 


New Orleans Univ., 
(New Orleans). 

Soula^s Commercial, ^ 
Coll,, (New Orleans). 

f English H. Dijon. 
Rev, T. Hogan, S. J., Prof, of Khet 
and English Literature, 
., . g ev - A. Blatter. 

(Grand Coteau). \ g ev - H.. Riques. 

Rev. P. Marnane, S. J. 
German Rev. A, Blatter, S.J. 
French Rev. G. Courtot, S.J. 
Rev. S. Sebliene. 

Straight University, f English R. C. Hitchcock, M. A, 
(New Orleans). ( French -S. H. Bishop, M. A. 

English ]o\i\\ R. Ficklen, B. Lit., 
(Univ. of Va.) Prof, of Eng. History 
and Rhetoric. 

L. C. Reed, A. B., Prof, of English. 
Robert Sharp, M. A., Ph. D. (Leipsic) 

Prof, of Greek and English. 
J. W. Pearce, A, M., Asst. Prof, of 

English and Mathematics. 
Launcelot M. Harris, A. B., Instr. in 

Latin and English. 

German J.Hanno Deiler, (Royal Nor- 
mal College of Munich) Prof, of 
French Alce"e Fortier, Prof, of French 

Lang, and Literature. 
Sidney P. Delaup, B. Sc., Asst. Prof. 

of French. 

Spanish James Rohde, Asst. Prof, of 

T u 1 a n e University o f 
Louisiana, (New 



English George C. Chase, A. M., 
Bates College, (Lewis- I Prof, of Rhetoric and English Lit. 

ton). ] Modern Languages Thomas L. An- 

gell, A. M., Prof, of Modern Langs. 

xcvi The Modern Language Association of America, 
MAINE. Continued). 

Bowdoin Coll., (Bruns- 

Colby University, 

Maine State College of 
Agricult., (Orono). 

Framingham Normal 
School, (Framing 

English Henry Leland Chapman, A. 

M., Edward Little Prof, of Rhet., 

Oratory, and English Literature. 
Geo. Thomas Little, A. M., Librarian 

and Asst. in Rhetoric. 
French B. L. Bowen, Ph. D., College 

Prof, of French. 
Modern Languages Henry Johnson, 

Ph. D., Longfellow Prof, of Modern 


: English Rev. Samuel K. Smith, D.D., 
Prof, of Rhetoric. 
Modern Languages Edward W. Hall, 
A. M., Prof, of Modern Languages. 

| Modern Languages Allen E. Rogers, 
A. M., Prof, of Modern Languages, 
Logic, a^d Political Economy. 


j English Miss Margaret Montgomery. 
" j French Miss M. F. Bridgman. 

i. Baltimore City College, 

2. Frederick College, 


English Alexander Hamilton, Ad- 
junct Prof, of English and Maths. 
Charles C. Wight, Prof, of History 
and English Literature. 

German Charles F. Raddatz, Prof, of 
the German Language. 

French A. L. Milles, B. A., Prof, of 
the French Lang, and Adjunct 
Prof, of Latin. 

3. Johns Hopkins Univ., 

4. Loyola College, (Balti- 

English -E. C. Shepherd, Prof, of Eng. 
Wm. H. Harry, Prof, of Maths, and 
Elementary English. 

English James W. Bright, Ph. D., 

Associate in English. 
Wm. Hand Brown, M. D., Librarian, 
and Associate in English. 

German Henry Wood, Ph. D., Asso- 
ciate Prof, of German. 
Marion D. Learned, A. M., Ph. D., 
Associate in German. 

French Frederick M. Warren, A. B., 
Ph. D., Instr. in French and Ger. 

Romance Languages A. Marshall 
Elliott, A. M., Ph. D., Associate 
Prof, of Romance Languages. 
Henry A. Todd, Ph. D., Associate in 
Romance Languages. 

English Austin A. Malley. 
German Joseph H. Hann. 
French Henry I. Rache. 

- Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887, 
MARYLAND. (Continued). 


Maryland Agricultural 
College, (College 

English}. A. Chamblise, A. M. 
German Wilhelm Bernhardt, Ph. D, 
French Camille Fontaine, B. es L. 

f French E. Lagarde, A. M., Prof, of 

6. Mt. St. Mary's College, J Modern Languages. 

(Emmettsburg). j Spanish C. A. Leloup, A, M,, Prof, 

of Spanish. 

( English "The Prest. and Faculty, 

7. New Windsor College, 1 Jg?!?* 01 " in Rhet * &nd E1 CU ' 

(New Windsor). 1 French, \ Professor Wyer, German 

German. ) and French. 

English], M. Cain, A. B., Prof, of 

o o. T u r* 11 /a Thomas Fell, President. 

8. St. John s College, (An- ^ German _ Thomas Fell> 

C. W. Reed, A. M., Ph, D., Prof, of 

French Thomas Fell. 

9. Washington College, j mdern Languages James Roy Micou 


English Frank R. Butler, Prof, of 

10. Woman's College, j M od^Languages-V? . H. Froelich- 
(Baltimore). er, Prof, of Mod. Langs. 

Mrs. Froelicher, Prof, of Mod. Langs. 

English Rev. T. H. Lewis, D. D. 
German Prof. W. R. Daniels, A. M. 
French _^ v . S. Simson, A. M., Prof. 

of Natural Science and the French 



Western Maryland 
Coll., (Westminister), "j 

i. United States Naval ^ 
Academy, (Annapolis). 


English Commander J. Schouler, 

Ensign C. N. Atwater, 

Prof. W. W. Fay, A. M., 

Ensign J. Gibbons, 

Lieut. C. R. Miles, 

Lieut. J. M. Miller, 

Lieut R. Mitchell, 

Lieut. G. W. Tyler, 

Lieut. E. H. C. Leutzd, 
Asst. Prof.H. Dalman, 
Lieut. R. M. Doyle, 
Prof. J. Leroux, 
Lieut. D. H.Mahan, 
Asst. Prof. H. Marion, 




Lieut. J. O. Nicholson, 
Prof. L. F. Prud'homme, 

U.S. N. 

Lieut. J. T. Smith, 
Lieut. F. M. Wise, 

i. Amherst College, (Am- 

2. Boston University, 

3. College of the Holy 
Cross, (Worcester). 

xcviii The Modern Language Association of America, 

English Rev. H. H. Neill A. M., 
Williston Prof, of Rhetoric and 
English Literature. 
Rev. Henry A. Frink, Ph. D., Prof. 

of Logic and Oratory. 
Rev. John F. Genung, Ph. D., Asso- 
ciate Prof. ofRhet. 
German Henry B. Richardson, A. M., 

Prof, of German. 

French, ) Wm. L. Montague, A. M., 
Italian, V Prof, of French, Italian, 
Spanish. ) and Spanish. 

Anglo-Saxon Lindsey Swift, A. M., 
Instr. in Anglo-Saxon. 

English Daniel. Dorchester, Jr., Prof, 
of Rhetoric, English Lit. and Politi- 
cal Economy. 

German Augustus H. Buck, Prof, of 

Greek and German. 
Thomas B. Linsday, Ph. D., Prof, of 
Latin and Sanskrit. 

Romance Languages James Geddes, 
Jr., Instr. in Romance Languages. 

French Rev. Henry Duranguet, S. J., 


Rev. Hugh D. Langlois, S. J., Prof. 
Rev. John F. Lehy, S. J., Prof. 
Albert A. Ulrich, S.J., Prof. 

English Le B. R. Briggs, A. M., Asst. 

Prof, of English. 
F. J. Child, Ph. D., LL. D., Prof, of 

W. B. S. Clymer, A. B., Inst. in 

Edward Cummings, A. M., Instr. in 

A. S. Hill, A. B., LL. B., Boylston 

Professorship ofRhet. and Oratory. 
George Read Nutter, A. B., Asst. in 


Barrett Wendell, A. B., Instr. in Eng. 
German G. A. Bartlett, Assistant 

Prof, of of German. 
C. F. R. Hochdorfer, Instr. in Ger. 
K. Francke, Ph. D., Asst. Prof, of 

French Ferdinand Bdcher, A. M., 

Prof, of Modern Languages. 
Adolphe Cohn, LL. B., A. M., Asst. 

Prof, of French. 
C. H. Grandgent, A. B., Tutor in 

Modern Languages. 
James Russell Lowell, D. C. L., LL. 

D., Smith Prof, of the French and 

Spanish Langs, and Lits., and Prof. 

of Belles Lettres, Emeritus. 
Robert Sanderson, Instructor in 

Italian &. H. Nash, A. M., Prof, of 

Italian and Spanish. 
Edw. S. Sheldon, A. B. 
Spanish B. H. Nash, A. M., Prof, of 

Italian and Spanish. 
Romance Philology E. S. Sheldon, 

A. B., Asst. Prof, of Romance 

C. H. Grandgent, A. B. 

4. Harvard College, (Cam- 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, i88j. 
MASSACHUSETTS. (Continued). 



{English Miss Mary A. Jordan, A. M. 
F. G. Hubbard, Ph. D., Eng. Lit. 
German Frau Marie F. Kapp. 
Anglo-Saxon Miss M. A. Jordan. 
French Mile. Delphine Duval. 
Mile. Louise Radzinaki. 

f English Wm. R. Shipman, Prof, of 
Tufts College, (College J " Rhet., Logic and Eng. Lit. 

Hill). | French, } C. E. Fay, Wade Prof, of 




8. Williams College, 

t German. ]f Modern Langs. 

English Louise M. Hodgkins, M. A., 
Prof, of English Literature. 

Katherine Lee Bates, B. A., Instr. in 
English Literature. 

Myra Y. Howes, B. A., Instr. in Eng- 
lish and Rhetoric. 

Ralza M. Manly, M. A., Instr. in 
Logic and Rhetoric. 

Mary C. Monroe, Instr. in Rhetoric 
and Anglo-Saxon. 

Vida D. Scudder, B. A., Instr. in 
English Literature. 

Margaret E. Stratton, M. A., Prof, of 

the Eng. Lang, and Rhetoric. 
German ( Gothic, Old, High, Middle H, 
German} Elizabeth H. Denio, 
Prof, of German and the History 
of Art. 

German Carla Wenckebach, Prof, of 
German Lang, and Literature. 

Alsora Aldrich, Tutor in German. 

Bertha Cordemann, Instr. in Ger. 

Bertha Miihry, Instr. in German. 
French (Old and Modern) Rosalie 
Se"e, B. S., Prof, of the French 
Language and Literature. 
French Adele Constans, Instructor in 

Adeline Pelissier, Instr. in French. 

' English Rev. Leverett Wilson 

Spring, D. D., Morris Prof, of Rhet. 

Bliss Perry, M. A., Prof, of Elocution 

and English. 

German Richard Austin Rice, M. A., 
(Head of Department of Modern 
Langs.) Prof, of Modern Langs, 
and Lits. 

Edward P. Morris, M. A., Instructor. 
French -F. L. Kendall, Asst. Prof, of 

Modern Languages. 
i. Henry Lefavour, B. A., Instructor. 

The Modern Language Association of America, 

Mass. Institute of Tech- 
nology, (Boston). 

MASSACHUSETTS. (Continued). 
f Englis h Wil lam P. Atkinson, A. M., 

Prof, of Eng. and History. 
Fred. P. Emery, A. B., Asst. in Eng. 

and History. 
Arthur H. Wheelock, A. M., Instr. 

in English. 

Modern Languages Charles. P. Otis, 
A. M., Ph. D., Prof, of Mod. Langs. 
Jules Luquiens, Ph. D., Associate 

Prof, of Mod. Langs. 
Eugene H. Babbit, Instr. in Modern 

George T. Dippold, Ph. D., Instr. in 

Modern Languages. 
Spanish John F. Machado, Instr. in 

"] ifdward P. Smith, Prof, of 
! Modern Languages. 
[U. Waldo Cutler, Asst. 
J Prof, of Mod. Langs. 


( English Ella J. Gibbs, Eng. Lang., 
i. State Normal School, I Literature and History 

(Framington). ) French Mary L. Bridgman, Latin and 


2. Worcester Polytechnic J 
Institute, (Worcester). 1 

2. The Swain Free School 
(New Bedford). 

f English Andrew Ingraham. 
, J Fi 

I ^ 

[ Italian. 

French, \ 

German, [ Henry R. Lang. 


f English Charles E. Wilbur, A. M., 
B. D., Prof, of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 

. , . ~ ,. , . v I German Barnard H. Rupp, Prof, of 
i. Adrian Coll., (Adrian). \ German. 

2. Albion Coll., (Albion). 

Battle Creek College, 
(Battle Creek). 

4. Hillsdale Coll., (Hills- 

I French- -W. H. Howard, B.S., B. Ph., 

Instructor in French. 
English E. Josephine Clark, A. M., 

Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
F. M. Taylor, A. M., Prof, of History 

and Belles Lettres. 
Modern Languages Fred. Lutz, A.M., 

Prof, of Mod. Lang. 
English C. C. Lewis, M. S. 
German Mrs. W.W. Prescott. 
"I Danish Fred. Jensen. 
[ Swedish August Swedborg. 
English Rev. John S. Copp, A. M., 

Prof, of Eng. and German. 
H. A. Deering, Instr. in Eng. 
German Rev. J. S. Copp, A. M., Prof. 

of Eng. and German. 
W. A. Warren, M. S., Asst Instr. in 


French Mrs. Francis B. Mosher, A. 
M., Teacher of French. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 
MICHIGAN. (Continued). 


Hope College, (Hol- 

6. Ka la ma zoo College, 

Michigan State Agri- 
cultural Coll., (Lans- 

8. Olivet College, (Olivet). 

University of Michigan, 
(Ann Arbor). 

i. Michigan State Normal 
School, (Ypsilanti). 

i. Augsburg S eminary 

English Henry Boers, A. M., Prof of 

the Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
German, } Cornelius Doesburg, A. M., 
French, ' >- Prof, of Modern Langs., 
Dutch. ) Lits., and Art. 

( German Rev. Ignatz Mueller, Ph.D., 
Prof, of German and Hebrew. 

J French Miss Mary A. Sawtelle, Instr. 
in French. 

f" English Elias J. MacEwan, A. M., 

Prof, of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
I H. R. Pattengill, B. A., Asst. Prof, 
of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 

English Rev. Joseph Estabrook, A. 
M., Prof. Eng. Lit. 

Modern Languages Rev. Jean Fred- 
erick Loba, A. M., Prof, of Rhet. 
and Modern Languages. 

f English Charles M. Gayley, A. B., 

Asst. Prof, of Eng. and Rhet. 
A. W. Burnett, A. M., Instr. in Eng. 
Isaac N. Demmon, A. M., Prof, of 

Eng. and Rhetoric. 
German Calvin Tohmas, A.M., Prof. 

of the Germanic Langs, and Lits. 
Alfred Hennequin, Ph. D., Instr. in 

French and German. 
French Edw. L.Walter, Ph. D., Prof. 

of Mod. Langs; and Lits. 
Alfred Hennequin, Instr. in French 

and German. 
Paul R. DePont, A. B., B. S., Instr. 

in French. 

Thomas McCabe, A. B., Ph. D., In- 
structor in French. 


English -F. A. Barbour, B. A., Prof. 

of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
Lois A. McMahon, Instr. in Eng. Lit. 
H. W. Miller, Instr. in English. 
Fanny H. Wood, Instr. in English. 
German Aug. Lodeman, M. A. 

Anna A. Paton, Instr. in German. 
French August Lodeman, M. A., 

Prof, of Ger. and French Langs. 
Ernest G. Lodeman, Instr. in French. 
Helen M. Post, Instr. in English and 


English S. Oftedal, Prof. 

W. Peterson, Prof. 

T. S. Reimestad, Prof. 
German Prof. John Blegen. 
Norwegian Jonn Bugge, Prof. 

Geo. Soerdrup, Prof. 

cii The Modern Language Association of America, 

MINNESOTA. (Continued). 

Carlton Coll., (North- 

3. H a m 1 i n University, 

4. University of Minnesota, 

English Miss Margaret J. Evans, A. 

M., Preceptress and Prof, of Eng. 

Lit. and Mod. Langs. 
Rev. Geo. Huntingdon, A. M., Prof. 

of Logic and Rhetoric, and Instr. 

in Elocution. 
French Miss Isabella Watson, A. B., 

Assistant Teacher of French and 


English Prof. A. L. Drew, A. B., 
German Prof. M. J. Griffin, A. M. 
French Hannah J. Shoemaker, Av M. 

English Prof. Geo. E. MacLean, 
Ph. D. 

Maria L. l^anford, Asst. in Rhet. 
German Prof. John G. Moore, A. B. 

Matilda]. Wiltons, Asst. in Ger. 
French Prof. Chas. W. Benton, A. B. 
Scandinavian Prof. O. J. Breda. 


( English Rev. Newell H. Ensley, M. 

Alcorn AgricuL and A., Prof, of Natural Sciences, Rhet. 

Median. College, < and Evidences of Christianity. 
(Rodney). John A. Martin, B. S., Instr. in Eng. 

2. Agricultural and M e - 
chanical College, 


English W. H. Magruder, Prof. 

f English Miss Alice C. Lusk, M. L 

Miss Zell McLaurin. 

East Mississippi Female j Rev. A. D. McAvoy, President. 
College, (Meridian). J Miss Jennie Moffatt, M. E. 

' French Miss Alice C. Lusk, M. I. 
Miss Jennie Moffatt, M. E. 


Sh 11 n 11 


Richapd M. Leavell, Prof. 
German John G. Deupree, Professor. 

\ English-}. A. Krimbrough, Prof. 

f English L. M. Stone, President. 

\ Miss Minerva Farmer ' Asst " in 
^ French Mxs& Sue Talley. 

7. Toccopola Coll., (near / 


Wynn David Heldeston, 

f English Rev. Frank G. Woodworth, 
President and Principal. 
A. S. Hill, Asst. Principal. 
v. Miss Julia Sauntry. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 
MISSISSIPPI (Continued). 

Union Female College, \ English Mrs. J. C. Gates, 
(Oxford). \ French Miss Ella Pegues. 


ro. University of Missis- 
sippi, (Oxford). 

Whitworth Female 
Coll., (Brookhaven) 


English John L. Johnson, D. D., L L, 
D,, Prof, of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 

Modern Languages Charles Wood- 
ward Hutson, Prof, of Modern 

( English L. T, Fitzhugh, President 
and Prof. 

German. \ Mrs ' S ' R ' Ritchie > Teacher ' 


r. Central College, (Fay- 

2. Central Wesleyan Coll., 

3. Christian University, 


Modern Languages. 

W. A. Frantz, A, 
M., Mary Ev- 
ans Barnes, 
Prof, of Eng, 
and Modern 

English Henry Vosholl, A. M. 
German]. M. Rinkell, A. M. 
French E. F. Stroeter. 

English Qv*\ Pirkey, A, M., Prof, of 

Modern Languages J. H. Carter, A, 
B., Instr. in Modern Langs. 

Drury Coll., (Spring-j German George B, Adams, 
field), ( FrenchMiss H. E. Clapp, 

Grand River College, 

6. Lewis College, (Glas- 

( English Miss Mary Peery, Prof, of 


Rev. J. T, Williams, A, M., D. D., 
Prof, of Rhet., Eng. Lit., and Eng- 
lish Analysis. 

French Mrs. M, L. Williams, French 

English Miss Mary L, H. Carlton, A, 
M., History, German and English 


German Miss Mary L, H, Carlton, 
A. M. 

{English Rev. J. B. Ellis, Prest. and 
Prof, of English, Mental and Moral 
Modern Languages James C. Shel- 
ton, A. M., Prof, of Greek, Modern 
Langs, and Physical Science. 

f English}. M. Leavitt.Ph. D., Rhet. 

Southwest Baptist j J. C. Pike, B. S., Asst. in English. 
College, (Bolivar), 1 French, \ Wilmot J. Hunter, A. M., 
[ German, \ German and French, 


The Modern Language Association of America, 

MISSOURI. (Continued). 

9. St. Louis University, 
(St. Louis). 

I3 ' 

10. St. Vincent's College, 
(Cape Girardeau). 

ii. Un i v er si ty of Mis- ^ 
souri, (Columbia). 

12. Washington Universi- 
ty, (St. Louis). 

English Rev. Jas. J. Conway, S. J. 

Rev. Eug. A. Magevney, S. J. 

J. J. Melvy, S. J. 
German M. Leuersman, S. J. 

Rev. M. Speith, S. J. 

Rev. H. Votel, S. J. 
French Rev. J. Mathery, S. J. 

English Rev. Peter Cuddy, C. M. 

Rev. H. G. Dockery, C. M. 

Rev. E. M. Hopkins, C. M. 

Rev. Thos. Kearney, C. M. 

Rev. J. T. McDermott, C. M. 
German Mr. August Drexler. 

Rev. Wm. Nolan, C. M. 

Mr. Simon Orf. 
French -Re*. M. J. O'Brien, C, M. 

J. T. McDermott, C. M. 
Spanish Rev. H. G. Dockery, C. M. 

f English E. A. Allen, A. M. 

H. C. Penn, A. B., Asst. in English. 
1 B. T. Hoffman, L. B., Asst. 
German, I Professor. 
French. \ J. S. Blackwell, Ph. D., 

English, \ }. K. Hosmer, Prof, of Eng. 
German, f and German Lit. 
French}. K. Hosmer. 
M. S. Snow, Prof, of History and 
French Literature. 

C llege ' German-^. C. Hersman, D. D. 

14. Wm. Jewell College, 


15. Washington Univ., 

(Manual Training 
School), (St. Louis). 

j French}. G. Clark, LL. D. 
\ German R. P. Rider 

i. The College of Montana, 
(Deer Lodge). 

i. Creighton College 

.~ . N 
2. Doane College, (Crete). 


( English Laura I. Vaughn, A. B. 
\ German -E. J. Groeneveld, A. M. 
[ French}. C. Robinson, A. B. 


( English Prof. John J. Donoher, S. J. 
\ Rev. Jas. J. O'Meara, S.J. 
I German Rev. Joseph F. Rigge, S.J. 

f English Margaret E.Thompson, A.B. 

Instr. in English. 

\ French, \ Miss Martha M. Rebendorf, 
I German. \ Instr. in Ger. and Fr. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 
NEBRASKA. (Continued). 


Univ. of Nebraska, 

English Lucius A. Sherman, Ph. D., 
Prof, of English. 

Romance Languages Joseph A. Fon- 
taine, Ph. D., Instructor in Ro- 
mance Languages. 

Modern Languages Hjalmar Edgren, 
Ph. D., Prof, of Modern Languages 
and Sanskrit. 


Dartmouth College, 

Dartmouth College, 
Chandler Scientific 
Depart., (Hanover). 

New Hampshire Coll, 
of Agriculture and 
the Mechanic Arts, 

English Chas. F. Richardson, A. M., 
Winkley Prof, of Anglo-Saxon 
and Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
German, } Louis Pollens, A. M., 
French, f Prof, of Mod. Langs. 

English {Lit.} Modern Languages 
Edward R. Ruggles, A. M., Ph. D., 
Prof, of Mod. Langs, and Eng. Lit. 

English Clarence W. Scott, A. M., 
Prof, of the Eng. Lang, and Lit. 

i . College of N e w Jersey, 


English Rev. Th. W. Hunt, Ph. D., 
Prof, of Rhet. and of the English 

J. O, Murray, D. D., Dean of the 
Faculty, Prof. Belles Lettres, and 
Eng. Language and Literature. 

H. Huss, Ph. D., Prof, of 
Modern Languages and 
French, Literatures. 

German. [ J. Karge", Ph. D., Prof, of 
Continental Langs, and 


ohn Howell Westcott, Tutor 

2. Rutgers College, 

St. Benedict's College, 

in French. 

English Rev. Chas. E. Hart, D. D., 
Prof, of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 

Modern Langs. L. Bevier, Ph. D., 

Adj. Prof, of Mod. Langs. 
Rev. Carl. Meyer, D. D., Prof, of 
Modern Languages. 

English Aloysius Gorman, Prof, of 

German Richard Aust, Prof, of Ger- 

Stevens Institute of 
Technology, (Hobok- 


f Belles Lettres Rev. Edw. Wall, A. 

M., Prof, of Belles Lettres. 
1 Languages Ch. F. Kroeh, A. M., 

Prof, of Modern Languages. 



College of the City of 
New York, (New 

The Modern Language Association of America, 

Alfred University, 
(Alfred Centre). 

English Bashford Dean, B. S., Tutor, 
Forbes B. McCreery, B. S., Tutor. 
Luis F. Mott, M. S., Tutor 
Harold Nathan, B. S., Tutor. 
David B. Scott, Ph. D., Prof, of Eng. 

Language and Literature. 
German John* Baumeister, M. S., 


H. G. Kost, B. S., Tutor. 
Adolph Werner, Ph. D., Prof of the 

German Lang, and Literature. 
French David Cherbuliez, Tutor. 
Casimir Fabregou, A. M., Tutor. 
Ernest Fiston, A. M., Tutor. 
Jean Roenwr, LL. D. Prof of the 
French Lang, and Lit., and Vice 

Spanish Luis A. Baralt, A. B., Instr. 
in the Spanish Lang. 

English Daniel K. Dodge, A. M., Ph. 

D., Fellow, Asst. in English. 
A. V. Williams Jackson, A. M., L. 

H. D., Ph. D., Asst. in Eng. and 

Instr. in Zend. 
Edmund A. Masson, A. M., Asst. in 

Thomas R. Price, A. M., LL. D., 

Eng. Lang, and Literature. 
John D. Quackenbos, A. M., M. D., 

English Language and Literature. 


German H. H. Boyesen, Ph. D., Ger- 
man Lang, and Lit. (Gebhard). 
W. H. Carpenter, Ph. D., Instr. in 

German and the Scandinavian 

H. I. Schmidt, S. T. D., German 

Lang, and Lit. (Emeritus). 
French B. F. O'Conner, B. es L, Ph. 

D., Instructor in French 
Guillaume A. Scribner, B. s L., L. 

s D., Instr. in French. 
Italian Bertrand Clover, A. Ivf., Instr. 

in Spanish and Italian. 
C. L. Speranza, LL. D., Instr. in 

Spanish C. Deghu^e, A. B., A. M,, 

Instructor in Spanish. 
B. Clover, A. M., Instructor in Italian 

and Spanish. 
Modern Langs. C. Sprague Smith, 

A. M., Prof, of Modern Languages 

and Foreign Literatures. 
Charles C. Degue"e, A. M., Ph. D., 

Hon. Fellow, Asst. in Mod Langs. 

3. Columbia Coll., (New 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 


4. Cornell Uni ve r sit y 

5. Elmira College, (El- 

6. HamiltonCollege, 

NEW YORK. (Continued). 

Anglo Saxon 

English Hiram Corson, A. M., LL. 

D., Prof of Rhet. and Eng. Lit. 
O. L. Elliott, Ph. B., Instr. in Rhet. 
Edward Everett Hale, Jr., A. B., 

Instructor in English. 
E. W. Huffcut, B. S., Instr. in Rhet. 

B. G. Smith, A. M., Associate Prof, 
of Rhet. and Oratory. 

German H. S. White, A. B., Prof, of 
the German Lang, and Literature. 
James Owen Griffith, Instructor in 

W. T. Hewett, A. M., Ph. D., Prof. 

of the German Lang. 
T. H. Henkels, B. S., Instructor in 

French P. D. Brun, Instr. in. French. 

C. Langdon, Instr. in French. 

L. E. Lapham, A. B., Instr. in 

Italian C. Langdon, Instr. in French. 

Romance Langs. T. F. Crane, A. M., 
Prof, of the Romance Langs, and 
Lits. ; gives instruction in Modern 
French, Old French, Italian and 

English Miss Sarah Louise Tracy, A. 

M., Rhet. and Elocution. 
German Miss Europa D. Gifford, 

German Lang, and Literature. 
French Mile. Paola Landerer, French 

Lang, and Literature. 

English (Philology] -G. P. Bristol, 


English (Literature} A. S. Hoyt, A.M 

H. C. G. Brandt, A. M. 

7. Hobart Coll., (Geneva). < 

8. Ingham Uni versi ty, 

9. Madison University 

English- C. D. Vail, A. M., Horace 
White Prof, of Rhet., Elocution, 
and of the Eng. Language and 

] Chas. J. Rose, A. M., Prof. 
French, ( of the German and 
German. \ French Langs., and 
J Adj. Prof, of History. 

English Miss Jennie Dauman, Instr. 

in Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
Miss R. N. Webster, Instr. in Eng. 
Lang, and Lit. 

English Benjamin S. Terry, A. M., 
Prof, of Civil Hist, and Eng. 

Modern Langs. Albert G. Harkness, 
A. M., Prof, of Latin and the Mod. 

cviii The Modern Langitage Association of America, 

NEW YORK. (Continued). 

10. Manhatten College, 
(Manhattenville on 
the Hudson). 

English Rev. L. A. Grace, C. M. 

Rev. H. B. Menninges, C. M. 
German Rev. M. J. Kircher, C. M. 
Niagara University, j Rev. C.J. Eckles, C. M. 
(Suspension Bridge). ) French Rev. H. B. Menninges, C. M. 
Rev. L. A. Grace, C. M. 


12. St. Bon a venture 's 

, C. M. 
-John C. Goodwin, Prof. 

Coll., (Allegany). j German. \ J ohn J- Roser > Prof ' 

13. St. John's College 


St. John's College, 


St. Lawrence Univ., 

16. St. Louis College, 
(New York City). 




English Rev. Chas. A. Eckles, D. D. 
German R<&. A. S. Krabler, C. M. 
French Rev. James Elder, Ph. D. 

English Rev. Michael Flynn, S. J., 
Prof, of Eng., Rhet. and Special 

F. Giddings, Prof. 2d Eng. Gram. 
J. C. Hart, S. J., Prof, of English 

Belle Lettres. 
J. Nicholson, S. J., Prof, ofist Eng. 

Rev. P. O'Reilly, S. J., Chaplain, 

Prof. Rhet., Lat., French. 
German Adolph Peterson, Prof, of 

Music and German. 
French Rev. Michael Flynn, S. J., 

Prof. Eng., Rhet. and Special Fr. 
L. Webers, S. J., 2d Latin Grammar 

and French. 

Spanish Rev. L. Jouin, S. J., Prof, 
of Spanish. 

English Charles Kelsey Gaines, M. 
A., Prof, of the Greek Lang, and 
Lit., and Instr. in English Lit. 

French } H> H ' Liotard > A - M -> Prof - 
German. \ f the German and 
) r rench Languages. 

English'?. J. O'Leary, Prof, of Latin, 

English, Mathematics. 
German Jacob Schreiber, Prof, of the 

German Lang, and Lit. 
French Stanislas C. Constant, Prof. 

of the French Lang, and Lit. 
Virgile Ponchon, Prof, of French 

Conversation Natural Method. 
Spanish Alberto de Tornos, Prof, of 

the Spanish Lang, and Lit. 

English Rev. R. B. Fairbairn, D. D., 

LL. D. 

German James Stryker, M. A. 
French Hobart M. Clarke, M. A., 

Ph. D. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 


NEW YORK. (Continued). 

18. Syracuse University, 


University of the City 
of New York, (N. Y.). 

Union College, (Sche- 

21. Univ. of Rochester, 

22. Vassar Coll., (Pough- 

23. Wells Coll., (Aurora). < 

English]. Scott Clark, A. M., Prof of 

Rhetoric, English Criticism, and 

Rev. Chas. N. Sims, D. D., LL. D., 

Chancellor of the University, Prof. 

of English Literature. 
Modern Languages G. F. Comfort, 

A. M., Dean of the Coll. of Fine 

Arts, Prof, of Modern Langs. 

and Esthetics. 
Joseph T. Fischer, B. Ph., Instr. in 

Modern Langs., Chemistry, and 


English Wilhelm A. Houghton, A. 
B., Prof, of Rhetoric, Eng. Lit., 
and History. 

Francis H. Stoddard, A. M., Prof, of 
the English Language and Lit. 

1 Chas. Carroll, Ph. D., Prof. 
French, \ of the French and 
German. f German Languages 

and Literatures. 

Italian Vincenzo Botta, Ph. D., Prof, 
of the Italian Lang, and Lit. 

English James R. Truax, A. M., 

Prof, of Rhet., English Language 

and Literature. 
Modern Languages Wm. Wells, LL. 

D., Prof, of Modern Languages 

and Literature. 
Arthur S. Wright, A. M., Adjunct 

Prof, of Mod. Langs, and Hist. 

English }QK. H. Gilmore. A. M., 
Deane Prof, of Logic, Rhet., and 
English Literature. 

A. H. Mixer, A. M, Prof, 
of Mod. Languages. 

English M. J. Drennen, Professor. 
German Fraulein Minna H i n k e 1 , 

Associate Professor. 
French Mile. E. Achert. 

English Prof. Hiram Corson, LL. D., 
(Cornell Univ.) Lecturer on Eng. 
Prof. Winchester, (Wesleyan Univ.) 

Lecturer on Eng. Literature. 
Chas. K. Hoyt, A. B., Rhet. and 

English Language. 
Miss Helen F. Smith, A. M., Lady 

Principle, Eng. Literature. 
German Miss Elise Piutti, German 

Language and Literature. 
'French Mile. Maria Jeanneret, French 
Language and Literature. 


The Modern Language Association of America, 

NEW YORK. (Continued), 

i. Adelphi Academy, j French A. DeRougemont, A. M. 


2. U. S. Military Academy, 
(West Point). 

{ German. H. J. Schmidt, A. M. 

English Geo. L. Andrews, Prof, of 

Modern Languages. 
French G. L. Andrews, Prof. 
First Lt. E. A. Ellis, Assistant Prof. 

of French. 
I Spanish G. L. Andrews, Prof. 

First Lt. I. R. Totten, Asst. Prof, 
of Spanisn. 


English- -B. Kellogg, A. M., Prof, of 

English ^.ang. and Literature. 
German -C. H. Plugge" A. M, 

L. A. Stager, Adjunct Prof, of Ger, 
French Charles A. Lador, A. M. 
Gustave Carteaux, A. M., Adj. Prof, 
of French Language and Lit. 

Brooklyn College and 
Polytechnic Institute, -< 

Clintion Liberal Insti- 
tute, (Clinton). 

f English N. L. Nason, A. B., Instr. in 

Rensselaer Polytechnic ! the Eng. Lang, and Asst. in Maths. 
Institute, (Troy), | French ^ -Jules Godeby, A. B., Instr. in 


the French Language and Lit. 
1 a r ' \ English*. P. Semple, A. M. 

2. Davidson College, 
(Mecklenburg Co.). 

3. Rutherford College, 
(Happy Home). 

4. Trinity College, (R a n - 
dolf County). 

5. University of North 
Carolina, (Chapel 


English W. S.Currell, M. A. T Ph. D., 
Prof, of English Lang., Lit., and 

German Gonzales Lodge, Ph. D. 

French -W. S. Graves, M. A., Prof. 

"] Rev. Robert L. Abernethy, 
A. M., D. D., Pres. and 
Instructor in Natural, 
Mental and Moral Sc*- 

j ence. 

English, \}. L. Armstrong, Prof, o' 
German. \ English and German. 
French Wm. T. Gannaway, A. M., 

Prof, of Latin and French. 
Wm. Price. 

German Wm. Price, Prof, of French 
and German. 

English Thos. Hume, Jr., A. M., D. 

D., Prof, of the Eng. Lang, and 


French, \ Walter D. Toy, M. A., Prof. 
German. ) of Mod. Langs. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 
NORTH CAROLINA. (Continued). 

6. Wake Forest College, 
(Wake Forest Coll.). 

Adelbert College of 
Western Reserve^ 
Univ,, (Cleveland), 

2. Antioch College, Yel- 
low Springs). 

3. BaldwinUniversity 

4. Belmont College, (Coll. 

5, Buchtel Coll., (Akron). 

6. Capital University 

7. D e n i s o n University, 

English- -W. Royal, A. M., D. D., 

Prof, of Modern Languages. 
W, H. Michael, Asst. Prof, of Lan- 

German, ( B. F. Sleed, A. M., Prof, of 
French. \ French and German. 


f English Rev. Lemuel S, Potwin, EX 

D., Prof, of Latin and Instr. in 

English Philology. 
German Arthur H. Palmer, A. M,, 

Prof, of German Lang, and Lit. 
French Samuel B. Platner, Ph. D., 

Instr. in Sanskrit, Latin and Fr. 

{ English Evelyn Darling, A. M. 

Mrs. J. D. Chambers, A. M., Instr. 

in English. 

J. Peery Miller, Instr. in History and 

) Evelyn Darling, A. M., 


Prof, of French, German, 
and Eng. Literature. 

English M. F. Warner, A. M., Prof, 
of English and Rhetoric. 

S^ Victor Bilker, A.M. 

English Mrs, Ida C. Myers, Teacher 
of Rhet. and Ancient and Modern 

P. V. N. Myers, A, M., Pres. and 
Prof, of Philosophy and Eng. Lit. 

17 ,-*, ) Miss Anna Langenbeck, 
rrencn, f -r^^v,^.. ~f TT-^^U ~~A 
German. { 

Teacher of French and 

English Miss Mary B. Jewett, A. B., 

Prof, of Rhet. and English Lit. 
German, \ Cad R Kolb A M 

rrencn. \ 

German Rev. A. Pflueger, Asst. Prof, 

of German. 
Rev. F. W. Stellhorn, Prof, of Ger, 

English A. U. Thresher, A. M., Prof. 

of Rhet. and Eng. Lit. 
French, \ George F. McKibben, A. 
German, f M., Prof, of Fr. and Ger. 

8. Franklin College, (New j German Robt. Gowan Campbell, D. 
Athens). i IX Prof, of Latin and Instr. in Ger. 

o German Wallace Coll., \ Modern LanguagesVictor Wilker, 
(Berea). '( A, M, 

cxii The Modern Language Association of America, 

OHIO. (Continued). 

I English . O. Knepper, A. M., Prof, 
of Belles Lettres and Hist. 
] Rev. A. S. Zerbe, A. M., 
German, f Ph. D., Prof, of the Greek 
French. ( Lang, and Lit., and acting 
J Prof7 of German and Fr. 

f 1 Arthur C. Pierson, 

English, I Ph. M., Professor 

Modern Langs. j of English Lit. and 

L J Mod. Languages. 

. Kenyon Col.., (Gam- J French^ ^ wmiam T . ^^ M A 

English David E. Beach, D. D., Prof. 

of Philosophy, Rhet. and English 

German^ E. Phillips, Ph. D., Prof. 

of the Greek Lang, and Lit., and 

Instructor in German. 

ii. Hiram Coll., (Hiram). 

13. MariettaCollege, 



"] Joseph H. Chamberlin, M. 
, [ A., Prof, of the Latin 

Lang, and Lit., and Instr. 
in Modern Languages. 

English Literature Mrs. Amelia M. 
Brush, Ph. M., Prof, of Rhet., Eng- 
lish, History, and Preceptress of 
Ladies' Department. 

) Charles Schmitt, Prof, of 

14. Mount Union College, 
(Mount Union). 

15. Muskingum College, j French, } Mary Miller, A. M., Teach- 

(New Concord). ( German, f er. 

English Rev. Wm. B. Chamberlain, 
Prof, of Elocution, and Associate 
Prof, of Rhetoric. 

16. Oberlin Coll., (Ober- J French Wm. E. Chamberlain, Tutor 

lin). | in French. 

German Chas. Harris, Ph. D., Prof. 

of German Language and Lit. 
[ Percy B. Burnett, Instr. in German. 

English A. H. Welsh, A. M., Asso- 

ciate Prof, of the Eng. Lang, and 

German E. A. Eggers, Associate 

Prof, of the German Language and 

French Alice K. Williams, Associate 

Prof, of the French Lang, and Lit. 

17. Ohio State University, ^ 

18. Ohio University, (Ath- 

ens) - 

English H. T. Sudduth, A. M., Prof. 
of Rhet. and Eng. Lit. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887, 

OHIO. (Continued), 

English Clara Conklin, M. A. 


19. Ohio Wesleyan Univ 

20. Otterbein University, 

21. Rio Grand College, 
(Rio Grand). 

college ' \ 

French, \ William W. Davies, M. A., 

German, f Ph, D, 

Spanish Galdino T. Gutierrez. 

English Rev. W. J. Zuch, A. M., Prof. 
of English Lang, and Literature. 
) Josephine Johnson, M. A., 

French Rev, John M. Davis, A. M., 
Ph. D., Prof, of Latin, Instructor 

Teacher f 

German Miss Ruth E. Brockett, A, 
M., Preceptress and Teacher of 

. s . c . 

German F. A, Boyer, M. A. 

23, St. Xavier's College, 

24. University of Cincin- 
nati, (Cincinnati). 

J. T. Ottke, A. M. 
Jos. 1 

25, University of Wooster, 

26. Urban a University 

27. Wilberforce University, 
(Colored) (Wilber- 

Reilag, S. J., Instructor. 
French P, J. Boyle, S. J. 
Wm. B. Rogers, S. J., Instructor. 

Modern Languages James Morgan 

Hart, A. M., J. U. D., Prof, of 

Mod. Langs, and Lits. 

Charles Frederick Seybold, A. B., 

LL. B., Asst. Prof, of Mod. Langs, 

English Rev. Jas. Black, D. D., LL. 
D., Vice-Prest., and Quinby Prof, 
of the Greek Lang, and Lit., and 
Prof, of English. 

Elias L. Compton, Prof, of Mental 

Science and Adjunct Prof, of Eng. 

Mrs. Walter F. Mills, Instructor in 


German Miss Eva A. Corell, Prof, of 

the German Lang, and Literature. 

French Morris F. Lamoureux, Prof. 

of the French Lang, and Literature. 

( English Miss Clara Amos, Teacher of 

Grammar School. 

Miss Delia B. Burt, Lady Principal, 
Instr. in History, Eng. Literature 
and French. 
German Lewis F. Hite, A. B., Instr. 

in Greek, Latin and German. 
French Miss Delia B. Burt. 

English Anna H. Jones, Lady Prinl. 
and Instr. in English and History. 

Modern Languages F rederica F, 
Jones, B. A., Instr. in Modern 
Langs., and Sec'y of Faculty. 

cxiv The Modern Language Association of America, 
OHIO. (Continued). 

28. Wilmington College, / French, \ Pres ;, Ja , me ^ Bryant Un- 
(Wilmfngton). German. ( {hank, M Sc Prof, of 

) Logic and Mod. Langs. , 

29. Wittenburg College, 

English C. L. Ehrenfeld, A. M., Ph. 

D., Prof, of Eng. Lit. and Latin. 
German ) Hugo Schillin > A. M., Ph. 
French \ D " Alumni Professor of 
cn ' } Modern Languages. 



ri cultural f En 8 lish > } F - Berchtold, A. M., 
German Prof of Languages 

(Ancient and Modem). 

, (( is). 

\ French . 

2. Pacific University, 
(Forrest Grove). 

Englis h Lilian Poole, A. B., Instr. in 

Eng. Literature. 
French}. W. Marsh, Ph. D. 
German ]u\\a M. Adams. 


i. Allegheny College, 

2. Agustinian Coll., of St. 
Thomas of Villanova, - 

English- -D. H. Wheeler, LL. D. Prof. 
and President. 

1 Miss C. L. Crook, A. B., 
Asst. in French and 
t French, \ German. 
German. [Miss E. F. Wheeler, A. M., 
Professor of French 
J and German. 

English Rev. T. F. Herlihy, A. B. 
Rev. C. J. McFadden. 
Rev. F. X. McGowan, A. B. 
Rev. T. C. Middleton, D. D. 
Rev. F. M. Sheeran, S. T. L. 

3. Bryn Mawr College 
(Bryn Mawr). 

. Italian Rev. C. J. Driscoll. 

English M. Carey Thornas, Ph. D., 

Dean of the Faculty and Prof, of 

Francis H. Mitchell, Ph. D., Tutor in 

German Rose Chamberlin, Graduate 

in Honors, (Modern. Lang. Tripos) 

Newham College, Cambridge, 

England, Instr. in French and 

Hermann Collitz, Ph. D., Associate 

Prof, of German. 
French Rose Chamberlin. 
Romance Languages}. James Stiir- 

zinger, Ph. D., Associate Prof, of 

Romance Languages. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 


Bucknell University, 



PENNSYLVANIA. (Continued). 

f English Enoch Perrine, A. M., Crozer 

~ Prof, of Rhetoric. 

French, } Cornelia C. Bronson, 
German, f French and German. 
Modern Languages Freeman Loomis, 
A. M., Prof, of Modern Langs.- 

English Rev. Aaron Rittenhouse, D. 

D., Prof, of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 
German -O. B. Super, Ph. D., Prof. 

of French and German. 

C Anglo-Saxon Prof. Wm. M. Nevin, 

LL. D. 

, ~ , r , M r , n English Rev. Geo. F. Mull, A. M., 

6 ' Fr c n ol,%?a n n d ca^ef) hal1 ^sociate Prof, of English. 

German Rev. Prof. J. H. Dubbs, D.D. 
[ R. C. $chiedt, A. M. 

{English Francis B. Gummere, Ph. 
D., Professor. 
German -To be appointed. 
French Wm. C. Ladd, A. M., Prof. 



f English -F. A. March, LL. D., Prof. 

I of English Comparative Philology. 

Modern Languages R e v. A. A. 
Bloombergh, Ph. D., Prof, of Mod- 
ern Languages. 

Francis A. March, Jr., A. M., Ad- 
junct Prof, of Mod. Langs. 

9. La Salle College, (Phila- j Modern Languages "Brother Bland- 
delphia). \ in," Professor of Mod. Langs. 


Lebanon Valley Coll., 

n. Lehigh University, 
(South Bethlehem). 

English Prof. W. S. Ebersole. 
French Miss Alice M. Evers. 
German E. S. Lorenz. 

English (Literature) Henry Coppe, 
LL. D., Prof. Eng. Lit., Interna- 
tional and Constitutional Law, and 
the Philosophy of History. 

Modern Languages S. Ringer, U. J. 
D., Prof, of Modern Languages 
and Lits., and of History. 
Wm. R. Gillett, M. A., Instructor in 

Mod. Langs. 

Fonger de Haan, C. N. L., Instr. in 
Modern Languages. 

( English Wm. P. Kendall, Prof. 
12. Monongahela College, I G / rman _^ B . Enoch, Prof. 

[ French A. M. Denney, Prof. 

I English Rev. M. H. Richards, A. M., 
Prof, of Eng. Lang, and Literature. 
- , ) Rev Wm Wackernagel, 
French, ( D D p rof of German 
German, j Lang and Literature . 

cxvi The Modern Language Association of America, 



Pennsylvania College, 

PENNSYLVANIA. (Continued). 

English John A. Himes, A. M., Prof, 
of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 

) Rev. Adam Martin, A.M.. 
L Y Prof, of German, and In- 
structor in French. 


Pennsylvania State 
College, (State Coll., 
Centre Co.). 

English Jas. Y. McKee, M. A., Prof. 

of Eng. Lit., Latin, &c. 
French, \ Chas. F. Reeves, M. S., 
German. \ Prof. Mod. Langs. 


St. Vincent's College, 

16. St. Francis College, f Modern Languages The Franciscan 
(Loretto). \ Brothers. 

English Edward Andelfinger, O. S. 

B., Prof, of Eng., Penmanship and 

Walter Leahy, O. S. B., Prof, of 

Eng.. Rhet, Composition, and of 

First Cdrnmerical Course. 
German Rev. Gallus Hock, O. S. B. 

Prof, of Introduction to Holy 

Scripture, Greek, German, Rhet. 

Prosody and Literature. 
George Lester, O. S. B., Prof, of 

French, German and Penmanship. 
Rev. Rudesind Schrembs, O. S. B., 

Prof, of German. 
French George Lester, O. S. B., Prof. 

f English Benj. Smith, A. M., Prof, of 

Rhetoric and English. 
German Wm. Hyde Appleton, Prof. 

of Greek and German. 
Genitt E. H. Meaner, A. M., Asst. 

Prof, of German and French. 
French Eugene Paulin, A.M., Prof, of 

French, Spanish and Philosophy. 
Genitt E. H. Meaner, Asst. Prof, of 


Italian, \ Eugene Paulin, A. M., Prof. 
Spanish, f of French, etc. 

f German Rev. Herman Gilbert, Ph. 
D., Thiel Prof, of the German Lang, 
and Lit., and Instr. in Hebrew. 

English John G. R. McElroy, A. M., 
Prof, of Rhetoric and the English 
Felix E. Schelling, A. M., Instructor 

in English. 

German O svvald Seidensticker, 
Ph. D., Prof, of German Language 
and Literature. 
Hugo A. Rennert, B. S., Instructor 

in French and German. 
French Morton. W. Easton, Ph. D., 
Prof, of Comparative Philology and 
Instructor in French. 
Hugo A. Rennert, B. S. 

18. Swarthmore College, 

19. Thiel College, (Green- 

20. University of Pennsyl- 
vania, (Philadelphia). 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887, 
PENNSYLVANIA. (Continued). 



Washington and Jeffer- 
son College, (Wash- 

23. Western University of 
Pa., (Alleghany). 

f English Alcide Reichenbach, A. M., 

Samuel V. Ruby, A. M., Prof. 

Ursinus College, (Col- J ? e V- He V ry T W ^ Up fi ei i D T ' D " Prof " 
ipo-pvillf^ \ A. Lincoln Landis, M. S. Instructor. 

German-Rev. J. B. Kniest D. D., 


French Edmund Hyde, A. M., Ph. 
D., Professor. 

French Prof. J. S. Simonton, A. M. 

Prof, of Modern Langs. 
German Adolf Schmitz. 

English Literature Theodore M. Bar- 
ber, A. M., Instructor in English 

German Paul F. Rohrbacher, Prof, 
of German. 

French Alphonse M. Danse, Teacher 
of French. 

24. Westminster College, \ English Miss Maggie McLaughlin, A. 
(New Wilmington). \ M., Prof, of Eng. Lang, and Lit. 


T Penncsvlvania Militarv f French > } Lieut. Emile L. Feffer, A. 
Arademv Vhester i * Spanish, \ M., Prof, of Fr., Ger. 
Academy, (Chester). ^ Germa n. ) Spanish, and Latin. 


English T. Whiting Bancroft, A. M., 

Prof, of Rhet. and English Lit. 
William S. Liscomb, A. M., Instr. in 
Rhetoric and Mod. Languages. 

German, } W. S. Liscomb, A. M., In- 

French. \ structor in Mod. Langs. 

E, , ] Alonzo Williams, A. M., 

j/f- I Prof - f Modern Langs. 
Italian, f Gug ij e i mo D'Arcais, Instr. 
German. J . Modern Language s. 


i. Adgar College, (Wai- j English Lit., \ Rev. J. C. Brodfiihrer, 
halla). \ German. J A. M. 

English Mrs. M. L. Dunton, Prof, of 
" Literature, Rhet. and French. 

German Wm. L. Bulkley, A. B., 
Prof, of Greek and German. 

French Mrs. M. L. Dunton, Precep- 

f English ?m%. H. E. Shepherd, A. M. 

3. College of Charleston, I Fr * nch j P r f. Sylvester Primer, 
(Charleston). T German. \ Ph. D. ' 

i. Brown University 


Claflin Univ., Agricul. 
Coll., and Mechanics 

cxviii The Modern Language Association of America, 
SOUTH CAROLINA. (Continued). 

4. University of South 

English W. J. Alexander, Prof, of 
Logic, Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. 
F. C. Woodward, A. M., Prof, of 
English Lang, and Literature. 


McMahon, A. B., Tutor. 

Carolina, (Columbia). ^ J. L. Withers, A. B., Tutor. 

Edw. S. Joynes, M.A., LL. 
German, I D., Prof, of Mod. Langs. 
French, f J. J. McMahon, A. B., Instr. 
J in Modern Languages. 

English, }}. I. McCain, A. M., Prof. 
Erskine College, (Due J German, f of Greek. 

West). } French}. M. Todd, A. M., Prof, of 

( Latin. 

{English Charles Manly, D. B., Prof, 
of Engliskf Language and Lit. 
German Prof. H. T. Cook, A. M. 
French Charles Manly, D. D. 

7. Newberry College, f jg&*-? ro ' W ' H " and ' Ph ' D " 

(Newberry). { German. \ Rev " A ' G ' Vo ^' A ' " 

8. Walhalla Female Coll., i English Literature }\. G. Reed. 

(Walhalla). "( German Rev. J. C. Brodfuhrer. 

{English A. W. Long, Prof, of English 
Language and Literature. 
French, \}. H. Marshall, Assistant 
German, f Professor. 


i. Bethel College, f English ,\ R T T ni , . p , n 
(McKenzie). \ French. f Rev ' J- L ' Dlckens ' Ph - D - 

I English R. A. Henderson. 
,-;. G. McMurry. 
German ^J. G. McMurry. 

3. Central Tenn. College, f B ^ ( W c) - Mis8 N " ' Bal " 
(Nashville). C^^' E ' L ' 

4. Cumberland-University, { 

1 German-]ohn J. D. Hinds, A. M. 

{English, ~j 
French, ( M r Kn :_. hi . A M 
Spanish, f Mrs " A ' C " Kni ^ nt ' A - M - 
German, j 

f 1 A 1 m i r a Caroline 

6. Grant Memorial Univ., J English (Lit.}, I Knight, A.M., Eng- 
(Athens). 1 Modern Langs, j lish Lit. and Mod. 

J Languages. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 


7. King College, (Bristol). 

8. Maryville College, 

TENNESSEE. (Continued). 

KH. W. Naff, A. M., Libra- 
rian, Latin, English 
and German, 
ev. J. Phipps, M. A., Sec., 
Greek, French. 

f English W. A, Gate, B. S., Prof. 
Miss Helen M. Lord. 
Rev. S. T. Wilson, A. M., Prof, of 

the Eng. Language and Lit. 
French, ) Rev. J. E. Rogers, Ph. D., 
German, f Professor. 
L Spanish Prof. S. T. Wilson. 

9. Southwestern Baptist 
University, (Jackson). 

io. Southwestern Presby- 
t e r i a n University, 

n. Univ. of the South 

12. University of Tennes- 
see, (Knoxville). 

13. Vanderbilt University, 

English. } 

French, [ A. P. Bourland, A, M. 

German. ) 

English Rev. Robert Price, D. D., 

Prof, in the Schools of History, 
Eng. Literature and Rhetoric. 

French, \ S. J. Coffman, A. M., Prof. 

Spanish, > in the School of Mod. 
i. ) Languages. 



Add Ran College, J 
(Thorp's Springs), 

English W. B. Hall, M. A, 
William B. Nauts, A. M., Asst. 

German F. M. Page, Professor. 
W. N. Guthrie, Assistant. 

French W. N. Guthrie Asst. 

French, } 

Italian, \ Frederick M. Page, Prof. 

Spanish, ) 


French Wm, I. Thomas, A. M., Ph. 
D., Adjunct Professor. 

English William M. Baskervill, A. 
M., Ph. D., Prof, of Eng. Lang, 
and Literature. 
W. R. Sims, A. B., Anjunct Prof, of 

English and Rhetoric. 
German Waller Deering, M.A., Instr. 

in German, (absent on leave). 
E. J. Crocket, M. A., Graduate Fel- 
low and Asst. in German. 
Modern Languages C. Zdanowicz, 
A. M., Prof, of Mod. Langs, and 
Julius Blume, Cand. Phil., Instr. in 

Mod. Languages. 

Spanish C. Zdanowicz, A. M., Prof. 
P. A. Rodriguez, Instr. in French. 


Prof, of 

English^. R. Ragsdale, 

Eng. Grammar and Literature, 
i French, \ Miss Mattie Schultz, French 
[ German, \ and German. 

cxx The Modern Language Association of America, 

TEXAS. (Continued). 

2. Agricultural and Me- f ^ l S l ^h W. L. Bringhurst, Prof. 

chanical C o 1 1 e g e J **?*? 

(College Station). Germ \ Wip P recht > Professor. 

3. Austin College, (Sher- j English, } T 

man). \ French, f J- c - Edmonds, Professor. 

4- Baylor University, (In- j German Geo. Hamman, Instr. 
dependence). 1 {* f~ ?/ Crane Instructor. 

( Spanish B. Mueller, Instructor. 

5. Buffalo Gap College f English m^ E. Wagstaff. 

(Buffalo Gap, Taylor J Modern Languages John M. Wagstaff 
Co.). A B Prest. and Prof, of Ancient 

and Modern Languages. 

6. Chappel Hill Female f English-Wiss. M. E. Traynham M A 

College, (Chappel \ German-^, A. Tarrant, M.T' 
L French- -S. E. Spencer, M. A. ' 

{English Rev. W. J. Moore, Prof. 
French D. S. Switzer, Professor 
^MARev . W. J. Moore, Prof, of 
English, Mental and Moral Sci- 
ence, Spanish. 

8. Marvin College, (Waxa- { l&t e 

hachie). j ^^, , Miss Rosa MoMiSan, In 

i. German, f structor. 

9. Round Rock College, { ,, 

(Round Rock). ^ -oVw*-T. A. Brown, Professor. 

f English, ) 

10. Salado Coll., (Salado). J ^^, I S. J. Jones, Professor. 

t Spanish. } 

f English M. Galloway, Jr., A M 

11. Southwestern Univ. , ! ., J rof - of English Lang, and Lit 

(Georgetown). '} Modern Languages ^R. F. Young, 

A - M., Prof. Modern. Languages 
and Book-Keeper. 

Leslie Waggener, Professor. 

12. University of Texas, J j^*' w - Damson, Instructor. 

(AUStin) - 3SS&, " TalHchet, Professor. 

[ German. ) c> venwnam, Instructor. 

C English R. O. Rounsavall, A. M In- 

13. Waco Female College, ^ structor in History and English. 

(Waco). 1 *L? nc . h i J hn c - Wiley, A. M., In- 

Spanish, \ structor in Ancient and 
L German. ) Modern Languages. 


f English Orson Howard. A, M. 
i. University of Deseret, I French Alfred Andre". 

(Salt Lake City). "j German H. Schmidt, Ph. D., Prof of 

German and Latin. 





Proceedings at Philadelphia, December, 1887. 


r English Chas. B. Wright, A. M., Prof, 
of Rhetoric and Eng. Literature. 

i. Middlebury College, 1 German Wm. Wells Eaton, A. M., 
(Middlebury). Prof. Greek and German. 

French James M. Patton, A. B., Prof, 
of Latin and Instructor in French. 

Norwich University, 
formerly Lewis Coll., 

B " J hnS n> Instru(> 

French John B. Johnson, A. M., Prof. 
of Mathematics and French. 

f English Rev. Lorenzo Sears, A. M., 
Prof, of Rhetoric and English Lit. 

University of Vermont, J Mod ^ rn Languages-Samuel Franklin 
miirlin^tnn^ Emerson, Ph. D., Prof, of Greek 

and Modern Languages. 
Lewis Jurey Huff, Instructor in Mod- 
ern Languages. 


i. DanvUle College, (Dan- 

Prof. J. T. Littleton. 

3, Hamden Sidney, Coll., 
(Prince Edward 

( English, \ E. Longly, Prof, of French 
2. Emory and Henry Coll., j French. f and English. 

(Emory). | German Geo. W. Miles, Jr., Prof, of 

Greek and German. 

( English Henry C. Brock, B. L., Prof. 

of English. 
German Walter Blair, A. M., B. L., 

Prof, of German. 

French W\\\\s H. Bocock, A. B., B. 
L., Prof, of French. 

English,^. E. Blackwell, A. M., 
French. \ Prof, of English and Fr. 
J. B. Crenshaw, A. M., 
Asst. in Latin and Mod- 
ern Languages. 

German -R. M. Smith, M. A., Ph. D., 
Prof, of Greek, Oriental Languages 
and German. 

English John Pollard, A. M., D. D., 

Prof, of English. 
Modern Languages L. N. Hasseleff, 

Prof, of Modern Languages. 

English Wythe F. Morehead, A. B., 
Instructor in English and Latin. 

Modern Languages Rev. F. V. N. 
Painter, A. M., Prof, of Modern 
Languages and Literatures. 

Randolf Macon 


Richmond College 

Roanoke College 

cxxii The Modern Language Association of America, 

7. University of Virginia, 
(Albermarle Co). 

8. Virginia Agricultural 
and Mechanical Coll., 

9. Washington and Lee 
Univ., (Lexington). 

VIRGINIA. (Continued). 

English James M. Garnett, M. A., 
LL. D., Prof, of the English Lan- 
guage and Literature. 

and Mary 
College, (Williams 

Modern Languages M. Schele De 
Vere, Ph. D., J. U. D., Prof, of 
Modern Languages. 
Wm. Howard Perkinson, Instructor 
in Modern Languages. 

Modern Languages 

English James A. Harrison, LL. D., 
Prof, of Mod. Langs, and English. 

Belles LettresDr. J. A. Quarles. 

Modern Languages James A. Harri- 
son, Prof, of Modern Languages, 
and English. 

G. A. Wancope, M. A., Prof, of 
Mod. Langs., and Instr. in Mod. 

f English John L. Hall, Prof, of Eng. 
Language and^Lit., and History. 

I French, \ Lyman B. Wharton, Prof, of 
[ German, \ French and German. 


i. Polytechnic Institute, f English, 

(New Market, Shen- \ French, j-Rev. J J. Shenk, A. B. 
andoah Co.). I German. 

2. Virginia Military Insti- ^ 
tute, (Lexington). 

English Col. J. T. L. Preston, A. M., 
Emeritus Prof, of Latin and Eng- 
lish Literature. 

French Capt. T. S. Huland, Asst. 
Prof, of French and Tactics. 

Modern Langs. Col. T. M. Semmes, 
Prof, of Mod. Langs, and Rhetoric. 


B et han y College 

West Virginia Univ., 

j. Beloit Coll., (Beloit). 

English, "] 

German, j 

( English Rev. P. B. Reynolds, A. M., 

Prof, of English. 

Modern Languages John I. Harvey, 
A. M., Prof, of Modern Languages 
and Literature, and Librarian. 


English Rev. Henry M. Whitney, M. 
A. Root Prof, of Rhet. and Eng. 

Modern Languages Calvin W. Pear- 
son, Ph. D., Acting Harwood 
Prof, of Modern Languages. 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December 1887. cxxiii 
WISCONSIN (Continued). 

2. Lawrence University, 

3. Milton College, (Milton, 
Rock County). 

4. Northwestern Univ. 

5, Racine Coll., (Racine). 

6. Ripon Coll., (Ripon). 

7. University ofWisconsin, 

English, Messie F. Nivison, A. B., 
French. \ French and English. 
German Frank Cramer, B. L., Prof. 

English Mrs. Ruth H. Whitford, 


German -Mrs. Chloe C. Whitford, 
[ A. M. 

f English}. Henry Ott, Prof, of the 
English Language and Literature. 

! German Wm. F Weiner, Prof, of 

I Latin and German. 

I French Wm. Notz, Ph. D., Prof, of 
Greek and French. 

English Rev. John J. Elemendorf, S. 
T. D., Prof, of Intellectual Phi- 
losophy and Eng. Literature. 

Modern Languages Rev. Alex. Falk, 
Ph. D., D. D., Prof, of Modern 

English Albert H. Tolman, A. B., 
Prof, of Eng. Lang, and Literature. 

Modern Languages Thekla Joanna 
Eversz, Instr. in Modern Langs. 

English David B. Frankenburger, A. 

M., Prof, of Rhet. and Oratory 
John Charles Freeman, LL. D., Prof. 

of English Literature. 
Fred. Jackson, Turner, Instr. in 

Rhetoric and Oratory. 
German Wm. H. Rosenstengel, A. 
M., Prof, of the German Language 
and Literature. 

Susan Adelaide Sterling, B. L., In- 
structor in German. 
French -E. T. Owen, A. B., Prof, of 
French Language and Literature. 
Grace Clarke, B. L. Instructor. 
Lucy Maria Gay, B. L., Instructor. 
~ ) J.E.Olson, B.L., Instr. 

German, ( J in Scandinavian 

Scandinavian. Langg and German . 


Address of Welcome to the Modern Language Asso- 
ciation, by Dr. Wm. Pepper iii 

Address on "The Place of Modern Literature in the 

Education of Our Time, by James MacAlistef iv 

Adler, Cyrus, The Study of Modern Oriental Lan- 
guages xviii 

Anglo-Saxon, The Style of Poetry, by A. H. Tolman. x 

Discussion on this Paper by Profs. Bright, Hunt 

and Hart x-xiii 

Appendix I Ixii-lxvii 

II Ixviii 

" HI Ixix-lxxv 

IV Ixxvi-lxxix 

V Ixxx 

Bright, James W., The University Idea, and English 

in the University liii-lvii 

Canadian French, Some Specimens of a Dialect 

Spoken in Maine xl 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. Elliott and 

Karsten xl-xlii 

Collitz, Hermann, Die Herkunft der sogenannten 

Schwachen Verba der germanischen Sprachen.. xxxix 

Committee, Editorial, Names of xlv 

Committee, Local, Names of Members of Ixvi-lxvii 

Committee on Names of Officers, Members of xliv 

Committee, Names of to memorialize Congress to 

remove the Tariff on Books ix 

Committee, Names ofto organize Phonetic Section 

of the Modern Language Association ix 

Committee, Names of on Choice of Place for next 
Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Asso- 
ciation ix-x 

Committee, Names of to consider the advisability of 

changing the time of year for holding the Annual 

Convention of the Modern Language Association. 

Committee, Members of to audit Treasurer's Report. 

Dramatists, The Brief or Pregnant Metaphor in the 

Minor Elizabethan by Henry Wood xxv 

Letter explaining non-publication in the Transac- 

tions > xxv 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. Hart, Smyth, 

Goebel, Hunt, Seidensticker and Elliott xxv-xxviii 




Elliott, A. M., Report as Secretary of the Modern 

Language Association v-vi 

The Earliest Works on Italian Grammar and Lexico- 

graphy published in England lix 

English, A Study of Lord Macaulay's xlix 

English, The University Idea, and in the University, 

abstract of liii-lvii 

Executive Committee, Names of xlv 

Executive Council, Names of xlv 

Folk-Lore, Bits of Louisiana, by Alce"e Fortier xxviii 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. C. Sprague 

Smith, Warren, Elliott and Joynes xxviii-xxx 

Fortier, Alce"e, Bits of Louisiana Folk-Lore xxviii 

French, Canadian, Some Specimens of a Spoken in 

Maine xl 

Germanischen Sprachen, Die Herkunft der spgenann- 

ten Schwachen Verba der xxxix 

Goebel, Julius, on Paul's " Principien der Sprachge- 

schichte." xlii 

Historical (Pennsylvania) Society, Reception by xxx 

Italian, Earliest Works on Grammar and Lexico- 
graphy published in England 4 lix 

Karsten, Gustaf, Speech Unities and their r61e in 

Sound Change and Phonetic Laws xxxvi 

Kroeh, Charies F., Methods of Teaching Modern 

Languages xxxiii 

Lang, Henry R., The Face in the Spanish Metaphor. xix 

Literature, American in the Class-room li 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. Tolman, Bright 

and Goebel li-liii 

Literature, The Study of Modern in the Education of 

Our Time iv 

Literature, The Teaching of a Foreign in connection 

with the Seminary System, by H. S. White xlii 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. Goebel, Bright, 

C. Sprague Smith, Brandt, Wood and Elliott xiii-xvii 

MacAlister, James, Address on the " Place of Modern 

Literature in the Education of Our Time." iv 

Macaulay's, A Study of Lord English, by H. E. 

Shepherd xlix 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. Hunt, Hart, 

Wood and Houghton xlix-li 

Members of the Modern Language Association, 

Names of Ixix-lxxv 

Modern Languages, Methods of Teaching by C. F. 

Kroeh xxxiii 

Discussion on this paper by Profs, von Jagemann, 

Stager, Seidensticker, Rohrbacher and C. 

Sprague Smith xxxiii-xxx vi 


Modern Oriental Languages, The Study of, by C, 

Adler ........................................... 

Names of Persons Present at the Fifth Annual Con- 

vention, Philadelphia, 1887 ...................... 

Officers, Names of of the Modern Language Asso- 

ciation for 1888 .................................. 

Oriental Languages, The Study of Modern by C. 

Adler ........................................... 

Discussion of the above by Profs. Brand and 

Seidensticker .................................... 

Paul, " Principien der Sprach Geschichte." .......... 

Pedagogical Section, Names of Officers of ............ 

Penn Club, Reception by ............................ 

Pepper, William, Address of Welcome to the Modern 

Language Association ........................... 

Reception by .................................... 

Phonetic Laws, Speech Unities and their r61e in 

Sound Change and .............................. 

Phonetic Section, Names proposed for President and 
Secretary ---- , ................................... 

Names of Officers of .............................. 

President of the Association ......................... 

Primer, Sylvester, Charleston's Provincialisms ...... 

Programme of the Fifth Annual Convention ........ 

Provincialisms, Charleston's, by Sylvester Primer. . . 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. Joynes, Lang, 

Super, Dr. Mclntosh, Profs. Martin, Todd, Elliott, 
Garner, C. Sprague Smith and Brandt ........... 

Publications, Report on ............................ 

Public Institutions open to members of Modern 
Language Association ........................... 

Railroads, Reduced Rates on ........................ 

Reception by Penn Club ............................ 

Reception by the Pennsylvania Historical Society ____ 

Reception by Dr. Wm. "Pepper ...................... 

Report of Committee on the Grimm Memorial ...... 

Report of Committee to Memorialize Congress to 
remove Tariff on Books ......................... 

Report of Commitee for Choice of Place for next 
Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Asso- 
ciaton ........................................... 

Report of Committee on Publications .............. 

Report of the Secretary on the Work of the Fourth 
Convention, the Publications of the Association 
during the year 1887, etc. . ....................... 

Report of Committee on Establishment of a Phonetic 
Section .................... . ..................... 

Report of Committee to audit Treasurer's Account. . . 


Ixx vi 





l x j 


v j 







v . v i 

l xv 

l x j 





xl v-xlvi 


cxxviii Index. 


Report of the Treasurer of the Modern Language 

Association vi 

Resolutions of thanks to University of Pennsylvania. . xlvii 

To Local Committee xlvii 

Railroad Companies xlvii 

With reference to MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES xlvii 

Secretary, Report of. v-vi 

Secretary of the Association xlv 

Series, The Modern Language v-vi 

Sessions, First iii-v 

Second v-xix 

Third xix-xxx 

Fourth xxx-xliii 

Fifth xliii-lxi 

Sheldon, Edw. S., Some Specimens of a Canadian 

French Dialect spoken in Maine . . . . ^. xl 

Shepherd, Henry E., A Study of Lord Macaulay's 

English xlix 

Smith, Albert H., American Literature in the Class- 
room li 

Sound Change, Speech Unities and their r61e in and 

Phonetic Laws xxx 

Spanish Metaphor, The Face in the by H. R. Lang.. xix 

Discussion on this paper by Dr. Todd xix 

Sprachgeschichte," on Paul's " Principien der by 

Julius Goebel . xlii 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. Karsten and 

Bright xlii-xliii 

States, List of Colleges and Professors in the different Ixxix-cxxiii 

Alabama Ixxix 

Arkansas Ixxix-lxxx 

California Ixxx-lxxxi 

Colorado Ixxxii 

Connecticut Ixxxii 

Dakota Ixxxii-lxxxiii 

Delaware Ixxxiii 

District of Columbia Ixxxiii 

Georgia Ixxxiv 

Illinois Ixxxiv-lxxx vii 

Indiana Ixxxviii-lxxxix 

Iowa Ixxxix-xci 

Kansas xcii-xciii 

Kentucky xciii-xciv 

Louisiana xciv-xcv 

Maine xcv-xcvi 

Maryland xcvi-xcvii 

Massachusetts xcviii-c 

Michigan c-ci 

Index. cxxix 

STATES (Continued). 

Minnesota ci-cii 

Mississippi cii-ciii 

Missouri ciii-civ 

Montana -civ 

Nebraska civ-cv 

New Hampshire -cv 

New Jersey -cv 

New York cvi-cx 

North Carolina cx-cxi 

Ohio cxi-cxiv 

Oregon -cxiv 

Pennsylvania . cxiv-cxvii 

Rhode Island -cxvii 

South Carolina cxvii-cxviii 

Tennessee cxviii-cxix 

Texas cxix-cxx 

Utah -cxx 

Vermont -cxxi 

Virginia cxxi-cxxii 

West Virginia -cxxii 

Wisconsin cxxii-cxxiii 

Swift, M. I., University Extension xxx-xxxiii 

Tolman, A. H., The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry x 

Treasurer of the Association xlv 

Report of vi 

Unities, Speech and their r61e in Sound Change and 

Phonetic Laws, by G. Karsten , xxxvi 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. Sheldon, Bright 

and Elliott xxxvi-xxxix 

University (The) Idea, and English in the University, 

by J. W. Bright (Abstract) liii-lvii 

Discussion on this paper by Profs. Hart, C. 

Sprague Smith and Garnett Ivii-lix 

University Extension, by M. I. Swift xxx-xxxiii 

Verba, Die Herkunft der sogenannten Schwachen 

der germanischen Sprachen xxxix 

White, Horatio S., The Teaching of a Foreign Litera- 
ture in connection with the Seminary System xiii 

Wood, Henry, The Briefer Pregnant Metaphor in the 

Minor Elizabethan Dramatists xxv 

Letter by xxv 

PB Modern Language Association 

6 of America 

M6 Publications