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A 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

SOUTHAMPTON RECORD SOCIETY, 



GENERAL EDITOR PROFESSOR F. J. C. HEARNSHAW, M.A., LL.D. 



SUPPLEMENT TO 

<0urt 



VOL. I. 
A.D. 1S6O 1624, 

CONTAINING 

GLOSSARY OF SELECT TERMS, 

NOTES ON 

SYNTAX and DIALECT, 
And INDEXES, 



525091 

20 . 1- 5/ 



SOUTHAMPTON : 

Cox & SHARLAND, 

150, HIGH STREET. 

1908. 



CONTENTS. 



GLOSSARY, BY W. F. MASOM, M.A. 



NOTES ON SYNTAX, BY W. F. MASOM, M.A. ... 



NOTES ON DIALECT, BY J. S. WESTLAKE, M.A. 



INDEX OF PERSONS, BY C. N. WEBB 



PLACES, BY GERTRUDE H. HAMILTON 



PAGE 
iii. 

Ivii. 

cxvii. 

605 

625 



,, SUBJECT MATTER, BY FREDERICK J. BURNETT 639 



GLOSSARY 



OF 

SELECTED WORDS HJ*B 

FROM 



THE COURT LEET RECORDS, 

1550 TO 1624, 

TOGETHER WITH A SHORT ACCOUNT OF 

THE SYNTAX, 

BY 

W. F. MASOM, M.A., 

Professor of English in the Hartley University College, Southampton, 

Fellow of University College, London, 
Formerly Scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge. 



INTRODUCTION. iii. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In the compilation of the glossary an endeavour has been 
made to keep the list of words within moderate limits, but at 
the same time to include all those forms which are likely to be 
of general interest or which seem to throw light upon the 
development of the language. 

In the first place, those forms have been marked out for 
selection which give an indication of the pronunciation 
adopted in Southampton in the period under review, a period 
which will be seen with some degree of closeness to coincide 
with the years of Shakespeare's life, 1564 1616. As is well 
known, the value of the sounds, more especially of the vowel 
sounds, has undergone a considerable shifting and development 
in the course of the three centuries which have elapsed since 
then, although the symbols used to represent those sounds have 
not altered so widely. To take one or two instances, it is fairly 
certain that the actor who took the part of Hamlet in the year 
1603 pronounced the lines 

O Heaven ! A beast that wants discourse of Reason 
Would have mourn'd longer, 

in such a way that Heaven, beast, discourse, and reason, would 
sound (approximately) like haven, baste, discoors and raizon. 
The word dog, to take another instance, was sounded very much 
more like dawg than would be regarded nowadays as correct. 

Sodder and soddering, for solder and soldering, show that the / 
was not pronounced, and the same conclusion may be drawn 
from defawette and defawte, for default. Causey for causeway 
indicates the loss of the w in the second syllable. Halpeny and 
halpens, for halfpenny and halfpence, show that the / was not 
sounded, although the I still was : the process of wearing down 
had not reached the modern stage of ha'penny and ha'pence. 
Hable is found for able, and the form for hour varies between 



INTRODUCTION. 



hour and our, and for herbage between hearbadge, herbige and 
erbadge. Heyar occurs for heir (with silent h). The forms 
pleasuer, measuer point to greater stress on the last syllable than 
is now laid. We find beasse for beasts (plural), and clarke, 
advartize, for clerk, advertize. The form stattyutte shows that, 
as early as 1551, the sound of the last syllable was yiut, not oot. 
In the same court leet book, shurtty for surety points clearly to 
the modern pronunciation of the initial s. 

As an illustration of the manifold forms which the same word 
can assume under the pen of the scribe, we may refer to butcher 
and bouney, where the stressed vowel, in Elizabethan times, had 
the value of long u (the sound of oo in moon). Butcher occurs 
and the scribe is playing according to the rules of his game in 
at least five forms, as boucher, bucher, bowcher, bowchar, butcher ; 
while bouney has at least eleven, bouney, bouny, bony, boney, 
bonney, booney, bonie, bonye, bounye, boonye, bunney, and there may 
be others. 

Secondly, it is hoped that all the archaic and obsolete words 
of the court books have been given a place. The list of such 
words is not so long as might be expected. The vocabulary of 
the various scribes contains a very small proportion of forms 
which have altogether disappeared ; certainly not a greater pro- 
portion than could be found in the literary masters of the time. 
Another circumstance that comes out clearly in the list is this 
that the number of dialectical and provincial words is strikingly 
small. The vocabulary to all intents and purposes is that of 
London, and it may be questioned whether altogether there are 
a score of words which do not occur, somewhere or other, in the 
best contemporary models. 

Among the words which have absolutely vanished from the 
language are auniger, an official who supervised the measure of 
cloth, bardge, the gable end of a house, coniger, rabbit warren, 
carvalle, a fast, light vessel of a peculiar kind, goord, pool of 
water, gordier, flood, hellyer, slater or tiler, jemoll, plur. jemmows, 
hinge, lightten, lytten, churchyard, meater, measurer, ripier, seam, 
to grease, spurging, shaking, unhelled, without slates or tiles (of 
the roof of a house). 

Some words are familiar from their literary associations, 
although no longer in common use. Fett, to fetch, can be found 
in Chaucer, and syser, juror, in Piers Plowman. Reminiscent of 
Shakespeare are fardell, bundle, guarded, adorned, fret, to corrode, 
penthouse, purfile, to trim, sennight, week, remorse, pity, in grain, 



INTRODUCTION. y. 



dyed (crimson in grain, dyed crimson) ; while the * hooped pots,' 
alluded to more than once in the court books, conjure up a 
memory of Jack Cade in ' Henry VI '. 

Those words so ominous to the mediaeval mind, regrater, fore- 
staller, engrosser, and the corresponding terms denoting the abuse, 
regrating, forestalling, engrossing, occur frequently. We come 
upon benevolence (forced loan), tallage, scot and lot, imposition, 
subsidy men, terms familiar to the student of constitutional 
history. Some of the names of favourite pastimes have been 
lost, because the game itself has vanished : such are shovelboard 
and nine holes. Tables is better known as backgammon. Half- 
bowls and the half -bowling alley are no more, although bowls 
maintains its position and is in rather better company nowadays 
than it was among the lazy apprentices and * loyterers ' who 
wasted their time over it instead of learning how to shoot with 
the bow. Horse loaves and horse bread are no longer favoured 
in the stable, and horses are not styled horse beastes. A long list 
of terms connected with dress will be found on pp. 141-3, where 
the apparel of the mayor, the aldermen, the sheriffs, the bailiffs, 
and their wives, on state occasions, is described with great vigour 
and exactness. Unfamiliar to us are many of the materials 
employed, martirnes, fur of the martin, foynes, fur made of the 
skin of the polecat, both of which were used for trimming the 
mayor's scarlet gown. Amys, the fur of the grey squirrel, was 
reserved for the ' trayne gownes ' of the ladies. Besides these, 
we hear of harnes gerdelles, tache hookes, partlettes, the last-named 
being the Elizabethan ruff. 

A number of words, or their near kinsfolk, survive in an 
altered shape. Sometimes it is the older and longer form with 
which we are familiar ; streit, to fine, is strange to us, but we 
recognize estreat ; so with syses (from assizes). Sometimes it is 
the other way about, as with estopp and escour, from which we 
derive stop and scour. Noyfull, injurious, has disappeared, but 
we have annoy and noisome. Heckfare survives in the collateral 
word heifer. 

A group of words only exists now as proper names : such are 
coward, cow -keeper, bowyer, maker of bows, ropier, rope -maker, 
shearman, cloth -cutter, taverner, innkeeper, and shuter, archer. 

Thirdly, the attempt has been made to include all those words, 
of which there are very many, which are still found in the 
modern speech, but with a different or modified meaning. The 
list is a long one. To quote a few : suffer, to allow, allow, to 



VI. INTRODUCTION. 

approve, censure, opinion, collier, coal dealer, author, supporter, 
convenient, fitting, present, immediate, lavish, licentious, un- 
reverent, blasphemous, indifferently, impartially, as in the phrase 
' to truly and indifferently minister justice.' Sometimes the 
modern meaning is widely divergent. In the court books we 
find that a workhouse means a factory ; a bearer is a porter ; a 
customer is a custom house officer ; a footman is a traveller on 
foot, so is a walker and a goer ; the passenger is the man who 
works the ferry ; a foreigner is one from another part of the 
country ; a viewer is an inspector ; free shopkeepers are those who 
enjoy the freedom of the town ; and the ' very loytering person ' 
(of 1575, 81) is evidently a thoroughly vicious member of society. 
A tippler turns out to be an innkeeper, and a person who ' keeps 
tippling ' is merely one with a licence to sell beer by retail. If 
a man is said to be painful, the epithet only means that he is 
painstaking or laborious ; if he * loses his pains,' that he has 
rendered himself liable to a fine, and if he is afflicted with ' a 
limited pain,' that the fine is one fixed (or limited) by statute. 
In 1590, 16, the court jury in 'presenting' three revellers, Henry 
Esmond, Peter Greneway, and Thomas Sutton, for unlawfully 
playing at bowls, describe them as having ( used themselves 
contemptuously,' but it is quite clear from the details that their 
scorn and contempt were directed more against the authorities, 
especially the mayor, than against themselves. It is also clear 
that when the jury of 1604 accused the Beadle above Bar of not 
doing his duty and fined him two shillings, and having done so, 
expressed a desire for his ' corporall punishment,' they did not 
propose that penalty which the words, at first sight, imply. 

The writer of the court books has a liking for long adjectives 
and high sounding phrases, which give to his commonplace 
details a touch of unintentional humour. He will speak of a 
'protest' as an ' exclamation' ; if the highway has worn away, 
it must be ' exalted ' to its former condition ; he describes a town 
ceremonial as ' obsequies ' and ' solemnetyes,' and in rebuking 
John Elliot for making other things besides gloves, gravely 
refers to his ' science and occupation of glover's craft.' Some- 
times he is quaint, as when he describes the impression produced 
upon him by the watch bell of the castle (1579, 80) ; to him it 
is a c comfortable hearing.' Perhaps the best thing in the records 
is the story of Peter Quoyte's dog, who is described as an 
animal between a mastiff and a mongrel with ' strong qualyties 
by (i.e., in) himself.' This ' well qualytyed ' dog was allowed to 



INTRODUCTION. Vll. 



go loose in the streets and make raids on the neighbours, fetching 
out of their houses ' whole pecs of meate, as loynes of mutton and 
veale and such lyke and a pasty of venson or a whole pownde of 
candells at a tyme and (he) will not spoyle it by the way, but cary 
yt whole to his masters howse.' So although he is c a prof y table 
dogg for his master, yet because he is offensyffe to many, yt is 
not sufferable,' and the jury followed up this expression of dis- 
approval by fining Peter 3/4 for every dereliction of duty in the 
past, and adding a threat of similar treatment for each instance 
of negligence in the future. As to the fate of the ' well 
qualytyed ' dog, the history is silent. 



GLOSSARY. 



GLOSSARY. 



[The references to the Court Leet books are by year and sec- 
tion. Proper names are not here dealt with. A systematic 
account of adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions is reserved 
for the Syntax which follows the Glossary.] 



A for at, on : ' a Cutthorne ' (1616, 122). 

A for of : ' Jn. a Garnezes crosse ' (1579, 15). 

A for in, on : ' a water ' (1580, g) ; 'to set other a worcke ' (1581, 

52), at work; 'a foote' (1582, 92); 'a spendinge ' 

(i59o, i). 

ABAT (1579, 6), vb., to abate, to reduce. 
ABOGHTT, adv., about : 'as he ryddythe aboghtt ' (1551, 34). 
ABOGHTTE, prep., about : ' aboghtte the dytches' (1551, 29). 
ABOOVE (1579, 10), prep., above. 

ABOUTS, prep., about : ' abouts and within this towne ' (1579, 21). 
ABROATCHE : ' sett abroatche ' (1603, 58), tapped. 
ABRODE, adv., abroad : ' the stones theare scatterid abrode,' i.e., 

over the saltmarsh (1579, 36). 

ABUFFE, ABOOVE, adv., above : ' abuffe namyd' (1551, i). 
ABUFFE, prep., above : * abuffe the churche ' (1551, 29). 
ABUSE (1596, 33), vb., to defraud. 
ACCERTAINE, followed by of : ' neither cann we iustlie accertaine 

ourselves of the offender ' (1615, 28) ; ' not beinge accer- 

tained of (1616, 114). 

ACCESSORIES (1611, 2), plur. subs., persons concerned. 
ACCOMPT (1600, 74), vb., to account, to consider. 
ACCOMPTABLE (1574, 70), adj., accountable. 
ACCOMPTE (1573, 58), subs., account. 
ACCONS (1620, 79), plur. subs., actions. 
ACCOSTOMED (1579, 89), past part., customary, usual. 
ACCUSTOMABLY, adv., regularly : ' accustomably usse ' (1573, 30). 
ACCUSTOMAL (1585, 5), adj., customary. 



X. GLOSSARY. 

ACCUSTOMEDLIE (1620, 55,) adv., by custom. 

ACONSELLED (1551, 46), past part, of ACONSELL, to counsel. 

ACOSTOM, vb., used impersonally : ' as yt hathe bene acostomyd 

in tyme past ' (1551, 14). 
ADMIRALL COURT (1603, 26), subs., court dealing with admiralty 

rights. 
ADMIRALTY : ' within our admiralty' (1581, 85), jurisdiction over 

water ; ' we have lost the admiralty and liberty of ports- 

mouthe' (1581, 77), admiralty rights and privileges over 

Portsmouth. 

ADVANTAGE (1619, 107), trans, vb., to benefit. 
ADVERTYSE (1580, 69), ADVARTIZE, vb., to warn, to inform. 
ADVISED (1601, 98), adj., deliberate. 
ADVOYDINGE (1576, 77), same as avoiding. 
AFORE, AFOR, adv., before, previously. 
AFOREHAND, adv., beforehand. 
AFRAY, subs., affray : * asalte and afray ' (1566, 55). 
AGAYEN, prep., adjoining : ' agayen comen or hyghwayes ' 

(1566, n). 
AGAYNSTE, AGENIST, AGEINST, prep., adjoining, opposite : ' the 

streats agaynste theire housses ' (1550, 58) ; before, so as to 

be ready for : ' agaynst the feast of alsaynts ' (1585, 2) ; 

1 to warne the people ageinst that ower ' (1579, 89). 
AGREABLE, adj., agreeable, agreeing with : such as are agreable 

to the standards ' (1577, 100). 
AGREE (1619, 58), vb., to come to an agreement. 
ALBEIT (1600, 17), used as a prep., in spite of : ' albeit our former 

presentment ' ; conj., although (1603, 4). 
ALIENT (1574, 68), subs., alien, foreigner. 
ALL HOLLAND (1611, 59), All Saints. 'All hollantide ' (1603, 24), 

All Saints' Day. 

ALLOME, alum : < the allome seller' (1571, 17), the alum cellar. 
ALLOW (1615, 8), vb., to approve. 
ALLOWANCE (1600, 28), subs., permission, approval. 
ALLS (1581, 77), for alias. 

ALONELY, only : ' making her alonely abode ' (1575, 68). 
ALONGEST, prep., by the side of : ' alongest the dytch ' (1575, 48). 
AMEND (1569, i), vb., to mend, to repair. 
AMENDMENT (1574, 36), subs., repair. 
AMERCIAMENT (1613, 25), subs., fine. 
AMERSE (1550, 27), AMERSS, AMERSSE, AMEARCE, AMERCE, vb., to 

fine : ' wherfore he is amerced in 6d.' (1596, 47). 



GLOSSARY. xi. 



AMYS (p. 142), subs., fur of the marten or grey squirrel. Cf. Stow, 

Survey : ' cloaks furred with grey amis.' 
AN, found before y : ' an yerelie rent' (1603, 3)- 
ANIE WAYES (1601, 64), ANYWAYES, adv., in any way. 
ANNEX, in passive voice, meaning to adjoin (1619, 51). 
ANOWENSS, ANOWENS, ANNOWENS, ANOYANCE, ANOYANS, ANOYENSS, 

ANNICE, subs., annoyance, damage, nuisance : ' for the 

anoyance of the way' (1551, 31). 
ANNOYE, subs., annoyance, injury : * to his great annoye ' (1575, 

54)- 

ANOYE (1551, 44), ANNOYE, vb., to annoy, to injure. 

ANOYFULL (1604, 80), adj., injurious. 

ANSWERE, vb., to answer, followed by to : l the ownere to answere 
to the damage ' (1566, 23). 

ANSWERABLE (1602, 36), adj., allowable, excusable. 

ANUSANS (1569, 4), ANEUSANS, subs., annoyance. 

APERTAYNE (1576, 8), APPERTEYN, vb., to belong. 

APPOINT, vb., to determine : * the order of government hath 
appointid' (1569, 12); to come to an agreement (1569, 
64) ; to order (1573, 35). 

APPOYNTMENT (1585, 4), subs., order. 

APPROVE, vb., to prove : ' for every tyme so appro vid ' (1550, 60) ; 
to prove, to test (of sacks) (1569, 27). 

ARRERAGES (p. 223), plur. subs., arrears. 

As, conj., when : ' that daye as your worshipps did ride' (1618, 
103) ; so that : ' as in times future no further complaint 
may be made ' (1601, 98). 

ASSENTION, subs., Ascension : ' assention daye' (1616, in). 

ASSISE (1569, 14), ASSEZE, ASSIZE, ASSISSE, subs. : (i) a regula- 
tion framed at the assizes; (2) a measure or weight 
fixed at the assizes ; (3) size, measure. 

ASSISTANT (1605, 39), subs., member of the city council. 

ASSURAUNCE (1574, 47), subs., assurance, security. 

ASSYES (1575, 89), ASSYSSE, subs., size ; same as ASSISE (q.v.) 

ASYNGNES (1551, 14), ASYNYSE, plur. subs., assignees, repre- 
sentatives. 

AT, prep., at, in : 'at these daies ' (1596, 77), at the present 
time ; ' at wynter ' (1566, 6). 

ATHWARTE (1573, 34), ATHAWRT, prep., across. 

ATHWARTE (1573, 40), ATWARTE, adv., across. 

AUCTHORITIE (1576, 64), subs., authority. 

AUNCIENT (1620, 44), AUNCEANT, adj., old, former. 



Xll. 



GLOSSARY. 



AUNIGER (1569, 15), AWNEGER, subs., aulnager, an officer 
appointed to supervise the selling of cloth according to 
measure. 

AUTHENTICALL (1623, 40), adj., authentic, valid. 

AUTHOR (1601, 91), subs., supporter. 

AVOCHE, vb., to avouch, to quote. 

AVOIDE, AWOYDE, vb., to remove : ' be yt comanded that theye 
avoide the same house ' (1550, 56) ; to cease doing : ' be 
yt comanded that they avoyd the same ' (1566, 39) ; trans., 
to carry off : 'to avoyde the water ' (1569, 7) ; intrans., to 
be emptied : ' that the water may avoyde owte of the 
highwey ' (1566, 52). 

AWEKE (1550, 21), adv., in the week. 

AWHAYE (1551, 54), adv., away. 

AYNESIENTTE (1551, 40), AWYNSYENTT, AWNCYENT, AINCYENT, 
AUNCEANT, AUNTIANT, adj., ancient. 



BACKE HOWSE (1620, 82), subs., bakehouse. 

BACKER (1*573, 32), subs., baker. 

BACKER HOWSE (1613, 81), subs., back part of a house. 

BACKER PARTE (1616, 57), subs., back part. 

BACKWARDS AND FORWARDS (1604, 53), adv., in front and behind. 

BAKESYDE, subs., back of a dwelling : * a carpenters back side,' 

(i596, 43)- 

BALLASTAGE (1603, 15), subs., ballast of a ship. 

BALLET CANVAS (1590, 75), subs., probably canvas in small bales. 
BALLET is from O.F. balete, balette, diminutive of bale, balle. 

BANCKETTINGE HOUSES (1581, 79), plur. subs., houses of refresh- 
ment. 

BANKETINGE (1590, i), subs., feasting, gluttony. 

BARDGE (1603, 73), subs., gable end of a house. 

BARE (1551, 29), subs., the Bar, Bargate. 

BARGATTE (1551, 28), subs., the Bargate. 

BARRED, past part., having bars : ' barred beere potts' (1577, 107) ; 
quart pots with bands at equal intervals. 

BATCHILLER (1580, 81), subs., bachelor. 

BAYLLY, BAYLEFF, subs., bailiff : ' no man beinge of the degre of 
a baylly for the towne ' (1550, 69). 

BE, vb., to be. BYNE, BENE, BEN, past part., been. 

BE (1551, 22), prep., by, close to. 



GLOSSARY. xiii. 



BEAME (1611, 34), subs., the king's beam for weighing dutiable 

goods. 
BEARD, subs., beard: 'the beard of the hedge' (1600, 49), the 

bushy part. Halliwell (1878) defines 'beard hedge' as 

the bushes which are stuck into the bank of a new made 

hedge to protect the fresh planted thorns. 
BEARE, subs., beer : ' halpeny beare and syngle beare ' (1585, 10). 

See BERE. 

BEARER (1581, 52), subs., porter. 
BEASSE (1566, 22), plur. subs., beasts. 
BECOME (1596, i), vb., to be fitting. 
BEDMATTS (1605, 84), plur. subs., matting of beds. 
BEEFORE (1569, 19), prep., before. 
BEENEATHE (1577, 44), prep., beneath. 
BEESYDS (1569, 31), prep., besides, in addition to. 
BEETWEEN (1579, 102), prep., between. 
BEETWIXT (1576, 58), prep., between. 
BEHAFFE (1551, i), BEHALLFE, BEHARFFE, subs., matter: 'the 

order takyn in that behaffe.' 
BEHOFFE, subs., benefit. 
BEND (1551, 15), vb., to turn. 
BENEVOLENCE (1623, 48), subs., tax, contribution. 
BERE, subs., beer: ' bere and alle ' (1551, 20). According to 

Boorde's Dietary, 154.2, the difference between beer and 

ale at this date was that ale was made from malt and 

water, whereas in the brewing of beer hops were used. 

'Halpeny beare' (1585, 10) ; 'syngle beare' (1585, 10) ; 

' dobbel bere' (1551, 33); ' fillinge beer' (1571, 21); 

' Small beere ' (1594, 6) ; 'halfe crowne beere ' (1596, 15), 

beer sold at 2/6 the barrel. 
BERRELL STONE (1596, 92), subs., a stone mentioned in the 

perambulation of the bounds. 
BESIDE (1566, 53), adv., besides, in addition. 
BESPEAK (1569, 12), vb., to order beforehand. 
BEST, adv., equivalent to most : ' best experienced ' (1602, 38). 
BESTOW (1579, 57), vb., to use, to employ. 
BETWEXE (1574, 44), prep., between, betwixt. 
BIDELL (1571, i), BYDDLL, BYDDELL, subs., beadle. ' Biddels gate ' 

(1579, 55)- 

BIHAYND, prep., behind. 

BILLETT WOOD (1615, 93), subs., wood for fuel ; see BYLLAT. 
BLUD, BLUDDE, BLOUD, subs., blood. 



XIV. GLOSSARY. 



BLUDDSHED, BLOUDSHED, subs., deed of violence, assault : ' a 

bluddshed ' (1603, 32). 
BOATHE (1579, i), adj., both. 

BODDIE, subs., body, main portion : ' boddie of the key' (1613, 59). 
BOKE ASHES (1582, 25), plur. subs. BUCK ASHES are ashes which 

have served for making lye for washing clothes. 
BOLENG (1566, 37), subs., bowling. 
BOOSHEL (1569, 27), subs., bushel. 
BOOTE (1587, 78), subs., boat. 
BORDARARS, plur. subs., those living on the border : ' strange 

catle bordarars' (1589, 94). 

BORDERED (1600, 7), past part., bordering, situated. 
BORDES (1550, 63), plur. subs., boards. 
BOTHE (1579, 34), BOTH, subs., booth. 
BOTTE (1566, 43), subs., butt. 
BOTTELL (1550, 28), small bundle of hay or straw. In the year 

1550 the half-penny bottle was required to weigh 3^ lb., 

twice as much as in 1617. 
BOUCHER (1550, 52), BUCHER, BOWCHAR, BOWCHER, butcher, subs., 

butcher. 
BOUCKES (1550, 72), BOOKS, BUKS, plur. subs., dirty clothes in 

process of being washed. 
BOUNDE (1620, 33), subs., boundary. 

BOUNEY (1566, 57), BOUNY, BONY, BONEY, BONNEY, BOONEY, BoNIE, 

BONYE, BOUNYE, subs., bouney, gutter. 

Mr. F. J. BURNETT writes as follows : This word is still used by the 
country people of Hampshire, and is applied to the wooden flap 
that is attached to the outlet of the " lakes " or wide ditches in 
the salt marshes, so as to enable the salt water to run out freely, 
but only to come in slowly. 

At the salt marshes near Calshot Castle the following terms 
are used by the "natives," viz., a narrow trench or ditch is called 
a "gutter"; a wide ditch is called a "lake"; the outlet of a 
"lake" is called a "bouney." 

Bo WEAR (1566, 45), subs., BOWYER, maker of bows. 

BOWLER (1613, 21), subs., one who plays at bowls. 

BOWLES, plur. subs., the game of bowls. 

BOWLLE CAKE (1571, 31), subs., bowl cake. 

BOWND, adj., boundary, 'bownd stone ' (1594, 45). 

Boz (1581, 42), Bz., contraction for bushel. 

BRADE, BREAD, subs., bread. 

BRANCHE (1620, 33), subs., clause. 

BRASLET (p. 143), BRASTLETTE, subs., bracelet. 




GLOSSARY. XV. 



BREAK, vb. Phrase : ' to break a hole ' ; ' Mr. mylles hathe brokyn 

a hole' (1550, 57) ; ' to break upp' (of fire), (1615, 80), 

to burst out. BRAKE, BREAKE, past ind. BROKYN, BROCKEN, 

BROAKEN, past part. 
BREEDE, vb., to breed, to cause : ' many loyterers which do breede 

evell acts' (1579, 81) ; ' yt bredyth this inconvenyence ' 

(1582, 16). 
BREKE, subs., brick. 
BRETHERIN, BRETHERNE, plur. subs., colleagues, coadjutors : ' Mr. 

maior and his bretherin ' (1550, 44). 
BRIDGEMENT (1594, 8), short for abridgment. 
BROCARIDGE (1613, 109), subs., brokerage ; (in bad sense), acting 

as a go-between. 
BROCHE. Phrase: 'to set on broche ' (1551, 40), to tap; cf. 

ABROATCHE. 

BROKER (1582, 82), subs., trader. 
BROWME (1602, 63), subs., broom. 
BUCKE (1605, 13), adj., in the phrase, ' washinge of clothes, either 

bucke or soapy ' ; see BOKE. 
BUILD, BYLDE, BILD, BUILLD, vb., to build : ' to build up a howse ' 

(1600, 10), to repair. BUILDED, past part. 
BULLWARKE (1569, 76), BULWARCK, BULWERKE, subs., bulwark. 
BULLYNGE ALLYS (1551, 19), plur. subs., bowling alleys. 

BURGESY (1550, l), BURGESES, BuRGEASES, BOURGESES, plur. Subs., 

the burgesses. 

BURGESHIPP (1587, 84), BURGESSIPP, subs., position of burgess. 
BURRES (1623, 34), plur. subs., blocks of burr-stone ; see note on 

P- 590. 

BUT (1589, 79), prep., except. 
BUTT, subs., archery-butt (1550, 44). 
BUTT, vb., to abut : * butteth out into the townes grounde ' 

(1596, 49). 

BUTTERIS (1573, 12), subs., buttress. 
BY (1550, 69), BYE, vb., to buy. 
BY, prep., because of : ' daungerus by the durt and gravel that 

may theare enter in' (1579, 12); near: 'the greene by 

Jn. agarnezes crosse ' (1579, 15). 
BY MEANES, cow/., by reason that, because : ' by meanes the 

plancks be removed' (1596, 62). 
BY WAY, subs., by-way, side path. 
BYE PLACES (1587, 6), plur. subs., side places. 
BYLLAT (1573, 6), subs., billet, stick of wood for fuel. 



XVI. GLOSSARY. 



BYLLYMENT, short for habiliment. BILIMENT LACE was an orna- 
mental lace used in the sixteenth century for trimming : 
' a brode byllyment lace of sylke ' (1577, 98). 



CAMERYCK (1587, 79), subs., cambric. 

CANVAIES (1615, 121), szfts., canvas. 

CARDING (1579, 63), sitbs., card playing. 

CARE, vb., to care ; ' to care of (1582, 65), to care for, attend to. 

CARIADGE (1569, 56), subs., carriage. 

CART (1603, 71), vb., to carry in a cart through the streets, by 
way of punishment. 

CARVALLE (1589, i), CARVAILLE, subs., a small, light and fast 
ship, chiefly of Spain or Portugal, but sometimes men- 
tioned as French or English. From O.F. carvelle. 

CAST, vb., to make a bank : for not castinge the ditche ' 
(1603, n). 

CATTALL (1573, 58), CATTELL, plur. subs., cattle. Used as sing., 
a head of cattle : ' every suche catall ' (1579, 65). 

CAUL (1581, 86), vb., to call, to summon. 

CAUSEY (1571, 7), CAUSEE, CAWSEY, subs., causeway : 'the foote 
cawsey ' (1600, 34). 

CAUSYS, GAUSSES, plur. subs., causes. In 1550, 30, it denotes 
cases. 

CAYE (1566, 16), see KEY. 

CENSURE (1601, 98), subs., opinion, decision. 

CERTAYNE, adj., some : ' certayne of the townes ground ' 






CESTERN (1594, 24), CESTERNE, subs., cistern ; see SEASTRIN. 

CHALLENGE (1600, 15), vb., to claim. 

CHAMLETT (p. 142), subs., camlet ; properly a substance made 

of silk and camel's hair, but afterwards of wool or cotton. 
CHARDGE (1574, 67), CHARDG, CHARG, subs., cost, expense. With 

the same meaning in the plur., CHARDGES (1576, 68). ' To 

be given ifl charge ' (1603, 9)> to order. 
CHARGEABLE (1600, 72), adj., costly, expensive. 
CHAUNTERY (1550, 4), CHANTTRE, subs., chantry : ' the chaunterie 

or parsonage howse of St. maries ' (1624, l6 )- 
CHEAP MEN (1602, 77), plur. subs., traders. 
CHEEFFELIE (1576, 39), adv., chiefly, especially. 
CHEFFEST (1574, 25), CHIFFESTE, CHEAFFIST, adj., best, most 

important, largest. 



GLOSSARY. XVli. 



CHEPE, subs., price : ' the pore shall by the better chepe' (1550, 
69), buy at a smaller price ; ' for a half-penny better chepe 
then' (1551, 9), a halfpenny cheaper than; 'the best 
chepe ' (1587, 49), the lowest price. 

CHEPYN, vb., to bid for : ' to chepyn any meale or malte ' 



CHESSE (1551, 8), CHEYSSE, CHEYSE, subs., cheese. 

CHEYME (1575, 60), subs., chime of bells. 

CHILDERONE (1574, 42), subs., children. 

CHURRMAIDE, CHURRMAIDEN (1616, in), subs., charwoman. 

CITHENCE (1574, 47), prep., since ; same as SITHENCE. 

CIVILL adj., belonging to a community, well ordered : * a house 

of civill governement' (1576, 69). 
CLARCKE (1569, 67), subs., clerk. 
CLEANE (1582, 92), adv., completely. 
CLOSE, subs., enclosed field, close. 
CLOTHE TIN (1579, 95), subs., the name of an allowance made to 

tin merchants. 

COCKING STOLLE (1576, 89), CUCKING STOOLE, subs., cucking stool. 
COHERENT (1580, 82), subs., adherent, supporter. 
COKE (1589, 8), subs., stopcock. 
COLDE (1566, 26), subs., colt. 

COLLERABLY (1577, 94), COOLERABLY, adv., fraudulently. 
COLLIER (1605, 86), subs., dealer in coal. 

COLLORE (1566, 34), COULER, COLER, COLLER, Subs., Colour, 

pretence. 
COMAWNDYMENTT, COMANDYMENTT, subs., commandment : ' to 

have in comandement ' (1566, i), to be ordered ; * to give 

in comandement ' (1566, i), to order. 
COMBURGESSE (1596, 91), subs., fellow burgess. 
COME, vb., to come. COMYTH (1575, 24), a peculiar infinitive 

in yth. 
COME ABOUT, vb., to come round : ' or els the watche could not 

come so often about' (1581, 41), the turn of watching 

could not come round so quickly. So ' goithe about ' in 

1581, 41. 

COMEND (1620, 12), vb., to recommend. 
COMODIOUS (1587, 30), adj., useful, beneficial. 
COMODITIE, subs., use, ' the comoditie of the ground ' (1574, 15) ; 

commodity, article (1581, 80). 
COMON, vb., to enquire, followed by of : ' which we dessire may 

be comoned of (1576, 47). 



XV111. GLOSSARY. 



COMONWELTH (1573, i), subs., common welfare, ' contrary to 
the comonwealthe of this towne ' (1581, 42) ; see WEALTH. 

COMPANE, company, collection : * a compane of old hordes ' 
(1573, 21) ; ' suche of. his company as he shall call to 
attend on him,' members of the court leet jury. 

COMPLAINS, vb., to complain ; followed by upon, ' to complain 
upon the porters' (1566, 53). 

COMYN (1550, 39), adj., open to, accessible : ' as comyn for the 
pore as for the riche.' 

COMYN (1550, 2), vb., to enjoy common rights. 

COMYNERS (1550, l), COMMENERS, COMENERS, COMONERS, plur. 

subs., those enjoying common rights. 
CONCLUDE (1574, 34), vb., to decide. 
CONDICENT (1550, i2\ subs., consent. 

CONDUCTE (1550, 39), COUNDICTE, CoNDUICT, CONDYT, COUNDIT, 

CUNDICT, subs., conduit. 

CONFESSYD (1576, 90), past part., described, narrated. 

CONFORMABLE (1611, 36), adj., inclined, willing; followed by to. 

CONIGER (1577, 8), subs., rabbit warren. 

CONSENS (1551, 45), subs., conscience. 

CONSIDER, vb., to consider ; followed by of : * they arre to be 
considerid of ' (1574, 54). 

CONSUMED (1603, 39), past part., eaten away by water. 

CONTEMPTIOUSLY (1604, 89), adv., contemptuously. 

CONTENTACION (1581, 4), subs., satisfaction. 

CONTENTS (1620, 65), plur subs., means of amusement. 

CONTROLLAR (1551, 28), subs., with the same meaning as cus- 
tomer, an official who collected custom duties. 

CONTTRE, CONTRYE, CoUNTERIE, CoNTERY, Subs., Country : ' lette 

the contry selle yt ' (1566, 34), the country people. 
CONVENT (1613, 20), vb., to convene, assemble. 
CONVENYENT, adj., fitting, proper : ' whiche we thincke yt not 

convenyent ' (1550, 61). 
CONVENYENTLY (1577, 61), adv., easily. 
COOLES, COLLES, plur. subs., coals: 'see cooles' (1550, 34), sea 

coals, so called because conveyed by sea. 
COPE (1581, 57), COAPE, vb., to furnish with a coping. 
COPPSPEEKERS (1604, 44), plur. subs., stealers of copse wood. 
CORPORALL, adj. : ' there corporall oathes ' (1596, 84), oaths taken 

by the burgesses in their corporate capacity ; ' corporall 

punishment ' (1604, 86), punishment in respect of position ; 

' corporall imprisonment ' (1602, 47), bodily imprisonment. 



GLOSSARY. xix. 



CORPORATIONS (1581, 38), plur. subs., guilds or companies ; see 

note on p. 209. 
CORRANT, CURRANT, adj., running ; used as adv., currently 



CORRANTLY (1573, 34), adv., in a flow, without stoppage. 

CORRUMPSIONE (1574, 36), CORRUPSIONE, subs., corruption. 

CORSE (1569, i), COURSE, subs., course. 

COSTOM (1589, 95), subs., tax, toll. 

COTACION (1603, 4), COTATION, QoTATioN, subs., quotation. 

COUNTERGARD (1581, 98), vb., to defend, to put up a protection 

against. 

COURANT (1577, 22), adj., current, running. 
COUREID (1577, 34), CORRIED, past part., curried. 
COURENG (1577, 35), subs., currying, process of dressing tanned 

hides. 
COURRANT, subs., current, flow : ' that the water may have his 

courrant ' (1579, 13). 
COVERING (1550, 66), subs., cover; ' coveringe the freeschoole' 

(1611, 43), roofing. 

COVERTURE (1615, no), subs., covering, shelter. 
COWARD (1566, 19), subs., cowherd. 
COWNTER (1613, 75), subs., the mayor's court of justice, or the 

prison attached to such a court. 
COWPAR (1566, 49), COWPPER, subs., cooper. 
COYTRES (1566, 37), plur. subs., quoits ; usually spelled COITE, 

COYTE. 

CRAFTE (1550, 82), subs., trading. 

CRANADGE (1616, 117), subs., fees for the use of the crane. 
CROPT, past part., cropped, cut : * cropt eared ' (1575, 37). 
CROSSE (1613, 38), prep., across. 
CUGGELL (1604, 67), subs., cudgel. 
CULLORED (1600, 1 8), past part., coloured, painted. 
CURB (1550, 66), subs., the stone frame round the top of a 

well, to which the lid or cover (COVERING, 1550, 66) was 

fastened. 

CURRAN (1566, 43), subs., currant. 
CUSSHING (1619, 80), subs., cushion. 
CUSTUMER (1550, 51), COUSTOMER, subs., custom-house officer. 

Also customer, person who buys. 



XX. GLOSSARY. 



DAMMYFFIE (1590, 72), DAMNYFYE (1619, 107), vb., to damage. 
DAMNID (1573, 24), for dammed, stopped : ' no auntient light ought 

to be dammyd upp ' (1576, 83). 
DAMPNE (1587, 60), DAMN, vb., to dam, to stop. 
DAUNGER, DAYNGER, subs., danger. 
DAUNGEROUS, DAYNGEROUS, adj., dangerous. 
DAWBINGE (1616, 102), subs., coating with mortar. 
DEAP, adj., deep. DEAFER, compar. (1579, n). 
DEBATE (1581, 40), subs., dispute, quarrel. 
DECAYE (1574, 20), subs., cause of decay. 
DECAY (1601, 21), trans, vb., to cause to decay. 
DECAYENG (1579, 64), subs., decay, cause of decay. 
DECEPT (1574, 62), subs., cheating ; see DISSEAYTE. 
DEFACE, vb., to deface, to destroy (a garden, 1587, 75). 
DEFACED (1594, 46), past part., ruined, pulled down. 
DEFAMINGE (1576, 71), subs., bringing into ill repute. 
DEFASSING (1573, 21), subs., defacing. 
DEFAULTE (1550, 7), DEFAWETTE, DEFAWTE, DEFAWELT, DEF- 

FAULTE, DEFALT, DEFALTE,. subs., fault, transgression, 

neglect. 

DEFENCINGE (1589, 94), subs., fencing. 
DEFEND (1550, i), vb., to keep off. 
DEFENSYTYVE (1550, i), adj., acting as a defence. 
DEFYLE (1575, 73), vb., to pollute ; same as FYLE. 
DELLIGENT (1581, 52), adj., diligent. 
DEMISSE (1587, 69), subs., conveyance, transfer. 
DEMYSE (1550, 25), used in the legal phrase, * to demyse and 

graunt.' 

DENAYD (1585, 13), past part., denied, refused. 
DENYE, vb., to refuse : ' yf they shall denye to sell any beere ' 

(1594, 44) ; to disobey, ' denny this order ' (1594, 44). 
DEPRAVINGLYE (1615, 126), adv., disparagingly. 
DESAR (1573, 43), vb., to desire. 
DESARTS (1566, 49), plur. subs., deserts, merits. 
DESIER, followed by of : ' we desier of that good contynewaunce ' 

(1620, 9). 
DESIST, followed by of: 'we desist of amercinge' (1611, 36); 

followed by to, * we desest to present them ' (1613, 25). 
DESSEYVE, DISCEVE, vb., to deceive, to defraud : ' to desseyve the 

towne of there dewtyes ' (1569, 64). 
DESTROYENGE (1576, 13), subs., destruction. 



GLOSSARY. XXI. 



DEVOWER for DEVOWERER (1573, i), subs., devourer. 

DIG, DIGE, DIDGE '1566, 18), vb., to dig. DIGGED, DYGGED 

(1569, 48), DIGGID, weak past part. 

DISSALLOWAUNCE (1603, 28), subs., disallowing, rejection. 
DISCOMODIUS (1620, 62), adj., inconvenient 
DISCOMODYTYE (1569, ji), subs., disadvantage. 
DISCONTENTATION (1611, 24), subs., discontent. 
DISCONTENTMENT (1605, 88), subs., cause of discontent. 
DISCREETE, adj., selected: ' discreete burgesses' (1581, 91); 

' discreets of the markett ' (1615, no), officers appointed 

to supervise the market. 

DISGRADED (1550, 83), adj., reduced in rank, degraded. 
DISGRADUATINGE (1613, 96), subs., deprivation, degradation. 
DISINCOURAGMENT (1615, no), subs., discouragement. 
DISMISS (1594, 45), subs., removal. 
DISORDERED (1601, 40), DYSORDERYD, adj., disorderly. 
DISPATCH (1602, 50), vb., to complete. 
DISSEAYTE (1571, 70), DESSAYT, DECEYT, DISCEIPT, subs., deceit, 

cheating. 

DISTRESS, subs. : ' to take distresses,' to exact penalties. 
Do, DOE, Du, Dou, Doo, Dow, vb., to do. DUTHE, DOTHE, DOOTHE, 

DOWTH, DOWTHE, pres. ind., doth. DUNE, DOONE, DOUNE, 

DON, DONE, past part. 
DOBBELBERE (1551, 33), DOBLE BEAR, subs., double beer, strong 

beer. 

DOGGWES (1550, 12), DOGES, dogs. 
DOMADGE (1574, 47), subs., damage. 
DOUBT (1596, 91), subs., fear. 
DOUBT, vb., to suspect, ' we doubt the said coweherd to be 

coulpable of the same' (1576, 47); to fear, 'which we 

doubt will be verie daungerus by the durt ' (1579, 12). 
DOUBTFULL (1579, 55), adj., suspicious, suspected. 
DOUGHT (1590, 72), vb., to doubt. 
DRANE (1589, 32), subs., drain. 
DRAUGHT (1579, 55), subs., way for goods. 
DRAWE (1551, 29), vb., to drain. 
DRE (1566, 34), adj., dry. 
DREVER (1566, 25), DRIVER, subs., driver. 
DRIVE, vb., to drive. DREVEN (1566, 23), past part. 
DRYFFATT (1571, 10), subs., a large vessel, cask or tub used to 

hold dry things, as opposed to liquids ; a dry vat. 
DRYFTE (1587, 58), subs., driving. 



Xxii. GLOSSARY. 

DUBLETT (p. 142), subs., doublet. 

DURTE (1551, 29), DURTTE, DORTE, subs., dirt. 

DURTING (1602, 40), subs., dirtying. 

DUTIE (1566, 53), DEWTYE, subs., dues, fees. 

DUTYFULL (1600, 45), adj., zealous, energetic. 

DWE (1569, 41), adj., due. 

DWELY (1581, 84), adv., duly. 

DYSS (1575, 70), vb., to play dice. 

DYSSINGE (1589, 61), subs., playing with dice. 

DYSSONYSTE (1551, 45), subs., dishonesty, ill repute. 

DYVERES (1566, 4), adj., divers. 



EASE (1613, 31), subs., convenience. 

EASMENT, EASEMENT, subs., convenience : ' waye of easment ' 

(i573> 35)- 
EAT, vb., to eat : ' eaten upp ' (1596, 73), eaten away. 

EDEFY (1615, 28), vb., to build. 

EFTSONES (1603, 4), EFTSONNS, EFTSOMES (1605, 82), adv., at once. 

EIR (1577, i), con/., ere, before. 

EIRE (1620, 52), vb., to err, to fail. 

EITHER (1579, 105), EYTHER, EETHER, pron., each of two, both. 

ELDERS (1577, 43), plur. subs., elder bushes. 

ELLS (1573, 12), ELS, adv., else, elsewhere. 

EMONGE (1551, 39), prep., among. 

EMONGESTE (1571, 39), prep., among. 

EMPEACHE (1581, 104), vb., to hinder. 

EMPEACHMENT (1596, 69), subs., hindrance. 

ENCROCHE (1566, 12), same as INCROCHE ; used transitively 'for 

encroachinge the streat ' (1596, 46) ; intransitively, ' to 

encroche upon ' (1596, 49). ENCROSID, past part. (1582, 88). 
ENCROCHEMENT (1579, 47), subs., encroachment. 
ENCROCHER, subs., engrosser, buyer in large quantities : ' encro- 

chers of butter ' (1582, 68). 
ENCROCHING (1573, 59), subs., encroachment, seizure : * thencroch- 

ing of the quens highway.' 

END, subs., end : ' to the end to ' (1579, 109), in order to. 
ENDAMADGE (1596, 31), subs., damage, injury. 
ENDAMADGED (1576, 85), past part., damaged. 
ENFORM (1576, 78), vb., to inform. 
ENGLISSE (1569, 71), adj., English. 
ENHAUNSING (1579, 4), subs., enhancing, increase in the price. 



GLOSSARY. xxiii. 



ENORMITIES (1594, 46), pluv. subs., irregularities, injuries. 

ENSUE (1550, i), vb., to follow. 

ENTENT, subs., intent ; ' to thentent ' (1600, 6), conj., in order that. 

ENTERLUDES (1620, 64), subs., interludes, comedies. 

ENTTRE (1551, 44), subs., entry. 

ENTRINGE (1618, no), subs., entrance. 

ENYE (1551, 40), adj., any. 

ERBADGE (1574, 2), subs., herbage, right of grazing. 

ESCOWRE (1566, 3), ESCOURE, EsCOER, ESCUER, ESCOUR, ESKOWER, 

vb., to scour, to cleanse by a flow of water. 
ESPETIAL, ESPECIAL, adj., especial. 
ESPETIALLY (1577, 99), ESPECYALLY, adv., especially. 
ESTAMELL (1574, 68), subs., a woollen stuff ; O.F. estamin. 
ESTATE (1600, 43), subs., state, condition, wealth. 
ESTER (1566, 38), subs., Easter. 
ESTOPP (1604, 106), vb., to stop. 
EVANGILEST (1605, 53), subs., gospel. 
EVEN, adv., even, very : ' even tyred ' (1620, 57). 
EVILL (1573, 43), adv., badly. 
EXALT (1569, 21), vb., to raise. 
EXAMPLE, vb., to take as an example : * example the Citye of 

London ' (1594, 25). 
EXCEEDINGE (1605, 20), adj., excessive. 
EXCLAMATION (1574, 17), subs., outcry. 
EXECUSION (1579, 2), EXECUCON, subs., execution. 
EXPERIENCE (1603, 4), subs., evidence, occurrence. 
EXPOSE, vb.j to show : c to expose our labors ' (1605, 88). 
EXPULLSE (1615, no), vb., to expel. 
EYND (1590, 59), subs., end. 



FAGETT (1571, 9), FACET, FAGGOTT, subs., faggot. 

FALCE (1566, 40), adj., false. 

FARDELL (1587, 80), subs., bundle. 

FARDER (1577, 56), adv., farther, in addition. 

FARME, subs., farming : ' to lett the farme of the pettie customes ' 

(1619, 107) ; ' to lett to farm the pettie custome' (1619, 107). 
FAST BY (1603, 5), close to. 
FAULT, subs., fault : ' for fault of beeing dwely vewed ' (1581, 91), 

in default of. 



XXIV. GLOSSARY. 

FAWLE (1579, 34), FAULL, FAWLL, vb., to fall. 

FAWTYE (1566, 49), adj., faulty. 

FELD, subs., field ; see FYLD. 

FELLOWSHIP? (1600, 73) : ' fellowshipp of freemen or burgesses.' 

FELLTMAKER (1616, 104), subs., maker of felt hats. 

FERMER (1550, 64), subs., farmer. 

FETT (1580, 67), vb., to fetch. FETT, past part. 

FEWELL (1574, 5), subs., fuel. 

FHYSHE MONGER (1551, 35), subs., fishmonger. 

FILLINGE BEER (1571, 21), subs., beer to fill up casks. 

FITT, adj., fit, fitting, right : ' is fitt to be amendid ' (1596, 96). 

FITTING, adj. : ' is very fitting to be finishedd ' (1602, 26). 

FLOTTYS (1550, 26), FLOTTES, plur. subs., skimmed fat, dripping. 

FLOWER (1603, 76), subs., flour. 

FOOTE, used as plural of foot (1582, 89, &c.). 

FOOTMEN (1576, 69), plur. subs., men on foot, travellers on foot. 

FOR THAT (1550, 82), con/., because. 

FORBEARE, vb., to cease ; used transitively : ' to forbeare the use 
heerof (1594, 39). 

FORDER (1551, 35), FORTHER, FURDER, adv., further, in addition. 

FORESTALL, FORSTAWELL, vb., to buy up goods before they reach 
the market : * no baker nor brewer shall forestall any 
wheate or malte comynge to the market to be solde ' 
(1550, 70) ; then to encroach upon, to appropriate to 
one's use. 

FORFAIGHTIDGE (1569, 56), subs., penalty. 

FORFATURE (1550, 9), subs., penalty. 

FORFEIGHTURE (1569, 29), FpORFFEITUR, FORFERTURE, FORFEC- 

TURE, FORFYTURE, subs., forfeit, fine. 

FORFEYT (1550, 7), FURFETTE, FoRFAIGHT, FoRFAICT, FORFERT, 

FORFECT, FORFEITE, vb., to forfeit. 

FORFEYTE (1569, 64), FORFEIGHT, past part., forfeited 

FORGIVNESSE, subs., forgiveness : ' withotte forgivnesse ' (1551, 20), 
without prospect of remission. 

FORRANLYE, adv., foreignly, outside the jurisdiction of the town : 
' forranlye buye and sell all other comodities' (1594, 38). 

FORREN, adj., coming from another district : ' forren butchers ' 
(1551, 39). Cf. Order of Privy Council, 1639: 'the 
forreigne Bakers which bring their bread to be sold in the 
market of any city.' * Forren bought and forren sould ' 
(1569, 64) ; ' by fforren power and aucthoryty ' (1581, 77). 



GLOSSARY. XXV. 



FORRYNER (1569, 64), FORRENNIER, FoRRANNEAR, subs. A 

1 foreigner,' in Elizabethan times, denoted (i) one who 
belonged to a different locality or parish ; (2) a craftsman 
not belonging to the guilds or franchise of the town ; 
(3) a person whose cattle strayed in a manor in which he 
did not live, and in which he had no common right. 

FORSAKKE (1551, 29), vb., to discontinue. 

FORSEENE (1571, 58), FORSEEN, past part., attended to. 

FORSTALLER (1574, 60), subs., a person who buys up goods 
before they reach the market. 

FORSTALLING (1579, 4), subs., forestalling. See FORESTALL. 

FORTHE (1620, 78), adv., forward. 

FOUNDEINGE, subs., foundering, ruin : ' foundeinge of the highe- 
way' (1571, n). 

FOUNDERINGE (1576, 37), subs., foundering, flooding, decay. 

FOWLERS (1602, 62), plur. subs., fowling pieces. 

FOWNDER, FOUNDER, FOWDAR, vb., to founder, to flood. FOUNDERID 
(1569, 48), past part., flooded, ruined. ' To founder downe ' 
(1582, 16), to destroy by flooding. Used intransitively: 
' the earth will fall downe and utterlie founder ' (1596, 78). 

FOWLLINGE MYLL (1589, 33), FULLING MYLL, Subs., fulling mill. 

FOWTE, in the phrase ' on fowte ' (1566, 6), on foot. 

FOYNES (p. 141), plur. subs., trimmings made of the fur of the 
polecat. 

FREE, adj., free : ' free shoppekepers ' (1587, 79), enjoying the 
freedom of the town. ' To make free ' (of apprentices, 
1600, 68), to give the privileges of burgesses. 'Free 
stones' (1603, 68), loose. 

FRENG (1587, 79), subs., fringe. 

FREQUENT, vb., to come frequently : ' to frequent to and fro this 
towne' (1577, 81). 

FRESHLIE (1623, 24), adv., recently, again. 

FRETT (1620, 28), vb., to eat away. 

FRETTINGE (1620, 29), subs., corrosive action. 

FRITHE (1571, 2), FRIETH, subs., copse wood. ' Frith is all small 
lops or shreadings of trees, as also all underwoods ' 
(England's Improv. Revived, 1670). 'To lay in frieth ' 
(p. 222), to enclose common land for cultivation. 

FRYDOM, subs., freedom, privileges : ' contrarie to the frydom and 
orders of thys towne ' (1577, 101). 

FULL (1620, 35), vb., to fill, make full. 

FURNISS (1566, 38), vb., to furnish. 



XXVI. GLOSSARY. 



FURTHERAUNCE (1623, 48), subs., Support. 

FYLD, FELDE, FEELD, FELD, subs., field. 

FYLE (1569, 68), vb., a shortened form of defile. 

FYLLYD (1585, 21), past part., filed, attached. 

FYRRE (1551, 27), subs., ferry. 

FYTCHE (p. 143), subs., skin of the pole-cat. 



GABION (1596, 95), subs., a wicker basket filled with earth for use 

in fortification. 

GADGINGE (1616, 117), subs., fees for articles gauged. 
GAGE, subs., gauge : 'full gage ' (1620, 51). 
GAINSAYE (1603, 59), subs., contradiction. 
GAMMYNGE (1582, 65), subs., gaming, games. 
GARDE, subs., adornment, trimming : ' gardes of velvat on his 

hosse ' (1577, 98). 
GARDE (p. 142), vb., to adorn. 

GARDENE (1566, 6), GARDEYNE, GARDIN, subs., garden. 
GATEFAST, subs., gate : ' the gatefast of the porter's close ' 

(1613, 42). 

GAWNE (1577, 99), subs., gallon. 

GAYGE (1574, 62), GADGE, subs, gauge, size (of barrels). 
GEALDEINGE (1566, 26), subs., gelding. 
GEAT, GATE, GAITE, GAYTTE, subs., gate. 
GEST (1576, 69), subs., guest. 
GEVE, GEEVE, GYVE, vb., to give. GEVEN, GEEVEN, GEEVON, 

given, past part. 

GIRDER (1615, 114), same as GORDIER. 
GLOFFE (1603, 41), subs., glove. 
GLOMMYE (1620, 64), adj., stifling. 

Go ABOUT (1581, 41), phrase, to go round ; see COME ABOUT. 
GODS PENNY (1550, 25), subs., a small sum paid as earnest money 

in striking a bargain, especially in concluding a purchase 

or hiring a servant. 

GOER (1577, 74), subs., a person going, traveller. 
GOODYE, subs., mistress : ' goodye Lombarde ' (1574, 42). 
GOORD, subs., pool : ' goords of raigne ' (1575, 35). 
GORDIER, GIRDER, subs., flow of water, flooding rain, down- 
pour : ' the gordier of rayne ' (1574, 56). 
GOTTEN (1594, 8), strong past part, of get, obtained. 
GOUTER (1573, 40), subs., gutter. 



GLOSSARY. XXvii. 



GOVERNMENT, subs., management of the town ; ' governments of 

his lease' (1620, 30), conditions. 
GRACE (1569, 74), subs., grass. 

GRAT (1571, 19), GRET, GRETE, GRATE, CREATE, adj., great 
GRATT (1573, 34), GRAT, subs., grating: 'the grat or still* 

(1579, 20). 
GRAYNE, subs., the scarlet grain ; then the dye made from this. 

'Vyolett in grayne ' (p. 142), dyed violet. * Crymsen in 

grayne ' (p. 143), dyed crimson. 
GRAYNES (1550, 17), plur. subs., grains, refuse malt. 
GREFFE (1551, 45), GRYFFE, GREEFFE, subs., grievance, injury. 
GREVED, GRYVED, past part., aggrieved, annoyed. 
GROSSE : ' in grosse ' (1604, 99), in large quantities. 
GROT (1589, 75), GROTT, subs., groat, fourpence. 
GROUNDED (1600, 71), used as past tense of grind. 
GROUND PININGE (1613, 43), subs., underpinning. 



HABLE (1573, 25), adj., able. 

HABOMYNABLE, adj. (1550, 79), abominable. 

HACKENEY (1576, 22), subs., ' Hackney men,' those who let out 
horses on hire. 

HALE (1587, 78), vb., to haul. 

HALFFE-BOWLE, ' half-bowls,' a game played with a hemisphere 
of wood and fifteen small pins of a conical form. Accord- 
ing to Strutt, Sports and Pastimes, it was still played at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century in Hertfordshire, 
where it was known as rolly-polly. Phrase : ' the halffe 
bowle alley' (1550, 46); ' the halfe bowlinge alley' 
Ci6i8, 83). 

HALLEGE (1589, 95), subs., toll on cloth taken at the Woollen 
Hall. 

HALLYER (1551, 24), subs., haulier, one who hauls. 

HALPENYE (1571, 30), half-penny. HALPENS (1571, 31), half- 
pence. 

HAND, HANDE, HOND, subs., hand : * owt of hand ' (1566, 6), 
immediately. 

HANDFULL (1615, in), subs., hand; term used in measuring 
horses, the amount of four inches. 

HANGED (1616, 117), weak past part, of hang. 

HANKES, plur. subs., hooks : ' tache hankes ' (p. 143). 

HARBER (1579, 86), subs., harbour. 



XXV111. GLOSSARY. 



HARBOUR (1596, 54), vb., to harbour, to shelter. 

HARD UPPON (1589, 33), close to. 

HARNES GERDELL (p. 142), a girdle of metal, e.g., silver gilt. 

HARVAS (1566, 31), subs., harvest. 

HASTIE, adj., speedy : ' hastie remedy ' (1566, 54). 

HAUNT (1579, 84), vb., to haunt, to frequent. 

HAVE, vb., to have : ' in havinge horn his canvas ' (1589, 79), in 

taking home. 

HAWLLE (1571, 46), HAWLE, subs., hall. 
HEALING (1582, 25), subs., repairing, covering a roof with slates 

or tiles. 

HECKFARE (1611, 63), subs., heifer. 
HEDD, HED, subs., head: ' seassid upon theire hedds ' (1569, 12), 

imposed upon them individually ; projection of wood or 

masonry : ' Sampson hathe made two heds crosse the 

towne Diches ' (1550, 76) ; ' the hedde made of stone and 

bryke at est gaytte' (1551, 15); ' ponde heddes ' (1611, 30). 
HEITH (1550, 2), HETH, subs., heath, common : ' the comyn heth' 

(1566, 20). 

HELLYER (1605, 30), subs., slater, tiler. 
HENCE FORWARDS (1605, 82), adv., henceforth. 
HERBIGE (1594, 2), HEARBADGE, subs., herbage, grass. 
HERBING (1594, 2), same as HERBAGE. 
HEREAFTER (1605, 88), adv., used as an adj. 
HEREFORE (1566, 18), adv., heretofore, previously. 
HEVERIE (1596, 84), pron., everyone. 
HEYAR (1551, 13), subs., heir. 
HEYGHE (1551, 28), HEIGH, HIE, HYE, adj., high. 
HEYWINDER (1566, 41), one who ties up bundles or bottles of hay. 
HIEIRER, subs., hirer : ' horsse hieirers ' (1576, 22). 
HIER (1576, 72), vb., to let out on hire ; also to take on hire. 

' To kepe horses to hier ' (1585, 13). 
HIERING (1587, 44), subs., letting out on hire. 
HIGHETH (1620, 58), subs., height. 
HIT, HITE (1574, 20), pron., it. 
HODGSTYE (1619, 82), subs., hogstye. 
HOGSEDE (1566, 49), HOGGESHEDD, subs., hogshead. 
HOLDEN (1575, 45), strong past part, of hold. 
HOLESALLE (1573, 50), wholesale. 
HOLL (1573, 20), hole. ' Nyne holls ' (1575, 76), a game in which 

there were nine holes in a board or the ground, into 

which a ball was rolled. 



GLOSSARY. XXIX. 



HOLLANDS (1574, 68), subs., a linen fabric, so called from being 
manufactured in Holland. 

HOLLE (1551, 7), adj., whole. 

HOLSOM (1576, 16), adj., wholesome. 

HOMBERTON (1574, 64), HOMBERTONNE, subs. The first part of 
the compound is probably from O.E. amber, L. amphora, 
cask. It occurs in other compounds, humber barrel, 
humber kilderkin, humber firkin (VIRKIN, 1575, 89). 

HOME (1569, 69'), HOAME, subs., holly bush. 

HOME (1574, 42), objective case of the relative pron., whom. 

HONAR (1590, i), subs., owner. 

HOOKTIDE (1604, 5), subs., Hocktide, a popular festival occurring 
a fortnight after Easter Sunday, which was signalized by 
the collection of money for parish purposes by roughly 
humorous methods. Hock Monday was for the men, and 
Hock Tuesday for the women. 

HOPED, past part., hooped ; same as BARRED, q.v. : 'hoped potts' 
(1577, 107). Shakespeare mentions a * three hooped pot ' : 
' the three hooped pot shall have ten hoops, and I will 
make it felony to drink small beer ' (Henry VI., Part II., 
Act IV., ii., 72). 

HORE (1571, 5), HOWER, subs., hour. 

HORSBEASSE (1566, 23), HORSEBEASTES, plur. subs., horses. 

HORSEHYRERS (1582, 21), plur. subs., persons letting out horses on 
hire ; see HIER. 

HORSE LOVYS (1550, 27), plur. subs., horse loaves, loaves made of 
beans, bran, &c., for the food of horses, as being more 
nutritious than the raw corn. 

HORSSE BREAD (1573, 32), same as HORSE LOVYS, coarse bread 
made of beans, &c., for the use of horses. 

HOSYN, HOSSE, plur. subs., hose : ' womens hosyn and wollen 
clothe ' (1550, 6 1). 

HOWSING (1582, 79), subs., wall of a house. 

HOWSSE, HOSSE, subs., house. 

HUCSTER, HOOCKESTER, HUCKESTER, subs., retail dealer. 

HUGSTER (1594, 32), HUCKSTER, same as HUCSTER. 

HUMBER BARRELLS (1574, 62) ; see HOMBERTON. 

HUNDRED, subs., hundred weight : ' six hundred* (1616, 113). 

HUR, HURE, pron., her. 

HYE, HEIGH, adj., high ; see HEYGHE. 

HYER, vb., hire : ' lett to hyer ' (1577, 81), let on hire. 

HYNDERAUNCE (1569, 28), subs., injury. 



XXX. GLOSSARY. 



I 

IDDEL (1571, 8), adj., idle. 

IDDLLY (1571, 45), adv., idly. 

IMPALINGE (1601, 42), subs., palings. 

IMPALLE (1615, 30), vb., to enclose by a paling. 

IMPERTINENT (1619, 107), adj., unfitting. 

IMPOSITION (1603, 59), subs., tax. 

INCIVILL (1616, 22), adj., uncivilized. 

INCLOSMENT (1566, 33), INCLOSEMENT, subs., enclosure. 

INCONVENYENT (1587, 10), adj., unseemly. 

INCROCHE (1550, 68), vb., to seize, take possession of. 

INDENTURE (1585, 2), subs., legal agreement : ' theire servints to 

clayme no fredome by their indentures ' (1550, 36), not 

to claim admission as burgesses with right to practise 

their trade on the completion of their apprenticeship. 
INDIFFERENTLY (1581, 80), adv., without distinction, fairly, 

impartially. 

INDIGNITIE (1615, 14), subs., disgrace. 
INDIRECTLIE (1601, 65), adv., directly. 
INFECTUOS (1579, 55), INFECTUOUS, infectious. 
INFOUNDERED (1550, 22), past part., flooded ; see FOUNDER. 
INFRENDGE, vb., to infringe. 
INGROS, INGROSSE, vb., to buy up in large quantities : ' yf the 

tenants had not ben ingrosyd ' (1550, 68). 
INGROSENGE (1566, 34), subs., ingrossing. 
INGROSSER (1566, 34), subs., a person who buys up the whole 

supply of an article. 
INHABIT, intrans. vb., to dwell : ' the strangers inhabiting in this 

towne ' (1594, 12). 

INHABITORS (1550, 69), plur. subs., inhabitants. 
INHAUNCE, vb., to enhance, to raise. 
INHIBIT (1603, 41), vb., to forbid. 
INHOLDER (1616, 95), subs., innkeeper. 
INORDINATT (p. 450), adj., immoderate. 
INPUGNANT (1605, 88), adj., repugnant. 
INRYTCHING (1577, 99), subs., enriching. 
INSAMPELLE (1551, 7), subs., example. 
INSEW (1581, 115) ; see ENSUE. 
INSIGHTINGE (1601, 32), pres. part., inciting. 
INWARDS (1569, 26), plur. subs., inwards, entrails. 
ITEM, ITM, IT, also ; Latin item. 



GLOSSARY. xxxi. 



J 

JAKEES (1551, 46), subs., jakes, latrina. 

JAREDYNGS, probably for yard: 'a sufficent beame jaredyngs' 

(1566, 43), beamyard ; cf. steelyard. 
JEMMOWS (1581, 32), subs., hinges ; see JEMOLL. 
JEMOLL (1623, 31), subs., hinge, a variant form of GEMEW, GEMOW, 

from O.F. gemol, twin. 

JHARSSE (1551, 16), adj., belonging to Jersey. 
JORNEYMEN (1582, 20), subs., journeymen. 
JORNY (1573, 25), JURNEY, subs., journey. 
JURNEY (1585, 13), vb., to travel, to make a journey. 

K 

KEEPE, vb., to keep, to attend to : ' those that ought to keepe 

the passadge at heethe ' (1581, 85). 
KEEPING (1577, 103), subs., keeping, guarding. 
KENELL (1571, 15), KAYNELL, subs. t kennel, gutter. 
KEY (1550, 59), KEYE, KEA, subs., quay. 
KEY MASTER (1603, 15), subs., inspector of the quay. 
KNOWLEDG (1587, 27), subs., acknowledgment, quit rent. 
KYENE (1551, 5), subs., kine. 
KYLL, subs., kiln : ' the brick kyll ' (1571, 13) ; ' the lyme kyll ' 

(1571, 55) ; used in the plural, ' the Lyme Kelles' (1600, 26). 
KYRTILL (p. 142), subs., a woman's gown or outer petticoat. 
KYTTELL (1574, 17), subs., kettle. 
KYTTELLS (1576, 55), subs., a word with the same meaning as 

skittles ; it more usually occurs in the forms KITTLE-PINS, 

KETTLE-PINS. 



LABOUR, vb., to work, to overwork : ' so that the said horsse be 
not labourid ' (1576, 22). 

LADE (1551, 59), subs., lad. 

LADE (1566, 53), vb., to load. 

LAME, subs., lamb : ' furred with lame ' (p. 143), lamb skin. 

LATTE (1551, 13), adj., late. 

LATTE (1575, 87), adv., lately. 

LAVISHE (1615, 126), adj., unrestrained, licentious. 

LAWDAY (1550, 34), LAWDEY, LADIE, subs., day of the meeting of 
a court of law, used especially of the sheriff's court or the 
court leet : ' lawday boke ' (1550, 34), the court leet 
book ; ' lawdey jurie ' (1577, 100), the court leet jury. 



XXX11. GLOSSARY. 



LAWFULL, LIEFULL, adj., meeting the requirements of law : 
* make a lawfull bridge' (1550, 75); * lawfull horses to 
serve' (1585, 13). 

LAWNE (p. 142), subs., fine linen cambric. 

LAY, LAYE, trans. vb. y to place, to lay ; 'To lay abroad,' used of 
the common land, to open to the public : ' that theye (the 
commons) maye be laide abrode accordinge tp the said 
statuts' (1550, i). 'To lay open' (1601, 74), to open. 
Used intransitively, to lie : ' which wayes layeth most 
filthy' (1600, 65). LAYETHE (1569, 55) is a peculiar 
infinitive in ethe. 

LAYED, past part, of lay, used intransitively in 1575,42: 'the 
bridge that hath layed to passe out of that feld.' 

LAYEN, strong past part, of lie, used transitively in 1620, 12, with 
meaning ' laid.' 

LEADDE (1581, 106), vb., to line with lead. 

LEAFFTE (1579, 7?)> P ast P art -> left - 

LEAST (1581, 77), con;., lest. 

LEAVE, vb., to leave, to cease : ' to leave to sell ' (1569, n). 

LED (1551, 53), subs., lid. 

LEET (1596, 93), subs., the court leet ; the word is of doubtful 
origin. It has been supposed variously to represent (i) 
Anglo-French, lete ; Late Latin, leta ; (2) O.K., laeth, 
landed possession, land ; (3) O.E., laete. For a discussion 
of the question see pp. n 17 of the preceding volume of 
the Record Society's publications, Leet Jurisdiction in 
England, by F. J. C. Hearnshaw, M.A., LL.D. 

LEFFER, comparative adv., liefer : ' which the hucksters leffer have ' 
(1582, 59), have in preference, prefer to have. 

LESSE (1551, 29), subs., lease. 

LESSER, used as the comparative of little : ' no lesser mesures ' 

(1579, 5)- 
LESTE, adj., least. ' With the leste ' (1551, 5), at least ; ' at the 

leste' (1551, 9), at least. 
LET (1579, 15), vb., to hinder. 
LETT (1587, 78), subs., hindrance. 
LETT, past part., ceased : ' hath not lett to speak evill of us ' 

(*575> 77)- 

LETT DOWNE (1602, 72), vb., to reduce. 
LETTEN (1600, 36), strong past part, of let. 
LETTERS-OUT, plur. subs. : ' letters-out of howses.' 
LEWD, LEOWD, adj., common, general : ' very dayngerus to lewd 

sycknes ' (1575, 86) ; ' leawed servants ' (1579, 63), vicious ; 

' lewed people ' (1576, 69). 



GLOSSARY. xxxiii. 



LIBERTIS, plur. subs., the liberties of a town, districts lying 
beyond the bounds of a town, but under the control of the 
municipal authority. Used in the singular, ' divers out 
of this libertie ' (1569, 56). LYBERTIES, plur. subs., (1569, 
64), privileges. ' To set the same (highway) at libertie ' 
(1575, 42), to free for passage. ' The graunt and lybertie 
of the marcket dayes ' (1576, 81), the privilege of trading 
on market days. 

LIEN (1579, 93), past part., lain, resided. 

LIGHK (1620, 39), adv., likely ; see LYKE. 

LIGHTTEN (1571, 13), lytten, subs., churchyard. 

LITCHE, adj., liege : ' the queens litche people ' (1574, 13). 

LOADER (1581, 42), subs., person who loads, carrier. 

LODUEN (1551, 45), laden, loaded, strong participle of load. 

LODE, subs., load. Used for plural, ' 20 lode a pesse ' (1551, 28). 

LOFF (1571, i), subs., loaf. 

LOFFE, subs., loft : ' the backe loffe ' (1575, 71). 

LOGGE (1551, 50), vb., to lodge : 'to lodge carts in the streat ' 
(1605, 18). 

LOOSED (1616, 39), past part, of lose, with meaning lost. 

LOOSINGE, subs., loss, forfeiture : ' upon payne of loosinge of the 
said butter' (1571, 71). 

LOSSE (1566, 4), LOOSE, vb., to lose, to be fined. 

LOTT AND SCOTT (1603, 59), subs., assessment. 

LOUG (1589, 94), LOGG, subs., a measure of length from 15 to 
21 ft. - 

LOYTERING (1575, 81), adj., lazy. 

LYEE, used as a transitive verb, to lay, to place : ' duthe lyee hes 
tymeber in the strette (1551, 21); 'for lyinge stones' 
(1618, 80). See also LAYEN. 

LYKE, LEKE, LEEKE, LEK, LIEK, adj., like. ' In lyke ' (1551, 29), 
in like manner, also ; ' in the leek ' (1569, 4), in the same 
way. 

LYKE (1566, 38), LEKE, adj., likely. 

LYKE, vb., to like; with of: 'divers that he well lykes of 
(1580, 69). 

LYMEBORNER (1569, 48), subs., limeburner. 

LYMITACON (1596, 91), subs., permission or fixed conditions. 

LYMITED (1573, 33), past part., fixed, appointed : ' uppon paine 
limitted in the statute ' (1579, 83) ; cf. Macbeth ' I'll 
make so bold to call, For 'tis my limited service.' 

LYTTELL (1569, 27), adj., little, small. 



XXXIV. GLOSSARY. 



M 

MACKE (1566, 49), MAK, vb., to make. 

MAINTENAUNCE (1581, 79), subs., encouragement. 

MAISTRES, subs., mistress : ' maistres Salmon ' (1550, 68). 

MALTE MEN (1589, 67), plur. subs., dealers in malt, maltsters. 

MANEGIE (p. 223), adj., mangy. 

MARCHAUNDISES (1571, 24), plur. subs., articles of merchandise ; 

in singular, l a comon merchandyze ' (1579, 5), article 

of trade. 

MARCK (1620, 59), subs., mark, 13/4. 
MARGENTE (1566, 28), subs., margin ; an alternative form of 

margin, formed by the addition of t. 
MARRES (1569, 7), subs., marsh. See MEARSHE. 
MARTIRNES (p. 141), subs., fur of the martin. 
MASTERLESSE (1582, 87), adj., without a master. 
MASTIE DOGGE (p. 223), MASTYVE DOGG, subs., mastiff. 
MAUNGEY (1604, 71), subs., mange. 
MATED (1551, 5), MAIDE, subs., maid. 
MAYNTAYNE (1551, 14), vb., to keep in order. 
MEALE MENNE (1581, 43), plur. subs., traders in meal. 
MEAN, adj., poor : ' of the meaner sorte ' (1603, 20). 
MEARSHE (1571, 48), MERSHE, MARSHE, MARCHE, MERCHE, subs., 

marsh. 

MEASUER (1571, 10), MEASUR, subs., measure. 
MEATER (1581, 80), subs., measurer ; an official whose duty it is 

to see that commodities are of the proper measure. 
MELL (1587, 41), subs., mill. 
MELLE, subs., meal. 
MERALTIE (1550, i), subs., mayoralty. 
MERCHANDABLE (1589, i), adj., fit for trading. 
MERSE, vb., to fine ; short for amerce. MERSYDE (1551, 46), past 

part. 

MERSEMENTT (1551, i), MERSYMENT, subs., fine ; short for amerce- 
ment. 
MESERE, MESERY, subs., mercery : ' mesere wares of all kinds ' 

(1550, 60). 

MESERER (1573, 6), subs., measurer. 
MESSERE, (1566, 49), MESURE, subs., measure. 
MESSERYE (1590, 7), subs., misery. 
METE (1550, 31), MEETE, adj., meet, fitting. 
MOARINGE (1611, 13), subs., mooring (ships). 
MOATINGE (1581, 37), subs., providing with a moat. 



GLOSSARY. XXXV. 



MODERATION (1601, 45), subs., abatement. 

MOLLDE (1551, 48), subs., mould for making bricks. 

MONETH (1569, 49), month ; used as plur. subs., ' this twellve 

moneth ' (1602, 3). 
MONYCON (1550, 63), subs., warning. 

MOORE (1620, 68), subs., unenclosed or waste ground, marsh. 
MORE (1550, 68), adv., moreover. 
MORE (1550, 82), adj., greater. 
MOOSTE (1550, 82), MOST, MOAST, adj., greatest. 
MOST (1575, 81), adv., mostly, chiefly. 
MORTERINGE (1616, IO2), subs., mortar. 
MOUGHT (1550, 66), vb., might. 
MOYRY (1600, 19), adj., miry. 

MUCHE, great : ' the too muche libertie ' (1604, 99). 
MUGE, adj., warm, muggy : ' for the mugeshad of cattail ' 

(1577, 91), for the warm sheltering of cattle. 
MULTER (1623, 29), vb., to moulder, to crumble : ' multer awaie ' 

(1623, 29). 

MUNGERELL (1587, 34), subs., mongrel. 
MURREY (p. 142) adj., dark red, mulberry colour. 
MUTTER, vb., same as MULTER, used transitively : ' by mutteringe 

downe the earth' (1611, 72). 
MYCHE (1551, 28), subs., much. 
MYNEVER (p. 142), adj., of greyish fur. 
MYSRUELL (1550, 14), subs., misrule : ' Lorde of Mysruell,' an 

unusual phrase for an overseer's officer, as the person 

whose duty it is to prevent disorder. 
MYSSET (1566, 27), vb., put in the wrong place. 
MYXSEN (1573, 13), MYXEN, MIXON, subs., dunghill. 

N 

NAMELY (1574, 12), adv., especially. 

NARROWLYE (1619, 107), adv., closely. 

NAUGHT (1616, 63), used as an adj., worthless. 

NAUGHTIE, adj., worthless : * naughtie slittinge lether ' (1576, 68). 

NEGLECT (1581, 52), vb., to neglect. 

NECLECTID (1577, 29), past part., neglected. 

NEUE, NEADE, NEEADE, subs., necessity : ' if nede require ' 

(1550, 39). 
NEDFULL (1550, 69), NEDEFOLL, adj., necessary, in need ot : 

nedfull of grete reperassions ' (1574, 36) ; ' verye nedfull to 
be reparede ' (1574, 38). 



XXXVI. GLOSSARY. 



NEERE, adj., near : ' a heiffer cropt on the neere eare ' (1576, 67) ; 

followed by unto (1603, 27). 
NEIGHBOUR, used as an adj. : * the neighbour inhabitants ' 

(1620, 46). 

NEIGHBOURED (1550, 55), subs., neighbourhood. 
NETHER (1579, 71), conj., neither. 

NEWCOMER (1615, 15), subs., immigrant into the town. 
NEWE, used as an adv., newly : * to be newe made ' (1579, i), to 

be renewed. 
NEXT, nearest : ' next saltmarshe ' (1569, i) ; followed by the 

prep, to, * next to the orcherd lane ' (1579, 39). 
NEYGHTTBURE (1551, 44), NAYGHTTEBURE, subs., neighbour. 
NIGHE, prep., near : ' nighe watergat ' (1569, 36). 
NIGHTLIE (1603, 4), adv., every night. 
NOMBER, subs., quantity : ' nomber of woode ' (1571, 72). 
NON MAKYNGE (1585, 4), subs., not making. 
NONE USER, subs., not using, neglect to use a right, by which it 

may become void : ' yt is a none user of that Lybertyes ' 

(1569, 64), they do not enjoy that privilege. 
NORWYG, Norwich : ' a gowne of norwyg worsted ' (1577, 98). 
NOT, used like non : * the not inrolement of apprentics ' 

(1604, 100). 

NOYANS (1569, 33), NOYONS, NOYANCE, subs., annoyance. 
NOYFUL (1603, 74), adj., injurious. 

NOYSOME (1571, 40), NOYSOM, adj., noisome, injurious, filthy. 
NOYSOMNES (1620, 12), subs., filthiness. 
NYGHBUR (1551, 46), NEYBORE, subs., neighbour. 



OADE (1616, 57), subs., woad. 

OASSE (1579, 57), OAES, OASE, subs., ooze, mud. 

OB., abbreviation of the Latin obolus, halfpenny. 

OBSEQUIES (1605, 39), plur. subs., ceremonies. 

OCASION (1579, 15), subs., opportunity. 

OCCUPIE, vb., to use : * occupie eny shodd carte ' (1571, 21). 

OCOM (1579, 106), subs., oakum. 

ODIOUS (1596, 57), adj., odious, filthy. 

OFF, prep., of, in a partitive sense : * for bruyng off alle ' (p. 21). 

OFFEN, often, used as adj., repeated : * the offen warnynge 



GLOSSARY. XXXvii. 



OFFES, subs., office, post: ' to forfette ther offes ' (1551, 45), to 

lose their post; a mans offesse ' (1551, 59), a man's 

occupation ; ' dothe very negligently use ther offices ' 

(1571, 48), carry out their duties. 
OFFICIER (1620, 55), subs., officer, official. 
OFTEN TIMES (1579, 51), adv., often. 
ON, prep., about, concerning : ' complayenythe on the sayme ' 

(1551, 46) ; to, ' to sett on worke ' (1618, 85). 
ONDES, in the phrase ' thondes,' hands. 
ONDLY (1575, 5), adv., only. 

ONHONISTELY (1566, 44), adv., dishonestly, improperly. 
ONLY, adj., sole : ' to his only comoditie ' (1575, 87), for his sole 

use. 

ONYE, any : * onye more ' (1551, 29). 
OPENLY, adv., publicly : ' openly knowen ' (1566, 56). 
OPPEN (1551, 38), vb., to open. 
OPPRESSE, vb., to oppress. OPPRESS YTHE (1551, 45), a peculiar 

infinitive in ythe. 

OPPROBACION (1623, 48), subs., approbation. 
OPYN, OPPEN, OPEN, adj., open, public : ' to make open ' (1550, 

83), to make known ; ' by open crie ' (1579, 89), by public 

proclamation ; ' open punishment' (1601, 98). 
OR, prep., before : * longe or thys tyme ' (1551, 41) ; conj., before : 

' longe or he could get over' (1581, 85). 
ORDAYNE (1569, 49), vb., to arrange. 
ORDER (1580, 69), vb., to regulate. 
ORDERLY (1571, 30), ORDERLIE, adv., according to regulation, in 

a regular way. 
ORDINAUNCES, plur. subs., ordnance : ' ordinaunces of brasse and 

iron ' (1596, 60). 
ORDRE, order. ' Ordre was takyn ' (1550, 36), an order was 

made. ' Contrary to the honest ordre of this towne ' 

(1550, 52), good order. 
OSTE (1580, 80), subs., host. 
OSTE, vb., to entertain : ' Edward mercant ostethe portingales ' 

(1550, 80). 
OSTELAGE, OSTLEGE, OSTELADGE, subs., place of reception : 

' ostelage of northeryn cloths ' (1550, 80). 
OUT (1605, 66), equivalent to an adj., obliterated. 
OVERCHARGE (1550, 7), in the phrase ' to overcharge the comyn,' 

to put an excessive number of animals upon the common 

land. 



XXXV111. GLOSSARY. 



OVERCOME, vb., to flow over : ' the water overcomithe the levell 

grounde' (1574,48). 
OVERFLOWEN (1618, 64), strong past part, of overflow, overflowed, 

flooded. 
OVERIGHT (1589, 59), adv., over against, just opposite; noted by 

J. Jefferson in 1798 as a Hampshire word. 

OVERLAY (1594, 43), vb., to surcharge (the common with animals). 
OVERPRESSINGE (1589, 3), verbal subs., oppressing. 
OVERSHOTT (1596, 91) : 'an overshot! mill,' a mill which is turned 

by water flowing upon or near the top of the wheel into 

buckets placed round the circumference. 
OVERSLIPP (1600, 73), vb., to escape from. 
OVERSYNE (1551, i), past part., overseen, managed. 
OVERTHRON (1589, 40), past part., overthrown, turned upside 

down. 

OVERTHROWS (1618, 101), subs., subversion. 
Ovis (1620, 82), subs., eaves. 
OWE, vb., to own: 'the dryvers oweth 12/3' (1573,58); ' tney 

that owe the said hogs ' (1579, 45) ; ought, ' the quoter 

oweth to vewe' (1620, 51). 
OWERE (1551, 8), OWRE, OWER, subs., hour. Also HOWRE. 



PAIRE, PEARE, subs., a set : c a paire of cardes ' (1615, 126), a 
pack of cards ; ' a peare of steares ' (1618, 105), a set or 
flight of steps. 

PALLE (1569, 30), PALE, subs., pale, fence. 

PARACHE (1571, 4), subs., parish. 

PARCEL, subs., piece : ' a parcel of ground ' (1579, 105). 

PARINGS, plur. subs., parings, trimmings : ' parings of gardins ' 

(1577, 39)- 

PAROLLS (1550, 25), plur. subs., words, verbal agreement. 
PARSON (p. 223), PARSSON, subs., person. 
PARTICULER, adj., individual : ' everie particuler Burgesse ' 

(1620, 52). 

PARTIE (1581. 42), subs., party, person. 

PARTLETTE (p. 142), subs., a neckerchief, a ruff for the neck. 
PARTLIE (1579, 36), adv., partly, to some extent. 
PASSADGE (1581, 85), stibs., passage, crossing, ferry. 
PASSAGE BOATE (1596, 20), subs., ferryboat. 
PASSENGER (1581, 85), subs., ferryman. 
PAVE (1581, 73), intrans. vb., to make a pavement. 






GLOSSARY. XXxix. 



PAVER (1604, 76), POWER, subs., the poor. 

PAVIER (1596, 27), subs., paviour. 

PAXBREDE, subs., the book known as the Paxbread. The 

derivation is from L. pax, ' peace,' and E. bred, ( board.' 

The Paxbread or Pax was properly a tablet with a 

representation of the Crucifixion or other sacred subject, 

which was passed round at Mass to be kissed. 
PAYENFULL (1551, 45), adj., laborious. 
PAYNE, subs., trouble. ' To take payne ' (1551, i). 
PAYNE (1550, 5), subs., penalty. PAYNES, plur., penalty : ' the 

paynes of the pillorye ' (1569, 12). 'To forfeyt paynes ' 

(1550, 7), to render oneself liable to a penalty. ' To 

lose one's paynes ' has a similar meaning : ' wherfore theye 

have lost theire paynes ' (1550, 44). 
PAYNE, PEIN, PEINE, vb., to affix a penalty : * as ys afore presented 

and payned ' (1550, 79) ; ' which was paynid the last lawe 

day to be made ' (1576, 37). 
PEEK (1602, 61), subs., pike. 

PEESSES (1602, 62), plur. subs., pieces of artillery. 
PENA (1602, 50), PEINA, Latin pcena, penalty. 
PENTTYS (1551, 51), PENTHOWSSE, subs., penthouse, a shed with 

sloping roof projecting from the main wall of a building. 
PENYWURTH, subs., pennyworth, small quantity: 'by peny- 

wurthes' (1551,49). 

PEOPLES, used in the plural (1611, 46), persons. 
PERFECTYD (1577, 80), past part., completed. 
PERISH (1574, 35), trans, vb., to ruin. 
PERISSHING (1573, 47), subs., ruin : ( a great perisshing of the 

town walls.' 

PERSON (1550, 34), subs., parson. 
PERSONABLE (1571, 45), adj., well made, handsome. 
PERVISE (1616, 114), vb., to supervise. 
PESS, subs., piece. 'The pess' (1551, i), apiece; 'the are 

amersyde 6/8 a pess of theme' (1551, 23); ' they ar amersyde 

6/8 the pesse off them ' (1551, 33). 
PESTER (1587, 60), vb., to pester, to encumber. 
PESTEROUS (1587, 5), adj., annoying. 
PETICOT (1577, 98], subs., petticoat. 

PETTIE, PETIE, PETEET, adj., small : ' pettie breaches' (1620, 71). 
PETY (1571, 45), subs., pity, misfortune. Used without an article : 

' which were pety.' 

PICKERIES (1603, 4), plur. subs., petty thefts. 
PIGGED (p. 223), past part., pegged. 



XL GLOSSARY. 



PILE, PYLE, vb., to make up : 4 pile his bank ' (1566, 12). 

PILLFRYES (1611, 46), sw6s., petty thefts. 

PITIEFULL (1579, 107), adj., pitiable. 

PLAINE (1587, 69), PLAYNE, adj., level, smooth : ' to make playne 

the twoo gutters' (1573, 33), to make level by filling up. 
PLAISH, subs., a shallow piece of standing water, pool : c a plaish 

of water ' (1620, 30). 

PLATTFORME (1620, 39), PLATFOORM, subs., terrace. 
PLAYINGE, gambling, playing : ' John Paynter kepith a playinge 

house' (1550, 45). 

PLOMP (1573, 24), PLUMP, PLUMPP, subs., pump. 
PLUCK UP (1589, 83), vb., to take away, to destroy : ' Mr. Thomas 

Ridge hathe plucked up a bridge ' (1550, 74). 
PLUCKE DOWN (1589, 53), vb., to pull down. 
POINT (1579, 59), vb., to point ; cf. pointinge. 
POINTINGS (1571, 18), subs., repairing a wall with fresh mortar. 
POINTE (1566, 17), vb., to direct. 

POLYTYKE (1587, 83), adj., politic, beneficial to the town. 
POPPETT PLAIERS (1620, 64), plur. subs., puppet players. 
PORTINGALES (1550, 80), plur. subs., Portuguese. 
POTT (1596, 91), subs., hole, well. 

POTTELL, subs., pottle : ' a pottell of smale beere ' (1594, 44). 
POUND (1550, 7), vb., to put in the pound (of cattle). 
POUNDADGE (1574, 70), subs*, pounding of cattle, then the fine 

imposed for pounding. 

POUND BRECHE (1589, 89), subs., breaking into the pound. 
POVERTIE (1550, 41), collective subs., poor people. 
POWDER (1571, 69), POWTHER, vb., to salt, to powder butter. 
POWDERAR (1566, 34), subs., one who powders butter, that is, 

sprinkles it with salt. 
POWLE (1576, 65), subs., poll, head. 
POWYSSON (1569, 50), vb., to poison. 
POYTTER (1551, 53), subs., pewter. 
PRAYSSE (1569, 70), PRAISE, vb., to value, to appraise. 
PRECENTOR, rector ; see note on p. 594. 
PREJUDICE (1594, 6), subs., injury. 
PREMISSE, subs., warning. ' Havenge resonabbulle premisse 

geven theme' (1551, 32). 
PREMISSES (1550, i),subs., statement, deposition. * The premysses 

notwithstondinge ' (1550, 71), previous regulations. 'The 

premisses consyderid ' (1569, 64), the previous facts having 

been considered. ' To vewe, trye and examyn all the 

premisses' (1577, 100), the above-mentioned articles. 






GLOSSARY. xli. 



PRENTTYS (1551, 16), subs., apprentice. Plur., PRENTIZES (1579, 
93), PRENTISSES. 

PRESCRIPTION (1575, 77), subs. y precedent, example ; in 1580, 41, 
right by continuous occupation. 

PRESENT (1576, 65), adj., immediate. 

PRESENTATOR, patron ; see note on p. 594. 

PRESENTER (1579, 83), one giving information, informer. 

PRESENTLY (1569, 41), adv., immediately. 

PRESENTMENT, subs., report. 

PRESENTTE, PRESENT, PRYSYNTE, vb., to bring to a person's 
notice, to represent ; applied especially to the reports of 
the court leet jury. 

PRESIDENT (1601, 98), subs., example, precedent. 

PRESUMPSION (1604, 68), subs., inducement. 

PRETENSE (1575, 40), subs., practice. 

PREVY TO, acquainted with : ' makith them prevy to the pryses 
of wares ' (1550, 80) ; * prevy of all the butter ' (1566, 34). 

PROCURATION (1623, 40), subs., licence. 

PROFFE (1551, i), subs., proof. 

PROFFIT, subs., benefit : 'promt of the towne ditches' (1574, 2). 

PROMES (1581, 25), subs., promise. PROMISE (1582, 20), under- 
taking, agreement. * Consernynge ther promises ' (1585, 
18), in the matter of their agreement. PROMICIES (1620, 
52), plur. 

PROMESSE (1551, 28), vb., to promise. 

PROSSES (1569, 72), PROCESS, subs., process. 

PROVEST (1573, 31), subs., provost : 'the provest or stewarde of 
godes howsse.' 

PROVICON, PROVIZION, PROVISSION, subs., use : ' for his provicon ' 
(1550, 57); 'to mak their provizion abrode ' (1571, 71), 
to procure their goods abroad ; ' make ther provission by 
water' (1573, 42), supply their needs by water; 'to mak 
theire provision out of the towne ' (1579, 4). 

PROVIDED (1579, 89), adj., ready, in readiness. 

PROVIDENT (1605, 54), adj., careful, strict. 

PROVISIONARIE (1615, no), adj., 'things provisionarie,' things 
necessary. 

PROYNES (1577, 101), plur. subs., prunes, plums. 

PUBLIQUE, adj., public: 'the publique estate of this towne' 
(1596, 31). 

PUDDLE (1616, 41), subs., pool. 

PUKE (p. 142), subs., some dark colour, reddish-brown, or a shade 
between russet and black. 



Xlll. GLOSSARY. 



PURFELE (p. 143), vb., to trim. 

PURFULL -(p. 142), subs., decorated border, trimming. 

PURPOSE (1596, 91), subs, use. 

PYLEING (1566, 16), subs., raising. 

PYNE (p. 142), subs., pin. 

Q 

QUALITIE (1605, 57), subs., rank. 

QUALYTYED (1587, 34), adj., having qualities. 

QUESTION, QESTION (1575, 77), subs., dispute : * in question ' 

(P- 45i)- 

QUICKE, adj., living. ' To quicke set ' (1575, 44), to plant a piece 
of ground with living shrubs or trees so as to make a 
fence. ' Set with quick sette ' (1575, 77). 



RACKES (1587, 69), plur. subs., racks. 

RAMPIER (1569, 75), RAMPER, subs., embankment, dike. 

RAMPIER (1579, 58), vb., to bank up. 

REARE (1600, 70), vb., to raise. 

REASON, subs., reason ; used as an adj., reasonable : ' we think 

reason ' (1594, 26). 

REASONS (1594, 41), plur. subs., raisins. 
RECH (1579, 98), vb., to reach, to bring. 
RECHARGE (1611, 24), vb., to enact again. 
RECONTINUE (1616, 22', vb., to hold again. 
RECOURSSE (1571, 60), subs., return flow. 
RECUSANT (1602, 3), subs., a recusant, a Roman Catholic. 
REDDE (1566, 45), RID, RIDD, vb., to rid, to remove ; ' to redde 

yt awey ' ; ' to redde awey the earthe ' (1566, 52). RYD, 

past part. (1569, 7). 
REDDYE (1605, 79), adj., active. 
REDEMSYON (1551, 29), subs., redemption. ' Withott redemsyon,'' 

without prospect of remission. 
REDOWNE (1604, 74), vb., to redound. 
REDRESS (1596, 38), vb., to amend, to reform. 
REDUCE (1596, 91), vb., to lead (water). 
REFFORME (1569, 10), vb., to reform, to repair. 
REFORMATION (1616, 22), subs., reform. 
REFRANE, vb., to refrain ; followed by a direct object : ' refrane 

the like pretense ' (1575, 40). 
REGARDE (1603, 21), subs., consideration. 



GLOSSARY. xliii. 



REGARDE (1603, 27), vb., to consider. 

REGRATOR (1574, 60), subs., a person who buys up the supply of 

an article ; often found in connection with forestaller and 

ingrosser. 
REGRATTE (1551, 8), vb., to buy up provisions in order to sell 

again at a higher rate in the same market : ' regratte the 

merkett off eggs, butter and chesse.' 
REGRESSE (1615, 95), subs., going back. 
REMEMBER (1619, 107), transitive vb., to remind. 
REMORSE, subs., remorse, pity : ' without remorse ' (1596, 84), 

strictly. 

REMYEDE (1620, 71), REMYDE, vb., to remedy. 
REPAR VTIONS, plur. subs., repair : ' out of the reparations ' (1576, 

62) ; ' to be at reperations ' (1594, 20). 
REPREHENSON (1616, 121), subs., rebuke. 
REPRESENT (1613, 31), vb., to present or mention again. 
REQUISYTE (1577, 97), adj., required, necessary. 
RESIANT (1550, 3), RESYANTE, RESEANT, subs., residence ; un- 
usual forms for reseance, resiance. 
RESIDUE (1566, 23), RESEDEW, subs., rest, remainder. 
RESORTE (1571, 3), subs., resort : 'to kepe resorte of persons not 

knowen ' ; ' to kepe resort of lewed people ' (1576, 69) ; 

' to make ones resorte thither' (1624, 58). 
RESSEYVE (1551, 28), RESSEVE, vb., to receive. 
RESUME (1604, 37), vb., to take back. 
REVEWE (p. 451), REVIEW, subs., examination, inspection. 
REWIN (1596, 75), subs., ruin. 

REWINATE (1596, 73), vb., to bring to ruin, to destroy. 
REWINOUS (1596, 91), adj., causing ruin. REWNIOS (1611, 69), adj., 

in ruins. 
REYL, vb., to rail : used impersonally, ' that yt be reyld upon the 

curbes of the same wells a yard in height ' (1550, 66). 
RIDDING (1581, 37), subs., clearing. 
RIPIERS (1603, 30), plur. subs., those belonging to the coast ; then 

people bringing fish inland from the coast to market. 
RISSING, subs., rising, raising : * rissing of the prisse ' (1577? *) 
ROBE, RUBBE (1574, 29), vb., to rub. 
RODDEN (1571, 10), adj., made of twigs. 
ROME (1587, 5), subs., room. 

ROPEING (1566, 1 6), subs., protecting ground by a rope. 
ROPIER (1613, 27), subs., ropemaker. 
ROTT (1594, 30), transitive vb., to cause to decay. 



xliv. GLOSSARY. 



ROUGHE-CAST (1620, 77), vb. y to cover a wall with plaster or 

whitewash. 

ROUND, adj., considerable : ' some round sum of money ' (1601, 98). 
ROUNSIVALL (1569, 31); see note p. 54. In the Isle of Wight 

rownce or rownces denotes the rough briar-covered 

ground in the Undercliff. 

RUBBESSE, (1551, 28), ROOBBISHE, RoUBBISHE, ROOBIDGE, ROBES, 

RUBIDGE, subs., rubbish. 

RULE, subs., order : ' howse of evill rule ' (1575, 69). 
RULE OVER, vb., to suppress : ' whiche anussans we desire to be 

espetiall rulid over ' (1577, 82). 
RYDDE (1551, 34), vb., to ride. 
RYSSE, vb., to raise : ' to rysse the markyt ' (1589, 68). 

s 

SALLE, subs., sale : ' to sett to salle ' (1602, 77). 

SANT (1566, 51), SAINCT, SAINNCT, subs., saint. 

SATERSDAYE (1566, 38), Saturday ; with the inflexion of the 

genitive, from O.K. saeteres daeg, Saturn's day. 
SATTEN, subs., satin : ' Satten of Sypris ' (p. 143). 
SAUFTE (1575, 15), adj., soft. 
SAVE GARD (1550, 57), SAFFE GARDE, SALVEGARDE, subs., safeguard, 

security. 

SAVER (1569, 33), subs., savour, smell. 
SAWTE, in the phrase ' sawte bitches ' (1550, 13), marts appetens. 

Also spelt SALT, SALTE, SAULTE. 
SAYME (1551, 8), adj., same. 
SCAVAGE MONIE (1603, 56), subs., money paid for the removal of 

refuse. 

SCAVENGER (1603, 56), subs., scavenger. 
SCLUSS (1569, i), SLUSE, SCLUSE, SLUSSE, subs., sluice. 
SCOWER (1550, 22), SCOUR, vb., scour, clean, used especially in the 

phrase ' to scour a ditch.' 
SCRETS, plur. subs., discreets or overseers : ' screts of the market ' 

(i577i 92). 

SCYENCE (1581, 82), subs., knowledge, skill. 
SEA DRIFTS (1611, 36), plur. subs., land flooded by the sea. 
SEALE (1577, 35), vb., to seal or stamp. 
SEALER, subs., an officer who seals or stamps articles : ' the 

sealers of leather' (1577, 35). 
SEARGE (1594, 38), subs., serge, a rather coarse woollen cloth in 

use throughout the middle ages. 



GLOSSARY. xlv. 



SEASIDE (1596, 27), subs., ground by the sea. 

SEASSID (1569, 12), past part., assessed, imposed. 

SEAYE (1580, 39), SEEA, SEAE, subs., sea. 

SEEK, vb., to seek, to be without : ' most nights they are to seeke 

of theire watchemen ' (1571, 75), are without. 
SEELINGE (1605, 65), subs., ceiling. 
SEEMING, subs., greasing: 'seeming of woole ' (1582, 68); see 

SEYME. 

SEISED (1619, 99), past part., confiscated. 
SELLE (1551, 53), vb., to seal, to stamp. 
SELLER (1579, 3), subs., cellar. 
SELLERID (1581, 80), past part., stored in a cellar. 
SELTE (1566, 34), vb., to salt. 
SENNIGHTE (1620, 52), subs., seven nights, a week. 
SERGEMACKERS (1589, 88), subs., makers of serge. 
SERIAUNT (1603, 91), subs., sergeant : ' the seriaunte at mace ' 

(1623, 25). 

SERMOND (1590, i), subs., sermon. 
SERTEFFIE (1589, 75), vb., to certify, to assure. 
SESTRIN (1550, 39), SEASTRON, SEASTORNE, SESSTERN, subs., cistern. 
SETT, vb., to set : ' set over ' (1581, 85), to ferry across. 
SETTINGE (1589, 81), subs., sitting. 
SEVERAL, adj., various, divers, separate, private : ' thre severall 

housses ' (1589, 73). 

SEVERALLIE (1620, 52), used as an adj., several, separate. 
SEVERALLIE (1603, 31), adv., separately. 
SEYME (1569, 58), SEEM, vb., to cover with grease ; from O.F. 

sain. 

SHADOINGE (1569, 69), subs., shade. 
SHADOW (1620, 78), vb., to darken. 
SHADOWE (1579, 107), subs., shady place. 
SHAMBELES (1603, 49), subs., slaughterhouse. 
SHEARMAN (p. 35), SHERMAN, a person whose occupation it was to 

shear or cut cloth. 
SHERCHE (1585, 21), subs., search. 
SHEW (1587, 3), subs., sight, appearance. 
SHIPPMAKER (1601, 98), subs., shipwright. 
SHODD, adj., iron-bound : ' eny shodd carte' (1571, 21). 
SHOLDE (1571, 47), SHULLDE, SHOWLD, vb., should. 
SHORTLY (1603, 70), adv., speedily. 
SHOTE (1566, 56), SHUTTE, vb., to shoot. 
SHOVELBORD (1613, 89), subs., the game of shovel board ; see note 

on p. 466. 



xlvi. GLOSSARY. 



SHOWMAKER, SHUMAKKER, subs., shoemaker. 

SHROFFE TYDE (1587, 50), subs., Shrovetide. 

SHUTER (1579, 20), subs., shooter, especially used of an archer. 

SIGHT, subs., sight : ' to have in sight ' (1590, 75), to keep on 
view. 

SINGING BREADE, subs., the larger altar bread used by the priest ; 
see note on p. 139. 

SINGLES (1616, 39), plur. subs., tiles. 

SINKE (1573, 27), subs., drain. 

SITHENCE (1604, 37), SYTHENS, SETHENS, adv., prep., and conj., since. 

SIZE, subs., assizes : ' our laweday size and session ' (1581, 77). 

SIZE (1615, 93), vb., to measure ; see ASSISE. 

SKANT (1590, 50), adv., scarcely. 

SHILLING (1579, 51), SKYLING, SKEELINGE, SKELLINGE, subs., lean- 
to shed. 

SKOWLDE (1579, 40), fern, subs., a scold. 

SLATT (1569, 74), subs., slate. 

SLATTER, SCLATER, SLAWTER, subs., slaughter. 

SLAUNDER, subs., ill repute : ' which brings the towne into a 
greate slaunder ' (1579, 84). 

SLENDER, adj., scanty, insufficient : ' slender watche kept ' 

(1581,41)- 
SLITTINGE, SLETING, adj., liable to slit : ' slittinge lether ' 

(1576, 68). 

So (1550, 53), conj., provided that. 
So AS, conj., so that : ' so as the water cannot passe from one 

place to another ' (1579, 39) ; in order that, ' so as the 

water may have his free coursse ' (1579, 39). 
So FARRE FORTH AS (i6oo, 57), conj., to such an extent as, so far as. 
SODDAINLY (1602, 50), adv., speedily. 

SODDANE (1596, 88), adj., sudden ; ' on the soddane,' suddenly. 
SODDER (1615, 100), vb., to solder. 
SODDERINGE (1603, 82), subs., soldering. 
SOLEMNETYES (1600, 72), pluY. subs., ceremonies. 
SOM TYME (1581, 109), SOMETYMES, adv., occasionally, once upon 

a time. 

SOOM (p. 223), adj., same. 
SOOPE (1623, 35), subs., soap. 
SOPPIE (1589, 88), SOAPIE, SOAPY, adj., soapy : ' soapie sudds ' 

(1616, 104). 
SORTE, subs., sort : ' in such sorte that ' (1569, i) ; 'in such sorte 

as ' (1569, i). 



GLOSSARY. xlvii. 



SOTHEREN (1605, 77), adj., southern. 

SOUMER, subs., summer, a horizontal beam or girder : ' a pryn- 

cipall soumer' (1582, 76). 
SOUTHWARD (1615, 77), adj., southern. 
SPAIR, vb., to spare ; followed by to : ' he was spaired to bee 

payned' (1617, 37). 
SPILT (1579, 89), past part., spoilt. 
SPOYLE (1594, 30), SPOLLE (1589, 98), vb., to damage. 
SPOYLLE (1573, 20), SPOILE, subs., spoiling, damage : ' the spoile 

of the said ground ' (1579, 20). 

SPRINNGY : ' sprinngy tydds ' (1605, 17), spring tides. 
SPURGING, subs., shaking up, frothing up : ' the spurging of theire 

beere ' (1579, 64). 

STAL AND ARTE (1620, 65) ; see Introduction, p. xv. 
STALL (1596, 47), subs., stall, holding of ground : ' Stephen 

Hinckley hath builded his shopp uppon his stall ' (1596, 47). 
STANDER (1576, 86), STANDERD, subs., standard (measure). 
STANTCHE (1569, 53), adj., staunch, not leaky. 
STANDING (1603, 40), subs., stall, stand for selling goods. 
STATE WTE (1566, 49), STATUT, STATTYUTTE, STATTYOOT, subs., 

statute. 

STATTE (1589, 96), subs., government, governing body. 
STAYNE CLOTHES (1605, 65), plur. subs., stained or painted cloth. 
STEARES (1574, 43), STERES, STAYERS (1619, 4.7), plur. subs., stairs, 

steps. 
STENT, adj., fixed, limited : ' stent prysse ' (1580, 83), a fixed 

price. 

STERT, STERTE, vb., to start. 
STICKE (1604, 86), vb., to hesitate. 
STINCHE (1620, 32), subs., stench. 
STIPENDARYE (1616, 50), adj., paid. 
STOND, vb., to stand : ' yt stondithe the whole towne upon ' 

(1571, 75), it concerns the whole town. 
STONE HORSE (1550, 8), subs., stallion. 
STONNEN, adj., of stone : ' the stonnen steares ' (1617, 32). 
STONY, STONIE, adj., of stone : * the stony cawsey ' (1603, 13). 
STOOFFE, vb., to stuff, to mend : ' the piles theare stooffed with 

stones ' (1579, 56). 

STOPP, subs., barrier : ' a dam or stopp ' (1604, 10). 
STORE HEAD (1605, 77), subs., reservoir of water. 
STOUT (1589, 96), adj., stubborn, obstinate. 



xlviii. GLOSSARY. 



STOWERE (1569, 58), subs., store. 

STRAICTE (1579, 4), STRAIGHT, adj., strict : ' the statute is very 

straight in those cases' (1581, 81). 
STRANG (1566, 38), adj., strange, belonging to another district : 

* strang bowchers' (1566, 38). 
STRAUNGER (1569, 52), subs., foreigner, immigrant. 
STRAYE, adj., stray, strolling: 'straye players' (1620, 64). 
STRAYGHTLY (1569, 49), adv., strictly. 
STRAYT (1571, 47), adv., immediately. 
STREIT (1605, 56), vb., to estreat, to fine. 
STRETT, STREATE, STRAT, STRATE, subs., street. 
STRENTHEN (1594, 31), vb., to strengthen. 
STRICKE (1581, 80), vb., to level the grain in a measure : ' before 

they stricke the said bushel' (1581, 80). The word is 

connected with strick and strickle, which denote a piece 

of wood used to sweep grain off level with the top of a 

measure when the measuring takes place. 
STYLE (1574, 13), transitive vb., to make a stile. 
STYLL (1573, 35), STILL, subs., stile. 
SUBBERBES (1581, 40), plur. subs., suburbs, districts outside the 

town walls. 

SUBSEDIE MEN OR WOEMEN (1603, 59) ; see note on p. 386. 
SUCKOUR (1569, 69), SUCKER, subs., succour. 
SUERTIE, SHURTTY, SHURTTE, subs., surety. ' To putt into the 

towne good & sufficient suertie ' (1550, 54), to give 

security ; * alle withott shurttys ' (1551, 20), all who have 

not given security. 
SUFFER, vb., to allow. 
SUFFERABLE (1579, 4), adj., endurable. 
SUFFICIENT, SUFFITIENT, adj., suitable : * another sufficient bridge ' 

(1550, 74) ; 'the said gutter to be made sufficient ' (1577, 

96) ; ' in such suffitient order ' (1577, 97). 

SUFFICIENTLY, SUFFITIENTLIE (1573, 34), adv., in a suitable way. 
SUFFRENS, SUFFERAUNCE, subs., sufferance : ' by the sufferaunce of 

yvye' (1577, 43). 
SURCHARDGE (1569, 29), subs., overcharging (of the common with 

sheep). 

SURVEIGH (1611, 18), subs., survey. 
SWEEPED (1604, 76), past part, of sweep. 
SWORNEMEN (1615, 93), vb., persons sworn to perform a specified 

duty. 
SYDMEN (1590, ij, plur. subs., sidesmen (of a church). 



GLOSSARY. xlix. 



SYLTENGE (1566, 34), adj., salting: 'all syltenge tyme.' 

SYSER (1571, 9), subs., a person deputed to hold an assize or 

sitting. 

SYSES (1571, 9), short for ASSIZES, regulations made at the assizes. 
See ASSISE, which is * a sitting for the purpose of fixing 
the weight, measure or price of any article.' 



TABYLLES, TABLLES, plur. subs., draughts or backgammon. 
TACHE (p. 142), subs., fastening, clasp. 'Tache hookes' (p. 142). 
TAFFITIE, TAFFETA, applied in the sixteenth century to a rich 

and costly fabric; 'a hatte of tamtie' (1577, 98); 'a 

cloke lynid with tufte taffitie ' (1577, 98). 
TALE WOOD (1615, 93), subs., tall wood, as opposed to billet 

wood. 

TALLAGE (1603, 59), subs., tax. 
TALLER (1551, i), subs., tailor. 
TAP, vb., to tap, broach : * to tap ale ' (p. 21). 
TAVERNER (1569, n), subs., keeper of a tavern. 
TEASEL (1571, 59), subs., teazel. 
TEMPESTIOUS (1613, 50), adj., tempestuous. 
TENDER, adj., gentle : 'tender termes' (1620, 79). 
TENNANTABLEWISE (1603, 78), adv., so that it can be inhabited. 
TENORE (1574, 36), subs., tenure. 

TENTE (1550, 31), abbreviation for TENYMENTTE, tenement. 
THEN, than : ' other then,' other than. 
THERE ABOWTS (1550, i), THER ABOGHTTS, adv., thereabout. 
THERE AMONGST (1571, 40), adv., thereabout. 
THROME (p. 142), subs., a material made of thrums or waste 

yarn. 

THROUGHLYE (1571, 75), adv., thoroughly. 
THROWTT (1551, 37), THROWGHT (1618, 51), prep., throughout, 

through. 

THRUNGINGE (1616, 122), thronging, pressing. 
TIGHTE (1620, 76), adj., watertight. 
TOBBE (1574, 74), TOBE, subs., tub. 
TOFORE, adv., before : 'times tofore ' (1603, 91). 
TONNELL (1569, 49), subs., flue : 'a chymay with a tonnell.' 
TOORNE (1574, 47), vb., to turn. 
TORNE (1581, 52), subs., turn. 
TORVES (1574, 25), plur. subs., pieces of turf. 



1. GLOSSARY. 



TOTT (1603, 28), vb., to mark an account or name with the word 

' tot ' (so many), as an indication of the amount owing. 
TOWLE (1576, 71), TOULE, subs., toll. 

TRADE, subs., trade : ' men of trade ' (1603, 52), tradesmen. 
TRAVAILE (1576, 62), vb., to travel. 
TRAVELL (1579, 107), subs., toil. 

TRAYE OF THE CARDS (1615, 126), subs., a card with three spots. 
TRAYNE GOWNE (p, 142), subs., gown with a train. 
TRENYTIE (1590, 28), subs., Trinity. 
TRESPAS (1594, 38), subs., wrongdoing. 
TRESPASSE, vb., followed by direct obj. : ' they trespasse us ' 

(1620, 80). 

TREUTH (1579, 81), subs., truth, honesty. 

TROW (1551, 14), TROYHE (1600, 38), subs., trough, watercourse. 
TRUCKE (1594, 38), vb., to barter. 
TRUCKLES (1581, 47), plur. subs., trucks. 
TRYE (1577, 100), vb., to try, to test. 
TRYME (1615, 123), vb., to cut the hair or beard. 
TRYMINGE (1615, 123), subs., cutting the hair or beard. 
TUFTE TAFFITIE, subs., tuftaffeta, a taffeta woven with a pile 

like that of velvet, arranged in tufts or spots ; ' a cloke 

lynid-with tufte taffitie ' (1577, 98). 

TURNE PIKE (1571, 76), TORNE PYKE, a gate made to stop a road. 
TWIXT (1590, 18), prep., between. 

TYERY (1580, 83), adj., liable to become weary, easily tired. 
TYPLER, TEPPLER, subs., retailer of ale. 
TYPPELYNG, subs., retailing of beer : ' to kepe typpelyng ' 

(1575. 69). 
TYPPLE, vb., to sell ale retail to be drunk on the premises : ' every 

ale brewer that typpleth in theire housses ' (1550, 53). 
TYTH (1589, 75), subs., tithe. 

u 

UNABLE (1616, 125), adj., weakly. 

UNASSIZED, not made according to the regulations of the assize : 

'unassized bread' (1616, 114). 
UNCOVERED (1587, 43), past part., lacking a roof. 
UNDECENT (1596, 43), adj., used as adv., untidily. 
UNDERFOOTE, adv., underfoot, the floor of earth : ' howndwell 

howse underfoote ' (1603, 6) ; ' the friars conduit under- 

foote ' (1605, 12). 

UNDERHANDE (1616, 106), adv., in an underhand way, secretly. 
UNEXAMINED (1620, 84), adj., unqualified. 



GLOSSARY. 



UNFREQUENTINGE (1620, 65), subs., neglect, disuse. 

UNHANGED (1601, 59), adj., (of a gate) off its hinges. 

UNHELL, vb., to open, to unroof : ' Robarde Foster hathe unhellyde 
partte off Thomas Cupers housse ' (1551,41). UNHELLED, 
UNHEALED (1613,- 79), past part., without slates or tiles. 

UNLYKLYE (1571, 75), adj., unsuitable. 

UNMEET (1574, 47), UNMEETE, adj., unfit. 

UNORDERLY (1596, 72), UNORDERLIE, adj., used as adv., in a dis- 
orderly way. 

UNREVERENT (1615, i), adj., blasphemous. 

UNSEALLED (1550, 30), adj., unstamped, in the phrase 'unsealled 
measures.' 

UNSISSED (1613, 108), adj., not having the weight required by 
the regulations of the Assize. See under ASSISE. 

UNYFORME (1550, 31), subs., uniformity: 'the unyforme of the 
streats.' 

UPE (1574, 43), prep., upon. 

USE (1594, 6), subs., use, enjoyment. 

USE, intransitive vb., to be accustomed : ' no typler that now 
vsith to sell beere or ale ' (1550, 54) ; * Thomas Casberd 
hathe usid to sette his carte in the streate ' (1550, 62) ; 
reflexive vb., l used themselves contemtuously ' (1590, 16), 
behaved in a contemptuous way ; transitive vb., to use, to 
practise (1581, 115). 

USSERER (1581, 115), subs., usurer. 

USSURPE, vb., to practise extortion : ' to ussurpe uppon the 
comers unto of this towne ' (1576, 71). 

USUALL, adj., regular, systematic : ' a usuall convayor of wood ' 

(1579, 5)- 
USUALLY (1587, 81), adv., regularly, systematically. 

UTT OFF, prep., outside of : ' utt off the dayes forsayde ' (1551, 9), 

except upon the aforesaid days. 

UTTER, vb., to vend : ' to sell and utter theire vyctualls ' (1569, 1 1). 
UTTERANCE (1579, 51), subs., sale. 



VAGABOND (1569, 9), subs., vagabond. 

VANE (1600, 15), subs., vane. 

VARLET (1569, 17), subs., knave, varlet. 

VAUGHT (1579, 3), subs., vault. 

VEALE (1600, 78), subs., calf : c whole veales.' 

VELVAT (1577, 98), VELLAT, subs., velvet. 



Hi. GLOSSARY. 



VENTURE, subs., chance : c at a venture ' (1566, 43). 

VERTEW (1569, p. 62), subs., virtue. 

VERYE (1581, 19), VERRY, subs., ferry. 

VERYLYE (1618, 103), adv., verily, truly. 

VEW (1566, 25), VIEW, vb., to view, to take a survey of, to inspect. 

VEWE, subs., inspection : ' for the vewe and overseeing ' (1577, 35) ; 

' to tak the vewe ' (1579, 2), to inspect ; ' to put in vew ' 

(1579, 2). ' Court of view ' (1611, 18), court of supervision. 
VEWER (1571, 9), subs., inspector. 
VICTUELL (1616, 96), vb., to sell provisions. 
VICTUELLINGE Ci6i6, 96), subs,, selling of provisions: 'to keep 

victuellinge.' 

VICTULER (1566, 38), subs., seller of provisions, victualler. 
VILDE (1615, 72), adj., vile, filthy. 
VILDELY (1615, 93), adv., badly. 
VIRSE (1601, 26), subs., furze. VIRSES, plur., bundles of furze. 

' Virse howses' (1613, 91), sheds for keeping furze. 

VlTALLS, VlTTALLES, VETTELLS, VYTTUELLS, plur. Subs., victuals. 

VOIDE (1615, 72), adj., empty, unoccupied. 

VOYD (1569, 50), vb., to prevent, short for avoid ; to drain off : 

' to voyde the watter ' (1573, 40). 
VYRKYN (1566, 49), subs., firkin. 

W 

WAFFER BREAD (1581, 4), subs., wafer bread. 

WALE (1569, 21), WALL, WAULE, WAULLE, WALLE, subs., wall. 

WALKER (1577, 74), subs., traveller, passenger. 

WALLENOTTE (1569, 30), adj., walnut. 

WALTER (1569, i), subs., water. WALTER CORSE (1569, 54), 

watercourse. 
WANT, intransitive vb., to be lacking : ' the pylles wantethe all 

allonge under the walls ' (1589, 37). 
WANTE (1566, 45), past part., wont, accustomed. 
WARANEINGE (1620, 52), subs., warning. 
WARD, separated from to: 'to the landword ' (1602, 42), towards 

the land. 
WARNE, vb., to refuse : ' and that theye warne none to have ale 

for theire money ' (1550, 53) ; to warn, to inform (1582, 82). 
WARRENED (1581, 16), past part., warned. 
WASTINGE (1581, 47), subs., injury, wearing away. 
WATCH, subs., duty of keeping watch. ' To pay ones watches ' 

(1550, 68). 



GLOSSARY. 



WATCHE AND WARDE (1566, 32), watching by night and day ; 

then a tax imposed to provide for this duty. 
WATCHE (1576, 34), vb., to serve as a watchman. 
WATER MEASURE (1581, 80), contrasted with land measure (1581, 

80), a unit of measure on board ships, according to which 

the amount of five pecks was regarded as a bushel and 

similarly divided. 

WATTER COWRSE (1566, 3), subs., watercourse. 
WAYAGE (1611, 34), subs., weighing. 
WEACK (1571, 70), subs., wick. 

WEAGHT (1566, 40), WEIGHT, WEIGHTT, WAIGHT, subs., weight. 
WEALTHE, subs., welfare : * contrary to the comon wealthe of this 

towne ' (1571, 72). 
WEARE (1579, 62), vb., were ; would be, used as the conditional 

of the verb be. 
WEATHERBOORD (1613, 77), WEATHERBOURD, vb., to nail boards 

together in order to keep off rain, snow, &c. 
WELL WILLER (1596, 91), subs., well wisher. 
WELT (p. 142), subs., a strip of material fastened along an edge 

of cloth. 
WENLING (1550, 7), subs., young bullock or heifer. Generally, 

a child or animal recently weaned. 

WEX, vb., to grow, to wax. WEXITH (1566, 34), pres. ind. 
W T EY (1566, 51), WAYE, subs., way. 
WEYHOWSE (1582, 51), subs., weigh house. 
WEYNER (p. 35), subs., wagoner. 
WHEL (1551, 45), conj., while. 
WHENAS (1571, 75), conj., when. 
WHER (1580, 67), conj., whereas. 
WHERE UNDER (1615, 128), conj., under which. 
WHEROF (1618, 107), conj., wherefore. 
WHERUPON (1550, 76), conj., upon which. 
WHILES (1566, 53), conj., while. 
WHITTED (1605, 65), past part., whitened. 
WHO, WHOO, Woo, who. Woos (1551, 39), whose. 
WHOLE (1596, 54), WHOLLE, WHOL, subs., hole. 
WHOLLE, WHOL, adj., whole : ' in the wholle ' (1600, 72), 

altogether. Also spelled HOLLE, HOLE. 
WIEF (1576, 78), subs., wife. 
WILL, vb., desire : ' we will you stryke all our names owt of 

your bookes ' (1550, 82). 
WITHALL, adv., equivalent to with : ' to be dealt withall ' 

(1603, 39). 



Hv. GLOSSARY. 



WITHIN (1616, in), prep., inside, in the house of. 

WlTHOWT, WlTHOTT, WYTHEOTTE, WlTHOUGHT, prep., Outside of : 

1 withowt theire dores ' (1550, 73) ; 'without syde of the 

same rampiers ' (1571, 58). 

WITHYE, adj., willow : ' the withye tree ' (1613, 31). 
WODD (1550, 69), subs., wood. 

WODDEN (1611, 12), WOUDEN, WOUDDEN, adj., wooden. 
WOLLE, subs., wool : ' the wolle howse ' (1577, 67). 
WORCKE HOWSE (1613, 63), subs., workshop, factory. 
WORSER, comparative form of bad (1575, 35). 
WORSTED (p. 143), WUSTEDE, WOSTED, WESTED, subs., worsted : 

' Saint Thomas worsted ' (p. 143). 
WORTHE, adj., worth, worthy : ' he hadd ben worthe to be dis- 

graded' (1550, 83). 
WORTHELY (1604, 99), adj., worthy. 
WORTHIE, adj., worth : ' a thinge worthie the loakinge unto ' 

(1596, 60). 

WREGHTINGS (1611, 18), plur. subs., writings. 
WRETHED (1587, 58;, past part., tethered. 
WYDES (1551, 29), plur. subs., weeds. 
WYSSE (1551, 9), subs., wise, manner. OTHER WYSSE (1569, 64), 

otherwise. 

WYTHES (1575, 77), plur. subs., willows. 
WYTTELLS (1551, 34), plur. subs., victuals. 



YAT (1575, 24), gate ; a form common in Chaucer. 

YELD (1581, 57), YEALDE, vb., to yield, to pour out, to give up. 

YERID (1569, 70), marked in the ear (of a sow). 

YERON (1573, 34), YRON, subs., iron. 

YLL, YELLE, adj., bad : ' yll tallowe ' (1571, 70). 

YMPEACHEMENT (1620, 59), subs., impeachment, hindrance. 

YNDKEPERS (1589, 3), subs., innkeepers. 

YNGLYSSHE (1551, 16), adj., English. 

YOOK, vb., to yoke. YOOKED, YOCKED, past part. (1566, 31). 

YOWSSYDE (1551, i), YOWSSED, past part., used. 



APPENDIX TO GLOSSARY. lv. 



APPENDIX TO GLOSSARY, 



DATES OF THE YEAR. 

SHROFFE TYDE (1587, 50), the week before Lent. 

LENT (1596, 97), Lent. 

ESTER (1566, 38), Easter. 

HOCK TUESDAY (1571, p. 63), the second Tuesday after Easter. 

THE ANNUNCYACON OF OUR LADY (1550, 29), OUR LADY DAYE THE 

ANNUNCIATION (1566, 33), Lady-day, March 25th. 
ST. GEORGES DAYE (1596, 97), April 23rd. 
WHITTSONDAYE (1574, 40), Whitsunday, the seventh Sunday after 

Easter. 
PENTECOST (1618, 59), THE FESTE OFF PENTTYCOSTE (1551, 40), 

same as Whitsunday. 
WYTTESUNTYDE (1551, 29), WHIT SONTYDE (1620, 67), the time 

near Whitsunday. 
TRYNYTYDE (1551, 31), the time near Trinity Sunday, the next 

Sunday after Whitsunday. 
MYDSOMER (1551, 31), June 24th. 
THE FEAST DAYE OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST (1618, 85), ST. JOHN THE 

BAPTISTS DAY (1575, 27), THE FEAST OF SAYNCT JOHN 

BAPTYST (1566, 6), Midsummer, June 24th. 
FEASTE OF ST. JAMES (1571, 53), ST. JAMES DAY (1577, 96), 

July 25th. 

ST. JAMES TIDE (1579, 16), the time near July 25th. 
LAMAS DAIES (1611, 31), the time near August ist 
THE FEAST OF ST. BARTYLLMEW YE APOSTELL (1566, 4), August 

24th. 
BERTHOLLIM TYDE (1603, 51), BARTHOLOMYTYDE (1550, 35), the 

time near August 24th. 
MYCHAELMAS (1550, 29), THE FEAST OF SAYNT MYCAELL THE 

ARCANGELL (1566, i), September 29th. 
THE FEASTE OF ALL SAYNCTS (1550, 58), November ist. 
ALL HOLLANTIDE (1603, 24), the time near All Saints' Day, 

November ist. 



INTRODUCTION TO SYNTAX. Ivii. 



A SHORT SYNTAX 

OF THE 

COURT LEET BOOKS, 15501624. 



In the following sections the more remarkable features of the 
grammar of the court books have been collected and arranged 
under the headings of the various parts of speech. As might be 
expected, many of the constructions are no longer in ordinary 
use : abstract substantives are not now generally used in the 
plural ; the relative which has ceased to be applied to persons ; 
the subjunctive, which still shows vigorous life in the court 
books, has been nearly ousted by the indicative ; and two nega- 
tives are now considered to make an affirmative. As the reader 
goes through the books, some part of the process of development 
shows itself to him. In the books he finds, just as in Malory's 
Morte d Arthur and in Shakespeare, instances of three forms in 
the plural of the present indicative, eth, (e), es, of which the first 
is the representative of the Southern, the second of the Midland, 
and the third of the Northern, dialect. As naturally follows 
from local considerations, the form in eth (e.g., they doth) occurs 
frequently, especially at first, but by the time we reach the 1624 
book, it has almost disappeared. We then find the Midland 
form (they do) in a position of overwhelming superiority. The 
Northern form (they comes) occasionally gains a little ground, 
but is never a serious rival. Similarly, in the singular of the 
present indicative it is possible to trace the conflict between the 
Southern and Midland eth (e.g., he goeth) and the Northern s (e.g., 
he goes), but in this case the form in eth maintains its position, 
and there is no hint of the complete victory which the form in -s 
was destined to achieve. Again, in the relative pronoun, we 



Iviii. INTRODUCTION TO SYNTAX. 

find, in the earliest books, that, which, and the which, all referring to 
persons ; later on, who makes its appearance, with the result that 
which and the which lose popularity, and are on their way to the 
extinction which, in this particular capacity, has now befallen 
them. To take another instance, his and her are still found as 
the possessives for referring to inanimate objects, and the modern 
development its does not make an appearance. 

We must not expect any particular grace or refinement of 
style from the writer of the court books. Even if he possessed 
these qualities, the subject of his notes would render it difficult 
for him to show them. Indeed, it must be confessed that he is 
often confused in thought ; that he leaves his sentences incom- 
plete ; that he will begin in one construction and conclude in 
another ; that sometimes he is absolutely incoherent. In spite 
of this, the rules of his syntax are in the main the rules observed 
in the masterpieces of literature from Malory to Bacon and Ben 
Jonson, and scrutiny shows a closeness of construction which is 
sometimes almost astonishing. Very few, if any, of the instances 
in which he differs from modern usage are peculiar to himself ; 
in the great majority of cases he is only following the rules of 
prose writing as recognized by the standard writers of the time. 
A few passages are quoted to show the truth of this statement, 
and the number of such parallels could be multiplied tenfold. 

The writer of the court books uses pity as the equivalent of an 
adjective : ' which were pety ' ; so does Shakespeare in a well- 
known passage in Hamlet. He strengthens a comparative by 
more, and a superlative by most : ' a more greater discourage- 
ment,' * most best and necessary ' ; in Antony and Cleopatra we 
find ' a more larger list of sceptres,' and in Julius Ccesar ' most 
boldest,' * most unkindest.' He uses other as a plural in ' all 
other that passe by ' ; compare Ascham, Scholemaster, ' other 
have authoritie,' and Malory, Morte d' Arthur, ' Syr Beriel and 
other, Syr Morys and Syr Maurel.' He uses either to mean both : 
so does Malory, ' eyther knyghtes departed in sondre.' Only is 
used as an adjective, where we should prefer it as an adverb : 
' to his onlie gaien ' (only for his gain) ; compare Bacon, 
Advancement of Learning, 'by her only aspect she turned men 
into stones/ He uses anything adverbially (at all) : ' nether is 
it anie thinge beneficiall to the towne ' ; cf. Florio's Montaigne, 
1 do you think they can be anything delighted ? ' Much, more, 
and most are used as adjectives, where we should employ great, 
greater, and greatest : ' the too much libertie,' ' the more com- 



INTRODUCTION TO SYNTAX. lix. 

fort ' ; cf. Measure for Measure, ' thy much goodness/ * our more 
leisure,' and Hamlet, ' your most need.' That is equivalent to 
that which : ' for thatt they hathe nott deservyd to have ' ; cf . 
Richard II. , * and that is worse the Lords of Rosse are fled.' 
The auxiliary with intransitive verbs of motion is often is, where 
we should say have : ' the partie is rune away ' ; cf. Much Ado 
about Nothing, ' Prince John is this morning secretly stolen 
away.' By has an unusual meaning in ' by whose time ' (=in) 
and ' to remane by (=for) one day ' ; cf. Morte d' Arthur, ' by my 
dayes ' (=in) and ' by the space of two yere ' (/or). Of denotes 
the agent : ' greatlie noted of straungers ' (=by) ; cf. Morte 
d' Arthur, ' this is wel said of (=by) you.' Up is used as a pre- 
position, ' uppe what condition ' (upon) ; cf. Morte d' Arthur, 
' as I rode up myn adventures.' With is found instead of by : 
'eaten with the sea'; cf. Morte d' Arthur, ' eten with wylde 
beestes.' Within means in the house of : ' within George Scaynes ' ; 
cf. Morte d' Arthur, ' the same knyght was within him ' (=in his 
house). 

Occasionally the modern reader is tempted to do injustice to 
the writer of the court books and accuse him of illiteracy, when 
he is merely echoing the idiom of his own time. At first sight 
the phrases ' the holle (=whole) nayghttebures ' and ' all the 
whole yeare ' appear shocking solecisms, but the courtly Malory 
has ' the hoole barons ' and ' alle the hole manoir.' If our writer 
employs a double negative and says ' they cannot have none 
under 8d.' or commands the men of St. Laurence's parish ' not 
to lay no more refuse ' on the Castle Green, we must remember 
that very similar constructions can be found in unimpeachable 
company. So with ' we present eight supervisors for to see the 
amendment ' ; ' the towne is defrauded of that dew of wayage 
as it ought to receave ' ; ' which be yt comaundid unto hym to 
amend the same.' These idioms can be defended by the ancient 
use of the language. There are, however, others in the court 
books which can hardly be justified so easily, as the illogical 
possessive in ' the tenymentte of Mr. Bakers ' ; the confusion 
between nominative and objective in 'we cannot tell who we 
shall amerse ' and ' whom we desyer may be examyned ' ; the 
repetition of the subject in ' William Wells he continueth 
the same,' ' the fyshmongers they do kepe ther fysh staules ' ; 
the plural verb in ' the pavement of ther streets are decayed ' ; 
but even in these instances we may quote Malory, * a knyghte of 
the dukes ' ; Shakespeare, ' consider who the king your father 



Ix. 



INTRODUCTION TO SYNTAX. 



sends ' (Loves Labour Lost) ; Holinshed, ' Sueno, albeit he was 
of nature verie cruell, yet qualified he his displeasure ' ; and 
Shakespeare, ' the posture of your blows are yet unknown.' 

The evidence of the syntax points in the same direction as the 
evidence of the vocabulary, and the conclusion at which we 
arrive is that there is little trace in the court books of dialectical 
or provincial idiom. Southampton during these years is in close 
connection with the capital, and the writer of the books models 
his grammatical constructions on the literary language of the 
period. 



SYNTAX. Ixi. 



SYNTAX. 



ARTICLES. 

i. THE FORMS AN AND A. An is found before y in 1551, 7, ' an 
yelle insampelle,' and once or twice before yearly, e.g., 
!6o3, 3, ' an yerelie rent.' In 1575, 25, * an nussans' may 
be one word, annussans. 

A is found before a vowel, generally o or u, in the following 
instances : 

i55> 53. 'aob. 1 

1551, 43, 'a awynsyentt costom.' 

I 575 77> ' a utter decaye.' 

1587, 33, 'a occasion.' 

1589, i, 'a old broken carvalle.' 

1589, 50, 'a unresonable diche.' 

2. The second letter of AN is wrongly attached to the sub- 
stantive in 1571, i, 'a nalle brewer,' for ' an ale brewer' ; 
so we still have a newt instead of the more correct form 

an ewt. 

3. UNUSUAL EMPLOYMENT OF A occurs in 
1582, 89, 'a 6 foote of grownd.' 

in connection with money fines : 
I S79> 6 5> ' a I2 d.' (a shilling). 
i5 8 7> 54, 'a 5/-' (a crown). 
1575, 35. 'a io/-.' 

4. OMISSION OF A, contrary to modern usage, occurs in 
1571, 45, 'which were pety.' 
1587, 54, 'to have vigilent eye therunto.' 
1571, 72, 'suche nomber of woode.' 

1590, i, 'that the constables maye be asystance unto the church- 

wardens ' (we could say a help). 

159, 7, 'by reasson of so great increase of undertenents.' 
and in the following phrases of time : 
1580, 18, 'in short tyme.' 
1571, 46, 'in very shorte tyme.' 
1619, 107, 'fewe dayes before.' 



Ixii. SYNTAX. 



5. THE is very often joined to the substantive to form one 
word : 

1550, 6, 'thother,' the others. 
1550, 12, 'thone,' the one. 
1550, i, 'thage,' the age. 

6. THE is found with designations and titles where in the 
present speech such a use is extremely formal : 
1611, n, ' the widdow demastre.' 
1616, 123, 'the seriaunt wells.' 
1619, 30, 'the ladye Lambert.' 

in expressions of time : 

1566, i, 'the last yere' (last year). 
1573, 22, 'the last lawedaye.' 
1603, 52, 'the sondayes ' (on Sunday). 
1611, 70, 'on the sabothe dayes.' 

1615, no, 'uppon the markett dayes'; 

and in 'at the leste,' at least ; ' 3/4 the pess,' apiece. 

7. OMISSION OF THE is not frequent, but it occurs in 

1550, i, 'all dayes of his lyffe.' 

1573, 32, 'in leek sort' (in the same way), but in 1573, 39, we 
find ' upon the leek payne.' 

SUBSTANTIVES. 

8. POSSESSIVE IN OF-PHRASES. In a number of instances the 
writer, by confusion of thought, uses the possessive in- 
flexion s after the preposition of instead of the gram- 
matically correct objective case : 

1551, 37, 'the feste off penttycosts nextte foloynge.' 
1551, 44, 'the tenymentte of Mr. bakers.' 

1611, p. 451, 'the fence or hedge of mr. Walloppes.' 
1623, 22, 'in the parishe of St. Michaells.' 

9. The writer sometimes uses the possessive case where 
modern usage would prefer an uninflected form or would 
choose another way of expressing the thought : 
1550, 35, 'upon the dichis syde' (the side of the ditch). 
1580, 69, 'the comons cattells' (the cattle of the common). 
1605, 17, 'the barnes gate' (the barn gate*). 
1605, 86, ' there sackes measure ' (the measure, of their sacks). 

1616, 24, 'a comon wealths matter' (a matter affecting the 

commonwealth). 

1613, 10, 'the Comon Bowlinge Greene ... is the Townes 
ground and not anie privatt bodies ' (ground of the town, 
and not of any private person). 



SYNTAX. Ixiii. 



In connection with town, the uninflected and inflected 
forms alternate : 

1577, 75, * the toun ground.' 

1617, 82, 'the towne markinge iron.' 

1579, 96, 'the townes post.' 

1566, 25, ' eny townes man.' 

1569, 75, * uppon the townes grownd. 

1577, 8 1, ' the townes marke.' 

In 1577, 19, occurs the quite irregular 'ground of the 

townes ' (cf. 8.) 
We may here note 1576, 71, ' from a horse back,' where the 

omission of the possessive sign may be due to the fact 

that the noun ends with a sibilant. 

10. Several instances occur of a peculiar construction with 
proper names, which is frequent in mediaeval English, 
although now obsolete : 

1579, ii, 'Thomas Vaughans ground thelder' (the ground of 

Thomas Vaughan the elder}. 
1613, 109, 'we present as by the biddells Role of hollyroods is 

presented unto us ' (the roll of the Beadle of Holyrood). 
1604, 86, 'unto the Lees howse the butcher' (the house of Lee 
the butcher). 

11. INVARIABLE PLURALS. Some apparently singular forms 
are used as plurals ; foot is regularly so found, but the 
Chaucerian yere does not occur. It will be noticed that 
the singular article and the singular demonstrative are 
used in combination with these forms. 

1582, 89, 'a six foote of grownd.' 

1587, 69, 'certaine foote of grounde.' 

Only in 1576, 27, do we find ' fower foots.' 

1551, 28, ' 20 lode a pesse.' 

1602, 3, 'this twellve moneth.' 

1620, 52, ' sennighte ' (seven nights weeK). 

1566, 40, 'certen weaght ' (but weights is also found in the 
same passage). 

12. UNUSUAL PLURALS. Most of the words in the following 
list are only found in the plural, or, if they occur in the 
singular, have a different meaning : 

Arrerages, arrears ; bretherin, colleagues ; charges (also sing.), 
cost ; discreets, overseers of the market ; flottys, skimmed 
fat; liberties (also sing.), districts under the jurisdiction 
of a town corporation, also privileges ; marchaundises 
(also sing.), articles of merchandise; obsequies, cere- 
monies ; ordinaunces, pieces of artillery ; parings, trim- 



Ixiv. 



SYNTAX. 



mings of a garden ; parolls, verbal agreement ; peesses, 
pieces of artillery ; peoples, persons ; pickeries, petty 
thefts ; pillfries, acts of pilfering premisses, previously 
mentioned facts, articles or regulations ; reparations (i 594 
20, 'to be at reperations '), repair ; ripiers, persons 
bringing fish inland from the coast to market ; screts 
(short for discreets), overseers ; sea drifts, lands flooded 
by the sea \ solemnetyes, ceremonies ; stayne clothes, 
painted cloths ; swornemen, persons sworn to perform a 
specific duty ; syses, assizes ; tabylles, draughts or back- 
gammon ; virzis, bundles of furze. 

13. ABSTRACT SUBSTANTIVES. Contrary to modern usage, 
substantives, especially those denoting abstract ideas, are 
employed in the plural, when they have reference to the 
action of a number of persons : authorities, acceptaunces, 
considerations, counsels, knowledges, pleasures, opinions, are 
among the words most commonly so used ; we may also 
notice : 

1566, 53, 'accordeinge to your good discressions.' 

1577, 115, * owt of our sightes.' 

1579, 107, 'we thincke it our dweties.' 

1580, 59, 'withowt ther helpes.' 
1603, 40, 'good wills.' 

1603, 59, 'there daylie labors and industries.' 

1603, 91, 'in there roomes.' 

1604, 100, ' apprentichoods.' 

1611, p. 450, ' in the sight and presences of manie straungers.' 
1 60 1, 78, 'we have thought fitt to commend it to your worships 
good considerations^ not doubtinge but uppon your 
knowleges of the persons names . . . you maye of 
your owne aucthorities and of your worships good dis- 
gretions and inclinations, &c.' 

The use of the following plurals is also contrary to modern 
usage : 

1550, 80, 'by the yardes.' 

1551, 32, ' hathe sollde wyns for 3d. the qt.' 
1569, 74, 'upon paynes of 2o/-.' 

1571, 21, 'in considerations of the want of their barels.' 
1582, 101, 'rubbydgs.' 

1580, 82, 'contempts ' (acts of contempt}. 
1573, 54, 'we praye reformacons accordingly.' 

14. In one group of expressions the name of the person is put 
in the objective case, instead of in the possessive : 

1581, 106, 'beetwixt his newe buylt house and Mrs. bell' (for 

Mrs. Bell's). 



SYNTAX. Ixv. 



1618, 85, ' in the new corner betwene John Pratt his howse and 

Olyver Foster.' 
1618, 91, 'his gutter next unto John Crosbye' (=John Crosby's 

house). 

The more exact possessive is found in 

1582, 16, 'the howse that was late wydow cartretts ' (=lately 
Widow Cartretfs house]. 

15. A COMPOSITE SUBJECT consisting of two singular nouns 
may take a SINGULAR VERB : 

1576, 81, 'the graunt and lybertie of the marcket dayes was 
grauntid and allowed.' 

Perhaps this idiom will account for the use of it in 

1571, 24, 'the consideration and redresse whearof we doo reffer 
yt unto you.' 

16. SINGULAR SUBJECT FOLLOWED BY A PLURAL VERB. Once 
or twice a plural verb is used through attraction to the 
last part of the subject : 

1550, 31, 'by reason that the sight of theire shopes are drowned 

and hid by the same.' 
1594, 25, 'the pavement of the streets are decayed.' 

17. NUMBER takes a plural verb, contrary to modern usage : 
1571, 5, ' the number wherof ar so many.' 

1571, 71, 'the nomber of hoockesters of this towne are so 
many.' 

But in the following the plural might still be used : 
1569, ii, * whearewith a nomber of people be offendid.' 

18. REASON and PITY are used as adjectives : 

1594, 26, 'we think reason that Ryt Cornellis doe cut his 

pipe ' (=reasonable) . 
1603, 4, ' it is said no reason to charge the Towne with anie 

new wache' (=unreasonable). 
1571, 45, ' which were pity ' (^unfortunate). 

19. NEIGHBOUR is used as an adjective in 

1620, 46, 'the neighbour inhabitants ' (also in 1620, 78). 

20. MISCELLANEOUS. Povertie (1550, 41) is collective, poor 
people. Catall is sing, in 1579, 65, ' every suche catall.' 



Ixvi. SYNTAX. 



ADJECTIVES. 

21. COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE. The comparative and 
superlative are sometimes strengthened by the addition 
of more and most. 

I 5 6 9) 7 1 ) ' more freer.' 

1576, 69, 'more liker ' (more resembling). 

1605, 88, * a far more greater discouragment ' (also in 1602, 77). 
1616, 1 1 9, 'more playner.' 

1577, 8 1, 'as we thincke yt most best and necessarye.' 

In this connection may be noticed as slight irregularities, 
1582, 40, 'more eassye '=easier ; 1577, 103, 'more suer ' 
surer ; as a variant for the comparative, 1604, 15, ' some 
better respected man/ and similarly for the superlative, 
1602, 38, 'best experienced.' 

The double comparative form lesser occurs frequently, and 
there is one instance of worser (1575, 35). 

22. ANY, CERTAIN, DIVERS, EVERY, MANY, OTHER, SOME, SUCH, 

SUCH LIKE, are regularly used as adjectives, as in the 
modern speech, but, contrary to modern usage, they are 
also used without a noun and become pronouns. With 
these words may be classed SAID, AFORESAID. For their 
adjectival use we have such phrases as ' certain weights,' 
* eny soyle,' ' such leeke dangers,' ' the said gutters.' 
They are used as pronouns in the following sentences : 
1550, 7, 'yf eny that be or shalbe put in truste to oversee the 

comyn.' 

1569, 15, 'by certayne ' (=fy certain men). 
1569, 13, 'to the hynderance of divers' 

1550, 53, * be yt comanded to every Ale brewer that theye and 
every of them contynew theire brewing as theye have 
done.' 

1566, 32, 'that non put eny catall into the comyn.' 
1550, 42, 'to the anoyance of the inhabitants of the towne and 

all other that corny th in.' 
1576, 71, ' wheareby and such like the towne ys much slaunderid ' 

(=by which conduct and such like practices). 
1550, i, 'the towne recovered the said (i.e., marsh) of godes 
house by the lawe.' 

EVERY is regularly considered to be plural and is followed 
by a plural verb. The possessive regularly used to refer 
to every is their. 

1571, 44, ' every of them ar tp losse 2o/-' 



SYNTAX. Ixvii. 



EVERY ONE is treated as singular in 

1580, 88, 'towardes the highe wayes every one to make his 

owne fence.' 

OTHER is regularly plural : 

1566, 39, 'all other that passe by.' 

23. ANY, MANY, OTHER, SUCH, may be immediately followed by 
a plural substantive, in a kind of apposition, without the 
link of the preposition of. The modern construction is 
also found : ' manie of our burgesses/ 

1550, 55, 'onelesyt happen any the aldermen or burgesis . . , 
shall chaunce to supp at tavern e.' 

1550, 6 1, 'wherfore yt ys comaunded that theye ne none of 

them ... do sell any the lyke wares.' 

1604, no, ' manye the inhabitants of this Towne were absent 

at Gutted thorne.' 
1615, no, 'to the disincouragment of manye the countrye 

people.' 
1573, 1 8, * Richard hoskins John hocket and other the glovers 

above the barr.' 
1573, 22, 'John moor Ric. conders wedowe and others the 

bakers of the towne.' 
1596, 92, 'the comon pasture belonginge to us and others the 

inhabitants.' 
[In the last two examples other has the plural inflexion.] 

1605, 82, 'such the Burgesses as have served in this Towne.' 

24. ALL and WHOLE. The usage sometimes differs from the 
modern speech : 

1551, 46, 'the nolle nayghttebures ' (whole all). 

1581, no, ' chardged with all payment' (all=whole). 

All and whole are found in combination in 

1550, i, ' all the whole yere ' ; so in 1550, 82. 

Here we may note 

1569, 1 8, 'we suppose the Cryer to be in the hole fault 
(wholly to blame). 

All is equivalent to everything in 

1602, 40, ' it overfloweth all afore the dowre.' 

All is adverbial in 

1605, 90, ' all broken ' (=altogether). 

25. THIS, THAT. THIS (sing.) is joined to a plural substantive : 

1619, 78, 'this too years.' 
This is used in combination with a possessive adjective in 

1551, 42, ' off thes hys nattyve centre.' 



Ixviii. SYNTAX. 



This seems to mean ' in regard to this ' in 

I 55 I J 39? 'thes we thynke ytt nedefoll to be don' (cf. which-, 
see under Pronouns). 

THAT (sing.) is joined to a plural substantive in 

1569, 64, ' yt is a none user of that lybertyes ' ; and again in the 

same passage. 
That is used idiomatically in 

1569, 64, 'the inhabytants cane not sell any thing at all, and 
not only that, but the said inhabytants do use.' 

26. FEW is strangely used in 

I 579) 6, 'many arre chargid for fewe profyts ' ( //fo profit of 
a few). 

27. OTHER is irregular in 

I 576, 65, 'not to cut of the leggs or other powles, tayles or 

shavings of eny shepe.' 
In 1566, 26, 'other 6d,' stands for six pence more. 

28. ONLY is employed as an adjective, where we should use it 
as an adverb : 

1604, 5, 'to that onelye purpose' (=only to that purpose). 
1581, 115, 'to his onlie gaien ' (=only to his gain}. 

1 60 1, 91, ' alehowse keepers . . . beinge thonely receptackles 

of all lewd persons ' {who merely shelter vicious persons). 

29. MUCH, MORE, MOST are used as adjectives with the meaning 
of great, greater, greatest : 

Much 1604, 99, 'the too muche libertie.' 

1616, 70, 'the muche impayringe of the same.' 
More 1574, 47, ' for the more comfort.' 
Most 1550, 82, 'the mooste parte of the Aldermen.' 

30. A number of ADJECTIVES may be USED ADVERBIALLY. 
Besides sore, which is familiar to our ears in this use, we 
find bold, ill, evil, especial, undecent, noyful, anoyfuL A 
group of words in ly are often used by the writer as 
adverbs, orderly, disorderly, unorderly, and most frequently 
of all, unseemly ; in these words, of course, the addition 
of a further adverbial ending in ly is impossible. 
1604, 70, 'men sore hurt and wounded.' 
1551, 45, 'they berythe themesellffes so bolide.' 

1602, 32, 'the porters do lay the Rubbish . . . very ill' 

(=very badly). 
1573, 43, 'very evill markid ' (=very badly). 

1603, 74, ' for lyenge timber verie noyfull ' (=/ a very annoy- 

ing way). 



SYNTAX. Ixix. 



1615, 48, ' for layeinge his oulde carts . . . very unnecessarie 

and unseemlye.' 
1590, 72, 'the said shipe hathe so spoiled the hyll most rewy- 

nousse and unsemely.' 
Anoyfull occurs in 1604, 80; espetiall, 1577, 82; orderlie, 1577, 

29; palpable, 1601, 98; undecent, 1596, 43; unorderly, 

1596, 72; unresonable, 1551, 45. 

In the following passages there seems to be an extension of 
this adverbial usage : 

1 60 1, 77, 'verie unseemlie and not allowable' (probably =/ a 

very unseemly and improper way). 
1590, 6 1, 'we present the wood (is) caryed awaye not sufferable ' 

(==.in a way which cannot be tolerated). 

1615, 104, 'he abuseth the towne herein more and more and 
not to be suffered.' 

3 1 . NEW is used adverbially to denote again, or, less frequently, 
newly. Instances of the first meaning are 1573, 38, ' to 
newe build,' to rebuild ; 1579, 60, ' newe pointed,' pointed 
again', 1600, 18, 'new cullored,' re-painted', 1604, 58, 
1 new gravelled,' re- gravelled', 1605, 65, 'new whitted,' 
' new paynted,' re-painted. It probably has the second 
meaning in 1581, 106, 'his newe buylt house'; and in 
1605, 79. 

32. POSITION OF THE ADJECTIVE. In a few instances the 
adjective follows the substantive : 
1550, 30, 'by measure unsealled.' 

'all theire potts unsealled.' 
1550, 15, 'in case like ' (=in the same way). 
1550, 42, 'at all tymes nedefull' (so in 1566, 17). 
1576, 67, ' a strayed heiffer of coller redd.' 
1590, 4, ' a straye nage of the coller baye.' 



PRONOUNS. 

33. In long sentences, after a dependent clause has intervened, 
the subject is re-stated by means of he and they. 
Occasionally in similar circumstances the object is 
re-stated. 

1616, 121, 'we present that william wells . . . he continueth 

the same.' 

1580, 45, 'we present that all the fyshmoungers, notwithstanding 
&c they do kepe ther fysh staules.' 



1XX. SYNTAX. 



1603, 28, 'suche of them, as we in our opinions doe thincke 
fitt to be allowed, we have totted them on there names.' 
Other instances occur in 1551, i ; 1589, 81 1604, 52. 

34. In the following passage obscurity results from the use of 
the same pronoun to denote several persons and things : 
1581, 52, 'we dessire that . . yf they (the porters) neclect 
the lading of eny carts as they doo very often, tarieng 
untill they (the carts) be laden and then compell them 
(the townsmen) to pay that being calid by the carters 
and they (the porters) attend not on them (the carters), 
yt may also be lawfull, &c.' 

35. In one or two instances he and she refer to things : 

1551, 15, * the hedde made of stone and bryke . . as he was 

before.' 
I 5^7) 7 J 5 ' a brassen weighte . . which we cannot have, 

neither heare what is become of him." 1 
Similarly him in 1550, 39, refers to conduit. 
1601, 54, 'if she (i.e., the olde hulcke at the west key) be not 

repayred.' 
Similarly her in 1551, 55. 

36. His is used, by a common mistake of the period, for 's, the 
possessive inflexion, especially after proper names, and, 
by analogy, their comes to be employed in a similar way 
for the possessive plural : 

His 1550, 41, ' Tom his fool and his maydens.' 

Their 1576, 76, 'the churchewardens theire presentments.' 

1616, 91, 'betwene him and humphrie studdman there 
gardeins.' 

37. THE FORM ITS does not occur in the court books. As is 
well known this possessive was not used originally in the 
Authorized Version of the Bible ; it was rare in the 
Elizabethan period and is very rare in Shakespeare. 
Instead we find his, the old possessive of it : 

1579, 18, 'so as the water may have his free coursse ' (so in 

1620, 77, and elsewhere) 

1616, 119, 'we present that the stamp of scale . . . is not 
cutt deep inoughe, wherefore we desire he maye be 
amended and more deeper cutt, to the intent his impres- 
sion maye be the more playner.' 
1620, 43, 'the smale pinnackle ... is severed and blowne 

downe from his place.' 
His refers to corporation in 1581, 38. 



SYNTAX. l xx i. 



38. HE is apparently nom. plural in 1566, 17 and 1571, 81 : 
1566, 17, 'to pointe the carters wher he shall ley yt.' 
1571, 81, 'now he (i.e., the herring barrels) contaynethe but 27 
gallons ' (but here, perhaps, the writer drops into the 
singular, forgetting that he has just before used the plural). 
His is used in 1577, 99, irregularly for their : 

J 577> 99> <we desire that the brewers . . . for that 
his bere ... his barrells.' 

39. OF THEM sometimes takes the place of their : 

I 55 1 y 53> ' at the mutthe off the sayme potts and nott on the 

leds of theme,' 
Also in 1566, 23; 1604, 81; 1615, 23. 

40. The syntax of the following is irregular : 

I S9 75> 'Borladie Darvall laiethe his gestes and them that 
comethe to his house wares ' (apparently gestes is 
possessive plural). 

41. THEY is occasionally used to refer to the collective sub- 
stantive town, as though townspeople had been used : 

Z 5^5j X 3> 'wherfore we fynde that the towne was myche better 
servyd with horses befor takynge of that order then they 
now be' (also in 1550, i). 

Similarly in 

X 566, 33, 'godds howsse ought not to enclose theire gronde.' 
I 5 66 > 34, ' lette the contry selle yt as dre as they can ' (contry= 
country people). 

42. The use of the POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE (your, their) is 
idiomatic in 

1605 88, ' referringe the same to your grave consideracons 
beinge the princepall governors of this corporacon' 
(=the consideration of you, who are). 

1615, 27, 'there names in particuler that are thoffenders we 
cannot certainlye learne ' (=the names of those that are). 

43. THEIR is archaic in 

1604, 52, ' to amend the same there severall plumpps.' 
Cf. ' for the which ther so offendynge,' 45. 

44. The RELATIVE PRONOUNS in the earlier books are that and 
which, and which is used indifferently to refer to persons 
as well as to things. After a time the relative who, which 
originally was used only as an interrogative pronoun, 
makes its appearance and is found with considerable 
frequency in the later books : 

1550, 39, ' no man whiche shall have the keye.' 

1551, 46, 'Alles Bencraffte, which rather shullde have consellyde 

hyme to the contrayerye.' 



Ixxii. SYNTAX. 



45. THE WHICH is frequently found as a relative : 

1550, 34, * other gardens by the walles, the whiche now are in 

thonds of the person.' 

THE WHICH is often used with a possessive adjective (his, 
their), especially to qualify a verbal substantive in -ing : 

1551, 36, * for the which ys defawtte.' 

1551, 32, ' for the which ther so offenddynge.' 

Which is treated in the same way in 

1601, 97, 'which his abuse we referr to your considerations.' 

1603, 31, 'for which there defalts we have amerced them.' 

46. WHAT, which in O.K. was simply the neuter of the 
interrogative pronoun who, occurs only occasionally. In 
the first sentence below it is used adjectivally, and in the 
second it may mean who ; both sentences are dependent 
questions : 

1566, 37, ' to answer yow whate playars at bowles play ther.' 
1582, 65, 'he will confesse what they be that resort to his 
house.' 

In the following, what is equivalent to which : 

1604, 89, 'at what tyme also he was comanded to shutt up his 

doares.' 

47. CONFUSION OF WHO AND WHOM. The nominative who is 
found instead of whom : 

1566, 49, 'we canot tell who we shall amerse.' 

The objective whom is used instead of him that, and in one 
or two passages for the nominative who : 

1582, 95, 'be yt comaundid unto thomas demarck or whom 

dothe holde ' (=him that). 
1576, 78, 'whome we desyer may be examyned.' 
Similarly in 1577, 19. 

48. WHOSE refers to a neuter antecedent in 

1603, 88, 'beere carts whose wheeles are shodd with iron.' 

49. WHO THAT is found with the meaning he who : 

1550? 7> 'who that findeth yt . . . shall have.' 

50. THEY THAT. A frequent antecedent of the relative is they, 
which occurs side by side with the modern those : 
1575, 35, ' they that ought to repay re yt.' 
1573, 7, ' be yt comaundid to thosse that have the howsse.' 



SYNTAX. Ixxiii. 






51. The antecedent is repeated with which, to avoid the 
possibility of mistake or to secure definiteness : 

J 573> 35> 'thorchard adjoy[n]ing to the lane that leadeth from 
hogland to Saint maris streat and lytten, which lane hath 
byne a comon fut path,' 

52. WHICH sometimes refers to the whole of a preceding 
sentence : 

1566, 53, ' though they syt at alehousse ( s, and beside geve them 
evill language, which cawseth the towne to have an evill 
name ' (which=.which conduct). 

53. WHICH often occurs with the meaning as to which, with 
regard to which : 

1575, 5 1, 'which be yt comaundid unto hym to amende the same.' 
1569, 73, 'which wood if mr. butler have answerid that to the 
towne, we knowe not.' 

In a similar way the following may be explained : 

1604, no, 'whose names wee refer you to the beddells rolls' 
(with regard to whose names'). 

Hence an apparently pleonastic it sometimes follows : 
1550, 6 1, ' whiche we thincke yt not covenyent.' 
I 575) 77> 'which yf yt shuld be sufferid yt wold not ondly be a 
utter decaye.' 

54. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. After a preceding that, the 
relative is omitted : 

1550, 69, 'but onely that shall come by water' (that=that 

which). 

1551, 45, ' for thatt they hathe nott deservyd to have.' 

The relative is occasionally omitted when it is required as 
subject, or as object, or in some other capacity. It is 
frequently omitted as object in modern English ; but not 
when it serves as the subject, although instances of this 
construction are of frequent occurrence in Shakespeare : 
1602, 81, 'for whereas theare are manie both by service and 
habilitie hath worthelie deserved it ' (supply who. This 
omission of the relative as subject is extremely rare in 
the court books). 

1566, 1 8, ' fill the hols they didge ' (supply which, object). 
1550, 21, ' that he at every tyme he shall bake hereafter ' (supply 
at which). 

55. The preposition which we should join to the relative is 
often used adverbially at the end of the clause : 

1569, 32, ' hys payne that he was mersyd in ' (=m which). 



Ixxiv. 



SYNTAX. 



1579, 106, 'the stuffe that they make the same ocom withall ' 

(=with which). 
1579, 109, 'which is a comon token to knowe all witches by ' 

(=by which to know). 

Cf. Richard III., I., iv., 25, 'a thousand men that fishes 
gnawed upon.' 

56. As for THAT. The modern speech allows only the com- 
binations such as and that which. In the court books as 
is sometimes joined to that as well as to such, and so 
gains the force of a relative pronoun : 

1573, 50, ' all suche merchaundyes as cometh by sea.' 

161 1, 34, ' that dew of wayage as it ought to receave ' (that as 

that which). 
1550, 66, ' yf mysfortune of fire, as god forbed, should chaunce ' 

(as which). 

1569, 70, ' whearefore be yt comaunded unto the said alderman 
to bringe in the said sowe or els 6/8, as she was prayssyd 
at ' (probably as at at which). 

Cf. Julius Ccesar, I., ii., 33, 

1 1 have not from your eyes that gentleness 
As I was wont to have.' 

57. In some compound conjunctions AS is used where we 
employ that ; hence we find such forms as so as, in such 
sort as for so that, in such sort that : 

1603, 59, ' at so highe a rate as they are not able to paye the 

same.' 

1587, 52, 'which is a very good order; so as yt might please 
your worshipps that, &c.' 

As is found for so that : 

1 60 1, 98, 'as in times future no farther complaint may be 
made hereof.' 

58. THAT is freely used to form compound conjunctions, for 

that, in that, &c. There is one instance of but that, and 

one or two of how that, which is common in Shakespeare : 

1569, 50, 'that no inkeper . . do sell wyne . . but that 

ther potts be wasshid ' (but that=except on condition that). 

1619, 107, 'to gyve notyce . . . how that the said farme 

was to be lett ' (how that '= how). 

In the same way as is employed as a conjunctional affix in 
when as (when), whereas (where). 

59. BUT occurs with the modern sense of who . . . not : 

1569, 41, ' theare are fewe but hathe offendid ' ( who have not). 



SYNTAX. IXXV." 



60. COMPOUNDS WITH -EVER. Whosoever, whatsoever occur. 
The shorter whoso is also found : 

1550, 72, 'no maner of person whatsoever theye be.' 
1550, 15, 'whosoever takyth them shall have them for them- 
selves.' 

In 1550, n, the subjunctive is found after whosoever: 'who 
soever be by them namyd and refuse or do not his 
office therin.' 
1603, 57, ' of what estate or degree soever he be.' 

6 1. EITHER is used for each of two, both : 

1587, 1 8, ' be yt comaundid unto eyther of them ' (=both). 



VERBS. 

62. PRESENT INDICATIVE. In the West Saxon dialect, the 
language of Alfred, from which the dialect of Southamp- 
ton was derived, we find that the present indicative was 
inflected in the singular, ist person e, 2nd st, 3rd th ; 
and in the plural, for all persons ath. These forms con- 
tinued to be used in the South of England, and in the 
sixteenth century the present indicative would be conju- 
gated as follows : 

I present(e) We present(e) 

Thou present-est You present(e) 

He present-eth They present-eth 

The verb have has these forms at the same date : 
I have We have 

Thou hast You have 

He hath They hath 

As another instance we may take the verb do : 
I do We do 

Thou dost You do 

He doth They doth 

These forms occur in the earlier court books. It will be 
observed that the ist and 2nd persons of the plural have 
lost the th, although in just one instance this suffix 
happens to be preserved for the ist person. The -th in 
the 3rd person plural persists for many years in the records. 
It is very common in the 1550 and 1551 books, and fairly 
frequent until 1603, after which date it is only found by 
way of exception. The rival form to which it owed its 
extinction was the one used in the literary language, 



Ixxvi. SYNTAX. 



which, as is well known, was descended from a branch of 
the Midland dialect. In this dialect, the dialect of 
London, and therefore of Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakes- 
peare, we find that the present indicative ran as follows : 
I present-e We present-e(n) 

Thou present-est You present-e(n) 

He present-eth They present-e(n) 

The n of the suffix began to disappear as early as Chaucer, 
and the plural became, for all persons, present. This form 
occurs side by side with presenteth in the court books of 
1550 and 1551 ; afterwards it gains in popularity, and 
finally supplants altogether the genuine Southern form. 
Another form, which also was a competitor in the struggle, 
was the Northern plural in -s. It is not found in the 
earliest of the court books, first occurring in 1569. Later 
on it is found again, especially in the books for 1619 
and 1620 : 

1569, 64, ' the forryners and the strangers that corns to by.' 
1579, 70, 'we present that the frentche men sells silke lace.' 

63. USE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. The subjunctive mood is used 
to a considerable extent in the court books. In the 
present tense it has the following forms : 

I, thou, he present We, you, they present 

I, thou, he have We, you, they have 

I, thou, he do We, you, they do 

It will be seen on inspection that these subjunctive plural 
forms are identical with the Midland or literary forms of 
the present indicative. Only in the singular is there a 
distinction between indicative and subjunctive. So far 
as the form goes, it is impossible to say whether they have 
or they do is indicative or subjunctive ; but in the singular 
we find the indicative he hath contrasted with the sub- 
junctive he have ; and in the same way he doth (ind.) 
contrasted with he do (subj.) : thus 
1550, 18, ' Mr. maire kepith a sowe' 

is certainly indicative. But in 

1569, i, 'be yt comaundid to Mr. Reniger that he amend and 
repay er the heighewayes . . . and that he escowre 
his dytches and amend the same that watter dou not 
breake over ' 

the forms are clearly subjunctive. 



SYNTAX. Ixxvii. 



But it is not so easy to decide in some passages whether 
the indicative or subjunctive is used : 

1550, 24, 'yt ys also presented that the tenants of the saide 

Thomas ffuller do hange the clothes.' 

1550, 30, * we present that Thomas ffuller, willm Christmas, &c. 
sell beere and wyne.' 

It seems preferable to suppose that in these passages we 
have instances of the indicative plural of the Midland 
literary dialect, which by this time had made its way to 
Southampton. The alternative is to take these forms as 
subjunctives, and no doubt the subjunctive is used, instead 
of the more usual indicative, in a dependent clause after a 
verb of saying, such as is ' present.' 

In the following passages, where we have a mixture of 
plain or uninflected forms and forms in th, we can hardly 
help taking all the verbs as indicative : 

1582, 20, ' wheras complaynte hath bine mad . . by divers 
jorneymen that the strangers of this towne 'kepithe so 
many prentisses, wherfore they desirythe your worships 
to call the said strangers . . . and that they maye 
be comaundid to take towne borne childeren . . . 
wheras now they take frentch and guarnzey childeren, 
and allso complaynt is made that they sell . . . ' 

A similar conclusion can be drawn from 1587, 50. 

64. THE COURT BOOK OF 1551. In stating the above argu- 
ment an exception must be made when we deal with the 
court book of 1551, which is evidently the work of a 
scribe who was beneath his colleagues in point of educa- 
tion. This scribe, finding that the two forms (do and doth) 
could be used indifferently for the indicative plural, 
apparently came to think that they could be used with 
the same lack of distinction in the subjunctive ; hence he 
uses doth in the dependent clause after a verb of command- 
ing, which present is in the following passages : 

I 55 I J 9> ' ( we present) that the say me John wyghtte . . . 
duthe selle no more candells ' (where duthe selle means 
is to sell). 
1551, 28, 'be ytt nowe comawndyde to the say me men that they 

duthe carry.' 

1551, 29, 'the lyke comawndymentt be geven . . . that 
they duthe carrye their durtte and duste.' 



Ixxviii. SYNTAX. 



Other instances of this confusion will be found in the same 
book, 29, 30, 34, 35, 37, 38, 42, 48, 51, 55. It only 
occurs very occasionally in the other books : 

1569, i, ' be yt comaunded . . that he amendith his sclussis.' 

65. THIRD SINGULAR PRESENT INDICATIVE. The regular form 
in use throughout the court books is that marked by 
the Southern inflexion th, which was also the form of 
the literary dialect. It maintains its ground without 
difficulty, and the number of forms in s is very small, 
although these gradually increase in the later books : 
1571, 1 8, 'it remaynes so decayed.' 

66. THE VERB To BE. The present indicative and subjunctive 

of this verb is thus conjugated : 
Present indicative 

I am We are or We be 

Thou art You are or You be 

He is They are or They be 

Present subjunctive 

I, thou, he be We, you, they be 

The forms in be are much used in the present indicative 
plural, although the same difficulty arises from their 
identity with the corresponding forms for the subjunctive. 
But the following are, in all probability, indicative : 
1550, 44, * we present that the butts be not made.' 
1550, 66, 'we fynde that the welles be not maynteyned.' 
1566, 2, ' we present that the welles . . be not clensyd.' 

And the following are certainly instances of the indicative : 
1566, 53, 'for as moch as the porters be moche complained 

upon.' 

1569, 4, 'wherfor they be amersid.' 
1569, 52, ' for as much as there be divers straungers within this 

towne.' 
1574, 65, ' for they be newe and they be unmarkid.' 

67. Is USED AS PLURAL. We find the form is repeatedly used 
instead of the plural, probably through the influence of 
the fact that in the ordinary verbs the same form (e.g., 
doth) is used for both singular and plural : 

1550, i, ' Walter baker . . . saithe that all things specified 
in Edward Mercants deposycons ys trew. ; 

1550, 51, 'we present that the bancks of the see . . is in 

ruyn.' 

1551, p. 33, 'wherein ys manye good orders' (but see remark 

in 68). 



SYNTAX. Ixxix. 



J 573) J 5> 'the bolwarks and the rampyer . . is greatly in 
decay.' 

In this instance the verb may be attracted into the number 
of the nearest part of the subject (rampyer, singular). 

68. WAS AND WERE. The past tense indicative of be is was 
(3rd sing.) and were (all persons of the plural) : 

r 579j 86, ' heeretofore the criers of this towne weare accostomid 
to crye ' (we should prefer in the modern speech to use 
the form have been). 

There is only one clear instance of the use of was in the 
plural (in 1550, i), as the following sentences admit of 
other explanation : 

1576, 81, 'the graunt and lybertie of the marcket dayes was 
graunted and allowed ' (the composite subject may be 
considered to allow of a singular verb). 
1582, 99, ' we present that ther was 2 colts taken upp.' 
* ther was left 2 strayed bullocks.' 

[Just as with the French il y a, il y avait, the forms there is, 
there was in the sixteenth century might be followed by a 
plural substantive.] 

The subjunctive form were is used both in principal and 
subordinate sentences. It generally represents the modern 
would be, should be ; but sometimes seems to be used as a 
present subjunctive, where the modern speech would 
prefer the indicative is : 

1571, 60, 'we present that yt wear very needefull that the sluse 
at gods house wear opened ' (first wear, perhaps, would 
be; second wear =. should be). 

I 5 8 7> 2 7) 'we present that in buylding of John Brokers howse 
he hath encroched upon the high waye . . which 
being don yt were necessary that he should paye a 
knowledg yearly to the towne for yt, which yf yt were to 
be reformid withowt pulling downe the howse, yt (i.e., 
the encroachment) were not sufferable.' (The first were 
seems equivalent to a present subjunctive after the verb 
present; were to be reformed were capable of reform ; 
the third were = would be). 

I 57 I ? 7 6 > 'yt were very good ther were a turne pike made there ' 
(first were=would be ; second were=should be). 

Cf. Malory's Morte <T Arthur, 746, 7, ' helpe me that I were 
on my hors ' (weremay be, pres. subj.). 



Ixxx. 



SYNTAX. 



69. Sometimes a mixture of are and be is found, without any 
clear difference, unless it is that be refers to a number of 
persons, considered not individually, but as a class : 

1574, 47, ' for that those that be ordinary and comon watche- 

men arre suche as be poore labourers.' 
J 579> 79> 'by reason that those which be comon watchemen 

arre daylie labourers.' 
Cf. Tempest iii, i, i, * there be some sports are painful.' 

70. A clumsy periphrasis for the present participle occurs in 

1604, 78, 'we present Thomas heath for abusing and beatting 
of Moreshall, one of the bydells of this Towne, beinge 
goetnge to call the watchemen to watch.' 

71. CAN conveys the meaning of ' ability' or 'possibility' as 
in modern English, but is not so extensively found, owing 
to the use of may with the same meaning : 

1569, 49, 'in such a place that water cane not be had yf 
occason shuld be.' 

72. Do, DID are used to form compound tenses, which serve as 
present (indicative and subjunctive) and past indicative, 
e.g., they do go, (if) they do go, they did go. Their use differs 
from that of modern English in two respects do may be 
used in a principal sentence, e.g., we do present, and do 
may be omitted in a negative sentence, e.g., we see not. 
1571, 24, 'the consideration and redresse whearof we doo 

rerTer yt unto you.' 
1604, 86, ' we present that George Gardner . . brought not.' 

The two forms of a tense may be found combined in one 
sentence : 

1569, 73, 'a sertaine purser . . . did steale . . two 
baggs of greene wood and caussid them to be caried 
awaye.' 

73. MAY and MIGHT are used to express (i) ability, (2) 
possibility : 

1569, 34, ' by reason whearof any person may go in ' (=^can). 
1569, 32, 'theare is a daungerous flewe which may be a dis- 
truction to the hole towne ' (may expresses possibility 
with some idea of contingency). 

MAY and MIGHT are used as auxiliaries, and take the place 
of the simple subjunctive : 

1587, 40, 'which wee desier maye be considered of.' 



SYNTAX. 



i579> 8o > 'wherfore we dessire your worships to cause one to 
be hangid theare, and that the watche bel of the castel 
may answer the wall bel, and the other bel might 
answer the castel bell ' (might here seems to be potential, 
with a protasis implied, if the proposed bell were put up 
over the bargate, it could answer the castle bell}. 

MIGHT is found after a primary tense, just as should is in 
similar cases in the modern speech : 

1571, 10, 'we think yt very nessessary that ther might be a 

measur made.' 
JS^o, 5> <we thincke yt necessary that the same might be 

publyshed.' 
I 5 8 7> 39, 'which we desier might by some meanes be redressed.' 

74. OWE is found with its original meaning ' to possess/ which 
is now obsolete. It also has its present sense of * fitness ' 
or ' obligation ' : 

1579, 45, ' they that owe the said hogs ' (owc=oivri), 

1620, 51, 'the quoter oweth to vewe ' (here we should use the 

past tense, ought). 
*579> 8 5> ' his stooffe ys not good as yt ought to be.' 

75. SHALL and SHOULD are generally used as in the modern 
speech, but shall is often found with the infinitive to act 
as a substitute for the pure subjunctive : 

1569, 28, 'be yt furder comaunded unto the said ladye that 
from henceforthe she shall not cause eny of hyr said 
sheepe theare to be kept ' (contrast 29, where the pure 
subjunctive is found, " that she cause no sue he beasts to 
be kept heereafter "). 

SHOULD conveys the idea of ' obligation ' in 

*579> 84, ' whenas merchants and others should be served' ( = 
ought to be served). 

SHOULD is common in conditional sentences. 

SHOULD in one passage is used idiomatically, like the O.E. 

scolde and the German sollte, to represent reported speech : 

1615, 126, 'Moreover the said Peter . . confessed that he 

had related amongest his companions that a controversie 

showld be in heaven betwene St. Peter and St. Paule, 

insomuch that St. peeter showld exclud St. paule forth 

of heaven ' (showld be=was ; showld exclud=excluded). 

Cf. ' From this man's words was a slander raised upon us 
that the Quakers should deny Christ'(George Fox's Journal). 



Ixxxii. SYNTAX. 



76. WILL is used of ' wish ' : 

1576, 22, 'to eny that will have horsses to hier' (= desires to 

have). 
1618, 44, * is not denyed to any that will see it ' (= wishes to see). 

Also of ' resolve,' ' determination ' : 

1566, 53, 'yt (is) complained that they will have their dude 7 
(=are determined to have). 

WILL and WOULD are used to express a customary action : 

1550, 39, * Mr. Sampson, or who that kept that keye, wolde 
stopp the water ' (wolde used to). 

WILL is used irregularly for shall in 

1569, 56, 'if the saide porters will refuse to cary the same, 
beeinge theareunto requirid.' 

In the following sentences modern usage would interchange 
should and would : 

1579, 36, ' which we all wold gladlie wish to be maintayned.' 
1582, 21, 'we thincke your worshipps should fynde ynough and 
suffycent men in this towne' (cf. 81, b). 

WILL is a verb of complete predication in 

1551, 44, ' wyche 2 anoyensses, we wylle yt be amendyde ' (=we 

order). 

77. USE is found in all tenses without restriction : 
1569, 33, 'Thomas Vaughan ussithe to cast.' 
1573, 30, 'all inhabiters . . . that doth or hereafter shall 
use to salt butter.' 

78. INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE. The indicative is the mood 
of fact, and is so employed in principal and dependent 
sentences. It is used in dependent sentences denoting 
cause, and is then associated with such conjunctions as 
as, because, by reason that, for that, for as much as, in that, 
seeing that. It is found in dependent sentences denoting 
result, after the conjunctions that, so that, so as, in such 
sort that, in such sorts as, insomuch that, insomuch as. It is 
used in dependent clauses of time, when the action 
actually occurs in present time or has actually occurred 
in past time : the conjunctions used in this type of sentence 
are after, before, ere, until, when, while. It is used in 
dependent statements, after verbs of saying, perceiving, 
knowing ; the conjunction employed is that. It is 
occasionally found in conditional sentences, introduced 
by /. 



SYNTAX. Ixxxiii. 



The subjunctive, on the other hand, states something not 
as a fact, but as an object of thought. It is used in 
principal sentences to denote a command. It is used 
in dependent sentences expressing a condition ; the con- 
junction employed is //. It is used in dependent sentences 
expressing purpose, after the conjunctions that, so that, so 
as, to the intent that, to the end that, lest ; and it is 
occasionally found in dependent sentences expressing 
result, after so that, so as, in such sort that, in such sort as. 
It is used in dependent clauses of time, when the action 
looks towards the future, and involves the idea of contin- 
gency ; the conjunctions used in this type of sentence 
are before, ere, till, until. It is used in dependent com- 
mands after verbs of commanding, entreating, and asking ; 
the conjunction employed is that. It is used in concessive 
sentences after the conjunctions although, though. 

The pure subjunctive is less used than in earlier English, 
but much more so than in the present speech, from which 
it has nearly disappeared. 

A frequent alternative for the subjunctive, especially in 
conditions and after verbs of commanding, is shall with 
the infinitive, which is also now obsolete. In historic 
sequence this construction naturally becomes should with 
the infinitive. 

Other alternatives, still used, are may and might with the 
infinitive, especially in clauses expressing purpose and 
after verbs of desiring. 

Should with the infinitive is found, as in the modern speech, 
to represent the present subjunctive both in primary and 
historic sequence : 

1587, 31, 'the bridge is daungerous for a horseman to pass, 

lest his horses foot should slipp in.' 

1571, 21, 'whearas we requested the last laweday that the 
brewers should bringe filling beer.' 

79. SUBJUNCTIVE IN PRINCIPAL SENTENCES. The subjunctive 
is employed in a jussive sense as occasionally in 
modern English, which, however, generally prefers let 
with the infinitive : 

I 55> 5> <De yt comaunded, &c.' 

I 55t 55, * li ke payne be to every taverner' (for let there be). 



Ixxxiv. SYNTAX. 



80. In CAUSAL CLAUSES the mood is always indicative : 
BECAUSE - 

1585, 4, ' for by cause the mersyment ys to be iod,' 

BY REASON (THAT) 

1602, 71, 'by reason the sea doth often overflowe the same.' 
1569, 50, * by reasone that they doth not use to washe ther potts.' 

FOR (THAT) 

1550, 79, 'for poore villagis in the contrey do abhore suche 

ordre.' 

I 55> 2 5 'f r tnat ne is a burgis, he may comyn.' 
1566, 53, 'for that they geve not their attendance and do not 

there dutie.' 

FOR AS MUCH AS 

1569, 50, ' for as much as a certayne mane of guarnsey . . . 
was leeke to be powyssonid.' 

Another instance occurs in 1569, 56. 

IN REGARD THAT 

1620, 53, ' in regarde that place is seldome open.' 

IN THAT 

1596, 43, ' Davies Rowse, &c. have forfeited each of them 20/- 
in that they have not removed there plancks and timber 
from the west key.' 

Other instances occur in 1596, 54, 57, 69 ; 1600, 29. 

SEEING (THAT) 

1601, 18, 'seeinge they are so necessarie.' 

81. CONDITIONAL CLAUSES, (a) The conditional clause intro- 
duced by if has the subjunctive or shall and the infinitive 
(the equivalent of the subjunctive), if the time referred to 
is future. For the sake of vividness the subjunctive may 
be replaced by the indicative : 

1566, 25, ' yf eny townes man have above the numbere of two 

beasse or that there be any strang beasse theare.' 
I 55> 7> 'yf any of them have two kyne ... he shall have 

no horse.' 

1550, 12, 'if any of the servaunts of the saide fuller dryve any 
suche cattail into the said heithe or that his shepe be 
founde there, that then it shalbe liefull . . . ' 
1594, 44, 'yf they shall denye to sell any beere out of their 
dores . . . then shall it not be lawfull, &c.' 
7 8 > 'whome he will bring shortly hyther, yf he may be 
suffered here to remayne ' (may be is an unusual peri- 
phrasis for the present subj. in an //-clause). 



SYNTAX. IxxXV. 



The present indicative is found in the following passages : 
!594i 4i, ' to enjoyne him by a greater some, yf he doth persist 
in thoffence.' 

1611, 43, 'if he doth not cause all these defalts to be redressed 

by michellmas next.' 
1596, 6 1, 'if they are not speedelie amended, it will soone 

fall downe.' 

Apparently there is a mixture of subjunctive and indicative 
in : 

1566, 23, 'yf eny be neglygente ... and suffreth the kine 
to strey.' 

Will is used in one passage for shall : 

X 5 6 9> 5 6 > 'if the saide porters . . will refuse to cary.' 

(b) When the condition is ideal and refers to future time in 

the remoter form, the verb used is the subjunctive were, 
or should and the infinitive. In the principal sentence 
(the apodosis), would and should are employed : 

1579, 80, ' yf theare weare another bel, yt wold be heard.' 
I 5 8 7 > 35) 'y f fy re should take ther, which god forbydd, and the 
thatched howse so nere, yt wold be the more dangerous.' 
1581, 8 1, ' if complaint weare made . . . the towne libertie 
should fall into the queenes hand ' (in modern speech 
we should say would fall in the apodosis). 

1602, 79, 'which wee thincke should be, if the sayd 10 were 
yearly employed ' (the modern speech would employ 
would be instead of should be). 

(c) In the following sentences the conditional clause refers to 

present or past time, but no hint is given as to the fulfil- 
ment or non-fulfilment of the condition : 

1566, 38, 'which agrement, yf yt be so, is contrary to a statute' 

(the modern speech would replace be by is). 
1600, 10, 'we thincke that the ground is forfeited to the towne, 

if proclamation hath benn made accordingly.' 
1602, 36, 'we doo amerce the said Samford, if he presumed to 
doe the same without leave.' 

(d) In the following sentences the conditional clause refers to 

present or past time, and it is implied that the condition 
is not, or was not, fulfilled : 

1576, 68, 'yff they did usse good and well taned lether, yt 
wolde be to theire most proffyt ' (did usse represents 
the older past subjunctive, which was used to express an 
unfulfilled condition in present time). Also in 1600, 44. 
1550 68, 'that every man paye his watches, as the severall 
tenants would have done, yf the tenements had not ben 
ingrosyd.' 



Ixxxvi. SYNTAX. 



1550, 83, ' wherfore we think, iff he hadde done yt wilfully, he 
hadd ben worthe to be disgraded ' (the modern speech 
would replace had been in the apodosis by would have 
been). 

(e) When the indefinite relative introduces the dependent 
clause, the above rules of the conditional clause are 
applicable : 

JSS ) 7> 'who that findeth yt shall have halffe' (who that ! = if 

anybody). 
1550, n, 'whosoever be by them nainyd and refuse or do not 

his office therein' (be, subj.). 
1576, 22, 'whosoever shall kepe eny hackeney or hierid horsse.' 

(/) In the following passages there is a confusion of two types 
of conditional sentence : 

1576, 54, * whych if he or others by his example should comonlye 

use, yt will greatlye spoyle the comon ' (we should 
expect would). 

1580, 81, ' if he shuld be so sufferid to contynew, it wil be a 
president for others to presume the leeke ' (wil instead 
of would}. 

1577, 62, 'they are very daungerous for cattell, yf any should 

fall therm.' 

82. DEPENDENT STATEMENT. After verbs of saying, perceiving, 
knowing, &c., the dependent statement is rendered (i) by 
the infinitive, (2) by that and the indicative : 

Examples : 

(1) 1573, 41, ' we the wholle twelve do find yt to be the quenes 

heyghe waye.' 

1615, 117, 'they alleadge there casks to be fitt and agreeable 
to the statut.' 

(2) 1550, p. 3, ' Edwarde Mercant deposeth and saith that he hathe 

ben dwellinge in the saide towne 60 yeres or there 

abowts.' 

1550, 76, 'we present that Sampson hathe made two heds.' 
1585, 2, ' we presente that the gutter ys not repayryd.' 

Sometimes the subjunctive is exceptionally found. Instances 
of this construction are found, very rarely, in Elizabethan 
writers, although it is common in earlier English : 

' And I think there she do dwell ' (Sidney's Arcadia ; but there 

is an idea of uncertainty in the passage). 

' Would you not swear that she were a maid ' (Much Ado about 
Nothing, IV., i, 40; but, as Abbott notes, the second 
verb is perhaps attracted to the mood of the first). 



SYNTAX. IxXXvii. 



An instance in the court books is : 

1566, 47, 'we presint that Steven Monsanger have sofferde.' 
There are many examples in the 1551 book, but this book 
stands in a class by itself. 

There are one or two instances of the dependent clause (a 
mixture of statement and question) being introduced by 
how that : 

1590, 72, 'it is thought good to present . . how that Mr. 
Caplayn Parkinson have lett out the castell gren ' (have, 
subj.). 

1619, 107, 'to gyve notyce . . how that the said farme was 
to be lett ' (was, indie.;. 

83. In explanatory clauses of apposition after such phrases as 
it is good, it is requisite, it is necessary, the verb is most 
often should with the infinitive, both in primary and 
historic sequence. Less frequently we find the pure sub- 
junctive, or to with the infinitive : 

1602, 79, 'yt is fytt the same should be bestoed on them to there 

most good.' 

1587, 30, ' (it is) great pytie yt should now be lett fall downe.' 
1579, 84, 'yt was accostomid that the porters should s-yt at the 

newe corner.' 
1571, 77, ' wherfor yt is reqisit the pips were loked unto.' 

When these phrases depend on such words as we desire, we 
think, the expression as a whole becomes equivalent to a 
verb of commanding, and the constructions of 84 are 
available, but there is still a preference for should : 

1602, 8, 'we thincke it verie fitt that there should be nightlie 

two honest watchmen to watch.' 
1579, 15, 'we find yt verie nessessarie that theare should be a 

trench or 2 diggid.' 

1577, 105, 'we thincke yt very good that there weare 3 or 4 
small shopps buillded, and that the rent of the said 
shoppes may goo to the towne.' 

84. DEPENDENT COMMAND. After verbs of commanding, en- 
treating, asking, &c., the dependent clause may be 
expressed by : 

(1) that and the pure subjunctive. 

(2) that and.the periphrastic subjunctive (may and inf.) 

(3) that and the verb shall (in historic sequence 

should). 

(4) to with the infinitive. 



Ixxxviii. SYNTAX. 



Examples : 

(1) 1550, 66, 'wherfore be yt comanded that every warde make 

up theire welles on this side mychaelmas next.' 
1550, 75, ' be yt comanded that Mr. wells custumer make a 
lawfull bridge.' 

(2) 1569, 15, 'we dessier that their may be aunigers appointid 

accordinge to the statute.' 

(3) I 55 J J j <we tn e 12 above namyd fynde and present that 

the said Salte marshe shal be ... comyn.' 

(4) 1550, 77, * yt ys comaunded to Willm boucher to take 

awaye his lytle house stondinge in godes house grene.' 

In the 1551 book, and sometimes elsewhere, we find the 
indicative used instead of the subjunctive in this con- 
struction (see 64). 

In the following there is a mixture of constructions (4) 
and (2) : 

1573, 21, 'wherof we praye redresse to be and that he maye be 
constraynid to byld there.' 

85. In a great many instances, after a verb of commanding, 
the writer uses a mixture of constructions : 

(a) A first clause introduced by that is followed by a 

second clause consisting of to and the infinitive : 
1566, 45, 'be yt comonnded that they redde yt awey . . . 

and to caste no more theare.' 
1605, 2, ' we desier they maye be requiered to doe the same, or 

reasons to be delivered by them for there refusall.' 
1605, 82, 'we thinke yt verye fyttinge yt may be ordered by the 
howse that from hence forwards no burgesse be made 
. . . and not anye to be admytted gratis that meaneth 
to inhabit here.' 
Similarly in 1604, 25. 

1616, 1 1 6, 'we desier that they (our towne orders) may be 
drawne to a head and uniformitie . . . and the same 
orders to be read unto us all at two severall guilds.' 
Similarly in 1616, 117. 

(6) In other cases we find the infinitive construction 

first, and this is followed by a thai-clause : 
1576, 57, 'be yt comaunded unto the same James webbe to 
suffer the said phelip Carteret to make his gutter . . 
and that the said Cartaret mak the same by barthelmewe 
day next.' 

So in 1571, 72 ; 1604, 87, where that is followed by 
the indicative doth ; 1616, 92. 



SYNTAX. Ixxxix. 



(c) Sometimes an objective case is used first, and an 

infinitive afterwards : 

1618, 67, 'wee intreat amendment thereof by Christopher 
Cornelius . . . and to cover the same and make yt 
sufficient.' 

In 1620, 9, 'desire of governs first an objective, and a that- 
clause follows later on. 

86. APPARENTLY IRREGULAR INSERTION OF TO. To is some- 
times inserted in the second of two clauses, when the 
infinitive depends upon an auxiliary (or its equivalent) in 
the first clause : 

Cf. Morte d' Arthur, 237, 23, ' I wille rescowe her or els to 

dye: 
Hamlet I., 4, 18, ' Make thy two eyes like stars start from 

their spheres, 
Thy knotted and combined locks to 

part: 

I 55 5 53> 'upon payne that every of them whiche leaveth 
brewinge shall lose ;io, and from thensforthe never 
after to brew ' (= shall never brew). 

I 577) 1 8, * in suche sorte as the water may have his free course, 
and not to stand and break in on the saide causey ' 
(=.and may not stand). 

1580, 67, ' for wher the markett should begynn at the ringing 
of the bell and to ende at one of the clocke ' ( = and 
should end). 

1551, 29, 'we presentt (=we order) that mrs. sampson do cootte 
the wydes and allso to drawe the dyche ' (=do draw). 

In the following sentences, it is possible that the writer is 
using to and the infinitive by analogy with the above 
mentioned idiom, in which case his grammar is inaccurate ; 
or, more probably, he is changing the construction to the 
infinitive, as in 85 : 

1603, 30, 'to see that they bringe all there fishe to the same 

markett and not to sell it at Itchen ' (=sell, subj., co- 
ordinate with bringe). 

1604, 25, 'we thincke it fittinge that the same be hedged upp 

and not to laye so open ' (=laye, subj.). 

There is a similar usage in Bacon, Essay s^ 100, ' that we make 
a stand upon the ancient way, and look about us and 
discover what is the straight and right way, and so to 
walk in it ' ( walk, subj., co-ordinate with make). 



XC. SYNTAX. 

In the following sentences, the infinitive clause is almost 
certainly to be explained as a deliberate variant for that 
and the subjunctive. It will be observed that the subject 
of the infinitive is put into the nominative, and not into 
the objective, as we might expect : ' we desier . . they 
to putt in suerties,' instead of c we desire . . them ' ; for 
this peculiarity of the appositional infinitive, cf. Morte 
d' Arthur, 40, 36, ' this is my counceill, that we lete purvey 
ten knyghtes, and they to kepe this sword ' ; 60, 8, ' it is 
better that we slee a coward, than thorow a coward alle 
we to be slayne ' : 

1603, 15, 'we thincke it verie fitt there may be an officer 

appoincted . . . and he to be directed.' 
1603, 26, 'we desier our Admirall Courts may this yeare be 

kept . . . and yerely hereafter to be holden.' 
1605, 29, 'we desier the late orders for the porters maye be 
continued and they to putt in suerties.' 

87. (a) THAT is often written in a second dependent clause to 
avoid the repetition of a conjunction such as if. This 
construction is fairly common in Elizabethan writers, as 
for instance in Troilus and Cressida, II., 2, 179 : 

' If this law 

Of nature be corrupted through affection, 
And that great minds, of partial indulgence 
To their benumbed wills, resist the same.' 

Here that is equivalent to if. 

1566, 53, ' yt was once ordered that yf they wer required to 
lade the carts and that they absented themselves.' 

Similarly in 1550, 12 ; 1566, 25. 

In the same way in French que is regularly employed to 
avoid a repetition of si, quand, &c. 

(b) THAT is often repeated when the dependent clause which 
it introduces is separated from the principal sentence by 
intervening words : 

1581, p. 222, * it is farther ordeired that, if the drivers shal be 
founde negligente . . . that then they shall forfiete 
and paye.' 

1585, 18, 'we thinke good that, yf the sayd dryvers do neclecte 
their dewtye . . . that yt shalbe always lawful to 
the cowarde to dryve.' 



SYNTAX. xci. 



(c) In some cases that is irregularly inserted before an infinitive 
clause : 

1 579> 8 3, 'uppon paine that every person, that sufferithe eny 

suche gests in theire houses, to pay 5/-.' 

1585, 21, 'we thinke good that, yf yt please you to suffer such 
undertenants . . . that then they for the time that 
they be undertenants to paye wache and warde.' 

88. DEPENDENT QUESTION. The subjunctive occurs in 

1616, 96, 'whether he be licensed or not to victuell, he knoweth 
not.' 

But the indicative is used more frequently : 

1569, 22, 'which is the cause why the ditch is so decayed.' 

1550, i, 'how long yt was comyn, he knoweth not.' 

1619, 107, 'untyll the trewth be found out, whoe was the 
offender. ' 

89. CLAUSES DENOTING PURPOSE AND RESULT. When that is 
used in final sentences to denote purpose it is regularly 
associated with the subjunctive. When it is used in 
consecutive sentences to denote result, the natural mood 
is the indicative. In such sentences so or such is generally 
found to have been used previously : 

1569, 72, 'that the poore may be the better sparid of theare 

charges they may be at' (here thatin order that). 
1566, 12, 'to pile up his bank that yt may not encroche upon 

the highwey ' (that in order that). 

1569, 50, 'that ther potts be wasshid that men that byeth the 
same may se the same drawen and the pots washed ' 
(that=in order that). 

In the following sentences that introduces a consecutive 
clause expressing result, and the indicative is used : 

1575, 51, 'a stabell which he hath so nere unto the wall of the 
said Symons that he spoyleth the water of his well.' 

1551, 34, 'he cawssythe that the same of the contrye bryngythe 

not ther butter.' 

90. CLAUSES DENOTING PURPOSE. There are a number of com- 
pound conjunctions used to introduce expressions of 
purpose, and into most of them that or as enters. The 
chief are so that, so as, to the intent that, to the end that. 
The verb is a subjunctive or its equivalent : 

So THAT 

1569, 74, 'to ley the soyle and donge upon the same so that 

the grace may growe up ageyne.' 
So in 1573, 25. 



XC11. SYNTAX. 



SO AS 

1579, 39, 'to make a boney so as the water may have his free 

coursse.' 

In 1587, 52, so as almost means therefore. 
In 1601, 98, as=so that. 

To THE INTENT (THAT) 

1600, 6, 'to thentent the Townes right therein may be saved.' 

To THE END (THAT) 

1582, 20, ' to the end redres therof may be hadd.' 
J 587, 52, * to the ende that the bread might be the greater and 
better made.' 

The variation to the end to (infinitive) occurs in 
1579, 109, 'to the end to se wheather she have eny bludie 
mark on hir bodie.' 

BY REASON THAT, which usually means because, signifies 
in order that in : 

1594) 43 * by reason that the grownd may not be overlaid.' 

LEST is regularly used with the subjunctive to express a 
negative purpose in order that not : 
1574, 38, 'leste they faull doune.' 
J 577 J 9> 'least in tyme to come they doo claime.' 
1587, 31, 'lest his horses foot should slipp in through the 
hooles in the brydg.' 

91. CLAUSES DENOTING RESULT. So that, so as, in such sort 
that, in such sort as, and occasionally insomuch that, 
insomuch as, are used to introduce clauses which express 
result. The mood is usually indicative, but the sub- 
junctive is found after so as, in such sort that, in such sort 
as, when the result is not one actually occurring in present 
or past time, but one which is expected to occur in future 
time. 

For the subjunctive in such clauses of result, cf. Morte 
d' Arthur, 224, 15, ' be not soo hardy that thou slee him.' 

So THAT 

1579, 12, ' the water is so hie that yt runith over the threshold.' 
1550, 80, 'so that the portingales by of them by the yardes.' 

So AS 

1571, 46, 'the ledd . . . is so full of ffaultes as ... 

yt will rotte . . . the tymberwork.' 
1577, 88, 'so decayed as yt leanyth upon the howse.' 



SYNTAX. XC111. 



1582, 86, 'which (undertenants) for the most parte arr so poore 

as dayly they lye at mens dores.' 
r 573> 3 2 > * De yt comaundid unto the said backers to bake 

horssebred so as they sell but 3 loves for a peny ' [so as 

they sell (subj.) = />* such a way that (as the result) they 

will sell}. 

IN SUCH SORT THAT 

1579, 1 8, 'Jno. sedgwick hathe stopped the ditche in such sort 

that the water stondithe theare still.' 
r 5755 I 9) ' tne higheway is greatly decayed in such sort that, yf 

spedy redres therof be not, the carts will not be hable to 

passe that waye.' 
1574, 12, 'be yt furder comaundid unto them to amend and 

repare, in suche sort that, from hence foorthe the water 

stond not in the same lane ' (stand ', subj.). 
I 573) 4j ' b e yt comaundid unto them to make the same boney 

in such sorte that yt shall not anoye the said Netly' 

(shall anoye, almost the same as a subjunctive). 

IN SUCH SORT AS 

I 579 I 9> ' tne ditche is chokid in suche sort as the water 

cannot have his course as yt ought.' 

I 576 ) 17, 'in suche sort as the water . . . breakithe out.' 
J 577> 5> ' De yt comaundid unto him to make a bouncy in suche 

sorte as the saide higheway be no more anoyed ' (be, 



1576, 17, 'be yt comanded unto him that he doo turne the 
said water in such substancyall sort as the said water 
breake not out into the highe way but come to Ackorne 
bridge ' (breake, come, subjunctives). 

In such sorte as signifies * in the same way that ' in 

I 5^9? 49) ' to ordayne his ovens in such sorte as Rich. Cowde 
hath orderid his ovens,' 

INSOMUCHE THAT 

1596, 87, 'insomuche that it rayneth into the hall ' (=so that}. 

INSOMUCH AS in the following passage has the force of 
since 

I 59 6 75> 'insomuche as in the winter season the way is so 
durtie, &c.' 

92. TEMPORAL CLAUSES. Temporal conjunctions such as before, 
ere, till, until, may take the subjunctive (or its equiva- 
lent) when referring to an action in future time. But the 
conjunctions after, when, while, prefer the indicative, even 



XC1V. SYNTAX. 



when the action occurs in the future and is a matter of 
uncertainty. When these conjunctions refer to an event 
which has actually occurred in past time, the mood 
naturally is the indicative : 

AFTER 

1550, i, 'after the towne recovered yt, they laid yt to comyn ' 

(recovered, indie.). 
1550, 5, 'be yt comaunded that (none) of them putt in any 

maner of cattail upon payne after they have warninge 

5/- ' (here have is probably indicative). 
1550, 62, 'yt ys comanded he do so no more upon payne of 

every suche defaulte, after he hathe warninge, 3/4 ' (hathe, 

vivid indie., as in the modern speech). 
1569, 49, 'after they shalbe founde undon.' 

BEFORE 

1571, 71, 'that no man bye eny butter, beefor yt have byn fyrst 

in the market' (have, subj.). 
1581, 61, 'wherof we praye redresse beefor the winter com' 

(com, subjunctive). 
1602, 63, 'desyring you to consider the greatnesse of the 

danger before that wee have a cawsse to rue it ' (have, 

probably subjunctive). 
1566, 26, ' that none put eny cowe or horse, gealdeinge, mare or 

colde into the comyn before they are burned with the 

towne marke ' (are is more vivid than shall be or the 

subj. be). 

ERE 

1577, i, 'which in tyme to com, and that eir yt be long, will 
turne ... to great chardgs ' (be, subjunctive). 

OR, ' before '- 

1581, 85, 'for the complaiynaunt staidd theare so longe or he 
could get over ' (could, naturally indicative, as describing 
an actual event in past time). 

UNTIL, TILL 

1577, 90, ' the inhabitants shall paye for every cowe 6d. . . . 
untill the said some of ^40 be fully payed ' (be, sub- 
junctive). 

1615, 13, 'till it be filled' (be, subj.). 

1581, 109, 'who are forsed to keepe theire wares on their hands 
untill such straungers have solde ' (have, probably subj.). 

WHEN, WHENAS 

1579, 80, ' when the wind is northerlie, the wall bel cannot be 
heard.' 



SYNTAX. XCV. 



75> ' whenas the watchmen dothe come togither, they are 
such as arre unlyklye and unmeete men ' (whenas, here 
meaning whenever, is followed by the indicative). 
1566, 20, '(we present) that when the kine goo to the comyn 
heth, then (they are) to be deliverde to the cowards ' 
(goo, which is ambiguous in form, is probably indicative). 
1571, 9, 'we thinke good that thear may be som apointid . ',, 
when the same doothe come to the towne ' (the indicative 
doothe is used, though the verb refers to the future). 
1577, 115, 'when we came thither, we had evill language geven 
us ' (came, naturally indicative, as describing an actual 
event in past time). 

In the following sentence the past indicative (came) is used 
loosely, as in the modern speech, instead of should come : 

1575, 77, 'hoskins wyffe declaryd that when her husbond came 

home, yt shuld be sett uppe agayne.' 

WHILE 

1551, 45, 'in manye tymes syttynge at the alle housse, whel 
other duthe do ther bussynysse.' 

1573, 19, 'be yt comanndid . . not to leye any ther during 
the sumer tyme, whills the grasse is ther unmowen ' [the 
indicative (w) for vividness takes the place of the sub- 
junctive (be] or its equivalent (shall be}J\ 

1 60 1, 27, 'of good wealthe whiles he lived here.' 

DURING THE TIME 

1550, 12, 'the said Thomas fuller promysth to paye yerely 
duringe the tyme he shall kepe his ferme in Saynte 
Dennys Wodd 6/8.' 

93. OMISSION OF TO BEFORE THE INFINITIVE. There are only 
one or two instances in which to is omitted where it 
would be inserted in the modern speech : 
I S5) 3> * Thomas ffuller ought not comyn.' 
1571, 40, ' do helpe ridde the same.' 
Other instances occur in 1566, 51 (after help) ; 1575, 36, 

40, 41, and in 1 61 1, 59 (after command). 
In the sentence ' which we dessiere your worships redresse ' 
(1589, 75), the verb desire does not govern the infinitive, 
but two objects, of which worships is the remoter, and 
redresse, the direct, object (=we desire redress from your 
worships). 

94. FOR TO is fairly often used to introduce an infinitive : 

I 57 6 > 55> 'such as ar much unfytt for to maynteyne the said 
playes for bowling.' 

1576, 64, 'we present 8 supervisors for to see the amendment.' 



XCV1. SYNTAX. 



95. The infinitive construction is more freely used than now 
after substantives, adjectives, and verbs : 
1566, 34, ' under collore to selle yt.' 
1579, 27, ' the bullwark is in daunger to fall downe.' 
1579, 32, ' the higheway which ys not suffitient to travell in.' 
I 575 ) 6 9> 'is suspectid to kepe a howse of evill rule.' 
We may also note : 

1579, 106, 'complaine to' (complain of). 
1550, 83, ' worthe to ' (ivorthy of). 

1603, 91, * deny to' (refuse to). 

1604, 99, ' worthely to ' (worthy of). 
1613, 25, 'desist to' (refrain from). 

96. PAST INFINITIVE. The past infinitive is used to indicate 
the possibility of an action occurring otherwise than has 
actually been the case : 

1600, 43, 'wee have comended unto your concideration the 
estate of Laurence Darvell, when as yet he had sum- 
thing to have relieved him, if it had bin lowked unto in 
tyme.' 

97. NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE. This construction is fairly 
frequent : 

1581, 85, 'one of our company cominge at night, beeinge very 
faier weather, found, &c.' (when it was very fair weather). 

1603, 85, ' whereof the steward complayning unto us.' 

1602, 77, 'the4 er Sundays in harvest except ' ( = the four Sundays 

being excepted). 

' Yt notwithstanding ' (1575, 85), in spite of it, is an instance 
of the nominative absolute. 

98. The PRESENT PARTICIPLE, not in the absolute construction, 
is frequently employed where the modern speech prefers a 
dependent clause : 

1604, 101, 'the comon watchemen being verie olde pooreweake 

and unhable persons ' (for who are very old, &c.). 
1579, 83, 'noe poore man beeing knowen a comon gamer' (for 

if he is known to be a common gambler). 
1581, 80, 'it is ordeynid that none should buye either salt, 

onions, &c., beeinge once landed and sellerid or housed ' 

(for when they have once been landed). 
1611, 79, 'we present John Shutt for not attendinge and 

cominge unto us, beinge sent for 2 or 3 tymes (for although 

he was sent for). 

99. There may be an ellipsis of the present participle in 

1603, 89, 'to the inhabitants offenders herein' (for being 
offenders). 



SYNTAX. XCvii. 



100. The PAST PARTICIPLE is used much as in the Latin post 
urbem conditam, ' after the city founded,' i.e., ' after the 
foundation of the city ' : 

1576, 22, 'for every day after the saide 8 dayes expierid ' (for 

after the expiration of the said eight days). 
1604, 87, * after the same don ' (after the doing of the same]. 
1600, 68, 'after their prentiships ended.' 
1603, 10, ' for not removinge his encroachment made.' 
1611, 36, 'the onelye cause of the same waye so impayred.' 

101. The VERBAL NOUN IN -ING is much more common than in 
the modern speech : 

I 57^> X 3> ' to the destroyenge of the pasture and grasse 

growinge ' ( =: destruction ) . 
1602, 8 1, * the common admittinge of suche ' (^.admittance). 

Similarly * enhaunsing,' increase ; ' entringe,' entrance ; 
' perisshing,' decay ; ' shadoinge,' shade ; ' standing,' stall ; 
' unfrequenting,' disuse. 

102. The VERBAL NOUN IN -ING occurs in a way differing from 
the modern use. Four methods of expression are possible : 
(i) ' for building a wall ' ; (2) * for the building a wall ' ; 
(3) ' for building of a wall ' ; (4) ' for the building of a 
wall.' In the modern speech only the first and fourth are 
recognized : 

I 55 I > 9> * i n puttynge flottes in his candells.' 
1551, 41, ' (to) delaye the amendynge the say me.' 
1550, 82, 'the said article for makinge of burgesys.' 
1550, 57, ' for the bringing in of chalke.' 

In 1602, 58, 'when they should be keeping of there masters 
shipps,' keeping stands for a-keeping, ' (engaged) in the 
keeping.' 

103. In the case of some intransitive verbs the auxiliary is or 
was is used where we employ has or had. In some 
transitive verbs the passive is formed by means of is, 
instead of has been : 

1587, 71, 'what is become of him.' 

1581, 42, ' the partie is rune awaye.' 

1619, 107, 'which farme was then expired.' 

1587, 28, ' we present that the rome . . ys also buylded owt.' 

104. The verb to be is used almost as a verb of complete 
predication in 

1581, p. 223, 'thereof the time beinge' (when the time for so 

doing has come). 
1604, 62, 'if present helpe had not byne ' (had not arrived). 



XCV111. SYNTAX. 



105. Verbs are used IMPERSONALLY with much greater frequency 
than in the modern speech : 

1566, 34, 'yf yt require ' (if it is necessary]. 
1619, 17, 'for that yt rayneth into the hall.' 

1603, 90, ' if it be not remedied ' (if a remedy is not found}. 
Probably in the following it introduces an impersonal verb : 

1571, 80, 'as for the wayts and measuers . . wee desyer that 
yt maye be reformyd ' (that there may be reform}. 

1576, 6, 'we dessire the same (ditches) may be kept cleane, as 

yt ought to be ' (as ought to be the case}. 

1577, 51, 'the first and second tower . . ar very much 
decayed, and lyke to fall, yf yt be not amendid ' (if there 
is not amendment}. 

Perhaps the apparent irregularity in the following, where 
it seems to refer to a plural substantive, may be explained 
in this way : 

1596, 61, 'ffor if they (five of the town houses) are not speedelie 

amended, it will soone fall downe.' 

1587, 84, 'we present that all such goods so colerably bought 
should be forfeyt to the towne, as yf yt were bought by 
the straunger himselfe.' 

106. An obsolete use of it occurs in some clauses, especially 
those introduced by the conjunction as : 
1566, 56, ' as yt is openly known.' 
1569, 27, 'as yt hathe byn reportid.' 
1594, 31, 'as yt is lyklye.' 

107. A similar use of there occurs in 

1605, 89, ' wee desier that there maye be such course taken.' 
1611, 72, ' have soe choaked upp the ditche that there cann no 
fish live there.' 

Similarly in 1551, 40. 

108. The following verbs are used TRANSITIVELY, contrary to 
the modern usage : 

1579, 6, abate 1574, 35, perish 

1 60 1, 21, decay 1575? 4, refrain 

1596, 46, encroach 1619, 107, remember 

J 594, 39> forbear 1574, 13, style 

1582, 16, founder 1620, 80, trespass 

There is considerable confusion between lie and lay. See 
Glossary, under lay, layed, layen, and lyee. 

109. The following verbs are used INTRANSITIVELY : 
1566, 52, avoid 1571, 75, seek 

1577, 8 1, frequent 1589, 37, want 

1604, 24, inhabit 1576, 34, watch 
1581, 73, 



SYNTAX. XC1X. 



ADVERBS. 

110. The use of the following adverbs and adverbial phrases 
differs from present custom either in meaning or form : 
1566, 37, ' accordenge,' accordingly. 
1620, 55, ' accustomedlie,' of custom. 

' aforehand,' beforehand. 
1569, 76, * all,' altogether. 
' alongest,' along. 

1619, 52, 'all alongest towards the west key.' 
1550, 31, 'als,' also. 

1566, 34, ' alwey,' always. 

1550, 42, 'as well . . . as,' both . . . and. 

* at cheeffelie,' especially. 

1576, 39, 'at cheeffelie about our fayer tyme.' 
1581, 114, 'at decaye,' in decay. 
1605, 44, ' at the second hand.' 

1604, 53, ' backwards and forwards,' in front and behind. 
1566, 53, 'beside,' in addition. 

1550, 9, ' by theire course,' in their turn. 

1616, 70, ' cleane,' entirely. 

1613, 38, ' crosse/ across. 

1603, 4, ' eftsones,' afterwards, again. 

' els,' elsewhere. 

I S73) I2 > ' i n dyvers places ells about the said walls,' elsewhere. 
1573, 41, ' divers tymes ells,' various other times. 
1587, 33, * withowt musseling or els,' or iny other restraint. 
1580, 57, 'wm. bowwycke doth not serve the poore neyther the 
most parte of good howseholders els.' 

1620, 57, * even,' very. 

1605, 20, 'exceedinge,' excessively. 
1569, 64, ' forren,' abroad. 

1620, 78, ' forthe,' fonvard. 

1550, 53, 'from thensforthe,' thenceforth. 

1550, i, ' from hensforthe,' henceforth. 
1605, 82, * from hence forwards,' henceforth. 
1566, 17, ' forthewith,' immediately. 

1623, 24, ' freshlie,' recently, again. 
1605, 82, ' henceforwards,' henceforward. 
1566, 18, 'herefore,' 'heretofore,' previously. 

1551, 45, ' in esspetyally,' in special. 

1569, 64, ' in maner,' in a manner, in a way. 
1571, 59, ' in short tyme,' in a short time. 
1571, 77, 'in somewhat,' to some extent. 
1600, 72, 'in the wholle,' altogether. 
1613, 31, 'in longe time,'/0r a long time. 
i55> 39, 'late,' lately. 



C. SYNTAX. 



1582, 59, ' leffer,' rather, preferably. 
1550, 68, 'more,' moreover. 
1575, 8 1, * most,' mostly, chiefly. 

1 nighe,' nearly. 
1569, 34, ' is nighe fallen downe.' 

1550, 83, ' notwithstande' ; 'notwithstanding' (1575, 77), never- 
theless. 

I 57 I > 9? ' offtentymes,' often. 

1551, 45, 'off forsse,' by compulsion. 
1616, 41, 'of late dayes,' lately. 

1581, 80, 'of late tyme,' lately. 
1613, 96, 'of purpose,' intentionally. 

1582, 8, 'of right,' rightly. 

I 57 I t 3> 'orderly,' usually, regularly. 
1603, 59, ' overmuche,' excessively. 
1615, 120, ' presentlye,' immediately. 

1 savinge,' except. 

155) 6, 'savinge onely in easte magdalen.' 
1613, 38, 'short,' abruptly. 

1603, 70, 'shortly,' soon, speedily. 
1569, 27, ' skant,' scarcely. 

1604, 77, ' some thinge,' somewhat. 
1581, 109, ' some tyme,' occasionally. 
1581, in, ' som tyme,' once upon a time. 
1618, 85, 'sometymes,'/0rw0?%. 

1571, 47, ' stray t,' for thwith. 

1603, 78, 'tennantablewise,' in a way suitable for a tenant. 
So, thereupon, afterwards : 

1566, 34, 'in the begynynge of the yere . . . and soo all 

syltenge tyme.' 
1571, 13, 'from Thomas Courtnees house corner by St. marys 

lightten and so up to padwell cross and so from thear to 

rogsdon lane.' 
I 575 74> 'ther was a childe borne and was fownde deade and 

so was buryd secretlye.' 
1550, i, ' there abowts,' thereabout. 
1571, 40, ' ther amongst,' in that neighbourhood. 
I 57 I J 75, 'throughlye,' thoroughly. 

1604, 18, 'timely,' in time. 

1603, 91, ' tofore,' previously. 
I S5 J 55> 'togethers,' together. 

1616, 106, 'under hande,' in an underhand way. 
1571, i, 'upon his hedd,' personally. 

1604, 21, 'usually,' regularly. 

1605, 89, 'verylye,' in truth. 

' withal,' with. 
1571, i 'which bredd is found faulte withall.' 



SYNTAX. ci. 



111. The possessive case is used adverbially in * any waves,' 
in any way, and ' no wayes,' in no respect. 

112. THING is used adverbially in 'anie thinge ' (1613, 48), in 
any way ; nothing, something. 

I S77^ 9 2 > ' tn e ass Y s ... is nothing at all kept' (not at all). 
1604, 77, 'some thinge belowe ' (a little below). 

113. A few adverbs are used adjectivally, especially now and 
often : 

1604, 70, ' the time of our now sittinge.' 

1579, 62, * notwithstonding our often complaint.' 

1605, 88, 'our hereafter indevours.' 

PREPOSITIONS. 

114. A is used for at, on, and in one instance for of : 
1616, 122, 'a Cutthorne.' 

1579, 15, * Jn. a Garnezes crosse.' 

A is found in phrases for in, on. This a, which still exists 
in alive, afoot, etc., is contracted from the O.K. on or an : 

1580, 9, ' a water.' 

J 5 8l j 5 2 > ' to set other a worcke.' 

1582, 92, 'a foote.' 

1590, i, ' a spendinge.' 

1550, 21, 'a weke,' in the week. 

1602, 4, 'she was sicke a bead.' 

' Aboghtte ' (1551, 29) and ' abowts ' (1579, 21), about. 
' Adjoininge to' (1603, 60), * adioyninge unto' (1569, 20). 

* Afore ' (1551, i), before. 

' Agayen,' * agaynste,' adjoining : 

1566, ii, 'agayen comen or hyghwayes.' 

' Agaynst ' expresses time, as still in colloquial speech : 

1579, 89, 'to warne the people ageinst that ower.' 

* Albeit ' is used as a preposition meaning in spite of : 

1600, 17, 'albeit our former presentment.' 
1604, 37, 'albeit manie amercments and peines laid uppon him 
to doe the same.' 

' Alongest,' by the side of : 

1575, 48, ' alongest the dytch ' (also in 1618, 83). 

' At ' is used of time more extensively than now : 
1596, 77, ' at these daies,' at the present time. 
1566, 6, 'at wynter.' 
1566, 33, ' at our lady daye.' 

1580, 67 'at afternone.' 



Cll. SYNTAX. 



Also of place : 

I 55 55> ' at taverne.' 

1581, 114, 'the palle ys at decaye.' 

' At ' is used in expressions of value : 
1574, 62, 'to amersse him at ;io.' 

Prepositions compounded with be- regularly have the 
spelling bee- : beefore, beeneathe, beesyds, beetween, beetwixt, 
etc., probably indicating that the accent fell on the first 
syllable of the word. 

'Beetwixt' (1579, 49); 'betwix' (1604, 83); shortened to 
'twixt' (1590, 18). 

'But' (1577, 81), except: 

' By ' means on the part of : 

1571, 33, 'we her great complaynt by foryners.' 

1574, 17, 'great exclamation therof groweth by the poor.' 

4 By,' because of, as a consequence of : 

1579, 12, 'daungerus by the durt and gravel that may theare 
enter in.' 

With expressions of time it may denote in and during : 
1550, i, ' by whose time.' 

1550, 83, 'to remane by one day'; also in 1605, 82, and 

1615, 125. 

' By ' is used to form prepositional phrases : 
1571, 60, 'by the meanes of.' 
1569, 10, 'by reason of.' 
1604, 1 06, 'by the reason of.' 
1617, 99, 'by vertew of.' 

' Cithence,' ' sithence,' since : 

1574, 47, 'cithence mighelmas last.' 

4 Fast by ' (1603, 5), close to. 

1 For ' means because of, and with regard to : 
1579, 12, 'for the stopping of the pypes.' 
1573, 24, ' preservacon of this towne for.fyre and such leek 

dayngers ' (with respect to}. 
J 579> 3> 'very dangerous for men and children for falling downe 

the said steares ' (also in 1576, 19; 1574, 46). 

1575, 48, 'very daungerous for cattell' (=/0). 
It also denotes purpose : 

1569, 50, ' for voyding the danger therof.' 

' Hard uppon ' (1589, 33), close to. 
' In ' has the meaning on : 

1551, 29, 'in the other syde off the walle.' 
1551, 30, 'in payne off 3/4.' 



SYNTAX. Clll. 



' In ' is used with verbs of motion as well as rest : 

1601, 98, * not to come in (=into) mary greens company.' 

1 Into ' has the meaning in : 

1581, 43, * to set into Jno. sedgwicks house theire sacks.' 

' Neere to ' (1576, 48), near. 

1 Nighe,' near : 

i5 6 9 ? 35> 'nighe galey key.' 

' Notwithstondeynge,' in spite of : 

1551, 40, 'notwithstondeynge the offen warnynge.' 

* Of ' is used in a partitive sense : 

1582, 65, 'ther be of our companye that will approve yt.' 
1582, 20, ' they sell of all sorts of mercery wares.' 

1580, 5, 'what of due they may demand.' 

It has also the meanings from, by (indicating the agent), 
with (instrumental), concerning : 
1620, 30, 'to proceede of the Bunney.' 

1550, 83, ' he did yt of ignorance.' 

1575, 44, 'to take in of the comon' (=from). 
1587, 97, ' greatlie noted of straungers.' 
1604, 88, 'furnished of a better.' 

1601, 95, 'we present of the great annoyaunce of timber.' 
1587, 49, 'at 2d. of the lb.' 

1576, p. 143, 'all thinges before said is of a truthe.' 

* On,' concerning : 

I55 1 ? 46, ' complayenythe on the sayme.' 

' Or,' before : 

1551, 41, 'longe or thys tyme.' 

' Oute of,' ' utt off,' outside of : 

1566, 34, ' owte of the markette.' 

' Overight ' (1589, 59), over against. 

1 Saving,' except : 

1585, 6, ' savinge a litell small parcell therof.' 

' Side ' is used to form prepositional phrases, in this syde, be 
thys syde, on this side (of) : 

1551, 27, 'by thys syde off bartellmowe tyde nextte.' 

'Throwtt,' ' thorough! ' (1604, 107), through. 

' To ' denotes up to, or indicates tendency : 

1582, 105, ' who wonn to the som of 3 or 4 pounds.' 

1596, 68, ' which is to a verie evill example in tymes to come.' 

1575, 86, 'very dayngerus to lewd sycknes.' 

'Touchinge ' (1605, 55), concerning. 



CIV. SYNTAX. 



* Uppe,' upon : 

1623, 9, ' uppe what condition.' 

1574, 43, 'the raylles upe the steares goynge upe unto the 
wache towere.' 

' Utt off,' outside of : 

1551, 9, ' utt off the dayes forsayde.' 

' Ward ' is separated from to by the word governed : ' to 
the landword,' towards the land ; ' to the sea warde ' ; 
' to the lanewarde.' 

' With ' denotes by (agent), by (instrument), among : 
I 55 } T > * was maynteyned with the burgesy ' (by}. 
J 574> 7> ' eaten with the sea ' (by). 
1550, 69, 'every man beinge above the forsaid degre with the 

bakers ' (among]. 

1577, 35, ' to take suche order with the sealers of leather' (with 
respect to). 

' With all ' serves as an emphatic form of with : 

1603, 1 6, ' which the steward must be charged with all.' 

* Within,' in the house of : 

1616, in, 'within George Scaynes.' 

' Without/ outside of ; ' without syde of ' is found with the 
same meaning : 

1571, 58, ' without syde of the same rampiers.' 

115. Fairly often two prepositions connected by and are 
used when either by itself would give nearly the same 
meaning : 

1550, i, 'the salte marshe shalbe comyn to and for the 

burgesys.' 
1611, 60, 'a difference . . of and concerning^ a hedge or 

fence.' 

1603, 6 1, 'at and neere.' 
1616, 96, 'at or neere.' 
1615, 43, 'at and rounde about.' 
1611, 30, ' by and in the defalte of.' 

1615, 95, 'by and through.' 1611, 60, ' of and concerninge.' 
1603, 57, 'from and after.' 1576, 47, 'of and towchinge.' 
1603, 89, ' in and about.' 1579, 39, ' out and from.' 

1581, 40, 'of and betweene.' 1577, 18, ' towards and to.' 

i 16. The prepositional construction of the following adjectives 
is obsolete : 

1576, 84, ' agreeinge to.' I 5^5, 18, 'lawful to.' 

1611, 36, 'conformable to.' 1613, 81, 'like to.' 
1605, 88, ' inpugnant to.' 1574, 36, ' nedfull of.' 

1582, 16, 'joyning to.' 1566, 34, ' prevy of.' 



SYNTAX. CV. 



117. And of the following verbs : 

1615, 28, ' accertaine of.' 1602, 58, ' dismiss of.' 

1566, 23, 'answere to.' 1569, 41, ' enquier of.' 

1581, 77, 'attend to.' 1604, 105, ' exacte upon.' 
I 575 J 7 1 , 'bound upon.' 1580, 70, ' fail of.' 

1582, 65, 'care of.' 1604, 88, 'furnish of.' 
1582, 82, 'comaunde to.' 1604, 24, 'inhabit in.' 
1576, 47, 'comon of.' 1576, 19, 'look unto.' 
1551, 46, 'complain on.' 1580, 69, 'lyke of.' 
i5 66 > 53> 'complaine upon.' 1616, 117, 'question of.' 
1574, 54, ' consider of.' 1613, 48, 'serve to.' 
1620, 9, ' desire of.' 1571, 75, ' stond upon.' 
1611, 36, 'desist of.' 1576, 34, 'thincke of.' 
1569, 64, 'desseyve of.' 1576, 71, ' ussurpe upon.' 
1617, 17, ' dischardge of.' 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

118. AFTER, see 92. *: 

ALBEIT takes the indicative : 

1611, p. 451, 'albeit noe payne nor amercement was ymposed 
uppon him ' (was, naturally indicative, as describing an 
actual event in past time). 

ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, take both indicative and subjunctive : 
1581, 3, ' allthoughe they weare made ' (probably indicative, of 

an actual event in past time). 
1569, 56, 'althoughe yt be as far downe as to eny of the keyes ' 

(alt hough= even if, and is followed by the subjunctive). 
I 5 66 > 53? ' they will have theire dutie, though they syt at ale- 

housses ' (syt, probably subj.). 

As takes the indicative : 

1551, 34, 'as he ryddythe aboghtt.' 

1550, 25, 'he deposeth that the lease was ever allowed and so 
ever accepted before as ever he hard.' 

As means that in : 

1590, i, ' when theare dewttie ys as they shold be ether at the 
sermond or at service.' 

As if, as though, take the subjunctive : 

1596, 75, 'the way is so durtie, as if it were in the midest of a 

forest.' 

1579, 84, 'they are forsed to pay the said porters, as yf they 
had laded them ' (had laded represents the earlier subj.). 
1590, 75, ' and theare ys sold as though yt weare in the lynen 
hall.' 



CV1. SYNTAX. 



We may here note an almost pleonastic use of as in : 
1575, 37, their remains as a straye.' 
1575, 81, * is thought to be as a comon bawde.' 

BECAUSE, 80. 

BEFORE, 92. 

BY REASON THAT, 80, QO. 

BUT, unless, except : 

1605, 82, 'that no burgesse be made, but he shal be sworne.' 
1601, 98, 'not doubtinge but you wilbe pleased to take some 
speedie order herein.' 

DURING THE TIME, 92. 
ERE, 92. 

EXCEPT takes the subjunctive : 

1566, 22, * excepte he sell awey his kowe.' 
1580, 41, 'which in tyme may growe to be prescription, excepte 
he be caulyd to amende the same.' 

FOR (THAT), 80. 
FOR AS MUCH AS, 80. 

lF,8l. 

IN REGARD THAT, 80. 
IN SUCH SORT AS, QI. 
IN SUCH SORT THAT, 91. 

IN so MUCH AS, 91. 

IN SO MUCH THAT, QI. 
IN THAT, 8O. 

LEST, 90. 

NOTWITHSTANDING (THAT) takes the indicative : 

1574, 47, * notwithstondinge that yt hathe bin very much and 

often spoken of.' 

1600, 31, ' notwithstandinge certaine monie hath been gathered.' 
1611, 22, * notwithstandinge the same hath benn formerly 

presented.' 

OR, 92. 

OTHER THEN, except than : 

I 5 6 9> 58, 'be yt comanded that none by enne butter other then 
for theire owne stowere.' 



SYNTAX. evil. 



PROVIDED (THAT) takes the subjunctive (or its equivalent). 
The infinitive is also used : 

1585, 20, ' provyded that none take any eggs so forfeited.' 

1581, p. 223, ' provided allwaies that it shalbe lawfull.' 

1550, 10, 'provided that the kyne to have a resonable tyme to 

come and go.' 

1620, 52, * provided everie particuler burgesse to have sennighte 
waraneinge for their appearaunce.' 

SAVING, meaning except, it being provided that, is found in : 
I 55> 7) ' saving e theye that shall pound the cattail shall have 

of every man 1/4.' 
1581, 4, 'the devyne service is dwelie administered, savinge 

that mr. steere doothe minister with waffer bread ' 

(doothe, indie.). 

SEEING THAT, 80. 

So, if, provided that : 

1550, 72, 'and that theye warne none to have ale for theire 
money, so theye have yt in theire houses.' 

So AS, 90, 91. 

So FAR FORTH AS, so far as : 

1600, 57, 'so farre forth as shal be thought fitt in your dis- 
cretions.' 
So THAT, 90, 91. 

THAT, 82-87, 89-91. 
TILL, 92. 

To THE END THAT, 90. 
To THE INTENT THAT, 90. 

UNLESS takes the subjunctive : 

1550, 54, 'oneles theye putt into the towne good and sufficient 

suertie.' 
1569, 35, 'onles yt may be repared.' 

UNTIL, 92. 
WHEN, 92. 
WHENAS, 92. 

WHER, WHERAS, take the indicative : 

1569, 56, 'whereas divers out of this libertie have taken upon 

them.' 

1573, 9, ' wher the diches arre not escourid.' 
In 1569, 16, ' wheare as ' ( wherever]. 

WHILE, 92. 



CV111. SYNTAX. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

119. NEGATIVES. A double negative is frequently employed : 
1569, 31, ' they cannot have none under 8d.' 
1569, 55, * not to laye no more.' 
1577, 96, 'wheare never none was before.' 

Instead of wo . . or, not . . or, neither . . . nor, the 
usual forms in the modern speech, we find other sequences 
of negatives : 

1571, 76, * that no person ne persons do caste.' 

1611, p. 451, 'noe payne nor amercement.' 

1571, 72, * not to cary nor sell none.' 

1579, 71, ' lether nether well tanyd nether well corned.' 

The first negative is often omitted : 

1550, 61, 'theye ne none of them ' (=neither they nor any}. 
1573, 40, 'John Elliet . . . nether quayts wyffe hath not 
made' (= neither John Elliet nor Quayfs wife). 

120 UNUSUAL ORDER OF WORDS. As sometimes in O.E., or 
perhaps through the influence of Latin constructions, the 
verb or participle often comes at the end of the clause. 
1550, 29, ' the statute in suche causys provided.' 

1550, 82, 'yf you refuse this to do.' 

1551, 29, 'the duste and dorte ther layde.' 

1575, 42, 'the comon hyghe waye tyme out of mynde usid.' 

X 577j 9> <a stye f r swine by him bylt.' 

T 579) 6 > 'according to the comaundement to them geven.' 

1579, n, 'yf yt wer deaper diggid.' 

1611, 67, ' as by law is requiered.' 

The adjective is put at the end of the clause in 

1569, 56, ' then yt shalbe for every towne dweller lawfull.' 

Similarly the adjective and participle come at the end in 

I 55 I ) 43> 'ever heraffter by the inabetens off the sayme towne 
to be kepet clene.' 

The unusual order serves for emphasis in 

J 5 8 7j 3j 'yt natn bin heretofor presentid, but reformacon we 
fynd none.' 

121. CONSTRUCTION OF VERBS OF DESIRING. As already 
noticed such verbs prefer to be followed by may or might 
with the infinitive, but all the other constructions of verbs 
of commanding may be found : 

Pure subjunctive, 1569, 13, 'we dessier that theare be nothinge 
sealid.' 



SYNTAX. cix. 



May with infinitive, 1580, 57, 'we desire that people may have 

good language and fayre spech.' 
Infinitive, 1569, 13, 'we dessier yt to be remembrid.' 

When those in authority are addressed, the more deferential 
will and would are employed : 

1573, 35, ' we desyre your worshippes that you wold appoynt.' 
J 58i, 77, ' wherfore we dessire that your worships will take suche 

order that, &c.' 

JS 81 , 37> 'wherfor our dessyr is that your worships will take 
order for the clensing.' 

>i22. IRREGULAR SEQUENCE OF TENSE occurs in a number of 
passages. In the first group below, it will be seen that 
the verb of the dependent clause is indicative, but in the 
others it is subjunctive : 

(a) The past indicative occurs, where modern usage would 
prefer the present perfect, in : 

1596, 31, 'we present that all the water, that was hertofore 

brought, is altogether cutt of (=has been). 
1594, 46, 'we present that theare are 2 great breaches which 

came by occation of the fulling my 11 ' (=have come}. 
1576, 86, ' not to sell eny wynes by any other mesures than by 
suche as were sealid and gadgid.' 

(6) The tenses of the conditional sentences are irregular in : 

1576, 54, * whych if he or others should comonlye use, yt will 

greatlye spoyle the comon.' 

1580, 81, * if he shuld be so sufferid to contyneu, it wil be a 
president.' 

(c] Might is used for may in : 

J 58o, 5, 'we thincke it necessary that the same might be 

published.' 
1579, 106, 'which we dessire might be examined to declare 

wheare and of whom they have the said stuffe.' 
1573, 6, 'whereas we have often tymes requestid, that the size 

of talle wood might be lookid unto.' 

(d) Were, the past subjunctive, is used for the present sub- 

junctive : 

I 57 I > 77> 'wherfor yt is requisit the pips were loked unto' 

( be or should be}. 
1569, 12, 'wheareas the order of government hathe appointid 

that every baker should bake 4 loves for a peny, except 

yt weare bespoken.' 

Should, of course, is regularly used in primary sequence, and 
this must have had much to do with the similar treatment 
of might and were. 



CX. SYNTAX. 



123. ELLIPSIS. Omission of words is frequent; sometimes it 
is no doubt due to the negligence of the writer, who has 
unintentionally forgotten to insert a word, but in other 
cases it must be regarded as deliberate. The words most 
frequently omitted are parts of the verb to be, the con- 
junction that, the pronoun it, the adverb as, and the 
phrase there is : 

1550, i, ' he knew the Salt marshe comon ' (for to be comon). 
1550, i, 'the premisses concerninge the Salte marshe herde and 

understoude ' (for having been herd). 
1577, 29, 'which, as we thinck, wolde doo very well, and of 

small chardge to the towne ' (for and be of). 
1579, 64, ' we present, as heeretofore often tymes don, that, &c.' 

(apparently for often tymes has been don). 

1579, 49, 'we cannot find but time out of mind hathe bin an 
auntient costome ' (for but that). 

1550, 82, * we will you stryke ' (for that you stryke). 

1603, 4, 'it is said no reason to charge the towne with anie new 
wache ' (for that there is no reason). 

1551, 43, ' nowe ys comawnddyde to Thomas Fullar ' (for now 

itys), 

1575, 44, 'we have thought very necessary to amearsse him' 

(for thought it). 
1579, 85, 'his stoofe ys not good as yt ought to be' (for as 

good). 
1587, 75, 'which before was well pavid as the rest of the keye ' 

(for as well). 
1587, 49, 'a happie man that can make his bargayne so well to 

tak yt when ther ys profytt ' (=as to take it). 

1576, 22, 'none but suche as arre stronge to carie a man in his 

journey ' (there is ellipsis of both so and as, so strong as). 

In the following there is dislocation of words as well as 
ellipsis of that and it : 

p. 33, ' and thes we dessire god thatt were god wylls maye be 
mene to redresse thyngs utt off order' (the meaning is 
and we pray to God that (it) may be God's will (that) 
this may be the means of redressing things out of order). 

There is apparently ellipsis of there is in 

1566, 4, 'we have dyveres tymes complayned and no reform- 

acyon ' (for and yet there is no reformacyon). 
I 579> 5? ' we present, as divers tymes we have presentid, and no 

redres ' (for and yet there is no redres). 



SYNTAX. cxi. 



But compare the modern colloquial phrases, ' no wonder,' 
' no mistake,' e.g., ' he was astounded and no wonder,' 
and ' no doubt,' which is found in the court books, e.g., 
1615, 9, 'granted no doubt with great labour and charge 
of this incorporation.' 

A verb of motion may be supplied in 

1604, 70, we desire he may be comaunded out of the towne.' 

The antecedent is lacking in 

1596, 71, ' we praye she may be comaunded to goe from whence 
she came ' (for to go to that place whence). 

124. LOOSE CONSTRUCTION. In a number of cases grammatical 
irregularity arises from confusion of thought or careless- 
ness on the part of the writer. The following are note- 
worthy instances : 

1574, 35, 'we present that barnard cortmill for the lacke of a 
gutter that he is bounde to repayer . . . the water 
hath perishid all that side of the hous and is fallen 
downe throughe his defalte ' (the clause introduced by 
that has no verb and is left incomplete). 

1574, 60, 'all the tiplers in this towne arre hocksters, which 

ought not so to do ' (the writer is thinking that he has 
used some such phrase as sell by retail, instead of are 
hocksters}. 

1575, 44, 'for example of others to presume the leek' (the 

meaning is to deter others from presuming to do the like). 

1576, 68, 'which we desire may be amendid, excepting Sudgen 

the cobler ' (for except in the case of Sudgen the cobbler). 
1579, 83, ' the housholder wher the plaieng is ' (for the occupier 

of the house where, etc.). 
1589, 75, 'whereas thear was presented the last year wantinge 

a bull on the comon ' (perhaps for the wantinge of a bull). 
1602, 79, ' who useth more water than will well serve a fowerth 

part of the toune ' (will instead of would, through 

inaccuracy of thought). 
1550, 10, ' the kyne ... to come and go to be milked and 

from milkinge ' (for to come to be milked and to go from 

milkinge). 

1569, 6, ' theire is suffitient of the lyke claye' (suffitient equiva- 
lent to enough or a sufficiency). 
1569, 71, 'the straungers inhabittinge in this towne are more 

freer then any other englishemen ' (any other englishemen 

is a pleonasm for any others or the others, i.e., the 

English). 



CX11. SYNTAX. 



1571, 24, * dyvers of this towne have and doo usse to buye ' 
(a careless expression for have used and do use to buy) 

1573, 5, 'wheryt was geven in comaundment to repayer the 
same, uppon payne of 3/4 a pece to every one which did 
not repayer the same' ( = should not repair] just as does 
not repair in primary sequence is used for the more 
correct future shall not repair). 

1575, 77, ' hoskins wyffe greatly being offended therwith hath 

not lett ondly to speak ' (lett apparently for let herself, 
allowed herself). 

1576, 6 1, 'be yt comaunded unto the towne steward to have the 

leads to be amended ' (to h ve=to cause). 

1576, 71, * the comers unto of this towne ' (comers unto is to be 
regarded as a compound substantive, visitors). 

1581, 6, 'maye yt please your worshipps to appoynt som in 
every ward to vewe the same once every quarter for the 
better and redier service, if occasion servid ' (servid 
irregular for serve (subj.) or should serve). 

1581, 47, 'uppon payne of 2o/- for every suche carte, truckles 
or suche like cariadge to be found' (to be found, unusual 
infinitive for the past participle found or a relative clause 
which may he found). 

1581, 52, 'without payeng of them eny thing' (them is dative, 
and eny thing is governed by of). 

1581, 85, ' althoughe he with others weare daunsing ' (he ivith 
others appears to be regarded as a plural subject ; but 
possibly weare is subjunctive and singular). 

1581, 86, 'whoanswerid to allowe yt unto theire costomers ' 
(answerid seems to be equivalent to promised or agreed). 

1581, p. 222, 'it is agreed that the drivers shalbe everie 14 
daies to view and drive the comon ' (the phrase shalbe to 
view seems to be coined for a future, of which are to view 
is the present). 

1589, 83, 'we pressent that theare was a pretended keye to be 

mad ' (to be mad, the infinitive, is used for the participle, 
an unlawful quay was made). 

1590, 23, 'we present that for want of a dam to be mad, the 

seea ovarfloeth ' (to he mad is equivalent to a relative 
clause ivhich ought to ba made). 

1604, 9, ' mr. Lambert tould Sir Olliver Lambert that the towne 
were agreed with him soe that he would paye 6d. a yere 
for the same then he showld enioye it ' (soe that=on 
condition that, if, and the apodosis begins with (that) 
then). 



SYNTAX. cxiii. 



1611, ii, 'readdie to fall downe were it not onelye under- 
propped with a peece of timber' (hut for the sole fact 
that it ivas underpropped). 

1615, 118, ' this presentment is noe purpose ' (for to no purpose, 
i.e., useless). 

1596, 22, 'which was so fowle that in the winter tyme no man 
can travell' (the meaning of the verb in the relative 
clause is ivas and is). 

125. In a group of expressions, involving fines, the syntax is 
not clear : 

I 55j X 3> ' upon payne of every such defaulte for every tyme so 

doinge 6/8 ' (perhaps we may explain of their so doing). 
1550, 16, 'upon payne of every tyme so doinge 6/8.' 
1550, 17, 'upon payne for every tyme so doinge 3/4.' 
1604, 76, ' uppon peine of forfeitinge a 6d. a pece for everye 
daye neclectinge the same.' 

More grammatical forms occur in 

1550, ii, ' for to forfeyte for theire so doinge for every tyme 

iad f 
1581, p. 222, ' to forfit for everye suche time of offendinge i2d.' 

The following also are grammatically correct : 

I 577> 73> 'upon payne for every tyme he shall offende therin 

to forfeyte .' 
1579, 50, ' uppon paine of ^10 for every one that dooth offend 

thearein.' 

Other irregularities are found in 

I 575> 4> 'wherfore they have forfeited 6/8 for every tym they 

offending ' (perhaps we should explain of their offending, 

or they offend) ; and in 
1571, 52, ' upon payne of every one that offendithe shall forfeight 

and pay 3/4.' 



NOTES 



ON 



iakri 




IN THE 



SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES, 

BY 

J. S. WESTLAKE, M.A., 

Late Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXV11. 



NOTES ON DIALECT, 



THE DIALECT OF SOUTHAMPTON IN THE 

SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH 

CENTURIES. 



The dialect of the old town of Southampton, and of the 
countryside around it, is of the greatest interest to those who 
love recital of the long story of our country's history. It is not 
for us here to probe deep into the mysterious growth of nation 
and race. Our task is but to chronicle and record the character 
of the main factor of the town and shire's individuality for a 
short period in their history. " De Taal is gansch een volk," said 
the brave and patriotic Canon Willems, in the course of his long 
strife for the language, literature, and racial identity of his 
Flemish fellow-countrymen and we may translate his deep- 
sighted phrase, "The language means the nation." Nation and 
language go together. When once their language dies, the 
nationality of the people is dead. Why do the Prussians seek 
to root out the Polish tongue ? They know well that when 
once that ancient speech is dead in Posen and Silesia, those 
provinces will make no part of a Greater Poland, for the future 
of the Poles goes with the life of their language. The same is 
true of the Breton tongue in France. Breton and Briton sound 
too much alike for the speaker of the Breton tongue to look on 
himself as merely a good republican Frenchman. And thus it 
is, not only with the nations, but with their constituent provinces. 
Many an election has been lost and won by the rustic burr of a 
local phrase from the one candidate's tongue. It is well that it 
should be so. We are proud, as a great nation, of our manly 
independence, but the whole is only the sum of the constituent 
parts, and many local patriotisms make a great national feeling. 

The inner history of the people of Southampton is marked by 
the vicissitudes of their dialect. It is a well-known fact that at 



CXV111. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



the time of the dawn of their first written records, the dialects of 
England had already begun to differ, and a short glance at the 
next few centuries shows how fast that differentiation was 
developing. Primarily all the Old English dialects go back to 
the English-Frese branch of the Germanic language which 
racial association was not dissolved until centuries after the 
Saxon settling in England. But even in the seventh century we 
are met with by the extraordinary growth of two great groups 
the Anglian, including all dialects north and east of the Thames, 
and the West-Saxon, including all varieties west and south of 
the Thames ; Kentish and its Jutish allies out-taken. The last 
phrase is of the greatest importance, for under it Southampton 
(Hamtun) and the surrounding parts of Hampshire (Hamtfin- 
scire) fall. 

There is a tradition although some great authorities think it 
a most unscientific one that the Isle of Wight and that part of 
Hampshire around the Southampton Water were once, like 
Kent, inhabited by Jutes, who had colonised them at the first 
period of the settling of the English races in Britain. We thus 
come at once into a primary difference of race. There are some 
few scattered examples of placenames and personal names to 
support this. An early Abbess of Romsey signs herself Abbatissa 
de Rumesege, but the legal scribe calls her in good West-Saxon 
Abbatissa de RumesTge. The same use of e for I is found in an early 
record of the name of Selsea. This gives a decided Kentish or 
Anglian smack to such documents. There is one word which 
must be used as a key here. It is the common word " street." If 
the pronunciation at any period represents the usual West-Saxon 
straete, then the inhabitants at that time speak a West -Saxon 
dialect. If the form, however, represent a Kentish-Anglian strete, 
then we have to do with the dialect of the original colonisers of 
these parts. The name of Stanbridge, amongst others, if the 
writer's reading of Asser's form be correct, supports the theory 
of a separate un-West-Saxon race of Germanic origin having 
originally settled in this countryside. 

The origin of our Germanic race and language, as well as of 
the Indo-Germanic, whence it sprung, is hidden and their 
traces worn away by the detritus of ages. It is supposed 
that the Germanic language originated on the Baltic, near 
the Vistula, about 1000 B.C., as that of a little tribe which 
had just begun to separate itself from the great Keltic and 
Slavonic tribes to the south and east. It was subject to 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CX1X. 



the repeated and continuous domination of the more highly 
civilised Kelts until long after this period. As the Kelts moved 
southwards to Italy, Greece, and Galatea, and eastwards to Gaul 
and Britain, this little germ of a folk widened its boundaries 
and waxed in strength. As it grew greater, so its elements grew 
asunder. An eastern portion, the Istaevones, chased the Kelts 
over the Rhine ; a middle portion then divided into two ; 
one, the Inguaevones or English-Frese, who reached the banks 
of the North Sea, and later drove the Kelts from the North Sea 
and occupied North Denmark; whilst the other became the 
Suevi of antiquity, the High Germans of the present day. 
Finally, an eastern branch gave us the modern Scandinavians 
and the ancient Goths. It is curious to reflect that in the 
modern English phonetic system are ancient elements marking 
the existence of these long dead leagues. Thus the pronunciation 
of our fe, p, t, is partly that of the High Germans not of the Low 
Germans of Holland and Westphalia. So with our 6, d, g. 
These peculiarities were exaggerated in Sue vie into the High 
German sound-shifting. Our intonation of sentences is, too, 
much nearer that of the Middle German (and High German 
races) than that of the Dutch or Westphalian Low Germans. 
Thus, phonetically as well as racially, the English and the 
Frisians are really nearer the High Germans than the Low 
Germans. With the former they once formed a pre-historic con- 
federacy, the traces of which exist in obscure phonetic tendencies 
in our language and in Frisian, and in an exaggerated state in 
the High German shifted consonants and peculiar intonation. 

The Indo-Germanic language, of which the Germanic is a 
mere development, is again a difficult matter. But of late, 
research has tended to show that it is a branch of the original 
great Ural-Altaic family whence spring the Finns, the Turks, 
the Mongols, and the Japanese. The writer has, along with 
others, identified the Basques with the same great family. Yet 
the identity of linguistic characteristics by no means answers to 
that of racial characteristics. Curiously enough also, the Indo- 
Germanic, whilst showing basic characteristics, has widely 
differentiated itself from the Ural-Altaic languages at its birth 
almost, and has shown a great tendency to progress and variety 
as compared with the conservative and stationary Ural-Altaic 
and Mongolic languages. Only the Slavonic branch of Indo- 
Germanic languages shows the same conservatism as is usually 
associated with Mongol and Tartar. As the Mongol speaks now 



CXX. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



so he spoke almost thousands of years ago. But the Aryan 
moves on. We must, then, say, in the writer's opinion, that in 
the remote ages our forefathers borrowed their Indo-Germanic 
language from the neighbouring Mongols, but soon permeated it 
with their own progressive spirit. With Semitic our language 
shows not the remotest affinity. 

The ideas put forward above are by no means mere theory. 
They are so obvious as to be supported independently in England 
by Henry Sweet perhaps our greatest living phonologist 
and in Germany by Hermann Hirt, the leader of the younger 
school of philological research. Their support rests on a con- 
siderable degree of identity between the primitive elements of the 
Indo-Germanic vocabulary and those of the Ugro-finnic group 
of languages. Many more incline to the same opinion. For it 
is a curious fact that whilst the Indo-Germanic languages go 
back in form to a highly inflected speech, its vowel system most 
resembling Greek, in its consonants and in morphology perhaps 
most alike Vedic Sanskrit yet it is clear, and becomes clearer 
every day, that this language was at that stage strongly differ- 
entiated by " dialect," and bears within itself marked traces of 
phonetic, morphologic, and semantic accretion and decay. And 
so the modern Indo-Germanic philologist has undertaken the 
inner history of the Indo-Germanic mother tongue, as he has 
already scientifically reconstructed it from the broken and 
twisted forms of the living languages. And a strange thing 
results. The highly inflexional language thus reconstituted is 
seen at once to be a mere development, with its genders and its 
numbers, its distinct nouns, verbs and adjectives, its declensions 
and conjugations, of a quite simple agglutinative language, 
devoid of gender and of distinct number, without distinctive 
terminations for dual or for plural ; and more, the case system 
dissolves away, and we are face to face with a language of 
practically indentical structure to that of the Mongolic tongues 
of to-day, and with a vocabulary in its more primitive elements 
showing identity with that of the primitive Ugro-finnic. So far 
back can we carry the history of our English language and of 
the dialect of Southampton. 

The reader, boldened by recent archaeological research, may 
ask at what time did this primitive Mongoloid, or rather Ugro- 
finnoid (if one may coin a term), tongue arise, and through what 
year-thousands (to mimic a German term) did it grow up. 
No answer can be given. It is easy, but hardly convincing, to 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXxi. 



play with centuries and thousands of years. It seems to be the 
fashion of to-day, but it is not scientific. We can only say what 
reasoning, based on sound premises, shows us. The time 
will come, however, when such an answer can be given. 
Already some philologists are applying themselves silently to 
the comparative study of Ugro-finnic and the Ural-Altaic 
languages with Indo-Germanic. And it is from this higher 
philology that we await the answer. 

It would seem that our highly inflected common Indo- 
Germanic mother tongue must have already begun to break up 
in the same period, from about 3000 to 5000 B.C. Its inner 
growth from an agglutinative Mongoloid tongue must lie as 
many thousands further back. But this is the kingdom of 
guesses. At some early age the Indo-Germanic divided into two 
groups and again into two groups. With that waywardness 
of dialectic development well known to the harassed philologist, 
the frontiers of the double change by no means correspond. In one 
of the great early changes a whole side of early Indo-Germanic 
gutturals become sibilants and palatals. The group with the 
original gutturals is called the centum group (Latin c being pro- 
nounced somewhat like modern German k). It includes Keltic, 
Germanic, Italic, and Hellenic. Thus Old Irish cet (ket), " 100," 
Germanic hund, Italic centum, Hellenic (He)katon. The 
other group is called the Satdm 1 group, e.g., Lithuanian 
szimtas " 100 " (pronounce shimmtahs), Slavonic snto, Sanskrit 
sdtam (pronounce hyatam, the hy sounding as h in "human"). 
To this group belong the Slavonic and Baltic languages, the 
Albanian, Armenian, and a whole series of dialects belonging to 
the Persian (Iranian) and Indian (Sanskrit) group. 

But then, again, we have a separate and, it would seem, later 
grouping according to vowels. Primitive e, o, are kept apart in 
the European languages, but in the Indo-Persic group they 
become both a. We know, however, that Sanskrit and Old 
Persian once had original o, e, distinct, but that must have been 
centuries and centuries before the earliest written trace of any 
of them. 

To the European group belong Italic, Keltic, Germanic, 
Hellenic, Slavonic, Baltic, Albanian, and Armenian ; to the other 
group belong the Persian or Iranian, and the Indian or Aryan 
languages. 

i The inverted e in Saturn is the bign adopted for the so-called indefinite vowel sounded as the final 
er in " better." It has, of course, many shades of difference. 



CXX11. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



It would seem that the European languages (exclusive of those 
belonging to the Satdm group) kept the more ancient standpoint 
in both regards. Probably the first great divergence of dialect 
was between the centum and Satdm groups. Thus the Slavs, 
Letts, Albanians, Armenians, became first divided from their 
western brethren, as also did the more easterly Iranians and 
Aryans. Then happened the Iranian and Aryan emigration 
eastwards from Europe over the Russian steppes into Persia and 
India. A curious result followed from this emigration, namely, 
the great difference between the Iranian- Aryan agricultural 
vocabulary and that of the European languages, including 
Slavonic. The guess has been hazarded that in the long trek 
eastwards over the barren steppes they had to live by hunting, 
and hence forgot their husbandry words. When once more in 
fruitful plains they undertook the tilling of the earth again, they 
had to remake their vocabulary, and they did so, using, it is true, 
mainly the old roots. But this is, of course, a mere archaeological 
guess. We of the Germanic languages belong to the old stock 
in Europe. 

So far, the distant origin of our race and language lies in the 
far mists of forgotten ages. Its nearer history, indeed, involves 
difficult problems, but stands out far clearer to our sight. It 
would seem as though that Inguaevonic race, of which we 
have before spoken, dwelt in the fourth and fifth centuries in 
Schleswig-Holstein, Jutland, the Danish Isles, and possibly on 
the thin edge of the next-lying coast of Sweden. Certain it is 
that we have certain Runic inscriptions from Funen and Sealand 
which are not Scandinavian in their language, but answer rather 
to the earliest reconstructed English- Frese. It is also likely that 
the Angles, from a small slip of coast on the eastern or Baltic 
side of the peninsula of Denmark, had made themselves masters 
of the Islands ; that the Jutes occupied the north of the Jutish 
peninsula, and the Saxons the western side, near the mouth of 
the Elbe. The word Saxon (or " short-sword bearer ") and the 
name Aviones (" island men "), seem merely to have been two 
different general names for a group of small communities dwell- 
ing on the now Frisian Islands along the Danish coast. It was 
thence that the Saxons went forth to overpower the Chauci of 
the North-German sea coast, and to establish a Saxon or English- 
Frese overlordship, which reached as far south as the modern 
kingdom of Saxony, and as far west as the Rhine. 

Thus it is that traces of English-Frese language and nomen- 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXxiii. 



clature are found scattered far and wide, reaching down as far 
as Merseburg, where the population would seem to have adopted 
that tongue. Had the English- Frese races remained on the 
Continent, the history of Europe might have been profoundly 
different. For it was they who won the overlordship over the 
Franks (the Istaevones of old), driving such as would not yield 
into Roman Gaul. But emigration from their fatherland proved 
the ruin of their Continental dominion. The Scandinavian races 
overcame the remnants left in the Danish Islands, for the greater 
number of the original inhabitants had emigrated. And the 
same emigration everywhere weakened the Saxon hold on their 
Continental lands. This it was that enabled the Franks to 
found their Empire, with the comparatively easy series of 
victories which history records. In the succeeding centuries the 
Frisians occupied the North Sea lands, and the Scandinavians 
the remaining Baltic lands left comparatively empty by the 
exodus. The North Sea became the " Mare Fresicum " of 
Nennius. 

When the English-Frese races occupied England they must 
have spoken a tongue practically undivided by dialectical 
differences. The existence of separate English and Frisian 
languages came about centuries later. The gradual evolution 
of the historic English dialects took place also later, slowly 
working itself out on English soil. In the first centuries a 
difference established itself between West Saxon (the tongue 
of Wessex), Anglian (the tongue of Mercia and Northumbria), 
and the Kentish dialects. 

The Anglian dialect, however, was perhaps almost from the 
first differentiating into the Northumbrian and Mercian dialects, 
which themselves were already in the tenth century sub-divided 
again into North and South Northumbrian and numerous 
varieties of Mercian, including the important East Anglian. 
The dialect of Wessex, as we know, was also sub-divided by 
dialects, but unfortunately we can get no connected series of 
documents to illustrate their growth. In the Middle English 
period the language of London was at first Southern, or Saxon, 
and is still so in the proclamation of Henry III. It was only 
later that the East Midland dialect forced its way in as the 
speech of the Metropolis. The Wessex dialect had in the Middle 
Ages become divided into two groups the Western and the 
Mid- West, the Western dialects occupying Somerset and 
the English-speaking West, whilst the Mid-Western dialects 



CXX1V. NOTES ON DIALECT. 

: 

were those of Wiltshire, Dorset, and Hants. The border dialects 
on the Severn made a group by themselves. There were also 
certain border dialects in the North of the Mid-West known as 
the dialects of the " Catharine group " of MSS. 

Southampton itself belongs essentially to the Mid-West, and 
its history must be looked on in the light of that of the Mid- 
West generally, and the Hampshire dialect particularly. Our 
earliest Middle English specimen of this is the Egerton MS. 
of the Moral Ode, which represents the speech of South Hamp- 
shire about 1170. 

I hasten to give a specimen from a well-known reader in 
Middle English (Emerson's). It contains words for the mind and 
heart of every one : 

" Ich aem elder then ich wes a wintre and a lore 

" lew aelde more thanne ic dude, mi wit ah to ben more." 

and again, * * * * 

" Eal thet we misdiide her, hit wulledh cudhe thaere 
" Buten we habbe hit ibet dhe hwile we her were. 
" Eal hi habbet an heore iwrite thet we misdiide here 
"Theh we hi nliste ne isegen, hi weren ure ivere." 
But the Hampshire dialect had also taken in a great number 
of French words between 1170 and 1550. It is, of course, absurd 
to label all French spoken in England from the Conquest down- 
wards as Norman- French or Anglo-Norman. For example, the 
so-called Norman- French of the law courts is often bastard 
Parisian -French of a comparatively late date. To assert, as is 
often done, that the king's assent is given to Acts of Parliament 
in Norman-French is ridiculous. " Le Roy le veult " is Parisian- 
French, probably of a period approaching the Renaissance. 

Norman- French, Anglo-Norman, and Anglo-French are very 
different things. The earliest group of loanwords is Norman- 
French. Such words as faith belong to it. To it and its 
offspring, Anglo-Norman, belong such words as fealty, lealty, leal, 
whilst the French of non-Norman origin, plentifully brought into 
our kingdom when Anglo-Norman lay on its death-bed, is 
responsible for such words as royal, for which an older form 
is found in realm, as well as for such words as loyal, loyalty, etc. 
English loanwords are a ground where the French scholar must 
tread with the greatest care. 

From this introduction let us pass to the consideration of such 
evidence as our sixteenth and seventeenth century spellings 
afford. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXXV. 



It must be kept in mind from the first that we are not dealing 
here with standard English pronunciation although the 
vocabulary is mainly standard. Vocabulary and pronunciation 
are not the same things. The theories as to Shakespeare's 
pronunciation of English are various, and, needless to say, they 
cannot all be right. Professor Vietor has lately published a 
book on this subject, which, though of great interest, should be 
read with the greatest caution all the more because of the 
author's deservedly great name, and his enthusiasm in the 
investigation of these matters. 

The records under consideration run from 1550 1624. That 
is to say, they cover practically the whole of the latter part of 
what is commonly called the First Modern period. This period 
represents, in language, the transition stage from the Later Middle 
English of Wycliffe (in other dialects), Malory and others, to the 
English of the Restoration period, which stands phonologically 
very close to that which gave origin to both the English and 
American standard pronunciations. 

We must begin with the consideration of the various 
individual sounds. The written a, sounded long, derived mainly 
from Old English a, which had been lengthened to a in open 
syllables at the Middle English period. It does not matter in 
the spelling whether two consonants follow this letter or not, 
whether a mute e follows it or whether a mute e, does not. None 
of these things at that time mark a difference of pronunciation ; 
takkynne is as good as taken, and back as bake. What does 
matter is the happing on such writings as ai, ay, ea. 

The spelling ay for a is met with as early as 1551, say me, 
gaytte, for same, gate. On the other hand forfeiture (ei and ai 
being of the same value) is met with as forfature quite as early. 
Such writings would look like proofs that ai and a (of Middle 
English denomination) had then the same value. But they had 
not either in the standard English or the dialect of that period 
neither have they in the modern Hampshire dialect, although 
standard English has changed in this respect. Consequently 
this, and like spellings, simply point to the fact that a and ai 
were sounded very much alike in this period, and that it was 
the time of their nearest approach to each other. The converse 
examples of a written for ai present a rather different phase of the 
relation. We seem only to find them before d, t, I, m, n, r, and 
the examples before d and t are not all that could be desired. 
But before /, m, n, r, ai seems to have had the nearest approach 



CXXV1. NOTES ON DIALECT. 

to a., e.g., 1550, taller (" tailor"), forfeiture (" forfeiture ") ; 1571, 
convaed ("conveyed") ; 1589, drane (" drain "), twan (" twain "), 
forsad (" forsaid," this is not really an example) ; 1603, entrales 
(" entrails.") 

The confusion in the spellings of a and ea in such words 
as gates, great, James, etc., are of the greatest value, for not 
only do they bear witness to the same identity of pronun- 
ciation, as shown by the modern Hampshire dialect, but they 
also point to what exactly that pronunciation was during the 
period under consideration. 

The examples begin with the word geats (1566 1596) for 
" gates." This word is also spelt gaytte. Likewise we have the 
frequent Jeames for James (e.g., occurring 1582, 1585, 1587, 1605 ; 
it is, in fact, fairly frequent). This word, likewise, is also spelt 
Jaymes. The preterite "brake" is spelt break in 1601, and this 
is, curiously enough, the lineally correct West-Saxon spelling. 
In the very same passage it is also spelt brake. We have also 
heave for " hare." The evidence through the counter-spelling, 
a for ea, is even stronger. In 1575, " great " is spelt both grate 
and grat, " bread " is spelt brade, "street" is spelt strate and 
strat. This keyword in the form here mentioned is fairly 
common, e.g., 1605, Eastrate for "East Street." The modern 
pronunciation is recorded as strldt in Hampshire. Now this form 
answers to the correct development of West -Saxon straete, and 
not to Kentish-Anglian strete. 

The identity of a and ea seems to go as far back as 1500, for 
it was then that the Island- French family of Le Fevre changed 
their names to Le Favor, a change which is only understandable 
on the basis of the actual confusion of sound. This fact alone 
is enough to prove that the standard of pronunciation obtaining 
in Hampshire at this period was far removed from that of the 
contemporary method of speech obtaining in London. A curious 
and very significant spelling is that of the word " water " as waiter 
in the year 1569. Of this there are several examples. This 
spelling is*one easily misunderstood. There is a standing con- 
fusion between an and al before consonants in general, e.g., salte 
and sawte, " salt," in 1550, defaulte, defalte, defawte, " default," 
waules, walles, wales, 1550 to 1579, etc., and so on to the end of 
our period, hale for " haul," hawle for " hall." One could then 
easily be tempted to say that this represented the au in such a 
word as " daughter," and the present sound of a in " water " 
(Standard English). But it is not so. We will later show that 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXXVli. 



the sound here meant was a as in modern English " art," and it 
was pronounced wahter or warier (first r mute). 

In the combination " and" the earliest examples show " o," 1550 
1574, stonde, " stand," th'ondes, " the hands " ; 1551, hoglonde ; 
1566, understonde ; 1579, stondith. Here we have probably three 
series of pronunciations. These three series go back in origin to 
the mistiest periods of the language's infancy to the Indo- 
European period thousands of years before Christ. But they 
can yet be stated in fairly modern terms. Firstly, where in the 
oldest English a syllable had been lost immediately after the first 
syllable (which bore the accent), in Old English the stem syllable 
was eventually kept short through eventual doubling of the 
final consonant. In the Hampshire MS. of the Moral Ode 
(circa 1170) such forms are represented by -and- etc. They 
give rise to the -and- forms of our Records. Thus, Gothic 
handus becomes Old English hand (hond), which correctly remains 
hand, and this is the form generally kept in the Western dialects. 
Secondly, if a primitive third syllable was lost, or the second 
bore what is called a primitive circumflex accent, then the first 
syllable could become lengthened and the second bore a percep- 
tible secondary accent. Thus, a primitive stontonti" they stand," 
became in Old English stondath which became stondadh, and 
gave the form for our third plural and singular stondith. Just in 
the same way, when we in Standard English pronounce a dis- 
syllable plural, we give a perceptible secondary elevation to the 
second syllable. Thus, we say " Robert's house," where Robert 
is one man, but " the Roberts' house," where the Roberts 
are a family, i.e., the loss of the Middle English nominative, 
genitive, and dative plurals es, -e, -en which bore a faint 
secondary accent as opposed to the singular forms throws back 
a slight accent on the preceding syllable ; or rather, the second 
syllable killed the third by robbing it of its life-blood its accent. 
Now the accent which the second syllable stole from the third 
in Roberts was a primitive Germanic or Indo-Germanic one, 
which the third syllable had itself in primitive days (in periods 
ranging from thousands B.C. to the first century A.D.) robbed 
from a fourth. It is the law of the conservation of energy in 
language, just as real property shows the same law socially. 
Hrothberhtumlz became Hrothberhtum became R6berte(n) became 
Roberts ; Hrothberhion became Hrothberhta became Roberte 
became Roberts ; Hrothberhios became Hrothberhtbs became 
Robertes became Roberts. But Hr6thberhtes(o) became Robert's 



CXXV111. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. 



(singular genitive). The o of the first syllable was in these cases 
pronounced long, and in our Records as the o, oa, in Modern 
English " loan " ; thus stondith=stoandith. 

Now the second series can cross over into the first or the first 
into the second. A word like hand was originally pronounced 
hand in the singular, but honda, etc., in the plural, as well as in 
certain singular, forms. Consequently the singular hond became 
replaced by hond to make it more like the plural and other 
singular forms. Then this singular form with long vowel dropped 
its d towards the modern period, and hond became pronounced 
hoan and lond, loan. But the form hftnd existed side by side, 
and in London English the plural had even become pronounced 
hclnd to suit the singular. Hence the hand forms got their own 
again, and eventually killed off the hoan forms. It is curious to 
note that in Modern English, the law of the different accentuation 
of singular from plural should apply to practically all nouns. 
Thus compare king's with kings in tonic accentuation. It is, of 
course, due to the old Indo- Germanic plural accentuations 
eventually. There is no Socialism or Anarchy in language. The 
effects of the robbery remain with the robber and pass on to 
his offspring, just as the law of real property socially. 

This lengthy explanation has been given to the reader to 
enable him to see and feel to what an extent the scientific 
investigation of language has shown its slavish adherence to the 
laws of Physics, even as Delbriick has shown that its mental 
aspect agrees with what has been arrived at in the other branches 
of Psychological study. We will now pass on to our dialect. 

It is interesting to note that this loss of d after n in such words 
as sandy land, etc., with a preceding long o, was the actually 
obtaining sound in that old South-West English that had in 
the twelfth or thirteenth century been transplanted to South- 
East Ireland, and which was still living at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. On the other hand, the London English 
pronunciation was already winning its way. We find, 1550, 
hande, land ; 1551, beforehand ; 1569, standith, sand, and after 
1579 the London spelling alone holds sway. Of course, this by 
no means proves that the scribe who thus wrote after the way 
of the folk at London did not himself always speak good 
Hampshire. 

In French words the spelling au before nd was frequent, and 
still goes on gathering more and more forms to itself. What 
it actually meant in the matter of pronunciation seems uncertain. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXxix. 



An before c, ch, cy-, g-, had a most extraordinary series of 
written expressions in words of French origin. Let us glance, 
for example, at this following little heap of odds and ends in the 
matter of words: 1550, awncyent, aincyent ; 1551, awynsyent, 
aynesiette', 1566, aunceant ; 1573, auntiant. 

What was the meaning of all this spelling confusion ? In the 
Mid-West of to-day we have in these words ae (the sound of a 
in mat) here, as well as aei (the same sound, followed by /, as in 
bit). Now modern Hampshire ae (as in man) is derived from 
sixteenth century written au, pronounced a, as in modern English 
ah ! It was occasionally also written a, as will be seen later. It 
may be guessed that since au was pronounced a (ah !') long, the 
same writing would serve to distinguish the short sound of a 
(which was then the sound of German a in hat, slightly shorter than 
our modern ar in partly), from the sound of long written a which 
had become very like our a in name in the sixteenth century dialect. 
Hence modern aei (phonetic writing) is the equivalent of six- 
teenth century aui in awynesyent, as well as of ay in aincyent , 
since modern ae is equivalent to the development of the au 
in our records. The pronunciation would have been ahntshent 
or ahintshent. The i or y sound is due to the peculiar palatal 
sound of n before g ( dzh) in these French words. 

There is much confusion between written ar and er in our 
records when it comes before consonants, e.g., mearshe, marshe, 
merkett, market, stertteth, starteth, orchearde, orchard, orcherd, etc. 
The precise significance of this is uncertain ; a also becomes e in 
wexith, 1566. 

Of the modern Western changes of a to ae before s + voice- 
less consonant, of a to ai, aei, ei, before sh, we have not the 
slightest hint in the spellings of any of our records, so that 
we may deem it fairly certain that the first begettings of this 
sound-shifting are much later than 1624. 

As to the sound of short e, there can be little doubt that it was 
sounded then, as now, as short e in men. There are a few spellings 
somewhat startling to modern eyes. One of these is ea in such 
words as bead for " bed," eleaven for " eleven," seaven for " seven." 
The origin of this writing belongs to the curious laws of quantity 
as influenced by primitive accent mentioned above. Namely, 
in a word like bread, Old English for u bread," a primitive 
-a or -az had been lost immediately after the stem. Now 
this lengthened the stem and gave it a " rising accent." The 
two together eventually succeed in doubling the final consonant, 



CXXX. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



thus breadd. This shortened the vowel to breadd, whence we 
get our pronunciation of bread as bredd. The ea=c was then 
used right and left as 2, its primitive meaning having been lost 
sight of. A good example is our head, Old English heajod. 
The " oblique " cases ended heafdu (from heafodu), etc. Them 
became short before the double consonant, and heafde > hefde > 
hedd. Just as breadaz > breadd > bredd. When it occurs before 
an r there may be possibly another significance in it, that 
is to say, in such words as amearce, " amerce," 1575; hearde, 
1576; hearbidge, 1579; er before another consonant is first 
found changed to ar in 1571 in the word bulwarcke, previously 
bulwerkes, farthinge, desarts ; in 1587 advartise ; in 1589 parrsons 
for persons, and so on ; coward for cowherd is frequent. This 
might point to a change, er to ar after w, about the year 1570. 

More significant is the ey for e as in eynde, 1590, and in the 
unstressed gardeyn, 1581. 

The nearness of sound expressed by i to that of e is shown by 
such spellings fyrre, "ferry," 1551 ; stindi for "stenche," 1620. 

The long sound of e seems at that time to have had two very 
different modifications, both in the dialect and in standard 
English. 

That Irishmen utter say for "sea," but see for "see," and 
grate for " great," but greet for " greet " is well known. To 
put it more accurately, such is practically what their pro- 
nunciation sounds like to the uneducated ear. That this is 
an ancient distinction kept up from the days of Elizabethan 
English is not so well known. The same distinction in a greater 
or less degree prevails throughout the West of England, but it 
covers an even more comprehensive ground. It there includes 
many words regularly and rightly written with a double ee in 
standard English. In common with the Irish-English dialects, 
the West of England says dale for " deal," clane for " clean," sate 
for " seat," lane for " lean," or rather it has a peculiar pronuncia- 
tion that sounds thus to the ordinary ear. These words are called 
-i-mutation ivords ; that is to say, the words once were (before 
500 A.D.) spoken and written dali, chlni, sati, hlani (not Iftni, 
which meant " transient "). But the ending i changed the a to 
ae, and this sound was represented in the sixteenth century by a 
lineal descendant ea. So far, the West and the Irish-English 
dialects agree. But the West goes one further. In its most 
archaic varieties it says strate for "street," dade for "deed," 
slape for "sleep," or a sound very near it. This variety 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXXxi. 



occasionally approaches near to ee, but never quite touches it in 
the greater number of cases, remaining aloof as eea. The form 
which we can put in vulgar writing as strate, slape, dade, goes 
back past Old English to the days when the Saxons and inhabi- 
tants of Southampton dwelt in Germany along the coasts of the 
North Sea, and pronounced them strata(e), slapan, etc. This 
distinction the West-Saxons of all the English alone kept up as 
against the Angles and Jutes. 

In the Old English period the West Saxons spoke ae straete, 
the Angles and Jutes e. In Middle English, in the West of 
England, the symbols were often confused, but never the sounds. 

Now, let us see how Southampton stood in this respect in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The sounds represented by 
our ea in standard English (as an average sign) we will call 
Middle English e 2 ; the sounds in strata(e) ) slapan of yore, we will 
call West-Germanic a. Our keyword shall be "street." It 
comes from the Latin strata, through West- Germanic. The 
West-Germanic tribes learnt its meaning before 500 A.D., 
through many a bitter spell of road-making for their Roman foes, 
who became, from time to time, their rather anxious overlords. 
Middle English c 2 is in our early years still mainly represented 
by the spelling ee, as in see for " sea," but the spelling ea is present 
from 1550 in such words as east, and, as time goes on, gradually 
ousts the other and older spelling, becoming more and more 
frequent. The spelling streate becomes fairly frequent, but, 
for reasons which will be seen later, this is not absolutely 
decisive. We meet interesting varieties of this later spelling in 
eea of seea 1589, seea 1623, and seaye 1580, seae 1573. 

This would rather look like a " broken " diphthong with a 
long first element. By a "broken" diphthong is usually meant 
one consisting of a simple vowel sound followed by an indistinct 
murmured vowel. Such occur in the air of our " fair" and the 
ee-er of our "free-er," the comparative of free. Very deeply 
fraught with meaning are such spellings as grate, grat, for 
" great," brade for " bread," 1571, and the spellings strate, strat, 
for " street " (examples found in the same year), Eastrate, " East 
Street," 1605. For these undoubtedly point to the West-Saxon 
a-like pronunciation as against the Jutish ee-like pronunciation. 
At any rate such writings prove that Middle English e 2 and West 
Germanic a had become of identical sound with original a, and 
were a long broken diphthong, which further research into these 
records shows to be the az'r-sound of our fair (the r remaining 



CXXX11. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. 



mute, a necessary caution to my Hampshire compatriots !) We 
write this sound eQ. The modern sound ai of Standard English 
is as far removed from it as possible, and would represent neither 
the pronunciation of Shakespeare nor that of Southampton. I 
therefore do not give it. 

Now, besides the above sounds, there is a further variety of 
long ee sounds, written ee in Standard English and of various 
provenance. This we will call Middle English e l (closed). The 
earliest and always by far the most numerously exemplified 
spelling is that in e and ee: e.g., 1550, feld, nede\ 1574, oversee, 
needefull, etc. The spelling ea occurs comparatively very seldom, 
as in 1551, neade\ 1566, deape, etc.; and it has also the sub- 
variety eea, as in neeade (1602). 

Now, since c 2 and e l were kept asunder in Middle English, and 
are still kept asunder in the West (e9, e, 19 as opposed to l in the 
main, including Hampshire), this cannot be the same sound as 
meant by the ea, eea, for Middle English e 2 . It must be another 
variety of long broken diphthong of what is called a closed 
description, represented by c l &. A proof in this direction lies in 
the writing /, y, for Middle English e\ which is, perhaps, more 
frequent than that of ea. Examples are jyld for " field," byne for 
" been," wydes for " weeds," 1550 and 1551, gryved for " grieved," 
jourtyne for "fourteen," spydie for "speedy," preside for "proceed," 
stiven for "Stephen," and so on, right up to the year 1619 in 
numerous examples. 

Now, Middle English e l and Middle English l (modern /") did 
not, and have not, fallen together, either in the modern dialect 
or in standard English. Hence the spelling cannot here mean 
anything else than close approximation of sound, and must rank 
with the much less often found spelling ei, ey \ 1581, cheyse, 
cheysse, "cheese"; 1613, 1615, 1616, 1620, theis(e), "these"; 
1620, feile, "feel"; since neither does Middle English ei, ai 
(Modern English ei, ai written) fall together with this sound at 
any time. 

The first remarkable spelling of short i is that with e> and this 
happens very often. 1550, forbede, "forbid"; 1551, brekes, 
" bricks," Perchard, " Pritchard," medesumer, " midsummer " ; 
1566, dreven, " driven," redde, " rid " ; 1580, injrendge, " infringe"; 
1581, delligent, " diligent " ; 1587, mell, " mill," Echin, " Itchen" ; 
1600, cesterne, "cistern," and so on; ea, 1569, seastron; 1581, 
seastorne, is in all likelihood but a variety of the spelling just 
quoted. The same is perhaps true of the spelling ie, ffrieth for 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXXxiii. 



"frith" in 1581. These spellings probably merely instance the 
tendency to pronounce i as e in men, in the West ; eng for " ing " 
is common, and is a well-known Western characteristic, e.g., 
1566, syltenge for " salting " ; 1581, sayeng for " saying," tarieng, 
" tarrying " ; 1587, lyenge, " lying " ; 1605, weyenge, " weighing," 
and so on. Does the spelling syltenge represent an old West- 
Saxon sieltung, from sieltan, derived from sealt, " salt " ? 

The frequent u in hur(e), " her," is probably for an old Western 
Middle English heor(e). The frequent spelling yelle for " ill " is 
also peculiar. It has of late been discovered that the i -mutation 
of 5 was not always in West Saxon e, but that it was in certain 
Western and Southern dialects oc (as in French eu) to the very 
end. The Middle English eo seems in the same dialects to have 
had the same sound. Compare the regular eo of the A MSS. of 
Piers Plowman with the u of the C MS., which are different 
spellings for an identical sound. The same applies to the word 
in question. MSS. A, Piers Plowman have heore ; MSS. C, hure ; 
but MSS. B, in a very different dialect have here. 

The spellings of long 7 (Standard English) show some peculiari- 
ties. The first is the frequent spelling ie : 1551, kyene, " kine " ; 
1571, hye, "high"; 1573, yeron, "iron," wief, "wife,"; 1582, 
hier, " hire " ; 1602, liekwise, "likewise," hiegh, "high"; 1605, 
liek, "like," Wieght, "Wight"; 1618, hiegewaye, "highway," 
sieght, " sight," and many others. The next remarkable spelling 
is that in ei, frequently heigh(e), " high " ; 1551, drey. 

The commonest, however, of all variant spellings is that in , 
1551, ivere, "wire," whele, "while"; 1566, d revers, " drivers," 
dre, "dry"; 1571, Heethe, " Hythe," leing, "lying"; 1610, 
asseze, " assize " ; and the exceedingly frequent (sometimes quite 
regular) leek, leke, for " like." 

Curious is the egh in wreghtings, " writings," in 1611, side by 
side with heghe, " high." We find igh in lighk, 1611 also. 

The spelling desar for "desire," 1573, is of the greatest 
importance, since c 2 , a, and i would seem thus to fall together 
before r. Overseares for " overseers " shows that e 1 did the same. 
Closely akin to this is the spelling bihaynd for " behind " in 1620. 

All these variant spellings prove a diphthongal pronunciation 
fairly near the modern one. The writer would assume this to be 
either e 2 i (as a in Modern English "name") or aei (a in "man," 
followed by / in "bit.") The reasons for assuming this will be 
given later on. 



CXXX1V. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



It is clear thus that e l , f and ai stood very near to each other 
in what is called the First Modern Period in our Hampshire 
dialect, but never fell together, for they are still divergent there 
at the present day. Hence there is great reason to assume that 
the pronunciation was the first-mentioned, like the pronunciation 
of the English a in name, or rather, perhaps, an approximation to 
it, the first vowel being what is technically known as " closed e " 
and not " open e." The spellings nyghbour, nayghttebour, etc., 
come from two different forms in Late Old English niehgebur 
and neahgebur (becoming negebur ; negbur, neibur). 

Of the short d very little is to be said. The one thing certain 
is that it was neither the pronunciation like that of the cockney 
Gawd for " God," nor was it our educated o in " God." The 
cockney aw of Gawd, dawg, is a practical diphthong (with double 
summit accent). But the " God " of the sixteenth century was 
a sound spoken with the mouth more closed and the tongue 
higher than in our " God." The sound has become lengthened in 
the cockney Gawd. There is not the least analogy. 

The writing oo is only peculiar in one case, namely, in 
that of stookes, 1587, for "stocks." The spellings hense- 
foorthe, 1574, foorth(e), etc., probably reflect not d, but Middle 
English o 1 , a sound unknown to nowaday English, but 
technically known as closed o 1 . It sounds something like 
our curiously triphthongal o in "no," to the untrained English 
ear. This form would come from an Old English fordh with 
a voiced final sound (like th in that), and not to forth, with 
its voiceless final sound (like th in " thew "). The same is true 
of platfoorm, 1574. The form sauft for "soft," 1575, stands for 
modern Hampshire sat, Wiltshire and Far West zat. The 
diphthongal writing au stood then in Hampshire for a, as will 
be later shown, and was spoken like modern English a in 
" father." How the phonetic development, perfectly parallel to 
that of Middle English au, was arrived at, is more difficult to 
determine than how it was pronounced at our period. In 1575 
we have Gerge for " George," possibly merely a miswrit. The 
modern pronunciation is " Jarge." In much the same way the 
sixteenth century Hampshire pronunciation of "soft" was zaht 
or za(r)t. 

The long o sound had in the Middle Ages two varieties. In 
one the mouth was not wide open, but rather closed, like German 
o in " Lohn." This would sound to an inexperienced English 
ear like oa in loan. We call this technically closed o 1 . 



NOTES ON DIALECT. 



cxxxv. 



The second variety was like Modern English aw in thaw. We 
will call this open o 2 . The mouth is opened wider in saying it. 

Let us take open o 2 first. The two commonest writings o and 
oo are not of any very great interest. They simply represent the 
common mediaeval spellings. Examples are abrode for " abroad," 
brocken, "broken," cools, "coals," soo, " so." The spelling oa did 
not come into use until very late. We have one isolated 
example : moast, " most," in 1566 ; but it is thirteen years before 
the next, which come in a pair in 1579, boathe, " both," moast, 
" most." Then in 1581 we get a series, moaste, boathe, oatemeale, 
coale, boat. In 1589, boathe. 

There is an interesting point about these spellings. Let us 
put together in one heap a series of examples taken down in 
order from the various years. 

The first series must contain both all words with a lip-made 
consonant or consonant group before the oa, or else the oa begins 
the word (under this heading comes hoa, since the h was not 
sounded then). Under the second heading come all other oa's. 



I. 



1566 

1579 
1581 



1589 
1600 
1601 
1602 
1604 

1611 
1613 
1615 
1616 
1620 



oath 

hoame, oathe 
abroade, hoame, broaken 
oad, broaken, oathes 



II. 



1581 



coale 



choake 

cloathes 



moast 

boathe, moast 

boathe, moaste, broade, 

oatemeale, boat 
boathe 

oaes (ooze), ooats 
broaken 
boast, oathes 
oase, abroad 

soapy 
choaked 

catchcoale, choaked, 
ghoast [encroached 

catchcoale, coaped 
coapinge 

We may at once say that there is, by far, the greater tendency 
to use oa after labials and labial groups. Let us cast a glance 
over list II. In this heading we have cloathes, coal(e), choak(e), 
encroached, ghoast, coap(ing)e, soapy. Of these, nearly all come 
after cl or cr. The exceptions are ghoast, choake, soapy ; ghoast 
has g initially a guttural ; soap has a p in the same syllable, 
and choake, k, a guttural, in the same syllable. Now be it 
noted that I in English has a very labial sound owing to its 



1605 
1611 
1613 
1615 

1620 



CXXXV1. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. 



being so far back. For instance, we pronounce little as litul, 
and / sounded by itself thus at the end of a word always 
sounds like ul. We then say : Firstly, oa is used at the beginning 
of words or after labial consonants and consonant groups for 
the most part. Secondly, oa is used after gutturals, especially 
in the same syllable as, or before, a labial or /. Thirdly, that 
our only exception has k, a guttural, as the immediately following 
consonant. It would seem as though oa represented a sound 
sharing mostly the peculiarities of a lip-sound or labial, partly 
the peculiarities of a guttural or back sound. We can pretty 
closely determine the value of this oa. It meant a very 
specially Western sound. A fairly clear hint is given by the 
writing doare, dowre in the same year. It is true this represents 
Middle English o 1 , but here both sounds fell together before r. 
But an even clearer hint is given by the writings whole for 
"hold," "hole," "whole "; wh was pronounced w in the West, and 
h was not sounded. Hence the pronunciation was wol. This is 
borne out by the fact that John Hart (1569 1570), of London, 
gives hud as pronunciation of " who," huol as the pronunciation 
of "whole," uoad as the pronunciation of " woad," as a triphthong. 
Likewise whose, whom, are huoz, huom. The h was pronounced 
then in London. It sometimes is now by the so-called educated 
classes. These forms seem to show that initial o 2 as in hold, 
whole, hole, had become -wo-. The writing ow, etc., can only 
mean an u sound (as in our " fool"), and the oa merely expresses 
the fact that the sound was " broken " by an indistinct sound- 
in case of doare the " glide," as it is technically called, on to 
the r. Hence the deduction that initial Middle English o 2 
(whether h preceded is no matter) had become in the sixteenth 
century wo in Hampshire. 

There follows from our conjoint list the further deduction that 
wherever oa was written in our records, na (pronounced oo-er) was 
meant. Hence equally from the same lists it follows that in the 
middle of words, Middle English o 2 had become fia, mainly after 
labials and groups of consonants sounded with the lips ; in the 
next degree after gutturals and groups of consonants like / 
sounded back in the mouth ; and lastly, occasionally before such 
groups of labial and guttural sounds. The sound elsewhere may 
possibly have been o l a, a sound something like the Modern 
English pronunciation of the name " Noah." There follows 
from these examples an almost universal law. We find in the 
year 1569, the spelling yerid for " eared " (adjective). It follows 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXXXvii. 



that the Middle English &re was pronounced yer in the sixteenth 
century, or that initial e 2 had become ye at the same time that o 2 
at the beginning of words had become wo. It would follow that 
open sounds became diphthongized at some period previous to our 
earliest record of such (1550 initially, 1566 internally), that in 
the beginning of words the first element became very " closed " 
in character, and finally became a semi -vowel (or, as the old 
grammarians would call it, one of the consonants w and y). 
But in the middle of words it had not, at that time, gone so far. 
After such congenial sounds as labials and back gutturals, o (a 
half-back labial, in technical language) had become earlier uo 
and at our time ua or iid. Elsewhere it may have remained 6b or 
da (a kind of drawled long o with a sinking end) ; e 2 should then 
have become e l d or even Id in the middle of words after dentals 
and frontal sounds (like s), and elsewhere have remained <?9 
(sounded as a in " care "), but of this we have no records. Our 
only sure proofs are those in " a " showing an &d sound. Finally, 
and in sundry much used monosyllables, o 2 after w, Middle 
English o 2 has quite clearly become u (sounded as oo in " food "). 
Examples are woo, whoo, " who," 1550 1574 ; home (=ome), 
." whom," oad, " woad," 1616 ; tow, towe, two, too = " two," 
1582 1589, 1596, 1605, 1619. The spelling too dates from 1619. 
Hence, at that date, we may remark in passing on, the spelling 
oo could represent final long u (oo in English " food "). That 
final o could represent u is shown by the occasional spelling yd 
for " you "in our records. 

The same principle underlies the writing gowinge for " going " 
in the year 1590. It must have been sounded gu(w)ing 
(=goo{w)ing), with the v. sound for the final o 2 of " go." From 
this, through u becoming w, we get Modern gwain, gwan, gwin in 
Hampshire. Here the back g played the same part as the (lost) w 
did in " two," " who," " whom," etc. The word oaes, oase, 1600, 
etc., " mud," belongs here, Old English wase. Before -Id, -II the 
writing bu, ow, for Middle English o 2 , is frequent. Examples are 
sould, "sold," 1569, 1571, 1579, 1611, 1613; skowldes, "scolds," 
1579; ould(e), 1600, 1611, 1615, 1616, 1619, 1620, "old"; toule, 
"toll," 1581 ; tould, 1602; gould, 1616. This ou might possibly 
mean n (as in " food "). It might also mean ou (as in " owe "), 
and this would more accord with the Modern Hampshire forms 
old, sold, told, unless these be borrowed from Standard English. 
If so, then Middle English o 2 had become ou before Id, II. 
Further West wol(d), swol(d), twol(d), show diphthongization in 
this period through uo to wo. 



CXXXV111. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



The spelling of holm for "home" in 1566 is unusual. It 
should be home or hoame, as elsewhere. Possibly there were two 
forms, one, dum (with / written for u, after the analogy of words of 
French extraction) ; the other, worn or uam, written home, hoame. 
The spelling hoames for "holms," probably means fiams or 
woms, the / having become mute. Perhaps the confusion 
between the sounds of these two words led to an arbitrary 
differentiation accidentally expressed in these two writings. 

The two chief spellings of Middle English 5 1 are those in o and 
oo, which are very numerous: 1550, boke, doves, good] 1551, 
doynge, done, don, booke; 1566, blode, shote ; 1569, dothe, moneth ; 
1574, doone, doo, doothe ; 1579, boothe, stoole ; 1585, shottynge, 
"shooting"; 1587, loose, stoode ; 1589, don (infinitive); 1604, 
moove ; 1611, aboard ; 1620, woomen ; 1603, woemen. More 
important are the variant spellings in ou, ow : understonde, 
"understood," 1550; howper, "hooper," 1551, 1589; dowthe, 
dowth, "doth," dou, " do," 1569, 1589, 1590 ; reffourme, "reform," 
1569; stoude, "stood," 1574; doune, "done," 1576; showmakers, 
"shoemakers," 1580; towke, "took," 1580; louked, 1590, 1600, 
1602 ; couks, " cooks," 1590 ; hollyrowds, " Hollyroods," 1600 ; 
dowre, 1602; browme, "broom," fflower, "floor," 1602, 1603; 
fowrth, "fourth," floud, and bloudshed, "bloodshed," 1604, 1624; 
weatherbowrdinge, " weatherboarding," etc. 

Of the same weight are the spellings in u : duthe, du, dune, 
"doth," "do," "done," 1551; shumakker, 1551 ; bhtd(de), 1566, 
1574, 1604, "blood" ; bluddshed, 1603, 1615, " bloodshed" ; jut, 
"foot," 1573; shutte, "shoot," -1573, 1585; shuters, 1579, 
" shooters " ; tither, 1576. These writings, with the shewmakers, 
"shoemakers," 1603, cannot well together- taken mean much else 
than ft (pronounced as oo in "mood"*. But there is a curious 
series of spellings in oa for Middle English o 1 , namely, 1596, 
leaking, " looking " (beside lowked) ; 1620, loakt ; 1602, doare, 
" door " (almost in the same line as dowre}, and so doare, doares ; 
1604, 1611, 1612, 1613, 1615, 1616, 1620, loakt. Now the two 
words here, "look" excepted, have Middle English o l before r. 
They spell it at once ow and oa. Further, a number of words 
also with Middle English o l before r insist on spelling it 
owe-r, where the ower had most likely the same value as 
the oare in others; 1605, power, "poor," fflower, "floor." It 
seems that we must take it that these forms expressed the 
value fid (which we have elsewhere attributed to the writing 
oa, and that we may say Middle English o l became u (oo of 
" mood ") in the sixteenth century in Hampshire, except before r, 



NOTES ON DIALECT. CXXX1X. 



where it became ud. In the word " look "it became ud, not u. 
The writing shuting for "shooting," 1587, confirms this theory; 
the o and u sounds were then close enough together for confusion 
in spelling to arise, the o had in fact become true ft, just as the 
old u had set out on its way to a very different pronunciation. 
And they almost met at us doors. 

There is little due to the pronunciation of ft. It was certainly 
not the sound of long u as in moon, neither was it that of the 
mid-long sound of u in good. It was more probably, as will be 
shown, the short sound of u as found in the modern put, hoof. 
Thus butcher was probably pronounced then as now, but but had 
its u sound exactly as in put. To put it phonologically, the 
short u had neither become unrounded nor lowered. The most 
natural spelling is that in -ft-; 1550, up; 1551, putt, suche; 
1566, much; 1569, suche ; 1573, sumer ; 1604, sucker, "succour," 
etc., etc. The next spelling is that in ou, e.g., bourne, 1550, 
" bourn." 'This possibly, however, represents Middle English ). 
1569, roubeshe, "rubbish"; 1571, soundrye ; 1574, coustom ; 
1575, dounghill, couler, "colour"; 1576, souneken, "sunken"; 
1581, rounge; 1600, woull, "wool," woude, "wood"; 1602, 
wouden, woudden, " wooden." 

Then come two spellings which are in a group by themselves. 
The first of these is "oo": 1551, cootte, "cut"; 1569, booshels, 
"bushels"; 1571, hoockster, "huckster"; 1573, roobidge, "rub- 
bish"; 1574, doong, "dung"; 1576, boollocke, "bullock"; 
1579, aboove, "above"; 1581, sooun, "soon"; 1587, coolerably, 
" colourably " ; 1600-1620, wood, wood(e). Now, this proves that 
oo could represent an u sound. The only way in which this 
could have come about was that Middle English o had become 
u, and this had sometimes even been shortened to ft, whilst the 
old spelling oo was still kept up in the same old words. The 
other of these two spellings is that in -o- : 1566, come, " come," 
rone, " run," forther, " further," moch, " much " ; 1569, Portiswode, 
" Portswood," nomber, " number " ; 1571, costomers, " customers " ; 
J 573> corrantly, " currently " ; 1574, torves, " turves," robe, " rub," 
tob(be)s, tobes ; 1587, colerably, " colourably," jorneymen, "journey- 
men "; 1589, somer, "summer"; 1604, wodden, " wooden," etc. 
This also points out that o could be used as an u sound, there- 
fore the use of oa is an ua sound. There is not the slightest 
proof that ft (pronounced as in " put ") had yet become A (v 
.written upside down, which means the sound of u in " but "), 
although it later did become that sound. 



Cxi. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



Middle English u is a very interesting sound, if only because 
of the fact that this n (=sounded like oo in " mood ") became 
5u on its way to au (nearly the present sound of ow in " crowd "), 
whilst o and ow were both becoming ou and ou\ so that towards 
the close of the sixteenth century these sounds, it is necessary 
for the grammarians to point out, had, at that time, very slight 
difference between them. To-day they are widely sundered 
from each other, just as they were far asunder in the middle 
ages forerunning our epoch. 

The first spelling we must take is that in u. There are very 
few of these examples, and they are all early. In 1550 we have 
Suthampton, but here the u is probably short, the modern pro- 
nunciation being Sthdmptn, with circumflexed accentuation of the 
a (long falling expiratory beginning, ended by a sudden musical 
rise at end). In 1551 we have fttt, " out," suthe, " south," mutthe, 
"mouth," witheutt, "without"; 1585, escuer, "scour." The 
last word probably represents a certain conservatism of sound 
before final r, due to the tendency to " break " the sound at the 
end, and so avoid the diphthongization at the beginning. 
In plain English, they wished as long as possible to say 
scooahr, and not scour. The word shuting, 1587, for " shooting," 
from Middle English 1 , shows that this n was still sounded with 
an //-like sound, since o had become u by quite a bye-way. 

The commonest spelling, however, is that in ou : 1550, abowts, 
towne, Southampton (but here ou=ft), house, cowe, owte, " out " ; 
1551, throwtt, " through " (though-out ?) ; 1566, towen, " town " ; 
1580, ower, " hour " ; 1587, throwlie, " thoroughly." 

The word " scour " here provides us with quite a multitude of 
spellings. Besides escuer we have escower ; 1589, escoveryd ; 
1594, escoured ; 1620, scowring ; 1624, scower. 

The third spelling, and for its abnormality rather a frequent 
one, is that in ogh, ough ; 1551, aboghtte, abonghtte, abowghte,= 
" about " (quite regularly in these forms throughout this year) ; 
1571, withought, "without"; 1590, dought, "doubt"; 1602 
1604, abought= u about." Several things follow from this 
spelling. Firstly, that the gh was silent then, in so far as 
concerns its guttural quality. Secondly, that the product either 
of Middle English o(u)h or Middle English uh were near enough 
to the product of Middle English n to cause absolute confusion 
in. spelling. Possibly, the original o or /"/ had a slightly opener 
quality than the latter part, which had been still kept round and 
closed by the disappearing labialised guttural in certain -ough- 



NOTES ON DIALECT. cxli. 



words. But this is far too technical a question to go into. But 
perhaps the then value of ough sounds was ou or on, and this ogh 
writing marks the first beginnings of the modern pronunciation 
of Middle English ft as a diphthong. Keeping the ft writing in 
view, however, it is perhaps better to hold to the -oo- sound of 
"food," which is nearer a diphthong than the -oo- of "mood." 

The writing -oo- is also met with : coorte, 1605 ; soope, "soup," 
1623. The lateness of these writings makes them strangely 
significant. Both of these sounds would seem to have remained 
ft, even in Standard English, long after the diphthongisation of 
the other ft's, and in the case of " soup " it is u to the present 
day ; n before Y + consonant regularly survived. A fifth spelling 
in -o- is also met with : 1550, tone, "town," avoche, " avouch " ; 
1551, withott, "without," hosse, "house"; 1566, ote, "out"; 
1573, gronde, "ground"; 1582, rome, "room" (this word is 
important, as it has, in the southern dialects at least, always 
remained u in company with " wound," 1585, yo, " you "), escoer, 
" to scour " ; 1589, Portessmothe. The word " bowling" is spelt 
bullinge 1551, boleng 1566, etc. It is difficult to say exactly 
what was the sound of u at this period. It certainly was not 
the oo of " mood," our nearest approach to a true u sound. 
It more likely was a diphthong, whose first element was a very 
open (that is to say, pronounced with the mouth wide open) and 
almost, but not quite, unrounded u. It was an ft on its way 
from the sound of u in " put " to that of u in " but," but as yet 
not even half-way on its journey. Its second element was 
probably the ordinary u. But ordinary Middle English o 1 had 
become ft, a simple sound (practically our English ft in " mood "). 

In Middle English there are supposed to have been, amongst 
other sounds unknown to modern English, two which stood 
especially close to one another. The one came from French u, and 
we will call it u ; the other came from various sounds, chiefly 
Old English -cow, and we will call it e l u. We will first take 
Old French ii. The usual spelling of this is u in our records : 
1550, refuse, duly, suertie\ 1551, askwes ; 1569, suert yes ; 1571, 
/ rut full. It is occasionally spelt ui : 1550, suyt, ensuyth. It is 
also spelt eu : 1550, contynewed ; 1551, dewely, statewtes ; 1581, 
rewnious ; 1611, slewes, " sluice," etc. 

But the most important spelling of all, and one which settles 
the fiercely debated question of the sixteenth century's pronun- 
ciation of this sound, are the following few, luckily occurring 
in our records and whose occurrence there would alone 



Cxlii. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



justify their publication. They mostly occur in the year 1551. 
They are yowssyde, yowssed, for "used," stattyutte, stattyoots, 
11 statutes." From these spellings it follows straightway that 
the pronunciation of Old French u was, in England, in the six- 
teenth century, yu or iu. Equally well it follows that the writing 
oo meant u, and was quite an usual character for it by the middle 
of the sixteenth century. Thus we now know (i) that Old 
French u was, circa 1550, yu in south England ; (2) that Middle 
English o was, circa 1550, u in Hampshire ; and (3) that 
Middle English u must have begun its diphthongization, as it did 
not fall together with Middle English 0. That this spelling, yfi, 
yew, yoo, meant yu, and nothing else, can be proved from certain 
other spellings. The spellings shurttys, shurttes, can only be 
understood on the ground that s became sh by way of sy. 

In the year 1613 we have, side by side, the two spellings 
Ewstace, Yewstace, with Ustis for the same in 1618. They all, of 
course, mean " Eustace." Hence, there is no doubt that by 1550, 
u, eu, were simply pronounced yu, practically in the same way 
as they are to-day. The sameness in general spelling and pro- 
nunciation between u and the diphthong e l u bespeaks an identity 
of pronunciation. It is written both u, ue, ui, and eu, e.g., 1550, 
knew, trew, " true " ; 1573, newe, " new " ; 1579, treuth, " truth "; 
1587, dewtye\ 1551, albruar, "alebrewer"; 1571, brue, bruers ; 
1579-1581, renued, " renewed" ; 1587, flue, " flew." 

As to middle e 2 u, the fact that it is never written u shows that 
the e was then still pronounced either as e 2 or e 1 . Such is shown 
by the writing feawe, " few," in our records. 

The diphthongs ai and ei had fallen together in the middle 
ages. The most common spellings are the somewhat indis- 
criminate ones in ai, ei, eg., 1550, weye, waye, "way," theye, 
theym, " they," " them " ; 1551, mayre, " mayor " ; 1566, ley, " to 
lay," th'eyars, " the heirs " ; 1569, laye, " to lay," forfaighted, 
"forfeited," forfeighted, forfeyted, theire, "their"; 1571, weit, 
"weight"; 1575, eyther, "either," theive, "their," tvaights, 
"weights" ; 1590, stayers', 1619, 1620, etc. 

Remarkable are spellings disseayte, " deceit," in 1571, as 
compared with dessayt, deceyt, elsewhere. It reminds us of seaye 
for "sea," before-quoted. Equally interesting is fayour for 
" fair," 1602. There are sundry French words, all of them taken 
into the language at an early epoch, which have a very varied 
spelling. They are words from spoken Old French e 2 i, ai, taken 
over after e*i had become e 2 , but before the taking over of what 



NOTES ON DIALECT. Cxliii. 



may be called written French had become a source of loanwords, 
after Anglo-French was dead as a generally spoken language. 

The words from Old French spoken ei, ai, which had become 
? in Old French itself (of the Anglo-Norman brew) are such as 
" increase " (Old French encreistre), " receive " (Old French 
recewre), " reason " (Old French raison). Examples of these are 
increyse, desseyve, receyvithe, receyve, 1569, 1581, 1582, etc. The 
second spelling is that in e, such as meraltie, 1550 ; the" they," 
theme=" them," 1551 ; agenist=" against," there=" their," forfeit 
=" forfeit," 1566 ; nether=" neither," 1573 ; ther(e)= u their," 
J 575> I 59 6 > Z 6oo, 1602, 1603, l6 5> 1618; nether=" neither," 
1581, 1615, 1616, 1617. Spellings here of the Old French e 2 type 
are dessevyd, "deceived," sessunyd, " seasoned," 1551; apertene, 
1580 ; resseve, 1582. There is a third spelling in ea : theare= 
"their," 1569, 1571, 1574, 1582, 1587, 1590; steares=" stairs," 
1574, 1576, 1579, 1580, 1581, 1587, 1590, 1617, 1618, 1620; kea 

" quay," various times. For Old French spoken e 2 , reason, 
please, 1550; seassid, "seized," 1569; receavid, 1571; lease, 
encrease, meason, " maison," 1596-1605; peare = " pair," 1618. 
Apart from Old French e 2 , ei, and the word them* the, ether, 
nether, agenist, which can be put on one side, either as belonging 
elsewhere or else as subject to eulcitic and proclitic use, e, ea, 
only occur before r. There is a fourth spelling in a which is of 
very great interest: 1550, forfature, "forfeiture"; 1566, taller, 
"tailor"; 1575, refrane, "refrain"; 1587, twane, "twain"; 
1589, drane, " drain " ; 1596, forsad, " foresaid " (strictly speaking 
does not belong here) ; 1603, entrales, " entrails." It will be seen 
that all examples of this occur before /, m, n, r, with the exception 
of the very doubtful examples before t, d. It may be guessed 
that ai, ei became ed (or ad, d=a in " bat ") before /, m, n, r. 
We have a fifth row of spellings in i, ie, but very seldom : 1573, 
forfyture ; 1579, forfiete. They both refer to French e 2 . 

Now, we have contemporary statements as to the Western 
pronunciation of ai, ei. Smith refers to " Eurosaxones populares 
mei rusticiores sayng. Rustici vtranque aut extremam saltern 
literam Ion gam sonaubes, pinguem quendam odiosum et nimis 
adipatum sonum reddunt : pai, dai, wai, mai, lai," and again, 
" nimis pingui et adipato sono way, day, pay, ut etiam tinnitum 
illud i reddat in fine." Now this sign a of Smith's, he also uses 
for the Scots sound : " ban aut bean, stdn aut stean, cuius sonus 
est intermedius inter a Romanum et e." " Whose sound lies 
between Roman a and e" What better proof that Standard 



cxliv. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. 



English could then sound ea as a in " man," and that di in the 
west was sounded as aei (the sound of a in " man " followed 
by / in " bit "). But how, then, to explain the spellings in a before 
I, m, n, r, and the spellings in I as well as those in e. The 
spellings in a before /, m, n, r, merely show that of aei the final 
/-like sound became " darkened " or turned into a mere glide on 
to the liquid, leaving ac alone. The spellings in J represent Old 
French e 2 , and if they are not miswrits show merely the tendency 
to exaggerate the e beginning of the diphthong ei which was the 
beginning of that sound. The spelling e for ei before r and m, 
where not due to " stresslessness" merely shows the same character 
as those before r ; a, e 2 , I fell together before r. The spellings in 
ea merely represent more exactly, where they do represent true 
Middle English at, ei, the fact that this sound was very near the 
sound of ai in Modern English " chair" before r. In fact it was 
d9 (a in " man " followed by er in " better "). 

The diphthong ou (from Middle English) had two varieties of 
spelling. The first was the old spelling in ow, as 1550, Mucklow, 
mokelow ; 1551, trowes ("troughs," really a spelling of ongh) ; 
1566, arowes, owen, "own," knowen, "known," bowes, "bows," 
growe, " grow " ; 1571, throwen, " thrown," windowes, oun, " own "; 
1573, unmowen] 1587, overflow; 1589, owne, throw, 1662, oune, 
"own," sowen\ 1604, throwe, etc. The spelling o first occurs in 
unstressed syllables : 1550, Mokelo, Mucklo, for " Mucklow " ; 
1551, wyndos, "windows," foloynge, folloyde, "following," 
"followed"; 1566, wydo, "widow," folio, "follow"; 1569, 
shadoinge, "shadowing." In stressed syllables tros of 1571 is 
really a spelling for -ough. But oo, >o for ow in stressed syllables, 
or syllables having the accent on them, really begins in 1587, or 
nearly forty years later, with groo, "grow," overthron, "over- 
thrown"; 1589, 1590, honars, "owners"; 1590, ovarfloeth, 
" overfloweth " ; 1602, bestoed, "bestowed." After this the 
Standard English spelling makes itself felt. Evidently the 
diphthong ow lost its w before the middle of the sixteenth 
century in unstressed syllables, but kept it in stressed syllables 
until two or three years before the last decade of that century. 
The conventional spelling ow does not count after once the 
spelling o, oo has shown its real existence. The fact that the 
spelling oa is never used shows that this ow had become pure o, 
and was not " broken " to /"/a, which is the invariable meaning 
of Hampshire oa. When we deal with the spellings trowes, 1551 ; 
tros, " troughs," 1571 ; thowe, " though," 1575 ; we must remember 



NOTES ON DIALECT. Cxlv. 



we have variants within one and the same dialect ; both trowes 
and tros could correctly represent truz, which gives the modern 
dialect trauz (ow as in " cow "), but that also the form tro, which 
they may have represented, can have died out. That in the case 
of the true -ow diphthongs the reading o is correct is shown by 
on, the modern dialect for " own," honars, etc. in our records ; 
thowe is, however, represented by thoj in our modern dialect, and 
it can be right to assume that there were two forms, and that 
the old tho has died out. 

The diphthong au has two spellings in our records. The first 
is the spelling au or augh. Examples of this are : 1550, defawete, 
11 default " ; 1566, sawte, " salt," fawte, " fault," cawse, " cause " ; 
1574, saulte, "salt"; 1575, 1576, 1578, slawterhouse, slawter, 
" slaughterhouse," " slaughter" ; 1579, vaught, " vault." There is 
little interest in these series of spellings. They merely serve to 
demonstrate the muteness of the gh, etc. But there is the 
greatest interest in the next row of spellings. We have the 
spelling a in the following: 1551, slatterhouse, "slaughter- 
house"; 1566, AstinSy "Austin's"; 1574, slatterhouse', 1579, 
sclaterhouse, "slaughterhouse"; 1579, Indie, " Lawday " ; 1580, 
madlin, " magdalen," otherwise spelt mawdlin, maudlen, etc., and 
the spelling water for " Walter." In 1600 we have fradulently 
for " fraudulently." There is little doubt, in fact, none at all, 
that Middle English au had here become a (a in "father"), 
and it is this a which gives rise to the Modern Hampshire dialect 
forms in ae, aea (ae as in " man''). We have modern Hampshire 
lae for " law," in our records la. Further, the modern Hamp- 
shire ae in daetdr is represented by augh in our records, where 
alone, of all Middle English ough forms, au is found. Obviously, 
au to our scribes sounded like a in our modern " father." This 
explains the curious spelling waiter for " water " earlier men- 
tioned in our records ; al merely was a spelling for au, which was 
sounded a, as in " father." The w in water had kept the a from 
becoming e 2 in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and 
" water " was then sounded like wahter. The modern Hampshire 
dialect correctly represents every Middle English au, as a rule by 
ae or aea ; draw becomes drdea, gnaw becomes naea, etc. Our 
writing represents the intermediate stage a. 

It is curious to note that Germanic au becomes ea, aea in Old 
English. Old Frisian has a. Is not this the same change from 
au through da to a, and then finally to aea, ae, which is shown 
in the Hampshire dialect ? (and in the modern cockney dialect 



Cxlvi. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



too ; compare the dan for " down," na for " now " of the lower 
classes in London). In this case Old Frisian a is the more 
archaic form than Old English aea, ea. 

The forms in ough, ogh, augh, are much more difficult : 1550, 
brought, thought, bought ; 1551, broghtte, ought ; 1566, daughter 
(pronounced dater, modern Hampshire daet9r), owght, althoughe ; 
1571, brout ; 1574, thaught (was this pronounced that ?) ; 1580, 
brout ; 1662, thoght, boght, etc. The au in augh probably means 
a. Even the au of fawte, " fault," sawte, " salt," of our records 
is represented in the modern Mid- West by vaet, faet, saeGt, 
zaedt, saedt, etc. 

This completes our survey of the stressed vowels. They were 
sounded as follows : 

a equals a in " care," i.e., ed. 

ea, e, when equal to modern English ea, as a in " care." The 
same is true when German a or ah. 

ee, ea, e, when equal to modern English ee (except " street," 
" were," etc.), as e l 9 or id in " see-er." 

J, as a in " name." 

oa, o, when equal modern English oa, as oor in " moor." 

o, oa, ou, oo, when equal modern English oo, as oo in " mood." 

ft something like wo, oo in " two," " too," drawn out very long. 
One cannot really show the exact sound by modern examples. 

ei, ai, as a in " man," followed by i in " bit." 

ow, after 1587, as " oh" in stressed syllables, always so in un- 
stressed syllables. 

au, as a in " father." 

ew, u, ul = e l w and French u, as " you " (yoo). 

a, as German a in " hat." 

e, as e in " men." 

/, nearly as i in " men," but nearer i in " bit." 

o, as o in " lost." 

u, as u in " put." 

THE LAW OF PARALLELISM. 

As often as a vowel leaves its original position, it begins to 
occupy that of another vowel or diphthong. This causes con- 
fusion of meaning. The confusion of meaning results in an 
attempt to distinguish the two sounds. This moves the second 
sound into another position. If this then travels into the 
domains of another sound, the third sound is driven out, again to 
avoid confusion of meaning. Eventually the space originally 



NOTES ON DIALECT. Cxlvii. 



occupied by the first vowel being left vacant, another vowel at 
the end of the gamut is forced by the whole series of changes 
into it, and the original group of vowels stands thus once again 
represented. Thus every primary vowel will have changed, and 
yet there will always be the same row of primary vowels, for as 
soon as one vowel leaves its ground, the shifting drives another 
vowel at the end of the long chain of existing vowels into the 
vacant position. 

Thus we had in Old English : 

stan, hwdet, cene, hwit, mo l na, me l na, cu. 

These became in Middle English : 

sto 2 n, hwe 2 t, keen, cow(cu), mone. 
= d* = e* = e 1 = o 1 = o 1 

a was vacant, Old English a in open syllables lengthened and 
took its place thus name. 

In Modern English : 

sto l n (> stoun), hwit, km, hivait (= white), mun (> muwn). 

The process of the re-making of vowel sounds is thus shown. 

The place of Middle English a became vacant in the South 
and Midlands about 1170 1200 A.D., but about the middle of 
the thirteenth century or rather earlier, short a in open syllables 
became lengthened and thus filled up the gap. Between 1170 
1 200, etc., the a was hovering between a and o 2 . Thus, later, 
when the e 2 > e 1 , the a began to become e 2 , and thus the gap was 
filled again. So also when u became ou in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, o l became u and thus replaced it. 

And so all the five sounds had changed, yet the whole row of 
sounds still existed. 

Thus, again, in so far as regards the Hampshire dialect : 

Middle English : 

, e 2 , e 1 , f, o 2 , o 1 , u, ai, ou, au, u, e*u. 

Sixteenth century Hampshire : 

a > ed = e ; e 2 > e 2 = e ; e > id, e l & = i; i> ei ; <5* > 
ud ; o > u ; u > ou ; ai > aei ; ou > e 1 ; au > a ; 
(u > yu) e*u > e l u or lu. 
Thus we have again : 

a, ed, e, 19, J, o, u, ud, yu, aki (ei), du. 
And again in the modern dialect : 

e9 > id ; e l & > i ; o > o ; u > u ; uQ > u9 ; yu > yu ; 

aei > ai ; ou > au ; a > ae. 

o lengthened before r -I- consonant to a ; and a is also 
replaced from other sources. 



cxlviii. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. 



Thus every three or four hundred years seems to show a 
further move on in the clock-like series of sounds. 

THE UNSTRESSED VOWELS. 

Of the unstressed vowels, either a great deal or else a very 
little must be said ; and since we have occupied so much space 
already with the stressed vowels, which are more important for 
our purpose, we must confine ourselves to a much shorter space 
in treating of the unstressed vowels. 

The main fact to be recognised in the unstressed syllables is 
the complete blurring of the quality of the vowels, which become 
merely indistinctive consonant glides. Thus, for example, 
" succour " is spelt sucker, " colour " is coler, " colourably," colerably. 

The following laws may be put forward : 

(1) When the unstressed vowel is in a final syllable, or 

before a still more unstressed syllable, then it is preserved 
as an indistinct mixed vowel ; coler, " colour " ; sucker, 
" succour" ; savers, " saviour," 569. 

(2) When the unstressed vowel occurs in a syllable after the 

primary stress, and immediately before the secondary 
stress, then it is lost altogether, provided that the final 
consonant of the syllable bearing the primary stress 
and the first consonant of the syllable bearing the 
secondary stress, can form a single consonantal com- 
bination capable of being pronounced at the beginnings 
of words or syllables. Thus, "reasonable," resonable, 
becomes reasnable, pronounced rea-znable. A like change 
is already found in Middle English and Old French. 

(3) If the final consonant of the primarily stressed syllable 

and the initial vowel of the secondarily stressed syllable 
cannot combine to form one initial consonant com- 
bination, then the vowel of the unstressed intervening 
syllable cannot be altogether lost, but is preserved as 
an unstressed indistinct murmer vowel, i.e., colerable for 
" colourable." 

(4) Unstressed short i and e are confused in such termina- 

tions as -id, -ed, -is, -es, -ith, -eth, etc., yowssyde, 
yowssed. 

(5) The ending I, answering to Old English -ig, Old French 

-e(t), is found both in I and e : ferry, fyrre, " ferry " ; 
shurttys, shurttes, " sureties." 

(6) -our is fairly frequently found as -er. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. Cxlix. 



(7) The endings beginning with y, such as -ure (-yu), -yer, do 
not become -er. The spelling bowear, " bowyer," is 
especially interesting, as it shows that -yer could be 
written -ear. We thus probably have to set for initial 
ea from Middle English e 2 , the value of -ye-, te. 

THE CONSONANTS. 

It remains for us now to take the history of the consonants. 
This can be done very shortly. 

The consonant d seems to have been lost after / or n, when 
the vowel of the syllable immediately forerunning had been 
lengthened before this group of Id, nd in Old English. Written 
proofs are necessarily few, but we may quote the following : 
Suffyle for " Suffield," 1587 ; Catchcole, Catchcoale, 1592-1596, 1613- 
1618, etc. for " Catchcold " ; whole for "hold," 1603. Spellings 
which prove that the d was not sounded in the old combinations 
Id, nd, after a long vowel, are also found, e.g., vildely for " vilely," 
1613 ; ondly, " only," is quite a common spelling in these records, 
so is yndkepers for " innkeepers," Allhollands, Allhallonds for 
" All Hallows." From the forms in ond, eld, lid, we may gather 
that Id, nd, after a lengthened vowel in Old English, which they 
had lengthened by being in the same syllable with it, dis- 
appeared in the sixteenth century when final or when in the 
same syllable as the lengthened d or e, l. This is shown by 
the remnants of the old South- Western English dialect still 
living in the south-east corner of Ireland at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, which had been transplanted thither in 
the early part of the Middle English period. The lengthening 
probably took place under the working of certain stress laws 
formulated by Axel Kock, when the following syllable contained 
a secondary stress due either to an Indo- Germanic circumflex or 
to the loss of a third syllable in a recent period. Thus, londe for 
londa in the genitive plural, louden for londum (=londumiz). 
Thus, in Middle Kentish, the vowel was regularly short when no 
inflection followed ; land but londe. The same was partially true. 
But where the Indo-Germanic following syllable was acutely 
stressed, or the secondary stress, due to Germanic loss, had been 
worn away by age, the vowel in the stress syllable remained un- 
lengthened before these consonant groups. Of course, the forms 
became very mixed up later, but these are the regular forms. 
Thus the writing feyld, " field "=fol or f&l, but fylde=feild ; 
hond, london or won, Ion, but honde, londe ond, lond ; t seems 



d. NOTES ON DIALECT. 



to have had a tendency to become d after vowel-likes, e.g., such 
forms as saynd, "saint." The same is true of th, which became 
occasionally d after r, e.g., farder from furdhor (the comparative 
of " forth ") ; murder from mordhor, " death " ; t seems to have 
been lost after /, s (and one would expect after th voiceless), 
under certain conditions which may be, before a following 
liquid, e.g., frequently beasse, " beast," loffe, " loft," off en, " often" ; 
th seems to have become t before w, as in atwarte, 1580, 
" athwart." The same sound-change occurred in Middle Low 
German ; I is lost before /, m, after a vowel, and the law seems 
to be that r became mute before / (voiceless) under the same 
conditions, e.g., 1551, behaffe, beharffe, buff, for "behalf"; in 
1551 behaff is the regular form throughout that year. The 
spelling beharffe seems to show that r was mute under the same 
conditions ; holm for "home" shows mute / in 1566, and hoames 
for "holms," hollybushes, bears eloquent witness to the same 
fact in 1604 ; n is lost after / in kyll for " kiln " ; r was always 
then, as now, of the cerebral type or pronounced with the 
tip of the tongue turned up backward, so that the trill was 
made with the underpart of the tongue, from the hard palate 
down to the beginnings of the alocolar process. The sound 
seems to have been so distinctly vibrative that in stressed 
syllables before n it was doubled, and inorganic vowels written 
after it, to give some impression of its power, e.g., warren, 
warrened, 1581; 1582, waranenge; 1620, "warn," "warned," 
" warning." But stubbynnesse for " stubbornness," unless it be a 
loanword from Standard English, shows that r could become 
mute before n in stressless syllables in 1566. It tended to trans- 
form every shortened vowel into its own glide, e.g., hure, 
" her " (if hure be not a correct Western development 
from Late Middle English hu(e)re, Early Middle English 
heore, Late Old English heore from analogy of heora), churr- 
maide, " charmaid," 1616; w in monosyllables seems to have 
shifted a following a in Old English times, early part d 2 , so 
that in Middle English it became d 1 , a closed sound. Then the 
w disappeared as this sound tended to become n, and we are 
either left with the monophthong 11 or 'the diphthong u&, e.g., 
twa > two 2 > two 1 > t(w)u > tn, written in our records towe, tow, 
too, two ; hwam > hwo 2 m > wo 1 m > (w)um, written in our records 
ho(o)m(e), whom(e), etc. ; hwa > hwo 2 > wo > (w)u, written hoo, 
woo, who in our records ; so hwas > hwo 2 s > wo l s > (w)uz, in our 
records written whose, woos, etc. It is doubtful whether the 






NOTES ON DIALECT. cli. 



w here written is really an old one in the forms woo, woos, or is 
redeveloped out of the diphthong uo initially. Wase, " mud " > 
wo 2 se > wo l se > udz, written oaes, oasse, oase in our records ; w is 
often lost after a sibilant at the beginning of an unstressed 
syllable in our records, e.g., causey for " causeway," frequently, 
Gosellane for " Goswell Lane." A new w has been developed 
initially from m, e, o 2 , which became uo and then wo at the 
beginnings of words, e.g., whole (pronounce wol) for "hold," 
" hole," " whole." A new y has been developed from e* at the 
beginning of words, e.g., yerid. It passed through e 2 > ee > e l e > 
ie > ye. The sound ea can be demonstrated to have the value 
ye initially ; h became lost everywhere, just as wh became w. 
Examples of this in writing are : were for " where," wyche for 
" which," woos for " whose." The counter-spelling wh for w is 
also found, awhaye for " away," whe for " we," 155, ondes for 
hondes, " hands," hogsedes, " hogsheads," coward for coweharde for 
"cowherd," hall hollond for All Holland=" All Hallows"; / 
initially had become v. Hence we find it sometimes so written : 
vyrkynes, "firkins," verye, "ferry," 1566, 1581, 1594; verry, 
"ferry," virzes, virze, 1600, 1603, 1613 ; vtrzehowses, 1613 ; verrie, 
"ferry," 1603, I6I3- 1 ; / is regularly lost after / before p in the 
word halpenys, halpens, "half-penny," "half-pence"; d, t, s, 
before a following y sound become dzh, tsh, sh, usually written 
dg or g, or dy, c (for tsh), ti, si or ch, c (for sh), sh, s, sy. These 
pronunciations are clearly proved by such writings as dy for dj 
in adyoining, " adjoining," 1580. Middle English u is yu, and 
therefore gives the same results: shurttys, "sureties," 1550; 
Kaynesoytte (1550) is later found as Caneshot, Caneshewt, 1589 ; 
Cansewt, 1589 ; Caneshut, 1596 ; Caneshoott, 1619, 1620 ; -tion, 
-cion is usually written -con : execucons, " executions," monycon, 
" monition," reparacons, " reparations," vizitacon, " visitation " ; 
s, sy is also used : proclamassons, " proclamations," awynesyeunt, 
" ancient," redemsyon, " redemption." Thus by analogy we find 
encrosid several times for " encroached." The same facts are 
shown by such writings as strang for " strange," 1566 ; Segwicke 
for " Sedgwicke," etc. The strange form encrochid, 1582, for 
" engrossed," shows the resulting confusion between ch and s 
signs (cf. shuche for " suche," 1551, as perhaps also sherche for 
" search," 1585). It also shows the tendency to voice pretonic 
consonants. The explanation of vacabondis for " vagabonds," 

i The writer's relatives and parents, born at Bomsey, always use initial v and z in speaking dialect, 
although modern dialect researchers give/ and *. Moreover, to the writer's knowledge, people of the 
came age do gtill use v and z. 



clii. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. 



1569, perhaps also depends on a difference of accentuation ; 
s final for sh is also met with a certain number of times, cf. 
rubbesse for " rubbish," but also rubbydgs for the same word, 
1582 ; Ynglysse for " English," 1550 ; marres for " marsh," 1569. 

MORPHOLOGY. 

The main interest in the morphology lies in the inflections of 
the verb. These are regularly, in the earlier part of our period : 

Singular. Plural. 



1. --- (e) 

2. -- e 



3- 
Thus, 




I come 
thou comest 
he cometh 



I have 
thou hast 
he hath 

The verb to be : 
I am 
thou art 
he is, be 

The subjunctive present 
I be 



he be 

Thus, do had a subjunctive 
dow, du 

(wanting) 

dow, du 



we come 
ye come 
they cometh 

we have or we hath (once) 
ye have 
they hath 

we are or be 
ye are or be 
they is, they are, they ben, they be. 

we be 
ye be 
they be 

dow, du 
dow, du 
dow, du 



There was considerable confusion in construction with verbs 
of declaring and saying ; sometimes the indicative was used, 
sometimes the subjunctive. The native dialect had, in common 
speech, dropped this subjunctive, but it was kept in use by the 
better classes. Yet the continual advance in the language of 
the lower classes simply caused such confusion that in one and 
the same clause one dependent verb will be in the indicative 
and another in the subjunctive, although they are both dependent 
on the same main verb. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. cliii. 



Subjunctive 1550: "Item we present that the streats of the 
town be greatly in decay." 

" Item we present that yt ys not lawfull . . ." 
" Item we present that divers tayller w'in the towne beinge 
no burgesys doth sell mesere wares, etc." 

" Item it is presentyd that the hucsters do not onely, etc." 
1551: "Item we present that Wm. Pottrell butcher abuffe 
the bar due wythestonde the droveres off the comen." 

Indicative 1569 : " Item we present that the glovers about 
the towne without the barre doth laye ther skyns, etc." 
" Item we present that theare is a gutter." 
The confusion resulting from the employ of both tenses tended 
to the following result : that the indicative was used in the third 
singular, the subjunctive in the third plural, though both indica- 
tive and subjunctive occasionally happened both in singular 
and plural. This was due, no doubt, to the influence of the 
Standard language. 

The " tense " of indirect narration then became : 
I go we go 

ye go 

he goith they go 

The " tense " of relative clauses and simple narration being, in 
the overwhelming number of cases : 

I go we go 

ye go 

he goith they goith 

It is interesting to see that the form of the third singular was 
carried over into the third plural in the few cases where these 
differed, i.e., they hath, they lay the. In the play (1553) Respublica, 
we find infinitive to zedge (secgan) " to say," but third singular, 
he zaith, third plural, they zaith (where we should have " they 
zedgeth). This is, of course, due to the overwhelming number 
of verbs with the third singular and the third plural absolutely 
identical. 

The s forms so common to modern English and to the modern 
Hampshire dialect do not come into use till very late. Our 
first examples are nearly all in the third plural, i.e., the verb 
begins to be declined. 

stande stande 

standest stande 

standeth, standes standes, standeth 



cliv. 



NOTES ON DIALECT. 



Our first example of 



form is 



remaynes, third singular, 
1571, but for the next 32 years (one half of the "spread " of our 
records) we have no other third singulars in -s. Our first third 
plural in -s is found in sells and brings (third plurals), 1579 ; the 
next in standes (third plural), 1603 ; our next third singular in 
-s is fales (third singular), 1619 ; but lokes, third plural, of the 
same year. In 1620 we meet with requieres (third singular), lies 
(third plural), makes (third plural), playes (third plural), consumes 
(third plural). 

One sees how rare and late the -s forms are ; late as they are, 
the third plural -s outnumber the third singular -s by four or 
five to one. The use of the same form in third plural as in third 
singular spread from the present into the past tense, so that we 
have was, third plural, 1581. The identity of third singular and 
plural leads to the use of is in the third plural almost as the 
regular form. From is may have come the impulse to adopt 
the -s forms of other dialects. The identity of third plural with 
third singular and plural subjunctive in the London speech 
caused the use of be as a third singular, although both a plural 
and subjunctive form, as well as of the curious mixed form after 
verbs of statement, sentiendi vel declarandi. The gradual 
mingling of the third plural subjunctive with the third singular 
indicative under the influence of the standard dialects' indicative, 
which was generally used after verbs sentiendi vel declarandi, and 
the use of the pure flexionless subjunctives for command and 
negative hypothesis, were merely scribal refinements. The sub- 
junctive was long dead in the spoken dialect of the untaught. 

Thus in the year 1551, the year of the most idiomatic and un- 
educated scribe, we have the following passages : 

Plain indicative of narration : "The 12 abuffe namyd duthe 
presentt thatt the salt marshe ys nott dewely oversyne as ^as 
apoynttyde by the 12 men in the yere afor thes presentte thene 
mayere Mr. Edmond Busshope for the wich we fynde that the 
overseeres hathe not done ther dewty .... and they 
answerythe they hathe takyne paine and hathe so broghtte in ther 
proffes, werfor we dessire ther mersemennt to be forge vend." 

Indicative after verbs of sentiendi vel declarandi : " Item we 
presentt that Mr. Baker ys mayeds duthe mylke hys kyene in the 
strette tymes witott nomber." 

" Item we presentt thatt the hukesteres as Thomas colls, 
Roger Hallydaye, Hary Drynkwatter, Thomas flemynge, povells 
wyffe, wit other hukesters wyffes dothe regratt the merkett of 
eggs." 



NOTES ON DIALECT. civ. 



" Item we presentte that John Knoyette baker duthe forstall 
the melle." 

Indicative after verbs of command : " Be ytt nowe comawndyde 
to the sayme men that they duthe carrye everye of theme so 
myche of the Rubbesse of the sayme churche as maye make the 
heyghe waye frome bargatte, all este strette to the turnynge to 
the chantre." 

" Item be yt comawndyde to Wyllam Crystemasse that he 
duthe cover hes gutter wich goythe in the towne dyche." 

" Itm. in lyke to nycolas de Marryne that he duthe carrye 
awhaye hys shype," etc. 

We find were, past subjunctive, also used for " should be," so- 
called conditional : 

" Item we fynde that yt ys nessesserye thatt the same butchers 
wer (for the future) apoynttyde emonge the other butchers." 

But the most astonishing form is that of the infinitive in -ythe, 
ithe : 1575, to comyth, " to come"; 1569, to layethe, " to lay," 
infinitive; 1551, (to) oppressythe, "(to) oppress," infinitive (with- 
out to). 

Since the forms are of the greatest interest, I quote the passages 
in full : 1551, " Item we presentt that the porters duthe so 
withutte consens OPPRESSYTHE the kyngs subbgetts comynge to 
thys towne in takkyne wytheutt reson for ther labure & manye 
tymes syttynge at the alle housse whel other duthe do ther 
busynesse & wen the sayme, etc." 

1569, " Be yt comaundid to all of them of saynt Lauranc 
parishe all others that vse to layethe donge, etc." 

X 575> " For that for want therof yt cawses (indicative) 
the gordyer of water that shuld passe throughe that dytches to 
comyth (infinitive) flowing over into the heyghe waye." 

These forms can, perhaps, be thus explained. We have 
comyth, to oppressythe, to layethe ; comyth may represent the i of 
the intransitive infinitive, which, though always written as e, 
was possibly, like all other final -e forms, really an old -i, the 
Old English -ian. In to oppressythe, the vowel is due to the need 
of holding s and th asunder, since they do not make a good 
English consonant group. In to layethe, the e is possibly mute, 
as derived from a to laye, transitive with mute e. The third 
plural forms in -n, ben, 1550, 1569, are very rare (only twice in 
our records), but they possibly helped in a confusion between 
third plurals and infinitives at an earlier epoch. We have rare 
infinitives in n. 



Clvi. NOTES ON DIALECT. 






These infinitives may have been helped, if not caused, by the 
following facts : if the th is really an old form, then it is derived 
from the Old English nouns in -th for verbal actions, once so 
frequent in Old English. These may have survived in the west, 
and the fact that, in the " refined " English, infinitive and third 
plural had the same form have lead to their use as infinitives, 
since they, as well as the third plurals, ended in -th. 

The Chaucerian verb, of course, ran to telle(ri) : 
I telle we telle(n) 

thou tellest ye telle(n) 

he telleth they telle(n) 

As the Chaucerian " refined " speech spread all over England 
in the fifteenth century, it may possibly have had this effect on 
the dialect of Southampton before the year 1500 amongst the 
educated classes, and that the affectation spread to the lower 
classes, and became rooted there in the case of some few words. 
Similarly curious forms are nowadays caused by the efforts of 
the lower classes to imitate the solemn effects of the archaic 
speech of the " Authorised Version " of the Bible, particularly 
in the th forms of the verb. 

The Old English dh forms referred to are those in adh : he 
waes on hergiadhe, " he was a-harrying " ; he waes on huntadhe, 
" he was a-hunting." Curiously enough these th forms are 
identical with the verbal nouns in -tus and -t of other Indo- 
Germanic languages in their origins. It is of good family. 

Connected with the third plural is its pronoun. This is 
regularly the form derived from the Norse invaders of the north, 
the they form ; but once the good old southern form is given, in 
he contaynethe (third plural) for " they contain." We have, in 
our records, several times the form his as a neuter genitive 
singular of the third personal pronoun, modern its, although this 
is the regular dialectical form. In the relatives, remarkable is 
the use of as, wick, and that, almost with a difference as relative 
pronouns, besides woo, woos (woom), or who(o), whose, whome, home. 

The remarkable use of thone as accusative masculine nomina- 
tive of the definitive article, 1550, can be paralleled from the 
western dialect spoken by the rustic clowns in the play, Res- 
publica (1553). Remarkable is hym used as direct objective 
(accusative case) in 1550. The archaic plural other for " others " 
in the substantially used adjective is regular. 

The strong past participles are peculiarly conservative of their 
-en forms : geven, " given " (from this, which is the general form 



NOTES ON DIALECT. clvii. 



of our records, is derived the infinitive and present geve), gyven, 
holden, past participle, knowne, knowen ; correctly derived from 
Old West Saxon meahte is the mought, " might," which for the 
earlier years of our records is almost the regular form. Mighte, 
from a later mihte in Old English, eventually gains the upper 
hand. 

The one thing, however, about the verbal system is this : That 
the huge majority of the third plurals end in -th. The greater 
number of those that do not are shame subjunctives used after 
verbs of statement or experience, sentiendi vel declarandi. Lastly, 
that the s comes in late, slowly and gradually, and is much more 
often found (seldom as it is) in the third plural than the third 
singular. 

This essay is, of course, very imperfect. The latter part is a 
mere sketch ; whilst the first part is, if anything, rather too long 
and careful for a general article. The main thought and care 
of the writer has, however, been to put before the reader the 
peculiarities of the Southampton dialect during this period. It 
needs far more space and care to point out peculiarities of pro- 
nunciation than peculiarities of grammar, when dealing with a 
dead stage of the language. One thing has spurred on the 
writer. He is a Hampshire man, and his fathers for many 
hundreds of years have spoken this dialect. It is to him a 
"pious" task. 



NDEXES 



TO THE 



SOUTHAMPTON 



COURT LEET RECORDS, 



VOL. I., 



(A.D. 1550-A.D. 1624). 



I. INDEX OF PERSONS BY C. N. WEBB. 



II. PLACES 



GERTRUDE H. HAMILTON. 



III. 



SUBJECT 

MATTER FREDERICK J. BURNETT. 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



6o 5 



INDEX OF PERSONS, 



BY C. N. WEBB. 



PAGE 

Addison, J. 54, 154, 186, 199 

Addison, T 117 

Alcock 559 

Alfs 89 

Allen, R 355 

Alpe 

56, 100, 103, 118, 138, 141 

Alpe, S 91 

Anderson ... 151, 308 

Anderson, H. ... ,.. 468 

Andrews, H. ... no, 126 

Andrews, J. 

162, 298, 299, 300, 306, 318 
Anne, Aund ... ... 74 

Anne, Aund J. ... 34, 47, 64 

Andlyes, C 553 

Ansell, T 78 

Apryse, R 15 

Arundel, Earl of 34, 47, 64 

Armyne, J 261 

Arnoll, W. 259 

Arthur, S. 449 

Ascham, R 92 

Aspten 347 

Aspten, E. 373 

Audley, H 447 

Aund (see Anne) 

Austin, L. 259, 314, 406, 424, 

53> 57, 5 2 3> 5 2 4> 
558 

Austin, T. .. -37,43 

Ayles 356, 380 

Ayles, J. 34, 40, 47, 48, 64, 

80, 81, 91, 94, 108, 124, 

144, 1 66, 188, 203, 224, 

246, 264, 282, 294, 304, 

3 2 3> 339, 357, 374> 39^> 
418, 434, 452, 471, 495, 

547 



PAGE 

Ayles, R. 323, 396, 434, 435, 
453, 472, 495, 496, 517, 

53*> 548 565, 585, 595 
Ayres, H 547 



465 

Baggs, W. 445, 545, 560, 571 

Bailey, R. 166, 189, 203, 224, 

247, 265, 282, 305, 324, 

34> 35> 374> 397, 4 J 9, 

435 453 47 2 > 49$, 5 J 7> 

53i> 548, 565, 585, 595 

Baker, 2, 9, 22, 25, 29, 241, 602 

Baker, A. 396, 418, 434, 438, 

453> 47i, 47 2 > 496, 517, 

53*> 548, 564, 5^5, 573, 

5 8 4, 594, 595> 602 

Baker, T 65 

Baker, W. 3, 34, 47, 63, 80, 

94, 108, 124, 144, 165, 

188, 202, 224, 247, 265, 

282, 295 

Banister, 47, 63, 80, 94, 108, 

124, 144, 353, 431 
Banister, E. 165, 188, 202, 224, 
240, 246, 264, 281, 294, 

304, 3 2 3> 339, 374, 39^, 
418, 434, 453, 471, 495, 

516, 530, 548, 564, 584, 

594 , 
Banister, T. ... ... 95 

Banister, Sir T. ... 139 

Banister, W. ... ... 34 

Barling, W. ... ... 502 

Barlow, 352, 385, 409, 437, 
462, 467, 582, 599 



6o6 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



PAGE 

Barlow, E. 294, 304, 323, 324, 
339> 34, 357, 358, 373, 
374, 396, 397, 4 l8 > 4*9, 
435, 453, 4^7, 472, 496, 
5'7> 531, 54^ 
Barlow, J. ... ... 452 

Barker, F 585 

Barnard 85 

Barnard, J. ... ... 512 

Barnard, R. ... ... 541 

Barnard, W. ... 372,388 

Barnes, J. 3 

Barrow, J. 277 

Bartholemew 137 

Barter, F. 441, 453, 472, 496, 

517, 531, 548, 565, 595 
Barton no, 168, 175, 193, 

194, 208 

Barton, F. 446 

Barton, G. 115, 158, 217, 226, 

227, 249, 261, 272, 287, 

311,337,407,410,424 
Barton, H. 434, 495, 516, 547 
Barton, J. 117,440,457,471, 

526, 530, 541, 544, 584 

Bartie, S. 119 

Bartew, S. 141, 151, 178, 189 

Barwick 256 

Bar wick, J 486 

Barwick, W., 70, 138, 163, 183, 

196, 202, 224, 279, 283, 

293, 304, 323, 339, 357, 
374, 396, 418, 434, 452, 

47i, 495, 5i6, 530, 547, 

564, 584, 594 

Bates ... 432 

Bayere, J. ... ... 20 

Bayly, R., 35, 48^64, 81, 95, 

109, 125, 145 

Bavoys, J. 156 

Bear,T., 314, 330, 368, 442, 464 
Beaumont ... ... 573 

Beckingham, T. ... 143 

Bedford ...356, 380, 492 

Bedford, T. 357, 323, 396, 

418, 560 



PAGE 

Beele 403 

Beele, T. 299, 398, 406, 408 
Bedham ... ... 95 

Bedham, R. 42, 52, 81, 89, 

103, 104 

Beiston, R. 373,396,418,434, 
452,471,495,516,530,547 

Bell 152 

Bell, Mrs. ... 219, 220 

Beer, J i 

Bencraft, A 30 

Bencraft, H 29 

Bennett, D 559 

Bennett, W. ... 158,238 
Berry, N. ... 134, 163 

Beson, A. .. 381 

Beson, O. ... 378, 399 

Betts ... 277, 310, 315, 560 
Betts, J. ... 264 

Betts, T. 4, 21, 302, 303 

Beve, J. ... ... ... 42 

Bevis 373 

Biddle 485 

Biggs,] 580 

Bishop ... ... 7, 33 

Bishop, E. ... i, 21 

Bishton, R. --.565, 585, 595 

Biston 348, 366 

Biston, O. ... 333, 364 

Biston, R. 94, 108, 124, 144, 

145, 165, 188, 189, 203, 

224, 225, 240, 246, 281, 

294, 304, 323, 339, 354, 

357 

Blake, P 598 

Blewer, R 35 

Blunt, Sir M. ... 327,352 

Bone 139 

Booker, H. ...103, 107, 119 
Borey, F. 419, 435, 453, 472, 

496, 517, 531, 548 
Bory, F. 

171, 247, 265, 282, 305 
Bory, N. ...182,234,239 

Bothe, W 64 

Bottrell 13, 326, 430, 463 






INDEX OF PERSONS. 



607 



PAGE 
... 259 
... 92 
... 32 
... 129 
... 89 
19 

... 61 
99, 199, 269 



Bottrell, C. 

Botton ... 

Boulogne, J. 

Bowes, M. 

Bowyer ... 

Bowyer, W. 

Bradshaw, J. 

Brewer, J. 

Brewer, R. 

Brickenden, R. ... ... 56 

Bridget, Brigart J. 64, 81, 95, 

109, 125, 145, 166, 189 
Brigender, R. ... ... 76 

Brittaine, M 307 

Broadway,! 468 

Brodock, J 34 

Brodock, W 246 

Brook, R 483 

Brooker 291 

Brooker, Broker, J. 157, 175, 

231, 247, 252, 265, 275, 

282, 283, 290, 295, 305, 

310, 324, 340 
Brooker, Broker,T. 70, 71, 103, 

104, 117, 136, 149, 160, 

175, 194, 217, 225 
Brookes, T. 



Broomiield, A. 
Broughton 
Broughton, C. 
Brown ... 
Brown, A. 
Brown, J. 
Brown, R. 
Brown, W. 
Browne, M. 
Buck, T. 
Bucke, T. 
Buckfield, H. 
Budd, T. 
Bulicar, J. 

109, 125 
Bulbeck, N. 
Bulbeck 
Bulbeck, R. 
Bull, J. ... 



- 34 
5 6 5> 5 8 5> 595 
... 161 
... 163 

121 

445 

4$5>53 8 >553 

... 26, 65, TOO 

598 

368 

...165, 202, 259 
40 

5 6 5> 585. 595 

381 

63, 64, 81, 95, 

J 45 

...436,448,466 

502 

480 

273,274 



PAGE 

Bullaker, J. 452, 471, 495, 
5i6, 530, 547, 564, 584, 

594 

Bulligar 246 

Bulligar, J. 166, 189, 202, 203, 

225, 264, 281 
Burke, T. ... ... 94 

Burnet ... ... ... 457 

Burt, W. 233 

Burwell, W 

Bush, R. 487 

Bussel, W. ... 281,318 
Butcher, Boucher, W. 17, 59, 

116, 132, 133, 148 

Butcher, E 492 

Butcher, R 317 

Butler, Bottler 19, 101, 147 
Butler, R. ... i, 61, 183 
Buttman, R 24 



Cackton, G. ...273, 274, 287 

Callaway, J. ... ... 162 

Caller, J. ... ... 21 

Calvert ... ... ... 254 

Capelin 19, 86, 118, 260, 

299, 303, 405, 501, 524 
Capelin, H. 403,418,421,422, 
434, 446, 452, 471, 482, 
492, 495, 516, 521, 527, 
530, 542, 547, 556, 564, 

584. 594 

Capelin, J. 15, 34, 47, 63, 80, 
94, 98, 108, 116, 124, 131, 
132, 144, 153, 165, 173, 
174, 188, 193, 202, 207, 
224, 228, 231, 240, 246, 
264, 281, 294, 298, 304, 
3 l8 > 339> 35 6 > 403> 47, 

434 

Capelin, M 147 

Capelin, N. 34, 45, 47, 63, 80, 
94, 108, 124, 138, 144, 165, 
188, 202, 206, 210, 224, 
232, 240, 246, 264, 281, 



6o8 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



Capelin, N. (continued), PAGE 
294, 304, 323, 330, 339, 

342, 357, 374, 396, 418 
Capelin, E. ...202, 224, 227 
Capelin, W. 80, 94, 108, 124, 

144, 163, 165, 188, 202, 224 
Capelin, P. 270, 286, 289, 434 
Capelin, R. ... 240, 264 

Caplin (see Capelin) 

Carew, J. ... ... 63 

Carpenter ... ... 67 

Carpenter, E. ... 66, 83 

Carpenter, F. ... 441,469 

Carpenter, H. 323, 334, 339, 

357, 373, 396 

Carpenter, W 445 

Carrell, P 21 

Cartaret ... 227, 228 

Cartaret, E. ... ... 219 

Carteret, P. ... 135, 219 

Carven, J. 200 

Casberd, T. 7, 8, 14, 15, 20, 

35, 48, 64, 81, 95, 109, 

125, 145, 166 

Cater, J. ... 480 

Cavel, J. ... 65, 72 

Cawte, T. ... 510,511 

Cecil, Sir R 357 

Chandler, A. ... ... 3 

Chaunce, T 5 

Chaffin 15, 148, 251 

Chaffin, T. 34, 47, 63, 80, 94, 

95, 108, 124, 144, 165, 

188, 202, 224, 240, 246, 

264, 281 

Chambers ... 380, 492 
Chambers, R. 339, 396, 442, 

4 8 3> 56i, 598 
Chamberlayne . . . ... 430 

Champion 104 

Chawdle ... 332, 333 

Chepman, W. ...506,508,538 

Chrest, P 486 

Christmas, J 2 

Christmas, W. 2, 8, 9, 21, 23, 

26, 242 
Churcher, R 470 



PAGE 
Clement, N. ... 526, 545 

Clenerley, J 120 

Clerk 72 

Clerk, A. ... 102, 117 

Clerk, W 102 

Cleverley, J. ... ... 214 

dungeon, J. 434, 452, 495, 

5 l6 > 53, 547) 5^4> 585, 

594, 595 
Clungeon, P. ... 547, 564 

Cobler, R 121 

Cockerell ... 204, 215 

Coffin, R. 106 

Collet, W 3 

Colls, T. 22 

Collins, J. ... 463, 502 

Colvil ... ... ... 432 

Comerland, J. 2, 5, 35, 48, 64, 
81, 95, 108, 124, 144, 166, 
189, 203, 224, 247, 265, 
282, 295, 305, 323, 340, 

358, 374, 397, 4i9, 435 
Conder, R. ... 86 

Coombes, T. 452, 471, 495, 

547, 564, 584, 594 
Cooke, P. ... 65, 104 

Cooke, T. . . .415, 422, 449 

Cooke, W. 392 

Cooper, T. ... i, 13, 28 

Copis, J. 538 

Coram ... ... ... 312 

Cornelius 

307, 376, 403, 445, 492 
Cornelius, C. 

373, 390, 396, 492, 539 

Cornelius, J 568 

Cornelius, R. 281, 294, 299, 
304, 324, 340, 354, 357, 

358, 374, 397, 4i9, 435, 
453, 472, 487, 496, 517, 
531, 548, 565, 585, 595 

Cornish 

319, 363, 415, 420, 427 

Cornish, J. 294, 323, 339, 340, 

357, 358, 373, 374, 397, 
418, 419, 435, 440, 446, 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



609 



PAGE 

Cornish, J. (continued), 

453, 472, 496, 5i? 5 531, 
548 

Coshe, H. 60 1 

Cossen, H 558 

Cottesmore, B. ... 312 

Cotton 199, 237 

Courtmill ... 98, 99, 167 
Courtmill, B. 34, 45, 47, 64, 
72, 80, 94, 98, 100, 105, 
108, 124, 144, 154, 157, 
158, 1 60, 165, 188, 203, 
219, 224, 231, 238, 240, 
246, 264, 281, 294, 304 

Courtmill, J 587 

Courtmill, T. 55, 67, 72, 91, 
171,332 

Courtmill, VV 332 

Courtney, B 153 

Courtney, T. ... 67,257 

Courtney, W 296 

Coward, N. ... 34,47,63 

Cowde, R. 35, 50, 56, 70 

Cowse ... ... ... 540 

Cowton, J. ... ... 70 

Coyte, J. ... ... i 

Cradock ... ... 421 

Cradock, G. ... ... 308 

Cradock, M. 347, 416, 440, 
446, 458, 477, 529, 534, 

555. 57*> 574. 597 
Cradock, N. 332, 341, 359, 

398, 402, 428 
Creswell ... ... 336 

Crewe, R. ... ... 137 

Crocker, P. ... 4, 18, 25 

Crook 38, 87, 118, 163, 229, 

238, 250, 251, 252, 266, 

267, 277, 288, 291, 293, 
296, 298, 302, 328 

Crook, J. 47,80,94,108,124, 
144, 165, 1 88, 202, 224, 
240, 246, 264, 266, 267, 

268, 271, 281, 294, 304, 

323, 339 
Crosby, J. 542 



PAGE 

Cross, J ... 486 

Cross, L. 281 

Cross, M. 324,340, 358,374, 
397, 419, 435, 453, 472, 
496, 517, 531, 548, 565, 

585 
Cross, R. 55,61, 75, 107, 114, 

J 39, 154, J 56, 233, 246, 

264 

Cryer 91, 245 

Culverden, E. 486, 536, 556, 

570, 586, 598 
Curte ... ... ... 15 

Curtis, A. ... ... 476 

Cushin, E. ... 559,579 

Cushin, R. 314, 412, 425, 447, 

538, 55i 

Custumer ... ... n 

Cutler, G. ... ... 29 

Cux, T. ... 20 



Dadu, T. ... ... 514 

Dalbie, R. 452, 471, 495, 527, 

543, 547, 581 

Dalbie, T. 584, 594 

Daniel, B. 492, 495, 516, 530, 

564, 594 

Daniel, C. 448, 458 

Daniel, T. ... ... 527 

Darrell, Dorrell, E. 34, 47, 63 
Darval ... ... 73, 135 

Darval, B 100 

Darval, E 65 

Darval, H. 35, 47, 59, 63, 64, 

80,81,90,94,95,100, 108, 

124, 144, 1 60 
(See also Derval and Dervall) 

Daukes, A 511 

Davies, 
19,41, 59, 112, 131, 143, 152 

Davies, N 565 

Davies, R. ... 585, 595 

Davison 292 

Davison, W 272 

Davy, J. 42 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



PAGE 

Dawtrey ...... 4 

Dawtrey, Sir F. 6, 34, 36, 45, 

47> 5 2 > 6 3 
Dawtrey, Dutery, Daw- 

berry, W. i, 4, 17, 21, 25 
Dawtrey, Lady 52, 53, 132 
Day, R." 34, 47, 48, 64, 80, 94, 

108, 124, 144, 165, 186, 

1 88, 197, 203, 323, 351, 

3.57, 374> 396, 4 l8 434 
Day, T ....... 140, 141, 159 

Deane, J. 165, 188, 202, 224, 

246, 264, 294 
Deane, J. a, 

94, 124, 134, 144, 163 
Deboke, A ....... 32 

Deboke, E ....... 72 

Deboke, T. ... i, n, 25 

Delacourt, R. 35, 48, 64, 81, 

95, 109, 125, 145 
Delamagis, S. ... ... 155 

Delamote ... 483, 523 
Delamote, P. ... 480, 503 

Delamothe, J ....... 599 

Delisle ...... 356, 403 

Delisle, J. ...202,318,492 

Demareck, Dumask, T. 

94, 1 08, 124 



Demarin, J. 
Demarin, G. 
Demarin, N. 
Demarck, T. 
Deylye, J. 
Demastre 
Demastre, B 
Dent, G. 
Dent, J 
Denys, W. 



70, 87, 371 
... 95 
18, 32 
237, 291 
156, 161 
437 
413 

337, 510 
526 
34, 47 
Derval 237, 303, 346, 485, 

57 57 

Derval, B. ... 258, 292 
Derval, E. 300, 362, 429 

Derval, H. 166,189,203,224, 

246, 264, 281, 294, 304, 

3 l8 > 343 
Derval, I. ... 334*343 



PAGE 
Dervall, C. 434, 448, 449, 452, 

47i> 495) 5 l6 

Dervall, J. ... 504, 542 
Desart, P. 565, 585, 595, 573 

Dewye, P. 408 

Dickenson 542 

Dingley, N. ... 407, 458 

Dingiey, R. ... 585, 595 

Dingley, T., 34, 40, 63, 80, 108 
Dorririgton, Sir W. 581, 582 
Dowse, J. ... 182, 480 

Dowse, Dosse, R. 21,29,1 23 
Drake, J. ... ... 352 

Drew, J. ... ... 259 

Driker, T. 64 

Dry nk water, H. ... 22 

Dye, W 139 

Dyer, R. ... 345 

Dymer 133 

Dymer, W 150 



Earl, D. 554 

Earle, W. 108, 136, 157, 161, 

188, 202, 294, 299, 478 

Eastbrook, T 241 

Edes, E. 202 

Edmunds 135, 160, 335, 467 
Edmunds, G. ... ... 299 

Edmunds, J. ... 123, 198 

Edmunds, T. ... i, 20, 59 

Edmunds, W. ... ... 264 

Edward VI i, 20 

Edwards, D. ... 221, 274 

Edwards, R 446 

Eling, Ellyn, Yeling, J., 8, 23, 

2 7> 35> 6 4> 8l > 95> I0 4> 

109, 125, 145, 163, 166, 

189, 203, 221, 225, 237, 
238 

Eling, R. 48 

Elizabethan. 166,357,373,515 
Ellery, J. 389, 411, 483, 500 
Elliot, 380, 403, 442, 514, 560 
Elliot, J. 21, 65, 72, 89, 123, 
216, 235, 253, 272, 418, 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



611 



Elliot, J 

434, 
547, 

Elliot, P 
1 88, 

323^ 
396, 

Elliot, T 
Ellis, T. 
Ellis 
Ellis, W 
Elzie, J. 

294, 
453, 



PAGE 

(continued) 
45 2 5 490. 495. 530, 
564* 576, 584. 594 

100, 136, 139, 160, 
224, 294, 304, 311, 

339, 357,. 3/o, 374, 
418, 434, 452, 471 

560 

... 364,378 
399 
470 

47,94,124,144,188, 
3i8, 339, 357, 373, 
47i, 472, 495, 496, 
53i, 547, 548, 564 



Emery, J. ... 21, 32 

Emery, H. ...... 72 

English, Yngglysse, R. 21 
Enfield, R. "... ... 396 

Errington ... ... 280 

Errington, J. 104, 164, 169, 

1 80, 192, 196, 199 
Esmond, H. 239, 277, 278, 285 
Essex, Ld. ... 357, 373 
Estone, R. 64, 81, 95, 109, 

125, 144 
Ethen, J ...... 87 

Etner, R. 37, 47, 63, 94, 100, 

124, 125, 144, 145, 165, 

1 66, 189, 202, 203, 247, 

35, 324, 357, 374, 397, 
419 

Etner, T. ...... 32 

Evans, R. ...... i 

Exton ...... 309, 329 

Exton, E. 254, 307, 311, 326, 

34 1 , 3 6 9, 379, 43, 4 2 3, 
442, 467, 471, 480, 495, 
516,530, 594 
Exton, J. 246, 304, 323, 339, 

357, 373, 396, 418, 434, 
452, 471, 495, 516, 530, 

547, 564, 584, 594, 595 
Exton, T. . . .463, 482, 540 



PAGE 
Fashin 

29, 305, 318, 324, 380, 541 

rashm, G 558 

Fashin, T. 18, 34, 47, 58, 63, 
80, 94, 95, 108, 124, 144, 
165, 1 88, 202, 219, 224, 
240, 246, 264, 281, 294, 
34, 323, 339, 34, 357, 
358, 374, 396, 43, 4*9, 
434, 452, 47i, 495, 5 J 6, 
530, 547, 548 
Fashin, \V. 101, 103, 331, 

344, 4 6 , 424, 558, 5 6 4, 

584, 594 
Favor 98, 152, 153, 167, 192, 

308, 559 
Favor,]. 81, 95, 109, 125, 

I2 7, H5, 155, 1 66, 189, 
203, 225, 240, 246, 264, 
281, 294, 295, 296, 304, 

323, 339, 357, 374, 39*, 
396, 418, 434, 452, 471, 

495, 5 l6 , 53, 547, 5 6 4 
Favor, M. ... 147, 172 

Fawen, T. ... ... 121 

Fawtres, T 516 

Fay, W. 71 

Feverall, W. 12, 27, 58, 69, 
no, 133, 148, 245, 271, 
272, 287, 333, 431, 438, 

544 

Feverell ...168,428,490 

Feverell, J. 50, no, 272, 287, 

43 6 , 558, 600 
Fleming ... 4, 47 

Fleming, R 31 

Fleming, T. 22, 34, 63, 80, 

94, 108, 124, 144, 432 

Fletcher, J 20 

Fletcher, T. 355, 358, 367, 

374, 390, 397, 4 6 , 4 J 9, 
429, 435, 445, 453, 4 6 4, 
472, 481, 517, 531, 548, 

565, 585, 595 

Foleat, W 42 

Ford 24,365 



612 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



Forster, H. 
Forth, M. 
Fortescue, J. 
Forward, J. 
, R. 



PAGE 
- 363 

8 

.. 588 
.. 180 
.. 214 
.. 541 

43 > 44 
.. 28 
.. 510 



Forward, 

Foster, O. 

Foster, H. 

Foster, R. 

Foster, T. 

Foster, W. 

Founden, P. 

Fowler, T. ... 560,578 

Fox 267 

Fox, A 512 

Fox, S 479, 512 

Fox, W. 49, in, 123, 129, 

J 33> J 35, J 96, 230, 250, 

251, 267, 502 
Foxall, W. 339, 366, 373, 

396, 418, 434, 465 

Frampton, J 389 

Franklin, S 598 

Freman, H 190 

French 152 

Friar, J. 373, 396, 417, 418, 

434, 452, 471, 495, 516 

Friar, T 384 

Fry 457 

Fryer, J. 

199, 304, 323, 339, 357 

Fryer, P. ... 344 

Fryer, T. ... 65,72 

Fuller, R. 101, 104, 107, -121, 

219, 227, 238, 264, 378, 

399 

Fuller, T. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 21, 
22, 23, 29, 35, 36, 48, 64, 
81, 95, 109, 124, 144, 166, 
189, 203, 224, 247, 265, 
282, 295, 305 

Fuller, W 31 



Gander, T. 
Gardener, J. 
Gardner, G. 



526 

2 

411 



Garnet, J. 
Garrett, C 
Gavie, T. 
George, T 
Gilbert,! 
Giles, H 
Glanville, T. 
Gobbins 
Goddard 
Goddard, J. 



PAGE 

... ... 408 

437 
...... 391 

104 
368 
138 
...... 107 

132, 180, 250 
... 15, 65 

... 120,161 
Goddard, R. 47, 68, 80, 94, 
108, 124, 144, 165, 188, 
203, 224, 240, 246, 264, 
267, 271, 281, 286, 294, 
298, 304, 323, 339, 357, 
374, 396, 418, 434, 452, 

47i, 495, 5i6, 530, 547 
Goddard, T. i, 186, 267, 286, 

305, 307, 308, 323, 339, 
358, 374, 396, 418, 435, 
441, 447, 453, 472, 491, 

495, 5 J 7, 53, 54 8 , 5^4, 
5 6 5, 57 1 , 5 8 4> 585, 594, 

595 
Gold, H ....... i, 27 

Gold, T ....... 65 

Golding, E. ... ... 476 

Golding, W. ... ... 492 

Gollop 350, 383, 407, 416, 

522, 535 
Gollop, G. 304, 324, 339, 340, 

357, 358, 373, 374, 39^, 
397, 398, 4*9, 435, 452, 
453, 471, 472, 476, 495, 

496, 517, 53i, 548, 5^0, 
565, 587, 588, 595 

Goode, R ....... 265 

Gore, R. 547, 564, 584, 594 
Gottyer, A. ... 459 

Granidge, G ....... 391 

Grant, J. 265, 282, 295, 296, 
35, 3 2 4, 3 2 9> 34> 35 r > 
37 6 , 381, 398, 4 OI > 4 2 9> 
435, 446, 449, 453, 454, 
459, 466, 472, 478, 479, 
486, 487, 496, 504, 507, 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



6i 3 



Grant, J. (continued), PAGE 
517, 520, 527, 531, 534, 
537, 538, 548, 55i, 552, 
5^5, 570, 579, 585, 587, 
589, 595, 597, 59$ 
Grant, M. 145, 153, 157, 162, 
166, 167, 203, 217, 225, 
247, 265 

Grant, N. 27, 389 

Grant, R. ... ... 214 

Grant, T. 125, 145, 166, 189, 

203, 247, 225, 390 
Gray, H. ... 168 

Gregory ... 153,380 

Gregory, J. i, 20, 34, 47, 52, 
68, 80, 94, 108, 124, 141, 
144, 165, 188, 202, 224, 
240, 246, 264, 281, 294, 
304, 311, 318, 323, 339, 

358, 374, 396, 418, 434 
Green ... 356,380 

Green, A. 356 

Green, J. 318, 323, 324, 340, 

357, 358, 374, 397 
Green, M. ... ... 356 

Green, W. ... ... 479 

Greenaway, P. 285,360,412, 

442, 473, 491, 492, 493 
Greenaway, R. ... 473,492 

Grestock ... ... 196 

Grestock, J 182 

Groce 73, 166, 188, 203 

Groce, L. 19, 20, 34, 46, 48, 
64, 80, 94, 95, 108, 109, 
125, 139, 144, 145, 166, 
188, 189, 203, 224, 225, 
247, 264, 265, 282, 294, 
2 95, 34, 35, 323, 358, 

34 
Grosse, L. 374, 396, 416, 419, 

435, 453, 472, 495, 49^, 

517, 530, 53 1 , 548 
Groundy, J. 355, 445 

Gubbins 328 

Gudgen 211 

Guernsey, J. of 99, 112, 134, 

148, 149 



PAGE 

Guilam, J. 273, 564, 584, 588 

Guiston, T 304 

Gunner, J. ... ... 599 

Gwydon, A 

Gwydotte, D 2 

Gyddys 69 

Gyfford, J. ... 64,237 
Gyllyam, L 80 



502 
19 

2 



H 

Hackman 

Haig,B 

Hall, A 

Halliday, R. 

22, 93, 112, 152, 104 

Hallyer, T 25 

Hellyer, Hallyer, R. ... 15 

Hamon, E 72 

Hamon ... ... ... 65 

Hancock, D. 324, 340, 358, 

374, 397, 419, 435, 453, 
472, 496, 517, 531, 548 

Hancock, R. 340, 358, 366, 

374, 390, 397, 435, 453, 

472, 496, 517, 531, 542, 

548, 558, 565, 585, 505 

Hancock, T. 565, 585, 595 

Harreson, T. ... ... 20 

Harrison, J. 76, 88, 93, 100, 
103, 107, 113, 114, 154, 

157 

Har,dy, W 419 

Hare, E. 511 

Harfield, T 422 

Harris 119 

Harris, A. ...108, 124, 161 
Hart, E. 435, 453, 472, 496, 

517, 53i, 548, 565, 585, 

595 
Hart, Sir E. 

459, 478, 5 6 , 520, 538 
Hart, H. 

358, 374, 397, 4i9, 435 

Harvey,] 392 

Harvey, R. ... ... 465 



6i 4 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



H 

PAGE 

Hawkes, W 366 

Hawkins, R. 20, 34, 47, 63, 

80, 94, 108, 124, 144, 165 

Hawkins, W. 188, 202, 224, 

247, 265, 282, 295, 305, 

324, 340, 358, 374, 397 

Haylock, R. ... 501, 523 

Hayward, T. ... ... 604 

Heare, R. ...400, 415,422 

Heath, T. 351, 352, 362, 376, 

396, 399, 47> 49> 4 2O > 

422, 446, 537, 559 

Heathcock, C 431 

Heelis, G. 511 

Hendrick, P. ...354, 367, 381 

Henry IV., Kg 382 

Henry VII, Kg. ... 382 

Henry VIIL, Kg. ... 447 
Hellier, F. ...280, 313,348 

Hellier, R 343 

Hellier, Hallyer, J. 

119, 120, 138 

Herevill, F 599 

Herevill, I 434, 435, 45 2 > 453> 

455, 47i> 47 2 > 49^, 5*7, 

53<V 53i>548, 5^5 

Herneye, E 276 

Hersent 312,508 

Hersent, D 557 

Hersent, J. 299, 323, 367, 

4i3> 468, 559 
Hersent, VV. ...262, 278, 288 

Hethe, G 21 

Heton, T 313 

Hew, R. 46 

Hey ward, T 135 

Hibbert, T 2 

Hibbert, Hebbarde, W. 21 

Hibby, T 109 

Hicks, R. ... 56,65 

Hicks, W 103 

Hill, R 483 

Hill, W 165,224,235 

Hilliard,] 538 

Hills 77 

Hills, O 77 



H 



Hincklev, S. 


PAGE 
... 311 


Hobbs, R. 


... 431 


Hobbs, W. 


42 


Hobson, F. 


... 161 


Hocket 


... 103 


Hocket,]. 


... 85 


Hockley, N, 539 


544, 554, 596 


Holland 


... 78 


Holford 


77 


Holford, R. .. 


... 526 



Holliday, R. 

170, 180, 198, 210, 219 
Holmes 171, 179, 287, 292 



161, 
246, 



5 

... 139 

15, 32 

... 299 

165, 188, 

247, 265, 



Holt, R 
Hooper, J. 
Hooper, W. 
Hopson ... 
Hopton, J. 

202, 224 

282, 294, 312, 316 
Hore, T. ...... 432 

Horn, W. 238, 444, 448, 450, 

45 J > 47 1 , 5 6 , 5 l6 > 53, 

545, 5 6 4, 5 8 4 594 
Hoskins ... 78, 168 

Hoskins, J. 120, 230, 268 

Hoskins, M. ... 331, 358 
Hoskins, R. 85, 122, 157, 

176, 194, 259, 273 
Hoskins, T. 38, 49, 71, 92, 

no, in, 115, 136, 148, 

150, 170, 192, 251, 268, 

285, 392, 457 
House ......... 129 

House, M. ... 161, 189 

House, R. i, 20, 37, 47, 54, 

63, 80, 94, 1 08, 124, 144, 

165, 188, 203, 224, 246, 

264, 281, 294, 304 
Hucker, M ....... 65 

Hudson, J ....... 443 

Hussey ......... 139 

Hussey, T ...... 139 

Hutchen, R ....... 64 

Hutchin, W ....... 122 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



615 



H 

PAGE 

Huttof t (see also Whittof t) 3 1 
Huttoft, H. 9, 23, 34, 124, 

144, 165, 188, 202, 224, 

246, 264, 281, 295 



I 



Isaye 
Ivery, R. 



301 
263 



Jackson 87, 261, 485 

Jackson, J. 34, 45, 47, 63, 

94, 124, 138, 144, 145, 
165, 1 66, 189, 203, 225, 
240, 246, 264, 281, 294, 

34 
Jackson, R. ... 333, 651 

Jackson, T. 323, 339, 357, 

373, 374, 396, 418, 434, 
452, 471, 495, 507, 516, 

53, 547 5 6 4, 5 8 4> 592, 
594 

Jackson, W 188 

James I. 373 

James, A. 504 

James, J. 488 

James, L. 8,426, 511, 527 

James, R. 313 

Janverin 153, 229, 237, 249, 
250, 267, 289, 359, 580 

anverin, E. 310 

anverin, J. ... 469,489 

anverin, M 588 

anverin, N. ... 258, 332 
Janverin, P. 37, 52, 81, 91, 

95, 109, 112, 123, 125, 
145, 148, 154, 157, 166, 
189, 197, 203, 210, 225, 
240, 246, 264, 281, 284, 
294, 304 

Jeans, H. ... ... 21 

Jarden, J. ... ... 602 

Jeffrey, G. 452,453,471,495, 

5*6, 5 T 7, 53, 53 1 , 547, 
548, 564, 565, 584, 594 



PAGE 

Jeffrey, J. 281. 304, 357, 358, 
374. 397, 39, 418, 419, 

T 434, 435 
Jeffrey, Sir J. 

406, 407, 416, 427, 428 
Jeffreys 69, 84, no, 341, 342, 

345, 35i, 353> 362, 368, 

370, 376 
Jeffreys, W. ... i, 19, 34, 47 

Jennings, J 422 

Jerome 24 

Jewett, W 467 

John, N. ... 199, 237 

Johns, M. 121 

Johnson, A 2 

Johnson, J. ... 268, 284 
Johnson, P 201 

Johnson, R 189 
ones, J I38,35 ,392 

Jones, R. 390 

Jones, T. ... 182, 196 
Jourdain, J. ... ... 360 

Jurion, A. 106 

Justice, Lord Chief ... 15 





K 


Kavell, P. 


i, 28 


Kayesser, P. 


28 


Kayre, J. 


27 


Kekwick, N. 


3H 


Kellaway 


317 


Kemp, T. 


565,585,595 


Kennigs, R. 


216 


Kent, R. 


...475,484,493 


King, E. 


522 



King, J. ... 348,361,427,435 
Kingston 351, 413 

Kingston, H. 413, 435, 453, 

472, 496, 517, 531, 548 
Knaplock 232, 237, 260, 261, 

312, 376, 398 
Knaplock, R. 95, 109, 124, 

125, 148, 165, 188, 202, 

224, 240, 246, 264, 281, 

294, 297, 34> 44, 44 s 
Knight 30, 45, 278, 314, 400 



6i6 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



K 


L 


PAGE 


PAGE 


Knight, J. 63, 270, 281, 287, 


Langley, M. . . .464, 484, 486 


352, 393, 4?o, 526 


Langley, W 596 


Knight, M. ... 136 


Larner, T. 509 


Knight, R. 28, 63, 80, 94, 95, 


Latelas, E 413 


108, 124, 144, 148, 165, 


Lavender 529 


188, 202, 224, 240, 246, 


Lavender, H. 392, 444, 459, 


250, 264, 294, 304, 508 


477, 5 OI > 523, 542, 55 1 , 


Knitchen, R. ... 542, 553 


556 


Knitchen, W 456 


Lawrence 502 


Knolles, F. 452, 471, 495, 


Lawrence, M 479 


516, 547, 584, 594 


Leackland 185 


Knowles, F 334 


Leclerk, A 106 


Knowles, Nolls, R. ... 333 


Lee ... 479 


Knowler 485 


Lee, N 596 


Knowler, E. 462, 482, 504, 


Lee, T. 402, 448, 457, 458, 


523> 525* 540> 552, 573, 


475, 477, 498, 5, 5 J 9, 


599 


520, 526, 533, 537, 541, 


Koyete, J. ... 25,30 


550 


Krupe, T 30 


Leedes, W. 324, 340 


Kyte, W 537 


Lefaver, J. ... 72, 136, 153 




Legay ... -..307 


L 


Legay, P. ... 334, 413 




Leger, P. ... 299 


Labee, J. 558 


Legg, J. 350 


Lacy 333 


Lekevey, T 284 


Lake, E. 


Lennox, Dk 417 


117, 228, 262, 264, 281 


Lenevey, T. ... 182, 218 


Lambert 82, 96, no, 126, 


Lepage, R 413 


127, 154, 172, 174, 193, 


Lever, T 84 


198, 205, 206, 232, 250, 


Lewes, W 528 


268, 285, 286, 347, 384, 


Lillington, H. 172, 174, 192, 


399 
Lambert, E 239 


193, 207, 277, 235 
Lisle, J. ... ... ... 294 


Lambert, Sir O. 


Lister, R. 189 


330, 343> 399, 401 


Lister, Sir R 203 


Lambert, T. 182, 310, 314, 


Locke, W 25 


323, 358, 374, 397, 4i9, 


Lombard 101 


435, 453, 472, 496, 517, 


Lombard, J 75 


53i, 548 


Lombard, T. ... 135,160 


Lambert, W. 


Loney, P. ...304, 323, 357 


4, 95, I0 9, 269, 276 


Loney, R. 467 


Lambert, Lady 


Long 420,467 


551, 552, 569, 570 


Long, J. 304, 323. 357, 373, 


Lamote 


396, 418, 516 


4 J 3, 54^ 54 1 , 557, 55 8 


Long, R. 275, 3i8 


Langley 596 Longer, R 281 






INDEX OF PERSONS. 



617 



Lovange, N. 
Lovell, G. 
Lovell, N. 
Lovell, W. 
Lovelock, N. 
Lowes, D. 



PAGE 
260 

... 596 
... 90 

21 

... 508 

35 



Lynch . . . 100, 508, 541 

Lynch, W. 156, 186, 246, 294, 

323, 324, 339, 340, 358, 

374. 397, 4 J 9, 435, 453, 

472, 496, 517, 53 1 , 54 8 , 

5 6 5, 585, 595 

Lyle, D.... ... 416 

Lyle, W. ... 557 

M 

Macey, H. 166, 189, 203, 
225, 247, 265, 282, 295, 305 

Macey, P. 564 

Macey, R. 309, 324, 340, 

358, 374> 397, 4*9, 434, 

435, 452, 453, 472, 4 8 9 ? 

495, 496, 5 l6 , 5*7, 53, 

53i, 547, 548, 565, 5 8 4> 
585, 594, 595 

Mahalt, M. 165, 166, 186, 

189, 203, 224, 225, 246, 

247, 264, 265, 282, 295, 

305, 323, 339, 35 8 

Maisters 186 

Major, Magor, J. 70, 75, 87, 

H5, 154 
Major, Magor, B. 

Makerell, W. ... 
Mallsart, T. ... 
Manfield, J. 
Manfride, J. 
Manhalt, M., 

435, 44 2 

5i7, 530, 54 8 
Manhat, N. 61, 80, 81, 89, 

93, 95, 97, 103, 109, 114, 

I2 5, H5 
Manners, H. ... ... 476 

Marine, E 295 



... 122 
269 

479, 502 
72, 101 

... 42 
374, 396, 4*9, 
453, 472, 495, 



M 

PAGE 

Marine, G. 165, 188, 202, 224, 

246, 264, 281 

Marinel oc5 

Marinel, W. 

3i8, 339, 359, 418, 450 

Markes, J ^i 

Market, W. 247, 262, 265, 

277, 282, 292, 295, 305 " 
Marnan ... ... ojg 

Marryn, G. 

63, 80, 94, 108, 124, 144 

Marsh, E ^5 

Marsh, R. 25,35,48,64, 160, 

1 66, 189, 203, 224, 246, 

247, 265, 282, 324, 340, 

35$, 374, 397 
Marsh, S. ... 80,238 

Martin, Dr 46 

Martin,!. ... 34,336 
Martin, P. 80, 94, 108, 156, 165 



Martin, R. 
Martin, W. 
Marye, F. 
Marye, J. 
Mason . . . 
Mason, A. 
Mason, P. 



233,505 
4 6 , 283, 351 

257 

257 

9,219 

15 

219, 227 
Mason, T. 495, 516, 547, 564, 

584, 594, 590 

Mason, W 171 

Massie 160 

Massie, H. 

81, 95, 109, 125, 145 

Master, W 141 

Mastre, B. ... ... 278 

Mathew, J 485 

Mawdes, R 486 

May 526 

May, W. 342, 368, 383, 410 
Mayor 359, 362, 375, 376, 

381, 392, 420, 574, 575 
Mayor, J. 175, 234, 281, 296, 
304, 323, 339, 340, 358, 
370, 374, 396, 397, 398, 
418, 419, 435, 443, 452, 

453, 4 6 5, 472, 495, 496, 



6i8 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



M 

Mayor, J. (continued), PAGE 
5*o, 517, 53*, 548, 565, 

579, 585. 595, 598 
Mayor, R. 

Mayte, P. 
Measoneffe 
Medcalfe 
Mercer . . . 
Mercer, J. 
Merchant, E. 
Mere, J. ... 
Merchier 
Merriet, W. * 



507 

200 

47 

15 

488 

257 

... 3.8,9,17 
260 

447 

396, 418, 434, 

435, 452, 453, 465, 471, 

472, 496, 510, 511, 517, 

530, 531, 537, 548, 55 2 , 

565, 573, 585, 595 
Merryfield, R 579 

Meryt 275 

Meryt, J. 261 

Michells, T 365 

Mildmay, A. 435, 453, 472, 

496, 517, 53i, 548 

Mill, M 471,495, 601 

Mille ... 10,13,15,25 

Mille, G. 34, 47, 63, 80, 94, 

108, 124, 165, 188, 202 
Mille, J. 47, 71, 80, 161, 197 
Mille, R. 161, 197, 202, 218, 

221, 240, 246, 254, 264, 

281, 294, 304, 323, 339, 

357, 373, 396, 4 l8 , 434, 

452, 584, 594 
Mille, T. 15,34,47, 63,80, 

94, 108, 124, 144, 165, 

188, 526 

Miller, R. 241 

Miller, T 251 

Millett 58 

Mills, F. ... 298, 347 

Mills, H. 278 

Mills, Sir J., Bart., 

564, 584, 594 
Mills, L. 

248, 39, 406, 424, 508 
Mills, JN. 

495, 530, 564, 584, 562 



M 

Misser, J. 
Mitchell, T. .. 

Mittens 

Mogs, J 

Mollard, M. 
Mollins, T. 
Monday, J. 
Money, J. 
Monsanger, S. . . 
Morell ... 
Morell, D. 94, 

318,339 
Morrell, T. 
Moore ... 
Moore, J. 

49, 56, 86, 
Moore, R. 
Moore, T. 
Moreshall 
Morrant, E. 
Mortimer 
Mouse, R. 
Mowland, M. .. 
Mucklow, T. .. 
Mucklow, T., Jr. 
Mudford, J. 
Mudford, R. 

259, 266, 
Mudford, W. 

23, 27, 255 
Mullins, J. 



PAGE 
... 266 
368, 580 
... 392 

73 

... 415 

... 599 

373, 43 

... 70 

... 44 

370, 403, 410 

108, 144, 266, 

... 459 
... 343 

184, 258, 368 

.109,135,144 

. 63, 103, 121 

... 409 

268, 476 
429 



,. i, n, 18, 27 
ii 
185 

273, 285, 291 
8, 9, n, 20, 

555,577 



N 



65, 140 
134, 147, 272, 277 

138 

139, 146, 260, 283 
346,382,440,460, 



Naylor, J. 
Naylor, P. 
Netley, A. 
Netley, J. 
Netley, M. 

479, 493 
Netley, R. 

34, 47, 63, 74, 80, 505 
Netley, T. ... 90,138 
Nevey 474, 484, 487, 506 

Nevey, R. ... 462, 480 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



619 



N 

PAGE 

Nevey, W. 373, 374, 418, 
435. 452, 453. 472, 496, 
5*7 53 J > 548, 565. 55> 
595 

Nevie ... 344 

Nevie, W. 294, 304, 323, 324, 

339. 34 358, 3 68 

Newell, W 430 

Newland, R. ... ... 590 

Newman, R. ... ... 487 

Nicholas, T. ... 357,418 

Nichols, T. ... 330.373 

Nolls, Knowles, R. ... 333 

North 77 

North, J. 261 

Northey, T. 444, 447, 467 
271. 290 
126 

558 

52, 63, 64, 69, 

80, 81, 90, 93, 95, 109, 

125, 145, 154, 155, 166, 

189, 203, 225, 247, 265, 
282, 295, 305 

Nutt, T. 308 



Norton, J. 
Norton, R. 
Nutley, W. 
Nutshaw, W. 



Obert, J. 
Oddames, T. 
Osegood 
Osland, W. 
Osmond, H. 
Overy, T. 



Pace 

Pace, T.... 
Pagett, H. 
Pain, J. ... 
Palmer, W. 
Parker ... 
Parker, G. 



234 

5H 
582 

598 
344 



11,15 

34. 47 6 3 

582 

457 

526 

129, 361, 403 
472, 496, 517, 



531, 548, 565, 585, 595 

Parker, J. 120, 138, 182, 

228, 284, 339, 357, 410, 



Parker, J. (continued), PAGE 

435. 453. 482, 540, 552, 

573. 599 

Parkinson . . . 297, 307, 308 
Parkinson, C. ...291, 292, 296 
Parkinson,!. ..." 588,598 
Parmett 

252, 285, 286, 303, 401 
Parmett, W. 247, 250, 265, 

269, 282, 295, 305, 324, 

338, 34. 35 1 . 3 6 2, 374. 

376, 397. 381, 407. 419. 

459. 507, 598 
Parmitt, J. 72, 138 

Parnell 15 

Parsman, H 428 

Pascall ... 135 

Pasey 106 

Pashe, P. ... 299,335 

Paulett, G. 63, 80, 97, 108, 

109, 124, 144 

Pavy, P. 314 

Pawlet, G. 165, 188, 202, 224, 

240, 246, 264, 281, 294, 304 

Payne, M. 25 

Paynter, G 55 

Paynter, J 27,28 

Paynter, T n 

Paynton 415 

Pedley 403 

Pedley, R. .-492,538,573 
Peinton. A. . . . 188, 224, 246 
Pelle,].... ... 32 

Penegar 15 

Perchard 15 

Perchard, J 23 

Pery, Peryn, R. ... i, 32 

Permitt (see Parmitt) 

Perry 49 1 

Perry, N. 264, 281, 294, 357 

Person 577 

Person,J. ... 54. 55 6 

Peele, G 373 

Peele, J 5H 

Pescodd, N. 471, 516, 530, 

536, 538, 547. 

569. 584. 597 



620 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



Pettivin, P. 
Pettijohn, R. 
Pevnson, A. 
Phillpot, T. 
Pick, H. 
Pigeon, R. 
Pincock 



PAGE 
65, 104 

557 
108, 124, 144 

- 355 

542, 553 
452 

77 



Pitt, J. 488, 528, 536, 556, 

575 

Pitt, S 275 

Plummer, N 604 

Poche, P 384 

Poindexter 147 

Poindexter, C. 

46, 87, 126, 146, 172 
Pound, A. 34, 47, 63, 246 

Powel 22, 25, 485 

Pudzies... 163 

Pratt, J. 541 

Priaux, P. 471, 516, 547, 564, 

584, 543, 573 

Prowse, Capt 308 

Prowse, L. 435, 453, 471, 

495> 5i6, 537, 539, 547, 

548, 552, 564, 565, 581, 
584, 585, 587, 594 

Pudsey 249 

Puller, R 489 

Puller, W 479 

Purcas, J. 431 

Purkis, T. 511 

Pye, R 488 

Pytt 55 

Pytt, A. 117 



(uate ... 
juate, P. 
juayte, P. 
juinten, E. 
juoyte, P. 



53.90 

122 

...266,273,253 

5'i 

389 



Rachford, J. 
Rachford, R. 
Ralph, T. 
Ramsden, A. 
Rasheford, R. 
Rawlyns, W. 
Reading, J. 



PAGE 
274, 290 

565,585,595 
275,277 

126 

542, 552 
103, 186, 190, 



230, 246, 264, 281, 304, 

323, 339) 39i 

Redding 554 

Reniger 48, 49, 65, 67, 73 



Reniger, J. 
Reston, S. 
Reynolds, A. 
Reynolds, N. 
Riccard, T. 
Rich, M. 
Rich, R 
Rich, T.... 
Riche, N. 
Richards, A. 
Richards, E. 
Richards, H. 
Ricket .. 
Ridge ... 
Ridge, T. 



36 
... 328 

304,319,492 
... 270 
... 177 
... 188 

283,361,405 
... 277 
... 65 
... 419 
5^4, 598 

358, 374, 397 

121 

15,27 

8, 16, 20 

434, 452, 584, 594 
2,9,33 
123,452,590 

270 

538 

89, 136, 159 
107, 115, 136, 



42, 



Riggs ... 
Riggs, J. 
Roberts, N. 
Robey, M. 
Roche . . . 
Roche, N. 

158, 215, 218, 219 

Rocheford 9 

Rocheford, J 236 

Robins, R 163 

Robinson, J 121 

Roffe 168 

Roffe, J 574 

Rolfe, Ralph J. 314, 351 

Rosse ... ... ... 42 

Rosse, R. 91, 100, 101, 107, 
no, 113, 129, 138, 149, 
175, 261, 272, 274, 287, 
354 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



621 



PAGE 

Ross, S. ... ... ... 201 

Rought, T. . . .526, 560, 602 

Rowse ... ... ... 403 

Rowse, D. 109, 125, 140, 
145, 159, 1 66, 189, 203, 
225, 249, 265, 282, 295, 
305, 311, 324, 336, 340, 
348, 349, 358, 374, 383, 
388, 397, 401, 410, 419, 
43, 435, 453> 47^, 49^, 
5i7, 53i 548 565, 570 
Rowse, L. ... 453 

Rowse, N 565 

Rowse, R. ... 585,595 

Royston, H 113 

Russell 72, 236, 260, 312, 

317, 321 

Russell, H. i, 20, 500, 526 

Russell, R. 98, 104, 105, in, 

115, 153, 157, 163, 167, 

206, 217, 224, 246, 264, 

281, 294, 296, 305, 309, 

319, 323. 339, 358, 374, 
396, 418, 434, 453, 471, 

495, 5*7, 53, 54 8 , 5 6 5, 
584, 594 
Russell, T. ...100, 154, 581 

s 

Salmon ... ... ... 15 

Samford, N. ... 347, 363 

Samford, R 328 

Sampson 10, 16, 23, 24, 26 
Sampson, T. ... ... 91 

Sandes, Lord 294, 304, 323, 

339, 357, 373, 39&, 4 l8 > 
434, 452, 471, 495, 516, 

530, 540, 547, 564, 5 8 4, 

594 
Sandford, N. ... ... 545 

Saunders, T. ... 20, 30, 37 

Sayer, Shoier, M. 106, 402 

Scaynes, G 511 

Scott,] 413 

Seale, P. 469, 492, 516, 547, 

5 8 4, 5 8 5, 5S8, 594, 595 



S 

PAGE 

Searle, F. ... 272, 292 

Sedgwick, J. 93, 104, 114, 

122, 130, 149, 151, 163, 

170, 171, 203, 208, 210, 

300 

Sele, W 263 

Sendall, N 65, 72 

Sendy, L. 27, 34, 47, 63, 80, 

94, 108, 124, 144, 165 
Sendy, W. 188, 203, 224, 

240, 246, 264, 281, 294, 

304, 323, 339, 358, 374, 
396, 418, 434, 452, 471, 

495, 5 lf >, 53, 547, 5 6 4, 
584, 594 
Serle,J. ... ... 579 

Setelow, E. ... 559 

Sewell 490 

Sewell, F. 434, 564, 584, 594 
Sewell, W. ...584,594,551 

Shakespeare 357 

Shakle, J 182 

Sharp, G. 292 

Sharp, 333 

Shearwood 370 

Shearwood, T. 220, 235, 300, 
318, 319, 323, 324, 339, 

34, 358 

Sherwood ... 433, 492 
Sherwood, A. ... ... 593 

Sherwood, J 593 

Sherwood, T 396 

Sheuxborough 94 

Shiffe, G 177 

Shilling, P. ... 261, 277 

Shutt, J.... ... 449 

Shuxborough, T. ... 34, 47 

Sidford, A 601 

Simes, G. 405, 445, 522, 540, 

545, 573 
Simes, T. ... 486 

Simons, J. 166, 175, 189, 194, 

203, 225 
Simons. O. 167, 190, 197, 

193, 218, 289 



622 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



S PAGE 

Sims, R. ... 208,232 

Sinckerman ... ... 168 

Singleton ... 356, 403 

Singleton, R. 188, 246, 264, 

294, 318, 349, 351 
Singleton, W. 34, 40, 47, 63, 

80, 94, 1 08, 124, 144, 165 
Sinkerman, R. ... ... no 

Slatter, J 2 

Slaughter 171 

Slider, R 182 

Slyde, R 119 

Smith, A. ... 345, 360 

Smith, C. 61, 66, 72, 266 

Smith, J. ... 591, 604 

Smith, R. 123 

Smith, T. 

312, 479, 481, 587, 589 
Smith, W. ... 1,346,587 

Smithers. J 505 

Snow, H. 185 

Sohier (see Sayer) 

Soner, G. 72 

Soulton, J 1 68 

South 330 

Southampton, Lord 294, 304, 

3 2 3, 339, 357, 373> 39^, 
418, 430, 434, 452, 471, 

495, 5i6, 530. 547, 564 

Sparrow, J 507 

Specks, R. , 241 

Spencer, H 508 

Staly, J 20 

Staly, W. 20 

Stanley 15 

Stanley, P 301 

Stanley, R. ... ... 3 

Stanley, W. ... ... 15 

Stansmore, W 431 

Stanton, E 315 

Staveley 264, 281, 294, 403 

Staveley, J i 

Staveley, P. ... 165, 304 
Staveley, W. i, 34, 47, 63, 

80, 94, 108, 124, 144, 165, 

l88, 202, 221, 224, 240, 

246, 304, 323, 339, 357, 



o 

PAGE 

Staveley, W. (continued), 

373, 396, 418, 434, 452, 

47i, 495. 5i6, 530, 547, 

564, 584, 594 
Steptoe, J. ...492,514,590 

Stere 139, 204 

Stere, T. 139 

Stevens, N 42 

Stevens, T 21 

Stocks, C i 

Stoner 443 

Stoner, A. 370, 430, 446, 512 

Stoner, J. 13 

Stoner, P. 165, 188, 202, 224, 

281 
Stoner, R. ... 104, 156 

Stones, M. 65 

Stoodle, N 28 

Story 117 

Stove, A. 46 

Stratford, W 587 

Studley 228, 297, 314, 390 
Studley, A. 108, 124, 144, 

165, 1 88, 202, 224, 246, 

270, 287, 481 
Studley, R. 267, 437, 457, 492 

Studman, H 508 

Suckerman, G. ... ... 77 

Suffield, E 452 

Suffild, R. ...261,373,434 

Suffild, W 214 

Sugden 137 

Sutton, J. 445, 502, 601 

Sutton, T 285 

Swift, M. 359 

Symonds 154 

Symonds, J. 103, 104, 107, 

117, 119, 120, 125, 130, 



137, 138 



Symonds 
Symonds, T. 



Tailer ... 
Tailer, T. 
Targett, R. 



36, 107 
135 



283 

277 

557 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



623 



PAGE 

Taylor,!. ... 57 1 * 59 
Taylor, W. ... 117, 201 

Temple, R 214 

Thesey, W 34 

Thomas 105 

Thomas, S. 98, 134, 141, 150, 

i53> i57 ? 167, 186, 205, 

217, 236, 296 

Thompson, G 562 

Thorn, J. 42,46 

Thorn, T. 

46, 307, 440, 500, 551 
Thorngate, R. ... 449, 538 

Thorp 15 

Thresher,! 113 

Toldervey 336, 347, 403, 

449, 469 

Toldervey,] 418 

Toldervey, P. ... 304, 357 
Toldervey, R. ... 373, 4 86 

Tompson, T 182 

Tompson, W 356 

Tredsole 296 

Tree, J 37 

Trencher 130 

Trip, J. R 3 6 

Tucker, G. ...547, 5 6 4> 5 8 4 
Tucker, W. ... 117 

Turner 89, 97, 116, 132, 149, 

180, 205, 211, 217, 220 

Turner, M. 7 

Turner, T. 34, 46, 63, 136 
Tylee, M. ... 483,500 



u 



Ubley, C. 



470 



Vaughan 

no, 168, 175, i93> J 94 
Vaughan, R. 

200, 214, 234, 280 
Vaughan, T. 52, 54, 79, 106, 
156, 168, 199, 252, 261, 
270, 272, 410 



PAGE 

Vautier, R 55 

Veale, A. 257, 330, 343, 368, 

412,421 

Veale, D. . . .469, 483, 500 

Veale, G. 483, 486, 500, 558 

Ventum, R 435 

Viberd, J 3, 35 

Vibert, J. ... 389,512 

Vibert, R 551 

Vincent ... 46, 87, 102, 211 
Vincent, G. 15, 20, 32, 241 
Votier, A. ... ... 350 

Vovart 185,282 

Vovart, J. 35, 48, 64, 81, 95, 
109, 125, 145; 1 66, 203, 
224, 247, 265, 295, 304, 
305, 323. 324> 340, 
374' 397 



W 

Wade, J. ... ... 512 

Wadlow, T. 63, 1 08, 124, 

221, 235, 259, 260 
Wakelands, J. ...177, 181, 195 
Wakelin, J. ... 106, 150 

Walker 187 

Walker, A 279 

Walleron 135 

Wallop 359, 425, 455, 497 
Wallop, Sir H. ... 70, 171 
\Vallop, W. 434, 445, 446, 

450, 451, 466 
Walsingham ... ... 55 

Wandricke, A 511 

Ward, A. ... 500, 508 

Ward, W. ... 117, 350 

Warden,! 182 

Warener, ! 583 

Warford, R. ... 360,411 

Warner 602 

Warner,!. 443, 551, 568, 

588, 597 

Warton, !. ... 470 
Wateridge 58,98 



624 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



W PAGE 

Waterton 15 

Waterton, F. ... 200, 238 

Waterton, J i, 20 

Waterton, R. 80, 94, 124, 
144, 165, 188, 202, 224, 
235, 246, 264, 281, 294 

\Vatson, G 361 

Webb 77, 214, 366 

Webb, J. 34, 48, 64, 80, 94, 

108, 135 

Weekham, W 505 

Weeks, T. 4, 17, 25, 27, 32 
Weldon, T. 48, 64, 81, 95, 

109, 125, 145, 1 66, 189, 
203, 247, 255, 265, 282, 
295. 305, 324. 340, 35^, 
374. 397, 4*9, 435. 453. 
472, 496, 517, 531, 548 

Wells ... 15,16,25,514 

Wells, T 34 

Wells, W. 446, 502, 513, 

515,522,539,544 
Westley, W 2,5 

Wheler, T i 

Whethorne, C. 

314, 330, 368, 442 
White 

89, 118, 132, 138, 186, 254 
White, E. 63, 80, 94, 95, 108, 
124, 144, 165, 188, 202, 
224, 240, 246, 264, 281 

White, F 389 

White, H. ... 34,63,80 
White, J. ... 22, 23 

White, R. ... 47, 63 

White, Sir T 408 

White, T 408 

Whithead ... 320, 321 

Whittife, E. 311, 355, 364, 

411, 462, 480, 522, 525, 

540, 554, 555, 573, 588, 

599 

Whittoft, H. (see also Huttoft) 

47, 63, 80, 94, 1 08 
Wicks, E. ... ... 242 

Williams, J. 32, 324, 340, 
358, 374, 397> 419 



W 

PAGE 

Williams, L. 81, 95, 109, 125, 
145, 166, 189, 203, 225, 
247, 265, 282, 295, 305 

Williams, T. 273, 287, 353, 
435, 440, 453, 472, 496, 
517, 53i, 548, 565, 585, 

595 
Willis-Fleming, J. E. B. 432 

Willowby, R 315 

Wilmot 37, 60, 83, 100, 168 

Wilmot, E. 8, 9, 23, 27, 34, 

44, 47, 52, 63, 80, 94, 108, 

124, 144, 165, 188, 202, 

224, 241, 242, 247, 265, 

282, 295, 305, 324, 340 

Wilmot, J. ... 80, 94 

Winter, T. ... ... 514 

Witney, T 46 

Woodier, J 407 

Woodlands, W. ... 283 

Woods,? 162 

Wrayette, C 25 

Wriothsley, H 357 

Wroughton ... ... 582 

Wroughton, T. 

5 J 6, 53, 547, 5 6 4 

Wyatt, Wiett 32, 58, 93, 170, 

289, 310, 343, 464, 521, 

534, 550, 5^7 

Wyatt, G. 157 

Wyatt, J. ...219,259,284 

Wynde, W. ... 580,589 



Yelding, J. 

Yelding, W. 265, 
305, 324, 340, 
397, 419, 435, 
496, 517, 53i, 
595 

Yeling, Eling, J. 

Yewins, N. 

Yngglysse, English, 



... 247 

282, 295, 

358, 374, 

453, 472, 

565, 585, 

35, 181 

415, 422 

R. 21 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



625 



INDEX OF PLACES, 



BY GERTRUDE H. HAMILTON. 



Above Bar 
Beadles of 
Bridge at ... 
Butcher of 
Butt at ... 
Ditch in in 



PAGE 

64 

475 

... 27, 30, 43 

544 

, 112, 126, 128, 



244, 312 

Fence ... 219 

Garden at 491 

Gutter 500, 538 

Hedge 56 

Highway 51, 67, 157, 266, 288, 

328, 342, 422, 485, 506, 

510, 546, 592 

Holes 505 

Houses near 274 

Inhabitants of 71, 100, 168, 

308, 411 
Paving ... ... ... 89 

Penthouse 31 

Pillory at 259 

Pound at 430 

Refuse 479, 5 2<5 

Road 68 

Sink 268 

Stocks for ... 49, 66, 133 

Wall of 5o 

Watch at 444, 456, 473, 497, 

5 l8 > 53 2 , 549. 5 66 



Above Bar Street 
Refuse in 



507 



Acorn (Acard's) Bridge 128 

Acorn Bridge and Cross... 320 

Causeway at ... ... 4 22 

Causeway near 369, 379, 400 

Vanes at 428 

All Saints- 
Above the Bar ... ... 209 

"Alhalond" 4 2 

Church, Clock of ... 135 
Church Window, Refuse 

under 502 



All Saints (contd.) PAGE 
Conduit ii, 347, 367, 383, 

525, 54 2 

Conduit, Refuse near ... 445 

Fence in 602 

"Hallowes" 26 

Parishioners of ... ... 352 

All Saints Parish 

All Saints within Ward ... 380 

Buckets in ... ... 455 

Fence in 442 

Gutter in 486 

House in ... ... 254 

Inhabitants of ... ... 31 

Pump ... ... ... 365 

Tipplers in ... ... 42 

Well in 30 

Alms-house ... 199 
Street by 268 

Alum Cellar 67, 97 

Gutter near ... 84, 96, 218 

Highway near ... ... 365 

Refuse near 117, 155, 179, 

Roads near 84 

Sanitary matters near ... 406 

Street near ... 327,342 

Walls near 463 

Antelope ... 7 2 

Arundel Tower 

475, 498, 554, 5^8 
Hedge near ... 348, 361 

Highway near 436 

Piles at 539, 6o 

Posts at 5 88 

Wall near 3 88 , 44 

Audit House 

I 9 0, 201, 307, 352, 414, 

424, 468, 490, 500, 561 

Assemblies in 4 7 

Buckets for 439, 474, 5 J 5 
Lane near 510 



626 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



Audit House (contd.) PAGE 
Scales in ... ... ... 447 

Table at ... 513, 527, 555, 575 

Wall of 489 

Weights in ... 43, 140 



B 



Back-of- the- Walls 37, 52 

Baddesly 470 

Bagrew (or Bagrow) ... 400 
Beadle of... ... ... 65 

Ditch in 538 

East St. Ward 380 

Gutter in^ 478, 551, 569, 597 
Tipplers in ... . . 30 

Bailiff's Booth 

I3 1 , i53> 173, J 93, 20 7, 
230, 286, 381, 460, 501, 

5 2 3, 535, 587, 603 
Ditch near 459, 478, 569 

Drain near ... ... 270 

Banister 

Field in ... 312 

Banister's Farm 

Ditch near 353 

Bargate n, 318, 319, 320 
Bridge at... 235, 317, 361 

Conduit pipes under ... 268 
Ditches near 71, 78, 86, 150, 

348, 39 8 , 477 

Encroachment near ... 259 
Highway near 25, 509, 592 

Iron door at ... ... 309 

Keys of 545 

Lions at ... ... 554 

Old Pound at 286 

Pales near ... ... 166 

Path near ... ... 180 

Posts without ... ... 190 

Prison in ... ... ... 403 

Ramparts near ... 74, 260 

Refuse near 248, 285, 308 

Sanitary matters at 229, 513 
Stones over ... ... 436 

Toll at 279 

Turnstile wanted at 

!54i 175. i93 



Bargate (contd.) PAGE 

Wall without 155, 457, 596 

Watch Bell at ... 413, 426 
Watercourse near ... 391 

Barnard's Field- 
Pipe in 314 

Berrell Stone Cross ... 321 

Bevois Hill 131 

Highway near ... 422, 485 
Pit near ... ... ... 587 

Tenant at 508 

Biddlesgate 

Garden by ... ... 117 

Gutter at ... ... 226, 539 

House near ... ... 227 

Oak bark at 266 

Refuse near 102, 156, 175, 

177, i93 2 7> 218, 249, 

3" 3 8 5, 439, 5 2 5> 554, 

574, 598 

Roads near ... ... 84 

Sanitary matters at ... 197 

Stairs to ... ... 177, 195 

Timber at ... 462,555 

Tower near ... ... 461 

Wall near 54, 195, 248, 290, 

365, 388 
Blackworfh 
Blue Anchor Lane 
Bottrell's Conduits 

Bottrell's Head- 
Brickwork at ... ... 481 

Bottrell's Well 326, 361, 430 
Brew House 162 

Brewers' Tower 

Gutter near ... ... 96 

Brick House 

Highway near ... 85, 509 

Bristol 61, 129, 299 

Broad Lane 138, 297, 484 
Fence in ... ... ... 89 

House in ... 254, 276 

Rubbish in ... ... 559 

Sanitary matters in ... 186 
Timber in 366 



... 321 
... 249 
345, 463 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



627 



Brocket's Close PAGE 

Bouney in 506 

Brooker's Lane 47 

Bugle Hall (Bull) 

Tower near ... ... 74 



Bugle Street- 
Soil in 



70, 155 
75. 102 

Bull Hall (Bugle) ... 9 

Buttress at 3 8 9 

Walls behind 568 

Well by 73 

Bull Hall Garden- 
Walls behind ... 325, 341 

Bull Street 297 

Gutter in 406, 424, 443, 507, 

524, 54i, 55 8 

House in 33 J > 344 

Paving in 306, 390, 407, 507 
Refuse in 197, 218, 290, 314, 

483, 484, 503, 523 

Sanitary matters 4 2 3 

Water in ... 540, 557. 599 

Well in ... 333, 334, 405. 43 2 

Burgess Street 321 

Bursledon 146 



Calshot ... 77 

Canshot 

Bouney near 83, 99, 112, 127, 

i47 3> 3 6 

Ditch at 38, 83 

Highway from ... 127, 299 
Quay at 2 77 

Canshot Lane 

113. 342, 345, 3 6o > 4o6, 

422, 428 
Bouney near 168, 191, 212, 

230, 291, 444 
Ditch in 17, i47> 252, 267, 

288, 298, 388, 429, 464, 

481, 544, 5 6 
Highway in 442, 506, 509, 

524, 5 2 9> 542, 546, 583 

Soil in 526 

Timber in 545 



Canshot Lane (contd.) PAGE 
Timber near ... ... 488 

Woman in ... ... 389 

Castle, The ... 18, 37 

Bell at ... ... 216, 232 

Highway behind .. ... 487 

Roads near 84 

Rubbish near ... 151,252 

Wall of 129 

Walls near 255 

Castle Butts ... 82, 154 
Castle Chapel 180 

Castle Gardens- 
Refuse in ... ... 4 IQ 

Castle Green 291, 296 

Butts in 258, 268, 306, 325 
Rubbish on 31, 32, 57, 102, 
129, 156, 177, 226, 385 

Castle Hill- 156 

Garden by 4^ 

Refuse at 270 

Castle Lane 

Refuse in ... 218, 599 

Castle Tower 292 

Catchcold 

Dock near 251 

Masts near 461 

Tower at ... 248, 504, 524 

Walls near 248, 308, 348, 535 

Catchcold Tower 

319, 476, 498, 502, 523, 

554, 568 

Buttress near 84 

Hogs in ... 539 

Path near 180 

Walls near ... i95> 3 11 

Catherine Wheel- 
Fence at 602 

Chantry 

Bridge at 7 

Causeway near 484 

Ditch near 332, 56, 5 2 5 

Farm of ... 7 

Farmer of 4, T 4, i9 8 > 205, 210, 

276, 291 
Lane behind 3 8 



628 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



Chantry (contd.) PAGE 

Repairs near 597 

Turning to, from East Street 26 

Chantry Lodge 

Highway at ... ... 546 

Chantry Orchard 

Walls of ... ... ... 459 

Chapel 346 

Banks near ... ... 153 

Booth near 173, 193, 207, 230 
Bouney near ... 173 

Causeway near 127, 286, 330, 

440, 460, 479, 484, 569 

Channel at 382 

Ditches near 131, 332, 344, 

3 6 2, 376, 399> 420, 493, 

538, SS 2 , 597 
Footway to ... ... 377 

Gate at 543 

Highway near 422,457,546,583 
Pits near ... ... ... 598 

Stalls in ... ... ... 382 

Wall near 66 

Chilworth ... ... 250 

Highway to ... ... 267 

Cockerel's Orchard 204, 215 

Common 

169, 197, 212, 233, 258 
Bull for ... 198, 276, 291 

Bushes on ... ... 259 

Cattle for 14, 39 

Cattle on 41, 160, 215, 222, 

235 

Clay on 133, 237 

Drivers of 27, 40, 49, 93, 221, 

449 
Enclosure of 122, 159, 179, 

I 95 59 2 , 604 
Encroachment of 120, 187, 

251, 3 J o 

Gates of 55, 223, 433 

Heifer on ... ... 137 

Highway in ...106, 148, 592 

Holes on 73 

Horses on 5, 75, 86, 99, 283, 

408 
House on... ... ... 180 

Maintenance of ... ... 279 



Common (contd.) PAGE 

Overcharging of 45, 53, 58, 59, 

122, 123, 134, 163, 179, 

200, 220, 239, 243, 258, 

278, 293, 318, 338, 352, 

355, 372, 394, 417, 433, 

446, 449, 469, 494, 5 11 , 

529, 546, 563, 583, 603 

Refuse on ... ... 196 

Regulation for ... ... 22 

Rights of 4, 21 

Soil on ... ... ... 525 

Springs of ... 309, 319 

Trees on ... ... ... 60 

Common Hall 185 

Common Heath 6 

Coniger 

Ditch near ...268, 269, 286 

Coopers' Tower ... 289 
Piles at ... 347, 363, 377 

Timber near ... ... 388 

Wall near ... 74, 442 

Corner Tower 84, 270, 289 

Cross House 

307, 460, 477, 520, 533, 

5 6 9 

Banks by ... 440 

Causeway near 569 

Highway at ... ... 546 

Saw-pit near ... 383, 401 

Crown 

House near ... 254, 276 

Culver Close 

Ditch near 429 

Cushion's Ground 

Fences in... 314 

Custom House 

Wall near 162 

Cutthorn 

Bouney at 604 

Common of ... ... 581 

Ditch near 314 

Door at 543, 557, 578, 587 

Gallows at 456, 475, 497, 519, 

533, 549, 566 
Highway to 112, 509, 546, 583 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



629 



PAGE 

Cutthorn Cross ... 321 

Cutthorn Gate 

Gully within ... ... 529 

D 

Dervall's Ditch ... 267 

Dervall's Orchard ... 303 

Dibden 577 

Dolphin- 
Castle near 255 

Drawers at ... 514 

False measures at ... 450 

Dorchester 

Fire at ... 483 



East Gate ... 4 6 4 

Bank near ... 74 

Bridge at... 252, 327, 573 

Bridge under ... ... 71 

Ditches near 26, 123, 156, 208, 

290, 361, 398, 402, 458, 

461, 520, 534, 574 
Dwellers over ... ... 366 

Gutter at ... 298, 307, 407 

Gutter on ... 484, 56 

Head at ... ... 24 

Highway near 287, 322, 421 
Holes over 328, 438, 476, 

497, 5i8, 533 
Houses within ... ... 91 

Lane near ... 82, 97, 131 

Palings at 346 

Ramparts to 74 

Refuse near 171, 191, 206, 

226, 463, 537, 571 
Roads near ... 37> 84 

Sanitary matters at 268, 284 

Street within 45 

Towers near 101, 153, 192 

Tower next 553 

Wall near 51, 79> 44 

Watering place without ... 597 

East Gate Bridge- 
Ditch near 477 

East Street 

42, 65, 381, 400, 484 



East Street (contd.) PAGE 
Alms-house in ... ... 491 

Bouney in 126, 146, 172, 267 

Bridge near 252 

Cleaning of ... ... 309 

Ditch in 46, 303, 346, 429, 504 
Fence in ... ... 451, 466 

Footpath in ... ... 329 

Garden in ... ... 446 

Gutter in 269, 285, 291, 303, 

376, 398, 420, 479, 520, 

538 
Gutters and Bouneys in ... 88 

Hedge in 559 

Highway from ... ... 269 

Highway in 25, 51, 457, 510, 

529> 546, 592 

Hole in 501, 523 

Lane near ... ... 82 

Paving of 342, 502, 524, 601 

Post in 587 

Road near 19 

Rubbish in 102, 146, 147, 193, 

207, 268, 270, 362 

Soil in ioi 

Stocks in 259 

Timber in ... 501, 522 

Watch in 444, 456, 473, 497, 

5 l8 , S3 2 , 549, 5 66 
Watercourse out of 90, 330, 343 



Eling 



577 



F 

Fish Market 

14, 122, 176, 195, 274,314, 

349 
Four Posts 

Highway at ... 44 2 

French Street 

297, 3 6 > 3*7* 3 6 5>39, 407 

Friar's 

Backdoor at 3 l6 

Butchers at ... 28, 541 

Conduit 367, 421, 444, 481, 

599, 600 
Half-bowl-alley in ...n, 24 

Friar's Gate- 
Butchers at ... 12, 337 
Conduit at ... ... 10 



630 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



Friar's Head PAGE 

Conduit 212, 251, 299, 360, 

383, 5 c6 > 524, 545> 560,589 

Friar's Shambles 369 

Shed at ... ... 384 

Friary 

Sanitary matters at 

194, 262, 290 
Walls at ... 312, 507 

Fulling Mill 303 

G 

Galley Quay 

Roads near 84 

Wall near ...54,67 

Gaol ... ... 333 

Gates- 
See under Bargate, Bid- 
dlesgate, Eastgate, God's 
House, Postern, Water- 
gate, Westgate. 

George 

Ditch behind 457, 554, 572, 596 

Drawers at 514 

Encroachment behind ... 539 

Hedge behind 348 

Highway near ... 322,436 
House behind ... ... 309 

Pound near ... 185 

Refuse behind 

268, 427, 502, 522 



Sign of 
Watercourse to 



... 544 

57 

l6 9> 55> 604 
, ... 69 
509, 546 



Giddy Bridge- 
Ditch near 
Highway at 

Giddy Stile- 
Bridge at... ... 310 

Gobbin's Farm 

Highway to 132 

Refuse at 180 

Refuse near ... ... 250 

God's House ... 3 

Banks near n, 74, 88, 99, 194, 
210, 231, 263, 273, 478, 
520 



I S5 
... 219 
... 82 

97, 131 
102, 152 

75 

IOI 

... 192 
... 440 

... 411 
... 384 



God's House (contd.) PAGE 
Bulwarks near 69, 171, 429 

Ditch near 
Fence round 
Lane near 
Lane to ... 
Rubbish near 
Sluice at ... 
Sluice near 
Towers near 
Wall at 

God's House Close- 
Bank at 

Bridge from 

Gate of 

Highway near 

God's House Conduit 

16, 256, 272, 287, 349, 363, 
389, 488, 499 
Washing at 

God's House Field- 
God's House Gate 

270, 321, 
Banks near 
Breach at 
Bulwark at 
Bulwarks near 85, 152, 481, 525 
Ditch near 

208, 458, 461, 477, 520 
Encroachment near 

477, 497, 5i8 



329 



421 



488, 592 

534 

... 298 

62 



329, 556 

552, 572 

, 521, 535 

3 l6 > 536, 

37, 84 

3i3 
422 

553 



Highway near 
House near 
House over 
Refuse at 73, 

552, 599 
Road near 
Street near 
Street within 
Wall near... 

God's House Green 

127, 153, i54, 256, 334 
House on... ... ... 17 

Pit near 474, 498 

Racks in ... 456 

God's House Ground 41 

God's House Hospital Gate 
Highway near ... ... 510 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



God's House Meadow PAGE 
Bank by ... ... 461, 478 

Pits near 571 

God's House Tower 

461, 481, 499, 568, 600 

Banks near 313 

Bowling Green near 408, 425, 

439, 455, 474, 499, 5 r 9, 

533, 549, 5 6 7, 5^6, 59^ 

Bowling Ground near ... 353 

Bulwark near 38, 463, 569, 601 

Ditch near 534, 575 

Hole at 4 2 7 

Ordnance in 577 

Pikes missing 368 

Pollution of ...586, 588, 598 
Refuse near 208, 476, 570, 593 
Ship before ... ... 32 

Walls near 255, 311, 363, 366, 
389, 404, 587 

God's House Tower Gate 
Refuse at ... ... 429 

Gosling Lane (see Goswell 
Lane). 

Goswell Lane 

169, 230, 354 

Cistern in ... 57, 212, 326 

Conduit 251, 309, 345, 506, 

524, 560, 589, 600 
Conduit in 407, 463, 481 

Ditches in 7, 52, 128, 148, 168, 

242, 368, 604 
Highway near 250, 275, 316, 

44i, 546 

Hole in 104, 114, 118, 128, 148 
Refuse in 579 

Watercourse near ... 36 

Green Bulwark, the ... 62 

Guernsey 

18, 25, 59, 69, 140, 591 

Guildford ... 138 



H 



Hamble ... 
Hampton 

Haven Ston< 
Road near 



146, 167 

7 

302, 321 
... 327 



H 



PAGE 
346, 354 
... 321 



Heath 
Hedgestone 

High Street ... 122, 297 

Cart in .. 448 

Encroachment into 88, 507 

Fish Market in ... ... 401 

Gutter in ... 130, 153, 445 

Market in ... 380, 491 

Refuse in ... ... 466 

Shops in 369 

Timber in ... 70, 445 

Hill- 7, 58, 98, 251, 320, 581 

Highway at 112 

Refuse in 579 

Watering-place near 128, 147, 
168, 190, 212, 230 

Hill Bridge 

481, 506, 524, 536, 550, 568 

Causeway near ... 334, 344 

Highway to 509, 583 

Masts near ... ... 461 

Posts at ... 545, 5 8 

Posts near 560 

Vanes at ... 326, 342, 438 

Hill Pond 300, 326, 342, 506 

Hoglands 41, 223, 256, 308 

Bridge at 45 8 

Ditch near 

93, HO, !92, 205, 307 

Footpath from 226 

Highway to 170, 191, 204, 

205, 226 

Lane from ... 89, 97, 132 
Stile in 329 

Hogland Field 486, 504 

Bridge in 597 

Way in ... 527,537,559 

Hog Pound ... 332 

Hoglands Stile 53 

Watercourse near ... 78 

Holy Rood Church- 
Highway by ... 297, 307 
Lane near ... 275, 288 

Holy Rood Church Lane 

552 
Refuse in 537 



632 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



H 


H 


Holy Rood Parish PAGE 
Beadles of ... ... 448 
Buckets for ..-474, 549, 5 6 7 
Buckets in ... 499, 519 
House in 443, 470, 507 
Wall in 487 
Holy Rood Ward ... 380 


Houndwell House PAGE 
i79, 195, 310. 360, 375, 
398, 420, 464, 482, 490, 

521, 534, 550 5 6 7, 590 
Conduits near .. 505, 524 
Ditch near .. 170, 192 
Stile at ... 170 


Hode's Cross ... 258 


Troughs from .. ... 23 


Common at ... ... 276 


Water at ... 383 


Common near ... ... 288 


Watercourse near ... 78 


Hood's Cross 


Houndwell Pits ... 38 


187, 197, 212, 233, 320 
Hoskin's Corner ... 57 


Houndwell Stile ... 544 
Bouney near ... ... 500 


Hoskin's Lane ... 128 


Ditch near ... 359, 551 


Houndwell 

41, 133, 1 68, 222, 223, 256, 


Gutter near ... ... 402 
Hole near ... 360, 375 


273, 287, 355 


Hurst 577 


Bouney at ... ... 568 


Hythe 


Bridge at... 310, 458, 597 
Conduit 38, 53, 78, 212, 230, 
298, 360, 481, 600, 601 


J 

Boatmen of 77, 216, 439, 455, 
475, 498, 5'9, 577, 602 


Ditches in 49, 85, 126, 136, 




159, 176, 266, 283, 288, 




293, 298, 590, 597 
Ditch near 10,71,92,111,170, 
203, 208, 307 


Ireland 344 

Islands (Channel) ... 217 


Fence in 491 


Isle of Wight- 


Ground at ... ... 392 


Glazier from ... ... 432 


Gutter at ... ... ... 422 


Stones from ... 439, 550 


Highway from 


Stones of ... ... 602 


170, 191, 204, 205, 226 
Highway near ... ... 583 


Itchen 321 


Street near 7 


Itchen Causeway ... 127 


Tower near ... ... 74 
Wash-house ... ... 598 
Wash-house at 229, 252, 267, 
286, 330, 343 


Itchen Cross- 
Causeway near ... ... 66 

Itchen Ferry ... 216 


Watercourse at ... ... 245 


Bank by 316, 478 


Water from 490, 499, 521, 


Banks near 152, 263, 273 


535, 550, 567 


Bulwark at ... ... 62 


Watering-place ... 8, 23, 29 


Bulwarks near 85 


Houndwell Cross 73, 102 
Highway from ... 37, 112 
Highway near ... 85, 149 


Causeway at ... ... 420 
Causeway by 592 
Causeway near ... 289,460 
Causeway to '... 377,399 


Houndwell Field 


Cross House by ... 307, 383 


217* 2 54, 3*9 


Ditch near ... ... 25 


Ditch in 458 


Fish sold at 380 


Ditch near ... 205, 226 


Ground by ... ... 405 


Ropemakers in ... ... 440 


Highway at 510 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



633 



I 

Itchen Ferry (contd.) PAGE 

Highway near ... 48, 329 

Highway to 286 

Rampart at 321 

Road near ... 206, 232 

Watermill at 254 

Itchen Sluice 170 



Jersey 
Men of 

18, 25, 59, 69, 140, 591, 

John a Guernsey's Cross (see 
Padwell Cross). 

K 

Katherine Wheel 

House- at 252 

King's Custom House 

Table in 575 

King's Head 39 

King's Orchard 

Back doors from 204, 225 

Bowling-alley at ... ... 329 

Unlawful games at n, 24, 42, 
134, 163, 179,201, 234, 239 

King's Orchard Lane 4 21 

Kingsland 
Ditch near 

104, 149, 170, 203, 266 



, 33 6 
3 6 9 

3 21 



Lady of Grace Chapel 

Fair at 
Langthorn Gates 

Langthorn Gate 

Vanes at ... 3 2 7> 34 2 

Lime Kiln 

Piles near ...... 3 28 

Walls near ... 103,130 

Linen Hall 

59. 6 9> J 39> r 45 2I 7> 2(52 > 
2 88, 364, 368, 390, 403* 



Linen Hall (contd.) PAGE 
414, 423, 441, 469, 491, 

59i 
Gutter under ... 378, 399 

Lion, the 

Ditches near ... ... 7 

Lit ten 

Wall of 382 

Repairs near 597 

Litten Stile- 
Highway to 381 

London 129, 138, 299, 344 

Lord's Gate 

Walls near ... ... 290 

Lord's Lane (Blue Anchor) 

348 

Gutter in 428 

Refuse in ... 462, 539 
Wall in 588 

Lord's Lane Alley 

Postern Gate 54 

Love Lane 

Highway in 546 

Lowbery Mead 

Conduit-head at ...361 

Conduit-heads in ... 230 

Conduits in ... ... 345 

Lowbery Mead Conduit 

169, 212 

Low Countries ... 344 

Luberry Mead 

Conduit-head at ... 383 

Conduit in ... 407, 464 

Luberry Mead Conduit 

481, 506, 524, 560, 590 

M 

Magdalen, East ... 4 

Ditch in 242 

Ditch near ... 17 

Magdalen Fields 

Holes in 55 

Magdalen Fields, East 131 



634 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



M 




P 




PAGE 




PAGE 


Magdalen House 


328 


Padwell 


... 250 


Highway near 


457 


Bouney in 


148, 169 


Magdalen, West 

4T IJ 


18/1 


Bouney near ...191 
Causeway in 


, 212, 230 

... 275 


5 1 7 

Ditch in 


J. O/f. 

242 


Ditch near 52, 83, 99, 132 
Ditches in ... 181. 710 


Market Place 


33 1 


Highway near 


148, 149 


Lane from 


5io 


Stiles at 


... 237 


Marrian's Booth 


3 l8 


Watercourse near 


*33 


Maudlins (Magdalen) 
Ditch near 


256 
266 


Padwell Cross 
Bouney near 


169, 198 


Hedges and Ditches in 15 


' 25 


Ditch near 


... 148 


Highway near 

Maudlins, East 
Inhabitants of 


250 
411 


Green near 
Highway at 
Highway near 67, 149, 
Refuse at ...230 


... 312 
... 546 
229, 485 
267, 505 


Maudlin Fields 


223 


Turf at 


99, 134 


Maudlin House 




Padwell Gate 




Highway near 


422 


Bouney at 


487, 505 


Pits near 


428 


Padwell Lane 




Mill- 




Bouney in 


... 327 


Bank near 


232 


Ditch near 


112 


Causeway near ... 


286 


Platform Tower 




Millbrook 


581 


Way near 


... 9 6 






Polymond Tower- 


71 


N 




Bank near 


74 


New Forest 


577 


Porter's Stable- 
Kennel near 


290 


Newport 


59 


Portsmouth 


215* 327 


Newton Lane 




Portswood 




Gutter in 


87 


Alderman of 


... 60 


No Man's Land 




Inhabitants of 443, 


455, 475 


325* 34i, 359>375 398, 


420 


Tenants of 


... 58 


Nursling 


470 


Portswood Street 


- 352 






Postern Gate 




o 




Fence near 


221, 236 


Old Pound ... 235, 


286 


Gutter at 
Refuse at 271, 331, 


365, 555 
348, 378 


Orchard 


392 


Walls at 


249, 278 


Orchard Lane 
97, 236, 272, 292, 
Bouney in 146, 172, 


485 
192 


Walls near 
Watercourse 

Poultry Cross 


290 
... 311 


Ditch in ... 154, 245, 


556 


Fish Market in ... 


380, 438 


Ditch near 174, 193, 207, 


235 


Pound 




Highway in 546, 


592 


Ditch near 


... 117 


Hogs in 542, 


553 


Highway near 


250, 275 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



635 



Pound (contd.) PAGE 

Posts near ... ... 204 

Timber near 388 

Proclamation Place ... 489 



Queen's Orchard ... 215 
Lane near 82 



Red Conduit 

Watercourse to ... ... 245 

Rockstone Lane 

116, 128, 149, 183 

Bouney in 52, 250, 267, 289, 

346, 369, 378, 400, 421, 

445> 485, 55> 6 4 



Clay in ... 
Ditch near 
Green near 
Highway in 
Pit in 

Romsey ... 
Rounsivall 



56 
83, 99, "2i 132 

310 

... 67, 509, 583 
481 

582 

... 54, 227,462 



St. Denys 

Copse in ... ... 393 

Lane near ... ... 131 

St. Denys Tower 

475> 539, 55 6 > 5 68 
St. Denys Wood ... 6 

St. Dionysius Tower 

Piles at ... ... 429 

St. John's Parish- 
Beadles of ... ... 65 

Buckets for 474 

Encroachment in ... 44 1 

House in 344, 43 6 

Parsonage of ... X 5 

Streets in 3 66 

Tenement in ... ... 4 6 

Tipplers in ... 4 2 

Wells in 3 6 

St. John's Ward 25, 380 



St. Lawrence Church 
Street in front 

St. Lawrence's Parish 

Butts of 

House in 
Inhabitants of 
Sink in 



PAGE 
73 

ii 

442 

3i, 57 

579 

380 
86 



St. Lawrence Ward 
St. Lawrence's Well 

St. Mary's 172 

Almshouse near ... 268 

Bouney in ... ... 173 

Causeway in ... 174, 459 

Ditches near ... 131, 153 

Gutter in ... ... 551 

Highway near 583 

Highway to 285 

Lane to ... ... ... 97 

Rubbish near ... ... 269 

Refuse near ... ... 286 

Road to 19 

St. Mary's Church 

Alehouses near 274 

Ditch near 

116, 132, 149, 332, 344 

Footpath to ... ... 329 

Highway from ... ... 53 

Highway near ... ... 351 

Ruins of 25 

St. Mary's Churchyard 67 

Highway by ... ... 147 

Lane near ... ... 89 

Street to 40 

St. Mary's Field ... 3 

St. Mary's Lane 

149, 199, 269 
Bouney in ... 116, 131 

Ditch in 149 

Footpath near ... ... 205 

Footpath to ... ... 226 

Refuse near 230 

St. Mary's Litten 

Causeway near ... ... 569 

Ditch at 459 

Ditch near ... 47 8 , 5 2 5 

Highway near ... 422, 506 



636 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



S 



PAGE 
209 
446 
9 



St. Mary's Parish 
Fence in 
Hedge in 

St. Mary's Street 45, 199 

Bridge near ... ... 205 

Ditch near ... ... 310 

Lane to ... ... 89 

St. Michael's Church- 
Conduit at 482, 521, 535 

Encroachment near ... 317 

House near ... ... 276 

Pipes near ... ... 350 

Refuse at ... ... 484 

Streets near 508 

Wall of 601 

St. Michael's Conduit 558 

St. Michael's Parish 484 

Beadles of 65 

Buckets for 474, 549, 567 

Buckets in ... 499, 519 

Cellar in 576 

Gutter in ... 558, 580 

Hole in .. 559 

House in 121, 403, 527 

Non-burgess in 333 

Paving in ... 73, 601 

Refuse in 482, 521, 542, 556 

Streets in ... 507, 524 

Tipplers in ... ... 42 

Wells in 36 

St. Michael's Prison 

326, 333, 403 

Gutter over ... 50, 74 

Wall of 379 

St. Michael's Pump ... 299 

St. Michael's Square 

Fish Market in 195, 371, 380, 

401, 422, 438, 487, 499 
Gutter in ... ... 454 

St. Michael's Ward 25, 380 
St. Michael's Well 86, 467, 593 

Salisbury 

Men ot 280 

Salt House 

81, 96, 109, 125, 145, 220 
Gutter near 117 



Salt House (contd.) PAGE 

Highway at 546 

Refuse near ... ... 218 

Wall near ... ... 54 

Salt Marsh 

2, 3, 4, 5, 21, 98, 263, 321 
Archery on ... ... 78 

Bouney at 598 

Bouncy near ... ... 206 

Bridge near ... ... 16 

Bulwarks near 69, 85, 97, 174, 

193, 207, 231 

Cattle on ... 222, 223 

Clay in 49, 71, 127, 236, 257. 

276, 288 
Ditch near 48, 82, 172, 193, 

207, 235, 268,291,501, 551 
Ditches of ... 538, 553 

Highway near 286, 422, 570 

Hogs on ... 41 

Holes in ... ... 588, 601 

Horses on ... 137, 302 

Levelling of ... ... 193 

Mill at ... ... ... 270 

Pit in ... 522, 535, 552, 571 
Refuse on 38, 73, 102, in, 

113, 131, 151, 152, 153, 
155. 206, 303, 315, 362 

Rubbish on 

61, 3 8 3> 4oi, 422, 461 

Sluice at ... 308 

Sark 

Men of ... ... 140, 217 

School House 

33, 347, 5i 525, 599 

Refuse near 527 

Refuse under ... ... 536 

Walls of ... ... ... 540 

Shoemakers' Tower 

177, 195, 209 

Simnel Lane 365 



Simnel Street 
House in 
Paving in 
Refuse in 

Southewicke 



ioo, 311 
... 409 
... 541 
218, 579 

... 138 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



637 



S 

Star- 
Drawers at ... 
Encroachment behind 

Light at 

Refuse behind 
Towers behind ... 

Star Garden 
Tower behind 

Stoneham 
Stoneham Common 
Stoneham Farm 
Swathling 



Tin House 

Wall of 

Watercourse near 
Weights in 

Towers 

See under Arundel, Brewers', 
Bugle, Castle, Catchcold, 
Coopers', Corner, God's 
House, Houndwell, Plat- 
form, Polymond, St.Denys, 
Shoemakers', Watch. 

Town Hall 

428, 449, 487 
Cushions for ... 
Leads of ... ... 

Leads on ... 

Leads over 72, 318, 

S 22 , 535. 55, 5 8 9> 6 2 
Sanitary matters at 
Stairs 521, 550, 
Table in ... 
Wall near 
Wall of ... 

Town House 
Town's Court 

Trinity Chapel 
Bridge near ... 
Causeway from ... 
Highway near ... 
Highway to ... 
Street to ... 





w 


PAGE 


PAGE 


... 514 


Walnut-tree i 99 


349 


Watch Post- 


35i 
... 476 
... 568 


Ditch near ... ... 402 
Highway at ... ... CJJQ 




Watch Tower 


... 498 


33, 389, 412, 426, 481, 


Q 


521, 534, 55 


... 58l 


Paling of 208, 232 


354 


Steps 101, 113, 130 


... 327 


Watergate 404 


581 


Baskets at ... ... 321 




Cleaning of ... ... 443 




Corner of ... ... 317 




Crane at 272 




Docks at 92 


227, 390 


Highway near ... ... 365 


332 


Houses near ... ... 332 


135 


Key of 444 


59 


New Quay at ... ... 560 




Piles at ... ... 347 


fers', 


Pinnacle of ... ... 573 


:old, 


Posts at 480 


rod's 


Refuse at 


Plat- 


33 1 , 3 6 5, 407, 424, 53 


envs 


Repairs at ... 443 


<siiy o, 


Sanitary matters at ... 232 




Ship before 32 




Stairs at 155, 178, 191, 213, 


557, 578 


543, 556, 577 


466, 481 


Stones at 540, 555, 574, 590 


*35 


Table of Assize at ... 430 


391, 401 


Timber at ... ... 559 


54, 515, 


Walls near 178, 191, 249, 270, 


, 602 


289, 311, 363, 388, 404, 


... 118 


553, 6o 


586, 596 


Wall at 523, 535 


575 


Watchhouse near ... 55 


554 
544 


Watergate Quay-- 




261, 540, 553 


... 197 


Crane at ... ... ... 260 


... 348 


Masts at ... 556, 577 




Watergate Wicket ... 208 


7 
... 289 


Weigh House 56, 68, 582 


... 287 


Beam at 528 


269 


Paving near ... ... 232 


400 


Scales in ... 44, 350 



638 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



w 



West Gate- 
Hinges of 
House near 
Refuse at 
Tower over 
Wall at .... 

West Hall- 
House near 
Walls near 



PAGE 
348 
254 
364 
366 
535 



314, 



33 

15 



... 75, 7, ioi 

West Quay 

38, 178, 191, 213, 248,363, 

377, 404 
Cleaning of ... ... 443 

Docks at ... 92 

Encroachment at 

289, 391, 415, 427 
Fence at ... 221, 236 

Fence near ... ... 442 

Gutter on ... ... 462 

Head of ... 503 

Highway near ... ... 96 

Palings on ... ... 482 

Piles at 365 

Posts at ... 555, 574 

Posts for ... ... ... 520 

Posts on ... 437, 465, 534 

Quoits at ... ... ... 42 

Refuse at 

73: 33 1 , 407, 424, 598 
Rubbish on 328, 355, 364, 405 
Salt House at ... 81, 145 

Sanitary matters at 55, 67, 84, 

180, 196, 211, 227, 287, 

296, 306, 406, 423 
Ship at 265, 271, 347, 440 

Timber at ... 311, 577 

Timber on 480, 504, 522, 540, 

552, 573, 588, 599 
Tippling-house on ... 381 

Wall at ... 348, 523, 553 

Walls near 74, 191, 249, 270, 

311, 389, 587 

Watch upon 359, 375, 398, 420 

218 



Yard by 

West Quay Gate 
Refuse at 
Refuse near 
Timber at . 

Walls at 
Washing at . 



331 



271 
377 
503 
559 
365 
416 



w 

Western Shore PAGE 

Highway to ... ... 127 

White Horse- 
Encroachment at 252, 275, 290 

Pit behind ... 466, 521 

Watercourse from ... 57 

Wiatt's Well 

38, 53, 289, 310, 343, 464, 

5 2I > 534, 55> 5 6 7 

Ditch near ... 93, 104 

Door at ... ... ... 298 

Water from 266 



Winchester 
Highway to 

Winchester Wav 



312 
267 

354 



Windmill- 
Bank at ... ... ... 411 

Banks by ... ... 440 

Bulwarks at 478, 520, 552 

Highway near ... ... 329 

Windmill Lane 

Banks near ... ... 598 

Bouney near ... ... 604 

Ditch in 44, 52, 83, 445, 578 

Encroachment in ... 66 

Highway in ... ... 592 

Houses in ... ... 274 

Timber in ... ... 525 

Winton 540 

Without the Bar ward 380 

Wool House- 

2 9<>> 33> 524, 540, 54i, 55 8 
Gutter near ... ... 553 

Refuse near ... ... 599 

Stairs of ... ... 156, 600 

Street near ... 327, 342 

Wall behind ... 557 

Woolhouse Stairs- 
Room under ... ... 259 

Wool Hall 465, 484, 504, 521 

Woollen Hall 138, 255, 514 
Toll at ... ... ... 279 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



6 39 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER, 



BY FREDERICK J. BURNETT. 



34 6 , 49, 

221, 223 
327, 342, 



PAGE 

Absence from Cutthorn 317, 
356, 380* 43, 4 l6 > 
5 4 6 7, 4 68 , 491, 492, 
509, 527, 543, 557, 577, 
592, 603 

Abusive language 
450, 583 

Accounts 

Admiralty Court 

3 6 9> 379, 4, 421, 426, 
43 8 , 454, 474, 497, 5*8, 
532, 549, 566, 586, 596, 
602 

Affrays 284, 409, 473, 497, 
518, 532, 549, 566, 596 

Alderman of Portswood 

60, 443, 455, 475, 508 

Aldermen 12, 24, 52, 141, 
142, 143, 280, 327, 343, 
407, 424, 427, 470, 603 

Ale ... 12, 57, 64, 104,415 

Alehouses 29, 46, 57, 182, 
196, 217, 232, 274, 354, 
37i, 485, 576 

Aliens ... 139, 413 
Allegiance 321 

Amercements (see under 
subjects). 

Ancient Lights 140, 141, 158, 
297, 35i, 370, 421, 473, 
507, 5i8, 532 



PAGE 

Apparel 141, 142, 143, 161 
Apprentices 10, 24, 29, 228, 

335, 344, 4H, 426 
Arbitration by Jurors 186, 352 
Archery n, 24, 36, 78, 92, 

*73, 193, 241, 586, 596 
Arms of the town 428, 568 
Artificers 182, 232, 334, 344 
Artillery 167, 190, 204, 225, 

242, 325, 515 

Assault 46,407,408 

Assize of Beer ... 51, 446, 543 

Bread 

51, 316,469,512 

,, Casks ... 490 

Coal ... 159, 337 

Wood 159, 337, 

430, 486, 512 
Aulnager ... 51, 72 

B 
Back-doors 

204, 225, 273, 287, 355 

Back-of-the-Walls 37, 52 

Backgammon ... n, 104 

Bailiff 15, 141, 142, 143, 603 

Bailiff's Booth 131, 132, 153, 

*73, X 93, 207, 230, 286, 

381, 460, 501, 523, 535, 

587, 603 



i This index as originally prepared by Mr. Burnett contained some 7,000 detailed references. It 
is much to be regretted that considerations of space bave made it necessary to condense it to its 
present limits, mainly by the omission of numerous tub-headings. [Ed.] 



640 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



PAGE 

Bakehouses 56, 330, 343, 368, 
378, 400, 421, 465, 581 

Bakers 7, 8, 15, 50, 70, 86, 88, 
1 60, 178, 184, 185, 195, 
201, 213, 257, 297, 333, 
392, 400, 404, 411, 421, 
467, 483, 489, 500, 509, 
512, 522, 542, 556, 576, 



Banks (Sea-banks, etc.) 52, 
74, 88, 92, 99, 194, 210, 
231, 232, 259, 263, 273, 
313, 316, 362, 440, 458, 
460, 461, 463, 477, 478, 
520, 534 

Barbers 46, 384, 492, 514 

Barrels 45, 68, 79, 90, 98, 
104, 105, 106, no, 115, 
123, 161, 163 

Baskets as coal-measures 

66, 216 

for fire ...... 321 

Beadles 64, 65, 71, 103, 
118, 134, 151, 157, 353, 
369, 403, 409, 411, 448, 
485, 514, 566 

rolls 468, 491, 603 
Beef 42, 43 

Beer 27, 37, 57, 68, 98, 104, 
114, 122, 134, 141, 146, 
161, 163, 179, 199, 217, 
226, 242, 302, 307, 333, 
386, 392, 402, 415, 446, 
447, 468, 514, 528, 536, 

543. 545, 556, 562, 575, 
576, 583, 603 

Beggars 51 

Bells 60, 118, 181, 216, 413, 
426, 485 

Bigamy... ... 392 

Bitches 6, 22, 44, 45, 223, 243 
Blasphemy ... 492,493 



PAGE 
Bloodshed 46, 381, 407, 408, 

473, 497, 5i8, 532, 549, 

5 66 , 596 
Boats 92, 261, 328, 382, 

462, 480, 555, 573 

Boatmen 77, 412, 426, 439, 
455, 475, 498, 502, 519, 
533, 55, 5 68 , 5 86 , 6 2 

Books (Court Leet Records) 

33, 182, 183, 561 

Booth (see Bailiff's Booth). 
Bounds 112, 302, 330, 342 

beating of 314, 315, 
320, 346, 569 

Bouney 46, 52, 55, 56, 67, 
76, 83, 88, 89, 90, 91, 99, 
ii2, 116, 126, 131, 132, 
146, 147, 148, 153, 168, 
169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 
183, 191, 192, 193, 198, 

206, 207, 212, 230, 231, 
245, 250, 267, 269, 289, 
291, 300, 306, 327, 329, 

346, 369, 421, 445, 485, 
487, 500, 505, 506, 551, 
568, 570, 598, 604 

Bowling 11, 42, 92, 134, 

328, 329, 456 

| Branding- mark for cattle 40 
Bread 43, 64, 70, 79, 140, 

3 l6 , 333, 33 6 , 392, 44, 
469, 489, 512 
for communion 139,204 

Brewers 12, 15, 38, 49, 64, 
68, 71, 90, 98, 105, 1 10, 
in, 122, 123, 126, 127, 
141, 146, 153, 157, 161, 
163, 167, 179, 190, 195, 

205, 206, 211, 217, 231, 

234, 236, 257, 276, .288, 

296, 299, 307, 386, 393, 
402, 441, 446, 447, 455, 
468, 490, 498, 500, 507, 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



641 



Brewers (contd.) PAGE 

519, 521, 528, 534, 535, 
543, 552, 555> 556, 572, 
574, 576, 592, 603 

Bricks ... ... 58, 579, 589 

Brick-maker 30, 98, 133, 
15. 2 37, 34 6 , 4 8l > 5 8 9 " 

Bridges 7, 16, 69, 71, 85, 
115, 123, 128, 134, 205, 
226, 235, 252, 273, 287, 
310, 317, 327, 361, 384, 
457, 458, 464, 475, 481, 
49S. 55, 5 6 , 5 J 9, 524, 
533, 53 6 , 544> 55, 5 68 , 
570, 573> 596, 597. 604 

Buckets (for lire) 329, 342, 
439> 455, 474' 499. 5 J 5, 
519, 533, 549, 567 
(for wells) 14, 86, 334 

Bulls and Bullocks 14, 114, 
133, 198, 205, 221, 276, 
291, 310, 431, 449 

Bulwarks 38, 62, 69, 85, 97, 
152, 171, 174, 193, 207, 
231, 429, 463, 478, 481, 

520, 525, 534, 552, 5 6 9> 
570, 600, 601 

Burgesses 4, 12, 18, 22, 25, 
28, 30, 39, 59, 69, 1 60, 
220, 236, 262, 288, 300, 

30 J , 3 X 5, 3*7, 35 6 > 37 1 , 

380, 403, 426, 427, 431, 

455, 460, 467, 488, 491, 

492, 5 OI > 59, 5 I2 > 5 I 3 

527, 53 6 > 543, 544, 555, 

557, 575, 577, 590 
Butchers 12, 28, 30, 42, 43, 

53, 59, 82, 91, 96, ioo, 

no, 113, 126, 129, 149, 

156, 175, I 9> T 93, 207, 

217, 226, 256, 261, 277, 

278, 335, 352, 3^9, 3 8 4, 
385, 410, 416, 446, 448, 

457, 458, 475, 498, 



Butchers (contd.) PAGE 

526, 533, 541, 550, 551, 
570, 574 

Butter 15, 27,41,42, 58,72, 
73, 76, 77, 87, 234 

Buttress 84, 347, 388, 389, 
444, 480 

Butts ii, 36, 49, 76, 82, 96, 
109, 125, 154, 156, 171, 
191, 205, 226, 241, 258, 
268, 296, 306, 325, 341, 
402, 422, 457, 475, 537, 

544, 550, 55i 



Cakes ... ... 64, 70, 121 

Calves 28, 82, 96, 103, no, 
126, 146, 168, 190, 205, 
207, 226, 260, 277, 300, 

338, 354, 372, 395, 407, 

417, 424, 443, 449, 469, 

494, 510, 511, 526, 541, 

546, 563, 583 

Candles 8, 22, 23, 43, 183, 
196, 256, 275, 283, 309, 
335, 345, 562 

Canvas ... 139, 140,491 

Caps ... 138, 139 

Cards ... 134,245,492 

Carriers ... 415, 447, 448, 468 

Carts 68, 138, 147, 161, 179, 
192, 211, 231, 253, 299, 
393, 4> 42, 44 1 , 4 6 7, 
498, 5 J 9, 534, 552, 557, 
572, 588, 592, 603 

Carters ..! 25, 38, 183, 196 

Casks 38, 45, 90, 93, 103, 
114, 446, 467, 490, 500, 
521, 535, 555, 574 

Cattle 4, 10, 14, 38, 39, 40, 

4 1 , 45, 53, 6 , 78, 93, 96, 
99, 1 60, 169, 170, 1 80, 



642 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



Cattle (contd.) 

181, 199, 200, 

222, 223, 235, 

257, 285, 296, 

411, 491, 511, 

Causeways 66, 

286, 289, 322, 

362, 369, 377, 

400, 420, 440, 

479, 484, 501, 

545, 5 6 9, 58o> 

Cellars 167, 178, 

415, 431, 445, 



PAGE 
211, 215, 

236, 243, 

312, 319, 

581, 597 

134, 148, 
334, 344, 
379, 399, 
459, 460, 
523, 535, 
592 

311, 333, 
490, 576, 



Chandlers 8, 23, 43, 76, 183, 
196, 256, 275, 283, 309, 
335, 345, 5^2 

Chapel Fair ... 13 1 ? 369 
Charwomen 186, 197, 236 
Cheese ...... 15, 27, 140 

Chimneys 54, 56, 130, 229, 
370, 389, 411, 465, 508, 

587 

Church, attendance at 119, 
189,266,282,359,470 
government of 

436, 496 

Churchwardens 73, 135, 136, 
138, 139, 283, 295, 306, 
343, 384, 455, 533, 549, 
567, 593 

Churchyard 

67, 89, 132, 147, 269 

Cisterns 10, 57, 317, 326, 
351, 370, 407, 444, 481, 
499, 5 6 , 524, 5 6o > 579> 
589, 599> 600 

Clay 38, 49, 56, 58, 71, 72, 
98, in, 127, 133, 150, 
153, 206, 236, 237, 250, 
267, 276, 288, 346 

Clerk of the Market 

51, 425, 491, 574 



PAGE 

Clock ...... 135, 136 

Cloth 13, 14, 17, 51, 72, 185, 

200, 441, 448, 469, 578 

Clothes, washing of 7, 16, 
25, 378, 399, 4 l6 > 421 

Clubs 284, 296, 306, 325, 
341, 409, 425 

Coals 9, 15, 53, 66, 83, 91, 
96, no, 159, 216, 232, 
284, 337, 410, 431 

Cobblers 121, 137. 151, 180, 
196, 2ii 

Colts ... 258, 449, 526 

Commons, cattle on 14, 40, 
45, 75' 86, 99, 106, 
112, 1 60, 279, 446 

enclosure of 159, 

179, 187, 195, 197, 

212, 233, 258, 276, 

288, 581, 592, 593, 
604 

injuries to 22, 60, 
98, 122, 133, 159, 

180, 196, 237, 251, 
259,310,411, 433, 



regulations for 

4, 5. 22. 33, 39, 4> 

41, 49, 221, 222, 

223, 243, 276, 279, 

291, 395, 408 
Communion ... ... 139 

Conduits 10, 38, 53, 57, 61, 
78, 85, 99, ii2, 128, 147, 
169, 191, 212, 230, 256, 
268, 287, 288, 299, 345, 

347, 360, 361, 363, 383, 

389, 399, 406, 407, 421, 

443, 444, 463, 464, 481, 

482, 488, 499, 505, 521, 

524, 525, 535, 542, 545, 

558, 560, 579, 589, 590, 

599, 600, 601 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



643 



PAGE 

Coniger 147, 268, 269, 286 

Constables 209, 210, 283, 
285, 426, 444, 470, 497, 
501, 532, 566, 574, 592 

Coopers 45, 90, 105, 106, 
123, 444, 447, 555, 577 

Corn ...41, 243, 333 

Cows (see Cattle). 

Cowherd 14, 39, 122, 133, 163, 
198, 237, 288, 431, 511 

Crane 155, 260, 272, 443, 540 

Crier 6, 51, 60, 183, 184, 196, 
201, 209, 213, 255, 326, 

33 1 . 332, 334. 349. 399. 
421, 430, 443, 444, 466, 

499. 54. 5 6 7. 574. 57 8 
Cucking-stool 141, 162, 174, 
345. 3 8l > 4 01 



Dagger 46, 408 

Dams ... 286,361,388,399 

Debt of the town ... 561 

to the town ... 61 

Dial 490 

Dice ... 119, 134, 137. 2 39 
Discreets of Market 316, 325, 

341, 380, 489, 491 
Disorder ...499,514,578 

Disorderly house 274,470,485 
Distress for fine 

6, 3 8 4> 3 8 7. 5*4 
Ditches, cleansing of 173, 193, 

205, 207, 235, 244, 326, 

33. 33 2 . 342. 343. 344. 

34 6 > 359. 37 6 . 39. 399. 

406, 420, 448, 458, 459, 

464,477,478,48!. 5 OI > 
504. 5 6 . 520, 525. 526, 
534. 53 8 > 542, 544. 55 1 . 



PAGE 

Ditches, cleansing of (contd.) 

552, 553. 554> 555. 55^. 

560, 568, 569, 572, 574, 

588, 596, 597 
,, encroachments of 

52, 272, 286 
making of 149, 154, 

207, 226, 231, 250, 267, 

268, 291, 464 

,, repair of 32, 99, 112, 
129, 148, 149, 168, 212, 
230. 332 

Divine Service 305, 324, 358, 

43^, 454. 473> 496, 5 l8 , 

532, 549. 566, 586, 595 

Docks 49, 82, 92, 251, 411 

Dogs 12, 16, 253 

Doors 155, 289, 298, 309, 

310, 318, 326, 361, 367, 

3 8 3> 47. 54. 522, 535. 
543. 557. 578, 587 

Drain -270 

Draughts ... ... n 

Drivers of Common 5, 40, 
49. 55. 93. 98, 164, 221, 
222, 223, 243, 355, 395, 
402, 431, 449, 526 

Drunkenness 408 

Ducks ... 6 

Dues 46, 352, 513 

Duties (customs) 515, 527, 

53 6 . 555. 5 6l 562, 575 
Dyehouse 60, 503, 523, 540, 
557. 599 

E 

Easement ...89, 97 

Eggs ... 15,65,140,244 
Encroachments, on Commons 
61, 115, 120, 136, 148, 
150, 159, 187, 251, 308, 
3 IQ . 589 



6 4 4 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



PAGE 

Encroachments, on High- 
ways, etc. 9, 44, 52, 66, 
69, 83, 88, IOQ, 113, 138, 

157, J 75> J 94, 2IO > 231, 

236, 237, 250, 251, 252, 

267, 268, 272, 275, 290, 

292, 300, 309, 311, 312, 

3*7, 332, 345, 34 8 , 3 6 , 
361, 391, 415, 416, 427, 

43 6 , 437, 44 1 , 44 2 , 443, 
45 6 , 457, 4 6 5, 47$, 497, 
518, 571, 580, 593 

Engrossing ..-337> 355> 3^7 

Estreat 427 

Evil persons ... 121,485 



Faggots 66, 83, 167, 192, 

2 33> 4 IO > 4*5 
Fairs 131, 132, 173, 322, 336, 

345, 369, 381. 382, 501 

Farms 561,562 

Fealty 466,492,509 

Felonies, report concerning 
324, 341, 359, 436, 454, 

473, 497> 5i8. 532, 549, 
566 

Feltmaker 510 

Fences 8, 37, 53, 54, 71, 89, 
161, 186, 197, 200, 219, 

220, 221, 228, 235, 236, 

255, 314, 349, 350, 35i, 

421, 436, 440, 442, 445, 

446, 451, 466, 467, 491, 

507, 542, 554, 558, 602 

Fencing-master 184, 408 

Ferry 48, 62 

Ferrymen ... ... 216 

Filling Beer 167, 190, 205, 
217, 226 



PAGE 

Fire, danger of 230, 330, 
343, 368, 389, 400, 412, 
421, 483 

,, precautions against 86, 
321, 438, 439, 474, 593 

Firkins ... ... 45, 123 

Fish 68, 176, 380, 399, 422, 
448, 491, 499, 568, 597 

Fishermen ... 46, 349 

Fish-market 14, 176, 274, 314, 
349, 438, 454, 487, 499 

Fishmongers 27, 68, 122, 162, 
176, 195, 213, 233, 487 

Foreigners 58, 59, 106, 114, 
1 80, 217, 228, 235, 262, 
301, 413, 414 

Foreman of Jury 

162, 280, 543 

Forestalling 58, 104, 355, 
367,437,485,511 

Frithe 65 

Fry of Fish 46 

Fulling 60 

Furze 343, 412, 421, 467, 

483, 500, 522, 542, 556, 
576, 591, 604 



Gallows 456, 475, 497, 519, 
533, 549, 566 

Games, unlawful n, 24, 42, 
55, 104, 119, 120, 134, 
137, 163, 182, 201, 204, 
214, 234, 239, 245, 256, 
277, 283, 285, 317, 334, 
344, 361, 405 

Gaol 333, 403 

Gardens 9, 61, 87, 152, 260, 
27 1 , 35, 3 6 5, 507 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



645 



PAGE 

Gates 8, 62, 82, 184, 251, 

307, 318, 433, 486, 504, 

537, 543, 553, 562, 592 

of the Town 327, 427, 

47, 544 

Gauge 105, 106, 123, 490, 
500,521,535,555,574 

Gloves 49, 85, 98, in, 136, 
157, 176, 194, 216, 245, 
259 

Grand Jury 280, 560, 561, 
580, 581, 583 

Grocers ... 413, 590 

Guilds ... 1 8, 19, 59, 209 
Gun ... ... 46 

Gun-carriages 544 

Gun-powder 587 

Gutters 26, 29, 32, 46, 50, 
54, 60, 71, 87, 88, 89, 90, 
117, 118, 130, 153, 199, 
218, 219, 220, 226, 227, 
259, 269, 271, 285, 290, 
291, 298, 303, 313, 326, 
333, 346, 362, 364, 3^5, 
37 6 , 37 8 , 42, 4 6 , 47, 
409, 416, 422, 428, 437, 

443, 454, 457, 459, 4 62 , 

478, 480, 483, 484, 486, 

487, 490, 500, 502, 508, 

510, 5 X 3, 520, 53 8 , 55 1 , 

553, 554, 55 8 , 5 6o > 579, 

580, 582 

H 

Hackneymen 129, 158, 228, 

243, 276 

Half -bowls ii 

Harbour ...183,332,377 

Hats 138,139,161 

Hay 8, 9, 23, 43, 44, 85, 

92, 468 



LJ 

PAGE 

Hedges 9, 10, 52, 56, 65, 73, 
132, 155, 209, 231, 232, 

25 1 , 39, 332, 348, 352, 

361, 401, 451, 539, 571, 
604 

Heifer 137,446 

Hogs 6, 7, 22, 41, 75, 93, 
107, 115, 121, 150, 155, 

158, 175, !94> 197, 208, 
223, 243, 244, 271, 278, 

3i7, 332, 337, 352, 353, 
355, 385, 42, 47, 424, 
432, 447, 458, 4 6 9, 494, 
526, 539, 542, 545, 553, 
563, 586, 589, 603 
Hogsheads ... 45, 90, 345 
Highways 25, 38, 44, 45, 48, 
53, 83, 93, 96, 106, 112, 
113, 117, 132, 138, 147, 
157, 172, 174, 177, 180, 
191, 196, 199, 206, 213, 

228, 231, 237, 250, 258, 
266, 267, 270, 288, 297, 
299, 300, 303, 307, 319, 
325, 332, 343, 35, 354, 
3 6 4 37 6 , 381, 388, 395, 
400, 402, 405, 422, 429, 
436, 441, 457, 462, 4 66 , 
476, 482, 484, 487, 505, 

510, 526, 536, 545, 55i, 
5 6 9, 570, 58o, 592, 597, 
604 

Horsebread 8, 88, 160, 178, 
195, 257 

Horses 21, 39, 75, 86, 87, 99, 
112, 129, 138, 157, 158, 
200, 214, 228, 229, 243, 
257, 276, 302, 400, 408, 
446 

Hucksters 15, 22, 65, 76, 77, 
104, 140, 167, 192, 212, 

229, 233, 244, 300, 315, 

354, 37i, 379, 400, 4io, 
415, 425, 432, 485, 488, 

5 11 , 546, 563, 583 



646 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



I 



PAGE 
6l 



Imprisonment ... 
Indentures ...10,24 

Ingrossing 104, 430 

Inmates 306, 369, 386, 402, 

43, 439. 455, 475, 498, 

519 
Inns ... 31, 578, 596, 602 

Innkeepers 43, 50, 57, 77, 88, 
121, 217, 302, 306, 514 

Iron-bound carts 179,211, 
231, 253, 299, 393 4 O2 > 
441, 455, 468, 475, 498, 

, 534. 552, 557, 572 



Joiners ... 390, 578 
Journeymen 228 

Jurors 17, 18, 22, 40, 45, 46, 
50, 93, 164, 207, 319, 354, 
431, 432, 450, 493, 527, 
543, 560, 561, 567, 574 

Justices of the Peace 

426, 427, 576, 591 

K 

Keys 10, 327, 427, 440, 470, 
513, 544, 589 

Kilderkins ... 105, 123 

King, fealty to 466, 492, 509 

King's beam ... 44 1, 455 

peace 566 



Lace 106, 180 

Lands of the Town 217,219, 

235. 353. 438. 439, 454. 

473. 474, 497, .518, 532, 
549, 56i 

Landlords 30, 386, 387, 455, 
475 



PAGE 

Lanes 60,67,82,89,97,119, 
131, 149, 172, 228, 269, 
275, 288, 307, 308, 458, 

510, 567, 588 
Language, evil 

196, 344, 346, 492 

Lawday 33, 60, 161, 543, 562 

Leases 8, 198, 325, 341, 359, 

375, 399, 420, 464, 482, 

493, 521, 561, 562, 570, 

574 
Leather 6, 32, 137, 151, 

1 80, 211 
Lecture-day ... ... 499 

Liberties of the Town 

214, 400, 456 

Licences 72, 214, 367, 381 
Lightermen 412, 426, 439, 

435, 475, 498. 502, 519, 

533, 550, 568 
Linen 59, 217, 235, 413, 414, 

441, 448, 449, 469, 591 

Lions at Bargate 

190, 436, 500, 554 

Lodgings 17,21,65,121,151 

M 

Malefactors 174, 308, 318 

Malt 12, 15, 122, 210, 275, 
528, 543, 556, 576 

Market 11,15, 16, 22, 23,43, 

51, 58, 66, 76, 77, 140, 
210, 243, 255, 266, 291, 

3 l6 , 325, 33 J > 485, 489, 

511, 528, 541, 546, 563, 

583 
Market-bell ...413,426,485 

Market, clerk of 51, 425, 574 
discreets of ... 341 

for fish 14, 274, 314, 
371, 380, 401, 422, 438, 
454, 487, 491, 499 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



647 



M 

PAGE 

Mayor 18, 51, 61, 141, 142, 

H3, 336, 574, 575 
Meal .,. 25,210,275,392 
Measures 9, 66, 176, 215, 232, 
233. 236, 431 
false 58, 163, 184, 
198, 218, 239, 241, 
258, 274, 293, 299, 
301, 318, 337, 353, 

372, 394, 4i7, 433, 

449, 450, 468, 493, 

511, 528, 545, 562, 
582 

sealing of 3 1 , 5, 
141, 415, 42-5, 447, 448, 
545, 562, 582, 583 

Mercers 13, 384 

Merchants 233, 350, 377, 

391, 441, 455, 590 
Merchant- guild ... 19 

Millhouse ... 72, 174, 270 

Murders, report concerning 

3 2 4, 359, 473, 497, 5 l8 > 

53 2 , 549, 5 66 

N 

Nags ... 283,446 

Nets 4 6 

Newcomers 338, 369, 403, 

439, 470, 475, 486, 511, 

5 J 9, 54 6 

Nine holes 120 

Noman's land . . . 375, 4 2 o 
Nuisances 68,91 



Oak-bark ... 266 

Oakum l8 7 

Oaths 18, 32, 120, 321, 468 
Offal ...27,43 



V PAGE 

Officers 70, 190, 308, 363, 
5H, 536, 544, 574, 576 

Oranges 367 

Ordnance 313,368,503,515, 

553, 577, 5 8 7, 600 
Overseers 5, 6, 21, 40, 66, 
83, 91, 151, 164, 395,421, 
560, 572 



Paving 13, 73, 89, 214, 232, 
261, 306, 327, 329, 330, 
342, 349, 350, 365, 384, 

3 8 9, 39, 4 6 , 421, 424, 
432, 469, 484, 490, 502, 

57, 5 8 , 524, 525, 54i, 

55 8 , 559, 6o1 
Paxbread ... ... 19 

Penthouse 31,88, 100, 113, 

464, 465 " 
Petty Customs 513, 527, 536, 

555, 5 61 , 5 6 2, 5 8 , 5 Sl 

Pewterers 123 

Pillory 50, 259, 336 

Players ... 57 8 > 5 8 9 

Poor 10, 15, 51, 139, 182, 371 
Porters 29, 44, 45, 46, 58, 61, 

67, 73, 8 5, 9 8 , 99, 155, 
211, 242, 272, 291, 303, 

3 J 3, 3 J 5, 3 l6 , 344, 35, 
362, 37 6 > 3 8 3> 39i, 399, 
401, 403, 420, 422, 423, 
441, 461, 474, 477, 482, 
488, 506, 525, 539, 543, 
5 6 2, 593, 599, 6o1 
Pound 5, 40, 75, 117, 204, 

355, 600 
Pound-breach 278. 338, 355 

Prison 5, 74 

Pumps 73, 99, 33, 343, 45, 

423, 593 
Puritans 493 



648 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



Q 

PAGE 

Quays 13, 41, 58, 67, 155, 
183, 244, 272, 277, 331, 

404, 405, 407, 423, 429, 

474, 53, 54> 553, 55 6 , 
560, 561, 577 

Quay-master 363, 377, 399, 

405, 420 

Quit-rent 252 

Quoits 42 



Rabbit-warren ... 147 

Rails 36, 48, 82, 85, 101, 
130, 169, 177, 1 80, 195, 

211, 212 

Ramparts 61, 74, 85, 260, 321 
Recusants ...324,341,359 

Regrattor 210 

Riband ... ... ... 106 

Right of way 89, 97, 504, 

527, 537, 559 
Roads 68, 82, 96, no, 206, 

232, 327, 466, 481, 510, 

5^9 

Rolls 201, 455, 468, 475, 491 
" Rolly-polly " ... 11 

Ropemakers . . . 440, 544 

Rubbish 31, 38, 57, 61, 86, 
96, 102, 129, 146, 151, 
152, 163, 172, 206, 226, 

269, 3 J 4, 328, 355. 362, 
383, 401, 405, 431, 461, 

464, 537, 559, 57i, 572 

s 

Sabbath 55, 78, 201, 214, 

353, 370, 382, 384, 40i, 
405, 448, 456, 466, 492, 
508, 514 

Sacrament ... ... 204 



s 

PAGE 

Salt 81, 82, 96, 109, 125, 
145, 146, 570 

Salt-bitches ... 6, 22, 55 

Sanitation 55, 56, 67, 74, 84, 
97, 118, 135, 157, 180, 
194, 197, 208, 215, 229, 
232, 248, 262, 274, 284, 
296, 306, 312, 317, 332, 
406, 410, 423, 489, 510, 
5i3, 589, 597 

Sawpits 289, 311, 328, 383, 
401, 501, 598 

Scales 43, 44, 198, 350, 412, 

425, 447 
Scavengers 96, 385, 428, 460, 

498, 571 

Scolds 174,345,401 

Sea-banks n, 152, 255, 410, 
440, 461, 478, 485, 520, 
534, 569, 570, 598 

Sergeants 11, 18, 31, 50, 394, 
412, 426, 447, 455, 457, 
502, 503, 513, 515, 532, 

54 1 , 544, 5 8 9 

Sergemakers ... 106,278 
Shearmen 456 

Sheep 21, 28, 53, 256, 291, 

352, 407, 424, 448, 458, 

5io 
Sheriffs 141, 142, 143, 336, 501 

Ships 32, 55, 76, 77, 92, 248, 

251, 278, 328, 347, 364, 

4 11 , 437, 444, 4 61 , 4 6 5, 

480, 534, 555, 574, 577 

Shipwrights 482, 525, 573 

Shoemaker 27, 177, 209, 

353, 384 

Shovelboard 466 

Silk ... ... 106, 180 

Singing-bread 139 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



649 



S 

PAGE 

Skins 49, 98, in, 157, 190, 
194, 2 59 

Skittles 134 

Slaughter-houses 91, 100, 

113, 117, 129, 149, 175, 

1 80, 193, 227, 249, 272, 

274, 287, 307, 311, 333, 

337, 347, 353, 37 2 , 395. 

4 J 7, 433, 44 6 , 449, 4 6 9, 

494, 510, 511, 574, 583, 
592, 603 

Sluices 4 8 ,49, 6 5, 75, IOI > 
308, 440, 493, 553 

Soap ... ... 590 

Stables 44, 67, 87, 92, 270, 
290, 347, 406, 428, 483 

Star Chamber . . .560, 561, 581 
Steward 8, 88, 99, 118, 210, 

219. 348, 399, 4 2I > 4 2 3, 
427, 436, 443, 461, 463, 
465, 476, 481, 482, 484, 
490, 501, 502, 505, 533, 
590 
Stocks 49, 66, 133, 214, 215, 

2 59, 3 66 , 5 68 

Stonehorses ... 5,243,489, 
Strays 238, 258, 283, 431, 526 

Surveyors 395, 400, 422, 442, 
457, 485, 505, 509, 570, 

57 2 > 590 



Tailors ... 13, 3 8 4 

Tanners 151 

Taxes 51, 387, 405, 406, 

4 l6 > 57 2 
Tenements 390, 406, 424, 581 

Tennis-court 1 1 , 55 

Thatch 253, 254 

Theft ... 61,444 



T 

PAGE 

Tipplers 12, 24, 30, 50, 65, 
70, 103, 104, 118, 121, 
134, 151, 184, 201, 214, 
245, 270, 315, 337, 367, 

37 1 , 379, 381, 4, 4 I2 > 
415, 422, 447, 468, 485, 
488, 508 

Toll 138,216 

Towers 38, 71, 74, 96, 153, 
192, 209, 231, 270, 330, 
461, 463, 475, 477, 481, 
487, 498, 499, 502, 519, 

5 2 3, 534, 55 2 > 55^, 568, 
572, 586, 600 

Town Arms ... 428,568 
Clerk 335, 344, 414, 

49 2 , 591, 59 2 

Hall 72, 118, 391, 
401, 481 

Houses 330, 343, 368, 
378, 413, 426, 432, 
464, 484, 506 

Lands 23, 174, 193, 
235, 408, 454, 473, 497, 
5 28 , 53 2 , 549, 5 66 

Treason, report concerning 
324, 341, 359, 419, 43 6 , 
454, 473, 497, 5*8, 53 2 , 
549, 5 66 , 5 8 6, 595 

Treasure -trove ... 369, 528 

Turf 99, i34 6o1 

Turnpike ... ... 78 

u 

Undertenants 103, 118, 134, 
157, 184, 236, 284, 298, 

3 6 , 33 8 , 3 86 , 4 2 , 43, 
446, 455, 475, 498, 5 J 9 

Unemployed 514, 527, 536 

Unlawful games 24, 42, 177, 

182, 201, 204, 234, 245, 

256, 277, 285, 328, 329, 

393, 456 



650 



INDEX OF SUBJECT MATTER. 



PAGE 

Vagabonds ... 49, 51, 66 

Vanes 185, 190, 204, 327, 
342, 428, 438, 477, 568 

Victuallers 200, 214, 234, 367, 
379, 412, 432, 508, 576 

Viewers 66, 83 

Vintners 140, 141, 159, 176, 

194, 213, 233, 415, 545, 
562, 582 

w 

Wafer-bread ... ... 204 

Walls of the Town 96, 171, 
177, 178, 1 80, 183, 191, 

195, 209, 219, 222, 227, 

231, 248, 249, 270, 289, 
290, 291, 311, 312, 325, 

331. 347, 348. 363> 365, 

366, 388, 404, 423, 428, 

429, 438, 439, 442, 443, 

444, 448, 461, 475, 498, 

502, 503, 504, 513, 519, 

523> 535, 550, 553, 554 

Wash-house 229, 252, 267, 

375, 52i, 534, 550, 567, 

590 

Watch 15,41, 77, 102, 113, 
131, 139, 150, 162, 181, 
196, 209, 210, 211, 325, 

34 1 , 359, 375, 398, 4H, 
420, 426, 438, 444, 454, 
456, 473, 497, 518, 532, 
549, 566, 574 

bells 150, 181, 216, 
232, 413, 426 

towers 

330, 412, 426, 481 



W 

PAGE 

Watercourses 36, 57, 78, 133, 

135, 148, 149, 1 68, 237, 

238, 245, 299, 311, 330, 

332, 333, 335, 343, 35*, 

35 2 , 354, 39 1 , 4 6 , 4 J 3, 
415, 445, 505, 547 

Water-mill 254 

Water-sergeant . . . 405 

Weights 44, 58, 77, 92, 103, 

119, 137, 157, 184, 198, 

218, 239, 258, 273, 274, 

293, 299, 301, 318, 337, 

353, 354, 372, 394, 4*7, 
425, 433, 447, 449, 450, 
468, 484, 493, 511, 528, 

545, 5 6 2, 574, 5 8 2, 5 8 9, 
603 

Wells 14, 25, 30, 36, 38, 53, 

73, 86 , 93, 99, "I, 112, 
117, 122, 170, 183, 289, 

33, 334, 45, 4 2 3, 43 2 , 

467, 593 
Wharfage 513, 555 

Wheelwright 388 

Whipping-post 366 

Windmill ... 17, 113, 333 

Wine 

27, 28, 415, 545, 562, 582 

Witch 187 

Wood 15, 51, 66, 77, 81, 82, 

83, 90, 98, 159, 167, 190, 

225, 337, 430, 486 

Wool 58, 234 

house ... 290 



Yard 



218 



ERRATA IN VOL. I. OF COURT LEET RECORDS. 



Page 50 In 10 refer to 1571, 53 vice 10. 

101 In 44 refer to 1574, 51 vice 57. 

1 20 In 77 read Thomas Hoskins vice John Hoskins. 

132 In 40 refer to 1577, 48 vice 40. 

141 In 85 refer to 1577, 86 vice 85. 

,, 175 In 47 read Thomas Brooker vice John Brooker. 

,, 236 In 85 refer to 1581, 17 vice 1582, 17. 

256 In 49 refer to 1579, 85 vice 84. 

437 In 10 refer to 1605, 6 vice 9. 



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