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Jounbeb in i$t T2edr of £>ur £orb 1890 

for f(}e ebtfin^ of (Rare &tfurgtcaf Serfs. 

Vol. XXXII. 










M.A., D.Litt., F.B.A., late Keeper of MSS., British Museum. 

Vol. II. 

Printed Text 

With Introduction, Index of Liturgical Forms, 
and Nine Plates of the Metal Cover 







VOL. I. 
The Stowe Missal : Facsimile. 



Plates : — to follow 

I-VI. The Metal Cover of the Stowe Missal. 

VII-IX. Three pages of the Stowe St. John. 

The Stowe Missal: Printed Text 

Appendix : Translation of the Irish Treatise on the 


Index of Liturgical Forms 





The text here printed is that of the oldest Mass-book of the 
early Irish Church known to have survived, and is intended 
to accompany the collotype facsimile of the MS. which has 
already been issued in a separate volume. Incongruous as it 
may seem that it should take its title from an English country 
seat, the Stowe Missal is so called, not with any reference to its 
origin, but merely from the fact that for a few years it was in 
the library at Stowe House in Buckinghamshire, formed early 
in the last century by George Grenville, first Marquess of 
Buckingham, who died in 1813, and Richard his successor, 
afterwards Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. Its existence 
there was first revealed in 18 19, when a lengthy, but not 
altogether accurate, article was devoted to it in an Appendix to 
vol. i of the privately printed Catalogue of the Stowe MSS., by 
Dr. Charles O'Conor, 1 and as no mention is made of it in the 
Catalogue itself, which is dated only a year before, it was 
probably a quite recent acquisition. Without explaining how 
it came to be at Stowe, O'Conor states that it was discovered 
somewhere on the Continent by " the late John Grace, Esquire, 
of Nenagh in Ireland, who was formerly an officer in the 
German service " ; but unfortunately no particulars of the 
precise locality and circumstances of its discovery had been 
recorded, and nothing is known of its peregrinations before it 
was thus rescued from oblivion. From a pedigree in Memorials 
of the family of Grace, by Sheffield Grace, privately printed in 
1823, it appears that a John Grace, captain of carabineers in the 
Imperial service, died at the siege of Belgrade in 1789 ; and 
there was also a John Dowell Grace, captain of Wurtemberg 

1 Bibliotheca MS. Stowensis. A Descriptive Catalogue of the MSS. in the Stowe 
Library, Buckingham, 1818. 


dragoons, who retired from active service in 1776 and died in 
Ireland in 181 1. The latter is described in the Memorials as of 
Mantua House, co. Roscommon, and it is uncertain which of 
the two, if either, was the John Grace to whom O'Conor refers. 
There is little doubt, however, that the second Marquess of 
Buckingham obtained the MS. directly from some member of 
the Grace family, with which he was connected through his wife. 
As he was on friendly terms with Sheffield Grace, nephew of 
the John Grace who died at Belgrade, it perhaps came to him 
by gift or purchase from that quarter. 

When the contents of Stowe House, then belonging to the 
second Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, were partially 
dispersed in 1849, the Missal was catalogued with the rest of the 
MSS. for public auction. 1 Ultimately, however, the whole 
collection was sold privately to the fourth Earl of Ashburnham, 
and was removed to Ashburnham Place in Sussex, where it 
remained intact, and still distinguished as the Stowe Collection, 
until 1883. By a vote in Parliament it was then purchased 
from the fifth earl for the nation and was thereupon divided into 
two portions, the majority of the MSS., which were chiefly of 
historical interest, going to the British Museum, while those 
written in the Irish language or otherwise connected with 
Ireland were handed over to the Royal Irish Academy at 
Dublin. The Stowe Missal, with the metal case within which it 
is inclosed, of course went to Ireland, and under the press-mark 
D. II. 3 in the library of the Academy thus at length found a 
permanent resting-place in the country from which it originally 

The full contents of the MS. comprise the following articles, 
all of which, except the last two, are in Latin : — 

1. Extracts from the Gospel of St. John. f. 1. 

2. The Ordinary and Canon of the Mass, followed by a few 

special Masses, f. 12. 

3. The Order of Baptism, with the Communion of the 

Newly Baptized, f. 46^. 

1 Lot 996 in Sotheby's Catalogue of the Stowe Collection of MSS. which will be 
sold by auction .... on Monday, nth of June, 1849. 


4. The Order of the Visitation of the Sick, with the 

Administration of Extreme Unction and Communion, 
f. 60. 

5. A short treatise in Irish on the Mass. f. 6$v. 

6. Three short spells in Irish, f. 67 it. 

While it was still at Ashburnham Place the liturgical portions 
(artt. 2-4) were edited, for the first time, by the Rev. F. E. 
Warren, The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church, 1883, 
pp. 198-268; and in 1886, after its removal to Dublin, artt. 2 
and 3 were again edited, together with the text and a translation 
of the Irish treatise on the Mass (art. 5), by the Rev. B. 
MacCarthy, D.D., in a dissertation " On the Stowe Missal," 
printed in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxvii, 
1885, p. 185. A later edition of art. 5, with an independent 
translation, was included by Whitley Stokes and Strachan in 
their Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, 1903, vol. ii, p. 252, where it 
is accompanied, pp. 250, 251, also with translations, by the Irish 
spells (art. 6) and the brief Irish rubrics interspersed in the 
liturgical text. In the present volume a literal transcript is 
given of the whole of these articles (2-6), the extensions of 
the abbreviated forms being printed in italic type and the addi- 
tions to the original text in smaller type. A translation of the 
Irish text, borrowed by permission from the Thesaurus Palaeo- 
hibernicus, is added in an appendix. For reasons stated below, the 
extracts from St. John's Gospel (art. 1) are omitted, Repro- 
ductions of three pages, are, however, given in Plates VII-IX, 
and a collation of the text with that of the Codex Amiatinus 
will be found in a paper by the Rev. J. H. Bernard, D.D. (now 
Bishop of Ossory), " On the Stowe St. John," in the Transactions 
of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxx, pt. viii, 1893. 

As will be seen from the facsimile, the volume is of small 
dimensions, containing in its present state sixty-seven leaves of 
vellum, which measure 5f inches in height and \\ inches in 
width. The vellum is normally rather thick and in some parts 
is much soiled and darkened by age and wear. The binding is 
of wooden boards covered with discoloured vellum and in 
addition round the three outer edges with strips of kid-skin 


f-inch wide stained red 1 ; its back is of modern dark brown 
leather. Owing to removals and insertions the present com- 
position of the five gatherings of which the volume is made up 
is somewhat irregular. The first, which contains the extracts 
from St. John, consists of eleven leaves (fif. i-ii), but another 
has been torn away at the beginning, leaving only a narrow 
strip along the inner edge, on the verso side of which are slight 
remains of a border resembling that on f. nz/(see Plate IX). 
The second gathering, which now contains seventeen leaves 
(ff. 12-28), consisted originally of the ten leaves numbered 12, 
J 3i I 5 _I 7> 20 > 2I > 26-28, together probably with two others 
between 17 and 20, now replaced by the present pair 18 and 19. 
Fol. 14 is an inserted narrow slip, 2| inches in height at most, 
its blank inner edge projecting f-inch between ff. 26 and 27 ; 
and the gathering of four leaves numbered 22-25 is also an 
insertion. The existing arrangement will be seen at a glance in 
the following diagram, where the dotted lines indicate the 
inserted leaves : — 

12 13 14 15 16 17 

19 20 21 22 

24 25 26 27 28 

1 fc The strip along the bottom of the upper cover is missing. 


The third gathering contains eighteen leaves (fif. 29-46), of 
which fourteen, viz., 29, 32-34, 37-46, are original, while, as 
shown below, two pairs, ff. 30, 31 1 , and fif. 35, 36, are interpolated. 

29 3° 3i 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 4$ 

The fourth gathering contains twelve leaves (ff. 47-58), all of 
which are original and regularly arranged ; and the fifth is made 
up of the nine leaves numbered 59-67, together with a tenth, 
blank and unnumbered, which is pasted down to the cover. 

For the text of the Missal and of the other liturgical matter in 
its original form lines were ruled with a hard point on one side 
only of the vellum, two for each line of text, which was written 
with more or less regularity between them. Single or double 
vertical lines were also ruled on the left and right, but little 
attention was paid to the latter by the scribes, the text being as 
often as not carried beyond them. The number of lines of text 
on a page varies. Excluding, it must be understood, for the 
present all interpolated matter, on ff. 12-282/, 47-49, 50^-64, 65, 

1 As will be seen (p. 3, n. 10), this pair ought properly to be inserted between 
f. 12 and f. 13. 


there are thirteen lines ; on ff. 29-46^ there are fourteen ; and 
on ff. 4gv, 50, 64.V there are twelve. These differences cor- 
respond to some extent with changes of hand. Thus the first 
hand (A 1 ) ends (on the last page of the gathering) at f. 287;; 
a second hand (A 2 ) writes the next gathering (ff. 29-46) ; and a 
third hand (A 3 ), with more ornamental initials, extends from 
f. 47 to f. $\v. After this the hands are more difficult to dis- 
tinguish, but ff. 52, $2v were perhaps written by A 1 , and ff. 53-64 
by a fourth hand (A 4 ), while another (A 5 ) certainly begins on 
f. 64^ and continues to the end (f. 65). 

The character of the original script is Irish minuscule, with 
a tendency to be angular rather than rounded. In all the hands 
there is one exception to the prevailing minuscule forms of 
letters, the majuscule or capital R being almost invariably used. 
Three instances of a minuscule r, shaped like the Saxon 
letter, almost like «, may be seen on f. 33^, 1. 1, deprecamur, 
1. 5, donare, and f. 65, last line, ordo. There is also a single 
instance of a majuscule N on f. 54, 1. 2, fons, where N and long 
s are combined. 

With regard to the formation of the other letters a few 
points may here be noticed. Thus a is formed like u, sloping 
slightly backwards, with the tops connected by a fine transverse 
line. The second stroke, especially in hand A 2 , is often higher 
than the other and sharply pointed, and the connecting line cuts 
it below the top. In a few cases (f. \2v, 1. 10, f. $2v, 1. 13) a 
following 111 is subscript. 

The first stroke of b is bent, and is thickened at the top by 
an angular spur-like projection on the left. The latter feature 
also characterizes the other tall letters, d, k, /, and more or less 
all vertical strokes. 

c consists of a backward-sloping straight stroke turning up 
sharply at the bottom, with a separate curved top affixed to it, 
drawn from left to right. 

The bow of d closely resembles c, and the stroke on the right 
is nearly always vertical. It is very rarely bent round almost 
horizontally to the left (e.g., f. 38, 1. 7, deum), as is the case with 
a capital (see f. 54^)> DU t a sloping variant from the normal 
shape sometimes occurs, as on f. i$v, 1. 11, mundo, f. 17, last line, 


deprecemur, etc., and more commonly in the smaller script of the 
rubrical directions (e.g., f. 58^). 

e is formed on the same principle as c, the rounded top and 
the cross-stroke being affixed separately. The top is frequently 
raised above the line of writing, the cross-stroke being utilized 
in making the following letter. At the end of a word, and 
occasionally also elsewhere, the cross-stroke is long, thick and 
wavy. The diphthong ce is commonly found, but ae, e (e.g., 
f. 47^, 1. 7, diuine) and e (f. 17, 1. 12, catholice) also occur in its 

/ is composed of a vertical stroke carried only a little below 
the ruled line, with a curved or wavy line, from left to right, at 
the top and a cross-stroke low down, along the ruled line. 

The down-stroke of g springs from the centre of the 
horizontal top ; it is only slightly curved to left and right, and 
usually ends in a small knob. 

i after m, n, u is often subscript, being attached to the final 
stroke of the preceding letter and curved round to the left, 
something like the bow of 3 (see f. 13, 11. 8, 12, f. 32^, 1. 4, etc.). 
The same is the case after c and long s, where the i is attached 
to the curved top of the letter. 

The curve of p is generally rather pointed at the top and 
ends at the bottom in a knob. 

q is open at the top, with a curve above the first stroke (see 
f. \%v, 1. 1, and passim). 

s is of the long form, resembling f without the cross-stroke ; 
but at the end of a word, instead of a convex top above the line, 
there is a small wavy stroke on the right of the vertical stroke, 
making the letter somewhat like r (see f. 39, end of lines, and 
for the same form in the middle of a word, f. \\v, 1. 5, ipse). In 
one case (f. 45^, 1. 4, esse) the form s is used. 

The cross-stroke of / extends well both to right and left of 
the main stroke and is generally somewhat heavy. As a 
ligature with e in et the letter is smaller and differently formed 
(f. \2v, 1. 2, et ; f. 13^, 1. 2, eterne; f. 20, 1. 2, habet). 

The characteristic forms of x, y, z all occur on f. \2v, 1. 4, 
that of y being especially noticeable. 

The letters f, p, s, and more rarely r, are sometimes written 


with a flourish on the left, making an acute angle with the main 
stroke at the bottom (see ff. \2v y \6v). In some cases these 
forms represent initial capitals, but they are also used for minus- 
cules, and in the case of s are even found at the end of a word 
(f. 4 iw, 1.6). 

Most of the other initials of collects, etc., are merely the 
minuscule forms on a larger scale, but N in IN is used (fT. 42, 
45, etc.). The form of d as an initial is invariably that in which 
the vertical stroke is bent back to the left horizontally ; instead 
of an oval it sometimes has an oblong shape (ff. 39^, \\v, 
etc.), and the same is also the case with (ff. 21, 45^). On 
ff. 1 yj, 47-5 1 there are more ornamental initials, with spirals, 
interlacing (ff. 47, 48), a human head (f. 50, see also f. \2v), and 
dogs' heads (ff. 132/, 48). 

Abbreviations are frequent and, besides the usual nomina 
sacra, include the following : — 

a, aut. 

h, autem. 

b, bene, 
cs, cuius. 

c, cum. 
dcs, dicens. 

dt, dicit (f. S7v). 

dx, dixit (f. 62). 

9, eius. 

-|f, enim. 

g°, ergo. 

ee, esse. 

t, *-, est. 

7, et (rare, f. 49, 11. 9, 10). 

ffs, fratres. 

h, haec. 

K, hoc. 

hs, huius. 

he, hunc. 

ig', igitur. 

I, in. 

It, inter. 


mm, ms, meum, meam, meus. 

nois, noe (nd, f. 49), nda, nominis, -mine, -mina. 

n, non. 

nr, nost, noster. 

nra, nostra. 

nm, nrm, nostrum, nostram. 

rii, nostri. 

nrae, nrae, nre, nostrae. 

no, nro, nostro. 

nrom (f. 13^), nostrorum. 

nas (f. I3z')> ns (f. 17), nostras. 

nfis, nrs (fif. 1 2v, 40^), nostris. 

nc, nunc. 

omes, oms, omnes. 

omi, omis, omni, omnis. 

omia, oma, omnia. 

omim, ornm, omnium. 

omibus, ombus, omnibus. 

ornipot, omipos, ofnipo, ompot, ompo, omnipotens. 

rT, per. 

p, prae. 

p, pro. 

pi, pri-. 

p°, post. 

pt, praeter. 

propt, pt, propter. 

qsi, quasi. 

q:, q;, que. 

q\ qui. 


<*> quod. 

q. (also qua), q. (f. 2yv) t quam. 

q,q:,q:-(f. 61), quern. 

qs 1 , quis. 

qd", quid. 

qmo, quomodo. 

1 Elsewhere this is usually a symbol for " quaesumus," for which other abbrevia- 
tions are employed here. 


qm, quoniam. 

qms, qsu, qus, quaesumus. 

rt, reliqua. 

-f, secundum (f. 20z>). 

s, sed. 

sr, sup 7 ", super. 

st, sunt. 

t», tibi. 

tc, tunc. 

i, vel. 

The following symbols for omitted syllables and letters also 
occur, viz. : — 

An inverted c for con {e.g., consubstancialem, f. 20, 1. 13). 

A hooked horizontal stroke ( -•) for final in and for m before 
a consonant in the middle of a word {e.g., ambire, f. 13) and in 
Amen (f. 21) even between two vowels ; also for um in pacificum 
(f. 17). 

A short horizontal stroke, generally slightly concave, for n 
and -er (e.g., in, inter, uerbo, pater) and for -un in -runt {e.g., 
rogauerunt, f. 62). For -um in the genitive plural it is placed, 
not over r, but to the right of it (e.g., tuorum, f. 27). The same 
symbol is also used in many of the forms of abbreviation in 
the list above, as well as in abbreviations by simple suspension 
of all kinds. These are not uncommon, especially in words of 
frequent recurrence, as — 

quesu for quesumus. 

ora and 6 for oramus. 

p (also ps) for presta. 

apos for apostolos, -orum. 

mart/<?r martirum. 

uirg/<?r uirginum. 

archang princip et potest, etc., for archangeli principes et 

potestates, etc. (f. 39^). 
respo, res, x for respondet. 
sdfor alleluia, 
saecu saec, sae saec for saecula saeculorum (ff. 48, 58). 


pa et ilfor pater (-ris) et filius (-ii). 1 

lee for lectio. 

P' l gf or P er ignem. 

\difor vere dignum. 

A comma over t, slightly to the right, for -ur in -tur {e.g., 
largiuntur, f. 17). 

: ) 3 for us in -bus and elsewhere, as peccauimus (f. 12), 
uirtus (f. 58), opus (f. 61), etc. 

An acute accent is placed over monosyllables and fre- 
quently over -is of the dative and ablative plural. It is also 
occasionally found elsewhere, as sollemnitas (f. 38), circumdas 
(f. 40), confirma (f. 44), isac, iacob (f. 457/), tribus (f. 62v) ; and 
even over a short syllable, as plebi's (f. 387/). 

Punctuation is marked in a variety of ways, by : ? :~ 
:• »» • •• and, less often, by a full point, generally medial. 

The spelling is very irregular, but the irregularities are not 
systematic and the normal orthography in many cases is also 
found. The following list includes most of the peculiar forms, 
some of which may be merely clerical errors : — 

Consonants doubled : missericordiam (f. 13^, and so all 
derivatives of miser), aeclessia (i6v), uissiuilium (visi- 
bilium, 20), quessumus (27), accussantes (44), cappillis 
(47), deffensa (48), tutellam (48^, 597/), sallientes (54), 
effussione (55), pressens (57^, 60), uissita (6iv, 647/), 
inuassit (63), essurientem (64V). 

One of two similar consonants dropped : abiso (abysso, 12), 
emite (emitte, I2z>), altisime (13, and so frequently in 
other superlatives), misa (13^, 38), imbiciles (imbecilles, 
1 5^), aceptos (177/), remisionem (21, etc.), sufragia 
(382'), gutore (gutture, 47), acipientibus (482/), promisae 
(49^), suplices (50), gehinam (gehennam, 50^), suplicii 
(507.'), mitire (mittere, $2v), iusit (567/), acipio (587/), 
dimite (6iv), acesserunt (617;). 

1 The form "patfn" for " patrem " (f. 28) is also regarded by Prof. W. M. 
Lindsay {Notae Latinae, p. 91) as a capricious suspension. 


xviii 1NTR OD UC TION. 

a for e ... catacominis (catechumenis, iy, 52^), piatas (43), 

alimento (elemento, 47^), adsequandi (54?')> 
faciam (faciem, 65). 

a for ... manachorum (38^). 

a omitted ... ionne (Iohanne, 53). 

cb for a ... aeclesiae (abl., 27), laetentes (522;). 

(B for e ... iustae (adv., 14), aeclesia {i6v, 17, etc.), praespiter, 

(29V, etc.), tribuae (imper., 40), fonts (45), 
sanctae (voc, 47), aeternae (voc, 49^, 50, etc.), 
sempiternae (voc, 54), frontae (57, 58), saluarae 
(59^), fratrae (60), aeucharistiam (637'). 

b for m ... imbulamus (immolamus, 45). 

b for/ ... babtismum (21, etc.), scabulas (52?/), babtitzantes 


b for v ... commobebuntur (62v), sperabimus (perf., 34). 

c for ch ... catacominis (catechuminis, 17, etc.), cresmate 

(chrismate, $7v). 

c for qu ... trancillitate (167/), corum (337/), scaloribus (57). 

dioxt ... adque (277.-, 507/), uelud (50^), debedis (58^), 

fortidudo (647/). 

d inserted after n concindunt (41). 

e for a ... emanere (emanare, 53). 

e for ce ... querite (16), quesumus {passim), presta {passim). 

e for i... ... adstantes (13), respices (respicis, i6v), praespeteris 

(presbiteris, i6v), confeteor (207;), feceretis 
(feceritis, 28), cremine {yjv, 55), preuelegia 
(38), marteria, (38, 40), emitatione (40), per- 
feciat (43^), refregeri (45 1/), abieciendos (47^, 
52), laetentes (latentis, 527;), uirtutes (-is, 54^), 
affluentes (-is, 55), fontes (55), cresmate (57^), 
lineat (S7 V )> uiuentes (-is, 61), homines 

e for ie ... maestas (42). 

e for tie ... pingesce (44), apinge (pingue, 44). 

ea for e ... fereabatur (54^). 

/for/ ... adefti (16). 



g for c 
h omitted 

h inserted 
i for e 

i for ie 
i for ii 

i for u 
ie for e 
ii for i 
m for b 
m for n 
o for a 
o for « 

, orfanis (17), profetas (and other cases, 20t>, 38, 
etc.), fantasma (54). 
calige (15^), crugifixus (207/). 

tronum (137/), Pilippi (267/), ostium (hostium, 
37^), teoricam (377/), immo (hymno, 41), 
triumpare (50), alitus (61); and see above, c 
for ch. 

baltheo (13), habundantius (41). 

diabiso (de abysso, 12), ficisti (12^), urire (}2v), 
promiriri (promereri, 13), accidentem (13), 
imbiciles(i57>), redimisti (157/), perigrinantibus 
(17), meriamur (17, 63), discendit, etc. (20, 
422/, etc.), sanguinim (20), sedit (207/), patire- 
tur (277/), rimisionem (28), aspicire (287/), 
spicialiter (38^, 427;), proficire (40), difunc- 
tis (4077), sinciritatem (42), intigra (42), 
offerri (offerre, 427'), obteniant (427;), sus- 
teniant (447/), elimento (477;, 52, etc.), mistirii 
(477/), residiat (477;), flagillas (50), gehinam 
(507^), supplicis (-es, 51), benedictionis (-es, 
52), cariat (52), mitire (mittere, 527;), apiriatur 
(587/), dispicias (587/), fidiliter (63), respondit 
(-et, 65). 

maistatis (287;), mais[ta]tis (427^), maistate (627/). 

dilui (diluuii, 12), sacrificis (-lis, 16), pissimis 
(167/), fili (gen., 277;), insidfs (377;), gaudi (38), 
gaudis (417/), iudici (-ii, 507/), misterfs (54), 
uitis (55). 

obtilit (287/), incolimitate (527/), uirtites (62t>), 

diciens (28), agiens (28). 

aperii (imper., 497;). 

neximus (137/). 

imferis (287/), immo (hymno, 41). 

euchoristia (637;). 

tonica (13), catacominis (17, 527;), commonione 
(37^, 637;), gutore (gutture, 47), incolomitate 
(477/), commonicatio (637^), homano (64) 

b 2 


p for b ... praespeteris (i6v), praespiter (29^, etc.), opse- 

cremus (38^). 

qu for c ... loqutus (20^), consequti (42^), loqui (loci, 52). 

t for d ... retdat (17^), tetrimentum (44^). 

tz for z ... babtitzantes (53). 

u for b ... coenouitarum (39^). 

u for ... diabuli, etc. (16, etc.), idulorum (27V). 

u for uu ... dilui (diluuii, 12), aequm (40^). 

u omitted ... cognoerunt (34), spiritale (38^), langoris (60). 

u inserted ... uirguinum (38). 

u for us ... spiritu (gen., 39, 41, etc.). 

x for c ... resurrextionem (21). 

z for s ... zabaoth (13), zeth (32). 

St for is ... elezion (eleison, 12?/). 

Some small ornamental initials have already been mentioned 
(p. xiv). The only other decoration in the Missal is on the first 
page, which has a large rectangular initial P, together with a 
border inclosing the text on the other three sides. The colours 
employed in both initial and border are rather dingy red, 
yellow and brown. The initial is filled with a form of the key- 
pattern ornament, familiar in the Book of Kells, the Lindisfarne 
Gospels, 1 the Gospels of St. Chad, and other remains of early 
Celtic art, combined with lozenges and spirals. The border 
presents a striking analogy with that on the first page of 
St. Luke in the last two of the MSS. named. At the top, facing 
the initial, is the head of a cat, the hindquarters of which, with 
legs and tail, are at the lower extremity, the rest of the body 
being represented by horizontal and vertical panels containing 
a running pattern of swans with an edging of narrow bands. 
In the Lindisfarne Gospels the cat's head is at the lower 
extremity, and the treatment of the hindquarters here is more 
like that in St. Chad's Gospels, where the rectangular initial Q 
also contains key-pattern panels. 

The Missal, however, is not in the state in which it was left 
by its original scribes, and the question of its date may be 

1 See especially ff. ijv, 138^, and for other examples of key- patterns J. Romilly 
Allen, Celtic Art in Pagan and Christian Times, 1904, pp. 279-284. 


deferred for the present and be considered later in connexion 
with that of the subsequent additions. By far the most 
extensive and important of these are in the hand (a) of a scribe 
who gives his name, " Moelcaich scripsit," on f. 37. They are 
written, not only on the leaves which, as before mentioned, have 
been interpolated (ff. 14, 18, 22-25, 30, 31, 35, 36), but on others 
from which the original text has been, either in whole or in 
part, effectually erased (ff. 13, 15, iyv, 21, 2iv, 26, 26v, 34 and 
37), and also in the margins of ff. i6v, 28, 28^, and on f. 46V, which 
was originally left blank. As will be noticed at once in the 
facsimile, Moelcaich wrote a smaller, rounder and more facile 
minuscule hand than his predecessors, and, except when over an 
erasure, not between double ruled lines, but upon or pendent 
from a single one. There is also a considerable difference in 
the forms of some of the letters. Thus a is composed normally 
of two strokes only, which meet at the top and are not 
connected by a third transverse stroke. The exceptions to 
this are in the rather smaller minuscule rubrics, where the 
top is open (e.g., oblata, f. 21^), as is the case also in terrarum, 
f. 24, 1. 11, and in fratribus, f. 25, 1. 13. In d the stroke on 
the right is most usually bent over to the left, but the 
vertical form, which largely predominates in the original hands, 
is also found (ff. 14?', 1 5). The difference in q and r is still 
more striking, for in Moelcaich's hand both these letters are of 
the ordinary minuscule type, the former being closed at the top 
and without the curve over the first stroke. Abbreviations are 
mostly the same as in the original text, with the addition of s l 
for sicut (f. 13). The form q is, however, used (f. 17^) instead of 
q:- for quae, and the horizontal stroke for -nm in the genitive 
plural is placed over the preceding r and not to the right of it. 
The cases of noster are generally written in full ; but when they 
are abbreviated, they follow the older system ni, no, etc. (ff. 22^, 
26, 46V, etc.), with one exception (f. 21), where nrae occurs. In 
its spelling of words Moelcaich's text is no less anomalous than 
the other. Thus it includes : — 

aceptu, alis (aliis), altisimus, animamus (-abus), arcisire, 

audii (imper.). 
clementisime, commonionis. 


desederium, dicire, dirilinquisti, discende. 

effussione, eliuatur. 

feccis (faecis), filii (voc), fructum (gen. plur.). 

incolomitate, inmotabilis, intigritate, iteneris. 


maestatis, meriar, misserere. 

ortodoxis, ossanna. 

prespeteris, pulluto. 

redetu, remisione. 

sarephin, spicialiter, spiciosus, sussum. 

uaris (variis), uitis (vitiis). 

Another later hand (b) is found in a few rubrics (ff. 12, 13, 
13^, 15) and in two inserted collects, one at the foot of f. 15^ 
and the other on f. 19, where the writer utilized a narrow strip of 
vellum which was left blank by Moelcaich and to which another 
piece was afterwards stitched. Although the two are very much 
alike in type, this hand may be distinguished from Moelcaich's 
by characteristic forms of t and u (see f. 13, 1. 1). There is, 
however, apparently very little, if any, difference in date between 
the two, and both scribes were most probably contemporary 
members of the same religious community. 

Some interlineations on ft. 13, i$v are in a smaller and 
rougher hand than either of the two last mentioned. They 
were either written by yet another corrector (c), or possibly by 
Moelcaich himself, the fact that he was writing under cramped 
conditions between the lines being accountable for any apparent 
difference of hand. 

Finally, there are two short Irish rubrics on ff. 51, 58, which 
are in a small, sloping hand, different from all the rest, but 
apparently not much later. 

With regard to the age, both of the MS. as it was first 
written and of the subsequent insertions, very different opinions 
have been expressed. 1 For one reason or another the original 
text has been dated by Dr. Todd 3 not later than the sixth 

1 See Cabrol, Did. cP Archdologie Chretienne, Art. " Celtiques (Liturgies)," ii, 

pt. 2, Col. 2973. 

2 Trans, of Roy. Irish Academy, 1856-1859, vol. xxiii, Antiquities, pp. 16, 18. 
This date, as will be seen from the names of saints, is quite impossible. From no 


century, by Dom S. Baumer 1 about 627-640, by Dr. MacCarthy 2 
in the second quarter of the seventh century, by Monsignor 
Duchesne 3 in the eighth century, by Mr. F. E. Warren 4 in the 
ninth century, and by Sir F. Kenyon, 5 with some hesitation, at 
the beginning of the tenth century or end of the ninth. The 
diversity of opinion about Moelcaich's additions among the 
same authorities is not so great. As before, S. Baumer is the 
most precise, dating them about 740-750, and Dr. MacCarthy 
also assigns them to the eighth century, but the rest all agree in 
the belief that they were inserted two centuries later. 

It would materially assist us in solving the vexed question of 
date if the identity of Moelcaich could first be satisfactorily 
established. The name, which is explained to mean Calvus 
lusais* " the bald (tonsured), one-eyed man," does not appear 
to be an infrequent one. It was borne by a contemporary of 
St. Buite, who died in 521, and who, according to legend, 
miraculously restored his head to his body and later, as penalty 
for a misdeed, reversed the process 7 ; and the Annals of Ulster 
record the death of Maelcaich, son of Scannal, king of the 
Cruithni, in 665 (6) and of Maelcaech, son of Cuscrad Menn in 
783 (4). Two others of the name appear in a table of the 
descendants of Ailill Olom compiled by Dr. MacCarthy 3 from 
the Book of Leinster. One of them is there described as son 
of Aed Bennan, king of Kerry, who died in 619, and his own 

fault of his own, Dr. Todd's examination of the MS., which was then still at 
Ashburnham Place, was very hasty and superficial. 

1 " Das Stowe Missale aufs neue untersucht " in Zeilschrijt fiir kathol. Theologie, 
xvi, 1892, p. 459. 

2 Trans, of R.I. A., 1877-1886, vol. xxvii, Antiquities, p. 165. 

3 Origines du culte Chretien, 1898, p. 148. 

4 Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church, 1881, p. 199. 

5 Whitley Stokes and Strachan, Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, 1901-3, vol. ii, 
p. xxvii. 

6 Or according to Mr. Plummer, Calvus lusci, " The tonsured (slave) of the one- 
eyed (saint)." The second element in names compounded with Mael or Mod is, 
however, not always in the genitive. There are instances to the contrary in Mael- 
dub, Maelgorm, etc. 

7 "Vita S. Boecii," Plummer, Vilae SS. Hid., 1910, i, pp. 91, 95. See also the 
Felirc of Oengus, ed. Whitley Stokes, 1905, p. 132. 

8 Op. cit., p. 167. Besides Moelcaich MaccAeda Bennain, four more are men- 
tioned in Rawlinson MS. B. 502 (see Prof. Kuno Meyer's index to the facsimile, 
Oxford, 1909). 


death is approximately dated about 650. This is undoubtedly 
too early for the Moelcaich of the Stowe Missal, but Dr. Mac- 
Carthy confidently identifies the latter with the other Moelcaich 
in his table, who was son of Flann and presumably lived towards 
the middle of the eighth century, being fourth in descent from 
Aed, king of Cashel, who died in 601. The chief ground on which 
he bases this belief is the date of the latest saint in the Litany on 
f. 30, which is in Moelcaich's hand, and it is on this ground also 
that S. Baumer dates his insertions about 740-750. On refer- 
ring to the Litany in the printed text (p. 14), it will be observed 
that, although all the names are preceded as usual by Sancte or 
Sancta, some are in the vocative and others in the genitive case. 
This discrepancy rather suggests that the latter came originally 
from a different source and were ignorantly copied without the 
necessary change of inflexion. The following are the Irish saints 
with their dates, so far as they are known, and the days on which 
they are commemorated in the Irish Martyrologies 1 : — 

Patricii, Patrick, ob. 493. 

Ailbei, Ailbe, bishop of Emly, Sept. 12, Dec. 30 (O, T, G, D), 

ob. 534 or 542. 
Finnio, or Finnian, abbot of Clonard, co. Meath, Dec. 12 

(O, G, D), ob. 549. 
Finnio, or Finnian. bishop of Movilla, co. Down, Sept. 10 

(O, T, G, D), ob. 579- 
Ciarani, Ciaran, abbot of Clonmacnois, King's Co., Sept. 9 

(O, T, G, D), ob. 549. 
Ciarani, Ciaran of Saiger (Seirkieran, King's Co.), Mar. 5 

(O, T, G, D), ob. 560. 

1 O = Felire Oengnsso. The Martyrology of Oengus the Culdee, ed. Whitley 
Stokes, H.B.S., 1905. Oengus was a monk at Clonenagh, Queen's Co., and after- 
wards at Tallaght, where he completed his work in 804. 

T = The Martyrology of Tallaght in The Book of Leinster (arc. 1 160), facs., ed. 
R. Atkinson, 1880, 355 s , 365 c . Printed from a copy at Brussels, ed. M. Kelly, 
Calendar of Irish Saints, Dublin, 1857. Nov. and 1-16 Dec. are missing, and there 
are other lacunae in Feb., June and July. 

G = Filire Hui Gormdin. The Martyrology of Gorman, ed. W. Stokes, H.B.S., 
1895. Composed between 1166 and 1174. 

D = The Martyrology of Donegal, ed. Todd and Reeves, Dublin, 1S64. Compiled 
by Michael O'Clery, one of the Four Masters, in 1630. 


Brendini, Brenann, abbot of Birr, King's Co., Nov. 29 

(O, G, D), ob. 573- 
Brendini, Brenann, abbot of Clonfert, co. Galway, May 16 

(O, T, G, D), ob. S77 or 583. 
Columba, Colombcille, abbot of Hi or Iona, June 9 

(O, T, G, D), ob. 597. 
Colomba, Colomb, abbot of Terryglas, co. Tipperary, 

Dec. 1 3 (O, G, D), ob. 600. 
Comgilli, Comgall, abbot of Bangor, co. Down, May 10 

(O, T, G, D), ob. 600. 
Cainnichi, Cainnech, abbot of Aghabo, Queen's Co., Oct. 1 1 

(O, T, G, D), ob. 599- 
Findbarri, Barr, bishop of Cork, Sept. 25 (O, T, G, D), 

ob. 622-3. 
Nessani, Nessan, deacon, of Mungret, co. Limerick, July 25 

(O.T, G, D),ob. 551. 
Fachtni, Fachtnae, bishop of Roscarbery, co. Cork, Aug. 14 

Lugidi, Lugaid or Lugach, bishop of Ciiil-Bennchoir, 

Oct. 6 (O, T, G, D). 
Lacteni, Lachtain of Achad-ur (Freshford, co. Kilkenny), 

Mar. 19 (O, T, G, D), ob. 622. 
Ruadani, Ruadan, abbot of Lothra or Lorrha, co. Tipperary, 

Apr. 15(0, T, G, D), ob. 585. 
Carthegi, Carthach or Mochutu of Rathen, bishop of 

Lismore, May 14 (O, T, G, D), ob. 637. 
Coemgeni, Coemgen, abbot of Glendalough, co. Wicklow, 

June 3 (O, T, G, D), ob. 618 or 622. 
Mochonne, Mochonna or Conna of Inis Patraic (Inish- 

patrick, near Skerries, co. Dublin), or another, bishop 

of Lemchaill (Lowhill, Queen's Co.), both Jan. 13 

(T, G, D, cf. O, p. 42). There were other saints of the 

same name, including an abbot of Derry, Apr. 12 

(T, G), ob. 704; a bishop of Connor, May 15 (G), 

ob. 725 ; and Mochonna of Cluain Airdne, Sept. 30 

(T, G, D),ob. 713. 
Brigta, Brigit, abbess of Kildare, Feb. 1 (0,T, G, D), ob. 522. 


Ita, Ite, virgin, of Killeedy, co. Limerick, Jan. 1 5 (0, T, G, D), 

ob. 570 or 577. 
Scetha, Sciath or Seethe, virgin, Jan. 1 (G, D), Sept. 6 1 

Sinecha, Sinech, virgin, Nov. 9 (O, G, D). 
Samdine, Samthann or Samdann, virgin, of Clonbroney, 

co. Longford, Dec. 19 (O, T, G, D), ob. 739. 2 

The last saint invoked is thus also the latest in date ; and, so 
far as this evidence goes, while it is clear that the interpolated 
Litany must at the earliest be later than 739, there is nothing in 
it to preclude the possibility of its having been written, as Dr. 
MacCarthy supposes, by Moelcaich, son of Flann, or between 740 
and 750. There is, however, on f. 32, a list of saints to be com- 
memorated, or what is known as the diptychs, 3 which is in the hand 
of one of the original scribes and must therefore have been written 
before Moelcaich's interpolations, and it is necessary to ascertain 
whether it includes any saint posterior to Samthann. It begins 
with Biblical names from Abel to the Apostles and Evangelists, 
who are followed by the three early martyrs Stephen, Cornelius 
and Cyprian, and the two early hermits Paul and Anthony. Of 
the two remaining sections, the first comprises the names of as 
many as thirty-five bishops. All of them are insular except the 
first four, Martin, Gregory, Maximus, and Felix, who are identi- 
fied by Dr. MacCarthy with Martin of Tours (ob. 397 or 401), 
Gregory of Tours {ob. 594), Maximus of Riez (ob. 462), and Felix 
of Nantes (ob. 584). Martin of Tours was extremely popular in 
Irish hagiography, and the identification in his case is no doubt 
correct, but neither Gregory of Tours nor Felix of Nantes is 
mentioned in any of the Irish Martyrologies. The Gregory 
referred to is therefore more probably Pope Gregory the Great 
(ob. 604, Mar. 1 2, O, G), the " Grigoir Ruamae " of Oengus, who was 

1 The feast on Sept. 6 was that of the arrival of her relics at Tallaght. See 
Mart, of Gorman, p. 393. 

2 Annals of Ulster. The Annals of the Four Masters give 734. The same 
genitive form Samdiae occurs in a MS. containing traditions of Tallaght, edited 
by E. J. Gwynn and W. J. Purton, " The Monastery of Tallaght," in Proc. of the 
Roy. Irish Acad., vol. xxix, Sect. C, No. 5 (191 1), p. 150. 

3 See a paper by Mr. Edmund Bishop, " The Litany of Saints in the Stowe 
Missal," Journal of Theological Studies, vol. vii, 1905, p. 122. 


held in the highest honour ; and unless the connexion between 
Ireland and Brittany is sufficient to account for the Nantes 
bishop, Felix may also be a Pope, either Felix I. {ob. 274) or 
Felix II. (ob. 358), both of whom are in Gorman (May 30, 
July 29). Maximus of Riez points to the influence of Lerins, 
of which he was abbot. He is no doubt Gorman's " Maxim " 
entered on Nov. 27, which is his usual day. The insular names, 
which, like the rest, are all in the genitive case, are : 

Patrici, Patrick, ob. 493. 

Patrici, Patrick (Sen-Phatric), of Glastonbury, Aug. 24 

(O, T, G), ob. 457 or 461. 
Secundini, Sechnall, St. Patrick's nephew, Nov. 27 (O, G, D), 

ob. 448. 
Auxili, Auxilius or Usaille, bishop of Killossy or Killashee, 

co. Kildare, Aug. 27 (T, G, D), ob. 460. 
Isernini, Iserninus, companion of St. Patrick. 
Cerbani, Cerpan, bishop of Fert Cerpain at Tara, ob. 504. 
Erci, Ere, bishop of Slane, Nov. 2 (O, G, D), ob. 512. 
Catheri, Cathar. A Cathar, as Dr. MacCarthy remarks, 

is included in the list of bishops (next to Iserninus) 

in the Book of Leinster, 363 d , but he is otherwise 

Ibori, Ibar, bishop of Becc-Eriu or Beggery Island, co. 

Wexford, Apr. 23 (O, T, G, D), ob. 500. 
Ailbi, Ailbe. See above, p. xxiv. 
Conlai, Connla, bishop, May 10 (T, G, D), or another, 

bishop of Ruscach or Rooskagh, co. Westmeath, 

Dec. 30 (T, G, D). 
Maicnissae, Maccnisse, bishop of Connor, Sept. 3 (O, G, D), 

ob. 514; Mar. I, May I (T). 
Moinenn, Moinenn, bishop of Clonfert, Mar. 1 (O, T, G, D), 

ob. 570. 
Senani, Senan, bishop of Inis Cathaig or Scattery Island, 

co. Clare, Mar. 1 (O, T, G, D), ob. 544. 
Finbarri, Barr. See above, p. xxv. 
Colmani, Colman, bishop of Cloyne, Nov. 24 (O, G, D), 

ob. 600 ; or Colman, bishop of Lindisfarne (661-664) 

and of Inisboffin, co. Mayo, Aug. 18 (O, T, G), ob. 676. 


Cuani, Cua or Mo-Chua, of Cluain Dolcain or Clondalkin, 
near Dublin, bishop, Aug. 6 (O, T, G, D). 

Aedach. This appears to be the true reading, and an 
Aedach or Aedhach is commemorated in G, D, on 
Apr. 9. He is not, however, called a bishop and 
Aedach is not a genitive form, as it should be here. 
Possibly the dot over h is a punctum delens applying 
also to c. Aeda would then be the genitive of Aed, 
and the saint may be identified with Aed mac Bricc, 
bishop of Cell-air or Killair, co. Westmeath, Nov. 10 
(O, G, D),ob. 588. 

Laurenti, Laurentius, archbishop of Canterbury, ob. 619. 

Melleti, Mellitus, archbishop of Canterbury, ob. 624. 

Iusti, Justus, archbishop of Canterbury, ob. 627. 

Aedo, Aed, Aedoc or Maedoc, bishop of Ferns, Jan. 31 
(O, T, G), ob. 624. 

Dagani, Dagan, the " Daganus episcopus " whose name 
appears in the letter of Laurentius, Mellitus and Justus 
to the Irish Church, 1 Mar. 12 (T, G, D). Probably 
identical with Dagan of Inber Doile or Ennereilly, co. 
Wicklow, Sept. 13 (O, T, G), ob. 639 or 642, though 
the latter is spoken of (O, p. 206) as a priest. 

Tigernich, Tigernach, bishop of Cluain Enis, or Clones, co. 
Monaghan, Apr. 4 (O, T, G, D), ob. 549. 

Muchti, Mochtae, bishop of Louth, Mar. 24, Aug. 9 
(O, T, G), ob. 535. 

Ciannani, Cianan, bishop of Duleek, co. Meath, Nov. 24 
(O, G, D), ob. 489. 

Buiti, Buite (Boetius), bishop of Monasterboice, co. Louth, 
Dec. 7, (O, G, D), ob. 521. 

Eogeni, Eogan, bishop of Ardstraw, co. Tyrone, Aug. 23 
(O, T, G, D), ob. 618. 

Declani, Declan, bishop of Ardmore, co. Waterford, July 24 
(O, T, G, D), ob. circ. 540. 

1 Bode, Hist. Eccl. ii, 4. Probably it was owing to this letter that the names of 
the three writers were introduced together into these diptychs, and it is from the 
date of the death of Justus that Dr. MacCarthy dates the Missal in the second quarter 
of the seventh century (p. 165) and S. Baumer about 627-640. 


Carthuin 1 or (possibly) Carthain. Perhaps (Aed) MacCar- 
thainn, bishop of Cloghar, member of the household 
of St. Patrick, 2 Mar. 24 (T) and, as Fer da chn'ch, 
Aug. 15 (T, G, D, cf. O, pp. 68, 100, 186). There 
seems to be some confusion, however, between him and 
another (Aed) MacCarthainn, al. Fer da chn'ch, abbot of 
Dairinis, ob. 747, 3 described in a note to the Felire, 
Aug. 15 (p. 187), as a bishop and as "maternal uncle of 
Mael-niain (see next name), Oengus' tutor, and from 
him Mael-ruain brought Fer da clinch's bell, which is 
in Tallaght." In some verses quoted in the Martyrology 
of Donegal, Aug. 15, he is called Maelruain's teacher. 4 
The absence of " Mac " before " Carthuin," which 
would be a serious objection to the identification, may 
be more apparent than real. On reference to the 
facsimile it will be seen that " Carthuin " is at the 
bottom of the fourth and last column of f. 32^, on a 
line with, and close up to, " Colmani " at the bottom of 
the third column, and that (for the reason given on 
p. 16, note 1) the name above "Colmani" has been 
erased with the exception of " ni " at the end. There 
must have been some reason for leaving these two 
letters, and they were perhaps spared to serve as the 
end of " Colmani " in the line below, and what has 
there been read as " ni " is really " m," the abbreviated 
form of " Mac " or " Maic " before " Carthuin." Else- 
where in the case of MaicNissae the " Maic " has been 
written in one line and " Nissae " in the line below, but 
the scribe may have hesitated to write " Maic " at the 
bottom of one page and " Carthuin " at the top of the 
next and so took advantage of the erasure, which was 

1 Printed " Carthuni " in the text (p. 16), but the other reading is more probable. 
Mr. Plummer prefers "Carthaci" (Carthach, cf. p. xxv), regarding the abbreviation- 
stroke for n as the top of a c and making a combination of ha. Such a combination 
however, is very unlikely, and there is no sign of the usual transverse stroke of a. 

2 Tripartite Life, ed. W. Stokes, 1887, pp. 265, 574. 

3 Annals of Ulster ; 742, Four Masters. 

4 See Gwynn and Purton, " The Monastery of Tallaght," Proc. of R.I.A., xxix 
§C, no. 5, 1911, p. 168. 


made before he reached the end of the next column, to 
squeeze in the full name. 
Maile-ruen. This name, which is the last in the series of 
bishops and is also the only one, with the doubtful 
exception of the two Patricks, which begins with a 
capital initial, is of crucial importance for fixing the 
date of the MS. Dr. MacCarthy takes Maile and 
Ruen, which are in different lines, to be two distinct 
names, identifying the first with Mel, bishop of Ardagh 
(0^.488), while the other, which he regards as a phonetic 
form of Ruadain, genitive of Ruadan, is presumably 
Ruadan of Lorrha (pb. 585). 1 There can, however, be 
very little doubt that, as in the cases of Melchi-sedech, 
Macha-beorum, Bartha-lomse and Maic-nissae, the single 
rather lengthy name Maileruen (gen.) has been divided 
between two lines so that it should not protrude into 
the next column on the right ; and if this be so, it can 
hardly represent any other than the well-known Mael- 
ruain, bishop and founder of the monastery of Tallaght, 
near Dublin, who died in 792 (July 9, O, G). 

In support of this conclusion I have the high authority of 
the Rev. C. Plummer, 2 who kindly allows me to quote 
the following communication : — 

" As to Maile-ruen two things are in any case fairly certain : 
(a) Maile is the genitive of Mael = bald, tonsured, and (b) 
Ruen is phonetic writing for Ruadain, genitive of 
Ruadan, the d softened and disappearing between 
the vowels. The question whether we are to take this as 
one name or two depends on whether the genitive Ruen 
is governed by Maile or is an independent genitive 
ranking with the other names in the list, which are in 
the genitive. The former seems to me much the more 

1 See above, p. xxv. Ruen may equally be a phonetic form of Ruain, genitive of 
Ruan, a name quite distinct from Ruadan. See under Maelruain and Ruan in Kuno 
Meyer's index to Rawlinson MS. B. 502, facs. ed., 1009. 

2 See also letters of the late Prof. Whidey Stokes and the Rev. F. E. Warren in 
TAe Academy, No. 778, Apr. 2, 1887, p. 238, and No. 792, July 9, 1887, p. 26, both 
of whom identify Maile-ruen with St. Maelruain. 


" Names formed of Mael with a following proper name in 
the genitive are very common, as you know, in Irish, 
Mael-Isu, Mael-Eoin, Mael-Ciarain, etc., meaning the 
tonsured slave of Jesus, of John, of Ciaran, etc. 
When such names are declined, it is always the former 
part Mael which is declined, the following genitive 
being constant. Thus Maileruen would be the correct 
genitive of Maelruen. 

" On the other hand Mael alone is hardly found as a separate 
name. If it does so occur, it would either be a hypo- 
coristic shortening of one of the many names beginning 
with Mael, or a mere nickname, like "in Mael," the bald 
one, applied to St. Iarlaithe. It occurs as a name of 
one of the Druids opposed to St. Patrick ( Vita Trip., 
pp. 102-104), but as the other Druid is called Caplait 
(= Capitilauium), it is obvious that these are made-up 
names, the tonsured, the head-washed. Therefore the 
chances seem to me enormously in favour of taking 
Maileruen as a single name. 

" The identification of Maile (gen.) with Mel of Ardagh I 
regard as impossible. Only one MS. of the Felire 
of Oengus writes his name Moel (Feb. 6). The 
name is M61, later Meal, showing that the / is not 
mouille, and it seems to be indeclinable. The most 
decisive case is the genitive. We have " Siur epscuip 
Mel," sister of bishop Mel ( Vita Trip., p. 88), " a munigin 
epscuip M61 ," in reliance on (lit. of) bishop Mel (Stokes, 
Three Homilies, p. J2 = Lebar Brecc facs., p. 64 b ). 

" As to the identification of him, I think he can only be the 
great Tallaght saint. He must have been a well-known 
man to get into the Litany, and the only other Mael- 
ruain I have found in the Calendars is in the Lebar 
Brecc copy of the Felire at Dec. 1 8. 1 The two Mael- 
ruains in the Four Masters, 880, 884, are probably too 
There are still thirteen more saints in the diptychs, who are 

1 There is, however, a Maelruain, of Druim Raithe, in Gorman, Mar. 6 ; cf. 
Oengus, p. 90. 


classified as priests and with four exceptions may be identified 
with saints included in Moelcaich's Litany. The names are : 

Uinniaui, 1 Finnio or Finnian, abbot of Clonard. See 

above, p. xxiv. 
Ciarani, Ciaran, abbot of Clonmacnois. See above, p. xxiv. 
Oengusso, Oenu or Oengus, successor of Ciaran, Jan. 20 

(O, T). In G he is called a bishop. 
Endi, Endae, abbot of Aran, Mar. 2 1 (O, G), ob. 542. 
Gilde, Gildas Badonicus, Jan. 29 (O, T), ob. 570, or Gildas 

the Elder, ob. 512. T has a Gildas on Sept. 28, and 

G another on Nov. 4. 
Brendini, Brenann 
Brendini, Brenann 

Cainnichi, Cainnech J> See above, p. xxv. 

Columba, Colombcille 
Columba, Colomb J 

Colmani, Colman, abbot of Lynally, King's Co., Sept. 26, 

Oct. 3 (O, G), ob. 610 ; or abbot of Clonard, co. Meath, 

Feb. 8 (G), ob. 654. But there are twenty-one saints of 

the name in O, and many more in G. 

Comgelli, Comgall leu 

_ b . & > See above, p. xxv. 

Coemgeni, Coemgen J 

The result is that, excluding " Maile-ruen," all the saints 
commemorated in the above diptychs are of earlier date than 
Samthann, who is the latest in Moelcaich's Litany. But on the 
assumption that " Maile-ruen " is St. Maelruain of Tallaght, who 
died in 792, it is obvious that the original text of the Missal 
cannot have been written before the very end of the eighth 
century, and must have come into the hands of Moelcaich and 
have been revised by him at a later date still. Whoever he was, 
his identity with Moelcaich, son of Flann, is therefore impossible, 
unless, indeed, the words " Moelcaich scripsit" were copied from 
the same older source as the text. This, however, is very 
improbable, while on the other hand the fact that the Litany 
includes no saint later than the first half of the eighth century 
can be easily accounted for by its having been reproduced by 

1 For this Latinized genitive (Finniaui, T) see also Thes. Palaeohib., ii, p. 283. 


Moelcaich from his archetype just as he found it without the 
addition of any names nearer his own time. Either on his own 
initiative or under direction, the particular scribe to whom we 
owe the diptychs or earlier list of saints appears to have acted 
differently. As there is a very considerable interval of time 
between Maelruain and the latest of the other saints commemo- 
rated it is reasonable to infer that this list also represents a tran- 
script with the single exception of Maelruain's name, the inter- 
polation of which, in its proper place at the end of the bishops 
and with the unusual distinction of a large initial, marks it as 
that of a more recent saint who for some reason was the object 
of special veneration. Naturally his honour was greatest among 
the fraternity of his own foundation, and we thus get, in addition 
to an approximate date, a valuable clue to the place where the 
MS. was written. Its monastic origin is evident from the inser- 
tion in the canon (p. io) of the words " et abbate nostro .n. epis- 
copo," where the mention of the twofold dignity of abbot and 
bishop is also not without significance. Moreover, if it came 
from Tallaght, there is some slight evidence by which the posterior 
limit of its date may be brought within twenty years from 
Maelruain's death ; for otherwise one might expect to find in it 
the name of another bishop and abbot of Tallaght besides that 
of the founder. The list of members of the community of Mael- 
ruain given in the Book of Leinster 1 includes " Eochaid epscop 
Tamlachta," whose death is recorded in the Annals of Ulster 
under 811 (812), " Echaidh episcopus et ancorita princeps 
Tamlachta quieuit." Like his predecessor, he was regarded 
after death as a saint, being commemorated on January 28, not 
only in the Martyrology of Tallaght itself, but also in those of 
Gorman and Donegal. 3 The absence of his name from the list 
of commemorations, 3 when Maelruain's was inserted, may there- 
fore be taken to imply that it was completed while he was still 
living ; and in that case his position as bishop and abbot makes 

1 Facsimile ed., 1880, p. 370=. 

2 The Felire of Oengus was completed before his death. 

3 Mr. Plummer, however, would identify him with the Aedach (which he reads 
Aechach) of p. xxviii. In that case the original text must be later than 812. But not 
only is the reading Aechach extremely doubtful, but we should expect the name to 
follow Maelruain's instead of being much higher up. 



it also probable that the original part of the Missal was written 
under his inspiration. 

The hagiological evidence thus pointing to a date subsequent 
at least to 792 and possibly before 812, it remains to be seen 
how far there is palaeographical evidence to support or disprove 
it. The script of the various original hands is rather stiff and 
unformed and of an unusual type. So far, indeed, as I am 
aware, there is nothing quite like it in any other extant Irish 
MS., and it was possibly peculiar to Tallaght From its general 
appearance I should not myself be inclined to give it a date 
before the end of the eighth century, and perhaps the nearest 
approach to it, though on the later side, is in a MS. of Priscian 
at St. Gall, No. 904, a page of which, showing two hands, is 
reproduced in Prof. W. M. Lindsay's Early Irish Minuscule Script, 
plate x. 1 This MS. appears to have been written in Ireland, 
probably in 845 s and is mainly by two scribes, Maelpatricc and 
Coirbbre, two others, Finguine and Donngus, also having a small 
share in it. Coirbbre's hand is seen in the first column of Prof. 
Lindsay's plate, and except as regards r, which is minus- 
cule, 3 the forms of letters resemble in many respects those in the 
Missal. The two most characteristic letters in the latter are a 
and g, and if Coirbbre's a is not precisely similar, this is the case 
in one of the other hands, viz., that of Donngus, where a, as 
Prof. Lindsay describes it, " resembles u with a fine stroke 
connecting the two horns," just as it so often does in our MS. 
Coirbbre, however, does use the same open g, though with a less 
pronounced curve at the top of the first stroke. At the same 
time, this peculiar form of g is not a sign of late date, for it occurs 
also in eighth century MSS., as, for instance, in the Durham 
Cassiodorus, 4 said to have been written by Bede, as well as in a 
Mercian charter of 793~4 3 and in the Book of Armagh dated in 

1 St. Andrews University Publications, No. vi, Oxford, 1910, p. 40. 

2 So Giiterbock in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xxxiii, p. 92, note, quoted by Prof. Lindsay 
in Hermatkena, xviii, 1914, p. 44. 

3 The majuscule form, as in the Missal, is in the Gospels of MacRegol, circ. 800, 
Palaeographical Soc, Facsimiles, Ser. I, pi. 90. 

4 Pal. Soc, Ser. I, pi. 164. 

5 Brit. Mus. Add. Ch. 19790, Pal. Soc, Ser. I, pi. 12. Also in Brit Mus. Roy. 
MS. 2 A. xx, 8th cent. 


808. 1 The abbreviations in the two MSS. are of the usual 
Irish character and are practically identical ; but one at least of 
the few instances in which they vary is significant, pointing to an 
earlier date for the Missal. The importance for dating purposes 
of the abbreviation-symbols of the cases of noster was shown by 
Traube in Nomina Sacra, 2 and it is further illustrated and 
enlarged upon by Prof. Lindsay in his forthcoming Notae 
Latinae. The conclusion to which their investigations lead is 
that ni, no, etc., do not survive later than about 815, by which 
time they were finally abandoned for the less ambiguous nrt, 
riro, etc. Now in the St. Gall Priscian (845 ?), as in a Leyden 
Priscian (838) and a Carlsruhe Bede (836-848), which are also 
Irish MSS. that can be dated, nfi, etc., are exclusively found, 
whereas in the Stowe Missal we have both the Hi and rifi 
forms. The full number of the abbreviations of one case or 
another of noster is in fact sixty-two, of which, deducting 
instances of nr {noster, 3) and of mere suspensions such 
as nost (4) and nostror, thirty-seven are examples of the 
two-letter symbol as against seventeen of the three-letter symbol. 
But, although the former are thus in a large majority, when they 
are examined it will be found that, with only two exceptions, viz., 
preces nas (f. 17) and patriarche ni (f. 2gv), they all occur in the 
frequently repeated and, so to say, stereotyped formula dni ni 
Iesu Christi and other cases of the same, and the probability is 
that the scribes of the Missal copied them mechanically from 
their archetype, while elsewhere, as a rule, they followed the 
more modern system. At any rate the double usage seems to 
mark a stage of transition such as might be expected shortly 
before or after 800, and in fact it also obtains in the Book of 
Armagh, the date of which is 808. There is a variation also in the 
abbreviation symbol for quae, which in the Missal takes the 
exclusively insular form q:- while in the St. Gall Priscian it is q. 
Both these symbols, however, were in use by insular scribes 
concurrently, and they are found together in the same MS., as, 
for example, in the Schaffhausen Vita S. Adamnanfi as early 

1 Lindsay, Early Irish Minnsc. Script, pi. ix. 

2 1907, pp. 204-237. 

3 Lindsay, Early Irish Minusc. Script, p. 4. 

C 2 


as 713 and in the Book of Armagh very nearly a century later. 
As Prof. Lindsay has shown, q is really the older symbol of 
the two, being the ancient Nota for quae ; but when in course of 
time quae came to be written que and in consequence was further 
erroneously represented by the que symbol q- or q:, insular scribes 
devised the modification q:- as a means of distinguishing 
between the relative and the conjunction and also perhaps, 
as Prof. Lindsay suggests, to avoid further confusion with q, 
which was their symbol for quern. This practice, however, did 
not continue indefinitely, but gradually fell into disuse, while q 
reasserted itself, and there is at least a strong presumption that 
a MS. in which q:- is consistently employed, as in the original 
part of the Stowe Missal, is earlier than 850. 

On palaeographical grounds therefore, no less than for the 
other reasons before stated, there seems to be sufficient warrant 
for dating the original text in the early part, or even within the 
first decade, of the ninth century. Nor is there any reason to 
believe that Moelcaich's and the other additions are, as has been 
supposed, so much as a century later. Although it differs 
considerably from those of the original scribes, Moelcaich's hand 
is nevertheless of quite as early a type. 1 If his share in the MS. 
was not indisputably later than the bulk of it, but was in a 
separate volume altogether, there might even be some doubt 
which was really the older, and probably the difference in style 
is due rather to locality than to lapse of time. Taking the 
noster test, a comparison of the two scripts yields much the same 
result; for, although in most instances Moelcaich writes the 
possessive — even on f. 22, where it occurs nine times in ten lines 
— without any abbreviation, there are still six examples of the 
ni symbol and only one, nrae deuotionis (f. 21), of the nri symbol, 
to which another, per dnm nrm (f. 140), in the hand of the 
second reviser {b) may be added. Here again, however, the 
shorter forms are all found in association with dni, etc., and may 
have been copied mechanically. With regard to quae, on the 
contrary, there is a disagreement, for in place of q:- Moelcaich 
invariably writes q, which, so far as it has any significance, points 
to a later date. While on the whole none of the inserted matter 

1 See Prof. Lindsay's plate from the Schaff hausen Adamnan already mentioned. 


seems to be later than the first half of the ninth century, it is quite 
conceivable that the Missal was subjected to revision almost 
immediately after it was written. This is the . more likely if, as 
I am inclined to believe, its primary object was to provide the 
monastery of Tallaght, which at the beginning of the ninth 
century was comparatively new and of growing importance, with 
an authoritative ritual. The original text would in that case be 
in the nature of a first draft derived from an archetype which, 
judging from the saints named in it (exclusive, of course, of 
Maelruain), may have been as early as the seventh century, while 
the completed MS. as we now have it represents the shape ulti- 
mately given to it after it had been revised with the aid of a 
second archetype dating from about the middle of the eighth 
century, and coming apparently from some other liturgical centre, 
possibly Armagh. 

Further evidence as to date and origin, confirmatory or other- 
wise, may no doubt be drawn from the liturgical forms in the 
respective texts. The objectxhowever, of the present volume is 
merely to give an edition of the text of the MS. in which its 
component parts are carefully distinguished, and also to fix its 
date so far as this can be done on other than liturgical grounds. 
Without a special knowledge of liturgiology, to which I make no 
pretence, it would be rash to enter upon other questions, and they 
must therefore be left for those who are more competent to 
deal with them adequately. This also applies to the contents of 
the Irish treatise on the Mass which is added at the end of 
the MS. But so far as its date depends on palaeographical 
considerations, this tract does not appear to me to be any later 
than the other insertions ; on the contrary, the hand has a rather 
striking resemblance to that of the rubrics on ff. 57^-58^, which, 
although written in smaller characters than the text, are by one 
of the original scribes. Besides a general similarity we find in it 
the same majuscule r and the horned open q in addition to the 
ordinary form, which is also the commoner in the rubrics ; more- 
over, as in the original text, the suprascript abbreviation-stroke 
for um in -rum is placed to the right of the preceding r, and not, 
as in Moelcaich's hand, above it. 

The following, in addition to the usual nomina sacra 


symbols, are the abbreviations in the Latin words which occur 
in the tract : 

aeci, aecclesia. 

ciul, ciuitatem. 

a (a reversed c with cross-stroke, or, less correctly, the " eius " 
symbol as on p. xiv), contra. 

-H, est. 

7, et. 

fs, Alius. 
K, hoc. 

•i-, id est. 

I, in. 

no, nomen. 

pr, pat, pater. 

p r , per {e.g., super). 

p, prae {e.g., deprecor). 

qn, quando. 

q:, q3, que. 

s, sed. 

Most of the abbreviations in the Irish text are of the nature 
of mere suspensions, but they also include : 

q, the symbol for "quia," used for its Irish equivalent "ar." 

f, fo, for (upon). 

•i-, idon 1 (id est). 

I, in (the, in). 

7, ocus (and). 

The same syllable-symbols are mostly used both in Latin 
and Irish words. Those for er, um, ur and us, as well as the 
hooked horizontal stroke for omitted m, both final and medial, 
are the same as in the Missal (p. xvi) ; also two dots are placed 
over g and t for ra {e.g., Ir. grad, tra) and /over / for ri {e.g., 
Lat. prius). In some cases also Latin word-symbols (s, q;, etc.) 
are used to express syllables in Irish words {e.g., issed, huisque 
= huisce"). 

1 This form (which is found in the Book of Armagh) ought to have been printed 
instead of "id est" in the text. It represents " ed on," the Irish equivalent of the 
Latin (Thurneysen, Altirische Grammalik, vol. i, 1909, p. 24). 


As nothing in these criteria militates against an early date, 
there need be little doubt that the tract is nearly, if not actually, 
contemporary with the body of the MS. ; and the linguistic 
evidence also seems to be in favour of this, for in alluding to 
the suggestion that this tract and the three short Irish spells on 
f. 6yv are not earlier than the eleventh century the editors of 
the Thesaurus P alaeohibernicus remark that, if this be so, the 
language shows that the texts must have been copied from a 
much older original. With regard to the date of the rougher 
hands of the three spells, it is difficult to speak with any 
confidence 1 ; but my own impression of the whole MS. is 
that from first to last it contains nothing later than the ninth 

Mention has been made above (p. ix) of the extracts from the 
Gospel of St. John which occupy the first gathering (ff. i-ii). 
These extracts are in a hand quite different from any of the 
other hands in the volume, and they clearly have nothing to do 
with the Missal and other liturgical matter. They have therefore 
not been included either in the facsimile or in the printed text ; 
but they nevertheless claim some notice with respect to their 
character and probable date. Whether there was any particular 
reason for binding them up with the Missal it is impossible to 
say, nor is the date of the binding at all certain. They may 
conceivably have been prefixed out of reverence for the memory 
of some notable personage, such as St. Maelruain, to whom they 
had belonged. A note, however, to that effect might then have 
been expected, and possibly the only reason for their inclusion 
was the fact that the leaves on which they are written happened 
to have the same dimensions as those of the other MS. The 
portions of the Gospel comprised are : i-vi. 30 ; vii. 45-viii. 14 ; 
viii. 19-33. umquam ; viii. 53, qui-59 ; xii. 9-39, credere; xvii. 
11, Pater sancte-xviii. 1 ; xviii. 4-13; xviii. 15, discipulus-23 ; 
xix. 40-xx. 23 ; xx. 26-xxi. 6 ; xxi. 9-end. It is at once 
apparent that these are not passages purposely selected to serve 
as lessons or from any other intelligible motive, and some of 

1 In addition to other abbreviations as in the tract, the first spell has «-longa 
with a cross-stroke for "inter." This, however, is a quite early Irish symbol. 


them in fact break off abruptly in the middle of a sentence. The 
explanation, as Dr. Bernard points out in his paper " On the 
Stowe St. John," 1 seems to be that they were copied consecutively 
from a mutilated archetype of unknown, but probably early, date 
in which some leaves were lost, and others were torn or partially 
illegible. At the same time there is evidence which suggests 
that this defective Gospel of St. John is all that survives of a MS. 
which contained at least one other Gospel, and perhaps the whole 
four. It is curious that the rude miniature of St. John with his 
eagle, reproduced here in Plate IX, is not placed at the beginning 
of the Gospel, as is more usual, but at the end, on the back of the 
last page of text (f. \\v). The gathering, however, originally 
consisted of twelve leaves, the first of which, as already stated, 
has been torn away with the exception of a narrow strip along 
the inner edge, and as a small fragment of a border similar to 
that which incloses the figure of St. John is visible on the back 
of this strip, it seems probable that the missing page contained a 
miniature of St. Luke or one of the other Evangelists, which was 
also placed at the end of his Gospel. 

With the text of St. John, or so much of it as the MS. includes, 
we are not here concerned, but the full collation given by 
Dr. Bernard proves it to be in his own words " Vulgate with 
traces, as is usual in Irish MSS., of old Latin 'mixture.'" In 
default of any other evidence its date can only be judged from 
the script, the first and last pages of which are reproduced in 
Plates VII, VIII. It begins neatly and carefully, but soon 
degenerates into a rather scratchy hand, becoming finally almost 
cursive, with the sinuous vertical stroke which Prof. Lindsay terms 
" the Irish (or rather insular) cursive form of z." 2 This is specially 
observable in the colophon, the text of which will be found below, 
and which also shows the characteristic downward prolongation of 
the final stroke of m, n, u. Paragraphs begin on a new line with 
a plain capital initial set well out in the margin, the line being 
continued on any vacant space left in the line above at the end 
of the preceding paragraph. Apart from the miniature of 
St. John, there is no other decoration except on the first page 

1 See above, p. ix. 

2 " Irish Cursive Script" in Zeitschrift filr Celtische Philologie, ix, p. 304. 


(Plate VI I), where the large ornamental capitals I N P are in black, 
the other colours in letters and border being red, yellow, and 
mauve. The key-pattern with lozenges in the N and in the 
border is almost identical with that in the initial on the first 
page of the Missal. Roth the orthographical peculiarities and 
the abbreviations correspond generally with those in the Missal, 
but unfortunately the noster symbols do not occur, and for quae 
both q and q:- are used, the latter, however, being less common.. 
The abbreviations are : 

ap, apud. 

a, aut. 

fi, autem. 

cs, cuius. 

c, c, cum. 

dt, dx, dcs, dr, dicit, dixit, dicens, dicitur. 

3, eius. 

-ff, enim. 

go, ergo. 

ee, esse. 

-*-, -»-, est. 

7, et. 

hi, habet. 

ft, h, hs, he, haec, hoc, huius, hunc. 

hdis, hoem, hominis, -em. 

I, in. 

mm, ins, meum, meus. 

m 1 , mihi. 

no, n5e, nomen, nomine. 

n, non. 

nc, nunc. 

ome, orris, orna, omne, omnes, omnia. 

P', per. 

p°, post. 

p, prae. 

p, pro. 

npus, proprius. 

propt, pt, propter. 

qn, quando. 


qre, quare. 
qsi, quasi. 

93 > que. 

q, q, q, qui, qua, quo. 
q, q3-, quae. 
c|, quern, 
q, quam. 

* quod. 

* quia. 

qmo, quomodo. 

qm, quoniam. 

qq, quoque. 

qt. quot. 

-f'dum, secundum. 

s, sed. 

s', sicut. 

sn, sine. 

st, sunt. 

sup', super. 

tn, tamen. 

V, tibi. 

ts, trans. 

tc, tunc. 

uii, unde. 

1, uel. 

u°, uero. 

The syllable-symbols are : an inverted c for con ; a supra- 
script horizontal stroke for er {e.g., inter, noster, pater, propter, 
uerbum), for um in -rum {e.g., nostrum, uirum), and for un in 
-runt ; i over/ for ri {e.g., prior, primum) ; a comma over / to the 
right for ur {e.g., moriatur, turba) ; and 3 for us in -bus, -mus, etc. 
Final tn is represented by a hooked horizontal stroke. 

The scribe gives his name under an Ogham form in the 
colophon, which is as follows : 

" Deo gratias ago. Amen. Finit. Amen. 
Rogo quicumque hunc librum legeris. ut memine 
ris mei peccatoris. scriptoris . i . nn ll m JHll M — P ere 
grinus Amen sanus sit qui scripsit. et cui scriptum est. 



From left to right the Ogham name reads Sonid, in the 
reverse way Dinos. Neither name is known elsewhere, but the 
former is the more probable, and it has been suggested that in 
the sentence which follows there is a play on the nearly homo- 
phonous Irish word sonaid} happy, prosperous, and the Latin 
sanus. The precise meaning of the epithet " peregrinus " is 
doubtful. Possibly the scribe was actually on a pilgrimage at 
the time, or he may have been, as Bishop Graves suggests, a 
foreigner who had come, like many others, to Ireland for the 
sake of religious instruction or, on the other hand, an Irish 
monk writing on the continent. 

As regards the date of the Gospel, there has been almost as 
much difference of opinion as in the case of the Missal. Dr. Todd 
and Dr. MacCarthy make it seventh century, Dr. Bernard not 
earlier than the end of the eighth century or beginning of the 
ninth, L. Delisle not earlier than the ninth century, and S. Berger 
tenth century. 2 As Dr. MacCarthy and others have remarked, 
the hand is to some extent similar in type to that of the scribe 
Dimma, who wrote the first three Gospels in the well-known 
Book of Dimma ; but the age of that MS. is also uncertain, and 
it is the only one of those included in Prof. Lindsay's Early 
Irish Minuscule Script to which he has not assigned a date. As, 
however, it contains both the ni and nfi symbols, with a preference 
on Dimma's part for the latter, it is not likely to have been 
written much before or after 800, and the similar date which 
Dr. Bernard gives to the Stowe St. John is probably correct. 
Moreover, as it was in that case quite possibly written before 
792, it may after all owe its preservation with the Missal to 
some connexion with St. Maelruain. 3 

1 See Whitley Stokes, " Glossed Extracts from the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick " 
in Archiv fiir Celtische Lexicographic, ill , 1907, p. 26, " Maccne Nadfraich fuaim 
sonaid " — " The sons of Natfraich happy (?) sound." 

2 Bernard, loc. cit., p. 314, note. 

3 It is curious, but may be merely a coincidence, that a Dimman appears in the 
list of members of the community of Maelruain in the Book of Leinster. 



The importance attached to the volume by its former 
possessors is shown by the Cumdach, or casket, which was made 
to contain it, and which elsewhere than in Ireland would 
probably have taken the more usual form of an elaborate metal- 
work binding. It is one of five such characteristic early Irish 
book-shfines which still survive. 1 The other four belong to the 
Gospels of St. Molaise 2 (1001-1025), the Gospels of St. Patrick 
(nth century and circ. 1350), the Psalter of St. Columba (1084) 
and the Book of Dim ma (1 150), the date in each case being that 
of the Cumdach and not of the MS. itself; and besides these, 
three more notable MSS. are known from historical sources to 
have formerly been protected in a similar manner, viz., the Book 
of Durrow (877-914), the Book of Kells (before 1007) and the 
Book of Armagh (938). Like the rest, the Cumdach of the 
Stowe Missal is undoubtedly of later date than the book which 
it enshrined. This, however, is only what might be expected ; 
for, unless a MS. was of exceptional splendour, such as the Book 
of Kells, or for some other special reason, it was not likely to be 
so distinguished until it had acquired, on account either of its 
contents or its associations, the sanctity of a relic by course of 

Its form is that of a rectangular wooden box covered 
externally with metal, and measuring altogether 7§ inches by 6\ 
inches with a depth of 2$ inches. The two metal faces are 
evidently of different dates. The older one (Plate II) is detached 
and serves for a lid ; but the other (Plate I) is not only the more 
highly decorated but even in its original state appears to have 
been the upper face or front, for the figures on the four sides of 
the Cumdach are so placed that they are upright when it lies 
with this face uppermost. The basis of the under face, which, 

1 G. Petrie, Christian Inscriptions in the Irish Language, ed. M. Stokes, vol. ii, 
1878, p. 158; M. Stokes, Early Christian Art in Ireland, 1887, p. 88; J. R. 
Allen, Celtic Art in Pagan and Christian Times, 1904, p. 208 ; G. Coffey, Guide 
to the Celtic Antiquities of the Christian Period in the National Museum, Dublin, 
1 910, p. 44. 

2 This MS., which, if it really belonged to St. Molaise, must have been older 
than 563, has perished, though its Cumdach remains. 


as being the older of the two, it will be convenient to describe 
first, is a roughly squared oak board 7 inches long, 5f inches 
wide and \ inch thick, with the surface worked smooth by a chisel. 
Over this, attached by bronze nails, is a thin bronze plate with 
projecting edges, which are slightly bent up all round. The 
shallow depression thus formed measures 7^ inches by 6\ inches. 
It is filled by a rectangular bronze frame, | inch wide throughout, 
bevelled at the inner edge and overlaid with a thin coating of 
silver, which in some places has peeled off; and two similar 
silver-coated plates of the same width intersect at right angles in 
the centre, forming a cross, the four limbs of which extend to the 
frame. The four sunk panels between the cross and frame are 
decorated with chequer-patterns of squares and triangles, 1 the 
former in the first and fourth quarters, the latter in the other 
two. These designs are produced by punching through a thin 
bronze plate (or perhaps a separate plate for each panel), coated 
with silver, laid over the bronze plate first above mentioned and 
. under the frame and cross ; and, as the under metal is visible 
through the pierced work, a good effect is thus produced by the 
contrast between the silver and bronze. The darker metal was 
also laid bare by punching a small square in the overlying silver 
at each corner of the frame and a small arc at each end of the 
cross, the eight recesses thus made being decorated with chiselled 
interlaced designs in slight relief. At a later time, evidently 
when the other face of the Cumdach was designed, the silvered 
plates forming the cross were rudely cut away at the point of 
intersection for a space measuring 2f inches by 2\ inches, in 
which a metal-work quatrefoil was inserted inclosing an oval 
setting for a crystal, now lost, corresponding with that on the other 
face, which will be described below. In its general features, includ- 
ing the bronze plates coated with silver, the frame and cross, and 
the panels of pierced work, this under face resembles one face of 
the Cumdach of the Book of Dimma. 2 There, however, the 
panels are filled with zoomorphic interlaced designs and the 
central crystal is not a later addition. 

1 For a similar triangular design see a plate from a cast of a metal object in the 
Albeit Way Collection, J. R. Allen, op. cit., p. 170. 

2 Petrie, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 101 ; M. Stokes, op. cit., p. 97, fig. 38. 


The following inscriptions are cut in Irish characters round 
the frame and on the cross, and as there is no reason to doubt 
that they are contemporary, they enable us, as Dr. J. H. Todd 
has shown, 1 to fix the date of the Cumdach within comparatively 
narrow limits. The four inscriptions on the frame are complete, 
viz. : — 

(a) At the top, 


i.e., " A blessing of God on every soul according to its desert " ; 
ib) At the bottom, 


i.e., " A prayer (orait or oroif) for Donchadh, son of Brian, for 
the king of Ireland " ; 
(c) On the right, 


i.e., " and for MacRaith, descendant of Donchadh, for the king of 
Cashel " ; 

{d) On the left, 


i.e., " A prayer for Dunchad, descendant of Taccan, of the family 
of Cluain, who made it." 

Donchadh, son of the famous Brian Borumha, for whom 
prayer is asked in the second inscription, was joint king of 
Munster with his brother Tadhg until the latter was treacherously 
slain at his instigation by the tribesmen of Eli ua Cerbhaill, or 
O'Carroll, in 1023. 2 Subsequently he appears to have claimed to 

1 " On the Ancient Irish Missal and its Silver Box described by Dr. O'Conor in 
his Catalogue of the Stowe MSS.," Trans. R.I. A., vol. xxiii, pt. ii, 1859, 
Antiquities, p. 3. 

2 Annals of Tighernach, ed. W. Stokes, Revue Celtique, xvii, 1896, p. 362. ; cf. 
Annals of Ulster (ed. Hennessy, 1887, i, p. 551) and Annals of the Four Masters 
(ed. O'Donovan, 1851, ii, p. 805) under 1023. 


be over-king of Ireland, but he was driven out of the country in 
1064 and went on pilgrimage to Rome, where he died in the 
monastery of St. Stephen. The death of MacRaith, king of 
Cashel, for whom prayer is also asked, is recorded in 1052, the 
Annals of Tighernach styling him king of the Eoghanacht Caisil, 
who were a tribe settled about Cashel in Tipperary, and heir to 
the kingdom of Munster. From the fourth inscription we learn 
that the Cumdach was the work of Dunchad O'Taccan, or 
O'Tagan, of the family, or religious community, of Cluain, by 
which, no doubt, is meant the famous monastery of Clon- 
macnois in King's County, but beyond this nothing is recorded 
of him. 

The two inscriptions on the cross are unfortunately both 
imperfect owing to the mutilation it has suffered in the centre, 
as above described. The letters remaining on the vertical plate 
are: — 



i.e., " A prayer for main, descendant of Cat ... by (i.e., 

for) whom it was made." 

Dr. Todd and Miss Stokes read " nain " for "main" at the end 
of the first line, but the m is unmistakeable. The / in " Cat " in 
the second line is followed by the remains of a vertical stroke, 
probably belonging to h ; and the final stroke of an n before 
" dernad " is also visible. Altogether about ten letters appear 
to be missing in each line, or only seven, if, as is probable, 
the vertical plate was interrupted by the width of the hori- 
zontal plate crossing it. Any attempt to fill in the names 
must be purely guesswork, but there is no doubt as to the end of 
the inscription, which is the common phrase used in giving the 
name of the person for whom, or at whose cost, an object was 
made. 1 In this case he was presumably some adherent of Don- 
chadh mac Briain. 

1 e.g., on the Cross of Cong, "or do Therrdel u Concho do rig Erend las 
anderrnad ingressa," i.e., " A prayer for Terdelbach ua Conchobair, king of Ireland, 
by whom this work was made," Coffey, Guide, p. 56. So also on the Cumdach, 
now lost, of the Book of Durrow, Petrie, Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, pp. 146, 158. 
See Thesaurus Palaeohib. , vol. ii, p. 289. 


The inscription on the arms of the cross is still more hope- 
y mutilated, all that is left being 



i.e., " and for ind, descendant of D laig." 

Dr. Todd reads " and " at the end of the first line, but the 
antepenultimate letter is clearly not a, which is formed quite 
differently. It is more like i preceded by c or possibly ^ only 
the curved top of which remains, the sloping straight stroke 
beneath it being evidently a prolongation of the cut made by 
the mutilating chisel. In the second line the third letter has 
been read as t. Judging, however, from the roundness of the 
curve at the bottom, it is almost certainly a mutilated d. 

As Donchadh mac Briain and MacRaith were both, no doubt, 
still living when the Cumdach was made, its date must thus lie 
between 1023 and 1052. It is not said that they had any share 
in the making of it, and whether their names were inscribed for 
any special reason other than merely a sentiment of loyalty on 
the part either of the unknown person for whom it was made or 
of the actual artificer, Dunchad O'Tagan, it is impossible to say. 
Reasons have been given above for the belief that the Missal 
originally belonged to the monastery of Tallaght, near Dublin, 
in Leinster. The Cumdach, however, has apparently a Munster 
provenance, and if it was expressly made for the purpose of 
enshrining the MS., it is not only evident that the latter was 
regarded two hundred years after it was written as a sacred 
relic, but it would seem that it was then no longer at Tallaght, 
but in Munster. Dr. Todd's theory, which has been accepted by 
others, 1 was that, as the Cumdach was connected by its inscrip- 
tions with Munster, the Missal belonged from the first to some 
Munster church, which he supposed to be the monastery of 
Lothra, or Lorrha, in Tipperary, going so far, indeed, as to 
suggest that the book may have been the original Missal of 
St. Ruadan, the founder. As St. Ruadan died in 585, this is 

1 ° There seems little reason to doubt the propriety of Dr. Todd's suggestion that 
this Missal, and the Cumdach in which it was preserved, belonged originally to the 
Irish monastery of Lorrha," Petrie, Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 97. 


out of the question ; and not only is there really no evidence what- 
ever of any early connexion of the Missal with Lorrha, but even 
the Cumdach is less likely to have come from there tha,n from 
Clonmacnois, of which house Dunchad O'Tagan, who wrought it, 
calls himself a member. If the MS., on the other hand, was 
originally atTallaght, it may have been carried off in 1026, when 
it is recorded in the Annals of Tighernach 1 and of Ulster that 
Donchadh mac Briain invaded Leinster among other parts and 
exacted pledges or hostages. Books had the merit of being 
easily portable, and, especially when sanctity attached to them, 
they were regarded in Ireland as valuable property. How they 
were utilized in raids and the inter-tribal warfare which was so 
frequent is shown by a curious note in the MS. known as the 
Leabhar na h-Uidhri, 2 the translation of which is as follows : — 

" A prayer here for Aedh Ruadh, son of Niall Garbh 
O'Donnell, who forcibly recovered this book from the people of 
Connaught, and the Leabhar Gearr (or Short Book) along with 
it, after they had been out of our custody from the time of Cathal 
6g O'Conor to the time of Ruadri, son of Brian [O'Conor] .... 
And this is the way in which they were so taken : the Short 
Book in ransom of O'Docharta and the Leabhar na h'Uidhri in 
ransom of O'Donnell's ollamh of history, who was captured by 
Cathal and carried away as a pledge." 

These two MSS., it appears, were lost in 1359 and recovered 
in 1470. As I am informed by Mr. Robin Flower, Laud MS. 
Misc. 610 in the Bodleian Library (written in 1454) also 
contains a note which states that Thomas, Earl of Desmond, 
took the book in ransom for Edmund Butler. Both these are 
comparatively late instances, but it is by no means improbable 
that the Missal was similarly taken from Tallaght in pledge 
or ransom, or possibly as mere booty, during Donchadh's 
invasion of Leinster in 1026, and that it was enriched with a 
shrine by the person into whose hands it fell or who was entrusted 
with its custody. If this was so, the date of the shrine may be 

1 " 1026. A hosting by (Donnchad) son of Brian, so that he took hostages of the 
men of Meath and Bregia and the Foreigners and Leinster and Ossory," ed. 
W. Stokes, op. cit., p. 365. 

2 Leabhar na k-Uidkri, facsimile ed., R.I. A., ed. J. T. Gilbert, 1870, p. x. 



placed in that year or soon after, or approximately about 1030, 
so that it would be nearly contemporary with the more highly 
decorated shrine of the Gospels of St. Molaise, which was made 
between 1001 and 1025 ; and from the inscriptions on its other 
face it is evident that, together with the MS., it was still in 
Munster three centuries later. 

But before dealing with these more recent additions, it will be 
well to describe the four sides of the shrine, where the whole of 
the metal-work appears to be of the same date as the older face. 
The wooden foundations of two of the adjoining sides, which 
measure respectively 7 inches and 5§ inches in length, and are 
uniformly i\ inch wide and J inch thick, are also original ; 
those upon the other two sides seem to have been renewed at a 
comparatively modern date. Except on the lower short side or 
bottom of the casket the bronze plates riveted to the wood have 
their edges bent upwards ; their ends meet at the four corners, 
but are not connected together. In the centre of each of the 
short sides (Plates III, IV) a circular metal ornament of identical 
size and design is nailed to the underlying plate. The outline of 
the circle, which has a diameter of if inch, is composed of the 
long slim curved bodies and tails of two beasts, probably meant 
for lions, whose widely gaping jaws are fixed on either side of the 
head of a winged human figure, full-face, standing between them. 
The head of this figure is bullet-shaped, 1 and the nose, if it ever 
existed, is quite worn away ; the hair is indicated by incised lines, 
and there are also incised lines round the eyes and mouth. The 
eyes themselves, as in the case of the two beasts also, are 
represented by tiny black or dark blue beads embedded in the 
metal. The figure is apparently half-naked, wearing no more than 
a kilted skirt reaching nearly to the feet, which are bare. In the 
middle of the breast a small square hole is sunk in the metal and 
lined with silver wire ; in one case it is filled by a shining red 
stone (garnet ?), in the other it is now empty. The arms, if they 
can be called so, are extended and terminate in what appear to 
be intended for wings, hanging down perpendicularly. In the 
upper part of them the metal is hollowed out so as to form a 

1 It may be compared with that of the symbol of St. Matthew on the Cumdach of 
the Gospels of St. Molaise, Coffey, Guide, Plate viii. 


circular cavity, which is inlaid with dark blue cloisonne enamel 
round an inserted silver wire bent into a spiral. In one wing at 
the bottom of the casket (Plate IV) the enamel and spiral have 
perished. At the lower pointed end of the wings the feathers are 
represented by transverse lines. On the necks and flanks of the 
two beasts the metal is also cut away, except at the extreme edge, 
and the cavities are filled with similar blue enamel divided by 
zigzag and 8-shaped cloisons. Their forelegs rest on the shoulders 
of the central figure, while the hindlegs extend upwards along 
the inner edge of the wings. Their shoulders and thighs, through 
which pass the pins fastening the design to the plate below, are 
decorated with spiral chasing. The whole design is worked out 
of a single disc of bronze, which is pierced through its entire 
thickness between the figures. Traces of gilding with which its 
surface was covered are still visible. 

On the top of the casket (Plate III) out of four other small 
decorated plates which were originally attached to the plain 
metal backing only one is now left. Its upper and lower edges 
are straight, but its sides are concave, one of them fitting close up 
to the circular design above described. The plate is of bronze 
overlaid with silver, and is cut through so as to leave a spiral and 
interlaced pattern of metal. At the bottom of the casket 
(Plate IV) a similar pierced plate remains on each side of the 
central circle, one exhibiting a chequer pattern, the other, which 
is imperfect, a pattern of small circles connected by short intersect- 
ing diagonal bars. In all these cases a very thin sheet of gilt-foil 
separates the pierced plate from the bronze backing. The four 
semicircular end-pieces, which probably contained gilded figures 
in relief, like that in the centre, have unfortunately all perished. 

Five small bronze plates, all being rectangular, were similarly 
attached by nails to the backing on both the longer sides of the 
casket (Plates V, VI), but one of the end-pieces is missing from 
each side. On the right of the casket (Plate V) the centre-piece, 
if inch in height and i^- inch in width, has a narrow beaded 
frame, within which is the figure of a bearded man, full-face, in 
high relief, between two beasts, who are leaping up at him. He 
appears to be without clothing, except a loin-cloth or short 
drawers, and his bare feet project over the frame. He holds in 


front of him with both hands a short sword, apparently sheathed, 
the pommel terminating in a semi-spherical knob. The two 
beasts have beads for eyes and striated bodies with spiral joints 
at the shoulders and thighs. They most resemble dogs in shape ; 
but the design is probably a debased representation of Daniel in 
the lions' den. This was a motive common in early Christian art. 1 
It frequently occurs on sculptured stones in Ireland and Scotland 2 ; 
and it is possible that the two figures at the top and bottom of 
the Cumdach already described are another variation of it, though 
it is difficult to account for the wings. 3 Above these beasts are 
two others, much smaller and more attenuated. Their feet are 
on the sides of the frame and their heads and necks are bent 
backwards as if they were biting or licking the ears of the 
central figure, while the ends of their tails appear to be in the 
mouths of the larger beasts. Where the metal is cut through 
between the figures, the surface below is dimly seen to be covered 
with a pattern. The single end-piece that remains is I inch wide, 
and has a beaded frame similar to that in the centre, though the 
beading is less distinct. It contains the figure of a warrior in 
profile to the right, holding a spear and a round shield with large 
central boss. His head has a strange appearance, with long hair 
curling up at the ends. It strongly resembles that of a horseman, 
with spear and shield, on a sculptured stone on Inchbrayock at 
the mouth of the S. Esk. 4 Possibly, however, he is wearing a large 
semi-classical helmet drawn down so as to cover the whole face, 
with orifices for the eyes, and surmounted by a crest and droop- 
ing plume. The figure has no visible clothing except round the 
loins. It is cut in the round out of the bronze, and the plain 
metal backing is seen beneath. Both this plate and that in the 

1 See Edm. Le Blant, " Note sur quelques representations antiques de Daniel dans 
la fosse aux lions " in the Revue de PArt ChrStien, ser. ii, tome ii, p. 89, with No. 4, 
from a Merovingian buckle, in plate opposite ; also Inscriptions Chretiennes de la Gaule, 
i, p. 493, ii, pi. 42, 43, Nouveau Recueil of the same, 1892, nos. 45, 93, pp. 61, 112, 
and Barriere-Flavy, Les Arts Industriels de la Gaule, Album, 1901, pi. xxxvii-viii. 

2 See Dr. Jos. Anderson's Rhind Lectures for 1892 in J. R. Allen's Early Christian 
Monuments of Scotland, 1903, vol. i, p. 1. ; J. R. Allen, Celtic Art, p. 296. 

3 There is a very similar figure, but without the wings, between two beasts on the 
cross at Drumcliff near Sligo, O'Neill, Fine Arts of Ancient Ireland, 1863, p. 31. 

4 J. R. Allen, Early Chr. Mon., vol. ii, pi. 235B. For hair of similar fashion see 
Atlas de ParcJUologie du Nord, Copenhagen, 1857, pi. iv-viii, xi, xii. 


centre have evident signs of gilding. The other two plates on 
the same side of the casket are of silvered bronze, and are per- 
forated over their whole surface in patterns, consisting in one case 
(where there is a sheet of gilt-foil beneath) of spirals and inter- 
laced work, as in Plate III, and in the other of small hollow 
squares connected by narrow vertical and horizontal bands 
bisecting their sides, so that the spaces between the squares are 
cruciform. A similar design is on the under face of the Cumdach 
of St. Columba's Psalter. 

The same patterns, or very nearly so, are repeated on two of 
the plates on the left side of the casket (Plate VI). The former, 
however,is turned completely round, and in this position is strongly 
suggestive of a conventional tree with spiral and interlaced 
branches. 1 Both plates on this side have gilt-foil beneath them. 
The plate in the centre contains four figures in high relief, but 
the metal is not, as elsewhere, pierced right through, nor is the 
design enclosed within a frame. Two of the figures, one on each 
side, are ecclesiastics vested in a dalmatic and chasuble, standing 
erect, full-face. Their chasubles are decorated with incised bars 
filled with gilding and with a border or orphrey of small ovals set 
side by side, and a similar border fringes the bottom of the dal- 
matic. The figure on the right holds a pastoral staff with a 
plain rounded crook, the other an oblong object widening slightly 
towards the lower end, with a round handle at the top and a 
small wedge-shaped projection at the bottom. Its surface, except 
at the edges, is covered with cross-hatching. From its shape it no 
doubt represents one of the portable bells common in the Irish 
Church, 2 the projection at the bottom being the end of the clapper. 
Between the two ecclesiastics are two smaller figures, one above 
the other. That at the top is an angel with his wings folded in 
front of him ; the other is a human figure seated sideways on 
a low stool with his head turned to the front and his hands 
on a three-stringed harp. It is probably meant for David, 
introduced as a type of Christ, as in a panel under the 
Crucifixion on a sculptured stone at Monifieth. 3 The eye-sockets 

1 As in the scene of the Fall on the Drumcliff cross (above, p. Hi, note 3). 
- M. Stokes, op. cit., p. 50 ; J. R. Allen, Celtic Art, p. 194. 
3 J. R. Allen, Early Christian Symbolism, p. 149. 

d 2 


in all four figures were filled with beads. The identity of the 
two large figures is doubtful ; but a " pair of ecclesiastics, some- 
times standing, sometimes enthroned, sometimes kneeling, with 
a bird holding a circular disc in its mouth between them, is a 
subject common to the early sculptured stones of both Scotland 
and Ireland." 1 This may be another example, with an angel 
instead of a bird, unless, indeed, the winged figure is really 
meant for a bird. In the case of a cross at Nigg, in Ross-shire, 
Dr. Anderson takes the two ecclesiastics to be the hermits St. Paul 
and St. Anthony, and the bird would then be the raven which 
brought them a loaf in the desert. This is the more probable, 
as on the Ruthwell Cross, where the two (without the bird) are 
sharing a loaf, these names are given in an inscription. On this 
side of the casket also only one end-piece has been preserved. 
It represents within a beaded frame a stag hunted by two dogs, 
upon one of which he is trampling, while the other attacks him 
from behind. Above the stag's neck is what seems to be the 
point of an arrow or spear shot or held by a hunter who is not 
included in the design. There are spirals on the shoulders and 
thighs of all three beasts, and the stag has serrated antlers and 
striated flanks. The design is made by piercing the bronze, and 
the surface is flat and not in relief like that of the centre-piece. 
In both cases the gilding in some parts is still adhering. 

We come now to the other face, or front, of the Cumdach 
(Plate I), the decorative features of which obviously mark a later, 
stage in its history. What became of the original decoration — 
whether it had perished or was ruthlessly destroyed, or whether 
after all what is now the under face was originally in the front 
and was removed to the back to make room for a new front — we 
cannot say. The wooden foundation of the later face and the 
bronze plate, or perhaps merely edging, laid immediately upon it, 
appear to be original, resembling those on the face already 
described ; and the same is perhaps the case with another plate 
which covers the first up to a short distance from its upturned 

1 J. R. Allen, Celtic Art, p. 300. Anderson, Early Christian Monuments, p. liv. 
Examples occur in Ireland at Kells, Monasterboice, Moone Abbey, Castle Dermot 
and Ardboe. On one cross at Kells the two ecclesiastics are associated with David 
slaying the lion, Allen, Christian Symbolism, p. 234. 


edges. Silver plates, f inch wide, are attached to the backing on 
all four edges so as to form a rectangular frame. They do not, 
however, meet at the corners, and those at the top and bottom 
are now imperfect. The inscriptions upon them will be given 
later on. 

The centre is occupied by a highly ornate cross, the four 
extremities of which are soldered down to the plates of the 
frame. The four limbs of the cross are of bronze with a raised 
edging and middle line composed of a curb-link chain of fine 
gilt wire ; and small pyramidal bosses, formed by narrow strips of 
gilt metal with a toothed upper edge turned round a central cone, 
are set upon the flat surface with other plain round-headed gilt 
studs between them. The ends of the vertical shaft of the cross 
are decorated with two oval rock-crystals. The one at the top is 
in a plain silver setting bent inwards, surrounded by two borders 
of twisted gilt wire. The setting of the other is deeper and has 
serrated teeth ; round it is a low wall of silver, serrated along the 
top, with a frame beyond consisting of two rows of twisted gilt 
wire on each side of a fiat surface decorated with minute gift 
beads arranged in triangles of three and six alternately. At the 
end of the arm on the right, in a setting like that at the top, 
there is a round green chalcedony-like glass bead with a slightly 
concave surface, and on the left, in a similar setting, there is an 
opaque white circular object with a central hole drilled through it, 
perhaps for threading. Its nature is difficult to determine with- 
out removing it, but it is possibly a bead of coral. In the centre 
of the cross is a large oval rock-crystal if inch long and \\ inch 
wide and rising |- inch above the surface. It is polished in such a 
way as to leave a dividing ridge midway from top to bottom and 
it is backed (as is also the case with the two smaller crystals) 
with some substance which imparts a rosy tint to it when viewed 
from above. It is in a plain gilt setting with projecting clamps 
and is inclosed within a quatrefoil of metal and twisted wire, 
with the interior of each foil filled with cusped Gothic tracery 
over green enamel. In the angles outside the quatrefoil there are 
four stones in raised gilt settings, viz., a sapphire (?) at the top 
and bottom and an almandine garnet on each side. The centre- 
piece which was inserted at the same time on the other face of 


the casket (Plate II) is of the same design, but does not appear to 
have had any gilding. All its five stones have perished, together 
with the enamel and most of the tracery in the quatrefoil. On 
the more modern face now being described thin silver-gilt plates 
are inserted in the four panels between the cross and the framing, 
the edges of which overlap them and help to keep them in 
place. A figure is rudely engraved on each of them on a back- 
ground of toothed horizontal hatching, the incised lines being 
filled with niello. The two panels on the left contain the 
Crucifixion and the Virgin, who is crowned, but without a 
nimbus. She holds the Child on her left arm and in the right 
hand a small round object, apparently either an orb or an apple. 
In the upper panel on the right is a saint, without nimbus, 
holding a book, probably meant for St. John, though the figure is 
more like a female. In the lower panel is a bishop with chasuble, 
mitre and pastoral staff with foliated head ; his right hand 
(which is very much out of proportion) is raised in benediction 
and shows a large episcopal ring. 

An approximate date for the later face can be ascertained 
from the inscriptions at the top and on the right of the frame, 
which read continuously, viz. : — 





i.e., " A prayer for Philip O'Kennedy, for the king of Ormond, by 
whom this relic was covered, and for Aine his wife ^ Domhnall 
O'Tolari decorated me." 

Of Domhnall O'Tolari, 1 who names himself as the artificer, and 
who was probably responsible for the mutilation of the older work, 
nothing is known, but the Annals of the Four Masters record the 
death of Philip O'Kennedy, lord of Ormond, and Aine his wife, 
daughter of Macnamara, under the year [381. 2 The work must 

1 The final letter is certainly /, but, as the name O'Tolari is not otherwise known, 
Dr. Todd suggests it is a mistake for c or g. 

2 Vol. iv, p. 682, " Pilib ua Cinneidig tigearna Urmuman 7 a bean Aine ingean 
meic Conmara do eec." 


therefore have been executed before that date and may be 
placed approximately about 1375. 
The inscription on the left is : 


i.e., " A prayer for Gillaruadan O'Macan, the successor, by whom 
this was covered." 

Gillaruadan O'Macan, who thus appears to have borne a 
part of the cost of the later decoration or to have otherwise 
had some share in the credit of it, is also unknown. The name 
means " Servant of Ruadan," and it is possible therefore that, 
as Dr. Todd suggests, he was the comharb or successor of 
St. Ruadan as abbot of Lorrha, which was in Lower Ormond, 
in Munster. 

At the foot of the frame there are fragments of a fourth 
inscription, the lost portions of which on the right it is impossible 
to reconstruct. All that remains is : 

>%* OR • DO (?) AE . . ' . . . . 

The monogram which follows " Or[oit] " may be read as 
above, or perhaps " d' " ; and in the next line " hu eel " represents 
the name " O'Cein," which belonged to a Munster family. This 
inscription seems to be in a different hand and is possibly 
somewhat later than the rest ; and it will be observed that it 
includes some characters of Gothic type. 

Although it may be assumed that O'Conor had sufficient 
reason for his statement that the Missal with its shrine was 
discovered on the Continent by John Grace towards the end of 
the eighteenth century, there is not the slightest evidence to show 
when and under what circumstances it left Ireland. If it were 
not for the above inscriptions on the later face of the shrine, it 
might have been thought that Donchadh mac Briain took it 
abroad with him when he went on his enforced pilgrimage in 
1064 ; and it has in fact been suggested that it was among the 
gifts sent to the Irish monastery at Ratisbon by Tordelbach 
O'Brien, king of Munster, in 1130. 1 As there is proof from the 

1 Petrie, Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 97. 


inscriptions that it still remained in Ireland in the second half 
of the fourteenth century, this supposition is no more admissible 
than the other, and unless further light comes from some 
unexpected quarter the history of the MS. from that time until 
it came into the possession of John Grace must remain an 
absolute blank. 

In conclusion, it is my pleasing duty to express my cordial 
thanks to those who have assisted me in this edition of the 
Stowe Missal in various ways. I am much indebted for 
criticism and suggestions to the Rev. E. S. Dewick and the 
Rev. H. A. Wilson, and to Mr. J. A. Herbert for his careful 
transcript of the MS. On Irish palaeography I have had 
valuable aid from Professor W. M. Lindsay, of St. Andrews ; on 
Irish hagiology and philology from the Rev. C. Plummer and 
my late colleague Mr. Robin Flower, who is cataloguing the 
Irish MSS. in the British Museum ; and in connexion with the 
Cumdach from Mr. O. M. Dalton and Mr. Reginald Smith, of 
the British Museum, and the Rev. Dr. Lawlor, of Dublin. 
Finally, I have to thank the Council of the Henry Bradshaw 
Society for much indulgence in the long delay in completing the 
present volume. 

G. F. W. 



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^f*^^1] r^^^'r j^flryjU n^r]]TM 








Letania 1 apostolorwzzz ac martirwzzz sanctorum [co?i]ksorum et [fo. 12. 
uirginum incipit ■•• ~Deus in adiutoriuzzz meum : xeiiqua 

Peccauim^ domine Teccauimus parce peccatis nostris et 
salua nos qui gubernasti noe sup^r undas dilui 3 exaudi nos 
et ionazzz diabiso 4 uerbo reuocasti libers, nos qui petro mergenti 
manuw porrexisti auxiliare nobis christe fili ctei ficisti [fo. I2v. 
mirabilia domini 5 cum patrib^j nostris et nostris pr^pitiare tem- 
poribz/.y emite manuw tuazzz de alto libera nos christe audi nos 
christe audi nos christe audi nos eyrie elezion 6 

Sancts maria Sancte tathei 8 

Sancte petri Sancte madiani 9 

Sancte pauli Sancte marce 

Sancte anrias 7 Sancte lucae 

Sancte iacobi Omzzes sancti orate pro nobis 

Sancte bartholomai Propitius esto parce nobis 

Sancte tomae domine propitixxs esto libers, nos domine 

Sancte mathei ab omm malo libers, nos domine 

Sancte iacobe per crucem tuazzz libers, nos domine 

/• Oratio augustini 10 [fo. 13. 

pz-<?feta omnes iustita 11 n6stoe sicut pannus menstruate izzdigni sumw 
iem chm/e ut sirrxus uiuentes sed tu qui r\on uis mortezzz peccatoris da 
nobis ueniazzz in carne <r<?zzstitutis ut p^z- penitential labores uita a5tezna 
p^zfruamur in cash's :~ per dominum 

/■ Rogo 12 te deus zabaoth altisime pater sancte uti me tonica 

1 This heading is in a later hand (d) in the margin at the top of the page. 

2 The same Litany is printed by Warren, The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic 
Church, 1881, p. 179, from a single leaf in an Irish hand of the eighth or ninth century 
in St. Gall MS. 1395. 3 For "diluuii." 

4 For "de abysso." 5 "domine," St. Gall MS. 

6 For "eleison." 7 For "Andreas." 

8 For "Thaddjee." 9 For " Matthia." 

10 This title is in the same hand (d) as that on f. 12. It refers to the prayer 
" Rogo te " below, to the left of which is a corresponding reference mark (/• ). The 
intervening lines are in a different hand (a), viz. that of Moelcaich (see below, 
p. 1 8), and in blacker ink. They replace text in the original hand, which was erased, 
and are the conclusion of the prayer on f. 31 (p. 14). The proper place of the two 
inserted leaves 30 and 31 is therefore between f. 12 and f. 13. 

11 For " iustitiae." 

12 In the " Missa a Mathia Flacco Illyrico edita" (Martene, ed. 1788, i. p. 177), a 
ninth century Troyes Pontifical (id. p. 190), a ninth century Tours Missal (id. p. 193), 
a Reims Pontifical (id. p. 195), a tenth century Corbie Sacramentary (id. p. 203), 
and elsewhere. See Warren, p. 250, note 7. 

B 2 


castitatis digneris accingere et meos lu;«bos baltheo 1 tui timoris 2 
a;//bire ac renes cordis mei tuae caritatis igne urire 3 ut pro 
peccatis mei's possim intercedere et adstantes 4 populi peccatorum 
ueniaw pwmiriri 5 ac pacificas singulorura hostias i;«molare me 
quoqz/2 tibi audaciter accidentem 6 non sinas <neque permittas 7 > 
pmre sed dignare lauare ornare et leniter 8 suscipere :^ <pmta> 
per dominum nostrum : l 

H&(? oratio in omni misa cantata [fo. 13V. 

Ascendat oratio nostra, usque ad tronuw claritatis tuae 
domine et n6 uacua reu^rtatur ad nos postulatio nostra. :i 
per: x 

in sollewnitatib?^ petri et chr£r/i •.• 

Dtf&s 10 qui beato petro apostolo tuo awlatis dauibus regni 
caelestis animas ligandi atque soluendi pontificiuw tradidisti 
suscipe prcpitius prices nostras et i?ztm:essione eius q\\i€\sumus 
domine auxiliuw ut a peccatorum nostrorum nexim^j' 11 libere- 
mur : ? per dominum : 2 

Imnus angelicus 

Gloria in excelsis d*?o et in terra pax hominib;^ bonae 
uoluntatis laudamz/^ te benedicimus te adoramtis te glorifi- 
camus t6 magnincamz/i' te gratias agimus ti&i pro 12 magnawz 
missericordiaw tuaw domine. rex caelestis 

d<?«s 13 pat<?r omnipotens dw/zzne filii d^i unigeniti 14 iesu christe [fo. 14. 
sancte spirihts de\ et omnes dicimus amen domine. filii d^i patris agne 
d^i qui tollis peccatum mundi misserere nobis suscipe orationes nostras 
qui sedis ad dextram d^i patris misserere nobis qi/oniam tu solus 
sancttts tu solus dominus tu solus dominus tii solus gloriosus cum [fo. 14V. 
spmVu sancto in gloria de\ patris amen :~ 

hcec 6 oratio pro uice deus qui culpa 16 in cotidianfs diebus... [fo. 15. 

I The " 1 " is interlined. 2 So Corbie MS. ; "amoris," Reims MS., etc. 
3 For " urere." 4 For "adstantis." 

5 For " promereri." 6 For "accedentem." 

7 The words in small type here and below are interlined, with a colon below 
in the first case to mark their place. MacCarthy considers the hand to be that of 
Moelcaich (a), but this is somewhat doubtful. It is perhaps a third hand (<r). 

b Two letters erased after this word, apparently " stesc." 

9 This rubric and the two following are in hand />. 

10 In the Gelasian Sacramentary, ed. H. A. Wilson, p. 181 (and cf. side-notes) 
with variations. It is also in the " Missa Romensis Cotidiana " of the Sacramentarium 
Gallicanum (Muratori, ii. col. 776), where the text agrees very closely with that here. 
See also Neale and Forbes, Anc. Liturgies of the Gallican Church, p. 206. 

II For "nexibus." 12 For ''propter." 

13 In the hand of Moelcaich (a) on an inserted slip. 

14 For " fili dei unigenite.'' 

J5 Written in pale brown ink in the upper margin by hand b. 
16 i.e. the prayer so beginning below. 


D^s 1 qui diligentibw.r te bona inuissibilia pr^parasti effunde cor- 
dihus n6stris tui amoris affectum at te in omnib&tf et super omnia 
diligentes prcmisiones tuas que omne desediriuzrc superant rt?#sequamur 
per dominum :~ 

Orationes 2 et prices misae seclesiae romane \\cbc oxztio prima petri... 

Deus* qui culpa offenderis penitentia placaris adflictor^;« 
gemitus respice et mala quce iustae 4 i«rogas missericorditer 
auerte : x per : z 

Hie 5 augmentuw : Lectio pau// aposto/i ad cori«teos incipit 

Fratres qxxotiescumque manducabitis 6 Panem hunc et bibetis 
calicem istuw mortem domiwi adnuntiabis 7 donee ueniat: ? [fo. 15 v. 
Itaq#£ qwicumque manducauerit Panem aut biberit calicem 
domiwi i//digne reus erit corporis et sanguinis domiwi : x Probet 
autem se" ipsum < unusquisq?^ 9 > homo et sic de pane illo edat 
et de calige bibat: ? qui enim manducat 9 et bibit <i«digne 
iudiciuwsibi manducat et bibit 10 > won discernens 11 corpus domiwi \ x 
Propterea inter uos multi iwfirmi et egri 12 <et iwbiciles> et 
dormiunt multi : x quod si nosmet ipsos deiudicarem^j -13 won x\\\que 
iudicaremur : x Dum autem iudicamur a domino corripimur ut won 
cum hoc mundo dawnemur : x 

/ : Deus li qui n6s regendo comeruas parcendo iustificas a tewporali 
tribulatione n6s eripe et gaudia nobis etema. largire • • per dominum 
nostrum relioua 

Omnipotent sempitmie deus qui populuw tuu;/z unigeniti tui 

1 In black ink in the hand of Moelcaich, over erased matter. The collect is in 
Gelas. Sacr. , p. 224, where see side-notes. 

2 In hand b. 

3 In Missale Gothicum {at the very end of the MS., Neale and Forbes, p. 150, 
Murat. ii. col. 658) and Sacr. Gall. (ib. p. 206, col. 776), in both cases in a " Missa 
Romensis Cotidiana." 4 For "iuste." 

5 This rubric is not in the same hand or ink as the last two. It was apparently 
added by Moelcaich. The lesson is from 1 Cor. xi. 26-32. 

6 An erasure before the last three letters and under "bi," probably written 
originally " manducaueritis." 

7 For "adnuntiabitis." 

8 Interlined, with a colon after "ipsum" to mark the place for insertion. 
Apparently in the same hand as the interlineation on f. 13 and the others (except that 
in the margin) on this page, a or c (see p. 4, note 7). This word is not in the Vulgate. 

8 Originally "manducan," corrected by an interlined "t." 

10 Interlined as above, with a colon after the first " bibit." 

11 " dijudicans," Vulg. 

12 "et imbecilles," Vulg. as here interlined. 

13 The first syllable "de " erased ; "dijudicaremus," Vulg. 

14 Inserted in the lower margin in brown ink by hand b. The place of the collect 
before " Omnipotens sempiterne deus," is indicated by a corresponding mark /• in the 
outer margin. It will be found in Gerbert's Monumenta veteris Liturgiae Aleman- 
nicae, 1777, i. p. 191, from the later " Gelasian " MSS. See Gelas. Sacr., p. 360. 

16 In Sacr. Gall. (Murat., ii. col. 863, Neale and Forbes, p. 280); also (as 
Ambrosian) in Gerbert, i. p. 95. 


sanguine redimisti solue opera diabuli • rumpe uincula [fo. 16. 
peccati • ut qui ad etemam uitam in confessione tui nominis 
sunt adefti 1 nihil debeant mortis auctori : x per 

<Vsalmus 2 > Querite dominum. et confirmamin qucerite 
faciem eius semper • Confitemini domino et i^uocate noraen eius 
usque qtierentium dominum : x q«mte : z 

Grata 3 sint tibi domtne munera quibus misteria celebra[n]tur 
nostrae lib^rtatis et uitae :^ per 

<al\e/uia> Fortitudo mea et laudatio 4 mea usque in 
salutem : z 

Sacrificis 5 presentibus domine quesumus iwtende placate 
ut 6 deuotionis • nostra? pr^ficia[n]t ad salutem :^ 

Dep/rcatio 7 sancti martini pro populo i/zcipit amen di?o [fo. i6v. 

Dicamus omnes domtne exaudi et missere 8 domt'ne mis- 
serre 8 : ^ 

Ex toto corde et ex tota mente. 9 qui respices 10 super terrain 
et facis earn tremere :^ Oramus :i 

Pro altissima pace et trancillitate 11 temporuw nostrorum pro 
sancta aeclessia catholica quce est a finib^j usque ad terminos 
orbis terrae : x Oramz^y 12 : 2 

Pro pastore • N • episcopo et ommbzz.y episcopis et praespe- 
teris et diaconis et om«i clero : x Oramus : x 

Pro hoc loco et iwhabitantibz^ in eo pro pissimis 13 impera- 
torib^j" et omzzi romano ex^rcitu :^ Oramus '.^ 

Pro omivOous qu\ \n sublimitate constituti sunt pro uirginibz/j 
uidui's et orfani's : x Oramus : x 

Pro pmgrinantib^j - et iter agentib?^ ac nauigantib^J" [fo. 17. 
pro poenitentib^i - et catacominis 14 :• oramus 

Pro his qui in sancta aeclesia fructa.? misserecordise largiuntzzr 
domtne d^zzs uirtutw/z exaudi prices nostras : oramus. 

1 For " adepti." The " ad " before " eternam " is superfluous. 

2 Ps. civ. 1 —4, the last verse being apparently treated as antiphon. The word 
" usque " is of course not in the psalm, but marks the limit of the quotation from it. 
So also below, "Fortitudo — in salutem," Ps. cxvii. 14. 

3 Gelas. Sacr., p. 217. 4 "laus," Vulg. 

5 For " sacrifices. " 

6 "ut et devotioni nostrae proficiant et saluti," Gelas. Sacr., p. 217. 

7 In the same hand as the last rubric on f. 15, apparently that of Moelcaich. 

8 For "miserere." 

9 MacCarthy (p. 199) places ex toto — mente " immediately after " dicamus omnes," 
that position being " in accordance with the collocation in the Fulda Litany" (cf. 
Warren, p. 252). 

10 For " respicis." ll For " tranquillitate." 

12 The " m " is accidentally duplicated by a mark of contraction over " a." 

13 For "piissimis." 14 For " catechumenis." 


Sanctorum apostolorum ac martirum memores si'mus • ut 
orantib?^ eis pro nobis ueniam meriamur :• Oramus. 1 

Chr/.sT'ianum ct pacific/^;// nobis finem concedi a domino 
depra:emur :• presta. domine presta : l 

Et diuinim hi nobis pmnanere uinculu;/^ caritatis sanctum. 
dominum deprecemur : ? Vresta :■ 

Conseruarc sanctitalem et catholice fidei puritatem dominum 
dep>'£cemur :• presta : z Dicam/Ay : 2 

Sacrificium 2 tibi domine. celebranduw placate i^tende [fo. ijx. 

c\uod et nos a uitii's '•' nostxe condicionis emundet et 

tuo nomine retdat aceptos 4 : x per domimim : x 

Ante 6 oculos tuos do mine reus conscientise testes 5 adsisto rogare pro 
alfs non audio 7 quod i;«petrare won meriar tii enim sci's domine omnia 
quce agunt//r in nobis erubescim;^ confiteri id quod per nos won tixnexnus 
admitti uerbis tibi tantuw obsequimur corde mentimur et quod uelle 
nos d\c'xxnus nolle nostrfs actib//jr adpwbamzz,? parce domine [fo. iS. 1- 
confitentibus ignosce peccantibz/i 1 misserere te rogantib/« sed quia in 
sacramentis tui's meus sensus infirmus est presta domine ut qui ex nobis 
duro corde uerba non recipis per te nobis ueniam largiaris • • per 

Lethdirech sund 9 

Dirigatur 10 domine usqw uesptvtinum • • xer canitur • • hie eliuatur 
lintiamen de calice :~ 

Ueni domine sanctix\ca,tor oxnnipotens et benedic hoc sacrificiuw 
preparatuw tibi amen • • ter ca.rixX.ur • 

Lectio euangilii secundum Iohannem i/zcipit 11 [fo. i8v. 

Dominus noster iesus chxistus dixit ego sum panis uiuus qui di 1 - 
ca^lo discendi si quis manducauerit ex eo :a uiuet in getemum et panis 
quew ego dabo ei caro mea est pro huius mundi uita litigabant ergo 
iudei adinuicem dicentes quomodo potest hie nobis dare carnem sua.m 
manducare 14 dixit ergo eis ie^^s amen amen dico uobfs nisi 
manducaueritis carnem filii hominis sicut panem 13 et biberitis sanguinem 
huius le won habebitis 17 

I An accidental mark of contraction over the "u." 
- Gelas. Sacr., p. 216. 

:; An erasure, apparently of "a uitiis"' repealed. ' For " reddat acceptos." 

"' In the hand of Moelcaich. Xo trace of any previous writing remains. With 
variations in Martene, ed. 17SS, i. p. 1S2, and elsewhere (Warren, p. 255, note 28). 
6 For " testis." " For " aliis non audeo." 

H This leaf and f. 19. in the hand of Moelcaich, are inserted. 

9 .SV. " Half uncovering here " (Whitley Stokes and Strachan, Thesaurus Palaeo- 
hibemicus, 1903, ii. p. 251), referring to the chalice, which was half uncovered at 
this stage. See also Warren, p. 255, note 29. 

10 Ps. cxl. 2, "Dirigatur — vespertinum." 

II Joh. vi. 51-57. l - For " de." 

13 "ex hoc pane," Vulg. u "ad manducandum," Vulg. 

10 " sicut panem," om. Vulg. lfi "ejus," Vulg. 

17 The conclusion of the lesson is on f. 20 (p. 8, 1. 5). 


Oratio 1 gregorii super euangeliuw. [fo. 19. 

Quessum^ 2 domme omnipotens deus ut uota n6stra tibi immulata 
clementer respicias atque ad defentionem r\6stra.m dextraw tuse maesta- 
tatis extendas •• per dommum x\6strum •• xeXiqua 

.... bitis 3 uitam \n uobi's • qui manducat mmm [fo. 20. 
carnem et bibit meum sanguine;;/ habet uita;;z aetmia;;/ et ego 
resuscitabo eum \n nouisimo diae : ^ Caro enim mea uere est 
emus et sanguis meus uere est potus\ qui manducat mea^ 
carnem et bibit meum sanguinis ipse 4 \n me manet et ego in 
illo : 2 

Credo \n unum deum patre;;/ ommpotentem factore;;; caeli et 
terras uissiuiliu;;/ om;zi;/m et uisiuiliu;;/ 5 et in unu;;; domimim 
nostrum iesum chm/«m filiu;;/ d^i unigenitum natum ex patre 
ante omnia, saecula lumen de lumine d^m ueru;;/ de d^o uero 
natu;;/ r\on factu;;; owsubstancialem patri per c\uem omma facta 
sunt qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem [fo. 20v. 
discendit de caelo et i«carnat;« est de spiritxx sancto et maria 
uirgine et homo natus est crugifixus autem 6 pro nobis sub pontio 
pilato passus et sepult/^ et resurrexit tertia die secundum 
scripturas et ascendit \n caelos et sedit a[d] dextra;;/ de\ patris 
et xterwrn uenturus cum gloria iudicare uiuos et mortuos cziius 
regni non erit finis et spz'ritum sanctum dommum et uiuificatorem 7 
ex patre pr^cedentem cum patre et filio coadorandu;;/ et con- 
glorificandu;;/ <\u\ loqutzw est per pwfetas et una;;/ s<2«c/am 
aeclesiaw catholica;;; et apostolica;;; Confeteor unu/;/ [fo. 21. 
babtismu;;/ in remisione;;; peccatoru;;/ spero resurrextionem 
mortuorum et uitam futuri saeculi • a;;;en : ? 

1 This leaf was originally no more than a narrow strip, forming part of the same 
membrane as f. 18. It was left blank by Moelcaich, but another narrow strip was 
afterwards sewed by a vellum thong to the upper part of it, the edges overlapping, and 
on the space thus obtained this prayer of St. Gregory was written by hand b. The 
letters " om " are written in the upper margin, but they are apparently only a scribble. 
The verso is blank. 

2 For " Qusesumus." The prayer is in the Sacr. Gregorianum (Muratori, ii. coll. 
34, 39), with " vota humilium respice" for " ut uota — respicias." 

3 The continuation of the lesson on f. 18 v, the last two syllables of " habebitis" 
being repeated. 

4 " Ipse," om. Vulg. 

5 For " invisibilium," the first syllable being accidentally omitted. 

6 " h," the symbol for " autem," with a dot underneath and " etiaw/ " interlined by 
Moelcaich (?) 

7 After " uiuificatorem " a colon is inserted and " q«i " interlined, and the following 
words are corrected by interlineations to " ex patre filioqw^ pra:edit qwi cum patre 
et filio simul coadoratwr et conglorificatMr." Three dots {•■') are placed under "d" 
in " procedentem " and single dots under the letters " ndu " in the two gerundives. It 
is doubtful whether these alterations were made by Moelcaich or another. 


Landirech sund. 1 

Ostende nobis domine missericor[diam] et salutare tuuw 
dabis 2 <Ter canit?/r> 

Oblata 3 domine munera sanctih'ca. nosqz/^ a peccatorum 
nostro[rum] maculis emunda : z per domimim : 2 

Hostias 4 quesumus domine nostrae deuotionis benignus adsume et 
per sacrificia gloriosa subditonm tibi corda purifica :~ per dominum 

Has oblationes et sincera libamina vnmolaxmts tibi domine \es\x 
christe qui passus es pro nobis et resurrexisti tertia die a [fo. 2iv. 
mortufs pro animamus 5 carorum nostiorum -n- et caxaxum nostvaxum 
quorum nomina recitamus et qnoxumcxxmque non xeexxamus sed a te 
recitant//r in libro uitae aetema? propter missericordiaw tuaw eripe qui 
regnas in secula secxxloxum amen :~ 

Secunda pars augmenti hie sup<?r oblata 

Grata sit tibi \\cec oblatio plebis tuse quam tibi offerimus in honorem 
domivix nostri iem chn'sti 6 et 7 in cowmemorationem beatorum [fo. 22. 
apostolorum tuorum ac maxtirum* tuorum et confessoruw quorum hie 
reliquias spicialiti?/' recolimus -n- et eorum quorum festiuitas hodie 
celebrat//r et pro animamus 9 omnium episcopon/w nostxoxum et sacer- 
dotum nostrorum et diaconoruw nostrorum et caroruw nostrorum et 
cararum nostraruw et puerorum n6strorum et puellarum ndstrarum et 
penitentium nostxoxum cunctis pwficiant 10 ad salutem :~ per domi- 
num :~ 

Sussum corda 11 habemus ad dominum 

Gratias agam?/^ donixno d^o nostro 

dignum et iustum est [fo. 22V. 

Uere dignum et iustum est equm 12 et salutare est nos tibi hie semper 
et ubique gratias agere domine sanc/e 13 omnipotens zeterne d<?z/s per 

1 Sc. "Full uncovering here "( T/ies. Palaeohib. ii. p. 251.) See above, p. 7, 
note 9. Apparently added by Moelcaich. 

2 For "da nobis," as in Ps. lxxxiv. 8. The remaining words in the line, the first 
of which began with " S," have been erased and " Ter canitur " written in their 

3 Sacr. Gall., in " Missa Rom. Cot.," Muratori, ii. col. 776 (Neale and Forbes, 
p. 206) ; Sacr. Greg., ib. coll. 10, 159; cf. Gelas. Sacr., p. 321. 

4 The remaining six lines of this page and the whole of the verso side are written 
in the hand of Moelcaich over erased matter. This began with "G," and was 
probably the collect " Grata sit tibi," etc. (f. 21 v.), which in Sacr. Gall, imme- 
diately follows " Oblata domine." The collect is in the Sacr. Leonianum, Muratori, 
i. col. 352 (Feltoe, p. 56). 5 For "animabus." 

8 "in honore nominis tui," Sacr. Gall., followed immediately by " [ut] cunctis 
proficiat ad salutem." 

7 This leaf and the next three, in the hand of Moelcaich, form an inserted quire. 

8 An erasure after this word, apparently " et con." 

9 For " animabus." 

10 For " proficiat," the subject being " oblatio," and " ut" perhaps being omitted, 
as in Sacr. Gall. 

11 Headed in Gelas, Sacr., p. 234, " Incipit Canon Actionis." Sacr. Gall, omits 
" Sursum — et iustum est." 12 For "aequum." 

13 << r>ater " omitted, probably by accident. 


Christum dominum nostrum 1 qui cum unigenito tuo et spm'Ai sancto 
deus es unus et inmortalis deus incorruptibilis et inmotabilis deus 
inuisibilis et fidelis deus mirabilis et laudabilis deus honorabilis et fortis 
deus altisim&tf et magnificus deus uiuus et uerus deus sapiens et potens 
deus sanctus et spiciosus deus magnus et bonus deus tm-ibilis et pacifi- 
cus deus pulcher et rectus deus purus et benignus d^s beatus et [fo. 23. 
iustus deus pius et sanctus non unius singulariter persona? sed unius 
trinitatis substantia? te crcdxmus te benedicim?^ te adoramz^ et lauda- 
mus nomen tuum in aeternum et in saeculum seculi per quem salus 
mundi per quem uita hominum per quem resurrectio mortuor##z 

Isund 2 totet dignuw intormaig ind maid per quem bes i«nadiudidi 

Per quem maestatem tuam laudant angeli adorant dominationes 
trment 3 potestates caeli caelorumque uirtutes ac beata saraphim socia 
exsultatione concelebrant cum quib«.y et nostras uoces uti admitti [fo. 23V. 
iubeas deprecamur suplici confessione dicentes sanctus ••* 

Isund 5 totet dignuw intormig ind maid sanctus bess innadiudidi 

Sanctus sanctus dominus deus sabaoth pleni sunt caeli et uniuersa 
terra, gloria tua • ossanna in excelsis benedictus qui uenit in nomine 
domini ossanna in excelsis 6 benedictus qui uenit de cell's ut conuer- 
saretur in tern's homo factus est ut dilicta carnis deleret hostia factus est 
ut per passion em suam uitam aetemam credentibus daret:~ per domi- 

Can6n dominie?^ pape gilasi [fo. 24. 

Te igitur clementisime pater per icjum christum filium tuum dotninum 
nostrum suplices te rogamus et petimus uti aceptu 7 habeas et benedicas 
htrc dona ncec munera Yhzc sancta. sacrificia inlibata inprimis quae tibi 
offerimus pro tua sancta, aeclesia catholica quam pacificare custodire et 
unare s et regere digneris toto orbe terrarum una cum beatissimo famulo 
tuo -n- papa nostro episcopo sedis apostolicae et omnibw^ 9 ortodoxis 
atque apostolice fidei cultoribz/i' et abbate 10 nostro -n- episcopo •• [fo. 24V. 

1 From this point down to "resurrectio mortuorum " not in Sacr. Gall, or Gelas. 

2 Sc. " It is here that the Dignum of the addition comes into it, if it is Per quem 
that is in its continuation there," Thes. Palaeohib., ii. p. 251 ; * Here the "Dignum" 
receives the addition [i.e. the Proper Preface], if "per quem " follows in the text,' 
Warren, p. 258, note 47. The meaning is perhaps, as Mr. H. A. Wilson has 
suggested, "if per quem' is what stands at the end of it." Dr. Whitley Stokes has 
explained that " in its continuation " should be " after it," as in the rubric below 
(note 16), diudidi being for diudsidi, where diud is dat. sing, of deod, " end," and 
sidi a pronominal suffix. The word is found only in this place. 

3 For " tremunt." 

4 From here to the end of f. 23V. not in Sacr. Gall. 

5 Sc. " It is here that the Dipium of the addition comes into it, if it is Sanctus 
that is after it there," Thes. Palaeohib., ii. p. 251. 

6 From here to the end of f. 23V. not in l ielas. Sacr. 

7 " accepta," Gelas. Sacr. ; " acceptum," Sacr. Gall. 

8 " adunare," Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 

9 "et omnibus — cultoribus," cf. Gelas. Sacr., p. 238, note II, 

10 "et abbate — episcopo," om. Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 


Hie recitantur nomina uiuorum 

Memento etiam domine famulorum tuorum -n-\a.rumque 
xuaxum et omnium circum adstantiu/# quorum tibi 1 fides cognita est et 
nota deuotio qui tibi offerunt hoc sacrificium laudis pro se suisque 
omnib&y pro redemptione animaruw suarum • Pro stratu 2 seniorum 
suoruw et ministrorum omnium puritate pro intigritate uirginum et 
continentia uiduarum pro aeris temperie et fructum 3 fecunditate rerraxum 
pro pacis redetu et fine discriminum pro incolimitate regum et pace [fo. 25. 
popxilorum ac reditu captiuor&zra pro uotis adstantiuw pro memoria 
martini pro remisione pecaxorum n6strorum et actuuw emendatione 
eorum* ac requie defunctoruw et pwsperitate iteneris nostri pro domino 
papa episcopo et omnibus episcopis et prespeteris 5 et omni geclesiastico 
ordine pro imperio romano et omnibus regibz« chm/ianis pro fratribus 
et sororibus nostris pro fratrib^^ in uia directis pro ftatribus quos de 
caliginosis mundi huius tenebris dominus arcisire 6 dignatus est uti [fo. 25V. 
eos in seterna. summse lucis quietae 7 pietas diuina suscipiat 8 pro fratrib^i- 
qui uaris 9 dolor&7» generib^x adfligunt&r uti eos diuina pietas curare 
dignetur pro spe salutis et incolimitatis sua? tibi reddunt uota sua etemo 
d<?o uiuo et uero commonicantes :~ 

In natale domini 
Et diem sacratisimam celebrantes in quo incontaminata uirginitas 
huic mundo'edidit saluatorem :~ 

Kalendis 10 
Et diem sacratisimam celebrantes circzmcisionis domini n6stri ie^u 
christi :~ - [fo. 26. 11 

stellse 12 
Et diem sacratisimam celebrantes natalis calicis 13 domini nostri 

iesu christi " 

Et noctem ue\ diem sacratisimam ressurrectionis domini nostri iem 
christi :~ 

1 " tibi " interlined, but by the same hand. 

2 MacCarthy (p. 208) takes this to mean " body, congregation." It is perhaps for 
"statu." Gelas. Sacr. and Sacr. Gall, omit all that is here between " animarum 
suarum" and " pro spe salutis." 3 For " fructuum." 

4 " [r]eorum," MacCarthy. 5 For " presbiteris." 

6 For "arcessire." 7 The " e" interlined. 

8 The "ci" interlined. 9 For "uariis." 

10 Sc. "Januarii," the Feast of the Circumcision. 

11 The whole of this page is palimpsest. It contained part of the Gelasian Canon 
as above, p. 10, beginning with the words " tuum, dominum nostrum, suplices te," etc. 

12 Sc. " In die stella.e," or Epiphany. See Warren, p. 259, note 54. 

13 Maundy Thursday, or Ccena Domini. See MacCarthy, p. 210, and Warren, ibid. 
As the words have no connexion with the heading " Stelke " there has probably been 
an omission after "celebrantes" of the concluding words of the variation for the 
Epiphany, together with the heading and beginning of that for Ccena Domini. In 
Gelas. Sacr. the form " Infra actionem " for the Epiphany is " et diem sacratissimum 

celebrantes, quo unigenitus tuus magis de longinquo venientibus visibilis et 

corporalis apparuit " (p. 11), and that for Ccena Domini " quo traditus est Dominus 
noster Iesus Christus " (p. 67). 


In clausula pasca 
Et diem sacratisimam celebrantes clausula? pascae domini n6stri ieni 
chxisti •• 

Ascensio [fo. 26v. 

Et diem sacratisimam celebrantes ascensionis domini nostri ieru 
chxisti ad caelum • ~ 


Et diem sacratisimam celebrantes quinquagensimae domini nostri iesu 
chxisti in qua spiritus sanctus super aposto/<w discendit 

Et 1 memoriam uenerantes hi primi's gloriosae semper uirginis 
mariae genetricis d^i et domini nostri cnxisti 

Sed et beatoru/;/ apostoloru;;/ ac martiru;;/ tuoru;;; Petri et 
pauli anriae 2 iacobi iohannis thomae iacobi pilippi bartholomai 
mathei simonis et thathei 3 lini ancleti dementis xisti [fo. 27. 
cornili cipriani laurenti crisogini iohannis et pauli cosme et 
domiani et omnium sanctoxum tuoxum quoxum meriti's pra:i- 
busque concedas ut in omnib//^ protections tuae muniamur 
auxilio • per:~ 

Hanc igitur oblationem seruitutis nostras sed et cunctae 
familiae tuae quam tibi* offeximus in honorem 5 domini nostri 
chxisti et in co/;/memoratione;;/ beaton/;;/ martin/;;/ tuoxum in hac 
aeclesiae 6 qua;;z famulus tuus ad honorem nominis gloriae tuae 
aedificauit :• Ouessum;/^ domine ut placate suscipias [fo. 2jv. 
Eumqz/£ r adque omnem populu/;/ ab idulon/;;/ cultura eripias et ad 
te deum xxenxm patre;;/ om;/ipotentem conuertas 8 :~ 

Dies quoque nostros in tua pace disponas a.tque* ab aetema 
da;;matione nos eripias 10 et i?i electoruw tuoxum iubeas grege 
numerari : 2 per dominum nostrum :~ 

Quam oblationem t6 u de?is in omnib;^ quesumw-s - benedicta;;/ 
+ ascripta;;/ rata;;/ rationabilem acceptabilemq?/£ facere dig- 
naxeque 12 nobis coxpus et sanguis fiat dilectissimi fili tui domini 13 
nostri iesu chxisti qui pridie quam patiretz/r Accipit 14 panem in 

1 This follows on after " commonicantes," p. n, 1. 19. Cf. Gelas. Sacr. p. 234 and 
note 14. Sacr. Gall., col. 777. 2 For " Andreae." 

3 For "Thaddaei." 

4 " quam tibi — aedificauit," om. Gelas. Sacr. 

5 " in honorem nominis tui Deus, quaesumus Domine, ut placatus," etc., Sacr. Gall. 

6 For "aeclesia." 

7 " eumque — conuertas," om. Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 

8 A redundant mark of contraction over " u " for " er." 

9 A word erased after this, apparently "atque " repeat e<l. 

10 " eripi," Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. " "to" Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 

12 " digneris ut " Gelas. Sacr. ; " dignare quae," Mi«s. Francorum (Muratori, ii. 
col. 693) ; " digneris quae," corrected to " ut," Sacr. Gall. 

13 A word erased after this, apparently beginning with " h." 

14 " accepit," Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. The use of a capital initial for this word 
and some others may be compared with the rubrication of certain words in the Canon 
of Sacr. Gall. See Murat., ii. col. 778, note d, Neale and Forbes, p. 208, note t. 


sanctas ac uenerabiles manw suas Eleuatis oculis sui's ad [fo. 28. 
caelum et ad 1 te deum patmn suu?n ommpotente;;? t/^i 2 gratias 
egit 3 Benedixit 4 fregit Dedit discipulis sui's diciens 5 accipite et 
manducate ex hoc omnes hoc est enim corpus meum Simili modo 
posteaquam cenatum' 5 Accipit 7 et hunc preciaxum calicem in 
sanctas ac uenerabiles man us suas Item tibi gratias agiens 8 
b^«^dixit dedit discipulis sui's dzcens Accipite et bibite ex hoc 
om«es hie est enim calix sanctv* sanguinis mei noui et aeterni 
testamenti misteriu;« fidei qui pro uobi's et pro multis effundetw 
in rimisionew peccator^7« • hczc quotiensc«//zqz/£ feceretis 10 in 
mei < memoriae 11 faciatis 12 passionew 13 meam pmlicabitis resurrectionew 
meam adnuntiabitis aduentu/// meum sperabitis donee iterum [fo. 28v. 
ueniam ad u6s de cash's -~ > 

Unde et memores sum?w domixxc nos tui serui sed et plebs tua 
sancta chr[w/]i 14 filii tui domini nostri tarn beatae passionis necnon 
et ab itnferis resurrectionis sed et in caslos gloriosae ascensionis 
offerimus p/rclare maiestati tuae de tui's donis ac dati's Hostiaw 
pura//z Hostiaw sanctam hostia;/z iwrnaculataz/^ Panem sanctum 
uitae aeternae et calicem salutis p^rpetuae supra que pwpitio ac 
sereno uultu aspicire 15 dignare et acceptu 1(i habere sicuti accepto 16 
habere dignatus es munera pueri tui iusti abel et saciificium 
patriarche nostri abrache et quod tibi obtilit 17 summus [fo. 29. 
saceidos tuus melchisedech sanctzim sacrificium inmaculatam 
hostiam suplices te rogam^j et petimus Omnipotens deus lube 
perferri 18 per manus sancti angeli tui in sublimi altari tuo in 
conspectu diuinae maistatis tuae Ut quotquot ex hoc altari sancti- 
ficationis 19 sacvosanctum filii tui Corpus etsanguinem sumserimus 
omni benedictione et gratia replemur 20 :~ 

I "in caelum ad," Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 
a << tibi " om. Sacr. Gall. 

3 " agens," Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 

4 The second " e " interlined. 5 For " dicens." 

6 " coenatum est," Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 

7 "accipiens," Gelas. Sacr. ; "accepit," Sacr. Gall. 8 For "agens." 

9 "sancti," om. Gelas. Sacr. ; expunged in Sacr. Gall. 10 For " feceritis." 

II The last two lines (in the margin) on f. 28 and the first two on f. 28v. are in 
the hand of Moelcaich. They take the place of "memoriam faciatis," originally 
written at the top of the latter page. 

V1 "facietis,' Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 

13 " passionem — de cashs," om. Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 

14 The contraction mark omitted over " xpi." 

15 For " aspicere " ; " respicere digneris," Gelas. Sacr. 

16 " accepta," Gelas. Sacr. ; "acceptu," Miss. Franc. ; "acceptum," Sacr. Gall. 

17 For "obtulit." 

18 "haec perferri," Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. Following this in the MS. is the 
letter "m," with a dot above and below and on each side for deletion. It is no 
doubt the initial letter of "manus" written by mistake before "per." 

19 " ex hac altaris participatione," Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall. 

20 For " repleamur." In the Gelas. Sacr. (p. 235) this is immediately followed 
by " Nobis quoque peccatoribus," etc. (below, f. 33V, p. 16), but see note 62 
(P- 239). 



Memento etiam domz'ne et eorum nomt'na. qui nos [fo. 29V. 
praecesserunt cum signo fidei et dormiunt in somno pacis Cum 
omnib/AS' • in toto mundo • offerentibz/j • sacrificium • spiritale • 
d^o patri • et filio et spiritui • sancto Sanctis • ac uenerabi[li]bz/.y • 
sacerdotibus • offert • senior • noster • N • praespiter • pro s6 • et 
pro suis • et pro totius • seclesiae • cetu • catholice • et pro co?«- 
memorando • anathletico • gradu • uenerabilium • patriarcharum • 
profetarum • apostoloruw • et martzrww • et omniumqz^ - 1 sanc- 
torum • ut pro nobis dommum • deum nostrum • exorare • 
dignentur : ? 


















[fo. 30. 2 
era pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 


















[fo. 30V. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 
ora pro nobis. 

Omnes sancti orate pro nobis propitws esto parce nobis domme[fo. 31. 
pwpitius esto libera n<5s donrine ab omni malo libera n6s domine per 
crucem tuam * libera nos domine peccatores te rogamus audi n6s filii da te 
rogamw.y audi nos ut pacem dones te rogamus audi nos agne d^i qui tollis 
peccata mundi misserere nobis : cnxiste audii nos chm/e audi nos chm/e 
audi nos :~ 

Oratio ambrosi 3 

Ante conspectuw diuinse maestatis tuae deus^ adsisto qui inuocare 
nomen sanctum, tuuw prc?sumo misserere mihi dotnine homini ' [fo. 31 v. 
peccatori luto 5 feccis 6 inmunde inherenti ignosce indigno sacerdoti per 
cuius manus haec oblatio uidetur offerri ' parce dotnine pulluto 7 

1 The " que " is redundant, or is perhaps for " quoque." 

2 The two inserted leaves 30 and 31 should follow f. 12. See above, p. 3, note 10. 
They are in the hand of Moelcaich. 

3 See Martene, iii. p. 245 ; Warren, p. 262, note 88. 

4 " reus," Martene. B "luto — inherenti," om. Martene. 
6 For " fsecis." '' For " pollute " 



peccatorww labe pre ceteris capitaliuw 1 et non intres in iudicio cum 
seruo tuo quia non iustificabitur in conspectu tuo omnis uiuens scilicet 
uitis 2 ac uoluntatib^y 3 carnis grauati sumus recordare domino, quod 
caro sumus et non* est alius tibi conparandus in tuo conspectu etiam 
cseli non sunt mundi quanto magis nos homines terreni quorum ut 
dixit 5 

[fo. 32 s . 












et uirginis 









sedech 7 





danielis ■ 













misahelis • 








beorum 7 

lomae 7 



Item in 






[fo. 32 V, 


et ceterorum 





grigori _ 










madiani 8 

et ceteron/7/z 










nissae 7 


sciti 9 










finbarri • 

1 After this word " creminu;« " (sc. " criminum ") is interlined, with a colon below 
to mark its place. The ink is lighter than that of the text, and the hand appears 
to be the same (^?) which was responsible for the interlineation on f. 13. The 
writer intended to supply a substantive for " capitalium " instead of " peccatoraw," 
which he must have read " peccator/." 2 For " uitiis." 

3 " voluptatibus," Martene. 

4 "etnon — conparandus," om. Martene. 

5 For the conclusion see above, p. 3. Martene's text omits "quorum — nostrse," 
and has " immundi " after " terreni." 

8 This leaf properly follows f. 29 (p. 14). 

7 In order to preserve the arrangement in columns this name " Melchisedech " 
and some others are divided between two lines in the MS. as here. 

8 This name, for " Matthise," was repeated by mistake and three dots are placed 
over it for deletion. 

9 Sc. the desert of Scete in Lower Egypt. Cf. MacCarthy, p. 216. 

1 6 


'ni 1 






tigernich eogeni 





aedach 2 


ciannani carthum 3 

[fo. S3- 



Et omnium 




Item et 



qui nos In domi 



nica pace prices 


serunt ab ad 



am usip/^ in ho 


diernuwz diem 


quorum deus no;«/«a 




et nouit 


Ipsis et om 


mbtis in chr[/j-/]o 




locm/z refrigerii 

lucis et pacis ut indulgeas depr<?camur [fo. 33V. 

Nobis quoq«<? peccatoribz/.y famuli's tufs de multitudine 
misserationvm 4 tuarum sperantibzzj - partem aliquam et societatem 
donare dignare cum tuis Sanctis apostoh's et martinbz/.y cum petro 
paulo patricio cum iohanne stefano mathia barnaba ignatio 
alaxandro marcellino petro perpetua agna cicilia felicitate 
anastassia agatha lucia et cum omn'\b?is Sanctis tuis izztra corum 5 
nos consortia x\on estimatis 6 mentis sed uenia~ quessumz^y [fo. 34. 
largitor admitte :• per :~ 

Per quem \uzc omnia dewzzne semper bona creas + srt7zc/ificas 
+ uiuificas + benedicis + et pastas nobis per ipsum et cum ipso 
et in ipso est tibi d^o patri omnipotenti in unitate spzW/u[s] 
sancti Omzzis honor et gloria per omnia, saecula saeculorzzz/z :~ 

1 The first part of this word has been effectually erased, but the accent over the 
vowel before " ni " remains. Possibly the name was "cuani" and was erased 
because it was repeated at the top of the next column. 

2 Both Warren and MacCarthy read this name as "declach," but the first letter is 
clearly " a," and it is almost equally certain that the second is followed by " d " and 
not " cl." The point over the final " h " may be intended for a mark of deletion. 

8 Or " Carthuiw." Warren and MacCarthy, " Carthain." 

4 Originally written " misserationem," but the second " e " has a dot above and 
below it and " v" is interlined. 5 For "quorum." 

6 A later hand has interlined " m " over " t," changed " ti " into " u " and the 
final " s" into "r," thus making the word "estimamur." Gelas. Sacr. reads "non 
aestimator meriti sed veniae, quaesumus, largitor" (cf. note 70), and so Sacr. Gall., 
but with the form " stimator." A contraction line for " m " has also been placed over 
the " a " of " venia," which is made to be the object of " admitte." 


ter csLinitur • isund conogabar i^dablu tuair forsmcailech 7 fobdidithir 
leth nabairgine isi^cailuch 1 

Fiat domine missericordia tua sup^r nos quemadmodum 
sperabim^j 2 in te :~ 

isund conbongar in bairgen 3 

Cognoerunt 4 dominum ■ alleluia • in fractione panis • alleluia • 
Panis quern Crangimus corpzts est domini nostri iesn christi ■ [fo. 34V. 
alleluia • Calix quem benedicimz^<alk/z//a 6 >sanguis est domini 
nostri iesu chr is ti<alleluia> in remisionem peccatorum -nos- 
Xxoxum :• < alleluia > 6 

Fiat 7 domine missericordia tua super nos alleluia quemadmodum 
sperauimus in te alleluia 

Cognoueuerunt 8 dominum. alleluia 

Credim^i' domine cr&dlmus in hac confractione corporis et effussione 
sanguinis nos esse redemptos et confidimus sacramenti huius adsump- 
tione munitos ut quod spe interim hie tenemus mansuri in celestib^ 
ueris fructib«.y p^rfruamur •*■ per dominum [fo. 35. 9 

Diuino 10 magisterio edocti et diuina institutione formati audlmus 11 
dicire 12 •• Paternoster •• xeliqua - • 

Libera n6s domine ab omni malo prrterito pr^senti et futuro et inter- 
cedentib/^ pro nobis beatfs apostolis tuis petro et paulo patricio 13 da 
propitius pacem tuam in diebus nostris ut ope missericordise tuae adiuti 
et a peccato sim?Ar semper liberi et ab omni perturbatione securi •• p^r 
dominum : 

Pax et caritas domini nostri ie^u christi et commonicatio [fo. 35V. 
sa^c/orum omnium sit semper nobiscum et cum spiritu tuo 

Pacem mandasti pacem dedisti pacem dirilinquisti pacem tuam 
domine da nobis de cselo et pacificum hunc diem et ceteros dies uitae 
nostra? in tua pace disponas •• per dominum •• 

1 " It is here that the chief (?) Host on the chalice is lifted up and the half of the 
Bread is submerged in the chalice," Thes. Palaeohib., p. 251. MacCarthy, who 
divides the Irish words differently and extends " 7 " as "ocus" (=et), renders more 
intelligibly " Hie elevatur Oblatio principalis super calicem," etc. (p. 219) ; and so 
Warren, " Here the oblation is lifted over the chalice," etc. (p. 265, note 141). The 
hand both of this Irish rubric and of that below is apparently that of Moelcaich. 

2 For " speravimus," Ps. xxxii. 22. 

3 " It is here that the Bread is broken," Thes. Pal., as above. 

4 For " cognouerunt." 

5 Interlined, apparently by Moelcaich. 

6 Added in the margin by the same. 

7 The remaining eleven lines on this page are in the hand of Moelcaich, written 
over an erasure. 

8 The letters " ue " repeated by mistake. 

9 This leaf and the next are inserted, Moelcaich's hand continuing to the bottom 
off. 37- 

10 " Divino — dicere," omitting "formati," Sacr. Gall.; " Praeceptis salutaribus 
moniti et divina," etc., Gelas. Sacr. 

11 " e " interlined above "i." M For "dicere." 

13 St. Patrick is not in Sacr. Gall, and in Gelas. Sacr. is replaced by St. Andrew. 
In both the name of the Virgin precedes those of the apostles. 



Commixtio corporis et sanguinis domi'ni nostri iem chxisti sit nobis 
sakls in uitam p<?rpetuaw amen :~ 

Ecce agnus dti ecce qui tollis peccata mundi • 

Pacem meam do uobis • alleluia pacem relinquo uobis : alleluia [fo. 36. 

Pax multa diligentibz/.y legem tuam domino, alleluia • et non est in 
illi's scandalum • allelt/ia 

Kegem cseli cum pace alleluia 

plenum odorew uitae • alleluia 

Nouum carmen cantate • alleluia 

omnes sancli uenite • alleluia 

Uenite comedite panem meum alleluia et bibite uinum quod miscui 
uobfs alleluia •• 

Dominus reget 1 me 

Qui manducat corpus meum. et bibit meum sanguinem • alleluia ipse 
in me manet et ego in illo • alleluia 

Domini est terra •• 

Hie est panis uiuus qui de celo discendit alleluia qui [fo. 36V. 
manducat ex eo uiuet in aetemum • alleluia 

ad te domine leuaui animaw meam 

Pane/# cseli dedit eis dominus alleluia panem angelonim manducauit 
homo • alleluia 

Iudica me domine. •• 

Comedite amici mei • alleluia et inebriamini carissimi alleluia 

Hoc sacruw cornus domini saluatoris sanguinew • alleluia sumite 
uobis in uitam seternam 2 • alleluia ■• 

In labis 3 meis meditabor ymnuw • alleluia cum docueris me et ego 
iusti[ti]as respondebo • alleluia 

Benedicaw dominum in omni tempore alleluia semper laus [fo. 37.* 
eius in ore meo • alleluia 

Gustate et uidete • alleluia quam suauis est dominus ■ alleluia • 

Ubi ego fuero alleluia ibi erit et minister meus • alleluia • 

Sinite paruulos uenire ad me alleluia et nolite eos pwhibere • alleluia 
taliuw est enitn regnuw csXoxum alleluia ■ 

Penitential agite • alleluia adpr<?pi«quauit enim regnu;;z celor^w • 

Regnuw celovum uim patit^r • alleluia et uiolenti rapiunt illud • 
alleluia ■• 

Uenite benedicti patris mei possidete vegnum ■ alleluia quod uobis 
paratu#z est ab origine mundi • alleluia • gloria • uenite sicut erat • 
uenite :~ Moel caich scripsit 

Quos 5 caelesti domine dono satiasti praesta ut et a [fo. 37V. 
nostris emundemur occultis et ab ostiu;// fi liberemur msidi's. 

1 For "regit," Ps. xxii. I. 2 An erasure, apparently "amen," after this word. 

3 For " labiis." 4 A palimpsest page. 

5 The original hand here begins again. Cf. Gelas. Sacr. , p. 224, Sacr. Gall. , 
col. 780. In Sacr. Gall. "Quos caelesti " is the post-communion and " Gratias tibi 
agimus " (not in Gelas. Sacr.) the " Consummatio Missae " of the " Missa Romensis 
quotidiana." See also Neale and Forbes, p. 209, for references as to "Gratias tibi 
agimus." 6 For " hoslium." 


Gratias tibi agimus domivxc sancte paXer omnipotens aete/riae 1 
deus qui nos corporis et sanguinis christi filii tui cowmonione 
satiasti tuamqzz*? missericordiam humility postulamus ut hoc 
tuuw domrne sacramcntu//z won sit nobis reatus ad penam sed 
izztm:essio salutaris ad ueniam sit ablutio sceleruz/z sit fortitudo 
fragiliu/;z sit contra mundi p^viculo 2 firmamentum h^nos [fo. 38. 
cowmonio purget a cremine et caelestis gaudi 3 tribuat esse 
participes :• per: x misa acta est in pace :~ 

Misa :• apostolorum et martirijmet sanctorum et stf/zc/atarum 
uirguinum. 4 

Deum patrem deum filium deum spirittim sanctum ununi et 
solum dominum dominantium et regem regnantium et gloriam 
futurorum per p^ruelegia clara patriarcharum per gloriosa 
p/rsagia profetaruz/z per sancta merita apostolorum per marteria 
martirum per fidem confessorum per s\an\c[f\\iax.em 5 uirginz/z/z 
per teoricazzz" uitam anchoritarum per silentiuz/z spzVitale [fo. 38V. 
manachorum 7 per episcoporum ac abbatum catholicorum prin- 
cipatum innixis ac continuis orationib?/^ fidelity opsecremzzj - 
spicialit^r autem per % sancta sufragia sanctorum ue\ sanctarwm 
uirginuzzz quoruzzz hodie soliemnitas a nobis celebratz/r ut \\03c 
oblatio plebi's tuae quam sancta^. trinitate 8 in honorem eorum 
• N • offerimus acceptabilis fiat d^o cunctis proficiat ad salutcm : ? 
per :~ 

D^zzzzhe deus noster icsu chrtste splendor patemzt gloriae et 
dies claritatis aeternse gratias tibi agimus quom'am accen- [fo. 39. 
dere dignatus es • xii • aposzW<?.y tuos igne sancti spiritus tut quasi 
■ xii • horas diei lumine solis inlustratas quxbus dixisti uos estis lux 
mundi et iterum n^zzne • xii • horae diei sunt si quis ergo am- 
bulauerit in lumine diei hie 110// offendit orire nobis domine deus 
noster christe sol iustitiae \n cuius pennis est sanitas timen- 
tibus te ut ambulem&.y izz luce dum lucem habemus ut simus 
filii lucis qui izzluminasti apostolos quasi luminaria huic mundo 
et alios sauctos quasi tuos uel eorum uicarios gratia [fo. 39V. 
spzVz'Ar' sancti ac doctrina p?rditos discute a nobis tenebras 
ignorantiae et iustitiae tuae 10 per horuz/z patrocinia • N • quoruzzz 
festiuitas hodie colitur utizz te et per te sez/zp^rmanemz/.y 11 • per 

1 For "reterne." 2 For " pericula." 

3 For "gaudii." 4 For "sanctarum uirginum." 

5 The contraction marks accidentally omitted. 

6 For " the.oricam," contemplative. 

7 Both Warren and MacCarthy read the second letter " u," but the two strokes 
are nearly united by the fine cross stroke which marks the "a." 

8 For " trinitati." 

9 For " spiritus," as below and elsewhere. 

10 MacCarthy, no doubt correctly, considers that some such words as " lumen 
immitte " hive been accidentally omitted. n For " maneamus." 

C 2 


Deus qui nos sanctorum tuoru;?/ beatisimoru?/? spzrituum 
angeloru??/, a.Ycha.ngeiorumqi/e pr'mcipum et potest*?/?/?/? domina- 
tion?/?;/ uirtutum ciruphm et saraphin patrianr/z/z/-?/??? proictarum 
apostolorum martirum corxicssorumque et uirginum anchoritaru??? 
coenouitarum 1 omuiumque sanctorum conciuiu?// sup^moru/?? 
et i/ztercessionib?/^ gloriosis circu?//da[s] et pr<?tegis p/rsta [fo. 40. 
quesumus eorum et emitatione 2 p?'<9ficire 3 et i/?tei pellatione tueri 
et intercedentib?/.* - Sanctis a cuncti's nos defende p^/iculis • p*??' :~ 

Domine d^//s omnipotens qui sanctos tuos cum mensura pr^bas 
et sine mensura glorificas cuius pr^cepta finem habent et p/rmia 
terminutn non habent exaudi p/rces nostras p<??- marteria et 
merita illorum et tribuse 4 eorum patrocinia adiuuent nos ad fidei 
pn?fectum ad bonoru?// op^rum fructum ad p?'<9speritatis bonum 
ad salubritatis co?;?modu??? ad religionis cultum addiuini [fo. 40V. 
timoris augmenturn Orent pro nobis sancti martires et p?'<? di- 
functis nostris et pro pecorib«j et pro omnib?/j- terras ryjstrm 
fructibz/j - et pro omnib«.y in hoc loco co???morantib?^ Te omni- 
potentem deum creaturaru??? caelestium et twrestriu??? i/znume- 
rabilis multitudinis 5 sanctorum tuorum et angeloru??/ chori 
:/zcessabili uoce proclamant dicentes sanctus sauctus sanctus :~ 

Dignu?/z et iustum aequm et iustum et gloriosum est nos 
tibi semp<??' gratias agere omnibus diebus uit?e wostr^ do/nine 
deus omnipotens sed in hac die gratias et habundantius [fo. 41. 
debem??j- gratulari cum gaudio spiritxx' sancti solemnitatem 
apostolorum ■ N • siue sa?ictorum u>A sanctarum • N • p/rsta ergo 
nobis om/zipozV??.? deus fidem spcm et caritate??? et catholicu/// 
finem ac pacificum p^?' merita ac co7/zmemoratione s sanctorum 
tuoru?// • N • i?z quoru??? honorem \\cec oblatio hodie offert?/?' ut 
cuncti's p?^ficiat ad salutem per dominum nostrum ie.r?/m christum 
cui om??is' J angeli et arcbangeli protete et apostoli martires et 
confessores uirgines et om/z^s sancti immo 10 p^rpetuo et izzdefessis 
laudibus cum quatuor animalib??^ uenti 11 quatuor seniorib?^ 
tt???cindunt 12 dicentes: per ls :~ [fo. 41V. 

Uere sanctus uere benedict?/.? uere mirabilis in Sanctis suis 
deus noster iesus christus ipse dabit uirtutem et fortitudine[m] 

1 For " coenobitarum " ; MacCarthy, " coenobialium " ; Warren, "coenouium." 

2 For " imitatione. : ' 3 For " proficere." 
4 For " tribue," with "ut " omitted. 

® Perhaps for " innumerabiles multitudines." 6 For "gratius." 

7 For " spiritus." 

8 A mark of contraction for " m " over the final " e " has perhaps been omitted. 

9 For "omnes." 10 For "hymno." 

11 For "viginti." 12 For "concinunt." 

13 So MS., but MacCarthy is no doubt right in calling " per" an oversight for 
" Sanctus." Warren reads " S[anctus]." 


plebis 1 suae benedictus deus quern benedicim//^ in apostolis et in 
om[?i]ib7cs Sanctis sufs qui placuer««t ei ab initio sae[culi] per 
eundem dotw'mtm nostrum iesum christum q«i pridie :~ 

Sumpsim^i -2 domme sanctorum tuoruw sollemnia celebrantes 
caelestia sacramenta pr^sta quesumus ut quod temporaliter 
gerimus ae term's gaudi's consequamur :• per :~ 

Incipit" misa pro penitentib^j - • uiuis [fo. 42. 

Exultatio 4 diuina patina pietas inmensa maestas tesupplices 
trementes 5 depraecamur pro famuli's tui's ut des eis men tern 
puraw caritatem p^z-fectaw in actib^.? sinciritatem in corde 
puritatem in opere uirtutem 7 in moribus disciplinam et que?* 
iusti[ti]ae tuae timore iwtigra mentes 9 ue\ deuotione pro ipsi's • N • 
tibi offerim?/j- pietatis tuae obtinentia agnoscant 10 :-per:~ 

Indulge 11 domirxc- penetentibz/.? nobis famuli's tui's poscentib?^ 
[ut] secura mente tibi do?jiine d<?o nostro uictima;# pro [fo. 42V. 
ipsi's • N • offerri 1 '-' ualeamz/i - et pie dicti's 13 sui's uenia;« obteniant 
[et] sanitatis per t6 pater sancte munere consequti ad salutem 
gratiae aeteznae possint cu;« tuo adiutorio p<?ruenire :~ 

Iteram?^ omm'potens deus depzreatione;//- nostram ante con- 
spectum maistis 11 tuae quam spicialiter pro famulis tui's • N • in 
honore 15 sanctorum tuoruw mariae petiri 10 pauli iohannis et 
omnium sanctorum tuoruw oblationem pro peccati's 17 eoruw 
orTerimus uota p^rficias petitiones eoru/;z ascenda[«]t ad aures 
clementiae tuae discendat super eos pia benedictio ut sub [fo. 43. 
umbra alaruz/2 tuarura in omnibz/.s' protegantur et orationis 18 

1 For "plebi." The final letter properly belongs to "suds," over the "s" of 
which is a dot for deletion. 

2 Sacr. Leonianum, ed. Feltoe, p. 12 (Murat. i. col. 305), and see Feltoe's note, 
p. 176. Cf. also Gelas. Sacr., p. 164. 

3 This rubric is in the lower margin in a small round minuscule hand. The 
last three words are repeated in the margin at the top of the next page in smaller 
characters, apparently by the same hand. The mass resembles the " Mi"*sa Votiva " 
in Sacr. Gall., ed. Neale and Forbes, -p. 321 (Murat. ii. col. 909). 

4 Corrected by MacCarthy to " exaltatio," perhaps rightly, but the other reading 
is supported by Sacr. Gall. 5 The " r" interlined. 

6 " quidem precamur pro servo tuo," Sacr. Gall. 

7 Followed in Sacr. Gall, by "in necessitatibus foititudinem." 

8 " et quod pro," Sacr. Gall. 

9 The " s " dotted for deletion. 10 " oblinenda cognoscat," Sacr. Gall. 

11 This prayer, " Indulge — peruenire," is not in Sacr. Gall. 

12 For " offerre." 

13 "pie dictis" perhaps a corruption of " delictis." 

14 For " maiestatis." Before the word is what looks like the beginning of the 
" t " of " tu£e," which follows. 

15 " in honore — omnium sanctorum tuorum," om. Sacr. Gall. 

ib p or "petri," . W "peccatis vel pro auxilio," Sacr. Gall. 

18 For " orationes." 


nostra- te propitiante pro ipsi's non refutentar a conspectu pietatis 
tuae sed in omnibz^ auxiliare atq?/£ defendere digneris \ per :~ 

\Jere dignum per dominum nostrum, iesum christum filium 
tuum QMtUS potentia dep/rcanda est misserico[r]dia adoranda 
piatas amplectare 1 quts enim 2 alii's putare poterit omnis potentiae 
tuae miracula nee aures hominis audire nee in cor hominis 
ascendere nee estimatio hominum poterit inuenire quanta 3 [fo. 43V. 
praeparas Sanctis electhf tuis sed 4 in quantum possimus misseri 
terreniq^/<' de incontinentia sed de tua missericordia ueniaw 
misserationis et refugiu;;/ postulantes atque in cowmemoratione 
sanctorum* per quorum suffragia sperantes" ueniam ut 7 famuli's 
tuis • N • remisionem tribuas peccatorum opera, eorum p^rficias 
uota condones dona ei's deniqzie* seruis tuis i#tercedentib?/.r 
Sanctis remedium animaruw suaru;/; quod postulamus ut uota 
desiderioru;;/ eorum p^rfeciat 1 ' pr^staomwipotens supplicantib?/^ 10 
nobis i//dulgentia//z postulantib?^ ueniaw poscentib//^ [fo. 44. 
uota pingesce 11 prctege ei's nomen dd iacob iube 12 ei's auxilium de 
sancto et de sion tueri enim memor esto missericors deus 
sacrificium corwm et holochaustuw eorum ante conspectu//z 
sanctorum apinge fiat 13 tribue ei's desideria sancta, eorum et omne 
consilium eorum confirma in bonuw ut i/2'letentur coram te corda 
desideriuw eorum :• per christum :~ 

D^//s 14 qui confitentiuw tibi corda purificas et accussantes se 
conscientias ei omnium iniquitates 15 absoluis da i//dulgentiaw reis 
et medicina;// tribue uulneratfs ut p^rcepta remisionem 10 [fo. 44V. 
om;/iu/« peccatorum in sacramentis tuis sincera dei//ceps deditione 
permanent 17 et nullam 18 redemptionis aeternae susteniant tetri- 
mentum 19 :• per dominum nostrum :~ 

1 For " amplectenda," cf. Sacr. Gall. 

2 "Quis enim disputare poterit opus omnipotentise tuae, nee aures," etc., Sacr. 
Gall. There is much corruption also here in what follows. 

3 " quanta sit pietas misericordiae tuae, quantum prreparas," Sacr. Gall. 

4 " Sed in quantum possumus miseri, territi quidem de conscientia sed ridi de 
tua," etc., Sacr. Gall. 

3 " sanctorum tuorum Petri et Pauli quorum," etc., Sacr. Gall. 

6 So also Sacr, Gall., for " speramus." 

7 "precamur ut," Sacr. Gall. 

8 " idemque," Sacr. Gall., a less intelligible reading. 

9 " perficias," Sacr. Gall. 10 The first "p" interlined. 

11 " uota pingesce." There is nothing in Sacr. Gall, that answers to these words 
MacCarthy, " vota [eorum] pinguesce." 

12 " mitte ei auxilium salutis de sancto et de Sion tu erige eum," Sacr Gall , 
cf. Psalm xx. 1-3. 

13 " pingue fiat," Sacr. Gall., omitting " tribue — desiderium eorum." 

14 Not in Sacr. Gall., but in Gelas. Sacr., pp. 65, 67. 

15 "ab omni vinculo iniquilalis," Gelas. Sacr., for "et — iniquitates." 

16 For ' ' remissione. " 

17 "devotione permaneat," Gelas. Sacr. 1S Fcr " nullum." 
19 For "sustineant detrimentum." 


misa pro mortuis • plurib^j ■ 

Praesta quczsuwus omnipotens et missericors deus ut animas 1 
famuloruz/z tuorzzz/z • n • indulgentiam peccatoruz/z et gaudia per- 
petua lucis izzueniant :~ 

Da nobis missericordiazzz tuam quczsumus domine ut animas 2 
famulorzzzzz tuoruz/z • N • ab omnibz^y uitiis expiatae cu« tua 
protectione securae diem futures resurrectionis expec- [fo. 45. 
tant 3 :• per christian :~ 

Intende domino, munera a\u<z altaribzz.r tui's pro sanctorum 
tuoruzzz • N • cozzzmemoratione deferimzz.y et pro nostris offentioni- 
bz^r imbulamus 4 

Uere dignum cuius pr^misionis 5 plenas zztemorum bonorum 
in ipso expectamz/x manifestandas in quo scimz/.y eas absconditas 
domino nostro christo qui uera est uita credentiuzzz resurrectio 
famuloru;;z tuoruz/z • N • illoruz/z pro <\\i\bus hoc sacrificiu/zz offeri- 
mus obsaecrantes ut regenerationis fontae 6 purgatos et a [fo. 45V. 
temptationibus exceptos beatorum numero digneris inserere et 
quos adoptionis participes [fecisti] iubeas hereditatis tuae esse 
consortes :• per : l 

Oremus fratres carisimi pro can's nostris -N- qui iam in 
dominice 7 pace praecesserunt quos finis debitus et ordo trans- 
migrations conclusit ut deuz ommpotens pater domini xxostrx 
ie.m christi iubeat carnem animamque et spzrzVzzm eorum suscipi 
in locum lucis in partem refregeri 8 in sinibus abrache et isac et 
iacob dimittat quoqz/<? et quicquid 9 incongrue per ignor- [fo. 46. 
antiam atque subripiente inimico peccauerunt et spiritu oris 
sui eos refrigerare dignetur ^ per:~ 

1 For "animre." 2 For "animse." 

3 The "n" interlined ; for "expectent." 4 For "immolamus. : 

5 For " promissiones." G For "fonte." 

7 For "dominica." 8 For " refrigeriL" 

9 The " c" interlined. 


incipit ordo babtismi [fo. 46V. 1 

T)em qui adam de limo terras, fecisti et ille in paradiso peccauit et 
illuw peccatu/// mortis non reputasti sed per sanguine;/? unigeniti tui 
recuperare digneris et in sanctam hirusalem glorientem 3 reducis unde 
ergo maladicte recognosce se[«]tentiam tuam et da honore/;/ d^o uiuo et 

recede ab h6c famulo d^i quia hunc deus, et dominus metis ad sua.m 
sfl«c/am gratia/w atque missericordiam babtismi uocare dignatus est per 
hoc signum crucis quod tii diabule numquam adeas 3 designare 
per dominum nostrum : ~ 

ordo 4 babtismi :~ [fo. 47. 

"Domine 5 sancti£. a pater omuipotens stteme d^/s expelle dia- 
bulu//2 et gentililitatern 7 ab homine isto de capite de cappillis 
de u^rtice de cerebro de fronte de oculi's de aurib//.r de narib^J 
de ore de lingua de sublingua de gutore 8 de faucib//j- de collo 
de pectore de corde de corpore toto intus de foris de manib^i' de 
pedib^j- de omnibz^y mew[b]ris de co[m]paginibus mem[b]rorum 
eius et de cogitation ibz^ de uerbis de operibus et omnibw.f con- 
uersationibz/.y hie et futuro per te ieju christns* qui regnas : ? 

T>eus 10 qui ad salutem humani generis maxima quce- [fo. 47V. 
cumque 11 sacramenta \n aquaru;;/ substantia condidisti adesto 
pr^pitius 12 i«uocationib?/i- nostris et alimento 13 huic multimodi 14 
purifications tuae benedictiones iwfunde ut creatura mistirii 15 
seruiens ad abieciendos demones morbosq«<? expellendos diuine 
gratia; tuae sumat effectus ut qui quid locu ul \n domib?^ fideliu/// 
hae^ una 17 resp^rserit careat i/zmunditia liberetz/r a noxia won illic 
residiat sptrttus pestilens non aura corruwpens abscedant omnes 
iwsidiae latentis 18 inimici et si quid est quod iwcolomitate 19 hab- 

1 The contents of this page, which was left blank at the end of the Missal, were 
added by Moelcaich. 

2 jr or "gloriantem." 3 For "audeas." 

4 The title is inserted in blacker ink than that of the text, in the same hand as the 
title on f. 38. 

5 With variations, among " orationes contra demoniacum " in a tenth century MS. 
at Vienna, Gerbert, ii. p. 132. See Warren, p. 207. 

6 For "sancte." 7 The "li" duplicated by mistake. 
8 For "gutture." ' 9 For "christe." 

10 This collect is repeated below, f. 52 (p. 27). See also Gelas. Sacr., p. 285, 
" Benedictio aquae spargendae in domo," with side-notes, and Warren, p. 184. 

11 " c" written below the line ; "quaeque," Gelas. Sacr. 

12 om. Gelas. Sacr., Sacr. Gall., but in Sacr. Ambrosianum, ed. Pamelius, 
Liturgicon Latinum, 1609. 13 For " elemento." 

14 " multimodo," f. 52; " multimodis purificationibus praeparato, virtutem tuae 
benediciionis infunde," Gelas. Sacr. 15 " mysteriis tuis," Gelas. Sacr. 

16 "quicquid loqui " (sc. loci), f. 52; "ut quicquid in locis[vel] in domibus," 
Gelas. Sacr. 17 For"unda." 

18 "latentes," Gelas. Sacr. 19 For "incolumitati." 


itantiuw iwuidit 1 aut quieti asp^rsione aqiia? hunts effugiat [fo. 48. 
ut salubritas per iwuocationem tui nominis expetita ab omni sit 
iwpugnatione deffensa per dominum nostrum :~ 

Consecratio sails i/^cipit : 2 
Deus qui 2 ad salutem hominis medicinam per hunc salubrem 
salem pzrsta ut de errore gentilitatis anima illius conuerta.tur et 
eripiat^r et trinuwz deum confitcatwr et diabuluz/z repellat per 
ab: enuntiationem signumque crucis do mini nostri iesu chxisti q?/i 
regnat cum patre et sp[irit\\x sancto \n saecu/« ssecu/orum : 

Item alia oratio : 2 
Exorcizo 3 te creatura salis in nomine d^i patris omnipotentis 
et in caritate domini nostri icsu chr[ist]i in uirtute spiritus sancti 
Exorcizo te per d«/m ui[u]um per deum uexum qui t6 [fo. 48V. 
ad tutellam generis humani prccreauit et populo uenienti ad 
credulitatem per suos seruos consecreaisti p/rcipit 4 pr^inde rog[a]- 
mus te domine deus noster ut hcec creatura salis In nomine 
trinitatis efficiatur salutare sacramentU7/z ad effugandum inimicum 
quod 5 tu domine s^/zc/ificando s««c/ificis 6 benedicendo benedices 7 
ut fiat omnibw.r acipientib;w p^-fecta medicina p^z-manens in 
uiscerib^i 1 eoxum in nomine domini nostA iesn christi qui 
uenturus est iudicare uiuos et mortuos et saeculu;//. per ignem :~ 

De abrernuntiatione 8 [fo. 49. 

Abrenuntias 9 satanae xespondet abrenuntio 

Et omnihus operib^j - eius xespondet abrenuntio 

Et omnib?/^ pompis eius xespondet abrenuntio 

de confessione i/zcipit : ? 

Credis 10 in deum patrem omnipotentem xespondet credo :~ 
Credis et in iesum chxistum xespondet credo :~ 
Credis et in spiritum sanctum xespondet credo :~ 
'" exsufflas et tanges eu;« deizzde tanges pectus [et] doxsum de 
"' oleo et crismate dicens ungo te de oleo s^zzc/ificato in nomine 
patris et x\lii et spm/u[s] sancti 

Abrenuntias satanae xespondet abrenuntio 

Et omnib-w operib«j eius xespondet abrenuntio 

Et omnious pompis eius xespondet abrenuntio 

1 " invideat," Gelas. Sacr. 

2 The verb in this clause has been omitted. 

3 Gelas. Sacr., p. 47. 

4 "consecrari praecepit," Gelas. Sacr. 

5 "quem," Gelas. Sacr., but " quod " in the Rheinau MS. 

6 " sanctifices," Gelas. Sacr. 7 " benedicas," Gelas. Sacr. 
8 For "abrenuntiatione." 9 Gelas. Sacr., p. 79. 

10 Gelas. Sacr., p. 86. 


Rogamus 1 te domine sancte pater omnipotens aetemae 2 [fo. 49V. 
deus misser[e]re famulo tuo • N • que;// uocare ad rudimenta fidei 
dignatus es caecitateni cordis omnew ab eo expellens disruwpe 
om»es laqueos satanai quibus fuerat colligatus aperii 3 ei ianua/// 
ueritatis 4 tuae + ut signo 5 sapientiae tuae i/zdutus omnibz/.vcupidita- 
tem fetorib//.y careat atque suaui odore p/rceptoruw tuoruz/z 
laetus tibi in aeclesia deseruiat et pr<?ficiat de die in diem ut 
idoneus efficiatz//' promisae 6 gratiae tuae in nomine patris et fi/zz et 
spz>zVu[s] sancti in sxcu/a sszcu/orum : ? 

Medellam 7 tua/zz depzrcor domine sancte patez' omzzzpo- [fo. 50. 
tens aetezTia; 2 dens qui subuenis in pmculis qui temperas 8 flagillas 
te domine suplices exoramzw ut uisitatione 9 tua sancta. erigas 
famulum tuum N- de hac ualitudine 10 temtationew sicut in iob 
terminum pone ne i/z[i]micus de anima ista sine redemtione 
babtismatis i/zcipiat triumpare :• 

Defer 11 domine exitum mortis et spatiuz/z uitae distende reuela 12 
quern perducas ad babtismi sacramcntuzzz nee iedemptione 13 
tuae izzferas damnum tolle occasioned diabulo trium- [fo. 50V. 
phandi et reserua quezzz triuzzzphis conpares esse chxisti ut sax\us 
tibi in asclesia tua gratia babtismatis renascatz/z' facturus cuncta 
quae petimus per dominum :~ 

Nee te 14 lateat sal anas izzminere tibi poenas inmine[re] tibi 
gehinam 15 diem iudici diem suplicii sempit^rni 10 diem qui uenturus 
est uelud clibanz/j - ignis ardens in quo tibi adque angelfs tuis 
sempiteznz/.? pzrparatus est i/zteritus et ideo pro tua nequitia 
dampnateatqz/^ damnande Da honorem d^o uiuo Da hon- [fo. 51. 
orem ie^u christo Da honorem spz'z'z/u[i] sancto paracleto in cuius 

1 Cf. the first of the three prayers on p. 46 of Gelas. Sacr. 

2 For "aeterne." * For "apen." 

4 " pietatis," Gelas. Sacr. 

5 " et signum sapientiae tuae imbuti omnium cupiditatum foetoribus," Gelas. Sacr. 

6 " accedere ad giatiam baptismi tui, percepta medicina. Per," etc., Gelas. 

7 In Sacr. Gregor. (Muraiori, ii. col. 263), headed " Oratio ad baptizandum 
infirmum." See Warren, p. 209, note 3. 

8 "temperas flagella dum verberas," Sacr. Gregor. 

9 " uisitatione — erigas," om. Sacr. Gregor. 

lu Some words omitted after this, cf. Sacr. Gregor., "famulum tuum eruas ab 
hac valetudine ut non pnevaleat inimicus usque ad animae tentationem." 

11 " Differ," Sacr. Gregor., the prayer being part of that which here precedes, but 
ending with the words "quern perducas ad gratiam baptismi tui." Both prayers 
may be compared with one beginning " Te, Domine, supplice- " in Gelas. Sacr., 
p. 113, which is there meant for use before "Nee te lateat" in the case of a 
" catechumenus infirmus." 

12 " ex tende releva," Sacr. Greg. ; "distende releva," Gelas. Sacr., which agrees 
with Stowe MS. after " perducas." Vi For " redemptioni." 

14 Gelas. Sacr., p. 78, tut with maiy variations. 

15 " tormenta," Gelas. Sacr. 16 om. Gelas. Sacr. 


uirtute pm:ipio tibi quic/77/^que] 1 es i/nnundus spiritus ut exeas 
et recedas ab his famulis dei et eos 6eo suo reddas quos domi- 
niis deus noster iesus christus ad sua;« gratia;//! et benedictionew 
uocare dignatus est ut fia[«]t eius templu//z aquam 2 regenerationis 
in remisionem om[«]iu;« peccatoruw in nomine domini nostri 
iesu christi qui iudicaturus esfi iudicare uiuos et mortuos et 
saeculuw per ignem : 2 

isund 4 doberar insalann imbelu indlelacit. 

Effeta 5 quod est apertio effeta est 6 hostia in honorem suauitatis 
in nomine d<?i patris et filii et spiritu\s\ sancti :~ 

Domine 7 sancte pater omnipotens aeternae 8 deus qui es [fo. 5 1 v. 
et 9 qui eraset qui uenturus es et p^rmanens usque in finem cuius 
origo nescit?/r nee finis conp/'^hendi potest Te do mine supplicis 10 
inuocamzw sup<?r nunc famulu;« tuu;/z • N • quern liberasti de 
errore gentiliu/w et conu^rsatione turpissima dignare exaudire 
e\xm qui tibi ceruices suas humiliat p^rueniat ad babtismatis 11 
fontem ut ut 12 renouat?/.? 13 ex aqua et spiritu sancto expoliat^j - 
ueterem hominew indu&tur nouuw qui secundum te create est 
accipiat ueste//z i/zcorrupta//z et mmaculatara tibique domino 
nostro seruire mereatur in nomine domini nostri iesu [fo. 52. 
enxisti qui uenturus est iudicare uiuos et mortuos et saeculu//z per 
ig[nem] \ x 

D^&s 14 qui ad salutem humani generis maxima in aqnaxum 
substantia 1 "' qucecumque sacramenta in aquaru/// substantia 
condidisti adesto pr^pitius i?zuocationib//.y nostris et elimento 
huic multimodo 10 purificationis tuae effunde 17 b^w^dictionis 18 ut 
creatura misterii seruiens et abiecendos 19 demones morbosqz/*? 
expellendos diuine gratiae tuae sumat effect?/.* - ut quicqz/zd loqz/i 20 
in domibwi- xideXwxm nczc unda resparserit cariat iwmunditia 
liberet«r a noxia non illic resideat spiritus pestiliens non aura 
corru///pens abscedant om«es insidiae laetentes, 21 inimici [fo. 52V. 

1 " quicumque— spiritus," om. Gelas. Sacr., but in the Rheinau MS. 
9 <« p er » omitted (cf. Gelas. Sacr.) :t " venturus est," Gelas. Sacr. 

4 " It is here that the salt is put into the mouth of the child (?),'' 7'hes. Palatohib. 
ii. p. 251. In a small, pointed sloping hand which only appears here and on f. 58. 
" Effeta, quod est adaperire in odorem suavitatis," Gelas. Sacr. 

6 See Warren, p. 211, who quotes from Sacr. Gall., " Effeia, effecta est hostia 
in odorem suavitatis.' Cf. Neale and Forbes, p. 269. Murat. ii. 850, reads "ostia." 

7 Sacr. Gelas., p. 114. 8 For "aeterne." 

9 " et eras et permanes usque in finem," Gelas. Sacr. 

10 Yoi "supplices." u " la vacri," Gelas. Sacr. 
12 Repeated by mistake. 13 "renatus," Gelas. Sacr. 
u This prayer is repeated from f. 47 (p. 24). 

is " m — ;.ubstantia " repeated in the proper place after " sacramenta." 
16 "do" interlined. 17 "infunde" above, f. 47. 

18 " bt-nedictiones," f. 47. 19 For "ad abiiciendos." 

20 For "loci." 21 "latentis," f. 47. 


et si quid est quod iftcolimitate 1 habitantiuw iwuidit aut qu[i]eti 
asparsione aqucz huius effugiat ut salubritas p^riwuocationew tui 
nominis expetita ab om«i sit ircpugnatione defifensa : 2 per: z 

Exaudi 2 nos domt'ne sancte pater omnipotens aetmiae detis et 
mitire dignere 3 angelum tuum sanctum de caelfs qui custodiat 
subeat 4 pr^tegat uisitat 5 et defendat om«es iwhabitantes in hoc 
habitaculo famuli tui ill[i]us 6 :~ 

Hue usque catacominus 7 Incipit oleari oleo et crismate in 
pectus et item 8 scabulas 9 antequam babtizaretur deinde letania 
cir[ca] fontem canitur deinde benedictio fontis In deiwde • ii • 
salmi sitiuit anima mea usque uiuum 10 : quemadmodum Uox 
domini sup^r aquas multas 11 •*• adferte ••• 

Exorcizo 12 t6 cr[e]atura aqutz per deum uiuu;;/ per deum 
sanctum qui te in principio u^rbo separauit ab arida cuius 
spiritus sup^r te ferebatur qui t6 de paradiso emanere 13 [fo. 53. 
et in • iiii • fluminibw.r tota;;/ terrain rigari pra:ipit u qui te de petra 
prcduxit ut populuw quern ex aegypto lib^rauerat siti fatigatuw 
rigaret q?/i te awarissima;;/ per lignuw iwdulcauit. 

Exorcyzo 15 t6 et per ieszim christum filium eius qui te" in 
channan 10 galiliae signo awmirabile sua potentia co? in 
uinura qui pedihus sup^r [te] awbulauit et ab ionne 17 in iordane in 
te babtizatz^y est qui te una cum sanguine de latero 18 suo pr<?duxit 
et discipuh's sui's prmpit 19 dicens Ite docete docete omwes gentes 
babtitzantes eas'm nomine patris et filii et spiritu[s\ sancti. 


Tibi igitur pzreipio omjiis spiritus iwmunde omne [fo. 53V. 

fantasma omne mendaciuw eradicare et effugare ab hac creatura 
aquae ut discensurus 20 in ea sit ei fons aquae sallientes 21 in uita/n 

1 For " incolumitati." 

2 Gelas. Sacr., p. 286, but at greater length there. 

3 " mittere dignare," Gelas. Sacr. 4 " loueat," Gelas. Sacr. 

5 For "uisitet." 

6 " illius," Gelas. Sacr. Possibly the word here is meant to be "illuc," but the 
final letter, if shorter than the usual " s," is straighter than the usual " c." 

7 For " catechumenus." This rubric is in smaller characters than the text, but 
apparently by the same hand. 8 Perhaps " i[«]tt?r." 

9 For " scapulas." 

10 "sitiuit — uiuum," Ps. xli. 2. " Quemadmcdum " is the initial word of the 

11 "vox — multas," Ps. xxviii. 3. " Adferte " is the initial word of the psalm. 

12 Gelas Sacr., pp. 85, 115, with variations. 

13 For "emanare." 

14 " rigare praecepit," Gelas. Sacr. 13 " Benedico," Gelas. Sacr., p. 85. 
16 The "h" interlined. n For "iohanne." 

is p or "latere." 19 For "precepit" ; iussit, Gelas. Sacr. 

20 " ut sit omnibus qui in earn descensuri sunt fons aquae salutaris in vitam reternam," 
Sacr. Gall., col. 848, and Neale and Forbes, p. 267. 

21 For " salientis." 


aetemawz effice ergo aqua sancta. [a]qua benedicta ad regene- 
randos filios d<?o patri 1 oirmipotenti in nomine. domini nostri iesn 
christi qui uenturus est in spiritu sancto iudicare seculum per 

ignem :~ 

Exorcizo 2 te creatura aquae in nomine dei patris orrmipofe/z/is 
et in nomine domini nostri iesu christi filii eins et spiritus sancti 
orrmis uirtus adu^rsarii om«is i^cursus diabuli omwe [fo. 54. 
fantasma eradicare et effugare ab hac creatura aquae ut sit fons 
sallientes 3 in uitam zetema.m ut cum babtizatz/.y fuerit fiat templu//z 
d^i uiui in remisionem peccatorum • per dominum nostrum ie.y«m 
christum qui uenturus est iudicare saeculum per ignem 

Omnipotens 4 sempiternae 5 deus adesto magnae pietatis tuae 
misten's 6 adesto sacramentis et ad creandos nouos populos quos 
tibi fons babtismatis parturit spiritum adoptionis emitte [fo. 54V. 
ut quod humilitatis nostras gerenduw est ministerio tuae uirtutes 7 
compXedXur effectu : ^ per :~ 

Deus* qui i/zuisibili potentia sacramentoru;// tuoruw mira- 
biliter op^raris effectu[;//] et licet nos tanti's misten's adsequandi 
sumus 9 i/zdigni tu tamen gratiae tuae dona non deferens 10 etiara 
ad nostras prices aures tuae pietatis inclina:^ per dominum 
nostrum iesum :~ 

Deus 11 cuius spiritus sup^r aquas inter ipsa mundi primordia 
fereabatur 12 ut etia.m tunc uirtutem stf/zc/ificationis aquaru//2 natura 
conciperet :~ Deus qui i;mocentes 13 mundi cremina per [a]quas 
abluens regenerationis species in ipsa dilu[u]ii effussione [fo. 55. 
signasti ut unius eiusdemq«<? elimenti ministerio 14 et finis esset 
uiti's 15 et origo uirtutib?^ respice in faciem aeclesiae tuae et multi- 
plica in ea generationes tuas qui gratiae affluentes^iw/petu laetiticas 
ciuitatew tua.m fontemq«£ babtismatis ap^ris toto orbe ten-aru//2 
gentibus iwnouandi's uttuae maiestatis imperiosumatunigeniti tui 
gratiam de spiritu sancto qui hanc aquam regenerandis hominibft.? 
pr^paratam arcana sui luminis a;«mixtione fecundet ut sancti- 

I A final "s" erased. ' 2 Gelas. Sacr., p. 116. 

3 " fons salientis," Gelas. Sacr., with "aquae" probably omitted. 

4 Gelas. Sacr., p. 84. A line is left blank before this collect, probably for a rubric. 

5 For " sempiterne." B For "mysteriis." 

7 For "uirtutis." 8 Gelas. Sacr., p. 85. 

9 " mysteriis exequendis simus," Gelas. Sacr. 10 "deserens," Gelas. Sacr. 

II Gelas. Sacr., p. 85, as part of the same " Consecratio fontis" as the preceding 
and following. 

12 For " ferebatur." 13 " nocentis," Gelas. Sacr. 

14 " mysterio," Gelas. Sacr. u For " uitiis." 

16 " qui gratiae tuae effluentis," Gelas. Sacr. 


ficatione concepta ab izzzmaculato 1 cliuini fontes 2 utero izz nouaw 
renouata zzz :i creaturazzz j rogenies cadestis emergat et quos [fo. 55V. 
aut sexus izz corpore aut aetas discernit in tempore omzzes in una 
pariat gratia mate/- izzfantiazzz 4 Procul ^rgohinc iubentete do//ime 
omzzis spiritus iz/zmundus abscedat procul tota nequitia diabu- 
liticae 3 fraudis absistat nihil' 1 hie loci habeat contrariae uirtutis 
ammixtio non izzsidiando circzzzz/uolet nou latendo subripiat won 
i/zficiendo corrumpat Sit \\ccc sanzta et izznocens cr[e]atura libera 
ab otnzzi izzzpugnatoris izzcursu et totius nequitiae purgata discessu 
Sit fons uiuus 7 regenerans aqua unda purificans ut om«es [fo. 56. 
hoc lauacro salutifero diluendi op^rante in efs spiritu sancto 
p^rfectae purificationis 8 indulgentiam consequa[n]tur : z per: x 

Unde" benedico te creaturae 10 aquas per deum ui[u]um per 
deum sanctum, qui te in principio u^rbo separauit ab arida et in 
quatuor fluminibz/.y totam terram rigari pr^cipit 11 qui te in deserto 
amara;« suauitate izzdita fecit esse potabilem et sitienti populo 
de petra pr^duxit Benedico te et per iesum christum filiu/zz eius 
unicz/zzz doviimim nostrum qui t6 in channan galileae signo [fo. 56V. 
aw/mirabili sua potentia conu^z'tit \n uinum qui pedihus sup^r te 
ambulauit et ab iohanne in oirdane 1 * izz te babtizatus est qui te 
una cum sanguine de latera 13 suo produxit et discipuh's sui's iusit 
ut credentes babtizarentzzz- 14 in te dicens I te docete omzzes gentes 
babtizantes cos izz nomine patris et fill et spz>zVu[s] sancti :~ 

Haec 15 nobis pr^cepta seruantibzz.s'tu deus omnipotens clemens 
adesto tu benignus aspira tu has simplices aquas tuo ore bene- 
dicito ut preter naturalezzz emundationem quam lauandis [fo. 57. 
possunt adhibere corporibzz.y sint etiazzz purificandi's mentibzzj - 
efficaces discendat in hanc plenitudinem fontis uirtus spiritus tui 
et totam htiius aqu<z substantia/^ regenerandi fecundet effectu hie 
omnium pecatorz/zzz maculae deleantzzz'hic natura ad imagninezzz 16 
tuazzz condita ad honorez/z sui reformata pz-incipii cunctis uetus- 
tatis scaloribz/^ 17 emundetur ut omnis homo hoc sacramentu/zz 

I Final " o " corrected from "a." 2 For " fontis." 

3 "renata," Gelas. Sacr. 

4 "infanlia," Gelas. Sacr. Other texts (ib. note 13) have "in unara . . . 
infantiam," and the contraction stroke over " una " here was probably omitted by 
mistake. 5 For " diabolicse." 

6 " nihil— ammixtio," om. Gelas. Sacr. 

7 Orig. " uiuis," the missing stroke interlined. Sacr. Gall, has "sit vivis aqua 
regenerans," col. 849, Neale and Forbes, p. 267. 

8 " purgationis," Gelas. Sacr. 

9 Gelas. Sacr., p. 85. 10 For "creatura." 

II "rigare praecepit," Gelas. Sacr. 

12 For '• iordane." 1D For "latere." 

14 " n " interlined. Warren reads " baptizare(n)t," but the " t " has a curl above 
it for "ur." 15 Gelas. Sacr., p. 86. 

16 For "imaginem." n For "squaloribus." 


regenerationis izzgressus in uerae izznocentiae nouazzz izzfantiazzz 1 
renascatur: ? per dominum nostrum, ie-Tzzm christum :^ 

Dei/zde 2 b.?zz£dictio 3 £Wzzpletamittit sacerdos crisma izz [fo. 57V. 
modum crucis in fontem et quiqzz^ uoluerit izzzplet uasculuzzz 
aqua b*zz<?dictionis ad domos a?zzsecrandas et populus pzrssens 4 
aspargit^r aqua benedicta • interroga a diacono si credat in patrem 
et r\lium et spiritum sanctum :~ 

Credis in deum patrem ommpotentem • respondeat- Credo- 

Credis in icsum cnr istum filiuin eius unicum domiwum. 
nostrum natu/zz et passu m ■ respondeat ■ Credo • 

Credis et in spiritum sanctum" aeclesiam catholicam remi- 
sionezzz peccatoruzzz carnis resurrectionem -respondeat • Credo: ~ 

Discendit in fontem et Xingitur ter ue\ aspargitzzr postquaw 
babtizaretzzr oleatur cresmate in cerebruzzz in fronte et dat 
uestem candidal diacunzz.y sup^r caput eius in frontae et dicit 
presp'rter :~ 

T>eus omnipotens pater domini nostri iesu christi qz/i te 
regenerauit ex aqua et spz'z-zVu sancto Quiqzz^ tibi dedit 
remisionezzz omniuz/z peccatoruzzz ipse te lineat" crismate salutis 
izz chr is to 

isuzzd dognither intogath 7 [fo. 58. 

Ungo te de oleo et de crismate salutis et savzcz/ificationis izz 
nomine d^i patris et filii et spiritus nunc et per omnia, in ssecula 
satculorum : ± 

Op^rare 8 creatura olei op^rare izz nomine d<?i patris omzzipo- 
tentis et filii et spiritu[s] saucti ut non lateat hie spiritus izzz- 
mundus nee in mezzzbris nee izz medullis [nee in] ^wzzpaginibzz.s - 
mezzzbroru/zz sed op^retzzr izz te nirxus enristi filii d<?i uiui altisimi 
et spzrzVu[s] sancti per omnia saecula saeculoruzzz • Amen :^ 

Et dat uestem candidazzz diaconzz^ sup^r caput eius izz frontae 
et dum uestimento candido teg\tur dicit pz^spiter : 

1 " in vera innocentia, nova infantia," Gelas. Sacr., but cf. note 22. 

2 This rubric and the one below are in smaller characters than the text, but appear 
to have been written by the same hand. The rubrics in Gelas. Sacr. are quite 
different. 3 For " benedictione." 

4 For " presens." 

5 Under "scm" an "a" is interlined, as if the epithet applied to "reclesiam." 
In Gelas. Sacr. " sanctam " follows, and " catholicam " is omitted. 

6 For "liniat" ; " linit," Gelas. Sacr. 

7 " It is here that the anointing is done," Thes. Palaeohib. ii, p. 251. The editors 
read the last word "intongath," but there is no " n" or mark of contraction in the 
MS. The rubric is inserted in the upper margin in the same hand as that on f. 51. 

8 Cf. Sacr. Gall., col. 851, Neale and Forbes, p. 269 ; but this is before baptism. 
For the same form in unction of the sick, see extracts from Ambrosian MSS. in 
Munuale Ambrosianu/n, ed. Maghtretti, 1905, i. pp. 82, 150. 


Accipe uestem candidal sa«c/am et i/zzmaculatum 1 [fo. 58V. 
quam p<?rferas ante tribunal dojnini nostri iesu christi :• respondeat • 
acipio et p^rferam :• 

Et dicit pr<?spiter apiriatur manus pueri dicens :~ 
Signtuzz crucis christi >%< accipe izz manum tuazzz dext^ram et 
conseruet te in uitazzz aetmiazzz • respondeat ■ amen : ? 

., Tunc lauant^r pedes eius accepto linteo :• Alleluia lucerna' 
,., pedibus mieis 3 uerhum tuuzzz doniine :~ Alleluia adiuua 4 me 
,, dw«me et saluus ero Alleluia uisita 5 nos doniine in salutare 
.., tuo :• Alleluia tu G mandasti mandata tua custodire 7 nimis 
., mandasti missericordiazzz tuam op^a] 8 manu[u]m tuarzzzzz ne 
.., dispicias :~ Si 9 ego laui pedes uestros dominus et magister 
,.,uest^r et uos debedis alter altmus pedes lauare Exemplu/zz 
,.,e?iim dedi uobi's ut quemadmoduzzz feci uobis ita et uos faciteis 
., aliis :<- 

Domimis 10 et saluator noster iesiis christus pridie quam 
pateretur accepto linteo splendido sancto et iwmaculato pre- 
cinctis lumbi's sui's misit aquazzz in piluezzz 11 lauit pedes discipu- 
lorum suorzzzzz hoc et tu facias excmpluzzz domini nostri iesu 
christi hospitibzzj - p[e]rigrinis tui's 

Corpus et sanguinis 12 do mini nostri iesu christi sit tibi in [fo. 59. 
uitazzz aztemam amen 

Refecti spz'ritalibzz.y esci's cibo caslesti corpore et sanguine 
domini recreati d<?o domino nostro iesw christo debitas laudes et 
gratias referamus orantes indefessazzz eius missericordiazzz ut 
diuini muneris sacramentuzzz ad izzcrementuzzz fidei et profectu;;z 
aeternas salutis haheamus • per:~ 

Oremns fratres carisimi pro fratre nostro ■ N • qui gratiazzz 
domini cwzsecutus est ut babtisma quod accipit izz/maculatuzzz 
atque integrum p<?z'ferat ante tribunal domini nostri iesu christi 
qui 13 etc. 

1 For " immaculatam." 

2 "lucerna — tuum," Ps. cxviii. 105. 

3 The first "i" dotted for deletion. * "adiuua — ero," Ps. cxviii. 117. 
5 "uisita — tuo," Ps. cv. 4. 6 "tu — nimis" Ps. cxviii. 4. 

7 " custodiri," Vulg. 8 "opera — despicias," Ps. exxxvii. 8. 

9 " si ego — facitis," John xiii. 14, 15. The "e " in " faciteis" dotted above and 
below for deletion ; " faciatis," Vulg. 

10 Cf. Missale Gothicum, Neale and Forbes, p. 97, Miss. Gall., id. p. 191, Sacr. 
Gall., ib. p. 270. 

11 For"pelvem." 12 For " sanguis." 

13 Sc. " qui cum patre et spiritu sancto," etc. The contraction-mark above the 
word probably represents " etc." or " reliqua." See other instances below. 


Deus 1 tibi gratias agimus per quern mistma sancta [fo. 59V. 
celebrauimzz.y et a te s«;zctitatis do[na] deposcim?^ 1 per domi- 

Alleluia :• Memento 2 nostri domine in b^^^placito populi tui 
ui'sita nos \n salutari tuo :• 

AWeluia ■ O domino? saluu;;z fac O dcwzz'ne bene pr^sp^rare :• 
AWeluia :• Ostende 4 nobis domz'ne usqzz^ nobis :• 
Salua nos qzzi potes saluarae qui dedit anima;/z det et 
salutem :• per dominum :• 

Benedfc 5 domine hanc cr[e]aturaz;z aqucs ut sit remediuw 
generi humano salutare pr^sta per i;zuocatione;;z nominis tui 
per hanc cr[e]aturam a.qu& corporis sanitatem et animae [fo. 60. 
tutella;;z reruw defensione;;z >peretc. G :~ 

Exorcizo 7 te spiritus i;/zmunde per deum patrem omz/ipoten- 
tem qui fecit caelu;;z et terrain mare et omnia qucz in ei's sunt ut 
omzzis ui[r]tzz.y adu<?rsarii om/zis exercitzz.y diabuli orrmis izzcursus 
om/ze fantasma izzimici eradicetzzr et effugetzzr ab hac creatura 
aqu<z ut sit sancta et salutifera et ignis ardens adu<?rsus msidias 
i;zimici per i;zuocationem nominis domini nostri iesw. cbristi qui 
iudicaturus est saeculuz/z per ignem in spiritu sancto amen :~ 

Oremus fratres dominum deum nostrum pro fratrae nostvo [• N • 
quern duri] 8 ad pr^ssens malu;# langoris adulcerat ut cum [fo. 6ov. 
domini pietas caele[s]tibzz.y dignetzzr curare medicinis qzzi dedit 
anima/zz det et salute;;/ :• per 

Deum uiuu;;z omzzipotentem cuo 9 omnia opera restaurare 
[et] coniirmare facillimu;/z est fratres carissimi pro fratre nostro 
i/zfirmo • N • suplicit^r oremus quo cr[e]atura manuw sentiat 
creatoris ut aut in reparando aut in recipiendo in nomine 10 suo 
pius pater opus suu;;z recreare dignetzzr : • per dominum nostrum 
iesztm christum :~ 

Domine sancte pater uniuersitatis auctor om;zipo/£;zs aeternae 
deus cui cuncta uiuunt qui uiuificas mortuos et uocas ea [fo. 61. 
qzz^ non sunt tazzzquam ea qzz^ sunt tuum solitu;;/ opus qui es 
magnzzj artifex pie exercere 11 in hoc tuo plasmate :~ per chrzV- 
tum :~ 

I In the Book of Deer, etc., see Warren, p, 219, note 3 ; and repeated below, 
f. 64V (p. 36). 2 " Memento — tuo," Ps. cv. 4. 

3 " O domine — prosperare," Ps. cxvii. 25. 

4 " Ostende — nobis," Ps. lxxxiv. 8. 5 Cf. Sacr. Gregor., col. 229. 
6 See p. 30, note 13. 7 Cf. Sacr. Gall., col. 850. 

8 The words in brackets are supplied from the closely similar office in the Book of 
Dimma (Warren, p. 167). 9 For " cui." 

10 " nomine," Bk. of Dimma (according to Warren). 

II For " exerce," as in Bk. of Dimma. 



Deum in cuius manu ta#z atttus uiuentes 1 c\uam uita morientis 
fratres dilectissimi dipra:emur ut corporis huius izzfirmitatezzz 
sanet et animae salutem pr^stet ut quod per merizuzzz nou meretur 
missericordiae gratiae 2 consequatur orantibzz.y 3 nobis p^stet* per 
dommum nostrum ie^/zm christi :~ 

Domzne 5 sancte pater omnipotens zetemze detis qui es uia et 
ueritas et uita exaudi et conserua famuluzzz tuuzzz hunc • N • quern 
uiuificasti et redimisti pz^tio magno sancti sanguinis filii [fo. 6iv. 
tui qui regnas etc. 6 :~ 

T)eus 7 qui non ufs mortem = sed ut conuertatur •• peccatoris 8 
et uiuat huic ad t6 ex corde conuerso peccata dimite et p^rennis 
uitae tribue gratiazzz • per dommum :~ 

Deus qui facturaz/z tuaz/z pio semper donaris 9 affectu izzclina 
aurem tuazzz supplicantibzz.r 10 nobis tibi ad famamuluzzz 11 tuum -N- 
adu^rsitate uelitudinem 12 corporis laborantem placidus 13 respice 
uissita eum in salutari tuo et caelestis gratiae concede 14 medica- 
mentuzzz • per :~ 

In 15 illo tempore acesserzzzzt saducei ad eum dicentes [fo. 62. 
non esse resurrectionem et izztez'rogauerzzzzt eum respondens 
ie.rzzs illi's ait erratis nescientes scripturas neque uirtutem d^i in 
resurrectione enim neque nubent neque nubentzzr sed erzzzzt sicut 
angeli d^i in caelo de resurrectione autem mortuorzzzzz non legistis 
quomodo dictuzzz est a d<?zzzmo dicente uobfs ego sum d^zzs 
abrachazzz deus issac d^zzs iacob non est ergo deus mortuorzzzzz sed 
deus uiuentiuzzz et audientes turbae mirabantur doctrina eius :~ 

In illis diebzzj dz'xzV iesus statizzz 16 autem post tribulationem 
dieruzzz iWoxum sol obscurabitzzr et luna non dabit [fo. 62v. 
lumen suum et stelle cadent de caelo et uirtites 17 caeloruzzz com- 

1 For "halitus uiuentis." 2 For "gratia." 

3 The "n " interlined. 4 om. Bk. of Dimma. 

6 Not in the Book of Dimma, but (Warren, p. 221, note 6) among prayers for the 
sick printed by Gerbert, ii. pp. 30, 33. 6 See p. 32, note 13. 

7 This collect and the next are in the Book of Dimma (Warren, p. 168). See also 
Gelas. Sacr., p. 281. 

8 As shown by the transposition marks, " peccatoris" should follow "mortem." 

9 "donares," Bk. of Dimma; " facturae tuae . . . dominaris," Gelas. Sacr. 

10 The first " p " interlined ; " supplicationibus nostris et famulum tuum ex 
adversa valetudine corporis," Gelas. Sacr. u For " famulum." 

12 The second " e " dotted below for deletion and " v " interlined ; " ualitudinis," 
Bk. of Dimma. 

13 So Gelas. Sacr. ; " placitus," Bk. of Dimma. 

14 "praesta," Gelas. Sacr. Bk. of Dimma (according to Warren) has "ad" 
instead of " concede," possibly a misreading of some abbreviated form. 

15 Matt. xxii. 23, 29-33. In the Book of Dimma (Warren, p. 169). 

16 "Statim — terminos eorum," Matt. xxiv. 29-31. Instead of this lection the 
Book of Dimma has 1 Cor. xv. 19-22. 17 For "uirtutes." 


mobebuntor et tunc apparebit signuz/z filii hominis in caelo et 
tunc plangent se omnes tribus terras et -uidebunt filiuzzz homines 1 
uenientem in nubibzz.y caeli cum uirtute multa et maistate et 
mittet angelos suos cuz/z tuba et uoce magna et «>/zgregabunt 
electos suos a quatuor uenti's a suzzzmfs caelorzzzzz usqzz^ ad ter- 
minos eorum :~ 

Ungo 2 te de oleo stfzzc/ificato ut salueris in nonomine 3 [fo. 63. 
patris et filii et spiritu[s] sancti in saecula etc.* v* 

Concede domine nobis famuli's tuis ut orantibzz-y 5 cum fiducia 
dicere meriamur Pater noster :~ 

Libera nos domine ab omni malo et custodi nos in omni 
bo[no] iej'u chr is te aucto[r] omniuzzz bonorum qui regnas in 
saecula saeculorzzz/z :~ 

Oramus te domine pro fratre n^tro • N • cui izzfirmitate sua 
officlum cozzzmonionis 6 ut si qua eum saecularis macula izzuassit 
aut uitiuzzz mondialem ficit 7 dono tuae pietatis izzdulgeas et 
extergas :• per etc. 

T>omine sa?icte pater te fidiliter 8 depz^cemur ut [fo. 63V. 
accipiendi fratri nostro sacrosanctam hanc Eeucharistiazzz corporis 
et sanguinis domini nostri iesu chrz'^i tazzz carnis (\uam animae 
sit salus = per dominum :• ~ 

Exaudi nos d<?zzzz'ne christe deus noster pro fratre nostro 
izzfirmo te rogantes ut tua sancta euchoristia sit ei tutella • per 
dominum \ ~ 

Pax et caritas d<?zzzzni nostri iesu christi et commonicatio 
sa?ictorum tuorum 9 sit semper nobiscum • respondeat • amen •: ~ 

Corpzzj- et sanguis d^zzzzni nostri iesu christi filii dd uiui 
altisimi • reliqua 10 

Accepto salutari diuini corporis cibo lalutari 11 nostro iesu [fo.64. 

1 For " hominis." 

2 A similar formula is given in the Book of Dimma and the Book of Mulling 
(Warren, pp. 169, 172). 3 The "no" repeated by mistake. 

4 See above, p. 32, note 13. 

5 " orantes," Bk. of Dimma. 

8 There seems to be an omission of some word or words here. 

7 No doubt a corruption for " mundiale inficit." 

8 " fideliter deprecamur ut accipienti," Rit. Rom. (ed. Aug. Taur. 1891, p. 55). 
The version there has other variations. So also in the Missal of Robert of Jumieges 
(ed. H. A. Wilson, p. 294), and in the Cambrai Pontifical (Martene, i. p. 331). 

9 Perhaps for " suorum " ; or two formulas are mixed up. 

10 Cf. Book of Dimma (Warren, p. 170), " conservat animam tuam in vitam 

" For " salutari." The first " I " is dotted for deletion, but " s " is not written in 
its place, and the dot possibly refers to the whole word, which is a repetition. 

D 2 


christo gratias aglmus quod sui corporis et sanguinis sacramento 
nos a morte lib^rauit et ta/zz corporis quavi animae homano 1 
generi remedium donare dignatus est qui regnat • ~ 

Agimus 2 deo patri omzzipotenti gratias quod terrene nos 
originis atqtie naturae sacramenti sui dono izz caelestem uiuifica- 
uerit demotationem • per donrinum • ~ 

Conu^rte nos d^zzs salutum nostraruzzz 3 et izzfirmoruzzz pzrsta 

salutem nostrorz/zzz 

Quia satiauit animam inamem 4 et animazzz essuri- [fo. 64V. 

entem satiauit bis 5 ' alleluia aleluia :~ 

Uissita nos 6 deus in salutari tuo :• alleluia 

Fortidudo 7 mea usque salutem :• alleluia 

Calicem 8 salutaris accipiam usque izzuocabo • alleluia 

Refecti christi corpore et sanguine tibi semper domiue dica- 

mus • alleluia 

Laudate 9 dominum omnes gentes usqzz^ in finera :^ 
Sacrificate 10 sacrificium iustitiae et sperate in dtfzzzzno:^ 

D^zzs tibi gratias agimus per quern misteria sancta [fo. 65. 
celebrauimus et ad t£ u sazzc/itatis dona deposcimus qui regnas 
\n saecu/tf sasculorum • ~ 

Benedicat tibi dominus et custodiat te ostendatqz/^ dominus 
faciam 12 suazzz tibi et misseriatur 13 tui conuertat d[0zzzz]n[zz]s 14 
uultum suum ad te et det tibi pacem • et respondit azzzen : x 

Tunc signans eum dicito • 

Signaculo crucis chrz>/i signaris 

Pax tecum izz uitam aeternazzz et respondit amen ;~ 

Finit ordo commonis 15 ; > 

I "For "humane" 2 Book of Dimma (Warren, p. 170). 

3 So Book of Dimma; " salutaris noster," Ps. lxxxiv. 5. 

4 For "inanem," cf. Ps. cvi. 9. 

5 " satiavit bonis," Ps. cvi. 9, and the Book of Deer (Warren, p. 165). "Bis," 
however, here may be, as Warren takes it, a rubric for the repetition of " Alleluia." 

6 " Uissita — tuo," Ps. cv. 4. There is a marked change of hand at this point. 

7 " Fortitudo — salutem," Ps. cxvii. 14. 

8 "Calicem — inuocabo," Ps. cxv. 13. 9 Ps. cxvi. 1, to the end. 
10 "Sacrificate — domino," Ps. iv. 6. 

II " a te," Book of Dimma, etc. (Warren, pp. 165, 171, 173), and above, f.5Qv. 
12 For "faciem." Vi For "misereatur." 

14 Contraction-marks omitted. 15 For " communionis." 


Ixdaltoir 1 fiugor i«di/vgriwme \mma.herr ■ In cailech [fo. 65Y. 
isfigcr b/naccLmv foruirmed 7 rofothiged foriwgriwmiw 7 formartri 
i/mafathe 7 alioru/// • Huisqz/t' pri//.y i« calicem 7 \ssed canar occo • 
peto te pattv dep/vcor te filii • obsecro te spzritus sanctzi id est 
i\gor i//phop///7 toressct i// ajchw/'a • Obke vwwn super altare id 
est inlnrtur- issed canar occo id est iesus chxistns A 7 <y hoc est 
p/'incipiu/// 7 finis • fig<?r cuirp crist rosuidiged hi linannart 
brond maire ■ Fin iar///// arhuisq//*? hicadech id est dcacht crist 
aradonacht 7 ari//pop/// i//ai///sir thuisten isstv/ canar ocsuidiu • 
Remitet pater i//dulget fi//7/s • misseretz/r spiritus sanctns :• 
Acanar dind orTriund frrsen iter i//troit 7 orthana 7 tormach 
corrigi liacht napsA?/ 7 •^ralm hdigrad isfigor recto aicnith i//sin 
inroaithnuiged crist' tria huili baullo 7 gni'mo • Liacht npstctl 
[mznurgii 7 salm digrad 7 hosuidiu codinochtad is foraithmet • 
rcchta litre i/uohugrad crist [acht 4 nadfess cadacht cidrofiug7'/zd 
and • Indinochtad corrici leth i;/na oblas 7 i//cailich 7 acanar 
occo it//' sosrc'/ 7 ailloir corrici oblata isfoxait/iwet rechta fa the 
hitarchet' crist cofoWtts acht nath naiccess corogenir :~ 

Tocbal' ; i//cailich iarnalandiurug quaxido canit///- oblata isfor- 
aitJunoX gene exist i//sin tre airde ai/zdocbale 7 et s firto ■ Quaxido 
canit//r accipit icsus pane/// • Tanaurnat i/is&cart fathri' J dnaithrigi 
dia pecthaib atnopuir d^o 10 7 slechthith i//pop/// 7 nitaet guth 
isson arnatannasca " i//sacardd ar xacd athechte arnarascra [fo. 66. 
amenme contra deum eerie canas i/diachtso isde ispmculosa 
oratio a women ■ Xa • iii • chc///men cihges i//fergraith foraculu 
7 toeing afrithisi \sed atrede i//i///rui///dethar cachduine id est 

1 This Irish treatise on the Mass is added in a different hand, for the date of which 
see Introduction. The extensions of the contracted words are taken from Whitley 
Stokes and Strachan, Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, 1903, ii. p. 252. The full transla- 
tion there given is reprinted below as an Appendix (p. 40). The treatise is also edited 
and translated by MacCarthy, p. 245. It is also found, with considerable variations, in 
the Leabhar ISreac (lithogr. ed. 1S76, p. 251). It is there headed '" I)e hguris et spiritu- 
alibus sensibus oblationis sacrificii ordinis," and begins with a few introductory words 
and an explanation of the mystical meaning of the Church, which are omitted here. 
See .MacCarthy. p. 259. 

- " -i- iiiluiXitr,"' so Thes. Pal., translated " i.e. , the turtle-dove." .MacCarthy, 
p. 246, reads " id est intrat." The abbreviated form in the MS., however, is more 
like " i;/t't' " than ' ; i«tt " [ef. " ndigd " below). 

:; MacCarthy inserts " [aithgne] " before "crist," se. " [the knowledge of] Christ."' 
from the Lebar Ureac. See also Thes. Pal., note h. 

4 So Thes. Pal. : om. MS. 

5 The second ''h " interline'.']. 

8 So Thes. Pal. and MacCarthy, se. ''elevation,'" which is required by the sense ; 
but the initial letter is very like that of " Ataat," f. 06. 

7 The proper order as indicated by transposition marks is " insin [7] ai//docbale 
tre airde." 

8 A slip of the scribe for 7 =" ocus." ,J The " h " interlined. 

10 " Here the scribe omits some words such as oeus canaid in salmso Miserere 
mei deusP Thes. Pal. 


hiwbrethir hicocell hihgnfw 7 ised -iii- tressanaith nuigther 
iterum 7 trisatoscigther dochorp exist 1 ~ 

In mesad mesas insacart iwcailech 7 iwobli 7 intammus 1 
ad midethar aco;;/bach figor nanaithisse 7 nanesorcon 7 \n- 
naaurgabale 2 i/zsen • Indoblae forsmmeis colind exist hi crann 
cruche • Acowbag forsiwmeis corp exist do choz/zbug cocloaib 
forsizzchroich 3 • Incozzzrac conrecatar izzdalleth 4 • iarsizzchozzzbug 
figor oge chuirp exist iarnesergo • In fobdod foinhaxter izzdalled 
figor fobdotha cuirp exist izznafuil iarnaithchuzzzbu hicroich'- 
Inpars benar ahichtzzr izzdlithe bis foriaim cli figor izzdaith 
chuzzzmi cosizzdlagin izzoxil izztuib deiss arissfar robui aiged 
exist in cruce id est contra ciuitatem 7 isair robui aigeth longini 
azrobothuaisre dosuidiu issed ropodesse dc exist 1 ~ 

Ataat -uii- iigne forsinchowbug id est u- parsa diobli choitchinn 
hingzzz>-u- sense anmae • a -uii- diobli • noeb 7 huag acht na huaisli • 
hifiguir -uii- ridana spiritus sancti • A -uiii- diobli • maxtar • 
hifigzzz>- izzdnuifiadnisi ochti • A • uiiii • diobli dozzznich hifiguir 
noe montar nimae 7 noengrath aecalya A -xi- diobli apstal 
hifiguir izznaairme anfuirthe 5 apostol iarnizzzmarmz/.y iudae • A 
•xii- deobli -kl- 7 chenlai 5 hiforaithmut airmae foirbte izzna 
napstal A -xiii- diobli min chase 7 fele fresgabale p7'ius [fo. 66v. 
cefodailter ni bes miniu iaxum octecht dolaizzz hifiguir exist 
conadib napstalaib deac :• Inna -u- 7 izzna -uii- 7 izzna -uiii- 7 
izzna -uiiii- 7 izzna -xi- 7 izzna -xii- 7 inna -xiii- Ithe acuicsescot 
sazzzlith 7 ishae lin pars izzsin bis izzobli case 7 not/aic • 7 cheri- 
ricigis tfrcongaibther huile hi exist izzsin 7 ishitorrund cruisse 
suidigthir huile forsizzmeis 7 isforcloen izzpars ochtarach forlaizzz 
clii • ut dictuzzz est inclinato capite tradidit spzVzVz/m :~ 

Suidigoth cozzzbuig case 7 not/aic -iii- parsa deac in eo nacros • 
a uiiii • izznatarsno xx- pars izznacuairt roth -u- parsae cache oxile 
a xui itir izzcuaird 7 chorp na cros id est a -iiii- [cajcharainne 
izzpars medonach ism diatet izztii oifres 7 id est figor izzbruinni 
cosnariinaib azzzbfs hosen suas dind eo • doepscopbaib • atars • 
no 8 • foriaim cli dosacardaib -a- ni 9 forlaizzz deis • dohuilib fog- 

radaib 10 -a- ni ondtarsno si's doanchord 11 aithirge • Am 

bis isizzdoxil ochtarthuaiscerdig dofirmtfrclerchib indochtardes- 
cerdach domaccaib enneaib • anichtarthuais^rafor/z doaes aithercfe- 

I " in " interlined. 2 " aur " interlined. 

3 The first "h" interlined. 

4 The first " 1 " interlined. After this word " fig " was written and then struck 
out. 5 The "h" interlined. 

6 The " o " interlined over •' e ". 7 The final " s " hardly visible. 

8 " atar • sno," Thes. Pal. 9 " anf," '/lies. Pal. 

10 The first six letters very doubtful. 

II The letters following are illegible ; " doanehortib 7 aes na aithirge " Thes. Pal., 
with the alternatives in a note " doanchordaib firaithirge" or " 7 ais aithirge." 


anichtardeseerdac/i • doaes lana/zznassa dligthig 7 doaes na tet. 
dolai//z ria;/z • x 

\s>sed tra asbrig ladin 2 menmae dobuith hifigraib inotTrind* 
7 corophe tomenwzme indrann 4 arafoemi din obli amail [To. 67. 
bith ball dicrw^ assachroich 7 araw/be croch saithir forcach arith 
feina 5 ore noenigethur 6 frisiwchorp crochthe :• Nitechte aslocod 
i#parsa cenaz/zlaissiuth amal nan coer censaigith mlas hirruna 
de :~ Nicoir atecht fo culfiacli • hingwz> nan coir rosaegeth 
forruna de na forberther heres rioco • ~ finit amen d^o gxatias ■ 

arond d . . . suil 7 [fo. 6yw.^ 

Admunniur 9 epscop nibar iccas 10 . . . arrar 11 roicca 12 do suil 
sen de ecc 13 . . . gi exist conclerc 14 lais sid conasellais . . . rose 
slando sulo :• Wcec cum dixisset expuit 15 in terram et fecit 
lutu//z ex puto et linuit lu[tu;/z] sup<?r oculos eius 7 dz'xz't ei uade 
et laua in natatoria siloe quod interorex.a\.ur misus abiit ergo et 
lauit et uenit uidens :~ 

ar dele 
M.acc saele an tofasci dele nip hon nip ax\\m nip at 16 nip galar 
nip crii cruach 17 nip loch liach nio 18 aupaith lii grene frisben att 
benith galar - x 

ar galar fuel : x 
Suil suiles 19 camull lind lindas gaine reth rethte srothe tele 
tuisc lotar teora mucca i^anais 20 bethade nethar suil naro suil 
taber do fual i^aitonert 21 7 toslane roticca ic slane :^ 

1 The remaining words of this line in the MS., the penultimate line of f. 66v, 
follow those of the last line. 

2 " ladia," Thes. Pal. ; " lades[in]," MacCarthy, perhaps a misprint for 
" lad[es]in." 

3 So Thes. Pal. Owing to a hole in the vellum only the tops of " ff " remain. 

4 The " d " inserted above the line. 

5 " fein," Thes. Pal., but the " a " is plain ; " fhein hore," MacCarthy. 

6 "-ther," Thes. Pal. ; " thir," MacCarthy. 

7 "Arond ::: sula," Thes. Pal. 

8 This page contains three spells, for a bad eye, for a thorn, and for an ill 
condition of the urine, each in a different hand (see Introduction). They are printed in 
Thesaurtis Palaeohibernicus, ii. p. 250, with a translation, for which see below (p. 42). 

9 " Admuiniur," Id., but this ignores a stroke. 

10 Some letters may be missing at the end of the line, where there is a dark brown 
stain. No sign of any, however, remains. u " arra," Thes. Pal. 

12 " ronicca," ib., with the note " leg. rohicca " There is a very faint mark over 
" o," possibly a contraction for " n," or an accent. 13 " dee et c :::" ib. 

14 " c : nd : re," ib., but there is no instance of a " d " with an upright stroke. 
The " e " is plain, and " s " is interlined over " r." 

15 << p or n exspuit^" an d s0 " [s]puto " below. 

16 " nipatt," Thes. Pal., but there is no second " t." 17 The " r" interlined. 

18 "nip," ib., but there is no trace of a perpendicular stroke. 

19 << p- u i[ f u ji es (?) } " ib %t uu t " Suil suiles?" in a note. There is certainly no cross- 

20 So Thes. Pal. with a query ; owing to a blot the last two letters are doubtful. 

21 " inaitoneitt," Thes. Pal. 


Treatise on the Mass. 1 

1. The Altar (is) the figure of the persecution which is 
inflicted. The Chalice is the figure of the Church which has 
been set and founded on the persecution and martyrdom of the 
prophets et aliornm. 

2. Water, first, in calicem, and this is chanted thereat : Peto 
te, Pater, deprecor te, Fili, obsecro te, Spiritus Sancte, to wit, the 
figure of the people that has been poured in Ecclesia. 

3. The Host, then, super altare, i.e. the turtle-dove. 2 This 
is chanted thereat, to wit, Jesus Christus, Alpha et Omega, hoc est 
principium et finis. A figure of Christ's Body which has been 
set in the linen sheet of Mary's womb. 

4. Wine then on water into the chalice, to wit, Christ's God- 
head on His Manhood and on the people at the time of 
begetting. This is chanted thereat : Remittit Pater, indulget 
Pi/ius, miser etur Spiritus Sanctus. 

5. What is chanted of the Mass thereafter, both introit and 
prayers and addition, as far as the Lesson of Apostles (the 
Epistle) and the Gradual, that is a figure of the law of Nature, 
wherein Christ 3 has been renewed, through all His Members and 
deeds. The Epistle, however, and the Gradual, and from this 
to the uncovering (of the Chalice), it is a commemoration of 
the law of the Letter wherein Christ has been figured, only that 
what has been figured therein was not yet known. 

6 The uncovering, so far as half, of the Host and of the 
Chalice, and what is chanted thereat, both Gospel and Alleluia 
as far as oblata, it is a commemoration of the law of the Prophets, 
wherein Christ was manifestly foretold, save that it was not 
seen until He was born. 

7. The elevation of the Chalice, after the full uncovering 
thereof, quando canitur oblata, that is a commemoration of 
Christ's birth and of His glory through signs and miracles. 

8. Quando canitur: Accepit Jesus panem, the priest bows 
himself down thrice to repent of his sins. He offers it (the 
Chalice) to God [and chants Miserere mei Deus\ and the people 
kneel, and here no voice cometh lest it disturb the priest, for 
this is the right of it, that his mind separate not from God while 
he chants this lesson. Hence its nomen is periculosa oratio. 

1 See above, p. 37. This translation is taken by permission from Whitley Stokes 
and Strachan, Thesaurus Palaeohibemicus, 1903, ii. p. 252. 

2 See above, p. 37, note 2. 

3 Or " the knowledge of Christ." See above, p. 37, note 3. 


9. The three steps which the ordained man steppeth back- 
wards and which lie again steps forward, this is the triad in which 
everyone sins, to wit, in word, in thought, in deed ; and this is 
the triad of things by which he is renovated iterum and by which 
he is moved to Christ's Body. 

10. The examination wherewith the priest examines the 
Chalice and the Host, and the effort which he essays to break 
it, that is a figure of the insults and of the buffets and of the 
seizure (of Christ). 

11. The Host on the paten (is) Christ's Flesh on the tree of 
the Cross. 

12. The fraction on the paten is the breaking of Christ's 
Body with nails on the Cross. 

13. The meeting wherewith the two halves meet after the 
fraction (is) a figure of the wholeness of Christ's Body after, 
His resurrection. 

14. The submersion with which the two halves are sub- 
merged (in the Chalice is) a figure of the submersion of Christ's 
Body in His Blood after His wounding on the Cross. 

15. The particle that is cut off from the bottom of the half 
which is on the (priest's) left hand is the figure of the wounding 
with the lance in the armpit of the right side; for westwards was 
Christ's face on the Cross, to wit, contra ciuitatem, and east- 
wards was the face of Longinus ; what to him was the left to 
Christ was the right. 

16. The confraction is of seven kinds, to wit, five particles 
of the common Host as a figure of the five senses of the soul : 
seven of the Host of saints and virgins save the chief ones, as a 
figure of the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost : eight (particles) of 
the martyrs' Host as a figure of the octonary New Testament : 
nine of the Host of Sunday as a figure of the nine households 
of heaven and the nine grades of the Church : eleven of the 
Host of the Apostles as a figure of the incomplete number of 
the Apostles after the sin of Judas : twelve of the Host of the 
Kalends (the Circumcision) and of Maundy Thursday, in com- 
memoration of the complete number of the Apostles : thirteen 
of the Host of Low Sunday and the Festival of the Ascension 
formerly, although later something less is distributed at the 
communion as a figure of Christ with His twelve Apostles. 

17. The five and the seven and the eight and the nine and 
the eleven and the twelve and the thirteen they are sixty-five 
thus, and that is the number of the particles, that is, in the Host 
of Easter and Christmas and Whitsunday, for in Christ is all 
that comprised, and in the form of a cross is all set on the 
paten, and the upper part is inclined on the left hand as was 
said : Inclinato capite tradidit spiritum. 


1 8. The arrangement of the contraction at Easter and 
Christmas : thirteen particles 1 in the stem of the crosses, nine 
in its cross-piece, twenty particles in its circle-wheel, five particles 
in each angle, sixteen both in the circle and in the body of. the 
crosses, that is, four for every part. The middle particle is that 
to which the mass priest goes, i.e. the figure of the breast with 
the secrets. What is from that upwards of the shaft to bishops : 
the cross-piece on the left hand to priests : that on the right hand 
to all sub-grades : that from the cross-piece down to anchorites 
and penitents : that which is in the left upper angle to true 
young clerics : the right upper to innocent children : the left 
lower to folk of repentance : the right lower to folk lawfully 
married and to those that go not before to communion. 

19. This is what God deems worthy, the mind to be in the 
symbols of the Mass, and that this be thy mind : the portion of 
the Host which thou receivest (to be) as it were a member of 
Christ from His Cross, and that there may be a cross of labour 
on each (in) his own course, because it unites to the crucified 
Body. It is not meet to swallow the particle without tasting it, 
as it is improper not to seek to bring savours into God's mysteries. 
It is not proper for it to go under the back teeth, (this) sym- 
bolizing that it is improper to dispute over much on God's 
mysteries, lest heresy should be increased thereby. 

Finit. Amen. Deo gratias. 

Spells. 2 
For a . . . . eye. 

I honour bishop Ibar who heals . . . May the blessing of God 

and of Christ's heal thine eye whole of thine 


For a thorn. 

A splendid salve which binds a thorn : let it not be spot nor 
blemish, let it not be swelling nor illness, nor clotted gore, nor 
lamentable hole, nor enchantment. The sun's brightness heals 
the swelling, it smites the disease. 

For disease of the urine. 

put thy urine in . . . thy . . . and thy health. May a cure 

of health heal thee ! 

1 As Dr. MacCarthy points out (p. 255), the sum of the particles as given does not 
amount, as it should, to 65. Reading, however, " .iiii. parsa deac" for " . ill- parsa 
deac" and " xiiii " for "uiiii," we obtain the required total, 14+ 14 + 20+16+ 1, the 
unit being the middle particle, or the centre of the shaft of the cross, the position of 
the celebrant. See the diagram, p. 256. 

2 See above, p. 39. From Thesauru; Palaeohibemicus, ii. p. 250. 


Abrenuntias Satanae, 25. 

Accepto salutari divini corporis cibo, 

Accesserunt Saducei (Matt. xxii. 23, 29- 

33). 34- 
Accipe vestem candidam, 32. 
Adiuva me domine (Ps. cxviii. 117), 32. 
Ad te domine levavi, 18. 
Agimus deo patri omnip. gratias, 36. 
Ante conspectum divinae maiestatis, 3, 

Ante oculos tuos domine deus, 7. 
Ascendat oratio nostra, 4. 

Benedic domine hanc creaturam aquae, 

Benedicam dominum, 18. 
Benedicat tibi dominus et custodiat, 36. 

Calicem salutaris accipiam (Ps. cxv. 13), 

3 6 - 

Cognoverunt dominum in fractione 

panis, 17. 
Comedite amici mei, 18. 
Commixtio corporis et sanguinis, 18. 
Communicantes et diem... 

ascensionis domini nostri I. C, 12. 
circumcision is dom. nostri I. C, 11. 
clausulae pascae, 12. 
in quo incontaminata virginitas,,n. 
natalis calicis dom. nostri I. C, 11. 
quinquagesimae dom. nostri I. C, 

resurrectionis dom. nostri I. C. , n. 
Communicantes et memoriam venerantes, 

Communicantes et noctem uel diem 

sacratissimam resurrectionis, 11. 
Concede domine nobis famulis, 35. 
Converte nos deus salutum, 36. 
Corpus et sanguis dom. nostri I. C. filii 

dei, 35. 
Corpus et sanguis dom. nostri I. C. sit 

tibi, 32. 
Credimus domine credimus in hac con- 

fractione, 17. 
Credis in deum patrem, 25, 31. 
Credo in unum deum patrem, 8. 

Cum omnibus in toto mundo offerentibus, 

Da nobis misericordiam tuam, 23. 

Defer domine exitum mortis, 26. 

Deum patrem d. fil. d. spir. sanctum 

unum et solum dominum, 19. 
Deum vivum omnip. cui omnia opera, 33. 
Deus cuius spiritus super aquas, 29. 
Deus in adiutorium, 3. 
Deus in cuius manu tam halitus viventis, 

Deus omnipotens pater dom. nostri I. C. 

qui te regeneravit, 31. 
Deus pater omnipotens dom. fill dei 

unigenite, 4. 
Deus qui ad salutem hominis medicinam, 

Deus qui ad salutem humani generis, 24, 

Deus qui Adam de limo, 24. 
Deus qui beato Petro, 4. 
Deus qui confitentium tibi corda, 22. 
Deus qui culpa offenderis, 5. 
Deus qui diligentibus, 5. 
Deus qui facturam tuam, 34. 
Deus qui invisibili potentia, 29. 
Deus qui non vis mortem, 34. 
Deus qui nos regenHo, 5. 
Deus qui nos sanctorum tuorum, 20. 
Deus tibi gratias agimus per quem, 33. 

Dicamus omnes domine exaudi, 6. 
Dies quoque nostros in tua pace, 12. 
Dignum et justum aequum et justum, 20. 
Dirigatur domine (Ps. cxl. 2), 7. 
Divino magisterio edocti, 17. 
Domine deus noster I. C. splendor 

paternae gloriae, 19. 
Domine deus oninip. qui sanctos tuos, 20. 
Domine sancte pater omnip. aeterne deus 
expelle diabolum, 24. 
qui es et qui eras, 27. 
qui es via, 34. 
Domine sancte pater te fideliter deprece- 

mur, 35. 
Domine sancte pater universitatis auctor, 

Domini est terra, 18. 



Dominus et salvator noster I. C. pridie 

quam, 32. 
Dominus noster I. C. dixit ego sum panis 

_ ( 51-57), 7. 
Dominus regit me (Ps. xxii. i), 18. 

Ecce agnus dei, 18. 

Effeta quod est apertio, 27. 

Exaudi nos dom. I. C. deus noster pro 

fratre nostro infirmo, 35. 
Exaudi nos dom. sancte pater omnip. 

aet. ds. et mittere, 28. 
Exorcizo te creatura aquae 

in nomine dei patris, 29. 

per deum vivum, 28. 
Exorcizo te creatura salis in nomine dei, 

. 2 5- 
Exorcizo te et per Iesum Christum, 28. 

Exorcizo te spiritus immunde per deum, 

33- . . 

Exultatio divina paterna pietas, 21. 

Judica me domine, 18. 

Laudate dominum omnes gentes (Ps. 

cxvi. 1), 36. 
Libera nos domine ab omni malo, 

et custodi nos, 35. 

preterito presenti et futuro, 17. 
Lucernapedibusmeis(Ps. cxviii. 105), 32. 

Medellam tuam deprecor domine, 26. 
Memento etiam domine 

et eorum nomina, 14. 

famulorum. tuorum, 11. 
Memento nostri domine in beneplacito 
(Ps. cv. 4), 33. 

Nee te lateat Satanas, 26. 

Nobis quoque peccatoribus famulis tuis, 

Novum carmen cantate, 18. 

Fiat domine misericordia tua (Ps. xxxii. 

22), 17. 
Fortitudo mea et laudatio (Ps. cxvii. 14), 

Fratres quotiescumque manducabitis (1 

Cor. xi. 26-32), 5. 

Gloria in excelsis, 4. 

Grata sint tibi domine munera, 6. 

Grata sit tibi haec oblalio, 9. 

Gratias tibi agimus domine sancte pater, 

Gustate et videte, 18. 

O domine salvum fac (Ps. cxvii. 25), 33. 
Oblata domine munera sanctifica, 9. 
Omnes sancti venite, 18. 
Omnipotens sempiterne deus 

adesto magnae pietatis, 29. 

qui populum tuum, 5. 
Operare creatura olei, 31. 
Oramus te domine pro fratre nostro, 35. 
Oremus fratres carissimi 

pro caris nostris, 23. 

pro fratre nostro, 32. 
Oremus fratres dom. deum nostrum pro 

fratre nostro, 33. 
Ostende nobis domine misericordiam 
(Ps. lxxxiv. 8), 9. 

Haec nobis precepta servantibus, 30. 
Hanc igitur oblationem servitutis nostrae 

sed et cunctae familiae, 12. 
Has oblationes et sincera libamina, 9. 
Hie est panis, 18. 
Hoc sacrum corpus, 18. 
Hostias quaesumus domine nostrae devo- 

tionis, 9. 

In illis diebus dixit Iesus statim (Matt. 

xxiv. 29-31), 34. 
In illo tempore accesserunt Saducei 

(Matt. xxii. 23, 29-33), 34. 
In labiis meis, 18. 

Indulge domine penitentibus nobis, 21. 
Intende domine munera quae altaribus, 

Iteramus omnipotens deus depreca- 
tionem, 21. 

Pacem mandasti pacem dedisti, 17. 

Pacem meam do vobis, 18. 

Panem caeli dedit, 18. 

Pax et caritas dom. nostri I. C, 17, 35. 

Pax multa diligentibus, 18. 

Pax tecum in vitam aeternam, 36. 

Peccavimus domine peccavimus, 3. 

Penitentiam agite, 18. 

Per quern haec omnia domine semper 

bona creas, 16. 
Plenum odorem vitae, 18. 
Praesta quaesumus omnip. et misericors 

deus ut animae, 23. 

Quaerite dominum et confirmamini (Ps. 

civ. 1 ), 6. 
Quaesumus domine omnip. deus ut vota 

nostra, 8. 
Quam oblationem te deus in omnibus, 1 2. 



Qui manducat, 18. 

Quia satiavit (Ps. cvi. 9), 36. 

Quos caelesti domine dono satiasti, 18. 

Refecti Christi corpore, 36. 
Refecti spiritalibus escis, 32. 
Regem caeli cum pace, 18. 
Regnum caelorum vim, 18. 
Rogamus te domine sancte pater, 26. 
Rogo te deus Sabaoth, 3. 

Sacrificate sacrificium (Ps. ix. 6), 36. 
Sacrificiis presentibus domine quaesumus 

intende, 6. 
Sacrificium tibi domine celebrandum, 7. 
Salva nos Iesu qui potes, 33. 
Sanctus sanctus dominus deus Sabaoth, 

Si ego lavi pedes vestros (Joh. xiii. 14, 

Signaculo crucis, 36. 
Signum crucis Christi accipe, 32. 
Sinite parvulos venire, 18. 
Sitivit anima mea (Ps. xli. 2), 28. 
Statim post tribulationem (Matt. xxiv. 

29-31), 34. 
Sumpsimus domine sanctorum tuorum 

sollemnia, 21. 
Sursum corda, 9. 

Te igitur clementissime pater, 10. 

Tibi igitur precipio omnis spiritus im- 

munde, 28. 
Tu mandasti mandata (Ps. cxviii. 4), 32. 

Ubi ego fuero, 18. 

Unde benedico te creatura aquae, 30. 

Unde et memores sumus domine nos tui 

servi, 13. 
Ungo te de oleo 

et de crismate, 31. 

sanctificato in nomine, 25. 

sanctificato ut salveris, 35. 

Veni domine sanctificator, 7. 
Venite benedicti patris, 18. 
Venite comedite panem, 18. 
Vere dignum 

cuius potentia deprecanda, 22. 

cuius promissiones, 23. 

qui cum unigenito, 10. 

sed in hac die gratius, 20. 
Vere sanctus vere benedictus vere mira- 

bilis, 20. 
Visita nos deus in salutare (Ps. cv. 4), 36. 
Visita nos domine in salutare (Ps. cv. 4), 

Vox domini super aquas (Ps. xxviii. 3), 







The Rt. Rev. Bishop Forrest Browne, D.D., F.S.A. 


The Bishop of Gloucester, D.D. 

The Bishop of Moray, D.D. 

The Bishop of Ossory, D.D. 

Rev. H. B. Swete, D.D. 

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Rev. E. S. Dewick, M.A., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer. 

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List of Works already issued. 

fasc. i. Edited by Dr. J. Wickham Legg, F.S.A. 8vo. 

[Dec. 1 89 1.] 

*m. THE MARTILOGE, 1 526. Edited by the Rev. F. Procter, 
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[May, 1893.I 

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Defensorium Directorii and Crede Michi. Edited by the 
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# VIII. THE WINCHESTER TROPER. Edited by the Rev. W. 
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Stokes, D.C.L., Foreign Associate of the Institute of 
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# X. THE BANGOR ANTIPHONARIUM, Part II. containing an 
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1 05 1. Edited from a MS. in the Public Library at Rouen, 
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* The books issued for 1891, 1892, 1893, l &94t an d 1895 are out of print. 

fasc. iii. Containing an appendix giving certain Offices from 
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1897. XIII. THE IRISH LIBER HYMNORUM. Edited from MSS. in the 

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1898. XV. THE ROSSLYN MISSAL. An Irish manuscript in the Advo- 

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1474. (The first printed 
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1900. XIX. THREE CORONATION ORDERS : (1.) The Coronation 

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WESTMINSTER. Edited by Sir Edward Maunde 
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I903. XXV. THE CLERKS BOOK OF 1 549. From 
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the unique copy 

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[Feb. 1904.] 

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1906. XXXI. THE STOWE MISSAL, a manuscript belonging to the Royal 

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[March, 19 13.] 

1 91 3. XLV. THE LEOFRIC COLLECTAR, an English manuscript of 

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DIVINE SERVICE. A complete edition of British Museum 
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ST. WILLIBRORD's CALENDAR. (MS. Lat. 10,837 in Bibl. Nat., Paris.) 
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