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^ 



THE NEWYORK 

PUBLIC UBRARY 



A8T0R, LENOX AND 
TILDE N FOUNDATIONS. 




PHOTOGRAPH OF THE SOLAR SURFACE 



Lick Observatory, October 19, 1896. 
Sun's diameter about 44 Inches. 



1M;'W.M .\ r; 



M \ / I ' ' I ■' ' ^ ! 



VJ,; 



J ! 



i i 




r^P -. ">: AH i^'jr;r.;.CE 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 



OF THE PACIFIC. 



VOLUME IX. 
1897. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

1897. 



THENEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

A6TOR, LENOX AND 

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 

R 1901 L. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS.* 



Publications No. 54, February i, 1897. 

Page 

Photograph of the Solar Surface Frontispiece 

List of Members of the Society, January I, 1897 . » i 

List of Corresponding Institutions 12 

Exchanges 13 

For Review 14 

On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature 
of the Earth, by Professor S. Arrehnxus; abstract by Dr, 

Edward S. Holden 14 

Planetary Phenomena for March and April, 1897, by Professor Mal- 
colm McNeill 24 

Abjuratio Galilei 30 

The Washburn Observatory, by George C. Comstock, Director 31 

Some Luminous Appearances in the Sky, by W. H. S. Monck . • 33 
Twenty-sixth Award of the Donohoe Comet-Medal to Mr. C. D. 

Perrinb 36 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet g^ 1896, by F. H. Seares and 

R. T. Crawford . 36 

List of Earthquakes in California for the year 1896, by C. D. Perrine 37 
Twenty-seventh Award of the Donohoe Comet-Medal to Mr. C. D. 

Perrine 38 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 39 

Photograph of the Solar Surface made at the Lick Observatory. 

E. S. H 39 

Discovery of Comet ^, 1896 (Perrine). C. D. P 39 

Astronomische Geselischaft Zone — 9° ^c/ to — 14** 10^. A. S. 40 

Relief-Map of the Lick Observatory Reservation. E. S. H. . 40 

Meteors (November 15, 1896). Letter of Mrs. F. K. Upham . 41 
Observation of the Leonid Meteors. Letter of Mr. William 

Yates 41 

Notice to Members of the Society. E. S. H 41 

The Great Sun-Spot of January, 1897 . , , , cuts to face page 42 

The Great Sun-Spot of January, 1897. A. L. C 42 

The Great Sun-Spot of January, 1897. R. G. A 43 

The Heliocentric Theory and the University of Cambridge in 

1669. (Extract.) 43 

Honor Conferred on Professor Barnard 44 

Prices of Reflecting Telescopes 44 

A Brilliant Meteor. (Extract. Wm. S. Moses.) 44 

* To the Binder; this should precede page i, Volume IX. 



iv Publications of the 

Page 
List of American Foreign Associates of the Royal Astronom- 
ical Society 45 

List of Americans who have received the Medal of The Royal 

Astronomical Society 45 

Earthquake at Oakland, January 17, 1897. A. H. B. 45 

Elliptic Elements of Comet g, 1896 (Perrine). W. J. H. and 

C. D. P 46 

Observations of the Companion to Procyon, and of the Com- 
panion to Sirius, J. M. S 46 

Honor Conferred on Dr. Lewis Swift 47 

The Ladd Observatory (Providence, R. L) 47 

Measures of the Companion to Ptocyon. R. G. A 47 

Erratum in PubHcations A. S. P., No. 53. C. A. Y 47 

Astronomical Telegrams. Discovery of Comet ^, 1896 .. . 47 
Astronomical Telegram. Observation of Same, December, 

9. 1896 47 

Astronomical Telegram. Observation of Same, December, 

10, 1896 48 

Astronomical Telegram. Elements of Same, December 11. 

1896 48 

Astronomical Telegram. Lowell. Martian North Polar Cap 48 

Astronomical Telegram. Elements of Comet g, 1896 .... 48 

Astronomical Telegram. Chandler. Comet g, 1896 ... 48 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors^ January 30, i8gy .... 49 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Society^ January 30, iSgy 50 

Officers of the Society, etc 51 

Publications No. 55, April i, 1897. 

Astronomy and Astronomers in Their Relations to the Public. 

Address of the Retiring President, by W. J. Hussev 53 

Astronomical Observations in 1896, by Torvald Kohl . .... 65 
Planetary Phenomena for May and June, 1897, by Professor Mal- 
colm McNeill 70 

Ephemeris for Physical Observations of the Moon for Certain Dates 

between 1890 and 1896, by Dr. A. Marth, F. R. A. S. . , . . . 76 
Review of Solar Observations, 1895 (August-December) and 1896, 

by David E. Haddbn 77 

Predictions for the Solar Eclipse of July 29, 1897, Lick Observatory 

and San Francisco, by C. D. Perrine 85 

Maximum of o Ceti (Mira), 1896-97, by Miss O'Halloran .... 86 

Portrait of W. C. Bond to face page 89 

Notices from the Lick Obserx'aiory 89 

Photographs of Donati's Comet in September, 1858. E. S. H. 89 
Search for Comets Reported by Dr. Swift, September 20th. 

W. J. H 89 

Bright Fireball, January 26, 1897 (Mt. Hamilton). C. D. P. . 90 

The Metric System 90 

Erratum in No. 53 of the Publications A. S. P 90 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. v 

?AGE 

HoSn6 Wronski. E. S. H 90 

Portrait of William Cranch Bond. E. S. H 91 

Meteor of January 24. 1897 (Los Angeles). Letter of S. J. Reese 91 

Mr. Lowell's Observations of Mercury and Ventts, E. S. H. 92 

Measures of ^ Delphini, ^ 151. R. G. A 93 

First Results from the Bruce Photographic Telescope at 

Arequipa. E. S. H 93 

Elements of Descriptive Astronomy: a Text-book. By Dr. 

Herbert A. Howe. Review by E. S. H 94 

Portraits of Astronomers and Others Belonging to the Lick 

Observatory. E. S. H 95 

Light Absorption as a Determining Factor in the Selection 
of the Size of the Objective of the Potsdam Observatory. 

R. G. A 98 

Awards of the Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of 

the Pacific 99 

Memorials of William Cranch Bond, and of His Son, George 

Phillips Bond, by Edward S. Holden. E. S. H 100 

The Reversing-Layer of the Sun's Corona (Total Solar Eclipse 

of 1896. August 9). E. S. H 100 

Gift of Miss Bruce to the Observatory of Prague 10 1 

Measures of Sirius, R. G. A loi 

Latitude of the Lick Observatory. R. H. T loi 

The International Astrographic Charts 102 

Weather at Mt. Hamilton in the Winter of 1896-97. R. G. A. 103 
The Companion of Sirius, Observed at Glasgow, Mo., with a 

Twelve-inch Telescope. (Extract of a Letter from H. S. P.) 104 

The Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , 104 

Return of the Lowell Observatory to Arizona 105 

The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung 105 

International Catalogue of Fundamental Stars 106 

Probable Error of a Single Observed Position in Some Fre- 
quently Used Catalogues and Collections of Stars. E. S. H. 107 
Addendum to Dr. Marth's Article on Page 76 ...... . 108 

Notice to Members. The Committee on Publication 108 

Recent Observations of the Spectrum of Mars, by W.W. Camp- 
bell. Abstract from S. F. Chronicle 109 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors, March 27, iSgj . ... 113 

Report of the Library Committee 113 

Minutes of the Annual Meeting^ of the Society, March 27, iSgj . 114 

Report of the Committee on the Comet-Medal, March 27, 1897 1 15 

Report of the Treasurer, March 27, 1897 116 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors, March 27, 1897 • • . . 118 

Officers of the Society, etc 119 



vi Publications of the 

Publications No. 56, June i, August i, 1897. 

Pack 
A New Observatory (Valkenburg, Holland), by Rev. John G. 

Hagen, S. J 121 

The Spectra and Proper Motion of Stars, by W. H. S. Monck, 

F. R. A. S 123 

Supplemental Note to the Same, by W. H. S. Monck .... 128 
The Sayre Observatory, South Bethlehem, Penn., by C. L. Doo- 

LiTTLE 130 

Total Solar Eclipse, January 22, 1898. English Preparations, by 

Edward W. Maunder, F. R. A. S 131 

Earthquake of June 20, 1897 (Oakland), by Allen H. Babcock . 135 
Earthquake of June 20, 1897 (Fresno County), by S. C. Lillis. . 135 
Planetary Phenomena for July and August, 1897. By Professor 

Malcolm McNeill 136 

Double Star Measures, by D. A. Lehman 141 

Photograph of the Moon, Paris Observatory, March 14, 1894 

cut to face page 145 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 145 

A New Celestial Atlas. Notice by E. S. H. . . 145 

Meteor Seen at Mt. Hamilton (May 5, 1897). J. M. S 146 

Photographic Equatorial of the Moscow Observatory .... 

cut to face page 147 

Stability of the Great Equatorial. E. S. H 147 

Measures of Procyon. W. J. H . 147 

Reflector and Portrait Lens in Celestial Photography. Abstract 

of an Article by Professor Max Wolf. E. S. H 147 

Dedication of the Flower Observatory, University of Penn- 
sylvania 148 

• Record of Experiments with the Moving Floor of the 75-foot 

Dome of the Lick Observatory. E. S. H 148 

Eye-End of the 30-inch Equatorial of the Pulkowa Observatory 

cut to face page 149 

Statistics of the Library of the Lick Observatory. R. G. A. . 150 
Apparatus for Measuring Photographic Plates (Repsold) 

cut to face page 151 

Post-office at Mt. Hamilton. E. S. H 151 

Appointment of Professor Robert G. Aitken as Assistant 

Astronomer at the Lick Observatory. E. S. H 151 

Graduate Students in Astronomy at the Lick Observatory 

(1897) 151 

Instruments Making in Allegheny 151 

Death of Alvan G. Clark. E. S. H 152 

Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 1896-97. Extract from the 

London Times^ June 7, 1897 152 

Expedition from the Lick Observatory to Observe the Eclipse 

of January, 1898, in India. E. S. H 155 

Astronomical Telegram. Discovery of D' Arrest's Comet . 155 
Photographic Atlas of the Moon. (Extracts from a Circular.) 
By Dr. L. Weinek 156 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. vii 

Page 

Trial of the Crossley Reflector. E. S. H 159 

Death of Hon. Charles Frederick Crocker. £. S. H. . . 160 

Small Telescope for Sale. E. S. H 160 

Appointments in the Lick Observatory. E. S. H 160 

Meeting of the Directors and of the Society, June 12, iSgy . . . 160 

Officers of the Society, etc 161 

Publications No. 57, September i, 1897. 

By-Laws of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 163 

Statutes for the Bestowal of the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical 

the Society of the Pacific • 165 

Rules Relating to the Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of 

the Pacific 170 

Officers of the Society 171 

Publications No. 58, October i, 1897. 

Photographs of Jupiter (taken with the Schaebbrle Reflector) 

to face page 173 

Photographs of yi//«/^, by J. M. Schaeberle 173 

Planetary Phenomena for September, October, November, and 

December, 1897, by Professor Malcolm McNeill 174 

The Bruce Photometers of the Lick Observatory, by R. G. Aitken 184 
Catalogue No. II, of Nebulae Discovered at the Lows Observatory, 

Echo Mountain, Cal., by Lewis Swift 186 

Eclipse of the Sun, July 29. 1897, by David E. Hadden 188 

Notes on the Total Eclipse of the Sun, January 21-22, 1898, in 

India, by Colonel A. Burton-Brown. R. A., F. R. A. S 189 

The Cause of Gravitation, by V. Wellman 190 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 195 

Observation of the Partial Solar Eclipse, July 29, 1897. R. G. A. 195 

Unusual Lunar Halo, August 5, 1897. (Extract.) Kate Ames 195 

The Work of the Lick Observatory. E. S. H 196 

Inventory, etc., of Lick Observatory Buildings and Equipment, 

June 30, 1897. E. S. H 201 

Cost of the Library of the Lick Observatory, 1875-1897. 

E. S. H 201 

Lick Observatory Moon- Atlas. E. S. H 202 

Albert Marth; bom 1828; died 1897. E. S. H 202 

Resignation oC Mr. Colton. E. S. H 203 

A New Celestial Atlas. E. S. H 203 

Portraits of Astronomers and Others Belonging to the Lick 

Observatory. (Addenda.) 204 

Minutes of a Special Meeting of the DirectorSy August 14^ i8gj 205 
Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors and of the Society , Septetnber 

4, 18^ 206 

Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Directors, September 18, 1897 207 

Officers of the Society, etc • 208 



viii Publications of the Astronomical Society dfc. 
Publications No. 59, December i, 1897. 

Page 

The Yerkes Observatory Frontispiece 

The Yerkes Observatoty, by W. J. Hussey 209 

Catalogues Nos. Ill and IV, of Nebulae Discovered at the Lowe 

Observatory, Echo Mountain, Cal., by Lewis Swift 223 

Planetary Phenomena for January and February, 1898, by Professor 

Malcolm McNeill 226 

Comet b, 1897, by C. D. Perrine 232 

Comet b^ 1897, by R. Tracy Crawford 234 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 235 

Letter of Resignation of Professor Holden as Director of the 

Lick Observatory. E. S. Holden 235 

List of Recorded Earthquakes on the Pacific Coast, 1 769-1897, 

by Edward S. Holden. E. S. H 238 

Measures of the Companion of Sirius, and of ^ 883. 

R. G. AiTKEN 238 

The Leonids in 1897. C. D. P 239 

Comets Due to Return in 1898. C. D. P 239 

Photograph of the Spectrum of a Meteor. R. G. A 240 

Dimensions of the Planets and Satellites. R. G. A 241 

Changes in the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 241 

The Telegraphic Longitude Net of the United States .... 242 

Observations of the Companion to Procyon, J. M. S 244 

Lick Observatory Eclipse Expedition. C. D. P 244 

The Chabot Observatory Eclipse Expedition. A. H. B. . . . 245 

Elements of Comet b, 1897. W. J. H. and R. G. A. . . . . 246 

Astronomical Telegrams on Comet ^, 1897 246 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors^ November ^7, iSgj . . . 248 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Society, November 27, iSgy 249 

Officers of the Society, etc 250 

General Index 251 






ABTORi LENCX AND 
TlLDEN FOUNPATlONd, 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. IX. San Francisco, California, February i, 1897. No. 54. 
LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

ASTROiNOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC. 
January i, 1897. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

W. J. HussKY (Lick Observatory), President 

E. J. MoLBRA (606 Clay Street. S. F.) » 

E. S. HoLDBN (Lick Observatory), [ Vice-Presidents 

O. VON Gbldrrn (819 Market Street, S. F.) ) 

C. D. Pbkrinb (Lick Observatory!. Secretary 

F. R. ZiKL (410 California Street. S. F.). Secretary and Treasurer 

Board 0/ Directors — .Messrs. Edwards. Holden. Hussev, Moleka, Miss O'Hallokan. 

Messrs. Pardee, Perrinb, Pibrsun, Stringham, von Gbluekn, Ziel. 
Finance Committee — .Messrs. von Gbldbrn, Pibrson, Stringham. 
ComMittee on Publication — Messrs. Holdbn, Babcock, Aitken. 
Library Committee— yi\%% 0*Hallx>ran, Messrs. Molera, Burckhalter. 
Committee OH the Comet-Afeda/^Mcisrs. Holden (ex-o^cio), Schaeberle, Campbell. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee — Mr. Ruthvbn W. Pike. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Executive Committee— }At»tTS* Camilo Gonzalez, Francisco Rodriguez Rev. 



LIST OF MEMBERS.* 

Mr. Carl H. Abbott 118 nth St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Charles L. Ackerman 426 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Prof. R. G. Aitken { ^'['on °Ca™""^'' '^''' "^""'" 

Mr. J. H. Albert Salem, Oregon. 

Prof. W. Steadman Alois* { "^nd.^' Abckland, New Zea- 

Prof. VV. D. Alexander Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Mr. Richard H. Allen* Chatham, Morris Co., N. J. 



♦A star si^ifies Life-Membership. Total membership, 570 (67 life-members). 



2 Publications qf the 

Mr. Charles Altschul { ^^BaliT' S^^^^^ American 

Hon. Henry B. Alvord* San [os^, Cal. 

Hon. William Alvord* 2200 Broadway, S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. William Alvord* 2200 Broadway, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. W. S. Andrews Schenectady, N. Y. 

Mr. F. S. Archenhold \ Obseryatorium,Grunewald.bei 

\ Berlin, Germany. 
Mrs. Wm. Ashburner 1014 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. J. J. Aubertin* jas Duke St St James, S. W., 

-' -' \ London, England. 

Mr. Allen H. Babcock i2i4WebsterSt., Oakland,CaI. 

Mr. N. A. Baldwin New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. T. R. Bannerman 2407 Howard St.. S. F., Cal. 

Dr. G. Barroeta San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Mr. J. Bassett / 82 High St Stoke Newingion, 

^ I N., England. 

Dr. Henry H. Bates \^^^ ^Portland, Washington, 

Miss Frances L. Beans 489 N. First St., San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. Henry Berger | Observatory Hill, Allegheny, 

Mr. E. F. BiGELow i 5 Waverly Avenue, Portland, 

{ Conn. 

Prof. Frank H. Bigelow | U, S Weather Bureau. Wash- 

t mgton, U. L. 

Mr. WiLBERT M. BiRGE Davenport, Neb. 

Mr. R. L. BiscHOFFSHEiM* 3 Rue Taitbout, Paris, France. 

Mr. Anson Stiles Blake Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. Charles T. Blake Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. Henry Lord Boulton, Jr.* . . . i ^^J^^^'w ^T^"A v ^"""^ 

* •' t 2015, New York, N. Y. 

Dr 1 T Boyd -^ ^6 E. Ohio St., Indianapolis, 

■ -'* * i Ind. 

Colonel E. D. Boyle Gold Hill, Storey Co., Nev. 

Mr. J. A. Brashear Allegheny City, Pa. 

Rev. M. S. Brennan { ^oufs"^ Mo?^'^ ^^"'"''*'' ^^* 

Rev. A. L. Brewer San Mateo, Cal. 

Mr. Edward M. Brewer 27 Kilby St., Boston, Mass. 

{Hope Bank, Nelson St.. Wool- 
lahra,via Sydney, New South 
Wales. 
Co..A.HX.Bu.xo..B«ow..R.A..P.R.A.s.|St^Oeo^.e-s^a^^ 

Miss E. Brown* {^England*"'"'' ^''■^"''^'^'■• 

Dr. William Andrews Browne . . . Newton, Mass. 

Dr. J. D. Brownlee 754 S. 3d St., San Jos^, Cal. 

Miss C. W. Bruce* 810 5th Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Charles Burckhalter, f. r. a.s. {C™'^^,^^''^^^^^*"''^' O*"^" 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. 3 

Miss MAKV E. BVRO {'^^V^&Trpfon.'Ma^s^;- 

Dr. J. Callandrkau* 1 114 ^Montgomery St., S. F.. 

Prof. W. W. Campbell J Lick Observatory. Mt. Hatnil- 

( ton. ual. 

Mr. Andrew Carnegie* 5 WestsistSt.NewYork.N.Y. 

Mr. J. C. Cebrian* {^'cfal^"'' ^"^^'^ ^^" ^' ^" 

Dr. V. Cerulli | Observatorio Privato, Teramo. 

Mrs. EMBUE M. Chabot { ^'SakYa'd'cal.'^''""" ^'"• 

Miss JOS.H Chabot { '^'SakValld.'^l.''''"''" ^''•' 

Rev. E. Bentley Church 1036 Valencia St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. B. G. Clapp The Academy, Fulton, N. Y. 

Dr. E. S. Clark 16 Geary St., S. F., Cal. 

Mis-s Isabella D. Clark San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. Mateo Clark* j '^En?S.'^ ^^^^' ^''"'^''"' 

Miss Agnes M. Clerke j ^£^^2^ ^"^'^' ^^"^°"' 

Mr. Ernest A. Cleveland Vancouver, B. C. 

Mr. C. H. CoLBURN Virginia City, Nevada. 

Mr. Arthur T. Collins Swarthmore, Delaware Co., Pa. 

Mr. A. I. Colton* ] H^^^ ^r^!f '^^^^'y* ^^^' "^'""- 

{ ton, Cal. 

Mr. J. Costa { ' M _^Montgomery St., S. F., 

Mr. Henry Cowell* 413 Hyde St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Hugh Craig 312 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Walter Cramp { '"llE Pa^'°^'' ^^" ''''"^" 

Hon. C. F. Crocker* {^fT'cIl'' ^"'^ ^'"^ ^"■' 

Mr. Henry J. Crocker 508 California St., S. F.. Cal. 

Mr. Edward Crosslev,* f.r.a.s.. . { ^^f^^gSa^d*^'"*''"'''* "^''' 

Miss S. J. Cunningham | Swarthmore College, Delaware 

Mr. Chas. S. Cushing 813 12th St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. J. EWEN Davidson* ...:..{ Alexandra Plantation, Brans- 
■" I combe, Mackay,Queensland. 

Mr. Joseph E. Davis 154 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

Mr. William T. Dawson Etna, Siskiyou Co., Cal. 

Mr. C. W. Dearborn j ^ Oakland "ca?^"''"'^^^'''"^' 



Dr.J. H. DeMeritt 1 1335 Vermont Ave., Washing- 
Mr. A. B. Depuy 1 541^ Washington St.,Camden, 

Mrs. John H. Devereux j ^^hb"*'"'' ^^^" ^'^^^'''"''' 



4 Publications of the 

Mr. W. H. Devine* Nagasaki, Japan. 

Miss Grace H. Dodge' j '%oK'°Y. ^''^""^' ^^^^ 

Mr. John Dolbeer lo California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. W. E. Downs • . . . . Sutter Creek, Amador Co., Cal. 

Mrs. Anna Palmer Draper* . . . . -j 27i^Madison Ave.. New York, 

Rev. W. Arthur Duckworth, j. p. . . Frome. Somerset, England. 

Mr. Francis G. Du Pont Wilmington. Del. 

Mr. Earnest I. Dyer 1383 Alice St., Oakland, Cal. 

Miss S. J. Eastman Ogontz School, Pa. 

Mr. Geo. W. Edwardes j ^33 South Orange St., Media, 

Prof. George C. Edwards Berkeley, Cal. 

Capt. Oliver Eldi<idge 615 Sutter St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. THOMAS GwvNE.aHK { ^^d^Sf ^.3.^^" 

Mr.R.L.J.E.UK.v,c.M.G.. . . -. . {''''^^t^^^:^^^^^''^^ 

Mr. John Everding, Jr 48 Clay St., S. F., Cal. 

{Puisne Judge, Supreme Court, 
Pielermaritzburg, Natal, 
South Africa. 

Mr. S. Wilson Fisher 1502 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miss Katharine Flavan 2014 Van Ness Ave., S.F., Cal. 

Mr. Andrew B. Forbes* 401 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr.GHO.STUAaTFoRBKS {^Yn'dS;nSl';°y;in^^l! 

Mr. Arthur W. Foster* 322 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. C. L. Foster 601 Polk St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. H. C. Frick* 42 5th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Prof. Chas. W. Friend Observatory, Carson, Nev. 

Mr. Robert D. Fry* 1812 Jackson St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Walter F. Gale, f. r. a. s Paddington, Sydney, N. S. W. 

Mr. Jos. F. Gassmann 318 Montgomery St., S.F., Cal. 

Mr. Otto VON Geldern | Room 56. 819 Market St.. S.F.. 

Mr. Louis Gex Santos, Brazil. 

Hr HAvinnifr r n f Royal Astronomer, Cape of 

Dr. David Gill, c. b ^ ^^^^ ^^p^^ ^^^.j^^ 

Mr. Allen F. Gillihan 2420 Fulton St., Berkeley, Cal. 

\f.. r-T«^r>^w^ /-,^.o^i.T /South Pasadena, Los Angeles 

Mr. George Gleason s ^ pi ' ^ 

Mr rAXfirr. ri^M7Aii7Q (National Observatory, Tacu- 

Mr. Camilo Gonzales | ^^^^^ Mexico. 



^ ^ r-«A«rT.o r-rx^T^*r ,* I S. E. cor. McAlHster aud Plercc 

Capt. Charles LjOodall* < q^ q P p . 

Mr. H. M. Gorham 

Mr. Adam Grant* 



Mr. H. M. Gorham Gold Hill, Nevada. 

f N. E. cor. Bush and Sansome 

\ Sts., S. F., Cal. 

TV* T^^r^r,., T^ r-r»AVTa<* i ^- E. cor. Bush and Sansome 

Mr. Joseph D. Grant* • | g^^^ 5 p^ ^^, 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 5 

Rev. Charles Graves {^Towa^ C\iyxx<:\ Anamosa. 

Tu.. T x> nr*».xr f Dunstable St., Ampthill, Bed- 
Mr. 1. r. LrRAV I fordshire, England. 

Mr. Andrew Greig* Belle Vue, Tayport, Scotland. 

Sir George Grey,* k. c. b Auckland, New Zealand. 

Mr. P. HHNRV GK,K..M {^°,^^^of St'EngTafd"""' 

Mr. C. P. Grimwood P. O. Box 2092, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Alva J. Grover 1137 Park Ave., Omaha, Neb. 

Rev. H. Grattan Guinness, d. d. . { ^^J^Engla^nd"^^^^ ''''' ^^^^' 

Mr. J. O'B. GuNN Box 2128, S. F., Cal. 

Miss EsTELLA L. Guppy San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. W. C. Gurlev Marietta, Ohio. 

Mr. David E. Hadden Alta, Iowa. 

Prof. Asaph Hall. Jr { "^ M^r**"^' ^"" ^'■''°'' 

\c^ \A7 M MAM**r.w i U. S. Weather Bureau, Mills 

Mr. W. H. Hammon | Building, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Julius Hansen 218 Forest Ave., Buffalo, N.Y. 

Mr. HBKKV HA.K.SON {^fl-elSNe^w^jeS^ ""'' 

Mr. Jackson Hatch Porter Building, San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. Robert Y. Hayne, Jr San Mateo, Cal. 

Mrs. Phebe Hearst { ^^^^S^'^'l'car* ^"''®""''' 

Mr. ANDREW P. HENKEL { ^'^i^cTn^^'dhr ""' ""'^' 

Mr. David Hewes Occidental Hotel, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Geo. W. Hewitt Burlington, New Jersey. 

Mr. George V. Hicks 532 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Prof. Alfred Higbie |S. W.^cor^Pier^ 

Hon. Henry E. Highton j 4th^floor. Mills Building, S. F., 

Mr. Chas. B. Hill 212 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Horace L. Hill* 124 Sansome St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. SAMUEL V. HOPPMAN* {J^ltim^rrMd' """'"'''^' 

Mr. Charles VV. Holden 30 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

Dr. E. S. HOLOEN. Foreign Assoc, r.a.s. { ^'JfrHUl^ol c^i]"^^'*^^' 

Mr. S. E. Holden Napa, Cal. 

Hon. James F. Houghton 303 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Hon. C. Webb Howard* Pacific-Union Club, S.F., Cal. 

Mr.WM.HoWAT* {^^ViSr ^'■' '^''"'*'"™^' 

Mr. WM. RUMFORD HOWELL j 43^^ Walnut St.. Philadelphia. 

Hon. Gardiner G.Hi;bbard { ''f„\?on,"D.'c' '^''^•' ^''*'' 



Mr. 



^ Publications of the 

Prof. W.J. HussKV {^'mon^Cal'^^^'''^' ^^' "^™" 

Mrs. M. H. HuTTON { ^^New^ere^^^^ 

Imperial Observatory • {^"Sa^ ""^ ^^* Petersburg. 

Mr. E. B. Ingram Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 

Mr. O. H. Ingram Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Frank JAYNES {W^^. Telegraph Co.. S. F., 

Mr. Nels Johnson Manistee, Mich. 

f Care New York Life Ins. Co., 
Prof. C. N. Tones \ 346 Broadway, New York, 

I N. Y. 

Prof. J. E. Keeler {^01^'?^''**"^' '^"^^''^"'' 

Prof. JosiAH Keep j MiUs^ College, Alameda Co., 

Mr. A. Keith Riverside, Cal. 

Mr. James R. Kelly 309 Leavenworth St.,S.F.,Cal. 

Mr.A. E. KennellV { "phia^l^a.^""'''"^' ''''"^'**'' 

•D0NAL0K.NG { '^^rEn&"°™"'' ''*'"• 

Mr. SYDNEY T.KLE.N. { ^S^^eT. ISnd^"""""' 

Dr. Dorothea Klumpke | Na^iona^ Observatory, Paris. 

Mr. Wm. H. Knight 1 747, College St., Los Angeles, 

Mr. ToRVALD Kohl* Odder, Denmark. 

Mr. Fr. Koeppen {^'01™^'^ ""' ^^'^'"' ^* 

Prof. H. Kreutz Sternwarte, Kiel, Germany. 

\K^ r- c» T^^ T .v»r.„..r^* / P- O. Box I. Pachuca, State 

Mr. C. F. DE Landero* | Hidalgo, Mexico. 

Mr. Wm. J. Landers 205 Sansome St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Walter W. Law Briar Cliff, Scarborough. N.Y. 

Miss Hannah Townsend Lawrence . Bayside, Long Island, N. Y. 

Hon. Manuel Fernandez Leal . . { ^Sy o? MeS Mexic^ ^• 

Prof. F. P. Leavenworth ^t^^^T^' ''"" 

Prof. Joseph Le Conte, ll. d Berkeley, Cal. 

Rev. Edmund Ledger, m. a., f. r. a. s. . Claydon, Ipswich, England. 
Colonel J. G. C. Lee, U. S. Army . . . New Montgomery St., S.F., Cal. 
Mr. D. A. Lehman College Park, Cal. 

Mr AiRPRTo I FiniK .^ ^^5 Calle Piedad, Buenos 

Mr. ALBERTO Leloir ^ Ayres, Republica Argentina. 

Mr. Beverly Letcher 532 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. William Leviston 50S California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Clarence Mackenzie Lewis. . . 104 E. 37th St., New York, N.Y. 
Library of the Bureau of Edu.\^^^j^j j^ (, 

cation j " ' 



^ Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 7 

California State Library Sacramento, Cal. 

Library of the Chabot Observatory . Oakland, Cal. 

The City Library Lowell, Mass. 

Library of the Leland Stanford Jr. \ c.^^c^^a \^^\.,^^u.r i-«i 
University | Stanford University, Cal. 

Library of the Lick Observatory. . Mount Hamilton. Cal. 

Library OF the Mechanics* Institute . 31 Post St., S. F., Cal. 

The Newberry Library Chicago, 111. 

New York Public Library j 40 Lafeyette Place, New York, 

Library of the Observatory .... Georgetown College, D. C. 

Library of Princeton University . Princeton, New Jersey. 

The Public Library Boston, Mass. 

Library of the University of Cali- \ d^-i,^i^„ rot 
fornia j ^^^^^^^y* ^a»- 

Library of the University of Penn- > du:i«^^i«u;« d« 
SYLVANIA I Philadelphia, Pa. 

Library of Yale University .... New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Adolph Lietz 422Sacramento, St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. J. A. LiGHTHiPE 15 First SL, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. John D. Locke Haverhill, New Hampshire. 

Mr. Henry B. Loomis Seattle, Washington. 

{Director of the McMillin Ob- 
servatory, Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Columbus, Ohio. 

Mr. Geo. Russell Lukens 1350 Madison St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Frank E. Lunt | Care R. G. Lunt, Los Angeles, 

Mr. Patrick MacManus {^^"^Lr^f^.r^JS^rh^^ 

\ Ayres, Repubhca Argentina. 

Miss Agnes M. Manning 12 15 Sutter Street, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Marsden Manson, c. e.. ph. d. . { ^"^^n"o.°CaL '^^''^^'' ^^''''^" 

Mr. F. Martens {^NlwVrrk"^* ^"^^"^ ^""^ 

Mr. Cam I Lo Martin 411 >^ California St., S. F., Cal. 

Hon. E. S. Martin P. O. Box 75, Wilmington, N. C. 

Mr. Louis C. Masten 2218 Clay St., S. F., Cal. 

Prof. A. M. Mattoon f Scott Observatory, Park viUe, 

C Missouri. 

Mr. W. H. MAW/F.R.A.S ( i8 Addison Road, Kensington. 

\ London, England. 

Mr. FRAN. MCCLHAN.. M.A.,P.R.A.s.{I^-'S. En^JaTd. ''"""■""' 

Mr. F. H. McConnell 19 Montgomery St., S. F. Cal. 

Mr. John McDonough 193 28th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

{South Alabama Baptist In- 
stitute, Thomasville, Ala- 
bama. 
Prof. Malcolm McNeill Lake Forest, 111. 

Dr. George W.Merritt i Care Munroe & Co.. 7 Rue 

\ Scribe, Pans, France. 

Hon. Albert Miller* 532 California St., S. F., Cal. 



8 Publications of the 

Prof. E. Miller / University of Kansas, Law 

■ * * I rence, Kansas. 

Hon. D. O. Mills* 15 Broad St., New York, N.Y. 

Dr. Lewis F. Mizzi Constantinople, Turkey. 

Mr. James K. Moffitt \ ^^'c'x ^^^*^"^^ ^^"^' ^- ^^ 

Mr. E. J. Molera,* c. e 606 Clay St., S. F., Cal. 

** T ^ ^ ** finstiluto Mexico, Esquina Pla- 

Mr. J05I; Ortiz Monasterio \ terosyEmpedradillo, Cityof 

I Mexico, Mexico. 

Mr. W. H. S. MoNCK / ^^, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin, 

C Ireland. 

Dr. Jorge C. Monzon / Quezaltenango, Guatemala, 

\ Central Amenca. 

Mr. Beverly K. Moore 56 Bedford St., Boston, Mass. 

Mr. R. S. Morrison Equitable Bld'g, Denver, Colo. 

Mr. FremontMorse, U.S. c.&G. SURVEY . P. O. Box 2512, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. William S. Moses /^^'*^,^^\ ^^^- Masonic and 

I Parker Aves., S. F., Cal. 

Miss Martha H. Munro (542 Massachusetts Avenue, 

t Boston, Mass. 

Mr. C. A. MuRDocK 2710 Scott St., S. F., Cal. 

Hon. B. D. Murphy* San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. Charles Nelson 6 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. H. F. Newall,* F. R. A. s f Observatory of the University, 

I Cambridge, England. 

Mr. G. W. NicoLLS [ ^^^^ .776, Rio de Janeiro, 

\ Brazil. 

Mr. P. NooRDHOFF Groeningen, Holland. 

Mr. Charles Nordhoff . Coronado, Cal. 

Miss Rose O'Halloran 2023 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Warren Olney i ^Si Prospect Ave., Oakland, 

I Cal. 

Miss M. A. Orr [ Wellington College, Berks, 

I England. 

Mr. T. S. Palmer f Department of Agriculture, 

\ Washmgton, D. C. 

General W. J. Palmer Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Dr. George C. Pardee 526 Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 

Dr. S. C. Passavant 200 Post St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. John Patten [ "?,^^?r^ Ave. and Forrest St., 

•' \ Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Edward Payson San Mateo, Cal. 

Miss Clara A. Pease High School, Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. George W. Percy /3i8 Boulevard Terrace, Oak- 

\ land, Cal. 

Hon. Geo. C. Perkins* Oakland, Cal. 

Prof. H. B. Perkins Box 240, Pasadena, Cal. 

Mr. C. D. Perrine 3 Assis't Astronomer Lick Ob- 

{ servatory, Mt. Hamilton, Cal. 
Hon. T. Guy Phelps Belmont, Cal. 

Mr. Henry Phipps, Jr.* f Carnegie, Phipps & Co., Pitts- 

' ^ \ burgh, Pa. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 9 

Mr. Sam. C. Phipps Irvington, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Mr. John Jay Pierrepont j ^ Kin^^cSl R Y.' Brooklyn. 

Mr. Lawrence H. Pierson jPacHjc Pine Lumber Co.. S.F.. 

Hon. Wm. M. Pierson, f. r. a. s. . . {^^^^,^°'» ^^"^ Building, S.F., 

Mr. Ruthven W. Pike* i66 La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Fred. G. Plummer Tacoma, Washington. 

Mr. Arthur French Poole Allegheny City, Pa. 

Dr. CHARLES LANE PoOR. F. R. A. S. . {^Tuim^rMd. ''""'""'' 

Miss Juliet Porter* 37 Dean St., Worcester, Mass. 

Mr. Louis C. Porterfield Tidioute, Warren Co., Pa. 

Mr. Charles A. Post Bayport, Long Island, N. Y. 

Mr. Walter A. Post Newport News, Va. 

Mr. Wm Appleton Potter 39 W. 27th St., New York, N.Y. 

Mr. THOMAS PRATHER { ^TalntoalcK^Ca.^^'""^' 

Mr. Enos Putman* Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Mr T r Rark i ^- ^- Box 301, Mare Island, 

Mr. J. C. KABE -^ Vallejo, Cal. 

Mr. F. B. Randall, u.s. r. m J ^t,.^^^' ^^- "^"^^»** ^^ ^• 

Sister Anna Raphael ] ^S^CaL^""^'^ ^^""^^ ^^" 

Mr. Albert Raymond 202 Sansome St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Norman B. Ream 1901 Prairie Ave., Chicago. III. 

Prnf T K RPRQ p R A q j Observatory of Columbia Col- 

Prof. J. K. Kees, F.R.A.S ^ jgg^^ New York, N. Y. 

Mr. M. Reiman j "^^clg^'lT^ Boulevard, Chi- 

Mr. Francisco Rodriguez Rev . . . j ^taya^M^x^'r^^^ '^^'"" 

Rev. J. L. RiCARD, s. J Santa Clara, Cal. 

Mrs. William Gorham Rice Washington, D. C. 

Mr. DANIELS. RICHARDSON j ^^gasVoataSd'lar"'' ^'"• 

Dr. ISAAC ROBERTS, F. R. A. s { Crowborough, Sussex. Eng- 

Hon. Arthur Rodgers Nevada Block, S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. Arthur Rodgers* j Le^v^rth and Vallejo Sts., 

Mr. F. B. RoDOLPH 523 Tenth St., Oakland, Cal. 

Dr. W. H. Rollins 250 Marlboro St., Boston, Mass. 

Mr. GEO. A. Ross j '"os^^th Ave.. East Oakland. 

The Earl of Rosse, f. r. a. s j ^'|I„^^'*'^' P^'^°"^'o"'"' ^'^ 

Baron Albert von Rothschild* . . . Vienna, Austria. 

Mr. John R. Ruckstell j '^^s" F.. ckl.^ California St.. 

Mr. ALEXANDER RvozEWSKi TS^^beS^N'-u^^^^^^^ 



lo Publications of the 

lu- r- V Q^,j^^,TiT,7o i Ca**® Fauth & Co., Maryland 

Mr. G. N. Saegmuller j ^^^^ Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Joseph C. Sala 429 Montgomery St., S. F.,Cal. 

Prof. J. M. Schaeberle* { ^^^o^n.^c^li^'^^^^^'^' ^^' "^'"*^" 

Mr. Jacob H. Shiff* 932Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Herman ScHUSSLER Pacific-Union Club, S. F., Cal. 

Baron A. v. Schwe.ger-Lerchenfeld] '^'^'Sfusfrfa"^^^ '^' '^'^""^' 

Mr. Henry T. Scott Box 2128, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. JAMES L. SCOTT. P. R. ..s ) ^s^S JgLtSiJl""'^ "" '^"• 

Rev. GEORGE M. SEAR.E j '^'^Sn^Bil^''''"'""' 

Mr. Fred. H. Seares Berkeley, Cal. 

Dr. J. M. Selfridge Box 37, Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. EDWARD Perkonet SE.I.S . . . ) "^^sourirffi- '''''^'''' 

Mr. Garrett P. Serviss 8 Middagh St., Brooklyn.N. Y. 

Dr. T. Steele Sheldon, f. r. a. s. . { P^and!*^" ^^^'='^"'^^'*^' ^"«^- 
Dr. G. E. SHUEV { %JJj'."^,r ^ ^t.. East 

Mr. D. P. Simons Los Gatos, Cal. 

Mr. Francis Sinclair Berkeley, Cal. 

Judge Charles W. Slack 1729 Sutter St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Chas. S. Smith* 25 W. 47th St., New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Sommers N, Smith Newport News, Virginia. 

Mr. Wm. F. Smith 206 Sansome St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. C. A. Spreckels* San Mateo, Cal. 

Mrs. C. A. Spreckels* San Mateo, Cal. 

Mr. Rudolph Spreckels 2000 Gough St., S. F., Cal. 

Miss Gertrude Stanford 1218 Oak St., Oakland, Cal. 

Dr. Hezbkiah Starr . . j "7^ Mulberry St., Baltimore, 

Mr. John W. Stetson 906 Broadway, Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Robert Stevenson P. O. Box 2214, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. H. F. Stivers • . . Hunters, Tehama Co., Cal. 

Mr. Chauncev M. St. John . . . • . U.S. Custom House, S.F., Cal. 

\n^ T.r. ,.T^ c.„^^Tr~* ^ Care of The Ohio Central Fuel 

Mr. Julius Stone* \ ^^ ^ Columbus, Ohio. 

Prof. VV. H. VON Streeruwitz . . . . P. O. Box 465, Austin, Texas. 

Prof. I. Stringham, ph. d Berkeley, Cal. 

Miss Mary A. Sullivan 571 36th St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Daniel Suter j ^^g"! F.,'cal.^''''^^' ^"'^"^'"^^ 

Hon. A. Sutro* { 3o^Montgomery Block, S. F., 

Mr. C. F. A. Talbot 204 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. Louis Taussig 2127 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Charles Tousey Taylor .... Kamela, Oregon. 

Prof. J. M. Taylor State University ;Seattle, Wash. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 1 1 

Dr. Jesus MuSos Tebar Maracaibo, Venezuela. S. A. 

Mr.JOHNTEBBUTT,F.R.A.S [ ^^h '^5^^""^'^^^ ^^"^ 

Dr. A. Blair Thaw | Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., 

Mr. I. E. Thayer 28 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Dr ToHN M Thomr* ^ National Observatory, Cordo- 

Dr.jOHNM. IHOME ^ ba, Argentine Republic. 

Mr. D. F. TiLLiNGHAST 315 Montgomery St.,S.F.,Cal. 

Hon. J. W. Towner Santa Ana, Orange Co., Cal. 

Mr. S. D. TOWN.HV j ^r„"rbL^r?'M^'hf|aT'°^''' 

Mr. JOH. S. TowssENO { ^rvroii;°s'f,;gPa'nd.J°'"' 

Hon. Alfred L. Tubbs* 6n Front St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. R. H. Tucker, Jr -j ^'jo^.^c'a^.'"^*"'^' '^'- "*•""" 

Mr. Henry J. Turner* j VVoodville.RappahannockCo.. 

Mrs. F. K. Upham -j ^l^X^g.'ct "°"''* ^"^ 

Miss Sara Carr Upton j ''°?gton"ft"'^^''^"^*'''" 

Mr. Edward H. Van Ingen 9 East 71st St., New York, N.Y. 

Rev. Jacob Voorsanger 432 Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. W. P. Wallheiser Bedford, Indiana. 

Mr. Frederic Lumb Wanklyn . . . ■} "^^-a^X.""'"'* ^*' ^°"''^'''' 

M, I iir \\i., i 271 Bourke St., Sydney, New 

Mr. J. W. Ward \ ' ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

rCare of Warner & Swasey, 

Mr. W. R. Warner \ East Prospect St., Cleve- 

l land, Ohio. 

Mrs. W. Seward Webb ...,...} %™^ A^^""^' New York, 

Prof Dr I Weinfk \ I"^Pe"al Observatory, Prague, 

t'rol. Ur. L. WEiNEK ^ Austro- Hungary. 

Mr. Chas. j. Welch 1090 Eddy St., S. F., Cal. 

Prof. L. G. Weld -j ^'?^^^^^"^^^''''^' ^""^'^ ^^'^' 

President Andrew D. White* .... Ithaca, N. Y. 

«» c- „,- u. ur... „ ( State Normal School, Valley 

Mrs. Elsie Hadley White \ ^ity. North Dakota. 

Mr. E. J. White,f.r.a.s j ObseM,atory, Melbourne, Vic- 

Mr. Ralph Radcliffe-Whitehead . . Santa Barbara, Cal. 

., . o Mr ^ S Bella Vista, Hove Park Villas, 

Mr. A. Stanley Williams, f. r. a. s. -J ^^^^ Brighton, England. 

Mrs. Mary H. Willmarth* 222 Michigan Ave., Chicago,lll. 

Miss Marie B. Wilson 3196 Pacific Ave., S. F., Cal. 

Colonel B. Witkovsky* j ^'4l^Russ^a'^' '^^' °" '''' ""^' 

Rev. Henry Wood St. Ignatius College, S.F., Cal. 



12 Publications of the 

Mr. Frederick W. Zeile* "{ '^h^^l^'^^^'car ^'"*®""''" 

Prof. C. V. Zenger, f. r. a. s Smichow, Prague, Bohemia. 

Mr. F. R. ZiEL 410 California St., S. F., Cal. 



LIST OF CORRESPONDING INSTITUTIONS. 

Albany, New York, Dudley Observatory. 

Allegheny, Pennsylvania, Allegheny Observatory. 

Armagh, Ireland, Armagh Observatory. 

Berlin, Germany, Redaction des Berliner Jahrbuchs. 

Berlin, Germany, Royal Observatory. 

Cambridge, England, University Observatory. 

Cape Town, Africa, Royal Observatory. 

Christiania, Norway, University Observatory. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. University Observatory. 

Cordoba, Argentine Republic, National Observatory. 

Dorpat, Russia, University Observatory. 

Dublin, Ireland, Dunsink Observatory. 

Dublin, Ireland, Royal Dublin Society. 

Edinburgh, Scotland, Royal Observatory. 

Geneva, Switzerland, Observatory. 

Glasgow, Scotland, Univeisity Observatory. 

Gotha, Germany, Ducal Observatory. 

Goeitingen, Germany, Royal Observatory. 

Greenwich, England, Royal Observatory. 

Hamburg, Germany, Observatory. 

Helsingfors, Russia, University Observatory. 

Kasan, Russia, University Observatory. 

Kiel, Germany, University Observatory. 

Koenigsberg, Germany, University Observatory. 

La Plata, Argentine Republic, Observatory. 

Leipzig, Germany, University Observatory. 

Leyden, Holland, University Observatory. 

Lisbon (Tapada), Portugal, Royal Observatory. 

London, England, 26 Martin's Lane, British Astronomical Association. 

London, England, British Museum. 

London, England, Royal Astronomical Society. 

London, England, 3 Verulam Bldgs., Gray's Inn, The Nautical Almanac. 

Lund, Sweden, University Observatory. 

Madison, Wisconsin, Washburn Observatory. 

Madras, India, Observatory. 

Madrid, Spain, Royal Observatory. 

Marseilles, France, Observatory. 

Melbourne, Victoria, Observatory. 

Mexico, Mexico, Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate.'* 

Milan, Italy, Royal Observatory. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 13 

Moscow, Russia, University Observatory. 

Munich, Germany, Royal Observatory. 

Naples, Italy, Royal Observatory. 

New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Observatory. 

New York, New York, American Mathematical Society. 

New York, New York, Columbia University Observatory. 

Nice, France, Observatory. 

Northfield, Minnesota, Carleton College Observatory. 

Oxford, England, Radcliffe Observatory. 

Oxford, England, University Observatory. 

Paris, France, Bureau of Longitudes. 

Paris, France, National Observatory. 

Potsdam, Germany, Astrophysical Observatory. 

Prague, Austro-Hungary, University Observatory. 

Pulkowa, Russia, Imperial Observatory. 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Observatory. 

Rome, Italy, Observatory of the Roman College. 

Rome, Italy, Italian Spectroscopic Society. 

Rome, Italy, Specula Vaticana. 

San Francisco, California, California Academy of Sciences. 

San Francisco, California, Technical Society of the Pacific Coast. 

Stockholm, Sweden, University Observatory. 

Strassburg, Germany, University Observatory. 

Sydney, New South W>«les, Observatory. 

Tacubaya, Mexico, National Observatory. 

Tokio, Japan, University Observatory. 

Toronto, Canada, Astronomical and Physical Society of Toronto. 

Toulouse, France, Observatory. 

Turin, Italy, Observatory. 

University Park, Colorado, Chamberlin Observatory. 

University of Virginia, Virginia, McCormick Observatory. 

Upsala, Sweden, University Observatory. 

Vienna, Austria, Imperial Observatory. 

Vienna (Ottakring), Austria, Von Kuffner's Observatory. 

Washington, District of Columbia, Library of Congress. 

Washington, District of Columbia, National Academy of Sciences. 

Washington, District of Columbia, Naval Observatory. 

Washington, District of Columbia, Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington, District of Columbia, The American Ephemeris. 

Washington, District of Columbia, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

William's Bay, Wisconsin, Yerkes Observatory. 

Zurich, Switzerland, Observatory. 



EXCHANGES. 

Astrophysical Journals Chicai^o, Illinois. 

Sirius, Cologne, Germany. 

The Observatory^ Greenwich, England. 



14 Publications of the 

FOR REVIEW. 

[See Publications A. S. P., Vol. VIII, p. loi.J 

The Caily San Francisco, California. 

The Chronicle, San Francisco, California. 

The Examiner, San Francisco, California. 

The Mercury^ San Jos6, California. 

The Overland Monthly, San Francisco, California. 

The Record' Union^ Sacramento, California. 

The Times, Los Angeles, California. 

The Tribune, Oakland, California. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF CARBONIC ACID IN THE 
AIR UPON THE TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH. 



By Professor S. Arrhenius. 

[Abstract by Edward S. Holdkn.] 



[Note. — The following very brief and inadequate notice of an important paper pre- 
sented to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in December, 1895, and printed in the 
Philosophical Magazine, Volume XLI, pages 237-276, is given here chiefly for the pur- 
pose of directing attention to an entirely novel and simple explanation of the vexed 
questions relating to the Earth's temperature in past times and to the cause of the 
Glacial Epoch. It is impossible in the present place to give more than the shortest 
abstract.— E. S. H.] 

7. Introduction: Observations of Lang ley on Atmospheric 

Absorption, 
**A great deal has been written on the influence of the 
absorption of the atmosphere upon the climate. Tyndall,* in 
particular, has pointed out the enormous importance of this 
question. To him it was chiefly the diurnal and annual varia- 
tions of the temperature that were lessened by this circumstance. 
Another side of the question, that has long attracted the attention 
of physicists, is this: Is the mean temperature of the ground in 
any way influenced by the presence of heat-absorbing gases in the 
atmosphere? Fourier maintained that the atmosphere acts like 
the glass of a hot-house, because it lets through the light-rays of 
the Sun, but retains the dark-rays from the ground. This idea 
was elaborated by Pouillet; and Langley was by some of his 
researches led to the view that ** the temperature of the Earth 
under direct sunshine, even though our atmosphere were present, 
as now, would probably fall to —200° C, if that atmosphere did 



• The author's references to the original authorities are, in general, omitted here. — 
E. S. H. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 15 

not possess the quality of selective absorption." This view, 
which was founded on too wide a use of Newton's law of cooling, 
must be abandoned, as Langley himself in a later memoir 
showed that the full Moon, which certainly does not possess any 
sensible heat-absorbing atmosphere, has a ** mean effective tem- 
perature'* of about 45° C. 

The air retains heat (light or dark) in two different ways. On 
the one hand, the heat suffers a selective diffusion on its passage 
through the air; on the other hand, some of the atmospheric 
gases absorb considerable quantities of heat. These two actions 
are very different. The selective diffusion is extraordinarily great 
for the ultra-violet rays, and diminishes continuously with in- 
creasing wave-length of the light, so that it is insensible for the 
rays that form the chief part of the radiation from a body of the 
mean temperature of the Earth. 

The selective absorption of the atmosphere is * * * of a 
wholly different kind. It is not exerted by the chief mass of the 
air, but in a high degree by aqueous vapor and carbonic acid, 
which are present in the air in small quantities. * * * The 
influence of this absorption is comparatively small on the heat 
from the Sun, but must be of great importance in the transmission 
of rays from the Earth. * * * 

// The Total Absorption by Atmospheres of Varying Composition, 

I J I. Thermal Equilibrium on the Surface and in the Atmosphere 

of the Earth. 

IV. Calculation of the Variation of Temperature that would 

ensue in consequence of a given variation of the 

Carbonic Acid in the Air, 

If the quantity of carbonic acid increases in geometric pro- 
gression, the augmentation of the temperature will increase nearly 
in arithmetical progression. This rule — which naturally holds 
good only in the part investigated — will be useful for the follow- 
ing summary estimations. 

V, Geological Consequences, 

I should certainly not have undertaken these tedious calcula- 
tions if an extraordinary interest had not been connected with 



1 6 Publications of the 

them. In the Physical Society of Stockholm there have been 
occasionally very lively discussions on the probable causes of the 
ice age; and these discussions have, in my opinion, led to the 
conclusion that there exists as yet no satisfactory hypothesis 
that could explain how the climatic conditions for an ice age 
could be realized in so short a time as that which has elapsed 
from the days of the glacial epoch. The common view hitherto 
has been that the Earth has cooled in the lapse of time; and if 
one did not know that the reverse has been the case, one would 
certainly assert that this cooling must go on continuously. 
Conversations with my friend and colleague, Professor Hogbom, 
together with the discussions above referred to, led me to make a 
preliminary estimate of the probable effect of a variation of the 
atmospheric carbonic acid on the temperature of the Earth. 
As this estimation led to the belief that one might in this 
way probably find an explanation for temperature variations of 
5° - io° C. , I worked out the calculation more in detail, and lay 
it now before the public and the critics. 

From geological researches the fact is well established that in 
tertiary times there existed a vegetation and an animal life in the 
temperate and arctic zones that must have been conditioned by a 
much higher temperature than the present in the same regions.* 
The temperature in the arctic zones appears to have exceeded the 
present temperature by about eight or nine degrees. To this 
genial time the ice age succeeded, and this was one or more times 
interrupted by interglacial periods with a climate of about the 
same character as the present, sometimes even milder. When 
the ice age had its greatest extent, the countries that now 
enjoy the highest civilization were covered with ice. This was 
the case with Ireland, Britain (except a small part in the south), 
Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Russia (to Kiev, 
Orel, and Nijni Novgorod), Germany and Austria (to the Harz, 
Erz-Gebirge, Dresden, and Cracow). At the same time an ice- 
cap from the Alps covered Switzerland, parts of France, Bavaria 
(south of the Danube), the Tyrol, Styria, and other Austrian 
countries, and descended into the northern part of Italy. Simul- 
taneously, too, North America was covered with ice on the west 
coast to the forty- seventh parallel, on the east coast to the fortieth, 



• For details cf. Neumayr, Erdgeschichte, Bd. 2, Leipzig, 1887; and Gbikib, "The 
Great Ice-Age," 3d ed., London, 1894. ^kihok^i ^ Jordens Historia, p. 989, Stockholm, 
1894. ' 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 17 

and in the central part to the thirty-seventh (confluence of the 
Mississippi and Ohio Rivers). In the most different parts of the 
world, too, we have found traces of a great ice age, as in the Cauca- 
sus, Asia Minor, Syria, the Himalayas, India, Thian Shan, Altai, 
Atlas, on Mount Kenia and Kilimandjaro (both very near to the 
equator), in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Kerguelen, 
Falkland Islands, Patagonia, and other parts of South America. 
The geologists in general are inclined to think that these glacia- 
tions were simultaneous on the whole Earth;* and this most 
natural view would probably have been generally accepted, if the 
theory of Croll, which demands a genial age on the Southern 
hemisphere at the same time as an ice age on the Northern, and 
vice versa, had not influenced opinion. By measurements of the 
displacement of the snow-line we arrive at the result — and this 
is very concordant for different places — that the temperature at 
that time must have been 4°- 5° C. lower than at present. The 
last glaciation must have taken place in rather recent times, 
geologfically speaking; so that the human race certainly had 
appeared at that period. Certain American geologists hold the 
opinion that since the close of the ice age only some 7000 to 
10,000 years have elapsed, but this most probably is greatly 
underestimated. 

One may now ask, How much must the carbonic acid vary, 
according to our figures, in order that the temperature should 
attain the same values as in the tertiary and ice ages, respectively ? 
A simple calculation shows that the temperature in the arctic 
regions would rise about 8° to 9° C, if the carbonic acid increased 
to 2.5 or 3 times its present value. In order to get the tempera- 
ture of the ice age between the fortieth and fiftieth parallels, the 
carbonic acid in the air should sink to 0.62-0.55 of its present 
value (lowering of temperature 4^-5° C). The demands of the 
geologists, that at the genial epochs the climate should be more 
uniform than now, accords very well with our theory. The 
geographical annual and diurnal ranges of temperature would be 
partly smoothed away, if the quantity of carbonic acid was 
augmented. The reverse would be the case (at least to a latitude 
of fifty degrees from the equator), if the carbonic acid diminished 
in amount. But in both these cases, I incline to think that the 
secondary action due to the regress or the progress of the snow- 
covering would play the most important r61e. The theory 



•Neumayr, Erdgeschichte, p. 648; Nathorst, /. c. p. 992. 



1 8 Publications of the 

demands also that, roughly speaking, the whole Earth should 
have undergone about the same variations of temperature; 
so that, according to it, genial or glacial epochs must have occurred 
simultaneously on the whole Earth. Because of the greater 
nebulosity [cloudiness] of the Southern hemisphere, the variations 
must there have been a little less (about fifteen per cent.) than 
in the Northern hemisphere. The ocean currents, too, must 
there, as at the present time, have effaced the differences in 
temperature at different latitudes to a greater extent than in the 
Northern hemisphere. This effect also results from the greater 
nebulosity in the arctic zones than in the neighborhood of the 
equator. 

There is now an important question which should be answered, 
namely: — Is it probable that such great variations in the quantity 
of carbonic acid as our theory requires have occurred in relatively 
short geological times ? The answer to this question is given by 
Professor Hogbom. As his memoir on this question may not be 
accessible to most readers of these pages, I have summed up and 
translated his utterances which are of most importance to our 
subject: * 

"Although it is not possible to obtain exact quantitative 
expressions for the reactions in nature by which carbonic acid is 
developed or consumed, nevertheless there are some factors, of 
which one may get an approximately true estimate, and from which 
certain conclusions that throw light on the question may be 
drawn. In the first place, it seems to be of importance to com- 
pare the quantity of carbonic acid now present in the air with the 
quantities that are being transformed. If the former is insignifi- 
cant in comparison with the latter, then the probability for varia- 
tions is wholly other than in the opposite case. 

** On the supposition that the mean quantity of carbonic acid 
in the air reaches 0.03 vol. per cent., this number represents 
0.045 per cent, by weight, or 0.342 millim. partial pressure, or 
0.466 gramme of carbonic acid for every cm.* of the Earth's 
surface. Reduced to carbon, this quantity would give a layer of 
about one millim. thickness over the Earth's surface. The 
quantity of carbon that is fixed in the living organic worl^ can 
certainly not be estimated with the same degree of exactness ; but 
it is evident that the numbers that might express this quantity 
ought to be of the same order of magnitude, so that the carbon 



* HC>GBOM, Svensk kemisk Tidskri/t, Bd. vi, p. 169 (1S94). 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 19 

in the air can neither be conceived of as very great, nor as very 
little, in comparison with the quantity of carbon occurring in 
organisms. With regard to the great rapidity with which the 
transformation in organic nature proceeds, the disposable quantity 
of carbonic acid is not so excessive that changes caused by 
climatological or other reasons in the velocity and value of that 
transformation might not be able to cause displacements of the 
equilibrium. 

* * The following calculation is also very instructive for the ap- 
preciation of the relation between the quantity of carbonic acid 
in the air and the quantities that are transformed. The world's 
present production of coal reaches, in round numbers, 500 millions 
of tons per annum, or one ton per km.' of the Earth's surface. 
Transformed into carbonic acid, this quantity would correspond 
to about a thousandth part of the carbonic acid in the atmosphere. 
It represents a layer of limestone of 0.003 n^iHifn. thickness over 
the whole globe, or 1.5 km.^ in cubic measure. This quantity 
of carbonic acid, which is supplied to the atmosphere chiefly by 
modern industry, may be regarded as completely compensating 
the quantity of carbonic acid that is consumed in the formation 
of limestone (or other mineral carbonates) by the weathering or 
decomposition of silicates. From the determination of the 
amounts of dissolved substances, especially carbonates, in a 
number of rivers in different countries and climates, and of the 
quantity of water flowing in these rivers, and of their drainage- 
surface compared with the land-surface of the globe, it is esti- 
mated that the quantities of dissolved carbonates that are supplied 
to the ocean in the course of a year reach at most the bulk of 3 
km.' As it is also proved that the rivers the drainage regions of 
which consist of silicates convey very unimportant quantities of 
carbonates compared with those that flow through limestone 
regions, it is permissible to draw the conclusion, which is also 
strengthened by other reasons, that only an insignificant part of 
these 3 km.' of carbonates is formed directly by decomposition of 
silicates. In other words, only an unimportant part of this 
quantity of carbonate of lime can be derived from the process of 
weathering in a year. Even though the number given were, on 
account of inexact or uncertain assumptions, erroneous to the 
extent of fifty per cent, or more, the comparison instituted is of 
very great interest, as it proves that the most important of all 
the processes by means of which carbonic acid has been removed 



20 Publications of the 

from the atmosphere in all times — namely, the chemical weather- 
ing of siliceous minerals, — is of the same order of magnitude as a 
process of contrary effect, which is caused by the industrial de- 
velopment of our time, and which must be conceived of as being 
of a temporary nature. 

** In comparison with the quantity of carbonic acid which is 
fixed in limestone (and other carbonates), the carbonic acid of 
the air vanishes. With regard to the thickness of sedimentary 
formations and the great part of them that is formed by limestone 
and other carbonates, it seems not improbable that the total 
quantity of carbonates would cover the whole Earth's surface to 
a height of hundreds of metres. If we assume loo metres — a 
number that may be inexact in a high degree, but probably is 
underestimated, — we find that about 25,000 times as much car- 
bonic acid is fixed to lime in the sedimentary formations as exists 
free in the air. Every molecule of carbonic acid in this mass of 
limestone has, however, existed in and passed through the atmo- 
sphere in the course of time. Although we neglect all other 
factors which may have influenced the quantity of carbonic acid in 
the air, this number lends but very slight probability to the hy- 
pothesis, that this quantity should in former geological epochs have 
changed within limits which do not differ much from the present 
amount. As the process of weathering has consumed quantities 
of carbonic acid many thousand times greater than the amount 
now disposable in the air, and as this process from diflferent geo- 
graphical, climatological, and other causes has in all likelihood 
proceeded with very different intensity at difl*erent epochs, the 
probability of important variations in the quantity of carbonic acid 
seems to be very great, even if we take into account the compen- 
sating processes which, as we shall see in what follows, are called 
forth as soon as, for one reason or another, the production or 
consumption of carbonic acid tends to displace the equilibrium to 
any considerable degree. One often hears the opinion expressed, 
that the quantity of carbonic acid in the air ought to have been 
very much greater formerly than now, and that the diminution 
should arise from the circumstance that carbonic acid has been 
taken from the air and stored in the Earth's crust in the form of 
coal and carbonates. In many cases this hypothetical diminution 
is ascribed only to the formation of coal, whilst the much more 
important formation of carbonates is wholly overlooked. This 
whole method of reasoning on a continuous diminution of the 



Astronomical Society of tlie Pacific. 21 

carbonic acid in the air loses all foundation in fact, notwithstand- 
ing that enormous quantities of carbonic acid, in the course of 
time, have been fixed in carbonates, if we consider more closely 
the processes by means of which carbonic acid has in all times 
been supplied to the atmosphere. From these we may well 
conclude that enormous variations have occurred, but not that 
the variation has always proceeded in the same direction. 

** Carbonic acid is supplied to the atmosphere by the follow- 
ing processes: — (i) volcanic exhalations, and geological phe- 
nomena connected therewith; (2) combustion of carbonaceous 
meteorites in the higher regions of the atmosphere; (3) com- 
bustion and decay of organic bodies; (4) decomposition of car- 
bonates; (5) liberation of carbonic acid mechanically inclosed in 
minerals on their fracture or decomposition. The carbonic acid 
of the air is consumed chiefly by the following processes: 
(6) formation of carbonates from silicates on weathering; and (7) 
the consumption of carbonic acid by vegetative processes. The 
ocean, too, plays an important r61e as a regulator of the quantity 
of carbonic acid in the air by means of the absorptive power of 
its water, which gives off* carbonic acid as its temperature rises, 
and absorbs it as it cools. The processes named under (4) and 
(5) are of little significance, so that they may be omitted. So too 
the processes (3) and (7); for the circulation of matter in the 
organic world goes on so rapidly that their variations cannot 
have any sensible influence. From this we must except periods 
in which great quantities of organisms were stored up in sedimen- 
tary formations and thus subtracted from the circulation, or in 
which such stored-up products were, as now, introduced anew 
into the circulation. The source of carbonic acid named in (2) 
is wholly incalculable. 

*' Thus the processes (i), (2), and (6) chiefly remain as bal- 
ancing each other. As the enormous quantities of carbonic acid 
(representing a pressure of many atmospheres) that are now fixed 
in the limestone of the Earth's crust cannot be conceived to have 
existed in the air but as an insignificant fraction of the whole at 
any one time since organic life appeared on the globe, and since 
therefore the consumption through weathering and formation of 
carbonates must have been compensated by means of continuous 
supply, we must regard volcanic exhalations as the chief source 
of carbonic acid for the atmosphere. 

*' But this source has not flowed regularly and uniformly. 



22 Publications of the 

Just as single volcanoes have their periods of variation with 
alternating relative rest and intense activity, in the same manner 
the globe as a whole seems in certain geological epochs to have 
exhibited a more violent and general volcanic activity, whilst 
other epochs have been marked by a comparative quiescence of 
the volcanic forces. It seems therefore probable that the quantity 
of carbonic acid in the air has undergone nearly simultaneous 
variations, or at least that this factor has had an important 
influence. > 

**If we pass the above-mentioned processes for consuming 
and producing carbonic acid under review, we find that they 
evidently do not stand in such a relation to or dependence on 
one another that any probability exists for the permanence 
of an equilibrium of the carbonic acid in the atmosphere. 
An increase or decrease of the supply continued during geological 
periods must, although it may not be important, conduce to 
remarkable alterations of the quantity of carbonic acid in the air, 
and there is no conceivable hindrance to imagining that this 
might in a certain geological period have been several times 
greater, or, on the other hand, considerable less, than now.'* 

As the question of the probability of quantitative variation of 
the carbonic acid in the atmosphere is in the most decided 
manner answered by Professor Hogbom, there remains only one 
other point to which I wish to draw attention in a few words, 
namely: Has no one hitherto proposed any acceptable ex- 
planation for the occurrence of genial and glacial periods? 
Fortunately, during the progress of the foregoing calculations, 
a memoir was published by the distinguished Italian meteoro- 
logist, L. De Marchi, which relieves me from answering the 
last question.* He examined in detail the different theories 
hitherto proposed — astronomical, physical, or geographical, and 
of these I here give a short rhuniL These theories assert that 
the occurrence of genial or glacial epochs should depend on one 
or other change in the following circumstances: 

(i) The temperature of the Earth's place in space. 

(2) The Sun's radiation to the Earth (solar constant). 

(3) The obliquity of the Earth's axis to the ecliptic. 

(4) The position of the poles on the Earth's surface. 



•LuiGi Dk Marchi: Lf Cause deir Era Glaciate, \>x^m\2\o dal R. Instituto Lom- 
bardo, Pavia, 1895. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 23 

(5) The form of the Earth's orbit, especially its eccentricity 

(Croll). 

(6) The shape and extension of continents and oceans. 

(7) The covering of the Earth's surface (vegetation). 

(8) The direction of the oceanic and aerial currents. 

(9) The position of the equinoxes. 

De March I arrives at the conclusion that all these hypotheses 
must be rejected. On the other hand, he is of the opinion that 
a change in the transparency of the atmosphere would possibly 
give the desired effect. According to his calculations, * * a lower- 
ing of this transparency would effect a lowering of the temperature 
on the whole Earth, slight in the equatorial regions, and increasing 
with the latitude into the seventieth parallel; nearer the poles 
again a little less. Further, this lowering would, in non-tropical 
rejjions, be less on the continents than on the ocean, and would 
diminish the annual variations of the temperature. This diminu- 
tion of the air's transparency ought chiefly to be attributed to a 
greater quantity of aqueous vapor in the air, which would cause 
not only a direct cooling, but also copious precipitation of water 
and snow on the continents. The origin of this greater quantity 
of water- vapor is not easy to explain." De Marchi has arrived 
at wholly other results than myself, because he has not sufficiently 
considered the important quality of selective absorption which is 
possessed by aqueous vapor. And further, he has forgotten that 
if aqueous vapor is supplied to the atmosphere, it will be con- 
densed till the former condition is reached, if no other change 
has taken place. As we have seen, the mean relative humidity 
between the fortieth and sixtieth parallels on the Northern hemi- 
sphere is seventy-six per cent. If, then, the mean temperature 
sank from its actual value-}- 5-3 by 4° -5° C, /. <f., to -)- 1.3 
or -{-0.3, and the aqueous vapor remained in the air, the relative 
humidity would increase to loi or 105 per cent. This is, of 
course, impossible; for the relative humidity cannot exceed 100 
per cent, in the free air. A fortiori, it is impossible to assume 
that the absolute humidity could have been greater than now in 
the glacial epoch. 

As the hypothesis of Croll still seems to enjoy a certain 
favor with the English geologists, it may not be without interest 
to cite the utterance of De Marchi on this theory, which he, in 
accordance with its importance, has examined more in detail 
than the others. He says, and I entirely agree with him on this 



24 Publications of the 

point: **Now, I think I may conclude that from the point of view 
of climatology or meteorology, in the present state of these 
sciences, the hypothesis of Croll seems to be wholly untenable, 
as well in its principles as in its consequences,*' * 

It seems that the great advantage which C roll's hypothesis 
promised to geologists, viz: of giving them a natural chronology, 
predisposed them in favor of its acceptance. But this circum- 
stance, which at first appeared advantageous, seems with the 
advance of investigation rather to militate against the theory, 
because it becomes more and more impossible to reconcile the 
chronology demanded by Croll's hypothesis with the facts of 
observation. 

I trust that after what has been said the theory proposed in the 
foregoing pages will prove useful in explaining some points in 
geological climatology which have hitherto proved most difficult 
to interpret. 

PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR MARCH AND 
APRIL, 1897. 

Bv Professor Malcolm McNeill. 

March. 

The Sun '* crosses the line** and spring begins just after mid- 
night, March 19-20 P. S. T. 

Mercury is a morning star, having passed greatest west elonga- 
tion on February 15th. At the beginning of the month it rises not 
quite an hour before sunrise, and may possibly be seen if the 
weather conditions are very favorable, but its distance from the 
Sun grows less throughout the month, and it comes to superior 
conjunction on April ist. 

Venus is an evening star, having passed its greatest east 
elongation in February. During the month it draws a little 
nearer the Sun, but sets more than three hours after sunset at 
the end of the month. On March 21st it comes to its maximum 
brilliancy, and all through the month it will be visible to the 
naked eye in full daylight, if the sky is clear and free from haze. 

Mars is still a prominent object in the western sky in the 
evening, and does not set until after midnight. During the 



• Dk Marchi, /. c. p. 166. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 25 

month it moves about fifteen degrees eastward from the con- 
stellation Taurus into Gemini, On March ist it is about three 
degrees south of the second magnitude star /3 Tauri, The 
planet has lost very much in brightness, but is still conspicuous. 
At the end of the month its distance from us is about 130,000,000 
miles, two and and one-half times as far away as it was at 
opposition in December. 

Jupiter passed opposition on February 23d, and is above the 
horizon practically the whole night throughout March. It is 
retrograding, moving westward and northward about three 
degrees during the month toward the first magnitude star Reguius 
(a Leonis), and at the close of the month is about three degrees 
east of the star. 

Saturn rises two hours earlier than during the corresponding 
period in February, and toward the close of the month is well 
above the horizon before midnight. It is in the constellation 
Scorpio and moves slowly eastward and then begins to move 
westward, but the total change of position is only a fraction of a 
degree. It is about one degree north of fi Scorpii, The rings 
are in good position for observation, being well out toward their 
maximum opening. 

Uranus is near Saturn about two degrees west and one degree 
thirty minutes south, and moves in about the same way but not 
as fast. 

Neptune is in Taurus and sets at about midnight. 

April. 

Mercury passes superior conjunction on April ist, and through 
the rest of the month is an evening star reaching greatest east 
elongation on the morning of April 28th. From the middle of 
the month it sets more than an hour after the Sun, and at the 
end of the month it sets nearly two hours later. This is the best 
time of the year for seeing the planet as an evening star. 

Venus sets about three hours later than the Sun on April ist; 
but it rapidly approaches the Sun and passes inferior conjunction 
on the morning of April 28th. It will not be easy to see after 
April 20th. Venus and Mercury are in conjunction on the 
morning of April 17th, Mercury being five degrees south. 

Afars still sets after midnight. During the month it moves 
about seventeen degrees eastward in the constellation Gemi7ii, 
and at the close is south of Castor and Pollux (a and P Gcmin- 



26 Publications of the 

orum), the distance from the nearer star not being greatly dif- 
ferent from their distance apart. The planet makes a very near 
approach to the third magnitude star c Geminorum on the 
morning of April 8th. The least distance is only two minutes, 
and to the naked eye the star will be lost in the glare of the 
planet, but the phenomenon will occur while they are below our 
horizon. 

Jupiter is above the horizon until long after midnight. It is 
in the constellation Leo, and moves slowly westward about one 
degree toward the first magnitude star Regulus, until it stops and 
begins to move eastward on April 26th. It is about two degrees 
east of Regulus at the end of the month. 

Sahirji rises at a little after 8 p.m. at the end of the month. It 
is in the constellation Scorpio^ and moves about two degrees west- 
ward during April away from the second magnitude star fi Scorpii, 
which is a little east and south of the planet. 

Uranus is about two degrees west and the same amount south 
of Saturn. The distance west diminishes slightly, and the dis- 
tance south increases slightly during the month. 

Neptwie is in the constellation Taurus and sets before mid- 
night. 

Occullations, The Moon occults the Pleiades group on the 
evening of April 5th. The Moon is then about four days old, 
and it will be a fine opportunity for seeing the disappearance of 
the stars at the dark limb. The times vary so for different parts 
of the country that it is not worth while to try to give any here. 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 
In the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
by adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 
the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
seldom much more than i°*. To find the standard time for the 
phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence betw^een standard and local time if the place is west of the 
standard meridian, and subiradifig if east. The same rules apply 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 27 

to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 
of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
and for latitudes differing much from 40° they may be several 
minutes out. 





Phases ( 


OF 


THE Moon, 


P. S. T. 








New 


Moon, 




Mar. 3, 


H. M. 

3 56 A. M. 








First 


: Quarter, 


Mar. 1 1 , 


7 28 A. M. 








Full 


Moon, 




Mar. 18, 


I 28 P. M. 








Last 


Quarter, 


Mar. 25, 


4 A. M. 












The Sun. 










R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. M. 





' 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


Mar. I. 


22 51 


- 7 


22 


6 37 A.M 


[. 12 12 P.M. 


5 47 P.M. 


II. 


23 27 


- 3 


29 


6 21 


12 10 


5 


59 


21. 


4 


4- 


27 


6 6 


12 7 


6 


8 


31- 


41 


+ 4 


22 


5 49 


12 4 


6 


19 








Mercury. 








Mar. I. 


21 23 


— 16 


58 


5 44A.M 


. ID 45 A.M. 


3 


46 P.M. 


II. 


22 23 


— 12 


28 


5 48 


II 5 


4 


22 


21. 


23 27 


- 5 


53 


5 50 


II 30 


5 


10 


31- 


36 


+ 2 


33 


5 51 
Venus, 


II 59 


6 


9 


Mar. I. 


I 36 


+ 13 


17 


8 12 A.M 


2 58 P.M. 


9 


44 p. M. 


II. 


2 6 


+ 17 


16 


7 48 


2 48 


9 


48 


21. 


2 31 


+ 20 


27 


7 21 


2 34 


9 47 


31- 


2 46 


+ 22 


37 


6 48 
Mars, 


2 9 


9 


30 


Mar. I. 


5 21 


4 25 39 


II 7 A.M. 


6 42 P.M. 


2 


I7A.M. 


II. 


5 39 


+ 25 44 


10 46' 


6 21 


I 


56 


21. 


5 59 


+ 25 41 


10 26 


6 I 


I 


36 


31- 


6 20 


+ 25 29 


10 9 


5 43 


I 


17 










Jupiter, 








Mar. I. 


10 27 


+ 11 


7 


5 9 P.M. 


11 47 P.M. 


6 


25A.M. 


II. 


10 23 


+ 11 


34 


4 23 


11 3 


5 


43 


21. 


10 18 


+ 11 


58 


3 38 


10 19 


5 





31. 


10 15 


+ 12 


16 


2 55 
Sa turn. 


9 37 


4 


19 


Mar. I. 


15 56 


- 18 1 


[2 


12 23 A.M. 


5 19 A. M. 


10 


15 P.M. 


II. 


15 56 


— 18 


II 


II 43 P.M. 


4 40 


9 


37 


21. 


15 56 


- 18 


8 


II 3 


4 


8 


57 


31- 


15 55 


- 18 


3 


10 23 


3 20 


8 


17 



28 



Publications of the 



Uranus, 



1897. 


R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


H. M. 





H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


lar. I. 


15 47 


- 19 44 


12 20 A.M. 


5 lOA.M. 


10 P.M 


II. 


15 47 


- 19 43 


II 41 


4 31 


9 21 


21. 


15 47 


- 19 42 


II 2 


3 52 


8 42 


31- 


15 46 


- 19 39 


10 21 


3 II 


8 I 



Neptune. 

Mar. I. 56 + 21 29 II 10 A.M. 

II. 5 6 + 21 29 10 31 

21. 5 7 -4-2[ 31 9 52 

31. 58 +21 32 9 13 



6 27 P.M. I 44 A.M. 

5 48 15 

59 12 26 
4 30 II 47 P.M. 



Eclipses of Jupiter* s Satellites, P. S. 

(Off right-hand limb as seen in an inverting telescope.) 

H. M. 



T. 



I. R, 


Mar. 3. 


3 A. M. 


IV, R, Mar. 14. 


4 28 P. M. 


I, R. 


4- 


9 30 p. M. 


I, R. 


19. 


I 18 A.M. 


Ill, R, 


5- 


6 27 P. M. 


Ill, R. 


20. 


2 24 A. M. 


I, R, 


6. 


3 58 P- M. 


I, R, 


20. 


7 46 P. M. 


II, R, 


6. 


II 25 p. M. 


II, R, 


21. 


4 37 A. M. 


I, R, 


10. 


4 55 A. M. 


II, R, 


24. 


3 55 P. M. 


I, R, 


II. 


II 23 P. M. 


I, R, 


26. 


3 12 A.M. 


III, R, 


12. 


10 25 P. M. 


I, R, 


27. 


9 41 p. M. 


I, R, 


13. 


5 52 P. M. 


I, R, 


29. 


4 9 p. M. 


II, R, 


14. 


2 I A. M. 


II, R, 


31. 


8 31 P.M. 




Minima of Algol, R S. T. 








H. M. 






H. M. 


Mar. 2. 




12 33 p. M. 


Mar. 19. 




5 27 p. M. 


5. 




9 22 A. M. 


22. 




2 16 p. M. 


8. 




6 1 1 A. M. 


25- 




II 5 A. M. 


II. 




3 A. M. 


28. 




7 54 A. M. 


13. 




II 49 p. M. 


31- 




4 43 A. M. 


16. 




8 38 P. M. 










Phases of the 


Moon, P. S. 


T. 






New 


Moon, Apr 


H. M. 

I, 8 24 


p. M. 






First 


Quarter, Apr 


10, 12 27 


A. M. 






Full 


Moon, Apr. 


16, 10 25 


P. M. 






Last 


Quarter, Apr 


23. I 48 


P. M. 








The Sun. 






1897. 


R. a. 


Declination. Rises. Transits. 


Sets. 


H. M. 


•^ ' H. 


M. H. 


M. 


H. M. 


Apr. I. 


44 


+ 4 45 5 


47 A.M. 12 


3 P.M 


. 6 19 P.M 


II. 


I 21 


+ 8 31 5 


32 12 


I 


6 30 


21. 


I 58 


+ 12 3 5 


18 II 


59 A. M 


. 6 40 


May I. 


2 36 


+ 15 15 5 


4 II 


57 


6 50 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. 



29 







Mercury, 








R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. M. 





H. M. 


M. M. 


H. M. 


Apr. I. 


43 


+ 3 28 


5 52 A.M. 


12 3 P.M. 


6 14 P.M. 


II. 


I 59 


+ 12 45 


5 55 


12 39 


7 23 


21. 


3 8 


+ 19 56 


5 58 


I 9 


8 20 


May I . 


3 55 


+ 23 5 


5 54 
Venus. 


I 17 


8 40 


Apr. I. 


2 47 


+ 22 45 


6 44 A.M. 


2 6 P.M. 


9 28 P.M. 


II. 


2 48 


+ 23 17 


6 4 


I 28 


8 52 


21. 


2 34 


+ 21 43 


5 17 


12 35 


7 53 


May I. 


2 12 


+ 18 12 


4 29 
Mars. 


11 33 A.M. 


6 37 


Apr. I. 


6 22 


+ 25 28 


10 7 A.M. 


5 41 P.M. 


I 15A.M. 


II. 


6 44 


+ 25 4 


9 51 


5 24 


12 57 


21. 


7 7 


+ 24 27 


9 37 


5 7 


12 37 


May I. 


7 30 


+ 23 38 


9 15 


4 51 


12 17 






Jupiter. 






Apr. I. 


10 15 


+ 12 18 


2 51 P.M. 


9 33P-M. 


4 15A.M. 


II. 


10 12 


+ 12 30 


2 8 


8 51 


3 34 


21. 


10 II 


+ 12 35 


I 28 


8 u 


2 54 


May I. 


10 II 


+ 12 33 


12 48 
5"^ TURN. 


7 31 


2 14 


Apr. I. 


15 55 


-18 3 


10 19 P.M. 


3 16 A.M. 


8 13A.M. 


II. 


15 53 


-17 56 


9 38 


2 35 


7 32 


21. 


15 51 


-17 48 


8 55 


I 53 


6 51 


May I. 


15 48 


- 17 39 


8 13 
Uranus. 


I II 


6 9 


Apr. I. 


15 46 


— 19 39 


10 16 P.M. 


3 7 A-M. 


7 58 A.M. 


II. 


15 45 


- 19 35 


9 35 


2 26 


7 17 


21. 


15 43 


- 19 31 


8 55 


I 46 


6 37 


May I. 


15 42 


— 19 26 


8 14 


I 5 


5 56 






Neptune. 






Apr. I. 


5 8 


4-21 32 


9 9 A.M. 


4 26 P.M. 


II 43P.M. 


II. 


5 8 


+ 21 34 


8 31 


3 48 


II 5 


21. 


5 10 


+ 21 36 


7 53 


3 10 


10 27 


May I. 


5 II 


+ 21 37 


7 15 


2 32 


9 49 




Eclipses 


> OF lupiTER-s Satellites, P. S. 


T. 




(Off right-band limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 








H. M. 






H. M. 


I, R, 


Apr. 3. 


II 35 P- 


M. I, R, 


Apr. 19. 


9 54 P- M. 


I, R. 


5. 


6 3P. 


M. I, R, 


21. 


4 22 P. M. 


II, R, 


7. 


II 6 p. 


M. III. D, 


24. 


6 57 p. M, 


I, R, 


II. 


1 30 A. 


M. Ill, R, 


24. 


10 17 p. M 


I, R, 


12. 


7 59 P- 


M. II, R, 


25- 


5 36 P- M 


II, R. 


15. 


I 43 A. 


M. I, R, 


26. 


II 48 P. M, 


Ill, R, 


17. 


6 19 p. 


M. I, R, 


28. 


6 17 P. M 



30 Publications of the 

Minima of Algol, P. S. T. 
Apr. 





H. 


M. 






H. 


M. 


3- 


I 


32 A. M. 


Apr. 


17- 


9 


37 A. M 


5- 


10 


21 P. M. 




20. 


6 


26 A. M 


8. 


7 


10 P. M. 




23. 


3 


15 A. M 


II. 


3 


59 P- M. 




26. 


12 


4A. M 


14. 


12 


49 P. M. 




28. 


8 


53 P. M 



ABJURATIO GALILEI. 

Ego, Galileus Galilei, filius quondam Vincentii Galilei, 
Florentinus, aetatis meae Annorum 70, constitutus personaliter in 
judicio, & genuflexus coram vobis Eminentissimis, & Reveren- 
dissimis Dominis Cardinalibus universae Christianae Reipublicae 
contra haereticam pravitatem generalibus Inquisitoribus, habeas 
ante oculos meos sacro sancta Evangelia, quae tango propriis 
manibus, juro me semper credidisse, & nunc credere, & Deo 
adjuvante in posterum crediturum omne id, quod tenet, praedicat, 
& docet S. Catholica, & Apostolica Romana Ecclesia. Sed 
quia ab hoc S. Officio, eo quod postquam mihi cum praecepto 
fuerat ab eodem juridice injunctum, ut omnino defererem falsam 
opinionem, quae tenet Solem esse centrum, nee moveri, nee 
possem tenere, defendere aut docere quovis modo, vel scripto 
praedictam falsam doctrinam : & postquam mihi notificatum 
fuerat praedictam doctrinam repugnantem esse Sacrae Scripturae; 
scripsi, & typis mandavi librum, in quo eandem doctrinam jam 
damnatam tracto, & adduco rationes cum magna efficacia in 
favorem ipsius, non afferendo ullam solutionem; idcirco judicatus 
sum vehementer suspectus de haeresi, videlicet, quod tenuerim, 
& crediderim Solem esse centrum Mundi, & immobilem, & 
terram non esse centrum, ac moveri. 

Idcirco volens ego eximere a mentibus Eminentiarum Vestra- 
rum, & cujuscunque Christiani Catholici vehementem hanc sus- 
picionem adversum me jure conceptam, corde sincero, & fide 
non ficta abjuro, maledico, & detestor supradictos errores, & 
haereses, & generaliter quemcunque alium errorem, & sectam 
contrariam supradictae S. Ecclesiae, & juro me in posterum 
nunquam amplius dicturum, aut asserturum voce, aut scripto 
quidquam, propter quod possit haberi de me similis suspicio; 
sed si cognovero aliquem haereticum, aut suspectum de haeresi, 
denuntiaturum ilium huic S. Officio, aut Inquisitori, & Ordinario 
loci, in quo fuero. Juro insuper ac promitto, me impleturum, 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. zi 

& observaturum integre omnes poenitentias, quae mihi impositae 
sunt, aut imponentur ab hoc S. Officio. Quod si contingat me 
aliquibus ex dictis meis promissionibus, protestationibus, & jura- 
mends (quod Deus avertat) contraire, subjicio me omnibus 
poenis, ac suppliciis, quae a Sacris Canonibus, & aliis Consti- 
tudonibus generalibus, & particularibus contra hujusmodi 
delinquentes statuta, & promulgata fuerunt: Sic me Deus 
adjuvet, & Sancta ipsius Evangelia, quae tango propriis 
manibus. 

Elgo, Galileus Galilei, supradictus abjuravi, juravi, promisi, 
& me obligavi ut supra, & in horum fidem mea propria manu 
subscripsi praesenti chirographo meae abjurationis, & recitavi 
de verbo ad verbum. 

Romae in Conventu Minervae, hac die 22. Junii Anni 1633. 

Ego, Galileus Galilei, abjuravi ut supra manu propria. 



THE WASHBURN OBSERVATORY. 



By George C. Comstock, Director. 



The University of Wisconsin owes to the late Governor 
C. C. Washburn the astronomical observatory which bears his 
name, but the original gift has been largely supplemented by 
both public and private munificence. 

The observatory, as originally built in 1878, consisted of a 
dome, a centre hall, and two rooms, one east, the other west of 
the dome. To these were added, at the instance of the first 
Director, the late Professor J. C. Watson, an east wing, connected 
to the original building by a corridor. The accompanying wood- 
cut shows the building as seen from the east; the west room 
which contains the meridian-circle being entirely hidden. In the 
foreground to the right, is the Students* Observatory containing 
the six-inch Clark equatorial, aperture 152 mm, with which much 
of the early double-star work of Professor S. W. Burnham was 
done, and an admirable broken transit of 76 mm aperture, by 
Bamberg, which is the finest instrument of its type I have ever 
seen. In the extreme left of the cut is seen the roof of the 
Solar Observatory, constructed at his own expense by Professor 
Watson, and destined for the reception of an underground 
telescope to be used in a search for intra-mercurial planets. 



32 Publications of the 

A thorough test of the capabilities of such a telescope havings 
been made with disappointing results by Professor E. S. Holdkn 
upon his accession to the directorship of the observatory, the 
building has long since been relegated to humbler uses. 

The topography represented in the cut is in some respects 
misleading, although it very well shows the open character of the 
surroundings. The observatory stands upon the crest of a hill, 
which slopes gently to the west, and more rapidly to the south 
and north, upon which latter side it descends to the shores of 
Lake Mendota, about a hundred feet below it. 

The principal instruments of the observatory are the Clark 
equatorial telescope of 395 mm (sixteen inches) aperture, and the 
Repsold meridian-circle of 122 mm (five inches) aperture. The 
latter instrument is substantially siinilar in construction and 
appearance to the one illustrated at page 86, Vol. Ill, Pud/tea- 
tions of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and in the hands 
of the successive observers who have used it, has proved capable 
of furnishing results of the highest order of excellence, both in 
the determination of star places and in the investigation of stellar 
parallaxes. 

In its optical parts the Clark equatorial has shown itself an 
instrument of very superior quality, but in respect of mounting" 
it lacks many of the conveniences of more recently constructed 
instruments. It is provided with a filar micrometer, double- 
image micrometer spectroscope, a Zoellner astro-photometer 
and a very complete set of oculars. 

The small equatorial in the Students' Observatory, shown 
in the accompanying cut, has been provided with a modified 
LoEWY prism apparatus and employed in various researches 
requiring the simultaneous observation of stars situated in widely 
different parts of the heavens. This has required the construc- 
tion of the peculiar type of dome there shown, with revolving 
semi-circular shutter. This shutter has proved in practice an 
excellent device, and may be recommended for general use in 
small domes. 

Three astronomical clocks (employed in connection with the 
railway time-service), chronometers, a chronograph, an excellent 
universal instrument* and a considerable amount of subsidiary 
apparatus employed in instruction, supplement the equipment 
above described. To this there should be added the excellent 
Woodman Astronomical Library, comprising over five thousand 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 33 

books and pamphlets, which are housed in the east wing of the 
observator>'. 

The scientific activity of the pbservatory has lain almost 
wholly along the lines of the older astronomy of precision, and 
the chief results of that activity are set forth in the ten volumes 
of its Publications, 

Madison, December, 1896. 



SOME LUMINOUS APPEARANCES IN THE SKY. 



Bv VV. H. S. MoNCK. 



In Nature for March 28, 1896, appeared an account of a 
luminous appearance seen in the sky by Dr. Brauner, of 
Prague, on the thirteenth of that month. There were five streaks 
reaching from the western horizon towards the zenith, apparently 
not of very long duration. It was only about an hour after 
sunset, and Dr. Brauner ascribed them to some peculiar reflec- 
tion in the upper regions of the atmosphere. This explanation, 
however, is not applicable to a similar phenomenon described by 
Mr. Lyon Browne, of Shrewsbury, in Knowledge for April; for 
it was seen at 8** 30° on the 4th of March, and therefore a consider- 
able time after sunset. It disappeared in the course of ten minutes. 
It also stretched from the western horizon towards the zenith. 
Mr. Browne thought it might be the zodiacal light, but this 
seems hardly probable; and the descriptions given do not closely 
resemble the aurora. 

The hypothesis of any peculiar reflection in the upper strata of 
the atmosphere is more clearly excluded by the following 
examples of similar phenomena seen in the east after sunset. 
Captain Noble describes one seen by him on the 28th of August, 
1883, at lo*" 35" P.M. **For a moment I thought I was tracing 
the apparition of a new and most glorious comet." It was seen 
in the east- northeast. His description appeared in Knowledge^ 
and it seems that Mr. W. K. Bradgate saw an appearance at 
Liverpool on the same night and in nearly the same direction that 
Captain Noble had seen it in Sussex, but the hour was so much 
later that it could hardly have been the same object. Then followed 
an account of a similar appearance seen by Mrs. Harbin at 



34 Publications of the 

Yeovil at ^ 30" p.m. on the 21st of September, 1883, also in the 
east-northeast. 

I saw a similar object myself on the 4th of September, 1885. 
It was in the east or east- northeast, and it was near 11 o'clock 
P.M. when I saw it. I took it for a very fine meteor-train, and 
described it as such in a letter to The Observatory, But I saw 
no meteor, and a comparison with the descriptions of Captain 
Noble, Mr. Bradgate, and Mrs. Harbin in Knowledge led 
me to conclude that what I had seen was of the same kind. As 
far as these scanty data go, these appearances seem to occur in 
spring and autumn, being in the west in spring and in the east 
in autumn. The resemblance to the tail of a comet presented by 
them has struck many observers, and I am inclined to think that 
on certain occasions they have been mistaken for comets' tails. 

The first of these which I shall notice occurs in The AnnucU 
Register for 1761: 

**July 18. At a quarter past eleven o'clock at night, a comet 
was seen off the quarter of His Majesty's ship Princess Royal at 
the Nore during nearly half a minute, very bright and light, but 
the clouds being thick obscured it presently. It had a very long 
tail and appeared to the E. S. E." 

A real comet of this magnitude could not have escaped other 
observers. Clouds, however, seem rather a frequent accompani- 
ment of the kind of phenomenon with which I am dealing. 

On the 9th of April, 1894, Mr. Edwin Holmes announced that 
he had discovered a bright comet in the constellation Draco. 
Mr. Holmes had discovered a comet not very long before, and 
the resemblance must have been striking in order to deceive him. 
Unfortunately, I have not the details of his observation at hand, 
but I have doubt that he mistook one of the appearances on 
which I have been commenting for a comet. The same remark 
applies to the discovery of a comet, or rather comet's tail, by 
Mr. Eddie at Grahamstown, in South Africa, some time pre- 
viously, but I do not recollect even the dale of this announce- 
ment. The failures of astronomers are apt to be speedily 
forgotten. But clearly they saw something; and I believe both 
Mr. Holmes and Mr. Eddie saw it with the naked eye. That 
it was not the zodiacal light, or a meteor- train I am convinced; 
nor do I think that these appearances are explicable as auroras, 
though that solution seems, on the whole, more probable. 

I have not hitherto seen any notice of this phenomenon on the 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 35 

American continent, and I hope that American observers will 
keep an eye out for it in future. The great extent of the United 
States might enable it, if it be an atmospheric phenomenon, to be 
viewed simultaneously from all sides; while if it presented similar 
features at distant stations, light would also be thrown on its 
origin. Possibly, the present paper may lead to the publication 
of similar observations already made in America. The subject is, 
I think, worthy of the attention of astronomers. Even if the 
appearances should prove to be atmospheric, the atmosphere is 
the medium through which all observations must be made, and 
it is highly desirable on that account to become acquainted with 
all its properties. Its influence on the phenomena of lunar 
eclipses ss of a very marked character, and has hardly received 
adequate consideration; while the twinklings of the stars is 
believed to be also an atmospheric phenomenon. It is probably 
owing to this twinkling — certainly to some property of the 
atmosphere — that stars are often caught by glimpses, and that 
astronomers have imagined that they saw stars were there were 
none. The satellites of Uranus and the stars in the trapezium 
of Orion form remarkable examples of this. If we could remove 
the atmosphere, our seeing would be steady. 

But the occurrences in the upper portions of the atmosphere 
are worthy of study on their own account, and astronomers are 
the persons to study them. A pulsation or flickering, for instance, 
has often been observed in the tail of a comet. It has been 
pointed out that this can hardly be real; but if not so, it must 
indicate the passing of a wave of a peculiar character through 
the atmosphere. This wave seems to pass from the head of 
the comet to the end of the tail; and as the tail is pointed 
towards the Sun, the atmospheric wave must pass in the same 
direction. Twinkling is perhaps a similar phenomenon which 
exhibits itself among the stars successively rather than simultane- 
ously — a star nearer to the Sun exhibiting any given phase 
later than a star more remote from it on the sphere. The con- 
dition of the upper strata of the atmosphere may also seriously 
affect our results in meteoric astronomy; for no meteor can be 
seen until it has traversed a sufficient quantity of air to change its 
original extreme cold into intense luminosity. But does such 
luminosity imply intense heat, or does the rush of the meteor 
excite some such properties in the air as those which render 
themselves visible in the aurora ? We have a good deal still to 



3^ Publications of the 

learn about our atmosphere, and it may afford a guide to us in 
dealing with the atmospheres of other bodies. 



(TWENTY-SIXTH) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 
COMET-MEDAL. 

The Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 

has been awarded to Mr. C. D. Perrine, Assistant Astronomer 

in the Lick Observatory, for his discovery of an unexpected 

comet on November 2, 1896. 

The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

Edward S. Holden, 

j. m. schaeberle, 

W. W. Campbell. 
1897, January 2. 



ELEMENTS AND EPHEMERIS OF COMET g, 1896, 

(PERRINE). 



Bv F. H. Seares and R. T. Crawford. 



From observations made at the Lick Observatory by Mr. C. D. 
Perrine on December 8th, 9th, and loth, we have computed 
the following elements and ephemeris of Comet g, 1896, (Per- 
rine). The observations were telegraphed to the Students* 
Observatory by Dr. Holden: — 

T = 1896 Nov. 24.7839 G. M. T. 

. 01 = 163° 38' 14" ) ^ ^ . 

o ^ f Mean Equmox 

'I '' . \ of 1896 

/ =: 16 39 57 ) ^ 

q= 1. 15349 
Representation of middle place — 

(O— C) AX cos ^ = +5". 5 A^ = o".o 

[The ephemeris at four-day intervals from December 13th to 
25th is here omitted.] The brightness decreases from 0.91 
(December 13th) to 0.59 (December 25th). 

Students* Observatory, 

Berkeley, December 12, 1896. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 37 

LIST OF EARTHQUAKES IN CALIFORNIA FOR THE 

YEAR 1896. 

Compiled by C. D. Perrine. 



The following list is a continuation of similar reports printed 
in these Publications: Vol. II, p. 74; Vol. Ill, p. 247: Vol. V, 
p. 127; Vol. VI, p. 41; Vol. VII, p. 99, and Vol. VIII, p. 222. 
A more complete account will be published by the United States 
Geological Survey as a bulletin. The dates are civil dates. The 
times are Pacific Standard (120th meridian). 

Roman numerals enclosed in parentheses indicate the intensity 
on the Rossi- FoREL scale. 

Some doubtful cases have been included, and are indicated by 
an interrogation point enclosed in parenthesis. 

List of Earthquake Shocks, 1896. 

January 3. Esquimault (B.C.). 10:09 P.M. Reported by 

E. Bavnes Reed, Esq. Victoria (B. C), 10:20 p.m.; 

Port Angeles (Wash.), 10:30 p. m. The volcano of Kilauea 

in the Hawaiian Islands in eruption. 
January 5. Volcanoes below the Cocopah Mountains reported 

in eruption. 
January 8. Lake Chepala, Mexico. 
January 25. Carson (Nevada), 4:45 a.m.; 4:46 a.m.; 5:02 a.m. 

Reported by Professor C. W. Friend. 
January 27. Carson (Nevada), 7:59 a. m. (II); 8:34 a.m. (Ill); 

11:04 a.m. (Ill); 11:19 A.M. (I); 1:01 P.M. (IV); 6:32 

p.m. (II), and quite a number of light tremors between. 

Reported by Professor C. W. Friend. 
February 5. Tauquiz Mountain (near San Jacinto). Volcanic 

eruption. (?) 
February 6. East Clallam (Wash.), 9:55 p. m. 
February 13. Redding, io± a.m.; Weaverville, 9:55 a.m.; 

Eureka, 9:55 a.m. 
February 15. Los Angeles, 2:52 p.m. (another report says 

2:45P.M.); Pasadena, 2:57 p.m. 
March 15. Burrard Mountains (ten miles from Vancouver, 

(B. C). Volcanic eruption. (?) 
April 2. Portland (Oregon), 3:20^1 a. m.; McMinnville (Ore- 
gon), 3:17 A.M. 



3^ Publications of the 

April 28. San Francisco, 2:57 p.m.; Alameda. 

June 20 ±. Tidal wave on the Mendocino coast. 

July 3. San Diego, 9:27 p. M. 

July 23. Vallejo, 1:50 A.M. 

August II. Mt. Hamilton, 8:58:7 ± p.m. (II). E. S. H.; 

Alameda. 
August 17. Merced, 3:40 a.m.; Visalia, 3:29, or 3:30 a.m. 

(another report says 3:26 a.m.). 
August 18. Mt. Hamilton, ii:o:24± p.m. (III). E. S. H.; 

11:0:13 p.m. a. L. C; Napa, p.m.; Evergreen, 11:0:15 

p.m. Reported by Wm. Wehner, Esq. 
August 19. Alameda. 
August 26. Mount Hood (Oregon). An avalanche. (Due to 

an earthquake (?). 
September i. Pinole, Contra Costa County, California. Powder 

Works exploded at i p. m. 
September 10. Santa Rosa, 3:45 a.m. 
September 24. 5*^ 25" 30* ± p. m. (III). E. S. H. 

5' 25" 45" P.M. (I), CD. P.) 
October 19. Santa Rosa, 6 zb a. m. 

November 3. Mt. Hamilton, 10:58.44 ±l V a. m , W. W. C. 
November 11. Cahto, 2 a.m. 

November 29. Mt. Hamilton, 11:3:37 a.m. (I). C. D. P. 
December 8. Mexico (Pacific ports), 9:30 a. m., 1:30 p.m. and 

5 P.M. 
December 17. Santa Barbara. At 8 a. m. a tidal wave destroyed 

a large section of the boulevard. 
December 22. Mt. Hamilton, i** 52*" 42* p. m., P. S. T. 



(TWENTY-SEVENTH) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 
COMET-MEDAL. 



The Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 

has been awarded to Mr. C. D. Perrine, Assistant Astronomer 

in the Lick Observatory, for his discovery of an unexpected 

comet on December 8, 1896. 

The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

Edward S. Holden, 

J. M. Schaeberle, 

W. W. Campbell. 
1897, February 8. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 39 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY.* 
Prepared by Members of the Staff. 

Photograph of the Solar Surface made at the 
Lick Observatory. 

[See the Frontispiece.] 

The frontispiece of the present volume is a gelatine print of a 
portion of the solar surface copied by Mr. A. L. Colton from a 
negative made by himself and Mr. C. D. Perrine, with the 
thirty-six-inch equatorial, on October 19, 1896, at 10" 21" 2* a.m. 

The aperture of the great telescope was reduced to eight inches, 
and the exposure was made by means of a quick-shutter presented 
to the Lick Observatory by Dr. A. Blair Thaw, of Santa 
Barbara. Dr. Thaw bears the expense of making the plate for 
this number of the Publications^ and deserves and will receive 
the thanks of the Society. Edward S. Holden. 

Discovery of Comet g, 1896, (Perrine). 

This comet was discovered on the evening of December 8th, 
at about 1 1 130 o'clock, in the constellation Pisces, At 20"* 29"" 48* 
G. M. T. its position was R. A. o*' 52" 26'. 70, Decl. +6° 24'5i".9. 
It was moving rapidly east and more slowly south. 

The comet was moderately bright, — about as bright as a star 
of eighth magnitude, — and in the four-inch comet-seeker appeared 
round, with a well-defined central condensation. In the twelve- 
inch equatorial, the comet was about 5' in diameter, and showed 
a stellar nucleus. The nebulosity surrounding the head did not 
appear to be symmetrical, but was more sharply defined on the 
south following side, while it was extended on the north preced- 
ing side in the shape of a broad fan. This fan-like extension was 
not traceable for any considerable distance. On subsequent 



•Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California. 



40 Publications of the 

nights the air has been full of haze, generally, so that I have not 
been able to see the fainter nebulosity about the head. 

Observations were secured on the 9th and loth also, — on the 
latter date with difficulty, owing to thick haze ; and from these 
and the one of the 8th Professor Hussey and I deduce the fol- 
lowing system of parabolic elements : — 

T = November 25.6659 
o) = 164° 36' 5" ) 
Q, = 243 48 40 \ 1896.0 
t = 16 26 29 j 
log ^ = 0.06220 

Residuals for the middle place (O — C) — 
AX' COSTS' -I" 
A^' ' +3 

An ephemeris from these elements shows the comet to be 
rapidly receding from both the Earth and Sun, and consequently 
growing fainter. C. D. Perrine. 

Mt. Hamilton, December 14, 1896. 

ASTRONOMISCHE GeSELLSCHAFT ZoNE — 9° 50' tO — 14° lo'. 

This zone was observed with the meridian-circle of Harvard 
College Observatory during the years 1888-1892. The observa- 
tions have since been reduced, and the apparent place resulting 
from each observation can now be furnished. In most cases, the 
mean place has also been computed. The work of revision by 
additional observations of stars, accidentally omitted or unsatis- 
factorily observed, is now in progress, and will probably be com- 
pleted during the year 1897. Arthur Searle. 

Relief-Map of the Lick Observatory Reservation 
(2600 Acres). 

By the kindness of Mr. Henry Gannett, Chief of the 
Topographical Bureau of the U. S. Geological Survey, a survey 
was made of the region about Mt. Hamilton during the summer 
of 1 895. A map on the scale of j^, with contours at intervals of 
fifty feet has been prepared. In order to exhibit the data in a 
more vivid way, Mr. George A. Merrill, Principal of the 
California School of Mechanic Arts (the trade-school founded 
by Mr. Lick in San Francisco), has kindly undertaken to pre- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 41 

pare a relief-model of the reservation on a scale of 500 feet to the 
inch. This model will be made by the pupils of the Lick School. 
When it is finished copies will be deposited at Berkeley, Mt. 
Hamilton, and San Francisco. In making plans for the establish- 
ment of a State Forestry Station on the reservation, for improve- 
ment of the water-supply, for the fencing of the land, for new 
roads, etc., etc., this model will be of much use. If the reserva- 
tion is ever taken by the State as a Park (which is greatly to be 
hoped), such a model will be indispensable. The thanks of the 
Observatory are returned to Messrs. Gannett and Merrill for 
their valued co-operation in our plans. 

Edward S. Holden. 
January i, 1897. 

Meteors (November 15, 1896.) 

Mrs. F. K. Upham, National Soldiers* Home, Los Angeles 
County, a member of the Society, reports having counted nine- 
teen meteors between four and ^\^ o'clock on the morning of 
November 15, 1896, the greater number of which descended 
from northwest of the zenith. Two of these were very brilliant, 
but none were visible for more than thirty degrees of their path. 

On August 25, 1896, at 7:47 o'clock, an unusually brilliant 
meteor was seen near the eastern horizon, from whence it 
passed over the zenith, disappearing ^v^ degrees to the west. 
Its motion was very slow, and it left a bright train. 

Observation of the Leonid Meteors. 

Mr. William Yates, a member of the Astronomical Section 
of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, observed the 
Leonids on the morning of November 14, 1896, from his resi- 
dence in Los Angeles. From 4 to 5:30 a. m. he counted seven- 
teen meteors, of which all but one were true Leonids, One of 
the latter left a train, which remained visible between four and 
five minutes. 

Notice to Members of the Society. 

The Lick Observatory publishes for distribution **A Brief 

Account of the Lick Observatory of the University of California," 

Svo, (1895), 29 pages and 15 plates. A copy will be sent to any 

member of the Society who signifies his desires to have it. 

Edward S. Holden. 
Mt. Hamilton, January, 1897. 



42 Publications of the / 

The Great Sun-Spot of January, 1897. 

On photographing the Sun with the forty-foot photohelio- 
graph, January 5th, after two or three days of cloudy weather, I 
found an unusually large spot well-started on its journey across 
the disc. It could have been seen a day or two previously with 
suitable weather, and had undoubtedly been seen elsewhere. 
Occurring near a time of spot- minimum, it was of all the greater 
interest. I was enabled to photograph it every day from the 5th 
to the nth inclusive, and on the 14th and 15th; on the latter 
date just as it was disappearing at the western limb. The ** see- 
ing*' on January 5th was so bad that the photographs taken 
were very poor; those secured on the following days were 
much better. Figure i shows one of the photographs obtained 
on the 6th, and Figure 2 one obtained on the 8th, the spot 
having meanwhile changed considerably in form. The small, 
isolated companion-spot retained its shape with curious per- 
sistence. The extreme length of the nucleus of the principal 
spot is about 35,000 miles; the length over all of the great spot 
and its long attendant train of bits of penumbral matter, about 
130,000 miles. The first, second, third, and fifth figures are 
enlarged three diameters from photoheliograph negatives, and 
have a scale of approximately 64,000 miles to the inch. 

January 14th, the spot presented a most interesting appear- 
ance as it approached the western limb. Figures 3 and 4 are 
from negatives taken on that date. Extending easterly from the 
spot is a fine cluster of faculae. 

Figure 4 is a full-size reproduction of a negative by Mr. 
Perrine and myself, using the photographic correcting-lens 
of the thirty-six-inch equatorial, a rapid shutter made especially 
for this work and presented to the observatory by Dr. A. B. 
Thaw, and a supplementary lens for enlarging directly, giving a 
scale about eight times as large as that of the focal image. The 
negative from which this picture was made, is one of the best 
results yet obtained with this instrumental outfit. Unluckily the 
air was very unsteady, as is shown by the edge of the Sun and 
the different portions of the spot. 

Figure 5 was photographed on the morning of January 15th, 
as the spot was on the very edge of the Sun's disc. In the 
original negative a faint trace of the nucleus can be seen in the 
midst of the penumbra. The appearance of indentation is inter- 



Fig. I. 



Fig. % 





Frii. J. 



Prt;, i. 





rji;, 




■ vii r^ntr hT CTTW_CDr4T /M? TAMfTADV tCao 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 43 

esting, though it must not be ascribed to the actual depression of 
the spot, but rather to its deficiency in light compared to the 
Sun's sur&ce. In this case, also, **bad seeing*' somewhat inter- 
fered with the best results. 

Owing to the great size of the spot, it will probably last for 
more than a revolution of the Sun, and its reappearance at the 
eastern limb near the end of this month will be awaited with 
much interest. A. L. Colton. 

January 20, 1897. 

The Great Sun-Spot of January, 1897. 

On Friday, January 15th, the large sun-spot, first noticed by 
Mr. Colton, was passing out of view over the west limb of the 
Sun, and it was hoped that a favorable opportunity would thus be 
presented for determining the relative elevation of umbra and 
^culae with respect to the photosphere. I, therefore, watched 
the spot with the twelve-inch equatorial, diaphragmed down to 
four inches aperture, using a Herschel prism and a 150-power 
eye-piece — the highest power the seeing would permit. 

At times the principal umbra appeared distinctly depressed, 
and the faculae at all times seemed elevated above the average 
sur&ce level; but the seeing was at no time good enough to make 
it certain that this was not merely the effect of irradiation. The 
spot was under observation from lo*" 50" A. m. to '^ 30" P. m. 

R. G. AlTKEN. 
January 19, 1897. 

The Heliocentric Theory and the University of 
Cambridge in 1669.* 

** After dinner his highness (Grand Duke Cosmo III of Flor- 
ence) desirous to gratify the Vice-Chancellor (of the University 
of Cambridge), who entreated him to honor the academy with 
his presence, went thither with his attendants, followed by the 
Vice-Chancellor and the heads of the University. In the principal 
hall, into which his highness was introduced, a short Latin oration 
was made by one of the Professors, which, being pronounced in 
the same manner as that which was spoken in the morning, 
was but little understood. And afterward his highness was 



•One hundred and iwenty-six years after the death of Copernicus. 



44 Publications of the 

present at different questions which were propounded for disputa- 
tion and strenuously opposed by Professors and Masters of Arts. 
De methodo philosophandi in experimentis fundata, et Contra 
Sy sterna Copernicamim'' — From Travels of Cosmo the Third, 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, through England, during the reign of • 
King Charles the Second (1669), (translated from the Italian 
manuscript by Count Magalotti in the Laurentian library at 
Florence. London, 1821, pp. 224, 225.) 

Honor Conferred on Professor Barnard. 

The Royal Astronomical Society of London has awarded its 
gold medal of the present year to Professor Barnard for his 
astronomical discoveries and observations.. 

Prices of Reflecting Telescopes. 

From an article in the Strand Magazine for October, 1896 
(an interview with Sir Howard Grubb, F. R. S.), it appears 
that the original cost of Lord RossE*s six-foot reflector was about 
;^i 2,000, of the four-foot Melbourne reflector about ;^46oo, and 
that the estimated cost of a ten-foot reflector of eighty feet focus 
is ^33»ooo. 

A Brilliant Meteor. 

[Extract from a private letter by \Vm. S. Moses.] 

**This evening (December 31, 1896) at 6*^ 7" P. S. T.. I 
observed a brilliant meteor. It appeared at e Tauri and traveled 
in a southwest course, expiring at i Ceti, It moved very slowly, 
being visible, I think, three seconds. Its train was dazzling 
white and cast a distinct shadow of the trees which intercepted 
its light. The upper and lower edges of the train were bluish in 
color. The head was scintillating. It did not burst, nor did I 
hear an explosion. I happened to be looking at Mars and saw 
it from beginning to end. It did not appear to be far distant. 
As I took my chart and plotted its course within three minutes 
after it disappeared, I think I am reasonably correct. It was the 
finest meteor I ever saw. Accompanying I give a sketch of it.*'* 

Lone Mountain Observatory, \ 
San Francisco, Cal. S 



* The sketch is here omitted. 



i849- 


William C. Bond. 


1872. 


1850. 


Benjamin Peirce. 






Alex. D. Bache. 


1876. 




0. M. MiTCHEL. . 


1879. 




Sears C. Walker. 




1855. 


F, F. E. Bruennow. 


1881. 




Matthew F. Maury. 


18S3. 




Benjamin A. Gould. 


1884. 


1863. 


George P. Bond. 


1889. 


1866. 


Truman H. Safford. 


1890. 


1872. 


Simon Newcomb. 


1892. 




Hubert A. Newton. 


1894. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 45 

List of American Foreign Associates of the Royal 
Astronomical Society. 

The first American who was elected one of the fifty Foreign 
Associates of the Royal Astronomical Society (founded in 1820) 
was William Cranch Bond, who was chosen in 1849. Fol- 
lowing is a complete list: 

Lewis M. Rutherfurd. 
Charles A. Young. 
George W. Hill. 
Asaph Hall. 
C. H. F. Peters. 
Edward C. Pickering. 
Samuel P. Langley. 
Edward S. Holden. 
Seth C. Chandler. 
Lewis Boss. 
William L. Elkin. 
Albert A. Michelson. 

List of Americans Who have Received the Medal of 
THE Royal Astronomical Society. 

Since the year 1823, the Royal Astronomical Society has 
given a gold medal for services to science. The first American 
to receive this medal was George Phillips Bond. The medal 
has been awarded to the following Americans: 

1865. George P. Bond. 1887. George W. Hill. 

1874. Simon Newcomb. 1894. Sherburne W. Burnham. 

1879. AsAPii Hall. 1896. Seth C. Chandler. 

1883. Benjamin A. Gould. 1897. Edward E. Barnard. 
1886. Edward C. Pickering. 

Earthquake at Oakland, January 17, 1897. 

On January 17, 1897, ^^ i** i^"* ^i* P- ^m P- S. T., two sharp 
shocks were observed, about one second apart. The time given 
is for the second shock, and is believed to be correct within a 
second. In half an hour my watch was compared with W. U. 
time, and the correction applied to the observed time. 

The first shock seemed heavier than the second, and both 
suggested an explosion rather than an earthquake. An examina- 
tion of the country in the direction of the powder mills was made 
immediately from the house-top with a glass, but no smoke or 



M= 2° 


3' 


9".5 


0= 246 


30 


22.1 


0.= 163 


51 


41-5 


«■= 50 


22 


3-6 


«■= 13 


45 


19.7 



46 Publications of the 

other evidences of an explosion were visible. A heavy rumbling 
was noticed just preceding the shocks, and the house creaked. 
The windows on the north side of the house seemed to rattle 
before and louder than those on the opposite side. The chan- 
delier shook, and as it came to rest the vibrations appeared to be 
north and south, approximately. A. H. Babcock. 

Oakland, Cal., January 17, 1897. 

Elliptic Elements of Comet g, 1896, (Perrine), by 
W. J. HussEY AND C. D. Perrine. 

From Mount Hamilton observations of December 8th, Decem- 
ber 2oth, and January 5th, we have computed the following 
elements of this comet: 

Epoch, 1896, December 8.5, Gr. M. T. 



>-Mean Ecliptic, 1897.0 



log € == 9.836649 
log fl = 0.549565 
log ft = 2.725660 
Period = 6.67 years. 
With the exception of w or ^, these elements closely resemble 
those of Biela's Comet at its last apparition in 1852. 
Mount Hamilton, January 14, 1897. 

Observations of the Companion to PRocvoNy and of 
THE Companion to SiRiuSy bv J. M. Schaeberle. 

Measures of the Compayiion to Procyon, 

o // 

1896. November 13. ^ = 318.8 
November 14. 320.4 
December 19. 319-3 

1897. January 10. 322.3 

Measures of the Companion to Sirius, 

1896. October 28. 188.3 
October 30. 190.0 
November 6. 188.3 

1897. January 10. 189.4 



^ = 4-58 


wt. = 3 


4.58 


2 


4.89 


I 


4.62 


3 


7 Sirius, 




365. 


I 


365 


3 


3-85 


3 


3-72 


5 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 47 

Honor Conferred on Dr. Lewis Swift. 

A press- telegram of January 5th notifies that the medal 
founded by Mrs. Hannah Jackson (nh Gwilt) has been 
conferred by the Royal Astronomical Society on Dr. Swift, 
Directorof the Ldwef Observatory, **in recognition of his services 
to the cause of science in the discovery of comets, etc.* ' 

The Ladd Observatory (Providence, R. I.) 

During the year's leave of absence of the Director of the 
Ladd Observatory (Professor Upton), which is to be spent at 
the Arequipa station of the Harvard College Observatory, his 
place is to be filled by Mr. F. W. Very, who has resigned the 
position at the Allegheny Observatory which he has occupied 
for so many year^. 

Measures of the Companion to Procyon, 

I have . secured three measures with the thirty-six-inch 
refractor of the companion to Procyofi discovered by. Professor 
Schaeberle. The mean is: 

1896.98 32i°o 4".84 

R. G. AlTKEN. 
January 19, 1897. 

Erratum in Publications A. S. P., No. 53. 

Volume VIII, No. 53, page 311, liqe ^y for Schiaparelli 
read Schaeberle. C. A. Y. 

Astronomical Telegrams. (Translation.) 

Lick Observatory, Dec. 9, 1896. 
To Harvard College Observatory ) .g^^^ ^^ ^ . 

and Students' Observatory: ) 

A comet was discovered by Perrine, December 8, 20** 29" 
48* G. M. T.; R. A. o^ 52" 26'.7, Decl. + 6° 24' 52"! Daily 
motion R. A. + 7"» Decl. — 30'. It is about as bright as a star 
of eighth magnitude; has a well-defined nucleus and tail. 

Lick Observatory, Dec. 9, 1896. 

To Harvard College Observatory ) ^a . ^ ,, \ 

, ^ , . ^, I (Sent 10:45 p.m.) 

and Students Observatory: ; 

Comet Perrine was observed by Perrine, December 9, 

IS** 37" 50" G. M. T.; R. A. o'' 58™ 9'. 9, Decl. + 6° 4' 30". 



4^ Publications of the 

Lick Observatory, December lo, 1896. 
To Harvard College Observatory ) ^g^^^ ^^^ 

and Students' Observatory: ) 

Comet Perrine was observed by Perrine, December lo"* 
14*' 8"* 58* G. M. T.; R. A. i** 4'" 51'. 9, Decl. + 5° 40' 46". 

Lick Observatory, December 11, 1896. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 10 a.m.) 

Elements and ephemeris of Comet g were computed by 
HussEY and Perrine. T = Nov. 25.67, 01=164° 3^', S3 = 
243° 49', /= 16° 26', q= 1. 1540. 

(Ephemeris is omitted here.) 

Astronomical Telegrams. 

(Dated) Boston, Jan. 11, 1897. 
To Lick Observatory: (Received Jan. 11, 7^ 30" P. m.) 

Lowell announces rift in Martian north polar cap since 
January 7. Longitude, forty degrees. 

John Ritchie, Jr. 

Telegram. 

(Dated) Lick Observatory, Jan. 15, 1897. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent lo*" o" a. m.) 

HussEY and Perrine find Comet g periodic. Period and 
elements, except omegas which differs sixty degrees, closely 
resemble Biela. 

Telegram (Translation), 
(Dated) Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 15, 1897. 
To E. S. Holden: (Received Jan. 15, 1897, 3:55 p.m.) 

Please telegraph best elements and ephemeris available of 
Comet g, Jownial issue awaiting them. 

Seth C. Chandler. 

The information requested above was supplied in a telegram 
sent 8:50 p. M., January 15, 1897. 

(See elements on another page, the ephemeris being omitted.) 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 49 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 
HELD IN the Rooms of the Society, January 

30, 1897, AT 7:30 p. M. 

President Hussky presided. A quorum was present. The minutes 
of the last meeting were approved. The following members were duly 
elected : 

List of Members Elected January 30, 1897. 

Mr. Frederick E. Brasch {^^^^ Devisadero St., S. F.. 

Mr. J. W. Erwin 1 2647^Dunint Avenue. Berkeley, 

Mr. Albert Edward Gray Lasata,Oroville, Butte Co., Cal. 

Mr. Edward G. Lukens 200 Market St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Albxandbr W. Roberts .... {''•liJS;^^^ ^''•=*' ^'*^' ^*' 

Dr. Horace H. Taylor Los Angeles, Cal. 

Mrs. Columbus Waterhouse 2213 Howard St., S. F., Cal. 

The following resolutions were, on motion, adopted: 

Resolved, That the Directors of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific return the 
thanks of the Society to Dr. A. Blair Thaw for his acceptable gift of the frontispiece 
to Volume IX of the Publications. 

Wherbas, There are at Mt. Hamilton, in the custody of the Secretary, and belong- 
ing to the Society, sundry articles of bedding, etc., which, not being used, are deterior- 
ating with age; be it therefore 

Resolvedt That the Secretary at Mt. Hamilton is hereby authorized to dispose of the 
said articles for the benefit of the Society. 

Whbrbas. The Society possesses a considerable number of valuable books and 
periodicals that are still unbound: and 

Whbrbas, A considerable portion of the income from the Alexander Montgomery 
Library Fund remains unexpended; be it therefore 

Resolved, That the unexpended portion of the accrued interest from this Fund be 
expended — 

(1) For bindings for valuable unbound books and periodicals already in the posses- 
sion of the Society; and then, if any portion of this income remains unexpended, 

(2) For the purchase of additional astronomical books and periodicals; and be it 
further 

Resolved, That the President and Library Committee be authorized to carry these 
provisions into effect. 

Adjourned. 



50 Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Astronomical Society 

OF THE Pacific, held in the Lecture Hall of 

the California Academy of Sciences, 

January 30, 1897. 

The meeting was called to order by President Hussey. The minutes 
of the last meeting were approved. 

The Secretary read the names of new members duly elected at the 
Directors' meeting. 

A committee to nominate a list of eleven Directors and Committee 
on Publication, to be voted for at the annual meeting, to be held on 
March 27th, was appointed, as follows: Messrs. Arthur Rodgers 
(Chairman), John Dolbeer, A. . Callandreau, Geo. W. Percy, and 
W. H. Hammon. 

A committee to audit the accounts of the Tre.asurer. and to report 
at the annual meeting, was appointed, as follows: Messrs. Von Geldern 
CChairman), McConnell, and James R.' Kelly. 

The following papers were presented: 

Recent developments in Astronomical Photography, illustrated by 
lantern slides, by Mr. Chas. B. Hill. 

Some notes on the next Total Solar Eclipse, with lantern-slide illus- 
strations, by Mr. Chas. Burckhalter. 

Planetary Phenomena for March and April, 1897, by Professor 
M. McNeill, of Lake Forest. 

List of Earthquakes in California, 1896, by Mr. C. D. Perrine, of 
Mount Hamilton. 

Some Luminous Ap[>earances in the Sky, by Mr. W. H. S. Monck, 
of Dublin. 

Mr. Hill read a paper on the recent developments in Astronomical 
Photography, illustrated by sixty lantern slides made at the Lick Obser- 
vatory and elsewhere; the photographs exhibited were so selected as to 
illustrate the results obtained up to the present time in all the different 
branches of celestial photography. 

Mr. Burckhalter showed a map of the path of the next total 
solar eclipse in India, and gave some general information as to the 
route and cost of travel to India, and the probable condition of the 
weather at the time of the eclipse. 

Adjourned. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 51 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

W. J. HussBY (Lick ObitrYatory), PresitUnt 

E.J. MoLKRA (606 Clay Street, S. F.) ) 

E. S. HoLDBN (Lick Observatory), S Vice-Presidentt 

O.voK Gbldern (819 Market Street, S. F.) ) 

C D. PBRRINB (Lick Observatory), Secretary 

F. R. ZiBL (410 California Street. S. F.). Secretary and Treaturer 

Board ef Directors — Messrs. Edwards, Holdrn, Hussby, Molbra, Miss O'Halloran, 

Messrs. Pardbs, Pbrrinb, Pibrsun, bTRiNCHAM, VON Gbldbkn, Ziel. 
Finance Committee — Messrs. von Gbldern, Pibrson, Stringham. 
Committee OM Puhlication—lAtssxs. Holdbn, Babcock, Aitken. 
Lihrary Committee — Miss 0'Hali.oran, Messrs. Molera, Burckhaltbr. 
Committee OH the Comet- MedaZ—Mtisrs. Holdbn (ex-officio), Schabbbrlb, Campbell. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee— ^x. Ruthven W. Pike. 

OFFICERS OP THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Exeontive Committee— Mttsrs, Camilo Gonzalez, Francisco Rodriguez Rev. 



NOTICE. 

The attention of new members is called to Article VIII of the By-Laws, which provides that 
the annual subscription, paid on election, covers the caiendar year only Subsequent annual 
payments are due on January ist of each succeeding calendar year. Ihis rule is necessary in 
order to make our book-keeping as simple as possible. Dues sent by mail should be directed to 
Astronomical .Society of the Pacific S19 Market Street. San Francisco. 

It is intended thai each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the Pub- 
lications for the year in which he was elected to membership and for all subsequent years. If 
there have been (unfortunately) any omissions in this matter, it is requested that the Secretaries 
he at once notified, in order that the missing numbers may be supplied. Members are requested 
to preserve the copies of the Publications of the Society as sent to them. Once each year a title- 
page and contents of the preceding numbers will also be sent to the members, who can then bind 
the numbers together into a volume. Complete volumes for past years will also be supplied, to 
members only, so far as the stock in hand is sufficient, on the payment of two dollars to either of 
the Secretaries. Any non-resident member within the United States can obtain books from the 
Society's library by sending his library card with ten cents in stamps to the Secretary A. S. P., 
819 Market Street, San Francisco, who will return the book and the card. 

The Committee on Publication desires 10 say that the order in which papers are printed in 
the PHblicntioHS is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
first which are earliest accepted for publication. It is not possible to send proof sheets of papers 
to be printed to authors whose residence is not within the United States. The responsibility for 
the views expressed in the papers printed rests with the writers, and is not assumed by the 
Society itself. 

The titles of papers for reading should be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
as possible, as well as any changes in addresses. The Secretar>' in San Francisco will send to 
any member of the Society suitable stationery, stamped with the seal of the Society, at cost price, 
as follows: a block of letter paper, 40 cents: of note paper, 25 cents; a package of envelopes, 25 
cents. These prices include postage, and should be remitted by money-order or in U. S. postage 
stamps, llie sendings are at the risk of the member. 

Those members who propose to attend the meetings at Mount Hamilton during the summer 
should communicate with "The Secretar>' Astronomical Society of the Pacific "at the rooms of 
the Society, 819 Market Street, San Francisco, in order that arrangements may be made for 
transportation, lodging, etc 



PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHL\. 
( February ^ ApriU June, August ^ October, December.) 




PvV 



j AT--: 



T I O N S 



or THE 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. IX. San Francisco, California, April i, 1897. No. 55. 



ASTRONOMY AND ASTRONOMERS IN THEIR RELA- 
TIONS TO THE PUBLIC. 



By W. J. HussBY. 

At this meeting of this Society, it is the custom for the retiring 
President to address you on some scientific subject, and it has 
occurred to me that it might be well to consider here "Astronomy 
and Astronomers in Their Relations to the Public,*' and in doing 
so attempt to answer some of the questions that an intelligent 
public frequently asks, and at the same time indicate some of the 
services to both that have been rendered by astronomical societies. 

The work of the astronomer, like that of other scientists, is 
only a little understood by the general public. Nevertheless, the 
relations between the two are always the most cordial; and while 
the astronomer may often be questioned as to the utility of his 
labors, he can never complain of lack of appreciation. On the 
contrary, the interest that attaches to a working observatory, 
especially one that is readily accessible, is always so great that 
regulations governing the admittance of visitors are indispensable, 
in order that any time may be reserved for scientific work. 

As a result of this interest, great advantages accrue to the 
science. It has given the world many of its great observatories, 
those of the University of Chicago and of the University of Cali- 
fornia standing pre-eminent in the power of their telescopes. 
So great, indeed, has become the generosity of those who are not 
astronomers, that it would almost seem that astronomers have 
only to ask for instruments and observatories to find appreciative 
persons ready to supply their needs. This responsiveness is all 
the more remarkable when we consider that the results of the 



54 Publications of the 

astronomer's labor are, in general, far removed from commodities 
having a commercial value. New comets, new planets, new 
satellites, new stars, worlds, and systems of worlds may be 
discovered, and their histories may be long and interesting, but 
not one of them can be exchanged for real or personal property. 

From what has been said, it must not be understood that 
astronomy has no practical applications. Far from that. The 
determination of time, of latitude, of longitude, of azimuth, are all 
problems of practical astronomy, and they are among those that 
have more or less important relations to the ordinary affairs 
of life. 

The land is crossed in every direction by roads of steel. 
Smooth tracks, swift locomotives, and comfortable cars make 
travel easy and enjoyable; strong and commodious cars make 
it possible for cities widely separated to carry on gigantic com- 
mercial transactions. The trains glide along the tracks with great 
speed, and are ever meeting and passing each other. This they 
do with such precision that accidents are comparatively few — so 
few, in fact, that on the average, only one passenger out of a 
million and a half loses his life. This precision is due, in part, to 
their being controlled by some central clock. But who controls 
that clock? Who, with entire confidence that his statements 
are true, can say that the time it indicates is correct or not? 
Astronomers, by their long and laborious investigations, based 
on a multitude of refined observations, have learned the motions 
of the heavenly bodies with such accuracy that they can predict 
the positions these bodies will occupy in the sky for many years 
to come. They have prepared tables of these motions, giving the 
positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and principal stars for given 
epochs. By means of these tables and astronomical observation, 
they can, among other things, accurately determine the time, and 
in no other way can it be done. 

It was many years ago that the engineer applied mathematics 
to the pressure of the wind and pressure of the wave, and 
balanced the one against the other. The sail caught the wind, the 
hull pressed the wave, and the famous clipper ships with their 
precious cargoes sprang forward ten thousand miles, making 
records of long-distance speed that have seldom been equaled. 
By day and by night, the Sun, Moon, and stars, the compass, 
their charts, and well-rated chronometers were their faithful guides, 
directing their courses across the trackless oceans. The ships 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 55 

found their ways, and captains delivered rich cargoes, bringing 
handsome returns for their voyages. Without these guides, such 
voyages could not have been made, and if they had not been 
made, the loss to commerce and civilization would have been 
incalculable. 

The circumstances that hastened, if they did not occasion the 
establishment of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, in 1675, 
are full of interest, and since they refer to one of the most 
imp>ortant practical applications of astronomy, I will give a brief 
account of them. 

At this time, a Frenchman, calling himself Le Sieur de Pierre, 
came to the English court and announced the discovery of a 
method of finding the longitude of a place. Incited by the 
discovery of America and of routes by sea to India, the British 
ships were beginning to find their way to all parts of the world. 
Colonies were planted in many lands, and a commerce built up 
that has added vastly to the material wealth of England. On 
these long voyages, methods of finding latitude and longitude 
were of prime importance. It was easy enough to find latitude, 
but how to find longitude was a pressing problem for nearly a 
century after the time of which we speak. 

A commission composed of distinguished men, with the 
privilege of adding others to their number if they saw fit, was 
selected to hear and consider the method proposed by Le Sieur, 
and to report the results of their inquiries to the king. Among 
those whom the commissioners invited to join their number was 
John Flamstead, then somewhat under thirty years of age, 
but with a considerable reputation because of his astronomical 
observations. 

Le Sieur's method depended on the Moon's motion, and 
required as data the date of observation, the latitude of the place, 
the Moon's altitude, and the altitude of two known stars. Flam- 
stead at once pointed out that the method was impracticable, 
and in the controversy that followed he wrote two letters, one to 
Le Sieur and one to the commissioners. In these letters he 
said: *'If we had astronomical tables that would give us the two 
places of the fixed stars and the Moon's true places, both in 
longitude and latitude, nearer than half a minute, we might hope 
to find the longitude of places by lunar observations. But that 
we were so far from having the places of the fixed stars true, that 
the Tychonic catalogues often erred ten minutes or more; * * * 



5^ Publications of the 

and that the best lunar tables differ one quarter, if not one third, 
of a degree from the heavens.*** 

Flamstead's letter to the commissioners was shown to King 
Charles. He was startied at the assertion of the fixed stars* 
places being false in the catalogue, and with much vehemence 
said : * * I must have them anew observed, examined, and corrected, 
for the use of my seamen. I must have it done.** And on being 
asked who could or should do it, the king replied: ** The person 
who informs you of them." 

Accordingly, on March 4, 1674-5, ^^ ^*"& signed a warrant 
for Flamstead*s salary, a portion of which reads as follows: — 

•* Whereas, w.e have appointed our trusty and well- beloved 
John Flamstead, Master of Arts, our astronomical observator, 
forthwith to apply himself with the most exact care and diligence 
to rectifying the tables of the motions of the heavens, and the 
places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much-desired 
longitude of places for the perfecting the art of navigation.*' 
The rest of the warrant relates to the payment of his salary, 
which was ;^ioo a year. 

On June 22, 1675, King Charles signed the warrant for build- 
ing the observatory. It begins as follows: — 

** Whereas, in order to the finding out of the longitude of 
places for perfecting navigation and astronomy, we have resolved 
to build a small observatory within our park at Greenwich, upon 
the highest ground, at or near the place where the castie stood, with 
lodging- rooms for our astronomical observator and assistant.** 

The foundation of the observatory was laid August 10, 1675. 
No provision was made for instruments. Flamstead had to 
provide them himself, and at his death, after forty-four years of 
laborious service, they **were actually claimed by the govern- 
ment as their own, and his executors were annoyed with a vexa- 
tious and troublesome lawsuit on that account.** [Baily: An 
Account of Flamstead, p. 30.] 

The Royal Observatory at Greenwich, founded under the 
circumstances as related, and having especially in view the kinds 
of astronomical work that lead to results of practical value, has 
continued to the present time regularly to make those observa- 
tions needed for *' rectifying the tables of the motions of the 
heavens.'* It is impossible to give, or even to form, an adequate 



•Flamstkad's History of his own Life in Baily's Account of the Rev, John Flam' 
steady page 38. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 57 

idea of the great importance of the astronomical work that has 
been done at Greenwich. 

The long series of observations, on the principal bodies of the 
solar system and the brighter fixed stars, surpassing in duration 
and magnitude any programme of work that could reasonably 
be expected from any, except national observatories, is one of the 
richest possessions of astronomy. It has furnished the data for 
many of the most important investigations relating to the motions 
of the heavenly bodies; the determination of these motions being 
the principal problem that astronomers in all ages have been 
attempting to solve. Indeed, this problem constituted so large 
a part of astronomy even at the end of the first third of this 
century, that Bessel, the greatest of practical astronomers, 
wrote as follows: — 

** What astronomy is expected to accomplish, is evidently at 
all times the same. It must lay down rules by which the move- 
ments of the celestial bodies, as they appear to us upon the Earth, 
can be computed. All else which we may learn respecting these 
bodies, as for example, their appearance and the character of their 
surfaces, is, indeed, not undeserving of attention, but possesses no 
proper astronomical interest. Whether the mountains of the 
Moon are arranged in this way, or in that, is no further a subject of 
interest to astronomers than is a knowledge of the mountains of 
the Earth to others. Whether Jupiter appears with dark stripes 
upon its surface, or is uniformly illuminated, pertains as little to 
the inquiries of the astronomer; and its four moons are interesting 
to him only for the motions they have. To learn so perfectly the 
motions of the celestial bodies, that for any specified time an 
accurate computation of them can be given — that was, and is, the 
problem which astronomy has to solve. Newton gave it no new 
problem; but his discovery encouraged the hope that a complete 
solution to the old one could be obtained. This before his time 
was not deemed possible.** 

Astronomy has advanced a long way since these words by 
Bessel were written. Two generations of theoretical and prac- 
tical astronomers have lived since then ; the former have labored to 
perfect the analysis relating to the motions of the heavenly bodies, 
and to test its accuracy by comparing observed and computed 
places, and the latter, following the methods of which Bessel 
was the great exponent, have developed the theory of their 
instruments and the theory of observation with mathematical 



58 Publications of the 

rigor, and have neglected only those terms which could be shown 
to be insensible in their effects. Astronomy has also advanced 
with marvelous rapidity in other directions. The investigations 
which Bessel characterized as not undeserving of attention, but 
as possessing no proper astronomical interest, together with 
those that have arisen through the development of spectroscopy, 
have unexpectedly attained such importance, and are so full of 
promise for the future, as to merit a co-ordinate place beside the 
investigations of the older astronomy, and constituting, as they do, 
a new science, to be distinguished by an independent name — 
astrophysics. 

The older astronomy has lost none of its importance. There 
has been no halt in its progress, and no diminution in the interest 
that attaches to its results. This will always be the case. For 
so long as civilization endures, it will be a factor in the affairs of 
men. Besides, there are moral reasons. In common with other 
scientists, the astronomer must strive to a perfect understanding 
of the action of natural and moral forces; he cannot stop where 
immediate practical applications end. His researches are based 
on far-reaching principles, and lead to results that unfold pros- 
pects among the greatest and sublimest furnished by any depart- 
ment of human knowledge, and which, through the awakening 
and proper use of the imagination, may be classed among the 
most potent of moral and spiritual forces. 

The investigations of the older astronomy are, from an 
astronomical standpoint, characterized by a singleness of purpose. 
Postulating the law of gravitation and the principles of rational 
mechanics, it seeks to determine the motions of the heavenly 
bodies. The newer astronomy is likewise characterized by a 
singleness of purpose. Calling to its aid every available means 
of inquiry, it endeavors to ascertain the nature and conditions of 
these bodies, and thence to learn what has been their past and what 
will probably be their future hbtories. Haifa century ago, it seemed 
that the future advancement of astronomy would be along the 
lines already marked out, and that it would consist chiefly in 
perfecting the science by increasing the precision of its results. 
It did not then seem probable that new departments of astronomy 
would arise, and some of the results already obtained through 
astrophysical research would then have appeared, even to the 
boldest imagination, as hopelessly beyond human possibility. 
The spectroscopic and other new methods of investigation have 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 59 

api>eared, more and more powerful telescopes have been con- 
structed, by the new methods and by the increase of power many 
old problems . have been solved, but new problems in greater 
numbers have arisen to take their places. It will always be so. 
The universe is infinitely varied. A few astronomers in a few 
short years can at best fathom only a comparatively small 
number of its mysteries. 

Nearly three centuries have elapsed since the invention of the 
telescope, and during this entire period rapid and wonderful 
improvements have marked its history. For more than two 
hundred years the popular use of the telescope was almost entirely 
unknown. In fact, it was not until near the middle of the present 
century, when the Cincinnati Observatory was established, that 
the great revolution in this respect was begun. The foundation 
of this observatory also marks an epoch in the history of science 
in this country. 

In 1832, Airy, **the Astronomer Royal of England, in his' 
celebrated * Report on Astronomy * before the British Association, 
after recounting with high eulogium what had been accomplished 
in the building of astronomical observatories throughout the old 
world, closes by saying, that as for the United States he did not 
know of the existence of a single public observatory within the 
limits of the entire country." It was then the general opinion 
abroad that the nature of our institutions was not favorable to 
the development of pure science. It was only ten years later, 
however, that the Cincinnati Astronomical Society subscribed 
$9500 for the purchase of an instrument, and made a provisional 
contract for what was then the second largest refracting telescope 
in the world. Since then, our observatories have rapidly increased 
in number, and have become no less famous for the character of 
their work than for the power and excellence of their telescopes. 

The history of the foundation of the Cincinnati Observatory 
is very interesting. By a series of popular lectures, General 
MiTCHEL, then a Professor at Cincinnati, awakened deep interest 
in the science of astronomy. The Cincinnati Astronomical 
Society was the immediate result, and thence came the Cincin- 
nati Observatory, with its long and honorable career. 

On the 9th of November, 1843, the corner stone of the ob- 
servatory was laid by John Quincy Adams, in the presence of a 
vast multitude, with appropriate ceremonies, and followed by the 



6o Publications of the 

delivery of an address replete with beauty and eloquence. It was 
the intention of the board of directors to pay for their telescope 
before proceeding to the erection of the building. At this time 
only $3000 had been paid in, and to meet their engagements, 
$6500 would have to be collected by the following June, when it 
was expected the great telescope would be ready for shipment 
to the United States. General Mitchel became the general 
agent of the society, and by undeviating perseverance raised the 
entire sum before the specified time had expired. But after 
paying for the instrument, not one dollar in cash remained with 
which to begin the construction of the observatory building, which, 
at the lowest estimate, must cost five or six thousand dollars. 
Some two or three thousand dollars had been subscribed, payable 
in work and materials; a suitable site on the summit of Mt. Adams 
had been given, subject to certain conditions; but no one could 
be found who would take the contract for the building in the face 
of the many contingencies by which the affairs of the society were 
surrounded. General Mitchel determined to hire workmen by 
the day, and personally to superintend the erection of the building. 
In attempting to contract for the delivery of brick on the summit 
of Mt. Adams, he was asked such a high price for the hauling, 
on account of the steepness of the hill, that all idea of a brick 
building was at once abandoned, and it was decided to build of 
limestone, an abundant supply of which could be had on the 
grounds of the society by quarrying. The exorbitant charges 
made for delivering lime were at once disposed of by building a 
limekiln on the grounds. In a few days it was completed, filled, 
and on fire, and soon lime in abundance was ready. Sand was 
the next item for which extravagant charges were made. With 
considerable difficulty, permission was obtained to open a sandpit 
not far away, which had long been closed for fear that further 
excavation would endanger a house on the hill above it. Then 
the price asked for hauling the sand was so great that General 
Mitchel was forced to buy horses, and in not a few cases to fill 
the carts with his own hands and drive them to the top of the 
hill, in order to demonstrate practically how many loads could be 
fairly made in a day. The nearest water was at the foot of the 
hill, half a mile away. To avoid hauling so far, a dam was 
thrown across one of the deepest ravines on the hilltop, and the 
rains allowed to fill it, to furnish the water needed for mixing the 
mortar. 



Astronomical Society of the Pcu:ific. 6i 

The work of construction began early in June, 1844. The 
force of hands for the first week consisted of two masons and one 
man to tend them. With this force it would have taken about 
twenty years to have erected the building, yet according to the 
bond it must be completed by the following June, or the title to 
the site must be forfeited. 

By the end of the first week, General Mitchel had raised 
enough money to pay his hands. He instructed his foreman to 
double his force for the next week. At the end of it, he had 
again obtained sufficient money to pay them in full. The force 
was increased week after week in the same manner, until not less 
than fifty day laborers were actually engaged in the erection of 
the Cincinnati Observatory, and as many more in the shops in 
the city were paying their subscriptions by work for the different 
parts of the building. The doors were being made by one car- 
penter, the window frames by another, the sashes by a third, a 
painter took them from the joiner, and in turn delivered them to 
the glazier, and finally a carpenter paid his subscription by hang- 
ing them, using locks, hinges, cords, pulleys, and weights, all 
obtained by subscription. 

Each Saturday night saw the funds exhausted; each new week 
was commenced in the full confidence that industry and persever- 
ance would work out its legitimate results. To raise the cash 
means was the greatest difficulty. Frequently, four or ^v^ trades 
had to be made to convert due bills into cash, and not infrequently 
did individuals cash their own due bills at a discount. 

In July and August, the work went on rapidly, and in Septem- 
ber, General Mitchel had the great satisfaction of seeing the 
building up and covered, without having incurred one dollar of 
debt and without neglecting his duties as Professor of Mathematics 
and Philosophy in the Cincinnati College, where he was teaching 
five hours a day. 

By the terms of the subscription, each contributor, whether 
of cash, work, or material, became a member of the Cincinnati 
Astronomical Society, and came to have a personal interest for 
himself and for his family, in this important observatory and its 
great telescope. There were about 800 contributors, from all 
professions and all ranks of society; probably not less than 4000 
persons had acquired the right to look at the heavenly bodies 
through this, the then second largest refractor in the world. At 
first, many nights were devoted to their instruction and enter- 



62 Publications of the 

tainment; for the first year, only one night each \iceek was 
reserved for scientific work, and in the second year, only three 
nights each week. 

We have now noted, briefly, the circumstances attending the 
founding of two important public observatories, — one by royal 
favor, the other by the will of the people. Both have long and 
honorable careers; both have served as examples leading to the 
establishment of other observatories, and both have ministered to 
the wants of the people, though in very diff*erent capacities. 

A little more than three quarters of a century ago the Astro- 
nomical Society of London was organized, and the objects of the 
original members are stated in an address circulated before their 
first public meeting, in the following words: — 

' * To encourage and promote their peculiar science by every 
means in their power, but especially by collecting, reducing, and 
publishing useful observations and tables; by setting on foot a 
minute and systematic examination of the heavens; by encourag- 
ing a general spirit of inquiry in practical astronomy; by estab- 
lishing communication with foreign observers; by circulating 
notices of all remarkable phenomena about to happen, and of 
discoveries as they arise; by comparing the merits of diff*erent 
artists eminent in the construction of astronomical instruments; 
by proposing prizes for the improvement of particular depart- 
ments, and bestowing medals or rewards on successful research 
in all; and finally, by acting, as far as possible, in concert with 
every institution, both in England and abroad, whose objects 
have anything in common with their own, but avoiding all inter- 
ference with the objects and interests of established scientific 
bodies.'* 

Surely, this was an ambitious program of work for a new 
society, and that it was able to carry it out in full measure 
demonstrates that its council contained masterly ability, and that 
its affairs were wisely and carefully administered. Its success 
from the beginning was far beyond expectation. In its first 
list of members and associates, we find many distinguished 
names. Babbage, Brewster, Faraday, Herschel, Arago, 
Bessel, Gauss, Laplace, Olbers, Piazzi, and Struve are 
among the number. The funds of the society grew, and 
were carefully invested. Even at the ** first annual general 
meeting*' the council was able to report that the invested funds 
amoui^ted to more than $3700. Presents of books, papers, and 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 63 

instruments have been continually received for more than seventy- 
five years, so that at the present time the property, aside from 
investments, is so extensive that insurance to the extent of ;^5500, 
or, approximately, $27,500, is no longer regarded as sufficient. 
Its library has always been accessible at all reasonable hours, and 
a generous spirit lias prevailed in regard to its instruments. In 
its very infancy it began the publication of its Memoirs^ those sub- 
stantial astronomical papers intended for the advancement of 
science, which, in the aggregate, now number more than 15,000 
quarto pages. Just seventy years ago it added to its publications 
the Monthly Notices, which are now in their fifty -seventh volume. 

The society soon became, and still continues to be, a great 
force in the astronomical world. The great value of its publica- 
tions, the interest in its regular monthly meetings, the advantages 
arising from its library and many other privileges have combined 
to make it popular at home and abroad. It has aided in the 
advancement of science in a purely technical way; and again by 
bringing science and the people closer together, to the great 
benefit of both. 

The society's early success was attributed by its members 
themselves to the policy adopted in the beginning, ** by acting in 
concert with every institution, both in England and abroad, 
whose objects have anything in common with its own; but avoid- 
ing all interference with the objects and interests of established 
scientific bodies.** To this may be added the active and sincere 
co-operation of its ablest members, without which the healthy 
growth and prosperity of a scientific society is impossible, and 
which can only exist when, in the management, there is entire 
freedom from direction such as wielded by the typical political 
boss. 

The Astronomical Society of the Pacific has been in existence 
about eight years. Its energies have been devoted to the diffu- 
sion of astronomical knowledge by means of popular lectures and 
by its Publications, In this way its services have been valuable 
to the public and to astronomers. The welfare of the Society 
demands that work along these lines shall be continued, and 
that it shall be made as good in quality as can be obtained, and 
as large in quantity as is consistent with an economical manage- 
ment. An increase in the membership of the Society is emi- 
nently desirable, for this would mean an increase of its funds, 
of its possibilities, and of its responsibilities. The limits of its 



64 Publications of the 

usefulness will not be reached until it becomes an active force, 
stimulating and encouraging astronomical research in all its de- 
partments, and spreading astronomical knowledge to all classes. 

San Francisco should have a great astronomical library. 
Nothing could be more appropriate than that this should be the 
property of the Astronomical Society. A beginning in this 
direction has already been made. There are now some funds 
for library purposes, there should be more; and from time to 
time, valuable books and papers are being received from cor- 
responding institutions and from individuals. Every gift in this 
way is welcomed; all works on astronomy and the related 
sciences have a value in such a place. 

Since the Society is very largely composed of those who are 
not professional astronomers, it may be said that the library need 
contain only popular works. But this is plainly not enough. It 
should be technical as well as popular, and as soon as may 
be, complete in the periodical literature of the science. During 
the past year, in connection with my Presidency of the Society, 
I have learned of more than one case of young persons of this 
city who are interested in the science, not as amateurs, but with 
the expectation of becoming professional astronomers. To these 
the Society has a duty, that of providing library facilities com- 
mensurate with their aims. Such persons, if of marked ability, 
soon largely outgrow popular books, and demand the works of 
the masters and the entire range of periodical literature to satisfy 
their wants. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



65 



ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS IN 1896. 



Made by Torvald Kohl, at Odder, Denmark. 



Variable Stars. 



January 



Z Cygni. 



8 
18 



■{ 



Z = d. 

<d. 

>e. 

= e. 

15' <e. 

5: <e. 

>r. 

<26. 

30: a little > b. 
September 8 : = b. 



February 
May 



August 15 



■{ 



September 26: ] 



October 



30 
8 



<c. 

>ci. 
id. 



■r 



November 



11: 

26: 

28: 

30: 

4: 

7: 

8: 



X' Cygni, 



January 8 



May 



January 



May 



August 



13 
18 

19 
7 
9 



>a. 
<A. 

id. 

almost = A. 

id. 

id. 



August 



15: 
17: 



>e. 

a little > e. 

= e. 

= e. 

= e. 

<e. 

<e. 

<e. 



invisible, 
id. 



September 26: id. 

October 8: a little < k. 

26: id. 

28: id. 



The Stars A and B, near X"* Cygni, 



8: 

13: 

18: 

19: 

5: 

7: 

9: 

15: 

17: 

18: 

30: 



A<B. 

A = B. 

id. 

id. 

A<B. 

id. 

A = B 

A<B. 

A = B. 

id. 

A<B. 

1897, January i 



September 3: 

8: 

26: 

30: 

October 8: 

11: 

26: 

28: 

30: 

November 4: 

8: 

- A>B. N.B. 



id. 

A=B. 
id. 
A<B. 

A < B.Dislincl 

A<B. 

id. 

id. 

A = B. 

A<B. 

A=B. 



66 



January 



February 
March 



May 
August 



Publications of the 






S Ursa 

8: S = f. 

13: a little <f. 

19: =g. 

15: id. 

11: =r. 

17: a little > f. 

20: > f. 

31: <e. 

i: =d. 

9: id. 

18: =f. 

30: a little < g. 



majoris, 
September 3 

4 

8 

26 



October 



30 

8 

26 



28 
November 4 



faint. 

id. 

almost invisi- 
ble. 

id. 

invisible. 

almost invbi- 
ble. 

= f. 
id. 



January 



February 
March 



May 
August 



T Ursa 
8: T a little > a. 

19: 

11: 



17: 

20: 

i: 

9: 
18: 

30: 



>a. 

a little > a. 
= b. 

=^ e. 



id. 
id. 

invisible, 
id. 

a little > e. 
>c. 
.<b. 



majons, 
September 3 

4 

8 

26 

30 

8 

26 



October 



28 
November 4 

7 



a little > b. 

id. 

>b. 

>a. 

a little > a. 

id. 

<b. 

>c. 

almost = c. 

= c 

a little < c. 



The Lunar Eclipse of February 28th. 



7 16 
30 
33 
38 
40 

42 

44 
48 

55 

8 9 



P. M. 



Shadow touching limb of Moon. 
Shadow touching Sirsalis a. Heraclides. 
Shadow touching Cap Laplace, 
Shadow touching Plato, 
Shadow touching Copernicus, 

Shadow touching Gassendi East. 
Shadow touching Gassendi West. 
Shadow touching Mare serenitatis East. 
Shadow touching Bessel. 
Shadow touching Proclus. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 



67 



10 



20 p. M. . 


. . Shadow touching Tycho East. 


46 


(Maximum) 


17 


. . Shadow touching Grimaldu 


43 


. . Shadow touching Copernicus, 


47 


. . Shadow touching Heraclidcs, 


52 


. . Shadow touching Cap Laplace, 


57 


. . Shadow touching Plato East. 


58.5 


. . Shadow touching Plato West. 


5 


. . Shadow touching Aristoteles, 


7 


. . Shadow touching Proclus, 


15 


. . Shadow touching limb of Moon. 



10 



OCCULTATION OF THE PLEIADES, 
m. s. 

55 45 Immersion of Celeiio. 

59 30 Immersion of Electra, 

16 40 Immersion of Taygeta, 

23 40 Immersion of Maya. 

f Immersion of Asterope\ 

^ ^ \ Emersion of Electra, 

53 40 Emersion of Celeno, 

5 40 Emersion of Taygeta. 

22 50 Emersion of Maya, 



68 



Publications of the 



Shooting Stars. 



NO. 




Time, P. M. Beginning. 


End. 


Magni- 
tude. 


NOTK. 




1896. 1 







I 


Aug.9.io>» 3" 30- 2374- 8 


234- 3 


9 




2 


8 Oj 1+29 


1+29 


^ 




3 


10 20] 343+11 


335+ 6 


3 




4 


22 1 300+48 1 289+40 


3 




5 


23 30 
33 


292+10 1 286+ 4 


3 




6 


348+18 1 342+14 


2 




7 


35 


270+56 1 242+75 


I 




8 


38 20 


337+30 1 330+20 


2 




9 


39 1 345+65 1 340+49 


? 




lO 


42 1 292+ 3 


291— 4 
282+10 


I 




II 


42 15 294+26 


Fireball. 


12 


48 10 322+70 1 306+58 


I 




13 


50 


290+52 275+30 


2 




14 


53 45 


245+63 ' 206+58 


2 




15 


58 10 


298+50 
344+43 


288+42 


3 




i6 


59 15 


331+30 


3 




17 


II I 


303+20 1 294+ 5 


2 




i8 


4 40 


25+30 1 24+14 


9 




19 


8 


303+45 ' 287+29 


3 




20 


II 10! 309—11 


301—19 
225+22 


I 
3 




21 


18 30 


240+33 




22 


22 30 


307—10 301—16 


3 




23 


26 


13+19 3+ 6 


9 


Train. 


24 


31 30 


309—17 301—23 


I 




25 


39 30 


27+32 1 27+22 


9 
2 




26 


43 15! 288+10 284+ 




27 


50 40 323— 7 ' 312—13 


3 




28 


51 20 18+32 1 3+22 


X(D 


Fireball. 


29 


56 15 1 318+50 ! 304+40 


2 




30^ 


59 66+75 I 40+86 
Time, A. M. 


2 








31 


Aug.IO.I2 2 —1328+43 3'2+32 


3 




32 


3 — 330+ 2 
Time. P.M. | 


322- 4 


3 




33 


10 I 10 i 339— 2 


331—14 


% 




34 


2 50 341+40 \ 324+18 


% 




35 


5 50 ' 295+61 


270+34 


9 

I 


Train. 


36" 


7 20 0+58 


335+50 




37 


13 321+44 


305+40 


2 




38 


13 30 ' 323+ 9 


310— 5 


% 




39 


15 351 + 10 1 340— 5 


% 




40 


18 30 


332+56 


310+44 


I 





Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



69 



Shooting Stars — Continued, 



No. 


Time, P. M. 


■ Beginning. 


End. 


Magni- 
tude. 


Note. 

1 




1896. 


1 









41 


Aug.io.io»»2i»45" 10+40 


359+23 


2 


1 


42 


25 


40 10+25 


6+19 


I 




43 


33 


40 10+37 


19+40 


3 




44 


35 


263+36 


243+12 


9 




45 


39 


258+39 


244+23 


2 




46 


44 


45 1 303+ 2 


295—13 


2 




47 


47 


15 ; 293+26 


280+ 5 


I 




48 


50 


30 337+ 9 


342—15 


2 




49 


51 


50 348+22 


342 + 13 


I 


Train. 


50 


56_ 
57 


50 50+70 


64+73 


I 




51 


35+29 


31 + 19 


2 




52 


59 


50 303— 8 


302—18 


I 




53 


II 2 


20 328—15 


324-23 


I 




54 


4 


342+33 


331+21 


% 


Train. 


55 


II 


50 319— 5 


V307— 14 


9 
I 


Train. 


56 


14 


50; 25+34 


~l6+22 




57 


15 


' 266+56 


277+42 


% 




58 


17 


40+60 


74+64 


I 




59 


28 


' 10+29 


1+17 


I 




60 


35 


102+45 


102+39 


9 




61 


35 


30 310+30 


298+11 




62 


37 


40, 29+16 


25+ 6 


% 




63 


42 


346+ 


339-14 


2 




64 


45 


311+14 


301— 2 


2 




65 


45 


20 20+27 


42+30 


2 


Slow, undulated light. 


66 


58 


10 16+46 


4+36 


? 


Train. 


67 


12 


26+19 


21+ 6 j 


I 




68 


Aug. 1 1 . 10 10 


30' 185+50 


195+34 


I 




69 


II 


148+50 


175+29 


2 




70 


16 


40 1 183+34 


190+22 


I 

I 




71 


24 


501 3 « 6+33 


292+20 




72 


27 


20 337+37 


318+22 


I 


Train. 


73 


32 


20 1 339+75 


319+59 


4 




74 


45 


10 170+80 


160+75 


3 




75_ 


55 
II 2 


45 1 5+36 


353+24 


2 




76 


30 25+20 


23+13 


2 




77 


4 


27+55 


21+50 


2 




78 


5 


10+39 


358+30 


2 




79 


10 


4+9 


359+ 4 


2 




80 


Aug. 12. 9 57 


30I . . . . 


70+70 


2 





70 



Publications of the 



No. 23 was also observed at Copenhagen (356^ -|- 30° -j — > 
341°+ 1 8^ I Magnitude). 

No. 28 was also observed at Copenhagen (290° -f" 57^ -f- - > 
273°+ 42^ %). 

No. 77 was also observed at Copenhagen (248° -|- 40^ -j — > 
254*^4" 27°, I Magnitude). 

These three meteors give the following results: — 



No. 




Beginning 






End. 






h 


\ <f> 


/i 


A. 


<A 






/ 


/ 




/ 


/ 


23 








120 


East. 


54 54 


28 








98 


57 
West. 


55 32 


77 


107 


I 17 
West. 


55 43 


lOI 


I 27 
West. 


55 25 



Real Length 
ot the Path. 



P 



Km, 



35 



Odder is situated in 2° 25' W. longitude from Copenhagen, 
and 55^ 58' N. latitude, h and ^ indicate kilometres; \ is longi- 
tude from Copenhagen; <^ is N. latitude. 

Note. — This paper was accompanied by a drawing of five 
phases of the occultation oi Jupiter by the Moon on 1896, June 14. 
The drawing is not reproduced here. The radius of Jupiter is 
taken as 9 mm, 2.5 mm, were obscured at 10** 42" 50'; 8.3 mm, 
at io**43'"io'; 14 mm. at io*'43'"3o'. The middle time is that 
of bisection, according to a late note from Mr. Kohl. 

The Committee on Publication. 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR MAY AND 
JUNE, 1897. 



Bv Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



May. 



Mercury is an evening star until May 20th, when it comes to 
inferior conjunction with the Sun. It passed greatest east elonga- 
tion on April 28th, and during the first ten days of the month is 
in very good position for observation, n(>t setting until nearly two 
hours after sunset on May ist. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 71 

Venus is now a morning star, having passed inferior conjunc- 
tion on April 28th. It is too near the Sun to be seen during the 
early part of the month, but its distance rapidly increases, and 
after May loth it rises more than an hour before sunrise. On 
May 1st, there is a very close conjunction of the Sun, Moon and 
Venus; the Moon passes the planet at about 3 A. M., and the 
Sun at I P. M. Of course, both Moon and planet are too near 
the Sun to be seen. 

Mars is still in the southwestern sky in the evening, but sets 
an hour earlier than for the corresponding period in April, at a 
little after 11 p.m. on May 30th. It moves about eighteen degrees 
east and four degrees south during the month from the constella- 
tion Gemini into Cancer, On the morning of May 25th, it 
passes just south of the fifth magnitude star 17 Cayuri, the nearest 
distance being only two minutes, but this is while they are below 
our horizon. During the closing days of the month it passes 
through the ** Beehive*' cluster in Cancer The planet has nearly 
reached its maximum distance from the Earth, and it will not 
diminish very greatly in brightness before reaching its minimum. 
It passes aphelion on the night of May 21st 

Jupiter is also in the southwestern sky in the evening, setting 
after midnight It is in the constellation LeOy and during the 
month it moves about two degrees east and forty minutes south. 
At the beginning of the month it is about two degrees east of the 
first magnitude star Regulus (a Leofiis). 

Saturn rises at about sunset in the middle of the month, 
coming to opposition on the night of May 17th. It moves west 
in the constellation Libra about two degrees during the month. 
At the beginning of the month it is about three degrees west of 
the third magnitude star /3 Scorpii, 

Uranus is quite close to Saturn^ about two degrees south. It 
comes to opposition on the same' date as Saturn^ May 17th, but 
about twelve hours earlier. Its motion is like that of Saturn^ 
but only about half as great. 

Neptune is in the eastern part of the constellation Taurus^ too 
close to the Sun for observation. 

June. 

The Sun attains its maximum declination at the summer 
solstice, and summer begins June 20th, 8 p. M., P. S. T. 

Mercury is a morning star, and reaches greatest west elonga- 
tion on June 15th. It is several degrees south of the Sun, and 



72 Publications of the 

the conditions are not very good for visibility ; but after June loth 
it rises at least an hour before the Sun, and it may possibly be 
seen if the atmospheric conditions are very favorable. 

Veiius is also a morning star, and is rapidly increasing its dis- 
tance from the Sun, so that by the end of the month it has nearly 
reached greatest west elongation. It reaches its maximum bright- 
ness early in the month, and during most of the month it can be 
seen in full sunlight without telescopic aid. 

Mars sets about an hour earlier than during May, at about 
ID p. M. on June 30th. It moves about seventeen degrees east 
and six degrees south during the month, through the constella- 
tion Cancer toward Leo, and at the end of the month is only 
about two degrees west and north of Regulus (a Leonis), Its 
actual distance from the Earth is about twice the mean distance 
of the Earth from the Sun, and its brightness not far from its 
minimum. 

Jupiter is somewhat to the east and south of MarSy and moves 
about four degrees east and two degrees south during June, in 
the constellation Leo, away from Regulus, At the end of the 
month it is ten degrees east and four degrees north of Mars, 
Regulus lying between the planets and nearer Mars, 

Saturn is now well above the horizon at sunset. It moves 
about two degrees west in the eastern part of the constellation 
Libra away from y3 Scorpii. The apparent minor axis of the 
ring is four-tenths that of the major. 

Uranus is just about two degrees south of Saturn, and 
moving in the same direction, but more slowly. It is in con- 
junction with Saturn on June 8th. 

Neptune is a morning star, quite close to the Sun. 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 
In the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
by adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 
the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
seldom much more than i". To find the standard time for the 



Astronomual Society of the Pacific. 



73 



phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence between standard and local time if the place is west of the 
standard meridian, and subtracting if east. The same rules apply 
to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 
of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
and for latitudes differing much from 40° they may be several 
minutes out. 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 





New 


Moon, 


May I, ] 


[2 46 p. M. 








First 


Quarter, 


May 9, 


I 37 P. M. 








Full Moon, 


May 16, 


5 54 A. M. 








Last 


Quarter, 


May 23, 


I 34 A. M. 








New Moon, 


May 31, 


4 26 A. M. 










The Sun. 










R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. M. 


' 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


May I. 


2 36 


+ 15 15 


5 4 AM 


. II 57 A.M. 


6 


50 P.M. 


II. 


3 14 


+ 18 I 


4 53 


II 56 


6 


59 


21. 


3 54 


^^ 20 18 


4 44 


II 56 


7 


8 


31- 


4 34 


+ 22 


4 38 


II 57 


7 


16 






Mercury. 








May I. 


3 55 


+ 23 5 


5 54A.M 


I 17 P.M. 


8 


40 P.M. 


II. 


4 9 


+ 22 21 


5 30 


12 51 


8 


12 


21. 


3 54 


+ 18 5r 


4 49 


II 56 A.M. 


7 


3 


31- 


3 39 


+ 15 46 


4 7 
Venus. 


II 2 


5 


57 


May I. 


2 12 


+ 18 12 


4 29 A.M 


. II 33 A.M 


.6 


37 P. M 


II. 


I 56 


+ 14 18 


3 49 


10 38 


5 


27 


21. 


I 54 


+ 11 45 


3 16 


9 56 


4 


36 


31. 


2 5 


+ 11 I 


2 50 
Mars. 


9 ^8 


4 


6 


May I. 


7 30 


+ 23 37 


9 25 A.M. 


4 51 P-M. 


12 


17A.M. 


II. 


7 54 


+ 22 35 


9 14 


4 35 


II 


56 P.M. 


21. 


8 17 


+ 21 19 


9 3 


4 19 


II 


35 


31. 


8 41 


+ 19 51 


8 54 
Jupiter. 


4 4 


II 


14 


May I. 


10 II 


+ 12 33 


12 48 P.M. 


7 31 P.M. 


2 


14A.M. 


II. 


10 12 


+ 12 25 


12 10 


6 53 


I 


36 


21. 


10 15 


+ 12 II 


II 34A.M. 


6 16 


12 


58 


31. 


10 18 


+ II 51 


10 59 


5 40 


12 


21 



74 



Publications of the 











Sa turn. 






1897. 


R. 


A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


H. 


M. 


' 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


May I. 


15 


48 


-17 39 


8 1 2 P.M. 


I II A.M. 


6 IOA.M, 


II. 


15 


45 


— 17 30 


7 30 


12 29 


5 28 


21. 


15 


42 


— 17 20 


6 42 


11 42 P.M. 


4 42 


31- 


15 


39 


-17 II 


6 
Uranus. 


II 


4 


May I. 


15 


42 


— 19 26 


8 14 P.M. 


I 5 A.M. 


5 56A.M 


II. 


15 


40 


— 19 20 


7 32 


12 24 


5 16 


21. 


15 


38 


- 19 15 


6 47 


II 39 P.M. 


4 31 


3'- 


15 


37 


- 19 9 


6 5 


10 58 


3 51 








Neptune, 






May I. 


5 


II 


+ 21 37 


7 15 A.M. 


2 32 P.M. 


9 49 P.M. 


II. 


5 


12 


+ 21 39 


6 37 


I 54 


9 II 


21. 


5 


14 


4- 21 41 


5 59 


I 16 


8 33 


31- 


5 


15 


+ 21 43 


5 20 


12 38 


7 56 



Eclipses of Jupiter* s Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Phenomena near right hand limb of planet as seen in an inverting telescope.) 



III. D, 


May 


I. 


H. M. 
10 56 P. M. 


II. 


R, 


May 


9- 


H. M. 

10 47 p. M 


III, R, 




2. 


2 16 A. M. 


I, 


R. 




12. 


10 8 p. M 


II. R. 




2. 


8 1 1 P. M. 


I, 


R, 




21. 


6 31 p. M 


IV, D. 




3- 


6 18 P. M. 


II, 


R, 




27- 


5 14 P. M 


IV, R, 




3- 


10 21 P. M. 


I. 


R, 




28. 


8 26 P. M 


I. R, 




4- 


I 44 A. M. 


Ill, 


R. 




30. 


6 I2P. M 


I, R. 




5- 


8 13 P. M. 













Minima of Algol. 

The Sun is too near the star, and the star too near the horizon, 
for convenient observation of minima. 



Phases of the Moon» P. S. T. 











H. M. 






First 


Quarter, 


, une 7, 


II 2 P. M. 






Full 


Moon, 


une 14, 


I I P. M. 






Last 


Quarter, 


une 21, 


3 24 P. M. 






New 


Moon, 


^ une 29, 


6 55 P- M. 








The Sun. 








R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. M. 


c / 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


June I. 


4 39 


+ 22 8 


4 38 A.M 


. II 58 A.M. 


7 18 P.M 


II. 


5 20 


+ 23 8 


4 35 


II 59 


7 23 


21. 


6 I 


+ 23 27 


4 37 


12 2 P.M. 


7 27 


July I. 


6 43 


+ 23 5 


4 41 


12 4 


7 27 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



75 









Mercury. 










A. R. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. M. 





• 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


June I. 


3 38 


+ 15 


37 


4 3 A.M. 


10 57 A.M. 


5 


51 P.M. 


II. 


3 49 


+ 16 


4 


3 33 


10 29 


5 


25 


21. 


4 28 


+ 19 


4 


3 21 


10 23 


5 


35 


July I. 


5 34 


+ 22 


35 


3 33 
Venus. 


10 54 


6 


15 


June I. 


2 6 


+ 11 


2 


2 47 A.M. 


9 25 A.M. 


4 


3 P.M. 


II. 


2 28 


+ 11 


51 


2 27 


9 8 


3 


49 


21. 


2 57 


+ 13 


32 


2 10 


8 57 


3 


44 


July I. 


3 31 


+ 15 


35 


I 58 
Mars, 


8 52 


3 


46 


June I. 


8 43 


+ 19 


41 


8 52 A.M. 


4 2 P.M. 


II 


12 P.M. 


II. 


9 6 


+ 18 





8 43 


3 46 


10 


49 


21. 


9 30 


+ 16 


7 


8 34 


3 30 


10 


26 


July I. 


9 53 


+ 14 


4 


8 26 


3 H 


10 


2 








Jupiter. 








June I. 


10 18 


+ 11 


48 


10 56 A.M. 


5 36 P.M. 


12 


16A.M. 


II. 


10 22 


+ 11 


23 


10 21 


5 I 


II 


41 P.M. 


21. 


10 27 


+ 10 


52 


9 49 


4 27 


II 


5 


July I. 


10 33 


+ 10 


18 


9 18 


3 53 


10 


28 








Saturn. 








June I. 


15 39 


-17 


10 


5 56 P.M. 


10 56 P.M. 


3 


56 A.M. 


II. 


15 36 


-17 


2 


5 13 


10 14 


3 


15 


21. 


»5 33 


— 16 


55 


4 31 


9 32 


2 


33 


July I. 


15 32 


-16 


50 


3 49 


8 51 


I 


53 








Uranus. 








June I. 


15 37 


-19 


9 


6 2 P.M. 


10 54 P.M. 


3 


46 A.M. 


II. 


15 35 


- 19 


3 


5 20 


10 13 


3 


6 


21. 


15 34 


- 18 


59 


4 39 


9 32 


2 


25 


July I. 


15 33 


- 18 


55 


3 59 


8 52 


I 


45 








Neptune. 








June I. 


5 15 


+ 21 


43 


5 17 A.M. 


12 35 P.M. 


7 


53 P.M. 


II. 


5 17 


+ 21 


45 


4 39 


II 57 A.M. 


7 


15 


21. 


5 19 


+ 21 


47 


4 I 


II 19 


6 


35 


July I. 


5 20 


+ 21 


48 


3 23 


10 41 


5 


59 




Eclipses 


or JupiTERs Satellites, P. S. 


T. 




(Phenomena near right-hand limb of planet as seen 


in an inverting telescope.) 






H. M 








H. 


M. 


II, R, 


June 3. 


7 SOP- 


M. I, R, 


June 13. 


6 


45 P. M. 


I. R. 


4- 


10 22 p. 


M. I, R, 


20. 


8 


41 P. M. 


III. D. 


6. 


6 55 P- 


M. II, R, 


28. 


4 


50 P. M. 


Ill, R. 


6. 


10 IIP. 


M. I, R, 


29. 


5 


4 P.M. 


II, R. 


10. 


10 24 P. 


M. 









Minima of Algol. 
The Sun b too near the star, and the star too near the horizon, 
for convenient observation of minima. 



76 



Publications of the 



EPHEMERIS FOR PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS OF 

THE MOON FOR CERTAIN DATES 

BETWEEN 1890 AND 1896. 



Communicated by Dr. A. Marth, F. R. A. S. 



Note. — Dr. Marth has been so good as to compute the 
following table, corresponding to times at which certain negatives 
of the Moon have been taken at Mt. Hamilton with the thirty-six- 
inch refractor. The times usually correspond to focal negatives 
presented by the Lick Observatory to the Observatory of Prague. 
The last entry refers to Map No. i of the Observatory Atlas of 
the Moon, published by the Lick Observatory. It is Dr. Marth' s 
intention to continue these computations. E. S. H. 





" 


1 Selenographical 


Topocenlric 


Apparent 











Colony:. 1 Latit. 


Libration. 


Semi-diam 


P. 


Date. 


29 


Pacific S. T. 1 


of the Sun. 


Longit. 1 Latit. 


of<CsDisc 


1 


1890, June 


h. m. s. 1 
10 10 



63.70+0.40 



—5.72-1.22 


982.6 


\ 8.40 






10 23 


63.81+0.40 


—5-75— 1.20 


982.7 


8.37 


July 


20 


7 53 1 


319.23+0.88 


—4.56-5.89 


893-6 


1 23.02 




27 


10 27 1 


46.08+1.05 


—7.56 0.00 


978.9 


\ 5-52 


Aug. 


31 


14 27 


115-43 4-1.51 


+5.62+6.66 


992.3 


337.80 


Nov. 


16 


5 53 1 


•329.70+0.55 


-2.49+4.88 


973-2 


1 349.29 




17 


6 835 


342.01+0.53 


—1.42+6.09 


976.2 


,34415 


i89i,July 


13 


8 24 57 


3.60+1. 13 


—4.04—3.85 


901.9 


1 20.82 




28 


14 51 5.5 


189.91 + 1.37 


+6.59+1.88 


955.1 


1 346.87 


Oct. 


12 


7 29 9 1 


3397+0.97 


—5.84+7.51 


981.8 


, 341.39 




— 


7 30 54.5, 


33.98+0-97 


-5.85+7.51 


981.8 


' 341.39 


1892, Nov. 


10 


14 54 31 


172 43— 0.35 


+ 8.58—6.50 


935.5 


1 18.68 




— 


15 52 41 ' 


172.92—0.35 


+8.43—6.49 


937.0 


18.76 


1893, July 


20 


8 22 45 


058+1.52 


+4.64+1.92 


903.1 


' 18.47 




23 


8 27 53 


37.25 + 1.52 


+0.94+5.51 


891.4 


1 782 


Aug. 


3 


15 23 13 , 


17493+1-44 


—4.06—0.70 


9726 


1 341.46 




— 


15 30 45 


174-99+1.44 


—4.07—0.72 


972.8 


, 341.45 


Aug. 


29 


13 13 48.5 


J31.43+1 07 


—3.77+1.25 


966.7 


343-33 


Oct. 


26 


10 50 52 1 


117.48— 0.41 


+001— 4.13 


1003.9 


349.25 




— 


16 3 14 I 


120.12 — 042 


—0.27—4.60 


1004. 1 


1 350.03 


t894, Nov. 


8 


10 16 52 


45-27—1.14 


-541+0.76 


922.5 


338 II 




— 


10 21 1.5' 


4530— 1. 14 


—5.42+0.76 


922.4 


1 338. 1 1 


1895, June 


27 


8 21 1.5. 


358.66+1.43 


+3-68+1.00 


982.6 


1 2r.39 


Aug. 


2 


10 I 36 


59.41+0.86 


+4.84+6.59 


904.0 


i 354.20 




— 


II 43 3 


60.27+0.86 


+4.46+6.48 


902.9 


353-98 






II 44 41 1 


60.28+0.86 


+446+6.48 


902.9 


' 353.98 




7 


15 25 II 1 


123. 10+0.73 


—2.13+009 


893.1 


338.63 




13 


15 10 26 ' 


196. 2 1 +0.57 


—7.01— 6.19 


941.2 


' 347-97 




14 


16 17 26.51 


209.00+0.54 


—6.83—6.46 


957-6 


1 353- 1 7 




— 


16 20 6.5 


209.02+0.54 


—6.84—6.45 


957.7 


,353- 18 


Sept. 


6 


15 38 22 1 


i29-57~o.o6 


—4.80-3.82 


903-1 


' 338.81 


Oct. 


7 


13 56 8 


146.77-0.87 


—5.81-6.45 


933.9 


1349-72 




8 


14 41 2 


159.32-0.89 


—5.94—6.48 


943.9 


1 355.00 




9 


16 20 2 1 


172.34— 0.91 


—5.96—6.12 


956.0 


1 094 







16 36 20 1 


172.48 — 0.91 


— 6.or— 6.11 


956.3 


1 0.99 




10 


16 49 13.5 


184.77-0.93 


—548—5.34 


967.6 


1 6.69 



Astronomical Society of' the Pacific. 



11 



The topocentric libration gives the selenographical longitude 
and latitude of the point on the Moon's surface which occupies 
the center of the disc, as seen from the Lick Observatory. P. 
denotes the position-angle of the Moon's axis, reckoned from 
the apparent circle of declination.* 



REVIEW OF SOLAR OBSERVATIONS, 1895 (AUGUST- 
DECEMBER) AND 1896. 



Bv David E. Hadden. 



The following solar observations are a continuation of those 
communicated to the Society for the years 1891 to June, 1895, 
and published in Vol. VII., No. 45, of the Publications, 

The instrumental outfit used has remained the same, viz. : a 
three- inch equatorially mounted telescope, and a grating spectro- 
scope of 14,438 Hnes to the inch. 

During the year 1896 the appearance and approximate position 
and size of each sun-spot group and facula have been sketched 
daily on sheets of paper containing a three-inch ruled circle, 
divided into quadrants, the east and west line being set parallel 
with the Sun's apparent motion, by allowing the limb of Sun*s 
image to move tangent to the horizontal spider-line in the eye- 
piece; the observations are afterward properly corrected for posi- 
tion angle of the Sun*s axis and inclination to the ecliptic. By 
this means an approximate position of the latitude and longitude 
is obtained. 

Complete observations and detailed descriptions of the results 
have been published in the Monthly Review of the Iowa Weather 
and Crop Service, 

The following tables exhibit the summaries of these observa- 
tions: — 

RESUMfe OF SOLAR OBSERVATIONS. 

1895. 





Number of 


Mean Daily Number of 


Months. 












Days. ! 


Groups. 


Spots. ! 


Faculae. 


July 


3 1 






. , 


August 


22 1 


4.7 


439 


2.9 


September .... 


19 , 


51 


22-3 , 


2.8 


October 


20 


4.6 


35.5 


3.3 


November .... 


16 1 


3.9 


16.2 


2.9 


December .... 


17 i 


6.3 


.7.. 


2.9 



• For a continuation of this article see the Notices L. O. 



78 



Publications of the 



1896. 



9 


3.2 


8.5 i 


3-2 


18 


3.8 


24.0 


2.5 


16 


3-7 


14.8 • 


2.6 


17 


3.7 


21.8 


3.2 


18 


23 


10.7 


25 


16 


3.0 


231 


2.3 


23 


3.8 


15- 1 


2.7 


20 


2.2 


10.7 


2.6 


17 


2.9 


31.2 


3.3 


21 


2.8 


12.9 


2.6 


12 


3.6 


16.0 


3.2 


10 


4.0 


24.7 


3.6 



January . 
Febnury . 
March . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . 
November 
December 



The steady decline in number of groups and spots noted as 
having set in during 1894 and the first half of 1895 has continued 
during the period under review, several days without spots being^ 
noted in April, August, and October, 1896. Among the larger 
and more noteworthy groups observed may be mentioned the 
following: — 

August. 1895. — Several large and interesting groups from ist 
to 14th. On the 27th, a fine, single spot, with double umbra, 
appeared at the east limb and completed the transit of the disc, 
disappearing at the west limb on September 9th, and reappearing 
again by rotation at the east limb on September 23d, and once 
again completing the transit; its umbra was quite interesting 
from day to day, at times being single, double, round, irregular, 
and curved. Other large groups were noticed during the closing 
days of September and fore part of October, and again during 
the third decade of that month. 

On September 24th, a fine, bright protuberance was observed 
on the east limb. 

On October 1 2th, a large stemmed prominence was on the 
west limb, near a group which was disappearing by rotation. 

On October 20th, faint reversals and distortions of the Ha 
line were observed on the east edge of the large east group of 
spots. 

November ist to 9th, large groups and spots dotted the disc. 

December 20th to close of the month, a number of fairly large 
and very interesting groups crossed the disc. 

The following synopses of my observations for each month of 
the year 1896 are reprinted from the Iowa Monthly Weather 
Review: — 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 79 

January^ /S^, Sun-spots were few and small during the month of 
January, but three groups made the entire transit of the disc from east 
to west during the period, and nearly twice as many groups were noted 
in the southern as in the northern hemisphere. 

February, j8g6. The sun-spots for the first half of February, 1896, 
were small, but during the latter half two especially fine and interesting 
groups made the transit of the disc. Twice as many groups were noted 
in the north as in the south hemisphere in the first half of the month, 
while during the latter half there was a slight increase in favor of the 
southern. 

March, i8g6. The total number of sun-spot groups noted during 
the month of March, 1896, was about the same as for the preceding 
month, but they were smaller and contained a less number of spots. 

But three groups made the transit of the disc, the remaining groups 
being of a very transitory character; the average life of all groups visi- 
ble was 2.8 days per group. A fairly large group appeared on the 26th, 
but after passing the central meridian about April ist, it seemed to be 
fading out in small spots. 

April, j8^. The average daily number of sun-spot groups for the 
month of April, 1896, was about the same as for the preceding three 
months, but the individual spots were much smaller. But one fairly 
large group was noticed during the month, namely, on the loth. 

From the 14th— the date of next observation — until the i8th, the 
Sun's disc was free from dark spots. This is the first time since August, 
1891, that the disc has been entirely clear. A minimum also occurred in 
November, 1895, when a few days were noted in which but one very 
faint group was present. 

From April 20th to 26th the groups were all small and transient. 

The average daily number of groups was about the same in both 
northern and southern hemispheres during the month. 

May, j8g6. Sun-spots during the first twenty-five days of May, 1896, 
were few, small, and uninteresting. On the 26th. an extensive group of 
small spots suddenly appeared, which rapidly increased in size and 
activity, and at the close of the month was a very conspicuous group of 
much interest. 

Compared with the preceding four months of the year, there was a 
decided falling-off in the daily average number of groups, spots, and 
faculae, evidence of the approaching minimum of solar activity. 

June, i8g6. Large and interesting groups of spots were visible on 
the solar disc during the entire month of June, 1896, with the exception 
of a day or two about the 20th, and the three closing days of the month. 
The average number of groups was three per day, 2.1 of which were 
observed in the southern hemisphere. Five groups made the entire 
transit of the disc, while one originated on the visible side and com- 
pleted the transit during the month. 

July, i8g6. Sun-spots for the first eleven and last eight or ten days 
of July, 1896, were few and small. On ihe 12th, a large spot appeared 
at the southeast limb, which completed the transit of the disc and dis- 



8o Publications of the 

appeared at the west limb on the 25th. This group was the most im- 
portant one of the month, and proved quite interesting, undergoing 
many changes from day to day. Another group appeared on the north- 
east limb on the 14th with indications of much activity; it rapidly 
increased in size in the next few days, but had entirely disappeared when 
near the central meridian on the 2olh. As in the preceding two months, 
the southern hemisphere was the region of greatest frequency of spot 
groups. But three groups completed the entire transit of the disc from 
east to west during the month. 

August^ i8g6. The daily average number of sun-spots visible during 
the month of August, 1896, was the lowest so far in the present year, 
being but 2.2 per day. Five groups completed the transit of the solar 
disc from east to west during the month. The principal group of the 
month appeared by rotation on the 9th — a large, well-defined circular 
spot with nucleus and penumbra, which changed but little during its 
transit. On the three closing days of the month, several new and fairly 
large groups appeared, which were of interest. The southern hemis- 
phere was again the location of greatest frequency of disturbances. 

Sep ember, 1896. Sun-spots from September ist to 8th were few and 
small. On the 9th, a fine extended stream of spots appeared at the east 
limb and made the transit of the disc. It was one of the longest groups 
observed in many years; owing to cloudy weather, but few observations 
of it were possible; before reaching the west limb it rapidly became 
smaller, the spots breaking up and fading out, not to reappear again by 
rotation at the east limb. The southern hemisphere continued to be the 
region of greatest frequency of spot groups during the month. 

October, i8g6. Sun-spots during the first half of October were very 
few, no spots being seen on the 5th. From the i8th to the close of the 
month, several small groups made the transit of the disc. The southern 
hemisphere continues to be the location of greatest spot frequency. 

November, 1896. Sun-spots during the month of November, 1896, 
were few and small, with the exception of a fairly large and interesting 
group, which made the transit of the disc from about the 2d to 14th, but 
of which only a few observations could be obtained, owing to the cloudy 
weather. As in the preceding six months, the southern hemisphere 
still continues to be the region of maximum spot frequency. 

December, 1896. During the first half of the month of December, 
1896, sun-spots were few and unimportant. During the latter half of the 
month, one group rapidly increased in size and made the transit of the 
disc, but was on the wane before disappearance at the west limb. The 
southern hemisphere still continues to be the predominant region of 
spot disturbances. 

Notwithstanding the fact that during the year 1896 the period 
of minimum of solar activity had set in, several very large and 
unusually fine groups of spots appeared during the year. A 
brief description of some of these is given here. A reference 
number is given to every group each month. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 8i 

February, 1896.— Groups Nos. ii, 14, 15. 

February 20, No 1 1 : a small single spot with penumbra near west 
limb; this was an interesting group, first appeared on loth at east limb 
as a couple of small spots, soon enlarged, and was quite conspicuous 
from 14th to i8th, undergoing many changes from day to day, and pass- 
ing over the west limb as a small spot again. No. 14: a quite prominent 
group, three large spots. No. 15: a new, fine, large group on east limb, 
about twenty degrees south of equator; it consists of a large penumbra, 
with double nucleus, the nuclei being connected by a narrow line of 
umbra; the nucleus on west side is crossed by a " bridge "; many faculae 
surround the group, and many small spots are in its vicinity. 

February 21, No. 14: a train of large spots, with two large leader 
spots. No. 15: a very fine, large group, still having the nuclei connected 
by a narrow dark line. 

February 23. No. 14: this group is a superb object; it is fully one- 
tenth of the apparent diameter of the Sun in length, and consists of three 
fine large spots. Each of the first two spots contains double nuclei, and a 
** bridge *' was noticed crossing a portion of the umbra of the second 
spot. No. 15 is also a very interesting and superb group; the large 
leader spot has triangular umbra in nearly round penumbra; this is 
followed by a larger, somewhat rectangular penumbra containing a series 
of small spots; many small spots and penumbral matter are also in vicin- 
ity. A group of four fine prominences was observed on west limb; one 
large banyan-tree-like form was quite interesting. 

February 24, No. 14: still a fine object; umbrae of both leader spots 
greatly changed. No. 15: umbra of leader spot also much changed. 

February 2$- No. 14: about same; umbra of leader spot is getting 
large. No. 15 is more extensive; is now about on the central meridian; 
multitude of small spots in its vicinity. 

February 26. No. 14: the umbra of the leader spot is still enlarging, 
and now crossed in center by a narrow *' bridge"; this group is yet a fine 
object. No. 1 5 also contains a most interesting group; the nucleus of the 
leader spot is nearly round, and that of the next spot long and narrow, 
while the third spot contains a somewhat crescent-form nucleus. 

March, 1896. — Group No. 21. 

March 26. No. 21: a new group of two fine large spots, each with 
well-developed nucleus and penumbra; the west spot has three nuclei, 
the east, one with an elongated nucleus. A very extensive facula region 
appeared by rotation at the east limb. 

March jo. No. 21 is now a litile east of meridian, and is a little 
smaller; the leader, or west spot, has extensive penumbra, with one large 
nucleus and numerous small nuclei; the following spot has divided into 
two distinct spots, each with penumbra. 

April, 1896.— Group No. 8. 
April 10. No. 8: this is probably No. 6; it has changed decidedly 
since last observation. It is a very fine group in the northwest quadrant, 



82 Publications of the 

consisting of a large penumbral area, containing a double umbra; a small 
spot is on following side, its nucleus being crossed by a ** bridge"; many 
small spots are in its vicinity. A " veiled " group was noticed a little 
east of the central meridian, in south latitude. 

May, 1896. — Group No. 12. 

May 26. No. 12: new group of many small spots, which formed since 
yesterday, little south of equator, about three days from east limb, with 
slight penumbra around two spots. No. 13: new small spot, east limb. 

May 28. No. 12: great activity in this group; it now has a large oval 
penumbra, with one large and several smaller nuclei; this is followed 
in immediate vicinity by a number of small spots, some with slight 
penumbra. 

May 2g. No. 12 is a fine, much more extensive group to-day. The 
penumbral area is increasing, but breaking up somewhat; the main 
nucleus is larger and elongated; a large number of small spots, some 
with penumbra, are following this group. Much solar disturbance is 
manifest. 

May JO. No. 12 is still a fine group; the nuclei seem to be coalescing; 
much penumbra surrounds and follows the group. 

June, 1896.— Groups Nos. ii, 12. 

June 24. No. 11: on the central meridian to-day, is increasing much 
in activity; the leader spot has umbra which app)ears to be dividing; this 
is followed by a large area of penumbra and numerous small spots. No. 
12: a new group in southwest quadrant, very extensive, containing a 
large leader spot and followed by many small spots. 

June 2^. No. 11: new small spots appearing on east side of group. 
No. 12: about the same as on yesterday, except not as many small spots 
in vicinity. 

June 26. No. it: the group is breaking ^p, the leader spot has 
divided into two parts, each with penumbra; a "bridge** is across the 
umbra of the large west spot. No. 12: the umbra of leader spot is oval; 
the penumbra does not entirely surround it, apparently being overlaid 
by facula on its east side. 

June 27, No. 11 is fast diminishing in size and breaking up. No. 
12: the leader spot is now on edge of west limb; its nucleus has penum- 
bra on north and south, but not on east or west sides. 

June* 28. No. 11: only a few spots left, with a trace of penumbra. 
No. 12: but a dot left on extreme edge of west limb; group disappearing 
by solar rotation. Very fine prominence was observed on southeast 
limb at 1:20 p.m.; portions of it attained a high altitude, but at 2:20 p.m. 
had greatly changed, and at 3:25 p.m. no floating cloud forms were seen, 
and prominence was more quiescent; also prominences on west limb^ 
one of which was pyramidal in form. 

July, 1896.— Group No. 12. 
July 12, No. 12: fine new spot with double umbra on edge of 
southeast limb, penumbra partially visible on west edge of lower 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 83 

nucleus, but not on west edge of upper one, and is visible on all other 
sides of both nuclei. A fine aurora last evening. A bright group of 
prominences was directly over the group on limb. 

August, 1896.— Group No. 13. 

August so. No. 13: a new group on east limb, with two nuclei in 
large facula. A very fine group of prominences was observed on the 
west limb at 3 p.m., also smaller one on east limb. 

September, 1896.— Group No. 6. 

SepUmber //. No. 6: a very fine train of spots well in, on east limb in 
north latitude; about fifteen nuclei were counted in the extended penum- 
bra; several portions are detached and of a semi-circular form; the group 
is inclined about fifteen degrees, or more, toward the equator. 

September ij. No. 6: this is a magnificent group to-day; it has 
greatly increased in size, length and interest; fully thirty nuclei are in- 
cluded in the long detached groups of penumbral nebulosity which still 
has the semi-circular form in numerous portions. 

September 16. No. 6: this great group is almost exactly bisected by 
the central meridian to-day; several transits of the group were taken to 
estimate its length, which was found to be about 190,000 miles. 

September //. No. 6: the fine group continues about the same, but 
segmentation of the spots has set in. 

September /p. No. 6: the group is breaking up somewhat; the fol- 
lowing spots are thinning and fading out. 

September 20, No. 6 is now breaking up; it has two irregular 
penumbral areas, one with a large nucleus and the other containing two 
nuclei; the smaller spots are fading out. 

September 22. No. 6: but a couple of small spots left of this group 
which is disappearing by solar rotation. 

October, 1896.— -Group No. 16. 

October 23, No. 16: a spot on extreme edge of east limb, south of 
equator, near which place, at 11:55 a-^* ^o 12:30 p.m., an intensely bril- 
liant small prominence was observed; a detailed account of this phe- 
nomenon was published in Popular Astronomy for December, 1896. 

October 2 i. No. 16: a well-defined, medium-sized spot, with penum- 
bra, which is not visible on west side of umbra yet. 

October 2$, A very fine group of prominences on west limb; one 
large, feather-like prominence and several smaller ones; the larger one 
was fully 90,000 miles in height. See my account of it in Popular 
Astronomy for December, 1896. 

November, 1896. —Group No. 3. 

November 4, No. 3: fine, large spot, one day in, on east limb in 
south latitude; has a nearly circular penumbra with umbra, the umbra 
being divided by a semi-circular streak of light. 



84 



Publications of the 



November 5. No. 3: only a faint streak of light crossing umbra 
to-day. 

November 11. No. 3 is now in southwest quadrant Cloudy 
weather prevented any observations of this fine sp>ot since the 5th; the 
umbra is somewhat oval, and the entire spot larger. 

November 12. No. 3: the umbra is more ** triangular*' in form 
to-day. 

November ij. No. 3: penumbra is not visible on west edge of 
umbra to-day. 

November 14. No. 3: this fine spot is now on edge of west Jimb; 
the penumbra is not apparent on either east or west edges of its umbra. 

December, 1896.— Groups Nos. 8, 15. 

December 15, No. 8: group of about fifteen small spots a little east 
of meridian, several having penumbra. 

December 18. No. 8 is larger, and consists of five or six spots, with 
penumbra, some with several nuclei. 

December ig. No. 8: three spots have three or more nuclei each; 
No. 15: minute spots northeast. 

December 22. No. 8 is now disappearing at west limb by solar 
rotation. No. 15 has developed into a fairly large group; has one fine 
leader-spot, with broken umbra in a somewhat circular penumbra, and 
followed by a compact group of small spots. 

The following table gives the maximum and minimum number 
of sun-spot groups observed on any day for the months and 
years indicated: — 



1 Maximum Daily Number of 


Minimum Daily Number of 


Months. 


Sun-spot Groups. 


Sun-spot Groups. 


' 1895. 


1896. 


1895. 1896. 


January ' 


6 


. . I 


February 










6 




I 


March . . 








1 


5 




I 


April . . 










7 







May . . . 








4 ' 


1 


I 


June . . . 








• • 5 






2 


July . . . 








• • 9 






I 


August 








8 5 


2 





September 








9 6 


2 


I 


October . 








8 6 


2 





November 








6 6 


I 


2 


December 








II 8 


' I 


2 



Alta, Iowa.— Latitude 42® 40^ N. 
Longitude 6** 2i'» W. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 85 

PREDICTIONS FOR THE SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JULY 

29, 1897, LICK OBSERVATORY AND 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



By C. D. Perrine. 

The eclipse of July 29, 1897, which is visible in the tropics as 
an annular eclipse, is visible in the United States as a partial one. 
I have computed the following circumstances for the Lick Ob- 
servatory and San Francisco — the Davidson Observatory — from 
the elements of the eclipse given by the American Ephemeris, 
taking into account the altitude in the computations for the Lick 
Observatory. The altitude in this case has nearly the maximum 
effect at the time of first contact, and makes a difference of about 
1.5 seconds. 

Prediction for Lick Observatory, 

Eclipse begins 5** 25" i* a.m., P. S. T. 

Greatest obscuration 6 14 44 

Eclipse ends 7 921 

Amount of greatest obscuration .... 0.387 of solar diameter. 

Position-angle of beginning 246° 37' 

Position-angle of ending 140 15 

Prediction for Davidson Observatory ^ San Francisco, 

Eclipse begins S** 26" 23' a.m.. P. S. T. 

Greatest obscuration 6 15 21 

Eclipse ends 7 8 27 

Amount of greatest obscuration .... 0.386 

Position- angle of beginning 245° 19' 

Position-angle of ending 141 30 

(Position-angles are reckoned from the north point through 
the east) 

February 19, 1897. 



86 Publications of the 

MAXIMUM OF o CeH (Mira), 1896-97. 

By Miss Rose O'Halloran. 

In the following observations a record of minute gradations 
of lustre has not been attempted, but merely a careful outline of 
the distinct changes, relatively to the comparison stars used 
during the intervals of clear weather. 

Sept. 25, midnight. Not more than one magnitude brighter 
than companion, no" distant; in the moonlight alike 
in tint. 

26. 1:30 A.M. Ditto; seen near meridian. 

Oct. II. More than one magnitude brighter than companion. 

20. Ditto; noticeably reddish. 

27. Ditto. 

28. Visible in opera glass of mean power. 
Nov. II. Equal to 71 CV//, about 2° to the east. 

13. Ditto. 

24. Visible to the naked eye; equaj to 70 Ceti; a few 
degrees to the north. 

25. Ditto. 

28 and 29. Brighter than 66 CV//, i J4° to the northwest. 

Dec. 2. About as bright as i Piscium, 

5. Brighter than i Piscium, 

6. Ditto. 

7. About one magnitude less than 8 Ce(i\ 

8. Somewhat brighter than before. 
19. Equal to h Celt, 

21. Brighter than 8. 

24. Ditto; not as bright as y Ceti, 
30 and 31. Equal to 8. 
Jan. I and 2. Ditto. 

5, 6, 7, 8. Less than 8. 

9. Brighter than 8; perhaps owing to moonlight. 

14. About equal to 8. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 87 

Jan. 1 5. Fainter than 8, even in the moonlight. 

17. Fainter than 8. 
22, 23, 25. Ditta 

Feb. I. Ditto. 

7. About half a magnitude fainter than 8. 

21. Equal to i Piscium, 

22. Ditto. 

23. Not so bright as i Piscium. 

24. Ditto; brighter than 70 Ceii. 

25. 26, 27. Ditto. 

Mar. I, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10.^ Ditto. 
1 1 and 1 2. Doubtful. 

18. Fainter than 70 Ceii, 

20. Ditto. In opera glass about equal to 66 Ceti, 

No satisfectory comparisons could be made after this date, 
though the variable was observed until March 25th. 

San Francisco. 




VV. C. BOND. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 89 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY.* 
Prepared by Members of the Staff. 



Photographs of Donati's Comet in September, 1858. 

A letter from Professor G. P. Bond to Mr. R. C. Carring- 
Tox. dated April 4, 1859, states that a photograph of Donati's 
comet was obtained at the Harvard College Observatory on 
September 28, 1858. The exposure was 6", and the plate 
showed the nucleus and a little nebulosity, fifteen seconds in 
diameter. (^Annals H. C. O., Vol. Ill, p. 210.) In his reply of 
May 26th, Mr. Carrington sends another photograph of the 
comet to Bond, taken on September 27th by ? ? ? with an 
exposure of seven seconds, using a camera lens (I infer that it 
was a jx)rtrait lens of some ^\^ inches in aperture), which shows 
much more nebulosity. Carrington' s enclosed photograph is 
not now to be found, I believe. The photograph was unknown to 
Dr. De la Rue. apparently (see Monthly Notices, R. A. S., 
Vol. XIX, p. 353). Both these photographs — the first ever made 
of comets — have remained unnoticed by all the historians of 
astronomical photography, up to this time, so far as I know. 

E. S. H. 

Search for Comet, or Comets, Reported by Dr. Swift, 
September 2oth. 

On September 21, 1896, a telegram from Dr. Swift was 
received here as follows: "Last night, at sunset, object as bright 
as Venus one degree east of Sun.*' 

That afternoon, with a Herschel prism applied to the twelve- 
inch telescope, I examined the region immediately about the 
Sun, and then with a low-power eye-piece, for several degrees on 

• Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California. 



90 Publications of the 

every side of the Sun, without finding the object. As the Sun 
set, I again searched north, south, and east of it, and the next 
morning as it arose, north, south, and west of it, without success. 
For several mornings and evenings Mr. Perrine searched 
with the comet-seeker the region for many degrees about the 
Sun. W. J. HusSEY. 

Bright Fire-Ball, January 26, 1897 (Mt. Hamilton). 

At o** ii" 44" A.M., P.S.T., a brilliant fire-ball fell slowly from 
Orion^ almost vertically — inclining a litde towards the south. 
It burst into several pieces just before disappearing, but left no 
persistent train. It presented quite a sensible disc, and was 
several times as bright as Venus 2X her brightest — lighting up 
the sky noticeably. C. D. P. 

The Metric System. 

** President Kellogg submitted the following: A communica- 
tion urging active measures to secure the adoption of the metric 
system. Professor George Davidson asks the signatures of 
our Regents and Faculty in its favor. Regent Houghton oflfered 
the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the Board of Regents of the University of California 
fully indorse and recommend the passage of the bill now before 
Congress to adopt the metric system of weights and measurements, as 
provided in H. R. 7251 of ist Session of 54th Congress." [Adopted 
April 14, 1896.] — Report of the Secretary of the University of California, 
189S-6. 

Erratum in No. 53 of the Publications, A. S. P. 

In the Publications, Volume VIII, page 328, line — i^,/or 
AuvvERS read Ambronn, or Anding. (A. A.) 

HoENE Wronski. 

Most readers of mathematical astronomy have at some time 
in their lives met with a paper by Villarceau: Mecaniqiu 
Celeste; Expose des Methodes de Wronski, Attracted by the 
name of Villarceau, they may have spent more or less time 
over it; but finally all must have left it, uncertain whether the 
unknown Wronski was '*a charlatan, a madman, or a genius." 
At rare intervals the name of Wronski would recur to the 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 91 

memory, accompanied by the uneasy feeling that the remaining 
doubt in his regard had not yet been settled. M. J. Bertrand, 
Perpetual Secretary of the Paris Academy of Sciences, has lately 
taken a review of the whole of Wronski's work,* and makes it 
very clear that he was neither genius nor charlatan, but simply 
insane. **His madness explains his charlatanism, excuses his 
imposture, and permits one to believe in the presence of genius 
imprisoned in insanity.'* After reading M. Bertrand* s paper, 
few will doubt his conclusions. E. S. H. 



Portrait of William Cranch Bond (Director of the 
Harvard College Observatory, 1840-1859). 

The portrait of Professor W. C. Bond given in this number is 
reproduced from a photograph of the oil painting now in the 
Harvard College Observatory. It forms one of the illustrations of 
a life of BoND,t which will shorriy be printed; and is presented 
to the A. S. P* by the undersigned. 

Edward S. Holden. 

Mt. Hamilton, February 28, 1897. 

Meteor of January 24, 1897 (Los Angeles). 

Los Angeles, Cal., March 5, 1897. 
Professor Holden, 

Lick Observatory, Mt. Hamilton, Cal. 
Dear Sir: — On January 24th, at about 3:15 p.m., I observed 
a very large meteor, which passed over this place and, as near as I 
am able to judge, in a direction nearly due east. Unfortunately, 
I did not note the exact time of its appearance, and am not able 
to state the time positively, though from other circumstances, I 
am able to locate it as being about the time mentioned above. 
The meteor was visible sufficiently long for me to make a good 
observation of it. Its movement was, as before stated, nearly 
due east. Its apparent height was about thirty degrees above 
the horizon when first observed. At its disappearance it was 
approximately twenty-three degrees to twenty-five degrees above 
the horizon. Its color was a dazzling white, with a faint tinge of 



* Rruur des Deux Monde s. Vol. 139, p. 588. 

t Memorials of William Ckanch Bond, Director of the Harvard College Observatory, 
1S40-59, and of Gborgb Phillips Bond, Director of the Harvard College Observatory, 
1&59-65, by Edward S. Holden. 



92 Publications of the 

blue. No train of smoke or fire followed, excepting a sheet of 
flame, giving the meteorite an elongated appearance. I should 
be pleased if you would forward me any notices you may have 
from other sources where this meteor has been observed, and 
greatly oblige, Yours very truly, 

S. J. Reese. 

Mr. Lowelj^'s Observations of Mercury and Venus. 

The Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society for 
January, 1897, contains plates of drawings of Mercury 2SiA Venus, 
made by Mr. Lowell at the Flagstaff Observatory in 1896. 
The markings on Mercury were "at once conspicuous'* with the 
new twenty-four-inch object-glass; those on Venus are *' perfectly 
distinct and unmistakable." The undersigned has made a con- 
siderable number of observations of Mercury in the years 1873- 
1885, and a very large number of Ventis in the years 1873-1890, 
with telescopes of six, sixteen, twenty-six, thirty-six inches in 
aperture, without ever once seeing markings of the character 
depicted by Mr. Lowell. Other markings of the class drawn 
by ScHiAPARELLi and many other observers, have, on the other 
hand, been seen and recorded whenever the conditions of vision 
were good. I have no hesitation in saying that such markings 
as are shown by Mr. Lowell did not exist on Venus before 1890. 
It is my opinion that they do not now exist on the planet, but 
that they are illusions of some sort. Their general character* 
is what would be shown if the adjusting screws of an objective 
were set up too tightly, producing a set of strains in the glass, or 
if the objective were strained by its cell. Strains of this sort will 
produce faint companions to stars sufficiently bright. A com- 
parison of all the drawings of Venus available in the library of 
the Lick Observatory is very instructive. All observers, except 
those at Flagstaff, see faint markings of one class; while those 
drawn by Mr. Lowell are of a totally different nature. 

Venus has been observed on very many occasions at Mt. 
Hamilton, with our essentially perfect twelve-inch object-glass, in 
the years 1 888-1 897, without once seeing markings of the kind 
drawn by Mr. Lowell, or "distinct" markings of any kind. 
Faint and indistinct markings, of the character of those drawn by 
scores of observers for a century past, are, however, seen when 
the circumstances are good. 



•Six or more radial rays, thicker at the outer rim of the image of the planet. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 93 

The foregoing notes seem to me to throw doubt on the 
reality of the markings reported from the Flagstaff Observatory. 
Until Mr. Lowell's observations are fully confirmed by other 
observers with other telescopes, it will be wise not to accept them 
unreservedly. Edward S. Holden. 

Mt. Hamilton, March 9 1897. 



Measures of 


^ DF.i.PHfsi, /3 151 


Date. 


/>. 


S. 


1896.828 


350^.9 


o".45 


•839 


351 -8 


.50 


.877 


354 -4 


.53 


1896.85 


352°. 4 


o".49 



These measures were made with the 36-inch telescope, using 
powers of 1000 and 1500. On each night the star was close to 
the meridian, and the seeing was good. No third star was seen, 
though carefully looked for on each night with powers from 350 

to 1500. R. G. AlTKEN. 

Mt. Hamilton, March 24, 1897. 

First Results from the Bruce Photographic Tele- 
scope AT Arequipa.* 

The Harvard College Observatory Circular, No. 15, (December 
30, 1896,) is devoted to the Bruce photographic telescope (now 
in use by Professor Bailey at Arequipa), and accompanied by 
three maps showing the splendid results which this telescope will 
give. It is essentially a huge portrait lens (doublet) of twenty- 
four inches aperture and 135 inches focus. These dimensions 
give stellar maps on a scale of i'= i mm. This scale has the 
advantage of being the same as that of the seventy-two charts 
made visually by Chacornac at Paris, and of the twenty charts 
made in the same manner by Peters at Clinton. f The Inter- 
national Stellar Charts are made with telescopes of 0.33 m. (13.4 
inches) aperture, and 3.43 ;w. (134 inches) focal length. Their 
scale is therefore essentially the same, but they are subject to a 
material disadvantage in comparison with the Bruce telescope. 
The field covered by the International telescopes is about four 



•Sec Publications A. S. P., Vol. V., pp. 82 and 186. 
f The focal length which will give i' = i mm, is 3.438 w. 



94 Publications of the 

square degrees, whereas the Bruce telescope (a doublet) covers 
about twenty-five square degrees (14x17 plates are used). The 
exposures for a given magnitude are materially shorter for the 
latter instrument. These advantages have been pointed out by 
Professor Pickering at various times and places in the years 
1883-87. In 1889, Miss Catherine W. Bruce, of New York, 
generously provided the means to carry out the suggestion of 
Professor Pickering. Mr. Alvan G. Clark undertook the 
very difficult task of making the objective, and in 1896 the 
complete telescope was mounted at Arequipa.* The maps 
accompanying the H. C. O. Circular are wonderfully fine, and 
show that the plan adopted for this powerful instrument has been 
completely successful. The Bruce telescope is provided with 
an objective prism for photographing stellar spectra; and the 
preliminary results with this, also, are entirely satisfactory. It 
appears that Professor Pickering has abandoned his original 
scheme of making a complete photographic map of the whole sky 
with this instrument, and intends to leave the map to the Inter- 
national Photographic Congress. The Bruce telescope is to be 
employed, at least for the present, on maps of special regions and 
upon spectrum photography. 

Miss Bruce and the Harvard College Observatory are to be 
congratulated upon the splendid success of a daring experiment. 

E. S. H. 

Elements of Descriptive Astronomy: a Text-book. By 
Dr. Herbert A. Howe, Director of the Chamberlin 
Observatory, Denver. Boston: Silver, Burdett & Co., 
1897, 8vo, pp. 340, with 195 colored, and other, plates and 
figures, star-maps, etc., etc. 

[Reviewed by Edward S. Holden.] 

There is always room for a good text-book of descriptive 
astronomy, and the present volume will be welcomed by teachers 
in high-chools, and by those who wish to give a general course 
to college students without going into the more technical details 
of the subject, while insisting on a full treatment of principles and 
an accurate account of the present state of knowledge. 

Professor Howe has, as might be anticipated, furnished a text 



* a pair of telescopic doublets of i6 inches aperture is now being made by Mr. 
Brash EAR for Professor Max Wolf at Heidelberg. See Publications A. S. P., Vol. 
VII., p. 285. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 95 

embodying the most approved methods of teaching, as well as 
the most recent conclusions and findings of astronomers. His 
successful experience as a teacher of astronomy is manifest, not 
only in the plan of the book and the logical way in which it is 
developed, but also in his apprehension of the student* s diffi- 
culties, and the helps over hard places which he affords. The 
many illustrations have been carefully chosen with a view to 
throwing light upon all phases of the subject In typography, 
etc., the book is very successful. 

The book is not without interest to the professional astronomer, 
also, as it brings the history of each subject down to the present 
time. With regard to the canals of Mars, for example, about 
which so much nonsense has been written, what summing up 
could be more happy than the following? **The majority of 
astronomers, while freely admitting the existence of the markings 
called canals, are inclined to be conservative with reference to 
any explanation of their nature. It has been aptly said, that it is 
better not to know so much, than to know so many things that 
are not so.** 

Mt. Hamilton, March lo, i8st7. 

Portraits of Astronomers and Others Belonging to 
THE Lick Observatory. 

The Lick Observatory possesses a large number of portraits 
of astronomers and others, most of which are preserved in 
albums. Some of the larger photographs and engravings are 
framed and exhibited in the long hall of the Observatory or in 
the library room — Adams, Airy, Bailly, Bradley, Bessel, 
Bond, Bowditch, Cayley, Chauvenet, the Clarks, the 
Drapers, Galileo, Gauss, Gould, Helmholtz, the Her- 
schels, Kelvin, Kepler, Kronecker, Lick, Maxwell, 
MicHELSON, Newcomb, Newton, Rutherfurd, Stokes, 
Struve, Sylvester, and others. 

Portraits of the Regents and other officials of the University 
of California are included in the collection. 

The photographs are derived from various sources: first, 
from gifts to the Observatory from many living astronomers, in 
answer to a circular of request; second, from a large collection 
presented by the undersigned; third, from miscellaneous sources. 

The thanks of the Observatory are returned to all those who 



96 



Publications of the 



have contributed to our collections; and if any of our friends 
can make our collections more complete, we shall be greatly 
indebted. 

Following is a list of all separate portraits on hand in March, 
1897. Beside these, many others are available in books con- 
tained in the library. It is hoped to print a list of the latter at 
some future time. Edward S. Holden. 



Abbe, C. 
Adams, J. C. 3. 
Airy, Sir G. B. 2. 
Aitken, R. G. 
Albrecht, Th. 
Alvord, W. 
Angot, A. 
Anguiano, A. 
Arago, F. 2. 
Argelander, V. 
Ashburner, W. 
V. Asten, E. 
Astrand, J. J. 
Auwers, A. 2. 
Bache, A. D. 
Backlund, O. 
Bailly, S. 2. 
Bakhuysen, H. G. 
Ball, Sir R. S. 
Bardwell, Miss E. M. 
Barnard, E. E. 3. 
Bartlett, W. H. C. 
Bass, E. 
Bauschinger, J. 
Becker, E. 
Besse!, F. VV. 2. 
Bessels, E. 
Bey, Ali. 

Bi^choffsheim, R. L. 
Bohlin, K. 
Bond, W. C. 2. 
Bossert, J. 
Bowditch, N. 2. 
Boutelle, C. A. 
Bradley, J. 2. 
Brashear, J. A. 
Breniiker, C. 
Brendel, M. 
Brooks, W. R. 
Brown, Miss E. 



Bruhns, C. 2. 
Bruns, H. 
Brunnow, F. F. 
Budd, J. H. 
Bull, S. 

Bunsen, R. W. 
Burckhalter, C. 
Cacciatore, G. 
Campbell, W. VV. 2. 
Cayley, A. 
Chandler, S. C. 
Charroppin, C. M. 
Chauvenet, VV^ 2. 
Christie, W. H. M. 
Clark, A. 3. . 
Clark, A. G. 4. 
Clark, G. B. 4. 
Clausius, R. J. E. 
Gierke, Miss A. M. 
Coffin, J. H. C. 
Colton, A. L. 
Common, A. A. 
Comstock, G. C. 
Condorcet, M. 
Cook, J. (Capt.) 
Copernicus, N. 2. 
Crew, H. 
Crocker, C. F. 
Crossley, E. 
Curley, J. 
Dana, J. D. 
Davidson, G. 
Davis, H. S. 
Delambre, J. B. J. 
Delmas, D. M. 
Dembowski, E. 
Doberck, W. 
Dolland, J. 
Donati, G. 
Downing, A. M. W. 



Draper, Mrs. A. P. 2. 
Draper, H. 2. 
Draper, J. VV. 2. 
Dreyer, J. L. E. 
Dubiago, D. T. 
Dun^r, N. C. 
Eastman, J. R. 
Easton. C. 
Ebert, H. 
Elger, T. G. 
Elkin, VV. L. 
V. Engelhardt, B. 
Engstrom, F. 
Ennis, J. 
Euler, L. 2. 
Ewing, J. A. 
Fabry, L. 
Faraday. M. 
Fergola, E. 
Fernandez, L. 
Flammarion, C. 
Flamsteed, J. 
Fleming, Mrs. M. 
Floyd, R. S. 
Foerster, VV. 
Eraser. T. E 
Frear, H. P. 
Friend, C. VV^ 
Fritsche, H. 
Frost, E. B. 
Galileo, G. 2. 
Gaudibert, C. M. 
Galle, J. G, 
Gauss. C. F. 
Geelmuyden, H. 
Gibbs, VV. 
Gill, D. 
Gilliss, J. M. 
Glasenapp, S. 
Gould, B. A. 3. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



97 



Grubb, Sir H. 
Gyld^n. H. 2. 
Hagen, J. G. 
Hall, A., Sr. 
Hall, A., Jr. 
Hallidie, A. S. 
Hamilton, L. 
Hansen, P. A. 2. 
Hansteen, C. 
Harkness, VV. 2. 
Harrington, M. W. 
Harzer, P. 
Hazen, H. A. 
Hasselberg, B. 
Heis. E. 
Hell. Father M. 
Helmholtz, H. L. F. 2. 
Henry, J. 

Herschel. Miss Caroline 
Herschel, Col. John 
Herschel, Sir J. F. W. 2. 
Herschel, Sir W. 3. 
Hilgard, J. E. 
Holden, E. S. 4. 
Hough. G. W. 2. 
Houghton, J. F. 
Howe, H. A. 
Hubbard, J. S. 
Huggins, W. 2. 
Hussey, W. J. 
Ivanhof, A. 
Janssen, J. 2. 
Kaiser. F. 
Kayser, H. 
Keeler, J. E. 
Kellogg, M. 
Kelvin, Lord 2. 
Kempf, P. 
Kepler, J. 3. 
V. Kirchhoff, G. R. 
Kirkwood, D. 
Klinkerfues, W. 
Klumpke, Miss D. 
Knobel, E. B. 2. 
V. Konkoly, N. 
Kreuger, A. 2. 
Kreutz, H. 
Kronecker, L. 
de Lalande, J. G. L. 



V. Lamont, J. 

Lamp, E. 

Lang, A., Santa Cruz, 

W. I. 
Langley, S. P. 3. 
Lassell, W. 2. 
Law, W. W. 
Leadbetter, C. 
Leavenworth, F. P. 
LeConte, John 2. 
Lehmann-Filh^. R. 
V. Leibnitz, G. W. 
Leuschner, A. O. 
LeVerrier, U. J. 
Lewis, H. C. 
Lick, J. 6. 
Lick, J. H. 
Lindemann, E. 
Lockyer, J. N. 
Loewy, M. 
Lorenzoni, G. 
LoveJl, J. R. 
Lowell, P. 
Luther, R. 
Lyman, C. A. 
Macfarlane, A. 
Manson, M. 
Marcuse. A. 
Marth, A. 
Martin, E. S. 
Marye, G. T. 
Mathews, H. E. 
Maunder, E. W. 
Maury, M. F. 2. 
Maw, W. H. 
Maxwell, J. C. 
McLaren, Lord 
Mendenhall, T. C. 
Mendizibal-TamborrelJ 
Messer, J. 
Meyer. M. W. . 
Michelson, A. A. 
Mills, D. O. 
Mitchell, Miss Maria 
Mizzi, L. F. 
Molera, E. J. 
Moller, A. 
Monck, W. H. S. 
Monge, G. 2. 



Morrison, J. 
Murphy, B. D. 
Negus, J. D. 
Negus, T. S. 
Newcomb, S. 2. 
Newton, H. A. 2. 
Newton, Sir I. 4. 
Nielsen, V. 
Nightingale, J. 
Nobile, A. 2. 
Noble, W. 
Norton, W. A. 
Nyren, M. 
Olbers, W. 
Oom. F. A. 
Oppenheim, H. 
v. Oppolzer, E. 
V. Oppolzer, Th. 
Oriani, B. 
Otis, J. 
Palisa, J. 2. 
Parkhurst, J. A. 
Paul, H. M. 
Pechule, C. F. 
Peirce, B. 
Peter, B. 
Peters, C. A. F. 
Peters, C. F. W. 2. 
Piazzi, G. 
Pickering, E. C. 
Pickering, W. H. 
Pihl, O. A. L. 
Plum, C. M. 
Pont^oulant, Comte. 
Poor, C. L. 
Preston. E. D. 
Prince, C. L. 
Pritchett, C. W. 
Pritchett, H. S. 
Proctor, R. A. 
Raymond, W. G. 
Rees, J. K. 
Repsold, J. A. 
Repsold, O. 
Ricco, A. 
Ristenpart, F. 
Roberts, L 
Rodgers, A. 
Rodgers, J. 



98 



Publications of the 



Rogers, W. A. 2. 
Ros^n, P. G. 
Rosse, Lord 
Rotch, A. L. 
Rowland, H. A. 
Runge, C. 
Runkle, J. D. 
Rutherfurd, L. M. 4. 
Sabine, E. 
Salazar, L. 
deSaussure, H. B. 
Sawyer, E. F. 
Schaeberle, J. M. 4. 
Schiaparelli, J. V. 
Schorr. R. 
Schott, C. A. 
Schulhoff, L. • 
Schultz, H. 
Schumacher, R. 
Schumann, V. 
Schur, W. 
Schuster, A. 
V. Schweiger-Lerchen- 

feld, A. 
Scott. I. 
Scares, F. H. 
Searle, A. 
Searle, G. M. 
Secchi, Father A. 
See, T. J. J. 
Seeliger, H. 



Seidel, L. 
Sestini. A. 
Siemens, Sir C. W. 
Skinner, A. N. 
Smith, H. L. 
Snell, K. 
Spencer, H. 
Stackpole, W. 
V. Steinheil, A. C. 
St. John, C. M. 
Stockwell, J. N. 
Stokes, G. G. 
Stone, O. 
Struve, Otlo. 2. 
Struve, W. 2. 
Swasey, A. 
Swift, J. F. 
Swift, L. 
Sylvester, J. J. 
Tacchini, P. 3. 
Tait, P. G. 
Taylor, I. M. 
Terby, F. 
Tesla, N. 
Thome, J. 
Tisserand, F. F. 
Todd, D. P. 2. 
Todd, S. E. 
Trouvelot, L. 
Tucker, R. H. 2. 
Tycho Brahe. 



Tyndall, J. 
Updegraff, Mrs. A. 
Upton, W. 
Valle, F. 
Van Hise, C. R. 
Villarceau, L. 
Violle, J. 
Vogel, H. C. 
Walker, S. C. 
Warner, H. H. 
Warner. W. B. 
Waterman, R. W. 
Watson. J. C. 
Weinek, L. 3. 
Wesley, W. H. 
White, E. J. 
Wiedemann, E. 
Winlock, J. 
Wislicenus, W. F. 
Witkovsky, B. 
Woeikof, A. J. 
Wolf, C. 
Wolf. Max 
Wolf, R. 
Wolfer, A. 
Wolff, F. T. 
Wright. T. 
Yamall. M. 
Young, C. A. 
Zenger, C. V. 
Ziel, F. R. 



Light Absorption as a Determining Factor in the 

Selection of the Size of the Objective for the 

Great Refractor of the Potsdam Observatory. 

In the Transactions of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, 
Professor Vogel gives, under the above title, an interesting and 
important article on the methods and results of experiments made 
to determine the loss of light in refracting telescopes through 
absorption by the glass of the objective. The research was 
undertaken, as the title suggests, to determine the size of the 
lenses for the new Potsdam refractor, with the result that 80 cm. 
was adopted as the size of the objective. This lens is corrected 
for the actinic rays, and will be mounted with a guiding telescope 
of 50 cm, aperture, corrected for visual rays. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 99 

No abstract of this article is here attempted, as a translation 
of the entire paper may be found in the Astrophysical Journal for 
February, 1897. 

It is of interest, however, to note that, according to Professor 
VoGEL*s tables, giving the intensity of the transmitted in terms 
of the incident light, as the thickness of the objective varies, the 
visual objective of the thirty-six-inch telescope of the Lick Ob- 
servatory (thickness about 7^ cm,') transmits about eighty-eight 
per cent, of the visual rays that fall upon it, if allowance is made 
for absorption only, and seventy-four per cent, allowing for 
absorption and reflection. When the photographic correcting 
lens is added, the thickness of the objective is approximately 
1 2 cm. , and the intensity of the transmitted actinic rays, in terms 
of the incident, is sixty per cent, when absorption alone is con- 
sidered, and forty- nine per cent, when absorption and reflection 
are both taken into account. R. G. Aitken. 

March 15, 1897. 

Awards of the Comet-Medal of the Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific. 

The Donohoe Comet- Medal has been awarded as follows, 
since its foundation: 

1. W. R. Brooks, March 19, 1890. 16. W. F. Gale, April 2, 1894. 

2. W. F. Denning. July 23, 1890. 17. J. M. Schaeberle, April 16, 

3. J. CoGGiA, July 18, 1890. 1893. 

4. R. Spitaler, November 16, 18. E. D. Swift, November 20, 

1890. 1894. 

5. T. Zona, November 15, 1890. 19. L. Swift, August 20, 1895. 

6. E. E. Barnard, March 29,1891. 20. C. D. Perrine, November 17, 

7. E. E. Barnard, October 3, 1895. 

1891. 21. W. R. Brooks, November 21, 

8. L. Swift, March 6, 1892. 1895. 

9. W.F. Denning, March 18,1892. 22. C. D. Perrine, February 15, 

10. W. R- Brooks, August 28,1892. 1896. 

11. E. E. Barnard, October 12, 23. L. Swift, April 13, 1896. 

1892. 24. W. E. Sperra, August 31, 1896. 

12. E. Holmes, November 6, 1892. 25. E. Giacobini, September 4, 

13. W. R. Brooks, November 19, 1896. 

1892. 26. C. D. Perrine, November 2, 

14. W. R. Brooks, October 16, 1896. 

1893. 27. C. D. Perrine, December 8, 

15. W. F. Denning, March 26, 1894. 1896. 



'^2:} \ (*>(> 



loo Publications of the 

Memorials of William Cranxh Bond, Director of the 
Harvard College Observatory, 1840-59, and of his 
Son, George Phillips Bond, Director of the Harvard 
College Observatory, 1859-65, by Edward S. Holden, 
Director of the Lick Observatory. Svo. 1897. Pub- 
lished AT THE COST OF THE DAUGHTERS OF GeORGE 

Bond, and Sold by C. A. Murdock & Co., 532 Clay 
Street, San Francisco, and by Lemcke & Buchner, 
812 Broadway, New York City. 

No adequate biography of either of the Bonds is available. 
At the request of the daughters of George Bond, I have under- 
taken to arrange the manuscript material in their hands in an 
orderly form. The book will be printed and published as above. 
The contents are: Chapter I, Life of W. C. Bond, 1789-1859; 
II, Life of G. P. Bond, 1825-1865; III, Selections from the 
Diaries of George Bond; IV, Selections from the Correspon- 
dence of George Bond; V, Account of the Scientific Work of 
the Bonds; Appendixes, giving a complete list of their published 
writings; and Index of Proper Names. 

The book will be well illustrated. It is hoped by the 

kindness of Professor E. C. Pickering, Director of the Harvard 

College Observatory, to reproduce two fine steel engravings 

of the Great Comet of 1858 and of the nebula of Orion^ 

from the plates of the Annals H. C. O. A small edition only 

will be issued. The price of a single copy, bound in cloth, 

including postage, will be two dollars. Orders may be sent to 

C. A. Murdock & Co., 532 Clay street, San Francisco, or to 

Messrs. Lemcke & Buchner, 812 Broadway, New York City. 

Edward S. Holden. 
Lick Observatorv, March 27, 1897. 

The Reversing-Layer of the Sun's Corona (Total 
Solar Eclipse of 1896, August 9). 

A photograph of this eclipse, taken by Mr. Schackelton, 
F. R. A. S., at Nova Zembla, shows the Sun*s ** reversing- layer" 
first observed by Professor Young (visually) at the eclipse of 
1870. The **reversing-layer" is, in a sense, the Sun's true 
atmosphere, and Young's observation of 1870 seemed to show 
that it can hardly be more than 500 miles in thickness. Professor 
Young's conclusions have been much called in question by 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. loi 

Professor Lockyer, whose dissociation theory requires a deep 
solar atmosphere, with a considerable range of temperature 
between its upper and lower levels. Mr. Shackeltgn's photo- 
graph has been examined by Professor Young, and fully bears 
out his conclusions. E. S. H. 

Gift of Miss Bruce to the Observatory of Prague. 

**The Director of the Observatory of Prague, Professor 
L. Weinek, has received from Miss Catherine W. Bruce, the 
high-minded patroness and well-wisher of astronomy in America, 
the sum of 2439 florins ($1000) for the publication of the large 
photographic Moon- Atlas begun by him in 1893.** — Prager 
Abendblatt, March 3, 1897. 

MeASI RES OF SiRWS. 

Both of the following measures were made with the thirty- 
six-inch telescope, using a 520-power eye-piece. Sirius was a 
few minutes east of the meridian each night, and the atmospheric 
conditions were fair. 

Date. p. s, 

1897.203 184.^9 3."98 

1897.206 185.^3 3- "92 



March 16, 1897. 



R. G. AlTKEN. 



Latitude of the Lick Observatory. 

The mean value of the normal* latitude, 4>^^ derived from 
observations with the meridian-circle in the interval between 
September, 1893, and June, 1896, is — 

37^ 20' 25".66 from about 1400 observations of 86 Berliner 

Jahrbuch equatorial stars; 
37*^ 20' 25".47 from about 1000 observations of 45 Berliner 

Jahrbuch circumpolar stars; and 
37° 20' 25^.85 from 160 observations of 22 Berliner Jahrbuch 

zenith stars. 

The correction for bisection and various systematic errors of 
observation should be largely eliminated from the mean of cir- 

• Corrected for Chandler's Variation. 



I02 Publications of the 

cumpolar and equatorial results. The bisection correction is 
eliminated from the zenith determinations, made facing north 
and south alternately, for the same star. 

Some of the B. J. declinations of zenith stars have undoubt- 
edly large errors; the declinations of the American Ephemeris 
would reduce the observed latitude by ©''.23 for sixteen of these 
stars. The normal latitude <^o=37° 20' 25".6— corresponding 
to the epoch 1895. i may be adopted as the best value furnished 
by the series of observations made in this period. 

R. H. Tucker. 

The International Astrographic Charts. 

**The fourth reunion of the Comity Permanent was held in 
Paris in May. The reports furnished by the Directors of the 
co-operating observatories show that satisfactory progress has 
been made in two- thirds of them. Owing to political or financial 
difficulties, the work has not yet begun at Santiago de Chili, La 
Plata, and Rio Janeiro, and is seriously hampered at several 
other observatories. 

The following table shows how far the photo- mapping has 
advanced in the different zones: — 

No. of 
Zone. Fields No. taken for 

Assifirned. Cat. Chart. 

Greenwich +9010+65 1149 728 472 313 plates measured; 102 plate 

constants determined. 

Rome +64 to +55 1040 280 100 — 

CaUnia +54 to +47 1008 21 None. — 

Helsingfors +46 to +40 1008 1008 A few. 160 plates measured and 

partly reduced. 

Potsdam +39 to +32 1232 500 A few. 35«ooo stars measured. 

Oxford +31 to +25 1180 800 None. 40,000 stars measured on 160 

plates. 
Paris +24 to +18 1260 1155 Not stated. 318 plates measured, 60 re- 
duced. 

Bordeaux +17 to +11 1260 300 60 Measures to be begun soon. 

Toulouse +ioto+ 5 1080 150 350 70 plates measured. 

Algiers + 4 to — 2 1260 1000 64 168 plates measured with 

32,oco siars. 

San Fernando — 3 to — 9 1260 1260 About 400. 50 plates measured once and 

25 twice. 

Tacubaya — xo to —16 1260 529 Not stated. Measuring toibegin soon. 

Santiago de Chili. . . —17 to —23 1260 — — — 

La Plata —24 to —31 1360 — — — 

Rio Janeiro —32 to —40 1376 — — — 

Cape of Good Hope . —41 to —51 1512 1512 Nearly half. 30 plates measured. 

Sydney —5210—64 1400 1393 1112 — 

Melbourne —65 to —90 1149 703 A few. — 

Examination of this table shows that (omitting altogether the 
three South American observatories which have not yet com- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 103 

menced) the taking of the catalogue plates is generally well 
advanced, and that some progress has been made with the chart- 
plates. The measurement and reduction of the catalogue plates 
have been begun by more than half the observatories, and consid- 
erable progress has been made by six or seven of them. 

The Congress first turned its attention to the degree of 
accuracy which it was desirable to obtain in the measurement of 
the photographs. It was decided that the probable error of the 
measured co-ordinates ought not to exceed ±:o". 20. 

The choice of the reference-stars and the methods of measure- 
ment and reduction were left to the discretion of the Directors of 
the co-operating observatories. It was resolved that the meas- 
ured rectilinear co-ordinates should be published as soon as 
possible, along with the necessary data for obtaining the Right 
Ascension and Declination of the stars when required. With 
regard to the magnitudes, the Congress laid down no conditions 
except that the methods adopted for their determination should 
be capable of precise definition, so that the scales employed 
at diflferent observatories might be readily comparable. For the 
Chart, it was decided that in the odd zones a triple exposure of 
30" should be given. 

Captain Abney undertook to supply the different observa- 
tories with scales which should be printed on the plates at the 
same time as the riseaUy and supply a measure of the sensibility 
of the plates for light of different intensities. It was also resolved 
that two positives of each chart-plate should be made on glass, 
and that one of them should be placed in the Bureau National 
des Poids et Mesures.** — From Monthly Notices R. A. S., Vol. 
LVII, p. 298. 

Weather at Mt. Hamilton in the Winter of 1896-97. 

The following data are taken from the meteorological records 
for the respective months, the record for March being included 
to date: — 

Cloudy nights ..'.... 14 
Rainfall („S2?;"nSw), in inches 
Snowfall, in inches i 

During the first three of these months, the clear nights, and 
occasionally part of a night marked ** cloudy," were suitable for 



1896. 

Nov. 


Dec. 


1897. 
Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Total. 


14 


17 


10 


18 


15 


74 


5.8 


4.9 


3.5 


5.9 


0.6 


20.7 


I 


3 


2 


17 


30 


53 



I04 Publications of the 

observing. A few nights were very good, but from January 25th 
to date there have been but fourteen clear nights, and not more 
than one-half that number on which the ** seeing'* could be called 

good. R. G. AlTKEN. 

Mt. Hamilton, March 20, 1897. 

The Companion of Sirius, Observed at Glasgow, Mis- 
souri, WITH A Twelve-inch Telescope. 

[Extract of a letter from Professor H. S. Pritchktt.] 

"Saturday night, March 20, 1897, I was at Glasgow, and the 
night was unusually fine. I have seldom seen so good a one in 
this climate. With the I2j4-inch glass, both my father and 
myself saw the Sirius companion (shutting the bright star out of 
the field). The result of three settings of the micrometer gave 
/= 195°; s (estimated) between 3" and 4".*' 

The Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of 
THE Pacific. 

It is the intention of Miss Catherine Wolfe Bruce, to 
whom Astronomy in all parts of the world owes so many and 
such intelligent benefactions, to found and endow a gold medal, 
to be awarded not oftener than once a year by the Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific, **for distinguished services to Astronomy.'* 
It is Miss Bruce' s desire that the medal shall be international in 
character, and that it shall be awarded to citizens of any country, 
and to persons of either sex. 

The medal is to be of gold, about sixty millimetres in 
diameter, and is to bear the seal of the Society on the obverse,^ 
The reverse is to bear an appropriate inscription. The formal 
offer of Miss Bruce will be made, and the medal founded and 
endowed, during the present year, so that the first award can be 
made (if desirable) for the year 1898. At the proper time, due 
acknowledgments will be offered to Miss Bruce for this very 
generous gift to Science and to the Society. Not only will the 
Bruce medal tend to the advancement of Astronomy, and 
enable the Astronomical Society of the Pacific to adequately 
recognize scientific work of the highest class (and these are Miss 
Bruce' s only desires), but it will forever connect the name of 



•Sec these Publications, Volume III, page 78, for a full-sized drawing of the seal. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 105 

the founder with the progressive advances of Astronomy. Those 
who are knowing to her very many and wise subventions 
of astronomical research (a few of which are spoken of in these 
Publications),^ will welcome this, her latest gift, for personal as 
well as for scientific reasons. The Society is to be congratulated 
that Miss Bruce has selected it as the Trustee to carry out her 
generous desires. If the trust is executed, as it will be, with intel- 
ligence, fidelity and circumspection, the time will soon come when 
the Bruce medal will be one of the most highly-prized recogni- 
tions of original and useful service to Astronomical Science. 

Edward S. Holden. 
The Lick Observatory, April 6, 1897. 

Return of the Lowell Observatory to Arizona. 

**The Lowell Observatory has not found the site in the vicinity 
of the City of Mexico as favorable as had been expected, and will 
be moved back to Flagstaff, Arizona.**! — Science ^ March 26, 
1897* page 512. 

The Cape Photographic DurchmusterungX 

In 1885, Dr. Gill commenced a photographic survey of 
the southern heavens from eighteen degrees of South Decl. to 
the south pole. The observations have been made at the Cape, 
and the measures and many of the reductions by Dr. Kapteyn, 
in Holland. The negatives were made with a Dallmever lens 
of six inches aperture and fifty-four inches focus, and the expo- 
sures (thirty to sixty minutes) are chosen so as to include all 
stars as bright as the tenth magnitude. Each plate covers thirty- 
six square degrees. The epoch of the Catalogue is 1875.0; and 
the probable errors of the positions are o'.27 and 2". 6 in R. A. 
and Decl. respectively. 

The (photographic) magnitudes are deduced so as to make 
the mean photographic magnitude of a group of stars identical 
with the mean visual magnitude. The average number of stars 
per square degree is 25.4, and the absolute number varies from 



•Vol. If, p. 307; Vol. V, p. 82; Vol. V, p. 186; Vol. VlII, p. 243; Vol. IX, No. 55 
(Bbuck Telescope, Moon maps, etc.) 

t See Mountain Obiervatories, 1896, page 66. 

tThe first volume of this work (—19^ to— 37^), containing 152,000 stars, is printed. 
The second volume (—38*1052*), containing 158,000 stars, is in the press. 



io6 Publications of the 

six to more than one hundred. In Arge lander's Durchmus- 
ierung, the average number is 15,2, in Schoenfeld*s it is 18.5, 
and in the Cordoba D. M. (—22° to —42°) it is 56.1. — Abstract 
of a paper in the Monthly Notices R. A. S,, Vol. LVII, p. 297. 

International Catalogue of Fundamental Stars. 

In May, 1896, a Conference was held at Paris at the invitation 
of the Bureau des Longitudes^ to consider a plan for the forma- 
tion of a fundamental catalogue of standard stars for the ephe- 
merides published in France, England, Germany, and America. 
The personnel of the Conference was Messrs. Auwers (Germany), 
BfCKLUND (Russia), Bauschinger (Germany), Christie 
(England), Downing (England), Gill (Cape of Good Hope), 
Loewv (France), Newcomb (United States), Tisserand 
(France). M. Faye (France) acted as President, and Messrs. 
V. d. S. Bakhuvsen (Holland) and Trepied (France) served 
as Secretaries. The conclusions of the Conference were adopted 
with practical unanimity. The most important were as follows: 
For the fundamental catalogue, the equinox should be determined 
solely from observations of the Sun, excluding those of Mercury 
and Venus, The equinox of Professor Newcomb* s system 
(Nx) in Vol. I of the Astronomical Papers of the American 
Ephemeris was adopted.* In view of the uncertainty that still 
exists with regard to the numerical value of the personal error 
depending on magnitude, which affects the R. A., it was decided 
that corrections for such errors should not be applied. But as the 
existence of such (small and systematic) errors is undoubted, the 
Conference considered that observatories should make researches 
to fix their amounts. Professor Newcomb was entrusted with 
the duty of fixing the values of the precessions to be employed. 
The Conference decided to adopt the following constants: 
Nutation, 9".2i;t Aberration, 2o".47;J Solar Parallax, 8".8o.§ 
It was decided that in the reduction of mean places of stars to 
apparent, the term of short period in R. A. (y"') depending on 
twice the Moon's longitude should be omitted for both polar and 
equatorial stars. 

• Catalogue of 1098 stars, 
t Dr. Gill's determination = 9".207 i o".oo3. 

\ From the adopted solar-parallax and the Nbwcomb-Michblson value of the 
velocity of light there results 2o".467 ± c/'.oi2. 

\ Dr. Gill's determination (heliometer) 8".8oa ± o^'.oos. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 107 

Professor Newcomb was entrusted with the duty of preparing 
a provisional fundamental catalogue, which is to be finished during 
1896. This catalogue is to contain about 1000 fundamental stars. 
The Conference laid down various other principles on which the 
catalogue should be constructed which are not mentioned 
here. It also expressed the hope that a scheme of international 
co-operation might be established for the calculation of the per- 
turbations and ephemerides of the minor planets (of which there 
are now more than 400). The opinion was also formally expressed 
that a first-class reversible meridian-instrument, suitable for 
fundamental work, should be erected at one of the southern 
observatories. The changes of astronomical constants, as recom- 
mended by the Conference, are to take effect in the ephemeris for 
1 90 1. ** There appears to be every reason to expect that the 
catalogue will be ready in good time, and that astronomers may 
look forward to the inauguration of a new era in the history of 
astronomical ephemerides at the commencement of the twentieth 
century." — Abstract of a paper by Dr. Downing in the Monthly 
Notices R. A. S., Vol. LVII, page 299. 

Probable Error of a Single Observed Position in 

Some Frequently Used Catalogues and 

Collections of Stars. 

The probable accidental error of an observed place, depend- 
ing on a single observation, in the following catalogues, etc., is 
(approximately) as follows: — 

Harvard College Observatory (Vol. XII) 
Berlin Observatory (670 stars) 
•* Observatory (521 stars) 
Lick Observatory (310 stars) 
Pulkowa Catalogue (Vol. VIII) 
CS634 stars) 
Washburn Observatory (303 stars) - 
Yamall's Catalogue - - - . 
Dunsink Observatory (717 stars) 
Harvard College Observatory (A. G. Zone) 
Dudley Observatory (A. G. Zone) 
Helsingfors-Gotha Observatory (A. G. Zone) 
Cincinnati Observatory (2000 stars) 
Bonn Observatory (Vol. VI; bright stars) 



R a. 1 


[Equator). 
s. 


Decl. 


- 


.02 


0.3 


- 


.02 


0.3 


■±^ 


0.03 


±0.3 


- 


•03 


03 


- 


•03 


0.3 


- 


.04 


03 


- 


•03 


0.4 


- 


.03* 


0.5* 


- 


.04 


05 


- 


•03 


0.6 


- 


.04 


0.6 


) - 


.06 


0.6 


- 


•05 


0.6 


- 


.04 


0.6 



io8 



Publications of the 



Bonn Observatory (Vol. VI; stars 9th mag^nitude) .06 

** ** (Vol. VI; stars 9.2 and 9.3) - 

Grant's Glasgow Catalogue - - 
Cordoba Zone Catalogue .... 

Bond's Zones (H. C. O. Vol. II) 
Schjellerup's 10,000 stars - - - - 

Copeland and Borgen's Catalogue 

Wilson's 644 stars 

Dunsink Observatory (1600 stars) 

Armagh Observatory (Catalogue II) 

Lamont's Zones (re-reduced in Munich Annals, II) 

Harkness* Gilliss Southern Zones 

Weisse's Bessel's Zones, I - - - 

Gottingen (Klinkerfues Schur, 6900 stars) 

Argelander's Southern Zones (Oeltzen) 

Weisse's Bessel's Zones, II - 

Cincinnati Observatory (4050 stars) 

Cape (Photographic) Durchmusierung 

Lacaille (B. A. A. S.) - - - - c 

Section II, Bonn DurchmusUrting 

Cordoba (visual) '* 

Section I, Bonn ** . . . 



Equator 


). Decl. 


J. 


" 


.06 


0.6 


.07 


0.8 


.06 


0.8 


.06 


0.8 


.07 


0.8 


.08 


0.8 


.08 


0.8 


.09 


0.8 


.07 


0.9 


.08 


0.9 


.08 


0.9 


.04 


I.I 


.16 


1.4 


.10 


1-4 


.12 


1.4 


• 15 


1.6 


.12 


1.8 


.27* 


2.6* 


..3* 


8.7* 


.38* 


9.6* 


.42* 


13-8* 


.70* 


25.6* 


E. 


S. H. 



Addendum to Dr. Marth's Article on Page 76. 





h. m. s. 








,. 





1890, Aug. 24 


7 38 5 


26.71 + 1.45 


—6.38+1.02 


972.3 


1.92 


i89i,July 14 


9 33 29.5 


16.40+1.15 


—5.25—2,61 


908.6 


18.45 


14 


9 35 32.5 


16. 42+1. 15 


—5.26 — 2.60 


908.6 


18.45 


1895, July 30 


8 22 54 


21.98+0.93 


+6.69+7.5T 


929.4 


10.16 


31 


9 '649 


34-63-1-0.91 


+6.23+7.55 


918.8 


492 


_ 31 


9 «7 49 


34.64-f-0.91 


+6.23+7.55 


918.8 


4.92 


Oct. 10 


16 2 2.2 


184.33—0.93 


—5.35-5.36 


966.2 


6.57 



Notice to Members. 

Owing to a misunderstanding, an essential part of the manu- 
script of the present number was not received until April loth, 
which accounts for the delay in the issue. 

The Committee on Publication. 



* Probable errors of a printed catalogue-place. 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. 109 

Recent Observations of the Spectrum of Mars, 
BY W. W. Campbell. 

•*In the year 1894, I described for the Chronicle my observa- 
tions of the spectrum of Mars^ and stated the conclusions to be 
drawn from them concerning? the presence of atmosphere and 
water on that planet. The observations were made by visual 
methods entirely. In the spring of 1895 ^"^ ^^ winter of 
1896-97, I repeated the observations, making them by pho- 
tography. Professor Keeler of the Allegheny Observatory 
(formerly of the Lick Observatory), recently wrote me that he 
also had observed the spectrum of Mars photographically in the 
last few months, and I have his permission to describe his results 
along with my own. Our work has an important bearing on the 
question of Mars^ atmosphere and the conditions of life on that 
planet, and I take this opportunity of making it public. * ♦ ♦ 

*'The problem was attacked in the years 1862-77 ^y Huggins, 
Janssen, Vogel, and Maunder. All came to the conclusion 
that the spectroscope was able to detect evidence of atmosphere 
containing water-vapor. Their results supported the popular 
side of the question, and were accepted without reserve. Their 
observations were nearly all made under extremely unfavorable 
circumstances: withil/ary near the horizon, with small telescopes, 
at stations near sea level and in very moist localities. I feel sure 
that the observers themselves would now be willing to say that 
much of their evidence was very discordant, and in some points 
it was erroneous. A case in court, based on similar evidence, 
would be dismissed, with costs levied on the plaintiff. 

•* While I believed that the early observations, though weak 
and discordant, were essentially correct, it seemed to me well 
worth while to repeat them at Mt. Hamilton, on account of the 
favorable circumstances of position and climate existing here. 
Among the advantages existing here may be mentioned: i. A 
more powerful telescope and spectroscope. 2. The altitude of the 
observatory, eliminating the lower 4200 feet of atmosphere and 
its aqueous vapor. 3. The southern location of the observa- 
tory and the northern position of Mars in 1894, bringing the 
planet nearer the zenith. 4. The very dry air existing here in the 
early summer. With these and other favorable circumstances, I 
expected that a confirmation of previous results would be a 
simple and easy matter. Accordingly, I compared the Martian 



no Publications of the 

and lunar spectra on several nights in 1894, when our atmosphere 
was remarkably dry, and the two bodies were at equal altitudes 
above the horizon. At all times the spectra of the two bodies 
appeared to be identical in every respect. The oxygen and 
aqueous vapor lines were stronger when the Moon and planet 
were near the horizon than when they were near the zenith, for 
the obvious reason, that in the lower positions the rays of light 
traversed the greater depth of our atmosphere. In fact, an in- 
crease of twenty-five to fidy per c^nt. in the length of path in our 
atmosphere seemed sufficient to change the spectrum appre- 
ciably. 

* * The conclusions to be drawn from the observations are very 
simple, yet they have been widely misunderstood. They are: 
I. The observations furnish no evidence of the existence of a 
Martian atmosphere containing aqueous vapor. 2. They do not 
prove that Mars has no atmosphere, nor do they even suggest 
that idea. They simply set a limit to the possible extent of the 
atmosphere, or, rather, to the quantity of oxygen and aqueous 
vapor contained in it. The light coming to us from Mars has 
been reflected from the planet* s surface, or from the inner strata 
of its atmosphere, and has, therefore, passed twice, either com- 
pletely or partially, through its atmosphere. If an increase of 
twenty-five to fifty per cent, in the length of path of the rays in 
our atmosphere changes the spectrum appreciably, the Martian 
atmosphere should have been detected, if it is one fourth as ex- 
tensive as ours. 3. We know, from the waxing and waning of 
the polar caps with the advent of winter and summer, respect- 
ively, that Mars has some atmosphere and some vapor analogous 
to our water-vapor, but we do not know how much. They do 
not seem to exist in sufficient quantities to be detected by 
spectroscopic methods; that is, they do not seem to be more 
than one fourth as extensive as on the earth, and they may be 
considerably less. 

** As soon as my 1894 results were published, Messrs. Huggins 
and VoGEL repeated their observations of 1867 and 1873, re- 
spectively. Both were very positive in the early years that 
Mars' atmosphere and aqueous vapor were very easy to detect, 
and must, therefore, be of great extent. They were able, in 
1894, to confirm their early work in some points, but in others 
they were not. This is not the place to make a scientific criticism 
of scientific results, but it should be stated that at the points in 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 1 1 1 

the spectrum where Huggins said the aqueous vapor h'nes were 
stronger in Afars than in the Moon, Vogel said no difference 
could be detected by him; and in the case of the vapor lines in 
another place in the spectrum, which Vogel said were stronger 
in Mars than in the Moon, Huggins did not detect any differ- 
ence. The two distinguished observers did not agree with each 
other in even a single point. 

** As stated above, the 1894 results were arrived at entirely by 
visual methods. The past winter, Professor Keeler and I, 
working independently, repeated my 1894 work, using the 
photographic method. We photographed the spectrum of 
Mars and the Moon when these bodies had equal altitudes. 
After a few trials, it was easy to determine the exposure time 
necessary to make the two photographic images of the same 
density. When the negatives were developed, it remained only 
to compare the spectra to detect any differences that might 
exist Neither Professor Keeler nor I was able to detect the 
slightest difference between the spectrum of Mars and that of the 
Moon. (It should be said that the aqueous vapor lines most 
studied by the various observers lie in the yellow and orange of 
the spectrum, and to record them photographically it was 
necessary to use orthochromatic plates. The oxygen lines lie 
wholly, so far as we know, in the red, and could not be photo- 
graphed satisfactorily. The investigation applies, therefore, only 
to the aqueous vapor lines.) 

" Professor Keeler considered that if the Moon moved from 
the zenith down to an altitude less than forty-five degrees, its 
spectrum underwent appreciable changes: the vapor lines were 
the stronger in the lower position of the Moon. My estimate of 
the sensitiveness of the method was practically the same, or a 
trifle less, than Keeler' s. Now, the length of path in our 
atmosphere traversed by the Moon's rays, when at an altitude of 
forty-five degrees, is forty per ceni, longer than when the Moon 
is in the zenith. Again we confirmed my visual results of 1894, 
since I then found that twenty-five to fifty per cent increase in 
the length of path produced an appreciable change in the spec- 
trum. Recalling that the light coming to us from Mars has 
passed twice, either completely or partially, through that planet's 
atmosphere, we arrive again at the result that the water- vapor 
there is not more than one fourth as extensive as on the Earth. 
(In speaking of * extensiveness,' I mean the absolute quantity 



112 Publications of the 

of vapor above a given area — a square mile, for example — of 
the planet's surface.) 

** Having been led, by the observations of 1894, to take the un- 
popular side of the question, viz: the oxygen and water- vapor (or 
some other vapor analagous to water- vapor) in Mars^ atmosphere 
are of slight amount, probably not more than one fourth as ex- 
tensive as on the Earth,— I may be pardoned for saying it is a 
pleasure to have so able and conscientious an observer as Pro- 
fessor Keeler write: * No doubt you are entirely correct on the 
water- vapor question.' 

** Assuming that the chemical constituents exist in the same 
proportions in the Earth's and Mars' atmospheres — we cannot say 
that they do — what would be the density of Mars' atmosphere at 
the planet's surface? If there is not more than one fourth as 
much atmosphere above a square mile on Mars as there is above 
the same area on the Earth, its density at the surface of the 
planet would be less than one eighth the density of our air at 
sea level; that is, it would be less than half as dense as the 
atmosphere at the summit of Mt. Everest. Such being the case, 
the conditions of life on the two planets would no longer be 
comparable. Astronomers would wisely turn the question of life 
on our neighboring planet over to the physiologists for solution; 
and possibly the latter would wisely hand it over to the domain 
of pure speculation for the present.'* —From the S. F. Chronicle, 
April 25, 1897. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 113 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 

held in the rooms of the astronomical society 

OF THE Pacific, March 27, 1897, at 7:30 p. m. 

President Hussey presided. A quorum was present. The minutes 
of the last meeting were read and approved. The following members 
were duly elected: 

List of Members Elected March 27, 1897. 

Mr. Geo. M, Edgar JUmyer^tyJ>.0.. TusqaloosaCo.. 

Mr. L. L. Hawkins 268 Oak St., Portland, Oregon. 

Free Public Library Newark, New Jersey. 

Library of the University OF\r-.^^^^. „ ;ii;„^:., 
iLLLNOis / Champaign, ilhnois. 

Library of the University of\d, ^^. .^„ t«^:««^ 
Indiana j fi'oo»"*"8^on, Indiana. 

Mr. John W. Salsbury Clear Water Harbor, Florida. 

Mile. Le Brun de Surville .... 3242 Sacramento St., S. P., Cal, 

Mr. George Taylor Walnut St., Brookiine, Mass. 

Mr. William Yates | Bo^jSs, Station C, Los Angeles, 

The following resolution was, on motion, adopted: 

Whbrbas, On the lath day of January, 1891, the sum of $70.89 was paid out of the 
Alexander Montj^omery Library Fund for sixty Comet -Medals, which amount should 
have been paid out of the Donohob Comet-Medal Fund; 

Be it resolved. That the Treasurer be instructed to transfer said sum of 570 89 from 
the DoNOHOE Comet-Medal Fund to the Alexander Montgomery Library Fund. (•] 

The Library Committee presented its report, as follows, and the 
report was, on motion, adopted and filed: 

San Francisco, Cal., March 27, 1897. 
Board of Directors^ Astronomical Society of the Pacific^ San Francisco^ California: — 

Gbntlbmrn — At your meeting of January 30, 1897, the following resolutions were 
adopted: 

" Whbrkas, The Society possesses a considerable number of valuable books and 
periodicals that are still unbound; and 

** Whbrbas* A considerable portion of the income from the Alexander Montgomery 
Library Fund remains unexpended; be it therefore 

**Resolved, That the unexpended portion of the accrued interest from this fund 
be expended:— 

•' I. For bindings for valuable unbound books and periodicals already in the posses- 
sion of the Society; and then, if any portion of this income remains unexpended, 

"3. For the purchase of additional astronomical books and periodicals; and be it 
further 



• It seems proper to say here that the medals in question were bought in Paris, in 
1890. by the Chairman of the Comet-Medal Committee. They could not be paid for from 
the principal of the medal-fund (which can not be impaired), nor from its interest (which 
WM not sufficient). Accordingly, on December 15, 1890, the Chairman wrote to the 
Treasurer of the Society (Mr. Molbra) to request that their cost be defrayed, provided 
the Directors approved, from the General Fund (not the Library Fund). 

Edward S. Holdbn. 



114 Publications of the 

** Resolved, Thai the President aud Library Committee be aathorized to carry 
these provisions into eflRect." 

We befc to report, that by virtue of Uk authority granted by the above resolutions, 
we have examined with care the unbound books, penodicals, and pamphlets in posses- 
sion of the society, and have prepared and sent to the binders lox volumes. 

We have delivered these books to the Hicks-Judd Company, 33 First Street, San 
Francisco, for binding. Their schedule of prices for this work is given in their letters of 
March 13. 1897, which are appended to, and made a part of, this report. 

In the case of periodicals and works issued in parts, we have found that numbers 
are sometimes missing. Such volumes have not been sent to the binders. We have 
written to some of our exchanges for missing numbers; we have ordered the missing 
numbers of the Astronomische Nackrickten from Dr. Krbutz, Kiel, Germany, the remain- 
ing parts of Proctor's Old and New Astronomy^ from Messrs. Longmans, Grkbn & 
Co., 15 East i6th St., New York City. 

From Prof. W. W. Paynb. Northfidd, Minn., we have ordered] Vol. 1 of the 
Sidereal Messenger, to complete our set, and Vols, i to 5, inclusive (the last to be sent as 
issued), of Popular Astronomy, The Society already has Vols. 95 to 128 of the Astro- 
nomisfke Nackrickten. We have ordered the first ninety-four volumes of this important 
periodical from F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig, Germany, at a cost lour offer) of $300. 

We have directed all bills to be sent to the Secretary of the Society in San'Francisco. 
We have arranged our orders so as to leave a sufficient balance of the funds available to 
cover freight and other charges that may yet arise in connection with our purchases. 

(Signed) W. J. Hussby, 

President A. S. P, 
E. J. Molbra, 
RosB O'Halloran, 
Chas. Burckhaltbr. 

I wish to go on record that the ninety-four vols., A. N, were bought without my 
knowledge, and I would not have consented to such a large expenditure. C. B. 



Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Astronomical 

Society of the Pacific, held in the Lecture 

Hall of the California Academy of 

Sciences, March 27, 1897. 

The meeting was called lo order by President Hussby. A quorum 
was present The minutes of the last meeting were approved. 

The Secretary read the names of new members duly elected at the 
Directors' meeting. 

The following papers were presented: 

1. Address of the retiring President, by Prof. W. J. Hussky. 

2. Reports of Committees: on Nominations; on the Comet- Medal; on 

Auditing; and Annual Report of the Treasurer. 

3. Astronomical Observations made in 1896, by Mr. Torvald Kohl, of 

Odder, Denmark. 

4. Predictions for the Solar Eclipse of July 29, 1897, for Mt. Hamilton 

and San Francisco, by Mr. C. D. Perrine. 

5. Planetary Phenomena for May and June, 1897, by Prof. M. McNeill, 

of Lake Forest, Illinois. 

6 . Ephemeris for physical observations of the Moon for certain dates 

between 1890 and 1895, by A. Marth, F. R. A. S., of Markree, 
Ireland. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 115 

The Committee on Nominations reported a list of names proposed 
for election as Directors, as follows: Messrs. Alvord, Holdbn, 
MoLERA, MoRSB, Perrinb, Pierson, Seares, St. John, Von Geldern^ 
ZiEL, and Miss 0*Halloran. 

For Committee on Publication: Messrs. Holden, Babcock, Aitken. 

Messrs. Burckhalter and Brasch were appointed as tellers. The 
polls were open from 8:15 to 9 p.m. 

After counting the ballots, the tellers announced that the following 
persons had received a majority of the votes cast, namely: For Direc- 
tors — Messrs. Alvord, Holden, Molera, Morse, Perrine, Pierson, 
Seares, St. John, Von Geldern, Zikl, and Miss O'Halloran. For 
Committee on Publication— Messrs. Holden, Babcock, Aitken. 

The Chairman declared these persons duly elected, to serve for the 
ensuing year. 

Report of the Committee on the Comet-Medal, 
Submitted March 27, 1897. 

This report relates to the calendar year 1896. The comets of 1896 
have been: 

Comet a: (unexpected comet), discovered by Mr. C. D. Perrine, 
Assistant Astronomer in the Lick Observatory, on February 15th. 

Comet b: (unexpected comet), discovered by Dr. Lewis Swift, Director 
of the Lowe Observatory, on April 13th. 

Comet c: (periodic comet), 1889 V (Brooks), re-discovered by M. 
Javelle, Astronomer of the Observatory of Nice, on June 20th. 

Comet d: (unexpected comet), discovered by Mr. W. E. Sperra, of 
Randolph, Ohio, on August 31st. 

Comet e: (unexpected comet), discovered by M. E. Giacobini, Assist- 
ant Astronomer of the Observatory of Nice, on September 4th. 

Comet f: (unexpected comet), discovered by Mr. C. D. Perrine, 
Assistant Astronomer in the Lick Observatory, on November ad. 

Comet g: (unexpected comet), discovered by Mr. C. D. Perrine, 
Assistant Astronomer in the Lick Observatory, on December 8th. 

On September 21st, two comets were reported by Dr. Lewis Swift, 
Director of the Lowe Observatory. As no positions of these 
objects were secured el^ewhere, they have not been included 
in the list of comets for the year. 

The Comet-Medal has been awarded to the discoverers of Comets 
tf, ^, </, ^, fy gy in accordance with the regulations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edward S. Holden, 
J. M. Schaeberle, 
W. W. Campbell, 

Committee on the Comet-Medal, 



ii6 Publications of the 

The Treasurer submitted bis Annual Report, as follows: — 
Annual Statement of the Receipts and Expenditures op the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific for the 
Fiscal Year ending March 27, 1897. 

general fund. 

Receipts, 

Cash Balance. March 28, 1896 1 s8o 73 

Received from dues I1491 32 

*' *' sale of publications aod reprints 9900 

" *' advertisements 7500 

' " Comet -medal Fund (engraving 21 medals) 2100 

" " Security Savings Bank (interest) 199 

" ** Life Membership Fund (interest) 5508 

•• " *' " *' (loan August 5, 1896) 12500 

I186839 

Less transfer to Life Membership Fund Isooo 

Returned to Life Membership Fund (loan of August 5, 1896) ... 125 00 175 00 1693 39 

I2274 12 



Expenditures. 

For publications .I1099 93 

*' general expenses 68490 



$178453 
Cash Balance March 27, 1897 489 29 

|ga74 " 
LIFE MEMBERSHIP FUND. 

Cash Balance March 28, 1896 I1700 61 

Received from General Fund 50 00 

" " " " (loan of August 5, 1896, rttumed) 12500 

** '* interest 55 08 

I1930 69 

Less interest transferred to General Fund I 55 08 

" loan to General Fund ( August 5, 1896) 125 00 180 08 

Cash Balance March 27, 1897 I1750 61 



DONOHOE COMET-MEDAL FUND. 

Cash Balance March 28, 1896 | 674 32 

Interest 22 72 

I 697 04 
Less transfer to General Fund for engraving 21 medals 21 00 

Cash Balance March 27, 1897 | 676 04 



ALEXANDER MONTGOMERY LIBRARY FUND. 

Cash Balance March 28, 1896 I1857 38 

Interest 75 30 

Cash Balance March 27, 1897 |r93a 68 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 117 

FUNDS. 
Balances on Deposit as follows: 

General Fond: 

with Donohoc-Kelly Banking Co I 285 33 

** Security Savings Bank 203 96 



I 489 29 



1750 61 



676 04 



Life Membership Fund: 

with San Francisco Savings Union % 550 61 

" German Savings and Loan Society 60000 

•* Hibernia Savings and Loan Society 60000 

Dooohoe Comet-Medal Fund: 

with San Francisco Savings Union. | 266 76 

** German Savings and Loan Society 204 63 

** Hibernia Savings and Loan Society 20465 

Alexander Montgomery Library Fund: 

with San Francisco Savings Union. | 670 68 

" German Savings and Loan Society 64810 

" Hibernia Savings and Loan Society 61390 

1932 68 

$4^4862 
Sam Francisco, March 27, 1897. F. EL ZIEL, Treasurer, 

The committee appointed to audit the Treasurer's accounts reported 
AS follows, and the report was, on motion, accepted and adopted: 

To th^ President and Members 0/ the Astronomical Society of the Pacific:— 

Grntlbmrn— Your committee appointed to audit the accounts of the Treasurer for 
tbe fiscal year ending March 27, 1897. have made a careful examination, and find same to 
be correct. Yours respectfully, 

F. H. MCCONNBLL. 
D. F. TlLLINGHAST. 

President Hussey then read his annual address. 
The following resolution was, on motion, adopted: 

Resolved, That all the acts appearing in the minutes of the meetings of the B ard 
of Directors of this Society, as having been done by said Board during the past fiscal 
year, are here now, by this Society, approved and confirmed. 

The thanks of the Society were returned to the California Academy 
of Sciences for the use of the lecture hall. 



Adjourned. 



ii8 Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of 

THE Astronomical Society of the Pacific, held in 

THE Rooms of the Society, March 27, 1 897, 

AT 9:45 P.M. 

On motion of Mr. Molera, Mr. St. John took the chair, and called 
the meeting to order. A quorum was present. The minutes of the last 
meeting were approved. 

The business in band being the election of officers and committees 
for the ensuing year, the following officers and committees, having re- 
ceived a majority of the votes cast, were duly elected: 

President: Mr. William Alvord. 

First Vice-President: Mr. Edward S. Holden. 

Second Vice-President: Mr. Frederick H. Seares. 

Tliird Vice-President: Mr. Chauncev M. St. John. 

Secretaries: Messrs. C. D. Perrine and F. R. Ziel. 

Treasurer: Mr. F. R. Ziel 

Committee on the Comet-Medal: Messrs. Holden (ex-officid)^ 

SCHAEBERLE, CAMPBELL. 

Library Committee: Messrs. Hussev and Seares, and Miss 
O'Halloran. Mr. Hussev was appointed Librarian. 

The President was authorized to appoint the members of the 
Finance Committee of the Board of Directors, and accordingly made 
the following selections: 

Finance Committee: Messrs. Wm. M. Pierson, E. J, Molera, and 
C. M. St. John. 

The Committee on Publication is composed of Messrs. Holden, 
Babcock, Aitken. 

Adjourned. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. "9 



OPPICBRS OP THB SOCISTY. 

Mr. WjLLiAM Alvord Prtsident 

Mr. Edward S. Holdsn First Vice-Pretident 

Mr. Frkdbrick H. Ssarbs Second VicfPresideni 

Mr. Chauncbv M. St. John Third Viu-President 

sjiR-R-i:'.:"-'! ^''"uru. 

Mr. F. R. ZiKi. Treasurtt 

Board of Directors- }desirs. Alvord, Holdbn, Molbra, Morsb, Miss O'Halloran, 

Messrs. Pbrrine, Pierson, Sbakbs, St. John, von Gbldern, Ziel. 
Fit%amce Committe* — Messrs. William M. Pibrson, £. J. Molbra, and C. M. St. John. 
Cemmittet on Publication — Messrs. Holdrn, Babcock, Aitkbn. 
L,ihrary Committee — Messrs. HussBV and Sbarbs and Miss O'Halloran. 
Committee on the Comet' Medal— y\^s&r&. Holdsn (ex-ojicio), Schabbbrlb, Campbell. 

OPPICBRS OP THB CHICAGO 8BCT10N. 
Executive Commit tee—fAr. Ruthvrn W. Pikb. 

OPPICBRS OP THB MBXICAN SBCTION. 
Executive Committee—Meun, Camilo Gonzalbz* Francisco Rodriguez Rby. 



NOTICB. 



The attention of new members is called to Article VIII of the By-Laws, which provides that 
the annual subscription, paid on election, covers the calendar year only. Subsequent anntial 
payments are due on January ist of each succeeding calendar year. This rule is necessary in 
order to make our book-keeping as simple as possible. Dues sent by mail should be directed to 
Astroooroicad Society of the Pacific Stg Market Street, San Francisco. 

It is intended that each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the PuS- 
Hcatians for the year in which he was elected to membership and for all subsequent years. If 
there have been (unfortunately) any omissions in this matter, it is requested that the Secretaries 
be at once notified, in order that the missing numbers may be supplied. Members are requested 
to preserve the copies of the Publications of the Society as sent to them. Once each year a title- 
page and contents of the preceding numbers will also be sent to the members, who can then bind 
the numbers together into a volume. Complete volumes for past years will also be supplied, to 
members only, so far as the stock in hand is sufficient, on the payment of two dollars to either of 
the Secretaries. Any non-resident member within the United States can obtain books from the 
Society's library by sending his library card with ten cents in stamps to the Secretary A.S. P.* 
819 Market Street, San Francisco, who will return the book and the card. 

The Committee on Publication desires to say that the order in which papers are printed in 
the Publications is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
first which are earliest accepted for publication. It is not possible to send proof sheets of papers 
to be print«l to authors whose residence is not within the United States. The responsibility for 
the views expressed in the papers printed rests with the writers, and is not assumed by the 
Society itself. 

The titles of papers for reading should be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
as possible, as well au any changes in addresses. The Secretary in San Francisco will send to 
any member of the Society suitable stationery, stamped with the seal of the Society, at cost price, 
as follows: a block of letter paper, 40 cents; of note paper, 35 cents; a package of envelopes, 35 
cents. These prices include postage, and should be remitted by money-order or in U. S. postage 
stamps. The sendings are at the risk of the member. 

Those members who propose to attend the meetings at Mount Hamilton during the summer 
should communicate with *'The Secretary Astronomical Society of the Pacific " at the rooms of 
the Societ>^, Sio Market Street, San Francisco, in order that arrangements may be made for 
transportation, lodging, etc 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHLY. 
(February, April, June, August, October, December.) 




publil library 



ASTOn, LENOX AND 
TIUKW WUNDA-nows. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. IX. San Francisco, Cal., June i, August i, 1897. No. 56. 



A NEW OBSERVATORY (VALKENBURG, HOLLAND). 



By Rev. John G. Hagen, S. J. 



A small observatory has been erected at Valkenburg, Holland. 
It consists mainly of an equatorial of nine-inch aperture, and 
belongs to the Jesuit College of that city. The dome is con- 
structed on the top of the building, at the northeast corner, the 
walls having been built especially strong for the purpose. The 
room under the dome contains a sidereal clock and switchboard, 
with relays, sounder, and chronograph, thus affording connec- 
doas with the equatorial, with an outside pier for time observa- 
tions, and with the telegraph office of the city. The same room 
serves as a library, which, it is hoped, will contain the publica- 
tions of other observatories. This room, as well as the dome 
and all parts of the equatorial, is lighted by electricity from the 
dynamo of the college and a storage battery. 

This new observatory has a special interest for Americans, 
since the equatorial is entirely of American make: the mounting 
by Mr. G. N. Saegmuller, and the optical part by Mr. J. 
Clacey, both of Washington. The instrument had been espe- 
cially constructed for and exhibited at the World's Fair in Chicago. 
It has the latest improvements, and is exceedingly light, the 
center-piece of the tube, the cell, and the eye-end being of alu- 
minium. It contrasts very favorably with the clumsy mountings 
of some instruments of equal or even smaller aperture in Euro- 
pean obser\'atories. One of the finest features of the telescope 
is its adjustment in azimuth and altitude, close to the polar axis. 
Under this axis is the driving-clock, visible and accessible 



122 Publications of the 

through four glass doors, and provided with electric control. 
The weights of this clock are inside the round iron pillar. Dec- 
linations are set from the eye-end of the telescope by means of a 
.microscope, and Right Ascensions directly (without the hour- 
angle) on a dial, which is moved by a sidereal clock at the lower 
end of the polar axis. Just under this dial is a small hand- 
wheel for setting in R. A. The large base of the mounting is 
under the floor, and the observing chair can be moved quite close 
to the slender pillar. This chair was made by the carpenter of 
the college, on the well-known plan of Professor Hough of 
Chicago. The switchboard also presents an American appear- 
ance. It is provided with the "spring -jacks " used in the West- 
ern Union telegraph offices, and the connections of the wires are 
arranged on the plan of the Harvard College, Georgetown Col- 
lege, and Lick Observatories. The chronograph is of the Ameri- 
can type, with cylindrical barrel, and was constructed by the 
mechanician of the college, according to plans kindly furnished 
by Mr. Saegmuller, who also made a present of the wheels 
and governor for the driving-clock. The batteries are the 
** Edison- Lalande," furnished by Bunnell & Co. of New York, 
and are admired for their constancy and cleanliness. 

The Dutch Ministry kindly allowed the free import of this 
** telescope with accessories, for the sake of instruction." The 
fitting-up of the observatory was intrusted to the Director of the 
Georgetown College Observatory, Father J. G. Hagen, S. J., 
and his plan was to adapt it principally to the observation of 
variable stars. The light construction and the comparatively 
short focus of the instrument render it especially fit for this pur- 
pose, and superior to any telescope now exclusively devoted to 
this branch of astronomy. Its first Director, Mr. Jos. Hisgen, 
S. J., is already known to the readers of the Astronomische 
Nachricht€7i by his observations of variable stars, which he made 
at the Georgetown College Observatory, in preparation for his 
new position. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 123 

THE SPECTRA AND PROPER MOTION OF STARS. 
By W. H. S. Monck, F. R. A. S. 



In the year 1892 I called the attention of the members ot 
this Society to a connexion between the character of the stellar 
spectra and the proper-motion of the corresponding stars, 
which I afterward followed up in Astronomy and Astro-physics 
and elsewhere. I had hoped that by this time the Draper 
catalogue would have been extended to the Southern Stars, 
which would have enabled this theory to be subjected to a wider 
test. I recently met with a catalogue which seemed well suited 
for a test, though, of course, I had only the original Draper 
catalogue (with some corrections kindly supplied to me by Pro- 
fessor Pickering) to refer to. This was Dr. Rambaut's cata- 
logue of stars observed at Dunsink, consisting mainly of stars 
with large proper-motion, which were observed with a view of 
detecting the existence of considerable parallaxes not previously 
noticed. Dr. Rambaut's limit was an annual motion of o".2 
in a great circle; but, unfortunately, his catalogue does not con- 
tain the entire number of such stars which are capable of being 
observed at Dunsink (he appears to have limited himself to those 
respecting which no previous parallactic researches had been 
made), while it contains a number of stars with less than the 
requisite amount of proper- motion, which were observed at the 
request of Dr. Gill, Dr. Downing, and others; and no dis- 
tinctive mark is applied to stars of this latter class. I soon found 
that, to select from the catalogue of 717 stars, those whose 
proper-motion amounted to o".2 and upwards would involve a 
good deal of calculation, and I therefore selected instead those 
whose proF>er- motion in Declination exceeded o". i. In doing 
so, no doubt I omitted some stars with a proper-motion of up- 
ward of o".2, but the omissions were not likely to make much 
alteration in the relative proportions of the stars with different 
spectra, with which alone I was concerned. Of the stars thus 
selected, 92 proved to be Capellan (spectrum E, F, or G), 59 
Arcturian (spectrum H, I, K, or L), and only 11 Sirian (spectrum 
A, B, C, or D). There were very few stars with the spectrum M, 
and these were all near the lower limit. Thirteen solar stars to 
each Sirian star is rather a startling proportion, but had I adopted 



124 Publications of the 

o".2 as the motion in Declination, the result would have been 
still more startling. There would have been ofie Sirian star 
(marked doubtful in the Draper catalogue) to over eighty 
solars. But Dr. Rambaut's stars were selected without any 
regard to their spectra, and, I believe, without knowing what the 
spectra were. 

Further, I suspect that several of the eleven Sirian stars in 
question will prove, on further examination, to be solar stars. 
For they are usually faint stars, and the Draper catalogue often 
expresses doubt as to the character of their spectra. Their num- 
bers in the Draper catalogue are the following: 4637, 4989, 
5207 (7 Sextantis), 5371, 7088, 8379 (iii Herculis), 9039, 9253 
(56 Cygni), 9328 (5 Equu/ei), 9428, and 9842. 

I had previously made a similar examination of the stars in 
the PuLKOVA catalogue having a motion in Declination of over 
o".i annually, but went over them a second time. These 
stars, of course, included several whose total proper-motion fell 
short of o". 2 per annum, whereas the selected stars from Dr. 
Rambaut's catalogue contained very few. I obtained (neglect- 
ing the notes of interrogation) 27 Sirian stars, 125 Capellan, 
and 80 Arcturian. The general fact was thus the same as before. 
I then tried the British Association catalogue for stars with a 
proper-motion of o". i annually in Declination. The contrast 
was less strongly marked, probably because several faint stars 
are erroneously described as Sirian in the Draper catalogue. 
But the three classes of stars came out in the same order, Capel- 
lan first, Arcturian second, and Sirian third. This reverses the 
order in which they occur in the Draper catalogue. The 
Sirians largely outnumber the Arcturians, and the latter some- 
what outnumber the Capellans. And taking the Pulkova cata- 
logue and identifying as many stars as possible with the Draper 
catalogue, I found that more than half were Sirians, and that of 
the remainder the Arcturians outnumbered the Capellans. But 
when I came to examine those with large proper-motion only, 
the relative numbers were reversed. Nor are these Capellan stars, 
on the average, of higher magnitude than the Sirians or Arc- 
turians. The stellar magnitudes average about the same for all 
three classes. The fact appears to be — however it may be 
explained — that Capellan stars have, on the average, larger 
proper-motion than Arcturians of the same magnitude, and that 
Arcturian stars have, on the average, much larger proper-motion 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 125 

than Sirians of the same magnitude. The proportion of Capel- 
lan stars having a proper-motion in Declination of o" , i annually 
in Declination is ten times as great as that of the Sirians, and 
twice as great as that of the Arcturians — at least, if we adopt 
the PuLKOVA catalogue as the test. Such is the fact. How is it 
to be explained ? Are the solar stars (and especially the Capel- 
lans) moving through space with greater absolute velocity than 
the Sirian stars? I believe not. There are two tests on this 
subject: first, the spectroscopic results as regards motion in the 
line of sight; and, secondly, the result of our investigations on 
parallax. The latter can hardly be relied on at present, though 
so far as they go they indicate a larger average parallax for solar 
stars than for Sirians of the same magnitude. Vogel's results 
as to motion in the line of sight appear more satisfactory, though 
his hst of fifty-one stars contains but six Capellans. Their aver- 
age motion is 9. 5 miles per second, which is somewhat less than 
the general average. In fact, Vogel's observations would lead 
us to think that all three classes of stars are moving through 
space with nearly the same velocity. Another reason for arriving 
at this conclusion is, that the effect of the Sun*s motion in space 
can be traced just as easily in the case of stars with large proper- 
motion as in the case of stars with small proper-motion; whereas, 
if the former were really traveling with double or more than 
double the usual velocity, the effect of the Sun's motion on them 
would be comparatively small. Are the Capellan stars, then, 
small stars or dull stars? The latter is, I believe, the true alter- 
native. The great number of double-stars of this type which 
are known to be binary tends to this result. The smaller the 
mass of the pair, the slower will be the revolution of the satellite, 
and the greater will be the difficulty in ascertaining the binary 
character of the pair and determining the orbit. But I believe it 
will be found that more than one half of the binary stars whose 
orbits are approximately known belong to the Capellan type. 
I pointed out, some years ago, a formula by which the luminosity 
of two binaries can be compared with each other, assuming that 
the larger stars were globes of equal density, and their compan- 
ions very small, compared with them. The result of applying 
this formula to the Sirian and Capellan binaries whose orbits were 
supposed to be known was to show that the former were much 
more luminous than the latter — probably five times as much so. 
The Arcturian binaries were puzzling. They appeared to occupy 



126 Publications of the 

both extremes in the scale of luminosity. But the orbits assumed 
for y Leonis and 6i Cygni were probably entirely wide of the 
mark; and omitting these, they are certainly less luminous than 
the Sirians; but their position as regards the Capellans is more 
difficult to define. In fact, there are not enough of them to setde 
it satisfactorily. I'here appear to be as many Arcturian as Capel- 
lan double-stars, but among known binaries the latter are five or 
six times as numerous. In like manner, Sirian double-stars are 
numerous enough, but only a small proportion are known to be 
binaries. That the vast majority of double-stars are binaries, a 
careful examination will, I think, lead us to conclude; but good 
observations on their positions being all of comparatively recent 
date, we are still without means of proving thb fact when the 
period is very long. Now, ceteris paribus ^ the greater the mass 
of the pair, the shorter will be the time of revolution; and the 
shorter periods of revolution in the case of the Capellan double- 
stars go far to displace the theory that these stars are unusuaUy 
small. Indeed, unless they are nearer to us than the others, we 
should be driven to conclude that their masses were greater than 
those of either the Sirians or the Arcturians. Capellan stars will, 
I believe, prove not to be the smallest, but the least luminous 
class of stars — least luminous, at least, relative to their density; 
for there are some reasons for thinking that a Sirian star, instead 
of presenting a much brighter surface than a Capellan of the 
same mass, presents a much greater extent of surface. The 
Capellan is rather denser than duller; but, mass for mass, it gives 
much less light. 

These results may not be inconsistent with a theory of stellar 
development, but if so, it must assume a different form from that 
which would naturally occur to us. If the Sirian, Capellan, and 
Arcturian stars represent different stages of stellar development, 
dependent on cooling and condensation, we must place the Capel- 
lan stage last, not second. And if stars pass through what is 
called the third type of spectrum (designated by M in the Dra- 
per catalogue), they must do so before reaching the Caf>ellan 
stage. Very few of the stars with this kind of spectrum possess 
large proper-motion. The number which I have identified in the 
PuLKOVA catalogue is under fifty, some of which are queried; 
but only four of these have a proper-motion in Declination of 
over o". I, thus giving a smaller percentage than even the Arc- 
turians. Unless they are, on the average, larger stars than the 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 127 

Capellans, — and we would not be likely to find the largest stars 
in the last stage of cooling — they are evidently more luminous, 
relative to their density, and must, therefore, represent an earlier 
stage of evolution. 

The stars of the Orion type, designated B in the Draper 
catalogue, have less proper-motion than even the ordinary 
Sirians, denoted by A. On the development theory, they repre- 
sent the earliest stage, while the Capellans represent the latest. 
If we cannot represent the development as taking place in this 
order, the stars must differ in kind — probably composed of dif- 
ferent elements. One circumstance which rather favors the 
theory of development is, that every star of the Algol type whose 
spectrum I have succeeded in identifying — including those like 
Spica Virginis and ^ Auriga, where no actual eclipse at present 
takes place — are Sirians. On the tidal theory of satellite devel- 
opment, the Algol type of stars belong to the earliest stage, 
their satellites ultimately developing into the binary systems with 
moderate periods, which are so frequently found among the 
the Capellans. The duration of the eclipses in the case of these 
Algol stars, compared with the intervals between them, indicate 
a low density for these stars; and this character may not improb- 
ably belong to all the Sirian stars. It is possible that, as they 
become condensed by the cooling process, and their satellites 
driven to a greater distance by tidal action, they may become 
Capellans. But, then, where do the Arcturians come in? I can 
oflfer no plausible theory on this subject. 

In conclusion, I desire to point out that if Sirian stars are, 
ceteris paribus, visible at a much greater distance than Arcturians, 
and the latter visible at a greater distance than Capellans, we 
must not regard the Draper catalogue as indicating the relative 
frequency with which these classes of stars occur in space. Sup- 
posing that the Sirians and Capellans were equally numerous, 
and that both were uniformly distributed, but that the former 
were (on the average) visible at double the distance of the latter, 
we might expect to find eight times as many Sirians as Capellans 
in the Draper catalogue. The actual proportion is about 2^ 
to I ; and the natural inference appears to be that the Capellan 
stars are really more numerous than the Sirians. The apparent 
numerical superiority of the latter is probably a delusive appear- 
ance arising from their greater luminosity. And it is evident 
that in the case of a distant cluster, a number of Sirian stars may 



128 Publications of the 

be distinctly visible when the light of their Capellan companions 
is too faint to enable them to be observed separately. This fact 
should not be lost sight of in speculations relative to the struc- 
ture of the Galaxy. Certainly, among the nearer stars which are 
in the same direction as the Galaxy, many (including the famous 
o Centauri 2XiA 6i Cygni) are of the solar type. Is there any 
valid reason for regarding the more distant stars in this direction 
as almost exclusively Sirian ? I think not. 



THE SPECTRA AND PROPER-MOTION OF STARS. 
[supplemental note.] 

By W. H. S. Monck. 



Having obtained the spectra and proper-motion of a larger 
number of stars than I had hitherto done by a comparison of the 
British Association catalogue with the Draper catalogue, I 
thought it desirable to take the different sub-classes into which 
Professor Pickering divides the stellar spectra separately. I 
found a sufficient number of stars with the following spectra to 
render a comparison feasible; viz. A, B, E, F, G, H, I. K, and 
M. I compared the proper-motions of the stars of these ty|>es 
(rejecting, in the first instance, all those marked with a note of 
interrogation in the Draper catalogue) in Declination or North 
Polar Distance, only ascertaining what proportion of them had a 
proper-motion of one tenth of a second annually in this direction. 
All my percentages are somewhat too small, because the divisor 
included some stars whose proper-motion is not given in the 
British Association catalogue, but whose spectra I copied into my 
note-book, with a view of subsequently ascertaining their proper- 
motions from some other source, which I have not yet done. 
The percentages which I obtained were as follows: — 

Spectrum. Percentage of stars with requisite motion. 

B CO 

A 8.8 

H 16.0 

M 16.7 

I 18.9 

K 22.6 

F 31.2 

E 31.7 

G 40.7 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 129 

The stars of this last type were not numerous enough to justify 
the conclusion that the proper- motion is really greater than those 
of the types E and F. 

While the stars classed as A gave a percentage of 8.8, those 
marked A? (of which there were over 130) gave a percentage of 
12.8. This was to be expected, as the intrusion of stars of any 
other type (except B) would increase the average proper- motion. 
On the other hand, the stars marked F? gave only 22.6 per cent, 
and those G? 25.0; but those marked E? gave the high percent- 
age of 36.8. Classing E, F, and G, however, together as Capel- 
^an stars, the unqueried Capellans gave a percentage of 31.8, 
and the queried Capellans a percentage of 28.9, thus confirming 
the result that the intrusion of stars of any other type among the 
Capellans will reduce their average proper-motion. H ? gave a 
percentage of 12.6, as compared with 16.0 for H; but I? and 
K? gave 24.4 and 29.0 as compared with 18.9 and 22.6 for 
unqueried stars of the same types. On the whole, if we desig- 
nate the types H, I, and K as Arcturian, the queried Arcturian 
stars gave a little more proper-motion than the unqueried. The 
reverse is true of the type M. The extremely low proper-motion 
of the stars of the Orion type B is remarkable. I had seventy- 
five of them to compare, the proper-motions of seventy-two 
being known. Not one of these had a proper-motion of one 
tenth of a second in N. P. D., while out of twenty-seven stars 
of the type G, no less than eleven possessed it. It will be seen 
that the superior proper-motion of the Capellan stars over the 
Arcturian (with which stars of the type M may be classed) is 
quite as strongly marked as that of the Arcturian over the Sirian. 

This diflference of proper- motion will, I think, be found to 
arise not from the greater actual velocity, but from the greater 
nearness (on the average) of the Capellan stars. The entire sub- 
ject, however, calls for further investigation. 



I30 Publications of the 

THE SAYRE OBSERVATORY, SOUTH BETHLEHEM, 
PENNSYLVANIA. 

BV C. L. DOOLITTLE. 



On the first day of September, 1866, occurred the formal 
opening of the Lehigh University, at South Bethlehem, Penn- 
sylvania. Professor Alfred M. Mayer, now connected with 
the Stevens Institute of Technology, was the first professor of 
astronomy, which department was then united with that of 
physics. 

Professor Mayer felt that the attempt to teach astronomy 
with no instrumental means was most unsatisfactory, and mainly 
through his eflforts, Mr. Robert H. Sayre, one of the most 
prominent men of the place, and a trustee of the University, 
became interested in the matter, and undertook to provide means 
or a small observatory. The result was the founding of the 
Sayre Observatory, in 1868. 

The plan was not an ambitious one, the total cost of building 
and instruments being only about $5000.00. 

The equipment consisted of a six-inch equatorial, by Alvan 
Clark & Sons; a portable transit instrument, by Stackpole; 
a sidereal clock, by Brand; and, finally, an old zenith telescope, 
which is said to have been rejected by the U. S. Coast Survey, 
and which was purchased for a small sum, economy being a 
matter of necessity. It was with this instrument, repaired by 
Kahler in 1875, and afterward by Sagmuller in 1888 and 
1892, that a series of latitude observations was carried on by the 
writer for a number of years, the results of which, it is believed, 
have been of some service in determining what is now known of 
the law of latitude variation. 

Professor Mayer was more interested in physics than in 
astronomy, yet he found time for research work at the observa- 
tory, mainly in the direction of solar physics. He was succeeded 
in 187 1 by Hiero B. Herr, the chair of astronomy being now 
connected with that of mathematics. Professor Herr retired in 
1874, the vacancy being filled one year later by the election of 
C. L. DooLiTTLE, who remained in charge for a period of twenty 
years. He was succeeded, in 1895, by C. L. Thornburg, the 
present incumbent. 

The original purpose of the obser\'atory was that of instruc- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 131 

tion, and this has always been a prominent feature of its work^ 
The university furnishes a very full course in astronomy, an 
important feature of which b found in the practical work at the 
observatory. 

Considerable use has been made of the equatorial in the 
observation of planets and comets, and the phenomena of JupU 
ter^s satellites; but the most important contribution to astronomy 
made by this observatory is the long series of latitude determina- 
tions. This series came to an end in August, 1895, but it is 
much to be desired that it should be resumed in the near future. 



TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, JANUARY 22, 1898. 
ENGLISH PREPARATIONS. 



By Edward W. Maunder, F. R. A. S. 



The importance of total solar eclipses has led in England to 
the appointment of a permanent body to organize their observa- 
tions. This body bears the rather unwieldy title of the '* Joint 
Permanent Eclipse Committee of the Royal Society and Royal 
Astronomical Society." The title is, however, descriptive of its 
constitution, and if we refer to it in future simply as the *' Eclipse 
Committee,'* there need be no misunderstanding as to the body 
indicated, and we may avoid repetition of this cumbrous name. 

The expeditions sent out by the Eclipse Committee last 
August were to widely separated countries, — ^Japan and Norway 
— and included six principal observers. Three — the Astronomer 
Royal, Professor H. H. Turner, and Captain Hills — went to 
Japan; three — Professor Norman Lockyer, Mr. Fowler, and 
Dr. A. A. Common — went to the Varanger Fjord, in Lapland. 
The same observers, so far as can be at present foreseen, will go 
to India for the eclipse of January next, and will take with them 
the same instruments, and try to carry out the same programme 
as that to which the clouds were so hostile on August 9, 1896. 
For, one chief aim to be borne in mind in eclipse observation is 
the necessity of strict continuity. If we are to get the maximum 
result from the brief moments of totality afforded us at such long 
intervals, then the operations to be undertaken at any one eclipse 
must bear the strictest relation to the work done at the eclipses 
that have gone before, and to the work proposed for those that 



132 Publications of the 

will follow. It is hoped, however, that the party on the next 
occasion will be increased by two additional members; one will 
probably be Mr. Newall, the observer with the great Newall 
telescope at Cambridge; the other was to have been Mr. E. J. 
Stone, the Radcliffe observer, whose untimely death has recently 
left so serious a gap in the ranks of English astronomers. No 
arrangement has as yet been made for supplying his place on the 
expedition. 

If we take the stations at present proposed to be occupied, 
beginning with the most westerly, the first party we come to is 
that of Professor Lockyer and Mr. Fowler, who will be sta- 
tioned near Ratnagore, on the west coast. The equipment will 
be chiefly spectroscopic, and will include two telescopes of nine 
and six inches aperture, respectively, furnished with objective 
prisms, the great success which attended this method in 1893, 
and again in Mr. Shackleton*s observations in Novaya Zemlaia 
in 1896 amply justifying great importance being attached to it. 
An integrating spectroscope, having two three- inch prisms of 
sixty degrees, will also be used. The method of observation 
with all three instruments will, of course, be photographic, a long 
series of photographs of varying exposures being used with the 
objective prisms, whilst an exposure of sixty seconds will be 
given with the integrating spectroscope. 

The object of the prismatic cameras is, of course, to give the 
details of the bright line spectra of the chromosphere, prominence 
and corona, each several luminous point having its own distinct 
spectrum. The integrating spectroscope, on the other hand, is 
intended to sum up the spectrum of the whole composite phe- 
nomenon. It may be hoped, therefore, that the feeble intensity 
of the true coronal lines will be more than compensated by the 
breadth of the area over which they are diffused. If, then, on 
comparing the spectra obtained with these two widely differing 
instruments, we find that the integrating spectroscope brings into 
considerable evidence new lines beside those which the objective 
prism reveals to us as characterizing the prominences, there can 
be no hesitation in referring these new lines to the corona. 

Crossing the Western Ghauts, the shadow-track intersects two 
main lines of railway (the Southern Mahratta Railway and the 
Great Indian Peninsular Railway), running southward from Bom- 
bay through Poona. The points where these two railway lines 
cross the line of totality will be very strongly occupied, but the 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 133 

precise spots are not as yet definitely fixed. Most likely, the 
expedition sent by the Eclipse Committee will occupy the one 
station, whilst a numerous band, organized in India itself by 
Professor K. D. Naegamvala, of Poona, will occupy the other. 

The official party in this region will consist of the Astronomer 
Royal, Professor H. H. Turner, and Dr. A. A. Common. The 
Astronomer Royal will take the Thompson photoheliograph of 
nine inches aperture and eight feet six inches focal length, with 
secondary magnifier placed a short distance within the focus, 
giving an image of the Sun four inches in diameter. The 
camera will be furnished with eight plate- holders, taking 12 x 10- 
inch plates, and the instrument will be fed by a coelostat with a 
sixteen-inch plane-mirror. Photographs will be taken of the 
partial phase, as well as of the total. 

Professor Turner's apparatus is the double camera used in 
the West African expedition in 1893 by Sergeant Kearney. 
The body of the instrument is six feet long, and consists of two 
square tubes of yxy-inch section. In one is placed the **Abney'' 
photographic lens, of four inches aperture and ^\^ feet two inches 
focal length, used in so many eclipses, and which gives an image 
of the Sun 0.57 inch in diameter; in the other, the photohelio- 
graph objective No. 2, belonging to the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, and used in the Transit of Venus Expedition of 1874, 
and which is also of four-inch aperture and five feet focal length, 
but which is to be used with a Dallmever secondary magnifier 
of seven and one half inches focus, placed ^v^ inches within the 
focus, so as to give an image of the Sun one and one half inches 
in diameter. The double camera is furnished with six plate- 
holders, each taking two plates of 160 mm. square, both plates 
being exposed by a quarter turn of one shutter. The double 
camera, like the Astronomer Royal's instrument, will be fed by a 
sixteen-inch plane mirror, on a coelostat mounting. A similar 
instrument was to have been placed under the charge of the late 
Mr. Stone at the third station. This instrument was taken by 
Dr.* Common, in 1896, to Lapland. 

Apart from this, it is probable that Dr. Common's equipment 
will be the same as that which he had in Norway last year; i. e. 
a six-inch doublet lens, by Grubb, lent by Mr. F. Maclean, 
F. R. S., and giving an image of the Sun three and one half 
inches in diameter; a slit spectroscope, with 3}^ -inch lenses, 
and two light flint prisms of sixty degrees, and a grating 



134 Publications of the 

spedtroscope, to be used without a slit. The plates for Mr. 
Christie's coronal photographs, Dr. Common's photographs 
with the six-inch Grubb, and those with the grating spectro- 
scope, are all to be 12x10 plates. 

The third station, at Wardha, on the Great Indian Peninsular 
Railway line from Bombay to Nagpur, will be occupied by Mr. 
Newall, who proposes to use a large slit spectroscope, with two 
prisms of sixty- two degrees, in the attempt to determine the 
speed of rotation of the corona by the relative displacements of 
its lines as observed east and west of the Sun. In the same 
neighborhood, Captain Hills will probably fix his apparatus, 
which will consist of two slit spectroscopes, having the slit tan- 
gential to the Sun's limb at the point of second contact, and 
diametral respectively. The slits are lyi. x 0.004 inches, and 
2x0.004 inches respectively; and the prisms are, for the first 
spectroscope, of two flint prisms of sixty degrees, 4^ -inch base, 
2)^ -inch height at minimum deviation for Hy\ and for the second 
spectroscope, of four quartz prisms of sixty degrees, 3^ -inch 
base, 2^ -inch height at minimum deviation for Ht, The colli- 
mator and camera lenses are single quartz lenses, of 2^4 -inch 
aperture, 30-inch focus and 3-inch aperture, 36-inch focus respec- 
tively. The objectives are all achromatic Cooke lenses, of 4j4- 
inch aperture, 5 feet 10 inches focus, and a single quartz lens of 
5-inch aperture, 4 feet 9 inches focus. 

Professor Turner's equipment in Japan also included a 
polariscopic apparatus, consisting of an ordinary slit spectro- 
scope, with an Iceland spar double image prism substituted for 
the ordinary prisms. This will probably again be included in 
his armory. 

Some thirty or forty amateur astronomers belonging to the 
British Astronomical Association will also proceed to India, and 
divide into four companies, stationed near the four above-men- 
tioned sites respectively, but the precise programmes to be 
adopted cannot be ascertained at present. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 135 

EARTHQUAKE OF JUNE 20, 1897 (OAKLAND). 



By Allen H. Babcock. 

A prolonged shock of earthquake was observed here to-day, 
commencing at 12** 13" 9* P. M., P. S. T., and continuing for at 
least twenty-five seconds. It was noticed first as a sharp settling 
of the floor; then came a rumbling sound, followed by a slow, 
swaying motion, which gradually increased in strength and fre- 
quency for about ten seconds, when the maximum was reached. 
At this time the vibrations were decidedly marked: the house 
creaked, the windows rattled, and the pictures bumped against 
the walls. The swing of the chandeliers was in an approximately 
north and south line. The vibration gradually diminished, until 
12* 13" 34", when they could no longer be observed. In a 
jeweler's shop, about two blocks away, a pendulum clock, which 
was fastened on a wall running in an east and west direction, had 
stopped at 12** 13" 27". This clock is usually kept very close to 
standard time. 

The intensity of the shock at its maximum may be estimated 
at IV, or possibly V, on the Rossi-Forel scale. Two persons 
report a very faint shock about fifteen minutes later, but it was 
not observed by me. 

Oakland, Cal., June 20, 1897. 



2826 California Street, > 

San Francisco, June 23, 1897. j 

. . . On Sunday, June 20th, at 12:13 p. M., I felt a slight 
shock of earthquake, location N.W. ^ Section 32, Township 17 
S., Range 14 E., M. D. B. & M., on Cantua Creek, Fresno County. 
Duration about fifteen seconds; 9 shock; undulation and whirling 
motion. Yours respectfully, S. C. Lillis. 



136 Publications of the 

PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR JULY AND AUGUST, 

1897. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



July, 1897. 

Solar Eclipse, There will be an annular eclipse of the Sun 
on July 29th, visible on the morning of that day throughout the 
United States as a partial eclipse. The path of the annulus 
begins in the Pacific Ocean, crosses Mexico, skirts along the 
north shore of Cuba, just touches the northeast point of South 
America, and ends in the South Atlantic The greatest duration 
of the annulus is considerably less than two minutes. 

The Earth is in aphelion on the afternoon of July 9th. 

Merairy is a morning star at the beginning of the month, 
rising a little more than an hour before sunrise, and may possibly 
be seen. It rapidly approaches the Sun, and passes superior 
conjunction on the afternoon of July 15th, and becomes an even- 
ing star. By the end of the month it is about as far from the Sun 
as it was at the beginning, but it is ako too far to the south to be 
easily seen as an evening star. 

Venus is a morning star, and comes to its greatest west elonga- 
tion on July 7th. It rises about three hours before sunrise. It 
moves thirty-one degrees eastward and five degrees northward 
during the month, almost entirely in the constellation Taurus, 
and a little before the middle of the month passes through the 
Hyades group, between c and 8 Tauri. 

Mars is well out on his way to conjunction with the Sun, and 
his apparent distance from the Sun is diminishing rapidly. By 
the end of the month it sets before 9 p.m. It moves seventeen 
degrees eastward and seven degrees southward in the constella- 
tion Leo during the month. On July 5th it passes about one 
degree north of the first magnitude star Regiilus (a Leom's), and 
is in conjunction with Jupiter on the morning of July 25th. Mars 
is only seven minutes south of Jupiter at the time of nearest 
approach, but this occurs by daylight in the United States. 

Jupiter is in the same quarter of the sky as Mars, and is 
moving in the same general direction but very much more 
slowly, the whole motion being only about five degrees during 
the month. Its conjunction with Mars is noted above. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i37 

Saturn is in good position for observation, being above the 
horizon until after midnight until nearly the end of the month. 
It is in the constellation Libra, and moves westward about one 
degree until July 28th, when it begins to move eastward again. 
The rings are widely opened, the ratio of minor to major axis 
being about 0.40. 

Uranus is very near Saturn, about two degrees south and 
a little east, and is moving in the same general direction as 
Saturn^ but does not stop its retrograde (westward) motion until 
August 2d. It may be easily found on any very clear, moonless 
evening as a small sixth magnitude star, about four diameters of 
the Moon, south and east of Saturn, 

Neptune is a morning star in the eastern part of Taurus, 
Venus passes it about one degree south on the morning of 
July 28th. 

" August. 

Mercury is an evening star, and sets about an hour after 
sunset during the greater part of the month. It may possibly be 
seen during good conditions of weather in the evening twilight. 
It reaches greatest east elongation on August 26th, more than 
twenty-eight degrees, its greatest apparent distance from the Sun 
during the year; but the conditions for evening visibility are not 
nearly as good as they were during the elongations of January 
and April, on account of its greater distance south of the Sun. 
It is in conjunction with Jupiter on the evemqg of August 12th, 
passing about two diameters of the Moon southward. 

Venus is a morning star, rising about three hours before the 
Sun. It moves about thirty-six degrees eastward, through the 
|X)nstellation Gemini into Cancer, and will not be nearly as bright 
as it was during the early summer. 

Mars is rapidly approaching the Sun, and by the end of the 
month it sets only about an hour later. It has lost the greater part 
of its brightness, and will not be at all a conspicuous object, but 
rather hard to see toward the close of the month. It moves about 
eighteen degrees east and south, through the constellation Leo, 

Jupiter is still nearer the Sun than Mars, and its much smaller 
eastward motion allows the Sun to approach it much more 
rapidly. It cannot easily be seen much later than the middle of 
the month. 

Saturn is still in fair position for observation in the south- 



138 Publications of the 

western sky in the early evening. It moves about one degree 
eastward in the constellation Libra, It is in quadrature with the 
Sun on August i6th. 

Uranus keeps up about the same position relative to Solum 
as during July, but is more nearly due south, about four diameters 
of the Moon distant. The two planets are in conjunction on the 
evening of August 25th. 

Neptune is in the eastern part of Taurus^ and rises before 
midnight at the end of the month. 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 
In the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
by adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 
the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
seldom much more than i". To find the standard time for the 
phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence between standard and local time if the place is west of the 
standard meridian, and subtracting if east The same rules apply 
to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 
of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
and for latitudes differing much from 40** they may be several 
minutes out. 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 



1897. 

July I. 

II. 

21. 

31- 



First 
Full 
Last 
New 


Quarter, July 7, 
Moon, July 13, 
Quarter, July 21, 
Moon, July 28, 

The Sun. 


5 32 A. M. 
8 52 p. M. 

7 8 A. M. 
7 58 A. M. 




R. A. 


Declination. Rises 


Transits. 


Sets. 


H. M. 


® ' H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


6 43 


+ 23 6 4 41 A. 


M. 12 4 P.M. 


7 27P.M. 


7 24 


+ 22 3 4 46 


12 5 


7 24 


8 4 

8 AA 


+ 20 23 4 53 
-^18 9 5 3 


12 6 
12 6 


7 19 
7 9 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. i39 











Mercury. 










R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. 


M. 





' 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


July I. 


5 


34 


+ 22 


35 


3 33 A.M. 


10 54A.M. 


6 


15 P.M. 


II. 


7 


2 


+ 23 


45 


4 16 


II 43 


7 


10 


21. 


8 


32 


-l- 20 


43 


5 20 


12 34 P.M. 


7 


48 


31. 


9 


48 


+ 14 


46 


6 20 
Venus. 


I II 


8 


2 


July I. 


3 


31 


+ 15 


36 


I 58 A.M. 


8 52A.M. 


3 46 P.M. 


II. 


4 


10 


+ 17 


41 


I 49 


8 51 


3 


53 


21. 


4 


51 


+ 19 


29 


I 45 


8 54 


4 


3 


31. 


5 


36 


+ 20 


46 


I 44 
Mars. 


8 58 


4 


12 


July I. 


9 53 


+ 14 


4 


8 26 A.M. 


3 14P.M. 


10 


2 P.M. 


II. 


10 


17 


+ 11 


52 


8 17 


2 58 


9 


39 


21. 


10 


40 


+ 9 


32 


8 8 


2 41 


9 


14 


31. 


II 


3 


+ 7 


6 


8 I 


2 25 


8 


49 










Jupiter. 








July I. 


10 


33 


+ 10 


18 


9 18 A.M. 


3 53P-M. 


10 


28 P.M. 


II. 


10 


39 


+ 9 39 


8 47 


3 20 


9 


53 


21. 


10 


46 


+ 8 


58 


8 17 


2 48 


9 


19 


31. 


10 


53 


+ 8 


14 


7 48 


2 16 


8 


44 










Sa turn. 








July I. 


15 


32 


- 16 


50 


3 50 P.M. 


8 51 P.M. 


I 


52 A.M. 


II. 


15 


30 


— 16 


48 


3 9 


8 10 


I 


II 


21. 


15 


29 


- 16 


47 


2 29 


7 30 


12 


31 


31. 


15 


29 


- 16 


49 


I 49 


6 50 


II 


51 P.M. 










Uranus. 








July I. 


15 


33 


- 18 


55 


3 59PM. 


8 52 P.M. 


I 


45 A. M, 


II. 


15 


32 


— 18 


52 


3 18 


8 II 


I 


4 


21. 


15 


31 


- 18 


50 


2 38 


7 31 


12 


24 


31. 


15 


31 


- 18 


49 


I 59 


6 52 


II 


45 P.M. 










Neptune. 








July I. 


5 


20 


+ 21 


48 


3 23 A.M. 


10 41 A.M. 


5 


59 P.M. 


II. 


5 


22 


+ 21 


50 


2 45 


10 3 


5 


21 


21. 


5 


23 


-)-2t 


51 


2 7 


9 25 


4 43 


31. 


5 


24 


+ 21 


52 


I 29 


8 47 


4 


5 



Eclipses of Jupiter 's Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Off right hand limb as seen in an inverting telescope.) 

H. M. H. M. 

July 19. 6 53 p. m. 

19. 10 4 P.M. 

22. 5 18 p. M. 

29. 7 13 P.M. 



I. 


R, 


July 6. 


7 p. M. 


Ill, 


D, 


IV, 


D. 


9- 


6 31 P. M. 


HI, 


R, 


IV. 


R, 


9- 


10 10 P. M. 


I, 


R, 


III. 


R. 


12. 


6 5 P. M. 


I, 


R, 


I, 


R, 


13- 


8 55 P.M. 







I40 Publications of the 

Minima of Algol, P. S. T. 

July 3- 
6. 

9. 
12. 

15. 

Phases of the Moon. P. S. T. 

H. M. 

First Quarter, Aug. 5, 10 24 A. M. 

Full Moon, Aug. 12, 6 23 a. m. 

Last Quarter, Aug. 20, 12 29 A. M. 

New Moon, Aug. 27, 7 29 p. m. 



H. 

7 


3^4 P. M. 


July 


18. 


4 


23 P. M. 




21. 


1 


12 P. M. 




23. 


10 


I A. M. 




26. 


6 


50 A. M. 




29. 



H. 


M. 


3 


38 A. M. 


12 


27 A. M. 


9 


16 P. M. 


6 


5 P- M. 


2 


54 P. M. 











The Sun. 












R. A. 


Decllna 


Lion. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. M. 




c 


t 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


H. 


M. 


Aug. I. 


8 47 


+ 


17 


54 


5 3 A.M. 


12 


6 p.m. 


7 


9 P.M. 


II. 


9 26 


+ 


15 


8 


5 13 


12 


5 


6 


57 


21. 


10 3 


+ 


II 


57 


5 22 


12 


3 


6 


44 


31. 


10 40 


H- 


8 


28 


5 32 


12 


OM. 


6 


28 










Mercury. 










Aug. I. 


9 55 


+ 


14 


6 


6 26 A.M. 


I 


14 P.M. 


8 


2 P.M 


II. 


10 54 


+ 


7 


12 


7 9 


I 


33 


7 


57 


21. 


II 41 


+ 





37 


7 38 


I 


40 


7 


42 


31. 


12 13 


— 


4 40 


7 50 


I 


34 


7 


18 












Venus, 










Aug. I. 


5 40 


+ 


20 


52 


I 43 A.M. 


8 


58 A.M. 


4 


13 P.M 


II. 


6 27 


+ 


21 


21 


I 50 


9 


6 


4 


22 


21. 


7 16 


+ 


20 


58 


2 


9 


15 


4 30 


31. 


8 4 


+ 


19 


40 


2 15 
Mars. 


9 


25 


4 


35 


Aug. I. 


II 5 


+ 


6 


51 


8 OA.M. 


2 


23 P.M. 


8 


46 P.M 


II. 


II 28 


+ 


4 


18 


7 53 


2 


7 


8 


21 


21. 


II 51 


+ 


I 


42 


7 45 


I 


51 


7 


57 


31. 


12 15 


— 





56 


7 38 


I 


35 


7 


32 










Jupiter. 










Aug. I. 


10 54 


+ 


8 


9 


7 45 A.M. 


2 


12 P.M. 


8 


39 PM 


II. 


II 2 


+ 


7 


22 


7 15 


I 


40 


8 


5 


21. 


II 9 


+ 


6 


34 


6 47 


I 


9 


7 


31 


31. 


II 17 


+ 


5 


44 


6 18 


12 


37 


6 


56 










Sa turn. 










Aug. I. 


15 29 


— 


16 


50 


I 46 P.M. 


6 


47 P.M. 


II 


48 P.M. 


II. 


15 30 


— 


16 


54 


I 7 


6 


8 


II 


9 


21. 


15 31 


— 


17 


I 


12 29 


5 


30 


10 


31 



31- 15 33 —17 10 II 51A.M. 4 52 9 52 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



141 



Uranus, 





R. A. 


Declination. Rises. Transits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. M. 


« H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Aug. I. 


15 30 


— 18 49 I 55 P.M. 


6 48 P.M. II 41 P.M. 


II. 


15 31 


— 18 50 I 16 


6 9 


II 2 


21. 


15 31 


- 18 52 12 37 


5 30 


10 23 


31- 


15 32 


- 18 55 II 59 A.M. 

Neptune, 


4 52 


9 45 


Aug. I. 


5 24 


+ 21 52 I 25 A.M. 


8 43^ 


A.M. 4 I P.M. 


II. 


5 25 


+ 21 52 12 47 


8 5 


3 23 


21. 


5 26 


+ 21 53 12 9 


7 27 


2 45 


31. 


5 27 


+ 21 53 II 30 P.M. 

Minima of Algol, P. S. 

H. M. 


6 48 
T. 


2 6 

H. M. 


Aug. I. 




II 43 A. M. Aug. 18. 




4 36 p. M, 


4- 




8 32 A.M. 21. 




I 25 p. M. 


7- 




5 21 A. M. 24. 




10 14 A. M 


10. 




2 9 A. M. 27. 




7 3A.M 


12. 




10 58 P. M. 30. 




3 52 A. M 


15. 




7 47 P. M. 







DOUBLE-STAR MEASURES. 



By D. A. Lehman. 



The following measures were made with the 12-inch equa- 
torial of the Lick Observatory. The position angle is the mean 
of four settings, and the distance that of three double-distances. 
The position of the stars is given for 1880.0. In estimating 
seeing, a scale is used on which 5 stands for the most favorable 
conditions. The eyepiece used in most of the measures has a 
power of 500 diameters; but some of the measures were made 
with lower powers. 

2 1788. (6.7-8). 
R. A. 13" 48" 43'. Decl. — 7° 28^ 





«o 


Po 


Seeing. 


1897.460 


73°.9 


3". 37 


3 


1897.465 


76.1 


2 .98 


3+ 


1897.477 


75 -2 


3-62 


4 


1897.492 


77 -5 


3 -23 


4 


1897.47 


75^7 


3". 30 





142 Publications of the 







2 1930. 


(5-10). 






R. 


A. 15' 13- \i: 


Decl. 


+ 2' 13'. 








»o 




Po 


Seeing, 


1897.460 




38°. 7 




"".35 


3 


1897.492 




37.6 




II .04 


4 


1897.494 




37 -5 




10 .57 


4 


1897.48 




37°-9 




io".99 





2 2021 (49 Serpent's). (6-7). 
R. A. 16" 7- 43'. Decl. + 13** 48^ 







«o 


Po 


1897.460 




332°. 9 


3".97 


1897.492 




333 -9 


4 .27 


1897.514 




335 -7 


4 .29 


1897.49 




334°. I 


4". 18 




Sh 


228 Ophiuchi). 


(5-7). 




R. A. 16' i8" 33*. Decl. - 


- 23» I</. 






»o 


Po 


1897.508 




354°.6 


3".6o 


1897.516 




354 -4 


3 -59 


1897.519 




353 .1 


3 .12 



1897.51 354''.o 3".44 

2 2055 (A Ophiuchi), (4-6). 
R. A. 16" 24- 52'. Decl. + 2° I5^ 



seeing. 

3 

4 
3 



Seeing. 

3 
4 
4 





h 


Po 


Seeing. 


1897.522 


53°. 3 


I ".69 


4 


1897.525 


52.8 


1 .63 


4 


1897.52 


53°.o 


I ".66 







"0 


Po 




1897.514 


1 89°. 3 


i4".93 


3 


1897.519 


190 .1 


15 -to 


4 


1897.522 


190 .2 


15 .17 


4 



1897.52 189^.9 i5".o7 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i43 

/3 416. (6-8). 

R. A. 17'' 10- 46*. Decl. — 34** 51^ 

^o Po Setring. 

1897.508 310° 6 i".90 4 

1897-519 311 -o I .77 4 

1897.522 309 .2 I .88 4 

1897-525 309 -8 I .89 4 



1897.52 




310°. 2 






i".86 






2 2262 (t Ophiuchi). 


(5-5- 7). 






R, 


. A. 17' 56" 


33'. 


Decl. 


— 8° II'. 


Seeing. 


1897.508 




259°- 1 






2". 2 1 


3 


1897.514 




256 .0 






2 .15 


3 


1897-525 




258 .2 






I .88 


4 


1897.52 




257°.8 






2".o8 






S 


2272 (70 Ophiuchi). 


(4-6). 






R. 


A. 17' 59" 


23'. 


Decl. 


+ a» 33'. 
Po 


Seeing. 


1897.476 




286° 2 






2". 74 


3 


1897.492 




280 .7 






I .91 


4 


1897.508 




283 .9 






2 .60 


4 



1897.49 283°6 2".42 

(Y CoroncB Australis), (5/^-5/4)- 





R. A. 18' 58- i8'. 


Decl. 


-37° 14'. 




»o 




Po 


1897.508 


1 58°. 6 




2". 1 2 


1897.525 


155 -o 




I .79 



1897.52 I56°.8 i".95 

2 2579 (8 Cygni). (3-8). 



Seeing. 

4 
4 





R. 


A. 19' 41- 


13". 


Decl. 


+ 44° 50'. 
Pa 


Seeing. 


1897.508 




301°. 2 






2". 25 


4 


1 897.5 1 1 




300 .1 






I .72 


1+ 


1897.525 




305 .1 






I .77 


4 


1897.52 




302°. I 






i".9i 





144 Publications of the 



1897.508 
1897-525 


S2583. (6-6.8). 
R. A. 19" 43" 3'. Dec!. -1- ii" 31'. 

ii5°.o i".90 
113 -2 I .53 


S«eing. 

4 

4 


1897-52 


1 14°. I l".72 




I897.5U 
1897-525 


/? 151 (/J Delphini). {yA-^Yz). 
R. A. ao'si'ss". Decl. + 14° ii'. 

K Po 
359°-9 o".75 
355 -2 .93 


Seeing. 
3 
3 



1897-52 357°.6 o".84 

Lick Observatory, July 10, 1897. 






-■FN rj,,-^M .r'0\3. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 145 





NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY,* 
Prepared by Memrers? of titk Staff. 



A New Celestial Atlas. 

AxLJiS DER HiMMELSKUNDE — Atlas of Astronomy, based on 
€*lesiial photographs — sLxty-two atlas sheeLs, with 135 single 
plates and sixty folio sheets of text, containing about 500 
illusinilions — by A. VON ScHWHlKacR-LKRCHENFRUD, Pub- 
Ibhcii by A. Hartlebek, Vienna, in tsixty parts (issued 
twice a month), at thirty- live cents per j>art» 

B*iron VON Schweiger-Lerchenfeld proposes to publish, 
as above, a folio atlas (about 11 ^j by [6 inches), to rcpre^^eni the 
pr^eiTt condition of Celestial Photoj^^raphy — its instrument's, 
metbods, and results. The illustrations, over 600 in all. are to 
be supplemented by the text, also from Baron vox ScnwniiGKR- 
LeRCHENFELD*S hand. Modern instruments and observatories 
arc to be represented by some 200 reproductions of photojtirafilis 
Rimished to the author by the directors of varirius American and 
forcig:n observatories^ or by the in*^iru men t- makers whu actually 
cofisiructed the apparatus, A very Iarj:;e proportion of these illns- 
tiations is new. Something like a tiiird of tht.^ volume is devtitecl 
to obstervatories and instruments. The r niainini; [>lates are moslly 
reproductions of original negatives of tht^ Sun, Mmou. planets, 
comctii, meteorites, stars, clusters and net Hike, etc. (and oi their 
fpectra), furnished to the audio r by the observatories of Mt. Ham- 
ilton, Paris* Praj^ue, PoLsdam, Heidelberg, etc. A few on.^inaI 
astronomical drawings {o{ .^fars, etc. ) are included ior complete- 
Ofcss, as well as maps of the stars, planispheres, etc* A circular 
relating to the atlas was distributed by HAKriJ:nr:x in April last, 
and it contains plates of the Milky W.iy (tiikeu at lieidclbtTcif), 



* Ock AttroDomiul Depart meiu oi the Unlv^tsitv nj Oihroniiri, 



146 Publications of the 

the Moon (Paris Observatory), instruments (Pulkowa and George- 
town), the Sun (Potsdam and Meudon), Mars (drawing by 
Professor Hussey at the Lick Observatory), and of the Algerian 
meteorite of 1893 (full size). The illustrations of the atlas are 
very satisfactory, and the descriptions of the text supplement 
them fully. 

Smce the foregoing was written, the first part of the Atlas 
has been received, and it confirms the favorable opinion expressed 
in what precedes. Many of the reproductions are made by the 
half-tone process. When these are compared with the original 
negatives, or with direct copies from the negatives, they naturally 
show less fineness and detail. Only a few observatories and 
astronomers can have access to such originals, however. The 
present work is intended to meet the wants of the hundreds of 
readers to whom such access must always be closed. Its chief 
value will be in this regard. Its very complete collection of 
plates relating to instruments will be important to all, profes- 
sionals and amateurs alike. It is now, for the first time, possible 
for the general reader to possess a work which gives an adequate ' 
account of the present state of celestial photography. Through 
the kindness of Baron voN Schweiger-Lerchenfeld, several 
illustrations from his text are reproduced in the present number of 
the Publications, It may not be out of place to say that the cost 
of the Atlas, plates, etc., has been some $20,000. 

Edward S. Holden. 
May 10, 1897. 

Meteor Seen at Mt. Hamilton (May 5, 1897). 

On the evening of May 5, 1897, at 7^30" P. S. T., Mr. 
Nicholas D. Soto, an employ^ of the Lick Observatory, called 
my attention to a very bright meteor-trail, the remnants of an 
explosion, which Mr. Soto observed at about "f 26". The gen- 
eral direction of the zigzag trail was nearly horizontal (the north 
end was perhaps 5' higher than the west end), and about 1° long. 
It was seen by nearly all the astronomers of the Lick Observa- 
tory. I made two sets of altitude and azimuth determinations 
of the brightest portion (extreme west end of the trail) from a 
point near the northeast corner of the main residence building. 

Azimuth of extreme west end, N. 51^42' W. ) ^ „ 
Altitude of extreme west end, 3 30 \ i o^ - 




PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUATORIAL OF THE MOSCOVV OBSERVATORY. 
(Camera-leiis, 4 inches aperture; plales about 9V7 x ii5^ inches; notice llial the declination axis is itself a Iclescop 

of 2,'i inches aperture.) 

(Atlas (ler Hinimelskunde.) 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i47 

Another set of measures, made at 7** 48™, gave the same 
co-ordinates. After 7^ 50"*, the matter became too faint for fur- 
ther measures. The peculiarly vivid whiteness of the meteoric 
cloud was similar to that of the great meteor of July, 1894. 

J. M. SCHAEBERLE. 
Lick Observatory, May 6, 1897. 

Stability of the Great Equatorial, 1888-1897. 

Observations for the position of the great telescope have been 
made by Messrs. Schaeberle, Keeler, Campbell, Tucker, 
and CoLTON, as below: — 

1888, July 27, azimuth +36"; level 8" too low, 

1889, May 18, •* .... ; " 36 
Sept. 16, " +83 ; - 58 

1890, Aug. 23, '* (+54); " 114 
Telescope adjusted. 

1 89 1, June 30, azimuth .... ; level 35" too low. 
Holding-down bolts tightened. 

1892, Aug. 5, azimuth +51"; level 25" too high, 

1893, Sept. 23, '' +48; ** 57 too low, 

1896, Dec. 5, ** ....;** 74 

1897, Apr. 24, *' +60 ; '* .. 

E. S. H. 

Measures of Procyon,'^ by William J. Hussey. 

The following measures of Schaeberle's companion to 
Procyon have been made with the 36-inch teleScope, using a 
power of 520 . . . : — 

1897.072 />— 3i9°23 ^ = 4"- 58 
.203 320 .06 4 .77 

.206 320 .01 4 .59 

1897.16 3 1 9°. 8 4". 65 

Reflector and Portrait Lens in Celestial Photo- 
graphy. 

Those who are interested in the technical points suggested by 
the above title cannot do better than to refer to a nearly exhaust- 
ive discussion of them by Professor Max Wolf in Nature for 



• From the Astronomical Journal, No. 403. 



14^ Publications of the 

April 22, 1897, pp. 582-586, and to the illustrations given there. 
I venture, in this connection, to mention remarks printed in these 
Publications, Vol. Ill (189 1), p. 249, Vol. VI (1894), p. 24, 
which relate to the problems discussed by Professor Wolf in 
the paper cited. E. S. H. 

Dedication of the Flower Observatory, University 
OF Pennsylvania. 

On the afternoon of May 12th took place the exercises which 
marked the practical completion of the above-named observa- 
tory, though observations have been going on regularly there 
since last October. 

The ceremony of the dedication was not elaborate, but all 
present appear to have found it very enjoyable. 

A platform had been erected in front of the equatorial build- 
ing for the accommodation of the speakers. In front were 
seated about four hundred invited guests. 

Provost C. C. Harrison, of the University, in a short intro- 
ductory address, presented the speaker of the day, Professor 
Simon >Iewcomb. Provost Harrison gave a brief oudine of 
the bequest of the founder, Reese Wall Flower. This con- 
sists of one hundred acres of valuable land adjoining the city of 
Philadelphia, and upon which the observatory now stands. It is 
not known how Mr. Flower came to make this bequest, as he 
had never showed any special interest in astronomy. 

Professor Newcomb gave a very interesting paper upon **The 
Problems of Astronomy,** which was followed by short addresses 
of an informal nature by Dr. W. R., Warner, Mr. Brashear, 
Miss Proctor, Dr. Barker, and C. L. Doolittle. 

The exercises were followed by a very enjoyable reception at 
the residence of the Director. 

Record of Experiments with the Moving Floor of the 
75-FOOT Dome of the Lick Observatory. 

The following summary of experiments with the moving floor 
of the 75 -foot dome may appropriately be recorded here. The 
original data are scattered in various places, and if brought 
together, they will be useful in subsequent comparisons. 

The idea of a moving floor was first suggested to the Lick 
Trustees by Sir Howard Grubb, F. R. S. The floor was to rise 









1 ;,6''OR, LENOX AND 
T LDEN FOUNDATIONS. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i49 

1634 feet. Four nuts were fixed to its edge, and four vertical 
screws in tbem were to be driven by a three-cylindered water- 
engine in the basement. The available pressure was only 
seventy- two pounds per square inch. This plan was tried 
(against my advice) and failed; The floor never could be made 
to rise its whole height in less than an hour (approximately). 
The screws were taken out in May, 1888, and the floor was lifted 
by four hydraulic jacks. The supply of water to these jacks 
was regulated by four lock- valves, whose scales were divided into 
six fjarts. Up to 1895 these were used % open. 

May ^r, 1888. — Floor moves down in 5" 45' (i6>^ feet); up 
in 1 2" o". Five hundred pounds were then added to the counter- 
weights. 

June 75, 1S88, — Floor moves down in 5" 33'; up in 7"* 43'. 

Experiments between 1888 and 1895 are not here sel down. 

August 28, j8(^§. — Valves yi open; the floor moves down 
in 5" 42'; I// in 9" 30'. The heavy mahogany chair (needed in 
most photographic work) was then removed from the floor. The 
floor moved down in 6°*4o'; up in 9"* lo'. About this time the 
capacity of the waste pipes from the jacks was increased. The 
capacity of the supply pipe should also be increased, but it has 
not been done, on account of the expense. 

August 79, 18^6, — Valves wide open; floor moves down in 
5" 20* ; up in 10" 30'. 

April 2^^ i8gj, — Added 592 pounds of lead to the counter- 
weights of the moving floor. The valves were V^ open. After 
adding the extra weights, the floor moved down in 6"* 30', and up 
in 9" 2o'. The valves were then opened wide, and the floor 
moved down in 5" 5'; up in 9"* 30'. The valves were left wide 
open. The packing of the rams will account for small differences 
in time, according as it is tight or loose. The jacks, on the 
whole, do not work as efficiently in 1897 as in 1888. This is 
probably due to the fact that they are not absolutely vertical, 
especially in the upper eight feet of their play. One single ram 
of the proper length would have been a better device than the 
present telescopic arrangement. All the other machinery of the 
moving floor (see Engineering, Vol. 46, p. 204, 1888) is now in 
excellent order. Edward S. Holden. 

April 30, 1897. 



ISO Publications of the 

Statistics of the Library of the Lick Observatory. 

A count, made on May 31, 1897, of the books and pamphlets 
in the library of the Lick Observatory, shows — 

41 21 books, 

3912 pamphlets, 
as against 

2885 books, 

3343 pamphlets, 
in March, 1892. 

A comparison of the two counts of pamphlets is classified 

below: — 

PAMPHLETS. 

Drawbr March, May, Drawkr March. May, 

URAWBR. jg^2. 1897. URAWRR. ^^^ ^^ 

X. Mathematics 51 87 26. Proper Motions 30 a* 

2. Mathematical Tables i 4 27. Observatories, Reports of 121 243* 

3. Cosmology 52 74 28. Miscellaneous Astronomi- 

4. Spherical Astronomy — 16 19 cal Observations 70 120* 

5. Theoretical Astronomy... 73 113 29. Chemistry and Mechanics 11 37 

6. Theory of Instruments .. 78 63* 3a Heat, Sound, Electrics ... 73 150 

7. Chronology 6 33 , 31. Optics, etc 73 43* 

8. Catalogues of Stars 56 49* 32. Meteorology 109 32* 

9. Ephemerides 26 91* 33. Meteorological Observa- 

10. Astronomical Tables 31 46* tions 166 8* 

11. Geodesy 55 33* 34. History of Astronomy — 157 183* 

12. Determination of Geo- 35. Astronomical Biography. . 156 87* 

graphical Positions.... 55 no* 36. Astronomical Bibliography 124 133* 

13. Metrology 16 27 , .37. Comets and Meteors 161 72* 

14. Earthquakes, and Geogra- 38. Spectroscopy 58 62* 

phy 75 67* 39. Photography 109 144 

15. Refraction 6 8* 40. Star Maps 31 26* 

16. Sun, Zodiacal Light 103 73* 41. Geography and Maps 69 67* 

17. Solar Eclipses 97 60* 42. Time Service 77 87 

18. Moon . 72 86* 43. Price Lists of Instruments 144 233* 

19. Transits of Interior Planets 51 24* 44. Photographs 158 234 

20. Planets and Satellites 99 91* 45. History of the Lick Ob- 

21. Fixed Stars 17 21* servatory 62 74 

22. New and Variable Stars . . 30 36* 46. Catalogues of Colleges ... 23 92* 

23. Double Stars 55 33* 47. Miscellaneous 95 170 

24. Nebulae 53 76* 48. Publishers' Book Lists. . . 78 233 

25. Obliquity, etc 14 22* — — 

In addition to the above, I have counted i6 Smithsonian and 
18 miscellaneous pamphlets, bringing the total to 3912. Photo- 
graphs, drawings, maps, and charts are included in both counts. 

A large number — not far from 1000, probably, — of pam- 
phlets has been selected from the drawers marked (*), and bound 
into volumes since the count was made in 1892. Many pam- 
phlets are also sent, from time to time, to the General Library of 
the University at Berkeley. R. G. Aitken. 



'p 



Fi -V V JR Kl 



/if'OR, LENCX AND 
T LDEN FOUNDATIONS. 




APPARATl'S I-OR MKASrRING PIUrroCRAPHIC PLA rES-(RF:PSOLn). 
(Alias (kr Himinelskuiide.) 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 151 

Post Office at Mt. Hamilton. 

The post office at Mt. Hamilton was established in 1890, with 
Professor S. W. Burnham as postmaster. His successor was 
Mr. A. L. COLTON, the present incumbent. The salary of the 
postmaster has been a part of the pay of these officers of the 
observatory. The salary was, for the fiscal year ending 
June 30. 1891, $301-42 June 30, 1894, $330-86 
1892, 346.10 1895, 341-01 

i893» 285.08 1896, 307-69 

E. S. H. 
May 31, 1897. 

Appointment of Professor Robert G. Aitken as Assist- 
ant Astronomer in the Lick Observatory. 

At a meeting of the Regents of the University, held May 25, 
1897. Professor Robert G. Aitken, B. A. (Williams College, 
1887), M. A. (Williams College, 1892), was appointed Assistant 
Astronomer in the Lick Observatory. Edward S. Holden. 

Graduate Students in Astronomy at the Lick Observa- 
tory (1897). 

The following-named gentlemen have been admitted as special 
students for the summer of 1897: Professor H. D. Curtis (Uni- 
versity of the Pacific), B. A. (Michigan, 1892), M. A. (Michigan, 
1893); Professor D. A. Lehman TUniversity of the Pacific), B. S. 
(State Normal School, Penn., 1889), Ph. B. (Wesleyan, 1893). 

Instruments Making in Allegheny. 

The following instruments have been made recently by Mr. 
J. A. Brashear, of Allegheny, or are at present in process of 
construction at his shops: — 

Two 16-inch photographic doublets (Petzval system), for 
Professor Max Wolf, of the University of Heidelberg. 

Eight-inch photographic doublet, with camera, for the Uni- 
versity of Tokio. This instrument was shipped in time for use 
during the total eclipse of August 9, 1896, but observations were 
prevented by cloudy weather. 

Siji-inch photographic doublet for Harvard College Observa- 
tory. The focal length of the combination is forty-five inches, 



152 Publications of the 

and the field is fourteen degrees. According to preliminary tests, 
this should be a very satisfactory instrument. The star- discs are 
nearly round, though slightly enlarged at the extreme edge of 
the field. 

Eight-inch visual objective, for Park College, Missouri. 

Four-and-one-half-inch equatorial, complete, for the U. S. 
Military Academy, West Point. 

Three 5j4-inch reflectors, equatorially mounted, for Messrs. 
J. M. Cook, of Macon, Georgia, J. R. Bettis, of St. Louis, 
and J. O. Devor, of Elkhart, Indiana. 

Small photographic correcting lens, for spectroscopic work 
with the 1 2^ -inch equatorial of the Ohio State University. 

Concave grating spectroscope, complete, with many acces- 
sories, for Dr. Hauswaldt, of Magdeburg, Germany; for a 
6-inch concave grating of twenty-one feet radius. 

Star spectroscope, with many accessories, including grating, 
photographic objectives, and camera, for the lo^-inch equatorial 
of the University of Minnesota (Professor Leavenworth). 

Two large star spectroscopes. 

Spectrometer, with prisms and grating, for Mr. C. F. Brush, 
of Cleveland, Ohio, and various smaller pieces of apparatus. 

Death of Alvan G. Clark. 

Alvan G. Clark, the last survivor of the famous firm of 
Alvan Clark & Sons, died in Cambridgeport on June 9, 
1897, at the age of sixty-five years. The best monuments to the 
members of this gifted family are the splendid telescopes which 
they have set up during the last fifty years all over the world, 
from St. Petersburg to California. E. S. H. 

Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 1896-97. 

At the annual visitation of the Royal Observatory, Green- 
wich, the report of the Astronomer Royal, which refers to the 
period from May 11, 1896, to May 10, 1897, was submitted. It 
stated that the building of the north wing and central dome was 
completed in September last. Under this dome is erected the 
largest telescope in the world devoted exclusively to photog- 
raphy — the 26-inch refractor, the gift of Sir Henry Thompson. 
This instrument, completed in April, is already in good working 
order. On the same mounting is carried the 12^-inch Merz 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i53 

refractor, as a guiding telescope (in years gone by called the 
Great Equatorial), and the Thompson 9-inch photoheliograph; 
and in place of a counterpoise at the other end of the declination 
axis, a Cassegrain reflecting telescope of 30-inch aperture, with 
a new photographic spectroscope attached, and with the 6-inch 
Hodgson telescope as guiding telescope. The Thompson equa- 
torial thus forms a remarkable and powerful combination of 
telescopes, adapted to visual, photographic, and spectroscopic 
work, mainly due to private munificence. When the new 
altazimuth was ready for use in September, it was found that 
there were serious discordances in the readings of the circles 
under the different microscopes, depending on the direction 
in which the instrument was previously turned. Quite recently 
Mr. SiMMS has discovered an entirely unsuspected source of 
error. Owing to the method of giving a helical twist to the 
grinder while grinding the pivots, it was found that the pivots 
had a tendency to act as a screw, a longitudinal force being 
set up, the direction of which depended on the direction in 
which the telescope was turned, the effect of which was to 
slightly move the iron standards carrying the bearings and the 
microscopes, and thus to change the position of the microscopes 
relatively to the graduated circles. This action of the pivots has 
been cured by a few circular turns of the same tool. With the 
transit circle the Sun, Moon, planets, and fundamental stars have 
been regularly observed as in previous years, and the annual 
catalogue contains 3454 stars. The end of the year 1896 
finished the period of observation for the new ten-year catalogue 
for the epoch 1 890, which will comprise the accurate places of 
some 7000 stars, of which a large number are those previously 
observed by Groom bridge, so that good data for proper-motions 
will be available. For the next ten years the programme of 
observations with the transit circle will comprise the observations 
of stars (down to the ninth magnitude inclusive) within twenty- 
six degrees of the pole, in addition to tfie usual observations of 
the Sun, Moon, planets, and fundamental stars. 

With the astrographic equatorial half the number of required 
chart plates and two thirds of the catalogue plates have been 
obtained. Of the fields still required, 197 are within ten degrees 
of the pole, and photographs of this part of the sky have been 
purposely deferred till near the epoch 1900. At the present rate 
of progress, the whole work will occupy about nine years. 



154 Publications of the 

With the 28-inch refractor 195 double stars have been 
measured, each star on the average on two nights, and the 
satellite of Neptune on four nights. The excellence of this object 
glass is practically demonstrated by the fact that the actual power 
of separation by observation of two close stars is greater than the 
theoretical value, and, curiously enough, the same holds good in 
the case of the large telescope at the Lick Observatory, a fact 
which speaks volumes for the instrument-makers. Some photo- 
graphs of the Moon and close double stars made in the course of 
the year have likewise demonstrated that the reversal of the 
crown lens makes this telescope an equally efficient instalment 
for purposes of photography. With the Dallmeyer photo- 
heliograph the usual Sun photographs have been made, and 
gaps in the series at Greenwich filled up by photographs from 
India and Mauritius, so that there are records on 360 days. 
The spot activity of the Sun has continued to decline since the 
date of the last report, but has undergone two remarkable cases 
of temporary revival, the first in September, 1896, when the 
longest connected group ever photographed at Greenwich was 
observed, and the second at the commencement of the present 
year. 

During the year under review, the average number of chro- 
nometers and deck watches being rated at the observatory was 
446; the total number received was 1220, the total number issued 
1 1 24, and the number sent for repair 519. For the annual trial 
of chronometers, which lasted twenty-nine weeks, in tempera- 
tures ranging from 42^ to 107^, ninety-seven chronometers were 
entered, and fifty-four of these were purchased by the Admiralty 
for the navy. The Greenwich time ball was not raised on five 
days, owing to the violence of the wind, and that at Deal on ten 
days, for the same reason. The meteorological and magnetical 
observations have been made as usual. The selection of a site 
in Greenwich Park for a new magnetic pavilion has caused a 
good deal of trouble, owmg to the difficulty of finding a suitable 
position, free from any suspicion of disturbance from iron. Dur- 
ing the year there were no days of great magnetic disturbances. 
The rainfall for the year ending April 30, 1897, was 26.83 inches, 
being 2.29 inches above the fifty years' average. The highest 
daily temperature in the shade on the open stand was 91^.1, on 
July 14th; the highest recorded temperature under similar con- 
ditions in the preceding fifty-five years was 97°. i, on July 15,. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 155 

1 88 1. — Condensed from a report in the London Times, June 7, 
1897. 

Expedition from the Lick Observatory to Observe the 
Eclipse of January, 1898, in India. 

The total solar eclipse of January, 1898, will be observed by 
Professor Campbell, of the Lick Observatory, and volunteer 
assistants. The expedition was authorized by the Regents of the 
University of California at their meeting of June 23d, and its 
expenses will be met from a fund generously provided by Colonel 
C. F. Crocker, a member of the Regents' Committee on the 
Lick Observatory.* 

The programme of the expedition will be both spectroscopic 
and photographic. The principal subjects of observation will be: — 

1. Photographs of the spectrum of the reversing layer. 

2. Spectrum photographs, to determine the velocity of rota- 
tion of the corona. 

3. Observation i repeated with a different instrument. 

4. Photographs of the spectrum of the corona. 

5. Photographs of the corona on a large scale (40-foot lens), 
on the plan first employed by Professor Schaeberle in Chile. 

6. Photographs of the corona with a portrait lens, on 8 x 10 
plates. 

7. Photographic photometry of the corona, as in the Lick 
Observatory expeditions of January and December, 1889, April, 
1893, (August, 1896). 

It is hoped and expected that this expedition will be favored 
with good observing weather. Edward S. Holden. 

Mt. Hamilton, June 24, 1897. 

Astronomical Telegram, 
[translation.] 

L. O., June 30, 1897; s.^^^ 9-5^ a. m. 
To Harvard College Observatory: — 

D' Arrest's comet was discovered by C. D. Perrine, June 
28.9764 G. M. T.; R. A. 2»^ i" 24".6; N. P. D. 89^46' 29". 

[The comet is faint, about 2' in diameter, with a faint conden- 
sation, but no nucleus.] 



• It will be remembered that the Lick Observatory eclipse expeditions to Cayenne 
(December, 1S89) and to Japan (August, 1896) were sent at the expense of Colonel 
Crockbr. 



156 Publications of the 

Photographic Atlas of the Moon. 

[extracts from a circular.] 

Based chiefly on focal negatives of the Lick Observatory, to the 
scale of ten feet to the Moon's diameter; executed by Pro- 
fessor Ladislas Weinek, Ph. D., Sc. D., Director of the 
Imperial and Royal Observatory of Prague. Published by 
Carl Bellmann in Prague [price J[^i for each part (twenty 
plates) ; ten parts will complete the first series]. 

** My long experience in producing drawings and pictures of 
lunar landscapes, some with the direct aid of the telescope, others 
by enlargement from a number of photographic plates of the 
Lick Observatory, has supplied me with the materials for under- 
taking the following work, which claims to produce an accurate 
and artistic representation of the whole visible surface of the 
Moon. 

Dissatisfied with the photographic enlargements made by 
experts in various quarters, I began, on April 19, 1893, a series 
of experiments, with a view to discover a method which, while 
rendering the minutest details with absolute exactness and 
accuracy, might at the same time ensure a plastically perfect and 
beautiful delineation of the object portrayed. That method I 
flatter myself to have now found. I intend to publish, in the 
immediate future, an account of it. 

The materials that form the basis and bulk of the Photographic 
Lunar Atlas, begun by me in 1894 and now almost completed, 
are mainly derived from the Lick Observatory. The contributions 
from that source consist of ninety-four exquisite negatives, includ- 
ing the various phases of a whole lunation, taken at the focus of 
the telescope of 36-inch aperture of that observatory during the 
years 1 890-1 896, and of about i4odiapositives of the same size. 
To these must be added four striking lunar negatives made by 
Messrs. Loewy and Puiseux at the focus of the large Equatorial 
Coud6 (of 60-rw aperture and i8-m focal length) of the Paris 
Observatory, and two excellent lunar diapositives of the Arequipa 
branch station of the Observatory of Cambridge (Mass.), taken 
by Professor Bailey with the telescope of 13-inch aperture, and 
enlarged with an ocular placed near the focus. Hence, my 
Photographic Lunar Atlas had to be based essentially on the 
lunar negatives of the Lick Observatory; whilst the enlargements 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i57 

of Paris and Arequipa plates are added chiefly for the purpose of 
facilitating comparative study. 

The scale adopted in enlarging the Lick negatives is uniformly 
twenty- four times the original, whilst the scale of enlargement of 
the Paris negatives and Arequipa diapositives is slightly less. For 
the first, the enlargement corresponds, at the mean distance of 
the Moon from the Earth, to a lunar diameter of lo feet (= 3, i m^ 
I mm = I, I km=^ o,"6). For the last, the enlargement gives 
a diameter of 4 metres (i mm = 0,89 km = o,"48) i. e. the 
double of the diameter of Schmidt' s Map. In enlarging the focal 
plates twenty-four times, one brings out to the naked eye, and with- 
out any difficulty, the smallest details of the lunar surface, while 
its plastic beauty is not altered; and in the second, a simple ratio 
with the map of Schmidt is maintained. The following instance 
will help to illustrate this remark: On the photographic enlarge- 
ment (twenty- four times) from a Lick negative, June 27, 1895, 8*" 
21" 1% P. S. T., I discovered, on January 10, 1896, on the top of 
the mountain in the northwestern part of the interior of CyrUlus^ 
a small round object like a crater of i. i km in diameter. I at 
once communicated my observation to the French selenographer, 
C. M. Gaudibert, and sent him at the same time the print con- 
taining it. On the 20th of January, 1896, he was able to 
confirm, without any possible doubt, the existence of this crater 
on that mountain, with his telescope of 260 mm aperture. The 
diameter of that crater is i mm on the print, and it would hardly 
be visible to the naked eye were the enlargement made on a 
smaller scale. 

The work of enlarging from the above focal plates went on up 
to Easter, 1897. From April 19 to December i, 1893, 100 
photo-lunar enlargements were made; most of these are of the 
size of 13X18 cm; and they come from diapositives; they com- 
prise e.xperiments of the utmost variety. From December i, 
1893, up to Easter, 1897, I made 485 photo-lunar enlargements 
from original negatives only (with the exception of seven 
enlargements taken from two Arequipa diapositives), and of the 
size of 21X26 or of 26X31. From among these the first 196 
were made by myself, with an assistant for the development of 
the plates, etc.; the last 289 were executed, since November 1894, 
by myself alone in all the stages of their execution. The last, 
mentioned enlargements, based, too, on more favorable original 
negatives, were the first to give complete satisfaction. Funds to 



158 Publications of the 

defray the very considerable outlay for plates in pursuing this 
lengthy and laborious work were provided, partly by a govern- 
ment grant and a grant from the Vienna Academy of Science, 
partly by the munificence of private donors, especially Baron 
Albert von Rothschild in Vienna, and Miss Catherine W. 
Bruce in New York. 

And now that the principal part of this preparatory work is 
done, the plan is to publish at Prague a Lunar Photographic 
Atlas on a scale of ten feet, relatively four metres, to the diameter 
of the Moon, having 200 maps of the size of 26X31 cm, contain- 
ing the principal lunar formations viewed under the most varied 
conditions of illumination. If this atlas is favorably received, I 
propose to publish, later on, a second series of 200 maps, to com- 
plete the first. The 200 maps first mentioned come from enlarge- 
ments made since November, 1894, and show the best of what 
has been done up to the present time. The order in which the 
pictures will be arranged must not be supposed to follow the 
phases of the waxing or waning Moon; it will rather be deter- 
mined by the degree of excellence or of beauty exhibited in the 
enlargements available for publication. Shown at the top of each 
sheet will be the selenographical latitude and longitude for the 
centre of the picture, and also the selenographical longitude of 
the terminator for the latitude 0°. By this means it will be easy 
for every one to arrange the sheets according to the relative 
positions of the lunar objects they portray, or according to the 
terminator of the corresponding lunar phase. To secure the 
utmost precision in the minutest details, the reproductions of 
enlargements done at Prague will be executed by the phototype 
process in a manner as closely approaching perfection as possible. 
They will be printed direct from my enlarged glass diapositives, 
under my constant personal supervision and control, by the well- 
known Art-Photographical Institute of Carl Bellmann, Prague. 
The enclosed print, showing the Maginus Walled Plain* (L. O. 
1895, Oct. 9, 16^ 20"" 2' — 2,' 5, P. S. T.), is an example of the way 
in which each map will be printed on card board of the size of 
33 X 43 cm, so that they may be easily handled at the telescope or 
framed for scientific collections. Each map will be detached, and 
one fascicle, containing twenty maps, will appear every two— 



• The circular is accompanied by a reproduction of Professor Wbinrk's enlargement 
of Maginus^ which is admirable in every respect. Copies of the circular and this plate 
will be sent by Carl Bbllman, as above, to those who apply to him. E. S. H. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 159 

three months. This will obviate the difficulty that observatories, 
academies, scientific societies, and institutions might else find in 
purchasing the entire work in one issue. 

The publication of the atlas in the dimensions proposed (ten 
issues, making a total of 200 lunar landscapes) cannot be under- 
taken until the requisite pecuniary support is forthcoming in the 
shape of promises of numerous subscribers to the work. I 
venture to appeal in the first instance to the various observatories 
at home and abroad, and to solicit their promises to become 
subscribers for the ten issues, each to contain twenty lunar land- 
scapes. 

Pursuing, as I do, different ends from those of the Paris Lunar 
Atlas (its diameter of nearly 2^ metres makes it a little larger 
than Schmidt's map) which aims at securing great beauty of 
relief and plastic effect, as well as from those of the Mt Hamilton 
Atlas (its diameter is equal to that of Madler's map, i.e. one 
metre), which endeavors to preserve the faint contrasts of light 
and shade in their true value, my enlargements published in 
the Prague Lunar Atlas should have ample justification for publi- 
cation, in that they will together afford a faithful and accurate 
reproduction of the striking results obtained in the field of 
photo-selenography at the end of* the nineteenth century." 

Professor Dr. L. Weinek, Director of the Imperial 
and Royal Observatory of Prague. 

Prague, April 18, 1897. 

Trial of the Crosslex Reflector. 

At the beginning of April, 1897, Professor Hussey was placed 
in full charge of the Crossley reflector, to give it a thorough 
trial, visually at the Newtonian focus, and photographically at both 
the Newtonian and principal foci, thus continuing the work begun 
by him in June, 1896.* A new driving clock for the instrument 
has been made by the instrument- maker of the Lick Observatory 
during the past winter, from drawings by Professor Hussey. It 
b on the same general plan as the driving-clock of the 36- 
inch equatorial, and promises well. The weights on the double 
conical pendulum are about twenty-eight pounds each. Mirror 
A is now in the instrument. During the winter and spring the 
Bruce spectrograph has been constructed (at Mount Hamilton) 

*S€e Pmblications A. S. P., Volume VIII, page 236. 



i6o Publications of the 

for the reflector, from designs by Professor Campbell, who pro- 
poses to employ it in the principal focus. 

Edward S. Holden. 

Death of Hon. Charles Frederick Crocker. 

After a short illness, Hon. C. F. Crocker, Regent of tlie 
University of California, and a member of the Committee of 
the Regents on the Lick Observatory, died at his country place. 
Uplands, San Mateo County, on Saturday, July 17, 1897, ^t the 
age of forty-three years. His loss will be felt in very many rela- 
tions of business and friendship, and in none more than in those 
he sustained to the University of California and to the Lick 
Observatory. Edward S. Holden. 

July 18, 1897. 

Small Telescope For Sale. 

Mr. C. A. ScRASE (care of Messrs. Percy & Dearsley, 
328 Montgomery Street. San Francisco), has in his hands for 
sale for $130 a telescope of 3^-inches aperture by E. G. Wood, 
of London, complete in its box. Intending purchasers should 
address themselves to him. . E. S. H. 

July 19, 1897. 

Appointments in the Lick Observatory. 

At a meeting of the Regents, July 13, 1897, Mr. William 
H. Wright was appointed to be Assistant Astronomer and Mr. 
E. F. Coddington to be Fellow in Astronomy. E. S. H. 

Meeting of the Board of Directors and of the 
Society, June 12, 1897. 

Saturday, June 12th, was the date for a regular meeting: of the 
Directors and of the Society at Mt. Hamilton. As no quorum for the 
transaction of business (in either body) was present, no meetings were 
held. The papers presented for reading will be printed in the Pubiica- 
tions in due course. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i6i 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. William Alvord PnsitUnt 

Mr. Edward S. Holdbn Firtt Vice-Prtsident 

Ut. Frbdcrick H. Srares Second Vict-PresitUnt 

Mr. Chauncbv M. St. John Third Vict-President 

JI;:R-?:i;".r"'M ^"reuru. 

Mr. F. R. ZiEL Treasurer 

B^rd of Directors^ Messrs. Alvord, Holden, Molbra, Morse, Miss O'Halloran, 

Messrs. Pbrrinb, Pibrson, Sbarbs, St. John, von Gbldkrn, Zibl. 
Finance Commi/tee— Messrs, William M. Pibrson, E. J. Molbra, and C. M. St. John. 
Committee on Publication — Messrs. Holdbn, Babcock, Aitkbn. 
Library Committee— yitxsx%, Hussby and Sbarbs and Miss O'Halloran. 
Committee on the Comet- Medal— }Aes&x%, Holdbn (ex-ojfficio), Schabbbrlb, Campbell. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee— Hx. Ruthven W. Pike. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Executive Committee— Mts&rs, Camilo Gonzalez, Francisco Rodriguez Rev. 



NOTICE. 

The attention of new members is called to Article VIII of the By-Laws, which provides that 
the annual subscription, paid on election, covers the calendar year onlv. Subsequent annual 
payments are due on January ist of each succeeding calendar year. This rule is necessary in 
order to make our book-keeping as simple as possible. Dues sent by mail should be directed to 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific Sig Market Street,* San Francisco. 

It is intended that each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the Pub- 
lications for the year in which he was elected to membership and for all subsequent years. If 
there have been (unfortunately) any omissions in this matter, it is requested that the Secreuries 
he at once notified, in order that the missing numbers may be supplied. Members are requested 
to preserve the copies of the Publications of the Society as sent to them. Once each year a title- 
page and contents of the preceding numbers will also be sent to the members, who can then bind 
the numbers together into a volume. Complete volumes for past years will also be supplied, to 
members only, so far as the stock in hand is sufficient, on the payment of two dollars to either of 
the Secretaries. Any non-resident member within the United States can obtain books from the 
Society's library by sending his library card with ten cents in stamps to the Secretary A. S. P.i 
3 19 Market Street, San Francisco, who will return the book and the card. 

The Committee on Publication desires to say that the order in which papers are printed in 
the Pn^icationx is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
tirst which are earliest accepted for publication. It is not possible to send proof sheets of papers 
to be printed to authors whose residence is not within the United States. The responsibility for 
tne views expressed in the papers printed rests with the writers, and is not assumed by the 
Society itself. 

The titles of papers for reading should be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
ai possible, as well as any changes in addresses. The Secretary in San Franci:»co will send to 
any member of the Society suitable stationery, stamped with the deal of the Society, at cost price, 
a% follows: a block of letter paper, 40 cents; of note paper, 25 cents; a package of envelopes, 25 
cents. These prices include postage, and should be remitted by money-order or in U. S. postage 
stamps. The sendings are at the risk of the member. 

Those members who propose to attend the meetings at Mount Hamilton during the summer 
should communicate with "The Secretary Astronomical Society of the Pacific " at the rooms of 
the Soctetjr, 810 Market Street, San Francisco, in order that arrangements may be made for 
(raosportation, lodging, etc 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHLY. 
(February^ Aprils June^ August^ October^ December.) 




PUBLIC LlBRARYl 






PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. IX. San Francisco, Septbmbbr i, 1897. . No. 57. 

BY-LAWS 

OF THB 

ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC. 



ARTICLE I, 

This Society shall be styled the Astronomical Society of 
THE Pacific. Its object shall be to advance the Science of 
Astronomy, and to diffuse information concerning it. 

ARTICLE II. 

This Society shall consist of active and life members, to be 
elected by the Board of Directors. 

1. Active members shall consist of persons who shall have 
been elected to membership and shall have paid their dues as 
hereinafter provided. 

2. Life members shall consist of persons who shall have been 
elected to life membership and shall have paid $50 (fifty dollars) 
to the Treasurer of the Society. 

3. A certain number of Observatories, Academies of Science, 
Astronomical Societies, Institutions of Learning, etc., not to 
exceed one hundred, shall be designated by the Board of 
Directors as Corresponding Institutions, and they shall receive 
the publications of this Society in exchange or otherwise. 

ARTICLE in. 

At each annual election there shall be elected a Board of 
eleven Directors, and a Committee on Publication, consisting of 
three members. The officers of this Society shall be a President, 
three Vice-Presidents, two Secretaries and a Treasurer. The 



1 64 Publications of the 

Directors shall organize immediately after their election, and 
elect from their number the officers of the Society. They may 
also appoint a Librarian, and such other assistants as may be 
required. The Directors shall fill by appointment any vacancies 
which may occur after the annual election. 

The Library of the Society shall be kept in San Francisco, 
and shall be open to the use of all the members. 

ARTICLE IV. 

The President, or, in his absence, one of the three Vice- 
Presidents, or, in the absence of both the President and the 
Vice-Presidents, any member whom the Society may appoint, 
shall preside at the meetings of the Society. It shall be the duty 
of the President to preserve order, to regulate the proceedings 
of the meetings, and to have a general supervision of the affairs 
of the Society. The President is, ex-officio, a member of all 
Committees of the Board of Directors. 

ARTICLE V. 

The Secretaries shall keep, and have the custody of, the 
records; they shall have the custody of all other property of the 
Society, excepting the money thereof; they shall give timely notice 
of the time and place of meetings; they shall keep in books a 
heat and accurate record of all orders and proceedings of the 
Society, and properly index them; they shall conduct the cor- 
respondence of the Society; they shall preserve and index the 
originals of all communications addressed to the Society; and 
keep a copy of all their letters, properly indexed; and they shall 
prepare for publication an accurate summary of the transactions of 
the Society at each of its meetings. 

ARTICLE VI. 

The Treasurer shall receive and deposit in such bank as may 
be designated by the Directors, to the credit of the Society, all 
donations and bequests of money and all other sums belonging 
to the Society. He shall keep an account of all money received 
and paid by him, and at the annual meetings shall render a partic- 
ular statement of the same to the Society. Money shall be 
paid by him only on the written order of the Finance Committee 
of the Board of Directors. He shall give such bonds as may be 
required by the Board of Directors. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 165 

ARTICLE VII. 

Candidates for active or life membership may be proposed by 
any member of the Society to either of the Secretaries, in writing. 
A list of such candidates shall be certified to the Board of Direc- 
tors by the Secretaries at each of their meetings, in writing. A 
majority (not less than three) of the Directors present at any 
such meeting shall be required for election. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Each active member shall pay an annual subscription of ^\^ 
dollars, due on the first of January of each year, in advance. 
Each active member shall, on his election, pay into the Treasury 
of this Society the sumr of ^\^ dollars, which shall be in lieu of 
the annual subscription to the first of January following his 
election, and in lieu of an initiation fee. No one shall be deemed 
an active member, or receive a diploma, until he has signed the 
register of members, or accepted his election to membership in 
writing, and paid his dues for the current year. Any member 
may be released from annual dues by the payment of fifty dollars 
at one time, and placed on the roll of life members by the vote 
of the Board of Directors. Any failure on the part of a mem- 
ber to pay his dues within six months after the time the same 
shall have become payable, shall be considered equivalent to a 
resignation. 

ARTICLE IX. 

The annual meeting of this Society shall be held on the last 
Saturday in March, at eight o'clock p. m., at the rooms of the 
Society in San Francisco; and meetings shall be held for the 
ordinary transactions and purposes of the Society, as follows: — 

Meetings shall be held in the Library of the Lick Observatory, 
Mount Hamilton, at a suitable hour on the second Saturday of 
June and the first Saturday of September; and meetings shall be 
held in the rooms of the Society, in San Francisco, at eight 
o'clock p. M., on the last Saturdays of January, March, and 
November. 

A special meeting may be called by the President, or, in his 
absence or disability, by one of the Vice-Presidents, or, in the 
absence or disability of both the President and the Vice-Presi- 
dents, by the Secretary, on the written requisition of ten active 
or life members; and the object of such meeting shall be stated 
in the notice by which it is called. 



1 66 Publications of the 

The annual election shall be held on the day of the annual 
meeting, between the hours of 8:15 and 9 P. m. 

No member shall be permitted to vote at any meeting of the 
Society who has not paid all his dues for past and current years. 
There shall be no voting by proxy. 

ARTICLE X. 

Fifteen active or life members shall be a quorum for the trans- 
action of business. 

ARTICLE XI. 

No papers or manuscripts shall be published by the Society 
without the consent of the Directors. Any motion to print an 
address, or other paper read before the Society, or any other 
matter belonging to the Society, shall be referred to the Com- 
mittee on Publication, who shall report to the Directors. The 
Committee on Publication may make suggestions to the Directors, 
from time to time, with reference to the publication of such 
papers as in their judgment should be published by the Society; 
and this Committee shall have the care, direction and supervision 
of the publication of all papers which the Directors may authorize 
to have published. 

Members of the Society shall receive all the publications of 
the Society free of charge. 

ARTICLE XII. 

This Society may, by a vote of a majority of all its active and 
life members, become a branch of an American Astronomical 
Society, should one be formed. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

It shall be the duty of the Directors, in case any circumstances 
shall arbe likely to endanger the harmony, welfare or good order 
of the Society, to call a special meeting of the Society; and if, at 
such meeting, after an examination of the charges, and hearing 
the accused, who shall have personal notice of such proceedings, 
it shall be proposed that the offending member or members shall 
be expelled, a vote by ballot shall be taken, and if two thirds of 
the members present vote in favor thereof, the offending member 
or members shall be expelled. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 167 

ARTICLE XIV. 

The Directors shall meet half an hour before the stated time 
of each bi-monthly meeting, and at such other times as they may 
appoint. The President, or, in his absence, any one of the Vice- 
Presidents, may call special meetings of the Board of Directors 
at any time. Notice of the time and place of such meeting shall 
be given by the Secretaries, by depositing in the post-office at 
San Francisco a notice of the time and place, addressed to each 
Director personally, at his last known place of residence, with the 
postage thereon prepaid, six days before the time of meeting. 

ARTICLE XV. 

The By-Laws may be amended at any time by a consenting 
vote of nine members of the Board of Directors at any duly 
called meeting thereof. 

ARTICLE XVI. 

In order to increase the usefulness of the Society, any groups 
of its members residing in the same neighborhood (except in the 
City and County of San Francisco, State of California,) are 
authorized to form local organizations which shall be known as 
**The Section of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.*' 

No Section shall be formed except by the consent of the 
Board of Directors of the parent Society. 

The proceedings of such Sections may be printed in the 
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, either in 
full or in abstract, and the parent Society shall not be in any way 
responsible for publications made elsewhere. 

No person not a member of this Society in good standing shall 
be eligible to membership in a Section, nor shall membership in a 
Section interfere in any way with the status of the person as a 
member of this Society. 

The special expenses of each Section shall be borne by the 
group of members composing it, and this Society shall not be 
liable for any debts incurred by any Section. 




Publications of the 



R THE BESTOWAL OF THE BRUCE 
OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 
OF THE PACIFIC. 



I. A medal is founded by Miss Catherine Wolfe Bruce, 
of New York, to be given, not oftener than once a year, for dis- 
tinguished services to astronomy. The medal is international in 
character, and it may be awarded to a citizen of any countrj', 
and to a person of either sex. 

II. The cost of the medal is to be met from the interest of 
the Bruce Medal Fund of $2500. The capital of this fund is 
not to be impaired. Une;cpended interest is to be added to the 
capital to become an integral part thereof 

III. The medal is to be of gold. The obverse is to bear the 
Seal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. The reverse is to 
bear an inscription as follows: This medal, founded A. D. 
MDCCCXCVII, BY Catherine Wolfe Bruce, is presented 

TO FOR distinguished 

services to Astronomy (date in years). 

IV. The Bruce Medal is not to be given twice to the same 
individual. 

V. On the first of September of every year one of the Secre- 
taries of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific is to address an 
official letter to the Director of each of the following Observa- 
tories, namely: — 

The Harvard College Observatory, The Observatory of Paris, 

The Lick Observatory, The Observatory of Greenwich, 

The Yerkes Observatory, The Observatory of Berlin, 

enclosing the statutes relating to the Bruce Medal, and requesting 
each of the six Directors just named to nominate not to exceed 
three Astronomers worthy to receive the medal for the ensuing 
year. 

The replies of the said Directors are not to be communicated 
by the Secretary to any person until the first of November, when 
a list containing the names of the Astronomers so nominated is 
to be certified, in writing, by the Secretary, to each of the eleven 
Directors of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific; and a 
special meeting of the Directors called for the last Saturday in 
November, at 2 p. m. At that meeting these Statutes are to be 
read ; and the original letters from the Directors of the Observa- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 169 

tories are to be submitted by the Secretary, and afterwards sealed 
in an envelope and deposited in the archives of the Society, not 
thereafter to be opened except by a formal resolution of the 
Directors, passed at a regular meeting. All such letters and 
nominations are to be regarded as confidential by all who are 
knowing to them. 

VI. The Directors of the Astronomical Society of the 
Pacific, at the special meeting aforesaid, may vote in person or 
by written proxy. 

The medal is not to be awarded unless the votes of at least six 
Directors are cast at this meeting. It may be awarded to any 
individual named in the list certified by the Secretary by the con- 
senting votes of six Directors; or, the consenting votes of six 
Directors may order that no award shall be made for the ensuing 
year. 

The award of the medal, if made, is to be for the calendar 
year commencing with the January after the meeting at which the 
award is made; and on January ist one of the Secretaries of the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific is to officially notify the 
recipient of the award, and on receiving a letter of acceptance, is 
to transmit the medal, engraved with name and year. The name 
of the recipient of the medal is not to be made public until after 
the receipt of a letter of acceptance. 

The President of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, in 
hb address at the annual meeting of the Society in March is to 
announce the award and the reasons for making it. 

VII. It is competent for the eleven Directors of the Astrono- 
mical Society of the Pacific, by a unanimous vote, and not other- 
wise, to substitute for any one of the Observatories named in 
Article V some other Observatory. It is desirable, though not 
essential, that three of the Observatories aforesaid shall be 
American and three Foreign. 

Not more than one such substitution is to be made in any 
single calendar year. 



I70 Publications of the 



RULES RELATING TO THE COMET MEDAL OF THE 
ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC. 



I. A medal of bronze is established, as a perpetual founda- 
tion, to be given for the discovery of comets, as follows: — 

The medal is to bear on the obverse side the effigy of a brig^ht 
comet among stars, with the legend, ** Astronomical Society 
OF THE Pacific," around the border; and on the reverse the 
inscription; "This Medal founded in 1890 by Joseph A. 

DoNOHOE, IS presented TO (the nkme 

of the discoverer) to commemorate the Discovery of a 
Comet on (the date).** 

It is to be understood that this medal is intended solely as a 
recognition of merit, and not as a reward. 

II. The medal will be given to the actual discoverer of any 
unexpected comet. 

III. The discoverer is to make his discovery known in the 
usual way, and, in order to simplify the work of the committee, 
which, in certain cases may be called upon to consider the merits 
of several independent discoveries of the same object, he should 
also address a letter to the Director of the Lick Obser\'atory, 
which should state the exact time of the discovery, the position 
of the comet, the direction of its motion (when this can be deter- 
mined), and the physical appearance of the object. 

No application for the bestowal of the medal is required. The 
letters received from discoverers of comets will be preserved in 
the records of the Lick Observatory. Cable telegrams to the 
Lick Observatory aie to be addressed to '* Astronomer, San 
Francisco. * * 

IV. All communications will be referred to a committee con- 
sisting of the Director of the Lick Observatory, ex officio^ and 
of two other persons, members of the Astronomical Society of 
the Pacific, who are to be annually appointed by the Board of 
Directors. The decisions of this committee are to be final upon 
all points relating to the award of the medal. The committee will 
print an annual statement of its operations in the publications of 
the Society. 

Under ordinary circumstances the comet medal will be 
awarded within two months after the date of the discovery. In 
cases of doubt a longer period may elapse. The medal will not 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 171 

be awarded (unless under the most exceptional circumstances) for 
the discovery of a comet until enough observations are secured 
(by the discoverer or by others) to permit the calculation and 
verification of its orbit. 

V. This medal is to be a perpetual foundation from and after 
January i. 1890. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. William Alvord President 

Mr. £dwaiid S. Holdkh First y ice- President 

Mr. Frbdbrick H. Sbares .... Second Vict" President 

Mr. Chaunxby M. St. John Third Vice-President 

s;:^.-?.-i;:r'"! ■ ^««/--w 

Mr. F. R. ZiKL .... Treasurer 

B^esr-d 0/ Directors— hlessn. Alvoru, Holdsn, Molbra, Morse, Miss O'Halloran, 

Messrs. Pbrrine, Pibrson, Sbarbs. St. John, von Gbldern, Ziel. 
FifuxMue Committee—Messrs. William M. Pibrson, E. J. Molbra, and C. M. St. John. 
Commtittee on Pn^/ication—tAtssrs. Holdbn. Babcock, Aitken. 
I.thrtuy Committee— lUtssn, Hussby and Sbares and Miss O'Halloran. 
Comfftittee on the Comet- Medai—Mtssn. Holden (ex-officio)^ Schakbbrlk, Campbbix. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Ejc€cutive Committee— Mr. Ruthven W. Pikb. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Exfrntivf Committee—fAtssrs, Camilo Gonzalez, Francisco Rodriguez Rev. 




JUPITER, UPiXiCn 22, 185?. 
(Taken at the Lick Observatory with an 18-inch Reflecting Telescope^ 



Exposure Times 



8>» 22" 0" to 40' 
10 11 o to 40 
10 16 o to 4Q 



P. S. T. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. IX. San Francisco, October i, 1897. No. 58. 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF /[/P/T£Ji.frBE~N^^y . 

[Taken with an i8-inch Reflecting Telescope.] /pTTDr rr^ , ' O h i\ 

j^uiJUC LIBRAIV, 

By J. M. SCHAEBERLE. 



The three silver prints of Jupiter given in the present 
are contact copies of negatives taken with the 18-inch reflecting 
telescope described in Volume VII of these Publications, The 
particular secondary for focal images of this scale can only be 
used advantageously when there is no wind and when the seeing 
is first-class. The equivalent focal length, corresponding to the 
linear dimension of the image, is about 650 feet. 

Held at a distance of ten inches from the eye, the effect, so 
ias as simple magnification is concerned, is the same as a view of 
Jupiter through a telescope magnifying 780 diameters. With 
such a power, the visual observations of planetary details are 
ordinarily unsatisfactory; in view, therefore, of the improvement 
(mentioned farther on) in the definition of the 18-inch mirror, 
which will surely result from the increase in the principal focal 
length, these photographs are of peculiar interest. 

I recently discovered a most serious optical defect which is 
common to all parabolic mirrors.* The magnitude of this defect 
increases rapidly as the angular aperture of the mirror increases. 
In order to obtain results which are not seriously affected by this 
error, the ratio of focal length to aperture should never be less 
than, say, fourteen to one. I have decided to regrind and refigure 
the 18-inch reflector, and make the ratio of focal length to 
aperture about twice as great as it is at present. 



•See Astronomical Joumalt No. 413. 



174 Publications of the 

The silver prints were made by Mr. William Pauli of the 
Lick Observatory. Much of the detail in the original neg^ative 
k, of course, lost in the paper prints. By comparing the three 
photographs, allowing for the rotation of the planet, no mistake 
can be made as to whether a given marking actually corresponds 
to a surface feature of the planet, or whether it is due simply to 
a defect in the plate. J. M. Schaeberle. 

Lick Observatory, University of California, 
September 20, 1897. 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR SEPTEMBER, 
OCTOBER, NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER. 1897. 



Bv Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



September. 

The Sun crosses the equator and autumn begins at about 
II A.M., P. S. T., on September 22d. 

Mercury is an evening star at the beginning of the month, 
having passed greatest east elongation on August 26th, but it is 
too near the Sun for naked-eye observations, and passes inferior 
conjunction on the morning of September 2 2d. It then becomes 
a morning star and moves rapidly away from the Sun, so that by 
the end of the month it rises more than an hour before sunrise, 
and can be easily seen under good-weather conditions. It is in 
conjunction with Jupiter on September 27th, but the conjunction 
is not so close, nor are the planets as well situated as they will be 
at the conjunction which will take place in October. 

Venus is a morning star, rising about three hours before sun- 
rise. During the month it moves thirty-six degrees east and nine 
degrees south through the constellations Cancer and Leo* On 
the night of September 24-25th it is very near the first magni- 
tude star Regulus (a Leonis)^ passing the star on the north at a 
distance of about half of the Moon*s diameter. 

Mars is still an evening star, but it is rapidly nearing conjunc- 
tion with the Sun, and it can scarcely be seen without telescopic 
aid, except perhaps during the first few days of the month, when 
it sets about two hours after sunset. It is also nearly at its 
greatest distance from the Earth, and least brilliancy. It moves 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i75 

about eighteen degrees east and eight degrees south through the 
constellations Leo and Virgo, 

JupiUr comes to conjunction with the Sun on the night of 
September i2-i3th, and becomes a morning star; but does not 
get far enough away to become visible to the naked eye until 
nearly the end of the month. 

Saturn is still in sight as an evening star, but is nearing the 
Sun. By the end of the month it sets before 8 p.m. It moves 
about two degrees eastward during the month along the borders 
of the constellations Libra and Scorpio. The rings are nearly at 
their maximum opening. 

Uranus is near Saturn, about two degrees south at the begin- 
ning of the month, and is also moving eastward, but only about 
half as fast as Saturn. It is so near the horizon after sunset that 
the conditions for visibility are not good. 

Neptune is in the constellation Taurus, rising quite late in the 
evening and is too faint to be seen with the naked eye. 

October. 

Mercury b a morning star throughout the month, and during 
nearly the whole time is in good position for observation in the 
twilight just before sunrise. It comes to its greatest west elonga- 
tion on the evening of October 7th, and at that time rises 
more than an hour and twenty minutes before sunrise. On the 
morning of October 6th it is very close to Jupiter, conjunction 
occurring at midnight, P. S. T. At the time of nearest approach, 
the planets are only twelve minutes of arc apart, a distance much 
less than the semi-diameter of the Moon, and they will show as a 
fine double star to the naked eye, 

Venus is also a morning star, a little nearer the Sun than it 
was during September. It moves thirty-four degrees east and 
sixteen degrees south through the constellations Leo and Virgo, 
On the afternoon of October 19th it is in conjunction with Jitpiter, 
the nearest approach being a little less than the Moon's diameter, 
Venus being twenty-eight minutes north. 

Mars b still an evening star, but closer to the Sun than it was 
in September. It is now only about as bright as the pole star 
and cannot readily be seen after sunset. During the latter half 
of the month it reaches its greatest distance from the Earth, 
about 236,000,000 miles, a distance a little greater than the 
average maximum distance, and not quite seven times as great 
as the least possible fJistance at opposition. 



176 Publications of the 

Jupiter IS a morning star, rising about two hours earlier than 
during the corresponding period in September. It moves about 
four degrees east and south in the western part of the constella- 
tion Virgo, Its conjunctions with Mercury and Venus have 
already been noted. 

Saturn is an evening star, nearer the Sun than it was in 
September, and by the end of the month it will not be an easy 
object for the naked eye after sunset. It is moving eastward, near 
the boundary of Libra and Scorpio, 

Uranus is still near Saturn, and is also moving eastward, but 
at a much smaller rate. At the end of the month it is about 
three degrees west and one degree south of Saturn, 

Neptune is in about the same position in the eastern part of 
Taurus, as in September. 

Occultation of the Pleiades, The Moon will again pass over 
the Pleiades group on the evening of October 13th. As the 
Moon is then three days after full, the immersions will occur at 
the bright limb and the emersions at the dark. The eastern part 
of the United States is better situated than the western for seeing 
this group of occultations, as the Moon will have passed over a 
considerable part of the group when it rises in the Pacific States. 

November. 

Mercury is a morning star quite near the Sun until November 
7th, when it comes to superior conjunction with the Sun, and is 
an evening star for the rest of the month, but does not get far 
enough away to be easily visible. It is in conjunction with Mars 
on November 12th, with Uranus on November i6th, and with 
Saturn on November i8th, but the planets are all too near the 
Sun for naked-eye observations. 

Venus is still a morning star, but it is gradually drawing 
nearer the Sun, and at the end of the month rises only about an 
hour and a half earlier. During the month it moves thirty-six 
degrees eastward and thirteen degrees southward through the 
constellations Virgo and Libra, passing four degrees north of 
Spica (a Virginis) on the morning of November 7th, and about 
one degree north of a Librte on the morning of November 25th. 

Mars is too near the Sun for observation throughout the 
month. It comes to conjunction on the morning of November 21st, 
and changes from an evening to a morning star, moving about 
twenty-two degrees eastward and southward during the month. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, i77 

It is in conjunction with Merctiry^ on November 12th, with 
Uranus on November 21st, and with Saturn on November 27th. 
It reached its greatest distance from the Earth toward the end of 
October, about a month before the time of conjunction. 

Jupiter is a morning star, gradually increasing its distance 
from the Sun and rising earlier. During the month it moves 
about ^\e degrees eastward and southward in the western part 
of the constellation Virgo. On the morning of November 15th 
it passes the fourth magnitude star 7; VirginiSy the planet being 
about half of the Moon*s apparent diameter south of the star. 

Saturn is quite close to the Sun coming to conjunction, and 
changing from an evening to a morning star on the night of 
November 24-25th. It moves about four degrees eastward in 
the constellation Libra. It is in conjunction with Mercury on 
November i8th, and with Mars on November 27th. 

Uranus is near Saturn^ three degrees to five degrees west, 
and comes to conjunction with the Sun on the morning of 
November 21st It comes to conjunction with Mars on^ hour 
later, and Mars^ conjunction with the Sun occurs only three 
hours later than his conjunction with Uranus. 

Neptune is retrograding (moving westward) in the constella- 
tion Taurus. 

December. 

The Sun enters the sign Capricorn (not the constellation), and 
winter begins December 21st, 5 a.m., P. S. T. 

Mercury is an evening star, and after the first few days of the 
month sets more than an hour after sunset, so that it can be seen 
under good weather conditions during the greater part of the 
month. It reaches greatest eastern elongation on December 
20th, and then sets about an hour and half after sunset. 

Venus is still a morning star, but is drawing nearer to the Sun, 
and by the end of the month it rises less than an hour before 
sunrise. It moves about forty degrees eastward and seven 
degrees southward during the month through the constellations 
Libra and Scorpio. At the end of the month it is very close to 
Mars, the planets coming to conjunction on the evening of 
December 30th. 

Mars is a morning star, and by the end of the month rises 
almost an hour before sunrise, but it is still too faint to be easily 
seen, on account of its great distance from the Earth. Its 
brightness will keep on increasing throughout the whole of 1898. 



178 Publications of the 

Jupiter is also a morning star. Its distance from the Sun is 
increasing, and by the end of the month it rises at about mid- 
night. It moves about three degrees eastward in the western 
part of the constellation Virgo. 

Saturn is also a morning star, and during the month it gets 
far enough away from the Sun to be seen in the morning twilight. 
It is in the western part of the constellation Scorpio, and moves 
about three degrees eastward during the month. 

Uranus is also a morning star about ^\^ degrees west of 
Saturn, in the constellation Scorpio. 

Neptune is in opposition on the evening of December 12th. 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 
In the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
by adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 
the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
seldom much more than i". To find the standard time for the 
phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence between standard and local time if the place is west of the 
standard meridian, and subtracting if east. The same rules apply 
to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 
of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
and for latitudes differing much from 40® they may be several 
minutes out. 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

H. M. 

First Quarter, Sept. 3, 3 13 p. m. 

Full Moon, Sept. 10, 612 p. m. 

Last Quarter, Sept. 18, 6 51 P. M. 

New Moon, Sept. 26, 5 46 a. m. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i79 











The Sun. 






1897. 


R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


S«ts. 


H. M. 







' 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Sept. I. 


10 43 


+ 


8 


6 


5 33 A.M. 


NOON. 


6 27 P.M. 


II. 


II 19 


+ 


4 


22 


5 43 


II 57 A.M. 


6 II 


21. 


II 55 


+ 





30 


5 52 


II 53 


5 54 


Oct. I. 


12 31 


— 


3 


24 


6 I 


II 50 


5 39 










Mercury. 






Sept I. 


12 16 


— 


5 


5 


7 49 A.M. 


I 32 P.M. 


7 15 P.M. 


II. 


12 24 


— 


7 


I 


7 24 


I 


6 36 


21. 


II 5^ 


— 


3 


8 


6 5 


II 55 A.M. 


5 45 


Oct. I. 


II 37 


+ 


2 


37 


4 46 
Venus. 


10 55 


5 4 


Sept I. 


8 9 


+ 


19 


29 


2 21 A.M. 


9 25 A.M. 


4 39PM. 


II. 


8 58 


+ 


17 


It 


2 34 


19 34 


4 34 


21. 


9 45 


+ 


14 


4 


2 55 


9 43 


4 31 


Oct I. 


10 32 


+ 


10 


16 


3 15 
Mars. 


9 50 


4 25 


Sept I. 


12 17 


— 


I 


12 


7 37 A.M. 


I 33PM. 


7 29 P.M. 


II. 


12 41 


— 


3 


52 


7 31 


I 18 


7 5 


21. 


13 5 


— 


6 


30 


7 24 


I 2 


6 40 


Oct I. 


13 30 


— 


9 


6 


7 19 


12 48 


6 17 










Jupiter. 






Sept I. 


II 18 


+ 


538 


6 15 A. M. 


12 34 P.M. 


6 53 P.M. 


II. 


II 26 


+ 


4 


48 


5 47 


12 3 


6 19 


21. 


II 34 


+ 


3 


57 


5 19 


II 32 A.M. 


5 45 


Oct I. 


II 42 


+ 


3 


7 


4 50 


II 


5 10 










Sa turn. 






Sept I. 


15 33 


— 


17 


II 


II 49 A. M. 


4 49 P.M. 


9 49 P.M. 


II. 


15 35 


— 


17 


22 


II 13 


4 12 


9 II 


21. 


15 38 


— 


17 


34 


10 36 


3 35 


8 34 


Oct I. 


15 42 


— 


17 


48 


10 2 


3 


7 58 










Uranus. 






Sept I. 


15 32 


— 


18 


55 


11 55 A.M. 


4 48 P.M. 


9 41 P.M. 


II. 


15 33 


— 


18 


59 


II 16 


4 9 


9 2 


21. 


15 35 


— 


19 


5 


10 39 


3 32 


8 25 


Oct I. 


15 37 


— 


19 


II 


10 I 


2 54 


7 47 










Neptune. 






Sept I. 


5 27 


+ 


21 


S2, 


II 22 P.M. 


6 41 A.M. 


2 P.M. 


II. 


5 28 


+ 


21 


53 


10 42 


6 I 


I 20 



Oct 



21. 5 28 
I. 5 28 



4- 21 53 10 4 
+ 21 52 9 24 



5 23 12 42 

4 43 12 2 



i8o Publications of the 









Minima of Algol, P. 


S. T. 












H. M 








H. 


M. 


Sept 2. 






12 41 A. 


M. Sept. 15 


I. 


5 


35 A. M. 


4- 






9 30 P. 


M. 22 


. 


2 


24 A. M. 


7. 






6 19 P. 


M. 24 


.. 


II 


12 P. M. 


10. 






3 8 P. 


M. 27 


. 


8 


I P. M. 


13- 






II 57 


A. 


M. 3C 


\, 


4 


50 P. M. 


16. 






8 46 A. 


M. 












Phases of the Moon, ] 


p. S. T. 








First 


Quarter, 


Oct. 2, 


H. M. 

9 31 P- 


M. 






Full 


Moon, 




Oct. 10, 


8 42 A. 


M. 






Last 


Quarter, 


Oct. 18, 


I 9 P. 


M. 






New 


Moon, 




Oct. 25, 


3 28 p. 


M. 












The Sun, 










R 


A. 


Declina 


tion. 


Rises. 


Transits. 




Sets. 


1897. 


H. 


M. 


c 


/ 


H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


Oct. I. 


12 


31 


- 3 


24 


6 I A.M. 


II 50 A.M. 


5 39P-M. 


II. 


13 


8 


- 7 


14 


6 12 


II 47 




5 22 


21. 


13 


45 


— 10 


54 


6 23 


II 45 




5 7 


31. 


14 


24 


— 14 


18 


6 33 


II 44 




4 55 










Mercury, 








Oct. I. 


11 


37 


+ 2 


37 


4 46 A.M. 


10 55 A.M. 


5 4P-M. 


II. 


12 


7 


+ I 


16 


4 51 


ID 46 




4 59 


21. 


13 


4 


- 4 


56 


5 21 


II 4 




4 47 


31. 


14 


6 


— II 


51 


6 7 
Venus, 


II 26 




4 45 


Oct. I. 


10 


32 


+ 10 


16 


3 15 A.M. 


9 50 A.M. 


4 25 P.M. 


II. 


II 


18 


+ 5 


57 


3 37 


9 57 




4 17 


21. 


12 


3 


+ I 


18 


3 59 


10 3 




4 7 


31. 


12 


49 


- 3 


29' 


4 20 
Mars, 


xo 9 




3 58 


Oct. I. 


13 


30 


- 9 


6 


7 19 A.M. 


12 48 P.M. 


617 P.M. 


II. 


13 


55 


— 11 


37 


7 14 


12 34 




5 54 


21. 


14 


22 


- 14 





7 9 


12 21 




5 33 


31- 


14 


49 


- 16 


15 


7 6 


12 9 




5 12 










Jupiter, 








Oct. I. 


II 


42 


+ 3 


7 


4 50 A.M. 


II OA.M. 


5 10 P.M. 


II. 


II 


50 


+ 2 


17 


4 21 


10 29 




4 37 


21. 


II 


57 


+ I 


29 


3 52 


9 57 




4 2 


31. 


12 


5 


+ 


43 


3 23 
Saturn, 


9 25 




3 27 


Oct. I. 


15 


42 


- 17 48 


10 2 A.M. 


3 P.M. 


7 58 P.M. 


II. 


15 


46 


— 18 


2 


9 27 


2 24 




7 21 


21. 


15 


50 


— 18 


17 


8 53 


I 49 




6 45 


31. 


15 


55 


- 18 


32 


8 19 


I 14 




6 9 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



i8i 



1897. 
Oct. I. 

II. 
21. 
31. 

Oct. I. 

II. 
21. 
31. 



R.A. 

H. M. 

15 37 
15 39 
15 41 
15 43 



5 28 
5 28 
5 27 
5 26 



Declination. 

o / 

— 19 II 

— 19 18 

- 19 25 

- 19 34 



Uranus. 

Rises. 

H. M. 

10 I A.M. 

9 25 

8 49 
8 12 



Neptune. 



+ 21 52 
+ 21 52 
+ 21 51 
+ 21 50 



9 24 P.M. 

8 45 
8 5 
7 25 



Transits. 

H. M. 

2 54 P.M. 

2 17 
I 40 

I 3 



4 43 A.M. 
4 4 
3 24 
2 44 



Sets. 

H. M. 

7 47 P.M. 
7 9 
6 31 
5 54 



12 2 P.M. 
II 23 A.M. 

10 43 
10 3 



Minima of Algol. P. S. T. 



Oct. 



3- 
6. 

9- 
12. 

15- 
17. 



I 

10 

7 

4 

12 

9 



39 P. M. 

27 A. M. 
16 A. M. 

5 A. M. 

5 A. M. 
43 p. M. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



20. 

23. 
26. 
29. 

I. 



6 

3 

12 

8 

5 



M. 

32 P. M. 
21 P. M. 
10 P. M. 
58 A. M. 
47 A. M. 



Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 



1897. 
Nov. I. 

II. 

21. 
Dec. I. 



Nov. I. 

II. 

21. 
Dec. I. 

Nov. I. 

II. 

21. 
Dec. I. 



First Quarter, 

Full Moon, 

Last Quarter, 

New Moon, 

First Quarter, 



R. A. 

H. M. 

14 28 

15 8 

15 49 

16 32 



14 U 

15 15 

16 20 

17 26 



12 54 

13 40 

14 28 

15 17 



Nov. I, 
Nov. 9, 
Nov. 17, 
Nov. 24, 
Nov. 30, 

The Sun. 



H. M. 

6 37 A. M. 

I 50 A. M. 

6 2 A. M. 
I 20 A. M. 

7 14 P. M. 



Declination. 

o ' 

- 14 37 

- 17 35 

- 20 3 

- 21 54 



Rises. 

H. M. 

6 34 A.M. 

6 45 

6 57 

7 8 



Mercury. 
12 31 611 A.M. 
18 25 6 57 
22 49 7 39 
25 19 8 17 

Venus. 
4 22 A.M. 



• 3 58 
8 40 

13 5 
16 58 



4 46 

5 10 
5 33 



Transits. 

H. M. 

II 
II 
II 
II 



44 A.M. 

44 
46 

49 



II 28 A.M. 

11 52 

12 17 P.M. 
12 44 



10 9 A.M. 
10 16 
10 25 

10 34 



Sets. 

H. M. 



4 54P-M. 
4 43 
4 35 
4 30 



4 45 P.M. 
4 47 

4 55 

5 II 

3 56 P.M. 
3 46 
3 40 

3 35 



I82 



Publications of the 













Mars. 










1897. 


R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transiu. 


Sets. 


H. » 


1. 





' 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


H. 


M. 


Nov. I. 


H 52 


- 16 


28 


7 4 A.M. 


12 


7 P.M. 


5 


ID P.M. 


II. 


15 


20 


-18 


29 


7 I 


II 


56 A.M. 


4 


51 


21. 


15 


49 


— 20 


15 


6 58 


II 


46 


4 


34 


Dec. I. 


16 


19 


— 21 


44 


6 55 


II 


37 


4 


19 










Jupiter. 










Nov. I. 


12 


5 


+ 


39 


3 19 A.M. 


9 


21 A.M. 


3 


23 P.M. 


II. 


12 


12 


— 


4 


2 49 


8 


49 


2 


49 


21. 


12 


18 


— 


43 


2 18 


8 


16 


2 


14 


Dec. I. 


12 


24 


— I 


18 


I 46 

Saturn. 


7 


42 


I 


38 


Nov. I. 


15 


55 


- 18 


34 


8 16 A.M. 


I 


II P.M. 


6 


6 p.m. 


II. 


16 





— 18 


49 


7 42 


12 


36 


5 


30 


21. 


16 


5 


- 19 


3 


7 9 


12 


2 


4 


55 


Dec. I. 


16 


10 


— 19 


17 


635 

Uranus. 


II 


27 A.M. 


4 


19 


Nov. I. 


15 


44 


- 19 


34 


8 8 A.M. 


12 


59 P.M. 


5 


50 P.M. 


II. 


15 


46 


— 19 


42 


7 32 


12 


22 


5 


12 


21. 


15 


49 


— 19 


51 


6 57 


II 


46 A.M. 


4 


35 


Dec. I. 


15 


51 


-19 


59 


6 20 


II 


9 


3 58 










Neptune. 










Nov. I. 


5 


26 


+ 21 


50 


7 26 P.M. 


2 


44 A.M. 


10 


2 A.M. 


II. 


5 


25 


+ 21 


49 


6 46 


2 


4 


9 


22 


21. 


5 


24 


+ 21 


48 


6 5 


I 


23 


8 


41 


Dec. I. 


5 


23 


+ 21 


47 


5 24 


12 


42 


8 






Eclipses of Jupiter^s Satellites, P. S. 

(Oflr Ief\ hand limb as seen in an inverting telescope.) 

H. M. 



I, D, Nov. 


2. 


6 43 A. M. 


I, D, Nov. 


II. 


3 4 A.M. 


IV, D, 


4. 


12 45 A. M. 


I. D. 




18. 


4 57 A. M. 


I, D. 


4. 


I 1 1 A. M. 


I. D, 




19. 


II 26 p. M. 


IV, R, 


4- 


3 24 A. M. 


II. D. 




21. 


6 48 A. M. 


III, D. 


4. 


6 35 A. M. 


I, D. 




25. 


6 51 A. M. 


II, D, 


7. 


I 39 A. M. 


I, D, 




27. 


I 19 A. M. 






Minima of Algol, P. S. 


T. 










H. M. 








H. M. 


Nov. I. 




5 47 A. m. 


Nov. 18. 






10 41 A. M. 


4. 




2 36 A. M. 


21. 






7 30 A. M, 


6. 




II 25 P. M. 


24. 






4 19 A. M, 


9. 




8 14 P. M. 


27. 






I 7 A. M, 


12. 




5 3 P. M. 


29. 






9 56 P. M. 


15- 




I 52 p. M. 











Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 183 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 





Full 


Moon, 




Dec. 8, 


H. M. 

8 54 p. M. 






Last 


Quarter, 


Dec. 16, 


8 22 p. M. 






New 


Moon, 




Dec. 23, 


II 55A.M. 






First 


Quarter, 


Dec. 30, 


II 27 A. M. 












The Sun. 








R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1897. 


H. 1 


M. 





' 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Dec. I. 


16 


32 


— 21 


54 


7 8 A.M. 


II 49 A.M. 


4 30 P.M. 


II. 


17 


15 


-23 


4 


7 17 


II 54 


4 31 


21. 


18 





-23 


27 


7 24 


II 59 


4 34 


31. 


18 


44 


— 23 


4 


7 36 


12 3 P.M. 


4 40 










Mercury. 






Dec. I. 


17 


26 


-25 


19 


8 17 A.M. 


12 44 P.M. 


5 II P.M. 


II. 


18 


32 


-25 


32 


8 46 


I II 


5 36 


21. 


19 27 


-23 


26 


8 51 


I 26 


6 I 


31. 


19 


38 


— 20 


29 


8 10 
Venus, 


12 57 


5 44 


Dec I. 


15 


17 


- 16 


58 


5 33 A.M. 


ID 34 A.M. 


3 35PM. 


II. 


16 


8 


— 20 


6 


5 57 


ID 46 


3 35 


21. 


17 


I 


— 22 


18 


6 20 


II 


3 40 


31. 


17 


56 


- 23 


24 


6 40 

Mars. 


II 15 


3 50 


Dec. I. 


16 


19 


— 21 


44 


6 55 A.M. 


11 37 A.M. 


4 19 P.M. 


II. 


16 


50 


— 22 


54 


6 51 


11 28 


4 5 


21. 


17 


22 


-23 


40 


6 48 


II 21 


3 54 


31. 


17 


54 


-24 


3 


6 42 


II 14 


3 46 










Jupiter. 






Dec I. 


12 


24 


— I 


18 


I 46 A.M. 


7 42 A.M. 


I 38 P.M. 


II. 


12 


29 


— I 


48 


1 14 


7 8 


I 2 


21. 


12 


33 


— 2 


13 


12 40 


6 33 


12 26 


31- 


12 


37 


— 2 


31 


12 6 
Saturn. 


5 57 


11 48 A.M. 


Dec I. 


16 


ID 


- 19 


17 


6 35 A.M. 


II 27 A.M. 


4 19 P.M. 


II. 


16 


14 


- 19 


30 


6 2 


10 53 


3 44 


21. 


16 


19 


- 19 42 


5 28 


10 18 


3 8 


31. 


16 


24 


- 19 


52 


4 54 
Uranus, 


9 43 


2 32 


Dec I. 


15 


51 


- 19 


59 


6 20 A.M. 


II 9 A.M. 


3 58 P.M. 


II. 


15 


54 


— 20 


6 


5 43 


10 32 


3 21 


21. 


15 


56 


— 20 


13 


5 7 


9 55 


2 43 


31. 


15 


58 


— 20 


20 


4 30 


9 18 


2 6 



1 84 



Publications of the 



Neptune, 





R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


1897. 


H. M. 





H. M. 


Dec. I. 


5 23 


+ 21 47 


5 24P.M 


II. 


5 22 


+ 21 46 


4 44. 


21. 


5 21 


+ 21 45 


3 59 



31. 5 20 +21 44 3 19 



Transits. Sets. 

H. M. H. M. 

12 42 A.M. 8 OA.M. 

12 2 7 20 

II 17 P.M. 6 35 



10 37 



5 55 



Eclipses of Jupiter-s Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Off left-band limb as seen in an inverting telescope.) 



Ill, R, Dec. 


3- 


H. M. 

I 20 A. M. 


II. D, Dec. 


16. 


H. M. 

3 49 A.M. 


I, D, 


4- 


3 13 A. M. 


III. D, 




17. 


6 22 A. M. 


II, D, 


9- 


I 14 A.M. 


I.D, 




20. 


I 27 A. M. 


III. D, 


10. 


2 24 A. M. 


II. D, 




23- 


6 24 A. M. 


III, r; 


10. 


5 17 A. M. 


IV, D. 




24. 


6 49 A. M. 


I,D. 


12. 


II 34 P. M. 


I, D, 




27- 


3 20 A. M. 






Minima of Algol, P. S. 


T. 










H. M. 








H. M. 


Dec. 2. 




6 45 p. M. 


Dec. 19. 






II 39 P. M. 


5- 




. 3 34 P- M. 


22. 






8 28 P. M. 


8. 




12 23 P. M. 


25- 






5 16 P. M. 


II. 




9 12 A. M. 


28. 






2 5 P. M. 


14. 




6 I A. M. 


31. 






10 54 A. M. 


17. 




2 50 A. M. 











THE BRUCE PHOTOMETERS OF THE LICK 
OBSERVATORY. 



By R. G. Aitken. 

[Abstract.] 



A paper with the above title was prepared for the September 
meeting of the Society, and the following abstract is now printed to 
put on permanent record some data concerning the instruments. 

Photometer II. in principle is identical with Photometer H. 
described in the H. C. O. Annals, Vol. XL, p. i. It consists of 
a double image prism, which can be moved along the axis of the- 
telescope to any desired distance from the focus, and a NicoL 
prism in front of the eye-piece, which can be turned by an amount 
which is measured with a graduated-circle and index. 

In practice, the double image prism is moved toward or away 
from the focus, and the whole instrument turned on its axis, until 
the ordinary image of one of the stars to be compared is brought 
as close as is desired to the extraordinary image of the other star 
— the two remaining images either being cut off by the eye- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 185 

stop, or being symmetrically placed in the field of view, with 
respect to the two images that are to be compared. The Nicol 
is then turned until the two images are of equal brightness, 
and its position is read on the graduated circle. Four such posi- 
tions are found — one on each side of the two points of disappear- 
ance of the brighter image. Turning the whole photometer 
through 180°, the images at first neglected are brought together 
and a similar comparison is made. From these readings the 
angular distance of the point of equality of the images of the two 
stars (v) from the point of dbappearance of the brighter star 
(Vo) is determined; and the difference in magnitude (M), (using 
Pogson's photometric scale) follows from the equation 

M = 5 log tan (v — Vo). 

The Harvard College observers have found that * * this instru- 
ment leaves little to be desired in the measurement of close 
double stars. Nearly all sources of systematic error are elimin- 
ated when it is properly used, and the relative brightness of two 
adjacent stars may be determined with great accuracy.'* In fact, 
they have found that **the results on different nights will give 
average deviations considerably less than a tenth of a magnitude.*' 

A careful test of the Bruce Photometer II., attached to the 
thirty-six- inch telescope, has proved that it will give results in 
every way comparable with those obtained with the Harvard 
instrument. 

This photometer, however, when attached to the thirty-six- 
inch cannot be used to compare stars more than two minutes 
of arc apart. 

The Bruce Photometer I., which is a duplicate of the '* New 
Form of Stellar Photometer,** described by Professor E. C. 
Pickering in the Astrophysical Journal for August, 1895, is 
based upon the same photometric principles as number II., and 
the method of observing and of reducing the observations is the 
same for both instruments. The only difference is, that only one 
image of each star is seen in the field of view at one time, the 
other two images being cut off by the eye- stop. 

But in Photometer I. the double image prism, which has an 
angle of separation of about four inches, is placed at the focus, 
and two images of the object glass are formed by two achromatic 
prisms, which can be slid by a chain and sprocket-wheel to a 
distance of about forty inches from the focus. The position of 
these prisms is indicated by a divided wheel, which is turned by 



1 86 Publications of the 

a screw cut on the axis of the sprocket-wheel. One turn of the 
screw moves the prisms about three inches. The achromatic 
prisms are about two and one-quarter inches (6 cm.) on a side and 
their combined deviation is 4^ 23' 35", somewhat greater than 
that of the double image prism when they are brought near to 
it, but less when they are moved to their extreme position. 

The simplicity of construction of this instrument insures the 
stability of its adjustments. Practically » it is only necessary to 
see that the line joining the centres of the two images is perpen- 
dicular to the edges of the achromatic prisms. If this is not the 
case, the adjustment is easily made by turning the tube holding 
the double image prism. 

When the photometer is attached to the thirty-six-inch tele- 
scope and the achromatic prisms are brought as near as possible 
to the focus, stars about two and one-half minutes of arc apart 
may be compared. This is the minimum limit. The practical 
maximum limit is reached when the prisms are moved thirty- 
two inches from the focus, for at this point the diameter of the 
cone of rays from the object-glass equals the length of the side 
of the achromatic prism. In this position of the prisms, stars 
about twelve minutes of arc apart may be compared. 

The loss of light by the process of polarization and by reflec- 
tion and absorption of the various prisms used, reduces the 
brightness of the stars by about one and one-half magnitudes. 
It is, therefore, possible to measure with great accuracy the bright- 
ness of any star one and one-half magnitudes brighter than the 
limit of visibility of the telescope. 

Mt. Hamilton, September 6, 1897. 



CATALOGUE NO. II, OF NEBULAE DISCOVERED AT 
THE LOWE OBSERVATORY, ECHO MOUN- 
TAIN, CALIFORNIA. 



By Lewis Swift. 



The following list of twenty-five nebulae follows No. I of fifty, 
discovered at this observatory and published in the Astronomical 
/oumal of November 13, 1896, and also in the Publications of the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Since my return to this 
observatory in April last, after an absence of several months, I 
have devoted my time to searching for comets, as well as for 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



187 



nebulae, for which this anomalous climate is so well adapted. 
The following facts will illustrate its truth. The number of clear 
nights in May, 1897, were twenty-five, and rain-fall 0.87 of an 
inch.. On June 28th, rain-fall o.io; in July, precipitation 0.15. 
I have never seen a month, except jhe last, when every night was 
clear, but in June, 1896, every one was clear with a single 
exception, and that was foggy. One peculiarity about this 
climate is, that there are more cloudless nights than days, which 
is the reverse of conditions at the Warner Observatory at 
Rochester, New York. 



d 
2 


Datk of 
Discovery. 


R. A. 


p 


Dec. 

OR 1900. 


Dkscription. 








h m 8 


e / // 




I 


Mar. 


23/95 


8 538 


+ 


5 22 47 


eeeF. vS. IE. v close f. 12- * .D ♦ nf. points 
nearly to it. eedif. 


2 


May 


4, 


II 47 23 


— 


3 10 12 


vF. pS. R. B*f55'. npof 2. 


3 Mar. 


23/95 


II 48 33 


— 


3 25 15 


eP. pS. R. 2 B St in field one n the other np. 


4 


Mar. 


23. '95 


II 48 48 


— 


4 34 15 


eeeF. vS. eE. a ray. in vacancy. 4 F st in 
line s. I B & 3 F St n. 


5 


May 


23, 


II 49 23 


— 


2 10 


vF. vS. R. vF*near nf. 


6 


May 


23, 


12 43 2 


+ 54 59 45 


eeF. S. CE. in field with N. G. C. 4732. 


7 


May 


23, 


13 4 27 


+ 53 22 48 


eF. pL. R. 


8 


May 


22, 


13 18 33 


+ 


6 45 16 


eeeF. pS. CE. in vacancy, v dif. 


9 


June 


25, 


13 47 20 


+ 14 46 55 


eeeF. pL. R. eeedif. 3d of 4. 


to 


Apr. 


30. 


13 47 38 


— 


38 


vL. pF. CE. n & s. in field with 5334. A Fst 
close to each end of major axis.See note. 


II 


June 


2. 


14 46 16 


+ 


27 59 17 


eeF. S. IE. pB*p. eeedif. another near 
suspected. 


\i 


June 


2, 


14 49 37 


+ 


16 47 5 


vF. pS. R. only i * near lo" nf. 


13 


June 


21, 


15 14 59 


+ 


2 8 52 


vF. vE. pS. B * in field n partly obscures it. 


f4 


June 


3. 


15 19 52 


+ 


13 50 10 


eF. pS. vF* close np. 


15 


June 


21, 


15 30 


+ 


520 


eF. pS. R. near the ist of 6 or 8 st in a 
curved line. 


16. July 


22, 


16 18 45 


+ 


12 59 16 


eeeF. S. IE. F»near f. 2 B st in field s 
nearly point to it. eeedif. 


ir July 

1 


6, 


19 22 


— 


36 24 05 


B. eS. IE. stellar, looks like close D * both 
nebulous. Note. 


IS ; July 


6. 


19 49 10 


— 


37 37 13 


eeeF. pS. 3 st s like belt of Orion point to 
it. eeedif. 


19 July 


6, 


19 53 17 


— 


38 53 33 


eeeF. S. IE. precedes the below 37* eedif. 

pof 2. 
eeF. pS. R. 8-*f2o'fof 2. 


3D 


July 


6. 


19 53 55 





38 53 33 


21 


July 


8. 


19 59 


— 


48 42 25 


eeeF. pS. R. F * near n. eedif. p. of 2. 


a 


July 


22, 


20 2 16 


— 


45 55 42 


vF. pS. R. 


»3JJune 


9. 


20 38 39 


— 


30 16 30 


eF. pS. vE. eeF * and a vF * near sf. point 
to it. s p. of 2. 


Mjune 


9. 


20 38 45 


— 


30 6 30 


eeF. pS. vE. 8r*3i'n. v dif. nf of 2. 


!5 Jaly 


7. 


22 35 


— 


38 33 48 


vF. pS. R. 



i88 Publications of the 

Notes. 

No. lo. This is a remarkable object. I have never seen one 
just like it. It resembles an elliptical planetary nebula. The 
light is evenly diffused, and the limb as sharp as a planet 
Strange, Sir William Herschel missed it, being so near his 
III 665. Munich 9619 is nf 121'. 

No. 17- This also is a singular object. I have never seen 
but one resembling it, and that was on the same night, which I 
think is N. G. C. 6861. It resembles a close, bright, double 
star, each component having a small, bright, round, star-like, 
nebulous disc. A power of 200 failed to divide it 

The places are for 1900.0, and the year of discovery, except 
when otherwise noted, is for 1897. 

N. G. C. 6550 must be struck out, as it is identical with 
H. Ill 555. 



ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, JULY 29, 1897. 



By David E. Haddkn. 



The partial eclipse of the Sun on July 29th ult. was observed in 
Alta, Iowa, under favorable conditions, the sky being cloudless. 
First contact occurred at 7* 33°* 02*; the Sun's disc was a little 
unsteady, and this time is probably a few seconds late. Last 
contact was noted at 9'' 35™ 47' and is quite accurate, the defini- 
tion being fine. 

The limb of the advancing Moon bisected the larger sun-spot 
nearest the west limb at 7'' 47°* 20', and its reappearance was 
observed at %^ 20°" 55'. An interesting phenomenon was the 
apparent blackening of the umbra of the sun-spot, as the edge 
of the Moon reached it (the umbra before appearing a shade 
lighter than the Moon). I also noticed a peculiar lengthening of 
the umbra toward the Moon's limb as it reached its edge — a 
** black drop" appearance on a very small scale. I hardly 
think this was owing to the inequalities of the Moon's edge, 
as the same appearance was repeated during the spot's 
reappearance. 

The sunlight was quite decidedly changed about mid-eclipse, 
and the temperature of the air in the shade fell four degrees, as 
recorded by a registering minimum thermometer. Time used is 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 189 

Central Standard. Telescope used was a four-inch Brashear 
equatorial, with Herschelian eye-piece, power 78. 

Alta, Iowa{J^^„g42Mc/^N^ JApprox. 



NOTES ON THE TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, 
JANUARY 21-22, 1898, IN INDIA. 



By Colonel A. Burton-Brown, R. A., F. R. A. S. 

[Member of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific] 



The central line of totality on the west coast of India passes 
between Ratnagiri and Rajapur, the latitude of which place is 
16° 40' N., and longitude 73° 35' E. of Greenwich. Totality com- 
mences 22d — o^ 47" 42"; has a duration of nearly 2™ 2', and the 
Sun's altitude is 53°, about. The line of shadow strikes across 
India, cutting the river Ganges a few miles south of Balia and pass- 
ing^ on to Jubang in Nepaul, where the duration of totality would 
be reduced by about 23" and Sun's altitude by about one-third. 
There are many circumstances which will influence observers in 
selecting stations beyond that of the Sun's altitude and length of 
totality. The most important one will probably be the weather 
conditions between o** 30" and z^ 15"*. Now, if India were a great 
plain, we might consider that in the third week in January that the 
conditions of weather will be equally favorable from the west coast 
to the Ganges, but as the country is a series of undulations, includ- 
ing some hills, local circumstances must be takeh into account, 
and from my own observations and those of others, I am inclined 
to consider the height of the station which is from 500 to 1500 
feet above the sea would be the most satisfactory if not in close 
proximity to higher ground, and if not within twenty miles either 
of the seacoast or the Ganges river. Places from 73° 30' to 
75° 45' east longitude I find are slightly freer from cloud than 
places east and west of that longitude. Although the daily mean 
cloud in other places may not be greater, it is often more variable. 
I am inclined to advise, from atmospheric conditions as well as the 
position of the Sun and length of totality, that a fairly elevated 
position on or near the central line between those limits be taken 
up. No doubt stations north of Rajapur and Nagpur will be 
selected by some observers, but while the climatic conditions 



I90 Publications of the 

should be good there, they will probably not come up to a carefully 
selected spot near Indapur, Aundh, or Parainda, none of which 
are difficult to get to with the requisite instruments. I would 
here take the opportunity of saying, if a fairly large party is 
formed, they should be divided as much as possible. This I 
strongly urged for the British-Norwegian expedition in 1896, but 
instead of selecting places near Bodo on the west coast and 
places on the Tana Fjord and Russian frontier, as well as Vardoe 
and Vadsoe, they all huddled together at the latter two most 
accessible places, where, unfortunately meeting with unfavorable 
atmospheric conditions, no good results were obtained. It must 
not be forgotten that two or three exceptional circumstances are 
now occurring in India — famine and plague — and more recently, 
earthquakes, so that it may be impossible much before the close 
of the year to give an exact locality suitable for a scientific expe- 
dition. We all hope that in the cooler season these unfortunate 
conditions will be materially improved and that there may be 
no obstacle to progress in any part of the country. An elevated 
post near Indapur would give about 1°* 58' totality at Sun*s 
altitude of about fifty degrees. 



THE CAUSE OF GRAVITATION.* 



By V. Wellman. 



According to Newton's law of gravitation, the attractive 
force of matter is proportional to the mass and inversely propor- 
tional to the square of the distance. The rigorous validity of 
this law has, in recent times, been doubted; but its extraordinary 
approximation to the truth is unquestionable. Consequently, 
without going into the question as to whether the law is rigor- 
ously valid, I will endeavor to verify it. 

The propagation of light through interstellar space shows 
that this space cannot be absolutely vacant. It is filled with a 
material, the condition of which we assume to be like that of 
a gas of extraordinarily rare density. The barometer- formula 
gives, for the density of air at an altitude, h = 00, which, there- 
fore, corresponds approximately to the density of the interstellar 

medium, 

D 00 = D, 10-346, 



• Translated from Astronomische Nachrichten by E. F. Coddington. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 191 

where Do designates the density of air at sea level. Evidently 
this formulae is not exact, since Mariott's law, on which it is 
based, holds good only for a finite pressure and therefore for a 
finite altitude. Nevertheless, this value can be regarded as an 
approximate measure for the density of the interstellar medium. 
We can also assume that the matter of bodies is composed of a 
very large number of very minute particles, whose dimensions are 
exceedingly small compared with the space between them. Sup- 
pose we consider a single particle of the Sun and one of a planet. 
The particles of the interstellar medium move, according to the 
kinetic theory of gases, with an enormous velocity among each 
other. If we imagine a body particle, a, it will be struck on all 
sides by particles of the medium ; therefore will receive an equal 
pressure on all sides and will remain at rest. If there exists a 
second particle, by a will not be struck in the direction ba^ and 
likewise b will not be struck in the direction ab. Therefore, the 
impulses acting on a in the direction ab and those acting on b 
in the direction ba^ will tend to push the two particles together; 
that is, there will seem to be an attractive force between them. 
The question is, whether this force will act according to New- 
ton's law. 

First of all it is clear that a body consisting of n particles will 
receive n times the number of impulses, and, therefore, the 
moving force will be proportional to the mass, provided the 
single particles are far enough apart not to cover each other from 
impulses, and that each particle is struck just as often as it would 
be if it existed alone; or, in other words, provided the interstellar 
medium can go through the celestial bodies without apparent 
resistance. Evidently it can and must happen that in a certain 
element of time some body atoms will cover others, but in the 
same or equal elements of time other body atoms will receive 
many impulses. Therefore, according to the theory of proba- 
bilities, since the number of particles is assumed to be infinitely 
large, there will be a constant value for the number of impulses 
which lies within the limits of our perception, and which is 
proportional to the number of body atoms or to the mass. The 
phenomenon of the diffusion of gases seems to give additional 
evidence that we can assume such a free passage of the inter- 
stellar medium. 

According to the investigations of Graham especially, the 



192 Publications of the 

diffusion volume (V) df a gas is inversely proportional to the 
density of the gas; that is; 

In fact, this law is easily explained from molecular structure. 
The less dense the particles of a gas are, the more of the same will 
pass through resisting bodies without striking them. That is, the 
number n of gas particles going through each row of body 
particles, is inversely proportional to the density 8 of the gas. 
But if the number of particles passing a row be increased v times, 
the number passing a cross-section and also the volume will 
be increased v* times, and the ratio of the volumes will be 
inversely as the square root of the densities. 

According to this law, it is evident that the ability of the 
celestial bodies to allow such a free passage of the interstellar 
medium of the above-mentioned minimum density must be such 
that the above-made assumption will appear correct. Of course 
it will not be maintained here that the passage of the world 
particles (as we will name those of the interstellar medium) 
occurs accurately according to Graham's law; rather it will only 
be shown that the assumption of this perviousness of the celestial 
bodies for the world particles in the assumed measure contains 
no inconsistency or improbability. 

We come then to the consideration of the question, whether 
the power produced by the interstellar medium must act inversely 
proportional to the square root of the distance. For this purpose 
we make the assumption that the density of this medium is con- 
stant within an attraction system (solar system), if not in the 
whole universe. This assumption is certainly allowable, since 
there is no evidence for the opposite assumption of unequal 
densities; and if there should be inequalities of densities, tliey 
would become equalized by expansion in finite distances and in a 
finite length of time. Moreover, it is not absolutely excluded 
that in other attraction systems, at an infinite distance away, there 
cannot exist temporarily other densities. 

We see that, of the world particles, only those have a dislo- 
cating effect upon the body particles which move in a line connect- 
ing the two particles; or that the planets are pushed towards the 
Sun only by those world particles which move in directions 
radial to the Sun. The number of these motions is independent 
of the distance from the Sun; therefore, an equal number of 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 193 

world particles will rebound radially against the surfaces of spheres 
which surround the Sun concentrically. Therefore, the number of 
impulses received by a surface unit is inversely proportional to 
the square of the distance, as Newton's law requires. 

I will illustrate this point in another way. The pressure of a 
gas upon the side q of the inclosing vessel is, 

p = c m u'q ^, 

where m is the mass of a gas particle, u its velocity, n the 
number of particles, and / the length of the enclosing vessel to 

the opposite, side q. For - we can use the density of the gas 8, 

whereby we become independent of the assumption of finite 
enclosed space. Therefore, the pressure of the interstellar 
medium upon the surface units of two spheres described about 
the Sun with radii r and r' is, 

c m u' q 8 , , c m u' q 8' 
p = -i— and p = ^— -i — 

According to Newton's law, the following relation should 
hold:-E. = -^, and, therefore, 8 must equal 8'. That is, New- 
ton's law is satisfied if the density of the interstellar medium is 
constant within the attraction sphere. 

It is also easily seen by a simple geometrical representation, 
without applying mathematical formulae, that the pressure directed 
radially toward a center must be inversely proportional to the 
square of the radius. Within other attraction-spheres in which 
other densities of the interstellar medium reign, Newton's law of 
gravitation would still be valid, but the gravitation constant for 
the unit of mass would have different values. Possibly the 
remarkable mass and distance relations reigning in some of the 
systems, such as Aigoiy are due to these conditions. At places 
of transition, where the density of the medium is variable, a 
stable system is as a rule impossible. 

Since the conceptions given in the above lines will probably 
meet many objections, I may be permitted to discuss some of 
the expected ones. To the assumed rare density of the inter- 
stellar medium, comes the objection that the number of single 
impulses of the world particles in the unit of time is far less than 
that of a particle of gas (earthly), whereby its effect must be 
correspondingly diminished. But this decrease of effect would 



194 Publications of the 

be more than overbalanced by the enormous velocity which we 
must attribute to the world particles, wholly disregarding the 
above- made assumptions, except those concerning light velocity. 
The velocity of the world particles is assumed to be of the same 
order of magnitude as the velocity of light. 

If such a velocity is assumed, the number of particles passing 
a plane in the unit of time will be increased in the same measure, 
while the kinetic energy will be increased according to the square 
of the velocity. To be sure, masses moved with such a velocity 
appear very improbable, but the assumed wave velocities in the 
theory of light are no more plausible, and besides an upper 
limit to cosmical relations can scarcely be drawn. Indeed, the 
assumed value is not so striking if, instead of the velocity of 
the world particles, the kinetic energy be introduced, which is 
infinitely small compared to that of a planet, in spite of their very 
much greater velocity. 

Furthermore, the attraction of the formulae holding good for 
the pressure of a gas appears to be unadmissible, since with gases 
the rectilinear courses traversed by the gas particles are infinitely 
small compared with those which we have assumed. It is also 
easily seen that the above-introduced formula for p is nothing 
other than the expression for the kinetic energy and, therefore, in 
general, is valid. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, i95 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY.* 
Prepared by Members of the Staff. 



Observation of the Partial Solar Eclipse, July 29, 1897. 

At Professor Holden*s request, I observed the times of con- 
tact for this eclipse, using the twelve-inch telescope cut down to 
four inches aperture, and a Herschel prism with eye-piece of 
150 diameters. The Moon's disc was first seen certainly at 
5^ 25" 8' A.M., P. S. T. Geometrical contact occurred one or 
two seconds earlier. The observed time of last contact was 
7* 9" 14" A.M. These times are seven seconds later and seven 
seconds earlier, respectively, than the predicted times of contact 
for the Lick Observatory computed by Mr. Perrine (see Pub- 
lications A. S. P. , No. 55). 

The Moon's disc touched the umbra of a well-developed 
sun-spot on the south-preceding quadrant of the Sun's disc at 
5** 38" 12', and the umbra had entirely disappeared at ^ 39" 29'. 

At the time of greatest obscuration about one-third of the 
Sun's disc was covered. R. G. Aitken. 

Mt. Hamilton, July 29, 1897. 

Unusual Lunar Halo, August 5, 1897. 

Napa, Cal., August 5, 1897. 

* * * * On August 5th at 4:45 p.m. * * * a 
circle (appeared) about the Moon, or rather around the circular 
half. This was distant one-tenth the diameter of the Moon and 
a bright thread-like line. (It was) at times very distinct, but 
again undiscernable. * * * * 

(Signed) Kate Ames, 

School Superintendent 

• Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California. 



196 Publications of the 

The Work of the Lick Observatory, 1888-1897.* 

** In your letter of June 26th, you ask for some account of the 
work in progress here for Popular Astronomy^ which I am very 
glad to give. A report of the sort is annually made to the 
Regents of the University of California, and from the forthcoming 
report the following summary is made. It must be remembered 
that the work of this year is in continuation of previous work, and 
often in pursuance of plans laid down in 1874 — twenty-three 
years ago. While the resources of the Lick Observatory are 
large in comparison with those of many college observatories, 
they are very small in relation to those of the great establishments 
of Greenwich, Paris, Pulkova, Washington, and Harvard College. 
For instance, the whole available income of the Lick Obser\'atory 
for the coming fiscal year (exclusive of salaries) is $5145. This 
sum must keep all the buildings painted and in repair; keep all 
our reservoirs and some ^\^ miles of underground pipes in order; 
provide for all painting, plumbing, brick-laying, pipe- fitting, 
carpenter work, machine work, etc., etc., in the observatory and 
in the houses of astronomers and workmen; buy all supplies, 
such as lumber, hay, iron, brick, etc.; pay for all instrument 
making not done in the observatory; pay all freight, express 
and telegraph bills; maintain a telephone line seventeen miles 
long in good order; pay for fuel; purchase books for the library; 
provide any needed apparatus for all the instruments; and, this 
year, buy much of the material needed for an eclipse expedition 
to India. It is no small task to make the small income cover 
the requirements. Every want that is felt in a large city is felt 
here. The circumstances at Mount Hamilton are as different as 
possible from those at eastern observatories. There each person 
must provide for his own personal comfort; here the comfort of 
each one must be secured by the expenditure of the annual 
appropriation. If it is insufiicient, every person suffers in some 
degree. 

The astronomical efficiency of the Lick Observatory cannot be 
properly estimated without taking such material and social con- 
siderations into account. Under the circumstances, I do not 
think it is too much to claim that its efficiency during the nine 
years of its life has been satisfactory. This has only been 
attained by good will and earnest effort on the part of all con- 



• Reprinted from Popular Astronomy of Aufpist, 1897. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i97 

cemed — regents, astronomers, mechanics, workmen. The sum- 
mary of work for which you asked, is given below. 

Double Stars have been measured here in past years in great 
numbers by Professor Burnham, and at the present time Pro- 
fessors ScHAEBERLE, HussEV and AiTKEN are engaged in such 
work for parts of their time. 

The Satellites of Mars, Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune have 
been regularly observed here for the past nine years by Messrs. 
ScHAEBERLE, Barnard, Campbell and HussEV. A fifth 
satellite oi Jupiter was discovered by Professor Barnard in 1892. 

The Planets, especially Mars, Jupiter, Saturn (and also Ve7ius 
and Uranus), have been systematically observed for their physical 
features at every opposition by Messrs. Holden, Schaeberle, 
Keeler, Barnard and Hussev. For several oppositions of 
Mars, the planet has been followed by Messrs. Holden, Schae- 
berle and Campbell during every available hour. 

Comets have been discovered here in great numbers. Ten 
comets (seven unexpected) were discovered by Professor Bar- 
nard from 1888 to 1892; ^v^ (four unexpected) by Mr. Perrine 
from 1895 to date. The long series of observations of these and 
other comets by Messrs. Barnard, Campbell, Hussey, Per- 
rine and AiTKEN, are a contribution to science even more 
important than the discoveries themselves. 

Comet Orbits have been computed here by Messrs. Schae- 
berle, Campbell, Hussey, Perrine and Aitken; and all 
comets discovered at the observatory have had their first orbits 
calculated by officers of the University. In this work, Professor 
Leuschner, of Berkeley, a former student here, and his 
assistant, Mr. F. H. Sears, have rendered assistance which is 
much appreciated. 

Meteors have been observed and photographed here (and 
elsewhere) by all the astronomers, and their orbits calculated by 
Messrs. Holden and Schaeberle. 

Double-Star Orbits have also been computed by Professor 
Schaeberle. 

The Zodiacal Light was regularly observed (visually) by Pro- 
fessor Barnard. 

The Aurora has been regularly observed (spectroscopically) 
by Professor Campbell. 

Typical, or Remarkable Cloud-forms are regularly photo- 
grraphed by Mr. Pauli, janitor of the observatory. 



198 Publications of the 

Nebulae have been observed (visually, photographically and 
spectroscopically) by Messrs. Holden, Burnham, Schaeberle, 
Barnard and Campbell. 

Star Maps have been made and published by Mr. Tucker. 

Photometry (photographic and visual): — of Eclipses and 
Stars — has been attended to by Messrs. Holden, Schaeberle, 
Campbell and Leuschner. 

Solar Eclipses: — Those of January and December, 1889, 
April, 1893, August, 1896, have been observed by Messrs. 
Burnham, Schaeberle, Keeler, Barnard, Hill, Leusch- 
ner and Campbell — and the latter will observe the eclipse of 
January, 1898, in India. 

Lunar Eclipses. — All lunar eclipses visible here have been 
observed. 

Occultations. — A series of occultations has been observed here 
by Professor Leuschner. 

Transits of Mercury, — Three transits of Mercury have been 
observed (either visually or photographically). 

Transits of Venus, — That of 1882 was successfully photo- 
graphed here by Professor Todd. 

Catalogues of Stars. — Two such are in progress of preparation. 

I St. A Catalogue of Double Stars and Coast Survey Stars 
from observations by Professor Schaeberle has been (pardy) 
reduced, on lines laid down by myself, by Messrs. Schaeberle, 
Campbell, Leuschner, Aitken and Professor Bigelow, and 
Mrs. Updegraff. Professor Aitken has spent more than a 
year on this work. 

2d. A Catalogue of 38,000 Stars from Washington observa- 
tions is well towards completion. The reductions have been made 
chiefly by Messrs. Holden and Aitken. The original observa- 
tions as printed were full of errors. The final places will be 
considerably more precise in declination and somewhat less pre- 
cise in right ascension than the southern zones of Argelander. 

Solar Photography. — Some 1800 negatives of the Sun (taken 
with the photoheliograph) have been secured by Mr. Perrine, 
and since April, 1896, some 450 more by Mr. Colton. Excellent 
experimental solar photographs on a large scale have been made 
with the thirty-six- inch telescope, and it is hoped to go very 
much further with this work during the summer of 1897. 

Lunar Photography. — A very full series of focal negatives has 
been made with the thirty-six-inch telescope, chiefly by Messrs. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, i99 

HoLDEN and Colton. An atlas on the scale of X-feet to the 
Moon's diameter has been prepared from these by Professor 
Weinek at Prague. Enlargements in the telescope have been 
made by Messrs. Holden, Colton and Perrine, and five 
plates of a Moon atlas on the scale of Ill-feet to the Moon*s 
diameter have already been distributed. Twelve more plates are 
now in the hands of the engraver and will soon be issued; and 
about twenty more are ready to be published when the funds are 
available. The atlas will be complete with about sixty plates. 
All the work in the dark room is done by Mr. Colton. 

Photographs of the Milky Way. — A great number of such 
pictures has been obtained by Professor Barnard, who is pre- 
paring them for publication. 

Photographs of Planets (especially of Jupiter) have been 
regularly made by Messrs. Holden, Schaeberle and Colton. 

Photographs of Comets have been secured by Messrs. Bar- 
nard, HussEY and Colton. 

Visual Photometry. — Two fine photometers of Professor 
Pickering's design have lately been given to us by Miss Bruce. 
They will be used by Professor Aitken, chiefly on double stars 
at present. 

Spectroscopic Observations of nebulae, new stars, comets, 
stars and planets, have been made by Messrs. Keeler and 
Campbell. The chief problem of the great telescope is to 
determine the motion of the solar system by spectroscopic 
observations. It was first attacked here in 1888, and since 
that time it has been considered as our most important work. 
The results now attained by Professor Campbell are of unex- 
ampled precision, and some of them will be published shortly. 
Many unexpected delays have occurred in this research, which 
has been under the charge of Messrs. Keeler, Crew and 
Campbell. 

Time-signals are sent out daily. Mr. Tucker is in charge of 
our clocks. 

Meridian-Circle Observations. — Mr. Tucker has completed a 
fine series of observations of all stars contained in any of the 
great Ephemerides and not contained in the Berliner Jahrbuch. 
This work is all ready to print. He has also determined the 
places of a long list of stars used by Professor Doolittle to 
determine the latitude of Lehigh University. The division 
errors of the one degree spaces of both circles of the instrument 



200 Publications of the 

have been determined by Mr. Tucker, with the assistance of 

Mr. AlTKEN. 

Meteorological Observations (tri- daily) have been regularly 
made. They are now in charge of Professor Aitken. A sum- 
mary of all meteorological observations made here from 1888 to 
1897 is in course of preparation by Mr. Perrine. 

Earthquake Observations are obtained on our two seismo- 
graphs, which are in charge of Mr. Perrine. A complete list 
of all recorded earthquakes on the Pacific Coast from 1769 to 
1897, has just been prepared by Professor Holden. 

Publications of the Observatory. — The observatory has already 
issued three quarto volumes and five octavos, besides several 
pamphlets and the Moon- Atlas. The Smithsonian Institution 
has lately published an octavo prepared here by Professor 
Holden — '* Mountain Observatories *' — and will probably print 
his list of recorded earthquakes, just mentioned. Notices from 
the Lick Observatory regularly appear in the Publications of the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific. More than 1200 contribu- 
tions to astronomical and other journals have been made by the 
officers of the observatory since 1888. 

Trial of the Crosslev Reflector. — This fine instrument, which 
has done such good work in the hands of Mr. Common, was 
presented to the Lick Observatory by Mr. Crossley in 1895. 
It was completely mounted in June, 1896, and given over to 
Professor Hussey for trial. The work begun in 1896 is now 
being prosecuted. Photography in the Newtonian and principal 
foci will be tried by Professor Hussey, and Professor Campbell 
has a programme of spectroscopic observations to be carried on 
with the Bruce spectrograph (constructed here) in the principal 
focus. A powerful driving-clock (the Bruce clock) has been 
made here from drawings by Professor Hussey. It Is essentially 
a copy, in litde, of the Warner & Swasey clock of the thirty- 
six-inch equatorial. Its conical pendulum weighs about fifty-six 
pounds. 

The Schaeberle eighteen-inch Reflector has been used for 
some years past in experiments in celestial photography by its 
maker, Professor Schaeberle. Very interesting photographs 
oi Jupiter have been obtained. 

The Crocker Photographic Telescopes (a pair of Willard 
portrait lenses) will soon be mounted in a new dome near the 
Crossley reflector. A twelve-inch mirror (by Professor Schae- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 201 

berle) of very short focus, is to be mounted on the same 
stand.** 

Edward S. Holden. 
Lick Observatory, July 7, 1897. 

Inventory, etc., of Lick Observatory Buildings and 
Equipment, June 30, 1897. 

Mr. Perrine, Secretary of the Lick Observatory, has prepared 
a complete estimate of the cost of the buildings, instruments and 
equipment of the Lick Observatory up to June 30, 1897, inclusive. 
It is, summarized, as follows: — 

Cost of buildings, permanent equipment, etc., paid 

from the Lick Fund, 1 875-1 897 $609,981.84 

(This leaves an endowment fund of $90,018. 16.) 

Ditto, paid from the annual budgets of the Lick 

Observatory, 1888-1897 11,767.10 

Ditto, paid from special appropriations by the 
Regents of the University, made to provide for 
specific wants 2,278.00 

Ditto, from gifts made by friends of the Lick 

Observatory 35» 131-76 

Total, $659,158.70 

August 7, 1897. Edward S. Holden. 

Cost of the Library of the Lick Observatory, 
1875-1897. 

The total cost of the Library (including buildings, etc.) 

up to July I, 1889, was $5.235-50 

Of this sum, the Lick Trustees expended $4837.36 
previous to June i, 1888; and $398.14 was spent by 
the University of California, mostly for periodicals 
and binding. 
Between July i, 1889 and July i, 1897, ^^ following 
expenditures have been made: — 

From the annual budgets of the Lick Observatory, 2,023.31 

From gifts by Miss Bruce 22.50 

From gifts by Mrs. Hearst 425.13 

Total cost of the Library $7,706.44 

The collection contains about 41 21 books and 3912 

pamphlets, or about 8033 numbers. E. S. H. 



202 



Publications of the 



Observatory Moon Atlas. 

The following nineteen plates have been made by the New 
York Photogravure and Color Company (No. 241 West Twenty- 
third street), and will soon be distributed. Besides these, it is 
proposed to reprint the heliogravure frontispiece to Volume 
III of the quarto Publications of the Lick Observatory as 
Plate A: 1891, October 12, 7^ 30" 54'. 5; Moon's Age^ 10 days, 
3 hours (Moon in the focus of the 36-inch refractor). A number 
of other negatives for the atlas are ready for printing as soon as 
funds are available. Edward S. Holden. 

Mt. Hamilton, September 9, 1897. 

OBSERVATORY MOON ATLAS. 



Date. 


Nbgativk 


TAKEN ON 


Moons Age. 






h. m. s. s. 






I 


1895, October 10, 


16 49 10 — 17 


22 days, 16 hours. 


2 


1895. ** 9. 


165530 —40 


21 * 


* 16 *• 


3 


1895. " 8. 


15 9 10 — 20 


20 


* 14 " 


4 


1895, " 9, 


16 53 2 — 12 


21 


' 16 »* 


5 


1896, *' 18. 


10 32 41 —47 


12 


* 8 ** 


6 


1897, April 9, 


9 8 21.5 — 285 


8 * 


i J .« 


7 


1895, October 7, 


13 6 20 — 28 


19 * 


« 12 ** 


8 


1895, " 8. 


15 6 8 —18 


20 


* 14 ** 


9 


1896, June 17, 


942 —10 


6 • 


* 20 •* 


10 


1895, October 7, 


12 57 18 — 24 


19 ' 


i 12 *' 


II 


1895. " 8. 


15 3 10 — 20 


20 ' 


• 14 •* 


12 


1897, April 9, 


8 55 25.5 — 315 


8 * 


i J i. 


13 


1896, October 18, 


10 40 19 — 23 


12 ' 


8 '* 


14 


1896, July 26, 


12 59 25 — 33 


16 • 


* 13 ** 


15 


1896, August 20, 


11 57465 — 50.5 


12 * 


3 " 


16 


1896, July 26, 


13 8 55 — 63 


16 ' 


* 14 ** 


17 


1897, April 13, 


9 35 56.5 — 61.5 


12 * 


. I ** 


18 


1897, *' 13. 


9 42 29.5 — 35.5 


12 ' 


1 J «( 




1895, Aug:ust 30, 


*% » * 


10 * 


* 16 ** 


19 


9 *4 



Albert Marth; born 1828, died 1897. 

The death of Albert Marth, in September, 1897, takes 
away the last astronomer who was a pupil of Bessel. Marth 
was born in Colberg, May 5, 1828, and studied at the Universities 
of Berlin and Koenigsberg. His first official position was that of 
astronomical observer at the University of Durham. He was the 
assistant of Mr. Bishop at Regent's Park and of Mr. Lassell 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 203 

in his Malta Expedition, and latterly the astronomer of Colonel 
Cooper's Observatory at Markree. His published writings are in 
many fields of astronomy, both theoretical and practical, though 
his forte was calculation rather than observation. The asteroid 
Amphitriie was discovered by him, as well as a long list of faint 
nebulae at Malta. We owe to him calculations of the orbits of 
many comets and asteroids. The orbits of satellites he took in 
his especial charge, and for more than thirty years he provided 
observers with ephemerides of these bodies, as well as with 
ephemerides for the physical observation of the planets and the 
Moon for a great part of this time. These ephemerides, regularly 
issued on a uniform plan, have been of the greatest service to 
astronomy. They encouraged the observation of satellites and 
planets, and compelled a comparison of the results with theory. 
Marth's writings on Theoretical Astronomy (theory of the 
motions of satellites, Kepler's problem, orbits of binary stars, 
etc.). and on Practical Astronomy (Theory of instruments, Divi- 
sion Errors, Flexure, etc.) have been useful. His criticism of 
the methods of reduction of the Greenwich observations was 
well founded in several respects; but it naturally made him 
no friends in official circles. He was a most useful aid to 
Mr. Lassell, whose great talents lay rather in mechanics than 
in the making and reduction of astronomical observations. ' The 
Malta Expedition was a memorable event, and will remain a 
lasting credit to England and to Lassell and his assistant, 
Marth. Edward S. Holden. 

Resignation of Mr. Colton. 

On August 18, 1897, Mr. Colton, Assistant Astronomer in 
the Lick Observatory, tendered his resignation, after a service of 
a little over five years. E. S. H. 

A New Celestial Atlas. 

Atlas der Himmelskunde. — Atlas of Astronomy, based on 
celestial photographs — with sixty-two plates containing 135 
single astronomical objects, and text containing about 500 
illustrations — by A. voN Schweiger-Lerchenfeld. Pub- 
lished by A. Hartleben, Vienna, in thirty parts (issued 
twice a month), at one German Mark ($0.25) per part. 
On page 145 of the present volume, a notice of Baron von 

Schweiger-Lerchenfeld's Celestial Atlas was printed under 



/ 



204 Publications of the 

an erroneous heading. The description given above is the correct 
one, and it will be seen that the price of the Atlas is about $7.50 
only. Some fourteen parts have already been issued, and the 
rest are nearly ready for publication. E. S. H. 

September 16, 1897. 

Portraits of Astronomers and Others Belonging to 
THE Lick Observatory. 

The following names should be added to the list given on 
page 95, to- wit: — 

Caswell, A. Michie-Smith, C. Saegmiiller, G. M. 

Edwards, G. C. Mitchell, O. M. Saxton. J. G. 

Eichbaum, H. Peirce, C. S. Schumacher, H. C. 

Faye, H. Porter, J. G. Stone, E. J. 

Gibbes, L. R. Rogers, W. B. Thaw, A. B. 
Jarboe, J. R. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 205 

Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board of Direc- 
tors OF THE Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 
held in the Rooms of the Society, on Satur- 
day, August 14, 1897, at 2:00 p.m. 

President Alvord presided. A quorum was present. The minutes 
of the last meeting were approved. 

The Bruce (Gold) Medal of the Astronomical Society of 

the Pacific. 

Mr. HoLDEN presented to the Board of Directors a communication 
firom Miss Catherine Wolfe Bruce, of New York City, as follows:— 

810 Fifth Avbnub, New York City, May 15, 1897. 
To the Directors of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific : — 

Gbktlembn: — It is my desire to found and endow a gold medal to be awarded by 
the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, not oftener than annually, for distinguished 
services to Astronomy. 1 desire that the medal shall be international in character, and 
that persons of any country and of either sex may be eligible to receive it. I have taken 
the counsel of competent advisers in the preparation of the accompanying statutes for 
the bestowal of the medal. If your Board of Directors will undertake the administration 
of the Trust, I shall be glad to turn over to your Treasurer the sum of I2750, which I 
onderstand will be sufficient to carry it out. It is my hope, with your co-operation, to 
establish a foundation which shall be useful to Astronomy now and always. 
I am, Gentlemen, 

Very respectfully and sincerely yours, 

Catherine Wolfe Brucb. 

This letter was accompanied by the statutes for the bestowal of the 
Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of ihe Pacific, as printed in 
the Publications^ No. 57. 

After reading the foregoing, it was on motion. 

Resolved^ That the Board of Directors of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 
in its own behalf, and on behalf of the Society, accepts with gratitude Miss Krucb's 
generous giA which, in connection with her many previous benefactions to the Astronomy 
of America and Europe, will forever connect her name with the history of the Science. 

Resolved^ That the conditions of the gift as expressed in the Statutes for the 
bestowal of the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific are hereby 
accepted by the Directors in their own behalf, and on behalf of the Society. 

Resolved^ That the gift of Miss Bruce be divided into two portions, namely: I2500, 
which constitutes the Bruce Medal Fund; and the residue, which is hereby placed at the 
disposal of a Special Committee,* to consist of Messrs. Holdbn, St. Johk and Ziel, 
who are authorized to procure the necessary dies and to strike off one gold medal and 
nine bronze replicas. The gold medal is to serve for the first award; the bronze replicas 
arc to be sent by the Secretaries of the Society as follows:— 

The first to Miss Bruce ; 

One to the Astronomical Society of the Pacific ; 

One to the Smithsonian Institution ; 

One to the Harvard College Observatory; 

One to the Lick Observatory; 

One to the Yerkes Observatory; 

One to the Observatory of Paris ; 

One to the Observatory of Greenwich ; 

One to the Observatory of Berlin. 



*The Committee suggested, consisted of Messrs. Alvord, Holden and Zieu 
Mr. Alvord requested that his name be withdrawn and the name of Mr. St. John be 
substituted in his stead, which was accordingly done. 



2o6 Publications of the 

The Treasurer is authorized to advance from the General Fund, whatever may be 
necessary to carry out the foregoing:; all advances to be subsequently repaid from the 
interest on the Brucu Medal Fund. 

Resolved^ That the Bruce Medal Fund be placed under the immediate care of the 
Finance Committee, which Committee shall, through the Treasurer, annually print a 
separate account of this fund. 

Resolved^ That the By-laws of the Society, the Statutes for the bestowal of the 
Brucb Medal, and the Rules relating to the Comet Medal, be printed in an extra number 
of the Publications t in an edition of 1500 copies. 

In order to insure the prompt printing of the Publicatiofis^ it was 

Resolved^ That the Committee on Publication is formally authorized to postpone the 
printing of any manuscript received later than ten days before the stated dates of 
issue of the regular numbers (namely: February i, April i, June i, August i, October i, 
December i) when necessar>'. 

The following members were duly elected: 

List of Members Elected August 14, 1897.* 
Miss Kate Ames Napa, Cal. 

Mr. Walter C. Baker } '"^Ohia"''"'* ^''^" ^'^''^'^°'** 

Mr. Charles R. Bishop Occidental Hotel, S. F.. Cal. 

Mr. E. F. Coddington | Lick Observatory. Mt. Hamilton. 

Mr. HENRV EiCHBAUM } ^ ^I^f 'vi^^h^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Mr. James Monroe GoEWEY . . . . Page and LagunaSts.. S. F.. Cal. 
Mr. Charles C. Keeney* 2220 Clay St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. JOH. W. KHNOK,CK }%^otl^^St^M^nL5olirM?nt 

Free Public Library Worcester. Mass. 

(Puruatanga, Martinborough, 
Wairarapa, Wellington, New 
Zealand. 

colonel C. McC. Rhbvh } ^^pou"" S' ''• ""■' '"""" 

Mr. Thos. VV. Stanford* {'"foria.^^" ^^" '^^"'°'"'"^' ^•''" 

Secretary Perrine reported that sundry articles of bedding, etc. 
(see Publications A. S. P., No. 54, page 49), had been disposed of for 
the sum of twelve dollars. His report was accepted and filed. 

Adjourned. 

Meeting of the Board of Directors and of the 
Society, September 4, 1897. 

Saturday, September 4th. was the date for a regular meeting of the 
Directors and of the Society at Mt. Hamilton. As no quorum for the 
transaction of business (in either body) was present, no meetings were 
held. The papers presented for reading will be printed in the Publica- 
iions in due course. 



•A star signifies Life Membership. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 207 

Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board of Direc- 
tors OF the Astronomical Society of the Pacific; 
HELD ON Saturday, September i8th, at 1:30 p.m. 

President Alvord presided. A quorum was present. The minutes 
of the last meeting were approved. 

The following members were duly elected: 

List of Members Elected September 18, 1897.* 

Mr. John Bermingham* 330 Market St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Thomas B. Bishop* 532 Market St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. George Crocker* Mills Building, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. William H. Crocker* .... { ^ Bank^S^p!!^ CaL^ ^^^^"""^^ 

Mr. H. Dutard* 2616 Buchanan St., S. P., Cal. 

Mr. Russell J. Wilson* 2027 California St., S. P., Cal. 

Library of St. Gertrude's Academy. Rio Vista, Cal. 

Adjourned. 
* A star signifies Life Membership. 



2o8 Publications of the Astronomical Society &c. 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. William Alvord Presidrmt 

Mr. Edward S. Holdbn First Vice-Prtsident 

Mr. Frbdbkick H. Sbarbs Second Vice-PresMdemt 

Mr. Chauncbv M. St. John Third Vice-Prerident 

ii;:R-£i:ir"-| ^'-"^ 

Mr. F. R. ZiBL Treasurer 

Board of Directors- Mc^n. Alvoro, Holden, Molbra. Morsb, Miss O'Halloban, 

Messrs. Pbkrinr, Pibrson, Sbarbs. St. John, von Gbloern, Ziel. 
Finance Committee— iAcssn. William M. Pibrson, E. J. Molbra, and C. .VI. St. John. 
Committee on Publication — Messrs. Holdbn. Babcock, Aitkbn. 
Library Committee— l\^isx%. Hussbv and Sbarbs and Miss O'Halloran. 
Committee on the Comet-Medal — Messrs. Holdbn (ex'officio)t Schabbbrlb, Campbbll. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee— Uix. Ruthvbn W. Pikb. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 

Executive Committee— 'M., Francisco Rodrigubz Rbv. 



NOTICE. 



The attention of new members is called to Article VIII of the By-Laws, which provides that 
the annual subscription, paid on election, covers the calendar year only. Subsequent annual 
payments are due on January ist of each succeeding calendar year. This rule is necessary in 
order to make our book-keeping as simple as possible. Dues sent by mail should be directed to 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific S19 Market Street, San Francisco. 

It is intended that each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the PnS^ 
lications for the year in which he was elected to membership and for all subsequent years. If 
there have been (unfortunately) any omissions in this matter, it is requested that the Secretaries 
he at once notified, in order that the missing numbers may be supplied. Members are requested 
to preserve the copies of the Publications of the Society as sent to them. Once each year a title- 
page and contents of the preceding numbers will also be sent to the members, who can then bind 
the numbers together into a volume. Complete volumes for past years will also be supplied, to 
members onlv. so far as the stock in hand is sufficient, on the payment of two dollars per volume 
to either of the Secretaries. Any non-resident member within the United States can obtain 
books from the Society's library by sending his library card with ten cents in stamps to the 
Secretary A. S. P., 819 Market Street, San Francisco, who will return the book and the card. 

The Committee on Publication desires to say that the order in which papers are printed in 
the Publications is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
first which are earliest accepiecl for publication. It is not possible to send proof sheets of papers 
to be printed to authors whose residence is not within the United States. The responsibility for 
the views expressed in the papers printed rests with the writers, and is not assumed by the 
Society itself. 

The titles of papers for reading should be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
as possible, as well as any changes in addresses. The Secretary in San Francisco will send to 
any member of the Society suitable stationery, stamped with the seal of the Society, at cost price, 
as follows: a block of letter paper, 40 cents; of note paper, 25 cents; a package of envelopes. 25 
cents. These prices include postage, and should be remitted by money-order or in U. S. postage 
stamps. The sendings are at the risk of the member. 

Those members who propose to attend the meetings at Mount Hamilton during the summer 
should communicate with "The Secretary Astronomical Society of the Pacific " at the rooms fk 
the Society, 810 Market Street. San Francisco, in order that arrangements may be made for 
transportation, lodging, etc. 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHLY. 
( February f April, June, Aug-ust, October, December.) 







^ORl 



T^''=:v,^-'- 



PUB LI CAT I O N S 



AstroaomiGal Society of thpiiOTfeSwa 

...■■■■'. m SU£ HBRA RV 



Vol. IX. ' San Francisco, Cal.,. December i, ] 897. "No. 59. 



M TOW , LbWOX A^ in 



hm 



TILDEN FOt/NC- \' J .^ 



THE YERKES OBSERVATORY. 



By William j. Hussbv. 



The Yerkes Observatory has been dedicated, and its active 
exbtence as a, scientific institution commenced. On the 21st of 
October, within the great dome, and. in the presence of a large 
assemblage, the donor, Mr. Charles T. Yerkes, formally pre- 
M»ced: the observatory and its great telescope to the University 
of Chicago; and they were formally accepted for that institution 
by Mr. Marti Jl A. Ryerson, the President of the Board of 
Trustees. 

The dedication of thfe observatory is an important scientific 
event of the year, inaugurating, as it does^ the work of a great 
institution devoted to the discovery and teaching of scientific 
truth, and forming an epoch '. in its history by separating the 
period of construction, which has extended over the past five 
years, from the period of its scientific activity, which is just 
beginnii^.. The dedication was made the occasion of a large 
gathering of : astronomers and scientific men, and a series of 
conferences on astronomical and astrophysical subjects, with 
discussions and laboratory demonstrations of new and interesting 
phenomena, was held at the observatory during the three days 
preceding the formal exercises. These exercises were held in 
the great dome of the observatory on October 21st, and were 
continued in Chicago the following day. The leading address 
at the observatory was by Professor James E. Keeler, on ** The 
Importance of Astrophysical Research and the Relation of Astro- 
physics to other Physical Sciences.*' Other addresses were 
made at this time, by Mr. Yerkes, in presenting the observatory 



2IO Publications of the 

to the university; by Mr. Ryerson, in behalf of the l^oard of 
Trustees in accepting it, and by President Harper, in b-half of 
the faculty. In Chicago, Professors Michelson and Str atton 
gave brilliant demonstrations with new forms of physki v r. tus. 
having possible applications to the solution of cert; ■ . mintf 
problems of astronomy. In the afternoon, Professor NeW( omb 
delivered his address at Kent Theater, on * 'Aspects of American 
Astronomy,** and that evening, in conclusion, Mr. Yerkes pro- 
vided a banquet for the visiting scientists. 

The Kenwood Observatory and the Yerkes Observatory are 
so related, that an account of the latter would be incomplete 
without some mention of the former, and in historical order the 
former comes first. 

The Kenwood Astrophysical Observatory had its beginning in 
a spectroscopic laboratory, which Professor George E. Hale 
erected in Chicago in the spring of 1888. In the winter of 
1890-91, extensive additions were made to this, converting it 
into an observatory proper, with an equipment designed especially 
for the study of solar phenomena by spectroscopic and photo- 
graphic methods. The observatory was provided with an equa- 
torial telescope of 12.2 inches aperture. The mounting, which 
was made by Messrs. Warner & Swasev, was large and heavy, 
and was designed to carry a very large spectroscope. The 
objective and the spectroscope were made by Mr. Brashear. 
In connection with the observatory a workshop was fitted up, 
supplied with such machinery and tools as were necessary for the 
construction, repair, and modification of apparatus. 

Professor Hale was not long in obtaining important results 
with his new equipment. Early in April, 1891, soon after the tele- 
scope had been set up, he succeeded in photographing the spectra 
of the solar chromosphere and prominences for the first time with- 
out an eclipse. Within a year or two, he had discovered new lines 
in the spectra of the prominences, spots, and faculae; had obtained 
photographs of the prominences with the H and K lines and an 
open slit; had matured his invention of the spectroheliograph and 
had one constructed by Mr. Brashear, and by its use had 
secured photographs of all the prominences visible around the 
entire circumference of the Sun at a single exposure, and then, 
by a second exposure, had obtained on the same plate the forms 
of the regions on the Sun*s disk, even in its brightest parts, over 
which the H and K lines are reversed, and had shown that these 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 211 

forms are identical with the forms of the faculse obtained by photo- 
graphs taken in the ordinary way. 

At the time of its opening, in the fall of 1892, the University 
of Chicago was entirely without facilities for research in astronomy 
and astrophysics. Through the care of Professor Hale and 
others, the matter received the immediate attention of President 
Harper and the Board of Trustees, and in a very short time they 
had obtained from Mr. Yerkes an expression of his willingness 
to defray the entire cost of a large telescope. 

Some years previously a large telescope was planned for the 
University of Southern California. Large disks of glass for the 
objective of this instrument were ordered from Mantois, of 
Paris, and, when they were made, were forwarded to the 
opticians, Messrs. Alvan Clark & Sons, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
This is as far as the matter went. The order to finish the objec- 
tive never came. In 1892 these disks still remained in the shops 
of the opticians, and were then for sale. When Mr. Yerkes 
was informed that these large disks of excellent glass could be 
obtained immediately, he authorized their purchase for the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, and entered into a contract with Messrs. 
Alvan Clark & Sons for finishing an objective from them. He 
also made a contract with Messrs. Warner & Swasey for an 
equatorial mounting for the telescope that bears his name. It 
thus came about that, within a few weeks from the time his gift 
was announced, the orders for the objective and for the mounting 
had been given. Mr. Yerkes then wrote to President Harper: 
'* I have felt it proper that the telescope should have a home, to 
be paid for by me ; and I have concluded to add to my gift an 
observatory necessary to contain the instrument.*' 

A site for the new observatory was not selected immediately. 
Professor Hale was chosen Director, and the equipment of the 
Kenwood Observatory was presented to the University of Chicago, 
to become a part of the Yerkes Observator)\ It appeared to 
Professor Hale that the exceptional instrumental advantages of 
the new observatory should not be wasted by a mere duplication 
of the work done equally well elsewhere, and that the large 
telescope should not be employed in the observation of objects 
within easy reach of smaller instruments. Notwithstanding the 
number of observatories that had been established in various parts 
of the world, and the importance of the subject, comparatively 
little attention was being devoted to the phenomena presented by 



212 Publications of the 

the Sun. He accordingly outlined a plan of work, in which the 
study of solar phenomena in all phases, and on a more extended 
scale than had been possible with the equipment of the Kenwood 
Observatory, formed an important part. 

The great size of the telescope, its light-grasping power, and 
long focal length make it especially suitable for the measurement 
of faint and difficult objects, for the study of planetary markings, 
and for the spectroscopic observ«ition of the stars. These con- 
siderations led to the inclusion in the plan of work of micrometric 
observation of difficult double stars, nebulae, planets, satellites, 
comets, and stellar spectroscopy. Stellar and nebular photog- 
raphy, meridian observations, and various kinds of laboratory 
work of an astrophysical character were also included in the plan. 

Professor Hale next considered the requirements of the 
various kinds of work intended to be pursued as dependent upon 
the quality of the seeing, the transparency of the atmosphere, 
the blackness of the sky, and the steadiness of the instrument 
used. After a study of the requirements, he wrote as follows 
concerning the selection of the site: ** It is evident that in 
these various classes of work, the greater part do not require 
very good seeing; but on account of the importance of the 
double -star observations, and those of planets, satellites, the 
structure of the photosphere, etc., it was eminently desirable 
to choose a site at which the seeing would be the best 
attainable by night and by day. Some of the other 
researches demand a dark sky and great transparency of the 
atmosphere, while for still others the principal requisite is com- 
plete protection of the instruments from vibration of any kind. 
If there had been absolute freedom of choice, a site combining 
the excellent conditions for night work enjoyed at Mt. Hamilton 
with the good day seeing existing elsewhere would have been 
sought far and wide, without regard to geographical boundaries." 

From a consideration of the plan of work, and the conditions 
necessary for the most successful prosecution of certain lines of 
it, it was at once apparent that Chicago, or any place in its 
immediate vicinity, would be an unsuitable location for the 
observatory. When this became generally known, numerous 
offers of land and other inducements to secure the observatory 
were made by individuals and by towns in various parts of the 
country. A practical consideration of no small weight in determin- 
ing the location of the observatory was, that its value as a depart- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 213 

ment of the university should not be materially affected. This 
required that it be located within a reasonable distance of Chicago, 
preferably within a hundred miles. 

A committee of the Board of Trustees was appointed to select 
a site. After visiting the most promising places proposed, this 
committee reported in favor of accepting a tract of land offered 
by Mr. John Johnson, Jr., of Chicago, situated on the northern 
shore, near the western end of Lake Geneva, in Southern Wis- 
consin. In speaking of this tract of land in its report, the com- 
mittee says: ** It is conceded by all concerned that no site thus 
fer suggested combines in itself so many requirements, or any of 
the requirements, to so great a degree. The site is high and 
beautifully located. The atmosphere is clear, without danger of 
encroachments of manufactories, railroads, or electric lights.'* 
The Board of Trustees adopted the report of the committee, and 
the observatory has been built on the land given by Mr. Johnson. 
This tract contains 53 acres. The observatory stands in the 
midst of it. The center of motion of the great telescope is about 
240 feet above the level of Lake Geneva, and about 1800 feet from 
its shore. The elevation of the site above sea level is about 1200 
feet It is 38 miles from Lake Michigan, and about 75 miles from 
Chicago. The nearest town is Williams Bay, about a mile 
distant This is the terminus of a branch of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railway. Lake Geneva, seven miles away, is the 
nearest town having electric lights. The country round about is 
woodland and cultivated fields, a beautiful region, already a favorite 
summer- residence place for people of Chicago. 

When the lines of work to be pursued by the new observatory 
had been decided upon, and a site selected which, all requirements 
considered, promised to be the best, the next problem that con- 
Cronted Professor Hale was, the plan of an observatory building 
suited to the scientific requirements and to its environment. To 
plan such a building was not an easy task. The new observatory 
was not to be one engaged predominantly with the astronomy of 
position, nor was it to be merely a spectroscopic laboratory. 
It was to combine both these lines of work on an extensive scale, 
and besides to be prepared to meet the needs of such other 
departments of research as might arise. 

The subject was one of such importance that Professor Hale 
visited and studied the most important observatories and spectro- 
scopic laboratories of the United States and Europe in search of 



214 Publications of the 

ideas to enable him to formulate plans embodying the results of 
experience and meeting the scientific requirements in the most 
satisfactory manner. The preliminary plans were completed in 
Berlin in February, 1894, and forwarded to the university 
architect, Mr. Henry Ives Cobb, of Chicago. During the 
following year, Mr. Cobb worked out the details of the plan 
with great care, and without sacrificing architectural eflfect he 
conserved the scientific requirements. The plans were finally 
completed in February, 1895, and the work of construction, 
beginning in April of that year, has since gone on, with some 
interruptions, until the recent completion of the observatory. 

The style of architecture adopted for the main building is 
Romanesque, with somewhat Saracenic details. The foundation 
is concrete, and the constructive materials are brown Roman 
brick with terra-cotta ornaments of the same color. The parti- 
tions are of hollow tile, the floors and roof are supported by steel 
I-beams. The roof is of tile, the floor of the main hall is marble 
mosaic, and those of the offices and laboratories are maple. 
The doors and woodwork throughout the building are of antique 
oak. The form of the building is that of the Latin cross, with 
the longer axis (326 feet long) lying in an east and west direc- 
tion, having the tower for the great dome (92 feet in diameter) 
at the western extremity, and the room for the meridian-circle 
(28 by 25 feet) at the eastern extremity. For the present, a 
transit instrument will be used in this room, but it is intended 
that this shall give place after a time to a large meridian circle. 
Towers also rise at the ends of the shorter axis of the cross. 
The northeast tower carries the dome (26 feet in diameter), 
which was formerly a part of the Kenwood Observatory, and the 
southeast tower is surmounted by a dome 30 feet in diameter. 
The 12.2-inch telescope of the Kenwood Observatory is now 
mounted in the northeast dome. A 24- inch reflecting telescope 
for stellar spectrographic work is being constructed for use in the 
southeast dome. 

The main entrances to the observatory are on the north and 
south sides of the building. They are exacdy alike, and both lead 
to the central rotunda. A long hall divides the building centrally 
lengthwise The rooms of the main floor have their entrances 
into this hall or into the rotunda. The rooms on this floor are 
those designed for offices, computing, reception, and lecture rooms, 
library, chemical and spectroscopic laboratories, and those for 



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: I 1 I 'i i: 




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. I — 








ifiifiK IIBRABY] 



I 






Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 215 

instruments and storage. The ground floor or basement affords 
space at the western end for photographic dark rooms and enlarg- 
ing room, emulsion room, constant temperature room (including 
space for clocks), physical laboratory, and concave grating room; 
and at the eastern end for optical, instrument, and pattern shops. 

The attic between the two small towers is 104 feet long and 
12 feet wide. It is fitted up as a heliostat room. A portion of 
the roof near the northeast dome is mounted on wheels which run 
on steel rails. By a windlass this portion of the roof can be 
drawn to the southward far enough to allow the Sun's rays, at all 
seasons of the year, to fall upon a heliostat placed near the north- 
em end of the room. A heliostat having a mirror of 24 inches 
aperture is being made in the shops of the observatory. The 
large attic rooms along the main axis of the building are so 
arranged that they can be used in conjunction with the heliostat 
room for the use of apparatus having lenses or mirrors of great 
focal length. 

The spectroscopic laboratories have solid brick piers on con- 
crete foundations. These are sp arranged, with reference to the 
doors and windows, that the instruments mounted upon them can 
be used in conjunction with each other, or with instruments in 
the open air. One of these laboratories is especially arranged for 
bolometric work. The apparatus for these laboratories includes 
spectroscopes of various kinds, bolometers, galvanometers, inter- 
ferential refractometers, induction coils, and a variety of subsidiary 
apparatus. 

The concave grating room is designed to contain a concave 
grating of 21 feet radius, mounted in the usual manner. At pres- 
ent there are mounted here a 4-inch grating of 10 feet focus and 
a smaller one of 6 feet focus, both from the Kenwood Observa- 
tory. The physical laboratory adjoins the concave grating room, 
and the latter is so arranged that it can be used in conjunction 
with apparatus in the former. Both are provided with rolling 
wooden shutters so that the light can be effectually excluded. 

At the Kenwood Observatory, Professor Hale found that 
many of the problems with which he had to deal, involving, as 
they did, new methods of research, required the construction of 
instruments of new and special design. While the principal 
instruments used there were obtained from Brashear and from 
Warner & Swasey, it was found necessary to have a work- 
shop in which nearly the entire time of an instrument maker was 



2i6 Publications of the 

employed in constructing pieces of apparatus required in the 
solar and spectroscopic work. This shop proved so indispens- 
able to the Kenwood Observatory that it was decided to provide 
the Yerkes Observatory with the best facilities for mechanical and 
optical work. A room, 1 8 by 54 feet, for metal working, was 
selected on the ground floor of the observatory in the southeast 
quarter of the building, with smaller adjacent rooms to the east 
fitted up as a forge room and a pattern shop. 

The machine tools used at Chicago were an engine lathe, a 
shaper, a small speed lathe, an 8-inch Rivett ** Precision '* lathe, 
and a Brown & Sharpe universal milling machine. These have 
been transferred to the new shops, and a planer, a drill press, a 
circular saw, and speed lathes added. 

Two mechanicians are regularly employed in this shop. Sev- 
eral important machines and various pieces of apparatus are in 
process of construction. A friend of science in Chicago has pro- 
vided the means of employing a third mechanician for the express 
purpose of constructing a machine for ruling gratings, according 
to plans by Professor Wadsworth. 

The optical shop (20 by 70 feet), with rooms fitted up for grind- 
ing, polishing and testing lenses and mirrors, is on the north side 
of the building, just across the hall from the machine shop. The 
walls of these rooms and the double windows are so constructed 
as to maintain a nearly constant temperature, a condition neces- 
sary for the most successful conduct of the work. Some large 
pieces of optical work have already been completed in this shop, 
and still more important ones are planned. A large grinding 
machine has been constructed under the direction of the observa- 
tory optician, Mr. G. W. Ritchey, for the purpose of grinding 
and polishing a 60-inch mirror, to be used for stellar spectroscopic 
work. The work of rough grinding has already been undertaken. 

The 40- inch telescope, with its dome and elevating floor, are 
the principal attractions of the Yerkes Observatory, viewed 
from a popular standpoint. These are the largest in the world. 
The dome is 90 feet in diameter, 60 feet high above the top of 
the tower upon which it rests, or 1 12 feet above the ground. Its 
framework is of steel, riveted together. This is covered, first, 
with a sheathing of wood, and next with roofing tin. It is 
supported upon 36 wheels, each 36 inches in diameter, and is 
turned by an endless cable which passes around the dome and 
is connected with the driving mechanism. The cable is driven 









s \^^. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 217 

by an electric motor, controlled by a switch on the observing 
floor. Provision is also made for revolving the dome by hand. 
The wheels upon which the dome revolves have journals with 
roller bearings for relieving the friction, and are so constructed 
as to adjust themselves to possible inequalities of the track. 

The observing slit is 13 feet wide, and extends from the hori- 
zon to a point 5 feet beyond the zenith. The shutters covering 
this opening are arranged to open simultaneously on either side, 
and remain parallel in all positions. Adjustable canvas curtains 
are placed within the opening to protect the telescope, in whatever 
direction it may be pointed, from the wind. 

It is of interest to compare this dome with the one the next 
largest; namely, that of the Lick Observatory. The large dome 
at Mt Hamilton has an outside diameter of 74 feet 4 inches, 
and an inside diameter of 71 feet, and weighs, including shutters 
and live ring, 99^ tons. The live ring itself weighs 12^ tons. 
This dome rises 41 feet 8 inches above the top of the supporting 
tower, and 76 feet 10 inches above the ground. The dome is 
supported on a live ring consisting of 21 conical rollers, each 
roller having three wheels. The base plate of the dome rests on 
the central wheel of each group, while the outside wheels rest 
upon the lower track. The two rails of this track are a part of 
a conical surface with its apex in the vertical axis of the dome, 
and in the plane with the tops of the rollers. The upper track is a 
plane surface. The outside wheels of the live ring are 30 inches 
in diameter, and the inside ones 28^ inches. The three wheels 
of each roller were pressed on a steel spindle 3^ inches in 
diameter, and the journals at the extremities of these spindles 
are provided with roller bearings for avoiding sliding friction. 
The framework of the dome is of steel construction, and it is 
covered with galvanized steel plates. 

The observing slit is 9 feet 6^ inches in the clear, and extends 
from near the horizon to a point 3 J^ feet beyond the zenith. This 
opening is closed with double shutters, hinged at a point beyond 
the zenith, and supported on wheels resting on a track below. 
These shutters open simultaneously, but do not remain parallel. 
The dome is turned by a cable, operated by an hydraulic engine. 
It may also be turned by hand. 

The elevating floor of the Yerkes Observatory is 75 feet in 
diameter, and rises through 22 feet. It is supported by wire 
cables, 90° apart. These cables pass over large drums, and are 



2l8 



Publications of the 



attached to coupterweights. Gearing connects the four df urns, 
causing them to operate simultaneously. The floor is operated 
by an electric motor, controlled by a switch on the floor. The 
rising floor of the Lick Observatory was the first one installed. 
It is 6 1 >^ feet in diameter, and rises through i6>^ feet It is 
operated by hydraulic rams placed 90° apart, and is provided with 
gearing to keep the floor level in all positions. This method of 
operation was out of the question at the Yerkes Observatory on 
account of the danger of the water in the rams freezing in the 
severe winter weather at Lake Geneva. At Mt. Hamilton the 
temperature is usually above 32° Fahrenheit, even in winter, and 
there is seldom any danger from freezing. * 

The objective of the Yerkes telescope is 40 inches in diameter, 
and has a focal length of 62 feet. The crown lens is 2>^ inches 
thick at the center, and Y^ inch at the edge, and weighs 200 
pounds. The flint lens is about i j4 inches thick at the center, 
and 2 inches at the edge, and weighs more than 300 pounds* 
The two lenses are mounted 8^ inches apart, upon aluminum 
bearings in a cast-iron cell. The total weight of the objective in 
its cell is about 1600 pounds. 

The objective was completed in September, 1895, arid tested 
in the following month at the Clarks* factory at Cambridgeport, 
Mass., by Professors Hale and Keeler. Professor KeeLer 
acted as ** expert agent " in making the test, and in his report 
he states: — 

** The expanded star disk was round inside and outside of 
the focus, uniformly illuminated, and free from wings or other 
appendages. Good images at the focus were obtained of stars at 
widely different altitudes near the meridian, the definition being, 



• The following table is derived from the record of the minimum thermometer at the 
Lick Observatory. It gives a summary of the lowest temperatures for the past six years. 
The months considered are from November to March, inclusive, the five coldest months 
of the year. 





MIN. TEMP. 


AV. MIN. 


NUMBKR OF DAYS WHKN TBMPBRATURB FBLL BELOW 


WINTER. 
















20° 


25° 


30° 


32V 


1891-92 


+ 17° 


+38° 


3 


5 


32 


^ 


92-93 


33 


37 





9 


3a 


59 


93-94 


16 


36 


4 


16 


45 


56 


94-95 


22 


39 





4 


24 


40 


95-96 


18 


39 


I 


7 


38 


36 


96-97 


18 


34 


3 


14 


42 


52 




THKjrORTV-INCH VKKKICS TKLKSCOPK. MAY n. 1897. 



THE NEWYORK 






Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 219 

in my opinion, with due allowance for atmospheric disturbance, 
equal to that of the Lick telescope, while the brightness of the 
image was, of course, considerably greater than with the latter 

instrument The color correction of the 40-inch objective 

is, according to my best recollection, almost precisely the same 
as that of the Lick telescope.'* 

The tube of the telescope is 60 feet long. It has a diameter 
of 52 inches at the center, 42 inches at the objective, and 38 
inches at the eye-end. It is made of sheet steel, increasing in 
thickness from ^ inch at the ends to 7/3, at the center. It 
weighs 6 tons, and is so designed that it is in perfect balance 
when a spectroscope weighing half a ton is attached to the eye-end. 
When the spectroscope is removed, as for micrometer work, the 
balance is restored by clamping weights near the eye-end. 

The polar and declination axes are of hard forged steel. The 
former is 13)^ feet long, 15 inches in diameter at the upper 
bearing, and 12 inches at the lower bearing, and weighs 3^^ tons. 
The latter is 11^ feet long, 12 inches in diameter, and weighs 
1 54 tons. The bearings of these axes are relieved by live rings 
of steel rolls, to reduce the friction. 

The telescope is supported by a cast-iron column, made in 
sections, bolted together, and firmly anchored to a massive brick 
pier resting on a concrete foundation. The equatorial head at 
the top of the column is cast in a single piece, and rises 43 feet 
above the lowest position of the moving floor. The column and 
head together weigh 50 tons. An iron balcony surrounds the 
head. It is accessible from the floor by means of a spiral stair- 
way at the south side of the column. The driving clock is placed 
within the column, and is accessible by this stairway. An electric 
motor automatically winds the clock when the weight reaches a 
point near the limit of its run. 

The clamps and slow motions can be operated by an observer 
at the eye-end, or by an assistant on the balcony. Rapid 
motions are abo provided, as well as a complete system of electric 
motions, clamps, and illumination. The accessories are a filar 
micrometer by Warner & Swasey, a solar spectroscope and 
spectroheliograph from designs by Professors Hale and Wads- 
woRTH, and a stellar spectroscope designed and constructed by 
Brashear. 

The objective of the Lick telescope is 36 inches in diameter, 
and has a focal length of 57 feet 10 inches. The crown 



220 Publications of the 

lens is 1.96 inches thick at the center and 0.60 inch at the 
edge. The flint lens is 0.93 inch thick at the center and 
1.65 inches at the edge. The two lenses are mounted about 
6^ inches apart, and the total weight of the objective in its 
cell is 532 pounds. 

The tube is 52 feet long, 48 inches in diameter at the center 
and 38 inches at the ends. It is constructed of sheet steel, ^Uh 
inch thick at the center and diminishing to ^ inch at the ends. 
The tube has an extension at the eye-end of smaller diameter. 
This is nearly 3 feet long, and is arranged to carry the sleeve 
for supporting spectroscopes, photographic apparatus, and the 
draw tube for the micrometer. The weight of the tube and 
attachments is 5.3 tons. 

The polar and declination axes are of steel; the former 
is 10 feet long, 12 inches in diameter, and weighs with 
its attachments 2j^ tons; the latter is 10 feet long, 10 inches 
in diameter, and weighs, with its attachments, 2 tons. The 
total weight that moves when turning in declination is 7^ 
tons, and when moving in right ascension is 14)^ tons (28,847 
pounds). 

The iron columns and heads of the Lick and Yerkes telescopes 
are similar in design. The head and attachments of the former 
weigh 6^ tons, the column 19 tons, and the driving clock i ton, 
and total weight of its stationary parts 26^ tons. The driving 
clock is wound by a water motor. 

In considering the great telescopes of the Yerkes and Lick 
Observatories, the large increase in the dimensions and massive- 
ness of the former, as compared with the latter, stands in striking 
contrast with the comparatively small increase in the diameter 
and focal length of the objective. The objectives differ only 4 
inches in diameter and about 4 feet in focal length; the Yerkes 
telescope weighs 75 tons, and the Lick telescope 41 tons; the 
elevating floor of the former is 75 feet in diameter and weighs 
37^4 tons, that of the latter is 6i)4 feet in diameter and weighs 
26 tons; the dome of the former is 90 feet in diameter and 
weighs 140 tons, while that of the latter is 75 feet in diameter 
and weighs 99^ tons. The principal reason that the differ- 
ences are so great is, that the Yerkes telescope has been 
designed to carry an exceedingly long and heavy solar spectro- 
scope, and other large instruments at the eye-end. This 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 221 

made it necessary to increase the height and massiveness of the 
mounting, the distance through which the moving floor rises and 
falls, and the available floor space beyond what would otherwise 
have been ample. 

Leaving out of account the question of absorption as depen- 
dent upon the thickness of the lenses, the perfection with which 
they are polished, and the quality of the glass of which they are 
made, in so far as it affects transparency, the light gathering 
power of the Yerkes telescope is to that of the next largest tele- 
scope in the ratio of 100 to 81, or very nearly in the ratio of 
5 to 4. This is a difference which, other things being equal, will 
give it a great advantage over all other instruments in many 
kinds of work. The magnitudes of the faintest stars visible in 
the Yerkes and Lick telescopes are (neglecting absorption) 
respectively 17.21 and 16.98*, or the difference is less than a 
quarter of a magnitude. In defining power, as exemplified in 
the separation of close double stars, the two instruments stand 
in the ratio of 10 to 9; the theoretical limit of separation for the 
former is o".i2 and that for the latter o". 13!. These limits 
differ so little, and are in themselves so small, that in defining 
power the one telescope has scarcely any advantage over the 
other for the work here considered. Besides, the practical real- 
ization of these limits, aside from the skill of the observer, will 
depend almost entirely upon atmospheric conditions, particularly 
upon the steadiness of images and the excellence of the 
seeing. 

The Yerkes Observatory is valued at about $400,000. The 
large objective cost $66,000; the mounting, $55,000; the dome 
and elevating floor, $45,000; the stellar spectroscope, $3000; 
the building, power house, engines, dynamos, etc. , more than 
$145,000. These were the gifts of Mr. Yerkes. Mr. John- 
son's gift of land is valued at $50,000; Mr. W. E. Hale's gift 
of the Kenwood Observatory, $30,000; Miss Bruce has given 
$7000 for a 10- inch photographic telescope. 

The Lick Observatory cost nearly $600,000. The objective 
of the 36-inch telescope cost $50,000; the third lens (photo- 
graphic corrector), 33 inches in diameter, $13,000; the mount- 



•This assumes that the faintest star visible in a i-inch telescope is 9.2 magnitude. 
fThis assumes, as usual, that the spurious disk of a star in a i2-centimeter telescope 
is i" in diameter. 



222 



Publications of the 



ing, $42,000; the elevating floor, $13,000; and the large dome, 
$54,000.* 

In his address at the dedication, President Harper, quoting 
the Director, said: '*The policy of the Yerkes Observatory 
will be: (i) To derive the greatest possible return from the 
use of the great telescope. It is evident that special attention 
should be given to micrometrical observations of stars, satel- 
lites, comets, nebulae, etc.; solar investigations, both visual and 
photographic; and spectroscopic researches on the nature of 
the stars and their motion in the line of sight. (2) To 
provide for the investigation of any phase of an astronomical or 
related physical problem. Most American observatories are 
unprovided with the instruments and laboratories necessary for 
the interpretation of the phenomena constantly encountered in 
spectroscopic observations of the heavenly bodies. Spectroscopic 
laboratories, on the other hand, are not equipped to carfy their 
investigations beyond the artificial boundaries of physics into the 
realm of astronomy. It is hoped that the Yerkes Observatory 
may ultimately be in a position to represent both the astronomical 
and physical sides of astrophysical work, and at the same time 
provide the best facilities for research work in astronomy of 
position.'* 

The illustrations accompanying this article are from The Astro- 
physical Journal, They were obtained through the courtesy 
of Professor Hale. 

Lick Observatory, Mt. Hamilton, Cal, 
November 23, 1897. 



*At the present time the prices of telescopes of various sizes, without their domes 
and buildings, are roughly as follows, varying much, of course, with the style of mount- 
ing, the accessories provided, and the quality of the workmanship. The accessories 
here included are micrometer, spectroscope, finder, and eye pieces. 



DIAMETER OF 
OBJECTIVE. 


PRICE OF 
lOBJECTIVE. 


PRICE OF 
MOUNTING. 


ACCESSORIES. 


TOTAL. 


45 inches 


|8o,ooo 


$65,000 


$4,000 


$149,000 


40 •• 


66,000 


55.000 


4,000 


125,000 


56 " 


40.000 


40,000 


4,000 


84,000 


30 " 


25,000 


30,000 


3,500 


58.500 


24 •• 


14.000 


20,000 


3.000 


37.000 


20 •• 


9,000 


9,000 


2.500 


ao,50o 


16 " 


4.500 


6,500 


2,500 


13.500 


12 " 


2,000 


4.500 


2,000 


8.500 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



223 



CATALOGUES NOS. Ill AND IV, OF NEBULA DIS- 
COVERED AT THE LOWE OBSERVATORY, 
ECHO MOUNTAIN, CALIFORNIA. 







By 


Dr. Lewis Swift, Director. 




LIST in. 


6 


Date 


OF 1 


R. A. 


Dbc. 


Dkscription. 


2 


Discovery. 


FOR 1900. 






1897 


h m 9 




I 


Aug. 


10. 


46 45 


— 35 43 


pB eeS E. with 132 & 200 looks like a 
nebulous D Uranus, • 


2 


Sept. 


4. 


55 


— 40 53 51 


vF. vS. R. 


3 


Sept. 


4. 


1 9 45 


— 33 II 33 


eeF. S. eeE. a ray no ♦ near. 


4 


Sept. 


4. 


I 23 35 


— 36 17 3 


eeF. pS. R. vdif. 


5 


Sept, 


4. 


I 33 10 


— 34 29 45 


vF. S. R. eF. * near nf. 


6 


Sept. 


6. 


I 46 45 


— 30 26 20 


pB. eS. IE. like a D nebulous ♦ with 132 
& 200. See No. i. 


7 


Sept. 


6, 


I 53 45 


— 33 4644 


eeeF. ps. R. 7"* ♦ in field nf. another 
suspected. 


8 


Sept. 


4, 


260 


— 33 29 40 


vF. S. vE. one ♦ nr. 


9 


Sept. 


5. 


2 II 


— 31 41 30 


pB. pS. IE. 


10 


Sept. 


6. 


2 34 3 


— 27 52 25 


pB. CS. R. 8™ * pretty close p. 


II 


Sept, 


5, 


2 44 30 


— 31 42 30 


vF. pS. R. I" of 3. 


12 


Sept. 


5, 


2 44 32 


— 3T 36 32 


vF. pS. R. 2<» of 3. 


13 


Sept 


5, 


2 45 4 


- 3' 36 32 


pF. pS. IE. 3** of 3. 


U 


July 


22, 


20 19 10 


— 31 II 37 


eF. pS. IE. wide D ♦ near s. 


15 


July 


25. 


20 20 50 


— 36 20 57 


pB. vS. eE. 


16 


Aug. 


29. 


20 22 


— 36 22 19 


eeS. eE. in meridian. 


17 


Aug. 


29. 


20 24 30 


— 33 50 57 


pF. pS. IE. 


18 


Aug. 


29. 


20 36 50 


— 30 II 30 


vF. pS. R. 2Fst. nr nf point to it. i»» of 3. 


J9 


Aug. 


29. 


20 37 5 


— 30 II 30 


eeF. CS. eE. nr the p * of several in seg- 


20 


Aug. 


29. 


20 37 30 


— 30 I 30 


ment of a circle. 2** of 3. 
eeeF. pS. vE. eeedif. 3** of 3. 


21 


July 


9» 


21 26 5 


- 37 9 9 


eF. .pS. R. an e wide D ♦ f 30*. 


22 


Aug. 


31. 


22 3 5 


— 28 21 II 


eeF. vS. vE. forms right angle 2vF close 
stars. 


23 


Aug. 


8, 


22 36 


— 45 19 15 


pF. pL. R. F ♦ nr sf. 


24 


Sept. 


4, 


22 51 10 


— 37 7 5 


eeF. vS. eeeE. a ray almost a line, np of 
1459 Index Cat. Barnard. 


25 


S^pt. 


4, 


22 52 20 


— 36 35 2 


vF. vS. R. sfof 2. 


26 


Sept. 


4, 


22 52 30 


— 36 24 


pB. pS. R. np of 2. 


27 


Aug. 


8, 


23 13 50 


— 42 49 45 


eeF. S. CE. f of 3. f 7599- 


28 


Aug. 


8. 


23 16 15 


— 43 3 20 


eeeF. pLR. io°»»nr s. ii°» ♦f. eeedif. 


29 


Aug. 


8, 


23 23 8 


— 42 2 


pB. pS. R. 9« * closes. 


30 


Aug. 


8. 


23 26 59 


- 45 36 18 


vF. vS. R. bet 2 st. 8« ♦ sp. 



224 



Publications of the 



NOTES. 

List No. I, of fifty nebulae discovered here, was published in 
the Astronomical /oumat o( November 13, 1896. Lkt No. 2, of 
twenty- five, was recently published in Mottihly Notices, and Pub- 
lications A. S. P. The present list, as will be seen, consists of 
southern nebulae exclusively. It k a field rich in nebulae, which 
that mighty Nimrod, Sir William Herschel, who hunted the 
sky over, could not reach. Several are quite bright, and a few 
are interesting. I have examined Gales* ring nebula, R. A. 
21* 53" lo', Decl. — 39° 53' 42", and find it an interesting one, 
increasing the number now known to seven. It bears consider- 
able resemblance to the one in Lyra, but is not as bright, nor 
will it bear magnifying like that celebrated one, though it is too 
far south for me to do justice to it. Numbers i and 6 are 
singular specimens of nebulae, perhaps deserving of a new classifi- 
cation. I have lately seen three, all looking exactly alike. 

N. G. C. 1288 is considerably elongated in 0°. It is not 
round, as Sir John Herschel says. 

N. G. C. 1340 must be struck out It is identical with 1344, 
as has been suspected. I examined the locality thoroughly for 
1340, and I am certain that it does not exist. Some time I 
intend to take up thk matter of doubtful nebulae. 

I am glad I have at length found in Barnard* s field a 
nebula his keen eye failed to see. See No. 24. 

LIST IV. 



6 


Datk of 

DiSCOVKRV. 


R. A. 


Dkc. 

KOR 1900. 


Description. 






h m s 


/ 




I 


Sept. 23/97 


II 


— 39 52 20 


eeeF. vL eE. close f 55. See note. 


2 


Oct. 3. * 


54 30 


— 34 51 32 


pB. vS. R. 2 St nf. & 2 np. 


3 


Sept. 29, *• 


I 5 


— 46 31 38 


vF. S. R. No B ♦ near. vF one f. 


4 


Sept. 29, *' 


I 53 4 


— 33 31 27 


pB. vS. R. BM. lo™ ♦ V close sp. 


5 


Sept. 29. ** 


250 


- 33 25 


vF. vS. eE. nearly o^ F ♦ p. 


6 


Sept. 29, " 


2 59 28 


— 39 52 38 


eF. pS. R. F D ♦ sf points to it. 


7 


Sept. 26, " 


3 31 


- 34 46 55 


pB. S. eeeE. a straight hair-like line 90". 
See note. 


8 


Sept. 29. " 


4 8 45 


— 33 7 51 


eF. vS. R. BM. 10™ * close s. 


9 


Sept. 29, *• 


4 16 30 


— 31 41 42 


eeF. pL. R. 


10 


Aug. 10, •' 


19 53 30 


- 38 47 38 


vF. S. R. 8"* » f 90^ pof 2. same parallel. 


II 


Aug. 10, ** 


19 54 


- 38 47 38 


vF. S. R. 8"**^ fof 2. 


12 


July 8. *• 


20 


— 48 35 50 


B. CE. vS. stellar, f of 2. 


13 


Sept. 23, *• 


20 10 59 


— 41 53 24 


vF. CS. R. no B * near. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 225 



: Datb of 
^ Discovery. 


R.A. 


Dec. 

FOR 1900. 


Description. 




h m s 


e 1 » 






14 Sept 16. ** 


20 24 25 


— 36 39 15 


vF. CS. R. several p B st s & f. 




15 Sept. 17, *' 


20 40 25 


— 38 50 35 


eeF. pS. R. 




16 Sept 15, " 


21 I 31 


— 30 26 30 


eeF. pS. R. F»nearf9o^ 




17 Sept 17, " 


21 41 


— 35 21 58 


vF. vS. R. 




18 


Sept 17. " 


21 42 


— 35 27 


vF. pL. R. Not 7130, or 7135. sp of 2. 




19 


Sept 17. •* 


21 43 30 


— 35 22 10 


eeF. pL. R. 3 B st p =» a. nf of 2. 




20 


Sept 27, " 


21 49 46 


— 49 31 52 


eeF. pS. R. in line with 2 9" St sf. 7"» * 
field sf. 


Ill 


21 Sept. 23, •' 


22 51 30 


— 43 59 27 


pB. S. R. mbM. 




22 Oct 3, •* 


23 27 45 


— 45 35 40 


vF. S. R. bet 2 St. 8" ♦ sf. & a 7™ ♦ sp. 




23 Sept 23, •' 


23 39 25 


— 43 29 15 


vF. eS. R. stellar. 




24 'Sept 25, ** 


23 42 40 


— 37 36 53 


eeF. CS. R. in vacancy. 




25 Sept 25, " 


23 52 25 


— 37 34 52 


pB. CS. eE. I ♦ near sf. 





NOTES. 

The nebulae in this list, the fourth issued from this observatory, 
bringing the total to 130, are, as will be seen, all southern 
nebulae. They are, with few exceptions, very faint, though some 
are bright enough to come under Herschel's Class I. That 
these have not been previously found, shows that the southern 
sky, including that portion within the reach of Sir William 
Herschel and Lord Rosse, has not been as thoroughly 
searched over as has been the northern. 

No. i = G. C. 27; also, N. G. C. 55, b, with its associated 
companion, a very remarkable nebula. I am at a loss what to 
think of it, whether it is all one; the preceding half very bright, 
very large, exceedingly elongated, the following half exceedingly 
feint, equally as large, and still more elongated; or, whether they 
are two distinct nebulae, one partly overlapping the other. If single, 
it is curved ; if double, they are inclined to each other. I am inclined 
to think they are two distinct nebulae, one reason being that the 
brighter one ends sharply, which would hardly be the case if the 
brighter merged into the fainter. The brighter was discovered 
by DuNLOP, but I doubt if he could have seen the fainter. That 
Sir John Herschel does not mark it with a sign, as he often 
has done, meaning a very remarkable or even a remarkable 
object, lends plausibility to the idea that the fainter was not 
even seen by him. As, however, it has been illustrated, a refer- 
ence to that would decide the matter at once. 



226 Publications of the 

No. 7. This, in one respect at least, is the most remarkable 
nebula I have ever seen. I doubt if the entire heavens afford a 
similar example. If the reader will cut off a short piece of fine, 
bright brass wire, and hold it up sidewise to the sky, he will 
form, by looking at it, a very correct idea of how it appeared to 
me. The line was certainly nebulous. It must be a thin nebulous 
disk seen exactly edgewise. 

G. C. 383 does not exist, and must be struck out. Sir John 
Herschel makes both 380 and 383 of equal brightness, and the 
places given would place both well within my field of 31' in 
diameter, power 132. I made a long and thorough search 
for 383, and would have found it if there, had it been three 
times fainter than 380, which is an easy object. 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR JANUARY AND 
FEBRUARY, 1898. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



January. 

Eclipses. 1898 is richer in eclipses than was 1897. There 
will be six in all, divided equally between those of the Sun and 
those of the Moon, and one of each will occur in January. 

The first will be a partial eclipse of the Moon, and will occur 
on January 7th. It will be visible in the eastern hemisphere and 
in the eastern part of the United States, but the Moon will have 
passed out of the Earth's shadow before moonrise in the 
western part of the United States. The maximum obscuration 
is less than one sixth of the Moon's diameter. 

The second will be a total eclipse of the Sun on the morning 
of January 2 2d. No part of it will be visible in the western 
hemisphere. The line of totality begins in Central Africa, and 
passes through the Indian Ocean, India, and China. The most 
accessible part of the Earth for observations is India, and the 
weather conditions are usually favorable at that time of the year. 
A large number of expeditions from various parts of the world 
will be sent to make observations. The duration of the eclipse 
will be about two minutes. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 227 

OccultaHons, The Moon will pass over the Pleiades, and a 
considerable number of occultations may be seen from almost any 
part of the United States on the evening of January 30th. 

Mercury is an evening star at the beginning of the month, 
setting not quite an hour after sunset. It rapidly approaches the 
Sun, passes inferior conjunction on January 6th, and becomes a 
morning star. By the middle of the month, it rises early enough 
to be seen in the morning twilight, and it reaches its greatest 
west elongation on the morning of January 29th, when it rises 
nearly an hour and a half before sunrise. 

Vemts is a morning star, quite near the Sun throughout the 
month, and cannot be seen, except, possibly, for a few days at 
the beginning. On January 31st it rises only a few minutes 
before sunrise. 

Mars is also a morning star, very close to Venus at the begin- 
ning of the month, less than one degree west and north; but 
instead of getting nearer the Sun, as Venus does, it moves away 
from it, and at the end of the month it rises about an hour 
before sunrise. Its distance from the Earth has begun to 
diminish slightly, but not enough to cause much increase in 
brightness. 

Jupiter rises at about midnight on January ist, and two hours 
earlier on January 31st. It is a little east and south of the third 
magnitude star y Virginis, and moves eastward about one degree 
until January 24th, when it begins to retrograde. 

Saturn is a morning star, rising somewhat earlier than Mars 
and Venus, It is in the constellation Scorpio, about six degrees 
north of the red first magnitude star, Antares, and during the 
month moves about three degrees eastward. 

Uranus precedes Saturti about six degrees, and is about one 
degree south of fi Scorpii, It is also moving eastward, but less 
than half as fast as Saturn, 

Neptune is in the eastern part of Taurtis. 

February. 

Mercury is a morning star throughout the month, and during 
the first half of the month rises early enough to be seen in the 
morning twilight, if the atmospheric conditions are good. It 
makes a very near approach to Mars on February nth. Mercury 
passing to the north of Mars at a distance of only one minute of 
arc. The Sun will have risen for all parts of the United States 



228 Publications of the 

before the time of the nearest approach, but the planets will be 
near enough to be seen together in a telescope with a moderately 
large field of view, on the morning of that date before sunrise. 

Ventis is a morning star at the beginning of the month, but 
passes superior conjunction on the morning of February 15th, 
and becomes an evening star. It does not, however, reach a 
distance from the Sun sufficient for naked-eye observation until 
some time after the end of February. 

Mars is also a morning star, rising a little earlier than during 
January. It is slowly approaching the Earth, but it is still 
distant from us more than double the Earth's mean distance from 
the Sun, and it will not be conspicuous until nearly the dose of 
the year. 

Jupiter is rising about two hours earlier than during the 
corresponding time in January, and by the end of the month is 
up in time for late evening observations. It moves westward 
during the month about two degrees from a position east of the 
third magnitude star, y Virgmis, to a position about the same 
distance west. At the time of nearest approach, the star is a 
little more than one degree north of the planet. 

Saturn is still a morning star, but rises earlier at the end of 
the month, shortly after one o'clock. It moves about two 
degrees eastward in the constellation Scorpio^ and is north and 
east of the red star Antares, the brightest star of the constellation. 
The apparent outer minor axis of the ring is nearly half the 
major axis, not far from the widest opening the rings can have. 

Uranus precedes Saturn about nine degrees, and is about 
one degree east and south of ^ Scorpiu Its motion during the 
month is small, about half a degree eastward, until February 28th; 
then it begins to retrograde. 

Neptune is in the eastern part of Taurus, and remains above 
the horizon until after midnight. 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 
In the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
by adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 229 

the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
seldom much more than i". To find the standard time for the 
phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence between standard and local time if the place is west of the 
standard meridian, and subtracting if east The same rules apply 
to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 
of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
and for latitudes differing much from 40** they may be several 
minutes out. 



Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 









Full 


Moon 


i, 


Jan. 7, 


H. M. 

4 24 P. M. 












Last 


Quarter, 


Jan. 15, 


7 44 A.M. 












New 


Moor 


1, 


Jan. 21, 


II 25 p. M. 












First 


Quarter, 


Jan. 29, 


6 33 A. M. 
















The Sun. 














R. 


. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


189a. 


H. 


M. 


c 


/ 


H. H. 


H. 


M. 


H. 


M. 


Jan. 


I. 


18 


49 


— 22 


59 


7 27 A.M, 


. 12 


4 P.M. 


4 41 P.M. 




II. 


19 32 


— 21 


46 


7 26 


12 


8 


4 


50 




21. 


20 


15 


-19 


50 


7 22 


12 


12 


5 


2 




31- 


20 


57 


- 17 


17 


7 14 ■ 


12 


14 


5 


H 












Mercury. 










Jan. 


I. 


19 


35 


— 20 


r6 


8 2 A.M. 


12 


50 P.M. 


5 


38 P.M. 




II. 


18 


45 


- 19 40 


6 31 


II 


21 A.M. 


4 


rr 




21. 


18 


36 


— 20 


51 


5 48 


10 


33 


3 


18 




31. 


19 


12 


— 21 


47 


5 47 
Venus. 


10 


29 


3 


It 


Jan. 


I. 


r8 


I 


-23 


27 


6 41 A.M. 


II 


16 A.M. 


3 


51 P.M. 




II. 


18 


56 


-23 


13 


6 56 


II 


32 


4 


8 




21. 


19 


50 


— 21 


49 


7 4 


II 


46 


4 


28 




31. 


20 


43 


-19 


19 


7 8 
Mars. 


12 


M. 


4 


52 


Jan. 


I. 


17 


58 


-24 


4 


6 41 A.M. 


II 


13 A.M. 


3 


45 PM. 




II. 


18 


31 


-23 


58 


6 35 


II 


7 


3 


39 




21. 


19 


4 


-23 


27 


6 25 


II 





3 


35 




31. 


19 37 


— 22 


29 


6 15 


10 


54 


3 


33 



230 



Publications of the 



1898. H. M. 

Jan. I. 12 37 

II. 12 39 

21. 12 40 

31- 12 40 



Jan. 



I. 16 24 

II. 16 29 

21. 16 32 

31- 16 36 



Jan. I. 15 59 

II. 16 I 

21. 16 2 

31. 16 4 



Jan. I. 5 19 

II. 5 19 

21. 5 17 

31. 5 17 



Jupiter, 

Declination. Rises. 
*» ' H. M. 

— 2 32 12 2 A.M. 

— 2 43 II 25 P.M. 

— 2 47 10 47 

— 2 43 10 7 

Sa turn. 



Transits. 

H. M. 



Sets. 

H. M. 



5 53 A.M. 
5 16 
4 38 
3 58 



II 44 A. M. 
II 7 
10 29 

9 49 



~ 19 53 4 51 A.M. 9 40 A.M. 2 29 P.M. 



20 2 4 16 
20 10 3 41 
20 16 36 

Uranus, 



9 5 
8 30 

7 54 



I 54 

I 19 

12 42 



— 20 21 4 26 A.M. 9 14 A.M. 



2 P.M. 



20 27 
20 32 
20 36 



3 50 
3 13 
2 35 



8 37 
8 o 
7 22 



I 24 
12 47 
12 9 



Neptune, 

+ 21 44 3 15 P.M. 

+ 21 43 2 35 

+ 21 42 I 55 

+ 21 42 I 14 



10 33 P.M. 5 51 A.M. 

9 53 5 II 

9 13 4 31 

8 32 3 50 



Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, P. S. 

(Off left-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 







H. M. • 






H. 


M. 


II, D, Jan. 


2. 


10 16 P. M. 


II, D, Jan. 


17. 


3 


26 A. M. 


I.D, 


3. 


5 13 A.M. 


I,D, 


19. 


3 


27 A. M. 


I,D, 


4- 


II 41 P. M. 


I.D, 


20. 


9 


55 P. M. 


III, R, 


7. 


9 2 P. M. 


III, D, 


22. 


2 


10 A. M. 


II, D, 


10. 


12 51 A. M. 


III, R, 


22. 


4 


56 A. M. 


IV, D, 


10. 


12 51 A. M. 


II, D, 


24. 


6 


2 A. M. 


IV, R, 


10. 


2 39 A. M. 


I, D, 


26. 


5 


20 A. M. 


I, D, 


12. 


I 34 A.M. 


IV, R. 


26. 


8 


25 P. M. 


III, D, 


14. 


10 12 P. M. 


I, D, 


27. 


II 


48 P. M. 


III, R, 


15. 


12 59 A. M. 


III, D, 


29. 


6 


8 A.M. 






Minima of Algol, P. S. T. 












H. M. 






H. 


M. 


Jan. 3. 




7 43 A.M. 


Jan. 20. 




12 


36 P. M. 


6. 




4 32 A.M. 


23. 




9 


25 A. M. 


9- 




I 21 A. M. 


26. 




6 


14 A. M. 


II. 




10 10 P. M. 


29. 




3 


3 A. M. 


14. 




6 59 P. M. 


31. 




II 


52 P. M. 


17. 




3 47 P.M. 











Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 231 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

H. M. 

Full Moon, Feb. 6, 10 24 a. m. 

Last Quarter, Feb. 13, 4 35 p. m. 

New Moon, Feb. 20, 11 41 a. m. 

First Quarter, Feb. 28, 3 13 a. m. 











The Sun. 










R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


I89S. 


H. 


M. 


' 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Feb. 


I. 


21 


I 


-17 


7 13 A.M. 


12 14 P.M. 


5 I5P-M. 




II. 


21 


41 


- 13 55 


7 2 


12 14 


5 26 




21. 


22 


19 


— 10 26 


6 50 


12 14 


5 38 


Mar. 


3. 


22 


57 


— 6 42 


6 35 


12 12 


5 49 










Mercury. 






Feb. 


I. 


19 


17 


— 21 48 


5 48 A.M. 


10 30 A.M. 


3 12 P.M. 




II. 


20 


12 


-20 57 


6 


10 45 


3 30 




21. 


21 


13 


-18 I 


6 10 


II 7 


4 4 


Mar. 


3- 


22 


18 


-12 53 


6 18 
Venus, 


II 33 


4 48 


Feb. 


I. 


20 


48 


- 19 I 


7 8 A.M. 


12 I P.M. 


4 54 P.M. 




II. 


21 


38 


- 15 30 


7 6 


12 12 


5 18 




21. 


22 


27 


— II 16 


7 


12 21 


5 42 


Mar. 


3- 


23 


14 


- 6 33 


6 50 
Mars, 


12 28 


6 6 


Feb. 


I. 


19 40 


— 22 22 


6 13 A.M. 


10 53 A.M. 


3 33 P.M. 




II. 


20 


12 


— 20 58 


6 I 


10 46 


3 31 




21. 


20 


44 


— 19 10 


5 47 . 


10 39 


3 31 


Mar. 


3- 


21 


16 


-17 3 


5 30 


10 31 


3 32 










Jupiter, 






Feb. 


I. 


12 


40 


— 2 42 


10 3 P.M. 


3 54 A.M. 


9 45 A.M. 




II. 


12 


38 


— 2 30 


9 22 


3 13 


9 4 




21. 


12 


36 


— 2 II 


8 39 


2 32 


8 25 


Mar. 


3- 


12 


32 


- I 47 


7 55 


I 49 


7 43 










Sa turn. 






Feb. 


I. 


16 


36 


— 20 17 


3 2 A. M. 


7 50 A. M. 


12 38P.M. 




II. 


16 


39 


— 20 21 


2 26 


7 14 


12 2 




21. 


16 


41 


— 20 25 


I 49 


6 36 


II 23A.M. 


Mar. 


3- 


16 


43 


— 20 26 


I 12 


5 59 


10 46 










Uranus, 






Feb. 


I. 


16 


4 


- 20 36 


2 31 A.M. 


7 18A.M. 


12 5 P.M. 




II. 


16 


5 


-20 39 


I 53 


6 40 , 


II 27 A.M. 




21. 


16 


6 


— 20 41 


I 14 


6 I 


10 49 


Mar. 


3- 


16 


6 


— 20 42 


12 35 


5 22 


10 9 



232 Publications of the 









Neptune. 








1898. 


R. 


A. 


Declination. Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


H. 


M. 


„ 


M. 


H. 


M. 


H. H. 


Feb. I. 


5 


17 


+ 21 42 I 


ID P.M. 


8 


28 P.M. 


3 46A-M 


ri. 


5 


16 


+ 21 42 12 


30 


7 


48 


3 6 


21. 


5 


16 


4- 21 42 II 


51 A.M. 


7 


9 


2 27 


Mar. 3. 


5 


16 


+ 21 43 II 


II 


6 


29 


I 47 


Eclipses 


OF Jupiter *s 


Satellites, 


P. S. 


T. 




(Off left hand limb, as seen 


in an inverting: telescope.) 










H. M. 








H. M. 


II, D. 


Feb. 


3- 


9 56 P. M. 


III. R, 


Feb. 19. 


8 42 P. M. 


I.D, 




4. 


I 41 A. M. 


I.D. 




19- 


II 56 p. M. 


I. D, 




5. 


8 10 p. M. 


I.D, 




21. 


6 24 p. M. 


II. D, 




II. 


12 32 A. M. 


II, D. 




25- 


5 44A- M. 


I. D, 




II. 


3 34 A.M. 


III. D. 




26. 


9 58 P. M. 


I.D. 




12. 


10 3 P, M. 


I.D, 




27. 


I 49 A. M. 


II. D. 




18. 


.3 8 A. M. 


II. D, 




28. 


7 2 p. M. 


I.D, 




18. 


5 28 A. M. 


I.D, 




28. 


8 17 P. M. 








Minima of Algol, P. S. T 












H. M. 








H. U. 


Feb. 3. 






8 41 P. M. 


Feb. 18. 






4 45 A. M. 


6. 






5 30 P.M. 


21. 






I 34 AM. 


9- 






2 19 P. M. 


23- 






10 23 p. M. 


12. 






II 8 A. M. 


26. 






7 12 P.M. 


15- 






7 56 A.M. 












COMET 


b, 1897. 






By C. D. 


Pbrrinb. 





This comet, the second of the year, was discovered by the 
writer on the evening of October i6th. It was then in the con- 
stellation Camelapardalis, in R. A. 3* 36" 7'. 58, Decl. + 66° 
46' 43". 6, at 17** 45" 22', Greenwich M. T. It was then moving 
north at the rate of about one and a half degrees per day, and 
west 6* On October 29th it passed within about eight degrees 
of the pole, and is now moving southward. 

The following elements have been deduced from the Mt. 
Hamilton observations of October i6th, 24th, and 31st: — 

T = 1897 J^ec. 8.84714 

a) = 66° 5'42".2 It:.,..- a 

^ I Echptic and mean equmox 

= 32 4 4.9 > of ,8 

» = 69 37 40 .9 ) 
log q = 0.132056. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 233 

The residuals for the middle place being: — 

Observed — computed, AV cos P^ + 4''.! 
A)3' 4 4 .3. 

From these elements it will be seen that the comet will make 
its closest approach to the Sun on December 8th, at a distance 
of one hundred and twenty-five million miles. Owing to the 
positions of the Earth and comet in their respective orbits, the 
comet slowly approached the Earth for about two weeks after its 
discovery, until it was only about seventy-five million miles away. 
The distance is now increasing slowly. 

At discovery the comet had a clearly-defined stellar nucleus, 
resembling a twelfth-magnitude star. This nucleus was in and 
very near the north following end of a well-marked, elongated 
condensation. Continuing in the same direction as this con- 
densation, /. e. s. p., was a narrow streamer of a tail, which 
could be traced for a distance of 3' from the head. Around the 
whole could be seen a faint nebulosity for a distance of probably 
i'. In a week's time the star-like nucleus had disappeared, and 
even the condensation about it had lost much of its light. The 
changes continued, until by October 31st it was not an easy 
object to observe with the 12- inch refractor, owing to its blurred 
appearance — there being no well-marked condensation upon 
which to set the micrometer wires. At discovery it was quite 
bright, even in the moonlight, giving as much light as an eighth- 
magnitude star. On October 31st it was carefully examined with 
the 36-inch telescope, but no indications of a nucleus were to be 
seen; there was a long streak of nebulosity in the head, which 
dwindled into a fainter, streamer-like tail. The size of the comet 
had changed but little, but instead of being brighter, as it should 
be, on the assumption that a comet's light is principally reflected 
sunlight, it was actually very much fainter. Comets frequently 
show increased activity as they approach the Sun, the nucleus 
(should the comet show one) becoming much brighter, and in 
some cases even developing one; but here is a case where the 
reverse has occurred — the comet losing all signs of the one it 
had, and losing much of its light, with no sensible change of 
size. So great has been the loss of light, that it was not found 
on November 7th (in the moonlight), although the sky for some 
distance around its place was carefully examined with the 36-inch 
telescope, using the lowest power available — 270. The orbit of 
this comet docs not resemble that of any known one. 

Lick Observatory, University of California, 
November 8. 1897. 



234 Publications of the 

ELEMENTS OF COMET b, 1897. 



By R. Tracy Crau-ford. 



From observations made at the Lick Observatory and tele- 
graphed to the Students* Observatory by Professor J. M. Schae- 
BERLE, Acting Director, I have computed the following sets of 
parabolic elements for Comet b, 1897. The first set, from observa- 
tions by Mr. Ferrine on October i6th and 17th, and by 
Professor Hussey on October i8th, is: — 

T= 1897 Dec. 8.86570 G. M. T. 

^ = 69- 35' 39".5^ Mean Equinox 

a> = 66 6 41 .4 1 

q= 1. 355513 

Representation of middle place — 

A X cos i8 = - o".3 A iS = — i".o 

Cot J = 9. 8 1 8048^ Cot Jo = 9. 8 1 8044, 

The second set, from observations by Mr. Perrine on 
October i6th, and by Professor Hussey on October 31st and 
November 15th, is: — 

T= 1897 E>ec. 8.550029 G. M. T. 

^=69- 35' 5i".0 Mean Equinox 

0) = 65 48 38 .0 ) ^' 

^=1.357331 

Representation of middle place — 

AXcos)3=+ ii".7 Ai8=+ i9".6 

Cot J = 9- 238929n Cot Jo == 9- 238926„ 

The value of log M used in determining the second set of 
elements was derived from the first set, as follows: — 

log M = 0.06462 [ 
which agrees exactly with the value of 

log M = 0.064621 
resulting from the second set, so that the second set of elements 
must be considered as the best parabolic orbit which can be 
passed through the given observations. 

University of California, Students* Observatory, 
December 13, 1897. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 235 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY.* 
Prepared by Members of the Staff. 



Resignation of Professor E. S. Holden as Director 
OF THE Lick Observatory. 

At a meeting of the Board of Regents of the University of 
California, held in San Francisco on Tuesday, October 12, 1897, 
Professor E. S. Holden* s resignation as Director of the Lick 
Observatory was presented and accepted, to take effect January 
I, 1898. 

At the same meeting Professor J. M. Schaeberle was 
appointed Acting Director during the absence of Dr. Holden. 

Professor Holden' s letter was as follows: — 

** Lick Observatory, University of California, | 
Mt. Hamilton, October i, 1897. ) 

To the Honarabte the Board of Regents of the University 
of California: — 

Gentlemen: — I beg to tender my resignation as Director of 
the Lick Observatory, to take effect at the expiration of my 
present leave of absence. 

In severing my connection with an institution with which I 
have been intimately connected since the year 1874 (under the 
direction of the Regents since 1885), ^ wish to express my 
obligations to the Board, to the members of the Standing 
Committees on the Observatory, on Internal Administration, 
and on Finance, and more especially to the Chairmen of these 
Committees, for their support, by which alone it has been possible 
to bring the establishment to its present high state of efficiency. 

In the summer of 1874 the President of the first Board of 



* Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California. 



236 Publications of the 

Lick Trustees visited Washington to consult with Professor 
Newcomb and myself upon the plans for the observatory founded 
by Mr. Lick. In October of that year I prepared the plans and 
programme upon which the Lick Observatory has been built, 
organized, and is now administered. A detailed memorandum 
on thb subject may be found in the Publications of the Astro- 
nomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. IV, page 139 (1892). The 
position of Director was offered to me in 1874, and accepted. 
The plans of the first Board of Lick Trustees were not carried 
out, for reasons which it is not necessary to state here. 

In 1876 I became the adviser of the President of the third 
Board, and from that time until 1887 all the plans of the build- 
ings were made by me, all the instruments ordered from my 
specifications (excepting the visual object-glass of the great 
telescope, with which Professor Newcomb was alone concerned), 
and most of the instruments were mounted and used by me 
personally during official visits to Mt. Hamilton in the years 
1881, 1883, 1885, and 1886. Correspondence on file at the 
Lick Observatory and in the records of the Lick Trust will 
exhibit my share in this work. 

In December, 1885, I was appointed to be President of the 
University of California, and Director of the Lick Observatory, 
and I held the former office until 1888. In June of that year 
the observatory was formally transferred by the Lick Trustees as 
the Lick Astronomical Department of the University, and from 
this time onward its scientific history is known to your Board. 

The regular annual income of the observatory has been very 
small in relation to the wants of the establishment. It has been 
used to supply these wants so far as possible, and the whole 
observatory — buildings, instruments, and equipment — is now in 
excellent condition. Since 1888 the reservoir capacity has been 
doubled; the buildings have been made water-tight and much 
improved in many respects; the instruments have been consider- 
ably increased in number, and they have been provided with 
subsidiary apparatus which was lacking; the library has doubled 
in size; the area of the reservation has been increased by one 
thousand acres, and the whole establishment and equipment is 
far more efficient in 1897 than it was in 1888. Only those who 
have visited the observatory can appreciate the full force of 
these statements. 

A considerable number of graduate students have received 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 237 

training here, and have been fitted for responsible positions here 
and elsewhere. Some 50,000 visitors have been received and 
cared for, and a contribution of importance to the intellectual 
advancement of the State has thus been made. 

A very large part of the strictly scientific work of the observa- 
tory has been accomplished by virtue of subsidies received from 
its friends. Most of its apparatus has been presented to us 
outright. All of its foreign eclipse expeditions have been sent at 
the expense of wellwishers of the institution. The expensive 
plates of the Observatory Moon- Atlas, of Vol. III. of our quarto 
Publications, etc., have been provided at private cost. The 
names of Messrs. D. O. Mills, C. F. Crocker, Walter W. 
Law, of Mrs. Phcebe Hearst, Miss Catherine Wolfe 
Bruce, among others, are gratefully remembered in this con- 
nection. The money value of these gifts is over $47,000. 
Mr. Edward Crossley, an English member of Parliament and 
amateur of astronomy, presented to the University in 1895 a 
three- foot reflecting telescope. Its performance from the year 
1879 onwards has shown that it has no superior in the world at 
present It is fitted to supplement the work of the three- foot 
refractor in an important way. This instrument was established 
in its place by the gifts of many citizens of California. Its dome 
and mounting were nearly complete in July, 1896. If it is 
diligently used, other gifts of like nature will come to the 
observatory as they are needed — and such gifts will be required 
if the observatory is to maintain its present standing, unless 
larger provision is made by the State, or unless a subsidy is 
received from the general government. 

The observatory has published three quarto and five octavo 
volumes, besides an Atlas of the Moon, and two volumes 
printed for us by the Smithsonian Institution, and very many 
separate articles published in scientific journals. Some perma- 
nent provision should be made for the publication of its 
work. 

In the years which are to come, I wish for the observatory 
the fullest measure of brilliant success. Its equipment, situation, 
and its personnel will command this, if it is adequately supported. 
I am proud to have been connected with the observatory from 
its inception, and during its early and formative period, and to 
have done my part towards the creation and maintenance of the 
spirit which has characterized its own researches and its relations 



238 Publications of the 

to other scientific establishments throughout the world. I have 
given my best endeavors to these ends for twenty-three years. 
I am, gentlemen, 

Very respectfully and truly yours, 

Edward S. Holden.*' 

List of Recorded Earthquakes on the Pacific Coast, 
1769-1897, BY Edward S. Holden; Illustrated. 

The Smithsonian Institution is about to print, in its Miscel- 
laneous Contributions, a work with the above title. The data 
are derived from a similar list of recorded earthquakes, 1 769-1888 
(with a very considerable number of additions and a few correc- 
tions), which was issued by the University of California in 1888, 
and from the annual publications of the Lick Observatory (printed 
in the American Journal of Science, the Publications of the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the Bulletins of the U. S. 
Geological Survey) since that date. The annual records referred 
to have been compiled by Messrs. Holden, Keeler, and 
Perrine from observations at Mt. Hamilton, and from miscel- 
laneous reports of earthquake shocks. They have been 
thoroughly sifted and revised in the present work, which is 
believed to contain all trustworthy data on the subject of Pacific 
Coast earthquakes since 1769. E. S. H. 

Mt. Hamilton, September i, 1897. 

Measures of the Companion of Sirius. and of /3 883. 

I have obtained measures of the companion of Sirius on two 
nights, September 23d and October 2d. On the former date the 
companion was readily seen for at least teir minutes after sunrise. 

The measures are: — 

K Po Weight. 

1897-731 i75''-9 3"-92 5 

1897.756 174 .4 4 .04 3 

Another binary star of considerable interest is fi 883. It was 
discovered by Mr. Burnham in 1879, and was soon found to be in 
rapid motion. Dr. See {Monthly Notices R. A. S., June, 1897), 
in a recent investigation, found the period to be only five and 
a half years. If this result is even approximately correct, the star 
is by far the most rapid visible binary known. 

I have secured three measures recently with the 36-inch 



Astronomical Society of the Pcccific. 239 

telescope. The two components are of nearly the same magnitude, 
and the angles may need to be increased by 180°. 

«o Po Weight. 

1897-715 3o''.6 o".23 3 

.731 29 .9 o .26 4 

.797 28 .4 o .28 2 

R. G. AlTKEN. 
October 23, 1897. 

The Leonids in 1897. 

The Leonids were watched for from November 13th to 
November i8th, inclusive, but no unusual shower was seen. In 
fact, the displays were very meager, the greatest number being 
observed on the morning of November 17th, when nine Leonids 
were counted from 3** 40" to 4** 30" a.m. As the Moon was in 
this region of the heavens and near the time of last quarter, the 
conditions were not the best. C. D. P. 

Comets Due to Return in 1898. 

In the year 1898 there are no less than ^vt, periodic comets 
due to return to perihelion: — 

Winnecke, March 20th; Encke, May 26th; Swift, 1889 VI; 
Wolf, June 30th; Temple's first periodic comet. 

Of these comets, Winnecke* s, Encke* s, and Wolfs are 
well determined and should be found, except, perhaps, Wolfs 
which is so situated that it does not become very bright — only 
about two and a half times as bright as at the time of its redis- 
covery in 1891, when Professor Barnard estimated it at thirteen 
and a half magnitude. 

In the case of Swift's comet, there is an uncertainty of 0.9 
year .in the time of perihelion passage, which precludes any 
accurate prediction of its place, and hence renders impracticable 
any extended search with large telescopes. Those having small 
and moderate-sized telescopes will do well to devote some of their 
time to sweeping, with the chance of picking up this comet, and 
thereby save another from being added to the already long list of 
missing ones. 

Temple's first periodic comet was observed at the returns of 
1873 and 1879. subsequent to its discovery in 1867, but at the 
last two apparitions it was not seen. It is to be hoped that it may 
be rediscovered at the coming apparition. 



240 Publications of the 

The Temple-Swift comet (1869 HI, 1880 IV, 1891 V) was 
due to pass perihelion on June 4th of the present year, but owing 
to the unfavorable situation of the Earth, the comet was always 
in the twilight, and being on the opposite side of the Sun 
from the Elarth, its brightness was small, and hence was not 
found. Its next return should be more favorable. C. D. P. 
Mt. Hamilton, November 20, 1897. 

Photograph of the Spectrum of a Meteor. 

In Harvard College Observatory Circular No. 20, dated 
November 8, 1897, Professor E. C. Pickering states that the 
spectrum of a meteor has been photographed for the first time. 

At about II P.M. on June 18, 1897, when the eight-inch Bache 
telescope (provided with a large objective prism) at Arequipa, 
Peru, was directed towards the constellation Telescopium, a 
bright meteor appeared in Right Ascension 18** 19"*, Declination 
— 47° 10', and passed out of the field of view at Right Ascension 
18*' 29", Declination — 50° 30'. 

Mrs. Fleming's examination of the photographic plate shows 
that the spectrum consists of six bright lines, whose intensity 
varies in different positions of the photograph, thereby showing 
that the light of the meteor changed as its image passed across 
the plate. The intensities of these lines are estimated at 40, 100, 
2, 13, 10, and 10, respectively, and their wave lengths show that 
the first, second, fourth, and sixth lines are probably identical 
with the hydrogen lines H„ Ha, Hy, and H/^. The fifth line is 
probably identical with the band which forms the distinctive 
feature of the spectra of stars of the third class of the fifth type, 
and the third line, which is barely visible, is perhaps identical 
with another band contained in these stars. 

The Ha line is the most intense of the four hydrogen lines in 
the spectrum of the meteor. This is also the case in the spectrum 
of o Ceti, and of many other variable stars of long period. The 
relations between the other hydrogen lines also indicate an 
important resemblance between meteors and stars having bright 
lines in their spectra. These results may aid in determining the 
conditions of temperature and pressure in these bodies. 

Professor Pickering adds that special efforts will be made to 
photograph meteor * trails and spectra during the November 
meteoric shower of this year. R. G. Aitken. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 241 

Dimensions of the Planets and Satellites. 

In Poptdar Astronomy for October, 1897, Professor E. E. 
Barnard gives the results of * * A Micrometrical Determination 01 
the Dimensions of the Planets and Satellites of the Solar System, 
Made with the 36-inch Refractor of the Lick Observatory." 

Below are given Professor Barnard's results in English 
miles, and for comparison the values given in Young's General 
Astronomy (second issue, 1889). 

Barnard. 



Miles. 



Mer^ry* 2,765 

Venus 



Mars[^ 



Pol. 



Ceres . 
Pallas 
Juno . 
Vesta. 



. 7,826 
• 4,352 
4,312 
485 
304 
118 
243 

>^r{Eq- 90,190 

IPol 84,570 

. 2,452 
. 2,045 
. 3,558 
. 3,345 
. 76,470 
. 69,780 
. 172,610 
. 150,480 



Jupiter's Satellites 



I" 

nil 



IV 



Satuml^'^: 
I Pol 



Saturn* s 
Rings 



f Outer diameter, outer ring . 
Inner 

Center Cassini Division 148,260 

Outer diameter, inner ring . . . 145,990 

Inner '* " "... 110,070 

*' *' crape ring . . . 88,190 

Width Cassini Division 2,220 

^ Diameter satellite Titan 2,720 



l^anus, mean diameter 34,900 

Neptune, " ** 32,900 



Young's General 
Astronomy. 

Miles. 

3,030 

7.700 
I 4,230 
J (mean diam.) 

!No previous 
micrometric 
measures. 

88,200 
83,000 

2,400 + 

2,100 + 

3,600 

3,000 
75,ooo± 
68,ooo± 
168,000 
148,000 

144,800 

111,800 

9i,8oo± 

I 6ooi 

3,000 or 4,000 
(Probably.) 

31.900 

34,800 



R. G. AlTKEN. 



Changes in the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Mr. Henry S. Pritchett, Ph. D. (Munich), professor of 
physics and astronomy in Washington University, St Louis, has 
been ap()ointed by the President, Superintendent of the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey in the place of General 

•Professor Barnard states that his measures of Mercury were made with the 
12-inch telescope at the transits of 1891 and 1894. 



242 Publications of the 

W. W. DuFFiELD, resigned. Professor Pritchett was Assistant 
Astronomer at the Naval Observatory, Washington, from 1878 to 
1880. He has engaged in work for the survey in China and 
Japan, as well as in the United States. 

The Telegraphic Longitude Net of the United States. 

In the Astronomical Journal, No. 412, Professor Charles A. 
ScHOTT, of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, pub- 
lishes a brief summary of the longitude work done by the Survey 
between 1866 and 1896. From this paper, the following extracts 
are taken: — 

In 1851, S. C. Walker, Assistant, reported the following 
values for the longitude of the Cambridge Observatory: — 

West of Greenwich, 
h m s 

From Moon culminations, 4 44 28.42 

From eclipses, transits, and occultations, 4 44 29.64 

By chronometric expeditions, 4 44 30.10 

In the autumn of 1845, Superintendent Bache instructed 
Assistant Walker to devise practical means for the employment 
of the electric telegraph (publicly tested by Morse in May, 
1844) for longitude work. With the co-operation of the United 
States Naval Observatory, the cities of Washington and Phila- 
delphia were connected on October 10, 1846, and their differ- 
ence of longitude was found to be 7" 34V 3. After Professor 
Walker's retirement in 1852, Dr. B. A. Gould took charge 
of the longitude work of the Survey up to 1867; the Coast Survey 
Report of that year contains his report ' ' On the Longitude 
between America and Europe from Signals through the Atlantic 
Cable." The resulting longitude of the Cambridge Observatory 
was 4** 44" 30«.85. 

Other cable determinations were secured by the Coast Survey 
in 1870 and 1872, but the latest determination, in 1892, is due 
to the co-operation of the McGill College Observatory at Montreal, 
Canada, with the Greenwich Observatory. 

The final value for the longitude of the Harvard Observatory 
at Cambridge, as adjusted in June, 1897, *s, — 
4*^ 44" 3 1 '.046 ±: o*.048. 

The longitude net as developed during thirty years, including 
some European stations, is composed of forty-five stations, con- 
nected by seventy-two links. Practically, three lines cross the 
continent, one near our nothern boundary, one near the southern, 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 243 

and an intermediate one and the three are connected by cross lines. 

The smallness of the probable errors of measure shows the satis- 
factory character of the obser\'ations. 

The table of final resulting longitudes west of Greenwich is as 
follows: — 1, ^ 

Greenwich, England (Transit circle) 00 0.000 

Paris, France (Meridian of France) o 9 20.968 E. 

Brest, France (Tower of St. Louis) 017 57.597 

Foilhommerum, Ireland (Transit) 041 33.409 

He«rt*s Content, Newfoundland (Transit) 3 33 29.788 

St. Pierre Island, Miquelon Group (Transit) 3 44 42.427 

Calais, Maine (Transit) 4 29 7.857 

Duxbury, Ma.ss. (Transit) 4 42 40.858 

Cambridge, Mass. (Dome, Harvard College Obs'y) . . 4 44 31.046 

Montreal, Canada (Transit McGill College Obs'y). . . 4 54 18.634 

Albany, N. Y. (Dome, Dudley Obs'y; old site) 4 34 59.992 

Cape May, N. J. (Transit) 4 59 43.045 

Washington, D. C. (Dome U. S. N. Obs'y; old site) ... 5 8 12.153 

Charleston. S. C. (Transit) 5 19 44.076 

Key West, F*la. (Transit) 5 27 13.579 

Detroit, Mich. (Transit of 1891) 5 32 11.830 

Atlanta, Ga. (Transit of 1896) 5 37 33.338 

Cincinnati, O. (Dome, Mt. Lookout Obs'y) 5 37 41.398 

Louisville, Ky. (Transit) 5 43 3.636 

Nashville, Tenn. ^Transit) 5 47 8.083 

Chicago, 111. (Transit of 1891) 5 50 29.446 

New Orleans. La. (Transit of 1895) 6 o 16.763 

St Louis, Mo. (Transit, 1882, of Washington Univ.) ..60 49.256 

Liule Rock, Ark. (Transit) 69 5.727 

Minneapolis, Minn. (Transit) 6 12 56.845 

Kansas City, Mo. (Transit) 6 18 21.404 

Galveston Tex. (Transit of 1895) 6 19 9.928 

Omaha, Neb. (Transit) 6 23 46.087 

Austin, Tex. (Transit) 6 30 57.024 

Bismarck, N. D. (Transit) 6 43 7.938 

Colorado Springs, Colo. (Transit of i886j 6 59 16.710 

Santa Fe, N. M. (Transit) 7 3 46.805 

El Paso, Tex. (Transit) 7 5 57.386 

Nogales, Ariz. (Transit) 7 23 45.912 

Salt Lake City, Utah (Transit) 7 27 35.173 

Helena, Mont. (Transit) 7 28 8.789 

Needles, Cal. (Transit) 7 38 24.836 

Yuma, Ariz. (Transit) 7 38 29.608 

San Diego, Cal. (Transit of 1892) 7 48 38.748 

Los Angeles, Cal. (Transit of 1892) 7 53 1.561 

Walla Walla, Wash. (Transit) 7 53 23.331 

Sacramento, Cal. (Transit) 8 5 5^.387 

Seattle, Wash. (Transit) 8 9 20.358 

San Francisco, Cal. (Transit, Lafayette Park) 8 9 42.861 

Portland, Oregon (Transit) 8 10 42.838 



244 Publications of the 

The paper also contains the longitudes of a few prominent 
observatories directly connected with the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey system. From these we take the longitude of 

U. S. Naval Observatory — new ^\\jt\ meridian of clock room: — 

h m s s 

5 8 15.784 ±0.050 
Lick Observatory, Mt. Hamilton — meridian of transit house: — 

h m s s 

8 6 34.895 i 0.057 

Observations of the Companion to Procyon. 

The following observations of Procyon' s companion were 
made with our great refractor. For the purpose of showing the 
orbital motion, the discovery position is also given: — 



Date. 
1897. 

October 8. 


Position 
Angle. 

324°. I 


Distance. 
4". 70 


17. 
18. 


323 -o 
323.8 


4.76 


29. 

30. 

November i. 


324.2 
326 .2 
324 .3 


4.51 
4.59 
4 .67 


15- 


325 .2 


4 .71 


Mean position for 1897.821 
Discovery position 1896 812 


324 .40 
318.8 


4.66 
4 .59 



. Procyon' s companion has finally been seen at two other observa- 
tories. Dr. See of the Lowell Observatory informs me that he 
and his assistant, Mr. Boothroyd, saw and measured the com- 
panion on the ist of the present month. Professor Barnard writes 
that on the 3d, during a few moments of steadiness, the companion 
was * * clearly and distinctly seen ' ' with the great refractor of the 
Yerkes Observatory. So far as I know, these are the only 
observations made away from Mt. Hamilton. J. M. S. 

Lick Observatory, November 18, 1897. 

Lick Observatory Eclipse Expedition. 

The Crocker eclipse expedition from the Lick Observatory, to 
observe the total solar eclipse of January 21-22, 1898, sailed from 
San Francisco on the steamship "China*' on October 21st, 
going via Hongkong to Bombay. From this point it is expected 
to move inland some 150 or 200 miles, to a station near Karad. 
The expedition is in charge of Professor W. W. Campbell. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 245 

He is accompanied by Mrs. Campbell and Miss Rowena Beans 
as volunteer assistants, traveling at private expense. 

Professor Campbell takes with him a number of instruments 
for the observation of the eclipse, and expects to secure the 
needed assistance in India. Besides the 40-foot telescope for 
large-scale photographs of the corona on Professor Schaeberle's 
plan, he has several spectroscopes for special observations. An 
effort will be made to photograph the changes in the spectrum 
due to the ** reversing layer," which have been noticed visually 
at previous eclipses, and also to secure photographs of the 1474 
K line, for the purpose of determining the question of rotation 
of the corona. 

The funds to defray the expenses of the expedition were pro- 
vided by the late Colonel C. F. Crocker, who had provided 
for two previous eclipse parties from the Lick Observatory. 

A private cablegram from the party at Hongkong advises their 
safe arrival at that port aiid their close connection with the steamer 
for Bombay. The latter port should be reached about December 
5th. C. D. P. 

The Chabot Observatory Eclipse Expedition. 

Professor Charles Burckhalter, Director of the Chabot 
Observatory, Oakland, Cal., sailed for Hongkong on Saturday, 
October 30th, and will proceed to India for the purpose of 
observing photographically the total solar echpse of January 22, 
1898. The exact location of his station will not be decided until 
he reaches Bombay. Probably it will be somewhere near one of 
the railroads, a short distance from that city. 

Professor Burckhalter*s apparatus is essentially the same 
as that he took to Japan in 1896, an account of which may be 
found on page 157, Vol. VII, of these Publications, 

The equipment described therein has been augmented by 
another lens of the same diameter and focal length, which is the 
gift of Dr. George C. Pardee. It will be packed separately 
from the other, so that in the event of the loss, damage, or delay 
of any of the baggage, he will be reasonably sure of having one 
lens. It is his intention to use both lenses, one with his shutter, 
the other in the usual manner. The two tubes will be mounted 
together, one above the other, and the exposures will be coin- 
cident, both as to duration and period. 

A new mounting was necessary, on account of the additional 



246 Publications of the 

load. It is constructed almost entirely of heavy gaspipe, and is 
extremely rigid. The polar axis is hollow, and is fitted with an 
eyepiece, as an aid in adjusting. The automatic arrangements 
for securing certainty in exposing have been elaborated upon to 
such an extent that the inventor now feels certain that nothing 
can go wrong, at least with this part of the expedition. 

Professor Burckhalter*s parting injunction to his friends 
was not to wish him a good time or a pleasant journey, but that 
he might have two minutes of clear sky at the right time. Those 
of us who have heard him describe the disappointing day in 
Japan in 1896, and who realize what the success of this expedi- 
tion means, will be certain to remember him on the eventful day. 
If friendly good wishes can insure success, he will have it. 

Allen H. Babcock. 

Elements of Comet b, 1897 (Perrine). 

From Mt. Hamilton observations, made on October i6th, 
1 8th, and 20th, we have computed the following elements of the 
orbit of this comet: — 

T r= 1897 Dec. 9.89171 G. M. T. 

0, = 67° 6' 55". 2 ) . , . ^ ,. ,• 

' ^^ \ Mean equmox and ecliptic 
n ^ 32 8 37 .4 \ ,s97.o 

/ = 69 45 43 .2 ) 
log ^ = o. 1 29500. 

Residuals for the middle place (O — C): — 
AX cos /3 = + 2".8, A^ = +2".4. 

A comparison of observations made on November ist with 
the ephemeris positions computed from these elements shows a 
satisfactory agreement. W. J. Hussey and R. G. Aitken. 

November 3, 1897. 

Astronomical Telegrams (Translations), 

Lick Observatory, Oct. 17, 1897. 

To Harvard College Observatory: ; ^5^^^ ^ .^ ^ ^^ 

To Students' Observatory, Berkeley:^ 

A comet was discovered by C. D. Perrine, October 16.7398, 
G. M. T.; R. A. 3* 36" 7'.6; N. P. D. 23° 13' 16". The comet 
is about 2' in diameter, is as bright as an eighth magnitude star, 
has a well-defined nucleus and a tail less than 30' long. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 247 

Lick Observatory, Oct. 18, 1897. 
To Harvard College Observatory: ) ^3^^^ ^ .^^ ^^^^ 

To Students' Observatory, Berkeley: ) 

Comet b, 1897 (Perrine), was observed by C D. Perrine, 
October 17.7121, G. M. T.; R. A. 7^" ^d^ 2^\^\ N. P. D. 21° 
42' 47''. 

Lick Observatory, Oct. 18, 1897. 
To Harvard College Observatory: y ^^^^^ ^^^ 

To Students' Observatory, Berkeley:) 

Comet ^, 1897 (Perrine), was observed by W. J. Hussey, 
October 18.6498. G. M. T.; R. A. 3*' 24'° 2'. 2; N. P. D. 20° 
16' 06''. 

Lick Observatory, Oct. 19, 1897. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 5:10 p.m.) 

Comet b, 1897, was observed with the Meridian Circle by 
R. H. Tucker, October 18.901 1, G. M. T.; R. A. 3*' 22° 5'. 5; 
N. P. D. 19° 52' 49". 

Lick Observatory, Oct. 19, 1897. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 9:15 a.m.) 

Elements and ephemeris of Comet b, 1897, were computed by 
W. J. Hussey and R. G. Aitken. 

ELEMENTS. 

T = G. M. T. 1897, ^^^' 9.2300. 
0) = 66° 28' \ 

O = 32 5 VMean equinox of 1897.0 
z = 69 38 ) 

q = 1.3525- 

[The ephemeris at four-day intervals, from October 20th to 
November i, 1897, is here omitted.] 



248 Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 

held in the rooms of the society, 

November 27, 1897. 

Mr. PiERsoN presided. A quorum was present. The minutes of 
the last meeting were approved. The following members were duly 
elected: — 

List of Members Elected November 27, 1897. 

r American Museum of Natural 
Prof Albert S. Bickmore ....-! History, Central Park, New 

I York, N. Y. 

Miss GEAKON {"^tScrffiand:"'*'''""''' 

Mr. A. Perrenod Saint- Pierre, Martinique. 

The following letter was presented to the Directors: — 

Mount Hamilton. October i, 1897. 
The Board of Directors^ Astronomicnl Society 0/ iht Pacific. 

Gentlbmen: — I beg to tender my resignation as a member of the Directors A. S. P., 
and as one of the Committee on Publication, to take effect on December 1, 1897. I shall 
hope to retain my connection with the Society during my lifetime. I have the pleasure oC 
thinking that the situation of our Society is much improved since the early days of its 
formation, and that our power and influence for good is now well established, thanks to the 
unwearied efforts of some of the members. In spite of some obstacles which have had to be 
overct me, it would seem that we are now firmly established as a veritable force for advancing 
Science in the United States and elsewhere. 

I wish for the Society continued success and usefulness, and it will be my effort, in the 
future as well as in the past, to contribute to these ends to the best of my ability. 

With my personal good wishes to each one of your Board, and my thanks for your friendship 
during the years of our pleasant association, believe me. Gentlemen, 

Very cordially yours, 

Edward S. Holdbn. 

Upon motion by Mr. Pierson, the following resolutions were 
adopted: — 

Whfrkas', Dr. Edward S. Holdbn has tendered his resignation as a member of the 
Board of Directors of this Society, and the Board is now called upon to act on the same, be it 

Resolvedy That it is with sincere regret that the Board accepts said resignation, which it 
does solely for the reason that Dr. Holdbn's absence from the State prevents him from attend- 
ing to the duties of the ofhce; 

Rcsoh'edt That as the founder of this Society, as its First President, as a continuing member 
of its Board of Directors, and as the able editor of the Publications of the Society, Dr. Holdbn 
is entitled to the gratitude of all its members, and deserving of such marks of esteem as this 
Board has the power to grant; and it is therefore further 

Resol7'ed, That Dr. Holdfn be, and he is hereby elected a life Member of this Society; — 
and the Secretary is instructed to forward a copy of these resolutions to him. 

The following members were appointed to fill the vacancies caused 
by Dr. Holden's resignation; to date from December i, 1897: — 

As First Vice-President Mr. E. J. Molera. 

As a Director Mr. R. H. Tucker. 

As a member of the Committee } 



on Publication. f • • • Mr. F. H. Shares. 



Adjourned. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 249 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Astronomical Society 

OF THE Pacific, held in the Lecture Hall of 

THE California Academy of Sciences, 

November 27, 1897. 

The meeting was called to order by Mr. William S. Moses. The 
minutes of the last meeting, as printed in the PublicaiionSy were 
approved. 

The Secretary read the names of new members duly elected at the 
Directors' meeting. 

The following papers were presented: — 

1. Dedication of the Yerkes Observatory, by Mr. Frederick H. 

Seares. 

2. Planetary Phenomena for January and February, 1898. by Professor 

M. McNeill, of Lake Forest. 

3. Catalogues 111 and IV of New Nebulae discpvered at the Lowe 

Observatory, by Dr. Lewis Swift. 

4. The Yerkes Observatory, by Professor W. J. Hussey. 

5. Comet b, 1897, by Mr. C. D. Perrine. 

Mr. Seares delivered an address upon the dedication of the Yerkes 
Observatory, giving a description of the equipment of this institution, 
and an account of the opening exercises, which he attended in person. 

Adjourned. 



250 Publications of the Astronomical Society &c. 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. William Alvord Pr^sidemt 

Mr. E. J. MoLSRA Ftrst I'lce-Preiidrnt 

Mr. Frederick H. Skakks Second VLe-Preademt 

Mr. Chaun'Cky M. St. John Third Vi-.t-Presiacni 

Mr. C. D. PbRRINK ( K^rr^t^r^,^ 

Mr. F. R. Z.KL i i^ccretartex 

Mr. F. R. ZiKL Treasurer 

Board of Directors- Messrs. Alvoru, Mulkra, Morse, Miss O'Hallokan, Messrs. 

Pkrrink, PiKRSON, Skakes. St. John, Tucker, von Geldekn, Ziel. 
Finance Committee — Messrs. William M. Pibrson, E. J. Molbra, and C. M. St. Juhn. 
I Committee on Publication — Messrs. Aitken, Babcock, Seares. 
Library Committee— "SitssTt. HussEY and Sbarbs and Miss O'Halloran. 
Committee OH the Comet- Afeda/^S\essTs. Holden (ex-ojicio), Schabbbrle, Camfbell. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee — .Mr. Ruthven W. Pike. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 

Executix'e Committee— lA. Francisco Rodriguez Rev. 



NOTICE. 

The attention of new members is called to Article VIII of the By-Laws, which provides that 
the annual subscription, paid on election, covers the calendar year only. Subsequent annual 
payments are due on January ist of each succeeding calendar year. 1 his rule is necessary in 
order lo make our book-keeping as simple as possible. Dues sent by mail should be directed to 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific S19 Market Street, San Francisco. 

It is intended that each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the Pub- 
lications for the year in which he was elected to membership and for all subsequent years. If 
there have been (unfortunately) any omissions in this matter, it is requested that the Secretaries 
he at once notified, in order that the missing numbers may be supplied. Members are requested 
to preserve the copies of the Publications of the Society as sent to them. Once each year a title* 
page and contents of the preceding numbers will also be sent to the members, who can then bind 
the numbers together into a volume. Complete volumes for past years will also be supplied, to 
members only, so far as the stock in hand is sufficient, on the payment of two dollars per volume 
to either of the Secretaries. Any non-resident member within the United States can obtain 
books from the Society's library by sending his library card with ten cents in stamps to the 
Secretary A.S. P., 819 Market Street, San Francisco, who will return the book and the card. 

The Committee on Publication desires to say that the order in which papers are printed in 
the Publications is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
first which are earliest accepted for publication. It is not possible to send proof sheets of papers 
to be printed to authors whose residence is not within the United States, llie responsibility for 
the views expressed in the papers printed rests with the writers, and is not assumed by the 
Society itself. 

The titles of papers for reading should be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
as possible, as well as any changes in addresses. The Secretary in San V rancisco will send to 
any member of the Society suitable stationery, stamped with the seal of the Society, at cost price, 
as follows: a block of letter paper, 40 cents; of note paper, 35 cents; a package of envelopes, 95 
cents. These prices include postage, and should be remitted by money-order or in U. S. postage 
stamps. The sendings are at the risk of the member. 

Those members who propose to attend the meetings at Mount Hamilton during the summer 
should communicate with "The Secretary Astronomical Society of the Pacific *' at the rooms of 
the Society, 810 Market Street, San Francisco, in order that arrangements may be made for 
transportation, lodging, etc. 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHLY. 
( February t April, June, August, October, December. f 




GENERAL INDEX TO VOL. IX. 



Page 

Abjuratio Galilei 30 

Asirono mische Gesellscha/t Zon^, — 9® 50' to — 14° 10' (note) . ... 40 
AiTKEN, R. G., Elements of Comet by 1897, with W. J. Hussey, 246; 
Dimensions of Planets and Satellites, 241; Light Absorption as a 
Factor in Determining the Size of Objectives (note), 98; Measures 
of the Companion to Proycon, 47; Measures of ^ Delphini, 93; 
Measures of Sirius, 10 1; Measures of Sirius and ^ 883. 238; 
Observation of the Solar Eclipse of July 29, 1897, 195; Statistics 
of the Lick Observatory Library, 150; Weather at Mt. Hamilton 
in Winter of 1896-97, 103; The Bruce Photometers of the Lick 
Observatory, 184; The Great Sun-Spot of January, 1897 (note), 43; 

Photograph of the Spectrum of a Meteor (note) 240 

Ames, Kate, Unusual Lunar Halo, August 5, 1897 195 

Arrhenius, S., Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air on the Earth's 

Temperature 14 

Astronomical Society of the Pacific, By-Laws of 163 

Bruce Medal of, 104, 168; Comet-Medal of, 170; Corresponding 
Institutions of, 12; Exchanges of, 13; Members of, i; Minutes of 
Meeting of Board of Directors of. 49, 113. 118, 160, 205. 206, 
207, 248; Minutes of Meetings of Society, 50, 114, 160, 206, 249; 
Officers of, 51, 119, 161, 171, 208, 250; Report of Committee on 

Comet-Medal, 115; Report of Treasurer 116 

Astrographic Charts 102 

Astronomical Telegrams 47, 155, 246 

A«itronomy and Astronomers in Their Relations to the Public, by 

W. J. Hussey 53 

Atlas der Himmelskunde 145, 203 

Awards of the Donohoe Comet-Medal 36, 38, 99 

Babcock, a. H., Earthquake at Oakland, January 17, 1897 .... 45 

Earthquake of June 20, 1897 135 

Chabot Observatory Eclipse Expedition 245 

Barnard, E. E., Honor Conferred on (note) 44 

Bond, W. C. and G. P., Memorials of (note) 100 

W. C, Portrait of, to face 89; note 91 

Bruce, Gift to Prague Observatory loi 

Medal for Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 104, 168; Pho- 
tometers of Lick Observatory, 184; Photographic telescope, ist 

results of (note) 93 

Burton-Brown, A. Col., Total Eclipse of Sun, January 22, 1898 . . 189 
Campbell, W. W., Recent Observations of the Spectrum of Mars . 109 
Carbonic Add in the Air, Its Influence on the Temperature of the 
Earth, by Prof. S. Arrhenius 14 



252 Publications of the 

Pack 

Chabot Observatory Eclipse Expedition 245 

Clark, Alvan G., Death of (note) 152 

Coast and Geodetic Survey, Longitude Net of, 242; Change in (note) 241 
CoDDiNGTON, E. F., The Cause of Gravitation (translation) .... igo 
CoLTON, A. L.. The Great Sun-Spot of January, 1897, with Photo- 
graphs 42 

Photograph of the Solar Surface, with C. D. Perrinb, Frontispiece 

Resignation of 203 

Comets, Due to Return in 1898 239 

Comet, DoNATi's, Photograpli of (note) 89 

Reported by Swift, Search for (note) 89 

g 1896, Perrine, Discovery, 39; Elements by Seares and Craw- 
ford, 36; Elements by Hussev and Perrine, 40; Elliptic 

Elements by Hussev and Perrine. 46; Telegrams 47. 48 

D'Arrest's, Rediscovery by Perrine 155 

Comet b, 1897 (Perrine), Elements by W. J. Hussev and R. G. 

AlTKEN 246 

Note on, by C. D. Perrine, 232; Telegrams on 246 

Medal, Awards of, 36, 38, 99; Rules of 170 

CoMSTOCK, George C, The Washburn Observatory 31 

Corresponding Institutions of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 12 
Crawford, R.T.. Elements of Comet ^, 1896; Comet h, 1897 . . 36, 234 

Crocker, C. P., Death of (note) 160 

Crossley Reflector, Trial of (note) 159 

DooLiTTLE, C. L., The Sayre Observatory 130 

Double Stars, Measures of. See Aitken, Lehman; Procyon, Sirtus, 

Eclipse of Sun, July 29, 1897, by D. E. Hadden 188 

Observations of, by R. G. Aitken, 195; Predictions for, by C. D. 

Perrine 85 

January 22, 1898, by E. W. Maunder 131 

By Col. A. Burton-Brown, 189; Expedition to, from Lick 
Observatory (notes), 155, 244; from Chabot Observatory (note) 245 

Earthquakes in California in 1896. by C. D. Perrine 37 

At Oakland, January 17, 1897, by A. H. Babcock, 45; Of June 
20. 1897, by A. H. Babcock, 135; by S. C. Lillis, 135; On Pacific 

Coast, Catalogue of (note) 238 

Errata in Publications Astronomical Society of the Pacific . . . . 47. 90 

Exchanges, Astronomical Society of the Pacific 13 

Gravitation, The Cause of, by V. Wellman 190 

Hadden, David E., Eclipse of Sun, January 29, 1897 188 

Review of Solar Observations for 1895-96 77 

Hagen, J. G, A New Observatory 121 

Heliocentric Theory and the University of Cambridge in 1669 (note) 43 

Holden, E. S., a New Celestial Atlas (review) 145 

Albert Marth (biographical notice), 202; Appointments in the 
Lick Observatory (note), 160; Atlas der Himmelskunde (note), 
203; Bruce Medal, 105; Catalogue of Pacific Coast Earthquakes 
from 1767 to 1897, 238; Cost of Lick Observatory Library (note), 
201; Death of Alvan G. Clark (note), 152; Death of Chas. F. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 253 

Pack 
Crocker (note), i6o; Experiments with the Moving Floor of the 
Large Dome, 148; First Results from the Bruce Photographic 
Telescope (note), 93; HoenA Wronski (note), 90; Howe's Ele- 
ments of Astronomy (review), 94; Inventory of Lick Observatory, 
Buildings and Equipment, 201; Lick Observatory Eclipse Expe- 
dition to India (note), 155; Lowell's Observations of Mercury 
and V^enus^ 92; Memorials of W. C. and G. P. Bond (note), 100; 
Notice to Members A. S. P., 41; Observatory Moon Atlas, 202; 
Photographs of Donati's Comet (note), 89; Photograph of 
Solar Surface (note), 39; Portrait of W. C. Bond (note), 91; Por- 
traits of Astronomers (list), 95; Mt. Hamilton Post Office, 151; 
Probable Errors of Some Star Catalogues, 107; Reflector and 
Portrait Lens in Celestial Photography (note), 147; Relief Map 
of Lick Observatory Reservation, 40; Resignation of, 235; 
Reversing-Layer of the Corona (note), 100; Small Telescope 
for Sale (note), 160; Stability of the Great Equatorial, 147 ; Trial 
of the Crosslev Reflector (note), 159; The Work of the Lick 

Observatory 196 

Howe's Astronomy (review) 94 

Hussev, W. J., Astronomy and Astronomers in Their Relations to 

the Public 53 

Elements of Comet ^, 1897, with R. G. Aitken, 246; Elements 
of Comet ^, 1896, 40; Elliptic Elements of Comet ;f, 1896, with 
C. D. Perrine, 46; Measures of Procyon, 147; Search for Comets 
Reported by Swift, September 20, 1896 (note), 89; The Yerkes 

Observatory 209 

Instrument Making at Alleghany (note) 151 

yi#/i/^. Photographs of, by J. M. Schaeberle 173 

Kohl, Torvald, Astronomical Observations in 1896 65 

Ladd Observatory, The (note) 47 

Lehman, D. A., Measures of Double Stars 141 

Leonids^ See Meteors. 

Lick Observatory, Appointments in 151, i6t\ 235 

Bruce Photometers of, 184; Eclipse Expedition to India, 155, 
244; Experiments with the Moving Floor of the Great Dome, 
148; Graduate Students at, 151; Inventory of, 201; Latitude of, 
loi; Library, Cost of, 201; Statistics of, 150; Moon Atlas, 202; 
Post Office at, 151; Relief Map of Reservation, 40; Resignation 
of Director of, 235; Stability of the Great Equatorial of, 147; 

Weather at, 103; Work of 196 

Light Absorption as a Factor in Determining the Size of Objectives. 98 

LiLLis, S. C, Earthquake of June 20, 1897 135 

Longitude Net of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey . 242 

Lowell Observatory, Return to Arizona (note) 105 

Luminous Appearances in the Sky, Sqme, by W. H. S. Monck . . 33 

Lunar Halo, Unusual (note) 195 

Mars, Rift in the Polar Cap of 48 

Mars, Spectrum of, by W. W. Campbell 109 

Marth, a., Biographical Notice of 202 



254 Publications of the 

Page 

Ephemeris for Physical Observations of the Moon 76, 108 

Maunder, E. W., English Preparations for Total Eclipse of January 

22, 1898 131 

McNeill, Malcolm, Planetary Phenomena .... 24, 70, 136, 174, 226 

Members of Astronomical Society of the Pacific, List of i 

Mercury and Venus, Lowell's Observations of 92 

Meteors of November 15, 1896 (note) 41 

A Brilliant (note), 44; Of January 24, 1897 (note), 91; Of January 
26, 1897 (note), 90; Of May 5, 1897 (note), 146; The Leonids (note), 
41; Leonids in 1897, The, 239; Photograph of the Spectrum of . 240 

Metric System (note) 90 

MoNCK, VV. H. S., Some Luminous Appearances in the Sky .... 33 

The Spectra and Proper Motions of Stars 123 

Moon, Atlas of 202 

Ephemeris for the Physical Observations of, by A. Marth, 76, loS 

Weinek's Photographic Atlas of 156 

Moses, Wm. S., A Brilliant Meteor (note) 44 

Nebulae, Lowe Observatory Catalogues of, by Lewis Swift . . 186. 223 
Notice to Members of ihe Astronomical Society of the Pacific . . 41, 108 

Observatory, Dedication of Flower 148 

Ladd. 47; Washburn, 31; Royal, at Greenwich, 152; The 

Savre, 130; Valkenburg, 121; Yerkes 209 

Observations, Astronomical, in 1896, by Torvald Kohl 65 

O'Halloran, Miss Rose, Maximum of o Ceti 86 

Perrine, C. D., Comet b, 1897 232 

Discovery of Comet g, 1896, 39; Elements of Comet g, 1896, 40; 
Elliptic Elements of Comet g^ 1896, with W. J. Hussev, 46; 
Earthquakes in California in 1896, 37; Fireball of January 26, 
1897 (note), 90; Lick Observatory Eclipse Expedition, 244; 
Photograph of Solar Surface, with A. L. Colton, Frontispiece; 
Predictions for Solar Eclipse of July 29, 1897, 85; Comets Due 
to Return in 1898, 239; The Leonids in 1897, 239; Rediscovery 

of D'Arrest's Comet • 155 

Photograph of Solar Surface (note) 39 

Frontispiece, by A. L. Colton and C. D. Perrine 

Photographic Durchmusierung ^ Cape 105 

Photometers, The Bruce, by R. G. Aitken 184 

Planetary Phenomena, by Malcolm McNeill ... 24, 70. 136, 174, 226 

Planets and Satellite*^, Dimensions of 241 

Portraits of Astronomers 95, 204 

Prague Observatory, Gift of Miss Bruce to 107 

pRiCHETT, H. S., Appointed Superintendent of United States Coast 

and Geodetic Survey 241 

Observations of the Companion of Sirius 104 

Procyon, Measures of the Companion to 46, 47, 147, 244 

Proper Motions of Stars, by W. H. S. Monck 123 

Reese, S. J., Meteor of January 24, 1897 (note) 91 

Reflecting Telescopes, Prices of (note) 44 

Reflector and Portrait Lens in Celestial Photography (note) .... 147 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 255 

Pack 
Royal Astronomical Society, American Foreign Associates .... 45 

Americans Who Have Received the Medal of 45 

ScHAEBERLE, J. M., Measures of the Companion to Procyon .... 244 
Meteor of May 5, 1897, 146; Observations of the Companions of 

Procyon ?ixv^ Sirius^ ^^\V\\o\o%x?i^\i%o{ Jupiter 173 

Searle, Arthur, A. G., Zone, —9° 50' to — 14° lo^^(note) .... 40 
Seares, F. H.. and Crawford, R. T., Elements of Comet ^, 1896. 36 

SiriuSf Measures of 46, loi, 104, 238 

Solar Observations, by David E. Hadden . . 77 

Spectra and Proper Motion ot Stars, by W. H. S. Monck 123 

Stars, Catalogue of Fundamental ic6 

Probable Errors of Catalogues of, 107; Spectra and Proper 

Motions of 123 

Sun, Photograph of (note), 39 Frontispiece 

Eclipse of July 29, 1897 188 

Reversing Layer of Corona (note), 100; The Great Sun-Spot 

of January, 1897, with Photographs, by A. L. Colton 42 

Swift, Lewis, Catalogues of Nebulae Discovered at the Lowe 

Observatory, 186, 223; Honor Conferred on (note) 47 

Telescope for Sale (note) 160 

Tucker, R. H., Latitude of Lick Observatory 10 1 

Upham, Mrs. F. K., Meteors of November 15, 1896 (note) .... 41 

Vaikenburg, A New Observatory at, by John G. Hagen 122 

Variable Star, Maximum of o Ceii 86 

Venus and Mercury ^ Lowell's Observations of 92 

Washburn Observatory, The, by G. C. Comstock 31 

Weinek, L., Photographic Atlas of the Moon 156 

Wellm AN, v., The Cause of Gravitation 190 

VVronski, HoENfe (note) 90 

Yates, William, The A^i7«/V/ Meteors (note) 41 

Yerkes Observatory, The, by W. J. Hussev 209 



I 



J 

/ 



'/ ■/' >-> 






'^ 
















Aflov 




V, 









PUBLICATIONS 



>^^^ 
^-.-^> :<<•.. 



ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 



OF THE PACIFIC. 



VOLUME X. 
i8g8. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
1898. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



A8TOR, LENOX AND 

TIL DEN FOUNDATIONS. 

R 1901 L. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS.* 



Publications No. 60, February i, 1898. 

Pagb 
The Great Nebula in Andromeda^ from a Photograph by E. F. 

CoDDiNGTON FrontispUcf 

List of Members of the Society, January I, 1898 i 

List of Corresponding Observatories and Institutions 11 

A Series of Six Star Maps, by C. D. Per R I NE ......... 15 

Map I to face page 15 

Maps II, III, IV, V, VI .to face page 16 

Planetary Phenomena, for March and April, 1898, by Professor 

Malcolm McNeill 16 

Twenty-eighth Award of the Donohoe Comet-Medal to Mr. C. D. 

Perrinb . 22 

Astronomical Observations in 1897, by Torvald Kohl 22 

First Award of the Bruce Medal to Professor Simon Newcomb . . 26 

Spectroscopic Binary Stars, by R. G. Aitken . . . . . ... . . 26 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 35 

Rediscovery of Winnecke's Periodic Comet = <x 1897. C.*D. P. . 35 
The Probable State of the Sky along the Path of Total Eclipse of 
the Sun, May 28, 1900. Abstract of Report by Professor F. H. 

BiGELOW in Monthly Weather Review for September, 1897 . 35 

Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellite IV. C. B. Hill 36 

The Star with the Largest Known Proper Motion. R. G. A. . 37 
Astronomical Telegram : Observation of Winnecke's Comet 

byC. D. Perrine 37 

Observational Astronomy: A Practical Book for Amateurs, by 

Arthur Mee, F. R. A. S 37 

Some Interesting Double Stars. R. G. A 38 

Errata in Star Catalogues. R. G. A 39 

Award of the Lalande Gold Medal to Assistant Astronomer 

C. D. Perrine of the Lick Observatory. J. M. S 40 

Belopolskv's Researches on 17 Aquilce. W. J. H 41 

Meteors Visible in Full Daylight. E. F. C 41 

Report on the Teaching of Astronomy in the United States. 

R. G.A 42 

Success of the CROCKER-Lick Observatory Eclipse Expedition. 

J.M.S 43 

Death, of Dr. Winnecke 43 

Success of the PiERsoN-Chabot Observatory Eclipse Expedition. 

J.M.S 44 

The Great Nebula in Andromeda, E. F. C 45 



• To the Binder : This should precede page i, Volume X. 



IV Publications of the 

Pack 

Minules of the Meeting of ihe Directors, January 2g, i8g8 46 

List of Members Elected 46 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Society, January 2g, 1898 46 

Officers of the Society, etc 47 



Publications No. 61, April 2, 1898. 

A Lunar Landscape cut to face page 49 

Address of the Retiring President of the Society, in Awarding the 
Bruce Gold Medal to Professor Simon Newcomb, by William 

Alvord • 49 

Planetary Phenomena, forMay and June, 1898, by Professor Malcolm 

McNeill 59 

List of Earthquakes in California for the year 1897, compiled by 

C. D. Perrine. d4 

Latitude Work with the Fauth Transit Instrument of the Lick 

Observatory, by H. D. Curtis 67 

The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Scotland, from the Southwest 

cut to face page 69 

The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. Scotland, by R. G. Aitken . 69 
The 15-inch Equatorial Refractor, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh . 

. , . . ' cut to face page 70 

A New Variable Star, by Torvald Kohl 72 

Magnifying Ratios of Ewing Seismographs of Three Components, 

and of the Duplex-Pendulum Seismographs, by C. D. Perrine . 7a 
The 24-inch Newtonian Reflecting Telescope. Royal Observatory, 

Edinburgh cut to face page 72 

The Transit Circle, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh . cut to face page 74 
The Experimenting Room, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh .... 

cut to face page 76 

Very Bright Meteor, March 4, 1898, by H. D. Curtis 79 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet b 1898 (Perrine), by R. T. 

Crawford and H. K. Palmer 79 

North Front of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh . cut to face page 81 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 8r 

A Lunar Landscape, photographed at the Lick Observatory. 

J. M. S. and C. D. P 81 

The Lick Observatory Eclipse Expedition, from letter by 

W. W. Campbell 8r 

The Companions to Atdebaran, R. G. A 85 

A Remarkable Object. T. E. Espin 85 

Request for Observations of Comet 1896 L C. D. P 83 

A Dayhght Meteor. Chas. Pixlev 84 

Missing Books. Library Committee 84 

Election of Professor James E. Keeler as Director of the Lick 

Observatory. R. G. A 85 

Library Notice. Publication Committee 85 

Discovery of Cometh 1898 (Perrine). C. D. P 85 

Elements of Comet* 1898 (Perrine). W. J. H 86 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. v 

Pagh 
Astronomical Teleg:ram : Discovery and Observation of Comet 

b 1898, by C. D. Perrine 86 

Astronomical Telegram : Observation of Comet b 1898, by 

W.J. HussEY 86 

Astronomical Telegram: Observation of Comet b 1898, by 

C. D. Perrine 87 

Astronomical Telegram : Elements and Ephemeris of Comet b 

1898, by W.J. HussEY and C. D. Perrine 87 

Erratum 87 

The Crawford Library, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh . . . 

cut to face page 89 

Minutes of the Special Meeting of the Directors, November 27^ i8g8. 89 

First Award of the Bruce Medal 89 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors^ March 26 ^ j8g8 90 

List of Members Elected . 90 

Report of Committee on the Library 90 

Minutes of the AnnucU Meeting (Adjourned) of the Society, April 2, 

1898 91 

Directors Elected 91 

Report of Committee on Comet-Medal, March 26, 1898 .... 91 

Annual Report of Treasurer, March a6, 1898 92 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors, April 2, i8g8 94 

Officers Elected 94 

Appointment of Standing Committees 94 

Officers of the Society, etc 95 

The Spectroscope Attached to the 15-inch Refractor of the Royal 

Observatory, Edinburgh cut to face page 96 



Publications No. 62, June i, 1898. 

The Solar Corona of January 22, 1898 cut to face page 97 

On the Causes of the Sun's Equatorial Acceleration and the Sun-Spot 
Period, by E. J. Wilczvnski 97 

The New Atlas of Variable Stars, by the Rev. Father J. G. Hagen. 
S.J 100 

Observations of o Ceti (Mira), 1897-98, by Rose O'Halloran ... 103 

Honor Conferred on Professor Schaeberle 104 

The Red Stars V Hydra and 277 of Birmingham's Catalogue, by 
Rose 0*Halloran 105 

A New Astronomy for Beginners, by David P. Todd. Review by 
W. J. HussBY 106 

Planetary Phenomena, for July and August, 1898, by Professor Mal- 
colm McNeill 108 

Twenty-ninth Award of the Donohoe Comet-Medal to Mr. C. D. 
Perrine in 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 113 

Photograph of the Total Eclipse of the Sun, January 22, 189S . 113 
Changes in the Staff of the Lick Observatory 113 



vi Publications of the 

Pack 
Electric Illumination of the Micrometer at the Lick Observatory. 

W.J. H 113. 

The Lowell Observatory Catalogue of Double Stars. R. G. A. 114 

Changes in the American Ephemeris. R. G. A 115 

Solar Observations in 1897. R. G. A 116 

New Elements of Comet ^ 1898. C. D. P 116 

Elliptic Elements of Comet b 1898, and a Certain Similarity to 

the Comets of 1684 and 1785 L C. D. P 117 

Cometary Discoveries. W. F. Denning 11& 

The Variable Stars Z Ceniauri and the Nebula N. G. C. 5253. 

W.J. H 119 

"A Remarkable Object in /Vr^^w^.'* E. F. C 120 

A Correction. J. M. Schaebbrlb 120 

Recent Changes in the Double Star 02 341. W. J. H 121 

New Elements of Cometh 1898! Perrine). W.J. H 122 

A New Large Nebula in Ursa Major, E. F. C 123. 

The Rumford Medal. From Science 123 

Stellar Parallax. R. G. A 124 

Erratum ^ 124 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Directors, June tt, j6g8 125 

List of Members Elected 125 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Society, June J t^ iSgS 125 

Officers of the Society, etc. 1 26 



Publications No. 63, August i, 1898. 

General View of the Lick Observatory Eclipse Camp, near Jeur, 

India, January 22, 1898 cut to face page 127 

A General Account of the Lick Observatory-C rocker Eclipse Expe- 
dition to India, by W. W. Campbell 127 

The Lick Observatory Eclipse Station. Half an Hour After To- 
tality cut to face page 134 

The Influence of Physiological Phenomena on Visual Observations 

of the Spectrum of the Nebulae, by James E. Keeler 141 

Wolf's Periodic Comet, by W. J. Hussey 144 

Comet c 1898 (CoDDiNGTON), by E. F. Coddington 146 

Discovery Plate of Comet Coddington cut to face page 146 

Planetary Phenomena, for September and October, 1898, by Profes- 
sor Malcolm McNeill 149 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 153 

The November Meteors, from H. C. O. Circular No. 31 ... . 153 

Discovery of Comet e 1898 (Perrine). C. D. P 155 

Errata in Star Catalogues. C. D. P 155 

Two Bright Meteors, June 24 and June 29, 1898. C. D. P. . . . 156 

Comet c 1898 (Coddington) 157 

Elements of Comet e 1898. C. D. P. and R. G. A 157 

Elements of Comet ^ 1898 (GiACOBiNi). W. J. H 157 

Elements of Comet ^ 1898 (Perrine). C. D. P 158 

Fellowships at the Lick Observatory 158 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. vii 

Page 
The Large Refractors of the World, from The Observatory . . 158 
Astronomical Telegrams : Discovery and Observations of 

Comet c 1898 (Coddington) 160 

Astronomical Telegram: Ritchie. Discovery of Enckb's 

Comet by; Tbbbutt . * 160 

Astronomical Telegrams : Discovery and Observations of 

Cometh 1898 (Pbrrinb) 160 

Astronomical Telegram : Discovery of Wolf's Comet by 

W. J. HussEV 161 

Astronomical Telegrams : Elements and Ephemeris of Comets 

e 1898 (Pbrrine), and c 1898 (Coddington) 161 

Astronomical Telegram : Ritchie. Observation of Comet / 

1898 (GiACOBiNi) 162 

Astronomical Telegram : Ritchie. Elements and Ephemeris 

of Comet g 1898 (GiACOBiNi), by Krbutz 162 

Independent Discovery of Comet r 1898 162 

Conference of Astronomers and Physicists 162 

Obituary Notice of William Augustus Rogers, by Arthur 

Searlb, from Astronomische Nachrichten^ No. 3499 163 

Officers of the Society, etc 165 



Publications No, 64. October i, 1898. 

The Temperature of the Sun (I), by Professor Dr. J. Scheinbr. 
Translated from the German, in Himmel und Erde, by Fred- 
erick H. Seares 167 

New Observations of the Otto Struve Double Stars, by W. J. 

HussEV 180 

Motion of 1; Cephei in the Line of Sight, by W. W. Campbell ... 184 
Thirtieth, Thirty-first, and Thirty-second Awards of the Donohoe 
Comet-Medal to Messrs. E. F. Coddington, C. D. Pbrrine, and 

E. Giacobini 185 

Planetary Phenomena, for November and December, 1898, by Pro- 
fessor Malcolm McNeill 186 

Notices from the Lick Observatory 191 

New Gases in the Earth's Atmosphere. R. G. A. . . . . 191 

The Minor Planet (334) Chicago, W. J. H. . . 192 

The New Minor Planet, 1898 D Q. W. J. H 194 

Discovery and Orbit of Comet A 1898 (Pbrrine). C. D. P. . . 194 

New Elements of Comet h 1898. C. D. P 195 

Elements of the Minor Planet, 1898 D Q. W. J. H 196 

Astronomical Telegram : Ritchie. Orbit of Minor Planet, 1898 

DQ 197 

Astronomical Telegrams : Discovery and Observations of 

Comet b 1898 (Pbrrine) 197 

Astronomical Telegram : Ritchie. Discovery of a Comet by 

Pbchulb 197 

Astronomical Telegram : Ritchie. Pbchule*s Comet is 
Wolf's 198 



viii Publications of the 

Astroaotnical Telegram : Ritchie. Uacertatnty in L. O. tele- 
gram, September 14, 1898 198 

Astronomical Telegrams : Observation, Elements, and Epbem- 

eris. Comet b 1897 (Perrine) 198 

The Perseid Shower of 189a C. D..I* 198 

Elemehtsof Cometh 1898 (Perrine). C. D. P 199 

Obituary Notice of Dr. Hermann Romberg aoo 

Minutes of the Meeting of t9u Directors, Septemifer j, 1898 k>i 

List of Members Elected 201 

Minutes 0/ the Meeting 0/ the Society, Septemtfer J, £898 aoi 

Officers of the Society, etc 20a 

Ptibluations No. 65, December i, 1898. 

The Bruce Gold Medal cut to face page J03 

A General Acc6unt of the Chabot Observatory-PiERSON Edipse 

Expedition to India, by Charles Burckhalter 203 

Camp PiERtoN, near Wangi, India cut to face page 206 

The PiERsoN Photographic Telescope, as mounted in India .... 

cut to face page 208 

The PiERSON Telescope; with the Pardee Lens and Tube Attached 

cut to face page 21a 

The '* Eye-End ** of the Pierson Telescope .... cut to Dace page 212 
The Development of Photography in Astronomy, by Edward E. 

Barnard (Abstract) 213 

The Surface of the Sun, by Rose 0*Hallor AN 222 

The Temperature of the Sun (U), by Professor Dr. J. Scheiner 
(translated from the German, in Himmel und Erde, by Fred- 
erick H. Seares) ... 224 

Planetary Phenomena for January and February, 1899, by Professor 

Malcolm McNeill 235 

Notices frofn ike Ltc/i Observatory 239 

The Leonids of 1898. C. D. P . . 239 

The Leonid S\\oyN^x in 1898. R. G. A 241 

The Leonids in 1898. H. D. Curtis 242 

Family Likeness of the Comets 1 1898 (Brooks) and 1881 IV 

(Schaeberle). W. J. H 243 

The Small Bright Nebula near Merope. J. E. K. 245 

The Motion of the Pole. R. G. A 246 

Tiajeclory of the Pole (from A stronomicat Journal, No. 446) . . 247 
The Harvard Conference of Astronomers and Physicists . . . 249 

Helium in the Earth's Atmosphere. R. G. A 249 

The Telescope for the Paris Exhibition of 1900 249 

A New Algol Variable (from Science Observer, Specigl Circular, 

No. 122) 249 

Resemblance of the Orbit of Brooks's Comet (j 1898) to that of 

ScHAEBERLE'sCometof 1881 (1881 IV). C. D. P. 250 

. Astronomical Telegram: Ritchie, Discovery of Brooks's Comet 250 
Astroiiomical Telegrams: Observations and Elements of 
Bkooks's Comet 250 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. ix 

Page 
Astronomical Telegram: Perrinb finds Resemblance between 

Elements of Brooks's Comet and those of 1881 IV .... 351 

A New Gas. R. G. A 251 

Photographs of Comet t' 1898 (Brooks). J. E. K 353 

Erratum 353 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Director Sy November 26^ iSg8 354 

List of Members Elected 354 

Report of the Special Committee on the Bruce Medal 354 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Society^ November 26^ iSg8 356 

Officers of the Society, etc 357 

General Index to Volume X 359 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF TH B 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. X. San Francisco, California, February i, 1898. No. 60. 
LIST OF MEMBERS 

OP THE 

ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC. 
January i, 1898. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. William Alvord (Bank of CaUfornia, S. F.) Prtiident 

Mr. E. J. MoLSRA <6o6 Clay Street, S. F.) v 

Mr. Frbdbrick H. Sbakbs (Berkeley, Cal.) ..... > Vice-Prtxidenti 

Mr. C. M. St. John (IJ. S. Custom Hou&e, S. F.) ' 

Mr. C. D. Pbrrinb (Lick Observatory) Secretary 

Mr. F. R. ZiBL (301 California Street, S. F.) . . Secretary and Treasurer 

Board of Directors— Messn. Alvord, Molbra, Morke, Miss O'Halloran, Messrs. 

Pbrrinb, Pibrson, Skarbs, St. John, Tuckrm, von Gbluern, Zibl. 
Ftmamce Committee— Kessn. Wm. M. Pibrson, £. J. Molbra, and C. M. St. John. 
Committee oh Publication — Messrs. Aitkbn. Babcock, Searbs. 
Li^ary Committee— MessTt. Hvsany and Sbarbs and Miss O'Halloran. 
Committee on the Comet^Afedai—Mtssn. Schabhbrlb and Campbbi.l. 

OFFICERS OP THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee— Mr. Ruthvhn W. Pikb. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Executive Committee— Hit, Francisco Rodriguez Rbv. 



LIST OP MEMBERS.* 
Mr. Carl H. Abbott 118 nth St., Oakland, Cal. 

Prof. R. G. AiTKEN {^^tiS'''^''''^' ^'' """""■ 

Mr. J. H. Albert Salem, Oregon. 

Prof. W. Steadman Alois, *f.r.a.s. . { ^^^^S^^"' near Oxford, Eng- 

Prof. W. D. Alexander Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Mr. Richard H. Alle.n* Chatham, Morris Co., N. J. 

Mr. CHAKLHS A UTSCHUL { Xt"' s'T Cal/"'""" 

* A star signifies Life Membership. Total membership, 349 (75 life members. ) 



y 



2 Publications of the 

Hon. Henry B. Alvord* San Jos^, Cal. 

Hon. William Alvord* 2200 Broadway, S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. William Alvord* 2200 Broadway, S. F., Cal. 

Miss Kate Ames Napa, Cal. 

Mr. W. S. Andrews Schenectady, N. Y. 

Mr. F. S. AKCHSSHCO { ^TB^erirG^rany. 

Mrs. Wm. Ashburner 1014 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. J. J. A.B«T.N.. P.K.X.S { ''^^^^^)-^^T' ^- ^- 

Mr. Allen h. Babcock 12 14 Webster St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Walter C. Baker { '"^Ohio."''^*'^ ^^""^ Cleveland. 

Mr. N. A. Baldwin New Haven, Conn. 

Mr T Racssktt i ^^ ^*^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ Newington, 

Mr. J. BASSETT j j^ England. 

Miss Frances L. Beans 489 N. First St., San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. Henry Berger { Oteervatory Hill, Allegheny. 

Mr. John Bermingham* 330 Market St., S. F., Cal. 

f American Museum of Natural 
Prof. Albert S. Bickmore -! History, Central Park, New 

I York. N. Y. 

Prof. Frank H. Bigelow { ^ington? D^ C. ^"'''^"' ^^^^^ 

Mr. Wilbert M. Birge Davenport, Neb. 

Mr. R. L. Bischoffsheim,* F.R.A.s. . . 3 Rue Taitbout, Paris, France. 

Mr. Charles R. Bishop Occidental Hotel, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Thomas B. Bishop* 532 Market St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Anson Stiles Blake Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. Charles T. Blake Berkeley, Cal. 

%jf- u„^.«,, T ^«^ D^.t.^^v, T.. «. » A o (Caracas, Venezuela, or Box 
Mr. Henry Lord Boulton, Jr.,*F.R.A.s. | ^^^^^ ^^^^ york, N. Y. 

Dr. J. T. Boyd i 76 E. Ohio St., Indianapolis, 

Colonel E. D. Boyle Gold Hill, Storey Co., Nev. 

Mr. Frederick E. Brasch Stanford University, Cal. 

Mr. J. A. Brashear, f.r.a.s Allegheny City, Pa. 

1?*., VI c n».^i^.^AK, J St. Lawrence's Church, St. 

Rev. M. S. Brennan j ^ouis. Mo. 

Rev. A. L. Brewer San Mateo, Cal. 

Mr. Edward M. Brewer 27 Kilby St , Boston, Mass. 

f Hope Bank, Nelson St., Wool- 
Mr. Joseph Brooks, f.r.a.s., f.r.g.s. -{ lahra, via Sydney, New South 

I Wales, 
col. ALEX. BUKTON-BROWS.R.A....R.A.S. {^^eoj-ge^s^^Club.^^^^^^^^^^ 

Miss E. Brown* { ^ England"'*""' *='''^"*=*''*''- 

Miss C. W. Bruce* 8to 5th Ave., New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Charles Burckhalter, f.r.a.s. {^^^^^ c^h'"'''"'**"'^' ^''^' 






Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 3 

Miss MXKV E. BvK. {■'^e^S'KrptotMaS:*'- 

Dr. J. Callandreau* 114 Montgomery St., S.F ,Cal. 

Prof. W. W. Campbell -f Li^rk Observatory. Mt. Hamil- 

( ton, Cal. 

Mr. Andrew Carnegie* 5 West 51st St., New York, N.Y. 

Mr. J. C. Cebrian* { ^ Cal^""^ '^^'''^'^ ^^" ^' ^" 

Dr. V. Cerulli | Observatorio Privato, Teramo, 

Mr. B. G. Clapp The Academy. Fulton, N. Y. 

Dr. E. S. Clark 16 Geary St.. S. F., Cal. 

Miss Isabella D. Clakk Sanjos^, Cal. 

Mr. Mateo Clark* {"^ESnd." ^''*^' ^"*^°"' 

Miss Agnes M. Clerke {^E^|faid^* ^"''"'' ^°"*'''"' 

Mr. Ernest A. Cleveland Vancouver, B. C. 

Mr. E. F. CoDDiNGTON {^to^n^C^''''''^^ ^^' "''"'*'" 

Mr. A. L. CoLTON* Box 1314, Ann Arbor. Mich. 

Mr. J. Costa 1 14 Montgomery St., S.F., Cal. 

Mr. Henry CowELL* 413 Hyde St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Hugh Craig 312 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Walter Cramp j "delK^'pa."'''''^ ^^" ^*'"^" 

Mr. George Crocker* Mills Building:, New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Henry J. Crocker 508 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. William H. Crocker* j ^'g^Jj^y'^^'ll^cT ^^''''"''^ 

Mr. Edward Crossley,*f.r.a.s. . . { ^^f^^g^Ja^^'^^^^^ 

Miss's. J. Cunningham { ^ w^'reTo^, Pa."''^''' ^^^''" 

Mr. Chas. S. Cushing 920 Linden St.. Oakland. Cal. 

TM^ T i7««f.7i^ rkAif.r.c^xT* 3 Alexandra Plantation, Brans- 
Mr. J. EwEN Davidson* ^ combe, Mackay, Queensland. 

Mr. Joseph E. Davis 154 Beacon St.. Boston, Mass. 

Mr. William T. Dawson Etna, Siskiyou Co., Cal. 

Mr. C. W. Dearborn { "^'ilSfn^ar' ''^""^' 

Mrs. John H. Devereux { ^^hfo"''"** ^''*' ^'*''^'*"*'' 

Mr. W. H. Devinb* Nagasaki, Japan. 

Miss Grace H. Dodge { '^YoK*"y. ^"^""^^ ^** 

Mr. John Dolbeer lo California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. W. E. Downs Sutter Creek, Amador Co., Cal. 

Mrs. Anna Palmer Draper* .... | ^ri^Madison Ave.. New York, 

Rev. W. Arthur Duckworth, j. p. . { ^STEnJland!'''*""*' ^'"*" 



4 Publications of the 

Mr. Francis G. Du Pont Wilmington, Del. 

Mr. H. DuTARD* 2616 Buchanan St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Earnest I. Dyer 1383 Alice St., Oakland, Cal. 

Miss S. J. Eastman Ogontz School, Pa. 

Mr. GEO. M. EDGAR ^SrALb^n,?.- """"''"^ 

Mr. Geo. W. Edwardes {"k^'"'' °'^"^* ^'" ^^"^ 

Prof. George C. Edwards Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. HENRV EICHBAUM {3 ^I'^^flt^-^^l^l 

Capt. Oliver Eldridge 615 Sutter Si., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. J. W. Erwin C'c^l.^"'*"' ^''*- ^^^'^^'^y- 

{Puisne Judge, Supreme Court, 
Pietermaritzburg, Natal, 
South Africa. 

Mr. S. Wilson Fisher 1502 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Andrew B. Forbes* 401 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. GEO. STUART FORBES j ^„^k^;"/-„S"l,L^°y,I„^! 

Mr. Arthur W. Foster* 322 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. C. L. Foster 601 Polk St.. S. F., Cal. 

Mr. H. C. Frick* 42 5th Ave., Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Prof. Chas. W. Friend Observatory, Carson, Nev. 

Mr. Robert D. Fry* 1812 Jackson St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Walter F. Gale, f.r.a.s Paddington, Sydney, N. S. W. 

Mr. Jos. F. Gassmann 318 Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 

Miss GEAROK {"'ko^l.^lSjk.'l^S!'' 

Mr. Otto von Geudern | Room 56. 819 Market St., S.F., 

Mr. Louis Gex Santos, Brazil. 

T^^ TA»,r.r. r-,, , ^« «. n * o /Royal Astrouomer, Cape of 

Dr. David Gill, c.b., f.r.a.s | J^^^ ^ope, Africa. 

Mr. Allen F. Gillihan 2420 Fulton St., Berkeley, Cal. 

Mr. George Gleason, j. p { ^°Ca . Cat**'"''' ^' "^"^^'^ 

Mr. James Monroe Goewev { ^^^|,.*"** ^^"» ^'^- ^- ''•• 

Capt. Charles Goodall* {^fts^S.'R.'^cS'''*"**^*"* 

xA^ Ar..., nr..^.^ /N- E. cor. Bush and Sansome 

Mr. Adam Grant* j gts., S. F., Cal. 

x>T* T^^^«., rk ^oAi.*^* i N- E. cor. Bush and Sansome 

Mr. Joseph D. Grant* j gts., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Albert Edward Gray Lasata,Oroville, Butte Co., Cal. 

%# A.,^««,., i-„„.^» f 3 Duntrune Terrace, Broughty 

Mr. Andrew Greig* |^ p^^y^ Dundee, Scotland. 

Sir George Grey,* k.c.b Auckland, New Zealand. 

Mr. C. P. Grimwood 214 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

r> u i-« ..^»., i-.»,.,^r»oo ^ « - - . o i Cliff House, Curbar, via Shef- 
Rev. H. Grattan Guinness, d.d., f.r.a.s. j ^^j^^ England. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 5 

Mr. J. O'B. GuNN Box 2128, S. F., Cal. 

Miss EsTELLA L. Guppv San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. W. C. GuRLKY Marietta, Ohio. 

Mr. David E. Hadden Alta, Iowa. 

-M^ \M vk Uai^%</m^ /U. S. Weather Bureau, Mills 

Mr. W. H. Hammon | Building, S. F., Cal. 

Mr Hfvrv Harrison f Maudeville Ave.. Jersey City 

Mr. HENRY HARRISON | Heights. New J crsey. 

Mr. Jackson Hatch Porter Building, San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. L. L. Hawkins 268 Oak St., Portland, Oregon. 

Mr. Robert Y. Haynb, Jr San Mateo, Cal. 

Mrs. Phebe Hearst f Room 33. 9th floor. Mills BuUd- 

i ing, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. ANDKBW p. HKNKEL { ^'^iSatf OhS^'""* ""''• 

Mr. David Hewes Occidental Hotel, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. George V. Hicks 532 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Prof. Alfred Higbie | S.W.wr^Kerce and Pine Sts.. 

Hon. Henrv E. Highton 1 4th,floor, Mills Building, S. F., 

Mr. Chas. B. Hill 212 Pine St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Horace L. Hill* 124 Sansome St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Samuel V. Hoffman,* f.r.a.s. . { "^jjf "^'""^ A*«- Mo"«stown, 

Mr. Charles W. Holden 30 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

Dr. E. S. Holden,* Foreign A.soc.R.A.s.{Sm^JhsonianI^nstitution,^^^ 

Mr. S. E. Holden Napa, Cal. 

Hon. Jambs F. Houghton 223 Mission St., S. F., Cal. 

Hon. C. Webb Howard* Pacific-Union Club, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Wm. Howat* {^'vicSi*!" ^'■* ^*"'°"™*' 

Mr. Wm. Rumford Howell .... J43^^WaInut St. Philadelphia, 

Prof. W. J. HussEY {^to^n^fih"''''*''^' ^*- "*"""" 

Mrs. M. H. HUTTON \ '* ""'»" ^t- New Brunswick, 

< New Jersey. 

Imperial Observatory {"ruISI? ""' ^'" ^^'*'^''"'^' 

Mr. O. H. Ingram Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Frank Jaynes {W^U; Telegraph Co.. S. F., 

Mr. Nels Johnson Manistee, Mich. 

Prof T E Kerler f r a s \ Director Allegheny Observa- 

rrot. j. li. KEBLER, F.R.A.S ^ ^^^^ Allegheny City, Pa. 

Mr. Charles C. Keeney* 2220 Clay St, S. F., Cal. 

Prof. JosiAH Keep j Mi^s College, Alameda Co., 

Mr. A. Keith Riverside, Cal. 

Mr. James R. Kelly 309 Leavenworth St., S.F., Cal. 



6 Publications of the 

Mr. JOH« W. KB..K.CK j ^a?ov^?,.'irnL%rMS 

Mr. DONALD K..O { « ^^l E^aid."""^''' 

Mr. SvoNKV T. KLH.N.- P.K.X.S. . . . { Ote^,S: inTunr"*"*' 

Dr. Dorothea Klumpke jr NaUona^ Observatory. Paris. 

Mr. ToRVALD KoHt* Odder, Denmark. 

Mr. Fr. Koeppbn {^'^TOfny*!^* '' ^''''"' ^^' 

Prof. H. Kreutz Stemwarte. Kiel, Germany. 

Mr. C. F. DE LANDERO- {P-^^^- ^,P-h-. state 

Mr. Walter W. Law Briar Cliff. Scarborough, N.Y. 

Miss Hannah Townsbnd Lawrence . Bayside, Long Island, N. Y. 

Hon. MANUEL FERNANDEZ LeAL . . . j ^'^^^^l, '^^^^:^^,^^^ 3. 

Prof. F. P. Leavenworth { ^ n^^lU, MiSIil""^^' ^'^ 

Prof. Joseph Lb Conte, ll. d Berkeley, Cal. 

Rev. Edmund Ledger, m.a., f.r.a.s. . Claydon, Ipswich, England. 

Prof. D. A. Lehman Berea, Ohio. 

Mr. Clarence Mackenzie Lewis* . . 104 E. 37th St., New York, N.Y. 

^'TAT^Jor. ^I" ^"l"^" .""^ E;^"-} Washington, D. C. 

California State Library Sacramento, Cal. 

Library of the Chabot Observatory . Oakland, Cal. 

The City Library Lowell, Mass. 

Free Public Library Newark, New Jersey. 

Free Public Library Worcester, Mass. 

Library OF THE LELi»ND Stanford Jr. / c*o«f,>^^ tt«:..^«,u„ n^\ 
University [Stanford University, Cal. 

Library of the Lick Observatory . Mount Hamilton, Cal. 
Library OF THE Mechanics* Institute . 31 Post St., S. F., Cal. 

The Newberry Library Chicago, 111. 

New York Public Library j 40 Lafayette Place, New York, 

Library of the Observatory .... Georgetown College, D. C. 

Library of Princeton University . . Princeton, New Jersey. 

The Public Library Boston, Mass. 

Library of St. Gertrude's Academy . Rio Vista, Cal. 

Library of the University of Cali- \ o^^i,^i^ ^ • 
fornia [Berkeley, Cal. 

Library of the University of)^.^^^,.^ fii:„^:^ 
Illinois | Champaign, Illmois. 

Library of the University ofXr. ^^. .^„ t«^;««, 
Indiana / Bloomington, Indiana. 

Library of the University of Penn- 1 
sylvania 



' I Philadelphia, Pa. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 7 

Library of Yale University .... New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Adolph Lietz 422 Sacramento St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. J. A. LiCHTHiPE . 15 First St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. John D. Locke Haverhill, New Hampshire. 

Mr. Henry B. Loomis Seattle, Washington. 

{Director of the McMillin Ob- 
servatory, Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Columbus, Ohio. 

Mr. Edward G. Lukens -200 Market St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Geo. Russell Lukens 1350 Madison St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Frank E. Lunt | Ca^eR. G. Lunt, Los Angeles, 

Miss Agnes M. Manning 12 15 Suiter Street, S. F.,Cal. 

Mr. Marsden Manson, c.e., ph.d. . { ^So^ c"!^*''^^^'' ^'''''^' 

Mr. F. Martens {^^li^eTvo^k!'* ^"'^"'' ^''" 

Mr. Camilo Martin { S^^.^S.fI.^Si^ 

Hon. E. S. Martin P. O. Box 75, Wilmington, N.C. 

{Puruatanga, Martinborough, 
Wairarapa, Welhngton, New 
Zealand. 
Mr. Louis C. Masten 2218 Clay St., S. F., Cal. 

D-^r A \n iLf..n^^^i.T ) Scott Observatory, Parkville, 

Prof. A. M. Mattoon j Missouri. 

m>r. \ir u vr.,.,« » » ^ o i i8 Addison Road, Kensington, 

Mr. W. H. Maw,* f.r.a.s ] London, England. 

ilm i7«.^,^ iLT^i-. ».^, » w . »o * o f Rusthall House, Tunbridge 
Mr. Frank McClean.* m.a.. f.r.a.s. | ^^,jg^ England. 

Mr. F. H. McCoNNELL 19 Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. John McDonough 193 28th St, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

r South Alabama Baptist In- 
Prof. J. M. McIvER \ stitute, Thomasville, Ala- 

( bama. 

Prof. Malcolm McNeill Lake Forest, 111. 

Hon. Albert Miller* 532 California St., S. F., Cal. 

r^ e ^ X* .« /University of Kansas, Law- 
Prof. E. Miller | ^^^^^ ^Kansas. 

Hon. D O. Mills* 15 Broad St., New York, N.Y. 

Dr. Lewis F. Mizzi Constantinople. Turkey. 

Mr. James K. Moffitt First National Bank, S. F.,Cal. 

Mr. E. J. Molera.* c.e 606 Clay St.. S. F., Cal. 

^m iir u o xn^^.r.^ «. « * ^ J i^ Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin, 

Mr. W. H. S. MoNCK, f.r.a.s { Ireland. 

-^ . ^ , , _„ i Quezaltenango, Guatemala, 

Dr. Jorge C Monzon {'' Central America. 

Mr. Beverly K. Moore . . 56 Bedford St., Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Fremont Morse, u.s.c.&g.survev . P. O. Box 2512, S. F., Cal. 
-, -,, c? m# /Turk St., bet. Masonic and 

Mr. William S. Moses | Parker A ves., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. C. A. MuRDOCK 2710 Scott St., S. F., Cal 



8 Publications of the 

Hon. B. D. Murphy* San Jos^, Cal. 

Mr. Charles Nelson 6 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. H. F. NKWALL.. P.R.X.S { °Sb^S^e? 'SnT"'*^' 

Mr. G. W. NicoLLS. f.r.a.s. . . . . { ^^^l^^' **'** ''* J""'*"*' 

Mr. P. NooRDHOFF Groeningen, Holland. 

Mr. Charles Nordhoff Coronado, Cal. 

Miss Rose O'Halloran 2610 Bush St., S. F., Cal. 

Miss M. A. Orr j "fngfJnd.^'*^''' Camberley. 

Mr. T. S. PALMER {''ifSio.^^t'^'''''^^ 

General W. J. Palmer Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Dr. George C. Pardee 526 Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 

Dr. S. C. Passavant 200 Post St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Edward Payson San Mateo, Cal. 

Miss Clara A. Pease High School, Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. George W. Percy { ^'LTc^^'"* ^^^''^' ^^^' 

Hon. Geo. C. Perkins* Oakland, Cal. 

Prof. H. B. Perkins Box 240, Pasadena, Cal. 

Mr. A. Perrenod Saint-Pierre, Martinique. 

Mr. C. D. PBKK.NH {^e'r^:^forM;:Hlllit2l: 

Hon. T. Guy Phelps Belmont. Cal. 

Mr. Henry Phipps. Jr.* |Camegie,^Phipps & Co., Pitt^ 

Mr. Sam C. Phipps Irvington, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Mr. John Jay Pierrepont { ^ K^n"^ C^o.! R Y.' ^''^^^^''' 

Mr. Lawrence H. Pierson jPacHic Pine Lumber Co., S.F.. 

Hon. Wm. M. Pierson, f.r.a.s. . . . j ^^^^J^^''' Mills Building, S. F., 

Mr. RuTHVEN W. Pike* 166 La Salle St., Chicago, III. 

Mr. Fred. G. Plummer Tacoma, Washington. 

Dr. Charles Lane Poor, f.r.a.s. . . {J'^Baltimo^e^'' M^^ University, 

Miss Juliet Porter* 37 Dean St., Worcester, Mass. 

Mr. Charles A. Post Bay port, Long Island, N. Y. 

Mr. Walter A. Post Newport News, Va. 

Mr. Wm. Appleton Potter 39 W. 27th St, New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Enos Putman* Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Mr. J. C. RABE ) ^v^ile^orc^al." ^"* '"'"*'' 

Mr. F. B. Randall, u.s.r.m | " Cal!^^^' ^*''- "R'«h."S.F.. 

Sister Anna Raphael { ^ jUsf cil.^"''* °^"*' ^" 

Mr. Albert Raymond ao2 Sansome St., S. P., Cal. 

Mr. NoKMAN B. Ream 1901 Prairie Ave., Chicago, III. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 9 

Prof T K Rrr<; F R A «5 I Observatory of Columbia Col- 

Frof. J. K. KEBS, F.R.A.s I ,^g^ ^^^ y^^^^^ ^ Y 

Colonel C. McC. Reeve {^'rpS"S^ ^' ^" ^*""''" 

Mr. M. Rbiman {4325 Drexel Boulevard, Chi- 

l cago, HI. 

Mr. Francisco Rodriguez Rev . . . { ^ bay"? Mexfc^^^^ ^''''"" 

Rev. J. L. RiCARD, s. J Sania Clara, Cal. 

Mrs. William Gorham Rice Washington, D. C. 

Mr. DAMEU S. R.CHARr«ON j ^"SasVoatunSf !r™'^^' 

Mr. A1.EXANDBR W. Roberts .... { '"i^^jd.*^^*'' "**^' ^*'*' ^*'°*" 

Hon. Arthur Rodgers Nevada Block, S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. Arthur Rodgers* | Leavenworth and VallejoSts., 

Dr. W. H. RoLpiNS 350 Marlboro St., Boston.Mass. 

Mr. Geo. A. Ross { '"find!' Cal.^''*" ^**' ^''^' 

The Earl of Rossb, f.r.a.s {^'ia„d.^"^' P"'***"*'"*'"' ^'«- 

Baron Albert von Rothschild* . . . Vienna, Austria. 

Mr. John R. Ruckstell 182 Croclcer Bld'g, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Alexander Rvdzewsk, {''^6%^k"?sburgtR^£^ 

Mr. G. N. Saeomuller { ^Tv^'^I^J^shlnSn. W' 

Mr. Joseph C. Sala 429 Montgomery St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. John W. Salsbury Clear Water Harbor, Florida. 

Prof. J. M. Schaeberle* { ^t'o^^^CaT''''''''^' ^^' """""' 

Mr. Jacob H. Schiff* 932Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Herman Schussler. ...... . Pacific-Union Club, S. F., Cal. 

Baron A. v. Schweiger-Lbrchenfeld { ^^1^"^^^^^^^^ ^3, Vienna, 

Mr. Henry T. Scott Box 2128, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. JAHES L. Scorr, P.R.A.S { ^¥at"chi!?a°*'* ^ ^°' 

Rev. GEORGE M. SEARLE {"^t^^^^^T' '^'''''' 

Mr. Frederick H. Seares Berkeley, Cal. 

Dr. J. M. Sblfridgb Box 37, Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Garrett P. Serviss 8 Middagh St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Dr. T. STEELE Sheldon, F.R.A.S. . . {^Y^n^j^^' Macclesfield. Eng- 

I>r. G. E. Shuey { ^akian'S^Car ^' ^'' "^"^ 

Mr. D. P. Simons Los Gatos, Cal. 

Mr Fr ANri*; Sinplair / ^""^ °^G. S. Gay, Crafton, San 

Mr. FRANCIS biNCLAiR | Bernardino Co., Cal. 

Mr. Chas. S. Smith* 25 W. 47thSt.,New York,N.Y. 

Mr. SoMMBRS N. Smith Newport News, Virginia. 



lo Publications of the 

Mr. Wm. F. Smith 206 Sansome St.. S. F., Cal. 

Mr. C. A. Spreckbls* San Mateo, Cal. 

Mrs. C. A. Sprkckels* San Mateo. Cal 

Mr. Rudolph Spreckels 2000 Gough St., S. F., Cal. 

Miss Gertrude Stanford 1218 Oak St., Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Thos. W. Stanford* { '^^jft^^^^" ^^^ Melbourne, 

Dr. Hezekiah Starr {^Md!"^^^"^ ^^" Baltimore, 

Mr. John W. Stetson 906 Broadway, Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Robert Stevenson P. O. Box 2214. S. F., Cal. 

Mr. H. F. Stivers Hunters, Tehama Co.. Cal. 

Mr. Chauncev M. St. John U. S. Custom House, S.F.,CaL 

Mr. jcuus STONE. rro.rSnPb'Js^Shr''^"^* 

Prof. W. H. VON Streeruwitz . . . . P. O. Box 465, Austin, Texas. 

Prof. I. Stringham, ph. d Berkeley, Cal. 

Mile. Le Brun DB SuRviLLE 3242 Sacramento St, S.F., Cal. 

Mr. Daniel Suter { ^ s! R.^'Sil.^'''''^^" ^"'''*'"^' 

Hon. A. Sutro*. j So^Montgomery Block, S. F., 

Mr. C. F. A. Talbot 204 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mrs. Louis Taussig 2127 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Mr. Charles Tousey Taylor Kamela, Oregon. 

Mr. George Taylor Walnut St., Brookline, Mass. 

Dr. Horace H. Taylor Los Angeles, Cal. 

Prof. J. M. Taylor State University, Seattle, Wash. 

Dr. Jesus Muf5os Tebar Cardcas. Venezuela. S. A. 

Mr. JOHN TEBBUTT. F.R.A.S T^S' VaW"""''^ "^'^ 

Dr. A. Blair Thaw | M on tecito, Santa Barbara Co., 

Mr. L E. Thayer 28 California St.. S. F., Cal. 

T\^ T^«i., M Tu^wo* i National Observatory, Cordo- 

Dr. John M. Thome* j ^ Argentine Republic. 

Mr. D. F. Tillinghast 315 Montgomery Si., S. F., Cal. 

Mr Q n TnwNTipv (Astronomical Observatory, 

Mr. S. D. Townley j ^„„ ^^.j^^^^ Michigan. 

«« t o 1'^...^.^,,^,^ S Stamford Lodge, St. Johns. 

Mr. John S. Townsend \ g^^.^^ q^^^^k .£^^,Jj =». 

Mr. R. H. Tucker. Jr j ^'fo^„^cir''°'^' ^^ """""' 

Mr. Henrv J. Turner* j WoodVjIle, Rappahannock Co.. 

Miss SARA C.RR UPTON | "^ash^iS'T "c'''*""** 

Mr. Edward H. Van Ingen 9 East 71st St., New York, N.Y. 

Rev. Jacob Voorsanger 432 Montgomery St, S. F., Cal. 

Mr. W. P. Wallheiser Bedford, Indiana. 

vr. T \\i WAor. ^ 271 Bourke St.. Sydney. New 

Mr. J. W. Ward . . . ^ 'gouth Wales. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 1 1 

{Care of Warner & Swasey, 
East Prospect St., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Mrs. W. Seward Webb ] ^^.^Y^'^ ^''^""''' New York, 

Prof Dr L Weinek ^ Imperial Observatory, Prague, 

rroi. i^r. l. weinek ^ Austro- Hungary. 

Mr. Chas. J. Welch 1090 Eddy St., S. F., Cal. 

President Andrew D. White* Ithaca, N. Y. 

ui^ IT. o.B. Uatm^^ ufuf-ro. i Stale Normal School, Valley 

Mre. Elsie Hadlev White ] ^j^^^ ^^^^y^ ly^\ioxL 

Mr. E. J. White, f.r.a.s ) ^^^^^^^^"""^^ Melbourne, Vic- 

Mr. Ralph Radcliffe-Whitehead . . Santa Barbara, Cal. 

M, A c^A,.T. »%r \)ir„ « «Aw<, ^ n . o J Bella Vista, Hove Park Villas, 
Mr. A. Stanley Williams, f.r.a.s. . \ ^^^ Brighton, England. 

Mrs. Mary H. Willmarth* 222 Michigan Ave., Chicago.Ill. 

Mr. Russell J. Wilson* 2027 California St., S. F., Cal. 

Colonel B. Witkovsky* j ^^44^^^^^' ^' ^' ^ 

Rev. Henry Woods St. Ignatius College, S F., Cal. 

Mr. William Yates j ^^^^ellsi^'cfl'^^''" ^' ^^ ^"' 

Mr. Frederick W. Zeile* i Room 26. 5th floor. Mills Build- 

\ ing, S. F., Cal. 

Prof. C. V. Zenger, f.r.a.s Smichow, Prague, Bohemia. 

Mr. F. R. ZiEL 301 California St., S. F., Cal. 



LIST OF CORRESPONDING INSTITUTIONS. 

Albany, New York, Dudley Observatory. 

Allegheny, Pennsylvania, Allegheny Observatory. 

Armagh, Ireland, Armagh Observatory. 

Berlin, Germany, Redaction des Berliner Jahrbuchs. 

Berlin, Germany, Royal Observatory. 

Cambridge, England, University Observatory. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard College Observatory. 

Cape Town, Africa, Royal Observatory. 

Christiania, Norway, University Observatory. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, University Observatory. 

Cordoba, Argentine Republic, National Observatory. 

Dorpat, Russia, University Observatory. 

Dublin, Ireland, Dunsink Observatory. 

Dublin, Ireland, Royal Dublin Society. 

Edinburgh, Scotland, Royal Observatory. 

Geneva, Switzerland, Observatory. 

Glasgow, Scotland, University Observatory. 

Gotha, Germany, Ducal Observatory. 

Goettingen^ Germany, Royal Observatory. 

Greenwich, England, Royal Observatory. 



12 Publications of the 

Hamburg, Germany, Hamburger Stemwarte. 

Helsingfors, Russia, University Observatory. 

Kasan, Russia, University Observatory. 

Kiel, Germany. University Observatory. 

Koenigsberg. Germany, University Observatory. 

La Plata, Argentine Republic, Observatory. 

Leipzig, Germany, University Observatory. 

Leyden, Holland, University Observatory. 

Lisbon (Tapada), Portugal, Royal Observatory. 

London, England, 26 Martin's Lane, British Astronomical Association. 

London, England, British Museum. 

London, England, Royal Astronomical Society. 

London, England, 3 Verulam Bldgs., Gray's Inn, The Nautical Almanac 

Lund, Sweden, University Observatory. 

Madison, Wisconsin, Washburn Observatory. 

Madras, India, Observatory. 

Madrid, Spain, Royal Observatory. 

Marseilles, France, Observatory. 

Melbourne, Victoria, Observatory. 

Mexico, Mexico, Sociedad Cientifica **Antonio Alzate." 

Milan, Italy, Royal Observatory. 

Moscow, Russia, University Observatory. 

Munich, Germany, Royal Observatory. 

Naples, Italy, Royal Observatory. 

New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Observatory. 

New York, New York, American Mathematical Society. 

New York, New York, Columbia University Observatory. 

Nice, France. Observatory. 

Northfield, Minnesota, Carleton College Observatory. 

Oxford, England, Radcliffe Observatory. 

Oxford, England, University Observatory. 

Paris, France, Bureau of Longitudes. 

Paris, France, National Observatory. 

Potsdam. Germany, Astrophysical Observatory. 

Prague, Austro-Hungary, University Observatory. 

Pulkowa, Russia, Imperial Observatory. 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Observatory. 

Rome, Italy, Observatory of the Roman College. 

Rome, Italy, Italian Spectroscopic Society. 

Rome, Italy, Specula Vaticana. 

San Francisco, California, California Academy of Sciences. 

San Francisco, California, Technical Society of the Pacific Coast. 

Stockholm, .Sweden, University Observatory. 

Strassburg, Germany, University Observatory. 

Sydney, New South Wales, Observatory. 

Tacubaya, Mexico, National Observatory. 

Tokio, Japan, University Observatory. 

Toronto, Canada. Astronomical and Physical Society of Toronto. 

Toulouse, France, Observatory. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 13 

Turin, Italy, Observatory. 

University Park, Colorado, Chamberlin Observatory. 

University of Virginia. Virginia, McCormick Observatory. 

Upsala, Sweden, University Observatory. 

Vienna, Austria, Imperial Observatory. 

Vienna (Ottakring), Austria, Von Kuffner*s Observatory. 

Washington, District of Columbia, Library of Congress. 

Washington, District of Columbia, National Academy of Sciences. 

Washington, District of Columbia, Naval Observatory. 

Washington, District of Columbia, Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington, District of Columbia, The American Ephemeris. 

Washington, District of Columbia, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

William's Bay, Wisconsin, Yerkes Observatory. 

Zurich, Switzerland, Observatory. 



BXCHANOES. 

Adrophysical Journal^ William's Bay, Wisconsin. 

Sirius, Cologne, Germany. 

The Observatory ^ Greenwich, England. 



FOR REVIEW. 

[See Publications A. S. P., Vol. VIII, p. loi.J 

The CcUly San Francisco, California. 

The Chronicle^ San Francisco, California. 

The Examiner^ San Francisco, California. 

The Mercury^ San Jos6, California. 

The Overland^ Monthly y Si^n Francisco, California. 

The Record- Union, ^acramento, California. 

The Times, Los Angeles, California. 

The Tribune, Oakland, California. 



MAP I. 



i> 



f' n 



f*.«oj 



.0' 



J> V 



<•> 



V 






-•»to= 






..**•"%'- 

«? V 

v^ 






:^ 



>V^ 9 



.(v^^ 



■r:-:..;:% 



■•^.:;-$'.- 



M ^ 



^i 



^M^ 



^y 



•ven ■'-?"■: 



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y » 



u. 



/■■ -^L f^ M*"" i^...i.i i >-<^ 



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^/ftI>ANI/A^^ 



"•'^i.c 



The sky on November 22, at 12 o'clock. 

December 6, at 11 o'clock. 

December 21, at 10 o'clock. 

January 5, at 9 o'clock. 

January 20, at 8 o'clock. 



WM* 31 




The sky on January 20, at 12 o'clock. 

February 4, at 11 o'clock. 

February 19, at 10 o'clock. 

March 6, at 9 o'clock. 

March 21, at 8 o'clock. 



n ' 



&^ 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 15 

A SERIES OF SIX STAR MAPS. 

The star maps in this series have been drawn, using those in 
Proctor's ^'Half Hours with the Stars'' as a basis. The scale 
has been somewhat reduced, in order to accommodate a map to 
a page of the Society's Publications, 

The making of these maps was originally undertaken by 
Professor D. A. Lehman, at Professor Holden's suggestion. 
A portion of them remained unfinished at the time of Professor 
Lehman's departure from the Lick Observatory, in July, 1897, 
and these I have completed. 

The maps were originally adapted to a north latitude of about 
52°, so that, for the latitudes of the United States, they will be 
somewhat in error, but not so much, however, as to cause 
serious inconvenience. Under each map will be found the date 
and time at which the sky will be as represented in the accom- 
panying map; e, g. Map No. i shows the sky as it appears on 
November 22d at midnight, December 5th at 11 o'clock, Decem- 
ber 2 1 St at ID o'clock, January 5th at 9 o'clock, and January 
20th at 8 o'clock. It is presumed that the maps will be used 
for observations principally between the hours of 8 o'clock in 
the evening and midnight. It should be borne in mind, how- 
ever, that the same map represents the aspect of the constella- 
tions on other dates than those given, but at a different hour of 
the night. Map No. i, which we have been considering, shows 
the sky's aspect on October 23d at 2 a. m., September 23d at 
4 A. M., and also on February 20th at 6 p. m., as well as on the 
dates and at the hours given in the map. The same is true of 
all the other maps in the series. For any date between those 
given, the map will represent the sky at a time between the hours 
given; for instance, on November 26th, Map No. i will represent 
the sky at 11:45 o'clock, on November 30th at 11:30 o'clock, 
and on December 2d at 11:15 o'clock. 

If the maps are held with the center exactly overhead and 
the top pointing to the north, the lower part of the map will be 
south, the right-hand portion will be to the west, and the left- 
hand to the east, the circle bounding the map representing the 
horizon. It will be seen from this that each map shows the whole 
of the sky visible at these times. 

It will be noted that a number of the constellations about the 
pole never set, but are always visible in some part of the northern 



1 6 Publications of the 

sky. As the maps are the projections of a curved surface upon 
a plane, there is, of course, considerable distortion, but this will 
hardly be confusing. 

The names of the constellations are inserted in capitals to dis- 
tinguish them, while the names of stars and other data are in 
small letters. 

The planets are continually changing their places, and hence 
are not inserted on the maps which represent the stars for one 
year as well as another. 

From the Planetary Notes it can readily be told if the brighter 
planets — Venus, Jupiter, and Mars (when at his brightest) — 
are visible, and in what part of the sky. Saturn can almost 
always be told by its steady yellowish light. If it is desired to 
locate a planet accurately, a star map giving circles of Right 
Ascension and parallels of Declination should be used, and the 
place of the planet ascertained from the tables accompanying the 
Planetary Notes in these Publications or from any of the nautical 
almanacs. It may assist in identifying a planet, to remember 
that the planets do not depart widely, north or south, from the 
Sun's path — the ecliptic. C. D. Perrine. 

Mt. Hamilton, January 7, 1898. 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR MARCH AND 
APRIL, 1898. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



March. 

The Sun reaches the vernal equinox and crosses the equator 
from south to north on the morning of March 20th, at 6 o'clock, 
P. S. T. 

Mercury is too near the Sun to be easily seen until near the 
close of the month. It is a morning star until March i6th, when 
it passes superior conjunction and becomes an evening star. It 
moves rapidly away from the Sun, and by the end of the month 
sets about an hour and a quarter after sunset. It is quite near 
Venus near the close of the month, and passes that planet about 
two diameters of the Moon to the north on March 26ih. The two 
planets will not be far apart during the last ten days of the 
month. 



snH*)JkO 






%rt.. 



Air A 



ri A«- 






,.i-*^ 



V\M> HI 



'ui K 



''^Jyr 



^^ 






■:.*.V<' 



>.r*. 












^^0 



;•••-■■•. 



-^ V 






4^ 






^» - . - - 

0'5>I>L<I. 






^ w* 
.•--• 






••>.."^-*-i 






"> <. 



i4^ 



Ik V*^ 



^•^. 









,< \ 



V 



^4-t-'^j. ^s- 



''01: 



^•-1 



•,<y 



^l 



s^' 



p f 



.■V.>. 



,v^\*. 



■■•■<\ 



<!(?<, H- 






V t\ 






.^^ 



% > 



-V > 



^''»...'i^-. 



^^*^' 



>" 



"iV. 



The sky on March 21, at 12 o'clock. 

April 5, at 11 o'clock. 

April 20, at 10 o'clock. 

May 5, at 9 o'clock. 

May 21, at 8 o'clock. 



MM> TV 




The sky on May 21, at 12 o'clock. 

June 5, at 11 o'clock. 

June 21, at 10 o'clock. 

July 7, at 9 o'clock. 

July 22, at 8 o'clock. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 17 

Venus is also an evening star near the Sun, too near to be 
easily seen until after the middle of the month. 

Mars is a morning star, rising about an hour before sunrise. 
It has begun to approach the Earth, but will not be near enough 
until autumn to be at all conspicuous. 

Jupiter is in good position for observation, and is above the 
horizon during nearly the entire night. It comes to opposition 
with the Sun on March 25th. It retrogrades (moves westward), 
about three degrees in the western part of the constellation VirgOy 
and at the beginning of the month it is about one degree south 
and west of the third magnitude star y Virginis. 

Saturn rises earlier than during February, but is not high 
enough to be easily seen until some time after midnight. It is in 
quadrature with the Sun, that is six hours behind it, on March 2d. 
It is nearly stationary, moving very slowly eastward until March 
21st, and then a little westward in the constellation Scorpio, north 
and east of the first magnitude star Aniares^ aScorpii, and about 
eight degrees distant from it. The minor axis of the rings is a 
little less than the polar diameter of the planet. 

Uranus precedes Saturn about half an hour, and is about 
two degrees east and one degree south of the third magnitude 
star j8 Scorpii, 

Neptune is in the eastern part of Taurus. 

April. 

Mercury comes to greatest eastern elongation on April loth, 
and then sets nearly an hour and three quarters after sunset. It 
will be far enough away from the Sun to be easily seen in the 
evening twilight until the last week of the month. April is, for 
this year, the best month for seeing Mercury as an evening star. 
Toward the close of the month it rapidly approaches the Sun, 
and comes to inferior conjunction on the morning of May ist. 

Venus is also an evening star, somewhat farther from the Sun 
than it was in March. It is in the same region as Mercuiy, 
somewhat to the west of it, until April i8th, when the planets are 
in conjunction again, with Mercury three degrees to the north. 
Their distance apart increases rapidly after this. 

Mars rises a little earlier in the morning; by the end of the 
month about an hour and a half before the Sun. It increases its 
apparent distance from the Sun about ^v^ degrees during the 
month. On April 30th it passes perihelion. 



1 8 Publications of the 

Jupiter is still in fine position for observation, rather better 
for evening observation than it was during March, as it is well 
above the horizon at sunset. It moves westward about three 
degrees in the constellation Virgo, and during the middle of the 
month is very near the fourth magnitude star 17 Virginis. On 
April 1 2th, the time of nearest approach, the planet is only about 
half of the Moon's diameter north of the star. 

Saturn rises earlier — by the end of the month at a little after 
9 o'clock. It is in the constellation Scorpio, and moves about 
one degree westward. The rings are about as in March. 

Uranus precedes Saturn about half an hour and moves about 
the same amount westward. By the end of the month it is about 
one degree south and east of the third magnitude star /3 Scorpii. 

Neptune is in the eastern part of Taurus. 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 
In the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
give the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
by adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 
the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
seldom much more than i". To find the standard time for the 
phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence between standard and local time if the place is west of the 
standard meridian, and subtracting if east. The same rules apply 
to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 
of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40°, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
and for latitudes differing much from 40® they may be several 
minutes out. 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

H. M. 

Full Moon, Mar. 8, i 29 a. m. 

Last Quarter, Mar. 14, 11 48 P. M. 

New Moon, Mar. 22, 12 37 A. m. 

First Quarter, Mar. 29, 11 40 p. M. 



MM> ^ 



^>i«>\^nv 



ho 



''••* 



•.^^\\>^ J* 



»j?v 



►UIOJ 



--^ u*.* 






/^•<- 



<»>>^ 



»\o^ 



•<• 






^^*?^ V ^^Nl 



ilW 






(►^ 









'. t^ 



-^ -r* 



^•%^ 



>'V^ 



.k>'^ ^ 



. ^ y 






./.' 



•i. / 



•<*s 






^■' ■•■■ 



v-V 






.1'' 



9 ^Qua^ 



^\^ 



.<> ^ 



^ ^. 



^A?X| 



^IC01\ 



^•^US ^y.^«^^^ 



K-^^^ 



VN>^ 



The sky on July 22, at 12 o'clock. 

Aug^ust 7, at II o'clock. 

August 23, at 10 o'clock. 

September 8, at 9 o'clock. 

September 23, at 8 o'clock. 



H^T'\^ 






'•^ 



•-••--. 



^<i^(\ 



-f«- 



•' '^^V^ 



\\- 



■> -i. 



X 



A« 



/ -v / *?* - •' ^' • -*•' "• \ 
\ : s § ^ f ^ , ^^/' If ''v \ ^T\** V 

\ '. \ ••. r • < ^.-- *• * > 



>--* 



-^o 



The sky on September 23, at 12 o'clock. 
October 8, at 11 o'clock. 
October 23, at 10 o'clock. 
November 7, at 9 o'clock. 
November 22, at 8 o'clock. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 19 









T 


HE Sun. 










1898. 


R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


H. M. 




/ 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


H. 


M. 


Mar. I. 


22 50 


— 


7 28 


6 37 A.M. 


12 


12 P.M. 


5 47P-M 


II. 


23 27 


— 


3 35 


6 22 , 


12 


10 


5 


58 


21. 


3 


+ 


22 


6 6 


12 


7 


6 


8 


31. 


40 


+ 


4 17 


5 50 


12 


4 


6 


18 








Mercury. 










Mar. I . 


22 5 


— 


14 5 


6 16 A.M. 


II 


28 A.M. 


4 


38 P.M. 


II. 


23 12 


— 


7 13 


6 19 


II 


55 


5 


31 


21. 


22 


+ 


I 34 


6 21 


12 


26 P.M. 


6 


31 


31. 


I 33 


+ 


10 48 


6 20 
Venus, 


12 


57 


7 


34 


Mar. I. 


23 4 


— 


7 31 


6 53 A.M. 


12 


27 P.M. 


6 


I P.M. 


II. 


23 50 


— 


2 33 


6 43 


12 


34 


6 


25 


21. 


36 


+ 


2 33 


6 31 


12 


40 


6 


49 



31. I 21 + 7 34 6 20 12 46 7 12 

Mars, 



Mar. I. 


21 


10 


- 17 


30 5 33 A.M. 


10 32 A.M. 


3 31 P-M 


II. 


21 


41 


-15 


8 5 16 


10 24 


3 32 


21. 


22 


II 


— 12 


31 4 58 


10 15 


3 32 


31. 


22 


40 


- 9 42 4 38 


10 5 


3 32 










Jupiter, 






Mar. I. 


12 


33 


— I 


52 8 5 P.M. 


I 58 A.M. 


7 51A.M 


II. 


12 


29 


— I 


25 7 19 


I 14 


7 9 


21. 


12 


24 


— 


54 6 33 


12 30 


6 27 


31. 


12 


20 


— 


24 5 43 
Saturn. 


II 42 P.M. 


5 41 


Mar. I. 


16 


43 


— 20 


26 I 19 A.M. 


6 6 a.m. 


10 53 A.M. 


II. 


16 


44 


— 20 


27 12 41 


5 28 


10 15 


21. 


16 


44 


— 20 


26 12 2 


4 49 


9 36 


31. 


16 


44 


— 20 


24 II 23 P.M. 

Uranus, 


4 10 


857 


Mar. I. 


16 


6 


— 20 


42 12 44 A.M. 


5 30 a.m. 


10 16A.M. 


II. 


16 


6 


— 20 


42 12 5 


4 51 


9 37 


21. 


16 


6 


— 20 


41 II 25 P.M. 


4 II 


8 57 


31. 


16 


5 


— 20 


40 10 45 


3 31 


8 17 



20 Publications of the 







Neptune. 




1898. 


R. A. 


Declination. Rises. 


Transits. Sets. 


H. M. 


*» ' H. M. 


H. M. H. M. 


lar. I. 


5 16 


-f 21 43 II 19 A.M. 


6 37 P.M. I 55A.M. 


II. 


5 16 


+ 21 43 10 40 


5 58 I 16 


21. 


5 16 


+ 21 44 10 I 


5 19 12 37 


31. 


5 17 


+ 21 45 9 22 


4 40 II 58 P.M. 



Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Off left-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope before opposition, March 2stb, 
afterward off right.) 



Ill, D, 


Mar. 6. 


H. M. 

I 56 A. 


M. I, D, 


Mar. 16. 


H. M. 

6 33 P. M. 


I,D, 


6. 


3 42 A. 


M. I, D, 




22. 


I 58 A. M. 


II, D, 


7. 


9 38 P. 


M. II, D, 




22. 


2 51 A. M. 


I. D, 


7- 


10 IIP. 


M. I, D, 




23. 


8 26 P.M. 


I, D, 


13. 


5 36 A. 


M. II, D. 




25. 


4 10 P. M. 


III, D, 


13. 


5 55 A. 


M. II, R, 




25. 


6 40 P. M. 


I, D, 


IS- 


12 5 A. 


M. Ill, R. 




27. 


4 28 P. M. 


II. D, 


IS. 


12 15 A. 


M. I, R, 




31* 


3 30 A. M. 




Phases of the Moon. 


P. S 


.. T. 






Full 


VC<Mtfl, 


Apr. 6, 


H. M. 
I 20 P» M. 






Last 


Quarter, 


Apr. 13, 


6 28 A. M. 






New 


Moon, 


Apr. 20, 


2 21 P. M. 






First 


Quarter, 


Apr. 28, 


6 


5 P. M. 








The Sun. 










R. A. 


Declination. 


Ris*s. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1898. 


H. M. 


' 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


H. M. 


Apr. I. 


43 


+ 4 40 


5 48 A.M. 


12 


4 P.M. 


6 20 P.M. 


II. 


I 20 


+ 8 26 


5 32 


12 


I 


6 30 


21. 


I 57 


+ 11 58 


5 18 


II 


59 A.M. 


6 40 


May I. 


2 35 


+ 15 10 


5 4 


II 


57 


6 50 






Mercury. 








Apr. I. 


I 39 


+ 11 38 


6 20 A.M. 


I 


P.M. 


7 40 P.M. 


IC. 


2 31 


+ 17 45 


6 12 


I 


12 


8 14 


21. 


2 48 


+ 19 


5 42 


12 


49 


7 56 


May I. 


2 34 


+ 15 41 


5 2 
Venus. 


II 


56 A.M. 


6 50 


Apr. I. 


I 26 


+ 84 


6 19 A.M. 


12 


46 P.M. 


7 13 P.M. 


II. 


2 12 


+ 12 45 


6 9 


12 


53 


7 37 


21. 


3 


+ 16 56 


6 3 


I 


2 


8 I 


May I. 


3 50 


+ 20 24 


6 


I 


12 


8 24 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 21 
Mars. 

R. A. Declination. Rises. Trwisils. Sets. 

1898. H. M. ® ' H. M. H. M. H. M. 

Apr. I. 22 43 — 9 24 4 36 A.M. 10 4A.M. 3 32P.M. 

II. 23 12 — 6 26 4 16 9 54 3 32 

21. 23 41 - 3 23 3 54 9 43 3 32 

May I. o 9 — o 18 3 33 9 32 3 31 

JUPITER^ 

Apr. I. 12 19 — o 21 5 40 P.M. II 38 P.M. 5 38A.M. 

II. 12 15 4- o 8 4 54 10 54 4 54 

21. 12 II + o 33 4 9 10 II 4 13 

May 1. 12 7 + o 52 3 25 9 28 3 31 

Sa turn. 

Apr. I. 16 44 —20 24 II 19P.M. 4 6a.m. 8 53A.M. 

II. 16 43 — 20 21 10 38 3 25 8 12 

21. 16 41 — 20 17 9 56 2 44 7 32 

May I. 16 39 — 20 12 9 15 23 6 51 

Uranus, 

Apr. I. 16 6 — 20 39 10 40P.M. 3 27A.M. 8 14A.M. 

II. 16 4 — 20 37 10 o 2 47 7 34 

21. 16 3 — 20 33 9 19 26 6 53 

May I. 16 I — 20 29 8 38 i 25 6 12 

Neptune, 

Apr. I. 5 17 +21 45 9 19A. M. 4 37P.M. II 55P.M. 

II. 5 18 + 21 47 8 40 3 58 II 16 

21. 5 19 -}- 2C 48 82 3 20 10 38 

May I. 5 20 + 21 50 7 24 2 42 10 o 

Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Off right hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 

H. M. H. M. 

I. R, Apr. I. 6 59 p. M. I. R, Apr. 14. 4 18 a. m. 

II, R. I. 9 17 p. m. I, R, 15. 10 47 p. m. 

Ill, R. 3. 8 25 p. M. II, R, 16. 2 30 A. M. 

I, R, 7. 2 24 A. M. I, R, 175 15 P- M. 

I. R, 8. 8 53 p. M. I, R, 23. 12 41 A. M. 

II. R, 8. II 53 p. M. I. R, 24. 7 9 p. M. 

Ill, R. II. 12 22 A.M. II, R, 26. 6 24 p. M. 



22 



Publications of the 



(TWENTY-EIGHTH) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 
COMET-MEDAL. 

The Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 

has been awarded to C. D. Perrine, Assistant Astronomer in 

the Lick Observatory, for his discovery of an unexpected comet 

on October i6, 1897. 

The Committee on the Comet- Medal, 

Edward S. Holden. 

j. m. schaeberle. 
December 16, 1897. 



AS1 


PRONOMICAL 

Made by Torval 

Va 


OBSERVATIONS IN 1897. 




D Kohl, at Odder, Denmark. 




RiABLE Stars. 








Z Cyg-ui.^ 


January 


i: 


Z invisible. 


September 11: id. 




2: 


id. 




25: < e. 


February 


3: 


id. 




27: id. 




4: 


id. 




October 20: id. 




24: 


= e. 




25: id. 




27: 


id. 




November 8: id. 


April 


19: 


= a. 




11: a little < d. 




29: 


f >a. 

l<26. 




-■■{^i: 


May 


23: 


= b. 




December 13: a little > a. 


August 


22: 


invisible. 




18: = a. 
19: id. 




The Stars A 


and By near X^ Cygni.f 


January 


i: 


A >B. 




October 20: id. 




2: 


A = B. 




25: id. 


February 


4: 


id. 




November 8: A = B. 


April 


29: 


id. 




11: A<B. 


May 


23: 


id. 




December 19: A < B. 


Septembei 


• 14: 
27: 


A > B. 
A < B. 










Thei 


star A 


is reddish. 



*l^idg the sketch in the Publications A. S. P., No. 48, paKe69. 

^l^ide the sketch in the Publications A. S. P., No. 34, page 37, and the observations 
in No. 48, page 71. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 



23 







S Urs(B 


majoris. 


January 


-\tt 




September 1 1 : . ^ ^• 




27: id. 




14: id. 


February 


-{ti 




18: a little > d. 
25: id. 




24: = d. 




27: id. 




27: id. 




October 20: a little < e. 


March 


.i.f<e. 




25: < e. 

November 11: = f. 


April 


19: =g. 




14: id. 




29: invisible. 


December 13: < g. 


May 


23: id. 




18: id. 


August 


27: = d. 







T Ursos majoris. 
The star was invisible on all the dates on which S Ursa 
majoris was watched, with the exception of the following dates: — 



March 
April 



31 
19 



T<g. 
f>f. 
l<e. 



May 23: a little > b. 

August 27 : = g. 



W Pegasi [a, a little > a, ]. 

•a, 



X *w 



% 



*(lz 






/o Zo So ^o yt? 

The Region about IV Pegasi, 



^O 



August 



22:W|<^- 



r 23: 

September 18: 

October 20: 

21: 

26: 



>c. 

a little < b. 

<b. 

a little < c. 

id. 

id. 

id. 



November 14: < c. 
December 13: i ^ 

18: id. 

19: a little < g. 



24 



Publications of the 



14 and 16 Coma Berenicis, 

For many years I have perceived a slight variation in the 
stars 14 and 16 Coma^ namely: — 



1879, 
1880, 



1881. 
1882, 



1885, 
1887, 
1891, 

1894, 



March 20: 
January 19: 
March* 8: 

December 9: 
March 28: 
April 18: 

January 14: 
February 2 1 : 
November 19: 
April 12: 



March 

March 

April 

March 

April 



16: 
9: 
5: 

28- 
8: 



14 > 16. 

id. 

id. 

14 = 16. 

14 > 16. 

14 = 16. 

14 > 16. 

id. 

id. 

id. 

id. 

id. 

id. 

14 < 16. 

14 = 16. 



1895, March 2: 
November 27: 
December 11: 

1896, March 4: 

11: 
17: 

31: 
i: 

4: 

9.* 

2: 

24: 

27: 

31: 
19: 



May 



14 > 
14 < 
14 = 

14 < 
14 = 
id. 
14 > 



14 
id. 
id. 

14 
id. 
id. 
id. 

14 < 

December 19: 14 ^ 



1897, January 
February 

March 
April 



16. 
16. 
16. 
16. 
16. 

16. 
16. 



= 16. 



16. 



12 and I J Coma Berenicis, 
These two stars also seem to have a slight variation in brigfht- 



ness. 



1894. 


March 28: 


13 = 12. 


May 9: 


13 < 12- 




April 8: 


13 < 12. 


1897, January 2: 


13 = 12. 


1895. 


March 2 : 


13= 12. 


February 24: 


13 < 12. 




December 1 1 : 


13 > 12. 


27: 


id. 


1896, 


March 17: 


13 = 12. 


March 3 1 : 


id. 




May i: 


13 < 12. 


April 19: 


id. 




4: 


13 = 12. 


December 19: 


id. 



Besides the above-mentioned observations, a great many other 
sketches of fixed stars have been made with reference to sup- 
posed variations. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 25 



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26 Publications of the 

The little observatory in the garden of the Real School at 
Odder has been altered in the past year, so that the dome which 
formerly could be opened in six directions can now be turned 
around. 

FIRST AWARD OF THE BRUCE MEDAL. 

The award for 1898 of the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific has been made to Professor Simon New- 
comb. 

SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY STARS. 



By R. G. Aitken. 



The announcement made in Harvard College Observatory 
Circular, No. 21, that fi Lupi is a spectroscopic binary, calls new 
attention to one of the most interesting classes of stars known. 
Binary star systems — that is, systems comprising two suns in 
orbital motion about a common center of gravity — have been 
known since the time of Herschel; but their periods of revolu- 
tion are reckoned in years and even in centuries. The most 
rapid binary known at the beginning of the present decade 
needed eleven and a half years to complete a single revolution. 
Small wonder then, that the startling announcements made by 
Pickering and Vogel that i Ursa majoris made a complete 
revolution in about 105 (later reduced to 52) days, and that 
^ Persei (Algol), fi Auriga, and a Virginis had periods of from 
2.9 to 4 days, should be received with caution and even with 
suspicion. 

It is true, indeed, that Goodricke, who discovered the 
variable character of the light of Algol in 1782^ suggested an 
eclipse of the visible star by a dark body as a plausible explana- 
tion of the periodic dimming of its light. But another explanation 
that found favor was, that Algol was a bright star, upon .whose 
photosphere spots analogous to our sun-spots were irregularly 
distributed, the periodic time of light variation corresponding to 
the time of axial rotation. At best, Goodricke*s hypothesis 
was classed with other theories, convenient as explanations, but 
not susceptible of proof. The modern spectroscope, however, 
by demonstrating that the spectrum of the star was sensibly the 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 27 

same in quality in all its light phases, disposed of the spot theory; 
and later, in the skillful hands of Vogel, proved that Good- 
rick e's hypothesis was substantially correct. 

Professor Vogel photographed the spectrum of Algol on 
many nights, and on each plate photographed also the spectrum 
of hydrogen. If the star were at rest relatively to the Earth » the 
hydrogen lines in the star*s spectrum should correspond to those 
in the artificial spectrum. If the star were receding from the 
Earth, the lines in its spectrum (according to Doppler's 
principle) should be shifted slightly, with respect to the lines in 
the hydrogen spectrum, toward the red end, and if approaching 
the Earth, toward the violet end of the spectrum. Now, Vogel 
found that before the obscuration the lines were shifted toward 
the red end by an amount corresponding to a velocity of reces- 
sion of about twenty-seven miles a second. After obscuration, 
the shifting of the lines towards the violet end indicated a some- 
what greater velocity of approach. This is just what should 
happen if a dark body were swinging the bright star around a 
common center of gravity in an orbit nearly edgewise to the 
Earth, the whole system meanwhile approaching the Sun. 

Vogel's results were published in November, 1889. In 
August of the same year. Professor E. C. Pickering announced 
that certain lines in the photographic spectrum off Ursa majoris 
(Mizar) were found to be double on some plates, single on others. 
Examination of many plates showed a periodic recurrence of the 
phenomenon at intervals of about fifty-two days. A little later 
in the same year, he announced that Miss A. C. Maury had 
discovered the same peculiarity in the spectrum of 1^ Auriga, 
with the important difference that in the latter star the doubling 
of the lines occurred at intervals slightly less than two days. 
The explanation of this phenomenon is, that these stars consist of 
two components revolving, as in the case of Algol, in an orbit 
turned nearly edgewise to us, each component being bright. 
When the stars are at right angles to the line of vision (at elonga- 
tion, that is), one will be moving towards us, the other away from 
us, and the lines in their spectra are, consequently, shifted in 
opposite directions. As the stars are so close together that their 
spectra overlie each other on the plate, the effect is to show the 
lines in the resulting compound spectrum apparentiy double. 

In April, 1890, Vogel published his investigations on the 
spectrum of a Virginis, Discordances in the values of the 



28 Publications of the 

velocity of the star in the line of sight led to more extended 
observations, with the result that it was found that the star is 
moving in a nearly circular orbit, with a period of about four 
days. As the lines in the spectrum show no evidence of doub- 
ling, the companion must be relatively a dark star, as in the case 
of AlgoL But as the bright star suffers no diminution in its 
light, the orbit must be sufficiently inclined to the line of sight to 
prevent eclipses. 

These stars, then, are typical of the three varieties of binary 
systems whose existence has been demonstrated by the spectro- 
scope, viz. (i) a bright star with a relatively dark companion, 
the plane of the orbit passing so nearly through the Sun that the 
brighter star suffers periodic partial or total eclipse; (2) a bright 
star with a relatively dark companion, the plane of the orbit 
being so inclined to the line of vision that eclipses are impossi- 
ble; (3) a system of two bright stars. It is probable that stars 
of the 17 Aquila type— to which attention is called in a note else- 
where in this number — should be included in the second class. 
Perhaps, too, that puzzling variable, ^ Lyra, — a variable siii 
generis, one writer calls it — should be included, as Pickering 
(H. C. O. Circular 7) classes it with the A/go/ type variables. 
Since this observer's discovery of the composite nature of its 
spectrum, fi Lyra has been carefully studied by many observers, 
and important papers on its photographic spectrum have been 
published by Belopolsky, Vogel, Sidgreaves, Lockver, 
and others. To indicate, even in the briefest manner, the com- 
plex nature of the observed phenomena and the various hypoth- 
eses that have been framed to account for them, would require a 
separate article. As it is the purpose of the present paper merely 
to give some account of our knowledge of the three varieties of 
binaries above enumerated, it must suffice here to say of fi Lyrcg 
that, while it is probably binary, no hypothesis has yet been 
framed that explains completely all the observed changes in light 
and spectrum. 

When Vogel made public his researches pn j3 Persei, ten 
A/go/'type variable stars were known. Since then, their number 
has been increased to fifteen, possibly sixteen. They are here 
given, together with their discoverers, dates of discovery, approx- 
imate periods, range of magnitude, and duration of change. 
The data are nearly all taken from Chandler's " Third Cata- 
logue of Variable Stars.*' 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



29 



Name. 



? Petsei (Algol) . 
S Cancri .... 

\ Tauri 

% Librae 

U Corona . . . . 
UCet*hei . . . . 
UOphtnchi . . . 

YCygni 

R Cants Majoris . 
5 Aniline t . . . 
Z Herculis . . . 

R Ara 

RS SagUlarii . . 
S Velorutn . . . 
Y BootisO)X . . 
W Delphini . . . 



Discoverer. 



Period. 



Goodricke,* 

Hind. 

Baxendall, 

Schmidt, 

Winnecke, 

Ceraski, 

Sawyer, 

Chandler, 

Sawyer, 

Paul, 



1782 
1848 
1848 

1859 
1869 
1880 
188 1 
1886 
1887 
18S8 



2d 20*^ 

9 II 
22 

7 



MulIer&Kempf,i89i 



Roberts, 
Gould, 
Woods, 
Parkhurst, 
Miss Wells, 



1891 
1874 
1894 
1894 
1895 



48m 55* 
37 45 
52 2 
51 23 



10 
II 
20 
II 
3 
7 
23 
10 

9 
22 



2.6 
4 19 



51 
49 
7 
57 
15 
46 

49-54 
12.7 
58.6 
2435 

21.2 



Magnitude anii 
Duration of Change. 



2.3 to 3.5 in loh 
8.2 to 9.8 in 2i>^ 

3.4 to 4.2 in 10 

5.0 to 6.2 in 12 

7.5 to 8.9 in 10 nearly 

7.1 to 9.2 in 10 

6.0 to 6.7 in 5 

7.1 to 7.9 in about 8 
5.9 to 6.7 in 5 

6.7 to 7.3 in about 3>^ 
7. 1 to 8.0 

6.9 to 8 o in 10.3 

6.4 to 7.5 

7.8 to 9 3 in 15.2 
8.0 to 8.6 

9.5 to < 12 in 3 lb 



The eclipse hypothesis was naturally applied to these Algol- 
type stars, but not with immediate and complete success. In the 
case of Algol itself a difficulty was encountered, in that the period 
was known to be about six seconds shorter than at the time ol 
GooDRiCKE*s discovery, while in 1798, and again in 1830, it was 
slightly longer. The irregularities in the periods of other stars, 
as, for instance, 6* Cancri and X Tauri^ were even more marked ; 
in fact, it is even now impossible to determine the law governing 
the inequalities of the last-named star. 

Dr. Chandler (A. J. VII) had investigated the irregularities 
in Algol's period fully; and in 1892 he followed this investiga- 
tion with the demonstration of a proposition that may be put 
most briefly in his own words: — 

^^ Algols together with the close companion — whose revolu- 
tion in 2** 20*'. 8 produces by eclipse the observed fluctuations in 
light, according to the well-known hypothesis of Goodricke, 
confirmed by the elegant investigation of Vogel, — is subject to 
still another orbital motion of a quite different kind. Both have 
a common revolution about a third body, a large, distant, and 
dark companion, or primary, in a period of about 130 years. 



• Suspected by Montanari, 1669. 

t Questioned by Pickering, H. C. O. Circ. 7. 

t Parkhurst's idea that this star is of the Aigol'iy\tc has not yet been confirmed. 
X Caritur is also suspected to belong to this class, but Roberts' announcement still 
awaits confirmation. 



30 Publications of the 

The size of this orbit around the common center of gravity is 
about equal to that of Uranus around the Sun. The plane of 
the orbit is inclined about twenty degrees to our line of vision. 
Algol transited the plane, passing through the center of gravity 
perpendicular to this line of vision, in 1804 going outwards, and 
in 1869 coming inwards. Calling the first point the ascending 
node, the position-angle, reckoned in the ordinary way, is about 
sixty- five degrees. The orbit is sensibly circular, or of very 
moderate eccentricity. The longest diameter of the projected 
ellipse, measured on the face of the sky, is about 2". 7.'* 

It would take us too far to enter into the proofs of this propo- 
sition. It must be sufficient to say that Dr. Chandler made 
out a very strong case, and that subsequent observations and 
investigations seem to substantiate his argument. Chandler 
further pointed out the fact that analogous irregularities existed 
in the periods of six, or, perhaps, seven others of the ten stars of 
this type then known, while two were of too recent discovery to 
make possible any assertion about the constancy of their periods. 
** The principle of attributing like effects to like causes allows us 
to assume, with high probability, that ... all the stars of 
this class have similar motions, namely, one around a near com- 
panion, the other a common motion of these two bodies around 
a distant one.'* 

In this connection it is of historical interest to note that Pro- 
fessor Wm. Ferrel, in 1855, suggested,* as an explanation of 
the retardation and subsequent acceleration of its period, that 
Algol and its hypothetical close companion revolved about a 
distant dark companion in a period of perhaps several centuries. 

In speaking of Algol's close companion, we have called it 
''relatively dark.'* Vogel showed that iT its light were one 
eightieth part as intense as that of its primary, a secondary mini- 
mum would be produced, caused by the brighter star occulting 
its faint companion. In at least three of the Algol-type stars, viz. 
/^S Sagittarii^ Y Cygni^ and Z Herculis^ this phenomenon has 
been observed. 

According to Roberts, the first-named star usually has a 
magnitude of 6.60; at the chief minimum this becomes 7.59, 
and at the secondary minimum 6.89. This he accounts for by 
assuming that one star of the system is nearly twice as bright as 



• Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, April, 1855. Reprinted in Astronomy 
and Astro-Physics, Vol. XII, p. 429. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 31 

the other; that the orbit is eccentric, the line of apsides nearly 
coinciding with the line of sight; and that the fainter star is 
almost directly between us and its primary (thus causing the 
chief minimum) when the stars are at their greatest distance 
apart. 

The secondary minimum in Y Cygni differs so little in point of 
magnitude from the principal one that it is only recognized by 
the fact that the minima, instead of following each other at 
uniform intervals, occur at intervals of thirty- two hours and forty 
hours alternately. Hence, for this star the terms even and odd 
minima are used. Duner*s explanation of these facts is, that the 
star consists of two equally large and bright components, revolv- 
ing about their common center of gravity in an elliptic orbit in a 
period of nearly three days, the perihelion passages occurring 
between the even and the odd epochs. The eccentricity of the 
orbit need only be o.i to explain fully all the observations. 
Observation seems to show that the intervals between even and 
odd minima are not constant; and this Duner would explain by 
assuming a third invisible perturbing body, which causes a motion 
of the line of apsides such as is found in the planets and satellites 
of the solar system. 

Z Herculis differs from Y Cygni in that the minima, which 
occur at intervals of forty-seven and forty-nine hours, respec- 
tively, are alternately faint and very bright. 

To suit these intervals and magnitudes, Duner finds that we 
must assume that Z Herculis consists of two stars of equal size, 
one of which is twice as bright as the other. The semimajor axis 
of the elliptic orbit of the stars is six times their diameter (assum- 
ing that one star remains fixed in the focus Oi'' the ellipse). The 
plane of the orbit passes through the Sun, the eccentricity is 
about o. 25, and the line of apsides is inclined at an angle of four 
degrees to the line of sight. 

While there are still many difficult and interesting problems 
to solve in connection with the A /go/- type stars, it is now certain 
that the solutions will be sought — and probably found — in exten- 
sions of the theory of orbital motion; and enough has been said 
here to indicate the lines along which the investigations are pro- 
ceeding. 

One further characteristic may be mentioned that is common 
to all these stars, namely, their small mean density. Several 
investigators have found that the mean density of A/go/ is not 



32 Publications of the 

more than one fourth that of water, while other stars of the type 
are even more tenuous. If these results are correct, the Algol- 
type stars must be completely gaseous. 

Turning now to the binary stars which have been revealed by 
the doubling of the lines in their spectra, we find that, so far, 
only five have become known to us. 

Name. Discoverbr. Period. 

1^ Ursa maj oris, Pickering, 1889 52 days. 

j3 AurigcB, Miss Maury, 1889 3** 23** 36.7™ 

/x' Scorpii, Bailey, 1896 i 10 42.5 

A, G, C. 10534, Pickering, 1896 3 2 46 

fi Lupi, Mrs. Fleming, 1897 Undetermined. 

As already stated, { Ursa majoris was the first star of this 
type to reveal its binary character by the periodic doubling of its 
lines. But it is, nevertheless, the one whose period we are least 
certain of — with the exception of fi Lupi, just discovered. As 
the lines are clearly double about every fifty-two days, the period 
was at first announced as 104 or 105 days. Later evidence, 
however, indicates that half this time is the true period, the orbit 
of the second star about its primary being probably an ellipse of 
considerable eccentricity, with the major axis nearly perpendicular 
to the line of sight. In this case the lines would be seen double 
once in each revolution — at the time of periastron passage, — 
but would only become broader and blurred at the time of 
apastron. This theory would seem to fit the observations fairly; 
but there appear to be irregularities in the period, which may 
perhaps indicate the presence of a third body. The maximum 
relative velocity of the two components is found to be about 100 
miles per second. 

The second star in this list, fi Auriga^ is much more rapid 
and decided in its changes. So rapid, in fact, are the changes in 
the spectrum, that they are sometimes perceptible, according to 
Pickering, In successive photographs, and in the course of an 
evening are very marked. The distance between the lines when 
at their greatest separation is so great that measures are easy 
and accurate. There is a very slight difference in the intensity 
of the lines, and the fainter line is alternately more and less 
refrangible than the brighter one. As the measures of the 
amount of separation in the two positions indicate nearly the 
same velocity, — about 150 miles per second — it is probable that 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 33 

the orbit is nearly circular. As the period is four days, it follows, 
assuming the plane of the orbit to be parallel to the line of sight, 
that the distance between the stars is about 8,000,000 miles, and 
the combined mass 2.3 times that of our Sun. If the orbit is 
inclined to the line of sight, as is probable, these values must 
be increased by an amount depending on the inclination. 
Pritchard has found the value of the parallax of fi Auriga to 
be o".o62; hence the greatest angular separation of the compo- 
nents is less than o".oi. The most powerful existing telescope, 
therefore, can never make the components visible to us. 

/i' Scorpii and A, G, C, 10534 resemble fi Auriga, in that 
their periods of revolution are short and the doubling of the lines 
very marked. In fact, in these respects they surpass the latter 
star, as the recent measures by Mrs. Fleming show that the 
relative velocities of the components are about 286 and 379 miles 
per second, respectively. In each of these stars one component 
is noticeably fainter than the other. The relative intensity of the 
lines in /x' Scorpii seems to change, indicating a possible light 
variation in one of the components; but this needs further inves- 
tigation. 

If we except the short period variable stars, like 17 Aquila and 
S Cephei, which are almost certainly binary systems, but which 
require additional hypotheses to account for their variability, we 
have two stars left which call for brief notice, viz. a Virginis 
{Spied) and a' Geminorum, the principal component of the well- 
known double star Castor, As has been said above, the former 
was discovered by Vogel, in 1890, by the shifting of the hydro- 
gen lines in its spectrum alternately toward the red and violet end, 
with respect to the lines in an artificially produced spectrum of 
hydrogen. It was thus found that, while the system is approach- 
ing the Sun at the rate of nine miles per second, the two compo- 
nents are in orbital motion, with a velocity of about fifty-seven 
miles per second, completing one revolution in 4.0134 days. In 
the same way Belopolsky found, in 1896, that the components 
of of Geminorum complete a revolution about their common 
center of gravity in 2.91 days. 

That the number of known spectroscopic binary stars will be 
largely- increased by future discoveries, is certain, and it is entirely 
possible that the study of their phenomena, as shown in light 
variations and changes in spectrum, may yet reveal to us systems 
more complex than even our own solar system. 



34 Publications of the 

The mathematical formulae, by means of which the elements of 
a binary star orbit may be computed from measures of the relative 
velocities of the components in the line of sight, have been fully 
developed by Rambaut,* WiLSiNG,t and LEHMANN-FiLHfes.J 
but the discussion of their methods and results is beyond the 
province of this article. 

Lick Observatory, University of California, 
January 26, 1898. 



* Mon, Not. R. A, S., March, 1891. 
fA. AT., 3198. 
XA. A'., 3242. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 35 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY.* 



Prepared by Members op the Stafp. 



Rediscovery of Winnecke's Periodic Comet = a 1897. 

This comet was observed by the writer on the morning of 
January 2d. At 2*^ 5°* 42* G. M. T. it was in R. A. \^ 19°* 2*. 51 
and Decl. — 3° 58' 34". 3. It is, therefore, 2° o* east and 8'. 7 
south of the place predicted for it by Hillebrand {AsL I^ach,^ 
No. 3447). 

The comet is very small and faint, about 10" to 15" in 
diameter, and slightly brighter at the center. It is much less 
favorably situated at the present return than at the last, in 1892, 
and hence will be faint during this entire apparition and probably 
not within the range of small telescopes. 

This comet was first discovered by Pons in 18 19, and a period 
of five and a half years deduced by Encke. It was, however, 
not seen again until 1858, when it was discovered as a new comet 
by WiNNECKE. It has been observed at the subsequent returns 
in 1869, 1875, 1886, and 1892. C. D. Perrine. 

The Probable State of the Sky along the Path of 
Total Eclipse of the Sun, May 28, 1900.! 

* * Having regard to the cost of establishing temporary eclipse 
stations, and the losses to science in case a clear view of the Sun 
is not secured during totality, it is proper to determine, as far as 
practicable, the probable state of the sky along the path, with the 
view of selecting the best sites for the observations. To do this, 
a study may be made of the cloud conditions prevailing annually 
along the shadow track for a period of time, including the date 



• Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California, 
t Abstract from the Report by Professor Frank H. Bigbi.ow, in the Monthly Weather 
Review for September, 1897. 



3^ Publications of the 

of the eclipse. Certain areas may show greater tendency to 
cloudiness than others, and this fact will have some weight with 
observers in choosing their stations. 

** The eclipse track for May 28, 1900, passes over the Southern 
States from New Orleans, La., northeastward to Norfolk, Va., 
and it will be surveyed by the U. S. Weather Bureau for the 
benefit of the astronomical expeditions. 

** ... Beginning with May 15, 1897, ^^^ continuing until 
June 15, 1897, so as to include May 28th centrally, observations 
were made at sixty-six stations, . . . covering quite uniformly 
the portions of the States of Virginia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, over 
which the track is plotted. . . . The general state of the sky 
at 8 A. M., 8:30 A.M., and 9 a. M., was noted. ... At the 
same hours the state of the sky near the Sun was observed. The 
observers were generally volunteers, who did this work at the 
request of the Weather Bureau. . . . 

** Judging from the table [of the results of the observations] it 
would be much safer to locate in central Georgia or Alabama, 
upon the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains, where the 
track crosses the elevated areas, than nearer the coast line in either 
direction, northeastward toward the Atiantic coast, or southwest- 
ward toward the Gulf coast. 

** ... It is intended to repeat the observations during the 
years 1898 and 1899, after which we shall be as well informed as 
possible regarding the selection of the eclipse stations for the year 
1900.'' 

Eclipses of fupiTER's Satellite IV. 

The present cycle ol eclipse phenomena for fupiter' s fourth 
satellite is nearly closed, and, of course, the latest observations 
are among the most favorable for correcting the ephemeris. 
Immediately ^i\.^x fupiter has made his appearance on this coast, 
at midnight. January 9th-ioth, Satellite IV will suffer eclipse, 
and the reappearance nearly two hours later should be well 
observed. 

The last eclipse, when the satellite will be only half an hour in 
the shadow, may possibly be seen from Mt. Hamilton, on the 
morning of March ist, when, although the Sun is just above the 
eastern horizon, fupiter is low down in the west. C. B. H. 

San Francisco, December 5, 1897. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 37 

The Star with the Largest Known Proper Motion, 

The star, Cordoba Zone Catalogue, 5**, No. 243, has been 
found by Professor J. C. Kapteyn and Mr. R. T. A. Innes to 
have an annual proper motion of +o*.62i in Right Ascension 
and — 5". 70 in Declination, or of 8". 7 in the arc of a great circle. 
The announcement in the Astronomische Nachricktetiy 3464, 
states that the discovery was made in comparing the Cape Photo- 
graphic Durckmusierung star places with those of other star 
catalogues. 

The largest known proper motion of any star previous to this 
discovery was that of the so-called ** runaway'* star, 1830 
Groombridge, which has an apparent drift of 7".o annually. 

January 6, 1898. R. G. A. 

Astronomical Telegram (Translation). 

Lick Observatory, Jan. 3, 1898. 

To Harvard CoUege Observatory, j ^gent 10:50 A. M.) 

Cambridge. Mass. ) 

Comet Winnecke was observed by Perrine, January 
2.0873, R. A. 15^ 19™ 2*.5, Decl. - 3° 58' 34". Faint. 

Observational Astronomy: a Practical Book for 
Amateurs. By Arthur Mee, F. R. A. S. 

The library of the Society has become the possessor, through 
the courtesy of the author, of the second and thoroughly revised 
edition of what Knowledge calls **an excellent, honest little 
book.'* A cursory examination indicates that the author is 
justified in believing ** that this second edition may be described 
as the most detailed work at the price that has ever been offered 
to the fast-growing circle of amateur astronomers.'* It is up to 
date, contains a vast amount of information well arranged, 
ample references to special treatises and articles in the scientific 
journals and reports of observatories, and is illustrated with 
portraits, maps, drawings, and photographs. ** Every care has 
been taken to insure accuracy, and the fanciful results of the 
recently established school of marvel-mongers are either dismissed 
altogether, or viewed in these pages with a skeptical eye. ' ' 

A brief but appreciative memoir of the Rev. Prebendary 
Webb, author of the well-known * ' Celestial Objects for Common 
Telescopes," is appended. 



38 Publications of the 

Some Interesting Double Stars. 

I have recently secured three measures of the star /3 395 ^ the 
latest addition to the rank of rapid binary stars. The mean of 
these measures is, — 

1897.92 273°.; o".27. 

In 1891 Burnham's measures gave an angle of 118° and a 
distance of o".75. According to See, the period of this star is 
about sixteen years. 

Measures of O 5 j/j, ^ Andromeda^ on three nights give a 
mean result of, — 

1887.98 56° 4 o".23. 

This is in good agreement with measures made by Professor 
Hussey about the same time. So far as I know, these are the 
only measures that have been made since Burnham*s rather 
uncertain measure on one night in 1892, just after the star had 
passed periastron. The angular motion since 1851, the date of 
discovery, exceeds 250°. 

The star k ig68y though not a binary, is interesting because 
of the relative proper motion of the two close components. The 
distance, which in 183 1 exceeded 20", is now about 2". 5. A recent 
discussion by Professor S. Glasenapp shows that the relative 
annual motion of B to A is ©".2753 in the direction 235° 11. 
The minimum distance, 2". 28, between the stars will be reached 
in 1904. 

The following measures have been made of the companion 
to Procyon: — 

1897-838 321°. 7 4"- 84 

.876 324 .8 4 .67 

.915 324 '8 4 '59 

1897.88 323^.8 4". 70 

These measures, like those by Professor Schaeberle, indi- 
cate direct orbital motion. 

Two measures of the companion to Sirius have been secured 
in addition to those published in No. 59 of these Publications. 
They are: — 

1897.838 i75°.8 4". 14 

.915 172 .8 

Clouds prevented distance measure on the second night. All 
the above measures were made with the 36-inch telescope. 
January 21, 1898. R. G. AlTKEN. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 39 

Errata in Star Catalogues. 

In the course of some work involving an extensive use of 
southern star catalogues, a few errata and unusual discrepancies 
have been noted. In general they are of minor importance, but 
the insertion of the corrections in the catalogues may save some 
annoyance. 

Cordoba Durchmusterung : — 

— 23° 13035 for G C. read Z C. 

— 24° 15285 differs —2'. 2 in 8 from Z C. I9'.695. 
—24° 16622 print G C. 

—24° 16626 for G C. read Z C. 

— 24^ 16877 delete Z C. 
—24° 16874 print Z C. 

— 24° 16959 print G C. 

— 24° 16960 delete G C. 

— 25° 13024 delete G C. 

— 25° 13025 print G C. 

—25° 15714 for G C. read Z C. 
—26° 10862 for G C. read Z C. 

— 27° 12682 for G C. read Z C. 
—28° 6607 delete G C 

— 28"^ 17047 for G C. read Z C. 

—28° 17523 Decl. for 32'.© read 22'.©. 

^31° 3136 Declination differs 1^.5 from G C. 7589. 

—31° 3^ Right Ascension minute 41 is omitted. It should 
be printed with No. 1538. 

—32° 16677 for G C read Z C. 

""34° 5905» 5906. The magnitudes in C D M. are respect- 
ively, 9.6 and 7.9. G C 12906 gives CDM. 5905 
a magnitude of 7)4. Are the CDM. magnitudes 
interchanged ? 



-34" 


page 


139, for —36° read - 


-34°. 


-36° 


6426 


for 3.5 mag. read 8.5 




-38° 


9130 


for G C. read Z C. 




-39° 


141M 


\ Decl. for 29'. I read 


24'. I 


-40° 


8818 for G C. read Z C. 




-40° 


9495 


delete U A. 




-40° 


9496 print U A. 





40 Publications of the 

Cordoba Zones: — 

17^ 2644 Right Ascension is I'.i greater than G C. 24105. 

Cordoba General Catalogue: — 

2107, column Prec. An., for 2*.934 read 2'.634. 

Argelander's Southern Zones ( Weiss): — 

1607 Declination i' too far south? See G C. 3239. 
8708 Declination i' too far south? See G C. 14501. 
18236 Right Ascension differs + i' from G C. 32393. 

ScHONFELD'S Souihem Durchmusierung : — 

— 20° 5055 is marked A, but is not in Weiss's Arge- 
lander, 

Yarnall (Frisby) 327. An. Prec. for 10". 85 read 

19". 85. 
Yarnall (Frisby) 8888 is called Arg. (Oe) 20215. 
Weiss gives 50' less Right Ascension. 

R. G. AlTKEN. 
January 15, 1898. 

Award of the Lalande Gold Medal to Assistant 
Astronomer C. D. Perrine, of the Lick Observatory. 

The members of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific will 
be pleased to learn that at the meeting of the French Academy 
of Science, held in Paris, December 30, 1897, the Lalande 
Gold Medal was awarded to C. D. Perrine for distinguished 
services in astronomy. 

Since his connection with the Lick Observatory, Mr. Perrine 
has discovered five new comets and rediscovered two periodic 
comets. In addition to these discoveries, he has not only pub- 
lished long series of observations on these bodies, but has also 
computed and published various orbits and ephemerides of the 
new comets from his own observations. 

It is quite remarkable that every one of the last five comets 
observed was successively discovered by this same observer, 
three being new, and two rediscoveries of the periodic comets 
ol d' Arrest and Winnecke. 

The award of the Lalande Gold Medal to Assistant 

Astronomer C. D. Perrine, is but a just recognition, by one of 

the world's leading scientific bodies, of a most worthy investigator. 

J. M. S. 
Lick Observatory, January 21, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 41 

Belopolsky*s Researches on y^AQUiiM. 

The variable character of 17 Aquilce was discovered by Pigott 
in 1784, and from the observations since that time the period of 
its variation in brightness, ranging from 3.5 to 4.7 magnitude, 
has been determined with great accuracy. According to Chan- 
dler's Third Catalogue of Variable Stars, the period is 7. 176381 
days, or somewhat more than seven days four hours. 

In September, 1895, M. Belopolsky reported to the Academy 
of Sciences of St. Petersburg that his spectrographic observations 
of this star indicated a variable velocity in the line of sight. 
During the past year he has again studied the star by means of 
photographs of its spectrum, taken with improved spectroscopic 
apparatus in connection with the 30-inch refractor at Pulkowa. 
His former results have been confirmed. He finds the velocity 
in the line of sight periodically variable, ranging from -\-\,(>\ to 
— 18.63 miles per second. Assuming the variations of velocity 
to be due to orbital motion and with a period of revolution equal 
to the period of the star as a variable, he has determined elliptic 
elements, so as to satisfy the observed velocities in the line of sight. 
It is found that the times of minimum brightness and the times at 
which the velocity in the line of sight is the same as that of the 
motion of the system, do not coincide, and for this reason some 
explanation other than that of eclipses must be sought to explain 
the variations of brightness. 

M. Belopolsky has arrived at a like result in the case of 
I Cephei, a variable star, whose range in variation of brightness 
and whose light curve are very much the same as those of 
HI Aquilce, W. J. HussEY. 

Meteors Visible in Full Daylight. 

The number of shooting stars or meteors that fall to the Earth 
in the course of twenty-four hours reaches high into thousands, 
but the great majority of them are small, and do not attract any 
particular attention. At very rare intervals, however, it happens 
that they are of sufficient size and brilliancy to be seen in the day- 
time. The following are among the instances to be found in 
astronomical records: — 

On the afternoon of September 13, 1795, a meteoric stone, 
weighing fifty-six pounds, fell within thirty feet of a workman in 
Yorkshire, England. This stone fell with a loud explosion, and 
penetrated a foot of soil and half a foot of chalk rock. 



42 Publications of the 

About nine o'clock in the morning of September lo, 1813, 
another was seen to fall in southern Ireland. Its appearance 
was accompanied with the formation of a cloud of smoke in a 
clear sky. Soon after eleven distinct reports were heard, resem- 
bling the discharge of heavy artillery, followed by an uproar like 
that of the continued discharge of musketry. Bodies moving in 
a horizontal direction towards the west with great velocity came 
out of the cloud of smoke. One of these was seen to fall to the 
Earth, burying itself deep in the ground. It was immediately dug 
up, and found to be still hot and to have a sulphurous smell. It 
weighed seventeen pounds. Other fragments fell at the same 
time, and were picked up in the neighborhood. 

In 1879 a meteor was seen to fall in the daytime in Southern 
Virginia with sounds likened to that of an earthquake. 

On the afternoon of January 19, 1898, I observed a bright 
meteor from the Lick Observatory. It was merely a flash, from 
five to ten degrees in length. It appeared white against the clear 
sky and was visible for only a very short time, not more than a 
few tenths of a second. It was moving very rapidly towards the 
north in a path slightly inclined towards the Earth, and increas- 
ing in brightness along its course until its sudden disappearance. 
From the observatory it was seen almost directly in the west, but 
its distance must remain unknown, unless at least one other 
observation has been secured elsewhere. It was, however, 
probably far out over the Pacific Ocean. 

The time of observation was i*' 8" 40* P. S. T. The azimuth 
of the point of disappearance, as seen from the Lick Observatory 
and subsequently determined with surveyor's transit, was south 
ninety-three degrees west, and its altitude was estimated to be 
about eight degrees. E. F. Coddington. 

January 21, 1898. 

Report on the Teaching of Astronomy in the 
United States. 

The next report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education will 
contain a chapter by Dr. Edward S. Holden on the teaching 
of astronomy in the primary and secondary schools, and in the 
colleges and universities of the United States. 

Dr. Holden was elected a member of the American Philo- 
sophical Society of Philadelphia at its meeting in December, 
1897. R- G. A. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 43 

Success of the Crocker Lick Observatory Eclipse 
Expedition. 

A cablegram received at Mt. Hamilton from Professor Camp- 
bell, who is in charge of the Crocker Lick Observatory 
Expedition at Jeur, India, states that most satisfactory photo- 
graphs of the corona were obtained with three different telescopes 
— one set with a telescope forty feet long, and two other sets with 
five- foot and three-foot telescopes. He also reports that the 
great equatorial extension of the corona, which formed such a 
conspicuous feature of the eclipse of January, 1889, has again 
been photographed. 

He also satisfactorily photographed the changes in the solar 
spectrum at the Sun's edge with the aid of one of the spectro- 
scopes, and probably obtained successful photographs of the 
reversing layer with the aid of a second spectroscope. 

Professor Campbell originally intended to locate his station 
in the neighborhood of Karad ; but, owing to the ravages of the 
plague in that section of the country, he was compelled to change 
his plans, so far as the selection of the station was concerned. 

The instrumental equipment of the Lick Observatory Eclipse 
Expedition was, without doubt, as complete as that of any other 
party sent out on this occasion, and we believe that the results 
secured by Professor Campbell will, when fully discussed, add 
very materially to our knowledge of the Sun's constitution, the 
nature of the forces there at work, and the character of the Sun*s 
corona. J. M. Schaeberle. 

Lick Observatory, University of California, 
January 24, 1898. 

Death of Dr.' Winnecke. 

We regret to record the death of Dr. A. F. T, Winnecke, 
at Bonn, on the 3d of December, 1897. Born at Hanover on the 
5th of February, 1835, Winnecke received his training in astron- 
omy at Gottingen, Berlin, and Bonn, coming under the personal 
influence of Gauss, Encke, and Arge lander. Already well 
known by his work, both in practical and theoretical astronomy, 
he accepted, in 1858, an appointment in the Russian observatory 
at Pulkowa. His work here in the next six years placed him in 
the front rank of astronomers, but his incessant activity over- 
taxed his strength, and in 1865 he was obliged to return to Bonn 



44 Publications of the 

in search of health. The few years following were mainly 
devoted to regaining his strength, but that his scientific work 
was not entirely abandoned is sufficiently made evident by the 
discovery of four new comets during this time. In 1872 he had 
so far recovered as to be able to accept the appointment of 
Professor of Astronomy at the newly founded University of 
Strassburg. Nine years of fruitful work as Director, observer, 
and instructor followed; but in 1881 failing health compelled him 
once more to lay aside his work and seek rest. The hope that 
he might soon resume his duties was never realized. 

In discovery, observation, and theoretical astronomy, WiN- 
necke's work constitutes a most valuable contribution to the 
science he loved. 

Success of the Pierson Chabot Observatory Eclipse 

Expedition. 

On the afternoon of January 24th, the following telegram was 
received from the Hon. Wm. M. Pierson, of San Francisco: — 

** BuRCKH ALTER Cables unqualified success, and weather con- 
ditions perfect. ' ' 

As is well known, this expedition, in charge of Charles 
BuRCKH ALTER, of the Chabot Observatory, was sent out at the 
expense of another member of the Astronomical Society of the 
Pacific — the Hon. Wm. M. Pierson, of San Francisco, who has 
taken such lively interest in the affairs of the Society, and aided 
previous eclipse expeditions in various ways. 

According to the above telegram, Burckhalter has obtained 
satisfactory photographs of the corona with his device (described 
in No. 42 of our Publications) for securing detail of both the 
inner and outer corona on the ^ame negative. J. M. S. 

Lick Observatory, January 25, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 45 

The Great Nebula in Andromeda. 

(See the frontispiece.) 

The frontispiece of the present volume is reproduced from a 
negative which I obtained with the Crocker photographic tele- 
scope of the Lick Observatory on December 21, 1897, with an 
exposure of five hours. 

The Great Nebula in Andromeda is the only one that was 
known before the invention of the telescope. Al-Sufi, in the 
tenth century, was familiar with the dim, hazy region near the 
most northern of the three stars composing the girdle of Andro- 
meda, The telescope was first turned to this wonderful object 
by Simon Marius, December 15, 16 12. He described it as like 
a candle shining through horn. It received but little attention 
until the time of Boulliaud, whose attention was directed to it 
by the passage of the comet of 1664 across that part of the sky. 
Halley described it as being triangular in shape, with the apex 
of the triangle on the south preceding end, which corresponds to 
the right of the accompanying reproduction. Messier described 
it more accurately as two luminous pyramids having a common 
base, the distance from apex to apex being about two thirds of a 
degree, and the common base being about a quarter of a degree. 

The next important advance in our knowledge of this nebula 
was made by Professor G. P. Bond, September 14, 1847. While 
examining it with the 1 5-inch refractor of the Harvard College 
Observatory, he saw on the north preceding side two dark rifts, 
nearly parallel to each other. These were observed with many 
smaller instruments after their discovery by Bond, but they were 
always drawn as straight lines. 

It remained for photography to determine the true form of 
these rifts. On October i, 1888, Mr. Isaac Roberts, with his 
20-inch reflector, obtained a photograph of this nebula which was 
a revelation to the astronomical world. It showed for the first 
time the elliptical form of the nebula, with the rifts extending 
almost continuously around it, as shown in the accompanying 
reproduction. E. F. Coddington. 



4^ Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 

HELD in the Rooms of the Society, January 29, 

1898, AT 7:30 p. M. 

Vice-President Seares presided. A quorum was present. The 
minutes of the last meeting were approved. The following members 
were duly elected:— 

List of Members Elected January 29, 1898. 

Prof. H. D. Curtis j Umversity^of the Pacific. CoUege 

Dr. F. P. VON Keller Ardmore, Ind. Terr. 

The John Crerar Library Chicago, III. 

Mr. Henry Payot 204 Pine St., S. F. Gal. 

Mr. Clarence McKenzie Lewis was elected to Life Membership. 
It was, on motion. 

Resolved^ That the name of the Harvard College Observatory, 
Cambridge, Mass. , be added to the list of corresponding institutions. 

Adjourned. 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Astronomical Society 

OF THE Pacific, held in the Rooms of the 

Technical Society, January 29, 1898. 

The meeting was called to order by Mr. Seares. The minutes of 
the last meeting were approved. 

The Secretary read the names of new members duly elected at the 
Directors* meeting. 

A committee to nominate a list of eleven Directors and Committee 
on Publication, to be voted for at the annual meeting, to be held on 
March 26th, was appointed as follows: Messrs. E. S. Clark, C. A. 
MuRDOCK, G. V. Hicks, L. H. Pierson, J. R. Ruckstell. 

A committee to audit the accounts of the Treasurer and to report at 
the annual meeting was appointed as follows: Messrs. Jos. F. Gass- 
mann, a. H. Babcock, and F. H. McConnell. 

The following papers were presented: — 

1. The Total Solar Eclipse of 1898, by E. W. Maunder. 

2. A Series of Star Maps, by C. D. Perrine. 

3. Planetary Phenomena for March and April, 1898, by Malcolm 

McNeill, of Lake Forest. 

4. Spectroscopic Binary Stars, by R. G. Aitken. 

5. Observations of Variable Stars in 1897, by Torvald K5hl, of 

Odder, Denmark. 

Adjourned. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 47 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. William Alvord (Bank of California, S. F.) Prtsidtnt 

Mr. £. J. MOLBRA (606 Clay Street, S. F.) 

Mr. Frbosrick H. Sbakbs (Berkeley, Cal.) > Vice-Prgsidtntt 

Mr. C M. St. John (U. S. Custom House, S. F.) ' 

Mr. C. D. Pbrrinb (Lick Observatory) Secretary 

Mr. F. R. ZiBL (301 California Street, S. F.) . . Secretary and Treasurer 

Board af Directors- hl^sn. Alvord, Molera. Morsb, Miss O'Halloran, Messrs. 

Pbrrinb, Pibrson, Sbarbk. St. John, Tucicbk, von Gbldern, Zibl. 
Finance Cammittee—Mtisn, Wu. M. Pibrson, E. J. Molbra, and C. M. St. John. 
Camsmitteeon PubiicatioH — Messrs. Aitkbn, Babcock, Sbarbs. 
Library Comtmittee-'MtMn. Hussby and Sbarbs and Miss O'Halloran. 
Committee on the Comet' Medal— yitaaxs, Schabbbrlb and Campbbll. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Sxecutrtfe Committee — Mr. Ruthvbn W. Pikb. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Rjcecutive Committee — Mr. Francisco Rodrigubz Rbv. 



NOTICE. 

The attention of new members is called to Article VIII of the By* Laws, which provides that 
the annaal subscription, paid on election, covers the calendar year onlv. Subsequent annual 
paymcnu are due on January ist of each succeeding calendar year. This rule is necessary in 
order to make our book-keeping as simple as possible. Dues sent by mail should be directed to 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific S19 Market Street, San Francisco. 

It is intended that each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the Pub- 
lications for the year in which he was elected to membership and for all subsequent years. If 
there have been (unfortunately) any omissions in this matter, it is requested that the Secretaries 
he at once notified, in order that the missing numbers may be supplied. Members are requested 
to preserve the copies of the Publications of the Society as sent to them. Once each year a title* 
page and contents of the preceding numbers will also be sent to the members, who can then bind 
the numbers together into a volume. Complete volumes for past years will also be supplied, to 
members only, so far as the stock in hand is sufficient, on the i>ayment of two dollars per volume 
to either of the Secretaries. Any non>resident member within the United States can obtain 
books from the Society's library by sending his library card with ten cents in stamps to the 
Secretary A. S. P., 819 Market Street, San Francisco, who will return the book and the card. 

The Committee on Publication desires to say that the order in which papers are printed in 
the Publications is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
first which are earliest accepted for publication. It is not possible to send proof sheets of papers 
to be printed to authors whose residence is not within the United States. The responsibility for 
the views expressed in the papers printed rests with the writers, and is not assumed by the 
Society itself. 

The titles of papers for reading shotild be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
as poesible, as well as any changes in addresses. The Secretary in San Francisco will send to 
any member of the Society suitable stationery, stamped with the seal of the Society, at cost price, 
as folknrs: a block of letter paper, 40 cents; of note paper, as cents; a package of envelopes, 35 
cents. These prices include postai^e, and should be remitted by money-order or in U. S. postage 
stamps. The sendings are at the risk of the member. 

Those members who propose to attend the meetings at Mount Hamilton during the summer 
should communicate with *'The Secretary Astronomical Society of the Pacific " at the rooms of 
the Societ^r, 810 Market Street, San Francisco, in order that arrangements may be made for 
transportation, lodging, etc 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BI-MONTHLY. 
(February^ April t June ^ August, October, December,) 




L2^ 



''^^^^ 



liS^^k'^'ox 



'•Oi/A,X^/^0 



^MO. 



ZlP^S 




A LUNAR LANDSCAPE. 
(Photographed at the Lick Observatory. Dec. 31. 1897, y\i 58'" 30s to ;»» 58m 50s, P. S. T.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. X. San Francisco, California, April 2, 1898. No. 61 



ADDRESS OF THE RETIRING PRESIDENT OF THE 

SOCIETY, IN AWARDING THE BRUCE MEDAL 

TO PROFESSOR SIMON NEWCOMB. 



By William Alvord. 



At each preceding annual meeting of this Society, it has been 
the custom for the retiring President to deliver an address, either 
upon some specialty in the domain of astronomy, or upon some 
particular features or needs of our organization. The present 
meeting will of necessity mark a departure from that custom, for 
it is the first at which the President of this Society is allowed the 
privilege of making a public award of the Bruce Medal. Follow- 
ing the plan of the older societies similarly endowed, I shall 
occupy your time this evening with a brief sketch of the life and 
works of the distinguished American astronomer who, with the 
sanction (and it might almost be said, at the command) of his 
fellow scientists of this and many other countries, becomes the 
recipient of the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the 
Pacific ** for distinguished services to astronomy.'* 

To those of you who have followed in our Publications the history 
of this recendy founded medal and the regulations adopted for its 
award, it will be perfectly clear that the recipient must have 
endeared himself, in a scientific sense, to the astronomers of the 
world. Not only will this ako be true of each subsequent 
bestowal of the medal, but such a condition must especially mark 
this first presentation, since, according to the desires of Miss 
Bruce, the medal is to be ** international in character, and may 
be awarded to citizens of any country and to persons of either 
sex." It must strike us, then, with peculiar force, that of all the 



50 Publications of the 

names of living astronomers that have been so brilliantly con- 
nected with the wonderful advances in astronomical research 
during the past half century, with all the manifold branches of 
observational work, mathematical investigation, spectroscopic and 
photographic study in which to seek out a worthy exponent for 
this distinction, one name stood forward so prominendy in the 
communications from heads of six leading observatories of the 
world, that the Directors of this Society could but set the seal of 
their approval upon the verdict of his peers, and award the first 
Bruce Medal to Professor Simon Newcomb. 

The labors of astronomical research are beyond computation 
in the standards by which, for example, mercantile pursuits are 
judged. The preliminary study and preparation and the hard- 
ships of an apprenticeship in his chosen field would make of 
a man possessing the requisite mental ability of the great 
astronomer a most successful business man or practitioner, whose 
closing days would, in a vast majority of instances, be spent in 
the luxury of an acquired competence. There are no such 
pecuniary rewards for scientific devotion. There are, it is true, 
many noble endowments of scientific research, by means of which 
the early privations of a few successful students are in a measure 
lessened and their necessary equipment secured. The scholar- 
ships of a great university are an instance of this; would that 
there were more of them,— such as those established by another 
distinguished philanthropic woman, by means of which a certain 
number of advanced students are afforded a course of investiga- 
tion at the Lick Observatory of our own University. But the 
idea of an award such as that which it is my glad privilege to 
make on behalf of the Astronomical Society this evening, is not 
intended in any sense to be a reward. It is, like the gold medal 
of the Royal Astronomical Society of England, and the Lalande 
and Arago medals of the French Academy, simply the expression 
of sincere appreciation for a grand work well accomplished — 
another jewel in the crown of immortality, which alone rewards 
the unselfish devotion of a worker in the cause of science. 

It was such a design which prompted Miss Catherine 
Wolfe Bruce, of New York (whose previous benefactions to 
astronomy are many and judicious), to establish the gold medal 
of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. I cannot do better 
than to here quote one or two sentences from the original 
announcement made by Dr. Edward S. Holden, who had 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 51 

previously been made the recipient of many aids to the Lick 
Observatory equipment and publications from the same bene- 
factress, and by whom principally were drawn up the excellent 
regulations for the bestowal of this medal: — 

*• Not only will the Bruce Medal tend to the advancement of 
astronomy, and enable the Astronomical Society of the Pacific to 
adequately recognize scientific work of the highest class (and 
these are Miss Bruce*s only desires), but it will forever con- 
nect the name of the founder with the progressive advances 
of astronomy. Those who are knowing to her very many 
and wise subventions of astronomical research (a few of which 
are spoken of in these PublicaHons) will welcome this, her latest 
gift, for personal as well as for scientific reasons. The Society is 
to be congratulated that Miss Bruce has selected it as the Trustee 
to carry out her generous desires. If the trust is executed, as it 
will be, with intelligence, fidelity, and circumspection, the time 
will soon come when the Bruce Medal will be one of the most 
highly-prized recognitions of original and useful service to Astro- 
nomical Science.*' 

To members of scientific societies situated in the Eastern 
States, or even in Europe, the personality of our Medalist is well 
known. All the world knows of his scientific achievements. I 
have therefore thought that it would be gratifying to members of 
the Society if I gave, in this place, some brief account of the life 
of Professor Newcomb, especially because his life exhibits, in a 
marked way, the qualities which distinguish the great man of 
science, who is born, not made, and who will conquer his place 
no matter what the obstacles may be. 

Professor Newcomb was born in Wallace, Nova Scotia, on 
March 12, 1835. His family came to New England about 1660, 
but removed to Nova Scotia in 1761, shortly before the breaking 
out of the Revolutionary War. None of his ancestors received a 
college training, but, after the fashion of the times, they were 
taught in the country schools. His grandfather was a stone- 
cutter by trade, and'part owner of a quarry in Nova Scotia. He 
must have been a man of parts, for among the books in his 
library was a copy of Euclid's Geometry, not a common posses- 
sion in the simple community in which he lived. His son, the 
father of Newcomb, became a school-teacher. There was but 
small opportunity for a boy in the little village in Nova Scotia 
where Newcomb' s family lived. Most of the inhabitants were 



52 Publications of the 

very poor. The men and boys sawed lumber and cut wood for 
a livelihood. The women and girls sheared the sheep and wove 
the wool into homespun cloth. The garments for both men and 
women were made at home. Life was hard and books were few. 

In his father's school young Nevvcomb began his studies at 
the age of five. At six he was already fond of arithmetic, and 
soon gained a local reputation for his facility in working out 
arithmetical problems. At the age of twelve the boy began the 
study of algebra, and about the same time he commenced to teach 
others. The Euclid which belonged to his grandfather was taken 
down from the bookshelves when the lad was about thirteen 
years old, and there he obtained his first ideas of geometrical 
demonstration. As he has himself said: "The book delighted 
me. It opened up a new world of thought, and I remember 
that I explained its theorems to my brother, drawing the 
diagrams with a pencil on the ends of the logs of a pile of wood.*' 

From Nova Scotia young Newcomb went, as a country school - 
teacher to the eastern shore of Maryland, where he taught reading, 
writing, and arithmetic for a year or more. 

Among Professor Newcomb' s papers is to be found the fol- 
lowing certificate, which was valued then, but which reads quaintly 
now among the formal diplomas from the learned societies and 
the universities of the whole world: — 

*' This is to certify that Mr. Simon Newcomb was well quali- 
fied to instruct children in the various branches of an English 
education, and possesses a good moral character. He exhibited 
a very considerable knowledge of the higher branches of mathe- 
matics. W. J. SUDLER, 

John W. E. Sudler, 
Trustees for Primary School No. 4 of Q. A. Co. , for 
the year ending 1855. 
(Dated) Sudlersville, November 23, 1855." 
At this time he sent to Professor Joseph Henry, the Director 
of the Smithsonian Institution, an algebraical problem that was 
new, asking him if it were suitable for publication. The problem was 
submitted by Professor Henry to a mathematician, who reported 
that, while the demonstration was original, it was not precisely 
suited for publication. Henry, with his unfailing kindness, 
replied to Newcomb' s letter and became interested in the young 
man, who came to Washington at his request. I have heard 
that he walked from his home to the city. By Henry's inter- 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 53 

vention, Newcomb was appointed, in 1857, to be a computer 
on the American Ephemeris (Nautical Almanac), which was 
then installed at Cambridge, Massachusetts. The establish- 
ment was under the direction of Lieutenant (afterwards Admiral) 
Charles Henry Davis, of the Navy, and Davis* relative, 
Benjamin Peirce, the Professor of Mathematics and Astron- 
omy in Harvard University, was the consulting astronomer of 
the Ephemeris. In this new atmosphere Newcomb was soon 
at home. The little brick building on the main street of Cam- 
bridge, which was the headquarters of the Ephemeris, contained 
a number of men of first-rate ability, and many of the officers of 
the institution had already made their mark. Peirce was a 
pupil and protege of Nathaniel Bowditch, and had read for 
him the proof-sheets of Bowditch*s translation of the Mhanique 
Celeste of Laplace as it passed through the press. Newcomb's 
immediate colleagues were, then or soon afterwards, Runkle, 
Ferrel, Chauncev Wright, Winlock, and others. Ken- 
dall, Sears C. Walker, and Dr. Gould were coadjutors also. 
The Harvard College Observatory was in active operation under 
William Bond and his son. The intellectual tone of Cambridge, 
then a mere village, was extremely high. Newcomb found in 
his new surroundings precisely the atmosphere that was needed 
for his development. During his stay in Cambridge he attended 
the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University, from 
which he was graduated in 1858. 

Some of his colleagues were men of high and varied culture, 
and all of them were accomplished in scientific matters. Books 
there were in plenty. The Observatory was actively engaged in 
original work. In native talent few, if any, of his companions 
approached Newcomb, but he had something to learn from each 
one of them. Perhaps his friendship with Chauncey Wright 
was as close as any. Wright was not only a mathematician; he 
was also a philosopher, and his friendship was highly prized. 
Gould had had the great advantage of a thorough training in 
Europe by the best astronomers of the period. 

Newcomb* s reputation steadily grew, and in 1861 he was 
appointed to be Professor of Mathematics in the United States 
Navy, and one of the Astronomers at the Government Observa- 
tory in Washington. Previous to this (in 1857), he had been 
appointed on the staflf of the American Ephemeris. 

In 1 86 1 he received his commission in the Navy, and in the 



54 Publications of the 

year 1877 he was appointed to be Superintendent of the Ameri- 
can Ephemeris, a position which he held until his retirement in 
1896. His official position and his talents brought him the 
Presidency of the U. S. Transit of Venus Commission, and placed 
him at the head of various boards and scientific expeditions to 
observe the Transit of Venus at the Cape of Good Hope in 1882. 

Professor Newcomb married a granddaughter of Ferdinand 
R. Hassler, who was the first Chief of the United States Coast 
Survey. Mrs. Newcomb has been a veritable helpmate during 
all the years of his activity, sharing in his trials and in his 
triumphs, and sparing him all the minor ills of life so far as lay 
in her power. Of his three surviving children, all girls, one at 
least has shown decided talent, and has taken a high degree as a 
physician from a foreign university. 

A few words may be said of the individuality of our Medalist 
as I have learned it fi'om a personal acquaintance, which extends 
back to 1873, when I was one of the Trustees of the Lick Trust 
and Newcomb its chief adviser; and derived also fi'om the con- 
versation of astronomers who have known him intimately, and 
who honor and revere his character and attainments. It is proper 
to here mention that a great deal of the preceding information 
has been kindly gathered for me by Dr. E. S. Holden, whose 
acquaintance with our Medalist has been lifelong and intimate. 

The basis of Professor Newcomb* s character is intellectual 
and moral honesty pushed to its highest degree. He loves truth 
and detests shams. He has, as it were, a veritable passion for 
justice— whether in personal relations or in civic matters. The 
circumstances of his career have made him ruggedly independent 
in thought and in speech. The essential quality of his mind is 
that of a philosopher, rather than that of a mathematician or an 
astronomer merely. His achievements in the pure sciences have 
been very extended and extraordinary, but his work in political 
economy, though not so extensive, has fully proved that if he 
had devoted himself exclusively to this science, he would have 
attained the very highest rank. Even as it is, he ranks among 
the great names. In his treatment of all quesdons, it is the 
philosophical habit of his mind which is the most remarkable and 
the most valuable. 

His most original investigation — a new method of investiga- 
tion in the lunar theory — is marked by philosophic insight as 
well as by mathematical power and astronomical sagacity. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 55 

With all these qualities, there is a notable practicality in his 
methods of work which has stood him in good stead and 
enabled him to complete vast labors, which another man scarcely 
less gifted might not have been able to bring to a termination. 
The tendency of the practical astronomer, who is this and nothing 
more, is to refine on his observations until they have been 
brought to the last possible degree of attainable precision and 
even carried beyond it. In all of Newcomb's work in practical 
astronomy, he has kept clearly in mind the object for which his 
observations were made; and when his observations were suffi- 
ciently accurate, and when there was an adequate number ol 
them, he has terminated the work and calculated the desired 
result with the least possible delay. In this way he has saved 
himself and the world much time. His results have been quickly 
forthcoming. The merit is great The danger of such a pro- 
cedure is, that results may be too quickly reached and accepted 
on authority. 

In theoretical researches the same practical tendency is mani- 
fest, and corresponding results have been attained. It is due to 
this faculty that the enormous task of revising the elements of the 
orbits of the major planets and of tabubting them in convenient 
forms has been carried through to completion in a comparatively 
short time. This gigantic task would have been above even his 
powers, had it not been for this practicality to which I have 
referred. 

In pure mathematics his work has chiefly been directed to 
investigations that were suggested by the needs of astronomy as 
experienced in his previous work. His mathematical thinking 
has usually been along lines suggested by astronomical necessities. 

On a few occasions he has made successful excursions into the 
geometry of Hyper-Space. These ** fairy tales of geometry ** are 
very attractive to his mind, so that he chose for the subject of his 
Presidential Address to the American Mathematical Society 
(1897), **The Philosophy of Geometry of Four- Dimensions.'* 

His many mathematical text-books are characterized by a prac- 
tical tendency which gives them great value, and at the same time 
the philosophical bent of his mind has forced him to regard the 
subjects treated from a high and generalized point of view. 

The list of Professor Newcomb's honors is a very long one. 
He is a member of nearly every Academy of Science in Europe, 
and has received honorary degrees from many universities in this 



5^ Publications of the 

country and abroad In 1872 he was elected one of the fifty 
Foreign Associates of the Royal Astronomical Society of Lon- 
don, and in 1874 he received the gold medal of that Society. 

In 1877 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Society 
of London, and the Copley Medal was awarded to him in 1890. 

In 1877 he was President of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and in the same year his portrait was 
ordered to be painted for the gallery of portraits of great 
astronomers in the Imperial Observatory of Russia. 

In 1878 he received the Huyghens Medal from Holland, an 
award which is made only once in each twenty years, and then 
only for the most important work of the period. 

He has been corresponding member of the Academy of 
Sciences of Paris since 1874, and one of its eight Foreign Asso- 
ciates since 1895, ^^^ ^^ officer of the Legion of Honor of France 
since 1896. 

In 1897 the Imperial Academy of Sciences elected him to 
membership, and in the same year he received the Schubert Gold 
Medal of the Academy — a rare honor. 

In acknowledgment of his services to the Imperial Observatory 
of Russia in the making of its great telescope, the Czar presented 
him with a magnificent onyx vase, and the Japanese Gov- 
ernment has also presented him with a pair of bronze vases. He 
was Vice-President of the National Academy of Sciences during 
the years 1883 to 1889, and President of the American Mathe- 
matical Society in 1897. ^^ ^^ ^^ adviser of the Lick 
Trustees from the beginning, and it was upon his plans that the 
object-glass of the great telescope was contracted lor. 

For ten years he was head of the Department of Mathematics 
and Astronomy in the Johns Hopkins University, and editor of 
the American Mathematical Journal, This long list of honors 
is more than sufficient to exhibit the estimation in which Professor 
Newcomb*s magnificent labors are held. His highest praise may 
be succinctly expressed by saying, what is the undoubted fact, 
that he has done more than any other American since Franklin 
to make American Science respected and honored throughout the 
entire world. 

To these high honors, which have been fully deserved, the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific adds its first award of its 
Bruce Gold Medal ** for distinguished services to astronomy.'* 

During the Franco- Prussian War Newcomb was at the 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 57 

Observatory of Paris engaged in examining its records for data 
necessary in his researches on the motions of the principal 
planets. He entered the city just as the siege terminated, and 
prosecuted his work in the midst of the horrors of the Commune, 
passing the barricades daily in going to and from his study at 
the observatory. 

Professor Newcomb is not only an astronomer and mathema- 
tician. He has made a name in political economy as well. In 
1865 his book, "A Critical Examination of Our Financial Policy," 
was well received. His **A B C of Finance'* (1877) had a 
very large sale and was extremely useful coming at that time. 
His work, ** Political Economy " (1886) is a text-book in many 
colleges. A favorite saying of Newcomb' s has been, * 'Astronomy 
is my profession, and political economy my recreation." 

I will not attempt to here enumerate the separate works of 
Professor Newcomb. His writings upon astronomical subjects 
not only fill coundess pages of the leading journals, both of 
this country and of Europe, but occupy whole volumes upon the 
shelves of every standard library. All who have read his 
•• Popular Astronomy " have been impressed with the charm of 
the narration no less than with the simple and direct explanation 
of the most difficult points. The concluding chapters on the 
** Stellar Universe," the *• Plurality of Worlds," and the ''Nebular 
Hypothesis ' ' are the reflections of a true philosopher. 

Outside of his mathematical works and treatises on planetary 
and lunar theories, many of which have been published by the 
American Government as appendices to " Washington Astro- 
nomical and Meteorological Observations " (yearly), and as " Pro- 
fessional Papers of the Nautical Almanac " (periodically), Professor 
Newcomb has, in addresses delivered before learned bodies, and 
in contributions to the different magazines, made frequent incur- 
sions upon the literature of widely different subjects. In addition 
to the works upon political economy already mentioned, there 
may be specified his essays upon: "Abstract Science in 
America" {North American Review, January, 1876); "The 
Course of Nature" {Popular Science Monthly, October, 1878); 
"Formative Influence" {Forum, April, 1891); **Why We 
Need a National University" {North American Review, Febru- 
ary, 1895); "Science During the Victorian Era" {The Inde- 
pendent, June 17, 1897); besides the addresses at the dedications 
of many important observatories, the latest and perhaps most 



5^ Publications of the 

prominent of which was the oration upon the * * Aspects of Ameri- 
can Astronomy,* ' delivered at the opening of the Yerkes Observ- 
atory in October last. 

He has developed the theories, and prepared tables of the 
moon and all the planets, besides investigating all the principal 
* * Constants * * of astronomy, and his results are accepted as 
standard places of the fundamental stars, upon the accuracy of 
which the reliability of the deduced planetary and lunar move- 
ments must necessarily depend. And he has even found time for 
an extended investigation of the theory of the asteroids. 

In the opinion of Professor Holden, who for many years 
prepared the Smithsonian Reviews of ** Astronomical Progress,** 
and is a recognized authority upon Astronomical Bibliography, 
the best thing that Newcomb has done is his **New Method in 
the Lunar Theory**; and the biggest thing his ••Series of 
Planetary Tables.** 

Although Professor Newcomb has retired from the manage- 
ment of the ••American Ephemeris,'* it is certain that his con- 
tributions to astronomy are by no means ended, and that as long 
as he is spared to mankind his pen will be industrious for the 
ennoblement of Science, and the demonstration of Truth. A full 
and complete list of his writings may well be left to more com- 
petent hands at that day (which we all hope may be &r remote) 
when his grand work shall have been finished, and when full 
justice may be done to the vast output of that mighty intellect 

When future Boards of Directors of this Society shall award 
subsequent Bruce Medak, the recipients [thereof may well look 
back upon this date and think that the first one was tendered to, 
and accepted by, the foremost American astronomer. The first 
name has been entered upon a glorious roll of honor that will 
reflect credit alike upon this Society, the wise and beneficent lady 
who founded the medal, and upon the achievements of those who 
explore the boundless depths of the Universe. 

Mr. Secretary, in the absence of our Medalist, whose presence 
here, had it been possible, would have been an additional source 
of satisfaction to this Society, I beg to hand you the award for 
transmission to Professor Newcomb. 

WILLIAM ALVORD. 
San Francisco, April 2, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 59 

PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR MAY AND JUNE, 

1898. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



May. 



Mercury passes inferior conjunction and becomes a morning 
star on the morning of May ist. It moves rapidly away from the 
Sun, but toward a more southern position, so that, although its 
greatest elongation of twenty- four degrees, which it reaches on 
May 28th, is above the average, its southern position makes it 
difficult to see. It may possibly be seen for a few days at the close 
of the month near the eastern horizon in the morning twilight. 

Venus is an evening star, gradually increasing its distance 
from the Sun, setting about two hours later at the close of the 
month. It moves nearly forty degrees eastward during the 
month, through the constellation Taurus into Gemini (See Map 
III), passing /i Geminorum }ust before the close of the month. 

Mars is a morning star, rising somewhat earlier than during 
April. It b growing a litde brighter, but has not increased very 
much as yet. It moves twenty-one degrees east and nine degrees 
north during the month, in the constellation Pisces, There are 
no bright stars in the constellation, but it is on Map I, between 
Pegasus and Cetus. 

Jupiter is in good position for observation all through the 
evening until after midnight, and may be found on Map III, a 
little east of -q Virginis, It moves about one degree westward 
until May 27th, and then moves eastward. 

Saturn is getting into better position for evening observation, 
rising a little before sunset at the close of the month. It may be 
found on Map IV, about six degrees north and a little east of 
a Scarpa. It moves about two degrees westward during the 
month. It is in opposition with the Sun on the morning of May 
30th. The ratio of apparent axes of the rings is about 23/100. 

Uranus is near Saturn, and may be found on the same Map 
IV, about eight degrees west of that planet It moves a little 
more than one degree westward, and early in the month passes 
fi Scarpa, less than one degree to the south of the star. 

Neptune is an evening star, in the constellation Taurus, Map 
III. Ve7ius passes two degrees to the north of it on May 19th. 



6o Publications of the 

June. 

The Sun reaches its greatest northern declination, and summer 
begins on June 21st, 2 a.m., Pacific time. 

Mercury is a morning star until June 30th, when it passes 
superior conjunction. During the first ten days of the month it 
rises about an hour before sunrise, and may possibly be seen 
under favorable atmospheric conditions, but it is not in very good 
position for observation. 

Venus increases its distance from the Sun about seven degrees 
during the month, but as its motion in declination is southward, 
its setting time remains about two hours after sunset throughout 
the month. It moves thirty-eight degrees east and six degrees 
south, through the constellations Gemini and Cancer, into the 
western part of Leo^ passing about five degrees south of fi Gemi- 
norum a little before the middle of the month (Map III). 

Mars rises about an hour earlier than during the correspond- 
ing part of April. It moves twenty-one degrees east and seven 
degrees north, through the constellations Pisces and Aries, and 
may be found on Map I. It passes several degrees south of the 
stars in Aries, which are marked on the map. 

Jupiter is still in good position for evening obser\'ation, as it 
does not set before midnight until nearly the close of the month. 
It may be found on Maps II or III, in the constellation Virgo, not 
far from ri Virginis, and at the end of the month it is only about 
one degree west and north of the star. It has moved a little 
eastward and southward during the month. 

Saturn passed opposition with the Sun at the end of May, and 
ii above the horizon nearly the entire night. It moves about two 
degrees westward, in the constellation Scorpio (see Map IV), and 
is about seven degrees north of a Scorpii, 

Uranus is near Saturn, about eight degrees west, on the same 
Map IV. It moves about one degree westward, and at the close 
of the month it is about two degrees westward and 0°. 5 south of 
the star /3 Scorpii, 

Neptune is close to the Sun throughout the month, and is in 
conjunction with it on June 12th. 

Ocailtation. The Moon approaches very close to the first- 
magnitude star a Scorpii on the evening of June 3d, and there 
may be an occultation of the star for places in the northern part 
of the United States. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 6i 

Explanation of the Tables. 

The phases of the Moon are given in Pacific Standard time. 
In the tables for Sun and planets, the second and third columns 
g^ve the Right Ascension and Declination for Greenwich noon. 
The fifth column gives the local mean time for transit over the 
Greenwich meridian. To find the local mean time of transit for 
any other meridian, the time given in the table must be corrected 
by adding or subtracting the change per day, multiplied by 
the fraction whose numerator is the longitude from Greenwich 
in hours, and whose denominator is 24. This correction is 
seldom much more than i". To find the standard time for the 
phenomenon, correct the local mean time by adding the differ- 
ence between standard and local time if the place is west of the 
standard meridian, and subtracting \i ^2&X., The same rules apply 
to the fourth and sixth columns, which give the local mean times 
of rising and setting for the meridian of Greenwich. They are 
roughly computed for Lat. 40^, with the noon Declination and 
time of meridian transit, and are intended as only a rough guide. 
They may be in error by a minute or two for the given latitude, 
and for latitudes differing much from 40® they may be several 
minutes out. 

Phases of the Moon, P. S. T. 

H. M. 





Full 


Moon, 


May 5, 


10 34 P. M. 






Last 


Quarter, 


May 1 2, 


1 36 P. M. 






New 


Moon, 


May 20, 


4 58 A. M. 






First 


Quarter, 


May 28, 


9 14 A. M. 








The Sun. 








R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1898. 


H. M. 


/ 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


May I. 


2 35 


+ 15 ID 


5 4 A.M. 


11 57 A.M. 


6 50 P.M. 


II. 


3 13 


+ 17 58 


4 53 


II 56 


6 59 


21. 


3 53 


+ 20 15 


4 44 


II 56 


7 8 


31- 


4 33 


+ 21 58 


4 38 


II 57 


7 16 






Mercury. 






May I. 


2 34 


+ 15 41 


5 1 A.M. 


. II 56 A.M. 


6 51 P.M. 


II. 


2 18 


+ II 31 


4 20 


II 


5 40 


21. 


2 25 


+ 10 42 


3 52 


10 29 


5 6 


31- 


2 57 


+ 13 20 


3 35 


10 21 


5 7 


« 






Venus. 






May I. 


3 50 


+ 20 24 


5 59 A.M. 


I 12 P.M. 


8 25 P.M. 


II. 


4 42 


+ 22 57 


6 2 


I 25 


8 48 


21. 


5 35 


+ 24 25 


6 8 


I 38 


9 8 


31. 


6 28 


+ 24 44 


6 21 


I 52 


9 23 



62 Publications of the 

Mars, 





R. A. 


DeclinaUoo. Rise*. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1898. 


N. M. 


« ' H. M. 


H. 


M. 


H. M. 


May I. 


9 


— 18 3 33 A.M 


9 


32 A.M, 


3 31 r.vL. 


II. 


38 


+ 2 45 3 12 


9 


21 


3 30 


21. 


I 6 


-^ 5 44 2 50 


9 


9 


3 28 


31- 


I 34 


+ 8 36 2 29 
Jupiter. 


8 


58 


3 27 


May I. 


12 7 


+ 52 3 25 P.M. 


9 


28 P.M. 


3 31 AM. 


II. 


12 5 


+15 2 43 


8 


46 


2 49 


21. 


12 4 


+ I II 22 


8 


6 


2 10 


31. 


12 4 


-i- I 10 I 22 

Saturn, 


7 


26 


I 30 


May I. 


16 39 


— 20 12 9 15 P.M. 


2 


3 A.M. 


6 51A.M. 


II. 


16 36 


— 20 6 8 32 


I 


21 


6 10 


21. 


16 33 


— 20 7 50 


12 


39 


5 28 


31- 


16 30 


- 19 54 7 3 
Uranus, 


II 


52 P.M. 


4 41 


May I. 


16 I 


— 20 29 8 38 P.M. 


I 


25 A.M. 


6 I2A.M. 


II. 


15 59 


- 20 24 7 57 


12 


44 


5 31 


21. 


15 58 


— 20 20 7 15 


12 


3 


4 51 


31- 


15 56 


— 20 14 6 30 
Neptune, 


II 


18 P.M. 


4 6 


May I. 


5 20 


+ 21 50 7 24 A.M. 


2 


42 P.M. 


10 P.M. 


II. 


5 21 


+ 21 51 6 46 


2 


4 


9 22 


21. 


5 23 


+ 21 53 6 8 


I 


26 


8 44 


31. 


5 24 


+ 21 55 5 30 


12 


48 


8 6 




Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites, P. S. 


T. 




(Off right-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 








H. M. 






H. M. 


I, R. 


May I. 


9 4 p. M. I, R, 


May 17. 


7 21 P. M. 


H. R, 


3. 


9 I p. M. II, R, 




18. 


2 14 A. M. 


I.R, 


8. 


10 58 p. M. Ill, D, 




23. 


9 43 p. M. 


I. R, 


10. 


5 27 p. M. Ill, R, 




24. 


12 9 A. M. 


11, R, 


10. 


II 37 p. M. I, R, 




24- 


9 16 P. M. 


I.R. 


16. 


12 52 A. M. II, R, 




28. 


6 9 P. M. 


III. D, 


16. 


5 44 p. M. Ill, D, 




31. 


I 42 A. M. 


III, R, 


16. 


8 12 p. M. I, R, 




31. 


II 10 P. M. 




Phases of the Moon, 


P. S 


T. 






Full 


Moon, June 4, 


H. M. 

6 II A. M. 






Last 


Quarter, June 10, 


10 


4 P. M. 






New 


Moon, June 18, 


8 19 p. M. 






First 


Quarter, June 26, 


8 54 P. M. 





Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 



63 











The Sun. 












R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


I89S. 


N. M. 




' 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. 


M. 


June 


I. 


4 38 


+ 


22 6 


4 39 AM- 


II 58 A.M. 


7 


17 P.M. 




II. 


5 19 


+ 23 7 


4 35 


II 59 


7 


23 




21. 


6 


+ 


23 27 


4 37 


12 2 P.M. 


7 


27 


July 


I. 


642 


+ 23 6 


4 40 


12 4 


7 


28 










Mercury, 








June 


I. 


3 I 


+ 


13 44 


3 34 A.M. 


10 21 A.M. 


5 


8 p.m. 




II. 


3 57 


+ 


18 26 


3 32 


10 37 


5 42 




21. 


5 15 


+ 


22 56 


3 53 


II 16 


6 


39 


July 


I. 


6 49 


+ 24 24 


4 40 


12 10 P.M. 


7 


40 












Venus. 








June 


I. 


6 33 


+ 24 42 


6 22 A.M. 


I 53 P.M. 


9 


24 P.M. 




II. 


7 26 


+ 23 42 


6 41 


2 7 


9 


33 




21. 


8 17 


+ 


21 35 


7 I 


2 18 


9 


35 


July 


I. 


9 6 


+ 


18 30 


7 23 
Mars. 


2 28 


9 


33 


June 


I. 


I 37 


+ 


8 53 


2 26 A.M. 


8 57 A.M. 


3 


28 P.M. 




II. 


2 5 


+ 


II 34 


2 5 


8 45 


3 


25 




21. 


2 33 


+ 


14 2 


I 46 


8 34 


3 


22 


July 


I. 


3 2 


+ 


16 16 
J 


I 26 

'U PITER. 


8 23 


3 


20 


June 


I. 


12 4 


+ 


I 9 


I 18 P.M. 


7 22 P.M. 


I 


26A.M 




II. 


12 5 


+ 


I 


12 41 


6 44 


12 


47 




21. 


12 7 


+ 


44 


12 5 


6 7 


12 


9 


July 


I. 


12 10 


+ 


21 


ri 30 A.M. 


5 31 


II 


32 










Sa turn. 








June 


I. 


16 30 


— 


19 54 


6 59 P.M. 


II 48 P.M. 


4 37 A. M, 




II. 


16 27 


— 


19 48 


6 15 


II 5 


3 


55 




21. 


16 24 


— 


19 42 


5 33 


10 23 


3 


13 


July 


I. 


16 21 


— 


19 38 


4 50 


9 41 


2 


32 










Uranus, 








June 


I. 


15 56 


— 


20 14 


6 26 P.M. 


II 14P.M. 


4 


2 A.M. 




II. 


15 55 


— 


20 9 


5 44 


10 33 


3 


22 




21. 


15 53 


— 


20 5 


5 3 


9 52 


2 


41 


July 


I. 


15 52 


— 


20 I 


4 23 


9 12 


2 


I 










Neptune. 








June 


I. 


5 25 


+ 


21 55 


5 25 A.M. 


. 12 44 P.M. 


8 


3P.M 




II. 


5 26 


+ 


21 56 


4 47 


12 6 


7 


25 




21. 


5 28 


+ 


21 58 


4 10 


II 29 A.M. 


6 


48 


July 


I. 


5 29 


+ 


21 59 


3 32 


10 51 


6 


10 



64 Publications of the 

Eclipses of Jupiter' s Satellites, P. S. T. 





(Off rixht hand limb, a* seen 


in an inverting telescope.) 




I, R. 


June 2. 


R. H. 

6 39 p. M. 


II. D. 


JuiM 


•18. 


R. M. 

II 33 P. M. 


II, R, 
I. R. 

I. R. 

II, D. 


4- 
8. 

9- 
II. 


8 45 p. M. 
I 5 A. M. 

7 34 P. M. 

8 56 p. M. 


I. R. 

I, R. 
HI, D, 
III, R, 




23- 
25- 

28. 
28. 


II 23 p. M. 
5 52 P- M. 
5 41 P- M. 
8 I p. M. 


II, R, 


II. 


II 22 p. M. 


II, R, 




29. 


5 51 P- M. 


I. R. 


i6. 


9 29 P. M. 











LIST OF EARTHQUAKES IN CALIFORNIA FOR 
THE YEAR 1897. 



Compiled by C. D. Perrine. 



The following list is a continuation of similar reports printed 
in these Publications: Vol. II, p. 74; Vol, III, p. 247; Vol. V, 
p. 127; Vol. VI, p. 41; Vol. VII, p. 99; Vol. VIII, p. 222, and 
Vol. IX, p. 37. A more complete account will be published by 
the Unites States Geological Survey as a bulletin. The dates 
are civil dates. The times are Pacific Standard (120th meridian). 

Roman numerals enclosed in parentheses indicate the intensity 
on the Rossi- Fore L scale. 

Some doubtful cases have been included, and are indicated 
either by a note or by an interrogation point enclosed in paren- 
theses. 

In 1 897 there were twenty-five shocks of earthquake recorded 
in California as against sixteen for the year 1896. 

The shock of June 20th was accurately timed at Mt. Hamilton 
and Oakland, and as we know approximately the center from 
which the disturbance radiated, we can obtain the velocity over 
this part of its path. At Mt. Hamilton the beginning was noted 
at 12*" 12" 56' P.M., P. S. T., by several observers, and Mr. Bab- 
cock obtained 12** 13"" 9" as the time of the same phase in 
Oakland, an interval of thirteen seconds. Assuming the epicen- 
trum to have been between San Juan and Salinas, we find Ml 
Hamilton to be forty miles from this point, while Oakland is 
eighty miles. As both points lie nearly in the same direction 
from the origin of the disturbance, differing only twenty degrees, 
we may assume that the disturbance moved with the same velocity 



April 


24. 


May 


II. 


January 


2. 


June 


28. 


October 


II. 


April 


19. 


April 


21. 


July 


26. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 65 

towards both stations^ from which we find the velocity between 
Ml Hamilton and Oakland to be 3j^^ miles per second. 

This is an unusually high velocity, and in this connection it 
will be interesting to note the intervals in the cases of other 
shocks, which have been timed with sufficient accuracy. 

1889. July 31. L. O.-East Oakland, + ii' 

L. O.-San Francisco, + 7" 

1890. April 24. San Francisco-San Jos6 (U. P.), — 40' 
San Francisco-East Oakland, ±l o* 

1891. January 2. L. O.-San Francisco, — 22" 
L. O.-San Jos6, — 12" 
L. O.-San Francisco, — lo' 
San Francisco-Oakland, — 17" 

1892. April 19. L. O. -Carson, Nev., — 70' d= 
San Francisco-Reno, Nev., — 107* 

1896. July 26. L. O.-San Francisco, -f 15' 

The April, 1892, shocks had their origin in the great central 
valley of California, and we may safely take a point near Vaca- 
ville as the epicentrum of both disturbances. Assuming that the 
velocity was the same at eqiM distances from this pointy we find, 
for the shock of April 19th, an average velocity of 0.8 miles per 
second for a distance of fifty-six miles from Carson, Nevada, 
measured towards the center of disturbance. The interval of 
time of seventy seconds is somewhat uncertain, perhaps ten 
seconds or fifteen seconds. For the shock of April 21st, we find 
an average velocity of 0.8 miles for ninety miles from Reno. 

The epicentra for the other cases are entirely too uncertain to 
base any velocities upon. 

List of Earthquake Shocks, 1897. 

January i. Berkeley, 1:10 p.m. 

January 11. Oaxaca (Mexico), 4:25 p.m. 

January 16. Mt. Hamilton, 3' 58" 38' a.m. (I). 

January 17. San Francisco, i' 9" p.m.; Alameda, i' 11" p.m.; 

Oakland, i** 11- ii' p.m. (A. H. B.), i^ 10- 55" ± 2' (G. 

R. L.); MiUs College, i^ ii"p.m. 
January 26. Newport, Alsa Bay (Oregon), 2*" 45" p.m. 
February 2. Tomales. 
February 5. Orizaba Volcano (Mexico). 
February 13. Colima, Tepic (Mexico). 



66 Publications of the 

February i8. Mt Hamilton, 8* 3" 52' ± 5' p.m. (I) C. D. P.; 
S** 4" 30' ± P.M. (II) E. S. H. 

The above are two separate shocks. C. D. P. 

February — . Cacaluta (Mexico). 

February — . Great Salt Lake (Utah). (?) 

March 6. Acapulco, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, Orizaba, Cordoba 
(Mexico), 7** 30" P.M. 

March 13. Mt Baker (Wash.) (?) 

March 15. Ukiah, ii** p.m. 

March 15. Highland Springs, Pieta, Lakeport, 10** 51" p.m. 
Reported by Mr. Wm. B. Collier. 

April 10. Mexico, south of Oaxaca. 

May 14. Moro Bay. (?) 

May 14. Reno (Nevada), 6 P.M. 

May 15. San Diego, 4 A.M.; Carson (Nevada), 11:04 ^*'^' 

May 22. San Diego, 6:58 a.m. 

June 20. A heavy shock of earthquake was felt generally 
throughout the central portion of California shortly after 
noon. The center of the disturbance seemed to be in the 
Salinas Valley. Considerable damage was done to buildings 
in towns in this and neighboring valleys. Mt Hamilton, 
j2»» i2» 56' (beginning). Duration, 20*-30* (V); College 
Park; Mills College, reported by Professor Keep; Oakland, 
i2*» 13" 9' to 13" 34" P.M., reported by Mr. A. H. Babcock; 
Cantua Creek (Fresno Co.), reported by Mr. S. C. Lillis; 
San Jos6; Gilroy; Hollister; Salinas; Los Gatos; Santa 
Cruz; Templeton; Monterey; Pacific Grove; Stockton; 
Modesto; Newman; Merced; Visalia; Milton; Santa Rosa; 
Haywards; Decoto; Sacramento; Watsonville; Hanford; 
San Francisco, 6:37 a.m., 12:15 p.m., 12:48 p.m.; Gonzales; 
Fresno; Redwood City; San Rafael. 

June 20. Tehuantepec (Mexico). 

June 21. Gilroy, 5:15 a.m.; Salinas. 

June 24. Santa Barbara, 6:10 a.m. 

June 26. Tehuantepec (^Mexico). 

June (26 ?). Douglas Island (Alaska). Volcano. 

June (27?). *'Saw Miir' Peak, Butte Co. (?) 

July 19. Santa Barbara, 11:45 P-M. 

July 26. Mt. Hamilton, ^ 40"* 50' p.m. (Ill) E. S. H. ; San Fran- 
Cisco, 5^40^35' P.M., reported by Professor George David- 
son; Berkeley; Oakland. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 67 

September 27. Olympia (Wash.), 1:30 a.m. 

October 2. College Park, S** 41" 57*.3 a.m., reported by Pro- 
fessor H. D. Curtis; San Francisco. 

October 5. Stockton, 7:44 p.m. 

October 17. Mt Hamilton, 3** 30" 26"-3i" p.m. (Ill); San Jos^. 

November 21. Randsburg, 11:30 A.M.; 12:30 P.M. 

December 6. Forest Grove (Oregon), 8:30 p.m. 

December 10. Mt. Hamilton (in night). 

December 15. Waterville, Lakeside (Wash.). 

December 16, 17, 20. Lakeside (Wash.), 6 a.m. 

December 23. Mills College, 5:15 A. m. Reported by Professor 
Keep. 

December 26. Centerville, 7:06 a.m. 



LATITUDE WORK WITH THE FAUTH TRANSIT 
INSTRUMENT OF THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 



By Hbber D. Curtis. 



At the suggestion of Dr. Holden, I last summer entered 
upon a triad of the four-inch Fauth transit of the Lick Observ- 
atory to detenniiie its value as a zenith telescope for finding the 
latitude. 

The latitude level found in place upon the transit ^-as rejected 
because of irregular curvature. After tests on all the level-tubes 
in the possession of the observatory, the tube •*Repsold, No. 
1491 '* was selected as being the most regular. Nearly six hun- 
dred readings were made on the Repsold level-trier belonging 
to the observatory, to determine the value of the division of this 
level, at temperatures ranging from 45^ to 83° F. It was found 
to be a tube of very regular curvature. 

In reversing the transit with the aid of the carriage, it is 
necessary to place the telescope in a horizontal position, thus 
bringing the level-tube to a position greatly inclined to the hori- 
zon, invariably shortening or lengthening the bubble, and making 
it necessary to bring back the bubble tp a more moderate length. 
It therefore became necessary to determine whether any factor of 
change in the value of a level division could be found to depend 
upon change in bubble length. Accordingly the length of the 



68 Publications of the 

bubble was varied in the different series of trials from 14*47 mm. 
to 45.90 mm. The resulting equations of condition gave, as a 
value of this factor, o".ooo4 (L — 28.3 mm.) — practically zero. 

The temperature &ctor was much more interesting. Above 
52° the value of one division may be represented by the formula, — 
d = i".358 + (6o°-r^) o".oo2. 

Below 52° (no opportunity was found below 45°) the change is 

much more rapid, all values being best satisfied by the formula, — 

d=i".374 + (52^-T°)o".o2i. 

The probable errors of all the mean values of the different series 
used in the formation of these equations are small, in only one 
case exceeding o".oo5. The tube was twice removed from its 
enclosing tube, and tried without it, to determine whether any 
strain in the mounting caused the curious increase below 52°. 
Some internal strain in the glass seems the best explanation. 
No evidence was found, from a considerable number of transits 
of stars, to warrant altering the assumed value of one revolution 
of the micrometer screw : 2'. 931 = 43". 96. Tests were, however, 
made on the micrometer screw for periodic error. The microm- 
eter box was placed on the measuring engine, and set at quarter- 
revolutions, from — 20 to + 20 revolutions. At each setting 
four bisections were made with the microscope of the measuring 
engine, and the averages of these sets of readings were so grouped 
as to bring all readings of the same quarter-revolution of the 
micrometer head together. The screw of the micrometer, as 
well as the screw of the measuring engine, worked against the 
springs. The following values were found (in terms of one 
revolution of the measuring engine micrometer screw) : — 

0.00 to 0.25 i'.2i89 

0.25 to 0.50 I .2195 

0.50 to 0.75 I .2231 

0.75 to 1. 00 I. 2238 

Mean, 1.2213 ±l o.ooio 

This periodic irregularity is entirely insensible; the maximum 
variation between readings in the first and fourth quadrants, due 
to this cause, would be but o".02i, and, in the long run, the 
resulting errors would tend to balance each» other. There was 
no evidence of variation in the screw at different portions of its 
length. 




X 



> 

C 

< 
> 
at. 



< 
> 
O 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. • 69 

The latitude observations themselves show that the instrument 
as it stands is not well adapted for use as a zenith telescope. 
As it b now arranged, much time is lost in reversal, and the 
greatest care must be taken, else the latitude level, which is a 
later addition, will strike the clamp. The fact that the level-tube 
must be greatly inclined to the horizon in reversing, is most 
objectionable, as errors are almost certain to be introduced. 
With some arrangement by which the reversal could be easily 
and rapidly accomplished without altering the inclination of the 
telescope, this instrument would doubtless give good results in 
latitude work. 

In all. after rejecting numerous obviously erroneous observa- 
tions, 116 were used. 

The resulting value of the latitude of the transit instrument 
was found to be 37° 20' 24".4, with the large probable error of 
dbo".3i. 

University of the Pacific, 

College Park, Cal., February, 1898. 



THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY, EDINBURGH, 
SCOTLAND.* 



By R. G. Aitken. 



About the middle of 1888 the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres 
offered to the Government, for use in a national Scottish observ- 
atory, the splendid and valuable equipment of his own observatory 
at Dun Echt. 

The Government accepted the gift; but the space available in 
the Royal Observatory on the Calton Hill being entirely inade- 
quate for the housing of the instruments, a new building became 
necessary; and eventually the present site of three and one half 
acres on the eastern slope of Blackford Hill was chosen. The 
plans of the new observatory were prepared by Mr. W. W. 
Robertson, of Her Majesty's Board of Works, and the build- 



*This description is based upon an article by Mr. Thomas Hbath, B. A., Assistant 
Astronomer. Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, read before a meeting of the Royal Scottish 
Society of Arts, November 33, 1896; a letter from Mr. Heath to Professor Holden ; and 
an article in the Scotsman, April 4, 1892. Many of the sentences are directly quoted from 
one ct another of these papers. 



70 Publications of the 

ings erected by Messrs. W. and J. Kirkwood, of Edinburgh, at 
a cost, including fittings, of about ;^34,ooo. 

The buildings consist of an observatory proper and transit 
house, placed along the north front of the site, and two detached 
residences for the Astronomer Royal and his assistants. The 
observatory proper consists of a T-shaped building, with a front- 
age toward the north of i8o feet. The flat-roofed central build- 
ings are flanked by octagonal towers of unequal size, crowned 
with cylindrical domes of copper — the larger, 75 feet high and 
40 feet in diameter, placed at the east end; and the smaller, 44 
feet high and 27 feet in diameter, placed at the west end. These 
towers contain the two large equatorial telescopes — the 15-inch 
refractor from the Dun Echt Observatory being placed in the 
eastern or larger tower, which from its height allows the tele- 
scope to sweep the entire horizon; and the 24-inch reflector 
from the Calton Hill Observatory in the western tower, where it 
will command the horizon, except for the part cut off" by the 
larger tower. The piers are built of brick, and are hollow, 
affording room in the larger one for a vault, in which the two 
standard sidereal clocks are placed, to be protected from any but 
the most gradual changes of temperature. In addition to this 
precaution, one of the clocks, known as the Brisbane clock, has 
also been enclosed in an air-tight case, in order to avoid errors 
arising from changes of atmospheric pressure. The inner air is 
partly exhausted until the barometer within the case reads twenty- 
five inches, at which reading the barometer is to be kept By the 
aid of a stuffing box containing quicksilver, the clock is wound 
without opening the case. 

The 15-inch equatorial is completely equipped with the most 
modern apparatus for every kind of astronomical work — a series 
of eyepieces of different powers, a micrometer of the most perfect 
construction, a Zollner astrophotometer, and several spectro- 
scopes, one of which is among the most powerful in existence. 
It was with the last-named instrument, designed by himself, that 
Professor Copeland was enabled to make the very notable dis- 
covery of the presence of helium in the great nebula of Orion, 
Up to the date of this discovery, all that was known of helium 
was that it caused a certain line to appear in the spectrum of 
the Sun. 

The central range of buildings between the towers is devoted 
to laboratory rooms for astrophysical work. The flat roof of 




THE 15-INCH EQUATORIAL REFRACTOR. 
Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. 



J THE NEW YOHK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR, LF\'^X 
TILDEN f-Oir,- . 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 71 

this portion of the building facilitates communication between 
the domes, and affords room for numerous meteorological instru- 
ments. On the main floor, beginning at the west end, are, (i) 
the spectroscopic room, to the south of which, outside the build- 
ing, is placed a heliostat, by which the Sun's rays are reflected 
into the apartment through a lo-inch aperture; (2) the experi- 
menting room, shown in one of our illustrations, which has three 
isolated pillars, supporting the mean time clocks, the dividing 
engine, the photographic measuring engine, and other instru- 
ments for delicate measuring operations; (3) the electric room, 
containing the large stock of electrical apparatus from the 
Dun Echt Observatory, the meteorological registering apparatus, 
etc, and (4) a mechanic's workshop and the chronograph room. 
The basement is occupied by stores, workshops, and printing 
room. 

Southward from the central building extends a wing, 80 feet 
long, 28 feet wide, and having three floors. The basement floor is 
occupied by the heating plant and rooms for the electric dynamos 
and accumulators. The principal floor contains the Crawford 
Library, one of the finest astronomical libraries in the world. Its 
shelves are specially rich in cometary literature. They contain, 
also, sets of the scientific publications of most of the astronomi- 
cal societies and observatories in the world, the majority of the 
sets being complete from their beginning. Besides the library, 
this floor contains the Director's rooms and computing rooms. 
The top floor is one long apartment, used in connection with the 
14-inch FoucAULT siderostat, the hut containing which may be 
noticed on the central roof in both of the accompanying exterior 
views. 

Eighty feet west from the main building and in line with the 
northwest front is placed the transit house, which is connected 
with the main building by a covered way. Here is placed the 
meridian circle from the Dun Echt Observatory, with telescope 
of 8.6 inches aperture, and the necessary collimators. This 
instrument is not exceeded in size and power by any in the 
world. 

In addition to these instruments the observatory is supplied 
with a magnificent collection of minor instruments, so that it is 
completely equipped for the most thorough and advanced astro- 
nomical work, and ranks easily as an observatory of the first 
class. 



72 Publications of the 

A NEW VARIABLE STAR. 



By Torvald Kohl. 



The star No. 121 in Birmingham's Catalogue, = No. 144 
in Chandler's Catalogue of red stars, — position for 1875.0: 
5^ 38- I2'.47 (+ 3'. 57). + 20° 38' 24''.9 (+ i''.9)— has shown 
a remarkable change in brightness. It has formerly been esti- 
mated as a star of the 7.5th magnitude (B. D. has 7.7, Berlin 
A. G. Catalogue has 7.2). Dreyer observed it at Dublin from 
1875 to 1879, and I at Odder from 1887 to 1893, without seeing 
any change of light in this orange-red star until on January 22, 
1898, when I was surprbed at the faintness of the star, which is 
now of about the 9th magnitude, and thus it has also been seen 
on the dates January 27 and 31 and February i, 1898. 

Odder, Denmark, February 6, 1898. 



MAGNIFYING RATIOS OF EWING SEISMOGRAPHS 
' OF THREE COMPONENTS. AND OF THE 
DUPLEX-PENDULUM SEISMOGRAPHS. 



By C. D. Perrine. 



In the following deductions the jJen and plate are assumed to 
move with respect to the steady-point, and the motions of each 
are considered separately. In the reduction of the recorded 
displacements given by the pens upon the smoked glass plate, to 
the actual displacement of the Earth particle, there are several 
circumstances to be taken into account. In the case of the two 
horizontal components there are four considerations, viz: — 

A, — The ratio of the pens, /. e. the distance from the point of 
the pen to the steady- point, divided by the distance from the 
steady- point to the point of support. 

B, — The angle which the meridian of the pens makes with the 
true meridian of the place. If they coincide, there is no factor to 
be introduced on that account. 

C — The angle which a radius of the circular plate drawn 
through the point of the pen makes with a line drawn through 




THE 24-INCH NEWTONIAN REFLECTING TELESCOPE. 
Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



A^tUh, LENOX AND 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 73 

the point of the pen and the steady-point. If this angle is ninety 
degrees, there is no factor to be introduced on this account. 

D. — The effect on the record caused by the motion of the 
record-plate itself, due to the earthquake. 
Let a = the record of the N. and S. pen as it appears upon 
the plate. 
b = the record of the E. and W. pen as it appears upon 

the plate. 
d = distance from steady-point to point of support of pen- 
dulum. 
e = distance from steady-point to point of pen. 

X = angle which the meridian of the pendulums makes 
with the true meridian of the place. 
>^and>^' = angle between the direction of the pen-arm and a 
radius of the plate drawn through its point for the N. 
and S. and E. and W. pens, respectively. 
z = angle which the radius of the plate drawn through the 
point of the pen makes with the true meridian of the place, 
a = actual displacement of the Earth N. and S. 
fi = actual displacement of the Earth E. and W. 
A, — The ratio of the pens is the ratio of the distances from 
the steady-point to the point of the pen, and from the steady- 
point to the point of support — in the instruments we are especially 
considering, the line joining the steel points which bear in the 
agate cups. Theoretically, the steady -point, or rather line, is the 
vertical line through the cylindrical weight about which the force 
of gravity is symmetrical. Practically, there is a little uncertainty 
as to the exact location of the steady-point — which, however, 
will be very near the axis of the cylindrical weight. 
This ratio is given by the formula: — 
e 

B.^The horizontal pendulums should be so adjusted that 
their meridian coincides with the true meridian of the place, t. e, 
that the plane (^) passing through the points of support and the 
steady-point of the pendulum, in the case of the E. and W. pen- 
dulum, should coincide with the meridian; in the N. and S. 
pendulum, thb plane should lie E. and W. 

If, however, there is no such coincidence, and the meridian of 



74 Publications of the 

the instruments makes an appreciable angle (x) with the true 
meridian, then the displacements of the pendulums in the true 
co-ordinates by the earthquake will vary with this angle. If the 
direction of the Earth* s motion which it is designed to register 
is not normal to the plane (^), then the recorded motion will be 
less than it should be in the ratio of cos x w, 

C — If the horizontal pens are so situated that when at rest 
the radii of the plate passing through their points are tangent to 
the arcs described by them, then no factor is to be introduced on 
this account. Otherwise the displacement measured on such a 
radius will be too small in the proportion cos_y : i. 

D, — The plate upon which the record is made is, of course, 
carried about by the Earth in its movements, which must be 
taken into account in deducing the actual motion of the Elarth 
from the records of the pens. 

In horizontal pendulums where the angle (^) between the 
lines drawn from the steady-point to the point of the pen, and 
from the steady-point to the point of support, is greater than 
ninety degrees, it can be shown that the motion of the plcUe due to 
the earthquake will be additive to the perCs motion^ thus increas- 
ing the record of the pen, the plate being carried under the 
pen in an .opposite direction to that in which the pen is moving. 
On the other hand, if the angle (^) is less than ninety degrees, the 
effect will be the opposite, /. e, to decrease the pen's record. 
Thb assumes that the pendulums are not far out of adjustment 
with respect to their meridians. In the Lick Observatory instru- 
ments the angle (^) is greater than ninety degrees, hence the 
effect is to increase the record. This b true for both co-ordinates- 

The component motion of the plate N. and S. as projected on 
a radius depends upon the angle •{£) which that particular radius 
makes with the meridian, and varies as the cosine of that angle. 

The component motion of the //a/^ E. and W. as projected on 
the radius passing through the point of the E. and W. pen will 
vary as the sine of the angle {z). 

From the foregoing we deduce the following formulae for the 
reduction of the observed records to the true displacements of the 
Earth:— 

a e cos ;r sin r , ^ 

- = -^ ± cos Z, (I.) 

b e cos ;r sin y' . , . 

^ = 2 ^ sm z, (2.) 




THE TRANSIT CIRCLE, ROYAL OBSERVATORY, EDINBURGH. 



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Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 75 

Professor Schaeberle suggests that we may ako consider the 
plate and supports of the pens as one rigid system,, and the steady- 
point to move with respect to this system. 

Let /= distance from point of pen to point of support of 
pendulum, and, as before, d^= distance from steady-point to point 
of support of pendulum. 

Then, on the above assumption, it can be shown that, 

- = 1 = 5- (3.) 

a /3 a 

so long as the instrumental meridian coincides with the true 
meridian of the station, and the radius of the plate passing 
through the points of the pens is normal to the lines passing 
through the points of the pens and their points of support. If| 
however, the instrument is not in adjustment in these two par- 
ticulars, due allowance must be made for such variations. 

THE VERTICAL COMPONENT. 

In the mechanism for recording the Earth's vertical motion, 
the pen proper is jointed to a vertical arm, which in turn is 
fastened rigidly to the counterpoised pendulum. The lifting by 
the Earth causes the joint between the pen-arm and the vertical 
arm to be displaced in the arc of a circle, whose center is the 
steady-point of the pendulum. This displacement is resolved into 
a horizontal component (^), which leads to the magnified record 
on the plate, and a vertical component (/). 

Let h = distance from steady-point to point where pen-arm is 
hinged to vertical arm. 
i = distance from point of support to hinge of pen-arm. 
j = distance from steady-point to point of support of pen- 
dulum. 
m = angular displacement of the hinge of pen-arm from the 

steady-point as a center. 
n = angle included between the lines drawn from pen-arm 
hinge to steady-point, and from pen-arm hinge to point 
of support of pendulum. 
s = horizontal component of the displacement of pen-arm 

hinge. 
/ = vertical component of the displacement of pen-arm 

hinge, 
y = vertical displacement of the Elarth. 



7^ Publications of the 

c = the record of the vertical pen as it appears upon the 
plate. 
m and n are found from 

sin m = ^, (4.) 

J 

tan « = 4, (5O 

and we find j and / from 

h sin Tfi fy/ , \ />- \ 

s = _ — cos Cj4 m + «), (6.) 

cos }i m 

/= — — sm (>^ w 4- »), (7-) 

' cos Yi m 

For ordinary dbplacements of the Earth {m being always 
small) we may write (6.) and (7.) in the following forms: — 

s =^ h sm m cos «, (8.) 

i =z h sin m sin «, (9.) 

It will be seen that the pen-arm hinge is lifted a little higher 
by the Earth's motion than the plate itself. Thb causes the 
pen's record on the plate to be shortened slightly. 

In a seismograph of the usual form the dimensions are such 
that so long as the pen- arm makes but a small angle with the 
plane of the plate, this factor will be small. 

To compute the amount of thb shortening, we have the 
following quantities in a right triangle. 

a^ = distance from point of pen to hinge of pen-arm = 

hypothenuse. 
y = perpeodicular let fall from hinge of pen-arm to 

plate. 
c^ = dbtance from pen's point to foot of perpendicular = 
base of triangle. 
A\ B\ C = angles opposite given sides respectively, A^ being 
the right angle. 

We find B' from 

sin B' = --' (10.) 

a 

and we have (approximately) 

^c' = -SESL^, (X,.) 

cos B' 



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PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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Astronomical Society . of the Pacific. 77 

in which A ^ is the decrease in the record due to the increase 
(A y) in the distance from pen-arm hinge to plate as a result of 
the lifting of the instrument by the shock. 

For the Lick Observatory instrument we have: — 
«' = 5^75. 
*'=i^75. 

Using this data, I have computed the shortening of the record 
due to this cause, and find it to be only o'".oi4 for a vertical 
motion of the Earth of o*".5o. Hence it will be seen that for 
shocks likely to be observed with these instruments, this effect 
may be ignored without sensible error. 

If in equation (8.) we substitute for h cos n its equivalent /, 

and for sin m its equivalent \ we find (approximately), 

s / 

T T' 
It can be shown that the same result follows from considering 
the motion to be about the support of the pendulum as the axis. 
Finally we have for the magnifying ratio of the vertical pen, 

- = - + A r', (12.) 

y y 

in which A c^ may be neglected, as shown, or with sufficient 
accuracy, 

-^ = 4, (13.) 

y J 

For the Lick Observatory instruments we have the following 
data: — 

^= 3.75 inches, * 

^ = 13.0 inches, 

y = 76^ 
z = 38^.5, 
k = 10.3 inches, 
t=g,o inches, 
J = 5.0 inches, 
from which we derive the following ratios: — 

— = 4.11, (N. andS.) 
a 

A= 3.97, (E.andW.) 

— = 1.8. (Vertical.) 



7^ Publications of the 

The date given above and the constants deduced from them 
are suitable for the reduction of observations from April, 1893, to 
date. 

MAGNIFYING RATIO OF THE DUPLEX SEISMOGRAPH. 

In the ordinary form of this instrument there are two circum- 
stances to be considered as affecting the magnification of the 
Eartk's motion, viz: — 

I St. The nciagnifying ratio of the vertical arm which is given by 
a" 

in which 

a" = distance from lower end of vertical arm to level 

of glass plate; 
^" = distance from lower end of vertical arm to gimbal 
joint of bracket 
2d. The motion of the plate itself during the shock. It catt 
be shown that the motion of the plate itself tends to decrease the 
record by the amount of the Earth's motion. Hence we have 
the following formula for the magnification: — 



^" 



(14.) 



In the Lick Observatory instrument of this class we have, 
a"= 13'". 10, 
f = 2 .35. 
and consequently the magnifying ratio = 4.6. 

Owing to uncertainties, such as the fnction of the pen upon the 
plate, the friction of the pendulums at the point of support, the 
probable motion of the steady- point itself after a few seconds, and 
other minor causes, it is not necessary to take into account al 1 
the lesser factors affecting the magnification of the record. All 
that is here attempted is to include those which have a practical 
effect. I have not been able to find the formulae for these 
reductions in any publication on the subject here. 

Mt. Hamilton, Cal., March 14, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 79 

VERY BRIGHT METEOR, MARCH 4, 1898. 1 



Observed by H. D. Curtis. 



A very bright meteor was observed at College Park, March 4, 
1898, 9* 50" 30' P. S. T., moving from a = 13* 40", 8 = + 25° 
to a = 15* 40", 8 = + 40° Its path lay through the constella- 
tion Bootes^ between the stars j3 and 8. At a point just a little 
west of the line joining these two stars, there was a small but 
abrupt angle in its path, inclining towards the south. Several 
small meteors passed in almost exactly the same track during the 
next hour. 

ELEMENTS AND EPHEMERIS OF COMET b, 1898 
(PERRINE). 



By R. T. Crawford and H. K. Palmer. 



The following results were obtained from Mount Hamilton 
observations of March 20th and 2 2d and an observation taken 
at Berkeley on March 23d: — 

T= March 19.0580, G. M. T. 

i= 72° 51' 42") 

0= 263 15 31 V Mean Equinox 1898.0. 

ft) = 49 28 52 ) 

^= I.I02I. 

(O.— C.) AX cos ^ = -4".7 A^ = + 4". 7. 

Constants to the equator: — 

X = [9-54097] sin ( 27° 37' 25" + V) sec' y^ v. 
y = [0.04218] sin (295 8 42 •\- v) sec' J^ v, 
2r= [0,01954] sin ( 24 52 17 + v) sec* ^ v, 

Ephemeris (Gr. Mean Midnight): — 

1898. App. a. App. «. Brightness. 

March 29.5 21*55" 9' +26° 29' 29" 0.99 

April 2.5 22 12 4 30 26 49 0.96 

6.5 22 29 56 34 12 41 0.91 

10.5 22 48 45 37 43 53 0.86 

The brightness is expressed in terms of the brightness at the. 

time of discovery. 

University of California, 

Students* Observatory, March, 1898. 




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Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 8i 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY.* 



Prepared by Members op the Staff. 



A Lunar Landscape, Photographed at the Lick 
Observatory. 

The original negative from which the Moon-plate (given in 
the present number of our Publications) was made, was taken on 
December 31, 1897, with an enlarging lens, (magnifying the 
principal focal image eight diameters), attached to the 36-inch 
refractor. 

The exposure time was from 7** 58"* 30" to 7'' 58°* 50", P. S. T. 

The error in the clock-rate and the motion in declination were 
counteracted by giving to the plate a single uniform motion by 
means of a screw turned by hand, the required velocity and 
direction of motion having first been determined by actual obser- 
vation of the enlarged focal image. 

The scale of the published plate (Moon's diameter = 40 inches) 
is the same as that of the original negative. 

We have satisfactorily enlarged portions ot some of our nega- 
tives to a scale of sixty feet to the Moon's diameter. 

J. M. S. and C. D. P. 

The Lick Observatory Eclipse Expedition. 

[Extracts from a letter by Professor W. W. Campbell.] 

•'The story of the eclipse is too long to tell in a letter. I 
had to locate in level country^ in a famine district^ water scarce^ 
dust plentiful, the plague on both sides of us. There were no 
habitable buildings nearer than fifteen miles, so camping was a 
matter of necessity. The difficulties were great, but I kept my 

* Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California. 



82 Publications of the 

courage up, and was all ready for the eclipse on January i6th. 
The assistants — fine ones — arrived firom January 17th to 20th, 
and were drilled to the work. There had not been a cloud in 
the sky for six weeks, and eclipse day was simply beautiful. The 
* seeing* was fair that day, though it had been poor — Sun 
boiling — on all previous days. 

**The eclipse began within half a second of my predicted 
chronometer time, and closed in the same manner. No wind 
existed, though I was prepared for wind. The corona had great 
extent, but was faint as a whole. The prominences were numer- 
ous, but vastly smaller than in 1893. The sky was very^ very 
bright Animals paid very little attention to the eclipse. Three 
miles away, on the horizon formed by a low ridge, I saw the 
small trees with perfect distinctness during totality. 

** The 40-foot telescope gave — 

1 instantaneous Seed 27 plates. 

2 one-second ** ** ** 
2 two-second ** ** ** 
2 four-second ** ** ** 
2 eight-second ** ** ** 

I sixteen-second ** ** ** (defective plate). 
I instantaneous Carbutt B plate (very little on plate). 
I one-second ** ** (very little on plate, and 

was caught by the Sun). 

** There were eight beautiful negatives with the Dallmeyer 
and with the Floyd. The spectrum of the Sun's edge was 
fainter than I expected, but the plates are pretty successful and 
valuable. 

** But I '11 save the rest of the story till I get home. I had a 
great struggle with the dust and the heat in developing the 
plates. I had to have the dark-room in a tent, temperature 94*^ 
Fahr. in the daytime. Had to wait till i a.m. to begin develop- 
ing. And the dust was awful, too. The water was absolutely 
muddy — had to be boiled and filtered. I never saw such dry 
climate. Some days the dry bulb was +32° C, and the wet 
bulb +18° C, or even +17° C. My hands were cracked wide 
open, and I could scarcely finish the development of the origi- 
nal plates, to say nothing of making copies.'' 

These extracts from Professor Campbell's letter to Professor 
ScHAEBERLE are printed here, as they will be of general interest 
to the members of the Society. R. G. A. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 83 

The Companions to Aldebaran. 

I have recently made the following set of measures of the two 
companions to Aldebaran: — 

A and B = /3 550. 
1898.10 109°. 7 31". 30 36-inch telescope 3 nights 

A and C = S 2 (App. II). 
1 898. 10 34°. 3 11 7". 90 1 2-inch telescope 4 nights 

Cand D = j3 1031. 
1898.10 275° 2 i".62 36-inch telescope 2 nights 

These measures give additional confirmation to the conclusions 
stated by Mr. Burnham in 189 i :t first, that the minute star ** B *' 
has the same proper motion as the principal star ; the mean of 
five sets of measures of A and B, made by different observers 
between 1877 and 1891, is io9°8 3i".o8; second, that the 
Herschel cooipanion, C, has a proper motion of its own, 
differing from that of the principal star; third, that D, the com- 
panion to C, shares its proper motion, the relative change being 
due to some other cause. C and D, then, probably form a physi- 
cal system, having no connection, other than optical, with A and 
B, and the apparent distance between the two systems will con- 
tinually increase. R. G. Aitken. 

February 26, 1898. 

A Remarkable Object. 
JiWolsingham Observatory Circular^ No. 46.] 

**A remarkable object, hitherto unrecorded, was discovered on 
January i6th, and seen on three other nights. It is elliptical, 
one degree long, major axis 336°, and rather resembles some 
obscuring medium than a nebula, and is, I believe, unique. 

•* Place: R. A. 4' 26"" o', Decl. -f 50° 44' (1855). 

T. E. EsPiN.'' 
1898, February 16. 

Request for Observations. 

Mademoiselle VerA Stachevitet, Observatoire d' Ecole 
Superieure des Femmes, He de Basil 10 Ligne d. 33, St. Peters- 
burg, wishes to compute the definitive orbit of Comet 1896 I, and 
would like any unpublished observations sent to her. C. D. P. 

t Monthly Notices R. A. S., March, 1891. 



84 Publications of the 

A Daylight Meteor. 

** Director of Lick Observatory. 

**Dear Sir : I saw by the papers that a meteor had lately been 
observed by one of your men, and thought it might be of interest 
to you to say that last October, about an hour before sunset, I 
observed a very large and brilliant meteor fall between this city 
and a mountain to the north, not more than fifteen miles away. 
It left behind a spiral-shaped cloud of smoke, which was visible 
for about twenty minutes. Yours truly, Chas. Pixley." 

Missoula, Mont., January 24, 1898. 

Missing Books. 

The following books and periodicals are missing from the 
library of the Society, and no record of their whereabouts 
appears upon the charging book. Any information concerning 
them will be gratefully received by the Library Committee. 

BOOKS. 

No. 3. Proctor (R. A.): Other Worlds than Ours. i2mo. 
9. Webb (T. W.): Celestial Objects for Common Tele- 
scopes. 1 2mo. 
10. Webb (T. W.): Celestial Objects for Common Tele- 
scopes. i2mo. 

17. Oliver (J. A. W., and others): Astronomy for 

Amateurs. i2mo. 

18. Oliver (J. A. W., and others): Astronomy for 

Amateurs. i2mo. 

46. Young (C. A.): The Sun. i2mo. 

47. Young (C. A.): The Sun. i2mo. 

49. Proctor (R. A.): Orbs Around Us. i2mo. 

51. KiRKWOOD (D.): Meteoric Astronomy. i2mo. 

57. Newcomb (S.): Popular Astronomy. i2mo. 

252. Mueller (H.): Die Kepler^ schen Gesetze, 8vo. 

253. Prestel (M. a. F.): Astronomisches Diagramm. 

Svo. 
260. Thornton (J.) Physiography. i2mo. 
277. Brewster (D.): More Worlds than One. i2mo. 

281. : Martyrs of Science. i2mo. 

282. : Life of Sir Isaac Newton. i2mo. 

301. Lynn (W. T.): Celestial Motions. i6mo. 

302. Johnson (S. J.): Eclipses, Past and Future. i6mo. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 85 

318. ScHELLEN (H.): Spectrum Analysis. 8vo. 
322. Ledger (E.): The Sun, Its Planets, etc. i2mo. 
330. Lewis (S. C): Historical Survey of the Astronomy 

of the Ancients. 8vo. 
489. Proctor (R. A.): Myths and Marvels of Astronomy. 

i2mo. 

PERIODICALS. 

Tlie Observatory: No. 252 (April, 1897). 

Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society: Vol. LVI, Nos. 

2, 4> 5. 
T7i€ Astrophysicat Journal: Vol. V, Nos. 2, 4, 6; Vol. 6, No. i. 

The Library Committee. 

Election of Professor James E. Keeler as Director 
OF THE Lick Observatory. 

At the regular meeting of the Board of Regents of the 
University of California, held in San Francisco on Tuesday, 
March 8, 1898, Professor James E. Keeler, Director of the 
Allegheny Observatory, was chosen to fill the vacancy created 
by the resignation of Professor E. S. Holden as Director of the 
Lick Observatory. 

At this date it is not known when Professor Keeler will 
assume the duties of his new office. R. G. Aitken. 

March 16, 1898. 

Library Notice. 

Attention is called to the report of the Library Committee 
printed in this number in the minutes of the meeting of the 
Board of Directors. The Committee is making every effort to 
increase the value and usefulness of the library, both by adding 
to the number of volumes and by making these more easily 
accessible. It is especially desirable to increase the number of 
books and periodicals of large popular interest Contributions 
of this class from any source will be thankfully received. 

Publication Committee. 

Discovery of Comet b, 1898 (Perrine). 

This comet was discovered in the morning of March 20th. 
At o* 53" 56' G. M. T. its position was R. A. 21' i8» 36V89, 
and Decl. +16^43' 23^.3. It was then very near the western 



86 Publications of the 

limits of the constellation Pegasus, a little south and west of the 
iitar iota. Its daily motion is north i^ and east about the same 
amount. 

The head is composed of a nucleus, some lo" in diameter, 
surrounded symmetrically by a nebulosity 2' in diameter. The 
nucleus does not present a stellar appearance, but looks granular. 

Extending away from the comet, in position -angle 281°, is a 
moderately broad tail, which can be traced to a distance of i^. 
It seems to broaden near the end, and there are indications of a 
fainter nebulosity surrounding the main tail. 

The head of the comet is about as bright as a seventh magni- 
tude star, and can be seen with a very small telescope. 

Mt. Hamilton. Cal., March 21, 1898. C. D. P. 

Elements of Comet ^, 1898 (Perrine). 

From Mr. Perrine' s observation of March 19th, at the time 
of discovery, and my observations of March 21st and 22d, I 
have computed the following elements of this comet : — 
7"= March 19.1079, G. M. T. 



0_,jf;;5;3 f Eclipdcand 

•_ 2 =^^ '>=^ * Mean Equinox of 1898.0. 



31' 16") 
19 53 \ 
53 25 ) 



log q = 0.04252. 

(O.-C.) AX' cos P^ = +5" ^/3' = +3" 

W. J. Hussey. 

Astronomical Telegrams (Translation), 

Lick Observatory, March 20, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory, 1 

Students' Observatory. / ^ent 12'^ 35" P- m. 

A bright comet was discovered by C. D. Perrine (on March 
20th, at 4:30 A.M.). Its position, March 20th, o*" 53" 56' G. M. T., 
was, R. A. 21*^ i8'"36'.89; Decl. +16° 43' 23".3. Its daily 
motions are +56' in R. A. and +61' in Decl. The physical 
appearance of the comet is, nebulosity 2' diameter, seventh 
magnitude, strong central condensation, tail i** long. 

Lick Observatory, March 22, 1898. 

To Harvard College Observatory: ) ^gent 10:15 a.m.) 
To Students Observatory, Berkeley: ) 

Comet b, 1898, (Perrine) was observed by W. J. Hussey, 
March 22.0532, G. M. T.; R. A. 21' 25"59".8, Decl. +18° 49' 17". 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 87 

Lick Observatory, March 23, 1898. 
To Harvard CoUegeObsen^tory: ) (Sent 9:55 A. M.) 

To Students Observatory, Berkeley: ) 

Comet b, 1898, (Perrine) was observed by C. D. Perrine, 
March 22.9855, G. M. T.; R. A. 21*' 29- 28'.9, Decl. + 19° 4/ 24". 

Lick Observatory, March 23, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 9:30 p.m.) 

The following elements and ephemeris of Comet b, 1898, 
(Perrine) were computed by W. J. Hussey and C. D. 
Perrine: — 

T= 1898, March 18.67, G. M. T. 
<u= 49° 2' 
O = 264 7 
i= 72 48 
^= 1.1013. 
[The ephemeris is omitted here.] 

Erratum. 
Volume X, page 35, line 3, for 1897 read 1898. 




X 

3 



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s 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 89 

Minutes of the Special Meeiting of the Board of 

Directors of the Astronomical Society of* the 

Pacific, held in the Rooms of the Society, on 

Saturday, November 27, 1897, at 2 p.m. 

Mr. PiBRsoN presided. A quorum was present. 

The purpose of the meeting being the First Award of the Bruce 
Gold Medal; the letters received from the Directors of the six nomina- 
ting Observatories were submitted by the Secretary. After a careful 
consideration of the recommendations contained in these letters, the 
selection of the Medalist was made by ballot, and the following certifi- 
cate of bestowal was signed by all Directors present: — 

San Francisco, November 27, 1897. 

First Award of the Brucb Medal. 

We. the undersigned Directors of the Astronomical Society of the 
Pacific, hereby certify, that, in accordance with the Statutes for the 
bestowal of the Bruce Medal, a special meeting of the Board of Direc- 
tors was held this day, at 2 o'clock p.m., for the purpose of awarding 
the medal for the year 1898; and that, the provisions of the Statutes 
relating to its bestowal having been complied with, the medal was 
awarded to — 

SIMON NEWCOMB 

for Distinguished Services to Astronomy, by the consenting votes ot 

eight Directors. 

Signed: Wm. M. Pibrson, Frederick H. Sbares, 

Fremont Morsb, Rose O'Halloran, C. D. Perkins, F. R. Zibl, 
E. S. Holdbn (by proxy), C. M. St. John (by proxy). 

Adjourned. 

On January i, 1898, the Secretary addressed a letter to Professor 
Nbwcomb, notifying him of the action taken by the Directors. The 
following letter of acceptance was received on January 17th: — 

Washington, January ii, 1898. 
Mr. F. R. Zibl, Secretary. 

Dear Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your com- 
munication of the ist inst., apprising me that the Board of Directors of 
the Astronomical Society of the Pacific had awarded me the first 
Bruce Gold Medal, being that for the year 1898. It gratifies me 
extremely to know that this should have been the result of so admirable 
a method of selection as that prescribed in your statutes. I beg that you 
will assure the Board of Directors of my very high appreciation of such 
an honor from my own Country, and of the pleasure with which I 
signify my acceptance. 

Yours most respectfully, 

Signed: Simon Nbwcomb. 



90 Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 
• held in the Rooms of the Society, 
March 26, 1898, at 7:30 p. m. 

Miss 0*Halloran presided. A quorum was present. The minutes 
of the last meeting were read and approved. The following members 
were duly elected:— 

List of Members Elected March 26, 1898. 

Mr. W. W. ALLEN {^"ct^S^^ola' ^^""^ 

Mr. Manley F. Bendall | '^France."^^ '^'^''^'' Bordeaux 

Mr. John Everding, Jr 48 Clay St., S. F., Gal. 

Mr. J. H. Firehammer 1590 Pacific Ave., Alameda, CaL 

Miss Adelaide M. Hobe 604 Capp St., S. F., Gal. 

Mr. Harold K. Palmer Berkeley, Gal. 

The Library Committee presented its report, as follows, and the 
report was, on motion, adopted and filed:— 

Report op the Committee on the Library, Submitted March a6, 1898. 
To the Board of Directors of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific : 

Gentlemen— We, the undersigned, Committee on the Society's Library, respectfully 
report as follows:— 

During the year the library has been reaccessioned, and the construction of a card 
catalogue has been undertaken. The bound books have been classi6ed on the shaves 
according to subject; the unbound books and pamphlets have been similarly classified 
and arrans:ed in drawers specially provided for tne purpose. A large amount of hi nding 
has been done, and considerable purchases of books have been made. Through binding 
and purchase, together with gifts from corresponding institutions, 290 volumes have been 
added to the shelves. 

The library consists at present of about 910 bound volumes and several hundred 
pamphlets. Exact numbers cannot be given until the work of cataloguing has been 
finished. 

The purchases have been made in pursuance of the recommendation contained in the 
report of the Library Committee for the year 1890-91 [.Publications A. S. P., Vol. IlL 
page 149), as follows: " Your committee . . . would recommend that hereafter the 
revenue derived from the remainder of ihe Alexander Montgombry Fund should be 
applied to the purchase of the more technical and recondite works on astronomy." While 
acting in- accordance with this recommendation, the present Library Committee has, 
nevertheless, felt that the library should also secure, as largely and as rapidly as possible, 
the astronomical works of ^eater popular interest. Gifts of single books or of sets of 
books of this class are especially desired. 

During the past year special effort has been made to secure for the library valuable 
books which are out of print, and which are rapidly becoming rare. 

The following is an account of the expenclitures of the Alexander Montcoiierv 
Library Fund for the year ending March 26, 1898:— 

1897, Aug. 24. Pobular Astronomy | 1400 

Hicks-Judd Co. for binding 105 volumes 94 ^ 

Kreutz— missing numbers Astron NachricKten . . x 90 

94 volumes of Astronomiscfu Nachrichten 306 00 

Cable re 94 vols. Astron. Nachrichten 7 24 

Freight on 94 vols. Astron. Nachrichten 9 46 

Sept X. 4 chests drawers for pamphlets 12 00 

15. Freight on card catalogue from Chicago — 2 90 

16. Card catalogue, etc. . 19 10 

1S98, Jan. 7. Expressage on H. C O. Annals from Cambridge. . 5 10 

Feb. 14. Hicks-Judd Co. for binding 38 volumes 32 80 

Mar. 9. 3 volumes Astronomical foumai 7 50 

Respectfully submitted, :^= 

William J. Hussey, 
Frederick H. Searbs, 
Rose 0'Hall.oran, 

Committee, 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 91 

Minutes of the (adjourned) Annual Meeting of the 

astronobncal society of the pacific, held in the 

Rooms of the Society, April 2, 1898, at 8 p. m. 

The meeting was caUed to order by Mr. Pierson. A quorum was 
present The minutes of the last meeting were approved. 

The Secretary read the names of new members duly elected at the 
Directors' meeting of March 26, 1898. 

The following papers were presented:— 

I. Address of the retiriuR President, by Hon. William Alvord. 

a. Reports of Committees: on Nominations; on the Comet-Medal; on the Library; on 
Auditing; and Annual Report of the Treasurer. 

3. The Edinburgh Observatory, by Professor R. G. Aitkbn. 

4. Earthquakes in California in 1897, by Mr. C. D. Pbrrinb. 

S* A New Variable Star, by Mr. Torvald KOhl, oi Odder, Denmark. 

6. Latitude Work with the Fauth Transit of the Lick Observatory, by Professor H. D. 

Curtis. 

7. Planetary Phenomena for May and June, 1898, by Professor M. McNeill. 

8. Magnifying Ratios of Ewing Seismographs of Three Components, and of the Duplex- 

Pendulum Seismographs, by Mr. C. D. Pbrrinb. 

The Committee on Nominations reported a Ust of names proposed 
for election as Directors, as follows: Messrs. R. G. Aitkbn, C. B. Hill, 
Jambs E. Kbblbr, £. J. Molbra, C. D. Pbrrinb, Wm. M. Pibrson, 
F. H. Sbarbs, C. M. St. John, O. von Gbldbrn, F. R. Zibl, and Miss 
R. O'Halloran. 

For Committee on Publication: Messrs. R. G. Aitkbn, F. H. 
Sbarbs, O. von Gbldbrn. 

Messrs. Cushing and Mosbs were appointed as tellers. The polls 
were open from 8:15 to 9 p. m., and the persons above named were duly 
elected to serve for the ensuing year. 

Report of the Committee on the Comet-Medal, 
Submitted March 26, 1898. 

The present report relates to the calendar year 1897. The comets 
of 1897 are:— 

Comet a (d' Arrest's periodic comet), rediscovered June 28, by 
C. D. Pbrrinb, Assistant Astronomer in the Lick Observatory. 

Comet b (unexpected comet), discovered October 16, by C. D. 
Pbrrinb, Assistant Astronomer in the Lick Observatory. 

The Comet-Medal of the Society has been awarded to Mr. Pbrrinb 
for the discovery of Comet b. This is the fifth award (made for similar 
previous discoveries) to the same observer. 



Respectfully submitted. 



E. S. Holdbn, 
J. M. Schaeberlb, 
W. W. Campbbll. 



92 Publications of the 

The Treasurer submitted his Annual Report, as follows:— 
Annual Statbmbnt op thb Receipts and Expenditures op the 
Astronomical Society op the Pacipic for the 
Fiscal Year ending March 26, 1898. 

general fund. 

Receipti, 

Cash Balance, March 28, Z897 1 489 >9 

Received from duea. I1471 67 

** " sale of publications 6935 

*• •• "stationery 150 

*• " " " furniture, etc xa 00 

** •' advertisements 63 25 

** " Security Savings Bank (interest) 4 37 

•' ** Life Membership Fund (interest) 73 49 

I169563 
Less transfer to Life Membership Fund 4So 00 I1245 63 

117349a 

Expenditurts. 

For publications | 723 10 

" general expenses 62404 

I134614 

Cash Balance March 26, 1898 38878 

>I734 9» 

LIFE membership FUND. 

Cash Balance March 28, 1897 I1750 61 

Received from General Fund 450 00 

" '« interest 7349 

I2274 10 
Less interest transferred to (general Fund 73 49 

Cash Balance March 26, 1898 $1200 61 

donohoe comet-medal fund. 

Cash Balance March 28, 1897 >.. I 676 04 

Interest 26 21 

I 70a as 
Less transfer to Montgomery Library Fund (see Vol. IX, page 1x3) 70 89 

Cash Balance March 26, X898. 163136 

ALEXANDER MONTGOMERY LIBRARY FUND. 

Cash Balance March 28, X897 |i93a 68 

Interest 71 X2 

Transfer from Comet-Medal Fund (see Vol. IX, page 1x3) 70 89 

1207469 
Less expended for books, binding, etc 5x260 

Cash Balance March 26, X898 |i56« 06 

BRUCE MEDAL FUND. 

Sept. 20, 1897. Cash received from Miss C. W. Bruce |a750 00 

Interest x8 30 

Cash Balance March 26, 1898 $2768 3 



I 388 78 



I2200 6z 



I 631 36 



I1562 09 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 93 

FUNDS. 
Balances od Deposit as follows: 
Geoerml Fund: 

with Donohoe-Kelly Banking Co I 33o 45 

*• Security Savings Bank 58 33 

Life Membership Fund: 

with San Francisco Savings Union. . . Iiooo 61 

*' German Savings and Loan Society 600 00 

" Hibemia Savings and Loan Society 600 00 

Dooohoe Cometh Medal Fund: 

with San Francisco Savings Union I 205 34 

•• German Savings and Loan Society ai3 36 

** Hibemia Savings and Loan Society 21266 

Alexander Montgomery Library Fund: 

with San Francisco Savings Union '. IS28 55 

" German Savings and Loan Society 421 36 

" Hibemia Savings and Loan Society 612 18 

Brace Medal Fund: 

with San Francisco Savings Union I1510 06 

* •• Security Savings Bank 628 99 

*' German Savings and Loan Society 629 25 

I2768 30 

$7551 14 
San FRANasco, March 26, 1898. F. R. ZIEL, Treasurer. 

The committee appointed to audit the Treasurer's accounts reported 
as follows, and the report was, on motion, accepted and adopted: — 

TV the President and Members of the Astronomical Society of the. Pacific : 

Gbntlbmbn— Tour committee appointed to audit the accounts of the Treasurer for 
the fiscal year ending March 26, 1898, have made a careful examination, and find same to 
be correct Yours respectfully, 

Jos. GASSMANN, 
F. H. MCCONNELL. 

In the absence of Mr. Alvord, the address of the President was 
read by Mr. Gushing. 

The following resolution was, on motion, adopted:— 

Resolved, That all the acts appearing in the minutes of the meetings of the Board 
of Directors of this Society, as having been done by said Board during the past fiscal 
year, are here now, by this Society, approved and confirmed. 

Adjourned. 



94 Publications of the 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 

held in the rooms of the society, 

April 2, 1898, at 9 p. m. 

The new Board of Directors was called to order by Miss O'Hal- 
LORAN. A quorum was present The minutes of the last meeting were 
approved. 

The business in hand being the election of officers and committees 
for the ensuing year, the following officers and conmiittees, having 
received a majority of the votes cast, were duly elected:— 

President: Mr. R. G. Aitken. 

First Vice-President: Mr. C. B. Hill. 

Second Vice-President: Miss R. 0*Halloran. 

Third Vice-President: Mr. F. H. Shares. 

Secretaries: Messrs. C. D. Perrine and F. R. Zibl. 

Treasurer: Mr. F. R. Ziel. 

Committee on the Comet-Medal: Messrs. Schaeberlb {ex-ajficio)^ 

PlERSON, BuRCKHALTER. 

Library Committee: Messrs. F. H. Seares, Geo. C. Edwards, 
Miss R. O'Halloran. 

Mr. Seares was appointed Librarian. 

The Chairman was authorized to appoint the members of the 
Finance Committee, and accordingly made the following selections: 

Finance Committee: Messrs. Pierson, von Geldbrn, Hill. 

The Committee on PublicaMon is composed of: — 
Messrs. Aitken, Seares, and von Geldern. 

Adjourned. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 95 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. R. G. AiTKKN Prtsidtnt 

Mr. C. B. Hill First Vict-Prtsident 

Miss R. D'Halloman Stcond Vict-Presidtnt 

Mr. F. H. Sbarrs Third Vice-President 

5JJ:R-g:lr'""| '"^'"■,. 

Mr. F. R. ZiEL Tretuurer 

B0ard o/ Direct^rs^VLtxsn, Aitkbn, Hill, Kkblkr, Molbra, Miss O'Halloran, Messrs. 

Pkrrinb, Pibrson, Sbarbs, St. John, von Gbldbrn, Zibl. 
Finance Committee — Messrs. PibrsON, von Gbldbrn, Hill. 
Committee on Publication— yi^9ax%* Aitkbn, Skarbs, von Gbldbrn. 
L^rmry Committee— lAesax%. Sbarbs, Gbo. C. Edwards, Miss O'Halloran. 
Committee on the Cotnet- Medal— lAtssn, Schabbbrlb (ex-ojicio)* Pibrson, Burckhaltbr. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee— lAr. Ruthvbn W. Pikb. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Executive Committee— Ut. Francisco Rooricubz Rbv. 



NOTICE. 

The attention of new members is called to Article VIII of the By-Laws, which provides that 
the annual subscription, paid on election, covers the calendar year onlv. Subsequent annual 
pajrmenu are due on January ist of each succeeding calendar year. I'his rule is necessary in 
order to make our book-keeping as simple as possible. Dues sent by mail should be directed to 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific 819 Market Street, San Francisco. 

It is intended that each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the Pit6- 
lications for the year in which he was elected to membership and for all subsequent years. If 
there have been (unfortunately) any omissions in this matter, it is requested that the Secretaries 
he at once notified, in order that the missing numbers may be supplied. Members are requested 
to preserve the copies of the Publications of the Society as sent to them. Once each year a title- 
page and contents of the preceding numbers will also be sent to the members, who can then bind 
the numbers together into a volume. Complete volumes for past years will also be supplied, to 
ntembers only, so far as the stock in hand is sufficient, on the payment of two dollars per volume 
to either of the Secretaries. Any non-resident member within the United States can obtain 
books from the Society's library by sending his library card with ten cents in stamps to the 
Secretary A. S. P., 819 Market Street, San Francisco, who will return the book and the card. 

The Committee on Publication desires to say that the order in which papers are printed in 
the Publications is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
first which are earliest accepted for publication. It is not possible to send proof sheets of papers 
to be printed to authors whose residence is not within the United States. The responsibility for 
the views expressed in the papers printed rests with the writers, and is not assumed by the 
Society itself. 

The titles of papers for reading should be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
as possible, as well as any changes in addresses. The Secretary in San Francisco will send to 
any member of the Society suitable stationery, stamped with the seal of the Society, at cost price, 
as follows: a block of letter paper, 40 cents; of note paper, 25 cents; a package of envelopes, 25 
cents. These prices include postage, and should be remitted by money-order or in U. S. postage 
stamps. The sendings are at the risk of the member. 

Those members who propose to attend the meetings at Mount Hamilton during the summer 
should communicate with "The Secretary Astronomical Society of the Pacific " at the rooms of 
the Society, 810 Market Street, San Francisco, in order that arrangements may be made for 
transportation, lodging, etc 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHLY. 
( February t Aprils June^ August t October, December.) 





THE SPECTROSCOPE ATTACHED TO THE is-INCH REFRACTOR OE THE 
ROYAL OBSERVATORY. EDINBURGH. 



THE KEY/ Y',RK 

Fi:BLICL:3n.\RY 



TiU; N 



PUBLIC LIBRARY 



A6TCR. LENOX AND 



, TKt KEV/ YORKl 

PUBLIC L:3'^/\RY I 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



A6TCR, LFNOX AND 
TlLOEN FOUNDATIONS. 




THE SOLAR CORONA OF JANUARY 22, 1898. 
(Photographed with the Floyd telescope, by W. W. Campbell.) 



FUBLICLIB^A-V 



FUBLICAriONS I uloen foundations. 

or T H B 

Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. X. San Francisco, California, June i, 1898. No. 62. 



ON THE CAUSES OF THE SUN'S EQUATORIAL 
ACCELERATION AND THE SUN-SPOT PERIOD. 



By E. J. VVlLCZYNSKI. 

In the beginning of every science isolated facts present them- 
selves, which apparently have no connection with each other. 
As the science is gradually perfected, relations are found between 
the different phenomena, the subject becomes more complex, and 
covers a wider stretch than it did at first; but at the same time it 
becomes easier to understand because it is found that all of the 
phenomena, which have been observed, are but the consequences 
of certain fundamental laws. In solar physics two laws of funda- 
mental importance have been found, the law of the equatorial 
acceleration and that of the periodicity of sun-spots. Their 
great significance lies in this, that they give numerical relations 
between measurable quantities, and that their consequences can, 
therefore, be deduced by mathematical reasoning. 

The researches which I have made upon this subject have 
appeared in my inaugural dissertation on * * Hydrodynamische 
Untersuchungen mit Anwendungen auf die Theorie der Sonnen- 
rotation," Berlin, 1897, and in some papers in the Astrophysical 
Journal: A brief account has also appeared in the Astronomical 
Journal^ Vol. XVIII, No. 416. In this paper I will try to pre- 
sent the principal points in popular language. 

We assume the Sun to be a fluid body, the general term fluid 
comprehending both gaseous and incompressible fluids as special 
cases. Its present condition and the present motion of its parts 
are, then, but the consequences of the condition of the nebula from 
which it has been formed, and of the motion of the parts of this 



9^ Publications of the 

nebula. This is exactly the same as in the case of planetary orbits. 
The form of the planet's orbit and its position in space was deter- 
mined by the position and the motion of the planet at the time of its 
formation. Such an orbit must be a conic section, if we neglect 
the perturbations, and it may possibly be a circle. And just in 
the same way as a circular orbit is an exception in the case of 
planetary orbits, only one occurring among an infinite number, 
so also is it infinitely improbable that a gaseous body starting to 
rotate should rotate in the same way as a solid mass. It may do 
so, but in general it will not 

But obviously we must take into account the influence of the 
internal fluid friction, which, of course, tends to make the body- 
rotate as if it were solid. But the mathematical theory shows 
this influence to be very small, so small that it will not change 
the daily arc described by a point upon the Sun by 2' in 27,500,000 
years. 

This result is obtained in the course of investigating the follow- 
ing problem. All particles of a viscous fluid describe circles in 
parallel planes around an axis perpendicular to these planes. 
The conditions for the motion and figure of such a body are 
investigated. The angular velocity of rotation is supposed to be 
diflerent in different parts of the fluid. It is found that an 
important theorem holds, which we proceed to explain. 

The density of the body, as well as the temperature may vary 
from point to point. All points in which the density has the 
same value constitute, in general, a surface which is called a 
surface of constant density. Similarly we can speak of surfaces 
of constant temperature. The theorem which we have in view is 
this:— 

In a rotating viscous fluids the angular velocity of rotation is 
the same fur all points whose distance from the axis of rotation is 
the same, if the surfaces of constant density and of constant tempera- 
ture coincide. If we conceive the axis of rotation to be surrounded 
by a family of co-axial cylinders, the surface of each cylinder 
rotates as if it were rigid. 

This theorem is shown to be very probably true for the case 
of the Sun, and the surfaces of constant density are calculated 
approximately. By applying the theorem to the comparison ot 
the different laws of rotation which have been empirically found 
for the sun-spots, for the faculae and for the so-called reversing- 
layer, the difference in level of these different solar strata can be 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 99 

ascertained. The discussion of these numbers lea^ds to the result 
that the solar atmosphere, i. e. the region above the ** photo- 
sphere" is much more extensive than has usually been believed. 
The contradictions, which seem to rise herefrom at first sight, 
can ^be easily cleared up if the power of refraction, which this 
atmosphere must have, is taken into account. One other impor- 
tant conclusion is that the sun-spots must be higher up in the 
solar atmosphere than the photosphere, a view which, while 
opposed to the classical idea of Wilson, is nevertheless constantly 
gaining more adherents. 

If the motion of the solar particles is not stricdy uniform and 
circular, and it is easy to see that in general it will not be so, the 
deviations from the uniform circular motion cause corresponding 
changes in the temperature, pressure and density, as the equa- 
tions show. Now it is quite easy to show that these deviations, 
supposed to be small in comparison with the principal motion, 
are of an oscillatory character, tending at the same time towards 
zero. That is, they will be periodic functions of the time but 
become constantly smaller, in the same way as a pendulum 
swinging in air oscillates backward and forward, but finally comes 
to a stop. But in our case this dampening effect is only very 
slight, and may not be noticed for thousands of years. To the 
periodic variations of the motion will then correspond periodic 
changes in temperature, etc., and it is extremely plausible that 
hereto will correspond periodic variations of the Sun's activity. 
This line of thought gives a very reasonable explanation of the 
sun-spot period, which is also supported by some numerical 
work which is meant to show that the causes invoked are suffi- 
cient to explain the observed phenomena. 

If we remember that the theory sketched out here is based on 
no arbitrary assumptions, that it reaches its conclusions by rigid 
mathematical reasoning, and that it succeeds in uniting the 
observations of solar physicists, which have been the source of so 
many wild hypotheses, into one consistent whole, it certainly 
seems to be a step in the right direction. And it seems to me 
that we are justified in saying that the rotation-law is the instru- 
ment with which to fathom the solar mysteries. It is the funda- 
mental law to which all others, even that of the sun-spot period, 
are but supplementary. 

Nautical Almanac Office, 

Washington, D. C, May 6, 1898. 



loo Publications of the 

THE NEW ATLAS OF VARIABLE STARS.* 



By the Rev. Father J. G. Hagen, S. J. 



Dear Sir:—\n compliance with your kind invitation to send to 
you a description of the forthcoming Atlas of Variable Stars, I offer 
the following remarks on the plan of the work, on the observations, 
and on the construction of the charts: — 

L The Atlas is planned to contain all variable stars from the 
north pole to — 25° Declination. For the present are excluded the 
the new stars, called Nova, and the recently discovered stars, 
whose variability and character are not yet sufficiendy established. 

The Atlas is divided into five Series, the first three of which 
comprise those Variables that fall below the loth magnitude at their 
minimum phase, while the fourth series contains those that can be 
followed with a three-inch telescope throughout their entire 
variation, and the fifth gives all the naked-eye Variables. The first 
three Series cover respectively the zones from —25° to the equator, 
from the equator to -{-25° and from +25° to the pole. Arrange- 
ments have been made with the publisher by which each of the 
five series can be procured separately, so that observers will be 
enabled to select for themselves that Series which best suits their 
equipment and their location with regard to the equator. Begin- 
ners especially will find this division of the whole Atlas advan- 
tageous, as they will have the whole program of their work marked 
out, without the danger of omitting interesting variables or of 
wasting time upon unsuitable objects. 

The following description is confined to the first three Series, 
as the fourth and fifth will require special explanations. 

II. The observatiojis for the first three Series were the most 
laborious, and differ in many respects from those required for the 
fourth and fifth Series, on account of the many faint stars that 
had to be determined with regard to position and magnitude. 

The field chosen for these three Series is one degree square, 
in whose center is the variable. In this square all the BD stars 



• This letter by Father Hagen is in answer to one sent to him requesting informatioii 
concemins: his new Atlas of Variable Stars. The value of the work is evident, and its 
appearance should give new impetus to the study of variables. It is perhaps not out of 
place to add that the systematic observation of variable stars is one of the most profitable 
lines of work into which the amateur can enter. It is a field in which any member of the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific can do work, the results of which will be of real benefit 
to the Science of Astronomy. Editor. 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. loi 

were plotted, and then identified in the sky by means of a 
five-inch equatorial. Not only were the errors noted, but all the 
stars of a chart were connected with each other by sequences of 
brightness, according to Argelander's method, beginning with 
the brightest star. This operation was repeated after an interval 
of many months, generally a year. 

After the first three Series were finished in this way, the 
charts were taken to the 12-inch equatorial for the insertion of 
the fainter stars. For these fainter stars a smaller square was 
marked around the variable, viz. half a degree square, covering 
only one-fourth of the area of the whole chart. The positions of 
all the stars within this smaller square, visible in our 12-inch 
refractor, and of all the BD stars of the whole chart, were then 
determined by means of a semi-circular glass scale, measuring 
30', and divided into ten parts. Thus 3' could be read directly, 
and o'.3 by estimation. The lines were cut in the glass by 
means of a dividing engine and then painted black by hand rather 
coarsely, to make them visible in the light of the stars without 
field illumination. Hence the glass scale was similar to the one 
used for the BD, but the method of observation was different. 
The declinations were determined separately from the Right 
Ascensions while the telescope was following the stars by means 
of the driving clock. For the R. A. the telescope remained 
clamped, but the clock was stopped, and the approach of the stars 
to the vertical diameter of the glass scale was recorded on the 
chronograph. This record was made three times, not so much 
to reach greater accuracy as to make sure that the combinations of 
the Decl. and R. A. were placed beyond doubt. Since the glass 
scale covers only one-half of a chart, the northern and southern 
parts of the charts had to be observed separately. In the cata- 
logue the Decl. and R. A. are given differentially from the Variable 
as zero point. The inclination of the glass reticle to the hour 
circle was determined from several stars whose position was 
known either from catalogues or from kind communications of 
astronomers now engaged in making the southern zones of the 
A. G. , or finally from observations with our own Ertel transit 
instrument. All these observations and computations for correct- 
ing the inclination of the reticle were carried out by Rev. Father 
J. T. Hedrick, S. J. 

The chronograph sheet was read off and the new stars plotted 
on the chart, in different ink, on the morning after the observa- 



I02 Publications of the 

tion, in order to compare the chart with the sky, and to estimate 
the brightness of the stars on the first succeeding clear night. 
All the stars, including the BD stars, were then connected by 
sequences of brightness, from the brightest to the faintest, and 
these estimates were repeated about a month later. Hence, all 
the fainter stars were estimated in brightness twice, besides 
occasional revisions, and the BD stars four times. Each chart 
was therefore compared with the sky at least ^v^ times. 

For the construction of charts it was necessary to transform the 
sequences of steps into a series of magnitude. For this purpose 
the steps observed in the 5 -inch telescope had to be reduced to 
those observed in the 12-inch refractor, by a multiplying factor, 
which changed from one chart to another, and then they were 
combined into a mean value. The value of one step, expressed 
in magnitude, had to be found so as to make the computed mag- 
nitudes agree as nearly as possible with any of the adopted scales 
(in this case the BD), at least between the limits 7" and lo". 
How the step value was computed, and from what starting point it 
was applied, is of little importance. The test of the method will 
be the agreement between the two series of magnitudes. This 
same step value was then applied to the sequences of the fainter 
stars, without regard to the different limits of magnitude which 
would thus be reached on different charts. The lowest limit is 
about I3".5, which is in good accord with the limit expected from 
a comparison of our charts with those of Charcornac, Peters, 
and Palisa. That this lowest limit was not reached on all charts is 
partly owing to the well-known fact that estimates of steps do not 
run uniformly from the brighter to the fainter stars, and hence 
require a variable step value for their reduction to a uniform 
photometric scale, and partly also owing to the fact that tele- 
scopes have no fixed limit of visibility for all parts of the sky 
and all times of the year. Hence, the magnitudes assigned to 
the fainter stars of our charts are not to be considered as an 
extension of the BD scale below the loth magnitude, but only 
as serving the immediate purpose of engraving the charts. New 
magnitudes can be deduced from the steps as soon as a photometric 
scale is established for stars below the loth magnitude. All the 
computations of the magnitudes were made by Mr. M. EscH, 
S. J., assistant of this observatory. It may be well to state that 
the observations at the telescope of positions and brightness were 
all made by myself. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 103 

III. The charts of the first three Series measure, as has been 
said before, one degree in each direction, but the field that con- 
tains the faint stars below the loth magnitude measures only one- 
half degree in each co-ordinate. The variable star is placed in 
the middle of the chart, and designated by a circle and a dot in 
the center, which correspond respectively to its maximum and 
minimum brightness. The identification of the variable was con- 
sidered the most important point of the Atlas, and no chart is 
sent to the engraver before the variation of the star in the center 
has been established by actual observations. There is good 
ground for the hope that all errors of this kind have been avoided. 
The projection of the net is not optical, but artificial, the meridian 
lines being all parallel and the Horizontal lines at equal distances 
from each other. The color of the net is red, and no letters are 
printed on the charts. Thus, in red light, which is found very 
agreeable to the eye when frequent changes from light to darkness 
are to be made, nothing appears on the chart except the black 
disks of the stars. This gives them the nearest resemblance to 
the sky, and facilitates recognizing the configuration. 

The inscription of each chart is supposed to furnish everything 
necessary for the night work, while the catalogue gives other 
data useful for the computations. 

The AtloLs is published in Berlin, by Mr. Felix L. Dames 
(Voss Strasse, 32). It will be agreeable to your readers to learn 
that Miss Catherine Wolfe Bruce, so well known for her 
many contributions to astronomical science, has placed in the 
hands of Professor Edward C. Pickering a security of nearly 
two thousand dollars, which, while not covering the expense of 
engraving and printing of the whole Atlas, has encouraged the 
publisher to run the risk of this publication. 

J. G. Hagen, S. J. 
Georgetown College Observatory, March 19, 1898. 



OBSERVATIONS OF o Ceti {Mird). 1897-98. 



By Rose O'Halloran. 

The variable star o Ceti attained a greater magnitude last 
November than during any of the recent years since the maxi- 
ma commenced to occur in months when the constellation was 
not obscured by sunlight. Observations were taken of its rela- 



I04 Publications of the 

tive brightness on eighty-six nights between September 29, 1897, 

and February 28, 1898; but to avoid repetition, only nights of 

marked change are mentioned. 

September 29. Equal to adjacent star of eighth magnitude. 

October 17. Equal to 66 Cetu 

October 23. Nearly e(Jual to i Piscium, 

October 26. Brighter than ^ Piscium, 

November 3. Brighter than h Ceii, 

November 10. Moonlight. For the first time since the maxima 

have occurred out of sunlight the variable is as bright as y 

CeH. 
November 21. One- fourth of a magnitude brighter than y when 

near meridian on a dark sky. 
December i. One- fourth brighter than y. Moonlight. Clouds, 
December 12. Equal to y. 

December 14. Not fully as bright as y in a clear dark sky. 
December 16. About one-fourth dimmer than y. 
December 21. Midway between y and 8. 
December 31. Equal to 8. 
January 3. Not fully as bright as 8. 
January 7. Even in moonlight not as bright as 8, which being a 

white star, pales in moonlight. 
January 9. Same as f Piscium. 

January 13. About one-third magnitude fainter than i Piscium. 
January 19. Brighter than 66 and 70 CeH^ and equal to 75 CeH, 
January 24. Less than 75 in luster. 
January 28. Equal to 70 Ceti, 

February 4. In a hazy atmosphere seems brighter than 70. 
February 12. The same as 71 Ceti, 
February 19. Not as bright as 71. 
February 28. Half a magnitude fainter than 71 CeH, Mira 

was less than 7 magnitude on this date, when observations 

were discontinued. 

San Francisco, May, 1898. 



HONOR CONFERRED ON PROFESSOR SCHAEBERLE. 

On commencement day, May 18, 1898, the University of 
California conferred the honorary degree of LL. D. upon Pro- 
fessor J. M. SCHAEBERLE. 



..i-x---''^'< 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. I los^^^y;, i-* ijcv? 



THE RED STARS V HYDROS AND 277 OF BIRMING- 
HAM'S CATALOGUE. 



Bv Rose O'Halloran. 



Two crimson stars, now visible in the evening sky, are espe- 
cially worthy of the notice of telescopic observers. Unlike hun- 
dreds of stars classed as red, which, in a steady atmosphere, have 
merely a pinkish-yellow hue, these orbs preserve their claim to 
redness under all conditions of visibility. The brighter of the 
two, V Hydra, in R. A. 10** 46" 17' Decl. + 20° 40', may be 
found (even with an opera-glass) west of a and )8 Crateris, with 
which it forms a triangle. Since the beginning of April, it has 
maintained a deep crimson color, though described as pale crim- 
son, copper-red, and intensely red, by reliable observers in the 
past At present it is of the seventh magnitude, and it is known to 
vary from the sixth to the ninth, though the period seems to be 
uncertain or irregular, being about 575 days, according to Gould, 
but 653 days if the recent data of the Companion to the Observatory 
be correct. The last maximum having been predicted for Octo- 
ber 25, 1896, in this ephemeris, the next may occur in the 
middle of August, when V Hydra sets in sunlight, but its alti- 
tude will be sufficiently high for observation for some weeks yet. 
Spectroscopists describe the spectrum of this star as being 
strongly lined in the red and green, and class it as of the fourth 
type. 

Another orb, unusually free from yellow light, is numbered 
277, in Birmingham's catalogue of red stars. Being in R. A. 
12** 19"* 37* Decl. + 1° 22' it may be found about 2° northeast of 
17 Virginis. Fitly classed as crimson, it is recognized as a vari- 
able, with a range of from six and a half to eight and a half 
magnitude, though its period seems to be unknown. In numer- 
ous observations during the spring months of the last five years, 
I have failed to detect any variation greater than from about 
seven and a half to eight magnitude. It is considered that its 
spectrum is probably of the fourth type, and as it terminates in 
the green, this interesting orb may be surrounded by dense 
vapors that obstruct all radiation of violet light. 

San Francisco, May 20, 1898. 



K>6 Publications of the 

A NEW ASTRONOMY FOR BEGINNERS. BY DAVID 
P. TODD, M.A., PH.D., PROFESSOR OF ASTRO- 
NOMY AND DIRECTOR OF THE OBSERVATORY, 
AMHERST COLLEGE. AMERICAN BOOK CO., 
NEW YORK. I2MO. 480 pp. $1.30. 

As indicated in the title, this book is intended for those 
having no previous acquaintance with astronomy. It is written 
in an easy, descriptive style, and without presupposing mathe- 
matical knowledge beyond the most elementary notions of 
geometry. By far the greater part of the work is devoted to a 
description of the fundamental principles of the science; next in 
order comes the exposition of well ascertained facts, while mat- 
ters that are as yet mere theories rightly receive but little atten- 
tion. The portions of the book devoted to the methods and 
results of astrophysical research are very limited, amounting to 
less than five per cent of the whole, or much less than would be 
expected in view of the prominence which has attached to this 
department of the subject. 

The book contains nearly 350 illustrations, most of them very 
good. They may be roughly grouped as follows: Six colored 
plates, some sixty astronomical drawings and celestial photo- 
graphs, some twenty illustrations of instruments and observa- 
tories, and many diagrams. These diagrams constitute a charac- 
teristic feature of the book. In most cases, words, phrases or 
sentences are printed along the lines forming them, so as to make 
their meaning clear without further explanation, though such 
explanation is also given in the text. Another characteristic 
feature is the detailed directions for the construction and use of 
simple apparatus to- enable the student to derive from his own 
observations, in a rough way, to be sure, but correct in principle, 
approximate values of some of the more easily obtainable astro- 
nomical constants. 

While the book, as a whole, is a good one, and contains a large 
amount of well-selected and accurate information concerning 
astronomical matters, there are, as may be expected in first edi- 
tions, some blemishes that appear in the course of a critical 
examination. One of these is an occasional incompleteness of 
description, marring somewhat the effectiveness of the exposi- 
tion. This, in general, is not serious, and in part seems to result 
from the plan of the work, in that elementary explanations are 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 107 

often first given, to be followed later by more complete ones. 
Such, however, is not always the case. For example, the 
account of Talcott's method for finding the latitude (p. 85) care- 
fully omits the fundamental principle of the method. We also 
notice the occasional inclusion of matter wholly irrelevant to the 
subject of the paragraph in which it is given. This, of course, 
is of little consequence, and merely indicates imperfection in the 
order of arrangement. Some of the statements made in relation 
to the surfaces of the planets, particularly some of those giving 
interpretations in explanation of the phenomena observed on 
Mars, are not likely to pass unchallenged. The last sentence on 
page 121, viz., * 'About the 20th March, at mean noon, when the 
fictitious sun is crossing the equator, etc.,*' reads strangely, in 
view of the fact that this ** fictitious sun*' (p. iii) travels in the 
equator. Chapter II, which is probably the weakest in the book, 
contains some loose description, some poor diagrams and some 
erroneous defiriltions. The diagrams on pp. 35 and 37 bid defi- 
ance to the laws of projective geometry, and it is difficult to 
imagine how they can be otherwise than confusing to the student 
On page 37, the ecliptic is defined in such a way as to be a fixed 
circle in reference to the horizon, and on the next page the 
equinoxes in such a way as to be fixed points in the meridian. 
The logical consequence of these definitions would be that the 
solstices are fixed points in the horizon, coincident with the east 
and west points. The definitions referred to are as follows : 
** Imagine the equator system pivoted at the two opposite points 
where equator and meridian cross. Then carry the north pole 
towards the west 23)^°. The equator will then have assumed 
a position inclined by an angle of 23^^° to its former position. 
It will, in short, have become the ecliptic. . . . Upper of 
the two pivotal points upon which the equator turned about 
meridian is called the Vernal Equinox^ or First of Aries ; its 
opposite point, 180° away, the Autumnal Equinox V These 
definitions, as they stand, are wholly inadmissible. They lack 
completeness and accuracy of statement, and do much to accen- 
tuate the looseness of ^pression prevalent in the chapter contain- 
ing them. W. J. HussEY. 

May 30, 1898. 



io8 Publications of the 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR JULY AND AUGUST. 

1898. 



Bv Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



July. 

Eclipses, There will be two eclipses during the month, but 
neither of them will be visible in the United States. The first, on 
July 3d, is a partial eclipse of the Moon, not quite total. It will 
be visible over nearly all of the eastern hemisphere. The second 
is an annular eclipse of the Sun on July i8th. The path of the 
annulus is entirely in the South Pacific ocean. It will be seen 
as a partial eclipse in the southern part of South America. 

The Earth is in aphelion on the morning of July 2d. 

Mercury is an evening star, having passed superior conjunc- 
tion on the morning of June 30th, and during the latter half of 
the month it sets a little more than an hour after sunset; so it 
may be seen under good conditions of weather. It makes a very 
close approach to the first magnitude star a Leonis (^Regulus) on 
the morning of July 27 th during daylight in the United States, 
but the planet and star will not be far apart on the evenings of July 
26th and 27th. 

Venus is an evening star setting about two hours after the 
Sun. It moves 33° east and 13° south during the month through 
the constellation Leo^ passing i]4^ north of Regulus on July 13th. 
Its apparent distance east of the Sun increases 3°, but on account 
of its great southern motion the interval between sunset and the 
setting of the planet diminishes about a quarter of an hour. 

Mars rises earlier than before, only a little after midnight 
toward the close of the month. It moves 21° east and 5° north 
in the constellation Taurus, and on July 31st is about 5° north of 
the first magnitude red star Aldebaran, a Tauri, It distance from 
the Earth on July 15th is about 160,000,000 miles, and it will be 
nearly twice as bright as it was during January. 

Jupiter is still conspicuous in the southwestern sky in the even- 
ing. It moves 3*^ east and south in the western part of the con- 
stellation Virgo, 

Saturn is in good position to be seen until after midnight. It 
moves about 1° westward, and is about 7° north and a little west 
of the first magnitude red star Antares, a Scorpii. The outer 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 109 

minor axis of the rings is just about the same as the diameter of 
the planet. 

Uranus is in the same neighborhood as Saturn, about half an 
hour ahead. It moves about 1° westward in the constellation 
Scorpio. It may be found by its proximity to the third magni- 
tude star )8 Scorpiu On July ist it is about 2° west of the star. 

Neptune is a morning star in the eastern part of Taurus, 

August. 

Mercury is an evening star and comes to greatest east elonga- 
tion on August 9th. It remains far enough from the Sun to be 
be seen under good conditions of weather through the first half 
of the month, but during the latter half it rapidly approaches the 
Sun, and it will reach inferior conjunction on September 5th. 

Venus is still an evening star. The interval between its set- 
ting and sunset diminishes about 10" during the month, although 
it does not reach its greatest eastern distance from the Sun until 
nearly the close of September. It moves 30*^ east and 15° south 
during the month from the constellation Leo into Virgo, and on 
August 30th passes about 1° north of the first magnitude star 
Spica, a Virginis. 

Mars rises before midnight at the end of August. It moves 
about 21° eastward during the month in the constellation Taurus, 
Its distance from the Earth diminishes 20,000,000 miles during 
the month and at the end is less than 140,000,000. Its brightness 
will perceptibly increase. 

Jupiter is rapidly approaching conjunction with the Sun, and 
at the end of the month can be seen for only a short time after 
sunset. It moves about 5° east and 2° south in the western part 
of Virgo, 

Satur7i is still in fair position for observation, not setting until 
late in the evening. It is in quadrature with the Sun on August 
29th. It is nearly stationary in the constellation Scorpi but after 
August 9th moves a fraction of a degree eastward. 

Uranus is also nearly stationary in the same constellation, 
about 2° west of the third magnitude star /3 Scorpii, 

Neptune rises before midnight at the end of the month. 



no Publications of the 

Phases of the Moon, P, S. T. 





Full 


Moon, 




July 3, 


H. M. 

I 12 P. M. 








Last 


Quarter, 


July 10, 


8 43 A. M. 








New 


Moon, 




July 18, 


II 47 A. M. 








First 


Quarter, 


July 26, 


5 40 A. M. 








Full 


Moon, 




Aug. I, 


8 29 P. M. 








Last 


Quarter, 


Aug. 8, 


10 13 P. M. 








New 


Moon, 




Aug. 17, 


2 34 A. M. 








First 


Quarter, 


Aug. 24, 


12 32 P. M. 








Full 


Moon, 




Aug. 31, 


4 51 A. M. 












The Sun. 










R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


1898. 


H. M. 





' 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. 


H. 


July I. 


6 42 


+ 23 


6 


4 41 A. w 


[. 12 4 P.M. 


7 


27 P.M. 


II. 


7 23 


+ 22 


5 


4 46 


12 5 


7 


24 


21. 


8 3 


+ 20 


26 


4 53 . 


12 6 


7 


19 


Aug. I. 


8 47 


+ 17 


58 


5 3 


12 6 


7 


9 


II. 


9 25 


+ 15 


12 


5 13 


12 5 


6 


57 


21. 


10 2 


+ 12 


2 


5 22 


12 3 


6 


44 


31. 


10 39 


+ 8 


33 


5 31 


12 OM. 


6 


29 








Mercury. 








July I. 


6 49 


+ 24 


24 


4 40 A. M. 


12 10 P.M. 


7 40 P.M. 


II. 


8 17 


+ 21 


35 


5 43 


I 


8 


17 


21. 


9 29 


+ 16 


8 


36 


I 32 


8 


28 


Au^. I. 


10 28 


+ 9 


16 


7 16 


I 48 


8 


20 


II. 


II 5 


+ 3 


35 


7 33 


I 45 


7 57 


21. 


II 22 


— 


3 


7 22 


I 22 


7 


22 


31. 


II 9 


+ 


41 


6 28 
Venus. 


12 30 


6 


32 


July I. 


9 6 


+ 18 


30 


7 23 A.M. 


2 28 P.M. 


9 33 PM- 


II. 


9 53 


+ »4 


38 


7 45 


2 35 


9 


25 


21. 


10 37 


+ 10 


10 


8 5 


2 40 


9 


15 


Aug. I. 


II 23 


+ 4 49 


8 27 


2 43 


8 


59 


II. 


12 4 


— 


16 


8 45 


2 44 


8 


43 


21. 


12 44 


' 5 


21 


9 3 


2 45 


8 


27 


31. 


13 24 


— 10 


16 


9 20 
Mars. 


2 45 


8 


10 


July I. 


3 2 


+ 16 


16 


I 26 A.M. 


8 23 A.M. 


3 


20 P.M. 


II. 


3 30 


+ 18 


14 


I 9 


8 13 


3 


17 


21. 


3 59 


+ 19 


54 


12 51 


8 2 


3 


13 


Aug. I. 


4 30 


+ 21 


22 


12 34 


7 50 


3 


6 


II. 


4 58 


+ 22 


22 


12 18 


7 39 


3 





21. 


5 26 


-^ 23 


3 


12 4 


7 27 


2 


50 


31. 


5 54 


+ 23 


26 


II 50 P.M. 


7 15 


2 


40 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 1 1 1 

Jupiter. 



July 
Aug. 


r. 

I. 

31. 


12 
12 
12 


10 
24 
44 


+ 21 II 30 A.M. 

- I 20 9 47 

.- 3 31 8 17 
Sa turn. 


5 31 P.M. 
3 43 
2 5 


II 
9 
7 


32 P.M. 

39 

53 


July 
Aug. 


I. 

I. 

31. 


16 
16 
16 


21 
16 
18 


- 19 38 4 50 P.M. 

- 19 33 2 44 

- 19 43 12 47 

Uranus, 


9 41 P.M. 

7 35 
5 38 


2 

12 
10 


32 A.M. 

26 

29 P.M. 


July 
Aug. 


I. 

I. 

31- 


15 
15 
15 


52 
49 
50 


— 20 4 23 P.M. 

— 19 55 2 19 

— 19 58 12 22 

Neptune 


9 12 P.M. 

7 8 
5 II 


2 
II 
10 


I A.M. 

57 PM. 



July 
Aug. 


I. 

I. 

31. 


5 
5 
5 


29 
34 
37 


+ 21 59 3 32A.M. 
+ 22 I I 35 
4-22 2 II 39 P.M. 


10 51 A.M. 

8 54 
6 58 


6 

4 

2 


10 P.M. 

13 

17 



Eclipses of Jupiter s Satellites, P. S. T. 

(Off right-hand limb, as seen in an inverting telescope.) 



I. R. 


July 


2. 


H. M. 

7 47 P- M- 


11. R. 


Aug. 


7- 


H. M. 

8 6 P. M 


III. D. 




5. 


9 40 p. M. 


lll.D. 




10. 


6 38 p. M 


11. R. 




6. 


8 27 p. M. 


III. R. 




10. 


7 51 P. M 


I. R. 




9. 


9 42 p. M. 


I.R. 




17- 


8 14 p. M 


I. R. 




18. 


6 6 p. M. 


I, R. 




26. 


4 37 p. M 


I. R, 




25- 


8 I p. M. 










11. R. 




31. 


5 31 P- M. 











(TWENTY- NINTH) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 
COMETMEDAL. 

The Comet-Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 

has been awarded to C. D. Perrine, Assistant Astronomer in 

the Lick Observatory, for his discovery of an unexpected comet 

on March 20, 1898. 

The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

J. M. Schaeberle, 

Wm. M. Pierson, 

Chas. Burckhalter. 
May 20, 1898. 



NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY.* 



Prepared by Members of the Staff. 



Photograph of the Total Eclipse of the Sun, 
January 22, 1898. 

[See Frontispiece.] 

The original negative from which the eclipse plat^, shown in 
our frontispiece, was made, was taken by Professor Campbell 
with the Floyd telescope, exposure time five seconds. 

Those who are familiar with the difficulty of making even 
satisfactory contact positives from eclipse negatives, need not be 
told that a large part of the detail shown by the original is 
necessarily lost in the reproduction. A notion of the general 
form of the corona only can be gained from the print; the 
details must be studied on the original negatives. 

Changes in the Staff of the Lick Observatory. 

Professor James E. Keeler arrived at Mt. Hamilton and 
assumed his duties as Director of the Lick Observatory on 
June 1st. Professor Campbell returned to the Observatory from 
his expedition to India on the same day. 

A note concerning Professor Schaeberle's resignation will 
be found on another page. 

Electric Illumination of the Micrometers at the 
Lick Observatory. 

For nearly two years and a half, electric illumination has been 
used for the micrometers of both the .12- and 36-inch telescopes, 
and it has proved so satisfactory that oil illumination is no longer 
in use except on rare occasions and then only in case of emergency. 
The current is supplied by a storage battery, five cells of which 
are ordinarily used on a lamp at a time, giving about ten volts, 
one-half ampere and one-half candle power. The battery is 

• Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California. 



114 Publications of the 

charged from time to time, as may be necessar}', by means of a 
dynamo. 

In each case the electric lamp is fitted to the end of a small 
wooden cylinder of the same size as the oil lamp previously used. 
This cylinder takes the place of the oil lamp in the apparatus 
attached to the micrometer, no. change in this being made. Wires 
run from the lamp through the cylinder to a switch within easy 
reach of the observer at the eye-end of the telescope. The wires 
from the battery are brought up to the pier, where a cable is 
attached of sufficient length to reach any part of the dome. A 
plug at the end of the cable completes the circuit at the switch. 

This arrangement is very satisfactory, and it has decided 
advantages over oil illumination. It is perfecdy under control, 
any degree of illumination of the wires being easily obtained. It 
may be instantly extinguished by turning the switch or by with- 
drawing the plug, and as readily turned on. It is not affected 
by wind and there is no dripping oil. It may be completely 
covered up, preventing the escape of extraneous light, which is 
especially desirable in observing exceedingly faint objects. And 
it takes but a moment to change to the oil lamp in the case of 
emergency. W. J. Hussey. 

The Lowell Observatory Catalogue of Double Stars. 

A most important contribution to double-star astronomy is 
Dr. T. J. J. See's catalogue of ** Discoveries and Measures of 
Double. and Multiple Stars in the Southern Heavens,'* recently 
published in the Astronomical Journal, The catalogue contains 
the positions for 1900.0, and measures of the position-angle and 
distance of 500 new stars between the limits 20° and 65** South 
Declination, which were found by Dr. See and Mr. Cogshall 
with the 24-inch telescope of the Lowell Observatory during the 
sixteen months ending December 31. 1897. The components of 
122 of the stars are separated by less than i", and in many of 
the wider pairs one component is very faint. With respect to 
the proportion of close and difficult stars contained, the list there- 
fore takes a high rank. In the course of the work, 500 stars 
previously known were measured also,* and. Dr. See states, 
more than 100,000 stars were carefully examined. 

It is to be regretted that the magnitude of the undertaking 



* Measures to be published later in A. N. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 115 

prevented the carrying out of the original plan of measuring each 
star on three different nights. Nearly three-fifths of the number 
were passed with two observations made on one night only and by 
one observer only. One fears that the positions resulting from 
such measures, though * * made in a manner as independent as 
possible, ' ' will not be sufficiently reliable to make it certain that 
differences between these and future measures are due to motion 
in the stars. For, as noted above, many of the stars are difficult, 
and the catalogue contains a number of instances of discordances 
in the measure of a star by the same observer on different nights, 
amounting in some cases to from i" to 3" in a mean distance of 
8" or less» and occasionally to 10®, and even more, in position 
angle. We must also acknowledge that we cannot understand 
why some discordant measures are rejected (e. g. A, 42, \ 112), 
while others, equally discordant (e. g. A, 76, \ 170) are given 
full weight. 

It is to be hoped that Dr. See may soon find time — even at 
the cost of delaying the completion of his survey of the southern 
heavens — to recur to the more promising of those stars in the 
present catalogue which were measured on one night only, and, 
by additional measures, place the present position of the compo- 
nents beyond doubt; lor it is highly probable that a number of 
these stars will show rapid motion. R. G. Aitken. 

Changes in the American Ephemeris. 

In the preface to the American Ephemeris for 1900, just 
received, Professor Harkness states that certain changes of 
importance have been introduced in the volume. ** First, the 
constant of precession for the epoch 1900.0 has been changed 
from 50". 2638 to 50". 2482; the constant of nutation for the 
same epoch has been changed from 9". 2231 to 9". 21; the con- 
stant of aberration has been changed from 20". 4451 to 20". 47; 
and the constant of solar parallax from 8". 848 to 8".8o. Second, 
Professor Newcomb*s tables of the Sun, Mercury and Ventis, 
and Dr. Hill's final printed (as distinguished from his provi- 
sional manuscript) tables of Saturn have been substituted for the 
tables which were formerly used. Third, the 175 additional fixed 
stars, whose apparent Right Ascensions only were heretofore 
given, have been transferred to the regular list, which now con- 
tains their complete apparent places throughout the year.'* 

The volume, it seems, was prepared entirely under Professor 
Newcomb*s supervision, before his retirement in 1897. 



ii6 Publications of the 

The changes in the astronomical constants above noted are 
made in conformity with the decisions of the Paris Conference 
on Fundamental Stars, held in May, 1896. They have also been 
introduced in the English Nautical Almanac for 1901, recently 
issued, and will be introduced in the Berliner Astronomisches 
Jahrbuch and the Connaissance des Temp? for the same year. 

Considerable opposition to these changes at this time has 
developed among astronomers; and those who are interested may 
find a vigorous discussion of the subject in recent numbers of the 
Astronomical Jour ncd, R. G. A. 

Solar Observations in 1897. 

In the AstrophysicaJ Journal for March 1898, Professor P. 
Tacchini gives a r6sum6 of the solar observations made at the 
Royal Observatory of the Roman College during the second half 
of 1897. From his tables it is seen that the spots have con- 
tinued to decrease, particularly in area, while the prominences 
have remained practically stationary in activity. The promi- 
nences have continued to show themselves in nearly all zones — 
with a maximum of frequency between the equator and — 20°. 
Two secondary maxima, however, occurred in the zones di 40** to 
it 60°. The spots were confined to regions within 20*^ of the 
equator. One eruption was observed on November 23d. A very 
bright jet suddenly formed on the west limb at latitude -j- 8^.2 and 
rose to the height of 168'' (about 15,000 miles), disappearing in 
twenty minutes. R. G. A. 

New Elements of Comet b 1898. 

I have derived the following elements, using my observations 
of March 19th, 22d, and 26th. 

T= 1898 March 16^79123 

0)= 46° 57' II".6^ ^ ,. . 

o 2 o f Ecliptic and 

0= 262 18 53 .1 > w ^ y coo 

( Mean Equinox of 1808.0. 
t= 72 21 14 .4 ) ^ ^ 

log g = 0.040024. 

Residuals for the middle place, observed — computed 
A A' cos/3' +o".3 
A/}' -0.3 

C. D. Perrtne. 

Mt. Hamilton, April 5, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, n? 

Elliptic Elements of Comet b, 1898, and a Certain 
Similarity to the Comets of 1684, and 1785 I. 

Using the following observations of this comet: — 

1898. Mt. Hamilton M. T. App. a App. < 

March 19, 16^ 47- 21* 21*' i8» 36-.89 + 16° 43' 23".3 
April 8, 16 19 7 22 41 0.88 +36 20 50.5 
April 28, 15 26 54 o 23 20.68 +49 41 32 .4 

I obtained the following system of parabolic elements: — 
T = 1S98 March 17.35984 Gr. m. t 

co= 47° 36' 8".o^ _ ,. . , 

^ , ^ f Ecliptic and 

0=262 32 26 .3 > .- _ r 

^ ( Mean Equinox 1898.0 

z = 72 26 50 .4 J ^ ^ 

log q = 0.040820 
The residuals from these elements for the middle place being — 
Observed — Computed, A A' cos )8' — 14". 7 
A )8' + 22 .4 

From the same observations I then obtained the following 
system of elliptic elements: — 

Epoch 1898, March, 20.0 Gr. m. t. 
M= 0° o' 34". I 

> 1898.0 



0) = 47 14 


48 


.8 


= 262 24 


42 


.9 


1 = 72 32 


55 


.8 


log^= 0.039179 






- a= 1.656386 






** e= 9.989386 






** /A= 1.065428 






/A= ii".62595 






* 77° 23' 3". 5 







Period, 305.208 years. 

The residuals for the three places used are: — 

O-C. « a 

-i".2 4- I". I 

— o .3 - I .2 

+ .5 + I .1 

The brightness of the comet remained almost unchanged for 
several weeks. The comet has been losing its light more rapidly 
the past ten days. It still retains its stellar nucleus; but this, too, 
is fading slowly, and is not brighter now than 10 magnitude. 



ii8 Publications of the 

Since ascertaining that this comet is periodic I have been led 
to notice more particularly a similarity which exists between its 
orbit and those of 1684 and 1785 I. Below are the approximate 
elements of the three comets for comparison: — 

1684 330°. 3 268° 2 65^.4 0.958 

1785 I 205 .7 264 .2 70 .2 1. 143 

1898 b 47 .6 262 .5 72 .4 1094 

The agreement of the positions and dimensions (O, ;, and ^) 
of the three orbits is sufficiently close to warrant the belief that 
the three comets belong at least to the same family. The differ- 
ences in 0) are very large, too large to believe at first sight that the 
orbits all belong to the same comet — unless the discrepancies 
can be satisfactorily accounted for. It is to be noticed, however, 
that the variations in w are in the same direction. The intervals 
of 10 1 and 113 years do not agree well with the period found 
for the present comet, on an assumption that all three are 
appearances of the same object. The period of 305 years for 
the present comet must be considered uncertain to a large degree, 
however. All things considered, it looks more as if all three 
comets were members of one family than that they were appear- 
ances of the same body. 

The comet of 1684 was discovered by Bianchini at Rome, 
and was visible to the naked eye. It was visible only a short 
time, the observations extending over the period July 1-17. only. 

The comet of 1785 I was discovered by Messier at Paris. 
While it does not appear to have been so bright as the one o 
1684, it was observed for some five weeks. C. D. Perrine. 

Mt. Hamilton, Cal.. May 9, 1898. 

CoMETARY Discoveries. 

The total number of comets observed sufficiently well during 
the last thirty years (i 868-1 897) for their orbits to be calculated 
amounts to one hundred and thirty-five, but of these thirty-seven 
were returns of periodic comets which had been previously seen. 

The average rate of apparition of new comets has, therefore, 
been 3.27 annually, and of new and periodic comets, 4.5 annually. 
In 1873, 1881, 1892, and 1896, seven comets were discovered; 
in 1872 not one was observed; and in 1875 the only two comets 
which appeared were known ones. The best months for the 
discovery of these objects appear to be July and August. 



January, 


22 


February, 


21 


March, 


24 


April, 


27 


May, 


20 


June, 


22 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 119 

Of three hundred and twenty-eight comets discovered between 
the years 1782 and 1897, inclusive, the following are the numbers 
in the various months: — 

July, 37 

August, 43 
September, 25 
October, 26 
November, 34 
December, 27 

These figures include every description of those objects. Dur- 
ing^ the sixty years from 1782 to 1841 there were eighty-seven 
comets, averaging 1.45 per year; but during the fifty-six years 
from 1842 to 1 897 there were two hundred and forty-one comets, 
averaging 4.30 per year. W. F. Denning. 

Knowledge, April, 1898. 

The Variable Star Z Centaur r and the Nebula 
N. G. C. 5253. 

In December, 1895, ^^^ Harvard College Observatory an- 
nounced that from an examination of the Draper Memorial pho- 
tographs taken at Arequipa, Peru, Mrs. Fleming had discov- 
ered a **new star** in the constellation Centaurus, The variable 
character of this star has since been fully established, and it has 
received the definitive name Z Centaiiri, 

No trace of the star has been found on the fifty-five photo- 
graphs taken from May, 1889, ^o June, 1895, but it appears on 
those of July, 1895, having a brightness of 7.2 magnitude, and 
on that of December 19, 1895, as 11 magnitude. 

In the latter part of December, Professor Campbell estimated 
its magnitude at 11. 2. During the two months following it 
decreased in brightness very slightly. On June 11, 1896, I found 
that it had decreased to 14.4 magnitude. Fifteen days later it 
was 15^, and on July 9, nearly 16. Since then I have looked 
for it every month or two when within reach, and on all these 
occasions have found it either invisible in the large telescope or 
not brighter than the i6th magnitude. During this time, when 
visible, the star has been difficult on account of the faint nebula 
surrounding it. This nebula, when seen under the best condi- 
tions, has every appearance of being a part of the nebula N. G. C. 



I20 Publications of the 

5253. Regarding it so, the latter nebula, as seen in the large 
telescope, may be described as having somewhat the same form 
as the Great Nebula in Andromeda as seen in a very small tele- 
scope. There are, however, these important differences: N. G. C. 
5253 has a relatively stronger central condensation, and its ends 
are not equally bright, the south preceding end being many times 
brighter than the north following end in which Z Cciitauri is 
situated. W. J. Hussev. 

**A Remarkable Object in Perseus.'* 

In the Wolsingkam Observatory Circular, No. 46, Rev. T. E. 
EsPiN announces the discovery of **A remarkable object, hitherto 
unrecorded, on January 16, and seen on three other nights.'* He 
describes it as elliptical, one degree long, major axis 336°, and 
rather resembling some obscuring medium than a nebula. 

At the first opportunity after the receipt of the notice of 
this discovery at the Lick Observatory, I obtained photographs 
of this region with the Crocker Telescope. The exposures were 
two hours in length, and the nights first-class. My plates show 
an elliptical area largely devoid of stars in the position given by 
Mr. EsPiN for his object. This area corresponds exactly tp a 
like one on the DM charts. My plates also show other areas 
devoid of stars, but none so large or so symmetrical as that 
referred to, and it is well known that many such areas abound in 
the Milky Way. E. F. Coddington. 

May 20, 1898. 

A Correction. 

It seems desirable to correct a statement contained in the 
May issue of Popular Astronomy, 

My resignation from the Lick Observatory takes effect at the 
close of the present month, and not one year hence, as stated in 
the above-mentioned publication. 

The Regents of the University of Califomina urged me to 
withdraw my resignation, and offered me a year's leave of absence 
with full pay, but I could not accept their kind offer, as I feel 
satisfied that my present course is the proper one for me to take. 

In justice to Professor Keeler, I desire to say, that had the 
Regents elected any other man as director my action would have 
been exacdy the same. J. M. Schaeberle. 

Lick Observatory, 

University of California. May 11, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 121 

Recent Changes in the Double Star 02 341. 

I have recently examined 02 341 on three good nights with 
the 36-inch telescope without obtaining any indication of its 
being double. This result was wholly unexpected. All the 
measures of the star from the first ones in 1846, to the last ones 
in 1886, are in fairly good agreement in indicating that the com- 
ponents are. relatively fixed. Previous observers have generally 
estimated the magnitudes the same, 7.0 or 7.5, and the average 
of the distances given by the measures from 1846 to 1886 is 
between o".4 and o".5. At this distance, on a good night, the 
star would be an easy object for the large telescope. The star 
has closed up since 1886, and this shows that the motion since 
that time has been rapid. It also proves that thcf star is a binary, 
and it is not difficult to imagine such a disposition of the elements 
of its orbit as will account for the apparent fixity of the com- 
ponents during the period mentioned. For illustration, if we 
arbitrarily assume the following: system of elements: — 



T = 


= 1898.33 


O: 


= 90° 


ft) : 


= 90° 


i •• 


= 90° 


e ■■ 


= 0.75 


a 


= o".75 


H- 


= 1^.5 


Period 


, 240 years; 



and compute the positions for the dates of observation and com- 
pare them with the observed places, we shall obtain the residuals 
given in connection with the observations below. The observa- 
tions that I have found are as follows : — 



Date. 


Position 
angle. 


Distance. 


No. of 
nights. 




Residuals. 
O-C 


Observer. 


1846.09 


93°.o 


o".53 


3 


+ 3^ 


^0 


+ 0" 


09 Otto Struve 


1852.27 


95 .5 


.52 


3 


+ 5 


•5 


+ 


.05 Otto Struve 


1866.32 


88 .5 


.6est 


. 3^1 


— I 


•5 


-fo 


.10 Dembowski 


187I.61 


90 .7 




3.0 


+ 


.7 




Dembowski 


1878.28 


84 .0 


.38 


3 


-6 


.0 


— 


.09 SCHIAPARELLI 


1883.64 


91 .4 


.40 


3 


+ I 


.4 


— 


.02 Perrotin 


1884.55 


91 .2 


.45 


3 


+ 1 


.2 


4-0 


.04 Perrotin 


1886.39 


86 .3 


.52 


7 


-3 


•7 


4-0 


.21 Engelmann 


1898.32 


Single. 


3 





.0 





00 Hussev 



122 Publications of the 

It may be noted that Dembowski, Schiaparelli and Engel- 
MANN observed with small telescopes, of 7J4 and 8 inches aper- 
ture, and that the star must have been very difficult for them. 
Dembowski did not measure the distance, and estimated it on 
one night only. Schiaparelli' s largest position-angle differs 
17°. 8 from his smallest, and Engelmann's largest 3o°.7 from 
his smallest. These discordances bear witness to the difficulty of 
the star for these observers, and may account for the magnitude 
of some of the residuals given above. 

It is evident that no reliable system of elements for this star 
can now be obtained. The necessary data for the determination 
of the orbit does not exist It will be necessary to wait, at least, 
until the star becomes measurable again. The elements above 
are given merely to show that the long period of apparent fixity 
of the components and their present closeness or singleness are 
not incompatible, but that they find a ready explanation in the 
binary character of the star. W. J. Hussey. 

May 24, 1898. 

New Elements of Comet b 1898, (Perrine). 

From my observations of March 21st, April 8th, and April 
22d, I have computed the following elements of this comet: — 

T= 1898 March 17.37195 Gr. M. T. 

0,= 47^3/ 6".2J E^ii i,3„dMean 

'^ \ -^ [ Equinox of 1898.0. 
i = 72 26 56 .1 j ^ ^ 

iogq= 0.040916 

O— C: AA'cos/}'=— 4".2, ^P' = +i2".^ 

From the same observations I also computed three other sys- 
tems of elements, using different values of the ratio of the cur- 
tate distances. The four systems of elements are nearly the 
same. The residuals given above cannot be materially improved; 
their ratio may be changed, but the sum of their squares cannot 
be sensibly diminished. A careful examination of the data does 
not reveal any error to which the magnitude of the residuals may 
be attributed. These circumstances, taken in connection with the 
fact that the comet has a well-defined nucleus, making accurate 
observations of it comparatively easy, lead to the conclusion that 
the true elements of the orbit are not parabolic. W. J. HussEV. 
April 28, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Paxific. 123 

A New Large Nebula in Ursa Major, 

While examining some negatives which I obtained with the 
Crocker telescope on April 17 and 20, 1898, I discovered a large 
faint nebula not given in N. G. C, nor in the supplement to 
N. G. C, nor have I been able to find it in any of the more 
recent catalogues. 

On the night of April 22d, Professor Hussey and I observed 
it with the 1 2-inch telescope, and found the position of its brightest 
condensation to be 

a= 10^ 18"" 7' 
8= +69° lo'.i 
referred to the mean equinox of 1860.0. 

The telescope shows it to be large, irregular, very faint, and 
composed of a number of condensations. 

On May 19th I obtained an additional photograph of this 
region with an exposure of four hours. This shows the different 
condensations to be connected by faint nebulous matter, and the 
whole to extend over an area fully 4' in width and 1 2' in length. 

E. F. CODDINGTON. 

May 25, 1898. 

The Rumford Medal. 

* * At the annual meeting of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences held in Boston on May i ith, the report of the Rum- 
ford Committee, which was there presented, contained the follow- 
ing important statement and recommendation: — 

The committee has also considered at length the question of 
an award of the Rumford medal. The claims of various investi- 
gators and inventors have been considered with great care, and 
more than one among them appeared to be deserving of such 
recognition. After prolonged consideration, the Rumford Com- 
mittee has voted at two separate sessions (in accordance with 
long-established custom) to recommend to the Academy an award 
of the medal to Professor James E. Keeler, now Director of 
the Lick Observatory, for his application of the spectroscope to 
astronomical problems, and especially for his investigations of 
the proper motions of the nebulae, and the physical constitution 
of the rings of the planet Saturn, by the use of that instrument. 

The report of the committee was presented by the chairman, 
Professor Cross, who explained at some length the particular 
nature and merit of the investigations of Professor Keeler for 



124 Publications of the 

which the award of the Rumford premium was proposed, after 
which the Academy voted unanimously to adopt the recommenda- 
tion of the committee. 

The last previous award of the medal was to Mr. T. A. Edison, 
in 1895. Among others who have recently received it are Profes- 
sors Pickering, Michelson, Langlev, and Rowland.*' — 
Science, May 27, 1898. 

Stellar Parallax. 

From Herr Bruno Peter's results, published in A, N. 3483, 
of a series of observations made with the Leipzig heliometer during 
the years 1887-92, we have taken the following list of values for 
parallax and proper motion: — 



Star. 


P.M. 


Parallax. 


17 Cassioi>eice 


I". 20 


+ o".i8 


fi CcLSsiopeice 


3 .74 


+ .13 


Lai, 15290 


I .97 


+ .02 


LaL 181 15 prec. 




-h .18 


LaL 18 II 5 fol. 




+ .18 


LaL 181 15 mean 


I .69 


+ .18 


^ Ursce majoris 


I .11 


+ .09 


A, CE, 10603 


I .45 


+ .17 


pComa 


I .20 


+ .11 


31 AquilcB 


.96 


-ho .06 


Bradley 3077 


2 .08 
Erratum. 


+ .13 

R. G. A. 


In No. 61 of these Publications, p. 


78, line I, word 2, 


date read data. 







for 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 125 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 
held at the lick observatory, june ii, 1898. 

President Aitken presided. A quorum was present. The minutes 
of the last meeting were approved. The following members were duly 
elected:— 

List of Members Elected June ii, 1898. 

Mr. Fred. R. French { ^ M^.^' ^'^^ "^"' Brockton, 

Mr. C. J. Goodrich Robinson, Brown Co., Kansas. 

It was, upon motion 

Resolved^ That the Publication Committee be empowered to furnish reprints of 
articles free of cost to persons contributing by request. 

The name of Professor James E. Kbeler, Director of the Lick 
Observatory, was added to the Comet-Medal Committee, to date from 
June I, 1898. Professor J. M. Schaeberle retiring. 

The Committee on the Comet-Medal is now composed of Messrs. 
James E. Keeler {ex-officio), Wm. M. Pierson, Chas. Burckh alter. 

Adjourned. 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Astronomical Society 
OF THE Pacific, held at the Lick Observ- 
atory, June ii, 1898. 

President Aitken presided. The minutes of the last meeting were 
approved. The Secretary read the names of the new members elected 
at the Directors* meeting. 

The following papers were presented: — 

X. a Variable SUr Atlas, by Father J. G. Hagan. 

2. On the Causes of the Sun's Equatorial Acceleration and the Sun Spot Period, by Mr. 

E. J. WlLCZYNSKI. 

3. Review on Professor Todd's "New Astronomy," by Professor W. J. Hossey. 

4. Observations o( Mira Ceti, by Miss Ross O'Halloran. 

5. The Red Stars, V Hydrae and 277 of Birming^ham's Catalogue, by Miss Rose O'Hal* 

loran. 

6. Planetary Phenomena for July and August, 1898, by Professor Malcolm McNeill. 

7. Profenor J AMES E. Keuler exhibited photographs of the Spectra of Stars obtained at 

the Allegheny Observatory. 

Adjourned. 



126 Publications of the Astronomical Society ^ &c, 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. R. G. AiTKEN Prtsiden.r 

Mr. C. B. Hill First Vice-President 

Miss R. O'Halloran Second Vice-President 

Mr. F. H. Searrs . . * Third Vice-President 

Mr. C. D. Pbrrinb \ o.-^/^„v, 

Mr. F. R. ZiBL 1 • Secretaries 

Mr. F. R. ZiEL . . Treasurer 

Board of Directors ~^\^s>%x%. Aitkbn, Hill, Kbblbr, Molbra. Miss O'Halloran, Messrs. 

Pbrrinb, Pibrson, Sbarbs, St. John, von Gbloern, Ziel. 

Finance Committee — Messrs. Pibr>on, von Gbldbrn, Hill. 

Committee on Publication — Messrs. Aitkbn, Sbarbs, von Gbldbrn. 

Library Committee— Mes&rs. Sbarbs, Gbo. C. Edwards, Miss O'Halloran. 

Committee OH tfu Comet-Medai—Messn. Schabbbrlb {ex-officio)^ Pibrson, Burckhalter. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee— }Au Ruthvbn W. Pikb. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Executive Committee— M.T, Francisco Rodriguez Rev. 



NOTICE. 

The attention of new members is called to Article Vlll of the By-Laws, which provides that 
the annua) subscription, paid on eleaion, covers the ca/endar year only Subsequent annual 
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It is intended that each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the Pu6- 
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the Publications is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
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The titles of papers for reading should be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
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PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHLY. 
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Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. X. San Francisco, California, August i, 1898. No. 63. 

A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE LICK OBSERVATORY- 
CROCKER ECLIPSE EXPEDITION TO INDIA. 



By W. W. Campbell. 

The editor of this journal having requested me to furnish an 
account of the recent Lick Observatory Eclipse Expedition to 
India, I am glad to comply, on the understanding that no 
attempt shall be made to include the scientific results. While 
the expedition met with abundant success, the photographs have 
not yet been studied in the least. With practically every sum- 
mer night clear for current observational work, the critical 
investigation of the eclipse plates must await the cloudy winter 
weather. 

It has been the policy of the Lick Observatory to send out 
members of its staff to secure observations on the Sun's outer 
portions during all the available total solar eclipses. The eclipse 
of January i, 1889, was observed in northern California by 
Messrs. Keeler, Barnard, Hill, and Leuschner; that of 
December 22, 1889, was observed at Cayenne, French Guiana, 
by Messrs. Burnham and Schaeberle ; that of April 16, 
1893, was observed at Mina Bronces, Chile, by Professor Schae- 
berle, and his volunteer assistants from many parts of the world. 
The Lick Observatory Expedition sent in Professor Schae- 
berle 's charge to observe the eclipse of August 9, 1896, in 
Japan, occupied four stations, but clouds obscured the Sun at all 
the stations. 

The eclipse of January 22, 1898, began at sunrise in central 
Africa. The path of the shadow moved eastward to the Indian 
Ocean, thence inclining toward the northeast across India, ending 



128 Publications of the 

at sunset in Mongolia. The duration of totality was longest in 
the Indian Ocean, 2" 26*, It decreased slowly from about 2" 5' 
on the west coast of India to about i" 20" on the northeastern 
frontier of that country. The most available points for observa- 
tions were in western India, with Bombay as the port of entry 
and base of supplies. Not only was thb region the most acces- 
sible from the well-established routes of travel, but, what is more 
important, the astronomical conditions were the most favorable. 
The altitude of the Sun would be the greatest, from 50° to 52®, 
and there was the least probability of interference from clouds. 
January is in the ** dry season" of India. The splendid report on 
the meteorology of the eclipse path prepared by the English 
Government in India showed that the weather in western India 
in January is very much like our beautifully clear weather on 
Mt. Hamilton in July and August That eclipse parties would 
be favored with clear skies was almost a certainty. In view of 
these facts, it was not considered that the great dbtance — half- 
way around the globe — was an element in the question of send- 
ing an expedition to that country. 

The late Colonel C. F. Crocker, who had so generously 
defrayed the expenses of the earlier expeditions to Cayenne and 
Japan, expressed his interest in keeping up this line of work, and 
his willingness to provide means not only to send the expedition 
to India, but also for securing a substitute at Lick Observatory 
for the absent astronomer. This magnificent offer was made only 
a few days before his untimely death. The Board of Regents, 
of which Colonel Crocker was a member, accepted the offer 
with gratitude, and authorized me to proceed to India and estab- 
lish a suitable observing-station. 

It was thought best not to interrupt my regular work of 
determining stellar velocities in the line of sight; and as my 
substitute to carry on that work did not arrive until toward the 
middle of August, there remained but two months in which to 
make preparations. Professor Holden kindly placed the instru- 
mental and mechanical resources of the Observatory at my 
disposal, so far as they could be spared. Deficiencies in our 
equipment were generously filled in by loans from friends of the 
Observatory. Thus the excellent Dallmeyer portrait-lens used 
at previous eclipses was again placed at our disposal by the 
Hon. William M. Pierson. Princeton University, through 
Professor Young, loaned us its train of four compound prisms 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 129 

and several minor pieces of apparatus. Aside from the clock in 
the 6-inch equatorial mounting, the Observatory could not well 
spare other driving-clocks. Two additional ones were impera- 
tively needed, and they were supplied by loans from Professor 
HussEY and Mr. L. C. Masten. To save time, the four new 
spectrographs designed by me for the use of the expedition were 
mounted in wood (Spanbh cedar) from my drawings, by the 
Observatory carpenter. In transit to India via Singapore and 
Colombo, these wooden mountings passed through a climate so 
moist and hot that it resembled a steam-bath. In India they 
were exposed for six weeks to the direct rays of the blazing sun, 
and to a remarkably dry atmosphere. That they worked satis- 
fcictorily is due to the quality of the wood and the excellent work- 
manship of the carpenter. 

The experience of Professor Schaeberle in Chile left no 
doubt in my mind that there would be an abundance of willing 
and able volunteer assistants in India to man all the instruments 
I could take with me. It was decided to take nine instruments, 
all for photographic use, as follows: — 

A, — Three spectrographs for recording the spectrum of the 
Sun*s edge, continuously, for a few seconds at the beginning of 
totality, and a few seconds at the end of totality, by means of 
plate-holders moving at a uniform rate by clockwork. This was 
a process which I had invented for use at the Japan eclipse, but 
personal reasons prevented me from taking that trip. As it was 
not known how bright the spectrum of the Sun's edge would be, 
I devised three instruments, whose proportions were such that 
the resulting intensities of their spectra would be very different, 
hoping that if one instrument under-exposed the spectrum, 
another would give the proper exposure. Two of these instru- 
ments were mounted on the 6-inch equatorial mounting, and the 
third on a large •* polar axis.** 

B, — A spectrograph for recording the bright coronal line 
1474 K, using light from the equatorial region of the corona both 
east and west of the Sun, to determine the displacement of the 
bright line due to motion in the line of sight, and thence to 
determine the law of rotation of the corona. Previous attempts 
to solve this problem made use of the violet calcium lines H and 
K; but as there was good reason to believe that those lines were 
not coronal, I decided to use the 1474 K line, which, to a great 
extent at least, is truly coronal. This line lies in a part of the 



I30 Publications of the 

spectrum for which photographic plates are not very sensitive. 
Furthermore, to secure the dispersion sufficient for solving this 
problem, six prisms were necessary. The loss by reflection and 
absorption in such a prism train would be very great. The 
brightness of the line itself could not be estimated, since so few 
of those who had previously observed the line had published the 
constants of their instruments. Again, it was uncertain from the 
published observations whether the line was of fairly constant 
brightness, or varied widely for different eclipses. The prospect 
of photographing the line with my instrument was not promising, 
but merited a trial. 

C — A very efficient one-prism spectrograph, for recording the 
bright-line spectnim of the corona, for recording the continuous 
and possible dark-line spectrum of the corona, and incidentally 
the position of the maximum photographic brightness of the 
continuous spectrum. 

D, — The 40- foot camera designed by Professor Schaeberle, 
and used by him so successfully at the Chile eclipse. He had 
used the Clark 5-inch photo- heliograph lens. It seemed to him 
desirable to have a 6-inch lens for this camera, and such a lens 
was secured by the Observatory. But, when I tested it, defects 
were found to exist, such that its use was not warranted. There 
was not time to remedy the defects, and it was decided to use 
the 5-inch lens. In designing the carriage and track for the 
movable plate-holder, I followed the simple and practical plans 
used by Professor Schaeberle. The purpose of this camera 
was to secure photographs of the inner corona on a large scale, 
with exposures of moderate length. The Moon's image with it 
would be nearly 4^/^ inches in diameter. 

E. — The Floyd photographic telescope, of ^v^ inches aj>erture 
and about sixty-eight inches focal length, mounted on the ** polar 
axis,'* for recording the general features of the corona. It is a 
splendid instrument for the purpose. 

F, — The Dallmeyer portrait-camera, of 6-inch aperture and 
33-inch focus. This is a valuable instrument for recording the 
outer corona, on a small scale, and for recording any strange 
object that may happen to be within a few degrees of the Sun. 
This camera was likewise to be mounted on the polar axis. 

G, — An ordinary camera of 11 -inch focus and i^-inch aper- 
ture, the lens giving splendid definition over a very large field. 
This instrument was intended to supplement in a general way 
the Dallmeyer lens. 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. 131 

The polar axis, which carried five instruments, was a strong 
plank box, twelve by fifteen inches in section, and nine feet long, 
mounted parallel to the Earth's axis, on steel pivots at each end, 
running in roller bearings. From the middle of one side of the 
box a strong arm, thoroughly braced in every direction, ran out 
ten feet, at right angles to the box. On the outer end of the arm 
a sector of lo-foot radius was fastened. A clock securely 
mounted very close to the sector released a cord which pressed 
against the face of the sector, and lowered it at a uniform rate. 
It will be evident that an astronomical driving-clock applied 
at the end of a lo-foot arm would give splendidly uniform 
motion to the instruments attached to the axis. The polar axis 
formed a packing-case to and from the eclipse. 

All the instruments were set up at Mt. Hamilton, and adjusted 
as &r as necessary to test thoroughly all the parts. They were 
then taken to pieces, and packed as closely as was consistent with 
safety, along with sextant and chronometer, American ephemer- 
ides, thermometers, barometer, a good set of carpenters* and 
machinists* tools, nails, screws, photographic plates, implements 
and chemicals, a tent, etc. This whole equipment, in its pack- 
ing-cases, formed a volume of only eighty-one cubic feet. It 
was so carefully packed, and so delicately handled en route to 
camp, that it arrived in perfect condition. The transfers of the 
freight occurred under my personal direction, and it may be said 
that the freight- handlers at nearly all points were easily persuaded 
to move the boxes with great care. 

I was accompanied by Mrs. Campbell and Miss Rowena 
Beans of San Jose, as volunteer observers traveling at private 
expense. We left San Francisco October 21, 1897, on the steam- 
ship China of the Pacific Mail Company. The company kindly 
offered to stow the instruments in the baggage room of the ship, 
where they lay at ease in the roughest weather. The twenty- 
eight-day voyage from San Francisco to Hongkong will always 
be recalled with the utmost pleasure, in spite of the fact that 
essentially all the rough weather experienced by us in our trip 
around the world occurred on the Pacific Ocean. The fine 
sailing qualities of the China, the superior discipline maintained 
by the captain and officers, the splendid service and comfort 
provided for all, were more than ever apparent after we had 
sailed the Indian Ocean, the Red and Mediterranean seas, and 
the North Atlantic. 



132 Publications of the 

As we sailed into Honolulu on a beautifully clear day, the 
water's surface was a mirror, and all the islands above our hori- 
zon were in clear view. We saw nothing on our trip to surpass 
these islands in natural charm. The extinct volcanoes near the 
city of Honolulu, known as the Punch Bowl and Diamond Head, 
were wonderfully interesting, though they were, of course, 
vastly inferior to the famous living volcano on one of the distant 
islands. 

Our route westward from the Hawaiian Islands lay close to 
the thin chain of islands which extends nearly to Japan. A few 
of these islands have been woven into the plots of Robert 
Louis Stevenson's novels; and many a traveler on these 
waters has broken a spell of oppressive loneliness by recalling 
the story of The Wreckers, with blessings on the incompara- 
ble Stevenson. 

We stopped in Japan as the steamer stopped: one day each 
at the ports of Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagasaki. Excursions to 
Tokyo, Osaka, and Mogi were made from those points. Our 
stay in this fairyland was altogether too short; but the trip was 
not for pleasure, and we went on with the instruments. The 
weather in Japan had been perfect; and the absolutely unrivaled 
sunrise effects on their sacred mountain Fuji on two mornings, 
the views of the smoking volcano on Vries Island, of the Inland 
Sea, of the people and their art-treasures, these will remain with 
us as priceless memories. 

The steamer ascended the Yangtse-Kiang River to Woosung, 
the port of entry for Shanghai. We spent a day in that interest- 
ing city, — mostly in the foreign business quarter, it is unnecessary 
to say. A brief trip into the native walled city was a revelation 
to me as to how the other half lives, in reckless defiance of all 
sanitary laws. Our friends living in the modern quarters of 
Shanghai were ready to do anything for our entertainment, except 
to accompany us into the native walled city of filth and con- 
tagion. 

The trip to Hongkong was stormy. We passed through a 
genuine typhoon, which was not without its dangers. The ship 
was due to arrive at Hongkong on November 19th, and a R & O. 
steamer, which we hoped to sail on to Bombay, was to leave there 
at noon of the i8th. The China entered the harbor on the i8th, 
at 10 A. M., and, thanks to the assistance of Captain Seabury, we 
were at once transferred to the P. & O. steamer Ancona, and 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i33 

started on the second stage of our journey, a seventeen-day trip 
to Bombay. The instruments were again placed in the baggage- 
room, and we were the recipients of many fevors from the kind 
and gentiemanly officers. But as to the ship, the discipline, the 
service, and the food, the less said the better. The only item 
that was first-class was the price of the passage ticket. 

Opportunities for seeing Singapore, Penang, and Colombo 
very well were afforded by the stopping of the steamer at those 
ports. Likewfee, there was time for a quick trip to Kandy, near 
the center of the island of Ceylon. The wonderful vegetation of 
Ceylon was a revelation, even after seeing Honolulu and Singa- 
pore. 

We arrived in Bombay on December 5th, having been forty- 
five consecutive days on the ocean voyage from San Francisco. 

The English Government in India had made every possible 
preparation to assist the eclipse expeditions, of which ours was 
the first to arrive. Intending observers had been supplied early 
in the year with meteorological reports, with large-scale trigo- 
nometrical maps covering the regions of possible observing- 
stations, with data relating to railway transportation, camping- 
outfits, etc. From these I had decided to locate on the central 
line of totality a few miles north of Karad, a station about 
one hundred miles south of Poona. This would bring us in the 
high eastern foothills of the extensive range of mountains known 
as the Western Ghats. The contour lines on the maps showed 
that there would be no trouble in selecting a steep hillside on 
which to mount the 40-foot camera so that the tube of it would 
lie near the surface and the lens would require only a short sup- 
port. This region would be easily accessible from the Southern 
Mahratta Railway and thence by bullock-cart. Water promised 
to be plentiful and near at hand. All the mountings of the 
instruments had therefore been constructed for the latitude of 
Karad, without a thought that the station could not be occupied. 

On arriving at Bombay, I was informed by the government 
representatives that the bubonic plague was raging at Karad, 
and that the idea of locating there must be given up, not only on 
account of the danger to ourselves but because it would be out 
of the question to retain servants. The small army of servants 
whom we would have to employ and depend upon would 
stampede without warning if plague threatened the camp. So it 
seemed best to select another station. For many reasons the 



134 Publications of the 

next best station was about one hundred miles northeast of 
Karad, where the Great Indian Peninsular Railway crossed the 
line of totality, near the village Jeur. In company with Professor 
Naegamvala, the government representative, I visited Jeur 
as soon as possible. Here we were met by the chief govern- 
ment officer of the district, the Mamlatdar of Karmala, with 
tongas, two-wheel pony-carts. We examined all the available 
territory adjoining the only cart-road in the whole region. To 
my surprise, the region was very flat, and no hills could be fou^d 
on which to mount the large camera. Water was scarce, since 
there had been almost no rain for two years. It was in the 
famine district. The plague was epidemic at Sholapur to the 
east, and at Poona to the west, with a few sporadic cases just 
then at a distance of fifteen miles. I decided to locate at a point 
four miles from the railway station of Jeur, two miles from the 
central line of totality, and midway between the country villages 
of Shelgaon and Wangi. As our nearest neighbors would be at 
Wangi and Shelgaon, two miles in either direction from the 
camp, it would be possible to quarantine against the plague if it 
approached uncomfortably near us. The problem of mounting 
the 40-foot camera in level country, — on a level desert, one might 
almost say, — at an altitude of 51°, so that it would be secure 
against wind-vibrations, was not a light matter. It would be easy 
enough in a country where materials and skilled labor were at 
command, but in central India it was a formidable problem. The 
general features of a practicable mounting were planned before 
deciding to locate in the level country, and the details were filled 
in later. 

The instruments were shipped from Bombay to Jeur by the 
G. I. P. Ry., in a special car, under special concessions to 
eclipse-observers, a distance of two hundred and sixteen miles. 
Bullock-carts were the means of transportation to the camp, 
four miles from the railway station. The Government not only 
repaired the road over which the instruments were to be hauled, 
but employed fifty men to clear the brush and rocks from the 
camp-ground. A water-carrier (bhisti) and his buffalo were 
supplied by the Government to bring water to the camp from a 
well about three-quarters of a mile away, in skin water-bags 
thrown across the buffalo's back. The Government also sup- 
plied us with a ** sweeper,'* — a low-caste man who is the camp- 
scavenger, — with two night-watchmen, and with some of our 
camp furniture from their army stores. 



THE >;EvV YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



A8T0R, LFNOX AND 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i35 

The Mamlatdar of Karmala, the highest official in the Taluka 
(district of) Karmala, had been instructed by the Bombay 
Government to look after the wants of the eclipse parties in his 
district. He was a very aWe man, practical, and constant in 
attendance. Our difficulties had a way of dissolving whenever 
he appeared. But for him we should have suffered many a dis- 
comfort in the desert. The Mamlatdar of Karmala is an Indian 
gentieman, of whose friendship we were and are proud. We 
shall remember him not only as a most able and faithful official, 
but as a friend in need. 

The instruments, tents, supplies, and servants arrived in 
camp December 13th. After a day or two spent in pitching 
tents, establishing camp, etc., I was relieved of all care in regard 
t<^ our daily wants and comfort, and that was fortunate, since 
the absence of skilled labor in that region required me to do 
everything myself that needed any degree of accuracy. The 
mounting of the 40-foot camera, which promised to be an easy 
matter in the mountains of Karad, was a genuine problem on 
the plains at Jeur. The lens at its upper end would be thirty-one 
feet higher than the plateholder and about thirty-three feet 
above the observer's platform. I decided to sink the plate- 
holder end into a deep pit — say twelve feet — and thereby bring 
the lens within twenty feet of the ground. Six or eight native 
laborers were set to excavating the pit. Their implements were 
little picks and hoes poorly mounted, with shallow pans to 
remove the dirt from the pit. The government officials instructed 
me to pay them two annas — four cents American — each, per 
day, and thousands of laborers could have been secured at such 
wages. But time was an object with me, and I paid them three 
annas each, in consideration of their putting in a long day, of 
about seven hours. Six cents a day was a princely sum to these 
fellows, and to receive such wages raised them very high in the 
estimation of their neighbors. Unconsciously, I was making 
trouble; for when the other eclipse expeditions located in that 
vicinity, the laborers demanded from them the same wages that 
Campbell Sahib was paying. In a couple of weeks, under 
my hourly admonition to jildy, — hurry up, — the men had sunk 
the 10 X lo-foot pit down to a depth of eight feet. The soil was 
dry from lack of rain, and almost rock-like, and I decided to go 
no deeper. I had ordered teak lumber and nails from Poona, a 
hundred miles away, for the construction of a tower to carry the 



136 Publications of the 

lens. The native carpenter whom I hired to assist me was very 
much in the way, and was kept only three hours. I built a very 
strong tower, about twelve feet square at the base, fourteen inches 
square at the top, and twenty-four feet high, with diagonal bra- 
cing on the four inclined faces and in the interior. Upon the 
inclined top a plank was fastened, which projected into the tube 
and carried the object-glass. The upper end of the tube did not 
touch the tower or lens-support, but was sustained by a separate 
wooden pillar. The lower end of the tube was fastened to 
the firm soil by iron pins, and the whole tube was held in 
place by wire cables in duplicate. The plate-carriage track was 
rigidly mounted at the bottom of the pit, quite independent of 
the tube. The wind could vibrate the tube without jarring either 
the plate-holder or object-glass. It was necessary to protect the 
tower from wind-vibrations. The lower end of it was firmly 
imbedded in a heavy stone wall, filled in with soil, to a height of 
about nine feet. That left the upper fifteen feet still exposed to 
the wind. I built a second tower, whose sides were about eighteen 
inches from the sides of the inner tower, and slightly higher. It 
was held in position by duplicate cables, so that it could not be 
blown into contact with the inner tower. A large canvas tent-fly 
was stretched over the south, east, and north faces of the outer 
tower, extending from above the lens to below the top of the stone 
wall. As the prevailing winds were from the southeast and east, 
the lens needed no further protection. On several days, just 
prior to the eclipse, fairly strong winds were blowing at the time 
when the Sun's image swept across the plate-holder, but not the 
slightest vibration of the lens could be detected. 

The other eight instruments were mounted rapidly, though 
many changes and additions were made, involving the use, I 
believe, of every tool taken with me. The adjustments to focus, 
etc., were completed on January i6th, six days before the eclipse 
date. 

As stated above, I was trusting to volunteer observers to man 
the instruments. When I first arrived at Bombay, many of the 
government officials said it would be impossible to secure volun- 
teer assistants from among the army, navy, or civil officers, as 
they were not accustomed to such service. We had not been in 
Bombay many days, however, before offers came in abundance. 
Between twenty-five and thirty offers were received from men of 
thorough scientific training. The total number of observers 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. ill 

required to manage the instruments was twelve, or nine in 
addition to the three who had gone out from California. The 
abundance of volunteers made a choice almost embarrassing. I 
was even obliged to decline offers from two very able and 
enthusiastic amateur astronomers residing in India. 

In addition to Mrs. Campbell and Miss Beans, I was assisted 
by Captain Henry L. Fleet, Royal Navy, in charge of Her 
Majesty's marine forces in the Bombay harbor; by the com- 
manders of three of his torpedo-boats, Lieutenant Kinehan, 
R. N., Lieutenant Mansergh, R. N., and Lieutenant Corbett, 
R. N.; by Engineer Garwood, R. N.; by Major Boileau, 
Royal Engineer; by the Rev. J. E. Abbott, who had been a 
student under Professor Young at Dartmouth College; by the 
United States consul at Bombay, Major S. Comfort, and Mrs. 
Comfort. 

The volunteer observers arrived in camp from January 1 7th to 
20th. All of them were assigned to responsible positions, and it 
was a pleasure to drill them in the details of the programme. The 
final drill occurred the evening of January 21st, with every 
observer perfectly at ease in his assigned work. 

On the 2 1 St, all the clock cords were carefully examined, and 
some of them renewed. The cameras, plate-holders, etc., were 
tested for leaks which might let in the light, and all the adjust- 
ments were verified. Some mysterious forces had disturbed the 
adjustments of the 40-foot camera plate-carriage tracks in the 
bottom of the pit, and the very important clock which rotated 
the polar axis, on the night of January 20th. Fortunately, the 
disturbances were so marked that they were noticed by me just 
before beginning the rehearsal on the afternoon of the 21st. As 
the Sun passed through the region of the sky which the eclipsed 
Sun would occupy the following day, I had time enough, and just 
enough, to readjust these very essential parts. I had not been 
aware that animals came around the camp at all, but, to guard 
against a similar occurrence, on the night of the 21st, Captain 
Fleet suggested that he and the other observers should do 
guard duty at the instruments throughout the night. Every one 
entered into the plan with enthusiasm, and the instruments were 
all right on the morning of the eclipse. 

The plate-holders were filled the night of the 21st, most of 
the plates being *' backed *' with black liquid backing. 

The final examination of the instruments was made the morn- 



13^ Publications of the 

ing of the eclipse, to see that no cobwebs or dust could interfere 
with the proper passage of the light. The wind-breaks of floor- 
rugs, on bamboo poles, were put up by the naval officers. Sex- 
tant observations of the Sun for determining the correction to the 
chronometer were made and reduced, and the chronometer times 
for the beginning and ending of totality were computed. Our 
preparations were completed about two hours before tolality. 
Although there were one or two thousand excursionists at Jeur^ 
from Bombay, Madras, and elsewhere, they were not allowed by 
the government officials to come near the eclipse camps, nor 
were the natives allowed to leave their villages to come to the 
camp, so that our surroundings were favorable. We were in 
camp seven weeks, and I should say the eclipse day was the 
most perfect of all. There had been more or less wind on previ- 
ous days, but the 22d was perfectly calm. The atmospheric 
conditions were all that could be wished for. The observers took 
their places a few minutes before the time of totality. Captain 
Fleet and Engineer Garwood in the 40-foot camera; Lieutenant 
CoRBETT at the chronometer, just outside the large camera, 
and near the polar axis; Lieutenant Kinehan and Miss Beans at 
the Pierson camera; Lieutenant Manse rgh and Major Comfort 
at the Floyd telescope; Mrs. Comfort at the ii-inch camera; 
Mr. Abbott at the 6-prism spectrograph; Major Boileau, at 
the grating spectrograph; and Mrs. Campbell and myself at 
the two spectrographs on the equatorial mounting. There was 
no nervousness discoverable in the party. Lieutenant Corbett 
was to give the signal at twenty seconds before totality, for Major 
Boileau and myself to start the moving plate-holders of the 
three spectrographs, to record the varying spectrum of the Sun's 
edge, as the edge was gradually covered by the Moon. Captain 
Fleet, in the 40-foot camera, was to give the signal ** Go " at 
the instant when the corona flashed out at the vanishing-point of 
the cresent Sun, at which signal the chronometer count was to 
begin, along with the programmes of the four cameras and the two 
additional spectrographs. The programme of signals and exposures 
was carried out by the observers without nervousness or excite- 
ment, as well as if they had been professional obser\'ers of eclipses. 
The spirit of the observers may be illustrated by one or two cir- 
cumstances. I had constructed a small annex tent in the pit of 
the 40-foot camera, into which the observers, Captain Fleet 
and Mr. Garwood, could go and look a few seconds at the 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i39 

corona. They refused to do so, and did not see the corona 
except as it was photographing on the 14 x 17-inch plate. Lieu- 
tenant CoRBETT was asked to keep his eye on the chronometer 
during the first minute, and then feel free to count by sound as 
long as he cared to view the corona during the second minute. He 
did not take his eye off the second-hand during the whole of 
totality. Other instances of sacrifice of self to the success of 
the expedition could be mentioned. The same noble qualities 
came out on the days preceding the eclipse, and with such 
assistants I laughed at Failure. It is plain that no astronomer 
was ever more ably assisted by volunteer observers. 

The eclipse began within a half-second of the computed time, 
and ended in the same way, lasting i"* 59^^'. The duration, com- 
puted from the American Ephemeris, was i^SQ'; and from the 
English Nautical Almanac, was 2°* 5'. 

It is impossible to describe the beauty of the Sun's surround- 
ings. The corona was exquisite, more beautiful by far than 
anything else we saw in a journey around the world. It is well 
worth a journey to remote regions of the Earth to see. 

The first illustration (Frontispiece) is a general view of the 
eclipse camp; and the second (page 134), taken a few minutes 
after the eclipse, shows the observers at their instruments, except 
those who had been in the 40-foot camera. 

After the eclipse, the development of the plates was taken 
up. Previous experiments had shown that the chemical formulae 
used at home could not be used in India. The formulae were 
experimented with until one was obtained which gave good 
results. The weather in camp was very hot in the daytime, but 
grew rapidly colder at night, reaching a minimum about sunrise. 
The extremes were such as I had never experienced before. 
When the day temperature remains for hours at 92" or 93° Fahr., 
a night temperature of 42° seems bitterly cold. Yet this range 
of fifty degrees occurred several times while we were in camp. 
The heat was intense during the week following the eclipse, and 
greatly affected the photographic development. With a dark 
room composed of one tent inside another tent, it was necessary 
to wait until the atmosphere cooled down — from i a. m. till sun- 
rise, and all the plates were developed in those hours. The 
negatives from all the instruments came out almost exactly as 
they were expected to, and the expedition was a success. 

The instruments were quickly dismounted and repacked, the 



HO Publications of the 

photographs were packed with special care, and the tents and 
camp furniture were made ready for shipping. I can still see 
that long line of bullock-carts moving slowly out of our camp to 
the station. Our life there was so intense, among a people so 
strange and so interesting, that the individucU incidents of the 
seven-weeks* camping experiences in central India will remain as 
vividly with us as the general effect of the whole. 

When the instruments and photographs were safely stored in 
the specie-room of the Steamship Socotra at Bombay, en ratUe to 
Hongkong, the eclipse was over, and we were ready to enjoy the 
wonders of Delhi, Agra, the Himalayas, — but that is not an 
astronomical story. 

Our route homeward brought us via the observatories at Quro, 
Rome, Florence, Milan, Nice, Paris, Greenwich, Tulse Hill, 
Kensington, Cambridge, Oxford, and Williams Bay, where we 
were the recipients of many kindnesses from busy astronomers. 

I cannot close this account without a grateful acknowledg- 
ment of the services rendered to the expedition by the United 
States consul at Bombay, Major Comfort. I know that our 
expedition was continually held in mind by him, both as the rep- 
resentative of our government, and as our valued friend. We 
were almost daily recipients of his assistance. The continual 
kindness shown us by Major and Mrs. Comfort, by Captain and 
Mrs. Fleet, and by many others, contributed both to the success 
of the expedition, and to the pleasure of our visit in that wonderful 
country. 

Three other eclipse parties were encamped near our station: 
the Japanese Government party from Tokyo; the Indian party 
from the Poona College of Science, under Professor K. D. 
Naegamvala; and Professor Burckh alter, from the Chabot 
Observatory, in charge of the Pierson expedition. Professor 
Burckhalter was just as enthusiastic in India as he is at home. 
Interchanges of visits between our camps were frequent, and 
gave us great pleasure. We were glad of his success, not only 
because he was our countryman, but because success was deserved. 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. 141 

THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA 



ON VISUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPEC- 
TRUM OF THE NEBULA. 



Bv James E. Keeler. 



THEKEVv ^. . 

PUBLIC Lrolv.w. 



A8T0R, LENOX AND 
TILOEN P0UNDAT(0N9. 



According to the view almost universally accepted by astro- 
physicists, the stars have been evolved from pre-existing nebulae 
by a gradual process of condensation. The view is an old one ; 
but before the spectroscope was invented, it was necessarily 
based on very simple data, derived from observations of the 
forms of nebulae as seen in the telescope. The spectroscope 
opened up an entirely new method of attack. Used in connec- 
tion with the great telescopes of modern times it has furnished 
an immense mass of data, and the study of the different types of 
stellar spectra and their probable connection with the order of 
stellar evolution has become an exceedingly complicated and 
interesting branch of astronomical science. 

In a general way, it may be said that the evidence brought to 
light by the spectroscope is in harmony with the views which had 
already been held, though it would not be difficult to point out 
numerous difficulties and contradictions. As the spectrum of the 
nebulae is regarded as the signature of the earliest stage of stellar 
evolution, it is not surprising that astrophysicists have attached 
special importance to it in their studies, and that they view every 
discovery or investigation relating to it with the greatest interest. 

A discussion has recently been carried on in the Astrophysical 
Journal and the Astronomische Nachrichten^ with reference to 
the part played by physiological causes in visual observations of 
the bright lines in nebular spectra. The spectrum of a nebula 
contains many bright lines, most of which are, however, very 
faint, and are revealed by long-exposure photographs only. 
Ordinarily only a few lines are seen-^one at X 5007, (the * 'chief '' 
nebular line), one at X 4959, probably due to the same unknown 
substance as the preceding, and in addition to these, some of the 
lines of hydrogen and helium. Some years ago. Professor Camp- 
bell, while observing the Great Nebula of Orion with the thirty- 
six inch telescope, found that the spectrum was different in differ- 
ent regions. In the central and brighter parts of the nebula, the 
ji;reenish-blue hydrogen line F, or H)3, was about as bright as the 



142 Publications of the 

second nebular line X 4959. In the faint and remote region sur- 
rounding the star Bond 734, all the lines were of course faint, but 
the H ^ line was at least five times brighter than even the chief 
nebular line, while the second line was quite invisible. 

These observations of Professor Campbell (which have been 
confirmed by various members of the Lick Observatory staff, and 
by the eminent spectrocopist, Professor Runge of Hanover, Ger- 
manvi while on a visit to Mt. Hamilton) were regarded by him 
as indicating a real difference in the distribution of the materials 
of which the nebula is composed. The substance, whatever it 
may be, which gives the principal lines in the green, is more 
strongly concentrated in the central regions of the nebula; in the 
faint and remote regions, hydrogen is predominant. In a pre- 
vious number of these Publications,^ I have pointed out the fact 
that these differences of distribution of the substances in the 
nebula (assuming them to be real), must lead to a difference 
between the forms of the nebula as shown in drawings and in 
photographs. 

Professor Scheiner, of the Astrophysical Observatory at Pots- 
dam, holds, on the contrary, that the spectrum of the Orion nebula 
is the same in all its parts, and attributes the differences observed 
by Professor Campbell to physiological causes. By what is 
known as the "Purkinje effect," the maximum of brightness in the 
spectrum shifts toward the violet end when the intensity of the 
light is diminished. If, therefore, we suppose that two lines, one 
red and one blue, are equally bright when the intensity of the 
illumination has a certain value, the red line will appear brighter 
than the blue if the intensity is increased, and the blue line will 
appear brighter than the red if the intensity is diminished. The 
blue line may even be distinctly seen after the red line has faded 
into invisibility. 

In Professor Scheiner's opinion, the observations of Professor 
Campbell are sufficiently explained by this physiological effect, 
as well as the fact that the r^d hydrogen line C or Ha has been 
observed in very few nebulae. His views were confirmed by some 
photometric observations which he made on the artificial spectrum 
of hydrogen. 

In connection with these observations, Professor Scheiner, 
extending some earlier researches of Koch, made some experi- 
ments in which he sought to ascertain the possible influence on 

• No. 44. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 143 

the spectrum of the temperature of the surroundings under ^hich 
hydrogen emits light. The hydrogen was enclosed in a vessel 
which was cooled down to a temperature of — 200° C. by means 
of liquid air, and it was made luminous by extremely feeble elec- 
tric waves. The temperature of the hydrogen under these con- 
ditions approached the absolute zero — 273° C, but its spectrum 
was the same as that observed at ordinary temperatures. Hence, 
there seems to be no reason to suppose that the spectrum of 
hydrogen in the nebulae is influenced by the cold of surrounding 
space. 

It will be seen that the apparent shifting of the brightness in 
the spectrum, due to the Purkinje effect, is in the right direction 
to explain the observations of Professor Campbell on physiolo- 
gical grounds, since these observations showed that the more 
refrangible line was relatively brighter in the faint regions of the 
nebula. In my opinion, however, the Purkinje eff*ect is inade- 
quate to explain the amount of the observed variations of bright- 
ness. Professor Scheiner*s experiments dealt with an extreme 
case. The lines compared (Ha and H/3) were widely separated, 
and the physiological effect was strongly marked. But in Pro- 
fessor Campbell's observations, verified by Professor Runge, 
the lines compared were in nearly the same spectral region, so 
that the physiological effect must have been very much smaller; 
yet the variation of the relative brightness of the lines was from 
twenty to thirty-fold. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that 
we are here dealing with actual diff*erences in the radiation from 
different regions of the nebula. 

When the Orion nebula again comes into position for observa- 
tion with the great telescope, it will be easy to make an experiment 
in which physiological effects are wholly eliminated. With the 
spectroscope slit placed on the bright region near the trapezium, 
the intensity of the light can be diminished (say by reducing the 
vertical aperture of the spectroscope) until the second nebular 
line ( X 4959 ) is barely visible, or about as bright as it is with full 
aperture in some remote region of the nebula. Under these 
circumstances, any considerable differences in the relative bright- 
ness of the H /3 line could not be ascribed to physiological causes. 
Photography could perhaps be made to furnish a still more satis- 
factory test 

I am further not quite convinced that the invisibility of the Ha 
line in the spectrum of the great majority of nebulae is entirely 



144 Publications of the 

due to the Purkinje effect. It is easy enough to reduce the 
visible hydrogen spectrum, derived from spectrum tubes, to the 
single line Hj3, by merely diminishing its brightness; but to my 
eye, at least, Hy always disappears before Ha. In the nebulae, 
on the other hand, Hy is seen without difficulty, while Ha b gen- 
erally invisible. In some stars we find hydrogen exhibiting cer- 
tain spectral peculiarities which have not yet been produced art- 
ificially, and certainly there is nothing absurd in the supposidon 
that hydrogen in the nebulae can have a spectrum which differs 
in some respects from that obtained in our laboratories. The 
difference, if it is real, as I believe it to be, may be a key which 
will finally unlock some of the many mysteries by which the 
nature and constitution of the nebulae are still surrounded. 



WOLFS PERIODICAL COMET. 



By W. J. HussEY. 



On the night of June i6th, I turned the 36-inch refractor to the 
place given by Thraen's ephemeris of Wolf's periodical 
comet {Astro7iomische Nachrichten^ No. 3484), and at once found 
it at less than its own diameter from its predicted place. My ob- 
servation at the time of rediscovery gives the following position, 
which is already corrected for parallax and aberration: — 

Greenwich M. T. True a True 5 

1898 June 16.95449 2^ 16" i8'.68 4*19° 42' 46".3 
For the same epoch, the position which I have obtained by com- 
putation from Thraen's elements of the orbit is only i'.3i 
larger in right ascension and only i".i smaller in declination. 
These residuals are remarkably small, and show that Thraen 
has reached most excellent results in his determination of the de- 
finitive elements of the orbit. 

This comet was first seen as a nebulous body by Max Wolf 
at Heidelberg, September 17, 1884, 21^^ i^ cometary nature was 
fully established by him on September i8th and 19th. He then 
notified the Strassburg Observatory of his discovery, and the first 
accurate position of the comet was obtained there on September 
2oth. On September 2 2d the comet was discovered indei>end- 
endy at the Dun Echt Observatory by Ralph Cope land, who 
detected it *'as a gaseous body with the spectroscope." The 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i45 

telegram announcing the discovery by Wolf was not delivered 
at the Dun Echt Observatory until the morning of September 23d. 
It is of interest to note that the first observation of the comet in 
this country was that obtained at Washington by Commander 
(now Acting Rear-Admiral) Wm. T. Sampson, of the U. S. Navy, 
who was then in charge of the 9.6-inch telescope of the Naval Ob- 
servatory. 

At the first apparition the various observers described the 
comet as a bright nebulous body, about 2' in diameter, having a 
strong central condensation, almost stellar in appearaqce, and 
equal in brightness to a star of from the 8th to nth magnitude. 
It had scarcely a trace of a tail; many observers did not note any 
at all, but described the comet as being very nearly round. 
Spectroscopic observations were made at Nice and Rome. The 
observations at Nice, towards the end of September, showed a 
bright continuous spectrum crossed by the ihree usual carbon 
bands. At Rome apparently only the middle (and brightest) ol 
these bands was seen. 

The comet had been under observation only a short time, when 
it was found that the observed places could not be satisfactorily 
represented on the supposition of parabolic motion. Elliptic 
element? were accordingly computed by Krueger, Chandler, 
Wendell, Zelbr and Thraen. Their results showed the 
comet to be one of short period, requiring about 6^ years to 
complete a revolution about the sun. It was also noticed that 
the comet had been so nt^x Jupiter from March to August, 1875, 
as to experience very marked perturbations. Lehmann-Filhes 
undertook the investigation of the changes in the elements result- 
ing fi-om these perturbations. Basing his work on Krueger' s 
elements, which were admittedly only approximately true, he 
found that the axis of the orbit had been turned through an angle 
of nearly 27°, that the inclination had been diminished more than 
2°, the eccentricity had been doubled and the periodic time 
shortened over two years. Moreover, the perihelion distance had 
been changed from about 309,000,000 to 146,000,000 miles, 
showing that prior to 1875, the comet had at all times been so dis- 
tant from the earth as to be either invisible or at least be so faint 
as to be readily overlooked, thus accounting for its not having 
been discovered before that time. 

These circumstances gave the comet a wide interest among 
astronomers. It was observed a long time at many observatories. 



146 Publications of the 

During the first apparition no less than 950 observations were se- 
cured at some fifty-four different observatories, from September 
20, 1884, to April 6, 1885. During these six and one-half 
months the comet described 106 degrees of its heliocentric arc, 
35° before and 71° after perihelion passage. Numerous observa- 
tions were obtained toward the close of the apparition, thus 
strengthening greatly that part of the arc and giving the final ele- 
ments greater security. The definitive elements were computed 
by Thraen, and both he and L» Struve computed the pertur- 
bations between the first and second apparitions, and provided 
ephemerides by means of which Spitaler rediscovered the 
comet, May i, 1891. 

At the second apparition the comet again remained visible 
for a long time, until March 31, 1892, and no less than 681 obser- 
vations at thirty-three different observatories were obtained. 
Thraen again computed the definitive elements, making use of 
the data of both the first and second apparitions and taking into 
account the perturbations of the Earth, Mars, Jupiter ^vi^ ScUurtu 
The elements which he finally obtained, when referred to the 
ecliptic and the mean equinox of 1898.0, are as follows:^— 
Epoch and Osculation 1898 August 22.0 Berlin M. T. 
M = 6° 58' ii".03^ 
;:>= 172 52 35.77 Ecliptic and 

O = 206 27 22 .26 J- -- T- • r « o 

' /= 25 12 16 .59 I MeanEqumoxof 1898.0 

<A= 33 44 2 .15J 

\^ = 518"- 36764 
log a = 0.5569125 
The accuracy of these elements is very great, as is shown by 
the close agreement of the computed and observed places of the 
comet at the time of its rediscovery this year, and they reflect 
great credit upoil th^ir author. 
Mt. Hamilton, July II, 1898. 



COMET c, 1898 (CODDINGTON). 



By E. F. Coddington. 



On the evening of June 9th, I made an exposure of two hours 
with the Crocker photographic telescope, for the purpose of 
obtaining a photograph of the extensive nebulous region to the 



i'OJLICLIjRAKyI 



ASTOR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN POUNDATrON/.Q 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, i47 

north of Antares in the constellation Scorpio, At the time 
changes were being made in my darkroom, and it was not until 
June nth that I had an opportunity to develop the plate. When 
the plate was developed a strong trail, about one-sixteenth inch 
in length, was found upon it, some two or three degrees north- 
east of Antares, The length and direction of the trail indicated 
the possible positions in which the object might be found, and on 
turning the 12-inch telescope to the proper region the comet was 
picked up immediately, and observed for position by Professor 

HUSSEY. 

At the time of discovery, the comet had a bright nucleus of 
about the 8th magnitude, surrounded by a nebulosity somewhat 
less than a minute of arc in diameter. The nucleus was very 
nearly stellar, and when examined with the 36-inch refractor, 
using a power of 1000, it presented a uniform appearance. 
There was a slight indication of a tail on one side of the nebu- 
losity, but the comet was so near opposition that whatever tail it 
may have had, extended almost directly away from the comet in 
the line of sight. When discovered the comet was near Antares 
and since then it has been moving steadily towards the south- 
west, a little more than a degree per day. It is already too far 
south to be observed at most northern observatories. By the 
middle of August it will have reached a southern declination of 
50 degrees and will then be in the constellation Ceniaurus, It 
will remain visible for some time to the observatories of the 
southern hemisphere. 

This is the third comet which has been discovered by pho- 
tography. On October 12, 1892, Professor Barnard found the 
trail of a hitherto unknown comet upon a photograph of the 
Milky Way, which he had just obtained with the Crocker tele- 
scope. 

Professor Schaeberle was the next to discover a comet by 
means of photography. He found the image of some strange 
object on some of his eclipse negatives taken at Mina Bronces, 
Chile, in 1893, and verified its cometary nature by means of the 
plates taken by other eclipse parties. This comet was never ob- 
served visually, and its orbit is unknown. 

The accompanying half-tone shows the trail of the comet and 
ako gives a fair representation of a very remarkable region of the 
sky. At the lower central part of the reproduction is the bright 
star Antares with the cluster. Messier 4, just to the right. Just 



^48 Publications of the 

above we find an area which stands out in a marked contrast to 
the surrounding region, by being almost void of faint stars. In- 
stead we find a large nebula with its principal condensations 
surrounding the few bright stars that are situated here. A great 
deal of delicate detail can be traced on the original negative and 
the vacant lanes running eastward from this region are prominent 
features. The comet was crossing one of these lanes at the time 
of exposure. And it may be found on the accompanying illus- 
tration near the left margin. I hope to secure a better negative 
of this region. This one is reproduced on account of the comet 
trail. 

Using the following observations: — 

Mt. Ham. M. T. app a app I Observer 

June II, 9** 13" 7' 16*" 24" 56'.2i — 25^ 14' 2o".o Hussey 

13, 10 47 36 16 17 58.38 — 26 33 3 .3 Tucker 

15, 8 43 30 16 II 23.71 —27 45 12 .7 Hussey 

Professor Hussey and I computed the following preliminary 

elements: — 

T = 1898 Sept 10.3054 Gr. M. T. 
0) = 229° 28' II" ^ ^ ,. . 

0= 73 59 51 Ecliptic and 

i Mean Equinox of 1898.0 
2 = 71 17 49 ) ^ ^ 

log q = 0.24760 
(O— C): AX' cos i3' = + 4", A^' = + 2" 
From Mt. Hamilton observations of June nth, i8th and 26th, 
I have computed the following elements of this comet. The mean 
of three observations was used in forming the middle place, and 
the mean of two observations for the last place. 

T = 1898 Sept. 13.97347 Gr. M. T. 
CO = 233^ 10' 3i".4 ) T, r .. . 

«= 73 59 19 .8 5 Ecliptic and 

i = 69 56 47 .3 ( ^^^^ Equinox of 1898.0 
log q = 0.231178 
(O— C): AX' cos i3' = -f 4".7, A^S' = + i".8 
Mt. Hamilton, July 11, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, i49 

PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR SEPTEMBER AND 
OCTOBER, 1898. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



September. 

The Sun crosses the equator and autumn begins September, 
22d, 4 P.M., P. S. T. 

Mercury passes inferior conjunction on September 5th, and 
moves rapidly out toward greatest western elongation, which it 
reaches on September 21st. It may be seen as a morning star in 
the eastern twilight during the latter half of the month. 

Venus is still an evening star and comes to greatest elongation 
on September 22d. Throughout the month it sets less than two 
hours after sunset. When a greatest eastern elongation occurs in 
the spring, the planet remains above the horizon more than 
twice as long after sunset The reason for the difference is, that 
for an eastern elongation in the spring, the planet is far north of 
the Sun, and in the autumn it is far south, nineteen degrees on 
September 30th. 

Mars is getting into more convenient position for observation, 
rising before midnight on September ist, and nearly an hour 
earlier at the close of the month. It moves nineteen degrees 
eastward during the month through the constellation Gemini, 
and at the close of the month is only one degree from the third 
magnitude star 8 Geminorum, The Moon makes a very close 
approach to Mars on the morning of September 9th, but will 
hardly occult it in this country, except possibly in the extreme 
southwestern portions. The planet is beginning to grow more 
conspicuous, and its distance from the Earth diminishes from 
137,000,000 miles to 120,000,000 during the month. 

Jupiter is still an evening star, but its distance from the Sun is 
rapidly diminishing, and it will scarcely be possible to see it 
with the naked eye after the first half of the month. It moves 
eastward and southward about seven degrees during the month, 
and is in the western part of the constellation Virgo, not far from 
Spica, the brightest star of the constellation. 

Saturn is also an evening star and sets at 8:36 p.m., September 
30th. It is in the constellation Scorpio, about seven degrees 



I50 Publications of the 

to the north of the first magnitude red star Antares, and moves 
about two degrees eastward and southward during the month. 

Uranus precedes Saturn^ setting about half an hour earlier. 
It is not bright enough to be easily seen at the low altitude it 
reaches before the disappearance of the evening twilight. 

Neptune is on the border on the constellations Taurus and 
Gemini, and rises before lo p.m at the end of the month. 

October. 

Mercury remains a morning star until October 19th, when it 
passes superior conjunction and becomes an evening star. It 
may be seen in the early twilight for a few days after the begin- 
ning of the month, but it soon reaches a point too near the Sun 
for naked-eye observation. 

Venus is an evening star. It is at its greatest possible southern 
latitude as seen from the Sun on October 9th, and this, combined 
with its position in regard to the ecliptic as seen from the Earth, 
gives it its nearly maximum southern declination. At the end of 
the month, it sets only an hour and a half after sunset. During 
October and November it will be very bright, the time of greatest 
brilliancy being about the end of October. For several weeks 
before and after that time, it will be bright enough to be seen in 
full dayligl^t with the naked eye, if the low altitude of the planet 
due to its great southern declination does not interfere too much. 

JkTars rises about an hour earlier tlfan during September, at a 
little after 10 p.m. on October 31st. It is in quadrature with the 
Sun on October 1 7th. It moves about fifteen degrees eastward and 
two degrees southward during the month through the constella- 
tion Gemini into Cancer, At the end of the month it will have 
diminished its distance from the Eaxth to less than 100,000,000 
miles, and its brightness will increase about forty per cent during 
the month. 

Jupiter begins the month as an evening star, too near the 
Sun to be seen without a telescope, and passes conjunction on 
October 13th. Toward the close of the month, it rises more than 
an hour before sunrise, the interval between the rising of the 
planet and Sun increasing quite rapidly, owing to the rapid 
motion of the Sun eastward and southward. 

Saturn is still an evening star, but is not in very good position 
for observation, owing to its nearness to the Sun and its low 
altitude after sunset. At the end of the month, it sets less than 
two hours after the Sun. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 



151 



Uranus is also an evening star, but as it sets half an hour 
earlier than Saturn, and is so faint, it can scarcely be seen with- 
out a telescope. 

Neptune rbes two hours earlier than in September, and is on 
the border of the constellations Taurus and Gemini, 



Phases of the Moon. P. 



Last Quarter, 

New Moon, 

First Quarter, 

Full Moon, 

Last Quarter, 

New Moon, 

First Quarter, 

Full Moon, 



Sept. 


7» 


2 


Sept. 


15, 


4 


Sept. 


22, 


6 


Sept. 


29» 


3 


Oct. 


7» 


10 


Oct. 


I5» 


4 


Oct. 


22, 


I 


Oct. 


29» 


4 



S. T. 

M. 

51 P. M. 
10 P. M. 

39 P- Mf 
10 P. M 

5 A. M 
37 A. M 

9 A. M 
18 A. M 



Asrc,<. Lr^'ox AND 

TluObN P- 'JNOATIONS. j 



The Sun. 



1898. 
Sept I. 

II. 

21. 
Oct. I. 

II. 

21. 

31. 



R. A. 

H. M. 

10 43 

11 19 

11 55 

12 31 

13 7 

13 44 

14 23 



Declination. 



+ 
+ 
+ 



8 II 

4 27 
o 36 

- 3 18 

- 7 8 

— 10 49 

— 14 13 



Rises. 



Transits. 



32 A. M. 12 O M. 



41 
51 
I 
II 
22 

33 



II 56 A.M. 

II 53 

II 50 

II 47 

II 45 

II 44 



Sets. 



28 P. M. 
II 

55 

39 

23 

8 

55 



Mercury. 



Sept I. 


ll 


6 


+ 


I 


4 


6 20 A.M. 


12 


23 P.M. 


6 26P.M 


II. 


10 


37 


+ 


6 


31 


4 53 


II 


15 A.M. 


5 37 


21. 


lO 


50 


+ 


8 


20 


4 20 


10 


48 


5 16 


Oct. 1. 


II 


44 


+ 


3 


49 


4 51 


II 


3 


5 15 


n. 


12 


48 


— 


3 


28 


5 38 


II 


27 


5 16 


21. 


13 


50 


— 


10 


44 


6 27 


II 


50 


5 13 


31- 


14 


51 




17 


2 


7 " 
Venus. 


12 


12 P.M. 


5 13 


Sept. I. 


13 


28 


— 


10 


45 


9 22 A.M. 


2 


45 PM. 


8 8P.M 


II. 


14 


7 


— 


15 


18 


9 38 


2 


45 


7 52 


21. 


14 


46 


— 


19 


21 


9 53 


2 


45 


7 37 


Oct. I. 


15 


24 


— 


22 


45 


10 5 


2 


43 


7 21 


II. 


15 


59 


— 


25 


21 


10 13 


2 


39 


7 5 


21. 


16 


30 


— 


27 


6 


10 11 


2 


30 


6 49 


Si- 


16 


53 


— 


27 


55 


9 59 


2 


13 


6 27 



152 Publications of the 

Mars, 
Sept I. 5 56 + 23 28 II 49 P.M. 7 14 A.M. 2 39P.M. 



Oct. 



II. 


6 23 


+ 23 33 


II 35 


7 I 


2 27 


21. 


6 48 


+ 23 24 


II 21 


6 46 


2 II 




7 II 


+ 23 4 


II 8 


631 


I 54 


II. 


7 33 


+ 22 36 


10 52 


6 13 


I 34 


21. 


7 53 


-H 22 4 


10 35 


5 54 


I 13 



31. 8 II +21 31 10 15 5 32 12 49 

Jupiter, 



Sept. I. 

Oct. I. 

31. 


12 45 

13 8 
13 32 


— 3 35 8 14 A.M. 

— 6 2 6 47 

— 8 28 5 22 

Saturn. 


2 

12 
10 


2 P.M. 

27 

53 A.M. 


7 
6 

4 


50 P.M. 

7 
24 


Sept. I. 

Oct. I. 

31. 


16 18 
16 25 
16 37 


— 19 43 12 46 P.M. 

— 20 7 10 55 A.M. 

— 20 37 9 10 

Uranus, 


5 
3 

I 


34 P.M. 

44 

57 


10 
8 
6 


22 P. M 

33 
44 


Sept. I. 
Oct. I. 

31. 


15 50 

15 54 

16 I 


— 19 58 12 18 P.M. 

— 20 II 10 25 A.M. 

— 20 30 8 34 

Neptune 


5 
3 

I 


7 P.M. 

13 

21 


9 
8 
6 


56 P. M 
I 
8 


Sept. I. 

Oct. I. 

31. 


5 37 
5 38 
5 36 


+ 22 2 II 35P.M. 
+ 22 I 9 39 
4- 22 7 39 


6 

4 
2 


54 A.M. 

58 

58 


2 
12 
10 


13P.M 
17 

17 A.M 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i53 




NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY.* 



Prepared bv Members of the Staff. 



r 



I ( : 



TILOcN p; 



The November Meteors. 

Harvard College Observalory Circular No, 31, 

On the night of November 13, 1897, 91 meteors were ob- 
served at the Harvard College Observatory, and 47 meteors at 
an auxiliary station 12 miles south, the Blue Hill Meteorological 
Observatory. A discussion of these observations by Professor 
W. H. Pickering will be found in the Annals of this Observa- 
tory, Volume XLI, No. 5. A much greater display of meteors 
is expected next year, and it is very important that a continuous 
watch should be kept during the two or three days in which the 
Earth is passing through the denser portion of the meteor 
stream. This can only be done by establishing a series of sta- 
tions in various longitudes, so that during the entire time one or 
more of these stations shall fulfill the conditions that the radiant 
point shall be above the horizon and the Sun below. Corre- 
spondence is invited with astronomers and others willing to partici- 
pate in this work, especially with those who will be in the less 
frequented longitudes. If the weather is favorable, and the plan 
here proposed is carried out satisfactorily, it is expected that all 
the observations will be discussed here and published in the 
Annals of this Observatory. To secure the best results, a uniform 
plan of work is essential. Maps and forms of record will be 
sent to all who early signify their readiness to take part in this 
work. The radiant point of the meteors indicated by the cross 
in the accompanying map [here omitted], will not rise in this 
latitude until lo** 30", and twilight interferes at about 5' 30° in the 
morning. As the shower sometimes begins before the predicted 



jnoations 



* Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California. 



154 Publications of the 

date, a watch should be kept on November ii and 12, from 11 
to I o'clock, and if many meteors are seen, the observations 
described below, for November 13, should be made on these 
nights, and also on the nights following the shower. 

Each observer is requested to devote his attention to the 
region within 25° of the radiant point, and included in the map, 
and to send the following data regarding his observations : — 

Name of observer, location of station, post-office address, time 
of beginning and ending of observations, interruptions by clouds 
or other causes, condition of sky, as clear, hazy, passing clouds, 
etc. 

The observations most desired are those required to determine 
the frequency of the meteors. They are of extreme simplicity, 
and need only care, system, and perseverance. Once an hour, 
or, better, once every half-hour, observe and record the time 
during which ten meteors appear. This is most easily done by 
noting the time by a watch and at exactly the beginning of a 
minute looking at the sky, giving it undivided attention and 
counting the meteors seen, not including those appearing outside 
the region covered by the map. If great numbers of meteors 
appear, it may be better to count a larger number, as twenty or 
even fifty. If the interval between the meteors is long, the 
number to be counted may be reduced. These observations 
should be repeated until dawn, or over as long an interval as 
possible. Between these observations, the observer may rest, or 
may make special observations of individual meteors. Thus, 
when a meteor is seen, record the hour and minute, the bright- 
ness on a scale of stellar magnitudes, —2, equals the brightness 
o{ Jupiter, or Sinus; o, Arcturus, or Fe£^a; 2, the PoU-Star; 4, 
the Pleiades; 6, the faintest star visible; the color, B=blue, 
G=green, Y = yellow, W = white, and R = red; the class. 
h=^Leonid, if path prolonged would pass through center of 
map, N = other meteors. Thus, L 5 Y, 12' 26°, indicates that 
a Leonid, magnitude 5, yellow in color, was seen at 12** 26". 
Find by trial beforehand how many seconds are required to 
make each record. Again, the path of each meteor may be 
marked upon the map by noting its position in relation to the 
adjacent stars. Such work can be done equally well elsewhere, 
and should not interfere with the hourly count mentioned above. 

Edward C. Pickering. 

May 30, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 155 

Discovery of Comet e 1898 (Perrine). 

This comet was discovered in the morning of June 15th, in the 
constellation Camelopardalis, At 23^ 22'° 34' G. M. T. of June 
14th, the comet's position was a= 3** 29°* o'.99, 8= + 58° 35' 
22. "3. It was then moving^ slowly south and more rapidly 
east. The elements as computed from the first three observations 
will be found elsewhere in this number of the Publications. These 
elements bear considerable resemblance to those of the comet 
1785 I, especially with regard to o) and i, the resemblance being 
closer than was the case with the comet b 1898, pointed out in 
No. 62 of these Publications. Comet e 1898 appears to be another 
member of this same family. 

At the time of discovery the comet was not so bright as Comet 
b, its brightness being estimated at about 10 or a little fainter. 
It has been steadily increasing in brightness and is now estimated 
to be 9 or 9)4 magnitude, brighter than Comet b, A rather 
sharp nCicleus has developed within the past week and is now 
estimated to be about 13th magnitude. 

Comet e has been moving in the same general direction as 
Comet b, and as its geocentric motion has been much more rapid 
it has overtaken the latter and passed it in both co-ordinates. 
On the morning of June 27th, the two comets were within about 
one- quarter degree of each other, both visible in the lowest 
power field of the 1 2-inch telescope. 

Comet e is moving rapidly south and east, and hence its loca- 
tion is becoming more unfavorable for observation. Towards 
the middle of August it will pass the Sun going south, after which 
it will soon be lost to northern observers. Owing to the resem- 
blance already pointed out, it seems important to observe it as 
long as possible. C. D. Perrine. 

Mt. Hamilton, Gal, 1898, June 29. 

Errata in Star Catalogues. 

LcUande 31379. The declination of this star appears to be in 
error by i'. A micrometer comparison with Radcliffcj; 4514 
on June 2d indicates that the N. P. D. of Lalande 31379 should 
be 100° 25' 39". 8. 

Weisse*s Bessel XVIII, 1327 appears to be in error in dec- 
lination by 2'. A micrometer comparison with 1323 on June 2d 
shows that the declination of 1327 should be —13° 44' io".5. 

C D. Perrine. 
Mt. Hamilton, Gal., June 7, 1898. 



156 Publications of the 

Two Bright Meteors, June 24 and June 29, 1898. 

On the morning of June 24, at i** ly" 53" P. S. T., a very 
brilliant meteor was seen to pass southeast through the constel- 
lations Cassiopeia and Perseus^ bursting a little southwest of the 
star y Fersei. This meteor was a brilliant bluish-white, and 
fully ten times as bright as Venus at the present time. 

At 8** 16* 26" P. S. T., in the evening of June 29th, while it 
was yet very bright twilight, an unusually large meteor was seen 
in the southwest. When first seen it was at an altitude of about 
20° above the horizon. It passed slowly toward the west, mak- 
ing a small angle with the horizontal, disappearing almost due 
west and but litde above the horizon. A few seconds after it was 
first noticed several fragments were thrown off— the main body 
being diminished but litde in brightness, however, and continu- 
ing in the same course. 

It was of the usual brilliant bluish- white type, and fully twenty 
to thirty times as bright as Venus, which was visible in the north- 
west. The meteor was seen for eight seconds — the time given 
being that of disappearance. C. D. Perrine. 

Mt. Hamilton, Cal, 1898, June 30. 

Comet c 1898 (Coddington). 

A letter, dated June 16, 1898, received from Harvard College 
Observatory, states that photographs of Comet Coddington 
were obtained at the Harvard College Observatory by Mr. King 
on June 14 and 15, 1898. A measurement by Mr. Wendell 
of the light of the nucleus of this comet showed that its intrinsic 
brightness was equal to that of a star of magnitude 7.7 when 
spread over a circle one minute of arc in diameter. 

The following letter, dated June 18, 1898, has also been 
received: "A telegram has been received at Harvard College 
Observatory from Professor Kreutz. at Kiel Observatory, stating 
that the following elements and ephemeris* of Comet c 1898 
were computed by Berberich:— 

T = 1898, August 4.44 G. M. T. 
0) = 206° 09' 

"= 73 59 
/= 76 48 

q = 2.0821 '' 



•The ephemera is here omitted. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 157 

Elements of Comet e 1898 (Perrine). 

From the Mt. Hamilton observations of June 14, 15 and 16, 
we have computed the following elements of Cometh, 1898: — 

T = 1898, August 17.400. 

0, = 196° 45' 48" \ ^y . A 

^ , f Ecliptic and 

( Mean Equinox of 1898.0 
2 = 69 42 23 ; 

log q = 9.87026 

Residuals for the middle place. (O— C): 

A A = + 2", A i8 = - 5". 

C. D. Perrine and R. G. Aitken. 

Elements of Comet 1898 g (Giacobini). 

This comet was discovered by Mr. Giacobini, of the Nice 
Observatory, June i8th. From the Nice observation of June 
19th, and my observations of June 23d and 27th, I have com- 
puted the following elements of the orbit: — 

T = 1898 July 25.84828 G. M. T. 
co= 220 41' 26". 5 I Ecliptic and 

O — 278 17 30 .3 V j^^^ Equinox of 1898.0 
i = 166 50 58 . 1 ; 
log^ = 0.175956 
(O-C): AA' cos r = - i".8; A^S' = + 2".i 

The comet is telescopic. When discovered it had a stellar 
nucleus of about the 9th magnitude and scarcely a trace of a tail. 
It was then near opposition, and consequently its tail was very 
unfavorably situated for observation. The comet has been dimin- 
bhing in brightness; it has also been moving rapidly westward, 
and by the end of the present month it will be reaching a position 
unfavorable for observation. 

On the evening of July 14th, I examined the comet with the 
36-inch refractor and found the nucleus small, stellar in appear- 
ance, and not brighter than a star of the nth magnitude. The 
coma was some 30" or 40" in diameter and a well-developed tail, 
some 5' or 6' in length, was visible. The tail was narrow, toler- 
ably bright near the nucleus, but becoming rapidly fainter as the 
distance from the nucleus increased. W. J. Hussey. 

July 18, 1898. 



15^ Publications of the 

Elements of Comet e 1898 (Perrine). 

From my observations of this comet on June 17th and 24th 

and July ist, I have computed the following system of parabolic 

elements: — 

T= 1898, August 16.23874 G. M. T. 

0) = 205° 12' l8".2) -. ,. . , .. 

^ , f Ecliptic and Mean 

^ = 259 10 16 .4 > -, r r ^ o 

^ I Equinox of 1898.0 
f = 70 o 10 .8 ; ^ ^ 

log q = 9.800186 

Residuals for the middle place are — 

O— C: AA' cos /3' = — 2".5; ^^ cos p' = -f 4".o 

These elements do not differ materially from the first set 
obtained. The comet has grown much brighter, has increased 
in size, and now has a short brush of a tail, extending away from 
the Sun. A nucleus has developed, and is at present fully as 
bright as a tenth-magnitude star. The entire comet is about 
equal in brightness to an eighth-magnitude star. 

Its rapid motion south and east will soon cause it to be lost in 
the Sun's rays. It should become visible to observers in the 
southern hemisphere towards the end of August, and should be 
even brighter then than now. C. D. Perrine, 

Mt. Hamilton, California, July 26, 1898. 

Fellowships at the Lick Observatory. 
Messrs. Russell T. Crawford, Frank E. Ross, and 
Harold K. Palmer, all graduates of the University of Cali- 
fornia, have been appointed to Fellowships in Astronomy at the 
Lick Observatory for one year, beginning on the ist of August, 
1898. Mr. E. F. CoDDiNGTON has also been reappointed Fellow 
in Astronomy. 

The Large Refractors of the World. 

The following list of large telescopes has been taken from the 
list published in The Odsefvatory for June, 1898, which includes 
all refractors having aperture of 13.4 inches or over. One or 
two corrections have been made in the third column. 

The fourth column gives the name of the maker of the object- 
glass; when it is known that the mounting was made by a second 
firm, a number is affixed, signifying respectively: (i) Warner 
& SwASEV; (2) Gautier; (3) Repsold; (4) Ransome and 
SiMMs; (5) Saegmuller. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 



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i6o Publications of the 



Astronomical Telegrams {Translation), 

Lick Observatory, June 12, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: ) /^c . 

To Students* Observatory, Berkeley: J ^ • • v 

A bright comet was discovered by E. F. Coddington by 
photography. It was observed by W. J. HussEV, June 11.7220 
G. M. T.; R. A. i6*» 24- ^s'.g; Decl. — 25° 14' 20". 

The daily motion of the comet is + 51' in R. A. and — 36' 
in Decl. 

Lick Observatory, June 13, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: ) ^h _» . „ >. 

To Students' Observatory, Berkeley: ) '^^'^^^ ^ 55 a.m.; 

Comet c 1898 (Coddington) was observed by E. F. Cod- 
dington, June 12.7288 G. M. T.; R. A. iC* 21" 34". i; DecL 
- 25° 52' 43". 

Lick Observatory, June 14, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: ) ^^ . ^n « x 

To Students' Observatory, Berkeley: ) ^^^"^ ^ ^^ ^' ^'^ 

Comet c 1898 (Coddington) was observed by E. F. Cod- 
dington, June 13.7583 G. M. T.; R. A. 16*^ i8- sVo; Decl. 
-26° 31' 48". 

Boston, Mass., June 14, 1898. 
To Lick Observatory: (Received i* lo" P. M.) 

Encke's periodic comet has been observed on its return by 
Tebbutt, at Windsor. Its position on June 11.8435 G. M. T. 
was R. A. 6** 53™ 29'.o; Decl. + 11° 34' 00". 

(Signed) John Ritchie, Jr. 

Lick Observatory, June 15, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: ) (gent 3*^ 25- P. M.) 
To Students' Observatory, Berkeley:) ^ ^ ^ 

Comet c 1898 (Coddington) was observed by R. H. Tucker 
with the Meridian Circle, June 13.7876 G. M. T.; R. A. 16*^ 17" 
58V4; Decl. - 26° 33' 3". 

Lick Observatory, June 15, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: \ ^^, ^ 

To Students Observatory, Berkeley:) 

A faint comet was discovered by C. D. Perrine on June 
14.974 G. M. T. in R. A. 3*' 29-; Decl. + 58° 36'. Its daily 
motion is -h 1° 34' in R. A. and + 12' in Decl. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i6i 

Lick Observatory, June i6, 1898. 

To Harvard College Observatory: | ,q h m \ 

To Students* Observatory, Berkeley:) • •/ 

Comet e 1898 (Perrine) was observed by C. D. Perrine, 
June 14.9740 G. M. T.; R. A. 3^ 29- iVo; Decl. + 58° 35' 25"; 
and June 15.9296 G. M. T.; R. A. 3^ 34" sy'.y; Decl. 58° 
24' 2". 

Lick Observatory, June 17, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: ) ^q h ■ 

To Students' Observatory, Berkeley:) '^^^''^ '^ "^^ ^'^'^ 

Comet e 1898 was observed by C. D. Perrine, June 16.9376 
G. M. T.; R. A. 3** 41"* ii'.9; Decl. + 58° 10' 49". 

Lick Observatory, June 17, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent lo*" 40"* a. m.) 

Wolf's periodic comet has been observed on its return by 
W.J. HussEY,June 16.9666 G. M. T.; R. A. 2>» i6°» i8'.9; Decl. 
+ 19^ 42' 44". 

Lick Observatory, June 17, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 3* 35" p. M.) 

Elements and ephemeris* of Comet e 1898 (Perrine) were 
computed by C. D. Perrine andR . G. Aitken as follows : 

T = 1898, August 17.400 G. M. T. 

0, = 196° 46' ) T7 r .• ^ 

^ , ^ f Ecliptic and 

O = 260 06 > . . T- . r « « 

i Mean Equinox of 1898.0 
t= 69 42 ) 

q =z 0.7418 

Lick Observatory, June 18, 1898. 
To Har\'ard College Observatory: (Sent 10:20 a.m.) 

Elements and ephemerisf of Comet r, 1898 (Coddington) 
were computed by W. J. Hussey and E. F. Coddington as 
follows: — 

T = 1898, September 10:31 G. M. T. 

"^ r Ecliptic and 

73 59 / Mean Equinox of 1898.0 

z= 71 18 ) 
g= 1.7685 



* The ephemeris is here omitted, 
t The ephemeris is here omitted. 



i62 Publications of the 

Boston, Mass., June 21, 1898. 
To Lick Observatory: (Received 4:30 P. m.) 

Comet g 1898 (GiACOBiNi) was observed at Nice. June 
19.5079 G. M. T.; R. A. 20*^ 26- 40-.8; Decl. —21° 27' 6". 
The daily motion is — 2° 52' in R. A. and — 20' in Decl. 

(Signed) John Ritchie, Jr. 

Boston, Mass., June 27, 1898. 
To Lick Observatory: (Received 9.00 p. M.) 

Elements and ephemeris* of Cornet^ 1898 (Giacobini) were 
computed by Professor Kreutz as follows: — 

T= 1898, July 6.23 G. M. T. 
0,= 7° 36' \ 

0=278 31 \ Ecliptic and 

. ^ i Mean Equinox of 1898.0 

q= 1.5864 
This is a rough approximation. 

(Signed) John Ritchie, Jr. 

Independent Discovery of Comet c 1898. 
From a note in the Astranomiscke Nachrichien, No. 3500, it 
appears that Comet c 1898 (Coddington), discovered at the 
Lick Observatory on June nth, was discovered independently 
in Bukarest, on June 14th, by Mr. W. Pauly. Qouds inter- 
fered before he was certain of the cometary nature of the object; 
and it was not until June i6th that he telegraphed his discovery 
to the Central Stelle, at Kiel. As Mr. Pauly does not receive 
the astronomical telegrams distributed from Kiel, he was not 
aware that his discovery had been anticipated, though the comet 
was observed at various European observatories on June 13th 
and 14th. 

Conference of Astronomers and Physicists. 
The conference of astronomers and physicists held at the 
dedication of the Yerkes Observatory in October, 1897, ^^^ so 
successful that it has been decided to hold a second meeting this 
year, the meeting- place to be the Harvard College Observatory. 
The days of meeting are Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, 
August 1 8th, 19th, and 20th, 1898. These days were selected 
in order that vbiting astronomers might attend the meeting of 

* The ephemeris it here omitted. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 163 

the American Association for the Advancement of Science which 
will be held in Boston during the week beginning Monday, 
August 22d. 

According to Professor E. C. Pickering's circular letter, it 
is expected that numerous short papers will be presented infor- 
mally, illustrated, when desired, by lantern slides, and fully 
discussed. The work of the various departments of the Harvard 
College Observatory will be shown, and excursions will be 
planned to various neighboring scientific institutions. 

Obituary Notice.* 

William Augustus Rogers, Professor of Physics and As- 
tronomy in Colby University, Waterville, Maine, died at that 
place on March i, 1898, after an illness of several weeks, brought 
on by a severe fall. 

He was bom at Waterford, Connecticut, on November 13, 
1832. and graduated at Brown University in 1857. Soon after- 
wards he became Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy at 
Alfred University, in the State of New York. During his tenure 
of this office, he passed some time at the Observatory of Harvard 
College, and took part in its work under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Bond ; and he was subsequently engaged for fourteen 
months in the naval service of the United States during the 
Civil War, which broke out in 1861. In 1870, after much suc- 
cess at Alfred University, both as a teacher and as an investigator, 
he returned to Harvard College Observatory, under the direction 
of Professor Winlock, and was soon placed in exclusive charge 
of the new meridian circle mounted in that year. With this in- 
strument he undertook the observation of the zone from 49° 50' 
to 55° 10' north declination, as a part of the general revision of 
the Durchmusterungy proposed by the Astronomische Gesellschaft. 
The results of this work ai^e published in Vols. XV, XVI, XXV, 
XXXV and XXXVI of the Annals of the Astronomical Obser- 
vatory of Harvard College. Volumes X and XII of the same 
series contain the results of observations made in connection with 
the zone observations upon a selected list of stars in various 
declinations. Professor Rogers also made a series of observations 
for determining the absolute positions of certain stars, the re- 
duction of which he did not live to complete; but it is hoped that 
it can be finished in accordance with his intentions. 



• From AstrxmomUche Nachrichien^ No. 3499. 



1^4 Publications of the 

In making transit observations, Professor Rogers preferred to 
use double lines etched or ruled upon glass plates instead of 
spider lines. The experiments which he undertook in preparing 
such plates led him by degrees to elaborate investigations in the 
exact measurement of standards of length. He carried on these 
researches with great energy and perseverance, at the same time 
with his astronomical work, and with unusual success. It would 
be impracticable in the present notice to give even a brief account 
of this section of his labors, the results of which are, however, well 
known and appreciated among physicists. 

He was appointed Assbtant Professor of Astronomy at the 
Observatory in 1877, and held that office till 1886, when he re- 
signed it to accept the professorship at Colby University, where 
he spent the remainder of his life in the same active and zealous 
devotion to scientific pursuits by which he had always been dis- 
tinguished. While continuing to superintend the reduction of 
the observations which he had made at Cambridge, he also found 
time, not only for teaching, but for the pursuit of many physical 
investigations. Among others may be mentioned the study of 
the so-called X-rays, in which he engaged with an ardor which 
may perhaps have contributed to enfeeble his naturally vigorous 
constitution. 

Numerous contributions to scientific periodicals and to the 
proceedings of the learned societies of which he was a member, 
as well as the larger publications already mentioned, remain to 
attest his industry and capacity as a man of science, while the 
remembrance of his high character and cordial manners will long 
be cherished by those who knew him. 

Arthur Searle. 

Harvard College Observatory, May 6, 1898. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 165 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. R. G. AiTKKN President 

Mr. C. B. Hill First Vice-President 

Miss R. O'Halloran . Second Vice-President 

Mr. F. H. Sbarrs Third Vice-Presidtnt 

Mr. C. D. Pbrrine ; c ^ • 

Mr. F. R. ZiBL t Secretaries 

Mr. F. R. ZiBL Treasurer 

Boitrd 0/ Directors— ^\^iAx%. Aitkbn, Hill, Kbbler, Molbra, Miss O'Halloran, Messrs. 

Pbrrine, Pibrson, Sbarbs, St. John, von Gbldern, Ziel. 
Finance Committee — Messrs. Pibrson, von Gblobrn, Hill. 
Committee on Publication — Messrs. Aitken, Shares, von Gbldern. 
Library Committee— lAcssn, Sbarbs, Geo. C. Edwards, Miss O'Halloran. 
Cammittee on the Comet- Medai— Messrs. Keeler (ex-o^cio), Pierson, BtRCKHALTkR. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHICAGO SECTION. 
Executive Committee — Mr. Ruthven W. Pike. 

OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN SECTION. 
Executive Committee^Mr. Francisco Rodriguez Rev. 



NOTICE. 



The atteniion of new members is called to Article VIII of the By-Laws, which provides that 
the annual subscription, paid on election, covers the calendar year only Subsequent annual 
payments are due on January ist of each succeeding calendar year. This rule is necessary in 
order to make our book>keeping as simple as possible. Dues sent by mail should be directed to 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific Siq Market Street, San Francisco. 

It is intended that each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the Pub- 
licatians for the year in which he was elected to membership and for all subsequent years. If 
there have been (unfortunately) any omissions in this matter, it is requested that the Secretaries 
he at once notified, iu order that the missing numbers may be supplied. Members are requested 
to preserve the copies of the Publications of the Society as sent to them. Once each year a title* 
page and contents of the preceding numbers will also be sent to the members, who can then bind 
the numbers together into a volume. Complete volumes for past years will also be supplied, to 
members only, so far as the stock in hand is sufficient, on the payment of two dollars per volume 
to either of the Secretaries. Any non*resident member within the United Stales can obtain 
books from the Society's library by sending his library card with ten cents in stamps to the 
Secretary A. S. P., 819 Market Street, San Francisco, who will return the book and the card. 

The Committee on Publication desires to say that the order in which papers are printed in 
the Publications is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
first which are earliest accepted for publication. It is not pos!>ible to send proof sheets of papers 
to be printed to authors whose residence is not within the United Stales. The responsibility for 
tne views expressed in the papers printed rests with the writers, and is not assumed by the 
Society itselt. 

The titles of papers for reading should be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
as possible, as well as any changes in addresses. The Secretary in San Francisco will send to 
any member of the Society suitable stationery, stamped with the seal of the Society, at cost price, 
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cents. These prices include postage, and should l>e remitted by money-order or in U. S. postage 
stamps. The sendings are at the risk of the member. 

Those members who propose to attend the meetings at Mount Hamilton during the summer 
should communicate with "The Secretary Astronomical Society of the Pacific " at the rooms of 
the Society, 810 Market Street, San Francisco, in order that arrangements may be made for 
transportation, lodging, etc. 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHLW 
( February ^ Aprils Jttne, August ^ October^ December.) 




PUBLICATION 




Astronomical Society of the Pacific 



Vol. IX. San Francisco, October i, 1898. No. 64. 



THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SUN. I. 



By Prof. Dr. J. Scheiner. 



[Translated from the German in Himmel und Erde^ by Frbdrrick H. Shares.] 

The problem of determining the temperature of the Sun 
appears at first glance to be quite insolvable. It is well known 
that difficulties, scarcely to be overcome, oppose the attempts 
to determine accurate values for the high temperatures occur- 
ring in laboratory work and in technology; while for the 
highest temperatures which can be produced on the Earth, the 
problem has in no way been solved with satisfactory accuracy. 
How much greater, therefore, must be the difficulties when we 
attempt to determine the temperature of a body separated from 
us by nearly 100,000,000 miles, and which in consequence 
cannot be handled and manipulated as the burning or glowing 
object in the laboratory. In truth, the difficulties confronting 
the investigator are great, and so far they have in part proved 
insurmountable. 

But when have the mere difficulties of a problem prevented 
men from attempting a solution? On the contrary, they have 
proved an allurement; for the satisfaction incident upon the suc- 
cessful solution of a problem increases with the expenditure of 
energy necessary to obtain the result ; and with the great multi- 
tude the profit to be expected in fame and honor, and eventually 
in power and wealth, is a sufficient inducement. 

In the extraordinarily numerous attempts to determine the 
solar temperature this last incitement has not been present; for the 
result can have only a purely scientific, or at the most, a general 

The temperature scale used in this article is the Centigrade.— Translator, 



1 68 Publications of the 

interest for mankind — never such an interest as is aroused by the 
opening of new lines in technology, or by the introduction of 
new industrial methods. 

In the earliest times it was recognized that man owed his very 
existence to the Sun, the dispenser of light and heat. This 
dependence has been acknowledged in various ways : by the 
universal division of time into days and years according to the 
motion of the Sun, a custom dating from the remotest antiquity ; 
by his introduction as the source of life into the mythologies of 
many peoples; and even at the present day by his presence as 
the central idea in the religion of the Sun Worshipers. 

In astronomical science the Sun was considered for centuries 
as a burning heavenly body, burning as a piece of wood bums 
in our own atmosphere; but at the beginning of the present century 
this idea fell into disrepute through the influence of Herschel, 
who assumed the Sun itself to be a dark body surrounded by an 
intensely luminous and radiant atmospheric shell. In apparent 
agreement with this theory was the evidence aflforded by sun- 
spots, whose dark centers were thought to be layers of clouds 
seen through openings in the photosphere protecting the solar 
surface from the intense radiation of the atmosphere above. 
With a means of protection from heat thus provided, it was 
characteristic of the thought of the time to fancy the Sun inhabit- 
able. The living being able to recognize the all-ruling God, and 
therefore in a position to attain the highest goal of nature, was, 
according to that thought, the crown of creation, and an uninhab- 
itable world was therefore without reason. To-day such specula- 
tions are without influence for the majority of investigators. We 
admire no longer the harmonious ordering of the universe without 
recognizing the existing arrangement as only one of an infinitely 
great number of possible arrangements — the one which best con- 
forms to the conditions of nature, or which can best adjust itself 
to them. 

Another idea in harmony with Herschel's theory was that 
the shining envelope of the Sun did not possess an especially 
high temperature, that it merely shone, and that heat was gener- 
ated only when the rays fell upon some body. 

In the middle of the century two great revolutionary discoveries 
were made which dispatched with a single blow all such ideas. 

They were the law of conservation of energy with the related 
mechanical theory of heat, and the principles of spectrum analysis. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 169 

It would lead too far to explain these in detail here, and merely 
the final results in their relation to the solar constitution as 
accepted by the majority of scientists will be given, with the risk 
that such a procedure will be unsatisfactory to many. 

We are to imagine the Sun as an enormous glowing ball of 
gas, whose temperature diminishes from the center outward. At 
a certain depth, and in consequence of causes analogous to those 
acting in our own atmosphere, a part of one or more of the 
glowing gases is condensed into cloudlike forms. The layer 
containing these is called the photosphere ; it is the region from 
which the bulk of the heat and light are emitted, and forms at the 
same time the visible sharp outline of the Sun. With this idea 
of the solar constitution it appears that properly one cannot speak 
of a temperature of the Sun, since for different parts the tempera- 
ture is quite different ; and if from the solar radiation we determine 
a temperature, it must refer to the point of emission, namely, the 
photosphere. Our problem is therefore limited to the determi- 
nation of the temperature of the photosphere. Here we meet 
difficulties at once; for in the study of radiation the constitution 
of the radiating body is by no means immaterial. This has been 
shown in a previous article in this periodical {Himmel und Erde, 
Bd. IX, Heft 6) in connection with the subject of emission, and 
may be assumed for the present purpose. There need be remem- 
bered only the instance where particles of glass and metal were 
subjected to the same temperature. Although the two substances 
were of the same temperature, the glass radiated but little heat 
and light as compared with the metal, or as it may be stated, 
the luminous power of the glass was far less than that of the 
metal. Since the emissive power of the particles of the photo- 
sphere is unknown, it is necessary to make an assumption as to 
its value, if we are to determine the temperature of the photo- 
sphere from the intensity of its radiation. The simplest assump- 
tion for this value is unity — /. e. equal to the emissive power of 
an absolutely black body. It is commonly known that upon 
this assumption we obtain the minimum value for the solar tem- 
p)erature. If the emissive power is less than i, the temperature 
is higher. In what follows it is to be understood that the term 
solar temperature refers to that temperature which the photo- 
sphere would have in case its emissive power were unity. This 
does not remove all of the difficulties, however. 

According to our assumptions the photosphere consists not 



lyo Publications of the 

of a solid body, but of a layer of gas in which solid particles are 
suspended. This layer itself can scarcely possess a uniform 
temperature ; the inner portions must be much hotter than the 
outer. Further, the inner portions emit radiation, which in its 
passage through the outer layers is only partially absorbed, and 
therefore we cannot speak of a definite temperature as belonging 
to the photosphere, but only of an average temp>erature which 
may be defined as the sum of the radiation effects from all parts of 
the photospheric layer. But with such a constitution there enters 
a variation in the emissive power. That quantity for the whole 
photosphere depends upon two factors, namely, the number of 
solid particles per unit area in the photosphere, and the absorbing 
power of the overlying layers of gas. If the emissive power 
of the particles themselves be unity, that of the photosphere, 
as a whole, will always be less than unity. The greater the 
number of particles, the greater will be the emissive power ; but 
by increasing the number of particles the emissive power can be 
made i only when the absorptive power of the outer layers is 
infinitesimal. 

It is not easy to see to what extent these factors are operative ; 
it results, however, that the assumption, emissive power = i > 
is not accurate, but that the value is too large. 

From the observation of solar radiation, therefore, we can 
solve only the following : To determine the temperature of an 
absolutely black body having the same apparent diameter as the 
Sun, and the same radiation effects. 

We are now in a position to understand what will be meant 
in future by temperature of the Sun. There are already con- 
siderable difficulties to Ije encountered in the solution of the 
problem, and they will increase quite extraordinarily as the 
solution progresses. 

It must now be asssumed that we are able with appropriate 
apparatus to determine with accuracy the intensity of solar radia- 
tion. In fact, this determination must be made at the bottom of 
our atmosphere, in which the rays have lost a portion of their 
energy by absorption. That this loss is not inconsiderable is a 
matter of common experience. The rising and setting Sun, for 
example, exercise but slight heating effect on account of the great 
absorption taking place in the long path through the atmosphere 
which the rays must traverse. 

We must then determine the exact diminution in the energy 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 171 

of radiation corresponding to a given altitude of the Sun. With 
the theoretical part of this determination we cannot here concern 
ourselves ; it is closely related to the theory of refraction in our 
atmosphere, and its comprehension presupposes a knowledge of 
mathematics not to be expected of the general reader. Such an 
understanding is unnecessary, for in practice we can do without 
the theory of extinction. We need only apparatus for measuring 
the intensity of solar radiation for all altitudes of the Sun from 
horizon to zenith. The values thus obtained for the loss by 
absorption can be plotted as ordinates on co-ordinate paper, with 
the corresponding altitudes as abscissae, and a curve can be drawn 
through the plotted points. If for a later observation the loss 
by absorption for a certain altitude is desired, it can be read from 
the curve. A graphical method of this sort leads to the same 
results as those obtained by theory combined with observations, 
but even this simple procedure becomes exceedingly complicated 
on account of the variable absorptive power of air. At the out- 
set the absorptive power varies with the barometric height, but 
since absorption depends upon the number of particles encoun- 
tered by the ray, it is possible to consider the absorptive power 
proportional to the barometric height, which leads to a simple 
reduction. In a similar manner the altitude of the observer 
above sea-level can be taken into account. But far more uncertain 
is the dependence of absorption upon water vapor, the amount 
of which in the atmosphere is subject to sudden and extreme 
variations. It cannot be taken into account with accuracy since 
its value can be determined only for points near the surface of 
the earth, and not for the upper layers through which the solar 
rays must also pass. Again, the effect of the light cloudlike 
formations of the upper atmosphere, recognized by their whitish 
ap(>earance on the blue sky, is uncertain, and cannot be allowed 
for numerically. Thus the actual absorption for each day, often- 
times for each hour, is different, and inasmuch as only mean 
values can be found, important errors enter into individual deter- 
minations whose effect can be eliminated, in a measure, only by 
the use of a great number of observations. 

At the present day it is possible to determine the effect of 
absorption accurately to within, perhaps, ten per cent, of its true 
value, so that the corrected radiation values corresponding to the 
true solar radiation without an atmosphere are accurate, so far as 
they are affected by this one uncertainty, to a proportional amount 



172 Publications of the 

We have proceeded so far as to get values for the solar radia- 
tion unaffected by our atmosphere, and we now come to a descrip- 
tion of one of the most important points of the whole problem, 
the measurement of the radiation. At first sight this does not 
appear difficult \ e. g, ^ thermometer which has been in the shade 
can be read and then exposed to the solar radiation; the column 
of mercury immediately rises and comes to rest 12° to 14° higher 
up. Radiation has increased the reading by this amount, and 
fi-om this data we can determine a value for the amount of radiation, 
but the value would be only approximate at best; it may be in 
error one hundred per cent., or more. 

It is an inviolable physical law that every body radiates heat 
in all directions, the amount of which depends only on the tem- 
perature of the radiating body, and not upon the temperature of 
those surrounding it. The higher the temperature, the greater 
is the amount of radiation. The same law holds equally for the 
surrounding bodies, and it thereby follows that a body of a tem- 
perature higher than its neighbors must lose heat, while those of 
a lower temperature must gain. The tendency is to set up a uni- 
formity of temperature throughout all the bodies in question. It 
may be remarked incidentally that this is the condition toward 
which the whole universe tends — to an equality of temperature 
for all bodies and parts of bodies, be they large or small. The 
outlook for the future is a dismal one; for ultimately every source 
of energy, whether it lie in animate or in inanimate material, must 
become exhausted. We may console ourselves with the thought 
that an infinitely long time will be required for this condition of 
things to come about. 

If now we subject a thermometer to solar radiation, and find, 
after a time, that the column of mercury comes to rest in a 
higher position than in shadow, it can be said that from this 
moment on, the radiation of the thermometer is equal to the 
energy received from the surrounding objects, not merely from 
the Sun, but also from the ground, from the clouds, from build- 
ings, etc. The slightest variation in the position of the instrument 
changes its distance from some of the radiating bodies, and con- 
sequently the indicated temperature. Even the radiation from 
the screen used to protect the thermometer in determining the 
difference between shade and sunlight modifies the result. 

The observations must be made in open air; for the introduc- 
tion of glass into the path of the rays would seriously affect the 



Astronomical Society of the PcLcific. i73 

result. But here air-currents, even the lightest puff, prove dis- 
turbing sources of error, since, in general, they are of a different 
temperature from the thermometer, and either give up or take 
away heat. 

Besides these external sources of error, there is a whole series 
of internal ones, depending upon, and varying with, the construc- 
tion of the apparatus used. It is, therefore, not surprising that 
the accurate measurement of radiation of the Sun is far from a 
satisfactory solution — satisfactory to the scientist who desires to 
obtain in his investigations the highest possible degree of accuracy. 
•If in the measurement of solar radiation we are satisfied to accept 
an accuracy of twenty per cent., as will be done in what follows, 
in order to gain some insight into the matter^ the problem may 
be considered as solved. Instruments designed for the measure- 
ment of solar radiation are collected together under the name of 
actinometers, of which certain forms are called pyrheliometers. 
These instruments are best classified according to whether they 
are arranged to give absolute or relative measurements of the 
energy of radiation. 

With the latter sort is to be included the simple thermometer, 
alternately exposed to light and shadow, and also thermo-electric 
apparatus, the bolometer,- etc., whose purpose is understood 
without further explanation, since they give only differences of 
temperature. Instruments of the first sort, for our purpose, are 
of greater importance. They indicate not how much the tem- 
perature of a body is increased by solar radiation, but how much 
heat is conducted to the apparatus by the radiation; they serve 
to measure the energy of the solar radiation. The temperature 
degree is a measure of the intensity of the heat; while for the 
energy a much more complicated unit must be introduced, 
namely, the calorie, by which we mean the amount of heat which 
must be applied to one gram of water at o°, in order to raise its 
temperature to i°. Ten calories, therefore, can be used in an 
infinite number of ways; e, g. i gram of water can be raised to 
io°, or ID grams of water to i °, or 5 grams of water to 2*^, etc. 
Water is chosen as a standard, each substance requiring a rela- 
tively different amount of heat to produce a given temperature 
effect. Much less heat is required to raise a gram of iron 1° than 
a gram of water, and the number expressing the ratio of the 
amounts of heat required to produce the same increase in tem- 
perature in the same amounts of water and a given substance is 



174 Publications of the 

called the specific heat of the substance. For example, the 
specific heat of iron is o.ii, which means that, to raise i gram of 
iron 1° o. II calories is required. 

The determination of the number of calories alone is not sufli- 
cient for the determination of the heat conducted by radiation; 
for the amount received increases with the time during which the 
radiation acts, and with the increase of the surface exposed to 
the rays. 

The energy of radiation is therefore expressed in calories, 
referred to i square centimeter of surface and to a duration of 
radiation of one minute. Every actinometer must have as an essen-- 
tial part a surface which is exposed to the radiation, and whose 
area and specific heat are accurately known. It is very important 
that the surface should absorb as much as possible of the radia- 
tion, which means that it must be rough and black; a polished 
silver mirror, for example, is scarcely affected by the solar rays. 

The first to concern himself with this problem was Pouillet, 
who made his experiments in 1838. The pyrheliometer used by 
him was of the following construction: — 

One end of a flat cylindrical vessel of sheet-silver was black- 
ened with soot, and placed so that the solar rays fell perpen- 
dicularly upon it. The vessel was filled with about 100 grams of 
water, whose increase in temperature was measured by a ther- 
mometer projecting into the vessel. During the observation the 
vessel was rotated about its axis, in order that the contents 
might become of the same temperature throughout. Many later 
observers have retained Pouillet's method in its essentials, and 
have introduced only slight modifications; for example, Crova 
used mercury instead of water. 

Of an entirely different construction was the actinometer of 
ViOLLE. The surface exposed to radiation was small, and was 
protected from wind and the radiation of surrounding objects by 
a complete covering of constant temperature. The blackened 
bulb of a thermometer served as the surface, and it was placed in 
the center of a large double-walled sphere, which was kept at a 
constant temperature by flowing water. The exposure of the 
thermometer bulb to radiation was made possible by a tube pass- 
ing from the center outward, which contained a diaphragm of the 
same diameter as the thermometer bulb. When the tube was 
directed toward the Sun, the bulb lay in the path of the rays. 

As a third fundamental type of actinometer, we may consider 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i75 

that of Angst 6m. It consisted essentially of two equal copper 
discs, blackened upon one side and exposed to the Sun. In the 
centers of the unexposed surfaces of these discs were attached 
thermo-elements, which connected with a galvanometer gave 
accurately the temperature of the discs. The two discs were 
alternately exposed to the radiation and their differences of tem- 
perature measured. An especial advantage of this apparatus 
(constructed in 1887) over the others is its symmetrical arrange- 
ment, by means of which several external sources of error are 
excluded. 

It may be further stated, that with none of these apparatus is 
it necessary to allow the radiation to act until no further increase 
of temperature is perceptible. With short intervals of alternation 
between light and shade, it is possible to deduce the desired 
quantities from appropriate formulae. 

There is yet a whole series of aclinometers which have been 
used, but they can all be referred to one of the three types above, 
and do not need further explanation. On the contrary, of especial 
interest are the numbers which have been obtained for the energy 
of radiation of the Sun by means of these various instruments. 
Arranged chronologically, they show a decided increase, corres- 
ponding to the development of apparatus and methods of obser- 
vation. 

Obsbrvbr. Year.« Calories. 

pouillet 1838 1.76 

Forbes 1842 1.82 

Hagen i860 1.9 

ViOLLE 1875 2.54 

Crova 1878 2.3 

Langley 1884 3.07 

Savelief 1880-1890 3.47 

Pernter 1880-1890 3.28 

Angstrom 1894 4.0 

From this series of values, there appears to be no question 
but that the true value of the energy of solar radiation, or the so- 
called solar constant, lies between 3.5 and 4.0 calories, and that 
we may take, as the most probable value, 3.75, which it will be 
noticed, is about double the first determinations. 

At the end of this article, several interesting computations 
will be carried through with the aid of this constant, but we will 
now proceed with the main problem. 



176 Publications of the 

With a variation of only fifty per cent, in the deter- 
minations of solar radiation, a similar variation in the deduced 
values of the solar temperature might be expected. This is 
not the case, however; the determinations of this tempera- 
ture differ from each other so enormously, that in conse- 
quence the results have long since been viewed with a certain 
contempt For example, it may be noted that Pouillet 
deduced the round number 1,500° for the solar temperature, 
while Secchi, early in 1870, with a similar apparatus, found 
the value 10,000,000°. 

Wherein, then, do these inconceivable differences enter ? The 
answer to this question leads us at once to the most difficult, and 
at the same time the most interesting, part of our problem. It 
is required to determine from relatively small differences of tem- 
perature the value of an extremely high temperature, and naturally 
any error in the temperature difference appears enormously multi- 
plied in the result. Let us begin, for example, with an error of 
1° in a temperature difference of 10°; if the true result should be 
10,000°, it will appear, in consequence of the error, increased by 
1,000° This, however, in itself is insufficient to explain the great 
discrepancies which occur; a much more uncertain source of error 
arises from a lack of knowledge concerning the law of radiation — 
the law connecting the temperature of the radiating body with 
the energy of the radiation emitted. A law of this sort can be 
deduced from observations ,in the laboratory. A sheet of plati- 
num, for example, can be heated to a temperature of 1,000°, 
and then its radiation can be studied. But aside from the great 
practical difficulties which oppose such investigations, there is the 
unfortunate circumstance that the temperature of the Sun is 
doubtless far hig^her than any temp)erature which can be produced 
for measurement in the laboratory; from the relation between 
radiation and temperature from 0° to 1,000° must be inferred the 
relation for temperatures from 1,000° to 10,000°. 

If the relation between temperature and radiation be plotted 
as a curve, with temperatures as abscissae, that part of the curve 
between 0° and 1,000° can be accurately determined by observa- 
tion. The course of the nine-tenths of the curve beyond 1,000° 
can be judged only from the course of the first tenth, and it is 
evident that beginning with 1,000°, it may take courses whose 
ordinates for higher temperatures vary enormously. Such an 
uncertainty it was which affected Secchi's determination; and 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ^77 

most significant is the result when Secchi*s observations are 
reduced by the same law as used by Pouillet. A temperature 
of 1,400° is thus obtained from the same numbers, which with 
the application of another law by Secchi gave 10,000,000°. 

The famous Newton was the first to investigate the relation 
between radiation and the temperature of the radiating body. 
He came to the conclusion that the rate of cooling of a radiating 
body is directly proportional to the difference in temperature 
between the radiating body and the bodies surrounding it. It is 
assumed here that the radiating body is of a uniform temperature 
throughout, and that its power of emitting heat is infinitely great. 
These ideal conditions are the more nearly satisfied the slower 
is the cooling of the surface, i, e, the smaller is the temperature 
difference. They are not satisfied in the case of the Sun, 
although it cannot be denied that with a body gaseous at the 
surface, like the Sun, the convection currents of the gas may 
afford a certain approximation to the ideal conditions. 

It has been shown that Newton's law of cooling can be con- 
sidered only as a rough approximation, applicable for small 
temperature differences, but quite misleading when these differ- 
ences are large. In recent times the most various attempts have 
been made to determine a law which should be valid for the 
highest temperatures. The most important of these will now be 
noticed. 

First are the French physicists Dulong and Petit, who con- 
tinued Newton's investigations. They found as a satisfactory 
law for the temperature interval of 280° used by them, that the 
amount of heat radiated by a body diminished according to a 
geometrical progression with a uniform diminution of tempera- 
ture. No theoretical considerations can be advanced in favor of 
the applicability of this purely empirical law to higher tempera- 
tures; and to-day there is no doubt that values of the solar 
temperature extrapolated by means of this law are too small, but 
not in the degree in which values obtained by Newton's law are 
too large. It may be remarked that Pouillet computed 
according to the law of Dulong and Petit, while Secchi used 
Newton's law. 

A second law applicable to temperatures between 0° and 300° 
was deduced by Rosetti; its form involves a mathematical 
expression not easily expressed in words. 

Only during the last decades have considerable advances been 



i?^ Publications of the 

made in the determination of the form of this law. First among 
them is the somewhat complicated mathematical form found by 
Weber, a Swiss, which represents satisfactorily all the experi- 
mentally deduced relations up to i,ooo°, but which is not suscep- 
tible of a theoretical interpretation. The Austrian physicist 
Stefan has determined an extremely simple law, which, with a 
slight modification, retains its validity to 1,300^, as shown by 
recent tests by the Berlin physicists 'Lum me R and Pringsheim. 
Stefan's law states simply: The amount of heat radiated by a 
body is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute tempera- 
ture — to the 3.96 power according to Lummer and Pringsheim. 
Besides the extreme simplicity of this law, there is the circumstance 
that Boltzmann has been able to establish it theoretically, from 
the electro-magnetic theory of light and the mechanical theory of 
heat. 

It is of especial importance to note that the two last-named 
laws of Weber and Stefan differ so slightly for the highest 
temperatures yet investigated, that it is extremely probable the 
values obtained by extrapolation in their application to the Sun 
will be near the true values. 

It is possible to conclude from the agreement of the laboratory 
experiments that the resulting solar temperatures will not vary 
by more than half the true value, which, in view of the difficulties 
of the problem, is really a satisfactory solution. With the appli- 
cation of one of these laws, it is therefore possible to bring order 
into the chaos of solar temperatures, as is shown by the follow- 
ing list, computed according to Stefan's law: — 

Obsbrvbr. Solar Tbmpbraturb. 

pouillet 5,600° 

Secchi 5,400 

ViOLLE 6,200 

SORET 5*500 

Langley 6,000 

Wilson and Gray 6,200 

Paschen 5,000 

RosETTi io,ooo{;s:^i; 

There is here doubtless justification for the assumption that 
the solar temperature is greater than 5,000° and less than 
10,000°; the value T = 6,25o° corresponds to the mean of the 
above determinations. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, i79 

The reader will perhaps breathe again in the hope that he is 
now to be released from the difficulties of the discussion of the 
solar temperature; but this hope is unfortunately not to be 
satisfied, for the value T thus obtained represents in no way the 
temperature of the photosphere as it was in the beginning 
defined, but only that temperature which the photosphere would 
have on the assumption that the radiation has come unimpeded 
to the Earth. But the Sun possesses an atmosphere which, 
similarly to that of the Earth, absorbs a portion of the radiation; 
the actual temperature is therefore higher than the value we have 
obtained. That such an atmosphere exists is shown by the direct 
view of the Sun through a telescope. Thus seen, the disc is not 
uniformly bright, as it must be in the case of a simple glowing 
sphere, but at the edges is much darker, owing to the longer path 
through the Sun*s atmosphere which must be traversed by the 
rays here than at the center. It is possible to compute the 
relative lengths of the latter through the atmosphere for different 
points of the disc, which, combined with the directly observed 
increase in absorption toward the limb, leads to the law of absorp- 
tion, and thus it is possible to compute the total absorption of 
heat rays due to the Sun's atmosphere. Observations have 
shown that, as in the case of the Earth's atmosphere, different 
kinds of rays are very differently absorbed — the nearer they lie 
to the violet end of the spectrum, the greater is the absorption. 
The rays lying at the other end of the spectrum are least 
absorbed, though even here very considerably, since the most 
careful observations by H. C. Vogel, and the recent determina- 
tion of Frost show that the transmission coefficient lies between 
0.72 and 0.79. It is therefore necessary to multiply the deter- 
mined radiation by 1.5 in order to get the true value, which 
increases the solar constant to 5.6 calories. How the solar 
temperature is now to be computed is as yet undetermined, for 
Stefan's law is no longer applicable; we may assume that T lies 
between 7,000° and 10,000°. 

For a comparison with terrestrial temperatures, it may be 
remarked that the temperature of the electric arc varies from 
3,000° to 3,500°; the temperature of a very long electric spark 
is much higher, running up to 20,000°, and even higher. 

(To be concluded in No. 65.) 



i8o Publications of the 

NEW OBSERVATIONS OF THE OTTO STRUVE 
DOUBLE STARS. 



By W. J. HussKY. 



Early in the history of the Pulkowa Observatory a plan of 
work for the meridian -circle, afterwards materially modified, con- 
templated the exact determination of the places of all stars of 
the Northern Hemisphere to the seventh magnitude, inclusive. 
At that time there was no complete Hst of such stars, and to form 
one, giving their approximate places, was the first step in this 
piece of work. The formation of this preliminary catalogue was 
undertaken by Otto Struve. With the help of two assistants, 
he made the necessary observations, with the 15-inch refractor, 
between August 26, 1841, and December 7, 1842. In this short 
interval he examined with the finder of the large telescof>e every 
portion of the sky north of the celestial equator, and selected 
the stars (about 17,000 in number) to be included in the cata- 
logue. Each one selected was brought to the center of the field 
of view of the large telescope, and its approximate position was 
obtained by noting the time and the readings of the hour and 
declination circles; at the same time it was carefully examined, 
to see whether it was double. This examination resulted in a 
list of 514 objects known, or thought to be, double or multiple, 
and new to science. In this list, the distances between the com- 
ponents were all to be less than 32", and the magnitude of the 
principal star, or, in the case of close doubles, the combined 
magnitudes of the two, did not descend below 7.8. As compan- 
ions, all objects at distances less than 16", and bright enough to 
be readily measurable with the 15-inch telescope, were admitted; 
while for distances between 16" and 32" the limiting inferior 
magnitude of the companion adopted was 8.9. 

This list of double stars, discovered at Pulkowa, was first pub- 
lished in 1843. Between this time and 1850, sixteen additional 
pairs were discovered, and were included in the second edition, 
published in 1850, under the title ** Catalogue revu et corrig6 
des ^toiles doubles, decouvertes ^ Poulkowa." Subsequently 
other discoveries were made, increasing the list to a total of 547 
objects, which are now known as the Otto Struve double stars, 
or as the double stars of the Pulkowa catalogue. They are 
denoted by the symbol 02. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific, i8i 

Many of the 17,000 stars of the preliminary catalogue were 
examined under poor atmospheric conditions. On this account 
a large number of important pairs were overlooked, and on the 
other hand a considerable number of stars were admitted to the 
list of 514 which were of a very doubtful character. A careful 
examination of these under better atmospheric conditions led to 
the rejection of 106 of them, either on account of their being 
single or having distances surpassing the limits adopted, or hav- 
ing companions too faint for exact micrometric measurement 
with the 15-inch telescope, or because of clerical errors in the 
readings or records, due in part, perhaps, to the notation em- 
ployed in the formation of the catalogue. These 106 stars were 
omitted in the second (1850) edition of the Pulkowa catalogue, 
and are known as the Otto Struve rejected stars. 

Volume IX of the Pulkowa Publications contains the double- 
star observations made by Otto Struve during a period of 
thirty-seven years, from the establishment of the Pulkowa Observ- 
atory, in 1839, to 1875. A section of this work is devoted to the 
441 Otto Struve stars not rejected, and contains about 2,080 
observations of them. Nearly all these stars were first ob- 
served in the three or four years immediately following 1843. 
After the beginning of 1852 only about half of the stars were 
observed, after i860 less than a third, and after 1870 less than 
one-fifth. 

A second series of measures of equal importance was made 
by Baron Dembowski between 1865 and 1878. In spite of the 
small size of his instrument (7)4 inches aperture) he succeeded 
in obtaining excellent measures of all but the most difficult of 
these stars. Out of the 547 objects enumerated in the Pulkowa 
catalogue, he measured 432, making altogether 2,155 observa- 
tions of them. 

These are the only large, and in a measure complete, series of 
observations of these stars that have been published. Certain of 
them have been observed many times by different observers. 
These are, in general, those which have proved to be binaries, 
and those which have shown sufficient motion to make it desira- 
ble to have a fairly continuous series of measures of them. 

Early in the present year, I began to measure the Otto 
Struve stars for the purpose of obtaining for this epoch determi- 
nations of the relative positions of all of them that are given in 
Vol. IX of the Pulkowa Publications. I subsequently added to 



i82 Publications of the 

this list such of the rejected stars as were measured by Dembow- 
SKI, and some others which Otto Struve rejected as single, 
but which other observers have since found to be double. The 
observing list, as thus made up, contains nearly five hundred 
stars, and it will require some 1,700 or 1,800 observations to 
obtain complete sets of measures of all of them. 

The conditions have been favorable for the prosecution of this 
piece of work. During the past eight months I have made 
about 1,350 observations of 414 different stars. Three hundred 
and forty-one stars have been observed on three or four nights 
each, and are regarded as finished. It is the plan to continue 
the work until, in general, each star has been measured on at 
least three different nights. 

Most of the observations are being made with the 12-inch 
telescope. All difficult pairs are, however, measured with the 
36- inch refractor. Measurements are made only on nights when 
the conditions are favorable for securing good results. 

The following notes relate to some of the stars that I have 
found of interest: 

The observations of 02 283, by Otto Struve and Dem- 
BOWSKi, give rather discordant distances. I attempted to mea- 
sure it with the 12-inch telescope, but found it difficult to obtain 
satisfactory measures of distance with that instrument. On 
examining it with the 36-inch refractor, I found the faint star a 
close double; distance, i".27; magnitudes, 11^ and 12; and the 
line joining them making an angle of about 10^ with that which 
connects the principal star with the brighter of the faint compo- 
nents. With this configuration, it is probable that the presence 
of the fainter companion, by reason of its not being clearly seen, 
has an influence on the distance measures made with small 
telescopes. 

Some months ago, I found 02 341 single (see these Publica- 
tions^ Vol. X, p. 121,) whereas the observations from 1845 to 
1886 had seemed to indicate that jthe two components were rela- 
tively fixed at a distance of about o".4 or o".5. A recent obser- 
vation, 1898, 707, shows an elongation ©".09, and a change of 
quadrant, 254^.3. The smaller star has already passed perias- 
tron, and an increase of distance may now be expected. 

While observing OS 351, I discovered the south component 
to be a close double, of which I have made the following 
measures:— 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. 183 



1898.572 


309°-9 


o".33 


592 


307 .6 


.36 


595 


312 .9 


.32 


707 


309 -6 


.36 


1898.62 


3io°.o 


^9f m A 
.34 



The north star A is decidedly brighter than B, though less 
bright than B and C combined. These considerations reverse the 
quadrant of the OS pair as given by previous measures. The 
Otto Struve pair has a distance of about o".6, and its components 
have shown no certain motion. In a private letter, Professor 
BuRNHAM states that he can recall no other instance of three 
stars so close together. I have, however, more recently found 
another case. It is that of OS 476. 

The north component of OS 476 is a very close double. My 
measures are as follows : — 

1898.630 227^.7 o".i5 

690 229 .5 o .17 

707 224 .4 o .13 

1898.68 227°. 2 o".i5 

In this case the Otto Struve pair has a distance of ©".54, 
and has shown no motion. 

I have looked very carefully for OS 546 on several occasions 
with both the 12- and 36-inch telescopes without finding it. 
Dembowski had a similar experience. In the Pulkowa catalogue 
of 5,634 stars, Romberg gives number 4093 as OS 546. I have 
examined this star, and do not find it double. Otto Struve 
measured OS 546 but once, and speaks of its being near S 2396. 
The measure he gives, including position angle, distance, magni- 
tudes of components, and position in the sky, all agree so closely 
with those of OS 362 as to make it highly probable that it is 
identical with the latter. 

Lick Observatory, September 18, 1898. 



1 84 Publications of the 

THE MOTION OF ^CEPHEI IN THE LINE OF SIGHT. 



By W. W. Campbell. 

In the course of our determinations of stellar velocities in the 
line of sight, I have found that the star i\ Cephei has a very- 
great velocity toward the solar system. Four spectrum plates 
of this star have been secured and measured by Mr. Wright 
and myself. They yield the following velocities in kilometers 
per second:— _ g^^ 

- 87.2* 
-86.2 
-86.9 
-86.2 



Mean — 86.8 

The equivalent in English miles is — 53.9. 

The motion of i\ Cephei at right angles to the line of sight is 
about 0.8 second of arc annually. 

We have confirmed the resultsf obtained by Dr. Belopolskv, 
at Pulkowa, for the star £ Mer cutis. Our results from four plates, 
together with those previously obtained by Dr. Belopolsky 
from seven plates, are as follows: — 

Belopolsky. Campbell. 

— 68 km. — 69. 1 km. 

- 84 - 70.4 

- 75 - 70.0 
-67 -7i-it 

— 66 — 70.9 
-64 

-69 

Means — 70 km. — 70.3 km. 

The equivalent result in English miles is — 43.7. 

It should be noticed that these stars are situated in the part of 
the sky toward which the solar system is moving, and the above 
results are the sums of the stars* motion toward our system, and 
of our system toward them. If we assume that the solar system is 

♦Measure of the same plate by Mr. Wright. 

t Published in Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3184. 

\ Measure of the same plate hv Mr. Wright. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 185 

moving toward the point in the sky whose Right Ascension is 
267° and whose Declination is + 3i°> with a velocity of 17 kilo- 
meters per second, then the solar components toward ly Cephei 
and £ Herculis are respectively 12.7 and 16.4 kilometers per 
second. Applying these corrections, the velocities of these stars 
with reference to the sidereal system become — 

for -q Cephei^ — 74. i km. per second. 

for Ji Herculis, —53.9 km. per second. 

Their equivalents in English miles are —46.0 and — 33.5. 



(THIRTIETH) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE COMET- 
MEDAL. 

The Comet- Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
has been awarded to E. F. Coddington. Fellow in Astronomy 
at the Lick Observatory, for his discovery of an unexpected 
comet on June 11, 1898. 

The Committee on the Comet- Medal, 

James E. Keeler, 
Wm. M. Pierson, 
August II, 1898. Chas. Burckhalter. 

(THIRTY-FIRST) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 
COMET-MEDAL. 

The Comet- Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
has been awarded to C. D. Perrine, Assistant Astronomer in 
the Lick Observatory, for his discovery of an unexpected comet 
on June 14, 1898. 

The Committee on the Comet- Medal, 

James E. Keeler, 
Wm. M. Pierson, 
August 14, 1898. Chas. Burckhalter. 

(THIRTY-SECOND) AWARD OF THE DONOHOE 
COMET-MEDAL. 

The Comet- Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
has been awarded to E. Giacobini, of the Observatory, Nice, 
France, for his discovery of an unexpected comet on June 18, 1898. 
The Committee on the Comet-Medal, 

James E. Keeler, 
Wm. M. Pierson, 
August 18, 1898. Chas. Burckhalter. 



1 86 Publications of the 

PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR NOVEMBER AND 
DECEMBER, 1898. 



By Professor Malcolm McNeill. 



Mercury is an evening star, and toward the end of the month 
it remains above the horizon an hour or more after sunset, and 
may be seen under favorable weather conditions. On November 
19th it is in conjunction with Venus, passing 1° 18' north of the 
latter. As the planets then set less than an hour after the Sun, it 
will be difficult to see them, unless the horizon is very free from 
cloud and haze. 

Venus is still an evening star, but is rapidly approaching 
inferior conjunction with the Sun, and after the middle of the 
month it will not be easy to see it. At the beginning of the 
month it has just passed its period of greatest brilliancy. 

Mars rises earlier, before 9 o'clock, at the end of the 
month. It moves about 8° eastward during the month through 
the constellation Cancer, On November nth it passes less than 
half of the Moon's diameter south of the fifth-magnitude star 
t\ Cancri, Its distance from the Earth decreases more than 
20,000,000 miles during the month, and at the close is about 
77,000,000. Its brightness increases about sixty per cent. 

Jupiter is a morning star, and rises from one to three hours 
before sunrise according to the time of the month. It is in the 
eastern part of the constellation Virgo, and moves about 6** 
eastward and 2° southward during the month. 

Saturn is still an evening star, and is not far enough away 
from the Sun toward the end of the month to be seen. It is in 
conjunction with Venus on November 23d, passing 4° to the 
north of the latter; but both planets are too near the Sun to be 
easily seen. 

Uranus is in conjunction with the Sun and changes from an 
evening to a morning star on November 25th, but remains too 
near the Sun to be seen. 

Neptune is above the horizon nearly the entire night, and is 
on the border line between Taurus and Gemini, 

December. 

The winter solstice comes and winter begins December 21st. 
II A.M. P. S. T. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 187 

Eclipses. There will be two eclipses during the month. The 
first is a partial eclipse of the Sun on December 13th. It is 
visible only in the South Pacific Ocean, and its greatest magni- 
tude is only a little more than one-fortieth of the Sun*s diameter. 

The second is a total eclipse of the Moon on December 27th, 
and will, in part at least, be visible throughout the entire country. 
Total eclipse will end at 4^ 27"" p.m. Pacific time, just about the 
time the Moon rises in the extreme western part of the United 
States. 

Mercury is an evening star at the beginning of the month, 
and comes to greatest eastern elongation on December 3d. For 
the first ten days of the month it sets an hour or more later than 
the Sun, and may be seen in the evening twilight on a clear 
evening. After that, it rapidly approaches the Sun, and passes 
inferior conjunction on December 21st, becoming a morning star. 
At the end of the month it rises an hour and a half before sunrise. 

Venus passes inferior conjunction with the Sun on December 
ist, and becomes a morning star. By December loth it rises 
more than hour before sunrise, and after that it may be seen in 
the morning twilight. 

Mars is getting into better position for evening observation, 
rising before 9 o'clock on December ist, and more than two 
hours earlier on December 31st. It moves eastward about 1° 
until December loth, and then moves westward 3° and north- 
ward 2° before December 31st. Its line of backward motion is 
about 2° north of the line it traced moving eastward in November. 
On December 29th, it passes about the Moon's diameter north 
of the fifth magnitude star y Cancri. During the month its 
distance from the Earth diminishes about 14,000,000 miles, and 
is about 63,000,000 at the close. Its brightness increases about 
fifty per cent, during the month. 

Jupiter rises about two hours earlier than during the corre- 
sponding period of November, at 2:20 a.m. on December 31st. 
It moves about 3° east and south in the constellation Virgo, 

Saturn is in conjunction with the Sun on December 6th, and 
becomes a morning star. It remains near the Sun, but may 
possibly be seen toward the close of the month in the morning 
twilight. 

Uranus is a morning star also, but its faintnes^ precludes its 
being seen until its distance from the Sun is greater. 

Neptune comes to opposition with the Sun on the evening of 
December 14th. 



1 88 



Publications of the 



Phases of the Moon. P. S. T. 



Last Quarter, 


H. M. 

^ov. 6, 6 28 A. M. 


Dec. 6, 


H. M. 

2 6 A. M. 


New Moon, 


Mov. 13, 4 20 p. M. 


Dec. 13, 


3 43 A. M. 


First Quarter, 


JJOV. 20, 9 5 A. M. 


Dec 19, 


7 22 p. M. 


Full Moon, ] 


Nov. 27, 8 39 P. M. 


Dec. 27, 


3 39 P. M. 






The Sun. 








R. A. 


Declination. 


Rises. 


Transits. 


Sets. 


189S. 


H. M. 


/ 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Nov. I. 


14 27 


- 14 32 


6 34 A.M. 


II 44 A.M. 


4 54PM. 


II. 


15 7 


- 17 31 


6 45 


II 44 


4 43 


21. 


15 48 


— 20 


657 


II 46 


4 35 


Dec. I. 


16 31 


— 21 52 


7 8 


II 49 


4 30 


II. 


17 14 


- 23 2 


7 17 


II 54 


4 31 


21. 


17 59 


- 23 27 


7 23 


II 58 


4 33 


31. 


»8 43 


- 23 5 


7 26 


12 3 P.M. 


4 40 






Mercury, 






Nov. I. 


14 58 


- 17 35 


7 15A.M. 


12 14 P.M. 


5 13 PM. 


II. 


16 


-22 17 


7 57 


12 37 


5 17 


21. 


17 3 


- 25 9 


8 34 


I I 


5 28 


Dec. I. 


18 I 


-25 48 


8 56 


I 20 


5 44 


II. 


18 34 


— 24 12 


8 42 


I 13 


5 44 


21. 


18 3 


— 21 23 


7 20 


12 3 


4 46 


31- 


17 25 


- 20 8 


5 56 
Venus. 


10 45 A.M. 


3 34 


Nov. I. 


16 54 


- 27 57 


9 57 A.M. 


2 II P.M. 


6 25 P.M. 


II. 


17 2 


— 27 36 


9 24 


I 40 


5 56 


21. 


16 54 


-25 58 


8 28 


12 51 


5 14 


Dec. I. 


16 32 


— 22 58 


7 13 


II 50 A.M. 


4 27 


II. 


16 10 


- 19 34 


5 59 


10 50 


3 41 


21. 


16 2 


- 17 17 


5 2 


10 2 


3 2 


31. 


16 10 


- 16 35 


4 28 

JhARS. 


9 30 


2 32 


Nov. I. 


8 13 


+ 21 28 


10 13 P.M. 


5 30 A.M. 


12 47 P.M. 


II. 


8 27 


+ 21 I 


9 50 


5 5 


12 20 


21. 


8 38 


+ 20 44 


9 23 


4 37 


II 51A.M. 


Dec. I. 


8 45 


+ 20 43 


8 51 


4 5 


II 19 


II. 


8 48 


+ 21 2 


8 13 


3 28 


10 43 


21. 


8 44 


-h2i 42 


7 29 


2 46 


10 3 


31. 


8 35 


+ 22 41 


6 36 


I 58 


9 20 






Jupiter. 






Nov. I. 


13 33 


- 832 


5 19 A.M. 


10 50 A.M. 


4 21 P.M. 


Dec. I. 


13 56 


— 10 42 


3 52 


9 15 


2 38 


31- 


14 6 


— 12 24 


2 20 


7 37 


12 54 



Astronomical Society of the Pctcific. 189 







Sa turn. 








Nov. I. 


16 37 


— 20 38 9 7A.M, 


I 54 P.M. 


6 


41 P.M. 


Dec. I. 


16 52 


— 21 7 7 25 


12 10 


4 55 


31- 


17 7 


- 21 30 5 44 
Uranus. 


10 27 A.M. 


3 


10 


Nov. I. 


16 I 


— 20 31 8 30A.M. 


I 17 P.M. 


6 


4 P.M. 


Dec. I. 


16 9 


— 20 52 6 42 


II 27 A.M. 


4 


12 


31- 


16 i6 


-21 II 4 53 

Neptune 


9 37 


2 


21 


Nov. I. 


5 36 


+ 22 7 35P.M. 


2 54 A.M. 


10 


I3A.M. 


Dec. I. 


5 33 


+ 21 57 5 34 


12 53 


8 


12 


31- 


5 30 


+ 21 55 3 29 


10 48 P.M. 


6 


7 




Eclipses 


OF Jupiter's Satellites, P. S. 


T. 






(Off left-band limb as seen in an invertinK telescope.) 










H. M. 




H. 


M. 


I. D. 


Nov. 14. 


5 55 A.M. I, D, 


Dec. 7. 


6 


5 A.M. 


II. D, 


15- 


5 40 A. M. II, D, 


10. 


2 


36 A.M. 


III, R. 


19. 


3 21 A.M. I, D, 


15. 


2 


27 A.M. 


I. D. 


23- 


2 17 A.M. II. D, 


17. 


5 


9 A.M. 


III. D, 


26. 


5 23 A.M. I. D, 


23. 


4 


21 A.M. 


III, R. 


26. 


7 18 A.M. I, D, 


30. 


6 


14 A.M. 


I. D. 


29. 


4 II A.M. I, D, 


Jan. I. 


12 


42 A.M. 






in, D, 


I. 


I 


9 A.M. 






HI, R, 


I. 


3 


3 A.M. 



NOTICES FROM THE LICK OBSERVATORY.* 
Prepared by Members of the Staff. 



New Gases in the Earth's Atmosphere. 

Our readers will remember notices in Vol. VII (pp. 6i and 
88) of these Publications^ calling attention to the discovery by 
Lord Rayleigh and Professor Ramsay of a new atmospheric 
gas called by them argon. These investigators and others have 
continued their researches along the same lines, being aided by 
the recent improvements made in the process of liquefying air 
by means of which extremely low temperatures may be produced. 
The result is the discovery of at least two new gases in the 
Earth's atmosphere, and of a third which may prove to be new. 

Messrs. Ramsay and Travers communicated to the Royal 
Society on June 3d of this year a preliminary note on krypton^ 
the first of these new gases. From 750 '^ *'™ of liquid air, they 
obtained 27 '^ *"" of a gas whose spectrum differs from that of any 
other known element. Besides many feeble lines, the spectrum 
exhibits two brilliant lines, one at X 5869 (very near the D3 line) 
and the other at A 5570. 

The properties of the new gas are not yet fully determined, 
but the discoverers venture the conjecture that its density will 
turn out to be 40, with an atomic weight of 80. By comparison 
of the length of a sound-wave in it and in air, krypton is shown 
to be monatomic and an element. 

The coincidence of the line A 5570 with the principal line of 
the Aurora has been noted by several observers, and it is sug- 
gested that we have **at last the true origin of that hitherto 
perplexing line.** In this connection, it is of interest to recall 
the experiments by Liveing and Dewar in passing sparks 



* Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California. 



192 Publications of the 

through small layers of liquefied oxygen, air, and nitrogen. (See 
brief review in Astrophysical Joumaly Vol. I, p. 88.) Under 
certain conditions of temperature, pressure, etc., the spectrum of 
liquid oxygen showed a line at X 5572. ** The wave-length of the 
auroral line is A 557 1.6; and the conditions of temperature and 
pressure in these experiments must have been somewhat similar 
to those under which the Aurora appears. This points, of 
course, to the probability of the auroral line being due to the 
oxygen of our atmosphere.*' 

Still more recently, Professor Ramsay and Dr. Norman 
Collie succeeded in liquefying a quantity of argon. It formed 
a colorless fluid, but two other products also resulted. These 
were a lighter gas which failed to liquefy, and a solid deposit 
which gathered on the sides of the tube. 

The lighter gas was drawn off and its spectrum examined. 
In Professor Ramsay's announcement to the Royal Academy, 
on June i6th, the spectrum of this gas, called by him iieon^ is 
described as containing a large number of strong lines in the red, 
orange, and yellow, and in the deep violet. Experiments to 
determine its density seemed to indicate that the gas had not 
been obtained in its pure form. 

These two gases are undoubtedly new elements; but the third, 
obtained from the solid frozen out of the argon, may yet prove to 
be a new compound of known elements, rather than a new 
element. This substance, called meiargon by its discoverers, has 
a density of 19.87, the density of argon being 19.94. ^^ 
spectrum showed many bands whose wave-lengths are closely 
coincident with those in the band spectrum of carbon and with 
three cyanogen bands, as was pointed out by Professor Schuster 
{Nature, Vol. LVIII, p. 199). 

The spectroscopic evidence is therefore strong that it is 
some carbon compound rather than a new element. Subsequently 
{Nature^ Vol. LVIII, p. 245), Messrs. Ramsay, Travers, and 
Baly describe precautions taken, and chemical tests applied, to 
exclude the possibility of any carbon existing in this gas, and ask 
for a suspension of judgment pending further investigation. 

R. G. AlTKEN. 

The Minor Planet (334) Chicago, 

This small planet was discovered, photographically, by Pro- 
fessor Max Wolf, at Heidelberg, August 23. 1892. While 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. i93 

^"^ attending the astronomical conferences held in connection with 
■ the World's Fair, August. 1893, he gave it the name Chicago, 

r^- The planet Chicago is of more interest than many of the 

T- asteroids, by reason of the nearness of its orbit to that oi Jupiter, 
^— and of the large perturbations which it experiences when it is in 
-'- the vicinity of the latter planet. In 1894, the two planets were 
' " near together, their distance being only 1.25 astronomical units. 
At that time Jupiter's perturbing force amounted to ihth of 
the attractive force of the Sun. 
^ The periodic times of the two planets are very nearly in the 

commensurable ratio of 2 to 3, the mean daily motion of Jupiter 
' being 299". 12836, and that of Chicago, 455". 998. VJhW^ Jupiter 
makes two revolutions about the Sun, Chicago makes slightly 
more than three. As a result, the consecutive returns of the two 
planets to those points in their orbits where they are nearest 
together fall at nearly the same places, allowing the perturba- 
tions to have an accumulative effect. These points, however, do 
not exactly coincide, but move slowly around the orbits, com- 
pleting a revolution only after a long interval of time. This 
insures the exbtence of very sensible inequalities of long period 
and of considerable changes in the values of some of the elements 
of the orbit of Chicago, The perturbing action of Jupiter 
will cause the eccentricity of the orbit of Chicago to decrease 
until it becomes zero (^Astrophysicat Joumai, December, 1897); 
this orbit will then be truly circular, and as the eccentricity 
passes on to negative values, the longitude of perihelion will 
change 180°. 

These considerations make it desirable to obtain at each 
opposition a sufficient number of observations of the planet 
Chicago to form a secure normal place, thus affording the data 
necessary for the basis and control of the theoretical investiga- 
tions relating to its orbit. With this object in view, I obtained 
observations of it on six nights in May and June of the present 
year with the 36-inch refractor, and on five of these nights 
observations were also made by Mr. Coddington. 

This planet is faint (i 2.1 magnitude), and at the time our 
observations were made it was passing through a region of the 
sky where faint stars of about its brightness are especially 
numerous. On this account, it would have been a matter of con- 
siderable difficulty to find the planet by examining the stars 
visually for motion, and the more so since it was nearly three- 



194 Publications of the 

quarters of a degree from its predicted place. This difficulty was 
removed by Mr. Coddington, who first photographed the 
region with the Crocker telescope, giving an exposure of three 
hours. He identified the planet by means of its trail, and derived 
an approximate correction to the ephemeris. He next prepared 
charts of the faint stars shown on his photographic plates, and 
inserted on them the predicted places of the asteroid for the 
times at which we intended to observe it. This proved very 
successful. At thfe time of the first observation, I selected the 
planet at the first trial, and within five minutes from the time 
when the telescope was pointed to the proper field had it identi- 
fied, by means of its motion. At the times of the other observa- 
tions we found it with almost equal ease. W. J. Hussev. 
Lick Observatory, September 13, 1898. 

The New Minor Planet, 1898 DQ, 

The minor planet, 1898 DQ^ discovered photographically by 
Witt at the Urania Observatory, Berlin, August 13th, promises 
to be of unusual interest. According to the preliminary elements 
of its orbit, computed by Berberich, its perihelion lies far within 
the orbit of Mars; and indeed so close does its path come to that 
of the Earth, that at the place of nearest approach they are 
separated by less than 15,000,000 miles. When nearest the 
Earth, the planet's equatorial horizontal parallax is about a 
minute of arc, exceeding that of any other known body whose 
position can be measured with the same degree of accuracy. 
On this account, it will be an excellent object by means of which 
to determine the solar parallax, and thence the mean distance of 
the Elarth from the Sun. W. J. Hussev. 

Lick Observatory, September 27, 1898. 

Discovery and Orbit of Comet h 1898 (Perrine). 

This comet was discovered in the morning of September 13th. 
This is the eighth comet to be discovered this year, five being unex- 
pected. The comet's position on the morning of discovery at o^ 
58" 8' G. M. T. of Sept. 13th, was a 9*^ 35"» 49'.27, 8 + 31^4' 3i".o. 
The comet was then between the two constellations Leo^ Major 
and Mifior, and was moving east 6" per day and south 30'. Its 
daily motion is rapidly increasing in both co-ordinates, and thus 
gaining on the Sun at such a rate that it will probably be lost in 
the dawn early in October. At the time of discovery, it had a 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 195 

round head 4' or 5' in diameter with a well-marked central 
condensation, the entire head being about as bright as an eighth- 
magnitude star. As it is approaching both the Sun and Earth, it 
is becoming brighter. It has had a narrow tail about %^ long, 
pointing away from the Sun. This tail has never been con- 
spicuous, even with the 12-inch refractor. Within the last few 
days a sharp nucleus has developed. This nucleus was noted 
as stellar on September 20th, when the seeing was best, and of 
about the tenth magnitude. From observations secured here on 
September 12th, 13th, and 14th, the following preliminary orbit 
was computed by R. G. Aitken and the writer: — 
T = 1898, October 20.0168 G. M. T. 
<a = 165° 16' 48" ^ 
0= 36 5 29 I Ecliptic and 

/ = 29 12 14 ( Mean Equmox of 1898.0 
log q = 9.58456 
Residuals for the middle place were: 
(O— C): AX' COSTS' + 3" 
A)8' - I 

From these elements it will be seen that the comet makes its 
nearest approach to the Sun on October 20th, at a distance of 
36,000,000 miles. An ephemeris from these elements shows 
that the comet is becoming rapidly brighter, being three times 
as bright as at discovery, on September 30th, the last date of the 
ephemeris. 

These elements bear no special resemblance to any known 
comet. C. D. Perrine. 

September 22, 1898. 

New Elements of Comet h 1898. 

From the Mount Hamilton observations of this comet at 

discovery, September 12th, and on September 17th and 22d, I 

have derived the following parabolic elements: — 

T = 1898, October 20.53478 G. M. T. 

0,= 162^ 26' 8^3^ ^ ,. . , 
r Ecliptic and 

" = 34 55 37 -5 > Mean Equinox of 1898.0 
/ = 28 51 27 .2 ; 
log q = 9.622688 
Residuals for the middle observation: 
(O-C): AX' cos r +o".4 
A/3" - I .0 



196 Publications of the 

On October 22d, the comet is in conjunction with the Sun in 
R. A. and becomes an evening object. It should be again visible 
from southern stations (only) about November ist and for a 
month after. Its greatest theoretical brightness will be on October 
20th, at the time of its passing perihelion, when it will be seven 
times as bright as at discovery. On September 23d, it was just 
visible to the naked eye against a dark sky. Some of the abso- 
lute dimensions may be of interest. The head is 4' in diameter^ 
as seen with the 12-inch telescope, which corresponds to an 
actual diameter of 150,000 miles. With the same telescope, the 
tail can be traced for )^°(the tail is in all probability several 
times this length), or a length of about 600,000 miles. After 
passing perihelion, the comet will be close to the planet Mercury 
for a week or more, the distance ranging from 6,000,000 to 
8,000,000 miles. The longitudes and distances from the Sun of 
both Mercury and the comet are very nearly the same, but 
owing to their different nodes, inclinations, and motions in their 
orbits, they do not make as close an approach as otherwise they 
would. At this distance of 6,000,000 miles, the comet would be 
a striking object as seen from Mercury, the head i^° in diameter, 
the tail 5° or 6° in length. The brightness would be over 150 
times that on September 27th as seen from the Earth, when it was 
visible to the unaided eye. This would make it more conspicuous 
than a first-magnitude star. C. D. Perrine. 

September 28, 1898. 

Elements of the Minor Planet, 1898 DQ, 

From the mean of the two Kiel observations of August 15th 
by Dr. Ristenpart, and my own observations of September 6th 
and 27th, I have computed the following elements of this inter- 
esting planet: — 

Epoch 1898, August 31.5 G. M. T. 
M = 222^ 51' 53".3 
c.= 176 52 17 .6 1 Ecliptic and 

"^^'Jo 4J J5 -.3 j Mean Equinox of 1898.0 
</> ^ 12 49 40 .7 
logfl = 0.164038 
/* = 20T3".49i 
Period = 643.66 days =^1.76 years. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 197 

In obtaining these elements, the observations were fully cor- 
rected for parallax and aberration. The interval embraced by 
the observations is 43 days; during this time the planet described 
a heliocentric arc of about 17^. 

According to these elements, the perihelion distance of this 
planet is only 105,440,000 miles, or nearly 23,000,000 miles less 
than that of Mars, and only 11,000,000 greater than the aphelion 
distance of the Earth. Its periodic time is nearly a year less 
than that of any other asteroid. W. J. Hussey. 

Astronomical Telegrams. 
( Translations, ) 

Boston, Mass., September 5, 1898. 
To Lick Observatory: (Received 9:50 P. m.) 

Kreutz announces planet DQ remarkable orbit. Perihelion 
within Mars' orbit. Element f*. [= daily motion] 2,000". 
(Signed) John Ritchie, Jr. 
[A further note on this asteroid will be found on another page 
of this number. The telegram included an ephemeris, which is 
here omitted.] 

Lick Observatory, September 13, 1898. 

To Harvard College Observatory: I ^o 

To Students' Observatory, Berkeley:) ' '^ 

A bright comet was discovered by C. D. Perrine, September 
13.040 G. M. T., inR. A 9*' 33'- 53'; Decl. + 31° 4'. The 
daily motion in R. A. is +6°; in Decl. — 30'. 

Lick Observatory, September 14, 1898. 

To Harvard College Observatory: i /o . 

To Students' Observatory, Berkeley:) ' -J 

Comet Perrine was observed by C. D. Perrine on September 

13.0404 G. M. T. ; in R. A. 9" 35- 49'.3; Decl. + 31^4' 3i"; and 

on September 14.0145 G. M. T. ; in R. A. 9** 41" 43*.8; Decl. 

+ 30° 35' 19". 

Boston, Mass., September 14, 1898. 

To Lick Observatory: (Received 2:10 p.m.) 

A faint comet was discovered by Pechule, at Copenhagen, 

on September 13.6230 G. M. T. ; in R. A. 6** 38™ 3*.5; Decl. 

+ 8° 55' 40". Its daily motion in R. A. is +30'; in Decl. 

— 20'. It is probably Comet Tempel, 1866 I. 

(Signed) John Ritchie, Jr. 



198 Publications of the 

Boston, Mass., September 14, 1898. 
To Lick Observatory: (Received 9:22 p. m.) 

Comet Pechijle is Wolf's comet, not Tempel's. 

(Signed) J. Ritchie, Jr. 

Boston, Mass., September 15, 1898. 
To Lick Observatory: (Received 10 a. m.) 

There is some uncertainty in your telegram. First position 
does not check. Repeat it. Is comet new ? 

(Signed) John Ritchie, Jr. 

[In answer to this telegram, part of the telegram of September 
14, 2:51 P.M., given above, was repeated with the addition of 
the word *'new'* before comet. The telegram on file in the 
W. U. office in San Jose was read by the operator and found 
to be correct.] 

Lick Observatory, Sept 15, 1898. 

To Harvard College Observatory: 
To Students* Observatory, Berkeley: 

Comet Perrine was observed by C. D. Perrine on September 
14.9768 G. M. T., in R. A. 9** 47- 36-.8; Decl. 30° 4' 57". 



, * >• (Sent 10 A. M.) 

ley: ) 



Lick Observatory, September 15, 1898. 
To Harvard College Observatory: (Sent 1:10 P. M.) 

Elements and ephemeris of Comet Perrine were computed 
by C. D. Perrine and R. G. Aitken as follows: — 
T = 1898, October 20.02 G. M. T. 
0,= 165'' 17' ^ 
0= 36 5 V Ecliptic and 

( Mean Equinox of 1898.0 
^ = 29 1 2 ; ^ 

natural q = 0.3842 
[The ephemeris is here omitted.] 

The Perseid Shower of 1898. 

Meteors from this radiant became noticeable on the night ol 
August 8th. The night of August 9th was partly cloudy, but a 
number of meteors were seen in the early part of the evening. 
Thin clouds still interfered on the night of the loth, but a larger 
number of meteors than usual from this radiant was observed. 
After the Moon rose it became clear overhead, and from 14** 25" 



Astronomicai Society of the Pacific, ^99 

to 14'' 55" fifty-one meteors were counted, of which all but four 
were Perseids. This frequency was estimated to be about an 
average for the latter portion of the night. C. D. Perrine. 

Lick Observatory, 
Univbrsity op California, August 16, 1898. 

Elements of Comet e 1898 (^errine). 

The following system of parabolic elements of this comet has 
been derived fi-om normal places for the dates June 16.0, July 
12.0, and August 7.0. The observations used in forming the 
normal places were: Mount Hamilton, June 14, 15, 16, 17; Paris, 
June 16; Strassburg, June 17; Mount Hamilton, July 9, 11, 12, 
13, 14; Mount Hamilton, August 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

elements. 
T = 1898, August 16.19978 G. M. T. 
n=.259^ 6' i2".2| Eelipticand 

« = 205 36 24 .0 \ Mean Equinox 1898.0 

/ = 70 I 36 .7 ; 

log q = 9.796950 
The residuals for the middle place are: — 
Observed — Computed, 

AX'cosi3' +o".i 
A^' —0.9 

The comet was last observed at Mount Hamilton on the 
morning of August i ith, when it was well into the dawn. It 
would not have been visible except for its increased brightness 
and sharp nucleus. On August 7th, the nucleus of the comet 
was estimated to be nearly as bright as the 9. i -magnitude com- 
parison star. The light of the entire comet probably equaled a 
seventh- magnitude star. The comet has now passed out of 
range of northern observatories, but should be visible in the 
Southern Hemisphere for two months yet. The orbit of this 
comet bears a resemblance to that of the Pons-Brooks comet 
of 181 2-1884. There is also considerable resemblance to the 
orbit of the comet 1785 I, especially in w and i. Comet e is so 
plainly parabolic, that the resemblance must be considered as 
merely placing them in a group, probably with no physical 
connection. C. D. Perrine. 

Lick Observatory, 
University of California, August 25, 1898. 



200 Publications of the 

Obituary Notice. 

Dr. Hermann Romberg died in Berlin on July 6, 1898. 
From Professor Backlund's note in Asironomische Nachrichien, 
3512, we condense the following brief account of his life and work. 

Born in 1835 at Bromberg, he received his university training 
at Berlin, coming under Encke's guidance in astronomy. After 
a number of years' experience as assistant in several observa- 
tories, particularly at Berlin, where he took part in the 
observations for the Astronomische Gesellschaft Zone Catalogue, 
he was called to Pulkowa in 1873. He here found, in the use of 
the large Repsold meridian -circle, which was intrusted to him, 
his true field of labor, and for twenty-one years he worked with 
the utmost assiduity. The amount of work he accomplished 
— 9,000 complete meridian observations a year, in some years — 
seems marvelous, especially when the climatic disadvantages of 
Pulkowa are considered, and the further fact that these were not 
zone observations, but included selected stars ranging in Declina- 
tion from — 25° to the North Pole. 

His zeal and success in the work of reducing his observations 
were equally great, and the fruits of his labors will be found in 
three splendid star catalogues. The first of these, based on 
32,000 observations made in 1874-1880, is his well-known 
catalogue of 5,634 stars. Two further volumes will contain the 
observations made in the years 1881-1894. One of these, 
including about 20,000 observations, is now in press; the other, 
containing 15,000 observations, is ready for the press. These 
volumes will form Romberg's most enduring monument. 

The key-note of his personal character was a fearless rectitude 
that knew no compromise with any form of deception. Convinced 
of the truth and righteousness of a given course of action, he 
followed it unswervingly, despite occasional unpleasant con- 
sequences to himself. With this he combined great gentleness 
and friendliness of disposition, and a stanch loyalty to his 
friends that endeared him to many. 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 201 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 
held at the lick observatory, september 3, 1 898. 

President Aitken presided. A quorum was present. The minutes 
of the last meeting were approved. The following members were duly 
elected:— 

List of Members Elected September 3, 1898. 

Mr. W. A. Dawson Horatio, Arkansas. 

Prof I A ToLivKT M D \ Director Little Seminary, Mt. 

Prof. L. A. JOLIVET, M.U ^ Loretto, S. L, New York. 

Mr. Henry B. Loomis, of Seattle, Washington, was elected to 
life-membership. 

Adjourned. 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Astronomical Society 

OF THE Pacific, held at the Lick Observatory, 

September 3, 1898. 

President Aitken presided. The minutes of the last meeting were 
approved. The Secretary read the names of the new members elected 
at the Directors* meeting. 

The following papers were presented: — 

1. Planetary Phenomena for November and December, 1898, by Prof. Malcolm McNeill. 

2. A Star with a very Large Velocity in the Line of Sight, by Prof. W. W. Campbell. 

Adjourned. 



202 Publications of the Astronomical Society, &c. 



OPPICBR8 OP THB 80C1BTY. 

Mr. R. G. AiTKBN Presid^mt 

Mr. C. B. Hill Firsi Vict-Pretii^mi 

Miu R. O'Halloran Stc^nd Vict-Pretid^fU 

Mr. r. H. Sbanbs Third Vie^-Prtsidgmi 

Mr. C. D. Pbrrins \ c^.^i-^v. 

Mr. F. R. ZiBL } SecntarMm 

Mr. F. R. ZiBL Treasurer 

Board of Directors^ Messrs. Aitkbn, Hill, Kbklkk, Molbra. Miss O'Halloran, Me 

PBRRINBt PlBRSON, SbARBS, St. JOHN, VON GbLOBRN, ZiBL. 

Finance Commitioo—iiUsin. Pibr>on, von Gbldrrn, Hill. 
CommiiU* oh PublicatioH — Messrs. Aitkbn« Srarbs, von Gbldbrn. 
Library Commitiee^Mcssn. Sbarbs, Gbo. C. Edwards, Miss O'Halloran. 
Committee on the Comet'Medai—Mwm. Kbblbr (ex^^cio), Pibrson, Burckhaltbr. 

OPPICSRS OP THB CHICAGO 8BCTION. 

Executive Committee— Mr. Ruthvbn W. Pikb. 

OPPICBRS OP THB MBXICAN SBCTION. 
Executive Committee^Mr. Francisco Rodricubz Rbv. 



NOTICB. 

The attention of new members is called to Article VIII of the By-Laws, which provides that 
the annual subscription, paid on election, covers the ca/endar year onlv. Subsequent »w*»ttf(T 
payments are due on Januarjr ist of each succeeding calendar year. Ihis rule is necessary in 
order to make our book-keeping as simple as possible. Dues sent by mail should be directed to 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific 819 Market Street, San Francisco. 

It is intended that each member of the Society shall receive a copy of each one of the Pn^ 
iications for the year in which he was elected to membership and for all subsequent years. If 
there have been (unfortunately) any omissions in this matter, it is requested that the Secretaries 
he at once notified, in order that the missing numbere may be supplied. Members are requested 
to preserve the copies of the Publications of the Society as sent to them. Once each year a title- 
page and contents of the preceding numbers will also be sent to the members, who can then bind 
the numbers together into a volume. Complete volumes for past years will also be supplied, to 
members only, so far as the stock in hand is sufficient, on the payment of two dollars per volume 
to either of the Secretaries. Any non-resident member within the United States can obtain 
books from the Society's library by sending his library card with ten cents in stamps to I be 
Secretary A.S. P.. 619 Market Street, San Francisco, who will return the book and the card. 

The Committee on Publication desires to say that the order in which papers are primed in 
the Publications is decided simply by convenience. In a general way, those papers are printed 
first which are earliest accepted for publication. It is not possible to send proof sheets of papers 
to be printed to authors whose residence is not within the United States. The responsibility for 
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Society itself. 

The titles of papers for reading should be communicated to either of the Secretaries as early 
as possible, as well as any changes in addresses. The Secretary in San Francisco will send to 
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as follows: a block of letter paper, 40 cents; of note paper, 9^ cents; a package of envelopes, 35 
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Those members who propose to attend the meetings at Mount Hamilton during the summer 
should communicate with "The Secretary Astronomical Society of the Pacific " at the rooms of 
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transportation, lodging, etc. 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BIMONTHLY, 
{February, April, June, August, October, December.} 






THE BRUCE GOLD MEDAL. 



PUBLICATIONS 



or THB 



Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Vol. X. San Francisco, December i, 1898. No. 65. 

A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE CHABOT OBSERV- 
ATORY- PIERSON ECLIPSE EXPEDITION 
TO INDIA. 

By Charles Burckhalter. 

It was by the public spirit and generosity of a valued member 
of this Society, Past- President Wm. M. Pierson, and the kind- 
ness and liberality of the Board of Education of the city of Oak- 
land, that it was possible to send an expedition from the Chabot 
Observatory to India to observe the total eclipse of the Sun, on 
January 22. 1898. 

Mr. Pierson not only gave me more money than I had esti- 
mated as necessary, but had me arrange a telegraphic code, so 
I could send for more in an emergency, and then, as though this 
were not enough, he said, •* Of course, your family will come to 
me if they need anything while you are away ! * ' 

J. W, McClymonds, Superintendent of Schools and Director 
of the Observatory, Mr. York, Assistant Superintendent, and 
W. C. GiBBS, of this city, gave me needed help, and Mr. Henry 
Kahn, of San Francisco, loaned me valuable instruments for the 
expedition. 

Knowing by experience on the expedition to the island of 
Yezzo, in 1896, that steel rails and the most delicate astronomical 
instruments look alike to the coolies who handle freight in the 
Far East, I was much concerned lest an accident should happen 
to the objective of the Pierson photographic telescope, presented 
to thb Observatory by Mr. Pierson, in 1895, for the expedition 
to Japan — which would cause the failure of the expedition. I 
resolved to procure, if possible, a duplicate lens, and appealed in 



204 Publications of the 

this emergency to a member of the Society, Dr. George C. 
Pardee, of this city, who readily consented to present the extra 
objective, and it was ordered at once from Brash ear, the 
maker of the Pierson lens. As in all probability both objectives 
would reach the station safely, I fitted a tube for the new lens, 
which, with plate-holders, exposure-shutters, etc., was also pro- 
vided by Dr. Pardee, and mounted it upon the Pierson tube» 
thereby having two important instruments, the new lens to be 
used to obtain a duplicate set of negatives, the exposures in both 
telescopes, being electrically controlled, being identical. The 
plates in the Pierson telescope having the exposures controlled by 
a diaphragm, and the Pardee plates being exposed in the ordinary 
way, would thus give strictly comparable negatives. All the work 
of preparation, including a new and novel equatorial mounting^, 
was done with my own hands, during leisure time, my regular 
work being carried on until two weeks before sailing. 

After an amount of preparation, detail, and anxiety, only to be 
appreciated by those who have undertaken similar expeditions, I 
sailed, all alone, for **a point or points in India,** as the insurance 
policy on the instruments declared, with nearly two tons* meas- 
urement of apparatus to look after and be rehponsible for getting 
to the proper place and adjustment, and successfully managing 
the thousand details that go to make up an expedition. I sailed 
from San Francisco on October 30th, in the fine steamer Belgic^ 
and had the exclusive use of a good stateroom, Mr. Pierson 
himself coming down to the ship to see that I lacked for nothing. 

The ship called and stopped from one to three days at 
Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki, and Shanghai, reaching 
Hong Kong on November 28th, whence I was to transfer to 
the P. & O. steamer Ganges, which had not yet arrived. The 
voyage had been pleasant throughout; good weather and fair 
winds prevailed. Bathing in a big tank on deck, tenpins, cricket, 
and other games helped to pass the time pleasantly, and the stops 
at some of the ports gave me an opportunity of renewing friend- 
ships made a year before, and when the ship reached her destina- 
tion, I left her with regret. 

Captain Kinder allowed my instruments to remain in the 
ship until the Ganges arrived, when they were transferred by a 
special lighter, thus saving much handling. Upon requesting 
the officers of the Ganges to handle the instruments carefully and 
**stow cool,*' the obliging chief officer had them placed over the 



Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. 205 

captain's cabin, covered with several tarpaulins and awnings — 
an ideal place for the hot tropical voyage ahead. 

On December 2d, we sailed from Hong Kong for the last half 
of the voyage, and after the usual sightseeing of leaving port, I 
started for my stateroom. I say ** my,*' for I had the exclusive 
use of a good deck room ; but only a casual inspection establkhed 
the fact that our stateroom was occupied jointly by myself and 
innumerable cockroaches and ants. That night, while he was hold- 
ing court, I caught the king-cockroach, whose length measured 
over three inches. A Californian had presented me before sailing 
from home with a basket of choice apples, and, as one soon sick- 
ens of tropical fruit in the tropics, they were greatly appreciated; 
but I found that they were also highly esteemed by the rats on 
the Ganges; for, on account of the heat, cabin-doors were left 
open, and these permanent passengers invaded my room and left 
me only three out of about twenty-five, which was not a fair 
division. When I called the attention of the chief steward to it, 
he expressed unbounded astonishment — that the rats had left any 
at all ! and it was painfully evident that I was no longer on the 
Belgic, On the voyage to Singapore, a sea came down the com- 
panionway and flooded the after-cabin, and nearly ruined the ward- 
robes of a San Francisco merchant, Mr. Henry Payot, and his 
wife, and after this, a worse calamity followed ; for the rats took and 
held possession for a couple of days, or until he hired the stewards 
to clear the room, to all of which the chief engineer facetiously 
remarked that no one was to blame, as * * water and rats are the 
Queen's enemies"! Wei-e it not for the kind and gentlemanly 
deck officers, I could not say a single good word for the Ganges, 

A stop of a day at Singapore and some hours at Penang, gave 
plenty of time to visit the principal features of those places, and 
the three days at Colombo were used for a trip into the moun- 
tainous interior, to the old capital, Kandy, and the beautiful 
government botanical gardens at Peradeniya, where one may 
revel in the superabundance of tropical vegetation. Here every 
known spice in the world grows to perfection. Truly, Ceylon, 
** the pearl of India," is a land ** where every prospect pleases," 
and the one land in the Far East in which I would have lingered 
longer. Another short run of a thousand miles, brought me to 
Bombay, fifty- two days from San Francisco, after a fine voyage 
of thirteen thousand miles. 

Within an hour after reaching Bombay, I was about the 



2o6 Publications of the 

** King's business." I went at once to the customs office — that 
dreadful bugbear of travelers — to see just how I was to go about 
unwinding the usual red tape. Before leaving home, I had writ- 
ten to our Secretary of State, asking him to request our consul 
at Bombay to assist me in passing the instruments through the 
customs department with the least possible amount of unpacking. 
I asked the Indian official just what I must do, and, in turn, was 
asked the nature of the freight and my name. ** Oh ! " exclaimed 
the officer, ** the government has passed a resolution about it, 
and you need not open anything !*' This was not as surprising as 
it was gratifying; for I had hoped for something of the kind, and 
our consul. Major Comfort, had arranged to have them passed 
without inspection. Even my personal baggage was not examined, 
my word that I had nothing dutiable being taken without ques- 
tion; the same courtesy being shown me in England on my way 
home, through the thoughtfulness of the Astronomer Royal, Dr. 
Christie, who was a fellow-passenger part of the voyage from 
Bombay. 

Major Comfort called upon me a few hours after the ship 
arrived, and all difficulties seemed to melt in his genial presence, 
each government official being, apparently, greatly interested in 
all things ** eel ipse- wise.** 

Where to establish the station was now a question of para- 
mount importance. The farther south and west, the longer the 
time of totality; but near the coast there was a greater probability 
of clouded skies — not at all probable, however, anywhere. 

The government representative, Professor Naegamvala, sug- 
gested Indapur, where a bungalow was awaiting me; but finding 
that the instruments must be carried across a small river in a 
primitive ferry-boat, not large enough to carry a bullock-cart, I 
declined to take any risk whatever, and I finally decided upon 
Jeur, a "jungle" station on the line of the Great Indian Penin- 
sular Railway. 

For the first time I must lose sight of the instruments, and 
careful handling in transporting them to the interior was neces- 
sary. I called upon Mr. W. H. Nicholson, assistant traffic 
manager of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway, and it was a 
pleasure to see the cheerful interest he took in all my plans; he 
gave me the use of a ** wagon*' (car), no other freight being 
allowed in it, and a letter to agents instructing them to use great 
care in handling them, and to allow me to superintend loading. 



> 



50 

X 

o 

> 

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Astronomical Society of the Pcuific. 207 

and ako directed that the car stand at Jeur without demurrage 
until I arrived, so that I could see to the unloading myself; thus 
every transfer was made in my presence from the observatory to 
the eclipse station. The company j?ave half rates to observers 
and their servants, and very low rates for instruments. This 
genial gentleman also assisted me on the day of the eclipse. 

The instruments going by freight-train were forwarded at 
once, while I remained to employ a cook and interpreter, and 
to buy provbions and camp equipments; for all these must l>e 
procured in Bombay. 

The bubonic plague now became a troublesome factor; the 
first three cooks I hired deserted when they found where I pur- 
posed going, as the plague had appeared only twenty miles away 
from the proposed camp, and subsequently came within seven 
miles, and was raging violently at Poona, the nearest large city. 
The proprietor of the hotel now came to my assistance, and said 
if I would wait two days he would get me **the best man in 
India.'* Of course, I waited for this remarkable person, and he 
arrived in due time. He was a native of Madras, with the Eng- 
lish name of Caleb Phillip, but I knew him only as ** Mustapha." 
He agreed to stand by me, plague or no plague; and as he said 
he could speak all the * * longwidges, ' * he could also act as inter- 
preter. I do not know whether he was * * the best man in India ' * 
or not» but I found him to be honest, industrious, and competent. 
He was a "Christian,*' although he indulged frequently in a 
mild type of profanity, and his general knowledge was invaluable 
to me, and I came to regard him more like a friend than a servant. 

The station selected was in what is known as the ** jungle,** 
about six miles from Jeur railway station, near the little village of 
Wangi, in the Deccan, about two hundred and twenty miles 
southeasterly from Bombay, in the midst of a famine district — 
this being the second failure of crops in as many years, with 
plague east, west, and south of us. My camp — named Camp 
Pierson — was near one of the great irrigation wells, from which 
water was drawn daily for ten hours, with from two to four yoke 
of bullocks, and was shaded by some large babool and tamarind- 
trees, which added greatly to my comfort and capacity to work 
during the heat of the day. 

Professor Campbell, of the Lick Observatory-Crocker Expe- 
dition, occupied a station about two miles nearer Jeur, and I 
desire to express my gratitude to the Professor and the ladies 



^o8 Publications of the 

of his party for their hospitality while my own camp was being 
prepared, and for the many pleasant visits I received from them, 
almost daily. 

The Indian Government furnished observers with tents, I 
having two, and subsequently four more for my European assist- 
ants, also, a policeman, and a sweeper (scavenger) who came to 
the camp twice daily. 

I was assisted in all matters of selecting camp, employing 
help, etc., by Mr. Daji Dhondev Patankar, the Mamlatdar 
of Kermala, the highest official in that part of the country, and 
who, by instruction of the government, attended to the wants of 
observers, in person or through the village ^a/i/y (officials). He 
was all-powerful in his district, and no one thought to question 
an order from the Mamlatdar. He established the price of eggs, 
milk, wood, and all such articles, and fixed the price of labor at 
four cents per day; but ** Sahib Campbell*' had utterly demor- 
alized the labor market by paying six cents, and I was expected 
to do, and did, likewise, although hundreds of men could have 
been employed for two or three cents a day — about all they were 
worth. The money spent by the various astronomical expeditions 
must have relieved the distress in many families; for so great were 
their necessities, that a large part of the population of the village 
was out daily gathering seeds from grass and weeds for food to 
keep soul and body together. One morning, before sunrise, a 
man, with his wife, mother, and three half-grown children, came 
into a field near the camp and worked all through the day until 
twilight. I bought the seed they gathered, which, after cleaning, 
just filled an eight- ounce bottle, and this was to have been 
their only food for the next twenty-four hours; and yet, with all 
their misery, they were kind to me, and brought me presents of 
pigeons, fruit, and wild honey, and were exceedingly grateful for 
a dozen packages of various kinds of vegetable seeds I took with 
me, as being likely to grow in a hot, dry climate, and which, if 
they can be successfully grown, will prove a greater blessing than 
any other thing I could have given them. 

The work of unpacking, setting up, and adjusting instruments 
began at once, everything having arrived in perfect order; but 
I labored under many difficulties, expected and unexpected, 
materials not being obtainable. Lumberwas the great drawback, 
none being nearer than Poona, a hundred miles away. Coal-oil 
boxes from the village *' bazaar *' were used freely as a substitute, 



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Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 209 

for some sort of a daylight "dark-room" was necessary, and 
particular care was required to guard against the multitudinous 
insect life, especially the white ant, which is exceedingly 
destructive of wood. I repeatedly drenched the wood piers of 
the telescope and a liberal patch of ground all around them with 
coal-oil, which effectually protected them, and it required my 
best efforts to keep provisions, clothing, and everything eata- 
ble out of harm's way. Centipedes existed in great numbers, 
and I killed two snakes within ten feet of my tent, whose poison- 
ous bite was rated at ** death in six hours,'* and ** death in twelve 
hours," etc., besides a ** king" cobra of unusual size, while in 
company with the Mamlatdar, on the way from Jeur, which I 
carried to Professor Campbell's camp in triumph. The howling 
of jackals prevented sleep for a few nights, but I soon became 
accustomed to their cry, while wild peafowls and monkeys fur- 
nished diversion during the day. 

I received many visits from local officials, the village patils 
calling from two to five times daily, and were ever ready to assist 
me. Their principal business, however, was to furnish labor and 
keep beggars and curious natives away, who often came from 
miles away to see ** Sahib" take his meals, and I seldom dined 
without interested observers. The cook, Mustapha, was next to 
the Mamlatdar himself, the most important man in the neighbor- 
hood, and did not hesitate to inflict corporal punishment with 
a stout stick, which he kept for the purpose, when outsiders 
crossed the line marking out the camp limits, or while '* Sahib " 
was asleep. He took full charge of the domestic arrangements 
and was thoroughly efficient, and it seemed to me he knew every- 
thing, having traveled extensively in India. 

The work of getting instruments into position and adjustment 
was pushed with all the vigor possible. The Pardee lens had not 
been tested for focus and other necessary adjustments before leav- 
ing, on account of the press of other duties, leaving much to do 
after arrival at the station, where it entailed much night-work, 
with only the most ignorant coolies, who wondered what all this 
fuss was about, for assistants. My average day's work during 
the thirty-seven days in camp, was not less than sixteen hours a 
day, and much of this under a fierce Indian sun that must be 
felt to be appreciated. 

One condition, however, was very comforting; this same sun, 
rising and setting blazing hot every morning and evening, with- 



2IO Publications of the 

out a doud or fleck in the sky to mitigate the heat, gave promise 
of a clear sky on eclipse day, and the great source of anxiety on 
an eclipse expedition — the weather — was hardly considered. 
On one afternoon only, a slight filmy cloud appeared, but only 
for a few minutes, and during the entire stay in the Deccan with 
this exception, not a cloud was seen. The nights, however, 
were cold toward morning, the thermometer reading as low as 
forty-two degrees at six a. m., which seemed bitterly cold, and 
jiinety-six the same day at eleven. 

I had four English gentlemen for assistants on the day of the 
eclipse;— Major T. R. Harkness and Captain Duhan, of the 
Royal Artillery; Mr. W. H. Nicholson (mentioned above) and 
Mr. W; H. Hussey, of the G. I, P. Railway. These gentlemen 
came from Bombay at their own expense, and with their retinue 
of servants strained my modest camp resources. The Indian 
servant, however, is always expected to take care of himself, 
and as it is the custom of foreigners in India to carry their own 
bedding, we — L e, Mustaoha and I — managed very nicely, 
and many times he came to me with plans for the entertainment 
of our distinguished guests, that he thought, if successfully carried 
out, would certainly dazzle them and reflect great credit on the 
expedition, and when I left India he had not yet ceased to con- 
gratulate himself and to brag about the general success of the 
manner in which we cared for our visitors. 

My assistants reached camp on the morning of the day before 
the eclipse, and after thorough instruction in the parts they were 
to take, we began to practice, going through the programme 
many times that day, and after sunset, when the light was about 
the same as during the eclipse. Each man's part was carried out 
perfectly, and thus another source of anxiety was eliminated, 
my own part being least perfect, although I had rehearsed it on 
many days. 

On the morning of the eclipse, the finishing touches were 
given, and everything tested and found perfect I was ready. 
The government had brought a large body of police to the dis- 
trict to keep all but invited guests out of the camps; for, a great 
excursion from Bombay and other cities had broug