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SYRIA 



PUBLICATIOxNS OF THE PRINCETON UNIVERSITY ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
EXPEDITIONS TO SYRIA IN 19045 AND 1909 



SYRIA 

PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE PRINCETON UNIVERSITY ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

EXPEDITIONS TO SYRIA IN 19045 AND 1909 



Division I 

GEOGRAPHY AND ITINERARY 

BY 

HOWARD CROSBY BUTLER, A. M. 
FREDERICK A. NORRIS, C. E. 

AND 

EDWARD ROYAL STOEVER, C. E. 



EDITED BY MEMBERS OF THE EXPEDITIONS 



a 



Late E. J. BRILL Ltd. 

PUBLISHERS AND PRINTERS 

LEYDEN 1930. 



I // 



/ 

y 



<y 



In consequence of the death of Professor Butler, the promoter and director of these 
expeditions, and because of various accidents, the publication of this volume has been 
long delayed. Consequently the conditions to which it refers as of the present time 
are those of the years 1905 or 1909. Wherever there is a discrepancy between the 
form or spelling of geographical names in the text and on the various maps, the form 
given in the text and index of this volume should be regarded as the more accurate 
and reliable. A good many alterations have been made by the editors in the narrative 
written originally by Mr. Stoever from the notes of Mr. Norris. Few changes have 
been made in Professor Butler's narrative of the experiences of the Expedition of 1909, 
which was found with the account of the Expedition of 1904 1905 as if intended 
for publication with it. But Professor Butler himself did not send this narrative to the 
publisher, nor was his the final hand to revise its text. 

Princeton, New Jersey, October ist, 1929. THE EDITORS. 



Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological 

Expeditions to Syria in 19041905 and 1909 y 



DIVISION I 



GEOGRAPHY AND ITINERARY 



SECTION A 



THE EXPEDITION OF 19045 



BY 



EDWARD ROYAL STOEVER, C. E. 

FROM THE NOTES AND JOURNAL OF 
FREDERICK A. NORRIS, C. E. 



Late E. J. BRILL Ltd. 

PUBLISHERS AND PRINTERS 

LEYDEN 1930. 



^rf> 



THE MAPS 

The geographical and topographical problems of the Expedition of 1904 5 were 
rather difficult. Especially in the soutlrf beyond the Hmits of Palestine and east of the 
railroad at Der^S. the country was little known. Kiepert's maps had proved inaccurate 
in 1899 1900, and several maps which later on were useful in plotting the general 
itinerary were not available to the Expedition of 1904 5. In the southern district 
the maps of J. G. Wetzstein (Zeitschrift fur allgemeine Erdkunde, VII, 1859, Tafel II) 
and G. Schumacher (Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palaestina-Vereins, XX, 1897), ^"<^ ^" 
the north Blanckenhorn's map, were used and found of assistance. 

The instruments used were a prismatic compass, a twelve-inch theodolite with solar 
attachment, three specially selected Waltham watches, an aneroid barometer, and a 
boiling-point thermometer. The plan adopted in general was to keep a compass dead- 
reckoning, assuming the pace to be an average of two and three-quarters miles per 
hour for ordinary going, and three miles per hour on good roads. For more accurate 
determination of locations the theodolite was used. Whenever there was a sufficient 
elevation the theodolite was set up and oriented by the magnetic needle, and sights were 
taken to prominent objects such as hills, towns, and ruins. From the natives also the 
approximate distances to these places were obtained, generally in hours of travel on 
foot; but these estimates of distance were rarely accurate. It was possible, however, 
to intersect a good many of these points from the next observation site. 

Mt. Hermon, a known point, was useful for part of the southern districts as a 
landmark, for it was visible from the western part of the Southern Hauran and from 
the western slopes of the Djebel Hauran. Djebel Shfekh Berek^t served in the same 
way for Northern Syria. Latitude and longitude v/ere determined at the following places: 
Djebel il-Kul6b, il-TsawI, il-Ulimmeh, Salkhad, Tell Irmah, il-Umta'iyeh, Umm idj- 
Djimal, Shfekh 'Ah Kasun, Tell ir-Ruhaiyeh, Serdjilla, and Kefr NabQ. It was impossible, 
however, owing to the conditions under which we traveled, to plot many of the points 
as they were determined, so that the correction of errors, and the necessary com- 
promises between the observations made with the prismatic compass and the estimated 
distances on the one hand and the measured journeys on the other, were postponed 
until the final plotting was made. 

The route map was made by using as a base the map made by the American 
Expedition of 1899 1900, and adding to it details supplied by the small map of the 
Southern Hauran, opposite page 27 in the present volume, and the three maps 
mentioned above. Several parts of the northern area had not been visited by the 
Expedition of 1899 1900, and consequently the positions of the desert towns, il-Anderin, 
Kasr Ibn Warden and Kerratln had to be corrected. Also, the limestone region in 
the north, particularly the Djebel Sim'an, was covered very carefully and a number 
of sites more correctly located. Blanckenhorn's map was very useful for the northern 



VUI Division I Geography and Itinerary. 

district. It was found that Kiepert's map placed the desert towns too far east, and 
involved a considerable distortion. These errors were corrected as far as possible for 
all the places visited, and for other places where the evidence seemed sufficient. 

The small large-scale maps were made primarily to give the locations of the towns 
in which the buildings and inscriptions to be published by the Expeditions were situated. 
These maps were plotted on the assumption that the latitude and longitude of the area in 
general was sufficiently accurate for practical purposes on the maps of Kiepert or 
Wetzstein. In each case one or more observation-points within the area were chosen, 
and from these the location of the various sites was determined with a fair degree of 
exactness. The direction of a fixed point having been laid down with a protractor 
by measuring the angle from the magnetic north, the winding journey to reach that 
point was laid out by scale, and any uncertainty was decided by probability and checked 
in as many ways as possible. Care was taken to find if there were any local magnetic 
variations, the true north being determined at 'Arak il-Emlr, 'Amm^n, Bo.sra, Djebel 
il-Kuleb, il-"TsawI, Salkhad, and Umm idj-Djimal ; but no local variation was discovered. 
There was a good deal of compromise necessary in "judging" points; but on the whole 
the results tied in satisfactorily. There was an occasional error in the name of a place 
noted in the theodolite record, due apparently to the carelessness or ignorance of the 
native guide ; but it was generally possible to check up by the record of the actual 
journey, if the place was visited. When the directions or distances of the dead-reckoning 
were wrong there was more serious trouble ; but in every case there was some note 
or reference or a later visit which determined the final plotting. In places where the 
observation point was difficult to reach, sights were taken with the prismatic compass, 
and the distances to observed points were obtained in the same way as when the 
theodolite was used, that is from a native guide. In every case where the topography 
was difficult, or where it was desired to mark particularly any special feature, a sketch 
was made in the notes. Altitudes above sea-level were obtained by the use of a 
boiling-point thermometer in connection with an aneroid barometer. 

The map of the Ledja was made by using Wetzstein's map as a base and 
correcting this from a small route-map made by the Princeton Expedition in 1909 when 
this region was explored and observations made with a prismatic compass. 

The two districts shown in the maps of the Southern Hauran and Northern 
Syria (particularly the Djebel Barisha) were the most completely covered. In the 
former the summit of the Djebel il-Kuleb, which dominated the whole region, was used 
as an observation-point for the Djebel Hauran and the plain to the south. From 
Salkhad, Tell idj-Djeneh, is-S^fiyeh, D6r in-Nasr^nl, Tell Irmah, Tell B at, Tell il-Ko'es, 
and Tell 'Abd Mar sights were taken which gave by one or more intersections the 
accurate location of most of the sites in the plain. These places were afterwards 
visited, and in this way a double check was possible. The Djebel Barisha was covered 
by observations with the prismatic compass taken at Baziher, Surkanya, Kbeshin, Burdj 
Hedar, Brad, Kefr Nabu, Kalat Kalota, KharUb Shems, Kefr Lab, Basufin, Khar^b 
il-Meshhed, Simkhar, Batarftn, Maklabis, and Dera'man. 

The plateau called il-'Ala was observed from ir-Rubbeh, Sh&kh "All Kasfln and 
Nawa. No changes were made in the map of the Djebel Riha made by Mr. Robert 
Garrett and published by the American Expedition of 1899 1900. The desert towns 
were located by dead-reckoning, on account of the absence of any nearby elevation ; 



The Maps. IX 

but distant sights from Temek and il-Mishrifeh located Kasr Ibn Wardan, while KerratJn 
was visible from Abu Haniyeh and MaVata. Also MaVata was a point of reference 
for several otherwise isolated sections, and likewise the Djebel Shekh Berek^t and Aleppo. 
The town plans were made by theodolite survey and stadia-rod measurements, 
with more accurate tape measurements where necessary. The first survey made was 
of the ruined 'Ar^k il-Emlr. By using the theodolite and stadia-rod careful determination 
was made of the bearing of each wall and of some point on it. Chain measurements 
were made by Butler, and from these notes the plan was drawn. Of 'Amman a plan 
already existed. This was not changed ; but some buildings were added to it and the 
colonnaded street was located. Bosra was surveyed with theodolite, stadia-rod and 
chain in the same way as "Arak il-Emir ; but on account ot the extent of the site only 
the chief buildings were located. Similar surveys were made at Umm idj-Djimal, Dfer 
Sim'an, Babiska, Dar Kita, Kasr Ibn Wardan and il-Andenn, the walls which were 
not actually measured being shown by the shaded lines. 



A 



/ 



CHAPTER I 

i^ 

THE JOURNEY BEGINS 

The American Expedition to Syria in 1899 1900 had explored certain portions 
of the area between Aleppo on the north and the Arabian Desert on the south ; but 
many districts had necessarily been neglected, and a more thorough examination of 
certain places previously visited appeared desirable. It was the opinion, therefore, of 
those who had shared in that expedition that another similar mission to this country 
should be undertaken. All the members of the American Expedition were connected 
with Princeton University, and the work of that expedition was prepared for publication 
in Princeton. Therefore it was possible for Professor Howard Crosby Butler, the 
organizer of the former expedition, to arouse the interest of certain friends of the 
University in the plan, and their generosity made it possible to send out for renewed 
exploration the Princeton Expedition of 1904 5. 

The members of the former expedition, in so far as they were in a position to 
be absent from this country, were to resume their former work. H. C. Butler, in 
charge of the organization and execution of the project, was to study the architecture. 
Enno Littmann was to be responsible for all the epigraphical work, both classical and 
Semitic, during the first half of the journey, and W. K. Prentice was to take charge 
of the Greek and Latin inscriptions in the second half. Robert Garrett was unable to 
join the second expedition, and his place as cartographer was taken by the writer of 
the journal, F. A. Norris. 

The plans of the expedition, when perfected, involved the exploration of two large 
and widely separated regions, which in general terms were styled Southern Syria and 
Northern Syria. Both regions had been visited by the American Expedition. More 
explicitly, the southern half of the journey was to embrace the Haura.n and the country 
lying south of it, including an excursion into the Harrah on the east : the second or 
northern half was to be devoted to exploring the basalt region east of the highway 
between Hama and Aleppo, and the limestone hills east of Antioch, chiefly the northern 
end of the Djebel Barisha, the Djebel il-Halakah, and the Djebel Sim an. In the southern 
district even the HaurS.n had not been completely explored, so that much still remained to 
be done there, while the country immediately to the south was almost untouched as 
far as the publication of its monuments was concerned. In Northern Syria the basalt 
region was not well known, although a good many inscriptions from it had been 
published : the Djebel Barisha and the Djebel il-Halakah had not been thoroughly 
explored, and the Djebel Sim'^n, with the exception of a few sites, was unexplored, 
although distant telescopic observations had shown it to be full of deserted cities and towns. 

Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. i 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 




111. I. Jerusalem. Camp in the Olive Grove near the 
Dominican Monastery. 



The autumn and winter were the seasons chosen for the southern journey, and the 
spring for the northern trip. 

Before summer was far advanced, the members of the expedition were on their 
way by different routes through Europe, and late in September the whole party assembled 

in Jerusalem, ready to begin preparations 
for the march. On the way out, Butler 
had stopped in Constantinople for the 
necessary permissions and to pay his 
respects to His Excellency Hamdy Bey, 
Director General of the Imperial Ottoman 
Museum. Learning from him that the 
Museum was very desirous of having 
the famous Orpheus-mosaic, lately disco- 
vered in Jerusalem, Butler offered to take 
it up and send it to Constantinople. 

We left the hotel in Jerusalem on the 
first of October, 1904, and went into camp 
outside the city, a short distance from the 
Damascus Gate, in the olive grove near 
the Dominican monastery. We planned, 
while the work of taking up the mosaic was going on, to break in the camp-equipment, 
and we stayed here for twelve days, living in tents. The camp consisted of two 
sleeping-tents, each holding two beds, a 
folding table and two folding chairs, a 
dining-tent, a kitchen-tent in which the 
cook and other servants slept, and a tent 
which was used for luncheon on the road 
and as a sleeping-tent for our personal 
servants at night. Since horses were a very 
important part of our equipment, some time 
was spent in selecting them and breaking 
them in. George Cavalcanty, the drago- 
man, was in charge of an expedition for 
the first time, and these twelve days were 
well occupied by him and the servants in 
the arranging of duties and responsibilities. 
The mosaic was successfully taken up, 
boxed and turned over to the museum 
authorities, and early on the morning of 
the twelfth we broke camp and set out 
on the road to Jericho. Our own caval- 
cade took the lead : it consisted of seven 
horsemen, the three members of the expedi- 
tion, the dragoman, two native attendants 
who were to assist in each day's work, and one zabtiyeh. The luncheon-waiter accom- 
panied us, sitting astride a load consisting of a tent, some rugs and the luncheon, all 




111. 2. Our Horses. 



Chapter I The Journey Begins 



mounted on a sturdy mule the "baghl lunch" (lunch-mule), as the servants called 
him. Behind us, and soon out-distanced, came the camp, borne by a train of twenty- 
seven mules under the care of nine muleteers. The camp was commanded by Joseph, 
the head camp-man, and Abu Ilyas, the cook, both mounted on horses and guarded 
by the other zabtlyeh, who also was mounted. The show this caravan made was brave 
indeed, and the noise of the mule-bells was almost deafening, rousing the natives for 
a long distance ahead, and almost drowning the cries and curses of the muleteers as 
the train encountered passing carts or other caravans, and showed a disposition to turn 
right about or take flight along some by-path. The caravan carried in huge, though 
not heavy, loads our tents with their furniture, our personal belongings, great boxes 
for squeezes and other boxes for our equipment, besides most of our supplies for weeks 
to come, and not a little fodder for the animals, although we expected to be in a 
fertile country for several days, where some of these commodities could be laid in 
stock for the desert journey at less cost than in Jerusalem. 

Our plan was to go to Bosra and there establish headquarters for the exploration 
of the plain and the mountains of the 
Hauran, stopping on the way only for such 
study as seemed necessary to supplement in 
some way works already published, at 'Arak 
il-Emir, 'Amm^n, and Djerash. Once away 
from the cultivated area surroundino- il- 

o 

Kuds (The Holy), i.e. Jerusalem, the road 
passed between desolate hills, winding 
down lower and lower into the valley of the 
Jordan, dusty and oppressive as we dropped 
below sea-level. Above, the hot blue sky 
without a cloud, around us, as far as one 
could see, nothing but bare soil, hills blur- 
red by the heat, the dazzling light on the 
road, and behind us clouds of choking dust. 
After four hours of comparative misery 

the luncheon-tent was pitched, and we sought its shelter during the extreme heat of 
mid-day. The flies were annoying, but the shade was grateful. Here our camp-caravan 
overhauled us and passed by on its noisy way, the men saluting us as they passed, 
and the animals kicking up enough dust to blind and smother us. It was only an 
hour more to camp at 'Ain is-Sult^n, but this, the first day in the saddle, had been a 
fatiguing one. 

The next morning, the expedition started at four o'clock, passed through Jericho, 
which lies some distance from the river, and halted at the Jordan bridge at seven. 
The bridge is a strange, crude structure, latticed and cross-braced. We had an excellent 
opportunity to examine it while waiting for the escort which was to accompany us on 
our journey. There had been some mistake, however, in the orders, and no soldiers 
arrived. After an hour's wait the guard, which we had been compelled to bring with 
us from Jerusalem in order that it might hand us over to our permanent escort, grew 
impatient and turned back, leaving us to go on unattended. From that time on we were 
usually able to escape the attentions of the soldiery a piece of good fortune for us. 




111. 3. The Jordan and its Bridge. 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



for it is quite unlikely that the expedition could have penetrated so far into the Druse 
and Bedawin country if soldiers had been with us. Their presence would have 

identified us with the government at once, 
and the suspicions, if not the active hos- 
tility, of the people would have made the 
journey, as planned and carried out, im- 
possible. So we crossed the Jordan, and 
two hours later we stopped for lunch in 
the Wadi Djeri'ah, resting there until after 
two o'clock. Then we pushed on, climbing 
the steep hot slopes of the mountains of 
'Amman to the camp, pitched by the ruins 
of 'Ar^k il-Emlr in a sequestered valley 
high up in the hills, where the air was 
cooler and more invigorating, once more 
well above the sea-level. 

The following morning we set about 
our first regular work, Norris to begin the survey of the site, the others to investigate 
the ruins of the temple and other buildings in the vicinity. That night a fusillade of 




III. 4. The Bridge over the Jordan. 




111. 5. 'Ar4\f il-Emlr: Camp at the Ruins. 



Chapter I The Journey Begins 5 

rifle-shots brought us to our feet, and made any sort of trouble seem imminent. The 
noise, however, quieted down at once, and proved to be only a show of force on the 



-'it^".3*N-*T.T-''*>'': 



''^^MiS.**'^*^!^ > 



^rim^'' 



III. 6. 'Avak il-Emir: Ruins of the Temple. 

part of the camp-servants. One of the villagers had agreed to watch the camp and 
then had demanded four times the promised price, and the shots were merely a reply 
to his bluff. We stopped at "Arak il-Emir for five days, which gave us time to explore 
the country round about and to complete 
the measuring of the ruins, of which a plan 
was made. George, the dragoman, rode 
north to is-Salt on the third day, and a 
Circassian soldier came back with him to 
be our guide for the next few days, as our 
road was to take us through country lately 
settled by Circassians. These Mohammedan 
refugees from Russian territory, who had 
been driven out by religious oppression and 
had found a refuge under Turkish rule, had 
settled here some twenty-five or thirty years 
before, and appear to make excellent colonists. 
Early on the nineteenth, the camp moved 
up the W^dl i.s-Slr to Khirbit il-Bardhon 
(Pack-Horse Ruin), which had been 

visited two days before, lying on the south side of the w^dl. Across the wadi 
lies Khirbit il-Bassah, a group of four modern houses, built of stone and with flat 




111. 7. Khirbit il-Bassah. 



6 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

roofs, used for storing grain, and stretching between the two places are the remains 
of a dam which was used to run a mill, so the people said, up to fifteen years before. 
Near by, on the east, rose Imm it-Tal', the highest peak at this latitude between us 
and the Jordan. Farther on, towards the plain on the east, lay ^Amman, the ancient 
Philadelphia, which was to be our next camping-place. From the summit of this peak 
can be seen plainly the swing of western country from north to south, the mountains 
of Judaea, and on a clear day the Mount of Olives. After dinner, some men from 
the village came to the camp. The servants built a bonfire, and around about it the 
muleteers danced, holding hands and chanting the melodies of the country. The ten- 
year old son of our guide was brought forward to sing, a beautiful child, with delicate 
clear-cut features and jet black hair hanging straight over his forehead. That afternoon 
his father, Dhlb (the Wolf) by name, had been allowed to look through the telescope 
of the theodolite : he was greatly astonished and interested ; but his naive explanation 
held a seed of danger for us all. The telescope was a single refracting one, and 
when he saw everything inverted, he said: "So that is what this is! They seek for 
gold, and when they turn the earth upside down the gold falls out and they learn 
where to look for it." 

The next day we continued up the narrow Wadi is- Sir, cultivated and with oaks 
scattered here and there over the nearer hills. After an hour we came to il-Mu'allakah, 
a huge columbarium hewn in a cliff about a hundred and seventy feet above the stream. 
All along here, as far as is-Sir itself, are mills, sometimes with modern houses and 
gardens near by. Two hours more brought us to is-Sir, a village of some two hundred 
houses one storey high, built of sun-dried brick. This was the first large Circassian 
town we passed. The people have kept their Russian dress and character, and their 
thrift and prosperity were in marked contrast to that of the Bedawin whom we had 
seen. The fields are well tilled and irrigated, and the ox-drawn carts with solid wheels 
seemed out of place in this country. We took the carriage-road from the town towards 
the east, ascending the range which separates this valley from 'Amm^n. An hour was 
spent at Khirbit Sa.r in measuring a building of no particular importance. Half a mile 
to the south of the road, on top of the ridge about three miles farther on, are the 
ruins called Khirbit Sufiyeh (?). Then descending the eastern side of the ridge we found 
the camp pitched just outside of "Amman. 

'Amman is a town of about five hundred mud-brick houses, extending about a 
mile down the narrow valley through which flows the river of the same name. This 
river, in ancient times, was led underneath the city by a very long arched conduit, of 
which only one section remains. The people are mostly Circassians, prosperous and 
thrifty. Their houses are well built, and the gardens and flocks are excellent. It dis- 
tressed us to see how rapidly the ruin of the ancient buildings was being made complete. 
We saw in a rough wall, enclosing a garden, a well preserved stone sarcophagus, and 
the few stone houses are built largely of dressed and sculptured blocks. The standing 
ruins in the valley are used as sheds for goats and cattle, and are filthy. The railway 
to Mecca comes within tl\ree miles, and the modern spirit with its lack of reverence 
for the ancient buildings prevails everywhere. We found the theatre in use as a camp 
for a detachment of four hundred Turkish cavalry, mostly Circassians. The buildings 
on the acropolis are even more dilapidated than those in the town itself They are 
not, however, encumbered by modern buildings, and there was enough of interest in 



Chapter I The Journey Begins 7 

these ruins to merit a two days' halt. The present occupants could not understand 
our interest and crowded around us, very much in the way. 

The road, which we took early in the morning of the twenty-fifth, led down the valley 



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i 




..^^^^^^^^^H^ \L^'' 


1 



111. 8. 'Amman: General View from the West. 



of the Wadi 'Amman to the northeast. After an hour's riding we passed the railway 
station, and then followed the line of the railway for two miles to where it swings to 
the south. Here we went under its well made bridge of cut limestone and, still keeping 
to the river valley, passed several unim- 
portant ruins and one small Circassian 
village. After a ride of six miles we reached 
the extreme eastern bend of the W^di 
"Amman, where the desert comes close to 
its bank, and there we camped. 

Kal'at iz-Zerka was distant only five 
minutes' walk. This is a mediaeval fortress 
on the site of one of the chain of Roman 
fortresses which strove to hold the imperial 
power against the desert and the desert 
peoples, untamed then as now. The hill 
itself on which the fortress stands is occupied 
by a village built two years before our 

arrival by a Russian community. They call themselves "Tshotshun" ; but their language 
was not understood by our Circassian soldier : however, Circassian and Chechenian are 
both Caucasian languages. The next morning we continued up the river from Kalat 
iz-Zerka, passing a few mills, for all this valley is planted in maize. After riding about 




111. g. 'Amman: Section of Conduit for River. 



8 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

six miles we saw the first outcropping of black basalt extending across from the desert 
into the limestone hills. Here the basalt formed a hill around which the stream curved. 
Two miles further brought us to Khirbit in-Nimreh, a complete ruin of which little but 
the name remains. Just before lunch we saw a rock-cut flume which still showed tool- 
marks. Some of the maize fields had in the middle a raised platform, on which lay 
a man or a boy, armed with a sling to prevent the depredations of the birds, and to 
these lonely watchers the sight of our cavalcade afforded a brief diversion. We found 
the luncheon-tent pitched near a village at the place where a small wadi joins the 
Nahr iz-Zerka from the north. We had great difficulty in learning the name, il-'IdwAn, 
for the people looked upon us with suspicion, fearing apparently that we had something 




111. lo. 'Amm&n: Ruins of the Acropolis from the Northwest. 

to do with taxes or military service. Thence our road led up the small WS^di il-Knaiyeh, 
containing only a trickle of water. 

We left this wadi after about a mile, where it turns to the east, and continued 
over the mountains, going always north until we reached the top of a ridge, whence 
we saw the W&di il-Karm to the east. Winding down the mountain, our road took 
us to the camp, pitched between one of the theatres and the bath at Djerash. 

Two days were spent here, in ancient Gerasa. It was distressing to see the way 
in which the ruined buildings, even more than in 'Amman, were being demolished. 
The chief sport of the boys was a sort of glorified game of bowls, in which great 
building-stones were detached from the higher parts of buildings and sent crashing 
down the slope. The so-called agora, a circle formed by slender Ionic columns, was 
the most impressive sight. The sunset, at the end of the first day, beggars description, 
with the colors of the ruins close at hand, golden brown and deep sienna, the foliage 
of the richest and most sombre green, then the plain, misty and vague in a violet haze, 
and beyond, outlined in deepest indigo against a pale green sky, the mountains to 
the south. 

It was five hours and a half from Djerash to ir-Rimtheh along the road built by 



Chapter I The Journey Begins 




111. n. Djerash: Ancient Bridge connecting the two Parts of the Town. 




111. 12. Djerash: the Circular Agora. 
Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 



lO 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



the Circassians. This led to the top of the mountain, whence, far to the north, one 
could see the range of the Lebanon and, faintly through the haze, Djebel ish-Sh6kh 
(The Old Man Mountain), i. e. Mount Hermon. Our road took us down to the north 
into the WAdi Warran. About four miles farther traces of a Roman road could be seen, 
coming from the west to cross or join our road. The traces were visible for about 
three miles, and three of the Roman milestones are still preserved. The road now 
left the mountains through which we had travelled for two weeks, and ran through 
rolling plains, bare of trees, but under cultivation. To the east, about four miles 
away, the low foot-hills begin, and at the base of these runs the Darb il-Hadjdj, 
the pilgrims' road to Mecca. We rode on rapidly, overtaking a wayfarer who was 
waiting for companions before venturing further into the plain, and by four o'clock we 
were in ir-Rimtheh. From here we saw for the first time, about thirty miles to the east, 
the blue Djebel Hauran bounding the fertile plain. 

Ir-Rimtheh is situated on a knoll and has about a thousand inhabitants, all of Bedawin 
origin. There is a spring about half a mile to the northeast of the town. Our arrival aroused 
the greatest interest. The people crowded around, interfering in amiable curiosity with 
everything, until finally we were settled and it became necessary to decide the delicate 
matter of our manner to these visitors. We compromised on a rather distant attitude, 
allowing the people to squat outside the tents, making no distinctions and showing no 
special favor. This was unfortunate, for among them eventually appeared a middle-aged 
man with beautiful manners and a most musical voice : he was the Sh6kh, but he did 
not tell us who he was. 

Our road to Bosra, ten hours distant, led around a hill to the north of the village, 
ran a little east of northeast up gentle hills, the summits of which are about two miles 
from ir-Rimtheh, and then over a treeless, rolling plateau with occasional outcroppings 
of limestone and ever-increasing black basalt, until, about six miles from ir-Rimtheh, 
we reached Dera, a station on the railway from Damascus to Mecca, the "Railway 
of the Pilgrimage". The basalt used for the houses and the smoke from locomotives 

gave Der'a, in Hebrew Edrel, in Greek 
Adraa, strangely enough the appearance 
of a mining town in Pennsylvania. The 
town is on the top of a long narrow hill, 
running north and south, and on a similar 
hill, a quarter of a mile to the south, are 
the ruins of an ancient castle : we did not 
stop to examine this, but passed on between 
the two hills and down the slope to the 
Wadi Zedl, where lies the watering-place 
for the animals and the people of the town. 
Just beyond this our road joined a Roman 
road, and on it we travelled east-southeast. 
A mile farther on we crossed the railway, and after another mile passed the village 
of in-Nuemeh lying to the north. The road was very rough, and there was more 
and more volcanic rock, the source of which was evidently a cone-shaped mountain 
on the northeast, rising above the masses of the Djebel Hauran. 

Three miles farther lay Umm il-MeyAdhin, a small village south of the road. 




111. 13. wadi Zedi: Roman Bridge. 



Chapter I The Journey Begins II 

After lunch, for which we stopped about four miles beyond Umm il-Meyadhin, our 
guide tried to get water at a village, it-Taiyibeh, but was told that the cisterns were 
dry. Three miles further on, the Roman road was carried over the Wadi Z^dl by a 
two-arched bridge of basalt, still in good condition. About four miles beyond it was 
Ghasm, twenty-three miles from Dera, and here too the cistern was dry. All along 
the road we had passed people ploughing in the fields of dark red earth. 

On October thirtieth we reached Bosra after dark, but we failed to find the entrance 
to the town, so that we stumbled over masses of broken stone, searching for the 
camp. At last, quite by accident, we found it pitched, as we learned in the morning, 
on a threshing-floor immediately east of the Djami~ il-Khidr. 



CHAPTER II 



BOSRA 



Our first day in Bosra was spent in resting : the next was taken up with an 
official visit from the Mudlr and his son, and with a general examination of the extensive 
ruins. The outline of the city-wall of ancient Bostra with its monumental gates is still 




111. 14. Bosra: General View from the West. 

clear, and inside it are temples, baths, a great palace, two triumphal arches and the 
Roman theatre, upon which the present mediaeval castle was erected, completely con- 
cealing its original structure. Of later date are the cathedral, two other churches, and 
five mosques. 

Bosra is a city of high antiquity. From 85 B. C. to A. D. 106 it was an impor- 
tant city of the Nabataean Kingdom, and then it became the capital of the Roman 
province of Arabia. It was the seat of a bishop also, and it is still an important town 
with a Mudir and a Turkish commandant of the garrison. 



Chapter II Bosra 



13 




The Mudlr was a man of education and culture, well disposed and inclined to be 
friendly. He paid us a ceremonial visit accompanied by his son, about twenty-two 
years old, who wore beautiful clothes, adding to his rather extraordinary grace and 
good looks. Not only the Mudir but the 
people in general evinced the greatest in- 
terest in all of us. Some one had started 
the rumor that our ancestors had come 
from this country, and that we had returned 
to claim our heritage, principally gold, 
buried in secret places. In that way they 
accounted for the map-making and sur- 
veying, regarding the theodolite, as did 
the man at Khirbit il-Bardhon, as a modern 
and scientific divining-rod with the compass 
pointing to the proper spot "There 
digge". A short time previously the Mudir 
and a Druse shekh had combined to buy 
a grist-mill. This was brought on a wagon, 
the first wheeled vehicle which these people 
had tried to use. As there were no wagon- 
roads, it was badly stuck outside the town, 
and we helped them to extricate it. In 
charge of the moving was the Mudir's son, 
who asked if we were not coming to repay 
his and his father's call. We went that 

afternoon to the house, and found the entrance was through an opening in a high stone 
wall. This led into an inner yard where cattle were kept, with a stone terrace rising 
on one side. Behind the terrace was a one-storey house, which had in its center 
an arched vestibule in which we sat and drank coffee with our host. 

The successful treatment of a woman with sore eyes brought a horde of sick and 
ailing to the tents, while others requested a professional visit. Boric acid, quinine, and 
calomel constituted most of our pharmacopeia, and it was distressing to be able to do 
so little. Among the visits was one made to a man who had a knife-wound, two 
inches long, under the point of his left shoulder-blade, evidently puncturing his lung. 
The wound, we were told, had been received in a quarrel which had arisen between 
the man and his cousin over a stick of wood. The Mudir's uncle, a handsome old man 
and a descendant of the Prophet, conducted us, and at the house we found the Mudir 
and the Turkish Commandant awaiting us. We went into a large room, crowded with 
people discussing the attack in whispers, and in a corner on a bed of rags, lighted by 
a smoky torch which flickered and died away, lay the wounded man. The law is odd 
in such cases. Nothing can be done to aid a man wounded in a quarrel. If the man 
should die, his assailant undoubtedly committed murder ; but there is no way to prove 
that, had the doctor not interfered, the man might not have recovered. As the racial 
law of blood-feud which comes before and after the government law is involved, the 
matter becomes complicated. After a murderer has served fifteen years in prison, as 
the legal penalty for manslaughter, the family of the murdered man can exact a 



111. 15. Bosra: the West Gate. 



I^. Division I Geography and Itinerary 

penalty to satisfy the blood-feud. A sum of money, decided upon after the immemorial 
custom of the East, must be paid or the murderer's life is forfeit without legal interference. 

For two days a man shouted at sunrise and at sunset through the streets : " O ye 
who hear the word, bless Mohammed ! O who has seen, O who has beheld the trap- 
pings of a horse? He who has seen them and hidden them away, may God cut off 
his substance and his family! To him who brings them, a reward, a sweetening of 
one half a medjidi." 

On the fifth day an important social event occurred at breakfast. The Mudir and 
the chief religious dignitary of Bosra came to call while we were still at table. They 
were much interested in the linen table-cloth and the table-equipment, and finally the 
Mud!r asked what the toast was. He scorned it when he learned that it was only 
native bread, but when some English biscuits were produced they all ate. This 
breaking of bread is the final act in establishing a friendship, and bread is never shared 
unless there be real regard. As one's social position must be made secure, this visit 
and the appeal for aid made by the Mudtr's uncle, who as a descendant of the Prophet 
carried great weight, did much to relieve our minds. 

Still the sick came. One pitiful case was that of a young man, a Bedawi from 
the plains, whose back had been hurt. He was terribly scarred by the hot irons which 
had been applied to relieve the pain ; but nothing could be done for him. He was 
lying in a tent of camel's wool, as loosely spun and woven as burlap, open on front 
and sides, so low that it was impossible to stand upright, and with only a smouldering 
acridly smoking fire of camel's dung to offset the cold wind sweeping down from the 
peaks of the Djebel Hauran. How the well people live is a miracle. One has to be 
careful in dealing with hopeless cases. The natives' faith in a doctor's power seems 
to be unlimited, so that if a patient dies it is the doctor's fault, while if he lives it 
is only what was to be expected. Then, in a country shot through with superstition 
and the belief in signs and portents, even an examination may be thought to bring 
the "evil eye" to bear and to work its destructive power. Through the interpreter 
Norris preached to the crowd of sick, collected around the tents, a sermon on the ills 
due to filth and uncleanliness. He said that Mohammed devoted a good deal of the 
Koran to lessons and rules on hygiene and primitive sanitation, and it was explained 
that sickness came from disobeying his express commands. They were much impressed ; 
but with a people whose age-long habit has been to make their animals inmates of their 
dwellings, and in a country where water is so scarce, the planting of ideas of cleanliness 
is difficult, and it is to be feared that the seeds of wise advice fell upon stony ground. 

Ramadan, the month of daylight fasting, began that year on the eighth of 
November. On the evening of the seventh our servants invited us to a pantomime. 
They used the tent as a green-room and the space in front, lighted by two candles, 
as the stage. The performance consisted of only a few simple tricks ; but one loses 
quickly the desire of civilization for complicated amusements, and our applause and 
appreciation could not have been greater for a Keller or a Hermann. Early the next 
morning, a great while before dawn, we were aroused from sleep by a clear, though 
distant and melodious, voice. It was the cry of the muezzin who chanted his call for 
prayer on the first morn of the fast-month, while the men of Bosra began to gather 
in the dimly lighted mosque below. 

We were at the beginning of a period of eight and twenty days during which we 



Chapter II Bosra 15 

and our few Christian attendants would be almost the only ones in all this region who 
were not fasting from sunrise until sunset. Feasting would be the order of every 
evening. The older people seemed not much affected by the injunction ; but the young 
often began to look pale and wan as the day wore on. This month is a period when 
all the faithful are taught to fix their minds on charity and good will : even the little 
children are trained to practice charity. Often, towards the close of day, when we were 
returning to camp from our work in some distant part of the ruins, we would be 
accosted by mere babies, carrying each a piece of bread and a basin of meat-balls 
which they would hold up to us saying: "Take and eat, for the sun is almost set". 

One day we were returning from an excursion to Kharaba, attended by one lone 
Moslem, our groom Rashid, a stalwart, angular young giant wearing a faded red 
coat and a dull blue turban. Rashid sat astride his donkey, holding a bundle of 
bread and meat-balls, wrapped in a large handkerchief, on the pommel of his saddle in 
front of him, and eagerly scanning the western horizon, watching for the sun to dis- 
appear. The sun was setting gloriously ; but for the moment it had disappeared behind 
a dark gray cloud just above the mountains. "Eat, the sun has set", said our dragoman 
George, who was often inclined to be facetious with his men. "It has not set", replied 
Rashid, eying the cloud wistfully. "Yes it has", said George, "you are a fool to wait 
longer". The boy sought out Butler, who, he knew, would not make sport of him, 
and asked: "Khaw&dja, has the sun set"? Butler replied: "No, I will tell you when it 
has". Almost instantly the sun broke through the cloud and flooded the plain with 
gold. George laughed guiltily, and Rashid was divided in his emotions ; but in another 
moment the orb of day was unquestionably gone, and the Moslem boy began to eat 
ravenously. 

By this time a complete survey of the city had been made. All the visible 
buildings had been measured for publication, and some hitherto unknown inscriptions 
in Nabataean, in Greek or in Arabic had been discovered and copied. Every day 
the attitude of the people towards us had grown more friendly, and architectural details 
and inscriptions built into houses were made accessible. The Commandant was most 
apologetic for the action of his guard in denying Butler and Littmann entrance to the 
castle. He paid a special visit to explain, dressed in his most beautiful and elaborate 
clothes, cordial relations were established, and the next morning we returned his call 
and finally gained admittance to the fortress. There is an arched stone bridge over 
the moat, and from the bridge one passes through dark vaulted passage-ways and 
finally by a double turn into the central court-yard. A flight of narrow and very steep 
steps, made of the ancient columns which once Hned the streets of Bostra, took us up 
to a flat roof where was the door of the Commandant's chamber. We sat on rugs 
on the dais which extended the length of the room, and a servant passed us cups of 
some pink sweetish drink which tasted of mulberries. Then our host made us cigarettes, 
and coffee was brought in. He told us how he appreciated our coming, for he had 
no friends in Bosra, and as he spoke no Arabic his servants were his only companions. 
He considered his life here as exile, and spoke with longing of his last post in Jerusalem. 
But our dragoman learned that he had been moved from there because his fondness 
for brandy had threatened scandal. It had been done for his own good ; but he seemed 
so discouraged after five months that his return to some more civilized place would 
probably be celebrated in his acquired European way. The Arabs do not relish Tur- 



l6 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

kish sovereignty, and it was easy to see that the visible authority would be subjected 
to as many difficulties as possible. 

We rode one afternoon to the northwest, passing through Djemerrtn to Kharaba, 
a good sized Christian village. It contains about a thousand people, all orthodox 
Greeks under the Patriarch of Antioch. The priest was away ; but his brother or his 
son, we could not discover which, took us into his house and made much of us. The 
people live in constant dread of their Mohammedan or Druse neighbors, who swoop 
down in Highland fashion on the flocks, or compel the people to labor in the fields. 
On our return from Kharaba by the road which led around Djemerrin we found, about 
a mile from Bosra, an arched masonry bridge, built by the Romans and restored in 
1226 according to the Arabic inscription which is still in place. 



>'\ 



CHAPTER III 



THE MOUNTAIN 

Before journeying into the plain, which during the autumn months is parched and 
dry, we planned to explore hurriedly the mountain country to the north and east of 
the Djebel il-Kul6b, the chief landmark in the mountains, and to attempt to penetrate 
the Harrah, the stony desert to the east. The expedition of 1900 had reached the 
northern end of the Djebel Hauran, and coming up from the south, as we intended, 
we could tie up with the earlier visit in a way satisfactory for map-making. The next 
day, therefore, being the twelfth of November, we broke camp at eight o'clock and 
began to cross a plain which rose gradually to the northeast. The road is an ancient 
one and traces of an aqueduct were seen for some distance outside of Bosra. At half 
past twelve il-Kefr was reached, in the foot-hills of the Djebel Hauran. We had passed 
several small and unimportant villages on the way. 

Il-Kefr lies in a broad high valley, surrounded by vineyards, with here and there 
a garden and scattered trees. The hills, gray and bare, with the broad black streaks 
of lava-flows, tower up towards the north, and, looking very near, the Djebel il-Kuleb 
rears its pointed summit on the northeast. The people are Druses and seemed to be 
much interested in us, watching from the flat house-tops as we wound through a narrow 
lane between eight-foot walls to an open field, used as a threshing-floor, where the 
camp was pitched. One or two men came out to see us, then more and more, until 
at last the Shekh himself appeared. His pure white head-band showed that he was 
an initiated Druse. The people have decidedly Semitic features, bold and fine, and 
are a tall and sturdy race. Though oriental, they by no means hold the women 
in oriental seclusion ; for these are not veiled, and in their freedom and position they 
seem to be more nearly on a equality with the men. The Shekh was friendly, and 
invited us to come to his house after luncheon. This we ate cold while the tents were 
being pitched. It began to rain, and we were impressed by the efficiency displayed in 
spite of the seeming confusion and lack of order among the servants. 

After luncheon the Shekh's brother came to guide us to his house, where our 
high boots caused an embarrassing delay. Finally we entered the room, arched, with 
a window on either side of the door, and a fire burning on an open hearth in the 
center. The floor was paved with stone, and the buttresses of the arches, built inside 
in the usual Haura,n style, projected about five feet into the room. We sat on the 
left side on rugs, while the villagers sat against the opposite wall. There was a brazier 
with glowing charcoal, and on it the Shfekh's small son made coffee in curiously shaped 
pots of some dark metal inlaid with copper. We made ablution by dipping our fingers 

Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 3 



1 8 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

in a round pewter bowl with Arabic texts inscribed inside and out. When the coffee 
was ready the boy tasted it and poured it, just a sip in each cup, for us only. It was 
black, sugarless and flavored with cardamom. The villagers watched us with solemn 
eyes and in silence, waiting to be addressed by us before venturing a remark. Then 
a tall ewer was brought, water was poured over our hands, and the visit was ended. 
Not so, however, the Shfekh's attentions ; for he took us through the village, which had 
some few unimportant ruins and some inscriptions, and finally led us to the very 
interesting city-gate. This was the only real entrance to the ancient town. It had a 
door of two leaves, each leaf a single stone, six inches thick and about seven feet high, 
turning on a pivot and socket hinge. 

Outside the town, in a level field, a game was being played, like fox and geese 
on horseback. Ten or twelve on a side, the young men would line up at either end 
of the field, about a hundred yards apart. Then a man from one side would ride to 
the centre and, in a ringing voice, challenge an opponent, praising his own mount to 
the skies with a wealth of adjectives. Suddenly the challenge would be taken up, and 
out from the line would dash a rider, and up and down the field they would ride, each 
trying to tag the other. It gave a chance to show some beautiful riding, but it was 
not entirely a harmless amusement, on this occasion at least. This, we were told, was 
the regular manner of celebrating a wedding ; but this time the bride was being forced 
into the match against her will, and a good deal of bad feeling was shown. 

That evening some of the men came to the tents, and East and West met 
musically; for we played our music-box for them, and they performed on their native 
instrument, a sort of double flute like the ancient tibiae. It is difficult to play, taking, 
they said, two or three years to learn. Two reeds, each about a foot and a half 
long, are bound together, each having a mouth-piece like a whi.stle and six stops. 
The musicians keep two themes going at once, and with the closer intervals employed 
produce a plaintive and haunting melody, winding in and out and echoing in harmony 
like a fugue. What appealed principally to our visitors, and this was true of all the 
men whom we entertained, was our firearms. They have all kinds, well kept and 
clean, and they will pay ten pounds sterling for a French carbine twenty-five years 
old. The guns are bought in Egypt and smuggled through Arabia by Arab traders. 

It was a little rainy towards evening and, as we were at an elevation of four 
thousand feet, among the clouds, it was only at times that we could see far down to 
the west, across the plain of the Haurcin with the blue hills of Gilead beyond. The 
next day, which was Sunday, was spent in leisure. Littmann and Norris went for 
luncheon to the medafeh, which is the guest-house of the village. They had, as 
aperitifs, two cups of bitter coffee and two cups of very sweet tea. Then the food 
was brought in and placed on the floor, on a circular mat woven of colored corn-husks. 
There were piles of bread in thin circular cakes, dishes of boiled partridge, vegetables 
stewed in milk and, in the center, an enormous round pewter dish of rice. The Shekh 
of a neighboring village, after a great deal of urging, was persuaded to join the 
American guests, and squatted with them upon the floor about the mat, each leaning 
one arm on a cushion and spreading a towel over his knees. Small pieces of the thin 
tough bread were torn off, curled in the fingers to form little scoops, and used instead 
of spoons. The Shekh of il-Kefr and his friends, who had brought in the meal, sat 
around in silence. The repast ended with more coffee and tea, and we finally retired 



Chapter III The Mountain 19 

amid the salaams of our hosts and our audience, all of whom had risen when we did. 

The sick were always with us. In the afternoon our Shfekh brought in the brother 
of the Shfekh of Kuraiyeh. He tried to persuade us to visit his village, promising us 
the best of treatment, horses, servants, houses and food, and adding that he had a 
dearly beloved brother, the Sh^kh, who for the past year had had a swollen belly 
and a bad cough. 

The Shekh of il-Kefr guided us to the top of the neighboring volcanic peak, Djebel 
il-Kulfeb. We went up by the western side, on which the ascent can best be made. 
The peak, is almost a perfect cone, only] a projecting spur about half way up on 
the western side breaking the symmetry. On this spur are the ruins of a temple, 
of which some architectural details, perhaps Nabataean, are the only remains above 
ground. On the summit are the foundations of a temple, of native rock squared and 
drafted, but so few and so badly preserved that no idea of the period could be obtained. 
Just below the summit, on the southeast, is the crater, long extinct and now filled 
with oaks of good size growing in profusion. Not far away is a cave, about forty 
feet square, hewn in the soft rock. The roof is slightly arched from north to 
south, and leading down from the platform at the entrance is a stairway carved from 
the south wall, but broken away about twelve feet from the bottom. On the west wall 
is a square pilaster as high as the chamber, and near it is an air-shaft, three feet square, 
running up to the open air. The surface had been plastered, but there are no signs 
of paint on the fragments which remain, and their color, light to darkish green, is 
evidently due to sulphur stains. There was nothing to indicate the purpose for which 
the cave was made : perhaps it was for storing snow. About a hundred feet away, 
five steps of a spiral stairway lead downward into some other chamber, but this was 
completely filled with earth and stone, and it would have taken a force of men and 
more time than was available to excavate it. From the summit itself there is a view 
over all the country in all directions; but there was enough haze to prevent our seeing 
clearly over the plain of the Hauran. We did, however, have a good view of the 
cultivated valley lying east of the peak. The ascent took an hour and twenty-five 
minutes, and at the summit the boiling-point thermometer gave approximately five 
thousand feet as its altitude above sea-level. 

The next morning we could resist the importunities of the Shekh's brother no 
longer, and started for Kuraiyeh. The way was over barren country covered with 
volcanic scoriae, with several lava-streams, from fifty to two hundred feet wide, running 
through it down the slopes from the Djebel il-Kuleb. It was about six miles to the 
village, and we went immediately to the Shekh's home, which resembled the other 
stone houses we had entered, but was perhaps a little more elaborate. On the roof 
of the largest building was a loggia, behind which was the sick-chamber. The room 
was crowded with people, two women nursing their children and a veiled woman 
fanning the flies away from the Shfekh, who lay almost motionless except for the 
paroxysms of coughing which shook him. Blankets and quilts were piled upon him. 
His face was thin and drawn, of a very bad color, and his hands were like ice. There 
seemed nothing to be accomplished by this one visit; but, for the moral effect, Norris 
took his temperature and felt his pulse. It seemed unwise to leave medicine with these 
ignorant people, particularly as there seemed little chance of his recovery ; but we gave 
him something for his cough. There was danger that he would not survive the journey 



20 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



to a hospital in Damascus, which we urged most strongly, and it seemed probable 
that no doctor would have a chance to relieve us of the responsibility for his death. 
The next day the Shekh of il-Kefr asked us if his cousin would live. We said "No", 
and when, on the following morning, the report of his death came, to our powers was 
added the foreknowledge of death. 

After everything had been done for the patient that seemed possible, we were 
taken through the village of Kuraiyeh. We saw a Roman cistern, some architectural 
details, and some inscriptions in Greek which were built into the houses, but nothing 
of much interest, and then we were led back to the Shekh's house for luncheon. 
Returning to our camp we rode north for about three miles over a very rough road 
to 'Ain il-Halaweh (The Spring of Sweetness), so called from the constantly flowing 
water. From here it was a ride of about five miles back to il-Kefr. 

A day was spent in exploring the country to the southeast, and next day we made 
a more detailed examination of the ruins on Djebel il-Kul6b. Near the temple half 
way up we found a Greek inscription dated A. D. 520, apparently from a tomb. The 
camp had left il-Kefr in the morning, so we rode north, going over the lower slopes 
of Abu Attah ("Ata ?) past 'Ain il-Halaweh, and reached a level plateau, the western 
boundary of which, where the ground drops down to the plain, was about half a mile 
distant. Farther on, we passed nine round towers called Kusfir ish-Sha'af, and a mile 
beyond, still going north, we crossed the Wadi Karmatah, which flows past Suw^da 
to the west of us, a good sized town at the foot of the plateau. Here the country 
changed from the barren rocky soil of the past six miles. Scrub oak and hawthorn 
covered the ground until we reached W&dl 'Anz, and then W^dl Sf down which we 
traveled past the great temple of Si', to find the camp in readiness in the fertile 
valley of the Wadi is-Sayigh. 

Three days later our work on the ruins at Si' was interrupted early in the after- 
noon by a visit from Hilal il-Atrash, the brother of Shibli il-Atrash, the most renowned 

Sh^kh of the Druses, who brought an in- 
vitation for luncheon. The Shekh has his 
official residence at Ureh, on the western 
slope of the Djebel Haur^n, and we agreed 
to go to him in two days. A delicate point 
of etiquette was involved, for too hasty an 
acceptance would not have been becoming, 
and yet it was necessary to submit some- 
what to this very important personage. The 
brother was an arresting and romantic figure. 
Of middle height and very heavily set, he 
wore an ab^yeh over a European coat and 
overcoat, and slung diagonally from either 
shoulder was a cartridge-belt filled with car- 
tridges of elephant-gun calibre. His heavy 
fierce moustaches and truculent air made 
him a fit emissary for a overlord. His two retainers also were armed to the teeth. 

Later that same day, Ahmed il-Hadjirl, the religious head of the Druses, and four 
friends called at the tents. He was an extremely interesting person, unoriental in 



^^ ^^ fli 


m m ' 



111. 16. Ahmed il-Hadjiri with two Attendants. 



Chapter III The Mountain 21 

features, with fair hair and a reddish beard, very intellectual looking, with a thin ascetic 
face and a high forehead. His "abayeh was black with heavy silver embroidery in 
intricate design. Littmann had brought with him a book printed in Arabic, which had 
an account of some of the Druse religious beliefs, and after a short time the book 
was given to Ahmed. He was tremendously impressed and began to read, his oldest 
companion following the text over his shoulder. It grew dark and a candle was brought 
in. The two men were deep in the book, Ahmed following the lines with his finger, 
his lips moving as he pronounced the sacred words in a low murmur, his white-bearded 
companion bending over beside him in deepest awe and reverence. It was a picture which 
would have delighted Rembrandt, with the single light on these two, the rich coloring 
of their dress, and all the rest in shadow. Finally he looked up and without a word 
passed the book to the others, who kissed it and held it to their foreheads. 

The road to 'Ireh took us in an hour and a half to Suwfeda, at which we made 
no stop, then ten miles more to 'Ireh, the usual village of one-storey stone houses, 
with the palace of Shibli, a huge rambling congeries of buildings enclosing a courtyard 
filled with mud and water, ducks, chickens and cattle, with the Shekh's dwelling-house 
of two storeys at the far end. An outside stairway took us up to the roof of the first 
storey, across which we walked and were ushered into the great man's room. Shibli 
was lying in a corner, covered with rugs, with a charcoal brazier to give warmth. 
There were several men in the room, and two veiled women fanning away the flies. 
The room was disappointing, for the trim was of plain unmoulded wood, the windows 
were of ordinary glass sash and, though the rugs were fairly good, there was none of 
the gorgeousness one might expect in the Shfekh's palace. Yet, as we approached the 
couch, the disappointment took on a tinge of sympathy and sorrow, which grew as 
we realized how low this mighty one had fallen. He was suffering from something 
like dropsy, and for over a year he had been compelled to take a less and less active 
part in affairs : for the past month he had been confined to his bed. He hinted that 
his condition was due to slow poison, given when he had been kept in captivity by the 
Turks after the Druse rebellion. One could see the worry and distress which preyed 
upon him as he grew weaker and let the reins of control slip through his hands. He 
was a capable man and a leader. The two women sat without speaking. The elder, 
dressed in almost European clothes and evidently his wife, pushed back her veil. She 
looked Greek, and she may have been a Syrian Christian. The other, in full Druse 
costume with headdress and veil, was his daughter, and they both were most solicitous 
and careful of his comfort. But the effort of talking plainly tired him, so that when 
directions for taking the pills had been given, with every show of appreciation and 
gratitude he waved us into an adjoining room where food was waiting. 

It was raining by the time we had finished. We mounted and set out on a road 
which led a little farther to the east, through Resas, then west a little through Suwfeda 
again. It grew dark before we had gone far up the slope; but the horses proved 
wonderfully surefooted, picking their way over and among the rocks in safety. The 
rain stopped and the moon came out as we climbed into the valley of Sf. The solitude 
of the hills around us and of the ruined temple of Si", as we toiled along, was in 
effective contrast to the warmth and light of the tents. But the camp was not the 
restful place it had seemed to be. Joseph, the chief servant and our waiter, had 
procured a bottle of "arak while we were away, and by the time we had finished dinner 



22 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

he was well on his way to intoxication. He was small, but of extraordinary strength, 
so that when sober he ruled the camp. Drunk, he became filled with the spirit of all 
his ancestors, and then the other servants avoided him like the plague. That night 
he bubbled over with uncharity. In a great bull voice, the rough Arabic gutturals 
rumbling and booming, Joseph cursed. We learned from the others that Joseph was 
cursing everybody's religion and life, ancestors and offspring, till the very air crackled. 
We went to our tents and tried to sleep : finally in despair we commanded silence. 
Instantly Joseph stopped : then in a little while from far up the valley came a low 
deep roar, as he wandered alone, cursing to himself in the moonlight through the 
long night. 

The Bedawin had left the hills, for there is water in the plain on the west during 
the late autumn. From the summit of Tell Abu Taseh, the mountain which forms the 
end of the Wcldl is-S&yigh, no signs of habitation were visible. It is a desolate spot, 
with no living thing or sign of living creature, and covered with volcanic deposits. The 
country all around is rolling, with an occasional peak rearing its head above the 
plateau, none appearing difficult to climb. By this time a good deal of work had been 
done on the ruins of Sf . The fallen building-material had been moved from the great gate 
leading in from the middle court of the temple, bringing to light the smaller temple 
of Dushara, and part of the court had been cleared. A number of important Nabataean 
inscriptions were found, together with sculptures and details of the same period. The 
ancient name of this famous place was in Aramaic SheT, rendered in Greek Z E E I A : 
this we learned from a Greek-Nabataean bilingual inscription which was found by the 
expedition of 1909. 

One morning, at breakfast, we all had a bad few minutes when the chief retainer 
of Shibli il-Atrash appeared with three or four in his train. We feared that the Shfekh 
was worse and that the journey must be made again, or that he had died and the 
men had come for vengeance. But they had come bearing gifts. The day following 
our visit the great man had risen from his bed of pain with a good appetite, and he 
had been eating three meals a day ever since, renewing his youth and astonishing his 
household. He was the more impressed because the Damascus doctors had made him 
swallow boluses of nauseating stuff, with pummelings and poundings, and with no benefit 
to him after all their exertions, while we, with a few wise questions and some tiny 
pills, had accomplished a cure. The messenger asked if there were more of the pills 
which might be given to his master, or, failing that, if the prescription might be given 
him, for he had great wealth and would send, even to Europe, for the miracle-working 
drug. So he was sent back with the medicine, rejoicing, and we felt that our position 
was secure in this country of the Druses, at least for a time. 

The next morning, the twenty-ninth of November, we started northeast for Tarba, 
on the eastern slope of the Djebel Hauran, four and a half hours from Sf. The 
expedition in 1900 had visited the village. We stopped for lunch on the road while 
the camp pushed on, so that the Sh^kh of Tarba, Hasan Abu Sallam, learned of our 
coming. He had not forgotten the Americans, and rode out to meet us with an escort. 
It was a gallant sight as they came, firing off their guns as a salute and displaying 
some wonderful horsemanship. His three sons, Sallam, Fayiz and Hani, were with him, 
and soon FAyiz rode alongside of Butler, with whom he had been a great favorite five 
years before when a boy of fourteen. The Shekh had been very anxious at that time 



Chapter III The Mountain 



23 




that F^yiz and his brother should go to America, and Fayiz, to whom the romance 

and adventure of it had appealed, had begged and begged to be taken. His final 

argument had been: "If the Khawadja 

does not take me with him, I shall have 

to be married very soon." Now Butler 

reminded him of this threatened fate and 

asked if during these years he had managed 

to avoid a wife, to which Fayiz shyly, but 

rather proudly, replied: "Oh no, I have 

been married twice." 

We reached the village and Hasan 
invited us to dine with him ; but it was 
late in the afternoon, and, knowing that 
it takes twelve hours, at least, properly to 
prepare an Arab meal of ceremony, we 
persuaded him to dine with us that night. 
The dinner would have been embarrassing 
had not Hasan's perfect manners and ease, 
and the general feeling of intimacy and 
friendliness carried off several contretemps. 
It must have been rather difficult for him 
to sit at a European table and to use our "' ^^ ^'^^^^ ?^^^ a*^" S''"^- 

knives and forks. The passing of dishes 

did bother him, but after Joseph had prevented him from taking all on the first one 
and had explained in a quick aside, any further mistakes and very few he made 
were treated as jokes. He was intelligent and very observing, and as he had a sense 
of humor his dignity was never ruffled. He is a small man, but he bears the marks 
of leadership. His voice is rather high, but it has a ring to it. Around him floats 
the aura of strong personality, and his eye is keen. He has a strong backing and an 
avenue of escape towards the east, where the Bedawin tribes would give him sanctuary. 

It was very interesting to associate with these people so intimately. Conditions 
are patriarchal : the clan is paramount and individuals are important chiefly as making 
up the clan. Among their valuable possessions are great flocks of sheep and goats, 
watched over by Bedawin, remnants of disintegrated tribes, vassals and dependants of 
the lordly Druses who keep themselves proudly apart. We succeeded in learning 
something of their civil life. A widow with a minor son may represent this son in 
the village council. The women are comparatively free, seeming even freer here at 
Tarba than at il-Kefr. But the family remains the unit of organization, under the 
direction of someone who is recognized as its head. Grown men with wives and 
children of their own live at the father's house, under his command, dependent on 
him and never questioning his authority. 

Conditions here are still similar to those described in the Book of Job. Watchmen 
are always on the housetops, ready to warn of any attempt by the desert Arabs to 
descend on the flocks. We passed many times in the fertile valleys oxen ploughing, 
with the asses which had brought their yokes from the village grazing in the grassy 
level which was fast being turned under by the plow. Such news as that "The oxen 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 




111. 1 8. 



were ploughing, and the asses feeding beside them : and the Sabeans fell upon them" 
might today be brought in by a sole surviving servant. 

At this time Hasan Abu Sallani was keeping quiet, for he had feuds on his 
hands with the people of Shakka and of Nimreh to the northwest, for which Fayiz 

his son was responsible. It seems that 
when F^yiz was first married the bride was 
a girl from Shakka, the daughter of a 
powerful family, so that it really was an 
alliance. There was a gleeful celebration 
and much rejoicing ; but after a short time 
(we could not discover the reason, but per- 
haps it was the last struggle of an unwilling 
husband) the bride was sent back to Shakka. 
Her family, as might be supposed, consi- 
dered themselves insulted. The bad feeling 
must have been increased by Fayiz' second 
marriage, but it was difficult to find out 
details of the trouble or how active the 
hostilities had been. 

In the evening a heavy wind arose, 
accompanied by a cold rain. By morning it was blowing hard, and when, in the after- 
noon, two of the tents were blown down, we accepted the Shekh's offer of shelter in 
his house. The room given us was large, with good rugs on the floor. An odd 
touch was a shelf of plain wood running the length of one side, bearing cups, saucers 
and plates, grouped around an empty beer-bottle as the central ornament. The swords 
and guns on the wall, and the circular mats of woven and colored straw called tabak 
under the unpainted shelf, gave a touch of brightness and life. The room was scrubbed 
as clean as a kitchen in Holland, not just for us but as its usual condition. Very 
early in the morning we were aroused by what we supposed to be thunder. Butler 
hastened out to see if there was anything left of the tents, and he found the Shekh 
and Sall^m, his oldest son, sleeping outside our door. They explained that the noise 
was not thunder, but that Fayiz and H^ni were taking advantage of the rain to roll 
the earth-covered roof while it was soft. We, therefore, turned over and slept again, 
secure in the protection of these hospitable people. 

The weather grew worse. We spent the day writing and receiving calls in the 
medafeh, offering unsweetened coffee, and tea like syrup, to our guests. The people 
told us that American coffee had been in use for some time. We insist on Mocha, 
and they are delighted with coffee from Rio : truly the distant has always a glamor. 
The other tents blew down during the next night ; but in the morning we found break- 
fast ready as usual, with our table set in an arched recess by the med&feh and the 
cook busy over his charcoal stove as if nothing had happened. But six inches of snow 
were very unwelcome. It melted a little during the day; but we did not attempt to 
move the camp. After lunch Butler started for Damascus with George, the dragoman, 
and two muleteers, and we held another reception. Then an example of superstition 
and misdirected kindness came to our notice. A man who had ophthalmia had 
called in a Druse wornan-doctor. She believed thoroughly in counter-irritation. She 



Chapter III The Mountain 25 

had branded him over his head from ear to ear and through each temple had thrust 
needles with thick cotton thread, taking a stitch about an inch and a half long, and 
tying the ends over his ears. Just how long before our visit this had happened could 
not be learned, but his temples were infected and greatly swollen. 

We had felt the cold severely ; but the people seemed to mind it not at all. The 
Shfekh's youngest son, about three years old, came running up as we sat in the med&feh, 
his feet bare and covered with icy mud. He had seen one of our revolvers and cried 
for it, so that he might kill Bedawin. The only attention paid to him was by his 
father, who poured cold water over the child's feet, so that the rugs would not be 
spoiled. Then he sat him down by the open door with the icy wind blowing over 
his still wet feet and told him to be quiet. There the child sat as still as a mouse, and 
as comfortable, apparently, as if he were warmly clothed and in a perfectly heated house. 

But Littmann was anxious to get at his work on the Safaitic inscriptions, the early 
Arabic graffiti which abound on the rocks near the old camping-places in the stony 
desert to the east. Therefore, on the fourth of December, since no snow was falling 
though the roads were bad, we said farewell to Hasan and left Tarba. We were 
provided with an escort of nineteen horsemen, who made an imposing array in their 
long cloaks and with their rifles slung over their shoulders. It was very slippery and 
the confusion was great, for besides the nineteen Druses who galloped around, impatient 
to start, we had ten camels with five drivers, fourteen mules with four drivers, and four 
donkeys. W'henever a donkey or a mule slipped, his load would shift and would have 
to be readjusted ; but in an hour we were below the snow-line on the eastern slope of 
the Djebel Haurcln, and before us lay the black stone desert, the Harrah, like a great 
sea with its waves beating at our feet. We passed through id-Diy^theh, about five 
miles to the south, with its remains of a Roman fortress but no inscriptions, then 
turned east along the W^dl ish-Sh^m, which is rather wide here and contains a succession 
of pools in the sand rather than a stream. Five miles farther to the east the wadi 
enters a ravine between cliffs about twenty-five feet high, and five miles still farther we 
entered il-Hifneh, a Bedawin camping-place in the wadi bottom. Evidently this has 
long been a camping-place, for scratched on the dark basalt with knife-points are 
many inscriptions in the so-called Safaitic, a pre-Islamic Arabic dialect. They are mostly 
proper names, many of them derived from the names of heathen deities or of wild 
animals, and in some cases the scribes played tricks on their illiterate companions whose 
names they were writing, and wrote something quite different from what these com- 
panions supposed or intended. Here, in the afternoon, we held a shooting-match, offering 
a gold piece as a prize. This put every one in good humor : afterwards the Druses 
sang and danced, and then we had a mimic cavalry-battle. 

We continued down the wa.dl, through another camping-place, ir-Rus^^I, to an 
oasis, il-Mroshan, where everything was soaked with water. We picked out as the dryest 
place a sheep-pen, in use apparently from a time antedating the Safaitic inscriptions, 
and pitched the tents there. There were great numbers of graffiti here also, of the 
same character as at il-Hifneh. Here there was a better place for feats of horsemanship, 
and the Druses made a wonderful display, urging their horses to top speed with yells 
and war-cries, cloaks flying and rifles waving, then guiding them in and out, in 
S-gyrations, in figures ol eight, in circles, and then away again like the wind to the 
limits of the plain. Then with a shout they would turn and come charging at the 

Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 4 



36 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

camp, dividing their ranks at the last moment and whirling past like storm-borne leaves. 

We made an early start for in-Nemftrah, still following the w^di to the east. In 
about two hours we reached a spring which never dries, according to report. A low 
hill rises out of the wSdi bottom, about two hundred feet long, and on this hill we 
found many evidences of Arab burials. At the southwest end there is a stone enclosure 
with a hinged door, evidently the remains of a Roman military post, for the graffiti in 
Greek and Safaitic tell of soldiers dead and gone. It is regarded as a holy place, 
the saint unknown but reverence still guarding his supposed grave. Hanging on the 
walls were pious offerings, locks of hair, bits of clothing, trinkets and other objects. 
One hour's ride from here brought us to il-TsawI, where we camped. Here were many 
evidences of Bedawin encampments, piles of stones and cisterns, and on the eastern 
slope hundreds of Safaitic inscriptions, so many that we decided to spend all the next 
day there. The second day we left in the morning and covered the country to the 
west and south. To the west of il-Tsawi is a lava stream which has spread out into 
the district called the Safa, and in it are seven round hills, collectively called il-'Ilimmeh. 
The whole country is covered with volcanic scoriae, and very barren, though the wadis 
sometimes contain pools of water. Meanwhile the camp had gone north, leaving the 
Wadi ish-Sh&m, and was pitched at Kabr Nisir in the Wadi il-Gharz. Copying the 
inscriptions by the way, and swinging back towards the west and the Djebel Hauran, 
with the Safa to the north, we camped at Senaiyim for the night, and next day, the 
thirteenth of December, after a ride of four hours and a half we arrived once more 
in Tarba. 

The snow had gone and Butler had returned, so that after a day of exploring 
around Tarba we started north through Tema and past il-'Aradjeh, where the Shfekh 
rode out to meet us. There was a blood-feud between the men of the two small 
villages of il-^Ar&djeh, separated by a w^di, so that we had a little difficulty in looking 
for inscriptions. The Shfekh of the western village made a point of breaking bread 
with us. We left after lunch, and riding south by a different road we passed through 
DClma, whence we returned to Tarba. 

We broke camp next morning, going south over cultivated country having mountains 
on the west, and on the east, distant a mile or two, the easy descent to the desert of 
the Harrah. Mushennef, an attractive town with a beautiful little temple, is entered 
on the north by a well defined Roman road. We found traces of this road as we 
journeyed south on the way to Bus^n, which was reached in four hours and a half 
from Tarba. The desert lay farther and farther to the east as we rode south, and 
the country was flat and under cultivation. Tell idj-Djeneh stood out high above the 
western boundary of mountains. We camped at Saleh the next night, then rode on 
through 'Orman, northeast of Salkhad, and pushed on to our camp just in the shadow 
of the hill on which the castle of Salkhad stands. 



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CHAPTER IV 



THE SOUTHERN HAURAN 



SALKHAD TO BOSRA 



It was now the sixteenth of December, and enough snow had fallen to make it 
likely that we should find water in these lower stretches. There was a good deal of 
country to cover and of work to do, for the southern plain had been explored but little. 

Salkhad has an Arabic casde set on a high hill, which rises from the level plain 
and is visible for miles in all directions. It is an important place, with a telegraph line 




111. 19. .Salkhad: the Castle from the Southeast. 

to Damascus and a garrison of a hundred and fifty Turkish soldiers. The site shows 
many signs of early habitation, and the ancient city must have been a center of 
Nabataean civil and religious life. The drums of columns which seem to have belonged 
to a colonnaded street bear evidence of a Roman occupancy; but most of the inscriptions 
and architectural details are built into modern houses and are difficult to examine. 
The later castle and the modern town have^teft little standing, and the remains of both 
the Nabataean and the Roman periods are disappointingly few. 



28 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

The Turkish commandant proved very friendly and one morning asked Norris to 
see his wife. Norris found her in a condition which, in the western part of the world, 
would have been called neurasthenic. The poor woman had come from Constantinople 
three years before, leaving friends and all pleasant associations, to find in this place 
nothing. She had no occupation for her mind, there were no women who spoke her 
language : she thought she could not leave the house, and time must have passed on 
leaden feet. There were no children, her servants did the household tasks, and there 
she had sat day after day, with nothing to make life endurable. Norris prescribed 
out-of-doors in large quantities, wherever and whenever possible, and even the prospect 
of that did her good. 

Butler and Littmann, meanwhile, had ridden to 'Uyfm, an hour northwest of Sal- 
khad, a deserted town containing well preserved streets and the remains of many houses, 
the lintels and sculptured blocks of which had been taken by the Druses for modern 
dwellings. A stream, partly enclosed in a conduit, ran through the town. Sections 
of the circuit walls were found intact. Thence they rode to il-Karis, a fortified monastery 
on the top of a tall rock to the west. 

Several days were spent at Salkhad, for there was a good deal of work to be 
done in the castle ; but early on the nineteenth the tents were taken down. We started 
towards the east and found the country under cultivation, with flat stretches of plain 
and gentle hills. A Roman road, between high banks, led out of the first small village, 
and a herd of cattle disputed passage with us. 'Auwas, about four miles farther on, 
detained us for only a short time, for we found the houses despoiled of cut stone and 
inscriptions. Two miles more brought us to il-Medjdel, where we stopped for four 
hours. It is a charming walled town, deserted, but with the ancient houses in good 
preservation. It began to rain, and we lunched in one of the houses well protected 
by a roof of stone slabs, still in place and in good condition. There were six cisterns 
(birkeh), a public square, a ruined church, and streets well paved and with sidewalks, 
all deserted almost as if the people had just been called away to some winter festival. 
Beyond, we turned north over ploughed land, very soft and sticky in the rain, and 
after crossing the W^dl R&djil a mile distant reached the camp at Melah (Melah is- 
Sarrclr) two miles farther. 

In the morning it was still raining ; but there seemed to be a chance of better 
weather, and we examined the town between showers. The Shekh took us to his house 
and placed a room at our disposal. He was very hospitable, as are all these people, 
and to the surprise and delight of us all proved to be a nephew of our old and 
distinguished friend Shibli il-Atrash. But the weather-prophets were without honor, for 
the rain turned to snow the next day, and we sat huddled about a charcoal brazier in 
the Shekh's house, unable to work and very uncomfortable. An unexpected event, 
however, helped to pass another disagreeable day. The Shekh asked us to see his 
mother, who was ill. It was the first time that the domestic side of Druse life had 
been opened to us. On being taken to his mother's room, we found five women, all 
except the patient with their faces veiled to the eyes. She came forward to receive 
us, while the others sat still, their dark and lustrous eyes regarding us bashfully but 
with intense interest. There were three small children playing on the floor, one 
with a rag doll. We were conducted to cushions near the brazier on which the 
Shfekh's mother made tea for us, boiling it with half a pound of sugar until it was 



Chapter IV The Southern Hauran 29 

like syrup, while the other women sat at the far end of the room, literally in the cold. 

In the morning snow covered the ground, but was no longer falling. To the 
northeast of Melah, about a mile away, is Tell il-Mudjedda", a hill rising from the level 
plateau about two hundred feet, oblong in shape and running north and south. About , 
two miles to the east is the edge of the plateau, from which the ground slopes gradually 
to the desert fifteen hundred feet below. On the north end of the summit of the hill 
are traces of foundations, probably of a monastery; for the ruin is too large to be a 
single church and there are no signs of a town near by. We found what seemed to 
be a chapel, with an apse at its eastern end. The climb was difficult, through stiff 
mud so sticky that each foot lifted a great clod at every step. In fact the weather 
was presenting a serious problem, and we decided to make haste from the high table- 
land into the plains on the southwest. The animals would lie down and refuse to move 
in the snow ; but the next day we managed to start, and the camp moved down to 
Imtan, about ten miles away. We had ridden to Burak through is-S&fiyeh the day 
before in an hour and a half, and back through Khclzimeh. Now we rode to the east 
to Dfer in-NasranI, an outpost of the Hauran range flung out against the desert. We 
explored the country that day, riding from Imt&n a little north of east to the eastern 
Umm Koser, then south past il-Mithn^yeh and Umm il-Mez^bil, then turning westward 
to meet the camp which had gone on to Tn^t. There were several ruined villages 
on the way, uninhabited because the Bedawin were in the plain at this season. 

The next morning we separated, Butler and Littmann riding south to Der il-Kahf, 
while Norris went southeast to Tell Irmah, a low hill which commands a limited view 
of the plain. It was about five miles to the summit through country without dis- 
tinguishing features. Der il-Kahf was one of the forts of Roman times. Inscriptions 
found that day show that it was rebuilt and enlarged in the time of Constantius Chlorus, 
and again under Valentinian, Valens and Gratian. It lies on the crest of a slope which 
drops away into the level plain of the desert. The six square towers at the corners 
and in the middle of the longer sides of the ancient walls, dating from the first rebuilding 
in the time of Constantius Chlorus, are partly preserved. So great was the size of the 
fortress that we estimated that it could have held a garrison of a thousand men, with 
stabling for sixty horses. From here the road led back through idj-Djubaiyeh, a ruined 
village, where the only signs of life were Bedawin shepherds watching the flocks of the 
Druses. There were the remains of a monastery here, with part of the church and its 
tower still standing. 

From Tn^t the camp went on in the morning to Umm il-Kuttfen, while we rode 
west through the western Umm Koser, over ploughed fields, and then southwest to a 
small ruined village, Kara'ah, where we stopped to e.xamine the arched cisterns and 
the stables in which the ruins abound. The whole village is deserted, but at times it 
is used by shepherds as a shelter for their flocks. Then we went on to Tell B'S.t, a 
group of ruined houses on a hill, from which we could see the country to the west 
sloping down to the plain. As we continued to the west we passed a modern Druse 
village, il-Mughaiyir ; but there was nothing of interest there, and we rode on to the 
camp at Umm il-Kuttfen. This is a very extensive ruin, the largest town in this 
district so far. We found several Nabataean inscriptions, including a fragment dating 
from the time of the Nabataean king Rabb'el II, who reigned between A.D. 71 and 106; 
but all the architecture is of the Christian period, and there is no building earlier than 



JO Division I Geography and Itinerary 

the fourth century. There are many good examples of domestic architecture, three 
churches and a very extensive monastery. The town is divided into two sections by 
a depression, 50 m. broad, running east and west. 

On the last day of the year Norris returned to Tell B'at, which had seemed to 
be the only commanding elevation from which to take sights. The work here was 
hindered by showers ; but by noon enough had been done, and it was possible to turn 
back towards camp. To the west of il-Mughaiyir we visited a large ruined building, 
which had not been seen the day before. It proved to be of uncertain origin and 
purpose, for all the movable stone had been taken away. In the middle we found 
three Bedawin tents, in one of which was a full blooded negro. The men came up 
while we were resting, squatted down and watched us. We asked if they were shepherds 
and were watching flocks, and they said : " No, we are not doing anything. We have 
no flocks. We have nothing other than God." 

In the morning we started for Tell il-Ko'es, a hill to the southwest of Umm il- 
Kutten. It was a wonderful day with a gentle breeze from the south. From the summit 
of the hill the desert on the east lay stretched below us, and to the south, on the 
fertile plain, the first blades of grass were coming up, covering the ground with a faint 
delicate green. The tents of Bedawin shepherds were scattered here and there : every- 
where were flocks of sheep and goats and herds of camels. The country stretched on 
and on to the horizon, everything flattening out in the distance except the rougher 
contours. There was no town or ruin, but only a country and a people. 

On the way to 'Anz, whither the camp had gone from Umm il-Kutten, we stopped 
for coffee in the medafeh at il-Ghariyeh, a Druse village lying in the valley between 
two hills. The Shekh joined us, a pleasant, well spoken man, though just a few weeks 
before, so said camp gossip, he had harried a Christian village in the plains and carried 
away a beautiful girl. Three miles north of 'Anz is Tell 'Abd Mar, a hill with an 
almost sheer drop on the north, but sloping gradually on the southern side. We 
rode there in the morning without incident except the finding of an inscription half 
way up the hill. In the evening at 'Anz there was a battle. During the day some 
people from Salkhad had come to 'Anz and had tried to force an old man to lend his 
oxen for their plough. He refused and was being badly stoned when the people of 
his village ran to his assistance. Driven off, the people from Salkhad had come back 
in the evening for revenge and reprisal, stealing cattle and trying to burn the houses. 
Joseph foolishly seized a Winchester rifle and joined in. The crack of the high-powered 
rifle was so different from that of the black-powder guns which all the people used 
that every one knew at once that we had taken sides. Luckily no one was hurt and 
no damage was done ; but the excitement was very great. The marauders withdrew, 
and for some time sang battle-songs around a fire, so that we expected a renewal of 
the attack. Finally, however, they ceased and went away out of sight and hearing. 

In the morning we learned from two men of Anz that their position was a de- 
sperate one. There are three hundred Christians in the village, living in constant terror 
of the Druses, who steal and kill without penalty. They have neither priest nor church ; 
but they have preserved their orthodox Greek religion. These two men were the first 
Christians who had been allowed to talk to us since we left Bosra. The next day was 
spent in exploring the country to the north and east. A sequel to the battle was the 
report which one of our servants brought in. He had been left at il-Meshkuk to make 



Chapter IV The Southern Hauran 31 

squeezes, but shortly after our departure the men from Salkhad had come, torn off 
the squeezes and threatened him with stones. They cursed him and said that they 
were coming that night to kill one of us, because we had helped the people of 'Anz 
with our foreign guns. 

About five minutes east of il-Meshkuk is D^r il-Me.shkuk, which proved on exami- 
nation to be of great interest. There are the remains of a second century pagan temple, 
which was converted into a church in early Christian times, apparently restored to pagan 
use under Julian, once more turned into a church, and finally in the middle ages changed 
so as to be available for living purposes. Inscriptions carried away by the Druses to 
neighboring villages help to give the history of this ruin. By this time the country 
had been explored, and on the following morning we started back to Bosra, for that was 
the best point from which to begin our travels to the south. For a large part of the 
way we followed a Roman road, passing through several ruined towns of no particular 
interest. 

During the two months which had passed since our first visit to Bosra there had 
been a great change in the country, and now it was in a much better state. The 
cisterns were full of water, and already some calves and lambs had been born. Our 
return to Bosra brought us into society once more, and we made and received calls 
all day. The Commandant under the benign effects of a little brandy he said there 
was not a drop of spirits in the town, "No, not even for God himself, had he desired 
it" had a pretty story to tell. He asked if Norris had received a fee for visiting 
the man with the knife-wound, and when he was told that we charged no fees he 
disclosed graft in high places. The Mudir had collected four medjidis from the man 
when he recovered, saying that it was impossible for us, who were very important 
persons, to receive money directly. This explained the extreme solicitude of the Shekhs 
who had asked us to treat the sick. In many cases, probably, the poor devils had 
been mulcted for the supposed fee, and we had been thinking how careful the Shfekhs 
were of the public health ! 



CHAPTER V 



CITIES OF THE SOUTHERN PLAIN 

Preparations for our further journey completed, we said farewell again and on the 
ninth of January started forth, going west and then south in order to visit il-Umta'lyeh. 
A well defined Roman road led out of Bosra a little west of south, and the WadI 
il-'Akib, which we had crossed both east and south of Salkhad, watered the country 
east of the highway. There was not much of interest. We stopped for an hour 
at il-Mu'arribeh, inhabited by both Christians and Moslems, to examine the ruins of 
some ancient private houses. All the bujldings were in the best Hauran style ; but 
they showed no new features. Then we went on through Ghasm, inhabited by settled 





111. 20. Ghasm: Type of Settled Bedawin. 



111. 21. Ghasm: Type of Settled Bedawin. 



Bedawin, to Suhb and thence on to il-Umtalyeh, where we arrived at five o'clock. 
The road had been very good all day, hard and straight and very nearly level, but 
dropping very gradually as we left the lowest slopes of the Djebel Hauran. 

Il-Umta'iyeh, sometimes called Umm idj-Djimal is-Saghireh (the Little), numbers, 
apparently about two hundred inhabitants, all Moslems. At this time it was supplied 
plentifully with water brought in ditches from the Wadi Butm on the southeast and 
the Wadi Zfedl on the west. The following day began with rain ; but there was not 



Chapter V Cities of the Southern Plain 33 

enough to make mud, and by eight o'clock it had stopped entirely. We seemed to 
be just within the area of rainfall for this part of the country. It was quite noticeable 
that south of 32 30' the showers were light and far apart, while the periodic storms 
in the rainy season passed north of this line. Heavy clouds were often seen to the 
north when the southern horizon was clear. This night was an example, for the clouds 
coming from the west were drawn to the north before reaching the country south of 
us. Thus there was snow all over the Djebel Haura,n as far south as Salkhad, but 
it had not touched the western ranges except the highest peaks. 

Samch Hes southwest of il-Umta'iyeh, about two miles from the Hedjaz Railway. 
It contains four groups of buildings on the south side of the W^dl Butm, and a separate 
cluster in a valley about three hundred yards away. The buildings are all of the 
customary black basalt, though there is an outcropping of good limestone which could 
have been used. The modern village consists of two Mohammedan families, who live 
in perfect security, for they belong to a strong and wide-spread clan called the 
Zi^biyeh. Their condition differed greatly from the state of fear and uncertainty which 
we had met recently, and the contrast was particularly apparent in the appearance of 
their land, fifty acres and more, which though unprotected was well cultivated and 
apparently safe from raids. 

The next day at Umm is-Surab, while we were exploring the ruins which lie in 
five different groups, an Arab walked by at a little distance. Peter, one of the ser- 
vants, ran to intercept him in order to learn some of the local names, but as soon as 
the Arab saw Peter he began to run, much terrified, with Peter in hot pursuit laughing 
at the man's fright. Then our guide from Bosra appeared, and after a little persuasion 
the Arab stopped, but held the two men at a distance with his revolver much to their 
amusement. The offer of a cigarette, however, allayed his fears, and finally he came 
near, explaining that every one was his enemy and that he had to be very careful. 
Suddenly, in the midst of a sentence, he put his hand to his ear, and then we all 
heard the faint notes of a song coming from afar, where two or three persons could 
just be distinguished from the goats which they were tending. Thereupon he took 
off his 'abS,yeh and his shoes, and left them with us, while he went, as he said, to 
water his goats. Off he ran towards the goatherds, keeping below the skyline ; but 
before he came within their view he stopped, and taking off his coat, which was blue 
completely lined with red, he turned it inside out, changed his kafflyeh and went on. 
He reached the goatherds, talked to them a few minutes, then turned his coat again and 
returned to us. We asked him why he had behaved in such an extraordinary fashion. 
With a perfectly straight face he said that it was his sweetheart who had been singing, 
and that he had disguised himself to play a joke on her. The whole affair seemed unac- 
countable, until Peter found two donkeys tethered in one of the ruins. The Arab 
explained that he was keeping them for a friend, but in a few minutes he slipped 
away, and both he and the donkeys disappeared. He may have been a scout sent 
to learn the strength of our party, or he may have been surprised by us in some knavery. 
At any rate he had communicated with his friends and they had all made off. We 
never learned whose donkeys had been stolen, nor did we see the man again. 

The camp had moved on to is-Summaklyat, a ruined town which lies on both 
sides of a tributary of the Wadi Butm. There are numerous inscriptions here, nearly 
all sepulchral. The town contains ten Mohammedan and fifteen Christian families, all 

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34 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

living at peace with one another, but in constant dread, in this lawless borderland 
between Druses on the east and desert Bedawin on the south. Of this dread we had 
a striking illustration. When Butler went back to Umm is-Surab to finish some measure- 
ments and to take a squeeze of a Nabataean inscription, one of the villagers who had 
gone with him suddenly saw four horsemen at a distance. In great fear he climbed 
the church tower to watch them, hiding behind part of the wall at the top. After 
some minutes he came down and said: "Thank God! They are not coming in this 
direction." We had been constantly feeling the vast difference in customs, beliefs and 
point of view which separated us from these people ; but fancy living in a place where 
the mere sight of a distant stranger would throw one into such a panic ! 

About two miles northwest of is-Summaklya,t there is a junction of two Roman 
roads. One is the great road built by Trajan which led from Bosra to the Red Sea, 
while the other led to Djerash by way of il-Feden. Near by is Kom il-Men^rah, the 
ruin of a very ancient building, made of rough stones measuring about four feet by 
three feet by one foot and a half. About four miles to the southwest, near the road 
to the Red Sea, stands Kasr il-B^'ik, a large and interesting Roman fortress. From 
here we could see il-Feden on the southwest and our next camp-site, Umm idj-Djim^l 
(the Mother of Camels), on the southeast. The railroad too was visible, skirting the 
hills on the west. The desert stretched all along the southern horizon, the sprouting 
grass giving it a color like the patina of old bronze. Flocks with their shepherds and 
the clusters of dark brown tents relieved the flatness, until it reached the hills far 
away to the south. There were no roads, but the country was level with practically 
no stones and no cultivated areas, so that the going was good all the way to camp 
at Umm idj-Djimal. 

Here there were about twenty tents in the ruins ; for Bedawin were tending the 
Druse flocks. Many young lambs were playing around the tents while the sheep were 
at pasture some distance away. The grass was very short and there was no water as 
yet in the cisterns. The ruins proved more and more interesting as we penetrated 
farther into their past history. The town is unique, a complete city of fifteen centuries 
ago, well preserved and essentially complete. But the Druses are creeping nearer, 
and the Hedjaz Railway lies about ten miles away. Already the Druses claim Umm 
idj-DjimM as a part of Dhibin, twelve miles to the northeast, and soon they will need 
the cut stone, and one by one the ancient buildings will be demolished. 

At first there was great difficulty in getting drinkable water. The horses were led 
off to a pool, nearly dry, three quarters of an hour away, and we tried not to 
think of the thick, dark brown fluid, scraped from the bottom of a pond which had 
been used by all the creatures of the place, sheep and goats, camels and men. But 
on Sunday Peter, following some ducks, found a pool of clear water half an hour to 
the southeast, and this saved us from discomfort for a little while. We spent the day 
exploring some tombs two hours to the north of the city. 

At first the people seemed suspicious of us. They were not hostile or resentful 
of our presence, but merely avoided us. Then one afternoon about thirty Druse 
horsemen appeared, and quartered themselves on their subjects, the Bedawin shepherds. 
They came crowding around us, interfering with our measuring and surveying, peering 
into the tents, and finally squatted in a circle a little distance off, talking earnestly 
together and watching us closely. Then the Bedawin also began to come in, giving 



Chapter V Cities of the Southern Plain 



35 



various pretexts. One woman asked for medicine for her brother, who was "covered 
with shame", for his beard would grow for a week and then would drop out, leaving 
him an object of mockery and a byword among his fellows. A more genuine case 
was that of a man to whom we gave some boric acid ; but after he had heard and 
repeated our directions for dissolving the powder in the clearest water which he could 
find, he asked innocently: "Shall I mix coffee with it.?" But at least our attentions 
gratified them, particularly the women, who seemed to enjoy their visits hugely, one 
of them smoking a long-stemmed pipe with a stone bowl. 

The weather grew appreciably colder. Snow was falling steadily on the mountains 
and covering the ground even below the level of thirty-five hundred feet. Finally, one 




111. 22. Umm idj-Djimal: the Northern Part, View toward the North. 



cold bleak winter day the Druses and Bedawin left, rather ostentatiously as it seemed. 
We were a little concerned to see, in the afternoon, the flicker of a brown 'abayeh 
among the ruins and then to find a Bedawi who had been watching our every move, 
and the next day our muleteers brought back the report from Simdj, a village to 
which they had gone for water, that the Druses had come to Umm idj-Djimal to rob 
and despoil us. They had changed their minds when told of our rifles, which could 
shoot ten shots to their one, and had retired to consider the matter. In reports of 
this kind our muleteers and even our servants took particular delight. 

The cold increased and the supply of water grew less. The only .source had been 
the little pools left in the otherwise dry wS.dis, and this was of a thick yellowish green. 
Nothing had been heard of either Druses or Bedawin ; but the feeling was strong among 
the servants that they were near by, waiting for an opportunity to seize our horses. 



36 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



One day when Butler and Littmann had gone to explore Koser il-Hallabat, a ruin 
some hours to the south, three of our men took the horses and mules for water. When 
luncheon time came and the horses did not appear, anxiety grew, and an armed force 
made ready to go in search of them. Before the force left, however, the horses were 
sighted across the plain. But it was time for Butler and Littmann also to appear, and 
the rescue-party still held themselves in readiness. Darkness came and we were in a 
quandary ; for, as we did not know by what road they would come back, it was difficult 
to search for them. Finally we hung a lantern high up on the south side of a tower, 
fortunately just in time, for they were making their way northward at least half a mile 
west of the camp, and were pushing on blindly when they saw the light. 

Since the work at Kosfer il-Hallab&t had not been finished we decided to go 
there again. But the camp could not be moved to that place because it had no water. 




111. 23. Camp in the Wadi il-'Akib. 



Therefore two tents were packed with the lightest possible equipment, and we made 
ready to start. The rest of the camp moved northward to wait for us at Tisiyeh. 
We made a start shortly before noon on the last day of January, intending to camp as 
near as possible to Koser il-Hallabat and have the following day for work there. So we 
went south across the desert, and after a ride of three hours we camped in the Wadi 
il-'Akib near the end of one of the great lava streams which flowed down from the 
Djebel il-Kul6b. The outcrop showed horizontal stratifications, which had broken into 
huge blocks, almost perfectly quadrated. From here we could see our goal, Kosfer 
il-Hallabat, a group of ruins half way up some hills three miles to the south, and 
about a mile east of it, in the plain, a ruin called by our guide Hamm^m is-Sarakh. 
Early next morning we left the muleteers to guard the camp, and set out over the 



Chapter V Cities of the Southern Plain 



37 



desert. The ground was flat and for the first two miles strewn with flint, then covered 
with scanty grass and hamd. We crossed a Hmestone ridge running southwest, about 
two hundred feet above the plain ; it is covered with broken flints and agates. This 
was the first definite change from the volcanic black basalt. 

From the low hill on which rises the fortress of Kosfer il-Hallab4t there was a 
wide view towards the east, but the walls of Hammcim is-Sarakh were the only ruins 
visible. To the south could be made out the low walls which marked out the fields, 
cultivated when this was a Roman stronghold, but on the west and southwest the higher 
hills shut out the view. The country was absolutely devoid of life, without flocks or 
tents, and dry, with only bunches of the hard desert grass. The weather was very 
cold, and in the afternoon a snow-squall set in, which later turned into driving rain ; 
but in spite of it we were able to make measurements of the fortress and copy the 




III. 24. Koser il-Hallabat : the Interior. 



inscriptions that we found. These inscriptions bore out the evidence of the building 
itself, that it had been an important Roman fortress ; but the time was too short to 
make anything like a thorough investigation. It would repay a later visit in the spring, 
when water could be had and a longer stay could be made. 

The road to the ancient bath, now called Hammam is-Sarakh, was across what 
seemed to be the most level land for miles. About a mile to the east and running 
north and south there is a landmark, visible for some distance, resembling a bank of 
yellow clay, barren of vegetation. It is called by the natives il-KS.'. Such formations 
are common here, several smaller ones being visible from Koser il-Hallabat. According 
to our guide these sometimes catch and hold rain-water, so that they look like raised 
pools, and are called Kian Khanneh. About six hours east of the bath is a range 
of hills called il-Man^sif, and three hours south of this is reported to be Kalat 
Ezrak. Hammam is-Sarakh proved to be of early Arabic construction, built of light 
yellow limestone and very well preserved, with the vaulting and one dome still in place. 
It was strange to find this very magnificent and luxurious establishment here in the 
desert, with the nearest building, the fortress, nearly a mile away. There were traces 



38 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



of an aqueduct, coming in from the northeast, and two cisterns, one round and the 
other oval, the sides of which were lined with finely cut and fitted limestone. They 
had been used recently as a place for depositing bodies of sheep. Our approach 




III. 25. Hammam is-Sarakh: View from the East. 

disturbed a large bird at his feeding, and he winged his way out with a great noise 
and flapping. 

The light was waning, and in the storm it was easy to lose one's way in this 
trackless waste. So we hurried back to the camp in the w^dl, and early next morning 




III. 26. Hamm&m is-Sarakh : Dome. 



we left on our return to Umm idj-Djima.1. The little work that was still to be done 
there was soon finished, and in the afternoon we made our way over the ridge between 
the valleys of the Wadi il-'Akib and the W^di Butm to Tisiyeh. 



Chapter V Cities of the Southern Plain 39 

At Tisiyeh we found some Bedawin shepherds encamped near the village. There 
was great activity among them, for the Druses were collecting for a raid against the 
independent Bedawin of the Belka, who had attacked some of their shepherds near 
Tulfll Kharaneh, a group of hills three hours southeast of Koser il-Hallab^t, killing one 
man, wounding six others, and carrying off a hundred sheep. All next day the people 
kept coming in. They were fleeing for protection, and though we could learn nothing 
of their plans, apparently they were also gathering in force for reprisals. With them 
came their flocks, and around the tents were about a hundred lambs, from two days to 
two weeks old, all very unhappy in the cold rain. One band with fifteen camels and 
three donkeys pitched their tents next to ours. The camels knelt down, were unloaded 
and turned out to graze, and within half an hour the tents were up, fires lighted, the 
women at work preparing food, and everything was in order. After dinner half a 
dozen of the Bedawin came to the kitchen-tent and entertained the servants with songs 
and dances. They seemed friendly enough, but Peter was sure that the mist and rain, 
which had interfered with observations on the way from camp in the Wadi il-'Akib 
to Tisiyeh, had been heaven-sent and had saved us from their raiding. 

From Tisiyeh we set forth to make a rapid survey of the district east of Umm 
idj-Djimcll along the Wadi il-'Akib and between the w^dl and Bosra, planning to return 
to Bosra for an exploration of the southwestern corner of the Djebel Haur^n before 
leaving Southern Syria. The first night was spent at Sabhah, a deserted town on the 
south side of the Wadi il-'Akib. Next morning we rode eastward along the Wcldl for 
two miles to Kh^n il-Kadish, a completely ruined group of buildings with nothing of 
much interest. Another mile brought us to ir-Rukes, the remains of very ancient for- 
tifications on a small round hill. Here the wadi turned to the northeast and we left 
it, continuing southeasterly to Sa'adeh, another deserted village at the edge of the 
desert. The country was cultivated, and there were many Druses ploughing in the 
fields, and flocks grazing on the short grass. 

At Sa'^deh there were about a dozen Bedawin tents. While we were examining 
the ruins a dispute arose between our guide from Bosra, Mohammed il-Mizzawi, and 
one of the Bedawin. The servants had all been rather nervous, which must account 
for and excuse the dragoman's foolishness; for he seized a rifle and hastened toward 
the crowd to defend Mohammed. As he pushed through the struggling crowd, a woman 
seized his gun by the muzzle and swung in between him and the two men. As usual, 
the fight confined itself to words, with a good deal of right on the side of the Bedawi 
as it appeared, for we learned that some time previously Mohammed had stolen a 
donkey and then had traded it for a goat to the desert Arab. The latter had been 
caught with the stolen animal and imprisoned, and naturally he sought redress. 

The next morning the camp moved northwest to id-Der, while we visited several 
ruined towns, Miksar, Khar^b is-Sakhl and Kasil. We halted only at Kasil, and from 
there followed a Roman road northwest to Simdj. It was a cold wet day with rain 
and hail and snow ; but we kept on our way and by two o'clock we reached id-Der, 
which lies in the midst of fields owned by the people of Bosra, and about a mile west 
of Khuraiyib, a ruined town on the south side of the WS.dl Butm. 

In the morning of February eleventh we started for Bosra in a steady downpour 
which made the road a trough of mud. We rode ahead with Mohammad, the 
guide, and sought shelter in his house while the camp and caravan were making their 



40 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



difficult way through the slough. At last they arrived with stories of hardship, telling 
of beasts that had stumbled and packs that had slipped, and describing as the crowning 
touch how the bell-mule fell into a mud-hole up to his ears and had to have carpets 
spread to afford him foothold. Their troubles, however, were just beginning, for the 
camp-site was a lake of mud. But nothing daunted them and, although they were soon 
covered with mud from head to foot, we dined as usual. 

Meanwhile Mohammed told us stories. He was an interesting type of the Hawarneh, 
the town-dwelling natives of the Haur^n plain. A short time before, he said, he had 

married a Bedawin girl, an orphan, and on that account 
the marriage gifts given to her uncle had been small. 
When the chief of her tribe learned of the price for which 
she had been given, and that in addition she had lowered 
herself by marrying a Haur^nl, a despised house-dweller, 
his free desert heart knew no bounds to its rage and 
he made several attempts to kill Mohammed. Finally 
Mohammed had loaded a camel with rice and sugar, and 
early one morning had stolen up to the Shfekh's tent. 
Holding the tent rope for sanctuary, he presented his gifts 
and craved pardon : his prayers were granted, and he had 
lived in security from that time. For such is the law of 
sanctuary : even a mortal enemy, once he reaches your 
tent, must be taken in, fed and clothed if necessary, and 
for three and a half days after he has left your shelter 
he must be kept safe from harm. 

We rode southwest next day through various ruined 
towns, and spent an hour at Hamm^s, where we found 
the remains of a small fortified town of high antiquity with 
a square birkeh on the north side. The following day we rode 
northeast from Bosra through il-Madhak to Huzhuz, a ruined 
town with remains of fortifications, and thence to Kuraiyeh a mile to the southeast. We also 
visited Well iz-Zakk^k, the burial-place of some Mohammedan saint on the summit of a 
small hill about three miles west of Huzhuz, and from here rode back across very muddy 
fields to Bosra. The streams in the w^dis were all much swollen and difficult to ford. 
We moved on to it-Taiyibeh for the night of February thirteenth and reached Der A 
by noon of the next day. Here, with the exploration of some limestone caves outside 
the town and with the study of a number of Kufic inscriptions, our winter trip came 
to an end, and we boarded the train for Damascus at half past eight, leaving Butler 
to follow after us with the camp. His road to Damascus led through the plain west 
of the Djebel Hauran ; but he was able to make a hurried trip across that curious 
area, the Ledja, with its jagged masses of basalt. He reported interesting buildings all 
along the route of the direct journey through the plain, and an important field for 
research in the lava-covered region of the Ledja, which seems to have been thickly 
populated in antiquity. But he had been unable to make more than a very cursory 
survey of the ruins, and was already planning another visit to round out our work in 
Southern Syria. 




111. 27. 



Mohammed il-Mizzawi, a Type 
of the Hawarneh. 



CHAPTER VI 



> 



DAMASCUS AND THE NORTHERN ROAD 



It seemed strange to be living once more in a hotel, and to be walking along 
paved streets with shops on both sides and all the movement of civilization clamoring 
in our ears, after the silence and loneliness of desert stretches for so long. But there 
was need of an interval before starting again on the road. All the members of the 
expedition needed some relaxation. New supplies had to be collected, and the equipment 
of the camp renewed. Prentice arrived from America to join the party, and a horse 
and servant had to be provided for him. 

After a few days the tents were pitched again, in a pleasant garden just outside 
the city, and we moved in. The weather was clear and delightful, though the sponges 
froze at night. We were fortunate in finding in Damascus at this time Mr., now Sir, 
Mark Sykes, and Miss Gertrude Bell, the latter of whom we were to meet again later 
in the ruins of Kerratin. Finally, on the second of March, we broke camp and started 
on our northern journey. 

We followed a macadamized road leading northeast out of the city, with the 
mountains of the Anti-Lebanon rising to their snow-covered summits in the west. After 
ten miles we gained the plateau : the mountains receded towards the west, while before 
us lay a fairly level plain. For the next few days our road would lead through country 
of slight archaeological interest; but we were seeking a highland region, il-'Ala, of 
whose ruined sites the Expedition of 1 899 had heard, and beyond, Kasr Ibn Warda.n, 
which had been published by Strzygowski from photographs made by M. von Oppenheim. 
The former expedition had covered a part of the northern field between Antioch and 
Aleppo ; but there also we were sure of finding new territory. We camped first at 
il-Kutfefeh, having travelled through country described in the Syrian Baedeker, and 
early the next morning began to reach country a little beyond tourist visits. 

There were several modern villages on the road to the pass through the mountains. 
We crossed the divide near a mediaeval building called Kh^n il-'Arfts, and stopped 
beside an extensive ruin, with no inscriptions, for lunch. About fifteen miles from 
il-KutSfeh we left the mountains for a broad valley, with ploughed fields extending 
some distance up the slopes on either side, but with no sign of vegetation yet. We 
reached in-Nebk and camp by six o'clock. The town is very attractive, with houses 
of white sun-dried brick, plastered on the outside, and with trees and gardens extending 
a mile to the north. This was the end of the macadamized road from Damascus, with 
its easy grades and well made stone culverts. There are about six hundred families 
here, of which one hundred and fifty are Christian. We had coffee and cigarettes with 
the Kaimmakam, who was most polite but insisted on forcing two soldiers upon us as 

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^2 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

an escort and protection. We left by ten o'clock, without the soldiers however, and 
reached the camp at Sadad by six, having passed Der 'Atiyeh, a large village like 
in-Nebk, and several small ones of only a few houses each. 

Sadad is a large town with extensive vineyards and gardens on its northern edge. 
It contains six churches, three of which are still in use. The people belong to the 
Syrian or Jacobite Church. This body of Christians has existed as an independent 
church since the reign of Justinian, when Jacob Baradaeus organized those Christians 
in Syria and Mesopotamia who clung to the Monophysite doctrine of the single nature 
of Christ, proclaimed heretical by the Council of Chalcedon in 451, and condemned 
again by the orthodox Justinian. This Church, though now greatly reduced in numbers, 
has still its own patriarch, bishops and priests, and its liturgy is in ancient Syriac. 

After dinner a Jacobite priest called on us. He was a fine looking man, with a 
spiritual expression. He was tall and slender, with a full beard of iron-gray, and he 
wore a black hat with the brim on top and a long black cloak edged with fur. His 
manner was easy and dignified, quite like that of any educated ecclesiastic, though he 
told us that he had never been far beyond the limits of his district. When he was 
about to leave, he informed us that on account of our arrival a high mass would be 
held the next morning, Sunday, at ten o'clock in place of the usual celebration. 

On our arrival at the church we were seated in the apse among the deacons. 
The congregation presented a striking scene in their bright oriental costumes, the men 
wearing their Arab headdresses, the women in white veils standing on a raised dais 
at the rear. The service was solemn and impressive, beginning with a procession of 
acolytes bearing incense, then the deacons in long white copes, with four Greek crosses 
embroidered on the front and back, and finally the priest wearing a robe of pale blue. 
The major part of the service was in Syriac, with Arabic introduced here and there. 
The singing of the choir was remarkably fine, for the.se Syrian men and boys have 
beautiful voices. It sounded somewhat like Gregorian music, but was strangely and 
weirdly different, quite unlike the ordinary native singing. Perhaps it may be a sur- 
vival of the church music of the fourth century. Littmann called our attention to the 
fact that the main heresy of the Monophysites was embodied in a clause inserted in 
the "Hymnos Trisagios", which was about to be sung. We were astonished when 
they reached this clause, (Holy God, Mighty, Deathless,) crucified for us, to hear every 
man and boy shout out the schismatic words at the top of his lungs, just as in all 
probability they have been doing constantly for fifteen hundred years, although for 
ages there has been no one on hand to dispute the point with them. The service 
proceeded until the actual communion was reached and the deacons began to partake, 
communicating in both elements. As the priest neared us, Littmann asked the deacon 
next him if we were expected to communicate. Going over to the priest, the deacon 
whispered to him and he came to us. "But you are Christians", he said. "Yes, we 
are Protestants", Littmann answered. "But you are protestant from Rome. We are 
before Rome, and embrace all Christianity. Of course you must communicate", he 
said, and seemed satisfied. The end came and the congregation was dismissed. We 
had half assumed that we had been invited to attend in order that we miofht make a 
contribution to the offering, but no such opportunity was afforded us. Indeed it was 
not until late in the day that we were able to persuade the priest to accept a gift 
for the poor of the parish". 



Chapter VI Damascus and the Northern Road 



43 



The following morning dawned with heavy clouds and thick mist. As we were 
about to mount and depart we descried a little procession making its way toward us 
from the village. Presently we could make out the tall form of the priest, and then 
the little figures of the acolytes. The priest was bearing something precious, as we 
could see. Solemnly he approached, and without any salutation, began: "You are going 
far into the desert, into danger perhaps : you will be far from the comforts of religion : 
I have brought you of the reserved Host, to have with you in case of illness or death". 
That was all he said : then he bade us farewell, and we rode away deeply touched at 
this man's interest in our souls' welfare. The mist began to lift when a breeze sprang 
up, and entirely disappeared as the breeze became a heavy wind, blowing in our faces, 
sweeping across the plateau which is practically a desert, quickly drying up the earth, 
and raising great clouds of dust as we forged ahead against it. 

Il-Kunaiyeh, a village of four or five Nosairiyeh families, lies in the plain. These 
Nosairtyeh are a religious sect, an offshoot from Mohammedanism, and are described 
at length by R. Dussaud in his book Histoire et Religion des Nosairis. We continued 
over the plateau, arriving at last at is-Sabuniyeh in the foothills which form the northern 




111. 28. Tell id-Dura : a Village of Kubab. 



boundary of the plain, then pushed on to camp in the hills at il-Furklus, a Christian 
village rebuilt by people from Sadad some five years before. It lies on the south bank 
of a wadi which opens to the southwest along the southern edge of the mountainous 
boundary of the plain. There are about forty houses, conical in shape and built of 
unbaked brick covered with whitish clay, which gives them the appearance of large 
bee-hives. This was our first glimpse of these kubab which were to be so familiar to 
us as we travelled northward. To the east of the town there is a fort of unbaked 
brick with a small garrison of Turkish soldiers. The soldiers were placed there after 
the town had been destroyed by the Bedawin under Shelash il-'Irr four years before 
our visit. There are some remains of ancient fortifications on the south side of the wadi. 
The road followed the wS,dl, which had an occasional village on its banks, and early 
in the afternoon we reached il-Wurfedeh, where we camped. This is another Christian 



44 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



village, of five hundred people, which supports a school and a teacher. The teacher's 
food is supplied by his pupils, and he receives a salary of a hundred and fifty piastres 
annually from the Russian Mission. Still following the w^dl to the north we went by 
a Kurdish village, named il-Hamldlyeh after the Sultan, and then a large Circassian 
village, "Ain Zat. Three miles beyond, we passed a Circassian town of about two 
thousand, Tell 'Amri, where the wMi turned more to the east, and we continued north 
over a low range of hills, thence descending gradually till we came to Tell id-Dura. 
This is a village of kubab with about two hundred families of the Ismalltyeh sect. In 
the morning we continued north, and came within reach of our first goal. We had 
arrived in view of the 'Ala, a basalt table-land full of ruined cities, of which much had 
been heard at numerous places along the Aleppo-Hama road on the journey of 1899- 
1900. We had conjectured that this basalt region must be a part of the same hills, 
the northern end of which had been explored in 1899, namely the Djebel il-Hass and 
the Djebel Shbet, southeast of Aleppo. It was with the reports of the 'Ala that there 




111. 29. People of Sh^kh 'Ali Kasun. 

had come the stories of il-Anderln (Androna), and of Kerratin or Tarutin it-Tudjdjar 
(Tarutia), which must be about midway between the north end of the 'Ala and the 
Djebel il-Hass. 

About a mile from Tell id-Dura, we crossed the carriage road from Hama to 
Selemiyeh, with its line of telegraph poles, a strange sight in this waste land. We 
reached the edge of the "Ala and passed along its western side, looking for a break in 
its rather steep slopes by which we could enter. Just beyond a small Bedawin village, 
Ishhala, three miles from Tell id-Dura, the road turned to lead up the slope, and we 
found ourselves on a fairly flat table-land indented on the east by a broad cultivated 
valley, with ir-Rubbeh, a small black basalt villagfe, on the farther side. To the north 
of ir-Rubbeh, there was a small hill with remains of ancient terracing, and the people 
spoke of a deep cave extending two hundred metres into the hill. This we did not 
find. The town was owned by a man from Hama who showed great hospitality and 
lavished upon us laban, the curdled milk of the country, coffee and cigarettes. After 



Chapter VI Damascus and the Northern Road 45 

lunch we continued north through Tarrad, a small Mohammedan village, and arrived 
at camp at Sh&kh 'All Kasun. This is a fairly large Mohammedan village, built of 
black basalt, and sheltering some four hundred people. The inhabitants here, as in 
most of the villages of this basalt region, are settled Arabs, who have probably not 
been nomads for several generations. Living from hand to mouth, they glean a scanty 
subsistence from patches of arable soil which lie on the edge of the desert extending 
all along this tract to the east. The people of Shfekh 'All Kasfin were, according to 
their own story, somewhat recent settlers from the region of the Lake of Tiberias. 






CHAPTER VII 



IL-'ALA 



Our first night in the 'Ala was eventful. In the morning we woke, ready for a 
day's exploring, to find that certain tents had been robbed. The thieves had shown 
great skill in removing some of the pegs, and while one had held up the side of the 
tent, another had reached inside and, deftly gathering up the covering of a table, had 
slipped the bag thus formed out to his companions. In Littmann's tent was a saddle- 
bag under the bed : this also had been abstracted, all without a sound to waken us 
or any of the servants, or either of the two Turkish soldiers who were our guards. 

When the theft was discovered the excitement was great among our people. The 
first villager to approach was an innocent shepherd with a pan of milk for sale. The 
servants set upon him with sticks, upset his milk and cursed him. Then the two 
watchmen were cursed. Finally the two soldiers, who had gone to the village to say 
their prayers, appeared. They also were cursed, and one was seized by the ear and 
led to the tents to view the scene of the crime. In spite of the cursings, the missing 
things remained concealed. The skill with which the robbery had been executed seemed 
to bear out the peoples' story of their coming from the Lake of Tiberias, for Tabariyeh 
is noted for its tent-thieves. The two Shfekhs of the village, the civil and religious 
heads, were sent for, cursed, and told to find the stolen saddle-bag with its contents, 
and all the toilet articles taken from the table. A crier was sent up to a house-top, 
and all the people were called in from the fields and told that each should take a bag 
of tibn, the chopped straw used for fodder, and empty it by himself in a room. After 
all had dumped their burdens and the room was full almost to the roof, a search was 
made through the straw by the two shekhs. But even this availed nothing, and the 
shfekhs and the two watchmen were arrested. Butler took them to Hama, five hours 
to the southwest, to hand them over to the authorities. 

Greatly disappointed by our reception in this hill country and unsettled from our 
routine, we had to consider the matter closed, and after lunch we tried to get down 
to our regular work. There is a well on the summit of a hill ten minutes to the north 
of the village, apparently the highest point in the 'Ala, rising about a hundred and 
fifty feet above the plateau. There were three poor Greek inscriptions here. Later 
we rode to Sabba', twenty minutes away, a small knoll with a village of twenty houses 
of black basalt. Here there were the remains of a large building, dated 547 A. D., 
and several inscriptions. The next day we rode through the country to the east, 
stopping at Temek for some hours to explore it thoroughly. Here is a tower, a 
large part of which is still standing. Inside the tower was found a metrical inscription, 







ATOO' 









f, 4 .bC Dl-f ".W 






MA'ARPIT IN-NU'MAN 









: ; :i-HobioS* \ 

O Kef .-o'.^a =~ " 






1?,' 






f .,.B.. 



'J 



V O A bw SI-HX-dJ^h 



s..s-t 






^^ 




Kbitn 31ickhun 



lU-ANDERIN 



K^>bbl+ 'Ablh t 



Kos- lb.-> Wo-doo^^Jj 



: KJ-Dabba<5tiTF 



Chapter VII Il-'=Ala 



47 




III. 30. Temek : Ruins of the Tower. 



evidently pagan, belonging originally to the portal. We left at eleven, and went on 
twenty minutes farther to Umm it-Tuw6neh, where twenty Bedawin families were living 
in the ancient houses. There is a ruined church here, quite large, and we found three 
Greek inscriptions, one dated 577 A. D. 
From there we went north fifty minutes 
to Nawa, a deserted village, said to belong 
to a man from Hama. In ancient times 
this was the site of a large town ; but the 
ancient buildings are now completely ruined, 
with the exception of a tower connected 
with a small convent. Among the ruins 
were the remains of a large church, to 
which belonged five inscriptions containing 
quotations from the So7tg of Solomon and 
from the Psalms^ executed in relief. One 
of these inscriptions is dated 598-9 A.D. 
An inscription from the convent bears the 
same date. Other inscriptions in these ruins 
contain the dates 468, 483-4, 559, and 
574-5 A. D. The natives reported an 
inscription buried in the debris on the east 
side of the ancient town, beside an arched 
entrance ; but we could not stop to find it. 

We passed on to il-HabbS,t, the ruins of an ancient town, poorly built and now unin- 
habited, covering several acres. In it were found the remains of what appeared to be 
a temple of the Roman period. Thence we returned to camp, arriving about six o'clock. 

In the afternoon of the next day, which was Sunday, Ahmed Agha il-BazzS.zi (?), 
our friend from ir-Rubbeh, came to intercede for the villagers of Shekh 'All Kasun. 
Eight soldiers, who had been quartered there in consequence of our complaints, were 
making the people kill sheep and chickens for them : therefore women and children 
had come to him to beg our mercy. He offered to pay for the stolen things, and 
took off his coat to give us that. He also brought a rabbit as a gift. We accepted 
the rabbit. After a polite farewell, he came back and asked if we could spare a bottle 
of cognac. But he had to be content with a bottle of red wine bought in Damascus 
for two piastres. Monday, the thirteenth of March, took us northwest two miles to Tell 
id-Deheb, a small Mohammedan village where Greek inscriptions of the years from 469 
to 492 A. D. were found and copied ; then to Zabbudeh, near by, where we lunched. 
An hour more a little west of north brought us to il-Berdoneh. This is a small village 
of Mohammedans from Hama, who have used the ancient material to build their houses. 
It is the highest inhabited point in the "Ala, so that the new square house of the 
proprietor serves as a landmark for the country on all sides. Here were two undated 
Greek inscriptions, our only finds. This was our point farthest north for the time 
being; for turning here we went south through Umm Harten, which had nothing but 
one inscription to detain us, and finally reached camp again by six o'clock. 

We explored the country to the northwest the next day. At it-Taiyibeh, about 
five miles distant, there is a settlement of Bedawin of the tribe called it-Turki, who did 



48 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

not welcome us. But we copied several inscriptions of the sixth century. Then turning 
to the southwest we reached Kunbus in half an hour. This is a village of settled 
Bedawin. Here is a mosque built of more ancient materials ; but the most interesting 
find was a chancel-post with an interesting relief carved upon it. This was the figure 
of a man standing upon the top of a slender column, a pillar-hermit no doubt, perhaps 
the holy Simeon himself. The work was crude, the figure drawn much as a child 
would draw, and almost as high as the column on which it stood ; but it was interesting 
to us as the only bit of sculpture of its kind we had discovered thus far in Syria. 
From Kunbus we journeyed north again to see id-Duwebeh, and turning south went 
through Idnin on the way to camp. Tarred, il-'Odja, Rasm il-Baghl, and il-'Ewir where 
lives 'Abd il-Kerim Pasha, the Shfekh of the Beni Kh^lid, were visited, all with little 
profit. Butler returned that day at half past five from Hama, where he had turned 
the offenders over to the Mutasarrif, and proceeded to visit all the more important 
places where we had found architectural remains. The camp had been at Sh&kh 'Ali 
Kasfin for over a week, and all the country within reach had been thoroughly examined. 
Consequently on the next day, the sixteenth, we moved north an hour and a half to Halban, 
a small ruined town with a few Bedawin of the Djuml&n tribe, at present engaged in 
a blood-feud with the men from it-Taiyibeh. Tell id-Deheb lies about a mile to the 
south-southeast. In Halban were found eleven Greek inscriptions, and a bi-lingual in 
Greek and Syriac which is not dated. North of Halban, about three miles, is it-Tuba, 
a small uninhabited village, and near by was a group of tents of the Bashakim. Just to 
the north of it-Tuba the ground slopes downward, so that the country lies spread out 
before one. The Shekh of the Bedawin, who was an intelligent man, knowing the 
country thoroughly, was with us when we examined the lower land to the north. We 
could see no traces of ancient monuments, nothing but a Icubbeh village. The Shekh 
said that several other villages were hidden by the rolling ground, but that they were 
all modern : consequently we decided to turn eastward, and reached Abu il-Kudftr in 
half an hour. This was an inhabited town among ancient ruins, with a covered cistern 
on the highest point of the hill on which the town stood. The only yield was one 
Greek and one Syriac inscription, the former dated 574-5 A. D. It was becoming 
more and more apparent to us, as the dated inscriptions and buildings one after an- 
other were discovered, how short a period had been required to develope here an 
extraordinary culture, and what a sudden sweep of the sword had put an end to a 
prosperous civilization with all its interrelations and contacts with the outside world.- 

We stopped at il-'Anz, half an hour to the north of camp, long enough to find 
two Greek inscriptions. Thus the 'Ala was explored, and we left the hill country for 
a time to traverse the stony desert which stretches eastward to Palmyra, sixty miles 
away. This desert had been skirted on the east, as the Expedition of 1900 came 
down from the Djebel Shbfet; but near its western boundary lay Kasr Ibn Wardan, 
our next goal. 

Our visit to the 'Ala had not been quite up to our expectations; yet we all felt 
that we had been well revvarded for our pains iii exploring it. Even if we had discov- 
ered little or nothing, our quest would not have been in vain ; for a negative result 
would have satified the curiosity aroused in us by the tales we had heard of the black 
ruins of towns on the plateau. As it was, we had found a large number of Greek 
inscriptions, some of them of considerable importance, and every Syriac inscription 



Chapter VII Il-'Ala 49 

discovered in this region is a find worth mentioning. The architecture, too, is important 
historically in connection with that of the regions to the west and north ; but it is 
uninteresting. It could have had little charm, even in its palmiest day, for the Christians 
of Syria never succeeded in making beautiful architecture out of basalt, and in its 
ruins it is without superficial interest because, owing to poor construction, little is pre- 
served except ground-plans and scattered details, which need the restorer's touch to 
give them a semblance of architectural form. The pagan architecture was better, no 
doubt ; but it was destroyed by the Christians, and the Christians of the region them- 
selves, like those of the Djebel il-Ha.ss still farther to the north, were not as good 
architects as were those of Southern Syria, although these also had to use the same 
black basalt as material. 



Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 



CHAPTER VIII 



THE CITIES OF THE DESERT 



On leaving the "Ala we passed through il-Mishrifeh, then turned eastward down 
a gradual descent to the desert. The first desert town was ir-Ruhaiyeh, with only 
three habitable houses and a kubbeh or two ; but there were eight Greek inscriptions 
among the ruins, one from the middle of the fourth century. We were able to trace 
the ground-plan of three basilical churches, all of similar form and dimensions, grouped 
about a colonnaded quadrangle, one on the north, one on the west and one on the 
south, connected together at the angles of the court. This is a unique arrangement, 
and interesting as evidence of the former importance of this deserted place. The only 
break in the level expanse was two miles to the north, where Tell ir-Ruhaiyeh rose 
solitary two hundred feet high, a point on the line dividing the wilS^yets of Damascus 
and Aleppo. On the summit there is a rubble wall built of large stones of black basalt, 
enclosing the ruins of a small town. We continued over the level desert to the north- 
east, easy going after the rough hilly country of the past ten days, with not even a 
wadi to break the barren gray. Four miles farther brought us to id-Dabbaghin, a 

ruined town built of rubble and sun-dried 
bricks, to the east of two small hills. The 
ancient towns of this district were built 
chiefly of unbaked brick, and have dis- 
integrated into mere mounds of earth from 
which jambs and lintels of basalt protrude 
here and there. There were two undated 
Greek inscriptions here ; but except for 
these there were no objects of interest, 
and we hurried on to reach the camp at 
Kasr Ibn Warden before darkness came. 

The ruins here were even more inter- 
esting than we had expected, and some- 
what mysterious. They consisted of the 
remains of a very large palace built around 
a central court, a square domed church, and a large military camp or barracks. We 
found no certain traces of any other buildings, ancient or modern, either here or within 
a radius of several miles. The church and the central part of the south side of the 
palace, containing the entrance and the larger, more public, apartments, are com- 
paratively well preserved. The plans of these buildings, their style, and to a large 
extent the materials employed are similar to those of the imperial buildings of Con- 
stantinople in the age of Justinian I. The walls are built of broad bands of orange- 





^ .1 - -. 







111. 31. Id-Dabbaghin : Architectural Details. 



Chapter VIII Cities of the Desert 



51 



colored brick, alternating with bands of black basalt : the trim of many of the windows 
and door-frames in the interior is of a fine-grained white limestone. In the interior of 
the church were columns of marble in various colors, and capitals of a pure white 
crystalline marble. This combination of materials is even now very effective, and seemed 
especially so in the bright moonlight, which played strange tricks with the colors. The 
great mass of the walls still standing and their brilliant, almost bizarre, appearance 
recalled tales of eastern magic, and made us wonder what situation in the Byzantine 
Empire or in the family of its rulers had caused the erection of these isolated, regal 
buildings on the edge of the Syrian desert. 

The next morning, the nineteenth, was Sunday. A heavy thunderstorm gave 
promise that spring was approaching, though of green sprouting things there was no sign. 
While encamped here we made careful measurements of the three buildings, and took 
many photographs. The palace turned out to have been originally much larger than 




111. 32. Kasr Ibn Warden: Palace and Church from the Southwest. 



it appeared at first. It still preserves two storeys of the main part, with fine large 
vaulted apartments. The central dome of this part, however, has fallen. On the lintel 
of the main entrance, a gigantic block of basalt almost four metres long, is a Greek 
inscription which reads: "In the month of November, indiction 13, of the year 876. 
All to the glory of God". The date is 564 of our era. The lintel and jambs are 
covered with intricate designs carried in low relief. 

The church must have been very beautiful in its day, with its very lofty dome, 
of which only a small fragment remains in place, its tall half-domed apse, its interior 
arches, and its gallery supported on slender columns. From the little tesserae lying 
in the debris it is possible to conjecture that the whole interior blazed with mosaics of 
that most wonderful period for this particular kind of art. An old native whom we 



52 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

met later, and who seemed to know the whole region well, said that when he was a 
lad the Vubbeh, i. e. the dome, was standing, and that there were "pictures" on the 
walls. It is scarcely probable that this old Bedawi had manufactured this story, because 
he could have had no outside experience on which to base imaginary wall-pictures. 
The barracks, for some unknown reason, are the least well preserved of the three 
buildings. Little remains here besides the lower courses of the walls, a tall fragment 
of a vaulted building within the enclosure, and the entrance gateway which has another 
great lintel of basalt, larger even than the other, with an inscription of about the same 
date. Indeed all three buildings appear to have been erected within the space of a 
few years during the reign of Justinian I. 

On the twenty-first the camp moved to il-Anderln, a little east of north and ten 
miles across the desert. On the way we stopped for half an hour at ir-Rabbd'ah, a 
completely ruined site with only mounds to mark the buildings. Here and there a cut 
stone of basalt protruded from the ground, but the desert winds and sand had done 
their work well. At first il-Andenn itself was thought an unsuitable place for the 
camp, and we moved on to il-H6meh, fifty minutes to the west, where there was a 
well. This had been a town ; but, lying in the flat country, there had been no protection, 
and the buildings were levelled and covered up even more completely than at ir-Rabbu'ah. 
The distance from il-Anderin to the camp, however, proved to be too great to traverse 
two or four times a day, so the horses were left at the well and we camped once 
more within a deserted city. 

Ancient Androna was a large city of broad avenues, laid out in rectangles, and 
surrounded by a stout wall. There were a number of churches, one perhaps the cathedral 
of the bishop, great barracks, and a large public bath. The smaller churches and the 
private houses were built only in part of stone, sun-dried brick filling the wall-spaces 
where protection only and not structural strength was needed. These walls had dis- 
appeared; but in many cases the door- and window-frames were standing, and the arches 
were lying just as they had fallen. The most interesting building, in many ways, is 
the barracks we called it barracks rather than a fortress, because of its situation 
in the middle of a large' city. The structure is about 250 feet square, having hexagonal 
towers at its angles, and square towers in the middle of two of the sides. Within were 
large vaulted rooms and a sort of cloister, surrounding an open court, in the middle 
of which stands a ruined chapel. The lintel of the great entrance-gate is a monolith 
of basalt, four metres long. It bears a beautiful design of grape- vine, in low relief, 
and an inscription which reads, in translation, as follows: "This is the gate of the 
Lord : the righteous shall enter in it. It is custom for others to court the masses by 
largess of their wealth : but thou, oh best and wonderful Thomas, dost shine to both 
thy city and thy fatherland through thine acts of prudence. Thou appearedst a savior, 
God the Savior being minded to assist thy plans. We began with God the foundations 
of the barracks by the munificence of Thomas and the eflbrts of Jacobos his nephew, 
in the month of May, on the 20* day, indiction 6, of the 869* year (May, 558 A.D.). 
And the lintel was put in place with God in the month of November, on the !' day, 
indiction 8, of the 871st year (November, 559 A. D.)". With these letters of the 
inscription is a symbolic disc having the letters of the name Thomas arranged about a 
Greek cross. This very large building is of basalt and brick, like the structures at 
Kasr Ibn Wardan, and with them constitutes a group of edifices which are unique in 



Chapter VIII Cities of the Desert 



S3 



all central Syria, with respect to both materials and construction. All were erected within 
about six years. The munificent Thomas erected also a public bath here in Androna, 
which he presented to the city as his own memorial. He must have been a man of 
large means, a philanthropic soul, and a power in his day. Thomas' bath, which he 
gave to his town, is deeply buried, and it was with difficulty that any of its remains 
were recovered from the soil and debris which cover it. But an inscription belonging 
to the building was found, which reads: "This bath I, Thomas, (acting) again for the 
sake of all, have given to all property-holders, presenting this remembrance. What is 
the name of the bath? Health. Through this entering, Christ hath opened for us 
the bath of healing". 

The city-walls, which enclosed a very large space, were built of large rectangular 
blocks, laid without mortar, and were strengthened by buttresses and frequent towers. 
A large part of the ruins, however, lie outside of the city-walls, including a great 
reservoir, with handsome walls of squared masonry, and a large church standing in 
the midst of a walled quadrangle. All along the inside of the walls of this quadrangle 
are arched recesses for burial, and close beside the church is a very pretentious tomb. 
All of which makes the place seem like an early example of a campo santo, with 
burial places for the fortunate dead in close proximity to the tomb of some saint or 
other very holy person. 

We finished our measurements and copying at il-Anderin early in the afternoon 
of the second day, and hurried westward, 
following our camp-train which had already 
started. Beyond il-H6meh we encountered 
a gradual ascent covered with basalt, until 
we reached the ruin of a late Roman 
fortress, five miles from il-H6meh, called 
Stabl 'Antar. Within sight towards the 
south is Kubbit 'Ableh, a ruined town of 
limestone with a tower partly standing. 
There, according to tradition, dwelt 'Ableh, 
the wife of the hero 'Antar who had 
protected his domain by this castle to the 
north. Stabl 'Antar lies on the western 
side of the ridge which we had just climbed. 
The country flattens out towards the west 
for about five miles in an elevated plain- 

At the western side of this there is a sugar-loaf hill. Tell il-Hal^weh, at the foot of 
which the camp had been pitched. 

In the morning we moved on to the northwest, going up a volcanic slope to the 
summit, Resm Tell il-Hal^weh, from which was visible the country towards the north, 
east, and south. There is a fallen column of basalt here, but no trace of buildings. The 
column was perhaps a solitary shaft set up as a boundary or a landmark. The way was 
hilly for several miles, when we descended, still going northwest, into a valley and passed 
through a village of some thirty kubab, built on an ancient site, called Umm 'Ilekah. We 
ascended a slope again, into a country of low and rugged hills, and after three miles 
passed ir-Ramleh, a village enclosed by high mud-brick walls, with a well in the center. 




111. 33. Stabl 'Antar: Doorway. 



54 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

A mile beyond lay Sera', an ancient site in a broad valley occupied now by about 
forty Ifubab. The country to the east is cultivated to some extent, for about a mile 
down the valley lies Seraiyi', another village of the same sort. We climbed the slope, 
or ridge as it turned out to be, for within two miles we could look out over a broad 
plain lying at our feet and stretching to the west and north. 

We passed through several kubbeh villages, visited Sindj^r and it-Thedjeh, and by 
half past three we could see the ruins of Kerrattn, or TarQttn it-Tudjdjar, strung out 
in a long uneven black line along the crest of a low ridge. There, at one end of the 
great ruined "City of the Merchants", we espied a small group of white tents, which 
we knew could not be the abodes of Arabs, and we hazarded the guess that it was 
the camp of Miss Gertrude Bell, the English explorer and archaeologist, whom we had 
seen a month before in Damascus. Our supposition soon proved to be true, for presently 
her servants came running out to greet ours. We ordered the camp pitched at the 
opposite end of the ruins, and in a short time, having exchanged messages with true 
oriental formality, Miss Bell was taking tea with us quite as if we were all in England. 
We spent six days in Kerrattn, ancient Tarutia, measuring buildings, copying inscriptions, 
and making short trips of exploration among the smaller ruined towns in the vicinity. 
The ruins of Kerratin boast one of the largest churches in Syria, which was con- 
verted into a castle by the Arabs. There are also a small tower and many houses, 
nine of which are dated. 

Among the places visited from Kerratin was Mir'S.yeh, about a mile to the east. 
This was a small modern village built among the ruins of an ancient town apparently 
of no great size or importance. Some columns supporting an architrave, all of black 
basalt, are still standing : remains of two churches also were found here. At Umm 
Wilat the ruins are extensive, but the ancient buildings were completely destroyed or 
rebuilt by settlers in mediaeval and recent times. From there we turned southeast to 
'6djeh, which we reached in forty minutes. This is a modern village of a few families 
among the ruins of what was once a large town. There are many signs of Moham- 
medan occupation here. Two of the ancient houses are well preserved : one of them, 
which was converted into a mosque at an early date, still has its roof-slabs in place. 
To the south of Kerratin we visited Abu Hanlyeh and Tdj^z, the latter a town of 
considerable size now almost completely ruined. One small tower is still standing. 
Among the ruins of a large church seventy-five inscribed voussoirs, belonging to the 
arches of the apse and nave, were found in piles upon the ground, and from them the 
inscriptions of eight of these arches were restored. The inscription of the chancel-arch 
mentions the Emperor Theodosius I and his son Arcadius, and is dated between the 
years 383 and 395 after Christ. Other inscriptions also were found at Tdjaz, some ot 
them unusually long. 

The last day of March had come, and we were obliged to leave this country of 
black basalt to explore further the limestone hills which lie to the west and north. 
We passed through Sha'arra, Ka^rah, and Herclkeh, all inhabited ruined sites. At 
Herakeh ten Greek inscriptions were found. Later we reached Mara.ta, an extensive 
ruin where both basalt and limestone were used for building-material. Close by were 
other ruined towns of smaller size. We determined to return to this district later on, 
but now pressed forward to Ma'arrit in-Nu'man, lying at the western foot of the Djebel 
Riba, whither our camp had gone. 



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K.fr Awl. ^^o^ K.^.^', M<^ c^ i^aios. o^ u^3 WITH ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS BV 

AJ^RA, jAn:t.0rvt /VeLrrv09 ^ MostfuM or- Wml*. 



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c.r. cooWi.c E., Del. oo.. isoa. 



Division I. 



<^ 



CHAPTER IX 



DJEBEL RiHA 

Ma'arrit in-Nu^m&n is a town of considerable size and picturesqueness. It is situated 
on the Darb is-Sultan, the great highway between Aleppo and Damascus, which is the 
main route for pilgrims travelling by land from the north to Mecca. There are two or 
three ancient kh^ns here, remains of what was probably a castle, and little bazaars 
embowered with grape-vines which hang on trellises over the streets. It is a restful 
spot for wayfarers from the shadeless desert. There are no ancient buildings intact ; 
but practically every one of the mediaeval and modern structures is made of ancient 
fragments. This building-material may have been brought in from the neighboring 
ruins, for it is not improbable that the present town dates only from mediaeval times, 
and that the ancient Arra, supposed to have been in this vicinity, was in reality 
MaV^ta, the ruin through which we had recently passed about three miles to the east. 
It may be that here, as elsewhere along its course, the main north-and-south highway 
has been moved to the west, nearer to the hills and a more abundant and constant 
supply of water. 

We pushed on to Serdjilla the next day, very anxious to see once more the 
mosaic floor of the bath, which had been discovered in 1900 and covered again with 
earth when the expedition left. On the way we halted for a short time at Kefr Ruma, 
and found that the drums of the monumental column, which were still standing when 
visited by the former expedition, had fallen from the pedestal. We continued our way 
to the northwest, over a very rough road which wound up a dry narrow valley enclosed 
by gray and barren limestone hills. We reached Serdjilla at noon, and hurried to the 
ancient bath, but found that the mosaic pavement had be,en uncovered and much of 
it destroyed. The inscription was gone completely ; but we set to work to take up the 
parts which were still intact, in order to send them to the Imperial Museum at Con- 
stantinople as we had agreed to do. A survey of the town was made, and the ruins 
were studied more carefully than had been possible on the earlier visit. The country 
round about was also explored. The ruins at il-Ba.rah, visited before by M. de Vogiie 
and by the American Expedition, are the finest in the Djebel Rijja : this time three 
new Greek inscriptions were found at this site. 

It was a joy to be once more in the limestone hills, where every scene has a 
distinct beauty. For weeks we had been travelling in the comparatively flat and barren 
region of the 'Ala, and the great ruin-strewn district of Kerratin, where the chief 
building-material, being hard black basalt, was unsuitable for ornate carving. Besides, 
the walls were mostly of small stones or of sun-dried brick which had disintegrated, 
and in many cases only a mound was left to show the site of a building. There was 



56 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 




111. 34. Serdjilla: Western Part. 




111. 35. Serdjilli: Northwestern Part, showing Bath at Center. 



Chapter IX The Djebel Riha $7 

little there, either in the country or its ruins, to appeal directly to the eye. Now we 
had come into a regfion where the ancient buildings were of well-dressed limestone in 
large blocks, and in most cases extraordinarily well preserved. It was a country of 
gable-roofed houses, as may be seen from Illustrations 35, 36 and 37. Even where 
a building itself had fallen, its arches, columns and architraves made a brave show. 
Rich carving with every variety of ornament was to be seen everywhere. The relief . 
of stark hills and sudden valleys, with here and there the venturesome green which 
fringed a pool, was bold in the bright sunlight and brilliant dry air. 

The Mudir of Riha was most assiduous in his attentions. He called upon us 
every day in our camp at Serdjilla, and was most affable. It seemed that he should 
have had a wider horizon, for he was a most intelligent man, and his manners, 
European to some extent, seemed to show that his aspirations led to the outside world. 
His clothes were of the West, and the pair of gold reading-glasses which he donned 
with a flourish was an odd touch to which we could not accustom ourselves. But he 
came the fourth day as the bearer of ill news. For some reason the W^li of Aleppo 
had issued orders to stop work on the mosaic, and perforce we stopped. On the next 
day a sergeant of gendarmes from Idlib, which boasts a kaimmakam, arrived with two 
soldiers. He had orders from the Wa.li of Aleppo to stop all work on the mosaic, 
but with no more explanation than had come from the Mudtr. Coffee and cigarettes 
helped to dissolve his haughty official manner, and he became a little friendly ; but the 
following day he returned, partly destroyed the mosaic, and covered it with stones and 
earth. This was worse, and we were entirely at a loss to imagine the reasons for the 
interference by the authorities with work which we understood had been agreed upon. 
Our telegrams to Stamboul met with no response. It was not until months afterward 
that we learned of a theft of antiquities in Babylonia, and the consequent stopping for 
several weeks of all archaeological work throughout the Empire. We owed it to the 
Director of the Museum at Constantinople that we had not been prevented from all 
further exploration and ordered to the nearest port. 

Delloza was visited again, and Kokaba for the first time ; for the latter had not 
been reached by either M. de Vogue or the American Expedition : also Der Sambil, 
whose extensive and beautiful ruins are described in A. A. E. S., Part II. On the eleventh 
of April the camp moved back through Ma'arrit in-Nu'man to establish itself at MaVata, 
and from there we explored the country observed earlier on our march from Kerratin. 
MaVS.ta is one of the ruins on the line between the basalt and limestone formations, 
and its buildings are composed of both materials, sometimes used in combination and 
with interesting effect. The place is now deserted. Its ruins, though not as extensive 
as those of Kerratin, show that the town was one of the more important ones in this 
region. Here, as in a few of the ruins on the western edge of the basalt country, we 
found pyramid tombs, like those characteristic of the Djebel Riha. Several of these 
combined the white and black in an interesting manner. While we were encamped 
here. Prentice rode back to Kerratin to dress the burns of a woman who had fainted 
and had fallen into a fire, and whom he had treated before while we were camping 
there. At that time her hu.sband had asked us to visit his wounded son and then, 
when the deception was exposed, had apologized, saying that he feared lest the sickness 
of a woman would not be sufficient reason for us to trouble ourselves, but hoped that, 
once there, pity might stir our hearts. 

Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 8 



58 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 








III. 36. Delloza: "House No. 11", from the South. 




v?^ 












r^^^^fm 



^%r-^.:V^^j%^^i 



.:r*-*-V^'5s>V 



III. 37. Der Sambil: General View of Northern Part. 



Chapter IX The Djebel Riha 59 

Many of the ruined sites near MaVata are little more than heaps of stones, with nothing 
left to show the arrangement of the ancient buildings. There are, however, some 
exceptions, including Fa'lftl and Kursenteh which are described in Div. II, B, pp. 95 100 
and 103. From Kursenteh we saw for the first time the Djebel Shfekh Berekat, which 
from then onward was to be our constant landmark. Far to the south Djebel Zain 
il-'Abidin, which is near Hama, was visible. There seemed to be several ruined settlements 
to the south and southeast ; but there was too much haze for us to make them out 
distinctly. We rode a mile farther south to il-Burdj and, on our return, passed through 
Surruman, a modern village of about three hundred inhabitants, on the site of an 
ancient town of which only traces could be seen. 

One morning, while the camp started northward for Binnish, we rode first to the 
southeast and visited TellOn, a mile away from MaVata. There was little of interest 
there, and we turned north through il-Ghadfeh, Ma'saran, Djub'S.s, and 'Aiban, which 
contains the tomb of Shekh il-Bataihi of holy memory. Three miles farther lay Ma'arrit 
id-Dibseh, a cleanly village of white sun-dried brick, with olive groves. We were 
descending gradually to a stretch of country which, watered from the hills to the north, 
became more and more fertile. The region of basalt lay behind us, and from here 
onward the hills were of limestone. A mile farther lay another Djub'as (or Djubkas), 
a village similar to Ma'arrit id-Dibseh, on the carriage-road from Hama to Aleppo. We 
crossed the road, still going north, having come to a country given up to grazing, and 
reached a dry w^di by the side of which lay an old man sleeping near his flock. He 
did not look up until we were close upon him. When we asked the name of the 
wadi and the way to Binnish he answered: "Yes, by God". It is hard to get any 
reply from these people without implicating the Deity. This man, however, was deaf, 
and we left him with his dumb creatures, still mumbling "Mashallah" in his astonishment. 

The tall minaret at Sermtn had been hidden for some time by a rise of ground, 
and other landmarks were lacking ; but pushing on we sighted the slender white shaft 
again, and soon were riding through fields of wheat and lentils, in welcome contrast 
to the dry and barren country of the past days. The green things were about half 
grown by this time. We reached the outskirts of the town of Sermin while there was 
yet light enough to see. The houses are built of whitewashed mud-brick, and the town 
contains about two thousand people. There are fine fields and orchards surrounding it. 
The telegraph line from Aleppo to Damascus passes by without touching it. We went 
around the town, and pushing on reached Binnish at half past six. 

The land in this narrow strip, between the rolling plains on the east and the hill 
country on the west, is very fertile. The rich, dark red soil grows wheat and lentils, 
watermelons, a gourd called kar'ah, cotton, almonds, figs and grapes. We left Binnish 
at seven the next morning, travelling on a good road to the north, through il-Ffi ah, 
Ram Hamd^n, Ibbtn, and Tell Nauwas, all thriving modern villages. The last named 
community occupies a small hill on which are some ancient remains. Finally, at half 
past eleven, we reached Kefr Kermin at the foot of the mountains, near the point 
where the ancient Roman road descends from the hills and enters the plain. 



\o" 



CHAPTER X 



THE LIMESTONE MOUNTAINS 

Kefr Kermin was for this expedition the entrance to the group of limestone mountains 
which includes the Djebel il-A^a, Djebel Barisha, Djebel il-Halakah and Djebel Sim'S^n. 
The surface of these mountains is now almost entirely bare of soil. The rock and the 
walls of the ancient buildings alike have weathered to a soft gray color, and in general 
present, from a distance, a somewhat monotonous appearance. In some places, how- 
ever, as in the Djebel Rlha, the ancient walls have an orange tone. The hills are 
divided by many sharp ridges and sudden valleys. From Kefr Kermin we turned first 
towards the northeast, crossing the Roman road, and began to climb the foothills over 
a rough and rocky path. Tawami, a modern village, lay at the top of the first ridge. 
We crossed a narrow valley over the hard limestone to Dera'm^n, not visited by the 
former expedition, a well built ruined town with many of the walls standing, beautifully 
situated on the top of the .second ridge. We continued a little farther, then returning 
to Dera'^m^n traveled westward along a valley. The ridge which we were traversing 
belonged to the southern part of the Djebel il-Halakah, which encloses the fertile plain 
of Sermeda. In twenty-five minutes we reached the Roman road again and turned 
northwest on it, crossing a low rise which was the southern barrier of the plain. We 
left the road, which straightened out across the plain, and followed the ridge to the 
west. Tell 'Akibrln was the first town encountered, half an hour from the Roman road. 
It is an inhabited village built among the ruins of what was evidently an important 
town. Some of the ancient buildings are unusually well preserved, in spite of the 
modern occupation of the site. One of these, of which a part is still standing to the 
height of four storeys, is so large that it suggests a deserted factory. 

Two of the party arrived later than the rest and found an excited crowd of natives 
filling the streets, but no sign of the American expedition. People of the village, both 
men and women, were shouting and gesticulating, and among them were others, evidently 
of another race. These latter were tall, bare-legged men, wearing short white skirts 
and brilliantly embroidered caps : wild locks of long hair stuck out from underneath 
their caps, and in their hands they carried knobbed clubs. The newcomers rode into 
the crowd, expecting to find that their companions had been attacked and perhaps 
killed. They found instead that the natives were fighting among themselves about a 
Turkoman or a Kurdish girl, whom her people believed to have been stolen. Riding 
out by a back way they found that the caravan had moved on, the party uninjured, 
but prevented by the commotion from studying the ruins adequately at the moment. 

The road led down into the plain through fields of grain, and just before five 



NORTH! 

DJEBEL SIM^N 

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W' 



i t 
i 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 



6i 



o'clock we passed through the town of Sermeda, with its two lofty Corinthian columns, 

in the bowl of the Djebel il-Halakah. Two miles beyond we began to ascend through 

a narrow valley the Djebel Barisha, the northwestern boundary of the plain, set like a 

heavy bezel in the western side of 

the "Ring Mountain". A mile beyond, 

on the plateau of the Djebel Barisha, 

we passed a ruin of considerable size, 

Babiska, and two miles more brought 

us to the camping-place at Dar Kita, 

on the eastern side of the northern 

foothills of the Djebel Barisha. 

From now on, for several weeks 
to come, we were to be in a deserted 
country, but one totally different from 
that which we had found on the rolling 
plains to the east, or in the lava- 
strewn wastes of Southern Syria. Here 
was a rough mountainous region of 
bare limestone rising to tall peaks 
and falling, through rolling foothills, 
to level plains toward the west, gashed 
with deep ravines, and patched here 
and there with small pockets of soil 
that could not be washed away. The 
general effect, as one gazed across 
the hills, was one of unending gray- 
ness ; yet everywhere there were signs 
of former fertility. From a point 
about halfway up the Kubbit Babutta, 
one could count at least fifteen ruined 
and deserted towns lying to the north. 
Each of these towns had ancient wine 
and olive presses in large numbers. 
The country was thickly populated, 
fourteen centuries ago, by a people 

who lived in comparative luxury. They did not glean a scanty subsistence from the 
rocks, but owned fields and planted vineyards and orchards. Of course this means 
that there was soil covering these bare hillsides in those days. It is evident also that 
there were forests somewhere near by, for wood- was used freely in the construction of 
the buildings. Now the region is a gray desert, and the only green things to be seen 
for miles are stunted trees, bushes and weeds that grow among the ruins where the 
walls of buildings served to prevent the washing away of the soil. There is no sign 
that the country was ever irrigated ; but there is evidence that there was once running 
water in some of the dry stream-beds. Well-houses and spring-houses are found where 
there is now no water. On the other hand, there are many ancient cisterns, and some 
of these are very large. 




111. 38. Sermeda: Monument. 



62 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 




111. 39. D&r Klta: View in the Midst of the Ruins. 




111. 40. A View in the Djebel Baiisha. 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 63 

Despite the arid grayness of the hillsides, the views in this neighborhood were 
most attractive, particularly from the higher points such as the Kubbit Babutta. Far 
down towards the west and north lies the lowland called il-"Amk, like a deep bowl 
amid the mountains, at this season a vivid green, and enclosing the glistening Bahr 
il-Abyad or "Lake of Antioch". Beyond are the Taurus mountains, with snow on the 
loftier peaks. In the northeast is the huge mountain called the Djebel Shekh Berekat, 
dominating all the vicinity. On its summit is a cap of red soil, at this season verdant, 
which is evidently growing smaller year by year. While camping near a ruin at its 
foot one very rainy day, we were astonished to see rivulets thick with red soil rushing 
down the mountain side towards the marshes of il-^Amk. This is an example of what 
has been happening in the rainj' season for centuries all over the now barren hills of 
Northern Syria. Doubtless the Djebel Shfekh Berekat was once well covered with soil 
and probably with forest. It is also significant that the level tops of several ridges 
among these hills still have soil upon them and a good many olive-trees. 

The region about Dar Kita had been found exceptionally interesting in 1899 -1900. 
At that time it was practically unknown. But it was not possible for the expedition 
of that year, either in the autumn or the spring, to investigate the region as completely 
as was desired. We were now prepared to complete the exploration of the whole 
neighborhood, and from our headquarters at Dar Kita to make a thorough study of 
certain particular sites. The day after our arrival, the sixteenth of April, was Palm 
Sunday, and we stayed in camp. It was rainy, and the mud was deep and sticky. 
In 1900 the town was without inhabitants; but in 1905 there were a dozen tents of 
Turkomans there. The place is near the dividing line between Arabic-speaking and 
Turkish-speaking communities. The Turkomans impress one at first sight as physically 
superior, cleaner and better dressed than the Arabic natives. We saw three Turkoman 
children playing house inside the walls of an ancient building : they had a tiny tent, 
with bedding piled in the center of it, pitchers and household utensils, and a rag doll. 

The rain continued next day; but between showers we were able to begin our 
work among the ruins. A complete plan was made of the ruins at Dar Kita, and a 
less detailed one at the neighboring Babiska. Four days were spent at these places, 
and during this time the surrounding country was explored. 

Dar Kita had three churches. One was built in fulfillment of a "vow to Paul 
and Moses": it is dated 418 A. D. Another, dedicated to St. Sergius, is dated 537 A.D. 
The third bears an undated inscription in Syriac, showing that it was dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity. Two of these churches have baptisteries. That of the Church of Paul 
and Moses is separated from the main structure : its form is almost square, and at one 
end is a small apse containing a font sunk to a depth of about four feet below the 
pavement. The baptistery of St. Sergius is similar in form, but is attached to the 
church at its southeast corner. It is interesting to find three churches, all of fair size, 
in one town, and all three apparently parish churches, for none of them was connected, 
as far as we could see, with a monastery. Dar Kita has also a fine tower and a large 
number of private residences, with many inscriptions of more than usual interest, dating 
from the middle of the fourth to the end of the sixth century. 

Babiska had extensive shops, a large public bath, and two churches, one of them 
containing several inscriptions dated from 390 to 407 A.D. The other church, dedi- 
cated to St. Sergius, has on its portal the latest dated inscription in all this region. 



64 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

namely 610 A. D., about the time of the Persian invasion of Syria under Chosroes II. 

To the southwest, on the side of a wadi, is Burdj id-Deruni, which consists of a 
single building, a ruined chapel. About a mile southeast is Bakirha, a ruined and 
deserted town of some size, containing two handsome churches. On a hill above it is 
the well-preserved ruin of a small pagan temple. 

The camp moved northward over the rocky hills, through Khirbit Tezin, two 
miles away, and half a mile beyond that to Kasr Iblisu (Devil's Castle), a small 
chapel and a ruined town lying in the northern foothills of the Djebel Barisha. We 
turned toward the east from there, keeping in the hills until we came to a small valley 
through which ran the Roman road. Reaching the road at 'Ain Dilfeh, we turned up 
the road to the right. A mile farther we passed the well-preserved buildings of an 
ancient monastery, now called Kasr il-Ben^t. It gave one a feeling of the insignificance 
of time. We had been traveling on the Roman road, well preserved and smooth, cutting 
through the hills to make an easy grade, then suddenly came upon this ruin standing 
almost intact above us, a church, a tower of seven storeys, and residential buildings 
with their colonnades and windows, appearing from a little distance as if undamaged 
by the ages. The name "The Maidens' Castle" was frequently given by the early 
Arabs to convents, and in the present instance indicates that this was probably a retreat 
for women. 

We stopped long enough to make complete measurements of this very interesting 
group. The Roman road in places was cut through solid rock. At such a place, 
about half a mile east of Kasr il-Benat, on the north side of the road, two inscriptions 
were found by the earlier expedition (A. A. E. S. Ill, Nos. 74 and 75). One of these 
mentions the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. The other, dated in 588-9 A. D., states that 
under the Chancellor of Kaprobarade (Kefr Baradr), probably the modern Br^d, the 
boundary of the lands of the Bizikoi was fixed here. 

Half a mile beyond we turned up a narrow wadi to the east, and a mile farther, 
on the plateau of the Djebel il-Halakah, reached Serdjibleh visited in 1900. We did 
not stop, but followed a wadi descending to the northwest for a mile. Here we began 
to climb the rocky slope, and found a small uninteresting ruin called Kfelludin, con- 
taining three or four Turkoman families. Close by, in a pocket of the hills, is Kfellusin, 
an ancient and deserted site covering a wide area, with a tower and a church still 
standing, and several private houses of unusual interest. A widi to the southeast, 
along which we traveled, in a short time debouched into a deeper ravine in which 
lies the road from the northwest to Dana. We crossed the road and, ascending a low 
rocky hill on the southern side, once more looked out over the Plain of Sermeda. 
We crossed the end of the plain a short distance from Hizreh, then turning north 
surmounted the first low ridge of the northern boundary, and two miles from Hizreh 
reached Tell 'Adeh. This had been, in antiquity, a small town ; but few remains of 
it are now visible, for the modern village has taken the cut stone for its own con- 
struction. Fortunately, the church was used as a dwelling in early times, and the rooms 
added to it then have protected and concealed it from later destruction. The plan is 
interesting, and unusual in Northern Syria. 

Half a mile to the northeast is Der Tell ''Adeh. on a hill a hundred and fifty 
feet higher than Tell 'Adeh, and here our camp had established itself Here are the 
remains of a convent of unusual design, including a tower and a handsome rock-hewn 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 



65 



tomb. In this group of buildings two Syriac inscriptions were found, one of which 
gives the dates 601 and 907 A. D., and the other the date 941 A. D. (Div. IV, Syriac 
Nos. 16 and 17). To the north there is a succession of hills rising higher and higher 
to the dominating peak of the Djebel Shekh Berekat, about two miles away. 

In the morning we moved northward along the western slope of Djebel Shekh 
Berekat, crossing numerous w^dls, and after five miles reached the flat cultivated table- 
land on which Zerzita is situated. This must have been an important city in antiquity, 
but now it is given over to a few tents of Turkomans. The church and tower, the 
latter dated in 500 A. D., are interesting. There are also ruins of several houses, 
two of them dated in 538 and 539 A. D. respectively, which are sufficiently well 
preserved to give an idea of one type of the ancient residences in this part of Syria. 

Our road from here led to the northeast, down a steep valley with precipitous 




111. 41. Kal'at Sim'an : View from the Northeast. 



sides for three miles until we reached a broad valley with Katura lying at its entrance. 
In the last stretch of the small ravine, where the sides are nearly vertical, there are a 
good many sepulchral reliefs, cut in the living rock, which is a soft limestone. Some 
of them are well preserved and seem to be early, for Katura was Christian by 336 
and these sculptures, consisting of one or more figures set in a niche, show no traces 
of Christian treatment. Katura itself shows two periods of construction. The houses 
are small and plain ; but there are remains of at least one good sized building in the 
classic style. Two houses, better preserved and built of square blocks, are evidently later. 
The camp had gone on to Kal'at Sim'^n two miles beyond, on a spur at the end 
of the long valley, and was pitched not twenty rods from the entrance to the great 

PablicatioDS of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 9 



66 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



church. This is in some respects the most splendid of all the ruins of Christian 
antiquity, and was once the goal of many pilgrims ; for here it was that St. Simeon 
Stylites lived for years upon his column the life of a "pillar-hermit". Simeon was born 
about 390 A. D., the son of a peasant, and at an early age began to subject himself to 
the most severe penances and privations. In 422 he began his life upon a column of 
moderate size. At least once his column was replaced by one of greater height. One 
of these columns is said to have been 40 cubits high : the capital which remains has a 
diagonal measurement of about six feet. Simeon died in 459 A. D., and even before 
his death this had become a place of pilgrimage. During the fifth century many large 
churches and monastic buildings of various sorts were erected both at the site of the 
column and in the town of D6r Sim^in below. About the column an open octagon 




111. 42. Kal^at Simian: the Church from the North, with Djebel Shkh Berekdt in the Distance. 



of great arches was constructed, uniting four great basilicas in an enormous cruciform 
church. The entire structure is of limestone, richly carved, with interior columns of 
imported marble and gorgeous designs. Adjoining the church on the southeast are 
extensive buildings, doubtless for the clergy. The whole group is strikingly beautiful 
and impressive, even in its ruined state, and it is a great pity that something is not 
being done to prevent the further decay and fall of those parts which are still standing. 
At the foot of the spur, on which KaKat Sim'&n stands, lies Der Sim'4n, an 
extensive deserted ruin, which was important in antiquity on account of the religious 
center above. Here there were inns for pilgrims, long streets of bazaars, and no less 
than three extensive monasteries. The expedition was occupied here for several days. 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 6y 

A survey was made of Dfer Sim'an, measurements were taken of the important buildings 
in KatClra, and the country near by was explored as thoroughly as its extreme roughness 
would allow. 

An echo of the excitement at Tell 'Akibrin reached us here. The girl, who was 
supposed to have been stolen, was now at Kal'at Sim'an. She had been restored to 
her family. But how the abduction had taken place, and whether she had voluntarily 
run off with an Arab lover, even the inquisitiveness of our camp-servants failed to 
discover. 

A fair and peaceful Easter Day, the twenty-third of April, was spent under the 
shadow of St. Simeon's great church. Ever since we had left the region of Kerratln we 
had been travehng in country which had been visited by the Expedition of 1899- 1900. 
Only a few sites, such as Kfellusin, Zerzita and Fidreh were wholly unknown to us. 
At Kal'at Sim'an, D&r Sim'^n, Katura and Refadeh there was still much to be done. 
Soon, however, we were to enter a region which was not only beyond the northern 
limit of exploration by the former expedition in these mountains, but also beyond the 
farthest point reached by M. de Vogiie on his visit in 1861. To the east and north- 
east lay a great unexplored field, thickly strewn with ruins, which had been sighted 
by Garrett in 1899. This field was to occupy most of our labors for the remainder 
of the season. 

A day was spent on Djebel Shekh Berek^t (see the background of 111. 42). It 
was an excellent point from which to take sights, towering up to a single peak and 
dominating the country as far as one could see. Below, surrounding the base, were 
the rough limestone hills, and to the west lay the green fields of il-'Amk, the lake 
and the cultivated country around Antioch, with the wall of the Taurus mountains 
beyond. Northwest were the snow-capped mountains, separating Syria from Asia Minor. 
To the east were other limestone ridges, with the white walls of the castle at Aleppo 
thirty miles away. Southeast, beyond the southern part of the Djebel il-Halakah, lay the 
rolling basalt hills with patches of cultivated fields through which we had come. Some 
thirty or forty ancient and apparently deserted sites were visible from the top of this 
mountain. 

On the summit of the Djebel Shekh Berekat are the remains of a precinct sacred 
to ancient gods, called in the inscriptions of the place Zeus Madbachos and Selamanes. 
Madbah is a Syriac word meaning altar. The enclosure is a square, built of handsome 
quadrated blocks of limestone. The walls are approximately 68 meters long, and two 
cubits, or 82.50 cm., thick. The line of the east wall of the temenos points to approx- 
imately 7 degrees from the magnetic north. The walls were built by various persons 
or families, whose names, together with the dimensions of the parts built by them and 
the cost, are recorded in inscriptions carved on the walls themselves. These inscriptions 
are dated from 61 to 120 A. D. (A. A. E. S. Ill, Nos. ioo-io8a). Evidently this 
was a "high place" of the pre-Christian period. On other high points, each distant 
about nine miles from the Djebel Shfekh Berekat, lie the remains of three other pagan 
shrines. To the southwest is the Kubbit Babutta, near which is the temple now called 
Burdj Bakirha, dedicated, as the inscription on the gateway of its temenos shows, to 
Zeus Bomos : bomos is the Greek word for altar. Almost due south is the pagan 
temple at Srir. To the northeast is a third temple set on a lonely hill, called KaFat 
Kalota. These are the only certain remains of pagan shrines found by us in these 



68 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



limestone mountains, tliough evidence of some others is furnished by the inscriptions 
or parts of temples incorporated in later buildings. 

At or near Katura there are tombs of the pre-Christian period, as well as the 
pre-Christian sculptures mentioned above. Two of the inscriptions on these tombs bear 
the dates 195 and 240 A. D., respectively. About a mile north of Katftra, near Sitt 
ir-Rum, is a conspicuous monument consisting of two tall shafts supporting a classic 
entablature, standing above a rock-hewn tomb. The entablature bears the following 
inscription: "In the year 201, Hyperberetaios 5th (i.e. October, 152 A. D.) Eisidotos, 
son of Ptolemaios, made all for himself and for Markia, daughter of Kodratos, his 
wife ; and he shall lie in his own sarcophagus, the third in the first arcosolium on the 
right as one enters". Ten minutes' ride northwest of Sitt ir-Rum brought us to Ref^deh, 
a large deserted site, apparently a town of private dwellings only. The ruins here 
are most attractive, for the houses are very well preserved, and the colonnades and 
porticoes still standing give a very good idea of what these houses of North Syria must 
have been in the prosperous times of the fifth and sixth centuries. To the east, on 
the other side of the valley, lies Takleh, a ruin of no particular interest. The next 
day Butler and Littmann spent at Fidreh, three miles to the west of Refadeh. 
This place was very difficult to reach, for it lies on the last plateau of the Djebel 
Sim'&n, separated from the hills to the east by a deep valley with sides almost vertical. 

This was new ground, and its ruins well repaid 
the hard journey to reach it. It is entirely 
deserted now, but was once a large town in 
the ordinary style of this region. 

But other unknown places were calling us, 
and on April twenty-ninth we started in the 
morning towards the east, passing through 
several small and deserted ruined towns, Bazl- 
her, Surkanya where there is a charming 
little chapel, Banastfir, and Kbeshin. Then, 
continuing northwest, we came to Burdj Hedar. 
Here are extensive ruins, all uninhabited, three 
churches, one nearly complete, another with 
its side walls gone but with two aisles of 
monolithic columns and twelve arches in perfect 
condition. The smallest church, which is nearly 
complete, retains the flat stone roof of its 
sanctuary, still showing on its under side remains 
of a painted ceiling in a trellis design with roses or some other red flowers hanging 
through the diamond-shaped apertures of the trellis. 

Thence we continued northward, and at half past five came upon our camp just 
settled among the ruins of Kefr Nabu. This place is interesting for many reasons. 
There is an early pagan inscription here giving the names of local divinities. There 
is also a church, in the walls of which are fragments of a pagan temple, besides several 
large and well preserved houses, one of them three storeys high, together with many 
Greek inscriptions, and one in Syriac. While the camp remained here we made a journey 
of two miles to the north, crossing two wadis, and discovered an extensive ruin called 




III. 43. Surkanya: Front of a House. 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 



69 




111. 44. Banastur: General View. 




111. 45. Brad: Ancient Walls. 



70 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



BrAd. This is quite the largest of the ruined towns in all this mountain country of 
limestone, covering about a square mile. It was perhaps the ancient Barada. It contains 
a church of cathedral proportions, but now sadly ruined. This church seems to belong 
to the fourth century, and is one of the largest in all Northern Syria. The town is 
certainly one of the oldest in the limestone country, for there are walls here of the 
most ancient type found in this region. Unfortunately these walls cannot be dated. 
There is an imposing monument in the middle of the town, consisting of a low pyramid 
carried on four large arches. It probably contained one or more ornamental sarcophagi 
or statues. The structure is not dated, but its architectural details and the carved heads 
on the keystones of its arches would assign it to the second century. Not far away 
is a bath, which is unusually well preserved. It is partly buried, and its roof, which 
is still intact, has been covered with soil and vegetation. It has been used as a sheep- 
fold, probably for a very long time. Like 
the monument with the arched canopy, the 
bath doubtless belongs to the second century 
of our era. There are remains of other 
buildings of more or less public character, 
some doubtless pre-Christian and some ecclesi- 
astical. In addition to the "cathedral" there 
were at least two other churches, one of 
which is dated 561 A. D., and a convent 
with a chapel and a high tower. There 
are also ruins of many private residences, 
some of which are completely dilapidated. 
Many of them, however, were well designed, 
and in some the charming colonnades of two 
storeys are still standing. One cannot fail 
to be impressed with the dignity and elegance 
of many of these houses. They are much 
more imposing, in their structure of solid 
stone, with their lofty colonnades and richly 
ornamented doorways, than any other ancient 
private residences that we know of, more 
beautiful than the houses of Pompeii, for example, with all their wall-paintings and 
mosaics. For the Pompeian houses are poorly constructed, and their charm is due 
chiefly to the decorations painted on the plaster of interior walls ; whereas these Syrian 
houses are of well finished limestone, almost marble in its texture. Moreover, we must 
remember that once these ruined houses of wealthy Syrians also had their interior walls 
plastered and doubtless painted, and many of them had mosaic floors laid in various 
patterns or designs. There seems to have been a fairly high level of culture and 
refinement in Northern Syria. Even houses of a somewhat poorer class are well con- 
structed, and have their little ornaments on the doorways. We found families of Kurds 
temporarily settled in tents within the ruins; for there was an old cistern here, which 
the recent rains had filled with water. These nomads were feeding their flocks in the 
patches of green enclosed by ancient walls, and sheltering them in the rock-hewn tombs 
near the ruins. 




III. 46. Brad : Tower of the Convent. 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 



71 



The camp remained at Kefr Nabu wHile we continued our exploration of the ruins 
in the neighborhood. One day we rode out a little north of east to Burdj il-K^s, situated 
three miles away on the top of a hill made prominent by a grove of trees growing 
in the ruins on its top, and here we found a few Turkomans settled for the season. 
Two Greek inscriptions and some good architectural details were all that we discovered, 
and we hurried on toward Kal'at Kalota, almost due south, to visit a place that had 
been visible for several days. Kalat Kalota is an imposing ruin on the top of a 
high and well isolated hill. Here we discovered a church, constructed entirely of 
the walls and fragments of two pagan temples the only instance of the kind that 
has yet been found in Northern Syria and later transformed into an Arabic castle. 




111. 47. Kalota: Distant View from the West. 



The early temple, according to an inscription, had been erected "to ancestral gods". 
It was surrounded by a broad high wall, which was preserved during the Christian 
period, and then served as the outer defense of the castle. In the church the capitals 
and other details of the pagan buildings were more cleverly employed than such second- 
hand materials usually were in Roman basilicas. The church had stood alone, and 
was not part of a monastery. At the foot of the hill, just to the northeast, lies Kalota, 
a beautiful ruin with trees growing among its buildings. The view to the east is very 
extensive. The hills in this direction fall sharply to a rolling plain with signs of some 
cultivation at its edge, but stretching on, a barren looking waste, towards Aleppo. 
We could see no ruins beyond the limits of the hill country. Kalota offered us two 



73 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



splendid churches. One, dated 492 A. D., preserves its eastern end with the half dome 
of the apse, its high west wall, and its south wall, quite intact ; only the interior 
columns and arches, the north wall and the porches have fallen. Of the other 
church only the outer walls are preserved -, but like the first, this also has beautiful 
carved details. The houses in this town are smaller than those in many places in the 
neighborhood; but they have much individuality and distinctive charm. The oak trees 
growing in the courtyards add much to their beauty. 

From this place we made an excursion southeast to the edge of the cultivated 
strip mentioned above, and visited Zuk il-Keblr, a village inhabited by Turkomans or 
Kurds who in the erection of their houses have wrought havoc with the remains of 
a large ancient town : the word zuk, meaning town, occurs several times in Syrian 
place-names. Thence we returned westward and a little to the north, and soon reached 
Khar^b Shems, a most charming ruin in a sequestered and desolate valley. This place 
has been visited a number of times by travelers making their w^y from Aleppo to 
the ruins of Kalat Sim'an, and photographs taken here are to be found in books of 
travel and are even to be bought in Aleppo; but none of the buildings has ever been 
studied scientifically. The church is one of the best preserved of all the edifices of 

Northern Syria. Its lofty west fagade and the 
ten tall arches of its nave are all standing. 
The side walls have collapsed, the half dome 
of the apse has partly fallen in and a large 
oak is growing in its place ; but the chancel- 
rail and the steps of the bema are still 
visible. The church is very simple in its 
lines and construction, and is undoubtedly 
one of the earliest in Syria, though no 
inscription was found to give it a date. The 
oak tree in the apse and another near the 
west of the nave, inside, give unusual 
picturesqueness to the ruin. There is a 
well preserved little chapel on the hill above 
the ruined town, and some badly broken 
sculptures are to be seen in a tomb near by. 
There are also several carved lintels of unusual interest among the ruined houses. 

We had been able to examine with a telescope the level country below Brad lying 
far to the north, to the point where the highroad between Alexandretta and Aleppo 
passes: we had seen from Kalat Kalota the broad expanse to the east of the hills, 
and on the west the great plain and the marshes of iU'Amk. In all these directions 
there appeared to be no ruins. If there were cities here in ancient times, they have 
been destroyed for building purposes or are buried. There remained, therefore, only the 
ruins to the south, still in the limestone hills, and we set out to explore these, sending 
the camp on to Kharab il-Meshhed. In the beginning of our journey from Kefr Nabu, 
we passed through Burdj Hfedar once more, a mile and a half to the south, and swerving 
southwest visited Kefr Lab, a small ruin with a good chapel, about two miles farther 
on. Passing thence along the crest of a ridge, in a northwesterly direction, we came 
to Basufan, Here we discovered an extensive Mohammedan burial-place surrounding a 




111. 48. Kharab Shems: The Church. 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 73 

well and a castle. The castle proved to be a converted church of unusual beauty, 
built in the years 491-5 A. D. and dedicated to St. Phocas, as the good Syriac inscription 
upon it shows. There was another church here, probably earlier in date and of almost 
the same size, but now almost completely destroyed. From here, looking over the 
plain to the northwest, we could see idj-Djumeh. Turning to the southeast we soon 
reached Burdjkeh, with its tower standing just north of a path which follows the line 
of an ancient road from Aleppo to Kal'at Sim'an, and possibly to Antioch. Following 
this path a little to the south of east, we came to Fafirtin, where we discovered the 
earliest dated church of basilical form known to us thus far in Syria, and one of the 
earliest in the world. Its date is 372 A. D. The apse with its half dome is still 
standing, and the chamber at each side of the apse is fairly complete : the rest of the 
building, doubtless thrown down by earthquakes, is lying in heaps ; but the ground-plan 
and most of the details are preserved. Battita lay about five miles to the southwest, 
and was found to be a ruin of considerable extent with many handsome buildings. The 
church here has its apse, the south arcade of the nave and most of the clerestory on 
that side intact. The lower courses of the south wall and part of the west wall are 
still standing. There is also a small and simple chapel at this place, with a charming 
side-porch formed by two columns supporting the front of a pentroof of stone. The 
ruins of houses and shops are interesting : one group of buildings, doubtless used 
originally for both shops and residences, as in modern times, bears an inscription with 
a date which is probably 362-3 A. D. Late in the evening, after a very busy but 
very interesting day, we reached our camp at Kharab il-Meshhed, where we found little 
of interest save a small chapel converted into a mosque in the Middle Ages. 

Early the following morning we rode out to the southeast, to Kefr Antin, an 
extensive site but much ruined, and then eastward to Simkhar, a picturesque and im- 
portant ancient town. There are remarkably fine mouldings here. The ruins include 
a church of very ancient form and style, certainly belonging to the early fourth century, 
with its half-domed apse and all the arches of one aisle standing, a baptistery or chapel, 
which has the most richly decorated fagade that we had seen, and buildings large and 
small covering a wide area. We found the camp at Shekh Slema.n, about two miles 
to the south of Simkhar : the tents had been pitched in a grove of trees beneath a 
high tower among the ruins. This spot is an oasis in the midst of the barren lime- 
stone hills. The land lies at such an angle and at such an exposure that a large 
pocket of soil has been retained, and in this grow trees, shrubs and grass, an unusual 
sight in this deserted country. The houses of the town are sadly ruined, and the tower 
raises its lofty walls in splendid isolation above them. The undergrowth is thick, 
doubtless hiding many buildings and inscriptions. It was difficult to make out the plan 
of the large church in the heart of the town. But there are two other churches situated 
just beyond the town, a little to the southwest. St. Mary's Church is most beautiful 
in its ruins. The half-domed apse, with its side-chambers built up in storeys like two 
towers one on either hand, is perfectly preserved at one end, and the high wall of the 
fagade with a colonnaded narthex stands at the other. Only the nave is in ruins. 
The narthex had a flat roof with a carved parapet that is still in place. The other 
church is not so beautiful, but is interesting, not only for its inscription dated 602 A.D., 
which shows this to be one of the very latest of the Syrian churches, but also for its 
form and its state of preservation. The arches of the nave are carried upon tall 

Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. lo 



74 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 







; 'T^A3j|, 



'ss^^-'' 



^^II;^' 



111. 49. SitnkhSr : General View. 




111. 50. Shekh Sleman : Distant View from the South. 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 



75 





"^^^^^ 






If 





111. 51. Termanin: Breaking Camp. 



rectangular piers instead of columns, and all these, together with the beautiful half dome 
of the apse and the outer walls, are standing, so that little besides a roof is required 
to restore the building to its original state. 

Leaving this enchanting place, we descended southward into the lower rolling 
country east of the hills which form the eastern side of the ring about the Plain of 
Sermeda. We passed through a miserable village called ,Batarun, and another called 
MaklabJs : observations were taken in both. Then we turned to the southwest, passing 
under the telegraph line on the post-route 
between Antioch and Aleppo. Presently we 
ascended the hills again, and soon found 
ourselves at the ruins of Dera^man which 
we had visited before. Thus we had made 
a complete circuit of the ring-mountain, the 
Djebel il-Halakah, though in our journey we 
had made one long detour into the Djebel 
Sim'an. After examining once more the 
two much-ruined churches at Dera^m^n, and 
searching the other ruins for inscriptions, 
we descended into the Plain of Sermeda to 
camp at Termanin, a village on the eastern 
edge of the plain. Next morning, starting 
early, we rode through the cultivated fields 
of this fertile bowl, and through the insigni- 
ficant ruins of il-Kf6r, to the Roman road. Traveling easily over this ancient highway 
for a mile, we then turned off again to revisit Tell 'Akibrin. From this place we 
climbed the hills which form the southern part of the Djebel il-Halakah, riding straight up 
to the peak four hundred feet above the plain, to find at Srtr the ruins of a temple 
of the Roman period with a good inscription of the Emperor Trajan, dated 116 A. D. 
Here was a view of wonderful beauty. From this point we could look back over much 
of the country that we had recently traversed. In all directions lay great expanses of 
the desert, and rising conspicuously above the surrounding hills were the three other 
eminences mentioned on page 67, each the site of a temple of the Roman time. 

Descending, we moved westward, and then a little to the north of west, passing 
by three ruined towns, Burdj Djabr, Burdj "Abdallah and Burdj Nasir, the first having 
some ruined houses near it. From the last we turned to the north and, passing through 
Sermeda again and then riding over rich fields for half an hour, reached the great arch 
of Bab il-Hawa, which spans the Roman road where it leaves the plain and enters a 
defile in the hills to the north. We cantered easily along the ancient highway, passing 
a large herd of feeding camels, and, halting to copy an inscription by the way, finally 
sighted our tents pitched in the defile beside the ruins of a small chapel called Kasr 
il-Mudakhkhin (Smoking Castle). While the camp moved northwest on the following 
day we made a detour to visit two ruins, which had been discovered by the Expedition 
of 1900. "Smoking Castle", beside which our camp was pitched, lies at the end 
of a steep ancient mountain road that leads westward from the Roman highway 
to the plateau on which D^r Kita, Babiska, and other important ruins are situated. 
We followed this, passing the ancient ruined town of bazaars or shops called Ba'udeh, 



76 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



and then climbed a steep slope to the widely scattered ruins of Ksedjbeh, where the 
earlier expedition had studied two churches and other buildings. Here topographic 
observations were made, and then we descended again, crossed the Roman road, climbed 




111. 52. On the Roman Road. 

the hills on the opposite side, and soon reached Burdakll. a large group of ruins lying 
on the hillside which slopes down to the Plain of Sermeda. There are two ruined 
churches here, and the ruins of a mediaeval mosque of some architectural pretensions 

with a graceful minaret still partly preserved. 
We found interesting tombs and important 
inscriptions here, and spent two profitable 
hours. Then returning to the Roman road, 
we followed it at a good pace, to lunch at 
the familiar Kasr il-Benat. Moving on, we 
watered our horses at "Ain Dilfeh, where 
there stand a complete apse, all that remains 
of a church, and a Moslem well-house with 
an Arabic inscription, and presently passed 
out of the defile and lost sight of the Roman 
road, which is probably buried beyond this 
point. We passed near Tezin and Harr^n, 
and through Yeni Shehr (Newtown), a 
Circassian village with a Turkish name, and turning southwest, around the foot of the 
hills, reached the modern town of H&rim at six o'clock, well content with a good day's 
journey. Harim is a pleasant looking place, dominated by the ruins of a large and 



^^^Eb :rm.^ , 




In 








Ss 


i^^ 


.1 


.ddl^^ ]\J 


r% 


m^m ! 


1 


,;. , . 


<v . 


1 ., - - 



111. 53. Kasr il-Mudakhkhinf ' the Camp. 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 



n 



imposing Arabic castle. It has about two thousand inhabitants, almost exclusively Mos- 
lems, is surrounded by trees and gardens, and has plenty of running water, something 
that we had not seen for many weeks. There are bazaars here and a good khan. 

On leaving Harim we kept to the valley, going south all the morning, forcing 
the pace through the villages of Kastal Iskit (?), Tell Abu Talhah, Tell 'Amm^n and 
Kefr Ta'kab(?), having on our left just before noon the Djebel il-A'la, which had been 
explored in 1899, and on our right the Orontes, and presently reached the western 
slopes of the Djebel Wast^ni, a high isolated mountain-group that lies to the south 
of the Djebel il-A'la. Just before lunch-time we reached Fasftk, a large ruined town on 
the top of the high plateau. But this, our last day of work among the ruins in the 
limestone hills, was to be spoiled. Heavy clouds had been collecting in the valley of 
the Orontes, and now they enveloped the mountain on which we were, deluging us with 
showers. It was very disappointing to be prevented from taking any measurements of 
the buildings or making a thorough search for inscriptions, for the ruins are unusually 
interesting and have never been published, perhaps never visited before. Leaving FasCik 
veiled in heavy mist, and quite as unexplored as it had been when we reached it, we 
resumed our journey, passing near another large and important looking ruin, the name 
of which we could not learn, and turning to the east began the steep and difficult 
descent by a goat-path to Kwaro, a village in the valley where our camp was pitched. 
By morning the sky had cleared, the sun came out bright and warm, and we felt 
strongly inclined to return to the plateau again. But it would have required several 
days to explore the region thoroughly, 
and the days of our pilgrimage were already 
numbered. We visited some rock-cut tombs 
in the region of Kwaro, and copied several 
poor inscriptions in Greek. Then we crossed 
the valley to Millis, another small village, 
and turning south found about half a mile 
farther on, beside the road, a tomb the 
vestibule of which is hewn in a sort of 
boulder. The tomb bore an interesting 
Greek inscription containing the date 193 
A. D. We were now near the southern 
foot of the Djebel il-A1a. A large lake 
or marsh lay to the south passing to the 
fiorth of this we went through the small 
village of Ibsineh(?). Crossing some rising 
ground to the southeast, we passed through 
the large and flourishing town of Idlib, 
an hour and a half from the foothills. 

Three miles farther on we reached Maiyamas(?), then Nferab and Dadikh, three villages 
in the plain that divides the Djebel Riha on the south from the Djebel Barisha and 
the Djebel il-A"la on the north. That night we encamped at Khan Sebil, a village 
on the highway from Aleppo to Damascus. 

On this road, the "Darb is-Sultan", we continued our journey southward through 
the familiar modern town of Ma'arrit in-Nu'mAn, to camp just outside the village of 



" **4^ 




^H||B^^^pP3ipanBee?^ 


^IB^ 


^ ^ 


I^H 




^ 


PH| ^^^W 


1 




1 




.,.^^S|B 



111. 54. Khan Sebil: the Mosque. 



78 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



Khan Shekhftn, with its clustering bee-hive houses. On the following day, we started 
on our caravan journey for the last time, still following the highroad, passing through 
Murik and it-Taiyibeh, and reached Hama by noon. Here the hateful sound of a 
locomotive's whistle reminded us that we had returned to what we believed to be 




111. 55. KhSn ShEkhun. 




111. 56. The Caravan on the Home Stretch. 



civilization. That night we slept in a very poor khin. We walked the streets, seeing 
a strange mixture of the old and the new, the East and the West, passing brightly 
lighted cafes, with little tables set out in front, at which sat a motley crowd of Chris- 
tian Syrians, Mohammedans, Kurds, Circassians, Turkomans, and even Arabs of the 



Chapter X The Limestone Mountains 



79 



desert. For this is the terminus of several great caravan roads that come from the 
east, and at that time it was also the terminus of a spur of the railway from Beirut 
to Damascus. The railway now reaches Aleppo. We took a train, not badly equipped 



f 




1 l^flL'^^ ^\ ' 


M^ 


m m 





111. 57. Hama: Crowd of Natives at our Camp. 



in the first class but very slow of speed, and stopped off, tourist-like, to see the old 
familiar ruins of Baalbek by way of breaking the journey. A day later found us in 
Beirut, within sight and sound of the sea. 



SECTION B 



THE EXPEDITION OF 1909 



BY 



HOWARD CROSBY BUTLER, A. M. 



Publications of the Princeton Universty Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 



4^ 



-^ 

^ 



^ THE EXPEDITION OF 1909 



The remainder of this narrative has to do with the most recent of the Princeton 
Expeditions, that of the year 1909. This trip came about rather unexpectedly and 
was the direct resuh of several observations and discoveries made four years before, 
which at that time could not be followed up to satisfactory conclusions. During the winter 
1904-5 a hasty journey had been made far to the south of the Haur^n, and a large 
fortress and fragments of an imperial edict had been found at Koser il-HallabS.t ; but 
work on the buildings and the inscriptions had to be abandoned because of a heavy 
snow-storm. Work on the fragments of the edict, as well as upon the hastily made 
plans of the fortress and the mosque at this place, while in progress at home, had 
shown the unusual importance of these discoveries, and this afforded one reason for a 
return to the field. In the second place, my journey up the plain of the Haur^n and 
across the Ledja, at the end of the first half of the Expedition of 1904-5, had shown 
the great extent and the unusual importance of the ruins in both localities ; but I had 
been unable to make more than the most superficial report of them. In order, then, 
to complete our archaeological survey of Southern Syria or, perhaps better, to make 
it more nearly complete, the third expedition was organized to spend the spring months 
of 1909 there. 

The journey was planned in the winter of 1908. Professor David Magie, of 
Princeton University, who with Professor D. R. Stuart had been at work on the edict 
and other Greek inscriptions copied by Professor Littmann in Southern Syria on the 
second expedition, undertook the collection of inscriptions. I was to have general 
oversight of the journey, and was to be the architect again. The trip was not to be 
a long one, and several friends were invited to accompany the expedition without 
definite assignments : these were Mr. Junius S. Morgan, who had been interested in the 
work of the former expeditions, Mr. Harold W. Bell, and Mr. Roderic B. Barnes, a 
recent graduate in architecture who joined the party at Jerusalem. Early in March the 
members of the expedition gathered in Jerusalem and, almost at once, moved into 
camp, placed as before in the olive grove near the Dominican monastery outside the 
Damascus Gate. 

We left Jerusalem early on the morning of March 15th, and, after an extraordinarily 
cool journey under an overcast sky, encamped again at "Ain is-Sult&n, near the ruins 
of ancient Jericho. Late in the afternoon we walked over to the site of the ancient 
city to see the German excavations then being carried on. The work was being 
done chiefly by women, who were walking in an endless chain, carrying baskets of 
earth on their heads and dumping them into the wagons on a short system of 



84 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

movable track. At the time of our visit the excavations were rather uninteresting 
to the casual observer : remains of walls of sun-dried brick following confused lines for 
a considerable distance above the plain, and a battering wall of stone, with a brick 
wall above it, on the north side of the tell, were apparently the only important remains 
yet unearthed. We saw none of the smaller finds. 

We left Jericho the following morning, stopping for a bath in the river Jordan 
after crossing the rickety old bridge, and then traversed the plain to ascend the steep 
slopes of the mountains of Ammon. We followed at first the bed of a wadi, and then 
passed over the crest of a ridge, beyond which we descended a little to the ruins ot 
'Arak il-Emlr. Three of us made a brief tour of the ruins, while the two others 
went for a bath in the W&di is-Sir, from which they were presently driven with sticks 
and stones and loud shouting by a band of much excited and irate Bedawin, who 
objected to visitors bathing in the little pool they had made in the stream for the 
purpose of drawing water. There was considerable commotion and difficulty about 
recovering clothes and eye-glasses ; but this was all patched up by George, the drago- 
man, and suitable apologies were made by the Shekh to my outraged fellow-travelers. 

The morning of St. Patrick's Day was spent in work at the ruins of the great 
temple. I made some fresh observations in order to check up my publications, making 
certain of the presence of two fallen columns at the south end, which had been questioned 
by a reviewer, and making further examination of the details. No further information 
about the interior could be obtained, nor could I discover if there was a portal at the 
south end of the cella. The remains of the walls inside the structure are, in part at 
least, either Christian or Saracenic : these walls are not parallel with the outer walls, 
and there are unmistakable remains of stone vaults. 

In the afternoon we journeyed to 'Amm^n over the route that had been traversed 
in 1904. The day was perfect, and we arrived early, in time to ride up the northwest 
slope of the acropolis and make a turn around the north and east ends of the hill, 
before making our way to the camp, pitched this time in front of the theatre. Halted 
in our advance into the desert by the local Mudir, we were obliged to stop over the 
eighteenth in camp, while we waited for an answer to a telegram which I had sent to 
Nazim Pasha, the Governor General of Syria. A favorable reply came in the evening, 
and we started out the next day guarded by two zabtiyeh, resolved to follow the 
Roman road to Bosra, with our first camp at Kal'at iz-Zerka. We left the ancient city 
of Philadelphia by the way along the stream, but soon, finding that the Roman road 
did not follow that course, we crossed over a ridge on the right and came to a broad 
valley, in the bottom of which the old highway was visible at many points. There 
were two methods of tracing that ancient highway, one by observing actual remains of 
its pavement, the other by finding the milestones at the end of each mile. Our first 
milestone was the eighth from ""Amman. It preserved a good inscription with the 
Roman numerals XLIIII and the Greek MA, representing the number of miles from 
Bora. The road from 'Amman to Kal'at iz-Zerka is not well preserved; but we were 
able to trace its course by the milestones. These consist, not of a single stone, but 
in most cases of a group of shafts of white limestone, some of them inscribed, others 
plain, others palimpsests with one inscription over another. But the full account 
of our journeys on the Roman road and of our finding its milestones is contained 
in an appendix to the Publications of the Princeton Expeditions, Division III, Section A, 



The Expedition of 1909 85 

Part 2. After leaving Kal'at iz-Zerka, still traveling on the Roman road, we made 
a short detour near midday and ate our lunch at Khau, an uninteresting ruin on a 
hilltop to the left. Returning to our route we followed it again, checking off the miles 
by milestones where the road did not pass too near to the line of the Hedjaz Railway, 
passing through country otherwise quite uninteresting until we reached camp at Khirbit 
is-Samra, near milestone No. XXXI from Bosra and not far from the railway line. The 
place was once a Roman fort with a small town near it; but the builders of the railway 
used it as a quarry, having carried a spur from the line into the ruins : consequently 
very little is left of it. 

Leaving Khirbit is-Samra early in the morning of the 21st, we turned to the 
northeast in search of the ancient road, but found no remains of it. It probably 
recrosses the railway above Samra. But I was riding well to the east in search of 
milestones, when presently I caught sight of the white walls of Kosfer il-HallabM, shining 
far off in the dim distance across the desert to the southeast. The temptation was 
too great. After a moment's consultation we abandoned the Roman road and urged 
our fresh steeds towards the ancient fortress, reaching it after two hours of fast riding. 
The ruin, in white stone with ornamental bands of black basalt, in the bright morning 
sunlight wore a very different aspect from that which it had worn when we had last 
seen it, more than four years before, on a bleak and snowy day in January. We could 
spend only two hours here, as the camp had been sent on many miles to il-Fed6n ; 
but we soon discovered how much work there was to be done, and resolved to return 
later, bringing the camp with us and prepared to remain several days, in case water 
could be found anywhere within an hour. On leaving the castle we rode northeast for 
thirty-five minutes, and crossed the W^di il-'Akib. The country in all directions is a 
rolling desert, not barren of soil, but dry and exhausted, bearing nothing but coarse 
desert brush except in the spring, when a slight verdure spreads over the ground for 
a few weeks. This was appearing now. We did not feel sure of our direction : there 
are of course no paths, and when I espied a group of seven Bedawin tents far off to 
the northwest, I immediately turned toward them in order to inquire the way, and the 
others followed. We were eight, our own party of five, the dragoman, the lunch 
waiter, and our soldier who had been a Bedawi. We passed over a bit of rising 
ground on the rolling surface of the desert, and dropped into a hollow from which the 
tents were invisible : presently we rose again, and this time I could see only four tents. 
After another fall and rise there were none to be seen, and my companions were 
inclined to chaff me for having imagined the seven tents. But a look through a pair 
of field-glasses revealed a band of Bedawin and animals making their way in the 
direction we were riding, pushing up the slope of the hill that bounded the plain on 
that side. We did not want to lose sight of this possible source of information, and 
spurred our horses after them. Presently we passed the spot where their camp had 
been this was unmistakeable : then, hurrying on, we followed them directly up the 
hill, now in hot pursuit ; but at the summit an -unexpected sight met our astonished 
eyes. We had come upon a broad plateau, and there, spread out before us, not a 
quarter of a mile away, was a large Bedawin encampment of a hundred tents or more, 
grouped about one large tent. We had scarcely time to realize where we were before 
a band of twenty spearmen, well mounted and in perfect formation, started in our 
direction at full gallop, with loud shouts and cries the unmistakeable war-cries of 



86 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

the Bedawin. They had hardly left the tents when a second band, these armed with 
rifles, dashed out in good order to follow their fellows. I was at a complete loss to 
understand all this ; but I realized at once the danger of our position. My four com- 
panions were in Syria for the first time, their experience with the Arabs was hardly 
a week old, they knew not a word of Arabic. There was no time to think, no chance 
to explain or even to be heard. We halted : then I rode on with George, the dragoman, 
towards the advancing horsemen, now coming on at full speed with their spears set. 
I yelled at the top of my voice "Your guests and unarmed" several times over, waving 
my arms to show that I was unarmed, as I always was among the Arabs ; but the 
others were armed, especially George and the soldier, who were conspicuously loaded 
down with cartridges. To my astonishment, the appeal seemed to make no impression, 
the Arabs continued their charge unchecked directly towards me, and for a moment 1 
began to lose my faith in Arab customs ; for I could see myself presently skewered 
upon a lance as upon a spit. It all took much less time than it does to tell it ; but 
just as their spears seemed to reach my horse's nose, the band parted, and in a second 
one group had surrounded me, while the other, reinforced by the riflemen, made a ring 
around us. Then pandemonium was let loose, everybody yelling excitedly. They 
dismounted, holding our horses fast ; but not a hand was laid upon us foreigners. 
They pulled the soldier from his horse, took his rifle and began to strip his cartridges 
from him : they jostled George a good deal ; but he kept his saddle. In the babel of 
sounds we could make out "Who are you"? "What are you doing here"? "Why do 
you come after us"? Then, as the shouts and excitement increased, and as the soldier's 
words seemed to be increasing their wrath, and just when our situation seemed at its 
worst, I looked toward the tents and saw a tall spare figure, all in white, mounted 
on a beautiful Arab horse, cantering easily up towards us. As he came near I recognized 
at once that this was some great person, about thirty-five years old, with beautiful, 
clear-cut features, and a soft dark beard and moustache : with his loose mantle floating 
behind him he made an impressive picture. Waving a long slender mediaeval hand, 
he shouted above the clamor "Peace, you dogs", and complete silence reigned at once. 
He rode directly up to me, saluting profoundly. He shook his head a little, as many 
Orientals do when asking a question, and simply said "Why"? "We are your guests," 
I replied, "we are smelling the air of your country, doing no harm". He smiled 
benignly and said: "I will explain. A few moments ago an outpost of my tribe, encamped 
on the edge of the plain, came running into my camp in great terror, saying that a 
band of raiders out of the southeast was pursuing them at top speed. Thinking that 
the raiders must be unfriendly Druses or soldiers, I ordered my young men to arm and 
ride out to meet the enemy ; for no one ever comes out of the southeast, and, as you 
probably know, no one ever rides fast in the desert who is not bent on mischief" 
this last with another engaging smile. In a few minutes George had explained our 
presence. I put in a plea for our soldier, saying that he had come with us to defend 
us from robbers and such, and directly the chief bade his men restore Mohammed's 
rifle and cartridges to hira, and then the ^Anazeh Shfekh invited us to repair to his 
tent for coff"ee. But we were already late, and when we explained that we must reach 
il-Feden before nightfall, the chief offered to accompany us part of the way. He and 
his son, a beautiful lad, rode with us for several miles and then bade us a most formal 
farewell. So ended our first encounter with the real Bedawin. 



The Expedition of 1909 87 

Well on in the afternoon we reached the railway line, and followed it northward, 
arriving at il-Fedfen at five o'clock. But here we received from a band of soldiers guarding 
the railway-tank the dreadful news that there was no water there, and that our camp 
had passed about noon and had gone on northward to Naslb, the first place where water 
was to be found, a journey which cost us seven hours more. We began to regret 
our excursion to Kos^r il-Hallab^t ; but, securing the service of a Bedawi from a little 
camp near by as guide, we started off. After a beautiful sunset darkness came on, and 
though the stars shone brightly the path was very dark. Often we could not follow 
the line of the railway, for the ground was too rough, and again and again we lost 
our way. I shall never forget that night. Often we seemed to be riding on the very 
edge of a yawning chasm. Our horses would stumble, and it would appear certain 
that some one of us must eventually be hurled into an abyss. It became very cold 
as the night wore on, and we tried walking and leading our horses ; but the path was 
impossibly rough, and we realized that our horses could see better than we. All were 
extremely fatigued and hungry. It seemed as if we should never arrive at camp : 
sometimes I believed that we had missed Naslb, and were miles past it. Finally, 
however, a little after midnight, we saw lights, then we heard dogs barking, and in a 
few minutes our much worried muleteers came running out with lanterns to guide us 
through the miserable village to our tents. Dinner had been waiting for hours, but 
it was hot and very welcome after a day of seventeen hours, mostly in the saddle and 
with only a light lunch. 

We remained in Nasib two days, securing camels to carry water for the journey 
to Koser il-Hallaba.t. The castle of Bosra, far away at the foot of the Djebel Hauran, 
was in plain view from our camp. Salkhad's castle on its cone-shaped base loomed 
up against the horizon. 

The second of our two days in Naslb was spent in an excurion to il-Umta'iyeh, 
in the course of which we passed through Sameh and near Umm is-Surab, all visited 
four years before. On the next day we set out with the camp for Kasr il-Ba"ik. 
South of Umm is-Surab we came upon a well preserved section of a Roman road that 
led from a fork at Kom il-Men^rah to il-Fedfen, and probably beyond to Djerash. 
A little farther on we reached Trajan's road from Bosra to the Red Sea, striking it 
below milestone No. XV, southwest of Kasr il-B^'ik. Here the road is almost perfectly 
preserved, for the locality does not suffer from unfavorable weather conditions and this 
region has been abandoned for many centuries ; for even while the pilgrimages passed 
through Bosra, their route south of the fork mentioned above lay to the west, through 
il-Fed6n. These sections of almost perfect road are six meters wide, with the usual 
raised curb on either side, and the "ridge-rib" in the middle. But it was here that we 
discovered that the finely fitted paving-blocks were not the actual road-bed, but were 
covered with a certain thickness of volcanic cinders under a layer of beaten clay, which 
provided a smooth and elastic footing for animals, as I have described more fully in 
the appendix to III, A, 2. We galloped easily over this road, where a motor-car 
would have found a good speedway, in a northeasterly direction and, passing milestone 
No. XIV reached No. XIII, where we turned a little to the north of east. 

Kasr il-BS.'ik is an interesting fortress, built, as we see it now, in the fifth century. 
As a military station it is probably much older. It crowns a commanding isolated hill. 
Our halt here was to be devoted chiefly to the further exploration of the Roman road 



88 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

and to the collection of the milestone inscriptions in the section of this road not traversed 
by P6re Germer-Durand, who had copied the inscriptions up to milestone No. XIV, and 
traveling northward from 'AmmAn had also copied all those extant up to No. XXIV 
from Bosra. Magie and I started southwest, leaving the camp. We found great 
numbers of inscribed milestones, and the copying of these consumed so much time 
that we got no further than milestone No. XX. This place we named Venti Miglie, 
and here we decided to pitch the camp next day. When we arrived at the tents we 
found our company in a flutter of excitement. Another band of the "Anazeh tribe of 
Bedawin, quite different from those whose acquaintance we had made, had passed near 
the camp in its migration, and one of the shekhs had paid a call. When the troop 
of camels and horses and horsemen and flocks had appeared on the horizon, the ser- 
vants had been thrown into a state of panic. For all the town-inhabiting natives of Syria, 
Aulad il-'Arab (Sons of the Arabs) as they call themselves, are much afraid of the Arabs 
who live in tents, and believe that rapine and murder are the chief occupation of 
their desert cousins. So our camp-people fell into a complete funk, resigning themselves 
to murder, the camp to pillage, and the animals to plunder. The dragoman was with 
us, so that his calming presence could not be felt. The head servant was one Joseph, 
not the fire-eating, fire-water-drinking Joseph of our two former expeditions, but another, 
a very "fearful man", who had tasted nothing but strong tea since he entered Bedawin 
country. His face was the color of ashes seen through green glass, I am told, as he 
informed our companions of the fate which awaited them, and he was annoyed that they 
neither took measures to defend themselves nor even wept at his sad prophecy. Barnes 
sat writing in the large tent. He needed some more paper or a pen, and he called 
to Joseph in colloquial English: "Joseph, can you get into the stationery -box" ? "I don't 
know. Sir; but I'll try", replied the grumbling son of the Arab, delighted that someone 
had at last begun to think of measures of safety, and preparing to squeeze himself 
into a box two feet by three by two. The main body of the host passed the tents 
a mile or more to the east ; but the Shekh, an aged man of distinguished appearance, 
came over to the camp and was offered coff^ee and sweets, which he accepted. He 
then asked for a laxative, saying that his stomach felt like a stone in the middle of 
his body. Thereupon Bell gave him a dozen cascara tablets with directions to take 
them all in one dose. He expressed his thanks and departed. So passed our second 
encounter with the real Arabs. 

On March 26th the camp was moved to milestone No. XX, as the next stage of 
our journey to Koser il-Hallabat. Early on the following day the caravan started on 
the last stage. Magie and I determined to go three more miles on the Roman road, 
expecting to overtake our friends who were traveling with the camp-caravan. At mile- 
stone No. XXI we found several inscriptions, which took more time to copy than we 
realized. We had no one with us. We looked longingly towards Numbers XXII and 
XXIII, realizing that there were only these two between us and the inscriptions copied 
by Pere Germer-Durand ; but we did not know the way and had no guide, and we 
felt that we must overtake the caravan. We started out at a brisk pace and soon 
found the footprints of our camp-animals. These we followed for some time, as long 
as they were visible ; but after a while we came upon a part of the desert so hard of 
surface that we were unable to find any tracks. Here we circled about for a few minutes, 
expecting to discover some sign, and then realized that we had entirely lost the trail. 



The Expedition of 1909 89 

We looked back to the last landmark and then at our compass, and judging what our 
direction should be from our map, made by the earlier expedition, started out, trusting 
in Providence. We never picked up the tracks again, but rode on into the limitless 
desert. A great flock of storks swinging in a circle high in the air attracted our 
attention. I knew this meant water, but did not dare swerve again from our chosen 
direction. Presently, however, we came to a number of large pools with hundreds of 
storks wading in them. Our caravan had missed this welcome find, but the Bedawin 
had not; for there were tracks of many camels and men. We watered our horses, 
and later sent our dragoman back to mark this spot ; for we were expecting to be 
obliged to send our camels all the way back to Nasib for water. About an hour after 
this we came upon some landmarks familiar to me from my first visit to the castle, on 
the direct line between it and Umm idj-Djimal. A little later we beheld the creamy 
walls shining in the afternoon sunlight. It had taken us a little over three hours to 
ride in a direct line from milestone No. XXI, and we recalled that we had left No. XXXI 
a few days before and reached the castle in a little over two hours. 

We found the camp pitched on the dry floor of a large reservoir, of horse- 
shoe shape, southwest of the castle. Here, safe from the winds and hidden from 
view, were gathered together our tents with all our belongings, horses, mules, donkeys 
and camels. Joseph prayed that the donkeys might not bray while we were there. 
From the twenty-seventh to the thirtieth of March we worked at the ruins. Thirty-five 
blocks containing fragments of the edict were found, in addition to the twenty-seven 
discovered on our first visit. This seemed a very great number, note-books were filled 
with closely written Greek, and we believed that we must have found almost all of it ; 
but there was no opportunity to piece the fragments together. We made the search 
as thorough as could be without elaborate excavation involving the clearing out of all 
of this part of the ruin ; for the edict had been written upon the wall of the castle- 
yard, and this wall had been taken down and rebuilt, and had later collapsed entirely. 
I made more detailed measurements of the mosque and of the bath in the valley below; 
but everybody was chiefly employed in making copies or squeezes of the inscriptions, 
while George directed the muleteers in the work of turning over stones. We had gone 
up to the castle very early in the morning of the second day, and Mohammed, the 
soldier, had gone up to the top of one of the five towers to watch. It was about 
eight o'clock when he signalled to me with a low whistle, and by signs asked me to 
bring my field-glasses. When I reached him he pointed to the southeast and said 
"Arabs"! I could see nothing with the naked eye; but the binoculars revealed a slight 
vibration on the horizon, which might have been caused by heat waves. But the day 
was rather cold, and as I continued looking through the glasses, watching the trembling 
line, I suddenly realized that for miles and miles it was formed by countless numbers 
of animals in steady motion. The 'Anazeh again ! I was not in the least prepared 
for the spectacle that was to be provided for us during the next few hours ; but I shall 
always remember it as one of the most impressive in my experience. The soldier 
cautioned us all to keep out of sight, within the walls of the castle. And the more 
we thought of it, the more we realized the value of his advice and our real danger. 
As the innumerable host swept towards us, we knew how dangerous it would be for 
any of us to be seen. The Arabs would be on the watch for their own safety : if they 
saw one of us they could not know how strong we were in numbers, and they would 

Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 12 



90 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

naturally think that our presence meant no good to them. They would organize for 
an assault, there would be no time for explanations, and they would begin firing as 
soon as they came within range. If we retired behind the walls after being seen, they 
would swarm over the walls, shoot the first man who showed his head and then search 
out the rest. We thought it best to take Mohammed's advice. I think it should be 
told to our credit that we went on making our copies and squeezes quite as if there 
was no danger in the air, every one of us wondering if some one of the mighty throng 
might not be drawn by curiosity to pay a visit to the castle. How fortunate it is, I 
have often thought, that the Arabs take so little interest in the antiquities of their land! 
I do not remember how long it took the first ranks to come abreast the castle, in 
straight lines drawn due east. It did not seem so very long, though the time probably 
seemed shorter than it really was. But when they approached, we were amazed beyond 
measure. The castle stands on the top of a hill, and as the western flank of the Arab 
hosts moved along at the very foot of the hill we could hear the men calling to one 
another. Beyond these a compact mass extended to the eastward as far as the eye 
could see, and field-glasses failed to discover the eastern flank, which must have been 
miles away. But of what did the host consist? Of camels, camels and more camels. 
Here and there were groups of men mounted on horses, here and there were horses 
without burdens, mares with foals, herds of goats, flocks of sheep, groups of men on 
foot, little knots of women and children ; but the vast mass that turned the gray desert 
to a dark brown was made up of camels. Camels with bells, camels with large packs, 
camels with folded tents, camels with housings full of women and children, camels with 
long poles on which chickens solemnly perched, mother-camels with baby-camels. Once 
in a while a black camel, now and then a white camel, here aged camels with hides 
which looked moth-eaten, there some gay young camels, still gray or white and woolly. 
One could not believe there were so many camels in all the world. The solid dark 
brown creeping stream, extending from a little below us, how far to the east one 
could not see, flowed steadily past the castle hour after hour, and it was not until four 
o'clock in the afternoon that the rear-guard went by, eight hours after we had first 
seen them, and it was over an hour more before the last of them disappeared over 
the hills in the direction of Umm idj-Djimal "The Mother of Camels"! Thus ended 
our third encounter with the real Arabs. 

It is not given to many Europeans to see an Arab tribe on the march. We had 
had this privilege : we had had it brought home to us, for the first time in our Hves, 
what the populousness of Arabia means ; for this was but a section of one of the many 
tribes all moving at this season. It made it possible to understand how, more than 
once in past history, Arabia has overflowed, to wipe out other races and civilizations, 
and to spread its seed afar. We might spend many another springtime here at this 
castle without witnessing a similar spectacle. It was an unusual season, and water was 
as sadly lacking this year as it had been abundant in 1904-5. On this account the 
Bedawin were forced much farther west. This tribe, which had just passed on its 
migration, had come from Kal'at Ezrak, far to the southeast, where they would have 
found water in a lake and pa.sture in the oasis around its banks. Ordinarily, they 
would have passed northward to the oases in the region of the Djebel Sfes, by a route 
on the east of the Djebel Hauran. But this year they were planning to pass up the 
plain called in-Nuljrah, the rich plain on the west of the Hauran Mountains, already 



The Expedition of 1909 91 

planted and growing ankle-deep with winter-sown wheat and barley for the early summer 
harvest. What havoc their passage was now to create in the smiling fields we were 
to see as an accomplished fact a few days later. 

Is-Summakiy^t was made our only camping-place on the way to Bosra. We saw 
the long drawn out line of black ruins which marked the site of Umm idj-Djimal on 
our right as we journeyed along, and resolved to return there on the following day; 
for there were four of the party who had heard much of, but never had beheld, the 
wonders of "The Mother of Camels". We found the people of is-Summakly^t in a 
pitiful state of mind. This village is situated on the border of the desert, at the 
southern end of the cultivated plain of the Hauran : it is the southernmost of the 
inhabited villages, and the inhabitants cultivate the fields that lie to the north of them, 
irrigating them from the W^di Butm when melting snows on the mountains fill the 
w^di with water. Now the 'Anazeh had come and gone, leaving not a trace of green 
in the fields, for the hungry camels had eaten every blade and spear down to the 
ground. The Bedawin had not attacked the village, so that the poor people still had 
the remains of the winter's straw in their barns and a little seed for replanting against 
the late harvest; but they would have to suffer bitterly meanwhile. The day spent at 
Umm idj-Djim^l was a very perfect one for our excursion. We did not intend to do 
much serious work there, and went en touriste. But as it often happens that when one 
is not looking for anything in particular he finds something of value, so now it happened 
that we found the Greek half of a Nabataean-Greek bilingual inscription, the other 
half of which had raised considerable discussion among scholars. This stone solved 
the problem. There it lay face down, with thousands of others looking just like it, 
having escaped the careful search of many days made by the former expedition and 
giving one more sign of the inexhaustibility of these ruins. There were only a few 
Bedawin, chiefly women, in the ruins, in charge of a few camels with very young ones, 
waiting to join the main body of the tribe at a later day. We noted, to our regret, 
that the Druses of the Djebel Hauran had been active recently in the ruins, having 
scratched their names on the portals of many of the large buildings. The Arabs told 
us that the Druses had divided the ruin among themselves, but whether for destruction, 
or for building purposes, or for future settlement, they could not tell us. 

On our way back to camp we encountered a cavalcade of Arabs, a lot of handsome 
youths with one older man. They were particularly effusive in their salutations, laughing 
and smiling at us as they passed the time of day, and showing their white and beautiful 
teeth. One, who was wearing a pair of fine red slippers, told us that if we found a 
silk kafflyeh, or kerchief, in the road, to keep it, as it belonged to him. At the camp 
we found terror and dismay reigning. Two muleteers came out to tell us that the camp 
had been raided and that nothing whatever remained but the tents. The cook came 
from behind a native hen-coop, bewailing our terrible plight, and Joseph presently put 
in an appearance, looking almost happy, and telling us that he had saved his life by 
burying himself in a room full of tibn, or chopped straw. 

The situation looked serious, and we had little doubt that our very cordial and 
smiling friends of half an hour before had been the perpetrators of the shocking deed. 
We dismounted to look over the camp and to see what had been left to us, but were 
astonished to find that things looked about as they had when we left. After a careful 
taking of stock we found that the terrible raid had deprived us of the following : 



93 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

two dozen oranges from a box in the dining-tent, a revolver which Magie had left on 
the top of his hold-all, a pair of new red slippers from under my cot on the cot 
lay a neatly folded kaffiyeh a roast leg of lamb from the kitchen, and a form of 
caramel pudding which had been left to cool in the open. Dinner was delayed a 
whole hour. The muleteer Rashtd, who with one other, apparently, had been the only 
ones of all our attendants not to flee, and who had watched the proceedings from a 
point not very far away, told us that the boys laughed and joked as they performed 
their wicked deed, but that an older man among them was doing his best to control 
them, saying it was a shame to treat visitors so badly. 

We were amazed. Our camp had been entirely at the mercy of these young 
Arabs, who are responsible to no one but themselves, and who know no law but the 
law of the desert : they could have robbed us of much that was invaluable to us 
and that would have had decided value for them, our bedding, our rugs, our warm 
clothing, our stores of food, our animals, and a good many little objects of one kind 
or another, to say nothing of a light iron box containing our money, which one blow 
from the butt of a gun would have broken open. They had taken a revolver exposed 
to plain view, and no Arab could be expected to resist temptation where fire-arms are 
concerned : they had regaled themselves with the roast mutton, the pudding and the 
oranges, and had left a silk kaffiyeh in place of my red slippers. Would a crowd of 
roistering school-boys in our own country treat an unprotected summer camp more 
considerately? Thus ended our fourth encounter with the real Arabs. 

On the way to Bosra on April ist we rode over miles of fields that had been 
stripped by the passing Bedawin. We had seen the same fields from Nasib, green 
and promising, a few days before : now they looked as if fire or a pest of locusts had 
passed over them. We spent the second and third of April in Bosra, preparing for 
our rapid trip to KanawS.t and Sf, and for the final part of our journey, that in the 
Ledja. We were heartily welcomed by our old friends the Mudir and the Commandant, 
and by all the people of Bosra for that matter. From the Commandant we learned 
much about the unexpected march of the 'Anazeh through the plain of the Haurcln, and 
of the terrible damage done to the crops. He had sent out several military expeditions 
against them, and his men had returned triumphant, bringing some hundred odd camels 
with them. This apparently had satisfied the Bostrians, though we soon learned that the 
district had far too few soldiers to put up any resistance against the advancing hordes, 
and that the booty of a hundred camels was not the result of "harassing the enemy 
in retreat", but of weakly attacking the rear of a triumphant invasion. Bosra had 
suffered comparatively little. 

The Mudir gave us a fine dinner one evening, inviting all the local nabobs to 
meet us and eat after us. Some of the members of our party had their first experience 
of sitting at meat on the floor and dipping with others in one dish, and they found 
themselves a little stiff in the legs when the time came to rise. But all the while I 
was conscious of an uneasiness on the part of our host and fellow-guests, and now and 
then messengers came in and whispered to the great man, who looked troubled and 
careworn. The next morning, however, we found him and his fifteen or twenty sons 
quite well, when we called to "pay our party call" and take final leave; and it was 
not until several days later that we learned the reason for his look of care. 

It was a long day's journey from ancient Bostra to Kanatha, as Kanawat was 



The Expedition of 1909 93 

called in classical times. Our camp was pitched on high ground on the opposite side 
of the ravine from the village and the imposing ruins. As we sat before our tents 
late in the afternoon, watching the western sky illumine the splendid columns of the 
two temples, I wondered why there were so few men about, and why, of all our friends, 
the high religious dignitary was the only one to pay us a welcoming call ; and he had 
seemed to be worried and ill at ease, taking his leave very soon after a formal visit. 
We began work early on the following morning, some going with a band of muleteers 
to do a little excavating at Sf , only half an hour away, others remaining to visit the 
ruins of Kanaw^t. 

Barnes with his architect's eye had caught sight of the temple of Zeus, and sketch- 
book in hand made straight for that fine ruin and began to explore it. The natives 
had removed some of the fallen blocks of stone that for centuries had filled the interior, 
and as a result of this Barnes made the important discovery that the cella had been 
divided by two rows of columns, which with the exedra and side-chambers at the far 
end of the building gave the temple the plan of an early Syrian church. At Si' we 
were once more proving the inexhaustible richness of the temple-precinct, finding more 
new inscriptions, architectural details and sculptures. Among the first were a Naba- 
taean inscription on an altar-pedestal dated in the 33''^ year of the reign of Philip the 
Tetrarch, A. D. 29/30, and the Greek-Nabataean inscription mentioned above on page 22. 
Among the last was a relief of the cult of Mithra in a perfect state of preservation. 

Soon after our return to camp a group of men, old friends of mine, approached 
from the village. They greeted us warmly, but explained excitedly: "For three days 
we watched your tents, waiting for you to leave Bosra, for we knew you would come 
here. As you left the town by the north we entered it from the east. We have 
burned the place, all the bazaars and every house. We have killed many of the men 
and driven the rest, with the women and children, into the castle : we are all unharmed, 
for the soldiers were away chasing the 'Anazeh : surely God is with us". 1 wonder 
why it is that savage and semi-savage people always insist that God is with them 
whenever they have succeeded in killing a number of their fellow-men, rather than at 
other times. May it not be that it is because they are particularly well aware at such 
times, deep down inside them, that God has turned his back upon them and they are 
trying to brazen it out? I could not be jubilant; for I had many good friends in 
Bosra, and I knew that these other friends, if all they had said was true, were getting 
themselves into very hot water. I assumed, as well as I could, the stolid look of an 
Oriental, and asked "But why"? Then came a long story, the first part of which I already 
knew. There had been for generations a feud between the Druses of the Mountain 
and the Hawarneh of the Plain of which Bosra was the head and center. A strip of 
country two or three miles wide and many miles long had been made dead land between 
the two foes, and no man dared enter it. It was arable, it was being wasted, and the 
Druses, after years of peace, decided to attempt to establish a line-boundary with the 
Hawarneh, dividing the neutral land between the two peoples. Having sent and received 
Bedawin messengers to and from Bo.sra, they had sent an embassy of their own shfekhs 
to the city. The embassy had been well received, feted and feasted : they had settled, 
as they thought, the matter of the boundary, and they had set out on their homeward 
journey well satisfied with the outcome of their mission But when they were only a 
few miles on the road they were overtaken by a band of horsemen from Bosra, 



94 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

attacked and beaten, two of the ambassadors had been killed, and the rest had barely 
escaped to tell the tale. This at least was the Druses' side of the case. I was 
genuinely disturbed, and asked very gravely: "Why did you not complain to the Go- 
vernor of Damascus, Nazim Pasha, who is a good man and a friend of mine, rather 
than take the matter into your own hands and make war"? They asserted that they 
had appealed to various governors of Syria again and again without success, their 
petitions were not heeded and their wrongs were not redressed, because they insisted 
upon maintaining their independence. I remarked that I was sorry I had not arrived 
earlier, and that I might have undertaken to write to the Governor in their behalf. 
Some of the older men warmed at once to this suggestion ; for they were already 
realizing how serious their situation might yet prove to be. For Nazim Pasha was a 
mighty man. No governor had ever ruled Syria so well, none had ever been so success- 
ful in keeping the Arabs in their place, and never had the pilgrimage to Mecca been 
so safe. And he had never disturbed the Druses during his long term of office, because 
they had behaved themselves. Now that they had precipitated a war outside their 
long-established borders, it was quite possible that he might undertake repressive measures 
against them, and with greater success than his predecessors had done. They asked 
me if I would write now, and I answered that I would not only write, but would go 
to Damascus to present their case in person. It was thereupon arranged that they 
should return with other responsible men, shfekhs of their people, and that together we 
should compose a letter in duplicate, in Arabic and French. 

The following day, a deputation of important Druses arrived at the tents. They 
manifested the greatest interest in this new proposal, and showed genuine gratitude 
that an outsider should interest himself in their welfare. It seemed difficult for them 
to believe that a person with any influence should strive to use it for the benefit of 
others, and tears shone in the eyes of some of these hardy warlike chiefs, as they said 
I was their father and their brother. The letter was finally composed and agreed to 
by all. It rehearsed the story of their desire to establish a boundary-line, of their 
embassy to Bosra, and of the treachery of the Bostrians. It admitted misdirected zeal 
in their chastisement of the offenders, and craved pardon of his Excellency for having 
disturbed the peace of his province and for not having brought their case to him before 
they took action, and closed with the expression of their desire to have him send a 
commission to investigate the questions at issue, and to attempt a settlement of all 
differences. This was written in Arabic with a French translation, so that the Goverjior 
would know that I understood the contents, and it was accompanied by a brief letter 
of my own, saying that I had investigated the case as far as I could, and believed 
the report to be true in its main points. The shekhs left much relieved and hopeful. 

On the sixth of April we set out on our long-planned trip to the Ledja with 
many sites as yet unvisited by Europeans. But there were several places in the northern 
end of the Djebel Haur^n and on the borders of the lava-fields that remained to be 
visited on the way. Accordingly, we rode first to Der Smedj, not half an hour from 
Kanawat, where there is a sacred temenos of the best Roman period, quite hidden 
among young oak trees and thick shrubbery. We measured and examined the ruins, 
took lunch, and rnoved to a most picturesque ruin on the top of a conical hill, rising 
above a small village called il-Mef'aleh. A ruin of this type invariably raised in us 
hopes of discovering a second Sf, and therefore we were disappointed to find only a 



The Expedition of 1909 95 

crude castle-like building standing on the side of an extinct crater which had within 
it a small lake. 

While making our way to camp at Brfekeh, just within the Ledja, we passed a 
wonderful ruin at a place called Slfem, where I recognized the original of a photograph 
that I had seen among those taken by an enterprising photographer in Beirut. I knew 
that the building had not been published, and we resolved to return here on the fol- 
lowing day. Therefore we entered the great lava-field late in the day, by an opening 
in its south end made for an ancient Roman road. We spent the night at Brekeh 
and returned to Sl6m in the morning, without having become acquainted with the real 
nature of the country into which we had moved. On the way to Slem we stopped 
at a ruin called Tell id-Dibbeh, on a small plateau girt about with a wall that may be 
of prehistoric origin and having a good spring at its foot. There were no remains 
here of later days. We spent most of the day in Slfem, studying the ruins of the very 
remarkable temple and copying inscriptions. It was cold and windy all day, and we 
were glad to get back to the camp at Brfekeh. This is a rather small village of the 
Druses on the site of an ancient town. Most of the ancient remains here have been 
broken up for building purposes, either in the Middle Ages, or recently by the present 
inhabitants. The only ruin that preserves any of its original character is that of a 
small temple of the late Roman period, which seems to have been used as a mosque 
at one time. From Brekeh we made excursions to D6r il-Leben, on the edge of the 
lava-fields, and Djdiyeh towards the northwest. The former is a deserted early Christian 
ruin of little importance, serving now as a quarry : the latter is a disappointing place, 
inhabited by a small colony of Druses, showing a few ancient buildings of the poorer 
class and offering a small number of inscriptions. 

The time had now come when one of our number, Morgan, was obliged to leave 
us in order to catch a steamer at Beirut and to keep appointments in Europe. I had 
business to attend to in Damascus, and accordingly on the ninth of April, Good Friday, 
Morgan and I, with the Shekh of Nedjran acting as our guide and with a single 
groom, set out for the nearest station on the Mecca railway, a few miles below Zor'ah. 
The day of our departure turned out to be the worst of the season, as far as weather 
conditions were concerned. Snow and sleet began falling before we set out at dawn, 
and we made our thirty-mile journey under the most uncomfortable conditions imagin- 
able. Our guide was a strange and interesting figure, a tall slender man with sandy 
hair, a long pointed red beard, and a complexion to match. His type was distinctly 
like that of an Irishman or Scotchman, yet, in his farweh a huge mantle lined with 
sheepskin and with the high white head-band which signified that he was one of 
the initiated Druses, he looked like anything but a Celt. Perched upon his high saddle 
he faced for hours, without flinching, the bitter northwest gale bringing a bUnding storm 
of sleet and snow. We arrived, nearly frozen and more nearly dead than alive, at 
the little lonely shack which served as a station on the railway, and arranged with the 
single official there to flag the evening train. Then the Shfekh and our groom started 
for the nearest village on their return trip to camp, taking our horses with them. Two 
large cups of milk, heated over a brazier, to which the station-master added some 
sugar making it necessary for us to add some whiskey, did much to restore us to 
life. When the "express" arrived we rejoiced to see that there was one first class 
compartment. This was empty, and we desired the use of it. The guard looked at 



g/6 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

us suspiciously ; for I confess we did not have the appearance of ever having ridden 
above third class. His palm readily yielded to treatment, however, and we presently 
found ourselves in a compartment which I am sure had not been unlocked for months, 
if ever before, except for cleaning purposes ; for it was spick and span and as fresh 
as new. Here we divested ourselves of our drenched clothing and made an effort to 
make ourselves more presentable, respectable at least, against our arrival in the capital 
of Syria. 

We found Damascus cold and rainy and muddy ; but the well-protected bazaars, 
miles in length, provided a lively and merry scene. The camel bearing the sacred 
carpet of the pilgrimage had just started with many accompanying pilgrims for Mecca, 
and the children of Damascus were holding a sort of miniature pilgrimage in the long 
bazaars. Camels with housings for several children, together with horses, mules and 
donkeys, were there in large numbers : their owners were shouting for passengers, and 
for a metallik apiece the boys and girls, dressed in their very best, could ride from one 
end of the bazaar to the other and back again. I went to the bank for money and 
to the consulate for letters : then I repaired to the Ser^ya to interview his Excellency 
Nazim Pasha, the Governor General of Syria. The Governor, who had rebuked me 
ten years before for having been in the forbidden territory of the Druses, now asked 
no embarrassing questions as to how I had reached the country and, as soon as I 
made known the purpose of my visit to him, he manifested the deepest interest in the 
case, and seemed very glad to see an unprejudiced observer of the situation, who 
seemed to have some familiarity with the Druses. He had received the letter and was 
about to make arrangements for a conference between a commission of his sending 
and one made up of responsible Druse sh6khs, to be held at the barracks at Suweda 
in the plain just below the western border of the HaurS^n Mountains. He asked me 
to urge the shekhs to go to this meeting, and to assure them, on his given word, 
that amnesty would be granted for the purpose to all of the rebel shekhs, and that 
the meeting would not be made an occasion for reprisals. 

As Morgan was to take a later train on the line to Beirut, I regretfully took 
leave of him and started, by an early train, for the little station on the Mecca line I 
had left two days before. The railway journey was uneventful ; but this time I was 
obliged to ride third class. The journey on horseback was in strong contrast to that 
of Good Friday ; for Easter was a glorious spring day. I found that the camp had 
been moved and was pitched at Nedjran, a few miles nearer the railway. Nedjr^n is 
a Druse village of fair size on a ancient site of no great importance, to judge by the 
ruins. On the day after my return, April 1 2'h, we traveled back over the road to 
Brfekeh, through the unimportant ruin of Mebna il-Bet, to Rimet il-Luhf on the south 
edge of the Ledja. The latter is a Druse village of fair size, with fragments of ancient 
walls and several arches incorporated in modern buildings, and a fine example of a 
detached tomb in a nearly perfect state of preservation, even its stone doors still 
swinging on their pivot-and-socket hinges. The next day the camp was moved to 
Sm^d, well to the northeast and not far from the heart of the Ledja. Our journey 
took us eastward from Nedjran in half an hour to Der il-Asmar, a rather poor ruin 
of early Christian times, and eastward again to the ruins of a prehistoric fortified hill 
called Umm il-'Alak in twenty minutes, then toward the northeast for twenty-five 
minutes to Beshm, a ruin of little interest, then almost due north for an hour and a 



The Expedition of 1909 97 

quarter to the village of il-'Ahireh, at which we did not stop, completing our journey 
to Smed in another hour and twenty-five minutes. This was our first journey into the 
heart of the Ledja, and on this day, for the first time, we realized the true character 
of the country into which we had come. Near the foot of the Djebel Hauran, in the 
region of the ruins and villages where we had been working, the country is only a 
little more stony and more broken up by fields and streams of lava than it is on the 
mountain slopes. But as soon as we penetrated into the interior of this great lava- 
field we found ourselves in a country the face of which could hardly be matched in 
the worst of evil dreams. Here the Mer de Glace, with its ridges, its fissures and 
its confused moraines, is reproduced in black lava ; but here, to all the unevenness of 
surface which characterizes that icy sea are added strange phenomena which greatly 
increase the weird effects. In one place the lava appears to be rushing along like a 
turbulent torrent, in waves of greater or less regularity, in another the stream seems 
to have been arrested in its course to break into whirlpools and eddies, backing 
up and tossing this way and that, hurling huge hardened lumps of its own substance 
in all directions. Here and there it spreads out into level pools, in which great bubbles 
were formed, no doubt by pressure of steam from below. These bubbles are as large 
as houses : some of them are round and once formed great domes which stiffened and 
then exploded, blowing off their tops, while others are long, Hke the hull of a ship 
capsized and blown open along its keel from stem to stern. These bubbles form the 
only high points in the region, except a few small volcanoes like that above il-'Ahireh, 
which forced themselves upward through the seething mass. From the tops of these 
higher points one looks over the tossing sea of black lava, frozen, as if in an instant, 
into the hardest basalt. But here and there the flowing currents of lava and the 
eddies have spared little level patches, which represent either the level of the plain or 
the valleys in the waves that have partly filled up during thousands of years ; for they 
have soil in them, rich red fine-grained soil, and these have made the Ledja habitable 
for a hundred generations. These little patches produce rich harvests of grain, some 
of them are planted in olive trees, and it is reported that forests of chestnut were 
once to be seen here. One observes that every ancient town, as well as the modern 
villages which have replaced a number of them, is situated near a group of these 
fertile patches of soil -, but there are vast tracts where there is no soil whatever, and 
consequently no settlements ancient or modern. It will readily be imagined what it 
means to travel in a region like this. I believe that it would be absolutely impossible 
to make progress of more than four or five miles in a day in a given direction, even 
on foot, except by the paths which the ancients made, and which the modern natives 
follow even though they do not keep them in good repair, as their predecessors 
undoubtedly did. 

Il-'^Ahireh had been visited by former explorers, and a small number of inscriptions 
had been copied there. We noticed architectural fragments, built into the modern 
houses, which probably belonged to a temple of medium size. We found at Sm6d a 
fairly large village of Druses, erected on an ancient site upon the crest of a huge 
stream of lava. Within five minutes' walk is "Old Smed", a group of ancient dwellings 
that have been plundered for building-materials. The Shekh of Sm^d and all the 
other inhabitants were extremely cordial, and permitted us to examine and even to 
enter a small building used Dy them as a sort of shrine, in which we found numerous 

Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 1 3 



98 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

inscriptions. On the day following our arrival, April 14th, we visited the Shekh in his 
medafeh, where we had coffee and sweets, and listened to some native music. We 
then rode half an hour south-southeast to a very poor ruin called Burd, and passed on 
eastward for twenty-five minutes to a Druse village and ruin known as Mdjedil, where 
the whole population joined us in the search for inscriptions. Our search was well 
rewarded ; for the inscriptions were many and of unusual interest, and hitherto unknown. 
The ancient ruin was a large one, but no individual buildings could be recognized. 
Some interesting fragments of sculpture were discovered, including a torso of Athena 
wearing the aegis, and an eagle. At this place we noticed remains of a well-made 
Roman road on two sides of the town. At the north end the road bears towards the 
northwest : at the south end it takes a southerly direction. This is perhaps a part of 
the great Roman highway which is shown on Wetzstein's map, and of which we had 
seen remnants near Brekeh. We reached our camp at Smed after sunset. 

The following morning found us making a short journey to the northwest, to 
Wakm, a small Druse village occupying an ancient site, with several buildings of the 
early Christian period, very well preserved, and a number of good inscriptions. East 
of north from Wakm, and only fifteen minutes distant, is the ruin called Khureb^t, 
where there are a few remains of a pagan temple. We were informed that there were 
neither villages nor ruins for a long distance to the northwest, north and northeast of 
these two ruins, and indeed from the highest points about we could see only a tossing 
sea of lava. One native, however, said that an ancient road crossed the region in a 
northwesterly direction : this may be the Roman road again. We returned to Wakm 
and set out in a direction east of south to Kharsa, a ruin and village through which 
I had passed in 1905. Most of the population had gone with a wedding procession 
to Smed, whither we also presently betook ourselves. 

On Friday the i6th the camp was moved to a new base of operations, to Lubben, 
which is a little to the southwest of the center of the Ledja. In the morning we 
passed through Kharsa again, and rode through Der il-Barrani, a poor Christian ruin 
on the top of a small crater, and idj-Dj^dj, a still less interesting ruin, then to Djren, 
where we took lunch with the Sh6kh. Djren, which was once called Lubbfen, is an 
imposing ruin by reason of its two high towers ; but it is rather disappointing at close 
sight, because it preserves little else besides these two striking monuments. The place . 
is inhabited by a few families of Druses. Their shekh, who lives in an ancient house, 
the entrance to the courtyard of which is through a double-arched vestibule in -the 
ground-floor of one of the towers, provided us with a delicious luncheon, showed us 
all the old buildings and every scrap of ancient writing that he knew, and then set 
us on our way to the present Lubb&n, where the camp had arrived several hours before. 

The ruins of Lubben are rich in ancient buildings of the best period of early 
Christian times in Southern Syria. They include a large chuich only slightly damaged 
by earthquakes, a smaller church in a very nearly perfect condition, which is used by 
the Shfekh as his medafeh, and many ruined houses of the better class, besides numerous 
inscriptions. Shekh Shahln Djemal il-Mhethawi (?) is a fine representative of the Druse 
shSkhs. His large family of brothers are splendid types of their class, and his children 
are delightful little people. He was most effusive in his welcome : he had heard all 
about my letter and my self-appointed mission to the Governor General at Damascus, 
and informed me that I should hear presently good news of the results. On the day 



The Expedition of 1909 99 

after our arrival at Lubb^n we spent the morning among the antiquities of the place 
and the afternoon in making an excursion to Harran, where there are a few ancient 
buildings of interest and a number of inscriptions in the midst of the buildings of a 
modern Druse village. The next day, Sunday, was spent in camp and among the ruins 
of Lubb^n. 

On Monday the 19th the camp was sent by a direct route to Sfir, almost due 
west, while we made an excursion to ruins in the southwestern part of the Ledja. 
With this move we passed out of the Druse country and into the land of the Bedawin, 
under the guidance of an aged Druse. A long ride to the southwest over very rough 
country brought us to Ms^keh, a most interesting deserted ruin where there were many 
hours of work in measuring buildings and copying inscriptions. There was no sign of 
inhabitants, and we went about our task in the peace and comfort that only deserted 
ruins aiford. But while Magie was at work on an inscription in a sequestered part of 
the ruin, and the rest of us, men and horses, were gathered in the ruined mosque 
preparing for lunch, he was surprised by a Bedawi leaping over the wall and brandishing 
a large club. A prompt call brought the dragoman to his assistance with a rifle. The 
poor native, when he had been calmed by hearing a few words in his own tongue, 
explained that he had been in search of a stray sheep and, without having seen any 
sign of human beings in the vicinity, had leaped over a wall to find a creature in 
strange garb mysteriously examining a written stone. He took this creature for a 
djinn and, being unable to retreat, had thought best to attack him, fully expecting to 
be killed. We turned to the northwest on leaving Msekeh and came to il-Uber, a 
large ruined monastery with a church near it, both well preserved and of a good period. 
It was already growing late when we finished our work at this place and set out in 
the direction of Stir, where our camp was to be. The country was indescribably rough, 
so that we were never able to hold to our direct course for more than a few minutes 
at one time. We zig-zagged back and forth in attempts to discover a passage through 
the maze of lava-streams, often being obliged to turn back and retrace our steps. 
Night finally came on, and our old guide was helpless. We floundered hopelessly 
about for hours, it seemed, until at last we caught sight of a group of lights set high 
in the air a long distance off. We knew by long experience that these were the 
signal-lights of our camp. We then dismounted, leaving our horses with the grooms 
to wait for daylight in a field at the bottom of a bowl in the lava, and set out across 
country in the direction of the lights, helped on by the bright stars. Climbing, leaping, 
stumbling, falling, over lava-floes and rifts, mounting ridges and descending into the 
troughs between waves of lava, twisting ankles and barking shins, we scrambled on, 
to reach our tents in an exhausted condition, but very ready for hot lentil soup and 
steaming chicken and rice. 

The next day it rained, and we remained most of the time in our tents, writing 
up our notes, receiving a call from the Bedawin Sh^kh, and going out only to return 
his call. In a large tent in the midst of a group of these simple abodes we found 
the Shekh at home. Though living in a practically fixed abode, he scorned to live in 
a house. We were astonished to see the degree of cleanliness and comfort maintained 
in this simple dwelling in spite of the wind and rain outside. The Shekh was a hand- 
some person to look upon. His clear-cut features, deep mild eyes and charming expression 
showed him a true son of the desert. His manner was dignified and gracious withal : 



lOO Division I Geography and Itinerary 

he was hospitality itself. He offered to guide us to any ruins inhabited by Bedawin 
that we might choose to visit. The ruins of Sfir are more than usually interesting. 
Just to the north of the principal group is a detached ruin consisting of a large temenos 
enclosed by a high wall, and having a temple of unmistakably Nabataean origin 
within it. We found no Nabataean inscriptions in the ruins, but discovered several in 
Greek, one of them dated in the twentieth year of King Agrippa, A. D. 75 or 80. 
The remains of ancient domestic architecture in the main part of the ruins show that 
Sur was an early settlement of the better class. 

After three days of rain and wind the weather became fair and mild, and we were 
ready to resume our explorations. Our promised guide happened to be absent that 
morning, and we set forth by ourselves, to our sorrow as we were soon to learn. We 
rode first to Djedil, a large and extensive ruin of ancient origin that had been a town 
of some importance during the Middle Ages, for there are two deserted mosques there. 
Our visit was a disastrous failure. A group of Bedawin appeared upon the scene the 
moment we entered the ruins and ordered us to be off at once. When we attempted 
to explain that we meant no harm and desired only to see the ruins, they refused to 
listen and offered threats. When we went about our work, they became enraged and 
began to hurl large stones at us by means of slings, the largest I have ever seen. 
One of the men, more violent than the rest, pointed a gun at us, threatening to fire 
if we did not depart. Personally, I think that the poor creatures were greatly terrified, 
believing us to be sorcerers. Nor do I believe that they would have actually attacked 
us ; for all their sling-stones fell short, and the man who persisted in aiming his gun in 
our direction fortunately did not fire it off. One very old man approached me privately 
and assured me that the others would not harm us; but, protesting his horror at 
the inhospitality of our reception, he urged our speedy departure. We found, after a 
while, that work carried on under a fire of sling-stones, even though the stones fell a 
few feet short, was far from satisfactory. So we soon made off to Djisreh, due north 
of Djedil ; but, finding this a very unimportant little group of ruins, we turned toward 
the southwest in the direction of two conspicuous ruins, called Zebir and Zubaiyir 
respectively, situated near together on the crest of a lava-stream. Zubaiyir was deserted, 
and we entered the ruins in peace and began our work ; but presently a band of 
Bedawin, whose tents were pitched in Zebir, arrived to drive us out. Here again the 
attitude of the Arabs was threatening ; but they did not actually resort to force. When 
Barnes, for lack of anything to do, put on a pair of spectacles and, seating himself, 
opened a book and began to read, the terror of the Bedawin knew no bounds. They 
naturally saw in this act the prelude to some performance of sorcery and entreated 
us to leave. The place was found to be uninteresting in spite of its imposing looks, 
and we remounted and set out in the direction of Zebir. Then the rage and terror 
of the natives burst forth afresh in a real demonstration of hostility. In Zebir were 
their homes and their families, and they said that if we ventured near the place they 
would shoot us to a man. We were tired of combatting superstition and of forcing 
ourselves upon unfriendly natives, and therefore turned our horses toward our own 
tents, not greatly disappointed, and reflecting that the inscriptions of both places had 
been copied by former travelers when the ruins were wholly deserted, and that no 
mention of important buildings had been made by the earlier visitors. As we departed 
I felt that a sense of relief was shared equally by would-be guests and would-not-be 



The Expedition of 1909 lOi 

hosts. The afternoon was still young when we drew near to SCir, and we decided to 
push on to il-'Asim to the southeast a ruin with a high tower in plain view from our 
tents. We found it a small and unimportant, but very picturesque, ruin, and after a 
short stay we reached camp well before sundown. 

We now planned a long expedition to the northern part of the Ledja, and were 
anxious to start out directly towards the northeast into unexplored country; but, though 
we made inquiries of many different men, we found it quite impossible to travel beyond 
Djisreh, and in consequence we were obliged to make a long detour by a path that 
leads along the western side of the Ledja, to establish our camp somewhere upon its 
course, and then make separate excursions into the interior. The camp-animals consumed 
the better part of a day in reaching Krem, about ten miles to the north of SCir. We 
passed through the ruins of Mlfehah and 'Aib, pausing in each place long enough to 
discover that each was a poor and unimportant place, and arrived at Krfem in time 
to observe that the ruin in which our camp was fixed was only a group of ancient 
houses of the poorer class. We had been escorted hither by our friend, the Bedawin 
shekh, and a member of his family had accompanied the camp. We were not Hkely 
to attempt to visit any more ruins occupied by Bedawin without being properly introduced. 

On the morning of April 25th we started out from Krem on our first excursion, 
riding out of the Ledja for a short distance only to reenter it again below a ruined 
castle-like structure called Kal'at Esma', set on an eminence above a sort of natural 
gateway in the wall of lava. From this place we went in a northeasterly direction 
and came to Sha'^rah, one of the most important sites in the Ledja. The place is 
now quite deserted; but there is much above ground to show that it was once a real 
city, not very large but having paved and colonnaded streets, one or more temples, 
a fine bath and a huge kh^n, in addition to a large number of residences. Unfortu- 
nately, Sha'^rah retained its importance until some time in the Middle Ages ; for its 
temples were destroyed to build two mosques, and the colonnades of its streets were 
thrown down and used in the erection of defenses. Only the bath remaines in a fair 
state of preservation, and old inscriptions still abound, crudely set in the walls of much 
later buildings. 

Our second expedition was begun at dawn on the following day. Once more we 
left the Ledja, this time to skirt it for a while, until we were near the barracks of 
Mismiyeh. Avoiding these, we reentered the lava-fields and, under the guidance of the 
Shekh, made straight for a ruin known by the name of Taff. I hope I shall never 
again meet with a reception like that which was accorded us by the citizens of Taff. 
As we came near the small group of ruins with a few most wretched tents beside them, 
we were met by a crowd of ragged, starving, wild-eyed specimens of humanity, who 
hailed us with shrieks and yells and barking. Some of them beat their heads and breasts, 
while others picked up stones and hurled them without accurate aim in our direction. 
Some flew wildly toward the tents, only to return with wilder cries. Not one was armed 
with sling or gun; but they were terrifying enough unarmed. Our guide hastened to 
explain that these creatures were all insane : that Taff" was a sort of farm for the insane, 
a place where people brought their mad relatives, leaving them to shift for them- 
selves. Some of them, he said, could work, others herded a few goats; but all must 
remain here or wander forth to die in the desert. He added that he could control 
them while we went about our work. 



I02 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

We left our horses in a protected spot and set out to search for inscriptions and 
to examine buildings ; but I soon found that the drama being enacted in the open was 
far more interesting than Taff architecture, and I placed myself in a position where I 
could see without being seen, just as the most exciting act was about to begin. The 
scene was like one of those described in the New Testament, in which those possessed 
of evil spirits are described as living in the tombs. These poor possessed ones had 
returned to their tents, where they had collected reinforcements, and were now coming 
out again in force, howling and gesticulating. When they drew near, our Shekh, who 
was waiting for them, mounted a low wall and began to call out the name of God in 
thundering tones. For a time this seemed to make no impression whatever, but 
his calling upon Allah finally began to quiet the mob. When at length he had 
secured comparative quiet, he began a remarkable oration in which, among other 
things, he said: "Here I am, come, kill me if you will, I am your relative, but, what- 
ever you do, spare my friends and guests". He had laid aside his arms and made a 
fine show of bravery in front of the excited crowd, and this had its effect upon the 
poor shattered minds of his hearers. The sacred relationship of host to guest is, I 
imagine, the last thing to be forgotten by the true Arab, unless his mind is preoccupied 
by superstitious fears of sorcery, as were the minds of the men of Djisreh and Zebir 
the other day. But we were now vouched for by a great man of their own kin, and 
his appeal to this time-honored sentiment worked almost like magic. The howling 
ceased, though a few of the very mad ones continued to moan and beat themselves. 
Two or three simple imbeciles came towards the Shekh with weak smiles and the manner 
of a dog that has barked frantically at a stranger, and at the words "good doggie" 
comes cringing forward with hanging head and tail between his legs. I joined the Shekh 
and heard him speak almost caressingly to these poor wretches. Presently we prepared 
to depart, and the now friendly ones among the denizens of Taff inquired where we 
might be going. We answered "To Sahr", to which they replied in terrified accents: 
"The people of Sahr will surely kill you, they are the worst in the world". We took 
this with a grain of salt and set out across a most dismal waste, towards a ruin which, 
according to our guide, was full of writings and pictures in stone. We had just come 
within sight of the ruins when there appeared on the crest of a long sloping lava- 
stream a band of most villainous-looking Arabs, shouting a war-song and brandishing 
their guns to show that they were well armed. Before we could collect our thoughts 
they had begun a charge and came rushing headlong down the slope, to the accom- 
paniment of a wild battle-cry. Our Sh6kh dismounted and, leaving his horse with our 
groom, ran at top speed toward the charging Arabs. When the distance between 
them was reduced to about a hundred paces, the charging band and the single champion 
stopped short for an instant, and then rushed on toward each other again with doubled 
speed, the Arabs having changed their cry. In an instant the clash had come. I was 
watching through my field-glass, and saw them meet. Our Shekh was overwhelmed 
in an instant, not with blows but with kisses ; for he was embraced in Arab fashion, 
by no less than twenty men, all of whom were his cousins as it seemed. When the 
round of introductions was over, and all the compliments of the season had been 
exchanged again and again, we set to work at the ruins with a greater corps of eager 
assistants than we had ever known. The Shekh's judgment about the ruins of Sahr 
was certainly excellent. Here was a Nabataean temple surrounded by a colonnaded 



The Expedition of 1909 103 

temenos-wall. In the enclosure were many inscriptions and quantities of broken statues 
and relief sculptures of extraordinary interest, and, rarer than all, here was a little 
theatre in a wonderful state of preservation, the only theatre we had found in the Ledja, 
and the only one in the Hauran outside the great ruined cities of Bostra, Kanatha 
and Philippopolis. Our stay could not be long, for we had far to go. We set out 
towards the southwest in the direction of Hamma.n, which we found to be an extensive 
ruin, picturesque by reason of the trees which were growing among the buildings, but 
oth(;rwise uninteresting, being made up wholly of ancient residences of none too good 
a class, though quite well preserved. After a hasty examination of Hamman, we set 
out on the long and weary journey to Tubbeh, a little to the north of west. 

The ride from Sahr to Tubbeh by way of Hamman was by far the most dreary 
and de.solate stage of our whole journey in the Ledja. The memory of it haunts me. 
It was like passing through a scene in Hell divested of its demons and its flames. 
Not a patch of green, not a scrap of red soil all the way, only the black tumultuous 
billows tossing madly on and on. This region is near the termination of the lava- 
streams. The first deposits of lava to reach it had begun to cool and grow stiff, and 
wanted to stop; but the still hot and angry masses came surging upon them from 
behind, pushing, crushing, rolling and tossing them in frenzied passion. Every line in 
these now inert masses denotes violent motion and strife, and one is continually won- 
dering why there is no noise ; for it all looks as if the scene should be accompanied 
by the most deafening thunders, crashings and groanings. I exposed I know not how 
many films in vain endeavors to secure an adequate picture of this wild, weird scenery. 
All the pictures are complete failures. They look perfectly tame, and might be photo- 
graphs of the uneven piles of slag that may be seen outside a iron-foundry. Not one 
gives the slightest impression of the mighty scale, the awful grandeur, or the dreadful 
desolation of the place. This is due partly to the fact that it is impossible to get 
extensive views that mean anything. A photograph taken from the top of a wave- 
crest reveals only the tops of other waves in endless succession, and one taken from 
a depression shows nothing but the nearest masses of rock. One must behold the scene 
in its entirety to comprehend its meaning, and to take in the impression of mighty 
forces arrested in action and made rigid in the instant of violent motion. 

We found Tubbeh a ruin of no more importance than Hamman, and, after giving 
our horses a brief rest, pushed on toward Mismiyeh, near which we rode out of the 
Ledja, giving the hoofs of our tired beasts a respite of an hour or more as we rode 
over the soft red earth of the plain, until we broke through the forbidding wall once 
more, just before we reached Krem, at eight o'clock. That evening at dinner we 
planned the last three stages of our march. We were to make our way, as straight as 
we could, across the Ledja to Damit il-'Alya, the chief town of the Druses in this 
region, situated almost in the middle of the great lava-field. But the next morning 
Abu Derwish, the head muleteer, demurred, refusing to take his animals on any more 
marches in the Ledja and saying that their feet were already ruined. I was not to 
be moved, however, for I wished to see for myself whether there were ruins between 
Krem and the centre of the Ledja, and besides I had promised several Druse sh^khs 
that I would meet them in their chief town before we left the country. I gave orders 
for the camp to move to the southeast instead of to the north, whither the head muleteer 
longed to turn the weary feet of his mules. Then Abu Derwish mutinied, and taking 



I04 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

his two sons and his son-in-law and all their mules, he started through the ruins with 
his face set toward Damascus. Now Abu Derwlsh was a Christian but an old rascal. 
I had tolerated him and his family and their mules and their asses on two former 
expeditions of long duration for two reasons : first because his animals were the best 
to be had in Syria, and second because the old man feared neither God nor man, 
nor heat nor cold, nor the desert, nor any of the things which are objects of dread 
to almost all town-bred or coast-bred natives of Syria. He loved me, that he had 
said a thousand times, kissing my hands while he swore his devotion ; but I knew he 
loved me for the good yellow Napoleons I had poured into his hands at the end of 
the two long journeys ; and now he and his had seceded ! But there were other mu- 
leteers, not of the family of Abu Derwish, and they were Moslems. They were wise 
to the secret that many of our great boxes, which had contained provisions, were now 
empty and were carried only for show, in order that each animal might appear to be 
equally loaded. The head muleteer knew this too ; but he had forgotten it momentarily 
in his wrath. No sooner were Abu Derwlsh and his train out of sight, than our trusty 
Moslem muleteers hastened to me to swear fresh allegiance, and to assure me that all 
the luggage could be carried by the remaining force of mules. The cook and several 
other servants offered to walk for the remainder of the trip, in case their horses should 
be required as pack-animals. Then came a hasty unpacking of certain boxes and the 
discarding of others, and the sorting out of certain commodities with which we were 
over supplied, like candles and tins of honey presented to us by various Druse shfekhs. 
The beautiful boxes with their trays and hinged covers, as well as the extra supplies, 
were given to our friend the Bedawin shekh : he could not have been more proud if 
he had received a principality. The tents were already rolled up, and these, with all 
our remaining luggage, were loaded upon the animals which still remained in shorter 
time than I had ever known our loading to be done. Fortunately no one would be 
obliged to walk all the way, for the cook and the waiter were to have a horse between 
them. Then to horse, and away ! The mule-bells began to sound, and the last of 
the animals was just leaving the camping-place, when other bells were heard jangling 
on the other side of the ruins, and in another moment an astonished Abu Derwlsh, 
with a very shamefaced group of followers and all their animals, appeared from around 
a corner. One glance at our departing caravan and another at the boxes of the 
abandoned supplies, which he knew would have been among his perquisites but were 
now guarded by an Arab, and then he and his family began shouting: "Khawadja! 
We want to go with you, we must go with you", to which there was no reply, save 
the widening distance between us. Then burst forth the old man's rage. Like Job 
he cursed his day and, waving his hands above his head and fairly leaping up and 
down, he turned upon his sons, calling upon Allah to destroy their father's house. 
The cry went back from our men : ' Ma' is-sal^meh" (go in peace) the soft and 
beautiful farewell expression of the Arabs, which, on occasion, they use in such bitter 
irony. One of our men called back: 'May your journey prosper, it is too bad you 
are not armed, the Bedawin will destroy you and carry off your mules, ma' is-salS-meh" ! 
To see this sight the other muleteers, those still with us, would have come on their 
hands and knees from Jerusalem. For this was the fall of the greatest tyrant of all 
muleteers : they fairly hugged themselves for joy. As we passed out of sight of the 
old camping-place we could still hear the bellowing of the fallen tyrant, as he cursed 



The Expedition of 1909 105 

the religion of the father of his sons, and the religion of the mules, and that of their 
ancestors to the third and fourth generation. 

A member of the family of our friend the Bedawin Shfekh of Sfir guided us by a 
path, more or less direct though very rough, across another unexplored part of the 
Ledja, toward Dimit il-'Alya. Again we passed through scenery unmatched for its 
bleakness and desolation. We saw but one ruin on the way, and that soon after 
leaving Krfem. This was Kastal Krfem, a small, fort-like ruin, very crudely built, which 
may mark one of the prehistoric sites of the region. The remaining seven or eight 
miles on the map, which must have been nearly twice that by our winding route, con- 
sumed the better part of the day, and, though we dismounted frequently to climb to 
the top of heaps of lava and scan the country to the right and left, we saw no sign 
of human occupation past or present. 

It was late in the afternoon of April 27th when we reached Damit il-'Alya, with 
its high stepped pyramid, and its fine temenos-wall and gate of the Roman period, the 
huge stone doors of which are still in place. I could not observe that any important 
changes had taken place in the village or in the ruins since my visit in 1905. The 
rest of our party went about to utilize the remaining hours of daylight in visiting the 
ruins and looking for inscriptions ; but I was taken in hand at once by the Druse 
Shekh of the village, and conducted to his house to await the pitching and arranging 
of the camp. The Shekh urged strongly that we abandon the tents and make our- 
selves his guests for the night; but we pleaded long custom for ourselves and the need 
of rigid discipline for the camp-servants, and finally we had our way. I quickly dis- 
covered that our arrival had been expected, and that our departure from Kastal Krem 
had been observed from the top of the stepped pyramid, which is the highest building 
in the Ledja and on one of the highest points in the region. I was told also that 
messengers had been sent out to many shekhs, some of whom had already arrived to 
meet us, while others were on the way and would be here before night. They wished 
to consult me, they said, on important matters arising out of their correspondence with 
the Governor at Damascus, negotiated by me, and out of my visit to the Governor. 

It was nightfall and we had supped when the party of shfekhs arrived before 
the tents. I was astonished to see some who had come long distances, even from the 
villages of the northern part of the Djebel Haur&n. All seemed extremely cordial and 
well disposed ; but I was conscious of an undercurrent of suppressed excitement. They 
had come to the tents with a very numerous band of followers, so that we were obliged 
for a time to sit in front of the tents, out under the stars, until the last glow of day 
faded in the west. Then, as if by common consent, the followers dispersed, and only 
the more responsible men, the shekhs, were left. I suggested that we move into the 
dining-tent, and they agreed readily enough ; but we found this very crowded when all 
of us had entered : every one of the folding chairs was in use, the boxes which lined 
the walls were all occupied as seats, while some of our guests sat on the floor, these 
undoubtedly feeling more at home than any of the other natives. The conference 
lasted far into the night. Most of the talking was done by a small number, who 
seemed to be leaders, the others assenting to, or dissenting from, what was said by 
means of grunts or groans, which were quite as expressive as ayes and noes taken 
by a vote. The gist of the discussion was briefly as follows : Nazim Pasha had sent 
word to them that he would .send a commission to investigate their troubles, hear their 

Publications of the Princeton Universtiy Archaeological Expeditions to Syria, Div. I. 14 



io6 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

side of the case, and settle the difficulties if possible. He desired them to send ten 
representative shfekhs to meet the commission at the barracks of Suw6da, a town 
situated at the western foot of the Djebel Hauran. The time set for the meeting was 
the morrow, at noon. The Druses greatly desired that the meeting should take place. 
Many of them believed that good would come of it ; but now, on the eve of the day 
set for it, grave fears had arisen in the minds of some that the whole scheme was a 
ruse to entrap ten of their representative men and hold them for ransom. Finally, 
they desired my opinion of the situation and my advice as to what they had better do. 
All this came out by slow degrees, for many points were debated and many proposals 
were made. In the midst of the talk, an aged shekh arose to ask me if the common 
report was true that I had spoken face to face, standing upright, with Sultan Abdul 
Hamid, who called himself King of Kings, Emperor of Emperors, etc., and that I had 
received a cigarette from his golden case at the hand of his Imperial Majesty. This 
story was one which I had recounted to George, the dragoman, who had regaled 
the servants with it, and they in turn used it, with high embellishments no doubt, to 
impress all the natives with whom we came in contact. At the moment the question 
seemed somewhat irrelevant; but I answered gravely that the story was true, whereat 
the crowd murmured that God works wonders. 

The situation was a delicate one. I did not feel that I could assume the re- 
sponsibility of telling these men that they would be perfectly safe, although I did 
think so. I asked how many soldiers were at Suweda. They said there were about 
five hundred. I inquired how many men they could have under arms by noon the 
next day. The answers to this involved numbers varying from two to five thousand, 
according to the age of the answerer. Then I suggested that they have a thousand 
men posted on the heights above Suweda, that they send their ten men to the barracks, 
having arranged with them to give some signal of their safety once in every fifteen 
minutes, in order that, if half an hour elapsed without a signal being given, they might 
then descend upon Suwfeda, and that the shekhs explain the whole scheme to the 
Commandant on their arrival. The plan met with universal approval, and some of the 
shekhs said that a large army would be on hand without doubt. To my surprise, two 
of the shekhs left the tent almost immediately to call together the younger men who 
had not attended the meeting, and in less than half an hour twenty horsemen rode 
out into the night, over the rough and tortuous paths of the lava- fields, to call to arms 
the fighting men of the Druses of the Ledja and of the Djebel HaurSn. 

When these momentous questions had been decided, I noticed that the shekhs 
were discussing among themselves the choosing of one of their number to make an 
address. Presently, and by common consent, my old friend, the Shekh of Lubbfen, 
arose : he addressed himself to me and I thought that I was about to receive a vote 
of thanks. Indeed it was such ; but a vote of thanks with an extraordinary tail to it. 
"Khaw^dja", he said, "you are very learned and well acquainted with the ways ot 
governments and rulers, while we are ignorant mountaineers. You have been honored 
by the Sultan Abdul Hamid, with whom you have spoken as a prince. When you 
again have occasion to speak with the Sultan, will you not ask him to appoint you 
Governor of the Druses in the Hauran. Tell him that the Druses will obey you, that 
they will pay taxes like the Syrians, provided that no Turkish soldiers are sent to 
collect the taxes and that our sons are not taken from us for the Turkish army. It 



The Expedition of 1909 107 

shall be our duty to protect all the Hauran from the Bedawin : for this duty we shall 
provide our sons with arms. These shfekhs desire me to say that they will be faithful 
to you and that they will see to it that you lack nothing; and they desire that you 
will bring physicians and teachers with you and establish schools, for which the Druses 
will pay. They also desire that you bring a machine for driving wells in the rock, 
such as you have told us about". As he sat down, all the shfekhs grunted their ap- 
proval, saying, "Ai wallS-h" (yes, by God). 

It all seems very like a burlesque to me now, this tender of an adrhinistrative office 
which was not legally theirs to offer, and the tacking on a request for a machine for 
making artesian wells ; but it did not seem so absurd to me then, as I looked about 
that circle, catching the intent gaze of a group of fine looking, serious men, dealing 
in their simple way with matters that meant so much to them government, education, 
and water the three things which they most lacked, and which they now most 
earnestly desired. It would have been rude, ungracious, cruel, not to have responded 
in a serious spirit. I thanked them for their confidence in me, and explained that my 
duties as a teacher in my own country would prevent my settling among them, even 
if the Sultan should appoint me Governor. It seemed hardly worth while to attempt 
to explain to them the political considerations which would make their plan impractica- 
ble, even if I were willing and fitted to accept their offer. I promised to lay their 
case before the "Great Consul" (the Ambassador) of the English in Constantinople, 
and to speak a good word for them if ever again I had opportunity to address the 
Sultan. And curiously enough, even while we talked, the last steps were being taken 
which a few days later removed Sultan Abdul Hamid from his throne. 

I was invited to accompany the sh&khs to Suwfeda, or to join the Druse forces 
in the hills above the barracks ; but I explained that in two days we must be in Da- 
mascus, and that we were obliged to visit several places in the plain in the time which 
remained. The shekhs inquired very explicitly about our itinerary during the next two 
days, desiring to send word of the success or failure of the conference in Suwfeda. 
Then they all rose and took formal leave. It was very late, and I went to my bed 
like one in a dream, wondering if I had really been offered the governorship of an 
oriental province, and knowing that I should never have such an offer again. 

On the morning of April 28th we rode to the northeast, to the ruins of a monastery 
called Der idj-DjuwanI, where we stopped for a short time to measure the buildings 
and copy some unknown inscriptions. Then we set out directly across the Ledja, and 
at nightfall reached its edge at the large Christian village of Khabeb. Early on the 
following day we began our march across the soft red soil of the plain in the direction 
of Inkhil. Here are the ruins of a large villa, almost a palace, of the Roman period, 
in a wonderful state of preservation. I had made some hasty observations of this 
building four years before, on a rapid journey through the plain : I now set to 
work to study the ruin more thoroughly, while my companions went in search of 
inscriptions. But the natives, like so many of the settled Arabs of the plain, were not 
particularly hospitable, and not in the least favorable to our inscription-hunting. An 
old woman, who looked like one of the witches in Macbeth, headed the opposition to 
our activities, loudly denouncing us as sorcerers. We gave her a cigarette and asked 
her if, by the practice of sorcery, we were interfering with her in any way. This roused 
the laughter of the men and boys gathered about, but did not succeed in breaking 



io8 Division I Geography and Itinerary 

down the barrier between us and the people of Inkhil. Therefore, when the measure- 
ments and photographs of the villa had been made, we started for is-Sanamfen. 

A pleasant gallop over the plain in the late afternoon light, with the snows of 
Mt. Hermon glowing pink on the northern horizon, brought us to the railway-station 
that now stands not far to the east of the ruins of is-Sanamen's Tychaion, or "Temple 
of Fortune". The sight of the railway and its grim little station-building were an un- 
welcome reminder that our days afield were over ; for on the morrow we should be 
taking a train at that very station en route for Damascus and, eventually, for Europe 
and for what is ordinarily called civilization. In the morning of the 30th we examined 
the ruins of the Tychaion and made a profitable search for inscriptions in the village 
beyond it. The tents were taken down early, and the caravan started out on the 
road towards Damascus. We ate our luncheon out in the open, and were quietly 
smoking our cigarettes when the raucous whistle of the locomotive of our train was heard. 



4, 



^ 



5^ 



INDEX 



For all places on any map in the Publications of the Princeton Expeditions, there is given 
in this index, in brackets immediately after each name, the latitude of the parallel south of the 
place and the longitude of the meridian west of the place on the district map on which the place 
appears, or on the general map if the place does not appear on any district map. Latitudes from 
32, I o' to 32, 40' will be found on the map of the Southern Hauran, in this volume opposite 
p. 27, latitudes from 32, 20' to 33, 10' on the map of il-Ledja and Djebel Hauran, p. 17, 
latitudes from 35 to 35, 50' (longitudes from 36, 40' to 37, 10') on the map of il-'^Ala, p. 46, 
latitudes from 35, 30' to 35, 50' (longitudes from 36, 20' to 36, 50') on the map of the Djebel 
Riha, p. 55, latitudes from 36, 10' to 36, 30' on the map of Northern Syria, p. 60. Latitudes 
and longitudes on the general map are given only in degrees and half degrees. The numbers 
following the latitude and longitude refer to pages of the present volume, Division I. For example, 
Abu Haniyeh (35, 30: 35, 50) 54 will be found on the map of il-'^Ala, p. 46, north of the parallel 
of latitude 35, 30' and east of the meridian of longitude 36, 50': it is mentioned on page 54 of 
the present volume. 



\^^ 



INDEX OF PLACE-NAMES 



Abu Attah ("Ata?) 20. 

Abu Haniyeh (35, 30: 36, 50) 54. 

Abu il-Kudur (35, lo: 36, 50)48. 

Adraa, see Der'^a. 

'Ahireh, il- (32,50: 36,30) 97. 

'Aib (33: 36, 10) loi. 

'Aiban 59. 

'Ain Dilfeh (36, lO: 36, 30) 64, "jQ. 

"^Ainil-Halaweh(32,40:36, 30) 20. 

'^Ain is- Sultan 3, 83. 

'Ain Zat(?) (34,30: 37) 43- 

'Ala, il-(35 : 36, 30) 43, 44, 46-49. 

'Amk, il- (36: 36) 63, 67, 72. 

'Amman (31,30: 35,3) 6, 84. 

Ammon, Mountains of, 84. 

Andenn,il-(35,20: 37)43.52-53- 

Androna, see il-Anderin. 

Anti-Lebanon 41. 

'Anz (32, 20: 36,40) 30. 

'Anz, il- (35, 10: 36, 50) 48. 

'Aradjeh, il- (32,50: 36,40) 26. 

'Araljil-Emir(3i,30:35,30)4,84. 

Arra, see Ma'rata. 

'Asim, il- (32, 50: 36, 10) lOi. 

'Auwas (32,20: 36,40) 28. 

Ba'albek (34: 36) 79. 
Bab il-Hawa (36, lO: i^, 30) 75. 
Babiska(36, lO: 36,30)61-64,75. 
Bahr il-Abyad (36: 36) 63. 
Bakirha (36, lo: 36, 30) 64. 
Banastur (36, 20: 36, 50) 68. 
Barada, see Brad. 
Barah, il- (35,40: 36,30) 55. 
Basufan (36, 20: 36, 40) 72. 
Batarun (36, lo: 36,40) 75. 
Batuta (36,20: 36,40) 73. 
Ba'udeh (36, lO: 36, 30) 75. 
Baziher (36, 20: 36, 40) 68. 
Beirut (33, 30: 35, 30) 79. 
Bellja 39. 
Berdoneh, il- (35, lO: id, 50)47. 



Beshm (32, 50: 36, 20) 96. 
Binnish (35, 30: 36, 30) 59. 
Bosra(32, 30: 36,20) 11, 12-16, 

31, 87, 92. 
Bostra, see Bosra. 
Brad (36,20: 36,40) 64, 70. 
Brekeh (32, 50: 36, 30) 95, 96, 

98. 
Burak (32, 20: 36, 50) 29. 
Kurd (33: 36,30) 98. 
Burdakli (36, lo: 36, 30) ^6. 



Burd 
Burd 

75 
Burd 
Burd 

64 
Burd 
Burd 

72 
Burd 
Burd 
Burd 



, il- (35, 30: 36, 50) 59. 
'Abdallah (36, lO: 36,40) 

B?lkirha(36, lO: 36,30)67. 
id-Deruni (36, lO: 36, 30) 

Djabr (36, lO: 36,40) 75. 
Hedar (36, 20: 36, 50) 68, 

il-Kas (36, 20: 36, 50)71. 
Nasir (36, 10: 36, 30) 75. 
keh (36,20: 36,40) 73. 



Busan (32,40: 36,40) 26. 

Dabbaghin, id- (35, lO: 37) 50. 
Dadikh (35, 30: 36, 30) ^7. 
Damascus 41, 96. 
Damit il-'Alya (33: 36, 20) 103, 

105-107. 
Dana (36, lo: 36,40) 64. 
Darb il-Hadjdj 10. 
Dar Kita (36, lO: 36, 30)61-63, 

75- 
Deiloza (35,40: 36,30) 57. 
Der, id- (32, 20: 36, 20) 39. 
Deril-Asmar(32, 50: 36, 20)96. 
Der 'Atiyeh 42. 
Der il-Barrani (32, 50: 36, 20) 

98. 
Deridj-Djuwani(33: 36,20)107. 
Der il-Kahf (32, lO: 36, 40) 29. 



Der il-Leben (32, 50: 36, 30) 95. 
Der il-MeshljCulj (32,20: 36,40) 

31- 
Der in-Nasrani (32,20: 36,50) 

29. 
Der Sambil (35,40: 36,30) 57. 
Der Sim'an (36,20: 36,40)66-67. 
Der Smedj (32, 40: 36, 30) 94. 
Der Tell 'Adeh (36, lO: 36,40) 

64. 
Der'a (32, 30: 36) 10, 11, 40. 
Dera'man (36, lO: 36, 40) 60, 75. 
Dhlbin (32, 20: 36, 30) 34. 
Diyatheh, id- (32,40: 36,40) 25. 
Djadj, idj- (32, 50: 36, 20) 98. 
Djdiyeh (32, 50: 36, 30) 95. 
Djebel il-A'la (36: 36, 30) 60, 

77- 
Djebel Barisha (36, lo: 36, 30) 

60-64, 75-77. 
Djebel il-Halakah (36, lO: 36,40) 

60-61, 64-65, 75. 
Djebel Hauran 17-26, 92-94. 
Djebel il-Hass (35, 30: 37) 43. 
Djebel il-Kuleb (32, 30: 36, 30) 

17, 19-20, 36. 
Djebel Riha(35, 30: 36,30)55-59, 

60, TJ. 
Djebel Ses (33: 37) 90. 
Djebel Shbet (35, 30: 37, 30) 43. 
Djebel ish-Shekh 10, 108. 
Djebel Shekh Berekat (36, lO: 

36,40) 59, 63, 65, 67. 
Djebel Sim'an (36,20: 36,40) 

60, 65-74. 
DjebelWastanI(35,30: 36,30)77. 
Djebel Zain il-'Abidin (35, lO: 

36,40) 59- 
Djedil (33: 36,20) 100. 
Djemerrin (32, 30: 36, 20) 16. 
Djerash (32: 35, 30) 8, 34, 87. 
Djisreh (33: 36, 20) 100. 



112 



Division I Geography and Itinerary 



Djren (32, 50: 36, 20) 98. 
Djubaiyeh,idj-(32, lO: 36,40)29. 
Djub'as 59. 
Djubtcas 59. 
Djumeh, idj- 73. 
Duma (32, 50: 36, 40) 26. 
Dur'^aman, see Dera'man. 
Duwebeh, id- (35, lO: 36,40) 48. 

'Ewir, il- (35, 10: 36,40) 48. 

Fafirtin (36, 20: 36, 50) 73. 
Fa'lul (35, 30: 36, 40) 59. 
Fasut jj. 
Feden, il- (32, lo: 36, 10) 34, 85, 

87. 
Fidreh (36,20: 36,40) 68. 
Fu'ah, il- (35,30: 36, 30) 59. 
Furljlus, il- (34, 30: 37) 43. 

Gerasa, see Djerash. 
Ghadfeh, il- (35,40: 36,40) 59. 
Ghariyeh, il- (32, 20: 36,40) 30. 
Ghasm (32,30: 36,20) 11, 32. 

Habbat, il- (35, lO: 36, 50) 47. 
Halban (35, lO: 36, 50) 48. 
Hama (35, lo: 36,40) 78. 
Hamldiyeh, il- (34, 30: 37) 43. 
Hamniamis-Sarakh(32, 10:36,20) 

36, 37- 
Hamman (33, lO: 36,20) 103. 
Hammas (32, 20: 36, 20) 40. 
Harim (36: 36, 30) 76-7-]. 
Harrah, il- (32: 37) 17, 25, 26. 
Harran (32, 50: 36, 20) 99. 
Harran 76. 
Hauran, Mountain 17-26,92-94: 

Plain 27-40, 85-92. 
Herakeh (35, 30: 36, 50) 54. 
Hermon, Mt. (Djebel ish-Shekh) 

10, 108. 
Hifneh, il- (32, 30: 36, 30) 25. 
Hizreh (36, lO: 36, 40) 64. 
Homeh, il- (35, 20: 37) 52, 53. 
Huzhuz (32, 30: 36, 30) 40. 

Ibbin (35, 30: 36, 30) 59. 

lbsineh(?) "jj. 

Tdjaz (35, 30: 36, 50) 54. 

Idlib (35, 30: 36, 30) 57, jj. 

Idnin (35, lO: 36, 50) 48. 

'Idwan, il- 8. 

'^Ilimmeh, il- 26. 



Imm it-Tal' 6. 
Imtan (32,20: 36,40) 29. 
Tnat (32,20: 36,40) 29. 
Inkhil (33: 36) 107-108. 
'Ireh (32,30: 36,30) 20-21. 
'Isawl, il- (32, 30: 37) 26. 
Ishhala (35: 36, 50) 44. 

Jericho 3, 83-84. 
Jerusalem 2, 83. 
Jordan Bridge 3, 84. 

Ka^ il- 37. . 

Kabr Nasir (32, 30: 37) 26. 
Karat Esma" (33: 36, 10) 10 1. 
Kal'at Ezrak (32: 36, 30) 37, 90. 
Karat Kalota (36, 20: id, 50) 

67, 71, 72. 
KaPat Sim'^an (36, 20: 36, 40) 

65-67. 
Kal'^at iz-Zerka (32: 36) 7, 84. 
Kalota (36,20: 36,50) 71. 
Kanatha, see Kanawat. 
Kanawat (32, 40: 36, 30) 92-94. 
Kara'^ah (32,20: 36,40) 29. 
Karis, il- (32, 30: 36, 30) 28. 
Kasil (32, 20: 36, 20) 39. 
Kasr il-Ba'^ik (32, 20: 36, 20) 34, 
87. 
Kasr il-Benat (36, lO: 36, 30) 

64, j6. 
Kasr Iblisu (36, lO: 36, 30) 64. 
Kasr Ibn Wardan (35, 20: 37) 

41, 48, 50-52. 
Kasr il-Mudakhkhin (36, 10 : 36, 

30) 75- 
Kastal Iskit(?) Jj. 
Kastal Krem (33: 36, 10) 105. 
Katrah (35, 30: 36, 50) 54. 
Katura(36, 20: 36,40)65,67,68. 
Kbeshin (36, 20: 36, 50) 68. 
Kefr, il- (32, 30: 36, 30) 17-20. 
Kefr Antin (36,20: 36,40) 73. 
Kefr Kermin (36, lO: 36, 40) 

59, 60. 
Kefr Lab (36, 20: 36, 40) 72. 
Kefr Nabu (36, 20: 36, 50) 68-72. 
Kefr Ruma (35, 30: 36,40) 55. 
Kefr Ta'kab(?) jj. 
Kerratin (35, 40: 36, 50) 43, 54, 

55. 57- 
Kfelludin (36, lO: 36, 30) 64. 
Kfellusin (36, lO: 36, 30) 64. 



Kfer, il- (36, lO: 36,40) 75. 
Khabeb (33: 36, 10) 107. 
Khan il-'Arus (35,30: 36,30)41. 
Khan il-Kadish (il-Khan) 32, 20: 

36,30) 39- 
Khan Sebil (35, 30: 36, 30) jj. 
Khan Shekhun (35,20: 36,40) 

78. 
Kharab il-Meshhed (36, 20: 36,40) 

72. 73- 
Kharab is-Sakhl (32,20: 36,20) 

39- 
Kharab Shems (36, 20: 36, 50) 

72. 
Kharaba (32, 30: 36, 20) 15, 16. 
Kharsa (33: 36, 30) 98. 
Khau 85. 

Khazimeh (32,20: 36,40) 29. 
Khirbit il-Bardhon 5. 
Khirbit il-Bassah 5. 
Khirbit in-Nimreh 8. 
Khirbit is-Samra (32: 36) 85. 
Khirbit Sar 6. 
Khirbit Sufiyeh(?) 6. 
Khirbit Tezin (36, lO: 36, 30) 64. 
Khuraiyib (32, 20: 36, 20) 39. 
Khurebat (33: 36,20) 98. 
Ki'^an Khanneh ij. 
Kokaba (35,40: 36,30) 57. 
Kom il-Menarah (32, 20: 36, 20) 

34. 87. 
Koser il-Hallabat (32, lo: 36, 20) 

36-37. 85, 89-90. 
Krem (33: 36, 10) loi, 103-105. 
Ksedjbeh (36, 10 : 36, 30) j6. 
Kubbit "Ableh (35,20: 37) 53. 
Kubbit Babutta (36, 10 : 36, 30) 

61, 63, 67. 
Kunaiyeh, il- (34: 37) 43. 
Kunbus (35, lO: 36,40) 48. 
Kuraiyeh (32,30: 36,30) 19-20, 

40. 
Kursenteh (35, 30: 36, 50) 59, 
Kusiir ish-Sha'^af (32, 40: 36,30) 

20. 
Kutefeh, il- (33,30: 36,30) 41. 
Kwaro (35, 30: 36, 30) jj. 

Lake of Antioch (36: 36) 63. 
Lebanon, Mt. 10. 
Ledja, il- 40, 83, 94-107. 
Lubben (32, 50: 36, 20) 98-99. 

Ma'arrit id-Dibseh 59. 



Index of Place-Names 



"3 



Ma'arrit in-Nu^man (35, 30: 36, 

40) 54. 55- 57. 77- 
Madhak, il- (32, 30: 36, 20) 40. 
Maklabis (36, lO: 36, 40) 75. 
Manasif, il- 37. 

MaVata (35, 40: 36,40) 54, 55. 57- 
Maiyamas(?) Ji- 
Ma'saran (35,40: 36,40) 59. 
Mdjedil (33: 36,30) 98. 
Mebna il-Bet (32, 50: 36, 20) 96. 
Medjdel, il- (32, 20: 36, 40) 28. 
Mefaleh (32,40: 36,30) 94. 
Melah (Melah is-Sarrar) (32, 30: 

36,40) 28, 29. 
Mesh^cuk, il-(32,20: 36,40)30,31. 
Miksar (32, 20: 36, 20) 39. 
Millis (35, 30: 36, 30) 7T. 
Mir'ayeh (35,40: 36, 50) 54. 
Mishrifeh, il- (35, lo: 36, 50) 50. 
Mismiyeh (33, lO: 36, 20) lor, 

103. 
Mithnayeh, il- (32, 20: 36, 50) 29. 
Mlehah (33: 36, 10) lOi. 
Mroshan, il- (32, 30: 37) 25. 
Msekeh (32, 50: 36, 10) 99. 
Mu'allakah, il- 6. 
Mu'^arribeh, il- (32, 30: 36, 20) 32. 
Mughaiyir, il- (32, 20 : 36, 40) 29, 

30. 
Murik (35, lO: 36,40) 78. 
Mushennef (32, 40: 36,40) 26. 

Nasib (32, 30: 36, 10) 87. 
Nawa (35, 10: 36, 50) 47. 
Nebk, in- (34: 36, 30) 41. 
Nedjran (32, 50: 36, 20) 95, 96. 
Nemarah, in- (32, 30: 37) 26. 
Nerab Tj . 
Nu'emeh, in- 10. 
Nukrah, in- 90. 

'Odja, il- (35, 10: 36,40) 48. 
'Odjeh (35, 30: 36, 50) 54. 
'Orman (32, 30: 36, 40) 26. 

Philadelphia, see "^Amman. 
Philippopolis (Shehba) 103. 

Quaro, see Kwaro. 

Rabbu^ah, ir- (35, 20: 37) 52. 
Ram Hamdan (35, 30: 16, 30) 59. 
Ramleh, ir- (35,30: 37) 53. 
Rasm il-Baghl (35, 10: 36, 40) 48. 



Refadeh (36, 20: 36, 40) 68. 
Rimtheh, ir- (32, 30: 35,30) 8, 

10. 
Resas (32,30: 36,30) 21. 
Resm Tell il-Halaweh (35, 30: 

^37) 53- 
Rimet il-Luhf (32, 50:36,30) 96. 
Rubbeh, ir- (35: 36, 50) 44. 
Ruhaiyeh, ir- (35, lo: 36, 50) 50. 
Rukes, ir- (32, 20: 36, 30) 39. 
Ruse'^i, ir- 25. 

Sa'adeh (32, 20: 36, 30) 39. 
Sabba' (35, lO: 36, 50) 46. 
Sabhah (32, 20: 36, 30) 39. 
Sabuniyeh, is- 43. 
Sadad (34: 36, 30) 42-43. 
Safa, is- (32, 30: n) 26. 
Safiyeh, is- (32,20: 36,40) 29. 
Sahr (33, 10: 36, .30) 102-103. 
Saleh (32, 30: 36, 40) 26. 
Salkhad (32,20: 36,40) 26-28, 

30-31, 87. 
Sameh (32, 20: id, 10) 33, 87. 
Samra, see Khirbit is-SamrS. 
Sanamen, is- (33: 36) 108. 
Seeia, see Si^. 
Selemiyeh (35: 36,50) 44. 
Senaiyim (32, 30: 37) 26. 
Sera"^ (35, 30: 36, 50) 54. 
Seraiyi"^ (35, 30: 37) 54. 
Serdjibleh (36, 10: 36, 30) 64. 
Serdjilla (35,40: 36, 30) 55-57. 
Sermeda (36, lO: 36, 30) 61, 75. 
Sermeda, Plain of (36, lO: 36, 

30) 60, 64, 75, 76. 
Sermin (35, 30: 36, 30) 59. 
Sha'af, ish-, see Kusur ish-Sha'^af. 
Sha'^arah (33, lO: 36, lO) lOi. 
Sha'arra (35, 30: 36,50) 54. 
Shekh ''All Kasun (35, lO: 36, 

50) 45-48. 
Shekh Sleman (36, lO: 36, 50) 

73-75- 
Si' (32,40: 36,30) 20-22, 93. 
Simdj (32, 20: 36, 20) 35, 39. 
Simkhar (36, 20: 36, 50) 73. 
Sindjar (35, 30: 36, 50) 54. 
Sir, is- (31, 30: 35, 30) 6. 
Sitt ir-Rum (36, 20: 36, 40) 68. 
Slem (32, 40: 36, 30) 95. 
Smed (33: 36, 30) 96-98. 
Srir (36, 10: 36,40) 67, 75. 
Stabl 'Antar (35, 20: 37) 53. 



Suhb (32, 30: 36, 20) 32. 
Summakiyat, is- (32, 20: 16, 20) 

33. 34. 91- 
Sur (32, 50: 36, 10) 99-101. 
Surkanya (36, 20: 36, 50) 68. 
Surruman (35, 30: 36, 50) 59. 
Suweda (32,40: 36,30) 20-21, 

96, 106-107. 

Taff (33, lo: 36, 20) 101-102. 
Taiyibeh, it- (32,30:36, 10) 11, 

40. 
Taiyibeh, it- (35, lO: 36,40) 47, 

78. 
Takleh (36,20: 36,40) 68. 
Tarba (32,40: 36,40) 22-26. 
Tarrad (35, lO: 36, 50) 45, 48. 
Tarutin it-Tudjdjar (35,40: 36, 

50) 43, 54- 
Tarutia, see Kerratin. 
Tawami (36, lO: 36,40) 60. 
Tell ""Abd Mar (32, 20: 36,40) 30. 
Tell Aba Talhah JJ. 
Tell Abu Taseh (32,40: 36,40) 22. 
Tell 'Adeh (36, lO: 36, 40) 64. 
Tell 'Al<:ibrin (36, lO: 36,40)60, 

75- 
Tell "^Amman yj. 
Tell 'Amrl (34, 30: 37) 43. 
Tell B'at (32, 20: 36,40) 29, 30. 
Tell id-Deheb (35, lO: 36, 50) 

47, 48. 
Tell id-Dibbeh (32, 50: 16, 30) 95. 
Tell idj-Djeneh (32^30: 36,40)26. 
Tell id-Dura (35: 36,50) 43. 
Tell il-Halaweh (35, 30:37) 53. 
Tell Irmah (32, lO: 36, 50) 29. 
Tell il-Ko'es (32, lo: 36, 30) 30. 
Tell il-Mudjedda' (32, 30: 36, 50) 

29. 
Tell Nauwas 59. 
Tell ir-Ruhaiyeh (35, lO: 37) 50. 
Tellun (35, 30: 36,40) 59. 
Tema (32,50: 36,40) 26. 
Temek (35, lO: 36, 50) 46. 
Termanin (36, 10: 36,40) 75. 
Tezin (36, 10: 36, 30) 76. 
Thedjeh, it- (35, 30: 36, 50) 54. 
Tisiyeh (32, 20: 36, 20) 36, 38, 39. 
Tuba, it- (35, 10: 36, 50) 48. 
Tubbeh (33, lO: 36, 20) 103. 
Tulul Kharaneh 39. 

Uber, il- (32, 50: 36, 10) 99. 



114 



Division I Geography ahd Itenerary 



Umm il-'AlaU {32, 50: 36, 20) 96. 
Umm idj-Djimal (32, 20: 36, 20) 

34. 35. 38, 9'- 
Umm idj-Djimal is-Saghireh, see 

il-Umta'iyeh. 
Umm Harten (35, lO: 36, 50)47. 
Umm 'Ilekah (35, 30: 37) 53. 
Umm Koser (eastern) (32, 20: 

36, so) 29. 
Umm Koser (western) (32, 20: 

36,40) 29. 
Umm il-Kutten (32, 20: 36, 30) 

29. 30- 
Umm il-Meyadhin 10. 
Umm il-Mezabil (32, 20: 36, 50) 

29. 
Umm is-Surab (32, 20: 36, 20) 

33. 34. 87. 



Umm it-Tuweneh(35,iO:36, 50) 

47- 
Umm Wilat (35,40: 36,50)54. 
Umta'iyeh, il- (32, 20: 36, 10) 

32-33. 87. 
'Uyiin (32, 30: 36, 40) 28. 

WadIil-'Aljib32, 36, 38, 39,85. 

WadI "Anz 20. 

Wadi Butm 32, 33, 38, 39, 91. 

Wadi Djeri'ah 4. 

WadI il-Gharz 26. 

Wadi il-Karm 8. 

Wadi Karmatah 20. 

Wadi il-Knaiyeh 8. 

Wadi Ra'djil 28. 

Wadi is-Sayigh 20, 22. 

Wadi ish-Sham 25-26. 



Wadi Sf 20. 

Wadi is-Sir 5, 6, 84. 

Wadi Warran 10. 

Wadi Zedi 10, 11, 32. 

Waljm (33: 36, 20) 98. 

Weli iz-Zaljlfalj (32,30: 36,30) 

40. 
Wuredeh, il- (34, 30: 37) 43. 

Yeni Shehr 76. 

Zabbudeh (35, lO: 36. 50) 47. 
Zebir (33: 36, 10) 100. 
Zerzita (36, 20: 36, 40) 65. 
Zor'ah (32, 50: 36, 10) 95. 
Zubaiyir (33: 36, 10) 100. 
Zulj il-Kebir (36, 20: 36, 50) 72. 



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