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TIbe Xincoln IRecoib Society 

VOLUME 36 



A Lincolnshire 

Assize Roll 

For 1298 >- 

(P.R.O. ASSIZE ROLL No. 505) it 



EDITED BY 
The late WALTER SINCLAIR THOMSON 

M.A., PH.D. 




1944 



w 



I 




THE 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



Xincoln IRecorb Society 



Ml 



FOUNDED IN THE YEAR 



1910 




VOLUME 36 




FOE THE YEAR ENDING 30TH SEPTEMBER, 1939 



/ '/5^'V \t^(^ 



PA 

<o]0 
169 L5 
v,36 



A Lincolnshire Assize Roll 

for 1298 



(P.R.O. ASSIZE ROLL No. 505) 



EDITED 

with an INTRODUCTION on 

Royal Local Government in Lincolnshire 

during the War of 1294-8. 

BY 

The late WALTER SINCLAIR THOMSON. 

M.A., PH.D. 

History Department, University of Edinburgh. 



PRLNTEU FOR 

THE LINCOLN RECORJ) SOCIETY 

BY 

The HEREiORi> Times Limited, Hereford 

1944 



Hn fDcmoriam 



Walter Sinclair Thomson died on 14 September. 1940, suddenly 
of unsuspected disease, at the age of thirty-eight. It is a source 
of great satisfaction to his friends that his book was practically 
ready when he died. They beheve it has solid claims to attention 
apart from the sad circumstances in which it appears and that 
it will do him credit. 

It is his dissertation for the Ph.D. degree of the University of 
Edinburgh and is liis first publication of an historical kind. Dr. 
Thomson came to history late and by an unusual route. Bom 
28 July, 1902, the son of Robert Thomson of Highgate and of 
Janet Linton Thomson, nee Cassils, of New Zealand, educated 
at home and at a preparatory school until he was twelve, from 
1914-21 at Highgate School, it was to science that his tastes first 
turned, and when he went up to Cambridge — Downing College — 
in 1922 it was science that he read and the B.A. in Science, the 
Diploma in Horticulture, and the Downing Boat Club Captaincy 
that he went down with in 1926. The next three years until ill- 
health compelled his resignation — possibly the beginnings of the 
unsuspected and very rare form of diabetes to which in the end 
he succumbed — began with an appointment to the staff of the 
Imperial College of Science and Technology, but were chiefly spent 
on loan to the Empire Marketing Board researching into food 
pests at the London Docks and at the Research Station, Slough. 
He was one of those who get recreation out of a change of work 
and it was at this time that he edited the Third Edition, 1833-1922, 
of the Highgate School Roll, which appeared in 1927. 

These years were taken seriously — his scientific collections have 
found a home and use in Edinburgh — but '• Every particular nature 
hath content, when in its owne proper course it speeds " and it 
was in History that he found himself. 

In 1930 he came to live in Edinburgh and proceeded to study 
Arts at the University with a view to either the Church or teaching. 



The two professions are mucli akin and certainly with him the 
choice which he ultimately made, of a teaching career, did not 
involve any sacrifice of moral purpose. What probably decided 
him was a growing specialist interest in one of his subjects, History, 
and the desire to take a specialist degree in it. Fortunately his 
means enabled him to follow his inclinations. Still more fortunately 
they enabled him to combine matrimony with undergraduate 
status and his marriage to Winifred, only daughter of Mr. and Mrs- 
Ernest Edkins of London and Abinger Hammer on 12 July, 1934, 
was an ideally happy one. The rest was tragically brief, but it 
was a full life. His friends have precious memories of home life 
at " Maori Hill " — the family connection with New Zealand was 
kept very close — and of sunny summer excursions — historical excur- 
sions provided one of the beginnings of his scholarly interest in 
History — to Inchcolm : memories that can have no place in what 
must be a brief chronicle and appreciation of his academic career. 
In competition with young and fresh minds he duly pulled off 
First Class Honours and the Senior Medal in History in 1936. He 
had specialised in the mediaeval period and research followed, 
interrupted by a year as a master at Gordonstoun. Still the teacher 
by intention, and greatly interested in educational experiment, 
the opportunity of a temporary post at Kurt Hahn's school 
attracted him. That over, he returned to research. For the 
Middle Ages he had an enthusiasm that was quite extraordinary. 
It was something that neither technical detail in a laborious piece 
of editing, nor rebellions of the flesh could quench. And no Ph.D. 
Supervisor (not always an enviable task) could wish for a pupil 
more responsive to guidance than he was. He was rewarded by 
the Ph.D. in 1939, and was Assistant in British and European 
History at Edinburgh 1939-40. 

The rather senior but young-hearted and, to begin with, some- 
what diffident student was by now well in the saddle, booted and — 
with the publication of his book — soon to be spurred. There 
seemed no reason why this already serene, scholarly life should 
not run a full course. His friends sometimes wished the eager 
mediae valist would not drive himself so hard, for he had had a 
succession of minor ailments for a year or two now and was obviously 

(0 



not just as robust as he might be. But his energy never seemed 
to flag, and certainly not Ills spirits. When his book was out he 
would take a rest and that no doubt was all he needed. Another 
indisposition, that neither they nor he knew was really a sign of 
mortal illness, somewhat hastened his holiday. He went, and 
died \nthin a week, on 14 September, 1940. His best-loved 
personage in history was St. Francis (whom he was by temperament 
specially well fitted to understand), though he could find human 
interest in the most ordinary mortals or indeed in anything in 
the Middle Ages. His end (chance — or at any rate not human 
design — so ordered it) was such as would have pleased him : he 
was a Protestant, but his last days were spent in the Hospital 
of a Franciscan Convent nursed by Franciscan nuns and it was 
their Ups that, at the last, sped his soul with the Latin prayers 
of the Mediaeval Church. 

It is a long way from entomology to mediaeval studies. His 
friends are glad to think that he lived to win his spurs in the pro- 
fession of his second choice. For themselves they would wish a 
great deal that can now only be memory, just as, had it been in 
their power, they would have spared his widow her deprivation ; 
but for him — knowing the joyousness of his last years — they could 
not have wished for him more than he had. He might have lived 
longer, but his hfe could not have been fuller and he could not 
have hved more intensely. They know that he died full of hopes 
and plans that can now never be realised, but they know also that 
he would have regarded them as no more than an appendage of 
the pleasures he already possessed. He Hved long enough to know 
the utmost joys probably that man as a mortal thing is capable 
of, the joy of a happy union and the joy of a man who, after a 
false start, had found his real bent in time and so could be happy, 
as well as industrious, in his work. Their natural regrets are 
overcome. They think of it not as a frustrated, but as in every 
real sense a complete Ufe, remembering as they do that 

" . . .in short measures life may perfect be." 

H.R. 

(g) 



(i) 



PREFACE 



This study — of local royal government in Lincolnshire durmg 
the years 1294-8, when Edward I was at war with Philip IV of 
France — was undertaken for the Lincoln Record Society at the 
suggestion of Professor F. M. Stenton. It is based primarily upon 
the existing records (at the PubUc Record Office) of a general 
enquiry, ordered by Edward in March, 1298, into the conduct of 
royal ministers in the counties since the war began. All but a 
small proportion of these records are now, unhappily, lost, but 
the fragments remaining are of considerable worth, especially as 
regards the development, under the stress of a major war, of the 
ancient royal right of prise. The importance of this lies in the 
attention it called to the question of government by the wardrobe 
through the use of the privy seal. This point is developed in the 
Introduction. «>, 

For Lincolnshire there is fortunately extant one complete roll 
(P.R.O. Assize Roll 505) of pleas heard and determined under 
the terms of the 1298 enquiry and hitherto unpubHshed. I do _ 
not think that this represents the whole of the findings of the 
justices appointed to hold pleas in that county ; it is a final, rather 
than a day-to-day record. In consequence there are manj' 
details of considerable local interest which cannot be satisfactorily 
worked out, especially concerning the relationships of local royal 
officials with one another, and those of private individuals simi- 
larly ; and there are also questions of more than local importance 
which a study of the Lincolnshire roU alone — or even of the 1298 
enquiry alone — can only introduce. In investigating these matters 
I have gone beyond the bounds of Lincolnshire, but the conclusions 
set forth in the Introduction should, nevertheless, not be regarded 
as other than prehminary. 

My object in editing and introducing the text of Assize Roll 505 
has been two-fold. On the one hand I have tried to present a 
picture of the war-time administration of Lincolnshire itself ; this 



(ii) 

was not so very different from peace-time administration save in 
the number and kind of restrictions and burdens imposed : and 
if at the same time vignettes of the lives of obscure individuals 
appear, that is an advantage. On the other hand I have been 
concerned to show that what affected the daily lives of the people 
of Lincolnshire, vital to them though it was, had also a significance 
far other than local. The real value of these fragmentarv records 
of the 1298 enquiry lies, I think, in both directions ; and this, 
after all, conforms to the purpose of the enquiry itself. It originated 
in the war-time experience of the central authority and in the 
king's ability to feel the pulse of his people ; it proceeded from 
the central authority to the counties of England, and in due course 
it returned again to the central authority, filled with information 
which ought to have resulted in national reforms — information 
which is indeed reflected in the provisions of the Articuli super 
Cartas of 1300. 

The inclusion of biographical matter in the Index of Persons 
ought to be mentioned. This, so far as I know, is a departure 
from general practice, and can only be done in the case of a record 
which is itself purely local in extent and which covers only a limited 
period in time. I have collected together all the information 
about individuals mentioned in Assize Roll 505 that I could find 
in the time and with the means at my disposal. The details were 
mostly taken from other contemporary records at the Public Record 
Office ; and while, as is to be expected, there are very many names 
against \\hich no information is entered, other than what is given 
in Assize Roll 505 itself, in a surprisingly large number of cases 
1 have been able to add a good many facts. Much of the extra 
information is about persons who, while certainly free, were below 
knight's rank : just the section of the population about whom 
information is most needed. If the impression conveyed by a 
study of this index is one of varied and continuous activity in a 
community much concerned with its own affairs but made aware, 
as a re.sult of the war, of matters of national importance, one 
purpose in compiling it will be served. The other will be attained 
if it proves of use to other students of Lincolnshire as it was during 
the last decade of the thirteenth century. 



( iii ) 
My thanks are especially due to Prof. Stcnton. to Prof. Hilda 
Johnstone, to Prof. V. H. Galbraith : to Miss Kathleen Major, 
who gave me facilities at the Diocesan Record Office, Lincoln, 
and whose advice has been invaluable ; to Miss Mabel H. Mills, 
who checked my text and placed at my disposal much information, 
some of it unpublished ; to Dr. Harry Rothwell. who gave freely 
of his time and knowledge, and who helped me to steer safely 
through many a diificulty — I am in debt to them all for their 
constant encouragement and penetrating criticism — and to the 
staff of the search rooms at the Public Record Office for their 
never-failing courtesy and helpfulness. 

W. SINCLAIR THOMSON. 
July, 1940. 

P.S. — In seeing Dr. Thomson's book into print I have confined 
the revision to such obvious last-minute tasks as he himself would 
have undertaken had he been spared. Circumstances did not 
permit full consideration of the final form it assumed in his hands. 
Changes would still have been made, but I have thought it better 
not to attempt them for him, and nothing has been done to make 
it anything but Thomson's book. 

It remains for me too to thank Miss K. Major, whose special 
knowledge of Lincolnshire has been unreservedly at my disposal 
and whose willing co-operation has lightened my task at every 
stage. The indexes, as important as they are exacting with a book 
of this kind, are, apart from biographical matter, her work. I am 
also indebted to Prof. Galbraith, for reading the book and for 
helpful criticism of it at the proof stage. 

H. ROTHWELL. 
Edinburgh. 1942. 



(V) 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
IN MEMORIAM -------- e 

PREFACE --------- i 

TABLE OF CONTENTS ------ v 

ABBREVIATIONS ___---_ vii 

INTRODUCTION : 

The Commission of Enquiry _ _ _ - - ix 

Itinerary of the Justices ------ xvi 

The War and Lincohishire _ - - - - xxvi 

The Smaller Burdens __-_-- xxxiii 

Taxes on Movables ------- xlii 

Prises ad Opus Regis ------ lil 

Jury Sei-vice ------- Ixxxviii 

The Royal Officials of A.R. 505 - - - - xci 

Plaintiffs, Jurors and others ----- cii 

Remedies _-___--- ex 

Causes of IVIisgovernment : the Place of the 1298 

Enquiry ------- cxxiii 

TEXT OF ^.iJ. 505 - - - - - - - 1 

APPENDICES : 

I. Royal Ordmance of 4 AprU, 1298 - - - 136 

II. Royal Officials in Lincolnshire, 1294-8 - - 137 

III. Analysis of Burdens - - - - -179 

IV. Transcript of P.R.O. Sheriffs' Administrative 

Accounts, no. 568/1 - - - - - 184 

BIBLIOGRAPHY - - - - - - - -191 

INDEX OF PERSONS -------195 

INDEX OF SUBJECTS ------ 274 

INDEX OF PLACES ------- 285 

INDEX OF COUNTIES AND COUNTRIES - - - 301 



( vii ) 



ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTES 

Editorial annotations are placed within square brackets ; this 
applies also to numbering of membranes and to modern forms of 
dates. Case numbers are also editorial but are not given in 
brackets ; so is the abbreviation Marg. (marginalia), which is 
printed in italics. 

After the first entry, w^hich is extended, the following abbrevia- 
tions are used in the text, the first two throughout, the rest only 
where the MS. abbreviates them : 

m'ia for miser icordia. 

f. for filius and cases ; filia is extended where used. 

I for libra and cases. 

m. for marca and cases. 

s. for solid us and cases. 

d. for denarius and cases, when used for specific sums of 

money. When used for money in general I follow the 

MS. again and extend. 
ob. for obelus and cases. 
qu. for quadrans and cases. 

When a series of entries relating to a single wapentake is enrolled, 
the scribe usually enters the name of the wapentake marginally 
to the first of the series only. For convenience of identification 
in such cases, I have added the name of the wapentake in square 
brackets where I am sure of it after each entry in these series, '^-s^ 

Note on marginalia : to save space it has been found necessary j 
to place the marginalia at the end of each entry, e.g. no. 7, which 
in the original appears thus : 

" Bullyiigbrok' Alanus Bouthe de Kyrkeby balliuus Libertatis 
m'ia de Bulljoibrok' in m'ia quia non est executus 
preceptum domini Regis." 

This interference with the arrangement of the original inevitably 
tends to obscure the significance of the marginalia, so that some 
comment on it is necessary. In the MS. the locaUty guide, where 
there is one, is always placed marginally against the opening words 
of the case. The marginal m'ia is placed approximately against 
the fine containing the statement to which it refers, and other 
marginal comments, such as Gaole, the symbolic est — -^ — , ad 
scaccarium, and so forth, are similarly arranged. In my text I 
have in all cases arranged the marginaha in the same order 
(horizontally) in which they are found (vertically) in the original. 
In case no. 229. with its numerous marginalia, I have resorted to 
the device of inserting small letters against the words in the text 



viii ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTES 

to which the marginalia apply, and of repeating these letters against 
the relevant marginalia. 

The numerous statements Postea fecit finem . . . were in general 
enrolled at a later date than the cases themselves, often in another 
hand, and not. of course till the fine had been made, as witness 
an occasional marginal non dum fecit finem. It is when the postea 
fecit finem . . . was entered that the marginal Gaole would be 
scored out. 



MSS. AND PRINTED BOOKS 

Anc. Ext. — P.R.O. Ancient Extents. 

A.R.— P.R.O. Assize Roll. 

Ass. Arch. Soc. R.P. — Associated Architectural Societies' Reports 
and Papers. 

B. Cott. — Bartholomew Cotton, Historia Anglicana. 

C.C.R.— Calendar of Close Rolls. 

C.Ch.R.— Calendar of Charter Rolls. 

C.F.R.— Calendar of Fine RoUs. 

C.P.R.— Calendar of Patent Rolls. 

Chanc. ]\Iisc. — P.R.O. Chancery Miscellanea. 

C*ust. Accts. — P.R.O. Customs Accounts. 

E.H.R. — Enghsh Historical Review. 

F.A. — Feudal Aids, vol. iii. 

Foed. — Rymer, Foedera. 

K.R.M.R. — P.R.O. Memoranda Rolls, King's Remembrancer. 

L.T.R.M.R. — P.R.O. Memoranda Rolls, Lord Treasurer's Remem- 
brancer. 

Lay Subs. Roll— P.R.O. Lay Subsidy Roll. 

Min. Accts. — P.R.O. Ministers' Accounts. 

Pollock and Maitland — Pollock, Sir F., and Maitland, F. W., History 
of ErujUsh Law (2nd Ed.). 

Reg. Sutt. — Register of Oliver Sutton (Lincoln Diocesan Record 
Office, Register I). 

Rent, and Surv. Roll — P.R.O. Rental and Survey Rolls. 

S.C— Stubbs, Select Charters (9th Ed.). 

Stubbs — Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (3rd Ed.). 

W. Hem. — Walter of Hemingburgh, Chronicon (ed. Hamilton, 
1848-9). 
I have also frequently slightly shortened long titles of publica- 
tions, but not, I hope, in such a way as to obscure them, or so much 

that they ought to appear in the present list. 



(IX) 

INTRODUCTION 
I 

THE COADnSSION OF ENQUIRY 

On Friday, March 14th, 1298. Edward I returned to England 
from Flanders, having agreed to a truce between himself and 
Philip IV of France, with whom he had been at war for rather 
more than three years. Next day he had writs issued summoning 
a council to be held on the 30th. ^ At this council were discussed 
the practical steps to be taken for the redress of public grievances 
against the royal administration of the war period, and the king 
and council together drew up an ordinance for redress.- Letters 
patent of April 4th appointed justices to hear pleas, under the terms 
of the ordinance, in all the counties of England except Northumber- 
land. Cumberland, Westmorland, Durham and Chester.^ Records 
of the enquiry survive for Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Nottinghamshire, 
Yorkshire, Suffolk, Gloucester, Worcester and Staffordshire, of which 
the Norfolk and Lincolnshire roUs are the most complete.' Assizer 
Roll 505, the basis of the present study, is the record for Lincolnshu-e. 

It is no part of this study to trace the antecedents of the war 
which broke out against France in June, 1294, after many acts 
of violence by land and especially by sea ; still less is an account 
of the war itself called for.^ The place for relevant historical detail 
of a general nature is in conjunction with an account of the war 
as it came home to Lincolnshire in the form of burdens laid upon 
the people, and there, where necessary, these details wiU be given. 

But the immediate antecedents of the 1298 enquiry are 
important for an appreciation as to why, from the king's stand- 
point, an enquiry was called for at all. A baronial crisis, provoked | 
by the Earls ^Marshal and Constable, was precipitated when it i 
became known that certain of the baronage were to go to Gascony, 
but that the king was himself to lead an army against Philip from 
Flanders. When the military levy met at London in July 1297, 
the Earls Marshal and Constable not only refused their duty of 
organising it but also refused service either in Gascony or Flanders. 

» Pari. Writs, i, p. (55. 

- See below, p. xiii. 

^C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 338. 

* For these particulars I am indebted to Dr. H. Rothwell ; cf. also his 
note on " The Disgrace of Richard of Loutli," in E.H.R. xlviii, pp. 259-64. 

^ For a general account of the war of 1294-8 and its repercussions see 
Hunt, W., and Poole, R.L. {Gd.), Political History oj England, iii (1216-1377), 
by T. F. Tout, Chap. X, pp. 186-209. The more purely constitutional 
aspects of the struggle are treated in Slubbs. ii, pp. 123-48. 

B 



X INTRODUCTION 

They based theii* decision on feudal grounds, and on the same 
grounds they carried a considerable proportion of the baronage 
with them. Edward persisted in his purpose, committed thereto 
by his alliance with the Count of Flanders, but he left a formidable 
opposition behind him when he sailed for Flanders late in 
August. 

The baronial revolt was the more serious because of its attempt 
to enlist popular support. The question of feudal irregularity, 
taken by itself, was a personal one as between the Ijarons and 
the king, though action resulting from it might aflFect the national 
welfare ; but the Earls joined it to a much wider demand. This 
was embodied in a manifesto^ which not only recited the feudal 
complaint, but added a detailed list of alleged public grievances,^ 
and these were made to lead up to the fundamental and ominous 
demand for a new confirmation of Magna Carta and the Charter 
of the Forest. 

It is the first three sections of this manifesto, and the pen- 
ultimate one, which are of greatest significance for the present 
study. The feudal grievance is first recited : the terms of the 
summons to mfiitary service are not sufficiently definite. It is 
reported that the king intends to go to Flanders, but the baronage 
feel that they owe no service there, since neither they nor their 
ancestors have ever done such service before. And in any case 
they are unable to perform service overseas, because they are so 
much burdened by tallages and ' prises of corn, of oats, of malt, 
of wool, hides, oxen, cows, salted flesh '^ ; for which they are not 
paid, and by which they should have been maintained. Therefore 
they can give the king no help because of these tallages and prises, 
for they can scarcely live themselves or cultivate their lands. 

This complaint is significant, both in itself and in regard to 
its consequences. It will be sliown that the question of prise 
ad opus regis^ is made the cardinal point of enquiry in 1298 : that 
is the measure of the importance attached to it by both king and 
council. And — to return to the Earls' manifesto — this same 
complaint against prises is made the ground of the more general 
but more fundamental grievance which they next state at length : 
that they, baronage, clergy and people alike, are no longer governed 
according to the laws and customs of the land ; and especially 

' Known only from the chroniclers, from Cotton (p. 325) and Heming- 
burgh (li. 124) in a French, and from Trivet (p. 360) and Rishanger (p. 175) 
in a Latin version. The precise date and genesis of this text are alike un- 
kno\^ n. 

* The evidence of A.R. 505 as to this is somewhat conflicting. While 
Edward's war undoubtedly led to hardship, it will be shown that the com- 
plaints recorded in the roll are in tlie main of slightly different character. 

* " . . de furment, de aveyne, bres, leynes, quirs, boefs, vaches, chars 
.sales . ."' 

* Didcussed below in detail, pp. lii-l.xxxviii. 



INTRODUCTION xi 

that the articles of the Great Charter are now heing continually 
broken. This part of the manifesto leads to a veiled threat 
as to the consequences of continued misgovernraent. And lastly 
(for our purpose), in the penultimate section the Earls complain 
bitterly of the maltote on wool — a heavy increase in the customs 
rates upon wool for export. The old rate had been half a mark 
per sack of wool and one mark per last of hides ^ : the new rate, 
imposed in 1294, was five marks per sack of good wool, three marks 
per sack of inferior wool and five marks per last of hides.- 

Edward was under no illusion as to the danger inherent in 
this manifesto, especially since he knew that it was being widely 
circulated ; and he felt it necessary to issue to all sheriffs, on 
August 12th, 1297, a letter giving his otnti official version of the 
situation, with instructions that the letter should be made public' 

In it he explains at length the defection of the Earls Marshal 
and Constable from their duty, and then comes to the question 
of the manifesto. It may be, he says, that some have given the 
people to understand tliat the Earls showed him certain articles 
for the common profit of the people of the realm ; but he knows 
nothing of this, for they showed him nothing, nor did they cause 
anything to be shown him. At the same time, the king reveals 
that he is well aware of the contents of the manifesto. He recites 
some of the grievances expressed therein, explains why he has 
been compelled to burden his people — the wars stirred up in 
Gascony, France, Scotland and elsewhere, from which he could 
defend neither himself nor his realm without the help of his ' good 
people '. It grieves him that he has burdened and injured them 
so much ; and he prays them to accept this as his excuse, since 
what was taken did not go to buy lands, tenements, castles or 
vills, but to defend himself and them all. If God permits him 
to return from the present expedition to Flanders, he has the will 
and a ' great desire ' to make full amends, according to the will 
of God and the wish of his people, as soon as he may. 

There follows an expedient proviso that should he not return, 
he will require his heir to act for him in this matter ; and a not 
less expedient defence of the proposed expedition to Flanders. 
This, he says, has been undertaken to assist his ally the Count of 
Flanders, and it is an urgent necessity, for if the Count were to 
be defeated, the realm (of England) might fall into great peril. 
The king then promises to confirm the Charters, on condition that 
the baronage, clergy and burgesses make him a general grant in 
aid, of which he stands in great need. And after exhorting the 

1 Pari. Writs, i, p. 1. 

* K.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 82. The rate for good wool was afterwards 
reduced to three marks. 

3 B. Cott., pp. 330-4 ; cf. Foed. i, pp. 872-3. I have used Cotton's text 
but have made no attempt to do more than summarise, without actually 
translating the more relevant parts of the letter, which is ven,' long. 



x\\ TNTRODUOTION 

people to believe only the royal version of what followed the 
defection of the Earls Constable and Marshal (since this is the only 
tnie version), the letter ends on a note of warning. There is a 
reminder of previous discords between king and people — a refer- 
ence, no doubt, to the baronial wars under Henry III — and a threat 
that if men now believe these things to be other than they are, a 
quarrel may ensue more perilous and graver than ever was in this 
land. All troublers of the realm, and all who help them with 
money, horses, arms or equipment, will be excommunicated : that 
is to say, of course, that all who help the rebellious Earls and their 
party may expect to suffer for it. Having issued explanation, 
warning and threat, Edward closes an astute piece of propaganda 
\^-ith a confident reiteration of his trust in the people to support 
the Flanders expedition. 

The meetings of July 1297 initiated by the military levy and 
the Earls' refusal of military duty had won from Edward a 
promise, repeated, as we have seen, in his letter to the sheriffs, 
of a new confirmation of the Charters if the clergy would give a 
subsidy, the baronage a grant of one eighth of movables and the 
burgesses one of one fifth. ^ The grant was unw^illingly consented 
to, but the political tide was running strongly against the king ; 
and apart from the unpopularity of the Flanders project, the 
magnates were determined to have the Charters confirmed anew. 
When, therefore, as soon as the king had sailed for Flanders,'- the 
Earls Marshal and Constable appeared vi et armis at the head of 
their supporters before the Exchequer, with the backing of the 
Londoners and the implicit sympathy of the clergy, and similarly 
at the parliament of September 30th, ^ they were able to enforce 
not only the desired and promised confirmation, but also to abolish 
the grant of one eighth and one fifth and substitute for it in the end 
a flat rate of one ninth. Edward, deeply committed in Flanders, 
and faced with the threat of civil war at home, had no choice but to 
comply, a necessity the more urgent because of the recent defeat 
of the Enghsh at Stirling Bridge (September Uth) and the sub- 
eequent advance of the Scots to the border."* 

Tt is, I think, significant that Edward's first pubhc act after 
his return from Flanders was to set up an enquiry into the type 
of grievance alleged by the Earls. Besides their demand for the 
^confirmation of the Charters they had required the enactment of 
supplementary articles, the ' Confirmation of Charters ' of 1297, 
which amounted among other things to an agreement not to draw 
into a precedent the taking of prises and similar actions, over and 
above the ancient and well -recognised ones. There is, it is true, 

' Cf. Stubbs, ii, p. 136. 

»Aug. 22nd, 1297: L.T.R.M.Ii. no. 6S. n<. 08d. 

" W.'Hem. ii, p. 147. 

♦Cf. B. Cott., p. 337. 



INTRODUeriON xiii 

no evidence that Edward made any specific promise beforehand 
to enquire into grievances by legal process, but apart from the 
general undertaking implicit in the (Confirmation of Charters, there 
is the somewhat vaguely phrased assurance in the royal letter of 
August 12th, to the effect that the king wishes all to know his inten- 
tion and desire to make full amends according to the wish of his 
people, as soon as he may.^ This assurance, coupled with the fact 
that he lost no time in setting up an enquiry into grievances on 
his return, does suggest rather pointedly that ho had had the idea 
of a general enquiry in l\is mind ever since the seriousness of the 
situation was brought home to him. Grounds of expediency seem 
to support this view. It would help to reassure the discontented 
section of the baronage and could not fail to impress the people 
at large, and the allegiance of all sections of the community was 
essential in \-iew of the Scottish menace. To remove this menace, 
war would have to continue and would have to be carried into 
Scotland, and the community would again be called upon to furnish 
suppHes for the army. They would be the more ready to do this 
if they were given a practical demonstration of the king's concern 
for their interests. If this view be correct, the 1298 enquiry does 
then possess a pohtical significance of its own, apart from its 
bearing upon the constitutional and administrative issues of the 
time. 

At the council meeting which began on March 30th, 1298, and / 
in accordance with the royal promise, an ordinance for^redress 1 
was drawn up and issued under date April 4th2 : 
■ Since the king, before his passage into Flanders, had the v,t11 and the 
desire to cause to be redressed and amended the grievances done to 
his people in his name, and upon this will send his letters through all 
the counties of England, in order to put this object into effect : It is 
ordained by him and by his council that the enquirers,^ who are appointed 
to enquire concerning all manner of griev{'.nces, ma2ie enquiry concerning 
thing.s taken away from Holy Church, and of prise4 of wool, wool-fells, 
hides, corn, beasts, flesh, fish and all other kind?; of things throughout 
the realm, from the clergj' and the laity, since the war begun between I 
the king of France and him ; were this for the defence of the sea or 
hi other manner. And they shall enquire likewise of those by whom 
and to whom, and of what and how many, and of the value and how, 
and in what manner these prises and grievances were caused to the 
people. And these matters they shall hear and determine, as well 
through [their] office as at the suit of anyone. And when the truth 
of these things shall be ascertained, whether tliis was [done] by warrant 
or without warrant : let that which shall have been taken without 

^ See above, p. xi. 

- The text, in P.R.O. Patent Roll, 26 Ed. I, m. 21, is given in Appendix I. 

=* The ordinance as first drawn up (P.R.O. Pari. Proc. file ii, no. 26), 
which I have seen, specifies four persons : two knighte, one sent by the 
central authority, and one chosen locally ; one clerk and one religious, both 
local men. This arrangement was adhered to. 



L 



xiN INTRODUCTION 

warrant be returned to those who have received the damage, if the 
uTonc-doers have the where-withal, and besides this, [let them be] 
punished for the trespass. And if they have not the wherewithal, those 
to whom the warrants and commissions have come, as sheriffs, appointed 
clerks, bailiffs and otiier such manner of ministers, shall be answerable 
for their subordinates who shall have made such prises. And that 
concernins: what shall be found [to have been] taken by warrant, let 
the king be certified of this, and he will do therein so much that they^ 
shall hold themselves reasonably paid.' 

The accompanying commissions of oyer and terminer were 
issued under the great seal to the justices 'appointed to conduct 
the enquiry, and were also dated April 4tli, 1298.- Similarly letters 
clo.-^e were sent to the bishops, commanding them to appoint clerks 
and religious in theii' several dioceses. The bishop of Lincoln 
was to appoint one clerk and one religious to assist the justices 
in the counties of Lincoln, Rutland and Northampton, and these 
A\ ere to be men ' whom he shall deem fit and circumspect to execute 
the premises.'' The names of these two men are unfortunately 
not mentioned in any of the records which I have examined ; so 
that when we think of the justices travelling about Lincolnshire 
holding pleas, we must also imagine two anonymous clerics in 
constant consultation with them. 

In the commissions as issued two justices are appointed for 
each of a group of adjacent counties. "^'^he justice sent down by 
the central authority would be a civil servant trained in the law, 
but he would be less likely to have the necessary local knowledge ; 
it was to remedy this deficiency that the local men were called 
upon. 

The men ultimately responsible for the Lincolnshire enquiry 
Were William Inge and Richard of Walsingham. Of Walsingham 
little need be said. He was less a law-yer than a landowner of 
knightly rank who, like others of his class, might be called upon 
to assist in the administration of justice. After the 1298 enquiry 
ended he was given occasional commissions of oyer and terminer' : 
he represented Norfolk in the parliaments of 1300, 1301, and 1305: 
he was summoned as a justice to Edward II's first parliament 
and acted in a judicial capacity from time to time thereafter.'' 
But he was not. however, originally nominated to the 1298 
commission." 

' Those from whom tho prise.s have been taken. 

^C.P.E. 1202-1301. p. 338. 

^ C.C.R. 1290-1302, p. 204. 

«Cf. C.P.B. 1292-1301, pp. 472-3, 476, 509, 545, 552; C.C.R. 1296- 
1302, p. 533. 

* Foss, Judges of England, iii, p. 311. 

" The lists of justices appointed to this commission, as given in the 
Patent and Close Rolls, do not altogether tally. For the Lincoln group of 
counties the Patent Roll (C.P.F. 12M2-1301, p. 338) gives William Inge 
and John de Cokefeld. This is later .supplemented {Ibid., p. 354) on 



INTRODUCTION x% 

Inge is a much more important person from the royal point 
of view ; he was a professional lawyer of high standing. During / 
the trial of the judges, 1289-93, he acted as king's attorney who 
sequiiur pro rege.^ He became a justice of assize in 1293 and 
remained such till the end of Edward I' reign,- and it is in this 
capacitj^ that we find copious reference to him in the Patent and 
Close Rolls. ^ In 1301, moreover, his name appears in a hst of i 
members of the king's council' ; by 13ir) he had become chief 
justice of the King's Bench, ^ and he died in 1321 or 1322 seised 
of considerable lands, which were scattered over no fewer than 
te^ counties ! ® Inge, therefore, is seen to have been a tried, proved 
and very efficient civil servant of the cro^vn, well qualified for the ■ 
work given him in April 1298. It was to keep him busy for the ' 
rest of the year. 

June 17th, by the association of Walsingham with Inge in place of Cokefeld. 
in reference to whom tliis statement is made in parenthesis : "' heretofore 
associated in the room of Thomas de Snyterton." The problem is solved 
by the Close Rolls {C.C.R. 1296-1302, p. 204) where under date Apr. 4th, 
1298, the King appoints John de Insula and Thomas Snyterton for the 
Lincoln group. 

* Tout and Johnstone, State Trials of Edward I {Camden Soc, 3rd sei'. 
vol. IX, p. xxv). Foss, however, iii, p. 268. place.s his appearance as 
King's attorney as far back as 1287. 

- Foss, iii, p. 268 ; cf. C.C.R. 1288-96, pp. 319-20. When, on June 7th. 
1293, Edward and his council issued a commission to take all the assizes 
in every county in England, Inge was one of the justices appointed to a 
large group of Midland counties, extending from Lincohi to Gloucester. 

' E.g. trespass of land and theft of its appurtenances, cf. C.P.R. 1292- 
1301, p. 623, and many other refs. ; forced distraint, cf. Ibid., p. 619 : 
housebreaking and theft, cf. Ihid., 622 ; arson, cf. Ibid., 217, and tlie like ; 
deflection of rivers and usurpation of liberties, cf. Ibid., 317 ; appeals for 
murder, cf. Ibid., 621. Fiequent commissions of gaol delivery are given 
him, cf. Ibid., 555 : he holds assizes of novel disseisin, cf. C.C.R. 1296-1302, 
p. 113, and mort dances-tor, cf. Ibid., 160, and has to deal with forcible and 
illegal removal of criminals from sanctuary, cf. Ibid., 453-4. And he once 
had to assist in a perambulation to fix part of the boundary between Shrop- 
shire and Stafiordshire, cf. Ibid., 117. In 1299 he is appointed with others 
to make the perambulation of the forest beyond Trent '' According to the 
tenor of the Carta de Foresta," cf. C.P.R. 1202-1301, 441, 454; and in 
the same year he and another are to assist in investigating offences com- 
mitted in tliree counties since the French war against the statute of 1298 
relating to French money. And of his day-to-day business there is one 
illustration from A.R. 505 itself : on March 24th, 1298, less than a fortnight 
before his appointment to the enquirj- into grievances, he and Adam de 
Crokedayk were hearing a case of novel disseisin at Stamford (231). 

* C.C.R. 1296-1301, p. 485. Baldwin, J. F., Ihe Kir.ffs Council, p. 76, 
states that Inge was a sworn member of the council in 1306 but had been 
summoned to parliament, with others of the council, since 1295» 

^ Foss, iii, p. 269. 
•/6irf,. p. 270. 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

II 

ITINERARY OF THE JUSTICES 

Inge and Walsingham's circuit covered the counties of 
Lincoln, Northampton, Rutland, Norfolk and Suffolk. The sketch 
of their itinerary which follows must be, in part, conjectural, 
because the material is incomplete : only the rolls for Lincolnshire 
and Norfolk survive in full. That for Suffolk is fragmentary,^ 
and those for Rutland and Northampton have disappeared. Thus 
I have only been able to -oork out the Lincoln and Norfolk itineraries 
accurately, and can do no more than suggest how certain gaps 
therein may have been filled. 

Presumably Inge began his circuit in April or May with Suffolk, 
the obvious starting point in relation to London. From Suffolk 
he would naturally pass to Norfolk,'^ and we find him there from 
June 18tli to July 19th, when he visited Suffolk for a week,-^ or 
perhaps re-visited it. Returning to Norfolk, he spent roughly 
another week there before entering Lincolnshire on August 11th. 
Here he remained, certainly till the 19th, probably till September 
Ist.* After this latter date there is a break in the enrolment of 
pleas in Lincolnshire corresponding to one in the hearing of them. 
It lasts tOl October 19th or 20th,'' but Inge was not idle all this time, 
as the Norfolk rolls prove, since he re- visited that county on 
September 30th and heard pleas there until some day between 
October 15th and 19th.'' Where he was during the month of 
September and what he was doing is not known, but of his return 
to Lincolnshire on or about October 19th we are sme. He spent 
the rest of the month at Grantham and Stamford, but then 
disappeared again for about six weeks,' returning to Stamford to 

1 One membrane only, numbered A.R. 842. 

«P.R.O. Assize Rolls 1/587-8. 

^ A.R. 842, ni, 1. He was in Suffolk from Monday, July 2l8t, to 
Saturday, July 26th, inclusive. This circumstance strengthens the likeli- 
hood that he began his circuit with Suffolk. 

* See pp. xviii-xix. '' See p. xix, note .5. 

* See Table I, p. xxi. 

' These six weeks would provide ample time for transacting business 
in Rutland and Northamptonshire, to both of which access is easy, either from 
Grantham or, especially, from Stamford. In the absence of proof, however, 
I can only suggest that Inge spent the November in these counties and used 
September, forming as it did part of the long vacation, to take a lioliday, 
no doubt much needed. I assume he began the circuit with Suffolk, and 
this seems the commonscnse course, in support of which, negatively, I can 
tind no issue of special commissions to him during that September. The 
long vacation extended from July 2nd to October 9th, and the Christmas 
one from November 29th to January 22nd. But comjjarison of dates shows 
that the enquiry was continued into both vacation?. This may perhaps 
be taken as a measure of its urgency. 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

hear pleas there from December 11th to 15th. at which date the 
enquiry terminates so far as Lincolnshire is concerned. 

Inge's conduct of the enquiry in the Lincolnshire section of 
his circuit took, therefore, the form of a series of tliree short visits 
to the county, separated by two prolonged absences from it. The 
first of these visits lasted at most three weeks and was followed 
by a break of six weeks ; the second visit covered only some 
thirteen days, followed by another absence of six weeks, while the 
third and perhaps busiest visit occupied a mere five days, at least 
so far as the records go. 

Before examining these spasmodic visitations in somewhat 
greater detail, it must be stated that the dates given for the sessions 
in the headings to the membranes of A.ii. 505 are misleading as 
to the length of the sessions actually held in any one place. A 
fully dated heading does not necessarily mean that all the cases 
enrolled under it were heard on that day, or that when the enrol- 
ments are continued on to the dorse and even to a fresh membrane 
without new headings, they still fall under the day originally 
specified. They may do so, but more often the full heading gives 
only the day on wliich the court 6e^a» its sittings at a given place. 
Indeed, once this has been clearly set forth, the clerks' choice of 
dates for other membranes belongmg to the same session seem 
to be quite arbitrary, save that they always lie within the extreme 
time hmits olTthat particular session.^ 

For Lincolnshire, the enqiuiy opened on Monday, August Ilth, 
at Boston," and Inge was at once faced with the annoying but / 
common difficulty of noTi venit — persons failing to appear in cour^ 
when summoned to do so. The great bulk of the enrolments on 
the Boston membranes^ are of this nature. The sheriff was there- 
fore ordered to have most of the delinquents before the court, at 
Boston, on August 13th and 14th.' It is obvious, from these dates, 
that Inge, with an eye to the amount of work awaiting him, meant 

^ The dorse of m. 7, for example, affords proof of this. It is headed 
Adhuc de placitis and dated Friday, October 24th ; among the postponements 
on it are four (249-52), in each of which it is distinctly stated that certain 
juries, because they did not give their verdicts at Stamford on Sunday, 
October 26th {die Dominica ante festum Aposlolorum Simonis et lude), are 
in mercy. Here, in a membrane dated October 24th, is a plain statement 
of something which did not take place till the 26th. Comparison of dated 
headings with dates of postponements in the text merely, in case after case, 
strengthens the proof. 

»A.R. 505, m. 1. Heading. ^ m. 1, Id, 4. 

♦ Cf. m. 1 (4-6, 8, 10-17), to August 13th ; m. 1 (1, 18), m. Id (21-3, 27), 
to August 14th. It is probable that the cases entered on m. Id were taken 
at a later date than those entered ou m. 1 ; possibly on the 12th or 13th. 
And not every case on m. 1 was necessarily taken on the 11th. The isolated 
Boston case on ra. 4, from its position, was very probably taken towards 
the end of the aession there, though this is by no means certain (cf. note 
1, above.) 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

to continue there till the 14th, yet of the practical result of these 
days' work there is no trace, so far as Boston is concerned. But 
this does not invalidate the postponement dates, because AM. 505 
is a final, not a day-to-day record. 

On Saturday, August 16th, the court opened at Louth, having 
travelled from Boston the previous day, a distance of about 30 
miles. ^ Business was done there on that day- and also, apparently, 
on Sunday 17th,^ but the session appears to have been a lively 
one, for we are told in A.Ii. 505 (no. 133) that there occurred, 
before the justices themselves, what can only be described as an 
undignified brawl. It arose out of a quarrel between plaintiff and 
defendant : the plaintiff said that the defendant physically mal- 
treated him, to which the defendant replied that he did, but it 
was because the plaintiff had first pulled his nose ! 

All postponements on the Louth membranes are made out 

for Lincoln, Monday, August ISth- : Inge had to travel roughly 

25 miles across country,^ and if he proposed to open at Lincoln 

on the Monday morning, the court would almost certainly have 

had to rise at Louth at midday on the Sunday.^ 

^--^ A good deal of work should have been waiting to be done at 

I Lincoln, but of the ninety-eight enrolments on the Lincoln mem- 

\ branes' all but about seven are no7i venit, which probably accounts 

for Inge's ability to get through the work in so short a time as 

two days,* since if only half, even, of those summoned had appeared, 

the session could not possibly have been so compressed. 

At this point we approach the first break in the continuity 
of the Lincolnshire sessions. Since there is no obvious record in 
A.R. 505 of any business transacted at Lmcoln after August 19th, 

^ The most likely route from Boston appears to have been by Sibsey, 
along the Northdyke causeway to Stickney, then to Partney, Ulceby Cross, 
Swaby and so to Louth. But however he went, Inge would have had to 
cross the fens before he could reach higher ground in the Wolds. This 
might have been a matter of some difficulty if the Northdyke causeway 
happened to be out of repair, as it frequently was : cf. H. C. Darby, The 
Medieval Fenland, p. 115. 

* in. 4, 4d, 5. 

* Cf. m. 4 (138). The sheriff was ordered to distrain Richard of Brink- 
hill and have him at Louth on the Sunday next after the feast of the 
Assumption (August 17th). The sheriff did nothing in the matter. 

*Cf. m. 4 (132, 136, 138-41); m. 4d (142). All non venits on m. 6 
are put in mercy with no day given them. 

* But from about Bullington into Lincoln he would have the advantage, 
for what it was worth, of a Roman road. 

* He might have left Louth early on Monday morning and opened at 
Lincoln in the afternoon, but this is unlikely. To transport himself, his 
servants, clerks, legal and personal luggage was a slow business oven if 
packhorses were used, slower still with carts. At most they would not cover 
more than four or five miles in the hour ; thus to cover the 25 miles by dusk 
tliey would have to leave Louth shortly after midday. 

" m. 2, 2d, 3, 3d, 4d. " See Table 11, p. xxiv. 



INTRODUCTION xix 

one might assume that the court rose on that day and did not 
sit again anywhere in the shire until October, were it not for five 
entries on m. (i and three on m. 7d.^ In all of them it is distinctly 
stated that the jurors involved did not give their verdicts at 
Stamford on the Monday next after the Decollation of S. John — 
that is to say on September 1st — and are therefore in mercy. 
Bearing in mind the nature of A.R. 505,- it is probably correct 
to infer that these incidental references to a session held on Septem- 
ber 1st are references to preliminary hearings in which final decisions 
were postponed till the autumn.^ The evidence throws no light 
on what was happening between August 19th and 3l8t, but it is 
clear that Inge and Walsingham must have been present at 
Stamford on September 1st, for they were dealing not only 
with individual complaints made by private persons, but 
also, and principally, with presentments of juries, and these 
could only be heard by royal justices, not by any delegated 
authority.'* 

Inge returned to Lincolnshire from Norfolk to hear pleas at 
Stamford, the record of which begins on Monday, October 20th, ^ 
on m. 0, with a full heading, dated. There was much work to be 
got through at Stamford. It involved more than calling cases, 
and then merely having to instruct the clerks to enter up another 
non venit with a few relevant particulars attached and with or 
without a fresh summons : it meant a continuous session lasting 
eight, possibly nine, days, from Monday, October 20th (perhaps, 
as we have seen, from Sunday the 19th) until Monday, 27th. Its 
records, even in the summary style of A.R. 505, cover seven mem- 
branes.^ Inge and Walsingham must have permitted themselves 
a sigh of relief when, on the 27th, perhaps about midday, they 
could seriously consider the question of moving on to Grantham. 

They may have gone to Grantham on that day or the morning 

»m. G (194-8); m. 7d (253-5). 

- This is discussed on p. xxi seq. 

' The entries themselves reveal that in the last resort none of the jurors 
concerned, save those of Honicastle with Gartree, gave their verdicts at 
all ; none, at least, are recorded in A.R. 505. Those of EUoe (253) did not 
come, are to be before the justices in proximo adventu, and nothing more 
is heard of them ; those of Loveden (255) are re-summoned for October 31st 
at Grantham, and that is the end of them ; all the rest are merely put in 
mercy for non-appearance. As to those of Homcastle with Gartree, there 
is a marginal entrj", "' vacated because they gave it," but what verdict they 
gave or when is not recorded in A.R. 505. It is said at Stamford under 
December 13th of the jurors of Aswardhurn (197 ; cf. 442) that they did 
not come sicut eis iniunctum fiiit apud Stamford ; but the injunction is not 
to be found in A.R. 505. 

* Cf . H. Cam, The Hundred and tfie Hundred Rolls, p. 114. 

^ But cf. m. 11 (367), where the sheriff is ordered to have one William 
de Brune at Stamford on Sunday, 19th. This suggests that Inge arrived 
from Lynn not later than the 18th. 

" m. C, 6d, 7, 7d, 8, 8d. «. 



XX INTRODUCTION 

of the next.' The proceedings of the session there are recorded 
on four membranes- : only two dates are mentioned in the head- 
ings, those of the 28th and 29th October, but there is little doubt 
that Inge remained at Grantham till the 31st.^ Certainly there 
is quite enough business entered on these membranes to have 
kept him fully occupied for the last four days of October. 

Here occurs the second break in the Lincolnshire enquiry — 
the six weeks which, as we saw, Inge possibly spent in Rutland 
and Northamptonshire. That period ended with his return to 
Stamford in time to begin his last session in Lincolnshire on 
Thursday, December 11th. The amount of work to be done was 
considerable, and kept him and the court continuously busy from 
that day until Monday, 15th, including the Sunday. He may have 
gone on beyond the loth, but if he did there is no record of it. 
At any rate, the results of the five days we know he spent at 
Stamford at that time cover six membranes of the roll.^ As usual, 
the dated headings are misleading, save as to place. ^ 
^~ -" And so, on or about December 15th, 1298, Inge and Walsing- 
' ham completed for Lincolnshire the enquiry, if not the circuit to 
which Inge, at least, had been appointed the previous April,^ His 
circuit must have been one of the first to be completed ; in two, 
at least, of the other circuits there were serious delays. On 
April 30th, 1299, it is said of John de Bauquell, in charge of the 
counties of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Hampshire and Wiltshire, that 
he has been several times delayed from attending to this enquiry 
by other business of the king.' There was also delay in respect 
of Berkshire, Somerset, Dorset, Devon and Cornwall.^ Clearly 
the enquiry could be held up if the king required any of the justices 
for another purpose. Inge himself had a special commission issued 
to him on April 11th, 1298, seven days after his appointment to 
this enquiry." 

1 A full day's work could hardly have been done on the 27th if Inge 
was to open at Grantham next morning, unless he left Stamford on the 
morning of the 28th. This he might have done, for though the distance 
is only about 21 miles and the road for a good part of the way the old Ermine 
Street, the days were growing short by the end of October, the road sufficiently 
undulating to retard progress a little, and he would want to make the journey 
in daylight if he could. 

= m. 9d, 10, lOd, lid. * See below, pp. xxii-xxiii. 

* m. 12, 12d, 13, 13d, 14, 14d. The remaining membranes, 15 and 
lud, contain lists of juror.s. 

' See below, pp. xxi-xxiv. 

* Unless, indeed, they had to go back to Rutland and Northampton- 
shire, but this we cannot know unless by great good fortune the rolls for 
these counties have not been destroyed and happen to be discovered. 

'Cf. C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 411.' John de Bauquell was a knight and 
aldemian of the City of London, and seneschal of Ponthieu between 1299 
and 1305 (Tout, TJie Place of Edward JI in English History (1914), p. 246.) 

"/ftirf., p. 415. »Cf. C.P.E. 1292-1301, p. 377. 



INTRODUCTION 



XXI 



As the problems of the itinerary of the justices are in part 
also those of the construction of A.B. 505 itself, these must now 
be considered in some detail. I begin with a tabular representation 
of Inge's whole circuit, so far as it can be determined. 



Table I — Inge's and Walsingham's Circuit, 1298 



Date 
Before 18 June 
18 June 
25 June 
30 Juno 
7-10 Julv 
11-19 July 
21-26 July 
2 August 
7 August 
11-14 August 
16-17 August 
18-19 August (at least) 
1 September 
2-30 September 
30 September 
3-10 October 
15 October 
20 (19)-27 October 

28-31 October 

1 Xov.-lu Dec. (about) 

11-15 December 



County 
? SufJolk 
Norfolk 



Suffolk' 
Norfolk 



Place 

Norwicli 

Yarmouth 

Norwich 

Lynn^ 

Thetford 



Membranes 



Lines. 



? On vacation 
Norfolk 



Lines. 



? Rutland and 
Lines. 



Norwich 

Lynn^ 

Boston 

Louth 

Lincoln 

Stamford 



1. Id. 4 
4, 4d, 5 

2. 2d, 3, 3d. 4d 



Thetford 
Norwich 
Lynn* 
Stamford 

Grantham 



Northants 



6, 6d. 7. 7d, 8, 

8d, 9, 11 
9, 10, lOd, lid 



Stamford 



12, 12d, 13, 13d, 
14. 14d 



It has already been proved that the dates of the membrane 
headings are misleading, save to fix the commencement of a session. 
In estimating how long it lasted, internal evidence must be sought 
from the text ; and for this, dates of postponements are invaluable, 
as are the names of places to which summonses are postponed. 
For example, consideration merely of heading dates for Boston 
(August llth-14th, Table I) would produce the erroneous supposi- 
tion that the court sat there only on the 11th and 12th August. 
Comparison with the postponements at once shows that such cannot 
have been the case, for they are all except one to Boston for 
Wednesday and Thursday, August 13th and 14th. Why should 
Inge have made such orders if he had not intended to remain at 
Boston for these two days ? 

Comparison of the Lincoln headings (Table I) on m. 2, 2d 
and 4d proves that the Lincoln enrolments begin on m. 4d, with 
the full heading ' Pleas at Lincoln ' etc., the other two membranes 
being headed merely Adhuc. M. 3 and 3d are given no heading or 
date, but are clearly the results of the Lincoln session. Both 
membranes embody cases taken on August 19th, for on them it 
is recorded of three persons who failed to come on the 18th and 



^A.R. 587, 6S8. 
^ A.R. 587, 588. 



^A.R. 
*A.R. 



842. 
587, 



588. 



xxu 



INTBODUCTION 



were re-summoned for the 19th, that they again did not come 
(of. m. 4d, no. 147, with m. 3, no. 77 ; m. 2, no. 33, with m. 3, no. 
95 : and m. 2, no. 47, with m. 3d. no. 96). 

The October Stamford entries (Table I) begin on m. 6, dated 
(with a full heading) Monday, October 20th. Postponements are 
to Tuesday, 21st (nos. 171-82) and Wednesday, 22nd (no. 170). 
The entries are continued without a break on to m. 6d, which has 
no heading or date. The m. 6d postponements are all to Friday, 
24th (nos. 206-7, 222-8), but the next membrane, 7, is headed 
Adhuc and dated the 22nd, Presumably, therefore, m. 6 and 6d 
record business done on the 21st as well as on the 20th. Inge 
must have had a pretty clear idea by the 21st of how much work 
had to be overtaken on the 22nd ; he had already ordered some 
postponements for that day, so that any non venits on the 21st 
would have to be re-summoned, as they are on m. 6d, to a later 
date. On m. 7 there are but two postponements, one to Monday, 
27th, at Stamford (no. 230), the other to November 25th, but no 
place is mentioned.^ jNIost of the pleas given in full on m. 7 are 
long ones, and the terse final records which are also included are 
deceptive, since they give the reader no hint as to the amount 
of argimient and cross-examination which may well have gone to 
produce them ; thus it is reasonable to infer that this membrane 
also records under one date busmess that needed more than one 
day to finish. M. 7d and m. 11 should be taken together. Both 
are headed Adhuc and are dated October 24th. On m. 7d three 
postponements (nos. 242, 246-7) are to Monday, 27th, at Stamford, 
showing that the court was still sitting there on that day ; one 
to the 28th at Grantham ; two to the 31st at Grantham and two 
in proximo aduentu. But all the m. 11 postponements are to the 
28th or the 30th at Grantham. Probably, therefore, these two 
membranes are concurrent records, M. 8, 8d and 9 have neither 
heading nor date. From their position in the roll — not always a 
safe guide — and the absence of evidence to the contrary, I can 
only assume that they record business done at Stamford on any 
or all of the four days October 24th to 27th ; perhaps, indeed, the 
cases are spread over the whole eight or nine days of this session, 
since there may well have been loose ends, as it were, to be gathered 
together. If this is so, then these membranes are in their right 
place. 

The enrolment of Grantham cases (Table I, October 28th-3l8t) 
begins on m. 9 and is continued on m. 10, lOd, and lid, M, 9d 
has a full heading, but is dated October 29th, while m. 10, headed 

* But Inge was absent from Lincolnshire on the 25th (Table I). Un- 
less the clerks have made a complete blunder over the date, this would 
entail a journey for the parties concerned into Rutland or Northampton- 
shire ; although even if they had to go as far ns Kettering, the distance from 
Stamford would be no greater than, say, to Grantham. 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

Adhuc, bears the date 28th, when the Grantham session presumably 
began. M. lOd is headed Adhuc and not dated at all. Collating 
with these particulars the postponements to Grantham recorded 
on m. 7d and 11 (Stamford), we find that of the persons who failed 
to appear at Stamford and were therefore required to come to 
Grantham, none appeared there save one, a certain William Wan- 
thom. But the settlement of the complaint against him is given 
not on m. 7d but on m. lid, the dorse of a Stamford membrane 
but itself neither headed nor dated (no. 376). The other two 
cases on m. lid concern bailiffs of Winnibriggs whose names appear 
several times on the Grantham membranes ; and Grantham itself 
is in this wapentake. It is thus almost certain that m. lid belongs 
to the Grantham session and not, as appears at first sight, to the 
Stamford one. The dates of the postponements from Stamford 
to Grantham, ranging from October 28th to 31st, indicate that 
Inge meant to remain in Grantham for the rest of the month. The 
postponements on m. 10 and lOd — there are none on m. 9d — 
support this conclusion : they are all ad proximum aduentum. 

The Stamford membranes for December (Table I) are similar 
in form to the rest of the roll. M. 12 is given a full heading (' Pleas 
at Stamford,' etc.) and dated Thursday, December Uth. On it 
are two postponements, both to the 13th (nos. 380-1). The dorse 
of this membrane, 12d, is headed Adhuc and dated Friday, 12th, 
but there are no postponements on it. M. 13, however, also headed 
Adhuc, is dated Thursday, 11th, again ; it has four postponements 
to Saturday, 13th (412-15), and two to Monday, 15th (416-7). 
M. 13d has no date or heading ; there are two postponements, 
both ad proximum aduentum (432-3), suggesting that the cases 
entered on it came towards the end of the session. M. 14, headed 
Adhuc, is dated Saturday, 13th, and also has two postponements, 
both in proximo aduentu (450, 452). It records that Geoffrey of 
Bourne, chief constable of Kesteven, came to the court next day, 
Sunday, 14th : but one would have expected to find this information 
on m. 14d, which is dated the 14th, had the heading dates been 
accurate. 

The results of this detailed examination may perhaps be shown 
most graphically in tabular form : 

Table II — Construction of A.R. 

Chronological Order 

m. 1 Boston 11-14 Augiist 

IB. Id ,, „ 

m. 4 

m. 4 Louth 16-17 August 

m. 5 „ ,, 

m. 4d ,, ,, 

1 By full is meant a primary heading of the type of that on m. 1. [Below, 
p. 1] A secondary heading begins with the word Adhuc. e.g. m. \ff. 
[Below, p. 6] 



A.R. 505. 




Type of 


Case 


Heading 


Numbers 


FulP 


1— 19a 


Adhuci 


20— 32 


>» 


127 


Full 


128—141 


Adhuc 


153—169 


None 


142—146 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION 



~< 



■^i 



m. 4d 
m. 2 



Chronological Order 
Lincoln IS-ly AujaiBt 



m. 


2d 


, J 


1 » 


m. 


3 


, , 


1 f 


m. 


3d 




, ^ 


m. 


6 


Stamford 


20-27 October 


m. 


6d 


^ J 


ti 


m. 


7 


,, 


,, 


m. 


7d 


, , 


,, 


m. 


8 


,, 


,« 


m. 


8d 


1 • 


» 1 


m. 


9 


,, 


,, 


m. 


11 


1 » 


1 1 


m. 


9d 


Grantham 


28-31 October 


m. 


10 


,, 


,, 


m. 


lOd 


,, 


,, 


ra. 


Ud 


,, 


, , 


m. 


12 


Stamford 


11-15 Decembei 


m. 


12d 


,, 


j» 


m. 


13 


,, 


ft 


m. 


13d 


^ J 


,, 


m. 


14 


If 


VI 


m. 


14d 


r * 


,, 



Type of 
Headin<j 

Full 

Adhuc 

None 

FuU 

None 

Adhuc 

1 1 

None 



Adhuc 

Full 

Adhuc 

r I 

None 

Full 

Adhuc 

None 
Adhuc 



Numbers 

147—152 

33— 55 

56— 64 

65— 95 

96—126 

170— 198a 

199—228 

229—239 

240—255 

256—278 

279—293 

294—313 

366—375 

314—331 

332—361 

352—365 

376—379 

3S0— 393 

394—411 

412—420 

421—437 

438—455 

456— 458> 



L 



-^ The arbitrary use of heading dates, the summary nature of 

many of the entries themselves (cf. especially those beginning 

' Conuictum est per iuratam in quam A se posuit quod . . .'), the 

hint of a session being held on September Ist but not separately 

recorded (194-8, 253-5), are all evidence that A.R. 505 is a final, 

not a day-to-day record. But the question as to when it was put 

together admits of no easy or wholly satisfactory answer, for want 

of clear evidence. The issue, however, seems to be reducible to 

two possibilities : one, that it was not constructed until after the 

"whole enquiry was over ; the other, that it was built up out of 

day-to-day material as the enquiry progressed — perhaps in some 

such way as this, that after a session was finished at one place and 

had opened at another, some of the scribes would be engaged in 

sifting the information collected at the first place and entering up 

what was of importance, while the rest would be recording in detail 

the current business of the court. This, if conjectural, might at 

least account for the kind of inconsistency just mentioned, and 

might also account for the muddle of membranes 2 to 5. Mere 

carelessness in putting the membranes together for binding is not 

sufficient cause for this, nor for the position of the odd Stamford 

membrane 11, backed by a Grantham one, lid (see Table II). 

In this case, collation with the Stamford and Grantham headings 

(for October) reveals at once that the Stamford entries end on what 

is now called m. 11, but that the clerk began the Grantham ones 

on a fresh membrane altogether and only afterwards went back 

to the dorse of m. 11 to enter three odd Grantham cases (nos. 37(i-8) 

* The remaining two membranes contain lists of jurors only ; the nurn- 
berinp ia as follows: m. 15, nos. 459-482; m. 16d. noa, 483-498a. 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

for which it probably did not seem worth while to begin a ne\s 
membrane. Then, when the roll came to be sewn together, this 
Stamford membrane, with Grantham cases on the back, was con- 
fused with the Stamford membranes for December and put with 
them. 

Something of the same kind must have occurred in regard to 

the Boston, Louth and Lincoln membranes, over which there was 

a thorough muddle. Not only were they bound up in the wTong 

order, but there was considerable confusion in their construction 

also. An odd Boston case remained over after m. 1 and Id had 

been filled. The scribe quite properly takes a new membrane 

(called now m. 4) and begins it with this case (no. 127). Then 

the Louth cases have to be enrolled. Again quite properly he 

continues on the same membrane, after the Boston case, wath a 

full heading and the first of the Louth cases (nos. 128-141), and 

so fills up the membrane. But at this point, for some reason 

unknown, instead of continuing the Louth cases on the dorse of 

this membrane, he takes a fresh one altogether (m. 5), heads it 

Adhuc de placitis apud Liith, and tills it accordingly- (nos. 153-169). 

There are still a few Louth cases over. To enter them, he now 

goes back to the still blank dorse of m. 4 and uses it for these 

(nos. 142-146) — the same scribe, I think, is at work, for I can 

detect no difference in the handwriting — and finally, when the 

Lincoln cases have to be recorded, they are begun on what is 

left of the dor.se of m. 4 (nos. 147-52). Presumably the mistake 

was then discovered, for the Lincoln cases are continued on a new 

membrane, now m. 2 (nos. 33-58), with the result that the dorse 

of m. 5 was left entirely blank, and so remains. And when the 

roll came to be sewn together confusion was made worse by putting 

these membranes in entirely the wrong order, as Table II plainly 

reveals. All this goes to suggest that A.R. 505 was not compiled 

at one time (since if it was, such constructional errors would be 

much less likely to occur), but that the membranes were sewn 

together after the enquiry was finished. At this time, too, the 

copy of the royal ordinance and the Lincolnshire application of 

it must have been inserted on the dor.se on m. 11 (m. lid, no. 379), 

since the ordinance itself is dated December 16th — the enquiry 

ended in Lincolnshire, so far as we know, on the 15th — and at 

the earhest could not have reached Stamford till the 18th. Thus 

when all the evidence is considered the first of the two possibilities 

suggested above becomes considerably more remote than the 

second. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

III 

THE WAR AND LINC'OLNSHIRE 

This question is of course all-important, since it is the basic 
reason for the existence of .4.^. 505. But before the contents of 
the Roll can be understood, there must be some discussion of the 
burdens laid upon the county as a result of the war. and shared by 
the greater part of the realm : for although we are chiefly con- 
cerned with their local effects, nearly all these burdens were 
essentially of a national or semi-national character. And before 
beginning a detailed consideration of the burdens themselves, their 
administration b}'^ the various royal officials in the shire and the 
ensuing grievances presented by the people of Lincolnshire, it will 
be helpful to give a general view of what the war involved.^ 

The month of June, 1294, witnessed the first of a long series 
of what might be termed emergency war measures. On the 12th 
the king and council took drastic steps to control the very important 
export trade in wool, with the object of preventing supplies from 
falling into the hands of the enemy. The sheriff was ordered to 
seize all the wool, wool-fells and hides which he could find ; and 
to hold them in safe custody till he received further orders, and 
this was to be done without respect of persons.- In this way the 
wool-trade of the county was brought to a standstill, but only for 
the time being ; for some six weeks later, on July 26th, further 
orders were issued. From now onwards wool may again be exported 
by both denizen and alien merchants, except those under the power 
and dominion of the king of France : but on conditions. Since 
the king must have money speedily if he is to resist the malice of 
his enemies, wool for export must now, for two or three years if 
the war should last so long, pay customs duties at the ports of 
exit not according to the old rates, but at new and much heavier 
rates^ (this is the ' maltote ' complained of by the Earls Marshal 
and Constable in their manifesto of 1297). Moreover, wool may 
no longer be exported from any available port, but only from 
certain approved ports. These were Newcastle -on-Tyne, Hull, 
Boston, Ipswich, London, Sandwich and Southampton. It will 
be noted that this order invalidates such subsidiary Lincolnshire 
ports as Grimsby and Wainfleet. Special receivers of customs, 
moreover, were appointed at Boston,' and it was also found neces- 
sary to appoint special collectors to deal with wool in the hands 

' A tabular analysis of the war-time burdens is given as Appendix III, 
pp. 179 seqq. 

" I give full references to authorities against each item in Appendix III, 
so that it is unnecessary to repeat them here as footnotes. This applies to 
the whole of the present section. 

' Discussed more fully below, pp. xxxvi-xxxvii. 

* Cf . Appendix II, section X, p. 177. 



INTEOBUCTION 



XXVll 



of the great foreign houses, or claimed by them against financial 
loans to religious houses.' In this way Edward and his council, 
acting with promptitude, at once controlled the export of wool, 
profited financially bj^ a very great increase in customs on wool 
and hides, and in doing so imposed a severe burden, directly or 
indirectly, on all concerned in the wool trade. 

At the same time that the king was controlling the export 
of wool he issued military summons, June 14th and 2Gth, to the 
barons, knights and higher clergy for service in Gascony. 
This affected onh' a proportion of Lincolnshire society, and not 
that part of it which figures most largely in A.R. 505. Those 
involved were to be at Portsmouth, liorsed and armed, by Sep- 
tember 1st — just over two months hence, and not too long a time 
in which to settle affairs and make all preparations for what might 
be a protracted absence. 

In September Edward demanded of the clergy half their 
revenues for one year, both from temporalities and spiritualities. 
Even though the clergy as an estate formed the wealthiest section 
of the community, this laid upon them a very heavy burden. The 
demand was acceded to : but far otherwise would be their response 
to new financial requirements of the king before the war was over. 

A month later, in October, the political repercussions to the 
outbreak of open war with France are reflected in two measures 
which also concerned Lincolnshire. Already, by October 15th, 

1 Cf. Appendix II, sec. X, p. 177. The following statement of the 
indebtedness of Lincolnshire religious house.s is illuminating in this con- 
nection. The date is 1294 : 



Prioress of Grimsby Nurmery 
Prior of Thomliolm 

Prioress of Stixwould 
Prior of Newstead 
Abbot of Thornton 
Prior of Sixle 
Prior of Sempringham 
Abbot of Revesby 
Abbot of Vaudey 
Prior of Belvoir 
Abbot of Thornton 
Prior of Ormsby 
Abbot of Louth Park 
Abbot of Kirkstead 
Hospital of the Holy 

Sepulchre extra Line' 
Abbot of Vaudey 
Abbot of Barlings 
Preceptor of Temple Bruer 
Prior of Kyme 
Abbot of Revesby 
Abbot of Louth Park 



owed the White Friscobaldi 






»> 
»» 



Black Friscobaldi 



Wloite Cirtuli 



2 sacks of wool 
6 sacks 10 stone 

of wool 
whole ciuTent clip 
6s. 24 St. 

whole current clip 
18^ sacks 
13 sacks 
263. 127 St. 
1 sack 
1 sack 
35 sacks 
20 sacks 
24 sacks 
60 sacks 



Black CirtToli 
Bardi. Florence 



16 sacks 
29 sacks 
20 sacks 
40 sacks 
., whole cun'ent clip 

„ 12 sacks 

,, 6 sacks 

{K R.M.R., no. 68, m. 88.) 



xxviii INTRODUCTION 

rebellion in Wales was forcing the king to divert 8ome of his war 
effort, and a further military summons (of a partial nature) was 
issued on that date. Certain of the Lincolnshire baronage were 
called to service, but of more importance for the present study was 
the raisinfj of a small force of infantrymen : from this arose several 
complaints in A.R. 505. The situation in Scotland was also re- 
flected in Lincolnshire : on October 16th the sheriff was commanded 
to see to it that no corn or other foodstuffs, arms or armour be 
taken to Scotland either by land or sea. or anything else which 
could be of use to the Scots. This order applied also to the whole 
of the north of England, to Yorkshire, Cambridgeshire, Hunting- 
donshire, Norfolk and Suffolk : and although but a minor burden, 
it represented another restriction upon the movement of commerce. 

The clergy were not to remain for long the only contributors 
to direct taxation. On November 12th, 1294, the king obtained 
a grant of one tenth of the value of the movables of the baronage 
and their tenants and one sixth of those of the burgesses, while 
such clergy as had not already paid the half of their temporalities 
and spiritualities were to give one tenth of their temporalities. 
Then in February, 1295, in view of military necessities, Edward 
ordered an inquisition into knighthood. The sheriff was empowered 
to enter all liberties with the object of ascertaining who possessed 
land and rents to the value of £40 per annum or upwards, whether 
the owners were knights or not. Those having the necessary 
qualifications were to hold themselves ready, armed and horsed, 
to go on service with the king whenever he called upon them. Those 
who had less than £40 worth of lands but possessed arms and horses, 
were asked if they would be willing to take similar service. This 
again, unlike the tax on movables, affected only a section of 
Lincolnshire society, and is not reflected in A.B. 505. 

No more war measures were imposed untO September, 1 295. 
On the 28th of that month order was given to the sheriff to seize 
all the property of alien clergy, and such clergy were themselves 
to be lodged in denizen houses, but they could obtain release by 
compounding with the king for their good behaviour. This measure, 
while affecting only a part of the clergy, was made applicable to 
all coastwise shires, and was an obvious — and reasonable — pre- 
caution to take.' The lay counterpart to the measure came early 

* The order was couched in these terms : all religious of the power of the 
king of France or his allies or who are of his afTinitj' in any way, living within 
13 miles from the sea or from rivers taking ships to the sea, are to be removed 
and put in any manors or houses belonging to them 20 miles or more from 
the .sea or such rivers, or in other houses of the same order and language 
the prescribed distance from the sea or such waters. Guardians were 
assigned : the chief guardian of the county was to put a parson, vicar or 
other ■ sufficient clerk to the ward of each house and of the monks living 
there, who is to take hi.s reaKonable expenses of the chief guardian from 
the issues of the hou^ps in his warrl. .ill guardians must be Englishmen. 
(C.F li , i, pp. 362-4,; 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

in November, when the lands and property of lay aliens were seized, 
but only in the case of those who owed allegiance to the king of 
France.' There was a saving clause similar to that provided for 
alien clergy : restitution of lands and goods could be had on giving 
security for loyal behaviour. Both measures are reflected in 
A.R. 505 ; in the case of alien religious, no. 238, and in that of 
lay aliens, nos. 308-9. 

At the end of November, 1295, the king obtained a further 
grant in respect of movables, this time for a slightly smaller amount. 
The baronage and their tenants agreed to give one eleventh, the 
burgesses one seventh. The clergy were at first contumacious, - 
but finally consented to give one tenth of their temporalities for 
at least one year. The request for a grant-in-aid was quickly 
followed, on December 10th, by yet another military summons, 
this time for ^Scotland, where John Baliol, by virtue of his recent 
alhance with France, had revolted against Edward's rule. Those 
summoned — they included a number of Lincolnshire knights — were 
to be at Newcastle-on-Tyne on March 1st. 129G. 

On May 12th of this year. 1296, the order was given for the 
collection of the first of the great war-time prises, in the levying 
of which Edward, as will be shown, ^ seems to have created a 
precedent which was to cause considerable trouble before long. 
This prise was of corn for victualling the troops ; and although 
Lincolnshire was not mentioned in the commissions issued to sheriffs, 
the prise was a semi-national one, and 1 include it here and in 
Appendix III as an earnest of what was to come. All except the 
townsmen were involved or liable to be involved. 

The summer passed without further measures, but in November 
the king was again forced to ask for money. He persuaded the 
baronage and their tenants to grant him one twelfth of their 
movables, and the burgesses to grant him one eighth of theirs. 
The clergy, now fortified by the papal bull Clericis laicos, which 
forbade lay authorities to exact subsidies from them without papal 
consent, remained contumacious this time and postponed their 

' The order for this went out to all .sheriffs on November 10th, 1295 : 
the lands and goods of all alien laymen ui the power of the king of France 
and his adherents were to be taken into the king's hand (both of those who 
held lands and goods in France or alhed areas as well as in England and 
those who have not), taking security from them that they will come before 
the barons of tlie Exchequer when required. {C.F.R., i, p. 365 ; cf. A.R. 505, 
nos. 308-9.) And on November 5th, 1295, the abbot of Vaudey was ordered 
to admit VVilliam, proctor of the abbot of Savigny, and five his fellows, in 
response to the order relating to alien clergy. (Ibid., p. 366 ; cf. A.R. 
505, no. 238.) 

-The causes of the progressive contumacy of the clergy between 1294 
and the sum:uer of 1297 cannot be gone into here ; .suffice it to say that 
financial considerations, while not the only cause, wore a factor not negligible 
in producing a situation fraught, by Easter, 1297, or thereabouts, \rith 
considerable public danger. 

^ Below, p. Ixxix. 



xxT INTRODUCTION 

decision. This step was not suffered to go unpunished. In 
February, 1207, the king outlawed them, but they could be received 
again under the royal protection if they paid a subsidy of one fifth 
of their temporahties. Most of the clergy submitted eventually, 
but meantime, on March Ist, the king had ordered the arrest 
of all clergj' who had pronounced ecclesiastical censures against 
any of his ministers — in which term must be included local royal 
shire officials. The quarrel between king and clergj'' was formally 
ended in the summer of 1297 by the reconciliation of Winchelsey. 
who had remained obdurate, with the king. The quarrel itself, 
especially in regard to the outlawry of the clergy and their subse- 
quent restoration to the royal protection, is reflected, for Lincoln- 
shire, in A.E. 505, but by only a small number of cases. This, 
considering the magnitude of the quarrel, is surprising at first 
sight, but as the nature of the generality of cases enrolled comes 
to be understood, it will I think readily be seen why the number 
of this particular kind of case is so small. 

Neither the protracted ecclesiastical quarrel nor the baronial 
revolt sufficed to engage Edward's attention during the first part 
of 1297 to the exclusion of other war measures. On November 29th, 
1296, he ordered a second prise of corn, and this time Lincolnshire 
was included in the list of counties affected by it. The county 
was to supply considerable quantities of barley, oats, wheat, beans 
and peas,' which were to be collected within a month of Easter, 
1297 ; and on May 25th of that year the sheriff was commanded 
to send to London all the corn he had collected. Some of it, how- 
ever, was shipped direct from Boston to Flanders, x^s before, 
everybody, except the townsmen and the very lowest ranks in 
rural society, was liable to be affected."^ 

As always in time of war — the present outline has already 
given ample witness of this — finance is of first importance, and no 
possible sources can safely be left miexplored or evasions permitted. 
Accordingly, on March 12th, 1297, the king appointed one royal 
clerk to each separate county, to collect all debts due to the crown 
but not yet paid. While all kinds of debts are covered by this 
ordinance, the king had in mind especially arrears in the gathering 
in of taxes on movables. Specific dates were always given by 
Avhich at the latest the proceeds of such a tax were to be paid in, 
but these dates remained a kind of pious hope, for the delays in 
collection were chronic. 

In May, 1297, came the fourth militarj- summons of the war, 
this time for Flanders. It is by this summons, rather than by 
that for Scotland of December, 1295, that the significance of the 

^ The Eictual figured aro given in Appendix III, p. 181. 
* The question of liability ior contributing to prises ad opus regitt is 
referred to below, p. liii. 



INTRODUCTION xxxi 

earlier inquisition into knighthood is best appreciated. All, now, 
who possessed £40 worth of lands and rents per annum or over 
were to equip themselves ; so also were all the lesser gentrj' whose 
real property was worth from £20 to £40, and the whole array 
was to meet in London on July 7th. The summons affected 
Lincolnshire much as previously, except that more men were 
involved ; but as in other similar cases the measure is not reflected 
in A.R. 505. One reason for this is that if any depredations were 
inflicted upon the property of those absent on service, the absentees 
were usually in a position to take individual, private action, \sdthout 
waiting for a public enquiry to be held. It was at this meeting 
of the miUtary levies in London that the baronial quarrel with the 
king, led by the Earls Marshal and Constable, came to a head. 
Edward did not underrate the dangerous possibilities of the situa- 
tion, but, as we have seen,^ he made his promise of a new con- 
firmation of the Charters conditional upon a grant of one eighth 
of movables from the baronage and one fifth from the burgesses. 
These would have affected Lincolnshire as all previous taxes on 
movables had done, if they had not, eventually, been replaced 
by a flat rate of one ninth : as it is, in A.R. 505 we find no complaints 
against the eighth, but several in respect of the ninth. 

On June 5th, 1297, a month before the fateful meeting in 
London, the king ordered another semi-national prise, this time 
of bacon and beef, of which Lincolnshire was to supply specified 
quantities.- These, together with corn (the amount reciuired is 
not stated in the \^Tit) were to be shipped to Harwich, there to 
await further orders as to their disposal. And at the end of July 
the great prise of wool was ordered. This concerned all those in 
Lincolnshire and else-«here who had any direct connection with 
sheep -farming or the sale of wool. Every person who had any 
wool was required to sell it to merchants specially appointed by 
the king to buy it. Payment is promised, but not made imme- 
diately on receipt of the wool. Four merchants were appointed 
to Lincolnshire for this business ; and the prise was made in order 
to fulfil part of the price of Edward's foreign alliances, which he 
had entered into for the better prosecution of the war with 
France. 

The king went to Flanders late in August, 1297, but a^ 
in 1295 and 1296, part of his war efi'ort had again to be diverted 
to meet the ever present Scottish menace in the north ; and a 
fifth military summons went out, on October 21st and December 10th. 
this time for the defence of the border : the defeat of the English 
at Stirling Bridge on September 11th had made this imperative. 
This time those were summoned from Lincolnshire who were not 

* Above, pp. ix-xii. 

- Given m detail m Appendix III, p. 182. 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

already in Flanders. Among the clerg}' aJBFected were the Abbot 
of Bardney, and in respect of their Lincolnshire lands, the Abbots 
of Thome V and Cro viand. 

November. 1297, witnessed another semi-national prise of corn, 
to victual the army for Scotland. The quantity of oats and wheat 
required from Lincolnshire was considerably in excess of that 
demanded from the county in the previous November. One reason 
for this increase seems to be that fewer counties were called upon 
to contribute.^ In any case, Scotland, as compared with Flanders, 
was sufficiently barren to necessitate an invading army's making 
very sure of its vital supplies, to say nothing of the Scots' habit 
of devastating the coimtry as they fell back. 

The Flanders expedition was a failure, and Edward spent the 
winter of 1297-8 negotiatmg a truce with Philip of France which 
was to last till 1300. This left Edward free to concentrate upon 
his nearer and more threatening enemies, in the face of whom 
the country had already closed its ranks. Having set up, as his 
first public act on his return to England in March, 1298, the enquiry 
of which A.R. 505 is one of the first fruits, he issued (at the same 
council) the sixth and last military summons of our period, again 
for Scotland ; and he followed this up on April 15th with another 
order for a national prise of corn to supply the enlarged army in 
the north. Lincolnshire was to supply about one third of the 
quantity of oats and wheat required from it the previous November : 
the amount was necessarily smaller, since the bulk of what could 
be spared from the 1297 harvest had already been requisitioned. 
Some of the most interesting cases in A.R. 505 arise out of this 
latest prise. 

CThus ends the war period upon which A.R. 505 is based. In 
outhne I have kept fairlj' closely to the chronological sequence 
of war measures, because mutually to exclude the various kinds 
of measures one from another would at this stage give a false view 
of the situation. The country was at war : then as now. the 
measures deemed necessary to conduct the war extended in different 
directions at different times. Their nature varied with the circum- 
stances, and none can on a general view such as this be neatly 
separated from the rest, for all are joined in the fundamental issue 
of, waging the war. 

There was nothing specifically new about any of these measures ; 
what was new was the extent to which royal control and coercion 
was carried, and the frequency and severity of some of the measures, 
as for instance taxes on movables. WHbat strikes the present-day 
student of the period most forcibly, perhaps, is the essentia) 
similarity between the war measures of six-and-a-half centuries 
ago and tho.'^e of to-day, and this in spite of the vastly greater 

^ See below, p. Ixxjv. 



INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

complexity of our modern lite. Then, as now, war with a foreign 
power meant increased taxation ; diversion of man-power from 
one kind of activity to another (considerably less marked then 
than now) ; restriction of civihan food supplies in favour of army 
requirements (this was at least a partial consequence of Edward's 
semi-national prises) ; restrictions on commerce with the continent 
lest the enemy profit ; and even internment of enemy aliens, though 
this was of course only partial, since their powers of doing damage 
were so much more hmited then than now. 

As the great majority of cases in A.R. 505 have to do with 
these war measures, directly or indirectly, we must now pass from 
this general view of the war period as a whole and of the burdens 
inevitably resulting from it to a more detailed examination of the 
effects of these burdens themselves — these burdensome war measures, 
as perhaps they should be called : from the general to the par- 
ticular. And in doing so, one outstanding fact will emerge which 
can be stated at once : on the evidence of A.R. 505, what was most 
bitterly complained of was not the burdens themselves, but the 
administration of them at the hands of local royal officials. This, 
of com-se, is in strict accordance with the terms of the commission 
of enquiry ; none the less, it needs to be emphasised. Again we 
may draw a modern parallel : if we are compelled to go to war, 
we do not complain of the burdens that war entails, but we should 
have cause to object if their incidence were unjust or if they were 
unjustly administered. So, mutatis mutandis, it was in 1298. 
But the parallel can be carried further. Then, as now, the same 
local personnel administered the country in war as in peace, except 
that its numbers were reinforced by special appointments. The 
vices — and the virtues — of that personnel remained, during 1294-8, 
essentially the same as before the war, but the incidence of war 
considerably widened the scope of its authority for the time being. 
Making allowance for human nature, then, we may say that unless 
adequate safeguards were to be provided by the central authority, 
a state of war might be expected not only to create new local 
administrative problems but to emphasise existing ones of all 
kinds. The more detailed studj'- of A.R. 505 which we are about 
to begin will, I think, illustrate the truth of this. 



IV 

THE SMALLER BURDENS 

For a consideration of the double question of burdensome 
war measures and of errors in the administration of them which 
called forth grievances, A.R. 505 must be itself both text and 
arbiter. In regard to this, what has already been hinted must 

d 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

no\\- be demonstrated : that not all the burdens imposed on 
Lincolnshire gave rise to subsequent complaints recorded in the 
Roll. 

The military summons of June 1294 for Gascon}', of October 
1294 for Wales, of December 1295 for Scotland, of May 1297 
for Flanders, of October 1297 and March 1298 for Scotland, 
and the inquisition into knighthood of February 1295,^ gave rise 
to no complaints in A.R. 505 in respect of those classes of the com- 
munity owing military service as of fee. Two of these measures, 
however, do issue in complaints against levies made for foot-soldiers 
— pedites- — who, though not liable for service as of fee, might be 
levied in person for service, and who seem to have belonged to the 
ranks of the smaller tenants, from whom, alternatively, financial 
assistance might be required to pay the wages of other pedites 
raised elsewhere. 

The most important case of this sort is that conveniently 
termed ' foot-soldiers for Wales ', which gave rise to a small body 
of complamt in A.R. 505. There are in all six such complaints.^ 
In one case (269) Richard of Brinkhill, the under-sheriff, ' unjustly 
levied ' 4/- from the vill of Ingoldmells to spare the men of the 
vill from going in the king's service to Whales. Probably the position 
was put to the men in the form of an ultimatum : give me this 
sum or you go to Wales. If so, the action was high-handed, and 
in any case, the proper person to raise men for service would not 
be the under-sheriff, but a commissioner for array.' The under- 
sheriff, however, was an important personage ; the men of Ingold- 
mells whom he could threaten were almost certainly ilUterate, 
and probably of humble status, a conclusion strengthened if not 
proved by the circumstance that when the time came they made 
their complaint by presentment of their local jury, not in person.^ 
If they allowed themselves to be pressed into military service in 
Wales for an indefinite period how could their modest holdings 
be properly cultivated ? Something of the sort may well have 
passed through their minds ; but apart from this, the fact that 
they preferred a money-payment, even under threats, to service 
in Wales, does not suggest a large measure of popularity among 
the small tenants for practical warfare. And the further fact that 
having chosen the lesser of two evils, they then made a complaint, 
suggests an undercurrent of feehng that they should not be liable 
for service at all. This should be left to their superiors who had 
leisure for it ; the men of Ingoldmells had enough to do in scraping 
a living out of the land for their families and themselves. 

* See details in Appendix III for all these summonses. 

^ The pedites seem to have been the lowest order of infantry ; cf. Morris, 
J. E., Ifie Welsh Wars of Edward I, p. 88. 
^Nos. 269, 339, 428, 434, 435. 437. 

* Cf. Morris, op. cit., p. 92. 

'For a discussion of this position, see pp. cii seqq. 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

The note of unpopularity^ runs through the other complaints ; 
the jurors of Aswardhurn present that a certain Thomas son of 
Alan of Kirby. who may have been sub-bailiff of that wapentake 
or perhaps only a local constable, unjustly and by distraint levied 
10/- from the vill of Kirby and Laythorpe (339), not, in this case, 
to spare the men of the vill from service, but to equip two men 
who were actually going to \A'ales. They further complain that 
Thomas retained the money to his own use : but it is the first 
complaint which is important here, for the attitude taken up by 
the vill seems to be this : why should we be liable to equip these 
men l That, since they are going on the king's service, is the 
king's business. 

The case of the bailiif of Winnibriggs (428) is rather different. 
The real complaint here seems to be that having made a large 
le\-y, 50/-, from the vill of Grantham — there is no question of 
men going thence on service — the bailiff retained 6/8 of it to his 
own use. The other three cases, 434-5, 437, are of the same nature 
as this one. Of this type, in addition, is one other case (271), 
which again concerns the under-sheriff, who unjustly took 5/- 
from the vill of Skegness for ' foot-soldiers for the war.' The 
war is probably the Welsh one of 1294-5, since in the expeditionary 
force there was included a small Lincolnshire corps of foot.- 

The final case concerns a notorious sub-collector of taxes, 
one Alan ad Ecclesiam^ who unjustly levied Gd. from a certain 
William Scales to excuse him from service in Scotland. This 
was probably in connection with the summons for the autumn 
of 1297, or perhaps the spring of 1298. And unless Alan was 
specially commissioned to collect funds for infantry (of this I have 
found no evidence at all), his action in respect of William Scales 
would appear to have been a piece of effrontery of which, judging 
from Alan's record as a taxor, he was quite capable. 

These complaints, therefore, seem to be made ou two main 
grounds : first, the feeling that the men of the vills should not 
themselves be liable for military service or for the cost of equip- 
ment or wages of infantry^ ; and second, a strong and justifiable 
sense of grievance in regard to the sharp practice of royal officials, 
who, with or without warrant, were making money for themselves 
out of the public necessities of the day — this is a type of complaint 
of which much more will be heard. 

And as to these complaints against service or the cost of it, 
there is Morris's evidence of a Lincolnshire corps serving in Wales, 
as referred to above, and evidence of eflforts to raise foot for the 

» Cf. Morris, op. cdt., p. 240, where he says that foot were not easy to 
raise in England because the peasants were not warlike. 
'Morris, op. cit., p. 263, cf. p. 9."?. 

* See list of taxors, Appendix II. He was a sub-taxor in Candleslioe. 

* They were paying indirectly for tliis when they paid tlieir quota in 
reBponsy to the king's requiremenia of taxes on rnovul>los. 




xxxvi INTRODUCTION 

expedition against Scotland in 1297.' The cases in A.R. 505 to 
do with military service are the echo of these attempts ; they 
prove oflBcial malpractice, and they suggest unpopularity of service 
among the small tenants and discontent with cash levies made 
to defray the cost of such service. The suggestion of unpopularity 
is strengthened by Morris's evidence of the difficulty experienced 
in obtaining the numbers required, and, incidentally, of the poor- 
ness of the peasant foot so raised, - 

No complaint is to be found in A.R. 505 against the seizure 
of wool, wool fells and hides ordered on June 1 2th, 1294,^ against 
the subsequent increase in customs rates payable on wool for export, 
imposed on July 26th, 1294,^ or against the sale of goods belonging 
to French merchants, ordered on August 28th, 1294,^ 

These measures are closely connected, as we have seen. As 
to the first, the sheriff" was to call to his service two lawful and 
discreet knights of his bailiwick ; he was to go in person to the 
cities, boroughs and market towns and to every other place in his 
bailiwick and by the view and testimony of the two knights to 
have all wool, woolfells and hides arrested which he could find, 
in whose hands soever they were and to whomsoever they might 
belong, and to have them put into safe custody so that they be 
not removed until he be otherwise ordered. This was to be done 
within liberties and without, in religious houses and elsewhere. 
He was then, by his letters, sealed by himself and by the two 
knights, to acquaint the king with particulars as to what arrests 
he had made, how much had been arrested and where it now was. 

The eff'ect of this, while highly inconvenient to those con- 
cerned, was necessarily only temporary ; it would be detrimental 
to the royal interests to stifle the staple trade in wool altogether, 
but it was none the less vital to prevent this commodity from 
being sent to France by those owing allegiance to the French king. 
Hence this first measure was quickly followed by a revision of 
customs duties and customs regulations. That merchants may 
be the less incommoded Edward grants that all, whether alien 
or denizen, except those under the power of the king of France, 
may export their wool, woolfells and hides, provided they pay 
him for two or three years, if the war should last so long, a duty 
of 5 marks (66/8) per sack of good wool or 3 marks (40/-) per sack 
of inferior and 5 marks per last of hides.*' 

^ K.R.M.R.., no. 71, m. 29, 29d, 30, writs de peditibits eligendis. 

- Morris, op. cit., pp. 295-6. 

^ K.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 82, De lanis per totam Anglie et bonis mercatorum 
extraneorum arestandis. 

* Ibid., m. 82. See also Appendix III, p. 179, for these burdens. 

^ Ibid., m. 85d. 

' Ibid., m. 82, " dando nobis . . . de quolibet sacco melioris lane fracte 
quinque marcas, et de quolibet sacco alterius lane tres marcas, et de quolibet 
lasto coriorum quinque marcas . . ." 



INTRODUCTION xxxvii 

The arrested wool, except that belonging to French merchants, 
is to be released. The sheriff is to have proclaimed publicly in 
full county court and in every city, borough and market town 
that all except French merchants may now buy and sell wool as 
they used to before the arrest. But all wool for export must pay 
the new customs duty, and must not pass through any but approved 
ports, among them Boston — the only approved port in Lincolnshire 
— and must be taken there before September 8th, 1294. ^ This 
is the ' maltolte " on wool later complained against by the rebeUious 
earls and made a major grievance at the time of the Confirmation 
of the Charters. And it is very heavy, though later the rate for wool 
was unified at 3 marks, that for hides remaining at 5 marks.- Even 
so. 40/- per sack and 66/8 per last is sufficiently startUng when 
compared with the old rate, dating from 1275, of half a mark (6/8) 
per sack of wool and one mark (13/4) per last of hides. ^ 

It might well appear remarkable that this very heavy increase 
in customs duties produced no complaints at aU in A.R. 505, until 
we reflect that those most affected by them, in particular the 
merchants, and, indirectly, the rehgious houses, did not on the 
whole use the 1298 enquiry as a vehicle for airing grievances, for 
they had other resources open to them ; and where they did so, 
the grievances were of a different nature from these. Even a 
cursory glance through the roU confirms this statement. The 
small tenants, whose complaints were freely made in 1298, were 
not concerned with customs duties. 

It will be noticed that the new regulations for the customs 
and the export of wool excepted what was in the possession of 
merchants and others who were French subjects ; this could not 
be exported. It came to the king's knowledge that since the new 
regulations began to be enforced, considerable quantities of goods 
and merchandise belonging to French merchants, including wool, 
had been concealed ; accordingly the order of August 28th, 1294, 

^ Special officials were appointed at the approved ports to collect the 
new customs : " . . . assignamus . . . A et B ad recipiendum et colligendum 
apud C per visum et testimonium dilecti clerici D, custumam predictam . 
ita quod . . . A et B per testimonium . . . D nobis inde respondeant ad 
scaccarium nostrum . . ." The sheriffs and all bailiffs were ordered to 
assist the customs officers and to attend to their instructions in all relevant 
matters. For Boston, the collectors or receivers appointed were John 
Idelsone and Thomas Peji:, with \\ illiam de la Bruere as check clerk. This 
writ is dated 29 July (K.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 82). 

» November 5th, 1294 (K.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 82d). The revised rate 
came into force as from November 15th, and applied only to wool destined 
for Holland or Zealand. 

» Stubbs S.C. (9th edit.) p. 443. Gras, Early Eng. Cust. Syst., pp. 59- 
60, 66, discusses the 1275 custom without mentioning the rates ; pp. 223- 
56 give many illustrative documents but leave the reader to deduce the 
rates. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION 

appoints two clerks' to enquire, with the sheriff's assistance and 
by the oaths of lawful men in the county, within liberties and 
without, what goods had been concealed, to what merchants they 
belonged or do now belong ; and to take them into the king's hand 
and to sell them. What is to be sold consists both of the goods 
of French merchants already in the king's hands — under the terms, 
that is to say, of the order of June 12th — and of what shall now 
be found.- The proceeds are to be kept in safe custody until 
further orders are received. This order is reflected in two cases 
in A.R. 505 (Nos. 308-9), which are themselves not complaints 
but the presentments of juries, to the effect that under the terms 
of the order sales had been effected, but that the sheriff was required 
to show whether or not he had paid to the Exchequer the sum, 
ten marks, that he had received from the buyers of the goods. 
The goods in question were in all four sacks of wool and two 
hundred wool-fells. 

The inquisition into the valuables of clergy, ordered on 
June 18th, 1294, finds no place in A.R. 505, nor the restriction on 
movement of goods to Scotland imposed on October 16th of the 
same year. Neither does the inquisition into knighthood of 
February 10th, 1295, or the seizure of the lands and property of 
lay ahens, ordered on November 10th of that year. There is, 
however, one case arising out of the seizure of property of alien 
clergy ordered at the end of September, 1295, but it is not a com- 
plaint, merely a statement of issues from this property in Lincoln- 
shire which were paid into the Exchequer by the clerk appointed 
for this duty (No. 238). There is, further, a single curious case 
to do with the papal procurations of December 25th, 1295,^ and 
subsequent dates (No. 400) ; this is discussed in a note to the 
text. 

The outlawry of the clergy in February, 1297,' and their re- 
admission to the royal protection on payment of a subsidy to the 
king, form the subject of a small body of complaint in A.R. 505, 
and the grounds of complaint are of some importance. There 
are only seven of these cases in the roll* : the first three concern 
one individual, Simon de Worth, a canon of Lincoln Cathedral.^ 
He complains first (No. 62) that in July, 1297, the chief bailiff 
of the W^est Riding took one of his oxen from his common pasture 
at Messingham for the kings larder, and that the bailiffs did this 

' For Lincolnshire, the clerks appointed were William de Wodeford 
and Henry de Baievis (K.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 85d). 

* K.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 85d. "... tarn ilia que prius per preceptum 
nostrum capta fuerunt in manum nostram quam capienda per visum ipsorum 
mercatorum et hominum vel valettonim suorum . . ." 

* These measures are all outlined in Appendix III. 

* See Appendix III. 

'Nos. 62-4, 401, 4U4, 440, 468. 

* Reg. Sutton, Mem., S. 12, 16, 170. 



INTRODUCTION xxxix 

against the royal protection which Simon enjoyed. The real point 
in Simon's complaint, however, is not so much that the bailiff acted 
against the royal protection in general but that he infringed one 
clause of it in particular. The protections which the clergy were 
given when they paid the subsidy demanded and redeemed them- 
selves from outlawry contained the clause iiolumus^ ; and the clause 
nohimus specifically stated that no bailiff or other minister of the 
king should take any corn, horses, carts, \ictuals or any other goods 
from the recipient of the protection against his will.- The bailiff 
of the West Riding defied this clause on two separate occasions 
(62. 63), and this is what Simon is complaining against. On a 
third occasion the bailiff unjustly took 14 pence from him so as 
not to seize his corn to the king's use, and here the jurors uphold 
Simon by adding that the bailiff had had no precept from the 
supervisors of the prise to take any of Simon's corn (no. 64). 
Simon's complaints raise one other point of interest. In the first 
of them (no. 62) the jurors say that while the bailiff told the truth 
when he pleaded ignorance of the protection, it was none the less 
pubhshed in patria — in the district. If the jurors' statement is 
to be accepted, and there seems no valid reason for not doing 
so, it is an indication that the lists of such protections entered 
in the Patent Rolls^ are, if extensive, not complete, for vSimon's 
name does not appear in them. 

The other four cases are a little less clear. In three of them 
it is found by the jurors that a bailiff unjustly took goods from 
a clerk in orders and money from the vicars of Dorrington and 
Castle Bytham,^ so as not to take their lay fees into the king's 
hand. The evidence is scanty, but what seems to have happened 
was this : that the clergy in question gave recognisances to the 
sheriff that they wished the royal protection and were prepared 
to pay for it in accordance with the terms of a mandate issued 
by the king on ]March 1st, 1297,^ some three weeks after the sentence 
of outlawTy ; but, notwithstanding, the bailiff threatened to take 
their fees into the king's hand unless they compounded with him 
there and then. Protection being bought but letters of protection 
not yet received, the bailiff saw his opportunity and took it. Therein 
lay the injustice of his action and the reasonableness of the com- 
plaint. The last case (no. 440) is of the same kind as the three 
just described, but it confirms the explanation given by adding 
the words ' without warrant '. 

In regard to all these cases, however, and especially to the 
four in which the clergy did not have the royal protection, it is 

iCf. C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 260 (m. lod) ; p. 270 (m. 12d) etc. 

* B^mont, Roles Gascons, iii, Introd., p. xvii, note 1, gives an example 
of the clause nolumus. 

* C.P.R. 1292-1301, pp. 235-7, 260-86. 

* Nos. 401, 404. 458, respectively. 
5 C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 239. 



xl INTRODUCTION 

to be emphasised that the complaint is not against the action of 
the central authority in first outlawing the entire clergy and then 
forcing them to buy their return to the king's peace and protection 
at a heavy price — though there can be little doubt that such actions 
were deeply and bitterly resented — but against the relatively 
petty tyranny of local royal officials, themselves of no great stand- 
ing, who took advantage of a difficult and distasteful situation to 
make a few shillings for themselves. 

Another group of complaints in A.B. 505 have to do with the 
collection of debts due to the king and still outstanding. Under 
an ordinance of March 12th, 1297,^ justices and ro3'al clerks were 
appointed in the counties to supervise the collection of such debts, 
whether these were arrears of taxes on movables, debts due by 
summons of the exchequer, estreats, or any other kind of debf^ : 
a measure not surprising in the third consecutive year of war. 
The justice appointed for this work in the group of counties which 
included Lincolnshire was Lambert of Threckingham." The 
appointment of clerks to assist the justice — there was to be one 
clerk for each countj'^ — is a httle obscure : the first record I have 
is the appointment of Richard of Hetherington for Lincolnshii'e 
as late as June 14th, 1297, three months after the issue of the 
ordinance* : on July 4th Richard was either superseded or assisted 
by Roger of Norton. ^ According to the terms of March 12th, 
all the debts were to be paid in to the Exchequer by the end of 
Easter week,^ but the appointment, first of Richard of Hetherington, 
two months after Easter, and then of Roger of Norton some three 
weeks later, suggest that the naming of a final date in the writ 
was but a pious hope.' 

Proof of this is found in A.R. 505. The debts were still being 
collected in Lincolnshire in October, seven months after the issue 
of the ordinance and five after the final date for payment at the 
Exchequer : in 1298 Walter son of Robert of Frampton complained 
that on October 1st of the previous year he had been imprisoned 
and insulted by a royal bailiff who, acting on Roger of Norton's 
instructions, demanded from him 36/- which he owed the king 
(no. 19). The alleged imprisonment was for one day ; the insult 
lay in Walter's being tied to the tails of two horses. For these 

' See Appendix II. The ordinance is in K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 102. 

* Ibid., m. 102. '" . . . E. illoques veient les noums de tons ceaux qui 
dettes devient au rey, auxilieu per siunmounses de Eschequer Estretes o 
briefs cum den oide.s avauntditz (parliamentary taxes) e tule inanere den 
autres dettes . . ." 

-'K.R.M.R., r.o. 70, m. 102. 

' Ibid., m. 101, " De debitis regis lovandis.' 

^ Ibid., m. lOld, cf. m. 96. 

" " . . . le lendeinayn de la close Pasque ... Easter tell on 
April 14th in 1297. 

" It will be showTi when discussing taxes on movables that delays in 
collection were frequent and protracted. 



INTRODUCTION xli 

indignities he claims 100 marks (£66 13s. 4d.) in damages. The 
bailiff said merely that he had a warrant to collect a debt of 36/-, 
that against payment of the debt he distrained Walter by six 
draught animals which he impounded ; that Walter, against the 
king's peace, broke into the pound and extracted the beasts and 
that for this reason only was he imprisoned. 

The jurors' statement reveals that Walter was quite truthful. The 
bailiff did insult Walter and did imprison him for one day in the 
manner stated and it was malicious, since it was done to force 
Walter to make a fine of 2/- as the price of his freedom. The 
jurors, however, awarded Walter 100- damages, not 100 marks, 
and Nigel was formally committed to gaol, but instead made fine 
in 40/-, — a satisfactory outcome for the crown, which found itself 
that much the better off \\ithout the inconvenience of finding 
room for the bailiff in the local gaol.^ There is no further mention 
of the debt to the king, but since Walter won his case it may be 
inferred that he paid it from the damages he received. 

Again it must be emphasised that while this complaint arose 
in consequence of the action of the central authority, it is not 
made against that action. It is concerned solely with the behaviour 
of a local royal oflBcial who is deputed to collect the debt : it is 
concerned with assault, with imprisonment and wdth what amounted 
to extortion of 2/-. It is the king's bailiff who is cited, not the 
king. 

The case just discussed is the only one in A.R. 505 which can 
clearly be traced to the ordinance of March 12th, 1297, but there 
are several other cases involving the collection of royal debts which 
cannot with certainty be so traced. The most that can be said of 
them is that the actions resulting in complaints may have taken 
place during 1297, since the bailiffs or sub-baihffs concerned held 
office, or in some cases probably held ofl&ce, during that year.° 
The importance of these cases lies not so much in their possible 
illustration of a specific burden as in their evidence as to what 
was being complained against. Those to do with summons of 
the green wax are dealt with in the text of A.B. 505^ ; of the rest, 
three show bailiffs taking advantage of their official status by 
levying money on the ground of a summons of the Exchequer, 
refusing to give tallies in receipt, and then, for want of the tally, 
making a fresh distraint against the same debt ; the proceeds in 
all cases going into their own purses (nos. 320, 321, 407). In these 
cases the existence of an actual debt due to the king may probably 
be assumed, but in a fourth case (no. 422), it is shown that no debt 

^ The words " ad scaccarium " in the margin indicate the destination 
of the fine. Making fine in heu of going to prison was a very common practice 
in the thirteenth centurj', and one much encouraged by justices. Cf . Pollock 
and Maitland, //, p. 517. 

"-E.g. Nos. 145, 310. 320-1, 407, 422. 460. 

•Below, No. 145, p. 29. 



ilii INTRODUCTION 

existed at all, and that a levy was made by a bailiff on his own 
authority and without any warrant, though he purported to have 
made the levy • by an estreat of a summons of the Exchequer '. 
These are good illustrations of the power of the bailiff over against 
the weakness of the ordinary man. The bailiff could probably 
read and write, the ordinary man. unless a clerk, almost certainly 
could not. ^Moreover the bailiff could normally shelter behind 
the royal authority, and these advantages together weighted the 
scales of power heavily in favour of the official. The whole record 
oi A.B. 50o is evidence of this ; so also is the much more extensive 
record of the Hundred Rolls, ^ and when the discrepancy in advan- 
tage is realised, the apparent helplessness of the ordinary man 
no longer causes surprise. But in all these cases it is the conduct 
of royal officials which is complained against, and that alone. 

We are left now with a group of complaints against jury- 
service"'^ and another group of miscellaneous complaints, but of 
neither group can it be said that its contents arose directly out 
of .the imposition of war-time burdens ; and we are also left with 
the two most important and numericallj' largest series of com- 
plaints in A.R. 505 — complaints arising out of taxes on movables 
and out of the imposition of prises ad opus regis, both of them in 
incidence though not in origin, characteristic of the four war years, 
and both of them affecting Lincolnshire closely. 



TAXES ON MOVABLES 

A.R. 505 contains about 46 complaints in respect of taxes 
on movables ; four such taxes were imposed during the years 
1294-7 : a tenth in 1294, an eleventh in 1295, a twelfth in 1296 
and a ninth in 1297.^ The mpyables which were to be valued 
' for taxation purposes included, in theory, all the movable goods 
a man possessed, but in practice the only movable possessions 
which were actually assessed were cattle, sheep, oxen, draught- 
beasts, grain of various kinds, forage-crops and similar articles. 
A man's personal possessions which he kept in his cottage, and 
the food in hie store cupboards, were not taxed.* 

' H. Cam, in J'he Hundred and th' Hundred Rolls, demonstrates this 
point graphically, again and again. 

* Discus.sed below, pp. Ixxxviii-xci. 

^ See Appendix III, p. 182. I have ignored the higher rates paid 
on three of the four occasions by the towns, since no complaints against 
the levy of these are included in A.R. 505. 

* Lay Subsidy Rolls 136/6 and others ; cf. Willard, Parliamentary Taxes 
on Personal Property, 1290-1334, p. 3. 



INTRODUCTIOX xliii 

For an appreciation of war-time Lincolnshire it Lb necessary 
to see what happened in the county after a tax on movables had 
been asked for by the king in council and granted. The procedure 
adopted was specific if elaborate, but here it need only be outlined, 
since the field has already been covered in very considerable detailJ 
I take as my example the Forma Tdxalionis for the levy of a 
fifteenth in 1290,'- the last tax on movables to be imposed before 
the outbreak of the French war in 1294. What happened in Lincoln- 
shire in 1290 took place with increasing and portentous frequency 
after 1294 : chief assessors appointed by the central authority 
are to have brought before them from every wapentake the most 
knowledgeable men {prodes hommes) of the wapentake, from whom 
they are to select the twelve most meritorious {vaillaunz). These 
are to assess and tax the goods possessed by everyone between 
the beginning of August and IMichaelmas,^ whether in the field 
or stored (en mesouns). When the twelve are sworn, they are to 
take to their aid the reeve and four lawful men from each vill of 
their \\apentake. who shall best know and appraise {sachent) 
the property of the whole vill. The twelve are then to have the 
reeve and the four men sworn before them to help them lawfully 
to assess and tax the fifteenth of such property for the use of the 
king. Xow the twelve are to go from vill to vill and from house 
to house in each vill, assisted in every vill by the reeve and four 
men thereof, to view the movable property of everyone and to 
assess and tax it. They are to enquire whether any of the property 
which the owners had between the beginning of August and Michael- 
mas has been sold or otherwise removed, and this is also to be 
taxed according to its full value, Hke the rest. The chief taxors 
and their clerk, having received the oath of the twelve, are also 
to go from wapentake to wapentake and from vill to vill to see 
that the routine has been properly carried out. If they find that 
information has been concealed or that anything has been under- 
taxed. '' either by gift or by favour,"^ they are to see that the 
deficiency is made good and are to acquaint the Treasurer and 
Barons of the Exchequer with the names of those who have thus 
broken their oath. The taxation of the four men and the reeve 
of each vill is to be made by the twelve, and that of the twelve by 
the chief taxors and by other lawful men whom the chief taxors 

* Cf. VVillard, op. cit., especially chapter.s III to VIII. 

* The method was altered for the ninth of 1297 ; the twelve men of the 
wapentake were dispensed with, and four men, or six, or two from each vill 
in a wapentake or hundred were made responsible for the whole wapentake 
or hundred ; cf. Willard, op. cit., pp. 55-6 ; L.T.R.M.R., no. 69, m. 38. 

' The wording is ambiguous ; what is meant is that the goods possessed 
by anyone within the two months covered by these dates are the goods 
which are to be assessed and taxed. 

* A.R. 505, no. 272, is a good example, by implication, of this. 



xliv INTRODUCTION 

are to choose, provided the chosen men have no affinity with the 
twelve. The chief taxors are to be assessed by the Treasurer and 
Barons of the Exchequer, The taxation is to be le\ied " as well 
on the movables of prelates, clerks and men of religion and on 
their men as on the goods of others, provided such property belongs 
to lay fees." But armour, mounts, jewels, clothing of knights, 
gentrj' and their wives are to be exempt from taxation. This 
exemption, however, is not to apply in boroughs, cities and other 
towns, to the goods of merchants.^ 

An inquisition of this kind took place in every wapentake 
in Lincolnshire in every one of the war years 1294 to 1297, The 
chief taxors, usually two m number, are local gentry, not magnates- ; 
the sub-taxors"' are small local men to whom the royal ordinance 
imposing a tax gives the legal right to view and assess the posses- 
sions of their feudal superiors, clerical or lay. This point is brought 
out without comment by Willard.' but. startling though it appears, 
it should not be construed as a first faint glinnnering of a democratic 
principle. It was, in fact, merely a matter of expediency. When 
the central government had no close knowledge of the mimUiae 
of local conditions, it was forced to rely on local people who 
possessed such knowledge, and to make use of them for purposes 
of state when occasion demanded. The magnates' possessions 
were mostly scattered over several shires, and in time of war or 
other stress — just the very time when a tax on movables would 
be imposed — the magnates themselves were required for other things 
than levying taxes, quite apart from potent considerations of social 
dignity. Much the same may be said of the lesser gentry, though, 
having fewer and smaller landed possessions, and mo\dng about 
the country less, they would be hkeiy to have a closer local know- 
ledge than the magnates. But supervision of a levy for national 
purposes was an important and honourable occupation, as befitted 
their social rank, and to this work they are appointed. Thus the 
government was driven back upon the small tenant for the actual 
collection of its taxes, and with him to the old unit of local govern- 
ment, the hundred or, as in Lincolnshire, the wapentake. He 
lived and moved within this area, though he might travel about 
the county and into neighbouring ones ; and he was the man with 
the local knowledge. Moreover, then as now, he and his fellows 
formed the most numerous section of the population, and to him 
the central government turned. 

* K.R.M.R., no. 64, in. 5, from which I have made the above summary. 
Cf. WUlard, op. cit., ch. IV. 

*Ci. Willard, op. cit., pp. 41-4. 

^ In A.R. 505 no distinction is made between ' taxor ' and ' collector ' : 
the terms are synonymous, for he who assessed (taxed) a man for a tax also 
collected the money value of the assessment. 

' Willard, op. cit., p. 04. 



INTRODrmOK xlv 

The force of this statement will be realised when the taxing 
staff required by a county the size of Lincolnshire is considered. 
There are preserved at the Public Record Office a number of Subsidy 
Rolls which record the assessments made in Lincolnshire in accord- 
ance with the formae taxacionis of the war years 1294-7. These 
lists are unfortunately very far from complete, but from them 
I have been able to compile very fragmentary lists of sub-taxors 
who assessed and collected the war-time taxes. These Usts appear 
in Appendix II, pp. 155 seqq., and contain, together with informa- 
tion supplied by A.R. 505 itself, some 440 names of sub-taxors. 
But these sub-taxors are spread over four separate taxes, and 
some of the names are repeated. 

It win be shown that even while these lists represent a mere 
fraction of the total number of sub-taxors who must have been 
employed in the collection of each tax, they nevertheless illustrate 
the working of the system in the localities — they are themselves 
the machinery, in action, of the formae taxacionis. And they also 
provide a basis for at least a partial calculation of what, in mere 
numbers of temporary royal officials, the collection of a tax on 
movables meant. There were thirty-two wapentakes in Lincoln- 
shire, of which only six were normally administered in pairs, though 
not necessarily so for taxation^ ; and there were in 1316 some 680 
odd vills.- If we collate these figures with the requirements of 
the formae taxacionis for the tenth, eleventh and twelfth of 1294, 
1295 and 1296, we find that for each of these taxes there were 
needed, in round figures, 380 wapentake sub-taxors (the twelve 
men of each wapentake) and 3,400 \dll sub-coUectors (the reeve 
and four men of each vill) : that is to say a total subordinate staff 
of roughly 3.780 sub-taxors — who were also sub -collectors — in 
Lincolnshire alon^: For the ninth of 1297. when the wapentake 
collectors were dispensed with, and when many viUs with their 
surrounding rural districts required only two sub-taxors instead 
of the reeve and four, the numbers would be reduced by about 
half. 

In view of these truly formidable numbers, the question may 
well be asked, from what strata of society was this horde of officials 
drawn ? It has already been shown that they were small tenants : 
necessarily, if the numbers were to be obtained at all ; and the 
further point at once arises as to whether they were all even free- 
men. The formae taxacionis of 1290, 1294, 1295 and 1296 do not 
state explicitly that the sub-taxors must be freemen,^ The twelve 
men of the wapentake shall be prudes liommes and the most 

^ Boorhby aud Graffoe ; Flaxwell and Langoe ; Winnibriggs and Threo. 
Both Winnibriggs and Langoe seem to have been separate units for the levj- 
of the ninth in 1297 : Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 6 (Langoe), and m, 9, 11 
(Winnibriggs). 

'F.A., iii, pp. 177-92. » Nor, indeed, that of 1297. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION 

vaillaunz : and the four men of the vill shall be hommes loyales, 
legales homines. If there were no evidence beyond the wording 
of the fonnae themselves, the only safe conclusion to draw from 
these aiTangements would be that the central authority tacitly 
assumed that in the localities none but freemen would be chosen 
as sub-taxors. But there is other evidence, not all of it negative, 
to suggest that the central authority had a very good reason for 
not limiting their choice to freemen. First, a high degree of 
formalism and precision in the use of terms characterises the 
ordinances and writs of the period. Tacit assumption in place of 
formal definition would thus be unexpected and unusual in a 
document so important as a forma taxacionis. 

Then, in Lincolnshire at least, it was not unknown for a sub- 
taxor to be a poor man, in the sense of a person whose own taxable 
property did not reach the minimum fixed for a tax on movables.^ 
This, while true of the vill-collectors, was not, I think, true of the 
twelve men of the wapentake, for it is said of Adam Hoymond, 
one of the twelve wapentake collectors of the eleventh in Winni- 
briggs, that he did not have goods to the value of 11/-, ideo non 
iaxator.- As applied to the twelve, this statement is reasonable, 
since not only were their numbers low in relation to the vill- 
collectors, but they seem to have filled an intermediate position 
between the chief taxors and the men of the vills. But it should 
be added that poverty, in the sense of falling below the downward 
taxable limit, did not necessarily involve un-freedom, though the 
majority of the un-free were probably also non-taxable. 

There is, hoAvever, clear evidence in one case^ of a villein acting 
as a sub-taxor. But the issue is not quite simple : we are not 
told, nor have I been able to discover, whether this taxor was a 
villein in status or whether he merely held his land by villein 
teniue. 

But finally, there is the evidence of the enormous numbers 
required to gather in one tax, and this factor may well have been 
decisive. If we eUminate the barons and knights, the whole 
of the unfree class, the aged, the infirm, women and the very 
young, the ranks of the sub-taxors would depend for adequate 
numbers upon only the free male population below the rank of 
knight and physically able to get about the districts. It thus 
becomes questionable whether there were enough eUgible persons 
left in this class : if not, it is clear why the severely limiting 

' E.g. Adam ad Ecclesiam of Jngoldmells, a collector of the tenth (nos. 
273-4, 277), the twelfth (272, 280, 282) and perhaps of the ninth (276). who 
was himself wrongly taxed for the twelfth, becau.se non-taxable (270) ; 
cf. also six sub-taxors of the ninth, Appendix II, list of taxors, pp. 165 seqq., 
of each of whom it is said '" nichil habet in bonis." 

-Appendix II, list of taxors, p. 159. 

" John Parys of South Witham (323), also a sub-taxor of the ninth there, 
tiee Appendix II, lifc>t of tuxorH, p. 163. 



TXTRODUCTTON xlvii 

qualification liberi homines is omitted from the format taxacionis, 
why non-taxable persons are found among the ranks of the sub- 
taxors, and why one, at least, of the sub-taxors whose name has 
come down to us in A.R. 505 was a villein." 

With machinery so comprehensive the net of taxation should 
have been drawn close : in theory a tax was intended to reach 
everyone m the kingdom except the poor and those who had special 
exemption : in practice numerous exemptions were granted to 
members of all ranks in society for specific reasons.' Thus while 
no one could deem himself immune from enquiry b}" the sub- 
taxors. he could prevent actual view of his ])roperty being made 
by producing royal letters of exemption, if he had them. And, 
moreover, assessments of individuals for taxes are not a wholly 
reliable guide to the real wealth of the taxee, because the assess- 
ments tended to become conventionalised, and do not always 
represent the total of a man's taxable movables. The poor were 
pro\nded for in each of the war-time taxes by a clause in the forma 
taxacionis fixing a downward limit, and those whose assessed 
propertj^ fell below it were automatically exempted from paying 
the tax, in theory if not always actually. This limit, for the rural 
population, was fixed at 10/- for the tenth of 1294; at 11/- for 
the eleventh of 1295; at 12/- for the twelfth of 1296, and at 9/- 
for the ninth of 1297." It represents an attempt to protect the 
poor from a burden which they could not afford to carry, but in 
practice it pressed rather hardly upon a class of border-line cases 
more numerous than they need have been. From their point of 
view it paid to be poorer, during war-time, rather than richer* 
although the conventionalised assessments mentioned would tend 
on the whole to increase the margin of safety. 

But the machinery, if comprehensive in scope, proved cumber- 
some and tardy in action. The tale of delays in collection of the 
taxes, as revealed in the Memoranda Rolls, is one of increasing 
exasperation and urgency on the part of the central authority. 
Writ after writ is sent down to sheriffs and chief taxors, couched 

* But it ought to be said that this argument probably does not apply 
with full force to the question of the use of villeins as sub-taxors in Lincohi- 
shire, because of the Danelaw antecedents of that county, and the consequent 
higher proportion of small freemen there than in parts outside the Danelaw. 
The point is raised again in a different connection in discussing the personnel 
of A.R. 505 ; cf. esp. pp. cii-ciii. 

* Cf. Willard, op. cit., chapters V and \ri. 

3 K.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 72 ; no. 69, m. 65 ; no. 70, m. 87 ; L.T.R.M.R., 
no. 69, m. 38 respectively : cf. the tenth of 1294 : "' E les biens de nuly ne 
seent taxez sil ne aniuntent a dissoiz e plus " — 10/- and over. (Cf. also 
Willard, op. cit., pp. 87f, especially p. 88, where in discussing this subsidy 
of 1294 he says in a footnote (1) that the form of taxation contains no mention 
of a taxable minimum. His authority for this statement is the very mem- 
brane and the very form I have just quoted ; the words I have given are 
on it and they do very clearly fix a taxable limit for this subsidy.) 

♦Cf. Willard, op.' c't., p. 8b. 



xlriii INTRODUCTION 

in terms of cumulative threat, demanding speedier collection of 
arrears. Each of the \\Tit8 appointing taxors, which accompanied 
the formae taxacionis, contains specific dates by which all the pro- 
ceeds of a tax were to be paid in, usually in two instalments. For 
example, the taxors of the tenth were appointed on November 12th, 

1294, and were to pay in the first half of the tax by February 2nd, 

1295, the second by May 22nd of that year.^ On January 2nd, 
1295, the king found it expedient to warn the collectors that they 
must make their payments on the specified dates, otherwise, 
" knowing that if you shall have caused delay, we shall incur the 
gravest hm*t, and you will not be able to evade our indignation."" 
Yet there were still arrears outstanding in September, for on the 
3rd the collectors were ordered to pay them in on the 30th on pain 
of imprisonment and seizure of all theu- lands and goods. ^ Even 
by February, 1296, all these arrears had not been paid : on the 
28th the king found it necessary to appoint William of Carlton 
as overseer for Lincolnshire, to collect them.* But by that time 
the next tax, the eleventh, was also being collected.^ Even as 
late as Februarj' 5th, 1298, three and a half years after the tenth 
was imposed, collectors of it, together with those of the two follow- 
ing taxes, were being distrained and their persons brought before 
the barons of the Exchequer to answer for arrears ! ^ This argues 
both a breakdown in the machinery and a situation in which it 
would be possible for a taxee to be confronted on the same occasion 
by collectors demanding payment of two separate taxes : but 
there is unfortunately no evidence from A.R. 505 in support of 
either contention. Indeed no mention is made at all in the roll 
of delays in collection of taxes ; nor, as might reasonably have been 
expected, is there even one single complaint against the imposition 
of a tax, either on the ground of rates demanded or of frequency 
in demand. When it is considered that during the 65 years 1225- 
1290 only seven taxes on movables were taken, at rates varying 
from one fifteenth, the highest, to one fortieth, the lowest,' but 
that during the three years 1294-7 four were taken, the lowest 
rate being one twelfth, the total absence from A.R. 505 of com- 
plaints against imposition and rates demanded is a striking illustra- 
tion of the way in which the strict letter of the commission of 
enquiry was adhered to. 

Thus in regard to taxes on movables, the complaints in A.R.- 
605 were not made against the fruits of the high poUcy of a remote 
central authority. They were made against the irregularities of 

' K.li.M.R., no. 68, ra. 72. ^ Ibid., no. 68, m. 74. 

'Ibid., no. 68, m. 75d. * Ibid., no. 69, m. 76. 

'Ibid., no. 69, ra. 66, 65d. ^ Ibid., no. 71, ra. 104d. 

" Cf. Stubbs, ii, pp. 37-122; and VVUlard, Parliamentary Taxes on 
I'ersonal Froptrty 1290-1334 (1934) p. 3. 



DiTRODUCTION xlix 

method and conduct of local ofiicials who were close at hand, and 
especially against the local sub-taxoi-s. Nine of the ten cases in 
which, for example, Alan ad Ecclesiam of Ingoldmells was impUcated, 
if taken together, present a fairlj' comprehensive view of the kinds 
of action complained against in Lincolnshire. He is accused of 
unjustly retaining 11/- from Walter Surmylk's wages while Walter 
was in the royal service^ ; he considered that his position as a 
sub-taxor gave him the right to extract 6d. from a certain William 
Scales in return for a Ucence exempting WiUiam from going to 
Scotland — a hcence which a mere sub-taxor would hardly have 
the authority to give- ; he and another sub-taxor maliciously taxed 
Robert East, a poor man, for the twelfth, while sparing the posses- 
sions of Robert Scales, who should have been assessed at 2/-^ ; he 
unjustly retained in his own possession 7/9 levied for the tenth 
from taxable persons* ; he levied money from non-taxables^ ; he 
and a fellow sub-taxor unjustly ' received ' 2/- from four other 
sub-taxors before he was willing to receive their assessment roUs^ ; 
he and some others, collecting the tenth in 1294—5, extorted 20/- 
from the vill of Ingoldmells for their expenses' ; he did the same 
thing in the same vill when levying the twelfth two years later^ ; 
and he again levied varjdng sums from non-taxables, by extortion, 
under cover of the twelfth.® 

It is true that Alan was perhaps the worst of the sub-taxors 
complained against in A.R. 505, but the others were guilty of much 
the same practices, especiallj^ in regard to taxation of non-taxables, 
taking more from persons than their assessments required — and 
no doubt pocketing the difference — and levying money pro expensis, 
for expenses. The first and last of these practices require some 
further comment. The injustice of taxing persons whose assessed 
movable property fell below the minimum level of taxation is 
manifest, but it would be inaccurate to conclude that these pauperes 
were in all cases indigent in the modern sense of the term pauper. 
The case of Robert East,^° cited above, will illustrate the point. 
The scribe who enrolled the case used the word ' pauper ' without 
necessarily implying indigence. Robert East almost certainly was 
not indigent, else no collector would have been at the pains to 
extract from him what could not have existed. What can be said 
about him is that he was not rich enough, in the class of possessions 

1 No. 268. This case is one of the mysteries of A.R. 505. I have been 
unable to discover who \^'alte^ Surraylk was or in what kind of royal service 
he was engaged. He may have been an infantryman. 

^ No. 271. Alan may also have been a constable in his vill, but there 
is no evidence of this. 

' No. 272. * No. 273. 

-E.g. No. 274. 'No. 276. 

•No. 277. »No. 280. 

'No. 282. "No. 272. 



1 INTRODUCTION 

which were assessed for taxation, to bring him within the scope 
of the twelfth ; and it may be added that these possessions probably 
did not include household goods necessary for the maintenance 
of life.' 

There is, moreover, a possibility that in some cases taxation 
of non-taxables could be used as a means of paying off old scores. 
It is to be remembered that the appointment of sub-taxors was 
temporary, lasting only so long as a tax remained uncollected in 
the sub-taxor's own neighbourhood, and that an appointment, 
say, to collect the tenth of 1294 carried with it no guarantee of 
re -appointment to coUect a subsequent tax. A.R. 505 contains 
evidence, it is true, of several such re-appointments, but they 
do not conform to any regular scheme.- And it is to be noted also 
that the vill-collectors at least, if not those of the wapentake, were 
men who knew everybody in the vill, were themselves equally 
well known, and were to levy the taxes in their own viUs. If this 
system provided opportunities for collusion in assessment and 
collection, which it would be to the interest of the beneficiaries 
to conceal and which would therefore not appear in A.R. 505 unless 
an official informed, it provided opportunities also for oppression 
on grounds which might as easily be personal as merely selfish. 
The terse final statements of A.R. 505 give no hint of what may have 
lain behind them : we are merely provided with abundant evidence 
of a desire on the part of certain sub-collectors to line their own 
purses. But whatever may lie behind the taxation of non-taxables, 
it is the commonest complaint made in A.R. 505 against sub-taxors, 
and it is probably closely connected with the other main type of 
such complaint : unjust — in the sense of unauthorised — levy of 
money for expenses.^ Neither chief taxors nor sub-taxors did 
their work merely for love of it : they did not serve voluntarily 
but were selected, and once selected, would have no choice in the 
matter^ ; nor would they be able to collect the taxes at no cost 
to themselves : moreover, their status as sub-taxor in no way 
exempted them from payment of the same taxes themselves. None 
of the collectors were paid salaries, but the chief taxors were granted 
allowances by the Exchequer for their outlay.'^ This was well 
within the ability of the Exchequer, since there were only two 
chief taxors to a county, but to do the same thing for a vast army 

^ Cf. Willard, op. cit., p. 75, where the contrast between the theorj.- and 
practice of rural taxation is clearly set forth. 

* E.g. Nicholas Herre was a sub-collector of the tenth in 1294 and of 
the nintli in 1297, but not of the two taxes intervening. Alan ad Ecclesiam, 
on the other hand, collected the tenth, the twelfth of 1296 and probably the 
ninth, but not the eleventh of 1295 (see Appendix II, list of taxors, pp. 155 aeq.) 

" E.g. Xo. 277 and other entries. 

* Cf. Willard, op. cit., p. 46. Willard is here speaking of the chief taxors, 
but what applied to them in all probability applied also to the sub-taxors. 

' Ibid., pp. 197-204. 



IKTRODUCTION li 

of sub-taxors would have been quite impracticable. The sub- 
taxors were therefore thrown back upon other means of reimburse- 
ment, two of which seem to have been considered legitimate. It 
was allowable for the sub-taxor to require the taxee to supply him 
with food and drink, and it appears to have been common practice 
for the chief taxors, who were responsible for the assessment of 
their subordinates, to do this at nominal rates. ^ Presumably 
these concessions were considered adequate recompense for the 
work of assessing and collecting taxes. If so, it becomes apparent 
why levies of money pro expensis were considered grievances — 
e.g. no. 277. No doubt the men of Ingoldmells and other vills 
regarded the imposition of a tax on movables with disfavour for 
its own sake, as paying out good money for no tangible return ; 
nor is it likely that they w^elcomed having to feed the sub-taxors 
as well ; but when these oflBcials held the men of the vill to ransom 
for expenses, there would be deep resentment. The men of 
Ingoldmells suffered in this way from the collectors of the twelfth 
as well as from those of the tenth (280), while the unfortunate 
inhabitants of Burgh-in-the-Marsh were mulcted by the collectors 
of three of the four war-time taxes. In every instance the men 
of the vills won their cases, but the punishments awarded to the 
collectors merely consisted in restoring the money taken and being 
put in mercy, unless in individual cases, such as that of Alan ad 
Ecclesiam, the sum of malpractice required a sentence of imprison- 
ment, to avoid which a fine would be made. In justice to the 
sub-collectors, however, it must be said that while the levy of 
money for expenses was considered wrong and punished where 
exposed, as also the levy of sums above what the king required 
and particularly the taxation of non-taxables, the temptation 
nevertheless must have been very great. 

The complaints in A.R. 505 in regard to the taxes on movables — 
there are over 40 of them — are emphatically not directed against 
the incidence of the taxes themselves. There is no complaint that 
the taxes are being levied too frequently, or that the assessments 
are too high. No doubt there was much grumbling on both these 
grounds ; no doubt the enormous number of sub-taxors were 
regarded as an incubus, though they were the taxees' own kith and 
kin. If so, there is no word of it in A.R. 505. Every single com- 
plaint is directed against the advantage taken by sub-taxors of 
their official position ; they are not even directed against bailiffs ; 
this need occasion no surprise, for the collection of taxes was for 
the most part outside the bailiffs' province, though for the eleventh 
of 1295 the sheriffs and bailiffs were directed to assist the taxers in 

' C£. Willard, op. cit., pp. 205-10. Willard however is here speaking 
of the years 1330-4, so that the above application of hia evidence to 1294-b 
must be accepted with caution. 



Hi INTRODUCTION 

accordance with expediency. ^ Occasionally a bailiff made a distraint 
in respect of arrears of a tax, e.g. no. 229, but the circumstances 
were different : the debt in question had become classed among 
the ordinary debts due to the king. 

What is particularly to be noticed in regard to the complaints 
in A.B. 505 against taxes is that they are all made by the small 
men, who do not come in person to where the court is sitting, but 
have their cases remedied through juries of presentment- ; that, 
having regard to the total number of sub-taxors at work during 
the war years, the body of subsequent complaint recorded in A.R. 
505 is relatively very small ; and that all, or almost all, the com- 
plaints come from a single wapentake — Candleshoe. Why this 
should be, I have not been able to discover, but it is highly im- 
probable that none of the collectors in the other wapentakes were 
guilty of similar misdemeanours to those of the Candleshoe collectors. 
Yet A.B. 505 does not reveal them being brought to book. It is 
true that a certain number of the Threo sub -collectors are summoned,"' 
but they do not come, nor is there any further record of them in 
A. JR. 505. Nevertheless, it has been shown what the collection 
of a tax on movables involved in Lincolnshire and how some of 
the sub-taxors conducted themselves. The absence of plaintiffs 
of ranks higher than villagers is significant : the sub-collectors 
could probably only be high-handed with their peers, to say nothing 
of the abihty of the higher ranks to make individual complaints 
directly to the central authority if they wished. 



VI 

PRISES AD OPUS REGIS 

There are more complaints in A.R. 505 in respect of prises 
ad opus regis — the taking of beasts, corn, etc. for the king's use — 
than in respect of any other specific grievance* The subject is 
a large and important one, requiring consideration from three 
aspects : as prises affected the people of Lincolnshire, as they 
affected the local administration in the county, and finally as they 
affected not only the central administration, but the constitution 
itself. 

Reference to Appendix II indicates that the central authority 
authorised six great prises during or just after the French war, 
in five of which Lincolnshire was involved. On November 29th, 

^C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 172. 

2 The cases beginning ' it has been proved by the jury,' being final 
records, do not reveal how the complaints contained in them originated, but 
this does not necessarily destroy the argument. 

' No. 415, and Appendix II, List of Taxors, pp. 155 seq. 

* Rather more than 50, against about 45 in respect of taxes on movabJeg. 



INTRODUCTION bii 

1296, the county was ordered to provide 500 quarters of barley, 
1,000 of oats, 1,500 of wheat and 500 of beans and peas. Next 
year, on June 5th, it had to su]:)ply 300 sides of bacon and 200 
carcases of beef ; on July 30th all wool that could be sold was to 
be bought bj' the king's agents ; on November 5th the county 
had to furnish 3.000 quarters of oats and 3,000 of wheat, and on 
April loth. 129S, 1,000 quarters of wheat and 1,050 of oats were 
to be secured for the army in Scotland.^ 

The ordinance issued for the collection of the prise of corn 
of November, 1296, states that it is to be taken from the goods 
of clerks as of laymen, according to the ability of each to provide, 
but saving their reasonable sustenance.^ This meant that everyone 
liable for prises ad opus regis^ might have his crops or his beasts 
assessed, and would have to part with a proportion of them unless 
he had a special protection from the central authority. Protections, 
however, were sometimes numerous, as in the case of the clergy who 
purchased remittance of their outlawry in the spring of 1297 : every 
person who could show the royal protection with clause nolumus^ 
possessed the right to withhold his crops and beasts from the king's 
takers, unless his patriotism over-rode his sense of property. Some- 
times, but not always or necessarily, the protection covered not 
only its recipient, but also his men and all his possessions ; for 
example, when the Abbot and convent of Westminster paid the 
value of half their goods demanded by the king in the autumn of 
1294, protection was given them covering not only the Abbot, 
but also the convent, their men, lands and all possessions, and 
the sheriff was ordered to see that no corn and other goods belonging 
to any of them were taken for the king's use without their consent 
and licence ; and the same applied to the Dean and Chapter of 

' The references for all these prises will be found in the footnotes to 
Appendix III. 

* K.R.M.R., no. 70, m. 113 : "... ausi bien des biens as clerks come 
des lais, solum chescun poeir sauve leur resonable sustenance . . ." 

' I have purposely avoided discussing in detail the question of the 
liability of the individual for prises, for want of enough evidence. Such 
evidence as I have at present suggests that the criterion for liability or non- 
liability to contribute to a royal prise was whether a man possessed enough 
agricultural produce to be able to spare some of it for the king's use, ' saving 
his reasonable sustenance.' No word is said as to his status ; there are 
merely injunctions in royal WTits to sheriffs to spare the poor (cf. L.T.R.M.R., 
no. 68, m. 20, for example, in the ' Forma capcionis bladorum,' dated 
November 29th, 1296) — a very vague command. It will be noted that this 
cuts right across the fundamental medieval distinction between the free and 
the unfree, and suggests that by the end of the thirteenth century the better- 
off section of the imfree, at least, had an economic value to the central 
authority greater than might appear. The economic value of the villein 
class, for instance, as revealed by the effects of the Black Death half a century 
later, would thus be pointedly foreshadowed. But considerably more work 
will have to be done on this very interesting question before any authoritative 
statement can be made. 

* See above, p. xxxix. 



lir rNTRODUCTlON 

Lincoln. ' Similar protection was extended to those who had been 
on the king's service in Gascony.' 

The effect, therefore, of protections with clause nolumus for 
as long as they remained valid, and especially if they were numerous, 
was to reduce appreciably the potential supplies of foodstuffs 
which could be drawn upon b}'- the central authority, but this did 
not necessarily involve any lessening of the demands which might 
be made upon any area. It merely placed a proportionately 
heavier burden upon those who did not enjoy the royal pro- 
tection. 

But in addition to the great prises authorised by ordinance 
and writs enrolled in the Memoranda Rolls, other prises were taken, 
the authority for which I have not found in these records, though 
their existence is revealed by A.R. 505 : a prise of linen cloth, 
and one or more prises of sheep. ^ 

With the above general outline in mind, the effect of prises 
ad opus regis upon the people of Lincolnshire may now be examined 
as it is revealed in A.R. 505. 

In regard to only one of the great prises are references in the 
roll 80 clear that they leave no room for doubt. This is the prise 
of com ordered on April 15th, 1298, the collection of which led 
to some seven complaints,' five of which are dated. In all of 
them the offending official was a bailiff; and in all but one the 
bailiffs justify their action by appealing to the warrant of Peter 
de Molinton, a royal clerk appointed to supervise the collection 
of this prise in Lincolnshire.'' The one case in which there is no 
appeal to Peter's warrant is that in which the official concerned 
is a sub-baihfif, and this, incidentally, is the only case in this group 
where the complaint, as recorded in A.R. 505, was not made by 
personal querela of the plaintiff.^ This, however, may have no 
particular significance, since the case seems to be merely a final 
record of a cause which has been already argued : but the other 
circumstances of it may together illustrate a point in the working 
of the local administration. Peter, the royal clerk, though he 
might have special collectors of prise under him in the localities,' 
would also, and perhaps chiefly, rely upon the existing administra- 
tive organisation of bailiffs and their subordinates. It is clear 
that he issued warrants to bailiffs of ridings and wapentakes to 

' K.R.M.R., no. 08, m. 68d. 

^C.C.R. 1296-1302, pp. 7-8 (December 28th, 1296, and January 17th, 
1297). 

" These may have fomied part of the ancient prises of the crown, which 
are discussed below, but I am inclined to think that tlie prise of Hnen cloth, 
at leaf»+, was a special prise, though I have not been able to find the authority 
for it. 

*Nos. 237, 240-1, 310, 370-2. 

''C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 344. "No. 310. 

' There is some evidence for this in A.R. 505 : see below. 



INTRODUCTION Iv 

collect corn' : but would he issue one to a mere sub-bailifF whose 
superior, the baihff of the wapentake, already had it ? It is hardly 
likely ; if the sub-bailiff was also required to produce a warrant — 
for which there is no evidence — he would obtain it from his 
immediate superior, not from the royal clerk, who probably never 
visited the wapentakes at all but remained in one or other of the 
receiving centres. 

The kinds of complaint made against the bailiffs in respect 
of this prise conform to what the student of local administration 
in the thirteenth century learns to expect : bailiffs took corn for 
the king's use but retained it in their own possession (nos. 237, 
370) ; one of them entered another plaintiff's storehouse and 
without warrant seized and carried off four quarters of malt, and 
then refused to give him a tally in receipt for it — this was serious, 
for it laid the plaintiff open to similar visitations for the same 
prise (no. 240) ; the same baiUfif maliciously and without warrant 
seized from a third plaintiff five quarters of malt, unjustly dis- 
trained him to buy malt where he had none — by which is probably 
meant that the plaintiff had less malt than was demanded of him — 
unjustly seized one quarter of salted flesh, and finally added 
insult to injury by sealing up his doors and ejecting him from 
his own house ! (no. 241). There must surely have been personal 
enmity behind this extremely high-handed behaviour. 

The seizure of the salted flesh may probably be disregarded 
here as a mere excess of instructions, but the repeated references 
to the taking of malt are important. In the instructions for making 
this prise there is no mention of malt, yet we not only find it being 
taken — it is to be noted that the complaints are not against taking 
the malt as such, but against taking it without warrant — but 
there is a body of complaint also that bailiffs and collectors take 
money to exempt individuals from the prise of malt,- These 
cases probably refer to the 1298 prise, since in three of them the 
bailiffs concerned were in ofiice in 1298.^ " The prise of malt," as 
it was called, seems therefore to have been a well recognised part 
of the general prise of corn supervised by Peter de Molinton. There 
is, however, one case^ which seems to include more than one prise : 
Thomas of Easton took not only corn and malt, but also flesh. 
There is no date nor mention of Peter de IMoHnton, but Thomas 
was bailiff in 1297 as well as in 1298, and in the former year there 
was both a prise of corn and one of flesh. If this case, then, belongs 

' Cf. nos. 241, 370, 371, and the orders of the justices for warrants to be 
produced in nos. 237. 372. 

«Nos. 312, 322, 335, 353. 

' Under Richard of Dray cote, sheriff. Tlie bailiffs in question are 
Thomas of Easton, bailiff of Beltisloe and Ness ; Adam le Lung, liis sub- 
bailiff, and Hugh Bardolf , bailiff of Aswardhurn : see Appendix II, list of 
bailiffs, pp. 140 aeq. In the fourth case the offender is a collector (353). 

*No. 306. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION 

not to 1298 but to 1297, it provides evidence that malt was also 
taken then, though again there is no mention of it in the instructions 
of the central authority.' 

There are four other complaints against prises of corn ; but 
as three are not dated and the ofiFenders were not bailiffs, though they 
may have been collectors, it is impossible, on the evidence available, 
to assign them to their chronological place.- The fourth also is 
not dated, but the offender is Ivo of Billinghay, who was bailiff" 
of FlaxweU and Langoe in 1297, but not after Easter, 1298.^ Hence 
the prise of corn which led to this complaint may be dated at the 
latest November 5th, 1297.^ What all four of these cases illustrate 
is a very common form of official dishonesty : levying more in 
cash or in kind than is required for the king's use. 

Four complaints are concerned with prises of oxen, ^ and perhaps 
three others, certainly two, with taking money to spare the plaintiff 
from having oxen seized.*^ In the first of these complaints two 
monks complain that the bailiff, Ivo of Billinghay again, took 
two oxen from them when he could have taken others elsewhere 
at less injury (no. 61) ; in the second, Simon de Worth, a canon 
of Lincoln cathedral, comj)lained that the bailiff of the West Riding, 
on July 10th, 1297, took an ox from him against the royal pro- 
tection — the bailiff in defence said it was for the royal larder (no. 
62) ; in the third, one Agnes ]\Iol of Owersby said that Ralph of 
Cendale, who was bailiff of Walshcroft in 1298 and probably also 
in 1297,' took an ox for the king's use from the plough-team (no. 
153), and lastly William Pynn made a similar complaint against 
the same bailiff, but in his case the ox was not taken from his plough - 
team, and the bailiff in defence pleaded that it was for the royal 
use by order of the sheriff and because it was fat — perhaps a 
commentary on the normal condition of oxen. There seems little 
doubt that these beasts were taken under instructions for the prise 
of flesh ordered on June 5th, 1296® : the date Julv 10th confirms 
one case, and the dates of the bailiffs' tenures of office strongly 
suggest the probable dates of the others. The complaints themselves 
are again not concerned with the prise itself but with the conduct 
of bailiffs. Even Simon de Worth has nothing to say against the 
fact of a prise of flesh, merely that as he holds the royal protection 
the bailiff had no right to take his ox. William Pynn is resentful 
at the loss of his fat beast, but he does not say it was unjust to 
take any oxen at all. Nor do the monks, nor even Agnes Mol, 

' Prise of com of November 5th, 1297 : see Appendix III. 
»No8. 315, 332, 427. 

• No. 394, and cf. Appendix II, list of bailiffs, p. 140. 

* See Appendix III. 

»Nos. 61-2, 153. 159. " Nos. 345, 402, 406. 

'Appendix II, list, of bailiffs, p. 143. 
" See Appendix III. 



I 



INTRODUCTION Ivii 

though she by losing a member of her plough-team suffered the 
greatest injury of any. 

There remain to be discussed the instances of prises of sheep 
and of linen cloth. There are six complaints' against bailiffs who 
took sheep for the king's use, and a number of cases where money 
was taken by bailiffs to exempt persons from this prise.- Of the 
six cases, the basis of complaint in five is that the bailiff could have 
found better sheep elsewhere at less damage to the owners : it is 
not against the prise of sheep itself. In the sixth case^ the injustice 
to the owners was considerably more serious. It transpired that 
Ivo of Billinghay, the bailiff, having taken the sheep, entered 
the number of them in the roll under his own name, so that when 
the king paid for them Ivo would receive the money which should 
have gone to the real owners of the sheep. 

But this case does not mereh' expose a dishonest bailiff : it 
also reveals a little of the administrative machinery at work. The 
roll mentioned was clearly an account in which each bailiff had to 
enter particulars of what they took, from whom, and perhaps 
also the assessed value of what was taken, and this process was no 
doubt an extension, on a large scale, of the normal procedure for 
taking the ancient prises of the crown.'* The ultimate destination 
of these rolls, or at least of their contents, would probably be either 
the Exchequer or the Wardrobe,^ but of the intermediate steps 
I have no certain evidence. On the analogy, however, of the final 
despatch of goods in accordance with royal instructions,® it may 
be suggested that the bailiffs' rolls, when complete, would be handed 
to the sheriff, who would have a chirograph made, one half of which 
he would keep, and the other would send on to the central authority, 
perhaps by the hand of the royal clerk super\ising the prise. 

The question also arises as to whether these prises of sheep 
formed part of the great prises. Doubt is expressed elsewhere 
as to this,' but it is to be noted that in the six cases discussed only 
two bailiffs are involved, both of whom held office in 1297 but not 
after Easter. 1298.^ This means that the prise of sheep almost 

'Nos. 29, 31-2, 395, 419-20. 
'E.g. nos. 396-7. 
»No. 395. 

* What these inckided is discussed below, p. Ixviii. 

-Cf. Miss M. H. Mills, 'The Adventus Vicecomitmn,'' in E.H.R., 
xxxviii, pp. 331-54, e<?p. pp. 350-51, where she shows that as a result of 
the French and Scottish wars, the sheriffs were not only required to make 
verj' large local purchases, but were often told to account at the Wardrobe 
for some allowances claimed at the Exchequer. Cf. also, for otlier aspects 
of the question, Tout, Chapters, ii, pp. 85-145, and Mr. Hilary- Jenkinson's 
articles on ' Tallies "" in Archceologia, vols, l.xii and Ixxiv. 

* See the translation of a sheriff's accovint given below, p. Ixi. 
"See p. 103. 

* Appendix II. list of bailiffs, s.v. Ivo of Billinghay and Xigel le 
Chapixiaii. 



Iviii INTRODUCTION 

rertainly took place in the same year as the prise of other flesh 
already discussed. It is therefore possible, but not certain, that 
a limited number of sheep were taken in this prise, though no 
specification in regard to them was included in the ordinance com- 
manding it. But the number would hav^e to be limited, since if 
too many sheep were taken, the staple wool trade would suffer, 
and with it a main source of national wealth ; and this may well 
explain why sheep are not included in the ordinances for prises. 

The only information that can be gathered from A.R. 505 
as to a prise of linen cloth is to be found in four entries^ in which 
bailiffs are convicted of taking money to spare individuals from 
this and other prises. The bailifis involved were the notorious 
Ivo of Billinghay (398, 405), a sub-bailiflf of his, Alan of Tallington 
(402), both of whom were in office during 1297, but not after Easter, 
1298 ; and Walter Deaudamur (403), an official whose rank is never 
mentioned in A.R. 505, but who is always found acting as if he 
were a bailiff. This very scanty evidence, which I have been 
unable to supplement from other sources, indicates that this prise 
of linen cloth was taken in 1297 or very early in 1298. 

There is one case of a bailiff levying an excessive sum for 
carriage (382), but this is an isolated example of official misuse 
of one of the ancient prises of the crown, and can hardly be said 
to come within the orbit of specifically war-time burdens, since it 
might and did happen at any time.- 

^'We are left now with the largest single body of complaints 
recorded in A.B. 505 in connection with prises : taking money 
unjustly to exempt individuals from prises, some instances of which 
have already been noted ; and wrongful seizure of goods under 
cover of prise. ^ Of these practices the former is the more usual : 
j/'as with similar practices in respect of taxes on movables, it appears 
to be the smaller tenants who are most exposed ; the bailiffs knew 
their power, and knew against whom they could most safely exercise 
it. For the victim it was a choice of evils ; if he resisted the bailiff, 
he stood to see more of his goods taken, under cover of authority, 
than were required for the king's use, and while he might eventually 
be paid for what the king really required, he would still be the 
loser. If he gave the bailiff the sum demanded in lieu of a prise 
he would still lose, but perhaps not so much, unless the bailiff saw 
fit to repeat the demand. Unfortunately A.R. 505 gives no con- 
crete example of this dilemma, but from the general conduct of 
bailiffs as revealed by the roll, it is not difficult to visualise some- 
thing of what probably happened. 

There were thus good grounds for complaint ; but it must be 
said once again that in every case the emphasis is laid upon the 

»Nos. 398, 402-.3, 405. 

^ See below, p. Ixvii seq., where the appropriate article ol Magna Carta is 
discussed. 

E.g. nob. 314, 317. 



INTRODUCTION lix 

conduct of those officialn, mostl}' royal bailiff's, to whom we^s 
entrusted the collection of prises. The justice of imposing the 
prises themselves is nowhere questioned in A.R. 505 : they may 
have been felt as a grievance, and doubtless the seizure of a shoej) 
or an ox or a quarter or two of corn often meant real hardship to 
the owner ; but the behaviour of the king's ministers was a far 
greater grievance. Priges, were imposed at irregular intervals : 
they may have been burdens, even serious ones, but the memory 
of them soon faded, as witness the dates of those which gave rise 
to complaints m A.B. 505 — except in one or two cases the early 
prises were not even mentioned, so far as can bo determined.^ 
But the bailifi' was always present, and, if the evidence of A.R. 505 
is valid (there is no reason to doubt it), was rarely to be trusted 
to carry out his commissions honestly, without oppressing whom 
he might.- If A.R. 505 was a measure of public resentment against 
royal officials, it was also, as will be shown, a measure of lack of 
pubhc opportunity for redress. ^-^ 

Some indication having been given as to how the imposition 
of war-time prises affected the people of Lincolnshire, attention 
may now be turned to the effect of them upon the local administra- 
tion. It is already evident that the staff of bailiffs formed the 
principal agents for collecting prises, but in one of the complaints 
the offenders are said to be collectors, and in two more they may 
have been.^ But the question of special collectors of prise is an 
obscure one. I have not found, in the ordinances or in the writs 
appointing supervisory clerks, any evidence of a comprehensive 
system of collectors and sub -collectors such as was regularly used 
to collect a tax on movables. Yet the imposition of a great prise 
must have entailed almost as much work in the localities as a grant 
of a tax on movables. It is true that the sheriff's administrative 
staff, the bailiffs and sub-bailiffs and their underlings, was accus- 
tomed to act as takers for ordinary purposes—for provisioning 
royal castles under the direction of the constable, for supplying 
the needs of the royal household in its peace-time aspects, and 
the like — but to collect the great war-time prises must have imposed 

^ But memorj' may have faded because grievances had already been 
settled : John de Insula, justice, was in Lincolnshire during 1296 hearing 
complaints there against royal ministers ; and in the next year he deposited 
twelve rolls of Lincolnshire pleas at the Exchequer {L.T.R.M.R., no. 68, 
m. 47). These rolls are lost, but they may have included complaints against 
one or more of the 1296 prises. As the eyre had been to Lincolnshire in 
1292-3 (H, Cam, Studies in the Hundred Rolls, pp. 108-12), John's visit 
of 1296 must have represented either a special enquiry in the county (but 
at whose instigation ?) or else a belated conclusion of the 1292-3 eyre. In 
any case, the circumstance is perhaps not unconnected with Edward I's 
CNndent knowledge of local conditions as revealed in his ordinance for the 
prise of November, 1296 (L.T.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 20 ; cf. p. cxxvi, below). 

-Miss Cam's analysis of the Hundred Rolls of 1274-5 is a striking 
indication of this : cf. The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, passim. 

* Xo6. 427, 332 respectively. 



Ix INTRODUCTION 

a very great strain upon an already well-occupied staff of bailiffs 
if they were to do it unaided. Although, therefore, A.R. 505 
shows bailiffs to have been chiefly responsible for taking prises, 
it is not surprising to find some evidence of a supplementary staff 
at work assisting them. This evidence is not extensive, however : 
the collectors of corn in Swaton levied there one quarter and six 
bushels of corn above what went to the king's use' ; similarly 
two men levied corn in Bulby to excess,'- and two others levied 
money in Heckington over and above what was needed to buy 
corn.^ These four men are given no rank, but it is possible though 
not certain that they were also collectors. And four men are 
ordered to be attached to answer to the presentment of the Asward- 
hurn jurors concerning the taking of corn and other things^ ; they 
may have been collectors. On the other hand, one of the writs 
issued in connection with the prise of corn ordered on Novem- 
ber 29th, 1296, is quite explicit. It is addressed to the sheriff and 
contains instructions to him and to his sub -bailiffs as to the prise, 
but makes no mention of other collectors^ : and elastic as the term 
bailiff is, it can hardly be held to cover special collectors as distinct 
from the ordinary administrative staff'. 

But if there were special collectors of prises to assist the bailiffs, 
there were also local receivers of corn, whose duty was probably 
to supervise the despatch of corn taken in their districts to receiving 
centres like Lincoln. There is evidence of such receivers at Boston, 
which if a receiving centre for surrounding districts was also a 
port of despatch,' and also in the vill of Horbling in Aveland.' 
Thus the imposition of a w^artime prise involved additional work 
for the normal administrative staff of bailiffs and sub-bailiffs — 
■with, as has been shown, additional opportunities for illicit enrich- 
ment — and seems also to have involved the appointment not only 
of a special clerk to supervise the prise, but local collectors and 
receivers as well. 

It also entailed heavy responsibihties and labour for the 
sheriff, as well as for the supervisory royal clerk. Together they 
were answerable for receipt of the articles taken, their preparation 
for despatch, carriage to the ports, if the prise were to be sent 

' No. 427. The collectors were William the Provost (reeve), Robert 
the Clerk and John Slech. 

* No. 315, Robert Benet and Richard ad Ecclesiam, 
■ No. 332, Robert Leverik and Robert le Engleys. 

♦ No. 333, '■ . . . de capcione bladi et aliorum . . ."' The men in 
question were Philip son of ^Villiam of Helpringham, John Fraunceys, Walter 
of Ciilverthorpe and William Loveday. 

^ L.T.R.M.R., no. 70, m. 20, "... accepimus quod tarn tu et subballiui 
tui quam alii vicecomites et subballiui eorum." 

" No. 44G, and of. the sheriff's account given below. 

' No. 448. The question of collectors and receivers of corn needs closer 
lavestigation. 



INTRODUCTION hci 

overseas, and all the arrangements for transport thither.' As to 
what these duties involved, it is best to let Ralph Pa3-nel, sheriff 
of Lincoln from Easter, 1297, to Easter, 1298, speak for himself. 
The schedule printed below was one of expenses incurred in the 
despatch to Flanders, in June, 1297, of the prise of corn ordered 
in November of the pre\^ous year, to supervise whicli Richard 
of Hetherington, a royal clerk, was appointed for Lincolnshire. - 
The schedule is written on a single membrane some ten inches 
vdde by about thirty long, widely serrated on the riglit-hand margin. 
The information entered on one side was repeated on the other. 
Richard took the left-hand portion to the Exchequer with him, 
while Ralph kept the right-hand one as his w-arrant when obtaining 
payment for his expenses. It is Richard's half of the schedule 
that has come down to us.^ 

Cereals for the use of the lord king taken in the county of Lincoln by 
Richard of Hetherington, clerk, and Ralph Pa^-nel, sheriff of that county, 
in the 25th year of the reign of King Edward : and expenses incurred 
with respect to the aforesaid cereals by the said sheriff, by view of the 
said Richard, about the feast of S. John the Baptist (24 June, 1297). 
Sum of the whole receipt of cereals there taken : 2,741 quarters 
and half a bushel, as appears by the items below : 

Of com, 1,231 quarters 1 bushel 1 peck ; and of beans and peas, 
356 qrs. 1 bush. : of barley. 202 qrs. 1 bush. 1 peck ; and of oats, 951 
qrs. and half a bushel : of which were received as follows : 
At Lincoln 780i qrs. i bush., i.e. 

of com, 314^ qrs. 1 peck, 
of beans and peas, 65 qrs. I bush, 
of barley, 133| qrs. 1 peck, 
of oats, 267 qrs. H bush. 
At Boston l,275i qrs. 1 bush, i.e. 

of com, 493^ qrs. i bush, 
of beans and peas, 232 qrs. 1 bush, 
of barley, 43 qrs. 
of oats, 505i qrs. li bush. 
At Wainfleet 248 qrs. 1 bush., i.e. 

of corn, 131 qrs. i bush, 
of beans and peas. 5A qrs. i bush, 
of barley, nil. 
of oats, 11 H qrs. 
At Grimsby 436 qrs. 1^ bush., i.e. 

of com, 292 qrs. 

of beans and peas, 53 qrs. i bush. 

of barley, 24 i qrs. 1^ bush. 

of oats, 66 qrs. lA bush. 

• E.g. the prise of corn of 12 May 1296 (Appendix III). Among the 
instructions issued to sheriffs are a writ " de bladis recipiendis et usque 
diuersos portus cariandis ■" ; one " de bladis liberandis,'" and one — signifi- 
cantly — •■ de cariagio bladi festinando.' K.R.M.R., no. 69. m. 77d. 

*K.R.M.R., no. 70. m. 114. 

^ P.R.O. Sheriffs' Admin. Accta., no. 568/1. A transcript of this account 
is given below as Appeudirc IV, pp. 1S4 ^eo. 



Ixii INTRODUCTION 

Sum of the whole of the corn milled in the aforesaid county : 239 
qrs., of which were milled as follows : 

At IJncoln 135 qrs., of which [there is] 

of 8ifted flour, 123 qrs. 1^ bush, 
of bran, 59i qrs. 
At Boston 62 qrs.. of which [there is] 

of sifted flour, 62 qrs.^ 
of bran. 22 qrs. 1^ bush. 
At Grimsby 42 qrs., of Avhich [there is] 

of sifted flour. 42 qrs.* 
of bran, 14 qrs., 
according to the report of the bakers selected and sworn for this. 

Sum of the whole of the sifted flour : 227 qrs. 1^ bush. And the 
sum of the whole of the bran : 951 qrs. 1^ bush., for the cost of which 
the aforesaid .sheriff is answerable by a certain chirograph sewn to this. 
Sum of flesh taken in the aforesaid county : 

16 carcases of beef. 
43^ sides of bacon. 
Expenses incurred in respect of the aforesaid com : 
For milling 135 qrs. of corn at Lincoln : 33/9, viz. per quarter 3d. 
Item for milling 62 qrs. of com at Boston : 15/6, viz. per qr. 3d. Item 
for milling 42 qrs. of corn at Grimsby : 10/6, viz. per qr. 3d. 

Total, 59/9. 

For bolting (sifting) flour obtained from corn milled at Lincoln, 
viz. 135 qrs. : 5/7^, viz. per qr. ^d. Item for bolting flour obtained 
from com milled at Boston, viz. 62 qrs. : 2/7, viz. per qr. |d. Item 
for bolting flour obtained from com milled at Grimsby, viz. 42 qrs. : 
1/9, viz. per qr, id. 

Total, 9/1 U. 

For 40 ells of canvas bought at Lincoln for making a place for bolting 
the flour, after the manner of a granary- : 11/8, of price per ell 3 id. 
Item for 20 ells of canvas bought at Boston for the same : 5/10, of price 
per ell 3^d. For 20 ells of coarse pieces bought at Grimsby for the 
same : 3/4. of price per ell 2d. 

Total, 20/10. 

For carriage of 135 qrs. of corn milled at Lincobi, from the granary 
to the mill and from the mill to the place of bolting : 3/-. Item for 
carriage of com milled at Boston to the mill and from the mill : 2/6. 
Item for carriage of com milled at Grimsby to the mill and from the 
mill: 1/2. 

Total, 6/8. 

For 37 ells of coarse pieces bought for making sacks for bearing and 
carrying com received at Lincoln, of which were made 10 sacks : 4/7J, 
of price per ell l^d. Item for 16 ells of coar.sc pieces bought for portage 
and conveyance of com received at Wainfleet, of which were made foux 
sacks, 2/-, of price per ell l^d. Item for nine used sacks bought for 
carriage of corn overseas and for portage and conveyance of com received 

' Those Bguree are «« in MS. 



INTRODUCTION Ixiii 

at Boston and at Grimsby: 15/-, of price per sack 3d. Item for 111 
used sacks bought for the same : 27 /U, of price per sack 3d. 

Total, 49/4f 

For 13 casks bought at Lincoln fur containing the flour bolted there : 
19/6, of price per cask 1 /G. Item for 22 barrels bought there for the 
same : 18/4, of price per barrel lOd. Item for the wages of two men 
repairing, cleaning and refitting the said casks and barrels for 12 days : 
8/-, viz. to each of them per day 4d. Item for hoops and nails bought 
for the same : 7/6. Item for five Rhenish tuns bought at Boston for 
containing the flour bolted there : 12/6, of price per tun 2/6. Item 
for five casks bought there for the same : 8/4, of price per cask 1/8. 
Item for the wages of one man repairing, cleaning and refitting the said 
tuns and casks for eight days : 2/8, viz. per day 4d. Item for hoops 
and nails bought for the same : 2/2. Item for eight casks bought at 
Grimsby for containing the flour bolted there : 13/4, of price per cask 
1/8. Item for hoops and nails bought for the Siime, 1/3^. 

Total, £4 13s. 6id. 

For the hire of 12 porters at Lincoln carrjang corn from the granarj' 
to boats for three days : 0/-. viz. to each of them per day 3d. Item 
for the hire of four porters there for one day for the same : 12d., viz. 
to each of them per day 3d. Item for the hire of a ferryman to convey 
13 casks and 22 barrels on to the boats there : 6/11, viz. 3d. per cask 
and 2d. per barrel. Item for the hire of 16 porters at Boston for 12 days 
for carrying corn received there and for com coming from Lincoln, to 
the great ships : 48/-, viz. to each of them per day 3d. Item for hire 
of a ferrjTnan to convej' 10 tuns and casks filled there, and 13 casks 
and 22 barrels coming from Lincoln, into the great ships at Boston : 
9/5, viz. 3d. for each cask and 2d. for each barrel. Item for the hire 
of six porters at Wa inflect for four days : 6/-, viz. to each of them per 
day 3d. Item for the hire of eight porters at Grimsby for four days : 
8/-, viz. to each of them per day 3d. Item for the hire of a ferrjTnan 
to convey eight casks filled there into the great ships : 2/-, viz. 3d. 
for each cask. 

Total. £4 lOs. 4d. 

For carriage of 179^ qrs. 1 peck of corn from Lincoln to Boston 
by water : 22/5^, viz. for each quarter l^d. Item for carriage of 65 
qrs. 1 bush, of beans and peas there : 8/lf, viz. per qr. lid. Item for 
carriage of 1334 qrs. 1 peck of barley : 11/1^, viz. per qr. Id. Item 
for carriage of 267 qrs. 1^ bush, of oats there : 16/8^, viz. per qr. |d. 
Item for the hire of dunnage for the boats carrying the said corn : 2/10. 
Item for carriage of the aforesaid 35 casks and barrels, which contained 
123 qrs. H bush, of flour, from Lincoln to Boston : 16/5, viz. l^d. 
per qr. 

Total. 76/8. 

For the hire of five small boats carrying 540 qrs. of corn from Boston 
to Wainfleet to bigger ships : 15/-, viz. for each boat 3/-. And for 
the hire of one small boat by itself for the same ; 2/3. Item for the 
hire of dunnage for the same small boats : 2/6. Item for the hire of 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION 

one small boat carrying 32 qrs. 7 strikes of com from the filial remainder 
at Wainfleet to Boston, and tor dunnage for the same : 8/ti. 

Total, 38/3. 

For the hire of two men receiving and measuring corn at Lincohi 
at the granary, and from the granary to the boats, for IG days : 8/-, 
viz. to each of them 3d. per day. For the expenses of one clerk living 
there for the same time, over the receipt and delivery of the aforesaid 
corn : 5/4, viz. 4d. per daj". Item for the hire of four men receiving 
and measuring corn at Boston for 14 days : 14/-, viz. to each of them 
3d. per day. Item for the expenses of one clerk living there for the 
same time, over the receipt and delivery of the said corn : 7/-, viz. 
Cd. per daj'. Item for the hire of two men receiving and measuring 
corn at Wainfleet for 10 days : 5/-, viz. to each of them 3d. per day. 
Item for the expenses of one clerk living there for the same time, over 
the receipt and delivery of the said corn : 5/-, viz. 6d. per day. Item 
for the hire of two men receiving and measuring corn at Grimsby for 
eight days : 4/-, viz. to each of them 3d. per day. Item for the expenses 
of one clerk living there for the same time, over the receipt and delivery 
of the said corn : 4/-, viz. 6d. per day. 

Total, 52/4. 

For loading the ship of John de Nasingges which is called ' Petre 
de Sancto Botulpho ' bound for Flanders which holds 266.^ qrs. of com : 
76/6. And for hire of dunnage of the same : 8/-. 

For loading the ship of Stephen of Stanham which is called ' Katerine 
de Sancto Botulpho ', which holds 152i qrs. of beans and peas, transport- 
ing them to the parts of Flanders : 67/6. And for hire of dunnage of 
the same : 8/6. 

For loading the ship of William de la Bothe which is called ' Jonette 
de Sancto Botulpho ' bound for Flanders, which holds 11 tuns of flour 
containing 54 qrs. and 73i qrs. of beans and peas, and 145 qrs. of oats, 
13i carcases of beef, 33i sides of bacon : 67/6. And for dunnage of 
the same : 7/-. And for making a certain rope : I2d. 

For loading the ship of Alexander Pyg' of Wintringham which is 
called ' Godyer de Sancto Botulpho ' bound for Flanders, which holds 
34 casks of flour containing 131 qrs. 1| bush, of flour; and 469 qrs. of 
oats; and 111 qrs. of barley: 75/-. And for dunnage of the same: 
9/2^. And for one pilot hired to take the ship out of port : 3/-. 

For loading the ship of Laurence son of Hugh and Walter son of 
Alan which is called ' Belle de Weynflet ' bound for Flanders, which 
holds 100 qrs. of corn and 120 qrs. of oats : 30/-. And for dunnage 
of the same : \ a mark. 

For loading the ship of Laurence son of Hugh which is called ' Blythe 
of Weynflet ' bound for Flanders, which holds 110 qrs. i bush, of com 
and 92 qrs. of oats : 56/3. And for dunnage of the same : ^ a mark. 

For loading the ship of Alan of Wrangle and Peter son of Haco 
which is called " Godyer de Weynflet ' bound for Flanders, which holds 
135 qrs. of corn and 59 qrs. of beans and peas : 48/9. And for dunnage 
of the same : | a mark. 

For loading the ship of Simon of Wrangle and Thomas of Swyne 
which is called ' Faucon dc Weynflet ' bound for Flanders, which holds 
80 qrs. of corn and 60 qrs. of barley : 25/-. And for dunnage of the 
name : 6/-. 



INTRODUCTION Ixv 

For loading the ship of Robert son of Alan of Grainthorpc which is 
called ' Bl^-the de Orv-nimesby ' bound for Flanders, which holds 81 
qrs. of corn and 51^ qrs. and i bush, of beans and peas, and .5 qrs. 1 
bush, of oats, 2i qrs. of barley, eight casks containing 42 qrs. of flour : 
38 '6. .Vnd for dunnage of the same : J mark. 

For loading another ship of Peter Duraunt which is called ' BMhc 
de Gr;yTnmesby ' bound for Flanders, which holds 160 qrs. of corn, 
22 qrs. 3 bush, of barley, 61 qrs. of oats, 2A carcases of beef and 10 sides 
of bacon : 60'-. And for dunnage of the same : i mark. 

For loading the ship of John Herny which is called ' Gerlaund de 
Brummouth ', of Boston, bound for Anuers (Antwerp) in Brabant, 
which holds 69 qrs. 1 bush, of corn, 20i qrs. of beans and peas, 11 qrs. 
of barley and 75 qrs. of oats : £4. And for dunnage for the same : 7/-. 

£ s. d. 
Total for loading the 11 ships aforesaid .. 31 5 
Total of dunnage for the same . . 79 Oi 

And for a certain pilot and one rope . . 4 

Sum total : £59 15s. 9d.. concerning the items of which (see below 
p. 189, n. 2). 

This schedule was made in two parts, of which one part remains in 
the custody of the said Richard of Hetherington, clerk, for the use of 
the lord king ; and the other part in the custody of the said Ralph the 
sheriff. But there ought to be withdrawn thence 3/- for duimage of the 
ship of John Herny, for that he did not receive above 4/- where he 
ought to have received 7/- for the said dunnage. 

(Attached to the above schedule is the following, written on a 
})ortion of a membrane about eight inches wide by six long, and not 
serrated on either side) : 

Sale of bran extracted from the corn taken and milled in the county 
of Lincoln for the king's use by Richard of Hetherington, clerk of the 
lord king, and R. Paj-nel, sheriff of the said county, in the 25th year of 
the reign of King Edward : 

The said Ralph the sheriff i.-^ answerable concerning 79 4 for the 
sale of 59^ qrs. of bran extracted from corn milled at Lincoln, according 
to the report of the bakers of the city of Lincoln selected and sworn 
for this ; of price per quarter. 16d. Item, Ralph the sheriff is answerable 
concerning lS/7 for the sale of 22 qrs. U bush, of bran extracted from 
corn milled at Boston, of price per quarter. lOd. The same Ralph 
the sheriff is answerable concerning 9/4 for the sale of 14 qrs. of bran 
extracted from com milled at Grimsby, as appears in the other chirograph 
to which this chirograph is sewn ; of price per qr. 8d. 

Total, 107/3. 

Sale of canvas there made : 

The said Ralph the sheriff is answerable concerning 6/8, for the 
sale of 40 ells of canvas previously bought for making a place for bolting 
flour at Lincoln : price per ell : 2d. 

Total, 6/8. 
Sum total, 113/11. 

And memorandum, that from 20 ells of canvas bought at Boston 
for a place for bolting corn there, were made six sacks. And from 20 
eUs of coarse pieces bought for the same at Grimsby, as appears in the 



Ixvi INTRODUCnON 

other chirograph to which this chirogrr.'iph is sevm, were made five sacks. 
And lU sacks were made at Lincoln for portage and carriage of corn 
from 37 ells of coarse pieces which were bought as a] .pears in the other 
chirograph. And four sacks which were made from 16 ells of coarse 
pieces at Wainfleet for portage and carriage of corn there. And 171 
sacks, bought as appears in the other chirograph, were sent overseas 
to Flanders with the ships transporting corn thereto, in accordance 
\rith the ordinance and ^^Tit of the lord king regarding this, directed to 
the said Richard and the sheriflF. 

Not only does this account present a most vivid picture of 
what the handling of a war-time prise involved for the sheriff and 
the royal clerk in the matter of organisation, equipment and super- 
vision, but it reveals also the practice of considerable economy. 
The casks, barrels and tuns were clearly not new', but old ones 
re-furbished ; and such canvas as was not finally required for 
shipping the corn was re -sold. Its use to make places for bolting 
the corn suggests that the normal equipment was inadequate — 
not unnaturally, since prises on the scale of those imposed in war- 
time were not normal, as will be shown. 

It has by now become evident that the war-time prises played 
an important part in local administration and were the source, if 
indirectly, of the largest body of complaint in A.R. 505. With 
the greatest emphasis iii Lincolnshire thus laid upon prises, it is 
necessary to examine the question in its larger, national aspect ; 
and in doing so it will be found that for the war period there is a 
similar emphasis in this field also. I have already drawn, by 
implication, a distinction between great prises and other prises : 
this requires elucidation, for which reason, and because there 
appears to be some uncertainty as to the general nature and inci- 
dence of prises, at least during the thirteenth century, I now attempt 
to state some of the points at issue. 

A prise ad opiis regis, in its simplest form, seems to have 
meant the taking of something for the use of the king by virtue 
of the royal prerogative. Because there was normally attached 
to this prerogative right the duty of making payment for what 
was taken, the general term purveyance has been applied to its 
exercise, but for the thirteenth century the use of this term, with 
its connotation of more or less automatic payment, would obscure 
what was at that time a very real struggle. The normal word used 
in the thirteenth century itself was prisa or captio, verbally capere, 
and in French documents prendre, prise — to take, rather than 
to buy.' 

* Cf. Magna Carta, 1216, c. 28, ''Nullus constabularius uel alius balliuus 
nosier capiat blada . . ." ; e. 30, " Nullus vicocomes uel balliuus noster 
capiat equos ..." (McKechnie's text, Magna Carta, pp. 385, 392, cf. 
Stubbs' text, S.C, 9th ed., pp. 296-7) ; capiat, Articles of the Barons, 
1215 {S.C, p. 287, articles 18 and 20); Petition of the Barons, 12o8. art. 
22, ■' Item de prists domini regis . . . conqueruntur quod ilicti caplotas 



INTRODUCTION Ixvii 

A convenient starting point for the following discussion is 
the requirements of the barons of Magna Carta. En respect of 
prises ad opus regis the Articles of the Barons of 121o contain three 
demands' all of which are embodied as undertakings in the 1215 
issue of the Charter. The first required that no royal constable 
or bailiff should take anyone's corn or other goods without making 
immediate payment for it, unless he could secure credit by consent 
of the seller.- In the second, King John agrees that no sheriff 
or bailiff of his should take any freemen's horses or carts for 
transport, except by consent of tlie owner. -^ A similar promise 
is given in respect of tmiber required for royal castles or other 
works. ^ 



The barons of .Alagna Carta wisely did not attempt to 
remove the right of prise. ^ What they did try to restrict in 
1215 was an unwarranted extension of the prerogative, and in doing 
so unconsciously set a standard against which royal actions in 
taking prises were still being judged a century later. The specific 
ground of complaint in 1215 was that of non-payment for goods 
taken, but the omission of the words ' ad opus regis ' perhaps implies 
that royal officials were arrogating to themselves, for their own use, 
powers which belonged to the king and only by delegation, in virtue 
of their office, to them. It is local prises, taken ostensibly in the 
interests of local royal administration, by local royal officials, 
that are to be restricted, especially in regard to provisionuig royal 
castles.^ 

In the 1216 re-issue of ^lagna Carta the two articles regarding 
prises are modified in a common-sense direction. That relating 
to prises of corn both regulates more closely the conditions of 
payment and defines the officials to whom these conditions apply. 
In 1215 merelv ' no constable or bailiff of ours,' in 1216 'no con- 
stable or ^i.s bailiff shall take corn or other goods of anyone ' ; 

. . ."" {S.C., p. 376) ; Stat. Westm. I, c. VII. 1275, • . . . qe nul couestable 
. . . nule manerc de yrise, ne face . . ." {Stats. Realm i, p. 28) ; manifesto 
of Earls Marshal and Constable, 1297, Fionch version " . . . il sunt grevos 
de diverses . . . prices . . ."' (B. Cott., p. o2G), Latin version "... afflicti 
sunt per diuersa . . . priaas . . ." (Trivet, Annalea, pp. 360-2) ; Coniirmatio 
Cartarum, 1297, '" . . . qe mes pur nule busoyne tieu manere des . . . 
prises . . ."" (5.C., 9th ed., p. 491). Only with the year 1300 is the term 
purveour beginning to be used : "... fors qe les prenours le roi e pur- 
veoura pur lostel le roi " (Art. sup. Cartas, art. ii. Stats. Realm, i, p. 137) — 
and here the terms are contrasted. 

•Articles of the Barons, Nos. 18, 20, 21, in S.C, p. 287. 

'Magna Carta, 1215, c. 28 {S.C, p. 296 ; McKechnie, op cit., p. 385). 

=> Magna Carta, 1215, c. 30 {S.C, pp. 296-7 ; McKechnie, p. 392). 

' Ibid., c. 31 (S.C, p. 297 ; McKechnie, p. 393). 

^ What the baronage dealt with was, however, a private right, not an 
administrative process. Nevertheless, Tout has shown clearly that the 
Middle Age was not concerned with differentiating the private and public 
activities of the king. Cf. Chapters, i, pp. 19-20. 

" Of. McKechnie, op. cit., pp. 387-8, who brings this pomt out well. 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION 

not ' anyone at all,' as implied in 1215, but ' who does not belong 
to the vill where a castle is situated.'^ This narrows the field 
and defines it with precision. Similarly, the article relating to 
prises of horses and carts ad opus regis is both better defined and 
made more equitable. The clause regarding freemen is omitted 
and the word ' an3-one ' inserted,- thus in theory giving the unfree 
the same right of refusal as the free ; and the price to be paid is 
fiied. 

The changes in the second re-issue of the Charter in 1217 are 
trifling as regards provisioning castles by prise, but a new article 
was inserted which considerably restricted the right of taking 
horses and carts — very much in favour of the aristocracy. Prise 
of these means of transport by royal officials is prohibited from 
the demesne of anj' ecclesiastic or knight or lady.^ These articles 
were not again altered in the third re-issue of the Charter in 1225, 
and, in the form which they finally took in 1217, remained the 
background against which future complaints could be set, unless 
such complaints were made in directions of which Magna Carta 
took no cognisance. 

It should be emphasised at this point that Magna Carta does 
not call in question the king's right of prise for the sustenance of 
himself or his household, but only that part of the right which 
was abused by constables of castles and their subordinates ; and 
that even this part of the right was merely restricted, save in the 
case of timber. Furthermore, the prises which do find a place 
in the Charter were local in extent and specialised in kind, not 
national or semi-national and affecting everybody everywhere : 
none the less, they had a humble part to play in the national 
administration. Nor, because certain types of prise are not dealt 
with in the Charter, is it correct to assume that they did not exist. 
It can be safely inferred only that such prises find no place because 
the baronage was not affected by them : the ' ancient prises due 
and accustomed ' included more than just the right to provision 
castles or take the means of transport.^ 

By the middle of the thirteenth century complaints are again 
being made against prises, and are voiced in the barons' petition 
to Henry III at the Parliament of Oxford in 1258, in these terms : 
' Item, concerning prises of the lord king in fairs and markets and 

1 Magna Carta, 1216, c. 21 {S.C., p. 338), cf. 1215, c. 28. 

^Ibid., 1216, c. 23 (S.C., p. 338), cf. 1215, c. 30. I append the 1216 
article in full : " Nullus vicecomes uel balliuus noster uel alius capiat equos 
uel carettas alicuius pro cariagio faciendo nisi I'cddat liberacionem antiquitus 
statutam, scilicet pro caretta ad duos equos decern denarios per diem, et 
pro caretta ad tres equos quatuordecim denarios per diem." 

=> Magna Carta, 1217, c. 26 (S.C, p. 342). The articles in this issue 
corre-sponding to nos. 21 and 23 of 1216 are nos. 23 and 25 respectively. 

•• E.g. the prise of wine at the ports, and prises of merchandise at the 
great fairs. 



INTRODUCTION Ixix 

cities, viz.. that those who shall have been appointed to take the 
aforesaid prises shall take them reasonably, that is to say, in such 
quantity as pertains to the aforesaid rights {usus) of the lord king ; 
whence they complain that the said takers seize double or treble 
more than goes to the use of the lord king ; moreover they take 
the whole of that excess to their own use or retain it to the use 
of their friends, and some part of it they sell.'^ And again : ' Item, 
they complain that the lord king makes almost no payment for 
prises, so that many merchants of the realm of England are more 
than impoverished, and other foreign merchants are on this account 
withdrawing themselves from coming into this country with their 
wares, whence the realm is incurring great loss.'- 

The complaints of the barons in 1258, as compared with those 
of their ancestors in 1215, iUustrate both a widened outlook and 
the added importance to which prises of merchandise had attained 
during the intervening years. ^ But no specific remedy is suggested 
in the Provisions of Oxford, the logical sequel to the complaints ; 
there is only a general assertion that the king should confine liimself 
to what was due to him of right (in any case, the Provisions of 

1 Petition of the Barons, 1258, Art. 22 {S.C, p. 376). 

» Ibid., Art. 23, Gras, discussing this very complaint in relation to the 
theorj' that customs duties are the offspring of the royal right of prise (which 
theorj- he rejects), makes what seems to be a cvmous mistake. He says 
{Early Eng. Customs System, p. 17) that the barons in their petition asked 
the kins; not to take payment for prises in ways which would be detrimental 
to trade. But tlie verb used by the barons is facere, not capere : make pay- 
ment, not take it. Take fits in admirably with Gras' argument ; but 
the barons, in using the word make, are clearly implying that it is the king's 
failure to make pajinent for goods seized which is hampering trade, not 
taking payment in lievi of goods to such an extent as to hamper trade, which 
is what Gras apparently wishes to make out. His argument, at least so far 
as this evidence goes, thus falls to the ground. The whole tenour of the 
complaint supports the use of facio. The phrase used is nullum, fere facit 
pacacionem ; the effect of nuUam fere capit pacacionem would surely have 
been to cause quite unwonted joy to all merchants and an immediate boom 
in trade ! In any case, the complaints are against the seiziire of goods at 
fairs, etc., by royal officials, and whether the goods taken were for the actual 
use of the king's household or for re-sale to increase the royal revenue does 
not seem to matter. If differences there are, it is in degree, not in kind ; 
only if a prise were commuted to a money payment as the price of trading 
could it become a customs duty and thereby different in kind from a prise 
proper. Gras argues that Tout (Edward I, p. 141), among others, fails to 
make this distinction, thus assuming customs duties to have been a mere 
outcome of prises. But Tout in this place makes the just distinction that 
Gras denies him. 

^ The absence of any mention of prises from fairs, markets and cities 
in Magna Carta is, as has been suggested, no proof of their non-existence 
in or before 1215. It is probably safe to say that in general tliis part of 
the royal right of prise was assumed and grew up as trade grew up, and 
that its importance to the king increased as trade increased. Nor have I 
discovered any evidence to show that it was not included among the ' ancient 
prises due and accustomed.' 



Ixx INTRODUCTION 

Oxford were annulled by the arbitration of St. Louis in 1264). 
There followed the Barons' War, Montfort's triumph at Lewes, 
and the attempted settlement of 1265. For the Provisions was 
now substituted a confirmation of Magna Carta, which did not 
specifically touch the kind of prise complained of by the barons. 
The Forma regiminis domini regis et regni of 1264 had been only 
very general in its terms. It had, however, provided that royal 
officials, major or minor, were to be removed if they turned to 
evil ways in pursuance of their office.' a vague phrase which 
in practice left matters much as they had been — a situation 
demonstrated only too well by the evidence of the Hundred Rolls 
in the next reign. 

While ^lagna Carta and the Provisions of Oxford draw atten- 
tion to localised applications of the royal right of prise, they do 
not illustrate the degree to which it could be extended in times 
of emergency. A state of war was pre-eminently an occasion 
for this, since it was at such a time that, in effect if not in form, 
the personnel of the royal household would be increased to include 
the whole of the royal armies which, like the household proper, 
had to be fed. The circumstances of the Barons' War bring this 
out clearly. They provided both a reason for prises to be made 
on a much larger scale than normally,^ and a precedent for similar 
extensions of the royal prerogative which Edward I did not fail 
to use, when not only the armies for France and later for Scotland 
had to be provisioned, but part of the price of Edward's alliances 
against Philip of France had to be paid by a prise of wool.^ Greatly 
as the right of prise was extended during the Barons' War by 
Henry III, however, we do not hear of officials specially appointed 
to supervise the taking of such prises. This, as normally in times 
of peace, was still the function of the sheriffs and their bailiffs.' 
It is not until Edward I goes to war with France that we find both 
maximum extensions of the right of prise and special machinery 
to control the results of its exercise. 

What the reign of Henry III witnessed, therefore, was not 
merel}' a natural widening of the right commensurate in degree 
and content with widening commerce, but the setting up of an 
important precedent which in the next reign was to give new force 
and direction to the exercise of an old right. ^ And it must be 

1 S.C, p. 401. 

* H. Cam, The Hundred and The Hundred Rolls, ]>• 101, showa, among 
other instances, the acalo of prises taken by the sheriff of Suffolk in 1266-7, 
for war purposes ; and Jacob, Studies in the Period of Baronial Rcjorm and 
Rebellion, 1258-67, p. 253, shows that in 1266 the prises taken were so heavy 
that they exhausted the revenue of no fewer than ten covmtios. 

^ Below, p. Ixxiii. 

* Cf. H. Cam, op. ciU, pp. 101-2. 

' This does not necessarily imply that the precedent itself was a new 
one. It is the scale of it which is important. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxi 

emphasised at this point that action taken on this precedent by 
no means superseded the normal taking of prises of wine, of goods 
at fairs and markets, of provisions for castles, of means of transport 
and so forth. Such action was additional to these things, not 
in place of them. Furthermore, as in 1215, so right through the 
century, the main grievance was not the inconvenience caused 
to individuals through having their goods requisitioned, but the 
financial loss they sustained by the failure of the central authority 
or its representatives to pay promptly or to pay at all. 

A somewhat closer survey of the reign of Edward I will reveal 
both the new scope given to the right of prise during and after 
the Barons' War and the part played by the use of the right in 
bringing about the crisis of 1297 and the years immediately 
following. 

Edward, inheriting the fruits of his father's misgovernment, 
was himself a man of orderly mind, and thus had a double ground 
for desiring a state organised and administered m an orderly manner. 
From the great public enquiry of 1274-5 into complaints against 
royal officials, which produced the Hundred Rolls, and from his 
first parliament, in 1275, resulted the very important Statute of 
Westminster I, and among its provisions are several which have 
to do with the right of prise. The first of these states that no one 
shall thresh or take corn or an}'^ kind of victual nor any goods from 
any prelate, religious, or any other person, clerk or layman, by 
purchase or otherwise, except by consent of the owner or his repre- 
sentative, either within market towns or \vathout. Nor shall 
anyone take horses, oxen, carts, waggons, ships or barges for 
transport, without consent of their owners ; and if this is given, 
payment shall at once be made according to the price agreed.^ 

The word ' no-one ' makes the provision clear enough : it 
must include royal officials as well as others. The corresponding 
clause of Magna Carta^ is both modified and extended. It is 
modified by the removal of the absolute prohibition from taking 
animals and vehicles for transport from the clergy, but it is extended 
by applying to the clergy the right of withholding their consent 
in the case of corn and victuals, in relation to which they are not 
mentioned in Magna Carta.^ 

The Statute of Westminster also affects the right of prise 
to provision castles. The wording upholds that of the equivalent 
articles in the 1217 Charter,^ but a saving clause at the end extends 
the scope of the Westminster article in a manner not secured, even 
if intended, by the barons in 1215 ; no constable or castellan shall 
hereafter take any kind of prise from any other persons than those 

1 Stat. Westm. I, c. i {Stats. Realm, i, p. 27, and notes 2 and 3). 

* 1217 re-issue, c. 26 ; see above, p. Ixviii. 

* Ibid., c. 23, 25 ; see above, p. Ixviii. 

* Ibid., c. 23. 25. 



Ixxii INTRODUCTION 

of the vill wherein the castle is situated, and thia shall be paid for. 
or agreement made, ^^ithin 40 days, if it is not an ancient prise 
of the king or of the castle or of the lord of the castle.^ The emphasis 
in Magna Carta is upon offences committed in the name of the 
king only, by virtue of his right of prise ; Edward, however, by 
this clause, not only takes some of the emphasis off the royal right 
by extending the pro\ision concerning it to similar private rights, 
but also brings out the essential difference between Magna Carta 
and the Statute of Westminster. While the one was imposed 
from without upon a reluctant king, the other was granted by a 
king's free \^dll, but with reservations. Hence the distinction, 
not drawn at all in ^lagna Carta, between ancient prises of the 
king and other prises which circumstances might compel him to 
impose. The implication is that here Edward is contrasting the 
normal with what might be abnormal but still legitimate. The 
clause was a serious attempt at definition, and if towards the end 
of his reign the king himself broke both the spirit and the letter 
of it, that does not destroy its ultimate value. 

Edward at the same time sought to regulate the behaviour 
of those appointed to take prises, having especial regard to the 
perennial grievance of non-payment. If takers of prise, having 
received their payment from the exchequer, wardrobe or else- 
where,^ withhold it from creditors, to their grave damage and the 
slander of the king, the payment is to be immediately levied from 
the lands or belongings of the takers, with damages, and they are 
to make fine for their trespass ; but if they have no lands they are 
to be imprisoned at the king's pleasure.^ 

Closely allied is the next clause of the same article, dealing 
with purchasing the king's debts ; it is followed by a regulation 
to deal with an abuse of the prise of beasts and vehicles for trans- 
port. The existing definition of this prise* is not further amended, 
but steps are taken to check bribery. As regards those who take 
horses and carts for transport above what is required, and then 
take bribes to release them, any member of the king's court who 
does this shall be punished by the Marshal, and if the offence is 
committed out of the court, i.e. by minor royal officials, or by any 
other person, the offender sliall be attainted, shall pay treble damages 
and shall go to gaol for forty days.^ 

Finally, in the last article but one of the Statute, Edward 
had a general saving clause inserted, which covers everything 
contained in the Statute itself; as the king does these things to 

^Stat. Westm. I, c. vii {Stats. Rcahn, i, p. 28). 

' Thi.s flcfinition of the paying authority is important, and is discussed 
below, p. Ixxxi. 

•* Stat. Westm. I, o. xxxii {Stats. Realm, i, p. 34). 
* ilapna Carta, 1217, c. 25-6 ; Stat. Westm. I, c. i. 
'• 1 Stat. Westm. I, c. xxxii {Stats. Realm, i, pp. 34-5). 



INTRODUCTION Ixxiii 

the honour of God and of Holy Church, and for the common weal 
and for the alleviation of those who are burdened, he wUh not 
that these tilings shall be turned at another time to the prejudice 
of himself or of the crown, but that the rights which belong to 
him shall be saved at all points.' 

As far as the operation of the right of prise is concerned, the 
Statute of Westminster I represents a serious attempt to deal 
with a long-standing grievance, and for the first time sets forth 
in detail the remedial measures to be taken to end what had become 
a scandal. That they failed to do so was perhaps not wholly the 
fault of the king. 

It is possible that Edward might have succeeded in establish- 
ing and maintaining a really efficient administration along the 
lines of his great legislative statutes if, in view of the financial 
and administrative legacy of his father, he had been content to 
pursue a purely negative foreign policy- . But he was not content 
to do tliis. The financial requirements of the conquest of Wales, 
and in a .special degree those of the quarrel with PhUip IV of France 
and of the results of the Scottish arbitration, first hampered good 
administration and then upset it, and in the end drove the law- 
giver himself to administrative extremes, in order to cope with 
what by the end of the century had become a prolonged state of 
emergency. The position did not become acute untU after 1294, 
but within three years of that date both the administrative system 
and especially the financial and material resources of the country 
had become so strained that Edward himself was faced with the 
humiliating alternatives of confirming the Charters afresh or of 
risking civil war. Nor did the period of strain end with his capitula- 
tion in 1297. It continued for the re.st of the reign and left an evil 
legacy to Edward of Carnarvon in 1307. 

It is during this period of strain that the royal right of prise 
assumed its highest importance in the century. Between the 
years 129G and 1306. that is to say from about the middle of the 
war with France onwards into the protracted Scottish campaigns 
which followed it, there were made ten distinct prises which affected 
large areas of the country, and in some cases virtually the whole 
of it. These are best analysed in tabular form : 

Table III — National or Se^h-National Prises, 1296-1306 

Kind of Ordinance or Counties jrom whidi 

Prise Date Commission taken 

Com About Commission appointing col- Glouc, Som., Dore., Surr., 

12 May, lectors on K.R.M.R., no. 69, Siiss., Wilts., Hants., Berks., 

1296 ra. 77d, 80d, dated 20 Jime Uxon., Bed.s, Bucks., Cambs., 

12P6 Hunts. 

' Stat. Westm. I, c. 50 ; i.Slals. Pealm, i, p. 39J. 



Ixxiv 



INTRODUCTION 



Kind oj Daie 
Priae 

Com 29 Nov 

1296 



Flesh 



Wool 



Corn 



Corn, 
Fi3h, 
Flosb, 
etc. 

Corn 



Corn 
and 
other 
victuftlB 



25 May, 
5 June 
1297 



30 Julv, 
1297 



5 Nov 
1297 



15 Apr. 
1298 



1 Mar 

1301 



18 Dec. 
1301 



Ordinance or 
Co7nmtssion 

Ordinance, Forma capcionie 
and commissions to collectors 
on K.R.M.R.. no. 70, m. 113, 
ll-t; Forma repeated on 
L.T.Ii.M.R.. no. 68, m. 20 



Commission to collectors on 
K.B.M R.. no. 70, m. 115 



Ordinance on Patent Rolls, 
C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 299, on 
K.R.M.R.. no. 70, m. 108, 
and on L.T.R.M.R., no. 68, 
m. 63. Writs of appointment 
in same places'^ 



Commission appointing col- 
lectors is on the Patent 
Rolls, C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 
314. 

Commission appointing col- 
lectors is on the Patent 
Rolls, C PR. 1292-1301, 
p. 344» 

Writs of aid to sheriffs for 
appointed collectors are on 
the Close Rolls, C.C.R. 1296- 
1302, p. 433"* 

Letters of credence, request- 
ing corn, are on the Close 
R611s, C.C.R. 1296-1302, pp. 
573-4« 



Counties from which 
taken 

Norf., Suff.. Essex, Herts., 
Middx., O.Kon., Berks., Kent, 
Surr., Suss., Hants., Som., 
Dors.. Giouc, Devon, Corn., 
Wilts.. Bucks., Beds., Line, 
Northants., Rutl., \Var\*'., 
Leic, Notts.. Dorb., Yorks., 
Northumb.' 

Northants., Warw., Rutl., 
Leic, Notts., Dorb., Yorks.. 
North\imb., Cambs., Hvmts., 
Oxon., Berks., Essex.. Herts., 
Kent, Surr., Suss.. Wilts. 

Yorks., Lines., Notts., Derb., 
Northants., Rutl., Cambs., 
Hunts., Beds., Bucks., Oxon., 
Berks., Norf., Suff., Warw., 
Leic. Essex, Herts.. Wilts., 
Hants., Som., Dors., Glouc, 
Worcs., Surrey 



Lines., Yorks., 
Hunts., Notts. 



Cambs., 



Lanes., Yorks., Lines.," 
Corn., Devon, Glouc, Som., 
Dors., Ireland 



Essex, Norf., Suff., Cambs., 
Lines., Notts., Derb., Yorks., 
Hunts. 



Hants., Surr., Suss., Glouc, 
Som., Dors., Kent, Essex, 
Herts. ; also expected to give 
supplies: Lines., Norf., Suff.. 
Cambs., Hunts., Notts., Derb.. 
Northumb., Yorlts. 



* The counties down to and including Wiltshire are named on m. 113 ; 
the rest were added a ta slightly later date and are enrolled on m. 114. 

' This prise was taken for purposes of implementing the alliance witli 
the King of the Romans, hence, probably, its inclusion in the Patent Rolls. 

^ Taken just after the solution of the constitvitional crisis. 

•Later writs concerning Lines, are on K.R.M.R.. no. 71. m. 117d, 118d: 
L.T.R.M.R., no. 69, m. 91. 

* For the first time, the term used in the orders to .sheriffs is purvoiaiince, 
not prise. 

*Tho request for corn: see C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 609, October 13th, 
1301 — two months earlier than the above — ordering the sheriffs of the 
northern and eastern counties to purvey specified quantities of corn of various 
kinds. It looks as if what could be ordered here had to be requested from 
the south and west, also Norfolk and Suffolk. It is possible that tliis prise, 
which seems to have been taken in two parts, was in fact two separate prises. 



INTRODUCTfOX 



Ixxv 



Kind of 


Datf 


Ordinance or 
Commission 


Counties from which 
t.akcn 


Corn, 
etc. 


10 Dec.. 
1302 


Mandate to sheriffs on Patent 
Roll, 31 Ed. I. in. 40 {Pari 
Writs, i. pp. 404-5)* 


Yorks.. Herts., Norf., Suff, 
Cambs., Hunts., Lines, 
Notts.. Derb. 


Corn, 
etc. 


1 Mar., 
1306 


Mandate to sheriffs on Patent 
Roll. 34 Ed. I. m. 34 (Pari. 
Writs, i, p. 409) 


Yorks.. Herts., Xorf., Su« 
Cambs., Hunts., Lined. 
Notts., Derb., Lanes.. Staffs, 
Salop, Glouc. 


(Victuals 


14 Jail , 
1300 


Mandate to sheriffs on Close 
Rolls. C.CR 129«>-1302, p. 
3822 


All counties) 



The incidence of the prises given in the above table, as between 
the various counties, is also best shown in tabular form : 

Table IV— Incidence of War-time Prises 



Number of Prises 
Taken 

y 

7-8 
5-6 

3-4 

1-2 



Coimtiets Affected 

Lines., Yorks. 

Cambs., Hunts , Notts (8), Derby (7) 

Glouc, Som., Uors.. Norf., Suff., Herts (6): Surr., Suss., 
EssP-c (5). 

Wilts, Hants., BHrks., Oxon. (4); Beds., Bucks., North- 
ants, Rutl., VVarvv., Leio.. Kent, Northunib. (3) 

Lanes., Com.. Devon (2) ; Staff?., Salop, Middx., Worcs. (1) 



Fifteen counties were thus required to contribute to five or 
more of the ten prises taken during the decade 1296-1306 ; nineteen 
contributed to under five prises, of which only seven were called 
upon for under three : and Cheshire, Hereford. Cumberland and 
Westmorland, and the Palatinate of Durham, were not officially 
called upon at all, though the Justice of Chester M-as required 
to send supplies to Carlisle in 1300.^ 

' In this prise and the next the only specified qtiantities are those of 
corn of various kinds. 

- This is partly a prise, partly a request. The sheriffs were to ' induce 
and admonish ' all merchants in their bailiwicks to bring victuals for sale 
to Carlisle at midsummer. The king promised full and prompt payment. 
The sherifT is to induce some of the merchants to mainpem themselves to have 
victuals taken to Carlisle in as great quantity <",.s possible. The sheriff' is 
also to collect oxen, swine, sheep, hens, chickens, eggs, cheese and other 
such victuals and have them taken to Carlisle in time for the king's arrival 
there. It is the collection of these products which constitutes the prise proper, 
and they probably formed part of every prise for the royal levies, though 
not often specifically mentioned. These orders went to all sheriffs. 

^C.C.B. 1296-1302. p. 382. 



Ixxvi 



INTRODUCTION 



The unequal incidence of these prises is largely explained 
by reference to the estimated capacitj'^ of the various counties 
concerned to contribute. The example given below contains the 
quantities required for the prise of corn ordered on November 29th, 
1296. and that for flesh ordered in Mav and June. 1297.^ 



Table V — 1. Quantities of Corn Required 



Norfolk 



Suffolk J 

Essex ^^ 
Herts. J 

Middx. 



<> 



Oxen. 
Berks. 

Kent 

Surrey 
Sussex 






> 



Hants. 

Soin. "\ 
Dor.-;. / 

Glouc. 

Devon 

Com. 

Wilts 

Bucks. ^1 
Beds. / 

Lines. 

Northanta. 
Rutl. 



Warw 
Leic 






Notts 
Derb 

Yorks. 

Northumb. 



4,000 qi^. corn: 1.000 qra. barley; l.^iOO qrs. oats 

1,500 qra. corn; 300 qrs. barley; 1,500 qrs. oats 

500 qrs. corn ; 200 qrs. oats 

i.',.500 qrs. corn; 500 qrs. barley: 300 qrs. oats; iOO qrs. 
beans and peas 

2,500 qrs. corn; l.OOO qrs. barley; 1,50U qrs. oats 
1,000 qra. corn : 2.000 qrs. oats 

2.500 qrs. corn; 500 qrs. barley; 1,000 qrs. oats 

4.000 qra. corn ; 500 qrs. barley : 2,000 qrs. oats ; 500 qrs. 
beans and peas. 

2,500 qrs. corn : 1,000 qrs. oats; 400 qrs. beans and peas 

500 qrs. com ; 2,000 qrs. oats 

500 qrs. com ; 2,000 qrf.. oats 

2,000 qrs. corn : 1.000 qrs. oats ; 600 qrs. beans" 

1,000 qrs. corn; 500 qrs. oats; 300 qrs. barley; 200 qrs. 
beans and peas 

1,500 qrs. corn; 500 qrs. barley; 1,000 qrs. oats; 500 
qrs. beans and peas 

1,000 qrs. corn ; 500 qrs. oats ; 2'.>0 qrs. beans and peas 

20(» qrs. com ; 100 qrs. oats 

1,000 qrs. corn ; 500 qrs. oats : 100 qrs. beans and peas 

500 qrs. corn ; 500 qrs. oats 

2,000 qrs. corn ; 2,000 qrs. oats 
100 qrs. com; 300 qrs. oats" 



I Taking the period as a whole it may be said that while the quantities 
required varied from prise to prise, the proportions taken from the counties 
did not differ much. If a smaller number of counties were called upon, 
the quantities required from each tended to be higher. Thus in 1296, when 
com was taken from 28 counties, Lines, was only required to provide 1,500 
qrs. of com and 1,000 of oats (K.R.M.R.,vo. 70. m. 114), while in 1297, when 
only five countie.-^ were involvefl. Lines, had to find 3,000 qrs. of corn and 
3,000 of oats {C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 314). 

"'K.R.M.R., no. 70. in. 113. » K.R.M.R., no. 70, m. 114. 



INTRODUCTION 



Ixxvii 



2. Quantities of Flesh REQuiREn 

Northants. 200 sides of bacon ; 100 carcases of beef 

100 of bacon ; 50 of beof 



Rutl. 



Warw. 
Loic. 


} 


Notts. 
Derb. 


} 


Yorks. 




Nor thumb. 


Cambs. 
Hunts 




Oxon. 
Berks 


} 


Essex 
Herts. 


~1 

/ 


Kent 




Surrey 

Sussex 


} 


Lines. 




Som. 
Dors. 


} 



Wilts. 



200 of bacon : 100 of beef 

200 of bacon ; loO of beef 

400 of bacon ; 200 of beof 

200 of bacon; Inu of beef 

200 of bacon; 100 of beef 

200 of bacon; 100 of beef 

200 of bacon ; 100 of beef 

200 of bacon: 100 of beef 

200 of bacon; 100 of beef 

300 of bacon; 200 of beef 

200 of bacon ; 50 of beef 
100 of bacon' 



These prises seem to have been taken not merely from counties 
where the majority of the hundreds were in the king's hands and 
where he possessed a controlHng interest, but also from counties 
where most of the land was in the hands of lay or ecclesiastical 
magnates — a necessary condition, if the very considerable supplies 
required were to be obtained. It is the case that the king held 
the bulk of the land in the six counties from which the largest 
numbers of prises were taken. This is to be expected, but it is 
by no means universally appHcable : for example from Bedford- 
shire, where the king held ten of the eleven hundreds, and Bucking- 
hamshire, where he was lord of the whole county, only three prises 
were taken during the period under review. Three were also taken 
from Northants., where the king held only three out of the twenty- 
one wapentakes. Similarly six prises were taken from Somerset, 
where the king held five out of thirty-eight hundreds ; from Dorset, 
where he controlled ten and one-third out of thirty-three ; from 
Suffolk, where he held only five and three-quarters out of twenty- 
three, and so on. At the bottom of the scale, only one prise was 



' K.R.M.R., no. 70, m. 115. 



Ixxviii I:NTR0DITCT1 ON 

taken from Middlesex, admittedly a small county, but wholly in 
the king's hands. ^ There was doubtless a good, if unrevealed, 
reason for portions of the royal demesne ])laying so little part in 
the provisioning of the royal armies ; nevertheless, the apparently 
indiscriminate imposition of prises, without much regard to owner- 
ship of land, suggests that in practice the needs of the armies gave 
rein to an overruling authority of the crown which cut across 
accepted relations of mcum and tuuiUy as that the king must live 
of his own, and gave point^ — perhaps bitter point — to the baronial 
complaints of 1297. 

This suggestion is strengthened by a consideration of quantities 
taken. Two examples wOl suffice. Bedfordshire and Buckingham- 
shire are together about the same size as Hampshire. The king 
was lord of the whole of Buckinghamshire and of all but the whole 
of Bedfordshire, but lord of about half only of Hampshire- : this 
half included the New Forest. Yet for the prise of corn of Novem- 
ber, 1296 (Table V) Hampshire was expected to supply 1,500 
quarters more of corn than the administrative area of Bedfordshire 
and Biickinghamshire : 200 quarters more of barley and 500 
quarters more of oats. It is true that this is offset a Httle by beans 
and peas, which Hampshire was not expected to provide ; but if 
the area of this county is to be Kmited by the exclusion of all lands 
not in the hands of the king, as well as the extensive New Forest, 
considerations of a possible superior fertility in Hampshire as 
against the two Midland counties are not enough to counterbalance 
the markedly greater quantities required from what would be a 
much smaller area. 

The other example is not less significant. In the prise of 
flesh of 1297 (Table V) Northamptonshire, a county less than half 
the size of Lincolnshire, and one where the king controlled only 
three of the twenty-one wapentakes, is required to supply only 
100 fewer sides of bacon and 100 fewer carcases of beef than 
Lincolnshire, where the king controlled by far the greater part of 
the county. As before, the discrepancy is slightly offset, this time 
by the fen-lands of Lincolnshire, but if the same proviso is added 
as for the first example, we have a small part of Northamptonshire 
required to supply only one-third less bacon and one-half less beef 
than the greater part of Ijncolnshire, and again considerations of 
possibly greater fertility do not account for the figures. 

Thus it seems that these prises must have been taken from 

^ These distributions are based on the evidence for 1274, given by H. 
Cam, The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, pp. 260-85, but the changes of 
25 years cannot have aUered the proportions so radically as to render the 
1274 evidence wholly useless as a guide. It was not till after 1297 that 
Edward began to pursue his policy of breaking up the great earldoms, cf. 
Tout, Edward I, pp. 219-21. 

- 17 hundreds out of o8, in 1271. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxix 

lands not in the king's hands as well as from the royal demesnes, 
and there is a certain amomit of proof that this was the case. For 
example in connection with the prise of corn ordered in May, 1296, 
the mandate to the sheriffs contained these instructions : ' . . . 
sciatis Cjuod assignauerimus ... ad capiendum blada tarn infra 
libertaies quam extra . . .'^ Similarly with the prise of wool in 
1297 ; the merchants appointed to purvey it were to do so ' . . . des 
ercheveskes, evesques, abbes, priours, e touz autres clerks, e autreH 
genz pusauntz du reaume . . .'- and indeed, if the clergy had 
been exempted it is difficult to see whence the quantities required 
could have come. So also for the prise of corn ordered in Novem- 
ber, 1296 ; it was to be taken ' . . . ausi bien des biens as clerks 
come des lais . . .'^ ; and the sheriffs' orders for making the 
prise of flesh in the next year are equally definite. They shall take 
the flesh ... lam a personis ecclesiasticis quam aliis potenti- 
bus . . . ' ; nor are those who are able to give to be spared the 
prise. ^ For the prise of corn of October-December, 1301— the 
phrase ' within Hberties and without ' is again used.^ And the 
fact that exemptions from certain prises were granted to some 
individuals in itself gives additional weight to the above. "^ 

It is clear that the great prises tabulated and discussed above 
are something not envisaged at all bj'- the barons of 1258, still less 
by their forbears of 1215. These prises are well -organised, widely 
spread impositions to meet exceptional circumstances, so arranged 
that no designated area of the country shall escape. They do 
not differ in nature from the ancient prises, since all are prises 
ad opus regis, but they do differ in degree. While the ancient 
prises were constantly being taken, but were merely local in inci- 
dence, the great prises were at least semi -national and were periodic 
in imposition." 

The next important consideration concerns the department 

^K.R.M.R., no. 69, m. 80d. - K.R.M.R.. fio. 70, m. 108. 

"^ Ibid., m. 113. * Ibid., m. 115. 

» C.P.R. 1292-1301. p. 608. 

* E.g. in 1295, as a return for the payment of the ecclesiastical half, 
certain of the clergy were exempted from having their corn taken. The 
list included the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln. In the case of the Abbot 
and Convent of Westminster, the protection extended to the Convent's men, 
lands and all possessions. It was granted, however, before the imposition 
of the great prises discu.ssed above {K.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 68d). Similarly, 
in December, 1296, and Januarj-, 1297, protection from prise was accorded 
to a number of persons on the king's service in Gascony (C.C.R. 1296-1302, 
pp. 7-8). 

' The first three were taken for Gasconj- : that of wool for the foreign 
alliances, the rest for the Scottish campaigns of 1298 and after. Prises of 
sheep (of. A.R. 505, nos. 29, 31-2, etc.) and linen cloth (cf. ibid., nos. 398, 
403, 405, etc.) were also taken, but not specified in any ordinances or com- 
missions tlmt I have found ; and in 1298 the prise of corn included malt, 
in appareuily uiibpeciCtd quantities (cl. A .R. 605, nos. 240-1, 317, 370-2, etc.^. 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION 

of state which had power to authorise a great prise, and this involves 
a summary of the position at the time of the French war. The 
Exchequer, by the end of the twelfth century, had become detached 
from the rest of the king's household, to some extent independent 
of it, and was regarded by baronial interests as a financial depart- 
ment which in the main ought not to concern itself with functions 
other than financial — that is, with administrative or judicial 
functions.' The Chancery, during the thirteenth century, was 
undergoing the same process of separation from the household, 
especially in the earlier years of Henry Ill's reign ; and with 
separation went the possibiUty of baronial control." But the 
development of both departments along these lines was retarded 
under Edward I by his own development of the Wardrobe with 
its instrument of authority, the privy seal. Moreover, as Tout 
shows, it was the Wardrobe officials who under Edward went 
on to the highest offices under the crown : the \\'ardrobe, in a 
word, became the mainstay of the administrative system.^ For 
this reason, the fact that of the ten great prises discussed the 
first three are recorded on the Memoranda rolls (Exchequer 
records) only, while the rest are on the Patent or Close rolls or 
both (Chancery records), is less significant than it might otherwise 
have been. Nevertheless it is not without importance, and to 
find the prises entered on the Chancery records after the 1297 
crisis developed, where none were found there before it, is at least 
an indication that the meaning of the crisis was not lost upon 
Edward.* 

It is at this point that we are able to relate the great prises 
to their relevant issuing authority and to their place in the con- 
stitutional crisis of 1297. We have seen that the right of making 
prises was necessary to the king if he were to maintain a household 
V fluctuating in size, never small, often very considerable, and in 
times of emergency swollen to enormous proportions by the inclu- 
sion of the royal armies.-' But whereas for a national levy such 
as a tax on movables the formal consent of a parliament or great 
council was customarily sought, /the right of prise was personal 
to the king and did not require consent, however large a prise 
was to be made. Nor was the need for consent suggested, either 
in Magna Carta or the abortive Provisions of Oxford. 



' Cf. Tout, Chapters, i, pp. 12-14, but his warning as to the fluidity 
of medieval institutions must always be kept in mind. 

-Ci. Ibid, i, pp. lu, 181, 284-6. 

^ Cf. Ibid, ii, chap, vii, pp. 00-157. 

' Tliis point will become clearer as the adinimstrative results of the crisis 
are discussed. 

' Tout himself is the autliority for this last statement, Chapters, ii, 
pp. 133-4, where he brings out clearly the point that the royal army was 
regarded as the household in annn. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxxi 

What department, then, controlled the machinery for collecting 
a pnse once it had been authoriaed, and from what department 
was the authority issued ? The answer may perhaps best be made 
by way of a further question. In theory, articles taken must be 
paid for : what official was responsible for making the payments ? 
Prises were made for the sustenance of the household ; logically, 
therefore, both the issuing and the paying authority should be 
the household officials who looked after the commissariat. In 
the time of Richard I the responsible official seems to have been 
the Chamberlain, who dealt with at least the sale of goods taken 
ad opui> regis at the ports ^ and it is a fair inference that he also 
authorised prises and payments for goods taken. He was in charge 
of the Chamber, which, as Tout shows, remained a domestic 
exchequer even after the Exchequer proper had been separated 
from it.- But out of the Chamber developed the Wardrobe, 
which in the thirteenth century became an instrument ready 
to the king's hand for personal government as well as for 
resisting baronial encroachment upon the prerogative.^ It 
rapidly eclipsed the Chamber in importance, until under 
Edward I it became essential to his administration^ ; it is to 
the Wardrobe now, and not to the Chamber, that we may 
look for the initiation of the great prises — a function properly 
belonging to it.^ 

It was in general the financial strain of the wars with France 
and Scotland which drove Edward to rely more and more on the 
Wardrobe as the central organ of administration, but this was 
possible because the Wardrobe was not as yet controllable 
by the baronage ; and the baronage was aware of it. The 
first warning came in 1297, when the rebellious Earls Marshal 
and Constable, speaking for a considerable section of their 
order, and backed with force, compelled the confirmation of the 
Charters. 

In their manifesto*, which may or may not have been actually 
presented to Edward', the earls say that the country is gravely 
burdened with numerous tallages and numerous prises of corn, 
oats, sheep, wool, hides, oxen, cows, salted flesh, without any 
pajTnent being made for them ; and the prises the}' have in mind 
must pre-eminently have been the great prises, though no doubt 
the smaller, continuous, ancient ones were also remembered. They 

* Pipe, 8 Ric. I, m. 12d. * Cf. Tout, Chapters, i, p. 18. 

» Ibid,, i, p. 22. * Ibid., i, p. 163. 

*Cf. Ibid, u, p. 15.3. 

' See p. X above. 

■ There seeinb little room for doubt that it was circulated, though whether 
It reiiciieu the king or not is uncertain. Edward said he did not receive 
it, yet showed himself perfectly aware of its contents {Foed., i, p. 872 ; ci. 
B. Cott., pp. 330-4). 



kxxii INTRODUCTION 

do not refer directly to government through the Wardrobe, but 
make a general, inclusive statement to the effect that both 
clergy and laity are greatly oppressed by the circumstance 
that while they used to be governed according to the articles 
of the Great Charter, these are now continually trespassed ; 
this causes much distress to the people and great peril to 
those who will not pay attention to it, wherefore they pray 
the king to have the matter put to rights, to his own honour 
and for the safety of his people. These articles, according to 
Cotton, were propounded to the king on June 30th, 1297, at the 
meetmg of the military levy.^ A few days later Edward 
acquiesced to the extent of promising a confirmation of the 
Charters in return for a grant of one-eighth of movables from the 
baronage.'^ 

The settlement of autumn 1297 merely administered palliatives : 
it did not cure the troubles complained of by the Earls Marshal 
and Constable and noted above. The settlement consisted of, 
besides the formal inspeximus et confirmavimus of the two Charters 
on 12 October in their 1225 form, certain supplementary articles 
contained in separate letters patent of 10 October (repeated by 
the king himself on 5 November).^ These, so far as prises were 
concerned, had to deal with an extension of them in directions 
and to a degree not contemplated by the authors of the original 
Charter or those of its early re-issues, not covered in any way 
by the Charter itself in any of its issues, but seriously alarming 
to the barons of 1297. By that year a special situation had 
arisen, demanding special remedies which the Charter itself 
could not supply. Hence the necessity for supplementary articles, 
and it is these, rather than the Charter proper, which are meant 
when the words ' Confirmation of the Charters ' are used to-day 
with regard to 1297. And if we compare merely those articles 
relating to prises with the corresponding ones in the Charter, 
it becomes evident that the Charter itself can now only be regarded 
as the bedrock of English liberties, not as chapter and verse of 
them or as the panacea for any and every encroachment 
upon them. It has already become necessary to begin building 
a superstructure capable of expansion with the times ; and this 
[ is perhaps the underlying significance of the * Confirmation of the 
Charters' of 1297, as of its sequel, the ' Articuli super Cartas' of 
J1300. 

The supplementary articles of 1297 relating to prises contain 
two very im])ortant statements, first, that prises and other aids 
as taken during the war and enrolled, shall not be drawn into a 

IB. Cott., p. 325. 

'Stubbs, ii, p. 130, cl'. B. Cott., p. 327. 
'•' Stubbs, ii, p. 147. 



I 



l^ 



INTRODUCTION Ixxxiii 

}>recedent, ai> might happen becaih^e they had been enrolled^ : and 
second, that no such aids, mises or prises shall in future be taken 
except by the common consent of the realm, saving the ancient 
aids and prises due and accustomed.- There can be no doubt 
as to what prises the barons had in mind when they secured these 
concessions : the clear distinction drawn between ancient and 
other prises speaks for itself, and is driven home by the reference 
to enrolment.' The inference is that the ancient prises, by their 
legitimacy as an unquestioned part of the prerogative, did not 
need enrolment, and therefore that the enrolment of their exten- 
sions, the great prises, was in itself a matter for public alarm, as 
tending to make permanent an extension of the prerogative which 
was being endured only as a temporary necessity. 

But the crux of the question appears in the second require- 
ment that such prises — i.e. the great prises — shall henceforth not 
be taken save by common consent, by which is meant parhainentary, 
or at least conciliar. consent. When we consider that hitherto 
no distinction had been drawn by any party between the household 
in arms — the army — and the household not in arms — the normal 
household — and that it had not previously been suggested that 
any kind of prise should require the ' common consent of the reabn ' 
before it was made,^ the revolutionarv nature of this demand 
becomes apparent. Now for the first time the baronage was 
making a definite constitutional issue of what had merely been 
an irritating use of the prerogative until Edward organised it on 
national lines. To make such a demand was indeed an attack 
on the prerogative : it was a bitter fruit of Edward's own 
administrative ability, and his acceptance of it, even in principle, 
was a measure of the weakness of his own position in 1297. 

Yet it is to be noted that the fundamental view^ of the royal 
army as the household in arms is not altered by this demand. 
Prises of provisions to feed these armies are not prohibited in 
1297 : that is to say, the method of obtaining such provisions 
is not changed, but the prises are no longer to be made on royal 

^ S.C.. p. -191, Art. v. The wording is somewhat tortuous, but the 
meaning clear : " . . . qe les aides e les mises . . . peussent tourner en 
ser\-age a eux e a leur heyrs, par coe qU serroient autrefoytz trovez en roulle, 
e ausint prises qe unt este faites par my le roiaume par nos ministres en 
nostra noun . . ." 

-S.C, p. 491, Art. vi. 

'Tout, discussing the uses to which the wardrobe was put under 
Edward I, and the attitude of the baronage to this, observes that it 
is not very unportant that complaints were made of the prises initiated 
by the wardrobe, since they were always going on {Chapters, ii, p. 153). 
This is true so long as it refers only to the ancient prises due and accus- 
tomed, and from Tout's own standpoint, but it is clearly not the whole 
truth. 

* See above, pp. Ixvii-lxxiii, where the regulations of Magna Carta, the 
Provisions of Oxford and the Statute of Westminster I are discussed. 



Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION 

initiative only.^ The demand, therefore, was revolutionary in 
that it sought to bring under parliamentary control a part of the 
prerogative hitherto untouched in this way because never before 
used as Edward used it^ ; that is to say, it was revolutionary in 
the same measure that Edward's imposition of great prises was 
itself revolutionary. 

The Confirmation of the Charters thus proved to be a beginning, 
not an end. The demands as to prises might be acceded to, but both 
they and the Great Charter itself left the larger question of govern- 
ment by the Wardrobe virtually untouched. The times remained 
abnormal — the French war was followed by Mar with Scotland — 
Edward was no longer trusted, and it is not surprising to find that 
further measures Mere needed to deal with the situation. The 
baronage could not leave matters as they were at the end of 1297 ; 
if they did not take the next step and try to obtain control of the 
Wardrobe itself, Edward or his successor would presently recover the 
ground that had been lost. The Articuli super Cartas of 1300, there- 
fore, come as a natural sequel to the Confirmation of the Charters. 

In the Articuli super Cartas the baronage made a direct attack 
upon the Wardrobe by an attempt to restrict the use of the privy 
seal, the instrument by which actions originating in it were 
authorised.^ But the question of great prises had been settled by 
the Confirmation of the Charters. In the Articuli it remained to re- 
state the baronial desiderata as to the conduct of the ordinary right 
of prise. In doing this, the barons of 1300 reveal how far short 
current practice had fallen as compared with the standards laid 
down by Edward himself in the Statute of Westminster I, only a 
quarter of a century earlier. 

The right of prise in general is dealt with in the second article 
of the Articuli. It states that " forasmuch as there is a great 
grievance in this realm and damage immeasurable, for that the 
king and the ministers of his house, as well aliens as denizens, 
make their prises wherever they pass through the realm and take 
the produce of the people, of the clergy and of the laity, without 
any payment or much less than the value [of itj* : it is ordamed 

' It is of course tnie that by insisting on their consent being obtained 
before a great prise was made, the baronage were taking the first step along 
the roatl tliat ended with the Bill of Rights of 1689, whicli left the army 
royal in name but national in fact, since parliament retained financial control 
of it ; but it is quite certain that no faintest glimmer of this was in their 
minds : they were merely concerned to end a somewhat tyrannical abuse 
of privilege. 

* Though not wholly untouched, as witness Magna Carta and the Pro- 
visions of Oxford. 

^ Article vi: '" Desutz le petit seal ne isse desoremes nul bref qe touche 
la commune lei " (Bdmont, Charles, p. 104). 

* Non-payment oi- insufficient payment is a perennial grievance, and 
seems to have applied to all prise.s of whatever kind. Ju i:)Ol Edw.ird had 
to devote part of the fifteenth of movables, granted at tlie parliament at 
Lincoln earlier in the year, to the payment for a great prise {C'.C'.R. 1296- 
i:iU2, pp. 573-4). 



TNTRODUCTTON Ixxxv 

that henceforth none take prises through the reahn save the king's 
takers and purveyors for the king's household ; and that these 
king's takers and purveyors for his household take nothing save 
for the same household. 

" And concerning prises which they shall make through the 
country for eating or drinking and other details necessary for the 
household, that they make payment or agreement with those 
from whom the things be taken ; and that all such king's takers, 
purveyors or buyers have henceforth their warrant with them, 
under the great or privy (petit) seal of the king, containing their 
authority and the things of which they shall make prises or pur- 
veyance, which warrant let them show to those from whom they 
make the prise, before they take anything from them." 

Here there is a distinct gain for the baronage. While Edward 
always issued commissions to the takers of great prises, and no 
doubt also to those of the ancient prises, as most likely his ancestors 
did before him, there are no instructions, either in ^lagna Carta, 
the Provisions of Oxford, the Statute of Westminster I or the 
Confirmation of the Charters, that warrants are to be shown as a 
matter of routine, before anything is taken. That in practice 
warrants had not always been produced is shown by the 
necessity for a clause about it in the Articuli. One suspects 
that here the baronage took a leaf out of Edward's own book. 
The evidence of A.R. 505 indicates that the takers of great prises 
were furnished with warrants which they showed at least to the 
sheriffs and bailiffs \^ith whom they had to deal.^ That produc- 
tion of warrants went any further, I am inclined to doubt. But 
now all takers are to produce their warrants on all occasions. 

The article continues : " And that these king's takers, pur- 
veyors or buyers take not more than shall be necessary and fitting 
for the king, his household and his children- ; and that nothing 
be taken for those who are at wage, nor for any other, and that 
they [the takers] be fully answerable in the household or at the 
Wardrobe for all their prises, without making in other manner 
their gifts or deliver}' of that which shall be taken for the king. 
And if any taker of the king's household by the warrant which 
he has, make prises or delivery in other manner than is set forth 
above, by complaint made to the steward or the treasurer of the 
king's household let the truth be ascertained. And if he be 
attainted, let agreement be made at once with the complainant, 
and let him [the taker] be expelled from the king's service for 
ever, and let him remain in prison at the king's pleasure. And 
if anyone make prises without warrant and carry them off against 

» E.g. nos. 240-1. 

- This is another perennial grievance, and one persistently recurring in 
A.R. 505 itself, where there are numerous complaints of seizures of goods 
" ultra id quod ad conunodurn regis deuenit." 



Ixxxvi INTRODUCrrON 

the will of him to whom the goods belong, let him at once be arrested 
by the vill where the prise shall have been made, and cast into 
the nearest gaol : and if he be attainted of this, let it be done to 
him as to a felon, if the quantity of goods require it. And as to 
prises made at fairs, and in good towns and ports for the great 
Wardrobe of the king, the takers shall have their common warrant 
under the great seal,' and for the things that they shall take, let 
them have the testimony of the seal of the Keeper of the Wardrobe ; 
and as to things so taken by them, of [their] number, quantity 
and value, let there be made an indenture (dividende) between 
the takers and the keepers of fairs, the mayor or chief bailiflFs of 
towns and ports, by the view of the merchants from whom the goods 
be so taken : and let none of them be suffered to take more than 
is entered in the indenture. And let this indenture be taken to 
the Wardrobe under the seal of the Keeper, mayor or chief bailiff 
aforesaid, and there let it remain until the account of the 
Keeper of the king's Wardrobe : and if it be found that anyone 
have taken otherwise than he ought to do, let him be punished 
upon the account by the Keeper of the king's Wardrobe according 
to his desert ; and if any make such prises without warrant and 
be attainted upon this, let it be done to him as to those who make 
prises for the king's household without warrant, as set forth 
above. 

" Nevertheless the king and his council do not intend by this 
statute in any way to lessen to the king his right to the ancient 
prises due and accustomed, as of wine and other goods, but that 
it shall be fully saved to him in all points. "^ 

This very long article is a comprehensive re-assertion from 
the baronial standpoint, of Edward's own declaration in the Statute 
of W^estminster I, together with such additions as events subse- 
quent to that statute had shown were expedient. Of these, the 
most important were the insistence upon production of warrants 
and the clause relating to the use of the great seal. But the Articuli 
represent rather the ideal than the immediately practicable, and 
neither they nor the Confirmation of the Charters were enforced. 
Nevertheless they constituted, together, the first formal complaint 
against government by the Wardrobe, and the first attempt to 
control it from without. 

To sum up : the exercise of the right of prise seems originally. 

* This is a gain to the baronage, for it strengthens and makes regular 
the similar but half formulated complaint of the barons of 1258. And the 
insistence upon the use of the great seal is significant, for by its use power 
was given to the chancery, which was again to itinerate with the court, to 
supervise the activities of the household and wardrobe, cf. Tout, Chapters, 
ii, p. 154. That the complaint against prises made without warrant was 
no idle one is shown by the numerous instances in A.R. 505 of the practice. 

' Article ii. My translation is base<.l on that given in Stats. Realm, i, 
pp. 137-8, but with special reference to Bf'-mont'a text, Chartea, pp. 101-3. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxxvii 

as we have seen, to have been delegated to the chamberlain, but 
became a function of the Wardrobe as this superseded the Chamber 
in administrative importance. The extension of the right of prise 
seems to run parallel to the extension of the power t)f tiie Wardrobe 
as an administrative department. During this time the Wardrobe, 
and with it the use of the right of prise, came to assume a con- 
stitutional importance which (for our period) reached its peak 
at the end of the thirteenth century. By 1297 baronial interests 
felt themselves seriously threatened by this process of government 
through the Wardrobe, a process which Edward I himself developed 
and perfected. And there seems httle doubt that the incidence 
of the great prises, which had their echo in war-time Lincolnshire 
as elsewhere, played no small part in bringing the baronage to a 
realisation of what was happening. Had this not been so, one 
would hardly have expected quite so much attention to the subject 
as was given to it by the baronage itself in the Confirmation of 
Charters and the Articidi. During the last decade of the century 
the administration, the servant of the constitution, was showing 
unmistakable signs of becoming its master under the hand of a 
brilliant and forceful ruler ; therefore external control of the 
administration, including that part of it relating to the right of 
prise, was necessary if constitution and administration were again 
to become complementary facets of good government. Hence the 
intensification, in the last years of the old king's reign, of the long 
struggle to secure that ideal. 

This study of the royal right of prise in the thirteenth century 
was embarked upon because there seemed to be no very satisfactory 
information on the subject for this period, and because there is 
in A.R. 505 an appreciable body of complaint against the way in 
which royal officials exercised the right. I have not been able 
here to do more than touch the fringe of a subject which is larger 
than appears at first sight. For want of time I have had to rely 
primarily upon the great constitutional documents of the century, 
and except for the war period at the end of it have not examined 
the day-to-day administrative records. Unless this is done, the 
constitutional records by themselves may mislead through failure 
to understand the problem as a whole ; if it were done, some — 
perhaps considerable — modification of what I have said might well 
be found necessary. But to do it, a close search would have to 
be made in the Pipe, Patent and Close rolls as far back as they 
exist, of the Memoranda rolls from their beginning in the second 
year of Henry Ill's reign, of Wardrobe and Household accounts 
and any other documents which might have a bearing on the 
question. This is a formidable undertaking, but one which might 
be both useful and profitable. 

But at least the present introductory study has shown that 
the exercise of this part of the royal prerogative in the thirteenth 



Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION 

century provides a link between constitutional requirements and 
administrative action, and this is especially true of the period 
when the right was extended to impose the great prises by royal 
initiative alone, without consent of parliament. It has shown, too, 
that the question is one of greater importance for this century 
than has perhaps been realised. 



VII 

JURY SERVICE 

Apart from specific and more or less isolated complaints which 
are discussed in the text of A.R. 505: apart from numerous 
instances of extortion and other unjust levying of mone^'- or goods, 
for which no particular reason is given ^ and which were sometimes 
accompanied by forced imprisonment^ ; and apart from cases 
where money is extracted from plaintiffs ne graiiaret or tit in pace 
viuere permittereP — extracted, that is to say, ostensibly to free men 
from unwelcome demands in respect of taxes, prises and particularly 
jury-service, but really to increase ofiicial emoluments — there 
remains one other important group of_ complaints which must be 
briefly touched upon : the practice of wrongful empanelling for 
service on juries, assizes and recognitions. 

This in itself was by no means a special war-time burden : 
it was rather a chronic evil in the body politic which imposed much 
unnecessary hardship. It was sufiQciently serious to require a 
separate chapter in the Statute of Westminster II of 1285, nine 
years before the French war broke out ; and Miss Cam, in her 
study of the Hundred Rolls of 1274-5, has shown how urgently 
legislation was needed to define the position of jurors.'* Chapter 3§ 
of the Statute lays it down that " because also sheriffs, hundredors 
and bailiffs of liberties have been accustomed to burden those 
under their jurisdiction by putting upon assizes and juries men 
sick and decrepit, ill with chronic or temporary infirmity ; men, 
also, not living in the locality at the time of their summons : also 
by summoning an unreasonable number of jurors, so as to extort 
money from some of them to let them go in peace, and thus assizes 
and juries are too often made up by poor men, the rich by their 
bribing remaining at home : It is ordained that from henceforth 
no more than twenty-four shall be summoned for one assize ; old 
men, moreover, above seventy years, chronically ill or infirm at 
the time of summons, or not living in the locality, shall not be 

' No. 336 is a good example. 

- E.g. no. 325. ' E.g. no. 343. 

♦ H. Cftm, 7'he Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, pp. 158-9. 



INTRODUCTION 



IXXXIX 



put upon juries or petty assizes ; nor. also, shall anyone be put 
upon assizes or juries, even though they ought to be taken in their 
own shire, who has a holding of less value than 20/- per annum ; 
and if such assizes and juries ought to be taken outside the shire 
no one shall be put upon them who has a holding orTess than 40/- 
per annum,' v\ith the exception of those who are witnesses to 
charters or other writings, whose presence is necessary, so long 
as they are able to make the effort : nor is this statute to extend 
to grand assizes, upon whicli it is sometimes necessary to put 
knights not resident in the locality, although they have tenure in 
the shire, on account of the scarcity of knights. And if the sheriff 
or his sub -bailiffs or bailiffs of liberties contravene this statute in 
any article, and are convicted of it, they shall make good the 
damages of the injured parties, and shall nevertheless be in the 
king's mercy ; and the justices appointed to take assizes shall, 
when they come into the county, have power to hear the grievances 
of every plaintiff, as touching the articles contained in this statute, 
and to do justice in form aforesaid. - 

This chapter of the Statute defines the legal position of jurors 
admirably, but in thirteenth-century England it was very much 
more difficult to enforce laws than to promulgate them ; and there 
is evidence in A.B. 505 that the regulations were being evaded in 
various ways. Thus William of Gelston laid a complaint^ against 
John of Pattishall, bailiff of Loveden, to the effect that John 
maliciously put him upon a jury before the barons of the Exchequer 
and the justices of the Bench, after a true bill had been found that 
William did not posse§& 40/- worth of land or rents and therefore 
should not have been put upon a jury outside the county. 3Iore- 
over. William received no summons from John to serve on this 
jury ; and John, denying the whole story, did not put himself 
upon the country — that is, upon the jury's verdict — but upon 
William's o-wii oath. Perhaps he hoped that when pressed, William 
would not be prepared to go on oath, in which case he would be 
amerced for a false claim and John himself would be exonerated. 
But William did give his oath, stuck to his story and won his case. 
He was himself, on his own showing, a man of small means ; a 
free man (else he would not have been liable for jury service)' 
and a man who was chosen to assess the taxors and collectors of the 
ninth (1297) in Loveden wapentake for their owti share in this tax.^ 

^ This provision was amended in 1293, when the 40/- quaUfication for 
serving on juries out.side the county was raised to 100/-, and within the 
county the 20 - quaUfication was raised to 40 '-, except before justices itiner- 
ant ; so that the A.R. 505 jurors, since they appeared before justices itiner- 
ant, were empanelled under the 1285 regulations. 

- Statute of Westminster II. 1285, cap. 38 (Stats. Realm, i, pp. 89-90.) 

* No. 20. 

' Cl. Pollock and Maitiand, ii, p. 621. 

^ Lay Subs. Roll, 135 3. 2o Ed. I. (Michaelmas. 1297). m. 4. 




xc INTRODUCTION 

'I'iiis is a flagrant contravention of the Statute of West- 
minster II, but there was another infringement of it, rather less 
obvious, summed up in the thirteen cases where bailiffs levied 
money not to })ut individuals on assizes, juries and recognitions.' 
In some of these extern ion is alleged.- in" others the levy is merely 
stated to be unjust." But whether the official delinquency is 
termed extortion or unjust levj', the clear implication is that it is 
the poorer free tenants who are aff'ected : it would be to their 
interest to expose the official if opportunity for redress presented 
itself, as in 1298; but, in cases of mere bribery, it would be to 
the interest both of the individual who bribed^ and the royal official 
who received the bribe to maintain silence. In these cases of 
^extortion and unjust levy, and no doubt in many of those where 
money was taken to permit the giver to live in peace — if we could 
correctly see behind the inadequate entries in A.E. 505 — may 
perhaps be found an illustration of the clause in the Statute of 
Westminster II which states that " thus assizes and juries are too 
often made up by poor jnen." 

On the other hand there are two cases, both concerning a 
certain Richard the Baker of Ponton, where two bailiffs are found 
to have put him on assizes, juries and recognitions outside the 
county, when Pvichard had royal letters of protection against this 
kind of jury service ; and they had done this, moreover, many 
times."* These cases do not imply any infringement of the Statute 
of AVestminster II, nor any disqualification on grounds of insufficient 
property from extra-county service, but they do illustrate a practice 
which was not without its disadvantages in equity. Exemption 
from jury service, in the shape of royal letters, could be bought, 
with consequent profit to the crown, but with a proportionately 
heavier burden upon the less prosperous, if the practice went far 
nough. Maitland has shown that in the middle of the thirteenth 
century it went very far in regard to grand juries of knights,^ and 
A.R. 505 now reveals a case of the same thing in regard to petty 
juries. Were it not that the bailiffs ignored Richard's protection, 
this case would not have appeared in this roll ; but although there 
is no evidence as to how far the practice extended in Lincolnshire, 
it is suggestive to find it in existence, and there is a possibility that 
if at all widespread, it might have provided a plausible excuse for 
official oppression of the less fortunate. 

One other point requires discussion in regard to jury service 
in general. An ordinary jury, like those mentioned in A.R. 505, 
as distinct from a grand jury of knights, must consist of free and 

' Nos. 311, 329, 331, 384, 386-7, 391-3, 406, 421, 443. 
'E.g. nos. 329, 331, 384, 387. 

E.g. noa. 311, 386, 391, 392. 393. 406. 421, 443. 
' Nos. 363, 377. 
' Pollock and Maitland, ii, p. 631. 



i:^TR0DUCT10N xci 

lawful men who must be disinterested parties.' That this principle 
was not always adhered to is rcvtiled by three entries in A.B. 505. 
In the first of these it is shown that a bailiff is in mercy because 
he put ' suspected men " on a jury |)anel, against his warrant 
(no. 131). That such a practice was neither unexpected nor unusual 
is strongly suggested by the other two entries, where in one case a 
bailiff was ordered to produce twenty-four free and lawful men 
who should not have concerned themselves with prises.'- but puts 
suspects on the panel (no. 132) ; and in the other a different baihff 
was given a similar order with the same proviso (no. 150). In 
these cases, therefore, we are shown something of what was meant 
by the term ' lawful ". The general principle of choosing a jury 
is also illustrated, though not completely ; in no. 132 the baihff 
of the South Riding is ordered to have twenty-four free and lawful 
men at a given place on a given day. A further stage is shown 
in no. 150, where three knights and twelve selected jurors con- 
stitute the jury. This is the process for choosing a jury of present- 
ment, though normall}- the number of knights seems to have been 
two or four, rather than three' : thus we may visualise ever}^ jury 
of which it is said in A.B. 505 that ' iuratores presentant ' as a jury 
of presentment chosen in this manner. But these juries who present 
are not the juries whose names are listed at the end of A.R. 505. 
These names are those of juries of verdict, ■* and it is upon what 
they say that the parties to a suit put themselves when it is told 
of either or both that ' ponit se super patriam et de bono et de malo,' 
the latter part of the phrase being usually contracted into the 
'etc.' of the A.R. 505 entries.^ 



VIII 

THE ROYAL OFFICIALS OF A.R. 505 

Before passing to the general question of remedies it is necessary 
to discuss a few points to do with the ro^'al officials, who figure 
most prominently of all in A.R. 505 — as they are bound to do, 
since the commission of the justices directed them to enquire into 
the general conduct of royal officials during the war period. The 

» Cf. Pollock and Maitland, ii, p. 621. 

* I.e. who should not have had any part in assessing others for prises or 
in collecting prises themselves. 

' Cf. Pollock and Maitland, ii, p. 645. 

* Cf. no. 467, where at the head of the list of Elloe jurors it is said ' non 
dum reddiderunt.' What they have not given is their verdict, ' veredictum 
suuni,' cf. no. 251. 

* The whole question of juries of verdict and presentment is fully dis- 
cussed in Pollock and Maitland, ii, pp. 616-33 and 641-56. 



[\ 



xcii INTRODUCTTON 

discussion, except in relation to bailitVs. need be only very brief, 
for mnoh of the ground has already been covered by historians.^ 

Apart from the sheriff's, under-sheriffs, coroners, sheriffs' 
clerks, bailiffs and tax collectors, whose several ranks are clearly 
enough indicated in A.R. o05, if not always the areas they 
administered or the dates between which they held office, 
there is a number of persons whose names are given as 
defendants, who were clearly royal officials, but for whom jio 

'^specific office is indicated. Some — a very few — have been shown 
to be collectors of prise, but of the rest little can be said. Such 
men as Robert Parleben (112), John Herylyel (113), Nicholas of 
Saham (115), Reginald Hound (110), Richard of Dalby (117), 
John of Santon (118), Geoffrey of Funtaynes (119) and many 
others, are and must remain enigmas. Some may have been 
bailiffs' clerks, but most were probably bedells or other subordinates 
of the bailiffs.- Beyond this, nothing can be said about them, 
for want of evidence. Two such men are particularly tantalising — 
Walter De.audamour and Philip of Aunsby.'' On the six occa- 
sions when Walters name appears,* he is always found either 
acting as if he were a bailiff, or mainperning other bailiffs, 
' yet he is never called a baihff or indeed given any rank at all. 
And Philip of Aunsby, though found acting with Walter 
(no. 229), is also given no rank. If he was a royal official at 
all, his office can have been part time only, for he is able to 
cultivate his land like the private individual he may, after all, 
have been. 

The names of all the more important royal officials who figure 
in A.R. 505, together with those of some who do not, are given 
ill the lists of officials which constitute Appendix II, and which 

/are an eloquent witness to the number of such officials which 

was considered necessary to administer a county at the close 

\ of the thirteenth century — all the more eloquent in that most 

^ of them are incomplete. 

SHERIFFS AND UNDER-SHERIFF \\ 

Four sheriffs are mentioned in A.R. 505, of whom three held 
office during the war with France, but in the Roll occur the names 
of several other persons who afterwards became sheriffs. Only 
one of these, however — Richard of Howell — is included in the list. 

The functions of the sheriff are too well known to require 
mention here,^ save in two respects. It is to be emphasised that, 

^ C£. especially VV. A. Morris, The Medieval Sheriff ; H. Cam, Studies 
in the Hundred Rolls, and The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls ; and for 
seignorial (officials, X. Denliolin-Young, Seignorial Administration in England. 

*Cf. H. Cam, Studies, p. 15). ' => Cf. especially no. 229. 

' Nos. 69, 71, 229, 394, 403, 440. 

' See Morris, The Medieval Sheriff, and H. Cam, The Hundred and the 
Hundred Rolls, in particular. 



INTRODUCTION xciii 

broadly speaking, he was held responsible for all those subordinate 
officials whom he himself appointed or caused to be appointed — 
that is to say, his chief bailiff, bailiSs of wapentakes, bailiffs errant 
and his own clerks. And it was his business to give assistance 
when required to other officials appointed or caused to be appointed 
by the central authorit}', including customs officials, royal clerks^ 
sent down to supervise the collection of taxes and prises, and other 
clerks specially appointed. 

In addition to the sheriff, there was also his de])uty, the under- 
sheriff, whose place and power in the administration of the shire 
were what his title implies.- Only one under-sheriff is mentioned 
in A.R. oOo — Richard of Brinkhill. 

COBONEBS 

The office of coroner is known from 1 1 1)4 downwards ; there 
were normally four coroners to a county, who were knights, and 
who were elected in the county court. ^ The office was instituted 
to act as a check on the powers of the sheriff,^ but it was to the 
sheriff that writs were addressed by the central authority ordering 
the machinery to be set in motion for choosing a coroner.^ The 
notes appended to the list of Lincolnshire coroners (Appendix II, 
p. 138) suggests that the central authority was frequently mis- 
informed or ignorant of the qualifications of the men elected, since 
too often elections had to be countermanded and new coroners 
chosen.*^ Normally, however, a coroner was appointed for life, 
that is to say, until he was too infirm to continue his work.' 

Among the more spectacular of his functions, which had to 
do \\ith questions involving royal rights in the shire,*' were the 
investigation of cases of sudden death, homicide,' and the interview \ 
of criminals who had taken sanctuary.'" It is with sudden death / 
by drowning that the coroner mentioned in A.B. 505 (143) hats / 
to do. /' 

SHEBIFFS' CLEBKS 

It is difficult to be precise as to exactly what is meant by 
the term sheriffs clerk as a])phed to A.R. 505 personalities. If 
the three sheriffs" clerks so mentioned are in fact the " clerks and 

* See the list of these, Appendix 11, p. 177. 

* Cf. H. Cam, Studies, p. 148, also G. H. Fowler, Rolls from the Office of 
the Sheriff oj Beds, and Bucks.. 1332-4. p. 2 (Beds. Hist. Record Soc. [Quarto 
Memoirs], vol. iii, 1929). 

' Stubbs, i, p. 505 ; Pollock and Maitland, i, p. 534. 

* Stubbs, loc. cit. 

* Cf . C.C.R. 1288-9U, p. 161, and many similar entries;. 

'• The Close Rolls contain many examples, and see H. Cam, Tlie Hundred 
and the Hundred Rolls, p. 128. 
'Cf. H. Cam, loc. oil. 

* Cf. H. Cam, loc. cit. 

-Pollock and Maitland, ii, p. 044. ^^ Ibid., p. 590. 



\ 



xcir INTRODUCTION 

receivers ' of their respective chiefs, they are important officials ; 
and it should be noted that a sheriff does not appear to have had 
more than one such clerk at any one time,^ though no doubt he 
also had a relatively unimportant secretarial staff of lesser clerks. 
It is thus ])erhaps safest to assume that those who appear by name 
in A.B. 505 were ' clerks and receivers ' to their masters. In 
regard to WilUam of Flintham, entry 370 reveals this clearly. 
William, moreover, if details taken from various sources refer to 
the same person, had an interesting career. Flintham is in co. 
Nottingham, and William first appears as royal bailiff of Bassetlaw 
in that county.- Later he seems to have migrated to Lincolnshire, 
and in the middle of the twelve nineties, as A.R. 505 shows, he was 
clerk to the sheriff of Lincolnshire. In 1301 he is stated to be of 
Butterwick (Manley), near the border of Nottinghamshire,^ and on 
July Sth of the same year he deforced Thomas Kede and another 
of one messuage, 7| acres of land and lOd. and 8d. rents with 
appurtenances in Butterwick, making, for this trespass, a fine of 
20 marks silver.'* His tenure of office as sheriff's clerk was thus 
not without profit to himself. 

On the other hand, another sheriff's clerk, Walron le Lou, 
is a much more shadowy figure. He is merely called ' clericus 
vicecomitis ' (366), but as the clerks attached to Robert le Venour 
and Richard of Draycote, sheriffs, are mentioned w^ith direct refer- 
ence to theii' chiefs, it is likely that Walron le Lou was clerk to 
Ralph Paynel, sheriff in 1297-8. 

A second clerk is given for Robert le Venour and also for 
Ralph Paynel ; it would seem, then, either that one of the two clerks 
in each case was an official other than the important ' clerk and 
receiver,' or that for some reason unspecified, one succeeded the 
other during his chief's tenure of office as sheriff. 

BAILIFFS 

Apart from the abnormal additions to the ranks of royal shire 
officials which accompanied the levy of a tax on movables — still 
regarded as an exceptional occurrence — the most numerous class 
of such officials was that conveniently grouped under the generic 
name of bailiff'. As Mr. Denholm-Young has pointed out,^ any 
/ official who had charge over someone else's property was strictly 
speaking a bailiff' : thus a royal sheriff, whose ' bailiwick ' con- 
sisted of lands and other things belonging to the king, could be 
envisaged as the chief bailiff of the shire, which indeed he was. 

But the term bailiff is used in a narrower sense in A.R. 505. 
It applies only to the sheriff's territorial subordinates, the men 

^ Cf . H. Cam, The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, p. 134. 
''A.R. 129.'}, lu. IC. 'A.R. 1320. m. 28d. 

* Feet of Fines, 28-9 Ed. I, no. 37. 

* X. Denholia- Young, Seignorial Admin istrcU ion in England, p. 32. 



/ 



INTRODUCTION xcv 

to whom the day-to-day administration of the ridings and wapen- 
takes was committed, and also to a certain type of officer who 
had usually no specific territorial unit to look after but who could 
be sent anywhere in the shire on the sheriff's business : the balliuus 
itinerans or erran.s. the bailiff errant. 

One of the two bailiffs errant mentioned in .4.^. 505 was 
commissioned to instruct three knights to choose a jury of twelve 
(150) ; the other was sent by the sheriff to fetch another official 
to court (380), and incidentally used the abnormal circumstances 
of the times to line his own pockets (350, 351). The information 
given by A.R. 505 is admittedly slight, but Miss Cam has shown, 
in her study of the Hundred Rolls, that other normal activities 
of bailiffs errant included delivery of writs to seignorial officials, 
execution of writs in royal jurisdictions, and levying distresses 
(cf. A.R. 505, no. 351), and so forth. ^ Some of this work ran 
parallel to that of the ordinary wapentake bailiff who had a fixed 
administrative area ; but the convenience to the sheriff of having 
one or two otherwise unattached bailiffs, who could be sent any- 
where in the comity without dislocating the normal work of the 
wapentake officials, is obvious. 

In considering bailiffs of ridings, wapentakes and other 
districts, as distmct from bailiffs errant, some preHminar}' dis- 
cussion is necessary. In Lincolnshire the unit of administration 
was the wapentake, but, as is well known, the wapentakes were 
grouped together in ' Parts ' — the Parts of Lindsey, the Parts of 
Kesteven, the Parts of Holland. The Parts of Lindsey, covering 
an area rather greater in extent than Holland and Kesteven 
together, were further divided into three Ridings — West, North 
and South. The Parts of Holland and Kesteven and the three 
Ridinjis of Lindsev were themselves administrative areas : as the 
sheriffs administration covered the whole county, and the wapen- 
take baiMff's his own wapentake (sometimes a pair of adjacent 
ones), SO; therefore, we should expect to find some intermediate 
official looking after the intermediate area — the Part or Riding. 
This is, in fact, what we do find. The official in question is the 
chief bailiff, so that we may look in A.R. 505 for references to A.B., 
rMpitali.s balliuus de Kesteven, or to CD., capitalis balliuus de North- 
reding and so forth. But it is to be noted that the scribes who 
wrote A.R. 505 were not quite consistent in their use of the title. 
It is never applied to men who were not chief bailiffs, but it is 
sometimes omitted in entries relating to persons who, from the 
nature of the evidence, seem clearly to have been chief bailiffs 
though not described as such. It can be said of the chief baihff 
that his administrative area was localised but relatively large, 
and that a part of his work would be the supervision of the lesser 
bailiffs in the wapentakes. 

1 L'l. H. Cam, The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, pp. 75, 136-6. 



xovi INTRODUCTION 

There is much apparent confusion in A.R. oOo in the use of 
the t€rms baiUff and sub-bailiff. Tiie same person may be variously 
alluded to as baihff, let us say, of Gartree ; S's sub-bailiff in Gartree, 
or merely sub-bailiff of Gartree. To arrive as nearly as possible 
at what the scribes really meant, has involved a good deal of 
careful scrutiny and collation, but this has resulted in the adoption 
of a formula which seems to hold good for all the cases where the 
evidence is not fragmentary. It is this : if B is called bailiff of 
Gartree and also A's sub-bailiff in Gartree, there is no real incon- 
sistency. Both statements are true, for A is the chief bailiff. If, 
moreover, (- exists and is never called anything but sub -bailiff 
of Gartree, then C is in fact sub-baihff to B, standing to him in 
exactly the same relation as that in which B himself stands to A. 
The criterion, therefore, as to whether a man belongs to the lower 
rank of which C is the example, or to the intermediate rank of 
which B is the example, is whether he is ever called baihff. If 
so, then I have assumed that he may be a wapentake bailiff, 
standing midway betAveen A and C ; if not, that he is a sub- 
bailiff of the lower rank only. It is clear, from the lax use of 
terms by the scribes, that to the mind of the day these exact 
divisions of rank were relatively unimportant — perhaps because 
so well appreciated — but if we, to-day, are to build up as true a 
picture as we may of the way in which the county of Lincoln 
was run six and a half centuries ago. we must pay attention to 
such matters. 

Clerical practice in regard to what for convenience I shall 
term time-C[ualifications is important. The scribes TRR,y allude to 
• a man merely as balliuus : they may, on the other hand, describe 
him as nuper balliuus, quondam balliuus or more rarely tunc balliuus. 
These words are often loosely used : the same man may be called 
quondam in one entry and nuper in another. Nevertheless the 
terms are not synonymous : quondam, is a vague ' sometime,' but 
nuper is a less vague ' lately.' While this difference must not 
always be pressed right home, we may assume that it was present 
in the minds of the scribes, in spite of careless usage. Thus 
quondam, from its meaning, would refer to a point more remote 
in time than nuper, the difficulty being to decide with accuracy 
what is the dividing line between them. I have taken nuper to 
refer, from the standpoint of a scribe writing in the autumn of 
1298 (when Richard of Draycote was sheriff), to the term of office 
of Richard's predecessor, Ralph Paynel (April, 1297 — April, 1298) ; 
and quondam to refer to the term of office of the previous sheriff, 
Robert le Venour (October, 1293— April, 1297). If no time- 
qualification is appended to a bailiff's name, I have assumed that 
he held office under Richard of Draycote himself (April, 1298 — 
October, 1299). 

When we consider the conditions governing the appointment 



INTRODUCTION xcvii 

of bailiffs, there emerges some justification for this interpretation 
of time-quahfications. Miss Cam suggests^ that their appointment 
lay in the hands of the sheriff for the time being, though there 
were exceptions.*' The Articles of the Eyre (art. 43) contain a 
query as to hundreds, ridings, wapentakes and other bailiwicks of 
the king set to farm by the sheriffs or bailiffs^ ; the New Articles 
of the Eyre order an enquiry to be made into cases where the 
sheriffs have given hundreds, wapentakes and ridings at high rents 
to extortionate bailiffs' ; and among the items in a form of the 
sherifiF's oath of uncertain date are : he shall not take any bailiff 
into his service for whom he will not answer ... he shall appoint 
his bailiffs of the most lawful men of the county . . . and . . . 
he shall retain in his service no bailiff or officer who has been with 
other sheriffs.^ It must be noted in connection with the last 
requirement that in the list of bailiffs in Appendix II there are 
several proved cases of the same man being retained as bailiff' 
of a particular area under several successive sheriffs^ ; and many 
instances also where I suspect this to have been the case though 
I cannot prove it. This particular form of the sheriff's oath may 
be of later date designed to cope with a situation which had by 
then become chronic.' 

These pieces of evidence, taken together, show fairly clearly'^ 
that the normal legal process was for the sheriff to appoint the ^ 
bailiffs, and perhaps for the entire staff of these to be changed 
when the sheriff was changed, but that in practice the second of 
these rules was frequently infringed. The nupers and quondaws 
of A.R. 505 may thus be invested with considerable significance. \ 

The point is well brought out by reference to a complaint^"^ 
in A.B. 505 as to irregularity in the appointment of a bailiff (nos. 
18, 152). The accusation seems to be made by the justices ex 
officio. Henry of Xewton, baihft" of the North Riding of Lindsey, 
was, it is stated, dismissed office for fife by John de Insula, justice, 
for committing a forgery and trespass. Henry admits this, but 
as he comes to court in the capacity of bailiff he is questioned 

1 H. Cam, The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, pp. 93, 133, 143, 148 ff. ; 
cf. also Maitland, Select Pleas of the Crown, p. 110. 

* H. Cam, op. oil., p. 145. 

* Stats. Realm, i, p. 233. * Ibid., p. 235. 

' Ibid., p. 247 ; Maitland remarks that tlie sheriff usually let the royal 
hundred at farm to bailiffs, who paid their rent for it to him and then made 
good their expenses from fines and amercements in the hundred court 
(PoUock and Maitland, i, p. 557). 

« Cf. H. Cam, The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, pp. 149-50. 

' Morris, speaking of the sheriff's oath, says there was an ordinary form 
of it which does not appear in the records but which could be administered 
outside the Exchequer (Medieval Sheriff, p. 176). But he does not say 
by whom, nor does he anywhere give the terms of any oath, except and that 
in a general way those of the special oath devised in 1258 and afterwards 
dropped ; and this form does not seem to contain any clause prohibiting 
the retention by one sheriff of his predecessor's bailiffs. 



xcviii INTRODUCTION 

about it. He avers that Ralph Paynel, lately sheriff, appointed 
him bailifi' of the North Riding, but cannot produce any warrant 
showing that the crown has re-admitted him to office. For this 
reason he is again dismissed for Ufe and committed to gaol. In 
lieu of imprisonment he paid a fine of 40/- to the Exchequer. 

This does not conclude the case : at a later stage in the enquiry 
Ralph PajTiel, the sheriff, is accused of re-admitting Henry as 
bailiff without warrant (no. 152). Ralph says that Henry was 
never dismissed office by John de Insula and calls for John's rolls 
of pleas to prove it. Ralph is given a day for the case to be 
continued, but at this point the record of A.R. 505 stops. 

The chronology of the case is important. The visit of John 
de Insula to Lincolnshire took place in 1296, when he was sent 
on circuit to hear complaints against the conduct of royal officials 
there. ^ Ralph Paynel, " lately sheriff," made his first proffer at 
the Exchequer as sheriff at Easter, 1297,- and had been succeeded 
in office by Easter, 1298.^ Thus Henry of Newton's re-appointment 
took place some time between Easter of the one year and Easter 
of the next. 

It is impossible, on the evidence of A.R. 505, to give any 
reason why Ralph reinstated Henry, who admitted reinstatement 
by Ralph and would hardly have done so if Ralph's version of the 
situation had been true : that this was the view of the court is 
shown by the sentence passed, unless for some reason which does 
not transpire it was to the interest of the justices to shield the 
sheriff. This cannot be more than surmise, for the absence of 
any further reference to the case after entry 152 does not neces- 
sarily imply that it was quashed. What does seem likely is that 
in the court's view there was illegal collusion^ to reinstate 
Henry in the probably lucrative position of baUiff of the North 
Riding.^ 

Henry's own character is not free from reproach. In 1294 
he was amerced at 20/- for what may only have been a piece 
of administrative slackness — " quia non habet summonicionem 

^ " De rotulis liberatis ad scaccariiim per lohannem de Insula : Mem. 
quod viij. die lulii hoc anno (1297), J. de Insula, nuper baro hie in scaccario, 
uenit hie . . . et liberauit xij. rotulos de placitis querclaruni coram eo 
factaruin super ministris regis in comitatu Line', de anno xxiiij (129G) . . .'" 
{L.T.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 47). Would that these twelve rolls or even some 
of them still existed : they would provide a mine of information closely 
relevant to the personnel, if not to the matter, of A.B. 505. But 1 (^an find 
no trace of any of them at the Public Record Ofiice. 

■K.R.M.R., no. 70, m. 60; L.T.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 5. 

- K.R.M.R., no. 71, m. 69 ; L.T.R.M.R., no. 69, m. II. 

* Collusion between officials was not unknown ; cf. H. Cam, The 
Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, p. 157, for an instance akin to, but not 
parallel with, the present one. 

'For the perquisites of bailiffs, legitimate and illicit, cf. H. Cam, 
op. cit., pp. 150-3, 155, 158-9, and maziy other entries. 



INTRODUCTION xcix 

assise etc.'"^ — but in the memoranda rolls for 1297 we are given 
a glimpse of what happened in 129G, when John de Insula punished 
him. Then, as in 1298, he did not actually go to gaol but made 
a fine with the Exchequer for £13, " pro pluribus transgressionibus." 
Even for a bailiff of a whole riding thirteen pounds was a stiff fine, 
and the barons of the Exchequer allowed him to pay it in three 
instalments of £4 (3s. 8d. each.- 

Tlie real point of the case, however, is that it illustrates an 
administrative principle. If a royal official has been dismissed 
office, he may not be reinstated without a royal warrant, and 
rightly so, else royal authority will be undermined. Even a mere 
sub-bailift' became a royal official from the moment of his appoint- 
ment by a royal sheriff." The crown might never even know his J 
name unless he were brought to book before a royal justice for 
some offence. If this happened, the crown became officially ^ 
interested in him inasmuch as its own reputation was now at stake, / 
and any reinstatement sub rosa after royal dismissal, as in this case, 
became at once a double insubordination against royal authority.^^ 

ROYAL CONSTABLES 

IMiss Cam has shown ^ that in the reign of Edward I there 
was normally a high constable in each hundred, and under liim 
one or more lesser constables in each viU. To this organisation 
must be added for Lincolnshire a chief constable for the Parts 
of Kesteven (..4.^. 505, no. 453) — no doubt also for the other Parts ; 
and Lindse}^ having three ridings, may well have had three chief 
constables — who probably had the duty of supervising the con- J 
stables of wapentake and vill. There were, moreover, constables 
in charge of royal castles or castles for the time being in royal 
hands ; and these arrangements were to some degree paralleled in 
seignorial organisations.® 

^ r.R.O. Fi7ies and Amercements, 119, no. 27, 22 Ed. 1, m. 4. Here 
Henry is called "' Henry de Newenton, balliuus de Northrehing," but the 
identity is unmistakable. 

^K.R.M.B., no. 70, m. 72d ; L.T.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 34d. 

3 Cf. H. Cam, op. clt., pp. 143-50, esp. p. 148. 

* A list of municipal bailiffs is also given in Appendix II, but as these 
officials do not appear in their official capacity in A.R. 505 I have not dis- 
cussed them above. 

'" The Hundred and the Hwidred Rolls, pp. 188-90. 

* Cf. N. Denliolm-Young, Seignorial Administration in England, esp. 
pp. 3, G, 33. I append some examples (not taken from Denholm- Young, 
but as a result of my own searches) : 

(i) Robert of Calnton, the Bishop of Lincoln's constable at Sleaford 

Castle in 1290 ; he also acted as the Bishop's bailiff (Reg. Sutt., 

Mem., f. 9d). 
(ii) Wn-LiAM OF WiGTOFT, the Earl of Lincoln's constable at Lincoln 

Casrle in 1295-6 {Min. Accts. 1/1, m. 9d). 
(ill) Nicholas de Newbaud, the Earl's constable at Bolingbroke 

Castle at the same period {Ibid., ra. 10). 
(iv) XicnoLAS DE LoMMELEY, the Earl's constable at Donington at 

the aame period {Ibid., m. 6). 



c INTRODUCTION 

Perhaps the question of royal officials in the county may 
best be summed up in the words of tlie royal ordinance of March 12th, 
1297, appointing special clerks to hasten the collection of royal 
debts, wherein the king states what will happen to royal officials 
who are attainted : " E si viscountes, sous viscountes, receyvours 
des viscountes, chiefs taxours, chiefs ballifs des fraunchises, de 
triding et de hundred scient attainz . . . seient mis a la prisone 
e puis seient mainpris par bene e suffisaunte mainprise ... E si 
autres pettez gentz sousbaiOifs bedeaus e autres ceaus seient attaynz 
de trespas : scient en prisones sil eient deserm' e facent fin illoques 
en count solun richesse et solun la quantite de trespas."^ They 
are all here : sheriffs, under-sheriffs, bailiffs of franchisee, of ridings 
and of hundreds, sheriffs' clerks and receivers, sub-baUiffs, bedells, 
" and other such " ; and A.R. 505 contains examples of them all.- 

It wiU be useful to conclude this discussion of royal officials 
with a comparison of the Lincolnshire organisation with that for 
Bedfordshire some thirty-odd years later. ^ There, the sub-vicecomes 
— the under-sheriff — is noted as an official appointed regularly 
and as a matter of course^ : A.R. 505, so far as its evidence goes, 
is in agreement with this ; but there is then mentioned for Bedford- 
shire a somewhat similar official for whom I can find no clear 
parallel in A.R. 505 : a deputy -sheriff appointed for the occasion 
only. 5 

Turning to bailiffs, there are some interesting points of com- 
parison. While the comprehensive nature of the term ' bailiff ' 
is acknowledged, it is quite clearly excluded from application to 
such officials as sheriffs' clerks, who are regarded, I think rightly, 
as persons with a different sphere of duties from those of the 
well-recognised bailiffs of hundreds or wapentakes. xi.R. 505 
upholds this view,^ for here no one designated sheriff's clerk is 
ever called a bailiff elsewhere in the roll, or vice-versa. In discussing 
the Bedfordshire sheriff's roll, the office of a bailiff is considered 
as always involving the administration of some geographical area 
which is the bailiwick' ; the evidence oiA.R. 505 is also in agreement 
.with this. 

The apparent exception is the bailiffs errant, who have no 
specified baili\nck, but this is not, I think, a true exception, since 
the duties of a bailiff errant may take him anywhere within the 

1 K.R.M.R., no. 70, in. 102. 

* Bedells are not mentioned as such in A.R. 505. but I am of the opinion 
that some at least of the persona whom, in the biogi'aphical index, I call 
" minor officials, rank not given," were in fact bedells, though I cannot 
assign the term with confidence to any of these officials. 

' Dr. G. H. Fowler, Rollsjrom the Office oj tfie Sheriff of Beds, and Bucks., 
1332-4, esp. pp. 2-8. 

* Fowler, op. cit., p. 2. '■' Fowler, loc. oil. 

* Fowler, op. cit., p. 4, in contrast to tlio view of Miss Cam and others. 
' Fowler, loc. cit. 



INTRODUCTION ci 

sheriff's own bailiwick — the county, less (for ordinary purposes) 
its private jurisdictions. There were balliui itinerantes or errantes 
in Bedfordshire^ : so there were in Lincolnshire, as A.R. 505 shows ; 
and in both cases the implication is the same, that if these bailiffs 
were errantes, the ordinary hundred or wapentake bailiffs were 
not. As to the hundred bailiffs, the evidence of the Bedfordshire 
roll is amply borne out by that of A.R. 505 ; similarly with bailiffs 
of private hberties. AA'hat is missing from Bedfordshire is the 
intermediate order of bailiffs of Ridings : naturally so, since 
Bedfordshire had no Ridings. Xor is any mention made of sub- 
bailiffs of hundreds ; but it would be dangerous to conclude that 
because a particular sheriff's roll fails to record them, there were 
none. It is also made clear- that the hundred bailiffs were sheriffs' 
servants, for administrative purposes, appointed by the sheriff, 
but also royal officials {balliui domini Regis) with proportionate 
authority. Here again there is direct corroboration from A.R. 505. 
Finally each Bedfordshire hundred had its bailiff^ : in Lincolnshire 
several wapentakes were administered in pairs ; but this is a mere 
local variation. 

There is another point which requires notice. It is shown 
that for Bedfordshire, while certain hundreds were let out to private 
individuals at farm, the king sometimes but not always retaining 
a proportion of the proceeds, the bailiffs of these hundreds 
apparently remained the sheriff's (and therefore the king's) ofl&cers, 
not those of the lords of the hundreds in question.* This is 
tantamount to sa\4ng that while the lord holds the hundred at 
farm, the king administers it through the sheriff and his bailiff : 
and it is an interesting position. There seems to be something 
of a similar kind in A.R. 505, where in 1297-8 a certain Adam le 
Long, who was royal sub-bailiff of Beltisloe wapentake, comes to 
court and reveals that one John Herny (a private individual), 
who has the farm of the wapentake of Beltisloe, is his master.^ 
The real difficulty lies in the fact that Adam was merely a sub- 
bailiff, and a sub -bailiff of Thomas of Easton, royal bailiff of both 
Beltisloe and Ness wapentakes, who is never mentioned in con- 
nection with any private individual having the farm of either 
wapentake. Adam ceased to be a royal official in 1298 or 1299, 
but his relations with John Herny continued afterwards.® I have 
not been able to find that any of Adam's predecessors or successors, 
sub-bailiffs of Beltisloe, held their royal office while also serving 
a private master ; but while this affords no proofs either way, 

' Fowler, loc. cit. - Fowler, loc. cit. ■■ Fowler, loc. cit. 

* Fowler, loc. cit. 

' A.R. 505, no. 320. The cases are not quite parallel, since this entry 
shows that some, at least, of the administration of Beltisloe is done byAdam 
on John's behalf. At the same time there seems to be no doubt that Adam 
was a royal official. 

• Cf. Biographical Index, s.v. Long, Adam le, and Hemy, John. 



eii INTRODUCTION 

it suggests that John Herny's tenure of the farm of Beltisloe 
wapentake may have been a temporary arrangement. 

This comparison of Bedfordshire with Lincolnshire, allowing 
for the gradual changes that must have taken place between 1298 
and 1332, shows that the basic organisation of the shire for royal 
administrative purposes was the same in both cases. That of 
Bedfordshire was on the whole rather simpler, but the modifications, 
and especially the extensions, of the system as it is revealed for 
Lincolnshire by A.B. 505, were dictated merely by differing local 
conditions. These demanded a more elaborately organised local 
administration, and this was provided ; but, as we have seen, 
without altering the framework.^ 



IX 

PLAINTIFFS, JURORS AND OTHERS 

It is I think natui'al at this point, before going on to the 
important question of remedies, to follow up the discussion of the 
royal officials of A.B. 505 with some mention of the other personnel 
of the roll : of plaintiffs, of jurors — as persons now, not mere units 
(as touching the terms of jury service and so forth) — and of other 
personalities. It can be said at once that with certain exceptions- 
the great ones of the county do not appear in the roll. This need 
occasion no surprise : the special enquiry of 1298 was not primaril}' 
designed for those who, if they had complaints to make, could 
afford to sue by individual writs if they wished. It was for the 
little people's benefit that the justices perambulated Lincolnshire, 
and the number of cases enrolled in A.R. 505 is some indication 
of the advantage that was taken of their visit. 

At the other end of the scale it is not without significance 
that there is only a single reference in the roll to a villein.'' It 
would perhaps be dangerous to press this home and conclude that 
with this exception no villein finds a place in this enquiry, for 
there are many very small men who make their complaints through 

1 1 am perhaps guilty of stating the obvious here ; but having regard 
to the many variatioii.s oi local administration in different parts of England 
at this period, and to the emphasis that has been laid upon such variations, 
I think points of similarity ought to be noted where they are found. And 
it is satisfactory, from a study of another county, to be able to corroborate 
so many of Dr. Fowler's results for Bedfordshire {op. cit., pp. 2-8 asp.), which 
themselves form a valuable contribution to a field of study the importance 
of which was brought out by Jliss Cam in her work on the Hundred 
Rolls. 

- The Abbots of Keve.sby and Vaudey and the single knight who in some 
cases headed the local panel of jurors. 

* John Parys of South Witham (no. 323). 



INTRODUCTION ciii 

the presentment of their local juries. But on the other hand it is / 
well to remember that Lincolnshire once formed part of the Danelaw, 
that at the time of the Domesday survey it contained large numbers 
of sokemen who possessed a considerably greater degree of freedom 
than villeins,^ and that, as Professor Stenton points out, the 
Lincolnshire sokemen, in spite of the tendency to depression of 
status in the eleventh century and later, managed to retain a large / 
part of their liberty.- It is thus probably safe to say that the 
great bulk of the non-official personnel of A.R. 505, including, of 
course, the numerous jurors, were small freemen. 

But it by no means follows that when this has been said all 
has been said. The index of persons required by this study of 
A .R. 505 has been given a biographical form,^ so that the personalities 
of the roll could as far as possible speak for themselves across the 
centuries : nevertheless some examples should be discussed here, 
if only to demonstrate the falsity of implying that the phrase 
' small freemen ' meant a dull uniformity of substance and an 
absence of any social position. 

The Lay Subsidy Rolls help to give a rough idea of the sub- 
stance of some of the people of A.R. 505, provided that no attempt 
is made to convert the assessments into modern values (since there 
is no safe criterion against which to make such conversions), and 
that no comparison is attempted as between assessments for 
different taxes (because many of the conditions governing two or 
more sets of assessments are not known). One other proviso has 
to be borne in mind : that even where an assessment was honestly 
made, not every movable possession was assessed ; household 
utensils and furniture and the contents of the domestic larder, for 
example, were tacitly exempt.* 

Thus, for instance, Isabella Baldok, a plaintiff in 1298, was 
a woman of some substance. She was assessed for the eleventh 
in 1295 at the quite important sum of £4 8s. 8d. ; she held lands 
in North and South Stoke, Winnibriggs, and possessed at that time 
three quarters of corn, four of barley, five of dredge-corn, six of 
oats, some forage and hay, two draught -beasts, an ox, a cow, six 
sheep, eight ewes and six hoggs, to say nothing of a cart.^ Ralph 

* Cf. Vinogradoff, English Society in the Eleventh Century, pp. 135-9, 
esp. p. 137, where, after discussing the soke of Rothbury, Leics., as it was 
in tlie thirteenth centur\-, he points out that the social basis of the soke was 
a large population of free peasants. 

^ F. M. Stenton, in L.R.S., vol. XIX, Introd., p. xxvii. 

* To this end I have examined as many original sources as my oppor- 
tunities would permit. This process, with certain exceptions, has had to 
be confined to the material at the Public Record Office (I do not pretend 
to have exhausted this source), and the mass of material of potential value 
at the British Museum and elsewhere has had to remain untouched. 

* Cf., in general, section V on Taxes on Movables, above, pp. xlii-lii. 

* In this and all following instances, full details will be fovmd under 
the appropriate name in the Biographical Index, so that separate footnotes 
are unnecessary here. 



civ rNTRODUCTION 

Erneys, a plaintiff and also a juror of Winnibriggs in 1298, was 
wealthier than Isabella. For the eleventh his assessment was 
£5 4s. 6d., and his movables included four quarters of corn, three 
of barley, five of dredge-corn, ten of oats, two oxen, two draught- 
beasts, a cow, three pigs, twelve ewes, three shillings' worth of 
forage and four shillings' worth of hay, and a hoe. On the other 
hand, John of Blankney, who was a juror of Winnibriggs in 1298 
and therefore certainly a free tenant, Avas assessed for the same 
tax at only £1 18s. 8d. His movables amounted to one quarter 
of corn, one of rye, two of barley, one of di-edge-corn, five of oats, 
some forage and hay, a draught-beast, an ox and a cart. John 
son of William of Denton, also a juror of Winnibriggs in 1298. 
was assessed at less still : £1 3s. Od., and of movables he had one 
quarter of com, two of oats, one of peas, a draught-beast, a cow, 
three sheep and a shilling's worth of forage. There are other 
examples, ranging between these limits,' the lowest of all being 
Wilham Bolour, a plaintiff in 1298. who was assessed at the modest 
total of 11/8, and whose movables did not, apparently, amount to 
more than one quarter of pearl barley and eleven ewes. 

The evidence of the ninth, levied in 1297, is similar, though 
here all the assessments are much lower than in 1295.^ For this 
tax the lowest assessment I have found is 9/-, that of Bartholomew 
Fraunceys of Oasby, a minor official, probably himself a sub-taxor 
for the time being. The two highest were those of John de la 
More of Asgarby, who was assessed in 1297 at 24/9, and who during 
1299 to 1301 was involved in disputes with a certain widow named 
^lariota over her free tenements in Kirby Laythorpe and Evedon 
(it transpired that John was a tenant of the Prior of Kyme) ; and 
Geoffrey of Burton, a tenant on the Greatford estates of John de 
Mortuo Mari, who was assessed in 1297 at 34/6 and who was later 
involved in a dispute over a free tenement in kShillingthorpe. There 
were, in addition to Bartholomew Fraunceys, six others whose 
assessments ranged between 9/- and 10/-, but the majority of 
assessments for the ninth of which I have found record varied 
between twelve shillings and a pound. Although the evidence is 
of course fragmentary, having regard to the total population of 
Lincolnshire, and although the assessments for the ninth almost 
certainly do not truly represent the assessees' capacity to pa3^ 
the verdict of the subsidy rolls does not indicate any very marked 
uniformity of substance. This I think would be especially notice- 

1 E.g. Robert .son of Bartholomew of Casthorpe, £3 5s. (id. ; William 
Cryspyn of Allington, £3 10s. 6d. ; John de Herford, £2 8s. Od. ; Richard 
the Baker of Ponton, £3 13s. 2d. ; Peter de Templo of Denton, £1 19s. 6d., 
and Nicholas of Wyville, £1 15s. 9d. 

* Possibly because the majority of those assessed in 1297 who are named 
in A.R. 505 (some of them persons already mentioned in discussing the 
eleventh) were by this date themselves taxors. But note that this does not 
affect the ratio to each other of ap^^ssmente for the ninth. 



INTRODUCTION cv 

able il' the figures could in any way safely be converted into their 
modem equivalents. 

The mrors of .4.i?. 505 must now be mentioned. It is necessary 
to re-emplTaiise the fact that they cannot be separated from the 
rank and file of the free tenants. There are two reasons for this. 
One is that the minimum property qualification for appearing 
before justices itinerant remained at twenty shillings' worth of 
land or rents, ^ hence any firee tenant who happened to possess 
that much land misht find himself empanelled bv his local bailiff 
at any time, if occasion arose. The other is that jur\- service was 
a temporary liabihty : before it and after it was over the jurors 
were private individuals with a variety of occupations. Jury 
service was emphatically not their profession ; so that it is right 
to class jurors with the plaintiffs and others who have no permanent 
royal official status in A.R. 505. And it is important also to realise 
that the men named in the jury -lists of A.B. 505 were, with the 
exception (in some cases only) of the fiLrst name on a List, free / 
tenaints_below knight^jank. Thus Richard de Baldeswell. who / 
was a plaintiff in 1298, had been a juior in 1290 when an inquisition 
was held into crimes committed (probably) at Stamford, where , 7. - -- 
he seems to have lived. Ten years later, in 1300-1, he was a 
recognitor in an acrimonious and lengthy law-suit between two — 
other Stamford personalities. "" 

These men are found engaged in a variety of other activities. 
Adam son of Martin, for example, a juror of Lincoln in 129S, had .^ 
been instrumental ia disposing of Jews' houses in LincoLu when, <^i^ — -_ 
in 1291, these were put up for sale following Edward I"s banish- j jf A - 
ment of the Jews from England. Roger AJsant of Torksey, a juror / ,- , V 
of La-wTess wapentake, had a writ of assize of novel disseisin brought 
against him in 1299 by another A.R. 505 personality, Gilbert atte 
Persones. about a tenement in Torksey ; but Gilbert did not Ajt,^ * 

prosecute. Roger's father Alan seems to have been a turbulent y^*-*^"^^^ 
person, for in 1290 he was imprisoned at Lincoln for burning houses /-*^ *y 

and committing robberies at Boston Fair. Geoffrey Bryan had ^ f/^/t^t. 

been a sub-taxor before being empanelled for jury service in r*' ""^ 
Loveden at the 1298 enquiry. Geoffrey of Burton, whose assess- - - 

ment for the ninth was noted' above, was a juror of Xess wapentake . ^ ^^^ ^ 
in 1298, and had interests in the fishing industn.-, for in 1290 he .. .><^~^ 
sold 500 herrings to the manor of Greatford (whose tenant he was) '^ ' 

and was duly paid for them. He himself paid, incidentally, one 
halfpenny rent to the manor at Michaelmas for one and a half 
roods of land at " Roudik.' 

Richard Bygot and William Darre. jurors of Grantham, were 
both engaged in the wool trade ; so was WiUiam of Xormanton. 
a juror of Loveden : the king's representative bought of him 23 
sacks 22 stone of wool for the royal use, and gave him a promissory 

^ Cf. above, p. Ixxxix. 



cvi INTRODUCTION 

not<» tor £104 10s. 2d. William of Deepine, a sub-taxor of the 
ninth in South Witham in 1297. was a juror of Stamford next year, 
and in 1299 had a dispute with Gilbert of Cottesmore, who impeded 
him of a messuage in Stamford and who afterwards made fine 
with him by five marks silver. Alan and William of Coupledyke, 
both jurors of Kirton in 1298, were men of some substance, but 
below knight's rank. Alan, in 1290, was associated with the sheriff 
in going bail for the chief collectors of the tenth in respect of their 
arrears in the collection of this tax. Alan seems to have lived at 
Frampton ; and in 1299 the brothers brought a writ of assize of 
novel disseisin against Roger of Coupledyke, who was, I think, a 
relation, and who was certainly steward to the Earl of Lincoln 
for his Lincolnshire lands. The brothers withdrew the writ. 
William, in 1294, was found to be seised of a messuage and one 
bovate of land in Frampton, worth 40/- per annum. 

Alan de Seldek, a respectable juror of Boston in 1298, had, 
it appears, a far from respectable past. In 1289 he was implicated 
in crimes committed during the fire at Boston Fair the previous 
year, and as late as 1295 the baihfFs presented that Alan and others, 
' at the time of the fire,' seized the goods of merchants, carried 
off the goods in carts and took them to Long Bennington. In the 
meantime, not unnaturally', all trace of the goods had been lost. 

Those who served on both peace-time and war-time juries, 
covering a fairly wide range of subjects, would become knowledge- 
able, and would be able to form some idea of what Edward's war 
effort involved in their own locality. For instance John Gode of 
Boston was in 1298 empanelled on a jury which had to determine 
whether a certain Henry de Tene, a merchant of Brabant, was 
trying to evade paying the king's custom on 13 dickers of hides 
which he bought at Fleet and wished to send away thence. Henry's 
defence was that he was sending the hides to Yarmouth for export, 
and was going to pay the dues there. The jurors upheld him 
over this. 

The A.B. 505 jurors kncAv a good deal about litigious disputes 
over land, some of them from personal experience. John Payt, 
a juror of Boston in 1298, was not altogether a peaceable citizen ; 
in 1301 he and others were found guilty of unjustly disseising one 
John de Braytheland of 100 acres of land, eighteen of meadow 
(after the hay had been cut and carried) and eighteen of pasture, 
from Lammas to Candlemas ; this tenement was in ' Braytheland '. 
And in the same year John Payt impeded John of Leake of a 
messuage in Boston. These misdeeds of course involved law- 
suits. Similarly Hugh of Stowe of Londonthorpe, a juror of Threo 
wapentake in 1298, quarrelled with his son John over land. In 
1301 he disseised .Fohn of a messuage, three tofts, ninety acres 
of land and ten of meadow in Towthorpe and Londonthorpe ; but 
John seems to have retaliated by disseising his father, in turn, 



INTRODUCTION cvii 

of a messuage, four tofts;, eighty acres of land and ten of meadow 
in Londonthorpe. These amomits of land seem large for small 
freemen to hold, but I have found no evidence whatever to show 
that Hugh was or ouglit to have been numbered among the knights 
of Lincolnshire : and much would depend on the worth of the land 
he held. 

Others, of course, than those who happened to be jurors in 
1298. had disputes over land. John Alger of Welby, who may 
have been a sub-taxor in 1297, was in 1301 involved in litigation 
with Richard Fraunceys of Welby, who complained that John 
had unju.stly disseised him of a parcel of land in Welby twelve 
feet long by eighteen feet wide ! And John Bunnyng, who appears 
in A.R. 505 merely as a mainpernor of a bailiff of Skirbeck, com- 
plained in 1299 that one Alan of Threckingham had impeded him 
of a messuage uith appurtenances in Boston. Alan made fine 
with him by seven marks silver. 

The case of Thomas Gamel is of some interest. All that 
A.R. 505 reveals is that he was a merchant of Lincoln, and hints 
that he may have been a tailor. Other records, however, are 
more illuminating, and we find that in 1300 a certain Alice, widow 
of WilUam of Harby of Lincoln, brought a writ of assize of novel 
disseisin against Thomas about a tenement in the suburb of Lincoln. 
This roused the ire of the mayor and bailiflFs of the city, who came 
with due majesty to court and informed the justices of assize that 
their rights and liberties were being infringed, since no writ of 
assize of novel disseisin might run within the boundaries of their 
jurisdiction. They held their ground and the assize, which neither 
party was prepared to relinquish, had to be adjourned to Stamford. 
Unfortunately the result of it is not recorded. 

In spite of frequent and fierce litigation over land there was, 
as might be expected of a period when communities were still 
normally self-contained, a strong feeling of neighbour-hood. A.E. 
505 does not bring this out clearly, but if studied alongside the 
biographical index, many instances will be found of people who 
in the roll do not seem to know each other at all (though they 
come from the same place), but who in fact go bail for each other 
in law-suits, stand pledge to one another, act as recognitors where 
neighbours are concerned (this is of course the whole point of the 
recognitions) and generally stand by one another.^ What A.R. 505 
does bring out well, however, is the parallel existence of a kind 
of freemasonry of office similar to that of the craft and trade gilds. 
Thus again and again bailiffs and sub-bailiffs will be found main- 
perning and standing pledge to each other, and so will sub-taxors 
and other temporary or permanent minor officials, the classic 

* The point, a well -recognised one, is made here because A.B. 505, fts 
indicated, tends to give an erroneous impression. 



cviii INTRODUCTION 

insiaiice of the roll being the long and tedious entry no. 
415.1 

The people of AM. 505, jurors or otherwise, might find 
themselves called upon at any time to discharge public or semi- 
public duties. Thus Robert Benet of Bulby. who in 1298 was so 
acting, temporaril}', as a collector of prise, had in 1300 to act as 
a recognitor in an inquisition held at the instance of the king to 
determine the extent of the manor of Edenham, then in royal 
hands. And John Braban of Stamford, a merchant who was 
empanelled on an inquisition of Boston vintners and drapers in 
1298, had in the previous year been appointed by the king to go 
with other merchants to Berwick on Tweed, there to act in an 
advisory capacity to John de Warenne, the governor, and so help 
set the commercial activities of the town in order. But for reasons 
not stated he was relieved of this obligation and never left Lincoln- 
shire. Similarly with Elias Dare of Grantham. 

As to other activities of men mentioned in A.R. 505, there 
is the case of Alexander of Tickencote, a juror of Stamford in 1298. 
He had been a bailiff of the town in 1289 ; in 1292 he bought a 
house there which had belonged to a Jew, and owed the crown 
£17 6s. 8d. in respect of it. Next year, 1293, the house became 
part of the dowry of his niece Margaret, and Henry of Leicester, 
who married her, became answerable for the debt. Alexander 
was connected ^^•ith the wool trade ; in 1297 he sent five sacks, 
thirteen stone of wool to Flanders, paying £11 Is. 6^d, customs 
on it. William Bonde of Grantham, who mainperned a bailiff 
of Winnibriggs in 1298, was also a wool merchant ; so was Roger 
Michecrem, who paid twenty shillings mainprise money in 1298. 
Herman Paramours traded in both wool and wine ; so did Henry 
Botermarkede, who complained in 1298 about the import duties 
on Pvhenish wine. 

But perhaps the most interesting case of all is that of Eustace 
Malherbe. He must have been a person of some note locally, 
for v^'e find him employed more than once on business of the king, 
though 1 do not think he was ever a permanent royal official. He 
was appointed in 1294 to insiJect the whole of the woad belonging 
to French merchants in Lincolnshire. Woad was extensively used 
for dyeing wool, and was grown on chalky soils, but in quantities 
quite insufficient for the requirements of the later thirteenth 
century, so that considerable amounts had to be imported. These 
came in particular from Picardy and from Toulouse- : hence there 
was a cogent reason for Eustace's appointment for this business. 
He was at the same time to enquire into all debts owing to these 

^ This also is a well-recognised circumstance, but one which is worth 
emphasising. 

- (.'f . R. A. Pelham, " Fourteenth Century England," in Hint. Geography 
of Englatid before 1800 (ed. H. C. Darby), p. 248. 



INTRODUCTION oix 

merchants, and in doing so he came into collision with the bailiffs 
of Grimsby over a point of procedure which seems to have touched 
their civic pride. Eustace had told his attorney to order the 
bailifis to seize debts o^^ing to a French merchant of the towm 
and to be answerable for them to the attorney. The bailiffs said 
they had received no such order and that in any case the necessary, 
warrant should not be given to them but to the French merchant's 
debtors. 

Eustace himself seems to have lived in Stamford ; at any 
rate he paid the small rent of a peimy-halfpenny each ^lichaelmas 
to St. ^Michael's Nunnery there, in respect of a tenement he held 
of the nuns in the parish of St. Paul. He also held a messuage 
and forty acres of land in Casewick. And he was involved, betAveen 
October, 1300. and some time in 1301, in an acrimonious and 
apparently insoluble law-suit with one Ranulph Drynkedregges, 
the plaintiff.' over a small tenement in Stamford. The case was 
postponed three times because the recognitors failed to appear 
(it is conceivable that borough politics played some part in this), 
and finally Ranulph brought an entirely fresh writ, I think over 
the same tenement, but did not prosecute. How well-versed the 
people of Stamford must have been in Drynkedregges v. Malherbe 
by the end of 1301, and how tired of it ! 

Before summing up there is one other class of persons which 
ought to be mentioned. In A.B. 505 there appear names of 
people who were taxed, for example, when they were really non- 
taxable ; that is to say their possessions were scanty enough to"" 
exempt them from taxation. The principles governing this have 
already been discussed,- but the point to be made here is that 
such people as Thomas Astyn, Robert atte Hawenedyk', Roger 
Baron and others like them are merely called ngn-taxable. Nothing 
is said as to their status : they are never alluded to as villeins, 
but they always, or almost always, make their complaints through 
their local juries of presentment — that is to say they themselves 
never leave their villages, which may be many miles from the 
town where the court is sitting. The same is true of people like 
Agnes la \'edfe (the widow), a poor woman though not a pauper 
in the modern sense ; Alan Reyner of Swarby and Robert ad poriain 
ecclesie (at the church door), poor men not having seven shillings' 
worth of lands. AU these were mulcted in quite substantial sums 
' for hcences to live in peace '^ for a specified time. Such cases 
are iew, as might be expected, since only an unjust official with 
a financial axe to grind would be hkely to trouble persons of 
very small means : but in no case is there any mention of status. 

^ Does his name sugge&^t his character ? Cf. Robert Playndamours 
a juror of Lawress wapentake, and other curious names in A.B. 
605. 

* See above, section V, Taxes on Movables, pp. xlii-Iii. 

' I.e. from prises and other exactions. 



INTRODUCTION 

The possibility that these persons were in fact villems cannot be 
ruled out. but it seems rather more hkcly that these pauperes 
corresponded to Vinogradoff's free peasants.' 

If this is so (it must not of course be regarded as proved) the 
evidence of A.R. 505 and the biographical index, taken together, 
indicates a large class of small freemen, ranging from men and 
women whose substance is quite considerable, though below that 
of a knight, to those whose means are so slight that they are officially 
exempt from the biu-dens of war-time, though their persons may 
be free as against the unfreedom of the villeinage in general. 
There is here no dull uniformity in substance, nor, as is abundantly 
evident from the examples quoted, is there an absence of social 
position, except, probably, among the very poor, who, so far as 
A. JR. 505 is concerned form a small minority of its personnel.'^ 

On the contrary, we are given ghmpses of a series of vigorous 
and busy communities, each with a strong sense of neighbour- 
hood. Those in the rural areas are pre-occupied especially with 
land, the fruits of land and disputes over land, jealous of the results 
of theu' husbandry yet forced by the needs of the times to con- 
tribute their share to the king's requirements, and more than their 
share if the bailiff happens to be exacting and not too scrupulous. 
Those hi the towns are also occupied with questions of land, since 
town is secondary to country and the national economy is over- 
whelmingly agricultural ; but they ar^ occupied as well with 
commerce and with incipient industry. \ Activities are wide, the 
communities pursue their daily life with zest, and they enter into 
litigation over land with at least as much gusto as their betters. 
Their social position is of their own making : it may not be recog- 
nised from above, but that in no way implies that it did not exist 
or that it did not possess its own subtle shades of distinction. 



X 

REMEDIES 

The 1298 enquiry was a special one mto the conduct of royal 
officials during the previous four years ; it was not part and parcel 
of the ordinary administration of justice. It took place under 

1 Cf. Vinogradoff, loc. cit. 

' It must be einj^haaised that my remarks on the very poor are tentative 
only. The subject requires much more attention than I have been able to 
give to it. But it would be an interesting and perhaps valuable study to 
work out the social relationship between the free peasants of the sokes and 
the local villeinage, especially in a county so much modified by the Danelaw 
aB Lincoln.shiro : if indeed it could be done. 



INTRODUCTION cxi 

commissions of oyer and terminer' ; therefore not only could case* / 

be heard, but also determined, with punishments to the guilty 
and remedy for the successful plaintiff'. 

These punishments, as recorded in A.B. oUo, show progressive 
degrees of severity, from the offender being merely put in mercy. - 
after which he might or might not be amerced ; through committal 
to gaol, in heu of which a fine was nearly always made f to the i 
heaviest sentences promulgated by ^^'illiam Inge and his fellow- j 
justice in Lincolnshire, committal to gaol and dismissal from i 
the offenders royal oftice for life — or, as the formula more graphic- 
ally but not less truly puts it. for ever.' 

The fines made in lieu of imprisonment varied from forty / 
pence to ten pounds according, apparently, to the heinousness of / 
the offence and the ability of the offender to pay. The heaviest 
fines are made by the sheriff, Richard of Draycote ; by A\'ilham le 
Wayte. who was probably chief bailiff of Kesteven under a previous 
sheriff ; and by Robert Pygomi, a bailiff of a pair of wapentakes : 
each of these ofliciaLs paid £10.^ But the sums most commonly 
paid in fines were perhaps half a mark — 6/S — and 40/-. 3Ioreover. 
the off"erider was expected to make fine, and on the rare occasions 
when he did not. the scribe felt it necessary to record the fact.^ 
Indeed the number of cases in A.B. 505 in which a fine was made, "^ 
compared with the very few in which a committal to gaol was 
not so commuted, not only strongly supports Alaitland's evidence 
that the justices encouraged this practice,' but suggests that by 
the end of the thirteenth century it had become the normal one. 
This should not occasion surprise, for the practice had the double 
advantage of releasing the Umited space of the local gaols for the V 
worst criminals such as felons, and of bringing additional revenue 
to the crown : yet it is well to emphasise Maitland's point that 
the fine was made, not imposed' ; the convicted offender must 
still go to prison if for any reason he preferred not to make a fine. 
Nevertheless the overwhelming proportion of cases in which the 
statement fecit finem occurs with the attendant marginaha eat 
and ad scaccarimn bear eloquent testimony both to what might 
be termed the current attitude to the local gaol and to the financial 
benefits accruing to the central authority. 

But the offender did not escape merely with his fine. With 
nearly every conviction in A.R. 505 goes an order to make restitu- / ^ 

tion, mostly financial, to the value of what was unjustly taken if / , 
tills was in the form of corn, beasts or other goods : or if it was / 
money, of the sum taken. In addition there might be an assess- / 

^C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 338. 

3 E.g. no. 239. =» E.g. no. 260. 

* E.g. no. 346. 

*Nos. 381. 382, 363 respectively. » E.g. no. 366. 

'Pollock aud Maitland, ii, pp. 517-8. "Ibid., loc. cit. 



cxii INTRODUCTION 

ment of damages, which might then be doubled or even trebled.^ 
^Thus the offender might be liable at once for his tine (to the crown), 
restitution of the value of what he had unjustly taken (to the 
plaintiff), and triple damages (also to the plaintiff). A good example 
of this is no. 64, A\here the offending bailiff made fine by 40/-, and 
was at the same time ordered to make restitution to the plaintiff 
of 14 pence which had been unjustly taken, and also to pay him 
triple damages wliich totalled 3/6. 
^ In these ways the complainants of A.B. 505 obtained redress 

and remedy, but in some cases they had had to wait nearly fojir_ 
years for it. For this reason some enquiry must be made as to 
wh^t remedies were normally available to those who suffered at 
the hands of roj'al officials ; whether these remedies were adequate, 
and if not, wherein the inadequacy lay — why, in short, a special 
enquiry was necessary at all. 

The best approach to the problem is perhaps to consider first 
the natm-e of the cases enrolled in A.B. 505. Very few of them 
were actually called trespasses, transg-ressiones,'^ but it is worth 
while to discuss three cases, for they provide a clue to similar ones 
in A.B. 505, where the word trespass is not used. In the first 
case the Abbot of Vaudey qiieritnr de — complains of — a pair of 
officials that they unjustly and without warrant took from him 
24 oxen of his plough-team. This was by waj'^ of distraint against 
a debt due from the abbot to the king, the debt being the abbot's 
(quota in respect of the tenth of movables levied in 1294. The 
j delinquents are punished, and one of them admits quod fecit predicto 
abbati predictam transgre^sionem. Here is an acknowledged trespass 
in the form of an unjust distress.'' 

In the second case, a vicar complains, queritur, that a royal 
bailiff took two quarters of green corn from him and retained it 
in his own possession. The corn was taken by order of a royal 
collector of prise ; in the end the bailiff made fine pro isfatrans- 
gressione. for this trespass. Here the trespass lies, not in taking 
. the corn, for that was legitimately done by order of the royal takers of 
prise, but in the bailiff's retention of some or all of it to his own use. 

The third case concerns a distress made by a baiUff in respect 
of an alleged summons of the green wax. The bailiff collected the 
debt but retained the money to his own use and did not give the 
])laintiff" a receipt for it. No mention is made of the nature of the 
distress ; it may have been of money, not of chattels, but in any 
case, the bailiffs made fine pro transgressione.'^ These examples 

' Cf. Pollock and Maitland, ii, p. 522 and note 1. 

= E.g. nos. 229, 237, 450. 

' Cf. no. 422, a biinilar case where trespass is not mentioned by name. 

* Note that this case begins iuratores presentant and that it replaces 
another (383) which gives only the conclusion of the case and begins 
conuictum est per iuratam. This shows that a plea of trespass could be begun 
by presentment of jurj% and also that A.R. 505 does not give all the pro- 
ceedings in all case.s. 



INTRODUCTION cxiii 

have brought out two important points. One is that an injured 
party could, at the 1298 enquiry, initiate proceedings against 
trespass by merely making a complaint' : the other is that not . 
only 'WTongful distraint for debt, but also sharp practice by those ' 
who were appointed to make prises in the king's name, was admitted 
to be a trespass. ) And if unjust practices in collecting debts due 
to the king, including arrears of taxes on movables, and in collecting 
prise.s ordered by the king are both comprehended by the term 
trespass, then an important part of the complaints recorded in 
A.R. oOo is accounted for. But even so, it still cannot safely be 
said that ipso facto all such malpractice in respect of money debts 
and prises involved trespass. It can only be suggested that this 
is probable ; but the suggestion is strengthened by the existing 
evidence that actions for trespass, though known early in the 
century, only became rapidly common from the last years of the , 
reign of Henry III, and that already trespass has itself become ' 
a term which will cover a wide variety of wrongful acts.- ^ 

It will be noticed that in the examples quoted above from 
A.R. 505, trespass on the part of the royal official is met h\ querela. 
complaint of the injured party. For this reason the antecedents 
of the formula A. queritur de B . . must be examined a little more 
closely.^ As early as the I250's unjust distraint by sheriffs and 
their bailiGFs was a trespass and could be remedied by complaint 
made at the Exchequer, whence would issue a writ begin n ing 
monsfravit or questus est^ : that is to say, a personal complaint 
laid before the barons of the Exchequer could originate an action 
for trespass emanating from this department. This may be a 
new development, but the use of querela \vas known earlier, and 
can be traced back to the very first years of the thirteenth century.^ 
At any rate, in 1258-9 the reforming baronage took matters a 
step further by including querelae among the kinds of cases that 
were to be dealt with in the special inquest of 1258-9.^ This meant 
that instead of coming to the Exchequer to make their complaints, 
plaintiffs might make them locally as the inquest came round. 

^ This point is discussed below, p. cxx. Here cf. entry no. 378. 

* Cf . Pollock and Maitland, ii, pp. 524-6, 511-12, respectively. 
' For this part of the discussion 1 have drawn freeh' npori K. F. Jacob, 

Studies in the Period oj Baronial Rejorm and Bebellion, 123^ iT [f^xi. Siudie.--, 
vol. viii), and L. Ehrlich, Proceedings Against the Crown, 1210-1377 (Oxf. 
Studies, vol. vi), because from their respective points of view they have 
thorouglily covered the ground which the present study touches at several 
points, particularly in regard to the use of querela procedure, the remedial 
desires of the reforming barons of 1258, and the position of would-be litigants 
over against the legal status of royal officials. 

* Elirlich, op. cit., p. 30. 

* Jacob, op. cit., pp. G7-9 ; and Lincolnshire assize rolls of 1202 and 
years immediately following show querelae being used then, see L.R.S., 
Aol. xxii, pp. 10-11. 

* Cf. Jacob, op. cit., pp. 36-7. 



r 



cxiv INTRODUCTION 

The importance of the querela, used in this way as a method of 
htigating, Mas that it needed no prehminary writ before an action 
could be started' ; and was therefore an mformal means whereby 
small tenants might, at least cost to themselves, be able to have 
justice done in their causes — causes which otherwise might never 
be heard at all for want of money to procure the means of justice. 

It is to the credit of the barons of 1258 that they realised the 
need for finding a way to extend justice to those who could not 
in the ordinary way afford the cost of it ; it is still more to their 
credit that they were able to devise a way. In the Provisions of 
Oxford it w'as arranged that four knights should be elected in each 
county, who were to meet, on the days Mhen the county courts 
were held, to hear complaints against local royal officials and others 
and to make attachments, so that the chief justice at his next 
coming could deal with the delinquents, hearing and determining 
the pleas on days fixed by him. All such complaints, together 
with the appropriate attachments, were to be enrolled by the 
knights, and this was to be done in every hundred. ~ The inquest 
w^as held in 1258-9 ; and some of the questions asked have a 
familiar ring to the student of A.R. 505; for example, have any 
beasts been unjustly taken and detained against justice, to the 
injury of the owners ? What money and prises have been taken 
in fairs, counties, towns, etc. ?^ Further, Dr. Jacob emphasises the 
fact that every activity of royal officials had in one way or another 
a fiscal aspect ; that therefore all abuses of such activity involved 
extortion in money or in kind^ — a view amply borne out by the 
evidence of A .R. 505 — and that the special case of wrongful seizure 
of beasts constituted unjust distraint, ^ which was a trespass. 

These instances show' that there was nothing new about the 
complaints recorded in A.R. 505 ; they were perennial. But what 
it meant to the small man to be able, now, to bring his humble 
querela into the court and have justice done there, whether he 
brought it personally or by the presentment of his local jury, is 
vividly illustrated by Jacob's comment on the querelae of the villein 
socmen of Brill in 1258. He shows clearly that it was the petty 
exactions of bailiffs which laid burdens on the small tenants that 
were not only exasperating but might also be very serious.'' It 
is exactly this kind of burden which is so copiously revealed by 
A.R. 505 : and that situation in 1298 was not merely hypothetical 
is proved by the high proportion of convictions recorded in this 
roll. To such people, then, even more in 1258 than forty years 
later when the procedure was well established, the loiowledge 

* Cf. Jacob, op. cit., p. 65. 

2 Provisions of Oxford 1258, in S.C, p. 378 ; cf. Jacob, op. cit., p. 22. 
The words used in the Provisions are querela, complaint, and conquerentes, 
complainants. 

"Jacob, op. cit.. pp. 31-2. * Jacob, p. 28. 

* Jacob, p. 31. '■ Jacob, p. 46. 



TNTRODrCTION cxv 

that their httle querelae could have the same force of law as the 
more formal \\Tits of action that they could not afford, must have 
been the da\vn of a new hope altogether ; it is therefore not sur- 
prising that with the small tenant querela procedure_became 
instantly popular. ' 

The acts of the reforming barons augured well for the interests 
of the smaller tenant, if less so for royal and seignorial officials. 
Yet an informal, writ-less, cheap procedure was not in itself 
sufficient : it provided a palhative, not a cure. The reformers 
were, however, not afraid to attack the deeper problem also. 
The appointment of the four knights of the shire of 1258 was 
replaced, in the Provisions of Westminster of 1259, by a similar 
but rather less comprehensive arrangement.- And in the Pro- 
visions of Oxford of the previous 3'ear the reformers went very near 
to the root of the matter when they attributed the abuses of royal 
officials to the high fcrms at which counties and bailiwicks were 
held, and to the personal indigence of officials. Accordingly, they 
ordain that both the sheriffs and their bailiffs shall be paid by the 
king, nor shall the sheriffs, now to be elected, hold office for more 
than a year.-'' 

The important point is this, that if all these desiderata could 
have been attamed and made a permanent part of normal law 
and administration, it is lil^eh' that subsequent special enquiries 
into the conduct of royal officials, mcluding that of 1298, would 
have been rendered unnecessary. But, unfortunately for the 
small tenant, the long contrived to evade all but one of the reforms, 
which were dropped, probably in 1260.' As a result, Henry III 
reverted to, and his son retained, the old practice of appointing 
sheriffis during pleasure and of letting out shires and baiHwicks at ferm, 
while nothing more is heard for forty years of closer local administra- 
tion with a view to supervising the activities of local royal officials. 

Yet the small tenant was left with two clear gains from the 
turmoil of baronial revolt. One was the verv considerable exten- 
sion of actions. for. trespass to cover relatively small administrative 
abuses; the other was the procedure by querela.-'' Is it wholly 
by chance that in jjoint of time this extension of trespass and this 
emphasis on querela coincide ? If the small tenant was to be pro- 
tected at all, and if the extension of trespass was to be truly effec- 
tive, some new and easier process than action by ^\Tit was required : 
querela procedure met this requirement and continued to meet itj 
The impUcation is clear enough, the evidence doubtful ;" but it 

'Cf. Jacob, op. cit., pp. 330-1. C^*!^" '^Cf. Jacob, p. 92. 

' Provision.s of Oxford, in S.C, p. 382, cf. Jacob, pp. 20-1. 

' Jacob, op. cit., p. 96. 

^ Pollock and Maitland, ii, pp. 511-2 ; cf. Jacob, p. 142. 

* But cf. Select Pleas in Manorial Courts, i (Selden Soc., vol. ii), p. 50 : 
" A conqiieritnr cle B super transgressionibus . . . factis." Here querela 
and transgreeaio are conjoined in practice. The dale is 1258. 



cxvi INTRODUCTION 

is enough, for the purpose of the present study, to note that the 
two phenomena appear together and grow together, in the manner 
of an idea whose time has come.^ 

Thus for the small tenant seeking redress for grievances against 
royal officials there were these remedies open : if he had the means, 
he could take out an individual ^Tit if one would lie, or he could 
go to the Exchequer and lay his complaint there, when the Exchequer 
might initiate proceedings against the offending official.- But if 
he did not possess the means (a circumstance which must have 
applied to very many of the complainants in A.R. 505), there was 
now available the boon of being able to make a mere complaint 
in local courts. 

Nevertheless there was still a grave disabihty in the path of 
the wronged small tenant, a disabihty which, so long as it existed, 
very considerably reduced for him the value of the new querela 
procedure. He could not lay his complaint before the local courts 
; — the w^apentake (hundred) or shire courts — at any time when 
they met. There were several reasons for this. The first is prac- 
tical, if quite extra-legal : since the complaint was against a ro^al_ 

^ It is perhaps worth while at this point to inckide some illustration of 
the variety of the querelae that could be used. From Select Pleas in Manorial 
Courts, i (Selden Soc, vol. ii) come the following : A queritur de B that B 
raised a hedge between liis tenement and A's (1296), p. 46 ; A conqucritur 
de B that B, contrary to his homage and fealty to the Abbot of Ramsey, 
keeps a man to the nuisance of A (1258), p. 56 ; A queritur de B of battery 
(1258), p. 67 ; A queritur de B that B basely slandered him over all the 
countrj'side, sayiijg that A stole some corn belonging to B's master (1294), 
p. 82 ; A queritur de B that B took a beast from A's plough wTongfully and 
to his damage (1295), p. 83 — this is very like some of the querelae in A.R. 
505 — A queritur de B that B insulted him in the churchyard before the entire 
parish, charging him with collecting his own hay with labour services due 
to the Abbot of Ramsey (1278), p. 95 ; A queritur de B that B defamed him 
as a thief, seducer and manslayer, and other serious things (1294), p. 116 ; 
A queritur de B that while A, in the Abbot's peace, was making a bargain 
with a merchant at St. Ives fair for three ells of vert, B assaulted him and 
called him a thief (1275), p. 138 ; A queritur de B that B bargained with him 
at St. Ives fair for a pig's ham, carried it off and never paid for it (1275), 
p. 142 ; and many other similar cases. From H. Hall. Formida Book of 
Legal Records, p. 147, comes this example which, mutatis mutandis, might 
have been enrolled in A.R. 505 ; it is in fact taken from A.R. 1233, m. 5 : 
A queritur de B. sometime bailiff of the Earl of Cornwall, that he with others 
took A's beasts vi et armis, and those of A's villeins, and drove them away, 
detaining them till A made fine with him (1276-7) ; and these : A queritur 
de B that B unjustly fenced with a ditch and hedge part of a royal wood 
which had never previously been fenced ; and A (a group) querentur de B 
that B took 26/- from them for not coming to a court where they were not 
accustomed to come (about 1240), pp. 210-11. And, finally, a very early 
case in the same form comes from the Lincolnshire assize roll of 1202 
(L.R.S., vol. xxii, pp. 10-11): A queritur quod B carried away by force 
and unjustly an ash-tree from A's free fee. There are several other cases 
of querela in these early Lincolnshire rolls, proving that the procedure was 
not unknown at that time. 

' The Exchequer frequently did this, cf, Ehrlich, op. cit., pp. 29-30. 



INTRODUCTION oxvii 

official, perhaps even against the sheriff himself, it was imUkely 
that the injured party would get justice done, even if he were 
rash enough to seek it, in a court administered by officials who 
were themselves the delinquents. But underlying this was a legal 
position, well brought out by Ehrlich. The substance of it is this : 
the sheriff's bailiff, just as the sherifl" himself, was a royal minister, 
that is to say, a person delegated, in a certain locality, to do 
the king's business and to represent the king's interests there ; 
hence a private individual's complaint against him or his bailiff 
is thereby a complaint against the king, so that in any case 
the complainant had to be careful what he did.^ To emphasise 
the point a parallel may be drawn. Maitland, speaking of 
the obligation of a lord to defend his tenants, shows that the 
advantages of wealth and power in regard to htigation were often 
decisive. If, therefore, a tenant could shelter behind his lord and 
remind his would-be opponent that to sue him were to sue his lord 
also, the risk of htigation was markedly reduced, unless the other 
party could relj^ to an equal degree on his own superior.- If this 
were true of private litigation in the thirteenth century, how much 
more was it true when the parties were a royal official, even a minor 
one. on the one side, and on the other a smaU tenant with perhaps 
little or no backing ! 

But the parallel does not hold completely. The king had, 
it is true, the supreme po\\er, yet he was bound to obey the law ; 
so were his ministers. The difficulty, and also the way out, lay 
in the king's right not to be judged by anyone against his wiU. 
So long as the long held to this right, which extended to his delegates 
as well, the royal minister, be he only a sub-bailiff, was immune 
and could not therefore be proceeded against with impunity to 
the complainant. Only when the king consented to waive the right, 
and issued orders that justice should be done to those who had 
been injured by acts of his ministers (and therefore by acts of his 
own), were these ministers removed from the royal protection 
and thereby assailable in court of law like any other individuals.^^ 
On this view, every time the king admitted that wrongs done by 
his ministers were actually wTongs, and caused writs to issue in 
his name ordering redress to be made, whether to individuals or 
by means of a general enquiry such as an eyre, he was waiving 
this right and reducing his officials, for the time being, to the status 
of private persons. This, however, was an act of grace ; com- 
plainants might sup])hcate, but the initiative lay with the king. 

But there was one final and conclusive reason why the small 
tenant could not bring his querelae against royal officials before 
the local royal courts in the course of ordinary business. Every 

1 Cf. Ehrlich, op. cit., p. 69. 

»Cf. Pollock and Maitland, i, p. 306. 

'Ehrlich brings out tliis point, op. cit., pp. 24-6, cf. p. 69. 



oxviii IKTRODUCTION 

action for trespass in a royal court presupposes a breach of the 
king's peace, though not necessarily a heinous one;^ and as such. 
is a plea of the crown : hence complaints touching trespasses com- 
mitted by royal officials would also be pleas of the crown, and 
since they were committed by royal officials and not by private 
persons, would be doubly of interest to the crown. But it is 
expressly laid down in Magna Carta that no sheriff, constable, 
coroner or other royal bailiff shall hold pleas of the crown,'- and 
though infringements did occur, they find no place among the 
specific complaints made by the baronage in 1297. It may be 
said, then, that for the small tenant who could not afford a writ 
or a visit to the Exchequer, and who for the reasons stated could 
not bring his complaint to the shire court as part of that court's 
ordinary business, the field of opportunity was seriously narrowed. 
He had, in practice, to rely on those occasions when the king chose 
to waive the right discussed above, which his ministers shared 
ex officio. This meant waiting for the next visit of the justices in 
ejrre, and redress could then be obtained only if the articles of 
that eyre included questions as to the conduct of royal ministers.^ 

The eyres were not popular ; the commissions issued to the 
justices covered the widest field — ad omnia placiia — and by the 
middle of the thirteenth century it had become customary to hold 
eyres not more than once in seven years.' We may ask what 
opportunities for redress of officially committed wrongs the advent 
of the justices in eyre presented to the small tenant, once the 
querela procedure had become established. Taking his standpoint, 
and looking through the articles of the eyre at various times, we 
find these questions, among others which the justices must ask :'• 
Touching those who have taken a bribe for corn or chattels, that 
they may not be seized ;^ similarly touching prises made by sheriffs 
against the will (i.e. of the owner) ;' touching bailiffs who took 
money to remove recognitors from juries f touching prises of the 
lord king f touching sheriffs who take money twice for one amerce- 
ment ;^° touching those who distrain anyone to pay more than 
that at which he has been amerced ;^^ touching sheriffs who hand 

' Pollock and Maitland, ii, pp. 463-5. 

^ Magna Carta 1215, art. 24 ; 1217, art. 27 S.C, 296, 342. 

■'' It is to bo noted that the frequent and popular visits of the justices 
of assize to the shires were of no assistance to the small man burdened by 
the king's ministers' malpractice, for these justices could deal only with 
possessory actions arising out of disputed seisin of land. 

* Cf. Pollock and Maitland, i, pp. 201-3. 

' The references following, to articles of the eyre, are to H. Cam, 
Studies in the Hundred Rolls (Oxf. Studies, vol. vi), pp. 92-101. 

"Asked in 1227, 1254, 1276, 1280 1. 1287-8, 1294. 

■ A.sked in 1208, 1227, 1244, 1254, 1280-1, 1287-8. 1294. 

"Asked in 1254, 1276. 1280-1, 1287-8, 1294. 

« Asked in 1254, 1280-1, 1287-8, 1294. 
'"Asked in and after 1254. ^* Asked in and after 1254. 



INTRODUCTION cxix 

over hundreds at other ferms (i.e. than normal ones) to extortionate 
bailiffs — the small tenant might well suffer indirectly from this ; ^ 
touching those who shall have taken debts of the king and 
not given quittance to the debtors ;- touching those who took 
oxen for carriage against the will (of the owners) ;^ touching prises 
of the constables of castles, except the ancient prises ;' touching 
those who took draught-beasts in one county and drove them 
out of the county, or into castles, and there detained them.'^ Thus 
while it is true that the justices in eyre were to safeguard the 
interests of royal administration at all points, it is also true that 
in the latter half of the thirteenth century, at least, some of those 
points covered injuries done in the king's name to private indi- 
viduals, and that in consequence the small tenant might hope to 
find some redress when the eyre came round. 

But at best, the eyre came round only once in seven years, 
and in practice that inteTTal tended to be irregular and to lengthen. 
For example, in Lincolnshire, over the half-century 1250-1300, 
evres were held or were to be held as follows : 1250-1 ; 1256-7 : 
1263; 1267 (a general eyre ordered for all counties); 1271-2; j 
1281 (ten years' interval) ; 1292-3 (eleven-twelve years' interval).-si 
Northamptonshire fared worse ; the dates were 1253 ; 1261-2 ; 1267-8 ; 
1285; there does not seem to be another till 1330 I In Nottinghamshire 
eyres were held in 1252 (probably) ; 1257-8 ; 1267 ; 1269-70 ; 1280, 
the last for the period ; and for Rutland the dates are 1247 ; 1263 ; 
1267 ; 1286.* Thus with the exception of the baronial revolt, 
1258-67, with which the frequency of eyres held at that time may 
be directly connected,' the coming of the eyre to the counties 
represented a distinctly uncertain quantity ; and of the four counties 
mentioned, Lincolnshire was the most favoured. It was little 
enough consolation to the small tenant suffering a WTong com- 
mitted by a royal official just after the eyre had passed, to know 
that for want of money he must wait seven years before he could 
obtain redress ; it would be even less consolation to realise that 
the eyre might not come again for ten. The eyre, therefore, might 
be but a doubtful blessing. 

There was always the hope, however, that a special enquiry 
might be held, having for its object, or one of them, the conduct 
of royal officials ; but the disadvantage lay here, that the ordinary 
man did not knovr when such an enquiry would be held or whether 
it would be held at all, untU he saw the local machinery being put 
into motion. 

The great inquest of 1274-5 was an enquiry of this nature. 
It was closely related to an eyve, in so far as the questions asked 

' Not asked till 1280. = Not asked till 1280. ^ Not asked till 1281. 

* Not asked till 1281. » Not asked till 1280. 

• These dates are taken from H. Cam's table, Studies in the Hundred 
Rolls, pp. 108-112. 

' Cf . Jacob's study, quoted above. 



cxx INTRODUCTION 

were closely akin to those asked at an ordinary eyre, but it differed 
from an ordinary eyre in that it was to take place over the whole 
country at one time, and it differed also in one other very important 
respect : the commissioners were merely to make enquiry, to hear ; 
they had no power to determine what they heard, to do justice.' 
Therefore this inquest was not of much immediate practical use 
to the small man with a legitimate grievance, though he could 
indeed air it. The special enquiry of 1298, however, was different. 
For one thing it was a direct outcome of a pohtical crisis of some 
magnitude, where the 1274 inquest was not ; for another, the 
terms of the commission of enquiry were very much more limited 
than in 1274 — they referred only to the conduct of royal officials 
since the outbreak of war four years previously, and contained no 
general questions ; but above all, its commissioners were empowered 
not only to hear complaints but to determine them, to do justice 
on the spot. The main points of resemblance between the two 
inquests were on the one hand their national scope, and on the 
other, the sameness of the official misdemeanours in both cases. 
And the outstanding point about the 1298 enquir\^ is its vindication 
of procedure by querela. In many cases individuals come to court 
and make their complaints in person. In more cases, the entries 
begin luratores presentant . . . What do they present ? Simply 
the querelae of villagers, some of them probably of villein status. 
who have made these complaints to their local jurors because they 
could not leave their work or their lords' work in the fields to go 
to Grantham or Stamford or Boston or Louth. ^ They cannot 
go in person and it would be unthinkable for any of them to get 
as far as Westminster, but they have their right of complaint, 
they have their local jurj'^ who will ' present ' their complaints, 
they have their opportunity in this special enquiry, justice will 
be done to their oppressors and themselves, and for once they 
are articulate. 

Some of the questions originally propounded are now answered. 
It has been demonstrated that by 1298 there was open to the small 
tenant, and even to those of lower rank than he, this querela pro- 
cedure,^ which might be made in person at the court or to a 
presenting jury. It has been shown also that, if the complainant 
could afford it, he could obtain a writ of trespass if one would lie, 
or could go to the Exchequer and lay his complaint there. But 
when it is asked whether these remedies were adequate, and if 
not, wherein lay the inadequacy, it must be said that although 
sufficient for the man \\ho could afford the luxury of writs or visits 
to the Exchequer, they were not so for those whose slender resources 

* Cf. H. Cam, The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, pp. 39-40. 

» Cf. H. Cam, op. cit., pp. 41-3. 

^ It was, incidentally, made u.se of by the great as well as the obscure ; 
cf. Jacob, op. cit., p. 114, where ho shows the barons of the Cinque Ports 
using it ; and also A.li. 505, no, 229, where the Abbot of Vaudey uses it. 



INTRODUCTION cxxi 

forced them to rely on periodical Wsits of royal justices to their 
own localities : septennial eyres, especially when the interval 
tended to lengthen to ten years or over, could scarcely be called 
an adequate provision for these people. The inadequacy, therefore, 
lay in the failure to provide machinery M'hich would enable what 
might be called petty justice to be done in the long intervals between 
ejTes ; and it is due to the lack of just such machinery that special 
enquiries were necessary at all. 

But if the reforming barons of 1258 saw the need, though they 
were unable to ensure its being permanently met, that need was 
not lost upon the baronage at the end of the century. No attempt 
was made to meet it in 1297, when the barons secured the con- 
firmation of the Charters, but in 1300, in the Articuli super Cartas, 
the problem was again tackled, for the fii'st time since 1258. And 
between 1297 and 1300 the special enquiry, of which A.R. 505 
forms a part, had taken place. Had the results of this enquiry 
any direct bearing upon those clauses of the Articuli which provided 
a remedy to make the small man's querelae of more use to him ? 
It can be said that there is a vital connection between the Con- 
firmation of Charters and the Articuli, and that the enquiry of 
1298 is intimately related to both. This is readily demonstrated 
in regard to prises ad opus regis ; may it not also be the cas e in j^ 
regard to remedies ? The very fact that a special enquiry was 
necessary is proof of the unsatisfactory nature of judicial adminis- 
tration at the time,' and this, coupled Tv-ith a deliberate attemgtv 
to remedy the situation in 1300, lis of considerable significancefj 
It is further significant that this attempt is made in the very first 
article of the Articuli, while regulations for prises ad opus regis 
immediately follow it ; and this circumstance may be taken as 
an indication of what, to the baronial mind, was most urgently 
in need of reform. 

The key to the question of remedies is to be found in these 
clauses of article 1 of the Articuli : the Great Charter and th€p\ 
Charter of the Forest are to be firmly kept in every point ; but 
' where there was no remedy before at the common law, let there 
be chosen in each county, by the community of the same county, 
three trustworthy men, knights or other lawful, wise and well- 
informed [persons], who shall be justices sworn and appointed 
by letters patent of the king under his great seal, to hear and 
determine, without other writ than their common warrant, the 
complaints that be made to them of all those who shall betray; 
of transgress in any of the said terms of the aforesaid chartersi 
in the counties where they [the justices] are appointed, as well 
within liberties as without, as well of the king's ministers e* 
officio as of others ; and let them determine without delay the 
pleas heard from day to day, without allowing the delays that are 
allowed by the common law ; and let these same knights have 



oxxii INTRODUCTION 

power to punish all those who shall be convicted of trespass made 
against any term of the charters aforesaid where there was before 
no remedy at common law ... by imprisonment or by fine or 
by amercement, according to what the trespass requires. And 
by this the king does not intend, in any of those matters which 
have been stated in this ordinance, that the knights aforesaid 
hold any plea by the authority that shall have been given them, 
in cases where, before this present time, remedy was provided at 
common law by \\Tit, or that prejudice be done to the common law, 
or to the charters aforesaid in any of their terms. And the king 
wills that if all three [knights] be not present or cannot be bound 
at all times to perform their office in the form aforesaid, two of 
the three shall do it. And it is ordained that the sheriffs and 
bailiffs of the king be obedient to the commands of the aforesaid 
justices, in what pertains to their office . . .'^ 

This is in line with, but superior to, the arrangement of the 
four knights desired by the reforming baronage in 1258-9 and 
actually made use of in the 1258 eyre.- It is on the whole more 
definitive, and for the first time the delays of the common law are 
specifically mentioned. The clause empowering the new justices 
to punish trespasses for which there was hitherto no remedy in 
common law must refer to the qnerelae, remedy for which was so 
inadequate that for local purposes it could hardl}' be said to exist 
at all. This contention is strengthened by the words ' by writ ' 
in the next sentence of the article, since querelae needed no writ. 

One other point requires comment. 1297 witnessed a con- 
firmation of Magna Carta with additional articles going beyond 
the Charter itself. 1300 witnessed further articles superimposed 
upon the terms of the charter. In regard to the question of 
remedies, then, where did Magna Carta come in ? It must be 
admitted that it barely came in at all. What article 1 of the 
Ariiculi is dealing with is the better administration of a remedy 
which existed only in embryo in 1215. Both trespasses in fact 
and reasons for querelae existed in plenty at that date, it is true, 
but the expansion, hand-in-hand, of both trespass and querela, 
is not only a function of the expansion of the idea of justice, but 
is a phenomenon peculiar to the latter half of the thirteenth century. 
And it is more than this : it is one more proof, and a telling one, 
that Magna Carta is by this time not the edifice, but the foundation 
of English liberties. The 1300 regulations as to prises form one 
stone, as it were, of the superstructure which is beginning to rise 
on this foundation ; the provision, in the same year, for trespass 
and querela, forms another. It is true that neither stone was 
cemented for some time to come, but the point of real importance 
is that both were laid. 

• B^mont, Chartes des Liberies Anglaiaes, pp. 100-1. 
^ Cf. Jacob, op. cit., pp. 22-3. 



INTRODUCTI ON ex x ii i 



XI 

CAUSES OF MISGOVERNMENT : THE PLACE OF THE 

1298 ENQUIRY 

If a study of A.R. 505 reveals one thing more than another, 
it is that there was widespread local misgovernment in Lincoln- 
shire on the part of royal officials, among whom the bailiffs and 
sub-bailiffs, and next to them the sub-coUectors of taxes, seem to 
have been the worst offenders. But misgovernment does not 
occur without a cause ; and that there was a main cause is revealed 
by almost every case of A.R. 505 that is not a case merely of noii 
venit. 

The key is to be found in case 340, where an unjust distraint 
is made by the beasts of a man's plough team on account, it is 
alleged, of arrears in payment of the ferm of the wapentake of 
Aswardhurn. I am strongly of the opinion that in this phrase 
' ferm of the wapentake ' one of the main causes, if not indeed 
the main cause, of local misgovernment is revealed. The farming 
system was railed upon from time to time during the whole of the 
thirteenth century, from ^lagna Carta in 1215 to the Articuli Super 
Cartas in 1300, yet it persisted, and its attendant evils persisted, 
in spite of efforts to mitigate them. Thus the barons of Magna Carta, 
while not attempting to probe the matter to its root, protested 
against the undue raising of the ferms at which counties were held 
by the sheriffs, and ordered that apart from demesne manors all 
counties, ridings, hundreds and wapentakes should be held at the 
old ferms. ^ But this took no account of the possibility of a rise 
in the revenues of the counties and was dropped from all the reissues 
of the Charter. The king was thus left free to raise, if he wished, 
the ferms at which counties might be held. Then in 1258 the 
reforming baronage, as pointed out when discussing the question 
of remedies.- attributed the oppressions of royal officials to the 
high ferms at which bailiwicks were held and to the personal 
indigence of the officials themselves ; and in consequence demanded 
election of sheriffs for yearly periods and the payment of salaries 
to them.^ L^nfortunately, this excellent provision was evaded by the 
king and later by his son EdA^ard I, until in 1300 a renewed demand for 
elective sheriffs was conceded in Article 8 of the Articuli super Cartas.^ 

» Magna Carta, 1215, cap. 25. In S.C., p 296. 

- Above, p. cxv. 

'Provisions of Oxford, 1258, in S.C., p. 382. 

' " Le Roi ad grante a son poeple q'il eient esleccion de leur viscontes 
en chescun comte ou visconte ne est mie de fee, s'il voelent." Bemont, 
Charles des Liberies Anglaiaes, p. 104. 



cxxiv INTRODUCTrON 

But even then, hundreds and wapentakes were still to be let 
out at ferm, provided the ferms were not too high.^ 

Tlie ferm was in fact a rent, calculated on the basis of the 
estimated yearly revenue of the shire, which the sheriff was bound 
to pay to the Exchequer in return for the privilege and duty of 
administering the shire in the king's interest. If the year was 
good, and the revenues of the shire exceeded the amount at which 
the ferm was fixed, the sheriff would look to making a profit. If 
the year was bad, the ferm still had to be paid at the current rate, 
and the sherift" might therefore find himself out of pocket, as might 
also happen in a normal year if the ferm had in the meantime been 
raised. The same principle held for the sheriff's territorial 
subordinates, the bailiffs of ridings or wapentakes. He let these 
out to them at ferms which he took care to see would fully recoup 
himself in a normal year, but left his bailiffs to make their own 
profits out of their wapentakes as best they could — and the manner 
of theu" doing this is amply illustrated in A.B. 505. The process 
was therefore cumulative : it might be a privilege for Ralph Paynel 
to administer Lincolnshire in the king's name ; for Thomas of 
Easton to administer the Parts of Kesteven likewise, under Ralph ; 
for Ivo of Billinghay to administer Flaxwell and Langoe wapentakes 
under Thomas in the same way ; and for Alan of Tallington to 
look after, say, Langoe under Ivo similarly : but it might easily 
be also a liability for each of them, not an asset. For the only 
constant unit was the sum each had to pay to his superior, and 
Ralph to the king, for his privilege and duty — there was no question 
of a fixed salary such as the modern civil servant enjoys. 

But each of these public servants had to live, and to live they 
had to try to make enough m whatever way they could, both for 
current needs and against the rainy day that was sure to come 
sooner or later. If the king for any reason raised the ferm of the 
county, that increase was faithfully reflected down the scale. From 
the officials' standpoint the whole system must have represented, 
in contemporary terms, a continual speculative adventure ; it 
might prove personally lucrative, but in any event was fikely to 
be a hand-to-mouth existence. And the means to live must for 
the royal official come from the same sources as the revenues of 
the king : the pockets of the people (in the last resort), with this 
difference, that for the king the source was ultimate, while for the 
wapentake bailiff it was direct, because he was in direct contact 
with the people. 

It is when we view the farming system from as near the stand- 
point of the royal bailiff himself as we can that we realise the 

1 " Dercchief, qe les baiUifs et le.s hundredz du Roi ne des autres grantz 
seignurs dc la terre ne soient le.ss<^s a trop grant surume a fenne, par quei 
le poeple soit grev6 ne charg6 par contribncions feres a teles fermes."' Ibid., 
p. 106. 



INTRODUCTION cxxv 

force of the baroiiial contention of 1258, that tlie abuses from 
which the common people suii'ered were due to high ferms and 
the personal mdigence of the officials. Yet as to this, perhaps 
the barons were only substantially correct. In 1298 the abuses 
were self-evident: every case in AJ\. 505 witnesses that; but 
the fines made by the royal officials wiio were convicted do not 
alwavs su^jrest indigence. A bailitf who can make a fine bv £10 
is clearly not indigent, nor perhaps is one who can pay only 40/-. 
It is the men who make the httle fines of forty pence and half a 
mark who are on the border-fine, and admittedly they form the 
majority in the record of A.B. 505. --,,^^ 

Nevertheless the baififfs' living, if it were to be made at all — >v 
and particularly the sub-bailift's, since some of the higher officials 1 
might possess some land of theii- own — had to be made at the / 
expense of the people living in his baUiwick ; and he made it, in^ 
too many cases, by oppressing whom he might, which in practice \ 
meant the smaller tenants, those who had least power of hitting back. \ 
The evidence for this is overwhelming and extends far beyond"^^ 
the witness of A.B. 505.^ Yet in fairness to the baUifi's it must 
be said that they were appointed and held office under a system 
which in effect set a premium upon dishonesty, though it is perhaps 
too easy for us to reahse a fact that was clearly far from obvious 
to the men of the day ; and it must be said also that not every royal^ 
official in Lincolnshii-e — or elsewhere — was a rogue. Even the 
bailiffs, the worst offenders in A.R. 505, do not all figme in the 
roll ; it is only a proportion of the total who held office during the 
war years that are indicted, probably about half. And we are 
told only of the occasions when the system broke down, nothing_^ 
of those when it succeeded. 

Even so J the evidence for Lincolnshire shows widespread 
oppression, and it is against this background that the real nature 
of the complaints in A.R. 505 becomes apparent. It has been 
emphasised continually in the foregoing discussion that the com- 
plaints were in no case made against the war-time burdens as such, 
but always against the local royal officials' administration of them. 
This is precisely what the terms of the commission of enquiry 
would lead us to expect, but A.R. 505 proves that what loomed 
largest in the mind of the ordinary man was the increased oppor- 
tunity provided by these burdens for the exercise of the predatory 
instincts of the officials with whom he had to deal. 

It is weU to insist upon this emphasis, because it is the means 
whereby the 1298 enquiry may once again be related to the pofitical 
crisis which produced it. The rebelfious Earls ^Marshal and Con- 
stable, in their manifesto issued in the summer of 1297, lay their 

1 Cf., in particular, \\. A. Morris, The Medieval Sheriff, pp. 188-92 ; 
H. Cam, Studies, pp. 152-192, and her The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, 
chapters ix and x, pp. 59-188. 



oxxvi rNTRODUCTION 

emphasis first upon an alleged irregularity in the military summons 
to London, then upon prises, but rather from their own standpoint 
than that of the people at large ; and only after this upon a general 
and ill-defined state of misgovernment.^ The evidence of A.R. o05 
shows that the royal prises affected also a section of the community 
considerably below the status of those who were liable for military 
service of a feudal nature. This circumstance, together with the 
vagueness of the Earls' general complaint — in contrast to the 
clear definition of the initial complaint regarding feudal summons, 
and of that against the maltote on wool, which affected the wealthy 
much more than the poor — raises a suspicion of self interest aa 
one important motive behind their manifesto, and throws doubt 
on its validity as an accurate gauge of ])ublic feeling. This is 
not to say that self-interest was the Earls' only motive, or that 
they were quite out of touch with the state of the country ; but 
the king had a better grasp of the situation than they. In his 
own letter of August 12th, 1297, he shows his appreciation of the 
fact that he has burdened his people, and follows this up by a 
promise to make amends as soon as he returned from Flanders. - 
Elsewhere he reveals his knowledge even more clearly. In the 
writ to the sheriffs which accompanied the Forma capcionis bladi 
of November 29th, 1296, he says this : '" And because from the 
common complaint of the people of our realm, we hear that you 
and your sub-bailiffs, as other sheriffs and their sub-bailiffs, at 
another time in a similar prise of corn to our use, spared the rich 
for their gift and took the corn of the poor, and part of the corn 
so taken retained to your own use, not a little to the loss and 
grievance of that people and to our manifest disrepute . . ."-^ so, 
if the practice continues, the king will punish the offenders. 

Here Edward not only reveals his grasp of the state of the 
country but an intimate knowledge of the real point at which. the 
shoe pinched, irrespective of the nature of the burdens imposed. 
He himself lays the emphasis on the manner of collecting a prise 
as a potent source of hardship and grievance, it is prises, again, 
upon which he lays most stress in both the ordinance setting up 
the 1298 enquiry and the commissions issued to the justices' ; 
and in the royal writ of December IGth, 1298, included in A.R. 505 
(no. 379). William Inge and his fellow-justices are addressed as 
justices appointed to hear and determine complaints of prises made 
since the beginning of the war : prises here exclude everything 
else. 

It is thus clear that in Edward's own mind the war-time prises 
bulk largest as the basis of public discontent. That he appraised 
public feeUng aright is amply borne out, not only by individual 
cases in A.R. 505 — for example by no. 381, where Robert le Venour, 

' Above, pp. x-xi. - Above, p. xi. 

^ L.T.It.M.B., no. 68, m. 20. "Above, p. xiii. 



INTKODUCTION oxxvii 

sheriff from 1293 to 1-97. is summoned to answer to the king for 
all prises taken while he was sheriff — but by the whole evidence 
of the roll, certainly in regard to Lincolnshire, and also in so far 
as this evidence may be applicable to the nation at large. It is 
accordingly not unfitting that the question of prises ad opus reijis 
should have required so large a degree of investigation, for it stands 
out as one of the major problems of the day. 

If we now turn to the Articuli super Cartas of 1300 it is at 
once evident which were the most" serious of the contemporary 
difficulties which, having played their part in producing the crisis 
of 1297. it was now hoped to settle. The first a rticle of all is that 
which attempts to devise a means whereby petty justice might be 
done from day to day in the shires, so that the smaller tenant might 
henceforth be spared the added injustice of having to wait for a 
term of j'ears before an eyre was appointed. Th e sec ond article 
severely regulates the imposition of extensive royaFprises^ : and 
if the Articuli were never enforced it is no part of the present stud}' 
to do more than note the fact. 

What is the relationship of the 1298 enquiry to this position ? 
That enquiry was not an isolated event : it has been shown that 
its genesis may with some reason be traced to Edward's promise 
contained in his letter of August 12th. 1297, to make amends, and 
behind this to the general situation which had produced the letter. 
Looking forward to 1300, it cannot with truth be said that the 
enquiry was in any way a direct cause of the promulgation of the 
Ariiciili, for it was itself, like the Articuli, a symptom of the travail 
of the time. What can be said is that its very existence as a 
historical fact, apart from its recorded results, is a witness to the 
necessity for Aiiicle I of the Articuli, and that its recorded results, 
at least for Lincolnshire, in their emphasis on prises ad opus regis, 
reveal the urgent need for Article II. Thus the place of the 1298 
enquiry appears to be that of a pointer, barbed with a sharp 
reminder that all was not well with the body politic, to the 
attempted reforms of the Articuli of 1300 It is in this way that 
the affairs of rural Lincolnshire during the war years 129*1—7, as 
revealed in A.B. 505, become linked with the developing adminis- 
tration and constitution of England. 

^Bemont, Charles des Libertea Anglaisee, pp. 100-103. 



ASSIZE ROLL 

No. 505 



[Membrane 1] 



PLACITA APUD SANCTini BOTFLPHUM CORAM WILLELMO INGE ET 
RICARDO DE WALSINGHAJM lUSTICTARnS AD QUERELAS IN COMITATTJ 
LINCOLNIE AUDIENDAS ET TER^HNANDAS ASSIGNATIS DIE LUXE IN 
CRASTINO SANCTI LAURENCH MARTYRIS ANNO REGNI REGIS EDWARD. 
VICESOIO SEXTO. 

[Boston, Monday, August 11, 1298.] inoei. 

1. fRadulfus Paynel nuper viceconies istius comitatus , non 
venit . Et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum Cuke de Carletone et 
Adam tilium Hugonis de eadem . Ideo ipsi in misericordia^ . Et 
preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat predictum Radulfum per 
omnes terras [et catalla . Ita quod nee ipse nee aliquis pro eo ad 
ea raanum apponat donee aliud inde habuerit preceptum]- Et 
quod de exitibus [terrarum illarum et catallorum sit decetero 
respondens domino regi ad scaccarium]^ Ita quod habeat eum 
hie die louis proxima post festum sancti Laurencii^ [anno regn. 
regis Edwardi vicesimo sexto] ^. {Margin: Lincoln' misericordia . 
vacat quia post venit.) 

^ post venit inserted a£ter niiaericordia. ' MS : etc. * MS : etc. 

♦Thursday, August 14th. * MS : etc. 

2. ^Robertus de Belesby balliuus de Hawardehou non venit 
Et manucaptus fuit per Hugonem de Haburgh' et Simonem Pyk' 
de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m"ia. {Marcj: Xorthr' m'ia.) 

3. ^[Hugo de* Pykeryng' balliuus de Yerdeburgh . non venit 
Et manucaptus fuit per Robertum f. Petri de Belesby et Hugonem 
de Haburgh' . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 

» de interlined. 

4. Johannes de Netleton" subballiuus de Yerdeburgh' . non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum f. lohannis de Yerde- 
burgh' . et Thomam f. lohannis de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et 
preceptum est vicecomiti quod capiat eum , Ita quod sit hie die 
Mercurii proxima post festum sancti Laurencii* ad respondendum 
Priori de Thomholm . etc. {Marg: m'ia.) 

1 Wednesday, August 13th. 

5. ^Allexander de Aswardby nuper balliuus de Aswardhyrne 
non venit , et manucaptus fuit per Walterum Guldron de Aswardby 
et Walterum Est de Ounesby , Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum 
vicecomiti quod distringat eum per teiTas et catalla etc Et quod 



2 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie die Mereiirii proxima post festum 
sancti Laurencii etc. {Marg: Aswardhyrne m'ia.) 

6. ^Robertus Pygon de Graham quondam balliuus de 
Wymerbryg' et Trehowes non venit et manucaptus fuit per 
Willelmum le Wayte de Graham et Rogerum^ Pede de eadem . 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecoraiti quod distringat 
eum per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie die 
Mercurii etc. {Marg: Kesteuene m'ia.) 

^ The scribe wrote Rogs' and cancelled it ; he then wrote Rogerua, which 
I have emended to Bogerum, in agreement with Willelmum. 

7. ^Alanus Bouthe^ de Kyrkeby baUiuus Ubertatis de Bullyn- 
brok"^ in m'ia quia non est executus preceptum domini regis.'* 
{Marg: Bullyngbrok' m'ia.^) 

1 Bouthe interlined. ^ A liberty of the Earl of Lincoln, cf. no. 26. 
' After regis there is a later entry Postea venit, and the marginal m'ia is 
cancelled. 

8. ^Willelmus le Wayte de Graham , nuper balhuus de 
Wymerbr' et Trehou non venit et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum 
Bonde de Graham et Willelmum^ Cloueleek' de eadem . Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per 
terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie predicto die 
Mercurii etc. {Marg: Tryhow m'ia.) 

^ MS : Willelmus. 

9. ^Nigellus de Blyburgh' subballiuus de Coryngham' non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per lohannem Wace de Blyburgh' et 
Rogerum^ Westeby de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Coryng- 
ham . m'ia.) 

^ MS : Roger us. 

10. f Willelmus de Lafiford subballiuus de Laurys non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Rogerum f. Hugonis de Thorp' et Matheum 
de^ Lek' de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti 
quod distringat eum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . 
Ita quod sit hie predicto die Mercurii . etc. {Marg: Laurys m'ia.) 

1 de interlined. 

11. ^[Radulfus de Torkeseye capitalis balliuus de Westreheng' . 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Gilbertum atte Persones de 
Torkeseye et Robertum^ f. Willelmi de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes 
terras etc . Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie predicto die 
INIercurii proxima post festum sancti Laurencii etc. {Marg: 
Westreheng m'ia.) 

' MS inserts et after Robertutn. This appears to be an error. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 3 

12. *iThomas de Rampton' subballiuus de Laurys non venit 
et raanucaptus fuit per Willelmuni de Hapelthorp' et Willelmum 
de Walesby . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
distringat eum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita 
quod sit hie predicto die Mercurii etc. (Marg: Laurys m'ia.) 

13. ^Willebnus de Helpesthorp' subballiuus de Coringham 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Tliomam de Rampton' de 
Helpesthorp' et Allexandrum de Lee de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes terras 
etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita^ quod sit hie die Mercurii etc. 
{Marg: Coryngham . m'ia.) 

' Ita interlined. 

14. liWillehnus de Hemyngby , nuper sub^balliuus de 
Greyrtre non venit et manucaptus fuit per Walterum le Chapeleyn 
et Simonem de Eye- de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum 
est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes terras etc Et quod 
de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie predicto die Mercurii etc. {Marg: 
Gaytre . m'ia.) 

* suh- of subballiuus interlined. ' Probably Eye by Peterborough, 
CO. Northants. 

15. ^homas de Soterby baUiuus de Suthtr' non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Galfridum Est de Soterby , et Willelmum 
Bryan de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti 
quod distringat eum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . 
Ita quod sit [hie] ])redicto die Mercurii etc. {Marg: Suthtr' m'ia.) 

16. ^homas Aungewyn quondam balliuus de Candleshou 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum f. predicti Thome 
et Alanum^ atte Bek' de Askeby Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum 
est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes terras etc Et quod 
de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie predicto die Mercurii etc. {Marg: 
m'ia.) 

' MS : Alani. 

17. ^WiUelmus de Northeby de Hemyngby non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Rogerum le Paumer et Willelmum fratrem 
eius Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat 
eum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit 
hie predicto die Mercurii etc. {Marg: m'ia.) 

18. ^npositum est Hemico de Neuton'^ balliuo de Northtr' . 
alias coram lohanne de Insula iusticiario assignato per dominum 
regem in comitatu Lincolnie , quod- conuictus fuit super falsitate 
et transgressione factis . tempore quo fuit balliuus regis per quod 
consideratum fuit quod committeretur gaole et quod suspenderetur 
ab officio regis suo perpetuo . qui venit et cognouit quod conuictus 
fuit et suspensub coram ipso lohanne ab officio etc . et quod finem 



4 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

fecit cum domino rege pro decem marcis , Et quia cognouit quod 
conuictus^ [et] suspensus fuit ut supradictum est et respondit hie 
in curia regis tanquam balliuus de Northtr' , dicens se esse positum 
in officio predicto per Radulfum Paynel nuper vicecomitem istius 
comitatus nee ostendit warrantum quod a domino rege recon- 
cilietur y consideratum est quod predictus Henricus suspendatur 
ab officio suo imperpetuum Et committatur gayole , Et preceptum 
est vicecomiti quod attachiet predictum Radulfum Paynel quod 
sit hie die louis' [ad ostendendum] quo warranto ipsum reconcilliauit 
Postea Henricus^ fecit finem per .xl.s. per plegios Hugonis de 
Rasene et lohannis de Bekeby. {Marg: Northtreding' Gayole^ 
est' ad scaccarium.) 

It is imputed to Henry of Newton, bailiff of the North Riding, elsewhere 
before John de Insula, justice appointed by the lord king in the county 
of Lincoln, that he [Henry] was convicted of forgery and trespass made 
at the time when he was a bailiff of the king ; by which it was awarded 
that he should be committed to gaol and that he should be suspended from 
his office of the king in perpetuity : who has come and has acknowledged 
that he was convicted and suspended before that John from his office etc., 
and that he made fine with the lord king for ten marks. And because 
he has acknowledged that he was convicted and suspended as abovesaid 
and answers here in the king's court as bailiff of the North Riding, saying 
that he was placed in the office aforesaid by Ralph Paynel, lately sheriff of 
this county, and shows not warrant that he be re-admitted by the lord king : 
it is awarded that the aforesaid Henry be suspended from his office in 
perpetuity ; and let him be committed to gaol. 

And order is given to the sheriff that he attach the aforesaid Ralph 
Paynel to be here on Thursday, [August 14th] [to show] by what warrant 
he re-admitted him. See no. 152 below. 

Afterwards Henry made fine by 40/- by the pledges of Hugh of Rasen 
and John of Bigby. 

In the year 1296 Jolin de Insula was in Lincolnshire hearing complaints 
against royal ministers. Next year, on July 8th, he delivered at the 
Exchequer twelve rolls (now lost) of these pleas.* It is doubtless to these 
rolls that ' elsewhere ' refers. 

^ Newton by Toft, Walsh., or Newton le Wold, Hav. * quod interlined. 

* comcictus interlined. * Tluirsday, August 14th. ^ Hetiricics interlined. 

• Gayole cancelled. ' est is in symbolic form in MS. The problem of its 
significance is discussed by Mr. Hilary Jenkinson, 27?e Later Court Hands 
in England, p. 92. ^ L.T.R.M.R., no. 68, m. 47. 

19. ^Walterus f. Roberti de Frampton' queritur de Nigello 
le jMarchaunt balliuo regis ^ quod ipse die Martis proxima post 
festum sancti Michaelis anno regni Regis Edwardi .xxv.- predictum 
Walterum cepit et inprisonauit apud Donyngton' per unum diem 
etc et ipsum ad caudas duorum equorum ligauit per cordas^ ad 
graue dampnum ipsius Walteri .cm. etc. 

Et Nigellus venit . Et dicit quod ipse habuit in precepto ad 
leuandum .xxxvj.s. de debito domini regis pro quo quidem debito 
ipse cepit sex iumenta nomine districcionis et ea imparcauit , Et 
quia predictus Walterus parcum contra pacem domini regis* fregit 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 5 

et predicta iumenta abduxit .•' attachiauit dictum Walterum 
quousque inuenisset manucaptores ad respondendum^ coram vice- 
comite et Rogero do Norton' assignatis in partibus illis ad debita 
domini regis leuanda Et quod alio modo ipsum non inprisonauit .-' 
ponit se super patriam Et Walterus similiter. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Nigellus maliciose cepit dictum Walterum ad caudas equorum 
ligauit et per unum diem inprisonauit quousque fecit finem cum 
eo per^ .ij.s. ad dampnum ipsius Walteri .c.s. Et ideo consideratum 
est quod recuperet uersus predictum Nigellum dampna sua que 
taxantur ad .c.s. Et committatur gayole Postea fecit finem per 
.xl.s. per plegios lohannis de Multon' . Hugonis de Gorham et 
Ada Pakkeherneys. 

Dampna .C.s.' 

[Marg: K3Tketon est ad scaccarium Gayole^ 

\\'alter son of Robert of Frampton complains of Nigel le jNIarchaunt, 
bailifJ of the King, that he, on the Tuesday next after the feast of St. Michael 
in the twenty-fifth year of the reign of King Edward [October 1st, 1297], did 
the aforesaid \\alter seize and imprison at Donington for one day etc., and 
did him tie with cords to the tails of two horses, to the grievous damage of 
that Walter, one hundred marks etc. 

And Nigel has come, and says that he had in command to levy thirty- 
six shillings in respect of a debt of the lord king, for which debt he took 
six mares in the name of distraint and impounded them. And because the 
aforesaid Walter did break the pound against the lord king's peace and the 
aforesaid mares did carry away, he attached the said Walter until he had 
found mainpernors to answer before the sheriff and Roger of Norton, 
appointed in these parts to levy debts of the lord king. And that in other 
manner he did not imprison him, he puts himself upon the country, and 
Walter similarly. 

The jiirors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Nigel did maliciously 
seize the said Walter, did to the tails of horses tie [him] and for one day 
did imprison [him] until he made fine with him [Nigel] by two shillings, to 
the damage of that Walter, one hundred shillings. And therefore it is 
awarded that he do recover against the aforesaid Nigel his damages which 
are taxed at one htmdred shillings. And let him [Nigel] be conamitted to 
gaol. Afterwards he made fine by forty shillings by the pledges of John 
of Moult on, Hugh of Gorham and Adam Pakkeherneys. 

Roger of Norton, by royal writ dated July 4th, 1297, was appointed over- 
seer for Lincolnshire to assist the sheriff in the more speedy collection of 
royal debts.* Later, on July 29th, he is directed, together with the sheriff, 
to levy from the possessions of the chief collectors of the Eleventh and 
Twelfth in Lincolnshire, arrears due to the King from the proceeds of these 
taxes. " 

^ balliuo regis interlined. - Tuesday, October 1st. 1297. ' et ipsum 
. . . per cordas interlined. * MS repeats regis. " MS : respondendendum, 
* per interlined. ' This is followed, in MS, by inxde .xx.s. C, which has been 
erased. ' Gayole cancelled, since the fine was paid. ' K.R.M.R., no. 70, 
m. lOld. ^oK.R.M.R., no. 70, m. 96. 

19o. lohannes Curteys.^ 

* There is a gap of about one inch between the conclusion of no. 19 and 
this isolated name, which appears at the extreme bottom of the membrane. 
Cf. no. 28. 



6 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

[Meynbrane Id.] 

ADHUC DE PLACITIS APUD SANCTTTM BOTULPHUM ETC. 

20. ^Villelmus de Geueleston' qiieritur de lohanne de 
Pateshuir balliuo regis de Louedon' quod cum inuentum fuisset 
coram vicecomite per bonam inquiscicionem ^ . quod non habuisset 
quadraginta solidatas terre nee redditus per quod poneretur alibi in 
iuratis seu assisis . quam in comitatu . Idem lohannes ipsum 
Willelmum coram boronibus^ de scaccario et iusticiariis domini 
regis de Banco in iuratis ipso Willelmo nesciente maliciose posuit 
unde deterioratus est et dampna habet ad valenciam .C.s. 

Et lohannes venit Et dedicit totum et ponit se super sacra- 
mentum ipsius Willelmi qui queritur , qui quidem iuratus dicit 
quod idem lohannes ipsum maUciose in iuratis coram baronibus 
de scaccario et iusticiariis de Banco sine summonicione posuit . 
Ideo consideratum est quod committatur gayole et restituat dampna 
que idem WiUelmus racionabiUter ostendere potest per talHas etc . 
Postea lohannes fecit finem per .j.m. per plegios luonis de ByUyngeye 
et Thome Est. {Marg: Louedon' est ad scaccarium Gayole.^) 

William of Gelston complains of John of Pattishall, king's bailiff of 
Loveden, that when il had been found before the sheriff, by a true inquisition, 
that he did not have forty shillings* worth of land or rents by which he 
should be put elsewhere upon juries or assizes than in the county : the same 
John did maliciously put that William upon juries before the Barons of 
the Exchequer and the lord king's Justices of the Bench, that William 
not being aware of it ; wherein he is the worse and has damages to the value 
of one hundred shillings. 

And John has come and denies all, and puts liimself upon the oath of 
that William who is complaining : who being sworn says that the same 
John did maliciously put him upon juries before the Barons of the Exchequer 
and the Justices of the Bench without summons. Therefore it is awarded 
that he [John] be committed to gaol, and do restore damages which the 
same WiUiam is able reasonably to show by tallies etc. Afterwards John 
made fine by one mark by the pledges of Ivo of Billinghay and Thomas 
Est. 

John of Pattishall's action was a direct contravention of the Statute 
of Westminster II, 1285, cap. 38. See Introduction, p. Ixxxviii. 

' sic. ' aic. " Gayole cancelled. 

2L ^Willelmus Loseward nuper balUuus de Suthtred' non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Gilbertum Loseward et lohannem 
de Affordeby . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
distringat eum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita 
quod sit hie die louis proxima post festum sancti Laurencii.* 
{Marg: Suthtred' m'ia.) 

* Thursday, August 14th. 

22. ^Willelmus de Phanneye nuper balliuus de Suthtr' non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Hugonem Ammory et Walterum 
Stratte . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 7 

distringat eum per omnes ten-as etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita 
quod sit hie predicto die louis etc. (Marg: Suthtr' m'ia.) 

23. fStephanus Punne balliuus de Wymerbrigg' non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Philippum Punne de Graham et Thomam 
Heryng' . de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vice- 
comiti quod distringat eum per omnes terras etc Et quod de 
exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie predicto die louis etc. {Marg: 
Wymerbrygg' Trehowes.) 

24. *7^Villebnus Loueday per atturnatum suum optulit se 
uersus Allexandrum le Clerk' de Aswardeby de plaeito transgressionis 
et ipse non venit Et preceptum fuit vieecomiti quod distringeret 
eum per terras etc . Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod esset hie 
die Mercurii proxima post festum sancti Laurencii^ Et vicecomes 
mandauit quod exitus sunt .xl.s. Et nichilominus Walterus Goldrenn 
de Aswardby lohannes Goldrenn de eadem , Galfridus de Fletes 
de eadem et Ricardus Est de Gunesby manuceperunt eum . Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vieecomiti sicut alias quod distringat 
predict um Allexandrum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus 
etc . Ita quod sit apud Lincoln' die Lune proxima post festum 
Assumpcionis beate jNIarie^ etc. {Marg: Aswardhyrne etc Exitus 
.xl.s. est m'ia.) 

William did not appear at Lincoln as ordered, for at Grantham in 
October the sherii? was commanded to have his person before the justices 
at their next coming (333) ; see also no. 354. William seems to have been 
a collector of prise in Aswardhum (333). 

^Wednesday, August 13th. -Monday, August 18th. 

25. ^Robertus ^Merwyn balliuus Hbertatis episeopi Carlyensis^ 
de Horncastr' in m'ia eo quod in contemptu curie et contra pre- 
ceptum iusticiariorum recessit ^ {Marg: Horncastr'.) 

The Bishop of Carlisle held the vill of Horncastle, as well as the manor 
and soke with all their appurtenances.' Henry III gave him a fair at 
Horncastle itself, to last for seven days annually,* also a Wednesday market.* 
In 1274 the jurors said that the Bishop had return of writs in Horncastle, 
but they did not know by what warrant.* The soke and the wapentake 
of Horncastle were not co-extensive : part of the wapentake (together with 
the adjacent wapentake of Gartree) provided a jury separate from that of 
the Bishop's soke and liberty. Of. no. 483 with no. 485. 

* Episeopi Carlyensis interlined. * The rest of the entry is erased. 
' W. K. Boyd, Lines. Notes and Queries, iv, p. 59. * 76/d., iv, pp. 17-18. 
- Ihid., iv, p. 57. Ihid., iv, p. 219. 

26. ^Alanus Bouthe baUiuus libertatis Comitis Line' de 
BoUjTigbrok' in m'ia . quia recessit. {Marg: Bolyngbrok'.) 

27. preceptum fuit vieecomiti quod venire faceret hie ad 
hunc diem Willelmum de Ingelton' balliuum itinerantem ad 
respondendum^ Roberto de Hakebech' de plaeito transgressionis . 
Et vicecomes nichil inde fecit . Ideo ipse in m'ia scilicet Ricardus 



8 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

de Draycote , et amerciatus ad .C.s. Et preceptum est ei sicut 
alias quod capiat predictum Willelmum quod sit hie die louis 
proxima [post] festum sancti Laurencii etc. {Marg: .C.s.) 

* MS : respondendendum. 

28. Johannes Curteys queritur de Alano de Nelond clerico 
balliui de Skyrebek' quod iniuste leuauit ab eo sine waranto .vj.d. 
ad graue dampnum etc — ^ Et Alanus venit et cognouit quod 
leuauit predictos .vj.d. pro uno amercia merit o ad quod amerciatus 
fuit pro quadam defalta quam fecit in wapentakio de Skyrebek' . 
Preterea idem lohannes queritur de predict© Alano super hoc 
quod minabatur eum in presencia iusticiariorum de vita et membris 
eo quod sequitur querelam istam coram predictis iusticiariis. 

Et Alanus dicit quod non minabatur predictum lohannem et de 
hoc ponit se super patriam — luratores dicunt super sacramentum 
suum quod predictus Alanus in nichilo est culpabilis . Ideo con- 
eideratum est quod predictus Alanus eat inde quietus . Et lohannes 
nichil capiat per querelam suam set sit in m'ia pro falso clamore . etc. 
{Marg: m'ia.) 

^ MS here and elsewhere has an elongated dash. 

29. ^Gilbertus f. Acelini de Algerkyrk' . queritur de Nigello 
le Chapman de Donyngton' quod ipse cepit de eo^ maliciose quatuor 
bidentes et quod alibi melius inuenisse potuit ad minus dampnum 
etc Et Nigellus venit et cognouit quod cepit predictos bidentes 
et quod deuenerunt ad opus regis . Et quod alibi ad minus dampnum 
dictos bidentes cepisse non potuit Et de hoc ponit se super 
patriam etc. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Nigellus cepit predictos bidentes de predicto Gilberto et quod 
deuenerunt ad commodum regis set dicunt quod maliciose quia 
alibi ad minus dampnum meliores bidentes inuenisse potuit Ideo 
consideratum est quod predictus Gilbertus recuperet uersus pre- 
dictum Nigellum dampna sua que taxantur ad .ij.s. et committatur 
gayole . Et rex respondeat de precio bidentium etc. 

Dampna .ij.s. fecit finem. 

(Marg: Kyrketon' [Kirton] . est Gayole.^ 

Gilbert son of Acelin of Algarkirk complains of Nigel the Chapman 
of Donington, that he took from him maliciously four sheep and that else- 
where he could have found better at less damage. And Nigel has come 
and has acknowledged that he took the aforesaid sheep and that they were 
put to the king's use ; and that elsewhere at less damage he could not have 
taken the said sheep. And as to this he puis himself upon the country, etc. 
The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Nigel took the afore- 
said sheep from the aforesaid Gilbert, and that they were put to the king's 
use ; but they say that [he took them] maliciously, because elsewhere at 
less damage he could have found better sheep. Therefore it is awarded that 
the aforesaid Gilbert do recover against the aforesaid Nigel his damages 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 9 

which are taxed at two shilhngs ; and let him [Nigel] be comnxitted to gaol. 
And let the king answer concerning the price of the sheep etc. Damages, 
2/-. [Xigel] made fine. 

* de eo interlined. * Gayole cancelled, fine having been made. 

30. ^Robert us Tyryk' de Donyngton' queritur de predicto 
Nigello quod ipse maliciose cepit de eo unam pernam ubi melius 
ad minus dampnum inuenisse potuit. 

Et Xigellus venit et cognouit quod cepit predictam pernam 
et quod deuenit ad proficuum regis et alibi quam de dicto lohanne 
bacoun^ inuenisse non potuit et de hoc ponit se super patriam — 
luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus Nigellus 
cepit predictam pernam et deuenit ad comodum regis set dicunt 
quod maliciose cepit dictam pernam et quod alibi ad minus 
dampnum inuenisse potuit . Ideo consideratum est quod recuperet 
uersus dictum Nigellum dampna sua que taxantur ad .xij.d. et 
committatur gayole . Et rex respondeat de perna. {Marg: est 
Gayole.2) 

The object of the prise which is written in the MS pnam is uncertain : if 
pernam it is a leg of salt pork : if parnam, a swingletree. The former seems 
more probable. The words '' de dicto Johanne hacotin '" are confusing as no 
John is referred to and one would have expected de dicto Roberto : in the 
event of pernam being correct bacoun may be the English equivalent ; no 
the other hand the absence of a capital B in the MS does not rule out the 
possibihty of its being a siunamc. Neither alternative seriously strains 
the sense of the passage. 

1 sic. - Gayole cancelled. 

3L ITVVillelmus Leuedylok' de Algerkjrrk' . queritur de 
predicto Nigello quod ipse maliciose cepit de eo unum multonem . 
ubi melius ad minus dampnum inuenisse potuit — Et Nigellus 
venit [Et]^ cognouit quod cepit predictum multonem et quod 
deuenit ad comodum regis . Et aUbi ad minus dampnum quam 
[de]^ dicto Willelmo cepisse non potuit , Et de hoc ponit se super 
patriam — luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod pre- 
dictus Nigellus cepit de dicto Willelmo . imum multonem et deuenit 
ad comodum regis set dicunt quod maliciose cepit predictum 
multonem de dicto Willelmo . Et quod alibi melius quam de eo 
cepisse potuit Ideo consideratum est quod recuperet uersus dictum 
Nigellum dampna sua que taxantur ad .xij.d. Et committatur 
gayole . Et rex respondeat de multone etc. {Marg: est Gayole.^) 

Prise of a sheep ad opus regia ; the case is similar in form to no. 29. 

* At this point there is a small hole in the membrane, obliterating the 
words given in square brackets. * Gayole cancelled. 

32. flohannes ]Malkyn queritur de predicto Nigello quod 
ipse maUciose cepit de eo . unum multonem Et Nigellus venit Et 
cognouit quod cepit dictum multonem et quod deuenit ad com- 
modum regis Et^ ahbi quam de eo inuenisse potuit ad minus 
dampnum etc . Ideo consideratum est quod recuperet uersus dictum 
Nigellum dampna sua que taxantur ad .viii.d. Et committatur 



10 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

gayole Et rex respondeat do multone etc — Et dictiis Nigellus 
absoluatur ab officio regis- . suo perpetiio. {Marg: est Gayole,^) 

Prise of a sheep ad opns regis. Nigel here does not attempt to deny the 
cliargp against liini : the final award, arising out of the ahove four charges, 
is that ho is absolved iruni his royal office in perpetuity.* 

* et, interlined, replaces set, cancelled. - Regis interlined. ^ Gayole 
cancelled. ' Immediately below no. I?2, on the left side of the membrane, 
is a \, but no entry follows. 

[Membrane 2] 

INGE. 
ADHTJC DE PLACITIS APUD LINCOLNIAM DIE LUNE PROXIMA POST 
FESTUM ASSIJMPCIONIS BEATK MARIE ETC. 

[Monday, August 18th.] 

33. ^Rogerus de Tateshal' optulit se uersus lohannem de 
Edelyngton' nuper balliuum de Wraghou Et ipse non venit et 
nianucaptus fuit per Alanum de Langeton'^ et Hugonem Flegard 
de Edelyngton' . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti 
quod distringat predictum lohannem per omnes terras etc Et 
quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie die Martis proxima post 
festum Assumpcionis beate Marie.- {Marg: Wraghou m'ia.) 

* Langton, either in Wraggoe or in Homcastle, ^ Tuesday, August 
19th. 

34. ^Abbas de Kyrkestede optuHt se uersus Ricardum de 
Lyndwode^ , Et ipse non venit et manucaptus fuit per Henricum 
de Walmesford et Ranulphum de Grebby Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et 
preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes terras etc . 
Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie die Martis proxima post 
festum Assumpcionis beate Marie. {Marg: m'ia.) 

^Linwood, either in Langoe or in Walshcroft. 

35. ^Abbas de Reuesby . optulit se uersus predictum 
Ricardum de Lyndwode , Et ipse non venit . Et manucaptus fuit 
per Henricum de Walmesford et Ranulphum de Grebby . Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum 
per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie 
predicto die Martis etc. {Marg: m'ia.) 

36. •jRicardus de Huwelle miles , Hugo Yrnesyde de Hal' 
et Radulfus Clericus de Ingoldesby iuratores non venerunt . Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Aswardhyrn'.) 

Richard of Howell, knight, liero a juror of Aswardhurn wapentake, 
became .sheriff of Lincolnshire next year (1299). See Appendix II, section 1, 
p. 137. 

37. ^Robertus de Poynton' iurator non venit et manucaptus 
fuit per lohannem de Poynton' et lohannem Louet de eadem Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Auelound' m'ia.) 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 li 

38. Johannes de Poynton' iurator non venit et manucaptus 
fuit per Robertum de Poynton' et Willelmum f. Alani de eadem 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Aveland.] 

39. 'Hugo ad Aquam de Mylnethorp' iurator non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum f. Alani et Hugonem Fraunk- 
homme Ideo ipsi in m'ia. (Marg: m'ia.) [Aveland.] 

40. ^Robertus de Askeby unus iuratorum non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per lohannem f. lohannis de Askeby . et Ricardum 
ad Crucem de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Flaxwell' et 
Langhou. m'ia.) 

41. ^Willelmus Thurstan de Rysyngton'^ iurator non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per lohannem f. eius et Ricardum Thurstan 
de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Flaxwell and 
Langoe.] 

* de Rysynffton^ interlined. 

42. ^Robertus le Foulere de Cranewell' iurator non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per lohannem le Pyndere de Cranewell' et 
Willelmum ad Crucem de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Flaxwell and Langoe.] 

43. ^Robertus f. Ricardi de Ryskyngton' iurator non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum Thurstan de Riskyngton' et 
Thomam f. eius de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Flaxwell and Langoe.] 

44. ^^Osebertus de la Grene de Rouceby iurator non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Thomam Auerey de Rouceby et lohannem 
Gylberd de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Flaxwell 
and Langoe.] 

45. ^Ricardus de Apelgarth' de Lesyngham . iurator non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Andream de Ingoldesby et Adam 
le Lung' de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Flaxwell 

and Langoe.] 

The six jurors of Flaxwell and Langoe mentioned above, nos. 40-45, 
are, with the exception of Robert of Ashby, different persons from the six 
mentioned in no. 193. These eleven together are also different from the 
twelve names given in no. 251, again with one exception, William of Cran- 
well (193). Nor do the names of any jurors of Flaxwell and Langoe appear 
in the lists of jurors at the end of the roll. Beyond the reason given in 257 
for their being in mercy, there is no evidence to show why a list was not 
included in m. 15 or lod ; or to show whether the jury was in fact changed, 
or whether one list represents a jury of presentment and the other a jury of 
verdict. 

46. '^IWillelmus de Belton'^ capellanus firmarius ecclesie de 
Carleton'- optulit se uersus W^illelmum de Beuercote'' balliuum 
domini regis Et ipse non venit et manucaptus fuit per Radulfum 



12 ASSIZE ROLL oOo 

Notebroun et Hugonem de Tereswell' Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et pre- 
ceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes terras etc 
Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie die Martis proxima post 
festum Assumpcionis beate Marie.' {Marg: Westr' m'ia.) 

1 Perhaps Belton in Manley. - North or South Carlton, or Carlton 
Makerel, Lawress. * Beucrcote interlined over Bercotes, cancelled. * Tues- 
day, August 19th. 

47. ^ Abbas de Reuesby optulit se uersus Willelmum de 
Hemyngby subballiuum de Geytr' Et ipse non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per Walterum le Chapeleyn et Simonem de Eye^ Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum 
per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie predicto 
die Martis etc. [Marg: Suthtr' m'ia.) 

This is the second time William of Hemingby has been summoned (see 
no. 14) ; now we know his accuser. The mainpernors are the same in both 
cases. 

* Probably Eye by Peterborough, co. Northants ; cf. no. 14. 

48. ^Idem abbas optulit se uersus Thomam de Soterby 
balliuum de Suthtr' [Et ipse] non venit et manucaptus fuit per 
Galfridum Est de Soterby et Willelmum Brian de eadem . Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum 
per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie 
predicto die Martis etc. {Marg: m'ia.) [South Riding.] 

Cf. no. 15, and note to no. 47. 

49. fWillelmus RandoU' de Kysby iurator non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per lohannem de Askeby de Kysby et Robertum 
Carpentarium de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Beltelaw. 
m'ia.) 

50. *fiHenricus Clericus de Skylyngton' iurator non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum in Angulo de Skylyngton' et 
Robertum ad Capellam de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: 
m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

Neitlier of the jurors mentioned in nos. 49 and 50 appears in the list 
of Beltisloe jurors (250), which is not repeated in the jury lists at the end 
of the roll. Cf. no. 45 : something of the same may apply to the Beltisloe 
jurors, but evidence is lacking. 

51. ^Gregorius Walse de Carleton' , Robertus Albyn de 
eadem , Walterus Mayster de Colby et lohannes de Sancto Lycio 
de eadem . luratores non venerunt . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: 

Boby et Graff' m'ia.) 

None of these names appear in the list of Boothby and Graffoe jurors ; 
no. 481. 

52. iJJ^ugo de Stowe de Lunderthorp' vnus iuratorum non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Robertus lulyan et Alanum Posy 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 13 

de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. (Marg: Trehowes et Wynerbrygg'. 
m'ia.) 

53. ^Heuricus West de Welleby iurator noii venit . Et 
manucaptus fuit per Thomain f. Hugonis de Braceby et lohannem 
ad Furnum . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs and 
Threo.] 

54. ^Radulfus le Forester de Botheby iurator non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Willelmum le Forester de Brotheby^ et 
Robertum le Prouost de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 

55. ^Rogerus f. Stephani de Barkeston iurator non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Adam Cauce de Gunwardeby et Willelmum 
f. Isolde de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs 
and Threo.] 

None of these jurors of Winnibriggs and Threo (52-5), except Roger 
Bon of Stephen of Barkston, appear in the Usts of jurors for these wapentakes 
(498, 498a). 

[Membrane 2(1.] 

ADHTJC DE PLACITIS APUD LYXC0LNIA5I DIE LUNE PROXIMA POST 
FESTtnVI ASSUMPCIONI.S BEATE MARIE ANNO .XXVlt^. 

[Monday, August 18th.] 

56. ^Henricus Asty de Haye qui querebatur de lohanne^ 
de Pateshull' balliuo de Louedon' non est prosecutus . Ideo 
predictus lohannes inde sine die Et Henricus et plegii sui de 
prosequendo in m'ia- scilicet W^illelmus de Gayleston' et Willelmus 
atte (IlhjTche de Cleypol'. {Marg: Louedon' m'ia.) 

^ MS repeats de lohanne. - in m'ia interhned. 

57. ^WiUelmus de Lambetoth' de Paunton' nuper balliuus 

de Wynerbrygg' . non venit Et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum 

Persone lohannem Brygthyme , Nicholaum le Cartere et Ricardum 

Bryggeman Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et quia vicecomes testatur quod 

nichil habet per quod potest attachiare . Ideo preceptum est 

vicecomiti quod capiat eum Ita quod sit coram iusticiariis in 

proximo aduentu suo in partibus istis etc {Marg: Wynerbryg' 

m'ia.) 

The sheriff obeyed the orders of the justices : William Lambetoth 
appears at Grantham in October on three separate charges, see nos. 326-8. 

58. ^Hugo le Plomer de Lincoln' in m'ia pro falso clamore . 
uersus Thomam Gamel' de duobus supertunicis etc {Marg: 
m'ia.) 



14 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

59. lyWilleliniis ad Ecclesiam optulit se iiersus Rogerum de 
Brynkel . Et ipse non venit . Et preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod 
distringeret eum per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Et vice- 
comes nichil inde fecit set^ respondit quod districtus est per catalla 
ad valenciam .xx.d. Et nichilominus Willelmus Badde de Brynkyl 
Willelmus f. loliannis de eadem Radulfus propositus de eadem 
et Galfridus Est de eadem manuceperunt eum Ideo ipsi in m'ia . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti sicut alias quod distringat predictum 
Rogerum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod 
habeat eum coram iusticiariis in proximo aduentu suo etc {Marg: 
Hylle. m'ia.) 

* nichil inde fecit set interlined. 

60. ^Rogenis de Thurston' et Rogerus de Cotun^ iuratores 
non venerunt Ideo ipsi in m'ia etc {Marg: m'ia.) 

These are jurors of Flaxwell and Laiigoe : see no, 251 for Roger of 
Cotes ; Roger of Thurston is not mentioned elsewhere. 

^ Probably Cotes, Langoe. 

61. IIFrater lohannes de Coleuyll' custos Abbatie de Swynes- 
heued et frater Willelmus de Schelford queruntur de luone de 
Byllyngeye quod ipse^ maliciose cepit de eis duos boues precii 
.xx.s. Et quod alibi ad minus dampnum cepisse potuit — Et 
Nigellus- venit Et cognouit quod cepit predictos boues et quod 
deuenerunt ad opus regis Et quod aUbi ad minus dampnum 
nee maliciose eos cepit ponit se super patriam — Iuratores dicunt 
super sacramentum suum quod predictus luo cepit predictos boues 
et quod deuenerunt ad opus regis set dicunt quod maliciose eos 
cepit' et alibi ad minus dampnum cepisse potuit ad dampnum 
ipsorum lohannis . et Willelmi .x.s. Ideo consideratum est quod^ 
predicti lohannes et Willelmus recuperent dampna sua que taxantur 
ad .x.s. Et luo committatur Gaole. Dampna .x.s. med' C.^ 
{Marg: + est Gaole. ^) 

Prise of oxen ad opus regie. The case follows the usual form. 

^ MS : ipsi. - Sic. ' quod repeated in MS. * I.e. half to the 
clerk or clerks of the court. These are " clere damages," sums paid 
to the clerks. The following examples from Jenkinson and Formoy, 
Select Cases in the Exchequer of Pleas {S.S., vol. 48, 1931), make the 
subject clear : ' postea taxata sunt dampna ad .x. luarcas de quibus clerico 
.j. marca . . .' (p. 46) ; ' . . . et dampna sua que taxantur ... ad viginti 
solidos que dantiu- clericis etc. . . .' (p. 184) ; ' Dampna .x. marce . M[arca] 
C[lericis] ' (p. 200). ' Gaole canceUed. 

62. ^Simon de Worth' queritur de Radulfo Notebroun quod 
ipse die Mercurii proxima post festum translacionis sancti Martini 
anno regni regis Edwardi xxv. [10 July 1297] contra proteccionem 
domini regis cepit de eo apud Massingham' in commune pastura 
Bua unum bouem precii .xvj.s. ot eum fugauit apud Line' etc . 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 15 

ad dampniim snuni dim.m. etc — Et Radulfus venit Et cognouit 
quod cepit predictum bouem ad lardarium domini regis per 
preceptum vicecomitis . et quod nichil sciuit de proteccione domini 
regis . Et de hoc ponit se super patriam etc. 

luratores dicuiit super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Radulfus cepit predictum bouem de dicto Simone et quod deuenit 
ad opus regis . Et dicunt quod predictus Radulfus nichiP sciuit 
quod predictus Simon habuit proteccionem domini regis set dicunt 
quod pupplicata fuit proteccio in patria . Ideo consideratum est 
quod predictus Radulfus restituat dicto Simoni tres s. pro dampnis 
suis . Et non amplius . quia rex . respondeat de boue Et Radulfus 
committatur gaole. 

Dampna .iij.s. {Marg: Westredding* Gaole.-) 

Simon de \Vorth' roinplains of Ralph Xotebroun that he, on the Wednes- 
day next after the feast of the Translation of St. Martin in the twenty-fifth 
year of the reign of king Edward [July lOtli, 1297], against the protection 
of the lord king took from him at Messingham, in his common pasture, one 
ox of price sixteen shillings, and drove it to Lincoln, etc., to his damage, 
half a mark etc. 

And Kalpii has come and has acknowledged tliat he took the aforesaid 
ox for the lord king's larder, by order of the sheriff ; and that he knew 
nothing of the lord king's protection : and as to this he puts himself upon 
the country etc. 

The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Ralph did take the 
aforesaid ox from the said Simon and that it was put to the king's use. And 
they say that the aforesaid Ralph did not know that the aforesaid Simon 
had the lord king's protection, but they say that the protection was pro- 
claimed in the district. Therefore it is awarded that the aforesaid Ralph 
do restore to the said Simon three shillings for his damages ; and not more, 
because the king .shall answer concerning the ox. And let Ralph be com- 
rnitted to gaol. Damages three shillings. 

Simon de Worth was a canon of Lincoln Cathedral from at least 1290.' 
He was appointed by the bishop to collect the ecclesiastical tenth agreed 
to by the Province of Canterbviry in 1290, and was responsible for the 
Archdeaconry of Lincoln.' There seems little doubt that he received the 
royal protection in 1297 (as he must ha\'e done if he complied with the royal 
demand for one fifth of ecclesiastical benefices and goods), but I cannot 
find his name in the list of protections entered on the Patent Rolls." By 
February 8th, 1300, he was dead.' Ralph Xotebroun, the defendant, was 
chief bailiff of the West Riding. 

^ nichii interluied. -Gaole cancelled; see no. 64. ^ Reg. Sutton, 
Memoranda, ff. 12, 170. ^ Reg. Sutton, Memoranda i. 15. ^Cf. C.P.R. 
1292-1301, pp. 235-7, 260-86. -Ibid., p. 491. 

63. Idem Simon queritur de predicto Radulfo . quod ipse 
maliciose cepit contra proteccionem domini regis ^ palefridum et 
summarium suum apud Massingham' die sancti Georgii . anno . 
XXV.- et eos equitauit per decem dies^ per totum comitatum . ad 
dampnum suum .x.li. etc. 

Et Radulfus venit Et cognouit quod cepit de predicto Simone 
duos afiferos , precii .x.s. per summonicionem scaccarii pro dim.m. 
de debito domini regis quam quidem dim.m. idem Simon aoluit 



16 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

et talliam ab eo inde recepit . Et quod palofridum'* nee summarium 
suuiii ccpit ncc eos per patriam eqnitauit nee de proteecione domini 
regis sciuit^ ponit se super patriam. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Radulfus cepit summarium predicti Simonis preeii .xl.s. et unum 
affium preeii .x.s. pro dim.m. de debito domini regis , Et quod 
subballiui predicti Radulfi equitauerunt predictos equos per patriam 
per octo dies ipso Radulfo hoc sciente Et quod sciuit quod pre- 
dictus Simon liabuit proteccionem domini regis Ideo consideratum 
est quod recuperet uersus dictum Radulfum dampna sua que 
taxantur ad unam m. Et Radulfus committatur gaole. 

Dampna .j.m. {Marg: Gaole.)" 

The same Simon complains of the aforesaid Ralph, that he maliciously 
did take, against the lord king's protection, his palfrey and sumpter-horse 
at Messingham, on St. George's day in the twenty-fifth year, and did ride 
them for ten days over the whole county, to his damage ten pounds, etc. 

And Ralph has come, and has acknowledged that he took from the 
aforesaid Simon two draught -beasts, of price ten shillings, by a summons 
of the Exchequer for half a mark in respect of a debt of the lord king ; which 
half mark the same Simon did pay and from him did receive a tally thereof. 
And that he [Ralph] took neither his palfrey nor his sumpter-horse, nor 
did he ride them over the countryside, nor did he know about the lord king's 
protection, he puts himself upon the country. 

The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Ralph did take the 
aforesaid Simon's sumpter-horse, of pi*ice forty shillings, and one draught- 
beast, of price ten shillings, for half a mark in respect of a debt of the lord 
king ; and that the aforesaid Ralph's sxib-bailiffs rode the aforesaid horses 
over the countryside for eight days, that Ralph knowing this ; and that 
he did know that the aforesaid Simon had the lord king's protection. There- 
fore it is awarded that he do recover against the said Ralph his damages, 
which are taxed at one mark. And let Ralph be committed to gaol. Damages 
one mark. 

^contra . . . Regis interlined. * April 23rd, 1297. ^ per decern dies 
interlined. * Sic. ^ nee de proteecione domini Regis sciuit interlined. 
* Gaole cancelled ; cf. no. 64. 

64. Idem Simon queritur de predict© Radulfo . quod ipse 
iniuste cepit de eo anno predicto quatuordecim denarios ne caperet 
de blado suo . ad opus regis etc — Et Radulfus venit Et dicit quod 
nichil [cepit] de predicto Simone Et de hoc ponit se super patriam — 
luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus Radulfus 
cepit predictos quatuordecim denarios de predicto Simone sicut 
queritur Et quod ipse Radulfus nullum preceptum habuit ab 
illis qui assignati fuerunt per dominum regem ad aliquam^ bladum 
de predicto Simone capiendum . Ideo consideratum est quod 
predictus Simon recuperet uersus dictum Radulfum predictos 
quatuordecim denarios et dampna sua in triple . scilicet . 
iij.s. vj.d. Et Radulfus committatur gaole Et absoluatur ab 
officio regis suo perpetuo — Postea fecit finem per .xl.s. per plegios 
Willelmi de Bello Campo . et Willelmi de Alta Ripa . etc 

Dami)na .iiij.s. viij.d. {Marg: Gaole.) 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 17 

The same Simon complains of thn uforesaicl Ralph, that he unjustly 
took from him in the aforesaid year [1297] fourteen pence, tio as not to take 
from his corn for the use of the king, etc. 

And Ralph has come, and he says that fhe took] nothing from the afore- 
said Simon ; and as to this, he puts himself upon the country. 

The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Ralph took the afore- 
said fourteen pence from the aforesaid Simon according as he complains ; 
and that that Ralph had no order from those who were appointed by the 
lord king to take any com from the aforesaid Simon. Therefore it is awarded 
that the aforesaid Simon do recover against the said Ralph the aforesaid 
fourteen pence, and his damages in triplicate, that is to say three shillings 
and sixpence ; and let Ralph be committed to gaol. And let him be absolved 
from Jiis office of the king in perpetuity. Afterwards he made fine for 40/- 
by the pledges of William do Bello Campo and William de Alta Ripa etc. 
Danuiges four shillings and eight pence. 

[Membrane 3.] 

05. (T Willelmus Costantyn subballiuus Stephani Punme non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Stephanum Punme de Graham et 
lohannem Fox de Enderby . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Wymerbrigg' 
et Trehowes m'ie.) 

66. IjWalterus de Horton' subballiuus dicti Stephani . non 
venit . Et manucaptus fuit per Stephanum Punme de Graham et 
Willelnium Costantin . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ie.) [Winni- 
briggs and Threo.] 

67. ^[Willelmus de Pyseley subballiuus Walteri Est non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Walterum Est de Ounesby et lohannem 
BeUard de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Auelund' m'ie.) 

68. ^GaLfridus de Stapelford^ subballiuus predicti Walteri 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per lohannem Chapman de Repinghal' 
et lohannem f. eius de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Probably Aveland.] 

^ Great Stapleford, Graffoo, or Little Stapleford, Loveden. 

69. ^lohannes Kyboy balliuus de Flaxh' et Langh' non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Walterum Deudamur de Thorp' et 
RaduLfum Pace de Anecastre . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Flaxou 
et Langhou. m'ia.) 

70. fNicholaus de Ryhale subbalUuus dicti lohannis non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Alanum de Bylyngheye et lohannem 
Kyboy de Braundon'i . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Flaxwell 
and Langoe.] 

^ Tliere is a Brandon in Hough on the Hill parish, Loveden wapentake. 

7L *[fRadulfu8 Pacy subbaUiuus dicti lohannis non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Nicholaum de Scaupewyk' et Walterum 



18 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

Deiidamur . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ie.) [Flaxwell and 
Langoe.] 

72. ^Hugo Bardolf bailif de Aswardhirn' non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Gilbertum de Folkj^ngham et Nicholaum de 
Anecastre de Lafford Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Aswardhirn' 
m'ia.) 

73. ^Willelmus Reneuill' subbaUiuus dicti Hugonis non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Nicholaum f. Matilde de Calwardthorp' 
et Robertum Erl de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Aswardhurn.] 

74. ^Robertus Flauuel subbaUiuus lohannis de Pateshull' . 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per lohannem de PateshuU' et 
RaduLfum Pacy de Anecastre Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Loveden.] 

John of Pattishall was bailiff of this wapentake, cf. no. 20. 

75. ^lohannes de Stub ton' balliuus de Boby et Graf how 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Robertum de Wywell' de Carleton' 
et Elyam de . Carleton' . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Boby et Graf how 
m'ia.) 

76. ^Adam le Long' de Ingoldeby subbaUiuus Thome de 

Eston' . non venit et manucaptus fuit per Thomam de Eston de 

Gumewardby et Thomam de HanuiU' de Staunford . Ideo ipsi 

in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 

[Probably Beltisloe or Ness : Adam seems to have been bailiff of both 
these wapentakes, though here called sub -bailiff ; cf. Appendix II, section 
vii, note 19, p. 149.] 

77. ^luo de Byluiggeye quondam balliuus de Flaxwell et 
Langhow . non venit et manucaptus fuit per Thomam Templer 
de Bylinggeye et GUbertum Templer de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. 
{Marg: m'ia.) [FlaxweU and Langoe.] 

78. ^Robertus Pygon de Graham quondam balliuus de 
Wymerbrig' et Trehowes . non venit Et manucaptus fuit [per] 
WUlelmum le Wayte de Graham et Rogerum Pede de eadem . 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs and Threo.] 

79. ^Willelmus le Wayte de Graham' quondam balliuus de 
Wymerbr' et Trehow . non venit et manucaptus fuit per WUlelmum 
Bonde de Graham' et Willelmum Cloueleck' de eadem . Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs and Threo.] 

80. HHugo de TresweU' subbalUuus Radulfi Notebrun non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Robertum Cokol de Glentworth' et 
lohannem fratrem eiusdem Roberti . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: 
Aslakehow m"ia.) 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 19 

8L •'Dyonisius de Xeiiton' subballiuus Radiilfi Notebrun . 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Hugonem Clericum de ]Manlee 
et Thomam ad Ecclesiam de Manlee . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: 
Manlee m'ia.) 

82. ^Nigellus de Bly burgh' subballiuus dicti Radulfi in 
wappentakio de Coryngham . non venit et manucaptus fuit per 
lohannem Wace de Coringham et Rogerum Westiby de eadem . 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Coringham m'ia.) 

83. V^Villelmus de Lafford subballiuus dicti Radulli in 
wappentakio de Laurys . non venit et manucaptus fuit per Rogerum 
f. Hugonis de Thorp' et Matheum de Lek' de eadem . Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia. {Marg: Laurys m'ia.) 

84. •iRadulfus de Torkeseye capitalis balHuus de Westreheng' 
tempore Radulfi Paynel non venit et manucaptus fuit per GUbertum 
atte Persones de Torkeseye et Robertum f. WUlelmi de eadem 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: [W]estreheng' m'ia.) 

85. yrhomas de Rampton' subbaUiuus dicti Radulfi . non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum de Hapelthorp' , et 
Willehnum de Walesby Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Laurys m'ia.) 

86. ^Villelmus de Helpethorp' . subballiuus dicti Radulfi 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Thomam de Rampton' de 
Helpesthorp' et Alexandrum de Lee de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. 
{Marg: Coringham m'ia.) 

87. ^Radulfus de Thorp' iuxta Stowe^ subballiuus dicti 

Radulfi . non venit et manucaptus fuit per Matheum de Thorp' 

iuxta Stowe et Alexandrum de eadem . [Ideo ipsi in m'ia.-] {Marg: 

Manlee m'ia.) 

1 Probably Stowe St. Mary, Well. - This never was in the entry, 
which shows no sign of either damage or erasure. It is inferred from the 
marginal yn'ia and from common form, and its absence is doubtless an over- 
sight. There are other instances, e.g. no. 95 below. 

88. *|Henricu8 de Walmesford capitalis baUiuus de Sutrethyng' . 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per WiUelmum de Walmesford et 
lohannem de Belesby Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Sutrethyng' 
m'ia.) 

89. ^ugo de Ormesby^ subballiuus dicti Henrici . non. 
venit et manucaptus fuit per lohannem Totel et Radulfum de 
HaUngton' Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Probably 
Louthesk.] 

' North Ormsby, Ludborough or South Ormsby, Hill. 

00. "Simon de Grebby subballiuus dicti Henrici . non venit 



20 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

et manucaptus fuit per Radulfum de Grebby et Gilbertum f. Alicie 
de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [South Riding. J 

9L •['Hugo Amory subballiuus dicti Henrici . non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Simonem Thenk' et Simonem Pynnekrak' . 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe ; cf. nos. 163, 
263.] 

92. ^GUbertus Loseward subballiuus dicti Henrici in Calswat . 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Gilbertum de Camera et Robertum 
Walding' Ideo ipsi in m'ia. (Marg: m'ia.) 

93. fl^-'alterus de Wynceby subballiuus dicti Henrici in 
HiUe . non venit et manucaptus fuit per lohannem de Wynceby 
et lohannem de Halton' . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [HLU.] 

94. ^Gilbertus Malet subballiuus dicti Henrici in Geytr' . 
non venit et fui[tj manucaptus^ per Adam Malet et Walterum le 
Chapeleyn . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Gartree.] 

^ Jul man MS. 

95. ^lohannes de Edlington' tunc subballiuus Thome de 
Soterby in Wranghou . non venit et manucaptus fuit per Alanmn 
de Langton' et Hugonem Flegard de Edlington' . [Ideo ipsi in 
m'ia.] {Marg: m'ia.) [Wraggoe.] 

[Membrane 3c?.] 

96. Y^Villelmus de Hemjmgby quondam subballiuus dicti 

Thome . non venit et manucaptus fuit per Walterum Chapeleyn 

et Simonem de Eye^ Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Gartree.] 

William was bailiff of Gartree thongh here called sub-bailiff ; he could 
be his superior's sub-bailiff but still bailiff of a wapentake, if his superior, for 
example, was a chief bailiff of a larger administrative area. Cf. nos. 14, 141- 
2, 164. 

1 Probably Eye by Peterborough, co. Northants. 

97. ^jWillelmus Northyby in Henyngby quondam baUiuus . 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Rogerum le Paumer et Willelmum 
fratrem eiusdem Rogeri Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Perhaps Gartree.] 

98. ^Thomas Aungeuyn quondam balliuus de Candleshow 
non venit et manucaptus fuit [per] Willelmum f. eiusdem Thome . 
et Alanum atte Beck' de Askeby . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: 
m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

99. ^Robertus de Belesby subbalUuus de Hawardhow non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Hugonem de Haburgh' et Simonem 
Pryk' de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Haverstoe.] 

100. ^Hugo de Haburgh' subballiuus de Lutheburgh' non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Simonem Pryck' de Haburgh' . et 
Robertum Alduist de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Ludborough.] 



ASSIZE ROLL 50r, 21 

101. IfWalterus Welmad de Houton' subballiuus de Bradele , 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Walterum f. Walter! et Henricum 
f. Walter! de eadem Ideo !ps! !n m'!a. {Marg: m'!a.) [Bradley.] 

102. ^lohannes de Netllton' subballiuus de Yerdeburgh' . 
non venlt et manucaptus fu!t per Wlllelmus f. lohannls de Xetllton' 
et Thomam f. lohannis de eadem . Ideo !ps! !n m'!a. {Marg: mia.) 
[Yarborough.] 

103. •;Iohannes Euerard balHuus de Ellowe et Kyrketon' . 
non venlt et manucaptus [fu!t] per Petrum Care de Pyncebek' 
et lohannem Care de eadem Ideo !psi in m'ia. {Marg: Ellowe 
Kyrketon'.) 

103a. ^^lohannes Puttok' quondam balliuus de Ellowe.^ 
^ This entry is cancelled in MS. 

104. ^Villelmus f. Alexandri le Clerck' balliuus de Skirbek' 
non venlt et manucaptus fult per lohannem Bunnyng' et lohannem 
de Hornecastre . Ideo !psi !n m'!a. {Marg: m'la.) [Skirbeck.] 

105. ^Vlllelmus f. Brio!! de Lek' , subbalHuus de Sldrbock' . 
non venit et manucaptus [fult] per Willelmum Belle et Thomam f. 
Matilde . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Skirbeck.] 

106. *[Adam Packeharneys subballiuus de Skyrbek' . non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum Belle et Thomam f. 
Matilde Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Skirbeck.] 

107. ^Alanus de Nona terra de Rauerton' subballiuus 
wappentakii de Skirbeck' . non venit et manucaptus fuit per Adam 
ad Crucem et lohannem ad Pentem' . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: 
m'ia.) [Skirbeck.] 

108. ^Henricus Thedom subballiuus quondam de Skyrbek' . 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per WiUeLmum Pygot et lohannem 
Blamch' Ideo . ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Skirbeck.] 

109. Johannes de Donne de Toft quondam baUiuus de 
SkjTbek' . non venit et manucaptus fuit per Alanum de Stewelande 
et Robertum Spenser [Ideo ipsi in m'ia.] (Jfargr.- m'ia.) [Skirbeck.] 

110. •[Robertus de Wrangel quondam subballiuus de Skyrbek' . 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Adam Sote de Leuerton' et 
Ricardum Broune de eadem . [Ideo ipsi in m'ia.] {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Skirbeck.] 

Henry Thedom (108) and Robert of Wrangle seem to have been John 
de Donne's sub-bailiffs in the time of Robert le Venour, sheriff from 1293-7, 
and possibly also in the time of his successor, Ralph Paynel, 1297-8. Cf. 
App. II, section vii, s.v. Henry Thedom, Robert of Wrangle. 



22 ASSIZE ROLL 506 

111. ^icholaus de Newerk' balliuus . non venit et manu- 

captus fuit per Henricum le Louerd de Wvflingham et I\Iichaelem 

de Norton . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg : m'ia.) [Well.] 

Nicholas was bailiff of Well during the .shrievalty of Richard of Dray- 
cote, cf. App. II, section vii, note 57, p. 153. 

112. •iRobertus Parleben non venit et manucaptus fuit per 
Willelmum atte Hull' et Radulfum ad Furnum . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. 
{Marg: Westredyng' m'ia.) 

Entries 112-12G concern officials who were probably not bailiffs since 
they are not called such : they may have been taxors, or collectors of prise. 
Nos. 112-18 are entered under the marginal heading West Riding. 

113. 1;Iohannes Herylyel non venit et manucaptus fuit per 
Thomam Slawe de Grengham et Walterum f. Henrici de eadem . 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [West Riding.] 

114. ^lohannes f. lohannis de Kyrketon' non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Alexandrum le Palmer de Kyrketon' et 
Robertum Maymond de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[West Riding, perhaps Corringham.] 

115. ^icholaus de Saham non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Robertum de Westeby de Kyrketon' et Simonem Cany de 
eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [West Riding.] 

116. ^Reginaldus Hound de Kyrketon' non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per Willelmum Helle de Kyrketon' et lohannem de 
Holmp^ de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [West 
Riding, perhaps Corringham.] 

' Probably Holme, Manley, or Holme, Lawress. 

117. *f[Ricardus de Dalby non venit et manucaptus fuit per 
Willelmum Prepositum de Normanby' [et] Walterum f. Gerardi 
de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [West Riding.] 

' There are three places of this name in the West Riding. 

118. ^flohannes de Saunton' non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Willelmum Forn de Laghton' et Ricardum f. Lamberti de 
eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia.^ [West Riding.] 

' No marginalia to this entry in MS. 

119. ^Galfridus de Funtaynes m Knayte non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Thomam Welcecart de eadem et Hugonem 
le Mercer de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Well' Wapentak' 
m'ia.) 

120. ^lohannes de Tukesford in Marton' non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per Willelmum Fabrum de eadem et Willelmum Aky 
de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia.^ [Well.] 

' No marginalia to this entry in MS. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 23 

121. fAdam de Wj^ggesle in Xeuton [non venit] et manu- 
captus fuit per Henricum f. Gerardi de Xeuton' et Henricum de 
Hallegarth de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia.^ [Well.] 

^ No marginalia to tliis entry in MS. 

122. '[Johannes f. Willelmi de Norton' non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per Willelmum f. lohannis de Norton' et Rogerum 
Fabrum de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Aslachow ra'ia.) 

123. ^Alanus Fraunceys de Wynterton' non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per Adam Daukus de Wynterton' . et Robertum Macoun 
de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Manle m'ia.) 

124. ^Rogerus Hurtquarter de Conyngesby non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Thomam ad Aulam de Conyngesby et Ricardum 
Pyntoun de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Manley.] 

125. ^lohannes Trynel de Wynterton' non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per Warinum de Crumb de Wynterton' et Simonem de 
WjTitryngham de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Manley.] 

126. •[Thomas f. Hugonem de Thorp' non venit et manucaptus 

fuit per Galfridum fratrem eius de Thorp' et Radulfum de Thorp' 

Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Laurys.) 

3 [Midway along foot of dorse. At foot of membrane, either midway 
along or on the left under marginalia, is where it usually occiu^ — as if to 
indicate that the contents of the membrane or the marginalia had been 
checked for some purpose.] 

[Membrane 4.] 

ADHUC DE PLACITIS APUD SAXCTUjM BOTULPHUM. 

127. ^Henricus Botermarkede Galfridus de Colojme , 
Hermannus Paramours mercatores Colonie . queruntur de lohanne 
f. Thome et Gerardo le Ganger quod ipsi attachiauerunt tria dolia 
vini de Rino quousque dicti mercatores fecerunt finem cum eis 
de sex m. etc. 

lohannes venit , et Gerardus non venit , Et lohannes pro 
se dicit quod Matheus de Columbariis mandauit per Utteras quas 
ostendit quod idem lohannes caperet de Cjualibet naui continente . 
viginti dolea vini ; unum doleum de vino Rin' pro nichilo . uel 
duo dolea pro .Ix.s. et de qualibet naui continente viginti dolea 
vini de Vasconia ; unum doleum pro nichilo uel duo dolea pro 
.xl.s. sicut semper usitatum est de capcionibus . regis , Et quia 
predicti mercatores habuerunt duas naues , unde una continebat 
.XXV. dolea ; ipse cepit simul cum Gerardo le Gauger de una naui 
duo dolea vini , et de aha naui ; unum doleum prout moris est 
pro feodo pincerne regis Et postea ei vendidit predictis 
mercatoribus pro predictis sex m. allocans ei residuum argenti 
in feodo suo . Et quod nichil ad opus suum deuenit nee maliciose 
cepit ponit se super patriam — Et mercatores dicunt quod cepit 
maliciose et quod deuenit ad comodum ipsius lohannis [Et de 
hoc] ponunt se super patriam . etc . Dicunt eciam quod dominus 



24 ASSIZE ROLL 605 

Henriciis rex pater domini regis nunc concessit eisdem merca- 
toribus de Colonya per cartam suam^ quod quieti essent ab omni 
capcione et tallagio consuetudine et demanda que pertinet ad 
ipsum Regem per totum regnum Anglie pro illis duobus solidis 
quos solebant dare de Gildlialla sua London' quam quidem cartam 
dominus . Rex nunc confirniauit quam quidem confirmacionem 
predicti mercatores ostendunt £!t dicunt quod predicti 
lohannes et Gerardus non obstante predictis carta seu 
confirmacione - 

Henry Botermarkede, Geoffrey of Cologne [and] Hermann Paramours, 
merchants of Cologne, complain of John son of Thomas and Gerard the 
Ganger, that they attached three tuns of Rhenish wine until the said merchants 
made fine with them by marks etc. 

John has come and Gerard has not come ; and John, for himself, says 
that Matthew de Columbariis gave order, by letters which he [John] shows, 
that the same John should take from each ship containing twenty tuns of 
wine, one tun of Rhenish wine for nothing, or two tuns for 60/- ; and from 
each ship containing twenty tuns of Gascon wine, one tun for nothing or 
two tuns for 40/-, as it is always customary touching prises of the king. 
And because the aforesaid merchants had two ships, whereof one contained 
2o tuns, he took, together with Gerard the Ganger, from one ship two tuns 
of wine and from the other ship one tun, according as it is of custom, for the 
fee of the king's butler. And afterwards he sold [the wine] for him to the 
said merchants for the aforesaid 6 marks, allowing to him the remainder 
of the money as his fee. And that nothing was put to his own use, nor did 
he take it maliciously, he puts himself upon the country. 

And the merchants say that he did take it maliciously and that it 
was put to the use of that John ; [and as to this] they put themselves upon 
the country, etc. They say also that the lord Henry the king, father of the 
lord king who now is, granted to the same merchants of Cologne, by his 
charter, that they should be quit of all prise and tallage, custom and demantl 
which pertains to that king through the whole realm of England, for those 
two shillings which they used to give from their Gildhall in London : which 
charter the lord king who now is has confirmed, which confirmation the 
aforesaid merchants do show. And they say that the aforesaid John and 
Gerard, notwithstanding the aforesaid charter or confirmation . . . 

Matthew de Columbariis was king's serjeant and chamberlain, taker 
of the prise of wine, and ganger of wine for England.* Gerard the Ganger 
was his local representative, probably at Boston, and John son of Thomas 
his colleague or assistant. 

The quantities of wine to be taken by the king's gangers and the price 
to be paid for it come under the recta prisa — right prise — of wine ; Gras 
shows that the price per tun was 20/-, if more than one tim was taken. 
But he makes no distinction in value as between Gascon and Rhenish wines, 
yet the words sicut semper usitatxnii est de capcionibus Regis suggest that 
Buch a distinction was well recognised, and that it formed part of the recta 
prisa.* 

The Cologne merchants received a charter from John in April, 1203, 
taking them under the royal protection and giving them free entrance to 
and exit from England, and allowing them to travel freely with their 
merchandise wherever they wished through the country, but saving to the 
king his due and ancient customs.* In 1231 Henry HI renewed thoir general 
safe-conduct and freedom of movement in England, but made no mention 
of due and ancient customs' ; in 1235 ho granted to the citizens of Cologne 
and their merchandise quJt-clairn of the two shillings payable by them from 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 25 

their Gildhall in London, and of all otlior customs and demands beloncing 
to the king, both in London and throughout England. The grant of free 
entrance and exit and freedom of movejnent while in the country is reiterated, 
saving only the Liberty of the City of London.' The inspeximus and con- 
firmation of this charter by EdwanI I is dated July 10th. 1290.* 

• per cartam siiam interlined. * A space of about two inches is left on the 
membrane for the completion of the case, but it ends unfinished, with no 
further mention in A.R. 505. ' C.P.R., 1292-1301, pp. 25, 52, 449. < Cf. 
N.S.B., Gras, The Early English Customs System, pp. 39-42 especially. 
Miss Mills boars me out in this suggestion. ^ Foed., i, p. 88. * C.P.R., 
1225-32, p. 431. - C. Ch. R. 1226-57, p. 214. « C. Ch. R., 1257-1300, 
p. 370. 

PLACTTA APUD LUTH' DIE SABBATI IN CRASTINO ASSUMPCIONIS BEAT E 
MARIE VIRGINIS ANNO . REGNI REGIS . EDWARDI XXVT^o. 

[Saturday, August 16th,] 

128. ^Robertus de Gyppethorp' de Burgo unus iuratorum 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Robertum Ryheued de Momby 
et Alanum f. Radulfi de Burgo . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Candleshou 
m'ia.) 

[Cf. no. 489.] 

129. ^Petrus f. Hak' de Waynflet non venit et manucaptus 
fuit per Willelmum Bonhomme de Waynflet et Alanum Tate de 
eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia^ postea venit etc. {Marg: postea venit 
m'ia.^) 

The scribe says that Peter afterwards came, but there is no record of 
him elsewhere in .4.7?. 505. 

^ The whole entry, except the words postea venit etc., is scored through 
and thus cancelled. The whole of the marginalia is also cancelled. 

130. ^Ricardus de Tynton' non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Willehnum le Lard et Robertum f. Willelmi de^ Ideo ipsi in 
m'ia postea venit . etc . Ideo pardonatur ad instanciam cancellarii. 
(Marg: Horncastr'.) 

^ de cancelled. 

131. ^Gilbertus Malet balliuus de Gayrtre in m'ia . quia 
posuit homines suspectos in panello contra warrantum suum etc. 
{Marg: Gayrtre.) 

132. ^Preceptum fuit Henrico de Walmysford balliuo de 
Suthtred' quod venire faceret hie ad hunc diem . viginti quatuor 
liberos et legales homines de baUiua sua qui de capcionibus se non 
intromiserint etc Et ipse contra warrantum suum posuit homines 
suspectos in panello^ Ita quod ad diem ilium nichil actum fuit 
de hoc quod iniunctum fuit iusticiariis ex parte domini regis Ideo 
habet diem de iudicio suo audiendo die Lune proxima post 
festum Assumpcionis beate Marie^ apud Lincolniam. 

1 in panello interlined. - Monday, August 18th. 



2U ASSIZE ROLL 505 

133. fRobertiiB de Lekebourne queritur de Willelmo 
Dampneue de Luda eo quod in ipsum Robertum apud Ludam in 
presencia iusticiariorum insultum fecit verberauit et male tractauit 
ad graue dampniim ipsiiis Roberti duoriim s. Et contra pacem etc. 

Et Willehnus venit Et cognouit quod insultum fecit dicto 
Roberto et eum verberauit set dicit quod idem Robertus ipsum 
per nasum maliciose cepit etc — Et quia dictus Willelmus cognouit 
quod dictum Robertum verberauit sicut ei inponit ; Consideratura 
est quod idem Robertus recuperet dampna sua uersus eum . duorum 
8. Et sit in m'ia. 

DAMPNA .ijs. C[lericis]. {Marg: Suthtr' m'ia.) 

Robert of Legbounie coiiiplauis of Williain Dampneue of Louth, for 
tliat upon that Robert, at J^onth, in the presence of the justices, he did make 
an assauh, did beat liim and did ill-treat him, to the grievous damage of 
Robert, two shilHngs ; and against the peace, etc. 

And William lias come, and lias acknowledged that he made an assault 
upon the .said Robert and beat him ; but he says that the same Robert 
did take him by the nose maliciously, etc. 

And because the said William has acknowledged that he did beat the 
said Robert as he charges him, it is awarded that the same Robei't do recover 
his damages against him, two shillings. And let him be in mercy. Damages 
2/- to the clerk(s). 

134. fRadulfus de Cendale subballiuus de.^ 
^ Ralph is referred to again in nos. 153, 159. 

135. ^lohannes de Belesby in m'ia etc.* 
iCf. no. 88. 

136. *[|Ricardus de Brynkel nuper subvicecomes Lincolnie . 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Robertum fratrem eius de Brynkel 
et Willelmum Badde de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum 
est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes terras et catalla etc 
Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit die Lune proxima post festum 
Assumpcionis beate Marie* apud Lync', 

> Monday, August 18th. 

137. ^Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret.' 

* The whole entry smudged in MS ; the note probably refers to Richard 
of Brinkhill. 

138. ^[Dominus Ilicardus de Hosetrey optuiit se uersus 
Ricardum de Brynkel et ipse non venit , Et preceptum fuit vice- 
comiti quod distringeret eum per terras etc . Et quod de exitibus etc . 
Ita quod esset hie die Dominica proxima post festum Assumpcionis 
beate Marie* , Et vicecomes nichO inde fecit set mandauit quod 
districtus est^ per catalla ad valenciam .xl.d. Et nichilominus 
Robertus de Brynkel Willelmus Badde , Hugo atte Grene et 
Radulfus Faber de Brynkel manuceperunt eum . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat sicut alias'' predictum 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 27 

Ricardura quod sit die Lune proxiraa post Assumpcionem* a pud 
Line'. {Marg: exitus .xl.d.^) 

^ Sunday, August 17th. - MS : fuit (cancelled) est ^sicut abas interlined 
The reference is to no. 136. * Mon. Aug. 18th. ^ This is followed by a word 
which is illegible. 

139. ^Rogerus de Bi^Tikel non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Willelmum de Skegenes , Simonem le leofne de Brynkel 
WiJlelmura de Fereby et Radulfum C'lericum de eadem Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia . Et preceptum est %icecGmiti quod distiingat eum per 
terras et catalla Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit apud Line' 
die Lune post Assumpcionem.^ 

' Monday, August 18th. 

140. ^Thomas f. vlcarii de Skidbrok' constabularius regis^ 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Hugonem person- de Skidbrok' 
et Willelmum Warde de eadem ideo in m'ia . Et preceptum est 
vicecomiti quod distringat predictum Thomam per omnes terras 
et catalla Et de exitibus etc . Et^ quod habeat corpus eius apud 
Line' die Lune proxima post Assumpcionem beate Marie. ^ 

1 constabularius Regiv interlined. ^ Sic. " Et interlined. '' Monday, 
August 18th. 

14L •'Preceptum est vicecomiti quod^ Willelmus de Hem- 
mingby quondam balliuus in wapentakio de Gairtre distringatur per 
omnes terras et catalla Et de exitibus etc . Et quod habeat corpus 
eius apud Line' die Lune supradicto. {Marg: [Gayrjtre- vaeat.) 

The scribe evidently began 141 in the foriTi of 140, then (perhaps 
because short of space at the end of the membrane) decided to omit the 
noil venit and the mainpernors and altered it to a simple precept, but in 
the end vacated the entry and reverted to the fuller record in a fresh entry 
on the dorse (no. 142). 

^ Preceptum est vicecomiti quod interlined. " [Gayr]tre cancelled ; the 
first four letters of this word are almost illegible in MS. 

[ -r, and 3 underneath it, midway along foot of membrane.] 

[Membrane 4d.] 

142. •^Willelmus de Hemmingby quondam balliuus de Gairtre 

non venit* et manucaptus fuit per Walterum le Chapelayn et 

Simonem de Eye- ideo^ ipsi in m'ia Et preceptum est vicecomiti 

quod distringat predictum Willelmum per omnes terras et catalla 

Et de exitibus etc Et quod habeat corpus eius apud Line' die 

Lune proxima post festum Assumpcionis beate Marie.-* {Marg: 

m'ia.) 

^ 7ion venit interlined. - Probably Eye by Peterborough. ' ^IS does not 
capitalise " i ' of ideo ; between ipsi and in m'ia is inserted, and cancelled, et 
plegii sui. * Monday, August 18th. 

143. ••[Willelmus de Manaby coronator domini regis de 
Suthtr' queritur de Simone de Grelgeby nuper balliuo de Wraghou . 
quod ubi ipse WiUelmus ex parte domini regis preeepit dicto 
Simone quod venire faceret coram eo . bonam inquisiciouem ad 



28 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

inquirendum de uno equo precii .x.ra. ad opus domini regis' de 
morte cuiusdam Roberti de Munby per infortunium mersi ad 
inquirendum ex officio suo pro rege super illo infortunio Et ipse 
se gratis absenciauit et inquisicionem coram se venire non fecit 
ad dampnum domini regis et in contemptu ipsius coronatoris . 
Et petit quod inquiratur 

Et Simon venit . Et dicit quod non potuit interesse ad diem 
quem predictus coronator ei prefixit quia dicit quod fuit coram 
vicecomiti Lincolnie super compoto suo de viridi cera reddendo 
set misit quemdam Willelmum Faunt subballiuum suum ad 
faciendum officium suum ad diem ilium coram ipso coronatore 
Et quod alio modo se non absenciauit ; ponit se super patriam . 
luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum . quod predictus Simon 
maliciose se absenciauit coram coronatore ad dampnum domini 
regis et in contemptu ipsius coronatoris . Ideo consideratum est 
quod committatur prisone Et absoluatur ab officio suo perpetuo. 
{Marg: Gayole.) 

William of ^lanby, coroner of the lord king for the South Riding, 
complains of Simon of Grebby, lately bailiff of Wraggoe, that when that 
William, on the lord king's part, gave order to the said Simon that he cause 
to come before him a true inquisition to make enquiry about one horse, of 
price ten marks, for the use of the lord king ; [and] touching the death of 
a certain Robert of Mumby by the misfortune of drowning, to make enquiry, 
by virtue of his own office, for the king upon this misfortune. And he 
gratuitously absented himself, and did not cause the inquisition to come 
before him, to the damage of the lord king and in contempt of that coroner ; 
and he asks that enquiry be made. 

And Simon has come, and he says that he was not able to be present 
on the day which the afore.said coroner fixed for him beforehand, because 
he says that he was before the sheriff of Lincoln upon rendering his account 
touching the Green Wax ; but he sent a certain William Faunt, his sub- 
bailiff, to do his office on this day before that coroner. And that in other 
manner he did not ab.sent himself, he puts himself upon the country. 

The jvurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Simon did maliciously 
absent himself from before the coroner, to the damage of the lord king and 
in contempt of that coroner. Therefore it is awarded that he be committed 
to gaol. And let him be absolved from his office in perpetuity. 

The coroner was elected by the shire on the order of the king to the 
sheriff, and among his functions was that of keeping a check upon the actions 
of the sheriff and other royal officials who were appointed, not elected, and 
of taking the sheriff "i^ place should he die in office.- The kind of relations 
which might ensue are well shown by this case. Another of the coroner's 
functions, which he is seen attempting to execute here, was that of holding 
enquiry into cases of sudden death. ^ 

The connection between the horse for the king's use and the death 
by drowning of Robert of Mumby is supplied by the note at the foot of the 
membi'ane (entry no. 152a) that the hor.se was Robert of JMumby's. The 
horse was a deodand. The underlying principle of the law of deodands was 
that the thing, living or otherwise, which caused the death of a person should 
be handed over to the king, who was under obligation to see that it was used 
for some good end. Thus the thing was in some measure made to compen.sato 
lor the death it had caused. It is likely that in this case Robert's horse 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 20 

threw him, ihftt he fell, perhaps injiirrd. into water and so was drowned. 
The coroner, investigating, iound tiuit the cause of death was the unforeseen 
beha\iour of the horse, which was therefore claimed for the king under 
this law.* 

' Summonses of the Green Wax," or as here simply ' Green Wax,' were 
mandates issued by the Exchequer, often, but not always, at Easter and 
Michaelmas, sealed with green wax and sent to the sherififs, ordering them 
to collect small debts owing to the king — chiefly fines and amercements of 
the various courts.* The sheriff, in the present case, was holding the local 
audit for the county, probably on the second day of the shire coiu"t, and 
all bailiffs of ridings and chief bailiffs of wapentakes would be in duty bound 
to attend, to render account of the debts they had collected, not only on 
summonses of the Green Wax, but also of the Pipe ; and of the famis of 
ridings and wapentakes.^ Thus Simon's excuse, if the jurors had upheld 
it, would have been a good one, for since he was the sheriff's bailiff, not the 
coroner's, he would have been performing a prior duty. 

• After regis the sense seems to require et. ' Cf. C.C.R. 1288-96 , p. 161, 
and many smiilar entries ; also Pollock and Maitland, i, p. 534. ' Cf. 
Pollock and Mahland, ii, pp. 643-4. * Cf. Pollock and Maitland, ii, p. 473. 

* I am indebted to Miss Mills for information on these points. 

144. '^Radulfus Xotebroun capitalis balliuus de VVestred' 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Thomam Xotebroun de Northorp' 
et lohannem fratrem eius de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. [Marg: 
Westred' m'ia.) 

145. -^Conuictura est per iuratam quod Simon de Grebby 
nuper subballiuus de \Yraghou maliciose petiit de Roberto de la 
Doune .xvj.s. iiij.d. de viridi cera ubi nullum debuit et ei fecit 
duas falsas talleas . Ideo consideratum est quod committatur 
Gayole Et restituat predictos denarios etc. {Marg: Wraghou 
Gayole.) 

For the significance of the Green Wax see note to no. 143. In this case 
the bailiff is pretending he has a summons of the Green Wax ordering pay- 
ment of a debt of 16/4 where no debt existed, and when the debt was paid 
he gave the plaintiff two forged tallies. Simon is making private profit out 
of his official duties. 

146. -^lohannes de Bylesfeld^ subballiuus de Yerdeburg' 
committitur Gayole eo quod maliciose sine precepto iusticiariorum 
perexit coram hominibus iuratis etc . Postea fecit finem per .xl.d. 
per plegios lohannis de Bekeby et Hugonis . de Pykeryng'. {Marg: 
Gayole .xl.d.) 

^ -feld interlined. 

PLACITA APUD LINCOLNIA]^! DIE LUNE PROXIMA POST FESTUM 
ASSU>LPCIONIS BEATE MARIE ANNO REGNI REGIS EDWARDI VICESIMO 
SEXTO. 

[Monday, August 18th.] 

147. •jPreceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret hie ad 



30 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

huiic diem [iionera rle Byllyngeye balliuuin de Flaxwell Et 
vicecomes iiichil inde fecit set respondit quod districtus est per 
catalia ad valenciam .xl.d. Et nichilominus Willelmus Kempe 
de Kyrkeby et Alanus de Byletis manuceperunt eum Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti sicut alias quod distringat 
l)redictuin luonem per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . 
Ita quod sit hie die Martis proxima post festum Assumpcionis beate 
Marie^ etc. {Marg: Exitus .xl.d. m'ia.) [Flaxwell] 

At Lincoln Ivo still did not appear (see no. 210), but he was present 
at Stamford when the court sat there in December, though whether on the 
same charges it is impossible to say from the evidence (no. 394 and following 
cases). 

' Tuesday, August 1 9tli. 

148. ^Robertus de Kyrketon' de Roppesley in m'ia pro con- 
temptu et tumultu etc. 

14U. ^[Willelmus de Wormely non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Willelmum f. Alexandri de Sancto Botulpho et lohannem Gode 
de eadem Adam Pakkeherneys et Henricum Thedam . Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia . Et preceptum vicecomiti quod distringat eum per terras etc 
Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie hac instanter die 
Lune etc,^ 

' I.e. Monday, August 18th. 

150. ^Preceptum fuit Ade de Geyton^ baUiuo errante quod 

venire faceret hie ad hunc diem .xij.^ liberos etc qui de capcionibus 

se non^ intromiserunt post guerram etc Et quod venire faceret 

hie ad diem lohannem Gobaut , Galfridum de Brunne et Simonem 

de Lunderthorp' milites et electi predictorum .xij. ad certificandum 

iusticiariis hie de eleccione predicta , Et predictus Adam nichil 

inde fecit set preceptum regis et iusticiariorum omnino contempsit 

Et recordum iusticiariorum contraplacitauit [Ideo] committatur 

gayole etc. (Marg: non dum Gayole.) 

' Gayton-le-Marsh, Calcewath, or Gayton-le-Wold, Louthesk. ' MS. 
torn and text difficult here. ' non interlined. 

151. ^Item Thomas de Estone balliuus de Kesteuen' com- 
mittitur gayole eo quod exequi cont[empsit] preceptum Ius- 
ticiariorum hie scilicet ad faciendum venu'e Thomam de Hawyle 
clericum et sub[balhuum] suum. {Marg: Kesteywen' Gayole.) 

152. ^Inpositum est Radulfo Paynel nuper vicecomiti istius 
comitatus quod reconciliauit Henricum de New[ton'] balliuum de 
North tred' qui conuictus fuit et suspensus ab officio' coram lohanne 
de Insula iusticiario'-^ in partibus istis super transgressione prout 
idem Henricus cognouit coram iusticiariis istis apud Sanctum 
Botulphum ut patet in placitis ibidem^ Et Radulfus dicit quod 
predictus Henricus nunquam conuictus fuit nee suspensus coram 
ipso lohanne et 8i[c]^ vocat recordum ipsius lohannis Ideo datus 
eat ei dies^. et tunc habeat [recordum]^ 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 31 

Tt is imputed to Ralph Paynol. lately slieriff of this county, that ho 
re-admitted Heniy of Newton baiiitY of the North Riding, who was convicted 
and suspended from office before John de Insida, Justice in these parts, 
upon a trespass, according us the same Henry acknowledgetl before tliese 
Justices at Bostozi, as appe<irs in the pleas there. And Ralph says that 
the aforestiid Henry never was convicted or suspended before that John, 
and so he vouclies the record of that .lohn. Therefore a day is given him. 
And then let him have [? the record]. 

This is the sequel to no. 18 (</.?'.). Unfortunately its conclusion is not 
eni-olled in A.R. 505, nor do the rolls of John do Insula exist, so that our 
only means of finding out what had really happen*;d are lacking. 

A blank space of about three inches after the above entry. Then at 
the extreme bottom of the membrane, at the left and right-hand cornel's 
respectively, are the following notes [no. 152a] : 

' et sunpcntius ab officio interlined. - liiMiciario interlined. ^ No. 18 
above. If there is a word between ibidem and Et, the MS is so faded at 
this point that 1 caiuiot make it out. * Similarly here. If any word 
existed between s/[c] and vocal it is now indecipherable. But sense does 
not require one. " The rest of the line between dies and et is blank. * The 
damaged edge of the membrane doubtless here contained the word recordum. 

152a. Alanus de Fenne equus fuit Rob' de Muuby^ 

Thomas Gaumbe. 

* Tlie statement about Robert of Mumby's horse explauis and is explained 
by the contents of no. 143. Otherwise the notes are probably disconnected. 

[Membrane 5.] 

ADHUC DE PLACITIS APUD LUDAM. INGE. 

153. ^[ Agnes Mol de Ouresby queritur de Radvilfo de Sendale 
balliuo domini regis quod ipse maliciose cepit unum bouem de 
camca sua apud Ouresby precii .x.s. ubi melius et ad minus dampnum 
alibi cepisse potuit etc. 

Et Radulfus venit Et cognouit^ quod cepit predictum bouem 
et quod deuenit ad commodum domini regis Et quod alibi ad 
minus dampnum cepisse non potuit ponit se super patriam — 
iuratores dicuiit super sacramentum suum quod predictus Radulfus 
cepit dictum bouem in commmii pastura et non extra carucam 
dicte Agnete . set dicunt quod alibi cepisse potuit ad minus 
dampnum et quod deuenit ad- commodum regis . Et dicunt quod 
maliciose cepit dictum bouem , Ideo consideratum est quod dicta 
Agnes recuperet uersus eum dampna sua que taxantur ad .ij.s. 
Et rex respondeat de boue Et dictus Radulfus committatur 
gayole . fecit finem per dim.m. per plegios lohannis de Neyuyle 
et Willelmi de Carvvell'. (Marg: Northtryth' est ad scaccarium 
Gayole.^) 

Prise of an ox ; the case follows the usual form, cf. no. 29. Agnes says 
the ox was taken from her plough-team, but the jurors demur : it was taken, 
they say, out of common pasture. Perhaps Agnes made her statement 
with a view to obtaining as high damages as possible : taking an ox from 
someone's plough-team would be likely to involve the injured party in 
greater loss than merely abstracting a beast from his or her common pasture. 



32 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

and if proved, might be expected to ensure damajjjes at a higher rate. Nolo, 
however, that Agnes' untruth does not mitigate the sentence passed upon 
the offending baiUff, save perhaps in the assessment of damages. 

'MS here extends venit Et cognouit, one of the few occasions in A.R. 
505 where this is done. Cf. no. 159. ^ ad interUncd. ^ Gayolc cancelled. 

154. ^lohannes de Wyherne unus iuratoruni noii venit et^ 
manucaptus fuit per Walterum f. Ode et Robertum Marce ideo- 
ipsi . in m'ia. {Marg: Lutheburg' m'ia.) 

^ tion venit Et interlined. * MS does not capitalise the ' i ' of idea. 

155. ^Adam de Benyngworth' unus iuratoruni non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Walterum Clericum et Hugonem Flor'^ 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Probably Ludborough.] 

^MS. flo2].. 

156. ^Willelmus de Hanlay unus iuratorum non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Radulfum f. Sibille et Hugonem de Haburg' 
ideo^ ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Probably Ludborough.] 

Neither Adam of Benni worth nor William of Hanlay appear in the 
list of Ludborough jurorH, no. 475. 

^ MS does not capitalise ' i ' of ideo. 

157. ^Willelmus de Hegheling' unus iuratorum non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Drogonem de Cotes et lohannem de 
Holdernesse . ideo^ ipsi in m'ia, {Marg: Bradele m'ia.) 

William does not appear on the list of Bradley jiurors, no. 474. 
^ MS does not capitalise the ' i ' of ideo. 

15S. ^lohannes de Paunton' unus iuratorum non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Willelmum de Botterwyk' et lohannem 
Mustard' ideo^ ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Wraghou m'ia.) 
Cf. no. 477. 

* MS does not capitalise the ' i ' of ideo. 

159. ^Willelmus Pynn de Houresby queritur de Radulfo de 
Sandale balliuo de Walscroft quod ipse maliciose cepit unum bouem 
de^ CO ubi alibi melius inuenisse potuit de diuitibus ad minus 
dampnum etc. 

Et Radulfus venit Et cognouit capcionem predicti bonis 
per preceptum vicecomitis et per warantum eo quod fuit grassus etc 
Et dicit quod deuenit ad opus domini regis etc . — Et WUlelmus 
dicit quod cepit predictum bouem per maliciam Et de hoc ponit 
se super patriam — Et Radulfus allocutus est^ super hoc et non 
potest dedicere nee ponere se vult super patriam . Ideo tanquam 
conuictus Et committatur gayole Et restituet^ dampna .xl.d. 
et non plus . quia rex respondeat de boue. {Marg: Walscroft 
est Gayole."*) 

Prise of an ox. The usual form is followed until it becomes evident 
that the bailif? has no defence. 

* de Interlined over an erasui'e. * est interline<J. * tiic. * Gayole 
cancelled. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 33 

160. •"lohannes Michelesman in m'ia pro falso clamore uersus 
lohannem de Bekeby de capcione unius quarterii frumenti etc. 
{Marg: Yerdeburg' m'ia.) 

False claim regarding n prise of com. 

16L ^Stephanus de Hospital' de Thometon' in m'ia uersus 
lohannem de Bekeby de capcione unius quarterii frumenti etc. 
{Marg: Yerdeburg' m'ia.) 

162. ^Rejmaldus de Iresby mercator queritur de Simone f. 
Ranulphi de Grebby subballiuo de Candelshou quod ipse die 
dominica proxima post festum sancti lohannis Baptiste anno 
regni regis Edwardi .xxiij^ cepit ab eo unam supertunicam de 
cameleto et unum capitium viride . precii .vij.s. Et asportauit etc 
ad dampnum etc. 

Et Simon venit Et cognouit quod cepit predictam super- 
tunicam et capitium . Ideo consideratum est quod restituat 
predictos .vij.s. etc Et dampna que taxantur ad .ij.s. Et com- 
mittatur Gayole. {Marg: Candleshow Gayole.) 

Reynald of Eresby, merchant, complains of Simon son of Ranulph of 
Grebby, sub-bailiff of Candleshoe, that he, on the Sunday next after the 
feast of St. John the Baptist in the twenty-third year of the reign of King 
Edward,* did take from him one surcoat of camlet and one green hood, 
of price 7/-. And he did carry them off etc. to the damage etc. 

And Simon has come, and has acknowledged that he took the aforesaid 
Burcoat and hood. Therefore it is awarded that he do restore the afore- 
said 7/- etc., and damages, which are taxed at 2/-. And let him be com- 
mitted to gaol. 

»June 26th, 1295. 

163. ^Willelmus Rasour de Wynthorp' qui querabatur^ de 
Hugone Amory balliuo de Candeleshou non est prosecutus . Ideo 
predictus Hugo inde sine die Et Willelmus pro se et plegiis suis 
de prosequendo in m'ia. {Marg: Candeshou m'ia.) 

^ Sic. 

164. ^Robertus Abbas ^ de Stykeswald qui querebatur de 
lohanne f. Roberti de Tj'nton'- , Willelmo de Homeby de Stykes- 
wald et Willelmo de Hemyngby balliuo de Gaytre non est 
prosecutus . Ideo predictus lohannes f. Roberti inde sine die Et 
predictus Abbas pro se et plegiis suis de prosequendo in m'ia. 
{Marg: Gaytre m'ia.) 

^ Abbot is found as a surname in Lincolnshire in the middle of the 
twelfth century (C. W. Foster, A History of Aisthorpe and Thorpe in the 
Fallows, p. 37). Although there was a religious house at Stixwould it was 
a priory of nuns. * Either in Bolingbroke or Homcastle wapentakes. 

165. ^homas West de Cumberworth' qui querebatur de 
Willelmo Losward balliuo regis non est prosecutus Ideo predictus 
Thomas^ inde sine die Et Thomas pro se et plegiis suis de 
prosequendo in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 

c 



34 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

166. HGilbertus de Ulseby in Calsauthe qui querebatur de 
Thome de ISoterby . non est prosecutus ideo^ predictus Tiiomas 
inde sine die Et Gilbertus pro se et plegiis suis de prosequendo 
in m'ia. {Marg: Suthtr' m'ia.) 

^ MS does not capitalise the ' z ' of ideo. 

167. ^Robertus f. Alani le Feouere de Hotoft qui querebatur 
de Gilberto Loseward balliuo de Calswath' non est prosecutus . 
Ideo predictus Gilbertus inde sine die Et Robertus f. Alani pro 
se et plegiis suis de prosequendo in m'ia. {Marg: Calswath' 
m'ia.) 

168. ^Petrus del Fen de Mauneby qui querebatur de lohanne 
de Tadeweir de Mauneby Waltero Wyot de eadem et Willelmo f. 
Alani de eadem non est prosecutus . Ideo predictus lohannes inde 
sine die Et predictus Petrus pro se et plegiis suis de prosequendo 
in m'ia. {Marg: Ludesk' [Louthesk] m'ia.) 

169. ^Prior de Freston' qui querebatur de Thoma de Soterby 
balliuo de Suthtr' non est prosecutus . Ideo predictus Thomas 
inde sine die Et Prior pro se et plegiis suis de prosequendo in 
m'ia. {Marg: Suthtr' m'ia 3^) 

^ This symbol occur.s in MS. just beneath the marginal rrCia, i.e. at the 
end of the column of marginalia on this niembrane. 

The rest of the recto (some 6 in.) and the whole of the dorse of m. 5 
are blank. 

[Membrane 6.] 

PLACITA CORAM WILLELMO INGE ET RICARDO DE WALSYNGHAM 
lUSTICIARnS AD QUERELAS IN COMITATU LINCOLNIE AUDIENDAS 
ET TERMINANDAS ASSIGNATIS APUD STAUNFORD'^ DIE LUNE PROXIMA 
POST FESTUM SANCTI luce EWANGELISTE ANNO REGNI REGIS 
EDWARDI VICESIMO SEXTO. 

[Stamford, Monday, October 20th. J 
^ Apud Staunford" interlined. 

170. ^Walterus Welmad balliuus de Bradele non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Willelmum atte Canouns de Houton' et 
lohannem Myles de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est 
vicecomiti quod distringat predictum Walterum per terras et 
catalla Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie die Mercurii 
proxima post festum sancti Luce EwangeUste.^ {Marg: Northtred' 
Bradele postea venit.) 

The whole entry is cancelled, in accordance with the marginal postea 
venit. 

• Wednesday, October 22nd. 

171. ^Thomas Russel de Hellewelle non venit et manucaptus 
fuit per Gilbertuni Aylmer de Hewell'' et Robertuni in yelane- 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 35 

Tdeo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat 
eum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit 
hie die Martis proxima post festum sancti Luce Ewangeliste^ etc. 
{Marg: Belteslowe m'ia.) 

* Aylmer de HeweW interlined. - The MS. employs y and y apparently 
indifferently, but where y is clearly J> (th) and not i or y consonantal I have 
thought it well to reproduce the y. ^ Tuesday, October 2l8t. 

172. ^loceus de Skylyngton' non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Alanum in ye KjTkeyerd et Stephanum ad Ecclesiam Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum 
per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie predicto 
die Martis. (Marg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

173. ^Richerus de Dokkyng'^ non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Hugonem Naune et Hugonem de Baye Ideo ipsi in m'ia . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per terras etc 
Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie predicto die Martis etc. 
{Marg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

* Possibly Docking near King's Lynn, co. Norfolk. 

174. ^lordanus de Ingham in Skylyngton' non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Matheum' Forester . et Radulfum super 
Montem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
distringat eum per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod 
sit hie predicto die Martis. {Marg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

* Between per and Matheum is inserted Ste .... cancelled. 

175. ^Willelmus f. Martini de Lopyngthorp' . non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Robertum le Moygne et Willelmum Bonde 
ideo^ ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat 
eum per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie 
predicto die Martis. {Marg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

* MS. does not capitalise the ' t ' of ideo. 

176. flohannes Brom de Byham . non venit Et manu- 
captus fuit per Thomam Draue* et Thomam in ye put Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per 
terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie predicto die 
Martis. {Marg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

' Or Drane. 

177. ^Galfridus Legard de Suafeud non venit et manucaptus 
fuit per Wyot f. Mariote et Petrum Bautre Ideo ipsi in m'ia . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per terras etc 
Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie predicto die Martis. 
{Marg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

178. ^Robertus Faber de Suthwyme non venit et manucaptus 
fuii per Robertum le Moygne et Petrum Swyft Ideo ipsi in m'ia . 



36 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per terras etc . 
Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie die predicto^ etc. {Marg: 
m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

* MS. repeats die after die predicto. 

179. ^Hugo Dyne de Suafeld non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Rogerum Sueynyng' et Ricardum Mollote Ideo ipsi in m'ia . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes 
terras etc . Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie predicto die 
Martis. [Marg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

180. ^Radulfus Court de Carby non venit et manucaptus 
fuit per Willelmum Tapcorn' . et Galfridum atte Lane . Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per 
terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita . quod sit hie predicto 
die Martis. {Marg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

181. ^Hugo Erlyn non venit et manucaptus fuit per Galfridum 
Atte Grene et Galfridum Mannyng' Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum 
est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per terras etc Et quod de 
exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie predicto die Martis. {Marg: m'ia.) 
Beltisloe.] 

182. ^[Hugo Peuerel non venit et manucaptus fuit per 
Willelmum Olyuer et lohannem le Carpenter . Ideo ipsi [in] m'ia . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per terras etc. 
Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie predicto die Martis etc. 
{Marg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

183. ^Ricardus Mary de Hadyngton' non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per lohannem le Keu de Hadyngton' et lohannem 
Moyses de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg; Boby et Grafhow . 
m'ia.) 

184. ^Robertus de Holmp de Morton'^ non venit et manu 
captus fuit per Robertum Dynys de Morton' et Willelmum Dyny 
de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Boothby and 
GrafFoe.] 

' de Morton" interlined. 

185. ^Ricardus de Haldenby de Morton' non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Willelmum de Skamelby et WiUelmum de 
South Toun de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Boothby 
and Grafifoe.] 

186. ^Gilbertus de Carleton' non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Eliam Gilbert de eadem et Eliam Damet de eadem Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Boothby and Grafifoe.] 

187. Johannes f. Willelmi de Carleton' non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per lohannem Cappe de eadem et Nicholaum Cappe 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 37 

de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Boothby and 
Graff oe.] 

188. ^lohannes f. Robert! de Carleton' non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per Gregorium Wals de eadem et lohannem f. Robert! 
de eadem Ideo !ps! !n m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Boothby and 
Graffoe.] 

189. ^lohannes de Connethorp' de Colby non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Willelmum Poye de Colby et Willelmum de 
Hoylaund de eadem Ideo ips! in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Boothby 
and Graffoe.] 

190. ^Hugo del Clyff' de Colby non venit et manucaptus 
fuit per Simonem le Pestour de Colby et Simonem de Hykeham 
de eadem Ideo in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Boothby and Graffoe.] 

191. 5[Willelmus de Horton' de Welleby non venit et manu- 
captus fuit per Thomam Edus de eadem [et] Henricum West de 
eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Wynerbrig' et Threhow m'ia.) 

William was a sub-taxor of the ninth ; see Appendix II, list of Taxors, 
p. 165. 

192. ^^lllelmus f. Thome de BeJton' non venit et manucaptue 
fuit per Thomam f. Roger! de eadem [et] Hugonem le Carter de 
eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs and 
Threo.] 

193. IjRobertus de Askeby Willelmus de Cranewelle Willel- 
mus de Thurston' de Thorp' Stephanus Hoglobe de Blaunceney 
Rogerus le Forester de Haneworth Willelmus Clericus de Tymber- 
lond . et Willelmus St5rw'ord de Haneword luratores quia non 
venerunt in m'ia. {Marg: Flaxwell' et Langhow m'ia.) 

These jurors are not the same as those named for Flaxwell and Langoe 
in no. 251. 

194. •[Xicolaus de Comton . Nicholaus Burdet . Thomas 
de^ Rigesby . Walterus de Thoudeby^ , Nicholaus Tochet . Willelmus 
Merle de Swynthorp' Willelmus de Smelleslund Simon de 
Riggesby Simon de Lud' Willelmus de Wolingham clericus . 
Walterus de Haulay de Keuermond .xij. iuratores de Wraghow 
quia non reddiderunt veredictum suum apud Stanford die Lune 
proxima post festum^ Decolacionis sancti lohannis Baptiste* in 
m'ia. {Marg: Wraghou m'ia.) 

Cf. the Wraggoe jury list, no. 477. The two sets of names do not tally ; 
and there are here only eleven names, not twelve as stated in the text. 
There is no trace in A.R. 505 of any order for juries to be at Stamford on 
September 1st. 

» Originally Bxird, but cancelled and de interlined. - Originally 
Thouyeby, but y altered to d. * proxima post festtim written over an erasure. 
^ Monday, September 1st. 



38 ASSIZE BOLL 505 

105. ^Walterus de Wrangel . Thomas de Hey de Hemmyngby 
Robertus f. Isabelle de Edelington' lohannes de Langton' lohannes 
Freman de Edelington' , lohannes Pardoun de Stikeswald Thomas 
ad Aulam de Donyngton' Walterus Chapeleyn de Hemmyngby 
Robertus Langspey de Langton' lohannes Randolf de Brandbj'^ 
Petnis de Scriuelby lohannes de Bolington' . xij.' iuratores 
de wapentakes de Horncastre et Geirtre quia non reddiderunt 
veredictum suum apud Staunford die Lune proxima post festum 
Deco . . .- {Marg: Horncastre et Geirtre vacat quia red- 
diderunt v')^ 

Cf. no. 483. All the names t«lly in the two lists. 

* xij. interlined. * At this point the scribe realised that they had 
returned a verdict at Stamford on September 1st (see the marginalia), and 
he scored the first few words through of each line of the entry, thus cancel- 
ling it. * This might be the usual est sign (-i- ) but is more likely to be 
v[eredictUTn\. 

196. fRicardus Curteys . Willelmus de Netherwyk' . Robertus 
de Irford Reginaldus de^ Wj'^lyng'ham . Willelmus f. Thome 
de Media Rasen Nicholaus f. Willelmi de eadem lohannes le 
Lung' . lohannes f. Thome . Willelmus Eston' de Claxeby lohannes 
f. Simonis de Normanby . Willelmus Modelyn et Robertus Aumry 
de Teuelby iuratores quia non reddiderunt veredictum suum apud 
Staunford die Lune proxima post festum Decolacionis sancti 
lohannis in m'ia. {Marg: Walshecroft [Walshcroft] m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 476. Not all the names tally in the two lists. 

^ de interlined. 

197. f lohannes Gregory de Querington' , lohannes f. Elie 
de Swarreby , Willelmus le Louerd de veteri Lafford , Thomas Bond 
de eadem , Alanus Reyner de Swarreby , Ricardus de Amewyk' 
de Asgerby , Ricardus de lamore^ de eadem Thomas de Harden 
de Iwardeby , Gilbertus de Halle de Oustorp' , Willelmus f. Ricardi 
de Halle , Robertus de la Grene de Wyligby , Walterus f. Gerardi 
de Layrthorp' iuratores de Aswardhirn quia non reddiderunt 
veredictum suum ad prefatum terminum- Ideo in m'ia. {Marg: 
[Aswardhurn]^ m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 490. All the names tally in the two lists. 

1 This name is ' de la More' : see nos. 354, 442, 490. * Monday, 
September 1st. * The margin is damaged. 

198. ^Willelmus Paynot de Houton' Alanus Whityng' 
Robertus Whiting' , Alanus de Hoi . Matheus de Hoi , Henricus 
Est de Glee vj.^ iuratores de Bradele quia non reddiderunt vere- 
dictum suum ad prefatum terminum- , Ideo in m'ia. {Marg: 

Bradele m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 474. All the names tally in the two lists. 

^ vj. interlined. - Monday, September 1st. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 39 

198a. De Wapentakiis de Wynerbrig' et Tryhow. 
lohannes de Aseby^ ] 

Rogerus de Somerby ; luratores. 

Robertus de Kyrketon' [cf. no. 148] j 
These, bracketed in the MS. by three strokes converging on luratores, 
are tlie names of tliree Threo jurors, cf. no. 498a. This entry is a memo- 
randum, and is placed at the bottom left-hand corner of the membrane. 
At foot of membrane, imder marginalia the sign 3' niidvvay along the 
sign T- . 

' Aseby interlined over Auesby, cancelled. 

[Membrane 6d.] 

199. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Willelmus 
Attebek' se posuit quod iniuste querebatur de Henrico de Neuton' 
balliuo de Northgrenhow^ Consideratum est quod nichil capiat 
per querelam suara set sit in'^ m'ia pro falso clamore. {Marg: 
Howardeshow m'ia.) 

* North Greenhoe, a Norfolk hundred. The court had just returned 
from Norfolk to Lines., and the scribe evidently wrote Northgrenhow in 
mistake for North Riding. -sit in interlined. 

200. ^Henricus le Barn de Wyuelyngham^ Quia conuictum 
est per iuratam quod Henricus le Barn de Wyuelyngham- iniuste 
querebatur de predicto Henrico de Newton' . Consideratum est 
quod nichil capiat per querelam suam set sit in m'ia pro falso 
clamore . etc, {Marg: m'ia.) [North Riding.] 

* Henricus . . . Wyuelyngham : the scribe began thus, erased it 
(imperfectly), and started afresh with Quia immediately underneath. - North 
Willingham, Walsh. 

201. ^Robertus de Belesby balliuus de Howardeshow non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Hugonem f. Roberti de Haburgh' 
et Henricum f. Roberti de Swalow . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: 
m'ia.) [Haverstoe.] 

202. ^Johannes de Netylton' subballiuus de Yerdeburgh' 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Alanum Dayday de Netylton' et 
Willelmum f. lohannis de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: 
m'ia.) [Yarborough.] 

203. ^Hugo de Pykeryng'^ subballiuus de Yerdeburgh' non 
venit et manucaptus fuit per Galfridum Ward de Roxton' et 
Willelmum ad Pomarium de Kelyngholm' . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. 
{Marg: m'ia.) [Yarborough.] 

^ Perhaps Pickering, co. York. 

204. fHugo de Haburgh' subballiuus de Lutheburgh' non 

venit et manucaptus fuit per Robertum f. Ricardi de Belesby et 

Ricardum Argrym de Wargholm'^ . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: 

m'ia.) [Ludborough.J 

' Probably Wragholme in Grainthorpe. An estate of the Breause family 
included Fotherby in Ludborough wapentake and Grainthorpe. (L.R.S., 
xxzii, p. 251.) 



40 ASSIZE ROLL SOS 

205. ^Hugo de Braceby balliuus de Auelund non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Stephanum Punne de Graham et Walterum 
de Horton' . Tdeo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Kesteuene m'ia.) 
[Aveland.] 

206. ^fRobertus Pyioun de Graham non venit et manucaptus 
fuit per Willelmum Cryspyn de Adlyngton' et Robertum Basset 
de Wolesthorp' . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti 
quod distringat eum per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita 
quod sit hie die Veneris proxima post festum sancti Luce 
Ewangeliste^ etc. {Marg: Whynerbr' et Trehowes m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 242, where the plaintiffs are named, and no. 376 for the con- 
clusion of the case. 

1 Friday, October 24th. 

207. ^Villelmus le Wayt6 non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Rogerum Pede [de] Graham et Rogerum Tybol de eadem 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat 
eum per terras etc . Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie 
predicto die veneris . etc. (Marg: .m'ia.) [Winnibriggs and 
Threo.] 

208. ^Willelmus Costantin non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Stephanum Pome de Graham et Walterum de Hortone Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: vacat quia postea venit m'ia.) 

The whole entry, with the marginal rrCiat is cancelled ; see note to 
no. 209. 

209. ^Walterus de Horton' non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per Phillipum Pume de Graham et Willelmum Costantin de eadem 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: vacat quia postea venit m'ia.) 

Nos. 208 and 209 are cancelled : in the margin at a slightly lower level 
are the words Kess et BeltesV (Ness and Beltisloe). The scribe has drawn a 
line in the margin from Ness to WiUelmus le Wayte (no. 207), as if he wished 
Ness to apply to the entry relating to William. Similarly there is a line 
drawn from BpltesV to Walterus de Horton' (no. 209), with the same end 
in v-iew. The jurors of Winnibriggs later foiind William Constantin guilty 
of an unjust levy (no. 390). 

210. ^luo de Bylingey non venit ^ et manucaptus fuit per 
Galfridum Typelere de Bylingey et lohannem Typele de eadem . 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Flaxwell et Langhow. m'ia.) 

The scribe has indicated, by a line drawn from Flaxwell et Langhow 
to Radulfus Pacy in no. 211, that Flaxwell et Langhow applies also to no. 211. 
This is correct. 

* non venit et interlined. 

21L ^Radulfus Pacy de Anecastre non venit , Et manucaptus 
est^ per Hugonem le Mercer de Anecastre et lohannem Galle de 
eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Flaxwell and Langoe.] 

» Sic. 



ASSIZE ROLL 6U5 41 

212. •lohannes de Stobeton' non venit et manucaptus fnit 
per Robertum de Wyrvell de Carleton'^ et Eliam de Carleton' Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia Boby et Grafh'.) 

Cf. note to no. 213. 

' Perhaps Carlton-le-Moorland, Graffoe. 

213. •jRobertus de Wywoll' non venit et manucaptus fuit 
per lohannem de Stubton' de Ledenham et Eliam de Carleton'^ . 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {JIarg: Boby et Grafh'. .m'ia.) 

Tlie words Boby et Grafh' are placed in the margin niid-way between 
nos. 212 and 213. The scribe intended them to apply, correctly, to both 
entries. 

' Perhaps Carlton-le-Moorland, Graffop. 

214. •'Robertu3 Flauel non venit et manucaptus fuit per 
lohannem de Pateshull' et Radulfum Pacy de Anecastre . Ideo 
ipsi in mia. {Marg: Louedon' .m'ia.) 

Robert Flauuel was one of John of Pattishall's sub-bailiffs. 

215. •'Thomas Aungeuin non venit . Et manucaptus fuit 
per Willelmum f. eius de Askeby et Gilbertum ad Spinas de eadem . 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: Suthtre' .m'ia.) [Candleshoe : see 
no. 98.] 

216. •'Gilbertus Loseward non venit . Et manucaptus fuit 
per Willelmum Loseward de Asshfordeby et Robertum Waldig' 
de Bretham . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: .m'ia.) [Calcewath : 
see no. 92.] 

217. •'Hugo de Ormesby^ non venit Et manucaptu.g fuit 
per lohannem Totel de Luda . et lohannem Bonde de eadem Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: .m'ia.) [Probably Louthesk.] 

* North Ormesby, Ludborough, or South Ormesby, Hill. 

218. ^Gilbertus Malet non venit Et manucaptus fuit per 
Adem Malet de Thyngton'^ et . Thomam fratrem eius de eadem 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: .m'ia.) [Gartree : see nos. 94, 131.] 

' Toynton, Bolingbroke or Homcastle. 

219. •^Walterus de Wynceby non venit . [Et] manucaptus 
fuit per lohannem clericum de Wjmceby et lohannem Atte Grene 
de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: .m'ia. [Hill : see no. 93.] 

220. •'lohannes de Edhnton' non venit Et manucaptus fuit 
per Simonem fratrem eius de Thyngton^ et Thomam fratrem eius 
de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia. {Marg: .m'ia.) [Wraggoe : see 
no. 95.] 

1 Toynton, probably Homcastle. 

221. ^Willelmus de Hemmyngby non venit . Et manucaptus 
fuit per Henricum fratrem eius de Askeby et Robertum West de 



42 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia, (Marg: ra'ia. [Gartree : see nos. 
14, 96.] 

222. ^lohannes Euerard balliuus de EUowe [etj de Kyrketon' 
non venit et manuca])tus! fuit per Petrum Care de Pyncebek' et 
lohannem Care de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est 
vicecomiti quod distringat eum per terras etc . Et quod de 
exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie' die Veneris proxima post festum 
sancti Luce Ewangeliste.- {Marg: Hoylaund Ellowe Kyrke- 
ton' m'ia.) 

John came on the appointed day : see nos. 240, 241. There are some 
words erased between this and the next entry, but they arc illegible. 

» MS. repeats hie. - Friday, October 24th. 

223. •iPreceptum est capere lohannem Puttok' Ita quod 

sit hie die Veneris' . etc. 

John did not come, but one reason why he was wanted appears in 
no. 233. 

1 Friday, October 24th. 

224. ^Eborardus de Caumpedene subballiuus de Kyrketon' 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Ricardum de Sotterton' et 
Willelmum Totlemond Ideo ipsi in m'ia , Et preceptum est vice- 
comiti quod distringat eum per terras etc et quod de exitibus etc . 
Ita quod sit hie' predicto die Veneris etc. {Marg: m'ia. [Kirton.J) 

Everard did not come at all. 

* Probably an erasure between sit and hie, with a line drawn over the 
erasure. 

225. ^igellus de Donyngton' nuper baUiuus de Kyrketon' 
non venit et manucaptus fuit per Willehnum de Brunne et lohannem 
le Engleys . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
distringat eum per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod 
sit hie predicto die Veneris etc. {Marg: m'ia. [Kirton.]) 

Nigel did not como at all. 

226. ^[Willelmus f. Allexandri le Clerk' balliuus de Skyrebek' 

non venit et manucaptus fuit per lohannem By[nning] et lohannem 

de Horncastre . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti 

quod distringat eum per terras etc Et quod [de exitibus etc]' 

Ita quod sit hie ])redicto die Veneris etc. {Marg: Skjo-ebek' 

m'ia.) 

William did not come at all. 
' MS. torn away here. 

227. lIGilbertus Belle subballiuus de Skyrebek' . non venit 
et manucaptus fuit per Andream Gachard et lohannem Daule . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per terras etc 
Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie predicto die Veneris . etc. 
[Skirbeck.l 

The left-hand margin of the MS. is torn away here. Gilbert did not 
come at ali 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 43 

228. Preceptum . est attachiare Phillipum de Ounesby contra 

diem Veneris proxima post festum sancti Luce Ewangeliste etc 

Postea ad diem ilium .... 

The case remains unfinished, but see no. 229. 
Midway along the foot of the dorse is tlie sign -r 

[Membrane 7.] 

INGE. 
ADHTJC DE PLACITIS APUD STAUNFORD' IN COMITATU LINCOLNIE 
DIE MERCURII PROXIMA POST FESTUM SANCTI LUCE EWANGELISTE 
ETC. 

[Stamford, Wednesday, October 22nd.] 

229. ••^Abbas de Valle Dei queritur de Waltero Deaudamur 
et Philippo de Ounesby quod ipsi iniuste et sine warranto ceperunt 
de eo maliciose^ viginti et quatuor boues de caruca sua apud 
Lauyngton' ubi alia aueria ad minus dampnum cepisse potuerunt'^ 
et eos fugauerunt ad domum predicti^ Philippi de Ounesby et eos 
ibidem detinuerunt per tres septimanas . quousque deliberati 
fuerunt per Robertum le Venour tunc vicecomitem . Et duos boues 
de predictis aueriis vendiderunt^ ad graue dampnum ipsius abbatis 
centum s. etc . Et Walterus Deudamur venit Et predictus Philippus 
non venit . Et Walterus pro se dicit quod cepit predictos boues 
per preceptum Roberti le Venour tunc vicecomitis . pro viginti 
libris in quibus idem abbas tenebatur domino . regi . de decima 
per clericos concessa Et quo ad vendicionem duorum bouum 
dicit quod eos non vendidit . nee ad commodum suum deuenerunt 
etc Et alibi alia aueria quam predictos boues pro predict© 
debito cepisse non potuit nee maliciose eos cepit ponit se super 
patriam etc. 

Et Abbas dicit quod ipse maliciose boues predictos de caruca 
sua cepit et quod^ alibi alia aueria quam de caruca sua pro predicto 
debito cepisse*^ potuit ponit se super patriam. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Walterus cepit predictos boues per preceptum vicecomitis pro 
predicto debito viginti librarum Et eos inparcari fecit ad domum 
Philippi de Ounesby per tres septimanas quousque ad sectam 
ipsius abbatis deliberati fuerunt per preceptum vicecomitis Et 
dicunt quod predictus Philippus tempore quo habuit custodiam 
predictorum bouum terram suam cum eis arrauit et coluit sine 
assensu et voluntat^ ipsius W^alteri etc . Dicunt eciam quod predicti 
boues deliberati fuerunt per preceptum vicecomitis attornato 
ipsius abbatis Et quod predictus Philippus cepit duos boues de 
predictis aueriis sine assensu et voluntate ipsius W^alteri et illos 
vendidit pro .xiij.s. etc Dicunt eciam quod predictus Walterus 
aliam districcionem racionabilem inuenisse potuit . Ideo predictus 
Walterus satisfaciat predicto abbati de dampnis etc que taxantur 
per iuratam ad decern solid^' . Et predictus Walterus committatur 



44 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

paole*' etc . Posten predictus Philippus venit Et cognouit quod 
fecit predicto abbati predictam transgressionem sicut predictus 
abbas queritur etc . ad dampnum ipsius abbatis quadraginta 
solidorum . Ideo predictus abbas recuperet uersus eum . predictos 
quadraginta solidos^ Et predictus Philippus committatur gaole^ etc . 
Postea predictus Walterus fecit finem per .dim.m'^s. et alibi per 
flliam dim.m^'.^ per plegios Roberti Fryday de Swarreby , lohannis 
f. lohannis de eadem Willelmi f. Philippi de Calwarthorp' et 
Walteri Est etc^ Et Philippus de Ounesby fecit finem . per unam 
m^8. per plegios . Allexandri de Aswardby et Walteri Est de 
Ounesby . etc. 

DAMPNA .Ls. unde dim.m. C[lericis]^ ^° {Marg: Kesteuen' 
[Kesteven] .x.s». .Gaole^. .xl.s*^. .Gaole**. .dim.m^. 
.j.m^ ests ad scaccarium*? .remaneat in prisona quousque . 
Inuenerunt securitatem etc^.^^) 

The abbot of Vaudey complains of Walter Deaudamur and Philip of 
Aunsby, that thoy unjustly and without warrant did take from him, 
maliciously, twenty-four oxen from his plough-team at Lavington, where 
they could have taken other beasts at less damage ; and did drive them to 
the house of the aforesaid Philip of Aunsby, and there did detain them for 
three weeks, until they were delivered by Robert le Venour, then sheriff. 
And two oxen of the aforesaid beasts they did sell, to the grievous damage 
of that abbot, one hundred shillings. 

And Walter Deaudamur has come, and the aforesaid Philip has not 
come. And Walter, for himself, says that he took the said oxen by order 
of Robert le Venour, then sheriff, for £20 in which tlie same abbot was bound 
to the lord king touching the tenth granted by the clergy i- ; and as to the 
Bale of two oxen, he says that he did not sell them, nor were they put to 
his own use etc. And [for that] elsewhere other beasts than the afore- 
said oxen for the said debt he could not have taken nor did he take them 
maliciously, he puts himself upon the country etc. 

And the abbot says that he did maliciously take the aforesaid oxen 
from his plough-team ; and [for] that elsewhere he could have taken other 
beasts than from his plough-team for the aforesaid debt, he puts himself 
upon the country. 

The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Walter did take the 
aforesaid oxen by order of the sheriff, for the aforesaid debt of £20, and 
did cause them to be impounded at the house of Philip of Aunsby for three 
weeks, until at the suit of that abbot they were delivered by order of the 
sheriff'. And they say that the aforesaid Philip, at the time for which he 
had charge of the aforesaid oxen, did till and cultivate his land with them, 
without the assent and will of that Walter, etc. They say also that the 
aforesaid oxen were delivered by order of the sheriff to the attorney of that 
abbot ; and that the aforesaid Philip did take two oxen of the aforesaid 
beasts without the assent and will of that Walter, and did sell them for 
13/- etc. They say also that the aforesairl Walter could have found other 
reasonable distress. 

Therefore let the aforesaid Walter make satisfaction to the aforesaid 
abbot touching his damages etc., which are taxed by the jury at 10/-. And 
let the aforesaid Walter be committed to gaol etc. 

Afterwards the aforesaid Philip'' came, and acknowledged that he made 
upon the aforesaid abbot the aforesaid trespass, as the aforesaid abbot 
complains etc., to the damage ol that jibbot, 40/-. 

Therefore let the aforesaid abbot recover against him the aforesaid 
40/-, and let the aforesaid Philip be committed to gaol etc. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 46 

Afterwards the aforesaid Walter made fine by half a mark, and else- 
where by another half mark, by the pledges of Robert Fryday of Swarby, 
John son of John of the same, William son of Philip of Culverthorpe and 
Walter Est, etc. And Philip of Armsby made fine by one mark by the 
pledges of Alexander of Aswarby and Walter Est of Annsby. Damages 
50/-, whereof half a mark to the clerk(s). 

^ maliciose interlined. " uhi . . . potuerunt interlined. -^ prefZ/c^i inter- 
lined. * Some words have been erased here between vendiderunt and ad. 
and a line, a little over an inch long, drawn through the erasure, whicli is 
illegible. There is also an erasure above the line, the place being marked 
by a caret which has not been erased. " quod interlined. * Small erasure 
after cepisse. ' The marginalia to this entry are numerous. They are dis- 
tinguished by the letters a — h and the passage in the text to which each one 
refers indicated by the corresponding letter. Thus marginal a refers to 
this, and so on. * et alibi . . . dim.m. interlined. ° After etc MS. has Et 
Philippus de Ounesby fecit fnem per j.m. per plecjios, cancelled, because 

it is a repetition. " wjjrfe rf/m.jn. C is cancelled. ^^ remancat e^c is 

cancelled. '- This is probably the subsidy of a tenth voluntarily granted 
by the clergy on November 20th, 1297, for the defence of the realm 
against the Scots. But the clergy, under pressure from the king, tilso 
granted a tenth on November 12th, 1294, if they had not already paid 
the half of their revenues previously demanded ; and another tenth on 
November 27th, 1295. '* The ' afterwards ' suggests that Philip came as a 
result of the precept entered in no. 228. If so, the date mentioned there, 
October 24:th, makes it appear that no. 229, begun on the 22nd (see head- 
ing to m. 7), was not concluded till the 24th. 

230. '^Fulco de Quappelade optulit se uersus^ Henricum de 
Walmesford- et lohannem de Toftwik' iii placito transgressionis , 
Et predictus lohannes non venit nee manucaptus fuit quia non 
fuit inuentus nee aliquid habet in comitatu predicto etc . Ideo 
capiatur Et quod vicecomes habeat eum hie die Lune proxima 
ante festum omnium sanctorum.^ 

John did not come at all. 

^ optulit se uersus replaces queritur, cancelled. " Henricum de Walmes- 
ford is vmderlined in MS., and thereby cancelled. ^ Monday, October 27th. 

23L -^Fulco de Quappelade queritur de Radulfo Paynel 
nuper vicecomite Lincolnie et Thoma de Eston' quod ipsi die Lune 
in prima septimana quadragesime anno regni regis nunc vicesimo 
sexto ^ . ipsum Fulconem apud Staunford iniuste et sine warranto 
ceperunt et inprisonauerunt ab hora nona usque ad vesperas'' ad 
dampnum ipsius Fulconis . centum s. etc. 

Et Radulfus et Thomas venerunt Et Radulfus pro se et 
predicto Thoma dicit quod quedam assisa noue disseisine arramiata 
fuit uersus eum . per Ricardum Gouk' per quam quidem assisam 
compertum fuit quod ipse disseisiauerat predictum Ricardum 
Gouk' . ad dampnum ipsius Ricardi duarum m. unde dicit quod 
ipse precepit balliuis suis ut caperent de predicto Fulcone 
sufficientem securitatem pro predictis dampnis et similiter pro 
boue ad ipsum^ pro disseisina contingente , Et quod ipse alio modo 
predictum Fulconem non inprisonauit ponit se super patriam etc 
Et Fulco dicit quod predictus* Radulfus et Thomas ipsum predicto 
die sicut queritur ini)risonauerunt , El dicit quod cum ipse 



46 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

inplacitauit quemdara Robertum de Holebech' in curia domini 
regis ; dictus Radulfus respondit^ de minoribus exitibus quarn 
respondere potuit propter quod ipse sequebatur pro rege Et breue 
habuit iusticiariis assignatis in partibus illis . ad inquirendum 
si predictus Radulfus de maioribus exitibus respondere potest 
scilicet de viginti libris" Et dicit quod dictus Radulfus pro secta 
ilia ipsum inprisonauit sicut queritur quousque predictum breue ei 
reddidit Et de hoc ponit se super patriam etc. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod' quidem 
Ricardus Gouk' inplacitauit predictum Fulconem per breue noue 
disseisine coram Ade de Crokedek' et Willelmo Inge iusticiariis 
assignatis apud Staunford' in Comitatu Lincolnie die et anno 
predictis . coram quibus conuictum fuit per quamdam iuratam 
quod predictus Fulco . disseisiauit predictum Ricardum Gouk' . 
Et dampna sua que taxabantur ad duas m. uersus eum recuperauit 
propter quod idem Radulfus Paynel precepit balliuis suis ut caperent 
securitatem de predict© Fulcone pro predictis dampnis duarum m. 
et pro boue ad ipsum contingente . Et quod ipsum non inprisonauit 
nee breue domini regis ab eo abstulit . Ideo consideratum est quod 
predictus Fulco nichil capiat per querelam suam set sit in m'ia 
pro falso clamore . Et quia idem Fulco in decepcionem regis 
liberauit predictum breue dicto Radulfo . committatur gaole . Et 
restituat domino regi predictas .xx. libras etc. {Marg: Gaole 

est.) 

Fulk of VVhaplode complains of Ralph Paynel, lately sheriff of Lincoln, 
and of Thomas of Easton, that they, on Monday in the first week of Lent 
in the twenty -sixth year of the reign of the king who now is [March 24th, 
1298], did take that Fulk at Stamford, unjustly and without warrant, and 
did imprison him from the ninth hoiu* until vespers, to the damage of that 
Fulk, one hundred shillings etc. 

And Ralph and Thomas have come, and Ralph for himself and for 
the aforesaid Thomas says that a certain assize of novel disseisin was held 
against him [Fulk] by Richard Gouk, by which assise it was found that he 
had disseised the aforesaid Richard Gouk, to the damage of that Richard, 
two marks ; whereof he [Ralph] says that he gave order to his bailiffs to 
take from the aforesaid Fulk sufficient security for the aforesaid damages, 
and similarly for the ox pertaining to him [Ralph] for the disseisin. And 
[for] that he in other manner did not imprison the aforesaid Fulk, he puts 
himself upon the country etc. 

And Fulk says that the aforesaid Kalph and Thomas did imprison him 
on the aforesaid day as ho complains ; and he says that when he impleaded 
a certain Robert of Holbeach in the lord king's court, the said Ralph 
answered for less issues that he could answer, on account of which he himself 
[Fulk] was suing for the King ; and he had a writ to the Justices appointed 
in these parts to make enquiry whether the aforesaid Ralph can answer 
for greater issues, that is to say for twenty pounds : and he says that the 
said Ralph tor that suit chd iniprison him as he complains, until he had 
restored to him the aforesaid writ, and as to this he puts himself upon the 
country etc. 

The jurors say upon their oath that a certain Richard Gouk impleaded 
the aforesaid Fulk by a writ of novel disseisin before Adam de Crokedek and 
William Inpe, Justices appointed at Stamford in the county of Lincoln on the 
day ami in the year aforesaid ; before whom it wa.s proved by a certain 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 47 

jun.- that the aforesaid Fulk did disseise the aforesaid Richard Gouk. and he 
did recover against him his damages, which were taxed at two marks, on 
account of which the same Ralph Paynel gave order to his baihffs to take 
security from the aforesaid Fulk for the aforesaid damage of two marks 
and for the ox pertaining to him [Ralph] : and that he did not imprison 
him, nor did he take away from him the lord king's writ. Therefore it is 
awarded that the aforesaid Fulk do rake nothing for his complaint but be 
in mercy for false claim. And because the same Fulk in deceit of the king 
delivered the aforesaid writ to the said Ralph, let him be committed to gaol. 
And let him restore to the lord king the aforesaid twenty pounds etc. 

I have found no further trace of the assize cited abovo, nor any further 
reference to Richard Gouk'. Fulk was perhaps the son of one Thomas of 
Whaplode, a free tenant but not of knight's rank." 

A space of about an inch is left between nos. 231 and 232. 

' Monday, March 24th, 1298. - ab hora . . . vesperas interlined. 

' ipsum replaces vicecomitein, cancelled. '' Sic. * respondit interlined. 
"^scilicet . . . libri^ interlined. 'MS. repeats quod. ** A.B. 1320, m. 2G ; 
cf. C.Ch.R. 1257-1300, p. 127. 

232. Fulco fecit finem per .j.m. per plegios Roberti le Blound 
de Holebech' , lohannis le Keu et lohannis f. Willelmi de Sutton 
et Roberti Sawage de Quappelade Et manuceperunt eum habendum 
corpus suum coram lusticiariis ad quindenam sancti jMartini.^ 

This is probably the conclusion of no. 231 ; if so, the scribe no doubt 
left the space mentioned in case any other details were to be entered. 

^ November 2oth. At this date the justices were away from Lincoln- 
shire, probably in Rutland or Northamptonshire, and the rolls for these 
counties are lost ; so that it is impossible to discover whether in fact Fulk 
did come on November 25th. 

233. -^jAlanus f. Rogeri lllary de Frampton' queritur de 
Willelmo de Flyntham quod ipse iniuste et sine warranto cepit 
tres vaccas et quinque iumentas^ etc et eas fugauit apud Donyngton" 
etc Et Willelmus dicit quod non cepit predicta aueria nee eaa 
apud Donyngton" fugauit Et de hoc ponit se super patriam etc 
luratores dicunt super .sacramentum suum cjuod predictus Willelmus 
cepit aueria predict! xHani . per garcionem suum et quemdam 
lohannem Puttok' balliuum suum et ea fugauit apud Donyngton' 
et ibidem retinuit per quatuor septimanas ad dampnum ipsius 
Alani septem s. Ideo consideratum est quod recuperet uersus 
eum dictos denarios Et committatur gaole . Postea fecit finem . 
per .xl.d. per plegios etc. 

Dampna .vij.s. unde .ij.s. C[lericisj. [Mary: Hoylaund' est 
ad scaccarium Gayole.-) 

This case does not seem to arise out of a prise ad opus regis, otherwise 
that fact would be stated. And if William had distrained Alan against 
a debt outstanding, one woukl have expected that to be stated also. At 
the same time, it would perhaps bo dangerou.s to infer that the bea.sts were 
taken merely out of malice, on no pretext, plausible if specious. There 
must have been such pretext, known to all parties to the suit, including 
the jurors, but not revealed in the recorded pleading It may have been 
a svimmons of Pipe or Green Wax. 

^ MS. iutientas. - Gayole cancelled. 



48 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

234. 'Fuloo de Quappelade qui qnerebatur de Henrico de 
Walmesford non est prosecutus . Ideo predictus Henricus inde 
sine die et predictus Fulco et plegii sui de prosequendo in m'ia 
scilicet Robertus Sauuage de Quappelade et Alanus f. Galfridi de 
PjTicebek'. {Marg: m'ia.) [Elloe.] 

235. -^Petrus de Cumbermount qui querebatur de Ricardo 
de Drey cotes vicecomite Lincolnie et Willelmo de Bibbesworth' 
clerioo suo non est prosecutus . Ideo predicti Ricardus et Willelmus 
inde^ sine die Et predictus Petrus et plegii sui de prosequendo 
in m'ia scilicet lohannes de Stubeton' et Robertus f. Radulfi de 
Coringham. {Marg: m'ia.) 

' hide interlined. 

236. -^Arnaldus Codhorn et Willelmus Carpentarius iuratores 
de^ Graham quia non venerunt . in m'ia etc. {Marg: m'ia.) 

Neither of these names appears in the list of Grantham jurors, no. 482. 

1 Between Iuratores and de MS. has hundredi, cancelled. 

237. -^Walterus vicarius ecclesie de Borugle queritur de 
Thoma de Eston' balliuo etc^ de eo quod idem Thomas in Staun- 
ford' ad festum sancti Barnabe apostoli anno regni regis nuno 
vicesimo sexto- cepit de eodem Waltero duo quarteria frumenti 
et dim. precii . sexdecim s. et octo d. Et illud penes ipsum detinuit 
etc unde dicit quod deterioratus est [et] dampnum habet ad 
valenciam etc.^ 

Et Thomas venit Et cognouit quod iUud bladum cepit etc 
Et hoc per preceptum Petri de Molynton' qui ad capcionem bladi 
regis in comitatu isto assignatus etc . Et inde liberauit receptoribus 
regis ad portum etc duo quarteria etc tantum . Ideo habeat inde 
warrantum etc . de liberacione etc . Et quia cognouit quod retinuit 
residuum videlicet dim. quarterium frumenti que tunc valuit tres s. 
etc Ideo predictus Thomas satisfaciat ipsi Waltero de predictis 
tribus s. et de dampnis etc . que taxantur per lusticiarios ad 
duodecim denarios . Et Thomas committatur gaole etc . Habet 
diem ad satisfaciendum de predictis .iiij.s. die sancti Andree"* Postea 
fecit finem pro ista transgressione et aliis . per sexaginta sex s. 
et octo d. per plegios Walteri Est et Ade de Ingoldesby Et 
absoluatur ab officio regis suo perpetuo. {Marg: [.ii]j.s. .xij.d. 

Gaole ^ .est .ad scaccarium.) 

Walter, vicar of the church of Burley, complains of Thomas of Easton, 
bailiff etc., for that the same Thomas, in Stamford on the feast of St. 
Barnabas the apostle in the twenty-sixth year of the reign of the King who 
now is [Juno 11th, 1298] did take from the same Walter two quarters and 
a half of com, of price sixteen shillings and eight pence : and this he did 
detain in his possession etc., whereof he [Walter] says he is the worse [and] 
has damage to the value etc. 

And Thomas has come and has acknowledged that he took that 
com etc. ; and this by order of Poter de Molinton, who was appointed to 
the taking of the King's com in this county etc. And he [Thomas] delivered 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 49 

thereof to the King's receivers at the port etc. two quarters etc., only. 
Therefore let him have [his] warrant etc. touching the dehvery etc. And 
because he has acknowledged that he did retain the residue, to wit half a 
quarter of corn which was then valued at three shillings etc., therefore let 
the aforesaid Thomas mtiko satisfaction to that Walter touching the aforesaid 
three shillings and touching damages etc., which are taxed by the Justices 
at twelve pence. And let Thomas be committed to gaol etc. He has a 
day to make satisfaction touching the aforesaid four shillings : St. Andrews 
day [November 30th. 129S]. Afterwards he made fine for this trespass and 
others by sixty-six shillings and eight pence, by the pledges of Walter Est 
and Adam of Ingoldsby. And let him be absolved from his office of the 
King in perpetuity. 

This is a case arising out of the prise of corn ordered on April 15th, 
1298, for the army in Scotland, and affecting Lancashire, Yorkshire, Lin- 
colnshire. Cornwall. Devon, Gloucestershire. Somerset, Dorset and Ireland.* 
Chief collectors were appointed for the counties ; for Lincolnshire, Peter de 
Molynton, a royal clerk, was appointed to take 1,000 quarters of wheat and 
1,050 quarters of oats.* 

^ etc. interlined. -June 11th, 1298. 'After etc. MS. ha.s fecit finem 
(imperfectly) erased. * November 30th, 1298. ^ Gaole is cancelled. * C.P.R. 
1292-1301. p. 344. 

238. ^articule solute ad scaccarium domini regis per manum 
Willelmi de Huzton' de exitibus alienigenanim de comitatu 
Lincolnie tempore custodie predict! Willelmi . videlicet de fratre 
Willelmo procuratore abbatis de Sauienaco . Bynygton^ .vij.l. x.s. 
^pDe ttatre lohamie procuratore abbatis de Alneto , Limberg'- 
•vij.l. viij.s. ^De fratre Roberto procuratore abbatis sancti 
Nicholai Andegaviis . Wiltheton'^ • vij.l. xj.s. viij.d. ^De priore 
de Hath .xxiij.l. •jDe priore de Rauendale .C.s. ^De priore de 
Cameringham .ix.l. IjDe priore de Wilesford vij.l. ij.s. ^e priore 
deWenghal' .L.s. 

^summa .Ixix.l. xx.d. unde fit una tallia de toto' comitatu 
de scaccario. {Marg: ^lemorandum de bonis alienigenarum relig- 
iosarum.) 

Items paid into the Excliequer of the lord king by the hand of William 
de Huzton, from the issues of aliens in the county of Lincoln during the 
time of the keepership of the said William, to wit : from brother William, 
proctor of the abbot of Savigny at Long Bennington, £7 10s. ; from 
brother John, proctor of the abbot of Aunay at Limber, £7 8s. ; from 
brother Robert, proctor of the abbot of St. Nicholas, Angers at Willough- 
ton, £7 lis. 8d. ; from the prior of Hough, £23 ; from the prior of Raven- 
dale, 100/- ; from the prior of Cammeringham, £9 ; from the prior of 
Wilsford, £7 2s. ; from the prior of Winghale, 50/-. Sum £59 Is. 8d., whence 
one tally is made from the whole county, from the Exchequer. (In the 
margin : Memorandum of the goods of alien religious. ) 

The abo^•e are results, for Lincolnshire, of the order of September 28th, 
1295,^ taking into the kings hands the property of alien clergy whose houses 
were situated in maritime coimties. Their inhabitants were to be lodged in 
denizen houses, and release could be obtained by compounding with the 
king for good behaviour.* I can find no reference to William de Huzton's 
appointment. 

^ Bynygton interlined. ^ Limberg interlined. ' Wiltheton interlined. 
*toio interlined. » Cf. Appendix III, p. 180. " Foed., i, p. 826. 



50 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

239. -ITNicholaus de Dyngele de Staunford queritur de Thoraa 
de Eston' balliuo de Nesse quod ipse iniuste cepit de eo per extor- 
cionem .xij.d. etc . Et Thomas venit Et cognouit quod cepit 
predictos denarios . Ideo consideratum est quod restituat predictos 
denarios dicto N[icholao] Et Thomas in m'ia. {Marg: Nesse 
m'ia.) 

This is a straight -forward case of extortion. 

[Membrane ld.\ 

ADHUC DE PLACITIS APUD STAUNFORD IN COMITATU LINCOLNIE 
DIE VENERIS PROXIMA POST FESTUM SANCTI LUCE EWANGELISTE 
ANNO REGNI REGIS EDWARDI VICESIMO SEXTO. 

[Stamford, Friday, October 24th.] 

240. -^Henricus de Wycheford capeUanus queritur de lohamie 
f. Eborardi de Pyncebek' balliuo de Hoylaunde quod ipse die Lune 
in vigilia sancti Tohannis Baptiste anno regni regis Edwardi 
vicesimo sexto ^ . intrauit cameram suam a])ud Spalding' iniuste 
et sine warranto . Et ibidem cepit et asportauit quatuor quarteria 
brasei precii .xviij.s. et tallia facere ei contradicit unde dicit quod 
deterioratus est Et dampnum habet ad valenoiam dim.m. etc. 

Et lohannes venit Et cognouit quod cepit predictum braseum 
per preceptum Petri de Molynton' clerici domini regis in comitatu 
Lincolnie ad bladum et braseum nomine [regis] capiendum assignati 
Et ostendit litteram ipsius Petri sigillo suo signato . Et quod 
predictum braseum liberauit Henrico de Molyngton' attornato 
predicti Petri . Et quod nichO ad commodum suum deuenit ponit 
se super patriam . etc . Et datus est ei dies usque aduentum pre- 
dictorum Petri et Henrici Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
attachiet eos Ita quod sint coram iusticiariis ubicunque fuerint 
in comitatu Lincolnie die veneris proxima post quindenam sancti 
Martini- Et dictum est predicto lohanni Pyncebek' quod interim^ 
sequatur breue vicecomiti Oxonie de faciendo venire predictum 
Petrum sicut sibi viderit expedire. {Marg: Hoylaunde.) 

Henry de Wycheford, chaplain, complains of John son of Everard of 
Pinchbeck, bailiff of Holland, that he, on Monday the eve of St. John Baptist 
in the twenty-sixth year of King Edward [June 23rd, 1298], did enter his 
chamber at Spalding unjustly and without warrant, and there did seize 
and carry of? four quarters of malt of price 18/-, and refuses to make a tally 
for it ; whereof he [Henry] says he is the worse, and has damage to the value 
of half a mark etc. 

And John has come, and has acknowledged that he took the aforesaid 
malt by order of Peter de Molynton, clerk of the lord king appoint erl in the 
county of Lincoln to take com and malt in [the kings] name ; and he shows 
a letter of that Peter, signed with his seal. And [he acknowledged] that 
he delivered the aforesaid malt to Henry de Molynton, the attorney of the 
aforesaid Peter. And that nothing was put to his own use, he puts himself 
upon the country etc. And a day is given him, until the coming of the 
aforesaid Peter and Hemy. And order is given to the sheriff that he do 
attach them, so that they be before the -Justii^ori wheiovci' they sliall be 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 51 

in the county of Linroln on thf> Friday next after tlin L|uindene of St. ^lartin 
[November 28th]. And it is enjoined upon the aforesaid John Pinchbeck 
that in the meantime he do sue a writ to the sheriff of Oxford to summon 
the aforesaid Peter, as shall seem to him expedient. 

This is another case arising out of the 1298 prise of corn ; cf. no. 237. 
There is no further reference to this case in A.R. 505 ; in any case the court 
did not sit anywhere in Lincolnshire in November. Evidently Peter de 
Molynton was now (October, 1298) in Oxfordshire. 

' Jime 23rd, 1298. • Friday. November 28th, 1298. » interim inter- 
lined. 

241. ••[Adam Beysaunt queritur ile predicto lohanne 
Euerard quod ipse maliciose et sine warranto cepit de eo quinque 
quarteria brasei Et ipsum distrinxit ad braseum emendum ubi 
nullum liabuit etc . Et unum quarterium carnis salsate ab eo iniuste 
cepit hostia sua sigillauit et ipsum de domo sua eiecit ad graue 
dampnum ipsius Ade dim.m. etc. 

Et lohannes venit Et cognouit quod cepit predictum braseum 
per preceptum predicti Petri de Molyngton' Et ostendit litteram 
ipsius Petri . Et dictum est ei sicut prius quod sequatur breue etc 
Et quod sit ad prefatum terminum etc . Et quod hostia sua non 
sigillauit nee ipsum maliciose distrinxit ponit .se super patriam etc 
Et quo ad capcionem carnis . cognouit quod cepit Ideo con- 
sideratum est quod restituat Et committatur gayole. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Johannes iniuste distrinxit predictum Adam ad braseum emendum ad 
graue dampnum ipsius Ade septem.s. Ideo consideratum est quod 
recuperet uersus eum predictos denarios Et committatur gayole. 
{Manj: Gayole . Gaj'ole.) 

Adam Beysaunt complains of the aforesaid John Everard, that he 
maliciously and without warrant did take from hiin five quarters of malt, 
and did distrain him to buy malt where be had none etc. ; and did unjustly 
take from him one quarter of salted flesh, did seal up his doors and did turn 
him out of his house, to the grievous damage of that Adam, half a mark etc. 

And John has come, and has acknowledged that he took the aforesaid 
malt by order of the aforesaid Peter de Molynton, and he shows a letter 
of that Peter. And it is enjoined upon him as before that he do sue a 
writ etc., and that he be [present] at the said term etc. And that he did 
not seal up his [Adam's] doors nor maliciously did distrain him, he puts 
himself upon the country etc. And as to the taking of flesh, he has acknow- 
ledged that he took it : therefore it is awarded that he do restore [it]. And 
let him be committed to gaol. 

The jurors say upon their outh that the aforesaid John did unjustly 
distrain the aforesaid Adam to buy malt, to the grievous damage of that 
Adam, seven shillings. Therefore it is awarded that he do recover against 
him the aforesaid moneys. And let him [John] be committed to gaol. 

This case also arises out of the prise of corn of 1298. 

242. ^Willelmus Bolour et OUua que fuit uxor lohannis de 
Helpeston'^ optulerunt se uersus Robertum Pygyoim de placito 
transgressionis Et ipse non venit Et vicecomes testatus est quod 
districtus est per catalla ad valenciam quadraginta s. Et 



52 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

nichilominus Robertus Basset de Bosthorp'- Robertus Clericus 
de eadem Willelmus Crispyngg' de Adljaigton' et lohannes le 
Mouner de Wilsthorp' maniiceperunt eum Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et 
preceptum est vicecomiti sicut alias . etc . quod distringat eum 
per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Et quod habeat 
corpus etc hie die Lune proxima futura^ etc. {Marg: .xl.s. forisf 
postea venit m'ie Staunfiford.*) 

The defendant was a bailiff of Winnibriggs, cf. no. 206. For the con- 
clusion of the case see no. 376. 

^ de Helpeston' interUned. - This place is really Woolsthorpe, Winnib. 
' Monday, October 27th. * The whole entry, together with the marginal 
xl.s. forisf, is cancelled. 

243. -^IThomas vicarius ecclesie de Quappelade qui querebatur 
de Radulfo Paynel de placito transgressionis non est prosecutus 
Ideo Radulfus inde sine die Et predictus Thomas et plegii sui 
de prosequendo in m'ia . scilicet Rogerus de Cotoun et Fulco de 
Quappelade etc. {Marg : m'ie.) 

244. -^lohannes rector ecclesie de Besseby optulit se uersus 
Willelmum Wanthorn de Thetilthorp' de placito transgressionis 
Et ipse non venit Et fuit attachiatus per Willelmum Loseward 
de Foulesthorp' et Gilbertum Loseward de eadem Ideo ipsi in 
m'ia Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes 
terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Et quod habeat corpus eius 
apud Grantham die Martis proxima futura^ etc. {Marg: m'ie 
Grantham.) [Calcewath.] 

^Tuesday, October 28th. 

245. -^Quia conuictum est per iuratam quod Gilbertus de 
Pyncebek' iniuste se querebatur de Radulfo PajTiel nuper vice- 
comite comitatus istius de quadam districcione etc . Ideo predictus 
Radulfus inde sine die Et predictus Gilbertus nichil capiat per 
querelam [suam] set sit in m'ia pro falso clamore etc. {Marg: 
m'ia.) 

246. -preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod attachiaret Willelmum 
Thenk' quod esset hie ad hunc diem^ ad respondendum etc super 
presentacione de Candlesou Et ipse non venit Et fuit attachiatus 
per Hugonem Gegge de Braysthoft et Gilbertum atte Hethes de 
eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
distringat eum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . 
Ita- quod habeat corpus eius"^ hie die Lune proxima futura^ etc. 
{Marg: m'ie Staunf'.^) [Candleshoe.] 

There is no record in A.R. 505 of the appearance of William Thenk on 
October 27th to the charge against him of the Candleshoe jurors. 

At this point the handwriting of the MS. alters and becomes very much 
neater. Another scribe has been responsible for filling up the remainder 
of m. 7d. 

' Friday, October 24th. * per omnes . . . Ita interlined. ' MS. repeats 
eius. 'Monday, October 27th. ^ Staunf written over an erasure. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 53 

247. '^receptum fuit vicecomiti quod attachiaret Ricardum 
f. VValteri de Westemeles quod esset hie ad hunc diem^ ad respon- 
dendum etc super presentacione de Candleshou- Et ipse non 
venit Et fuit attachiatus per Hugonem de Westemeles et lohannem 
de Westemeles . Ideo ipsi in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti 
quod distringat eum per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc 
Ita quod habeat corpus eius in aduentu lusticiariorum.^ {Marg: 
m'ia Stanford.) [Candleshoe.] 

^ October 24th. * A second u has been added to Candleshou and then 
erased. ' in aduentu lusticiariorum, interhned, replaces in MS. hie die 
Lune prox' ante festum omnium sanctorum, cancelled. 

248. -^[Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod attachiaret Walterum 
de Howe quod esset hie ad hunc diem ad respondendum super 
presentacione de Candeshou . Et ipse non venit Et fuit attachiatus 
per Walterum de Hulle et Willelmum Belte Ideo ipsi in m'ia . 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnes terras 
etc . Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod habeat corpus eius in 
aduentu lusticiariorum. ^ {Marg: m'ia Stanf'.) [Candleshoe] 

* As for No. 247, note 3, above. 

249. -^Simon le Keu de Vffyngton' . Willelmus de Baston' 
de Gretford' Ricardus de Glaunuyle de eadem Thomas 
Beyendeyebek' . de eadem Simon le Keu de Langetoft lohannes 
Louet de eadem Willelmus Freman de Berham' Hugo de North- 
gate de eadem Dauid de Glaunuyle de Gretford Willelmus Faber 
de Berham lordanus de Hoylaund Reginaldus Thorald de 
Brassyngburgh' , duodecim iuratores wapentakii de Nesse . in 
m'ia . quia non reddiderunt veredictum suum apud Staunford 
die Dominica ante festum apostolorum Simonis . et Jude^ . Et 
preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eos per terras etc Et 
quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sint apud Grantham die Veneris 
in vigilia Omnium Sanctorum^ etc. {Marg: Nesse m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 470 ; the two lists tally. 

^ Svinday, October 26th. => Friday, October 31st. 

250. ••[lohannes le Lung' de Keseby Willelmus de Blaunkeney 
de eadem Willelmus de Bretteuyll' de Gunneby Robertus Byeston' 
lohannes Brom de Bytham . Willelmus Gentyl de Byhamel Thomas 
Lucas de Edenham Walterus Pere de BjTton' , Hugo Erlyn de 
Edenham lohannes f. Thome de Corby , Hugo Peuerel de Lound' . 
et Petrus le Clerk' de Swafeld . Iuratores de Belteslowe quia non 
reddiderunt veredictum suum predicto die Dominica . in m'ia. 
{Marg: Belteslowe m'ia.) 

The Beltisloe jurors do not appear in the lists on m. 15 and 15d. No 
reason is given in A.R. 505 as to why these jurors were not given another 
day. 

25 L -^Thomas Aurey de Roceby Rogerus de Cotoun de 
Dyryngton' . Willelmus Randolf . de Rouceby . Walterus Pygot 



54 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

de eadem Martinus Nychole de Ryskyngton' . lohannes le Warde 
de eadem . Willelmus de Dreyton' de eadem Thomas de Herneston' 
de Thorp' . lohannes Maluel de Scaupewyk' , Willelmus Hereward 
Robertus Kylnehogg' . et Willelmus de Cranewell' luratores de 
Flaxwell' et Langhow . quia non reddiderunt veredictum suum 
predicto die Dominica in m'ia. {Marg: Flaxwell' et Langhow . 
m'ia.) 

Remarks as for Beltisloe jurors in no. 250. 

252. -^Petrus de Hykham lohannes de Grantham de 
Bassyngham Galfridus Clericus de Hadyngton' Dauid de 
Thrykyngham . Willelmus Scharp de Thurleby Simon Heghuon 
de Colby , Philippus de [This]teIword de eadem Simon de Brade- 
well' de eadem Henricus le Messager de Betheby . Walterus 
Wysman de Colby et Rogerus de Aula de Hermeston' . luratores 
de Boby et Graff how . quia non reddiderunt veredictum suum 
predicto die Dominica in m'ia . Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
distringat eos per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod 
sint apud Grantham' die Veneris m vigilia Omnium Sanctorum. ^ 
{Marg: Boby et Graf how . m'ia.) 

These names tally with those given in no. 481, less one name — Walter 
of Bassingham. 

1 Friday, October Slst. 

253. -^Robertus de Hakebech' . Rogerus de Tydd lohannes 
de Sutton , Simon Page , Henricus de Sutton' , Rogerus Bacoun , 
Simon atte Hasse . Willelmus Golde lohannes de Pettebrigg'^ . 
Ricardus Clony de Spaldyng' . Gilbertus f. Willelmi de eadem et 
Robertus le Blound iuratores de Ellowe quia non reddiderunt 
veredictum suum apud Staunford . die Lune proxima post festum 
decolacionis sancti lohannis- . in m'ia . etc Et datus est eis dies 
ad reddendum veredictum suum in proximo aduentu iusticiariorum 
en partibus Lincolnie etc Postea die Lune post festum sancti Luce 
iiwangeliste^ venerunt predicti iuratores apud Staunford et petierunt 
eicenciam de iusticiariis ad reddendum veredictum suum apud 
Graham die Mercurii proxima ante festum Omnium Sanctorum* . 
Ad quem diem nullus eorum venit prefer Robertus de Hakebech' . 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat 
OS per terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sint coram 
usticiariis in proximo aduentu suo etc in comitatu Lincolnie etc. 

(Marg: Ellowe m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 467. Having failed to give their verdict at Stamford on Sep- 
tember 1st these jurors came there on October 20th and sought licence to 
give it at Grantham on October 29th, on which day only one of them appeared. 
Against no. 467 appears this significant statement : ' they have not yet 
given their verdict,' that is, at the time when the Lincolnshire enquiry 
closed in December, 1298. The names in nos. 253 and 467 tally. 

» PettebriR in Spalding parish. * Monday, September Ist. ^ Monday, 
October 20tli. ' Wednesday, October 29Th. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 55 

254. ••'Bobertiis de Kyrketon* miles . Willolmus de Copeldyk ' , 
AUexander le servaiint de Algarkyrk' Ricardus de Casterton' , 
Willelmus Rugeuvn . de Surflet Godefridus Bolle de Swynesheued 
Robertus de Surflet Willelmus de Alta Ripa Stephanus de 
Wyketoft . Ricardus de Hodel' Alanus Copyldj-k' . Thomas Hyllaiy 
non est lur"' iuratores . de Kyrketon' quia non reddiderunt 
veredictum suum apud Stauntbrd die Lune proxima post festum 
Decolacionis sancti lohaunis- in m'ia . etc^ {Marg: [Kyrjketon' 
[Hojylaund . [m']ia.) 

The names tally with those given in no. 466. 

' non est lur interlined above the name Thomas Hyllary. - Monday, 
September 1st. * et quod de exit ibus etc. I ta quod si nt coram lusticiariis in 
aduentu sua etc. has been erased. 

255. ••'Willelmus de Hagl' Willelmus de Normanton' , 
Stephanus Coleman de Calthorp' Henricus Agate de Fulbek' , 
Galfridus Cosyn de Hagham . Henricus de Braunston de Bjmyng- 
ton' . Stephanus Fraunceys de Bredon'^ Robertus f. Roberti 
de Bredon' Rogerus de Kann' de Haugham , Willelmus f. 
Henrici Clerici de Thorp' . Galfridus Bryan et Robertus de 
Bereford iuratores de Louedon' quia non reddiderunt vere- 
dictum suum apud Staunford ad predic[tum]- diem [in m'ia]- 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eos per terras etc 
Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sint apud Grah[am die Veneris 
in vigilia]- omnium sanctorum.^ {Marg: [Louejdon' [m'ia].-) 

The names tally with those given in no. 478. 

* Perhaps Brandon, Love. * On the analogy of nos. 249, 252. The 
bottom of m. 7d is torn away a little at both sides. ^ Friday, October 31st 

[Membrane 8.] 

256. Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam^ Willelmus f. 
Gilberti et Nicholaus Herre taxatores decime domino regi concesse 
se posuerunt quod- iniuste leuauerunt de Alicia ad Montem .vj.d. 
de Radulfo Teuk" .ij.d. De Emma la Long' .vj.d. De Willelmo 
ad Ker .vj.d. De Simone Capellano .vj.d. De Thome de Braytoft 
.vj.d. De Willelmo Gegge .ij.d. De Matilda Tok' .ij.d. De lohanne 
Clerico .ij.d. De Waltero f. luliane .vj.d. De Hugone . Gegge 
ij.d. De Elicio Boteler .iij.d. De Petro de la Ker .iiij.d. De Hugone 
seruiente EUcii le Boteler .ij.d. De luliana Gardener .xxj.d. De 
Waltero Dene .ij.d. De Austino Guncy .ij.d. De Willelmo f. 
Alicie .ij.d. De Willelmura ad Ripam .ij.d. et De Willelmo Subtil' 
.vij.d. ubi non taxari deberent nee ad commodum regis deuenit 
Consideratum est quod restituant dictos denarios . predictis 
hominibus Et committantur gayole . Postea fecerunt finem per 
.ij.m. per plegios Thome de Irby Alani de Scalflet^ et Radulfi 
de Rigg'. {Marg: Candleshow Gayole^ . est ad scaccarium.) 

Because it has been proved by the juiy upon which William son of Gilbert 
and Nicholas Herre, taxors of the tenth granted to the lord king,' placed 
themselves that they did unjustly levy [specified sunas from specified persons] 



56 ASSIZE ROLL 506 

where the^' ought not to be taxed, nor was [tlie money] put to the King's 
use : it is awarded that they do restore the said moneys to the aforesaid 
persons. And let them be committed to gaol. Afterwards they made 
fine by two marks by the pledges of Thomas of Irby, Alan do Scalflet and 
Ralph de Rigg. 

* in qitam interlined over erasure. ^ se posuerunt quod interlined. 
^ Perliaps near Wainfieet. * Gayole cancelled. '" The tenth of Novem- 
ber, 1294. 

257. If Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam^ . lohannes 
del Rawe Willelinus de Thorp' Alanus atte Conyesgate , Willelmu8 
Kyng' Willelmus de Steping' . Rogerus del More Laurencius f. 
Hugonis Willelmus Helrycher Walterus de Askeby . Willelmus 
Grymag' . Hugo f. Rose et Willelmus de Scremthorp"- collectores 
duodecime se posuerunt quod^ leuauerunt de villata de Braytoft 
ultra id quod ad commodum regis deuenit .iiij.s. Ideo consideratum 
est quod predicti lohannes et alii restituant predictos denarios 
predicte villate Et sint in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Because it has been proved by the jury upon which John del Rawe 
[and eleven others], collectors of the twelfth,* placed themselves that they 
did levy from the township of Brat oft 4/- above that which was put to the 
King's use : therefore it is awarded that the aforesaid John and the others 
do restore the aforesaid moneys to the aforesaid township. And let them 
be in mercy. 

* in qvum interlined. ^ Scremthorp'' interlined, replaces in MS. Seiner- 
thorp', cancelled. " se posuerunt quod interlined. * The twelfth of Novem- 
ber, 1296. 

258. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Radulfus 
Bernard et Robertus de Spina taxatores duodecime se posuerunt 
quod^ iniuste leuauerunt de hominibus non taxabihbus .viij.s. iiij.d. 
qu. scilicet de Agnete Mundegoun .vj.d. De Emma la Long' .vj.d. 
De Radulfo le Gardener .iiij.d. De Alicia ad Montem .j.d.ob.qu. 
De Roberto Teuke .viij.d. De Simone Capellano .vj.d. De Willelmo 
del Ker .vj.d. De Willelmo Gegge .ij.d. De Matilda Toke .iij.d.ob. 
De lohanne le Clerk' .ij.d. De Matilda Carpentar' .iiij.d. De 
Waltero f. luliane .xij.d. De Alicia Teuke .xij.d. De Elicio Boteler 
.iij.d. De Ricardo atte Ker .xij.d. De Willelmo ad Ripam .ij.d. 
consideratum- est quod predicti Radulfus et Robertus restituant 
predictos denarios Et committantur Gayole . Postea fecerunt 
finem per j.m. per plegios Willelmi f. Gilberti et Astini Gimni. 
{Marg: est ad scaccarium Gayole.^) [Candelshoe.] 

Because it has been proved by tJie jury upon which Ralph Bernard and 
Robert de Spina, taxors of the twelfth, placed themselves that they did 
levy from non taxable persons 8/4^ [names and amounts specified]. It is 
awarded that the aforesaid Ralph and Robert do restore the aforesaid 
moneys. And let them be committed to gaol. Afterwards they made fine 
by one mark by the pledges of William son of Gilbert and Astin Gimni 
[Austin Guncy]. 

Non taxable persons were those with movables the value of which fell 
below 12/-." 

* se posuerunt quod interlined. * MS. does not capitalise c of con- 
sideratuyn. ' Gayole cancelled. •• K.Ii.M.R., no. 70, ra. 87. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 57 

259. Quia ponnictnm est per inratam in qiiam Simon P\Ticrak' 
de Burgh se posuit quod^ iniuste ieuauit per extorcionem de 
Andrina que fuit uxor Roberti de Grymesflet .ij.s. iiij.d. con- 
sideratum- est quod predictus Simon restituat predictos denarios 
Et committatur gaole . Postea fecit finem per .xx.s. per plegios 
Alani Hardebene , et^ Xicholai Herre. {Marg: Gaj'ole^ est 
ad scaccarium.) [Candleshoe.] 

Because it has been proved by the jury upon which Simon Pyncrak 
of Burgli placed himself, tjiat he did unjustly levy by extortion from Andrina, 
widow of Robert de Grj-niesflet 2/4 : it is awarded that the aforesaid Simon 
do restore the aforesaid moneys. And let hun be committed to gaol. After- 
wards he made fine by 20/- by the pledges of Alan Hardebene and Nicholas 
Herre. 

1 se posuit quod interlined. * MS. does not capitalise the c of con- 
sideratum : cf. no. 260. ^ et interlined. * Gayole cancelled. 

260. *'Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Rogerua 
de Brinkil se posuit quod^ iniuste et sine warento^ Ieuauit de 
predicta Andrina .xij.d. ultra quod ad comodum domini regis 
deuenit . consideratum est quod predictus Rogerus restituat 
predictos denarios predicto Andrine Et committatur gayole 
postea fecit finem per .xl.d. per plegium Rogeri Pylat. {Marg: 
Gayole^ est ad scaccarium.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 259. 

* se posuit quod interlined. ^ Spelling as in MS. * Gayole cancelled. 

261. ^luratores presentant quod Thomas Aungewyn Ieuauit 
iniuste de Waltero Purchace .ij.s. etc . Et Thomas venit^ Et 
cognouit quod Ieuauit predictos denarios . Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat dictos denarios Et sit in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia) 
[Probably Candleshoe.] 

' venit interlined. 

262. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Ricardus 
de Brinkel se posuit quod^ iniuste recepit de villata de Wymthorp' 
.viij.s. Consideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios Et sit 
in m'ia. {Marg: Wynthorp' m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

* se posuit quod interlined. 

263. •^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam^ Hugo 
Ammory balliuus de Candelesh' se posuit quod'-^ iniuste sine 
waranto Ieuauit de Petro seruiente Alani le Taylour de Wymthorp' 
.ij.s. ut non inprisonauit^ eum consideratum^ est quod predictus 
Hugo restituat predictos denarios predicto Petro . Et Hugo com- 
mittatur gaole . postea fecit finem per .xl.s. per plegios Alani atte 
Kyrk' de Ingoldemeles et Alani f. lohannis de Croft. {Marg: est 
Gaole ad scaccarium.) [Candleshoe.] 

Because it has been proved by the jury upon which Hugh Amory, bailif? 
of Candleshoe, placed himself, that he did unjustly, without warrant, levy 
from Peter, ser\-ant of Alan the Tailor of Winthorpe, two shillings so a;^ 



68 ASSIZE ROLL o05 

nnt to imprison hiin : it is awarded that the aforesai<l Hupli do restore the 
aforesaid moneys to the aforesaid Peter. And let Hugh be committed to 
gaol. Afterwards he made fine by 40/- by the pledges of Alan atte Kyrk 
of Ingoldmells and Alan son of John of Croft. 

' in quam interlined. - se posnit quod interlined. '^ Sic. * MS. does 
not capitalise r- of consideratum. 

264. •iluratoies presentant quod^ predictus Hugo attachiauit 

telam lineani .viij.ulnaruni precii .ij.s. de Willelmo Wykpak' latrone 

YA Hugo venit Et cognouit quod recepit predictam telam precii 

.ij.s. Consideratum est quod predictus Hugo restituat dictos 

denarios hominibus villate de Wymthorp' eo quod onerebantur 

de catallis ipsius feloni- . Et Hugo in m"ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 

[C'andleshoe.] 

The jurors present that the aforesaid Hugh did attach a linen cloth of 
eight ells, of price 2/-, from William Wykpak, a thief. And Hugh has come, 
and has acknowledged that he received the -said doth of price 2,'-. It is 
awarded that the aforesaid Hugh do restore the said moneys to the men of 
the township of Winthorpe, for that they are charged with the chattels 
of that felon. And [let] Hugh [be] in mercy. 

^ quod is fii-st cancelled in MS., then interlined. -MS. has /eo/?/'. 

265. ^luratores presentant quod Rogerus de Brynkel iniuste 
et sine waranto attachiauit vaccam Philippi Whetecroft et earn 
fugauit apud Lincolniam et ibi detinuit quousque habuit .x\'iij.d. — 
Et Rogerus venit Et cognouit dictos denarios Ideo consideratum 
est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto Philippo . Et sit in 
m'ia. (Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.J 

The jurors present that, Roger of Brinkliill did unjustly and without 
warrant attach the cow of Philip of Wlietecroft, and did drive it to Lincoln, 
and there did detain it until he had 18 pence [from Philip]. And Roger 
has come, and has acknowledged the said moneys. Therefore it is awarded 
that he do restore the said moneys to the aforesaiil Philip. And let him 
be in mercy. 

266. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam' predictus 
Rogerus se posuit quod- recepit de predicto Philippo .j. caseum 
precii .xij.d. pro predicta vacca rehabenda Consideratum est 
quod predictus Rogerus restituat predictos denarios dicto Philippo . 
Et Rogerus oommittatur gaole — fecit tinem ut patet supra. {Marg: 
Gaole- est.) [Candleshoe.J 

Because it has been proved by the jury upon which the aforesaid Roger 
placed himself, that lie did take from tlie aforesaid Philip one cheese of 
price 12 pence, for having his cow back : it is awarded that the aforesaid 
Roger do restore the said money.s to the said Philip. And let Roger be 
committed to gaol. He made fine as appears above (40 pence, cf. no. 260). 

This case is tlie continuation of no. 2l)5. 

• in quam interlined. - se poauit quod interlined. •' Gaole cancelled. 

267. ^luratores presentant quod Ricardus de Brinkel iniuste 
leuauit in villa de Skegnesse pro peditibus ad guerram .v.s. Et 
P^icardus venit Et cognouit quod recepit dictos denarios ideo* 



ASSIZE ROLL .105 59 

consideratum est quod predictus Ricardus re.stitiiat dictos denarios 
predicte villate . Et sit in m'ia. {Marg: ra'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

The jurors present that Richard of Brinkhill did unjustly levy in the 
\nll of Skegness for foot -soldiers for the war. five shillings. And Richard 
has come, and has acknowledged that ho received the said moneys. There- 
fore it is awarded that the aforesaid Richard do restore the saitl moneys to 
the inhabitants of the aforesaid vill. And let him be in mercy. 

' MS. does not capitalise i of idea. 

268. *yiuratores presentant quod Alanus ad Ecclesiara de 
Ingoldemeles iniuste letinuit de Waltero Surmylk' de^ vadiis suis 
in villa de Ingoldnieles .xj.s.- dum fuit in seruicio domini regis 
Et Alanus venit Et cognouit quod habet penes se dictos denarios 
Ideo consideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto 
Waltero et villate'' . Et sit in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Tl.e jurors present that Alan ad Ecclesiam of Ingoldmells did unjustly 
retain from Walter Surmylk from his wages in the vill of Ingoldmells eleven 
shillings, while he was in the service of tlie lord king. And Alan has come, 
and has acknowledged that he has the said moneys in his posses.sion. There- 
fore it is awarded that he do restore the said moneys to tlie aforesaid Walter 
and to the inliabitants of the vill. And let him be in mercy. 

There is no evidence in A.R. .305 as to what kind of royal service Walter 
performed, but it may have been military' service in Wales during 1295 : 
cf. no. 269. 

' MS. has pro cancelled, de interlined. - in villa de I ngoldmeles .xj.s. 
interlined. ' et I'illate interlined. 

269. •'luratores presentant quod Ricardus de Brynkel iniuste 
leuauit de villata de Ingoldemeles .iiij.s. ut non irent in seruicio 
domini regis apud WaUiam Et Ricardus venit Et cognouit 
quod leuauit dictos denarios de dicta villata . Ideo consideratum 
est quod predictus Ricardus restituat dictos denarios predicte villate 
Et sit in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

The jurors present that Richard of Brinkhill did unjustly levy from 
the inhabitants of the vill of Ingoldmells four shillings, so that they might 
not go in the service of the lord king in Wales. And Richard has come, and 
has acknowledged that he levied the said moneys from the said vill. There- 
fore it is awarded that the aforesaid Richard do restore the said moneys to 
the aforesaid vill. And let hiin he in mercy. 

270. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam^ Robertus 
Est- de Ingoldemeles se posuit quod^ iniuste leuauit de Alano ad 
Ecclesiam .xix.d. ad duodecimam et non fuit taxabilis Consideratum 
est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto Alano . Et sit in m'ia. 
{Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 258. Alan was himself guilty of offences similar to that from 
which he here suffers : cf. nos. 271-2. 

* quam interlined. ^ Between Est and de Ingoldemeles MS. has se pas', 
cancelled. ^ se posuit quod interlined. 

27 L *;Iuratores presentant quod Alanus ad Ecclesiam de 
Ingoldemeles iniuste leuauit de Willelmo ad Schalas .vj.d. pro 
licencia habenda ut non iret in Scociam Et predictus Alanus venit 



60 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

Et cognouit dictos denarios . Ideo consideratum est quod restituat 
dictos denarios Et sit in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia) [Candleshoe.] 

The jurors present that Alan ad Ecclesiam of Ingoklrnells did unjustly 
lovy from William ad Schalas (id. to have a licence so that he might not go 
into Scotland. And the aforesaid Alan lias come, and has acknowledged 
the said moneys. Therefore it is awarded that he do restore the said money. 
And let him be in mercy. 

272. ^luratores presentant quod Alanus ad Ecclesiam lohannes 

de Mareys et Alanus le Warde maliciose taxauerunt ad duodecimam 

domino regi concessam Robertum Est pauperem Et pepercerunt 

Roberto ad Scalas diuitias qui' debent taxasse ad .ij.s. — Et predicti 

Alanus lohannes et Alanus venerunt Et cognouerunt quod 

taxauerunt Robertum Est pauperem et pepercerunt Roberto ad 

Scalas sicut presentatum est Ideo consideratum est quod predicti 

Alanus lohannes et Alanus restituant domino regi predictos 

denarios Et committantur Gaole postea lohannes de- Mareys 

et Alanus Ward' fecerunt finem per .j.m. per plegios Alani ad 

ecclesiam et Simonis Pynecrak'. {Marg: est ad scaccarium 

Gaole^ Regi.-*) [Candleshoe. J 

The jurors present that Alan ad Ecclesiam, John de Marisco and Alan 
Warde did maliciously tax for the twelfth* granted to the lord king Robert 
Est pauper ; and they did spare Robert ad Scalas his riches, which 
ought to have been taxed at 2/-. And the aforesaid Alan, John and Alan 
have come, and have acknowledged that they taxed Robert Est pauper 
and spared Robert ad Scalas, as it is presented. Therefore it is awarded 
that the aforesaid Alan, John and Alan do restore to the lord king the afore- 
said moneys. And let them be committed to gaol. Afterwards John de 
Marisco and Alan Warde made fine by one mark, by the pledges of Alan 
ad Ecclesiam and Simon Pynecrak'. 

1 So in MS. ^ de interlined. ^ Oaole cancelled. * Regi cancelled. 
^The twelfth of 1296. 

273. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam^ idem Alanus 
ad Ecclesiam se posuit quod^ iniuste retinuit penes se de hominibus 
taxabilibus .vij.s. ix.d, de decima domino regi concessa Con- 
sideratum est quod predictus Alanus restituat domino regi pre- 
dictos denarios Et committatur gaole postea fecit finem^ per 
.xl.s. per plegios Alani Warde et lohannis de Mareys. {Marg: 
Regi* Gaole 5 ad scaccarium.) [Candleshoe.] 

A case of unjust retention, by a sub-taxor, of money collected by him 
in the course of his duty. The tax concerned is the tenth of 1294. 

' quam interlined. '^ ad Ecclesiam quod interlined. * after 

finem is etc, cancelled. * Regi cancelled. ' Gaole cancelled. 

274. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam' idem Alanus 
se posuit quod- iniuste leuauit de Simonc f. Willelmi f. Roberti 
.xij.d. ad decimam domino regi concessam et non fuit taxabilis 
(Consideratum est quod predictus Alanus restituat predicto Simoni 
predictos denarios Et sit in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 258. 

' in qtuim interlined, quod cancelled. - ae poauit quod interlined. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 61 

275. ■'luratores presentant quod Willelmus f. Radulfi de 
Dunneswra clericus maliciose taxauit Robertum Cacchok' pauperem 
ad octo d.^ et non fuit taxabilis Et predictus Willelmus venit 
Et cognouit quod taxauit predictum Robertum sicut presentatum 
est Ideo consideratum est quod predictus Willelmus restituat 
predictos denarios dicto Roberto Et sit in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 272, though here the question of exempting a wealthier person 
does not arise. 

1 ad octo d. interlined. 

276. ^lura tores presentant quod Alanus ad Ecclesiam de 
Ingoldmels et Rogerus de Fryseby iniuste receperunt de Lamberto 
Markham Willelmo de Thorp' Hugone f. Beatricie Thome Power 
taxatoribus none domino . regi concesse .ij.s. antequam vellent 
rotulos suos^ recipere etc — Et Alanus et Rogerus venerunt Et 
cognouerunt quod receperunt predictos denarios sicut presentatum 
est . Ideo consideratum est quod predicti Alanus et Rogerus 
restituant predictos denarios predictis Lamberto et aliis Et sint 
in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Alan and Roger were sub-taxors, not chief taxors. This ease looks 
like sharp practice to obtain an advance payment from their fellow taxors. 
Probably Alan and Roger were charged with collecting the local rolls and 
transmitting them to the chief taxors, in which case Lambert and the others 
had to submit their rolls to them. Alan and Roger refused to accept them 
until bribed by Lambert and his fellows. 

^ 8U08 interlined. 

277. ^luratores presentant quod Willelmus de Wra . Alanus 
ad Ecclesiam et Alanus Warde taxatores ad decimam domino 
regi concessam iniuste per extorcionem leuauerunt de villata de 
Ingoldemeles .xx.s. pro expensis ^suis etc — Et Willelmus^ et alii 
venerunt Et cognouerunt quod leuauerunt predictos denarios ex 
bona voluntate predicte villate Et de hoc ponunt se super patriam etc 
luratores dicmit super sacramentum suum . quod predicti Willelmus 
et alii leuauenmt predictos denarios de predicta villata contra 
voluntatem eorum . Ideo consideratum est quod predicti W^illelmus 
et alii restituant predictos denarios predicte villate Et sint in 
m'ia. [Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

The jurors present that William de Wra, Alan ad Ecclesiam and Alan 
Warde, taxors of the tenth- granted to the lord king, did unjustly and by 
extortion levy 20/- from the inhabitants of the vill of Ingoldmells for their 
expenses etc. And William and the others have come, and have acknow- 
ledged that they levied the aforesaid moneys out of the good-will of the 
inhabitants of the aforesaid vill ; and as to this they put themselves upon 
the coimtrv etc. The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid William 
and the others levied the aforesaid moneys from the inhabitants of the afore- 
said vill against their will. Therefore it is awarded that the aforesaid 
William and the others do restore the aforesaid moneys to the inhabitants 
of the aforesaid vill. And let them be in mercy. (The question of 
expenses is discussed in the Introduction, pp. xlix-h.) 

'-MVritten over an erasure. - Tlie tenth of November, 1294. 



62 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

278. ^luratores presentant quod Alanus prepositus Willelmiia 
f. Walteri de Hyltoft et Robertus Bugge taxatores ad undecimam^ 
leuauerunt in villa de Ingoldmeles .xxiiij.s. pro expensis suis — 
Et Alanus et alii venerunt [et cognouerunt]'- quod leuauerunt pre- 
dictos denarios ex bona voluntate predicte ville pro expensis suis 
Et de hoc ponunt se super patriam luratores dicunt super sacra- 
mentum suum quod predicti Alanus et alii leuauerunt predictos 
denarios de predicta villata contra voluntatem eorum . Ideo 
consideratum est quod predicti Alanus et alii restituant predictos 
denarios Et sint in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 277. 

» The eleventh of November, 1295. = Omitted in MS. 
[Midway along loot of membrane the signs 3 -r arid, at extreme right- 
hand comer of the foot, the sign ; ; ] 

[Membrane 8d.] 

279. ^;Imatores presentant quod Willelmus f. Walteri de 
Hultoft iniuste leuauit de Henrico de Orby .vj.d. ad taxacionem 
none^ ultra id quod ad comoduni regis deueuit etc — Et Willelmus 
venit Et cognouit quod leuauit predictos denarios de predicto 
Henrico . Ideo consideratum est quod predictus Willelmus restituat 
predictos denarios predicto Henrico Et sit in m'ia . etc. {Marg: 
m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 257. 

^The ninth of September, 1297. 

280. ^luratores presentant quod Alarms ad Ecclesiam . 
Alanus Warde . Alanus ad Fontem . error quia non fuit culpabilis^ 
et lohannes de Marisco . taxatores . duodecime'^ domino regi 
concesse . leuauerunt de villa de Ingolesmeles .xxj.s. pro expensis 
suis^ Et predicti Alanus et alii venerunt Et cognouerunt quod 
leuauerunt predictos denarios ex bona voluntate predicte villate 
Et de hoc ponunt se super patriam etc luratores dicunt super 
sacramentum suum quod })redicti Alanus et alii leuauerunt pre- 
dictos denarios de predicta villata contra voluntatem eorum . 
Ideo consideratum est quod restituat predictos denarios predicte 
villate Et Alanus et alii in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 277. 

1 Alarms ad fontem cancelled ; error quia non fuit cuipabilis interlined. 
= The twelfth of November, 1290. 'pro expensis suis interlined in place 
of ultra id, cancelled. 

28L ^luratores presentant quod lohamies de Marisco iniuste 
per extorcionem leuauit de Simone f. Walteri f. Roberti qui non 
deberet taxari ad duodecimam' .viij.d. nee ad commodum domini . 
regis . deuenit , — Et lohannes venit Et cognouit quod leuauit 
predictos denarios de ])redicto Simone sicut presentatum est . 
Ideo consideratum est quod restituat predictos denarios predicto 
Simone Et lohannes in m'ia . etc. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 
Cf. nos. 256, 259. 

' Tho twelfth of November. 1290. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 63 

282. ^luratores presentant quod Alanus ad Ecclesiam iniuste 
leuauit per extorcioneni de Thome Astyn .xij.d. de Roberto 
atte Hawenedyk' .vj.d. et de Rogero Baron .vj.d. ad duodecimam' 
ubi non deberent taxari . nee ad comniodum regis deuenit etc Et 
Alanus venit Et cognouit quod leuauit predictos denarios sicut 
presentatum est . Ideo consideratuni est quod restituat dictos 
denarios predictis Thome et aliis . Et Alanus in m'ia. [Marg: 
m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. nos. 256, 259. 

»The twelfth of November. 1296. 

283. ^;Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Willelmus f. 
Gilbert i et Xicholaus Herre taxatores none^ se posuerunt quod 
leuauerunt de hominibus non taxabilibus- ad nonam^ .xj.s. vj.d. 
ultra id quod ad commodum doraini regis deuenit . scilicet de 
Emma la Long' .ix.d. De Radulfo Gardener .iiij.d. De Alicia ad 
Montem .ix.d. De Willelmo ad Ker .vj.d. De Simone Capellano 
.vj.d. De Simone Teuke .iij.d. De Roberto Teuk' .vj.d, De 
Willelmo Gegge .ij.d. De Matilda Cok" ij.d. De Willelmo Sylok' 
.iij.d. De Cecilia Mundegoun .vj.d. De Matilda Carpentar' .iij.d. 
De Willelmo ad Ripam .iiij.d. De Willelmo f. luliane .xij.d. De 
Willelmo . subtil* .iij.d. De Hugone Gegge .ij.d. Item de Petro 
del Ker .iiij.d. De Ricardo ad Ker .ij.s. de Hugone seruiente 
Elicie Boteler .vj.d. De Willelmo Dene .ij.d. De Willelmo f. 
Allele .xij.d. De Willelmo ad Ripam .viij.d. et De Philippo Clerico 
.ij.d. Consideratuni est quod predictus Willelmus et alii restituant 
predictos denarios dictis hominibus Et committantur Gaole . 
fecerunt finem ut patet supra.^ (Marg: Gaole^ est.) 
[Candleshoe.] 

The fiiie was by two marks, cf. no. 256. Cf . also no. 258. 

1 taxatorea none interlined. - The downward limit for the ninth was 
movables a.ssessed at mider 9/-: cf. L.T.R.M.R., no. 69, in. .38. ^ The 
ninth of September, 1297. * fecerunt . . . supra added afterwards. 
' Gaole cancelled. 

284. ^luratores presentant quod Robertus Pylat Martinus 
de Welpigton'' . lohannes de Beauwer et Radulfus de Rygg'- . 
taxatores decime^ domino regi conce.sse leuauerunt in villa de 
Welton' .iiij.s. de hominibus non taxabilibus' ultra id quod ad 
commodum domini regis deuenit etc — Et Robertus Pylat et alii 
venerunt Et cognouerunt quod leuauerunt predictos denarios . 
de predicta vUlata . Ideo consideratuni est quod restituant predictos 
denarios dicte villate . Et sint in m"ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candelshoe]. 

Cf. nos. 257, 2.38. 

' Perhaps Welton-le-Marsh, Candleshoe. - Rygg' is preceded in MS. by 
R . . ., cancelled. There is an ei-asure above the line from the beginning 
of the entrj- to this point. 'The tenth of Xcnember, 1294. * The dou-n- 
ward limit for this tax was movables assessed at under 10/- : cf. K.R.M.R., 
no. 08, m. 72. 



64 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

285. •'Quia conuictiim est per iiiratam in quam lohannes 
del Rawe . Willelmus de Thorp' . Alanus atte Conyesgate Willelmus 
Galle Simon Pyncrak' Rogerus de la More . Lauiencius f. Hugonis 
Willelmus Elrycher Petrus f. Edde , Alanus Borel Alanus Harde- 
wj'n et ^Valte^us Skynner taxatores undecime^ et duodecime'^ 
leuauerunt in villa de Oreby .ij.s. ultra id quod ad commodum . 
regis deuenit . Consideratum est quod predicti lohannes [et] alii 
restituant dictos denarios predicte villate Et sint in m'ia. {Marg: 
m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 257. 

'The eleventh of November, 1295. - et duodecime interlined: the 
twelfth of November, 1296. 

286. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Robertus 
Pylat lohannes de Beawer et Radulfus de Rygg' • taxatores 
duodecime^ domino regi concesse leuauerunt in villa de Welton' 
de hominibus non taxabilibus .iiij.s. v.d. scilicet de Waltero Fyn 
•xij.d. De lohanna Puella .xv.d. De Henrico Sparrow .ix.d. De 
Gilberto Kolyere .xv.d. De Matilda Puella .ix.d. et de Willelmo 
le Spenser .iiij.d. consideratum- est quod restituant predictos 
denarios predictis Waltero et aliis Et committantur gaole Postea 
Robertus Pylat lohannes de Beawer et Radulfus de Ryg' . fecerunt 
finem per .xx.s. per plegium proprium . etc. {Marg: est ad 
scaccarium Gaole. 2) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 258. 

* The twelfth of November, 1296. 'MS. does not capitalise c of con- 
sideratum. ' Gaole probably cancelled, but it may have been written over 
an erasure. 

287. ^luratores presentant quod lohannes del Rawe 
Willelmus de Thorp' . Alanus de Conysgate . Willelmus Kyng' 
Laurencius f. Hugonis . Willelmus Elrycher Rogerus de la More 
\A'illclmus de Stepyng' . Walterus de Askeby , Willelmus Greymag 
Hugo f. Ros' . et Willelmus de Scrempthorp' taxatores duodecime^ 
iniuste leuauerunt in villa de Welton' .ij.s. pro expensis suis etc 
Et lohannes et ahi . venerunt ICt- cognouerunt quod leuauerunt 
predictos denarios de predicta villata sicut presentatum est . Ideo 
consideratum est quod predicti lohannes et alii restituant predictos 
denarios dicte villate Et sint in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 277. 

1 The twelfth of November, 1296. « After Et MS. has quod, cancelled. 

288. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Austinus 
Gumy Hugo Gegge Willelmus ad Rypam et Radulfus Prepositus 
taxatores xj^^ [se posuerunt] quod iniuste leuauerunt de hominibus 
non taxabihbus''^ .viij.s. scilicet de Agnete Mundegom .viij.d. De 
Emma Longa .vij.d. De Radulfo le Gardener .vj.d. De Ahcia 
ad Montem .iiij.d. De Simone Capellano .vj.d. De Willelmo 
Gegge .ij.d. De Matilda le Keu .xij.d. De lohanne Clerico .ij.d. 
Du Willelmo Sylok' .xij.d. De Cecilia Mundegom .viij.d. De 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 65 

Gilberto le Boteler .ij.d. De Petro del Ker .vj.d. De Ricardo 
del Ker .xij.d. De Hugone seruiente E[licie]^ Boteler .ij.d. De 
Willelmo Dene .ij.d. De Roberto ad Spinas .ij.d. De Willelmo 
f. Alicie .ij.d. De Willelmo Sotyl .v.d. Ideo consideratum est . 
quod predicti Austinus et alii restituant dictos denarios predictis 
hominibus Et Austinus , Hugo . Willelmus et Radulfus com- 
mittantur . gaole postea fecerunt finem per duas marcas per plegios 
Nicholai Herre et Thome de Ireby. {Marg: est ad scaccarium 
Gaole. ^) [Candleshoe.] 
Cf. no. 258. 

' Tlie eleventh of November, 1295. - Persons with movables assessed 
at uiider 11/-: K.R.M.R., no. 69, m. 65. 'Supplied from no. 283. 
* Gaole cancelled. 

289. *|Quia conuictum eat per iuratani in quam Hugo Amory 
se posuit . quod iniuste per extorcionem^ leuauit de Willelmo de 
Caldeflyte .xij.d. et de Willelmo May .xij.d. Consideratum . est 
quod predictus Hugo restituat dictos denarios dictis Willelmo et 
^Villelmo Et Hugo committatur gaole . fecit finem etc. {Marg: 
est Gaole.-) [Candleshoe. J 

Cf. no. 259. 

^ per extorcionem interlined, ■ Gaole cancelled. 

290. ^uratores presentant quod Alanus de la Rawe et 
lohannes Blaunchard taxatores decime' iniuste leuauerunt in 
villa de Burgh' .xvj.s. iij.d. ob. pro expensis suis ultra id quod 
ad comodum domini regis deuenit — Et Alanus et lohannes venerunt 
Et cognouerunt quod leuauerunt predictos denarios de predicta 
villata sicut presentatum est , Ideo consideratum est quod restituant 
dictos denarios predicte villate . Et Alanus et lohannes in m'ia. 
(Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. nos. 257, 277. 

» The tenth of November, 1294. 

29L ^uratores presentant quod predicti Alanus et lohannes 
leuauerunt ad decimam^ de hominibus non taxabilibus .ij.s. ultra 
id quod ad commodum domini regis deuenit scilicet de Walter© 
Day .xij.d. De Willelmo Pyndecrak' .vj.d. et de Henrico Seggewald' 
.vj.d. — Et predicti Alanus et lohannes venerunt Et cognouerunt 
quod leuauerunt predictos denarios de predictis hominibus sicut 
presentatum est . Ideo consideratum est quod restituant dictos 
denarios Et Alanus et lohannes committantur gaole . Postea 
fecerunt finem per dim.m. per plegios Alani Hardeben et magistri 
Simonis de Whynthorp' . etc. {Marg: Gaole . est ad 
scaccarium.) [Candleshoe.] 
Cf. nos. 257, 258. 

^ The tenth of November, 1294. 



66 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

292. •jQuia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Hugo Amory 
se posuit quod iiiiuste leuauit de Roberto f. Urselli .v.s. con- 
sideratum^ est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto Roberto . 
Et Hugo committatur gaole . fecit fiiiem etc. {Marg: Gaole.-) 
[Candleshoe.] 

' MS. does not capitalise c of consideratum. ■ Gaole cancelled. The 
memorandum est ad scaccarlum is placed in the margin between nos. 
291 and 292, but applies only to no. 291. 

293. ^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Alanus 
Plant , Robertus Maonus et Henricus Ingelbryth . lobannes de la 
Rawe Willelmus de Thorp' Alanus de Conysgate Willelmus 
Galle , Simon Pj^ndecrak' Rogerus del More Laurencius f. Hugonis . 
Willelmus Elryker Petrus f. Edde Alanus Borel Alanus Hard- 
wyne et Walterus Skynnore iniuste leuauerunt de villata de Burgh' 
de hominibus non taxabilibus^ ad undecimam- ultra id quod ad 
commodum regis deuenit .viij.s. ix.d. Consideratum est quod 
restituant dictos denarios predicte villate Et Alanus et alii in 
m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. nos. 257, 258. Below no. 293 is the beginning of another entry, 
lur' presentant, but it has been partially erased. 

^ de . . . taxabilibus interlined. For downward limit, cf. no. 288. 
* The eleventh of November, 1295. 

[Midway along foot of the dorse the sign 3» repeated on very edge of 
the membrane slightly to the left. Also in bottom right-hand corner the 

signs .* and ['[] 

[Membrane 9.] 

294. -^Iluratores presentant quod Simon Pyncrak' , Henricus 
May Alanus de Skegnes et Simon le Botyler taxatores et collectores 
duodecime^ in villa de Burgh' leuauerunt pro expensis suis in 
predicta villa .xv.s. etc — Et Simon et alii venerunt Et" 
cognouerunt quod leuauerunt predictos denarios de predicta 
villata . Ideo consideratum est quod restituant dictos denarios 
predicte villate Et Simon et alii in m'ia. {Marg: Candleshow 
m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 277. 

1 The twelfth of November, 1296. » After Et MS. has quod cancelled. 

295. -^luratores presentant quod Willelmus Greyfmag' et 
Simon Pyncrak' taxatores et collectores uone^ in villa de Burgh' 
leuauerunt in villa predicta pro expensis suis .v.s. j.d. ultra id 
quod ad commodum regis deuenit — Et Willelmus et Simon venerunt 
Et cognouerunt quod leuauerunt predictos denarios de predicta 
villata sicut presentatum est . Ideo consideratum est quod restituant 
dictos denarios predicte villate Et Willelmus et alii in m'ia. 
{Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. nos. 257, 258. 

'The ninth of September, 1297. 



ASt^IZE ROLL 505 67 

296. -^luratores presentant quod Alanufs Cissor Hugo f. 
Roys' . et Ricardus Carpentarius taxatores et coUectores decime^ 
in villa de Xortholmp' leuauerunt in villa predicta de hominibus 
non taxabilibus- .xij.d. pro cxpensis suis — Et Alanus et alii venerunt 
Et cognouerunt quod leuauerunt predictos denarios de predicta 
villata sicut presentatum est . Ideo consideratum est quod restituant 
dictos denarios predicte villate Et Alanus et alii in m'ia. {Marg: 
ra'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

O'. no. 277. 

' The tentli of November, 1294. - Persons with movables worth under 
10/-: of. K.B.M.R., no. 68, m. 72. 

297. -fluratores presentant quod Ranulphus de Grelby et 
Robertus Blaunkpayn taxatores none in villa de Scremby 
leuauerunt in villa predicta .xij.d. ultra id quod ad commodum 
regis deuenit . Et Ranulphus et Robertus venerunt Et cognouerunt 
quod leuauerunt predictos denarios^ de predicta villa Ideo 
consideratum est quod restituant predictos denarios dict€ villate 
Et Ranulphus et Robertus in m'ia. [Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

a. no. 257. 

1 detiarioa interlined. 

298. -Tiluratores presentant quod predictus Ranulphus de 
Grelby et Gilbertus f. Alicie taxatores decime^ in villa de Scremby 
leuauerunt in villa predicta .x.d. ultra id quod ad commodum 
regis deuenit . Et Ranulphus et Gilbertus- venerunt Et cognouerunt 
quod leuauerunt predictos denarios . sicut presentatum est . Ideo 
consideratum est quod predict! Ranulphus et Gilbertus- restituant 
predictos denarios predicts villate Et sint in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 257. 

^ The tenth of November, 1294. ^ MS. has Robertus : the scribe was 
thinking in terms of no. 297. 

299. ••'luratores presentant quod lohannes de Grelby Ricardus 
Hame et Robertus f. Gene taxatores undecime^ leuauerunt in 
villa de Scremby .xvj.d. ultra id quod ad commodum regis 
deuenit etc Et lohannes et alii venerunt Et cognouerunt quod 
leuauerunt predictos denarios . Ideo consideratum est quod 
restituant dictos denarios predicte ville Et sint in m'ia. {Marg: 
m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 257. 

1 The eleventh of November, 1295. 

300. -Tluratores presentant quod Ranulphus de Grebby et 
Robertus Blaunkpayn taxatores duodecime^ in villa de Scremby 
leuauerunt in villa predicta de hominibus non taxabilibus- .xx.d. 
ultra id quod ad commodum regis deuenit . Et Ranulphus et 
alii^ venerunt Et cognouerunt quod leuauerunt predictos denarios 
sicut presentatum est . Ideo consideratum est quod predicti 



68 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

Ranulphus et aliP restituant predictos denarios dicte villate Et 
sint in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. nos. 257, 258. 

1 The twelfth of November, 1296. * Persons with movables worth 
less than 12/-. • So in MS. : there was only one other. 

301. -^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Walterus 
f. Siinonis , Thomas de Enderby^ et Robertus ad Ripam se posuerunt 
quod iniuste leuauerunt ad decimam- in villa de Askeby .xiij.d. 
de hominibus non taxabilibus^ . ultra id quod ad commodum regis 
deuenit ; scilicet . de Sinione f. Matilde .iij.d. De Gilberto de 
Wynthorp' .ij.d. De Baldrico de Askeby .iij.d. De Roberto de 
Langar .ij.d. De Philippo ad Ripam .iij.d. Consideratum est 
quod predicti Walterus f. Simonis et alii restituant predictos 
denarios dictis hominibus Et sint in m'ia. (Marg: m'ia.) 
[Candleshoe.] 

Cf. nos. 257, 258. 

^ Perhaps Mavis Enderby, Bol. * The tenth of November, 1294. 
^ Persons with movables worth less than 10/-. 

302. -^luratores presentant quod Walterus f. Gilberti Robertus 
ad Ripam et Thomas f. Nicholai taxatores duodecime^ in villa 
de Askeby . leuauerunt in villa predicta .xv.d. ultra id quod ad 
commodum regis deuenit etc Et Walterus et alii venerunt Et 
cognouerunt quod leuauerunt predictos denarios . sicut presentatum 
est . Ideo consideratum est quod restituant dictos denarios dicte 
villate . Et Walterus et alii in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 257. 

1 The twelfth of November, 1296. 

303. -^luratores presentant quod Robertus de Langar , 
Martinus le Waryk' Gilbertus ad Spinas , Hugo f. Philippi . 
Walterus f. Simonis et Thomas de Enderby^ taxatores undecime- 
in villa de Askeby leuauerunt in villa predicta .xvij.d. de hominibus 
non taxabilibus^ ultra id quod ad commodum regis deuenit Et 
Robertus et ahi venerunt Et cognouerunt quod leuauerunt predictos 
denarios de predicta villata . sicut presentatum est . Ideo considera- 
tum est quod restituant dictos denarios predicte villate Et 
Robertus et aUi in m'ia . etc. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. nos. 257. 258. 

1 Perhaps Mavis Enderby, Bol. - The eleventh of November, 1295. 
* Persons with movables worth less than 1 1 /-. 

304. -luratores presentant quod lohannes de la Rowe 
iniuste leuauit .xij.d. de villata de Askeby ad undecimam^ ultra id 
quod ad commodum regis deuenit . Et lohannes venit Et cognouit 
quod leuauit predictos denarios sicut presentatum est . Ideo con- 
sideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios predicte villate Et 
lohannes in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Candleshoe.] 

Cf. no. 257. 

* The eleventh of November, 1296. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 69 

305. ••iluratores presentant quod Thomas de Eston' balliuus 
de Nesse iniuste leuauit de Galfrido de Cotessmur unum pekkum 
frumenti precii .iij.d.ob.qu. de Roberto Rykeman .j. pekkum . 
precii .iij.d.ob.qu. De Alredo le Mercer .j. pekkum frumenti . 
precii .iij.d.ob.qu. De Petro de London' .j. pekkum frumenti precii 
.iij.d.ob. , De Alicia de Cesterton' .j. pekkum frumenti precii 
.iij.d.ob.qu. De Henrico de Wakerle .ij. pekka . precii. ix.d. De 
Galfrido de Wyleweby^ .j. pekkum frumenti . precii .iiij.d. De 
Ricardo de Tynewell' .j. pekkum frumenti . precii .iiij.d.ob. 
De Alicia de Cesterton' dim. quarterium brasei . precii .ij.s. vj.d. De 
Ricardo de Morcote braseum . precii .vj.s. et vj.d. De Willelmo 
de Apethorp' braseum ad valenciam .vj.d. De Roberto le Bourser 
braseum ad valenciam .xiij.s. j.d.ob. De Cecilia Poctesmouth' 
braseum ad valenciam .iij.s. ix.d. De Thoma de Stanhow- . braseum 
ad valenciam .xxij.d.ob. De Willelmo Gabegok' braseum ad 
valenciam .iij.s. De Alicia Bylk' braseum ad valenciam .vij.d.ob. 
De Roberto de Eluerton' braseum ad valenciam .xij.d. De Agnete 
de Apethorp' braseum ad valenciam .xij.d. De Emma de Glaston' 
braseum ad valenciam .ij.s. De Roberto de Apethorp' .xij.d. ut 
parceretur in capcione brasei . De Ricardo de Baldeswell' carnem 
ad valenciam octo denariorum — Et Thomas venit Et cognouit 
quod leuauit predictum braseum et similiter denarios de predictis 
hominibus sicut presentatum est . Ideo consideratum est quod 
restituat predictos denarios Et Thomas committatur Gaole . 
fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole. 3) [Ness.] 

The jurors present that Thomas of Easton, bailiff of Ness, did vmjustly 
levy from [specified persons specified quantities of corn and malt, the value 
of the quantity taken from each person being given] ; from Robert of 
Apethorpe twelve pence so that he be spared in the taking of malt, [and] 
from Richard de Baldeswell flesh to the value of eight pence. And Thomas 
has come, and has acknowledged that he levied the aforesaid malt and 
similarly the moneys from the aforesaid persons, as it is presented. There- 
fore it is awarded that he do restore the aforesaid moneys. And let Thomas 
be committed to gaol. He made fine. 

This case probably arose out of the prise of corn etc. of April, 1298, 
for the collection of which in Lincoln.shire Peter de Molinton was responsible. 
Though not specified in the wTits ordering the collection of this prise, malt 
was taken as well as corn : cf. nos. 370-1. 

The names from Rutland and Xorthamptonshire are interesting. They 
are evidence of local movements of population as between adjacent shires ; 
some of these people probably held lands in Rutland and Northamptonshire 
as well as in Lincolnshire. 

^ Perhaps Willoughby, Aveland. * Stenigot. * Gaole cancelled. 

306. -^luratores presentant quod predictus Thomas de Eston' 
retinuit saccum Io.sephi le Ferour precii .iiij.d. Et Thomas venit 
Et cognouit predictum saccum . Ideo consideratum est quod 
restituat predicto losepho Et Thomas in m'ia. [Marg: m'ia.) 
[Prooably Ness.] 

307. -^Quia conuictum^ est per iuratam in quam Willelmus 



70 ASSIZE ROLL 506 

de Apethorp' se posiiit quod iniuste leuauit de Cecilia Poctesmouth' 

•xij.d. De Beatricia losep' .xij.d. De Willelmo de Apethorp'* 

.vj.d. De Elena Beyre .vj.d. De Roberto cum Paneria^ .vj.d. 

De Roberto le Bourser .vj.d. et de Hugone le Carpenter' .vj.d. 

Et WillelmuR venit Et cognouit quod leuauit predictos denarios 

de predictis hominibus . Ideo consideratum est quod restituat 

predictos denarios Et Willelmus in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Ness.] 

* MS. has covuictus. ' Sic. There were clearly two men of this name. 
* The reading is uncertain. 

308. '^luratores presentant quod .j. saccum lane et .CC. 
pelles lanute de Roberto Ligatore Rotomagi attachiata fuerunt 
in domo Henrici Bui'nel et appreciata per Henricum de Baeus 
et Willelmum de Wodeford assignatos per dominum Regem ad 
capienda bona alienigenarum , et vendita ad decern m. Nicholao 
de Burton^ Rogero de Rigstede lohanni de Wermyngton' et 
Eustachio Malherbe qui quidem Nicholaus et alii soluerunt predictos 
denarios Roberto le Venour nuper vicecomiti Lincolnie Et 
ostenderunt litteram aquietancie ipsius vicecomitis etc . Ideo 
preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire faciat predictum Robertum 
ad ostendendum si domino regi de predictis denariis satisfecerit etc. 
[Ness.] 

The jurors present that one sack of wool and 200 woolfells belonging 
to Robert the cooper of Rouen were attached in the house of Henry Bumel, 
and were appraised by Henry de Baeus and William de Wodeford, 
appointed by the lord king to seize the goods of aliens ; and were sold for 
10 marks by Nicholas of Burton, Roger de Rigstede, John of Wannington 
and Eustace Malherbe : which Nicholas and the others paid the aforesaid 
moneys to Robert le Venour, lately sheriff of Lincoln ; and they showed 
the letter of quittance of that sheriff, etc. Therefore order is given to the 
sheriff that he cause the said Robert to come, to show if he have made 
satisfaction to the lord king touching the said moneys. 

William de Wodeford and Henry do Baeus were royal clerks appointed 
to this business by royal writ dated Augiist 28th, 1295. 

^ The scribe first wrote Morton^ but scored it out and substituted 
Burton'. 

309. Item presentant quod .iij. sacca lane precii .ix.l. xvj.s. v.d. 
et qu. attachiata fuerunt in domo Willelmi Bil . . .s' de bonis 
lohannis Skanyn alienigeni et vendita fuerunt Nicholao de Borton' 
et lohanni de Wermyngton' qui quidem Nicholaus et lohannes 
soluerunt predictos denarios Roberto le Venour unde vicecomea 
qui nunc est rcspondebit etc. [Ness. J 

Item they present that three sacks of wool of price £9 16s. o^d. were 
attached in the house of William Bil . . .s, of the goods of John Skanyn, an 
alien ; and were sold by Nicholas of Biu'ton and John of Warmington 
which Nicholas and John paid the aforesaid moneys to Robert le Venour : 
whereof the sheriff who now is (Richard of Draycote) will reply etc. [i.e. at 
the Exchequer]. (Sec note to no. 308.) 

' The MS. is torn away here. 

310. -^Johannes Fys de Staunford queritur de Thoma de 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 71 

Eston' quod ipse iuiuste leuauit de eo .xij.d. etc pro viridi cera etc — 
Et Thomas venit Et cognouit quod leuauit predictos denarios 
de predicto lohanne . Ideo consideratum est quod restituat dictos 
denarios Et Thomas in m'ia. {[Marg: m'ia.]^) [Ness.] 

For the significance of the Green Wax see editorial note to no. 143 and 
cf. no. 145. 

'The raarginaUa of nos. 310-13 are torn away and lost, but I have 
supplied probable marginalia from the nature of these cases themselves and 
by analogy with other similar cases. 

311. -^Item Walter de Amyas queritur de predicto Thoma 
de Eston' quod ipse iniuste leuauit de eo .v.s. ut non poneretur 
in assisis . iuratis etc — Et Thomas venit Et cognouit quod leuauit 
predictos denarios de predicto Waltero . Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat dictos denarios predicto Waltero Et Thomas in 
m'ia. {[Marg: m'ia.]) [Ness.] 

Item, Walter de Amyas complains of the aforesaid Thomas of Easton, 
that he did unjustly levy from him five shillings, so that he might not be 
put upon assizes, juries etc. And Thomas has come, and has acknowledged 
that he levied the aforesaid moneys from the aforesaid W^alter. Therefore 
it is awarded that he do restore the said moneys to the afore-said Walter. 
And [let] Thomas [be] in mercy. 

The significance of ' unjustly ' is not revealed, but two possible explana- 
tions come to mind. One is that Walter lacked the requisite property 
qualification and so was not legally liable for ser\dce on assizes and juries ; 
the other, that he had exemption from such service. 

312. ••IRobertus de Eluyrton' queritur de predicto Thoma 
de Eston' quod ipse iniuste leuauit de eo .xij.d. ut parceretur in 
capcione brasei etc — Et Thomas venit Et cognouit quod leuauit 
predictos denarios de predicto Roberto . Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat dictos denarios predicto Roberto . Et Thomas in 
m'ia . etc. {[Alarg: m'ia.]) [Ness.] 

Robert de Elverton complains of the aforesaid Thomas of Easton, 
that he did unjustly levy from him twelve pence, so that he might be spared 
from the prise of malt. And Thomas has come, and has acknowledged 
that he levied the aforesaid moneys from the aforesaid Robert. Therefore 
it is awarded that he do restore the said moneys to the said Robert. And 
[let] Thomas [be] in mercy. 

This probably refers to the prise of April, 1298. Like no. 312, it is a 
case of extortion in the form of a forced bribe, but there is tliis difference 
between the two cases, that Robert could not, like Walter de Amyas, claim 
legal exemption. Everj-body who possessed any of the commodities ordered 
to be taken seems to have been liable to contribute to a royal prise, if they 
lived in the area afYected by the order. Robert like Walter chose the lesser 
evil and later took the opportunity to complain. 

313. ^Rogerus de Apethorp' queritur de predicto Thoma de 
Eston' quod ipse iniu.ste leuauit de eo .xij.d. — Et Thomas venit 
Et cognouit quod leuauit predictos denarios de predicto Rogero . 
Ideo consideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto 
Rogero Et Thomas in m'ia. {[Marg: m'ia.]) [Ness.] 

[Midway along foot of membrane ~- and, slightly below and to right, 
the sign 3- In extreme right-hand corner oi the foot the sign _f ^1 



72 ASSIZE ROLL 605 

[Me^nbrane 9d.] 

PLACITA APUD GRAHAM DIE MERCURn PROXIMA ANTE FESTITM OMNIUM 
SANCTORUM . ANNO REGNI REGIS EDWARDI XXVI^O. 

[Grantham. Wednesday, October 29th.] 

314. •:-*iIuratores presentant quod Thomas de Eston' balliuus 
de Belteslowe iniuste leuauit de villata de Lauyngton' .ij. quarteria 
fnimenti precii .dim.m. et duo quarteria et dim. auene . precii 
.vj.s. — Et Thomas venit et hoc cognouit Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat predictos denarios dicte villate Et Thomas com- 
mittatur Gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: Belteslowe est Gaole.^) 

Cf. no. 305. This case of an unjust levy of corn and oats arose, probably, 
in connexion with the prise of November, 1297, or that of April, 1298, since 
it ifl only during this period that Thomas of Easton was certainly bailiff of 
Beltisloe (see Appendix II, list of bailiffs, note 3, p. 146). 

' Gaole cancelled. 

315. -I'^uratores presentant quod Robertus Benet de Boleby 
et Ricardus ad Ecclesiam de Hauerthorp' iniuste leuauerunt in 
villa de Boleby bladum ad valenciam .xviij.d. ultra id quod ad 
commodura regis deuenit . Ideo consideratum est quod restituant 
predictos denarios predicte viUe Et Robertus et Ricardus in m'ia, 
{Marg: m'ia.) 

The jurors present that Robert Benet of Bulby and Richard aci Ecclesiam 
of Avethorpe did unjustly le\'y in the vill of Bulby corn to the value of 
eighteen pence, above what was put to the king's use. Therefore it is 
awarded that they do restore the aforesaid moneys to the aforesaid vill. 
And [let] Robert and Richard [be] in mercy. 

I cannot with any certainty date this prise. 

316. -I'^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Adam le 
Lung' . de Ingoldesby^ . se posuit quod iniuste leuauit de Emma 
filia Gilberti atte Hegg' .dim. quarterium brasei precii .ij.s. vj.d. 
ultra id quod ad commodum regis . deuenit . Consideratum est 
quod restituat dictos denarios predicte vill'- Et committatur 
gaole . Et absoluatur ab officio regis suo perpetuo . Postea fecit 
finem per unam m. per plegios Thome Nobelot et Thome de 
Eston'. {Marg: est ad scaccarium Gaole. ^) [Beltisloe.] 

Cf. no. 315. Adam was a sub -bailiff of Beltisloe. For the possible 
date of this prise, see note to no. 314. 

^ de Ingoldesby interlined. - Sic. ■' Oaole cancelled. 

317. -i-^Iuratores presentant quod Thomas de Eston' balliuus 
de Belteslowe quod^ iniuste leuauit de Matilde le Coul de Woles- 
thorp' braseum ad valenciam .vij.d.ob. et de lohanne Coul braseum 
ad valenciam .vij.d.ob. Et Thomas venit et hoc cognouit Ideo 
consideratum est quod restituat predictos denarios Et sit in m'ia. 
{Marrj: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

Cf. no. 305. and see note t<:) no. 314. 

^ Sic. 



ASSIZE ROLL 305 73 

318. •:-^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Adam le 
Lung' se posuit quod' iniuste cepit per maliciam equum Willelmi 
de Breteuyir in Gunneby et eum equitauit ad dampnura ipsius 
Willelmi .dim.m. Consideratum est quod recuperet uersus predictum 
Adam dictos denarios Et committatur Gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: 
est Gaole.-) [Beltisloe.] 

Because it has been proved by tlie jury upon which Adam le Long 
placed himself, that he did unjustly take, by malice, the horse of W'illiam 
lie Breteuyll in Gunby, and did ride it to the damage of that WiUiam, hah 
a mark : it is awarded that he do recover against the aforesaid Adam the 
.said moneys. And let [Adam] be committed to gaol. He made fine. 

' qiwd interlined. " Gaole cancelled. 

319. -i-^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus 
Adam le Lung' se posuit quod iniuste distrinxit Mabiliam de 
Gunneby per unam vaccam et eam fugauit apud Lincolniam et 
cms ipsius vacce per maliciam fregit Ita quod iUam amisit , ad 
dampnum ipsius Mabilie .quatuor s. Consideratum est quod 
predicta Mabilia recuperet dampna sua uersus dictum Adam que 
taxantur ad quatuor s. Et Adam in m'ia . etc. {Marg: m'ia.) 
[Beltisloe.] 

Because it has been proved by the juiy upon which the aforesaid Adam 
le Long placed himself, that he did unjvistly distrain ^laljel of Gunby by 
one cow and did drive it to Lincoln and the leg of that cow did by malice 
break so that she lost it, to the damage of that Mabel, four shillings : it is 
awarded that the aforesaid Mabel do recover her damages against the said 
Adam, which are taxed at four shillings. And [let] Adam [be] in mercy etc. 

320. -.'•^uratores presentant quod predictus Adam le Lung' . 
iniuste leuauit pro summonicione scaccarii de Roberto Cursoun 
•xxj.d. ubi ipse Robertus predictos denarios lohanni Herny magistro 
ipsius Ade plenarie persoluit Et quod dictus Adam aquietanciam 
de predictis denariis ipsi Roberto facere contradicit — Et Adam 
venit et hoc cognouit Ideo consideratum est quod predictus 
Robertus recuperet uersus eum damjDua sua in duplico . scUicet 
ties s. et sex d. Et Adam committatur Gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: 
est Gaole. 1) [Beltisloe.] 

The jurors present that the aforesaid Adam le Long did unjustly levy 
for a summons of the Exchequer from Robert Cursoun twenty-one pence, 
where that Robert has paid the aforesaid moneys in full to John Herny, 
master of that Adam ; and that the said Adam refuses to make a quittance 
for Robert touching the aforesaid moneys. And Adam has come and has 
acknowledged this. Therefore it is awarded that the aforesaid Robert 
do recover against him his damages in duplicate, that is to say, 3/6. And 
let Adam be committed to gaol. He made fine. 

For the relationship of Adam to John and to the sheriff (and so the 
king), see Introd., p. 101. 

' Gaole cancelled. 

321. -l-^Iuratores presentant quod predictus Adam leuauit 
de lohanne Broun pro summonicione scaccarii .xl.d. Et aquietan- 
ciam ei^ de predictis denariis facere contradicit Et dicunt quod 



74 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

predictus Johannes pro predictis denariis itenim districtus fnit 
pro defectu illius aquietancie etc Et Adam venit et hoc cognouit , 
Ideo consideratum est quod predictus Johannes recuperet uersus 
eum dampna sua in duplico . scilicet dim.m. Et Adam committatur 
gaole . Et absoluatur ab officio . regis suo per})etuo fecit finem. 
{Marrj: est Gaole.-) [Beltisloe.J 

The jurors present tliat the aforesaid Adam did levy from John Broun 
for a smnmons of the Exchequer forty pence, and he refuses to make a 
quittance for him touching the aforesaid moneys : and they say that the 
aforesaid John for the aforesaid moneys was distrained a second time, in 
default of that quittance etc. And Adam has come and lias acknowledged 
this. Therefore it is awarded that the aforesaid John do recover against 
liim his damages in duplicate, that is to .say, half a mark. And let Adam 
be committed to gaol. And let him be absolved from his office of the king 
in perpetuity. He made fine. 

The growing use of redress by award of damages .single, double and 
triple is, for the late thirteenth century, well illustrated here and elsewhere 
in A.R. "lOo. Cf. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, ii, p. 522, 
also Jenkinson and Formoy, Select Cases in the Exchequer of Pleas [Seld. 
Soc, vol. 48], p. cviii. 

^ ei interlined. - Gaole cancelled. 

322. -I'^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus 
Adam le Lung se posuit Cjuod^ iniuste leuauit per extorcionem de 
lohanne f. Thome de Corby .xij.d. ut parceretur ei in capcione 
brasei . Consideratum est quod restituat predictos denarios predicto 
lohanne Et Adam in m'ia. {Murg: m'ia.) [Beltisloe.] 

Cf. no. 312. The case probably arises out of the prise of April, 1298. 

^ se posuit quod interlined. 

323. -i'lfluratores presentant quod predictus Adam iniuste 
leuauit de lohanne Parys de Suthwyme villanum^ .iiij.s. ut non 
poneretur in assisis , nee iuratis . Et Adam venit et hoc cognouit . 
Ideo consideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto 
lohanni Et committatur gaole . fecit finem. 

Dampna .iiij.s. unde .ij.s. C[lericis]. {Marg: est Gaole. 2) 
[Beltisloe.] 

Cf. no. 311. Here the inju.stice is even more obvious, since villeins 
were in no circumstances permitted to serve on juries and assizes. (See 
Introd., p. xc.) 

' Sic. - Gaole cancelled. 

324. '.''^Quia conuictam est per iuratam in quam ])redictus 
Adam le Lung' se posuit quod iniuste attachiauit Ricardum Walgor 
de By t ham quousque fecit finem cum eo . de duobus s. Con- 
sideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto Ricardo 
Et Adam committatur gaole . fecit finem . Et absoluatur ab officio . 
regis suo perpetuo. {Marq: 3 Gaole. •) [Beltisloe.] 

Cf. no. 325. 

' Gaole cancelled. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 75 

325. -^Valterus in the Thyin" , Hugo Broun et Hugo Nolle 
queruntur de Roberto Pygoun quod ipse die Sabbati proxima 
ante festum sancti Wolfranni anno regni regis Edwardi xxij.^ 
ipsos cepit et ad domum suum injjiisonauit per duos dies quousque 
fecerunt finem cum eo ])er .xij.d. — Et Robertus vonit Et dicit 
quod nunquam eos inprisonauit nee aliquos denarios ab eisdem 
cepit Et de hoc ponit se super patriam. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Robertus inprisonauit predictos Walterum et alios per duos dies 
quousque dederunt ei duodecim denarios Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat predictos denarios predictis Waltero et aliis Et 
Robertus coramittatur gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: Wynerbrygg' . 

est . Gaole. 2) 

Walter iii the Thyrn, Hugh Broun nncl Hugh Xolle complain of Robert 
Pygoun that lie, on the Satiuday next before the feast of St. Wolfran in 
the twenty-second year of the reign of King Edward [Saturday, October 9th, 
1294>J, did take them and in his house did imprison them for two days until 
they made fine with him by twelve pence. And Robert has come, and he 
says that never did he imprison them, nor take any moneys from them, 
and as to this he puts himself upon the country-. 

The jurors say vipon their oath that the aforesaid Robert did imprison 
the aforesaid Walter and the others for two days until they gave him twelve 
pence. Therefore it is awarded that he do restore the aforesaid moneys 
to the aforesaid Walter and the others ; and let Robert bo committed to 
gaol. He made fine. 

Cf . no. 324. In neither case is any reason given why Adam and Robert 
deemed it necessary or expedient to force their victims to make fine with 
them. 

* Saturday, October 9th, 1294. There are two feasts of St. Wolfran, 
on Febniarj' 13th and October 15th. But since the war with France began 
in the summer of 1294, the latter seems more probable. * Gaoh cancelled. 

326. -^iRadulfus Emeys . queritur de Willelmo le Wayte 
et Willelmo Lambetoth' . quod ipsi iniuste distrixerunt^ eum per 
duos boues quousque soluerat eis nouem solidos etc — Et AVillelmus 
le Wayte et Willelmus Lambetoth' venerunt Et dicunt quod non 
distrinxenint eum per predictos boues nee aliquos denarios de 
eodem Radulfo receperunt Et de hoc ponunt se super patriam etc. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predicti 
Willelmus et AVillelmus distrinxenint predictum Radulfum per 
duos boues . quousque soluerat eis .nouem solidos Ideo con- 
sideratum est . quod restituant dictis denarios . predicto Radulfo 
Et Willehnus le Wayte et Willelmus Lambetoth' committantur 
gaole . fecerunt finem. {Marg: Gaole'-' est.) [Wiimibriggs.J 

Ralph Erneys complains of William le Wayte and William Lambetotli 
that they did unjustly distrain him by two oxen until he had paid thom 
nine .shillings etc. And William le \\'ayte and William Lambetoth liave 
come, and they .say that they did not distrain him by the aforesaid oxen, 
nor did the^* receive any moneys from that Ralph, and as to this they put 
themselves upon the country. The jurors say upon their oath that the 
aforesaid William and William did distrain the aforesaid Ralph by two 
oxen until he had paid them nine shillings. Tlierefore it is awarded that 



76 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

they do restore the said moneys to the aforesaid Ralph. And let William 
le Wayte and William Lambetoth be committed to gaol. They made fine. 

^ Sic. * Goole cancelled. 

327. '^luratores presentant quod Willelmus Lambetoth' 
subballiuus de Wyneil)rygg' . distrinxit Walterum in ye Thyrn' 
Lsabellam Baldok' Galfriduni f. Douce Galfridum in ye Lane 
Philippum Amour et Walterum le Suour per .xij.equos . quousque 
.soluerant ei duos .s — Et Willelmus Lambetoth' venit Et dicit 
quod non distrinxit predictos AValterum et ahos per predictos 
equos nee aliquos denarios ab eisdem recepit Et de hoc ponit 
se super patriam . — luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum 
quod predictus Willelmus Lambetoth' distrinxit predictos Walterum 
et alios quousque soluerant ei duos .s. Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat dictos denarios predictis W^altero et aliis . Et 
Willelmus in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs.] 

Cf. no. 326. William Lambetoth is here merely ptit in mercy because 
he has already been committed to gaol. 

328. -^luratores presentant quod predictus Willelmus Lambe- 
toth' iniuste cepit duos equos de lohanne f. Alani le Lyere in regia 
via . Et eos in caruca sua ])osuit . Ita quod proficuum terre sue 
amisit ad dampnum suum .tjuinque.s. etc — Et Willelmus venit 
Et dicit quod non cepit predictos equos nee eos in caruca sua posuit 
Et de hoc ponit se super patriam — luratores dicunt super sacra- 
mentum suum quod predictus Willelmus cepit predictos equos 
et eos in caruca sua posuit . ad dampnum ipsius lohannis quinque s. 
Ideo consideratum est quod recuperet uersus dictum Willelmum 
dampna sua que taxantur ad .v.s. Et Willelmus committatur 
gaole Postea fecit finem per dim.m. per plegios Thome Payn et 
Roberti Pygoun. {Marg: Gaole^ est.) [Winnibriggs.] 

The jurors present that the aforesaid William Lambetoth did unjustly 
take two horses from John son of Alan le Lyere in the king's highway, and 
did put them in his own plough-team, so that he [John] did lose the fruits 
of his land, to his damage, five shillings etc. And William has come, and 
lie says that he did not take the aforesaid horses, nor put them in his plough - 
team, and as to this he puts himself upon the country. The jurors say 
upon their oath that the aforesaid William did take the aforesaid horses 
and did put them in his own plough-team, to the damage of that John, 
five shillings. Therefore it is awarded that he do recover against the said 
William his damages, which are taxed at five shillings. And let William 
be committed to gaol. Afterwards he made fine by half a mark by the 
pledges of Thomas Payn and Robert Pygoun. 

' Oaole cancelled. 

329. -^luratores presentant quod Robertus Pygoun iniuste 
cepit per extorcionem de Hugone Broun .ij.s.[iiij.d.] ne poneretur 
in assisis iuratis etc ad dampnum suum .ij.s. et iiij.d. etc Et 
Robertus [venit Et dicit quod non] cepit predictos denarios sicut 
presentatum est Et de hoc ponit se super patriam — luratores 
dicunt s[uper sacramentum suum J quod predictus Robertus iniuste 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 77 

cepit de predicto Hugone per extorcionem .ij.s. iiij.d. ad dampnum 
[ipsius Hugonis .ij.js. et quatuor denariorum Ideo consideratum 
est quod restituat dictos denarios Et Robertus in m'ia . etc. 
{Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs.J 

Cf. no. 312. Several pieces have been torn completely out of the right- 
hand side of the nienibrano here ; in consequence I have inserted in square 
brackets what is missing from the MS. but what the context and 
common form clearly require. This applies also to nos. 330 1. 

330. -^Quia conuictum est per iuratam iii quam predictus 
Robertus se posuit quod iniuste per extorcionem leuauit [de] 
Hugone Nolle .ij.s. consideratum^ est quod restituat dictos denarios 
predicto Hugoni Et Robertus in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winni- 
briggs.J 

No reason is given for the extortion shown in this case. See note to 
no. 329. 

* MS. does not capitalise c of couslderatum. 

33L -fQuia conuictum est per iuratam in quam' predictus 
Robertus Pygyoun se posuit quod iniuste per extorcionem [cepit] 
de Radulfo Herys de Magna Paunton' .xiij.s. .iiij.d.'- ut non 
poneretur in iuratis etc . Consideratum est quod re[stituat] dictos 
denarios dicto Radulfo Et Robertus in m'ia. [Winnibriggs.] 

Cf. no. 311, and see note to no. 329. 

> in quam interlined. - .xiij.s. iiij.d. interlined. 

[Midway along foot of dorse what appears to be a smudged ~- and, 
below it, the sign 3-] 

[Membrane 10.] 

ADHUC DE PRESENT ACIONIBUS ET QUERELIS CORAM WILLELMO 
INGE APUD GRANTHAM , DIE MARTIS PROXIMA ANTE EESTUxM OMNIUM 
SANCTORUM . ANNO . REGNI REGIS EDWARDI . XXVI^O. 

[Tuesday, October 28th.] 
Lincoln'^ 

332. '^luratores presentant quod Robertus Leuerik et 
Robertus le Engleys . leuauerunt de vill' de Hekynton' .xxj.d. 
ad bladum emendum etc plus quam pacarunt pro bladi empcione^ 
et eosdem denarios penes se detinuerunt Et predicti Robertus 
et Robertus presentes in curia non possunt hoc dedicere Ideo 
faciant inde restitucionem Et sint in m'ia etc. (Marg: Asward- 
herne m'ie.) 

This case is similar to no. 315, with this difference, that here the offenders 
levied money, not goods, in excess of requirements ; and they retained this 
excess in their own possession. 

1 This is placed in the margin of the MS. above (not parallel with) 
entry 332, and seems to be intended as a headmg for the marginalia of the 
membrane. - plus empcione interlined. 

333. -^receptum fuit vicecomiti quod attachiaret Phihppum 
f. WiUelmi de Helpringham lohannem Fraunceys de Helpryngham 
Walterum de Calwarthorp' Hugonem Bardolf' et Willelmum 
Loveday quod essent hie ad hunc diem^ ad respondendum etc 



78 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

super present acione xij^'°^ iuratorum de Aswardhirne etc . videlicet 
(ie capcione bladi et aliorum etc . Et ipsi non [veiierunt]'- Et 
predict us Piiilippus fuit attachiatus per Thomam atte Boure de 
Helpringhain et lohanneiii Fraunceys de eadem Et predict us 
lohannes Fraunceys per Hemicum le Clerk' et luonem Wodeman 
Et predictus Hugo per Willelmum de Reyneuile et Alexandrum 
Golderon de Crokton''' Ideo ipsi in m'ia etc . Et preceptum est 
vicecomiti quod distringat eos per omnes terras etc Et quod de 
exitibus etc Et quod habeat corpora eorum coram prefatis 
iusticiariis etc . Et de predictis Waltero et Willelmo Loueday . 
vicecomes testatur quod non sunt inuenti nee aliquid habent per 
quod possunt attachiari etc . Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
capiat eos . et eos saluo etc . Ita quod habeat corpora eorum coram 
prefatis iusticiariis ad prefatum terminum etc. (Marg: m'ie 
ad proximum aduentum.) [Aswardhurn.] 

1 Tuesday, October 28th. - Omitted in MS. « Perhaps Croiton, Asw. 

33-4. ^fWillelmus de Reyneuile attachiatus fuit per lohaunem 
le Porker de Calwarthorp' et Radulfum f. Ade de eadem quod 
esset hie ad hunc diem^ ad respondendum super predictis presenta- 
cionibus Et ipse non venit Ideo predicti plegii in m'ia etc Et 
preceptum est . vicecomiti quod distringat ut predictum est. 
{Marg: m'ie.) [Aswardhurn.] 

Of the defendants mentioned in this case and the last, Hugh Bardolf 
was baihff of Aswardhurn and Wilham de Reyneuile probably his sub-bailiff. 
The others were almost certainly collectors of prises ad opus regis in 
Aswardhurn. 

1 Tuesday, October 28th. 

335. -^lidem iuratores presentant quod Hugo Bardolf cepit 
de Willelmo Brume ut parceret ei de capcione blade .xij.d. Et 
de Alicia fiha Roberti Pocok' .ij.s. vj.d. Et de Willelmo de Greyby 
.xij.d. ut parceret eis de capcione brasei et aliorum bladorum per 
districcionem etc . Et predictus Hugo presens in curia dicit quod 
hoc non fecit Et de hoc ponit se super patriam etc . Iuratores 
dicunt super sacramentum etc quod idem Hugo per districcionem 
leuauit predictos denarios . etc Ideo faciat inde restitucionem etc 
Et committatur gaole etc fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole.^) 
[Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. no. 312. This case probably refers to the prise of April, 1298. 
^ Gaole cancelled. 

336. '^lidem presentant quod idem Hugo cepit iniuste^ per 
districcionem de Willelmo Saundoute de Helpringham .ix.d. Et 
de lohanne Bunne de eadem .xij.d. Item de Alano Yongman 
.xij.d. Et predictus Hugo presens in curia hoc cognouit Ideo 
faciat inde restitucionem Et committatur gaole etc . fecit finem. 
{Marg: est Gaole.-) [Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. no. 32G ; in this case the extortion, if any, is implied in the terms 
' unjustly ' and ' by distraint.' 

' initt--ite inteilinod. '^ Gaole cancelled. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 79 

337. ••^Item predict! iuratores presentant quod Hugo Bardolf 
cepit de W'illeluio de Bamburgh" unum multonem . precii .ij.b. 
parcendo diuitibus etc . Et predictus Hugo hoc cogiiouit Ideo 
facial inde reatitucionem etc Et sit in m'ia etc. [Marg: m'ia.) 
[Aswardliurn.] 

Item, the aforesaid jurors present that Hugh Bardolf took from Wilham 
of Baumber one sheep of price 2/- sparing the wealthy etc. And the afore- 
said Hugh has acknowledged this. Therefore let him make restitution 
thereof, and let him be in mercy etc. 

William was himself a sub-taxor of the ninth in Evedon, Asw., in 1297, 
cf. Appendix II, list of taxors, p. 163. 

338. -^lidem iuratores presentant quod Hugo Bardolf iniuste 
et per districcionem leuauit de lohanne f. Elie .ij.d. Et de Gilberto 
Race .vj.d. Et Hugo hoc cognouit Ideo faciat inde restitucionem 
Et committatur gaole etc . fecit finem. [Marg: est Gaole.^) 
[Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. nos. 326, 336. 

* Gaole cancelled. 

339. -^lideui iuiatores presentant quod Thomas f. Alani de 
Kirkeby iniuste et per districcionem leuauit de villa ^ de Kirkeby 
et Laysthorp' decern, solidos etc . et eosdem denarios penes se 
retinet etc- . '^ ^ Et Thomas venit Et cognouit quod inde cepit 
de hominibus viUarum predictarum dim.m. ex bona voluntate 
eorundem et non per districcionem etc . ad apparatum duorum 
hommum peditum uersus WalUam etc . inde tradidit lohanni de 
Pateshull' .iiij.s. Et expendit in predictis . duobus hominibus* 
uersus Lincolniam et ibidem et in se ipso .xx.d. Et predictis 
hominibus villarum predictarum in regressu suo retradidit .xij.d. 
Et quo ad residuum dicit quod illud non recepit etc Et de hoc 
ponit se super patriam etc . '^ Inquisicio dicit quod idem Thomas 
per districcionem et sine waranto cepit de predictis villatis predictos 
decem solidos etc Et inde liberauit predicto lohanni de Pateshull' 
.iiij.s. et expendit ut predictum est^ .xx.d. Et residuum detinet 
penes se , Ideo restituat predictis villis predictos decem solidos 
Et committatur gaole etc . Et sequatur uersus predictum lohannem 
de predictis quatuor sohdis si vederit^ expedire etc. {Marg: 
Gaole non dum fecit finem.) [Aswardhurn.] 

The same jurors present that Thomas son of Alan of Kirby Laythorpe 
did unjustly and by distraint levy from the vill of Kiiby and Laythorpe 
ten shillings etc., and is retaining those moneys in his possession etc. 

And Thomas has come, and has acknowledged that in respect thereof 
he took from the men of the aforesaid vills half a mark, out of then- good- 
will and not by distraint etc., for the equipment of two foot-soldiers going 
to Wales etc. ; whereof ho handed over to John of Pattishall four shillings, 
and expended upon the aforesaid two men going to Lincoln, and there, 
and upon himself, twenty pence, and on their return he handed back to 
the aforesaid men of the aforesaid vills twelve pence. And as to the residue, 
he says that he did not receive tliat etc., and as to this he puts himself upon 
the country etc. 



80 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

The inquisition says that the sanie Thomas, by distraint and without 
warrant, did take from the aforesaid vills the aforesaid ten shillings etc., 
and thereof he paid to the aforesaid John of Pattishall four shillings, and 
spent, as it is stated, twenty pence ; and the residue he is detaining in his 
possession. Therefore let hirn restore to the aforesaid vills the aforesaid 
ten shillings; and let him be committed to gaol etc. And let it be sued 
against the aforesaid John touching the aforesaid four shillings if it seems 
expedient etc. 

^ Sic. ^ es se retinet etc. written over erasiu-e. ■' Two light, curved, 
carelessly-executed strokes of varying length, but usually like the single 
strokes vised to dot the i's in the MS. It seems to be in the nature of a 
paragraph mark. * hominibus interlined. ^ est interlined. * Sic. 

340. -^jlidem iuratores presentant quod Willelmus de Flynt- 
ham clericus vicecomitis iniuste et per maliciam distrinxit lohannem 
de Castello per aueria carucarum suanim , et districcionem illam 
detinuit contra vadium etc . ^ Et Willelmus venit Et bene 
cognouit quod distrinxit ipsum lohaimem per predicta aueria , 
pro arreragiis quatuor marcarum de firma wappentakii de Aseward- 
hirne , quod quidem wappentakium Robertus de Lund' habuit 
ad firmam ; et cuius plegium predictus lohannes exstitit , per 
scriptum suum . quod idem Willelmus ostendit . Et quod nullam 
aliam districcionem super ipsum lohannem tunc inuenisse potuit etc . 
''Et lohannes presens in curia dicit quod predictum scriptum 
non est factum suum etc . Et quia scriptum hoc factum est sub 
nomine predicti Roberti de Lund' etc Ideo venire faciat vicecomes 
ipsum Robertum etc . ad proximum aduentum etc . ^ Dicit eciam 
quod idem Willelmus aliam sufficientem districcionem super ipsum 
lohannem facere inuenisse potuit . quam de aueria de caruca 
sua etc . Et hoc i)etit quod inquiratur per patriam etc . '^ Inquisicio 
dicit quod predictus Willelmus distrinxit predictum lohannem per 
predicta aueria carucarum suarum et quod idem Willelmus aliam 
sufficientem districcionem super ipsum lohannem inuenisse potuit 
etc . Ideo predictus lohannes recuperet dampna sua uersus ipsum 
WiUelmum que taxantur per luratam ad .quatuor solidos Et 
Willelmus in m'ia etc. 

Dampna .iiij.s. {Marg: ad proximum aduentum . m'ia.) 

[Aswardhurn.] 

The same jurors present that William of Flintliam, sheriff's clerk, did 
imjustly and by malice distrain John de Castello by the beasts of hif^ plough 
teams, and that distress did detain against surety etc. 

And William has come, and fully acknowledged that he distrained 
that John by the aforesaid beasts, for arrears of four marks touching the 
fann of the wapentake of Aswardhurn, which wapentake Robert of Lound 
liad at farm and for whom the aforesaid John stood pledge, bj"^ his deed, 
which the same William shows : and that no other distress against that 
John could he then have found etc. 

And John, being present in court, says that the aforesaid deed is not 
his deed etc. And because this deed is made under the name of the afore- 
said Robert of Lound etc., therefore let the sheriff cause that Robert to 
come etc., at the next coming etc. [of the justices]. Ho [John] says also 
that the same William could have found other sufficient distress to make 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 81 

against that Jolin than by the beasts of Ijis plough-team etc. And he asks 
that enquiry be made by the country etc. 

The inquisition says that the aforesaid WilUam did distrain the afore- 
said John by the aforesaid beasts of his plough-teams, and that the same 
William could have found other sufficient distress against that John etc. 
Therefore let the aforesaid John recover the damages against that \Villiam, 
which are taxed by the jurj- at four shillings. And [let] William [be] in 
mercy etc. 

34 L J;Iideni iuratoies presentant quod Hugo Bardolf' 
arestauit quinque quarteria frumenti de lohanne persona ecclesie 
de Asegardby . quousque in vendacione ainisit de quolibet quarterio 
.ij.s. etc . ^ Et Hugo venit Et dicit quod nullum bladum eiusdem 
persone arestauit , nee ipsum de vendicione sua imppediuit^ etc . 
Et de hoc ponit se super patriam etc luratores dicunt quod idem 
Hugo non arestauit bladum predictum , nee ipsum loliannem de 
vendacione impediuit etc Ideo predictus Hugo inde sine die etc. 
[Aswardhurn.] 

The interest of this case lies in the fact that here the jury of verdict 
contradicts the jury of presentment 

3-42. ••^lidem iura tores presentant quod Hugo Bardolf dis- 
trinxit Willelmum Loueday per duos boues , Et pro districcione 
ilia relaxanda cepit de eodem .ij.s. etc . Et Hugo dicit quod non 
cepit de eodem Willelmo aliquam pecuniam pro aliqua districcione 
relaxanda Et de hoc ponit se super patriam etc . luratores dicunt 
super sacramentum suum quod predictus Hugo cepit de predict© 
Willelmo predictos .duos sohdos pro predicta districcione relaxanda 
eicut presentatum est Ideo faciat inde restitucionem Et com- 
mittatur gaole etc . Postea fecit finem per .xl.s. per plegios Simonis 
de Walcote^ et lohannis Baudwyne . fecit finem. {Marrj: est 
ad scaccarium Gaole.-) [Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. nos. 32tJ, 336. Here the object is the same, but the circumstances 
vary. Hugh Bardolf obtains 2/- by refusing to release William's oxen 
from distraint until the money has been paid. 

^ Walcot, probably Aveland. * Gaole cancelled. 

343. -Illtem predicti iuratores presentant quod Hugo Bardolf 
baUiuus etc^ cepit de Stephano Kylbel .iiij.s. ut ipsum Stephanum 
in pace viuere permitteret per duos annos etc . Et Hugo presens 
in curia dicit quod hoc cepit de eodem Stephano , pro seruicio 
suo etc . et ex bona voluntate ipsius Stephani etc . Et non per 
districcionem etc . Et hoc petit quod inquiratur etc . Inquisicio 
dicit quod idem Hugo hoc cepit ut ipsum Stephanum in pace 
permitteret etc Et per districcionem etc . Ideo inde faciat 
restitucionem etc . Et committatur gaole etc . fecit finem. {Mary: 
est . Gaole. '^) [Aswardhurn.] 

Item, the aforesaid jurors present that Hugh Bardolf, bailiff, etc., did 
take from Stephen Kylbel 4/-, that he nught permit that Stephen to live 
in peace for two years etc. And Hugh, being present in court, says that 



82 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

he took this from the same Stephen for his service etc., and out of the good- 
will of that Stephen etc., and not by distress etc. And he asks that enquiry 
be made etc. The inqiiisition says that the same Hugh did take this that 
he night permit that Stephen [to live] in peace etc., and by distress etc. 
Therefore let him [Hugh] make restitution thereof etc., and let him be 
committed to gaol etc. He made fine. 

' balliuus etc interlined. - Gaole cancelled. 

344. -^Item conuictum est per eandem inquisicionem in 
quam idem Hugo se posuit^ quod idem Hugo , per districcionem 
et citacione balliue sue cepit de Roberto le Carpenter de Qoueriton' 
.ij.s. vj.d. ut ipsum in pace viuere permitteret etc . Et per distric- 
cionem etc . Ideo faciat inde restitucionem etc . Et committatur 
gaole etc . fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole.-) [Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. no. 343. 

^ in quam . . . se posuit interlined. - Gaole cancelled. 

345. '^luratores presentant quod Hugo Bardolf iniuste et 
per districcionem cepit de lohanne Bunne ut parceret ei de capcione 
lardarie .xij.d. Et de Willelmo in le Lofte ut parceret ei de capcione 
bladi etc . Et Hugo venit Et non potest hoc dedicere Ideo faciat 
inde restitucionem . Et committatur gaole etc fecit finem. {Marg: 

est Gaole. ^) [Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. no. 312 : the extortion here is just as real, though the money was 
obtained by distraint and not by a direct demand. Note that the scribe 
has omitted to state how much Hugh obtained from AA'illiam in le Lofte. 

The prise for the royal larder was almost certainly not a 'great prise,' 
but one of the ' ancient prises duo and accustomed,' which were being 
continually taken locally for provisioning royal castles etc. 

^ Gaole cancelled. 

346. -^lidem iuratores presentant quod Hugo Bardolf 
balliuus etc iniuste et per districcionem cepit de Waltero le Bercher 
de Calwarthorp' .xiiij.d. Et de lohanne f. Agnetis ut ipsum in 
pace viuere permitteret .vj.d. Et de Alano Reyner de Swarby 
et Roberto ad Portam Ecclesie pauperibus etc . et nisi .vij.s. terre 
habentibus tantum etc . pro licencia viuendi . in pace etc . per duos 
annos .xij.s. Et predictus Hugo presens in curia hoc cognouit etc . 
Ideo faciat inde restitucionem Et committatur gaole etc . Et 
absoluatur ab officio regis inperpetuum etc . fecit finem. {Marg: 
est Gaole. ^) [Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. no. 343. The extortion is made worse here, however, by extortion 
from two pauperes. 

* Gaole cancelled. 

347. -^lidem iuratores presentant quod Walterus Est balliuus 
etc iniuste et per districcionem cepit de Alano Reyner de Swarby et 
Roberto ad portam ecclesie pauperibus etc . Et nisi .vij.s. terre 
habentibus tantum etc . pro licencia viuendi in pace etc per duos 
annos .xij.s. etc . Et predictus Walterus presens in curia hoc 



ASSIZE ROLL 50o 83 

corrnoiiit etc Idea faciat cis inde restitucionem Et eommittatui- 

gaole etc . fecit finem. (Marg: est Gaole.') [Aswardhurn.J 

Cf. nos. 343, 34G. Walter Est was chief bailiff of Kesteven, and as 
B\ich would have jurisdiction in Aswardhurn. 

* Gaole cancelled. 

348. -^lidem iuratores preaentant quod Hugo Bardolf et 
Walterus Est balliiii^ iniuste et per districcionem ceperunt de 
Roberto Fryday et lohanne f. lohannis , ut eos in pace viuere 
perinittercnt- per unum aiinum-^ .iiij.s. Et iideni Hugo et Walterus 
pie«ente.s in curia lioc cognouerunt Ideo faciant inde restitucionem 
Et commit tantur gaole etc fecerunt finem. {Marg: est . 
Gaole.') [Aswardhurn.] 

a. no. 343. 

^ ballini interlined. -MS. has pennitteret. 'annum interlined. 
• Gaole cancelled. 

349. J[Iidem iuratores presentant quod Hugo Bardolf 
balliuus etc iniuste et per districcionem cepit de Roberto Rasche 
et Roberto de Wyedraue .iij.s. Et de lohanne f. Elie .vj.d. Et 
de Isabella Bryan .ix.d. Et de loliamie de Castello .vjd Et de 
Adam de la More .vj.d. ut eis parceret de districcione etc . Et eos 
in pace viuere permitteret etc . Et predictus Hugo presens in curia 
hoc non potest dedicere Ideo faciat inde restitucionem etc Et 
committatur gaole fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) 
[Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. no. 336. 

^ Gaole cancelled. 

350. -^Conuictum est per inquisicionem in quam WiUelmus 
de Hynggilton' balliuus iniuste etc et per districcionem cepit de 
vill' de Kirkeby et Laysthorp' .xij.d. ut parceret eis in leuando 
deci' den'^ etc . Et de Agnete que fuit uxor lohannis Fillyngham 
de Parua Hale .vj.d. Et de Hugone Irenside .xij.d. Et de 
hominibus Willelmi le Latymer de Helpringham et de Thorp' 
.ij.s. Et de villata de Iwardby .iiij.s. Ideo consideratmn est quod 
predictus Willelmus faciat inde restitucionem . etc . Et committatur 
gaole etc Postea fecit finem per duas marcas per plegios Willelmi 
de Brunne- et Walteri de Parteney {Marg: est Gaole. ^) 
[Aswardhurn.] 

' The "tenth penny ' does not, J think, refer to the tax of a tenth on 
movables of November, 1294, but is probably the tithing penny. ■= Perhaps 
Bourne, Aveland. ' Gaole cancelled. 

351. -^Iuratores presentant quod Willelmus de Hynggelton' 
balliuus etc iniuste et per districcionem cepit de collectoribus 
undecime de Magna Hale .xviij.d. Et predictus Willelmus presens 
in curia non potest hoc dedicere . Ideo faciat inde restitucionem etc 



84 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

Et committatur gaole etc . fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole.) 
[Aswardhurn.] 

[ -r midway along foot of membrane.] 



[Membrane lOd.] 



LINCOLN' 



ADHUC DE QUERELIS IBIDEM ETC . CORAM WILLELMO INGE. 

352. -^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam Thomas de Eston' 
se posuit quod iniuste cepit duas vaccas de Ricardo Lewys et eas 
retinuit quousque fecit finem cum eo per dim.m Et de Gerardo 
vicario de Westbyham quia non habuit proteccionem domini regis 
.dim.m, Ideo consideratum est quod predictus Thomas restituat 
dictos denarios Et committatur gaole fecit finem. Marg: 
Belteslowe vacat quia alibi.) 

See nos. 457-8, where each part of the present vacated conviction is 
made a separate case. 

353. ^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam lohannes Mog' 
se posuit quod iniuste cepit de Prud seruiente rectoris de Coltes- 
worth' dim.m. ut parceretur in^ capcione brasei . de Willelmo 
Bacon .iiij.s. De lohanne Carpentario .iiij.s. De Alano Sparwe 
.xviij.d. De Willelmo f. Roberti .xviij.d. De Hugone et Ricardo 
£F. lohannis Carpentarii .iij.s. de lohanne Fabro .viij.d. [de 
Roberto f. Philippi de Suthorp' . • .] {Marg: Inuenietur modo 
quod corpus sub attachiamento ad veredictum de Belteslowe ad 
proximum aduentum de aud[i]end' etc.) [Beltisloe.] 

Cf. no. 312. The last six words of this entry have been deleted and 
the entry left uncompleted. M. lOd appears to be a palimpsest, though 
this is more obvious m the upper part of it. Taking corn unjustly was 
reckoned an extortion : cf. no. 433. 

1 Between in and capcione there is an erasure, with a line drawn through 
it afterwards. 

354. -^Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod distringeret Willelmum 
Loueday Ricardum de la More et Willelmum f. Ricardi et Walterum 
de Calwarthorp'^ per omnes terras etc Et de exitibus etc Et 
quod haberet corpora eorum hie ad hunc diem etc . ad respondendum 
super presentacionibus et querelis etc . Et ipsi non venerunt Et 
vicecomes testatur quod predictus Willelmus districtus est per 
catalla ad valenciam viginti.d^- . etc Et nichilominus Ricardus 
le Mouner de Swarby lohannes le Carpenter de Croketon' lohannes 
Lucas de Swarby et Robertus Lucas de eadem manuceperunt eum 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia'^ . Et predictus Ricardus de la More districtus 
est per catalla ad valenciam viginti denariorum*^ Et nichilominus 
lohannes f. Radulfi Hugo de la More lohannes de la More et 
Elias f. Radulfi de Argerby manuceperunt eum Ideo ipsi in m'ia^ 
Et Willelmus f. Ricardi districtus est per catalla ad valen- 
ciam dim.m*^. Et nichilominus lohannes f. Ricardi de Hale 
Thomas f. Lucie de eadem Stephanus Bryan de eadem et Alanug 



ASSIZE ROLL 506 86 

Bryan de eadem manucepcrunt eum Ideo ipsi in m'ia^ etc . Et 
preceptum est vicecomiti sicut alias quod distringat eos per omnes 
terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Et quod habeat corpora eorum 
ad proximum aduentums iusticiariorum etc . Et de predicto 
Willelmo^ . de Calwarthorp' vicecomes testatur quod non est 
inuentus . nee aliquid liabet per quod potest distringi etc Ideo 
preceptum est vicecomiti quod capiat eum Et eum saluo etc Et 
quod liabeat corpus eius coram istis iusticiariis ad proximum 
aduentum'' etc . Et unde etc. {Marg: Aswardhyrn' . .xx.d. 

forisfactum^ m'ie*^ .xx.d. forisfactum'^ m'ie*^ dim.m. foris- 
factum® m'ie^ ad proximum aduentum^ proximum aduentum^\) 
[Aswardhurn.] 

Walter of Culverthorpe and William Loueday were collectors of prise, 
cf. no. 333 ; probably Richard de la More also was a collector of prise. 

^ et Waherum de Calwarthorp' interlined. "• The same device as in no. 
229 above is employed for relating the marginalia to their proper passage in 
the text. ' Sic : a mistake for Waltero. 

355. -^Thomas Guile queritur de Alexandro Goldron de eo 
quod idem Alexander ipsum Thomam distrinxit per unum porcum 
precii .v.s. in . Buton' Et porcum ilium detinuit quousque . ab 
eodem per extorsionem cepisset dim. quarterium frumenti precii 
duorum s. unde dicit quod deterioratus est et dampnum habet 
ad valenciam etc. 

Et Alexander venit Et bene cognouit quod distrinxit ipsum 
per predictum porcum etc , per warantum quod eidem venit a 
curia regis pro quodam Radulfo Capellano ad fieri faciendum ad 
opus eiusdem capellani .iiij.m. etc . Et non aliter etc Et quo ad 
predictum bladum etc dicit quod nullum bladum per extorsionem 
ab eodem Thoma cepit etc Et de hoc ponit se super patriam etc. 
'^luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Alexander iniuste distrinxit predictum Thomam per predictum 
porcum et ilium porcum detinuit , quousque ab eodem leuasset 
dim. quarterium frumenti precii duorum solidorum per distric- 
cionem etc . Ideo predictus Thomas recuperet predictos duos 
solidos etc Et predictus Alexander committatur Gaole etc. 

Dampna .ij.s. C[lericis] . S[olidus] Postea fecit finem per dim.m. 
per plegios Willelmi f. Ranulphi de Rouceby et Thome Aired de 
eadem. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) [Aswardliurn.] 

Thomas Guile complains of Alexander Golderon, for that the same 
Alexander did distrani that Thomas by one pig of price 5/- in Burton 
Pedwardine, and did detain that pig until he had taken from the same 
[Thomas], by extortion, half a quarter of corn, of price 2/- ; wherein he says 
he is the worse, and has damage to the value etc. 

And Alexander has come, and has fully acknowledged that he dis- 
trained him by the aforesaid pig etc., by a warrant which came to him from 
the king's court, for a certain Ralph the chaplain, to cause to be made over 
to the use of the same chaplain four marks etc., and not otherwise etc. And 
as to the aforesaid corn etc., he says that he took no com by extortion 
from the same Thomas etc. ; and as to this he puts himself upon the 
country etc. 



86 ASSIZE ROLL 605 

The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Alexander did unjustly 
distrain the aforesaid Thomas by the aforesaid pig, and did detain it until 
he had levied frona him half a quarter of corn, of price two shillings by 
extortion etc. Therefore let the aforesaid Thomas recover the aforesaid 
two shillings etc., and let the afore.said Alexander be committed to gaol etc. 
Damages 2/-, to the clerks 1.'-. Afterwards he made fine by half a mark 
by the pledges of William son of Ranulph of Rauceby and Thomas Aired 
of the same. 

* (Jaole cancelled. 

356. -^lura tores presentant quod Walterus Est balliuus etc . 
iniuste etc et per districcionem cepit de Stephano Kilbel .ij.s. De 
Radulfo de Mulnethorp' .xij.d. De Beatricia uxore Ricardi 
Parlebyen unum bussellum pulmenti precii .xvj.d. De Roberto 
Carpentario de Couerindon' .ij.s. De Philippo Fattyngham de 
Helpyngham .ij.s. De Willelmo Bunne .vj.d. De Roberto 
Molendario .xij.d. De hominibus Willelmi le Latymer in 
Helpringham .ij.s. Item de eisdem .xvj.d. De Willelmo f. 
Agnetis .xij.d. De Agnete la Vedfe paupere etc .ij.s. De Willelmo 
Philippo .xij.d. De lohanne f. Willelmo .xij.d. De lohanne f. 
Agnetis .xij.d. De Henrico Beicario .xiij.d. De uxore Rogeri de 
Westthorp'^ .vj.d. ut ipsos in pace viuere permitteret etc . Et 
Walterus presens in curia non potest hoc dedicere Ideo faciat 
inde restitucionem etc Et committatur gaole etc . Postea fecit 
finem per .xl.s. per plegios Galfridi de Brunne militis . et Willelmi 
de Bybbesworth'. {Marg: est Gaole.'-) [Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. no. 343. Walter Est was chief bailiff of Kesteven, and his pledges 
were important men in the county. Geoffrey of Bourne was chief constable 
of Kesteven and William of Bibbesworth was a sheriff's clerk. 

^ Perhaps W'esthorpe, Threo. ^ Gaole cancelled. 

357. ^Conuictum est per inquisicionem in quam Walterus 
Est balUuus se posuit quod idem Walterus iniuste etc . et per 
districcionem leuauit de Alexandro Mercatore .dim.m. etc . Ideo 
faciat inde restitucionem etc Et committatur gaole etc . fecit 
finem. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) 

* Gaole cancelled. 

358. ^luratores presentant quod Walterus Est balliuus 
iniuste et per districcionem leuauit de lohanne f. Ade de Asegardby 
.iij.s. et de Eha fratre eiusdem lohannis f. Ade .xij.d. pro licencia 
viuendi in pace etc . Et Waltcfus presens in curia hoc cognouit 
Ideo faciat inde restitucionem etc . Et committatur gaole etc fecit 
finem. [Marg: est Gaole. i) [Aswardhurn.] 

Cf. no. 343. 

' Oaole cancelled. 

359. ^luratores presentant quod Alexander Golderon balliuus 
de Aswardbyi iniuste et per maliciam cepit de Willelmo Loueday 
.dim. quarterium sihginis precii .ij.s. De Willelmo Boy .xij.d. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 87 

et de Ricardo Baroime .xij.d. Et Alexander presens in curia hoc 
cognouit Ideo facial inde restitucionem Et committatur Gaole etc . 
fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole.-) [Aswardhurn.] 

^ The scribe has, I think, made a mistake here, putting Aswardhy where 
he should have written Aswardhurn. * Gaole cancelled. 

360. ^Conuictuni est per inquisicionem in quam Alexander 
Golderon se posuit quod idem Alexander iniuste et per districcionem 
cepit de hominibus ville de Stretton' .ij.s. De Beatricia in Angulo 
.xij.d. Ideo faciat inde restitucionem etc . Et committatur gaole etc . 
fecit finem. [Marg: est Gaole. i) 

^ Gaole cancelled. 

361. *^Conuictum est per inquisicionem in quam Willelmus 
de Reyneuile se posuit quod cepit per extorsionem de lohanne 
Broun molendario .ij.d. Ideo faciat inde restitucionem etc Et 
sit in m'ia etc. {Marg: m'ia.) [Aswardhurn.] 

362. •Hugo Bardolf venit in curiam super presentacione 
iuratorum etc . Et cognouit quod cepit de lohanne Broun molendario 
per extorsionem .xij.d. iniuste etc Ideo faciat inde restitucionem etc 
Et committatur gaole etc . fecit finem. (Marg: est Gaole. ^) 
[Aswardhurn.] 

* Oaole cancelled. 

363. ^Ricardus le Pestour de Paunton' queritur de Roberto 
Pj^gyoun , de eo quod idem Robertus dum fuit balliuus regis ipsum 
Ricardum in assisis iuratis et inquisicionibus posuit extra comitatum , 
cum litteras regis habuit quod non poneretur in huiusmodi assisis 
iuratis et inquisicionibus etc unde dicit quod deterioratus est et 
dampna habet ad valenciam etc Et ipsum de his grauaminibus 
in pace non permisit quousque uersus ipsum finasset tres soHdos etc. 

Et Robertus dicit quod [non]^ ipsum in huiusmodi assisis 
iuratis aut inquisicionibus , sic posuit , nee aliquos denarios ab 
eodem sic per extorsionem recepit Et de hoc ponit se super 
patriam etc . luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod 
predictus Robertus pluries in assisis iuratis et inquisicionibus posuit 
predictum Ricardum , quousque idem Ricardus fecit [finem] ^ cum 
eodem per tres solidos Ideo consideratum est quod predictus 
Ricardus recuperet uersus ipsum Robertum predictos tres solidos 
et dampna sua que taxantur per iuratam ad quadraginta denarios 
Et predictus Robertus committatur gaole etc. 

Dampna .xl.d. Postea fecit finem . per .x.l. per plegios Gilberti 

de Crosholmp . et Thome Payn. {Marg: est Gaole. 2) 

[Winnibriggs.] 

Richard the Baker of Ponton complains of Robert Pygoun, for that 
the same Robert, while he was King's bailiff, did put that Richard upon 
assizes, juries and inquisitions outside the county, when he had letters of 
the King that he be not put upon assizes, juries and inquisition.s of this 



88 ASSIZE ROLL 506 

kind etc. : wherein he says he is the worse and has damages to the vahie etc. ; 
and that he [Robert] did not permit him [to hve] in peace from these burdens 
until he had made fine with him by three shilhngs etc. 

And Robert says tliat he did not thus put him upon assizes, juries 
or inquisitions of this kind, nor received any moneys from the same thus 
by extortion ; and as to this he puts himseh' upon the country etc. 

The jiu-ors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Robert did several 
times put the aforesaid Richard upon assizes, juries and inquisitions until 
the same Richard made fine with liim by tliree shilhngs. Therefore it is 
awarded that the aforesaid Richard do recover against that Robert the 
aforesaid three shillings, and liis damages, which are taxed by the jury at 
forty pence. And let the aforesaid Robert be committed to gaol etc. 
Damages 40 pence. Afterwards he made fine by £10 by the pledges of 
Gilbert of Crossholme and Thomas Payn. 

1 Omitted in MS. " Oaole cancelled. 

364. ^Ricardus le Pestour de Paunton' queritur de Roberto 
Pygyoun de eo quod idem Robertus hostium grangie sue^ sigillauit 
Et ipsum Ricardum in eandem intrare non permisit , quousque 
cepisset ab eodem per huiusmodi districcionem .ij.s. etc. Et 
Robertus dicit quod non fecit ei predictam transgressionem Et 
de hoc ponit se super patriam luratores dicunt super sacramentum 
suum quod predictus Robertus iniuste sicut predictus Ricardus 
queritur distrinxit predictum Ricardum , quousque ab eodem 
cepisset .ii.s. Ideo restituat eidem Ricardo predictos duos solidos , 
Et sit in m'ia etc . fecit finem. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs.] 

Richard the Baker of Ponton complains of Robert Pygoun for that 
the same Robert did seal up the door of his barn and did not permit that 
Richard to enter it vintil he had taken from him two shillings by distress of 
this kind etc. 

And Robert says that he did not make the aforesaid trespass upon him, 
and as to this, he puts himself upon the country. 

The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Robert did unjustly, 
as the aforesaid Richard complains, distrain the aforesaid Richard until 
he had taken from hun two shillings. Therefore let him restore to the 
same Richard the aforesaid two shillings ; and let [Robert] be in mercy. 
He made fine. 

^ sue, interlined. 

365. ^Conuictum est per inquisicionem in quam Robertus 
Pygyoun se posuit quod Ricardus de Paunton' iniuste querebatur 
de ipso Roberto de quodam inprisonamento etc . Ideo predictus 
Robertus inde sine die Et predictus Ricardus in m'ia^ pro falso 
clamore etc . Et pardonatur quia pauper etc. {Marg: m'ia.^) 
[Winnibriggs.] 

^ nCia cancelled. 

[Membrane U.J ^^^^ 

ADHUC DE PLACITIS APUD STAUNFORD IN COMITATU LINCOLNTE 
DIE VENERIS PROXIiMA POST FESTUM SANCTE LUCE^ EWANGELISTE. 

[Friday, October 24th.] 

366. ^Robertus le Blund qui sequitur pro domino rege dicit 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 89 

quod lohannes Eiierard dum fuit balliuus ipsius domini regis de 
EUawe . cepit de Gerardo de Flete et Thoma de Holebech' captos 
pro robberia cum manuopere etc . pro manucapcione eorundem ; 
viginti solidos etc . qui quidam Gcrardus et Thomas sic deliberati etc . 
homines balhue predicte qui capcione eorundem interfuerunt . 
minabantur , et aha dampna in patria fecerunt etc , Et lohannes 
dicit quod non cepit de eis . predictos viginti sohdos ncc predictos 
prisones dehberauit sicut predictus Robertus ei imponit etc. Immo , 
eosdem ])risones hberauit Walrano le Lou clerico vicecomitis 
comitatus istius etc Et de hoc ponit se super patriam Et predictus- 
Robertus qui sequitur pro domino rege similiter etc . Ideo 
inquiratur etc. 

luratores dicunt super sacrament um suum . quod predictus 
lohannes ceperat predictum Thomam pro roberia cum manuopere . 
Et predictum Gerardum pro receptamento eiusdem Thome etc . 
Et quod eosdem Thomam et Gerardum , a prisona permisit exire 
post attachiamentum etc . per tres dies etc . absque manucapcione 
etc . pro fine duarum marcarum etc unde ab eisdem Gerardo et 
Thoma cepit viginti sohdos etc . Ideo predictus lohannes committitur 
gaole etc . Et predict! Gcrardus et Thomas habeant suitam^ 
recuperare uersus predictum lohannem de predictis .xx.s. si sequi 
vehnt etc. {Marg: Line' Hoyl' [Holland] non dum fecit 
finem Gaole.) 

Robert le Blund, who sues for the lord king, says that Jolin Everard 
while he was bailiff of that lord king for EUoe, did take from Gerard of Fleet 
and Thomas of Holbeach, seized for robbery in the act etc., twenty shillings 
for mainprise of the same etc. ; which Gerard and Thomas, thus delivered etc., 
were menacing the men of the aforesaid bailiwick who were concerned in 
the seizing of the same ; and they did cause other damage in the country etc. 

And John says that he did not take from them the aforesaid twenty 
.shillings, nor delivered the said prisoners as the aforesaid Robert accuses 
him. On the contrary, he delivered up the aforesaid prisoners to Walron 
le Lou, clerk to the sheriff of this county etc. ; and as to this he puts himself 
upon the country, and the aforesaid Robert, who sues for the lord king, 
sunilarly etc. Therefore let enquiry be made etc. 

The jurors say ujion their oath that the aforesaid John liad seized the 
aforesaid Thomas for robbery in the act, and the aforesaid Gerard for the 
receiving of the same Thomas etc. : and that he [John] did permit the same 
Thomas and Gerard to go out of prison after attachment etc. for three 
days, etc., without mainprise etc., for a fine of two marks etc. ; whence he 
took fx'om the same Gerard and Thomas twenty shillings etc. Therefore 
the aforesaid John is committed to gaol etc. And let the aforesaid Gerard 
and Thomas have a suit to recover against the aforesaid John touching the 
aforesaid twenty shillings, if they wish to sue etc. 

* MS. has Lucie, -predictus interlined. 'Sic. 

367. IfPreceptum fuit vicecomiti quod attachiaret Willelmum 
de Brunei ^q Donington' clericum Ita quod haberet eum hie die 
Dominica proxima post festum sancti Luce ewangehste- ad 
respondendum Willelmo de Bibbesworth' de transgressione ei^ 
facta . Et vicecomes testatur quod predictus Willelmus non 



90 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

permittit se attachiari . Ideo preoeptum est viceoomiti quod capiat 
eum . Ita quod habeat corpus eius apud Graham die Martis proxima 
ante festum omnium sanctorum.' [Holland.] 
This entry has been written over an erasure. 

^ de Drum interlined. -Sunday. October 19lli. * et interlined. 
* Tuesday, October 28th. 

368. ^Preceptum [est] vicecomiti quod distringat Ricardum 
Godarde et Willelmum atte Flete per omnes terras etc . Et quod 
de exitibus etc. {Marg: Enor.) 

369. ^Preceptum est vicecomiti quod attachiet Ricardum 
Goddard et Willelmum atte Flete . Ita quod habeat eos apud Graham 
dei Martis proxima ante festum omnium sanctorum^ . ad 
respondendum super presentacione de Candeleshou . Et quod 
capiat Willelmum f. Alani. [Candleshoe.] 

1 Tuesday, October 28th. 

370. -i'lICecilia de Portesmue de Staunford queritur de 
Thoma de Eston' balliuo de Nesse de eo quod idem Thomas simul 
cum Thoma le Clerk' et Henrico Fychet subballiuis etc ad festum 
sancti lacobi hoc anno^ cepit de eadem Cecilia in predicta villa 
de Staunford tria quarteria et unum estrikum brasei per mensuram 
cumulatam- et penes ipsum adhuc detinet unde dicit quod deteriorata 
est et dampnum habet ad valenciam etc. 

Et Thomas de Eston' venit Et bene cognouit quod recepit 
totum predictum braseum etc . Et ad opus domini regis per 
warantum quod profert de Petro de Molynton' sub sigillo eiusdem 
etc . Et quod illud liberauit receptoribus bladi^ regis ad portum etc . 
Et inde vocat recordum rotuli vicecomitis de recepcione bladi etc . 
Et quia per jjredictum recordum compertum est quod predictus 
Thomas ad portum etc non liberauit receptoribus bladi regis nisi 
duo quarteria unum busseUum et dim. brasei tantum Et prius 
cognouit quod cepit predicta tria quarteria et unum estrikum . 
Ideo predictus Thomas remaneat oneratus de predictis duobus 
quarteriis uno bussello et dim ; quousque warantum a receptoribus 
bladi regis inde proferat Et quo ad residuum quod taxatur ad 
quinque s. et septem d.ob.* predicta Cecilia illud recuperet uersus 
ipsum Thomam . Et idem Thomas committatur gaole etc . fecit 
finem. 

Dampna v.s. vij.d.ob. {Marg: Staunford est Gaole. ^) 
[Ness.] 

Cecilia de Portsmouth of Stamford complains of Thomas of Easton, 
bailiff of Ness, for that the same Thomas, together with Thomas the clerk 
and Henry Fychet, sub-bailiffs etc., on the feast of St. James this year 
[.July 2.'3th, 1298] did take from the same Cecilia in the aforesaid vill of 
Stamford, three (juarters and one strike of malt by heaped measure, and 
is still detaining it in his possession ; wherein she says that she is the worse 
and has damage to the value etc. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 01 

And Thomas of Easton has come, and fairly avows that ho received 
all the aforesaid malt etc., and to the use of the lord king by warrant, which 
he protiers, from Peter de Molinton, under the seal of the same etc. ; and 
that ho delivered that [malt] to the receivers of the king's corn at the 
port etc. And therein he vouches the record of the sheriff's roll of the 
receipt of corn etc. And because by the aforesaid record it is found that the 
aforesaid Thomas at the port etc. delivered to the receivers of the king s 
com only two quarters and one and a half bushels of malt, and did 
before acknowledge tliat he took the aforesaid three quarters and 
one strike : therefore let the aforesaid Thoma.s remain charged with the 
aforesaid two quarters and one and a half bushels until he do proffer a 
warrant thereof from the receivers of the king's corn. And as to the residue, 
which is taxed at five shillings and seven pence lialfpenny, let the aforesaid 
Cecilia recover that against that Thomas. And let the same Thomas be 
committed to gaol etc. He made fine. Damages 5;7i. 

This prise was made under the ordinance of April 1 5th, 1298 ; cf. 
no. 237. 

'July 2oth, 1298. -per mensuram cumulatam interlined. ^ bladi 
interlined. * quod toxatur . . . ob. interlined. ' Gaole cancelled. 

371. -i-^Galfridus Broun de Staunford' queritur de Thoma 
de Eston' balliuo de Xesse de eo quod idem Thomas ad festum 
sancti lohaimis Baptiste hoc anno^ apud .Staunford cepit de eodem 
Galfrido sex estrika frumenti . et unum busselhmi siliginis . per 
mensuram rasam- . et decem quarteria brasei per mensuram 
cumulatam , et ea iniuste detinet unde dicit quod deterioratus est 
et dampnum habet ad valenciam etc. 

Et Thomas venit Et bene cognouit quod cepit predicta blada 
et braseum per predictam mensuram ; set dicit quod hoc fecit ; 
per preceptum Petri de ^lolynton' , qui ad capciones huiusmodi 
bladi in comitatu isto assignabatur , Et protuht warantum suum 
sub sigillo eiusdem Petri quod hoc testatur etc . Et dicit quod blada 
et braseum ilia cariari fecit ad portum etc . Et ilia liberauit 
receptoribus bladi-* regis ibidem etc . per idem^ mensuram qua 
ilia cepit etc . Et de hoc ponit se super recordum rotulorum vice- 
comitis de recepcione bladi etc . quod quidem recordum in curia 
hie ostensum testatur quod idem Thomas ad portum liberauit 
receptoribus bladi regis de braseo . octo . quarteria et unum 
bussellum precii quarterii .iiij.s. Et de frumento dim. quarterium 
unum bussellum et dim. et mium peckum precii .v.s. vj.d. per 
mensuram rasam tantum . et non plus etc Ideo predictus Thomas 
remaneat inde oneratus quousque habeat warantum de predicto 
Petro etc . Et quo ad totum^ residuum , quod taxatur ad duodecim 
solidos consideratum est quod predictus Galfridus illud recuperet . 
uersus Thomam etc Et predictus Thomas committatur gaole etc , 
fecit finem. 

Dampna .xij.s. {3Iarg: est . Gaole.) [Ness.] 

(.JeofYrey Broun of Stamford complains of Thomas of Easton, bailif? 
of Xess, for rhat the .same Thomas, on the feast of St. John Baptist this year 
[June 24th, 1298] at Stamford, did take from the same Geoffrey six strikes 
of corn and one bushel of rye by level mea.sure, and ten quarters of malt 



92 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

by heaped measure, and is unjustly detaining them, wherein he [Geoffrey] 
eaj'^s that he is the worse and has damage to the vahie etc. 

And Thomas has come, and has fairly acknowledged that he took the 
aforesaid corn and malt by tlie aforesaid measure ; but he says that he did 
this by order of Peter de ^lolj'nton, who was appointed to the taking of 
corn of this kind in this county ; and he proffered his warrant under the 
seal of the same Peter, which bears witness to this etc. And he says that 
he caused tliat corn and malt to be carried to the port etc., and he delivered 
it to the receivers of the king's corn there etc., by the same measure by which 
ho took it etc. ; and as to tiiis, he puts himself upon the record of the sheriff's 
rolls of receipt of corn etc., which record, being shown here in covu't, bears 
witness that the same Thomas did deliver at the port, to the receivers of 
the king's corn, of malt, eight quarters and one bushel, of price 4 /- the quarter ; 
and of corn half a quarter and one and a half bushels and one peck, of price 
5/6, by level measure only, and not more etc. Therefore let the afore- 
said Thomas remain charged thereof until he do have warrant from the 
afoi-esaid Peter etc. And as to the whole residue, which is taxed at twelve 
shillings, it is awarded that the aforesaid Geoffrey do recover that against 
Thomas etc. And let the aforesaid Thomas be committed to gaol etc. 
He made fine. Damages 12/-. 

This case also arises out of the prise ordained on April 15th, 1298 ; 
cf. no. 237. 

^ June 24th, 1298. -per mensuram rasam interlined. ' Bladi inter- 
lined. * Sic. '•" totum interlined. 

372. ^Robertus Pepir de Langetoft queritur de lohanne 
Euerard balliuo de Ello de eo quod idem lohannes ad festum 
natiuitatis sancti lohannis Baptiste hoc anno^ apud Spaldyngg' 
cepit de eodem Roberto quatuor quarteria brasei precii .xix.s. et 
octo d. et ea iniuste detinet etc unde dicit quod deterioratus est 
et dampnum habet ad valenciam etc . Et lohannes venit Et bene 
cognouit- quod per warantum quod habuit a Petro de Molynton' 
qui ad capcionem bladi in comitatu isto assignabatur , cepit ipse 
de predicto l)raseo . tria quarteria etc . et illis Hberauit ipso Petro , 
Ideo habeat inde'^ warantum suum ab eodem Petro , apud Grantham' 
die ^lartis proxima futura' etc . Et quo ad residuum'' eiusdem 
brasei dicit quod nichil inde cepit Et de^ hoc ponit se super patriam 
Et Robertus simiUter Ideo veniat inquisicio apud Grantham' ad 
prefatum terminum etc. {Marg: Grantham' Inquis'.) [EUoe.] 

This case also arises out of the prise ordained on April 15th, 1298 ; 
cf. no. 237. It follows much the same lines as nos. 370 and 371. 

^ June 24th, 1298. ^cognouit is followed in MS. by a lino drawn 
through an erasure. ' inde interlined. * Tuesday, October 28th. * resi- 
duum is written over an erasure. * de interlined. 

373. -^Aluredus le Mercer de Staunford queritur de Thoma 
de Eston' balUuo etc de eo quod idem Thomas ipsum Aluredum 
distrinxit per quadraginta et quatuor ulnas panni lanuti* de pannacio 
in villa de ytaunford- Et districcionem illam^ adhuc penes se 
detinet unde dicit quod deterioratus est et dampnum habet ad 
valenciam etc . Et Thomas venit Et bene aduocat predictam 
districcionem et iuste etc . dicit enim quod idem Aluredus est 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 93 

burgensis de Staunford' Et quod ipse simul cum tota communitate 
eiusdem ville quamdam comraunem finem fecit coram mareschallo 
regis etc . unde pars ipsum Aluredum inde contingent' arretro est 
propter quod idem Aluredus per predict um pannum sic est 
districtus etc . Et Aluredus dicit quod pars de predicta fine ipsum 
contingent' soluta fuit ante predictam districcionem eidem Aluredo 
factam Et hoc sciente predicto Thoma etc . Et quod idem Thomas 
per maliciam districcionem illam fecit parcendo ahis etc Et pro 
suo dando etc Et de hoc ponit se super patriam etc . Et Thomas 
similiter Ideo etc Postea per liccnciam curie concordati smit . 
Et Thomas dat pro Kcencia concordandi viginti d. ' Et est concordia 
talis . videUcet quod idem Thomas cognoscit quod reddat eidem 
Alm-edo predictum pamium . vel sexaginta s. citra festum sancti 
]\Iartini proxima futurum'' Et nisi fecerit . Conccdit quod vicecomes 
fieri faciat de terris et catallis etc . ad quorumcunque etc . Et postea 
predict! .xx.d. pardonatur per iusticiarios etc. {Marg: .xx.d.® 
pardonatur.) [Xess.] 

Alfred the Mercer of Stamford complains of Thomas of Easton, 
bailiff etc., for that the same Thomas did distiain Alfred by forty-four ells 
of woollen cloth from his cloth store m the vill of Stamford, and that distress 
is still detaining in his po.ssession ; wherein he [Alfred] says that he is the 
worse, and has damage to the value etc. 

And Thomas has come, and fairly avows the aforesaid distress, and 
justly etc., for he says that the same Alfred is a burgess of Stamford and 
that he, together with the whole community of the same town, did mako 
a certain communal fine before the Kmg's Marshal etc., whereof the part 
touching Alfred therein is in arrears, on account of which the same Alfred 
was thus distramed by the aforesaid cloth. 

And Alfred says that the part of the aforesaid fine touching him was 
paid before the aforesaid distress was made upon that Alfred, the aforesaid 
Thomas knowing this etc. And that the same Thomas made that distress 
tlirough malice, sparing others etc. ; and for their giving etc. ; and as to 
this he puts himself upon the country etc., and Thomas similarly etc. After- 
wards, by licence of the court, they made a concord. And Thomas gave 
20 pence for licence to agree ; and such is the concord : to wit that the 
same Thomas acknowledges that he give back to the .same Alfred the afore- 
said cloth or 60 -, before the feast of St. Martin next to come [November 12th, 
1298] ; and unless he shall have done so, he agrees that the sheriff do cause 
to be made from his lands and chattels etc. to whatever etc. And afterwards 
the aforesaid twenty pence were pardoned by the justices etc. 

Alfi-ed had ah-eady suffered at the hands of Thomas of Easton, cf. 
no. 305 ; and he was a juror of Stamford in this enquiry-, cf. no. 469. As 
far back as 1290 he was a juror in an inquisition to investigate crimes 
committed at (probably) Stamford, cf. Biog. Index, s.v. ]Mercer, Alfred 
the. I have not been able to trace the conununal fine referred to in this 
case. 

^ lanuti interlined. * in villa de Staunford interlined. 'MS. repeats 
illam. * viginti d. cancelled, because pardoned : see marginalia. ^ Novem- 
ber 12th, 1298. « .xx.d. cancelled. 

374. .'. ^Petronilla de Beremere de Staunford' queritur de 
Thoma de Eston' simul cum^ Thoma de Hanuylle et Henrico Fychet^ 
balliuis etc dc eo quod iidem Thomas Thomas et Henricu.s'' 



94 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

distrinxerunt ipsam Petronillam per duo qiiarteria brasei in 
Staunford'' quousque iniuste et sine waranto ab eadem leuassent 
sex solidos et quatuor denarios , unde dicit quod deteriorata est 
et dampnum habet ad valenciam etc. 

Et Thomas de Eston'^ venit Et dicunt^ ([uod ipsam Petronillam 
non distrinxerunt nee aliquam pecuniam . umquam ab eadem 
leuauerunt iniuste etc sicut eis iraponit , Et de hoc ponit se super 
patriani Et predicta Petronilla similiter etc . Ideo etc . luratores 
dicmit super sacramentum suum quod ])redicti Thomas de Hanuyll' 
et Henricus per preceptum predicti Thome de Eston' per dis- 
triccionem leuauerunt de predicta Petronilla predictos sex solidos 
et quatuor denarios . unde predictus Thomas de Eston' habuit . 
(juinque sohdo.s Et Thomas de Hanuille .duodecim denarios . Et 
predictus Henricus quatuor denarios sicut i])sa Petronilla queritur 
etc . Ideo consideratum est quod predicta Petronilla recuperet 
predictos quinque solidos et dampna sua que taxantur per 
iusticiarios ad duodecim denarios versus ipsum Thomam de Eston' 
Et ipse Thomas committatur gaole Et quia vicecomes testatur 
quod predicti Thomas do Hanuille et Henricus non sunt inuenti 
nee aliquid habent etc . Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod capiat 
cos etc Et eos saluo etc Ita quod eos habeat apud Grantham' 
die louis proxima futura. {Marg: .vj.s. est Gaole' fecit 
finem . preceptum . est.) [Ness. J 

Petronilla Beremere of Stamford complains of Thomas of Easton, 
together witli Thomas de Hanuylle and Henry Fychet, bailiffs etc., for 
that the same Thomas, Thomas and Henry did distrain that Petronilla 
by two quarters of malt in vStaraford, until they had unjustly and without 
vrarrant levied from the same six shillings and four pence, wherein she says 
that she is the worse and has damage to the value etc. 

And Thomas of Easton has come, and he says that they did not distrain 
that Petronilla, nor ever levied any money from the same unjustly etc. 
and as she accuses them ; and as to this, he puts himself upon the coimtry, 
and the aforesaid Petronilla similarly etc. Therefore etc. 

The jurors say upon thoir oath that the aforesaid Thomas de Hanuyll 
and Henry, by order of the aforesaid Thomas of Easton, did levy by dia- 
f raint from the aforesaid Petronilla the aforesaid six shillings and four pence, 
whoroof the aforesaid Thomas of Easton had five shillings, and Thomas 
de Hanuylle twelve pence, and the aforesaid Henry four pence, as that 
Petronilla complains etc. Therefore it is awarded that the aforesaid 
Petronilla do recover against Thomas of Easton the said five shillings and 
her damages, which are taxed by the justices at twelve pence ; and let 
that Thomas be committed to gaol. And because the sheriff bears witness 
that the aforesaid Thomas de Hanuill and Henry are not found, nor have 
they anything etc. ; therefore order is given to the sheriff that he do take 
them and [do hold] thorn in safe [custody] etc., so that he do have them 
at Grantham on Thursday next following [October 30th]. 

Henry Fychet and Thomas de Hanuill were Tliomas of Easton's sub- 
bailiffs in Boltisloe and Ness ; and Thomas de Hanuill was also Thomas 
of Ea.ston's clerk. 

There is a space of nearly three inches between this entry and the next, 
presumably left for later additions to no. 374, if any. 

^ aimul cum interlined. * el Henrico Fychet interlined. * TJiomaa et 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 95 

Henricus interlined. * i)i Staioiford' interlined. * After Estoii , et HenricuJi 
is interlined and tiien deleted. "The st-ribe, having deleted Henry's name, 
omitted to make the further necessary correction. ' Gaole cancelled. 

375. *[01iua que fuit vxor lohannis de Helpeston' que 
querebatur de Roberto Pygon nuper balliuo de Grantham non 
est prosecutus . Ideo predictus Robertus inde et sine die Et 
predicta Oliua in m'ia etc. (Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs.] 

[Membrane llrf.] 

376. -^lohannes rector ecclesie de Belesby queritur de 
Willelmo Wantoun quod ipse iniuste cepit de eo unum gladium 
precii .iij.s. — Et Willelnius venit Et hoc cognouit Ideo con- 
sideratum est quod restituat Et sit in m'ia. [Marg: m'ia.) 

In the margin are the words Boby et Grqfhow, but so faint that they 
look as if they had been erased. In any case they are almost certainly a 
mistake. Cf. this case with no. 244, where Williaia Wantoun or Wanthorn^ — - 
if they are the same — was also involved. On that occasion William, who 
was probably sub-bailiff of Calcewath, did not come, but as here the plaintiff's 
name was John and he was a rector, though in no. 244 his chinx-li is said 
to be at Besseby (Beesby), which is in Calcewath ; not at Belesby (Beelsby), 
which is in Haverstoe and in a different part of the county. We are thus 
faced with two possibilities : (1) that the scribe has in fact made a mistake 
in no. 376, in making John the rector of Belesby when he was really rector 
of Besseby (I retain the old spellings) ; that William Wantoun and William 
W^anthom are the same person, a contingency not improbable having regard 
to the vagaries of medieval spelling ; that the seizure of a sword (or any 
other article) was a trespass requiring the procedure of no. 244 if the offender 
did not appear ; and that in consequence no. 376 is really the continuation 
and conclusion of no. 244. Or (2) that the scribe made no mistake as to 
the two rectors ; that William Wantoun is not the saine person as William 
Wanthorn ; and that in consequence the two cases are unconnected. 1 
favour, on the whole, the first of these possibilities, though there is no 
certainty. Cf. Appendix II, list of bailiffs, s.v. William Wanthorn, and 
note 50, p. 153. 

377. -^Ricardus le Pestour de Paunton' queritur de Willelmo 
le Wayte nuper balUuo de Wynerbrygg' . quod cum ipse tulerat 
breue domini regis quod non poneretur in assisis iuratis etc Idem 
Willelmus ipsum maliciose in assisis posuit quousque fecit finem 
cum eo per tres solidos etc — Et Willelmus venit Et hoc cognouit , 
Ideo consideratum est quod restituat predictos denarios predicto 
Ricardo Et Willelmus committatur gaole fecit finem. (Marg: 
Wynerbrigge est Gaole. ^) 

Cf. no. 363. 

* Gaole cancelled. 

378. -^Agnes de Kane' que querebatur de Roberto Pygyoun 
balliuo de Weynnerbrigg' de placito transgressionis non est prosecuta 
Ideo predictus Robertus inde sine die Et predicta Agnes in m'ia etc 
Et quia enormis transgressio etc Ideo inquiratur pro rege etc. 
[Mary: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs.] 



96 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In spite of the injunction ' let it be ascertained for the king,' there is 
no further record in A.R. 505 relating to this case. 

There is a space of nearly four inches between this and the next entry, 
which has, I think, been inserted later, and in a more formal hand. 

379. Edwardus dei gratia Rex Anglie Dominus Hibernie 
et Dux Aquitanie dilectis et fidelibus suis Willelmo Inge et socio 
suo iusticiariis ad querelas de prisis factis post inicium guerre inter 
nos et regem Francie subhorte in diuersis coniitatibus audiendas 
et terminandas assignatis salutem . Mandamus vobis in fide qua 
nobis tenemini fiimiter iniungentes quod extractas finium et 
amerciamentorum coram vobis factorum uel citra festum Puri- 
ficacionis beate Marie proxima futuro^ faciendorum distincte et 
aperte factas , Habeatis ad Scaccarium nostrum apud Ebor' ad 
ultimum in Octabas eiusdem festi purificacionis- thesaurario eiusdem 
Scaccarii nostri ibidem liberandas ut inde fiat in hac parte quod 
secundum consuetudinem Scaccarii predicti fuerit faciendum . 
Et hoc sicut commodum nostrum et honorem vestnim diligitis 
non omittatis . Remittentes ibi tunc hoc breue . Teste W[altero] 
Couentrensi et Lychfeldensi episcopo thesaurario nostro apud 
Ebor' xvj^^ die Decembris anno regni . nostri . vicesimo septimo^ — 
Et sciendum quod breue istud simul cum extractis finium et 
amerciamentorum Comitatum Suffolckie NorfFolckie et simiUter 
Lincohiie mittebantur apud Ebor' ad diem in breui contentum etc 
Omnibus ad quos presentes httere peruenerint Robertus le Venur 
vicecomes Lincolnie salutem Noueritis me recepisse de [Willelmo] 
de riintham pro manucapcione Walteri Bacerel de Fraunketon' 
.j.m. Et de Willelmo Scot pro eodem .j.m. Et de Rogero Mchecrem 
de Sancto Botulpho .xx.s. Et de Matill' le Orfeure de eadem 
pro eodem .dim.m. Et de Willelmo f. lohannis de Swynistede 
pro eodem .j.m. Et de Willelmo Hancounte de Barton"* pro eodem 
dim.m. Et de Ricardo le Fleshewer de Burton^' . pro eodem .x.s. 
Et de Waltero le Mouner de Laghton'^ pro eodem .x.s. Et de 
Henrico Leueryk' de Dyryngton' Et lohanne Aldus de eadem 
Et Elyzabeth uxore ipsius lohannis pro eodem .j.m. Et de Waltero 
atte Grene de Ouston' pro . eodem' .x.s. Et de Rogero Lebard 
pro eodem .dim.m. Et de Hugone de Pekham pro eodem .x.s. 
Et de Henrico Cokstan de Cathorp' pro eodem .dim.m. Et de 
lordano le Chapeleyn pro eodem .xx.s. Et de Willelmo Pesse de 
Rasne .j.m. In cuius rei testimonio huic aquietancie sigillum 
meum apposui. 

Edward, by the grace of God King of England, Lord of Ireland and 
Duke of Aquitaine, to his well-loved and trusty William Inge and his fellow, 
justices appointed to hear and determine complaints concerning prises 
made in divers counties after the beginning of the war arisen between us 
and the King of France : greeting. We command you, in the fealty by 
which you are held to us, firmly enjoining you, that you do have the estreats, 
clearly and openly made, of fines and amercements made before you or 
to be made this side of the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Mary 
next to come, at our Exchequer at York, at the latest by the octaves of 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 97 

the same feast of the Purification ; to be <iehverecl to the treasurer of the 
same our Exchequer there : so that therein it be done in this regard as 
according to the custom of the aforesaid Exchequer it has hitherto been 
done. And this, as you esteem our convenience and your lionour, you 
omit not, returning thence at that time this writ. Witnessed by Walter, 
bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, our Treasurer at York, on the sixteenth 
day of December in the tuenty-so\'onth year of our reign [December 16th, 
1298]. 

And be it known that tliis writ, together with the estreats of fines and 
amercements of the counties of Suffolk, Norfolk and similarly of Lincoln, 
were sent to York upon the day contained in the writ etc. 

To all whom the present letters may concern, Robert le Y^enour, sheriff 
of Lincoln, greeting. Know you that I have received from Williaui of 
Flintham . . . for the mainprise of . . . [other persons and sums specified]. 
In witness whereof I have appended my seal to this quittance. 

It is unusual to find the kings writ and the sheriff's letter of receipt 
and quittance together, as they are here, and forming thus in one place 
a connected whole. 

1 February 2nd, 1299. - February 9th, 1299. '' December Kith, 1298 
' Barton, Law., or Barton on Hmnber, Yarb. ^ There are five places of 
this name in Lines. * Laughton, Ave. or Corr. ' MS. repeats pro eodem. 

[Membrane 12. J 

PLACITA APUD STAUNFORD IN COMITATtJ LINCOLNIE CORAM 
WILLELMO INGE ET RICARDO DE WALSINGHAM lUSTICIARHS AD 
QUERELAS IN COMITATU LINCOLNIE AUDIBNDAS ET TERMINANDAS 
ASSIGNATIS DIE lOUIS PROXIMA POST FESTUM SANCTI NICHOLAI 
ANNO . REGNI . REGIS . EDWARDI . VICESIMO SEPTENIO. 

[Stamford, Thursday, December 11th.] 

379a. ... quia non dum de T de Eston'. 

This is inserted in very small letters between the heading and the fii'st 
entry on the membrane, at the left-hand side. 

380. ••^Preceptum fiiit vicecomiti quod venire faceret hie 
ad hunc diem^ Walterum de Calwarthorp' ad respondendum super 
presentacionibus de Graham et de capcione bladorum- Et vicecomes 
testatur quod precepit Willehno de Ingelton' balliuo itineranti . 
qui venit et dicit quod predictus Walterus non fuit inuentus in 
balliua sua postquam preceptum fuit ei^ etc . Et iuratores de 
Graham requisiti super hoc ; qui dicunt super sacramentum suum 
quod predictus Willehnus balHuus inuenisse potuit predictum 
Walterum et ipsum attachiasse si voluit . Ideo predictus Willelmus 
pro falsa responsione et quia non est exsecutus preceptum 
iusticiarorum hie . committatur gaole . Et preceptum est vicecomiti 
sicut alias quod distringat predictum VV^alterum per omnes 
terras etc . Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod sit hie die Sabbati 
in festo sancte Lucie virginis^ fecit finem. {Marg: Graham 
est Gaole. ^) [Winnibriggs.] 

Cf. nos. 333, 354. Walter was a collector of prise. Here the sheriff, 
instead of commanding the bailiff of Aswardliurn to have Walter before the 
court, commissioned his own bailitf errant to do this. The finding of the 



98 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

jurj' is of interest as a comment on the frequent nonfuit inuentus of sheriffs' 
returns. It suggebts that in some cases the uehnquent could be found if 
sufficient trouble were taken. 

^Thursday, December 11th. ' et . . . bladorum interlined. ^ post- 
quam . . . ei interlined. * Saturday, December 13th. ^ Gaole cancelled. 

38 L •fPreceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret hie ad 
hunc diem^ Robertum le Venour nuper vicecomitcm Lincolnie ad 
respondendum domino regi de comitatus capcionibus tempore quo 
fuit vicecomes predicti comitatus nomine regis captis etc Et 
vicecomes nichil inde fecit . Ideo ipse in m'ia . scilicet Ricardus 
de Draycote . Et amerciatur ad decem libras Et preceptum est 
vicecomiti sicut aKas quod distringat predictum Robertum per 
omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc . Ita quod sit hie predict© 
die Sabbati etc.- {Marg: x.l.) 

Order was given to the sheriff that he cause to come here on this day 
[Thursdajs December 11th] Robert le Venovir, lately sheriff of Lincoln, 
to answer to the lord king about all prises taken in the king's name during 
the time he was sheriff of the aforesaid county etc. And the sheriff did 
nothing therein. Therefore let him be in mercy ; that is to say Richard 
of Draycote. And let him be amerced at ten pounds. And order is given 
to the sheriff' as before, that he do distrain the aforesaid Robert by all 
his lands etc. ; and that concerning the issues etc., so that he be here on 
the aforesaid Saturday etc. [December 13th]. 

It is unfortunate that the result of this precept is not recorded in 
^.jR. 505. If it had been, we might have acquired some very useful informa- 
tion regarding the taking of prises ad opus regis. 

^ Thui'sday, December 11th. ^ Saturday, December 13th. 

382. ••[luratores presentant quod VVillelmus le Wayte leuauit 
de villata de Graham . quatuor libras pro cariagio etc . Et Willelmus 
venit et cognouit quod leuauit viginti.s. pro cariagio in predicta 
viir ex eorum bona voluntate , Et de residuo j^redictarum quatuor 
librarum ; dicit quod nichil leuauit in predicta villa Et de hoc 
ponit se super patriam — luratores dicunt super sacramentum 
suum quod predictus Willelmus leuauit in predicta vill' quatuor 
hbras , set dicunt quod viginti.s. de predictis denariis leuati fuerunt 
pro cariagio faciendo ex bona voluntate tocius ville . Et residuum 
predictorum denariorum leuauit contra eorum voluntatem et sine 
waranto^ Et adhuc penes se retinet Ideo consideratum est quod 
predictus WUlelmus quo ad predictos viginti.s. eat inde quietus 
Et quod restituat predicte villate sexaginta.s. Et committatur 
gaole . postea fecit finem per .x.l. per plegios Gilberti de Crosholm 
et Stephani Punne Et Willelmus absoluatur ab ofiicio regis sue 
perpetuo. {Marg: est Gaole.-) [Winnibriggs.] 

The jurors present that William le VVayto did levy from the township 
of Grantham £4 for carriage etc. 

And William has come and has acknowledged that he levied 20/- for 
carriage in the aforesaid town, out of their good-will ; and concerning the 
residue of the aforesaid £4, he says that he levied nothing in the aforesaid 
town, and as to tliis he puts himself upon the count rj'. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 99 

The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid \\'ilUam did levy 
in the aforesaid town £4 : but they say that 20/- of the aforesaid moneys 
were levied for providing carriage, out of the good-will of the whole town : 
and the residue of the aforesaid moneys he did levy against their will and 
without warrant ; and he is still retaining it in his possession. Therefore 
it is awarded that the aforesaid William go thence quit as to the aforesaid 
20/- ; and that he do restore to the said town 60/-. And let him be com- 
mitted to gaol. Afterwards he made fine by £10 by the pledges of Gilbert 
of Crossholme and Stephen Punne. And let William be absolved from his 
office of the King in perpetuity. 

1 pt sine waranto interlined. * Gaole cancelled. 

383. -^ Quia conuictum est per iuratain in quam Thomas de 
Eston' 86 posuit quod iniuste leuauit de Thoma de Halyoii .x.s. 
et vj.d. Consideratum est quod predictus Thomas restituat 
predictos denarios predicte Thome de Halyon Et committatur 
gaole . fecit finem Et absoluatur ab officio regis suo perpetuo. 
{Marg: Gaole . vacat quia alibi.) 

See no. 456, where instead of the above abstract, which is vacated, 
the proceedings are given in full, and the levy is shown to have been made 
under cover of a summons of the Green Wax. 

384. -^Quia comiictum est per iuratam in quam Willelmus 
le Wayte se posuit quod iniuste per extorcionem leuauit de Hugone 
le Pestour quatuor.s. ne poneretur in assisis . iuratis etc ; consideratum 
est quod predictus Willelmus restituat dicto Hugoni predictos 
quatuor.s. et dampna sua que taxantur ad duos s. Et Willelmus 
committatur gaole . Et absoluatur ab officio regis suo perpetuo. 
(Marg: est Gaole. ^) [Winnibriggs and Threo.] 

Cf. no. 311. 

* Gaole cancelled. 

385. -^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus 
Willebuus le "\^'ayte se posuit quod iniuste leuauit de Ricardo de 
Corby ne ipsum grauaret sex.s. et octo d. Consideratum est quod 
restituat predicto Ricardo predictos denarios et dampna sua que 
taxantur ad tres s. et quatuor d. Et Willelmus committatur gaole . 
fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) 

* Gaole cancelled. 

386. '^iQuia conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus 
Willelmus se posuit quod iniuste leuauit de Roberto Lewyn .iiij .s. 
ne poneretur in assisis iuratis seu recognicionibus ; Consideratum 
est quod restituat predictos denarios predicto Roberto Et 
Willelmus committatur gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) 
[Winnibriggs and Threo.] 

Cf. no. 311. 

' Gaole cancelled. 

387. -^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus 
Willelmus le Wayte se posuit quod iniuste per extorcionem leuauit 



100 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

de Roberto Russel .duos.s. et de Hugone de Salteby , duos s. ne 
ponerentur in assisis^ Ideo consideratum est quod restituat dictos 
denarios Et Willelmus committatur gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: 
est Gaole.-) [Winnibriggs and Threo.] 
a. no. 311. 

^ tie . . . assims interlined. - Gaole cancelled. 

388. -^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus 
Willelmus le Wayte se posuit quod iniuste leuauit de lohanne de 
Venella per extorcionem .tres.s. ne poneretur in assisis^ Con- 
sideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto lohanni . 
Et Willelmus committatur gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: est 
Gaole.-) [Winnibriggs and Threo.] 

Cf. no. 311. 

^ ne . . . assiais interlined. - Gaole cancelled. 

389. -^iRicardus Bygot queritur de predicto Willelmo le 
Wayte . quod ipse die jNIercurii proxima ante festum sancti Petri 
aduincula anno regni regis Edwardi .xxiijo^ . ipsum attachiauit 
per corpus suum- in villa de Graham essendi ad proximum 
comitatum , apud Lincolniam ad quem quidem comitatum ipse 
Ricardus venit et de nichilo^ ibidem allocutus fuit set recessit sine 
die . etc Preterea idem Ricardus queritur de predicto Willelmo 
quod ipse ad proximum wapentakium ipsum^ vocari fecit et 
respondit vicecomiti de manucapcione etc ubi ipse nullam inuenit 
manucapcionem nee summonitus fuit , per quod ipse et manu- 
captores sui amerciati fuerunt ad nouem.s. Et ipsum maliciose 
grauauit quousque habuit de eo unam m, 

Et Willelmus venit Et dicit quod ipse assignatus fuit 
constabularius ad vigiliam faciendam . Et quod ipse inuenit 
quamdam mulierem furantem blada in campo ubi eam attachiare 
voluit , Et predictus Ricardus ipsam de eo rescussit propter quem 
rescussum ipse attachiauit eum essendi ad proximum comitatum etc . 
Et ipse gratis manucaptores inuenit ibidem essendi etc Et quod 
ipsum alio modo non inprisonauit nee predictos denarios ab eodem 
cepit ponit se super patriam etc. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Willelmus maliciose predictum Ricardum per corpus suum 
attachiauit et predictam mulierem ab eo non rescussit et quod 
summonicionem in wapentakio false super eum testificauit sicut 
predictus Ricardus se queritur Et unam m. ab eo iniuste leuauit , 
Ideo consideratum est quod ])redictus Ricardus recuperet uersus 
eum viginti et duos s. et quatuor d. et dampna sua que taxantur 
ad dim. m. Et Willelmus committatur gaole . fecit finem. 

Dampna in toto xxix.s. {Marg: est Gaole. '^) [Winnibriggs.] 

Richard Bygot complains of the aforesaid William le Wayte, that he, 

on the Wednesday next before the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula in the 

twenty-third year of the reign of King Edward [July 27th, 1295], did attach 

him by his person in the town of Grantham, to be present at the next county 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 101 

court at Lincoln, to wliich court that Richard did come ; and about nothing 
was he there impleaded, but withdrew without day etc. Moreover the same 
Richard complains of the aforesaid William, that he did cause him to be 
cited at the next wapentake court, and made answer to the sheriff about 
mainprise etc. where he found no mainprise, nor was he [Richard] sum- 
moned : by which he and his mainpernors were amerced at 9/-. And he 
did maliciously oppress him [Richard] until he had from him one mark. 

And William has come, and says that he was appointed a constable 
to keep watch ; and that he found a certain woman stealing corn in a field, 
where he willed to arrest her : and the aforesaid Richard rescued her from 
him, on account of which rescue he attached him, to be present at the next 
county court etc. ; and he himself freely found mainpernors to be there etc. ; 
and that in other manner he did not imprison him, nor did take the aforesaid 
moneys from him, he puts himself upon the country etc. 

The jurors say vipon their oath that the aforesaid William did maliciously 
attach the said Richard by his person ; and that he [Richard] did not rescue 
the aforesaid woman from him, and that he did falsely bear witness to a 
siuTimons against him in the wapentake court as the aforesaid Richard 
himself complains : and he did levy from him, unjustly, one mark. Therefore 
it is awarded that the aforesaid Richard do recover against him 22/4 and 
his damages, which are taxed at half a mark. And let William be committed 
to gaol. He made fine. 

In any case William's defence is a cock and bull story, for the constables, 
not the bailiffs, were responsible for keeping watch and therefore for setting 
watch : cf. H. Cam, The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, pp. 188-9. 

* July 27th, 1295. ^ attachiauit . . . swwm interlined, and cejot'^ on the 
line, cancelled. ' MS. has nichilio. * ipsum interlined. * Gaole cancelled. 

390. ••^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam Willelmus 
CostantjTi se posuit quod iniuste leuauit de Willelmo de Ryggele 
xvj.d. Ideo consideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios pre- 
dicto Willelmo Et Willelmus ^ Costantin committatur gaole . 
Postea fecit finem per dim.m. per plegios Walteri de Horton' et 
Stephani Punne Et absoluatur [ab] officio regis suo perpetuo. 
{Marg: m'ia- Gaole'^ est.) [Wimiibriggs.] 

^ Willelmus interlined. - m'ia and Gaole cancelled. 

391. ••iluratores presentant quod Willelmus le Wayte iniuste 
leuauit de Arnaldo Codhorn ut parceretur in assisis iuratis etc 
tres.8. etc Et Willelmus presens est Et hoc cognouit , Ideo con- 
sideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto Arnaldo 
Et Willelmus in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs.] 

Cf. no. 311. 

392. ••jiuratores presentant quod Robertus Pygoun iniuste 
leuauit de Roberto Lewyn .ij.s. ut parceretur in assisis . etc — Et 
Robertus presens est Et hoc cognouit . Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat dictos denarios predicto Roberto Lewyn . Et 
Robertus Pygon in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Winnibriggs.] 

Cf. no. 311. 

393. -fConuictum est per iuratam in quam Stephanus Punne 
balliuus de Whynerbrigg' et Trehowes se posuit quod iniuste 



102 ASSIZE ROLL o05 

leiiauit de lohanne in Venella ut non poneretur in assisis iuratis etc 
iiij.s. Ideo consideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios predicto 
lohanni Et Stephanus committatur gaole . Postea fecit finem 
per .xl.s. per plegios Willelmi^ le Wayte et Roberti Pigoun Et 
absoluatur ab officio . regis etc. {Marg: est Gaole- 3z^) 
[Winnibriggs.] 

Cf. no. 311. 

A space of about an inch and a half is left between this entry and the 
next, which is placed on two lines at the extreme bottom of the membrane, 
on the left-hand side. 

^ Against this name in the margin there is a second point in addition 
to that at the begimiing of the entry. ^ Gaole cancelled. ^ Under Gaole, 
i.e. at foot of the colunui of marginalia on this membrane. 

393a. Wemorand' de Waltero de Calthorp' in Belteslowe. 
[Membrane I2d.] 

ADHUC DE PLACITIS APUD STAUNFORD DIE VENERIS PROXIMA . POST 
FESTUM SANCTI NICHOLAI ANNO . XXVH. 

[Stamford, Friday, December 12th.] 

394. -^Conuictum est per inratam in quam luo de Billingheye 
se posuit quod iniuste leuauit in villa de Roxham bladum ad 
valenciam .v.s. Et in villa de Haldingham . bladum ad valenciam 
.iij.s. et vj.d. Et in villa de Amwik' .v.s. ad emendum bladi ultra 
id quod ad comodum regis deuenit Ideo consideratum est quod 
restituat dictos denarios predictis villis . Et luo committatur gaole . 
fecit finem jDro ista transgressione et aliis per .xl.s. per plegios 
WiUelmi de Brunne et Walteri Deaudamur. {Marg: Flaxwell 
et' Gaole*^ est.) 

A case of unjust levy by a bailiff of corn and of money to buy corn, 
vmder cover of a prise ad opus regis. 

^ The scribe was clearly about to write Flaxwell et Langoe, but seems to 
have realised that the case concerns Flaxwell only, and so left this part of 
the marginalia unfinished. * Gaole cancelled. Below and slightly to the 
left of the G of Gaole are two dots. 

395. -^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam luo de Billingheye 
se posuit quod iniuste cepit ad lardarium domini regis de Thoma 
Isabel .j. multonem . precii .ij.s Item de lohanne Maysan .j. 
multonem . precii ij.s. De Osberto de Cantebrig' .j. multonem . 
precii .ij.s.' De Simone Curteys .j. multonem .precii . ij.s. De 
Thoma Clerico .j. multonem . precii .ij.s. De Rogero de Askeby 
.j. multonem . precii .xx.d. De Roberto Edward .j. multonem . 
precii .xx.d. Et de Sibilla de Donnesby .j. multonem . precii .xx.d. 
Et in rotulo domini regis posuit nomen suum quod capiebantur 
ab eo et non a predictis . Ita quod quandocunque dominus rex 
soluerit pro predictis multonibus , idem luo- pecuniam nomine 
suo recuperet . Ideo consideratum est quod^ [restituat] predictis 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 103 

Thome . Simoni . Thome Clerico . Rogero . Roberto . Tohanni . 
Osberto^ . et Sibille predictos multones . Et luo committatur gaiole . 
fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaiole.*) [Flax well.] 

Cf. no. 305. Prises for the royal larder, such as this one, came under 
the ordinarj*. day-to-day prises for maintaining royal castles etc., allowed 
the king under the terms of Magna Carta as part of his prerogative ; and 
were not included in the great prises called for during 1294-8 under the 
stress of war. (The question is further discussed in the Introduction, 
pp. Ivii-lviii.) Note that Ivo entered the sheep in the rolls under his 
own name, not those of their real o\vners, " so that whenev^er the lord king 
should have paid for the aforesaid sheep, the same Ivo might recover the 
money in his own name.' This in addition to the fact that all the sheep 
were held to have been unjustly taken ! 

^ Item de . . . precii .ij.s. interlined. * Between luo and pecuniam 
the scribe wrote recuperet and then cancelled it. ' ]NtS. transposes est 
and qiw^l. * lohanni . Osberto . interlined. * Oaiole cancelled. 

396. ••[Conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus luo 
se posuit quod iniuste cepit de Willelmo Penyman .xij.d. ne caperet 
de multonibus suis ad lardarium domini regis . De Waltero Heny 
pro eodem .iiij.d. Ideo consideratum est quod restituat predictos 
denarios dictis Willelmo et Waltero . Et luo committatur gaiole 
fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaiole.) [Flaxwell and Langoe.] 

Cf. no. 395. 

397. ••^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam Alanus de 
Thalington se posuit quod iniuste cepit de Willelmo de Cantebrig' 
et Radulfo le Bacour^ .iiij.d. ne caperet de multonibus suis ad 
lardarium domini regis . Ideo consideratum est quod restituat 
predictos denarios . dictis Willelmo et Radulfo . Et dictus Alanus 
committatur gaiole . Postea fecit finem . per dim.m. per plegios 
Walteri de Horton' et Stephani Punne Et absoluatur ab officio 
regis suo perpetuo. {Marg: est Gaiole.-) [Flaxwell and 
Langoe.] 

Cf. nos. 312, 395. 

* et Radulfo le Bacour interlined. * Gaioh cancelled. 

398. ••^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam luo de Billingeye^ 
[se posuit]- quod iniuste cepit de Thoma Yoll .iiij.d. De Alicia 
Bigge .ij.d. De Thoma Robert .xv.d. ne caperet pannum lineum 
de eisdem . Et de predicto Thoma Robert .xij.d. ut parceretur in 
capcione bladi ad opus domini regis . Ideo consideratum est . quod 
restituat predictos denarios predictis Ahcie et Thome Et dictus 
luo committatur gaiole . fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaiole.^) 
[Flaxwell and Langoe.] 

Cf. no. 312. The prise of com referred to was probably that ordered 
on November 5th, 1297, since Ivo was a bailiff at that time but not under 
the next sheriff (1298). The prise of linen cloth I have been unable to trace, 
but it also seems to belong to 1297. 

' The last e of Billingeye is written over un I, * Omitted in MS. 
' Gaiolt cancelletl. 



104 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

399. -^Xicholaiis de Morhous queritur de predicto Iiione de 
Billiiigeye quod ipse die Veneris proxima post festum sancti 
Nicholai . anno regni regis Edwardi xxv' . cepit de eo unam vaccam . 
precii .x.s. et earn fiigauit apud Dyrington' . et earn ibi detinuit 
et dorsum eiusdem vacce f regit ad danipnum suum etc . Et luo 
venit et cognouit quod cepit predictani vaccam pro .vj.d. in quibus 
amerciabatur in wappentakio suo pro quadam defalta . Et quod 
eam vaccam aliqua alia'^ de causa non cepit nee dorsum eiusdem 
vacce fregit ponit se super patriam . — luratores dicunt quod 
predictus Nicholaus^ de Morhous amerciatus fuit^ ad .vj.d. in 
wappentakio dicti luonis . pro (juo quidem amcrciamento ipse 
vaccam predictam cepit . Set dicunt quod per maliciam predicti 
luonis fregebat dorsum dicte vacce ad dampnum ipsius Nicholai 
trium s. Ideo consideratum [est]^ quod predictus Nicholaus 
recuperet versus eum predictos denarios Et luo committatur 
gaiole . fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaiole.*') [FlaxweU and 
Langoe.] 

Nicholaus de Morhous complams of the aforesaid Ivo of BiUinghay 
that he, on the Friday next after the feast of St. Nicholas in the twenty- 
fifth year of the reign of King Edward [December 13tli, I297J, did take 
from him one cow of price 10 '-, and did drive it to Dorrington and there 
did detain it and did break the back of the aforesaid cow, to his [Nicholas'] 
damage etc. 

And Ivo has come, and has acknowledged that he took the aforesaid 
cow for six pence at which he [Nicholas] was amerced in his [Ivo's] wapen- 
take court for a certain default. And that he did not take this cow for 
any other cause nor did break the back of the same cow, he puts himself 
upon the country. The jurors say that the aforesaid Nicholas de Morhous 
was amerced at six pence in the wapentake court of the said Ivo, for whicli 
amercement he took the aforesaid cow : but they say that by the malice 
of the aforesaid Ivo he did break the back of the said cow, to the damage 
of that Nicholas, three shillings. Therefore it is awarded that the aforesaid 
Nicholas do recover against him the aforesaid moneys ; and let Ivo be 
committed to gaol. He made fine. 

* December 13th, 1297. -alia interlined. ^ Nicholaiis interhned. 
*fuit interlined. •' Omitted in MS. " Oaiole cancelled. 

400. -^luratores presentant quod Alanus de Thalington' 
iniuste cepit de \allata de Am^vyk' .vj.d. ut non irent in processione 
contra' Cardinales . Et Alanus presens fuit et lioc cognouit . Ideo 
consideratum [est]- quod restituat predictos denarios predicte ville 
Et sit in m'ia. {Marg: nria.) [Flaxwell.] 

The jurors present that Alan of Tallington did unjustly take from the 
inhabitants of the vill of Anwick six pence that they might not go in the 
procession against the Cardinals. And Alan was present and did acknow- 
ledge this. Therefore it is awarded that he do restore the aforesaid moneys 
to the aforesaid vill. And let him be in mercy. 

The cardinals in cjuestion were the bishops of Albano and Palestrina, 
.sent to England by Pope Boniface VIII to arbiti'ate between Edward I 
and Philip IV of France with a view to restoring peace.' On June 7th, 1295, 
Edward gave them his protection and safe conduct.* \^'hile in England they 
levied procurations from the clergy : in 1205 they appointetl collectors in 



ASSIZE ROLL o05 105 

each diocese, who were to \evy for them 6 marks from eacli prelate and 
each convent. Next year, 1296, they required instead tlie sum of 4d. in 
the inaik (13 '4) on the valuation of the papal tenths (1291 valuation), and 
imposetl this levy on both higher anil lower clergy. In 1207 they took 3d. 
in the mark.* For ecclesiastical resentment at these burdens cf. Registrum 
Robert i Winchelsey, ed. R. Graham (Cant. & York Soc), p. 533. 

' The scribe originally wrote uersiis. but erased it and svtbstituted 
contra. = Omitted in MS. ^ CL B. Coiton, Hist Anglic, p. 280. * C.P.R., 
1292-1301. p. 130. 'Lunt, W. E., Papal Revenues in England, i, 
p. lOS. 

401. ••Conuictum est per iuratam in quam luo de Billingeye 
se posuit . quod iniuste cepit de magistro lohaimc de Fledburg' 
clerico .dim. quarterium siliginis lit non seisiret laicum feodum 
suum in manum doniini regis . quia non habuit proteccionem . etc . 
Ideo consideratum est quod restituat dictum bladum ])redicto 
magistro lohanni . Et luo committatur gaiole . fecit finem. {Marg: 
est Gaiole.') [Flaxwell and Langoe.J 

It has been proved by the jury, upon whicli Ivo of Billingliay placed 
himself, that lie did imjustly take from master John of Fledborough, clerk, 
half a quarter of rye so that he might not seise his lay fee into the hand 
of the lord king, because he did not have protection etc. Therefore it is 
awarded that he do restore the said corn to the aforesaid master John. And 
let Ivo be committed to gaol. He made fine. 

This case arises from the outlawry of the clergy of England in February, 
1297 (see Introduction, pp. xxx, xxxviii-xl). John was rector of Hougham in 
Lovedeu in 1291,- but must have been appointed elsewhere since. I cannot 
find his name in the list of protections issued during the first months of 
1297.» 

^Gaiole cancelled. -Reg. Sntt., Mem. f.30d. ^ C.P.R., 1292-1301, 
pp. 235-7. 260-86. 

402. '^Conuictum est per iuratam in Cjuam Alanus de 
Thalington' se posuit quod iniuste cepit de Alexandro de la Grene 
.iiij.d. ut non caperet ab eo .j. bouem ad lardarium domini regis 
De Edwardo de Brauncewell' .ix.d. De lohanne Botte .vj.d. De 
Roberto f. Ricardi .iij.d. ut parcerentur in capcione ])anni lineis^ 
ad opus regis . Ideo consideratum est quod restituat predictos 
denarios dictis Alexandro . Edwardo . lohanni et Roberto . Et 
Alanus committatur gaiole et absoluatur ab officio domini regis 
suo perpetuo . fecit finem. [Marg: est Gaiole. 2) [Flaxwell.] 

This entry may be dated 1297. Alan of Tallington was sub-bailiff 
of Flaxwell in that year (ApjDondix II, list of bailiffs, pp. 141, 149, s.i-. Alan 
of Tallington), and a prise of oxen was ordered on June 5th of the same year 
(Appendix III, p. 182). I cannot trace the prise of linen cloth (cf. note 
to no. 398), but it too seems to have taken place in 1297. 

* Sic. - Gaiole cancelled. 

403. -^luratores presentant quod Walterus Deudamour iniuste 
cepit de Agnete Malet .ij.d de Beatrice^ Kachehare .viij.d. et de 
lohamie Warde .vj.d. ne eos grauaret nee caperet ab eisdem pannum 



106 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

lineum . Et Walterus presens est et hoc cognouit Ideo con>;ideratum 
est quod restituat dictos denarios predictis Agneti , Beatricie et 
lohanni Et Walterus committatur gaole . Postea fecit finem per 
dim.m. per plegios Robert! i. Rogeri . de Askeby . et Nicholai de 
Ryhale Et absoluatni' ab officio regis suo perpetuo. {Marg: est 
Gaole.'-) [Flaxwell and Langoe.] 
Cf. notes to nos. 398. 402. 

* Sic. - Gaole cancelled. 

404. -^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam luo de Byllyngeye 
se posuit quod iniuste cepit de Simone vicario de Deryngton' 
.ij.s. ut non seisiret laicum feodum suum quia non habuit pro- 
teccionem etc . Et de Willelmo vicario de Askeby .vj.s. Ideo 
consideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios Et luo committatur 
gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) [Flaxwell.] 

Of. no. 401, note. 

^ Oaole cancelled. 

405. -^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus luo de 
Billyng' se posuit quod iniuste cepit de Galfrido Aylmer .vj.d. 
et de Christiana vidua .xxiij.d. ut parcerentur in capcione panni 
linei de Petro Grylle .xij.d. de Hugone Jordan .vj.d. et de Rogero 
Quaylle .xij.d. ut parcerentur in capcione bourn Ideo consideratum 
est quod restituat dictos denarios predictis Galfrido et aliis et 
luo committatur gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) 
[Flaxwell and Langoe.] 

Cf. nos. 398, 402 and notes. 

* Gaole cancelled. 

406. ^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam lohannes de 
Swynsted' se posuit quod iniuste cepit de Roberto de la Bourehalle 
dim.m. ut non poneretur in assisis etc Ideo consideratum est quod 
restituat dictos denarios predicto Roberto Et lohannes com- 
mittatur gaole Postea fecit finem per unam m. per plegios luonis 
de Byllyngeye et Willelmi f. lohannis de Brunne . Et absoluatur 
ab officio regis suo perpetuo. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) [Flax- 
well and Langoe.] 

Cf. no. 311. 



1 



Gaole cancelled. 



407. ^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus lohannes 
de Swynstede se posuit quod leuauit de Roberto de la Bourehalle 
per summonicionem scaccarii .xij.d. et aquietanciam ei de predictis 
denariis facere contradicit Et quod predictus Robertus iterum 
pro defectu illius aquietancie districtus fuit . Ideo consideratum 
est quod predictus Robertus recuperet uersus eum dampna sua 
in duplo scilicet sex s.ix.d. Et lohannes committatur gaole Et 



ASSIZE ROLL ^105 10 7 

absoluatur ab officio regis sno perpetuo . fecit finem. {Marg: 
est Oaole.^) [Flaxwell and Langoe.] 

This case concerns the refusal of a bailLff to give quittance for a sum 
levied under a summons of the Excliequer. The consequence to the plaintiff 
was a second distress against the same sum. 

' Gaole cancelled. 

408. -^Conuictum est per iuratara in quani Waltcrus Est 
se posuit quod iniuste cepit de Roberto de la Bourehalle .iiij.s. 
ut ipsum non grauaret . Ideo consideratum est quod restituat 
dictos denarios et Walterus comraittatur gaole fecit finem. {Marg: 
est Gaole. ^) [Flaxwell and Langoe.] 

' Gaole cancelled. 

409. -^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam Nicholaus de 
Ryhale se posuit . quod iniuste cepit de Willebno vicario de Askeby 
.xij.d. ut parceretur ei in capcione animalium . Ideo consideratum 
est quod restituat dictos denarios et Nicholaus committatur gaole . 
Et absoluatur ab officio regis suo perpetuo . Et fecit finem . per 
.xl.d. per plegios Walter! de Northkyme et Roberti Dyne de 
Skapewyk". {Marg: est Gaole. i) [Langoe.] 

This case probably arises out of the prise of flesh ordered on June 5th, 
1297 (Appendix III, p. 182). 

* Gaole cancelled. 

410. -^luratores presentant quod luo de Byllyngeye iniuste 
inpediuit predictum Willelraum vicarium de Askeb}^ cariare fenum 
et blada sua Ita quod deterioratus fuit et dampnum habuit ad 
valenciam .dim.m. etc . Et luo presens est et hoc cognouit . Ideo 
consideratum est quod predictus Willelmus recuperet uersus eum 
predictam dim.m. Et luo committatur gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: 
est Gaole. ^) [Flaxwell and Langoe.] 

The jurors present that Ivo of Billinghay did unjustly impede the afore- 
said William, vicar of Ashby de la Laund, from carrying his hay and corn, 
so that he was the worse, and had damage to the value of half a mark etc. 
And Ivo is present, and has acknowledged this. Therefore it is awarded 
that the aforesaid William do recover against him the aforesaid half mark. 
And let Ivo be committed to gaol. He made fine. 

1 Gaole cancelled. 

411. -^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam predictus luo de 
Byllyngeye se posuit quod iniuste leuauit de Willelmo vicario 
de Rouston' .unum bussellum frumenti precii .xv.d. Et de 
Ricardo fratre suo .unam iumentam et eam fugauit apud Bylyngeye 
et ibidem retinuit quousque habuit de predicto Ricardo .xij.d. 
Ideo consideratum est . quod restituat dictos denarios predictis 
Willelmo et Ricardo Et luo committatur gaole Et absoluatur 
ab officio regis suo perpetuo . fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole."* 

32.) [FlaxweU.] 

» Gaole cancelled. ^ Under Gaole, i.e. at foot of the column of 
Marginalia on this meml-iane. 



108 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

[Memhrayxe 13.] 

ADHUC DE PLACITIS APUD STAUNFORD DIE lOUIS PROXIMA POST 
FESTU-M SANCTI NICHOLM ANNO . XXVII. 

[Stamford, Thursday. December llth.| inge. 

412. ^Simon clericus de Dunestorj)" non venit et manucaptus 
t'uit ])er Ricardum de Harliston' et Hugoiiem f. luonis Ideo ipsi 
in m'ia . Et preceptum est distringere ipsum per omnes terras etc 
Et quod de exitibus etc Et quod sint hie die Sabbati in festo 
sancte Lucie.' [Threo.] 

Tlie whole entry is cancelled ; see no. 41.']. 
^ Saturday, December 13th. 

413. •'Hugo f. luonis non venit et manucaptus fuit per 
Simonem clericum de Dunestorp" et Willelmum de Basingham' 
Ideo ipsi in m'ia Et preceptum est distringere ipsum per omnes 
terras et catalla sua . Et quod de exitibus etc . Et quod habeat 
corpus [suum]- hie predicto die Sabbati. {Marg: vacat quia 
alibi.) [Threo.] 

Nos. 412 and 413 are scored thiuugh with criss-cross lines, and the 
vacat is intended to apply to both entries. Cf. nos. 414 and 415. 

^ Prob. Bassingham, Graff oe. - Omitted in MS. ; I supply it on 
analogy with no. 414. 

414. Prece])tum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret hie ad 
hunc diem' Simonem clericum de Donesthorp' ad respondendum 
domino regi super diuersis capcionibus etc Et ipse non venit et 
manucaptus fuit per Ricardum de Herlaston' . et Hugonem f. 
Hugonis- . Ideo ipsi in m'ia etc . Et preceptum est vicecomiti 
distringere ipsum per omnes terras et catalla sua . Et quod de 
exitibus etc . Et quod habeat corpus suum hie . predicto die Sabbati. 
{Marg: Trehowes m'ia.) 

Simon the clerk was evidently a collector of prise in Threo. This entry 
is followed closely by the next without the usual space of one line between 
them. Both are cancelled by a single vertical line drawn through both. 

•Thursday, December 11th. - f. Inonifs in no. 415. 

415. Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret hie ad 
prefatum diem' . Hugonem f. luonis . lohanncm f. Prepositi 
Willelmum ad Fontem Willehnum f. Thome Thomam f. Rogeri . 
Stephanum Wolwyn Willelmum Gylyot Petrum Romayn 
lohannem ad Furnum Rogerum ad C'rucem Willelmum Pistor' 
de Hemyngton'- Robertum Harman Willelmum Graumpas 
Nicholaum Fraunkhomme lohannem Wodegreyne lohannem 
Alger Robertum Bate . Henricum Dembelby Thomam f. Alani 
Simonem le Marshal Ricardum le Long Walterum Cristian 
lohannem Vayse Walterum Scharj)' lohannem Fox Robertum f. 
Agnetis Bartholomeum Fraunceys lohannem Trigg' Ricardum 
Gybbard et Simonem l^ewyn' . Et' Simon Clericus^ de Dunestorp' . 



ASSIZE ROLL .505 109 

manucaptUB fuit per Ricanluin de Harliston et Hugonein f. luonis 
Et Hugo 1". luonis manucaptus fuit per iSimonem clerieum de 
Dunestorp' et Willelinum de Basingham Et loiiannes f. prepositi 
iiianucaptuB fuit j)er Hugonein atte Grene de Lundcrthorp' et 
Hugoneni de Kyppele Et Willelmus ad Fontem inanuoaptus 
fuit per lllariuni de Touthorp' et Willelnium Bercarium . Et 
Willelmus f. Thome . per Thomam f. Rogeri de Belton' et Hugonem 
Carectar' de eadem Hugo f. Hugonis'' manucaptus fuit per*^ Thomam 
f. Hugonis dc Braceby et Willelmum f. Hugoiiis de eadem Et 
Thomas f. Rogeri manucaptus fuit per Rogerum le Long de Belton' 
et Nicholaum lue de eadem Et ^^te])hanus Wohvyn manucaptus 
fuit per Willelmum Gylyot de Sistan et Willelmum le Warde de 
eadem . Et Willelmus Gylyot manucaptus fuit per Stephanmii 
Wohvyn et Willelmum ad Ecclesiam de eadem Et Petrus Romayu 
manucaptus fuit per Rogerum de Haneuyle et lohannem ad Furnum 
de Barkstoii' Et lohannes ad Furnum manucaptus fuit per 
Stephanum Wohvyn de Sistan et lohannem Fabrum dc eadem 
Et Rogerus ad Crucem manucaptus fuit per Thomam atte 
Halleyate et Galfridum de Aunesby Et Willelmus Pestor' de 
Humgton"- manucaptus fuit per Willelmum Colgryme de eadem 
et Willelmum f. Hem-ici de eadem Et Robertus Harman manu- 
captus fuit per Henricum ^lartin de Wellest et Willelmum Cristian 
de eadem . Et V^'illelmus Graumpas manucaptus fuit per lohannem 
Atte Halle de Anecastre et Henricum Ray de eadem Et Nicholaus 
Fraunkhomme manucaptus fuit per Henricum West de Welleby 
et lohannem Trigg" de eadem Et lohannes Wodegreyne manucaptus 
fuit per lohannem Alger de Welleby et Nicholaum Fraunkhomme 
de eadem Et lohannes Alger manucaptus fuit per lohannem 
Wodegreyne de \A'elleby et Thomam Edus de eadem Et Robertus 
Bate manucaptus fuit per Henricum Dembelby et Willelmum 
Adelard de Braceby Et Henricus Dembelby manucaptus fuit per 
Thomam f. Alani de Saperton' et .Simonem le Marchal de eadem . 
Et Thomas f. Alani manucaptus fuit per Henricum Byestyeton' 
de Saperton" et Xigellmn de eadem . Et Simon le ]Marchal manu- 
captus fuit per Nicholaum de Saperton' et Robertum Gylyan 
Et Ricardus le Long manucaptus fuit per Vincentium de Asscheby"* 
et Radulfum le Barbur de eadem Et Walterus Cristian manucaptus 
fuit per Ricardum le Lung de Aydur et Radulfum Atte grene de 
eadem Et lohannes Veyse manucaptus fuit per Ranulphus Gynur 
de Humby et lohannem prepositum de eadem Et Walterus Scharpe 
manucaptus fuit per Simonem clerieum de Roppele et lohannem 
Fabrum de eadem Et lohannes Fox manucaptus fuit per Robertum 
f. Agnetis de Ogarth" et Robertum f. Petri de eadem Et Robertus 
f. Agnetis . manucaptus fuit per lohannem f. Agnetis de Ogarth 
et lohannem Richard de eadem Et Bartholomeus Fraunceys 
manucaptus fuit per lohamiem Reynuill' de Asaeby** et Thomam 
Dine Et lohaimes Trigg" manucaptus fuit per Bartholomeum 



no ASSIZE ROLL 505 

Frauncevs do Osbv et lohannem f. Ricardi de eadeni Et Huso 
f. Roberti de Somerbv'' manucaptus fuit per Willelmiim f. Robert! 
de Somerby et Ricardum Gybbard Et Ricardus Gybard manu- 
captus fuit per Hugonem f. Roberti de Somerby et lohannem 
Carettar' de eadem . Et Simon Lewyn' manucaptus^ fuit per 
lohannem f. Walteri de Heryerby et lohannem atte Damme de 
eadem et ipsi non venerunt Ideo in m'ia^° Et preceptum est 
vicecomiti distringere eos per omnes terras et catalla etc Et quod 
de exitibus etc Et quod habeat corpora eorum hie ac^^ instanti 
die Sabbati proxima in festo sancte Lucie virginis^- ad respondendum 
domino regi super presentacione de Trehowes. {Marg: vacat 
quia postea venerunt.'^) [Three] 

Tliirty persons are suininoned : some were collectors of the ninth of 
1297 (App. II, list of taxors) ; the others were probably either taxors or 
collectors of prise. It is to be noted that, as normally, most of them went 
bail for each other, and that some of the mainpernors who were not 
defendants also appear in the list of Threo taxors of the ninth. Unfortu- 
nately the proceedings whicii took place when they eventually appeared 
at couit are not recorded in A.R. 505. As stated under no. 414, the whole 
entry is cancelled. 

^December 11th. -Probably Honington, Threo. ^ Here begins the 
list of mainpernors for the above. For this purpose, it will be noticed, 
nos. 414 and 415 are treated as one entry and the mainpernors of Simon 
the clerk (no. 414) head the list. * MS. repeats cJerkun. ^ Not mentioned 
in the list of those summoned. * MS. repeats per. ' Pisiof in list of sum- 
moned. * Perhaps Ashby de la Laund, Flax. ' MS. capitalises M of 
manucaptus throughout this entry, but to minimise confusion I have 
retained the more usual small m. " MS. has one word : inmi'a. ^^ Sic. 
1- Saturday, December 13th. " Like the marginal Trehowes of no. 414 
this is obviously meant to apply to both 414 and 415. 

416. ^Preceptum fuit . vicecomiti quod venire . faceret hie 

ad hunc diem^ Walterum Payn ad respondendum Willelmo^ le 

Wayte de grauaminc de placito transgressionis . Et predictus 

Walterus non vcnit et manucaptus fuit per Robertum Almot de 

Fulbek' et Radulfum fabrum de eadem Ideo ipsi in m'ia Et 

preceptum est vicecomiti distringere ipsum per omnes terras et 

catalla etc Et quod sit hie ac'"* instanti die Lune proxima post 

festum sancte Lucie virginis^ ad respondendum predicto AVillelmo 

de placito transgressionis. {Marg: Louedon'.) 

' Thursday, December Uth. - Substituted in MS. for Waltero cancelled. 
' aS'/c. * Monday, December 15th. 

417. ^Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret hie ad 
liimc diem lohannem Euerard balliuum de Ellowe ad respondendum 
lohanni f. Ricardi de Pontelek' de placito transgressionis Et 
vicecomes testatur quod est in prisona apud Lincolniam pro debito 
domini regis Et preceptum est vicecomiti sicut alias distringere 
predictum lohannem per omnes terras et catalla etc Et quod 
sit hie die Lune proxima post festum sancte Lucie virginis' ad 
respondendum predicto lohanni de placito transgressionis. {Marg: 
Eliowe.) 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 111 

John Everard was already in gaol in accordance with sentences pre- 
viously passed on him, ct". especially no. 366, where the significant statement 
non duvi fecit finem is entered in the margin. This is sufficient to account 
for his imprisonment. 

* Between Virginia and ad is a word like ibidem, smudged and perhaps 
erased. 

418. ^jPreceptum fuit viceconiiti quod venire faceret hie ad 
hunc diem W'illelmum Bergate ad respondendum super presentacionc 
de Langhou de placito transgressionis Et W'illelmus non venit et 
manucajitus fuit per Rogerum f. Galfridi de Tymberlond et 
Willelmum clericum de eadem . Ideo ipsi in m'ia Et preceptum 
est vicecomiti quod distringat eum per omnia Et de exitibus etc . 
Et quod habeat corpus eius hie ad proximum adueutum iusticiari- 
orum etc. [Langoe.] 

It is not clear whether bj' ad proximum aduentum the scribe means to 
indicate a futui'e visit of the present justices or to the next visit of the eyre. 
If the former, the results of such a visit are not recorded in A.B. ."505. 

419. ^Simon Beneyt queritur de luone de Bilingeye nuper 
balliuo de Langh' quod iniuste cepit de eo .iij. multones precii 
cuiusHbet .iij.s.vj.d. Et luo venit et cognouit quod cepit i)redictos 
.iij. multones ad lardarium domiui regis per warantum ad minus 
dampnum et in potentiore Et de hoc ponit se super patriam 
luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod cepit predictos 
.iij. multones de eo maliciose' . eo quod non . fuit sufficiens nisi 
ad unum uel .ij.'^ multones Ideo consideratum est quod dictus 
luo restituat eidem Simoni .j. multonem precii .xv.d. Et com- 
mittatur gayole . Et eciam [quod] cepit^ de eodem Simone unum 
bussellum frumenti inuste* petit quod inquiratur Et luo dicit 
quod agistatus fuit per .xij. iuratores ad predictum bussellum 
frumenti petit quod inquiratur iuratores dicunt quod idem Simon 
fuit agistatus per .xij. wapentakarios Et quod deuenit ad-' comodum 
Regis Ideo consideratum est quod predictus luo sit inde quietus 
Et Simon etc. {Marg: est Gaole.^) [Langoe.] 

Simon Beneyt complains of Ivo of Billinghay. lately bailiff of Langoe, 
that he did unjustly take from him three sheep of price each 3/6. 

And Ivo has come, and has acknowledged that he took the aforesaid 
tliree sheep for the lord kings larder, by warrant at least damage and 
within [Simon's] ability ; and as to this he puts himself upon the countr}\ 

The jurors say upon their oath that he did take the aforesaid three 
sheep from him maliciously, for that he was not sufficient but for one or 
two sheep. Therefore it is awarded that the said Ivo do restore to the 
same Simon one sheep of price fifteen pence. And let him [Ivo] be com- 
mitted to gaol. 

And also [that] he did take from the same Simon one bushel oi corn 
imjustly : he asks that enquiry be made. And Ivo says that he [Simon] 
was assessed by twelve jurors at the aforesaid bushel, [and] asks that enquiry 
be made. 

The jurors say that the same Simon was assessed by twelve men of 
the wapentake, and that it [the wheat] went to the king's use. Therefore 
it is awarded that the aforesaid Ivo be quit therein ; and Simon etc. 

^ maliciose replaces in MS. iniuste, cancelled. ^ tiel .ij. interlined. 
* eciam cepit interlined. ^ Sic. * !MS. has et. * O'aole cancelled. 



112 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

420. *^Nicholaus f. Simouis Beneyt queritur de predicto 
luone quod iniuste leuauit de eo .j. multonem et per maliciam 
et non fuit potens luo venit et dicit quod cepit predictum multonem 
de ipso ad lardarium domini regis et per warantum sicut de 
potentiore et ad minus dampnum petit quod inquiratur iuratores 
dicunt quod cepit predictum multonem de predicto Nicholao de 
malicia sua set deuenit ad commodum regis Ideo consideratum 
est quod restituat eidem Nicholao .j. multonem precii .xv.d. Et 
committatur gaole. {Marcj: est Gaole.) [Langoe.] 

Nicholas son of Simon Beneyt complains of the aforesaid Ivo that he 
did unjustly lev-y from him one sheep ; and by malice ; and he was not able 
[i.e. to afford it ]. 

Ivo has come, and says that he took the aforesaid sheep from him for 
the lortl king's larder, and by warrant according to his ability and at least 
damage : [and] asks that enquiry be made. 

The jurors say that he did take the aforesaid sheep from the aforesaid 
Nicholas by his own malice ; but it was put to the king's use. Therefore 
it is awarded that he do restore to the same Nicholas one sheep of price 
15 pence. And let him [Ivo] be connnitted to gaol. 

[At foot of membi'ano on left under the column of marginalia, the sign 3 J 

[Membrano 13c/.] 

421. *fRobertus de Somerby de jNIere queritur de lohanne de 
S%\dnested nuper balliuo regis quod iniuste cepit de eo .ij.s. vt eum 
saluaret ne vexaretur in iuratis' et assisis — Et lohannes venit Et 
dicit quod- ex bona voluntate ipsius Roberti Et de hoc ponit se 
super patriam — Iuratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod 
cepit predictos denarios jjer extorsionem et non de voluntate sua 
Ideo consideratum est quod^ restituat eidem Roberto predictos 
.ij.s. et dampna sua xij.d. Et committatur gaole fecit finem. 

Dampna xij.d. T^ C. {Marg: est Gaole, ^ Dampna.) 
[Flax well and Langoe.] 
Cf. no. .'ni. 

' MS. does not capitalise l of iuratis, because the scribe has run in and 
iuratis into one. ^ MS. repeats quod, perhaps in error for fuit (required by 
the passage). ^ MS. i-epeuts consideratum est quod. ' There is doubt as 
to the meaning of this T. Miss Mills suggests that it may be (a) Teste 
Clericis (or Clerico) ; or (b) the clerk(s) hold the sum ; or (c) Tot (paid), 
and clei'e damages as in former cases in A.R. 505. Cf. no. 422. * Gaole 
cancelled. 

422. fRobertus Dyne de Skaupwyk' queritur de Alano de 
Talinton' subballiuo de Langh' quod iniuste leuauit de eo .xij.d. 
Et Alanus venit et cognouit quod cepit predictos .xij.d. per extractas 
summonitionis scaccarii regis de debito domini regis Et de hoc ponit 
se super iuratam qui dicunt super sacramentum suum quod 
leuauit predictos denarios sine waranto et auctoritate i)ropria 
Ideo consideratum est quod restituat predicto Roberto predictos 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 113 

xlj.d. et dampna sua que taxantur ad xij.d. Et committatur gaole 
fecit finem. 

Dampna xij.d. T C^ {Marg: est Gaole. 2) [Langoe.] 
This is a case of unjust levy under cover of a summons of the Exchequer 
in respect of a debt due to the King. 

>Cf. no. 421. 'Gaole cancelled. 

423. *'Iohannes de Haneworth' clericus queritur de lohanne 
de Swanested balliuo de Langh' quod iniuste^ cepit ab eo .xij.d. — 
Et lohannes de Smnested- venit et cognouit quod cepit predictos 
xij.d. pro quadain fine quam fecit pro quodam amerciamento ad 
quod amerciatus fuit in wapentakio de quod^ vocatur Stolen- 
wapentakium pro una defalta quam fecit et de hoc ponit se super 
patriam^ luratores dicunt super sacramentum [suum] quod iniuste 
leuauit predictos denarios eo quod non summonitus fuit sicut 
omnes sectatores consueuerunt et debent et nichilominus ante 
horam primam Ideo consideratum est quod restituat eidem 
predictos xij.d. Et sit in m'ia etc. {Marg: m'ia.) [Langhoe.] 

John of Potter Hanworth, clerk, complains of John of Swinstead, bailiff 
of Langoe, that he did unjustly take from him twelve pence. 

And John of Swinstead has come, and has acknowledged that he took 
the aforesaid twelve pence for a certain fine which he [John the clerk] made 
for a certain amercement at which he was amerced in the court of the wapen- 
take which is called Stolenwapentake, for a default which he made. And 
as to this he [John the bailiff] puts loimself upon the country. 

The jurors say upon [their] oath that he did unjustly levy the aforesaid 
moneys, for that he [John the clerk] was not summoned as all suitors have 
been accustomed and ought [to be] and notwithstanding before the first 
hour. Therefore it is awarded that he [John the bailiff] do restore to the 
same [John the clerk] the aforesaid twelve pence. And let him be in mercy. 

I have been unable to trace the significance of ' Stolenwapentake.' 
On the summoning of hundred and wapentake courts H. Cam., Hundred 
arid Hundred Rolls, throws some light. 

• quod iniuste replaces in MS. quod iniustor, cancelled. ^ MS. has 
erasure between Swinested and venite. ' Sic. * This is followed in MS. by 
et de hoc, cancelled. 

424. ^Simon Beneyt queritur de luone de Bilingeye nuper 
balliuo regis quod iniuste cepit de eo .ij.s vt parceret ei in assisis 
iuratis et recognicionibus — Et luo venit et cognouit quod cepit 
predictos ij.s. vt parceret ei in assisis etc Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat eidem predictos .ij.s. et dampna sua que taxantur 
ad xij.d. Et committatur gaole Et [sit] suspensus ab officio regis 
inperpetuo fecit finem. {Marg: est .Gaole.) [Langoe.] 

a. no. 311. 

425. ^homas de Hanuill' non v^enit Et manucaptus fuit 
per Thomam de Eston' lohannem de Cotun de Repinghal' 
lohannem de PattishuU' et Adam le Lung' de Ingoldeby . Ideo 
ipsi in m'ia Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat eum 



114 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

per omnes terras etc Et quod de exitibus etc Ita quod habeat 
corpus eius coram iusticiariis ad proxiinum aduentum suum etc. 
{Marg: m'ia.) 

426. ^Conuictum est per iuratam [in quam] Willelmus de 
Baldeswell' se posuit quod iniuste querebatur de Willelmo de 
Ingelton' Ideo consideratum est quod nichil capiat per querelam 
suam^ set sit in m'ia pro falso clamore etc. {Marg: m'ia.) 

^ querelam suam replaces in MS. Iuratam istam, cancelled. 

[426a. A repetition, word for word, of no. 426, except that 
426a has in quam, which 426 omits. Both nos. 426 and 426a 
are written over erased entries.] 

427. ^luratores presentant quod Willelmus Prepositus 
Robertus Clericus et lohannes Slech' collectores bladi in villa de 
Swaueton' leuauerunt in viUa de Swaueton' .j. quarterium et .vj. 
bussellos frumenti ultra id quod deuenit ad commodum regis Et 
predicti Willelmus et alii^ venerunt et cognouerunt quod leuauerunt 
predictum bladum Ideo consideratum est quod restituant et sint 
in m'ia etc. {Marg: Auelund m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 315. 

^ et alii interlined. 

428. ^luratores presentunt^ quod Willelmus le Wayte leuauit 
in villa de Graham pro peditibus uersus Walliam L.s. Et predictus 
Willelmus venit et cognouit- predictos denarios Et dicit quod 
hberauit Roberto Le Veneur xxx.s.iij.s.iiij.d.^ Et vocat ipsum inde 
ad warantizandum . Et Galfrido de Brune .j.m. Et vocat ipsum 
inde ad warantizandum qui venit Et eum warantizauit . Et .dim.m. 
cognouit ideo* restituat Et sit° in m'ia. {Marg: Graham 

m'ia 3-^) [Winnibriggs.] 

The jurors present that William le Wayte did levy in the town of 
Grantham for foot-soldiers going to Wales, 50 shillings. 

And the aforesaid William has come and has acknowledged the afore- 
said moneys, and he says that he delivered to Robert le Venour 33/4 ; and 
vouches him to warranty thereof : and to Geoffrey of Bourne one mark ; 
and vouches him to warranty thereof : who has come, and has warranted 
him. And half a mark he [William] has acknowledged. Therefore let him 
restore [it], and let him be in mercy. 

The men were levied for the Welsh campaign of 1294-5 ; Geoffrey 
of Bourne was chief constable of Kesteven, and as such responsible for 
raising and equipping men in that part of Lincolnshire, if required to 
do so. 

^ Sic. * MS. extends cognouit. ^ iij.s iiij.d. interlined, with caret. 
The scribe has forgotten to delete the first shilling sign. ' MS. does not 
capitalise the i of ideo. * restituat Et sit interlined. * In the margin, 
between nos. 428 and 429. 

429. *[|Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Stephanas 
Punne se posuit quod iniuste leuauit de lohanne Auny^ .ij.s. ut 
parceretur in capcione lane Consideratum est quod restituat 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 116 

dictos denarios Et committatur gaole . fecit finem. (Marg: 
Wynerbrygg' Gaole^ est.) 

The prise of wool was ordered on July 30th, 1297 (App. II). Cf. also 
no. 312. 

* lohanne Auny replaces in MS. villa de Oraham, cancelled. ^ Oaole 
cancelled. 

430. ^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam Robertus Pigoun 
se posuit quod iiiiuste distrinxit homilies ville de Paunton' et 
djstriccionem retinuit quousque fecerunt finem cum eo per dim.m. 
pro respectu habendo . de decima per tres dies Ideo consideratum 
est quod restituat dictos denarios dictis homiiiibus Et Robertus 
committatur gaole. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) [Winnibriggs.] 

^ Gaole cancelled. 

431. ^luratores presentant quod Robertus Pigon iniuste cepit 
per extorcionem de vill' de Parua Paunton' .xij.d. pro respectu 
habendo de decima . Et de Ricardo Bonde .xij.d. Et Robertus 
venit et hoc cognouit . Ideo consideratum est quod restituat dictos 
denarios Et committatur gaole fecit finem. {Marg: est 
Gaole. ^) [Winnibriggs.] 

Cf. nos. 326, 430. 

' Oaole cancelled. 

432. ^Preceptum est attachiare Willelmum Whytheued quod 
sit coram iusticiariis in aduentu suo etc ad respondendum regi 
super presentacione de Whynerbryg'. {Marg: ad proximum 
aduentum.) 

433. ^receptum est vicecomiti quod distringat lohannem 
Mog' per omnes terras etc . Et quod de exitibus etc . Et quod habeat 
corpus eius ad proximum aduentum [iusticiariorum] Et ad 
audiendum indicium suum de diuersis extorsionibus quas fecerat 
prout per veredictum de Belteslowe conuictum est. {Marg: ad 
proximum aduentum.) [Beltisloe.] 

John Mog was a collector of prise ad- opus regis : cf. no. 353. 

434. f Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Willelmus 
le Chapman se posuit quod iniuste leuauit de villata de Spaneby 
.iij.s.viij.d. pro expensis hominum emittendorum uersus Walliam 
Et eos adhuc penes se detinet . Consideratum est quod restituat 
dictos denarios Et sit in m'ia. {Marg: Auelund m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 428. 

435. ^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam Willelmus Notekyn 
se posuit quod iniuste leuauit de vill" de Swaueton' .v.s. pro 
peditibus uersus Walliam Et eos penes se detinet Ideo^ con- 
sideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios dicte vill' Et sit in 
m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Aveland.j 

Cf. no. 428. 

* Ideo interlined. 



116 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

436. •'luratores presentant quod^ Alanus lordan iniuste 
detinet penes se .iij. saccos . precii .vj.d. de vill' de Poynton"- . 
Et Alanus presens est et hoc cognouit . Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat et sit in m'ia. {Marg: m'ia.) [Aveland.] 

1 ^IS. repeats quod. * The oy of Poynton is interlined over au of Paun- 
ton, whicli two letters only of the original word Paunfon are cancelled. 

437. ^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam Simon f. Lamberti 
se posuit quod iniuste detinet penes se xij.d. de denariis leuatis 
ad pedites de vill' de Trykynham^ uersus Walliam Ideo con- 
sideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios Et sit in m'ia, (Marg: 
m'ia.) [Aveland.] 

a. no. 428. 

^ de vilV de Trykynham interlined. 
[Membrane 14.] 

ADHUC DE PLACITIS APUD STAUNFORD IN COMITATU LINCOLNIE 
DIE SABBATI PROXIMA POST FESTUM SANCTI NICHOLAI ANNO 
VICESIMO SEPTIMO. 

[Saturday, December 13th.] inoe. 

438. ••Conuictum est per iuratam in quam Walterus Est 
se posuit quod iniuste cepit^ aueria Willelmi de Donston' , Willelmi 
Kempe et lohannis Kempe Et ea retinuit quousque soluerant 
ei .ij.s. Ideo consideratum est quod restituat eis dictos denarios 
Et Walterus committatur gaole fecit finem. {Marg: Langhow . 
est Gaole. 2) 

^ The scribe began by writing the I of leuauit, but erased it and sub- 
stituted cepit. * Gaole cancelled. 

439. -^Alanus vicarius de Donston' executor testamenti 
Willelmi vicarii de Methere^ queritur de luone de Byllyngeye 
quod ipse iniuste et sine waranto seisiuit in manum domini regis 
triginta acras terre ipsius Willelmi- seminate diuersis^ bladis , Ita 
quod per eius maliciam amisit vesturam dicte terre ad valenciam 
sexaginta .s. et eam vendidit et denarios adhuc penes se detinet 
Et luo venit Et hoc cognouit . Ideo consideratum est quod 
restituat predictos sexaginta .s. Et luo committatur gaole. {Marg: 
est Gaole."*) [Langoe.] 

Alan, vicar of Dunston, executor of the will of William,vicar of Methering- 
ham complains of Ivo of Billinghay that he did unjustly and without warrant 
seise into the hand of the lord king thirty acres of land of that William sown 
with various kinds of corn, so that by his [Ivo's] malice he lost the crop of 
the said land, to the value of sixty shillings; and he [Ivo] did sell it and 
is still detaining the money in his possession. 

And Ivo has come and has acknowledged this. Therefore it is awarded 
that he do restore the aforesaid sixty shillings : and let Ivo be committed 
to gaol. 

^ This seems to be Metheringham. A successor to William formerly 
vicar was instituted in April, 1297 (Lincoln Diocesan Record Oflfice, Register 
1, f. 235). * ipsius Willelmi interlined. ' The final sis of diuersis (s in MS.) 
is written over an imperfect erasure. * Gaole cancelled. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 117 

440. -IfRadulfus vicarius de Noketon' queritur de predicto 
luone de Byllyngeye eo quod iniuste et sine waranto cepit de eo 
diraidium quarterium frumenti precii .ij.s. quia non habuit pro- 
teccionem etc . Et luo presens est et hoc cognouit . Ideo consideratum 
est quod restituat ei predictos .ij.s. Et luo coramittatur gaole 
Et absoluatur ab officio regis suo perpetuo . postea fecit finem 
per .xl.s. per plegios WUlelmi de Brunne et Walteri Deaudamur . ut 
patet alibi. {Marg: est . Gaole. i) [Langoe.] 

The statement ut patet alibi refers to the fine recorded in no. 394. Cf. 
also note to no. 401. 

* Gaole cancelled. 

441. -^Willelmus de Baston' de Gretford . Thomas ultra 
aquam . Ricardus de Glaunuyle Reginaldus Torald de Brassigburgh' 
et Hugo de Norgate iuratores wapentakii de Nesse quia non 
venerunt sicut eis iniunctum fuit apud Staunford . etc^ . in m'ia. 
{Marg: Nesse m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 470. 

^ This is followed in MS. by Ideo ipsi deleted. 

442. ••[lohannes Gregory de Querington' , lohannes f. Elye 
de Swarreby . Willelmus Louerd de Veteri Lafford . Thomas Bonde 
de eadem . Alanus RajTier de Swarreby . Ricardus de Amwyk' de 
Asgerby . Ricardus de la ]More de eadem Thomas de Arderne de 
Iwardby . Gilbertus de Hale de Custhorp' . Willelmus f. Ricardi 
de Hale . Robertus de la Grene de Wilheby . et Walterus f. Gerardi 
de Laylthorp' . Iuratores wapentakii de Aswardhirne quia non 
venerunt sicut eis iniunctum fuit apud Staunford etc . in m'ia. 
{Marg: Aswardhirne m'ia.) 

Cf. no. 490. 

443. -^Quia conuictum est per iuratam in quam Thomas 
de Eston' se posuit quod iniuste cepit de Gilberto de Poctesmouth' 
.vj.s. de Henrico Grym .iij.s. De Rogero de Lincoln' .xviij.d. 
De Simone de Braundeston' ^ .vij.s. De Rogero de Lincoln' xl.d. 
De Martino de Willistorp' ij.s. De Alexandro de Boseworth xij.d. 
De Hugone de Brunne xij.d. De Rogero de Lincoln' xviij.d. De 
Hugone Hod .iiij.s. De lohanne de WitUseye x.s.viij.d. De 
[Rojberto- le Tundur .ij.s. De lohanne Lung' v.s. De Nicholao 
Hod .v.s. ne ponerentur in assisis iuratis etc Ideo consideratum est 
quod restituat eis predictos denarios Et committatur gaole fecit 
finem. {Marg: .est Gaole. ^) [Kesteven.] 

Cf. no. 311. 

^ Probably either Branston, Langoe or Braunston, co. Riitl. * The 
scribe has made a curious slip here : he has eUded the Ro of Roberto 
and has in consequence written Deberto ! ' Qaole cancelled. 

444. -^lohannes de Ounesby clericus Walteri Est committitur 
gaole eo quod false returnauit mandatum super Simonem de 
Horpling' ubi nidlum inuenit mandatum etc Postea fecit finem 



118 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

per dim.m. per plegios Walter! Est et Simonis de Walcote^ . Et 
absoluatur ab officio regis suo perpetuo. {Marg: est . Gaoie.^) 
[Aveland.] 

A space of about an inch and a half is left between this entry and the 
next, probably for another entry, as indicated by a ^ just underneath 
no. 444. 

^ Probably Walcot in Aveland (there are two other places of this name 
in Lincolnshire). ^ Gaole cancelled. 

445. '^Simon de Lundethorp' unus iuratorum wapentakii . 
de Trehowes . non venit Et^ habuit diem essendi hie simul- cum 
sociis suis ad negocium domini regis expediendum Et veredictum 
suum per eius absenciam retardebatur . Ideo ipse in m'ia et 
amerciatur per affuramentum ad dim.m. {Marg: Trehowes 
m'ia^ dim.m.) 

Simon of Londonthorpe, one of the jurors of the wapentake of Threo, 
did not come, and he had a day to be present here, together with his fellows, 
to expedite the business of the lord king : and their verdict was held back 
through his absence. Therefore let him be in mercy : and he is amerced 
by affeerment at half a mark. 

The affeerment was the fixing of the amount at which a person was 
to be amerced : it was done by two or more others who were sworn to do 
so justly and fairly.* 

^ non venit Et interlined. * essendi hie simul written over an erasure. 
^ m'ia cancelled. ■• Cf. Pollock and Maitland, i, p. 560 ; ii, pp. 514-5. 

446. -^Preceptum est . facere venire Thomam Gysors . 

Laurencium Hundefot et socios suos receptores bladi apud sanctum 

Botulphum ad respondendum domino regi super presentacione de 

Auelund^ quod sint ad proximum aduentum iusticiariorum etc. 

{Marg: Auelund . ) 

^ Between Auelund and qvx)d MS. has de v. quarteriis et vj. bussellia 
frumenti, cancelled. 

447. -^Preceptum est facere venire Willelmum de Sandale 
quod sit ad proximum aduentum iusticiariorum ad warantum 
Walteri Est de capcione multonum in wappentakiis de Auelund et 
Nesse. [Aveland and Ness.] 

448. -IfPreceptum [fuit] vicecomiti quod venire faceret hie ad 
hunc^ diem^ lohannem Baret Henricum de Stouwe receptores 
bladi in villa de Horbling' Et ipsi non veniunt^ Et predictus 
lohannes manucaptus fuit per Willelmum Peper de Horblyng' , 
Andream Peper de eadem . Et predictus Henricus manucaptus 
fuit per Andream Baret et Robertum Baret ideo' ipsi in m'ia , 
Et preceptum [est] vicecomiti quod ponat predictos lohannem et 
Henricum ad magnam districcionem quod sint coram iusticiariis 
ad proximum aduentum suum. [Aveland.] 

The great distress meant distress by all goods and chattels, which were 
actually seized by the sheriff, who became responsible to the king for the 
issues of them.' 

^ hunc, interlined, replaces in MS. eundem, cancelled. " December 13th. 
* Extended thus in MS. ' MS. does not capitalise i of ideo. ' Pollock and 
Maitland, ii, p. 593. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 119 

449. •tPostea venit^ Preceptum [fuit] vicecomiti quod venire 
faceret hie ad hunc diem lohannem f. Elye de Bilingburg' Colector- 
denariorum ad expenses hominum uersus Walliam Et ipse non 
venit Et ipse manucaptus fuit per Simonem f. Emme , Willelmum 
Tosse ideo^ ipsi in m'ia Et preceptum [est] vicecomiti quod 
distringat ipsum per terras etc Ita etc Et quod de exitibus etc 
Ita quod ipsum habeat coram iusticiariis in proximo aduentu suo. 

[Aveland.] 

Cf. no. 428. 

1 Postea venit interlined. A line drawn through the opening words 
of the original entry from Preceptum to as far as Colector is evidently meant 
to cancel the whole entry. - Sic. ^ MS. does not capitalise i of ideo. 

450. -^Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret ad 
hunc^ diem Robertum Petun Radulfum f. IMatilde Alexandrum 
de Dunnesby- Et ipsi non veniunt^ Et predictus Robertus 
manucaptus fuit per Walterum Parleben et Willelmum ad Pontem 
Et predictus Radulfus manucaptus fuit per Hugonem prepositum 
et Radulfum Barne , et predictus Alexander manucaptus fuit per 
WUlelmum Deen et Benedictum loye ideo* ipsi in m'ia Et pre- 
ceptum [est] vicecomiti quod distringat ipsum per terras etc Et 
quod de exitibus etc Ita quod ipsum habeat coram iusticiariis in 
proximo aduentu^ suo. [Probably Aveland.] 

These men were perhaps collectors of prise, but A.R. 505 affords no 
proof of this. 

1 MS. has hinc. * Probably Dunsby near Bourne, Ave. ' Extended 
thus in ^IS. * ^IS. does not capitalise i of ideo. * in proximo aduentu 
auo replaces in MS. ad alium, diem, cancelled. 

451. ••[[Inpositum est Galfrido de Stapelford^ subballiuo de 
Auelund quod iniuste post tempus autumpni de omnibus terram . 
habentibus colligit'^ garbam Et de quibusdam .ij.garbas^ ad 
dampnum regis et populi etc Et Galfridus venit et cognouit quod 
collegit quasdam garbas de aliquibus hominibus set dicit quod 
uero . de . eorum . bona voluntate Et de hoc ponit se [super 
patriam]'* Et iuratores dicunt quod colligit^ garbas de quibusdam 
contra voluntatem suam Ideo consideratum est quod restituat 
illis de quibus reciperit Et quod decetero omnes tales usus abolentur 
Et Galfridus committatur gaole Postea fecit finem per dim.m. 
per plegium Galfridi de Brimne. {Marg: Auelund est . 

Gaole.8) 

It is imputed to Geoffrey of Stapleford, sub-bailiff of Aveland, that 
he did unjustly, after the time of harvest, collect a sheaf from all having 
land, and from certain persons two sheaves ; to the damage of the king 
and of the people etc. 

And Geoffrey has come and has acknowledged that he collected certain 
sheaves from some men ; but he says that [it was] assuredly with their good 
will : and as to this he puts himself upon the country. 

And the jurors say that he collected sheaves from certain persons 
against their will. Therefore it is awarded that he do make restitution 
to those from whom he shall have received ; and that for the rest all such 



120 ' ASSIZE ROLL 505 

xises are abolished. And let Geoffrey be committed to gaol. Afterwards 
he made fine by half a mark by the pledge of Geoffrey of Bourne. 

Taking sheaves in autumn seems to have been regarded as a regular 
bailiffs' perquisite ; and Miss Cam points out that in 1254 the justices in 
eyre were already exanaining abuses in the practice.' As with so many 
other medieval customs, it was easier to condemn abuses of them than to 
put a stop to such abuses. 

* Stapleford, Loveden or Graffoe. " Sic. » After garbas MS. repeats 
(and cancels) et de quihusdayn. * Omitted in MS. ^ Sic, ^ (7aoZe cancelled. 
' Cf . The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls, pp. 150-1. 

452. -llPreceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret ad hunc 

diem Willelmum de Aberden ad respondendum super presentacione 

de Auelund Et ipse non venit et manucaptus fuit per Willelmum 

Sebraund et Robertum Sebraund ideo^ ipsi in m'ia Et preceptum 

est vicecomiti quod distringat ipsum per terras et catalla Et quod 

de exitibus etc , Ita quod habeat corpus suum coram iusticiariis 

in proximo aduentu suo.- {Marj: m'ia.) [Aveland]. 

^ MS. does not capitalise i of ideo. ' in proximo . . . siio replaces in 
MS. ad aliuni die, cancelled. 

453. Memorandum quod die Dominica in crastino sancte 
Lucie virginis^ apud Staunford venit Galfridus de Brunne capitalis 
const abularius de Kesteuen de denariis leuatis pro peditibus uersus 
Walliam Et ibidem recepit diem suum essendi coram iusticiariis 
in aduentu suo . etc. {Marg: prox' aduent'.) 

Memorandum that on Sunday on the morrow of St. Lucia the virgin 
[December 14th, 1298] came to Stamford Geoffrey of Boiirne, chief con- 
stable of Kesteven, about money levied for foot -soldiers going to Wales ; 
and there received his day for being before the justices at their coming etc. 

Of. note to no. 428 for further evidence as to Geoffrey's duties in regard 
to levies for the Welsh campaign. 

A space of between three and four inches is left between this entry 
and the next two, which are placed at the extreme bottom of the membrane. 

1 Sunday, December 14th. 

454. Memorandum quod^ R. Paynel vicecomes non honerat 
se de capcione multonum de wapentakio de Nesse. 

Memorandum that Ralph Paynel, sheriff, does not hold himself respon- 
sible concerning the prise of sheep in the wapentake of Ness. 

A.R. 505 does not reveal directly why Ralph should adopt this position ; 
but cf. no. 447, which suggests that William of Sandale's actions in regard 
to the prise of sheep in Aveland and Ness were unauthorised. If William, 
as seems probable, was a collector of prise, and if the prise were a day-to- 
day one not requiring the special appointment of a chief collector, the sheriff 
would be ultimately responsible for William's authorised actions. Un- 
authorised actions on William's part would thus be enough to account for 
Ralph Paynel's statement here. 

• After qtiod MS. has vicecomen, cancelled. 

455. ^^Thomas f. Alani de Kyrkeby . lohannem Euerard 
Simon de Grebby . remanent in custodia vicecomitis quousque 
fecerint finem. 

For Thomas, see no. 339 ; for John, no. 366 ; for Simon, nos. 143, 145, 
162. In none of these cases do the marginalia or the conclusions of the 
cases themselves show that the oflirials m question iiad made fine. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 121 

[Membrane 14rf. ] 

ADHUC DE PLACITTS APUD STAUNFORD DIE DOMINICA POST 
FESTUM . SANCTI NICHOLAI ANNO REGNI REGIS EDWARDI XXVjto. 

[Stamford, Sunday, December 14th.] 

450. -^luratores presentant quod Thomas de Eston' balliuus 
iniuste distrinxit Thomam Halyon , dicens ipsum esse in viridi 
cera . pro terra euiusdam Henrici de Manthorp' pro .x.s. et sex d. 
et eos eidem Thome balliuo soluit et ipsum Thomam Halyon de 
predictis denariis non dum^ aquietauit . etc. 

Et Thomas de Eston' venit et cognouit quod leuauit predictos 
denarios de dicto Thoma Halyon per preceptum lohannis Dyne 
tunc vicecomitis Lincolnie set dicit quod fuit ante guerram inter 
dominum regem Anglie et regem Francie inchoatam Et de hoc 
ponit se super patriam . etc. 

luratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod predictus 
Thomas de Eston' leuauit predictos .decem.s. et sex d. de Thoma 
de Halyon pro viridi cera et predictos denarios adhuc penes se 
detinet Ita quod predictum Thomam de Halyon non aquietauit . 
et quod fuit post guerram inter dominum regem AngHe et regem 
Francie inchoatam . Ideo consideratum est quod predictus Thomas 
de Halyon . recuperet uersus predictum Thomam [de] Est[on]2 
predictos denarios in duplo Et committatur gaole . Et absoluatur 
ab officio regis suos perpetuo . fecit finem pro transgressione . etc. 
{Marg: Graham . est Gaole. ^) [Beltisloe.] 

The jurors present that Thomas of Easton, bailiff, did unjustly distrain 
Thomas Halyon, saying that he was upon the Green Wax for tlie land of 
a certain Henry of Manthorpe, for 10/6 ; and he did pay these [moneys] 
to the same Thomas the bailiff : and he has not yet given quittance to that 
Thomas Halyon of the aforesaid moneys etc. 

And Thomas of Easton has come and has acknowledged that he levied 
the aforesaid moneys from the said Thomas Halyon by order of John Dyne, 
then sheriff of Lincoln ; but he says that it was before the war begun between 
the lord king of England and the king of France : and as to this he puts 
himself upon the country etc. 

The jurors say upon their oath that the aforesaid Thomas of Easton 
did levy the said 10/6 from Thomas Halyon for the Green A\ax ; and the 
aforesaid money he is still detaining in his possession, so that he has not 
given the aforesaid Thomas Halyon quittance : and that it was after the war 
begun between the lord king of England and the king of France. Therefore 
it is awarded that the aforesaid Thomas Halyon do recover against the 
aforesaid Thomas of Easton the aforesaid money twofold. And let 
him [Thomas of Easton] be committed to gaol ; and let him be absolved 
from his office of the king in perpetuity. He made fine for the trespass etc. 

Cf. note to no. 143. John Dyne's term of office as sheriff expired in 
1293 ; the war broke out fully in 1294. It is clear that Thomas of Easton 
is interpreting the terms of the enquiry exactly literally in his attempt to 
escape puni.shment for what he cannot deny ! 

* dum interlined. * MS. has Est. ' Gaole cancelled. 

457. •jiuratores presentant quod Thomas de Eston' balliuus 



122 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

iniuste cepit de Ricardo Lewys de Corby duas vaccas et eas retinuit 
per .XV. dies quousque soliiit ei dini.m. etc — Et Thomas venit et 
cognouit quod cepit predictas vaccas pro dim. in. ad quam vxor 
predicti Ricardi Lewys amerciata fuit in wapentakio pro assisa 
ceruise infracta . Et de hoc ponit se super patriam — luratores 
dicunt super sacramentum suum quod vxor predicti Ricardi non 
amerciata fuit Et quod predictus Thomas cepit iniuste predictam 
dim.m. de predicto Ricardo . Et preterea hoc quatuor.s. Ideo 
consideratum est quod restituat dictos denarios Et Thomas 
committatur gaole . fecit finem. {Marg: Belteslowe est 
Gaole.i) 

The jurors present that Thomas of Easton, bailiff, did unjustly take 
from Richard Lewys of Corby two cows, and did retain them for fifteen 
days until he [Richard] paid him imlf a mark etc. 

And Thomas has come and has acknowledged that he took the aforesaid 
cows for half a mark at uhieh the wife of the aforesaid Richard Lewys was 
amerced in the wapentake court, for having infringed the assize of ale : 
and as to this he puts himself upon the country. 

The jurors say upon their oath that the wife of the aforesaid Richard 
was not amerced, and that the aforesaid Thomas did imjustly take the 
aforesaid half mark from the aforesaid Richard ; and besides this, four 
shillings. Therefore it is awarded that he do restore the said money. And 
let Thomas be committed to gaol. He made fine. 

Richards wife was an ale-wife : brewing was largely done by women 
during the Middle Ages.^ The assize of ale represented in essence the royal 
right of fixing from time to time the price at which beer was to be sold and 
the quality of brew for which that price was to be charged : in effect a 
sliding scale proportionate to the price of corn.^ The administration of 
the assize, however, was done in the local courts, and verj^- commonly the 
right of such administration passed to seignorial interests as part of their 
liberties.* But here is a case where the wapentake court of Beltisloe, a 
royal court which, apart from special visits of royal justices or of the sheriff's 
toum, would be presided over by the (royal) baililT of the wapentake, is 
taking cognisance of an alleged breach of the assize of ale : and he would 
not be doing so unless the king had the assize here. As such the case is 
useful as a corrective to any tendency to regard the administration of the 
assize of ale as, by 1300, a prerogative of seignorial courts.* 

' Gaole cancelled. ^ Lipson, Econ. Hist. Eng., i, p. 295. ' Ibid., 
pp. 293-4. * Cf. Pollock and Maitland, i, j). o81 ; ' H. Cam, The Hundred 
and the Huyidred Rolls, pp. 205, 209, 211-2. <* Cf. Denholm -Young, Seign. 
Admin, in Eng., pp. 90-2 : cases illustrating seignorial administration of 
the assize of ale are also given by Maitland, "The Court Baron," S.S., 
vol. 4 (1891), pp. 25, 50, 73. 

458. ^Conuictum est per iuratam in quam Thomas de 
Eston' se posuit quod iniuste cepit ^ de Gerardo vicario de West- 
byham dim.m. quia non habuit proteccionem domini Regis Ideo 
consideratum est quod restituat ei predictos denarios Et Thomas 
committatur gaole fecit finem. {Marg: est Gaole. ^) 

I Beltisloe. J 

Cl. nob. 352, 401. 

1 c^pit replaces in MS. leuauU, cancelled. ' Gaole cancelled. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 123 

[Membrane 15. J 

459. Inquisicio mercatorum de Sancto Botulpho scilicet 
drapariorum et vinetariorum. 

Inquest of merchants of Boston, that is, of drapers and vintners.' 

CT - Johannes Braban de Stanford. 

(T Gamelus de Byry. 

(T Robertus de Norwyc'. 

(T Johannes de Laberd de Louen'. 

(T Johannes . de Holsebek' de eadem. 

(T Clauinus Kerman de Malins'. 

(T Poncius Giccard de Tolus'. 

(T Petrus Reymud de Vendeng'. 

(T Johannes de la Fontayne de Northt'. 

(T W'illelmus Bech de Ippre. 

(T Willelmus de Scarringg', 

(T Stephanus de Redeness'. 

(T Willelmus de Paris. ^ 
' I have endeavoured to reproduce the marks set against mo.st of the 
names in these hsts by using the letters most nearly resembling these marks. 
I am not certain of their meaning, but between (7" and ^ especially a contrast 
seems to be intended. I am indebted to Miss M. H. Mills for suggestions 
on this point. 

2 A sign like that normally used for the small superior a. 
' Note that the proportion of English to foreign names in this list is 
roughly half and half. No indication is given as to which names, English 
or foreign, are those of drapers or of vintners. The occurrence of Flemish 
names is not surprising, since their owners were probably engaged in selling 
linen cloth from Flanders : cf. Lipson, Econ. Hist, of England, i, p. 249. 
As to the vintners, the only obvious name is Poncius Giccard of Toulouse, 
but I suspect that some of the Englislimen were vintners, themselves import- 
ing wine from Gascony. It is known, for example, that English merchants 
were engaged in foreign trade, especially in the import of Gascon wine ; 
by 1365 this practice had assumed sufficient proportions to require legislation 
against it : cf. Lipson, op. cit., pp. 560, note 1 ; 568. William de Paris 
probably belonged to the family of that name conspicuous in Lincoln since 
the twelfth century. 

460. Villata Sancti Botulphi Skirbek'.i 

(T Johannes de Horncastre de Sancto Botulpho. 

Eudo f. Willelmi.2 
(T Henricus Makefare de eadem. 

Johannes f. Roberti.^ 
(T Johannes de Funtaynes de Sancto Botulpho. 

Alanus de Seldek'.'^ 
(T Robertus Mariot de eadem. 

Johannes Edrik'.'- 
(T Johannes Payt de eadem, 

Johannes Geringg'.^ 
or Thomas de Sutton' de eadem. 

Lucas Harald.2 
(T Petrus Tulle de eadem. 
(T Johannes Gernon de eadem. 



124 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

(T ^rartinus Pistor de eadem. 

(T Willelmus Tredegold de eadem. 

(T Johannes le Tanur de eadem. 

(T Thomas Galun de eadem. 
> This and following list-headings are given as marginalia in MS. I 
have entered them as ortlinary headings for the t^ke of clearness and 
economy of space. In this heading Skirbek' is actually tmdor Villata . . . 
Botiilphi level with the first item in the list, and does not seem to have 
been part of the original heading. I slionld add that the order in which 
tlie lists liave been numbered and printed is that given by reading down 
and not across the membrane. Thus nos. 459-71 forna one column and 
472-82 a second column. Similarly with the dorse. 

* These names are all interlined as shown, with no paragraph marks. 
They may have been those of mainpernors, but if so, one per juror is 
unusual. 

461. Appotecarii [Apothecaries]. 
(T Thomas de Oxon'. 

(T Johannes Bonquer, 
(T Ricardus le Cras. 
CT Johannes de Burford. 
(T Henricus de Farnham. 
CT Thomas de Ditton'. 

462. Naute [Sailors]. 

(T Hugo Mulan de Seland. 

CT Willelmus Greye de Holand. 

(T Petrus Moscel de Seland. 

(T Nicholaus J^eche de Braban. 

(T Henricus Hed de Flandr'. 

(T Cristianus Paternoster de Braban. 

463. Mercatores kanabii^ [Canvas or hemp merchants]. 
^ ' Stephanus Pocoye. 

^ Robertus Gorge. 
^ Andreas de Sancto Romano. 
^ Johannes Baudwine. 
^ Godefridus Fraunceys. 
^ Nicholaus Labbe. 
' Above and below Mercatores MS. has a dot. ' The sign that is used 
throughout the MS. as a paragraph mark. 

464. Pelliparii^ [Skinners]. 

^ Adam de Rokisburgh'. 

^1 Hugo de Tyndon'. 

^ Johannes de Cotun. 

^ Willelmus de Hemigton' London'. 

^ Thomas de Donstaple. 

*i| Johannes de Boston de Norhampton'. 

% Rogerus Thoch de eadem. 

^ Jake de Biry. 

If Galfridus Baude de Lynn'. 

* Above and below Pelliparii MS. has a dot. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 125 

465. Mercarii' [Mercers]. 
^ Hugo de- Parys. 

^ Ricardus de ^Meldeburn'. 

^ lohannes de Midilburw. 

^ Willelmus de Askeby. 

^ Osbertus de Tyuilby. 

% Rogerus de Northike. 

f Radulfus Burel de Norwico. 

* Above and below Mercarii MS. has a dot. * de interlined. 

466. Kirketon'. 

^ Robertus de Kirketon' miles. 

^ Willelmus de Cupledyk'. 

% Alexander le Seriaunt de Algerkirke. 

^ Ricardus de Casterton'. 

^ Willelmus Rugeuyn de Surflet. 

^ Godefridus Bolle de Swinesheued. 

^ Robertus de Surflet. 

f Willelmus de alta ripa.^ 

^ Stephanus de Wyketoft. 

% Ricardus de Hoddel deficiu[n]t vnus.^ 

^ Alanus Coupyldyk'. 

^ Thomas Hyllary electus et non iuratus. 

> de alta ripa replaces in MS. Douore cancelled. ' Originally duo de 
iur' but cancelled and vnus interlined. This explains deficiu[n]t. 

467. Ellowe. 

% Robertus de Hakebeche miles. 

f Rogerus de Tydd, 

f lohannes de Sutton'. 

^ Simon Page. 

^ Henricus de Sutton'. 

^ Rogerus Bacon. 

% Simon atte Hasse. 

f Willelmus Golde. 

^ lohannes de Pettebrigge.^ 

^ Ricardus Clony de Spaldingg'. 

^ Gilbertus f. Willelmi de eadem. 

% Robertus le Blund. 

[Marg. non dum reddiderunt.] 

* Probably Pettebrigge, near Spalding. 

468. Naute Prouinciales.^ 
^ Hugo Megge. 

^ Willelmus vallettus Hugonis le Engleys. 
^ Gerardus Duran. 



126 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

^ Goberdus de Par. 

^ Willelmus Pyne. 

^ Reymimdus de la Browe. 

' This can hardly be Provencal : the names have too English a sound. 
No satisfactory explanation suggests itself. 

469. Staunford.i 

f Willelmus Galbegoky de Staunford. 

^ Alueredus le Mercer de eadeiii. 

% Galfridus de Cotesmor de eadem. 

If Henricus Faderman de eadem- Rogerus de Ringeston. 

^ Willelmus de Deping'. 

f Ricardus Brond. 

^ Willelmus Burnel. 

^ Alexander le Taillur. 

% Simon de Helpeston'^ Alexander de Tykencote. 

^ Robertus le Burser. 

^ lohannes le Palmer. 

^ lohannes Asplon de Staunford^ Andreas Nye. 

1 Above Stavnford MS. has a dot. Entries 469-71; 481-82; 498a 
are written on a schedule laced to the foot of the membrane, 498a being 
on the dorse of it. * Henry's name cancelled in MS. and Roger's name 
substituted. * Simon's name cancelled in MS. and Alexander's name sub- 
stituted. ■• John's name cancelled in MS. and Andrew's name substituted. 

470. Nesse.i 

^ Simon le Keu de Uflfington'. 

^f Willelmus de Baston' de Gretford. 

^ Ricardus de Glaunuile de eadem. 

^ Thomas Biyondthebeck' de eadem. 

^ Simon le Keu de Langtoft. 

^ lohannes Louet de eadem. 

^ Willelmus Freman de Berham. 

^ Hugo de Northgate de eadem. 

^ Dauid de Glaunuile de Gretford. 

f Willelmus Faber de Berham. 

^ lordanus de Hoiland^ non valet pro Rege. 

^ Reginaldus Thorald' de Brassingburgh'. 
Galfridus de Burton'. 

* Above Nease MS. has a cross : -\-. - lordantis de Hoiland cancelled. 

471. [Aveland.]^ 

^ Willelmus de Saperton' [Sapperton, Boothby or 

Threo]. 
^ Hugo Sturmy. 
^ Willelmus Ernys. 
^ Willehnus Brian de Stowe [Stow, Ave..] 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 127 

t WUlelmus de Ba . . .- 
[Robert of Pointon : cf. no. 37. 
John of Pointon : cf. no. 38. 
Hugh ad Aquam of Millthorpe : cf, no. 39.] 

1 Probably but not certainly : the comer of the membrane has been 
torn away and with it the name of the wapentake as well as the greater part 
of the list. - The rest of the list is missing. See n. 1. I have been able to 
supply tliree of the names from other evidence in A.R. 50fi. 

472. Dekenes [probably deans of gild], 

^ lohannes Rachehow decanus de Loueyne. 

% lohannes de Hutcbrule decanus de ]Maxel3'Tie. 

^ lohannes del Ponnte decanus de Deste. 

^ Waltenis Asselyn decanus de Brusil. 

^ Arnulphus de Loueyne de Malines. 

^ Nicholaus Karman. 

473. Wapentakium de Yortheburgh'.^ 

^ Baldewvnus de Barton'. 
(T Robertus de Ridehale de Barton'. 
(T Walterus de Crandene de Wolrikeby. 
(T lohannes de Coleuile de Wraheby. 
(T Ricardus le Paumer de Seuerby. 
(T Thomas de Gresseby. 
(T WiUelmus^ f. eiusdem Thome. 
(T lohannes f. Willehni de Hundon'. 
(T Willelmus f. Willelmi de Houeringham in Barwe. 
(T Willelmus le Gierke de Gousill'. 
(T Henricus de Ouneby. 
(T Radulfus Gosson de Keleby. 

• Between de and Yortheburgh' (on separate lines) MS. has a dot. 
Willelmus is preceded in MS. by Thomas, cancelled. 

474. Wapentakium de Bradelee.^ 

(T Willelmus Paynot de Houton'. 

(T Alanus Whyting'. 

(T Robertus Whyting'. 

(T Alanus de Hoi'. 

(T Matheus de Hoi'. 

(T Henricus Estt- de Cle. 

^ Between de and Bradelee (on separate Unes) MS. has a dot. 
- Estt interlined, clarifj-ing in MS. Est, cancelled. The scribe's quill was 
too full of ink, and he seems to have felt that the name ought to be 
re-written. 

475. Wapentakium de Loutheburgh'.' 
(T lohannes de Wyherne.- 

(T Ricardus Arnegrun. 



128 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

(T Ricardus f. Lamberti de Foterby. 

(T lohannes de Haulay de Calthorp'. 

(T Walterus f. Hugonis Twyt de Foterby. 

(T Ricardus del Parkhous. 

(T Willelmus Gurnard de Lutheburgh'. 

* Between de and Louthehurgh' (on separate lines) MS. has a dot. 
* This name is cancelled in MS. 

476. (T Wapentakium de Walshecroft.' 

(T Nicholaus f. Willelmi^ Matyns de Medio Rasyn. 

(T Willelmus Thomas de eadem. 

(T Robertus f. Ricardi de Teuelby. 

(T Johannes^ le Lung' de Lindewod. 

(T lohannes f. Simonis de Normanby. 

(T lohannes f. Thome de Houton'. 

(T Willelmus f. lohannis de Claxeby. 

(T Ricardus Curteys de Normanby. 

(T Robertus de Irford. 

(T Willelmus de Netherwyk'. 

(T Willelmus Modelyn. 

(T Rogerus^ f. Walteri de Wylingham. 

1 Between de and Walshecroft (on separate lines) MS. has a dot. 
'/. Willelmi interlined. ' MS. has lohannec. * MS. has Rogerum. 

477. Wranghou.i 

Cr Nicholaus de Compton'. 

CT Nicholaus Burdet. 

<T Thomas de Ryggesby. 

(T Willelmus Merle. 

(T lohannes de Paunton'. 

(T Walterus de Toutheby.^ 

(T Nicholaus Tochet. 

rr Willelmus de Welingham. 

(T lohannes ad Ripam. 

(T Simon de Luda. 

(T Walterus de Hauley. 

(T Simon de Reiggesby. 

1 Before Wranghou MS. has a dot, 'But in no. 194 the name is 
given as Thurlhy. 

478. Louedon'.i 

CT Willelmus de Hagl'. 

(T Willelmus de Normanton'. 

(T Stephanus Coleman de Calthorp'. 

(T Henricus Agaze de Fulbek'. 

(T Galfridus Cosin de Hagham, 

(T Henricus de- Braunston' de Bynington'. 

(T Stephanus Fraunceys . de Bredon'. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 129 

(T Robertus f. Robert! de Bredon'. 

(T Rogerus de Kami' de Haugham. 

(T WiJJelmus f. HenricP clerici de Thorp'. 

(T Galfridus Brian. 

(T Robertus de Bereford. 

^ Before Loxiedoii MS. has u dot. ' de in MS. is followed by what 
looks like Camera, cancelled. " Henrici interUned. 

479. Ciuitas Lincolnie. 

(T Adam f. Martini.' 
(T Walterus Damyot. 
(T lohannes de Amcotes. 
(T lohannes de Normanton'. 
(T Petrus de Ponte. 
(T Ricardus de Seuerby. 
(T Hamonus de la Dale. 
(T Willelmus de Perham. 
(T lohannes Dowel. 
<T Robertus Bakuii. 
(T Osbertus- le Mazon. 
(T Ricardus^ le Gaunt'. 
^ MS. lias Martin. * MS. has Osbertum. ' MS. has Kicardum. 

480. Hawardeshou.^ 
(T Petrus de Haddeclyue- 



(T lohannes le Palmer de Kokewald — 

(T lohannes de Claxeby de eadem . — 

(T Rogerus Faber de Hawardeby — 

(T Ricardus f. Walter! de eadem — 

(T Willelmus Carpentarius de Waldneuton' — 

(T Rogerus clericus de Foulestowe — 

(T Robertus f. Stephani de Bernolby — 

(T Radulfus de Bradele de eadem — 

(T lohannes atte Mare de eadem. 

(T Ricardus Faber de Rauendale' — 

(T lohannes f. Robert! de Wathe — 

(T Alanus ad Ecclesiam de Alwardby — 

^ Before Haivardeshou MS. has a dot. - Each name in this list is 
followed by a dash about a quarter of an inch long, but 1 am not sure 
of the meaning of these dashes. ' Richard's name is cancelled in MS. 

48 L Boby at Graf how '.^ 
^ Petrus de Hikam. 

^ lohannes de Grantham de Basingham. 
*if Walterus de Basingham. 
^ Galfridus clericus de Hadington'. 
^ Dauid de Thrikingham. 
^ Willelmus Scharp de Thurleby. 



130 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

^ Simon Heghuon de Colby. 

^ Philippus de Thistelword' de eadem. 

^ Simon de Bradewell' de eadem. 

% Henricus le Messager de Botheby. 

^ Walterus Wysman de Colby. 

% Rogerus de Aula de Hermeston'. 

* Above Boby et Grajhow MS. has a cross : -{-. 

482. Graham. 1 

^ Ely as Dare de Graham. 

^ WUlelmus Darre. 

^ lohannes f. Simonis. 

^ Tomas- Payn. 

^ Thomas Hering'. 

^ Ricardus^ de Colpton'. 

i Galfridus Not. 

^ Willelmus de Panton'. 

^ Radulfus de Ingoldesby. 

^ Hugo Belle. 

^ Ricardus Bigot. 

t Walterus Utting'. 

* On line below Graham is Geyrtre et Horncastre, erased. * So in MS. 

* From this point the scribe uses, until the end of the entry, a very 
unusual form of capital R which superficially resembles a capital D. 

[Membrane 15c?.] 

483. Gayretre et Horncastre. 
(T Walterus de Wrengel. 

(T Thomas de Hey de Hymynby. 

(T Robertus f. YsabeU' de Edelynton'. 

(T lohannes de Langeton'. 

(T lohannes Freman de Edelynton'. 

<T lohannes Pardun de Stykeswald. 

(T Thomas ad Aulam de Donynton'. 

(T Walterus Scapelayn de Hemjmby. 

(T Robertus Longespy de Langeton'. 

(T lohannes Randolf de Brandeby. 

(T Petrus de Scriuelby. 

(T 1 lohannes de Duhngton'.^ 

* The scribe seems to have begun a ^ and to have changed it to a (T 

* Bullington : cf. no. 196. 

484. Hille Wappentakium. 

(T Philippus de Theford. 
(T lohannes de Langeton'. 
(T lohannes de Tyneton'. 
(T Willelmus de Foletby. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 131 

(T Henricus Cheueney. 

(T lohannes de Halton'. 

(T Eudo de Henouere. 

(T Willelmus f. Henrici de Wynceby. 

(T Willelmus de Drey thorp' . in Langeton'. 

(T Thomas North de Theford. 

(T Willelmus f. Agnetis de eadem. 

(T Willehuus le Baylif de Sauzthorp', 

485. Horncastre Soka et Libertas. 
(T Hugo le Keu de Horncastre. 
(T Simon Rudde. 
(T Gilbertus^ Godestalke. 
(T Henricus Emmesin. 
(T Radull'us de Tymelby mercator'. 
(T Robert us f. Thome Attebeke de Enderby. 
(T Philippus f. Roberti. 
(T Tliomas Bosse. 
Cr Alanus f. Willelmi. 
(T Willelmus f. Alani Grubbe. 
(T lohannes f. Reginaldi- de Tynton'. 
(T Reginaldus f. lohannis de Cunmygby. 

^ MS. has Gilbertum. ' There is a blot in MS. over egin of Reginaldi. 

*486. Calswath'. 

(T Philippus de Clathorp'. 

(T Gilbertus de Haghara. 

(T Robertus de Alford. 

(T Andreas de Ardeme. 

(T Nicholaus la^ Veille. 

(T lohannes de Carum. 

(T Radulfus West. 

(T Ricardus de Wyern'. 

(T lohannes Ward. 

(T lohannes de Cumberwrth. 

(T Walterus de Malberthorp'. 

(T Willelmus ad fontem de Hoggesthorp', 
^Sic. 

487. Luthesk' 

(T Robertus de Brakenbergh'. 

(T Ranulphus de Otteby. 

(T Florii^ de Tadwelle. 

(T lohannes de lerdeburgh'. 

(T Robertus Sturmy de Luda. 

(T Simon f. Willelmi de eadem. 

(T Hugo le Blund de eadem. 



132 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

(T Willelmus de Lekebum' de eadem. 
(T Robertus le Neucomen de Salfletby. 
(T Ricardus de Sculpholm, 
(T lohannes f. Willelmi de Somercot'. 
(T Simon f. Willelmi de Luda. 
> Sic. 

488. Bolingbrok'. 

(T Petrus de Hirf. 
(T Hem?icus de Luscby. 
(T lohaimes f. Thome de eadem. 
(T lohannes f. Walteri de W'estkel. 
(T Willelmus de Cast' de eadem. 
(T Alanus Smerhorn de Kirby. 
(T W^alterus f. IMilonis de Thorpe. 
(T Willelmus Freman de Westkel. 
(T Willelmus Valentyn de eadem. 
(T Nicholaus Carpentarius de eadem. 
(T lohannes Ascer de Stikforth'. 
CT lohannes Buxtan de Westkele. 

489. Candeleshou. 

(T Willelmus de Rygg'. 
(T Ranulphus de Freskeney. 
(T Henricus Scleyg de Wynthorp'. 
(T Robertus de Gippthorp' . de Burgo. 
(T Alanus Hardebene de Burgo. 
(T Robertus de Braytoft. 
•(T Thomas Ingesone. 
(T^ Ranulphus Hemmyng' de Fryskeny. 
(T Alanus de Scaltfiet de Burgo. 
(T Willelmus de Holdernes de Weynflet. 
(T Thomas- atte Halle de Fryskey. 
(T Radulfus Ranute de Wajmflet. 
(T Thomas de Burnham.^ 

1 Dot erased before (T mark. ^ Thomas interlined replaces in MS. 
Willelmus, cancelled. ' It is impossible to determine which of the three 
Bumhams is here implied. 

490. Aswardhim'. 

(T lohannes Gregory de Querynton'. 

(T lohannes f. Elye de Swarreby. 

(T Alanus Reyner de eadem. 

(T W^illclmus le Lord de Lafford. 

(T Ricardus de Amwyk'. 

(T Ricardus de la More.^ 

(T \\'illelmus f. Ricardi de Hal'. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 133 

(X Thomas de Arderne.- 
(T Thomas Bonde. 
a Gilbertus de Hal'. 
(T Robertus de la Grene.' 
(T Walterus Gerard.' 

1 Of Aagarby ; cf. no. 442. » Of Ewerby ; cf. no. 442. ' Of Silk Wil- 
loughby ; cf. no. 442. * Of Laythorpe ; cf. no. 442. 

491. VVappentakium de Laurya. 

(T Rogerus le Clerk' de Burton. 

(T Robertus Patgris de eadem. 

(T Ricardus atte Persons. 

(T Gilbertus atte Ppipe. 

(T Willelmus Carectarius de Faldingworth'. 

(T lohannes de Goldington'. 

(T Robertus Playndeamours de Wolingham. 

(T Rogerus Alsant de Thorkesey. 

(T Galfridus f. Hugonis de Thorp'. 

(T Radulfus f. Theobald! de Asthorp'. 

(T Ricardus de Cokerington'. 

(T Rogerus de Scostorne. 

492. Manle. 

(T Thomas de Burnham.^ 
* Robertus de Theuelby. 
Nicholaus de Gerlithorp'. 
WDlelmus ad Aulam de Askeby. 
Robertus Warner. 
Willelmus Gilian. 
Adam Broylle. 
Ricardus de Dodicthorp'. 
Walterus le Blake. 
Raynerus de Malineton'. 
Thomas Fraunceys de Amcotes. 
Radulfus de Coleby. 

* See note to Thomas' namesake, no. 489. ^ Sic. The remaining names 
in this list have no marks as shown, 

493. Soka de Kirketon'.^ 

^ Thomas de Neuyll'. 

^ Willelmus de Stockhith'. 

^ Osbertus f. Petri de Glentworth. 

^ lordanus de Ingham. 

^ Ricardus le Feuer de Bliton'. 

^ Robertus f. Osberti de Gilleby. 

^ Galfridus f. Roberti de Hepham. 

^ Robertus Nunne de Brunneby. 



134 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

^ Henricus Brun de eadem. 
^ lohai-nes f. lohannis de Kirketon'. 
^ Ricardus de la Grene de eadem. 
% Thomas f. Alicie de Springthorp". 
* Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

494. Aslachowe. 

^ Martinus Benet de Blyburgh'. 

^ Galfridus de Cotes. 

^ lohannes de Hakethorn. 

^ Robertus de Hakethorn elericua. 

^ Robertus le Long de Saxeby. 

^ lordanus le Feuer de Ouneby. 

^ Willelmus le Feuer de Wilghton'. 

f Thomas Payl de eadem. 

^ Thomas f. lohannis de eadem. 

^ Thomas f. lohannis de Ingham. 

^ Gilbertus Rauen de Helmeswell'. 

^ Petrus le Deen de Blyburgh'. 

495. Welle Wapentakium. 

^ Willelmus de Somercotes. 
^ Walterus de Freston'. 
^ Nicholaus Bate. 
^ Reginaldus le Marchand. 
^ Willelmus Peny. 
^ lohannes Hirdman. 
^ Thomas de Brotelby. 
^ Willelmus le Feuer de Marton'. 
^ Rogerus Mauger. 
^ Willelmus de^ Bolum. 
^ Walterus le Messer de Wiuelingham. 
^[ Gostelinus de eadem. 
* de interlined. 

496. Coringham. 

^ lohannes de Teuelby. 

% Radulfus de Morton' de Northorp'. 

^ Radulfus le Feuer de eadem. 

^ lohannes Templeman de Yolthorp'. 

^ lohannes Rumfar de Geynesburgh'. 

^ lohannes de Templo de eadem. 

^ Stacius de Geynesburgh'. 

^ Rogerus Thorald de eadem. 

^ Rogerus Tripperosc de eadem. 

^ Galfridus de Tunstal de eadem. 

^ Willelmus de Cresoy de Fery. 

% Herbertus Mariot de Yolthorp'. 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 135 

497. Whynebrygge.^ 

(T* Robertus f. Bartholomei de Casthorp*. 

De Petro- de Temple de Denton'. 
(T lohannes de Magna Paimton'. 
(T Radulfus Ernys de eadem. 
(T lohannes de Blaunkeney. 
(T Ricardus Pistor de Parua Paunton'. 
T3 Willelmus f. Roberti de Casthorp'. 
^ lohannes f. Willelmi de Denton'. 
^ lohannes de Herford de Berghby. 

* Underneath Whynebrygge MS. has et Trehowea erased. * Sic. ' Sic. 

498. Trehowes.^ 

^ lohannes f. Alani f. Radulfi^ de eadem. ^ 
^ Thomas de Herford de Athelyngton'. 
^ Nicholaus de Wywell de Harleston'. 

^ The Tlireo names which form entry 498 continue without a break 
at the end of the Winnibriggs names in no. 497. (See n. 1 of no. 497.) The 
names add up to twelve. Winnibriggs and Threo evidently at first combined 
to form a jury. Cf., however, no. 498a. - Radulji replaces in MS. 
lohannis, cancelled. ^ I.e. of Barrowby. 

498a. Threhowes.i 

(T Simon de Londirthorp' miles. 

(T lohannes de Aseby. 

(T Robertus de Kyrketon'.* 

(T Thomas de Barkeston'. 

(T Rogerus de Somerdby.^ 

(T Willelmus le Sompter de eadem. 

(T Thomas de Gonwardeby de Saperton'. 

(T WUlelmus f. Margerie de eadem. 

(T Hugo Mynot de eadem. 

(T Walterus ultra aquam de eadem. 

(T Hugo de Estowe.* 

(T Rogerus f. Stephani de Barkeston'. 

• An extra piece was sewn on to the existing membrane, and the Tlareo 
names in no. 498a are written on it. (See no. 469, n. 1.) This involved a 
space of nearly two inches between the two sets of Threo jurors. * Of 
Ropsley ; cf. no. 148. ' d of Somerdby interlined. * Of Londonthorpe ; 
cf. no. 52. 



Names of Beltisloe jurors are in no. 250 ; of Flaxwell and Langoe jurors 
in nos. 193, 251. 



136 ASSIZE ROLL 605 



APPENDIX I. 

Royal Ordinance of 4 Aprtl, 1298, Setting up a Commission 
OF Enquiry into Acts of Royal Ministers during the 
War with France, 1294-8. 

This ordinance is enrolled on P.R.O. Patent Roll C. 66/118 
(26 Ed. I), m. 21. 

* Come le Rey avant son passage vers Flaundres eust 
volunte e desir de faire redrescer, e amender les grevances 
faites a son poeple en noun de luy, e sur ceo envoiast ses lettres 
par tutz les contes Dengleterre, pur ceste chose mettre en 
effect ; ordine est par luy e par son conseil, qe les enquerrours, 
qe sont assignes pur enquerre de tieu maniere des grevaunces, 
enquergent des choses prises hors de seinte eglise, e des prises 
de leines, peaus, quirs, bleez, bestes, chars, pessons, e de tutes 
autres manieres des choses, parmi le roialme des clers, e des 
lais, puis la guerre comencie entre nous e le Roy de Fraunce 
fust ce pur garde de la raer ou en autre maniere. E enquergent 
meismes ceaus, par queux, e as queux, e de quel e de combien, 
e de la value e coment e de queu maniere ices prises e grevances 
furent feites au poeple. E cestes choses oont e terminent 
ausibien par office come a sute de partie. E qant la verite 
de ces choses serra ateinte, le quel qe ceo soit par garaunt, 
ou suanz garaunt ; ceo qe serra pris sanz garant, soit retorne 
a ceaux qe le dammage ount receu si le tort fesantz eient de 
quey, e outre ceo puniz pur le trespas, E sil neient de quay 
ceaux as queus les garantz e le commissions sont venuz, come 
viscontes, clers assignez, baillifs, e autre tieu maniere de 
ministres, respoignent pur leur surmis, qui averont feit tieu 
prises. E qe de ceo qe serra trove pris par garaunt ; le rey 
seit certifie, e il enfra taunt, quil se tendront apaiez par 
reson.' 



APPENDIX II 137 



APPENDIX II. 
Royal Officials in LiNCOLNsraRE, 1294-1298. 

Note : The lists which follow, though far from complete, are 
comprehensive enough to give a fairly clear idea of the personnel 
involved in the local royal administration of the shire. 

In respect of the more permanent royal officials — the sheriffs 
and their subordinates and the coroners — I have deemed it advis- 
able to list them over an extended period covering roughly the 
decade 1290-1300, chiefly because there were sometimes lapses 
and resumptions of office on the part of individuals. These and 
similar circumstances cannot be so clearly shown unless a longer 
period is taken than just the war years 1294-8. 

Throughout tlie lists, names in italics refer to persons who 
are not recorded in A.R. 505, The numbers in round brackets 
refer to cases in the text of A.R. 505. 

I. SHERIFFS. 

John Dyne (456), held office 16 October, 1290. to 14 April, 
1293.^ By the end of the Trinity Term, 1293. he was 
dead.^ 

Robert Le Venour or Venur (229, 308, 379, 381, 428), held 
office 14 April. 1293,^ to 24 April, 1297. Custodian of the 
City of Lincoln from Easter, 1291,^ when the city passed 
into the king's hands fiom those of the Earl of Lincoln, 
to Easter, 1298, when Robert relinquished his office to 
Wnham Cause. ^ 

Ralph Pavnel (1, 18, 84, 85, 86, 87, 152, 231, 243, 245, 454), 
held office 24 April, 1297,« to 16 April, 1298. 

Richard of Draycote (27, 235, 381), held office 16 April, 1298,' 
to 15 October, 1299. 

Richard of Howell (36), held office 15 October, 1299. to 
16 October, 1300.» 

Hugh de Bmsey, held office 16 October, 1300, to 21 May, 1302.* 

» P.R.O. Lists and Indexes, ix, p. 78 ; K.R.M.R. no. 66, m. 53. 

^K.R.M.R. no. 66, m. 34; cf. Ibid., m. 58d. 'Ibid., m. 53. 

* Ibid. no. 64, m. 19. ^ Ibid. no. 71, m. 3; L.T.R.M.R. no. 

69, m. 6. ^K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 60. 

'Ibid. no. 71, m. 69. * P.R.O. Lists and Indexes, IX, p. 78. 

" Ibid. I have included Hvigh in this list because some of his subordinates 
are entered in the list of royal bailiffs. 



138 ASSIZE KOLL 505 

II. UNDER-SHERIFFS. 

John of Crossholme.^ 

Richard of Brinkhill (136. 138. 262, 267, 269).* 

III. CORONERS. 

Williani ile Colevill, elected shortly before 15 April, 1293, but 
the sheriff testified that he had no lands in the county.^ 

Johji Flemmynge, coroner of Stamford, died about 10 May, 
1292.^ 

Gilbert de Hagham (486). Prior to 17 August, 1295.^ Juror 
of Calcewath wapentake in 1298. 

Alexander Lnicas. By 21 October, 1295, he was dead.^ 

Walte7' de Houton of Grimsby. Prior to 9 November, 1296.' 

William of Cockerington. Prior to 26 January, 1297, but he 
seems to have been insufficiently qualified.'' 

Wilham of Manby (143), during 1297-8 at least.^ 

Hiigh son of Richard Levesone of Grimsby. By 26 May, 1298, 
he was dead.^° 

Hugh de Gosham. Michaelmas, 1298.^^ 

John le Aumoner. Prior to 9 August, 1298 : elected but 
found to have no lands in Lincolnshire and elsewhere to 
qualify him for office. ^^ 

Osbert le Lung. Prior to 18 March, 1299 : already sub- 
escheator for Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, therefore 
disqualified.'^ 

* Selden Soc, vol. 48, Select Cases in the Exchequer of Pleas, p. 147. 
Under-sheriff of John Dyne, Sheriff. 

- Xuper s^ib vicecomes (13G), which seems to imply that he held office undoi- 
Ralph Paynel, but the evidence is against this. He was convicted of 
unjustly levying money for Wales (269) ; but since the Welsh campaign 
took place in 1294-5, it looks as if Richard was under-sheriff of Robert 
le Venour, Ralph's predecessor. This is .substantiated by an entry in the 
Memoranda Rolls [K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 52d] : Richard made a fine of £10 
for a trespass of wiiich he was convicted by John de Insula, who was hearing 
pleas in Lincolnshire in 1296 [L.T.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 47]. Thus we can say 
that Richard was under-sheriff under Robert le Venour, and only doubtfully 
fio later. 

' C.C.R. 1288-96, p. 280. ' Ibid., p. 230. 

' Ibid., p. 424. " Ibid., p. 437. ' Ibid., p. 497. 

' C.C.R. 1296-1302, p. 145. 40/- yearly of land or rents in the county 
was the minimum qualification; .see C.C.R. 1288-96, p. 159, s.v. 'To the 
sheriff of Suffolk. . . ." 

»Cf. Simon of Grebby. bailiff of Wraggoe, 1297-8, p. 144. 
'•C.C.R. 1296-1302, p. 163. ^'L.T.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 60. 

''C.C.R. 1296-1302, p. 171. '^bid., p. 234. 



APPENDIX II 139 

IV. ROYAL CONSTABLES. 

GeofiFrey of Bourne, knight (150), chief constable of Kesteven 
(453). The military nature of his duties is clearly shown 
(428, 453) ; he appears to have held otfice in 1295 (453) 
and was presumably still holding it in 1298, since no 
qualification such as niiper or quondam is set against his name. 

Thomas son of the Vicar of Skidbrook (140). Constabularius 
regis, but no degree of rank is given him, nor any adminis- 
trative area. 

V. SHERIFFS' CLERKS. 

Walter of Gloucester.^ Clerk to John Dyne, sheriff of Lincoln- 
shire 1290-93.' Walter himself apparently became sheriff of 
Somerset and Dorset on 24 January, 1293.^ 

William of Flintham (233, 340, 379). Clerk to Robert le 
Venour, sheriff 1293-97. 

Robert of Leverton. Acts for Robert le Venour as clerk at 
the proffer of accounts at the Exchequer at Easter. 1290,^ 
Michaelmas, 1296,^ and Easter, 1297.« 

Walron le Lou (366). Clerk probably to Ralph Paynel, sheriff 
1297-98. 

Roger of Clapton. Acted for Ralph Paynel as clerk at the 
Exchequer on 7 May, 1297.' 

William of Bibbesworth (235, 356, 367). Clerk to Richard of 
Draycote (235), sheriff 1298-99. 

Henry of Stoke. Clerk to Richard of Howell, sheriff 1299-1 300.8 

VI. BAILIFFS ERRANT. 

Adam of Gayton (150). Balliuus errans. 

William de Ingelton (27, 350, 351, 380, 426). Balliuus itinerans 
(27, 380).^ In 1300 he was appointed bailiff of Kesteven. ^^ 

^ K.R.M.R. no. 65, m. 1. 

- Dates of sheriff.s' tenures are in P.R.O. Index, ix, esp. p. 78. 

' K.R.M.R. no. 66, m. 53. The entry is interesting : ' Rex . . . 
commisit Waltero de Glouce.stre comitatus Sumerset et Dorset cuni pert' 
custodiendo quamdiu regi plac' . . . Et Philippus de Kynie, baro, Simon 
de Kyme, Willelmus de Hundon' et Johannes de Bii.sthorp' milites et omnes 
de comitatu Line' manuceperunt quod dictus Walterus bene et fideliter 
seruiet reg' . . .' Why the Lincolnshire bonafides if this were not the same 
Walter who was formerly clerk to John Dyne ? 

* K.R.M.R. 7io. 69, ra. 2; L.T.R.M.R. no. 67, m. 3. 
^L.T.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 1. "Ibid., m. 35. 
'K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 75d. " A.R. 506, m. 1. 

* He was accused of taking money from the collectors of the eleventh 
(351), and in this entry is merely called balliuus. The eleventh was ordered 
in 1295 and collected in 1295-6, so that William was at least a bailiff under 
Robert le Venour (sheriff 1293-7), if not a bailiff errant or itinerant, his 
rank under Richard of Draycote, sheriff 1298-9 (27). 

^0 A.R. 1322, m. 22. 



140 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

VII. BAILIFFS OF RIDINGS AND WAPENTAKES. 

As with the higher officials, names of bailiffs not recorded in 
A.R. 505 are given in italics. Entry numbers, in round brackets, 
are given only when no explanatory note is necessary. The fact 
that the undermentioned })ersons were bailiffs is rarely in question ; 
but occasionally there is doubt as to their administrative area, 
and very often there is great uncertainty as to what sheriff or 
sheriffs they served under. It is this ciicumstance that accounts 
for most of the query marks in the list. 

The only constant units are the territorial ones of the ' part ', 
riding and wapentake, and these are made the basis of the list. 
In order not to clog it. footnotes, referred to by number in square 
brackets, are given in a body at the end. These include, where 
necessarj^ notes explaining the collation which has enabled a man's 
place to be either approximately or certainly fixed. 

1. Parts of Kestevkn. 

Chief Bailiffs : 

Under John Dyne, sheriff' 1 6.x. 1290-14.iv. 1293 : 
Adam . . . [1]. 

Under Robert le Venour, sheriff 14.iv.l293-24.iv.l297 : 
? William le W^ayte [2J. 

Under Ralph Paynel, sheriff 24.iv.1297-16.iv.1298: 
? Thomas of Easton [3]. 

Under Richard of Draycote, sheriff 16.iv.l298-15.x.l299 : 
? Walter Est [4]. 

Under Richard of Howell, sheriff 15.x. 1299-16.X. 1300 : 
Elias Hereward [5]. 

Under Hugh de Bussey, sheriff 16.x. 1300-21.V. 1302 : 
Wilham of Ingleton [6]. 

Bailiffs and sub-bailiffs of wapentakes. Where both ranks are 
found, I distinguish them respectively thus — (B), (SB) : 

In Boothby and Graffoe : 

John of Stubton [7]. (B) \ Under Richard of 

Robert of Wyville [8]. (SB) J Draycote. 

Roger of Thorpe [9]. (B) Graffoe, under Richard of 

Howell. 
In Loveden : 

John of PattishaU [lOJ. (B) \ Under Richard of 

Robert Flauuel [10]. (SB) J Draycote. 

In Flaxwell and Langoe : 

? Ivo of Billinghay (11] (B) or \ Under Robert le 

? John of Swinstead [I2J. (B) J Venour. 



APPENDIX II 141 

Ivo of Billinghay [11]. (B) "] 

Alan of Tallington [13]. (SB) V Under Ralph Payne! . 
? John of Swinstead [12]. (SB)J 

John Kyboy (69). (B) 1 r- ^ p- , ^ r 

Nicholas of RyhaU (70). (SB) ^ ^"^^^^ Richard of 
Ralph Pacy (71). (SB) J Draycote. 

John of Stubton [7] (B) Under Hugh de Bussey. 

In Aswardhurn : 

? John of Pattishall [10]. (B) \Under Robert 

? Thomas son of Alan of Kirby [10]. (SB) j le Venour. 

Alexander Golderon [14]. (B) Under Ralph Paynel. 

Hugh Bardolf (72). (B) \Under Richard of 

Wilham Reyneuile (73). (SB)/ Draycote. 

Balph Pylat [15]. (B) Under Hugh de Bussey. 

In Winnibriggs and Threo : 

Robert Pygoun [16]. (B) Under Robert le Venour. 

Wilham le Wayte [2]. (B) \Under Ralph Paynel. 

WilHam Lambetoth [17]. (SB)j 

Stephen Punne (23, 393). (B) 1 

William Costantin (65). (SB) VUnder Richard of 
Walter of Houghton (66). (SB) J Draycote. 

In Beltisloe and Ness : 

? Thomas of Easton [3]. Beltisloe (B)\Under John 
Clement of Melton [18]. Ness (B) / Dyne. 

? Thomas of Easton [3J. (B) 

? Adam le Long (SB) ^ (^Under Robert le 

? Henry Fychet (SB) H19] f Venour. 

? Thomas de Hanuill (SB) J J 

Thomas of Easton [3]. (B) \Under Ralph 

Adam, Henry, Thomas, as above. (SB) j Paynel, 

Thomas of Easton [3]. (B) \Under Richard of 

Adam, Henry, Thomas, as above. (B)j Draycote. 

Richard Sampson [20]. (B) Ness, under Richard of 
Howell. 

Andrew de Honeinanby [21]. (B) Beltisloe, under Hugh 
de Bussev. 

In Aveland : 

Hugh of Braceby [4]. (B) ^ 

William de Pyseley [4]. (SB) ^ Under Richard of 
Geoffrey of Stapleford [4] (SB) J Draycote. 



142 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

2. Parts of Holland. 

Chief BaUififs : 

Under John Dyne, sheriff 1290-3 : 
Not known. 

Under Robert le Venour, sheriff 1293-7 : 
Not known. 

Under Richard of Draycot€, sheriff 1298-9 : 
John Everard (1298) [22]. 
Henry of Hackthorn (1299) [23]. 
William of Simlding (1299) [24J. 

Under Richard of Howell, sheriff 1299-1300 : 
William of Spalding [24]. 

Under Hugh de Bussey, sherift' 1300-02 : 
William of Spalding [24]. 

BaiUffs and Sub-bailiffs of wapentakes : 
In Kirton : 

? Thomas of Wigioft [25]. (B) Under John Dyne. 

? John Puttok [58]. (B) Under Robert le Venour. 

Nigel the Chapman of Donington (19, 29-32, 225). 
(B) Under Ralph Paynel. 

John Everard [22]. (B) \Under Richard 

Everard of Campden (224). (SB) / of Draycote. 

In Elloe : 

John Puttok [58]. (B) Under Robert le Venour. 

John Everard [22]. (B) Under Richard of Draycote. 

Adam Bename [26]. (B) Under Hugh de Bussey. 



In Skirbeck 

? John le Donne [27]. (B) ^ ^ , 

? Henry Thedom [27]. (SB) ^ ^^^^^ ^^'^^^ ^® 
? Robert of Wrangle [27]. (SB) 



' ?^."ZT_^/?r Jl'Li^^L.,/ Venour. 



? John le Donne [27]. (B) "1 Under Ralph 

? Henry, ? Robert, as above (SB)/ Paynel. 

William son of Alex, the Clerk (104,- 

226) (B) 
Adam Pakkeherneys (100). (SB) 
William son of Brice of Leake 

(105) (SB) 
Gilbert Belle (30). (SB) 
Alan of Newland (28, 107). (SB, 

Clerk) 



1298. under Richard 
of Draycote. 



APPENDIX II 143 

? Henry of Hackthorn [23]. (B)^i299, under Richard of 
? Henry Thedom [27]. (SB) / Dray cote. 

? Henry of Hackthorn [23]. (B) Under Richard of 
HoweU. 

Henry of Hacktliorn [23]. (B) ^ 

? Nicholas Clerk [29]. (B) [ 

? Nicholas Clerk [29]. (SB) [Under Hugh de Bussey. 

? Gilbert BeUe [28]. (SB) J 

Parts of Lindsey (North Riding). 
Chief Bailiffs : 

Under John Dyne, sherifiF 1290-93 : 
Not known. 

Under Robert le Venour, sheriff 1293-7 : 
Henry of Newton [30]. 

Under Ralph Paynel, sheriff 1297-8 : 
Henry of Newton [30]. 

Under Richard of Draycote, sheriff" 1298-9 : 
Henry of Newton [30]. 

Under Richard of Howell, sheriff" 1299-1300 [33] : 
Sinwn of Croxton [32]. 

Under Hugh de Bussey, sheriff 1300-02 : 
Not known. 

Bailiffs and Sub -bailiffs of wapentakes : 
In Yarborough : 

Hugh of Pickermg [33]. (B) -| 

John of Nettleton (4, 102, 202) (SB) ^^^'^'^p^.f '^^^'''^ ""^ 
John de Bylesfield (146). (SB) J ^^^^° 

? Hugh of Pickering [31]. (B) Under Richard of Howell. 
Hugh of Pickering [33]. (B) Under Hugh de Bussey. 

In Walshcroft : 

? Ralph of Cendale (Sandale) [34]. (B) Under Ralph 
Paynel. 

Ralph of Cendale (Sandale) [34J. (B) Under Richard 
of Draycote. 

In Haverstoe : 

? Walter Welmad [35] (B) Under Robert le Venour. 

Robert of Beelsby [36]. (B) Under Richard of Draycot«. 

? Robert of Beelsby [31]. (B) Under Richard of Howell. 

Robert of Beelsby [36]. (B) Under Hugh de Bussey. 



144 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In Bradley : 

Walter Welraad [35]. (B) Under Richard of Draycote. 

? Walter Welmad [31]. (B) Under Richard of HoweU. 

Walter Welmad [35] (B) Under Hugh de Bussey. 

In Ludborough : 

Geoffrey Totel [37]. (B) Under John Dyne. 

Hugh of Habrough [38]. (SB) Under Richard of 
Draycote. 

4. Parts of Lindsey (South Riding) [39] : 

Chief Bailiffs : 

Under John Dyne, sheriff 1290-3 : 
Not known. 

Under Robert le Venour, sheriff 1293-7 : 
? Thomas of Sutterby [40]. 

Under Ralph Paynel, sheriff 1297-8 : 
? William de Phanneye [41]. 
? William Lose ward [42]. 

Under Richard of Draycote, sheriff 1298-9 : 
Henry of Wansford [43]. 

Under Richard of Howell, sheriff 1299-1300 : 
Roger of Brinkhill [44]. 

Under Hugh de Bussey, sheriff 1300-02 : 
Not known. 

Bailiffs and Sub -bailiffs of wapentakes : 

In Wraggoe : 

? John of Edlington [40]. (B) Under Robert le Venour. 

Simon of Grebby [45]. (B) \tt j i:» i u n i 
WUliam Faunt (143). (SB)>Under Ralph Paynel. 

In Gartree : 

William of Hemingby [46]. (B) \Under Robert le 

? William de Northeby [47]. (SB) / Venour. 

William de Northeby [47]. (B) Under Ralph Paynel. 

Gilbert Malet (94). (B) Under Richard of Draycote. 

In Louthesk : 

John of Manby [59]. (B) Under John Dyne. 

Hugh of Ormsby [48]. (B) Under Richard of Draycote. 

In Calcewath : 

Gilbert Loseward [49J. (B) \Under Richard of 

? William Wanthorn [50]. (SB) J Draycote. 

? Gilbert Loseward [49]. (B) Under Richard of Howell. 

Gilbert Loseward [49]. (B) Under Hugh de Bussey. 



APPENDIX II 145 

In Hill : 

Walter of Winceby (93). (B) Under Richard of Draycote. 

In C'andleshoe : 

? Hugh Amory [51]. (B) 
Simon s. of Guy of Wainiieet ^ 

[51]. (SB) ' I Under Robert le 

Simon s. of Ranulph of Grebby | Venour. 

[45]. (SB) J 

? Thomas Angevin [52]. (B) Under Ralph Paynel. 

Hugh Amory [51]. (B) \ Under Richard of 

Simon of Grebby [45]. (SB) / Draycote. 

Note : Horncastle and Bolingbroke wapentakes are not 
included in this Hst because they were in seignorial hands, except 
a part of Horncastle, which was admmistered with Gartree (see 
A.R. 505, no. 483). 

5. Parts of Lindsey (West Riding) [53]. 

Chief Baihffs : 

Under John Dyne, sheriff 1290-3 : 
Not known. 

Under Robert le Venour, sherift" 1293-7 ; 
Not known. 

Under Ralph Pa3mel, sheriff 1297-8: 
Ralph of Torksey [54]. 

Under Richard of Draycote, sheriff 1298-9 : 
Ralph Xotebromi [55]. 

Under Richard of Howell, sheriff 1299-1300 : 
Not known. 

Under Hugh de Bussey, sheriff 1300-02 : 
Not known. 

Bailiffs and Sub-bailiffs of wapentakes : 
In Corringham : 

WiUiam of Helpethorpe (86. cf. 13). (B) Under Ralph 
Paynel. 

Nigel of Blyborough (82, cf. 9). (B) Under Richard of 
Draycote. 

In Manley : 

Ralph of Thorpe in the Fallows (87). (B) Under Ralph 
Paynel. 

Denis of Newton [56]. (B) Under Richard of Draycote. 

? Denis of Newton [56]. (B) Under Richard of Howell. 



146 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In Aslacoe : 

Hugh of Treswell (80). (B) Under Richard of Draycote. 

In Lawress : 

? WilHam of Bevercote (46). (B) Under Robert le 
Venour. 

Thomas of Rampton (85, cf. 12). (B) Under Ralph 
Paynel. 

William of Sleaford (83, cf. 10). (B) Under Richard of 
Draycote. 

In WeU : 

Nicholas of Newark [57]. (B) Under Richard of Draycote 

Foot-notes to the above Ust : 
[1] A.R. 1286, m. 52. The full name is obliterated. 

[2] William le Wayte : it is not certain that William was a chief bailiff. 

He is most often called bailiff of Winnibriggs (8, 79, 377), bi;t collation with 

Robert Pygoun, also bailiff of Winnibriggs, shovv-s that while Robert is called 

quondam twice and nuper once, William is quondam only once and nuper 

twice. Robert does not seem to have acted outside Winnibriggs (the 

marginalia of no. 242 suggest that he did, but one of the plaintiffs, William 

Bolour, was a Winnibriggs man, see Lay Subs. Roll 135/2, m. 5 ; and so 

were two of the mainpernors). William le Wayte apparently did not act 

outside Winnibriggs : the Walter Payn summoned t o answer to him in no. 

416 was a Loveden man, living at Fulbeck [A.E. 1320, m. 25] ; and Richard 

of Corby seems to have been a Beltisloe man (385). The only dated entry 

referring to William le Wayte is no. 389 : on 27 July, 1295, he cormTiitted 

irregularities at the wapentake court at Grantham. None of this evidence 

proves that he was other than merely bailiff of Wiimibriggs, but in 1294 

he and another went bail to have one Serkim Marbot, a German merchant, 

at Westminster before the Barons of the Exchequer [K.F.3I.B. no. 68, 

m. 20d]. These two incidents took place while Robert le Venour was slieriff, 

and it is clear that William was one of his bailiffs ; but it would seem more 

likely for a chief bailiff than for a mere wapentake bailiff to be in a position 

to do what William did in the matter of Serkim, and such a view is strengthened 

when, in 1298, we find him able to make the very considerable fine of £10 

(382). It seems likely, therefore, that he was chief bailiff of Kesteven under 

Robert le Venour. If so, he stepped down in rank under the next sheriff 

(8, 377, where he is nuper). 

[3] Thomas of Easton : he seems to have had a long official career, 
of which only a few details are certain. There is a hint that he was one 
of John Dyne's bailiffs (456). Tliomas says that he levied money for the 
green wax from the plaintiff, on the order of John Dyne, then slieriff, and 
that it was before the war. It is denied that the levy was made before the 
war, but the implication that Thomas was one of John's bailiffs is not denied, 
as it probably would have been if false. The jurors' .statement that the 
levy was made after the war began is vague, but suggests that at least it 
was not long after, that is to say, while Robert le Venour was sheriff. There 
is some rather unsatisfactory evidence which, if valid, would support this : 
in the accounts of John de Mortimer's estates at Gretford, Ness, for 
the year 1296-7, there is the following item among the expensi forinseci : 
' In dono balliuo domini regis pro respectu habendo ij.s.' [Min. Accts. 
910/8, m. ]]. The king's bailiff, in this case, would probablj^ be the bailiff 



APPENDIX II 147 

of Xess, if he were not a bailiff errant : though this might depend on the 
reason for respectu habendo. Tlie time falls within Robert le Venour's temi 
as sheriff, and if the bailiff of Ness is concerned, he was quite possibly Thomas 
of Easton, a view not inconsistent with the numerous examples quoted 
above of lengthy teniu'o of office by bailiffs. Under the next sheriff, Ralph 
Paynel, Thomas was bailiff of Beltisloe and Xess (231), and remained so. 
under Ralphs .successor, Richard of Draycote (237, 239, 314, 370, 371, etc.) 
But he is once called bailiff of Kesteven (151), and one other entry (443) 
seems to substantiate this. These two entries are isolated, and thei'e is 
no time-quahtlcation. If the .scribe made no mistake, wo may well ask 
when was Thomas a chief bailiff ? Comparison of his record with that of 
Walter Est (see note 4), who is not called a chief bailiff, shows that Walter's 
activities were in fact much more those of one than Thomas's. I inchne 
to the view, though I cannot prove it, that if Thomas was a chief bailiff at 
all, he was so under Ralph Paynel, not under Richartl of Draycote : for 
Walter Est's regime seems to fall most naturally vmder Richard. 

[4J Walter Est : as no time-qualification is applied to him, we may 
assiune tluit he was not in office before the time of Richard of Draycote 
(1298-9). What his office was is less certain ; he seems to have been a 
chief baihff, though nowhere actually called such. The evidence for this 
is suggestive rather than conclusive : liis victims come from six of the eleven 
Kesteven wapentakes — from Aswardhum (347-8, 356-8) ; Threo (356) ; 
Flaxwell (408), Langoe (438), Aveland (444, 447) and Ness (447): and all 
these wapentakes liave bailiffs of their own. These circumstances point 
to a capital authority for Walter, but against thena is to be set the fact that 
a person called A. B. of So-and-So is not necessarily still living there. Two 
sub-bailiffs are mentioned as lus : Walter of Pyseley (67) and Geoffrey 
of Stapleford (68, 451), both of Aveland and neither called anytliing but 
sub-baihft". But there is also a bailiff of Aveland, apparently in office at 
the same time : Hugh of Braceby (205). This fits in with the normal 
arrangement of tlie official hierarchy, except that we should expect to find 
the two sub-bailiffs alluded to as Hugh's, not Walter's. This irregularity 
is not, however, conclusive, and I have therefore regarded Walter as the 
chief baihff, Hugh as his subordinate in Aveland and the two sub-bailiffs 
as Hughs underlings ; with the proviso that this arrangement can only 
be tentative. The fact that John of Aunsby (444) is clerk to Walter perhaps 
strengthens this conclusion. 

[5] A.R. 1316, m. 27d. The date is Oct. 28, 1300, less than a fortnight 
after Richard of Howell terminated his shrievalty. But Elias was probably 
one of his bailiffs, othei'wiso his appointment would have been almost too 
recent for him to have had time to commit any irregularities ! 

[6] A.R. 1322, mm. 22, 22d. See also the list of bailiffs errant, above, 
p. 139. 

[7] John of Stubton : there seems little doubt as to liis admuiistrative 
area or date of office, in the absence of time-qualifications. In 1301 he 
reappears as bailiff of Langoe and presumably also of Flaxwell [A.R. 1320, 
m. 28d], since these two wapentakes seem to have been administered 
together. 

[8] Robert of WyviUe : it is probably safe to assume that he was 
John of Stubton's sub-bailiff in Boothby and Graffoe, since there is clearly 
a close connection between the two men in these wapentakes (75, 212, 213). 

[9] A.R. 1316, m. 24d. The remark regarding Elias Hereward (note 5 
above) would also hold good for Roger. 

[10] John of Pattishall : of the six entries relating to liim four, taken 
together (20, 56, 74, 214), show him to have been bailiff of Loveden in 1298, 
since no time-qualification is given him ; and for this period he lias also a 
sub-bailiff, Robert Fla\-vel (74, 214). But one entry (339) suggests that 



148 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

he was perhaps baiUf? of Aswardliurn at an earUer date. Money was levied 
from Kirby Laythorpe in Aswardliurn for infantry against Wales and paid 
to John by Thomas son of Alan of Kirby, who levied it. This was probably 
done at the time of the Welsh cami3aign, 1294-5, when Robert le Venonr was 
sheriff of Lincolnshire ; and suggests that John was bailifif of Aswardhurn 
in Robert's time. Thomas son of Alan may have been John's sub-bailiff or 
he may have been constable of the vill of Kirby. There is other evidence 
in support of John's cormection with Aswardliurn. 

[11] Ivo of Billinghay : he is twice called 7iuper, once quondam and 
once merely halUuus ; and there is no doubt that he administered Flaxwell 
and Langoe wapentakes. The two entries where he is nuper (419, 424), 
collated \v\i\\ the only one in which his actions are dated (399), show that 
he was bailiff under Ralph Paynel. The one quondam entiy (77) may be 
collated with a group of entries concerning the seizure of lay fees of clergy 
into the king's hands (401, 404, 439, 440), though with results which are 
suggestive only. It was on 12 February, 1297. that Edward 1 ordered the 
sheriffs to take into the royal hands the lay fees of all the clergy [C.C.li. 
1296-1302, p. 14 ; B. Cott";, 320]. As these demands were acceded to by 
individuals, their fees were restored, and royal letters of protection issued. 
The Patent Rolls contain long lists of such protections ; and after March 1 
the lands could be bought back {C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 239 ; cf. Ihid., pp. 2G0- 
86]. By April 8 most of the protections had been issued ; after that date 
the lists dwindle to a very few names. The A.R. 505 complaints refei'red 
to concern Ivo's seizure of lay fees in defiance of protection, but no dates 
are given, and I cannot find in the C.P.R. lists the names of any of the clergy 
involved. It is possible, however, that some of the A.R. 505 plaintiffs had 
received their protections and had been molested by Ivo before Easter, 1 297 
(April 14). If so, Ivo must have been bailiff of Flaxwell and Langoe imder 
Robert le Venour, since Ralph Paynel, under whom we know Ivo served, 
was not appointed sheriff imtil 24 April (see list of sheriffs, p. 137) ; and 
his bailiffs would be appointed after that date. Such possibility is 
strengthened a little by the quondam of entry 77. If on the other hand 
this quondam is a mere clerical error for nuper, then Ivo was not one of Robert 
le Venour's bailiffs, and, moreover, did not molest the clergy imtil the stream 
of protections was ending, at the end of April or during May, 1297. I am 
bound to say that this seems the more likely interpretation. As to the one 
entry (147) where Ivo is merely called balliuus, this is probably a clerical 
mistake. It implies that he continued in office under Richard of Draycote, 
but John Kyboy (69), with his own sub-bailiffs, was clearly bailiff of Flaxwell 
and Langoe under Richard. 

[12] John of Swinstead : his real position is doubtful. It seems certain 
that he was a royal bailiff of some kind in Flaxwell and Langoe wapentakes 
(421, 423) ; and Robert de la Bourhalle, one of the plaintiffs against him 
(406-7) was a Flaxwell landliolder [F.A. iii, p. 155]. John himself is once 
called nuper balliuus regis (421) and once simply balliuus (423). This latter 
statement can probably be disi-egarded (see John Kyboy (69) and his 
associates), but the nuper balliuus regis raises a problem. The nuper may 
refer to Ralph Paynel's shrievalty, but if John was only a sub-bailiff (Ivo 
of Billinghay being bailiff of Flaxwell and Langoe at this time) it would be 
unusual, though technically correct, to dignify him with the title balliuus 
regis. There seem to be two possibilities : one, that he was Ivo's sub-bailiff, 
together with Alan of Tallington (note 13 below) ; the other, that he was 
bailiff of Flaxwell under Robert le Vonour, though in such a case one would 
have expected quondam rather than nuper. The matter is further com- 
plicated by the evidence of no. 423, where John holds a special wapen- 
take court called Stolen wapentake. Hence he is only tentatively entered 
in the hst of bailiffs. 



I 



APPENDIX II U9 

[13] Alan of Taliington : there is no doubt that he was sub-bailiff of 
Flaxwell and Langoe under Ivo of Billinghay, though the fact is never stated. 
It is supported, however, by two entries (397, 402) which concern prises of 
livestock for the royal larder. The important year for prises of this kind 
was 1297, the very year when we know Ivo to have been bailiff of Flaxwell 
and Langoe. 

[14] Alexander Golderon (Alexander of Aswarby, 5) : once called 
nuper (5), once merely balliuus (359) of Aswardliurn. The nuper is probably 
decisive, in \'iew of the existence of another bailiff of Aswardliurn with no 
time-qualification (Hugh Bardolf, 72). This fixes Alexander's term of 
office under Ralph PajTiel. 

[15] A.R. 1322, m. 19d. 

[16] Robert Pygoun : there is little doubt that he was bailiff of Winni- 
briggs under Robert le Venour. The date, October, 1294, in entry 325 ; 
the facts of entry 430, together with the two occasions when he is called 
quondam (6, 78), prove this. The statement dum Juit balliuus regis (363) 
is proof that he was not bailiff at the time of the enquiry in 1298, and this 
is supported by the evidence regarding Stephen Punne (23, 393). Robert 
is once called bailiff' with no time-qualification (378), but this is probably 
a mistake ; and he is once called nuper balliuus. This may also be a mistake, 
see William lo Wayte, note 2, but it is possible that Robert was succeeded 
by William during, not at the begimiing of, Ralph PayneFs shrievalty. 
Robert liad apparently moved for some time in official circles ; as early as 
1291 we find him going bail for one Henry, bailiff of Grantham [A.R. 1286, 
m. 52]. 

[17] William Lambetoth : clearly sub-bailiff' to William le Wayte 
(326-7), but he is also called nuper balliuus of Winnibriggs (57). The nuper 
adds weight to the e\'idence of 326-7, but balliuus is somewhat siuprising 
in view of the sheriff's affirmation that William Lambetoth had nothing — 
i.e. no possessions — by which he could be attached. This was more likely 
to be true of a sub-bailiff than of a bailiff. 

[18] K.R.M.R. no. 66, m. 62d. Bailiff of Stamford and Ness. 

[19] Adam le Lung, Henry Fychet, Thomas de Hanville : sub -bailiffs 
to Thomas of East on (note 3 above) ; Thomas de Hanville was also his clerk. 
The only certain evidence in A.R. 505 is that these men held their office 
under Easton in the time of Richard of Draycote, but since Thomas of 
Easton seems to have had so long a term as bailiff, it is not impossible 
that they were with him from the beginning of it. 

[20] A.R. 506, ra. 8. 

[21] A.R. 1320, m. 27d. 

[22] John Everard : he is once called bailiff of Holland (240) but twice 
bailiff of Elloe and Kirton (103, 222) ; and two of his offences are dated, 
23 June, 1298 (240), and 24 June of the same year (372). He was thus one 
of Richard of Draycote's bailiffs ; and though sent to gaol at the end of 
1298 (he actually spent some time there) he was still bailiff of Kirton on 
3 October, 1299 [A.R. 506, m. 5], just before Richard of Draycote ended 
his shrievalty. It is worth noting that no bailiffs other than John are given 
for Elloe and Kirton during 1298. On the basis of A.R. 505, therefore, I 
liave entered John both as bailiff of Holland, which he seems to have been, 
and also as bailiff' of Elloe and Kirton. But in the former capacity he seems 
to have been superseded by Henry of Hackthorn (note 23 below) some time 
during 1299, while retaining the bailiwick of Kiiion. 

[23] Henry of Hackthorn : A.R. 1320, m. 29d. Previously he had 
been bailiff of Holland, A.R. 506, m. 6. This membrane is headed ' Assizes 
taken ... at Stamford, 3 October, 1299," about a fortnight before Richard 



150 ASSIZE KOLL 506 

of Howell was appointed sheriff. It would seem that Henry succeeded 
John Everard (note 22 above) as chief bailiff of Holland after the 1298 
enquiry, and while Richard of Draycote was still slieriff. But William of 
Spalding (note 24 below) was also bailiff of Holland in 1299. As he is not 
called anything else in the records I have examined, while Henry is later 
called bailiff of Skirbeck, it is possible that he was only bailiff of Skirbeck and 
not chief bailiff of Holland at all, tliough I have tentatively shown him as 
such. He was certainly bailiff of Skirbeck under Hugh de Bussey [A.K. 
1320, m. 29d]. 

[24] William of Spalding : bailiff" of Holland under Richard of Draycote 
[A.R. 506, ni. 10] ; imder Richard of Howell [A.B. 1322. rn. 20d], and under 
Hugh de Bussey [A.R. 1320, m. 23]. 

[25] Thomas of Wigtoft : A.R. 1280, m. 16d. The membrane contains 
cases heard shortly after Easter. 1290, concerning crimes coramitted at 
Boston Fair in 1288, so that Thomas would probably have been a bailiff 
under Robert of Chadworth, John Dyne's predecessor as sheriff. Since he is 
not referred to as nuper or quondam, he may have remained a bailiff, prob- 
ably of Kirton, under John DjTie, and so is included in the list, with a query. 

[26] A.R. 1320, m. 23. He is called bailiff, not specifically of EUoe ; 
but as the case concerns a tenement at Gedney, Elloe, it is likely that he 
was badiff of this wapentake. 

[27] John le Doime : only once mentioned in A.R. 605 (109) and then 
called quondam, which implies service under Robert le Venour, sheriff, but 
may extend to Ralph Paynel. The same is tx'ue of John's two sub-bailiffs 
(108, 110), and I include them also, with queries, under both sheriffs. But 
I feel considerable doubt as to John's own continuation of office under 
Ralph, since he appears to have been a sub-taxor of the ninth, levied in 
1297, during Ralph's time as sheriff. While there is nothing in the formae 
taxacionis to prohibit a bailiff from acting also as a sub-taxor, the combination 
of offices is, T think, unusual. 

[28] Gilbert Belle : his office under Richard of Draycote is clear, but 
in 1301 he appears as an attachor, with the bailiff of Skirbeck, of the 
defendants in a possessory assize [A.R. 1320, m. 29d]. It is possible that at 
this time he was again a sub-bailiff of Skirbeck, and as such is tentatively 
included in the list. 

[29] Nicholas Clerk : A.R. 1320, m. 29. Possibly only a sub-bailift", 
as Henry of Hackthorn, his companion, had aheady been chief bailiff of 
Holland in 1299 (but see note 23), and would hardly thereafter become a 
mere sub -bailiff'. Another possibility is that both Nicholas and Henry 
were bailiffs, but this perhajis is not very likely in a small wapentake. 

[30] Henry of Newton : the key entries are nos. 18 and 152. In the 
first of these he is said to have been suspended by John de Insula, justice, 
who held an enquiry into the conduct of royal ministers in 1294 [E'.R.O. 
Lists and Indexes, IV, p. 178] and who in 1297 handed to the Treasurer 
and Barons of the Exchequer 12 rolls of pleas heard before him in Lincoln- 
shire in 1296 [L.T.R.M.R. no. 08, m. 47J. Henry, therefore, must have 
been bailiff — of the North Riding — under Robert le Venour, slieriff 1293-7. 
This is proved by reference to P.R.O. Pines and Amercements, 119, no. 27 
(1294), where Henry is called bailiff of the North Riding; and at I^aster, 
1297 — Robert le Venour's last proffer at the Exchequer — Henry, still bailiff 
of the North Riding, is allowed time to pay a fine of £13 previously made 
before Jolm de Insula [K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 72d ; L.T.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 34d]. 
In A.R. 505 (18) Henry is shown to have been reinstated by the next sheriff, 
Ralph Paynol, who says (152) that Henry was never dismissed his office, 
the clear implication being that he continued in it under Ralph, with Ralph's 
consent. Finally, to the horror of the court, Henry comes before the justices 



APPENDIX II 151 

in 1298 tanquam balliuus ; hence he was still acting as bailiff of the North 
Riding under Ralph's successor, Richard of Draycote : and as if to clinch 
this, in entry 199 he is plainly called bailiff of the North Riding (see the 
entry itself for the explanation of " Xort hgrenliow '). Here, then, is a 
clear case of a man retaining his office under three successive sheriffs. 

[31] It is to be noted that apart from Henry of Xew-ton (note 30), none 
of the bailiffs or sub-bailiff's of the North Riding under Robert le Venour 
are mentioned at all in A.R. 505, and that I have been able to discover notliing 
about any of those who served under Richard of Howell, 1299—1300. But 
as to this, it is significant that three of the North Riding bailiffs who served 
iHider Richard of Draycote, Howeirs predecessor, were also serving under 
his successor, Hugh de Bussey. Bearing in mind the example of Henry of 
Newton (note 30), it is perhaps not far wide of the mark to suggest that 
these baihffs served Richard of Howell as well. 

[32] A.R. 1316, m. 27d. 

[33] Hugh of Pickering : once called bailiff (3) and once sub-bailiff 
(203) of Yarborough, with no time-qualification ; but as there are two sub- 
bailiffs of this wapentake who are never called anything else and also have 
no time- qualifications. Hugh's real rank was probably bailiff. In 1301 
he was again bailiff of Yarborough under Hugh de Bussey, sheriff [A.R. 
1322. m. 17d]. 

[34] Ralph of Cendale (Sandale) : the absence of any time-qualification 
suggests that he was bailiff^ of \A'alshcroft in 1298, the j^ear of the enquiry, 
but two of the entries concerning him (153, 159) show him making a prise 
of oxen for the king's use. There was a prise of beef in 1297 ; if Ralph 
took the beasts under the terms of this prise, he was probably bailiff also 
under Ralph Paj-nel, but I cannot be certain of this. 

[35] Walter Welmad : bailiff (170), once called sub-bailiff (101) of 
Bradley, probably in the time of Richard of Draycote, since there is no 
time-qualification. He appears again as bailiff, with his name spelt " Wel- 
maked ' and no area specified [A.R. 1320, m. 27], but the area was probably 
still Bradley. An entry in Min. Accts, 1/1, m. 9d, is suggestive. In 1295-6 
the expenses of Waith Grange, Haverstoe (Earl of Lincoln's lands) contained 
this item : ' two bushels given to Walter Welmad for demesne seised into 
the kings hands.' Was Walter at this time bailiff of Haverstoe under 
Robert le Venour ? 

[36] Robert of Beelsby : twice called bailiff (2, 201) and once sub- 
bailiff (99) of Haverstoe, with no time-qualification. This probably means 
that he held ofi&ce under Richard of Draycote ; and he was again bailiff 
under Hugh de Bussey [A.R. 1320, m. 27], though no locality is given. There 
is no evidence, however, that this had ceased to be Haverstoe. 

[37] A.R. 1293, m. 6. 

[38] Hugh of Habrough : in A.R. 505 he is merely called sub-bailiff 
of Ludborough (100, 204), and as such is shown in the list. I have been 
unable to discover who was the bailiff of this wapentake. 

[39] While in most cases it is fairly clear what areas were administered 
by the South Riding bailiffs, there is considerable doubt which sheriffs many 
of them served under ; hence the order of arrangement is open to question, 
and if the evidence were more abundant several modifications might have 
to be made. I can only, therefore, suggest what seems to me the most 
likely arrangements. 

[40] Thomas of Sutterby : the two baihffs of his who are mentioned 
in A.R. 505 are both called iiuper, tunc or quondam (Johia of Edlington, 33, 
95 ; WiUiam of Hemingby, 14, 96, 141-2), yet Thomas himself is merely 
called bailiff of the South Riding, with no time-qmalification. There does 
not seem to be any doubt as to his rank — a cliief bailiff, though the term 



152 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

capitalis is not used — and the persistent quondam and the tunc of his bailiSs 
suggest that lie served under Robert le Venour. 

[41] William de Phanneye : only once mentioned in A.R. 505 (22) 
and then called nuper bailiff of the (South Riding : this probably refers to 
Ralph Paynel's shrievalty. 

[42] William Loseward : once called nuper bailiff of South Riding (21) 
and once merely balUnus regis (165), sugesting capital rank under Ralph 
Paynel. It seems odd that there should have been two cMef bailiffs in the 
South Riding during so short a shrievalty as Ralph Paynel's, but this is 
not impossible : health or other reasons might have necessitated changes. 
The evidence is too slight to allow any sure deduction. 

[43] Henry of Wansford : he was clearly chief bailiff of the South 
Riding ^vith no time-qualification, and can be regarded with some certainty 
as holding his office imder Richard of Draycote. At the end of September, 
1299, just before Richard relinquished the shrievalty, Heiuy attached one 
of the parties to a possessory assize, and while not here called a bailifE, prolj- 
ably still was one [A.R. 50(1, m. 6, cf. also S.S., vol. 48, Select Cases in the 
Exchequer of Pleas, p. 166]. 

[44] Roger of Brinkhill : an extremely indistinct figure in A.R. 505. 
He is mentioned five times (59, 139, 260, 265-6) ; is never given any rank 
or time-qualification ; the complainants against him come from Hill and 
Candleshoe wapentakes ; he was clearly a royal official, and the complaints 
made against him are of a kind made again and again against bailiffs. In 
October, 1300, he was bailiff of the South Ridmg [A.R. 1316, m. 2Gd]. (This 
case was hoard a ft w days after Richard of Howell had been succeeded as 
sheriff by Hugh de Biissey, but the offence was almost certainly committed 
in Richard's time.) At the time of the 1298 enquiry, therefore, it is probable 
that Roger was a bailiff of some kind, but it is impossible to describe him 
further, save to suggest, from the very scanty evidence, that he might have 
been a bailiff errant. 

[45] Simon of Grebby : nuper bailiff of Wraggoe (143, 145), probably 
imder Ralph Paynel ; later sub-bailiff of Candleshoe under Richard of 
Draycote (90) ; and if he is the same as Simon s. of Ranulph of Grebby, 
of which there seems no reasonable doubt, sub -bailiff of Candleshoe under 
Robert le Venour (162). 

[46] William of Hemingby : three times called quondam bailiff or sub- 
bailiff (96, 141-2) of Thomas of Sutterby (96) ; once nuper bailiff (14) and 
once merely l^ailiff, of Gartree (164). But there does not seem to be any 
real doubt either as to his rank or as to when he held office. 

[47] Wilham of Northeby of Hemingby : quondam bailiff (17), but no 
locality is given. He coTnes from Hemingby in Gartree, and both entries 
to do with him (17, 97) are among groups of South Riding entries. Failing 
evidence to the contrary, he may be regarded as a bailiff of Gartree. The 
quondam is a difficulty, since William of Hemingby, not the same person, 
was bailiff of Gartree under Robert le Venour. If William of Northeby 
was a bailiff of Gartree at all, he would seem to have been either sub-bailiff 
(perhaps bailiff) iinder Robert le Venour (giving full value to the quojidam 
and bearing in mind Robert's prolonged shrievalty) or bailiff under Ralph 
Paynel (assuming the scribe of A.R. 505 to have used quondam loosely). 
The former is the more likely alternative. 

[48] Hugh of Ormsby : clearly one of Henry of Wansfords bailiffs 
(89), but no locality is given for him. He seems to have had land at Salt- 
fleetby in Louthesk [A.R. 1316, m. 20; A.R. 1320, m. 23], and may have 
been bailiff of this wapentake. 

[49] Gilbert Loseward : Henry of Wansford's bailiff in Calcewath 
(92), and bailiff of the same wapentake under Hugh de Bussey in 1301 



APPENDIX II 133 

[A.R. 1320, m. 29]. It is tempting to suggest — a possibility not remote — 
that he was such also under the intervening sheriff, Richard of Howell. 

[50] WilHam Wanthom (Wantoun) : an ofificial for whom no raiik is 
specified in A.R. 505 (244, 376). His offence was the somewhat unusual one 
of unjustly taking one sword from the rector of Bcesby church in Calcewath. 
He may have been a sub-bailift" of Calcewath in Richard of Draycote's time, 
or he may only ha\e been a village constable. 

[51] Hugh Amory : L.T.R.M.R. no. 71, lu. 119. This entrj' in the 
Memoranda Rolls is an order to distrain Hugh Amorj% bailiff of Candleshoe, 
and Simon s. of Guy of Waiafleet and ha\o tliem before the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer at York in Jmie, 1298, to answer to the king for the goods and chat- 
tels of aliens taken into their hands, as found by an inquest taken before 
John de Insula, according to the roll of pleas and complaints made before 
him against royal mini.sters in Lincolnshire in 1290. This is clear evidence 
that both Hugh and Simon were themselves ' royal ministers ' in 1296, but 
we are not told where or of what rank. However, in view of the tendency 
to continuity in office over a period of years, it is not luueasonable to suggest 
that H\igh was in 1290 what both A.R. 505 and the [Memoranda Roll show 
him to have been in 1298 — bailiff of Candle.shoe (cf. 163, 263). I have not 
found what sentence was passed on him by John do Insula, but if as was 
quite likely he was dismissed office and later reinstated, this would account 
for the apparent presence of another bailiff of Candleshoe during Robert 
le Venours time — Tliomas Angevin (note 52). What rank Simon s. of 
Guy held is not revealed, but he may have been sub-bailiff of Candleshoe, 
and as such is given in the list, with a query. 

[52] Thomas Angevin : twice called quondam bailiff of Candleshoe 
(16, 98). He may have held office under Ralph Paynel, though in that case 
one would have expected nuper lather than quondam, in spite of somewhat 
loose usage ; but he is more likely to have t^erved mider Robert le Venour, 
especially if Hugh Amory (note 51) was dismissed in 1296. 

[53] I have found only one record, in A.R. 505 or elsewhere, of any 
men who might have been chief bailiffs of the West Riding under Robert 
le Venour, and this record is doubtful : William of Bevcrcotes (46), called 
merely kings bailiff. 

[54] Ralph of Torksey : clearly chief bailiff' of the West Riding (11) 
during Ralph Paynel's shrievalty (84), with sub-bailiffs of his own (85-7). 

[55] Ralph Xotebroun : chief bailiff of the West Riding (144) with no 
time-qualification, so that he probably held office under Richard of Dray- 
cote, sheriff 1298-9. But he also acted as a royal official of some kind under 
the previous sheriff, for the dates given in tlii-ee entries (62-4) prove it. 
His rank is not revealed. These entries show him committing breaches 
of his office in Manley, which had a bailiff at this time (87), and they show 
him acting as if he were a bailiff. The evidence is too slight to prove whether 
or not there were two chief bailiffs of the ^Vest Riding under Ralph Paynel 
(an unlikely cucumstance but not impossible), or even two bailiffs of Manley. 
But Ralph Xotebroim may have been one of Paynel's bailiffs errant. 

[66] Denis of Newton : Ralph Notebroun's Imiliff in Manley (81) in 
Richard of Draycote's time ; and on 24 October, 1300, he is called bailiff, 
but the title is cancelled [A.R. 1316, ra. 29]. Since there had been a change 
of sheriff about a week previous to this date, the entry suggests that 
Denis had been a bailiff up to that time, that is to say under Richard 
of Howell, sheriff, who was superseded on 10 October, 1300. There is no 
evidence to show that Denis had been transferred from ^Manley elsewhere 
when Richard of Howell himself superseded Richard of Draycote as sheriff, 
hence I have entered liim tentatively as still bailiff' of this wapentake. 

[57] Nicholas of Newark : there is only one reference to him in A.R. 
505 (111), where he is merely called bailiff'. But in 1299 he was cited as 



154 ASSIZE PwOLL 505 

bailiff of \^'ell wapentake [.!./?. 500. iii. 9cl] and {nit in uiercy for not camming 
out the duties of his office. This occurred while Richard of Draycote was 
still sheriff, and seems to explain entry 111 in A.R. 505. 

[58] John Puttok : in a cancelled entry (103a) he is called quondam 
bailiff of Elloe : and the only case in A.li. 505 in which anything definite 
13 said about him (233) is one from the parts of Holland which seems to 
concern Kirton wapentake. Hero John is referred to as William of Flint- 
ham's bailiff. William was one of Robert le Venoia-'s clerks (see the list 
of sheriffs' clerks in this appendix). Since he was the sheriff "s representative, 
it woidd perhaps be permi.s.sible for the scribe to call John Puttok ' his ' 
(Williams) bailiff. If so, collation of entries 103a and 233 establishes John's 
place as baililT of Elloe and probably of Kirton also under Robert le Venour. 
As to Kirton, [ have not found the name of any other bailiff of this wapentake 
for this period ; and the.se two wapentakes, being sparsely populated, were, 
I think, sometimes administered as one. 

[59] Plea Roll 22 Ed. I, E 13/19, m. 34, quoted in Selden Soc, vol. 48, 
Select Cases in the Exchequer of Pleas, p. 149. 

VIII. MUNICIPAL BAILIFFS. 

The burgesses of the boroughs mentioned below held the 
profits of them — not the lands — at farm of the king,^ and their 
bailiff", or the chief of a number of bailiffs, accounted at the 
Exchequer once or twice a year in the same way that the sheriff" 
accounted for the farm of the county. 

Lincoln : 

Lincoln was normally represented at the Exchequer by 
the two bailiff's elected by the citizens, but during the 
period covered by A.R. 505 the city was in the king's 
hand and administered by a custos appointed by him. 

1291-7, Michaelmas : Robert le Venour, custos.^ 

1298, Easter : William Cause succeeded Robert as ciLstos.'^ 

Grimsby : 

1291, Michaelmas : Ralph of Cotes, bailiff" of the men of 
Grimsby.* 

1292, Michaelmas : John of Aylesby, the same.^ 

1293, Michaelmas : John of Aylesby, the same.^ 

1294 : Ralph of Cotes 

Richard Brisebaunk 

Robert de Waye ^ the same.' 

Robert de Toller 

John de Dalby 

' Cf. Pollock and Maitland, i, pp. 650-2. 

» K.R.M.R. nos. 64, m. 19 ; 65, m. 1 ; 66, m. 2 ; 67, m. 1 ; 68, m. 3 ; 
69, m. 2 ; 7U, m. 3 ; 71, m. 1 ; L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 25d. He accounted 
at Michaelmas and Easter each year, and made his last proffer as custos at 
Michaelmas, 1297. 

'K.R.M.R. no. 71, m. 3: L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 6. 

^K.R.M.R. no. 65, m. 1. ^ Ibid. no. 66, m. 1. 

" Ibid. tio. 67, m. 1. ' L.T.R.M.R. no. 66, m. 16. 



APPENDIX II 155 

1295, Michaelmas: Gilbert of Wyham, the same.' 
129G, Michaelmas : John Brisebaunk, the same.- 

1297, Michaelmas : Johi Bose . . ., the same.^ 

John of Dalby, the same.' 

1298, Michaelmas : Richard of Grimsby, the same,^ 

Caistor : 

1295, Easter : Peter Corbe, baihff of the men of Caistor.* 

1296, Easter : Henry of Caistor, the same.' 

1297, Easter : Henry of Caistor. the same.^ 

1297, ]\lichaelmas : Nicholas of Kelsey, the same.^ 

1298, Easter: Henry of Caistor, the same.'" 

1298, Michaelmas : Simon son of William, the aame.*^ 

1299, Easter : Henry of Caistor, the same.^' 

Boston : 

1297-8 : Richard de Bermingham, royal bailiff,'^ 

IX. TAXORS AND SUB-TAXORS. 

With certain exceptions, the names given below are only 
those which appear in A.R. 505, whether the individuals are there 
expressly designated taxors (or sub-taxors) or not. The exceptions 
are the chief taxors (only one of whom is mentioned in A.R. 505) ; 
those persons selected to tax the sub-taxors themselves, and the 
sub-taxors of the ninth. In no case is the list complete, for want 
of suflBcient original material to make it so. Many names are 
taken from the Lay Subsidy Rolls, the chief external source of 
information for the sub-taxors ; but this series is itself far from 
complete for Lincolnshire. The Usts are arranged chronologically, 
and made up so as to indicate as clearly as possible whether the 
sub-taxors belonged to the wapentake or to the vill groups. It 
is to be emphasised that no distinction was made between a taxor 
and a collector : he who assessed a man's property also levied 
the resultant tax. This is abundantly illustrated in A.R. 505, 
Names not found in A.R. 505 are in italics, as usual ; the others 
are followed by the numbers (in round brackets) of relevant entries 
in A.R. 505. 

^L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 1. - Ihid. no. 68, m. 1. 

•The rest of the name is illegible : K.R.M.R. no. 71, m. 1, 

*L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 1. 

-K.R.M.R. no. 72, m. 1 ; L.T.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 1. 

» K.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 3 ; L.T.R.M.R. no. 66, m. 104. 

• K.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 2 ; L.T.R.M.R. no. 67, m. 3. 

^K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 3. " L.T.R.M. no. 69, m. 1. 

^^ K.R.M.R. no. 71, m. 3. ^^ Ibid. no. 72, m. 1. 

^^ Ihid. no. 72, m. 2a. ^* L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 48. 



156 ASSIZE ROLL o05 

The machinery set up in the Forma Taxacionis for assessing 
and collecting a fifteenth of movables in 1290 became a model 
for the first three of the four war-time taxes, the tenth of 1294, 
the eleventh of 1295 and the twelfth of 129G.' The personnel 
consisted of two or more chief assessors aided by twelve men from 
each hundred or wapentake, who were in turn assisted by the 
reeve and four men in each vill. 

The Tenth (1294). 
Chief Taxors : 

Richard of Buslingthorpe.- 
Ralph de Saticio Laiido. 
John of Holland.^ 

Sub-Taxors : in Candleshoe wapentake. It is impossible to 
determine accurately who. of the following persons, were 
wapentake taxors and who were men chosen from individual 
vills. I surmise, however, from the locaUties given and 
the number of taxors complained against from each, that 
we are liere dealing with the men of the vills only, with the 
possible exception of the first two persons, for whom no 
locality is specified. 

William s. of Gilbert (256). Also taxor of the ninth (283). 

Nicholas Herre (256). Also taxor of the ninth (283). 

In Northolme : 

Hugh son of Rose (296). Also taxor of the twelfth in 
Bratoft (257). 

Alan the Tailor (296). 

Richard Carpenter (296). 

In Ingoldmells : 

Alan ad Ecclesiam (273-4, 277). Also subtaxor of the 
twelfth in Ingoldmells (280) and possibly also of the 
ninth (276). 

Alan Warde (277). Also sub-taxor of the twelfth in 
Ingoldmells (280). 

William de Wra (277). 

In Welton-le-Marsh : 

Robert Pylat (284). Also sub-taxor of the twelfth in the 
same vill (286). 

^ A. a. 505 is concerned only with the rural aspect of these taxes ; there 
are no cases in it deaUng with the rates levied from burgesses. 

'K.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 72. » C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 103. 



APPENDIX II 167 

John of Belvoir (284). Do. 
Ralph de Rygg (284). Do. 
Martin of Welyngton (284). 

In Burgh in the Marsh : 
Alan de la Rawe (290). 
John Blaunchard (290). 

In Scremby : 

Ranulph of Grebby (298). Also sub-taxor of the twelfth 
in the same vill (300). He seems to have been the father 
of a bailiff. Simon of Grebby (162) ; and twice main- 
perns another official (34-5). 

Gilbert son of Alice (298). Of Grebby. see 90. 

In Ashby by Partney : 

Walter son of Simon (301). Also sub-taxor of the eleventh 
in the same vill (303). 

Thomas of Enderby (301). Do. 

Robert ad Ripam (301). Also sub-taxor of the twelfth 
in the same vill (302). 

The Eleventh (1295). 

Chief Taxors : 

Ralph of Littlebury,^ knight.- 

Thomas de Gunneys,^ cleric* 

Sub-Taxors : in Candleshoe wapentake. The first twelve 
names occur together, and probably represent the wapentake 
sub-taxors, as distinct from the men of the vills. 

John del Rawe (285). In Orby ; in Burgh in the Marsh 
(293) and in Ashby by Partney (304). Also sub-taxor 
of the twelfth in Orby (285) ; in Welton-le-Marsh (287) 
and in Bratoft (257). 

WiUiam of Thorpe (285). In Orby ; in Burgh in the 
Marsh (293). Also sub-taxor of the twelfth in Orby 
(285), Bratoft (257) and Welton-le-Marsh (287). 

Alan atte Conysgate (285). Do. 

Roger del More (285). Do. 

Laurence son of Hugh (285). Do. 

William Ekycher (285). Do. 

'K.R.M.R. no. 69, in. 65; C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 170. 
^C.P.R., he. dt. 



158 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

Simon Pyncrak' (285). In Orby ; in Burgh in the Marsh 
(293). Also sub-taxor of the twelfth in Orbj^ (285). 
He belonged to Burgh in the Marsh (259). 

Alan Borel (285). In Orby ; in Burgh in the Marsh 
(293). Also sub-taxor of 'the twelfth in Orby (285). 

Peter son of Edde (285). Do. 

Alan Hardewyn (285). Do. 

Walter Skinner (285). Do. 

WilUam Galle (285). Do. 

The next group of names contains those of vill sub-taxors in 
Candleshoe : 

In Burgh in the Marsh : 

Alan Plant (293). 

Robert Maonus (293). 

Henry Ingelbryth (293). 

In Scremby : 

John of Grebby (299). 
Richard Hame (299). 
Robert son of Gene (299). 

In Ashby by Partney : 

Robert de Langar (303). 

^lartin le Waryk (303). 

Gilbert ad Spinas (303). 

Hugh son of Philip (303). 

Walter son of Simon (303). Also sub-taxor of the tenth 
in Ashby by Partney (301). 

Thomas of Enderby (303). Do. 

In Ingoldmells : 

Alan the Reeve (278). 

Wilham son of Walter of Huttoft (278). Also sub-taxor 
of the ninth (279). 

Robert Bugge (278). 

No locality specified : 
Austin Guncy (288). 
Hugh Gegge (288). 
Wilham ad Ripam (288). 
Ralph the Reeve (288). 



APPENDIX II 159 

Sub-Taxors in Winnibriggs wapentake :* 

Ralph son of Robert of Gonerby. 

William Malvid. 

John of Herford (497). 

Adam le Spicer. 

Richard of Wesihorpe. 

Richard the Clerk of Ponton. 

Ralph of Ponton.- 

Robert of Denton. 

Roger Frankeleyn of Denton. 

Ric' Docinge of Skillington (perhaps 173). 

Roger the Clerk of Allington. 

Adam Hoymund.-^ 

These men are the wapentake sub-taxors, not those of the 
vills. 

The Twelfth (1296). 

Chief Taxors : 

Ralph of Littlehury,^ knight.* 

Thomas de Gunneys,^ clerk. ^ 

Sub-Taxors in Candleshoe wapentake : the first twelve names 
occur together, as one list, on two separate occasions in 
A.R. 505, and almost certainly represent the wapentake 
sub-taxors, not those of the vills. 

John del Rawe (257, 285, 287). In Bratoft (257), Orby 
(285) and Welton-le-Marsh (287). Also sub-taxor of 
the eleventh in Orby (285), Burgh in the Marsh (293) 
and Ash by by Partney (304). 

William Thorpe (257, 285, 287). Do., except in regard 
to Ashby by Partney. Also sub-taxor of the ninth 

(276). 

Alan atte Conysgate (257, 285, 287). Do., except for 
the ninth. 

Roger del iVIore (257, 285, 287). Do. 

Laurence son of Hugh (257, 285, 287). Do. 

William Ekycher (257, 285, 287). Do. 

^Lay Subn. Roll 135/2, m. 16. = MS. ' Pamton.' 

' Against Adams name is this : " unus ex duodecim non iiabuit iu 
bonis ad valorem .xj.s. ideo non taxator.' 

*K.R.M.B. no. 70, m. 87 ^ C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 170. 



160 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

WiUiam King (257, 287). In Bratoft (257) and Welton- 
le-Marsh (287). 

William of Steeping (257, 287). Do. 

Walter of Ashby (257, 287). Do. 

WilKam Greymag (257, 287). Do. Also sub-taxor of the 
tenth (295). 

W^illiam of Screrathorpe (257, 287). Do., except for the 
tenth. 

Hugh son of Rose (257. 287). Do. Also sub-taxor of 
the tenth (296). 

The following groups of names are, I think, those of vill 
sub-taxors : 

In Burgh in the Marsh : 

Simon Pyncrak (285, 294). He lived in Burgh (259). 
Also sub-taxor of the eleventh in Orby (285) and of 
the ninth m Burgh in the Marsh (295). 

Henry May (294). 

Alan of Skegness (294). 

Simon the Butler (294). 

In Ingoldmells : 

Alan ad Ecclesiam (272, 280, 282). Also sub-taxor of the 
tenth in Ingoldmells (273-4, 277) and possibly of the 
ninth (276). 

Robert Est (270). 

John del Marisco (272, 280, 281). 

Alan ad Fontem (280). 

Alan Warde (272, 280). 

In Welton-le -Marsh : 

Robert Pylat (286). Also sub-taxor of the tenth (284). 
John of Belvoir (286). Do. 
Ralph of Rygg (286). Do. 

In Orby : 

AJan Borel (285). Also sub-taxor of the eleventh in Orby 
(285) and in Burgh in the Marsh (293). 

Peter son of Edde (285). Do. 

Alan Hardewyn (285). Do. 

Walter Skinner (285). Do. 

William Galle (285). Do. 



APPENDIX II Ifil 

In Scremby : 

Ranulph of Grebby (300). Also sub-taxor of the tenth 
(298) and of the ninth (297) in the same vill. 

Robert Blaunkpayn (300). Also sub-taxor of the ninth 
in the same vill (297). 

In Ashby by Partney : 

Robert ad Ripam (302). Also aub-taxor of the tenth in 
the same vill (301). 

Walter son of GUbert (302). 

Thomas son of Nicholas (302). 

No locality specified : 

Ralph Bernard (258). 

Robert de 8pina (258). 

The Ninth (1297). For this tax the machinery for collection 
was altered. The vill became the unit, rather than the 
wapentake, and the twelve men of the wapentake were 
dispensed with. Instead, a small number of men was selected 
in each viU to tax the viU and the surrounding area. This 
number was normally four, but might be increased or 
decreased at discretion.^ 

Chief Taxors : 

Simon son of Ralph of Aunsbyr 

Richard of Howell, knight.'^ 

Richard of Hetherington. Superseded Simou of Aunsby.^ 

Sub -Taxors in Candleshoe wapentake : 
In Burgh in the Marsh : 

WiUiam Greymag (295). Also sub-taxor of the twelfth 

{q.v.). 

Simon Pyncrak (295). Also sub-taxor of the eleventh {q.v.). 

In Orby (this is probable only, not certain) : 

William son of Walter of Huttoft (279). Also sub-taxor 
of the tenth (256). 

In Scremby : 

Ranulph of Grebby (297). 
Robert Blaunkpayn (297). 



^ See Introduction, p. xliii, note 2. 
» L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. .38 ; K.R. 



.M.R. no. 71, m. 120d. 
K.R.M.R. HO. 71, m. 121d. 



162 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

No locality specified : 

WiUiain son of Gilbert (283). Also sub-taxor of the 
tenth (256). 

Nicholas Herre (283). Do. 

William of Thorpe (276). Also sub-taxor of the eleventh 
and twelfth {q.v.). 

Alan ad Ecclesiam (276), probably ; certainly sub-taxor 
of the tenth and twelfth (q.v.). 

Roger of Firsby (276), probably. 

Hugh son of Beatrice (276). 

Lambert Markham (276). 

Thomas Power (276). 

Sub-Taxors in Aswardhurn wapentake^ : 
In Ligoldsby : 

Ralph Sender of Ingoldsby. 
Ralph son of Ralph of Ingoldsby. 
Thomas de Camera. 
. . .2 Prest of Thorpe. 

In Scredington : 
Gregory of Denton. 
Ralph Pilat. 

In Heckington : 

John of Pattishall of Heckington. 
Robert (le) Engleys (332). 

In Great Hale : 
John Genevay of Hale. 
William Hanuile. 

In Helpringham : 
John Fraunceys (333). 

In Little Hale : 

Robert son of Simon of Little Hale. 
John of Folkingham. 

* Lay Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1. The membrane is headed ' Taxacio none 
domino regi concesse de bonis subtaxatorum in wapentagio de Aswardhirne.' 
In the following lists it is not always perfectly clear that the names given 
in the actual rolls are those of the sub-taxors ; yet from the small number 
of names for each vill (never more than six) there seems little doubt that 
these rolls do concern the assessment of sub-taxors, not of private 
individuals. 

' The C'liristian name is obliterated. 



APPENDIX II 163 

In Ewerby Thorpe (' Wardeby and Oustorp ') : 
Robert Warde of Wardeby. 
Alan of Holland * de eadem.' 
Robert Goldc. 
William son of William of Oiistorp. 

In Asgarby and ' Haketon ' : 
John de la More (354). 
Richard Wulhyf. 

In HoweU : 

Henry of Howell, clerk. 
Alan of Mumby. 

In Evedon : 

William of Baumber of Evedon (337). 
Robert Motte. 

In Old Sleaford : 

William Brond ' de Veteri Lafford.' 
Henry Knivet. 

In Quarrington and Millthorpe : 

Robert Carpenter of Quarrington (344, 356). 
Stephel Kylbel of Millthorpe (343, 356). 

In Willoughby and Silkby : 
Robert of Nettleham. 
Robert [?] Unghun. 
William of Newbo. 
Walter son of Thomas. 

Sub-Taxors in Beltisloe wapentake. The names are given in 
the i\IS. in a continuous list without marginal localities, but 
these localities are mostly fairly clear from the context. 
Nevertheless this list must be regarded as only tentative : ^ 

In South Witham : 

William of Deeping (469). 

John de Parys (323). 

In North Witham : 
Robert I Warde. 

In Gunby : 

Simon of Skillington. 

^Lay Suha. Roll 135/6, m. 1. 



164 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In Stainby : 

Williain de Twyford. 
Robert Brestoune. 

In Skillington : 

William de Maidhill de Skillington. 

Mathew le Sumpter (probably in Skillington). 

In Colsterworth : 

Richard ultra Aquam of Colsterworth. 
John son of John of Colsterworth. 

In Woolsthorpe : 
Robert de la Haye. 
Humphrey Lambert. 

In Lobthorpe : 
Elias Michard. 

In Twjrford : 

Hu^h Dyne of Twyford. 

In Easton : 

William Palefrey. 

Adam son of Ralph of Easton [here ends m. 1]. 

In Edenham : 

Thomas Erlyn of Edenham. 

In Grimsthorpe : 

Walter Carter of Grimsthorpe. 

In Scottlethorpe : 
Roger Cotus. 
Lambert Mercator. 

In Lound : 

Hugh Peverel of Lound (250). 

In Toft : 

Henry Spryng of Toft. 

In Manthorpe : 

Henry son of Luce of Manthorpe. 

In Witham : 
Simon Thedam. 
Robert F reman. 



APPENDIX II 165 

Tn Swayfield : 

Hugh Dyne of Swayfield (179). 
Peter ad Ecdesiam. 

In Corby : 
Eustace Clerk. 
Robert Bylet. 
John Forfeld [here ends ra. 2]. 

The sub-taxors of Aswardhurn and Beltisloe were assessed for 
the ninth by the following six ' fideles homines,' who were 
not otherwise taxors : 

John Herdebi of Evedon. 

William of Heckington, cierk. 

Nicholas of Ancaster of Old Sleaford (72). 

Gilbert of Hale of Ewerby Thorpe (197, 490). 

Richard Hoky of Howell. 

Richard Ryling of Burton Pedwardine.^ 

Sub-Taxors in Threo wapentake- : 
In Honington : 

Geoffrey of Barnoldby. 
Roger ad Oucem (415). 
Henry Medicus. 
William de Wymundam. 

In Wilsford : 

Henry Martin (415). 

Henry Ray (415). 

Crilbert de . . .^ ' Nichil habet in bonis.' 

In Haydor, Oseby and Aisbv ; 
Roger Trig. 
John Trigg (415). 
Bartholomew Fraimshays (415). 
William Chaumpayn nichil habet in bonis. 

In Welby : 
Thomas Robe. 

Wilham of Houghton (191). 
Henry West (53, 191, 415). 
Thomas Edus (191, 415) nichil habet in bonis. 

^Lay Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1. 

»Ibid., 63/1, m. 1. 

' The surname is undecipherable. The whole membrane is very faint 



166 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In Braceby and Sapperton : 
Robert Bate (415). 
Henry of Dembleby (415). 
Geoffrey son of Amis. 

In Ropsley : 

Walter de Celby. 
John Fox (415). 
Jon le Weyse. 
William Lotte. 

In Harrowby and Dunsthorpe : 
William Gunnild. 
Alan [?] Cuteman. 
Simon Lewyn (415). 
Simon the Clerk (412-15). 

In Londonthorpe and Towthorpe : 
Hitgh ad Virid\ 
John son of Nicholas the Reeve. 
Wilham ad Fontem (415). 

In [?] Somerby : 

Richard Gybard (415.) 

William, the Clerk [here ends m. 1], 

In [?] Belton : 

William son of Roger. Here begins m. 2. 

Alexander the Reeve. 

Hugh the Carter (192, 415). 

Thomas the Clerk nichil habet in bonis. 

In Syston : 

Andrew Bercar\ 
William Warde (415). 
Stephen Wolwyn (415). 

In Harlaxton : 

Richard son of William. 

Roger Pacy. 

Peter . . .' 

Roger . . .' nichil habet in bonis. 

^ S\irnamoa illegible in MS. 



APPENDIX II 167 

Sub-Taxors in Skirbeck wapentake^ : 
In Boston : 

Peter son oj William Oode. 
John Binninge. 
Nicholas son of Alexander. 
John son of Richard. 

In Skirbeck : 
Nicholas le Grant . 
Alan [?] Perterit. 
Laurence Cuper. 

In Toft : 

Robert son of Walter. 

Henry son of Warin. 

Alan son of Robert. 

John Donne (109). 

In Frieston : 

Edmund ad Ecclesiam. 

Wacenus son of Ralph. 

John Orger. 

William of Wigtoft. 

In Butterwick : 
John of Pinchbeck. 

[?] Colin son of William.- 

In Bennington : 

Roger son of [?] Colin.^ 
Gilbert de [?] Gransto."^ 
Ralph son o/ [?] Colin.^ 
William Belle (105-6). 

In Leverton : 
Ralph Soc. 

[?] Colin son of Roger.- 

Alan son of Reginald. 

John Hard. 

In Leake : 
Alan de Rie." 
John son of Henry. 
Alan of Grimscroft. 
Ralph son of Henry. 

^ Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 1. 

' This membrane is carelessly written ; I found it difficiilt to decipher 
some of the names. 



168 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In Wrangle : 

William son of Alan. 
John Knolle. 
William son of Richard. 
William son of Abraham. 

Sub-Taxors in Ness wapentake :^ 
In Tallington : 
Simon le Paumer. 
Robert en le Hirne. 

In Deeping : 

William de Celario. 
Hugh Gutlak\ 
Gilbert de Casewik'. 
Roger de QrisdaV. 

In Langtoft : 
John son of the Reeve. 
John de Spe . . .- 

In Carlby : 

William Ponchet. 
Ralph Perlour. 

In Braceborough : 

William the Carpenter. 
Geoffrey of Burton (470). 

In WUsthorpe : 
Robert [?] Darner. 
Andrew Carenco\ 

In Greatford : 

Hubert of Stamford. 
Robert en le Dek. 

Sub-Taxors in Loveden wapentake^ : 
In Marston : 
Elias of Newark. 
Geoffrey Rikedon. 

' Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 3. Headed Taxacio suhta-vatorum de Wapen- 
takio de Nesse. 

* The rest of this name is undecipherable. 

^ Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 4. Headed Taxacio taxatorum none . . . 



APPENDIX II 169 



In Hougham : 
John Cosin. 
Robert the Reeve. 

In Westborough and Little Thorpe : 
William de Thorp\ 
Geoffrey KnichV. 
Robert Hendcop'. 
John de Stockingham. 

In Doddington with Stocking : 
Hugh of Doddington. 
William Benchmaler . 
John Birice. 

In Claypole : 

Richard of Benington. 
William of Carlton. 
William atte Chyrche (56). 

In Stubton : 

Roger del Western. 
Roger Mat of Stubton. 

In Beckingham. Sutton with Fenton : 
Adam de Sutton. 
Robert de Fenton. 

In Brant Broughton : 
Hitgh E denser. 
Alan Broc. 
Robert Plomul. 

In Stragglethorpe ; 
GeofiFrey Bryan (255). 
William Hauberd. 

In Leadenham : 
Walter Selvester. 
Geoffrey Breton. 
Selvester Tyeys nichil habet in bonis. 



170 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In Fiilbeck : 

Roger son of Master William. 
Hugh ad Ecclesiam. 
Thomas Morel. 

In Caythorpe and Frieston : 
Hugh Hogg. 
Simon Attegren of Frieston. 

In Normanton : 
John in Angulo. 
Ralph in Vewell. 

In Carlton : 

Nicholas of Carlton. 
John Laurence. 
John Galilay. 

In Hough-on-the-Hill, Grelston with Brandon : 
Nicholas Gold. 
Henry Asty (56). 
Robert Almot. 

In Ancaster, Sudbrook and Willoughby : 
Adam de WaMen. 
Nicholas de Exsex. 

The sub-taxors of Loveden were themselves taxed by the 
following, who were not otherwise taxors of the ninth : 

WUliam of Gelston (20, 56). 

Thomas son of Reginald of Brandon. 

Robert Wyseman of Leadenham. 

Robert Aimot of Fulbeck (416). 

Robert Fayreman of Westborough. 

Ralph of Sutton.'^ 

Sub-Taxors in Kirton-in-Holland wapentake^ : 
In Surfleet : 

Gilbert son of Peter of Surfleet. 
Simon Blenche. 
Walter son of Robert. 

' Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 4. 

' Ibid., m. 7, 8. Headed Taxacio taxatorum de non' in KirketorC in 
Holande. Names of taxors of sub-taxors are not given. 



APPENDIX IT 171 



In Gosberton ; 
John de Hoddil. 
John son of Roger. 
John Hog. 
Nicholas Pede. 

In Quadring : 

David son of William of Quadring. 
Peter de Campo. 
Lambert son of Hugh. 
Reginald Wyt. 

In Donington : 

Nigel the Merchant. 
Adam Neumarche. 
Simon the Merchant. 

In Bicker : 

Gerard de la Merse. 
John de Benhale. 
Roger Pepir. 
Alan Brun. 

In Swineshead : 

Andrew son of Robert. 
Thomas le Cranemer. 
Joce Bakun. 
Robert son of Hugh. 

In Wigtoft : 

Stephen Orun of Wigtoft. 
John Pyte. 
John son of Robert. 
Simon son of Joseph. 

In Sutterton : 

Hugh son of John. 
Richard son of Richard. 
Robert son of Richard. 
Richard son of John. 



172 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In Algarkirk : 

John son oj Lambert. 
Thomas son of Alan. 
Roger son of Robert. 
Walter son of Alexander. 

In Kirton : 

Alexander son of Ralph of KirUyti. 
Walter son of John. 
John son of Geoffrey. 
John so?i of Ranulph. 

In Frampton : 

Alan son of Roger. 
Robert son of Walter. 
James son of War in. 

In Wyberton : 
Roger the Clerk of Wyberton. 
J ace Averey. 
Robert Torould. 
Alexander Clerk. 

Sub-Taxors in Winnibriggs wapentake^ : 
In Great Ponton : 
Ralph Erneys (326). 
Richard the Baker (363-4, 377, 497). 
John son of the Parson. 
Jordan super Montem. 
Ralph ad Ecclesiam. 

In Little Ponton and Stroxton : 
Richard super le Grene. 
Walter Petit. 
Alexander of Scottlethorpe. , 

In Wyville and Hungerton : 
Alan Otes. 

Alan son of Alexander. 
Robert son of Robert. 

' Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, ui. 0, 11. Headed Taxacio taxatorum rwm 



APPENDIX II 



/.) 



In Allington : 

William Cryspyn (206, 242). 
Alfred Crisping. 
Robert son of Williajn. 

In Sedgebrook : 
Williain Mankrel. 
Ingelram the Reeve. 
Ingelram Culbon. 

In Casthorpe and Stainwith : 
Robert of Casthorpe (497). 
Thomas of Stainwith. 

In North and South Stoke : 
Hugh Broun (325, 329). 
Walter in Angulo. 
Richard ad Ecclesiam. 

In Denton : 

Peter de Templo (497). 
Robert son of Alice. 
Roger de Bradewater. 
William son of Hugh. 

In Barrowby : 

John of Herford (497). 
Adam le Spicer. 
John H emery. 
Walter of Carlton. 

In Belvoir and Woolsthorpe : 
Robert Clerk (242). 
William Basset. 
Robert the Baker. 
Gilbert Kendale. 

In Houghton, Walton and Spittlegate 
Walter Katur. 
John Stoyl. 
Robert in the [?] Wilup. 



174 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In Gonerby : 

Ralph son of Robert. 
Robert Wich. 
Walter Ysod. 
John son of Isabella. 

In Harlaxton : 

Gerard de Malinor. 
John of Blankney (497). 
Robert Gigur. 
Richard Bonde. 
William Stereman. 

The sub-taxors of Winnibriggs were themselves taxed by the 
foUowmg, who were not otherwise taxors of the ninth : 

Robert Basset of Woolsthorpe (206, 242). 

Richard of Westhorpe of Harlaxton. 

Denis Richer. 

William Loymud of Oonerby. 

John de Arnchton\ 

Henry de Stanton.^ 

Sub-Taxors in GrafFoe wapentake^ : 
In Carlton : 
Robert Alewy\ 
Gilbert of Newton. 
Robert Biwestetoun. 
John son of William. 

In Stapleford : 

Simon Herberd of Stapleford. 
John Stoyle. 

In Norton : 
Peter Franceys. 
William Atademes. 

In Thurlby : 

WUham Scharp (252, 481). 

David of Threckingham (252, 481). 

» Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 9. 

* IbM., m. 10. Headed Taxacio subtaxatorum none facta per . . . The 
names of these taxors are given at the end of the Graffoe list. 



APPENDIX II 175 



In Aubourn : 

John le Keu of Aubourn. 
Robert son of William. 

In North and South Hykeham : 
Philip oj Hykeham. 
Peter of Hykeham (252, 481). 
Robert Freman. 

In Boultham : 

Eudo of Boultham. 
Henry the Clerk. 

In Skellingthorpe : 
Peter ad Ecclesiam. 
Richard son oj Peter. 

In Doddington : 
Thomas the Reeve. 
William Albot. 

In ^Vhisby : 
John Holtreol. 
Adam son of Walter. 

In Thorpe : 

William Hereward. 
Geoffrey Attehalle. 

In Morton : 

Richard son of Agnes. 
Robert 

In Bassingham : 
John .... 
Henry Yongman . 
William son of Simon. 

In Haddington : 

Baldvnn [?] Wasperay. 
Geoffrey the Gerk (252, 481). 



176 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

The sub-taxors of Grattoe were themselves taxed by the 
following, who were not otherwise taxors of the ninth : 

Fichard of Haldenby of Morton (185). 

Thomas Blokevile of Thurlby. 

Roger Bolur of Siapleford. 

Alexander son of Robert of Thurlby. 

Walter L ... of Carlton. 

John Prophet of Haddington.^ 

Sub-Taxors in Wraggoe wapentake- : 
In Kirmond : 
Hugh North. 
William son of Roger. 
William ad Solar'. 

In Ludford : 
Mortimer Burre. 
Richard of Sixle. 
Richard the Reeve. 
John the Clerk. 

In Sixle : 

Thomas the Reeve. 

Warin ^ 

John the Clerk. 

In Hainton : 
Nicholas Wace. 
Matthew Biddes. 

In Burgh-on-Bain, Biscathorpe and Girsby : 
John of Burgh. 
Thomas ultra Ripam. 
Richard Ingge. 

In South Willingham : 
John Rocelin. 
Walter Carpenter. 

In Benning worth : 
William ad, Aulam. 
Robert of Otby. 

'Lay Subs. Roll 135/3. m. 10. * Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 12. 

' The surname is illegibJo in MS. 



.\PPEND1X II 177 

III Sotby : 
Henry Ward. 
Hugh Seluayn. 
William Suth'. 

In Hatton : 

Robert the Reeve. 
Peter the Reeve. 

The sub-taxors of Wraggoe were themselves taxed by the 
following, who were not otherwise taxors of the ninth : 

Jacob Br aunt. 

Peter of Fulnetby. 

Ivo of Brinkhill. 

William Burgelioun. 

Robert Fraunceys. 

John de St. Paul.^ 

X. OTHER ROYAL OFFICIALS APPOINTED FOR SPECIAL 
PURPOSES IN LINCOLNSHIRE. 

L Clerks to hasten the collection of debts due to the king : 
Richard of Hetherington, appointed 14 June, 1297.- 
Roger of Norton (19), appointed 4 July, 1297.^ 

2. Chief Collectors of the Eighth (never collected) : 

Thomas de MetJiam \ • ^ j •>.. r i . or^« . 

William of Walcot f ^PPO^nted 30 July, 1297." 

3. Seizure of wool and new customs rates, 12 June and 

26 July, 1294 : 

John Idelsone '^ Receivers of ^ • , i -v^ 

Thomas Peyt [ customs I Tr^^^on. ? 

William de la Bruere J Clerk J '^'^^^ ^^^'*- 

4. Collectors of wool in the hands of foreign commercial 

houses, 1294 : 
John Gurneys ^ appointed probably July, 1294.** 
Wymund Brother f 

5. Clerks appointed for the sale of goods of French merchants : 

WiUiam de Wodeford (308) 1 appointed 28 August, 
Henry de Bayeus (308) J 1295.' 

^ Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 12. ^ K.R.M.R. no. (j9, m. 101. 

^ Ibid., m. lOld. 'Ibid., m. 117. 

"- Ibid., no. 68, m. 82. '■ Lbid., m. 88. 

^ Ibid., TW. 68, m. Sod. 

M 



178 ASSIZE ROLL 605 

6. Clerk to supervise the prise of corn of November, 1296, and 

that of flesh of June, 1297 : 

Richard of Hetherington, appointed 29 November, 1296.^ 

7. Merchants to buy wool under the prise of July, 1297 : 

Robert de Basing 



appointed July, 1297. 



2 



William Fraunk 
William Bush 
Richard de Bello Fago 

Hugh de Cane, clerk, appointed after Michaelmas, 1297.^ 

8. Clerk to supervise the prise of corn of November, 1297 : 

RicJmrd de Hetherington, appointed 5 November, 1297.'* 

9. Clerk to supervise the prise of corn of April, 1298 : 

Peter de Molinton (237, etc.), appointed 15 April, 1298.^ 

^K.R.M.R., 7io. 70, m. 114, 114d. ^ Ibid., m. 108. 
*L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 134. ^ G.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 314. 

^ Ihid., p. 344. 



APPENDIX III. 

Analysis of Burdens Imposed on Lincolnshire, 1294-8. 

(A capital K placed before the date of a burden indicates that this burden 

was imposed by royal order.) 



Datc^ 


Xature of burden Classes affected 


(1291 
(1292 
(1293 


Papal tax« Clergy) 
., ) 
.. ) 


R 1294. 
12 Juno 


Seizure of Wool Merchants 
Clerjrv 



R 1294. 
14 June 
26 June 



R 1294, 
28 June 



R 1294, 
26 July 



R 1294. 
21 Sept. 



Militarv sum- 



mons 



Laity 



Baronage 

Knightage 

Clerg\- 



Inquisition of 
valuables 



Increased cus- 
toms rates 



Clergy 



Merchants 
directly, 
other classes 
indirectly 



Tax on movables Clergy 



Demands made on Lincolnshire. 

(One tenth of the income of the 
clergy assessed on the valuation 
of 1291, for three years, for the 
Holy Land. The valuation was 
made on estimated incomes.') 

All wool, woolfells and hides to 
be seized by the sheriff and lield 
in safe custody at the king's 
pleasure till further orders are 
received.* 

For Gascony. Greater tenants-in- 
chief summoned individually, 
abbots, priors and knights hold- 
ing by military tenxire or ser- 
jeanty bj' sheriff. To be at 
Portsmouth cum equie et armis 
on 1 Sept.* 

Inquisition by view of the sheriff 
and a specially appointed royal 
clerk into valuables stored in all 
religious houses.* 

Wool may be exported from 
Boston only on payment of new 
rates : 5 marks per sack of good 
wool (afterwards 3 marks), 3 
marks per sack of inferior wool 
and 5 marks per last of liides.' 
The old rates were \ mark per 
sack and 1 mark per last." 

The king demanded half the 
revenues of the clergy for one 
year, botli temporalities and 
spiritualities. This was granted.* 



* Normally the date of the ordinance, but in the case of a tax on movables, 
the date for which Parliament was summoned. 

- 1 insert this as a reminder that the clergy were not free at this time 
from extra-national burdens. 

' \V. E. Lunt, Valuation of Norwich, p. 613. 

*K.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 72. '•Pari. Writs, i, p. 259. 

^ B. Cott., p. 237 ; Bemont, Roles Gascons, iii, p. cxxii ; cf. W. E. Limt, 
Papal Revenues, i, p. 76, where he discusses the deposit of the proceeds of 
papal taxes in religious houses against future requirements. 

' K.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 82. • Pari. Writs, i., p. 1. 

* Foed., i, p. 808; cf. C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 89; K.R.M.R. no. 68, 
m. 68. 



179 



180 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 



Date 

R 1294. 
15 Oct. 



R 1294, 
16 Oct. 



Nature of burden 
Military sum- 



Classes affected 
Baronage 



mous 



Restriction on 
movement of 
goods 



Various 



R 1294, 
12 Nov. 



Tax on movables All except some 
clergy 



R 1295, 
10 Feb. 



Inquisition into 
knighthood. 



Baronage 
Higher clergj' 



R 1295, 
28 Sept. 



Seizure of 
property of 
alien clergy 



Clergy 



R 1296, 
10 Nov. 



R 1295, 
27 Nov. 



Seizure of lands 
and property of 
aliens 



Lay aliens 



Tax on movables Clergy ; all 
laity 



Demands 7nadc on Lincolnshire. 

For Wales. Only a partial levy ; 
it affected Philip of Kymo and 
Gilbert of Gaunt in Lincolnshire, 
but out of this expedition arose 
several complaints in A.B. 505.^ 

Nothing to bo taken out of 
Lincolnshire and into Scotland by 
land or sea which could be useful 
to the Scots, such as corn and 
other food, armour and arms. 
Probably not a serious burden." 

The king obtauicd a tenth of the 
movables of the baronage and 
their tenants and a sixth of those 
of the burgesses. Those clergj' 
who had not paid the half were to 
give a tenth of their tempor- 
alities.' 

The sheriff to make inquisition, 
within and without liberties, as 
to all, knights or otherwise, who 
have £40 worth of lands and 
rents per annum. Those who 
have are to be ready with arms 
and horses to go on royal service 
and live at the king's wages and 
at the king's pleasure, whenever 
he wants them. The sheriff is to 
find out who, having less than 
£40 worth of lands, has horses 
and arms and is willing to take 
similar service.* 

All property of alien clergy in 
maritime shires (including Lin- 
colnshire) seized, the clergy to be 
lodged in denizen houses. Release 
obtained by those who compound- 
ed with the king for their good 
behaviour.* 

Applied only to aliens of French 
origin or allegiance. Restitution 
of lands and property could be 
had if they gave security for 
good behaviour.* 

The Icing obtained an eleventh of 
the movables of the baronage and 
their tenants and a seventh of 
those of the burgesses. Clergj' con- 
tumacious, but eventually agreed to 
give a tenth of their temporalities 
for one year, longer if necessary.' 



^C.C.R. 1288-96, p. 435. 
• Pari. Writs, i, p. 267. 



^ Pari. Writs, i, pp. 265-6. 

" Pari. Writs, i, p. 27. 

' Foed., i, p. 826. 

'K.RM.R. no. 69. in. 71d ; cf. B. roll., pp. 302- .3, 

''Foed, I, p. 833. 



APPENDIX TIT 



181 



Dole 

R 1295. 
16 Dec. 



24 Dec. 



R 1296, 
12 Mav 



R 1296. 
3 Nov. 



K 1296, 
29 Nov. 



R 1297. 
12 Feb. 



R 1297. 
1 Mar. 



Nature of bttrdcn 

Military sum- 
mons 



CLa.iiafHi ajfccted 
Baronage 



Procurations 
(papal) 



Clergy 



Prise of corn 



All except 
townsmen 



Tax on movables Baronage and 

under tenants, 
Burgesses 



Prise of com 



All except 
townsmen 



Clergy outlawed 



Arrest of clergj' 



Demand-'^ r.indc on Lincolnshire. 

For Scotland ; John Balliol, by 
virtue of his alliance with France, 
having revolted from Edward's 
rule. Those siurunoned. includ- 
ing a number of Lincolnshire 
knights, were to be at Newcastle 
on Tvno on 1 Mar., 1296^ 

A levy, with papal authority, on 
all the higher clergy, to meet the 
expenses of the Cardinals Albano 
and Palestrina, papal nuncios, 
while in England. Each prelate 
and convent was to pay 6 marks." 

Lincolnshire not mentioned in the 
writs, but the prise was semi- 
national, and was levied from the 
surrounding counties.* 

The king obtained a twelfth of 
the movables of the baronage and 
their tenants and an eighth of 
those of the burgesses. Clergy 
contumacious and postponed de- 
cision.* 

Lincolnshire to supply 500 quarters 
of barley, 1,000 qrs. of oats, 1.500 
qrs. of wheat, and 500 qrs. of 
beans and peas, to be collected 
within a month of Easter, 1297.' 
On 25 May. 1297, the sheriff 
was ordered to send all com 
collected by him to London." 
This must refer to the November 
prise. But some went to Flan- 
ders.' 

They could be received into royal 
protection again on payment of 
a subsidy. The majority sub- 
mitted by Easter. The subsidy 
demanded was a third or a fifth 
of their temporaUties.* 

Those who had prono\inced ex- 
communication or ecclesiastical 
censures against the king's 
ministers to be imprisoned.' 



1 Pari. Writs, i, pp. 275-7 ; cf. C.C.R. 1288-96, p. 501 
-Lunt, Papal Revenues, i, pp. 108, 282. 
* K.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 77d. 
^ Pari. Writs, i, pp. 47, 51 ; cf. 
'- K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 113, 114 
^K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 114d. 
' P.R.O. Sheriffs' Admin. Accts. 
^ C.C.R. 1296-1302, p. 14 ; cf. 
(protections in return for submission) 
'■* Pari. WriUi, i, pp. 393-4. 



B. Cott., p. 312. 

; L.T.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 20. 

568/1 (App. IV. below). 
C.P.R. 1292-1301, pp. 23i 



-7, 200-86 



182 



ASSIZE ROLL 505 



Date 

R 1297, 
12 Mar. 



R 1297. 
5 Mav 
15 Mav 



S attire of burden Classes aff exited 

Collection of All 

royal debts 



Military sum- 
mons 



Baronage 
Knightage 
Lesser gentrj' 
Higher clergj' 



Demandu made on Lincolnshire. 

One royal clerk appointed for 
each county, to collect all royal 
debts outstanding.* 

For Flanders. All those having 
£40 worth of lands and rents per 
annum to provide themselves 
with horses and arms in the usual 
way, for service. Nobody to 
escape (knightage ; summoned 
for 5 May). Similarly for the 
lesser gentry, greater barons and 
higher clergy (15 May). They are 
to be at London on 7 July. (The 
lesser gentry are those having 
£20 worth of lands and rents per 
annum.)* 



R 1297. 
5 June 



Prise of bacon 
and beef 



All except Lincolnshire to supply 300 sides of 

townsmen bacon and 200 carcase.s of beef.* 

By a writ dated 23 June these, 
together with corn (not specified 
in the ordinance) are to be 
shipped to Harwich to await 
further orders.* 



R 1297, 
7 July 



Tax on movables Baronage 
tenants ; 
Burgesses 



and 



R 1297, 
30 July 



Prise of wool 



Clergy, Laity, 
Merchants con- 
nected with 
wool trade 



R 1297, 
30 Sept. 



Tax on movables Laity 



After the military levy had met 
in London on 7 .Tuly Edward, 
between that date and the end of 
the month, promised to confirm 
the Charters if the baronage would 
give an eighth and the burgesses 
a fifth of their movables. This 
was agreed to.' 

All who have any wool must sell 
it to merchants appointed by the 
king to buy it, payment being 
promised but not made and con- 
firmation of Charters hinted at. 
Four merchants appointed for 
Lincolnshire. This prise was mewie 
to fulfil part of the price of 
Edward's foreign alliances.* 

For the eighth and fifth (above, 
July 7th) is substituted a flat 
rate of a ninth of movables for 
both the baronage and their 
tenants and the burgesses. The 
writs ordering the collection of 
this tax are dated 14 Oct.' 



' K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 101, 102. -Pari. Writs i, pp. 281-3. 

^K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 114d. * Ibid., m. lOOd. 

"Pari. Writs, i, pp. 53-5; cf. Stubbs ii, p. 136. 

* Pari. Writs, i, pp. 394-5; C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 299; K.R.M.R. no. 
70, m. 108 ; cf. Foed., i, p. 852. 

' Pari. Writs, i, p. 63 ; L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 38 ; cf. K.R.M.R. no. 71, 
m. 121d. 



APPENDIX III. 



183 



Date 

R 1297, 
21 Oct. 
10 Dec. 



R 1297, 
5 Nov. 



1297, 
20 Nov, 



R 1298. 
30 Mar. 



R 1298, 
15 April 



Nature of burden 
Militarv sum- 



mons. 



Prise of com 



Subsidy 



Military sum- 
mons 



Prise of com 



Classes affected 

Baronage 
Knightage 
Higher clergy 
Lower ranks 
(10 Dec.) for 
inf antrv ' 



All except 
townsmen 



All clergy 



Usual ranks 



All except 
townsmen 



Demands made on Lincolnshire. 

For Scotland ; summoned in the 
usual fonn. Those from Lincoln- 
shire are summoned who are not 
already in Flanders. The Lincoln- 
shire clergy affected are the abbots 
of Thorney, Croyland and Bard- 
ney.' A further series of sunamons 
was issued on 8 Jan., 1298, but 
hardly affected Lincolnshire.* 

Lincolnshire to supply 3,000 qrs. 
of oats and 3,000 qrs. of wheat for 
Scotland.* 

Voluntary tax of a tenth, the goods 
of the higher clergy to be taxed 
on the 1291 valuation, those of 
the lower on that of Norwich.* 
The tax was granted against the 
Scots for one year (the Northern 
province gave a fifth). The Bishop 
of Lincoln's commission to the 
Hospital of S. Katherine's-extra- 
Lincoln, the collectors for the 
diocese, is dated 3 Dec* 

For Scotland. Summons issued 
in the usual form. Those sum- 
moned were to be at York on 
25 May. A certain number of 
Lincolnshire knights affected.'' 
Further orders were issued on 28 
May to all sheriffs, to make 
known that all who had been 
summoned but had not yet gone to 
Scotland were to be at Roxburgh 
on 23 June." 

For the army of Scotland, and 
was required after the enquiry 
into grievances was set up. Lin- 
colnshire to supply 1,000 qrs. of 
wheat and 1,060 qrs. of oats.* 



^ K.R.M.R. no. 71, m. 29, 29d, 30. 'Pari. Writs, i, pp. 302-4. 

^Ihid., p. 308. * C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 314. 

* B. Cott., p. 339 ; cf. Stubbs, ii, p. 141. 

• Liint, Papal Revenues, i, p. 282, quoting Cart, of S. Katherine -extra- 
Lincoln (in Camb. Univ. Lib., MS. Dd. X. 28, fol. 16). 

' Pari Writs i, pp. 310-12. « C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 344. » Ibid. 



APPENDIX IV. 

P.R.O. Sheriffs' Administrateve Accounts no. 568/1." 

BlaDA ad opus DOMINI REGIS IN COMITATU LiNCOLNIE CAPTA 
PER RiCARDUM DE HeTHERINGTON CLERICUM ET RaDULFUM PaYNEL 
VICECOMITEM EIUSDEM COMITATUS ANNO REGNI REGIS EdWARDI 
XXVtO. Et EXPENSE FACTE CIRCA BLADA PREDICTA PER VICE- 
comitem predictum per visum predicti ricardi circa festum 
Sancti Iohannis Baptiste.- 

SuMMA tocius recepc' bladi ibidem capti .M^Mi.DCC.xli. 
quarteria dim' bussellus sicut patet per particulas inferiores. De 
frumento .M^CC.xxxj. quarteria .j. bussell' .j. pecc' Et de fabis 
et pisis .CCClvj. qr' .j. bs' De Ordeo .CCij. qr' .j. bs' .j. pc' Et 
de auena .DCCCC.lj. qr' .dim' bs'. De quibus recepti fuenint, 
videlicet : 



De 



("Lincoln' .DCC.ni^. qr' dim' qr' .j. bs' De quibus. 
fFrumento .CCC.xiiij. qr' dim' qr' .j.pc'. 
J. J Fabis et pisis .Ixv. qr' .j.bs'. 

^ Ordeo .C.xxxiij. qr' dim' qr' .j.pc'. 
(^ Auena .CC.lxvij. qr' .j.bs' dim' bs'. 

Sanctum Botulphum .M.CC.lxxv.qr' dim' qr' .j.bs' De 
quibus. 

Frumento .CCCC.fifj.xiij.qr' .dim' qr' .dim' bs'. 
Fabis et pisis .CC.xxxij.qr' .j.bs'. 
^ Ordeo .xliij.qr'. 
Apud -<( [^ Auena .Dv.qr' .dim' qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs'. 

Weynflet .CC.xlviij.qr' .j.bs' De quibus. 
rFrumento .C.xxxj.qr' .dim' bs" 
P^ J Fabis et pisis .v.qr' .dim' qr' .dim' bs'. 
^ I Ordeo nichil. 

(^ Auena .C.xj.qr' .dim' qr'. 

Grymmesby .CCCC.xxxvj.qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs' De quibus. 
TFrumento .CC.jH^.xij.qr'. 
^ J Fabis et pisis .liij.qr' .dim' bs'. 

I Ordeo .xxiiij.qr' .dim' qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs'. 
l^Auena .Ixvj. qr' .j. bs' .dim' bs'. 

» So far as I am aware, this account has not hitherto been published. 
' Erasure after Baptiste. 

184 



APPENDIX IV 18") 

SuMMA tocius frumenti moliti in Comitatu predicto. CC.xxxix. 
qr' De quibiis moliti luerunt, videlicet. 

Lincolniam .C.xxxv.qr' De quibus. 

_^ rFarina bultata .C.xxiij.qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs'. 
® \Fiirfure .lix.qr' .dim' qr'. 

A pTTTJ J 

] Sanctum Botulphum .Ixij.qr' De quibus. 
-p. r Farina bultata .Ixij.qr". 
^ \Furfure .xxij.qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs'. 
Grymmesby .xlij.qr'. De quibus. 

P^ fFarina bultata .xlij.qr'. 
^ \Furfure .xiiij.qr'. 

luxta responsionem pistorum ad hoc electorum et iuratorum.^ 

SuMMA tocius farine bultate .CC.xxvij.qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs' 
Et summa tocius furfuris .nj].xv.qr' .dim' qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs'. De 
cuius precio predictus vicecomes oneratus est per quoddam cyro- 
graphum huic consutum. 

SxjMMA camium iii Comitatu predicto captorum 
.xvj. carcosa bouina 
.xliij. baconi et dim'. 

Expense facte circa blada predicta.- 

In multura .C.xxxv.qr' frumenti apud Lincolniam .xxxiij.s.ix.d. 
videlicet per qr' .iij.d. Item in multura .Ixij.qr' frumenti apud 
Sanctum Botulphum .xv.s.vj.d. videlicet per qr' .iij.d. Item in 
multura .xhj.qr' frumenti apud Grymmesby .x.s.vj.d. videlicet per 
qr' .iij.d. 

Sumraa .hx.s.ix.d. 

In bultacione farine prouenientis de blado molito apud 
Lincolniam videlicet .C.xxxv.qr' .v.s.vij.d.ob' videlicet per qr' .ob\ 
Item in bultacione farine prouenientis de blado molito apud 
Sanctum Botulphum videlicet .Ixij.qr' .ij.s.vij.d. videHcet per qr' 
.ob\ Item in bultacione farine prouenientis de blado molito apud 
Grj'mmesby videlicet .xlij.qr' .xxj.d. videlicet per qr' .ob\ 

Summa .ix.s.xj.d.ob'. 

In .xl. vlnis canabi emptis apud Lincolniam pro loco bulta- 
cionis farine facto ad modum granarii .xj.s.viij.d. precii vine 
.iij.d.ob'. Item in .xx. vlnis canabi emptis apud Sanctum Botulphum 
pro eodem .v.s.x.d. precii vine .iij.d.ob' In .xx. vlnis grosse tele 
emptis apud Grymmesby pro eodem .iij.s.iiij.d. precii ulne .ij.d. 

Summa .xx.s.x.d. 

^ This statement is entered on the right hand side of the MS., and applies 
to all three places mentioned. 

* To distinguish the price from the sums actually paid, the clerk has 
underlined the price per quarter, ell, tun, etc., as the case may be 



186 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

In cariagio .Cxxxv.qr' frumenti moliti apud Lincolniam de 
granario usque ad molendinum et de molendino usque ad locum 
bultacionis .iij.s. Item in cariagio bladi moliti apud Sanctum 
Botulphum ad molendinum et de molendino .ij.s.vj.d. Item in 
cariagio bladi moliti apud Grymmesby ad molendinum et de 
molendino .xiiij.d. 

Summa .vj.s.viij.d. 

In .xxxvij. vlnis grosse tele emptis pro saccis faciendis pro 
blado apud Lincolniam recepto portando et cariando De quibus 
fact! fuerunt .x. sacci .iiij.s.vij.d.ob' precii vine .j.d.ob' Item in 
.xvj, vlnis grosse tele pro portagio et cariagio bladi recepti apud 
Weynflet empti De quibus facti fuerunt .iiij. sacci .ij.s. precii 
vine .j.d.ob' Item in .Ix. saccis vsitatis emptis pro cariagio bladi 
ultra mare et pro portagio et cariagio bladi recepti apud Sanctum 
Botulphum et apud Grymmesby .xv.s. precii sacci .iij.d. Item in 
.Cxj. saccis vsitatis emptis pro eodem .xxvij.s.ix.d. precii sacci 
.iij.d. 

Summa .xlix.s.iiij.d.ob'. 

In .xiij. tonellis emptis apud Lincolniam pro farina ibidem 
bultata imponenda .xix.s.vj.d. precii tonelli .xviij.d. Item in 
.xxij. barellis emptis ibidem pro eodem .xviij.s.iiij.d. precii barelli 
.x.d. Item in stipendiis .ij. hominum reparancium mundancium 
et reficiencium tonellos et barellos predictos per .xij. dies .viij.s. 
videlicet cuilibet eorum per diem .iiij.d. Item in circulis et clauis 
emptis pro eodem .vij.s.v.d. Item in .v.doUis de Ryn emptis apud 
Sanctum Botulphum pro farina ibidem bultata imponenda 
.xij.s.vj.d. precii dolii .ij.s.vj.d. Item in .v. tonellis emptis ibidem 
pro eodem .viij.s. iiij.d. precii tonelli .xx.d. Item in stipendiis unius 
hominis reparantis mundantis et reficientis dolia et tonellos predicta 
per .viij. dies .ij.s.viij.d. videlicet per diem .iiij.d. Item in circulis 
et clauis emptis pro eisdem .ij.s.ij.d. 

Item in viij. tonellis emptis apud Grymmesby pro farina 
ibidem bultata imponenda . xiij. s. iiij.d. precii tonelli .xx.d. Item 
in circulis et clauis emptis pro eisdem .xv.d.ob'. 

Summa .iiij.l.xiij.s.vj.d.ob'. 

In stipendiis .xij. portitorum apud Lincolniam portantium 
blada de granario usque ad batUlos per .iij. dies .ix.s. videlicet 
cuilibet eorum per diem .iij.d. 

Item in stipendiis .iiij. portitorum ibidem per unum diem 
pro eodem .xij.d. videlicet cuilibet eorum per diem .iij.d. Item 
in stipend' polenar' transheuc .xiij. tonellos et .xxij. barellos usque 
ad batillos ibidem .vj.s.xj.d. videlicet pro tonello .iij.d. et pro 
barillo .ij.d. Item in stipendiis .xvj. portitorum apud Sanctum 
Botulphum per .xij. dies pro blado ibidem recepto et pro blado 
veniente de Lincolnia portando usque ad magnas naues .xlviij.s. 



APPENDIX TV. 187 

videlicet cuilibet eorum per diem .iij.d. Item in stipend' polenar' 
transheuc .x. dolia et tonellos ibidem impleta et .xiij. tonellos 
et .xxij. barellos venientes de Lincolnia usque ad magnas naues 
apud Sanctum Botulphum .ix.s.v.d. videlicet pro quolibet tonello 
.iij.d. et pro quolibet barello .ij.d. 

Item in stipendiis .vj. portitorum apud Weynflet per .iiij. 
dies .vj.s. videlicet cuilibet eorum per diem .iij.d. Item in stipendiis 
.viij. portitorum apud Grymmesby per .iiij. dies .viij.s. videlicet 
cuilibet eorum per diem .iij.d. Item in stipend' polenar' transheuc 
.viij. toneUos ibidem impletos usque ad magnas naues .ij.s. videlicet 
pro quolibet tonello .iij.d. 

Summa .iiij.l.x.s.iiij.d. 

In cariacione .Clxxix.qr' frumenti .dim' qr' .j.pc' de Lincolnia 
usque ad Sanctum Botulphum per aquam .xxij.s.v.d.qu' videUcet 
pro quolibet quarterio .j.d.ob' Item pro cariacione .Ixv.qr' .j.bs' 
fabarum et pisarum ibidem .viij.s.j.d.ob'.qu' videUcet pro quarterio 
.j.d.ob' Item pro cariacione .Cxxxiij.qr' .dim'.qr' .j.pc' ordei 
.xj.s.j.d.ob' videlicet pro quarterio .j.d. Item pro cariacione 
.CClxvij.qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs' auene ibidem .xvj.s.viij.d.ob' videUcet 
pro quarterio .ob\qu. Item in conduccione dennagu pro batillis 
predicta blada cariantibus .ij.s.x.d. Item in cariacione predictorum 
.XXXV. toneUorum et barillorum de Lincolnia usque ad Sanctum 
Botulphum per aquam. que continebant .Cxxuj.qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs' 
farine .xv.s.v.d. videlicet pro quarterio .j.d.ob' 

Summa .Ixxvj.s.viij.d. 

In conduccione .v. nauicularum cariantium .D.xl.qr' bladi de 
Sancto Botulphum usque [ad] Weynflet ad maiores naues .xv.s. 
videlicet cuiUbet nauicule .iij.s. Et in conduccione unius nauicule 
per se pro eodem .ij.s.iij.d. Item in conduccione dennagii pro 
eisdem nauiculis .ij.s.vj.d. Item in conduccione unius nauicule 
cariantis .xxxij.qr' .vij. estrika bladi de ultimo remanente apud 
Weynflet usque ad Sanctum Botulphum et pro dennagio eiusdem 
.viij.s.vj.d. 

Summa .xx viij.s. iij.d. 

In stipendiis .ij. hominum recipiencium et mensurancium 
bladum apud Lincolniam ad granarium et de granario usque ad 
batillos per .xvj. dies .viij.s. videUcet cuilibet eorum per diem 
.iij.d. In expensis unius clerici existentis ibidem per idem tempus 
ultra recepcionem et liberacionem bladi predicti .v.s.iiij.d. videUcet 
per diem .iiij.d. Item in stipendUs .Uijo^. hominum recipiencium 
et mensurancium bladum apud Sanctum Botulphum per .xiUj. 
dies .xiiij.s. videUcet cuilibet eorum per diem .iij.d. Item in expensis 
unius clerici existentis ibidem per idem tempus ultra recepcionem 
et Uberacionem bladi predicti .vij.s. videUcet per diem .vj.d. Item 
in stipendiis .ij. hominum recipiencium et mensurancium bladum 



1S8 ASSIZE POLL o05 

apud Weynflet per x. dies .v.s. videlicet cnilibet eonim per diem 
.iij.d. Item in expensis unius clerici existentis ibidem per diem 
tempus ultra recepcionem et liberacionem bladi predicti .v.s. 
videlicet per diem .rj.d. Item in stipendiis .ij. hominum recipiencium 
et mensurancium bladuin apud Grymmesby per .viij. dies .riij.s. 
videlicet cuilibet eorum per diem .iij.d. Item in expensis unius 
clerici existentis ibidem per idem tempus vltra recepcionem et 
liberacionem bladi predicti .iiij.s. videlicet per diem .vj.d. 

Summa lij.s.iiij.d. 

In frettagio nauis lohannis de Nasingges que vocatur Petre 
de Sancto Botulpho usque in Flandriam que recepit .CClxvj.qr' 
.dim' qr' frumenti .Ixxvj.s. vj.d. Et in conduccione dennagii 
eiusdem .viij.s. 

In frettagio nauis Stephani de Stanham que vocatur Katerine 
de Sancto Botulpho que recepit .Clij.qr' .dim' qr' fabarum et 
pisarum usque ad partes Flandrie transuehenda .Ixvij.s.vj.d. Et 
in conduccione dennagii eiusdem .viij.s. vj.d. 

In frettagio nauis Willelmi de la Bothe que vocatur Jonette 
de Sancto Botulpho usque in Flandriam que recepit .xj. dolia 
farine continencia .liiij.qr' Et .Ixxiij.qr' et dim' qr' fabarum et 
pisarum Et C.xlv.qr' auene .xiiij. carcosa bouina et dim' .xxxiij. 
baconos et dim' .Ixvij.s.vj.d. Et in dennagio eiusdem .vij.s. Et 
n factura cuiusdam corde .xij.d. 

In frettagio nauis Alexandri Pyg' de Wynteringham que 
vocatur Godyer de Sancto Botulpho usque in Flandriam que recepit 
.xxxiiij. tonellos farine continentes .Cxxxj.qr' .j.bs' .dim' bs' farine. 
Et .CCCClxix.qr' auene. Et .C.xj.qr' ordei .Ixxv.s. Et in dennagio 
eiusdem .ix.s.ij.d.ob' Et in uno Lodemanno conducto pro con- 
ducendo naui extra portum .iij.s. 

In frettagio nauis Laurencii filii Hugonis et Walteri filii Alani 
que vocatur Belle de Weynflet usque in Flandriam que recepit 
.C.qr' frumenti. Et .C.xx.qr' auene .xxx.s. Et in dennagio eiusdem 
dim' m. 

In frettagio nauis Laurencii filii Hugonis que vocatur Blythe 
de Weynflet usque in Flandriam que recepit .C.x.qr' .dim' bs' 
fiTimenti. Et .j^.xij.qr' auene .Ivj.s.iij.d. Et in dennagio eiusdem 
.dim' m. 

In frettagio nauis Alani de Wrangel et Petri filii Haconis que 
vocatur Godyer de Weynflet usque in Flandriam que recepit 
.C.xxxv.qr' frumenti. Et .lix.qr' fabarum et pisarum .xlviij.s.ix.d. 
Et in dennagio eiusdem .dim' m. 

In frettagio nauis Simonis de Wrangel et Thome de Swyne 
que vocatur Faucon de Weynflet usque in Flandriam que recepit. 
.i".qr' frumenti Et .Ix.qr' ordei .xxv.s. Et in dennagio eiusdem 
.vj.s. 



APPENDIX IV 189 

In frettagio nauis Hoberti filii Alani de Germetliorp'' (|ue 
vocatur Blytbe de Grymmesby usque in Flandriam que recepit 
•Hij-jqr' frumenti. Et Ij.qr' .dim' qr' et .dim" bs' fabarum et 
pisarum. Et .v.qr' .j.bs' auene .ij.qr' et .dim' ordei .viij. tonellos 
continentes .xlij.qr' farine .xxxviij.s.vj.d. Et in dennagio eiusdem 
.dim' m. 

In frettagio alterius nauis Petri Duraunt cjue vocatur Blytlie 
de Grymmesby usque in Flandriam que recej)it .c.lx.qr' frumenti 
.xxij.qr' .iij.bs' ordei .Ixj.qr' auene .ij. carcosa bouina et dim' et 
.X. baconos .Ix.s. Et in dennagio eiusdem .dim' m. 

In frettagio nauis lohannis Herny que vocatur Gerlaund de 
Brummouth', de Sancto Botulpho usque Anuers in Brabancia que 
recepit .Ixix.qr' .j.bs' frumenti .xx.qr' et dim' fabarum et pisarum 
.xj.qr' ordei Et .Ixxv.qr' auene .iiij.l. Et in dennagio eiusdem 
.vij.s. 

Summa frettagii .xj. nauium predictarum .xxxj.l.v.s. 

Summa dennagii pro eisdem .Ixxix.s.ob'. 

Et in quoddam Lodemanno et .j. corda .iiij.s. 

yumma summarum .lix.l.xv.s.ix.d. de quarum particulis.- 

Hec cedula facta est bipartita cuius una pars remanet penes 
predictum Ricardum de Hetherington Clericura ad opus domini 
regis, et altera pars penes predictum Radulfum vicecomitem. 
Set inde debent extrahi .iij.s. de dennagio nauis lohannis Herny 
pro eo quod non recepit nisi .iiij.s. ubi recipere debebat .vij.s. pro 
dennagio predicto. 

[To the above account is attached a small schedule in respect 
of the bran obtained from milling the corn] : — 

Vendicio furfuris prouexientis de frumento in comitatu 
lincolnie ad opus domini regis capto et molito per ricardum 

DE HeTHERINGTOX CLERICUM DOMINI REGIS ET R. PaYNEL VICE- 
COHTEM COMITATUS PREDICTI ANNO REGNI REGIS EdWARDI 
VICESIMO QUINTO. 

Idem Radulfus vicecomes respondit de .Ixxix.s.iiij.d. pro 
.lix.qr' et dim' furfuris venditi prouenientis de frumento moUto 
apud Lincolniam iuxta responsionem pistorum Ciuitatis Lincolnie 
ad hoc electorum et iuratorum, precii quarterii .xvj.d. Idem 
Radulfus vicecomes respondit de .xviij.s.vij.d. pro .xxij.qr' .j.bs' 
.dim' bs' furfuris venditi prouenientis de frumento moUto apud 
JSanctum Botulphum precii quarterii .x.d. Idem Radulfus vice- 
comes respondit de .ix.s.iiij.d. pro .xiiij.qr' furfuris venditi pro- 
uenientis de frumento molito apud Grymmesby . sicut patet 

• Grainthorpe, Louthesk. 

- Sc. '"are returned," or "are sent in.' 1 am uidebted ru Miss Mills 
for drawing my attention to this. 



190 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

in alio cyrographo cui istud cyrographum consutum est. precii 
quarterii .viij.d. 

Summa C.vij.s.iij.d. 

Vendicio canabi ibidem facti. 

Idem Radulfus vicecomes respondit de .vj.s. viij.d. pro .xl. 
vlnis canabi venditis de canabo prius empto pro loco bultacionis 
farine faciendo apud Lincolniam precii vine .ij.d. 

Summa .vj.s.viij.d. 

Summa tocius .C.xiij.s.xj.d. 

Et memorandum quod de .xx. vlnis canabi emptis apud Sanctum 
Botulphum pro loco bultacionis farine ibidem, facti fuerunt .vj.sacci. 
Et de .XX. vlnis grosse tele emptis pro eodem apud Grymmesby, 
sicut patet in alio cyrographo cui hoc cyrographum consutum est 
facti fuerunt .v. sacci. Et .x. sacci facti apud Lincolniam pro 
portagio et cariagio bladi de .xxxvij. vlnis grosse tele que empte 
fuerunt ut patet in alio cyrographo. Et .iiij^'". sacci qui facti 
fuerunt de .xvj. vlnis grosse tele apud Weynflet pro portagio et 
cariagio bladi ibidem. Et C.lxxj. sacci, empti sicut patet in aUo 
cyrographo missi fuerunt vltra mare in Flandriam cum nauibus 
blada ibidem transuehentibus iuxta ordinaciones et breuia domini 
Regis super hoc predictis Ricardo et vicecomiti directa. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

I. ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES 

A. IManuscrept 

Public Record Office : 

Ancient Extents (Exchequer) [E. 142], no. 82 (1), 18 Ed. I. 

Assize Rolls [J. 1], nos. 1286 (17-23 Ed. I : pleas arising out of 
the fire at Boston Fair in 1288 ; inquisitions ; presentment 
of Boston bailiffs ; gaol deliveries. Lines, membranes are 
nos. 2-12, 14-20, 22-6, 29-30, 34-9, 42-3 [part], 53) ; 1293 
(19 Ed. I : essoins, assizes, pleas, rolls of attorneys. Lines, 
membranes : 1-8, 16 [Notts, but relevant to Lines, in some 
respects], 20-3, 26) ; 1304 (22-35 Ed. I : pleas, assizes, essoins. 
Lines, membranes : 7d-17) ; 506 (27 Ed. I : assizes. Eleven 
membranes, all of Lines.) ; 1316 (28 Ed. I : assizes and essoins. 
Lines, membranes : 24-9, 42-3) ; 1320 (29 Ed. I : assizes. 
Lines, membranes : 23-9) ; 1322 (29-30 Ed. I : assizes. 
Lines, membranes : 17-23) ; 842 (26 Ed. I : Suffolk pleas 
under 1298 enquiry) ; 587, 588 (26 Ed. I : Norfolk pleas, 
similarly). 

Chancery mscellanea [C. 47], nos. 1/3 (20 Ed. I), 1/6 (28 Ed. I). 

Customs Accounts (Boston) [E. 122], nos. 5/4 (22 Ed. I), 5/5 
(24^5 Ed. I), 5/5A (25-6 Ed. I). 

Feet of Fines [CP. 25 (1) ], nos. 134/65 (24-6 Ed. I), 134/66 
(27 Ed. I), 134/67 (28-9 Ed. I). 

Fines and Amercements [E. 101, 119], no. 27 (22 Ed. I). 

Lay Subsidy RoUs [E. 179], nos. 63/1, 135/2, 135/3, 135/6 

(25 Ed. I). 

Memoranda Rolls, King's Remembrancer [E. 159], nos. 64 
(18-9 Ed. I), 65 (19-20 Ed. I), 66 (20-1 Ed. I), 67 (21-2 Ed. I), 
68 (22-3 Ed. I), 69 (23-4 Ed. I), 70 (24-5 Ed. I), 71 (25-6 Ed. I), 
72 (26-7 Ed. I). 

Memoranda Rolls, Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer [E. 368], 
nos. 66 (22-3 Ed. I), 67 (23-4 Ed. I), 68 (24-5 Ed. I), 69 (25-6 
Ed. I), 70 (26-7 Ed. I), 71 (27-8 Ed. I). 

Ministers' Accounts nos. 1/1 (Duchy of Lancaster : accounts of 
Lines, estates for 24-5 Ed. I on m. 6-lOd) ; 910/7 (Manor of 
Greatford, late of John de Mortuo Mari, 18 Ed. I) ; 910/8 
(the same, 24 Ed. I) ; 910/9 (the same, 28-9 Ed. I) ; 910/14 
(Manor of Holywell, 29 Ed. I) ; 1116/9 (Honour of Richmond, 
23-4 Ed. I : accounts of Linos, estates on fif. 2-9d). 

191 



192 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

Parliamentary Proceedings [C. 49.2], file ii. no. 26. 

Patent Roll [C. 66], no. 118 (26 Ed. I). 

Pipe Roll [E. 372J, no. 44 (8 Ric. I). 

Rental and Survey Rolls [S.C. 11], Roll 404 (Extent of the Manor 
of Edenham, 28 Ed. I), Roll 414 (Rental of St. Michael's 
Nunnery. Stamford, temp. Ed. I). 

Sheriffs' Accounts [E. 199], Bundle 22, no. 7. 

Sheriffs" Administrative Accounts [E. 101], no. 568/1 (25 Ed. I). 
[See App. IV.] 

Lincoln : 

Register of Oliver Sutton, Memoranda (Diocesan Record Office, 
Lincoln, Register I). 

B. Printed 
Bemont, C, Roles Gascons, iii (1885). 
Calendar of Charter Bolls, 1226-57 ; 1257-1300. 
Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1225-32 ; 1292-1301. 
Calendar of Close Rolls, 1288-96 ; 1296-1302. 
Calendojr of Fine Rolls, vol. i. 

Cotton, Bartholomew, Historia Anglicana (ed. Luard, Rolls Ser., 
1859). 

Fevdal Aids, esp. vol. iii, 1284-1431. 

Foster, C. W., and Longley, T., The Lincolnshire Domesday and 
the Lindsey Survey (Lincoln Record Soc, vol. 19, 1924). 

Fowler, G. H., Rolls from the Office of the Sheriff of Beds, and 
Bucks., 1332-1334 (Bedfordshire Historical Record Society, 
Quarto Memoirs, vol. iii, 1929). 

Hemingburgh, Walter of, Chronicon, ii (ed. H. C. Hamilton, 

1848-9. 

Jenkinson, H., and Formoy, Beryl E. R., Select Cases in the 
Exchequer of Pleas (Selden Soc, vol. 48, 1931). 

Maitland, F. W. (ed.), Select Pleas of the Crown (Selden Soc, 
vol. 1, 1887). 

Select Pleat; in Manorial Courts, i (Selden Soc, vol. 2, 

1888). 

The Court Baron (Selden Soc, vol. 4, 1891). 



Parliamentary Writs (Rec Com.). 
Rynier, Foedera, i (Rec. Com.). 
Statutes of the Realm (Pwcc Com.). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 103 

Stentou, D. M., Tke Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Bolls, 1202-9 
(Lincoln Record Soc, vol. 22, 1926). 

Tout, T. F., and Hilda Johnstone, State Trials of Edivard I 
(Camden Soc, 3rd ser., vol. ix, 1906). 

Trivet. Nicholas, Aymales (ed. T. Hog, 1845). 

II. Modern Works 

Associated Architectural Societies, Reports and Papers, xxviii. 

Baldwin, J. F.. The King's Council (1913). 

B^mont, C, Charles des liberies anqlaises (1892). 
Boyd. W. K., " Records of Ancient Horncastle," in Lincolnshire 
Notes and Queries, iv. 

Cam, H. M., Studies in the Hundred Rolls (Oxford Studies in 
Social and Legal History, vi, 1921). 

The Hundred and the Httndred Rolls (1930). 

Darby, H. C, The Medieval Fenland (1940). 

(ed.), An Historical Geography of England before 1800 (1936). 

Denholm-Young, N., Seignorial Administration in England (Oxford 
Historical Series, 1937). 

Ehrlich, L., Proceediyigs Against the Cromn, 1216-1377 (Oxford 
Studies, vi, 1921). 

Foss, E., Judges of England, iii (1848-64). 

Gras, N. S. B., The Early English Customs System (1918). 

Hall, H., Formula Book of Legal Records (1908-9). 

Hunt, W., and Poole, R. L. (ed.). Political History of England, 
iii (1216-1377), by T. F. Tout. 

Jacob, E. F., Stiidies in the Period of Baronial Reform and 
Rebellion, 1258-67 (Oxford Studies, viii, 1925). 

Jenkinson, H.. The Later Court Hands in England (1927). 

Lipson, E., The Economic History of England, i (7th ed., 1937). 

Lunt, W. E., The Valuation of Norwich (1926). 

Papal Revenues, i (1934). 

McKechnie, W.S., Magna Carta (1905). 

Mills, M. H.. " The Adventus Vicecomitum," in E.H.R., 
xxxviii, pp. 331-54. 

Morris. J. E., The Welsh Wars of Edward I (1901). 

Morris. W. A., The Medieval Sheriff (1927). 

Pollock, Sir F., and Maitland, F. W., History of English Law 
(2nd ed., 1923). 

N 



194 ASSIZE ROLL 505 

Public Record Office, Lists and Indexes. 

Roth well, H., '• The Disgrace of Richard of Louth," in E.H.R., 
vol. 48, pp. 259-64. 

Stubbs, W., Constitutional History of England (3rd ed., 1880). 

Select Charters (9th ed., revised H. VV. C. Davis). 

Tout, T. F., Edward I (1896). 

The Place of Edward II in English History (1914). 

Chapters in Medieval Administrative History (1920 on). 

Vinogradoff, Sir P., English Society in the Eleventh Century 
(1908). 

Willard, J. F., Parliamentary Taxes on Personal Property, 1290- 
1334 (1934). 



(195) 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



The late Mr. Sinclair Thomson prepared a biographical index of persona mentioned in 
A.R. 5ti5 or holding offico at that time either in the organs of local government or in 
connection with taxation in Lincolnshire. This would have been printed as an 
appendix, but in view of the fact that nearly all persons mentioned in the volume were 
contained therein, it seemed desirable to use it as tho ordinaxy index of persons and 
so save paper. The necessary additions and cross-references have therefore been nvade. 
XoU\s. — Persons mentioned in A.R. 505 are given in Roman typo, those occurring in tho 
Appendices or the Introduction onh-, in italics, in accordance with Mr. Thomson's plan. 
When the surname is an identifiable place-name the modem form only is given in tJie 
Index of Persons but all variants will be found in the Index of Places. iS'ee B.I. under 
entries in the Index of Places indicates that there are persons of that surname. 
The Roman numerals refer to the Introduction, the Arabic to the text : case numbers 
are given in brackets following the page numbers. 

Mr. Thomson left the following note : In the biographical notes, details from A.R. 505 
are given first, then information from external sources, if any. As regards important 
officials such as sheriffs, about whom information is likely to be voluminous, I have 
for the most part given only details (where they are to be found) concerning their 
activities in Lincolnshire, their relations with other Lincolnshire personalities, or 
their transactions in relation to prices of foodstuffs. Linaits of this kind are necessary, 
not merely on account of space, but also because the subject of the mediaeval sheriff 
has already been exhaustively treated by historians. 



Abbot. Robert, of Stixwould, plaintiff, 
1298, against John s. of Robert of 
To>-nton, William de Horneby and 
William of Hemingby, all q.v., 
33 (164) 

Aberdeen, William of, minor official, rank 
not given, 120 (452) 

Abraham, his son. See William 

Adam, 1291 : chief bailiff of Kesteven 
[A.I,'. 1286. m. 52]. 140 

Adam a. of Martin, juror of the City of 
Lincoln, 1298 ; 1291 : 'Adam s. of 
Martin of Lincoln ' paid to John 
Djme, sheriii, 24 marks, proceeds 
of a sale of Jews' houses in Lincoln 
{K.B.M.R. no. 64, m. 13], cv, 129 
(479) 

Adam a. of Walter, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in VATiisbv, Graff oe [Lay 
Subs. Roll, 135/3, m. 10], 175 

Adelard, W^illiam, of Braceby, main- 
pernor of Robert Bate, sub-taxor 
q.v., 1U9 (415) 

Agate, Agaze Henry, of Fulbeck, jiu-or of 
Loveden wapentake, 1298,55(255), 
128 (478) 

Agaze, see Agate 

Agnes, the ^vidow (la vedfe), plaintiff, 
1298. against Walter Est q.v., cix, 
86 (356) 



Agnes, her son. See John ; Richard ; 

Robert ; William 
Aisbv, John of, juror of Threo wapentake, 

1298, 39 (198a), 135 (498a) 
Aisthorpe, Geoffrey s. of TTheobald of, 

juror of LauTess wapentake, 1298, 

133 (491) 
Aky, William, of Tukcsford in Marton, 

minor official, rank not given, 22 

(120) 
Alan s. of Alexander, 1297 : sub-taxor of 

the ninth in Wyville and Hvmgerton 

[Lay Subs. Boll 135/3. mm. 9. 11], 

172 
Alan s. of Reginald, 1297 : sub-taxor of 

the ninth in Leverton [Lay Subs. 

Boll, 135/3, m. 1], 167 
Alan a. of Bobert, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 

ninth in Fishtoft [Lay Subs. Boll 

135/3, m. 1], 167 
Alan s. of Boger, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 

ninth in Frampton [Lay Subs. Boll 

135/3, mm. 7. 8], 172 
Alan s. of William, juror of Horncastle 

Soke and Liberty, 1298, 131 (485) 
Alan, vicar of Dunston, plaintiff, 1298, 

against Ivo of Billinghayg.t;.; Alan 

was also the executor of the will 

of William, vicar of Methering- 

ham. 116 (439) 



196 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Alan, his son. See Thomas; \\'alter ; 

WiHiam 
Albano, Cardihal, papal mmoio, 10-1 (400 

and n), 181 
Albot, William, \'2d~ : aub-tuxor of the 
ninth in Doihlinpton Pigot [Lay 
Suba. Roll 135/3, m. 10], 175 
Albyn. Robert, of Carlton-le-Moorland, 
juror of Boothbv and Ciraffoe 
wapentakes, 12<J8,"lL' (51) 
Aldus, Elizabeth, of Dorrington, 96 

(379) 
Aldus, John, of Dorrington. Paid, with 
his wife, 1 mark mainprise money 
in 1298, 96 (379) 
Alduist, Robert, mainpernor of Hugli 
Habrough, snb- bailiff of Lud- 
borough, q.v., 20 (lOU) 
Alewy, Robert, 1297; sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Carlton le Moorland [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 10], 174 
Alexander, his son. 6'ee Alan ; Walter. 
Alford, Robert of, juror of Calcewath, 

wapentake, 1298, 131 (486) 
Algarkirk, Gilbert s. of Acelin of, 
plaintiff against Nigel the Chap- 
man of Donington by Spalding. 
Probably a small tenant, 8 (29) 
Alger, John, of Welby, minor official, 
rank not given ; perhaps a col- 
lector. 1301 ; ' the assize comes 
to declare whether John Alger 
and others mijustly disseised 
Richard Fraunceys of Welby of 
his free tenement of a quad- 
rangular piece of land 12 feet long 
by 18 feet wide with appurten- 
ances, in Welby.' There was a 
fault in the writ, which Richard 
withdrew [A.R. 1320, m. 27(/], 
cvii, 109 (415) 
Alice, her son. See Richard ; William. 
Ahnot, Robert, 1297 ; sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Hough-on-the-Hill and 
Gelston with Brandon [Lay- 
Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 4]. 1303: 
Robert held two parts of one fee 
in Brandon [F.A., Hi, p. 130], 170 
Almot, Robert, of Fulbeck, main- 
pernor of Walter Payn, q.v. This 
may be the same person as 
Robert Almot the collector of 
taxes, but in view of inadequate 
evidence, I have listed them 
separately. (W.S.T.) 110 (416), 
170 
Aired, Thomas, of Rauceby, stood 
pledge to Alexander Golderon, 
bailif¥ of Aswardhurn, q.v., 85 
(355) 
Alsatit, Alan, cv 

Alsant, Roger, of Torksey, juror of 
Lawress wapentake, 1298. 1299 : 
' Roger s. of Alan Alsaunt ' had 
a writ of assize of novel dis- 



Alsaut, Roger— co»(<. 

seisin brought against him by 
Gilbert atte Persones, q.v., con- 
cerning a tenement in Torksey, 
but Gilbert did not prosecute 
[A.R. 506. m. 4]. (Alan, Roger's 
father, was in 1290 imprisoned at 
Lincoln for burning houses and 
for robberies committed at Boston 
Fail- [Ass. Abch. See, R.P., 
xxviii, cv, 133 (491) 
Alta Ripa, William do (Haverstoe), 
stood pledge in 1298 to Ralph 
Notebroun, bailiff of West Riding, 
q.v., 16 (64) 
Alta Ripa, William de, juror of Kirton 
wapentake, 1298, 55 (254), 125 
(466) 
Amcotts, Jolm of, juror of the City of 

Lincohi. 1298, 129 (479) 
Amorv, Amrnory, Hugh, bailiff of 
' Candleshoe, 1298. 1298, Easter: 
the sheriff was ordered to dis- 
train Simon s. of Guy of Wain- 
fleet, q.v., and Hugh Amory by 
all their lands, etc., and to have 
their persons before the Barons of 
the Exchequer to answer to the 
kmg for certain goods and chattels 
of aliens which were in Simon 
and Hugh's hands according as 
it was found by an inquisition 
lately taken in Lmcs. [1296] by 
John de Insula, Baron of the 
Exchequer ; and to hear the 
judgment of the court concerning 
many defavUts [L.T.R.M.R. No. 
69, m. 119], 6 (22), 20 (91), 33 
(163), 57 (263), 58 (264), 65 (289), 
66 (292), 145 (bis), 153, n. 51-2. 
Amour, Philip, plaintiff, 1298, against 
William Lambetoth, q.v., 76 (327) 
Amyas, Walter de, plaintiff in 1298 
against Thomas of Easton, bailiff 
of Beltisloe and Ness, 71 (311) 
Ancaster, Nicholas of, of Sleaford, 
mainpernor in 1298 of Hugh 
Bardolf, bailiff of Aswardhm'n, 
q.v., 1297 ; assessor, for the 
ninth, of the projjerty of the sub- 
taxors of this tax in Aswardhurn 
and Beltisloe wapentakes. 

Nicholas was assisted by five 
others, [Lay Subs. Roll 135/6, 
m. 1], 18 (72), 165 
Artflretv s. of Robert, 1297 ; sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Swine.shead, [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3, mvi. 7, 8], 171 
Angers, Abbot of, 49 (238). See also 

Robert, Brother. 
Angevin, Aungeuin, Avuigeuyn, Aun- 
pewyn, Thomas, bailiff of Candle- 
shoe. His mainpernors (cf. Nos. 
16, 98, 215) come from A.shby-by- 
Partney. 1300, Oct. 24 : ' Thomas 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



19: 



Angevin, Thomas — cant. 

Aungewevn de Askeby ' was 
affeeretl at lOd. because lio did 
not come to the court when sum- 
moned [A.R. 1316. m. 29]. 1301 : 
' Thomas Angevin do Haskeby ' 
stood rei'ognitor in an assize of 
novel disseisin concerning a tene- 
ment in Skendlebv[.-l.i?., 1322, m. 
2Zd]. 1303: 'Thomas Aimge\'j-n ' 
held the eighth part of one fee in 
Ashby, of the fee of Chester 
[F.A'.. in. p. 143], 3 (16), 20 (98). 
41 (215), 57 (261), 145, 153, 
n. 51-2 

Angevin, Aungewyni, William, s. of 
Thomas, mainpernor of his father. 
129S, 3(16). 20(98), 41 (215) 

Angulo, Beatrice in, mulcted unjustly 
and by distraint of 12d. by 
-AJexander Golderon, bailiff of 
As\\-ardhum, q.v., (87) 360 

Angiilo. John in, 1297; sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Normanton [Lay Subs. 
Roll 136/3. m. 4], 170 

Angulo, M'alter in. 1297; sub-taxor of 
the ninth in North and South 
Stoke [Lay Subs. Roll 135' 3. 
mm. 9, 11], 173 

Angulo, William in, of Skillington, mam- 
pernor of Henrv Clerk of Skilling- 
ton, q.v.. 1298,' 12 (50) 

Anwick, Richard of, of Asgarbv, juror 
of Aswardhum in 1298, 38(197), 
117 (442), 132 (490) 

Apelgarth, Richard de, of Leasingham, 
juror of Flaxwell and Langoe 
wapentakes, 1298, 11 (45) 

Apethorpe, Agnes of, plaintiff, 
against Thomas of Easton, 
69 (305) 

Apethorpe, Robert of, plaintiff, 
against Thomas of Easton, 
69 (305) 

Apethorpe, Roger of, 
against Thomas 
(71) 313 

Apethorpe, William of, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Thomas of Easton, q.v.. 
and William of Apethorpe, minor 
official, q.v.. 69 (305), 70 (307) 

Apethorpe, William of, minor official, 
1298, rank not given, but perhaps 
a collector of some kind 70 (307) 

Aquam, Hugh Ad, of Millthorpe, juror 
of Aveland wapentake, 1298. 
(11) 39 

Aquam, Richard Ultra, of Colsterworth, 
1297 ; sub-taxor of the ninth in 
Colsterworth [Lay Sub.i. Roll 
135/6. m. 1], 164 

Aquam, Walter Ultra, of Sapperton, 
juror of Threo wapentake. 1298, 
135 (498a) 

Aquam, Ultra. See alao Beyondthebek 



1298, 
q.v.. 

1298, 
q.v., 



plaintiff, 1298, 
of Easton, q.v.. 



Arderne, Andrew de, juror of Calcewath, 
1298, 131 (486) 

Arderne, Harden, Thomas de, of 
Ewerby, juror of Aswardhurn, 
1298, 39 (197), 117 (442), 133 
(490) 

Argerby, Elias s. of Ralph de, main- 
pernor of Richard de la More, q.v., 
a minor official, 85 (354) 

Argrjon, Amegrim. Richard, juror of 
Ludborough wapentake, 1298, 
39 (204), 127 (475) 

Arnchton . John de, 1297; assessor, for 
the ninth, of the property of the 
sub-taxors of this tax in Winni- 
briggs wapentake. John was 
a.ssisted by five others [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3 m. 9], 174 

Arnegrim. See Argrym 

Ascer, John, of Stickford, juror of 
Bolingbroke wapentake, 1298, 132 
(488) 

Asgarby, John s. of Adam of, plaintiff, 
1298, against Walter Est, bailiff 
of Kesteven, q.v.. 86 (358) 

Ashby, Henry of, mainpernor of his 
brother, William of Heraingby, 
q.v., bailiff of Gartree, 41 (221) 

Ashby, John of, of Keisby, mainpernor, 
1298, of a juror of Beltisloe 
wapentake who failed to appear 
when summoned, 12 (49) 

Ashby, AVilliam of, member of a jury of 
mercers, probably in Boston, 1298, 
125 (465) 

Ashby [de la Laund], John s. of John of, 
mainpernor of a juror of Flaxwell 
and Langoe. 1298, 11 (40) 

Ashby (de la Laund), Robert of, juror of 
Flaxwell and Langoe wapentakes. 
1298, 11 (40, 45 n.), 37 (193) 

Ashby [de la Laund], Robert s. of Roger 
of, mainpernor of Walter Deauda- 
mour, an official, q.v., 106 
(403) 

Ashby (de la Laund), Roger of, plaintiff, 
1298, against Ivo of Billinghay, 
q.v., 102 (395) 

Ashby [de la Laund], Vincent of, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Richard le Long, 
q.v., 109 (415) 

Ashby [de la Laund], William of, vicar 
of Ashby-de-la-Laund, 1298 ; 
plaintiff against Ivo of Billinghay 
and Nicholas of Rvhall, q.v., 
106 (404), 107 (409-10) 

Ashby [by Partney], Baldric of, plaintiff 
against three collectors of the 
tenth in Ashby-by-Partney, 68 
(301) 

Ashby [by Partney], Walter of, 1296; 
sub-taxor of the twelfth in Bratoft 
and Welton-le-Marsh. Convicted 
of irregularities, 1298. 56 (257), 
64 (287). 160 



19S 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Asplon, Jolin, of Stamford, 1298 : named 
juror of Stamford, but did not 
8er\-e. 1312 : in the Account 
Roll for Christmas, 1312, of S. 
Michael's Xunnerj', Stamford, 2/- 
rent is entered as collected from 
' lohan Aspelon,' which he owed 
to the Nunneiy [Rent, and Surv. 
Boll 414, niw. 3f/, M]. 126 (469) 

Asselyn, Walter, member of a jury of 
gildsmen, 1298; of Brussels, 127 
(472) 

Asserbj', Affordeby, John of, mainpernor 
of William Loseward, bailiff of 
the South Riding, 6 (21) 

Asty, Henry, of Hough-on-the-Hill, 
plaintiff against John of Pattis- 
hall, q.v., 1298, but did not 
prosecute. 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Hough-on-the-Hill 
and Gelston with Brandon. He 
himself was assessed at ^ quarter 
of com worth 1/6 ; 1 qr. of dredge 
worth 2/- ; i qr. of beans worth 
1/'- ; 1 qr. of oats worth 1/6 ; 
1 draught-beast worth 2/- ; 1 ox 
worth 6/- ; 1 stirk worth 2/-. 
The total was 15/-, the ninth part 
being 1/8 [Lay Subs. Boll 135/3, 
m. 5]. 13 (56), 170 

Astyn, Thomas, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Alan ad Ecclesiam, q.i\, cix, 63 
(282) 

Aswarbj', Alexander of. See Golderon 

Atademes, William, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Norton Disney, 
[Lay Subs. Boll 135/3. m. 10], 174. 

Attebeke, Robert s. of Thomas, of Wood 
Enderby, juror of Homcastle 
Soke and Liberty, 1298, 131 (485) 

Attebeke, William, made a false com- 
plaint, 1298, against Henry of 
Newton, q.v., 39 (199) 

Attcgren, Simon, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Caythorpe and Frieaton 
[Lay Subs. Boll 135/3. m. 4], 170 

Attehalle, Oeojjrey, 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Thorpe on the Hill 
[Lay Subs. Boll 135/3, m. 10], 175 

Auerey, Aurej', Thomas, of Rauceby, 
juror of Flaxwell and Langoe 
wapentakes, 1298. 11 (44), 53(251) 

Aula, Roger de, of Hamiston, juror of 
Boothby and Graffoe wapentakes, 
1298, 52 (252), 130 (481) 

Aulam, Thomas ad, of Conesby, main- 
pernor of Roger Hurtquarter, 
q.v., 1298, 23 (124) 

Aulam, Thomas ad, of Donington-on- 
Bain, juror of Horncastle and 
Gartree wapentakes, 1298, 38 
(195), 130 (483) 

Aulam, William ad, 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Benniworth [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3. m. 12]. 176 



Aulam, William ad, of Ashby, Mauley, 
juror of Manlev wapentake, 1298, 
133 (492) 

Aum.oner, John le, elected coroner of 
Lincolnshire prior to 9 Aug., 1298, 
but found to have no lands in Lin- 
colnshire to qualify him for office 
[C.C.B. 1296-1302. p. 171], 138 

Aumry, Robert, of Tealby, jiu-or of 
Walshcroft wapentake, 1298, 38 
(196) 

Aunay, Abbot of, 49 (238). See also 
John, Brother 

Aungeuin, Aungeuyn, AungewjTi. See 
Angevin 

Aunsby, John of, clerk to Walter Est, 
q.v.. 117 (444). 147 n. 4 

Aunsby Geoffrey of mainpernor, 1298, 
of Roger ad Crucem, q.v., 109 
(415) 

Aunsby, Philip of, royal official, asso- 
ciated with Walter Deaudamour, 
q.v., and possibly his clerk, xcii, 
43 (228-0) 

Avnsby, Simoji, s. of Ralph of, 1297: 
appointed one of the chief taxors 
of the ninth in Lincolnshire, 
afterwardssuper8eded[iy.T.i?.iVf.i?. 
No. 69, m. 38 ; K.R.M.R No. 71, 
TO. 120dl 161 [bis] 

Auny, John, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Stephen Punne, q.v.. 114 (429) 

Averey, Joce. 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Wyberton [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3. TO. 8], 172 

Aylesby, John of, 1292, Michaelmas ; 
bailiff of the men of Grimsby 
[K.R.M.B. No. 66, m. 1]. 1293, 
Michaelmas; the same [Ibid., 
No. 67, TO. 2], 154 (bis) 

Aylmer, Geoffrey, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Ivo of Billinghay, q.v., 106 (405) 

Avlmer, Gilbert, of Howell, mainpernor 
1298, of Thomas Russel of Holy- 
well, q.v., 34 (171) 



Bacerel, Walter, paid 1 mark mainprise 
money in 1298. 96 (379) 

Bacon, Bacoun, Roger, juror of Elloe 
wapentake, 1298. 1291, Sept. 28 : 
Nicholas s. of Roger s. of Nigel of 
Whaplode, essoins himself by John 
Fox against ' Roger Bacon of 
Whaplode ' and others in a plea 
of assize of novel disseisin [A.R. 
1293, m. 20]. 1291 : it is granted 
by the justices that William s. of 
Simon Holbeach or Everard of 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



199 



Bacon, Roper — cont. 

Holbeach shall prosecute on behalf 
of Nicholas s. of Roger against 
' Roger Bacun ' and others in a 
writ concerning a plea of assize of 
novel disseisin. Nicholas being 
xinder ago [A.R. 1293. m. 26]. 
1300, Oct. 24 : ' Roger s. of Roger 
Bacouu of Whaplode ' brought an 
fissize of mort d'ancestor against 
Lambert s. of Geoffrey of Hol- 
beach concerning Roger junior's 
free tenement in Whaplode. but 
did not prasecute [A.R. 1316, 
m. 29]. If the identity of Roger 
senior is the same in all eases, he 
held lands in Wliaplode, EUoe, 
and died some time between the 
end of 1298 and the autumn of 
1300, 54 (253), 125 (467) 

Bacon, William, plaintiff, 1298, against 
John Mog', collector of prise, 84 
(353) 

Bacour, Ralph le, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Alan of Tallington, q.v.. 
103 (397) 

Eadde, William, of Brinkhill, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Roger of Brink- 
hill, q.v., and Richard of Brink- 
hill, q.v., U (59), 26 (136, 138) 

Baeus, Bayeus, Henrj' de, royal clerk, 
appointed, with William de Wode- 
ford, q.v., in Lincolnshire, to 
appraise and supervise the sale of 
goods of French merchants whose 
property was taken into the king's 
hands on the outbreak of war. 
The appointment is dated 28 Aug., 
1295 [K.R.M.R. Xo. 68 m. 85d]. 
xxxviii. n. 1, 70 (308), 177 

Baker, the Peaior, Pe^tour, Pistor). 

Baker, Hugh (the, le Pestour, plaintiff, 
1298, against William le Wayte, 
q.v.. 99 (384) 

Baker, Martin, of, Boston, juror of 
Boston, 1298 124 (460) 

Baker, Richard, the, of Ponton, juror of 
Winnibriggs wapentake, 1298 ; 
plaintiff against Robert Pygoun, 
q.v., and against William le Wayte, 
q.v. 1295; Richard was assessed 
for the eleventh as follows : he had 
2 quarters of corn north 5/- per 
quarter ; 6 qrs. of pearl barley 
worth 2/6 per qr. ; 1 qr. of dredge 
corn worth 2/- ; 2 qrs. of oats 
worth 1/6 per qr. ; forage worth 
1/2 ; hay worth 1/- ; 2 draught 
beasts worth 5/- each ; 2 cows 
worth 6/- each; 6 hogs worth 
8d. each; 1 [?] cart worth 2/-. 
The total was 73/2, the eleventh 
part being 6/ 8 J [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/2, m. 7]. 1297 : sub-taxor 
of the ninth iu Great Ponton, 



Baker, Richard, the — cont. 

Winnibriggs. He was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had 1 qr. of corn worth 3/- ; 
1 draught-beast worth 3/- ; 1 cow 
worth 5/-, 3sheep woith l/-each ; 
forage worth 1/-. The total weis 
15/-, the ninth part being 1/8 
[Ibid. 135/3, m. 9]. 1299 : Richard 
was a recognitor in the same assize 
as was William Cryspyn, q.v., 
[A.R. 506, m. lOd]. xc, civ., n. 1, 
87-8 (363, 364), 95 (377), 135 
(497), 172 

Baker, Robert the, 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Belvoir and Wools- 
thorpe [Lay Suba. Roll 135/3, 
m. 11], 173 

Baker, Simon the, of Colby, mainpernor, 
1298, of Hugh del Clyff, q.v., 37 
(190) 

Baker, William the, minor official, rank 
not given, 108-9 (415) 

Bakun, Joce, 1297 ; sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Swineshead [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 7], 171 

Bakun, Robert, juror of the City of 
Lincoln, 1298, 129 (479) 

Baldeswell, Richard de, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Thomas of Easton, q.v., 
1290, April: juror in an inquisi- 
tion into crimes committed at, 
probably, Stamford [A.R. 1286, 
m. 16]. 1300-1 : recognitor on 
several occasions in a long-drawn 
lawsuit between Eustace Mal- 
herbe, q.v., and Ranulph Drvnke- 
dregges [A.R. 1316, m. 27 ;~A.R. 
1320, m. 25d:\. cv., 69 (305) 

Baldeswell, William de, plaintiff (un- 
justly), 1298, against William de 
Ingelton, q.v., 114 (426) 

Baldok, Isabella, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Wilham Lambetoth', q.v. 1295 : 
assessed for the eleventh, in North 
and South Stoke, Winnibriggs, as 
follows : she had 3 quarters of 
com, 5/- per quarter ; 4 qrs of 
barley worth 2/6 per qr. ; 5 qrs. 
of drage worth 2/- per qr. ; 6 qrs. 
of oats worth 1/6 per qr. ; forage 
worth 1/6 ; hay worth 1/- ; 2 
draught-beasts worth 5/- each ; 
1 ox worth 6/- ; 1 cow worth 6/6 ; 
6 sheep worth 1/— each ; 8 ewes 
worth lOd. each ; 6 hogs worth 
8d. each ; 1 cart worth 4/-. The 
total was £4 8s. 8d., the eleventh 
part being 8/Of [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/2, m. 9], ciu-iv, 76 (327) 

Balliol, John, xxix, 181 

Barbur, Ralph le, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Richard le Long, minor official, 
q.v., 109 (415) 

Bardi, the, xxvii, n.l 



200 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Bardncy, Abbot of, 181 

Bardolf, Hugh, bailiff of Aewardhurn, 
1298, 18 (72-3), 77-9 (333, 335-7), 
81-2 (342-6). 83 (348-9) 

Baret, Andrew, of llorbliiig, inniiij)ernor 
of John Baret. q.v., 1298, 118 
(448) 

Baret. John, of Tiorbling, receiver of com 
in the vill of Horbling, 1298. 118 
(44S) 

Baret, Robert, of Horbling, jnainpenior 
of John Baret, q.v., 118 (448) 

Barkston, Roger s. of Stephen of, juror 
of Winnibriggs and Threo wajjen- 
takes. 129S. 13 (55). 135 (498a) 

Barliston, Thomas of, juror of Threo 
wapentake. 1298, 135 (498a) 

Barn, Henry le. of Nortli Willingham, 
plaintiff (mijufitly), 1298, against 
Henry of Newton, q.v., 39 (200) 

Bame, Ralph, niain])ernor, 1298. of 
Ralph s. of Maud, q.v., 119 (450) 

Barnoldby, Oeojfrey of, 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Honington 
[Lay Subs. Roll 63/1, m. 1], 165 

Barnoldby [le Beck], Robert s. of 
Stephen of, juror of Haverstoe 
wapentake, 1298, 129 (480) 

Baron, Roger, plaintiff against Alan ad 
Ecclesiam, q.v., 1298, cix, 03 (282) 

Baroune, Richard, plaintiff" against 
Alexander Golderon, q.v., 87 (359) 

Barrowby, John s. of Alan s. of Ralph 
of, juror of Threo wapentake, 
1298, 135 (498) 

Barton, Baldwin of. juror of Yar- 
borough wapentake. 1298, 127 
(473) 

Basing, Robert de, merchant appointed 
by the Crown to buy wool imder 
the prise of wool of July, 1297. 
The appointment is dated Julv, 
1297 [K.R.M.R. No. 70, m. 108], 
178 

Basset, Robert, of Woolsthoqje, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Robert Pygoim, 
q.v. 1295 : assessed for the 
eleventh in Belvoir and ^Vools- 
thorpe, as follows : he had 2 
quarters of com worth 5/- per 
quarter ; 2 qrs. of drage worth 
2/- per qr. ; 2 qrs. of oats worth 
1/6 per qr. ; 1 qr. of lentils worth 
2/6 ; 1 draught-beast worth 3/- ; 
1 ox worth 6/- ; 1 cow worth 5/- ; 
hay and forage worth 1/-. The 
total was 34/6, the eleventh part 
being 3/2 [Lay Subs. Roll 13-5/2, 
m. 10]. 1297 : assessor, for the 
ninth, of the property of the sub- 
taxors of this tax in Winnibriggs 
wapentake. Robert was assisted 
by five others [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 9], 40 (206), 52 (242), 
174 



Basset William, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Belvoir and Wools - 
thorpe [Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, 
mm. 9, 11], 173 

Bassingham, Walter of, juror of Boothby 
and Graffoe wapentakes. 1298, 
129 (481) 

Bassingham, AVilliam of, mainpernor, 
1298, of flugh s. of Ivo, minor 
official, q.v., 108 (413), 109 (415) 

Baston, William of, of Greatford, juror 
of Ness wapentake, 1298, 53 (249), 
117 (441), 126 (470) 

Beat, Nicholas, juror of Well wapentake, 
1298, 134 (495) 

Bate, Robert, ininor official, rank not 
given. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Braceby and Sapperton. 
Ho himself was assessed as 
follows : he had 1 quarter of corn 
worth 3/- ; 1 qr. of barley worth 
2/6 ; 1 qr. of oats worth 1/6 ; 
1 draught-beast worth 1/6 ; 1 cow 
worth 5/- ; forage worth 1/-. 
The total was 14/6. the ninth part 
being l/7i [Lay Subs. Roll 63/1. 
m. 1], 108-9 (415), 166 

Baude, Geoffrey, of King's Lynn, member 
of a Lincolnshire jurv of skinners, 
1298, 124 (464) 

Baudwine, John, member of a Lincoln- 
shire jury of canvas merchants. 
1298, 124 (463) 

BaudwjTie, John, mainpernor, 1298, 
with Simon of Walcot, of Hugh 
Bardolf, q.v. He may have come 
from Rippingale. 1300 : ' John 
Baudewyn of Repinghal ' stands 
pledge to Alice widow of Henry 
le Mouner of Rippingale in an 
assize, not prosecuted, of novel 
disseisin concerning a tenement 
in Rippingale [A.R. 1316, m. 25]. 
1301 :' John Baudewyn of Reping- 
hale ' stood pledge to John s. of 
Geoffrey le Clerk of Newton, 
plaintiff in an assize of novel 
disseisin concerning a tenement 
in Walcot and Osbournby [A.R. 
1320, m. 26], 81 (342) 

Baumber, William of, plaintiff', 1298, 
against Hugh Bardolf, q.v. 1297 : 
of Evedon. Sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Evedon [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/6, m. 1]. He himself was 
assessed as follows : he had 1 
quarter of corn worth 3/- ; 1 qr. 
of drage worth 2/- ; J qr. of peas 
worth 12d. ; 1 draught-beast 
worth 2/- ; 1 cow worth 4/-. The 
total was 12/- ; the nintli part 
1/4 [Ibid.]. 1300, Oct.: 

' William of Bamburgh ' brought 
a \\Tit of assize of novel disseisin 
against William s. of John de 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



201 



Baumber, William of — coiU. 

SeyvTians [?] and John de 
Hertheby oonfeming a tenement 
in Kvedon. but did not prosecute 
[AM. 131b, in. 26], 79 (337). 163 

Bauquell, John de, xx and n. 

Bautre, Pct«r, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Geoffrey Legard of vSwayfield, 
q.v., 35 (177) 

Bave, Hugh de. mainpernor of Richer 
of Dockinc q.v., 129.S. 35 (173) 

Baylif, William le. of Sausthorpe. juror 
of Hill wapentake. 1298, 131 
. (484) 

Beatrice, her son. See Hugh 

Beauchamp, Belle Campo, William do, 
stood pledge. 1298, to Ralph Note- 
broun, q.v. 130U, Oct. 11: 
' William de Bello Camjx) put in 
his place Ralph Xotebromis ' : 
William complams that ho has 
been defon-ed of 2 tofts, 24 acres 
and lU acres of land, and 26 acres 
of meadow witli appiu^tennaces 
in Fillingham by A\'ilham de 
Pari.<». who made a fine with 
him in £20 sterling [Feet of Fines, 
28 Ed. I, No. 19]. 1303 : WilUam 
de Beauchamp held half a fee and 
one-eightli of one fee in Filling- 
ham, of the Honour of Lancaster 
[F.A, in, p. 138]. 16(ut) 

Beaufoii, BfJlo Fago, Bi chard de, mer- 
chant appointed by the Crown to 
buy wool under the prise of July 

1297. The appointment is dated 
July, 1297 [K.R.M.R. No. 70, 
m. 108], 178 

Beauwer, Beawer. See Belvoir 

Bech, William, of Ypres, member, 1298, 
of an inquest of drapers and 
vintners, 123 (459) 

Beck, Bek', Alnn Atte, of Ashby-by- 
Pamey, mainpernor. 1298, of 
Thomas .Vngevin, q.v.. 3 (10). 
20 (98) 

Beelsby. John of. mainpernor. 1298, 
of Henrv of Wansford. q.v.. 19 
(88), 26 '(135) 

Beelsby, Robert of. sub-bailiff of Haver- 
stoe, 1298. 1299: William Pay- 
not, ^.f., essoins himself ' per 
Robortum de Belesby " [A.R. 506, 
rn. ;]. 1301 : Robert is still a 
bailiff [A.R. 1320, m. 27], 1 (2), 20 
(99), 39 (201), 143 (ter), 151, n. 36 

Beelsby, Robert s. of Peter of, main- 
pernor. 1298, of Hugh of Picker- 
ing, q.v., 1 (3) 

Beelsbj', Robert s. of Richard of, main- 
jjemor. 1298, of Hugh of Ha- 
brough, q.v., 39 (204) 

Bellard, John, of Aunsby, mainpernor, 

1298, of William of Pyseley, q.v., 
17 (67) 



Belle. 



Gilbert, sub-bailiff" of Skirbeck 
wapentake, 1298. 1301 : perhaps 
still sub-bailiff of Skirbeck ; ho 
attached, with Nicholas Clerk of 
Boston, bailiff' of Skirbeck, ^.r., 
the absentee defendants in an 
assize [A.R 1320, vi. 29d.]. 42 
(227), 142-3, 150, n. 28 

Belle, Hugh, of Grantham, juror of 
Grantham, 1298. 130 (482) 

Hellf. WilUam, mainpernor, 1298, of 
William s. of Brice q.v., and Adam 
Pakkohameys, ^.t'., both sub- 
bailiffs of Skirbeck. 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Bennington, 
Skirbeck. He hiniself was assessed 
as follows ; he had 1 heifer worth 
4/- ; 1 draught bea.st worth 3/- ; 

I quarter of maslin worth 2/3 ; 
J qr. of beans worth 1/-; li qrs. 
of oats worth 9d : hav and forage 
worth 9d. The total was 12/- 
the ninth part being 1/4, [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 1]. 21 
(105-6), 167 

Bello Campo, de. See Beauchamp 

Bello P'ago, de. See Beaufou 

Belte, W'illiam, attachor, 1298, of 

Walter de Howe, q.v., 53 (248) 
Belton, Thomas s. of Roger of, minor 

official, 1298, rank not given, 37 

(192). Cf. Thomas s. of Roger 
Belton, William of, chaplain, 1298, 

farmer of the church of Carlton, 

II (46) 

Belton, William s. of Thomas of, minor 
official, 1298, no rank given, 37 
(192), 108 (415) 

Belvoir, Beauwer, John of, sub-taxor 
of the tenth, 1294, and of the 
twelfth, 1296, in Welton-le-Marsh, 
63-4 (284, 286), 157, I GO 

Bename. Adam. 1300-2 ; bailiff" of 
Elloe wapentake [A.R. 1320, m. 
23], 142 

Benchmaler, William, 1297 ; sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Doddington Pigot 
Stocking [Lay Subs. Roll 136/3, »i. 
4], 169 

Benet, Martin, of Blvborough, juror of 
Aslacoe, 1298,' 134 (494) 

Benet, Robert, of Bulby, collector of 
prise, 1298. 1300 : one of the 
recognitors in an inquisition held 
to determine the extent of the 
manor of Edenham [RoU and 
Surv. Roll 404, m. 1], cviii, 
Ix. n. 2, 72(315) 

Beneyt, Nicholas s. of Simon, plaintiff", 
1298, agauist Ivo of Billinghav. 
q.c, 112 (420) 

Beneyt, Simon, plaintiff', 1298, against 
Ivo of BilUnghay, q.v. 1299, July : 
■ Simon Benet de Braunceton ' 
acts with Ivo of Billinghay as a 



202 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Beneyt, Simon — cont. 

recognitor in an assize of novel 
disseisin between Robert de 
Arcy and Philip de Arcy con- 
cerning a tenement in Dunston 
[A.R. 506, m. 1]. (Three mem- 
bers of the D'Arcy family held 
lands in tlie adjoining villages of 
Dunston and Nocton : Robert, 
Philip and Hugh ; and all the lands 
were of the fees of Norman D'Arcy 
[F.A. Hi, 1303, p. 141]. The use 
of Simon Beneyt and Ivo of Bil- 
linghay as recognitors in this 
dispute suggest that they may 
have been men of substance). 1 1 1 
(419), 113 (424) 

Benhale, John dc, 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Bicker \_Lay Subs. 
Roll, 135/3, 7n. 7], 171 

Bennington. Richard of, 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Claypole 
[Lay Subs Roll 135/3, ni. 4], 
169 

Benniworth, Adam of, juror, probably 
of Ludborough wapentake, 1298, 
32 (155) 

Bercar', Bercarius, Bercher le. See 
Shepherd 

Bereford, Robert de, juror of Loveden 
wapentake. 1298. 1300 : EUas 
de Lindeby essoins himself against 
' Robert de Bereford de Cleypol ' 
[ClavpoleJ, in a plea of mort 
d'ancestor [A.R. 1316. m. 42], 
55 (255), 129 (478) 

Beremere, Petronilla, of Stamford, plain- 
tiff, 1298, against Thomas of 
Easton, Thomas of Hanuylle and 
Henry Fychet, q.v., 93 (374) 

Bergate, William, minor official, 1298, 
rank not given, 111 (418) 

Bermingham, Richard de, 1297-8 : royal 
bailiff of Boston [L.T.R.M.R. no. 
69, m. 48], 155 

Bernard, Ralph, sub-taxor of the 
twelfth in Candleshoe wapentake, 
1296, 56 (258), 161 

Bevercotes, William of. Royal bailiff, per- 
haps of Lawress during 1294-7. 
(There was a William of Bever- 
cotes who was parson of a moiety 
of the church of Sedgebrook, 
Winnibriggs, who in 1294 obtained 
the royal prot^-ction for paying the 
ecclesiastical half of that year 
[C.P.R. 1202-1301, p. 124], in 

1295 obtained the same for paying 
the tenth [Ibid., p. 204], and in 

1296 went to Scotland on the 
kings service [Ibid., p. 206] ; but 
this individual is hardly likely to 
have been also a royal bailiff of 
Lawress during these years), 1 1 
(46), 146. 153, n. 53 



Beycndeyebek. See Beyondthebeck. 

Bejrre, Elena, plaintiff, 1298, against 
William of Apethorpe, minor 
official, q.v., 70 (307) 

Beyondthebeck, Ultra Aquam, Thomas, 
of Groatford, juror of Ness wapen- 
take, 1298, 53 (249), 117 (441), 
126 (470) 

Beysaunt, Adam, plaintiff, 1298, against 
John Everard <7.t'. 1301: 'Adam 
Beysaunt of Spalding ' was a 
recognitor in an assize of mort 
d'ancestor and in one of novel 
disseisin ; in neither case did the 
recognitors appear [A.R. 1320, 
m.26d; A.R. 1322, m. 21], 61 (241) 

Bibbesworth, William de, sheriff's clerk, 

1298, 48 (235), 86 (356), 89 (367), 
139 

Biddes, Matthew, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Hainton [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 12], 176 

Bigby, John of, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Henry of Newton, John de Byles- 
feld, q.v., and defendant in two 
pleas (both false) conceniing 
prises. An official, he may have 
ranked as high as sheriff's clerk : 
he was certainly in minor orders : 

1299, ' John of Hekebj% clerk,' 
stands pledge in an assize of novel 
disseisin concerning a tenement in 
Swineshead, Kirton [.4 .R. 506, m. 
3 ;] in. one concerning a tenement 
in Great Hale, Aswardhum [Ibid., 
m. 5d] ; in one concerning a 
tenement in Humberstone, Brad- 
ley [Ibid., m. Sd]; and in 1300 
' John of Bekeby, clerk,' acted 
similarly in two assizes of novel 
disseisin, concerning a tenement 
in Croxton, Yarborough, and one 
in Stallingborough, Yarb. [A.R. 
1316, m. 28]. It is clear that his 
services were in demand and that 
he moved freely about the coimty, 
4(18), 29 (146), 33 (160-1) 

Bigge, Alice, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Ivo of Billinghay, q.v., 103 (398) 

Bigod, Roger, 5th Earl of Norfolk, Earl 
Marshal, ix-xii, xxvi, xxxi, Ixxii, 
Ixxxiii, cxxv-vi 

Bigot. See Bygot. 

Bil William. He stored goods 

belonging to John Skanjnn, alien ; 
the goods were attached and sold 
on behalf of the king, 70 (309) 

Billingborough, John s. of Elias of, 
collector of money for Welsh 
troops, 1294-5. 1299 : ' John 8. 
of Elias of Bilingburgh ' is a 
recognitor in an assize of novel 
disseisin concerning the lands of 
John Gregorj' of Quarrington, q.v. 
[A.R. 506, m. 4d], 119 (449) 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



203 



Billinghay, Alan of, mainix^mor, I29S, 
of Nicholas of Ryhall. q.v., 17 (70) 

Billinghay, Ivo of, bailiff of Flaxwell and 
Langoe wai^entakes. 1299: recog- 
nitor in the assize of novel dis- 
seisin between Robert and Philip 
de Arcy (stc Simon Beneyt, above) 
[A. a. 506. tn. 1], Ivi-lviii, cxxiv, 
6 (20), 14 (61). 18 (77), 30 (147), 
40 (210), 102-7 (394r-6, 398-9, 
401, 404-G, 410, 411), 111-3 
(419-2n, 424), 116-7 (439, 440), 
140-1. 147. 71. II and 12 

Binninge, John. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Boston [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 1]. Cf. Bunnvng, John. 
167 

Birice, John. 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Doddington Pigot with 
Stocking [Lay Subs. Boll 135/3, 
m. 4\ 169 

Biry, lake de, member, 1298, of a 
Lincolnshire jiiry of skinners. 
125 (464) 

BiwesMoun, Robert. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Csirlton le Moorland 
[Lay Subs. Boll 135/3, m. 10], 174 

Biyondthebek. See Beyondthebeck. 

Blake. Walter le. juror of Manlev wajien- 
take, 1298, 133 (492) 

Blamch', John, mainpernor of Henn,- 
Tliedom, q.v., 1298. 21 (108) 

Blankney, John of, juror of Winnibriggs 
wapentake, 1298. 1295 : assessed 
for the eleventh as follows ; he had 
1 quarter of com worth 5/- ; 1 qr. 
of rye worth 4/- ; 2 qrs. of pearl 
barley worth 2/6 per qr. ; 1 qr. of 
dredge worth 1/6 ; 5 qrs. of oats 
worth 1/6 per qr. ; forage worth 
1/2 ; hay worth 2/- ; 1 draught- 
V>east worth 4/- ; 1 ox worth 6/- ; 
1 cart worth 2/-. The total was 
38/8, the eleventh part being 3/6J 
[Lay Subs. Boll 135/2, m. 15]. 
1297 : sub-taxor of the ninth in 
Harlaxton, Winnibriggs. He him- 
self was assessed for this tax as 
follows : he had 1 quarter of corn 
worth 3/- ; 1 qr. of drage worth 
2/-; 1 qr. of oats worth 1/6; 
1 draught-beast worth 2/- ; forage 
worth 9d. The total was 9/3, the 
ninth part being 1/0 i [Lay Subs. 
Boll 135/3, m. 11], civ. 135 (497), 
174 

Blanknev, William of, juror of Beltisloe 
wapentake, 1298. 1300, Oct. 24 : 
' William of Blankney of Keisby ' 
attached a recognitor in an assize 
where the recognitors did not 
come. They included Robert le 
Movgne and Thomas Russel, q.v. 
[A.B. 1316, m. 27]. 13uO : a recog- 
nitor in an inquisition held to 



Blankney. William of — conf. 

determine the extent of Edenham 
manor, Beltisloe [Bent, and Surv. 
Boll 404, m.l], 5^ {250) 

Blaunchard, John, sub-taxor of the tenth, 
1294, in Burgh-in-the-Marsh. 65 
(290-1). 157 

Blaunkpavn, Robert, sub-taxor of the 
twelfth. 1296. and of the ninth, 
1297, in Screniby, 67 (297, 300), 
161 (bis) 

Blenche, Simo7i. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Surfleet [Lay Subs. Boll 
135/3, m. 7], 170 

Blokevile, Thomas. 1297 : assessor, for 
the ninth, of the sub-taxors of 
this tax in Graffoe wapentake 
[Lay Subs. Boll 135/3, m. 10], 176 

Bloimd. Blund. Robert le, stood pledge 
to Fulk of ^^'haplode, q.v. ; juror 
of Elloe wapentake, 1298 ; plain- 
tiff against John Everard, q.v., 
47 (232), 54 (253), 88 (366), 125 
(467) 

Blund, Hugh le, of Louth, juror of 
Lout hesk wapentake, 1298. 1297: 
promise to pav, a fortniglit after 
Easter, 1298,' 14 marks 6/8 to 
Hugh le Blund of Louth for two 
sacks of wool bought from him for 
the king's use by Robert de Basing 
and Richard de Bello Fago, q.v. 
[C.P.B., 1292-1301, p. 321]. The 
same is repeated under date 
28 Jan., 1298 [Ibid., p. 322], 131 
(487) 

Blyborough, Nigel of, bailiff of Corring- 
ham wapentake, 1298, 2 (9), 19 
(82), 145 

Bohun, Humphrey de, 3rd Earl of 
Hereford, Constable of England. 
ix-xii, xxvi, xxxi, Ixxxi-ii, cxxv- 
vi 

Bolle, Godfrey, of Swineshead, juror of 
Kirton wapentake. 1298. 1290, 
April : ' Godfrey Bolle of Swines- 
head ' was a member of an in- 
quisition of Kirton men held 
before W'illiam de Vescy and 
Peter de Campania, justices, to 
enquire into robberies committed 
at Boston Fair following the fire 
of 1288. The case before them 
concerned a robbery of a fardel of 
canvas, which was delivered into 
the hands of William Soc or Sot, 
sub-bailiff of the Earl of Rich- 
mond. Possibly the robbery was 
committed at the instance of the 
Earl or his officers [A.B. 1286, 
m. 16d]. 1294 : ' Godfrey Bolle of 
Swineshead ' was a naember of a 
jury of presentment summoned to 
determine the extent of the 
knights' fees which Thomas s. of 



204 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Bollp, Godfrey — conl. 

Lambert of Moulton held of the 
king in chief. Tho inquest was held 
at Boston on April iM [Auc. Ext. 
no. 82 (2), m. 1]. 13(10 : Nicholas 
s. of Nigel of AVigtoft, Kirton, 
brought a writ of assize of novel 
disseisin against Godfrey Bolle and 
otiiers concerning a tenement in 
Wigtoft, but did not prosecute 
\A.R. 1316. in. 27(1], 55 (254), 
ll'y (466) 

Bolour, William, y)laintiff, 1298, against 
Robert Pygoim, g.f. 1295: 'Wil- 
liam Bolour ' was assessed for 
the eleventh as follows : he had 
1 quarter of pearl barley worth 
2/6; II ewes worth lOd. each. 
The total was 11/8, the eleventh 
part being 1/1 [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/2, m. 6], civ, 51 (242), 146 n. 2 

Bolum, William de, juror of Well 
wapentake, 1298, 134 (495) 

Bolur, Roger. 1297 : assessor, for the 
ninth, of the sub-taxors of this tax 
in Grafloo wapentake [Lay Srths. 
Roll 135/3, m. 10], 176 

Bonde, Bond, John, of Louth, main- 
])ernor, 1298, of Hugh of Ormsby, 
q.v., 41 (217) 

Bonde, Richard. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Harlaxton [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, VI. V]. 1 74 

Bonde, Richard, of Little Ponton, plain- 
tiff, 1298, against Robert Pygoun, 
q.v., 115 (4:jl) 

Bonde, Thomas, of Old Sleaford, 
juror of .'Vswardhurn wapentake, 
1298, 38 (197), 117 (442), 133 (490) 

Bonde, William, mainpernor, 1298, of 
William s. of Martin of Lobthorpe, 
q.v., 35 (175) 

Bonde, William, of Grantham, main- 
pernor, 1298, of William le 
Wayte, q.v. 1297, Oct. 15: 
promise to pay ' William Bonde ' 
of Grantham £32 for six sacks of 
wool bought of him for the king's 
use by Robert de Basing, q.v., and 
his fellows [C.P.R. 1292-1301, 
p. 310], cviii, 2 (8), 18 (79) 

Bonhomme, William, of WainHeel, main- 
I)emor, 1298, of Peter s. of Hak" of 
Wainflcet, q.v., 25(129) 

Bonquer, John, memlx>r, 1298, of a 
Lincolnshire jiirv of n])othecaries, 
124 (461) 

Borel, Alan, .sub-taxor of the eleventh, 
1295, in Orby and Burgh-in-the 
.Marsh, and of the twelfth, 1296, 
in Orby, 64 (286), 66 (293), 158, 
160 

Borton, Nicholas of. Sep, Burton. 

Base .... John, 1297, bailiff of the 
men of Grimsby, 155 



Boseworth, Alexander de, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Thomas of Easton, q.v., 
117(443) 

Bosse, Thomas, juror of Horncastle 
Soke and Liberty, 1298. 131 (485) 

Boston, William s. of Alexander of, niain- 
j)eror, 1298, of Wilham of Wol- 
mersty, q.v., 30 (149) 

Boteler, l']licius. plaintiff, 1298, against 
William s. of Gilbert, Nicholas 
Herre, Ralph Bernard, Robert de 
Spina, Austin Guncy, Hugh Gegge, 
AV'^illiam ad Ripam and Ralph the 
Reeve, sub-taxors, q.v., 55-6 (256, 
258). 63 (283). 65 (288) 

Boteler, Gilbert le, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Austin Giincy and three other sub- 
taxors of the eleventh, q.v., 65 (288) 

Boterraarkede, Henry, merchant of 
Cologne, plaintiff against John s. 
of Thomas and Gerard the Gaugei', 
1298, q.v. 1297 : in a ship sailing 
from Boston on 11 Sept., 1297, 
' Henry Buttermarketie ' had 20 
stone of wool, on which he paid 
customs duty anaomitiug to 30/9 
\Vust. Accts. (Boston), 25-6 Ed. I, 
m. 4], cviii, 23 (127) 

Bothe, William de la. 1297 : owner of a 
ship called ' Jonette of Boston ' 
which was used to carry flour, 
beans and peas, oats, beef and 
bacon from Lincolnshire to 
Flanders for the use of the king's 
troops there in that year [Sheriffn' 
Admin. Accts. 568 'h m. 1], Ixiv, 
188 

Botte, John, plaintiff, 1298, against Alan 
of Talhngton, q.v., 105 (402) 

Botyler, Simon le. See Butler. 

lioultham, Eudo of. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the nintli in Boultham [Lay Subs. 
Roll, 135/3, m. 10], 175 

Boure, Thomas atte, of Helpringham, 
attachor, 1298, of Philip s. of 
William of Helpringham, q.v., 
1299 : a recognitor in an assize of 
novel disseisin in which John de la 
.More, qv., appeared as a defen- 
dant. The defendants lost their 
case and the recognitors did not 
come [A.R. 506, m. 8], 78 (333) 

Bourhalle, Robert do la, plaintiff, 1298, 
against John of Swinstead, q.v., 
and Walter Est, q.v. John was a 
haWi'cl of Langoe. 1291, July 24 : 
Brother Richard, Prior of Catley, 
essoins himself against ' Robert de 
Bourhalle ' and another on a jilea 
of assize of novel disseisin, and is 
given a day [A.R. 1293, m. 2\. 
1 303 : ' Robert dc Bourhalle ' 
liolds half a fio in Digby, of 
Wilham Bardolf \F.A. Hi, p. 155], 
106-7 (406-8), 148 n. 12 



BIOGRArHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



205 



Bourne, Geoffrey of, chief constable of 
Kesteven^ 1298. 1292 : ' Geoffrey 
de Brunne ' appears in the list of 
tliose having £4(1 worth of lands 
and rents who ought to bo knights 
and are not [Chanc. Miscell. 1 3, 
m. 2]. By 1298 he seems to have 
assumed his knighthood. 13(>0, 
Mar. 19: G<?offrey is in the list, 
compiled for calling out the feudal 
array for Scotland, of those having 
£40 worth of land [Chaiic. Miscell. 
1/6, m. 30]. His name also appears 
on the list of those doubtfully 
willing to take service with the 
king in Scotland [Ibid., m. 32]. 
Ho held, in 1303, a third part of 
one knights fee in Bourne, of 
the fees of John de Baiocis 
F.A. Hi, p. 150]: half n fee m 
Lobthorpe, with Nicholas de Eton, 
of the fees of the Archbishop 
of York [Ibifl., ]i. 15\]: and 
a fourth part of one fee in Thurlbj-, 
' in chief and other honours ' 
[Ibid., p. 17(t]. xxiii, 30 (loO), 86 
(356). 114(428), 119-20(451,453), 
139 

Bourne, Hugh of, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Thomas of Easton, q.v., 117 (443) 

Bourne, ^\'illiam of, clerk ; stood 
pledge, 1298, to Nigel of Donmg- 
ton, William de Ingelton, Ivo of 
BiUinghay (twice) and Jolm of 
Swinstead, bailiffs, q.v. 1294 : 
' William de Brunne,' clerk, is 
amerced at 40d. because he did not 
prosecute. This is probably the 
same Wilham [Fin&s and Amerce- 
ment.<<, ll'J, no 27, m. 4], xix, n. 5, 
42 (22.3). 83 (350), 89 (367), 102 
(394), 106(406), 117 (44(i) 

Bourser, Robert le, plaintift, 1298, 
against Thomas of Easton and 
Wilham of Apethorpe, q.v. Also 
juror of Stamford, 1298, 69 (305), 
70(307). 126(469) 

Bouthe, Alan, bailiff of the Earl of 
Lincoln's Libertv of Bolingbroke, 
1298. The clerk of A.R. 605 may 
have been wrong in suggesting 
that Alan was at that time the 
Earl's bailiti'. for in the accounts of 
the Duchy of Lancaster for 1295-6 
is this statement : '. . . and thxis is 
owing to the Earl £42 18s. 2Jd. of 
which £9 9s. 2d. are the arrears of 
Alan Bouthe concerning scutage 
from the tune when he was bailif?.' 
[Mi7i. Acct^. 1/1, ni. iS, expenses on 
account of the free court of 
Bolingbroke], 2 (7), 7 (26) 

Boy, W^ilham, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Alexander Golderon, ^.t;., 86 
(359) 



Braban, John, of Stamford, member, 
1298. of an inquisition of the 
drapers and vintners of Boston. 

1297. Jan. 12: 'John Brnban of 
Stanford ' is appointed, with other 
merchants from various borouglis, 
' to make ordinances and disposi- 
tions w ith the counsel of John de 
Warenna . . . keeper of the realm 
and land of Scotland or his deputy 
and Hugh de Cressingham . . . 
treasurer of Scotland, touching the 
site and state of the town of 
Berwick on Tweed and the port of 
that j)lace, and to assess and 
arrent the houses and plots of the 
town, and to give . . . the same 
to merchants, artificers and other 
suitable persons for terms of 
years or in fee ' [C'.P.R. 1292- 
1301, p. 227]. 1297. Jan. 11 : the 
merchants concerned, including 
John Braban, were to bo dis- 
trained by the sheriffs so that they 
should be at Berwick " in their 
own persons ' in the octaves of 
Easter (Easter Day 1297 fell on 
April 14) [C.C.R. 1296-1302, p. 76] 
But on 1 Feb.. 1297 the slieriff of 
Lines, is ordered not to distrain 
John Braban, ' as the king wills 
for certain rea.sons that John 
should not go thither ' [Ibid., 
p. 11], cviii, 123(459) 

Bracebv, Hugh of, baihff of Aveland, 

1298. 1300 : ' Hugh s. of Hugh de 
Breiceby ' [probably the ex- 
bailiff, but possibly his son] 
brought a writ of assize of novel 
disseisin against Roger s. of Nigel 
of Sapperton and Ahce widow of 
Nigel concerning a tenement in 
Sapperton, but did not prosecute. 
One of Hugh's pledges was 
Wilham of Horton of Welbv, q.v. 
[A.R. 1316, m. 28]. In the' same 
year Hugh also stood pledge for 
the plaintiff in an assize of novel 
disseisin, not j)rosecuted, concern- 
ing a common pasture in Duns- 
thorjx) [Ibid., m. 28], 40 (205), 
141, 147, n. 4 

Braceby, Thomas s. of Hugh of, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Henry West 
of Welby, q,v„ and of Hugh 
s. of Hugh, q.v., 13 (53), 109 
(415) 

Braceby, William s. of Hugh of, main- 
jjemor, 1298, of Hugh s. of Hugh, 
as above, q.v. It is tempting, and 
perhaps accurate, to consider 
Hugh the officialof no 41 5, Thomas 
and William as three sons of Hugh 
of Braceby the baihff ; but proof 
of this is lacking, 109 (415) 



206 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Brackenborough, Robert of, juror ol 
Louthcsk wapentake, 1298. 1292 : 
■ Robert de Brakenberwe ' appears 
ill the list of those having £40 
worth of lands who ought to be 
knights and are not [Chanc. 
MiaceU. 1/3, m. 2]. 1298, Mar. 19 : 
Robert is again in the list of those 
having £40 worth of lands (calling 
out of the feudal array for Scot- 
land) [Chanc. Miscell. 1/6, m. 30], 
but his name is also on the list of 
those doubtfully willing to take 
service with the king in Scotland 
[Ibid., m. 32]. 1297, Nov. 3: 
William Dyne of Burton impeded 
' Robert de Brakenbergh ' of 
3 acres of meadow and 7 acres of 
woodland in Burton Goggles. 
William made fine with Robert in 
£10 sterling [Feet of Fines 24-6 
Ed. I, no 32]. 1300, May 1 : 
William Dyne again impeded 
Robert of Brackenborough, this 
time of 62 acres of land, 10 acres 
and 7 acres of meadow with 
appurtenances in Burton Goggles, 
but made fine with him in £20 
sterling [Feet of Fines 28 Ed. I, 
no. 8]. In 1303 Robert of ' Braken- 
berghe ' held 1 fee in Bracken- 
borough, of the fees of John de 
Baiocis [F.A. in, p. 149], 131 
(487) 

Bradewater, Roger of. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Denton [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 9], 173 

Bradewell, Simon of, of Colby, juror 
of Boothbv and Graffoe wapen- 
takes, 1298, 54 (252) 130 
(481) 

Bradley, Ralph of, juror of Haverstoe 
wapentake, 1298, 129 (480) 

Brandon, Thomas s. of Reginald of. 1297 : 
eissessor, for the ninth, of the sub- 
taxors of thia tax in Loveden 
wapentake [Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, 
m. 4], 170 

Branston, Henry of, juror of Loveden 
waiientake, 1298, 55 (255), 129 
(478) 

Bra toft, Robert of, juror of Gandleshoe 
wapentake, 1298, 132 (489) 

Bratoft, Thomas of, plaintiff, 1298, 
against WiUiam s. of Gilbert and 
Nicholas Ifcrre, sub-taxors, q.v.. 
55 (256) 

Brattleby, Thomas of, juror of VV'ell 
wapentake, 1298, 134 (495) 

Brauncewell, Edward of, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Alan of Tallington, q.v., 
10.3 (402) 

Braundeston. Simon de, plaintiff. 1298, 
against Thomsis of Easton. qv., 
117 (443) 



BrauiU, Jacob. 1297 : assessor, for the 
ninth, of the sub-taxors of this 
tax in Wraggoe wapentake [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 12], 111 

Braythcland, John de, cvi 

Bredon, Robert s. of Robert of, juror of 
Loveden wapentake, 1298, 55 
(255), 129(478) 

Brestoune, Robert. 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Beltisloe wapentake [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1], 164 

Breton, Geoffrey. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Leadenham [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 4], 169 

Bretteuyir, William de, of Gunby, juror 
of Beltisloe wapentake, 1298 ; 
also plaintiff against Adam le 
Limg, q.v, 53 (250), 73 (318). 

Brian, William, of Stowe Green, juror of 
Aveland wapentake, 1298, 126 
(471) 
See also Bryan. 

BrinkhiU, Ivo of. 1297 : assessor, for the 
ninth, of the sub-taxors of this 
tax in Wraggoe wapentake [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 12], 111 

Brinldiill, Richard of, imder-sheriff 
of Lincolnsliire under Robert le 
Venour (sheriff, 1294-7). 1297, 
Michaelmas : at a delivery of 
Lincoln gaol two brothers Wy- 
mark were charged with murder ; 
surety was found for them by 
Richard of BrinkhiU and by 
William s. of John of Yarborough, 
q.v. [L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 25d]. 
1296 (about) : Richard was com- 
mitted to the Fleet prison for a 
trespass of which he was con- 
victed by John de Insula, justice, 
who was hearing pleas in Lincoln- 
shire in that year against royal 
ministers ; but in 1297 the king 
pardoned Richard on his making 
a fine of £10 [K.R.M.R. no. 70, 
m. 52d]. 1298 : Richard of Brink- 
Mil and Ranulph of Otby, q.v., 
with four others, gave security 
against money owing to the king 
by the Prior of Burwell in respect 
of the gooda and chattels of aUen 
houses [K.R.M.R. no. 71, m. 90], 
xviii, n. 3, xxxiv, xciii, 26 (136, 
138). 57-9 (262, 267, 269). 138 

BrinkhiU, Robert of, brother of Richard 
of Brinkliill, q.v., and his main- 
prnor, 1298, 26 (136, 138) 

BrinkhiU, Roger of, probably a relation 
of Richard and Robert of Brink- 
hiU, q.v. : one of his mainpernors 
was WUUam Badde of BrinkhUl, 
q.v., who also mainpemod Richard. 
Roger was certainly an ofTicial 
operating in the South Riding, 
1 298, but his rank is nowhere given 



BIOGKAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



207 



Brinkhill, Roger of — cont. 

in A.R. 505. 1300 : bailiff of the 
South Riding under Richard of 
Howell, sheriff. On this occasion 
Roger is brought before the jus- 
tices on the charge that, having 
had jurors summoned for an assize 
of novel disseisin which Roger 
Bardolf of Brinkhill held against 
Henrj' * de VVarsope ' and others 
concerning a tenement in ' Magna 
Gretham iuxta Homcastle,' ho 
found no pledges for the prosecu- 
tion, so that the jurors had their 
trouble for nothing. For this 
omission Roger the bailiff was 
committed to gaol, but made a 
fine in 40 pence [A.R. 1316, m. 
26d]. In 1301 he is called a 
clerk [A.R. 1320, m. 27^, as he 
naturally would be. 1301 : a 
recognitor in an assize of mort 
d'ancestor did not come and was 
mainpemed by Roger of Brink- 
hill ; in the same menabrane he 
appears as a pledge for the plaintiff 
in an assize of novel disseisin, not 
prosecuted, concerning a tenement 
in Wilksbv, Homcastle [A.R. 
1322, m. 17]. 1300: 'Roger de 
Brinkhil ' canie before the king, 
on Monday after S. Sylvester 
[Jan. 4], and sought to replevy to 
Richard le FlemjTig of Notting- 
ham his land, which was taken 
into the king's hand for his default 
in the king's court against WilUam 
de Normanton of Nottingham 
[C.C.R. 1296-1302, p. 378]. 
(William of Normanton had lands 
in Lincolnshire at Swarby [F.A. 
Hi, p. 135] and at Normanton 
[Ibid., p. 157], so that the identity 
of Roger of Brinkhill is indicated, 
if not proved), 14 (59), 27 (139), 
57-8 (J6(l, l'65-6), 144, 152, 
n. 44 

Brinkhill, William s. of John of, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Roger of Brink- 
hill, q.v., 14 (59) 

Brisebaunk, Richard. 1294: bailiff of 
the men of Grimsby [L.T.R.M.R. 
no. 66, m. 7.5], 154-5 

Broc, Alan. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Brant Broughton [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3, ?n. 4], 169 

Brom. See Bro^on. 

Brond, Richard, juror of Stamford 
borough, 1298. 1300, 1301 : 

recognitor in two sittings of a 
lengthy law-suit between Eustace 
Malherbe, q.v., and Ranulph 
DrjTikedregges [A.R. 1316, m. 
27; A.R. 1320, m. 25d], 126 
(469) 



Brond, William. 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Old Sleaford [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/6, m. 1], 163 

Brother, Wymund. 1294 : royal collector 
of wool in the hands of foreign 
commercial houses. He was 
probably appointed in July, 1294 
[K.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 8S], 177 

Broun, Geoffrey, of Stamford, j)laintiff 
1298, against Thomas of Easton, 
q.v., 91 (371) 

Broun, Hugh, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Robert Pygoun, q.v., 75 (326), 
78-9 (329), 173 

Broun, John, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Adam lo Lung, q.v., 73-4 (321) 

Broun, Brom, John, of Bytham, juror of 
Beltisloe wapentake, 1298, 35 
(176), 53(250) 

Broun, John, miller, plsiintift', 1298, 
against WilUam Revenill, q.v., 
and Hugh Bardolf, q.v., 87 (361, 
362) 

Broune, Richard, of Leverton, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Robert of 
Wrangle, q.v., 21 (110) 

Browe, Reymund de la, member, 1298, 
of a jury of " provincial sailors " 
in Lincolnshire, 126 (468) 

Broylle, Adam, juror of Manley wapen- 
take, 1298, 133 (492) 

Bruere, William de la. 1294: Royal clerk 
appointed with two receivers of 
customs to Boston, there to super- 
vise the passage of wool through 
the customs and to collect the 
revised customs rates in force as 
from July, 1294. The appoint- 
ment is dated 29 July [K.R.M.R. 
no. 68m. 82], 177 

Brume, William, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Hugh Bardolf, q.v., 78 (335) 

Brun, Alan. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Bicker [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 7], 171 

Brun, Henry, of Brumby, juror of the 
Soke of Kirton, 1298, 134 (493) 

Bryan, Alan, of Hale, mainpernor, 1298, 
of William s. of Richard, q.v. 
1300 : ' Alan s. of Geoffrey Bryan 
de Parua Hale ' brought a writ of 
assize of novel disseisin against 
Isabella Bryan and others con- 
cerning a tenement in Little Hale, 
but did not prosecute [A.R. 1316, 
m. 29], 84-5 (354) 

Bryan, Geoffrey, juror of Loveden 
wapentake, 1298. 1297: sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Stragglethorpo. 
He was himself assessed for this 
tax as follows : he had 1 quarter of 
com worth 3/- ; 1| qrs. of dredge 
worth 3/- ; hay worth 1/- ; 2 
cows worth 4/- each ; 1 pig worth 
1/3. The total was 16/3, the ninth 



208 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Bryan. Geoffrey — cont. 

part bciiig l/9f [Lay Subs. Roll 
136/3, ni. JJ, cv. 56 (255), 129 
(478), 169 

Brvan. Isabella, plaintifl", 1298. against 
Hugh Bordolf, q.r., 83 (349) 

Bryan, Stephen, of Hale, mainpernor, 
1298, of William s. of Richard, 
q.v., 84 (354) 

Bryan, Brian, William, of Sutterby, 
mainpernor, 1298, of Thomas of 
Sutterby. q.v., 3 (15), 12 (48) 

Brygth^Tiie. Jolm, mainpomor, 1298, of 
William of Lainbetotli, q.v., ] 3 (57) 

Bugge, Roliert. 1295 : sub-taxor of the 
eleventh in Ingoldmolls, 62 (278), 
168 

Bullington. John of, juror of Horncastle 
with Gartreo wapentake, 1298, 
38 (195) 

Bunne, John, of Helpririgham, plaintiff, 
1298, against Hugh Bardolf, q.v., 
78 (336), 82 (345) 

Bunne, WilUam. plamtiff, 1298, against 
AValter Est, q.v., 86 (356) 

Bunnyng, Bynning, John, mainpernor, 
1298, of WilUam s. of Alexander 
the Clerk, q.v. (William was a 
bailiff of Skirbeck). 129!) : ' John 
Bunnjiig ' complains that he was 
impeded of 1 messuage with 
appurtenances in Boston by Alan 
of Threekinghara, who made fine 
with him in 7 marks silver [Feet of 
Fines 27 Ed. I, no. 12]. cvii, 21 
(104), 42 (226). Cf. Binninge, 
John. 

Burdot, Nicholas, juior of Wraggoe 
wapentake, 1298, 37 (194), 128 
(477) 

Burel, Ralph, of Norwich, meniber, 1298, 
of a Lincolnshire jury of mercers, 
125 (465) 

Burford, John of, niember, 1298, of a 
Lincolnshire jury of apothecaries, 
J 24 (461) 

Burgelioun, Williu)n. 1297 : assessor, 
for the ninth, of the sub-taxors of 
this tax in Wraggoe wapentake 
[Lay Subs. Boll 135/3, ?». 12], 
177 

Burgh -on-Bain, John of. 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Burgh-on- 
Bain, Biscathorpc- and Girsby 
[Lay Sub.f. Roll 1.35/3, m. 12], 176 

Burgh [in the IMarsh], Burgo, Alan s. of 
Ralph of. juror of Gundleshoe, 
1298, 25 (128) 

liumel, Henry, accessory in a case where, 
sometime between 1295 and 1298, 
wool belonging to an alien was 
seized by royal officials appointed 
for that purjjose. Henry was 
giving house-room for the wool, 
70 (308) 



Biunel, William, juror of Stamford, 1298, 
126 (469) 

Bumham, Thomas of (Candleahoe), juror 
of Candleshoe wapentake, 1298, 
132 (489) 

Biu^ham, Thomas of, juror of Manley 
wapentake, 1298, and heads the 
hst : if a knight is ser^nng on a 
jury of this kind, or a person near 
to knight's rank, his name w^ill 
usually be entered at the head of 
the list of jurors. I have foimd 
external references to a Thomas of 
Bumham of this rank in society, 
but final proof of his identity with 
the Manley j uror is lacking : 1 300 : 
Thomas of Bumham appears in a 
list of persons of knight's rank who 
had not assumed knighthood 
[Chanc. Miscell. 1/6, m. 30]; 
1 303 : Thomas of Burnham held, 
with others, 3 parts and a twen- 
tieth part of 1 knight's fee in 
Ormsby [F.A. Hi, p. 140]. 1291 : 
Alexander de Croxton and his wife 
and William de Brun and his wife 
held an assize of novel disseisin 
against Thomas of Burnham and 
Simon of Halton concerning a tene- 
ment in Tetney [^. I?. 1293,?n.21] : 
in the same year Joan, wife of 
Thomas of Biu-nham, put Robert 
Capellvun or William of Bradley in 
her place in a writ of assize on 
a plea of novel disseisin against 
Jolm Gobaud (who was a Icnight), 
q.v., and others [Ibid., m. 26] ; 
and in 1300 Thomas of Bumham 
es.soined himself through Adam 
Fox against the Abbot and certain 
members of the convent of Louth 
Park[^.i?. 1316, w. 43], 133 (492) 

Burr e, Mortimer. 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Ludford [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 12], 176 

Burser. See Bourser. 

Burton, Geoffrey of, juror of Ness wapen- 
take, 1298. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Braceborough. Ho was 
himself assessed as follows : he 
had 2 quarters of com worth 3/- 
each ; 6 qrs. of oats worth 1/4 per 
qr. ; 1 draught-beast worth 4/- ; 
2 steers wortli 5/- each ; 1 cow 
worth 4/- ; I cart worth 1/- ; hay 
and forage worth 1/6. The total 
was 34/6, the ninth part being 
3/10 [Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 3]. 
13(»0 : Geoffrey of Burton, Simon 
le Keu of Uffington, q.v., and 
others were accused, in an assize 
of novel disseisin, of unjustly 
disseising ' John de Stirchesleye ' 
of his free tenement in Shilling- 
thorpe ; he complains that they 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



209 



Burton. Geoflrey of — cont. 

disseised him of the manor of 
Shiliingthorpe with appurtenances. 
The case was postponed [.4./?. 
1316, m. 24]. Geoffrey was a 
tenant on the Greatford estates of 
John Mortuner : 1:1 9U, expense 
side of the accounts of these 
estates : ' Item. 500 herrings 
bought of Geotlrey of Burton, 3/- 
. . . Item, paid to Geoffrey of 
Burton of the debt of Robert Brun, 
2/5 ' [Mill. Accts. 910/7]. 1296-7, 
receipt side : " one hahperuiy 
received of Geoffrey of Burton at 
the same term (i.e., Michaelmas, 
1297) ' [Min.Accts910/S]. 130U-1, 
receipt side : ' one halfpenny 
received from Geoffrey of Burton 
for one rood and a half of land at 
•• Roudik ■' ■ [Ibiri., 910/9]. Xotc 
that Greatford, Braceborough and 
Sliillingthorpe are all within a 
mile or so of each other, eiv-v, 
127 (470), 168 

Burton, Nicholas of, official vendor of 
wool and woolfells in the posses- 
sion of French merchants in 
Lincolnshire, 70 (308-9) 

Bush, Williatn. 1297: merchant, 

appointed by the king to buy 
wool under the prise of 1297, in 
Lincolnshire. The appointment is 
dated Julv [K.E.M.R. no. 70, 
m. 108], 177 

BusUngthorpc, Richard of. 1294 : ap- 
pointed chief collector of the tenth 
in Lincolnshire. The appointment 
is dated 12 Nov., 1294 [A'./f.M.ii. 
no. 6S, m. 72], 137, 156 

Bussey, Hugh de, sheriff of Lincobishiro, 
16 October 1300—21 May, 1302 
[P.R.O. Lists and Indexes, IX, 
p. 78], 137, 140, 150, n. 23, 151, 
n. 33. ». 36. 152, n. 44. n. 49 

Busthorp', Jolm de, 139, n. 3 

Butler, Botyler, Simon the, sub-taxor of 
the twelfth in Burgh le Marsh, 
66 (294), 160 

Butter\vick, Wilhain of, mainpernor, 
1298, of John of Ponton, q.v., 32 
(158) 

Buxtan, John, of West Keal, juror of 
Bolingbroke wapentake, 1298, 132 
(488) 

Byeston. Robert, of Bytham, juror of 
Beltisloe wafjentake, 1298, 53 (250) 

Bj'estyeton, Henrj', of Sapperton, main- 
pernor, 1298,of Thomas s. of Alan, 
q.v., 109 (415) 

Bygot, Bigot, Richard, plaintiff, 1298, 
against WilHam le \Va>-te, q.v., 
juror of Grantham, 1298. 1297 : 
Promise to pay to Richard Bigod 
of Grantham by a fortnight after 



Bygot, Richard — cont. 

Easter £5 6s. 8d. for one sack of 

wool, bought of hun for the king's 

use by Robert de Basing, q.v., and 

liis fellows, appointed to buy wool 

in the count v of Lmcoln . . .' 

[C.P.E. 1292-1301, p. 310], cv, 

100 (389), 130 (482) 
Bylbesworth. See Bibbcsworth. 
Bylesfeld, Jolin de, sub-bailiff of Yar- 

borough wapentake, 1298, 29 

(146), 143 
Bykt, Robert. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 

ninth in Corby {Lay Subs. Roll 

135/6, m. 1], 165 
Bylotis, Alan de, mainpernor, 1298, of 

Ivo of Bilhnghay, q.v., 30 (147) 
Bylk, Ahcia, plaintiff, 1298, against 

Thomas of Easton, q.v., 69 (305) 
Bynning. iSee BuimjTig. 
BjTggeman, Richard, mainpernor, 1298, 

of Wilhani Lambetoth, q.v., 13 (57) 
Byry, Gamel de, member, 1298, of an 

inquest of Boston drapers and 

vintners, 123 (459) 



Cacchok, Robert, plaintiff, 1298, against 
William s. of Ralph de Dunneswra, 
q.v., 61 (275) 

Caistor, Henry of, bailiff of the men of 
Caistor, Easter, 1296 [K.R.M.R. 
no. 69, m. 2] ; Easter, 1297 [Ibid., 
no. 70, m. 3]; Easter 1298 [Ibid., 
no. 71, m. 3] ; and Easter 1299 
[Ibid., no. 72, m. 2a], 155 (quat) 

C'aldefiyte, WUham de, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Hugh Amorj*, q.v., 65 (289) 

Calnlon, Robert dc. 1290 : the Bishop of 
Lincoln's constable and bailiff' at 
Sleaford Castle [Reg. Sutton, 
AI<inora)ida, f. ikl], xcix, n. 6 

Cambridge, Osbcrt of, plaintiff', 1298, 
against Ivo of BillLnghay, q.v., 
102 (395) 

Cambridge, W^ilham of, plaintiff", 1298, 
against Alan of Tallington, q.v., 
103(397) 

Camera, Gilbert de, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Gilbert Loseward, q.v., 20 (92) 

Camera, Thomas de. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Ingoldsby [Lay Subs. 
Roll 136/6, m. 1], 162 

Cammeringham, the Prior of. 1295 
(after Sept. 28) : the Prior paid 
£9 into the Exchequer in respect of 
the goods of ahen Houses, 49 (238) 

Campden, Everard of, sub-baihfi of 
Kirton wapentake, 1298. 1290 : 
served as juror on an inquisition 
into crimes committed at Boston 
Fair in 1288 [A.R. 1286, m. 16], 
42 (224) 



210 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



CampOt Peter de. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Quadring [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 7], 171 

Cane, Hugh de. 1297 : clerk to the 
merchants aijpointed by the king 
to buy wool in Lincolnshire 
under the prise of July, 1297. 
Hugh's appointment is dated 
after Michaelmas, 1297 

[L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, m. ISi], 178 

Canouns, WilUam atte, mainpernor, 
1298, of Walter Welmad, q.v., 
34(170) 

Cany, Simon, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Nicholas of Saham, q.v., 22 (115) 

Capellam, Robert ad, of Skilhngton, 
mainpernor, 1298, of Henrj' the 
Clerk of Skilhngton, q.v., 12 (50) 

Capellanus. See Chapeleyn. 

Cappe, John, of Carl ton-le -Moorland, 
mainpernor, 1298, of John s. of 
Wilham of Carlton, q.v., 36 (187) 

Cappe, Nicholas, of Carlton-le-Moorland, 
mainpernor, 1298, of Jolin 6. of 
William of Carlton, q.v., 36 (187) 

Care, John, of Pinchbeck, mainpernor, 
1298, of John Everard, q.v., 21 
(103), 42 (222) 

Care, Peter, of Pinchbeck, mainpernor, 
1298, of John Everard, q.v., 21 
(103), 42 (222) 

Carectarius. See Carter. 

Carenco\ Andreiv. 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Wilsthorpe {Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 3], 168 

Carlisle, the Bishop of, master, 1298, of 
Robert Merwyn, q.v., 7 (25) 

Carlton, Adam s. of Hugh of, mainpernor, 
1298, of Ralph Paynel, sheriff, 
q.v., 1 (1) 

Carlton, EUas of, mainpernor, 1298, of 
John of Stubton, q.v., and of 
Robert of Wyville, q.v., 18 (75), 
41 (212, 213) 

Carlton, le Moorland, Gilbert of, minor 
official, 1298, rank not given, 36 
(186) 

Carlton le Moorland, John s. of Robert of, 
minor official, 1298, rank not 
given. 1301: mainpernor of John 
8. of William of Carlton, q.v., a 
recognitor in an assize of mort 
d'ancestor [A.R. 1322, m. 21], 37 
(188) 

Carlton, John s. of Robert of (another), 
mainpernor, 1298, of the above, 
37 (188) 

Carlton le Moorland, John s. of William 
of, minor official, 1298, rank not 
given. 1301 : recognitor, who did 
not appear, in an assize of mort 
d'ancestor concerning a tenement 
of 1 messuage, 1 i bovates of land 
with appurtenances iji Wadding- 
ton [A.R. 1322, m. 21], 36 (187) 



Carlton [Scroop], Nicholas of. 1297 : 
sub-taxor of the ninth in Carlton 
Scroop [Lay Sid}s. Rell 135/3, 
m. 4], 170 

Carlton, Walter of. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Barrowbv [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 11], 173 

Carlton, William of. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Claypole [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, VI. 4], 169 

Carlton, William of (another), xlviii 

Carnarvon, Edward of {later Edward II), 
Ixxiii 

Carpentaria, Carpentarius. See Car- 
penter. 

Carpenter, Hugh le, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Wilham of Apethorpe, 
q.v., 70 (307) 

Carpenter, Hugh s. of John, plaintiff, 
1298, against John Mog, q.v., 84 
(353) 

Carpenter, John le, meiinpemor, 1298, 
against Hugh Peverel, q.v. (182), 
and plaintiff against John Mog, 
q.v., 36(182), 84(353) 

Carpenter, John le, of Crofton, main- 
pernor, 1298, of William Loveday, 
q.v., 84 (354) 

Carpenter, Maud, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Ralph Bernard, Robert de Spina, 
William s. of Gilbert and Nicholas 
Herre, sub-taxors, q.v., 66 (258). 
63 (283) 

Carpenter, Nicholas, of West Keal, juror, 
1298, of Bolingbroke wapentake, 
132 (488) 

Carpenter, Richard, sub-taxor, 1294, of 
the tenth, in Bratoft, 67 (296), 
156 

Carpenter, Richard s. of John, plaintiff, 
1298, against John Mog, q.v. 
Brother of Hugh s. of John Car- 
penter, q.v., 84 (353) 

Carpenter, Robert, of Keisby, main- 
pernor, 1298, of William Randolf, 
q.v., 12 (49) 

Carpenter, Robert le, of Quarrington, 
plaintiff, 1298, against Hugh 
Bardolf, q.v., and Walter Est, 
q.v. 1297: sub taxor of the ninth 
in Quarrington and Millthorpe, 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1]. He 
was himself assessed for this tax 
as follows : he had 1 queirter of 
com worth 3/- ; 1 qr. of dredge 
worth 2/-; i qr. of peas worth 
1/- ; 1 draught-beast worth 3/- ; 
forage worth 9d. The total was 
9/9, the ninth part being 1/1 
[Ibid.], 82 (344), 86 (356), 163 

Carpenter, Walter. 1297 : sub-taxor, of 
the ninth in South Willingham 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, vi. 12], 176 

Carpenter, Wilham, juror of Grantham, 
1298, 48 (236) 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



211 



Carpenter, WilUain, of Newton-le-\Vold. 
juror of Haverstoe wapentake, 
1298, 129 (480) 

Carpenter, William le. 1297: 8ub-taxor 
of the ninth in Braceborough [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3, ru. 3], 168 

Carter, Hugh le, of Belton, mainpernor, 
1298, of William s. of Thomas of 
Belton, q.v. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Belton [Lay Subs. Roll 
63/1, m. 1]. He was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had J quarter of corn worth 
1/6; i qr. of barley worth 1/3; 
J qr. of dretlge worth 1/- ; ^ qr. 
of [name of eirticle obliterated ; 
perhaps oats] worth 1/- ; 1 
draught-boast worth 1/-; 1 mare 
worth 3/6 ; forage worth 6d. The 
total was 9/9, the ninth ])art 
being 1/1 [Ibid.], 37 (192), 109 
(415), 166 

Carter, Jolui, of Somerby, mainpernor, 
1298, of Richard Gybbard, q.v.. 
110 (415) 

Cartere, Nicholas le, mainpernor, 1298, 
of William Lambetoth, q.v., 13 (57) 

Carter, Walter, of Grimsthorpe. 1297 : 
sub-taxor of the ninth in Grims- 
thorpe [iay Subs. Roll 135/6, 
m. 1], 164 

Carter, William, of Falding\\orth, jiu-or 
of Lawress wapentake, 1298, 
133 (491) 

Canun, John de, juror of Calcewath 
wapentake, 1298, 131 (486) 

Carwell, William de, stood pledge, 1298, 
to Raljih of Cendale, q.v., 31 (153) 

Casewick, Gilbert de. 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Deeping [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 5], 168 

Cast', William de, of West Keal, juror of 
Bolingbroko wapentake, 1298, 132 
(488) 

Castello, John de, plaintiff, 1298, against 
William of Flinthsim, q.v., and 
Hugh Bardolf, q.v., 80 (340), 83 
(349) 

Casterton, Alice of, plaintiff', 1298, against 
Thomas of Easton, q.v., 69 (305) 

Casterton, Richard of, juror of Kirton 
wapentake, 1298, 55 (254), 126 
(466) 

Casthorpe, Robert s. of Bartholomew of, 
juror of Winnibriggs wapentake, 
1298. 1295: assessed for the 
eleventh as follows : ho had 4 
quarters of com worth 5/- a qr. ; 
3 qrs. of dredge worth 2/- per qr. ; 
1 qr. of peas worth 2/6 ; 4 qrs. of 
oats worth 1/6 per qr. : 2 draught- 
beasts worth 3/- each ; 2 oxen 
worth 6/- each ; 2 cows worth 
5/- each ; hay and forage worth 
5/-. The total was 65/6, the 



Custliorpe, Koborl t^. ol Baitholoniow 
of — cont. 

eleventh part being 5/11 J [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/2, m. 5]. 1297 : 
sub-taxor of the ninth in Cas- 
thorpe and Stainwith [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, 7n. 9]. Ho was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had 1 quarter of com worth 
3/- ; 1 qr. of oats worth 1/6 ; 
1 draught-boast worth 4/- ; 1 ox 
worth 6/- ; forage worth 6d. The 
total was 16/-, the ninth part 
being 1/8 [Ibid.], civ, n. 1, 135 
(497), 173 

Casthorpe, WiUiam s. of Robert of, juror 
of Winnibriggs wapentake, 1298, 
135(497) 

Cauce, Adam, of Gonerby, mainpernor, 
1298, of Roger s. of Stephen of 
Barkston, q.v., 13 (55) 

Cause, Willia7n, 1298, Easter: succeeded 
Robert le Venour, q.v., as custos of 
the City of Lincoln [K.R.M.R. 
no. 71, TO. 3 ; L.T.R.M.R. no. 69, 
m. 6], 137, 154 

Celario, William de, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Deeping [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 3], 168 

Celby, Walter de, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Ropsley [Lay Subs. Roll 
63/1, TO. 1], 166 

Cendale, Ralph de, bailiff of Walshcroft 
wapentake, 1298, Ivi, 26 (134), 31 
(153), 32 (159), 143 (bis), 161, n. 34 

Chad worth, John of, sheriff of Lincoln- 
shire, 150, n. 25 

ChapelejTi, Jordan le, paid 20/-. main- 
prise money in 1298, 96 (379) 

Chapeleyn, ScapelejTi, Walter le, of 
Hemingbj', mainpernor, 1298, of 
W^illiam of Hemingby, q.v. ; also 
juror of Gartree and Homcastle 
wapentakes, 1298. 1293-4 : 

■ Walter le Chaj)clajTi de Hem- 
inyngby ' was a member of a 
jury of presentment summoned to 
determine the extent of the 
knights' fees held by Thomas of 
Moulton [Atic. Extents no. 82 (2), 
m. 1], 3 (14), 12 (47), 20 (96), 27 
(142), 38 (195), 130 (483) 

Chaplain, Ralph the, accessory to 
Alexander Golderon, q.v., 85 (355) 

Chaplain, Simon the, plaintiff, 1298, 
against various sub-taxors, 55-6 
(2.5G. 258). 63-4 (283, 288) 

Chapman, John, of Rippingale, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Geoffrey of Staple- 
ford, q.v., 17 (68) 

Chapnian, John s. of John, of Rippingale, 
mainpernor, 1298, of Geoffrey of 
Stapleford, q.v., 17 (68) 

Chapman, Nigel le, of Donington, bailiff 
of Kirton, 1297-8. 1299 : ' Nigel 



I 



212 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Chapman, Nigel le—cont. 

le Chapman de Donington ' stood 
pledge to Kichard Capoiin of Sur- 
fleet, who brought a writ of assize 
of novel disseisin against the 
Abbot of Vaudey, concerning a 
tenement in Surfieet. but did not 
prosecute [A.R. 606, w. 4]. 
Perhaps chief bailiff of Holland, 
1297-8, when he is called the 
merchant. 1295-6 : Nigel this 
year paid 6/- rent to the Earl of 
Richmond for a house in Doning- 
ton, Kirton [Min. Accts. 111/6, 
f. 9]. 1300 : Nigel the Merchant 
of Donington brought a writ of 
assize of novel disseisin against 
Richard Clony of Spalding, q.v., 
concerning a tenement in Spald- 
ing, but did not prosecute [A.R. 
1316, m. 28], 4 (19), 8-9 (29-32, 
42 (225), 142, 171 

Chapman, Wilhani le, minor official, 
129S, rank not given, 115 (434) 

Chaumpayn, William, 1297: sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Hay dor, Oseby and 
Aisby ; but himself non-taxable, 
for it is said of him, ' nichil habet 
in bonis' [Lay Subs. Roll 63/1, 
m. i], 165 

Cheveney, Henry, juror of Hill wapentake, 
1298, 131 (484) 

Christiana the Widow, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Ivo of Billingliay, q.v., 
106 (405) 

Chyrche, WilUam Atte, of Clajrpole, stood 
pledge, 1298, to Henry Asty, q.v. 
1297 : ' Willelmus ad Ecclesiam 
de Cleypol ' was a sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Claypolo. Ho was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had 1 quarter of corn worth 
3/- ; 1 qr. of barley worth 2/6 ; 
1 qr. of oats worth 1/6 ; hay worth 
1/- ; 1 draught-beast worth 2/- ; 
I steer worth 2/- ; the total was 
12/-, the ninth part being 1/4 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 4"], 
13 (56). 169 

Cirtuli, The Black, xxvii, n. 1 

Cirtuli, The White, xxvii, n. 1 

Cissor. See Tailor 

Clapton, Roger of, acts as clerk to Raljjh 
Paynel, sheriff of Lincolnshire, at 
the Exchequer, 7 May, 1297 
[K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 75d], 139 

Claythorpe, Philip of, juror of Calcewath 
wapentake, 1298 (heads the list). 
1300 : Philip of Claythorpe 
essoined himself in three separate 
tissizes of novel disseisin, by Adam 
Fox. The first was against Roger 
of Well of Scamblesby, the second 
against the aforesaid Roger and 
Ralph of ' Fordington ' of 



Claythorpe, Philip of — cont. 

Scamblesby and the thii'd against 
Walter s. of Herbert and others 
[A.R. 1316, m. 42]. Next year 
(1301) Phihp brought an assize 
of novel disseisin against Walter 
s. of Herbert (of Alvingham) con- 
cerning a tenement in Alvingham, 
but did not prosecute [A.R. 1320, 
m. 23] ; and one against Roger of 
Well and others concerning a 
tenement in Scamblesby, but again 
did not prosecute [Ibid., m. 29]. 
In 1303 Phihp held one -fourth 
part of one fee in Alvingham, of 
the fees of Jolm de Baiocis [F.A. 
in, p. 149], and together with 
Robert of Well (? the same as 
Roger) held half and one-eighth of 
one fee in Scamblesby [Ibid., 
p. 160], of the fees of the Countess 
of Bolingbroke. This probably 
accounts for the litigation noted 
above, 131 (486) 

Claxby, John of, juror of Haverstoe 
'wapentake, 1298, 129 (480) 

Claxby [by Normanby], William s. of 
John of, juror of Walshcroft 
wapentake, 1298, 128 (476) 

Clerk, Alexander, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Wybcrton [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 8], 172 

Clerk, Alexander le, of Aswarbj'^. See 
Golderon, Alexander 

Clerk, Eustace, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Corby [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/6, m. i], 165 

Clerk, Geoffrey the, of Haddmgton, 
juror of Boothby and Graffoe 
wapentakes, 1298. 1297: sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Haddington 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 10], 
54 (252), 129 (481), 175 

Clerk, Henry the, of Skillington, juror of 
Beltisloe wapentake, 1298, 12 (50) 

Clerk, Henry le, attachor, 1298, of John 
Fraunceys of Helpringham, q.v., 
78 (333) 

Clerk, Henry le, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Boultham [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 10], 175 

Clerk, Hugh the, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Denis of Newton, q.v., 19 (81) 

Clerk, John the, of Winceby, mainpernor, 
1298, of Walter of Winceby, q.v., 
41 (219) 

Clerk, John le, plaintiff, 1298, against 
various sub-taxors, 55-6 (256 
258), 64 (288) 

Clerk, John le, of Ludford, 1297: sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Ludford 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 12], 176 

Clerk, John le, of Sixle, 1297 : sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Sixle [Lay Sui^. 
Roll 135/3, m. 12], 176 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



213 



Clerk, Nicholas, 1299: bailiff, probably 
of Skirbeck, under Hugh de 
Bussey, slierilT of Lines. [.-!./?. 
1320, m. 29], 143 (bis), 150, 
»i. 29 

Clerk, Peter le, of Swayfield. juror of 
Beltislof^ wapentake, 1298, 53 
(250) 

Clerk, Philip the, plaintiff, 1298, against 
William s. of Gilbert and Nicholas 
Herre, sub-taxors. ^.r., 63 (2S3) 

Clerk, Ralph the. of Ferriby, mainpernor, 
1298, of Roger of Brinkhill, q.v., 
27 (139) 

Clerk, Ralph the, of Ingoldsby, juror of 
Aswarilhum wapentake, 1298, 10 
(36) 

Clerk, Richard the, of Ponton, 1295 : one 
of the twelve sub-taxors of the 
eleventh in V^'innib^iggs wapen- 
take [Lay Subs. Roll 135/2, m. 16], 
159 

Clerk, Robert the, collector of prise in 
Swaton. 1298. Ix, n. 1. 114 (427) 

Clerk, Robert the, of Woolsthorpe, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Robert Pygoun, 
q.v. 1297 : sub-taxor of the ninth 
in Belvoir and Woolsthorpe [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3. m. 9, 11], 52 
(242), 173 

Clerk, Roger le, of Allington, 1295 : one 
of the twelve sub-taxors of the 
eleventh in Winnibriggs wapen- 
take [Lay Subs. Roll 135/2, m. 16], 
159 

Clerk, Roger le, of Burton by Lincoln, 
juror of Lawress wapentake, 1298 
(heads the list), 133 (491) 

Clerk, Roger the, of Fulstow, juror of 
Haverstoe wapentake, 1298, 129 
(480) 

Clerk, Roger le, of W'yberton, 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Wyberton 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, mm. 7. 8], 
172 

Clerk, Simon tlie, of Dunsthorpe, minor 
official, 1298, rank not given, but 
almost certainly a collector, either 
of taxes or prises, ilainpemor of 
Hugh s. of Ivo, q.v. 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Harrowby 
and Dunsthorpe [Lay Subs. Roll 
63/1, m. 1]. He was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had ^ a quarter of com worth 
1/6 ; 1 qr. of barley worth 2/6 ; 
1 cow worth 5/- ; forage worth 4d. 
The total was 9/4, the ninth part 
being 1/Oi \lhid.], 108-9 (41i;-5), 
166 

Clerk, Simon the, of Ropsley, mainpernor, 
1298, of Waher Scharpe, q.v., 109 
(415) 

Clerk, Thomas the, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Ivo of Billinghay, q.v., 102 (396) 



Clerk, Thomas le, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in, probably, Belton ; but 
' nichil habet in bonis ' [Lay 
Subs. Roll 63/1, m. 2], 166 

Clerk, Thomas le. See Hanuyll 

Clerk, Walter the, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Adam of Benniworth, q.v., 32 
(155) 

Clerk, William the, of Timberland, 
juror of Flaxwell and Langoe 
wapentakes, 1298 ; mainpernor 
of William the shepherd, q.v., 
37 (193), 111 (418) 

Clerk, William le, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in, probably, Somerby [Lay 
Subs. Roll 63/1, m. 1], 166 

Clerk, William le, of Goxhill, juror of 
Yarborough wapentake, 1298, 127 
(473) 

Clerk, William s. of Alexander le, bailiff 
of Skirbeck wapentake, 1298. In 
a list of pleas heard at Boston on 
2 Aug., 1289, concerning the fire 
and resultant robberies at Boston 
Fair in 1288, occurs the following : 
Alan of Seldek, q.v., and WilUam 
s. of Alexander the Clerk, indicted 
and charged that at the time of the 
fire they stole clothes, spiced wax 
and canvas, were asked by what 
means they wished to acquit 
themselves. They said they were 
guiltless of the thefts imputed to 
them and that they were clerks ; 
saving benefit of clergy they sub- 
mitted themselves to this inquest, 
which said on oath that they were 
not gtiilty of the premisses. 
Therefore they were acquitted 
[A.R. 1286, m. 7d]. In a series of 
inquests held on 25th April, 1289, 
as part of the same enquiry, 
occurs this : ' Item, Gilbert of 
Gosberchurch took nimaerous 
goods from robbers and retained 
the goods to his own use . . . Item, 
William s. of Alexander the Clerk 
similarly.' [Ibid., m. 15b]. And 
among inquests taken at Boston 
in April 1290, also concerning 
fires, robberies and homicides at 
Boston Fair in 1288, one jury, 
which included Everard of Caump- 
dene, John Peyt and Henry Make- 
fare (all q.v.), stated that William 
s. of Alexander the Clerk attacked 
a certain foreigner, robbed him of 
10 ells of furred canvas, next day 
carried the canvas off to the hall 
of the Earl of Richmond and 
deUvered it to his bailiffs [Ibid., 
m. 16], 21 (104), 42 (226), 142 

Clerk, Wilham s. of Henrj' the, juror of 
Loveden wapentake, 1298, 56 
(265), 129 (478) 



214 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Clony, Richard, of Spalding, juror of 
Elloe wapentake, 129S. 1300: 
defendant in a writ of assize of 
novel disseisin brought against 
him by Nigel le Marchaunt or the 
Chapman of Donington, q.v., con- 
cerning a tenement in Spalding, 
but not prosecuted. The plaintiff 
not appearing, Richard was dis- 
missed ijide sine die [A.H. 1316], 
m. 28], 54 (253), 125 (467) 

Cloueleck, Wilham, of Grantham, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Wilham leWa\'te, 
?.f., 2(8), 18(79) 

Clyff, Hugh del, of Colby, minor official, 
1298, rank not given, 37 (190) 

Cockerington, William of, coroner of 
Lincolnshire prior to 26 Jan., 1297 
[C.C.B. 1296-1302, p. 145], 138 

Codhom, Arnold, jiiror of Grantham, 
1298, also plaintiff against WiUiam 
le Waj-te, q.v., 391 ; 48 (236), 
101 (391) 

Coint, Ralph, of Careb3% minor official, 
1298, rank not given, 36 (180) 

Cok'. See Tok' 

Cokol, John, of Glentworth, mainpernor, 
1298, of Hugh of Treswell, q.v., 
18 (80) 

Cokol, Robert, of Glentworth, brother of 
John Cokol; mainpernor, 1298, 
of Hugh of Treswell, q.v., 18 (80) 

Cokstan, Henry, of Caythorpe, paid 6/8 
mainprise money in 1298, 96 (379) 

Colebj-, Ralph of, jiu-or of Manley wapen- 
take, 1298, 133 (492) 

Coleman, Stephen, juror of Loveden 
wapentake, 1298. 65 (255), 128 
(478) 

Colevile, John of, of Wrawby, juror of 
Yarborough wapentake, 1298, 127 
(473) 

Colevill, William de, elected Coroner of 
Lincolnshire shortly before 16 
April, 1293 [C.C.B. 1288-U6, 
p. 280], 138 

ColevyU, Brother John de, aistos of 
Swineshead abbey ; plaintiff, 
1298, against Ivo of Billinghay, 
q.v., 14(61) 

Colgryme, Wilham, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Wilham the Baker, q.v., 109 
(415) 

Colin [?] s. of Roger, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Leverton [Lay Stiba. 
Roll 135/3, m. 1], 167 

Colin [?] s. of William, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Butterwick [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 1], 167 

Cologne, Geoffrey of, merchant of 
Cologne ; plaintiff, 1298, against 
John 8. of Thomas and (Jerard le 
Gauger, both q.v., 23 (127) 

Colpton', Richard de, juror of Grantham, 
1298, 130 (482) 



Cohter worth, John s. of John of, 1297: 
sub-taxor of the ninth in Colster- 
worth [Lay Subs. Roll 135/6, m. J], 
164 

Columbariis, I^Iatthew de, his authority 
was quoted, 1298, in connexion 
with the prise of wine. He was 
king's Serjeant and chamberlain, 
taker of the prise of wine and 
gauger of wine for England 
[C.P.R. 1292-1301, pp. 25, 52, 
449], 23 (127) 

Compton, Nicholas of, juror of Wraggoe 
wapentake, 1298 (heads the list). 
1303: he held, with John de 
Helwell, one half of one knight's 
fee in Stainby, of the fee of John 
de Bayeux [F.A. Hi, p. 149], 37 
(194), 128 (477) 

Coningsby, Reginald s. of John of, juror 
of Homcastle Soke and Liberty, 
1298, 131 (485) 

Connethorp', John de, of Coleby, minor 
official, 1298, rank not given, 37 
(189) 

Conysgate [Conyesgate], Alan atte, one 
of the twelve wapentake sub- 
taxors in Candleshoe of the 
eleventh of 1295 and of the twelfth 
of 1296, 56 (257), 64 (285, 287), 
66 (293), 157, 159 

Cooper, Robert the, of Rouen, alien 
merchant in Lincolnshire, 1294-8, 
70 (308) 

Copyldyk. »See Coupledyke 

Corbe, Peter, 1295 : bailiff of the men of 
Caistor [K.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 3; 
L.T.R.M.R. no. 66, tn. 104], 
155 

Corby, John s. of Thomas of, juror of 
Beltisloe wapentake, 1298 ; plain- 
tiff against Adam le Lung, q.v., 
322 ; 53 (250), 74 (322) 

Corby, Richard of, plaintiff, 1298. against 
William le Wayte, q.v., 99 (385), 
146 7!. 2 

Corringham, Robert s. of Ralph of, stood 
pledge, 1298, to Peter de Cumber- 
mount, q.v., 48 (235) 

Cosin, John, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Hougham [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 4], 169 
See also Cosyn 

Costantin, Costantyn, William, sub- 
bailiff of Winnibriggs wapentake, 
1298, 17 (65-6), 40 (208-9), 101 
(390), 141 

Cosyn, Cosin, Geoffrey, of Hougham, 
juror of Loveden wapentake, 
1298, 55 (255), 128 (478) 

Cotes, Drogo of, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Wilham of HeaUng, q.v., 32 
(157) 

Cotes, Greoffrey of, juror of Aslacoe wapen 
take, 129H, 134 (494) 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



215 



Cotes, Ralph of, bailiff of the men of 
Grimsbv. 1291 [K.R.M.R. no. 65, 
m. i] and 1294 [L.T.R.M.R. no. 66, 
m. 15], 164 (bis) 

Cottesmore, Geoffrey of, of Stamford, 
juror of Stainford, 1298; plain- 
tiff against Thomas of Easton. 
q.v. 129S, Mar. 16 : promise to pay, 
a fortnight after Easter, 26/8 to 
' Geoffrey de Cotesmore ' for 6J 
stone of wool bought of him by 
William Fraunk, Richard de Beau- 
fou, q.v., and their fellows, 
appointed to buy wool in Lincoln- 
shire [C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 335]. 
1299: the assize comes to examine 
whether ^VilUam Faderman and 
others unjustly disseised John de 
Nevill of his free tenement in 
Stamford — 1 messuage with ap- 
purtenances. The recognitors did 
not come ; among them was 
Geoffrey of Cottesmore [A.R. 506, 
m. 10]. Geoffrey was a recognitor 
on two occasions, 13u0 {A.R. 1316, 
m. 27] and 1301 [A.R. 1320, m. 
25d] in a very long-drawn assize 
between Eustace Malherbe, q.v., 
and Ranulph Drvnkedregges, 69 
(3U5), 126 (469) 

Cotun, John de, member, 1298, of a jury 
of Lincolnshire skinners, 124 (464) 

Cotvm, John de, of Rippingale, main- 
peror, 1298, of Thomas de Hanuill, 
q.v.. 113 (425) 

Cotun, Cotoun, Roger de, juror of 
Langoe wapentake, 1298 ; stood 
pledge to Thomas, vicar of 
Whai.lodo. 14 (GO). 5l'-:J (343. 251) 

Cotiis, Roger, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Scottlethorpe [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 1], 164 

Coiil, John, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Thomas of Easton, q.v., 72 (317) 

Covil, Matilda le, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Thomas of Easton, q.v., 72 
(317) 

Coupledyke, Copeldyk, Coupyldyk', Alan, 
juror of Kirton wap*mtake, 1298. 
1296: Alan was associated with 
Robert le Venour, sheriff of 
Lines., q.v., in going bail for 
John of Holland and Richard of 
Buslingthorpe, both q.v., chief 
collectors of the tenth in Lincoln- 
shire, in respect of their arrears in 
collecting and paying Ln this tax. 
The proceedings took place at the 
Exchequer [K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 
50d ; L.T.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 14d]. 
As the collectors had not paid up 
their arrears by the appointed 
date in the Hilary term, lii'JT, Alan 
de Copeldyk and his associates 
were called upon [L.T.R.M.R. 



Coupledyke, Alan — cont. 

no. 68, m. 91]. 1299: Alan was 
associated with William his 
brother, q.v., in an assize of novel 
disseisin against Roger de Copel- 
dyk [A.R. 506, m. lOd]. 1301 : 
' Alanus de Copeldyk de Framp- 
ton ' was a member of an assize 
which came to examine whether 
certain persons died in seisin in 
demesne as of fee of 1 messuage, 
2 acres, 3 roods of land, 3 roods of 
meadow and 2 acres of marsh 
with appurtenances in Kirton. 
Associated with Alan was Thomas 
Hillary of Frampton, q.v. [A.R. 
1320, m. 27d], cvi, 65 (264) 125 
(466) 

Coupledyke, Roger de, steward of the 
Earl of Lincoln, cvi 

Coupledyke, Copeldyk, Cupledyk, William 
de, juror of Kirton wapentake, 
1298. 1291 : ' Margeria uxor 
Willelmi Cobeldik ' put in lier 
place the said William her husband 
against John de Britannia and 
Robert le Messer of ' Frampton ' 
in a plea of novel disseisin [A.R. 
1293, m. 26]. 1294: a jury of 
presentment, in respect of knights' 
fees held in chief by Thomas of 
Moulton, said that William, son 
and heir of John de Copeldyk 
held, on 21 April, 1294, 1 mes- 
suage and one bovate of land with 
appurtenances in Frampton of 
Thomas, and the holding of the 
land was valued at 40/- per 
annum [the service by which it was 
held is unfortunately obUterated 
in the MS] [Anc. Extents no 82 
(2), m. 1]. 1299 : ' WUlehnus de 
Cubbeldyk ' and Alan his brother, 
q.v., brought a writ of assize of 
novel disseisin against Roger de 
Copeldyk' (who was the Earl of 
Lincoln's steward for his Lincoln- 
shire lands, [Min. Accts. 1/1, mm. 
6, 7, 8d, etc.] concerning a tene- 
ment in Frampton and Wyberton ; 
they sought licence to withdraw 
from their writ, and were granted 
it[^.i?. 506, m. lOd], cvi, 65 (254), 
125 (466) 

Crandene, Walter de, of Worlaby, jtiror 
of Yarborough wapentake, 1298. 
1301 : ' Walter de Craden de 
Wolricby ' stood pledge to the 
prosecutor in an assize of novel 
disseisin concerning a tenement in 
Beelsby, Haverstoe [A.R. 1322, 
m. 17d], 127 (473) 

Cranemer, Thomas le, 1297: sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Swineshead [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 7], 171 



216 



BIOGRAPHIC^AL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Cranwell, William of, juror of Flaxwell 
and Langoe wapentakes, 1298, 
37 (193), 54(251) 

Cras, Richard le, member, 1298, of a 
Lincolnshire jury of apothecaries, 
124(461) 

Cresoy, WilUam de. of Kinnards Ferry, 
juror of Corrmgham wapentake, 
1298, 134 (496) 

Crisping, Alfred, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Allington, ^^'innibriggs 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 9], 
173 

Crispj-ngg. See Cryspyn 

Cristian, Walter, minor official, rank not 
given, 108-9 (415) 

Cristian, W'illiam, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Robert Hanuan, q.v., 109 (415) 

Croft, Alan s. of John do, stood pledge, 
1298, to Hugh Amory, g.v.. 57 
(263) 

Crokedek', Adam dc, royal justice ; for 
much infonnation as to his 
activities, mostly irrelevant to 
Lincolnshire, see, e.g., the General 
Index to C.P.R. 1292-1301, and 
to C.Ci?. 1288-96 and 1296- 
1302. Adam is mentioned only 
incidentally in A.R. iJOb, 46 (231) 

Crossholme, Gilbert of, stood pledge, 
1298, to Robert Pygoim, q.v., 
and William le Wayte, q.v. See 
also Hugh Sturmy; 87 (363), 98 
(382) 

Crossholme, John of, 1293 : \inder-sheriff 
and receiver under John Dyne, 
sheriff 1290-3 [Selden Soc, Vol. 
48 : Select Cases in the Exch . of 
Pleas, p. 147], 138 

Croxton, Simon of, chief bailiff of the 
North Riding under Richard of 
Howell, sheriff, 1299-1300 [A.R. 
1316, m. 27d], 143 

Croyland, Abbot of, 181 

Crucem, Adam ad, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Alan of Ncwland, q.v., 21 (107) 

Crucem, Richard ad, of Ashby-de-la- 
Laund, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Robert of Ashby, q.v., 11 (40) 

Crucem, Roger ad, minor official, rank 
not given. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Honington [Lay Subs. Roll 
63/1, m. 1]. He was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had 1 quarter of corn worth 
3/- ; 1 qr. of barley worth 2/6 ; 
2 qrs. of oats worth 1/6 per qr. ; 
1 draught-beast worth 2/- ; for- 
age worth 4d. ; 1 steer worth 3/-. 
The total was 13/10, the ninth 
part being 1/6^ [Ibid.], 108-9 
(415), 165 

Crucem, William ad, of Cranwell, main- 
pernor, 1208, of Robert le Foulere, 
q.v., 11 (42) 



Cnunb, Warin de, of Winterton, main- 
])ernor, 1298, of John TrjTiel, q.v, 
1301 : ' Warinus Crovunbe de 
V\'jTiterton ' stood pledge to 
Richai'd of Coleby of Winterton, 
plaintiff against Richard s. of 
Robert of Coleby in an assize of 
mort d'ancestor concerning a tene- 
ment of 3 roods of meadow in 
Winterton with appurtenances. 
The case was ultimately not 
prosecuted, and Warin and his 
associivtes were put in mercy [A.R. 
1322, m. 23d], 23 (125) 

Cr>'sp3Ti, William, of Allington, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Robert Pygoun, 
q.v. 1295 : WilUam was assessed 
for the eleventh as follows : he 
had 6 quarters of corn worth 5/- 
per qr. ; 5 qrs. of barley worth 
2/6 per qr. ; 2 qrs. of peas worth 
2/6 per qr. ; 1 draught-beast 
worth 5/- ; 2 oxen worth 5/- each ; 
hay and forage worth 3/- ; 1 cow 
worth 5/-. The total was 70/6, 
the eleventh part being 6/4| [Lay 
Subs. Roll 136/2, m. 2]. 1297: 
' William Crispins ' was a sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Allington, 
Winnibriggs [Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, 
m. 9]. He was himself assessed for 
this tax as follows : he had 1 
quarter of com worth 3/- ; I 
draught -beast worth 3/- ; 1 ox 
worth 6/- ; 1 cow worth 5/- : 
forage worth 1/-. The total was 
18/-, the ninth part being 2/- 
[Ibid.]. 1299 : recognitor in an 
assize which came to determine 
whether Geoffrey of Branston 
and others had unjustly disseised 
Robert of ' Hyppetoft ' of his free 
tenement of 1 messuage and 14 
acres of land in Denton-by- 
Grantham [A.R. 506, m. lOd], 
civ, n. 1, 40 (206), 52 (242), 173 

Cuckfield, John of, xiv, n. 

Cuke, William, of Carlton, mainpernor, 
1298, of Ralph Paynel, q.v., 1 (1) 

Culbon, Ingelram, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Sedgebrook [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 9], 173 

Culverthorpe, Nicholas s. of Maud of, 
mainpernor, 1298, of William 
Reynevile, q.v., 18 (73) 

Culverthorpe, Ralph s. of Adam of, 
attachor, 1298, of William Rey- 
nevile, q.v., 79 (334) 

Culverthorpe, Walter of, minor official 
almost certainly a sub-collector of 
prise in Aswardhum wapentake, 
77 (333), 84-5 (354), 97 (380) 

Culverthorpe, William s. of Philip of, 
stood pledge. 1298, to Walter 
Deaudamour, q.v., 44 (229) 



BrOGRAPHK'AL TXDEX OF PERSONS 



217 



Cumbermount, Peter de, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Richard of Draycoto and 
William de Bibbesworth, both 
q.v., 48 (235) 

Cumborworth, John of, juror of Calce- 
wath wapentake, 1298, 131 (486) 

C'uper, Laureuce, 121)7 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Skiibeck [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 1], 167 

Cupledyk. See Copeldyk 

t'xirsoiui, Robert, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Adam lo Lung, g.y. 1291 : " Robert 
le Curzun ' brought a writ of 
assize of mort d'ancestor against 
Philip de Staunton and his wife 
concerning a tenement of 1 mes- 
suage, 61 acres of land and 1 acre 
of meadow with appurtenances at 
Witham, Beltisloe, but did not 
prosecute. Robert eventually won 
the case [A.B. 1293, m. 6], 73'(320) 

Curteys, Jolm, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Alan of Xewland, q.v. 1300 : 
Ranulph s. of Nicholas of Benn- 
ington brought a writ of assize of 
novel disseisin against ' John 
Cxirteis ' of Frieston, Skirbeck, 
and others concerning a tenement 
in Butterwick, Skirbeck, but did 
not prosecute [A.B. 131(1, tn. 25], 
5 (19a), 8 (28) 

Curteys, Richard, of Normanby, juror of 
Walshcroft wapentake, 1298. 
1294 : Among the King's Remem- 
brancer's rccogniciones for the 
Easter term of this year is this : 
Richard de Bolingthorp', John de 
Hollandia, Roger de Beltoft, 
Richard le Curteys de Normanby 
and another came before the 
Barons of the Exchequer, and 
each of them made acknowledge- 
ment that as a body they were 
bound to Philip de Willoughby, 
chancellor of the Exchequer, in 
£186 13s. 4d. to be paid by them at 
Christmas next [K.R.M.E. no. 76, 
m. 72cl]. This was probably to do 
with pajanent of arrears of a tax 
on movables, since Richard de 
Bolingthoqj and John de Hol- 
landia were chief collectors in 
Lincolnshire of the fifteenth of 
1290 [Ibid., m. 66d]. 1296, 
Michaelmas : Richard de Ber- 
mingham, Eustace Malherbe of 
Stamford, q.v., Geoffrey de Roch- 
ing, Richard " Curteis ' of Nor- 
manby and two others went bail 
to have the persons of John of 
Holland and Richard de Bose- 
lingthorp". [chief] taxors and col- 
lectors of the tenth in Lincolnshire 
[at the Exchequer] by Jan. 20, 
1297, to make satisfaction to the 



Curteys, Richard — cant. 

king in respect of tlie arrears of 
their accoimt for the said tenth 
[K.R.M.B. 710. 60, m. 30 : repeated 
L.T.R.M.R. no. 67, m. 12]. 1301 : 
' Richard le Corteys de Norman- 
by ', who brougiit a writ of 
assize of novel disseisin against 
Robert Colo of Tealby concerning 
a tenement in Tealby, did not 
prosecute [A.R. 1320, m. 27], 
38 (196), 128 (476) 

Curtev-s, Simon, plaintifl', 1298, against 
■ Ivo of BiUinghay, q.v., 102 (395) 

Cuteman, Alan, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Harrowby and Duns- 
thorpe [Lay Subs. Roll 63/1, m. 1], 
166. 



Dalby, John of, 1294 : bailiff of the men 
of Grimsby [L.T.R.M.R. no. 66, 
m. 15], 154-5 

Dalby, Richard of, minor official, 1298, 
rank not given, xcii, 22 (117) 

Dale, Harno de la, juror of the City of 
Lincoln, 1298, 129 (479) 

Damet, Elias, of Carlton, mainpernor, 
1298, of Gilbert of Carlton, q.v., 
36(186) 

Damme, John atte, of Harrowby, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Simon Lewyn, 
q.v., 110 (415) 

Dampneue, William, of Louth, defendant, 
1298, to a charge by Robert of 
Legboume. q.v., perhaps an official, 
re (133) 

Damyot, Walter, juror of the City of 
Lincoln, 1298, 129 (479) 

Dare, Elias, jiu-or of Grantham, 1298. 
1297, Mar. 12 : EUas is to be 
distrained by the sheriff of Lincoln- 
shire to go to Berwick with other 
citizens and burgesses on the 
king's business, in place of William. 
de Lathegarth, who is found, on 
the testimony of the Bishop of 
Durham, to be deaf and in- 
sufficient for the work (William 
himself was chosen to replace 
Roger of Belvoir of Grantham, 
who was found to be incapable) 
[C.C.R. 1296-1302, p. 21]. The 
business referred to is that of 
' assessing and arrcnting ' the 
houses and plots of the town ; and 
Roger of Belvoir was a member of 
the original commission appointed 
on 12 Jan., 1297, to carry out this 
work (see Braban, John, and 
references there given), 130 (482) 

Darner, Robert, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Wilsthorpe [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 3], 168 



218 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Darre, William, jtiror of Grantham, 1298. 

1297, Oct. 16: promise to pay 
' William Dane " of Grantham 
£4 133. 4d. for one .sack of wool 
bought of him for the king's use 
bv Robert de Basing, q.v., and his 
fellows [C'.P./?. 1292-1301, p. 310], 
cv, 130 (482) 

Daukus, Adam, of Winterton, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Alan Fraunceys of 
Winterton, q.v. 1299: 'Adam 
Daucus ' was a recognitor in an 
assize of mort d'ancestor between 
William Shakespeye and Roger de 
Nevill concerning one toft with 
appurtenances in Redboume, held 
by Roger. The recognitors did not 
appear [A.R. 506, m. 8d]. 1300: 
stood pledge to Gocelin de Scrop, 
who brought a writ of assize of 
novel di.sseisin against Ralph of 
Colebj- and others concerning a 
tenement in Coleby, but did not 
prosecute [A.R. 1316, m. 27d]. 
Adam Daucus is here said to be of 
Winteringham, not Winterton, 
but these places are close to each 
other, and it is perhaps improbable 
that there were two men of this 
name, 23 (123) 

Daule, John, mainpernor, 1298, of Gilbert 
Belle, q.v., 23 (227) 

Day, Walter, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Alan de la Raws and John Blaunc- 
hard sub-taxors, q.v., 65 (291) 

Dayday, Alan, of Nettleton, n^ainpernor, 

1298, of John of Nettleton, q.v., 
39 (202) 

Deaudamur, Walter, of Thorpe, royal 
official, rank unspecified in A.R. 
505. 1301 : the assize came to 
determine whether Edward [? 
Edmund] de Ayncourt, Henry 
le Forester and ' Walter Dieuda- 
mur ' unjustly disseised Lucy d. 
of John s. of William of Thorpe 
of her free tenement in Thorpe by 
Timberland Lucy did not prose- 
cute [A.R. 1320, m. 28], Iviii, xcii, 
17-S (69, 71). 43 (229), 102 (394), 
105(403), 117(440) 

Deen, Peter le. juror of Aslacoe wapen- 
take, 1298, 134 (494) 

Deen, William, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Alexander of Dunsbv. q.v., 119 
(450) 

Deeping, William of, juror of Stamford, 
1298. 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in South Withain [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/ 3, m. 3]. He was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had 1 quarter of com worth 
3/- ; 1 qr. of beans worth 1/3 ; 
1 qr. of oats worth 1/6 ; 1 draught- 
Ijeaet wortli 1/6 ; 1 cow worth 



Deeping, William of — cont. 

4/6 ; forage worth 6d. The total 
was 12/3, the ninth part being 
1/4^ [Ibid.-]. 1299, June 25: 
' William de Deping ' of Stamford 
complained that he was impeded 
of 1 messuage with appurtenances 
in Stamford by Gilbert of Cottes- 
more, who made fine with him in 
5 marks silver [Feet of Fines, 
27 Ed. I, 710. 8]. 1300 and 1301 : 
on two occasions William was a 
recognitor in a protracted law- 
suit between Eustace Malherbe, 
q.v., and Ranulph Drynkedregges 
[A.R. 1316, m. 27; A.R. 1320, 
7n. 25d], cvi, 126 (469), 163 

Dek, Robert en le, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Greatford [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 3], 168 

Dembleby, Henry [of], nainor oflficial, 
1298, rank not given. 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Braceby and 
Sapperton [Lay Subs. Roll 6311, 
m. 1]. He was himself assessed for 
this tax as follows : he had 
1 quarter of corn worth 3/- ; 
1 qr. of barley worth 2/6 ; 1 qr. of 
oats worth 1/6 ; 1 draught-beast 
worth 2/- ; 1 cow worth 5/- ; 
forage worth 1/-. The total was 
15/-, the ninth part being 1/8 
[Ibid.], 108-9 (416), 166 

Dene, Walter, plaintiff, 1298, against 
William s. of Gilbert and Nicholas 
Herre, sub-taxors, q.v., 55 
(256) 

Dene, William, plaintiff, 1298, against 
various sub-taxors in Candleshoe, 
63 (283), 66 (288) 

Denton, Oregory of, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Scredington [Lay 
Subi>. Roll 135/6, m. 1], 162 

Denton, John s. of William of, juror of 
Winnibriggs wapentake, 1298. 
1295 : he was assessed for the 
eleventh as follows : he had 1 
quarter of corn worth 5/- ; 2 qrs. 
of oats worth 1/6 each ; 1 qr. of 
peas worth 2/6 ; 1 draught-beast 
worth 5/- ; 1 cow worth 4/- ; 
3 two-toothed sheep worth lOd. 
each ; forage worth 1/-. The 
total was 23/-, the eleventh part 
being 2/lJ [Lay Subs. Roll 135/2, 
m. 3], civ, 135 (497) 

Denton, Robert of, 1295 : wapentake sub- 
taxor of the eleventh in Winni- 
briggs [Lay Subs. Roll 135/2, 
m. 16], 159 

Deudamour, Deudamiu-. See Deauda- 
mur 

Dine, Thomas, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Bartholomew Fraiuiceys, q.v., 109 
(415) 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



•2] 9 



Dingley, Nicholas of, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Thomas of Easton, q.v.. 
oO (239) 

Ditton, Thomas of, member, 1298, of a 
Lincolnshire jury of apothecaries, 
124(461) 

Docking, Richer of, minor official, 1298, 
rank not given. 1291 : Isabella 
wife of Richer of Docking essoins 
herself against John s. of Cksoffrey 
of Southoqje and others in a plea 
of mort d'ancestor [A.R. 1293, 
77!. -ft]. iJ'.t.T : ' Richer Docinge of 
Skillington ' is one of the twelve 
wapentake sub-taxors of the 
eleventh in Winnibriggs [Lay Sitbs. 
Roll 135/2, m. 16]. 1302: the 
following may concern the same 
person — . . . et alii tenentes ter- 
rarum que fuerunt Ricardi de 
Dockynge et Richeri de Dockyngge 
tenent duos partes j.Jeodi in Dock- 
yngge . . . (Norfolk) [F.A. Hi, 
p. 409]. Did Richer for some 
reason move into Lincolnshire ? 
35 (173), 159 

Doddtngton, Hugh of, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Drj- Doddington with 
Stocking, Loveden \_Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, 171. 4], 169 

Dodicthorp', Richard de, juror of Manley 
wapentake, 1298, 133 (492) 

Donington, Nigel of. See Chapman, 
Nigel le 

Donne, John le, of Fishtoft, bailiff of 
Skirbeck wapentake between 1294 
and 1297. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Fishtoft [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. i]. He was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had 1 mare worth 3/- ; 1 heifer 
worth 4/- ; 1 cow worth 5/- ; 2 
quarters of mixed com worth 5/- ; 
1 qr. of oats worth 1/6 ; hay and 
forage worth 1/-. The total was 
19/6, the ninth part being 2/2 
[Ibid.] 1299: ' John le Donne de 
Toft ' was a juror in an assize of 
mort d'ancestor between Robert 
B. of Walter de Fenne and others 
and Roger Gemon of Boston, 
concerning a free tenement in 
Fishtoft. Tlic jurors failed to 
appear [A.R. 506, m. 8], 21 (109), 
142 (bis), 150, n. 27, 107 

Donne, Robert de le, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Simon of Grebbv, q.v., 
29 (145) 

Doston, John of, of Northampton, 
member, 1298, of a Lincolnshire 
jury of skinners, 124 (464) 

Dowel, John, juror of the City of 
Lincoln. 1298, 129 (479) 

Drave, Thomas, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Joim Brom, q.v., 36 (176) 



Draycote, Richard of, sheriff of Lincoln- 
shire from 16 April, 1298, to 15 
Oct., 1299 [P.R.O. List.i and 
Indexes. IX, p. 78 ; cf. K.R.M.R. 
no. 71, m. 69]. 1298, Michaelmas : 
the coroners of Lincolnshire are 
ordered to cause £125 3s. 4d. to be 
paid out of ' Ralph ' [sic] of Dray- 
cote's lands and goods. This sum 
represents arrears due to the 
Exchequer on Richard' proffer at 
the Michaelmas term, 1298 
[L.T.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 66]. 
Richard was ordered to be present 
in person at the Exchequer on 
3 Dec, 1298, concerning this 
residue of his proffer [Ibid., 
m. 67]. 1298, Dec. 12 : Richard, 
assisted by John do Sheffield, 
royal clork, is to purvey 900 
quarters of wheat, 1,000 qrs. 
of oats, 1,000 qrs. of malt and 
500 qrs. of beans and peas, so 
prepared that it will keep up to 
two years, and to have it all at 
Berwick by Whit-Smiday, 1299, 
for use against the Scots [C'.P.R. 
1292-1301, p. 388]. In connexion 
with this prise there appears, 
among Richard's debts at Easter, 
1299, this : he paid, by letter of 
John de Drokensford, keeper of 
the king's wardrobe, £13 6s. 8d. 
for certain expenses (in connexion 
with the prise) to John of Sheffield, 
royal clerk, assigned, together 
with Richard liimself as sheriff, to 
provide com for the king during 
1299. And also this : he paid 
£50, for carriage of com, to Peter 
de Molinton, q.v., assigned to pro- 
vide corn in Lincolnshire diu-ing 
1298 for the king's use, by writ 
of the privy seal and letters patent 
of Peter himself [K.R.M.R. no. 
72,m.77d]. 1299: Richard stood 
surety for Philip de Lindesey, 
tenant of the lands of Henry 
Camerar' (Chamberlain), who 
was required to answer for a 
debt of 40/- scutage for Wales, 
of the year 1282 [L.T.R.M.R. 
no. 70, m. 41], xciv, xcvi 
{ter), cxi, 7-8 (27), 48 (235), 
98 (381), 137, 139 and n. 9, 
140-5 (passim), 146-7 (bis), 149, 
H. 19 and 22, 150, n. 23-4, 
/I. 28, 151, n. 30-1, n. 35-6, 
152, n, 43, n. 45, 153, n. 50, n. 55-6. 
154, n. 57 

Draj'ton, WUham of, juror of Flax well 
and Langoe wapentakes, 1298, 
54 (251) 

Dreythor])', William dc, juror of Hill 
wapentake, 1298, 131 (484) 



220 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Drynkedregges, Ranulph, cix 

Dunsby, Alexander of, minor official, 
1298, rank not given, 119(450) 

Dunsby, Sibyl of, plaintiJY, 1298, against 
Ivo of Billinghay, q.v., 102 
(395) 

Dunneswra, William s. of Ralph of, 
clerk ; perhaps sub-taxor of a tax 
on movables, but no tax is 
specified. In Candleshoe wapen- 
take, Gl (275) 

Dunstable, Thomas of, member, 1298, 
of a Lincolnshire jury of skinners, 
124 (464) 

Dimston, William of. ])laintifT, 1298, 
against Walter Est, q.v. 1299 : 
John s. of Osbert do ' W j'thington ' 
brought a writ of assize of mort 
dancestor against W^illiam of 
Dunston and others concerning a 
tenement iu Scopwick, Kirby 
Green and Potter Hanworth, but 
did not prosecute \^A.1{. 50G, m. 
Sd]. 130.3: WUliam of Dunston 
and another held one twenty- 
fourth part of one fee in Dunston, 
of the fee of Norman Darcv [F.A. 
in, p. 141], 116 (438) 

Duran, Gerard, member, 1298, of a jury 
of " provincial sailors " in Lincoln- 
shire, 125 (468) 

Duraunt, Peter, owner, 1297, of a ship 
called the ' Blythe de Grjanmesby,' 
carrying provisions to Flanders 
for the king's use [P.R.O. Sheriffs'' 
Admin. Accts. no. 586/1], Ixv, 
189 

Dyne, Hugh, of Swayfield, minor official, 
1298, rank not given. 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Swavfield 
[Lay Subs. Boll 135/6, m. 1]. He 
was hijnself assessed for this tax 
as follows : he had 1 draught- 
beast worth 2/- ; 1 cow worth 4/- ; 
1 quarter of com worth 3/- ; I qr. 
of peas worth 2/- ; ^ qr. of oats 
worth Od. The total was 16/9, the 
ninth part being 1/10^ \lbid.], 
36 (179), 165 

Dyne, Hugh, of Twyford, 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Twyford 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/6, m. i], 
164 

DjTie, John, sheriff of Lincolnshire from 
16 Oct., 1290, to 14 April, 1293 
[P.R.O. Lists and Indexes, IX, 
p. 78]. Since his term of office 
ended before the war with France 
began, and since he is mentioned 
only once in A.R. 505, I give hero 
a minimum of detail about him. 
By the end of the Trinity Term, 
1293, he was dead, for during that 
tenn his widow and the other 
executors of his will came before 



Dyne, John — cant. 

the barons of the Exchequer over 
the matter of his debts [K.R.M.R. 
no. 66, mm. 34, 5Sd]. As to lands, 
his heirs, in 1293-4 held 4^ fees 
and J of 1 fee in Great Hale, 
Scredington, Shillingthorpe, Wil- 
loughby, Ingoldsby, Haydor, 
Dembelby, Ashby, Fenton and 
Toft (all in Kesteven), of the fee 
of Gilbert of Gaunt [K.R.M.R. no. 
67, m. 36]. And John died in 
seisin also of the manor of Kin- 
ardeby, in chief of the king 
[L.T.'R.M.R. no. 66, m. 50], 121 
(456), 137-42 (bis), 143-4 (ter), 
145-6, n. 3 (bis), 150, n. 25 

Dyne, Robert, of Scopwick, plaintiff, 
1298, against Alan of Tallington, 
q.v., stood pledge to, Nicholas of 
Ryhall, q.v. 1299 : recog- 
nitor in an assize of novel dis- 
seisin between Robert de Arcy 
and others and Philip de Arcy and 
his wife concerning a tenement in 
Dvmston [A.R. 506, m. 1], 107 
(409), 112 (422) 

Dynys, Robert, of Morton, mainpernor, 
1298, of Robert de Hohnp of 
Morton, q.v., 36 (184) 

Dynys, William, of Morton, mainpernor, 
1298, of Robert de Holmp of 
Morton, q.v., 36 (184) 



Easton, Adam s. of Ralph of, 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Easton 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1], 164 

Easton, Thomas of, bailiff of Beltisloe 
and Ness, 1298 and probablj' 
earlier ; perhaps chief bailiff of 
Kesteven in the time of Ralph 
Pa3mel sheriff, q.v. He is stated 
to be of Gonerby. 1300: Thomas 
' de Eston de Gunwardby ' stood 
pledge to William s. of Ajiselm of 
Grantham, who brought a writ of 
assize of novel disseisin against 
Beatrice, widow, of Roger le 
Jloigne, but did not prosecute 
[A.R. 1316, m. 26], Iv, ci, cxxiv, 
18(76), 30(151), 45(231), 48(237), 
50 (239), 69 (305, 306), 71-4 
(310-317). 84 (3.52), 90-:5 (370-L 
373-4), 99 (383), 113 (425), 117 
(443), 121-2 (456-8), 140-1 (pas- 
sim), 146, n. 2, 149, n. 19 

Easton, William, of Claxby, juror of 
Walshcroft wapentake, 1298, 38 
(196) 

Ecclesiam, Alan ad, juror of Haverstoe 
wapentake, 1298, 129 (480) 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



221 



Ecclesiara, Alan ad, or Atte Kyrk, of 
Ingoldniells, sub-taxor, in Ingold- 
mells. of the tenth (1294), the 
twelfth (1296), and probably, the 
ninth (1297). Stood pledge," 1298, 
to Hugh Amorv, q.v., xxxv, xlix, 
57 (263), 59-63 (268, 270-4, 276-7, 
280, 282), 156, 160, 162 

Ecclesiam, Edmund ad, 1297: sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Friestou [Lay Suba. 
Boll 136/3, m. 1], 167 

Ecclesiam, Hugh ad, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Fulbeck [Lay Suba. 
Boll 136/3, m. 4], 170 

Eccleaiam, Peter ad, 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Skellinpthorpe [Lay 
Subs. Boll 136/3, m. 10], 175 

Ecclesiam, Peter ad, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Swavfield [Lay Subs. 
Boll 136/6, m. i],"l65 

Ecclesiam, Balph ad, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Great Ponton [Lay 
Subs. Boll 136/3, m. 9], 172 

Ecclesiam, Bichard ad, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in North and South 
Stoke [Lay Subs. Boll, 136/3, mm. 
9, 11], 173 

Ecclesiam, Richard ad, of Avethorpe, 
minor official, 1298, rank not 
given ; but probably a sub- 
collector of prise, Ix, n. 2, 72 (315) 

Ecclesiam, Stephen ad, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Joce of Skillington, q.v., 35 
(172) 

Ecclesiam, Thomas ad, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Denis of Newton, q.v., 19 (81) 

Ecclesiam, WilUam ad, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Roger of Brinkhill, q.v., 
14(59) 

Ecclesiam, William ad, of Syston, main- 
pernor, 1298, of William Gvlyot, 
q.v., 109 (415) 

Edetiaer, Hugh, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Brant Broughton [Lay 
Subs. Boll 135/3, m. 4], 169 

Edde, her son. .See IPeter 

Edlington, John of, baihff of Wraggoe 
wapentake, probably between 
1294 and 1297, 10 (33), 20 (95), 
41 (220), 144, 151, n. 40 

Edlington, Robert s. of Isabel of, jiiror of 
Gartree and Homcastle wapen- 
takes, 1298. 1300 : Robert was 
one of three recognitors who non 
fecerunt uisum in an assize of novel 
disseisin brought by John s. of 
Robert of TojTiton, q.v., and 
Margaret his wife against Robert 
de la Donne and Eva, Prioress of 
Stixwould concerning John's free 
tenement in Stixwould, consisting 
of 1 parcel of ground 14 feet long 
by 8 feet wide. The case was, 
postponed unsettled [A.B. 1310 
m. 27d], 38 (195), 130 (483) 



Edrik, John, juror of Boston, 1298. 1299 : 
juror, with John le Donne of Toft, 
q.v., in an assize of morb 
d'ancestor between Robert s. of 
Walter de Fenne and others and 
Roger Gernon of Boston. The 
jurors failed to appear [A.B. 600, 
m. 8]. 1291 : the assize came to 
determine whether Thomas of 
Sutton and others unjustly dis- 
seised Andrew s. of Robert atte 
Gate of Boston of liis free tene- 
ment in Boston and m Skirbeck, 
i.e., of 2 messuages, 1 sheepfold, 
3i acres of land and one sixth 
part of 17 acres of land with 
appurtenances. There was a dis- 
pute over the sheepfold, and it was 
then said that as to the 3 J acres of 
land, there were only 2 acres, 
which had been bought, at the 
time when the complaint was 
made, by ' a certain Jolm Edrik.' 
The defendants won the case 
[A.B. 1293, m. 6d], 123 (460) 

Edus, Thomas, of Welbv, mainpernor, 
1298, of WilUam of Horton, q.v., 
and John Alger, q.v. 1297 : 
named sub-taxor of the ninth in 
Welby, but nichil habet in bonis 
[Lay Subs. Boll 63/1, in. 1], 37 
(191), 109(415), 165 

Edward I, King of England, ix-xv, 
Ixxxi (6is)-vii, cxxiii, cxxvi-vii, 
96 (379), 148, 211 

Edward, Robert, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Ivo of Billinghav, q.v., 102 
(395) 

Elias brother of John s. of Adam, of 
Asgarby, plaintiff", 1298, against 
Walter Est, q.v., 86 (358) 

Elias, his son. See John 

Elrycher, Elrj'ker, Helrjcher, ^\■ilUam, 
wapentake sub-taxor of the 
eleventh in Candleshoe, and of the 
twelfth in the same wapentake, 
56 (257), 64 (285, 287), 66 (293), 
157, 159 

Eluerton', ElujTton, Robert de, plaintiff, 
1298, against Thomas of Easton, 
q.v., 69 (305), 71 (312) 

Enuna, her son. See Simon 

Emmesin, Henry, juror of the Soke and 
Liberty of Horncastle, 1298, 131 
(485) ' 

Enderby, Thomas of, sub-taxor of the 
eleventh and of the twelfth in 
Ashby-by Partney, 68 (301, 303). 
157-8 

Engleys, Hugh le, master of one ^^'illiam, 
his vallettus, who was a juror, q.v., 
125 (468) 

Engleys, John le, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Nigel of Donington, q.v., 42 
(226) 



9-> 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Engleys, Robert le. minor official, ll'S)8, 
rank not given, but almost cer- 
tainly a sub-collector of prise in 
Heckington. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Heckington [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1]. He was 
himself assessed for this tax as 
follows : ho had J quarter of corn 
worth 1/6; 1 qr. of dredge corn 
worth 2/- ; J qr. of peas worth 
1/- ; 1 draught-beast worth 1/6 ; 

1 bullock worth 2/- ; 1 lamb 
worth 1/- ; forage worth 6d. The 
total was 9/6, the ninth part 
being l/Of [Ibid.], Ix, n. ;{. 77 CM'2), 

Erosby, Reynald of, merchant : plain- 
tiff, 1298, against Simon s. of 
Ranulph of Grebby (Simon of 
Grebby, q.v.), 33 (162) 

Erl, Robert, of Culverthorpe, mainpernor, 
1298, of William do Revnevile, 
q.v., 18 (73) 

Erlyn, Hugh, juror of Beltisloe wapen- 
take, 1298. 1300: Hugh was a 
recognitor in an inquisition held 
to detennine the extent of Eden- 
ham Manor [Rent and Surv. 
Roll 404, m. 1], 36 (181), 53 
(250) 

Erlyn, Thomas, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Edenham [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/6, m. 1], 164 

Emeys, Ernys, Ralph, plaintif?, 1298, 
against William le Wayte and 
WiUiam Lambetoth, q.v., and 
jiu'or of Winnibriggs wapentake, 
1298. 1295 : Ralph was assessed 
for the eleventh as follows : he had 
4 quarters of com worth 5/- a qr. ; 
3 qrs. of pearl barley worth 2/6 
a qr. ; 5 qrs. of dredge corn worth 
2/- a qr. ; 10 qrs. of oats worth 
1/6 a qr. ; 2 oxen worth 6/- each ; 

2 draught-beasts worth 6/- each ; 
1 cow worth 5/- ; 3 pigs worth 1/- 
each ; 12 ewes worth lOd. each ; 
forage worth 3/- ; hay worth 4/- ; 
1 [?] hoe worth 2/-. The total was 
£5 4s. 6d., the eleventh part being 
9/5i [Lay Subs. Roll 135/2, m. 5]. 
1297 : sub-taxor of the ninth in 
Groat Ponton, Winnibriggs [Ibid., 
135/3, m. 5]. He was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had 1 quarter of corn worth 
3/- ; 1 qr. of dredge com worth 
2/- ; 2 qrs. of oats worth 3/- ; 
1 draught -boast worth 3/- ; 1 ox 
worth 6/- ; forage worth 1/-. The 
total was 18/-, the ninth part 
being 2/- [Ibid.\ civ, 75 (326), 
135 (497), 172 

Ernys. William, juror of Aveland wapen- 
take, 1298, 126 (471) 



Est, Geoffrey, of Briukhill, mainjiernor, 
1298, of Roger of BrinkhiU, q.v., 
14(59) 

Est, Geol^rey, of Sutterby, mainpernor, 
1298, of Thomas of Sutterbj-, q.v., 
3 (15), 12 (48) 

Es , Estt, Henry, of Glee, juror of 
Bradley wapentake, 1 298, 38 ( 1 98), 
127 (474) 

Est, Richard, of Gunby, mainpernor, 
1298, of Alexander the Clerk of 
Aswarby, q.v., 7 (24) 

Est, Robert, of Ingoldmells, 1296 : sub- 
taxor of the twelfth in Ingoldmells 
but stated to be a pauper in 
relation to this tax, xlix-1, 69-60 
(270, 272), 160 

Est, Thomas, stood pledge, 1298, to 
John of Pattishall, q.v., 20 

Est, Walter, of Aunsby, probably cliief 
bailiff of Kesteven, 1298. 1301 : 
' Walter Est of Aunsby ' stood 
pledge to Henry of Haconby and 
Joan his wife, who brought a 
writ of assize of novel disseisin 
against Nicholas le Fleming and 
others concerning a tenement in 
Stamford, but did not prosecute 
[A.R. 1320, m. 28d], 1 (5), 17 
(67-8), 44 (229), 48 (237). 82 
(347-8), 86 (356, 367, 358), 107 
(408), 116-8 (438, 444, 447), 
140, 147, n. 3-4 

Eston. See Easton 

Eudo, s. of William, juror of Boston 
uillata, 1298, 123 (460) 

Everard, John, also called John son of 
Everard of Pinchbeck, chief bailiff 
of Holland, 1298. 1299: John, 
here called baihff of Kirton, is put 
in mercy quia non fecit officiwn 
suum, etc. And at the extreme 
bottom of the same membrane is 
a reminder : ' John Everard, 
baiUff of Kirton, in mercv ' [A.R. 
506, m. 5], 21 (103), 42 (222), 50-1 
(240-1), 80 (366), 92 (372), 110 
(417), 120 (455), 142 (bis), 149, 
n. 22-3 

Ewerby Thorpe, William s. of William of, 
1297 : sub-taxor of the ninth in 
Ewerby Thorpe [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/6, m. i], 163 

Exsex, Nicholas de, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Ancaster, Sudbrook 
and Willoughby [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 4], 170 

Eye, Simon of, mainpernor, 1298, of 
William of Hemingby, q.v., 3 (14), 
12 (47), 20 (96), 27 (142) 



Fadennan, Henry, named juror of Stam- 
ford, 1298, but did not serve. 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



223 



Fadernian, Henry — co)it. 

1298, Mar. 16: promiae to pay, a 
fortnight after Easter, 8 marks 
6/8 to Henrj- Faderman of Stam- 
ford, for one sack of wool bought 
of him for the lung's use by 
VV^ilUam Fraunk, q.v., and liis 
fellows [C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 335]. 
1299 : the assize comes to declare 
whether WiUiam Faderman and 
others unjustly disseised Jolm de 
Nevill of his free tenement in 
Stamford, i.e., of 1 messuage with 
appurtenances. Among the recog- 
nitors, who did not come, was 
Henry Faderman [.4.i:f. 506", vi. 
10]. 'l312 : in the accounts of S. 
Michael's Xunnery, Stamford, for 
1312-13, Henry Fadenuan pays 
6d. rent to the Nimnery at 
Michaelmas [Rent, and Surv. Roll 
414, mm. 3d, 4d], 126 (469) 

Famham, Henry of. member, 1298, of a 
Lincolnshire jury of apothecaries, 
124 (461) 

Fattj-ngham, Philip, of Helpringham, 
plaintiff, 1298, against Walter Est, 
q.v., 86 (356) 

Faunt, William, sub-bailiff of Wraggoe 
wajDentake, probably in the time of 
Ralph Pavnel, sheriff, q.v., 28 (143), 
144 

Fayreman, Robert, of Westborough, 1297 : 
assessor, for the ninth of the sub- 
taxors of this tax in Loveden 
wapentake [Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, 
m. 4], 170 

Fen, Peter Del, of Manby, plaintiff, 1298, 
against John of Tathwell, Walter 
Wyot and Wilham s. of Alan of 
Manby (all q.v.), 34 (168) 

Fenne, Alan de, no information about 
him in A.R. 505, 31 (152a) 

Fenton, Robert oj, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Beckingham and Sutton 
with Fenton [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 4], 169 

Feovere, Robert s. of Alan le, of Huttoft, 
plaintiff, 1298, against Gilbert 
Loseward, q.v., 34 (167) 

Ferour, Joseph le, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Thomas of Easton. q.v., 69 
(306) 

Ferriby, William of, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Roger of Brinldiill, q.v., 27 
(139) 

Feuer, Jordan le, of Ovvmby, juror of 
Aslacoo wapentake, 1298, 134 
(494) 

Fever, Ralph le, of Northorpe, juror of 
Corringham wapentake, 1298, 134 
(496) 

Fever, Richard le. of Blyton, juror of 
the Soke of Kirton, 1298, J 33 
(493) 



Fever, William le, of Marton, juror 
of Well wapentake, 1298, 134 
(495) 

Fever, William le, of Willoughton, juror 
of Aslacoe wapentake, 1298, 134 
(494) 

Fillingham, Agnes, widow of Jolin of, of 
Little Hale, i)lnintiff, 1298, against 
William de Ingelton, q.v., 83 (3.")()) 

Firsby, Roger of, 1297 : probably sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Candleshoe 
wapentake, 61 (276), 162 

Flauuel, Flauel, Robert, sub-bailiff of 
Loveden wapentake, 1298, 18 
(74), 41. (214), 140, 147, n. 10 

Fledborough, John of, clerk; plaintiff, 
1298, against Ivo of Billinghay, 
q.v. 1291 : rector of Hougham 
churcii ; and was commissioned, 
together with the Dean of Grant- 
hajn, to examine the administra- 
tion of the executors of the will of 
the late William de Staunton 
[Reg. Sutton, Mem. f. 30d, July 8, 
1291]. Later this commission was 
revoked [Ibid., f. 35d], 105 (401) 

[?] Fleet, Fletes, Geoffrey of, mainpernor, 
1298, of Alexander the Clerk of 
Aswarby, q.v., 7 (24) 

Fleet, Gterard of, plaintiff, 1298, against 
John Everard, ^.i-., 89 (366) 

Flegard, Hugh, of EdUngton, mainpernor, 
1298, of John of Edlington, q.v., 
10(33), 20(95) 

Flemmynge, John, coroner of Stamford ; 
died about 10 May, 1292 [C.C.R. 
1288-96, p. 230], 138 

Fleshewer, Richard le, of Burton, paid 
10/- mainprise money in 1298, 
96 (379) 

Flete, WiUiam atte, probably a minor 
official, but no rank given, 90 (368) 

Flintham, William of, clerk to Robert le 
Venour, sheriff, 1293-7. 1291 : a 
William of FUntham was bailiff of 
Bassetlaw, Notts [A.R. 1293, m. 
16]. Ab Flintham is also in 
Nottinghamshire, and as there 
was a good deal of local migration 
at this time between adjoining 
counties, there is reason to think 
that the bailiff of Bassetlaw after- 
wards became clerk to tlie sheriff 
of Lincolnshire. 1301: William of 
Flintham of West Butterwick, 
Corringham, stood pledge to Wil- 
liam Torel of Buttenvick, who 
brought a writ of assize of novel 
disseisin against Henrj', Abbot of 
Sulby but did not prosecute 
[A.R. 1320, m. 28d]. In the same 
year W^illiam deforced Thomsia 
Kede and another of 1 messuage, 
7i acres of land and lOd. and ad. 
rente with appurtenances in West 






BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Flintham, William of — cont. 

Buttenvick. William made fine in 
20 marks silver [Feet of Fines, 
28-9 Ed. I, no. 37], xciv, 47 (233). 
80 (340), 96 (379), 139, 154, n. 58 

[?] Flor'. Hugh, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Adam of Benniworth, q.v., 32 (155) 

Folkingham, Gilbert of, Mainperor, 1298, 
of Hugh Bardolf, q.v., 18 (72) 

Folkingham, John of, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Little Hale {Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/6, 7n. 1], 162 

Fontayne, Jolm de la, member, 1298, of 
an inquest of Boston drapers and 
vintners, 123 (459) 

Fontem, Alan ad, 1296 : sub-taxor of the 
twelfth in Ingoldmells, 62 (280), 
160 

Fontom, Wilhani ad, minor official, 1298, 
rank not given, 1297 : sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Londonthorpe and 
Towthorpo [Lay Subs. Boll 63/1, 
m. i]. He was himself assessed 
for this tax as follows : he had 
1 quai'tcr of corn worth 3/- ; 1 qr. 
of oats worth 1/6 ; 1 di-aught- 
beast worth 1/6 ; 3 ewes worth 
3/- ; 1 calf worth 1/3. The total 
was 10/6, the ninth part being 1/2 
{Ibid.], 109 (415), 166 

Fontem, William ad, of Hogsthorpe, 
juror of Calcewath wai>entake, 
1298, 131 (486) 

Forester, Matthew, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Jordan of Ingham, q.v., 35 (174) 

Forester, Ralph le, juror of Winnibriggs 
and Threo wapentakes, 1298, 13 
(54) 

Forester, Roger le, of Potter Hanworth, 
juror of Flax well and Langoe 
wapentakes, 1298. 37 (193) 

Forester, William le, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Ralph le Forester, q.v., 13 (54) 

Forfeld, John, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Corby [Lay Subs. Roll 
136/6, m. 2], 165 

Forn, William, mainpernor, 1298, of John 
of Santon, g.t;., 22 (118) 

Fotherby, Richard, s. of Lambert of. 
Juror of Ludborough wapentake, 
1298, 128 (475) 

Foulere, Robert le, of Cranwell, juror of 
Flaxwcll and Langoe wapentakes, 
1298. 1291 : ' Robert le Fough- 
lere ' stood attorney to Adam s. 
of William of Cranwell, who 
accused Robert of Carlton of 
Cranwell and another of unjustly 
disseising him of his free tene- 
ment in Cranwell, i.e., of 1 rood of 
land in one place, and in another a 
piece of land 1 rood and 40 
perches in length and 4 feet wide, 
with appurtenances. Adam lost 
the case [A.R. 1293, m. 23], 1 1 (42) 



Fox, John, of Enderby, minor official, 
rank not given ; mainpernor, 
1298, of WUliam Costantin, q.v. 
1297: sub-taxor of the ninth in 
Ropsley [Lay Subs. Roll 63/1, m.l]. 
He was himself assessed for this 
tax as follows : he had \ quarter of 
corn worth 1/6 ; 1 qr. of barley 
worth 2/6 ; ^ qr. of [?] rye worth 
1/- ; 1 draught-beast worth 2/- ; 
1 cow worth 5/- ; forage worth 9d. 
The total was 12/9, the ninth part 
being 1/7 [Ibid.], 17 (65), 108 
(415), 160 

Frampton, Walter s. of Robert of, plain- 
til^', 1298, against Nigel the Chap- 
man of Donington, q.v., xl-xli, 4 

(19) 

Franceys, Peter, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Norton Disney [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 10], 174 

Frankeleyn, Roger, of Denton, 1295 : 
wapentake sub-taxor of the 
eleventh in Winnibriggs [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/2, m. 16], 159 

Fraunceys, Alan, of Winterton, nainor 
official, 1298, rank not given, 23 
(123) 

Frauncej's, Bartholomew, of Oseby, minor 
official, 1298, rank not given. 
1297 : sub-taxor of the ninth in 
Haydor, Oseby and Aisbv [Lay 
Subs. Roll 63/1, m. 1]. He was 
himself assessed for this tax as 
follows : he had i quarter of com 
worth 1/6 ; 1 qr. of barley worth 
2/3 ; 4 ewes worth 1/- each ; 
forage worth 1/-. The total 
was 9/-, the ninth part being 
1/- [Ibid.], civ, 108-9 (415), 
165 

Fraunceys, Godfreys member, 1298, of a 
jury of canvas merchants in 
Lincolnshire 124 (463) 

Fraunceys, John, of Helpringham, minor 
official, 1298, rank not given, also 
attachor of Philip s. of William of 
Helpringham. 1297 : sub-taxor 
of the ninth, probably in Help- 
ringham [Lay Subs. Roll 135/6, 
m. 1]. He was himself assessed for 
this tax as follows : he had I 
quarter of com worth 3/- ; 1 qr. 
of barley worth 2/6 ; 1 qr. of peas 
worth 2/-; 1 draught-beast 
worth 3/- ; 1 steer worth 4/- ; 
1 cow worth 4/- ; hay and forage 
worth 1/-. The totalwas 19/6, the 
ninth part being 2/2 [Ibid.], 11 
(333), 162 

Fraunceys, Richard, of Welby, evil 

Fraunceys, Robert, 1297 : assessor, for the 
ninth, of the sub-taxors of this tax 
in Wraggoe wapentake [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 12], 177 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



225 



Fraunceys, IStepiieii, juror ot Loveden 
wapentake, 1298, 55 (255), 128 
(478) 

Fraunceys, Thomas, of Amcotts. juror of 
Manley wapentake, 1298, 133 
(492) 

Fraunk, William, merchant appwiiited by 
the Crown to buy wool under the 
prise of wool of July. 1297. The 
api)ointnit>nt is dated Julv, 1297 
[K.R.M.H. no. 70, m. lOS]. 178 

Frauukhomme, Hugh, mainpernor. 1298, 
of Hueh ad Aquam of ^lillthorpo, 
q.v., 11 (39) 

Framikhomme. Xicholaa, of W'elby, 
minor official, 1298, rank not given 
108-9 (415) 

Freman, Jolin, of Edlington. juror of 
Gartree and Homcastle wapen- 
takes. 1298. 38 (195). 130 (4S3) 

Fretitan, Robert, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in North and South Hvke- 
ham [Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m.'lO], 
175 

Freman, Robert, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Withani [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/6, m. 1], 164 

Freman, William, of Barholme. juror 
of Ness wapentake, 1298. 53'249), 
126 (470) 

Freman, William, of West Keal, juror of 
Bolingbroke wapentake, 1298, 
132 (488) 

Frieston, Prior of, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Thomas of Sutt^rby, q.v , 34 (169) 

Frieston, Walter of, juror of Well wapen- 
take, 1298, 134 (495) 

Friscobaldi, The Blade, xxvii, n. I 

Friscobaldi, The White, xxvii, n. 1 

Friskney, Rantilph of, juror of Candle- 
ehoe wapentake, 1298. 1291 : 
William s. of Roljert of Skirbeck 
complained that Ranulph of 
Friskney and Jolin do Pauiiton 
unjustlj- disseised him of his 
free tenement in Pointon, consist- 
ing of 33/- rent with appurten- 
ances. The defendants won [A.R. 
1293, m. 1]. 1300, May 10: Ran- 
ulph was appointed, with John 
Gkjbaud (^.f.) and Thomas of 
Bximham, q.v., to hold pleas in 
Lincolnshire in connection witli the 
Confirmation of Charters. The 
above were the jtistices for Lincoln- 
shire as part of a general com- 
mission set up, at the request of 
the ■ prelates, earls, barons and 
others ", to enquire into complaints 
of transgressions against the char- 
ters, etc. [C.P.R. 1292-1301, 
p. 515f]. 1300, June 23: a com- 
mission de wallii^ et fossatis was 
issued to Ranulph of Friskney and 
Thomas of Bumham in the 



Fribkiiey, Ranulph of cojU. 

marshes of Mersk in Lindsey, 
espociallv in the marshes called 
• le Flete ' [Ibid., p. 551]. 1300. 
Oct. 24 : Ranulph stood pledge to 
Adam Birl of Beimington, who 
brought a writ of assize of novel 
disseisin against Ralph Scot of 
Leverton and \V'illiam and John 
liis sons concerning a tenement 
in Leverton, but did not prosecute 
[A.R. 1316, m. 28]. 1306, Oct. 8: 
Ranulph was appointed, with 
Lambert of Tiireckingham to 
hold an assize at Sleaford and 
Stamford [A.R. 1304, t«. 16], 
132 (489) 

Fryday, Robert, of Swarby, stood pledge, 
1298, to Walter Deaudeunur, q.v. ; 
plaintiff against Hugh Bardolf, 
q.v., and Walter Est, q.v. 1301 : 
Robert was a recognitor in an 
assize of novel disseisin in which 
Mariota widow of John de Bukes- 
worth accused the Prior of K^nne 
of disseising her of her free tene- 
ment in Evedon, i.e., of 1 mes- 
suage and the moiety of 1 bovate 
of land with appurtenances. 
Robert was tlie only recognitor 
who did not appear [A.R. 1322, 
m. 20d], 44 (229), 83 (348) 

Fulletby, WilUam of. juror of Hill 
wapentake, 1298. 1297 : main- 
pernor of Richard of Brinkhill, 
q.v. [K.R.M.R. no. 70, m. 52d], 
130 (484) 

Fulnetby, Peter of, 1297 : assessor, for the 
ninth, of the sub-taxors of this tax 
in Wraggoe wapentake [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 12], 177 

Funtayues, Gteoffrev de. minor official, 
' 1298, rank not given, xcii. 22 ( 1 19) 

Funta%Ties, John de, of Boston, juror of 
'Boston uillata, 1298, 123 (460) 

Fumum, John ad, of Barkston, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Henrj- West of 
Welby, q.v., and of Peter Roina\'n, 
q.v., 13 (53), 108-9 (415) 

Furnum, Ralph ad, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Robert Parleben, q.v., 22 (112) 

Fvchet, Henry, sub-bailiff of Ness wapen- 
take. i297-8. 90 (370), 93 (374), 
141 (ter), 149, n. 19 

Fyn, Walter, plaintiff", 1298, against 
Robert Pylat, John of Belvoir and 
Ralph de Rygg (all q.v.), 64 (286) 

Fys, John, of Stamford, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Thomas of Easton, q.v., 
70 (310j 



Gabegok, Galbegoky, William, plaintiff', 
1298, against Thomas of Easton, 



226 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Gabegok, William — cotit. 

q.v. ; juror of Stamford, 1298. 
1290 : ' William Galbegoky ' was 
a member of a Stamford jury of 
presentment sununoned before 
W^illiam de Vescy and Peter de 
Canipania, justices, who were 
holding at Boston inquests into 
crimes committed at Boston Fair 
in 1288 [A.R. 12S6, ?h. 16], 69 
(305). 126 (469) 

Gachard, Andrew, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Gilbert Belle, q.v., 42 (227) 

Gainsborough. Stacy of, juror of Cor- 
rinchara wapentake. 1298. 134 
(496) 

Galbegoky. <See Gabegok 

Galilay. John, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Carlton [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 4], 170 

Galle, John, of Ancaster, mainpernor, 
1298, of Ralph Pacy, q.v., 40 (211) 

Galle, William, 1295: one of the twelve 
wapentake sub-taxors of the 
eleventh in Candleshoe ; 1296: 
sub-taxor of the twelfth in Orby, 
64 (285), 66 (293), 158, 16u 

Galun, Thomas, of Boston, juror of 
Boston uillata, 1298, 124(460) 

Gamel', Thomas, of Lincoln, merchant, 
1298, possibly a tailor. 1300: 
' Thomas Gamel de Lincoln ' 
stood pledge to ' Richard le Fre- 
man, pauper de Magna >Staple- 
ford,' who brought a writ of assize 
of novel disseisin against William 
Disney of Norton and Robert Tot 
of Norton concerning a common 
pasture in Great Stapleford by 
Lincoln, but did not prosecute. 
Thomas and Richard's other 
pledges were each amerced at lOd. 
[A.R. 1316, m. 25d.]. 1301 : ' the 
assize of novel disseisin which 
Alice, widow of William de 
Herdebi de Linoolnbrought against 
Thomas Gamel of Lincoln and 
others in a writ concerning a tene- 
ment in the suburb (in stiburbio) of 
Lincoln is adjourned' [A.R. 1322, 
m. 21d]. The reason for the 
adjournment is given in the im- 
mediately preceding entry in A.R. 
1322. In this case, also one of 
novel disseisin, not only the parties 
to the suit but also the mayor and 
bailiffs of Lincoln came. They 
stated that the case infringed their 
rights and liberties, and held that, 
as in London, no royal writ of 
assize of novel disseisin should run 
within the boundaries of their own 
jurisdiction. They won their case 
[Ibid., m. 21d\. The assize was 
postponed to Stamford, cvii, 13(58) 



Gardener. Juliana, plaintiff, 1298, against 
William s. of Gilbert, q.v., and 
Nicholas Herre, q.v., 55 (256) 

Gardener, Ralph le, plaintiff, 1298, 
against various sub-taxors, 57 
(258), 63-4 (283. 288) 

Ganger, Gerard le. Royal gauger of wine 
in Lincolnshire, 1298, 23 (127) 

Gaumbe, Thomas. No information about 
him m A.R. 505, 31 (162a) 

Gaunt, Gilbert dc, 180 

Gaunt, Richard le, juror of the City of 
Lincoln, 1298, 129 (479) 

Gaj'ton, Adam of, bailiff" errant, 1298, 
30 (160), 139 

Gtegge, Hugh, of Bratoft, attachor, 1298, 
of Wilham Thenk', q.v. ; plaintiff 
against William s. of Gilbert, q.v., 
and Nicholas Herre, q.v., sub- 
taxors ; 1296 : sub-taxor of the 
eleventh in Candleshoe wapentake 
52 (246), 65 (256), 63-4 (283, 288), 
158 

Gegge, Wilham, plaintiff, 1298, against 
variovis sub-taxors in Candleshoe 
wapentake, 55-6 (256, 258), 63-4 
(283,288) 

Gelston, William of, plamtiff, 1298, 
against John of Pattishall, q.v., 
stood pledge to Henry Asty, q.v. 
1297: assessor, for the ninth, of 
the sub-taxors of this tax in 
Loveden wapentake [Lay /Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 4], Ixxxix, 6 (20), 
13 (56) 

Grene, his son. See Robert 

Genevay, John, of Hale, 1297 : sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Great Halo [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1], 162 

Gtentyl, Wilham, juror of Beltisloe wapen- 
take, 1298, 53 (250) 

Geoffrey s. oj Amis, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Braceby and Sapper- 
ton [Lay Subs. Roll 63/1, m. 1], 166 

Geoffrey, s. of Douce, plaintiff, 1298, 
against William Lambetoth, q.v., 
76 (327) 

Geoffrey, his son. See John 

Gerard, vicar of West Bytham, plaintiff, 
1298, against Thomas of Easton, 
q.v., 84 (352), 122 (458) 

Gerard, Walter. See Laythorpe, Walter 
son of Gerard of. 

Geringg, John, juror of Boston uillata, 
1298. 123 (460) 

Gerlithorp', Nicholas de, juror of Manley 
wapentake, 1298. 133 (492) 

Gernou, John, of Boston, juror of Boston 
uillata, 1298, 123 (460) 

Giccard, Poncius, of Toulouse, member, 
1298, of an inquest of Boston 
drapers and vintners, 123 (459) 

Gigur, Robert. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Harlaxton [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, mtn. 'J, 11], 174 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PEKSOXS 



227 



Oilbert dt . . .. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
nintli in Wilsford [Lay Subs. 
RoU 63/1, m. i], 165 ' 

Gilbert son of Alice. See Grebby 

Gilbert son of William. See Spnldin^: 

Gilbert, Elias, of Carlton, mainpomor, 
1298, of Gilbert of Carlton, q.v. 
1301 : mainpernor of John s. of 
William of Carlton, q.v. \A.R. 
1322, Ml. 21], 36 (186) 

Gilbert, his son. See Walter ; William 

Gi]b\% Robert s. of Osbert of, juror of the 
Soke of Kirton, 1298, 133 (493) 

Gilian, \\illiam, juror of Manlev wapen- 
take. 1298, 133 (492) 

Gimni, Astin. See Guncy, Austin 

Gippthorp'. See Gj-ppethorj)' 

Glaston, Emma of, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Thomas of Easton, q.v., 
69 (3<to) 

Glaunuile, David de, of Great ford, juror 
of Ness wapentake, 1298, 249, 
126 (470) 

Glaunuile, Glaunuyle. Richard de, of 
Greatford, juror of Ness wapen- 
take, 1298. 53 (249), 117 (441), 
126 (470) 

Glentworth, Osbert a. of Peter of, juror of 
the Soke of Kirton, 1298, 133 (493) 

Gloucester, WalUr oj, clerk to John DjTie, 
sheriff of Lincolnshire, 1290-93 
\K.R.M.R. no. 65, m. 1]. Ap- 
parently appointed sheriff of 
Somerset and Dorset on 24 Jan., 
1293 [Ibid., no 66, m. 53], 139 

Gobaut, John, knight ; summoned with 
two other knights to select a jury, 
129S. 1291 : Joan, wife- of Thomas 
of Biuiihain. q.v., named Robert 
Capellum or William of Bradley 
her attorneys against ' John 
Gobaud ' and others in a plea of 
assize of novel disseisin [.^4 .K.1293, 
rn. 26] ; and John Gobaud named 
John Baudewpi his attorney 
against John s. of John of Rippin- 
gale in a similar plea [Ibid.]. 
Although no particulars are given, 
these two instances illustrate a 
certain co-operation between 
countj' personalities. 1293-4: in 
determining the fees of Gilbert of 
Gaunt in Lincolnsliire John Go- 
baut is stated to hold 4 bovates of 
land in Threekingham [K.R.M.R. 
no. 67, m. 36 : cf. F.A. Hi, p. 129J. 
1300 : ' John Gobaud " appears in 
a list of persons of knight's rank in 
Lincolnshire, in connexion with 
the Scottish campaign of that year 
[Chanc. Miscell. 1/6, m. 30], and 
his name is on the list of those 
doubtfully wiUinp to go on service 
with the king in Scotland [Ibi/l., 
m. 32]. 1302 : appointed sheriff of 



Gobuut, John cant. 

Lincolnshire on 21 May [P.R.O. 
Lists and Indexes, IX. p. 78]. 
1300, May 10: apjwinted, with 
Ranulph of Friskney, q.v., and 
Thomas of Burnham, q.v., to hear 
pleas in Lincolnshire in connexion 
with Magna Carta antl the Charter 
of the Forest [C.P.R. 1292-1301, 
p. 515 f.]. 1303 : John held these 
lands in Lincolnshire : x. partem 
cam partem j. J. in Threekingham 
(the 4 bovates mentioned above) 
\F.A. Hi, p. 129] ; 1 fee and a half 
in Ringstone and Rippingale, of 
the fees of Petronilla de Croun 
[Ibid., p. 162]; J of 1 fee with 
Henry de Baiocis in Maidenwell 
[Ibid., p. 164] and 3 parts and 
a twenty-fourth part of 1 fee with 
Henry nnd Adam of Normanby in 
Newball and Stainton [Ibid., 
p. 165], all of the fees of the Earl 
of Ferrars ; and 1 fee in Haconby 
and Rippingale, of the fees of 
John Wake' [Ibid., p. 174], 30 
(loO) 

Godaixle, Goddard, Richard, minor 
official, 1298, rank not given, 90 
(368, 369) 

Gode, Jolin, of Boston, mainpernor, 1298, 
of William of Wolmersty, q.v. 
1298 : ' John s. of Gode of Boston ' 
is a juror in an interesting inquest 
taken at Boston before the sheriff 
of Lincolnshire in the presence of 
the keepers of the king's custom 
at Boston and of Henry de Tene, 
nicrchant of Brabant. The jurors 
had to determine whether or no 
Henrj' intended to have sent away 
from Fleet, in order to evade the 
king's custom there due, 13 
dickers of hides bought at Fleet 
and seized by the said keeper of 
the custom at Wrangle. The 
jurors say on oath that Henry did 
not intend any such thing, but 
that ho wislicd to send the hides 
to Yarmouth and pay the custom 
there [Sheriffis' Accts. 22, no. 7, 
m. 1], cvi, 30(149) 

Gode, Peter s. of William, 1297 : sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Boston [Lay 
Subs. RoU 135/3, m. 1], 167 

Godestalke, Gilbert, juror of the Soke 
and Liberty of Homcastle, 1298, 
131 (485) 

Oold, Nicholafi, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Hough-on-the-Hill and 
Gelston with Brandon [Lay Subg. 
Roll 135/3, m. 4], 170 

Oolde, Robert, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Ewerbv Thorpe [Lay 
Subs. RoU 135/6,'m. 1], 163 



228 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Golde, William, juror of Elloe wapentake, 
1298, 54(253), 125(467) 

Golderon, Goldron, Guldroii, Alexander, 
of Aswarby, 1297-8 : bailiff of 
Aswardhuni wapentake. He is 
variously called ' Alexander of 
Aswarby ', ' Alexander the Clerk ' 
of Aswarby, and Alexander Gold- 
eron of Aswarby. 1299 : the 
assize comes to declare whether 
Philip of Kyme and ' Alexander 
8. of Walter Goldrim de Asse- 
wordeby [Aswarby] ' unjustly dis- 
seised Simon s. of William of 
Friskney, etc. [A.R. 506, m. 5}. 
Walter Gtildron of Aswarby, 
q.v., was thus Alexander's father, 
though this is not shown in A.R. 
505, 1 (5), 7 (24), 44 (229), 85-7 
(355, 359, 360), 141, 149, n. 14 

Golderon, Alexander, of Crofton, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Hugh Bardolf, 
q.v., 78 (333) 

Gk)lderon, Goldrenn, John, of Aswarby, 
mainpernor, 1298, of Alexander 
Golderon of Aswarby, q.v., 7 
(24) 

Golderon, Walter, of Aswarby, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Alexander Gold- 
eron of Aswarby, q.v., 1 (5), 7 
(24) 

Goldington, John of, jviror of Lawress 
wapentake, 1298, 133 (491) 

Goldrenn, Goldron. See Golderon 

Oonerby, Ralph s. of Robert of 1295 : one 
of the twelve wapentake sub- 
taxors of the eleventh in Winni- 
briggs wapentake [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/2, m. 16], 159 

Gonerby, Thomas of, juror of Threo 
wapentake, 1298, 135 (498a) 

Gonerby, William s. of Isolde of, main- 
peror, 1298, of Roger s. of Stephen 
of Barkston, q.v., 13 (55) 

Gorge, Robert, member, 1298, of a jury 
of canvas or hemp merchants, 
124 (463) 

Gorham, Hugh de, stood pledge, 1298, to 
Walter s. of Robert of Frampton, 
q.v.,5(l\)) 

Gosham, Hugh de, 1298, Michaelmas : 
coroner of Lincolnshire 
[L.T.R.M.R. no. 70, to. GO], 
138 

Gosson, Ralph, of Keelby, juror of Yar- 
borough wapentake, 1298, 127 
(473) 

Gouk, Richard, mentioned only inci- 
dentally in A.R. 505, 45 (231) 

Graby, William of, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Hugh Bardolf, q.v., 78 (335) 

Orainthorpe, Robert s. of Alan of, owner of 
a ship named ' Blytho de Gryrn- 
mesby', 1297 [P'.R.O. SheHffs' 
Admin. Acctv 506/1], Ixv, 180 



Oran^to'f Gilbert de, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
tlie ninth in Bennington [Lay 
Sub^: Roll 135/3, m. 1], 167 

Grant, Nicholas le, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Skirbeck [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, TO. 7], 167 

Grantham, John of, juror of Boothby and 
Graffoe wapentakes, 1298, 54 
(252), 129 (481) 

Grasby, Thomas of, jiu-or of Yarborough 
wapentake, 1298, 127 (473) 

Grasby, Willinrn s. of Thomas of, juror 
of Y'arborough wapentake, 1298, 
127(473) 

Graumpas, Williau!, minor official, 1298, 
rank not given, 108-9 (415) 

Grayingham, Walter s. of Henry of, 
mainpernor, 1298, of John 
Herylyel, q.v., 22 (113) 

Grebby, Gilbert s. of Alice of, mainpernor, 
1298, of Simon of Grebby, q.v. ; 
sub-taxor of the tenth, 1294, in 
Scremby. The identity of person 
as between the two entries is not 
quite certain, but it is highly 
probable that thev are the same, 
20 (90), 67 (298), 157 

Grebby, John of, 1295 : sub-taxor of the 
eleventh in Scremby, 67 (299), 
158 

Grebby, Ralph of, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Simon of Grebby, q.v., 20 
(90) 

Grebby, Ranulph of, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Riciiard of Linwood, q.v. ; sub- 
taxor of the tenth, 1294, and of 
the twelfth, 1296, and the ninth, 
1297, in Scremby, 297. He also 
appears to have been the father of 
Simon of Grebby, bailiff of Candle- 
shoe, q.v., 10 (34, 35), 67 (297, 298, 
300), 157, 161 (bis) 

Grebby, Simon of, prior to 1297, sub- 
bailiff of Candleshoe, 1297-8: 
bailiff of Wraggoo ; 1298 : sub- 
baiUff of Candlesiioe again, 19 (90), 
27 (143). 29 (146), 33 (162), 120 
(455), 138, n. 9, 144-5 (bis). 152, 
n. 45, 167 

Gregory, John, of Quarrington, juror of 
Aswardhum wapentake, 1298. 
(Heads the list.) 1299: John 
brought a writ of assize of novel 
disseisin against Ralph of Old 
Sleaford, but did not prosecute 
[A.R. 506, m. 4]. In the same year 
the assize came to declare whether 
Brian do Herdebi and others 
unjustly disseised John Gregorj' of 
Quarrington of his free tenement 
in Quarrington, Millthorpe and 
Old Sleaford. John complained 
that he was disseised of 1 mes- 
suage, 30 bovates of land, 60 acres 
of pasture, 160 acres of marah and 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX (3F PERSONS 



229 



Gregory, John — cont. 

£8 worth of rents, with appurten- 
ances. He won his case as to 
disseisin, but was put in mercy for 
false claim against some of the 
defendants, whom tho jurj' found 
were not involved [Ibid., m. 4cl], 
38 (197). 117 (442), 132 (490) 

Grene. Alexander de la, plaintiff, 129S, 
against Alan of Tallington, q.v., 
1U5 (402) 

Grene, Geoffrey atte, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Hugh ErHm, q.v., 36 (181) 

Grene, Hugh atto, of Brinkhill, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Richard of Brink- 
hill, q.v., 26 (138) 

Grene, Hugh atte, of Londonthorpe, 
mainpernor, 1298, of Jolui s. of 
the Reeve, q.v., 109 (415) 

Grene, John atte, of Winceby, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Walter of Wince- 
by, q.v., 41 (219) 

Grene, Osbert de la, of Rauceby, juror of 
Flaxwell and Langoe wapentakes, 
1298, II (44) 

Grene, Ralph atte, of Haydor, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Walter Cristian, 
q.v., 109 (415) 

Grene, Richard atte, of Kirton-in-Lind- 
sey, juror of the Soke of Kirton, 
1298, 134 (493) 

Orene, Richard Super le, 1297 : sub-taxor 
of the ninth in Little Ponton and 
Stroxton [Lay Stibs. Roll 135/3, 
m. 9], 172 

Grene, Robert de la, of Silk Willoughby, 
juror of Aswardhum wapentake, 
1298, 38 (197), 117 (442), 133 
(490) 

Grene, Walter atte, of Owston, paid 10/- 
mainprise money in 1298, 96 
(379) 

Greye, Wilham, member, 1298, of a 
Lincolnshire jury of sailors, 124 
(462) 

GrejTTiag', Grej-imag', Grymag, WilUam, 
1296 : one of the twelve wapen- 
take sub-taxors of the twelfth in 
Candleshoe wapentake ; 1297 : 
Bub-taxor of the ninth in Burgh- 
in-the-Marsh, 56 (257), 64 (287), 
66(295), 160-1 

Grimsby, Richard of, 1298, Michaelmas : 
baihff of the men of Grimsby 
[K.R.M.R. no. 72, m. 1; 
L.T.R.M.R. no. 70, m. J], 155 

Orimscroft, Alan de, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Leake [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 1], 167 

OrisdaV, Roger de, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Deeping [Lay Stibs. Roll 
135/3, m. 3], 168 

Grubbe, William s. of Alan, juror of the 
Soke and Liberty of Homcastle, 
1298, 131 (485j 



Grj-lle, Peter, plaintiff, 1298, against Ivo 
of Billinghay, q.v., 106 (405) 

Grj-m, Henrv, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Thomas of Easten, q.v., 117 (443) 

Grymag'. See Groymag' 

Grymsflet', Andrina widow of Robert de, 
plaintiff, 1298, against Simon Pjm- 
crak', q.v., and Roger of Brinkhill, 
q.v., 57 (269, 260) 

Guldron. <See Golderon 

Guile, Thomas, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Alexander Golderon, q.v. 1300: 
Thomas Guile essoins himself by 
WilUam Pago against the Abbot of 
Swineshead [A.R. 1316, m. 43]. 
The case came up again in 1301 : 
the assize comes to declaje whether 
Thomas Guile and Alice his wife, 
Greoffrey lo Warde and Coletta his 
wife and others vm justly and ui et 
armis disseised the Abbot of 
Swineshead of his free tenement in 
Burton-iuxta-Helpringham, i.e., of 
6 acres of land and ^ acre of 
meadow with apjjvirtenances. The 
case went in favour of the Abbot 
[A.R. 1320, m. 24d]. The sequel 
appears during the same year, 
1301 : Thomas Guile and Alice his 
wife and the others were arrested 
for this disseisin made ui et armis 
[A.R. 1322, m. 20d]. But during 
1301, also, Thomas stood pledge 
to the plaintiff, John s. of Andrew 
Guile of Burton, in a plea of assize 
of mort d'ancestor, not prosecuted, 
against Emma d. of Robert s. of 
Thomas of Boston concerning a 
tenement in Burton by Helpring- 
ham [A.R. 1320, m. 27d], 85 (356) 

Gumy. See Guncy 

Gunby, Mabel of, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Adam le Lung, q.v., 73 (319) 

Guncy, Gimni, Gumy, Austin, plaintiff, 
1298, against William s. of Gilbert 
andXicholasHerre, q.v., sub-taxors 
of the tenth in Candleshoe wapen- 
take in 1294; stood pledge to Ralph 
Bernard and Robert de Spina, q.v., 
sub-taxors of the twelfth in Candle- 
shoo in 1296 ; himself a sub- 
taxor of the eleventh, 1295, in 
Candleshoe wapentake, 55-6 (256, 
(258), 64 (288), 158 

Gunneys, Thomas de, 1295 : chief col- 
lector for Lincolnshire, of the 
eleventh, appointed 4 Dec. 
[K.R.M.R. no. 69, m. 65] ; 1296 : 
chief collector of the twelfth, 
appointed 29 Nov. [Ibid., no. 70, 
m. 87], 157, 159 

Gunnild, William, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Harrowby and Duns- 
thorpe [Lay Subs. Roll 63/1, m. 1], 
166 



230 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Gvirnard, William, of Ludborough. juror 
of Ludborough wapentake, 1298, 
128(475) 

Ourneys, John, 1294: royal collector, 
for Lincolnshire, of wool in the 
hands of foreign merchants and 
commercial houses ; appointed 
probably in July [K.li.M.E. no. 
68, m. 88], 177 

OiUlak, Hugh, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Deepinc [Lay Subs. Boll 
135/3, tn. 3], 168 

Gybbard, Richard, minor official, 1298, 
rank not given. 1297 : ' Richard 
Gibard ' is a sub-taxor of the 
ninth, probably in Somerby, Threo 
[Lay Subs. Boll 63/1, m. 1]. He 
was himself assessed for this tax 
as follows : he had \ quarter of 
com worth 1/6 ; ^ qr. of maslin 
worth 1/- ; 1 qr. of oats worth 
1/6 ; 1 draught-beast worth 2/- ; 

I cow worth 5/- ; forage worth 4d. 
The total was 1 1/4, the ninth part 
beingl/3i[-^^2f^-3. 108, 110(415), 166 

Gylberd, John, of Rauceby, mainpernor, 
1298, of Osbert de la Grene, q.v., 

II (44) 

Gylyan, Robert, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Simon le Marchal, q.v., 109 (415) 

Gylyot, William, of Sj'ston, minor official, 
1298, rank not giyen, 108-9 (415) 

Gynur, Ranulph, of Humby, mainpernor, 
1298, of John Veyse', q.v., 109 (415) 

Gyppethorp', Gippthorp', Robert de, 
juror of Candleshoe wapentake, 
1298, 25 (128), 132 (489) 

Gysors, Thomas, receiver of corn at 
Boston, 1298. 1298, May 23: acts 
as a recognitor in a royal inquest 
into hides seized for customs 
purposes (see Gode, Jolm) [Sheri_ff.s' 
Accts. 22, no. 7, m. J], 118 (446) 



Habrough, Hugh of, sub-bailiff of Lud- 
borough wapentake, 1298, 1 (2, 3), 
20(99. 100), 32(156), 39(201,204), 
144, 151, n. 38 

Hackthorn, Henry of, chief bailiff of 
Holland, 1299 [A.B. 506, m. 6]; 
bailiff of Skirbeck, probably from 
1299-1302 [A.B. 1320, m. 29d], 
142-3 iter), 149, n. 22-3, 150, ». 29 

Hackthorn, John of, jurror of Aslacoe 
wapentake, 1298, 134 (494) 

Hackthorn, Robert of, clerk, juror of 
Aslacoe wapentake, 1298, 134(494) 

Hacon, his son. See Peter 

Hagbeach, Hakebeche, Robert de, 
knight ; juror of Elloe wapentake, 
1298 ; plaintiff against William de 
Ingelton, g.t'., 1290: In an inquest 
held before WilUam de Vescy and 
Peter de Campania, for L^lloe 



Hagbeach, Robert de^ — cont. 

wapentake, to examine crimes 
committed at Boston Fair, Robert 
was a member of the jury [A.R. 
1286, tn. 16d]. 1291 : John s. of 
Alexander of Whaplode essoins 
himself against Robert of Hag- 
beach in a plea of assize of novel 
disseisin [A.B. 1293, m. 2(1] ; later 
in the same j'ear John, who 
brought a writ of assize of novel 
disseisin against Robert and others 
concerning a certain dyke in 
Whaplode, came to the court and 
sought licence to withdraw, and 
had it [Ibid., m. 22]. 1292 : 
Robert's name appears in the list 
of those having £40 worth of land 
and rents who ought to be 
knights and are not [Chanc. 
Miscell.l/3,m.2]. 1298: Robert's 
name appears in a similar list 
compiled for calling out the levy 
for Scotland [Ibid., 1/6, m. 30], 
but he appears also in the list of 
those doubtfully willing to take 
service with the king in Scotland 
[Ibid.,m.32]. 1299: Robert made 
a fine in £20 sterling for having 
impeded Richard s. of Peter de 
Hoddj'^1 of 3 roods of land with 
appurtenances in Wigtoft, Kirton, 
with the advowson of Wigtoft 
church [Feel of Fines, 27 Ed. I, 
no. 15]. 1303: Robert held a 
twentieth part of a fee in Whap- 
lode and Holbeach, of the Countess 
of Albemarle's fees [F.A. Hi, 
p. 151], 7 (27), 54 (253), 125 (467) 

Hagl'. William de, juror of Loveden 
wapentake, 1298, 55 (255), 128 
(478) 

Haldenbj% Richard of, of Norton, pro- 
bably minor official. 1298; rank 
not given. 1297: assessor, for the 
ninth, of the sub-taxors of this tax 
in Graffoe wapentake [Lay Subs. 
Boll 135/3, m. 10]. 1301 :' recog- 
nitor, who did not come, in an 
assize of mort d'ancestor con- 
cerning a tenement of I messuage, 
1^ bovates of land with appurten- 
ances in Waddington [A.B. 1322, 
m. 21], 36 (185) 

Hale. Gilbert of, of Ewerby Thorpe, 
juror of Aswardhurn wapentake, 
1298. 1297: assessor, for the 
ninth, of the sub-taxors of this 
tax in AswardhuiTi and Beltisloe 
wapentakes [Lay Subs. Boll 135/6 
VI. 1], 38 (197), 117 (442), 132 
(490), 165 

Hale, John s. of Richard of, mainpernor, 
1298, of William s. of Richard, 
q.v., 84 (354) 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



231 



Hale, Thomas s. of Lucy of, mainpernor, 
1298, of William s. of Richard. 
q.v., 84 (354) 
Hale, William 9. of Richard of, juror of 
Aswardhum wapentake, 1298, 38 
(197), 117 (442). 132 (490) 
Hale, Robert n. of Simon of. Little Hale, 
1297: sub-taxor of the ninth in 
Little Hale [Lay Siibs. Roll 135/6, 
m. I], 162 
Halle, John atte, of Ancaster, main- 
pernor, 1298, of William Graum- 
pa3, ^.t;., 109 (415) 
H«Jle, Thomas atte, of Friskney, juror 
of Candleshoe wapentake, 1298, 
132 (489) 
Hallegarth, Henry de, of Newton, main- 
pernor, 1298, of Adam de Wyg- 
gesle, q.v., 23 (121) 
Halleyate, Thomas atte, mainpernor, 
1298, of Roger ad Crucem, q.v., 
109(415) 
Hallington, Ralph of, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Hugh of Ormsby, q.v., 19 
(89) 
Halton [Holegate], John of, jiu-or of Hill 
wapentake, 1298; mainpernor of 
Walter of Winceby, q."., 20 (93), 
131 (484) 
Halyon, de Halyon, Thomas, plaintif?, 
1298, against Thomas of Easton, 
q.v., 99 (383), 121 (456) 
Hame, Richard, 1295 : sub-taxor of the 
eleventh in Scremby, 67 (299), 
158 
Hancounto, William, of Barton, paid 
half a mark mainprise money in 
1298, 96(379) 
Haneuyle, Roger de, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Peter Romayn, q.v., 109 (415) 
Hanuile, William, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Great Hale [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/6, m. 1], 162 
Hanuill, Hanuylle, Hawjj-le, Thomas de, 
also called Thomas the Clerk ; 
sub-bailiff of Beltisloe and Ness 
wapentakes, 1297-8, possibly also 
earlier, 18 (76), 31 (151), 90 (370), 
93 (374), 113 (425), 141 (ter), 149, 
n. 17 
Hapelthorp', William de, mainpernor, 
1298, of Thomas of Rampton, 
q.v., 3 (12), 19 (85) 
Harald, Luke, juror of Boston uillata, 

1298, 123 (46i»). 
Harby, John of, of Evedon, 1297 : 
assessor, for the ninth, of the sub- 
taxors of this tax in Aswardhurn 
and Beltisloe wapentakes [Lay 
Sub.9. Roll 135/6, m. 1], 165 
Harby, Alice widow of William of, 

of Lincoln, cvii 
Hard, John, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
nmth in Loverton [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/ 3, m. J], 167 



Hardebene, Hardeben, Alan, juror of 
Candleshoe wapentake, 1298; 
stood pledge, 1298, to Simon 
Pyncrak, q.v., and to Alan de la 
Rawe and John Blaunchard, both 
q.v., 57 (259), 65 (291), 132 (489) 

Harden. See Ardeme 

Hardewyn, Hardewyne, Alan, 1295 : one 
of the twelve wajientake sub- 
taxors of the eleventh in Candle- 
shoe wapentake, 64 (285), 66 (293), 
158, 160 

Harlaxton, Richard of, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Simon the Clerk of Dunsthorpe, 
q.v., 108-9 (412, 414, 415) 

Harman, Robert, minor official, 1298, 
rank not given, 108-9 (415). 

Harmston, Thomas of, juror of Flaxwell 
and Langoe wapentakes, 1298, 
54 (251) 

Harrowby, Jolui s. of Walter of, main- 
pernor of Simon Lewyn, q.v., 110 
(415) 

Hasse, Simon atte, juror of Elloe wapen- 
take, 1298, 54 (253), 125 (467) 

Hatcliii'e, Peter of, juror of Haverstoe 
wapentake, 1298, 129 (480) 

Hauberd, William, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Stragglethorpe [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 4], 169 

Haugham, Gilbert of, juror of Calcewath 
wapentake, 1298. Coroner of 
Lincolnshire prior to 17 Aug., 
1295 : he was incapacitated as 
from this date bv illness [C.C.R. 
1288-96, p. 424],but seems to 
have recovered sufficiently to 
act as a juror three years later, 
131 (486), 138 

Haulay, Hauley, John de, of Cawthorpe, 
juror of Ludborough wapentake, 

128 (475) 

Haulay, Walter de, of Kirmond, juror of 

Wraggoe wapentake, 1298, 37 

(194), 128 (477) 
Haulaj', William de, juror, probably of 

Ludborough wapentake, 1298, 

32 (156). 
Hawenedyk', Robert atte, plaintiff, 1298, 

against Alan ad Ecclesiam, q.v., 

cix, 63 (282) 
Hawerby, Richard, s. of Walter of , juror 

of Calcewath wapentake, 1298, 

129 (480) 
Hawyle. See Hanuill 

Haye, Robert de la, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Woolsthorpe [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1], 1 64 

Healing, William of, juror of Bradley 
wapentake, 1298, 32 (157) 

Heanor, Henouere, Eudo of, juror of Hill 
wapentake, 1298. 1300: 'Eudo 
de Henoure ' and Wilham his son 
brought a writ of certification 
against John of Sutton, parson of 



232 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Heanor, Eudo oi^ccnt. 

the church of ' INIidelton-iuxta- 
Yeuelcestro ' and others concern- 
ing a tenement in Hagworthing- 
ham, but did not prosecute [A.R. 
1316, m. 24d], 131 (484) 

Heapham, Geoffrey s. of Robert of, jiu-or 
of the Soke" of Kirton, 1298, 133 
(493) 

Heckington, William of, clerk. 1297: 
assessor, for the ninth, of the sub- 
taxors of this tax in Aswardhum 
and Beltisloe wapentakes [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/6, m. i], 165 

Hed, Henry, of Flanders, member of a 
jury of sailors, 124 (462) 

Hegge, Emma d. of Gilbert atte, plain- 
tiff, 1298, against Adam le Lung, 
q.v., 72 (316) 

Heghuon, Simon, of Colby, juror of 
Boothby and Graffoe wapentakes, 
1298. 54 (252), 130 (481) 

Helle, William, of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 
mainpernor, 1298. of Reginald 
Hound, q.v., 22 (116), 145 

Helpesthorp', Helpethorp', William de, 
1297 : bailiff of Corringham 
wapentake, 3 (13), 19 (86) 

Helpiingham, Philip s. of William of, 
official, 1298, rank not given, 77 
(333) 

Helpston, Olive, widow of John of, plain- 
tiff, 1298, against Robert Pygoun, 
q.v., 51 (242), 95 (375) 

Helpston, Simon of, juror of Stamford, 
1298, but cancelled from the list, 
126 (469) 

Helrycher. See Elrycher 

Hemery, John, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Barrowby [Lay Suhn. 
Roll 135/3, mm. 9, 11], 173 

Hemingby, William of, bailiff of Gartree 
wapentake under Robert le 
Venour, sheriff 1294-7, 3 (14), 
12 (47), 20 (96), 27 (141, 142), 33 
(164), 41, (221), 144. 151, ?i. 40, 
152, n. 46-7 

Hemington, William of, member, 1298, 
of a Lincolnshire jury of skinners, 
124 (464) 

Hemmyng', Ranulph, of Friskney, juror 
of Candleshoe wapentake, 1298. 
132 (489) 

Hemyngton, William s. of Henry de, 
mainpernor, 1298, of William the 
Baker of Hemynton, q v., 109 
(415) 

Hendcop, Robert, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Westborough and Little 
Thorpe [Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, 
m. 4], 169 

Henry III, King of England, xii, Ixviii, 
Ixx, cxiii, cxv 

Henry, baihff of Grantham, 149, n. 16 

Henry son of Walter. .See Holton le Clay 



Henry s. of Warin, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Fishtoft [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, m. 1], 167 

Henry, his son. See John 

Heny, Walter, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Ivo of Billinghay, q.v., 103 (396) 

Her6er(/, 6'j«iO)i, of Stapleford, 1297: sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Stapleford 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. 10]. 174 

Hereward, Elias, 1299-1300 : chief bailii? 
of Kesteven under Richard of 
Howell, sheriff [A .R. 1316, m. 27d], 
140, 147, n. 4 and 9 

Hereward, William, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Thorpe on the Hill 
[Lay Stibs. Roll 135/3, m. 10] 

Hereward, William, jiaror of Flaxwell 
and Langoe wapentakes, 1298. 
1299, July : William Hereward of 
Scopwick acts as a recognitor in 
an assize of novel disseisin between 
Robert de Arcy and others and 
Philip de Arcy and his wife con- 
cerning a tenement in Dunston 
{see also Simon Beneyt) [A.R. 506, 
m. 1], 54 (251), 175 

Herford, John de, of Barrowby, juror of 
Winnibriggs wapentake, 1298. 
1295 : sub-taxor of the eleventh 
in Winnibriggs wapentake [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/2, m. 16]. He was 
himself assessed for this tax as 
follows : he had 2 quarters of com 
worth 5/- per quarter ; 1 qr. of 
rye worth 4/- ; 3 qrs. of dredge 
com worth 2/- per qr. ; 1 qr. of 
seed barley worth 2/6 ; 2 qrs. of 
oats worth 1/6 per qr. ; 1 draught- 
beast worth 3/- ; 2 oxen worth 
4/- each ; 1 cow worth 5/- ; 6 
sheep worth lOd. each ; hay and 
forage worth 1/6. The total was 
48/-, the eleventh part being 
4/4^ [Ibid.]. 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Barrowby, Winni- 
briggs [Ibid., 135/3, mm. 9, 11]. 
He was himself assessed for this 
tax as follows : he had 1 qr. of 
oats worth 1/6 ; 1 draught-boast 
worth 3/- ; 2 mares worth 2/- 
each ; 6 sheep worth 1/- each : 
forage worth 6d. The total wafl 
15/-, the ninth part, being 1/8 
[Ibid.], civ, n. 1, 135 (497), 159, 
173 

Herford, Thomas de, of Allington, juror 
of Threo wapentake. 1298, 135 
(498) 

Hering. See Heryng 

Hemy, John, 1298 : cited as ' master ' of 
Adam le Lung, a royal bailiff, q.v. 
1299 : the assize comes to deter- 
mine whether John Hemy and 
Adam s. of Hugh le Lung (almost 
certainly the bailiff of 1298) and 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



233 



Hemy, John — cont. 

another unjustly disseised Wil- 
liam 3. of Henrj- of Ingoldsby of 
liis free tenement in Ingoldsby, 
i.e., of 1 messuage and half an 
acre of land with appurtenances. 
Neither John nor Adam came, but 
the jury said that they did unjustly 
disseise William vi et armis. Both 
John and William made fine, 
John on 10/-, Adam in 40d. 
[A.R. .506, m. lOd]. 1297: John 
Hemy owned a ship called ' Ger- 
laund do Brummouth ' which was 
used to cam' some of the king's 
com, etc., from Boston to Flanders 
in that year [P.R.O. Sheriffs" 
Admin. Accts. ,56S'l], Ixv (bia), 
ci-ii, 73 (320), 189 (<^j>) 

Herre, Nicholas, 1294: sub-taxor of the 
tenth in Candleshoe wapentake. 
1297 : similarly sub-taxor of the 
ninth. Stood pledge to other 
sub-taxors in Candleshoe, 55 (256), 
57 (259), 63 (283), 65 (288), 156, 
162 

Herylyel, John, minor official, rank not 
given, xcii, 22 (113) 

Heryng', Thomas, of Grantham, juror of 
Grantham, 1298 ; n\ainpemor of 
Stephen Punne, q.v., 7 (23), 130 
(482) 

Her3^, Ralph, of Great Ponton, plain- 
tiff, 129S, against Robert Pygoun, 
q.v., 77 (331) 

Hetherington, Richard of, 1297 : chief 
ta.xor of the ninth in Lincolnshire 
[K.R.M.R. no. 71, m. 121d]. 
Clerk to supervise, in Lincolnshire, 
the prise of com of Nov., 1296, 
and that of flesh of June, 1297, 
appointed 29 Nov., 1296 
[K.R.M.R. no. 70, mm. 114, 114d] ; 
and to supervise the prise of com 
of Nov., 1297, appointed 5 Nov., 
1297 [C.P.R. 1292-1.301, p. 314], 
xl, lxi-lx\n, 161, 177-8 (bis), 184, 
189 {bis), 190 

Hethes, Gilbert atte, of Bratoft, attachor, 
1298, of WilUam Thenk, q.v., 52 
(246) 

Hey, Thomas de, of Hemingby, juror of 
Gartree and Homcastlo wapen- 
takes, 1298, 38 (195), 130 (483) 

Hirdman, John, juror of Well wapentake, 
1298, 134 (495) 

Hirf . . ., Peter de, juror of BoUngbroke 
wapentake, 1298, 132 (488) 

Hime, Robert en le, 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Tallington [Lay Stibs. 
Roll 1.3.5/ 3, m.. 3], 168 

Hod, Hugh, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Thomas of Easton, q.v., 117 (443) 

Hod, Nicholas, plaintiff, 1298. against 
Thomas of Easton, q.v., 117 (443) 



Hoddel. See Hodel 

Hoddil, John de, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Gosberton [Lay Subs. 
Roll 136/3, m. 7], 171 

Hodel, Hoddel, Richard de, jviror of 
Kirton wapentake, 1298, 55 (254), 
125(466) 

Hog, John, 1297 : sub-taxor of the ninth 
in Gosberton [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, m. 7], 171 

Hogg, Htigh, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Cavthorpo and Frieston 
[Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, m. i], 170 

Hoglobe, Stephen, of Blankney, juror of 
Flaxwell and Langoe wapentakes, 
1298,37(193) 

Hoky, Richard, of Howell, 1297 : assessor 
for the ninth, of the sub-taxors of 
this tax in Aswardhum and 
Beltisloe wapentakes [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/6, m. 1], 165 

Hole, Alan of, juror of Bradlev wapen- 
take, 1298, 39 (198), 127'(474) 

Hole, Matthew of, juror of Bradley 
wapentake, 1298, 39 (198), 127 
(474) 

Holbeach, Robert of, 1298 : cited in the 
course of a querela between Fulk of 
Whaplode, plaintiff, q.v., and 
Ralph Paj-nel, sherif?, q.v., 46 (231) 

Holbeach, Thomas of, arrested for rob- 
berv during or before 1298, 89 
(366) 

Holdemess, Jolm of, mainpernor, 1298, 
of William of Healing, g.r., 32 ( 1 57) 

Holdemess, WilUam of, of Wainfleet, 
juror of Candleshoe wapentake, 
1298. 1290, Aug. 11 : licensed at 
Sleaford as clerk in both major and 
minor orders [Reg. Sutton, Memo- 
randa, /. 7]. (He is here called 
William s. of Simon of Holdemess 
in Wainfleet.) 1300: Gilbert s. of 
Simon of Wainfleet and !Mabel his 
wife brought a writ of assize of 
novel disseisin against, among 
others, WiUiam of Holdemei5s and 
Cristiana his wife concerning a 
tenement in S. Wainfleet, but did 
not prosecute [A.R. 1316, m. 28]. 
Unless he disobeyed the laws of 
cehbacy, there is doubt as to the 
identity of the two Williams. 
1301 : WiUiam of Holdemess of 
Wainfleet stood pledge to the 
plaintiff in an assize of mort 
d'ancestor, not prosecuted, con- 
cerning a tenement in Wrangle 
[A.R. 1320, m. 27], 132 (489) 

Holland, Alan of, 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Ewerby Thorpe [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1], 163 

Holland, John of, 1294 : chief taxor of the 
tenth for Lincolnshire [C.P.R. 
1292-1301, 103], 156 



234 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Hollaiul. Jordan of, juror of Ness wapen- 
take, 1298. 1300: Juliana, widow 
of John le Warde, brought a writ 
of assizp of novel disseisin against 
' Ralph do Oryby ' and ' lordanus 
de Hoylaund ' eoucerning a tene- 
ment in Baston, but did not 
prosecute [A.R. 1316. m. 27], 53 
(249). 126 (470) 

Holland, William of, of Coleby, niain- 
ponior, 1298, of John do Conne- 
thorp', q.v., 37 (189) 

Holmp, John de, of Kirton in Lindsey, 
mainpernor, 1298, of Reginald 
Hound, q.v., 22 (116) 

Holmp, Robert de, of Morton-by-Lincoln. 
No information about him in A.R. 
505, save that he was summoned 
to court but did not come. He may 
have been a juror or a roj'^al 
official of some kind. 1299: 
' Robert de Holm ' deforced 
Walter s. of John of Fulbeck of 
23 acres of land, 8 acres of 
meadow and 1 6/- rents in Burton- 
by-Lincoln, Lawress, but made a 
fine in 100/- silver [Feet of Fines 
27 Ed. 1, no. 4]. In the same year 
Alexander de Insula complained 
that Robert de Holm de Morton 
deforced him of 1 naessuage, 3^ 
bovates of land and 4 acres of 
meadow with appurtenances in 
' Telcotes - iuxta - Kynardeferie ' 
(Kinnard's Ferr}-). Thej^ made a 
fine, but the amount is not 
specified [Feet of Fines, 27 Ed. 1, 
MO 32], 36(184) 

Holsebek', John de, member, 1298, of a 
Boston jury of drapers and 
vintners. 12.3 (4r>9) 

Holton-le-Clay, Henry s. of Walter of, 
mainpernor. 1298, of Walter Wel- 
mad, q.v., 21 (101) 

Holton-le-Clay, Walter s. of Walter of, 
mainpernor, 1298, of W^alter Wel- 
mad, q.v., 21 (101) 

Holton-le-Moor, John s. of Thomas 
of, juror of Walshcroft wapen- 
take, 1298, 38 (196), 128 
(476) 

Holtreol, John, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Whisbv [Lay Subs. Boll 
135/3, m. 10\ 175 

Honemanhy, Andreio de, 1300: bailiff of 
Beltisloe wapentake [A.R. 1320, 
m. 27d], 141 

Horbling, Simon of, suffered at the hands 
of John of Aunsby, q.v.. 1298, 
117 (444) 

Homcastle, John of, of Boston, juror of 
Boston uillata, 1298. Mainpernor 
of William s. of Alexander the 
Clerk, bailiff of .Skirbeck, 21 (104), 
42 (220), 123 (460) 



Homeby, William tie, of Stixwould, 
minor official, 1298, rank not 
given. 1301 : John s. of Robert of 
Toynton, q.v., and his wife brought 
a writ of assize of novel disseisin 
against William of Homeby and 
P]rama his wife concerning a tene- 
ment in Stixwould, but did not 
prosecute [A.R. 1320, tn. 23]. 
(John and William are associated 
in no. 164), 33 (164) 

Hosecrey, Richard de, plaintiff, 1298, 
against Richard of Brinkhill. q.v., 
20(138) 

Hospital, Stephen of the, of Thornton, 
in mercy, 1298. in connexion with 
a prise of com, 33 (101) 

Houeringham, William s. of William de, 
juror of Yarborough wapentake, 
1298, 127 (473) 

Hough, the Prior of, 1295 (after Sept. 28) : 
the Prior paid £23 into the Exche- 
quer in respect of the goods of 
alien houses, 49 (238) 

Houghton, Walter of, 1298 : sub-bailiff of 
Winnibriggs wapentake. Main- 
pernor of Hugh of Braceby, q.v., 
and of William Coatantin, q.v., and 
stood pledge to William Costantin 
and to Alan of Tallington, q.v., 
17 (66), 40 (205, 208-9). 101 (390), 
103 (397), 141 

Houghton, William of, of Welby, minor 
official, 1298, rank not given, but 
his summons to court probably 
refers to Ms action as a sub-taxor 
in 1297. 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Wolby [Lay Subfi. Roll 
63/1, m.. 1]. He was himself 
assessed for this tax as follows : 
he had ^ quarter of corn worth 
1/6 ; 1 qr. of barley worth 2/6 ; 2 
qrs. of oats worth 3/- ; 1 draught- 
beast worth 2/- ; 4 ewes worth 9d. 
each. The total was 12/4, the 
ninth part being 1/4J [Ibid.]. 
1300: Stood pledge to Hugh of 
Braceby, q.v. [A.R. 1316, m. 28], 
37 (191), 165 

Hound, Reginald, of Kirton-in- Lindsey, 
minor official, 1298, rank not 
given, xcii, 22 (1 16) 

Houton, Walter de, coroner of Lincoln- 
shire prior to 9 Nov., 1296 
[C.C.R. 1288-96, p. 497], 138 

Howe, Walter de, minor official, 1298, 
rank not given, 53 (248) 

Hoivell, Hrnry of, 1297 : clerk, sub- 
taxor of the ninth in Howell [Lay 
Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1], 163 

Howell, Richard of, knight; juror of 
Aswardhum wapentake, 1298. 
1298 : He is on the list of those 
having £40 worth of lands in 
Lincolnshire (calling out the 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



2'^r^ 



Howell. Richard of — coxt. 

feudal array for Scotland) [CJuitic. 
Misc. 1/6, m. 30]. He is also on 
the list of those doubtfully willing 
to take service with the king in 
Scotland [Ibid., m. 32]. Oct.. 1299. 
to Oct., 1300: sheriff of Lincoln- 
shire [P.R.O. Lists and Indexes, 
IX. p. 78]. 1300, Jan. 17: Richard, 
with the assistance of John of 
ShetHeld. is to purvey in Lincoln- 
shire 1,000 qrs. of wheat, 1,000 qrs. 
of oats. 1.000 qrs. of malt and 500 
qrs. of beans iind peas, prepare it 
to keep for two years, and have it 
at Berwick for use against the 
Scots by Midsummer Day, 1300 
[C.F.B. 1292-1301, p. 487], xcii, 
10 (36), 137, 147, n. 4. 149-50, 
n. 23. 150. n. 24. 151. n. 31. 152, 
n. 44, 153, n. 49. n. 56, 161 

Hoymund, Adam, 1295 : one of the 
twelve wapentake sub-taxors of 
the eleventh in Winnibriggs 
wajjentake [Lay Subs. Roll 135/2, 
m. 16]. But again.st his name is 
this : ' unus ex duodecim non 
habuit in bonis ad valorem .xj.s. 
ideo non taxator ", xlvi, 159 

Hugh , plaintiff, 1298, against 

various sub-taxors. Seruiens of 
EHcius Boteler, q.v., 55 (256), 63 
(283), 65 (288) 

Hugh, parson of Skidbrook, mainpernor. 
1298, of Thomas, a. of the vicar of 
Skidbrook, q.v., 27 (140) 

Hugh 9. of Beatrice, 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in Candleshoc wapen- 
take, 61 (276), 162 

Hugh s. of Hugh, mainpernor. 1298, of 
Simon the Clerk of Dunsthorpe, 
q.v. 108-9, (414-5) 

Hugh 3. of Ivo, minor official, 1298, rank 
not given but perhaps a sub- 
taxor in Tlireo wapentake ; main- 
pernor, 1298, of Simon the Clerk 
of Dunsthorpe, q.v., 108-9 (412. 
413. 415) 

Hugh 8. of John. 1297 : sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Sutterton [Lay Subs. Roll 
135/3, w. 7, 8], 171 

Hugh 3. of Philip, 1295 : sub-taxor of the 
eleventh in Ashby-by-Partney, 
68 (303), 158 

Hugh s. of Rose, 1294 : sub-taxor of the 
tenth in Nort holme. 1296: sub- 
taxor of the twelfth in Bratoft, 
56 (257), 64 (287). 67 (296), 156, 
160 

Hugh, his son. See Hugh ; Lambert ; 
Robert ; William 

Hull', VV'ilUam atte, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Robert Parleben, q.v., 22 (112) 

HuUe. Walter de, attachor. 1298, of 
Walter de Howe, q.v., 53 (248) 



Hundefot, Laurence, 1208: king's 
receiver of com at Boston, 118 
(446) 

Hundon, John s. of William of, juror of 
Yarborough wapentake, 1298, 127 
(473) 

Hundon. William of. 139, /;. 3 

Hurtquarter, Roger, of Conesby, royal 
official, 1298, rank not given. 
1300: John de Bosco essoins 
himself against Roger Hurtquarter 
of North Conesby in a plea of 
assize of novel disseisin [A.R. 
1316, m. 42]. 1301 : John de 
Bosco brought a writ of assize of 
novel disseisin against Roger in 
respect of a common pasture at 
North Conesby by Flixborough, 
but did not prosecute [A.R. 1320, 
m. 27]. In the same year Roger, 
now said to be of ' Magna Cun- 
ningesby ' brought a writ of 
assize of novel disseisin against 
John, stated to bo of Great Cones- 
by and Burton Stather. in respect 
of a common pasture at Great 
Conesby (possibly the same one), 
but did not prosecute [Ibid., 
m. 28d]. 1.303: Roger Hurt- 
quarter and William Pynconn 
held half a fee in Conesby, which 
Geoffrey Hurtquarter and Ralph 
Pyncomi previously held, of the 
fees of Norman de Arcy [F.A. Hi, 
p. 142], 23 (124) 

Hutebrule, John de. of Malines, member, 
1298, of a jury of Lincolnshire 
guildsmen, 127*^(472) 

Huttoft, William s. of Walter of, 1295 : 
sub-taxor of the eleventh in 
Ingoldmells. 1297 : sub-taxor of 
the ninth, probablv in Orby, 
62 (278-9). 158. 161 " 

[?] Huzton', Wilham de, 1295 and sub- 
sequently : responsible for col- 
lecting and paying into the 
Exchequer money collected in 
respect of the goods of alien houses 
in Lincolnshire, 49 (238) 

Hvkeham, Peter of, juror of Boothbv and 
Graffoe wapentakes, 1298; 1297: 
sub-taxor of the ninth in North 
and South Hykeham [Lay Subs. 
Roll 125/3, m. 10], 54 (252), 129 
(481), 175 

Hykeham, Philip of, 1297: sub-taxor of 
the ninth in North and South 
Hykehana [Lay Subs. Roll 135/3, 
m. 10], 175 

Hykeham, Simon of, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Hugh del Cljd^', q.v., 37 (190) 

Hyllary, Thomas, elected juror of 
Kirton wapentake, 1298, but did 
not serve, 55 (254), 125 (466) 

Hynggelton', Hynggilton. See Ingelton' 



236 



BIOGEAPHICAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



Idehone, John, 1294, July 29 : appointed 
a receiver, for Lincolnshire, of 
customs levied upon wool 
[K.B.M.R. no. 6S, m. S2], 177 

leofne, Simon le, mainpernor, 1298, of 
Roger of Brinkhill, q.v., 27 (139) 

Illarv. Alan s. of Roger, of Frampton, 
plaintiff, 1298, against William of 
Flintham, q.v. 1293-4: member 
of a jury of presentment to deter- 
mine tlie extent of the knights' 
fees of Thomas of Moulton [Anc. 
Extents, no 82 (2), m. 7], 47 (233) 

Inge, William, royal justice. In charge of 
the enquiry, in Lincolnshire and 
other counties, 1298-9, which pro- 
duced A.R. 505 (cf. no. 379). In 
Lincolnshire in March, 1298, hear- 
ing pleas in respect of possessory 
assizes. For a considerable bulk of 
information about him see C.P.R. 
1292-1301, also Foss, Judges of 
Englaiid, III, pp. 268-70, xiv- 
xxiv, cxi, cxxv, 46 (231), 96 (379) 

Ingge, Richard, 1297: sub-taxor of the 
ninth in Burgh-on-Bain, Bis- 
cathorpe and Girsby [Lay Subs. 
Roll 135/3, 7/1. 12], 176 

Ingelbryth, Henry, 1295 : sub-taxor of 
the eleventh in Burgh-in-the- 
Marsh", 66 (293), 158 

Ingelton, William de, baihff errant, 1298, 
1300: bailiff of Kesteven [A.R. 
1322, m. 22], 7 (27), 83 (350, 351), 
97 (380), 114 (426), 139-40 

Ingesone, Thomas, juror of Candleshoe 
wapentake, 1298. 1301 : the 
assize comes to determine whether 
Thomas Ingesone and others 
unjustly disseised John of Caltoft 
of his common pasture in Aby 
which belonged to his free tene- 
ment in S. Thoresby, i.e., of 200 
acres of land and 8 acres of 
meadow, for specified periods 
[A.R. 1322, m. 19], 132 (489) 

Ingham, Jordan of, juror of the Soke of 
Kirton, 1298. 1290: the Bishop of 
Lincoln put in his stead Masters 
William de Langworth and Jordan 
de Ingham to examine the 
administration of the executors of 
the will of the late Edmund of 
Whaplode, knight, and Jordan was 
commissioned to do likewise in 
respect of the late Ralph of Lis- 
sington [Reg. Sutt.J. 23], 133 (493) 

Ingham, Jordan of, of Skillington, minor 
official, 1298, rank not given, 35 
(174) 

Ingham, Thomas s. of John of, juror of 
Aslacoe wapentake. 1298, 134 
(494) 

Ingoldsby, Adam of, stood pledge, 1298, 
to Thomas of Easton, q.v., 48 (237) 



Ingoldsby, Andi-ew of, mainpernor, 1298, 
of Richard de Apelgarth', q.v., 
11 (45) 

Ingoldsbv, Ralph of, juror of Grantham, 
1298, 130 (482) 

Ingoldsby, Ralph s. of Ralph of, 1297 : 
sub-taxor of the ninth in Ingolds- 
by [Lay Subs. Roll 135/6, m. 1], 
162 

Insula, John de, ro5'al justice, hearing 
pleas in Lincolnshire 1294-6 
[L.T.R.M.R. no. 68, m. 47], xv, 
n. 6, from p. xiv, lix, n. 1, xcvii- 
xcix, 3 (18), 30 (152), 138, n. 2, 
150, n. 30, 153, n. 51 

Irby [in the Marsh], Thomas of, stood 
pledge, 1298, to various sub-taxors 
in Candleshoe wapentake, 55(256), 
65(288) 

Irenside, Hugli, plaintiff, 1298, against 
WiUiam de Ingelton, q.v., 83 (350) 

Irford, Robert of, juror of Walshcroft 
wapentake, 1298, 38 (196), 128 
(476) 

Isabel, Thomas, plaintiff, 1298, against 
Ivo of Billinghay, q.v., 102 (395) 

Isabel, her son. See John 

Isond, her son. See WilUam 

Ive, Nicholas, of Belton, mainpernor, 
1298, of Thomas s. of Roger of 
Belton, q.v., 109 (415) 

Ivo his son. See Hugh 



Joan the maiden (puella), plaintiff, 1298, 

against sub-taxors of the twelfth, 

64 (286) 
James a. of Warin, 1297 : aub-taxor of 

the ninth in Frampton [Lay Subs. 

Roll 135/3, rn. 8], 172 
John, rector