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Full text of "Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society"

Bfiplliiipii: 



iic 

9 78.2 

N2 7p 

V.15 

Ser.2,v,10 

1237394 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 




ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 1833 02595 0582 



Gc 978.2 N27p v. 15, Ser. 2, v. 10 
Nebraska State Historical. 

Sdciety. 
Public AT IONS of the Nebraska 

State Historical. Society 



\y 



JX' 



PROCEEDINGS AND COLLECTIONS 



OF THE 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL 



SOCIETY 



"TREE 




PLANTERS" 



Volume Fifteen. 



Nebraska State Historical Society Publications. 



(Series II— Vol. X.) 



& XL' 

V. I s 



vV- '"'- -"'■' 



LINCOLN, NEBRASKA. 



A^-^, \^'/0 ^ 



ACOB North & Co., Printers 
1907 



1237394 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Officers and Office Staff ~. 3 

Letter of Transmittal 5 

Historical Addresses — 

Mormon Settlements in the Missouri Valley, 

By Clyde B. Aitchison 7 

Great Railroad Migration into Northern Nebraska, 

By John R. Buchanan 25 

Nebraska Politics and Nebraska Railroads, 

By John H. Ager 34 

Territorial Pioneer Days, 

Speeches at the Annual Meeting, 1902 45 

Campaigning Against Crazy Horse, 

By David Y. Mears 68 

Personal Recollections of Early Days in Decatur, Nebraska. 

By Capt. Silas T. Leaming 77 

History of the Lincoln Salt Basin, 

By John H. Ames 83 

Early Days at the Salt Basin, 

By John S. Gregory 102 

Judicial Grafts, 

By Judge William Gaslin 108 

My Very First Visit to the Pawnee Village in 1855, 

By Gen. John M. Thayer 119 

Early Days on the Little Blue, 

By J. H. Lemmon 127 

Early Annals of Nebraska City, 

By John W. *Pearman 133 

Dr. .John McPherson, 

By Robert W. Furnas 143 

J. Sterling Morton, 

By Robert W. Furnas 147 

Henry A. Longsdorf, Pioneer of Sarpy County. 153 

Biography of, and Tribute to the Memory of the Late Charles 
H. Gere. 

By Robert W. Furnas 158 

Robert Wilkinson Furnas, 

By Henry H. Wilson 161 

Hibbard Houston Shedd, 

By George C. Shedd 168 

Railroad Taxation in Nebraska, 

By Norris Brown 174 

- Work of the Union Pacific in Nebraska. 

By E. L. Lomax 181 

Early Dreams of Coal in Nebraska, 

By Dr. George L. Miller 189 

Unveiling of the Thayer Monument, Wyuka Cemetery 198 



CONTENTS. 

Page 
Proceedings of the Nebraska State Historical Society.— 

Twenty-fourth Annual ^Meeting, 1901 215 

Treasurer's Report 219 

Meeting of Board of Directors 220 

Twenty- fifth Annual Meeting, 18C2 222 

Treasurer's Report 225 

Meeting of Board of Directors 226 

Twenty-sixth Annual Meeting. 1903 226 

Meeting of Board of Directors - 233 

Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting, 1904 233 

Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting, 1905 238 

Proposition Made to State Agricultural Society 242 

Meeting of Board of Directors, January 243 

Meeting of Board of Directors, June 243 

Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting, 1906 246 

Treasurer's Report 249 

Draft of Proposition to Lincoln City CoTincil 250 

Meeting of Board of Directors, May 251 

Meeting of Board of Directors, October 255 

Thirtieth Annual Meeting, 1907 257 

Meeting of Board of Directors, (special) February 269 

Treasurer's Report 265 

Reports of Committees 266 

Museum 266 

Library 268 

Marking Historic Sites 270 

Meeting of Board of' Directors, April 274 

Meeting of Board of Directors. July 276 

Meeting of Board of Directors, October 277 

Thirty-first Annual Meeting, 1908 281 

Reports of Committees 282 

Auditing 282 

Work of the Society (Special) 283 

Obituaries 284 

Report of the Secretary 288 

Treasurer's Report 310 

Report of Librarian • 320 

Report of Archeologist, 1906 323 

Report of Archeologist, 1907 335 

Museum Catalogue 359 

Newspapers Received by the Society 382 

Legislative Acts Affecting the Society 393 

Constitution and By-Laws 399 

Publications of the Society 402 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

ELECTED MEMBERS. 

President — Dr. George L. Miller Omaha 

1st Vice-President — Robert Harvey St. Paul 

2d Vice-President — James E. North Columbus 

Secretary — Clarence S. Paine Lincoln 

Treasurer — Stephen L. Geisthardt Lincoln 

EX -OFFICIO MEMBERS. 

Governor of Nebraska Hon. George L. Sheldon 

Chancellor State University Hon. E. Benjamin Andrews 

President State Press Association Hon. Henry C. Richmond 

Department of Am. Hist. Uni. of Neb Prof. Howard W. Caldwell 



OFFICE STAFF. 



Clarence S. Paine Secretary 

Addison E. Sheldon Director of Field Work and Legislative Ref. Dept. 

Elmer E. Blackman Archeologist 

Mrs. Minnie P. Knotts Librarian 

William E. Hannan Assistant Legislative Reference Department 



Office of the 
Nebraska State IfiSTOiucAr. Society, 

Lincoln,, January 1, 1008. 

To His Excelhncij, (Jtunjc L. Slitidon, Goveryior of Ne- 
hrasJca: 

Sir — In accordance Avitli the pi'ovisions of laAV, we have 
the honor to herewith submit our report of the proceedings 
of the Nebraska State Historical Society for the year ending 
December 31, 1907. 

Embracing also a report of the proceedings of tlie Society 
under the administration of our predecessors, covering the 
period from January, 1900, the date of the last published 
report, to January, 1907. 

George L. Miller, 

President. 
Clarence S. Paine^ 
Secretary. 



HISTPORICAL ADDRBSSES. 



THE MORMON SETTLEMENTS IN THE ^IISSOUUT 

VALLEY. 

A PAPER PRESENTED IIY CLYDE P,. AITCHISON^ OF COUNCIL I'.LLFFS^ 

lOWA^ BEFORE THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE NEP.RAS^^A 

STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, JANUARY 11, LS09. 

In the spring of 1840, that portion of the iMissouri valley 
now included in southeastern Nebraska and south^vestern 
loAva Avas nearl}- devoid of Avhite settlers. The eastern slope 
of the valley, stretchins; from the Missouri river back to the 
lands of the Sacs and Foxes, was occupied by the Pottawat- 
tomi Indians, some 2,250 in number. By a treaty made 
September 20, 1833,^ the Pottawattomies, with some of the 
Ottawas and Chippeways, were granted five million acres of 
land, embracing a large part of what is now included in 
southwestern Iowa. The PottaAvattomies and their allies 
were removed from Chicago, and in time were located on new 
lands.- A subagency and trading post was established at 
Traders or Trading Point, or at St. Francis, within the pres- 
ent limits of Mills county, Iowa, and their wants were cared 
for at the Council lUuffs subagency."' A c<msiderable sized 
village called, after one of their chiefs, Mi-au-mise (Young 
]\Iiami) was located on the Nislmabotna river, near the pres- 
ent site of Lewis, in Cass county, lowa.^ Except a fcAV small 
settlements of whites near the Missouri state line, the sub- 
a^gency opposite Pellevue, and scattering posts of the Ameri- 
can Fur Company, the eastern slo])e of the jMissouri valley 
was in the sole use and occupation of the Pottawattomies and 



'Treaty of Chicago, Illinois, (see Stat. L. vii, 4.'?1) modified October 
1, 1834. The treaty is abstracted in part 11, 18th Annual Report, Pureau 
of American Ethnology, p. 750. 

-See "Miscellanies" (John Dean Caton), p. 139. 
'"'Red Men of Iowa" (A. R. Fulton), p. 170. 
^"Red ]\Ien of Towa," p. 17L 

7 



8 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

their Ottawa and Chippeway allies. By a treaty made with 
the United States, June 5, 1846, the Pottawattomies disposed 
of their Iowa lands, but reserved for themselves the tempo- 
rary right of occuj)aney.^ 

.West of the Missouri, the agency at Bellevue cared for four 
tribes of Indians, the Omahas, Otoes, Poncas, and Pawnees, 
beside attending to the Pottawattomies, Ottawas, and Chip- 
peways through the Council Blurts subagency on the ea.st side 
of the river.^ The Omaha tribe was to the north of the Platte, 
and the Otoes near its mouth, both bordering on the Missouri, 
with a strip of land between them still the cause of occasional 
disputes — the ridiculous warfare of poor remnants of once 
mightier tribes. When the territory of Louisiana was ac- 
quired in 1803, the tribe of Otoes was estimated to consist of 
about two hundred warriors, including twenty-five or thirty 
of the Missouris who had taken refuge with them about 1778. 
The Omahas in 1799 consisted of 500 warriors, but had been 
almost cut off by snmllpox before the acquisition of the Louis- 
iana territorv." When found bv the Mormons in 1810, the 



^ "Early History of lov/a" (Charles Negus), in Annals of Iowa. 1870-71, 
p. 568. See Stat. L. ix. 853. The treaty is abstracted in part II. 18th An- 
nual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, p. 778. The reservation of possession 
is not mentioned in the abstract of the cession. 

-Care must be taken that the Council Bluffs agency is not confounded 
with the present city of Council Bhrffs. The name Council Bluff or Coun- 
dil Bluffs was applied to various places along the Missouri river, in turn: 
first to the original Council Bluffs mentioned by Lewis and Clark, eigh- 
teen miles north of Omaha, and west of the Missouri, then to the agency 
at Bellevue, then to the subagency across the river from Bellevue and to 
the settlement at that point remaining after the removal of the Potta- 
wattomi Indians. January 19. 1853, the name of the town of Kanesville 
was changed to Council Bluffs, in conformity with a change of the name 
of the postoflice made some time previous thereto. By an act of the 
General Assembly of Iowa passed February 24, 1853, the town (now city) 
of Council. Bluffs was incorporated. The Fiontier Guardian, issue of Sep- 
tember 18, 1850, says, "The marshal has comp'eted the census of Kanes- 
ville, and Trading Point or Council Bluffs. The former contains 1,103, 
the latter 125." Hence as late as 1850 the names Kanesville and Council 
Bluffs were entirely distinct. 

='An account of Louisiana (being an al)Stract of documents in the 
offices of the Departments of State and of the Treasury). Reprinted in 
Old South Leaflets No. 105, p. 18. The description of the Indian tribes 
contained in this much-ridiculed account of the Louisiana Purchase trans- 
mitted by President Jefferson to Congress (see McMaster's "History of 
the People of the United States," vol. II, p. 631) was shown by later ex- 
plorations to be remarkably accurate, except that the relative distances 
are much exaggerated. 



MORMON SETTLEMENTS IN THE MISSOURI VALLEY. 9 

Otoes aiid Omalias were but shadows of their former selves, 
miserably poor aud wretehed, not dis^^osed to do evil unless 
forced by hunger and want to rob aud steal, presumptuous 
when treated with kindness and charity, but well behaved 
when visited with vigor and severity.^ The Omalias were 
particularly miserable. Unprotected from their old foes, the 
Sioux, 3'et forbidden to enter into a defensive alliance, they 
were reduced to a pitiable handful of scarcely more than a 
hundred families, the prey of disease, poverty stricken, too 
cowardl}'^ to venture from the shadow of their tepees to gather 
their scanty crojjs, unlucky in the hunt, slow to the chase, 
and too dispirited to be daring or successful tliieves. 

Further north, between the Niobrara or L'eau_-([ui-court 
and the Missouri rivers were five or six hundred almost 
equally abject Poncas. The Pawnees had their villages at 
the Loup Forks, and soutii of the Platte and west of the 
Otoes, and the country to their north was Act the scene of 
frequent couflicts between the Pawnees and tJieir hereditary 
enemies, the Sioux.^ 

All ^^•est of the river was "Indian country" — a part of the 
vast territory of Missouri renmining after the state of Mis- 
souri had been created out of it. A Avhite man entering it, 
unless specially licensed, became a trespasser. The country 
was unorganized, practically unexplored, and little else than 



^Frontier Guardian, issue of March 21, 1849. The Pottawattonii In- 
dians were expressly excepted from this description. The editor (Orson 
Hyde) advised returning roving Omahas and Otoes to St. Francis or 
Trading Point, or the use of the hiclvory. 

-Lewis and Clark, in 1804, located the Pawnees as follows: "Great 
Pawnee and Republican, consisting respectively of about 500 and 250 
men, on the south side of the Platte, opposite the mouth of the Loup; the 
Pawnee Loups or Wolf Pawnees, numbering 280 men, on the Wolf fork of 
the Platte and about 90 miles above the principal Pawnees; and a fourth 
band of 400 men on the Red River." See also map 41, 2d part, 18th An- 
nual Report, Bureau of Ethnology. "The Emigrants' Guide" (W. Clay- 
ton, 1848) places the old Pawnee mission station at Plum creek, Lat. 41° 
24' 29", and 9% miles east of the Loup Fork ford, Lat. 41'^ 22' 37". Long. 
98° 11', and locates the old Pawnee village formerly occupied by the 
Grand Pawnee and Tappas bands half a mile west of the Loup Fork. 
The village mentioned was burned by the Sioux in the fall of 1846. In 
the spring of 1847 the Pawnees were located on the Loup Fork, nearly 
thirty miles east of the old village, according to Clayton's Guide. 



10 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOUICAL SOCIETY. 

a uaiue to the world. Peter A. Sarpy liad a trading post or 
so in it; the Presbyterians had established a mission; and a 
few troops Avere stationed at Old Ft. Kearney. With these 
exceptions, the prairie sod of the Indian country was still 
unbroken by the i3low of the white settler.^ 

In 1830, some sixteen years before tlie time mentioned, a 
religious sect arose in New York, calling itself the Latter 
Day Saints, but commonly designated '^^Mormons."- As the 
result of great zeal and missionary enthusiasm its members 
increased rapidly. Vain attempts were nmde to secure a per- 
manent home, isolated from the rest of mankind, in Jackson, 
Clay, and Caldwell counties, Missouri. A'N'hen finally driven 
from Missouri, in 1840, they gathered on the left bank of the 
Mississippi at a place nearly opposite the mouth of the Des 
Moines river. Here at first they ^^'ere welcomed for their 
voting power, and easily obtained a charter for the town of 
Nauvoo, so favorable it practically made them an independ- 
ent state within a state. The surrouuiling inhabitants soon 
conduned to drive them out. Five years of constant riot cul- 
minated in the assassination of Joseph Smith, the founder of 
the religion, in the revocation of the charter of Nauvoo, and 
the complete overthrow of the Saints by superior, physical 
force. 

After the election of Brigham Young as president of the 
twelve apostles, the Mormons promised to leave Illinois "as 
soon as grass grew and water ran," in the spring of 1840, pro- 
vided meantime they were permitted to dispose of their prop- 
erty and make preparations for d(^parture, without further 
molestation. Septend)er 0, 1845, the Mormon authorities de- 
ternnned to send an advance party of 1,500 to the valley of 
the Great Salt Lake. In January, 1846, a council of the 
cliur<'h ordered this company to start at once, and announced 



'See p. 20, et seq., "William Walker and the Prcvisional Government 
of Nebraska Territory," by William E. Connelley, vol. Ill, second series, 
publications of Nebraska State Historical Society. 

'Authorities and references for the general outline of Mormon history 
are deemed unnecessary. The v;ord "Mormon" is used herein solely for 
convenience and for brevity. 



MORMON SETTLEMENTS IN THE MISSOURI VALLEY. 11 

iu a circular to the Saints tlirougbout the world their int(^n- 
tiou to secure a home be^oud the Rockies, thus providing a 
safe haven from the annoyances of their enemies. 

All through the Avinter of 1845-4(3 the Mormons exerted 
themselves to dispose of propert}' which could not be easily 
moved, and to secure proper equipment for the nmrch. 
Houses and farms and all immovable chattels were sacrificed 
on the best terms available, and the community for a hundred 
miles around was bartered out of wagons and cattle. 

From motives of prudence, the pioneers hastened their de- 
parture. The first detachment, 1,600 men, women, and chil- 
dren, including the high ofticials of the church, crossed the 
Mississippi earh- in February, and pushed forward on the 
march. The main body of 31ormons began crossing the day 
after, and followed the pioneers in large bodies, and at fre- 
quent intervals, though some little distance behind the first 
party. By the middle of May or first of June probably 16,000 
persons with 2,000 wagons had been ferried across the Mis- 
sissippi, and were on their way to the West. Thus commenced 
an exodus unparalleled in modern times. In point of num- 
bers of emigrants, in length of travel, in hardships endured, 
and in lofty religious motives compelling such a host to jour- 
ney so great a distance, through obstacles almost beyond hu- 
man belief, there is nothing in recent history with whicli the 
march of the Mormons may be compared. 

The sufferings of the pioneers (though the hardiest of the 
whole Mormon host) and of the earlier bands following al- 
most baffle description. Hastily and inadequately equipped, 
without sufiicient shelter or fuel, weakened by disease, short 
of food for both man and beast, exposed to every blast of an 
unusually severe Avinter, they plodded westward and wislu^l 
for spring. Spring came, and found them destitute, and not 
half way to the Missouri. The excessive snows of the winter 
and the heavy spring rains turned the rich prairie soil of 
Iowa into pasty mud, and raised the streams so that in many 
instances the emigrants had to wait patiently for the waters 
to go down. 



12 NEBRASKA STATE HrSTORlCAL SOCIETY. 

The pioneers laid out a road, aud established huge farms 
in the lands of the Sacs and Foxes. Two of these settlements 
or farms were known as Garden Grove and ]Mt. Pisgah. They 
included upwards of two miles of fenced land, well tilled, 
Avith comfortable log buildings, and were intended as perum- 
nent camps for those to follow, and where x>rovisions could 
be accumulated for the coming winter. In addition to these, 
camx^s of more or less permanence were established at inter- 
vals along the trail from the jMississij)pi to the Missouri, 
at Sugar Creek, Tlichardson I*oint, on the Chariton, Lost 
Camp, Locust Creek, Sayent's Grove, and Campbell's Grove, 
and at Indian Town, the "Little Miami" village of the 
Pottawattomies.^ 

Many did not reach the jMissouri in ISIG, Some returned 
to eastern states. Twelve thousand remained at Garden 
Grove and Mt. Pisgah and in settlements westward to the 
Missouri, because of a lack of wagons to trau sport tliem fur- 
ther west, and for the purpose of cultivating the huge farms 
intended to provision the camps the following winter. Presi- 
dent Young and the vanguard reached the jNIissouri June 14, 
1816, near the present city of Council Bluffs, and then moved 
back into the hills while a ferry boat was ))eing built. The 
boat was launched the 20tli, and the next day the pioneers 
began pushing across the river. The next few weeks the com- 
panies of emigrants as they arrived temporarily camped on 
the bluffs and bottoms of the Missouri, at ^lynster Springs, 
at Eushville, at Council Point, and Traders Point. The pio- 
neers at the same time advanced into the Indian countrv, 
building bridges over the Papillion and Elkhorn and con- 
structing roads. In July it was resolved to establish a fort 
on Grand island, but the ])i(meers di<l not reach that far west 



'Garden Grove is in the northeast part of Decatur county; Mt Pisgah 
at the middle fork of the Grand river, in the eastern part of Union county 
Lost Camp about six miles south of Osceola; Sayent's Grove in Adair 
county; and Campbell's Grove in Cass county— all in Iowa Indian Town 
has already been located. See "Early History of Iowa" (Charles Ne-us) 
in "Annals of Iowa," 1870-71, p. 568; and the First General Epi-tle of'' the 
^^'l'^'\ ^I^"«hville was on the east side of Keg creek, about four miles 
north of the south boundary Ime of Mills county. 



MORMON SETTLEMENTS IN THE MISSOURI VALLEY. 13 

that year. Some reached the Pawnee villages, and then find- 
ing the season too far advanced to continue westward, turned 
north and wintered on the banks of the ]Missouri at the mouth 
of the Niobrara, among the Poncas.^ 

The Pottawattomies and Omahas received the refugees 
kindlv. A solemn council was held bv the Pottawattomies in 
the yard of one of Peter A. Sarpy's trading houses, and the 
assembled chiefs welcomed the wanderers in aboriginal man- 
ner. Pied Iviche, surnamed Le Clerc, the scholar, addressed 
them : 

"The Pottawattomi came sad and tired into this inhos- 
pitable Missouri bottom, not many years back, when he was 
taken from his beautiful country beyond the Mississippi, 
which had abundant game and timber and clear water every- 
where. Now vou are driven awav from vour lodges and lands 
there and the graves of 3'our people. AVe must help one an- 
other, and the Great Spirit will help ns both. You are now 
free to cut and use all the wood vou mar wish. You can make 
all your improvements, and live on any part of our land not 
actually occupied by us. Because one suffers and does not 
deserve it is no reason he shall al\\'ays suffer, T say. We may 
live to see all right yet. However, if we do not, our children 
will. Bon jour." 

"The Pottawattomi came sad and tired into this iuhos- 
lands to the United States, reserving to themselves tempo- 
raiw right of occupation, and now drew and signed articles 
of convention with the Mormons, with becoming dignity. 

A large number of emigrants remained among the Polta- 
wattomies during the winter of 1840-47, living in shacks of 
Cottonwood, in caves in the bluffs, in log cabins in the groves 
and glens — wherever there was shelter, fuel, and water. The 
greater number of ^Mormons, however, crossed into the Indian 
country at the ferry established opiwsite the present site of 
Florence or at Sarpy's ferry beloAV, making their first large 



'The camp on the Niobrara returned to the settlements on the Mis- 
souri, in the spring of 1847. for provisions. See First General Epistle of 
the Church. 



14 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

camp at Cutler Park, a few miles northwest of the ferry, 
where they built a mill. 

Here the chiefs of the Omaha tribe held a grand council 
with the Mormon leaders, and Big Elk, the .principal chief 
of the tribe, gave permission to remain two years, invited re- 
ciprocal trade, and promised Avarning of danger from other 
Indians.^ 

The Mexican War was now in progress. About the time 
the exodus began, the Mormons applied to Washington for 
some form of work to assist them in getting further west. 
Their tender of military services was accepted, and under 
orders from General Kearney, Capt. James Allen raised a 
battalion of five companies in the Missouri camps in two 
weeks, himself assuming command. After a farewell ball, 
the recruits marched away, accompanied as far as Ft. Leaven- 
worth by eighty women and children. There a bounty of 140 
was given each man, most of whicli was taken back to the 
.families left behind at tlie Missouri river camps. While the 
enlistment of 500 able-bodied men left few but the sick in the 
camps, the bounty received was considerable and greatly 
needed, and the formation of the battalion induced Captain 
Allen to promise, for the government, to allow the Mormons 
to pass tlirough the Pottawattomi and Omaha lands, and to 
remain there while necessary. Subsequent letters from Wash- 
ington showed the Mormons ^seve expected to leave the In- 
dian lands in the spring of 1847. 

Some 050 Saints had been left in Nauvoo after the emigra- 
tion ceased in June, the remnant consisting of the sick, the 
poor, and those unable to sell their property. The gentile 
wliigs renewed the old quarrel, fearing the vote of the Mor- 
mon element would control the August congressional elec- 
tion. Tlie Saints finally agreed not to attempt to vote, but 
in fact, says Governor Ford,^ all voted tlie democratic ticket, 
being in<luced by the considerations of the President allow- 



'The speech is set out in full in Sorenson's "History of Omaha," p. 24. 
^"History of Illinois" (Ford), pp. 413-14. 



MORMON SETTLEMENTS IN THE MISSOURI VALLEY. 15 

ing their settlement on the Indian reservations on the Mis- 
souri, and the enlistment of the Mormon battalion. Nauvoo 
fell, and the last of the. Mormons fled from the eitj in fear 
and extreme distress. 

By the close of the summer of 1846 some 12,000 or 13,000 
Mormons were encamped in the Missouri valley, at Eush- 
ville. Council Point, Traders Point, Mynster Springs, Indian 
Town, in the groves along the creeks, and in the glens in the 
hills and on the west side of the INIissouri river, at Cutler 
Park, on the Elkhorn and Papillion crossings, and as far as 
the Pawnee villages. 

During the summer and autumn of 1846, particularly in 
August and September, the various camps were seized witli a 
plague of scrofulous nature, which the ^lormons called the 
black canker. The Indians had lost one-ninth of tlieir num- 
ber from this strange disease the year before, and the mor- 
tality was fully as great among both Mormons and Indians 
in 1846. In one camp 37 per cent were down with the fever. 
The pestilence was attributed to the rank vegetation and de- 
caving organic matter on the bottoms of the Missouri and 
its sluggish tributaries, to the foul slime left by the rapid 
subsidence of a flood, and to the turning of the virgin soil by 
the settlers. There Avere often not enough well persons to at- 
tend to the sick or bury the dead. Six hundred deaths oc- 
curred on the site of the present town of Florence. Hundreds 
were buried on the slopes of the Iowa bluffs.^ The phigue 
raged each successive year for several years, and from 1848 
to 1851 hundreds of Mormons died of it on the Iowa side of 
the river. 

During the autumn months preparations were made to 
winter on the site of the present town of Florence until the 
spring of 1847. They enclosed several miles of land, and 
planted all obtainable seed and erected farm cabins and cat- 
tle shelters. Thev built a town on a plateau overlooking the 



'Kane's lecture, "The Mormons," p. 51, reprinted in Frontier Guardian, 
September 4, 1850; also numerous conversations of the writer with 
pioneers. 



16 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY.' 

river, their ''Winter Quarters," and 3,500 Saints lived tliere 
during tlie liard winter of 1846-47. 

''Winter Quarters" was a town of musliroom growth, con- 
sisting, in December, 1846, of 538 log houses and 83 sod 
houses, laid out in symmetrical blocks, separated by regular 
streets. The numerous and skilful craftsinen of the emigrants 
had worked all the summer and fall under the incessant and 
energetic direction of Brigham Young. The houses they built 
afforded shelter and were comfortable, but were not calcu- 
lated to stand the first sudden thaw or drenching rain. 

"The buildings were generally of logs," says the manuscript 
history of Young, ''from twelve to eighteen feet long; a few 
were split and made from linn and cotton wood timber; many 
roofs were made by splitting oak timber iuto boards, called 
sliakes, about three feet long and six inches wide, and kept 
in place by weights and poles ; others were made of willows, 
straw and earth, about a foot thick; some of puncheon. jMany 
cabins had no floors; there were a few dugouts on tlu; side 
hills — the fireplace was cut out at the upper end. The ridge 
pole was supported by two uprights in the center and roofed 
with straw and earth, with chimneys of prairie sod. The 
doors were made of shakes, with Avooden hinges and a string 
latch; the inside of the log houses was daubed with clay; a 
few had stoves." , 

In October, the camp at Cutler Park was moved to Winter 
(iuarters.i Schools Avere instituted, churches established, and 
the Avhole ecclesiastical and civic mechanism so rudely shat- 
tered at Nauvoo was once more running as smoothly and 
powerfully as ever. Eight thousand dollars was spent for 
machinery and stones for the Avater flouring mill Young Avas 
constructing. Several loads of avUIoav baskets Avere made by 
tlie Avomen. The Avinter Avas passed in endeavoring to keep 
alive and in preparation for resuming the march in the spring 
by those Avho Avere strong and had provisions for a vear and a 



wu>. A n ^^'^n °'' *^^ "J;?,^' ^'^-^ °^ ^^^ Missouri, is rot to be confused 
with Cutlers Camp, on Silver creek, in Iowa. Compare John D. Loe's 

oflo^rTm ^- ^^'^' ''"^ '^"^''^'' "1-^^tra ed Historical Atlas 



MORMON SETTLEMENTS IN THE :\I1SS0URI VALLEY. 17 

half, others made ready to plaut aud leather the crops of 
the coming- summer. {Several thousand cattle were driven 
across the Missouri and up into Harrison and Monona coun- 
ties, in Iowa, to winter on the '"rush bottoms," where a now 
extinct species of rush formerh^ grew in r)rofusion, and re- 
mained green all winter, thougli covered by snow and ice. 

Polygamy was practiced to a limited extent. Young, for 
instance, confesses to meeting, one afternoon, sixty-six of his 
family, including his adopted children. 

In the octagon council house, "resembling a New England 
potato heap in time of frost," and which called for a load of 
fuel a day, the scheme of organization and exploration was 
perfected, and Young published most minute directions as 
to the manner of march, pursuant to a revelation made Janu- 
ary 14, 1847. In response to a call for volunteers, what was 
called "the pioneer company" moved out from Winter Quar- 
ters to the rendezvous on the Elkliorn, April 14, 1847, and or- 
ganized the IGth, with Brigham Young lieutenant general. 
The pioneer compau}- numbered 143 men and three women. 
Seventy-three wagons Avere taken, loaded with i^rovisions and 
farm machinery. About this time the camp on the Niobrara 
returned to the Missouri river settlements. 

The pioneers followed the north side of the Platte to Ft. 
Laramie, crossing the Loup, April 24, in a leather boat, the 
Eevenue Cutter, made for this purpose. They reached the 
Ancient Bluff ruins May 22 and Ft. Laramie June 1, halting 
while the animals rested and ferryboats were built. Captain 
Grover was left behind to ferry other companies arriving 
from Winter Quarters, but his services were not needed. 
After the pioneers had crossed to the south bank of the North 
Platte, they recrossed 124 miles further on, and subsequent 
emigration seems to have kept to the north bank of the river.^ 



^"The Latter Day Saints' Emigrants' Guide," by W. Clayton, originally 
published in 1848. and reprinted in the Salt Lake Herald, April 25. 1897, 
traces the customary route of the Mormon emigrants so that it is com- 
paratively easy to retrace their road. Some suspicion may be east on the 
accuracy of the latitude and longitude given in the Guide, by the fact that 
the first figures Clayton gave, the latitude of Winter Quarters, were 
erroneous. 



18 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The pioneers traveled more than a thousand miles, and hiid 
out roads suitable for artillery. The valley of the Great Salt 
Lake was reached the 23d and 24th oC July, and the city of 
Salt Lake was laid out in a month, lirigham Young and 107 
persons started back to Winter Quarters August 26, a small 
party having preceded them eastAvard. October 31 the pio- 
neers arrived at the Missouri. 

After the pioneers left Winter Quarters in April all others 
who were able to go organized another company, known as 
the First Immigration, with Parley P. Pratt and John Tay- 
lor in command. The First Immigration consisted of 1,553 
persons in about 5H0 wagons, a\ ith cattle, horses, swine, and 
poultiy. It reached the Salt Lake valley in defachments in 
the autumn of 1817. 

This and the strong expeditions later on Avere divided into 
comj)anies of 100, subdivided into companies of lifty and 
squads of ten, each under a captain, and all under a member 
of the High Council of the church. Yidettes selected the next 
day's camp and acted as skirmishei-s. Wherever possible the 
wagons traveled in a double column. Upon halting they were 
arranged in the form of two convex arcs, with openings at the 
points of intersection, the tongues of the wagons outward, 
one front wheel lapping the hind wheel of the wagon in front. 
The cattle corralled inside were watched by guards stationed 
at the openings at the ends and were safe from stampede or 
depredations. The tents were pitched outside. When prac- 
ticable, the Mormons arranged the wagons in a single curve, 
. with the river forming a natural defense on one side.^ 

Their wagons were widened to six feet by extensions on the 
sides. Each Avas loaded to the canvas with farm implements, 
grains, machinery of all sorts, and a coop of chickens lashed 
on behind.^ All the wagons were not of this size or descrip- 
tion. They ranged from the heavy prairie schooner drawn by 



>See "History of Utah,*' H H. Bancroft, p. 207, for the revelation to 
Brigham Young as to the method of travel. 

= Popular tradition malves the Mormons' chickens responsible for scat- 
tering the sunflower seed which have grov/n intp the prairie nuisance. 



1 



MORMON SETTLEMENTS IN THE MISSOURI VALLEY. 19 

six or eight oxen to the crazy veliiele described by Colonel 
Kane as loaded with a bab}' and drawn by a dry, dogged little 
heifer. Each man marched with a loaded, but uncapped mus- 
bet, and so perfect was their discipline and organization that 
frequently hostile Indians passed small bodies of Mormons 
to attack much stronger bands of other immigrants. 

During the j-ear 1847 the Indians on the A\'est side of the 
river complained that the Mormons were killing too much 
game and cutting too much timber, and the Saints were there- 
upon ordered to leave.^ They obtained permission to occupy 
the Pottawattomi lands for five 3'ears, and accordingly the 
main bodv moved to the east side of the Missouri. Their 
Bishop JNIiller had settled a little earlier, in the valley of 
Indian creek, in the center of the old part of the present city 
of Council Bluffs. After the complaint had been made by 
the Indians the great part of the jMormons settled around the 
old government blockhouse thcn'e. "Miller's Hollow'' be- 
came "Kanesville'' in honor of the gentile friend of the Mor- 
mons, Col. Thomas L. Kane, who Avas a brother of Elislia 
Kent Kane, the explorer.- The hea«lquartei's of the church 
were transferred to a Inige log tabc^i'uacle on the Ihits."' A 
postoftice was established that year in Kauesville, but mails 
were received very irregularly until the great influx of gen- 
tile immigration in 1852-53. Orson Hyde, the apostle and 
lawyer, became editor as Avell, and publislied the Frontier 
Guardian for three 3^ears, commencing in February, 1849. 



Prof. Charles E. Bessey explodes this idea as non-botanical in a letter 
published in the Lincoln Conner, Novemher 8, 1898. Positive testimony 
is existent that the sunflowers dotted the plains in 1832 (testimony of 
Benjamin Gilmore), fifteen years before the first Mormon emigration. 
Sunflowers, of course, marked the trails, as they sprang up in profusion 
where the soil was broken. 

'Not based on documentary authority quoting original sources, but 
amply verified by conversations with pioneers. The Mormon Church 
History claims that an outfitting station east of the Missouri was de- 
sired, hence the move. 

'Biography of Elisha Kent Kane (William Elder), p. 313. 
'^Frontier Guardiati, May 30, 1849. 



20 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The population of Pottawattamie county at tliat time Avas 
about 4,000, mainly of the Mormon faith.^ 

The crops in 1847 Avere bountiful, and a series of strong 
emigrant trains was organized at the Elkhorn rendezvous. 
The Quorum of the presidency of the church left for Salt 
Lake early in the summer at the head of strong bands ; Brig- 
ham Young in May, with 397 wagons and 1,229 i^ersons, 
Heber C. Kimball in July with 220 wagons and 002 persons, 
and Willard Richards soon after with 109 wagons and 520 
persons, 2,417 emigrants in all, with 892 wagons. Richard's 
departure left AVinter Quarters quite deserted.^ 

These comx^anies took Avhat was called the North Platte 
route, ferrying the Elkhorn (wliose bridge had disappeared) 
and Loup, and keeping on the north bank of the PJatte the 
whole distance to the Sweetwater. All the later Mormon 
trains were governed by the same strict discipline as the pio- 
neers and first omigration, and their travels present no fea- 
tures of special interest. 

The Salt Lake emigration continued with diminishing 
volume from 1848 to 1852, until scarcely distinguishable from 
the general rush to the AYest following the discovery of gold.'' 
The perpetual emigration fund was established in 1849, and 
the attention of the church was turned to gathering its com- 
municants from Great lUitain in Salt Lake valley. The emi- 
gration was to New Orleans and St. Louis by steamboat, and 



'Memorial of Judge James Sloan to Iowa Senate, December 19, 1848, 
quoted in Frontier Guardian, April 4, 1849. 

"^Frontier Guardian, May 30, 1849, quoMng First General Epistle of the 
presidency of the church from the Great Salt Lake valley. The Otoes 
and Omahas fired on Kimball's band at the Elkhorn, wounding three. 

'During the years 1849 and 1850 more than a hundred thousand emi- 
grants passed through the trans-Missouri counti-y on their way to Call- 
lornia, Utah, Oregon, and New Mexico. (Letter of Abelard Guthrie, pro- 
visional delegate to Congress from Nebraska Territory, to Chairman 
Committee on Elections, U. S. House of Representatives, July 20, 1861. 
See vol. Ill, 2d series, Nebraska State Historical Society Publications, p! 
75. In the spring of 1850, before June 3, there passed Ft. Laramie, bound 
westward, 11,433 men, 119 women, 99 children; 3,188 wagons,' 10,900 
horses, 3,588 mules, 3,428 oxen, 233 cows. It was estimated that by July 
7 of the same year 40,000 persons and 10,000 wagons passed Ft. Laramie, 
westward. {Frontier Guardian, July 10, 1850.) 



MORMON SETTLEMENTS IN THE MISSOURI VALLEY. 21 

then by boat to ludexjeudence, St. Joseph, Kauesville, or 
ueigliboring Missouri river settlements. 

The Iiidependeiiee and St. Joseph trails soon merged in the 
well-known government and stage road of later years to Ft. 
Kearne3^ Bethlehem, opposite the mouth of the Platte, was 
a favorite crossing place for those landing at Council Point, 
near Kanesville, but preferring the South Platte route. Many 
started from Nebraska Citv, or Old Ft. Kearnev, and after 
1856 from AYvoming, in Otoe conntv.^ The South Platte 
route followed the southerly bank of the Platte until it joined 
the Ft. Kearney road. 

The trail officially recognized and directed was along the 
north bank of the Platte, leaving Kam^sville by way of Cres- 
cent, making a rendezvous at Boyer Lake or Ferryville, cross- 
ing to the abandoned Winter (Quarters, then to the Elkhorn 
rendezvous, with ferries over the Elkhorn and Loup. All the 
sunflower trails converged into one at Ft. Laramie. The 
North Platte route was deemed the healthier, and was thus 
constantlv urged and recommended bv the church authorities 
at Kanesville. Orson Hvde counted 500 graves along the 
trail south of the Platte, and Init three graves north of the 
Platte river from the Missouri to Ft. Laramie.- 

Many Mormons did not start immediately for Salt I^ake, 
and several thousand ^\]\o were disaffected or impoverished 
never left the valley of the Missouri. These scattered over 
southwestern Iowa. A year after the last company left Win- 
ter Quarters, the church had tliirty-eight branches in Potta- 
wattamie and .Mills counties.-' The census from 1840 to 185:^ 
gives Pottawattamie count}' a population varying from 5,758 
to 7,828, reaching the maximum in 1850, and showing a loss 
of 2,500 from 1852 to 1854, tlie years of final ^Mormon exodus. 
Every governmental function was controll('<l by the Mor- 
mons up to 1853. They electcnl Mormon representatives to 



'Letter of the late J. Sterling Morton to the writer, December 17. 1S98. 
^Frontier Guardian, December 11, 1850. 
^Frontier Guardian, May 2, 1849. 



22 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the state general assembly, and Morinou juries sat iu the 
courts of Mormon judges. 

Kanesville, of course, was the principal settlement. As 
might be expected of a frontier outfitting camp, its popula- 
tion was very unstable. In S(^ptember, 1850, it contained 
1,100 inhabitants; in November, 1851, it was 2,500-3,000; 
and the census of 1852 showed 5,057. At first it hardly at- 
tained the dignity of a village. Its inhabitants regarded it 
as a temporaiy resting place and all looked forward to an 
early departure therefrom; the buildings they erected were 
makeshifts, and their home-nmde furniture was rude and not 
intended for permanent use. With the rush of the gold-seek- 
ers following 1819, the resting place of the well-behaved 
Saints gradually change<l to a roistering mining camp, too 
lively and wicked for the Mormons, who, by the way, were 
the original prohibitionists of Iowa. Little attention was 
l)aid to life or property in tlu^ crush and confusion of outfit- 
ting from the first of March to the first of Julv, while the 
westward emigration was at its height. After June the pop- 
ulation dwindled to scarcely 500, and the village again Ije- 
canie sedate.^ 

There were only two or three other settlements of any size. 
Council Point, three or four miles south of Kanesville, was a 
favorit(^ steand)oat landing.- Traders or Trading Point, or 
St. Francis, three or four miles below Council Point, o])posite 
liellevue, was made a postoffice in the summer of 1810, under 
the name Nebraska."' A year later this ])ostoffice was given 
the vagrant name Council Plutfs, and was credited with a. 
population of 125.' 



^Frontier Guardian, September 18, 1850; testimony of G. G. Rice, re- 
ported in "History of Pottawattamie County," Iowa, by D. C. Bloomer, in 
"Annals of Iowa," 1870-71, pp. 528-29. 

'^Frontier Guardian, March 7, 1849. 

^Frontier Guardian, July 11, 1849. .loseph Pendleton was postmaster. 
Traders Point was the "Pull Point" or Point aux Poules mentioned in 
Kane's lecture. (Testimony of .Judge W. C. James.) 

'^Frontier Guardian, J\ily 10, 1850, and September IS, 1850, the editor, 
in the former number, warning his readers to leave "Council Bluffs" off 
evei'ything designed for Kanesville, 



MOKMON SETTLEMEMTS IN THE MI8!S0UKI VALLEY. 23 

Califoruia City Avas directly opposite the mouth of the 
Platte, and a little south was Betldehem f(.Try. Carterville 
was three miles southeast of Kauesville, a tliriving village of 
some hundreds. Indiantown, at the crossing of the Nish- 
uabotna, on the Mt. Pisgah road, west of tlie present Lewis, 
in Cass county, was the center of quite a large trade. Coon- 
ville became Glenwood.^ 

We have the names of some forty or fifty otlier settlements 
in southwestern Iowa. Little of these remains, liowcvcr, but 
tluur name and memorj' and a half-rotted squared log occa- 
sionally i>lowe<l up. Strictly, they were not villages or even 
handets, merely the collection within easy distance of a liand- 
ful of farm houses in a grove on a creek, with a school or 
church and perhaps a mill or trader's stock. They resembled 
rather the ideal farm communities or settlements of some 
modern sociol(>gists.- 

The greater part of the Saints who acknowledged the lead- 
ership of Brigham Young left hma in 1S52, and with the leg- 
islative change of the name of Kanesville to Council Blutfs 



'Plats of Kanesville, Bethlehem, Coonville, and California City are 
found in Record A, pp. 32, 7, 5, and 3 respectively, in the office of the 
recorder of deeds of Pottawattamie county, Iowa. The Frontier Guardian, 
February 6, 1850, reports a postoffice established at Indian Town, forty- 
five miles east of Kanesville. 

-Among the otlier Iowa settlements whose names still remain were: 
Allred's Camp, Americus, Austin (Fremont county), Barney's Grove, Ben- 
son's Settlement, Big Grove (now Oakland), Big Pigeon (Boomer town- 
ship), Blair, Boyer Lake Rendezvous. Brownings, Bullocks Grove, Car- 
bonca, Cooleys Mill, Coolidges Mill, Crescent City (still existing by that 
name), Davis Camp, Dawsonburg (Fremont county), Ferryville (opposite 
Winter Quarters), Galland's Grove (Harrison or Shelby county), Harris 
Grove, Highland Grove (northwest of Nicola), Honey Creek (still existing 
by that name), Hyde Park, Indian Mill (also known as Wicks Mill, and 
later as Parks Mill, on Mosquito creek), Keg Creek, Keg Creek Mills (at 
present Glenwood), Little Pigeon. Lynn Grove (east of Avoca on one 
branch of Nishna off the trail), Macedonia (still existing by that name). 
McKissick's Grove (Fremont county), McOlneys, North Pigeon. Nishna- 
botna (synonymous with Macedonia), Old Agency, Perkins Camp (near 
Council Bluffs), Pleasant C4rove, Plum Hollow (Fremont county) Kocky- 
ford or Rockford, Rushville, Sidney (Fremont county, still existing by 
that name). Silver City (Mills county, still existing by that name). Silver 
Creek, Springville, Striugtown (inside present limits of Council Bluffs on 
south bottoms). Union or Unionville, Voorhis' Spring (3i^ miles north of 
present city of Council Bluffs). Wheeler's Grove (Hanson county). Willow. 
Many of these settlements can not be located definitely at this time. The 
Mormons had little to do with some named, but branches of the church 
were reported at all the above settlements at an early date. 



24 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

City, iu Jauiiary, 1853, the history of the early IMoriiioii set- 
tlemeiits iu the Missouri valley may be cousidered closed. 
March IC, 1854, the Oiuahas ceded their land west of the Mis- 
souri to the general government.^ The organization of Ne- 
braska territory soon after opened the lauds around the Mor- 
mon ^Vinter Quarters for settlement. A. J. Mitchell and 
A. J. Smith had been left in charge of the Mormons east of 
the river, but in the summer of 1854 thev sold their interests 
in Council Bluffs to the gentiles, moved to the west of the 
river, and changed the name of Winter Quarters to Florence. 
But the rush of gentile settlers following the opening of the 
territory was so great that the JNEormon settlements were not 
distinctive. 

Council Bluffs remained an outfitting station for Mormon 
as well as other immigration for years, but there was little to 
distinguish Salt Lake travelers from any others preparing to 
cross the Rockies. Such iiumigration continued in consid- 
erable numbers until the Civil AN'ar, as witness the ill-fated 
hand-cart and wheelbarrow expedition of 185^. A colony of 
schisnmtics, under the leadership of Charles B. Thompsiui, 
founded a town called Preparation in the Soldier river valley, 
about fifteen miles from the present site of Onawa, Monona 
county, Iowa.- The colony finally disbanded and its property 
was divided by the courts. But passiug mention is made of 
the later settlements of the reorganized branch of the Mor- 
mon church, centering around Lamoni, Iowa. They belong 
to the present, and not to the historv of the earlv JNformou 
settlements in the Missouri vallev. 

A colony of a hundred families from St. Louis, under the 
direction of H. J. Hudson, formed three couimunistic settle- 
ments at Genoa in 1857, called Alton, Florence, and St. Louis, 
after unsuccessfully attempting to settle in Platte county. 
These colonists constructed dugouts and cabins in the fall. 



^Stat. L. X, 1043. See part II, ]8th Annual Report, Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology, p. 790. 

= Omaha Dai/y Bee, January 30, 1899, 



RAILROAD MIGRATION INTO NORTHERN NEBRASKA. 25 

and the followiug spring surveyed the lands on which they 
were located and partitioned to each man his share. They 
enclosed 2,000 acres with fences and ditches, and turned the 
sod of two square miles of prairie. The Genoa postoffice was 
established, with Mr. Hudson, later of Columbus, as ])ost- 
master. 

The first 3'ears of their occupancy were marked by great 
privations, graduall}^ changing, liowever, to comfort and pros- 
perity. After seven years' undisturbed occupancy by the 
colonists the Pawnees arrived and claimed possession of their 
new reservation on the same ground. Tlie colonists resisted 
their claims for three years; but being worn and weary of 
strife and in constant danger from the continually conflict- 
ing Sioux and Pawnees, they abandoned further effort in 
1863 and dispersed, some to Salt Lake and others to Iowa 
and some to Platte countv, Nebraska. 

Quite a settlement, or relay station, was made at Wood 
river, in Buffalo county, in 1858 by Joseph E. Johnson, who 
pul)lished u, paper, the Huntsman's Echo, for two years, and 
grcAV "the largest and finest flower garden" then west of the 
IMississippi. The settlement Avas broken up in 1803 by the 
removal of Johnson and his companions to Salt Lake va]h\y.^ 



THE GREAT RAILROAD MIGRATION INTO 
NORTHERN NEBRASKA. 

Address of J. R. Buchanan,- Delivered r.KFoiti; 'I'iik An- 
nual Meeting of the Nebraska State IIiSTORiCAii 
Society, at Lincoln, January 14, 1902. 

The railroads and tlie Bible are the two most potent agen- 
cies of modern times whicli Imvc oi»('r:it('d in <hc western 
countrv. 



'See Andreas, "History of Nebraska," under the various counties. 
-John Ross Buchanan was born in Beaver Town, Pennsylvania, April, 
1838. He removed to Guernsey county. Ohio, in 1847, where he attended 



26 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The railroad makes a new or imoceupied country access- 
ible, and creates or establishes markets in convenient 
localities. 

The Bible with its devotees folloAVS, giving a moral tone to 
the locality, Avhich means safety, law, and tranquillity. 

Only the sturdy, hardy, and industrious should — but, un- 
fortunately, many others do — go to the new country. Usu- 
ally, however, the percentage of the better class which occu- 
pies a new section is sufficiently large to impress its virtues 
on such country in time of need. Education follows as a 
correlative necessity — a prerequisite -to good citizenship. 

A generous and responsive soil and a good climate consti- 
tute the reasons for populating a new country and determine 
its destiny. 

With the earliest settlements in north Nebraska I am not 
personally familiar. I am in a general way informed that 
the original wagon trails to the mountains, the Salt Lake 
Basin, and the Pacific Coast from Omaha, Council Bluffs, or 
Florence, Avere through Douglas and the A^estern part of 
Washington county into Dodge, striking the Platte river at 
the present site of Fremont, or perhaps for a portion of the 
year avoiding the lower land, touching at Fontenelle, a small 
settlement from Quincy, Illinois, and thence to the Platte 
river, but later centering at Fremont, which became a promi- 
nent frontier trading point. Settlement took root in that 
vicinity, and as the danger from Indians receded, spread up 
the Elkhorn valley sparsely, the impression generally pre- 
vailing that, as all territory west of the Missouri river had 
been known as a desert, it was necessary to keep in the val- 



school and read law. In 1861 he entered the service of the Chicago, Iowa 
& Nebraska, R. R., afterwards the Chicago & North .vestern Ry. In 186:i 
he entered the Civil War service on the subsistence staff. In 1863 he re- 
turned to the service of the Chicago & Northwestern Ry., and in 1871 
was appointed general freight agent of the Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska 
R. R. He practiced law and served in various railroad capacities until 
1881, when he entered upon his important career as general passenger 
agent of the Sioux City & Pacific and Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Val- 
ley Railroads, where he served until 1008, when he resigned and returned 
to Waukesha, Wisconsin, where he is engaged in the practice of law. 



RAILROAD MIGRATION INTO NORTHERN NEBRASKA. 27 

leys or near the \v atercoiirses. The settleiiieuls were very 
slow aud scattering. Attention was niainlj^ directed to the 
conntry along and south of the Platte, afterwards pierced by 
the Union Pacific E. 11., prospects for l)uilding which widely 
advertised that section, and later b}' the Puriington & Mis- 
souri River E. E. 

January 20, 18G1), tlie Fremont, Elkhorn .S: Missouri ^'al]ey 
E. E. was organized, and commenced building up the Elkliorn 
vallev. I am assured bv Judge E. K. A^alentine, of West 
Point, that he moved the United States land office from 
Omaha to West Point in ^lay, 1809. Tliere were then only 
twelve houses in West Point, mainly a little colony of Ger- 
mans from Watertown, /Wisconsin, conspicuous amongst 
whom was the father and family of our present state treas- 
urer, William Stueffer. 

The Elkhorn railroad built in 1809 from Fremont to Maple 
Creek, ten miles, and rested the winter. In 1870 it was built 
from Maple Creek to West Point, twenty-five miles, arriving 
there on Thanksgiving Day. Small settlements had scattered 
along up the valley as far as "French Creek," now the rail- 
road station of Clearwater. Perhaps as conspicuous a settle- 
ment as any w^as a small colony of thirty-seven families of 
German Lutherans, also from Watertown, Wisconsin, who 
sought a new country where, with tlieir very limited means, 
all could locate together and support jointly a church of their 
faith. They were piloted to the present site of Norfolk in 
1800 by Mr. Stueffer, their former townsman in AYisconsin, 
who had preceded them, locating at AVest Point. One of their 
number, Mr. Herman Praasch, in 1870, platted the original 
town of Norfolk. Nearly all of that colony, with a numerous 
growth of children and grandchildren, are still li\ ing there. 
A notable fact is cited by one of the descendants, to the effect 
that the children and grandchildren of these pioneers, that 
were bred in Nebraska, are all taller, larger of frame, and 
usuallv more robust than their ancestors, and they attribute 
this to the healthful, invigorating climate. 



I 



28 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

As the railroad opeiied inarlvets aud extended its Hue, set- 
tlemeuts became more numerous. 

In 1871 the railroad was extended to Wisuer, ^\here it 
rested until 1879. 

In 1873 a small colouy from Beloit, AA^iseousiu, headed by 
one John T, Prouty, settled a little east of the present site of 
O'Neill, but later scattered or was replaced by Gen. John 
O'Neill, who, with eighteen Irishmen — mostly Fenians who 
had accompanied him in his raid in Canada on the 31st of 
May, 18GG, and known as O'Neill's Irish Brigade — took up 
land and settled in Holt county. 

A party, with Avliom was Mr. Jonas Gise, a civil engineer 
and member of the city council of Omaha, made a trip in 
1873 north to the O'Neill settlement, also from Norfolk to 
Niobrara. They reported that from about four miles north 
of Norfolk there was not a sign of habitation on the way to 
Niobrara until they reached some ranches on the Niobrara 
river. Whenever the}' found habitations, they were of the 
order known as "dug-outs" or "sod houses" or occasionally 
a cabin of cottonwood logs. There was verv little stock of 
any kind, and the most primitive kind of living possible. The 
streams were unl)ridged and the roads were "across the 
prairies." 

Here are two incidents which ought to pass into history. 
In 1869 Judge Valentine was judge of the district court. He 
was driving up the Elkhorn valley near what is now Pilger, 
when he noticed a woman some distance from the road whose 
strange actions decided him to go to her. He found a comely 
looking young woman with her hands tied behind her back, 
and a rope securely fastened around her waist, and tied to a 
stake driven into the ground. Near by were a shanty and 
two stacks of grain. She was entirely alone. After he had 
cut the ropes, the woman, who was a German, told him, as 
well as she could in broken English, that her husband had 
engaged the threshers for three successive days previous, and 
she had cooked and prepared for them the first two days, they 
failing to come. The third day she refused to cook again, and 



UAILUOAD migration into northern NEBRASKA. 29 

they came, aud the husband, to punish her aud emphasize his 
authority, liad tied lier Iiauds aud hiritited her out in tlie 
suu. He disappeared aud was not seen afterwards. 

The other incident was as follows: In 1870 a Mr, New- 
burn, who lived on a liomestead near the present site of the 
town of Beemer, had cultivated a patch of watermelons. A 
party consisting- of Hon. Lorenzo Crounse (then district 
judge and since governor of Nebraska), Z, Shedd, M. B. 
Hoxie, and C. W. Walton, attorneys, was driving past en 
route to West Point. Crounse, Shedd, and Hoxie entered 
tlie melon patch to test the products. Each took a melon 
under each arm and started to their Avagon, when Newburn 
api)eared, demanding in angry tones, ''what kind of a set of 
d — d thieves" were stealing his melons. Shedd, gathering his 
senses first, replied indignantly by asking what he meant by 
such language, and asked if he knew whom he Avas addressing, 
explaining, "This is his honor. Judge Crounse, and I am Z. 
Shedd, a lawyer from Fremont,"' etc., to which Newburn 
replied,' "I do not care a d — n who you are, you Avill pay me 
fifty cents each for those melons, or I will go with you to 
AYest Point and have you arrested, as you deserve." Three 
dollars were promptly paid, and the party left. Shortly after 
they arrived at West Point, Newburn came in, and as he had 
known the Judge and Shedd all tlie time, he told the story, 
which their friends enjoyed, he returning the three dollars' 
and giving the party more melons. Newburn Avas satisfied, 
and all enjoyed the joke. 

In 1879 the Elkliorn R. R. was extended to Battle Creek, 
in 1880 to Neligh, the present county seat of Antelope county. 

In the fall of 1880 I came to the road. I found all that 
northern portion of the state very sparsely settled or wholly 
unoccupied, and in fact but little known about it. I found 
there were millions on millions of acres of government land 
which Avas available under the "homestead," the "pre-emp- 
tion," aud the "tree claim" or "timber culture acts," Avhereby 
a man could procure IGO acres, and after living on it fourteen 



30 NEliRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

mouths could couiuiute the reuiaiuiug four years by payiug 
11.25 per acre aud get i^ateut. That he could move onto au- 
other 100 acres as a "homestead'' aud at the same tiuie file ou 
auother IGO acres as a "tree claiui," aud by plautiug a certain 
uuml)i'r of trees, teu acres, I believe, plowiug a tire-guard 
arouud them, at the same time oecup3'iug liis homestead, at 
the eud of five years, if he had done the stipulated small 
amouut of work ou the homestead, aud could also make affi- 
davit that the requisite uumber of trees were alive aud grow- 
iug ou his claim, he could get pateuts for both. Thus, iu six 
years, he could acquire 480 acres of laud, only haviug paid 
the flliug fees, about |14 on each <piarter, and the commuta- 
tion of |200 on one quarter. 

These conditions, with some knowledge of human nature, 
gave me the inspiration on wliich I promptly acted, advertis- 
ing in flaming posters and seductive, but more modest, 
folders — 

"free homes for THE MILLION." 

That was my slogan, or rallying phrase. It headed every 
circular, folder, and poster whicli I issued, aud I issued them 
by the million. I spread them over Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, 
AYiscousin, INfichigan, and Ohio, and even worked some in 
New York and Pennsylvania. Everywhere, aud iu every pos- 
sible publication and newspaper, printed iu black, blue, and 
red ink, in the English aud German languages, this sentence 
of— 

"free homes for THE INIILLION.^^ 

There seems to be an inherent desire iu human nature to 
get "something for nothingy' aud here I was offering free 
homes — 100 acres of good American soil — l)y the million. It 
took with the people, aud the tide of immigration started to 
north Nebraska. There was a very sparse population in the 
counties upon our line as far as Antelope county." This will 
appear from an old folder which I issued, jDrobably in 1883 



RAILROAD MIGRATION INTO NORTHERN NEBRASKA. 31 

or 1884 (it was not dated), which states in P]uglish and Ger- 
man that there were — 

"free homes for the ^million/' 

"The ab'ove invitation is to all who come earlv." 

Then, for those anIio have money and want a liome nearer 
by, I say— 

"In Washington county there are 150,000 acres of unim- 
proved land available at from |10 to |20 per acre." 

In Dodge count}- wc^re 100,000 acres unimproved land at 
from |7 to |20 per acre. 

In Cuming county there Avere 210,000 acres unimproved 
land at from |3 to |7.50 per acre. 

In Stanton county 225,000 acres unimproved land at |2.50 
to |5 per acre. 

In Madison county 200,000 acres at |2 to |7 per acre. 

Antelope county 500,000 acres at |1.25 to |0.50 per acre. 

Holt county 300,000 acres at .fl.25 to $6.50 per acre. 

Pierce county 200,000 acres at |2.50 to |G per acre. 

Knox county 100,000 acres at |1.25 to |6 per acre. 

Over 2,000,000 acres in these counties at |1.25 to |20 per 
acre. It is perhaps needless to say that now no land can be 
purchased in Dodge county on the east at less than |15 to ^i\0 
per acre, nor in Holt county, the farthest west of the counties 
named, for less than |20 to -|10 per acre. I rode over a farm 
in Antelope county a few weeks ago for AA'hich |50 per acre 
was offered and declined, and which I know at the time of 
the above advertising could have been bought at |5 or less 
per acre. 

All that territorv AACst of Holt count v, now endiraced in 
the counties of Eock, Keya Paha, Brown, Cherry, Sheridan, 
Box Butte, Dawes, Sioux, and all that part of Boyd lying 
south of Keva Paha river, was attached to Holt county for 
judicial purposes, and known as Sioux county, otherwise 
unorganized. There were not five hundred people in all of 
them. I am not able to sav what was in Wheeler, Garfield, 



32 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Blaine, Thomas, Hooker, Grant, or Seotts Bluff, lying imme- 
diately south of the large unorganized country named, but no 
doubt they were as unsettled as the above. In fact, outside 
the little settlement by General O'Neill's party and a few 
others there were no settlements in Holt county, onl}'- about 
3,000 people in all. 

Now, there is a population of over fifty thousand in those 
new counties, most of which, at the time I referred to above, 
were attached to Holt county for judicial purposes. 

There is an increased j)opulation in Holt county and the 
counties east of our main line, of about one hundred 
thousand. 

There are half as many more, or an increase of at least 
fifty thousand, in that territory west of our main line and 
along and west of the branch line since built, which leaves 
the main line at Scribner, passing through Colfax, Platte, 
and Boone counties, and joining the main line again at 
Oakdale. 

The extension of the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley 
E. R. enabled me to continue this, as it pierced that wholly 
unoccupied section. The railroad was extended in 1880 from 
Norfolk to Plainview; in 1881 from Plainview to Creighton, 
and from Neligh to O'Neill, and to Long Pine; in 1882 from 
Long Pine to Thatcher; in 1883 from Thatcher to Valentine; 
in 1881 the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley R. R. was 
purchased by the Chicago & Nortli-AA'estern Ry. Co., and its 
future extension directed under that ownership. In 1885 it 
was extended from Valentine to Chadron, and from Chadron 
to Buffalo Gap, at the base of the Black Hills; in 1886 from 
Buffalo Gap to Rapid City, South Dakota, and the same year 
another line was constructed starting from Chadron, or 
ratlier starting from a point now called "Dakota Junction," 
which is five miles directly west of Chadron, whence it ran 
through Nebraska to the Wyoming state line, and thence 
through W3'oming in succeeding years to Casper, in Natrona 
count}'. 



KAILROAD MIGRATION INTO NORTHERN NEBRASKA. 33 

This railroad had no land grant, and the Union Pacific and 
the Burlington & Missouri E. R. both having large grants, out 
of which they could pay for liberal advertising, and offer other 
liberal inducements, drew peoj)le to the South Platte. I was 
at a great disadvantage; our company was running into an 
unoccupied country, and had little business comparatively; 
and I trust I may be forgiven for having resorted to the only 
method within my means and at my disposal to attract atten- 
tion to the north Nebraska country. At any rate, it clearly 
resulted in adding at least two hundred thousand people to 
the population of that x>ortion of the state, and the section is 
now, I believe, recognized as the very best in the state, and 
the people are i)rosi)erous, thrifty, and contented. 

>Mien I commenced advertising — 

"free homes for the million/* 

I knew the land and conditions in all the northeastern part 
of the state and as far west as Holt county were superb, and 
Mould respond bountifully to good farming. I took jjains to 
have the soil west of there analyzed, and found the constitu- 
euts adapted to cropping. I had also investigated the rain- 
fall. An army officer at Ft. Niobrara took account of it regu- 
larly and reported to me the precipitation was IG to 22 inches 
in the spring, summer, and fall. At the same time, the precip- 
itation at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and at Kochester, New 
York, was reported about 18 to 23 inches during tlie same 
time. This, 1 believed, justified my belief that there was suffi- 
cient precipitation to warrant the expectation that crops 
would grow where there was so much vegetation growing. 
Then, too, I shared the common belief tliat turning up the 
moist soil would add to the moisture in the atmosphere, re- 
sulting in added precipitation, and so that each such efl'ort 
and growing crops would aid in redeeming that portion of the 
so-called arid belt, and I accordingly encouraged — even pilot- 
ing some — colonies to go well westward, where I knew there 
was excellent soil. Those who confined themselves to crop 



34 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

raising exclusively in these western sections proved to them- 
selves and to me that it was a mistake, and I quit advising- 
farmers to go so far out. Those who ac(iuired the free land 
and put a little stock on it were deliglited and prosperous, and 
all who have gone since and pursued the same plan have pros- 
pered. The raising of vegetables, especially potatoes, proved 
successful and profitable, but corn, wheat, and general crop- 
ping Avere unprofitable. The "farmers" proper ultimately 
moved eastward into tliat section east of about the one hun- 
dredth meridian, and they, too, have prospered. 
It was the advancing railroad and the — 

"FREE HOMES FOR THE MILLION'" 

Advertising which accomplished the result and peopled north 
Nebraska. This, not only immediatelj' along the line of the 
Fremont, p]lkliorn & Missouri Valley 11. R., but the popula- 
tion spread out to the north boundary of the state on the 
north, and covered two and more counties to the south of the 
line of our railroad, and the entire north part of tlie state is 
fairlv well settled. 



NEiniASKA rOLTTICS AND NEliRASKA RAILTIOADS. 

lM{i sK.\Ti:i> r,Y J. II. Ager^ at the Annual .Mi:etin(; of the 
Nei'.raska ^^tate Historicai- Society, January 

15, 1902. 

The subject assigned to me is "Nebraska Politics and Ne- 
braska Railroads." The inference carried by the title would 
seem to be that the railroads entering Nebraska are more or 



'J. H. Ager was born at Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, in 1847. He resided 
in that state until the age of twenty-one, except during his service in 
Company H, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, in the Civil War. He entered 
railroad service in Kansas and Nebraska in 1867; was in the mercantile 
and banking business from 1878 to 1887; settled in Lincoln in 1887, and 
was state railroad commissioner for three years. He entered the service 
of the Burlington railroad as special agent in 1892 and still occupies this 
position. 



I 



1237391 

XEIiKASKA POLITICS AND NEBRASKA RAILROADS. 35 

less active iu politics, aud this iufereiice I readily graut. In 
discussing the subject, I hope to be able to give you, from the 
railroad's standpoint, sutticient reasons for their right to 
take such interest as a\ ell as the extent and objects of their 
participation. 

A recital of the histor}' of the railroads of Nebraska would 
be but the telling of the stoiy of the marvelous growth and 
development of this rich and fertile state. The railroads of 
Nebraska pav into the several treasuries of the state nearlv 
one-sixth of all the taxes paid, and, second only to the brain 
and brawn of the men who conceived and built its cities, and 
changed its unbroken prairies into productive farms, have 
been the most potential factor in its development and in mul- 
tiplying many times the value of its fertile acres. Preceding 
the commencement of the construction of the two great sys- 
tems of railroads in Nebraska, the territory' ^^'hi(•h they trav- 
erse was popularly sux)posed to be i^racticalh- uninhabitable 
as an agricultural country; but tlie far-sighted, sanguine men 
who invaded the territory and risked their capital in railroad 
construction saw farther than the men whose judgment pro- 
nounced the country an arid waste. They found here a fertile 
soil and a genial climate, that gave promise of a rich field for 
the agriculturist and stock man. 

Simultaneouslv with railroad construction thev began the 
work of supplying to the people of the eastern states such 
information as to the country's natural resources as had in- 
duced them to send their capital west, and as would l»ring 
immigration. Lured by the proinises of future rise in values, 
and the hope of securing homes and a competency, the strong, 
andjitious, and sanguine first sons of families in other states 
came to Nebraska and engaged in its development, undergo- 
ing the hardships and privations inevitable to pioneer life, 
and in this work each individual became a partner of the rail- 
roads, laboring to the accomplishment of the same end — the 
utilization of natural conditions to the betterment of them- 
selves and all the people. 



36 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOUICAL SOCIETY. 

The railroads tliroii}i,li their agents said to tlie people of the 
East, ''Out there in Nebraska there is a soil unsurpassed for 
fertility and ease of tillage, a climate as favorable to agri- 
cultural pursuits as any in the world. AVe are going out 
there to spend our money in its development, and we want 
your help. Our railroads can not do the work alone. We 
want 3'ou to go out and cultivate the lands, build cities and 
factories, raise cattle, horses, hogs, and sheep. Our part of 
the work shall be to haul your surplus products to market 
and bring you such things as vou mav need from otlier sec- 
tions of the countr}-." Upon this proposition hands were 
joined, and the work of settlement, development, and railroad 
construction has, with few interruptions, gone continuously 
forward, and Nebraska has reached a place well toward the 
head of the procession in the sisterhood of states, the result 
of cooperation and a community of interests of the railroads 
and the people. 

Take an instance typical of most. A man from the East, 
ecpiipped with health, industry, and a determination to suc- 
ceed, homesteaded a (piarter-section of government land, or 
perhaps bought from the railroad at |1.25 per acre, a farm, 
say in Kearney county, in the central part of the state. Pre- 
vious to the advent of the railroad his land had but little 
value, other than the speculative value based upon the com- 
ing of a road. True, he and his family might derive from its 
cultivation the provisions necessary to their existence, and a 
restricted local market might be found for a limited surplus. 
In time the road was built, and a station opened within 
hauling distance of his farm. A market toAvn sprang up. 
AVhile the productive value of his land in bushels and i^ounds 
was unchanged, its market value was multiplied tAvo, four, or 
perhaps ten times, because the railroad had created a new 
value for its products. The gate which heretofore stood 
closed between the products of his land and the consumers of 
the East was pushed open by the locomotive, and he then 
learned tliat the value of his wlu^it and corn was affected 



NEBRASKA POLITICS AND NElillASKA RAILROADS. 37 

more by a tliirt^-inile haul in a farm wagou tliau by a tboii- 
saiid miles in a freight ear. It was as though the manufac- 
turer of the East, the fruit grower of Florida and the Pacific 
Coast, the lumberman of Michigan, and the coal men of other 
states had moved into Kearnev count v and become his neigh- 
bors, in respect to the facility and cheapness with which an 
exchange of his i>roducts for theirs could be effected. 

Nebraska is essentially an agricultural state, and upon the 
occupants of the farms, more than ui^on any other class, do 
the railroads depend for business. Crop failures and short 
crops mean to the railroads idle cars and idle men, with con- 
se(i[uent loss of revenue, without a corresponding decrease in 
the fixed charges Avhich constitute about 80 per cent of the 
gross outlav of the railroad. The conditions necessarv to 
insure good crops are as anxiously hoped for and their pres- 
ence hailed with as much satisfaction by the managers of 
western railroads as by the tillers of western farms. 

The state, by reason of its long distance from the grain 
markets of the East, is naturally somewhat handicapped, but 
the managers of the railroads have sought to so regulate the 
rates as to overcome this disadvantage and enable the Ne- 
braska farmer to successfully compete in the marketing of 
his products with the farmers occupying the high priced 
lands of Iowa, Illinois, and other eastern states, and com- 
plaints have been lodged with the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission by the farmers of the latter named states, charging 
discrimination by the railroads in grain rates, in favor of 
Nebraska, Kansas, and the Dakotas. Twenty years ago the 
average freight rate per ton per mile, received by the Ne- 
braska roads, was a fraction more than three cents. Tlie 
average rate received for the year ending June 30, 1000, the 
latest data I could obtain, had fallen to one cent and 11/100 
of a mill. Today the wheat of Nebraska is being taken to the 
Atlantic seaboard for export, for 6.2 mills per ton per mile, 
and corn for 4.97 mills. At this rate a farmer hauling one 
and one-half tons per load, thirty miles per day, would re- 
ceive for the day's work for himself and team 251/4 cents for 



38 NEBKASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

• 

liuiiliiig wheat, aud less than 17 cents for hauling corn. It 
used to cost |10 to get a barrel of flour carried from liutYalo 
to New York. That amount will now carry a ton of Nebraska 
wheat from Hastings to New York, a distance of 1,5G5 miles, 
aud leave thirty cents unexpended. The amount that it took 
in 1859 to send a letter weighing one ounce, from the Mis- 
souri river to San Francisco by Col. Alexander Major's pony 
express, will send a ton of Nebraska corn 1,006 miles on its 
journey for export to Europe. 

The first passenger tariff issued by the' Union Pacific rail- 
road, taking effect July IG, ISOG, as far as Kearney, madf 
the rate of ten cents per passenger per mile. The average 
rate received by the Nebraska railroads, excluding free trans- 
portation, for the 3'ear ending June 30, 1900, had fallen to 
2 33/100 cents per mile. These comparisons are made to 
show that the railroads have been continually and voluntaril}' 
doing their part to assist the people in the work of the devel- 
opment of the state by reducing rates as fast as increasing- 
business would enable them to <lo so. 

It will be remend)ered by those present that during the 
almost total failure of crops in western Nebraska, in 1880, 
and again in 1893 and 1895, the railroads voluntarily came 
to the relief of the sufferers by furnishing free transportation 
to thousands of the citizens of the drouth-stricken localities 
who came to the eastern part of the state, or went to other 
states in search of employment, and to the numerous agents 
of different localities who went east to solicit aid from their 
more fortunate brethren; and in one year, more than a quar- 
ter of a million dollars in freight charges was rebated to the 
people of the western part of this state on seed grain and feed 
for teams and other stock, and relief goods. 

The foregoing has, I believe, esta])li8hed the right of the 
railroads to an interest in the politics of the state, for in al- 
most every case political issues resolve themselves into mere 
business issues, in which so great a factor as the railroads of 
Nebraska are certain to be affected one way or the other. 



NEBRASKA POLITICS AND NEBRASKA RAILROADS. 39 

The extent to which the railroads participate iu politics is 
aud has ahvavs been very "reatlv overestimated. ];*oliticians 
and -the press have very often found it seemingly to their 
interest to mislead the i^eople on this subject, and the de- 
feated candidate in convention and at the polls has many 
times jumped, to the conclusion that he was beaten by the 
railroads, when as a matter of fact the railroads had no ob- 
ject or participation in his defeat. As in every other state, 
so in Nebraska, large numl)ers of men seeking; public office 
have sought to gain favor with the people by charging all 
their misfortunes to oppression by railroads and other cor- 
porations, and some years back a great party, which for sev- 
eral years swept the state, was created and built up on the 
theory that the interests of the railroads and the people were 
divergent and conflicting, and that the former were engaged 
in robbing the latter of the legitimate fruits of their toil. 
Demagogues in all parties encouraged this idea, and the state 
was overrun with candidates for office, and i)oliticians de- 
manding the most stringent and unjust legislation against 
nearly all forms of corporate enterprise. Up to this time 
railroad participation in state politics has been more in the 
nature of rivalry between the Union Pacific and the Burling- 
ton roads in their efforts to settle up the territory north and 
south of the Platte, through which their respective lines run. 
But the aggressive action of the new party caused the rival 
roads to make common cause against threatened adverse leg- 
islation. A legislature was elected, a majority of Avhich was 
pledged to radical rate regulation, and a bill known as the 
Newberry bill was introduced. Neither tlie introducer of the 
bill nor a single member of that legislature pretended to 
know anything about the numerous factors that enter into 
the adjustment of railroad freight rates, and as a matter of 
course were unable to say whether the then prevailing rates 
were unreasonable or not. The question had been made a 
political issue, and they were bound by party pledges to re- 
duce rates anyhow. There was not a man in the body who 
md ever spent a single day in the service of any railroad 



1^ 



40 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

coiiipauy, makiug rate sheets. And from the very nature of 
things they could not have known wh(^ther or not railroad 
rates were too high or too low. This fact Avas emphasized 
when, some days after the bill was introduced, it was discov- 
ered that the bill actually raised nearlj^ every rate in the 
schedule. When this fact became known, the bill was with- 
drawn and another introduced, making an average rate so 
low as to have finallv been declared liv the United States Su- 
j)reme Court to l)e unconstitutional because the reductions 
were so great as to make them confiscatory. However, the 
agitation for a reduction of rates was continued by the poli- 
ticians, although the people themselves were making little if 
any complaint. I do not think that so much misinformation 
was ever furnished to the people of this state on any other 
subject by the politicians who hoped to secure office for them- 
selves or friends, by arousing and taking advantage of preju- 
dice against the corporations. One incident in illustration : 
one of the founders of the new party, a former farmer but at 
that time publishing a newspaper, made complaint before the 
boar<l of transportation, charging the railroads with extor- 
tion amounting to robbery on grain rates to Chicago. After 
a radical speech to the board on these lines, in which he 
stated that he represented the fanners of this state^ I asked 
him if he thought the farmers of Nebraska would be satisfied 
with a rate whicli would carry their \>']i(^at to the Chicago 
market at three cents per ton per mile. He replied, "yes, if 
the railroads would make that sort of a rate, I would not be 
here to complain.'- When I showed him that there was at 
that time no rate in the state higher than a cent and a quar- 
ter per ton per milt', he admitted that he knew nothing at all 
of the details of the rate question, and was relying on the 
oft-repeated charge that rates \svvq too high. 

Tlie prejudices engendered in the public mind were taken 
advantage of by individuals, usually not members of either 
branch of the legislature, to procure the introduction and 
passage by the house or senate of all sorts of bills attacking 
corporate interests, with no other motive than that of per- 



NEBRASKA POLITICS AND NEBRASKA RAILROADS. 41 

soiial gain by traffic in their real or assumed influence with 
the members. The business has urown from vear to year, 
until it has- almost assumed the dignity of a profession, and 
many members of the legislature have afterward become 
aware of the fact that the}' had unwittingly lent themselves 
to the consummation of the schemes of the professional hold- 
up. During more than one session of the legislature regular 
SA'udicates have been formed for the introduction of what 
have by long familiarity become known to the general public 
as hold-up bills. These bills have not always attacked cor- 
porations. Bills to reduce fees of sheriffs, count}^ clerks, 
clerks of the courts, and other county officers, so-called pure 
food bills, attacking a single article of manufacture, bills for 
the regulation of various kinds of business have been intro- 
duced with the purpose and expectation of causing the par- 
ties threatened to hurry to the state house and raise a fund 
to be disbursed for the defeat of such legislation. During the 
last session of the legislature bills were introduced to regu- 
late freight rates, to regulate the length of freight trains, pre- 
scribing the number of brakemen to a train, to compel the 
railroads to equip their engines with certain kinds of ashpans, 
to equip Pullman cars with fireproof safes, and numerous 
other bills of like character. Believing that the rates at- 
tacked were just and reasonable, and that the details of the 
management and operation of the road could better be left 
to the men who by years of service in the employ of the roads 
had become familiar with the subject, the railroad coinpanies 
of course opposed such legislation. There 1ms scarcely been 
a bill of this character affecting the railroads, introduced in 
the last ten vears, that some man assuming to have great in- 
fluence Avith the members has not sought out a representative 
of one or more of the railroad companies and offered for a 
consideration to prevent its passage. It is due to the mem- 
bers of the legislature, howcA-er, to say that in most instances 
these offers have come from the outside, from men who have 
sought to use the members of the legislature for purposes of 
personal gain, although I haA^e knoAvn of regular syndicates 



42 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

beiug formed almost entirely of members of the two houses, 
and I recollect one instance in which a demand was made on 
an auxiliary railroad corporation for |8,000, and- two annual 
passes, the two latter to be given to an employee of the senate 
and his partner, Avho drew a certain ]>ill and had it intro- 
duced. A representative of the corporation attacked hurried 
out from Chicago, and before seeing any member of the syn- 
dicate asked me what I would advise his doing. I advised 
l>ublic exposure of all the men implicated. He did not see fit 
to follow my advice, and I was afterwards informed by a rep- 
resentative of the company that .f2,000 luid been paid to de- 
feat the measure. As I stated before, this was not a railroad 
bill, and the railroads had nothing to do with it. The fore- 
going is but one of several like incidents which have come 
within my knowledge. It has been charged b}' those ignorant 
of the facts that large sums of money are paid b}^ the rail- 
roads to defeat legislation. So far as this charge applies to 
any jjeriod of which I have knowledge, which covers at least 
the last six sessions of the legislature, not one single dollar 
has ever been given to a member of the legislature, to any- 
body for him, or to anv member of anv svndicate. f(n' this or 
any other purpose of like character. 

It has always been my policy, which policy has been ap- 
proved by the management of the Burlington road, which I 
have had the honor to represent, to furnish .to the meinbers 
of the legislature all possible information that they may. re- 
quire in legislating upon any subject touching the interests 
of the railroads, relying upon the fact that a majority of the 
legislators are honest men and intend when fully informed to 
do justice to the railroads as well as to any other legitimate 
interest. The last legislature, like its predecessors, for at 
least five sessions, contained within its membership practical 
representatives of most of the chief industries and professions 
existing or jjracticed in the state. Among its numbers were 
managers of farms, stock ranches, stores, mills, factories, 
banks, while lawyers, physicians, teachers, mechanics, and 
.insurance men helped to make up the body. Yet of its entire 



NEBRASKA POLITICS AND NEBRASKA RAILROADS. 43 

membersliii) of 133, not one man connected Avith the niauage- 
ment of anj- portion of the 5,SSA miles of railroad in Ne- 
braska, entering all bnt six of the counties of the state, built 
at a cost of many millions of dollars, paying in 1900 taxes to 
the amount of |1,100,1T4, giving emploA'inent to 14,858 men, 
to whom are paid yearly salaries aggregating more than 
8,000,000 of dollars, has had a voice in the deliberations upon 
the floor of either house, or a vote upon any measure upon 
which it has been called to act. This fact is referred to sim- 
ply to direct your attention to the further fact that it is only 
by appearing by representatives before the legislative com- 
mittees that the roads can make known to the legislature the 
vicAVS of their management upon proposed legislation affect- 
ing their interests. 

The friends to whom I have confided the details of some of 
the schemes that outside lobbyists have undertaken to make 
uioney out of, have saiil, "Why don't you expose them?" My 
answer has invariably been that I had never taken any pains 
to conceal any knowledge I possessed on the subject, or to 
shield or excuse any man connected with the nefarious busi-- 
ness. x\t the last session of the legislature one of the mis- 
cellaneous corporations did accuse a couple of outside lobby- 
ists of procuring the introducti<m of several bills <»f tlii-^ 
■( haracter, and instead of meeting the approval of the legisla- 
ture as they had expected they would, the story was at once 
started that the corporation itself had stood behind the intro- 
du(ti(m of the bills, and had made the ex])osure in bad faith, 
for the purpose of bringing into bad repute any l)ill alTecting 
that corporation. 

A railroad manager entrusted with the care of the gr(\it 
properties Represented by the railroad systems in this state 
would be culpable indeed should \\v not do all in his power in 
a l(\gitimate Avay to protect his stockholders against the or.- 
slaught upon their property made for mere political pur- 
poses, or in furtherance of tlie money-making schemes of pri- 
vate individuals. At a republican state convention some 
years ago the then attorney general of the state stood in the 



44 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

corridors of the capitol hotel impoi'tuning the delegates to 
the conventiou to vote for the uomiiiatiou of a certain mail 
as judge of the supreme court, on the plea that he was 
"against the railroads." The case was one in which the rail- 
roads felt entirely justified in trying to prevent his nomina- 
tion, as were also the cases of the six state senators previously 
referred to who formed a combine for extorting money from 
the corporations, and I am happy to state that not one of the 
six was nominated for a second term although all were candi- 
dates for renomination. 

In closing permit me to say that the political interests of 
the railroads are best subserved by the election of honest and 
callable men to all the offices within the state. The railroads 
are best served by that legislation which fosters the growth 
and development of its varied agricultural and commercial 
possibilities. Whenever a mile of railroad is built in Ne- 
braska, somebody's land is made more valuable, and the num- 
ber of his conveniences and comforts increased. Whenever a 
quarter-section of Nebraska prairie is turned into a product- 
ive farm, some railroad is benefited by the receipt of new 
business. All citizens in Nebraska should feel the same de- 
gree of pride in its splendid railroads and tlieir unexcelled 
equipment and service that the managers of the roads feel in 
its rich and beautiful farms, its sleek lierds, its great pack- 
ing liouses, its tliriving cities, and numerous and varied man- 
ufactories. All these are the product of the joint efforts of 
the railroads and people, and every interest in its effort for 
expansion and lu'tterment owes to all others fair, unpreju- 
diced treatment, and willing eooperation. No legitimate in- 
terest in Nebraska or elsewhel'e can prosper if it beconu^s the 
oi>pressor of oUiov legitimate interests. This applies as well 
to th(; treatment of railroads by the people as to that accorded 
to their patrons by the roads; their interests are so closely 
interwoven tliat neither can prosper without mutual benefit, 
or suffer without mutual loss. 



TERRITORIAL PIONEER DAYS. 45 

TERKITORIAL PIONP^ER DAYS. 

Speeches Made at the Annual ]Meeting of the Nebraska 
State Historical Society, January 15, 1902. 

REMARKS BY ISAAC S. HASCALL.^ 

Mr. President^ Toadies and Gentlemen,, and Territorial 
Pioneers — There are but few of lis i^reseut, but I think if we 
Avill make aii effort at the iiext state fair we will get the pio- 
neers of the state together. I am satisfied that we are fortu- 
nate in having the officers we have, and I know the pride that 
our President takes in all such matters that concern Ne- 
braska, especially not only in horticulture, but agriculture 
and history, and for that reason he takes pride in getting out 
the old i^ioneers; and what one doesn't know the other will. 
And it is not a bad thing to get together and have a system- 
atic statement of how we came into existence and what we 
are doing now. It has not been very long, according to the 
old pioneer, as you grow older and I grow older, and coiiS(i- 
quently thirty or forty years does not appear to be much. Of 
course, I am a young man; I came ahead of the railroads to 
Chicago and to the Mississippi and to Nebraska, and I know 
when Ben Wade and Lyman Trumbull and his party came to 
Oinaha they held a little reception in the old capitol building 
on the hill. Trumbull said he had been out over the state of 
Nebraska, and thought it was a beautiful (ouutr}', and 
thouiilit in a short time it would be intersected bv railroads 
the same as Illinois. There \\as no such place as Lin- 



' Isaac S. Hascall, pioneer lawyer, Omaha. Nebraska, was born in Erie 
county, New Yorl^, March 8, 1831; was admitted to practice law in the 
courts of New York, and in 1854 went to Kansas. In the spring of 1855 
he arrived in Nebraska, and during that summer was engaged in survey- 
ing township lines in Nemaha and Otoe counties. He returned to Kansas 
and engaged in the practice of law at Atchison. While there he was 
elected a member of the constitutional convention of Kansas, and was 
later elected probate judge. In 1860 he went to Colorado and Oregon, 
thence to Idaho City, Idaho, where he remained four years. After sev- 
eral months spent in traveling, he settled at Omaha in March, 1865. He 
was appointed probate judge of Douglas county in 1865. and in 1866 was 
elected state senator; in 1870 was reelected, and made president of the 
senate. In the spring of 1871 he was elected to the constitutional con- 
vention of that year. Mr. Hascall died at Omaha January 17, iyo7. 



46 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

coin in those early times, but Lincoln was the i^roduct, you 
might say, of the first legislature that had power to legislate, 
and while it met with some opposition in my city of Omaha, 
still I thought Omaha ^^•as having the capital placed in a cen- 
tral point, where it was liable to remain, and it had a healthy 
locality and would build up into a beautiful city. The orig- 
inal bill was for ^'Capital City" and the parties that were 
putting the bill through had agreed among themselves 
that they would not allow in another man, but I happened to 
be a member at that time, and my colleague was Hon. Nelson 
Patrick. We said if there Avas to be a capital for Nebraska 
that it ought to have a good name, consequently we agreed we 
would bring forward the name of "Lincoln,'' which was 
brought up, and it took one vote from the opposition to carry 
it, and consequentl}^ this city has the name of Lincoln today. 
It is one of the best names you could have. Capital City was 
too much of a one-horse place in the wilderness, but we are 
no longer in the wilderness. In fact, A\'lien you come to con- 
sider that since; the Civil ^A'ar the population of the United 
States has doubled, then it is no A\'onder that Nebraska has 
its million of people, ^ye have got plentj' of soil and aci*es 
of land, and it wants what this horticultural and agricul- 
tural society is doing and the state officers are accomplishing, 
and we want to encourage the peojile to engage in that which 
will benefit mankind. So far as our schools are concerned" 
we hiive as good an educational system as anywhere in the 
United States, and I am glad to know that the census of the 
United States sIionns us standing at the front in reference to 
average intelligence. If there was a property qualitlcation I 
think they would all vote, women and all. If we all come to 
know and look over the situation and com]>are things it will 
benefit us. I was tmfortunate in 1855, and came up the ]Mis- 
souri river to Nebraska City, and we didn't have to turn out 
for farms, but the country prairie aH<l the INIissouri river 
along the old road leading to Nebraska City from Rulo was 
the handsomest country in the United States. I have heard 
about the Santa Clara valley, but we excel it. 



TEEPaTOKIAI. PIONEER DAYS. 47 

We have got a Avestern man for president that is going to 
perfect a system of irrigation tliat will bring fruitfiilness 
to the soil and prosperity to the state, 1 hope we will 
all live nntil we find this A\ater stored here, and it has to 
evaporate. Certainly the United States is doing Avhat 
England is doing in Pigypt. They are piling np head dams 
and stopping u\) that great river, and they are going to 
raise all the tropical ]>roducts and some that grow in the 
temperate zone. There is no l)ad land from here to the moun- 
tains; consequenth', we must consider that we are fortunate 
in every respect. There is good ^^ater in Nebraska. See oiir 
old time-honored ( lovernor Thayer of Nebraska, hero of many 
wars, he is still here, proof that it is fine water, but you must 
not go out and keep your moutli open during a blizzard. 
]>ut cwer^'body thinks it is good enough to live' in and to die 
in, and we Avill stay together and put in our energies and put 
in the Avork Ave ought to do. You nmy talk about your rivers, 
but Ave can look upon the Missouri and Mississippi as the 
longest river in the AAorld. We have got a prosperous and 
vigorous community, one that has got the elements to create 
a state equal to an old state like New York or Pennsylvania. 
While Ave must not pretend to say that Ave have got the best 
interests, Ave Avill liaA^e interests equal to any of them, 
[Applause.] - . . 

PiiESiDENT FuKNAS: ^^ ill Governor Thayer favor the As- 
sociation Avith a fcAV Avords? 

Governor Thayer : I am in no condition to speak, or cA'^en 
stand up. I had a misfortune happen to my limb, and it is 
paining me this afternoon. Why not call on some of the 
older ones of this organization, that are older in age? 

President Furnas — You are one of the oldest in j-ears. 

Governor Thayer — I Avas here at an early day, I recol- 
lect, but I can not take the time or make the effort to speak 
at any length this afternoon. 1 am much pleased at the com- 
ing around of this Association occasion. When this Associa- 
tion comes together, — I Avish J could have seen more here 
than I do at present, for it is an organization AA'hich should 



48 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

be coiitiiiued by meetiiig ever}^ yoar, certain and often. I am 
glad to have a meeting at the time of the meeting of the state 
fair; perhaps we can draw more together then tlian now. 

I might give some reminiscences of an early day. I recall 
well of meeting yourself [Mr. Furnas], for instance, at an 
early day here in Nebraska, your secretary [D. H. Wheeler], 
and others. Mv old friend, Mr. Kennard, I see here. Bv the 
way, I think if I were called upon to say anything T should 
call upon him to act as a substitute for me. There was a 
time, years back, when substitutes were put forward to take 
the place of others who didn't feel like going forward, and I 
know from experience that Mr. Kennard would be a good 
substitute. It A\as with reference to lu-inging the territory 
in as a state. I can recall how naturally my friend Kennard 
talked to the people in favor of it, but I will hardly enter 
upon that, unless you have something to say, Mr. Kennard. 
(I shall call upon him when I sit down.) AA'^e traveled north 
and south and westward in order to do what we could to help 
forward the introduction of the admission of Nebraska as a 
state. That brings to my mind an instance which is, and was 
at the time, very interesting to me, and in place of anything 
which I can not offer better, I will relate it. It is rather of 
national character. After the legislature had met and el(3cted 
two senators with the view to the admission of the state, it 
became my duty to take a trip to Washington to take the con- 
stitution which had been prepared. Well, we found that we 
had something of a task before us. 

My first call upon the members of the Senate was upon the 
old hickory senator, Ben AVade, of Ohio. He was chairman 
of the committee on territories. He received me with a great 
deal of apparent satisfaction, for they were desirous of get- 
ting two more republican senators into the Senate. He took 
hold of the matter with great earnestness. I found I would 
have to visit a number of senators, and the next morning I 
called upon Sumner. It had been intimated that he would 
be against admission, because the word "white" was in the 
constitution, and I anticipated hostility, but several senators 



TERRITORIAL PIONEER DAYS. 49 

advised me to see liini. Mr. Tipton was uot tliere at first aud 
did uot take much part iu tlie worl^; of admission. I seut up 
my card to Senator iSumner, aud the word came down, "Show 
him up." I entered his room and he was sitting at his desl^;. 
There was one person present, l>en Perley Poore, wliom some 
of you have known by reputation or have read of. He was a 
very prominent Washington correspondent, especially of the 
Washington Journal. I stated to the Senator my object in 
calling. He turned upon me almost fiercely and said, "How 
can the people of Nebraska send their messenger here and 
ask for tlie admission of Nebraska as a state with the word 
'white' iu its constitution?" Well, it was a rather abrupt 
way of meeting me. (1 don't desire this to be taken down, I 
may some time put it in print.) ""Well," I said, "it is there 
in the constitution, not by my agency in any respect. I don't 
like it there, but I had to present it just as it was delivered to 
me by the legislature." It was a matter that I had to meet on 
that ground. 

I said, "Mr. Sumner, I have my own views on that XJoint, 
and I am as much opposed to the word 'white' in the consti- 
tution as you are. I have had some experience with the black 
people (I thought I would use the strongest arguments I 
could with him), and my association with them in the late 
war has made me ^pretty strongly in favor of the right of 
suffrage being given to the black race." 

That seemed to mollifv him somewhat, and I Avent on and 
explained that. during my service in the war I had two col- 
ored regiments under mv command for nearlv a year, and 
three Indian regiments. There was no doubt about the char- 
acter of the blacks, but the Indian regiments, my experience 
was, that I would not give a farthing for tliem. I would not 
trust them near an enemy unless well supported by black and 
white troops. I had observed these black troops regularly 
while in camp and on the march. The black troops had the 
tactics and while in camp they would study them. They were 
trying to be soldiers, and they succeeded. I never saw better 
soldiers in front of the enemy than your black troops, and I 



50 ' NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

said to the senator, "they deteruiiued me iu favor of giving 
them the franchise. I then learned that the men whi; had 
been fighting on my side of tlie Union were worthy to vote by 
my side, and that, should 1 reaeh Nebraska again, I said it 
will be my aim to enact the word 'white' out of the 
constitution." 

These remarks seemed to make a decided impression on 
him. I said furthermore, "We live and learn in this country. 
The people liave to be educated. I can remember in my boy- 
hood days reading when AVilliam Lloyd Garrison was chased 
through the streets of T.oston by a liowling mob, when the 
mayor of that city and police got him into the jail and turned 
the key upon the multitude to protect him. That was in your 
city of Boston. That can not be done now; things have 
changed. The people have changed and have improved iu 
their own views on public affairs and public rights, and we 
shall change in Nebraska. The ]}eople will be ready ere long 
to blot that word 'white' from the constitution.'' All of this 
conversation made a decided impression on him. " 

In a day or two afterwards I made the suggestion first to 
Senator Fessendeu, a man who was more respected than some 
of them. I suggested this: "Sui>posing the legislature of 
Nebraska should come together and agree to accept the con- 
ditions which you may impose, passing your resolution 
through Congress declaring that the state might be admitted 
if the legislature would pledge itself faithfully to treat that 
word Svliite' as a nullity." 

I will make the story short as possible. You recollect that, 
at the instance of Governor Saunders, a resolution which had 
])assed both houses of Congress containing that provision, 
was agreed to by the legishiture by a special act, the a(?t which 
X took back to Washington. I came back to Nebraska ad- 
vised that whenever the President should receive 1,he act of 
the legislature of Nebraska, pledging itself to treat the word 
"white" as a nullity, he should declare Nebraska as a state 
admitted into the Union. I brought the act back and deliv- 
ered it to him, and he issued his proclamation. During the 



TERRITORIAL PIONEER DAYS. 51 

quarrel between the President and Congress his liands had 
> been tied so completely that he didn't dare to hesitate to issue 
the proi-lamation because the air was full of impeachments 
then of the President. Nebraska was admitted in that way. 
Now I have stood longer than I felt able to stand, and taken 
up more of your time than I intended to, but I have taken 
this course to get out of the way of making any lengthy 
speech. I am glad to meet with you, and hope you will have 
the privilege of coming together many years in tlie future. 
[Applause.] 

I'RESiDENT Furnas : We thank the Governor for his short 
address, I was about to call out the same gentleman he 
■ named, and now I will call on Mr. Kennard to follow up 
Governor Thaver. 

Thomas P. Kennard •} Islv. President, and fellow members 
of the Pioneer Association — 1 hardly know what to say be- 
fore an audience of this kind. Is there anything better than 
to compare the past with the present, and comparing the past 
with the present anticipate the future? Is that right? In 
1857 I lived in central Indiana, I took Ilorace Greeley's ad- 
vice to "Go west, young man, and grow up with the country.'' 
I came across from Indianapolis to St. Louis on my way to 
Nebraska. I arrived there before the opening of the naviga- 
tion, early in the spring. I waited for the first boat up the 
river, I took the old Albemarle. It was the first boat on the 
river from St. Louis north. IIow long could souu' of you 
imai>ine it took to go from St. Louis to Omalia? We go to 



'Thomas P. Kennard, Lincoln, was the first secretary of state of Ne- 
braska. He was born near Flushing, Ohio. December 18, 1828. His young 
manhood was spent in Indiana. He was admitted to the bar in that state, 
and opened a law office at Anderson, Indiana. On April 24, 1857, he ar- 
rived at Omaha, via Missouri river steamboat, and immediately settled at 
De Soto, Washington county. He was a member of the first Nebraska 
constitutional convention. In 1863 he was appointed deputy assessor and 
collector of internal revenue for the territory north of Douglas county. 
He was nominated for secretary of state by the convention which met in 
Plattsmouth in 1866, and was active in the election which resulted in the 
carrying of tne proposition for statehood. He was one of the three com- 
missioners to locate the capital at Lincoln, and retired from the office of 
secretary of Scate at the end of his second consecutive tenn. For a time 
he engaged in the practice of law, but soon gave that up for a business 
career, which he has since successfully followed. He still resides in 
Lincoln. 



52 NEBKASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

sleep now iii the eveiiing and get up in St. Louis. I was just 
fourteen days coming from fc5t. Louis to Omalia. Tliat is the 
contrast. I got to Omaha and landed there in the little vil- 
lage with my friend Hascall. I think it had a population of 
about yOO at that time. 1 think there was but one brick 
building in the little town. I stayed there over night, and 
the next morning I started out afoot and 1 walked to De Soto, 
twenty-two miles north. 

I will be brief. Now just one other stop. I lived there for 
a short time, and I didn't imagine that I would ever live to 
see the time that Nebraska would even be knocking at the 
gates of the Union to become a state. 1 don't think there was 
hardly a man in a thousand, or one hundred J might sa^^, in 
this territory at that time that looked forward to the time 
when Nebraska would be a state. Nearly everybody had 
come here with the idea of making something and going back 
to their old home, but they didn't go. Why? Why, each suc- 
cessive year demonstrated irresistibly the conclusion that 
Nebraska would be a state. The flow of immigration com- 
menced coming in, and every avenue was filled with it, and in 
a few years, as the General there says, there was a proposi- 
tion that we b(-come a state. He alludes to this so I am war- 
ranted in alluding to it, I suppose. General Thayer and I, 
I think, (lid more than an^^ otlier ten men in this state in the 
canvassing in favor of state organization. I don't mean that 
we had more finisli, but we did more hard work than any 
other ten men in the state. We canvassed every county north 
of the Platte, and a good many of them south of the Platte, 
and we went out to Grand Island during that campaign, and 
we stayed all night A\'itli old father Iledde. 

And now I will tell you what is the gospel fact. We were 
then at the entire outside edge of civilization and we were 
virtually beyond practical agriculture. I saw a load of corn 
then^, and it was i)roduced from what they called a certain 
kind of corn that they brought down there from Canada, and 
the nubbins were about eight inches long, and they could 
produce that kind of corn and haul it to Kearney, and sell it 



TERRITORIAL PIONEER DAYS. 53 

to the soldier and make something out of it, \\hy, they didn't 
think they woiikl ever become a state, but they were willing 
to risk this little corn and sell it at Kearney. But the result 
was, through Governor Thayer's efforts, we became a state. 
The i)eople voted in favor of it. 

Friend Hascall alludes to another point in the development 
of this country — when the legislature in their wisdom de- 
cided that to build a state they must enlarge the foundations, 
and they must move the capital from the city of Omaha and 
place it souie place in the interior. In the act of Congress 
admitting us to the Union they had given us 500,000 acres of 
land to aid and assist in internal improvements, building rail- 
roads, etc. The legislature in their wisdom then provided 
and passed a bill that Mr. Hascall alludes to, appointing 
commissioners to locate the capital, and a bill providing that 
any railroad comijany organized should have, I think, 2,000 
acres a mile for the first fifty miles, or something lik(,' that, I 
forget exactly, but it was giving so much out of this munifi- 
cent gift from the general goveimment to aid in the develop- 
ment of the state. The commissioners came down here and 
located this capital. I happened to be one of the comuiis- 
sioners, and on the evening after our first day's sale of lots 
we had a big bonfire over here about where the postoffice now 
stands. Standing there before an audience I made a predic- 
tion that became quite notorious at that time. I said, "T 
stand here now in the center of what will, in the course of 
time, be the Indianapolis of Nebraska. It will be the rail- 
road center of this state." How far my prediction was veri- 
fied late history and your own observation Avill tell. 

At that time there was not a foot of railroad south of Ihe 
Platte river and west of the IMissouri. How did we get down 
here? I will tell you, brotlu^r Hascall. I lived twenty-two 
miles north of Onudia. The first day I would drive down to 
Ouiaha. The next day I went across the river and drove down 
bv the wav of rouncil lUuft's to Nel)raska Citv, and stayed 
all night, and the third day I was able to reach the place 



54 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

where we now stand. From ANliere I lived at tlie outside it 
now takes about three hours; it then took three days. 

I don't Avish to occupy your time, and I don't Ivuow but 
what I have said now more than I should, but 1 wish to bring- 
up these facts to show you, as ever}- man knows, if he stops 
to think what we have done in the past thirty years, what 
still we may do in the next thirty years. Nebraska is the best 
agricultural statf.^ in the Union, and J don't leave out any 
one. The wealth of this country is in its soil. AVhat is its 
gold, its iron, its silver, its copper A\'ortli if there Avas not 
something to feed the man ^^■]lo works in tlie mine? It all 
depends upon the agricultural resources of the country to 
make it great and prosx)erous. There was not a state in this 
Union after the storm of 1893 and 1894 that swept over this 
country from ocean to ocean, and from the Lakes to the Gulf, 
that recuperated as quickly and rapidly and thoroughly as 
the state of Nebraska. I think it is the verdict of everv think- 
ing man, simply because we are an agricultural country, the 
men and women, too, and the boys that went out and dug the 
wealth out of the soij. and fed tlie other people and operated 
in that way to pay our debts. [Applause.] 

President Furnas : He spoke of Grand Island as being on 
tlie outskirts of this country at that time. I remember it 
well; I remember the men aaIio were pioneers in and about 
Grand Island, AVe have one of them here this afternoon, 
William Stolh^y, wbo was one of the first men to make that 
region ot <(Mnitry what it is today. 

\\'iLi>iA.M Stolley;! I know you very seldom make mis- 
takes, bnt this time I gurss you have. I am not accus- 
tomed 1(» addressing an audience and T will be verv brief. I 



'William Stolley, Grand Island, Nebraska, was born in Warder, Sege- 
berg, Germany, April 6, 1831. He acquired his education in his native 
country, where be also saw army service as a sharpshooter. In 1849 he 
emigrated to America, landing at New Orleans. From there he went by 
f>teamboat to Davenport, Iowa. After traveling for three years, collecting 
natural history specimens, he engaged in the mercantile business in 
Davenport. In 1857 he led a German colony into the Platte valley of 
Nebraska, and settled near the site of the present town of Grand Island, 
where he has since resided. He has served as a school director in dis- 
trict No. 1, of Hall county, for about forty years. 



TEKlUTUlilAL PIONEER DAYS. 55 

guess I have to ask jour pardon at the start, at tlie same time 
I will attempt to say a few words. ]Mr. Kennard he made one 
remark about nubbins of corn. A little before he liot to 
Grand Island civilization stopped. lu what year was that, 
Mr. Kennard? He says 18G7. No^^• it ^^as in the 3'ear 1857, 
ten years earlier, that I organized the colony of thirty-five 
men and three women in Davenport, Iowa, to pilot them 
through the state of Iowa. These thirty-five men were to 
be started by a town site company, which expected to make 
big money there. They agreed to furnish the money and buy 
320 acres of land under the territorial law at that time, but 
later on found that thev could not do it, and so the settlers 
had to get it themselves, but they sunk about f 0,500 there in 
that settlement, and evervbodv had to go on his own hook. 
Now that was in 1857. The next ^ear we had ten teams, one 
wagon with two voke of oxen, and the next vear I took out 
ten teams from Davenport, Iowa, in 1858, and we v.ent right 
to work digging into the ground. I made tlie first landmark 
in Hall county, and I live on the same 160 acres today, and I 
propose to die right there. That ^ as ten years before Mr. 
Kennard was there. 

The second vear after we came there I contracted with 
the quartermaster at Ft. Kearney for 2,000 bushels of corn 
to be delivered in shelled corn at |2 per bushel. In those 
days the government had to pay f3.75 and get it from Ft. 
Leavenworth, so it Avas quite a saving to the government, and 
it was fine for us. Manv a load of corn I have taken mvself 
up the Platte river into Ft. Kearney and got my |2. Now 
that was seven vears before Mr. Kennard was there. l>v that 
time I had a grove of six acres of cottonwood trees growing. 
I now have a park of about thirty-five acres, and I don't be- 
lieve there is a nicer park in the state of Nebraska for differ- 
ent kind of trees. I have been inviting our president. Gov- 
ernor Furnas, and Mr. Morton, but I can not get them to go. 
I would enjoy it to take them around and have them take a 
glass of mv own wine. But thev don't come! Wby don't 
you? 



56 NEBRASKA STATE IllSTOUlCAL SOCIETY. 

The Pkesident: AVe will. 

Now we had a pretty hard road to travel, that is so, but 
then we have got a nice city uow, of Avhich I am i^roiid. I 
guess I was the cause of it. There Avas a fight about our city. 
They wanted to call it New Kiel; I thought it wasn't just 
right. Grand Island was suggested. It is named after the 
large island over there, but Grand Island holds its own pretty 
well, I think, and going into instances, there are quite a num- 
ber of them, but it would look too egotistical to go into that. 

I Avill relate one incident that happened after we had been 
there three years, the first run we made out to the Loup. We 
met two men there from Des IMoines, aaIio set the prairie afire 
and burned out, and they had only one part of their wagon. 
All their guns were burned. It was a trapping party, and we 
met them twelve miles above Kearnev on Wood river. The 
fire jumped Wood river and went to Kearney and destroyed 
400 tons of hay for the government. Before we met them we 
thought they were buffaloes, and we watched for the buffalo 
coming over a hill, and when they crossed over that hill I 
saw horses against the sky and, though it was getting dark, 
saAV their horses' ears. I savs, '-Bovs, don't shoot." ^Ye took 
them in, nearly starved, and gave them something to eat. We 
Avent on to the Loup and killed lots of buffalo and caught an 
Indian pony, and then it turned A^ery cold, and then Ave came 
doAvn to about ten or twelve miles above AAiiere Grand Island 
Avas. There Avas a Mormon settler located there. He had a 
dugout 14 X 24 and took the dirt and put it into the 
river, and only kept enough to cover his dugout, so you could 
hardly see it, but you could drive over it. When Ave got there 
and had been in the wind all day, and as tired as possibly 
could be (you knoAV hoAv that is), AAdien one gets into Avarm 
air on an occasion like this, he Avill go to sleep nearly 
instantly. 

We had to have our supper. lie was a Mormon and he had 
a Avife and seA^en children, and they were only a year apart, 
and one looked just exactly like the other, just about the 
same, it seemed to be, so that the father got mistaken in their 



TERRITORIAL PIONEER DAYS. 57 

names. When we got up to the table the young ones were 
ranged all around, and he prayed as a jMormon to the Heav- 
enly Father and blessed and thanked Him for the blessings 
of the day. There was a crash above us just then. I had 
gone i^retty nearly to sleep, and instead of going on Avith his 
prayer, the dirt came down onto our tables, and he says, 

''God ," right in the middle of his prayer, and then I 

came very nearly running my fork into my nose. It was a 
big ox that tried to cross over the dugout ; the ox came down 
with all four legs on the table. AA^e had to get out, and we 
could not get the ox at all excei)t ])y i)utting a chain around 
his neck and hauling him out. There is more of that kind, 
but I guess this will do. Now please excuse me, 1 can not 
speak off -hand. [Applause.] 

Governor Furnas: AVe have with us today a young man 
who has had a conspicuous part in the development of this 
commonA\ealth. In 1854: the Kansas-Nebraska act pass(Hl, 
and this young man in the state of Michigan embraced tht' 
first opportunity to cast his lot in this then untried region of 
countr}'. I have known him intimately since the following 
year. He has been a pioneer, trying to advance tlie interests 
and promote the good of this country we no^^' enjoy. That 
gcntlenmn is J. Sterling Morton, who is witli us this aftcr- 
no(m. I call on him. 

Hon. J. Sterling Morton ; I don't know that I can add 
anything to this reunion. As I came in I heard this rcnuirk 
from my hmg-time friend relative to the times in this state, 
how public sentiment had changed — our senators changed 
their minds. It was suggested bv him that this resolution 
should pass, and a legislature — not the people of the state — 
should ignore the word "white" in the constitution. Tliat was 
a very remarkable statement and it suggested to me that 
there were other changes. He insisted upon this legislative 
act in the state of Nebraska as an additional precedent to its 
admission into the Union, declining to admit Kansas because 
it had done the same thing. So there were a great many 
things, — it was a pretty good thing in Nebraska to make a 



58 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

coiistitutiou without submitting tliat question to the people, 
and it was a, ver}" wrong thing to do the same thing in Kan- 
sas. The secretary and acting governor and 1^ organized Hall 
county in 1858 and appointed Stolley one of tlie commission- 
ers — we appointed the whole thing from Omaha. Already 
they had begun the cultivation of corn, and they had sent in 
specimens to show what the}' could do, that there were no 
nubbins, so I repudiate that intinmtion that the}^ only grew 
small corn there. As earlv as the Pawnee War, von remem- 
ber it, .gentlemen, there was a very successful and prosperous 
settlement at Grand Island. I remember we sent a man by 
the name of Thomas Johnson, A^il0 was an agent of the stage 
line at Omaha, to notify ('olonel May for troops to protect 
our people on the Elkhorn against assaults of the Indians, 
and Grand Island was a station. I think he made the trip to 
Kearney in three days, and through him we secured a com- 
pany of cavalry under W. IF. I{ol)inson, who came down to 
the assistance of General Thayer and the governor of the ter- 
ritor}^ Grand Island was then a source of supply. Now, 
Mr. President, as to this invitation that Mr. !?^tolley has ex- 
tended to you and me, I remember that is true, I wish to go, 
but he never said anything to me, and I iH'esume not to you, 
about the wine. I presume you wo'.ibl have gone out, I am 
not sure about myself. 

The settlement at Grand Island was, as Mr. Kennard sug- 
gested, the pioneer settlement, and it ^^•as instituted there by 
the Gernuins, and I question whether any other people would 
have stood what they did for four or five years — raising corn 
when it will not pay. AVhile you had |2 a bushel it was not 
so very bad employment for any one. But beyond that, after- 
NN'ards and a long time before Kennard's Subdivision, tlu^re 
was quite a large fa^'m on the north side of the Platte from 
Kearney. J. E. Boyd raised quite a good deal of corn; I 
think he raised enough to run a brcAvery there. (I can not 



'It should be said here that Mr. Morton was acting-governor by virtue 
of his position as secretary of the territory when Hall county was or- 
ganized, which explains his statement that "the Secretary, and Acting- 
Governor and I organized Hall county in 1858." 



TEKKITOUIAL I'lONEEli DAYS. 59 

see bow Kemiard came so near to Grand Island and did not 
smell that brewery.) 

The travel in tbose days from tlie river to tbe ^lississippi 
required a great deiil of fortitude. I remember in tbe winter 
of 1867 of going from Couneil L'hiffs in a stage to Iowa City. 
AVe bad tbree on a seat. Tbe fare was !?21, and meals at sta- 
tions consisting of sausage and liot bread and coffee, one meal 
|1 eacb. I wisli to say tbat tbere was less grumbling about 
tbe facilities and comforts of traveling by stage coacb tben 
tban tbere is in tbe Pullman car now. People now demand 
evervtbing tbat tbe imagination can conceive of. In tbose 
stage coacb davs tbere was less fault-finding witb metbods of 
transportation, witb tbe rates of transportation. I remember 
pretty well I filed an original paper witb our State Historical 
Societv some time ago. I bad great good fortune in raising 
potatoes one year. I found tbat tbe Denver market de- 
manded potatoes and I sent out two wagons loaded, and tbey 
sold in Denver at 22 cents a pound, but tbe cost of transpor- 
tation was 12 cents a pound, and after I paid tbe commission 
man and tbe otber expenses I bad about |55 left, so tbat tbe 
extortion of tbe mule society of tbat time was as great as tbe 
railroads today. So tbat I tliink wbile I bave a great regard 
for tbe good old times, tbat tbe present times are ratber pref- 
erable to men of our age. 

Tbe experience related by Mr. Stolley about tbe ox reminds 
me of a trip taken witb Mr. Wool worth in 1867. We got to 
Nebraska Citv, arriving there at dark. At tbat time Wool- 
worth had to appeal a case in tbe supreme coui't. In driving 
out we drove over a dugout tbe same as he describes, and 
knocked down tbe stove pipe, and tbe proprietor of tbe man- 
sion emerged from under cover in great rage. 

Tbere is one thing among the old timers, — we all felt our 
isolated condition. Tbere was moi'e cordiality in tbose days 
than in these civilized times. We loved company, and it was 
a God's blessing when some one came to tbe home out on the 
prairie, a long ways from neigld^ors and you could shake a 
friendly hand. There was a certain open-hearted cordiality 



60 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOIUCAL SOCIETY. 

that WHS heartfelt all over these prairies everywhere in the 
West. I am sorry to say that with the luxuries of uiore re- 
fined civilized life that cordiality that existed then has largely 
passed away. 

I remember Judi!,'e Bradford, wliom we met in Iowa. He 
said it was a very cloud}^ night, and lie and Judge IJennett 
arrived at a cabin and asked to stay all night. They said, 
"Yes, but we can not give you mucli. A\'e have nothing but 
corn meal and salt and water," and he said the cake was 
made and the}^ could judge of it. After supper he lighted his 
pipe and then heard the woman of the house say to her hus- 
band, ''John, if those pups sleep in the meal much more it 
will not be fit for bread." 

PiiEsiDENT Furnas : The women did their part well in pio- 
neer days. I see before me a lady a\'1io was a pionc^er school 
teacher on an Indian reservation. She is here with us as a 
pioneer today, Mrs. MacMurphy. 

jMrs. MacMurphy : It is true tliat I was a teacher in the 
very early da^^s when I was a girl of fourteen, and moreover 
I was a teacher under one of tlie friends wdio is with us to- 
day. I taught in Governor Furnas's family on tlie Omaha 
Indian reservation, in the 3^ear, I think, of 18CI. In fact, 
one of the pupils- that I have just been passing the usual 
salutations with, that have been a pleasure between us for a 
good many years, never ceases telling me how I treated him 
and how I was under contract to make him behave, and I in 
turn tell him that he didn't seem to be under contract to be- 
have, and now this we enjoy very much. This pupil was one 
year younger than I was. 

After riding over the prairies of Iowa, day after day, my 
father and his family, the most of them in a wagon, which ho 
had covered and made comfortable, and back of it a buggy 
with one horse driven by myself, a girl twelve years old, with 
my little twin brothers beside me. AVe went as you have, 
starting in the morning from a house where we got shelter 
the night before, and would go perhaps .all day long over the 
hills, not seeing another house until we reached some place 



TERRITORIAL PIONEER DAYS. f)l 

where we could get shelter at iiijiht. We came to the Mis- 
souri, and a vivid picture is before me — beside it a yoniig 
girl standing out there barefoot, a beautiful girl, as the 
average would uuike of that class. AVe learned afterwards 
that she was even then only about tifteen years old, nnd 
a widow of -Jules, for Axhoin Julesburg Avas named. \\'(i 
waited there for the ferrvboat to come to the landing to take 
US across the river, and then we were in Nebraska. There 
are other pictures still more beautiful. I feel that I stand 
here as a. representative of several generations of pioneers. 
One of them whom you know well. 

My husband was even earlier than 1 to come to Nebraska, 
up the Missouri river in the boats as it has been related, in 
the year 1867 to Decatur, the town almost the earliest to be 
settled and to which the first railroad was laid out, an air line 
from Chicago to Decatur. That town is still waiting for its 
railroad. 

My husband and I in the yQavH after had planned that 
when the railroad reached ])ecatur we should go into Decatur 
on the first train. He has passed out, and it may perhaps be 
my pleasure yet to go if such an event should occur, because 
but very few of you can understand, unless you did live in 
that section, the stage difficulties, and the efforts and desires 
of a number of marked individuals who lived in that queer 
little town in their efforts to have a railroad there. 

President Furnas: We haven't the acquaintance of the 
other ladies here. Those of you who have please call out their 
names that they may take part in these reminiscences. If not, 
I will call upon General Yifquain. 

Gen. Victor Vifquain:^ Mr. President — ^We are not 
voung men anv more. Years have whitened our hairs, be- 
sides myself, and I hope for most of you that the heart is still 



'General Victor Vifqiiain was born in Brussels, Belgium, May 20, 1836. 
He received a military education in an academ.y of his native town, and 
in 1858 emigrated to America and established his home on a tract of un- 
surveyed land in Saline county, Nebraska. ^Vith the beginning of the 
Civil War he enlisted with the 53d New York as a private and was mus- 
tered out eight months later with the rank of adjutant. In 1862 he was 
appointed adjutant of the 97th Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, and rose to 



62 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

vouuji', but I assnr(3 ^-ou I renioniber with tlie greatest pleas- 
ure the friends I made forty-five years ago in tlie state of Ne- 
braska. I received mv first lessons from Morton. I have 
been steadfast ever since; I will remain so. We made it a, 
matter of pride then as young men to honor the state by 
wliatever we might be called upon to do. We didn't tliink to 
make monev. We thouaht Hie woi-ld was going to take care 
of us. Some of us have been sadlj' disappointed. The world 
takes care of those who take care of themselves, because this 
is a verv selfish world, Mr. Presideht. And when I thought 
of this meeting this morning I was hoping that I would meet 
nu)re of the old settlers of the state, of the continentals you 
might call us, the Old Guard. There are too few to hear our 
old friend, Mr. Cox. There are more that ought to be here. 
I don't know of a single one of the old citizens of tlie state 
that have been cousi)icuous who has disgraced th(i state; most 
of them have honored the state, and the young generation 
owe them a great deal, but they don't think they do. One 
thing that I regret very much is that some j^eople don't take 
interest enough in the education of tlie fireside to teach their 
children what tlicw owe to those ^^ ho have made the state and 
who have kept it. This is a good time t(j S))eak of such mat- 
ters. 1 think we have all thought of that, but know we have 
been derelict in teaching them that which thev shonld know. 
1 hope at some other time when we meet again there will be 
more of us. We will feel more free to talk because the num- 
ber is larger. I thank you for your attention. [Applause.] 

the rank of brigadier-general. He was awarded a medal ol honor by the 
Congress of the United States, and was the only Nebraskan to ever re- 
ceive such distinction. He was mustered out at Springfield. Illinois, in 
October, 1865. After the war he returned to Nebraska, and in 1867 was 
the democratic candidate for Congress from the fourth district. In 1871 
he was elected a member of the constitutional convention of ihat year. 
In 1879 he established the raiVj' State Democrat at. Lincoln. In 1886 he 
was appointed by President Cleveland as consul at Baranquiila, and was 
promoted to the consulate at Colon in 1888. In 1891 he was appointed 
adjutant-general of Nebraska by Governor Boyd. In 1893 he was ap- 
pointed consul-general to Panama, serving until 1897. In May, 1898, Gen- 
eral Vifquain joined the 3d Nebraska Regiment for the Spanish-American 
War, and was commissioned lieutenant-colonel. With the resignation of 
Colonel Bryan he became colonel of the regiment. He was mustered out 
with the regiment May, 1899. General Vifquain died at Lincoln, Ne- 
braska, January 7, 1904. 



TERRITOUIAL PIONEER DAYS. 63 

President Furnas : I knew Nathan Blakel v when he ven- 
tnred as far west as Gage county. That country was tlien of 
very doubtful character, whether it coukl be civilized. He 
and a fe>v others went in an early day, and have made that 
county bloom as a rose with one of tlie finest inlaiul to\^ns 
in the state. 

Mr. IjLAkely:^ .Mr. President — 1 don't know as I can 
make any remarks on this occasion. 1 have been very feeble 
in health and have been for a numlx^r of vears. I located in 
Beatrice in July, 1857, in company with a brother of mine 
and a cousin and- four or five wagonloads of immigrants. We 
started from Iowa towards Omaha, expecting to locate there, 
AMien we got there in June, 1857, we found that all of the 
land Avas claimed between Omaha and the Elkhoru river, a 
distance of about twenty miles. There were no S(^ttlements 
on this land; there were one or two small buildings put up, 
but there Avere stakes driven in the quarter-section corners 
with some person's name on who had claimed that ([uarter- 
section. AVe had a great desire to jump sonui of those claims 
that were unoccupied, but we were told that if we did that 
the men before leaving would have thrown us iilto the rive-r 
or tar-and-feathered us. We didn't desire to go through that 
ordeal, and so we started to go out as far as th(? Elkhorn 
with our ox teams aiid wagons, and staved there about a week. 
There was but one claim at that time of lUO a<-res that was 
not clainuMl by some one. We went to examine that, and it 
Avas very rocky and sandy. The members of that club in 
Omaha, they said that they Avould certainly perform some 
very severe operations up(m us if we darccl to jiim]» these 



'Nathan Blakely was born in Roxbury, Connecticut, July 25, 1824. He 
was educated at Roxbury Academy, and during his young manhood was a 
teacher in New Yorl^, New Jersey, and Illinois, and an editor at Birminj.,- 
ham, New Jersey. He settled m Gage county, Nebraska, July 17, 1857, 
and resided on a farm until 1864, during which time he also engaged in 
freighting across the plains. He then engaged in the general merchan- 
dise business in Beatrice until 1875. In 1861 he Was elected to the terri- 
torial legislature, and again elected in 18^;6. He was elected to the state 
legislature in 1868, and served during the first session hehl in I.inrol-i. 
He was receiver of tne United States land office at Beatrice Ironi 1869 
to 1875. Mr. Blakely died in 1907. 



64 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

pieces of laud. It would a>stoui.sli you to kuow their names, 
some of the priucipal meu aud lawyers that probably live iu 
Omaha. We really heard that they had thrown one man into 
the river because he had jumped one claim, but we did not 
want to run any risk, and so we started down the river, un- 
derstanding that there was a ferry down about half way be- 
tween there and the mouth of the river where we could cross 
into the interior. AVe found that ferry had been waslied out. 
AVe went on to IJellevue, and the next morning was the Jrth 
of July. We made a very early start and went up to Omaha. 
W^e arrived in Omaha a little before noon that day, aud I 
recollect one circumstance that I shall never forget. Tliey 
told us that a man had ridden a horse ux^stairs on the second 
story where a saloon was kex)t, and we got there just as the 
horse was half down the stairs. We saw that. 1 think that 
man was Dr. Henry. We stayed there a day or two and A>ent 
across to Council Bluti's and down the opx)Osite side to nearly 
opposite Plattsinouth to a small little town called Jacobs. 
There we crossed over into Nebraska. We heard of Weeping 
Water falls, a very fine locality for a flouring mill. We drove 
out there and we found that everything tliei-e was claimed 
for a long distance. 

^Ve found a party there that were going to Nebraska for 
the same purpose we were, so wc; agreed togetlu^', about 
(4ght wagons in all, that we would go up to the Big Blue. 
As near as I can tell we crossed not very far from where Lin- 
coln now stands on our way to the Blue. AVe suffered for 
water on the road. AVe struck the Big ]31ue iu Saline county. 
AVe did not find anything like the timber we exj^ected to find 
nor the rich bottom land, so we made up our minds to go 
into Kansas. In Gage county we found a company tliere 
from Nebraska City. They urged us to stay. AA'e kept on 
down the river, and when we got to Beatrice we found an- 
other company there, located about six A\eeks before we got 
there. They urged us to stop. I think there were some forty 
members in this party ; they formed a company to locate that 
town. AVe commenced looking around to find a claim. AVe 



TERRITORIAL PIONEER DAYS. 65 

foimd there were no improvemeiits. They said every settler 
was entitled to a quarter-section of timberland and a prairie 
quarter-section. When Ave investigated we found that some 
of these were several miles from Beatrice. We finally decided 
to locate there for good. Tinally we got land wdthin about a 
mile and a half of the city, and we stayed there. My brother 
died about three years ago, and I am still living there. At 
the time we located there we had to go to Brownville to trade, 
sixty miles away. There were very few settlements between 
our place and Brownville, but the people of Brownville in- 
sisted that w^e leave that countrv and locate in Nemaha. 
They said, "You will be sorry that yon stayed there, our laud 
is good.'' We paid no particular attention to that advice, 
and I am very glad to say that I have been there since 1857 
and expect to stay there as much longer as T can. 

Mr. W. W. Cox •} Mr. President — I am a sort of a tender- 
foot as compared with many of these speakers here, but still 
I was here some time ago. Very little has been said about 
this city and its immediate surroundings. You were all on 
the ground so long before Lincoln was thought of, that it has 
escaped your notice to tell the folks anything about how peo- 
ple located here once. On the 2d of July, 18G1, I think, in 
compauy with one of the young settlers of the Dee family, I 
made a two-wheeled cart propelled by oxen. Buck and 
r»right, I guess they were called. We came down from tlie 
Dee houie, which was five miles south of here, and eauu' up 
here. At that time there Avere two blind tracks across this 
town site, and the Avild inhabitants, so far as 1 know of, were 
a beautiful drove of antelopes about where the government 



'William Wallace Cox was born in Versailles. New York, November 
12, 1832, son of Alordecai and Catherine Peters Cox, The family moved 
to Sangamon county, Illinois, where the father died, and the mother with 
her children went to Green county, Wisconsin. In his young manhood 
Mr. Cox was a school teacher in Wisconsin and Illinois. In 1858 he re- 
moved to Iowa, and in February, 1860, settled at Nebraska City. In 1864 
he moved to Seward county, where he resided during most of his later 
years. In 1888 he edited a "History of Seward County," which he re- 
vised and pu1)lished in a second edition in 1905. Mr. Cox died Feoruary 
25, 1907. 



66 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Square was; they were the only inhabitants of the city of 
Lincoln so far as I know. 

'Now, I want to tell you in regard to the first settlement of 
this town site. On the following 4th of July, wife and I were 
living over here at the basin. We concluded to gather some 
gooseberries. Along about eleven o'clock we heard a cheer 
at the little cabin. When we came in sight, we beheld that 
the stars and stripes fluttered over our cabin ; and how came 
it there? Had it fallen from heaven or where did it come 
from? But we heard some nmle voices there and we went 
over to the cabin, and there they were, Uncle Dr. McKesson, 
that splendid specimen of manhood Elder Young, Peter 
Shamp, and Jacob Dawson, Luke Lavender, and Edward 
Warnes. The}^ had come and tlwy had brouglit the blessed 
flag and Ave had a 4th of July celebration in '62 there at the 
Salt Basin, and a jolly good time. They were looking for a 
place to found a colony and they looked all around, but they 
located right here on this quarter-section, and they named it 
the town of Lancaster, and in a year and a half after that they 
held a county seat election, and it was held at my cabin, and 
we voted the count}^ seat of Lancaster county here at tlie town 
of Lancaster, and I understand the records of Lancaster show 
nothing of the kind, but it is a fact just the same. The years 
have rolled by. When the capital was located I was one of 
those peculiarly sanguine creatures, and I predicted in my 
wilil ijiiagination that it would not be twenty-five years until 
wr liad a population of 5,000 iu the city of Lincoln. Just 
think how wild we all were. I Avas ]3erhaps the oldest of the 
lot and yet how far short of tlie reality. It seems like awak- 
ening from a Rip , A^an Winkle sleep ev(^ry time I come 
into this city and ))ehold its grandeur and development. 
[Applause.] 

Dr. Renner •} My best hold is the pen. It is rather unfair 
to expect a pump to give water both at the spout and pump 



'Dr. Frederick Renner, Omaha, Nebraska, was born In 1830 at Spires, 
in Rhenisli Bavaria. He emigrated to America, and shortly afterward 
joined a party of friends, with the intention of traveling overland to Cali- 
fornia. Reaching Nebraska City in May, 1S56, he was persuaded to join 



TERRITORIAL PIONEER DAYS. 67 

liaudle, but since you were kind enough to call on nie I will 
simply relate that perhaps I have killed as many rabbits as 
anybody in this assembh^, because I was one of the surveyors 
when the surveyor generaFs office was located in Leaven- 
worth to run the base line along the 40° parallel from the 
Missouri river, and going on that line straight west to the 
summit of the Eockv mountains, then on to the western 
boundarv of Utah. Of course no Colorado Avas thought of 
until after Ave returned from our two-years trip. We took 
nothing but a blind trail. Ilasing it on the imaginary line 
between Kansas and Nebraska Ave struck the llepublican, 
crossing the base line scA^en times, I think, in Nuckolls 
county. I A\ as often ahead to make a diagram of the country 
in order that Ave might tell Avhere to locate our camp for the 
next night, to find AA^ater and x>erhaps wood, and also rock 
because Ave had to set mile stones and half-mile stones wher- 
ever possible Avith rock; otherAvise Ave had to erect ''nigger- 
heads." On the llepublican riA^er Ave saAV the first prairie-dog 
villages, one after another. The fellow that Avas Avith me on 
horseback Avas an habitual suioker, and he had his tobacco, 
Avhich Avas the kinnikinic made from the sumac leaA^es 
found on the road. When a\ e first struck that prairie-dog 
A'illage, Ave saAV snakes and any number of them. I says, 
"Let us go to w^ork and get the rattles off the snakes, then aa^c 
can shoAv the felloAvs at the camp.'' We took the steel ram- 
rod of a gun that Ave had; aac had some revolvers, but as a 
usual thing we carried these old armv muskets. We killed a 
snake, and one fellow cut off the rattles and put the rattles 
into a salt bag, and lo and behold, you would not believe it 
today. It is a fact Ave filled that salt bag before Ave finished, 
and Ave Avent back to camp to shoAA' them. They asked us 



the surveying party of Col. Charles A. Manners, then engaged in estab- 
lishing the boundary line between Kansas and Nebraska. He later prac- 
ticed medicine at Nebraska City until 1S()1. and then established the Ne- 
braska Staats-Zeittino, which he continued to publish until 1876. From 
1867 to 1870 he was assessor of internal revenue of Nebraska. In 1875 
he was appointed revenue agent for Texas, Arkansas. Missouri, Kansas, 
Indian Territory, and Colorado, with headquarters at St. Louis, but re- 
signed one year later and returned to Nebraska City. During his later 
years Dr. Renner has resided in Omaha. 



68 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. * 

what kiud of mineral we had there. It was iiotliiiig but the 
rattk's of ratthssiiakes. You tell that today to any man liv- 
ing' in Nebraska only ten years, and he would say that is a 
snake story, but it is an actual fact, and J. Sterling 31oi'tou 
has seen them. 



CAMPAIGNING AGAINST CKAZY IlOIiSE. 

IvEAD Before the Annual Meeting of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society^ January 14, 1003. 

by david t. mears/ chadron^ nebraska. 

In 1875-76 I was in Wasliini'ton, D. (\ In January I re- 
ceived a letter from General Crook, who was tlien in eom- 
mand of the Department of the Platte, to report to him at 
Cheyenne, AVyoming", as soon as possible to ori;anize his trans- 
portation for a sumnu^r campaign against tlie vSioux and 
other Indians who were tlien on the war-path, killing settlers 
and committing all kinds of deiu-edations. I landed in Chey- 
enne in due time and went to work at onc<\ ^ly ])articular 
business was to organize pack-trains. IJight here is a gool 
place to describe a pack-train. It consists of a lot of medium 
sized mules on which to carry sup])lies f(»r the army when we 
cut loose from the wagon trains. AVe could then ke(q) up 
Avith the command, let the soldiers go Avhen and wlu^re they 



'David Young Mears, Chadron, Nebraska, was born in Westmoreland 
county, Pennsylvania, December 13, 1833, son of John Blair and Martha 
Young Mears. At the age of fifteen years he went to Pittsburg, and for 
several years was employed on the steamboats plying the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi rivers. In 1856 he went to the Pacific coast, where he engaged 
in mining and freighting. He later went to Idaho, and thence to Mon- 
tana, and in 1869 to White Pine, Nevada. Mr Mears was with General 
Crook, as transportation manager, during the campaigns against the In- 
dians from 1874 to 1879. In the spring of 1880 he went to Ft. Niobrara. 
He was the original settler on the land that now embraces the site of 
Valentine, county seat of Cherry county, and was one of the commis- 
sioners appointed to organize that county. He served as county com- 
missioner there, and as postmaster at Valentine. He later located at 
Chadron, and became one of the first county commissioners of Dawes 
county and the first mayor of Chadron. He served subsequently as jus- 
tice of the peace, police judge, water comnussioner, and member of the 
city council. 



CAMPAIGNING AGAINST CRAZY HOUSE. 69 

would or travel as fast as they wished. The paek-trahi was 
right at their heels, with their provisions, blaukets, aiiiiiumi- 
tiou, tents, or feed for the horses. A pack-train geuc^rallj 
consists of about sixty pack and ten riding mules, led by one 
bell horse. An army horse will do, just so he is gentle and is 
a good kicker. Mules are very playful, and the horse that 
kicks, bites, and fights them most is the horse that suits them 
best. Keep the bell horse in Tiand. and Indians will get verv 
fcAv mules in case of a stampede. 

We had eight such trains as above described when we loft 
Cheyenne for the Ijighorn country in AVyoming. Ix'sides 
about one hundred wagons divided into four trains, each 
train under the supervision of a wagon-master and one 
assistant. 

About the first of March, 1876, we left Chc^yenne on our 
Indian hunt. The weather was very cold nearly all the time 
we were gone on that trip. We went via Ft. Laramie and Ft. 
Fetterman. The latter fin-t was close to where thc^village of 
Douglas, Wyoming, now stands. From there. Ave went over 
to the Drv Fork of Powder river, where we had our first 
alarui from Indians. We had some beef cattle with Hie coiu- 
mand and every few days had one killed. There were about 
a dozen left, and as Indians are very fond of beef tliey will 
run some chances to get the cattle. One night they shot the 
herder, ran oft' all our beef cattle, and we never saw any of 
them since. Our scouts from here were sent out in advance 
to locate liie Indian village. They were to meet the couiuumd 
at the crossing of the Crazy Woman's fork of ilie Powder 
river. The scouts returned and reported that they had seen 
signs of Indians, and after a needed short rest Avore again 
sent ahea<l to locate, if possible, their vilhige. After a few 
<lays the scouts returned Avith Avliat they called good ucavs. 
They had located a village of about sixty tepees. For two 
days Ave had orders not to shoot under any circnuistances, nor 
to make any undue noise, as Ave had to make a sneak to sur- 
prise the Indians. The night before we jumped the Indians 
Avas one of the coldest nights I had ever experienced. We left 



70 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

camp about two o'clock in the iiioruing' of March 17, and 
opened the campaign on St. Patricls;'.s day. t^everal companies 
rode through the village, shooting right and left and stam- 
peded the Indians, who soon rallied, returned, and ])ravelj de- 
fended their families. A great man}^ people have an idea that 
Indians are not brave, that they will only sneak on the enemy ; 
but let such be undeceived. Indians will average with white 
men in bravery. I noticed on this trip that when the troops 
were surprised in camp, as occurred several times during the 
summer, they Avould try to dodge every bullet that came. 
After the fight in the early morning several soldiers were 
found killed. How the Indians suffered in killed and wounded 
we never knew, as the troops never went back to the battle- 
field, but left their dead in the hands of the Indians. 

General Crook decided to return to Cheyenne to reorganize 
for a summer campaign against the same Indians. We were 
in rendezvous camp near Cheyenne several A\^eeks and made 
a start fof the I^ighorn country well equipped for a summer 
campaign. We took the same route we had taken before, and 
arrived by easy marches at old Ft. Reno, AVyoming. The 
scouts had been sent out a few daj^s previously and soon 
brought in news that Indians were plenty but they could not 
locate their camp. We broke camp and moved farther west 
and located camp on Tongue river. We had not been in camp 
long when the Indians surprised us by firing into camp. The 
next day we packed the wagons, mounted the infantry on 
pack mules, and with four days' rations we left camp for 
Eosebud, as the scouts had located the Indian camp on that 
stream. The second day from camp we found the carcasses 
of several buffalo which had been very recently killed by the 
Indians. Although it was not more than nine o'clock a.m., 
General Crook decided to go into camp until the Indian vil- 
lage was definitely located. But the Indians were on the 
lookout for us, and had come about six miles to attack us, 
which they did before we got into camp. They were in front, 
rear, flanks, and on every hilltop, far and near. I had been 
in several Indian battles, but never saw so many Indians at 



CAMPAIGNING AGAINST CRAZY HORSE. 71 

one time before, at least not Avhen they were- on the war path. 
We had about six hundred men, having left about three hun- 
dred to guard the wagon train. We also had eighty Sho- 
shones, eighty Crows, and fifty Pawnees as allies. They made 
good scouts and did good work. Tliev all acted verv brave, 
each tribe vieing Avith the others to outdo in acts of bravely. 

I had a very close call myself at this Kosebud fight. We 
were half a mile from the creek and needed water badly, es- 
pecially in the hospital. I started with several canteens, went 
on foot, and kept well out of sight, going down a ravine. 
There was a Shoshone Indian who had left his saddle at the 
creek when the fight started and was going after it. AVe kept 
together for several hundred yards. He then left me and 
went alone for his saddle, as I could strike the creek in a 
nearer wav. The first thing A\e knew the Sioux had us cut 
off from the command. There were eight or ten of them who 
opened fire on us. I got behind a bank and stood them off 
until some of the troops came toward me and drove the In- 
dians away, but they got my Indian friend. When I saA\' that 
the Sioux had him going ahead of them, I knew he would not 
last long. He turned around and fired at the Sioux, and 
when they found his gun empty a couple of Sioux ran u]) so 
close on him that he had no time to load his gun. The Sho- 
shone jumped off his pony and sprang over a bank of the 
creek. A Sioux who was at his heels lit upon him and stabbed 
him in the back with a butcher knife, leaving the knife in the 
Shoshone's back. After the day's battle I went directly to 
find my Indian and found him lying on his face, dead, with 
the knife through his heart. I pulled it out and returned it 
to its scabbard which was lying in the ground AAhere the 
Sioux Indian had left it in his hurry to saA-e his own sialp. 
He did not even scalp the Slioshone, which proves what a 
great hurry he was in. 

The Rosebud battle lasted from about nine o'clock in the 
morning until near sundown, when the Indians witlidrew and 
were soon out of sight. The battle was fought on the ITth 
day of June, 1S7G. The Indians had gained their point, which 



72 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

^^'as to hold us there until the^^ could get their camp iiioved 
about forty miles from the Kosebud, and go into camp again 
on the Little Bighorn, A\here eight da^'s after General Custer 
met them and was utterly defeated by them. AA'e had ten 
men killed and several badly wounded in this light. The In- 
dians suffered a good deal as we afterwards learned. Gen- 
eral Crook returned with his command to the wagon train, 
and went into camp on Goose creek to await orders from Gen- 
eral Sheridan. We were in camp a long time without liearing 
from the outside world. Tlie Indians were ver^^ brave, think- 
ing they had got the best of it at the Kosebud, and I guess 
they had as much to crow over as anybody. They would often 
fire into our camp. At last, about the 4th of July, a courier 
came from Ft. Fetterman with the news of the Custer nuis- 
sacre, which had been known all over Europe eight or nine 
davs before we lieard of it, although we Avere within sixtv 
miles of Avhcn'e it occurred. General Crook had tried to get 
in communication with General Terrv who was in command 
of the Department of Dakota, but the scouts alwa^ s returned 
with the cry of "too many Indians" between the commands. 
We were, in camp until troops arrived from all points that 
could spare a corporal's guard, when we broke cauip and re- 
lieved the monotony by nmrchiug through tlie Indian country 
with two thousand men and ten davs' rations. We went 
where ive wished with a comnmud so large, though the In- 
dians still had the best of it numerically and their knowledge 
of the countrv gave them a chance to run or fight. AYe soon 
made a junction with General Terry on the Yellowstone river, 
but the Indians had scattered and we were not molested much 
by them. 

We left General Terrv an<l started for the Black Hills, 
thinking to come across some Indians. They had divided up 
into small bauds which would give them a better chance to 
depredate against the settlers in the vicinity of Deadwood. 
General Crook scoured the country all he could, but as th(^ 
rainv season had set in it was very difficult to do much scout- 
ing. The next twelve days was one of the hardest marches 



ca:mpaigning against cuazy house. 73 

United States troops ever made. We came dowu to horse 
meat for ratious, and that so poor, tliere was not fat enough 
on a dozen horses to season the gruel for a sick grasshopper. 
The horses were not killed until they gave out and could go 
no farther. ^A'ith the last meal of beans we had in the pack- 
train I concluded to have ([uite a blow-out and invite the Gen- 
eral to breakfast. Next morning our cook got all the beans he 
could get together for one grand mess. He cooked them in 
the evening, and some soldiers came around camp and ottered 
him |20 for the beans. The cook told me of the offer. 1 told 
him not to sell for any money, as 1 had invited General Crook 
and staff to breakfast. Well, the next morning the beans 
were all gonc^ — stolen. The cook s\a ore he did not sell them, 
neither did he eat them, but I will alwaA'^ think that cook got 
what he could eat and sold the balance. 

It rained every da3\ The horses were giving out, soldiers 
walking through mud. In the evening when we went into 
camp there was not a thing to eat but meat from poor horses, 
ten or fifteen of which were killed each evening and eaten 
with no seasoning whatever. 

Seventy-five miles from Deadwood we surprised a large 
band of Indians, about forty tepees, American Horse's band. 
We kept out of sight until daybreak, when \^'e made the at- 
tack. Several were killed on both sides and a great many 
soldiers wounded. American Horse soon had runners out to 
other Indian camps. Crazy Horse was soon on hand with all 
his force and made it verv interesting for us for six hours. 
After this battle, called "Slim Buttes," we fared a little bet- 
ter for something to eat. We had buft'alo meat, and besides 
the Indian ponies were fat anc\ we had plenty of them. I 
really thought that horse meat T\'as good and wondered ^^•hy 
we did not eat more horse at home. We could not follow the 
Indians on account of lack of rations, and the only thing that 
I could hope for was, that the man who stole the beans was 
killed. We arrived at Deadwood and were met by the citizens 
of that place with open arms and a generous hospitality that 
only those big-hearted miners know how to give. From there 



74 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the command came to Ft. Eobiuson, Nebraska, where a great 
many Indians had come in to give themselves up. Me. found 
them to be, generall}^, women and children and old and de- 
crepit men with no guns. This was just what the lighting 
Indians wanted — to get rid of those non-combatants who were 
only an encumbrance to them. Let the Government feed the 
squaws while the bucks fought the troops. 

General Crook was not satisfied with the surrender, and 
decided to make a winter campaign against Mr. Crazj^ Horse. 
We started again from Ft. Robinson and Ft. Laramie in No- 
vember, 1876, with a large command wliich require'd an extra 
amount of transportation to carry supplies. We arrived at 
Crazy Woman's creek and went into camp, having seen no 
Indians, but the scouts had been busy and had located a large 
village in the Bighorn mountains on the headwaters of the 
creek Ave were then camped on. Here again is where the pack- 
trains came into play. We cut loose from the wagon train 
and proceeded up the creek where it would be impossible for 
wagons to go. It began to get cold. After a march of twenty 
miles we laid in camp all day exj^ecting to make a night 
march. We dared not build a fire as the Indians would see 
our smoke. Cold? well I should say "Yes." Our spread for 
dinner was frozen beans, frozen bread, Avith snow balls and 
pepper on the side ; supper the same, less the beans. We be- 
gan to think that the government was treating us rather cool. 
Horse meat would liave been a Delmonico dinner. The scouts 
came into camp in the evening and reported the Indian camp, 
supposed to be that of Crazy Horse, Standing Elk, and Young 
American Horse. We made the attack at daybreak and com- 
pletely surprised the Indians, who soon rallied and came vpry 
near turning the tables on us, Avhen eighty packers left their 
mules in the rear of the command and joined in the fight and 
soon had the Indians on the retreat. We looted the village 
and burned everything we could not take away. This was 
the most telling battle against the Sioux that was fought dur- 
ing that 1876 campaign. It had more to do to make them 
surrender than all the other fights. We found that Crazy 



CAMPAIGNING AGAINST CRAZY HORSE. 75 

Horse was not in that figlit, but was camped on Powder river. 
Had lie been there with all his determined braves the battle 
might have had a different termination. He was so disgusted 
with that camp for retreating and giving up everything that 
he would hardly let the starving, freezing Indians come into 
his camp. His action in this case had its effect on him at his 
final surrender. General Crook made u^) his mind to try to 
strike Crazy Horse if possible before he left the country, but 
the cavalry horses and wagon mules were getting poor, tlie 
snow so deep, and the weather so terriidy cold that it was be- 
ginning to tell on the men, and he concluded to give up the 
chase. We made a detour of a few days* march on tlie Pow- 
der river and headwater of the Bellefourche and Cheyenne 
river which brought us to Punq^kin Butte, where we camped 
on Christnms Eve, just twenty-six years ago this day, and a 
colder day and night I never slept out of doors. Several mules 
froze stiff' and fell over during the night. So on the 25th of 
December we leTt Pumpkin IJuttes and Crazy Horse behind 
and started for Cheyenne, which caused a general rejoicing 
among men and mules. The backbone of the Indian war was 
broken, but the main vertebra was still defiant, viz.. Crazy 
Horse,, 

The next summer General Crook started again. He sent 
troops in all directions to bring in all Indians that had not 
previously surrendered. They iiad been coming in during the 
winter to Chief Red Cloud's cauip which was llicn situated 
near Ft. Robinson, Nebraska. General (M-ook wcul pcrson- 
ally to Ft. Robinson to superintend the surremli'r as they ar- 
rived. Thev were coming and going all th*' time, .-nid lie in- 
tended to put a stop to that. So h(^ issued an order that no 
Indian should leavc^ the agency without his ])ennissi«m. That 
utade the Indians "I'.eap mad," and they concocted a scheme 
to kill him. Tliey were to call a council to talk with liim 
about the surrender, when some one was to shoot liini and 
have a oenoral fight. An Indian, whom General (^rook had 
befriended at some tiuie, t(dd Crook all alxHit the i)lan. When 
the time came for the talk tlu^ (Jeneral had the whole place 



76 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

suiToimded with troops. Wlieu the ludiaus saAV such an ar- 
ray of soldiers they thought better of the plan, and the as- 
sassination did not take place. The Indians appeared to be 
undecided what to do, whether to go out again on the war- 
path or to surrender. 

Crazy Horse was still out and had runners going back and 
forth all the tinu\ Tliey kept him posted about affairs 
at the agency. Geueral Crook concluded to disarm the In- 
dians and set a time for them to appear and give up their 
arms. AVhen the time arrived three-fourths of the Indians 
started out again on the war-path. They went about twenty- 
five miles and entrenched themselves on Chadron creek, just 
four miles from where I am now writing. The General had 
"boots and saddles" sounded, and a large body of troops took 
along with them a coui)le of mountain howitzers and a Gat- 
ling gun. AYhen they arrived Avithin gunshot, no shot having 
been fired as yet, the commanding officer called to the Indians 
under a. flag of truce and told theui he a\ oubl just give them 
five minutes to surrender. AMien the five minutes were up he 
let go his cannon and the flag went up instanter. They w ere 
taken back to the agency, Avhere they were all disarmed. 
Craz}^ Horse was on his way to the agency, the General hav- 
ing sent friendly Indians out to meet him. His marches were 
very slow as his ponies were very poor, the squaws and chil- 
dren worn out, cold, and hungry. AVhen within twenty miles 
of the agency he stubbornly I'efused to go further, l)ut the 
General sent him word by other Indians that he would bring 
him in if he had to call all the troops in the United States. 
II(^ sent some of his aids-de-camp with plenty of provisions 
and wagons to haul tlie Avomen and children. After a long 
talk and being assured he would not be hurt he reluctantly 
agreed to come in. There was a general rejoicing among the 
Indians when he agreed to come in, and he was met bv nearlv 
all the Indians at the agency. It was an imposing sight to 
see all those Indians, several thousand in all, headed by Crazy 
Horse himself, who was riding beside Lieutenant Clark of 
Crook's staff. He was escorted directly to General Crook, 



EAKLY DAYS IN DECATUR, NEBRASKA. 77 

who shook hauds with the chief and directed that he should 
be made comfortable as well as all his people. The next day 
was set to disarm Crazy Horse's band. They had come into 
the fort, and the agency was located a short distance away. 
In the morning- Crazy Horse, personally, was not at the fort, 
but was said to be at the agency, where he was fonnd by the 
Indian police that had been sent after him. But he refus(Hl 
to return to the fort with them; the police so reported on their 
return to the fort. General Crook sent the police back— those 
police were all Indians — to take an ambulance with them and 
bring Crazy Horse to the fort. A>'e all expected it would 
bring on a big tight as the Indian police were very deter- 
mined, but thev brouiiht him in without much of a demon- 
stration from the other Indians. He was put in the guard- 
house, where there was the usual guard, and as a precaution 
several Indians were detailed as extra guards. Crazv Horse 
was very sullen and morose. All of a sudden he jumped up, 
brandishing a large knife, and uuide for the door. An Indian 
jumped on his back and pinioned his arms. The soldier guard 
sprang forward ^^'ith his gun at a charges Crazy Horse was 
seen to fall, ^^'h('u the excitement was over Crazy Hors(^ was 
dead, having been pierced through the body with either a 
knife or the bavonet of the soldier. Thus died one of the 
greatest Indian war chiefs that ever fought a battle with the 
white men. 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF EARLY DAYS IN 
DECATUR, NEBRASKA. 

RY CAPT. S. T. LEAMING.^ 

I have been asked by the Historical Society of Nebraska to 
give some personal recollections of pioneer life in Burt 
county, particularly in connection with the settlement of De- 

'Capt. Silas T. Learning was a native of Sclioharie county. New 
York. At four years of age lie moved with his parents lo La Force, 
Indiana, where he went to country school and worked as a civi) 
engineer. He crossed the plains to California in 1852, returning in 1855. 



78 NEBRASIvA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

catur, and the steamboats which then seemed the link be- 
tween the Wild West and civilization. It has been said that 
all things pass away when their usefulness is ended. 
Whether this be true or not, the days of steamboating on the 
upper Missouri Avere of short duration. The locomotive with 
its long train of cars sent them into oblivion with tlie stage 
coach and the prairie schooner. 

The very first steamer to come as far as this point was sent 
out by the government in 1819 with a party of explorers. 
This boat was named AVestern Engineer and commanded by 
Maj. Stephen H. Long. The expedition remained at a point 
just below Council Bluff during the winter of 1819-20. 
Early in the spring, the boat received a new commander and 
was used for transporting government supplies to the forts 
and trading posts along the Missouri. The second steamer 
to plow the waters of the "Big Muddy" was the Yellowstone, 
owned by the American Fur Company and commanded by 
Captain Bennett. This steamer made its first trip during the 
summer of 1831. From this date until after tlie close of the 
Civil War, steamers made regular trips between St. Louis 
and the Yellowstone. During the last j^ears of steam navi- 
gation on the upper Missouri, shifting sands and changing 
boundaries rendered extreme care necessary in order to 
avoid being stranded on a sand bar, and progress was slow, 
until even steamers, that the old settlers declared could run 
over a heavy dew, came less and less frequently. Coming here 
in 1856, I found them still plying and eagerly looked for by 
the few white inhabitants living in settlements near the river. 
These steamers were not "'floating palaces,'* but they repre- 
sented a certain phase of luxury and were the connecting- 
link with the outside world. There was no hurrv in those 



As surveyor for the Iowa Central Airline R. R. he surveyed the route of 
that road from Ida Grove. Iowa, to Decatur, Nebraska. He settled in De- 
catur in 1857 and was the first mayor of the town. In 1859 he was a mem- 
ber of the territorial legislature, and later surveyed the Omaha and Win- 
nebago Indian reservation. He was first lieutenant, and captain of 
Company I, 2d Nebraska Cavalry, and took part in the campaign leading 
to the battle of White Stone Hills. He was married in 1869 to^ Elizabeth 
Thompson of Decatur. After her death he married, in 1897. Miss Marion 
Hutchinson of Fordwick, Canada. He died February IS, 190G. 



EARLY DAYS IN DECATUR, NEBRASKA. 79 

da^^s of elegant leisure, but the instant the Avhistle of a 
steamer was heard there was a general stampede for the land- 
ing. Parties were quickl^^ improvised, and the eatables and 
drinkables aboard Avere levied upon by those whose principal 
living consisted of such delicacies as venison, wild turkey, 
prairie chicken, and game of every variety. These were gladly 
exchanged for bacon, fruit, vegetables, etc. There was al- 
ways a darky aboard Axitli banjo or fiddle, so the festivities 
culminated in a dance. 

At the time of Avhicli I write, 1856, the principal trading- 
post at Decatur was held by Peter A. Sarpy, and for a time 
Clement Lambert was his chief clerk. Like most Indian trad- 
ers, Lambert was fond of his booze. One evening a steamer ar- 
rived from St. Louis and tied up for the night. This was the 
signal for a general carousal, and Lambert went on a tear. 
He owned a famous pony, as fearless as himself. When Lam- 
bert got fairly full, he stripped to pants and Indian leggings, 
buckled a belt around his waist, stuck in it a pair of Colt's 
revolvers, sprang to the back of his pony, gave a couple of 
Indian war-whoops, and made for the river. Barely halting 
long enough to give another yell, and with a gun in either 
hand, he ordered the gangway open, which was quickly done 
under the force of circumstances. Then with a command, 
more forcible than elegant, he told the pony to (jo, and he 
Avent, not only on to the steamer, but up the flight of stairs, 
into the saloon, and up to the bar. Here he ordered a big 
drink for Billy, the pony, and commanded every soul present 
to "drink to the health of Billy and the President of the 
United States." 

During the Civil AVar, steamers reduced in size and with 
light draft carried supplies to the forts as far north as Ben- 
ton and Pierre, bringing back rich furs, by which many trad- 
ers made independent fortunes. 

Just here, a personal incident connected Avith steamboat- 
'ing may not be out of place. The uprising of the northern 
Indians and the dreadful massacres had called out a large 
number of troops who went in defense of the white settlers. 



80 NEBRASKA STATE HLSTOIUCAL SOCIETY. 

I was then captain of Company I, 2(1 Nebraska Cavali\y, Gov- 
ernor Furnas, colonel of the regiment. Being severely ill at 
Crow Creek agency, it became necessary to send me to the 
hospital at Ft. Eandall. As one of the fur company's steam- 
ers came puffing down the river, it Avas hailed for this pur- 
l>ose. Fearing they were to be pressed into the service, the 
captain paid no heed to the signal, whereupon the officers in 
command ordered a shot fired across her bow, causing a quick 
change in the direction of the boat, for she speedily came to 
the landing, and I was carried aboard and safely conveyed to 
the hospital. During the trip, the Captain became interested 
in my condition, and at a point where they were taking on 
wood, the Captain sent the private who had been detailed to 
take care of me ashore, and told him to get a bush of bull 
berry. The bush was brought, loaded with berries, red, acid, 
and astringent. The Captain told me to eat a handful, or 
extract and swallow the juice, Avhich I did. AVithin an liour 
I experienced great relief, and to this I feel sure I owe my 
life. * , -^ «''*;* ^; 

The first lumber-yard established on the upper JNfissouri 
was at Onmdi, Dacotah county, one of the first towns laid 
out in the territory of Nebraska. Steamers from St. Louis 
came to this point laden with lumber for the flourishing 
young town. A schoolhouse was erected, sawmill built, and 
hopes Avere high for making Omadi the county seat of Da- 
cotah county. Today, the site of Omadi is marked by a sand- 
bar on the opposite side of the river from where it was orig- 
inally located. The treacherous Missouri, having decided to 
change her bed, cut out the bank, and swept over and around 
to the other side, leaving the place where poor Omadi had 
been, in Iowa. 

Coming back to 1856, the date of my arrival in Decatur, I 
take up the story of pioneer life in Burt county. 

The "Iowa Central Air Line" was surveyed and located to 
the Missouri river, at a point opposite Decatur. There 
seemed to be no possible reason for l^elieving the road would 
not be speedily built through. Having a little money to in- 



EAliLY 1)AY« IN DECATUK, NEl'.UASKA. 81 

A^est, I decided to purcliase laud aud shares iu the eouuty and 
toAvu, vSiuce I had been one of the engineers iu the party 
surveying the liue, my locating here was believed to establish 
the fact of the poiiit of crossing the river, and shares jumped 
in one week from one hundred to eleven hundred dollars. It 
is a matter of history how the Iowa Central Air Line went 
into possession of the Chicago, North-AVestern E. R. Cb., and 
was made to swerve to the south iu order to reach Council 
Bluffs, which had come into prominence froui being the ppint 
Avhere supplies for troops and overland parties were obtained. 
Stephen Decatur, better known as "Commodore Decatur," 
was godfatht'r to the town which bears his nauie. Though 
sorely disappointed by the railroad failure, the settlers 
bravely went to work to develop the natural resources of the 
beautiful aud fertile country. 

The Indians had occupied the reservation several years, 
but not until after the close of the Civil War was the allot- 
ment made giving to each Indian his own particular portion. 
T was appointed by the government to make the first allot- 
ment, and at the close of the second summer every member 
of the two tribes, Omaha and Winnebago, was satisfactorily 
settled. 

At the time of my coming there was not a A\'hite woman in 
Decatur. 

The first team owned there was a yoke of oxen belonging 
to me, slow but sure. 

Surprise parties were the fashion, and often did they carry 
a merry party out to the sod house of some settler who was 
aroused from his slumbers by the "whoa haw gee" of the 
driver. It required some effort to get up a first-class enter- 
tainment, but there were always some ready to lend a hand, 
and by the time a half dozen calico dresses were seen on the 
street, dances, concerts, lectures, etc., were not infrequent. 
Many of the settlers were afraid of the Indians, who were 
our near neighbors, but the people of the town had become 
accustomed to their antics and war-A^hoops so that none of 
these things disturbed them. 



82 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

One summer, when town lots were at a low ebb, it was de- 
cided to make an extra effort to sell some. The 4th of July 
was at hand, so what could be better than to combine busi- 
ness with pleasure and patriotism. The combined intellect 
of the place evolved a fine program that should stimulate 
curiosity and whet the appetite for town lots and a good din- 
ner. 'A few days before the Fourth, "dodgers" were sent 
out through the county, reading like this: 

FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATION. 

TOWN LOTS FOR SALE AT YOUR OWN TRICE. 

FREE MEALS FOR EVERYBODY 

INCLUDING THE CHILDREN. 

A WONDERFUL SURFRISE FOR 

AMUSEMENTS. 

ORATIONS AND SINGING. 

COME EARLY. 

The suri)rise was to be in the form of a war dance and de- 
signed for the climax of the festivities. The Indian agent, 
sent by the government to the reservation, entered heartily 
into the arrangement and promised to furnish the finest spec- 
imens at the agency for the war dance. The ladies of De- 
catur entered into the spirit of the time, and Avitli patriotic 
fervor vied with each other in x^repariug delicacies for tlie 
ban(|uet, baking "Kevolution cake" and "^Washington pie," 
and furnishing enough bread, doughnuts, chicken, baked 
beans, etc., to feed a regiment. The day was perfect; flags 
and flowers gaily dressed out the tables set on the green, and 
everybody was on tiptoe of expectations, ready to welcome 
the crowds sure to come, with true western hospitality. 

A large number of Indians were to come in their war paint 
and feathers and with the rod, blue, or yellow blankets fur- 
nished by the government. It was expected they would make 
a picturesque showing riding down the bluff at full speed on 
their swift ponies. The expectations were fully met. The 
Indians are always fond of surprises, and at this time deter- 
mined to have one of their own, so, instead of waiting quietly 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 83 

for their part of the program, they came tearing down the 
bluffs with unearthl}' yells, whooping as they had been told 
to do, their blankets and long hair streaming in the wind, 
just as the farmers and settlers with their wives and children 
dressed in tlieir Sunday best were coming in on the river 
road. With one startled look, ever^^ last wagon was turned 
quickly about and went flying home at a galloping pace. 
They had heard of Indian uprisings, and knowing nothing of 
the "wonderful surprise/' stayed not on the order of their 
going but went at once. The Decatur people had their war 
dance, which Avas an old story to them, and the Indians had 
the ''free meals," for every table was (quickly cleared by the 
hungry savages, who were ready to eat anything from a 
coyote to a grassliopper. 

It is said that "hope deferred maketh the heart sick." 
Surely the people of Decatur that day had reason to feel 
that fate was against them. Even their patriotic enthusiasm 
was not rewarded. However, thev have gone on with courage 
unabated, until nowj despite the absence of a railroad, they 
have one of the prettiest towns in the state. They have good 
schools and churches and beautiful homes where peace, pros- 
perity, and contentment abide under the shade of the groves 
tlieir own hands have planted. 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 

Presented at the Annual jNIeetixg of the Nerraska 
State Historical Society, January 10, 100."). 

r.Y JOHN H. AMES.^ 

In attempting to comply with the request of your Society 
to prepare a history of the Salt Basin near Lincoln, I shall 
confine myself as closely as possible to documentary evidence, 



^John H. Ames, commissioner of the supreme court of Nebraska, was 
born on a farm in Windham county, Vermont, near the city of Brattleboro, 
February 20. 1 847 r was admitted to the bar in Buffalo, New York, in May. 
1868, and in July, 1869, removed to Lincohi, Nebraska, where he engaged 



84 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

but for some of its episodes I shall be compelled to resort to 
my own memory and that of others, concerning transactions • 
of which no previous written memoranda have been made. 

As has been mentionetl in papers previously read before 
this body, the saline springs at Lincoln Avere, in early days, 
supposed to be caused b}^ large deposits of salt in their vicin- 
ity, and because of conditions of manufacture and transpor- 
tation then prevailing, here and elsewhere, they were regarded 
as very valuable. It is vrell known that these considerations 
were the princi])al and determining factor that induced the 
location of the seat of government at this place in the sum- 
mer of 18G7, by commissioners appointed by the legislature 
and vested with authority to select a site therefor. 

In the early winter of 1SG9-T0, the Avriter prepared a series 
of articles under the title of "A History of Lincolm,"' which 
were printed in a weekly newspaper then published at Lincoln 
and called the Nebraska Statcs)nan. TIiqj met Avith so jnuch 
popular favor that in the following summer the State Journal 
CompauA' reproduced them in a pamithh't edition of several 
thousand copies. In the latter form the}' Avere distributed by 
both public officials and private individuals throughout the 
United States. lUit notAvithstanding that proA^ocation, pub- 
lic lethargy, due, perhaps, to exhaustion consequent upon the 
then recentl}^ ended Civil AVar, AA'as so profound, and the pub- 
lic mind Avas so ^preoccupied and perplexed Avith the problems 
of reconstruction folloAving that conflict, that the country 
remained at peace. Previously thereto jMr. Augustus F. 
Harvey, noAv deceased, then a prominent citizen, and for- 
merly editor and proprietor of the Htatesman, and who, as 



in the practice of law until 1901. In April. 1901, he was appointed to the 
supreme court commission of Nebraska, which position he still holds, 
having been twice reappointed. In 1877 he served on a commission to 
revise the statutes of Nebraska, -the work of which was not wholly 
adopted. He is the author of the revenue law of 1879. which remained 
in force without important amendment for twenty-five years, and of the 
homestead exemption law of the same year, which is still in force. He is 
also the author of the so-called "Slocumb" law of 1881. a statute regulat- 
ing the sale of intoxicating liquors, and which is still in force without 
substantial amendment, and has served as the groundwork for legislation 
on the same subject in other states. 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 85 

surveyor iiud civil eugiueer, had made the first survey aud 
plat of the towu site of Liucolu, had published a pauipldet 
entitled "Nebraska as It Is," from which my own publication 
reproduced the following: 

"In Lancaster county, averaging fort^'-tive mil(\s from and 
west of the Missouri river, lies a great salt basin. AVitliin an 
area of twelve b}' twenty-live miles, tlirougli wJiich Salt creek 
runs in a northeasterlv direction, are found innumerable 
si)rings of salt water, containing 28.8 per cent of salt by 
weight, the product itself containing ninety-live to ninety- 
seven parts of chloride of sodium (pure salt) and three to 
live parts of chlorides aud sulphates of magnesium, calcium, 
lime, etc. 

"There is no question of the vast wealth which will some 
day be derived from this region. The absence of fuel for tlie 
purpose of manufacture is more than compensated for by the 
excessive dryness of the atmosi)liere and the consequent rapid- 
ity of evaporation. From the 1st of April to the middle of 
November scarcely a day passes without a warm, dry wind. 
During the months of June, July, August, aud September the 
winds are almost constant." 

(jNIr. Harvey afterward demonstrated by actual experiment 
that the average evaporation during the months last nanuMl is 
at the rate of ten inches of saturated hrine in sixty hours, ten 
inches of fresh water in seventy-two hours.) 

"The salt made l>y boiling or washing the (h'posits around 
tlie spring crystallizes like the finest table salt. That from 
solar evaporation, or over slow artificial heat, forms large 
crystals from 1-10 to 1-8 of an inch, and is nu)re ti-anslucent 
and snowv than the Svracuse or Kanawha salt. 

"The location of the salt region is an evidcnice of that wis- 
dom and goodness of the C'reator which men are slow to 
acknowledge, but upon which all human welfare must rest. 
It fs a curious fact that, as far as we know, all the principal 
deposits of this one absolute necessity to the preservation of 
animal life are situated about equal distances apart, and with 
an apparent forethought of the commercial relations of the 



86 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

territory between them. This will be apparent when one 
marks upon the map the New York, jMichigan, Virginia, Mis- 
souri, AVisconsin, Tennessee, Texas, Nebraska, Dakota, Col- 
orado, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona salt regions, 
and notes the nearly' uniform spaces between them." 

As well to corroborate this testimony as to forestall an 
inference that might otherwise be drawn therefrom, that so 
much lieat and drouth might prove an obstruction to suc- 
cessful agriculture, the ''history'' supplemented the quotation 
from Mr. Harvey b}^ the following commentary: 

''Usually during a large portion of the summer but little 
rain falls in any part of the state, such drouths, however, 
seldom occurring until after the grain crops are fully devel- 
oped and beyond the reach of any injur}' therefrom, the deep 
and i^orous soil having a singular power of retaining the mois- 
ture received by it in the earlier i^ortion of the season. For 
this reason vegetation is found to thrive, unaffected by 
drouth, long after the surface of the ground has become so 
excessively dvy that the water on the surfaces of streams or 
in other exposed situations becomes almost the only consid- 
erable source from A\hich the atmosphere is supplied Avith the 
aqueous vapor necessary to prevent nocturnal chills." xVs 
Mr. Harvey observes in his pamphlet, the atmosx)here is so 
excessively dry that "dead animals upon the prairies do not 
rot; tliey dry up." This accounts for the previous-mentioned 
rapidity of solar evax>oration. 

From these and other equalh^ trustworthy data, including 
indications obtained by lessees of the state by the sinking of 
a well near the springs to a depth of 340 feet, it was thought 
to be sufiicientl}' proved that brine of at least sixty degrees, 
or twenty per cent strength, could be i^roduced in inexhaust- 
ible quantities from a thousand wells to be sunk within the 
surrounding basin, comprising some three hundred square 
miles and constituting a much larger and more productive 
territory than could be found elsewhere in the United States. 
Taking all these matters into consideration and dividing the 
results to which they pointed by four, so as to eliminate every 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT r,ASIN. 87 

siipposable error of fact or of calculation, it was ascertained, 
by inatliematical demonstration, that the value of the annual 
output from each of the thousand anticipated wells would be 
approximately a half million dollars, or five hundred million 
in all. And the product, upon the assurance of Mr. Harvey, 
was represented to be 97 per cent pure common salt, fit for 
table use without rectification. 

The foregoing shows what can be done by a vivid and vig- 
orous imagination with a little rain water and a moderate 
quantity of chloride of sodium slightl}- adulterated with alka- 
line salts. Upon a fl^-leaf of the i)amphlet was printed the 
following certificate: 

"Lincoln, Nebraska, June 22nd, 1870. 
"We, the undersigned officers and Commissioners of Public 
Buildings of the State of Nebraska, do hereby certify that we 
have carefull}' examined the proof sheets of the following 
pamphlet, and that we are thoroughly satisfied, that the same 
is a true, correct, and impartial history of the town of Lin- 
coln, and of the several public enterprises and matters therein 
discussed. 
"John Gillespie^ David Butlek, 

Auditor. Governor. 

"Thomas P. Kennard^ 

Secretary of State." 

The Governor and Auditor have gone to their linal reward, 
but the Secretary of State is still living in Lincoln at a hale 
and hearty old age, and has never recanted. The practice of 
supplying the delinquencies of judicial tribunals by irregular 
methods has never been adopted in Nebraska. 

I have always regretted that these matters were never 
brought to the attention of Col. P>eriah Sellers, as certainly 
would have been done if the writer had enjoyed the personal 
acquaintance of his celebrated biographer, iMark Twain. The 
evidence already cited is, however, by no means all or the 
most Aveighty of which the case is susceptible. There is more 



88 NEBRASKA STATE HISTUKICAL SOCIETY. 

aud better at baud and easih^ producible, to wbicb attciitiou 
will be iuvited iu the coiir.se of tlie following narrative. 

It lias been a i^olicy of the United States ever since the 
formation of the government, and one which is evidenced b}^ 
a series of congressional enactments beginning with tlie year 
1796, to reserve saline springs and deposits upon the public 
lands from sale or private entry, and to preserve them for the 
benefit of all the peoi^le of the several states formed or to be 
formed out of the territory in ^^•hicll they are found. In con- 
sonance with this policy, an act of Congress of April 19, 1864, 
authorizing the formation of a state government and provid- 
ing for the admittance of Nebraska into the Union, contained 
the following section : 

"Sec. 11. Arid he it further enacted, That all salt springs 
within said state, not exceeding twelve iu number, with six 
sections of land adjoining, or as contiguous as may be to each, 
shall be granted to said state for its use, the said land to be 
selected b}' the governor thereof, within one 3'ear after the 
admission of the state, and when so selected to be used or 
disposed of on such terms, conditions, and regulations as the 
legislature shall direct; j}rovided, that no salt springs or 
lands, the right whereof is now vested in any individual or 
individuals, or which hereafter shall be confirmed or adjudged 
to any individual or indivitluals, shall, by this act, be granted 
to said state." 

Pursuant to this statute the first governor of the state, the 
Honorable David Butler, lately deceased, selected twelve salt 
springs lying within the "Great Salt Basin,'' above men- 
tioned, the largest of them being the one now under discus- 
sion. Prior to that time the pul)lic lands of the territoi'y of 
Nebraska had been surveyed and platted under the authority 
of an act of Congress, July 22, 1851, and these springs had 
been noted ui)on the field books, but the notes had not been 
transferred to the plats prepared and returned for the use of 
the land department in making sales of the public domain. 
It was thought, also, that there were ambiguities in certain 
previous acts of Congress, the nature of whic»h it is uuneces- 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 89 

sary and Avoiikl be tedious to explain here, by reason of which 
the Nebraska springs had unwittingly been excepted from the 
rule, which, as above stated, Congress had, from the first, 
intended to apply to all such properties. 

In 1857 or 8 Mr. Jolm Prey liad removed to this territory 
from Wisconsin and with his sons, Thomas, William L., and 
John W., had settled upon public lands lying in what is now 
Lancaster county. Afterward William L. obtained employ- 
ment from the late J. Sterling Morton at the residence of tlie 
latter, near Nebraska Citv in Otoe countv. The regulations 
offering the lands for sale at the United States land office at 
tlie latter-named i)lace made no reservation for the protection 
of settlers. The elder Prey had sold his farm in AVisconsin, 
but had not yet been paid the purchase price, and was "there- 
fore without means to secure the possessions of himself and 
his sons. In this emergency he, as well as some of his neigh- 
bors, similarly situated, applied to Mr. Morton for assist- 
ance. Morton, as agent for certain eastern parties, had in his 
possession a considerable number of military bounty land 
warrants, issued under the authority of an act of Congress 
approved September 28, 1850, and which were selling at some 
discount and were exchangeable at their face for public lands 
at their minimum price. His instructions were to sell them 
either for cash or to permit them to be located, relying upon 
the good faith of the locators to secure their payment upon 
the land as soon as title therefor should be obtained, Mort^ui 
being responsible to his principal for the consummation of 
the transaction in good faith. The Preys, besides asking for 
warrants for the purpose mentioned, which he seems to liave 
furnished without hesitancy, besought him to furnish addi- 
tional warrants to cover what has been called the Great Salt 
Spring, representing to him that it was rich with salt which 
at a day not far distant would be very valuable. lie had 
never seen the land itself, or the surveys or plats in the land 
office, or talked about them with anv United States official, 
and was skeptical about its containing salt deposits of any 
cousideraVtle value. On the contrarv, he ])elieved it to be 



90 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

alkaline land unfit for agriculture or any other useful pur- 
pose, and so expressed himself. No olie, however, seemed to 
doubt that it was lawfully subject to entry and sale, and the 
subject was not discussed or so much as mentioned. AVith a 
great deal of reluctance and after much imi)ortunity, he 
finally consented to furnish a part of the warrants asked for, 
provided the locations should be made in the name of Wil- 
liam L. l*rey, in whom he had the uttermost confidence and 
upon whom he inainl}^ relied to carry out the arrangement 
usual in such cases. But for some unknown reason, probably 
because of the mistake or inadvertence of the register of the 
land oflice, the location was made in the name of John W. 
Prey. These entries were made on the 12th day of Septem- 
ber, 1859. In July, 18GS, John W. Prey executed a deed pur- 
porting to convey to Morton an undivided one third of the 
lands mentioned in the certificate of location, and on the same 
day similar deeds were made to Andrew Hopkins and Charles 
A. Manners. Patents were issued by the land department 
and transmitted to the local office, for deliverv to Prev, but 
the Secretary of the Interior, upon being informed that tlie 
lands contained valuable saline deposits, arrested them 
before delivery, and after Imving caused an investigation to 
be made, directed their return to Wasliington and cancella- 
tion, which was done in the vear 1862. 

The only question affecting the validity of the location or 
of the patents was Avhether the springs had been resin'ved 
from sale, or "private entry," as it was called. That the land 
was valueless for agriculture was apparent to all, and no 
attempt at their actual occui^ancy by Prey or his grantees 
was made until after the lapse of more than ten years from 
their location. The Nebraska legislature met in regular ses- 
sion on the Tth day of January, 1809, and the governor's mes- 
sage read on the next day submitted the following matters 
for their consideration : 

"Although comparatively little has been accomplished in 
the actual production of salt, that little has settled beyond 
question, if indeed further proof was needed, that we have, 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 91 

within sight of this hall, a rich and apparently iuexliaustible 
supply of pure aud easily manufactured article. It will be 
directly and indirectly a source of Avealth to the state, whose 
great value no one can fully estimate. 

"Prompted by a sense of the importance of the early devel- 
opment of this interest, I gave to Mr. A. C. Tichenor a lease, 
conditioned upon the approval of the legislature, of one sec- 
tion of the salt lands belonging to the state. One-half of his 
interest in the lease Avas, by ]\Jr. Tichenor, assigned, to the 
Nebraska Salt Company of Chicago. This company, from 
want of means or some unkuoAvn reason, has failed to fulfil 
the obligations undertaken in their purchase. So far has it 
failed that the local demand for salt has not been supplied, 
and that it has been unable at times to supply even a single 
bushel for home consumption. It is credibly represented that 
this company has refused to pay the debts which it has con- 
tracted among our citizens. While such is the state of things 
with this company, experienced men declare their readiness 
to, invest in these works any reiiuired sums, if the opportu- 
nity is presented them. 

"The original lessee, in assuming aud meeting the liabil- 
ities of the company, has a considerable amount invested in 
buildings and other works adapted to the prosecution of suc- 
cessful manufacture. He, as managing agent for the com- 
pany, has been faithful, though he has failed to receive; the 
support which it is the duty of the company to render. lie 
could not by anv action of the state be made to suffer. V>\\t 
the public interest is at too great an extent involved in tlic 
speedy and full development of the productive capacity of 
these salt springs to allow them to lie In the hands of those 
who, from lack of energy or means, shall fail to Avork them to 
their full extent. Though the government should not take 
possession of the works built by Mr. Tichenor, without 
making full compensation, the general assembly should at 
least take such action as will soon result in securing the 
manufacture of salt to the greatest possible extent." 



92 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The legislative response to this iirgeiit appeal was an act, 
approved February 15, 18G0, by which the lease mentioned in 
the message was declared to be void and of "no effect in law," 
and the governor was "authorized and directed" to enter into 
a new lease for the same lands with Anson (\ Tichenor and 
Jesse T. Green, covenanting for the construction of certain 
manufacturing works, to the aggregate cost of one hundred 
thousand dollars, the commencement of the numufacture of 
salt within ninety days from the date of the instrument, and 
the payment to the state of two cents per l)ushel upon the 
gross output, and providing for a forfeiture of the lease for 
failure to make the required improvements or for failure to 
prosecute the business for so long a period as six months at 
any one time. The act also authorized the governor to lease 
any other of the saline lands to any other competent persons 
upon substantially the same terms, but refpiiring a greater 
or lesser expenditure for improvements, as he should see fit. 
On the same day the session was finally adjourned and on the 
same day also a lease Avith Tichenor and Green, as contem- 
plated by the act, was formally executed, and the lessees went 
into possession thereunder and in-oceeded \\ith the erection 
of vats and pumping apparatus for the purposes of nmnu- 
facturing salt by means of solar evaporation of the sui'face 
brine. It is sIkavu l)y the oflicial report of the state treasurer, 
James Sweet, under the date of January 12, 1871, that the 
total revenues <lerived from royaltie^s for the manufacture of 
salt were, up to that time, |53.93, indicating a total produc- 
tion of 2,r)9()i/o bushels. It does not api)ear that the state 
ever subsequently received any income from that source. 

The governor convened the legislature in special session ou 
the 17th day of January, 1870, and submitted to them a mes- 
sage reciting the objects to accomi)lish whii-li they had been 
called togethei', and containing the following paragraphs: 

"To ratify and confirm a certain contract made by the gov- 
ernor for the conveyance of certain lands to Isaac Gahn and 
John M. Evans, to aid in the development of the saline inter- 
ests of the state. 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 93 

''Aiixioiis to secure at aii early day as possible the develop- 
lueut of our saline interests, I entered into a contract with 
Messrs. Calm and Evans in August last, whereby they obli- 
gated themselves to commence at once the sinking of a Avell 
on land leased to them for that purpose, and to continue the 
sinking of the same to the depth of eight hundred feet unless 
brine of fifty degrees in strength should be sooner obtained, 
and to keep a perfect geological record of formationis passed 
through in the prosecution of the work. 

"To aid them in this, I contracted, subject to your ap- 
proval, to deed them two sections of saline lands belonging 
to the state. 

"Since that time they have steadily prosecuted the work, 
meeting, however, with very many obstacles. They have 
already- expended twelve tliousand dollars and it will cost 
them several thousands moi'e to complete the work. The geo- 
logical record provided for in this contract will prove invalu- 
able in the sinking of future wells. I trust aou will see the 
justice of this measure and cheerfully confirm my action in 
the matter. 

"It is of the highest importance that this interest be devel- 
oped without delay, and I see no way ANhereb}' it can be done 
without state aid." 

Without giving the matter mentioned in the foregoing par- 
agraphs of the governor's message any consideration, the 
legislature finally adjourned on the 4th day of JMarch, 1870, 
and were by executive proclamation reconvened in a second 
extra session on the same day. Again the governor, by mes- 
sage, urged upon that body tlie im])ortance of tlie subject 
under consideration, saving: 

"The ratification and confirmation of a certain contract 
made by the governor for the conveyance of certain lauds to 
Isaac Calm and John M. Evans, to aid in the developnuMit of 
.the saline interests of the state, or such other aid as the leg- 
islature may see fit to extend. I again urge this subject upon 
3^ou for your earnest consideration. I can not but think that 
the best interests of the state need and demand it. The time 



94 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

has come Avlieu the peoph' of this state ought to know whetlier 
the salt -springs OAvned by her are to be a source of wealth, 
rivaling Saginaw and Syracuse, or not. It is hardly to be 
supposed for a nionu^nt that individual (enterprise can afford 
to take upon itself the risk of ruin conseipient upon sinking 
a. well at a vast expense and failing to obtain brine. It may 
be true that these lessees are able to sell out and make them- 
selves whole. But whether true or not, true it is beyond 
doubt that individual speculation in our salt springs is not 
what the state wants. Indeed, I think it hurtful to the repu- 
tation of our saline resources. AVe want them developed. 
We want the problem solved once and forever. I would much 
prefer that it be made a condition of tlie grant or other aid 
that the present lessees shall not assign their term or any 
part of it, until they have sunk the well to the depth required. 
This would certainly be for the best interests of the state. It 
would insure hearty and vigorous eifort on the part of the 
lessees. I hope gentlemen will consider the sul)ject well ^ be- 
cause I know of my own knowledge tliat these lessees, after a 
great expenditure made in good faith and at my own earnest 
solicitation, will be compelled to abandon, for want of means, 
further prosecution of tlu4r enterprise. Tliis very abandon- 
ment will by no means tend to increase the zeal of enterpris- 
ing adventurers in making further experiments. I tJierefore 
ask at your hands such legislation as will tend to push for- 
ward this work to a rapid completion." 

This ai)peal, like the former, fell upon deaf ears, and, with- 
out adverting to tlie sul»ject, the legislature on the same date 
on which they had Ikh'u for a second time reconvened, ad- 
journed A\ ithout day. At the ensuing regular session of the 
legislature in 1871, Governor I'utler was impeached and 
removed from office, and tlie lease to C'ahn and Evans was 
never ratified or validated. They proceeded, however, to sink 
a well to the required depth, before reaching which they 
struck a stream of flowing water too slightlv saline for the 
profitable manufacture of salt. Their ^vorks were then aban- 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 95 

cloned, but the stream continues to flow in undiminished 
quantit}^ 

It was said at the time that tlie flowing vein was of sweet, 
fresh water, and that its salt and alkaline qualities, when it 
reached the surface, were due to its mixture with other veins 
encountered on its way upward. And it Avas said, also, that 
its velocity was such that it would rise in a tube to the height 
of thirty feet above the ground. I have attempted to verify 
or disprove neither of these statements. If the}' are true, the 
stream may perhaps some time be of practical value for the 
generation of electric power. jMuch the same story Avas told 
of a Avell afterwards sunk by the city, on Government (then 
Market) Square, for the purposes of protection from fire. 

Not long after the execution of the lease to Tichenor and 
Green, the former disposed of his interest to Horace Smith of 
Springfield, Massachusetts, a member of the celebrated firm 
of Smith & Wesson of "revolver fame, Avho by personal inspec- 
tion and Avith the aid of exj^erts had satisfied himself of the 
great value of the salt deposit controlled by the lessees. But 
not deeming the business of manufacture at Lincoln so far 
developed as to require his personal attendance, he placed his 
matters there temporarily in charge of his nephcAV, Mr. 
James P. Hebbard, of Nebraska City. 

There is no reason to doubt that Morton and his associates 
acquired their supposed title in good faith and felt assured 
of its validity during all this time, but A\'hen or how he became 
convinced that the land Avas of any considei-able value is not 
known. He may possibly have read Mr. Harvey's pamphlet 
or my own. Quite likely he had read the report of an expert 
inspector on file in the land department and hereafter men- 
tioned, and he Avas doubtless familiar Avith the gOA^ernor's 
message and with the legislative act of February 15, 18G9, and 
Avith the covenants of the lease made pursuant to it, and Avith 
the purchase by Smith, a reported Avealthy and capable busi- 
ness man, after a careful personal examination Avith the aid 
of an expert, and Avith the expenditures of Gahn and EA'ans 
and the reassuring indications reported to l)e obtained by the 



96 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

sinking of their well. There was certainly evidence enough 
to convince anv reasonable man, and JNIorton was never 
accused of lacking the faculty of reasoning. But by the fall 
of 1870 it had become evident that the title to the tract could 
never be put beyond disx:>ute otherwise than by a judgment of 
the courts, and, in a litigation concerning it, certain technical 
advantages of considerable value, it was supposed, would 
abide with the party in x)ossession who would enjoy the posi- 
tion of defendant, and be better able to parr}^ an attack than 
to make one. With a view to securing these advantages, 
Morton organized an expedition in December of that ,year. 
There was then no direct communication between Lincoln and 
Nebraska City by rail, and he ti-aveled "overland" with a 
wagonload of provisions and supplies and one or more assist- 
ants. Arriving in Lincoln at evening on the 24th dav of the 
month, he looked about him for some trusty local personage 
to help him out with his enterprise, and finalh^ hit upon Ed. 
P. Roggen, then just arriving at manhood, afterwards secre- 
tary of this state, and Avith his party thus completed rej^aired 
to the salt springs just at nightfall. 

Among the structures erected by the lessees pursuant to 
their covenants with the state was a suutII building intended 
for use as a sort of headquarters and barrack room for the 
proprietors and their employees. The Aveather had been 
cloudy and threatening for the past Aveek, and the manu- 
facture of salt by solar evaporation had been temporarily 
suspended, and the '"Avorks" Avere deserted. The building Avas 
unlocked and unguarded and the party Avent into occupancy 
without opposition. Ncavs of t)ie invasion soon came to the 
ears of Green and Hebbard and caused them no little uneasi- 
ness. It Avas feared that unless the intruders could be at once 
expelled, their possession Avould ripen into such a character 
that it could only be terminated, if at all, at the end of a long 
and tedious litigation, during Avhich the tenants of tlie state 
would incur a forfeiture of their lease, Ix'sides losing tlie 
profits of manufacture in the meantiuie. In vicAV of these 
possil)ilities they immediately repaired for counsel to T'ol. 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 97 

James E. Pliilpott, one of the leading legal practitioners in 
the city, and laid their case before him. Cord-wood, with the 
exception of corn, was then almost the sole fuel used or ob- 
tainable in Lincoln, and was worth from ten to fourteen dol- 
lars per cord, reference being had to quality. The lessees had 
a large quantity of it piled near the building, and the Colonel 
suggested that if the trespassers should consume any of it, 
which on account of the state of the weather they would 
doubtless be compelled to do, they would commit the oiiense 
of larceny, for which they would become liable to arrest and 
criminal prosecution. Acting upon this suggestion, two per- 
sons were disj^atched to the salt si)rings with instructions to 
observe and report events. They were not long in discovering 
both Morton and Koggen helping themselves to the wood and 
carrying armsful of it into the building, and in reporting the 
fact to their emj)loyers. Immediately a complaint charging 
Morton and Eoggen with larceny, according to a statutory 
form then in use, was prepared by Philpott, and subscribed 
and sworn to by Hebbard before myself as justice of the peace, 
which office I then held, and a warrant thereon was duly 
issued and delivered to a constable named Eichardson, who 
was then also town marshal. I do not recall his given name, 
but because of the quality of his hair he was commonly called 
and known as ''Curl'' Eichardson. At about half past ten 
o'clock on the same uiglit, the constable appeared at my office 
with both the defendants in charge as prisoners and attended 
by their counsel, Mr. Jacob E. Hardenbergli, now deceased. 
Mr. Hebbard and Colonel Philpott and perhaps others were 
also present. There was a good deal of half-concealed anger 
and excitement, but there was no outbreak and no "scene." 
The next day was both Christmas and Sunday. ^Morton en- 
tered into his personal recognizance and became surety upon 
the recognizance of Eoggen for the appearance of both of 
them at a specified hour on the following Monday, to which 
an adjournment was taken. ^Mien these proceedings liad 
been concluded all persons in attendance left the room. 
There was a conference that night between Morton and his 



98 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

counsel on one side, and Seth Eobinson, then attorney gen- 
eral of the state, on the other, at the i^ri^ate office of the lat- 
ter. Who else was there or what was done or agreed ui)on, I 
knoAV only from hearsay. I was not present and did not knoAV 
of the meeting at the time. This much, however, seems cer- 
tain, namel^^, that Morton agreed to desist from his attempt 
to take forcible possession of the property in consideration 
that the criminal prosecution should be dropi^ed. It was said 
at the time that he also agreed to waive any claim for dam- 
ages on account of his arrest, but this he afterwards disputed. 
At any rate, at the hour to which the case had been adjourned, 
oh Monday, the prosecution a^^peared and ^\'ithdrew lh<' com- 
plaint and the proceeding was dismissed. 

Two weeks later, on the 7th dav of Januarv, 1871, Morton 
began an action against Hebbard and Green, in the district 
court of Lancaster countv, to recover the sum of twentv tliou- 
sand dollars damages for malicious prosecution and false 
imprisonment. His counsel was Jacob R. Hardenbergh, with 
whom was afterwards associated Daniel Gantt of Nebraska 
City, later a judge of the supreme court of the state. Heb- 
bard and Green filed separate answers, the former being rep- 
resented by E. E. Brown and Seth Eobinson as his attorneys, 
and the latter by Jaines E. IMiilpott. A jury was waived and 
the cause came on for trial at a special term of the court 
before the Hon. George B. Lake, district and supreme judge. 
On the 8th day of June, 1871, there were subpoenaed as wit- 
n< sses a nmn named Kennedy, E. \\ Iloggen, Major A. G. 
Hastings, and myself. There were findings and a judgment 
for the plaintiff in the sum of one IniudnMl dollars damages 
and costs of suit. On the same (hiy the amount was paid into 
court by Robert E. Knight, a partner of ('oh)uel IMiilpotf, and 
on the same day, also, jNIorton signed wifli his own hand upon 
the records of the court a recei])t for it from Capt. Itobert A. 
Rain, clerk of the court, Tlie trial ^^as uu'rely formal, and it 
was understood at the time that wliat Morton wished to gain 
from the suit was not large damages but vindication from the 
accusation of larceny. Thus ended an episode about which 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 99 

there Avas iiuieli angry discussiou for a time, and wliicli was 
the occasion, temporarilj^, of some "bad blood," bnt wliich left 
matters precisely where they Avere at the beginning, and 
which had caused no appreciable harm to the property and 
none at all t(j the reputation of any one concerned. 

But litigation was by no means at an end. On the same 
7th day of January, on Avhich the last-mentioned suit Avas 
begun, Morton, Hopkins, and .Manners began an action in 
ejectment in the same court to try the title to the lands in 
dispute, ('ounsel engaged in the ease Avere J. E. Ilarden- 
bergh and Daniel Gautt, for the plaintiffs, and Seth Ivobin- 
son, E. E. BroAvn, and James E. Philpott for the defense. 
>>ubs(^quently the state Avas admitted to defend by George H. 
Roberts, avIio had succeeded Mr. Kobinson in the office of 
attorney general. A trial before Judge George B. Lake and 
a jury resulted in a. Aerdict and judgment for the defendants, 
to reA'erse Avhicli a petition in error A\'as prosecuted in the 
supreme court. The serial or general number oi the case in 
that court Avas 81. In that court Judg(^ E. Wakeley, of 
Omaha, also appeared for the plaintiffs. 

The judgment of the district court AAas affirmed in an oi)in- 
ion by Judge Crounse, from Avhich Chief Justice Mason dis- 
sented, 2 Nebraska, 441. 

The patents although executed, as l>efore stated, and trans- 
mitted to the local land office were ncA'er deliA^ered to Prey, 
but Avere arrested by the commissioner of the general land 
office, Mr. J. ]M. Edmunds, as soon as lie became informed of 
the character of the land, and Avere by his order returned to 
the department at AN'ashington and canceh^l. The sole ground 
of the decision Avas that, bv reason of these circumstances, the 
legal title had never passed out of the United States to Prey, 
and that although he might haA^e acquired complete e(|uitable 
OAA'nership and conveyed it to the plaintiffs, the court Avas 
Avithout jurisdiction to a<lju(lge the matter in the common 
laAV action of ejectment. The chief justice combatted this 
decision in an elaborate and characteristically vigorous opin- 
ion, in Avhich he maintained that saline lands in Nebraska 



100 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

were not reserved from i)riyate sale prior to the passage of 
the enabling act, and that the lands in suit having been sold 
before that time, section 11 of that act, above quoted, not 
only did not assume to grant them to the state, but by impli- 
cation ratified and confirmed their previous sale to the plain- 
tiffs or Prev. He further contended that the action of the 
department of the interior in arresting and cancelling the 
patents was in excess of authority and void, and that the 
plaintiffs, having all except the bare legal title, which was a 
mere shadow, were entitled to maintain their suit, and upon 
reversal of the judgment of the district court, to have final 
judgment in their favor rendered in the supreme court. He 
treated the defendants, the state, and its lessees as in the liaht 
of mere trespassers without semblance of right. 

Dissatisfied with this decision, the plaintiffs sued out a 
writ of error from the supreme court of the United States, 
where counsel for the plaintiffs was Montgomery Blair, and 
for the defendants were Judge William Lawrence, of Ohio, 
Judge E. Koekwood Hoar, of Massachusetts, and the Honor- 
able E. H. Bradford. The case was reached and disposed of 
by an opinion by Justice David Davis, speaking for the whole 
court, at the October term, 1874, 21 Wallace, 88, U. S. 660. 
That court wholly ignored the opinions of the state supreme 
court, both majority and minority, and disposed of the case 
upon its merits, a somewhat unusual proceeding, because a 
majority of the state court expressly declined to consider the 
merits, and rested their decision solely on a question of prac- 
tice, having reference to their own jurisdiction and that of 
the trial court in this form of action, and held that neither 
had any. The state court was certainly comi)etent to deter- 
mine its own powers and jurisdiction, and it is difficult to 
understand how the Supreme Court of the United States de- 
rived from it a jurisdiction which it did not itself possess. 
But the latter-named court so determined, holding, after a 
review of all the congressional legislation relative to the sub- 
ject, that the springs were reserved from private entry by an 
act of Congress of July 22, 1854, establishing the office of 



HISTORY OF THE LINCOLN SALT BASIN. 101 

surveyor general for the territories of New Mexico, Kansas, 
and Nebraska, and for that. reason affirmed the judgment 
comphiined of. The lauds were thus final h^ released from 
the custody of the law. No further attempt to make use of 
them for the manufacture of salt has ever been made, but 
there has been some partl^^ successful efforts to convert the 
big spring into a pleasure resort. 

There was produced on the trial in the district court and 
included in the bill of exceptions a certified copy of a report 
of an expert who, by direction of the land dej)artment, had 
been detailed bv the United States Survevor General for Kan- 
sas and Nebraska to ascertain the true character of the land 
in question. It was shown by tliis document that by careful 
observation over a long period in the summer of 1862, of the 
quantity of. brine issuing from the large spring, then called 
the "Chester Basin,'' and from a personally conducted quan- 
titive and qualitative analysis of it, that there was annually 
producible by solar evaporation from the surface waters of 
that spring alone no less than fifty-fi^^ hundred tons of, for 
practical purposes, chemically pure salt, one thousand tons 
of which could be collected from spontaneous crystallization 
around the edges of the basin. This quantity would have 
been equal to two hundreil and twenty thousand statutory 
bushels, and at the rovaltv reserved in the Tichenor and 
Green lease, should have Yielded the state an annual revenue 
of four thousand and four hundred dollars. But it was fur- 
ther shown by this report that the quantity of salt obtain- 
able could without difficulty be largely increased by the use 
of dams and dykes preventing loss by dilution and seepage. 

The statement of facts prepared by Mr. Justice Davis for 
official publication in connection with the decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States contained the following 
statement, substantially repeated in the body of the opinion : 
"The land in question was palpably saline, so incrusted with 
salt as to resemble snovr covered lakes." It should not be 
forgotten that there are eleven smaller springs situated in 
the Great Basin and selected bv the governor. 



102 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

I can not but think that Mv. Samuel L. CkMiieus is een- 
surabh' at fault for failure to bi-iui;- tliese oifteial representa- 
tions to the attention of T'olonel Spellers. That the publica- 
tions of an hunil)]e and obscure individual like nnself should 
have failed to attract the notice and arrest tlie attention of 
wealthy and prominent men of affairs is not surprising. But 
Mr, Clemens has for many years put himself forward as a 
comprehensive and accurate historian of his country, par- 
ticularly of the West, and his books have been bought and 
devoured with avidity by a large and ever increasing circle 
of readers. For thirtv yoars the al>ove recited facts have been 
spread upon the records, and published in thousands of copies 
of the official reports, of the highestr most learned, and most 
dignified, powerful, and important judicial tribunal in the 
United States, or perhaps in the world, and it can be due to 
nothing less than the gross and criminal negligence of the 
writer whom I have named that this immense store of min- 
eral wealth has remained for all this time undeveloped and 
unproductive, and, it may truthfully be said, undiscovered, 
at the very gates of our capital city. 



EARLY DAYS AT THE SALT BASIN. 

By John S. Grk(;ory^ for the Annual Meeting of the 
State Historical Society, Janu-Vry 10-11, 1005. 

Galveston, Texas, Decend>er 10, 1004. 

Jaij Amo.s Ihtrrctl, Ciiraior: 

DEAii Sir — I am in receipt of your kind invitation to ap- 
pear at your annual meeting of January next, and detail some 
of the earlv historv of Lancaster countv as I mav remember it. 



Mohn Stanford Gregory was born in Brattleboro Vermont, in 1S34. 
Graduated at Maumee, Ohio, high school. From 1859 to 1861 he was 
U. S. mail agent. He was admitted to the bar in 1860 and came to the 
Lincoln Salt Basin. Nebraska, in Augnst. 1862. He bnilt the first .salt 
works there and manufactured salt for several years. He was engaged 
in real estate and insurance at Lincoln from 1867 to 1891. In 1864 he 
was a member of the territorial legislature. In 1891 he removed to Gal- 
veston, Texas, where he now resides. He was married in 1857 to Mary 
Elizabeth White. 



EAiJLY DAYS AT THE SALT BASIN. 103 

Nothing ^oiilcl afford me greater j)leasure than to be present 
upon that occasion, and exchange reminiscences with the 
early settlers of that territory — if any are yet left on eartli to 
meet, but as this is not possible at this time I \yill contribute 
my mite in the form of this letter. 

I would like to state something to a Historical Society that 
would be an incident of history, but as nothing occurred in 
my early day, I can not. I dislike to intrude in tliis article 
so much of the pronoun I, but remember that at the first elec- 
tion held in Lancaster county, which was a year later than 
my first arriyal, there were but eleyen yoters in the county, 
which was a picnic for office-seekers, for every one could have 
one. Therefore, if 1 am to say anything at all, it must involve 
myself more or less. Of these seventeen, V< . \Y. Cox,^ of 
Seward, and invself are the only survivors, so fai' as I am 

7 e, e^ 7 

informed. 

I first made my home in ^hat is now Lincoln in the sum- 
mer of 1802, being the first i^ermanent settler of that city's 
site. Neighbors in the county were few and 'far between, but 
for music we had nightly serenades from hundreds of covote 
wolves, who also loved chicken better than traveling minis- 
ters or down-south darkies; therefore A\'ar was declared 
against the wolves. Every evenins; in the winter months we 
would mount a horse, fasten a piece of fresh meat to a lariat, 
and draw it over the ground in a circuit of a mile or so, occa- 
sionally dropi^iug a small pellet of lard encasing a fiake of 
strychnine. The wolves would take the trail, and sometimes 
we would gather a dozen of them in the morning. Their pelts 
paid the cosi, and their carcasses were drawn away to the 
banks of Salt creek, where we expected them to rot in the 
spring. But a band of Pawnee Indians found them, and 
never broke camp until the last carcass Ayent into the soup, 
Avliich we were informed Avas "heap good for Ingun." 

In 18G3 there Avas quite an influx of temporary citizens 
from the state of Missouri Avho came, as they stated, to "get 
out of the draft" (this aa^s AAar time, you know) and sc^tthnl 



'William Wallace Cox died February 25, 1907, aged seventy-four years. 



104 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

around Salt Basiu. Of this number I remember tlie families 
of Owens, Harmon, Evelaud, Bird, JUUows, Tinnell, Tliatclier, 
Pemberton, Church, and a few others. It Avas said that some 
of these had been bush-whackers in Missouri, and had in fact 
come up to the Salt Basins ''for tlie benefit of their health''; 
but they were as peaceful as doves while here, and all went 
back to jMissouri after the war was over. 

During that 3'ear, Dr. Crimm and "Jim" Dye, of Brown- 
ville, came to the Basin, and built a bench of salt boilers and 
became my friendly rivals in the salt manufacture. 

At an election late in the fall we elected Alf Eveland jus- 
tice of the peace, and Peter Billows constable, and this was 
the lEirst attempt to call in the aid of the law, in that county. 
Prior to that date every man was his own law-giver, and a 
brace of revolvers enforced it. "Alf" was a small, freckled- 
faced, red-haired chap, very self-imi)ortant, and ambitious to 
be called "Squire Eveland." He had opened a "saloon" in 
his sod dwelling, his stock in trade being a keg of whisky and 
a caddy of tobacco. His wife, Elizabeth, was of massive pro- 
portions, at least four times the size of her husband, and 
strong as she was big — could easily hold lier lord at arm's 
length over her head, with her right arm alone. It was said 
that after Eveland's stock in trade had been paid for, he had 
ten cents left, with which he x>urchased a drink at his bar, 
while his wife kept the saloon, and then she in turn used it 
for the same purpose while "Alf" was bartender, and by alter- 
nating this process quite a trade was established. 

When "Alf" became justice of the peace, he went to Ne- 
braska City and provided himself with a justice docket book 
and a full set of law blanks, and returned, fully equipped to 
"dispense with justice" (as he put it) to all who should re- 
quire his services, but as it is difficult to make radical changes 
in forms of law, more than six months passed without a sin- 
gle case for Eveland's adjudication. The nearest to a case 
that I remember was from this Peter Billows, who, b^' the 
way, was originally a Pennsylvania Dutchman. Peter came 
over to my office one morning, and said, "Gregory, John 



EARLY DAYS AT THE SALT BASIN. 105 

Oweus' liogis broke into my garden last night, and destroyed 
more tlian fifteen dollars' worth of damage. What can I do 
about it?" I advised him to go and see John, and if he would 
not fix it, he would have a case for Eveland, but as he and 
John "fixed it," the justice case was a failure. 

The first law case of this county appears in "Justice 
Docket No. 1 — A. Eveland, Esq., J. P., and is entitled, 
"Crimm & Dye vs. J. S. Gregory, Action for Replevin," and it 
arose as follows : Both Crimm and myself used a consider- 
able amount of salt barrels, which we made at our salt works, 
and the man, Church, was a stave maker, obtaining his bolts 
from the headwaters of Salt creek. On the morning Church 
started back to Missouri, he came to my works, and sold me 
his stock of staves, amounting in value to about |16. I went 
with him to his "dug-out," counted and marked the staves, 
and took a bill of sale in writing, and paid for them. During 
the same morning he sold the same staves to Crimm, who also 
marked them, and took a bill of sale in writing. A few days 
after, I went for them with my wagons, and when Crimm 
saw me loading them, he came up and wanted to know what 
I was' doing with his staves. Of course it was a short storv 
to explain the situation, and we agreed to divide the lot and 
each stand half the loss. But just at this point, a brilliant 
idea struck Crimm. He said, "Say, Gregory, what a pretty 
case this would be for a lawsuit. Here is Squire Eveland, 
who has spent a whole lot of money for books and blanks, and 
has been a justice of the peace for more than six months with- 
out a single case. What do vou sav to a lawsuit?" 

So it was arranged that Crimm should rush down to the 
"saloon," sue out a writ of replevin, and the constable should 
take the property, and we would give the "Squire" something 
to judicially decide. In due time the trial was had, Criuim 
introduced his bill of sale, proved payment, and delivery to 
himself bv Church, on the dav of his departure, and demanded 
judgment. Whereupon the Squire announced that Hie plain- 
tiff had a clear case, and, as his mind was alreadv made up 
upon that point, he did not care to hear any evidence from 



106 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the defendant. Of course defendant insisted that it was not 
lawful to render a judgment without both sides being heard, 
and deiuanded the right to produce his evidence. ''Oh ! go 
ahead," said the Squire, "if you insist upon it, but it will do 
you no good, for I have already formed my opinion of the 
case." We followed Crimm's presentation exactly, and then 
pleaded that, as we were in possession of the. property, in ad- 
dition had as good a right as the plaintiff, the plaintiff' could 
not take it away from us without shoAving some superior 
right. The Squire, who had been so sure of his opinion, was 
evidently in a quandary and advised us to try and settle the 
case between ourselves, to which we each "angrily" objected, 
and asked him Avhat a justice court Avas for, if folks could 
agree without it. Finally, three days were taken in Avhich to 
announce a decision, at which time about all the men of the 
settlement Avere present to hear the result. Court Avas called 
to order and the Squire said, "Gentlemen, I ha\'e gi\"eii the 
case my best consideration, and the more I haye studied it the 
more difficult it seems to arriA^e at, any conclusion as to AA'hich 
of you rightfully own those staA^es. I think you should agree 
to divide them." And announced that this Avas the only judg- 
ment he Avould enter. To this we each protested, but con- 
sented to confer, each Avith the other to see if aa^c could com- 
promise. After a short time we filed back "into court," and 
announced that if the Squire Avould remit his costs and treat 
the "boys" AA'ho had come to attend his court, Ave would settle 
the case between ourselves, to all- of Avhich he gladly 
consented. 

I don't knoAV how much Avhisky Avas left in that keg, but 
doul)t there being an}-; for the saloon business closed from 
that day. 

Will Pemberton Avas another of the "characters" of Salt 
r>asin. ITe Avas the youngest of the colony, and had many 
good traits of character which T admired, but he was quick- 
tempered and impulsive. I don't suppose he AA\as any more 
truthful than the ordinary denizens of the colony, but to be 
called a liar was to him a deadly insult. One day he came 



EARLY DAYS AT THE SALT BASIN. 107 

over to my place iipou his horse, at its fastest run. His face 
was pale aud his e^es were green, and he was trembling with 
excitement. He said, "Greg, I want to know if 1 can depend 
upon you as my friend in trouble?'' I answered him that he 
could up to the last hair. He then asked me if there was any 
law in Nebraska against killing birds. I told him there was 
not. He said he was awful glad to know it, for he had just 
killed Jim l>ird over at the Basin. Said Jim had called him 
a liar, and he had shot him through the head, was awful sorry 
now that he had done so, but it couldn't be helped, said it 
broke him all up, and that he couldn't think wlmt to do. He 
wanted me to think for him, and advise him; said he would 
light out and leave the country, or would stuj and face the 
music, or any other thing I might advise. I told him it was 
bad business, and that before I could give him auv reliable 
advice I would go over and see if he was not mistaken about 
lUrd being dead. To this he said his revolver never failed to 
plant a bullet where he aimed it, and he saw Bird fall with 
his shot. I mounted my horse, and rode over,- and the first 
man I saw was this same Jim Bird, busy cutting wood at the 
front door of his log cabin. His rifle leaned against the door- 
jamb, and as he caught sight of me he called me; said he 
wanted me to see what that Coyote Pemberton had done. A 
hole was through his hat, and a red streak on his head where 
the bullet grazed, and which had temporarily prostrated Jim, 
and had buried itself in the house logs. ''Now," he says, "if 
Pemberton don't quit the country there will be a funeral to- 
morrow, for 1 will slioot.him on sight." W(dl, I got down 
from mv h<u'se, and made Pjird sit down Avith mo, and T ar- 
gued the case with him in all its bearings, tohl him wlial 
IN'iiilieitou tlionght of it, and finally Bird agreed (hat if Pem- 
berton would come to him, and i)ass to hiiu his ])islols, as 
evidence of goo;l faith, and beg hi^ pardon for his rasliness, 
aud ]U'omise to keep the p(Mcc, I>ird would let the matter 
drop. To all these Pemberton gladly coiiii>lieil. and again 
peace and good will liovcM'ed over Salt P)asin. 



108 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

John Cadmau was another leading light in ancient history. 
He was a politician of the foxy kind. He always took a prom- 
inent part in every social or political move, both for noto- 
riety and as a source of revenue. 

He was ready on all occasions to make an "improuiptu" 
speech, but always wanted about two weeks' time in advance 
to prepare it, otherwise he was all at sea. On one occasion I 
remember he was called upon, but being unprepared, de- 
clined: lis the audience insisted, a good, strong escort on 
each arm walked him upon the platform "willy nilh^,'' so 
John started in : "Mv friends and fellow citizens, it affords 
me great pleasure to — to — to come together again.-' The ap- 
plause that greeted this announcement about closed the re- 
marks of the honorable gentleman, and John took a seat. 
Cadman died several years ago in California. 

The Lancaster colony had its advent in 1861, but this being 
modern history, and subsequent to my early day, 1 leave its 
record for others. 



JUDICIAL GRAFTS. 

Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Nebraska 
State Historical Society^ January 11, 1905. 

by judge william gasltn.^ 

I have been invited by you to present a paper at this annual 
meeting of your Society upon the subject of "Justice on the 
Frontier," or "another subject," if it pleases me better. Hav- 
ing been for sixteen years an active participant in adminis- 



^ William Gaslin, pioneer lawyer, Kearney, Nebraska, was born in Au- 
gusta, Maine, July 29, ]827. He was graduated from Bowd'oin College 
with the degree of A.B. He became a teacher and law student at Au- 
gusta, Maine, 1856-58, practiced law at Augusta, 1858-66, member of the 
common council, Augusta, 1857; board of aldermen, 1863-64; superin- 
tendent of schools, 1857-62; city solicitor, 1863-64. He has been a lawyer 
in Nebraska since 1868, practicing in turn at Omaha, Lowell, Blooming- 
ton. Alma, and Kearney. He served as judge of ihe fifth, eighth, and 
tenth judicial districts of Nebraska, 1875-1902 consecutively; attorney 
for the city of Kearney, 1896-97. Judge Gaslin, although eighty years old, 
is still active, and is engaged in the banking business at Alma, Nebraska.' 



JUDICIAL GRAFl^S. 109 

teriug justice on the frontier, no subject would be so interest- 
ing to me as that; but I luive thought })est to defer this to 
some future time, and have chosen the subject of "Judicial 
Graft/' which is robbing the taxpayers of this state of nearly 
1100,000 annually, and which demands our immediate atten- 
tion, as the legislature, which has the onh^ power to remedy 
this evil, is now in session. 

During the session of the legislature of 1891 I was asked 
by several members my opinion of the necessity of increasing 
the number of judges and judicial districts which had been 
asked for and given at previous sessions and I gave one of 
them at that time, the following communication, which was 
published in the Nebraska State Journal: 

'Tor session after session I have seen the number of judi- 
cial districts and judges increased, at an unnecessary expense 
to the taxpa^'ers. 1 did not suppose a rep(}tition of this 
would be attempted in the present legislature, elected on the 
issue of economj. We have twelve judicial districts and 
twenty-one district judges, nearly as many as England, Scot- 
land, Ireland, and >Vales, with a population of over forty-two 
millions. The reason of this useless increase is, there is no 
branch of our government so little understood hj the people 
and legislators, who are not lawyers, as the judicial. I know 
of instances during a campaign when certain lawyers have 
espoused the cause of candidtites to the legislature, under 
promise of u.sing th>4r intiuence, if elected, to increase the 
number of judicial tUstricts and judges, wlien both parties 
knew there was no necessity of it, hoping thereby to secure a 
judgeship, and this, under the false cry of increase of law 
business and necessity, and honest mend)ers have been in- 
duced to vote for this 'ncrease. 

'^During a former session of the legislature, a majority of 
the district judges informed a committee thereof it was not 
necessary to increase ihe number of judicial districts and 
judges: but the bill passed, increasing the same, through the 
influence of tricksters and politicians. AVhen my district 
was last divided, a majority of the lawyers in the newly cre- 
ated district therefrom, and Judge Cochran, the appointee of 
the new district, frankly and honestly said there Avas no neces- 
sity for it. But the i)rogram of the rapacious politicians 
prevailed. 



llO • NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

"From 1870 to 1883 my district comprised over twenty 
counties, all the state west of Nuckolls, Clay, Howard, and 
Valley counties, and included the unorganized county of 
Sioux, extending north to Dakota; and during that time I 
kept my dockets clear by holding court less than one-third of 
the time, and had to travel l>y carriage to reach many of the 
courts; and had more criminal business than there was in 
anv two other districts in the state. The first three yeai's T 
Avas judge I tried twenty-six murder cases, and the first six 
years, forty-three. 

"When the subject of increasing the number of judicial 
districts began to be agitated, I commenced to keep an ac- 
count of the number of days 1 held court in each county. In 
1880 1 held court in all, in my district, 113 days, tlie largest 
number I have ever held in one year, occasioned by an un- 
usually large number of murder xBases, among which was the 
infamous Olive's trial, which consumed more time than I 
ever devoted to one case. In 1881, I held court 91 da3^s; in 
1882, D3 days ; in 1883, after the territory north of the Platte 
Avas cut off fi'om my district, Iw the politicians, aguinst my 
protest, as I could do all the business by Jiolding court one- 
third of the time, I held court but 10 days: in 1884, 34 days; 
in 1885, 01 days; in 1880, 59 days; in 1887, 72 days. And 
notwithstanding I could do the business of the entire district 
in 72 days, the legislature this year cut oil" from my district 
all west of Phelps and Harlan counties, Avhich I protested 
against, as I could do the business of the v.hoh; territory of 
the district as it Avas, in less than one-tliird of the time, and 
save the taxpayers the unnecessary ex]K'ns(' of the salaiT of 
the judge and reporter, amounting to -f 4,000 a year. In 1888 
I held court in mv district 89 daAs; i;i 1!S89, 107 davs, the 
business largely increasing in Adams county this year, on 
account of the litigation growing out of tlie collapse of the 
boom in Hastings; in 1890 1 held couil: 90 days. There will 
be much less business this year than la'^t. M\ dockets are as 
clear as 1 can get them, and are gone througii Avith every 
term, and all cases tliereou tried, nnhjss coutinued by mutual 
consent; or on an iron-clad affidavit, if either party desires 
trial; and yet I see a bill has been introduced to increase the 
number of judicial districts and judges, and even to create 
another judge for my district. Avium tlore is not half business 
(^noiigli to occupy my time. By examination of tlie dockets 
and business tran.sacted in the couvts as near as I can com- 



JUDICIAL GRAFTS. Ill 

piite it iu Yoliiiue of law biLsiness. my district stands at the 
present time fourtli in the state. With the exception of the 
second and third, I can talvc any two districts in the state 
and keep the doclcets clear, and not rnn court over eight 
months in a year; and so can any man who will strictly at- 
tend to and rush the business, by running the courts a rea- 
sonable number of hours each day. As I have an abundance 
of time, 1 do not dispatch the business nearly as rapidly as I 
might and should were I pressed for time. Instead of in- 
creasing the iiund>er of judges and judicial districts, better 
enact laws recpiiring the courts to open in the morning and 
run the entire day, and do an honest day's work, and clear up 
the dockets and dispose of the business thereon. If men in 
other Tocations would run their business iu the way many 
lawyers and courts do tlicirs, they would bankrupt tliemselves 
iu a short time. The burlesques and criticisms on the legal 
profession and tie courts are not without just cause. 

"If you have any legislation for relief, give it to the su- 
preme court, which is so overworked and overburdened with 
business, it is impossible for any three men to transact it. 
The increase of judges and judicial districts is for the pur- 
pose of giving drones more time to sleep and do nothing and 
to furnish more teats for the public political pigs. As Presi- 
dent Lincoln once said to a lot of worthless office-seekers for 
whom he had no place, 'Better kill the pigs than increase the 
number of teats.' 

"The salaries yf the present district judges and their re- 
porters alone cost the tax-payers of Nebraska |84.000 a year ; 
and each new jmlge and his reporter will cost the public 
|4,000 a year. Tlvnk of this when you create an office that 
is not necessary. 1 deem it my solemn duty to give you my 
opinion on this sui)ject, based on actual knowledge from 
over fifteen years' e^fperience as district judge. T owe this 
to a tax-ridden and unfortunate people as well as to my own 
conscience. Wliatevpr the outcome of this matter. T have 
done my duty to the people of the state. You liave asked me 
for my opinion and 1 have honestly giv(Mi it to vou." 

At this session of the legislature of 1891 was made the 
worst judicial graft that was ever made in the state, by in- 
creasing the nund^er of judicial districts to fifteen and the 
number of district judges to twenty-eight. 



112 NEBRASKA cJT ATE I ILSTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

AVlieu I came to the state in 18G8 it was divided by tlie 
Coustitiitiou aud law into three judicial districts, to which 
but three judges, elected by the voters, were assigned by the 
legislature, by which times and places of holding courts were 
provided, and the three district judges, by the Constitution 
and Statute, were made supreme judges. They were^ Oliver 
P. Mason, chief justice, Lorenzo Crounse, and George B. Lake, 
the first judges of the state elected under the Constitution of 
1866, and in the aggregate, in my opinion, we have never had 
a better, if as good, a supreme court. They were the pioneers 
and founders of our judicial system, as promulgated in our 
early reports, which are a credit to them and an honor to our 
state. Under the judicial system then in force they promptly 
disposed of the business of the courts, kept their dockets 
clear and gave general satisfaction. Section 8, article 4, of 
the Constitution of 1866 provided that, "The legislature may, 
after 1875, increase the number of justices of the supreme 
court and the judicial districts of the state." Under this 
system the number of judicial districts and jndges might be 
increased after 1875, but to a comparatively limited number,- 
as the supreme judges Avere ex officio district judges. Under 
article 2, section 8, Constitution of 1 866, after ten years the 
legislature could increase the number of senators not to ex- 
ceed twenty-five, and the number of representatives not to 
exceed seventy-five. So to get rid of these and other whole- 
some restrictions, the rapacious politicians, offtce-seekers, ad- 
venturers, and grafters, who had swarn^d to the new state 
for pelf and political preferment, beini^ in a majority, pro- 
ceeded to the calling of a constitutional' convention, adopted 
the Constitution of 1875, which createcl our present system 
of district judges and judicial districts,|opening the way for 
so many superfluous offices and places ; imposing on the tax- 
payers a large expenditure of unnecessary money. I was 
nominated a member to that convention by acclamation, but 
declined. The New England and other states for long 
years had, and some now have, the same judiciU system as 
Nebraska had under the Constitution of 1866, which I lived 



JUDICIAL. GRAFTS. 113 

aiid practiced under prior to coming to Nebraska; and I am 
not sure it is not the better system. This system, where the 
district and' supreme judges occupy the same position, tends 
to get a better class of laAvyers and men for district judges 
than under our i)resent sj'stem, as the peoph^ realize that 
all their judges must or should be qualified for the position 
of supreme judges as well as for district judges. It really 
requires a better lawyer for district judge, who has to pass 
on a multitude of questions as thej arise in the contest of 
the trial, with no chance for reference, than for supreme 
judge, who has ample time for examination, study, and re- 
flection before writing his decision. 

Here let me depart and say that in my native state, jMaine, 
in choice of judges and school officers, by common consent, 
politics are ignored; the judges are often retained until ex- 
treme old age, and as long as their physical and mental facul- 
ties remain intact, by experience growing better each and 
every term of office. The selection of judges, by all means, 
should be removed from the dirty pool of politics, as no 
business is so dishonest, disreputable, and injurious to the 
public as professional politics. 

Under the Constitution of 1875 the state was divided into 
six judicial districts, providing for one judge for each dis- 
trict, to be elected bv the voters of the district for four years. 
At that time I was residing in Franklin county, which in the 
apportionment was in the fifth district. When the time came 
to choose a candidate for district judge for the district, many 
asked me to become the candidate, which I at first declined, 
but at last consented to be, and was triumphantly elected, 
with three candidates in the field. At the expiration of my 
first term, I did not even attend the judicial convention to 
nominate my successor, but was nominated by the republi- 
cans and indorsed by the democrats, no one running against 
me. At the close of mv second term I was nominated and 
again supported by all parties. At the expiration of my tliird 
term I was again nominated and elected practically without 
opposition, making sixteen consecutive years I served the 



IIJ: NEliUASKA STATE HLS LX)KICAL SOCIETY. 

people, according to the best of my ability, riinuiug the courts 
with dispatch and as economically and parsimoniously as if 
the cost and expenses came out of my own pocket. 

When I was first elected, the district covered at least half 
of the territory of the state, sparsely settled, railroads reach- 
ing but few of the county seats, and infested with outlaws 
and the worst kind of criminals. Court was not held by me 
for (ornament, but strictly for business, and soon law and 
order were established and crime was promptly and fear- 
lessly punished, even at times in peril of my life. Fortu- 
nately^, Gen. C J. Dilworth was district attorne^^ lie was one 
of the coolest and bravest of men, a gallant soldier in the 
Union army during the Ci^il AVar, affable and judicious, 
clear-headed and a good trial lawyer, having genius and tact 
to convict criminals, ^^ithout exciting their hatred, ever co- 
operating with me to secure the conviction of the guilty; and 
he is entitled to his full share of the credit for redeeming the 
district from the reign of terror in which we found it. We 
conferred together constantly, and I could always rely upon 
his good judgment. His services were appreciated and re- 
warded by the law-abiding citizens of Nebraska by electing 
him attorney general of the state for two terms, which posi- 
tion he filled Avith credit, as he ever did any public position 
entrusted to him. He has gone out from among us to the 
land of the unknown, leaving behind him his widow, an ex- 
cellent lady, and a worthy and upright son, occupying a 
prominent position at Onmha, in the legal department of the 
C, 1>. & Q. Ky. Co. After General Dilworth was elected at- 
torney general, during the last of the carnival of crime in 
the fifth district, Hon. Victor Bierbower, peculiarly fitted 
for the position, occupied the position of district attorney, 
who ac(iuitted himself ^^'ith credit, and who died a few A^ears 
ago in Idaho occupying a prominent state office. 

Unfortunately for the taxpayers of Nebraska, the Consti- 
tution of 1875, by provision of article 6, section 2, provided 
that "on and after 1880 and every four years thereafter," the 
legislature had authority to increase the number of judicial 



JUDICIAL GRAFTS. 115 

districts aucl the uuiiiber of district judges. Authorized by 
the above iH'ovision, in the session laws of 1883, chapter 37, 
page 218, the politicians, tricksters, and grafters induced the 
legislature to increase tlie number of judicial districts from 
six to ten, and to add an extra judge for the fourth district; 
authorized the governor to appoint new judges created by 
the act until the next regular election, which was promptly 
done, Avhen there was not the least necessity for this increase; 
adding to the state taxes $1,000 for the salary of each new 
judge and his reporter, making |20,000 increase in state taxes 
for the salaries of the live unnecessary judges and reporters, 
besides the unnecessary costs and fees of additional bailiffs, 
jurors, etc., falling on the counties. By act of the legislature 
of 1885, session laws of 1885, page 239, an additional judge 
was provided for the second district, the attendant officers 
following as a consequence, only two years subsequent to the 
prior act of 1883, extending the number of judicial districts 
to ten, wlieu section 2, article G, of the (Constitution pro- 
vides that the number of judges and judicial districts can be 
iucreased but once in four years. Well do we remember the 
juggling and hair-splitting of the supreme court to get 
around this provision of the Constitution. After this con- 
struction the head-gates were hoisted, and the grafters turned 
lojse to rob the people of the state by creating unnecessary 
nidges and reporters, and court hangers on ad libit nut. In 
1877 by act of the legislature, found in chapter 0, page 95, 
the judicial districts were increased to twelve and the num- 
ber of district judges to nineteen, increasing the state taxes 
121,000, the pay of the superfluous judges and reporters, be- 
sides the court expenses of extra bailiff fees, jurors, and other 
court hangers-on. This act provided for four judges for Uut 
fourth district, two judges each for the first,' fourth, seventh, 
and ninth districts, and one judge eadi for the other districts, 
liy act of the legislature of 1889, Session Laws, chapter U, 
page 118, an additional judge was provided for the tenth judi- 
cial district, increasing the whole num1)er of district judges 
to twentv. After law ))usiness had greatly falh'n off, by act 



116 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of 1891, Session Laws, chapter C, page 70, the number of judi- 
cial districts were increased to fifteen and number of district 
judges and reporters to twenty-eight; districts two, seven, 
eight, nine, t(?n, twelve, thirteen, and fourteen having one 
judge each; the first, fifth, sixth, eleventh, and fifteenth hav- 
ing two judges each; the third district having three judges; 
and the fourth district seven judges. This is one of the most 
palpable grafts ever perpetrated on the people of the state. 
Though litigation and business of the courts liave greatly 
decreased, amounting at most to not more than one-third of 
what it did ten or twelve years ago, there is no diminution 
in the number of districts, district judges and their reporters, 
and the concomitant court hangers-on ; and though Governor 
Mickey, one of the best governors for good i)eople and one of 
the worst for the grafters, in his first inaugural address drew 
the attention of tlie legislature to this palpable evil, not the 
least attention was paid to or notice taken of it. Tliough this 
useless expenditure of public money lias been ai)parent to 
and felt by those conversant with it for A-ears, no steps have 
been taken to eradicate it. What is everybody's business i;s 
nobody's business. When a public office is once created, it 
can be got rid of only with great difficulty. 

As I have said, there are now in Nebraska fifteen judV-ial 
districts, twenty-eight district judges, and tlie same numler 
of reporters, every judge and his reporter costing the tax 
payers of the state |4,000, besides the extra jurors, criers, 
bailiffs, and court hangers-on, costing the counties a large 
sum. I have gone over the matter and made a quite careful 
estimate, and it seems to me that one judge is ample for the 
first district, which now has two; that the two counties, Otoe 
and Cass, comprising the second district, should be attached 
to the adjoining districts and that district be dispensed with; 
that one judge is sufficient for the third district, which now 
has three; that two judges are ample for the fourth district, 
which now has seven; that one judge is ample for eacli of the 
fifth, sixth, eleventh, and fifteenth districts, which each now 
have two judges; that the counties in the seventh district 



JUDICIAL GRAFTS. 11 T 

should be attached to the adjoining districts where the judges 
have uot more than business enough to occupy one-third of 
their time; that the tenth and twelfth districts should be 
united in one, and the same disposition be made of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth; thus dispensing with seventeen 
useless and unnecessary judges and tlie same number of 
redundant reporters, a\ hose salaries annually amount to ^^S,- 
000, besides the other costs of unnecessary jurors, bailitfs, 
and other officers attached to and attendant on the unneces- 
sary judges aggregating some |100,000 yeai-ly expenses and 
salaries. The last graft, the worst, most obvious and unnec- 
essary of all, passed by the legislature of 1S91, after l-nv busi- 
ness had begun to decline. 

The district comprising Douglas, kSarpy, Washington, and 
Burt counties is the only one that ever required more than 
one judge, not more than two, during the large foreclosure 
and other cases for a short time, occasioned by the collapse 
of the boom, a large portion of which went by default, which 
was the case to a greater or less extent all over^the state. This, 
gave the grafters, designing and professional politicians an 
opportunity to impose upon the honest and well-meaning 
public and legislators, thereby to unnecessarily increase the 
nundjer of judges and judicial districts, by falsely heralding 
the increase of law business and cases *in the courts. These 
boom cases were mostly default cases, and added very little 
to the work of the judges and reporters, the decrees and jour- 
nal entries being written largely by the clerks of the district 
courts. 

During the sixteen years I ser\ed as district judge I pre- 
sided over sixty-eight murder cases, and other im])ortant 
(*i'iminal cases in proportion, most of them hotly contested 
by able lawyers, and now a murder case is rare. T also had 
frequent county-seat contest cases as well as important 
equity cases containing important questions, and often in- 
volving large sums of money; raising new questions arising 
in a new state, wliicli required much labor and research ; and 
often held courts for other judges in other districts, espe- 



118 " NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

cially the first five or six years I Avas judge, and on an aver- 
age not over one-third of my time was occupied in holding 
court. 

There is not in this state one-third Of tlie law business 
there was ten or twelve ^ears ago, and it is growing less ever}^ 
year, — ^an excellent thing for the public. During all this 
clamor for increase of district judges antl judicial districts I 
can not call to mind an instance A\'hen I have heard a district 
judge advocate it; on the contrary, all I have talked with 
gave their <>i)inion that it was unnecessary; and that has been 
the opinion I have heard all well-informed, honest lawyers of 
the state express. At this time it is obvious to tlie most casual 
observer of ordinary intelligence, lawyer or judge or not, 
that the district judges, reporters, and judicial districts 
should be greatly reduced. Would it not be a joke if the 
present legislature increased the number of judicial districts 
and district judges instead of reducing them? That was just 
what was done by the legislature of 1891, after I gave a num- 
ber of that body the communication I have just read, which 
was published in the l^tatc Jounial, and to my certain knowl- 
edge other district judges gave nuMubers of the legislature 
the same opinion. If the politicians, tricksters, and grafters 
have control of the legislature, and so will it, it will be done, 
however detrimental to the public interest and though honest 
niend)ers may oppose it. I>oth parties preach economy, right- 
eousness, and strict conformity to the laws and Constitution 
during campaigns, bnt disregard their campaign vo^^'s when 
they get in power. All kinds of subterfuges, after being in- 
stalled, are used to continue and create superfluous and un- 
necessary and ilhM^al positions in and about the state liouse 
and elsewhere to reward relatives, friends, and politicians Af 
the successful party, who helped elect the mend)ers in power. 
They become so thick in and about tlie state liouse dui'ing 
the session of the legislature, they run over and trample each 
other down, though a goodly number of the grafters whose 
names are on the jsay roll and drawing salary an; absent. 



MY F11{«T yiaiT TU THE PAW NEK MLLACJE. HO 

MY VEIIY FIK^^T YJSIT TO THE PAWNEE YILLAGE 

IN 1855. 

IJKAIJ KKFOKK THE AXM'AL MeETIXU OF THE XEI'.UASKA STATE 

IIISTOUICAL SOC I !:ty. 

BY GEXEUAL JOHN M. THAYER. 

The passage of Mbat was known as t\w Kansas and 
Nebraska bill Mixy 80, 1854, pi-oviding for tlie organization 
of tbose territories, attracted the attention of tin? people 
very generally of the North and South, and many wer(? 
ready to remove to those seetigns of the country, I had long- 
had the intention of linding some point in the nortliwest 
for settlement, and in the spring of 1854 had taken a tri]) to 
Nebraska in view of spying out the land. I was so well 
pleased with the appearance of the country tliat I deter- 
mined to locate in Omaha, which had then been laid out and 
planted in anticipation as the future capilal city of Ne- 
braska. In September of that year I arrived in the city of 
Coun<'il Bluffs, which was then the stopping place for all 
persons intending to locate in the central portion of Ne- 
braska. I was accompanied by my wife. We found there at 
that time a number of persons who helped to lay the founda- 
tion of the territorial government. I recall the Hon. J. Ster- 
ling Morton and wife. Dr. George L. ^liller and ^^'ife, A. J. 
Hanscom and wife, Samuel Rogers, Thomas ]>. Cuming and 
wife, Mrs. ]\[urpliy,.and Frank jMurphy, and others whom T 
cart not now recall. All the gentlemen whom I have nanu'd, 
with the exception of Thomas B. Cuming, are now living, and 
all located in Omaha opposite Council Bluffs. 

President Franklin Pierce by proclamation o])en(Ml ihc ter- 
ritory for settlement and appointed a set of officers. He 
selected Francis Burt of South Car-olina for governor, and 
named Thomas B. Cuming, of Keokuk, Iowa, to be secretary 
of state, and Mark W. Izard for United States marshal. C<n - 
ernor Burt started with a view of making the journey to. 
what was to be to him, his future land of i)romise. but he was 



120 NEBRASKA STATE TIISTOIJICAL SOCIETY. 

in poor health at the time, and as he journeyed toward Ne- 
braska his health grew worse and became very much im- 
paired while on a steamer from St. Louis to Belleyue. The 
steamer could go no farther than St. Joe, from which place 
he proceeded in a hack to Nebraska City and from there in a 
wagon to Bellevue. He was taken into the Old ^fission House 
at that point and continued to grow worse, and he finally died 
there in a few days, never having assumed the duties of office 
as governor. By the organic law his death devohed the du- 
ties of the office of governor upon the secretary of the terri- 
tory appointed, Thomas B. Cuming above named. The latter 
assumed the duties of the offic*e of acting governor, and soon 
put the machinery of organization on foot, laying off the 
territory into counties and providing for the election of mem- 
bers of the legislature. President Pierce did not immediately 
fill the office of governor Iw another appointment, but finally 
did appoint Mark W. Izard, who was then U. S. marshal, 
who, being on the ground, immediately assumed the duties 
of the office. Governor Cuming had developed into an active, 
energetic, broad-minded governor, filled with new ideas of 
progress, while Governor Izard was of the reverse order, and 
it was a mj^stery to many people why he had ever been se- 
lected for the governorship. It was a general conclusion that 
the delegation from Arkansas felt under obligation to pro- 
vide a place for him. The legislature elected under tlie 
proclamation of Governor Cuming met during the winter of 
1854-55. I was unexpectedly called back east and was gone 
some weeks. While^ I was away the legislature had made 
provision for laying off the territory into a brigade, and had 
elected me brigadier-general to command the frontier and to 
struggle with the Indians. I did not give much thought to 
the subject at first, but thought I would undertake whatever 
duties might devolve from it. I found subsequently that it 
became a more serious subject than I had supposed. 

I had built a small house on the site of Omaha and on my 
return from the East occupied it. We had just about got 
settled in it when I noticed, one afternoon towards evening, 



MY FIRST VISIT TO TlIE PAWNEP^ \ILLAGK. 121 

Governor Izard comiiig over towards it, aud I said to my 
wife, "I wouder what is up now?'' He called upon me and I 
soon found what his call was for. He said to me the couriers 
had just arrived, informing him that the Pawnee Indians 
were making a raid on the settlers along the Elkhorn river, 
stealing their stock and driving it away, and consequently 
the people were greatly alarmed and appealed to him for pro- 
tection; and that he felt it his duty to call upon me to go at 
once to the Pawnee village and hold a council with the chiefs, 
with a view of inducing- them to keep their Indians in sub- 
jection and not to meddle with the whites. Here was a de- 
velopment which I was not looking for. I had no familiarity 
with the Indians and had hardlv ever seen them. Here was 
a call \v^on me which I could not escape. I had made up my 
mind not to shirk any duty, and, taking a cheerful view, I 
determined to be of use to the settlers if it was in my power. 
There was nothing left for me then but to make preparation 
to visit the Pawnee village. 

The village of the Pawnees was on the south and west side 
of the Platte river, on a very high point a few miles this side 
of where the town of Fremont had just commenced a settle- 
ment. The Governor said to me that ]Mr. Allis, who had 
formerlv been a missionarv to the Pawnees aud had been 
employed as interpreter for that tribe, was living in a little 
town on the east side of the jMissouri river in Iowa, opposite 
Bellevue, and that he would send a messenger for him to 
come to Omaha at once and accompany me on the expedition, 
as it Avould be necessary to have his services as an inter- 
preter, and I Avas ver}' glad to have him associated with me. 
O. D. Richardson, who had settled in Omaha, having for- 
merly been lieutenant-governor of 3Iicliigan, kindly volun- 
teered to accompany me in this movement. I had decided 
also to take along John E. Allen, a brother-in-law. That made 
up the party of four. I had purchased a team for farming 
purposes and took that as the means of our conveyance, I, of 
course, could not tell how long we would be absent, but I de- 
termined to provide a goodly supply of good things, so that 



122 NEBKASKA STATE HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

we might live well, no matter ^^•llat hardships we might meet 
with. Mj wife was an excellent cook, trained in a good New 
England home, and she volnnteeiunl to prei^are rations for 
us that would last us some days. She at once set to work 
and baked a half dozen loaves of bread, boiled a whole ham, 
baked six or seven mince pies, and fried nearh^ a half bushel 
of doughnuts, ground coffee for several days' consumption, 
put in a full supph' of condensed milk, pickles, and other 
good things, all of which was a portion of supplies that we 
had laid in for the winter. She was engaged all one da}- and 
all one night in preparing these articles of food and the part 
of next day in order to get them ready for us. When the 
interpreter arrived we were prepared to start on this trip to 
the Pawnee village, putting in feed for the horses, and taking 
some blankets with us which we expected to sleep in, or in 
the wagon if there was room enough. The Governor came 
over to see us oft and say good-bA^e, expressing the hope that 
we would make the Indians behave themselves. lie was a 
kindly old gentleman, a tall six-footer in size, and a good 
chewer of tobacco. It was reported of him that he v,as a 
retired Uaptist minister, all tin; Avay from the Avilds of Ar- 
kansas. He had mau}^ qualities which made me like him. 
He evidently was trying to do the best he could for the set- 
tlers. iJeing thus prepared we started ou the expedition. 
AVe took the trail leading west from Omaha, and in a few 
hours crossed the Elkhorn river on a flat-bottouied boat, near 
where a family had located, and then made for the direction 
of the Tawnee village on the high bluff to which I have al- 
luded, reaching a point on the Platte on this side of it. The 
village was entirely exposed to our view and the hundreds of 
Indians loafing around it. TIkw soon discovered our team 
approaching their direction and were a good deal excited at 
the apparently strange appearance to them. We could dis- 
cover a crowd on the bluffs as they were drawn by curiosity 
to come out and look at the strange team that was approach- 
ing. We halted in full view of the village, and the inter- 
preter signalled to Uwm to send a number of Indinns across 



MY llKtiT VISIT TU THC PAWNEE VII.LVCJE. 123 

the river to lead us back, as we were coming to see the chiefs. 
Soon some tweiit}' Iiidiaiis crossed over to the phicc wliere 
we were awaiting their coming. Tlie interpreter informed 
them that we wanted them to h'ad ns back across tlie river. 
The Platte river was as it is now, a dangerous stream to cross 
without a guide who is familiar with it; so it was arranged^ 
that we should take my two horses and unharness them, and 
Gov. O. D. Kichardson ride one and I the other, and the In- 
dians furnish a pony for the interpreter, one of them giving 
up his pony and doubling upon the back of another. I left 
Allen in charge of the wagon and the supplies in it, having 
no suspicion of treachery on the part of the Indians. While 
they Avere with us and around the wagon they took good care 
to learn what was in the wagon. A'N'hen we were ready to 
cross the river our escort of Indians took the lead and we 
followed in single tile. When perhaps about half way across 
the Platte I suddenly realized that my horse Avas sinking in 
quicksand, and instantly slid off into the riA'er, realizing the 
serious danger from the quicksand. I gave him a touch wirii 
my whip, and with an unearthly yell, renewing tlie whip, 
caused him to make a tremendous effort to get his limbs out 
of the quicksand and plunge forward, and fortunately he 
struck hard sand and thus saA'ed himself. I led him along 
a few rods and then got onto him again and thus Ave crossed 
the river without further incident. I Avas the only one Avho. 
had the wetting in Avater up abov(? my waist. 

On reaching the first bank AA'e Avere led up into the heart 
of the village and into Avhat appeared to be a great council 
tent, constructed in the shape of an amphitheater, by poles 
set upon the ground, then spliced at each end and forming a 
Avide circle. The poles were bound with leather strap made 
of buffalo skins. This tent Avas filled with as many of the 
PaAvnees as could get into it. We Avere led into tlie center 
of it and there the old chief and his associates Avere squatted 
on the ground. By my direction :Mr. Allis introduced me to 
the chief, telling him Avho I Avas and for what purpose T Avas 
there, that I had come to make complaint to him that the 



124 NEBKASKA STATE HlSTOHICAr. SOCJETY. 

members of the PaAvnee tribe were committiDg depredations 
upon the settlers. The old chief received me very kindly with 
the usual grunt. He extended his hand and then handed me 
the pipe of peace, which I took. I knew I would be expected 
to puff it a little and did so, and then it was passed around 
among the subordinate chiefs. "NAIiile remaining in my posi- 
tion there I cast my eyes into an immense iron kettle which 
was suspended hj ropes made of skins from the central open- 
ing at the top, in which kettle there seemed to be a dark col- 
ored liquid in which there was something resembling beef 
stewing. It did not look inviting to me, for I had heard of 
the Indians cutting up dogs and stewing them, and the 
thought occurred to me that as a part of their hospitality 
they would invite me to take some of that stew, which was 
not a pleasing thought, but I had determined that I would 
draw the line there against that dish; but fortunately they 
did not offer it to me. The interpreter was then directed by 
me to state more in. detail the object of our visit in language 
which I dictated to him. I said the knowledge had reached 
the Great Father that the members of his tribe, the Pawnees, 
had been committing depredation upon the white settlers, 
stealing and driving off their cattle, and causing great fear 
to prevail among them along the Elkhorn river. I had come 
to say to him and to the subordinate chiefs that these wrongs 
must not be continued. When he came to reply the chief 
said to the interpreter that these marauding acts had been 
committed by their young men, and that they could not con- 
trol them. I replied to him that they must control their 
young men, and put an end to the wrongs which these young- 
men were inflicting upon the peaceable settlers. I felt the 
necessity of replying to him in a strong language, stating 
that the governnu^nt had purchased these lands and had paid 
for, or was paying for the same — that the government had 
opened them up for settlement, and that the settlers were 
there by right and must be protected in the possession of that 
property, and that the government would protect them, and 
adding that if it was not done the government would send 



MY FlUST VISIT TO THl^ I'AWXKK VILLAGE. 125 

troops out here topiuiisli and suppress the Indians; sayini;' 
to them that if I had to come here again on account of these 
outrages committed bv their tribe I should come with a force 
of troops to punish the marauders. The chief then promised 
that they would do everything in their power to prevent any 
Avrongs being inflicted on the settlers, saying they desired to 
live in peace with their white brethren. I repeated my mes- 
sage to him in order to nmke as strong an impression on them 
as possible. Of course I could not tell what effect it would 
have on them, but it was all I could tlien do. After giving 
me the strongest assurances that they would behave tliem- 
selves properly and let the whites live in peace, and the other 
chiefs united with him in the assurances he gave bv such a 
way of approval, the council was concluded. It lasted prob- 
abh' two hours. I informed the chief we should need parties 
to escort us back across the river to our wagon; the escorts 
he readilv furnished, but not the same ones who had escorted 
us over to the village. At that time the weather was cold and 
chilly. That Avas about the 15th of April. [It Avas IMay 25. 
— Ed.] I Avas beginning to think of the good tilings avc had in 
our Avagon, and the splendid supper Ave Avere to have under 
the tree — Avith a huge fire in front of us. That anticipated 
supper Avas in my mind during the Avhole passage of the riA-er. 
I had a special reason myself alloAving for the fire and the 
supper, for I was the only one Avho had been in the river, and 
still had my wet clothes on and no chance to improA'e my con- 
dition. Visions of cold ham, bread and butter, doughnuts, 
mince pie, and hot coffee Avith condensed milk aad Avith all 
the good things enumerated aboA^e ready at our call, ^^^'ll, 
on arriving at the Avagon our astonishment Avas OA'erwhclui- 
ing Avhen Ave were informed by Allen, the felloAA' Avho liad 
staved at the wagon, that about twentv of the Indians came 
there as soon as aac had reached the council tent, and over- 
powered him, took by force CAerything in the wagon, and had 
taken them across the riA'er again. It was a disappointment 
for Avhich I never had language to express my indignation. 
The treachery of the Indians has been fully impressed on my 



126 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOltlOAI. SOCIETY. 

luiud ever since, altliongli I Imve fouDd souk; good liidiaus 
among them, but the siitferhigs Avliieh I was enduring, cold 
and wet and hungn , are too much for n.ie to descrilx' at this 
late day. There we were, just at night, witli nothing left to 
us but our blankets which tlie Indians kindly' left us. My 
first thought was '-what shall v,q do?'' Recalling the fact 
that we had found one family at the ferrv where Ave crossed 
the Elkhorn, in a log cabin, we determined to return there 
and seek what relief we could by way of supper and sonie- 
thing to eat. AVe hitched the team again and drove to that 
point. Fortunatel}' the ferryman had been out hunting pi-ai- 
rie chickens that afternoon \\'hile we wein? in the couiicil and 
had brought in some half-dozen prairie chickens. His good 
wife set to work, dressed and cooked those chickens, and 
having some bread and butter we fared reasonably well, and 
determined to stay there for the night, which we did. 

I had reason to believe afterwards that the party of In- 
dians who crossed over and led us back to the village quietly 
reported to the chief what we had in our wagon over the 
river, and that they went back with the ])ermissi(ni of the 
Indians, and robbed us of all we had. Thus, while we w<Te 
holding council and demanding assurances that they ^^ould 
control their men, their own Indians were across the river 
and were plundering our wagon of all our supplies — the kind 
of treachery for Avhich there is no name to designate. I de- 
termined at that time if I had ever a chance to get at them 
and have some satisfaction I wou.ld do so. I should have 
mentioned among the things which they stole from my wagon 
was a present from a friend of mine who brought it to nu^ as 
I was about leaving— a bottle of very old choice brandy, say- 
ing to me that I might some time need it to head off snake- 
bites wdien roaming over those prairies of Nebraska. I had 
not opened the bottle since leaving T'oston, l)ut when making 
preparation for this expedition it occurred to me that it 
might be very useful to me, but the Indians had taken that. 
I hope my friend Wolfenbarger will forgive me for taking 
along the bottle under the circumstances, and enabling the 



EAULY DAYS OX THE IJTTLE BUTE. 127 

Indians to have a set-to over the use of that firewater. Some 
three years afterwards the whole tribe entered upon one gen- 
eral marauding- excursion up the Platte river, destro^Mug 
everything within their reach. The reign of terror prevailed 
over the whole Elkhorn valle}'. They destroyed everything 
in their path, and then I raised the force of 194 men aild pur- 
sued them. Coming up with them at daylight we captured 
the whole tribe. Then the chiefs came inisliing out of their 
tepees, making every sign of surrender, exclaiming to me 
''Good Indian," and begging me for mercy. 

That tribe had given much trouble at dir'ferent times, but 
after this capture of the ^^'hole tribe they were put on their 
reservation and the government took immediate charge of 
them, and after that they never gave the wliites any trouble. 

Years ago the Pawnee tribe was a great, powerful nation 
among the Indian tribes. It was a warlike nation, fighting 
battles with ditferent tribes, but it gradually got upon the 
downward grading and became greatly diminished in num- 
bers till I believe it is but a remnant of tlie Pawnees now in 
the Indian territory. 



p:apvLy days on the little p.lue. 

Written for the Nebraska State Historical Sociktv. 

■ by .t. h. lemmon, pioneer of thayer county. 

Alexander Majors, the founder of the greatest freight com- 
pany that was ever formed to do a freighting business \Nitli 
teams and wagons, commenced the business with six yoke of 
cattle and one Avagon. His first trip was from Independence, 
AHssouri, to Ft. Union, New Mexico. He kept adding tiMims 
to his outfit until he had twenty-six teams and wagons. He 
then formed a partnership with two men under the firm nanu! 
of Majors, liussell & Waddell and they kept enlarging their 
business until the year 1800-01 they liad six hundred teams 
and wagons with six voke of cattle to the wagon. 



128 NE.BIiASKA STATE I1I8T0IUCAL SOCIETY. 

I think that the old freight road that used to pass up tlie 
Little Blue river was once the greatest thoroughfare that was 
ever traveled in any countrv. In the vear 18G0 there were 
never less than three hundred and souietimes over five hun- 
dred wagons passing over the road everv day for o\er five 
months, not counting an}^ teams coming from the >>'est, and 
probably three-fourths of these same teams traveled over the 
same road going west. 

On the 0];)en X)rairie, where there was plenty of room, the 
road was Avorn down smooth for one hundred yards wide. I 
have seen three trains traveling abreast. Just imagine five 
hundred wagons strung out on the same road, each team 
taking up at least one hundred feet, making a distance of 
over nine miles. I have seen over four hundred wagons 
camped in one bottom, their corrals covering a si>ace one 
mile long by one-half mile wide. 

In regard to the Indians, we lived here on the Little Blue 
river for four years in perfect peace with them. AVe did not 
mind them any more than we did the birds that were iiying 
about us. There would not have been any trouble with the 
Indians if it had not been for the Rebellion. There were, 
among the Indians, some of the rebels who put them up to 
go on the war-path. There were twenty-three persons killed 
within thirty-five miles on the Little Blue, and seven ranches 
burned in the first big raid. Among the killed were six of 
the Eubanks family and six freighters. The rest were killed, 
one and two at a i)lace, all this being done at the same hour 
of the day. There was one married woman and her two chil- 
dren by the name of Eubanks and one young lady, Laura 
Roper, who were taken prisoners in the year 18G0. 

By the year 1866 nearly all the old ranchmen had gotten 
back on the Little Blue river and things were going ahjng 
nicely. I had in 155 acres of corn, the Comscocks had in 
ninety acres, and all the others had in from forty to sixty 
acres. It was a fine growing spring. We had all plowed our 
corn over the first time and had commenced to go over it the 
second time. I had three hired men, two of whom wanted to 



KAULY DAY'S OX THE LITTLE P.r.UE. 121) 

go dowu to Brownville on the Missouri river to the laud ottice 
to enter some hmd. 1 toolc three big teams and went with 
theuL I h)aded mv teams with corn and started back. I got 
to the Sandy, near where Alexandria now stands, where there 
was quite a little settlement, sonu^ six or eiglit families. To 
this place the stage coach had come down the dav before aud 
brought the news that all the men had been run out of the 
fields, and one man, who was breaking prairie just one mile 
above Avhere the town of Oak now stands, was killed. We 
ranchmen all had men standing guard over the men that were 
plowing in the fields, so that the Indians could not get the 
drop on theuL That was the reason the men all got out of the 
fields without any more of them being killed. Well, the peo- 
ple around Sandy were all getting ready to leave the country 
again and go east to the big settlements. I commenced to talk 
to them and told them that I was going to stay, and said to 
them, '"Let's go out aud give those Indians a good drubbiug 
aud tlien they will let us alone. We can whip all the Indians 
in the Sioux and Cheyenne nations with tlu' advantage we 
have in arms." We all had heavy rifles, sixteen shooters, or 
Sp( ncer rifles, seven shooters. We counted up an<l we could 
raise fifty men and still leave two men at each rauclL 1 told 
them that I would furnish grub for the men and feed for tlie 
animals. This was on Friday morning. It woubl take me two 
days to drive luune. ^^'ell, they all agi'eed to come to my 
place Saturday night so that we could start out on Sun<hiy. 
On Sunday morning the coach came up and brought me thi^ 
news that every ranchman and all the settlement at Sandy 
had left the country except at the stage stations where Avere 
a dozen soldiers as a guard. I talked with my liired men, of 
whom I had four, and told them that if any of ihem were 
afraid to stay to say so and I would pay them off. One of 
them said he would rather not stay, so I paid him off and he 
Avent down on the next coach. The otlier three said they 
would stay if I did. I wanted my wife and snuill chihlren 
and hinnl girl to go to r.eatrice, but my wife would not go 
and leav(^ me on the lUue. I had to let part of my corn go 



130 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

without tending, excei)t the one j^lowing. I had to put a man 
at each end of the field and one man had to be at the house 
the most of the time. Whenever we saw an Indian or In- 
dians we mounted our horses and made them bounce. They 
would always make for a large body of timber about four 
miles up Liberty creek. They would generally have so much 
the start that they would make the timber before we could 
overtake them. We made it hot for tliree of them one day. 
We shot the pony from under one of them just before they 
reached the timber, but he got up behind one of the others 
and got away before we could get hiui. If the ground had 
not been rough for the last quarter of a inile we would have 
gotten all three of them. 

My farm lay between Liberty creek and the Little Line 
river. The day before the 4th of July an Indian came down 
the south side of Liberty creek to a high piece of ground 
aiid sat on his pony watching for an hour the boys plowing 
and the men on guard. On the next da}', the 4 th of July, 
an Indian came and sat around on his pony the same as the 
day before. At the same time sixteen of them crossed Lib- 
ert}^ creek on foot, the banks being too steep for their ponies 
to cross. The field Avas one-half a mile long and the bovs 
were plowing up and down the creek. The northeast corner 
of the field ran up on to high ground so that the man on 
guard at that corner of the field could see all over and across 
to the other side of the creek. There was a draw about sixty 
yards from the west of the field and quite straight so that 
the man who ^^'as on guard could look down to the timber. 
He saw the Indians come out, but at first thought they were 
wild turkeys as they were crawling in tlie grass. But to be 
sure he jumj)ed on his horse and ran down where tlie boys 
were just coming out at the end of the field. The Indinns 
had crawled up the draw directly opposite where tlie boys 
would come out. When the guard reached the boys he gal- 
loped over toward the draw, and the Indians jumped up and 
began to shoot. By this time the boys had gotten out of the 
corn, and the man who was riding the plow jumped and ran 



EARLY DAYS ON THE LITTLE BF.UE. 131 

around his team, aud his second shot Ivilled an Indian, and 
the rest ran bacli into the draAV and to the timber, keeping- 
down nnder the bank, making their Avay toward the ranch. 
B}^ their motion the boys thought there was another party 
attacking the house, so as quickly as the boys could unhitch 
th(^y jumped on their horses and took down through the corn 
rows. The Indians saw that the boys were going to beat 
them, so they jum^^ed u^) from behind the banlv aud com- 
menced shooting again. Tlie guard was riding a running 
horse and was about three rods ahead of the others, so the 
Indians did all their shooting at hiuL Tlie boys behind said 
they made the dust fly about tliree or four feet behind him. 
They were not like old Davy Crockett. He allowed for the 
coons crawling, but the Indians did not allow for i\ut horse 
running. 

The butfalo were so plenty on the Little lUue river and 
between the Little Blue and Platte rivers that it seemed as 
though the whole face of the earth was covered with them. 
For four days several big freight trains lay in camp on the 
divide between the Little Blue and the Platte rivers, not 
daring to move, being entirely surrounded by buffalo. Had 
they known the nature of the animal there was not a particle 
of danger, for when thev are in such large bodies thev never 
stampede, as the}^ move together and in one direction. 

In the year 1800 I had a contract for putting up hay for 
the stage compan}^, about four miles from Thirty-two Mile 
creek station where there was a large bottom of line grass for 
hay. All the rest of the country was eaten up and tramped 
into the earth. There was a small creek that ran into the 
Blue river right at the upper end of this bottom, and the buf- 
falo were just above this. I was afraid they would come down 
and tramp the grass into the earth, so I took five men on 
horses and we worked for four hours and did not move them 
half a mile, only just crowded them a little closer together. 
We worked away and cut all that bottom, and the buffalo 
were all that time within three or four hundred yards of us. 

A short time after I finished my hay a couple of men came 



132 NEBRASKA STATE HlSTOllICAL SOCIETY. 

ill from a trapping expedition on some of the creelvs that ran 
into tlie liepnbliean river, and the}' told me tliat they had 
seen eight head of big, fine horses on a small ereek, so I took 
another man with me and led an extra horse with blankets, 
feed, and grnb and started early in the morning, and when 
we had gotten one mile from my raiieli we ran right into a 
body of bnft'alo. AVe rode on a trot all day, and 1 am certain 
that we rode fifty miles and never saw an acre of gronnd but 
had from tweutv to fiftv bntfalo on it. AA\' wonld inst make 
a lane through them not more than fifty yards wide, and it 
would all be closed up one hundred yards behind us. AAMieii 
night came we Avent into the timber and cami)ed. Tlie next 
dav we went back over another route Imt found it iust the 
sain(\ 

In the vear 18G1 Ed S. Stokes, the man who lallfd .Jim 
Fisk in New York, came from San Francisco on the stage. 
He laid over one day at mv ranch to take a butfalo hunt. I 
had a splendid buffalo horse, and I put him on tliat and I 
hitched up a couple of pretty good horses to my carriage and 
we started out. AVe had to go l)ut two or three miles be- 
f(jre we came to ;i small herd. He ^^■anted to kill the bufl'alo 
himself. He had two big dragoon revolvers and I had two 
more in the carriage and a heavv rifh\ He started out after 
the buifalo, and I let my team go and kept prett}' close to 
him. AVlien he got within one hundred yards of the buffalo 
he commenced to shoot. I told him to let the horse go u]) 
close, but he kept back until he unloaded l^otli his revolvers 
and came l)ack to the carriage for anoth(-r. I them t(dd him 
to go up within twenty feet of tlie buHalo,- but he was still 
afraid ami went up to within about fort}' f(M't, and at the 
seventeenth shot he got him down, and then taking my ritte 
finished him. I have taken the same horse and a revolver 
and had three buffalo down before it was empty. 

The first cabin beilt on the Little Blue was at Oak Grove 
in Nuckolls county. It was built by Majors, Russell •& AVad- 
dell to leave their lame cattle when tliey AN'ere freighting west. 

I am almost positive that my oldest son, James II. Lem- 



AXXAUS OF NEBRASKA CITY. 138 

mon, Jr., was the first wliite tliild boin in the territory of Ne- 
braska. He was boru the 20th day of June, 1853, in a tent 
on the Platte river, not over five miles from where Kearney 
now stands. I was on mv why to California. 

There was no settlement in Nebraska at the time I crossed 
the Missouri river about four miles below where Omaha now 
stands. Peter A. Sarpy had a little cabin in the bottom under 
the bluff one mile above where I crossed the river. 



THE EAKLY ANXAL8 OF NEBRASKA CITY. 

AVrittex in 1873, fuk the Old Settlers' Association of 

Otoe County. 

cy j. av. pear -man. ^ 

On the l:th of May, 1853, I crossed the Missouri ri\er at 
Otoe Citj (Gideon Bennett, ferryman), in company with 
R. B. Lockwood and Lafavett(» Duncan; we were then on our 
way to Plum creek with two wa^onloads of i>TOceries, for the 
purpose of tradin"- with the California and Oregon immi- 
grants on their way to the gold fields of the Pacific slope. 

First, we camped on the headwaters of South Table creek, 
now OAvned by our worthy old settler, John Hamilton, where 
he has a farm. We made our journey to Plum creek, sold our 



'Major John W. Pearman, deceased, was a native of Hardin county, 
Kentucky, born March 16, 1832, son of Hugh and Nancy (Whalen) Pear- 
man He crossed the Missouri riveu into Nebraska at Nebraska City, 
May 10, 1854. He served as county treasurer of Otoe 'county from 1856 
to 1862. He enlisted in the 2d Nebraska Cavalry for nine months' service, 
and was commissioned junior major. After his terra of enlistment had 
expired, he was appointed assistant quartermaster by President Lincoln, 
and sent to Virginia. Alter the war he was placed in charge of the quar- 
termaster's stores at Davenport. Iowa. In 1870 he returned to Neljraska 
City, and engaged m agricultural and horticultural pursuits. .Major 
Pearman was marrieu February 4, 1856, to Mary A. Swift, of Atchison, 
Missouri. Eleven children were born to them, nine of whom are living: 
Anna Nebraska, wife of Edward L. Sayre. Omaha; Mary, wife of C. H. 
Pringle, Omaha; Fred L.; Horace S.; Prudence, wife of Charles A. Dun- 
ham, South Omaha; Hugh C, Deadwood, South Dakota; Guy R.; Mar- 
garet; and Katherine, wife of L. M. Davis, South Omaha. 



134 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

groceries, uiid returned to Old Fort Kearney, arriving there 
June 16 of the same 3- ear. On our arrival we found H. P. 
Downs and family occupying the old government hospital and 
entertaining all who clio.se to put up with them. The jMis- 
souri river at that time and for nearly two months afterwards 
was bankful, and the land directly opposite the city, where 
the B. & M. depot now stands, was fully two feet under water. 
The bottom extending to the bluffs was one sheet of water 
ranging from two to eight feet deep. Many of the settlers in 
the bottom wer^ compelled to leave their homes and find a dry 
location on this side of the river. Among the number who 
moved over were Andrew Hixon and family, Hugh McNeely 
and family, John B. Boulware and family, and many others 
whose names I can not now recall. Jo]in B. Boulware went, 
from what is now the foot of Main street, to the bluffs near 
where Eli Slusher then lived, four miles above Hamburg, in a 
skiff, carrying with him the United Stiites nmil just in from 
Ft. Kearney, and Sergeant Mix of the regular army. Tlie trip 
was easily made after leaving the main channel of the river 
about two miles above the present ferry landing on the oppo- 
site side. 

On the 4th of Julv Lafavette Duncan, mvself, and seven 
Otoe Indians started for the highlands in Iowa in canoes. We 
left the foot of Main street early in the morning expecting to 
reach Sidney, Iowa, by 10 :00 a.m. in time to take part in the 
celebration of that place. We aimed to go through the heavy 
timber directly opposite the city, but after paddling our way 
for a few hours we found we could not get through on account 
of the driftwood afloat. 

We sent the Indians back, tied most of our clothing around 
our neck, and started afoot for the Bluffs, a distance of about 
eight miles, at which place we arrived about <lark, traveling 
in Avater from two to eight feet deep. 

We arrived at Sidney at 1:00 a.m. on tlie 5th to find the 
celebration all over and the people in bed. 

About the middle of August we got our teams over, and 
thus ended my experience with Nebrnska until the 10th of 



ANNALS OF NEBUASKA Cll'Y. l3o 

Hay, 1854, when, in company with A. J. Donahue and family 
and Miss Euth Ann Wade, we left Sidney for this place, ar- 
riving here a little before sundown after a hard day's ride in 
an ox wagon. 

We i)ut up with our old friend, H. P. Downs, with just ten 
L-ents in our pocket. AYe here met T. E. Thompson, C. H. 
Cowles and familj', Simpson Hargus and family, Richard 
Pell and family, Andrew Hixon and family, Joseph IJlunt 
and famih', Wilson ^Maddox and family, Harvey C. Cowles 
and family, Ed Sprather, Peter ^^alier, Charley Bierwagon, 
and Conrad MuUis. T. E. Thompson and myself, being single 
men and having come west with a view of making our fortune, 
held a consultation as to Avliat we should do to accomplish 
that object. 

Thompson made the first raise. He caught a catfish at 
ihe mouth of Table creek and sold it to Downs, for Avhich he 
received fifty cents credit on his first Aveek's board. Xext 
came my time, and I got a job of dropping corn after the 
prairie plow of Richard Pell who was then breaking all that 
portion of the city west of Otli street to 14th street and south 
to Kansas. For this work I got one dollar per day and 
boarded myself. After the corn was planted Ed Spratlin ami 
myself were awarded the jol) by the town company of split- 
ting fence posts and fencing in the field. AVe got one dollar^ 
per hundred for cutting and splitting the posts, and for set- 
ting them in the ground and nailing on the boards we got one 
dollar per day and board, board being the essence of the con- 
tract. The work was completed about the middle of eTune, 
after which Downs thought it to the interest of the town to 
have a street one hundred feet wide cut through from near 
the crossing of Gth and Laramie streets to the residence of 
Simpson Hargus in Prairie City. This AAork— the first to- 
ward building a city— was done by T. E. Thompson, (loorgc 
E. Baker, and myself, for which we received the usual fee and 
board. 

The 4th of July being near at hand, it was determined to 
have a grand old barbecue, and exevj one set to work doing 



136 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOIUCAL SOCIETY.' 

what they could to make it a siiecess. Arbors for eating, 
speaking, and dancing were erected near where the Seymour 
house now stands. Evervbodv was invited far and near. 
There were at k^ast one thousand persons present, Atchison 
county, Missouri, and Fremont county, Iowa, furnishing 
most of the wliite people, while our own locality furnished 
nmny whites and a host of Indians. Daiicing and eating 
commenced about one o'clock of the 4th and wound up 
by a '/big injun" dance on the evening of the 6th. And l)e it 
said to the credit of the earlier settlers of Otoe countv, not a 
drunken man was seen nor ^^■ere there any disturbances of 
any kind during this thre(^ days' barbecuing. 

The glorious old Fourth having passed off to the satisfac- 
tion of all concerned, the town proprietors thought it about 
time to commence the work of building up a great city on the 
west bank of the miglitv ^Missouri. 

On the 10th, the following persons could be seen standing 
near the present crossing of Gth and ]Main str(^ets : 8. F. 
Nuckolls, Allen A. Uradford, Hiram P. Downs, C. H. (Vnvles, 
T. E. Thompson, A. M. Rose, A. IJ. Mayhew, Cliarley liier- 
wagon, George H. Benton, Dr. Dewey, and others whom I 
now forget. Dr. Dewev was the surveyor, J. AV. l^earman 
flagman, A. M. Kose and A. 1>. ^Mayhew chainmen, and T. E. 
Thompson axman. The first stake wtis set where the 
'northwest corner of IJobert Hawker's store now stands, and 
was firmly driven in the ground by a heavy stroke of the ax 
from each one present, and ^^•ith a fe^^' appropriate remarks 
from Messrs. Nuckolls and Bradford, wherein the gentlemen 
called the attention of those present that in a few years we 
should see a city built up lun-e containing at least twenty 
thousand inhal)itants, the corner stake was set, and from that 
stake the survey of the city commenced. A line was then sur- 
veyed east to the river on the soutli side of ]Main street, then 
on the north side west to Gth street, at that time the western 
boundary of the city. As soon as the lots were numbered so 
that parties could tell where to build^houses commenced go- 
ing up very rapidly. IL P. Downs built the first hot(d on the 



ANNALiS OF NEDliASKA CITY. 137 

groimds where now the Seyinoiir House stands. It was a 
hirge frame building two stories high, and Avas the only hotel 
iu the city until the Nuekolls House was built, which burned 
down in 1800. 1 should have stated before this that C. H. 
Cowles erected the tirst dwelling-house souje time iu ^larch 
or A]3ril, previous. It would have been built on lot 7, block 
25, directl}' north of the Christian church. Mr. Cowles also 
built the first storehouse opposite where the Seymour House 
stands and kept the first store. He continued in the business 
until late in the fall of the same vear, when he sold out to 
H. T. Walker & Co. 

Mr. Cowles and George H. llenton, wlio l)uilt tlie Downs 
hotel, were the first carpenters in the city. James H. Decker 
made and burnt the first brick and built tlie first brick house 
for S. F. Nuckolls, now used by the Nebraska City Transfer 
Company for office purposes. Joseph lUunt made tlie first 
shingles, which were used in covering the Downs hotel. >M1- 
liam B. Hail & Co. sawed the first lumber. The mill was near 
where the gas works now stand. Price of hnuber |2.50 per 
hundred feet. 

C. H. Cowles built the first bridge across Table creek, about 
the same place where the Main street bridge now stands. 

The first white child born after the city was located was a 
daughter to Mr. and ]Mrs. George H. Benton. I uiiderstan<l 
the child is v(^t living. Its mother's death was the first that 
occurred after the child was born, and she AAas buried near 
the residence of William K. Craig. This was in August, 1854. 
Mrs. Joseph Blunt died in the country during the same year. 

The first old fashioned 'iio-down*' was danced at the resi- 
dence of 'William 15. Hail— in the old goveruuumt hos])ital 
which I have before menti(med. Laura Hail, Celia Hail, IMiil 
and Tabbv Hail, Susan and Anna Pearnum, and two Miss 
Kennedys and Mary Pell were the ladies present. (\ C. Hail, 
Frill Hail, Floyd Hail, George Nuckolls and some more Hails, 
and myself also, were present. A pleasant evening was silent 
in the old way of dancing, and the mother of all the Hails 
said this evening's entertainment reminded her of "Old Vir- 



138 NEBRASKA STATE HISTCUilCAL SOCIETY. 

giuny" more than anything she had seen since she left there. 

John A. Oilman was the first bntcher. He opened a shop 
in the old block house. Col. C. B. Smith, IT. S. depnty mar- 
shal, took the first census of the county. I accompanied him 
with a petition for signatures, asking the governor to con- 
vene the first legislature at Nebraska City. The first day out 
we found Joe Helvey, William Anderson, better known as 
"Black Bill," Dr. William T. Fowlkes, George Gline, and 
Gideon Bennett. We staved all night with Mr. Bennett at 
Otoe City. Next night we camped with old man Jameson 
and son, on Camp creek, where the old man now lives. All 
four of us slept in a wagon-box, and next morning after eat- 
ing breakfast we gave that little stream tlie name of Camj) 
creek, which name it has ever gone by to this day. From here 
we struck out for Brownville, arriving there about sundown, 
found the iH'oprietors of the town, Dick Brown and a few 
others, skinning a beef. Stayed all night and next morning 
crossed the river and stopped over night at Senora, Missouri, 
where I got a large number of signers to the petition. On our 
return to the city I delivered the petition to Mr. Nuckolls, 
who gave me lot 6, block 5, where John K. Oilman's house is 
now located, for my service rendered. Soon after this an 
election was held for members of the legislature and delegates 
in Congress. There being no part}^ lines drawn at that time, 
every man ran for office that wanted to. Those elected to the 
lower house were W^illiam !>. Hail, James H. Decker, Harvey 
C. Cowles, Wilson M. Maddox, H. P. Bennett, and Gideon 
Bennett. Those to the upper house or council were Henry 
Bradford and Charles H. Cowles. At this election a tie vote 
occurred between C. H. Cowles and H. P. Downs. A new 
election was ordered; Cowles was elected by one nmjority. 
Napoleon Bonaparte Giddings, who lived then and does now 
in Andrew county, Missoui-i, was elected delegate to Con- 
gress, beating Bird B. Chapman, of Ohio, a few votes. At- 
chison county, Missouri, and our neighbors across the river 
assisted us very much in polling a heavy vote at that election. 

Dr. John C. Campbell was the- first practicing physician. 



ANNALS OF NEBRAvSKA CITY. 139 

He came here early in tlie fall of the year 1854 and took up a 
claim Avhere John Sheperd\s orchard now stands. The Doc- 
tor was a live man then as he is now among the old settlers. 
And I believe he claims the honor of being the first one in 
the county afflicted with the "Missouri scratches or Illiuoy 
Mange." 

Kev. W. D. Gage preached the first sermon in August, 1854. 
Nearly all the citizens Avere present and listened attentively 
to what he said, while a lot of Indians played "moccasin" be- 
hind the block house. 

The first watermill was built by Henry C. Cowles and D. N. 
Martin on Walnut creek. The same property is now ON\']]ed 
by U. S. Simpson. 

E. Wilhelm established the first steam sawmill in tlie bot- 
tom below town. 

Jacob Jameson established a tri-weekly saAMuill about the 
same time on Camp creek. The saw Avent up one day and 
down the next, making three strokes a week. 

Sam Carson was among the first scientific ox drivers. 

Miss Maggie Martin was the first school teacher. 

Henry Bradford & Co. opened the first drug store and did 
the first house painting. 

The first postoflice was established early in 1854 and called 
"Table Creek Postofiice," with H. P. Downs as postmaster. 
The office was first opened in Charlie Cowles's stoj-e, Mr. 
Cowles acting as deputy. P.ut little mail matter was received 
or sent olf, as there Avas no service, and the people generally 
depended on the Sidney office for their mail. lu 1855 i\ W. 
Pierce became Doavus's successor and kept llic m;ii! in his 
house near where the Press office stands. 

The Nebraska City News is among the oldest setllcrs in 
the state, having issued the first paper Novc^nber 14, 1854. 
Henry Bradford was editor, Giles N. Freemaa and Hal. A. 
Houston printers. The Ncics belonged to the town comi>auy 
until 1855, Avheu its present OAvner, Thomas :\rorton, pur- 
chased the Avhole concern and continued the; paper with J. 
Sterling Morton as editor. 



140 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

S. F. Nuckolls was the first man to suggest the idea of 
purchasing grounds for a cemetery, and at a citizens' meet- 
ing a committee was appointed to select a place for burying 
purposes. The committee selected the present Wyuka cem- 
etery, and John Clemens was the first person buried in it. He 
died on the island above tlie citv and was buried about the 
middle of January, 1855. C. C Hail, Laura and Celia Hail, 
J. ^y. Pearnum, and a few otliers WQva present at the grave. 

The first \vhiskv shop was establislied bv the writer in the 
fall of 1851, which "busted up" in just one mouth, to the en- 
tire satisfaction of the proprietor. 

J. AV. Pearman was the first store clerk in C. H. Cowles's 
store. 

H. ^Y. Cornell established the first harness shop. 

Hon. Edward K. Harden, of Georgia, was the first district 
judge, and held the first term of court in Jauuary, 1855, in 
the dancing room of the Downs House. All that was done at 
that term of court was to admit H. P. Bennett, A. A. Brad- 
ford, William McLennan, and Dr. AMlliam C. Fowlkes to 
practice. Dr. Fowlkes passed tlie best examination, and was 
highly complimented by the court. ]M. AV. liiden was the 
first district clerk, and issued the license to the above 
attornev. 

George W. Nuckolls and ir^arah Kenn(^dy were the first 
couple married. 

The first lodge of Good Templars was organized in the old 
log house occupied then by Mr. and :Mrs. M . R. Craig di- 
rectly in the rear of the Seymour House. Eai-ly in the 3'ear 
1855, Hon. T, B. Cuming, acting governor of the territory, 
appointed the following county officers : jM. W. Brov/n, pro- 
bate judge; Thomas Donahoo, sheriff; T. E. Thompson, dep- 
uty; C. C. Hail, recorder; AV. D. Gage, treasurer; William 
Anderson, justice of the peace. :Mr. Gage never qualified, 
and at an election soon tlu^reafter J. AY. Pearman Avas elected, 

John B. Boulware paid the first money into the county 
treasury, a ferry license required of him annuallv, amount- 
ing to 



ANNALS OF NEBRASKA CITY. 141 

J. H. Decker and ^Mlliani Hurst had the first hiwsuit be- 
fore Squire Audersou, about the proinietorship of a cdaini 
upon the public lands near \A'yoniing. H, P. i>ennett and 
J. Steiiinii' Morton were Decker's attorneys, and Jacob Daw- 
son, Hurst's attorney. The trial lasted for seyeral weeks 
until the court dismissed the case for want of time to hear 
the eyidence and pleading- throuj^h. 

Lewis Hax (established the first cabinet shop and sold fur- 
niture at a large profit. 

William McLennan ran the [irst steam ferry boat. The 
steamer, Banner State, was the first landed here after the 
town was established. 

John Nash was the first well-dijj;i;-er and dug The first well 
for S. F. Nuckolls on lot 12, block <6, where the transfer com- 
pany is now located. 

George North opened the first je^^■elry store in a small 
frame building on ^Liin street, opposite the court house. 

J. Dan Lauer rode the first balk}' mule in the city. Dan 
came from S(iuaw creek on the said mule to purchase gro- 
ceries for his father's family, and after laying in a supply of 
"fine cut" and a side of bacon started for home. His mule- 
ship would not moye a step until Sam Carson assisted him 
with his ox whip, upon which the mule started on the double 
quick, leaying Dan and his groceries lying in the street. 

A. 15. :\Liyhew owned the first Shanghai rooster. 

The first election occurred in May, 1855. Henry Bradford 
was elected mayor; William B. Hail, W. K. Craig, and J. \V. 
Pearman, alderman; M. W. Kiden, clerk; J. ^V. Stull, mar- 
shal. The same officers Avere i-eelected in 185(5 except :Mr. 
Craig. At the close of the second year the council passed an 
ordinance allowing themselyes |50 each for their seryices. 
This was about all they did in the two years. 

Under the territorial laws, William P.. Hail was elected 
probate judge and issued the first county orders. William 
P. Birchfield was the first sheriff elected, and collect(Ml the 
first county taxes. 



142 KEBRASKA state HISTOUICAL SOCIET\^ 

By an act of the legislature in the winter of 1854, intro- 
duced by J. H. Decker, the name of the county was changed 
from Pierce to Otoe — the acting governor having first named 
it Pierce county in honor of Franklin Pierce, then President 
of the United States. 

The first grand jury was impaneled in the fall of 1855, 
John B. Boulware foreman. Nearly every man in the county, 
including the jury itself, was indicted for gambling and Avas 
fined by the court in sums ranging from five to ten dollars 
each. 

James H. Masters came here in 1855 and established the 
first nursery, where he now lives. 

Hugh Pearman planted apple trees in the same year on 
lot 1, block 26, where they are still growing. 

Martin V. Boutton was the first one afflicted with measles. 
J. Sterling Morton, who moved here early in 1855 and took 
charge of the editorial columns of the News, owned tlie first 
jack, which lie named Henr^^ AA^ard Beecher. 

The M. E. church was the first to organize and erected the 
first house of worship. William R. Craig was made one of 
the trustees at the first organization. 

T. E. Thompson, deputy sheriff, made the first assessment 
of the county. 

Henry Bradford, niaj'or of the city, entered tlie town site 
and obtained the land officer's receipt for the entrance fee, 
March 31, 1857. 

John Nash, the well-digger, received the first certificate of 
entry from the U. S. land office that appears on record. 

Elijah Yates was the first boot and shoe maker. Opened 
up a shop upstairs over Henry Bradford & Comj^any's drug 
store, December, 1855. 

Conrad Mullis was the first blacksmith. Opened his shop 
in the old soldiers' quarters, June, 1854, near where R. M. 
Rolfe's house now stands. 

Joel Helvey established the first bakery and baked tlie first 
bread. He located his bakery near the west end of the pres- 
ent Otoe street bridge, in the spring of 1855. 



I)U. JOHN INIPHEUSON. 143 

D. F. Jackson had the first wagon "smash up." He hired 
James Fitchey- to repair the same. 

H. P. Bennett planted the first shade trees around liis resi- 
dence, now owned and occupied by William Fulton. 

S. F. Nuckolls, agent for the town company, made the fi.rst 
quit-claim deed, transferring lot 6 in block 3 in Nebraska 
City to William Bennett. 

W. J. Armstrong was the first milk pedler. 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) J. W. Pearman. 

Nebraska City, February 14, 1873. 



DR. JOHN Mcpherson. 

PREPARED BY GUV. ROl'.ERT W. FURNAS. 

, It was my good fortune to have known Dr. McPherson in- 
timately and continuously from the year 1839 to the day of 
his death. 

My first acquaintance Avith him was in the winter of 1839- 
40. He was then preparing himself for the medical profes- 
sion. To aid in defraying the expense of his pursuit he 
taught school during the winter season. The winter named 
he taught a country school in Miami county, Ohio. While a 
boy of sixteen, then on a farm, I was one of his pupils. 

In the year 1855 he came west, through Illinois and Iowa 
to Nebraska. After looking over the Missouri river counties 
in Nebraska he concluded to locate at Brownville, Nebraska. 
Returning to Ohio, he had immediate conference with me. I 
was a practical printer and had been publisher and edilor of 
a newspaper in the county in which we both resided. The 
Doctor, through the result of some "bad debts," had fallen 
heir to a well-equipped printing oflftce, in Tippecanoe, ^Miami 
county, Ohio. He proposed to give me one-half of the office 
if I Avould go with him to Brownville and publish a weekly 
paper for one year. I accepted. Thus it was I came to Ne- 
braska in the spring of 1856. The paper, Nebraska A(lt)er- 



14:4: NEBRASKA STATE HISTOIUCAL SOCIETY. 

User, made its first appearance April 6, 185G, and lias been 
regularly and continuously published from that date to the 
present, being the oldest continuously published paper in 
Nebraska. 

Dr. McPherson was born in the township of Livonia, Liv- 
ingston county. New York, December 21, 181 S. He died at 
Republican City, Nebraska, January 2, 1901, aged eighty- 
two years. Although born of humble parentage, his ambition 
was for an education, which he gained by diligence, xifter 
attending the seminary at Lima, New York, at the age of six- 
teen he moved to Norwalk, Huron county, Ohio, where he 
completed his literary education under Professor Thompson 
(who afterward became bishop of the ^V. E. church). He 
then began the studv of medicine under Dr. Geo, G. Baker 
and Wm. F. Kitdredge, and remained three years, when he 
moved to Troy, Ohio, continuing his studies under Dr. Geo. 
Kiefer, going from there to Cincinnati and into the office of 
Prof. J. P. Harrison, dean of the Ohio ^ledical College and 
president of the U. S. Medical Association. He renmined at 
the college for two j^ears and graduated with high honors in 
1847. He was married in Miami county, Ohio, in 1815, to 
Elizabeth Fergus. Out of eight children thev have three liv- 
ing: Charles E., William J., and John E. Eight grandchil- 
dren and two great-grandchildren also survive. 

►Soon after graduating he located at Tippecanoe, ^liami 
county, Ohio, and began the practice of medicine, where he 
remained and followed the profession for fifteen years, and 
during the same time carried on a very extensive business in 
the manufacture of linseed oil, flour, and lumber, and also in 
general merchandising, in Avhich he alone employed twenty 
men, and in his seven or eight diiferc^nt branches nearlv one 
hundred. It might be said without overestimating that 'ho 
had either erected or caused to be erected over one-third of 
the buildings in the town, which liad a population of 3,000. 
When he came to Brownville, Nebi-aska, he brought witb liim 
a stock of goods valued at |30,000, besides a large amount of 
monev. 



i)u. JOHN isi'niKusoN. 145 

At this point lie carried on a large mercantile business un- 
til 1879, and in connection witli this from 1863 to 1867 he 
conducted a steam flour- and sawmill. He also opened a large 
cigar manufactory, continuing it for three years. He was a 
member of two territorial constitutional conventions, and at 
both he voted against admitting the territoi-y as a state, and 
in 1863 he succeeded T. W. Tipton to the state senate. 

The medical department of IJrownville CoUege was organ- 
ized in December, 1875, with Dr. ^McPherson as professor of 
therapeutics. 

An act to incorporate an institute for the deaf and dumb 
passed the Nebraska h^gislature and took effect in February, 
1867, (Neb. Statute, 1873, chap. 16. "IJe it enacted by th(i 
council and house of representatives of the territory of Ne- 
braska that A. Bowers, A. L. Cliilds, E. H. Ivogers, John S. 
Bowen, G. C. Monell, and John McPherson be and they are 
hereby incorporated and made a l»ody politic and corporate 
Avith perpetual existence by the name of ^Tlie Institute for 
the Deaf and Dumb.' ") These gentlemen, tlirough arduous 
labor, placed the institute on a firm basis, and afterwards the 
state, becoming envious of their success, took it under her 
OAvn wing. He also turned his attention largely to farming, 
accumulating some 3,000 acres, and at about the same time 
erected the McPherson block in Brownville at an expense of 
150,000. 

In 1872 Dr. McPherson sold out liis milling and other prop- 
erty, and in company with his son ('harl(\s went to Kepubli- 
can City, Nebraska, and laid out the town site. He went to 
Cincinnati, Ohio, purchased and shipped a new flour- and 
sawmill, which burned two years later, lie carried on an 
extensive business, which he sold to his son, C. E. ^McPherson, 
in 1886. He had always taken an active part in all affairs 
that have tended to build up the town. When the McPherson 
Nornml College was incorporated at Kepublican City he took 
|2,000 of the stock. His life has been an active one and now 
he rests well. ' 
10 



14G NEBRASKA STATE IIISTOUIOAL SOCIETY. 

Dr. MacMurtry, wlio preached Dr. MePherson's funeral 
sermon, added this tribute to his memory, which I cheerfully 
make a part of this paper: 

"The occasion 1ms suggested to me the theme of this hour — 
'The Value of a Human Soul.' I have never met one who 
more fully appreciated the value of our text than he whose 
body lies before us at this hour. I have not come into closer 
and more intinmte acquaintance with any in my visitations 
in Republican City than I did with Dr. McPherson. I found 
him sound in the Christian faith; one who loved to read his 
Bible and commune with God in his soul. It was his inten- 
tion to unite with this church at our last communion in Sep- 
tember. To him the church was an institution of God and 
its membership nothing if not true worshippers of the living 
God. His library contained many choice volumes on the im- 
mortality of the soul — Plato, Socrates, the Koran, and oth- 
ers ; but in these he found no comparison to the teachings of 
the Bible. Israel's God and the Christ of God, man's only 
redeemer, was his Saviour. Together we have often bowed 
the knee in prayer. Two weeks ago we were together at his 
home; I had been reading an article on faith in Jesus Christ 
and handed it to him. After he had read it I said, 'That to 
me is sound doctrine,' and I shall not forget his answer, 'Yes, 
I believe all that.' The value of the human soul was no un- 
solved i)roblem to him. 

"As a citizen he loved the peace and good will of his fellow 
citizens. I have not been to his friends to ask his character 
or standing; I have not listened to the words of praise from 
the lips of those who today suffer the silence of his voice and 
the caress of his hand. I hear it everywhere. If ever God 
found in any man a standard of good will and the incorporate 
law of the Golden Bule it was to be found in Dr. John 
McPherson. 

He was one of the first to settle on these prairies ; no one 
brought more capital, energy, and push to put into every en- 
terprise than he, whether it was in business propositions, a 
school, or church. Honest himself, he trusted others; if 
there Avas a wrong done he was the first to right it, and if he 
suffered he bore it without one thought of revenge. His 
tongue is not more silent now than it has always been in 
speaking an unkind word of his neighbor or fellow man. 
Having enjoyed a good education and being blessed with pro- 



J. STEULING Morton. 147 

fessional ability, lie sought to help others to the same. Be- 
ginning with his own, it was the pride of his life to put 
opportunity' within the reach of every son and daughter. It 
was not his fault that Republican City is not the center of 
higher education today. On your main streets stands a mon- 
ument to higher education once the pride of his ambition. 
Nothing would have suited him better than to have heard the 
hum of voices reciting the classics or pursuing the sciences 
by the children and youth of his town. 

"I am sure he will be remembered for his kindl}^ ways; 
even the children will not forget his friendly notice, and all 
will miss his cheerful voice. To those within his family cir- 
cle the cords were strongest. Love, devotion, heart-to-heart 
companionship reached down to the fourth generation. For 
forty-five years he has walked hand in hand with the loved 
ones who survive him. God graciously lengthened out his 
3'ears and favored you — his children, grandchildren, and be- 
loved wife — with his devoted life. 

"There is a richer endowment to children than a divided 
fortune; this is yours. It is a father's unblemished character 
and an aim in life that it will be well to emulate. God's rich- 
est blessing will be vours if vou strive for the same nuirk of 
the high calling. God wants men. of character to fill every 
station in life; men that realize the value of time and the 
value of a human soul." 

J. STERLING MORTON. 

r.Y GOV. ROUT. W. FURNAS. 

Ladies and Gcntloncn of the Association: 

While the sad event is already known to you, the sorrow- 
ful duty devolves upon me to officially announce the death of 
a worthy member of this Society, its late President, J. Ster- 
ling Morton. 

He was born at Adams, New York, April 22, 1832, and 
came to Nebraska, 1851, shortly after the passage by Con- 
gress of the Kansas-Nebraska act, opening for settlement 
this part of the Northwest, May 30 in the same A^ear. He 
died April 27, 1902, at the residence of his son Mark, Lake 
Forest, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, \\'here he had gone tem- 



148 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL. SOCIETY. 

porarily for the benefit of his liealth, barely passing the scrip- 
tural allotment of three score and ten years by five days, lie 
had often expressed to ine a desire to pass that period in life. 

His father, Julius Morton, of Scotch descent, was born at 
St. Albans, Vermont. His ancestors were among the earliest 
of New England Puritans, coming in the next ship following 
the "Mayflower "^the "Little Ann." His mother, Em(dine 
Sterling, of English descent, was born at Adams. New York. 

He attended a private school until fourteen years old, then 
a Methodist school at Albion, Michigan, where he prepared 
for college. He entered the University of Micliigan at Ann 
Arbor, but graduated and re^-eived his dipbuua from Union 
College, New Yorlv. 

October 30, 1854, Mr. Morton and Miss Caroline Joy 
French were married at Detroit, Michigan. Within an hour 
after the marriage they started to Nebi'aska, reaching Helle- 
vue early in Novend)er follo\\'ing. Here they remained only 
for a few months, removing to Nel)raska City, where a home- 
stead was taken, and remained the continuous Morton resi- 
dence, now known as "Arbor Lodge." This residence is sur- 
rounded by the pride of Mr. Morton's life, orchards, vine- 
yards, forest and evergreen groves and flowers of rarest 
varieties. 

Mrs. jMortou died June 20, 1881. She was an ideal wife 
and mother. 

There were born t(j the family four sons wlio grew to man- 
hood as mod(d young business men: Joy, Paul, ]Mark, and 
Carl. Carl, the youngest, died suddenly three years ago. 

Mr. Morton was appointed by President Pucliauan terri- 
torial secretary- of Nebraska; a portion of the time he was 
acting-governor. He was Secretar}^ of Agriculture during 
Mr. Cleveland's second term. 

It affords me pleasure to speak, althougli l)riefly, of this 
man's life and Avork since in Nebraska. 

Mr. Morton was favored A>ith a most excellent and prac- 
tical education, fortified with strong mental and physical 
equipments. Had fitted himself for the practice of law, and 



.T. StERLIN'G MOUTOK. 149 

caliie to Nebraska with his yoiiiic; bride, at tlie aiic of twenty- 
two, in the year named, with the intention of foHowini;' tliat 
profession. 

Arriving in Nebraslva, he was at first sight infatuated with 
the New West, and tlionght there was an opening whereby 
he eonUl accomplisli more good tlian in the praciicc <)f liis 
profession, namely, the development and npl)uilding of the 
new territory'. And fnrtlier, he conceived a neAvspaper to be 
the better niedinm tlirongh which lie conkl tlie more etl'ectu- 
ally accomplish his desire and object. Accordingly he be- 
came the editor of the Nebraska Citv News, and for years 
remained as such. And continuously thereafter, until sum- 
moned hence by the great Dispenser of events, his able pen, 
eloquent and forceful voice were directed in demonstrating 
the worth, resources, and possibilities of Nebraska, ^lore 
especially in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and their kin- 
dreds, he accomplished a great Avork, and by a kind l*rovi- 
dence was spared to.be an eye-witness of the fruits of his 
labor. 

Mr. Morton was a rare, unique character. A close ac- 
quaintance with the man revealed this, and its consecpient 
real worth. He Avas honest to a fault, if such can be. He 
was a very positive nmn. Was cautious in formation of his 
opinions as to men and measures. When conclusions were 
reached and position taken, nevt to no power could change 
them. Sure in his convictions of right, it nuide him a fierce 
defender as well as denunciator. He Avas a stranger to the 
word compromise. His friendshi])s kucAV no bounds. His 
dislikes AA^ere along the same line. He ncA^n' forgot a fi-iend 
nor alloAved an enemy to forget him. HowcA^er bitter may 
have been differences betAveen him and others, no one cATr 
called in question his ability or integritA'. No man of his 
means did more to Avipe aAvay orphans' tears or kindle fires 
on Avidows' hearths, did mor(^ for the betterment of his fellows, 
more helpful to those in need. All ^ich Samaritan acts, 
hoAA'CA^er, were of the scrii)tural order : "Let not thy left hand 
know what thy right hand doeth." 



150 NEBRASKA STATE fllSTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

I remember an instance not many years since, wlien Sliy- 
loclv stood on tlie doorstej) of a worthy, helpless neighbor of 
Mr. Morton, demanding the foreclosure of a mortgage, the 
pound of flesh which would render the family homeless. IMr. 
Morton paid off the sum, into hundreds of dollars, making 
the indebted a clear deed, without reimbursement. 

Another incident characteristic of Mr. jNIortou. In the 
earlier days of the territory differences between men were 
frequently settled with knife or bullet. For some reason, I 
can not now call it to mind, a grievance sprang up between 
him and a then prominent citizen of the territory, since dead. 
The other party challenged Mr. Morton to fight a duel, and 
demanded pistols as weapons. His rej)ly Avas : "Do you 
mean to challenge me to mortal combat? Is tliere positivel^^ 
a coffin in your polite invitation, and if so, for whom? An 
early rei)ly will greatly gratify.'" 

The matter was then, by the challenger, referred to his 
"second,"^ to whom Mr. Morton replied : "Permit me to re- 
mind your principal that, as the weatlier is very warm 
(July), you impress upon his mind that a recumbent posi- 
tion will be more comfortable, and if ho will not assume that, 
compromise with him upon a sedentary position. I am quite 
anxious to hear, and do hope you will inform me upon this 
important question very speedily." 

"Convey to your bellicose principal my renewed assurance 
tliat he has never, in any way, given me reason to demand 
satisfaction Of him, as I have never held a judgment against 
him, nor even a note of hand. He will probably be pleased 
to learn of my good health, and also to know that I enjoy life 
very much, and love it, too, even better tlian I do him. His 
proposition to shoot lead bullets at me is not in accordance 
either with law or my own ideas of social amenities or amuse- 
ments. To kill or to be killed would be no particular felicity 
with me, especially in hot weather when corpses spoil so read- 
ily. Not for a moment doubting the braverv of vour martial 
principal, which is proverbial, I would like to inquire whether 
he is the author of the following stanza : 



J. STEALING MORTON. 151 

" 'The deities which I adore 
Are social peace and plenty, 
I'm better pleased to make one more 
Than be the death of twenty.' 

"The temperature at this place is ardent to such a degree 
as to prevent mj addressing you at length. 'Kiss jour prin- 
cipal for his mother.' Enclosed is a copy of Clreeley's alma- 
nac and Fred Douglas's speeches^ for his perusal and 
consolation." ^ 

"With high regard for the law, and especially that referred 
to, I remain alive, 

"(Signed) J. Sterling ^lorton." 

I was some vears afterwards tlie medium bv wliich tlie two 
sat side by side at a dinner table, at Mr. Morton's residence, 
Avhen the old grievance was reconciled, and theA^ were ever 
afterwards friends. 

As a social entertainer, especially of well-narrated anec- 
dotes, and imitator of broken foreign languages, lie had no 
superior; as an after-dinner spc^aker, but few equals. It is 
said of him while a sojourner at AVashington, Avhen a mem- 
ber of President Cleveland's cabinet, a social gathering was 
next to incomplete Avithout him. He held at command a "re- 
serve fund," almost unlimited, of anecdote and pleasing 
reference. 

While Secretary of Agriculture in President tieveland's 
cabinet he did what no other secretary did before or since — 
gave his inHuence to abolish the shameful expenditure of 
millions of dollars, furnishing those "rare and valuable" 
seeds, lettuce, turnip, and poppy, to please members of Con- 
gress, in throwing very cheap tubs to cheaper whales. 

He was the originator of many trite utterances, among 
which as to corn and swine are: "Corn is king, swine heir 
apparent" ; "A mother swine is an inter-convertible bond, her 
family, annual coupons, serving as farmer's mortgage lift- 
ers" ; "Corn is bullion, fed to swine, the mint, produces gold 
and silver dollars." 

He was the author of "Arbor Day," which has become a 
legal holiday in all states of this Union as well as in nearly 



152 NEBRASKA STATJO HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

all civilized foreign countries. Tliroiigli its iuiluence trillions 
of trees and vines have been planted. Since I commenced 
the fornmtiou of this paper I received a letter from Miss Nina 
Prey, a native of Nebraska, now a teacher in Porto Rico, in- 
forming me the legislature of that island had, by enactment, 
made "Arbor Day" in that country a legal holiday, and that 
it had been generally observed in its inaugural year, 1902. 

It wt^ suggested at Mr. Morton's funeral by his many 
friends that a monument be erected to his memory, as author 
of "Arbor Day." To this end a local organization was 
formed and voluntary subscriptions solicited — no canvassing. 
Today this fuud is over |11,000. A very pleasing incident is 
of record in this work. A gentlenum in Boston who had 
never met Mr. Morton, but who was an admirer of his life 
work, sent a check for |500 and added, "If more is needed, I 
will add another cipher." 

In concluding this, a brief and feeble effort to pay tribute 
to a worthy citizen, permit me to digress and speak a word 
personal. Mr. Morton was a warm, unfaltering friend of 
mine for near a half centurv continuous duration. Friend in 
all the word can possibh- signify. We came to the territory 
about the same time — he in the fall of one year and I in the 
spring following. We were editors and publishers of news- 
papers, differing radically in politics. In those days politi- 
cal editors were virulent in the extreme in their utterances, 
—could not be more bitter and unrelenting. We were not ex- 
ceptions to this rule. In all else, such as tended to the wel- 
fare of Nebraska, we were in perfect unison. We had not 
met each other personally. Some time during the year 185G 
we came together. Our opening thoughts and expressions 
were not along the line of politics, but of those of ^^■hich we 
w^^re in harmony. At the close of a brief interview, a modest 
reference was made to our political altercations. We mu- 
tually agreed to never talk politics, nor write, or indulge in 
them personally. That agreement was sacredly observed, and 
a long and most pleasant life was the result. 



ilKNllY A. LOXGSDORF. 153 

I cau uot realize he is dead. 

"There is no death. The stars go down 
To rise upon some fairer shore." 

"He did well his work, and goes a pleasant journey." 



HEXRY A. LO^'(lKSDORF, PIONEEK OF SAKPY 

' COUNTY. 

Henry Augustus Longsdorf was one of the pioneers of Ne- 
braska. In a long- and l)usy life full of activities and full of 
works, some of the principal scenes of which were laid in this 
state. "NA'ith his fellow pioneers he came and spied out the 
land, and later he worked as he found opportunity to develop 
its resources and to advance its welfare. Good citizcmship, 
honorable service in war, righteousness, kindliness and indus- 
try in his daily life, helpfulness and fair dealing towards his 
fellow man, reverence and loyalty to his God — these sum up 
his life and recount his honors. They mark his name, not as 
one to be set above, but as one to be written among th(^ names 
of men. 

On November 18, 1829, he was born in Silver Spring town- 
ship, Cumberland county, Pennsylvania. Me was the eldest 
son of George and Eliza Longsdorf and was of the fourth 
generation of his familv in America. Heinrich L(Uigsdorf, 
his great grandfather, a native of Baden, settled in Silver 
Spring in 1754, and on the frontier braved the dangers of th(! 
French and Indian War. :Martin Longsdorf, son of Ileiurich, 
was next in the line. He was an ensign in the ^Var of tlic 
Revolution in Colonel P>laine's regiment. 

The childhood and youth of Mr. Longsdorf were spent in 
his father's home on the old family acres which for 125 yc^ars 
were held direct from the sons of William Penn, proprietors 
of the province. He learned the art of farming, but his edu- 
cation was not neglected, for he attended sdiool regularly 
and for a time attended Dickinson College at Carlisle, Penn- 
sylvania, near to his home. Later, while teaching school, he 
continued his studies, and by self-teaching made himself i^ro- 
ficient in the practice of surveying and leveling. 



154 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

lu the years of his early luanhood he went to work in the 
famous Cumberland Nursery owned by David Miller at Mid- 
dlesex, Pennsylvania, and here began his vast and wonderful 
knowledge and exi^erienee about fruits and fruit trees. Dur- 
ing his life he covered the entire held of this industry from 
the propagation of fruit trees and plants to the planting of 
orchards, the gathering and sale of fruits, and lastly to ex- 
[)erimentation in the practical development of fruit culture 
and selection and testing of varieties. 

This work was indeed not uninterrupted. During the win- 
ter season he often found employment as a teacher: For some 
years, too, he was engaged in the general hard^^'are trade. He 
entered the locally well-known hardware store of Henry Sax- 
ton, where through the long hours and hard work of store- 
keeijing, as it was then conducted, he rose to be Mr. Saxton's 
principal assistant in the management of the business. 

After this was the journey to the West. Events contrib- 
uted to it. His father had visited Iowa in 1846 to see the 
land. Several young acquaintances had yielded to the en- 
ticements of California. A\'hen a boy he had read what books 
were at hand concerning the West. Cliief among these was 
Sergeant Goss's journal of the travels and explorations of 
the Lewis and Clark Expedition, whicli well-worn book — or its 
duplicate, for there were two of them in the family library — is 
now in possession of the Nebraska State Historical Society, 
presented b}^ Mr. Lougsdorf. He once related to the writer 
how his boyhood mind had from such reading iuuigined the 
future planting of a great settlement at the junction of tlie 
Platte and Missouri rivers. Therefrom it followed that, with 
the hurrying of travel westward in the middle '50s, he, with 
others, came to this much-talked-of Kansas-Nebraska coun- 
try. The journey was made by way of Pittsburg, the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers to IMuscatine, tlience by rail to Iowa 
City, and by wagon and foot to Council Bluffs. He arrived 
in Bellevue May 16, 1856. A packet of old letters written by 
him to his father gives his impressions at the time. It is evi- 
dent that lie did not come as a speculator or as an adventurer. 



HENRY A. LOXGSDORF. 155 

for he writes about the fitness of the land to make a new home 
for his aged parents, and he also speaks of its possibilities as 
a place of settlement for his younger brothers, though he 
laconically advises them to remain at home until sent for. 
Land, he writes, was too high in price in Iowa because of 
speculation, and money was worth 40 per cent a year at Ft. 
Des Moines. He expresses great satisfaction at finding in 
Nebraska a respite from land speculators, because of the fact 
that the government survey of Nebraska was not yet made; 
and he praises the healthy appearance of the settlers as com- 
pared with the ^'yellow'' and sickly looking inhabitants of 
Illinois and Indiana whom he had seen along the rivers as he 
came. The fine character of the soil and ijossibilities of fruit 
culture were both matters of mention. 

His brothers, David E. Longsdorf and George P. Longs- 
dorf, the latter now deceased, settled with him at Bellevue. 
Each bought or took up claims, and having perfected them 
by making "improvements'' and completing a legal residence 
they joined with W. H. Cook, John P. Kast, and W. W. Stew- 
art in keeping bachelor's hall at the "Plateau House," a cabin 
with the luxury of plastered walls, 1)ut of small dimensions, 
which until about 1890 was still standing. It was exactly at 
the center of the beautiful tract now the site of Ft. Crook. A 
huge Cottonwood four feet thick remains there, the lone sur- 
vivor of more than a score planted in 1856 by Mr. Longsdorf 
and his associates. The memory of many pleasures and much 
hospitality runs back to the old and widely known "Plateau 
House." 

Mv. Longsdorf entered actively into the life of the young 
community. He was a member of the Bellevue Claim Club 
and a shareholder of the Bellevue Town Company, and a part 
owner of the Sarpy Reserve which included the steamboat 
landing and the trading house. When Sarpy county was or- 
ganized he was its first superintendent of schools, which office 
it may be supposed was not an arduous one at that time 
For three years he lived in Bellevue and then returned to 
Pennsylvania. 



15G ISEIJRASKA STATE HIHTOIUCAL SOCIETY. 

In 1862 he and two of liis four brothers enlisted in the 
158th Pennsylvania Infantry. He became captain of Com- 
pany A and served faitlifuUy and with honor in a very trying 
campaign in the Virginia and Carolina swamps, for which 
his brigade was officially complimented. Other parts of his 
service were rendered while attached to the Army of the 
Potomac. 

After the close of his service he folloAved his ordinary oc- 
cupations, visiting Nebraska at frequent intervals. He was 
married in December, 1860, to Miss Kate A. Duey of Cum- 
berland county, Penns^dvania. ISix children were born to 
them, and four survive, viz., George Foster Longsdorf, Helen 
Mabel Longsdorf, Henry ^^'arren Longsdorf, and Ralph ^lar- 
tin Longsdorf. 

In 1888 he resumed his residence at Bellevue, Avhere the 
latter 3^ears of his life were spent happily and enjoyably, but 
not in rest, for his "old active disposition'' could not become 
dormant. However, his labors were necessaril}- more of the 
evening and less of the midda}' of life than before. In his 
garden and among his trees and with his family he dwelt. 
The trees and th(^ plants were his intimates. .They spoke to 
him a silent language that he had known and studied for 
fifty years. They made known their needs and he endeavored 
to supply them. His interest was not mercenaiw, for he 
planted for instruction and pleasure and not for profit. In 
this spirit he became interested in peach culture. He was 
encouraged by the success of peach growers in extreme south- 
ern Nebraska to believe that pc^iches might be successfully 
grown in his own neighborhood. Some att(Mupts had already 
be(^n made to do so, and from what he observed of these he 
made his plans for a series of trials, which, as he said, might 
take twent^'-five years, for which reason he could not hope to 
complete them or live to see success. But success came 
quickly. The first peach seeds planted in 1892 returned a 
few fruits in 1895 and very heav}^ and fre(iuent crops since 
then. Very many hundreds of peach trees were given and 
sold to his neighbors. They were instructed how to plant and 



HENRY A. r>(tN(;81)()llF. 157 

care for the trees and how to propai>ate vouiiii trees. All 
about IJellevne these trees grow and flourish as witnesses to, 
and memorials of his useful woi'k. His knowledw of all in- 
digenous fruits was vast, and his exp(»rience extended over 
nmuv states. 

He was a member of the Pennsylvania Horticultural So- 
ciety, of various local agricultural and horticultural socie- 
ties, and of the Nebraska Horticultural Societv'. He was 
also a nuMuber of the Nebraska State Historical Society, reg- 
ular in attendance at its meetings, and well known to many 
of its members, and a contributor to its historical collections. 

Mr. Longsdorf did much public service as a citizen, though 
he occupied no public offices save minor ones. He Avas ear- 
nest and actively interested in politics and exalted in his 
conception of patriotism. In the highest sense of the word 
he was devoted in care, affection, and thoughtfuluess for his 
familj'. He strove to provide education for his children and 
to inspire in them a love of study and improvement. He Avas 
a Christian gentleman in A\orks as well as in words. He was 
frank and direct in address, and firm and courag^^ous in loy- 
alty and friendship. He comnmnded respect and thereby 
won the love of those who knew him best. A neighbor who 
knew him well paid this tribute: ''His strongest trait was 
high integrity of character," yet it was no stronger than bis 
unselfishness and no stronger than the constancy of his 
friendship and his love. His last work was the building of a 
new house, the first he ever owned, to provid<^ a home for him- 
self and for his family after him. He lived but fiAe weeks to 
enjoy it. On November 13, 1902, he died. ' ]Most littiugly it 
was that he was laid among the pion(H'rs who rest in tbe old 
cemetery at lU'llevue on the crest of t]w great liills cii-cled 
by the scenes of so much of his earlier uianhood and of his 
dcclinini*- vears — fitting that his earthlv bodv should return 
to the soil of his adopted state whose foundations he helped 
prepare and of which he became a i)roud an<l useful and loyal 
citizen, 



158 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF, AND TRIBUTE TO THE ME:M- 
ORY OF THE LATE CHARLES II. GERE. 

PREPARED BY GOV. ROl'.ERT W. FURNAS.^ 

While the duty of formally ainiounciiig the death of one of 
the oldest, most active, and worthy members of this Asso- 
ciation is a sad one, the privilege of paying tribute to the 
memory of the late Charles PL Gere is a pleasure. 

It was my good fortune to have been intimately and con- 
tinuously associated with him in various capacities from the 
day of his advent into Nebraska to near the day of his death. 

In July, 18C5, I had the pleasure to welcome him to the 
territory of Nebraska, as he stepped from a steamboat at 
Brownville. I therefore can speak of his characteristics from 
personal knowledge. 

He was born in Wyoming county, New York, in 1838, and 
died at his home in Lincoln on the 30th day of SeptembG:r, 
1904, at the age of sixty-six. 

Biographically, I copy extracts from an editoi'ial in the 
Lincoln Dalhj Journal, announcing the death of IMr. Gere. 
This, I am advised, is largely autobiographic, and therefore 
reliable: 

"He prepared for college at Oxford academy, and entered 
the junior class at Dickenson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 
graduating in 1861. 

"Just before graduating he enlisted in the Pennsylvania 
'Bucktails' with several of his classmates, but they were all 
refused muster by order of Governor Curtin, who said that 
undergraduates were not needed. He was appointed a 
teacher in a grammar school in Baltimore the following year, 
and continued the study of law under the tuition of Con- 
gressman C. L. L. Leary. In June, 1863, when Lee invaded 
Pennsylvania, he resigned to enlist in the 10th Maryland in- 
fantry, which was ordered immediately to occupy Maryland 
Heights, where it guarded a battery of artillery during the 
battle of Gettysburg. Upon the expiration of the term of the 
regiment he served \n the quartermaster's department at 
Annapolis and ^Martinsburg for several months, was a mem- 
ber of a party of independent scouts in the vicinity of Balti- 



CHARLES H. GERE. 159 

more, when Jiibal Early raided Maryland, and afterward 
joined the 11th Maryland infantry, and served nntil the close 
of the war. He was admitted to the bar at Baltimore a few 
da^'S later, and started to visit his mother, who lived at Table 
Kock, Nebraska. 

"Nebraska suited him, and he wrote back for his trunk, 
and opened a law office at Pawnee City, and soon afterward 
was taken into partnership by David IJntler. afterwards the 
hrst governor of the state. He was appointed prosecuting 
attorney for the county by the county commissioners, and 
was elected to the first legislature of the state, which con- 
vened at Omaha, Julv 4, and elected John M. Thaver and 
Thomas W. Tipton to help get the state into the Union. 

"Upon the admission of the state, March 1, 1867, he became 
the private secretary of Governor Butler. On the location of 
the capital at Lincoln the following summer he began the 
publication of the first newspaper in Lincoln, at first named 
the CommoniccaltJi, but later the State Journal. In the fall 
of 1868 he was elected to the state senate from the fi.ve coun- 
ties of Lancaster, Saline, Pawnee, Gage, and Jefferson ; was 
chairman of the committee on education and a member of the 
committee on railroads. In the former capacity he had 
charge of the LTniversity bill, and as a minority in the later 
committee reported a substitute for the bill, appropriating 
400,000 acres of state lands for sundry railroads, vrliich sub- 
stitute was finally accepted, after a hot fight by both houses 
of the legislature, and became a law. Under it, within two 
years, were built the first sections of the Burlington & ^lis- 
souri R. R. in Nebraska, the Midland Pacific, the Atchison 
and Nebraska, all now a part of the Burlington system, and 
the Omaha & Southwestern, a part of the Union Pacific sys- 
tem. All these roads 'come to Ijincoln,- while the roads 
projected in the majority of the report of the committee were 
'up the river' for the benefit of the eastern tier of counties. 

"He soon after was chosen chairman of the republican 
state central committee, and served four successive terms. 
In 1875 he was elected to the convention that framed the 
present state constitution. He served a second term in the 
state senate in 1881-82, and was appointed, in the spring of 
1881, a member of the board of regents of the University to 
fill a vacancy, and was afterward elected twice to the same 
position, and was president of the board several years. 

"In the city he was president of the board of trustees in 
1869-70, and county attorney, by appointment of the com- 



160 XEUUASKA STATE IIISTOUICAL SOCIETY. 

inissionei's, and postmaster imder President Harrison's ad- 
ministration, lie served in tlie early '80s as a niend)er of tlie 
state railroad commission, when the body was first created. 
For a long series of years he was a member of the board of 
literary trustees. 

"Upon the establishment of a daily edition of the ^Statc 
Journal in July, 1870, Mr. (rere abandoned the practice of 
law, and has devoted his time and (energies to the editorial 
columns of that paper, and has been president of the State 
Journal Company since its incorporation in 1872. 

"He was married in 1871 to Miss Mariel E., daughter of 
("apt. John Clapman, of Washington, D. (\ Four children 
have been born to them, of A\'liom three daughters are living. 

"Mr. Gere was of colonial and Revolutionary' stoi-k, 
descended through his father, George Gere, son of 'Jonathan 
of Heavitree,' Devonshire, who crossed the ocean in 1G34, and 
settled in Boston, and through his mother from Lieut. 
Thomas Tracy, also from the south of England, who emigrated 
to Connecticut in 1G35, and Mathew (Jrant, who came over 
about the same time, one of the founders of Windsor, Con- 
necticut. His maternal grandfather, Dr. Isaac Grant, served 
throTigh the Revolution with the Connecticut line, and was 
in Washington's Jersey and Pennsylvania campaigns, and at 
the storming of Stonv Point.''* 

Mr. Gere was an exceptional man in all desirable respects. 
The state, more particularly the city of Lincoln, owes much 
to him for his lal)ors in developing and making them what 
they both are today. As long the editor-in-chief of the Dailij 
Journal his gifted pen was ever persistently and successfully 
devoted in their behalf, not only in these two factors, but in 
all matters pertaining to good citizenship and betterment of 
a progressive commonwealth. He was a writer of extraor- 
dinary force in whatever he advocated. IHs convictions were 
unswerving for what he conceired to be right and for the 
greatest good. His boldness in utterance was coequal with 
his convictions. He was a profound thinker and safe 
counselor. 

As more expressive and forceful than I have words to utter 
I quote another, speaking of a fri(md on an occasion like unto 
this : 



UOBKllT W. FURNAS. 1 01 

^'We are in the haDit of culling from nature her choicest 
flowers and, weaving them into sugg(-stive designs and gar- 
lands of beauty, placing them upon tlie coffins of our de- 
parted friends and loved ones as tokens of our respect and 
esteem. So, too, with pathetic pens do we enroll ui:>on the tab- 
lets of the heart the names of those who were, but are now no 
more, and with eloquent tongues do we recount the many vir- 
tues, noble character, and endearing (qualities of those who 
have been called hence." 

His labors are ended. He has entered into what we call 
death, but which, unless all teachings are in vain, is but the 
beginning of another and better life. Those who walked with 
him far down into the vallev of the shadow of death, while 
the final scene was closed to vision, have no doubt but that 
when he entered into that "dreamless sleep which kisses down 
the eyelids" he gently drcAV aside the curtains which separate 
the seen from the unseen, the known from the unknown, and 
stepping behind its mysterious folds, fell asleep in the arms 
of his Creator. 



I 



ROBERT WILKINSON FURNAS. 

PRp]SENTEI) BY HENRY H. WILSON AT THE ANNUAIi INIEETING OF 

THE NEBRASKA STATE HIST()RICAr> SOCIETY, 

JANUARY 17, 11)0(1. 

The best heritage of the race is the memorv of the li\es of 
its great men and women. The rich and the poor are alike the 
heirs of him who has lived a useful and honorable life. In all 
ages it has been the kindly office of friendship to record and 
perpetuate the memory of the good deeds of our fellows. 

It is therefore in a peculiar sense fitting that we should, in 
the records of this Society, perpetuate the memory of its 
founder, one of the most noteworthy pioneers of the territory 
and the state. 

Robert Wilkinson Furnas, the farmer's boy, apprenticed 
printer, editor, publisher, railroad man, merchant, soldier, 
11 



162 NEr,KA>SKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

legislator, Indian agent, j)ostmaster, governor, University re- 
gent, pomologist, floriculturist, horticulturist, and promoter 
of agriculture, was born on an Ohio farm May 5, 1824. His 
great grandfather was born on English soil, and both his 
father and mother were natives of South Carolina, but in the 
veins of both there was so much Quaker blood that they early 
chafed under the peculiar institutions of their native state 
and sought the freer atmosphere of Ohio. They settled on a 
farm near Tro}^, in Miami county, Avhere Robert was born. 
At Trov, at the tender age of eight, he was orphaned, by the 
death of both father and mother from cliolera. Young Kobert 
was cared for by his grandfather Furnas, and continued on a 
farm until near seventeen years old. From that time on he 
seems to have made his own way in the world. For four years 
he served as an apprenticed printer in the office of the Lick- 
ing Valley Register of Covington, Kentuck}^ The educa- 
tional advantages of that day, for the poor boy, were ver^^ 
limited indeed. His irregular attendance at school would not 
amount, all told, to more than twelve mouths. Yet by dint of 
hard work and indomitable pluck, with a liberal use of ui id- 
night oil, or more strictly speaking of tallow candli's, he ob- 
tained a good, practical education, and like man}- others he 
learned to appreciate in after life educational advantages 
largely because he had never enjoyed them himself. The 
newspaper office became to him ^^hat it lias been to so many 
of our noteworthj' men — his real university. A\'lnle the cur- 
liLuhim of this poor boy's university is doubtless narrow and 
us instruction often crude, yet the education it does give 
rings true, and often in its i^racticak efficiency compensates 
in a large measure for its defects. 

After serving a regular apprenticesliip of four years as a 
practical printer he removed to Cincinnati, where, in part- 
nership) with A. G. Sparhawk, he opened and conducted a book 
and job printing office, which enterprise also included the 
publication of several periodicals. In the year 1847 he re- 
turned to his native county of Miami and became the editor 
and publisher of the Troy Timcs^ a local whig newspaper, 



EOBP]ET AV. FURNAS. 163 

which he ooiKliicted for about five years. From 1852 to 185G 
he was successively engaged as merchant in the book, paper, 
notion, and jewelry trade in Troy, as railroad ticket agent, 
and railroad conductor. 

It seems probable Ayhile engaged in these latter ayocations 
lie still controlled his printing outfit, for in the spring of 1856 
he brought a printing outfit from Ohio Avith liim and estab- 
lished at Brownyille, this state, the Nebraska Advertiser, 
which has been published continuously from that time to this, 
but of recent years at Nemaha City in the same county. 

On April 6, 1856, he landed from a Missouri river steam- 
boat at Brownyille. An inventory of liis belongings at this 
time would show his printing outfit and one and a half shill- 
ings, or eighteen and three-fourths cents in cash — not a very 
large contribution to the gTand assessment roll of the then 
territory. But he brought with him an inexhaustible enthu- 
siasm and an unalterable faith in the future of the great 
West. Well might he have sung A\ith Whittier — 

"We cross the prairies as of old 
The Pilgrims crossed the sea. 
To make the West, as they the East, 
The homestead of the free! 

"We go to rear a wall of men 
On Freedom's southern line, 
And plant beside the cotton tree 
The rugged northern pine." 

On June 7, 1856, he published the first nuiabcr of the Ad- 
vertiser and began that marvelous campaign of nearly fift}' 
years for the creation and development of what, is fast l)e- 
coming the greatest agricultural state in the Union. From 
1856 to 1860 he edited and publislied the Nebraska Farmer, 
the first agricultural paper published in Nebraska. In 1857 
he was a delegate to the convention held at Topeka to form a 
state constitution for a new state which it was proposed to 
organize out of northern Kansas and southern Nebraska. On 
March 22, 1862, he was, by President Lincoln, commissioned 
as colonel in the regular army. Under this commission he 
organized the first Indian regiment, which was composed of 
Indians who had been driven l)v the Confederates from Indian 



1G4 NEI5KASKA STATE IIISTOIUCAI; SOCIETY. 

tiTritory iuto .southern Kansas. Two other Indian regiments 
were afterwards organized l)y him, and as commander of these 
Indians he suecessfnlly fought several engagements of some 
importance along the border. 

At the request of Governor Saunders he resigned his Indian 
commission and, returning to Nebraska, aided in organizing 
the second regiment of Nebraska cavalrv in which he enlisted 
as a private. He was soon promoted to captain. He served 
efficiently in General Sully's campaign against the Sioux In- 
dians in Dakota and took a leading and decisive part in the 
battle of Whitestone Hill, Dakota, September 3, 18G3. 

At the close of the Rebellion he ^^■as, by tlie governor, com- 
missioned colonel of this regiment. After the close of his 
term of service with the 2d Nebraska cavalry he bec.inie 
United States Indian agent for the Omaha Indians as well 
as postmaster for the same, which post lie held for nearly four 
years, and until political differences with President Johnson 
terminated his services. He now returned to his Brownville 
farm to follow his favorite pursuits as horticulturist and pro- 
moter of scientific farming. In 1808 he wan a delegate to the 
national convention that first nominated General Grant for 
President. 

From January 13, 1873, to January 11, 1875, he staved as 
governor of the state of Nebraska, and as such Avas ex-officio 
member of the board of regents of the University of Nebraska, 
to which latter position he was elected by the people in 1875 
under the new constitution adopted that yeRV. 

In 185G, and within a few months after his arrival in Ne- 
braska, he was elected to the council of the third legislative 
assembly, and also served as a member in its fourth, fifth, and 
sixth sessions and in the eighth session in 18()1 as its secre- 
tar}^ As a member of the legislative assembly he drafted and 
introduced what became the first common school law of the 
territory, also the law creating what became the state board 
of agriculture — thus promoting the two great interests to 
which his life was chieflv devoted — agricultui'e and education. 



ItOJJEUT W. FUitNAS. 1G5 

He was for inau}' years president of the State IJoard of 
Agrioiiltiire aud for very many years and up to liis death itJi 
secretary. He died, thi'refore, as he had always wished to 
d'w — in the harness. He was also president of the State Horti- 
eultiiral Societ}^ president of the Nebraska State Soldiers' 
Union, vice-president of the American Pomological Associa- 
tion, presided over the first State Educational Convention 
held in Xebraska ; was president of the Trans-Missouri Irri- 
gation Convention held at Denver, Colorado, 1873; was al- 
ternate United States commissioner to the Philadelphia FjX- 
position in 18TC; United States commissioner to the Cotton 
Centennial at New Orleans in 1881-85; member of the Ex- 
ecutive Council aud special commissioner of tlie United 
States to the American Exposition at London in 1880: omt 
of the United States commissioners at lar^e of the AVorld's 
Fair at Chicago in 1893; president of Nebraska Territorial 
I'ioneers; first president of this Society, and remained presi- 
dent thereof for fi^ e vears, and on the death of ^Ir. Morton 
again became its president, retiring from that i)osition one 
year ago. For six years he was president of the International 
Association of Fairs and Expositions. 

In the great civic societies he was no less active. He as- 
sisted in the organization of the grand lodge of ^Masons of 
Nebraska and successively held nearly all of the ofiices 
therein. At various times he held high office in all of the 
organizations of that fraternity. He participated in the or- 
ganization of the grand lodge of Odd Fellows and lield the 
highest office therein and was its representative to the na- 
tional convention of that order. He was a member of tlie 
Grand Army of the Republic and of the Military Order of the 
Loval Legion of America. 

In politics he was an old line whig until the organization 
of the Republican party, Avhen he enlisted under its 1)anner. 
While a strong partisan, he Avas yet tolerant of the opinions 
of others and was proud to number among his intimate aud 
life-long friends many of his political opponents. 



IGG NEBRASKA STATE HISTOUICAL SOCIETY. 

He aftiliatecl with the Methodist church before moving Avest, 
but, on coming to Nebraska, he united with the Presbyterians, 
with whom he worshipped up to the tiiiie of his deatli. 

While residing at Cincinnati he was, on October 20, 1845, 
married to INIiss Marv E.-McComas, wlio shared his fortunes 
until her death at Brownville, April 1, 1897. There Avere 
born to them eight children, of whom five are still living. On 
December 25, 1899, he was married to Mrs. Susanna E. Jami- 
son, who still survives him, residing at Lincoln. 

This active and remarkable life of a little more than eightv- 
one years came to a fitting and peaceful close at Jjincoln, 
June 1, 1905. On Sunday, June 3, a special train carried his 
remains and hundreds of sorrowing friends to the very spot 
where, forty-nine years before, he had stepped from the 
steamer, all aglow with hope and ambition to aid in the con- 
quest of a wilderness. 

The struggle was now over and the battle won. The brave 
heart that had counted the moments of this long and bus}^ life 
was silent forever. His remains were borne up the stee]) 
slope of the hills that had knoAvn him so long, and were laid 
to rest among the evergreens of Walnut Grove Cemeteiy, 
overlooking the great river whose waters had so kindly borne 
him to our shores. Over his ashes were performed the solemn 
and impressive burial ceremonies of the Masonic Order — thn 
great civic society which he so well exemplified and which he 
had served so long ond so well. A large part of his life had 
been devoted to the service of the i^ublic in official positions 
to which no salary was attached. To him service for others 
was a service of love, and the sense of dut}^ well performed 
was a sufiicient compensation. 

It is vain to speculate what might have been tlie life of one 
had the environment been other than it was. Had young 
Furnas been born to ease and luxury, had he held a diplonui 
from a great seat of learning, had he inherited a great for- 
tune, we might not now be commemorating his life and 
achievements. Certain it is that the strong physical consti- 
tution brought with him from the farm and the sterling in- 



EGBERT W. FURNAS. 167 

tegrity inherited from his Quaker parents stood him in good 
stead in the great work that lay before him. Adverse winds 
that would have brought others to earth seemed on! v to raise 
him the higher. Defeat could hot crush nor disappointment 
sour him. While he had a strong, wel]-balanced mind, yet 
his remarkable career can not be explained on the theory of 
great intellectual superiority. 

The keynote of his character and the secret of his success 
was his faithfulness and his kindliness of spirit. AVithout 
seeking preferment, he diligently aijd faithfully performed 
every duty which the i)artiality of his fellows imposed upon 
him. His gentleness of spirit and kindness of heart often led 
to his being chosen over others equally able and equally com- 
petent. To the very close of life he remained young in spirit 
and buoyant in temperament. He believed in the great pos- 
sibilities of the future. He never sighed for the good old 
times of the long ago. To him every decade was better than 
its predecessor. 

On his eighty-first birthday, while in a local liospital, re- 
ceiving treatment for his ftital malady, he said to me that his 
chief wish to live longer sprang from his desire to see the; 
great inventions, discoveries, and improvements that tlie fu- 
ture was sure to bring. He said that if it be true that the 
dead can see the living he should enjoy looking over the bat- 
tlements of Heaven and witnessing the furtlier progress on 
Earth. 

He came to our shores when our civilization was new and 
our enterprises young. jS'o other single life is so intimately 
interwoven with the beginnings of so many things that have 
made us a great state. Our civilization has now become so 
complex and our enterprises so varied that it would be quite 
impossible that any one man, however capable and active, 
should, within the next half century, exert more than a frac- 
tion of the influence upon our development that lie exerted 
in the half century just closed. No one else seems to have 
touched our life, industrial, economic, civic, political, and re- 
ligious, at so many points as did he; and he never touched ex- 



168 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

cept to elevate. If I Avere asked to what single individual 
this state owes the gi-eatest debt of gratitude for its marvelous 
growth and development I would be but expressing the con- 
census of opinion of those best qnaliried to judge wlien I 
answer, Robert Wilkinson Furnas. 



HIBBARD HOUSTON SHEDD. 

BY GEORGE C. SHEDD. 

The name which Mr. Shedd bore is Scottish and was rooted 
in Scotland as early as 1400, continuing there and afterwards 
in America in a tenacious, though not numiu'ous, succession 
down to Ihe present time. * " 

The original stock Avas humble — ^tlie name indicates as 
much — but it worked up to knighthood some time about 1500. 
The rise Avas a doubtful honor, and not one to boast of, per- 
haps due rather to the comeliness of a lass than to conspicu- 
ousness of a man, for the bar sinister ran across the ncAV 
c'oat-of-arms. 

To one of this earl}- race, at least, adventure appealed. 
This AA'as Daniel, and he came out to America in KUO, twenty 
years after the landing of the I'ilgrim Fathers, and settled at 
Braintree, Massachusetts. In accordance Avitli the spirit of 
the time he Avas probably a sober, drA^, hard-praying Puritan, 
Avitli little use for Avitches and a long head for a bargain. As 
I say, his name Avas Daniel, and there Avas a quantity of Sam- 
uels, Jonathans, and Ezekials, Ruths, Rachels, and Rebeccas 
to folloAV. The family dcA^eloped a strong bent for the pulpit 
and mission field, and they Avere not the last to espouse the 
cause of liberty. Plentj'^ of them Avere in the Revolution, and 
one Captain Abel Shedd, grandfather of the subject of the 
present sketch, connnanded an American A^essel in that war, 
and served his countrj^ at least to the extent of capturing a 
British sloop off the NeAV England coast, Avith seA^eral men 
and two barrels of rum. Whether the incident or any of its 
possible consequences made an impression on the Captain's 



I 



HIBliAUD HOU.STON SHEDD. IGO 

SOU, George, of course we are uuable to determiue. He after- 
wards turued out to be a stroug advocate of temperauce aud 
of the humauitariau movement of his time. This was the 
father of Hibbard Houston. At an earlv i\mt he was bound 
out, in which mild form of slavery he contiiiued until of a«>e. 
He acquired his right of franchise without having acquired 
an education. This he set out to get; and went so far as to 
graduate from Dartmouth College in 1839, stud^'ing medi- 
cine afterwards at Cincinnati. 

He then moved to a settlement named Denmark, on the 
west bank of the Mississippi, seventeen miles from Jlurling- 
ton, in the territory of lovra. Though he came too late (he 
himself informed me of the lamental)le fact) to take part in 
the destruction of the Mormons across the river at Augusta, 
his brother, who had preceded him here, had helped in wi[)iug 
out the iniquity, as he called it, even furnishing a log chain 
with which to stuff the cannon Avhen balls were iio longer to 
be had. 

Dr. George Shedd, upon his arrival in this pioneer village, 
practiced medicine, and meantime vigorously talked aboli- 
tion in the open, and privately worked negroes north to Can- 
ada, being a prominent spirit on the "underground railway," 
the business of which carried him abroad as far as Cincinnati 
and north to the Lakes and brought him frequently into clash 
Avith southern slave-owners. Upon the creation of the Re- 
publican party he became a stanch mend)er, continuing as 
such until his death in 1891. He was a man of firm convic- 
tions, sturdy principles, with a quiet taste for fighting evil- 
doers. Something of the Scotch obstinacy and of the Puritan 
piety and zeal, with perhaps a little of the intolerance of both, 
had descended, it will be seen, even thus far. Here, however, 
it stopped. 

Hibbard Houston Shedd, son of the doctor, himself st^ldom 
referred to his antecedents. Indeed, he was so democratic 
that he took little vanity in what his forebears had been do- 
ing or had done. He believed that each man should stand 
upon his feet. But I have mentioned these antecedents as 



170 NEBRASKA STATE IIISTOIUCAL SOCIETY. 

possessing a certain value, possibly iu making plain the in- 
herited tendencies and influences which shaped the beginning 
of his life. 

Dr. George Shedd married Abigail Houston, and Hibbard 
was the only son born of this union, on January 27, 18J:7. It 
was still the period of chopping and lieAving of wood, of ox- 
teams, and long prayers. The community- was a New Eng- 
land one, excepting two or three families of negroes which 
had appeared out of the South and had been adopted for con- 
version and as a defiance to the South. 

Hibbard Shedd grew up here, and may in the first sense be 
said to be an American, being the seventh generation of the 
name in America; and in the second sense, also, by his pio- 
neer environment. His home was uupretentious and his life 
simple and healthful, consisting of work, school, and church. 
He attended the academy of the town, the first academy or 
college in Iowa, where he was tauglit mathematics, Latin and 
Greek, philosophy, a little Hebrew, astronomy, and a good 
deal of the Bible and Concordance. Over this course of study 
he often smiled in later years. Gne event signalized this 
somewhat uneventful boyhood — a trip to Illinois where in 
comj)any with his father he heard (me of the famous Lincoln- 
Douglas debates, and we can not doubt but that it made a 
deep imxH'ession u^jou him. 

At the outbreak of the war he was .anxious to shoulder a 
musket, but being only fourteen years old, his patriotic as- 
pirations outran his age. In 'GI, arriving at seventeen, he 
joined the 45th Iowa Volunteers, and during the brief end of 
the war saw service in Tennessee and ^lississippi, though to 
his regret he was in no great battle. 

In 18G9 he made his first trip to Nebraska and was so im- 
pressed with the possibilities of the new state that he I'eturned 
a year later to take up his residence at Ashland, Avhere he en- 
gaged in mercantile business. Here, until his death thre<i 
months ago, was his home. 



HIBBARD HOUSTON SHEDD. 171 

On February 18, 1874, he married Katharine Leigh Graves, 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, to whom six children were born, four 
now living. His home life was ideal. 

When he came to Nebraska he was a young man, twenty- 
three years of age, with a sound education, broadened by the 
war experience, supplemented by that of a year's teaching in 
Illinois and a year in a Burlington, Iowa, bank. It can not 
be said that he was a pioneer of our state — the pioneer i)eriod 
was ended. He was one of the men of the construction pe- 
riod. He had great faith in the new commonwealth, despite 
its drouths, blank prairies, and grasshopper plagues. From 
the year of his coming he enjoyed the acquaintance and con- 
fidence of Morton, Furnas, and others of those who ha<l pre- 
ceded him and who were instrumental in bringing Nebraska 
into statehood. 

From 1870 until his death he took an active i)art in the re- 
ligious, social, educational, and political life of his commu- 
nity and state. He was the i)rinie spirit in organizing the 
Congregational church of Ashland, of which he was trustee, 
organist, and Sunday school superintendent for tliir(y-tive 
years. His last fatal illness alone cut short his work in these 
lines. For a number of vears he was trustee of Doane Col- 

ft/ 

l(\ge, and always recognized the place denominational col- 
leges have in ouf school svstem. This did nol lessen in any 
respect his strong interest, almost attachment, for the State 
University, which he had witnessed rise from nothing to its 
]>resent splendid proportions. For several successive terms 
lie was president of the Ashland public school board, was a 
[participant in ilm state teachers' assoriation, and preseuled 
addresses before the National Teachers' Association ol' Amer- 
ica. He frequently contributed articles to educational Jour- 
nals and reviews. His literary work \\as not confined to 
these, since he was a contributor to various other magazines, 
and author of several monographs and memoirs. 

Politically he was a republican, coming under the inlliience 
of this party at, it may be said, its inception. AVhile a stanch 
holder of the tenets of his political faith and a constant sup- 



172 NEEKASKA STATE HISTOIIICAL SOCIETY. 

porter of its jjlatforms and policies, he was broadminded in 
liis convictions and unshackled by narrow prejudices. His 
iirst important ijublic service was during liis twentj-eighth 
year, as a member of the state constitutional convention of 
1875. Here he gained the thorough insight into the fabric of 
our commonwealth, himself helping to build it, and of the 
principles fundamental in good citizenship. 

From his diary of this period 1 \\ ill quote one or two ex- 
tracts which may perhaps have intx^rest : 

"May 12. — Convention met at O :00 o'clock and j)roeeeded 
to adopt the report of committee on rules. All adopted with 
slight changes, except rule 31, which was postponed until 
after dinner. Met at 2 :00 o'clock and discussion began on 
subject of committees. Some of the members are in favor of 
a large number of them, some in favoi' of few, some are de- 
sirous of bringing bulk of work before cionvention. Vote 
finally passed to have entire number of committees. Speeches 
by Van AVyck, Alartin, JManderson, IMaxwell, Broady, Kirk- 
patrick, Hinman, Gwj^er, l»riggs, lleese, Harrington, Griffin, 
Laird, Weaver, and Hopewell. 

"May 27. — Committees on legislature and a])portionmeut 
hold joint session. A very earnest and bitter debate — ad- 
journed without satisfactory result. 

"June 3. — Long and fierce debate on salai'ies and clerk 
hire of executive offices. 

"June 10. — Convention put in a long day faithfully. Ab- 
bott nmde a bitter attack on Doom, but got the worst of it. 

"June 15. — Immense clouds of grasshoppers flying over — 
th(\y are beginning to light nights and do some damage — 
business at a standstill, aluiost nothiug doing in town. A 
pale, anxious, frightened body of uien everywhere. Dark 
days these." 

His experience as a member of this convention well pre- 
pared him for the i^osition he was to assume in the councils 
of his party and for the non-partisan public service which lie 
was to render to the state. In the year 1881 was chosen a 
member of the legislature, and in 1883 was elected a speaker 



HIBBAKD HOX'STON SHEl)D. 173 

of the house of represeutatives. Tliis was a decade Avhen the 
tariff question was parauioiint. Air. Sliedd put in ten years' 
study, and it may safely be said he becanie an expert upon 
the subject, having published frequent articles upon it in 
serious reviews. He was twice elected lieutenant-governor, 
filling that oflflce with credit and dignity during the terms of 
1885 and 1887. Time as well as the occasion will not permit 
me to deal with details of these ten vears. He lias left many 
papers, addresses, reminiscences, and records pertaining to 
them and the political history of the state at this epoch. 

•This active participation in this early legislation broad- 
ened and strengthened him. He gained insight, foresight, 
and power. He acquired those statesman-like qualities which 
should develoj) in one who holds public position. I think his 
integrity was never questioned; his honesty of thought and 
sincerity of purpose was admired by his opponents, his loy- 
altv and steadfastness of conviction were an asset to his 
friends; and all sought to rank among these. His interest in 
the welfare of his state persisted to the da^- of his death, and 
his faith in its present greatness and greater future was lirm 
and abiding. 

Until within the last year or two ^ir. Shedd was constantly 
engaged upon the platform, his speeches upon patriotic days 
and othel' occasions being in request wherever he was known. 
As a thinker he was clear, sound, and comprehensive, even at 
times lirofound; as an orator he enjoyed more than a local 
r<'putation, delivering addresses in numerous middle and 
western states. But it is his private life p('rhai)s whi( h gives 
him the most honor. 

As a citizen he was ahva3's obedient to his state's and coun- 
try's laws, and ready to sacritice his personal convenience or 
desires to promote the welfare -of his community and Ne- 
braska. As a man he was kindly and considerate in his re- 
lations with his neighbors, clean and upright in all his do- 
ings, just and more than just in business dealings, even 
generous and charitable, and exercised a strong influence for 
good, and inspired strong, useful, equitable action in others. 



174 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

He died upon October 6, 1905. 

A fitting eulogy was pronounced in an editorial of the 
Omaha Bce^ as follows : 

"The death of former Lieutenant-Governor H. H. Shedd 
sionalized the removal of another eminent Nebraskan who 
was for many years conspicuous in public life. (And after 
a summary of his career) His life was an example of con- 
scientious devotion to duty, which must have been a greater 
satisfaction to him than would have been the accumulation 
of colossal wealth." 



EAILROAD TAXATION IN NEiiRASKA. 

Address before the Nebraska State Historical Society 
" ON THE Evening of January 18, 1906. 

BY HON. NORRIS BROAVN. ATTORNEY GENERAL OF NEBRASKA. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The right of the state to tax railroads at all is obtained 
from the same authority that the right to tax otlier ])roperty 
is. Under the Constitution of Nebraska every item of prop- 
erty within its boundaries is subject to taxatiou except that 
which is used exclusively for church, charitable, and educa- 
tional'purposes. The.wari'ant for tliat autliority is found in 
the 9th clause of the Constitution, and one feature of that T 
Avould like to call your attenti(m to specifically, and, for fear 
I may misquote it, permit uie to read it to you: 

"The legislatu]-e shall provide such revenue as may be 
needed by levying a tax by \aluation so that every jjerson 
and every corporation shall ])ay a tax in proportion to the 
value of his, or her, or its pi-operty and franchise, tlie value 
to be ascertained in such manner as t)ie legislature sliall 

direct." 

It is clear to start with that tiie property, A\hether it is 
physical — in sight, or whether^it is tangible — oui of slight, 
is taxable, assessed according to its valuation. 



RAILKOAl) TAXATION IN NEBRASKA. 175 

Under the second proposition it is equally clear that the 
value shall be ascertained in the method provided by the leg- 
islature. Now those two propositions, I take it, are settled 
by the Constitution. In obedience to that authority the leg- 
islature when it first met in this state passed a -revenue law. 
For the purposes of this discussion it is sufficient to call your 
attention to the fact that in the year 1903 the h^gislatui-e 
wiped it off the statute book from the first to the last section, 
and in its place they put what is now known as the new rev- 
enue act. It was an act not to tax part of the property in 
this state, but an act to tax all of the property in this state — 
personal, real, tangible, and intangible. It also provided a 
detailed list by which the assessor became an inquisitor. It 
was his duty to put on paper and get the signature of the man 
who owned the property, every item of the property, whether 
little or big item. The attemi)t of this new law was the pur- 
pose, which is well known by eveiybod}', of the legislature to 
raise more money for the state. This was the pur])ose of it. 
And you could not raise more money for the state unless you 
increased the taxes in the state, could you? That was the 
purpose of the act. And the reason for that purpose was that 
under the old law it was not only full of inequalities and in- 
iquities, but it didn't raise enough money to pay the expenses 
of the government. And it didn't matter much which party 
was running the government; the government Avas running 
behind every year under the old law. That was the obj(^ct of 
the new law — to increase the taxes. Now to observe generally 
that that law was partially successful, is the fact that the 
total assessment roll of this state, under the old revenue act, 
had never exceed(Hl |1S0,000,000. All property— raili-oads' 
and common folks', all of it — never had exceeded the sum of 
1180,000,000. Kailroad property in the state had nevei* been 
taxed to exceed |2G,000,000 ; that was the sum and the highest 
mark it ever reached. Under the new law the assessment roll 
increased to almost |?>00,000,000, and the railroads from |26,- 
000,000 to about |40,000,000 in round numbers. That gives 



17G iXElJUASKA «TATE IIIWTOKICAL SOCIETY. , 

US au idea of these two laws as to their opei'atiou and also a 
coiuparison of the corporation propert,v with otlier property. 

I am here to discuss particular!}- railroad taxation in this 
state and under this law. This law undertook to provide the 
method, as the Constitution provided, l>y which you might 
ascertain the valuation of the railroad for taxation i)urposes. 
jNIy good friend, the professor [K. A. lloss], has told you 
about the difficulties tliat confront any assessor undertaking 
to assess a railroad. You must remember that the railroad 
doesn't just lie within our state; it passes through many 
states. It therefore becomes the dutv of the assessor in this 
state to find the valuation, not of the entire railroad, but just 
of a piece of it, just a part of it. Those difficulties the legis- 
lature undertook to minimize, to reduce to the lowest possi))le 
degree, and to do that they Avent to great length in declaring 
the method by which the state board of equalization and as- 
sessment might investigate that question. 1 Avant to talk to 
you a little while about that method. 

In the first place, that law said that evei'^' railroad corpora- 
tion doing business in this state should nmke a return to the 
state board of all of its property, its physical property — 
nothing about its stocks and bonds — but its physical prop- 
erty, its miles of right of wny ; its depots, their cost; its 
bridges, their cost; its traukage; every item of physical prop- 
erty that it owned in the state juust be returned to the stat<3 
board, and that the value of that physical property should be 
returned to the state board and sworn to bv the agent of the 
railroad making the return. Now, my friend discusses (piite 
clearly how insufficient and unsatisfactorv that method would 
be, to assess it at that rate; just take the physical property 
at Avhat it is returned and assess it. That AAonld be unfair. 
Let us apply the test to a railroad system in this state. Here 
is a railroad that has a thousand miles Avithin Nebraska, in 
round numbers. The total system has 3,000 miles operating 
in several different states. They nmke a return of their cars 
and physical property in Nebraska, and the officer SAvears 
•that it is Avorth on an aA^erage .^20,000 a mile, making the re- 



RAILROAD TAXATION IN NEBRASKA. 177 

tnrii thcat is sworn to. Tlie legislature that passed the Unv 
thought that that would not be a safe test upon ^yh[Q\\ to base 
the taxation of a railroad, and they provided that the value 
of its physical property as returned by the railroad agent 
should not bind the state board making the assessment, and 
yet that was one of the tests the law did provide the board 
must examine. Under the law the state board had followed 
the injunction of the law and applied that test, that is, they 
had examined these returns and found that they were worth 
120,000 a mil<? as returned by a statement, — and this of a rail- 
road tliat vou could not buv in the markets of the world for 
|G0,000 a mile. Do 3'ou know of anybody whom you are sat- 
isfied is fair, that "\^'Oul<l argue that a railroad should be as- 
sessed, then, according to its physical property? In Ne- 
braska, under this law, it can not be assessed by the physical 
test alone. Why? Because this same act j)rovides further 
on that the railroad must make an additional and further 
return to the state board. It provides what that return and 
the schedules shall contain. And what is it? The total cap- 
ital stock issued by the corporation. What else? The market 
value of that capital stock. Y\liat else? The dividend that 
has been paid by that corporation on its stock during the pre- 
ceding vear, '\\'hat else? The total issue of its bonded in- 
debtedness outstanding against the corporation, and its value 
and rate of interest, and whether paid or not. Now Ave have 
a second test provided for here by the legislature undcT tliis 
provision of the Constitution tliat authorizes it: a test that 
permits the assessing board to investigate the stock and bond 
values that mv friend talked to vou about. He said that was 
an unsatisfactory test, in a measure. I agree with hiiu, in a 
measure. Any test is unsatisfactory that undertakes to fix 
the valuation of a corporation that is doing a business in a 
number of states when you can not fully, exactly, and ac«-u- 
rately fix a value on that part of the system in this state. P.ut 
let me tell vou, the courts of this country have been dealing 
as often as legislatures have with the question of hoA\- to tax 
railroads, and the courts in this country, ever since 1S75, 

V2 



178 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

when Chief Justice Miller laid doAvn the rule that no fairer 
method has ever been devised by the legislnture to hx the value 
of a railroad than to find the value of iis stocks and bonds, 
and from them to ascertain the value of a part of the system, 
have sustained the rule. ^Vhy is it fair? Because when you 
bu}'^ the stocks and bonds of a railroad you have bought all 
the railroad. You haven't bought anytliing else. And Avhcm 
you own the stocks and bonds of a road you own it all, — 
every mile of it, every car, every asset that it holds, whether 
assessed in connection with the company or something else, 
you are the OAvner of that railroad systeui, dei>o(:s and all. 
The difticulty with the stock and bond test, and the re«nsoii 
why it is unsatisfactory is tliis, that you can not find out what 
the value of the stocks is. That is the trouble. It is easy to 
find the value of a bond because it has a reasonably staple 
value on the market. But when you come to the value of the 
stock ^^'hich is issued wlienever the directors make up their 
minds they want more stock outstanding, tiiat is a different 
proposition, because it is subject to manipulation sometimes. 
But who manipulates it? The fellow avJio owns it, and the 
fellow who knows what it is worth. The fellow who has to 
pay the taxes on it. The fellow who is dealing in those kinds 
of securities, he is the fellow who manipulates it. And if he 
does it to his own disadvantage he can not complain of the 
assessing board, l)ecause it is his act, and not the act of the 
assessor. But the board is not bound by anv market value 
an^iiow. It is the duty of the board under the second provi- 
sion to investigate and ascertain the actual value of the stocks 
and bonds, and it is the duty of the company to return actual 
A^alue if it knows it, as well as the uiarket value. In this state 
in 1904, there A\'ere returns umde of a railroad operating in 
eleven states that had outstanding |208,000.000 of stock, who 
swore to the state board of this state that they did not know 
what their capital stock was worth. It did not have any mar- 
ket value because its owners had talcen it off the market. It 
was not quoted since 1901. Now it had no market value. 
They swore under oath that thev did not know what it was 



RAILROAD TAXATION IN NEBRASKA. . ' 170 

actually worth. That left the board up in the air. Left them 
to resort to some other means of investigation, which they did, 
to find out what the value of that stock was. But now then, 
let us carry this application of this i)rinciple to the road that 
I started with, of one thousand miles that returned its pln's- 
ical property to be worth |20,()00 a mile. It said the stocks 
were not worth par, and the board took then] at their own 
value, not |200,000,000 as they had outstanding, but |1T5,- 
000,000, wliat the board itself said it was worth, or about 82 
cents on the dollar. If you take the ndleage of that road at 
their own figure, take the bonds at par, and Uwy were above 
par, and you have a stock and bond valaation on that road of 
over |100,000 to the mile, a property whose physi'.-al return 
value was only |20,000. This is the second test of stocks and 
bonds according to this law. 

Now there comes the third proposition. The legislature 
Avas not satisfied to have the board investigate the value of a 
railroad two Avaj^s, but it said you must do it three waj^s, and 
they made a command upon every railroad operatiug in (bis 
state to make a sworn return to the state board of the amount 
of its earnijigs, gross and net. My friend said that he thought 
that this test was a pretty fair test. ICyou capitalize the net 
earnings which they say was |I,000 a mile at d per cent, that 
would give the value of the road. His argumejit was — and 
the courts agi'ee with him — that the fair rate to cai)italiz(! 
earnings is six per cent. But I have yet to find a reason why 
the per cent should be that high. Here is a ]dant which pays 
four per cent dividends; it is a four per c(Mit institution; its 
bonds all draw four per cent and some four and one-half and 
five per cent. AVill you tell me why tiiey should be capitalized 
at six per cent when they are a four per cent plant? lint >\<' 
will take the court's view of it and give tlie roads the benefit 
of capitalization at six per cent, and wliat is the restdl as to. 
this company I have been talking about? Its net earnings 
average the svstem over, mor<^ than |I,000 a mile. W hat is 
the net earning of a railroad? It is what is b'ft afler vyovy 
item of expense in the operation has been ])ai(l. Von have 



180 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

maintaiued ^'our road aud kept it in repair. Not only that, 
you have paid your taxes; and whatever is left, that goes into 
your pocket; after all these expenses are paid, the rest is net 
earnings. The state board in 1901 was not satisfied to have 
a return made as to the net earnings of this railroad on its 
entire system; the board thought the sj^stem was (Earning 
more money in Nebraska than in the other states, and it asked 
for a return showing net earnings in Nebraska ; and while the 
returns showed that the whole system over ever}' mile had 
averaged over |1,000 net earnings, in Nebraska it averaged 
|5,500 per mile net. Tliat is a great earning power. You 
capitalize this aud 3'ou lune at least |D0,000 ])er iuile on an 
average in this state. 

No\v, then, we have applied the three tests that the law au- 
thorizes, and this road, wortii by the i^h^'sieal i^roperty test 
P0,0()0; by stock and bond test about |U2,000, and the net 
earning test something less than that, and vou have an aver- 
age valuation of beyond |05,000 ])er mile, i|t?10,0()0 i>er mile 
more than it is assessed. Do vou an ouder the courts sustained 
that assessment? When vou come to the final assessment of 
railroad property in Nebraska, as in every other state, 3'ou 
have got to depend upon the integrity of \'our state assessors 
in fixing the property and its valuation, because it is their 
judgment that does the business. The law is here, and it is 
their judgment tliat must do the rest. 

There ar(^ two ways to beat a law. First, never to pass it. 
That is one way. Second, after you have passed it, get some 
one in office who will not enforce it. That is the second wav. 
I don't care what kind of law you put on the statute books, 
unless 3^ou will i)ut an assessor tbere'who will carry it out, 
you AA'ill never get an equitable assessment. JMy friends, I 
have talked longer than I expected. 1 thank you. [Applause.] 



THE UNION PACIFIC IN NEBRASKA. 181 

THE WOKK OF THE UNION PACIP'IC IN NEllKAf^KA. 

BY E. L. LOMAX. 

A description of rli(^ growtli and progress of Nebraska, 
without mention o'l tlie Union I'acitic, would be like the phn' 
of Hamlet without the Prince of Denmark. The construction 
of the road, its rise and triumphs, are a part of the liistory of 
the state, and the prosi)erity of the road has iucrc^iscd the 
advancement and wealtJi of Nebraska which has accompanied 
it. 

The Union Pacific Avas the first road to enter Nebraska. 
In 18G3 the work was b(^<>un and forty miles of road >\'('re 
completed by 18G5. A^'itliin five more years, 705 miles of road 
were constructed and operated in the- state, and this increase 
continued until now, in 1002, there are over fourte(Mi thou- 
sand miles of rail and watc^r lines directly controlled by the 
Union Pacific 11. R. A reference to this is necessary lo slutw 
what part the road has taken in enablini;,- the commou\\ealth 
to double and quadruide, as it has done. The mileage of ihe 
N(^braska division of the Union Pacific is as follows: 

Eastern District — Council iUuffs to Grand 

Island and spurs 150.95 

jNliddle District — (.Irand Island to North 

Platte 137.L';i 

W(\stern District— North Platte to (Mieyenne 225.41 

Total 522.50 

BU A NCI IKS. 

Beatrice Branch— \^a II ey to Beatrice 0(>.72 

Stromsburg Branch — N'alparaiso to Stroms- 

burg 53.30 

Norfolk Branch — Uolumbus to Norfolk. . . . 50.37 

Albion Branch — Oconw to Albion 34.54 

Cedar Rapids liranch — Genoa to Cedar Rap- 
ids 30.55 

Ord Branch— Grand Island to Ord (10.77 

Scotia Spur — i^cotia .lunction to Scotia... 1.37 



182 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Loup City Branch— St. Paul to Loup Citv. 39.40 

Pleasanton Branch — B>oelus to Pleasanton. 22. OG 

Kearney Branch — Kearney to CaUaway . . . 65.79 

Sioux City Branch— Sioux City to Norfolk. 74.94 

Total Nebraska Division 1,052.40 

Throughout the state there is alreadj^ one mile of I'ailroad 
to every fourteen square miles. 

Vast regions of fertile country have thus been opened up 
to settlers, and great areas of laud brought by rail into con- 
tact with metropolitan centers. Prosperous cities have 
sprung up in every section traversed by this line. 

The state in thirty-nine years has grown from 122,000 to 
1,008,901 inhabitants, with a proportionate increase in mate- 
rial and other property. Take the following as an exjimple 
of the surprising growth of Nebraska : 

The population in 1S55 was 4,494 

The population in 18G0 was 28,841 

The population in 1875 was 257,280 

The population in 1880 was 452,402 

The popu-latiou in 1885 was 740,045 

The ijopulatiou in 1890 was .1. 050, 793 

The population in 1900 was 1,008,901 

In 1800 there was 1 person to 3 sqiiare miles. 
In 1880 there were persons to 3 square miles. 
In 1900 there were 13 persons to 3 square miles. 

The assessed valuation of the state is over |170,000,000; 
tliere are 120,000 farms under cultivation. 

It has now nearlv 5,000 miles of railwavs, \\liich is greater 
than those of Siberia and Japan combined. It is first in in- 
telligence of its citizeusliip; sen oml in li^alth; third in <-orn 
growing and sugar beets; fourth in o:its; tiftli in wlieat ; nu<l 
sixth in hay. 

Its cattle products in 1900 were 2,200,792; sheep 322,057; 
hogs about 1,500,000. 

In 1900 its smelting work products were |28,000,000; IxM't 
sugv^r, 1520,301. 



THE UNION TACIFIC IN NEBRASKA. 183 

The estimated value of South Omaha products aloue in 
1901 is 114,000,000 greater than that of the whole state in 
1890. Its true wealth is estimated in 1900 at i#l,282,24o,800, 
as against |385,000,000 in 1880, an increase of 233 per cent. 

Its surplus products in 1900 are valued at |225,555,1 00.89. 

The beginning of all this, the phenomenal growth, dates 
from the commencement of the Union Pacific R. R. 

In a brief outline of this character it A\'ould be impossible 
as well as unnecessary to describe the earlj^ liistory of this 
great railroad. It is now a part of the history of the United 
States, and everybody knoA\s something of it, but in order to 
appreciate what the Union Taciiic has done, it is well to re- 
nuanber that the expanse of territory no^\' caUed N<'bi'aska 
was in what our forefathers called "The Great American Des- 
ert," which spread its arid, lifeless nmntle of land over thou- 
sands of square miles of tlie great western basin of tlie -Mis- 
sissippi. In latitude north and south, and in longitude east 
and west, the awful barrcmness extended without limit. Civ- 
ilization had hardly approached it on any side. Tlie idea of 
ever crossing this expanse was regarded as well-nigh impos- 
sible. In the midst of this seeming hopeless sterility, Ne- 
braska has sprung up — a state of magnificent extent, seventy- 
seven thousand square miles, or 49,000,000 acres in area! 

It could be spread over all New England, and yet have 
ll,-000 square miles to spare. 

In this stupendous transformation, the L'nion Pacific has 
been a niightv factor. Let me cite merely a few of the thiugs 
this great railroad has done for Nebraska. Take, for instance, 
the economic importance of irrigation. Tiie distribution of 
wafer by artificial methods, better known as irrigation, lias 
received such an impetus during the past few years that it 
has at last resolved itself into a natioiial proposition. Al! 
^^'estern and some of the southern states have established 
state departments of irrigation, Nebraska along with the oth- 
ers. Not that this state could not produce crops without 
resorting to artificial methods, for the volume of rainfall has 
increased and continues to increase oi h^te years, but the soil 



184 NEP.KASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of Nebraska is siiital)le for irrigation, and fai'mers lia^e found 
that it has mnltiplied the productive caj^acity of soils. 

The ^[ornions seem to have started irrigation in the West 
when thev conveved the waters from the mountain streams 
of Utah and distributed them over the valleys and tablelands. 

For years after this there was no progress made in the mat- 
ter of irrigation. In faet, the matter was hardly thought of 
by residents east of the Rocky ;Moun tains until a few years 
ago, when the Union Pacific took tlie matter up and urged it 
upon the settlers of the western portion of the state. For a 
time it was slow work, but by being persistent and advocating 
it in the press and in pamphlets, it soon took root, and as a 
result todav more than 1,500,000 acres of land Iving along 
"the Overland Eoute," bevond » 'olumbus can be flooded bv 
the waters of the Platte that are tributary. 

The first place where irrigation was tri(Ml in Nebraska was 
along the valley of the Platte. The" water ^^•as diverted from 
the natural channel and conducted over Uie fields. The result 
was marvelous. That year, A^■hi]e, generally speaking, there 
was an average supply of moisture — as much as in maiiy of 
the other western states — the crop yield on the irrigated land 
was nearly two-fold of that upon land where nature only sup- 
plied the moisture. The result of this experiment induced 
the passenger department of the Union Pacific to urge upon 
farmers the necessity of constructing irrigation ditches. Not 
only did the Union Pacific urge this. It assisted iu biinging 
settlers at reduced rates and in nmnv other >\'avs. At this 
time about fifty irrigation companies are operating in Ne- 
braska near the main line of the Union Pacific. 

Taking Dawson county as example, it will be found one of 
the most prosperous counties in the state. The uiaiu line of 
the Union Pacific traverses this count}^ 

The following figures show what Dawson county has done 
in the way of irrigation : 



THE UNION PACIFIC IN NEBUASKA. 185 

LENGTH , C A PACI T Y , 

MILES. ACRES. 

Farmers & [Merchants Irrigation Co S3 80,000 

( \y//M\ Irrigation Co ^ 40 4(5,000 

(lotlienbnrg ^^'ater Power and Irrigation 

Co. . . . ." 29 25,000 

Orchard & Alfalfa Irrigation Co 20 15,00.0 

Gothenbnrg ^^outh Side Irrigation Co 30 15,000 

Farmers Irrigation Co 10 5,000 

I'latte River ^Irrigation Co 18 8,000 

]^:im (;reek Irrigation Co 10 8,000 

lUrd & Newman Irrigation Co 8 1,200 

liooker & IJalston Irrigation Co G 1,500 

Edmisten Irrigation Co 5 3,000 



I 



259 207,700 

In assisting the irrigation movement, iii reclaiming arid 
wastes and making the soil proilnctive despite inarching 
winds, the Union Paeilic has helped to make a more prosper- 
ons commnnitv bv laving a. sure foundation for th(^ creation 
of revenue and the developm(^nt of the state bv inducing the 
influx of immigration and wealth within its confines. 

It is well known that the Union Pacific R. R. is equipped 
with heavy eighty-pound steel rails, that its main line is 
nearly all ballasted Avith the fanjous "Sherman gravel" hauled 
at great expense out to points on the line. During the past 
two or three years millions have bec^i spent for labor and im- 
proving the physical condition of the syst(>m. AVhile not all 
these vast items have been expended in Nebraska, much of it 
has gone to enrich the residents of the state. 

Since the construction of the road, the Fnion Pacific has 
maintained large shops at Omaha and snmller ones at Fre- 
mont, Grand Island, and North I»latte. For over a (piarter 
of a century this road has carried thousands of these shop- 
men on its payrolls, annually exchanging hundreds of tluui- 
saiids of dollars with tliem, the company giving them its 
money. and they giving the company their labors in return. 
In the headquarters at Omaha, the Union Pacitic maint^iins 
an armv of officers and employ(>es who are paid grxnl salari(^s 



186 NF]BRASIvA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

recularlv. This luonev has amounted to millions of dollars 
during the past thirtj^ A'ears, and has been s])ent chietlj in 
Nebraska, a large portion of it going to the merchants and 
tli(^ tradesmen and others along its line. AMien you consider 
that the Union Pacific has lieeii doing business since 1805, 
that the vast sums of money referred to have been paid out 
year after year, you may then get some idea of what it has 
done and is doing toward the support of the people of 
Nebraska. 

It is not too much to state that for more than tliirtv vears 
the Union Pacific expenditure in Nebraska has been far 
greater than any other corporation doing business in the 
state. 

Let me answer the question, "What has th(^ Union Pacific 
done for Nebraska?" by pointing to some of the coming cities 
of the commonwealth, Fi'omont with a population of 8,000; 
Lincoln, 40,000; Tohnubus, ,3,000; Grand Island, 7,500; Nor- 
folk, 4,000; Kearney, 0,000; North Platte, 1.000; iu)t omitting 
South Omaha with a popnlation of 20,000, th(? third largest 
packing center in th(^ United States, and hundreds of other 
thriving cities, towns, villages, and handets, which, by the 
magic hand of the Union Pacific alone, sprang into existence. 
I>ut for the ITnion Pacific, the pioneer railroad company, 
these towns would not exist. Put for the Union Pacific, we 
might be crossing the plains and climbing the mountains to 
the Pacific Coast in covered \>agons or slow trains of less am- 
bitious roads, instead of in the palatial cars of "The Overland 
Route." 

The Union Pacific has sx)ent thousands upon thousands of 
dollars in advertising the i?tate of Nebraska, )iot only in the 
United States, but all over the world. Not only in our new 
possessions but in the cities, towns, and villages of Europe 
has the Union Pacific placed Nebraska before the emigrant 
or traveler as a desirable spot, by maps and pamphlets, by 
magazines, newspapers, and sundry other ways. 

The folloAving extract from a report of the senate committee 
on Pacific Railroads, dated Febrvmi-y 10, 1800, shows that the 



THE UNION PACIFIC IN NKEIIASK A. 187 

Uuion Paiitic has-been instrumental in buildiiii*' up the statt; 
of Nebraska since its earliest days. 

"It can be shown by oflicial records," says the report before^ 
mentioned, 'Hliat tlie Kansas Pacific, the Union Pacific, and 
the. Central Pacific have been instrumental in adilincf lir.n- 
dreds of thousands to the population of the states of Kansas, 
Colorado, loAva, Nebraska, California, and Nevada. Minne- 
sota owes to the rapidity and cheapness of transportation by 
rail her best immigrants — over 100,000 Germans, Nonveg'ians, 
and Swedes. Every foreign laborer landing on our shores is 
economically valued at |1,500. He rarely comes euipty- 
handed. The superintendent of the Castle Garden (New 
York) Immigration Depot has stated that a careful inojuiry 
gave an average of flOO, aluiost entirely in coin, as the money 
property of each man, woman, and child, landtnl in New York. 
From 1830, the commencement of our railway buibling, to 
1860 the number of foreign emigrants was 1,787,921. At thnt 
ratio of coin ^^■ealth possessed by each, tlie total addition to 
the stock of money in the United States made by the inci-ease 
to population was |178,792,100. ^^'cll miglit ]>r. Eugcl, Ihc 
Prussian statistician, say: 'Estimated in money, the Prus- 
sian state lost during the sixteen years by emigrants a sum 
of more than 180,000,000 thalers. It must be added tliat those 
who are resolved to trv their strength abroad are l)y no means 
our weakest elements; tlieir continuous stream may be coui- 
pared to a well-equipped army, which, leaving the country 
annually, is lost to it forever. A ship loaded with emigrants 
is often looked upon as an object of compassion ; it is never- 
theless in a political-economical ])oint of view generally more 
valuable than the richest cargo of gold dust.' ' 

The words of Sidney Dillon uttered many years ago art; 
not inappropriate now. He said : ''The growth of the United 
States west of the Alleghenies during the past fifty years is 
due not so much to free institutions or climate or the fertility 
of the soil as to railways. If the institu.tions and climate and 
soil had not been favoral>l(^ to the development of comuion- 
wealths railwavs would not ha\e been constructed, biit if rail- 



J 88 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ways had not Ixx'n invented the freedom and natural advan-, 
taiies of on r western states wonld have beckoned to Iniinan 
inmiiiiTation and indnstrv in vain. But increased facilities 
for travel are anions*- the smaller benefits conferred 1)V the 
raihvavs. The most beneficent fnnction of the. railwav is that 
of a carrier of freiniit. \Yliat wonbl it cost for a man to carrv 
a ton of wheat one mile? \yiiat wonld it cost for a horse to 
do the same? The railway does it at a cost of less than a c(Mit. 
This brings Nebraska, Colorado, Dakota, and Minnesota inte< 
direct relation with hnngry and opnlent Liverpool, and makes 
snbsist(;nce easier and cheaper thi-onghont the civilized world. 
The world shonld, therefore, thaid-c the r-ailway for the op]ior- 
tiinity to bny wheat, but none tlie less shonld the AVest thaidc 
the railway for the opportiinit}' to sell Avheat. 

No fact among all the great politico-economical facts tliat 
have illustrated the world's history since history began to be 
Avritten is so full of human interest or deals with such masses 
of mankind since the raihvaj' ojx'ued to the seaboard these 
inimense solitudes. 

AN'ithin fifty ^X'ars over 30,000,000 i)eople lia\e been Irans- 
l)lanted -to or x>i'oduced upon vast regions of hitherto unin- 
habited and comparatively unknown territory, ^^'here they are 
now living in comfort and affluence and enjoying a degree of 
civilization second to none in the world, and greatly superior 
to au}^ that is known in Europe outside of the capitals. This 
could not have happened had it not been for the rail^^'ays, and 
as a helper in developing this great ar(>a the Union Pacific has 
been a very potent factor. 



EAUrA' DUKAMS OF COAL IN XEIJUASKA. 18!> 

ILVIUA' DIIEAMS OF COAL IN NEIJRA^KA. 

■ i;v (;kou(;k l. .millkk. 

AVIk 11 the vaiijj:,iiar(l of the whole oceuparioii au4 the i>io. 
neers first planted foot in Nebraska, a majority of them had 
come from the timber lands of tlieir ancestral .states. When 
they looked out iii>on vast oceans of treeless prairie lands, it 
A\'as hard for them to nnderstand how it was j^ossible for them 
to be permanently occupied and snbdiied to the home-makint»' 
uses of agricnltnre. They never thought of plaiiting trees ex- 
cept for ornament ami shade, whei-e they might grow by 
proper nursing, for tluMr rnde little huts. How could trees 
grow on a ''desert"? How conhl ])eo])le Avait for trees to \h) 
planted and grown, even if tluy could be made to grow at all? 

As was ((uit(^ natural, they were moved hx instinct to dr<'am 
and dig for coal. Holes in the hills on the Nebraska side of 
the Missouri river \\ere liored in plenty from north to south, 
within the state boundaries, and there Avere more coal discov- 
eries in those early days of blind hopes and doubting expecta- 
tion than could be easily counted for numbers. Nor liave we 
done making these coal discoveries vet. Large sums of niomy 
have been sunk in these vain quests for coal deposits of sutti- 
cient depth of vein and (piantity to be made availal)le for us(\ 
Veins of coal Avould, it is true, be frequently found, which 
A\^ould give good ground for confidence that they Avould sup- 
ply enough of the black diamonds for commercial use. I'ut 
they Avere only surfac-e veins, and not the real coal measures. 
Tlies(^ surface veins Avould be 2i/G to 3 feet in thickness, count- 
ing the shale, and Avould yield fine coal, rich in carbon ami 
heating poAver. These coal discoA'eries have only led to a large 
harA^est of disappointed hopes and a large loss of money. 1'he 
late J. Sterling Morton was an early and conspicuous victim 
of these illusive coal discoveries in the territorial period, one 
of which was made on the Nebraska City farm. Dr. V. V. 
Hayden, the famous geologist Avho made the U. S. survey of 
the territorv, was called in to examine the coal mine. Anxious 



190 NEBKASKA STA'^E HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

1 ■ 

as lie was ou all accounts to make a ravoral)le report, am\ (^s- 
pecially on Mv. jMorton's account, lie told JMr. Morton the sad 
scientitic truth about it, A>'liicli more than forty years of time 
have confirmed. J doubt whetlier ^Ii*. ]Morton lived quite 
hmii' eiiouj^li to forgive lla^^den for telling him the truth, 
l^rofessor llavden al^^■avs held, with Meek, that the coal beds 
^^'hich ap]>ear in Iowa dip down very deep in Nebraska, per- 
haps 3,000 feet. The nearest we (^ver cann? to getting a real 
substantial bed of coal was wIk^u Mr. P. E. Her put down a 
boring for anything that might be found, oil, gas, coal, oi* 
what not, at his old distillery in Omaha. A vein of coal was; 
struck at a depth of several luiiidred feet which Avas, in fact, 
highly promising. Pennsylvania experts Nxere brought out 
who said so. I was interested in a small wa v, but 1 did not 
forget the warning of Ha^^den. There were high hopes and 
much excitement. All Mr. Her got was a supply of artesian 
water, which was verv valuable to. liie distulery of anIucIi he 
was then the owner. Put Peter's coal miiu-, like all the rest 
of tlicMii, "petered out." 

When, in 1S55, I went with ilic army to Ft. l*ierre, dreams 
of coal and of cedar and i>iiie timber were excited by vague 
reports of these products on the upper Missouri, and I was 
asked to look out for them. IMy point of observation from 
the decks of a steamboat did not enalOe me to see anvthing 
but the color of coal, where slate and shale had been exposed 
by the wash of the river. A\'e had heard of islands rich Avitli 
cedar. I did not see them. As-to pine timber, ditto. lie])orts 
Avere circulated of vast deposits of coal through Indians and 
traders^ although I saw none of it. These reports were 
founded on fact, and it is there in unlimited quantity, to the 
great adA antage of South Dakota. It is the lignite form.ation. 
A i)roposition Avas made a fcAV years ago to some Omaha cap- 
italists to bring this coal to the Nebraska markets by bai'ging 
it down the river, but it Avas ascertained that the coal dete- 
riorated by exposure. It is said to contain more carbon than 
the Wyoming j)roduct AAliich Ilayden discovered during the 
Union Pacific construction. It Avas in ISGT, I think, that 



EARLY DREAMS OF COAL IN NEBRASKA. 191 

Haydeu brougbt down the tivst specimens of Wyoming coal 
to Omaha, in a gunny sack, and dnniped them on the lloor of 
the editorial apartnnmt of tlie Omaha Dally Herald, wliich 
then called itself "a strictly religions jonrnnl, i^rice |10 a year, 
invariably in advance." 

Tliis, in brief, is a mere outline of the brave ellorts and uni- 
form failures that were made in the past, and which still con- 
tinue at longer or shorter intervals, to uncover coal measures 
on Nebraska soil. ISehind these efforts and giving them en- 
ergy have been the strong motives of individual gain, alluring 
visions of sudden and large wealth, and also, be it said, a 
iiiglier, if not a more effective force of public spirit, striving 
for the advancement of tlie general welfare of the "young 
commonwealth." Nothing could be more commendable in mo- 
tive on tlui part of ambitious citizens, however misdirected 
may have been their labors and sacrifices. As the editor of 
the Omaha Daily Herald, in the cream of my manhood life 
for many years, 1 used to share with otiiers a keen regret that 
Nebraska could not boast tlK' advantage of inineral wealili in 
any form to reinforce its prodigious capax-ity for agriculture. 
It was I who first said in the columns of that somewhat busy 
little newspaper, "Nebraska's an agricultural stat(\ or it is 
notliing." Time and events have confirmed that judgment, 
and its im])lied forecast of its sole dependence for d('V(dop- 
ment, X)opulation, and power, and I may now repeat the re- 
frain with variati(ms, so to say, that enaldc; me io (U'cdarc; 
that Nebraska's an agricultural state, and \\()uldn't be a min- 
eral state if it coubl, even if coal measures ANere within 500 
feet of the surface soil in a general distribution over the state. 
In other words, when all of our people were dei)loring the 
want of coal, they did not appreciate then, and may u<jt now, 
that it would be a losing trade to swap our fertile; and inex- 
haustible corn, winter wheat, and other cereal-i)roducing 
lands, for coal lands, or any other mineral lands. Corn beats 
coal. Coal can be had for the asking from contigaous states 
by payment of prices for it that are little more thnn they 
wonld b(^ if the state abounded in coal. lUit what more? 



192 NEBRASKA STATE lIISTOlilCAL SOCIETY. 

I am writing this paper at a time when a mighty movement 
for the improvement of our great rivers, the .Missouri, great- 
est of all, hj federal appropriations which will make our great 
Nebraska boundary line on the east as fn^elv and safelv nav- 
igable by boat and barge of great capacity as the lower Mis- 
sissippi, to whose broad A\'aters it is tJie most gvmerous con- 
tributor. Then will come the day and hour wlieu the lignite 
of the Dakotas will be safely housed and swiftly brought to 
our eager wharves at slight cost over mining, in endless sup- 
pi}^ for all uses, in easy competition ^^ ith Wy(*ming, Kansas, 
Missouri, and other coals. 

I have another vision imparting more than shadowy forms 
to dreams of the future greatness of the Missouri valley, the 
Nile of the United States, and two times as rich as the his- 
toric river of Egypt, which are not all dreams. Major Chit- 
tenden of the U. S. A. savs that this Missouri river kingdom 
of ours is capable of supporting a population of 25,000,000 
peoj)le. Not pretending to know the half that this accom- 
plished officer does of the great valley, I ain bound to agree 
with him. But to ever realize such results, or any great re- 
suits from dense populations in this valley, one condition 
precedent must be deemed vital, namely, the broad acres of 
this vast natural garden of agricultural wealth must be de- 
fended and protected from destructive invasions and over How 
from the mad waters of the river. Its improvement for navi- 
gation means the certainty of this protection as an almost 
necessary incident of the work of deepening and widening the 
channel for boats and barges: at any rate, the people of the 
West, whose geogi'aphical heart Nebraska is, will not fail to 
redeem and secure, at the hands of the nation, that which is 
most certain to increase its population, wealtii, and power 
beyond the wildest dreams of men. 



THE THAYER AIONUMENT. 193 

UNVEILING OP THE TIIAYEU MONUMENT, A\ YUKA 

CEMETEKY. 

Sunday, October 27, 1907, at 2:30 p.m., Lincoln, Ner. 

ORDER OF exercises. 

The meeting was called to order by O. C. Bell, chairman of 
the committee, who introduced Hon. George L. Sheldon, Gov- 
ernor of Nebraska, as master of ceremonies. 

O. C. Bell :— 
Comrades, FcUow-citizem, Ladies, and Gctitlemcn: 

We have assembled this afternoon of this sacred day to 
perform a duty which has been designated by an act of the 
legislature. For fear that you might not all kno^^ just why 
we are gathered togetlier, T Avill explain a few facts relative 
to the occasion. Last winter there originated in the Post 
room of Parragut Post No. 25 the idea that a monument 
should be erected to the memory of General John ^L. Thayer. 
The duty of effecting this purpose was imposed on a com- 
mittee consisting of live. They i)repared a bill for the legis- 
lature asking an ai^propriation of |1,250. This ])ill was pre- 
sented to the legislature by our friend and comrade, jMr. W. 
B. Ilaper of Pawnee City. It was cari'ied through both the 
house and senate without a dissenting voic(^ The same act 
provided for a committee of five to selei:t and erect the monu- 
ment. That duty has been performed. We have assembled 
today for the purpose of dedicating and unveiling that mon- 
ument, and now, at this time, I wish to thank tlie officers of 
the state of Nebraska and the members of tlie legislature of 
1907 for their kind act in bringing about this result. 

Governor Sheldon, who will act as master of ceremonies, 
gave his aid in many ways that the committee might accom- 
]>lish this work. I have the honor now of presenting to you 
Governor Sheldon, who will act as master of ceremonies. 
[Applause.] 



13 



194 NEliliASKA STATE HTSTOJUCAf; SOCIETY. 

Governor George L. Sheldon : — 
Ladies and Gentlemmi, Mij Fellow Citizens, and Friends of 
Crcneral Thayer: 

It is x^ec-uliarly fitting tliat we should assemble here this 
afternoon to again pay our respects to a man \\\\o devoted his 
life to the welfare of Nebraska and her people. General 
Thayer was a farmer, a school teacher, a lawyer, a soldier, 
and a statesman, but above all, a most patriotic American 
citizen. He, as you well know, came to this territor}' the 
same year that it was organized as a territory, and cast his 
lot with the peoi)le, the pioneers who were here, Avho came 
here at that time. For six years, under a commission from 
the territorial legislature, as brigadeir-general, he guarded 
the pioneers against the outbreaks and ravages of the hostile 
Indians. AA'hen the Avar broke out, as a cojonel he went to 
the front, and soon Avas made a brigadier-general. He was a 
friend of General Grant, and the A'aluable services that he 
rendered his country are so well kno^^ n that it is not neces- 
sary at this time to recount them. r>ack again to tlie state 
and the people that he loved, he advocated earnestly the ad- 
mission of the territory into the Union, and was then flttinglv 
elected to represent the young state in the United States Sen- 
ate. Again, as governor of this gTeat commonwealth, he ex- 
ercised the functions of that great office, always for the best 
interests of the people of this state. A conscii^ntious sei-vant 
of the people, he died like e^ery unselfish man who dev(!tes 
lis whole life to the service of his people, a poor man so far 
a-; material wealth was concerned; but, thank God, the man 
who conscientiously- serAT^s his peoi)]e througli his life \\\\\ 
liaA'e his reward from and bv their gratitude. Aiid I am ulad 
to know that the people of this state have appreciated the 
services of such a grand and good man. When House Koll 
438 was presented to me last ^^ inter I signed it Avith a great 
deal of pleasure, and at the same time A^ ith considerable re- 
gret — a great deal of pleasure' because the legislature had 
seen fit, in this modest way, to pay tribute to a Avorthy man 
Avho loved his state and Avho gave his life A\o]'k for the better- 



■ THK THAYER MONUMENT. 195 

iiu'iit of the people A\'itliiii it; with regret, beeause it seemed 
to me that a iiiau who had devoted so much of his time in such 
ail honest wav for the peoph' of this state shonld have a more 
worthy tribute and a better moimmeiit to mark his last rest- 
ing' place than could i)ossibl3' be secured for f 1,250. I hope, 
howev(U', that the da}' will not be far in the future A\iien this 
state Avill erect in commemoration of that grand old man a 
monument on the Capitol square proportionate to the great 
services that he rendered this state during his lifetime. 
[Applause.] 

I am glad indeed to know that there are so many old com- 
rades of General Thav(>r here this afternoon: those men of 
the earl}' days who sacrificed, who gave up tlu ir time and 
their services, that we might have a better and a freer coun- 
tfv in which to live. 

I am glad, indeed, that these men are here this afternoon 
to pay, with us, their respects to this gallaut soldier, states- 
man, and patriot. I do not want to take up a great deal of 
your time this afternoon, because there are others who know 
from a life's association with this man more of his sterling 
qualities, and are therefore better titled to speak concerning 
him. 

I have the x>leasure now of introducing the Ivev. J. W. 
Jones, pastor of Grace M. E. Church, who will offer prayer 
on this occasion. 

Invocation^ by Rev. J. \< . Jones. 

Oh God, our loving Father, it is rigid tliat we slionhl pause 
for a moment here under thy blue sky, under tlie light of thy 
great sun, and talk witli thee. Thou art the providence of 
nations. Thou art the father of individuals. We have come 
here today to remember one of the world's great men. He 
was the nation's inan. He was Nebraska's man, but above 
all he was thine OAvn man. lie sought thy righteousness and 
made himself the channel of thy righteousness to men. He 
looked toward thv truth and tried to live tlie truth rejected 
in thy Son. He caught something of thy great love for man, 
and poured that love upon the world about him. He entered 



196 NEIiUASKA STATP] HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

into thy presence and caoglit the light of thy face and poinded 
it back to his fellows. Ho, looking deep into thyself, his face 
was made to shine and all of his powers became to ns thine 
own ministering angels. CJrant ns thy spirit. Be in every 
heart. Ma^^ this sliaft lifted here with tli}' fathomless heavens 
as its backgTound picture tlie deed of the hour. May thy love 
bending over us all be ever the background of our activities 
and aspirations. Let thine own inspirations be the back- 
ground of this deed of these, his friends, who lift tliis monu- 
ment to his memory. lUess all men. Hasten the dnj when 
the whole world shall know thv love and shall realize thine 

t' 

own dream of the world to be. )>less our land. Bless our 
chief executive. Bless our governor of the commonwealth. 
]>less our legislatures and courts, our army and navy, and all 
who are in powe]\ Lead and cro^\ n America more and more, 
and may the whole world know how blessed is that nation 
whose God is the Lord. Let thy blessings be upon these old 
comrades of the- hero we todav rtmi ember. Guide them bv 
thy truth. Uphold them by thy love, and may they know that 
their heroisms of dream and de<^d are as thine own word and 
shall bless millions yet unborn. How good it is to recall all 
that he was. We thank thee for his great love to\A'ard the 
unfortunate and oppressed. 'NVe tliank thee for his unfalter- 
ing trust in thee. In the dav of his strength he was thine, 
and when the shadows fell about him without fear and with 
great joy he turned toward the home-land and, smiling his 
love, bade his comrades not farewell but good night, saying, 
"In the morning we shall meet again." May thy blessings be 
upon his memory. May his love and trust, liis loyalty and 
hope, be to us as guiding stars along this patliway, growing 
brighter and brighter even unto the perfect day. 

Let thy richest benediction be upon the hour and upon us 
all. Forgive us, lead us, and at last crown us with the larger 
life forever witli thee. For Jesus' sake. Amen. 



THE THAYER MONUMENT. 197 

Unveiling of the Monument, hy ^V. M. Ciillcspie and AVcs- 
ley Barr, of the 1st Nebraska TlegimeiU. 

Song by Professor Miller's Quartet. 

Governor Sheldon : — 

The monument having been unveiled, it is partieularly fit- 
ting and proper that on this occasion the dedicatory address 
should be delivered by the nian who succeeded General Thayer 
as Colonel of the 1st Nebraska llegiment. 1 am glad indeed 
to have the pleasure this afternoon to introduce to you the 
Hon. Thomas J. Majors, who also has devoted the greater 
part of his life to the building up of Nebraska and defending 
her interests and her people whenever occasion called upon 
liim. My friends, Colonel Majors will now deliver the dedi- 
catory address. [Applause.] 

Dedicatory Address, by Col. T. J. Majors: — 
Comrades and Friends: 

We are assembled here today to dedicate a monument to- 
one who has been one of the foremost men in this great com- 
monwealth; one who was patriot and statesman, a citizen, 
and a brave and gallant soldier in the War of the Rebellion; 
one Avhose excellency and true worth and ability of character 
have excited the keenest admiration of every citizen and in- 
habitant of our great state. It is fitting that a monument 
should be erected in this hallowed spot to perpetuate the dewls 
and virtues of our late friend — one of our great national lead- 
ers. I appreciate greatly the honor conferred upon me in 
being permitted in my weak way to speak of our deceased 
comrade and testify as to a personal knowledge of his sterling 
worth and character and recount some of his valiant deeds 
^^'hich this magnificent monument is erected to perpetuate. 

To you, Governor Sheldon, as a representative of this splen- 
did commonwealth, I desire on behalf of a grateful peo])le, 
especially the soldier element thereof, to thank you for this 
beautiful tribute erected by the state in commemoration of 
our dead hero and statesman whose memory we all revere. 
True, this monument, great as it is, sinks into insignificance 



198 NEBRASKA STATE HlSTOKlCAr. SOCIETY. 

wlieu compared with the still greater moniimeiit built by our 
comrade's incessant, intelligent, and unceasing lif(.' labors 
given to the upbuilding of this ^nagniflcent state, A\'hich is an 
integral part of this, the greatest republic on earth. 

I would first briefly call your attention to a few incidents 
in the early life of our departed friend and comrade. I find 
in the record published by the Nebraska State Historical So- 
ciety the following : "John M. Thayer settled in Omaha, Ne- 
braska, in the fall of 1854, a few ]]ionths after the territorial 
organization. He was born in Ijellingham, Norfolk county, 
Massachusetts, January 24, 1820. Possessing a good educa- 
tion, and hopeful of the future, with a laudable ambition to 
succeed, he naturally challenged early attention, gained the 
confidence of his associates, and found a field of enterprise 
wide open for occupancy. Belonging to the legal profession, 
it was not strange that visions of legislative honor should 
have had an enticing influence, and that in 1857 he was found 
a candidate for Congress in a free-for-all before the organi- 
zation of parties, in a case where four aspirants divided 
ainong them 5,600 votes, each receiving 1,000, but Fenuer 
Ferguson having the highest number in the hundred. Again 
in 1859 and then in 18G0 his name was placed before the Re- 
publican nominating convention, but Samuel G. Daily, an 
original Abolition Ifepublican, became the nominee and dele- 
gate. He was elected to the territorial council of 1S60 and 
1861, and subsequently to a constitutional convention. In 
the council he was author of a bill to abolish slavei-y in 
Nebraska." 

And now, personally speaking of his record, T desire to say : 
Answering the first call of the immortal Lincoln, General 
Thayer was authorized in April, 1861, to raise the 1st Ne- 
l>raska Infantry, which he did in less than ninety days, out of 
a territory that had less than 30,000 peojile within its domain. 
One thousand stalwart sons, or more than one-thirtieth of 
Nebraska's population, responded to the call and marched 
forth under the leadership of our dead Commander to do or 
die for their country. General Thayer, fearing that his regi- 



THE THAYER MONUMENT. 199 

ment might be required to remain on the frontier, planned 
and used every means possible to get his command into the 
South, and into the heart of the Rebellion. Getting out of 
Nebraska and into the jurisdiction of General Fremont, we 
were thrown south to >Springritld, Missouri, but not in time 
to save General hjon, who was killed at Wilson Creek. After 
driving Price out of Missouri we were marched to Sedalia, 
then the terminus of the Missouri Pacific Ky., and from thence 
proceeded south to St. Louis, where we boarded a transport 
and proceeded doAvn the Mississippi, thence up the Ohio, and 
thence up the Tennessee river, arriving at Ft. Henry just as it 
had fallen into our hands. Before disembarking, Colonel 
Thayer received orders to turn iMi-k, and also to see that all 
transi)orts carrying troops Were turned back to the Ohio 
river, and to hasten up the Cumberland river to Ft. Donelson, 
which he proceeded to do, and inside of thirty-six hours we 
disembarked and marched on to the bloody lield, and partici- 
pated in the fight of Ft. Donelson. Then it was that our 
Colonel's heroism and gallantrv earned for him the command 
of a brigade, undying fame, and immortal renown. So con- 
spicuously engaged was he and his command at that time that 
you have but to read the memoirs of Gen(?ral U. S. Grant, 
that mighty soldier of the Civil AVar, to know his high esti- 
mate of our dead Comrade. Then it was that the immortal ' 
Lincoln, recognizing his worth, adorned him with the stars 
which he ever after wore with honor and distinction wbib- 
the war lasted. - 

Thence he proceeded with his command up tlu^ Tennessee 
river and engaged in the bloodv battle of Shiloh, and there 
earned further commendation and promotion. If it were 
permissible I might tell of one fact that canie under my own 
personal observation. On Monday morning, Avhile tlic regi- 
ment was lying flat on the ground in front of a reb'd battery, 
not one hundred yards distance, which was persistently pour- 
ing into our lines a most disastrous storm of shot and shell, 
and it did not seem possible that anything alive could survive 
it. General Thayer was observed coming along the lines from 



200 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

left to right alone on foot, bis aids, his adjutant general, and 
his orderlies having been swept from him b}' this hostile fire. 
As he passed along the lines he gave the order that when the 
regiment moved, it was to ''fix bayonets and take that rebel 
battery." It was then his courage showetl forth, not a tremor 
in his voice, not a doubt in. his form or face. His courage 
inspired the coniidence of all and richly crowned the sacrifice. 
After the siege of Corinth we were then inarched to the rear 
and into Memphis, and thence to Helena. My regiment v/as 
then detached and sent back to Missouri and fought General 
Marmaduke at Cape Girardeau. But our hero went south to 
Vicksburg, led his division against that stronghold, where 
thousands of the flower of the army fell under his inspired 
leadership. From thence he went to the southwest — Red 
River — always active, always hopeful, always confident of the 
outcome, and, thank God, he lived to sec and fully realize the 
full fruition of every hope of a prosperous, happy, and united 
country, for which he ever prayed. Old Comrades, Ave, so few 
in number, are here todav to do honor to the memorv of our 
old Comrade and Commander. To the world such ceremonies 
as these may seem only formal, but to us wlio survive him 
they are the earnest tributes of devoted friends and a grateful 
state, duties saddened by painful loss and 3'et hallowed by 
delightful memories. Our comnnrnwealth and our citv have 
mourned his death, and are not reconciled, while friends have 
refused to be comforted. Life is lonelier to us all since he has 
been taken away. 

"And he is gone who seemed so great — 
' Gone; but nothing can bereave him 

Of the force he made his own 

Being here; and we believe him 
Something far advanced in state, 

And that he wears a truer crown 
Than any wreath that man can weave him. 

Speak no more of his renown, 
Lay your earthly fancies down. 

And upon the Father's bosom leave him; 
God accept him; Christ receive hjm." 



THE THAYER MONUMENT. 201 

After the battle of Sliiloli General Thaver submitted a verv 
mill lite, comprehensive, and accurate report of the participa- 
tion of his command in that most important and sanguinary 
contest. After stating- the circumstance under which it took 
position in the line of battle on that memorable Sunday night, 
he gave a. graphic description of the steady retreat of the Con- 
federate line from 5:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.^ before the steady 
advance of the Union Armv reinforced bv Jiuell's command. 
He said, "I can not speak in terms of too high praise of the 
officers and soldiers under my command; their conduct was 
most gallant and brave throughout; they fought with the ar- 
dor and zeal of true patriots. It gives me pleasure to speak 
of the different regiments and their officers. Noblv did the 
1st Nebraska sustain its reputation well earned on the field 
of Donelson. Its progress was onward during the whole day. 
In face of galling fire of the enemy, moving on without flinch- 
ing, at one time being an hour and a half in front of their 
battery, receiving and returning iire, its conduct was most 
excellent." 

I make the foregoing quotation from his official report of 
that battle to show his kindness of heart in giving full credit 
to those of his command, however humble they might be, hence 
the extreme love of all those serving under him, who honor 
him and revere his memory. 

From this time on until July, 18G5, when his active military 
career closed, he is seen commanding a brigade of Iowa troops 
and leading a storming party in the battle of Chickasaw 
Bavou ; then in the battle of Arkansas Post, where his horse 
Avas shot under him ; and then through the siege of Vicksburg; 
with KSherman in the battle of Jackson, Mississippi, and with 
General Steele in Arkansas in command of the Army of the 
Frontier, and ending with a command at Helena, on the ^fis- 
sissippi river; then retiring to civil life, bre^etted Major-Gen- 
eral. In 18G7 he entered the V. S. Senate for a term of four 
years, and in 1875 ^^-as appointed Governor of Wyoming 
Territory. 



202 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

When the oiitive easteru frontier of Nebraska border iuj;- on 
the Missouri river was first settled, numerous Indian tribes 
had originall}^ roamed at will; the peace and Aiuiet, the lives 
and property of emigrants Avere often at the mercy of savage 
marauders. So, early ^as IMay, 1S55, we find General Thayer 
one of a commission to hold a council witli the Pawnee chiefs, 
under appointment of Governor Izard. In July of the same 
year the Governor commissioned General Tliayer to raise' 
troops and give protection to the settlers against the. depre- 
dations of the Sioux. In the summer of 1S59 he led a force 
against the Indians in what was denominated tlie Pawnee 
War, the results of which were reassuring to the emigrants, 
and a lesson of power and authority to them. 

An article by Major Dudley, in the second volume of the 
Nebraska Historical Society rei)orts, contains the following: 

"One figure stonds out prominently in all this history con- 
nected with every military' affair or expedition, the first brig- 
adier-general of the territory, colonel of its first regiment to 
take the field in defense of the Union, 'Prigadier and brevet 
Major-General of U. S. Volunteers,' then, after the war, V. S. 
Senator and then Governor of our state, John M. Thayer.'" 

I can not help but recall that in Marcli, 1867, some three 
weeks after General Thayer had been admitted to the Senate, 
that the Congressional Pecord shows Mr. Tliayer engaged in 
an Indian war discussion in which he had to arraign the re- 
port of a congressional committee, correspondence of the 
New York Trihirnc and Poston 'Journal, and an interview of 
the chairman of the Indian committee, together with numer- 
ous allegations made by senators in. debate. AVith undisputed 
facts and invulnerable argununits he met all comers and 
charges, and then appealed to the sense of the Senate in the 
follo^^'ing compact sentences : 

/"I stand here to say to the Senate, speaking in behalf of 
every community on. the border, speaking in behalf of every 
industrial pursuit, that nothing can be more abhorrent, noth- 
ing more dreaded by them than an Indian war. Why, sir, 
until these hostilities upon the frontier everything was pros- 



THE THAYER MONUMENT. 203 

perous there; the commerce on the phiins had risen to an 
immense magnitnde; we coiihl talk about the commerce of the 
pkiins as well as yon conld talk about the commerce of the 
seas and the lakes. These men went out on the plains and 
did business in the mountains. You could go in no direction 
across these wide plains that j'ou did not see long caravans 
of trains bearing merchandise from all the points of the INIis- 
souri to all the territoides in the mountains and away to the 
Northwest. It is the nuiin source of our income; it is the mar- 
ket for our productive industry; and to send it forth to this 
nation that we frontiersmen are in for a war to make money 
is the most atrocious calumny of the nineteenth century." 

Continuing in a more subdued and humorous straiuj we 
have the following: 

"My dear sir, the very gamblers and thieves which Chicago, 
St. Louis, New York, Cincinnati, I'oston, and Philadelphia 
fail to hang, dread an Indian war. AVe have some of that 
class of people there, I am sorry for it, but it is because you 
in the East have not done your duty and hung them. They 
fled out there to escape, but they do not represent the border. 
My friend from New York (Air. Conkling) suggests tliat they 
do not come from New York. If so, it is because they treat 
them so kindly there, they do not have to run iuxixj. They 
vote the right wav in New York city." 

Senator Morrill of Afaine having been very active in the 
discussion and full of the poetic id(^a of "Lo, the poor Indian," 
and deeply anxious that at least some stray rays of cix iliza- 
tion's light might dawn upon the far West, I'eceives a c<jr<lial 
invitation to visit and be convinced: 

"I tell him as a friend, frankly, withoi.t prejudice, that he 
would come back with different idc^as as to that section of 
country. He talks about Christianity and civilizai ion. A\'liy, 
sirs, from whence did the people of the border come? Alany 
came from New England. Alen have settlcMl there, whom I 
have the honor now in part to represent, whom he has \un'Ho- 
fore represented on this tioor. The people of the border are 
'bone of vour bone, and flesh of your tlesli.' Sir, I have seen 



204 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

a Christian people there coming from their humble cabins, 
meeting at cross-roads or b3'-roads, in an improvised sc-hool- 
house, and I have heard them raise the voice of Thanksgiving 
and the song of praise to Almighty God, and Avorship Him 
Avith as much feeling and as mnch sincerity as is manifested 
by those who worship in the gorgeous temples of your eastern 
cities. You will find there an liuinble Christianity, but it is 
as pure as that which dwells in the East." 

No one ^^ho ever resided in Nebraska could fail to appre- 
ciate this beautiful tribute to Nebraska's Christianity and 
advanced civilization. 

Thus at the end of the fortieth Congress, Ceneral Thayer 
had "won his spurs'' on themes general to his condition as a 
western representative. 

I have quoted thus fully from his speeches to sho^Y that he 
was not only a soldier, but a true statesman, comprelieuding 
fully the needs of the great West, and he was indeed a true 
representative of the state of his adoption, kind and gentle in 
spirit but severe and determined in his conception of his sense 
of duty. 

May this beautiful monument erected to his memory be a 
lasting token of remembrance to tJie rising generation of our 
great commonwealth of the deeds of valor and statesmanship 
displayed by their forefathers in opening up this bountiful 
West with all its beneficent institutions of learning, and 
boundless areas of wealth for their mere asking and for their 
benefit. 

Song by Professor Millers Quartet, "Where are the !>oys 
of the Old Brigade?" 

Governor Sheldon : — 

We have listened to the splendid address by one of the com- 
rades of General Thayer. We will now have an address by 
another veteran of the Civil War, a gallant son, and a man 
who cast his lot early in life witli this state. A man who has 
been distinguished for his patriotism and for his love for Ne- 
braska. A man whom we all admire and love for a\ hat he has 



T'HE TflAYER :\rONUirENT. 205 

done for Nebraska. It gives me great pleasure, my friends, 
to introduce this afternoon Gen. John C. Cowin of Omaha, 
who will now address 3'ou. [Applause.] 

Address by Gen. John C. Cowin : — 

After the battle is ended, and the thunder of the artillery 
has ceased to echo through the land; when the groan of the 
wounded is hushed, and Peace with all its blessings has re- 
turned to a victorious people, the issues involved, the terrible 
struggle, the sacrifice, suffering, and death, are apt to be for- 
gotten, effaced by the great tide of the conceits of the world. 

At the last session of our legislature, an appropriation was 
made for "erecting a monument at the grave of Genei'al John 
M. Thayer," a token of the memory and appreciation of a 
grateful people for one of their greatest sons. Comrades dear 
to him in life were appointed to the task, which they have 
faithfully and lovingly performed. 

And as we are met here today to unveil the monument, the 
Past sj)eaks to us. We hear again the sound of the gun echo- 
ing through the land, that ushered in the morning of open 
rebellion, and told the world that upon this continent a mon- 
ster, civil war, was born. 

These ceremonies recall the ]nomentous events following, 
enacted more than forty years ago, before most of you, and 
before this great state, were born. The time "when darkness 
curtained the hills and the tempest was abroad in its anger; 
when the plow stood still in the field of promise, and briars 
cumbered the gardens of l)eauty ; ^^■hen the brave began to fear 
the power of man, and the pious to doubt the favor of God;" 
memories bringing in their train all the vicissitudes of a sol- 
dier's life, his suffering and agony, his defeats and his vic- 
tories, life and death; making the history of a gigantic battle 
fought by a great army of patriots for national existence. 

General Thayer, a native of Massachusetts, there a farmer 
boy, a district school and law student, a sou of a father and 
mother whose respective fathers Avere soldiers under "Wash- 
ington, in 1854, longing for a more active life, moved to the 
territory of Nebraska, thus transplanting in its soil, into its 



206 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

political and social life, the blood and patriotisin of the ximer- 
ican Revolution. 

When difficulties with tlie Indians arose, hron^i^ht about, as 
was always tlie case, by lack of faitlit'ul treatment on the part 
of the government, and fraudulent treatment on the part of 
its grafting agents. General Thayer was selected l>y the terri- 
torial legislature to command the territorial forces in de- 
fense of the inliabitants, witli tlie rank of brigadier-general. 
This position he held nntil the advent of the Civil AVar. In 
this command he gave evidence of that industry, loyalty, and 
ability A>'hich he afterward so conspicnously displayed in the 
battles of the Civil "War. A\'ith the Indians he was success- 
ful, both in war and diplomacy, using force when necessary, 
kindness when available. 

When the Union of the States was threatened, when the 
baleful doctrine of stat(^s rights, l>y long agitation, reached 
the point when it finally declar(Ml that stat(; sovereignty was 
paramount to national authority, and the Nation's llag, by 
misguided hands, was pulled froiu the skies and trampled 
into the earth. General Thayer, with but a single thought, 
made straightway to its rescue and protection. 

From the snuill but strenuous population of the territory, 
he gathered to a I'egimental standai'd om^ thousand sturdy 
and patriotic boys, and with t!uMu, avoiding frontier duty, 
rapidly crowded his way to the front, and <aiue fare to face 
with those whose feet were upon the flag of our fathers. From 
this on, his services covered the entire ])(^riod of the war. 

At the battle of Donelson, the result of ^A'hich gave the first 
ray of hope to the Nation's cause, since the dogs of war were 
let loose, his star shot into tli<^ skies, there to remain with 
ever-increasing sx^lendor. In the midst of almost certain de- 
feat, he was a tower of strength, a strong arm of the coiu- 
mander, the greatest captain of tlie agv, General Grant. From 
him he received praise undying, and tliereafter, always and 
at all times, in war and in peace, as soldier and statesiijau, 
possessed his confidence, esteem, and friendship. 



THE THAYER MONUMENT. 207 

l>y his bravery, fearlessness, aii<l eutliusiasm, giving' Tailh, 
'•ourage, aiul spirit to his men. which he displayed in th(i 
Liighty struggle on th.e bloody field of fc^hiloh, and in tlie brave 
charge for Yicksbnrg, he added new Inster to his star, and to 
his fame. And so he continned in the ever-shifting scene to 
the end of the war. 

Keturning with high honor and fame to (ivil life. General 
Thayer took an active part in the civil affairs of the territory. 
He was a member of its constitntional convention. He advo- 
ca:ed its admission as a free state. Upon its admission as a 
state, the legislature honored him with election to the United 
States Senate. In that capacity lie at once took a place in the 
front rank of the great statesmen of tliat day, and rendered 
invaluable service in bringing forth legislation to adjust the 
serious conditions of the time, and settle the gre<it questions 
resulting from the Civil Wnv. 

For a time, at the request and under the ap]M)intment of 
his comrade and friend, (xeneral Grant, then President of the 
United States, he served as governor of the territory of Wy- 
oming. Returning to his own state, he was twice elected gov- 
ernor, serving as such four years, from 1887 to 1891 inclusive. 
His administration was directed, witli a singleness of pur- 
pose, to the welfare of the people, whom he always held dear 
to his heart. 

At the close of his second terin, as there was a question re- 
specting the citizenship of his successor-elect, Mr. Boyd, he 
felt it his sacred duty to. administer the affairs of the office of 
governor until it sliould be determined whetlier his snccessor 
was constitutionally qualified to hold that office. I was at- 
torney for Governor IJoyd in that contest, and in fre(iuent 
conversations with General Tliayer I was iuipressed Avith the 
patriotism of liis purpose. His only conci^rn was that the 
governor of the people of his state should be a constitutional 
executive. AYhen the United States Supreme Court decided 
that question in favor of jMr. Koyd, General Thayer was sat- 
isfied, and I believe pleased. The office was at once turned 
over to his adjudged successor. 



208 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Geueral Tlia^er then returned to private lif(\ Tie took ]3a- 
triotic interest in the old soldiers. A post of the Grand Army 
of the Kepublio bears his name. He was a state department 
commander. Colleges of learning r-onferred npou hiiu 
degrees. 

His wife, the loving and beautiful companion of a long life, 
to whom he himself paid the grand tribute, "She was a faith- 
ful wife and mother, and the most patriotic of women," was 
taken from her earthly home in September, 1892. The hus- 
band and father followed JMarch 19, 1906. From the home 
they loved, from the land they worshipped, their great souls 
were wafted, to be reunited in the realms of eternal love and 
peace. 

He is greatest who serves his country ])est. . Splendid in 
courage, and standing by honor's side, makes tlie man God- 
like. With these ^yas justly classed General Thayer. 

Coming to Nebraska in 1867, then t^^ enty-one years of age, 
I soon became acquainted with the General. He was my in- 
spiration in the days of my doubts and discouragement, and 
until his death he was my friend, and T his, and his admirer. 
A rather strenuous contest for the election of a United States 
Senator, in which we were both candidates, never strained a 
cord of that relation. His splendid ability won my admii'a- 
tion, and his high qualities, my personal regard. 

In the performauce of tlie duties of all the bigh offices he 
filled, military and civil, the patJi he trod was the path of 
righteousness. His character, his conduct, was never tainted 
even with the suspicion of the slightest wrong-doing. His 
leading traits ^^ere courage, integrity, loyalty, patriotism. 
Patriotism with him was more than a sentiinent; it was a 
deep-seated principle. Loyal impulse, kind memory, and gen- 
tle hands of his comrades have placed here, a site of his own 
selection, this monument, to mark his last resting place, and 
commemorate a life that the ]>ublic can not safely forget, the 
offering of a grateful people. And we, his former comrades, 
here christen it with our tears, and vitalize it with the love 
we bore our comrade, now silent in death; for when living, 



THE THAYER MONUMENT. 200. 

the portals of his heart flew open to a comrade's approach, 
"like the Gates of Peter's prison at the Angel's touch." 

There are conditions in our country alarming enough to 
attract the attention and consideration of every man Avho 
pretends to a concern in the public Avelfare. No man can 
den}' that we have ground for appreliension and anxiety. 

Great financial interests embodied in corporations and 
trusts have unlawfully lived, prospered, and rutlilessly ruled 
in our national life. They have sought power merely for pow- 
er's sake. Their code of morals in cc>rporation conduct and 
high finance has been infamous. They hau? paralyzed, they 
have destroved the industrv and labor of honest effort. "SA'orse 
than this, they have poisoned tlu* moral it}- of business 
conduct. 

But there is a public mood, aroused by our fearless and 
patriotic President, come forth to meet this situation. As a 
man of gTcat affairs lately said, "^Ve are going to have in this 
■republic a standard of corporate and financial morals that 
Avill square with the moral sense of the American peoT>le, in 
their private conduct, and ^^^e are going to have it at any 
cost." This may come at a terrible financial and industrial 
cost, but come it must. 

The great danger is that in coming it mav bring with it 
mistaken and unjust methods. That officers of the law, with- 
out sufficient strength of character and purpose to abide 
safely by the law, and for their own ambitious purposes, may 
follow an outraged public opinion, which is often far from 
discriminating, and pursue costly and 'reckless methods, and 
arouse public opinion against corporations and finaucial in- 
terests, that are wholly innocent and Avitbiu tlie law. 

I know of no greater danger to the efficacy of these reform 
laws than to seek to apply thejn so as to seriously impair, if 
not des'troy, honest business affairs. The condition of pultlic 
" opinion is such, brought about by unlawful corporate and 
high financial methods, that it takes a high degree of sterling 
honest purpose to decide a controversy in favor of a large 



210 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

corporation, no niattei' how absolntely honest that (h'cision 
nia}^ be. 

Let the public assure its servants that lie who intelligenth'^ 
and honestly decides in favor of a corporation shall have the 
same approval and support as when he intellii»;ently and hon- 
estlj^ decides against it. 

We must in this res])ect dilfcarntiate, for side by side with 
you who believe in honest metliods, avIjo beli(n^e in fair deal- 
ing, are nine-t(^nths of the corporations of the country. Thi^ 
other one-tenth, possessing the large part of the great wealth 
of the land, pursuing methods in defiance of law, has been 
the curse of the countrv. 

lUit another cloud has appeared above the horizon. There 
has come foi'th from the land a \oice that is a ii'enace to our 
national welfare, preaching again that sermon of states rights 
that brought forth the ti'agedy of the nation. 

State conventions and state legislatures have adoi)t(Ml reso- 
lutions, proposing to abridge and limit the power of the gen- 
eral government. I warn you that this tendency, so far as it 
impregnates the public mind, is dangerously near the senti- 
ment for states rights, that resulted in the ordinances of se- 
cession in the early '60s. 

Limit tbe power of this national government and the hoi^e 
of the liberty of mankind is gone. Limit the poA\ cr of this 
government, given through t!ie wisdom of our fathers, sup- 
ported and maintained since by the blood of millions, and 
you will loosen the cords that bind these state entities into 
one, sheaves reaped and bound togetiier in the harvest of 
death. Limit the national power and the permanency of 
Union will have departed forever. 

If this monument could speak today, with the inspiration 
derived from a patriotic life, we Avould hear these sentiments : 
'vin my life, love of country was a passion; to me the Union 
of the states was my country. I can not see, outside the per- 
petuity and strength of the Union, aiiything worthy in the 
future of the Eepublic." 



THE THAYER MONUMENT. 211 

General Thayer believed with tlie faith that makes heroes 
and martyrs, that in the maintenance of the Union, >vith all 
its power, and tlu? ascendency of its Constitution and laws, 
were bound u]1, not only our W(4fare, but the birthriglit of 
millions yet unborn. The elfulgent blaze of This great trutli 
lighted lip his intellect. 

President Lincoln said, "xUy paramount object is to save 
the Union," but I ask \ou. what would Lincoln have thought 
at that time if he knew that free states of the ISiorth in tlu3 
near future would seek to dc^xuive that tinion of the power of 
self-preservation? 

Let us maintain, not disintegrate; let us preserve, not 
weaken; preserve, unimpaire<l in power, the Union forever. 

There is no mc^iace from imperialism. Tliere can be no 
imperialism without the support of the army and nsivj. But 
the history of this countrj" sIioavs tliat the surest safeguards 
against imperialism, the safest bulwarks for the protection 
of the liberty of the people, have been tlie soldiers and sailors. 
During the Civil War, speaking of the Nortli and the South, 
Garfield said, "Our army is equally brave, but our government 
and congress are far behind in (earnestness and energy,^' and 
he might have added, in xjatriotism. In the dai-kest hour of 
that dread time, when men of all political associatiojis thought 
the war for the Union a failure, and advocated i)eaee by sep- 
aration, it was the soldier and the sailor that never doubted. 
It was the soldier and the sailor that had abidini'' faith. It 
was the soldier and the sailor that stood firm as the roi-k of 
Gibraltar, to the ver}^ end, and to victory. Tliey were sure 
of the approach of the coming day. Tliey had the faith and 
inspiration of the lark, singing liis halhdujali h» the couiiug 
morn. 

The great Lincoln, patriot, martyr, standing on tlie blood- 
-stained field of Gettysburg, cojumuuing, as it were, with the 
souls of the patriot dead that went up from tliat consecrated 
spot, said, "Our fathers brouglit fortJi on this continent a new 
nation," and in the out-pouring of his heart exclaimed, "Wc 
here highly resolve tbat tliese (k'ad simll not iiavc di='d in 



212 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

vain; that this iiation, imder God, shall have a new birth of 
freedom, and that go^erninent of the people, by the people, 
for the people, shall not perish from the earth." 

It was the soldiers and sailors tliat "brought forth" this 
nation. It was the soldiers and sailors tliat gave this nation 
"a new birth of freedom." It was the soldiers and sailors, 
with their blood and their lives, that saved this government 
of the people from perisliing from the eartli. And when 
Peace came at last, these soldiers and sailors, of the North 
and of the South, went out into civil life, and civil pursuits, 
the grandest l)ody of citizens the world ever knew. 

It was Grant, the soldier, and by his side General Thayer, 
who, in the critical times following tlie close of the \Var, stood 
firm as the mountain for peace, justice to a brave Init fallen 
foe, and the libert,y of the people, against the imperialism and 
tyranny of Johnson, the executive. 

Grand and patriotic is another body of our citizens today, 
the national guardsmen. Gur fatliers provided by the Con- 
stitution for a militia to execute the laws, suppress insurrec- 
tion, and rex)el invasion. Tliis grand body of citizen soldiery 
is one of the most important factors in our national life, the 
right hand of the states and the Union, the nation's miglity 
guard when war shall com(^ Oar x>eople everywhere and al- 
ways should give to this organization l0;Val support. The na- 
tional guardsman is tlie teaclK^r of tlie ]:>eople in discipline 
and obedience to law. He is an example of seJf-sacrifice, loy- 
alty, and patriotism; the highest type of our country's citi- 
zenship; read}', when the occasion comes (and who knows how 
soon it will come?) to condense liis life into an hour, and 
crown that hour witJi death, lie who is cowardly enough to 
l)elittle our citizen soldier will never be brave enough to face 
a soldier of an enemy. When the appeal of humanity came 
from our island neighbors, the response of the national 
guardsmen was prompt, patriotic, and effective. 

It is well to contemplate the domain of our sacred dead. 
Around their silent homes cluster our tenderest recollections. 
Let their memory shine resplendent witli the glory of a nation 



THE THAYER MONUMENT. 213 

saved, and i^rowing brighter and brighter as age follows age, it 
will teach generations yet unborn the sacritiees by which lil)- 
erty was saved to mankind. Let their patriotism be poured 
out upon tlie land that it may intluence the destinies of our 
nation. It will make us better and braver men and give us 
more faith in the future glor^' and greatness of our country-. 

"And now to thee, oh! flag of truth! 
To thee we dedicate anew 
Our pledges, faithful, tried and true; 
Again we swear by thee to stand, 
Proud emblem of our ransomed land!" 

At the conclusion of Gen. Cowin's address a liearty ap- 
plause was given, and upon request of Governor Sheldon the 
audience joined the quartet in singing ^'America." 

Gov. Sheldon : — 

I would like on this occasion, on behalf of the people of this 
state, to thank you, Mr. Bell, and thank the committee that 
was appointed by the legislature to secure and erect this splen- 
did monument. Q'he program that you have arranged we have 
appreciated. It was particularly fitting that you selected 
those two grand veterans and citizens of this state. Colonel 
Majors and General CoAvin, to deliver addresses upon this 
occasion. When we look at that beautiful monument we can 
not help but be thankful for your eflorts in securing such 
splendid results from the small appropriation that you have 
had at your command. If this state could receive the same 
value for all money a}ipro|>riated that we have received 
through that monument, we certainly would be thankful. 
i Apx)lause. ) 

We will now have the benediction by Rev. Jeremiah ^fickel, 
Chaplain Farragut Post No. 25. 

Benediction : — 

May the love of (lod, our Father and our Commander, the 
fellowship of the Lord Jesus Christ, our divine instructor, 
guide and protect us; ]May Tlis spirit rest upon us now, and 



214 NEBRASKA STATE ITlSTOniCAL SOCIETY. 

make iis more loyal to oui' God, more loyal to onr /lag, more 
loyal to each other, and Thy name shall have the glory 
through time and all eternity. Amen. 

Governor Sheldon : — ■ . 

Taps by Mr. O. C. Bell. 

Taps were here sounded. 



• PROCEEDINGS 

01' THE 

NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



twj:xty-F()UKT1I annuai. aieet! xri. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, Januai'y 8, 1901. 

In accordance with the call and the constitution of the So- 
ciety, the Nebraska State Historical Society was called to 
order at 8:15 i\M. of this date by tlie Hon. R. W. Furnas, 
First Vice-President of the Society. After some expressions 
of sympathy for Presidcmt j\[orton, his life-long friend, on 
the death of his sou, IMr. Carl Morton, he declared the So- 
ciety ready to transact business. 

Mr. C. S. Lobingier then offered the following resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted by a rising vote : 

"Whereas, The President of this Society has suffered 
grievous and irreparable loss in the death of his youngest son, 
be it 

'^liesohed, That the Nebraska State Historical Society 
hereby tenders to its President and his bereaved family its 
profound and sincere sympathy in their hour of sorrow and 
affliction. 

'^Resolved, That this Society i*ecognizes in the late Carl 
Morton a man of sterling character, and a worthy son of an 
honored father and one whose death is a serious loss to this 
commonwealth of which he was a native and with which he 
had been honorablv identified during practicallv his entirt^ 
life. 

"Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the rec- 
ords of this Society and that a copy thereof be forwarded to 
the bereaved family." 

In the absence of President Morton, his annual address was 
read by Mrs. A. J. Sawyer. The following resolutions were 



21(3 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAI. SOCIETY. 

then introduced by Dr. F. Renner of Nebraska City, and 
adopted without a dissenting vote: "Moved that the thanks 
of the Historical Society be tendered to Mr. Morton for his 
able address on the 'Beginnings of a State,' and also to Mrs. 
Sawyer for her delightful, effective, and impressive reading 
of the same." 

Mr. R. A. Hawley made a few remarks in the form of ob- 
jecting to the position taken in the paper of President Mor- 
ton on the subjects of monetary science, and the principles 
of heredity'. 

On account of the condition of Mr. Annin's voice, his paper 
on the "Life and Services of Senator A. S. Paddock" was 
read by Mr. C. S. Lobingier. Mr. G. M. Hitchcock was ab- 
sent, so his paper on "Senator P. W. Hitchcock" had to be 
omitted. The subject of the "Beginnings of the Grange" was 
treated by Mr. R. A. Hawley in an informal manner, and on 
his request he was granted more time to gather the needed 
information and to formulate his paper. Remarks on the 
"Grange and Farmers' Alliance" were made bv Mr. J. H. 
Dundas. He was inclined to take the view that the Grange 
accomplished very little good, but tended to cause jealousy 
and suspicion between classes, and especially to narrow the 
farmers' horizon. Mr. A. S. Godfrey, of Lincoln, objected to 
the position taken, holding that much good accrued to the 
people in the way of social development and mutual aid. 

Mr, J. M. Thompson then read a scholarly historical paper 
on the Farmers' Alliance, treating the matter in a scientific 
manner. 

As there were no other historical papers a business session 
was held. The Treasurer submitted his report, which was 
referred to an auditing committee, consisting of Mr. A. E. 
Sheldon and Mr. C. S. Lobingier. 

As the hour was late the Society adjourned to 8 :00 o'clock 
of the evening of January 9, 1901. 

R. W. Furnas, Vice-President. 
H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 



1»R0CEEDIA'GS 1901. 217 

Lincoln, Nebraska, January 9, 1901. 

The meeting of tlie Society was called to order by Hon. 
1\. AV. Furnas at 8:10 p.m. 

The first paper, entitled "lieminiscences," was read by H. 
W. Hardy. Some criticism was made concerning some of 
Mr. Hardy's statements by various members of the Society. 
Mr. Charles H. Gould and Mr. A. S. Godfrey, as well as the 
President, held that the account of the meeting at the peni- 
tentiary was not accurate in its details. On suggestion Mr. 
Gould was requested by the Society- to prepare a full account 
of the meeting at the penitentiary to be read at the next an- 
nual meeting. ^Ir. Oldhiim was necessarily detained, so his 
paper on CongTessman AV. L. Greene had to be deferred to 
some future time. Mr. C. E. Persinger then presented a se- 
ries of maps to show the early roads and routes in Nebraska. 
His analysis and presentation were especially appreciated by 
the audience. The last paper of the evening was a very care- 
fully prepared account of ''Freighting in Early Nebraska 
Days" by Hon. H. T. Clarke. 

The Society then proceeded to the work of its annual busi- 
ness. Mr. David Anderson presented the following resolu- 
tions, which were adopted unanimously: 

"•AA^HEREAS, Shortly after the last annual meeting of this 
Society one of the interested and active participants at that 
meeting. Dr. L. J. Abbott, was suddenly stricken with dis- 
ease and taken from us; therefore 

^'Resolved, That this Association sincerely mourns his, 
death, deeply regrets the loss of our fellow member, pro- 
foundly expresses our high regard for him, and expresses our 
condolence to his family; and, be it further 

"Resolved, That this Society and the state of Nebraska 
have lost an efficient worker, a valued citizen, and a promoter 
of the interests of mankind." 

Mr. J. A. Barrett brought up the subject of enlarged quar- 
ters for the Society, and after some remarks moved the ap- 
pointment of a committee of three to consider the matter. 



218 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTOEICAL SOCIETY. 



The resolution as modified toolv the following form and was 
adopted : ''Resolved^ That a committee of three be appointed,, 
by the chairman, to consider and devise plans for housing the 
Historical Society." The chairman appointed as such com- 
mittee, Mr. H. W. Hardy, jNlr. H. T. Clarke, and Mr. C. H. 
Gere. 

Mr. A. E. Sheldon moved the following: "First, that a 
committee of three be appointed to consider the constitutions 
of the State Historical Societies of Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Iowa, and Kansas, and other states and recommend to the 
Nebraska State Historical Society any needed changes in its 
constitution." As such committee the chairinan appointed 
A. E. Sheldon, C. S. Lobingier, and H. W. Caldwell. 

The report of the Secretary was accepted without reading. 
The librarian read a brief report on the work of the year. 
The Secretarv then read the action taken bv the executive 
committee in a meeting of January 25, 1900. 

Under the order of election of members the following 
names were voted on and elected: 



E. L. Saver, Omaha. 

Miss Margaret O'Brien, 
Omaha. 

Charles L. Duudey, Omaha. 

Judge W. II. Kelly, Omaha. 

jMrs. Nellie Hawks, Friend. ^ 

W. E. Annin, Dem^er, Colo- 
rado. 

G. A. jNIunroe, Columbus. 

A. J. Mercer, Lincoln. 

A. L. Bixby, Lincoln. 



Mrs. E. O. Miller, Lincoln. 
A. J. Leach, Neligh. 
E. P. McCormick, Oakdale. 
O. R. Bowman, Waverly. 
C. W. Pierce, Waverly. 
E. G. Clements, Lincoln. 
Mrs. A. B. Charde, Omaha. 
Lewis S. Reed, Omaha. 
C. H. Cornell, Valentine. 
Mrs. C. S. Lobingier, Omaha. 
Charles H. Gould, Lincoln. 



On the motion of Mr. Ball, IMr. H. T. Clarke was author- 
ized to cast the unanimous vote of the Societv in favor of the 
reelection of the present officers. The vote was cast and re- 
sulted in the reelection of 



PROCEEDINGS 11)01. 219 

J. Sterling Morton President 

R. >V. Furnas First Vice-President 

C. S. Lobingier Second Vice-President 

C. H. Gere Treasurer 

H. W. Caldwell Secretary 

On motion the Society adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell,, Secretary. 

TREASURER'S REPORT, 1901. 

January 14, 1901. 

Hon. J. Sterling Morton, President Nebraska State Histori- 
cal Society : 

Sir — I liave the honor to present the following report of 
receipts and expenditures of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society for the past year. 

STATE TREASURY ACCOUNT. 

Balance on hand January 8, 1901, ap- 
propriation of 1899 I 1,583 73 

Paid on Auditor's vouchers for sal- 
aries, etc |1,474 56 

Covered into treasury 109 17 

Total |1,583 73 

Appropriation of 1901 1 0,000 00 

Paid on Auditor's vouchers for sal- 
aries, etc 3,027 33 

Balance in state trensury $ (5,972 67 



220 NEBKASKA STATE HISTOKICAI. SOCIETY. 

BANK ACCOUNT. - 

Baliiuce on liaud, First National Uaiik, 

January 8, 1901 1 511 5(3 

Membership fees received 00 

Interest on deposit 16 32 

Balance on hand 50G 88 



Total balance on hand ^7,539 55 

Very respectfully, 

C. H. Gere, Treasurer. 
Mr. President : 

Your auditing committee report that they have examined 
the books, bank book, and accounts of your Treasurer, Mr. 
C. H. Gere, and find the same correct. 

A. E. Sheldon. 

C. S. LOBINGIER. 

MEETING OF EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, May 8, 1901. 

Governor Morton called the meeting to order at 2 :00 p.m. 

Moved by Governor Furnas that the Librarian continue to 
prepare a bibliography of Nebraska with reference to print- 
ing the same by the state when completed. 

Carried. 

The Secretary was instructed to procure an autograph 
picture of Senator Tipton to insert in his volume, and also 
to prepare an autobiography to insert as an appendix. 

Carried. 

Moved by Governor Furnas that Mr. Barrett's salary be 
fixed at $1,400 per annum. 

Carried unanimously. 



PBOCEEDixas 1001. 221 

Mr. Gere moved that the Secretary be authorized to em- 
ploy such help as may be needed as collector aud in charge 
of the bureau of exchanges at a salary of |000. 

Carried. 

Moved bv Mr. Gere that the Secretarv be authorized to 
employ Miss Palin at |25 per month. 

Carried. 

The following communications were read to the executive 
board at its meeting, May 8, 1901 : 

"To the Eonorahle Board of Managers of the State Histori- 
cal Society: 

"Sirs — This is to formally make application for a position 
which shall enable me to thoroughly investigate the arche- 
ology of this state under the auspices of the State Historical 
Societ}^ and to make collections of relics of value to the So- 
ciety in this and other lines. 

"Also to respectfully request your honorable body to per- 
manently establish a department of archeology and set apart 
sufficient funds to economicall}' maintain it. 

"Respectfully submitted, 

"E. E. Blackman. 

"Mille Lac, Minnesota, April 29, 1901.'' 
"Professor Caldwell, Lincoln. 

"My Dear Sir — Archeologic examinations for detiuite 
sources of information are being extended from the Arkansas 
river northward to Lake of the Woods, and up the Missouri 
river to and into Montana. I do not desire to assume the 
responsibility of determining the archeology of your state, 
but if your Society will take favorable action, intended to 
enhance collecting for museum purposes, so that Nebraska 
can maintain its own proofs of ancient and more recent occu- 
pancy, it will be a pleasure to go to Nebraska, entirely at my 
own cost, to assist in the work. I very much desire the infor- 
mation to be gained, but I do not propose to interfere with 
the arrangements of the Historical Society and the explora- 
tions of Mr. Blackman. It so happens that studies initiated 
in Missouri and Kansas necessarily extend across Nebraska 



222 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to Mandau where the Arikaras have been traced. Please 
advise me at box 2360, St. Paul, JMiniiesota. 

"Very truly, 

"J. V. Brower." 

Moved bv Governor Furnas that Mr. Blackman be em- 
ployed for making archeological survey's and collections of 
Nebraska, and that |300 be set aside for carrying on this 
work. Also that all collections found by him belong to the 
Society. 

Carried. 

Mr. BroAver to be thankt'd for his advice and assistance in 
the work of the Society. 

Carried.. 

The Secretary was authorized to buy such books on Ne- 
braska as may seem necessary. 

Carried. 

The Secretar}^ was authorized to hire such day labor or 
hour labor as may be necessary. 

Carried. 

The meeting now adjourned, 

H. W. Caldwell^ Secretary. 



TWENTY-FIFTn ANNUAL MEETING, 1902. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, January 14, 1902, 

I'resident Morton in the chair. 

Meeting was called to order at 8:00 p.m. by President Mor- 
ton. The program was proceeded with, and President Mor- 
ton stated that ill health had prevented the preparation of a 
paper by him, so without further preliminaries he would in- 
troduce Mr, J. R. Buchanan, who presented his paper on the 
"Great Railroad Migration into Northern Nebraska.*' 

In the absence of Mr. E. L. Lomax, his jjaper was read by 
Mr. A. E. Sheldon. The Secretary read a paper by Gen. G. 
M. Dodge, and a letter from Mr. James J. Hill. 



PKOCEEDIXCS 1002. 22S 

Rouud Table. — A discussion by -President Morton of the 
conditions of coming to Nebraska in 1854. He remarlved that 
it was 300 miles to the nearest railroad whistle. Mr. C. H. 
Gere spoke of the early movement to get railroads to enter 
Lincoln and the disposition of the 500,000 acres of land. Mr. 
J. E. North spoke on early days along the Union Pacific 
railroad. In 18GT the Indians wrecked a train, the only train 
ever wrecked by the Indians. Mr, Sargent, an engineer on 
the Union Pacific, addressed the Society in regard to his 
early experiences in the West. 

The meeting adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell^ Secretary. 

Januarv 15, 1902. 

The meeting was called to order by the Hon. J. Sterling 
Morton at 8:16 p.m. in accordance with adjournment on 
January 14, 1902.' 

As the first speaker was not in the room, in accordance 
with a motion by Mr. C. H. Gere, the meeting was opened 
by reading the Secretary's minutes. After reading they were 
approved as read. Mr. Blackman was then presented and 
gave an address on the archeology of Nebraska. In' the ab- 
sence of Mr. G. L. Laws, Mr. J. H. Ager presented his paper 
on "Nebraska Politics and Railroads.'' ]Mr. Ager's paper pre- 
sented the reasons for and the extent of the part railroads 
have taken in Nebraska politics. Mr. Sayer then discussed 
the development of the counties of Nebraska, presenting to 
the Society a most valuable series of maps showing the growth 
of the territory of Nebraska and of its subdivisions. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

President Morton: The next is the election of members. 
I would like to propose the names of Dr. H. Link, Douglas 
county, iNIillard; J. R. Buchanan, Douglas county, Omaha; 
J. H. Ager, Lancaster county, Lincoln; P. J. O'Gara, Lan- 



224 NEBUASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

caster county, Lincoln; C. W. Allen, Merriman; ^\\ H. Keel- 
ing, Falls Cit}'. 

Elected. 

Captain Chittenden, Sioux Cit}^, Iowa, elected an honorary 
member. 

Mr. Sheldon reports for the committee on revision of the 
constitution and explains the principal changes. 

Keport received. 

Mr. Sheldon : By permission of the President I will read 
a resolution I have as follows : 

''This Society, with deej) regret, records the death, January 
9, 1902, at Florence, of ]Mr. W. F. Parker, a member of this 
Society, well and widely known as a lover of art, letters, and 
nature, as well as a man of high public spirit and moral pur- 
poses. Ordered that this testimonial to his worth be placed 
on the records of this Society, and that a copy thereof be 
transmitted by the Secretary to his family." 

Carried. 

Eecognizing the importance of preserving the scanty re- 
mains of f>rehistoric civilization on this continent and of 
providing for the study of such under proper regulations, the 
Nebraska State Historical Society commends to the favor- 
able consideration of Congress the bill (house roll G2T0) 
creating the Colorado Cliff Dwellers National Park. 

The Secretary of this Society is hereb}^ ordered to transmit 
a copy of this resolution to the senators and representatives 
of the state of Nebraska now in Congress and to the chairman 
of the committee on public lands and buildings. 

Carried. 

Mr. Gere presents the Treasurer's report. 

President Morton : I will appoint Mr. A. Watkins, Mr. 
N. C. Brock, and Mr. Isaac Pollard to examine the report of 
"the Treasurer just made. In the meantime the report is re- 
ceived and will be adopted after the examination. 

Mr. Sawyer moved that the present officers be declared 
elected for the ensuing vear. Seconded and carried. 



PROCEEDINGS 1902. 225 

The present officers were declared elected for the ensuing- 
year : 

J. Sterling Morton President 

R. W. Furnas First Vice-President 

C. S. Lobingier Second Vice-President 

C. H. Gere Treasurer 

IT. W. Caldwell Secretary 

Mr. Watkins: The committee has examined the account 
kept by the Treasurer and find it correct. 
Adjourned. 

TREASURER'S REPORT, 1902. 

Ho)i. R. W. Furnas, President Nebraska State Historieal 
tiociety : 
Sir — I have the honor to report the receipts and expendi- 
tures of the Society since the last annual meeting as follows : 
lialauce in the state treasury of the' 
appropriation of 1901 on Janu- 
ary 14, 1902 , 16,978 72 

Vouchers drawn for salaries and inci- 
dentals 5,319 20 

P>alance now in state treasury -f 1,059 52 

Balance in First National bank of 

Lincoln January U, 1902 | 566 8S » 

Receipts from membership fees 6 00 

Interest on deposits 16 50 

I 589 38 

Checked out on vouchers 1 9 18 

Balance in bank 570 20 



Total balance of funds on hand | 2,229 72 

Very respectfully, 

C. H. Gere, Treasurer. 

15 



226 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

MEETING OP EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

April, 1902. 

Present, President Morton, Mr. Furnas, Mr. Gere, and 
H. W. Caldwell. 

Eeading of minutes of last meeting approved. 

Presentation of estimates for coming vear. Available for 
work in archeology, |1,000 for Mr. Blackman for remainder 
of the biennium. 

The Secretary sends JNIr. Sayer thanks of the Society for 
his maps of Nebraska. 

The Secretary to get information from other historical so- 
cieties in regard to buildings and prepare article for 
newsi)apers. 

Carried. 

Secretary authorized to continue to emi)loy the help au- 
thorized at the last meeting. 
, Adjourned, subject to call by chairman. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING, 1903 



Lincoln, Nebraska, January 13, 1903. 
• University Chapel. 

The Historical Society Avas called to order by Vice-Presi- 
dent R. AV. Furnas at 8 :00 o'clock p.m. 

The first paper Avas presented by Hon. R. W. Furnas, a 
tribute to Hon. J. Sterling ]Morton. This was followed by 
an extempore estimate of the life and work of Hon. -T. Ster- 
ling Morton by Hon. George L. Miller, of Omaha. 

In harmony with the program the next paper was given by 
Hon. Edward Eosewater on the topic, ''Railroads in Ne- 
braska Politics." 



PROCEEDINGS 1903. 227 

Mr. Caldwell moved that the remaining papers be deferred 
till the evening of Jannary 14 in order that the members of 
the Society might visit the Society's collections and museum. 
Before a vote was cast on the motion the question of placing 
a memorial tablet on a tree in the California redwood forests 
in commemoration of Hon. J. Sterling ^Morton Avas discussed. 
A letter from Governor-elect Pardee of California to W. W. 
Cox was read favoring the plan : 

"Oakland^ California^ Decemder 22, 1902. 
"Mr. W. W. Cox, 

"Cortland, Nebraska : 

"Dear Sir — Your suggestion that a tree in one of the red- 
wood groves of California should be named for the late Hon. 
J. Sterling Morton, of Nebraska, who originated the ^Arbor 
Day' celebrations, appears to me to be very appropriate; and 
I have no doubt tliat it can be carried out. If the Historical 
Society of Nebraska is willing to assume the expense of plac- 
ing a bronze or marble tablet upon the tree, the people of 
California would be highly pleased by this exchange of inter- 
state courtesies. 

"You suggest that the tree should be chosen in the redwood 
forest near Santa Cruz; but I think the place might be a 
matter for further consideration. In the Mariposa grove of 
Big Trees there are many noble forest monarchs which have 
been named for distinguished persons, and as this grove is 
state property, it might be well to choose a tree there, to be 
named in honor of Mr. Morton. 

"However, as I said before, this is a question which could 
very well be left for decision at a later day. All that I can 
sa}^ now is that the naming of a tree for the late Secretary of 
Agriculture would be very fit and pleasing, and I have no 
doubt that the arrangement could be carried out with satis- 
faction to all. 

"Verv trulv vours, 

"George C. Pardee.^^ 

After explanations by Mr. Cox and some discussion a mo- 
tion was made to appoint a committee of three with power to 
secure an appropriate tablet of bronze or other metal, and 



228 NEDllASKA STATE HISTOIUGAL SOCIETY. 

have the same placed on some tree iu the California forest to 
dedicate said tree to the memory of the founder of Arbor 
Day. The motion was seconded by Mr. Sheldon and carried. 
The chair appointed as such committee Mr. W. W. Cox, Dr. 
George L. Miller, and C. S. Harrison. 

The Society then adjourned to 8:00 o'clock p.m. January 
14, 1903. 

Approved. 

H. AV. Caldweli., Secretary. 

11. W. Furnas, Vice-President. 

r ' " ' : 

' Lincoln, January 14, 1003. 

University Chapel. 

Meeting Avas called to order by acting President Furnas at 
8:00 p.m. 

In the absence of the author of the first paper of the even- 
ing, Mr. D. Y. Mears, of Chadron, his paper on the "Cam- 
paign against Crazy Horse and the Mule Keserves" v.as 
read in part by Mr. A. E. Sheldon, who also gave a brief his- 
tory of Mr. Mears himself. Mr. Phil E. Chappel's article on 
"The Kise and Fall of Steamboating on the Missouri River'' 
was, in the absence of the author, presented by Mr. Jay A. 
Barrett. At the last moment Col. II. M. Chittenden was or- 
dered to the Yellowstone Park. His paper was, in his ab- 
sence, read by Secretary Caldwell. His paper, "The I*assing 
of a Romantic Business," was full of interesting matter. 

Captain A. Overton, of Council Bluffs, gave a most inter- 
esting account of his "Recollections of the Missouri River, 
1852-1902." Mr. Barrett then read a paper prepared by 
D. L. Keiser of Boonville, Missouri, on the "All- Water Route 
to the Rockies." 

Other papers were presented by title and ordered filed with 
the Society to be j)rinted in the future volumes. These papers 
were by Wm. J, Kennedy, of Omaha; Capt. James Kennedy, 
Kansas Cit}^, Missouri; Capt. S. T. Leaming, Decatui', Ne- 
braska; Capt. W. H. Gould, Yankton, South Dakota. Mr. 



PROCEEDINfiS 1903. 229 

Gere moved that the Society go into business session; sec- 
onded by A. E. Sheldon. 

Motion carried. 

Calling of the roll dispensed witli on motion ot the 
Secretary. 

Eeports of standing committees were then called for. Mr. 
A, E. Sheldon reported for the committee on revision of the 
constitution, appointed two years previously. Tlie amend- 
ments to the constitution as were proposed by the committee 
were then explained by Mr. Sheldon. After explaining the 
first amendment, relating to membership in the Society, Mr. 
Clarke moved that it be adopted. On vote the amendment 
was carried. The second important change was to enlarge 
the executive committee by adding certain state and x>ablic 
officials. After some discussion the amendment Avas adopted. 
The third amendment providing for quarterly meetings of the 
executive board was also adopted. The constitution as a 
whole as amended was then adopted on motion of Hon. H. T. 
Clarke. 

An amendment was proposed to be laid on the table in re- 
gard to giving a permanent position to the Secretary in har- 
mony with the general tendency to make such official posi- 
tions more permanent. After some discussion the notice was 
laid over for further action. 

The special committee on obituaries had no formal report 
to make. It was stated by Mr. Sheldon that the death of the 
President, Hon. J. Sterling Morton, and Mr, Longsdorf were 
the only ones during the year in our membership. 

The names of the following persons Avere presented for 
membership, and under suspension of the rules were declared 
unanimously elected : 



Dr. E. E. Aukes, Cortland. L. D. Stilson, York. 

J. R. Wallingford, Cortland. Judge W. AV. Slabaugh, 

Thomas Graham, Seward. Omaha. 

Rev. Geo. Scott, Cortland. Mrs. W. W. Slabaugh, 

Mrs. Belle Shick, Seward. Omaha. 



230 NECKASKA 8TA:1'E HISTORICAL SO(JIETY. 

Rev. M. A. Shiiie, Suttou. A. C. Wakeley, Omaha. 

Hon. C. J. Ernst, Lincoln. C. S. Huntington, Omaha. 

Mrs. T. C. Buckley, Stroms- A. Haile, ClearAvater. 

burg. Thomas Marwood, Oakdale. 

P. Edgar Adams, Venango. W. J. Kennedy, Omaha. 

Mrs. Paul Clark, Lincoln. S. T. Leaming, Decatur. 

C. J. Bowlby, Crete. D. M. Carr, Fremont. 

Robert Harvey, St. Paul. C. W. Allen, Merriman. 

W. j\L Maupin, Lincoln. W. P. Aylsworth, Bethany. 

Mrs. W. M. Manikin, Lincoln. Rev. W. A. Baldwin, Lincoln. 

J. H. North, Lincoln. D. W. Hasty, Arapahoe. 

Samuel B. liams, Lincoln. E. M. Syfert, Omaha. 
M. A. Hall, Omaha. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Capt. A. Overton, Council Capt. D. L. Keiser, Boonville, 

Bluffs. Missouri. 

Capt. H. M. Chittenden, Capt. W. H. Gould, Yankton. 

Sioux City. James Kennedy, Kansas 

Phil E. Chappell, Kansas City. 

City. 

• ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

Hon. R. W. Furnas was unanimouslv elected President. 
The following were also elected : 

C. S. Lobingier First Vice-President 

H. T. Clarke Second Vice-President 

C. H. Gere Treasurer 

H. W. Caldwell Secretary 

Hon. C. H. Gere read his report as treasurer, which was 
accepted and adopted. 

The report of the librarian was presented, but not read in 
full owing to the lateness of the hour. 



PROCEEDINGS 1903. 231 

Mr. Barrett called attention to the fact that in the resolu- 
tion on the deaths of members the name of Hon. G. M. Lam- 
bertson had been omitted. His name was ordered inserted. 

"This Society records with a deep sense of irretrievable loss 
the death during the past year of J. Sterling Morton, author 
of Arbor Day and honored President of this Society the past 
eleven years; of H. A. Longsdorf, one of the pioneers of Belle- 
vue; of James E. Lamastcr, of Tecumseh; and G. M. Lam- 
bertson, of Lincoln. In public and private life each of these 
pioneers has been a worthy son of this state. Ordered that 
this resolution be spread upon the records and copies thereof 
be sent to the families of the deceased." 

Mr. J. H. Broady gave an estimate of the lives and works 
of Stephen B. Miles, J. C. Lincoln, and E. W. Thomas, early 
and valuable men in Nebraska's history. 

Adjourned. 

H. W. CAr.DWBLL, Secretary. 



' MEETING OI' EXECniTIVE BOARD. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, April 14, 1903. 

Present: C. H. Gere, C. J. Bowlby, 0. S. Lobingier, the 
Professor of American History, and the Secretarj^, H. AV. 
Caldwell. 

The Secretary reported that the legislature had made an 
appropriation of |10,000 for the biennium, and recommended 
that the expenditures for the years 1903-4 be as follows: 

1. Salaries: 

J. A. Barrett, curator and librarian |1,400 

A. E. Sheldon, superintendent of field work 900 

E. E. Blackman, archeologist 800 

Newspaper clerk 300 

Secretary 100 

Treasurer 25 



232 NEBRASKA STATE IlISTOllICAL SOCIETY. 

2, For labor in various fields — approximate amounts : 

Cataloguing books | GO 

Day labor 20 

Carpentering 50 

3. For other expenses — approximate amounts : 

Publis'hing volume reports $ 600 

Freigiit and expenses 115 

Binding newspapers 100 

Sundries 100 

Buying books 120 

Traveling expenses 200 

Supplies, photography, etc 50 

Total 15,000 

It was moved and carried that the Secretary be authorized 
to make out and sign vouchers for salaries on above estimates, 
and if necessary to conform to law, to make the computation 
by the day to equal the salary schedule fixed in former 
resolutions. 

The President and the Secretarj^ were authorized to secure, 
if possible, an appropriation for the St. Louis Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition to aid the Historical Society in making its 
display. Also to secure for J. A. Barrett a clerkship, under 
pay of the Nebraska exposition board, at St. Louis during the 
summer of 1901. The resolution* was also passed, to be sent 
to Mr. Chamberlain, of St. Louis, asking the national board 
of managers to make an appropriation to aid in preparing a 
proper and suitable historical exhibit for the exposition. 

PLANS FOR A BUIIiDING FOR THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Barrett presented plans to raise the money by private 
subscription. After a discussion the following resolution 
was adopted. On motion of Mr. Gere, seconded by Professor 
Caldwell, Mr. Barrett was authorized to proceed to raise the 
money to construct a building and to secure suitable grounds 
on which to erect the same. The Treasurer and Secretary 



PKOCEEDINGS 1904. - 233 

were appoiutecl as cousiiltiug members to aid Mr. Barrett in 
devising plans to carry out tlie undertaking. 

Mr. Bowlby then moved that two hundred dollars from the 
Society's funds in the bank be appropriated to pay prelimi- 
nary expenses in the attempt to raise money for the historical 
building. 

Carried. 

In order to give Mr. Barrett a better recognition for his 
work, and to enable him to carry out his plans more success- 
fully, his title was made to read "Curator and Librarian of 
the Nebraska State Historical Society." 

There being no other business to come before the board it 
adjourned. 

C. S. LoBiNGiER, Vice-President. 

H. W. Caldwell^ Secretary. 

MEETING OF EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

« 

Lincoln, Nebraska, May 20, 1903. 

Present: Governor Furnas, Vice-President Clarke, C. H. 
Gere, H. W. Caldwell. Moved, seconded, and carried that 
the salary and exi>ense list, passed on at the meeting of April 
14, 1903, be ratified : 

In regard to display at St. Louis, the meeting felt that the 
Secretary- and Treasurer might carry out the plans outlined 
at the meeting, April 11, or secure a lump sum as they find 
most feasible, after consultation with Mr. Morrill. 

H. W. CALDWELL;, Secretary. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING, 1901. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, January 12, 1904. 
The Society was called to order by President R. W. Furnas 
at 8 :10 P.M. The President, after making a few general re- 
marks in regard to the condition and prosperity of the So- 



234 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ciety, announced the program of the evening, "The Consti- 
tutional Conventions of the State." In the absence of Judge 
Lake, the first paper of the evening was presented by Judge 
Wakeley on "Tlie Defeated Constitution of 1871." Other 
papers were presented on the convention of 1875. The first, 
by Judge Broad}^, considered especially "The One-Night Con- 
stitution"; the second, by Judge W. M. Robertson, discussed 
the debate on the "Separate Propositions," that were sub- 
mitted to the vote of the people, in regard to the election of 
senators by ]3opular vote and location of the capital. 

Judge Wakeley then gave a brief discussion of the reasons 
for the defeat of the Constitution of 1871. There being no 
other business, an adjournment to 8 :00 o'clock on Wednes- 
day evening, January 13, 1904, was taken. 

R. W. Furnas, President. 
H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 



Lincoln, January 13, 1904. 

The adjourned meeting of the Historical Society was called 
to order at 8:25 r.M. by President Hon. R. W. Furnas. 

The program of the evening consisted of a round table on 
the Convention of 1875, under the guidance of Hon. J. L. 
Webster, of Omaha, who was president of the Convention of 
1875. Mr. Webster opened the discussion by noting the con- 
ditions in the state in 1875, and the effects, on the character 
of the constitution formed. He then called on various per- 
sons who were members of the convention to give their recol- 
lections of the various movements in and the decisions of the 
convention. 

Judge J. H. Broadv Avas first called on, but he asked to be 
excused as his paper of the previous evening contained his 
contribution, and now he preferred to hear from others. 
Hon. C. H. Gere was then called on. Mr. Gere discussed the 
reasons for the incorporation of various features peculiar to 
the Constitution of 1875, and found them in the conditions 
of the state at the time. Judge S. B. Pound then gave an 



PROCEEDINGS 1904. 235 

account of his experiences in the convention of 1875 and espe- 
cially discussed the struggle over salaries for state and judi- 
cial officers. After Mr. J. A. r>arrett had made a statement 
in regard to letters received from members of the convention 
who found it impossible to be present, Hon. M. B. Reese made 
a very interesting talk on the personnel and discussions of 
the conveijtion. After a few remarks by various members of 
the Society Mr. Webster made a few additional observations 
and brought a very successful discussion to a close. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Mr. A. E. Sheldon called attention to certain documents 
of very peculiar origin and interest, but found no one who 
could throw additional light on their meaning. 

On motion roll call was then dispensed with, the minutes 
were read, corrected in one item by Mr. C. S. Lobingier, and 
were approved. 

Mr. Barrett's annual report as curator and librarian was 
then presented, and on motion placed on file. The Treas- 
urer's report was read, received, and adopted. The Secretary 
then made a report p.s chairman of the publication committee 
and asked the desire of the Society in regard to publish- 
ing the material on the constitutional conventions of the 
state. After some discussion and several motions, the com- 
mittee was instructed to edit and publish the material in full, 
subject to its judgment, to omit any immaterial matter. 

Mr. A. E. Sheldon moved resolutions on the deaths of Gen. 
Victor Yif(iuain and L. B. Treeman, which were read niid 
nd opted. 

The Secretary was instructed, on motion of Mr. Broady, 
to formulate plans for keeping a record of the deaths of mem- 
bers of the Society, to be reported on at the annual meeting 
each year. 

The Treasurer called attention to the fact that many per- 
sons whose names were proposed from time to time failed for 



236 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

some reason to pay their initiation fee, and thus their names 
did not get on the permanent roll of the Society. 

The Secretary read the report of Mr. AV. W. Cox in regard 
to the preparation of the Morton tablet to be placed in the 
grove of giant trees in California. 

"Miller^ Nebraska, January 6, 1904. 
''To the President and Secretary of the State Historical So- 
ciety of Nebraska: 

"Your committee appointed to secure a bronze tablet in 
memory of our late honored President, Hon. J. Sterling Mor- 
ton, and have it placed on one of the great redwood trees at 
Santa Cruz, California, beg leave to report as folloAVS : 

"After much correspondence between the members of the 
committee, and also with the family of the deceased and a 
host of his personal friends, your committee contracted with 
the White Bronze Company of Des Moines, Iowa, for a tablet 
two feet square and three-eighths inch thick, with the fol- 
lowing inscrii^tion : on the upper left-hand corner, these 
words, 'Plant truths'; on the upper right corner, 'Plant 
trees.' 

" 'In memory of J. Sterling Morton, Father of Arbor Day. 

P>orn Apr. 22ud 1832 
Died Apr. 27th 1902. 

" 'By order Nebraska Historical Society.' 

"Cost of tablet was |30 delivered in Lincoln, Nebraska. 

"It would have been very agreeable to your committee if it 
had been possible to send a member to California to make a 
proper presentation, but the means to bear the expense was 
not at their command. The Santa Fe R. R. Co. kindlv offered 
transportation from Kansas City to San Francisco and re- 
turn, but the other expenses of from |40 to |50 were not at 
our command. We prepared an address to tlie people of Cal- 
ifornia with the view of having the tablet placed on last Ar- 
bor Day, and the tablet was forwarded to the mayor of Santa 
Cruz, but it arrived too late for that, and then we ordered it 
held for the Society to take further action. 

"Your committee corresponded with the President of the 
United States, with Secretary Wilson, Governor ]Mickey, and 
all the living ex-Governors of our state, with the Governor of 
California, and other distinguished citizens, and we now hold 



t>ROCEEDINGS 1904. 



23' 



very many responses, to be used when the tablet is placed and 
afterward to become the property of our Society. The letters 
of President Roosevelt and Secretary Wilson are very pa- 
thetic and worthy a place among our treasures. 

"Your committee would like to complete arrangements to 
present the tablet to the people of California and place it 
upon the grand tree, with fitting ceremonies next Arbor Day, 
April 22. 

"Respectfully submitted, 

"W. W. Cox, 

"Chairman Committee." 

This report was ordered received and filed. The President 
then spoke briefly on the Morton memorial at Nebraska City, 
stating that about |1,500 was on hand, and the Association 
hoped to add |5,000 more. After a brief discussion it was 
concluded that tlie finances of the Society prevented it from 
juaking any contribution at this time, especially as so few 
members were present. 

The names of the following persons were proposed for mem- 
bership, and on motion the Secretary was instructed to cast 
the vote in their favor, which was done : 



C. E. Persinger, Lincoln. 
L. E. Aylswortli, Lincoln. 
:Mrs. E. E. Blackman, Lin- 
coln. 
C. S. Allen, Lincoln. 
A. R. Talbot, Lincoln. 
II. K. Wolfe, Lincoln. 
L. Stephens, Lincoln. 
R. Pound, Lincoln. 
W. O. Jones, Lincoln. 
Mrs. H. H. Wheeler, Lincoln. 
Rev. F. S. Stein, Lincoln. 
Lee Estelle, Omaha. 
M. L. Learned, Omaha. 
II. P. Leavitt, Omaha. 



Joseph H. Millard, Omalia. 
Rev. John Proz, Dodge. 
R. Dibbles, Beatrice. 
]\[ilo Hodgkins, Beatrice. 
Mrs. Robert CTr(^v, Schuvler. 
C. E. Rice, Blue Springs. 
Frank Dunham, Roca. 
E. H. Clarke, Ft. Calhoun. 
P. Edgar Adams, Paxton. 
C. B. Letton, Fairbury. 
W. J. Whitmore, ^"alley. 
Mrs. W. J. Whitmore, Valley. 
Otis All is. Council Bluffs, 
( Honorary. ) 



238 NEBRASIvA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

On motion the Secretary was ordered to cast the unani- 
mous vote of the Society in favor of thiJ reelection of the 
present officers. Under this vote the following persons were 
elected for the year 190J:-5 : 

K. W. Furnas, Brownville President 

C. S. Lobingier, Omaha •. .First Vice-President 

H. T. Clarke, Omaha Second Vice-President 

C. II. Gere, Lincoln Treasurer 

H. W. Caldwell, Lincoln Secretary 

On motion of Mr. H. T. Clarke, as there was no other busi- 
ness to come before the Society, adjournment Avas taken. 

H. W. Caldavell^ Secretary. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING, 1905. 

Lincoln, January 10, 1005. 

The regular annual meeting of the State Historical So- 
ciety met in Memorial Hall, University of Nebraska, at 8:15 
P.M. and was called to order bv President R. W. Furnas. In- 
vocation was then offered by Kev. Mr. Marsh. As there was 
no business to be transacted the Secretary in a few words 
introduced the first speaker of the evening. President Fur- 
nas, who addressed the Society on tlie "Past and Future of 
the Historical Society.'' Governor Furnas dwelt especially 
on the history of the "Historical Block" in the city of Lin- 
coln, and pointed out the need of more room in order that - 
the Society may perform its work properly. After the read- 
ing of this valuable paper the President called on Dr. Geo. L. 
Miller, who addressed the Society on the early histor}^ of the 
state and some of the men who laid its foundations. Owing 
to the lateness of the liour the paper by Judge John H. Ames 
was read by title, and in the absence of Judge Ames, pre- 
sented to the Society to be printed. Mr. Slieldon then gave 



PROCEEDINGS 1905. 239 

a seri(?s of views, showing early Nebraska men, with illus- 
trations to show the work the Society is doing in the Avay of 
gathering photographs of Nebraska history. 

H. W. Caldwell^ S(;cretary. 

Lincoln, Jauiiarv 11, 1905. 

The State Historical Society was called to order for its 
adjourned meeting at 7 :45 p.m. The first order was a busi- 
ness session, and according to the by-laws the Secretary 
called the roll of the active members of the Society to get 
corrected addresses, names of deceased members, and infor- 
mation needed to make the record complete. 

The report of the Secretary for the meetings of 1904 was 
then read and approved as read. Mr. Barrett, curator and 
librarian, then j)resented his report, and on motion it was 
placed on file. 3Ir. W. W. Cox made a brief oral report on 
the Morton tablet, stating that the same had been placed on 
one of California's giant trees, according to instructions. 

The following names were then proposed for elective 
membership : 

B. Y. High, Bloomfield. Henry Hemple, Havelock. 

G. Wonder, Blue Springs, R. Dewitte Stearns, Kimball. 

James Crawford, Barnston. Lute H. North, Monroe. 

Walter Eice, Blue Springs. L. J. Griffith, Nehawka. 

Edmund Huddart, Barnston. A. Darlow, Omaha. 

L. H. Leavy, Columbus. G. F. Wiles, Omaha. 

J. J. Hawthorne, Fremont. A. B. Todd, Plattsmoiith. 

August Saltzman, Ft. Cal- Charles L. Saunders, Omaha, 

lioun. Mrs. Margaret Gallatlj^, Sut- 
Henry SchAMigger, Omaha. ton. 

Mrs. Mary E. Jackett, Gilt- Miss Addie Searles, T'latts- 

ner. mouth. 

C. W. Wright, Genoa. E. A. Thomas, Stuart. 
C. H. Coffin, Genoa. . W. E. Steele, Yutan, 
J, W. AYilliamson, Genoa, C. C, Cobb, York, 



o 



40 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTOIUCAL SOCIETY. 



E. S. Nickcrson, Gretna. 
Howard Cleveland, Lincoln. 
E. H. Wliittemore, Adams. 
Thomas Wolfe, David City. 
Capt. n. E. Palmer, Omaha. 
Thomas J. Majors, Pern. 
Rev. J. H. Presson, Milford. 
D. C. Stratton, Pawnee City. 
J. C. Hill, Imperial. 
W. V. Allen, Madison. 
Rev. A. E. Ricker, Anrora. 
M. R. Gilmore, Bethany. 
L. P. Bnsh, Bethany. 
H. T. Clarke, Jr., Omaha. 



Charles H. Epperson, Fair- 
field. 
M. H. Whaley, Clarks. 
Michael Lee, Omaha. 
L. C. Gibson, South Omaha. 
N. P. Dodge, Jr., Omaha. 
John Ward, Springfield. 
James N. Paul, St. Paul. 
N. J. Paul, St. Paul. 
A. E. Cady, St. Paul. 
F. W. Crew, St. Paul. 
Geo. A. Ray, St. Paul. 
Henrv Hansen, Dannebrog. 



On motion of II. T. Clarke the Secretary was instructed to 
cast the vote of the Society in favor of the above list of per*- 
sons, which was done. 

The next order of business was the election of officers. The 
President, Hon. R. W. Furnas, announced that he believed 
that he had had the honors of the presidency long enough, 
therefore he wished to place in nominaiion Mr. H. T. Clarke, 
who had been in the state just fifty years. On motion the Sec- 
retary was instructed to cast the unanimous ballot of the So- 
ciety for Mr. Clarke as President for the ensuing year, which 
was done, and Mr. Clarke was declared dulv elected Presi- 
dent. Hon. Geo. L. Miller was nominated by C. S. Paine for 
First Vice-President and elected by unanimous vote cast by 
the Secretary. On motion of H. ^Y. Caldwell, Prof. G. E. 
Howard was elected Second Vice-President, Mr. S. L. Geist- 
hardt was nominated by Mrs. H. H. Wheeler as Treasurer, 
and on motion was unanimously elected, as was also H. W. 
Caldwell for Secretary. 

Hon. R. W. Furnas then read a paper on the life and serv- 
ices of C. H. Gere, the only member of the Society to pass 
away during the year, as far as known. Mr. W. W\ Cox 



PROCEEDINGS 1905. 241 

moved, aud it was adopted, that the address be given to the 
press of the state for publication. 

Mr. C. O. Whedon then read a very able paper on the sub- 
ject of "Public Expenditures." This paper was followed by 
one by Judge William Gaslin on "Judicial Graft," or the 
unnecessary number of judges on the bench in the state. 

On resumption of the business session Mr. A. E. Sheldon 
presented two resolutions, which were adopted, as follows: 

"Moved, that a committee be appointed by the President of 
this Society to confer with any other patriotic societies who 
may be willing to join with us in marking historic sites and 
thoroughfares in this state and particularly the home of Lo- 
gan Fontenelle. 

"Kesolved, that a committee of three be named, of wliom 
President E. W. Furnas shall be one, to confer with the State 
Agricultural and State Ilorticultural Societies at their com- 
ing annual meetings proposing to them that they join with 
this Society in asking for the erection of a fireproof building 
in which they shall hc.ve permanent offices and headquarters." 

Committees : 

On Publication. — Geisthardt, Sheldon, Bowlby. 

On Obituaries. — President Clarke, Governor Mickey. 

On Program. — Caldwell, Watkins, V. Rosewater. 

On Library. — Barrett, Howard, Mrs. A. J. Sawyer. 

On Museum and Collections. — Blackman, C. S. Paine, L. S. 
Reed. 

On Marking Historic Sites and Routes. — Harvey, A. E. 
Sheldon, H. T. Clarke, Ross Hammond, Ernest Pollard. 

Adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwei-L^ Secretary. 



i& 



242 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOKIC^VI. SOCIETY. 

PKOPOSITION MADE TO STATE AGKICULTURAL 

SOCIETY, 1905. 

To the President and Board of Managers Nebraska Htate 
Agricultural kiocicty: 

At the annual meeting of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society held last week the undersigned were appointed as a 
committee with full power to make such arrangement as shall 
be satisfactory with 3'our Society and the State Horticultural 
Society in order to secure cooperation and joint action to ob- 
tain a permanent fireproof home, centrally located, for the 
use of all three societies. 

By virtue of previous arrangements for the past ten years 
the publications of your Society and the records and publi- 
cations of the State Horticultural Society liave been kept in 
the rooms of the State Historical Society and distributed by 
its staff. For a number of these years there has been felt an 
urgent need by. all three societies for safe, convenient, and 
permanent oftice quarters and store-rooms. 

We therefore make these j)ropositions to your Society: 

1. That it join with us in asking from the present legisla- 
ture an appropriation sufficient to erect a building, fireproof 
and large enough to care for the present pressing needs of 
the three societies. Said building to be erected on satisfac- 
tory ground donated by the city of Lincoln, in lieu of the old 
Historical Society block. 

2. That the State Agricultural and State Horticultural 
Societies shall have ample office and store rooms in such 
building for their own exclusive use and occupancy and joint 
use with our Society of halls therein for public meetings. 

3. That 3'our Society appoint a committee with full power 
to present the need for such a building before the state legis- 
lature and city of Lincoln; to plan for its construction and 
arrange details for division of office room. 

EoBT. W. Furnas. 

H. W. Caldwell. 

A. E. Sheldon. 



PROCEEDINGS 1905. 243 

MEETING BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, January 19, 1905. • 

A quorum being formed the meeting proceeded to business. 
On motion the bond of S. L. Geisthardt as Treasurer was ap- 
proved. The resignation of Geo. L. Miller as Vice-President 
Avas reluctantly accepted, and Hon. Robt. Harvey elected in 
his place. 

It was moved and carried that Mr. Sheldon be instructed 
to prepare and have introduced into the legislature a bill for 
an historical building to cost not less than $100,000 and to be 
erected on land donated bv the citv of Lincoln. 

John L. Tidball, of Crete, was elected a member of this 
Society. 

Mr. Geisthardt moved that the curator and librarian make 
quarterly reports to the board of progress of the work of the 
Society. 

Carried. 

Adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell^ Secretary. 

MEETING OF EXE( UTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, June 24, 1005. 

Present: Mr. H. T. Clarke, Governor J. H. Mickey, Geo. 
E. Howard, S. L. Geisthardt, Robt. Harvey, and H. W. Cald- 
well. Meeting called to order by President Clarke at 11:00 
A.M. The Secretary then, after stating that the meeting 
should have been held April 1, presented the account of ex- 
penses for the last biennium, and a proposed distribution of 
the budget for the year 1905-0, x\pril 1 to April 1, as follows: 



244 NEBRASIvA state historical SOCIETi". 

Binding | 70 00 Office supplies, etc. $25 00 

Transportation 150 00 Anniversaries 25 00 

Photography 100 00 Elect. sui)plies, etc. 25 00 

Books 200 00 Tools, type, etc 10 00 

Postage, exi^ress, etc. 75 00 Glass, etc 12 50 

Stenographer, type- Museum supplies. . 10 00 

writer, etc 120 00 Paper, etc 25 00 

Dav labor 25 00 

Carpentering, lum- Total | 9G2 50 

her, etc 25 00 Salaries 3,950 00 

Hardware 25 00 ■ 

Telephone, etc 40 00 Total |4,912 50 

Salaries for the vear 1905-6 were fixed as follows : 

Treasurer .| 25 00 

Secretary 100 00 

Newspai^er clerk — Miss Palin 325 00 

Archeologist — Mr. J>lackman 850 00 

Field secretary— Mr. Sheldon 1,200 00 

Curator and librarian — Mr. Barrett 1,450 00 



Total 13,950 00 

Printing — 

Special fund .f2,500 00 

Out of general fund 200 00 



Total , $2,700 00 

Payment S. E. Gardiner, labor, collecting, etc., badges, 

books, etc |50 00 

The Secretary then made a statement in regard to hours of 
service of office staf¥, time for keeping the rooms open, etc., 
and recommended that the minimum should be eight hours 
per day. On motion the board adopted the recommendations, 
and established the rule of eight hour service. The plan of 
organization was then outlined by the Secretary as it had 
been agreed ui>on by the office staff, and on motion adopted. 



PROCEEDINGS 1905. 245 

In general the distribution of Avork Avas outlined as follows: 
Jay A. Barrett to have general oversight of the library, and 
to accession new material ; to prepare material for reports to 
the governor, and for publication; to care for all papers pre- 
sented at annual meetings, and to see to safe preservation; 
also to carry on the general correspondence of the Society; 
to index the Ft. Atkinson papers, to arrange material in the 
vault, and to aid in planning for the good of the Society. 

Mr. Sheldon Avas to prepare copy for constitutional con- 
ventions and to read proof for the same; to enter upon the 
folloAving field AA'ork, viz. : to visit Indian reservations to 
gather material of their Ha'Cs; to see to the Chouteau collec- 
tions, and to get the MaxAvell papers; to classify, arrange, 
catalogue, and store photographs, slides, etc.; to attend to 
ncAvspaper exchange correspondence; Avork on collecting 
manuscript material, and to aid in arranging vault. 

Mr. Blackman to spend necessary time in field expeditious, 
visiting and locating Indian village sites, etc. ; to have gen- 
eral direct charge of the library, arranging books, classifying, 
cataloguing, etc., as far as time will permit; to care for and 
arrange museum, and attend to its development ; to arrange 
lectures, etc. 

Miss Palin, to haA^e charge of the newspapers; of the ar- 
ranging and preparing them for binding; keeping bound a'oI- 
umes in order, etc. 

Secretary CaldAAell to meet office staff for one hour each 
week, at least; to plan with the above members of the office 
staff the work to be done, and to help arrange Avork so as to 
gain the most for the Society. 

A committee consisting of II. H. Wilson, Geo. L. jNliller, 
S. C. Bassett aa\is appointed to arrange for suitable addresses 
at the January meeting on the life and Avork of Hon. B. W. 
Furnas; also to arrange for the preparing of a suitable bi- 
ography of Mr. Furnas. The Secretary Avas instructed to 
draft appropriate resolutions on the life and services of Gov- 
ernor Furnas, to be presented at the annual meeting. 



246 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCJIETY. 

A committee on marking historic sites and routes was 
named by the President as follows : Eobt. Harvey, chairman ; 
President H. T. Clarke, A. E, Sheldon, Eoss Hammond, and 
Ernest Pollard. 

Other committees consisting of the following members were 
named by the President: 

On Publication. — Geisthardt, Sheldon, Bowlby. 

On Obituaries. — President Clarke, Governor Mickey. 

On Program. — Caldwell, Watkins, V. Rosewater. 

On Library, — Barrett, Howard, Mrs. A. J. Sawyer. 

On Museum and Collections. — I>lackman, C. S. Paine, L. S. 
Reed. 

After some discussion of plans to secure an adequate build- 
ing, on motion of Governor Mickey the executive committee 
adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL MEETING, 190G 



Lincoln, Nebraska, January 17, 1906, 8:00 p.m. 

In the absence of the President, Hon. II. T. Clarke, the 
meeting was called to order bv Robt. L. Harvev, the first 
vice-president. After an announcement by Mr. Harvey of 
the absence of Mr. Clarke, he made a general summary of 
the work of the Society, calling especial attention to the pub- 
lication of the proceedings of tlie constitutional conventions, 
now under way. 

The President then called for the reading of Mr. Clarke's 
address by .the Secretary; then followed an address in mem- 
ory of the life and services of the late H. H. Shedd, of Ash- 
land, by his son, George E. Shedd. 

The President then announced that of the pioneers of the 
state who had passed away none were more missed than our 
late President, Hon. R. W. Furnas. Mr. H. H. Wilson then 
presented a i^aper on the work of Governor Furnas for the 
state of Nebraska. 



PROCKEDINGS 1906. 247 

Mr. Harvey next stated that the new work of the Society, 
undertaken during the last year, was the securing of Indian 
songs. Mr. Sheldon then gave, by means of the phonograph, 
a number of records made of the songs of the Pawnee and 
other Indians. 

At the regular business meeting the calling of the roll was 
dispensed with on the announcement that a quorum was pres- 
ent. The minutes of the annual meeting of the board for the 
year 1905 were read and approved. The Treasurer's report 
was read and adopted. 

Under the reports of special committees Mr. Harvey, as 
chairman of the committee on historic sites and their mark- 
ings, reported the work of the year, which is found in full in 
the stenographic minutes. 

Mr. A. E. Sheldon brought up the questions of the Society's 
interest in the "Historical Square," and tlie means that might 
be taken to recover the whole or a portion of it for the So- 
ciety's use. Mr. Sheldon then moved that an effort be made 
to secure the block for the Society's- use. The motion was 
seconded and carried. 

The following names were then presented for membership : 

I. D. Evans, Kenesaw. Mrs. Minnie P. Knotts, Lin- 

G. E. Shedd, Ashland. • coin. 

Mr. Sheldon gave notice of an amendment to the constitu- 
tion striking out "second Tuesday of January," and inserting 
"third Tuesday" as the date of the annual meeting of the 
Society. 

The nomination of officers was then called for. Mr. C. S. 
Paine nominated Dr. Geo. L. Miller, of Omaha. :\Ir. E. T. 
Hartley moved the rules be suspended, and Dr. MiUcr b(^ 
elected by the unanimous ballot of the Society. Carried, 
and the Secretary was instructed to cast the unanimous bal- 
lot of the Society for Dr. Miller, which was done. :Mr. K. L. 
Harvey, of St. ■ Paul, was chosen as First Vice-Presi- 
dent. Geo. E. Howard, of Lincoln, as Second Vice-President 



248 NE15KASKA STATK HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

iu the same manner. Mr. S. L. Geistliardt was reelected 
Treasurer, and H. W. Cakhvell, Secretary for the ensuing 
year. Mr. Dinsmore asked if anything had been done look- 
ing to the marking of the site of the Indian massacre, in 
Hitchcock county, 1878. Mr. Blackman responded in the 
negative. On motion of Mr. Barrett the matter was referred 
to the committee on sites. 

Mr. Paine moved that the offer of the Treasurer, that the 
salary for that office be donated by him to the Society, be ac- 
cepted, and that the Society extend its thanks to Mr. Geist- 
hardt for his generous offer. 

Carried. 

Society adjourned to meet at 8 :00 p.m. in St. Paul's church. 
January 18, 1906. 

Society called to order by the acting President, Mr. Robt. 
Harvey. 

/ 

After a pipe-organ solo by Mr. Howard Kirkj)atrick, the 
program of the evening was given. Mr. Harvey announced 
that the Society occasionally set aside an evening for the (^s- 
cussion of topics of current interest. This evening the pro- 
gram related to the taxation of railroad and other property. 

Prof. E. A. Ross then discussed "The Problem of Railroad 
Taxation." Mr. Norris Brown, attorney general, spoke of 
"Railroad Taxation in Nebraska." He was followed bv Gov. 
J. H. Mickey" who spoke on the "New Revenue Law and Its 
Workings." 

The following additional names were then proi30sed for 
membership and all elected : 

T. L. Norval, Seward. Mr. C. H. Challis, Ulysses. 

Mr. J. J. Thomas, Seward. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell^ Secretary. 



PROCEEDINGS 1906. 249 

TREASURER'S REPORT, 1906. 

January 17, 1906. 
To the Oncers and Members of the Nebrasl-a State Historical 
Society: 

I hereby respectfully submit my rei:>ort as Treasurer for 
the year ending January 17, 1906. 

On January 27, 1905, I received the books of the late Treas- 
urer, Hon. C. H. Gere, from the hands of his widow, and re- 
ceived the moneys to the credit of tlie Society in the First 
National Banlv of Lincoln. During my office as Treasurer 
the following have been the receipts and disbursements : 

RECEIPTS. 

1905. 

January 27, received from First National Banlc, de- 
posit $227 92 

January 27, G. L. Loomis, membership fee. 2 00 

January 27, T. J. Majors, membership fee 2 00 

January 27, Charles L. Saunders, membership fee 2 00 

February 23, Herman Kountze, membership fee 2 00 

March 20, H. T. Clarke, Jr., membership fee 2 00 

March 20, N. P. Dodge, Jr., membership fee , . 2 00 

March 20, Michael Lee, membership fee 2 00 

March 20, Charles H. Epperson, membership fee 2 00 

March 20, Melvin R. Gilmore, membership fee 2 00 

April 10, W. H. Harrison, meml»ership fee 2 00 

Total receipts $247 92 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

1905. 

January 28, Jacob North & Co |27 25 

February 28, Jacob North & Co 10 00 

July 11, Farmers & Merchants r>ank for L. D. Wood- 
ruff T 50 

Total P4 T5 

Balance on hand in National Bank of Commerce'. . . . f 203 17 



250 NEBKA.SKA STATE illSTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Since i)ractically all the fiiuds of the Society are now re- 
ceived and disbursed by the state treasurer, I see no good rea- 
son why the Society should pay a treasurer for collecting and 
disbursing a few dollars' membershii) fees. I would recom- 
mend that all membership fees be collected by the Secretary, 
and by him paid to the Treasurer, and that the Treasurer's 
salary from this time forward be cliscontiued. The past year's 
salarj^ I will donate to the Association. 

I submit herewith bank book duly balanced and vouchers 
for disbursements. Dated this ITth day of January, 1906, 

S. L. Geisthardt, Treasurer. 

DRAFT OF PKOrOSITlON TO LINCOLN CITY 

COUNCIL. 

SUBMITTED BY MR. SHELDON, ADOPTED BY HISTORICAL SOCIETY^, 

JANUARY 17, 1900. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, December 22, 1905. 

To the Hon. Mayor llrowii and V'lty Council. Lincoln,' Ne- 
hraska: 

The Nebraska State Historical Society, through its execu- 
tive board, submits the following proposition to tlie city of 
Lincoln : 

1. That tlie city of Lincoln quit-claim to the Nebraska 
State Historical Societv its interest in and use of block 29 
in said city, known as "Historical Block," and also as "Hay- 
market Square," except that portion at the southeast corner 
of said block now occupied by the city's buildings. 

2. In consideration of said cession the State Historical So- 
ciety agrees to immediately clear said square, the ceded part 
thereof, of all unsightly rubbish and to park the same and to 
plant it to trees and slirubs, properly protected, during the 
next two years. 

3. It also agrees to erect thereon a wing of a suitable fire- 
proof building of the l^est modern architecture, said wing to 
cost not less than |1 00,000 and to be erected at the earliest 



PKOCEEDTXGS 1900. 251 

possible uiomeut that appropriation for the same can be ob- 
tained from the Nebraska state legislature and in any event 
within ten years from the date of the city's cession. 

4. Said Historical Society building to be maintained as a 
free public library, museum, art galler^^, and historical study 
for the people of the state of Nebraska and the part of said 
block not occupied by said building and its subsequent ex- 
tension to be maintained as a public park with suitable walks, 
seats, trees, shrubs, and flowers at the expense of said Ne- 
braska State Historical Society. 

Accompanying this proposition is a brief statement of the 
history of said block 20, together with the statement of the 
moral and legal considerations which prompt this i^roposition. 

MEETING OF EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, May 10, lOOG. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, Hon. 
Geo. L. Miller, of Omaha. The following members AVere pres- 
ent : Chancellor E. B. Andrews, Geo. E. Howard, Robt. Har- 
vey, and- H. W. Caldwell, in addition to the President. TW. 
Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of June 24, 1905, 
which after some discussion were approved as read. The an- 
nual reports of the office staff were then presented. Mr. Bar- 
rett outlined the work done in his department. The report 
was received and placed on file. The reports of Mr. Sheldon 
and Mr. Blaekman were read, discussed, received, and or- 
dered placed on file. The board then, on suggestion of the 
Secretary, went into executive session. 

The President explained that he was loath to enter upon 
the duties of the office, as he felt little acquainted with his 
duties and the needs of the Society. He expressed his belief 
that a younger and more active man might have been se- 
lected, but now that he was chosen in spite of his protest, ho 
would enter on the work, relying on the members of the board 



252 NEBKASKA STATE HISTOIIICAI. SOCIETY. 

to aid him in making a success of the interests of the Society. 
The President also suggested that greater interest in the So- 
ciety needed to be arouse<l, and he felt that perhaps the bring- 
ing to our annual meeting of some distinguished sciiolar might 
have the desired effect. A motion was made and carried au- 
thorizing the President to secure some speaker of note to pre- 
sent a paper on one evening, and the program committee to 
arrange the exercises for the other evening, securing the 
strongest men of the state as far as possible to present papei's. 
The report of the financial expenditures of the yanv ending 
April 1, 190C, showed that the amount used for various funds 
was in excess of the appropriation for tiie purpose made by the 
lioard at the June meeting of 1905. After considerable dis- 
cussion and criticism of such overdrafts, Chancellor Andrews 
moved that hereafter "no indebtedness to exceed ten dollars 
be incurred on account of the Society without the Secretary's 
previous authorization." The resolution was adopted. 

A communication from Mr. A. E. Sheldon in regard to the 
establishment of a new department to be known as the "leg- 
islative research and reference bureau" was read. Professor 
Howard spoke in favor of the plan, and discussed at some 
length the work of "Dr. McCarthy of Wisconsin, showing the 
advantages to arise in having directlv available the material 
for the use of members of the legislature. President Miller, 
Chancellor Andrews, and Mr. Harvey also expressed their 
decided approval of the movement. Chancellor AndrcAvs then 
moved that "the Secretary is instructed to prepare and sub- 
mit to the executive board at its next meeting, in July, a 
draft of an enactment establishing a new bureau of legislative 
publicity in general accordance with the minutes read by him 
this day." Carried unanimously. The whole question of the 
organization of the Society was discussed at some length. 
The fact that nearly |8,000 out of the total |10,000 went to 
the payment of salaries was noted. The Secretary stated 
during this discussion that he doubted whether there was 
profitable work for three men under the existing circum- 



PROCEEDINGS 1906. 253 

stances. The funds remaining after salaries are taken out 
are not sufficient to pay necessary expenses to develop field 
work in any line of investigation to any considerable extent. 
The inside work can be directed by one salaried official, with 
the assistance of the help of a man or woman part of the time 
at day wages. The outcome of this discussion was the ap- 
pointment of a committee of three to take into consideration 
the whole subject of organization, salaries, personnel, and 
duties and report at a subsequent meeting of the board for 
its action. The chair appointed Prof. G. E. Howard, Chan- 
cellor E. B. Andrews, and vS. L. Geisthardt. 

A motion was made that A. E. Sheldon's salary for the 
year 1906-7, April 1 to April 1, be fixed at |1,300. The mo- 
tion was carried after explanation by the Secretary that Mr. 
Sheldon had received flOO from the university during the 
year 1905-6, which would not be available for the coming 
year. A motion was made and carried that the payment of 
Miss Palin's salary during her illness be approved, on the 
ground that her work had been done by other members of the 
office force, thus setting no precedent for future cases. The 
matter of the final payment to JMr. Gardiner of |50, the bal- 
ance due him for his work and collections, was presented, but 
it was held that the action of the -board in June, 1905, stand. 
This action deferred further payment till after the next bi- 
ennial appropriation. The communication in regard to Prof. 
M. R. Gilmore's request that the board pay his railroad fare 
on a trip with Mr. Sheldon was received and laid on the table. 

The board made the following apportionment of the funds 
for the year 1906-7, to be followed as nearly as possible, and 
to be varied from only on account of some unexpected emer- 
gency arising. 

Total available funds was reported by Mr. P>arrett, May 1, 
1906, with about |52 of orders outstanding. 



254 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL S()(3IETY. 

; ■- T ' ■ :, 
Allowances for transportation, photograpliyj plionograpliic 

work : 

Blackman, field work — maximum |100 00 

Sheldon, photogTaphie work 25 00 

Sheldon, phonographic work 25 00 

H. W. Caldwell^ Secretary. 



r 



PLAN FOR RESEARCH AND REFERENCE DEPARTMENT, SUBMITTED 
BY A. E. SHELDON^ APPROVED BY EXECUTIVE BOARD, 

MAY 10, lOOG. 

jf'o the Executive Board of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society : 

This is to request you to create a new department — the 
research and reference department — of this Society upon the 
following plan : 

1. The new dej)artment to be independent of any other 
department in its organization, but to cooperate with the 
others toward common ends.. 

2. A secretary of research and reference department to be 
at its head. He to have direction and control of the depart- 
ment, the selection of assistants, the Inaking and carrying 
out of plans, subject to the executive board, to whom he shall 
report. . 

3. The present director of field work to be secretary of the 1 
new department and to carry with him his present lines of 
work — except so far as may be arranged hereafter. 

4. A special neAV field of work to be opened — the scientific 
collection, arrangement and indexing of data for the use of 
the Nebraska legislature and public officials, pursuing 
the general jilan of the Wisconsin legislative reference 
department. 

5. For the support of the new department there shall be 
set apart a sum (| ) from the present biennial ap- 
propriation; also the receipts from membership fees directly 

i 



PKOCEEDINGS i006. 255 

traceable to circular letters to be sent out explaining the new 
constitutional archives volumes now in press and soliciting 
members on the strength of them. Separate estimates shall 
be made in the future for support of this department and 
submitted to the auditor and legislature. 

6. Rooms. A room in the university library building next 
to the present Historical Society rooms shall be asked of the 
proper authorities, also one at the capitol during the legis- 
lative session. 

7. Work to begin at once in this department. The secre- 
tarv to be authorized to visit Wisconsin and studv organiza- 
tion and methods there. 

MEETING OF EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, October 9, 1906. 

Called to order by President Miller. Present, Miller, How- 
ard, Geisthardt, and Caldwell. 

Report of Secretary of May 10, 1906, was read and ap- 
proved as read. Report of office staff called for. Mr. Barrett 
had no report except written communication. Mr. Blackman 
reported on the collections, especially the Bristol collection, 
which has been secured as a loan collection. In explorations 
not much had been gained in new information, stone mark- 
ings not determined. Request of Mr. Blackman to have some 
part of our collection stored in the city library. Permission 
was granted. 

Mr. Sheldon rei^orted on the work of the library reference 
bureau. President Miller then called for remarks and ex- 
pressed himself as favorable to the matter. Professor How- 
ard explained the reason for his support. Mr. Miller opened 
up the question of the program, various questions Avhether 
his plan of having some distinguished man to give an address 
one evening, as Mr. Estabrook, Mr. Cleveland, Governor Cum- 
mins, Woodrow Wilson, or J. J. Hill was wise. 



256 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Barrett's resignation was presented. Professor How- 
ard moved that it be accepted and that a resolution be au- 
thorized to be drafted expressive of appreciation of liis work. 
Seconded by Mr, Geisthardt. Professor Howard discussed 
the work Mr. Barrett had done. Mr, Howard and Mr, Geist- 
hardt were appointed as such committee. 

Financing legislative bureau was taken up, discussed and 
approved. On account of Miss D. Palin's sickness, Miss 
Pearl Palin was permitted to continue her work. The per- 
sonnel of legislative bureau was left to the Secretary and Mr. 
Sheldon. 

H. W. Caldwell^ Secretary. 

RESIGNATION OF CURATOR BARRET!^, 1906. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, October 9, 1906. 

To the Executive Board of the Nchrasl-a State Historical 
Society : 

Gentlemen — I desire to be released from oflflcial connec- 
tion with the Historical vSociety at the end of this biennium, 
AiH'il 1, and will ask you to act favorably upon the request 
at this time. Except detail work, there remains but one thing 
that I yet wish to do for the Society, and that I shall be able 
to do after my official connection with the Society has ceased. 

It is probable that I shall not require all of the time be- 
tween now and the first of April to complete what remains 
for me to do, and I shall therefore ask you to empower the 
Secretary of the Society to agree with me uj)on an earlier 
date than April 1st, in accordance with the completion of the 
work. 

Jay Amos Barrett. 



PllOCEEDINGS 1907. 257 

THIRTIETH ANNUAL MEP^TIKG, 1907. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, January 15, 1907. 
Meeting of the State Historical Society called to order by 
President Geo. L. Miller. Moved and seconded that the So- 
ciety adjourn to meet at 8 :00 p.m. January 16, 1907. Carried. 

H. W. Caldweli.^ Secretary. 
Geo. L. Miller^ President. ' 

REGULAR MEETING OF THE NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, January 16, 1907. 

The meeting of the Society was called to order at 8 :15 p.m. 
bv the First Vice-President, R. L. Harvev, who introduced 
Dr. Geo. L. Miller, of Omaha, the newly elected President of 
the Society. Dr. Miller gave a few words of thanks for the 
honor conferred by his election as President of the Society. 
He then spoke in feeling terms of his predecessors, Hon. R. 
W. Furnas and Hon. J. Sterling Morton, whose deaths had 
left a great void in the ranks of the Society. Dr. Miller then 
stated that he had aimed to have some distinguished man to 
address the Society, but all efforts to do so had failed. He 
still hoped to have such an address at some future date. The 
educational spirit of Lincoln and the University of Nebraska 
impressed Dr. Miller favorably, and he rejoiced that he had 
lived to see such a spirit, and added that taxes might w^ell be 
doubled for the cause of education. 

The President then called the speakers who were on the 
program for the evening. Col. H. E. Palmer, of Omalm, pre- 
sented a paper of very great interest on "Across the Plains, 
1861-65." Col. T. J. Majors gave a talk on the 1st Nebraska 
Cavalry and an outline of some phases of its history during 
and at the close of the Civil War. On account of the lateness 
of the hour, :Mr. C. S. Paine declined to present his paper, 
which was read bv title and handed to the Society for its use. 

The Society then adjourned to 8 :00 p.m., January 17, 1907. 

H. W. Cai^dwell, Secretary. 

Geo. L. Miller, President. 



258 NEBKASKA STATE HLSTOllICAL SOCIETY. 

MEETING OF THE STA-TE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Lincoln, January 17, 1907. 

The Society was called to order at 8:00 p.m. by its Presi- 
dent, Hon. Geo. L. Miller. Mr. Miller introduced Mr. Robert 
F. Gilder, the first speaker on the evening's program, in a 
few very felicitous words, as a journalist and artist, and one 
deeply interested in early Indian life in Nebraska. " Mr. Gil- 
der's paper discussed the ''Indian ]Mounds near Omaha," and 
the finding therein of the remains of prehistoric man. The 
same subject was continued by Professor Erwin H. Barbour 
in an illustrated lecture on "Evidence of Nebraska Loess 
Man." Mr. Blackman, the Curator of the Society, then dis- 
cussed the Indian costumes and customs as illustrated in 
the D. Charles Bristol Collection. 

The Society, after listening to the foregoing excellent and 
interesting program, resolved itself into its annual business 
session for the election of officers and the transaction of such 
other business matters as might come before it. The calling 
of the roll of members was dispensed with on motion of the 
Secretary, after he had counted more than a quorum present. 
The minutes of the last annual meeting were then read and 
approved. The Secretary next read the report of the Treas- 
urer, which was received and referred to the executive com- 
mittee for auditing. The list of names of those applying for 
miMubership was then read, and on vote of the Society were all 
declared duly elected, and on payment of the customary fee 
of |2 entitled to active membership in the Societ3\ The 
names were as follows : 

I. D. Evans, Kenesaw. J. A. C. Kennedy, Omaha. 

I^afayette E. Gruver, IJniver- Albert W. Crites, Chadron. 

sity Place. I^ysle L Abbott, Omaha. 

Charles P. Anderbery, Min- Jnmes R. Ilanna, Greeley. 

den. AVilliam I. Allen, Schuyler. 



PUOCEEDINGS 1907. 



25'J 



liobcrt E. Evans, Dakota 
Citj. 

Jobu K. Dryden, Kearney. 

l*erley W. ^cott, Imperial. 

Cary S. Polk, Plattsinouth. 

Ignatius J. Dunn. Omaha. 

Milo D. King, Minden. 

Samuel Einaker, Beatrice. 

Ho^^'a^d Kennedy, Jr., 
Omaha. 

Benjamin E. B. Kennedy, 
Omaha. 

Thomas W. Blackhurn, 
Omaha. 

Carroll S. Montgomery, 

Omaha. 
J. P. A. Black, Hastings. 
Jas. W. Hamilton, Omaha. 
M. Dayton Tyler, Norfolk. 

Carl E. Herring, Omaha. 

Chas. H. Sloan, Geneva. 
Henry E. Maxwell, Omaha. 
Jno. S. Stull, Auburn. 
Wm. A. Eedick, Omaha. 
A. M. Morrissey, Valentine. 
Charles H, Denney, Fairlmry. 
Herbert S. Daniel, Omaha. 
John B. Barnes, Norfolk. 
William D. McHugh, Omaha. 
Titus J. Howard, Greeley. 
James H. Kemp, Fullerton. . 
John T/. McPheeley, Minden. 
Benjamin T. White, Omaha. 
John C. Cowin, Omaha. 



Edmund G. McGilton, 

Omaha. 
C. M. Miller, Alma. 
Arthur F. Mullen, O'Neill. 
E. S. Eicker, Chadron. 
Vincent L. Hawthorne, Wa- 

hoo. 
Patrick E. McKillip, Hum- 
phrey. 
Cliaries L. Eichards, Hebron. 
Frank M. Hall, Lincoln. 
Lewis L. Eaymond, Scotts 

' Bluff. 
J. L. Sundean, Wahoo. 
Webster S. Morlan. McCook. 
J(»]in H. Barry, Wahoo. 
James G. Eeeder, Columbus. 
AVilliam W. Wood, Eushville. 
Albert A. Kearnev, Stanton. 
E. M. Proudfit, Friend. 
Edwin Falloon, Falls Citv. 
Harlow W. Keyes, Indianola. 
• Frank E. Waters, Lincoln. 
Jas. E. Philpott, Lincoln. 
William C. Frampton, Lin- 
coln. 
]\[cConnell S. Grav, Daven- 

port. 
Joseph A. Wild, Wilber. 
Halleck F. Bose, Lincoln. 
Eobert J. Greene, Lincoln. 
Claude C. Flansburg, Lin- 
coln. 
Beman C. Fox. Lincoln. 



260 



NEBRASKA STATE lUSTOKlCAI. SOCIETY. 



Edward M. Coffin, Lincoln. 
Lincoln Frost, Lincoln. 
Charles E. Burnliani, Nor- 
folk. 
Arthur W. Lane, Lincoln. 
Phillip Gleim, Danbury. 
K. O. Avery, Humboldt. 
John P. Kenimer, Lincoln. 
Horace S. Wiggins, Lincoln. 



Mrs. Ida Duffleld Wiggins, 

Lincoln. 
M. L. Blackburn, Lincoln. 
Thomas E. Prey, Lincoln, 
flohn "W. Cutright, Lincoln. 
Robert F. Gilder, Omaha. 
Harvey E. Heath, Lincoln. 
Ada T. Culver, Milford. 
John Franklin, Lincoln. 



Mr. H. H. Wilson then asked leave to introduce the follow- 
ing resolutions: 

"Whereas, The late Governor Furnas in 1897 temporarily 
loaned to this Society a collection of Nebraska woods and 
other articles of interest connected with the history of this 
state; and 

"Whereas, B}^ his will this collection became the property 
of his widow, who offers the same for sale; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the board of directors of this Society be 
requested to take proper steps to acquire title to said collec- 
tion, if it can be done at a reasonable cost.'* 

Mr. Wilson moved the adoption of the resolution, which 
was seconded and carried. 

The Secretary announced that he had no written report of 
the year's work, but would make a brief oral statement about 
it. The establishment of the'legislative reference bureau bv 
the executive committee, with Mr. Sheldon at its head, had 
been the most important measure of the year. The work of 
the bureau had started out successfully and so far w^as ap- 
preciated by the legislature. ]Mr. Sheldon, the Secretary an- 
nounced, was present and could give furtlier details if the 
Society desired. The first volume of the "Histor}^ of the Ne- 
braska Constitutional Conventions" is almost ready for de- 
livery and copies may be obtained in a very few days. The 
Secretary also suggested that some commemoration of the 
life and services of Hon. Edward Rosewater ought to be un- 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 261 

dertaken by the Society; at least resolutions should be re- 
corded in the Society's flies. It was also stated by the Sec- 
retary that the officers of the Society, Mr. Barrett, Mr. 
Sheldon, and Mr. Blackman, were present, ready to iiiake 
reports of their work for the year. , The report in this abbre- 
viated form Was accepted. 

Mr. Blackman announced that his report would be incor- 
porated in a written form as usual with the Secretary as a 
part of his report.- 

The President then called for committee reports. 

Mr. Harvey, the chairman of the committee on sites, sent 
a letter to the Secretary stating that, owing to sickness, his 
report was not ready, and asking the favor of making it in a 
written form later. 

The next order of business was the annual election of offi- 
cers. Mr. Geo. L. Miller was nominated for reelection as 
President, and on motion of Mr. S. L. Geisthardt the Secre- 
tary was instructed to cast the unanimous ballot of the So- 
ciety in his favor, which was done. Mr. Miller thanked the 
Society for the honor, and called for nominations for first 
Vice-President. JNIr. Harvey was renominated for first Vice- 
President, and on motion the Secretary cast the unanimous 
ballot of the Society in his favor. Mr. Sawyer nominated 
Prof. Geo. E. Howard for reelection as sc^cond Vice-Presi- 
dent. Mrs. Knotts nominated L. D. Stilson, who declined; 
she then presented the name of J. E. North, of Columbus. 
Professor Howard then withdrew his name, and on motion 
Mr. North was unanimously elected second Vice-President. 

Mr. C. S. Paine and H. W. Caldwell were nominated for 
the Secretaryship. AA-hil-e the ballot was being taken a list 
of proxies was presented, and their votes asked to be counted. 
The question was raised whether proxies could be voted in 
the Society. It was noted that no instance had ever occurred 
in the Society to afford a precedent. The President ruled 
that the vote of proxies might be counted, and an appeal was 
taken from his decision. After discussion by several mem- 
bers of the Society pro and con on the issue a standing vote 



2G2 NEBKASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

was taken, and the decision of thfe chair was not sustained. 
The President then announced that the Society had voted 
against the use of proxies and that vote would stand as a 
precedent, and the ballot of the Society, proper under the 
constitution, would now be counted. The tellers announced 
20 votes for Mr. Paine and 17 votes for Mr. Cakhvell. Then, 
on motion, Mr. Paine was declared elected by the full vote of 
the Society. 

Mr. S. L. Geisthardt was unanimously reelected Treasurer. 

Mr. Sheldon called attention to the j)ending amendment 
changing the time of meeting from the second to the third 
Tuesday of Januar3\ After some discussion the whole mat- 
ter was laid on the table. 

The committee to draft resolutions on the death of jMr. 
Kosewater was announced as Mr. Sheldon, Mr. Gilder, and 
Mr. Sawyer. On motion the names of Mr. Woolworth, xMr. 
Kountze, and Mr. Kitchen, of Omaha, were added. 

The Society then adjourned. 

H. AV. Caldwell^ Secretary, 

SPEC^IAL CALLED ^Mf^ETING OF P,OARD OF 

DIPECTORS. 

HELD AT THE OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY, FEBRUARY 1, 1907. 

Meeting called to order by President George L. Miller. 
Present, Dr. George L. JMiller, James E. North, Chancellor 
E. B. Andrews, Robert Harvey, Prof. H. W. Caldwell, and 
C. S. Paine. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting of 
the old board was dispensed with. 

The President announced the appointment of the standing 
committees for the ensuing vear as follows : 

Library. — Miss Charlotte Templetou, Miss Edith Tobilt, 
Chancellor W. P. Aylsworth. 

Museum. — Elmer E. Blackman, Melvin R. Gilmore, Robert 
Gilder. 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 263 

Obituaries. — Jay Ainos Barrett, A. J. Sawyer, Capt. IT. E. 
Palmer, 

Program. — The Secretary, the President, Prof. H. W. 
Caldwell. 

Publication. — The Secretary, A. E. Sheldon, Robert 
Harvey. 

The report of the Secretary was then presented, and action 
upon it suspended, while the board listened to the report of 
the Director of Field Work, Mr. A. E. Sheldon. This report 
was ordered accepted, and placed on file. 

The report and recommendations of the Secretary were 
then taken up seriatim. 

Chancellor Andrews moved to approve the apportionment 
of salaries as outlined bv the Secretarv, with the addition of 
an appropriation of |600 for a newsi)aper clerk, and assistant 
in the legislative reference department. Carried. The sal- 
avj roll as flnall}^ approved standing as follows : 

A. E. Sheldon |1,300 

E. E. Blackman 850 

Assistant secretary and librarian (to be cliosen) 800 

Newspaper clerk (to be chosen) 600 

Stenographer (to be chosen) 41(5 

Secretary 100 

Treasurer 25 

14,091 

Chancellor Andrews moved the appointment of a commit- 
tee of three to investigate the matter of salaries, and ascer- 
tain whether or not anv reduction could be made from the 
amounts recommended by the Secretary. Carried. 

The President appointed as such committee Chancellor An- 
drews, Professor Caldwell, and the Secretary. 

On motion of Chancellor AndrcAvs the apportionment of 
the funds for the ensuing year as submitted by the Secretary 
was approved. 



I 



264 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOltlCAL SOCIETY. 

The report of Mr. Robert lEarvey, chairman of the special 
committee on marking historical sites, was presented and 
accepted. 

Motion of Chancellor Andrews to appropriate flOO for the 
use of the committee on historic sites. Carried. 

Professor Caldwell moved that fSO be appropriated to pay 
S. A. Gardiner, balance due on a collection turned over to 
the Society in 1904. Carried. 

On motion of Chancellor Andrews the Secretary was au- 
thorized to disjDose of the printing material owned by the 
•Society, proceeds to be turned into the treasury, 

Mr. H. H. Wilson appeared before the board to discuss the 
resolution adopted by the vSociety at the last annual meeting 
with reference to the purchase of the Furnas collection of 
Nebraska woods, which resolution had been referred to the 
board of directors for action. A resolution was offered bv 
Chancellor Andrews as follows: "Resolved, that Professor 
Wilson has the api)roval of the board of directors of the Ne- 
braska State Historical Society, in the project for introduc- 
ing a bill in the legislature to acquire the Furnas collection 
of Nebraska woods, for the use of the Nebraska State His- 
torical Society." Adopted. 

Motion was made by Professor Caldwell to appoint a com- 
mittee of three to take into account and rej)ort on the value 
of the Furnas collection of woods. Carried. The President 
appointed Messrs. Caldwell, Harvey, and Geisthardt as such 
committee. 

On motion of Chancellor Andrews the proposition of the 
Director of Field Work to secure the restoration "To the 
state and to its original purposes of block 29 in the city of 
Lincoln, Nebraska, originally known as State Historical So- 
ciety Block," and to secure an appropriation of |25,000 for 
the beginning of the foundation for the wing of a building 
thereon, was approved. 

The report of the Treasurer being presented was ordered 
approved and placed on file. 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 265 

The bill of the Treasurer for salary and expeuse, 11)0(1, was 
approved and a warrant ordered drawn. 

On motion of Professor Caldwell the President was re- 
quested to invite Gen. A. W. Greeley to deliver an address in 
Lineoln under the auspices of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society at some date during the latter part of February or 
the first part of March. 

On motion of the Secretary the meeting adjourned. 

Approved April 9, 1907. 

C. S. Paine, . 
Secretary. 

* 

TREASUPvER'S REPORT. 

FOR YEAR ENDING JANUARY 16, 1907. 

To the Officers and Mcmhcrs of the Nehraska ^:itaie Historical 
Socicty : 

I hereby respectfully submit my report as Treasurer for th(^ 
year ending January 16, 1907. 

I am to be charged with the following receipts : 

RECEIPTS, 

1906 

January 17, balance on hand in National 

Bank of Commerce |203 17 

September 11, cash, J. A. Barrett, publica- 
tion sold 1 00 

September 30, exchange collected 10 

1907 

January 16, exchange collected 15 

January 16, 70 membership fees collected 

as per list annexed 110 00 

Total receipts |344 42 



266 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

DISBURSEMENTS. 
1906 

July 25, A. E. Sheldon, expenses .| 62 00 

October 10, S. L. Geisthardt, postage and 

stationery 1 75 

October 10, A. E. Sheldon, expenses bal- 
ance Oklahoma trip 51 73 

October 10, cash, exchange charged 15 

Total disbursements $115 63 



Balance in National Bank of Commerce, 

per check here^\'ith |228 79 

I submit herewith bank book duh^ balanced and vouchers 
and check to the order of the Society for the balance on hand. 
Beginning with July 5, 1906, I Imve kept a record of all re- 
ceipts issued on stubs from \^^hicll the receipts were detached, 
numbered consecutively. Prior to that time there was no 
regular system of giving or issuing receipts. 
Dated this 16th dav of January, 1907. 

S. L. Geisthardt^ 

Treasurer. 

Accepted, approved, and oi'dered placed on file by the 
Board of Directors, February 1, 1907. 

C. S. Paine, 

Secretary. 

REPOPvTS OF COMMITTEES. 

REPORT OF INIUSEUM COMMITTEE. 

To the Eooecutive Board, Hchrasl^a ^iatc Historical Society: 
We find a brief catalogue of the museum readv for tJie 
printer and recommend that it be published in connection 
with the report of the Archeologist. This report lias been 
published in the Agricultural report without expense to the 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 267 

Nebraska State Historical Society heretofore, and we recom- 
mend tliat it hereafter be pnblished hj tlie Society. 

We wish to express our approval of your action in setting 
apart |250 for field exj)enses for this department. 

We believe that the services of a stenographer are neces- 
sary, not only to prepare the letters, but to assist in prepar- 
ing manuscript and elaborating notes which are to be used in 
the literary work in hand; an average of one hour a day will 
accomplish the necessary work. 

It is impossible to properly preserve the specimens and in- 
terest the public unless the dust and dirt be kept out of the 
whole building; we recommend that this matter be arranged 
for in some manner so that less of the time of Mr. Blackman 
be taken for that work and more of his time be devoted to 
field exploration and arrangement of the specimens in the 
cases. 

The matter of poi)ular lectures throughout the state should 
have more attention. There is nothing which will better ad- 
vertise the work and bring the people into closer touch with 
the Society. To that end we recommend that funds be set 
aside for the purchase of a stereopticon lantern and equip- 
ment, and that lantern slides of the inq>ortant specimens be 
made, giving full credit as to ownership or authorship, and 
thus c'arry the museum to the people who can not come to the 
museum. 

We feel justified in asking your honorable body to appor- 
tion a fair share of the legislative appropriation to this de- 
partment of the work. The share we are asking for is scarcely 
one-fifth, and we believe if the members of the Society were 
to decide the matter they would justify you in expending at 
least one-fourth on this department. We have confidence that 
you will see that a just proportion is expended here. We be- 
lieve that you will not let this important part of the work be 
handicapped for lack of funds. 

E. E. Bl.ACKIMAN, 
INlELVIN R. GlLAIORK, 

Febi-uary 1, 1907. • R. F. Gildek. 



268 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 

To the Board of Directors of the Nehraslai ^tate Historiocd 
Society: 

Soon after the appointment of the library committee of the 
State Historical Society a meeting was held in the Society's 
rooms. After a thorough insi)ection of the library it was de- 
cided that the one great need was a librarian. Thei'e is much 
valuable material on the shelves, but it is not in such form 
as to be available. The records are inadequate. While a 
great deal has been done in the past few months in arranging 
-the books on the shelves there is still much to do. There 
should be a new accession record, a shelf list from Avhicli an 
inventory can be taken, and a catalogue Avhich will uiake the 
contents of the library of easy access. There is doubtless 
much material duplicated which should be sorted out and 
listed for exchange. Continuations and sets may be incom- 
plete. But little can be done until a complete catalogue is 
made. 

Now this work of organizing the library may be done in 
two ways. A temporary librarian may be employed for sev- 
eral months who will plan the work, get it well started, and 
train some person to carry it on, the person trained to be 
some one with the natural ability and such knowledge of 
office work as will fit her to carry a great deal of the worli 
of the Society, the correspondence, etc. In this way some one 
would be employed who, by her previous experience, could be 
an assistant to the Secretary and by lier training under the 
library organizer would have the knowledge of library metli- 
ods necessary to carry on the work of the library. 

An organizer could doubtless be obtained for |75 a month. 
The future librarian should be employed at the same time to 
assist in the work and to learn liow to carry it on lierself. 

By the other plan a graduate of a library school could be 
employed as permanent librarian. Sucli a person could re- 
organize the library and gradually assume much of the other 
work to be done. Under this plan a person of good education 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 269 

can be found, doubtless a college graduate as well as a grad- 
uate of a library school, who would liave, by reason of her 
professional training, a broad outlook. Handling the books 
through every process of accessioning, classifj'ing, and cat- 
aloguing she would acquire a knowledge of the books them- 
selves very valuable in future reference work. Such a libra- 
rian could, we think, be found who would be willing to start 
in at |G00 a year. 

At any rate, adopt which plan you will, there should be 
some person whose first duty is to the library, who will make 
this collection of the value that it should be to the community 
and to the whole state, a person who will AMitch the book cat- 
alogues for desirable purchases, who will build up the library 
systematically along its special lines, who will keep up a live 
mailing list of good exchanges, who will lake care of these 
accessions intelligently when they come and make them avail- 
able to the public at large. 

. It is very desirable to get the library into good shape now 
before it is any larger. Every year makes the task more diffi- 
cult and more expensive. 

It seems to us that in the apportionment of funds there 
should be a definite sum, however small, set aside for the 
library outside the salary of the person in charge, who, as 
she would do other work for the Society, could be put on the 
general salary list Unless there is such a sum, we fear that 
the money will all be absorbed by the other activities of the 
Society. The library committee will gladly serve as an ad- 
visory board in the book purchases, although they believe 
that it is more important just now to get into good order the 
books already in the library than to add more. 

These suggestions are respectfully submitted by your 

library committee. 

Chaklotte Te:\ipleton, Chairman, 

Edith Top.itt, 
W. P. Aylsworth. 

February 1, 1907. 



270 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON MARKING HISTORIC SITES. 

Lincoln, l^ebraska, January 17, 1907. 
To the Board of Directors of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society, Lincoln, Nehrasla: 

SiRS^As chairman of the committee on landmarks I am not 
able to report much that is tangible in the way of marking" 
locations having a local or general history sufficient to be 
perpetuated by an expenditure of time and money on the x)art 
of the Society. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the council held by Gen. John 
M. Thayer for the territory with the Pawnee Indians occurred 
on the 25th day of May, 1905. 

The event was celebrated by General Thayer in person 
pointing out the location, and the erection of a granite monu- 
ment about 8 1/2 feet high to mark the site, on the farm of 
Robert McLean in S. 2, T. 10 N., R. 8 E. On the monument 
is inscribed "Pawnee Council, May 25, 1855." 

In the early part of November last I visited the site of old 
Ft. McPherson on the south bank of the Platte river in T. 12 
N., R. 28 W., Lincoln county, near INEaxwell on the Union 
Pacific R. R. 

The row of cotton wood trees planted in front of the offi- 
cers' quarters is still standing and in fine growing condition, 
and the old street in front is now the countv road, although 
it does not conform to the section line. 

Cottonwood Springs, situated in a bend of Cottonwood 
canyon, a short distance east of the fort, was famous in the 
days of overland travel. It is now smothered or choked up 
by the sloughing off and washing down of the clay bank of 
the canyon. The large cottonwood tree which shaded the 
spring, I was told, was ordered cut down, during the occu- 
pation of the fort, by order of Colonel (General) Emery, to 
prevent the soldiers lounging around the spring. 

The old flagstalf was of red cedar and stood in the center 
of the parade ground. It was the initial point of the survey 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 271 

of the original boimdary Hues of the military reserve. This 
was of special interest to me, for around it is clustered the 
recollections of mj first experience in government surveying 
in 1869 when I assisted in the original survey of the boundary 
lines of the reserve. 

The interest in the "locus" of the old flagstaff has been in- 
creased by reason of the disputes and contests before the de- 
partment at Washington and in the courts over the condi- 
tions of the surve}^ of the reserve into sections in 1897, one 
■of the points of the dispute being the "locus" of the flagstaff, 
Avhich it was claimed was not found by the surveyor. 

The whole matter in dispute was of such importance that 
the government Avas induced to send a special examiner of 
surveys to investigate, who spent considerable time in his 
search. From verbal statements of the examiner, Mr. N. I>. 
Sweitzer, corroborated by eye witnesses, I am satisfied the 
original site of the staff in 1869 was found by Mr. Sweitzer. 

In the middle of a field I found a marble monument, 6 
inches square and extending about 8 inches above ground, 
erected by Mr. Sweitzer to mark the site of the flagstaff". 
There was no inscription on top, and I did not see any on 
the sides, although I did not clear away the grass for a close 
examination. 

To obtain further information I wrote to Mr. Sweitzer re- 
questing particular data. On the 10th inst. I received from 
him an answer to my request, which 1 make a part of this 
report and mark as exhibit A. 

The parade ground was part of a magnificent field of corn, 
the owner claiming a yield of fifty bushels per acre. 

During the latter part of November I visited Wauneta, 
Chase county, and was informed that the last great battle 
fought by the Pawnee and Sioux Indians took place in a 
canyon tributary to Frenchman creek in Hayes county. 
Wherever the battle was fought I suggest that its location be 
authentically settled and commemorated. Also the battle 
fought between the United States forces under command of 
General Harney and the Sioux Indians on the Blue Water, 



272 NEliKASKA STATE HLSTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

more generally known as the battle of Ash Hollow in Keith 
county. 

I also suggest the proper marking of the grave of Blaek 
Bird, chief of the Omaha Indians, ^^hich I am informed has 
been definitely located. 

With members of the committee there has been discussed 
the matter of marking the intersection of the Overland trails, 
military roads, and the old Mormon trail, with the section 
lines, and in a few instances the matter has been discussed 
with the residents of counties through which the trails passed, 
with the object of obtaining the cooperation of the people of 
the several counties in the ^^'ay of looking up the old land- 
marks and bearing a large portion of the expense of placing 
suitable markers at convenient and important locations along 
the different lines of travel. 

Respectfully submitted, 

■ Ror.EiiT Harvey, 

Chairman. 

EXHiBrr A. i 

Niobrara, Nebraska, January 13, 1905. 

My Dear Harvey — I received your letter of the 10th inst. 
last night. 

In regard to the old flagstaff, it is so long ago and I liave 
been on so many other pieces of work so similar that I have 
nearly forgotten the details in regard to it. 

The ''locus" of the old flagstaff was the origin of the adja- 
cent surveys, and hence important. The position of mile post 
No. 1 was plain, and hence the south boundary could be 
started from that, but in all of these cases the origin is very 
important. 

I ran several lines from the exterior, focusing on this ori- 
gin, and they gave me locations which of course were com- 
paratively near to where the corner should be. I then asked 
for information from all the old people who had seen the flag- 
staff in its old position. Mr. Murray, an old friend and sol- 
dier of General Carr's and father, showed me very close to 
where he remembered it to have stood, but was somewhat 
misled by the position of the old gravel walk, Mrs. Murray's 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 273 

memory iu regard to its positiou was a great lielp to me. I 
then commenced digging, beginning with my exterior loca- 
tions and converging on the center. After several days' effort 
I linally found the hole from which the Hagstaff had been 
taken, which could be plainly seen by the disturbed condition 
of the earth. Upon digging down six or seven feet and find- 
ing considerable brick or pieces of chimney made of cement, 
I finally found the foundation, consisting of four squared 
cedar logs mortised together, forming a central hole which 
was square for the purpose of stepping the flagstaff. Placing 
a vertical rod in the center of this hole I filled it with tlie 
debris taken out, and at the center produced at the ground 
surface I placed a large white marble shaft given me by the 
custodian of the near cemetery. 

You are in error in regard to there being no inscription, as 
I carved it in myself witli letters one-half inch deep, and the 
same was finished up by nij assistants, Albert G. Hammer, 
of Chicago, Illinois, and my brother, Lieut. Charles jNTcG. 
Sweitzer, 

This old post was particularly interesting to me, for this 
was the place where my father. General Sweitzer, took Grand 
Duke Alexis of Russia on that famous buffalo hunt, he hav- 
ing charge of the cavalry escort ; and where Buffalo r>ill first 
made his bow to notoriety, being introduced by Ned Buntline 
of dime novel fame. Cody taking him out of the fort a few 
miles dressed a la Sioux, and Buntline, just from tiie East, 
with silk hat and broadcloth, took Cody seriously; hence his 
rise to fame and finance. A Bill Nye would have seeu the 
funny side of it, but would never have seen the AVild West 
show. 

My first report describing the corner is in Washington, and 
I write the above from memory, but you will find it substan- 
tially correct. 

Yours sincerelv, 

N. B. SWElTZEli. 



274 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

REGULAR QUARTERLY MEETING OF BOARD OP 

DIRECTORS. 

HELD AT THE OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY IN LINCOLN, APRIL 9, 1907. 

Meeting called to order at 1 :45 p.m. by the President, Dr. 
Geo. L. Miller. 

Present, Dr. Geo. L. Miller, Jas. E. North, Prof. II. W. 
Caldwell, S. L. Geisthardt, Robert Harvey, Henry C. Rich- 
mond, and C. S. Paine, as members of the board, and Miss 
Charlotte Templeton and Miss Edith Tobitt, members of the 
library committee, also Prof. A. E. Sheldon, Director of Field 
Work, and Elmer E. Blackman, Archeologist. 

Minutes of the previous meeting were road and approved. 

The report of the Secretary was iDresentod, and on motion 
of Mr. North was ordered accepted and placed on file. 

The Treasurer, Mr. Geisthardt, reported that there was 
approximately |200 on hand in the bank fund. 

The report of the Archeologist, Mr. E. E, Jjlackmau, was 
presented, and on motion of Prof. Caldwell it was accepted 
and placed on file. 

The report of the Director of Field Work, Mr. A. E. Shel- 
don, was then iDresented, and on motion of Prof. Caldwell the 
report was accepted and filed. 

The report of the library committee was read by Miss Char- 
lotte Templeton, and there being no objection it was, by order 
of the President, accepted. 

The report of the museum committee was received, ac- 
cepted, and placed on file. 

After some discussion on the subject of cooperating with 
the State Press Association, in the piiblication of a History 
of the Nebraska Press, it Avas moved and seconded that- the 
board recommend to the Society, at its next annual meeting, 
that it cooperate with the State Press Association in the pub- 
lication, under the auspices of the Society, of a volume de- 
voted to the history of the Nebraska Press, the editorial work 
to be provided for b}^ the State Press Association. Carried, 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 275 

The recommendation of the Secretary that the board de- 
cline to accept the proposition of Mrs. Robt. W. Furnas, to 
purchase the Furnas collection of Nebraska woods, paving 
therefor |4,000, in four equal annual payments of |1,000 
each, was, on motion of Mr. Geisthardt, concurred in. 

A vote of thanks was extended to Gov. Geo. L. Sheldon for 
the solicited donation of a portrait of himself to hang in the 
Society rooms. 

A vote of thanks Avas also extended to ^Irs. E. C. Baker, 
of Miller, Nebraska, for the donation of 400 copies of the 
Histor}^ of SeAvard county, by W. W. Cox. 

The Secretary recommended the ai^pointment of a commit- 
tee of three, of which Mr. Geisthardt should be chairman, to 
conduct negotiations with the city of Lincoln, with the view 
to securing Market Square or some other acceptable site for 
the proposed Historical Societ}' building. It was moved and 
seconded that such committee be appointed. The motion was 
amended by Professor Caldwell to make the committee five 
members, two to be selected outside of the board, one of whom 
should be Mr. A. E. Sheldon. In this form the motion was 
carried. The President appointed as such committee: S. L. 
Geisthardt, C. S. Paine, H. W. Caldwell, A. E. Sheldon, and 
T. F. A. Williams. 

Upon request of the Secretary, his salary of flOO was, on 
motion of Mr. Geisthardt, appropriated and added to the 
salary of E. E. Blackman, the Secretary waiving all claim to 
salary from the Society for the current year. 

The report of the library' committee was taken up, and on 
motion of Mr. Geisthardt a plan proposed by the committee 
for the employment of a librarian, to. catalogue and accession 
the library, was approved, and on motion of ^[r. Geisthardt 
the Secretary was authorized to cooperate with the librar}^ 
committee in the selection of a librarian, and in carrying out 
the plans recommended by the committee, so far as the avail- 
able funds of the Society would permit. 

On motion of Professor Caldwell, the rules were suspended 
and the Secretary instructed to cast the ballot for the fol- 
lowing named persons as meml)ers of the Society: 



276 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Wmf*J." Harmon, Fremont. George W. Brown, Jr., Lin- 
Leslie G. nurd, Harvard. coin. 

Chester H. Aid rich, David Epaminondas E. Lyle, \\'a- 

City. hoo. 

Dr. Albert T. Peters, Lincoln. Harry C. Ingles, Pleasant 
Elbert 0. Hurd, Lincoln. Hill. 

lAH^s. Isabel Kichey, Lincoln. Gill)ert L. Cole, Beatrice. 

J^enator AV. Perin, Lincoln. Henry F. Wyman, Omaha. 

Kichard A. Hawley, Lincoln. John P. Loder, Waverly. 

James H. Cook, Agate. Abram P. Kempton, Lincoln. 

Harold J. Cook, Agate. Edgar A. Bnrnett, Lincoln. 

On motion of the Secretary the meeting was adjourned. 
Approved July 9, 1907. C. S. Paine, 

Secretary. 

REGULAPv MEETING OF BOARD OF DIRECTOPvS. 

HELD AT THE OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY IN LINCOLN, JULY 9, 1907. 

Meeting called to order at 2:30 p.m. by the President, Dr. 
Geo. L. Miller. Present, Dr. Geo. L. Miller, S, L. Geisthardt, 
Robert Harvey, C. S. Paine, and Dr. C. E. Bessey, represent- 
ing Chancellor Andrews. 

Minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The report of the Secretary was presented and, on motion 
of Mr. Geisthardt, was approved and ordered placed on tile. 

The Treasurer, Mr. Geisthardt, reported: 

Balance on hand January 17, 1907 . .|22S.79 

Receipts, 

Membership fees |112 00 

Sales 3 50 

Total 115 50 

Total 1344 29 

Paid out on warrants 196 95 

Leaving a balance on hand, July 9, 1907, of. . .-1147 34 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 277 

The report of the Director of Field Worli was presented, 
and by order of the President \yas phiced on file. 

The Secretary reported the resignation of ^Ir. S. L, Geist- 
hardt as chairman of the bnilding site committee, and the 
appointment of James E. Nortli, by the President, as cliair- 
man of snch committee. 

On motion of Mr. Geisthardt the Secretary was directed 
to conve^^ to Hon. H. M. Eaton and to IMessrs. S. V. and A. G. 
Johnson the thanks of the board for valnable donations to 
the library and to the mnsenm. 

Upon the recommendation of President iMiller, and on mo- 
tion of Mr. Geisthardt, it was agreed to memorialize Congress 
in behalf of the proposition to establish a national reserve in 
Nebraska, embracing the site of old Pt. Kearney. President 
Miller appointed Prof. A. E. Sheldon to prepare such me- 
morial, to be presented at the next meeting of the board. 

On motion of the Secretarj^ the meeting Avas adjourned. 

Approved October 17, 1907. 

C. S. Paine^ 

Secretarv. 

MEETING OF BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Held at the Office of the Society in Lincoln, Octoheu 

17, 1907. 

Meeting called to order at 10:.30 a.m. by the President, Dr. 
Geo. L. Miller. 

Present, Dr. George L. Miller, Prof. H. AV. Caldwell, C. S. 
Paine, J. E. North, Dr. C. E. Besse}^, representing Clmncellor 
Andrews, and Lieut. Gov. M. R. Hopewell, representing Gov- 
ernor Sheldon. 

Minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The question being raised of the right of Dr. Bessey, repre- 
senting Chancellor Andrews, and of Lieutenant-Governor 



1 



278 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

HopeAvell, representing Governor Sheldon, to sit as members 
of the board, the President decided that in the absence from 
the state of Governor Sheldon and Chancellor Andrews, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Hopewell was entitled to rej)resent the for- 
mer, and Acting Chancellor Dr. Bessey, the latter. 

The report of the Secretary was presented, approved, and 
ordered placed on file. 

The report of the Director of Field Work was presented 
by the Secretary, and ordered accepted and placed on file. 

The request of Mr. A. E. Sheldon to be granted a leave of 
absence from October 1, 1907, to June 1, 1908, Avas, upon 
recommendation of the Secretary, granted. 

A communication Avas presented from Mr. W. F. Thomp- 
son, of Brownville, Nebraska, offering to sell to the Society, 
for |25, a bound volume of newspapers, containing the New 
York Weekly Tribune from March 27, 1817, to September 1, 
1819, inclusive; and the Licking Valley Register from July 
21, 1811, to July 20, 1811, inclusive. 

On motion of Professor Bessey, seconded by Governor 
Hopewell, the Secretary was directed to accept the foregoing 
offer. 

On motion of Mr. North, the Secretary was directed to con- 
vey to Mrs. A. M. Susong, of Lincoln, the thanks of the So- 
ciety for the donation of an oil i)ainting of her father, John 
Gillespie, first State Auditor of Nebraska. 

Upon recommendation of the Secretary, the President was 
authorized to name a committee of three, not necessarily mem- 
bers of the Board, who should select the names of those peo- 
ple whose portraits should be solicited to occupy a place in 
the portrait gallery of the Society. 

The President appointed as sucli committee: Mrs. A. J. 
Sawyer, Lincoln; Francis E. White, Omaha; Hon. Melville 
E. Hopewell, Tekamah, 

Upon the motion of Professor Caldwell, the salary of Wil- 
liam E. Hannan was increased from |50 to |75 per month, 
beginning October 1, and continuing during the absence of 
Mr. A. E. Sheldon. 



PR0CKE1>INGS 1907 



270 



Ou motion of Professor Caldwell, the iSecretary was in- 
structed to cast, and did cast, the ballot for the election to 
membership of th(^ following persons : 



John Schwyu, Grand Island. 
Patrick O'Mahony, Lincoln. 
Louis F. Fryar, Clay Center. 
Theodore Ojendyke, Ashland. 
J. G. P. Hildebrand, Lincoln. 
Geo. A. Scott, Columbus. 



Henry V. Hoagland, Lincoln. 

Wallace L. Crandall, Lincoln. 

Ferdinand A. Truell, Lincoln. 

Otto ^Y. Meier, Lincoln. 

Albert Hasebrook, Lincoln. 

Morris C. Stull, Lincoln. 

Mrs. Morris C. Stull, Lin- Carrie A. AVolf, Lincoln. 

coin. J. E. Taylor, Neligh. 

Samuel F. Westerfield, Liu- Alvin R. Jlaibeu, Palmvra. 

coin. James McGeachin, Orleans. 

Harry J. Hall, Lincoln. N. C. Sasse, Stamford. 

Mrs. Kate P. Fodrea, Lin- John Fitz Roberts, South 

coin. Omaha. 

Mrs. Louisa E. Collins, Kear- W. E. Saxtou, Decatur. 

John C. Wilson, Bethany. 

C. B. Rabest, Omaha. 

Prof. Paul H. Grummann, 

Lincoln. 
George D. Bennett, Lincoln. 
Arnold Egger, Sprague. 
Oscar P. Foale, Table Rock. 
John PLilldorson, Liucoln. 
G. A. Wetherwell, Dorches- 
ter. 
Nellie M, Sisson, Aiusworth. 
Mrs. George B. Simpkins, 

Lincoln. 
Elmer AV. Brown, Lincoln. 
.John W. Steinhardt, Ne- 
braska City. 
Mrs. John AV. Steinhardt, 
Nebraska City. 



nev. 

Mrs. Henry A. LaSelle, Bea- 
trice. 

Wm. H. Robbins, Beatrice. 

Absalom N. Yost, Omaha. 

Lou L. E. Stewart, Omaha. 

Geo. E. Buell, Murdock. 

Ellerv H. AVesterfield, 
Omaha. 

Clarence Ruigh, Firth. 

Martin AV. Dimery, Lincoln. 

Dr. AV. K. Loughridge, Mil- 
ford. 

Harry Porter, Lincoln. 

Charles G. Cone, University 
Place. 

J. W. AVamberg, Grand Is- 
land. 



280 NEDIIASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Mis. Caroline Morton, Ne- A. W. Himlmau, Chester. 

bmska City. ' C C. Cobb, York. 

Mrs. Irene S. Morton, Ne- S. V. Johnson, York. 

braska City. J. H. Harrison, Cairo. 

Charles H. Busch, Nebraska T. A. Blythe, Cairo. 

City. Francis E. Wolcott, Lincoln. 

Paul Jessen, Nebraska City. Mrs. Frank M. Hall, Lincoln. 

Edwin F. Warren, Nebraska Wm. Hayward, Nebraska 

City. City. 

Josex)h W. Johnson, Lincoln. Geo. W. Hawke, Nebraska 
Walter B. Honseworth, Lin- City. 

coin. Carsten N. Karstens, Ne- 
John S. Eeed, Lincoln. braska City. 

Mrs. John S. Reed, Lincoln. Ernest D, Garrow, Nebraska 
Dr. James H. Hiikill, Lin- City. 

coin. Edgar Clayton, Nebraska 
William J. Bryan, Lincoln. City. 

Mrs. W. J. Bryan, Lincoln. Miss Emma Morton, Ne- 
James 15. Haynes, Omaha. braska City. 

George A. Eberly, Stanton. Mrs. Walter M. Ladd, Omaha 

T. L, Cole, W^ashington, D. C. Mrs. Nana Pludson Davey, 
Roll in M. Rolfe, Nebraska Lincoln. 

City. John W. INfnssetter, Lincoln. 

A. G. Johnson, York. Charles W. Pierce, Nebraska 
Rev. AVm. H. Frost, Fremont. City. 

Meriwether J. Waugh, Liu- Ernst Guenzel, Nebraska 

coin. City. 

Wm. A. Lindly, Lincoln. Frank McCartney, Nebraska 
Mrs. Theresa Neff, Nebraska City. 

Citv. Nicholas A. Duff, Nebraska 
Miss Mary S. Wilson, Ne- City. 

braska City. Robert S. Mockett, Lincoln. 

Wm. T. Sloan, Nebraska City Charles F. ILirpham, Lin- 
Mrs. F. W. Cowles, Nebraska coin. 

City. Francis W. Brown, Lincoln. 

Rev. Emmanuel Hartig, Ne- Edwin M. Searle, Jr., Lincoln 

braska City. John L. Pierce, Lincoln. 



PROCEEDINGS 1907. 281 

Wellington H. England, Lin- A. C. Lederman, Grand Is- 

coln. land. 

Archibald L. Searle, Lincoln. Jolin W. Gilbert^ Friend. 

William M. Reid, Albion. William E. Hannan, Lincoln. 
William A. Selleck, Lincoln. 

The meeting was, on motion, adjonrned. 



THIRTY-FIRST ANNUAL MEr.TING. 

Held at the Temple^ Lincoln. Nebraska. January 13-14, 

1908. 

A preliminary session was held Monday evening, Jannnry 
13, at 7:30 p.m., when the following program Avas presented. 
President George L. Miller presiding: 

Address, ^^History'' Hon. AVilliam J. F.ryan 

Address, ^'Life and Character of James B. Kitchen,'' 

Richard L. Metcalfe 

Piano Solo Miss Julia AVilliains 

Address, ^'^Fifty Years of Educational Progress in Ne- 
braska," 

Jasper L. McBrien, State Supt. Pul)lic Instnution 

Tuesday, January 14, 1907, 7:30 r.M. 

The Nebraska State Historical Society met in business 
session. Dr. George L. Miller presiding. 

There appearing to be a (|uorum present, tlu» roll call was 
dispensed with on motion of tlic Secretary. 

The reading of the minutes of the last annual meeting was 
waived. 

The report of the Secretary Avas then presented, and on 
motion of S. L. Geisthardt, seconded by A. N. Yost, of Oiiuiha, 
the report was adopted. ( See p. 288. ) 

The report of the Treasurer, S. L. Geisthardt, was tlicn pre- 
sented and action upon same postponed jK'ndiug the rcjxjrt 



282 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of the auditiug committee. Mr. Robert Harvey, appointed 
by the Executive Board to audit the report of the Treasurer, 
submitted the followiuG^: 

Lincoln, Nebraska, January 13, 1008. 
To the President of the l^tate Historical Society: 

Sir — Your Committee to whom Avas referred the annual re- 
port" of the Treasurer, together with the stub-book of receipts 
for money received, vouchers for money paid, cash book, and 
pass book of deposits with the l>ank of Commerce, Lincoln, 
Nebraska, with instructions to audit the accounts of the same, 
desire to make the following report, to-wit: 

I have examined said books and vouchers and find the cash 
l)Ook sho^^'s the following amounts have been received and 
disbursed, to-Avit : 



■» 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance from 1907 .f22S 79 

Dues for 13C new meml)ers at ^2 ])er member 272 00 

From sale of Society's publications to libraries 12 50 

Total .f513 29 

DISBURSE ME XTS. 

Paid on vouchers 238 35 

Balance on hand : .|274 91 

^Vhich amount agrees with the balance on hand as shown by 
the Treasurer's last settlement with the Bank of Commerce, 
January 4, 1908, and also with the Treasurer's report. 

Respectful ly submitted, 

Robert Harvey. 

Auditing Committee. 

On' motion the report of the Auditing Committee was 
adopted. The report of the Treasurer was then adoptt^l as 
read. (Seep. 310.) 



rKOCKEDiNGS 1907. 283 

Tlu' report of the special eoniniittee appointed by the Presi- 
deut to examine into and report npon the work of the Society 
for the year 1907 A\as then presented as follo^^ s : 

To the 'Nehraska ^tatc Historical Society: 

Yonr special committee to examine into the work, methods, 
and proj^Tess of the Societj^ for the past jear beg to report as 
follows : 

That yonr committee held a meeting' at the rooms of the 
Society, Jannary 11, 1908, and fonnd as follows: 

First — That the accounts of the Society are methodically 
kept and yonchers filed to coyer all expenditures. 

Second — That the records, yonchers, and books of account 
of the Society have been examined and found correct by tlie 
pul»lic accountant, Mr. H. S. Wiggins. 

Tliird — That the officers of the Society haye promoted suc- 
cessful meetings of the Pioneers' Association, State Historical 
officials, and other kindred societies whose work and objects 
are allied to those of this Society. 

Fourth — That the Society has acquired, by exchange and 
purchase, a large amount of new material, which, together 
with that alread}^ possessed by the Society-, has l>een, with 
much labor, arranged, classified, and catalogued, and thereby 
nmde ayailal)le for the purpose of the Society. 

Fifth — That the Secretar^^ has deyoted practically his 
whole time to the seryice of the Society, without compensa- 
tion, the Board haying at his request transferred his nominal 
salary to one of the assistants. 

Sixth — That the Secretary- has at his own expense yisited 
a large nundier of Historical Societies and libraries in neigh- 
boring states, and thereby promoted friendly relations 
therewith. 

Seyenth — That there is an increas(^d interest by the Press 
and Public of the State in the work of the Society whicli has 
resulted in a large increase of the membership. 

Eighth — We find that the work and usefulness of the So- 
ciety are greatly impaired by Ayant of suitable quarters, and 



284 NEBRASKA STATE HISTUKICAL SOCIETY. 

in the opinion of 3^0111' oonunittee the time has come to move 
for a permanent building for the Society. 

H. H. Wilson, 

E. T. Hartley, 

F. W. Brown, 
A. J. Sawyer,, 
\V. A. Selleck. 

Mr. Henry H. ^Vilson moved the adoption of the report. 
Carried nnauimously. 

The committee on obituaries, through Mi*. A. J. Sawyer, 
submitted the following report : 

The Committee on Obituaries have to report that tliat mys- 
terious power which we call Death has inva(l(Hl our ranks and 
taken from our list of membership, General John M. Thayer, 
Edward Rosewater, Major Charles W. Pierce, and Nathan 
Blakely; therefore be it 

Resolved, That in their d(^ath the Nel)raska State Historical 
Society has lost four of its most honored and respected mem- 
bers. Each was a patriot and rendered conspicuous service 
to the nation in its hour of need ; each a statesman and helped 
to lay broad and deep the foundation of our common^^■ealth 
and to govern it with just and wholesome laws ; each was a 
philanthropist ever seeking the good of his l^rother men ; each 
was a pioneer and enduretl the hardships and privations com- 
mon to the vanguard of settlers in a new territorv. l>v their 
lofty i)atriotism, their pride of state, their zeal for its better- 
ment and their civic virtues, they have left their impress for 
good upon the institutions of our noble Nebraska which shall 
endure through all time. 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be spread upon the 
records of this Society and also furnished to the press. 

A. J. Sawyer. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

On motion of Samuel ]>. liams the Secretary was instructed 
to cast, and did so cast, the unanimous ballot of the members 
present for the election to active meuibership of the 
following : 



PKOOEEDIA(iS 1907. 



George W. Sisson, Iducolii. 

John W. Brewster, Lincoln. 

Arthur E. lUshop. Lincoln. 

George M. riumb, Lincoln. 

A. A. I»arker, Platte ( Yniter. 

Aninii L. Bixbv, Lincoln. 

F. J. Benedict, Hastings. 

C iNL Brown, Cambridge. 

William Z. Taylor, Tulbert- 
son. 

E<l\>'ar(l r. Pjle, Stockville. 

8. C. StcAvart, Axteli. 

Angnstns M. Wallins", David 
City. 

Henry M. Eaton, Lincoln. 

George P. Corcoran, York. 

Anna M. B. Kincslev, Min- 
den. 

Griffith P. Thomas, Harvard. 

J. N. Norton, Osceola. 

Ambrose C. Epperson, Clay 
Center. 

Theodore Griess, Harvard. 

C. D. Stoner, Osceola. 

Loyal ^L Graham, Stockville. 

J. W. Adams, Cnrtis. 

Jos(^ph S. Canadv, Minden. 

Arthnr J. Wrav. York. 

Leander Westgate, Lincoln. 

Boss Bates, Springfield. 

Fred B. Garver, Fairfield. 

Fred G. Harden, Liberty. 

John J. Bean, Lincoln. 

Charles Wake, University 
Place. 

j^farv E. Patterson. Lincoln. 

Evan T. Roberts, Lincoln. 

Joseph A. Williams, Lincoln. 

Frank E. Jackson, Lincoln. 

Edwin S. Ripley, Lincoln. 

^Farthn. J. Prey, Lincoln. 

Drnsilla C. Mockridge, Lin- 
coln. 

Walter S. AYhitten, Lincoln. 



Charlotte Templet on, Tjin- 
coln. 

John 'H. Carpenter, Lincoln. 

E. Joanna llagev, Lincoln. 

l^^leanor Dui'lield, Lincoln. 

Lucy T. Wood, Lincoln. 

Arthur S. North, Lincoln. 

Charles C. Quiggie, liincoln. 

Thomas S. Allen, Lincoln. 

Charles J. Bills, Lincoln. 

William A. ^^^lg■ner, Lincoln. 

Ernest H. Phelps, Lincoln. 

Willis J. Evestone, Lincoln. 

S. Doty. McCool. 

A. E. Hildebrand, Gretna. 

Charles H. Morrill, Lincoln. 

Samuel L. Caldwell, Lincoln. 

Walter K. Jewett, Lincoln. 

Yictor F. Clark, Neligh. 

IMrs. Emma A. Jolmson, 
Mead. 

Dr. Henry Y. Bate,^.. Bel- 
grade. 

Margaret J. Cams, Lincoln. 

Alyrtie P. At wood, Lincoln. 

Mrs. L. AV. C^olby, Beatrice. 
|Joh_n A. Bingham, Lincoln. 

John j\f. Osborne, Pawnee 
^ City. 

Jonathan Edwards, Omaha. 

George AV. Davenport, Lin- 
coln. 

Henry C. AltMaken, Platts- 
mouth. 

George AA^ Hansen, Fairbury. 
- John F. Eveland, Lincoln. 

John F. Kees, Beatrice. 

Harry D. Lute, Paxton. 

]Mrs. Mary J. Denton, Den- 
ton. 

Rev. John E. Ingham, Lin- 
coln. 

Airs. Kittie ^FrGrew. Auburn. 

Dr. Samuel \s . McGrew, Au- 
burn. 



286 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The Secretaiy tlicn proposed for lionorar}' ineml)erslnp the 
following : 

Horace E. Deemer, Red Oak, Iowa. 
William J. Leverett, Council [fluffs, Iowa. 

On motion the Secretary' was instructed to cast the iinau- 
imoiis ballot of the members pi-esent for the election of these 
gentlemen to honorary membership. 

The Secretary: The ballot is so cast. 

Then followed the election of officers for the ensuing year. 
George D. Bennett moved that "the present oflicers be re- 
elected to succeed themselves as follows: 

President, George L. INliller, Oniaha; 
1st Vice-President, Robert Harvey, St. Paul ; 
2d Vice-President, James E. North. Columbus : 
Secretary, Clarence S. Paine, Lincoln; 
Treasurer, Stephen L. Geisthardt, Lincoln." 

There being no other nominations. Mr. Sa'nuel !>. Tiams 
moved that the rules be suspended and the Secretary be in- 
structed to cast the ballot of the Society for the officers 
named. Mr. H. H. Wilson moved to amend by making it the 
duty of the mover of the motion to cast the ballot. The 
amendment was accepted. The question upon the motion was 
put by the Secretary and unanimously carried. The ballot 
being cast by ^Fr. liams, the following were declared by the 
President to be the duly elect(\l officers of the Society for the 
yenr 1908: 

President George I;. Miller, Ojuaha 

1st Vice-President , . . .Robert Harvey, St. Paul 

2d Vice-President James E. North, Columbus 

Secretary Clarence S. Paine, Lincoln 

Treasurer Stephen L. Geisthardt, Lincoln 

The following amendments to the Constitution, recom- 
mended by the Executive Board, were then presented bv the 
Secretary and ordered laid upon the table: 



PllOCEEDINGS 190T. 287 

First — To aiueud article IV, second paragraph, by strikino- 
out "iipou signing blank nicnibersliip form, furnished by the 
Secretary," and substituting therefor the following: "pro- 
vided further, that any person donating to the Society prop- 
erty to the value of |3 shall be entitled to active membership 
without payment of mend)ership fee, and be considered an 
active member during the continuance of such loan, without 
payment of fee.'" 

Second — To amend article IV, third ])aragraph, by striking 
out the words "the Secretary shall furnish each life member 
with an engraved certificate of the same, suitable for fram- 
ing," and substituting therefor the words "said life member- 
ship shall entitle the holder to all the privileges of the So- 
ciety, including the right to vote, and to receive publications 
without the i^ayment of membership fee or other dues." 

Third^To amend article lY, paragraph four, by adding 
the following: "The Secretarv shall furnish" each member 
an engraved certificate of membership, suitable for framing." 

Fourth — To amend article IV by the addition of another 
paragraph as follows : "Any society in Nel)raska, organized 
for the purpose of gathering and preserving facts relative to 
the history of this state and of its individual citizens, may, 
upon application, becojne an auxiliary mendier of this So- 
ciety, be represented at all general meetings thereof l.y one 
delegate, and make a report of its work annual ly to this 
Society." 

Fifth — To amend article V, fourth paragraiih, by strik- 
ing out the words "shall collect and." 

Sixth — To amend article V, fifth pai'agraph, by inseiling 
after the word "correspondence" the following: "he shall col- 
lect all membership fees or oth<^r moneys due to the Society, 
and turn the same over to the Treasurer, taking his receipt 

therefor." 

The regular program was then presented as follows: 

Piano solo ^li^^ :Marnia ITunti r 

Address, "The Part of Iowa in the Organization of Ne- 
braska," Horace F. Deemer 



288 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Vocal solo . .Mrs. Kittle Austin Aylsworth 

Address, "The Last Battle Between the Pawnee and 

Sioux in Nebraska" YVilliaui Z. Taylor 

The meeting was then, by the President, declai'ed ad- 
journed. 

CiiARENCJE S. Paine, 

Secretary. 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31,. 1907. 

Members of the NehrasJca State Historical Society: 

In submitting this, my first annual report, I do it with a 
feeling that, hoAvever much has been accomj)lished in the past 
year, it must seem little indeed when compared with what 
remains to be done to place this Society in that commanding 
position among similar institutions which it ought to occupy. 
My predecessors in office laid well the foundation for a 
great historical library and museum, and the citizens of Ne- 
braska owe to them, for their self-sacrificing labors, a debt 
which will never be liquidated. Considering the small ap- 
propriations available and the consequent lack of help and 
of facilities, they assembled an immense quantity of very val- 
uable material, which onlv needed to be made accessible in 
order to be of inestimabUi benefit to historians, students, 
scientists, and all investigators. The sorting, arrangiug, 
classifying, and cataloguing of this material lias been the 
principal work of your present S(K-retary and his assistants 
during the past montlis. While it can not be said that this 
work is wholly coinpleted, wo are at least able to report sub- 
stantial i^rogress. 

REVIEW OF THE PAST. 

The Nebraska State Historical Society was organized in 
1878, but for some years little more was attempted than to 
maintain an organization and liold annual meetings, at which 



REPORT OF SECRETARY 1907. 289 

historical addresses were delivered. The first volume of 
transactions and reports was issued from the press in 1885. 
During the next eight years a good start was made in the 
collection of Nebraska newspapers and in the accumulation 
of a library. There were also published, during this }»eriod, 
three more volumes of transactions and reports. In 1895, 
with an increased appropriation and the ojoening of the ne^^' 
rooms provided by the University, which it then seemed would 
afford ami)le accommodations for years to come, the work of 
the Society took on new life and vigor. Rapid progress was 
made in the next few years, and the biennial appropriations 
increased from |1,000 in 1883 to 110,000 in 1901, and alto- 
gether ten volumes of publications had been issued, the last 
of these appearing in July, 1902. No more volumes were 
published until 1906 when a start was made on the series 
known as "The Debates and Proceedings in the Nebraska 
Constitutional Conventions." The first voluuic of this series 
appeared in January, 1907, the second will soon be delivered, 
and the third is partly in type. There will be four volumes 
of this series. The present volume of Proceedings and Col- 
lections is designated Vol. X, Second Series, to make allow- 
ance for the two volumes of the constitutional series yet to 
come. 

OUTLINE OF THE YEAR'S WORK. 

Among the special lines of work which we have undertaken 
during the year may be mentioned the following: the organ- 
izing and cataloguing of the library and museum; the invoic- 
ing, classifying, and arranging of our exchange material ; the 
providing of a complete system of permanent financial I'ec- 
ords; the reorganization of the N(.^braska Territorial Pioneei's' 
Association and the building up of its membershi]); the ac- 
quisition of new members for the Historical Society and the 
correction of its membership roll ; and the preparation of a 
miscellaneous volume covering the procee<lings of t\ut So- 
ciety from 1901 to 1907 inclusive. The accomplishment of 
these things has led to the doing of many others of minor con- 

19 



290 NEBllASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

sequence, which in the end will result in great good to the 
Society. 

We have also given special attention to the establishment 
of friendly relations and the j)erfectiug of exchange arrange- 
ments with the historical societies of other states. An espe- 
cial effort has been made to get into personal toucli with all 
of these societies, to keep in constant communication with 
them, and to effect the exchange of such duplicate material 
as we have accumulated for such as might be had from these 
various societies. Your Secretary has personally and very 
kirgely at his own expense visited all of the societies of neigh- 
boring states and made himself familiar with their plans and 
purposes. These visits have tended to the establisliment of a 
closer relationship with these societies, ^^■hich can but result 
in good to our work in the future. 

In line with this idea, au invitation was extended some 
months ago to the secretaries or librarians of all the historical 
societies of the Mississippi valley to meet in Lincoln, October 
17-18, 1907, for the purpose of forming an organization for 
the advancement of historical research, and the collection 
and conservation of historical material in tliese western 
states. In response to this invitation t'lere assembled in Lin- 
coln on the dates named the rejjresentatives of several of the 
most progressive of these societies. A formal meetiag was 
held in the Universit}^ Chapel, and several business sessions 
v\('re held at the rooms of the Historical Societv, which re- 
suited in the organization of the ^Mississippi Valley Historical 
Association, which held its second meetiua- in Madison, Wis- 
cousin, December 28, 1907. 

BUILDIIS G PROPOSITION. 

From 1902 to 1907 the efforts of the Board and its officers 
seem to have been devoted chieHy to the work of securing a 
new and permanent home for the library and collections of 
the Society, although progress was umde in building up the 
]nuseum during these vears. Little encouragement was given 
the building proposition until the last legislature made an 



REPORT OF SECRETARY 1907. 201 

appropriation of |25,000 "to be expended in tire eonstruction 
and equipment of tlie basement story of a fireproof wing of a 
buildingv" provided that the citv of Lincoln within two years 
from the date of the act should donate to the State Historical 
Society block 29 in the city of Lincoln, knoAvn as "State His- 
torical Society Block, or property of equal value." This act 
was approved by the Governor April 10, 1907;, and became 
effective July 1 following. Soon after the passage of the act, 
committees were appointed b}^ your Board of Directors and 
by the city council of Lincoln for the purpose of devising 
some i)lan to comph^ with the provisions of the act. One 
ioint meeting was held bv these comuiittees, which resulted 
only in revealing the fact that there a\ as pronounced opposi- 
tion on the part of the city government, backed by a consid- 
erable public sentiment, against conve^^ing to the Historical 
Society iNIarket Square or any part tliereof. Therefore, if the 
Historical Society is to benefit by this act, it is incumbent 
upon the city of Lincoln to provide some other "property of 
equal value." 

While cooperating to secure the block now known as INLir- 
ket Square for the site of the proposed ILill of History and 
Archives, because there were those who seemed favorable to 
this location, your Secretary is and has been from the first 
opposed to this site. First and chiefly because of its sur- 
roundings, which do not give promise of imi^rovement ; sec- 
ond, because the continued insistence upon this site, and the 
attempt to array Omaha and the country districts against 
Lincoln, is liable to alienate a very large number of influen- 
tial friends, and possibly defeat any effort to secure another 
site; third, as a citizen and taxpayer of Lincoln he is opposed 
to cfivino' to the Historical Societv a block of ground that is 
worth for commercial uses |50,000, when other properties of 
equal if not greater value for the purposes of the Society 
are to be had for much less money. This matter can well bo 
left to our public-spirited INIayor and business-like Council 
to provide a site conforming to the laAV, and that in ample 
time to make use of the appropriation before it lapses. This 



292 



NEBRASKA STATE ITISTOIllCAL SOCIETY. 



much coiilidi'uc'e may be placed in the intelligence, public 
spirit, and civic pride of Lincoln public officials and 
taxpayers. 

DIVERSITY OF WORK. 

The varied activities of the Nebraska State Historical So- 
ciety and the great variety and scope of its enterprises are 
indicated bv the folloAN'ing divisions into wliich the work un- 
dertaken by the Society naturally divides itself: 



First . . . Library. 
Second . . . INfnseum. 
Third . . . Field work. 
Fourth . . . Legislative Kefcrence liureau. 
Fifth . . . Newspaper collection. 
Sixth . . . Publication of volumes, pamphlets, 

circulars, etc. 
. lUireau of exchanges and distril)U- 
tion of i)ublications. 
Care of duplicate matcnnal foi^ ex- 
change purposes. 
Extension work for the Society. 
Fntei'tainment of visitors. 
. ('orresi^ondence and bookkeeping. 
. business management. 
. Preparation of annual program. 

Research work. 
. Daily care of rooms and collections. 
The erection of monuments or other- 
wise marking historic spots. 

These divisions may be subdivided in turn, until the amount 
of work shown to be necessary would seem almost disheart- 
ening in view of the limited number of employees. In a \vor<t, 
the work of the Society has grown out of all proportion to the 
ratio of increase in the appropriations, and if Nebraska is to 
maintain her j)lace and reputaticui among the sisterhood of 
states in this work of preserving the present for the future, 



Seventh 



Eighth 



Ninth 

Tenth 

Eleventh 

Twelfth 

Thirteenth 

Fourteenth 

Fifteenth 

Sixteenth 



REPORT OF SKCRKTAKY 1907. 293 

two tliiii2:s are absolutely uecessarv : first, a eoiiiiiiodious fire- 
proof building; second, appropriations for maintenance large 
enough to enable the Society to <lo the work for which it was 
created. 

The character and variety of this ^^'ork is well illustrated 
by a few of the requests, selected at random, from among the 
hundreds received by the Secretary the last few months. 

A prominent member of the Woman's C'lub of Hastings, 
Nebraska, wants material for the preparation of a paper on 
the early exiilorations in the Nebraska country. 

A pioneer lady of Falls City wants to know where she can 
find personal reminiscences of early Nebraska. 

The Secretary of the Nemaha Countv Historical Society 
wants a photograph of a distinguished pioneer of that countj^ 

A citizen of Cass county inquires by long distance tele- 
phone the date of the great blizzard in Nebraska. 

An attorney of Dundy county, Nebraska, requests by first 
mail a certified copy of a legal notice appearing in a paper 
of that county several years ago. 

A high school girl of Hall county, Nebraska, wants data 
concerning the early settlement of that county. 

The Governor of the state forwards a request from an east- 
ern magazine for a historical sketch of Nebraska. 

An eastern publication requests biographical sketches of 
several leading Nebraskans, by first mail. 

A Chicago lawyer wants information concerning one of the 
early judges of Nebraska territorj^ 

A prominent lady of Nebraska, a member of the Society 
and a taxpayer, requests the assistance of the Society in 
tracing her genealogy. 

A gentleman of New York city wants a pamphlet issued 
by the department of education of Nebraska in 1898. 

These and other requests of like character follow each 
other so closely that a good stenographer can be kept busy 
writing letters explaining to these people the reasons why 
the Historical Society can not do the work .^r which it is 
supposed to exist. 



2\)i IS'EnilASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

LIBRARY. 

Your special attention is directed to the report of tlie Li- 
brarian, which shows a total of 28,550 titles in the li])rary, 
consisting of western history, description, and travel, colonial 
records, government and state departmental reports, genea- 
logical publications, the reports of antiquarian, anthropolog- 
ical, historical, genealogical, and scientific societies; state, 
county, and town histories; bound magazines; a A'aried col- 
lection by Nebraska authors, and miscellaneous volumes cov- 
ering nearly the whole range of regular library classification. 
In addition to the books and pamphlets, the library has ac- 
quired many rare manuscripts, documents, and maps, and 
many portraits and biographies of Nebraskans. 

This report also shows that the Society has exchanged, 
during the past year, 900 duplicate volumes for 1,400 volumes 
that have been added to the library, and that there are now 
on hand, for exchange purposes, 25,115 duplicates. These 
duplicates may be readily exchanged for almost anything in 
the book line that mav be needed for the librarv. 

In the purchase of books during the past year we have lim- 
ited ourselves to those which it was absolutely necessary that 
our library should have, leaving out of the question those 
that could be had at any time, anil selecting only those which, 
because of their rarity, must be secured at once, in order to 
make sure of their acquisition. 

You will note that a total of only |245.80 has been ex]>ended 
for books for the librarv during the vear. It has been the 
judgment of your Secretary, approved by the library com- 
mittee, that we should seek to make the books we had access- 
ible before buying new ones. The librar^^ committee has been 
especially active and helpful during the year. 

Among those making valuable donations to the library dur- 
ing the past year are N. C. Abbott, Tekamah; John L, Pierce, 
Lincoln; Hon. H. M. Eaton, Lincoln; Gov. George L. Shel- 
don; Mrs. E. C. Baker, Miller; Dr. David Hershey, Nebraska 



REPORT OF SECRETARY 1907. 295 

City; William Hayward, Nebraska City; S. A. Gardiner, 
Lincoln; W, J. Eyestoue, Lincoln; jMiss Emma Morton, Ne- 
braska City; Mrs. Caroline Morton, Nebraska City; Mrs. 
Agnes D. Chapman, Plattsmoiith; M. L. Learned, Omaha; 
Charles K. Ott, Tekamali; Horace S. Wiggins, Lincoln; and 
Richard L. Metcalfe, Lincoln. 

MUSEUM. 

The museum is the most popular feature of the work of the 
Historical Society. It is a conservative estimate to say that 
80 ]}er cent of all the visitors to the Society come for the ex- 
press purpose of viewing the museum. These visitors are not 
limited to residents of Lincoln, nor even of Nebraska, but rep- 
resent many states of the Union, and even foreign countries. 
The museum, which contains approximately 28,100 objects, is 
free to visitors, and is open from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. each 
week dav. The assembled relics are verv largelv donations 
from patriotic citizens, or loans placed witli the Society for 
safe-keeping. 

Mr. Blackman has finished during the past year a complete 
catalogue of the articles in the museum, Avhicli is appended to 
his rei^ort and is included in this volume. ]Mr. lllackman's 
report, which you are asked to read, covers in review prac- 
tically all of the work accomplished by this department since 
its organization under his direction. INlr. George W. Martin, 
secretary of the Kansas State Historical Societ}-, in his re- 
port for 1907, just received, says: "[ find Nebraska away 
ahead of Kansas in archeological and ethnological matters." 
This is a very high commendation coming from one who is so 
familiar with the great woi'k that has been done by the Kan- 
sas Society. • 

Larger quarters are imperative for the work of this depart- 
ment, and unless they are soon provided the interests of the 
Society will materially suffer, llecause of our inability to 
receive and care for numerous collections of historical relics 



296 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and curios that have been offered, many local museums have 
been established in count}^ courthouses, under the auspices 
of county historical societies; and if this policy is continued, 
it will mean a great number of museums distributed over the 
state, instead of one great collection here in the capital city, 
where it will be easy of access to all the people. 

FIELD WORK. 

The field work of the ISociety, which has been under the 
direction of Mr. Addison E, Sheldon, might easily occupy the 
time of half a dozen men, and if properly carried out would 
mean an expenditure of a large sum of money annually for 
traveling expenses. All of the state institutions should be 
visited from time to time, and periodical visits should be made 
to all of the county seats to secure such records as the laAV 
provides may be turned over to this Society as custodian. 

All over the state public records are being destroyed that 
would be of very great value to future historians, and other 
public documents of far greater value are in constant danger 
from loss by fire, stored as they often are in the basements of 
frame buildings. 

Your Secretar^^ has takei} this matter up with various 
county boards, and nearly all have been found entirely will- 
ing to turn over these archives to the Historical Society, it be- 
ing simply a question of our ability to send a man to sort, 
box, and shix) them, and to find a i)kice to store tliem upon 
their arrival here. This latter problem will be solved only 
with the erection of a new building. 

Another j)hase of the work, properly coming under this 
head, is the gathering of old libraries, original manuscripts, 
correspondence, and portraits of distinguished Nebraskans, 
who have been prominent in the public life of the common- 
wealth. Some work has been done along this Hue by Mr. 
Sheldon, the most notable illustration of which lias been the 
acquisition of the correspondence and papc^rs of the late 



KEl'ORT OF SKCKETARY 1907. 297 

Judge ^laxwcll. . Your Secretary has also been able to re- 
cently secure the correspondence and papers of the late Judge 
Samuel M. C'hapman of Plattsmouth. 

LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE BUREAU. 

Under the direction of ]Mr. Addison E. Sheldon, this bureau 
rendered faithful service to the members of the last legisla- 
ture, a room in the capitol building being provided for its use 
during the session. New material is constantly being added, 
especially upon such subjects as will likely receive the atten- 
tion of the next legislature. Leave of absence was grantejcl 
Mr. Sheldon from October 1, 1907, to June 1, 1908, to pursue 
studies in Columbia University', the work of tlie department 
being left to his assistant, Mr. William E. Hannan. 

The organization of this bureau, as a separate and distinct 
department of the Historical Society, under a secretary, with 
full power to employ his own assistants, contract any in- 
debtedness, and do all things necessary to the conduct of th(,' 
department is not likely to prove entirely satisfactory in 
practice. In the judgment of your Secretary this bureau 
should not be conducted as an independent enterprise at the 
expense of the Historical Society, but the work should be left 
to the Society itself. It is well to avoid the machinery of a 
separate department, which is certain to lead to confusion, 
conflict of authority, and duplication of material. 

The state of Wisconsin was the first to establish a legisla- 
tive reference department, and what has come to be known 
as the "Wisconsin plan'' has been largely copied in other 
states. In Wisconsin this department is maintained in tlu^ 
capital, and is under the control of the free library commis- 
sion of that state. It may yet be found advisable to phic(> the 
work in this state under the direction of the Nelii-aska Pul»li«' 
Library Commission, or establish it upon an independent 
basis in such manner as to insure its freedom from partisan 
bias or manipulation. 



298 NEUUASKA STATP: IlISTOIMCAL SOCIETY, 

NEWSPAPER DEPARTMENT. 

Of the G13 newspapers published iu Nebraska, this Society 
is regularly receiving 308, and an earnest elt'ort is being di- 
rected toward securing those that are not now on our list. 
There are also received fifteen papers from other states, many 
of them being among the leading dailies of the country. All 
papers are first placed upon the racks in the reading room, 
and as they accumulate, they are tied up carefully and laid 
away for the binder}^ All duplicates are clipped, the clip- 
pings pasted on bristol board and filed away in proper order. 

The Society has altogether 2,070 bound volumes of Ne- 
braska papers and 253 bound volumes of papers from neigh- 
boring states. One hundred and sixty-four volumes have 
been bound during the past year, and there are now on hand 
ready for binding 540 volumes. The next step will be to pro- 
vide a card catalogue for these volumes. There is no more 
important or valuable feature of the Society's work, as is 
daily demonstrated, than the preservation of these newspaper 
files. These pajjers will be of the greatest value to the future 
historian, and are constantly in demand in court proceedings 
and for private use. 

This department, including the clipping bureau, is under 
the direction of Mr. William E. Ilannnn, who has organized 
the work in such systematic manner as to make it of the 
greatest possible benefit to the public. 

EXCPIANGES. 

Under the law this Society is entitled to receive fifty copies 
of every publication put out by the state, except the Supreme 
Court reports. Tliese public documents accumulate very rap- 
idly, and it is important that they be exchanged witli the 
libraries and historical societies of other states for such du- 
plicate material as they may have that will be useful to us. 
The distribution of these departmental reports of the state is 



REPORT OF SECRETARY 1907. 299 

imj)ortaut, as they convey authentic infoiination regarding 
the historj', institutions, resources, and possibilities of Ne- 
braska. The idea of spending public money for the printing 
of these reports, and then allowing them to mould and decay 
by hundreds and thousands in dark, damjj vaults, is poor 
economy, if not a criminal waste of public money. To handle 
these volumes, receive them, invoice them, box them, and ship 
them out requires an endless amount of labor, but it is ])rolit- 
able to the Society and to the state. 

A complete list of all exchanges material on hand is being 
prepared, and should be printed and sent to all libraries. 
Such a list has already l)een printed of our own publications 
with prices of same, and is appended to this report. This 
Society has reached a point where it can no longer continue 
to furnish all of its publications in even exchange for all the 
publications of 3'Ounger and weaker societies which issue a 
small volume at rare intervals. 

PORTRAITS. 

A collection of portraits of prominent pioneers in crayon, 
pastel, and oil is made a special feature of the work of nearly 
every historical society. Little has been done by the Ne- 
braska Society in this direction. Chiefly, it is supposed, on 
account of the lack of Avail space. Now, however, with the 
prospect of a new building, in which a suitable portrait gal- 
lery may be provided for, it would seem a wise course to l)egin 
an active campaign to secure framed likenesses of such men 
and women as have left their impress upon the history of the 
state. Your Secretary has taken tlie matter up with the sur- 
viving relatives of pioneers who have had a prominent place 
in the history of the commonwealth, and some portraits have 
been secured and others are promised for the future. Upon 
the recommendation of the Secretary, endorsed by the Ex- 
ecutive Board, "your President has appointed a committee of 
three members, whose dutv it shall be to select those Avho are 



300 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to be honored by a place in this collection. This committee 
is composed of Mrs. A. J. Sawyer, Lincoln; Lion. Melville R. 
Hopewell, Tekanmh; P'rancis E. AVhite, Omaha. 

The Society has at this time framed portraits of the 
following : 

Hon. J. Sterlin"- IMorton. Hon. William J. Brvan. 

Dr. (reori»e L. Miller. Mrs, Williain J. lirvan. 

Gov. Ivobert AV. Furnas. Gov. James E. Boyd. 

Gen. John M. Tha^^er. Gov. William A. Poynter. 

Gov. David Butler. Hon. Elmer S. Dundy. 

Gov. Alvin Saunders. Hon. Genio M. Lambertsou, 

Gov. Thomas B. Cuming. Hon. John Gillespie. 

Gov. George L. Sheldon. Hon. Stephen B. l^oun'^' 

It is hoped that this number may be doubled during the 
coming year. 

An especial effort should be made to secure enlarged por- 
traits of all the governors of the territory and state. Aside 
from the historical value of such pictures, there is no feature 
of the work which will attract more general attention and 
commendation than a collection of these portraits. 

The Society has man}^ photographs of pioneers, lantern 
slides, and numerous views of historic scenes, and in many 
cases owns also the original negative's, Tliese ])hotograplis, 
lantern slides, and negatives, to the number of 1,2(10, liave 
been systematically arranged in liling cabinets and a card 
catalogue made of the whole, 

RESEARCH WORK, 

There is an endless amount of research work along his- 
torical and scientific lines that might, and perhaps ouglit to 
be, - undertaken by this Society, Your present Secretary is 
not opposed to this line of work, but on tfie contrary is en- 
thusiastically in favor of it. He believes that this work, 
when undertaken, should be done by members of the office 



REPOKT OF SECRETARY 1907. 301 

Staff, for and in the name of the State Historical Society, and 
that the Society should publish the results of such research. 
He is not, however, in favor of members of the office staff de- 
voting time which is paid for by the Historical Society to 
work of this character, for and in the name of other institu- 
tions, for a pecuniary consideration. AVhile he believes in 
advertising the work of the State Historical Society and the 
scholarly ability of its corps of workers, he does not believe 
that salaried employees of the Society should devote any part 
of their time, during office hours, to work which is undertaken 
for their personal financial gain. 

NEBRASKA TERRITORIAL PIONEERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The work of this organization is so closely allied with the 
work of the Nebraska State Historical Society that it has 
been the practice in the past to conduct its business from the 
office of the Historical Society, the necessary expenses of the 
Association being paid out of the funds of the Society'. Your 
Secretary, as Secretary-Treasurer of the Territorial Pioneers' 
Association, has been able, through the accession of new mein- 
bers, to defray most of the expenses of the Pioneers' Associa- 
tion from the treasury of that organization, and the Asso- 
ciation is in a fair way to become self-supporting. 

On August 30-31 the Territorial Pioneers' executive com- 
mittee planned for and carried out a celebration, picnic, and 
banquet, which exceeded in point of interest and attendance 
any similar meeting ever lield in Lincoln. There were 212 
who partook of the banquet at Capital Beach; sixty-five mem- 
bers were added to the Pioneers' Association, and twenty- 
seven to the State Historical Society. An engraved certifi- 
cate of membership has been provided for tlie Territorial 
Pioneers' Association, which will be paid for out of the funds 
now in its treasury. It is recommended tliat there be pub- 
lished in the next volume of Proceedings and Collections the 
official proceedings of the Territorial Pioneers' Association 
with the constitution and roster of that organization. 



S02 NEBKASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

MARKING HISTORIC SITES. 

Ill this connection 3^0111' attention is directed to the report 
of Mr. Eobert Harvey, chairman of the special committee on 
marking historic sites, Avhich is made a part of tliis report. 
The importance of erecting monnments to marlv the Oregon 
Trail and other historic spots in Nebraska 1ms frequently 
been discussed in the meetings of this Society, and much in- 
terest has been created in the subject throughout the state. 
But two monuments have been erected, one on th(i_ Platte 
river opposite Fremont, placed by the Historical Society to 
mark the site where the first council was held b}' representa- 
tives of the territorial government of Nebraska with the 
Pawnee tribe of Indians, in 1855. The other monument was 
erected at Ft. Calhoun by this Society and the Daughters of 
the American Revolution, to commemorate the council held 
by Lewis and Clark with the Indians at Council Bluff iu 
1804. There are several other points in Nebraska where mon- 
uments should be erected, such as the grave of Logan Fon- 
tenelle, the site of the Merrill mission building on the Platte 
river, the site of Manuel Lisa's trading post near the ol<l vil- 
lage of Rockport, and the plat of ground formerly occupied 
by Ft. Kearn^^ Markers should also be placed all along the 
line of the Oregon Trail and the old jNIormon Trail. 

New interest has been aroused in this subject by tlie recent 
activities along these lines in the state of Kansas. The peo- 
ple of Kansas have erected many monuments, but no work 
of this character which they have yet undertaken approaches 
in importance the nuirking of the Santa Fe trail across that 
state. This has been accomplished by the Daughters of the 
American Revolution working with the State Historical So- 
ciety of Kansas. The Kansas legislature appropriated |1,000 
to aid the work, and a penny collection taken among the 
school children netted |584.40. The markers were of Okla- 
homa red granite, and cost, including the lettering, |16 each; 
they were delivered free- of cost bv the Santa Fe railroad to 



REPORT OF .SECRETARY 1907. 303 

all points along its lines. The citizens of the twenty-one 
counties through which the trail lay undertook, at their own 
expense, to set these markers. AAlth this assistance and the 
money received from the legislature and the school children, 
it was possible to erect ninety markers at a cost of about |17 
each. There were also six special markers, paid for by local 
chapters of the D. A. R., making a total of ninety-six monu- 
ments erected along that historic trail. 

The result of these efforts led the President of this Society 
to open negotiations with the Daughters of the American 
Revolution in this state, with a view to arriving at some plan 
of cooperation for marking these important trails in Ne- 
braska. The Nebraska conference of the D. A. R. adopted a 
resolution authorizing the state regent to "appoint a com- 
mittee to cooperate with the State Historical Society in en- 
deavoring to permanently mark the Oregon Trail through 
Nebraska." Mrs. A. H. Lettou, state regent, appointed as 
such committee, Mrs. J. J. Stubbs, Omaha; :Mrs. S. B. Pound, 
Lincoln; and Mrs. G. H. Rrash, Beatrice. This committee 
will soon meet with representatives of the Historical Society 
to discuss plans for this important work. 

Your attention is called to a recommendation of President 
Miller, that this Society cooperate in the plan to establish a 
national park and reserve, embracing the site of historic Fort 
Kearny. This proposition has received the endorsement of 
vour board of directors, and Mr. A. E. Sheldon was author- 
ized to prepare the following memorial to Congress to be 
presented at this meeting, in the hope that some affirmative 
action might be taken at once. 

MEMORIAL TO CONGRESS IN BEHALF OF A UNITED STATES 
MILITARY RESER^^\TION AT FORT KEARNY. 

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States : 
Whereas, Fort Kearny, Nebraska, founded in 18-18, was 
for many years the principal frontier defense of settlers and 



304 NEBRASKA STAT]] HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the great station upon the overland trail from the Alissouri 
river to the mountains and to California and Oregon and, 

Whereas, there still remain earthworks and fortiticatious 
upon the site of the fort marking its location, associated v\'ith 
these memories of the d^ys when they were constructed and 
in use; and, 

Whereas, a movement is now on foot for the establishment 
of a United States Reservation at this point, therefore. 

The Nebraska State Historical Society respectfully 
petitions Congress to iDernmnently preserve and commem- 
orate this spot around whose early military existence and 
achievements so many associations of the national life 
gather. 

COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 

There have of late jears been organized many county his- 
torical societies, and numerous local associations of old set- 
tlers. Your Secretary believes that it should be the policy 
of this Society to encourage these local societies, establisli 
and maintain the closest relations possible with them, and 
that some permanent form of affiliation should be planned. 
It is recommended also that oflicers of this Society and mem- 
bers of the office staff be sent to represent the Society at all 
public gatherings of pioneers; to deliver addresses whenever 
invitations may be received, and to do everything possible to 
bind these organizations to the state soeietv. 

NECROLOGY. 

The following deaths have occurred among the members 
of the Nebraska State Historical Society since the date of the 
last report published : 

Adair, William. Bruner, Uriah. 

Annin, William E. Blakeley, Nathan. 

Ball, Franklin. Cox, William W. 

BoAven, William R. Craig, Hiram. 

Bowers, William D. Croxtou, John H. 



KEPORT OF SKCRETAKY 1907 



305 



Chapman, Saiiiiicl M. 
Clark, Elias H. 
Cox, Samuel D. 
Davis, William R, 
Darling, Charles W. 
Fort, Irvin A. 
Furnas, Robert W. 
Garber, Gov. Silas. 
Gere, Charles H. 
Gilmore, Benjamin. 
Godfrey, Alfonso. 
Gould, Charles H. 
Goudj, Alexander K. 
Grey, Jennie Emerson. 
Hartman, Christian. 
Hoover, William H. 
Jones, Alfred D. 
Kountze, Herman. • 
Lemon, Thomas B. 
Leaming, Silas T. 
J^aMaster, Joseph E. 
Lamb, Charles. 
Lambertson, Genio M. 
Link, Dr. Harvey. 
Longsdorf, Henry A. 
Lowe, S. E. 
:\L^rtin, W. F. 
MaeCuaig, Donald. _ 
MacAIiirphy, John A. 



Macfarland, John 1). 
^Lithewson, Dr. H. B. 
Maxwell, Judge Samuel. 
Morgan, Thoinas P. 
Morin, Edward. 
Morton, J. Sterling. 
jMcIntyre, Edmund. 
Pierce, Capt. Charles W. 
Paiker, W. H. 
Riehards, Lucius C. 
Rosewater, Edward, 
liice, C. E. 

Richards, Mrs. jMazie Boone. 
Rolfe, DeForest P. 
Shedd, Hibbard H. 
Sprick, Henry, 
Svdenham, IMoses H. 
Spearman, Frank H. 
Thayer, Gov. John M. 
Tibbies, Mrs Yosette La 

Flesche. 
Treeman, Liuiau B. 
l^pton, Samuel E, 
Vifquain, Victor. 
>Villiams, Oliver T. B. 
\Voohvorth, James M. 
Waters, Frank R. 
Westerfleld, Samuel F. 



Brief biographical notices of these deceased members w il! 
be published in the next volume. 



MEMBERSHIP. 



As nearlv as can be determined from the records, there are 
446 active members of the Society, 80 honorary members and 



20 



306 NEBUAiSKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

66 deceased i^ersous who have beeii elected to membersliip in 
the Society. Two himdred and four i^ersons have been elected 
to active membership during' the year just past, of whom 175 
have paid their membership fee. During- the early years the 
records Avere not very carefully kept, and it is no uncommon 
thing to find persons whom the records show to have been 
(dected to membership, and who claim to have paid their fee to 
some one at some time. The names of many of these, how- 
I'ver, never got on to the treasurer's books, and we have 
thought it liest to accept their statements in the absence of 
any proof of their error. There are many, too, whose names' 
appear upon the records as having been elected to membershi]) 
who do not even claim to have paid their membership fee. 
These we have eliminated from the membership roll. IMany 
who have been elected to active memlx-rship and have paid 
their fee have, by their removal from the state, forfeited their 
claim to active membership in the Society. 

The constitution makes it the duty of the Secretary to pro- 
vide an engraved certificate of membership to be furnished 
to each life member. This mndo it necessary that such a 
certificate should be provided, and as the principal cost is in 
the engraving, it is recommended that a certificate of mem- 
bership be furnished to all members of the Society. 

FINANCES. 

A complete system of financial records has been provided 
for the Society under the direction of JMr. Horace S. "Wig- 
gins. This will enable those in authority to keep a better 
check upon expenditures, to e(iualize the expenses of the 
A^arious departments, and to prevent any overdrafts. It will 
enable the Board of Directors to have positive knowledge at 
all times of the exact financial condition of the Society. 

The last legislature made an ap])ropriation of |15,000 for 
the work of the Society for the biennium. This was an in- 
crease of |2,500 over the appropriation of the last biennium. 
In addition to this there was also appropriated |25,000 for a 



UEt»ORT OF SECRETARY 1907. 307 

building fund, contingent upon a site being donated by the 
city of Lincoln. This latter appropriation will lapse August 
1, 1909. 

Of the general appropriation of 1907, there has been ex- 
pended from iVpiil 1, 1907, to January 1, 1908, a total of 
14,864.83, leaving a balance of |10,135.17 for the remaining 
fifteen months of the biennium. 

To obtain th(^ amount of tlie actual expense of the year 
there should be deducted from the total expenditures, as 
shown in the following statement, the sum of 1 102.40, the 
amount of indebtedness against tlie Historical Society due 
and unpaid on January 1, 1907. 

FINANCIAL STATE MENT. 

Cash in hands of Treasurer, January 

1, 1907 , I 228 79 

Balance of 1905 genc^ral appropria- 
tion unexpended January 1, 1907. . 1,270 50 

Appropriation 1907, availabh^ April 

f, 1907 15,000 00 

Total 110,505 35 

Receipts January 1 to December 31, 1907 — 

Membership fees $ 272 00 

Sale of books 12 50 

I 284 50 

Total 110,789 85 

Expenditures from January 1 to December 31, 1907 — 

Salaries I 3,430 42 

Postage ' 150 50 

Express 140 49 

Freight and drayage 70 17 

Telephone and telegraph 78 97 

Traveling expenses 131 85 

Extra labor 839 87 

Books purchased 245 80 



308 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Expenditures — Con. 

Printing I 99 80 

IJindiug newspapers 128 30 

IMiotooraphy 142 87 

Stationery and office supplies. . . 300 36 

Annual and board jneetings .... 26 96 

Furniture and fixtures 287 34 

Miscellaneous expenses : 296 98 

Total expenditure I 6,382 74 

Balance $10,407 11 

Cash in hands .of Treasurer .| 271 94 

Unexj)ended balance of 1907 appro- 
priation 10,135 17 

Total available funds \ $10,407 11 

Special appropriation of 1905 for 
printing proceedings of consti- 
tutional conventions, unex- 
pended January 1, 1907 | 2,500 00 

Amount paid for printing and bind- 
ing same I 2,500 00 

Departmental distribution of Expenditure — 

Historical Society I 1,288 99 

Legislative Keference Bureau . . . 2,577 98 

Museum 1,055 25 

Library 1,104 28 

Newspapers 160 80 

Undistributed salaries 1 73 26 

Territorial Pioneers 22 18 

Total I 6,382 74 

I hereby certify that 1 have examined the records, vouch- 
ers, and books of accounts of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society for the year ending December 31, 1907, and from the 
same have compiled the above financial statement, and that 
the same is correct. 

H. S. Wiggins^ 

Public Accountant. 
December 31, 1907. 



REPORT OF SECRETARY 1907. 301) 

Note.— The item "Historical Society |1 ,288.99"' Includes 
charges not properly chargeable to some particular depart- 
ment of the Historical Society. The item ''Legislative Refer- 
ence Bureau |2,577.98" includes salaries «f A. E. Sheldon and 
VV. E. Hannan, although their time has not been devoted ex- 
clusively to that department. The item "Library fl,10L28" 
includes the amount paid to an expert librarian for the cata- 
loguing and indexing of books and pamphlets contained in 
the library, also the salary of the Librarian. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Your Executive Board has held four regular meetings, and 
one special meeting during the year. Each meeting has been 
held at the appointed time, with a quorum ])resent for the 
transaction of business. Your Secretary has had the most 
cordial cooi)eration of the Board and its officers in everything 
undertaken for the good of the Society. The joromptness and 
business-like methods of your Treasurer have been very help- 
ful to the Secretary in his work. In this connection it is 
recommended that the constitution be so amended as to re- 
lieve the Treasurer of the duty of collecting membership fees, 
which no treasurer can undertake to do without sufficient 
compensation. It should be the duty of the Secretary to col- 
lect these fees and turn them over to the Treasurer, taking 
his receipt therefor. 

A large part of the work of the Historical Society, such as 
the management of its business affairs, the disposal of its 
correspondence, the orderly direction of the work in the 
various departments, the entertainment of visitors, the ex- 
amination of catalogues, and the purchase of books, and the 
daily care of rooms and collections, can not be measured in 
words. These things, of the first importance in the right con- 
duct of any such institution, could easily occupy the whole 
time and thought of one person, and to these duties your 
Secretary has given his personal attention. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Clarence S. Paine. 

Secretary. 

Adopted January 14, 1908. 



310 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

TREASUKER\S REPORT. 

FOR YEAR ENDING JANUARY 1, 1908. 

To the Officers and Mcmhrrs of 1lir \(hi-<if^l-a ><tatc HiMorical 
Society : 

I hereby resixxtfully submit my report as Treasurer for 
the year eudiug January 1, 1908. 

1 am to be charged Avith the receipts and disbursements 
shown in (h'lail on the S(lie<hde hereunto annexed, as follows: 

RECEIPTS. 

190t 

January IG, balance on hand in National 

Bank of Commerce , .|228 79 

1908 

January 1, receipts for membership fees 
and sundries as ])er schedule since said 
date 284 50 

Total receipts $518 29 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

1907 - 

Cash paid on warrants as per schedule 

hereunto annexed and accompanying 

vouchers |238 85 

Balance in National Bank of Commerce 

per check herewith . • 274 94 

I submit herewith bank book duly balanced, and vouchers, 
and check to the order of the Society for the balance on haivl. 
Dated this 1st day of January, 1908. 

S. L. Geisthardt^ 

Treasurer. 
Adopted January 14, 1908. 



REPOItT OF TllEASUKEIl 11)07. 31 I 

S. L. GEISTHARDT, TltEAlSUREK, 

IN ACCOUNT WITH NEBllAHKA STATE illSTOllICAL iiOOIETY. 

RECEIPTS. 
1907 

Janiiar}^ 17, balance on hand per last re- 
port |228 79 

January 17, R. S. Cooley, \^^ave^ly, mem- • 
bersliip fee 2 00 

January 17, J. C Byrnes, Columbus, mem- 
■ bersliip fee 2 00 

January 17, JM. L. Blackburn, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

January 17, Louis R. Hmith, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2, 01) 

January 17, J. W. Cutrii>lit, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

January 17, H. S. Wiggins, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

January 17, Ada I. C'ulver, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

January 17, John Fraidvlin, Lincoln, niem- 

bershij) fee 2 00 

January 17, H. E. Heath, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee ' 2 00 

January 17, D. C. Hetfernan, Hubbard, 

membership fee 2 00 

January 17, Ida I)uffi(dd Wiggins, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

February 5, Samuel B. liams, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

February 5, E. E. Lyle, Wahoo, member- 
ship fee ...,. 2 00 

February 5, G. W. Brown, Jr., Lincoln, 

membership fee ' 2 00 

February 9, A. P. Kempton, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 



312 ^ NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

February 9, Edgar A. Buruett, Lincoln, 

' bersliip foe I 2 00 

March 15, C. S. Paine, Lincoln, sales. .... 3 50 

March 21, John P. LotTer, Waverly, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

March 27, Philip Gleim, Danbury, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

April 15, E. C. Hurcl, Lincoln, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

April 18, J. W. Gilbert, Friend, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

April 22, Leslie G. Ilurd, Harvard, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

April 22, C. H. Aldrich, David City, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

April 22, W. J. Harmon, Fremont, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

April 23, Francis E. Wolcott, Lincoln, • 
membership fee 2 00 

May 10, John W. Steinhardt, Nebraska 

City, membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Mrs. Caroline Morton, Nebraska 

City, membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Mrs. Irene S. Morton, Nebraska 

City, membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Mrs. John W. Steinhardt, Ne- 
braska City, membershii) fee 2 00 

May 10, E. F. Warren, Nebraska City, 

membersliip fee -. 2 00 

May 10, Charles H. Busch, Nebraska City, 

membersliip fee 2 00 

May 10, Paul, Jessen, Nebraska City, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

May 10, Wm. Hayward, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Geo. W. FTawke, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 



KEPOKT OF TKEASIJKKR 190T. 313 

May 10, C. N. Karsteus, Nebraska City, 

menibersliip fee f 2 00 

May 10, E. D. Garrow, Nebraska C'ity, 

membershiiD fee 2 00 

May 10, Edgar Clayton, Nebraska Cit}^, 

membership fee 2 00 

May 10, W. J. Bryan, Lincoln, member- 
ship, fee 2 00 

May 10, Mrs. Isabel Richey, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

May 16, Richard A. Ilawley, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

May 16, James H. Cook, Agate, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

May 16, Harold J. Cook, Agate, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

May 16, Harry C. Ingles, Pleasant Dale, 

membership fee : 2 00 

May 16, Gilbert L. Cole, Beatrice, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

May 16, Henry F. Wyman, Omaha, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

May 22, Thomas R. Prey, Jr., Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 11, Rev. Emmanuel Hartig, Nebraska 

City, membership fee 2 00 

June 11, Charles W. Pierce, Nelu-aska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 11, Ernst Guenzel, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 11, Frank McCartney, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 11, N. A. Duff, Nebraska City, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

June 11, Miss Mary S. ^^'llson, Nebraska 

City, membership fee ' 2 00 



314 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOIUCAL SOCIETY. 

June 11, R. M. Eolfe, Nebraska City, mem- 
bership fee I 2 00 

Jime 11, Miss Emma MortoD, Nebraska 

City, membersliij) fee 2 00 

June 24, Mrs. W. J. Bryan, Lincoln, mem- 

bersliii^ fee 2 00 

June 28, Mrs. G. 1>. Simpkius, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 28, J\[rs. F, JM. Ilall, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

July 9, J. B. Haynes, Omaha, membership 

fee 2 00 

July 9, G. A. Eberly, Stanton, membership 

fee 2 00 

July 13, A. W. Hindman, Chester, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

Ju,ly 13, Josei^h AV. Johnson, Lincoln, mem- 

bershixj fee 2 00 

July 13, AV. S. Houseworth, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

July 13, Ellery n. AVesterfield, Omalia, 

membership fee 2 00 

July 19, T. L. Cole, AVashington, D. C, 

membership fee 2 00 

July 19, Dr. J. IT. Hukill, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

July 19, Airs. Theresa Neff, N(A)raska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

July 30, Clarence Ivuij^h, Firlh. member- 
ship fee ." ' 2 00 

Jnly 30, Elmer AV. Brown, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee • • • • 2 00 

August G, C. C. Cobb, York, membershi]) 

fee 2 00 

August G, P. O'Mahony, Lincoln, mem- 

bershii) fee 2 00 

August 6, Harry Porter, Lincoln, member- 
ship fee 2 00 



EEl'OKT OF TUKASUliEK 11)07. 315 

August 6, Dr. W. K. Loiighridgo, Milford, 

luembership fee | U 00 

August 31, Mrs. Johu S. lieed, Lincolu, 

membership fee 2 00 

August 31, John S. Iveed, Lincolu, mem- 
bership fee . 2 00 

August 31, Martiu W. Dimery, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, C. G. Cone, University Place, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, John Sehwyn, Grand Island, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, J. W. Wamberg, Grand Is- 
land, membership fee 2 00 

Septend^er 6, James jNIcGeachin, Orleans, 
- membership fee 2 00 

September 6, J. E. Taylor, Neligh, mem- 
bership fee '. 2 00 

September 6, Henry V. Iloagland, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

Septeanber 6, Mrs. Louisa ('ollins. Kc^arney, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Mrs. Kate P. Fodrea, Lin- 
coln, membership fee .^ 2 00 

September 6, Albert Plasebrook, Lincoln, 

membership fee . 2 00 

September 6, Lou L. E. Stewart, Omaha, 

membership fee . 2 00 

September G, A\'m. H. Ilobbins, Beatrice, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Morris C. Stull, 'Lincoln, 

membership fee . . .- 2 00 

September 6, Mrs. Morris ('. Stull, Lin- 
coln, membership fee 2 00 

Septend)er 6, Samuel F. Westerfield, Lin- 
coln, membership fee 2 00 

Septend)er 6, Absalom N. Yost, Omaha, 
membership fee 2 00 



31() NEBRASKA STATE HJSTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

Scptc'inber 6, Harry J. Hall, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee I 2 00 

September 0, Mrs. Henry A. LaSelle, Bea- 
trice, membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Wallace L, Crandall, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 16, Geo. E. Buell, Mnrdock, 
membership fee 2 00 

September 16, Louis F. Fryar, Clay Center, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 16, Theodore Ojendyke, Ash- 
ton, membership fee 2 00 

October 21, Kev. Wm. H. Frost, Fremont, 

membership fee 2 00 

October 21, John Halldorson, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

October 21, C. S. Paine, Lincoln, sales... 1 50 

October 25, F. W. Brown, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

October 28, O. P. Foale, Table Rock, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

October 28, A. E. Hildebrand, Gretna, 

membership fee 2 00 

October 28, S. Doty, McCook, membership 

fee 2 00 

October 28, Lucy T. Wood, Lincoln, mem- 

l)ersliip fee 2 00 

October 28, W. A. Lindly, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

October 28, R. S. Mockett, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

November 6, A. R. Maiben, Palmyra, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

November 6, F. B. Garver, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

November 6, M. J. Waugh, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 



RErOET OF TltEASUKEU 1907. 317 

November 21, W. A. Selleck, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee I 2 00 

November 25, Arnold Ei^i>er, Spragiie, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

November 25, F. A. Truell, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

November 25, W. H. England, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

November 30, Geo. F. Corcoran, York, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, S. C. Stewart, Axteil, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 2, Edward P. Pjle, Stoekville, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, Arthnr J. AA^ray, York, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 2, Griffith J. Thomas, Harvard, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, Ambrose C. Epperson, Clay 

Center, membership fee 2 00 

December 2, C. D. S toner, Osceola, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 2, J. AA^ Adams, Cnrtis, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

December 2, C. M. BroAvn, Cambridge, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, A^^ Z. Taylor, Cnlbertson, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, A. M. Availing, David City, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, ]Mrs. Anna AL B. Kingsley, 

Alinden, mend)ership fee 2 00 

December 2, J. N. Norton, Osceola, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 2, Theo. Griess, Harvard, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 



318 NEBRASKA STATE PIISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

December 2, Loyal M. Graliaiii, Stockville, 

membership fee '$ 2 00 

December 2, J. S. Canaday, Miuden, mem- 

bersliip fee 2 00 

December 3, Milwaukee city treasurer 

books sold M. C. L 7 50 

December 4, Eoss Kates, Springfield, uiem- 

bership fee 2 00 

December 10, H. M. Eaton, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 10, George D. Bennett, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 17, A. L. Searle, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 17, C. F. llarpham, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 24, W. E. Ilaunan, Lincoln, mem- 

. bership fee 2 00 

December 24, Miss Eleanor Dnffield, Lin- 
coln, membership f(^e 2 00 

December 24, J. G. P. Hildebrand, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 26, Charles Wake, Universit^^ 

Place, membership fee 2 00 



Total 1513 29 



DISBURSEMENTS. 
1907 

January 22, State Journal Co., printing 

Xerograms f 4 75 

February 18, Simmons the Printer, ju'iut- 

ing programs 2 50 

March 1, Columbia National Bank (Jacob 

North & Co.), City Directory 1007 5 00 

April 3, Marion Hoxsey, salary, Marcli ... 32 00 



IIEPOUT OF TREASURER 190T. _ 319 

May 10, C. S. Paine, misoL41aneoiis bills. . .| 22 52 

May 13, Columbia National liank (W. E. 

Hannan), services 29 62 

May 24, George L. Miller, expenses 15 30 

May 25, Columbia National Dank (J. E. 

North ) , expenses 8 66 

May 25, A. E. Sheldon, postage 10 00 

June 5, Columbia National Bank (Abner 

Blue) , services 56 50 

June 26, First National Bank (F. E. Jack- 
son), services 7 00 

June 29, City National Bank (CUara 

Webb ) , services 3 00 

July 1, exchange, David City 10 

November 6, Central National J»ank (Jacob 

North & Co. ) , stationery 6 30 

November 7, First National Bank (J. E. 

Ferris ) , reporting 5 00 

November 7, National Bank of Commerce 
(Americana Society), American Histori- 
cal Magazine S 00 

November 11, City National Bank (W. F. 

Thompson), N. Y. Tribune tiles 10 00 

November 21, National Bank of Commerce 

(Ivy Press) , i^rinting 12 00 

November 23, M. E. Wheeler (J. E. Fer- • 
ris) , reporting 5 00 

December 3, exchange paid 10 

Total 1248 35 

Balance in National Bank of Commerce 1^274 04 



320 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. * 

EEPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 

To the Board of Directors of the Nehrasl-a ^tatc Historical 
Society : 

I take pleasure in submitting iny report as ]jibrarian of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society, fr-om Aray 1, 1907, to De- 
cember 31, 1907. 

Perhaps the most important work done during this period 
was the cataloguing of a very large part of the 27,000 vol- 
umes in the library. 

Up to the 1st of last June the library had not been cata- 
logued, organized, or classified except in a general way. The 
present Secretary and Library Comuiittee were very anxious 
to have the library catalogued and put into such shape that 
the material could be uschI to better advantage. As it was, 
there was no way, outside the memorv of those actively con- 
nected with the Society, of telling what material was on hand, 
or of locating things for those who came to use the library. 

When your Librarian assumed her duties, the 1st of May, 
1907, the Board had decided to secure an ex])ert organizer 
and cataloguer for the summer, and do as much as possible 
toward cataloguing the whole library. 

Miss Anna M. Price of the Library School of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois was employed as organizer, and on the tenth 
day of June the work of cataloguing began. Besides Miss 
Price and joni' Librarian, a young woman was secured to 
typewrite the cards, and during eight and one-half \yeeks of 
the summer one other assistant was employed. 

For financial and other reasons the library had not received 
as much attention as it needed, and was very dirty. Every 
book was taken from the shelves, the dust wiped off with 
damj) cloths, and the shelves washed before the books were 
replaced. 

The work of cataloguing continued from June 10 to Sep- 
tember 4, and during that time 22,000 titles were catalogued 
by the Dewey decimal system of classification. The card cat- 
alogue contains 10,000 typewritten cards, shelf list included. 



UEPOIiT OF LIBRARIAN 1007. 321 

One room of the librarj^ is known as the Nejjraska room. 
It contains all books pertaining to Nebraska, all books writ- 
ten by Nebraska people, and all books of western description 
and travel. Everjtliing in this room was catalogued. 

In the other part of the library more than three-fourths of 
all the books on hand at that time were catalogued. With the 
exception of 525 volumes on agriculture — the OoO's — cards 
were made for everything down to the 974's, a\ liich leaves the 
history by states yet to be done. This material was all ar- 
ranged by itself and was in the best shape of any part of the 
library, so it was thought best to leave it, rather than other 
subjects, uncatalogued. 

Beside the 27,000 volumes already mentioned in the library, 
there were a large number of volumes stored in the vault for 
exchange purposes. They were mainly reports from the vari- 
ous state offices, and were being asked for on exchange ac- 
count by libraries and historical societies. These books were 
not listed nor systematically arranged, so it was impossible 
to tell what was on hand. After the principal part of the cat- 
aloguing was finished September 4, these duplicates ^\eve car- 
ried from the vault, sorted, counted, listed, and arranged 
according to an alphabetical system. The list showed 11,962 
volumes, chiefly publications of the state departments, and 
(*),800 volumes of the Society's own publicatious. 

Beside the duplicates in the vault, there is another room 
containing approximately 4,000 volumes for exchange. These 
are of a general nature, including public documents, depart- 
mental reports of various states, historical publications, etc., 
and a special list is being made of them. 

The storerooms at the capitol contain a large number of 
duplicates of state officers' reports, and the Historical Society 
obtained permission to take such of these as were needed for 
exchange purposes. In October the books were looked over 
and 2,353 volumes were added to the Society's duplicates. 
Many of these were early territorial laws, and senate and 
house journals, some of whicli were quite valuable. 



21 



322 NEBRASKA STATE HLSTORICAL SOCIETY. 

At the meeting of Secretaries of Historical Societies from 
the various Mississippi valley states in this city October 17 
and 18, our exchange lists were gone over eagerJ}^ and care- 
fully by the visiting secretaries, and arrangements were made 
to add a large number of books to the library without ex- 
pense by exchanging duplicates with tlie otlic^r societies. The 
secretaries from Iowa, iMissouri, Kansas, and Montana were 
especially anxious to exchange for Nebraska's full list of du- 
plicates, and the secretary from Montana sliipped 225 vol- 
umes to the librarv immediatelv on his return hom(\ Others 
have since sent the library what they had for exchange, Kan- 
sas sending 962 volumes. 

The library was officially represented by the Librarian at 
the meeting of the Iowa and Nebraska Library Association, 
which was held in Omaha and Council Blufi's, October 8 to 
11, 1907. 

On account of the financial limitations of tlie Society and 
an extra amount of mone^^ having been spent on the library 
during the cataloguing, it was decided best to dispense with 
the Librarian's services for the month of November. 

Several donations of valuable books and ]nanuscrii)ts have 
been made to the library during the period which this report 
covers, and a few persons have inade loans either for a short 
period or for an indefinite length of time. 

During the months between iNIay 1, 1907, and January 1, 
1908, the Society sent out 900 books and ])ampldets and re- 
c. ived 1,400 in exchange. 

The volumes on hand January 1, 1908, are as follows: 

Catalogued in librarv 22.1 00 

Uncatalogued in library 6,450 

Nebraska publications for exchange 14,315 

State Historical Society publications for exchange. . . . 6,800 
General publications for exchange 4,000 

Total 53,665 

Ilespectfully submitted, 

Minnie P. Knotts, 

Librarian. 



'V 



REPORT OF ARCHEOLOGIST — REVIEW. 323 

KEPORT OF ARCHEOLOGIST. 

To tJiv Honorable, The Board of Direotors. Nebraska State 
Historical Society: 

RE^'IEW OF PREVIOUS REPORTS. 

The complete report of this dei)artment has been published 
in the -Annual Report of the State Board of Agriculture from 
time to time. M}^ first report will be found in the xVnnual 
Report of the State Board of Agriculture for 1902. This em- 
braces a report for the last six months of 1901 and a report 
for 1902. In the same publication for 1901 will be found my 
(second and third ) report for 1903 and 1901. My (fourth) 
report for 1905 will be found in the annual report of the Ne- 
braska State Board of Agriculture for 1905. 

It is hoped to have these reports gathered into a volume 
and published in the Nebraska State Historical Society series, 
but until such a volume is compiled it seems right that a brief 
summary be printed here. 

At a meeting of the executive board of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society in June, 1901, |300 was set apart to begin 
the work of this department. J. Sterling Morton, then Presi- 
dent of the Societv, gave his influence, and I mav sav that he 
was chiefly responsible for the start made at that time. 

This branch of the work ^^'as placed on a permanent foot- 
ing at the January meeting in 1902. A salary of |S00 per 
year was granted the archeologist, and the museum was 
placed under his direct charge. Fifty dollars a year was 
added to the salary of the archeologist in 1905. 

The east third of the state has been explored, and about 
flftv Indian village sites have been visited and described in 
the reports. Maps have been made of a few of the most im- 
portant ones. Relics have been gathered from each site and 
stored for future study. 



324 NP^BUASKA STATE iIl^>T()UlCAL SOCIETY. 

By far the most interesting point of study in the state is 
found at Nehawka, where the aborigines quarried fiint. This 
fiekl has been explored and described in my reports. 

Very interesting remains were found along the Blue river. 
The Platte and its eastern branches abound in earthworks 
and village sites, and the whole Missouri front presents a 
difficult and interesting problem which will require time and 
careful study to untangle. 

The Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804: gave the earliest 
and most authentic description of this jNIissouri front, and a 
careful study of this expedition enabled me to locate each 
camp made in the state. Many of these have been visited, and 
the study of the Missouri front is well begun. 

The Indian bibliography is growing slowly; when this is 
completed it will be a history and biography of every notable 
Indian mentioned in the literature of the state. 

The museum has grown during these five years. When I 
assumed charge there were but a few relics; part of the ^Vh it- 
comb collection was here as well as about 150 numbers in tlie 
general catalogue. Now the catalogue shows ten large col- 
lections, which liave been catalogued separately, as well as 
about 700 numbers in the regular catalogU(\ Tliis will give 
you a conception of the amount of maton-ial which lias been 
gathered into the museum during the last five years. 

The letter C. before the number sliows that the article be- 
longs to the J. 11. Coffin collection. This collection consists 
of 115 numbers and is chiefiy Pawnee material. Mr. Coffin 
lives at Genoa, Nebraska, and has known the Pawnees from 
boyhood. He speaks the Pawnee language, and was calh^l 
"The Boy Chief,'" or "Per-iska Le-Shar-uT" 

The Hopkins collection has the letter H. placed before the 
number. It consists of cliipped and ])olished stone-work 
found along the Elkhorn river^ as well as many other curious 
and interesting articles. There are 307 separate catalogue 
numbers, but this does not give an idea of the collection, as a 



REPOUT 01' A1{'JHJ:0L0G1.ST — KEVTEW. 325 

catalogue uiimber often embraces a number of articles. One 
number has four thousand separate pieces of cJiippcd flint. 
It is the best single collection of chipped stone imj)lements 
\\'e have. 

The B. Y. High collection has tlie letters JJ. 11. placed be- 
fore the numbers, and contains 91 separate pieces, mostly of 
Santee beaded Avork. This collection represents more money 
than man}' of the larger collections, as the pieces are all very 
superior. It was procured at Niobrara and was selected as 
the best out of the quantity sold there by the Santees. 

The Cleveland collection has the letters H. C. before the 
numbers. It is material from the Philippine Islands, col- 
lected by Howard Cleveland, of Table Kock, while with the 
3d Nebraska regiment. It has 88 numbers. 

The Searle collection was brought from the Philippines by 
C. H. Searle, of Plattsmouth, and has 202 numbers with the 
letter *S'. before each. It is much the same as the Cleveland 
collection, only larger, and it contains many ver}^ fine 
specimens. 

The Hemple collection is one made by Benjamin Hemple, 
of Plattsmouth. It is not catalogued separately, but, like the 
many small collections, is found in the general catalogue. It 
consists of guns, coins, and other interesting curios. 

A number of lectures have been given in various parts of 
the state which have been instrumental in bringing the people 
into closer touch with the Society. These lectures cost but 
the actual expense of railroad fare and entertainment, and 
we are glad to make arrangements to fill a number of dates 
each year. 

About 30 lantern slides have been made, shoAving some of 
the best museum specimens, and others will be made when 
the honorable board will grant us a lantern in which to use 
them. 

The literary work done in this department is no small item; 
a number of manuscripts are prepared, and we hope to ar- 
range for their pujblication some time in the future. 



326 ■ NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCiJETY. 

AVitli this brief resume of the preAdous reports, I herewith 
present my (fifth) annual report for 1900; 

REPORT FOR 1906. 

The beginning of the ^-ear, from January 1 to April 1 was 
devoted to arranging material in the museum and to arrang- 
ing and listing the library. The daily care of the rooms was 
no small part of the work, and little was accomplished beyond 
routine work during this time. 

The Academy of Sciences asked me to prepare a paper on 
aboriginal pottery for their meeting February 2 and 3, 1906. 

February 23 I Avas called to Swedeburg, a little town in 
Sa-unders county, to deliver a lecture. 

During the i)ast tAvo years little has been done in the way 
of securing large collections for the museum. The already 
croAvded condition seemed to justify inactivity until such a 
time as the legislature should see fit to grant us more com- 
modious quarters, but there are a number of collections in 
the state Avhicli demand immediate attention if Ave ever expect 
to secure them, and I was determined to secure collections 
and care for them as best we could until more space Avas 
secured. 

To this end I visited Florence, April 5, and investigated 
the AV. F. Parker collection Avith the agent of the estate. 
June 6 I spent Iavo hours in the Parker museum. There 
are feAV things of historical value to Nebraska in the collec- 
tion. It is interesting, but Nebraska is not Avell represented 
in it, and the Avhole collection is going to ruin from lack of 
care. There is no catalogue and the mollis are doing much 
damage in the valuable rugs and costumes. 

The safe Avhich is in the Parker museum Avas the one used 
by the bank of Florence and is a valuable Nebraska relic. 
An old bass drum Avhich the jMormons used at tlie ^'Avinter 
quarters" is also of interest historically, but most of the 
pieces are from other countries, and as they lack labels are 
of no value to science. 



REPORT OF ARCHEOLOGIST 1906. 327 

May 25 I gave a talk at the Prescott school on Indian cus- 
toms, and later a talk at the city library along the same line. 

A new town Avas dedicated on the new line of the Great 
Northern at Lesharu, and I was asked to give a talk on the 
old Pawnee village site near bv. 

While on the trip to investigate the Parker collection I 
went with R. F. Gilder to view some of tJie earthworks he 
had discovered north of Florence, and stopped to see the 
place where the "Learned Spear" was fonnd. This spear is 
seven inches long and three inches wide. It is a very artistic 
piece of chipping from agatized wood. Originally it was 
brown in color, but one side is eroded to a bluish white. It 
is very different from any spear found in the state and evi- 
dently was not made by the Otoes who formerly owned the 
land. It will take the evidence of a specialist to determine 
how long this material must be exposed to the elements to 
change the color as this is changed. There is no evidence of 
a grave at the point where it was found and it seems to have 
been in the drift or in the loess soil. 

While on this trip w^e saw the great lodge circle in the top 
of a hill overlooking the Missouri river. This circle is over 
GO feet in diameter and fully six feet deep in the center; 
it is one of the largest I have seen. Manji^bits of flint and 
ancient pottery near prove it to be old. Mr. Gilder showcnl 
me many evidences of aborigines north of Florence, which 
convinced me that the archeological condition in that 
vicinity is very complicated. In fact the whole Missouri 
front is a very complicated study. It is in this field that the 
"Nebraska Loess Man" was discovered. The geologists are 
better qualified to handle the situation in regard to tliis find, 
as it is purely a geological question. There is no doubt but 
the bones found are human bones, and the only question 
involved is the age of the bones; this must be determined by 
the age of the undisturbed geological formation in which 
they were found. 



328 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

June 20tli I visited the home of W. J. narmon in company 
with J. J. Hawthorne of Fremont. ^Ir. Harmon owns tlie 
land npon which an ancient Indian village site is situated. 
This site, which I have named the "Harmon Site," is on sec- 
tion 28, township 17 north, range 8 east. It is situated on a 
high bluff overlooking the Platte river. Near tlie point of the 
bluff may be seen a number of lodge circles and mounds 
similar to the mound houses on the Burkett site. 

No implements showing contact with whites Avere found; 
a number of specimens of pottery of ancient design were 
picked up there, as well as broken flints of a gray color and 
some brown specimens. 

This site was doubtless contemporaneous A\'ith the Ithaca 
site, as the debris is similar, although tlu' Itlmca site yielded 
a few relics showinc: contact witli the whites. The Harmon 
site covers an area of about three or four acres and was the 
home of some small band of aborigines for a number of years. 
The mounds have not been disturbed, and a cross-section of 
tnem may yield more evidence of the people. This site is one 
of many in Saunders county, and in fact all along the 
Platte. The proof of the identity of one will settle the 
identity of all, as they all bear a close resemblance to each 
other. The supp)sition that these villages are Pawnee may 
be established as a fact, but at present writing the study has 
not gone far enough to prove it beyond doubt. 

About a mile farther up the river and quite near its banks, 
is the site of the once famous "NeapoHs." 

Tradition has this to say of this place: 

The "rump" legislature of 1857-58, which adjourned from 
Omaha to Florence, January 8, 1858, passed a resolution lo- 
cating the capital of the territory at a point which should be 
sixt3^ miles west of the Missouri river aiul Avithin six miles of 
the Platte river north or south. An enterprising company 
from Plattsmouth discovered a valuable body of timber on the 
Platte river and immediately "jumpcil" the claim and laid 



REPOUT OF ARCHEOr.OGIST 1906. 829 

out the town of "Xeapolis" (ou paper), erected a sawmill, 
and applied for the capital of the territory, as the location 
met the requirements of the resolution. 

The raft of lumber which w^as sawed from the timber was 
wrecked on its way to market. The i>eneral assembly, in 
the fifth session, patched up the difticulties and the capital 
remained at Omaha, ^^othing seems to be known of this bold 
venture except the site of the w^onld-be capital and metropolis, 
Neapolis. It is a, beautiful spot, and one can not help but 
regret the adverse influences which made it but a tradition. 

A mile south of the little town of Linwood in Butler 
county is a ruin of an Indian yillage. I visited this field 
June 21, 1906, and secured a number of relics. . The yillage 
was evidently burned, as the soil is plentifully intermixed 
with charcoal; so much so that one is at a loss to account for 
such an abundance from the burning of the village. Pieces of 
cedar posts are plowed out from year to year, and these, being 
well preserved, indicate that this site is not so old as tradition 
in the vicinity seems to imply. The land is owned by J. B. 
Tichacek, who came here in the '70s; he says that a sod wall 
nearly ihree feet high enclosed forty acres which was thickly 
covered with lodge circles. He has graded down the wall and 
tilled the circles until the ground is nearly level. 

Not a scrap of pottery can I find on the site and not a 
single flint chip. A number of rust-eaten iron arrow 
points were found and some pieces of metal. These all show- 
contact with whites. One very interesting specimen was 
found — a small image of a horse moulded in clay and burned 
very hard ; it is not two inches long, ])ut is a very good repre- 
sentation of a horse. This is probably the most valuable and 
interesting thing left on this site. I think the tribe whicli 
lived here had trouble. I think they lived here not longer 
than ten years, and probably no longer than five. If the 
village contained over a thousand circles, as Mr. Tichacek 
seems to think it did, the tribe must have been quite numer- 



330 NEBKASKA STATE HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

ous aud may have been driven awa}^ from this place very soon 
after the village was built. I am. confident the Pawnees were 
the builders of the village. It is certain th(.' village was built 
long after the Indians liad learned to depend on the white 
man for his weapons and utensils. 

Immediately Avest of this village ruin, and situated 
on a bench twenty feet or more above the bottom-land where? 
this ruined site just described is found, is the site of an 
ancient stone age village. The two villages are side by side, 
and by a casual observer might be taken for the same village 
site. This ancient site yields abundance of potsherds and 
chipped flints. The lodge circles are in a pasture covered 
with brush and small trees, so very little could be learned of 
its extent. This site was built, occupied, and abandoned long 
before contact with the whites. It belongs to the class of 
ancient villages strewn along the Platte on both sides, but is 
some years older than the sites near Genoa and Fullerton. 
Some day we will know just who built these villages and 
approximately the date of occupancy. 

South of Linwood some six or eight miles, not far from the 
banks of Skull creek, is an Indian burying ground, and 'eight 
miles farther up the Platte, near the head of a large island 
and not far from Avhere Shinn's ferry once plied the waters, 
is another cemetery. While all the points of evidence 
are more or less of interest and yield a certain amount of 
information, nothing can be definitely determined until the 
greater number of these ancient villages and sepultures have 
been examined, and studied. Relics are being gathered and 
conditions noted which Avill all contribute to a certain and 
definite knowledge. 

N. J. Anderson, of A^'ahoo, very kindly sent the museum a 
photograph of a pile of Indian bones dug out of the mound at 
Ithaca which I saw in 1900; a number of relics were found 
which shoAved that the Indians buried here Avere supplied 
Avith utensils and arms almost Avholly by the Avhite men. 



REPORT OF ARCHE()r,OGlST 1906. 831 

Two years ago I learned of a large collection of costumes 
and curios belonging to Mr. D. Charles Bristol, of Homer, 
Nebraska. Arrangements were made to visit Homer a year 
ago, but the conditions would not permit. July 10 I started 
on an extended trip; I visited Homer and saw part of the col- 
lection belonging to Mr. Bristol. I was convinced that this 
collection is the most valuable and best authenticated collec- 
tion in the West, and immediatelv began to negotiate to have 
it removed to the Historical Societv museum. 

After getting the negotiations started, I visited Sioux City 
for a day. There I saw a number of people interested in 
early history and archeology. Hon. C. K. Marks, a pioneer 
and historian, presented specimens of pottery from "Broken 
Kettle" mound near Sioux City. 

From Sioux Citv I Avent to ("'oleridge in Cedar count v, to 
visit the original home of the boulder which the class of 1892 
placed on the University campus. This boulder was dis- 
covered by Professor Aughe}-, of the University of Nebraska, 
in the year 1869. It is a granite drift boulder of several tons 
weight. Upon the face of this boulder is the imprint of a 
foot, evidently cut or worn into the rock by l)lunt tools; the 
whole top surface is covered with hieroglyphics, or curious 
marks evidently made in the same way. I have long desired 
to visit the spot from which this boulder was removed. I 
explored the country from Sioiix City to CohM-idge ])y stop- 
ping over one train in various small toAvns; I stopped at 
Waterbury, at Allen, and at Laurel, as well as at ^Vakefield. 
At Waterbury I explored to Allen and took the train there 
for Laurel. Nothing of particular note was discovered; a 
few mounds and a chance small camp site here and there were 
brought to my attention by settlers, but along this railroad 
Indian ruins are scarce. 

From Coleridge I drove about four miles to tha farm wliere 
this rock once rested. The cavity can still be seen, as the hill- 
top is covered with drift pebbles. About three acres of ground 
on the top of this hill have never been disturbed, which gave 
me a splendid chance to study the situation. 



332 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

This spot is one and a half miles' from flowing water. 
According to old settlers who have explored the surrounding 
country carefully, it is eight miles to the nearest site of a rnin 
left by Indians, and that is very insignificant. The surround- 
ing country for five miles in all directions seems very de- 
ficient in relics of this departed race. I inquired diligently 
of everyone, but failed to find even an account of an arrow 
head or a stone ax being discovered in the surrounding 
country. I was in the vicinity three days, and instead of fin<l- 
ing a rich field of relics near where this rock was discovered, 
I found none. 

The barren hilltop is coven^l with small drift pebbles. 
After critically examining over five hundred of these I am 
convinced that none of them were used in making the marks 
left on this boulder. There are no worn or beaten paths lead- 
ing up to the place where the rock once rested; there is no 
indication that other rocks had been worn to bits in cutting 
the characters. In fact, the soil near is free from any pebbles 
save waterworn, rounded pebbles like those covering the 
entire hill. One is forced to the conclusion that the work of 
cutting this rock must have been done elsewhere. The study 
is not comj^lete, and I doubt whetlier conclusive evidence can 
ever be found to settle the x)roblem. It. has taken infinite 
labor to cut these characters into the granite; they are not 
scratches, but the marks are three-fourtlis of an inch wide 
and in some i)laces half an incli deep. The cutting has been 
done in the same manner as grooves are put in granite mauls 
or axes. I have interested some of tlie people near, and if any- 
thing is found which will throw light on this problem it will 
be reported. 

August 20 I made another trip to Homer, and after some 
discussion of details it was arranged to have the '''Omaha 
Charlie" collection placed in the Nebraska State Historical 
Society fireproof rooms. 

It is worthy of mention in this connection that Mr. M. A. 
Bancroft, of the Homer Free Press, assisted verv much in 



REPORT OF ARCHEOLOGTST 1906. 33o 

arranging the details for Mr. Ilristol, and the Society appre- 
ciates his kind offices and careful business tact in this mat- 
ter. Mr. F. ]>. Buekwalter also assisted in cataloguing the 
collection. 

The following is the contract signed by ^fr. D. Chas. Bristol 
and wife as owners of the collection and the officers of the 
Historical Society as trustees of the collection : 

AGREEMENT. 

"This agreement made this first day of September, A.D. 
1900, by and between D. Charles Bristol, of Homer, Nebraska, 
and the Nebraska State Historical Societ}' of Lincoln, Ne- 
braska, witnesseth : 

"That D. Charles Bristol, of Homer, Nebraska, hereby 
places in the custody of said Nelu'aska State Historical So- 
ciety a collection of rare and curious articles, Indian cos- 
tumes, Indian weapons, ornaments, and handiwork, for safe- 
keeping and care, to be held by said Historical Society until 
such time as he sliall demand them returned to him [see 
catalogue attachcxl]. 

"That for and in consideration of the above described loan 
the Nebraska State Historical Society agrees : 

"First, to keep the said collection safely in the fireproof 
rooms of the said Society at Lincoln, Nebraska, as long as 
said D. Charles Bristol may desire it so kept, and to care for 
the collection in the best manner possible. 

"Second, to catalogue and label the collection and each 
piece thereof as the 'D. Charles Bristol Collection,' and keep 
same on free exhibition at ijiucoln, Nebraska, and to print a 
catalogue as soon as possible after receiving said collection, 
and to furnish said D. Charles Bristol as many coi)ies of said 
catalogue as he may desire — not to exceed 100 copies. 

"Third, the Nebraska State Historical Society further 
agrees, in consideration oT the al)ove described loan of said 
collection, to bear all expense of labeling, cataloguing, print- 
ing of catalogue, and transporting of collection from Homer, 
Nebraska, to Lincoln, Nebraska, and in addition thereto the 
entire expense of caring for and maintaining said collection 
on exhibition in aforesaid fireproof museum of said Society 
at Lincoln ; and if the collection shall remain in the custody 
of the Societv for two vears or more the Society agrees to 



334 NEBRASKA STATE HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

pay cost of transporting the collection back to Homer, Ne- 
braska, should the said D. Charles LJristol demand the return 
of the collection. 

"It is further agreed and understood bv and between both 
parties that the said D. Charles ]^>ristol collection shall re- 
main intact and be kept and called one collection, and not be 
scattered. It shall be held in trust by the' said Ilistorif-al 
Society for D. Charles Bristol and his heirs until such a time 
as the said D. Charles Bristol shall demand its return. Upon 
the death of D. Charles Bristol it shall be held in trust for 
the legal heirs of the said D. Charles Bristol until such a time 
as they (the legal heirs) shall agree in writing to sell the en- 
tire collection to some person or institution A\here it can be 
maintained as a whole to be known as the '!>, Charles Bristol 
Collection.' At such a tiuie the Nebraska State Historical 
Society shall have the first right to purchase the collection 
at the price offered ; but if the said Nebraska State Historical 
Society can not or will not purchase the entire collection, 
then the Nebraska State Historical Society shall turn over 
the said D. Charles Bristol collection, each piece and every 
part of said collection, in good condition, and without ques- 
tion to the legitimate imrchaser of the same, free of cost. 

''D. C. liKISTOL. 

''Mrs. D. C. Bristol. 
''Geo. L. Miller, 
President. 

"H. W. Caldwell, 
Secretary. 

"J. A. BARRETT, 

Curator. 

"E. E. liLAC'KAJAN, 

Archeologist. 
"Witness : 

G. M. Best. 

"[Notarial 

Seals.]" 

September 10 I went to Homer and packed the collection, 
making a catalogue of the same at the time. T gave, as near 
as INIr. Bristol can remember, the history of each piece. 



KEPOUT OF AUnMKOr,OGLST 1907. 335 

While at Homer I explored the surrounding country as 
much as time would permit, and Mr. JNl. A. Bancroft has vol- 
unteered to aid in the study of that vicinity. Mr. TJancroft is 
a wideawake, hustling newspaper man and he has succeeded 
in learning a few facts about the Omaha village which was 
once at the mouth of Omaha creek, a few miles' east of where 
Homer now stands. The site of this village has gone into the 
river, but many mounds are scattered along the bluffs around 
Homer. Part of the historv of this village is to be found in 
books. 

I erected a tablet on the farm of Mv. T. C. Baird where a 
ledge of rock is covered with Indian pictographs. Tliese 
should be photographed. 

September 24 I visited the home of J. W. Ingles at Plea- 
sant Hill in Saline county. ^Fr. Ingles came to Pleasant Hill 
Avhen the Indians wandered through Saline count3^ nnd has 
been in the mercantile business ever since. He has gathered 
a number of interesting and curious things, which ho has 
loaned to the Historical Society for safe-keeping. No small 
part of this collection is a number of U. S. silver and bronze 
coins which will grow more valuable as tiine goes on. Two 
gold quarter-dollars are found in the collection, as well as a 
number of Indian relics. The smaller donations to the mu- 
seum will be found in the catalogue of the museum. 

The latter part of 1906 was spent in arranging the new 
collections brought in, and in placing the "Omaha Charlie" 
collection in the cases. 

E. E. BLACKMAN, Archeologist. 

January 1, 1907. 



ARCHEOLOGIST'S REPORT, 1907. 

To the Honorable Executive Boards Nebraska State Histori- 
cal Society: 
The first part of the year was spent in rearranging the 
museum to make a place for the collections which have re- 



33() NEI5RA.SKA iSTATE HISTORICAL vSOl'IETY. 

centlj^ been added; a complete catalog of the museum was 
prepared in brief and is submitted as part of this report. 

CAIRO TRIP. 

May 1, I visited. Cairo, Nebraska, to investigate a mound 
which had recently been opened near there. The account of 
this mouud may be found in the Cairo Record of April 26, 
1907, and need not be repeated here. 

The grave is on a high bluff known as Kyne's Bluff which 
overlooks Sweet creek, near its junction with the South Loup 
river, 

I am of the oi)iuion that this lone burial was made duriug 
a hunting expedition and that the warrior was buried, about 
1870 or 1873. The implements and dress show him to have 
lived long after contact with tlie \\'hites. His pipestem was 
found, but in the excavation they missed his pipe, which is 
probably there yet. I brought the bones and the other relics 
with me and have them in the museum. 

It is not common for the modern Indian to bury even the 
prominent warriors five feet deep. I am of the opinion that 
jMrt of that depth was made by the wind; I noticed that the 
bluff is composed of a light loose soil mixed with sand. In 
places it is nearly all sand. The wind, seems to build the 
points of bluffs higher by blowing the light soil aud sand into 
drifts a few inches back of the prominent face of the bluff and 
directly on top of it. There are a number of well-defined sur- 
face lines to be seen when the edge of the bluff is cut with a 
spade. This may be caused by an upward current of air car- 
rying the loose particles up the face of the bluff wlieu the 
wind blows directly against it. 

The whole surrounding country is more or less "sand-hills" 
and by a study of the formation of these hills one can account 
for the remains of this Indian being five feet deep when he 
was probably buried three feet deep. There is an ideal camp 
ground for hunting parties near this grave, but no signs of a 
permanent home. 



KEPOltT OF AUCHKOf.OGIST 1907. 837 

I made a trip to Weeping Water during Ma,y. I wished to 
find the flint outcropping in the blnffs near there and get a 
more definite knowledge of the mound just east of that town. 
The flint I failed to find, and the tops of the hills east of town 
skirting the Weeping ^Vater valle}' show camp sites on nearly 
every level spot. Chipped flints and potsherds are to be found 
in man}' fields, showing that this stream was a well-traveled 
highway. The nature of the chips of flint lead me to believe 
that the highway led from the Neha^^'ka quarries to the vil- 
lage sites on the Platte river. 

There is a well-defined line of camp sites leading from the 
Platte river near Ashland to the Blue river near Beatrice, by 
way of Indian creek and Salt creek, and this Weeping Water 
trip convinced me that the same kind of a trail doubtless 
joiued it not far from Ashland. 

While at Weeping Water I secured an old grain cradle once 
used by Louis Giberson, who settled near Greenwood in an 
early da}'; he was a noted cradler and could put more grain 
in the windrow than any of his neighbors. This cradle was 
the one he used in this state. It was presented by his wife, 
Mrs. Giberson. 

June 4 I delivered a lantern lecture before the York county 
teachers. While in York I called on C, C. Cobb, a merchant 
of that place who has gathered a fine collection of interesting 
material from all parts of the world. This he has tastefully 
displayed in a room built for it, which is 17 by 34 feet. His 
coin collection is especially fine, and his collection of musical 
instruments can not be duplicated in the West. We hope that 
he will think favorably of placing his collection in the Ne- 
braska State Historical Society museum in time. 

Johnson Brothers, dealers in shoes, purchased a fine lot of 
Indian costumes, moccasins, war-clubs, and beaded work 
when they lived near the Rosebud agency. This is all made 
with sinew and is a good representative collection of the work 
done at the Rosebud agency twenty years ago. You will find 
a complete catalog of this collection as part of this report. I 
packed the entire collection June 5 and shipped it to Lincoln. 

22 



338 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

To make room for this collection a new case was constructed 
4 by 5 feet and 7 feet high. Johnson Brothers value this col- 
lection at |800. It is a nice addition to our museum; and is 
placed as a loan. 

On June 15, I "accompanied Prof. Harlan I. Smith, of the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, and^llobt. 
F. Gilder of the World-Herald, .on an exploring trip north of 
Florence to visit the place where the "Nebraska Loess Man" 
was found. 

The trip was only a brief review of the excavation made 
and no new points were discovered save that at the depth of 
four feet from the surface bits of bone were found in the side 
of the wall of earth left in excavating; these bits of bone have 
the appearance of being gnawed by gophers. 

Not far from these bits of bone, and in apparently undis- 
turbed loess soil I found a small chip of whitish pink flint, 
very sharp and no larger than a gold dollar. This, to me, is 
an important find and carries more weight, as evidence, than 
anything else I have seen from that field. If this specimen 
of flint was used by the loess man, this same loess man must 
have visited the home of this flint or he must have trafficked 
with those who did visit the original quarry. 

If I mistake not this flint is the same as that brought north 
by the Pawnees about 1400 A.D. A number of bits of gray 
flint were found in the excavation which are certainly from 
the Nehawka quarry. This proves little, as the Nohawka 
quarry is not far away and primitive man used flint; the 
nodules crop out at Nehawka and this loess man may have 
found his flint on the surface. Perfect implements will be 
found in some future excavation, and when they are found 
much may be learned from them. Until the perfect imple- 
ments are found, the best evidence to be obtained is found in 
the flint chips mingled with the bones of this loess man. It 
is possible that these bits of flint are from the intrusive burial, 
or more properl}^ the huriaJ. (The bones of the loess man are 
supposed to be buried by nature at the time the loess was de- 



REPORT OF ARCHEOLOGIST 1907. 331) 

posited.) The line of demarkatiou between the remains 
buried by man and those covered by nature can not be distin- 
guished Avithout cutting a new cross-section — at least I could 
not see it. The true age of the loess man can be approxi- 
mately determined by the perfect implements if they can be 
found; and some light may be thrown on the subject by the 
flint chips if we can be sure these chips are contemporaneous. 
The walls of the excavation have certainly every appearance 
of being undisturbed loess soil. 

GENOA TRIP. 

Tuesda}', July 23, 1907, I started for Genoa to cut a cross- 
section through one of tlie mound houses on the Burkett site. 
The mound houses there are from 30 to 100 feet in diameter 
and from 2 to 4 feet high ; they are higliest in the center and 
slope in all directions. The surface is thickly strewn with 
broken flints, potsherds, and bones. These bones seem to be 
buffalo, deer, and dog bones, but a few bits of bone have been 
found on the surface which are unmistakably human bones. 
A number of bone scrapers, awls, etc., have been found on 
the surface as well as many X3erfeet scrai^ers and a fc^w ])er- 
fect arrows, spears, and flint knives. Every hut ruin in the 
state is circular in form, most of them having a low place in 
the center and a ring of earth sliglitlv raised around tJie outer 
edge. There is usuall}' a fireplace in the center, and cliar- 
coal, ashes, and burned soil are found 1)3* digging in the low- 
est spot in the center. The mound house ruins on the Bur- 
kett site are so different from other ruins in the state tliat a 
cross-section was necessarv to studv them.. 

Mr. E. M. Starr, wlio has lived on the place for a number 
of years, saj^s he has taken a human skeleton out of three of 
these mound houses, but the bones are scattered and lost; he 
says a perfect human skull was taken out of one. 

I cross-sectioned the largest one of these mound houses. I 
dug a trench 2i/i> feet wide, beginning at the outer edge of tlie 
mound fiftv feet from the center and running due W(^st to 



B40 Nebraska state historical society. 

the center. I found hard undisturbed soil at the surrounding 
level. At the center mj trench was nearly four feet deep. 
The material thrown out consisted of a light moved soil, 
nearly one-half of which was ashes ; in places the ashes rested 
in lavers an inch or two thick, covering an area of from one 
to four square feet ; this layer did not rest horizontally, but 
the part next the center of the mound was higher than the 
part nearest the outer edge; the slope was from a half-inch to 
an inch and a half to the foot. This seems to indicate that 
the ashes had been thro^^ n on a mound. The layers of ashes 
were found at almost every level in the cross-section, and in 
places soil was mixed with ashes to such an extent that, after 
drying, the soil had tlie appearance of being all aslies. The 
admixture of soil seemed to be black surface soil rather than 
the light yellow subsoil with which the whole village site is 
underlaid. 

In a number of places a plaster-like substance was found 
in irregular chunks. This had every appearance of ashes 
Avhen dried and powdered, except that it contained some grit 
or fine sand; the chunks were as hard as lime mortar. One 
mass ( of which I secured a specimen ) was as large as a water 
pail. These chunks were found at various levels and in vari- 
ous parts of the cross-section made. 

The mound seems to have been erected from the level, as 
the soil below the level seemed firui and undisturbed. No 
evidences of posts having been set to support a roof were 
noted, although I expected to find them and kept a careful 
watch. The area of floor uncovered was so small, however, 
that the excavation may have missed theui. There was no 
evidence of fire having been used save the scattered and in- 
termixed ashes mentioned before. There were a few bits of 
burned cla.y intermixed here and there, but they appeared to 
have been brought with the ashes and not to have been burned 
as they lay. Every cubic inch of the soil which forms this 
mound seems to contain potsherds, broken bones, or broken 
flints, and no part of the mound seems to have a greater abun- 



liEPORT OF ARCHEOLOGIST 190T. 3J:1 

dance. It seems strange, if this mound is an ordinary refuse 
heap, how the distribution could be so evenly made. 

A few perfect bone implements wcai'e found with a number 
of broken or decaj'ed bone implements. Tliere are a great 
number of shoulder blades (scapulae) of the buffalo, which 
show evidence of use as a hoe or for other purposes. A few 
rib bones and femurs that have been made into hide scrapers 
by notching one edge of the end. Not a few small bones show 
evidences of use as awls. These implements are very well 
preserved when buried in ashes, but if found in soil that is 
comparatively free from ashes they are somewhat decayed. 
A few calcined bones were found, but they seem to be acci- 
dents. Dog bones are intermingled as well as dog teeth and 
a few tusks, which may be those of the bear. Many of the 
bones are broken, as the Indian is wont to do for the pur- 
pose of removing the marrow. The state of preservation is 
remarkable ; manv of the bones look as fresh and new as if 
placed there a year ago. Other bones are in a very advanced 
stage of decay. 

The pottery is of the older type; many very artistic handles 
were found, and the curves of the edge pieces show some of 
the vessels to be as large as twenty-four inches in diameter. 
Most of the pieces are smooth on the outside ; only a few spec- 
imens have the fabric impressions; it is tempered abundantly, 
mostly with fine gravel, although a few specimens have the 
broken bits of pottery used as tempering. - Mica is not often 
seen. The specimens look very much like the Mandan pot- 
tery; the color is the same and the shapes similar, but there 
is a marked difference in the tempering. The Mandan pot- 
tery has abundance of mica, while mica is scarcely seen in 
the specimens from the Rurkett site. The shape of the top is 
very different also. The tops at the Burkett site show a nar- 
rowed neck two or three inches from the edge, which is very 
marked, while in the Mandan specimens which we have here 
there is but a very slight narrowing at the neck. The edges are 
elaborately decorated and nearly every specimen shows that 



342 NEBRASK^V STATE HISTOUICAL SOCIETY. 

the vessel had handles. The same kind of pottery is scattered 
along the Platte river in nearly every ancient village, but few 
similar specimens are f^und on the Missouri front. The pot- 
tery will prove one of the most valuable evidences in finally 
determining the people who occupied this site. 

The flint specimens are abundant ; a small per cent of these 
specimens are from the Nehawka quarry, a very few are from 
the Blue river, but the greatest number are of the brown iind 
yellow material which came from the headwaters of the 
Platte river. Occasionally a specimen of green quartzite 
from the Niobrara river is seen, but I have never found a 
specimen of the whitish-pink flint brought from Oklahoma 
and Arkansas by the Pawnees. Specimens of catlinite are 
rare — so much so that I doubt that these people ever visited 
the quarry. I have >not found a specimen of Obsidian as yet. 

These flint specimens lead one to infer that the people traf- 
ficked toward the west. 

The large mound house which I cross-sectioned is seventy- 
five feet from a circle house ruin. This ruin is southwest'of 
the mound house; in the center of this circle is the fireplace 
resting at the surface level. Large quantities of aslies and 
charcoal were found in a circular firepot. The surrounding 
soil is burned red for six or eight inches in all directions. 
The circle is slight, probably little below the depth of pi'esent 
cultivation, and one must observe carefully to note it at all. 

Ten feet south of this ruined hut ring is a cache. I discov- 
ered it by the appearance of the wheat stubble, which shows 
the cache to be nearly 8 feet in diameter. 

I cut a cross-section 7 feet longand 2i/2 feet wide near the 
south edge of this cache^ Upon exposing the north side of 
the trench I found the cache to be 4 feet 10 inches in diam- 
eter in the narrowest place and about 8 feet at the level of G 
feet deep. It was dug in the shape of a funnel, the widest 
place at the bottom. At 8 feet deep the yellow soil was 
l)rought up on the spade. Numerous large bones were found, 
some ashes near the bottom, and a number of large pieces of 



Kf]POin? OF AKCilEOLUGlS'r 1907. 34o 

broken pottery. A half of a vessel which held less thau a 
quart was foimd. iii this cache. It will pay to remove all the 
loose earth from this cache and thus restore it completely. 
This will be done when help can be had and the weather is 
cooler. There are a number of caches on this site in which 
some whole pottery vessels should ))e found — tbis would be 
a nice addition to our inuseum, but A\'Ould not assist in the 
study of the people, so we can not aliord to do the digging- 
now. . 

SUMMING UP. 

In briefly summing up the conditions as noted abovci, it 
seems likely that the liurkett site has been twice occupied by 
the same tribe of Indians, and that some time elapsed be- 
tween the first village built there and the last one. The 
mound houses, as I have called them, were made when the 
site was first occupied, and the ruin of these houses was a 
simple hut ring when the second village was built. These old 
hut rings were used for dump heaps by the people of the sec- 
ond village; dogs dug holes and buried their bones there, 
children played in the soft dirt, and ashes were dumped there 
by the squaws. Broken vessels and broken bone implements 
were deposited there until the old hut rings became heaps of 
refuse sinular to the kitchen middens. 

There are ordinary hut rings scattered over the site; one is 
usually found not over 100 feet from the mound. The mounds 
are scattered evenl}^ over eighty acres of ground, and tliere 
are about twelve or fifteen in all. Eight are large and well 
defined, Avliile the remainder are but slightly raised and often 
show the hut ring well defined on tlie outer edge, with a slight 
elevation in the center, showing that but little refuse had been 
placed there. The only point a'gainst this tlieory is the total 
absence of a fireplace in the center. The hut rings all haA^'e 
this fireplace, while not a single mound house shows it. If 
they had been used once as a house the old fireplace would 
show in the center. This leads one to think they may have 



;U4 NEl'.KASKA ►STATP: HLSTCiKlCAL SOCIETY, 

been storehouses, contemporaneous with the rest of the 
village. 

The whole village must have been of grass houses or houses 
covered with skins and erected on the level, as the outer circle 
of earth is so small that it can not represent more than a low- 
banking around the base of the house. There is not enough 
earth in the ruin above the undisturbed soil to form a mud 
house like those found south of Fremont, where white men 
saw the Pawnees living in earth houses in 1854. It is not 
impossible that these mound houses are ruins of storehouses 
Avhere refuse was dum])ed. I have thought they may be 
houses built for dogs, before the advent of the horse. The 
village was in ruin before contact with wliite traders, even, 
as I have not found a single indication of contact with white 
men. However, Mr. John Williamson savs he found a rustv 
knife three feet below the surface in one mound house. 

Peti-Le-Sharu, head chief of the Pawnees, said there was 
no legend of the village in his tribe. They knew noihing 
about it. He counted it very strange that any one should 
build a village on these high bluffs, nearly a mile from Avater 
and wood, and remarked that the Pawnees were not so fool- 
ish. Judge H. J. Hudson, of Columbus, rode over this site in 
1848 and it had then the appearance of great antiquity. 

DUNBAR TRIP. 

Some years ago a Mr. Money, who lived near Dunbar, gave 
me the account of finding a "stone sepulchc^r" containing not 
only the bones of a human being but also some stone imple- 
ments. This information was filed away until such a time 
as it seemed possible to investigate it. 

July 30 I went to Dunbar to learn more about this matter. 
I found evidences of a village site about two miles southeast 
of town on the banks of a small branch of the Nemaha. 

This site covers a part of the N.W. i^ of the N.W. 1/4, S. 
19, T. 7 N., R. 13 E. It was inhabited before contact with 
the whites, and the graves on the hill near have every appear- 



IlErOKT OF AUCIIEOLOOIST 1907. 345 

ance of antiquity. A few hut rings are still visible in the 
lowlands near the creek. 

Mr. ]McWi]lianis, who lived near, found some stone imple- 
ments on this site a number of years ago, but the survivors 
of the family were not at home. I gave the place but a liasty 
examination and drew a plat of the vilhige site wliicli I have 
named the I)unbar site. Careful inquiry among the settlers 
did not reveal other evidences near there. The land is owned 
bj^ Mr. J. J. Prey, who does not reside there, conse(]uently no 
excavation was attempted. 

ORLEANS TRIP. 

August 12 I went to Oi'leans to investigate the conditions 
surrounding the silver cross found by N. ( \ 8asse a mile west 
of town. This solid silver cross was brought to the museum 
by Mr. A. A. Nielsen, of Stamford. It was thought at the 
time that the bones found with it might prove to be those of 
the nmrtyr — Father PadilUi, who accompanied ("oronado on 
his march to Quivera in 1541, V)ut a careful examination of 
these bones proves them to be Indian bones buried not over 
one hundred years ago. 

Through the kindness of iNIr. Sasse we brought the bones 
to the museum. Every bone is carefully preserved, and we 
hope to have the complete skeleton mounted, and then lie 
shall again wear his treasured crucifix. 

The Indian was buried in the clean sand not man^- rods 
from the banks of the Republican river. The bones are ^^'ell 
preserved. 

The theory is advanced by some of the early settlers that 
this Indian may have been killed near the stockade which 
was built in 1870 on the N.E. i/^ of S. 17, T. 2 N., R. 19 W. 
This was built by the early settlers as a place of safety in 
case of an Indian attack. Tradition has it that two or three 
Indians were killed in the vicinitv, but no one seems to know 
just when or by whom. The bones were found in a sand 
dune on the Republican bottom. The dune was probably 



346 NEJUIASKA STATE HISTOUICAL SOCIETY. 

eight inches above the level and covers a half-acre of ground. 
Nothing grows there except a few scattering weeds. The 
skeleton was placed in a sitting position, showing tliat red 
men buried it. 

Flag creek flows south and joins the Eepublican at Or- 
leans. James McGeachin told me that it takes its name from 
the fact that a man by the name of Foster left the stockade 
and first raised the flag on this creek as early as 1870. Some 
of the builders of this stockade are still living, although their 
handiwork has entirely disappeared. Frank Hautl'nangle, 
Andrew Ruben, Frank Bryan, and Mr. A'N'olworth were among 
the number. 

INIr. James McGeachin very kindly accompanied me on a 
trip of exploration five miles north of Orleans. On S. 27, 
T. 3 N., R. 19 W., near the creek bank, is the site of a stone 
age village. Whole i)ottery vessels have been found near 
there. This village had extensive caches along the creek 
bank ; three of these have washed out, leaving the top sod to 
cave in. The Avails are yet plainly defined and show the 
caches to have l)een from six to eight feet deep and about 
seven feet across. Owing to the prolonged drouth the soil is 
very dry, and one could not cut a satisfactory cross-section, 
but I am satisfied there are a number of these old cache holes 
which can be excavated to show the size and form. The sur- 
rounding surface has the appearance of having been a corn- 
field, and I think this site is where the Republican Pawnees 
raised corn when Pike saw them farther east in l^OG. In 
fact, from the brief survey of the Republican region I am led 
to think that the Republican Pawnees wandered along this 
stream in much the same manner as their brothers lived and 
wandered along the Elkhorn and the Platte. 

One feature seen a mile north of Orleans must not be 
omitted here. On the farm of O. 11. Olson is a circle, plainly 
defined, that measures 120 feet in diameter. The land has a 
crop of sod corn this year, being newly broken. Mr. Olson 
said that when this land was in pasture the circle showed 



REPORT OF AKCIlEOI.OGIS'r 1007. 847 

very plainly. There is no evidence of earthwork except in 
the center; there is a depression about eight inclies deep in 
the deepest place and not over ten feet in diameter. A slight 
ring can be observed outside of this low spot, which is about 
twenty feet in diameter. The vegetation always grows abun- 
dantly within this slight ring. A strip surrounds the large 
circle and really defines it, on which little if any grass grew 
when in pasture, and on Avhich the corn is very short and 
dried up. The soil seems packed and is whitish in appear- 
ance against the soil from the center or from the surrounding 
surface. This circular strip is about ten or twelve feet wide 
and a perfect circle, the outer edge of which is 120 feet in 
diameter. The circle rests on sloping ground near the top of 
the ridge and tips to the soutll^^est. One can see this evi- 
dence from the road, a half-mile away, A^ery plainly. 

I can not explain the phenomenon. We have the legend 
of the "mystic circle" quoted by Abbe Em. Domenech. This 
may be one of those "mystic circles." This of course does not 
explain the strange phenomenon, and all I can do is to record 
its appearance in 1907. 

West of Orleans about five miles is a mound which has 
every appearance of being a land slide from the main bluff 
near by. It may, however, be an eroded extension of the 
range of bluffs which it seems to terminate. From observa- 
tion it appears to be about fifty feet high and two hundred 
feet across. The lowest stratum is a shale having streaks 
resembling coal. Within five feet of the top is a stratum of 
what appears to be drift pebbles, the largest per cent of which 
is flint in stratified pieces two or three inches Avide and half 
an inch to an inch thick. Many bits are smaller. This flint 
seems water-worn, is of good quality, and brown to light yel- 
low in color. These pieces bear a close resemblance to the 
material used so extensively for implements along the Platte 
and Elkhorn rivers. How extensive this deposit is I was 
unable to learn; I saw it in two places only, although I rode 
twenty miles over the adjoining country. A feature worth 



848 NEBRASKA STATI-: HISTOKICAI, SOCIETY. 

mentioning is observed on the top and sides of this mound. 
At a point near the toj) a sand bank has been opened, and 
one side of tliis exposes a cross-section of a sepnlcher or some 
similar earthwork. There are no bones, however, and this is 
not strange when we consider hoAV shallow the bnrial was 
made (not over two feet deep) and how loose the soil is, as 
wolves are wont to exhume the bones. But the strange fea- 
ture is noticed in the pieces of flint which seeju to be burned. 
The specimens are abundant. They are light and brittle, al- 
though in every other way they resemble the flint specimens. 

This mound may have been used repeatedly for signal fires 
or the flints may have been burned in connection with the 
burial, as they are most al)undant in and near the four or 
five graves which crown this mound. It was unfortunate 
that we had no spade and a storm was rising. We were four 
miles from our shelter, so the graves were left undisturbed. 
The calcined flint is a new feature in this state. 

The next morning we drove from Stamford southeast to 
examine ^'Sappa Peak." This is the highest point of hill in 
the surrounding country. The top is comparatiA^ely level 
and is about an acre in area. A few inches below the top is 
a layer of lime rock. This probably accounts for the lack of 
erosion and explains why this peak towers above the sur- 
rounding hilltops. Two broken flint arrow points were found 
on this peak and a number of flint chijis. There is indication 
of a burial, but the mound has been opened by some one who 
was evidently hunting wolves. Early settlers say that Sappa 
peak was strewn with flat lime rocks in an earlv dav, and 
that these rocks Avere placed in such a way that they repre- 
sented the outlines of the human form ; however, at this time 
none of these rocks are left. The top of this peak is strewn 
with flint chips, and artifacts are frequently found. Mr. A. A. 
Nielsen, of Stamford, who accompanied me on this trip, will 
use a favorable time and cross-section the mound on top of 
Sappa Peak. The earth was so dry and cracked that it was 
impossible to excavate the mound satisfactorily at this time. 



REPOUT OF AUCtlEOLOGIST 1907. 349 

On my return trip I stopped at Superior and visited the 
Pike monument near Republie, Kansas. A niiniber of lodge 
circles are to be seen on an eminence commanding- a view of 
the Republican river, but the general appearance of the site is 
disappointing. There are liut a few acres in the site, and after 
a careful study of I'ike's very meager description of the v'il- 
lage, which he visited in 1806, one can scarcely believe this is 
the identical spot. Be that as it may, the state of Kansas and 
Mrs. Elizabeth Johnson have done a noble and praiseworthy 
Avork in marking the Pike village. If tliis is not the spot, it is 
at the very least approximately correct, and the event is the 
main thing after all. The real reason for marking the spot is 
the fact of our flag being raised there in 1806. This event is 
fittingly celebrated and the historical fact is commemorated 
by this shaft. The petty contention for the exact spot should 
be laid aside and all should join in gratitude to Mrs. Johnson 
and the state of Kansas for their noble work. 

No flint spalls were found in or near this Pike village site. 
It is stated that Pike moved his camp from the bank of the 
river to a high point conunanding a view of the village. 
There is no such point of high land near this monument. 
Nor is the surrounding country exactly as one would expect 
to see from Pike's description. I drove north and west from 
this monument to the site of another village about three 
miles south of Hardy. This village site is also in Kansas. 
It occupied an eminence about a mile from the river bank. 
At the base of the hill there gushes forth a spring that is 
known far and wide as "Big Springs.'' The water flows out 
over a hundred acres of pasture land and joins the Republi- 
can river. Near this spring I found a chipped flint S^/o inches 
long and 4 inches wide which weighs 1^4 pounds. It is of 
light brown flint. The flint was found bv the Indians in 
strata about an inch thick, as can be seen by this specimen. 
The sides still show the limestone which rested on either side 
of the flint stratum. The specimen is very similar to the ones 
found on the Platte and Elkhorn rivers, and if we did not 



350 NEP.KASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

know from history that the Pawnees once lived on the Re- 
publican river this specimen would establish a relationship 
betAveen the people of the Platte and the people of the Re- 
publican. It is Pawnee in size, material, shape, and indi- 
viduality of chipping. Where the material came from orig- 
inally is yet unknown, but very probably from Wyoming. 
Other spalls and broken implements were found on the liigh 
j)oint above the Springs, showing that once a considerable 
village of Stone Age people lived here. 

James Beattie once owned the land where this implement 
was foimd, and he said that a number of lodge circles were 
still to, be seen near where the old fort Avas built when he 
came to live there in the earlv '60s. 

He also told me that two miles Avest of the Big Springs was 
another ruin of an Indian village site. 

A MOUND EXCAVATED NEAR ENDICOTT. 

August 9 I started for a brief view of the field in Jefferson 
county. I had notes about a chipping field near Endicott on 
the farm belonging to F. M. Price, but could find nothing 
worth mentioning in that line; however, I found a mound on 
this farm which seemed worth opening. A few arroAV points 
had been found in the vicinity, but I was not able to see a 
single one. 

The farm is now operated by Mr. J. A\\ Ed\>'ell, ^^ ho very 
kindly gave his consent to open the mound. It was at the 
highest point of a hill in a rolling pasture on S.W. Vt S. 17, 
T. 1 N., R. 3 E., and about two miles south of the Little lilue 



rr 



river. 



The surrounding hills are covered with a l)rown sandstone, 
having irony streaks through it. In some places this rock is 
soft and crumbles easily, Avhile in other places it is as hard as 
iron and contains small pebbles in a conglomerate mass as 
if fused in iron. 

These rocks cover a considerable area, but do not extend 
very deep; they crop out at the top of the hills and appear to 



REPORT OF AUCHKOLOGIST 1907. 351 

be a cap which only extends half waj^ down the hill. Imme- 
diately under these rocks one finds a red and brown clay. 

The mound was in the midst of large, fiat, irony sand rocks 
and was about two feet above the surrounding rocks ; it was 
ten feet across and nearly circular. The soil which was 
mixed with the rocks seemed darker in color and was more 
fertile, as was evinced l)y the vegetation growing there, and 
it was probably carried from the valley. This is what first 
attracted my attention. The rocks at the edges of this mound 
sloped toward the center, showing that they had settled. The 
mound was probably much higher at one time. From the 
appearance, I concluded I had found the sepulcher of some 
noted chief, and I concluded to open the mound. 

The rocks extended to a depth of four feet. The mound 
had a covering of three courses of fiat rocks about three 
inches thick. They were so large that it took two men to get 
them out of the hole. It seems that the oblong excavation 
was hollowed out of the original rocky hill about five feet 
deep, and something had been deposited there, as the soil for 
sixteen inches below the rocks was mixed with some dark 
fibery substance which left a whitish-gre(Mi mould on the 
under side of the rocks. 

There was not, however, a single scrap of bone or any sub- 
stance other than the mould and displaced earth wliich woidd 
assist in determining what had been buried there. I doubt 
that it was a hunum bodv, as the form of the bones would 
have been found. It may have been meat, or it may have been 
hides or blankets. AVhatever may have been placed there 
had so thoroughly decayed that no proof was left to deter- 
mine it. 

I am certain the mound was erected by human hands; I 
am certain coyotes could not have removed the bones if it 
were a grave, and the only solution I can give is that some- 
thing had been cached there and then removed, the rocks and 
mound being' replaced, or that the substance chcIumI has 



352 XEUKAHKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

wholly decayed during the many years since the mound was 
made. 

A well-defined, rude wall surrounded the oblong hole both 
above and below the flat rocks. The excavation was a little 
larger than the rocks which covered it, so that their weight 
rested on whatever was j)laced undei' them. This mound is 
near the old trail and a spring is found near "Pulpit Eock," 
forty rods south. 

The hard sandstone which caps the hills in this vicinity is 
the material which the Indians used to make "planers." 
These are blocks of sandstone about one and a half inches 
each way and from three to ten inches long. A groove is 
made lengthwise on the flatt-ened side and the other three 
sides are rounded. Two of these planers are used together. 
A shaft which is to be used as an arrow shaft is placed in 
this groove. Both are held in the hand with the shaft held 
lightly between them. By drawing the arrow shaft back and 
forth it is made straight and smooth; it is made round by 
turning it as it is moved back and forth. 

This irony sand rock made durable planers. They are 
found on almost every village site in the state. A streak of 
brown sandstone extends nearly across the state, but it is not 
always suitable for planers. • 

DONIPHAN TRIP. 

An interesting discovery was recently made in the clay pit 
at the brick yard near Doniphan, two miles south of the 
Platte river in Hall county. About twenty acres of the clay 
has been removed to a depth of thirty feet. About the 1st of 
July they began to remove the clay from a deeper level and 
uncovered an area of several hundred square yards to a depth 
of thirty-six feet. At this level the workmen came to black 
surface soil not fit for bricks. 

I investigated this locality August 23. I found this 
stratum of surface soil to be about four and a half feet deep 
— three times as deep as the black soil on the present surface. 



IIEPORT OF ARCflEOLOGIST 1907. 353 

The loess deposit immediately above this stratum of black 
soil is intermixed with charcoal aud bones. The bones are 
not human, and I saw no sign of a camj)flre or any area 
where the evidences showed that man had resided, but 
one of the workmen said that he sa^^' two places which 
showed that a campfire had been maintained for some time. 
If evidences of man are found at this place there can be no 
question but he lived here in interglacial days, as the locality 
is such that the glacial loess alone could have buried this 
black surface soil. The area whicli was uncovered to the 
deepest level unfortunately was covered with water, and the 
spot where the workman saw the fireplaces could not be seen. 
Later we hope to see the area drained. 

By digging at a point near, we exposed a cross-section of 
the black soil and were able to study it. This black soil is 
underlaid with a tough clav intermixed with coarse sand. It 
is a light yellowish-brown with a pea-green tint; while the 
clav above lacks the tint of green and has rustv streaks 
through it. 

At one point in the cross-section was a crack extending 
vertically the whole way down, through the loess above as 
well as the black soil. This crack was one-sixteenth of an 
inch wide and was washed full of very light yellow soil. The 
crack appeared the same width all the way and extended 
across the excavation, shoAving on both sides of the pit. 

The bones, as well as blocks of the soil, were secured for the 
museum. Mr. John Schwvn, who owns the brickvard, is a 
student of archeology. He has kindly consented to keep a 
close watch when the second level is being removed, and we 
hope to secure reliable facts about this surface which was 
covered so many years ago. 

If evidences of man are found in this clay pit it will for- 
ever settle the problem of the "Nebraska Loess Man." The 
surface here is eightv feet above the Platte level, two miles 
from the river, and on a level with the surrounding table- 
land. It is in a comparatively level country where a "land 
slide" could not happen. 



354 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The same stratum of black soil has been observed in exca- 
vating at Aurora and at other points near. It seems that a 
large area of fertile land existed here in interglacial da^^s. 

NEHAWKA TRIP. 

September 11 I briefly reviewed the vicinity of the flint 
quarries near Nehawka, in company with C. C. Cobb of York. 

The only new point observed dui-ing this trip was in a deep 
ravine which has been recently washed out to a de])th of six- 
teen feet, not far from the bed of the Wee])ing Water creek. 
About half way frojn the creek to the base of the hill Avhere 
the flint quarries are found this ravine cuts a cross-section 
at right angles with either. At a depth of sixteen feet below 
the present surface I found a number of flint spalls as they 
Avere struck off the nodules and rejected. I also secured a 
piece of limestone reddened by heat which rested at the same 
level. This proves the great age of these quarries. They 
have existed long enough for the hill to erode and bury this 
burned rock sixteen feet deep at a point 200 feet from tlie 
present foot of the hill and 100 feet from the present bed of 
the stream. The stream now has a level of ten feet below 
where this burned rock was found. No spalls were found 
below the sixteen foot level, but above that level to tlie sur- 
face the soil was evenly strewn with brolvcn l)its of rode, 
burned and natural, as well as numerous flint chips. 

This cut made by nature is an interesting study. It shows 
tlK' sub.stance of a cross-section nearly twenty feet deep and 
it is rich black soil all the way down. 

ADAMS TRIP. 

September 21 I visited A. H. Wliittemore, of Adams. Mr. 
AVhittemore Avrote me some time ago of his collection of 
stone-age implements found near Adams, and I visited him 
for the purpose of looking over his collection ; and I suc- 
ceeded in getting his interest aroused to such an extent that 
he will attend to the archeology of his particular locality. I 



RErORT OF ARCHEOIOGIST 1907. 355 

brought to the miiseuiii one of the finest specimens of Quivera 
tomahawk I have ever seen. It was found near Beatrice. It 
shows much wear and appears to be very old. A few very fine 
blades of Xehawka flint were found in the same locality. 
This is evidence that the people who Avorked the Nehawka 
quarries trafficked with the people on the Blue river, and 
probably were contemporaneous. No specimens of catliuite 
are found about the ruins alon^- the liiue vallev. ]f these 
ruins are Quivera in type, the Indians which Coronado met 
evidently knew nothing of the catlinite quarries. Mr. Whitte- 
more loaned us a pipe made from a very fine grained sand- 
stone which Dr. Barbour calls Dakota cretaceous, intimately 
cemented with red oxide of iron. This material evidently 
was found in the drift and used occasionally for making 
pipes. This pipe is a small disk pipe. A similar disk pipe 
was found near Genoa and is in the Larson collection. Three 
or more have been found along the Elkhorn river, and are in 
the Hopkins collection. 

TRIP TO MARQUETTE. 

In "Indian Sketches" bv John T. Iiwing, Jr., von will find 
a very graphic account of a trip among the various tribes of 
Nebraska Indians made in 1838 bv Edward Ellsworth. He 
made a treaty with the Otoes on the Platte, and visited the 
Pawnees in three of their important villages. It has not been 
difficult to find the ruins of the Otoe village near where Yutan 
now stands, and the ruins which are found near Fullerton 
mav be identified as one of the villages visited. What I have 
called the Horse Creek site, twelve miles west of Fullerton, 
is certainl}^ the Skidi village which Irving describes, but the 
Choui village, situated south of the Platte, has thus far not 
been identified. I have made inquiry of those living in Polk 
and Hamilton counties without avail. 

Tuesday', October 22, I went to Marquette to begin the 
search for the ruin of the Choui village which was visited bv 
Ellsworth in 1833. 



35() NEBJLVSKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Charles Green and his brother whe^i they visited the 
Museum during the state fair of 1907 informed me that Hint 
arrows had been found near tlieir home and invited me to 
explore the vicinity. At a point nearly north of Marquette 
on sections 32 and 33 of town 13, range G, on the farui be- 
longing to G. A. Reyner, is a point which corresponds geo- 
graphically with the Irving description of the surrounding- 
country, but there is no evidence of a ruin to be found near 
the place described. A few graves are in evidence on the 
surrounding hills, but no earthworks or chipped flints can be 
found in the valle^^ where Irving says the village was situated. 
I explored the south bank of the Platte to a point two miles 
up stream from the Grand Island bridge, but could tind no 
evidence of the old Choui village. It still remains to explore 
on down stream into Polk county. 

Irving says they forded the river with the wagons and ox 
teams. He says that after traveling toward where Fullerton 
now stands for a few hours thevcame to a "^'lone tree'* and 
refreshed themselves at the only stream they had found on 
the trip. This stream must haA'e been Prairie creek, but the 
"lone tree" could not have been the historic Lone tree which 
once stood on the bank of the Platte river. The verv earlv 
settlers in Merrick county may have seen a lone tree on the 
banks of Prairie creek north of Central City, at the roots of 
which a small stream flowed. There must still be consider- 
able evidence of this Choui village on the surface unh^ss it be 
swept into the Platte. As this stream has changed its banks 
but little in the later 3'ears, there is hope that the ruin niay 
yet be found. Irving says it was situated at tlie- base of a 
range of hills, fifty yards from the Platte. 

You will find circular depressions about forty feet in diam- 
eter where this village stood. There should be broken flints 
and pieces of pottery scattered thickly over the surfac<\ I 
shall continue my search for this ruin and will be very thank- 
ful for any information you m.s.j be able to give. 
. Living on the very bank of ';he Platte river about r-x miles 
southwest of Phillips is aii interesting gentlenmn by the 



REPORT OF AliCHEOr.OGIST 1907. 357 

name of CharleKS White, but known tlirougliout this vicinity 
as "lUickskin Charlie." He has a small collection of Indian 
implements and quite a variety of tirearms and otlier curios. 
This gentleman is well posted on Indian history and tradi- 
tion, having scouted with the Indians on the frontier nearly 
all his life. 

STRO.AISBUKG TRIP. 

It has been a matter of interest that the exact location of 
the Choui village should l)e definitely determined, and a sec- 
ond tri}) was prompted by additional information secured 
from ^fr. (\ P. Peterson of Lincoln, after the fereaoing was 
put in tyi)e. The general location was known to be on the 
bank of the Platte river, nearly due west froui Osceola, but 
there exists no record of its discovery. 

I have mentioned Ellsworth, who negotiated a treaty with 
the Choui band of PaAvnees iji 1888, and John T. Irving, 
who wrote of the trip, gave a good account of the sur- 
rounding country. George Catlin visited the village in 
1833 and painted portraits, of a nuinber of the leading 
warriors, among which was the portrait of t^hon-ka-ki-he-ga 
(the Horse Chief), who was head chief of the Choui (or 
Grand) Pawnees. The head chief of the Choui band was also 
head chief of the confederated band of Pawnees in later years, 
so this is doubtless the chief of the Pawnees in 1833. 

Henry Dodge negotiated a treaty with this band at this vil- 
lage in 1835, and sa3'S the head chief was called Angi'y 3fan, 
while Irvin<>- does not mention the name of tlie chief at all. 
From the descriptions given by these early travelers the geo- 
graphical surroundings ma^' be recognized at tliis time. Just 
when the village was built is not known, nor is it known just 
when it was al)andoned, but, from tlie authority at hand, I 
suspect it was not occupied in 1810. About that date the 
Choui band moved to the vicinity of the Loup river, near the 
other bands, as all the strength of the Pawnee tribe was 
necessarv to resist the Sioux. 



358 NEBRASKA' STATE IIISTOKICAL SOCIETY. 

The ruiu of the Clioui village is in Pollv county about eiglity 
roils northeast from the end of the Clarks bridge over tlie 
riatte river. It lies in section 17, township 1-1 north, range 4 
west. The land is owned by W. S. Headley, who purchased it 
in 1892. Samuel Baker bought the land from the railroad 
company in 1870, and broke out the field, which has been in 
cultivation ever since. The village occupied'about forty acres. 
It was destroyed by their enemies before 1833 and rebuilt by 
the Pawnees. There is an abundance of charcoal intermixed 
with the soil on this village site. This shows that the village 
must have been destroyed by fire at last, although we haA^e no 
record of it. A number of iron implements have been found 
and the charred ends of the tipi posts are still being plowed 
out. 

No flint chips were noticed, which leads me to conclude that 
this village was built after the contact with white traders had 
been so close that practically all the members of the band 
used steel arrow points and knives. This condition was 
brought about very rapidly when once the red men saw the 
white man's implements. If the Choui band had occujned this 
village site before they discarded the flint, the whole surface 
would be strewn with flint chips, thrown off in making their 
arrows. The ruin seems destitute of potsherds. This seems 
to indicate that kettles made by white men had taken the 
I)lace of the Indian-made pottery. The Pawnees had ample 
op]3ortunity to procure white man's implements, as traders 
traversed the Platte valley even before the Lewis and Clark 
expedition of 1804. 

The importance of this village ruin is found in the known 
condition in 1833. This is about as (?arlv as a written account 
of any village in the state is to be found. P>y studying the 
ruined conditions of this village, seen hj travelers and de- 
scribed in 1833, we may determine the approximate age of 
other ruins. When I visited the ruin near Linwood I had 
nothing for a comparison. Xow I have a much greater re- 
spect for that village ruin, which is doubtless older than this 



MUSEUM CATALOG I 'E. 



359 



Choui village. The discovery of this rain gives iis a basis of 
comparison which is ver}- important. 

A map of the village will be pref^ared, and we hoi^e to do 
some excavating in the ^dcinity, in time. 

E. E. Blackman, 

Areheologist. 
January 1, 1908. 



MUSEUM CATALOGUE OE THE NEBILV^^KA STATE 

HLSTOKIOA L SOCIETY. 

COMPILED BY E. E. BLACK^LVN. 

When the specimens bearing the first numbers were cata- 
logued it was not expected that the museum would attain to 
a dignity beyond that of a simple workshop), and study speci- 
mens were given numbers the same as others. A number of 
specimens which had been catalogued were returned to the 
owners. This explains why so many numbers are left out. 

It is not thought best to cumber the catalogue with insig- 
nificant specimens, and these numbers will be used for im- 
portant specimens later on. JMany specimens are stored for 
want of room to proj)erly display them, and these are not 
included in this cataloo'ue. 



No. 



1 — A nodule of flint found near 
the Nehawka flint mines, and 
presented by Isaac Pollard in 
1901. 

2 — Nodule of flint in three pieces 
from flint mines at Nehawka. 

3 — A chipped flint presented by 
E. A. Kirkpatrick, of Nehawka, 
found on the surface near Ne- 
hawka. 

4 — Chipped flint found near Ne- 
hawka, and presented by E. A. 
Kirkpatrick. 

5 — The largest chipped flint of 
which there is a record, being 
23 inches long and 3 inches 
wide, was plowed up near Ful- 



No. 

lerton, and presented by Will 
A. Brown. 
S — Frontal bone from a - grave 
near Nehawka, exhumed in 
1898, by E. A. Kirkpatrick. 
9 — Chipped tomahawk, found at 
Nehawka. 

12 — Chipped flint from Nehawka. 

14 — Chipped flint from Nehawka. 

15 — Knife of flint, Nehawka. 

IG — A flake of flint thrown off in 
chipping, Nehawka. 

18, 19— Chipped flints from Ne- 
hawka. 

21 — A core left after implement- 
making chips are taken off the 
nodule. 



3G0 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



No. 

24 — A flint knife found at a depth 

of tliree feet on tlie floor of a 

lodge circle on the Griffith site. 

29— Chipped flint from Griffith 

site. 
40 — Chipped tomahawk found on 

Grifl^th site. 
54 — Chipped flint from the Grif- 
fith site. 
80 — Flint presented by L. J. Grif- 
fith of Nehawka. 
80— Mill, found on the Pollard site. 

100 — C-hipped fiint from' Nehawka. 

158 — A "discoidal" found by Frank 
Dunham on his lot in the town 
of Roca and presented by him. 
It may be a stone shaped by 
white men and lost. 

159— Ax presented by J. L. Grifl[ith. 

160— Maul, presented by J. L. Grif- 
• fith. 

161, 162— Relics from the Chamber- 
lain collection, source un- 
known. 

163^ — Ax. presented by .Tames Fuller. 

164, 165 — Two ax heads from the 
old Indian town of Aztalan in 
Jefferson Co., Wisconsin; the 
Winnebagos once lived near. 

166 — Bone implement presented by 
Will A. Brown of Fullerton. 

168 — A chipped rock, use unknown. 
A number of these are found 
in Nance Co. 

170— Chipped flint. 

171 — Stone ax found 3 miles north- 
west of Tecumseh; presented 
by W. R. Harris. 

173 — A "ceremonial" in pottery 
from Nance Co.; presented by 
Will A. Brown. 

176 — Iron implements used by In- 
dians; presented by Will A. 
Brown. 

178 — Arrow head presented by 
John Meek of Douglas, found 
on sec. 4. T. 7 N, R. 10 E. 

179— Stone mortar found by W. A. 
Belfour of Unadilla. 

181 — Stone pipe, purchased; said 
to have been made by Sitting 
Bull. 

182— Flints taken from the Cham- 
berlain Collection. 

183 — Stone maul presented by I. 
W. Dunkleberger of Genoa. 

184 — Pottery handles which belong 
to Coffin Collection. 



No. 

188 — A piece of flint in strata, 

brown in color and chipped; 

found near Genoa, Neb. 

205-207— Flints from near Genoa. 
214 — A paint bone used to decorate 

robes; presented by Will A. 

Brown; from the Horse Creek 

site. 

217 — A bone turned to stone, from 
the Horse Creek site. 

218 — A knife from the same 'place. 

221 — A whole pottery vessel found 
near Fullerton, loaned by R. 
DeWitte Stearns. 

222— "Ceremonial" from Scotts 
Bluff, Neb., loaned by R. De 
Witte Stearns. 



223, 

227- 
228- 
232- 
237- 

239- 

240- 

242, 

245- 

246- 
251- 

252- 
253, 

255, 



260— 



261- 
262- 
263- 
264- 
26.5- 



224, 225— Flints from Scotts 
Bhvff, loaned by Mr. Stearns. 

-Mill stone, presented by Mrs. 
W. E. Dech of Ithaca. 
-Catlinite ornament, by Mrs. 
W. E. Dech of Ithaca. 
—Flints presented by Wm. H. 
Dech of Ithaca. 
—Maul presented by Mrs. Mar- 
garet Diddock of Thurston Co., 
found in a cache. 
—Arrow point from near Le- 
shara, presented by Miss Esty. 
—Arrow presented by Nils Gib- 
son, found near Swedeburg. 
243 — Indian relics presented by 
Mr.* Eggers of Yutau. 
—An 1820 copper cent, found at 
Yutan. 

—Button from Yutan. 
—Iron hoe used by Pawnees 
found near Leshara, by Eggers. 
—Ax as above. 

254 — Iron Pawnee implements 
from Leshara, by Joseph Lam- 
uel. 

256, 257, 258, 259— Indian im- 
plements from the McClain 
site, presented by Master El- 
mer McClain. 

A large flint ceremonial, very 
fine, loaned by Mrs. Hannah 
Larson of Genoa. 
-Pipe. 

-Part of a pipe. 
-Pottery. 
-Drill. 

-Bone fish hook, all of the Lar- 
son Collection. 



MUSEUM CATALOGUE. 



3G1 



No. 

266 — Beads found in Pawnee grave 
near Genoa, loaned by Mrs. F. 
' L. Horton. 

267 — Card of flints, presented by 
C. R. Wright of Genoa. 

268, 270— Pipes, loaned by C. R. 
Wright of Genoa. 

271 — Scraps of copper from near 
Genoa. 

272 — A brass bracelet found on the 
Wright site. 

274 — A brown jasper knife, dia- 
mond-shaped, having four cut- 
ting edges, found on the Wright 
site. " 

275 — Pipe loaned by J. A. Barber 
of Genoa. 

282— Flint from the Wright site. 

285— Ax loaned by C. R. Wright. 

287 — A chipped tomahawk from the 
Cotfin site. 

290— Flint from Coffin site. 

293, 295, 296— Chipped flints, etc., 
loaned by J. A. Barber, found 
on Wright site. 

297, 298, 311. 312, 313— Large im- 
plements found on the Wright 
site near Genoa, Neb. 

315 — Mill stones from the Coffin 
site. 

329 — Iron implements used by Paw- 
nees, found near Genoa, pre- 
sented by M. A. Elliott. 

330, 331— Picked pebbles loaned by 
J. A. Barber. 

335 — Pipe stem presented by Mrs. 
L. F. Horton. 

337 — Pipe stem from Wright site. 

339 — Copper knife found on the 
Wright site. 

341 — Bone bead from Wright site. 

342 — Curious brass coin found near 
Genoa; Coffin Collection. 

343 — Two arrows presented by Mr. 
DeCamp of Clearwater. 

34.5 — Four war points presented by 
Frank E. Miller of Clearwater. 

351 — Pipe presented by Elmer Mc- 
Clain of Fremont. 

352 — Relics from Pawnee village on 
McClain site, by Elmer Mc- 
Clain. 

353 — Beads and other relics pre- 
sented by Elmer McClain. 

356 — Relics from the Miller site 
presented by Amos Haile of 
Clearwater. 



No. 

359 — Pistol presented by John Wil- 
liamson of Genoa. 

360 — Stone implements from Miller 
site, presented by G. E, Miller. 

361 — Upper mill stone from Ne- 
hawka. 

362 — A quartzite chipped tomahawk 
found near Nehawka. 

363— "Turtle backs" from Burkett 

site. 
364 — Scraper from Burkett site. 
365 — Pipe presented by Benjamin 

C. Ray, lound near Barada, 
Neb., west of Glen Rock ou 
Aldrich farm % miles east of 
house. 

369— Presented by Shelly Hullihan 

of Niobrara. 
370 — Stone ax found on sec. 16, T. 

9 N, R. 7 E.; -presented by J. 

D. Woods. 

372— Knife presented by J. H. 
Thrasher of Plattsmouth. It 
was used by a burglar on a 
safe at North Platte. 

373 — Skull of an Indian (Omaha) 
killed with a club near Deca- 
tur in 1860; presented by J. H. 
Thrasher of Plattsmouth. 

374— Pipe loaned by T. F. Wiles of 
Plattsmouth. 

375 — ^General Price's collar, loaned 
by Mrs. R. R. Livingston of 
Plattsmouth. 

377— Platte Valley Herald, Aug. 29, 
1860, loaned by Mrs. R. R. Liv- 
ingston. 

378— Vol. 1, no. 1, Plattsmouth Jef- 
fersoniau, -July 25, 1857, A. B. 
Todd of Plattsmouth. 

379 — Arrows loaned by A. B. Todd. 

380— Gun found in Black Hills at 
an early date, A. B. Todd. 

381 — Beads found in Otoe grave at 
Barnston, loaned by Hugh Spen- 
cer. 

382. 383— Otoe relics loaned by 
Hugh Spencer. 

384-86 — Bracelets, pipe and beads, 
loaned by E. Huddart of Barn- 
ston. 

387 — Otoe relics presented by W. 
F. Nolan of Barnston. 

388— Bell by Hugh Spencer. 

391, 392— Drill and arrow from 
Scott Co., Iowa, loaned by N. 
Z. Whyte of Gushing, Iowa. 



362 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



No. 

393— Arrow from Scott Co., Iowa, 
loaned by E. R. Whyte of dish- 
ing, Iowa. 

394 — A piece of "pumice stone" 
found near Ft. Calhoun. This 
is doubtless similar to that 
which Lewis and Clark men- 
tioned i,n 1804, presented by 
Otto Frahm. 

395 — Spear loaned by Otto Frahm. 

396 — A whole pottery vessel found 
in a bank of earth near Ft. 
Calhoun, loaned by August 
Saltzman. 

397 — A pipe from Mexico. 

398— Flints from the "Huddart 
site." 

399, 400 — Collection presented by 
Dr. S. Pettingill of Ft. Calhoun. 

401. 402 — Two celts loaned by Gus- 
tave O. Nelson of Ft. Calhoun. 

404 — Flint spear presented by C. L. 
Belpere of Rulo. 

405 — Arrow found in Iowa Indian 
village site near Rulo, by Mrs. 
Dudley Van Valkenburg. 

407 — Celt from Kansas, purchased 
by A. E. Sheldon. 

408 — Upper millstone found near 
Salem, presented by Jerome 
Wilsie. 

409 — Stone ax found in Indian 
mound on the farm of Cass 
Jones 4 miles northwest of 
Rulo, presented by Jerome Wil- 
sie. 

411 — Mill stone presented by Cass 
Jones. 

412 — A 3-pronged fork from the 
Hemple Collection; probably a 
toasting fork. 

413 — Mounted swan from Hemple 
Collection, presented by Mrs. 
Dr. Wallace of Union. 

414 — A mounted pelican. 

415 — A pepperbox pistol. 

416 — A horse pistol. 

417 — Revolver with "Cady Rogers" 
on a card. 

418, 419, 420— Haversack, canteen. 
and mountain sheep head, 
property of H. C. McMaken, 
Plattsmouth. 

421 — Brass cartridge. 

422— Pipe. 

424 to 438— Axes, all from Hemple 
Collection. 

4?9 — Arrow point presented by 
?:tcwart Haile. 



No. 

440 to 450 — Arrow points from Al- 
ma, Kan. 

452-457 — Relics from Burkett site^ 
presented by Mr. Starr. 

458 — Arrow presented by Perry 
Eells of Roca. 

460-467— Flints from the Burkett 
site. 

468 — A rudely chipped flint, iden- 
tity unknown. 

469 — Flints from near Stockdale, 
Kan., presented by A. O. Hol- 
lingsworth of Redland, Ore. 

470 — Flint from the Rice site, pre- 
sented by A. O. Hollingsworth. 

471 — -A tobacco pouch from Hemple 
Collection. 

473 — Specimens of Quivera chipped 
implements from Kansas, se- 
lected from one ton of this ma- 
terial. These are the very 
best. Presented by Hon. J. V. 
Brower of St. Paul, Minn. 

474 — Pottery from Kansas, 

475 — Collection from the Rice site, 
loaned by Walter Rice of Blue 
Springs. 

476 — Specimens from the Holling- 
wcrth site near Holmesville, 
Neb. 

477 — Two Quivera tomahawks 
found on Rice site. 

478— Quivera tomahawk loaned by 
I\Ir. Crawford of Wymore. 

479 — Arrows loaned by Mr. Craw- 
ford of Wymore. 

480 — Collection loaned by Edward 
J. O'Sheaof Lincoln. 

481 — Arrow points from Scott Co.. 
Iowa, by Mrs. Alice Fitchner, 
Anthon, Iowa. 

482 — Pair of hand cuffs presented 
by Milo Hodgkins, Roca, Neb. 

483 — Ceremonial and celt from 
Ohio, by S. H. Thompson, Nel- 
son. Neb. 

484 — Collection loaned by Mrs. Grer- 
trude Romaine, 1448 P St., Lin- 
coln, Neb.: 2 ponj' saddle bags, 
quiver and arrows, 5i/^ pairs 
moccasins, Sioux belt, shirt, to- 
bacco pouch, pappoose case. 

485 — Collection presented by Otis 
E. Allis, Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

486— Card of flints loaned by A. G. 
Parker of Yutan. 

487 — A fine stone ax, presented by 
Stewart Haile. 



MUSEU^NI CATALOGUE. 



863 



No. 

489- 



from Hopkins 



, cell where 
burned to 

the Gates 



-Arrow point 
Collection. 

490 — Squaw knife from Gray site. 

491 — Collection of small arrow 
points taken from the Hopkins 
collection. 

492 — Wooden dish made from a log 
of Governor Clark's house in 
St. Louis, presented by Mrs. 
J. A. Haggard. 

493 — Stone hammer presented By 
L. J. Babcock of Gibbon. 

494 — A lime-stone hammer from 
Wyoming, by Bert Griggs. 

495 — Stone mortar presented by 
Charles H. Brown of Tobias. 

496 — Specimens from the overland 
trail presented by John Wright. 

497 — A key presented by John 
Kni.ght of Pleasant Hill. This 
is the key to a jail 
Mrs. Hondesheldt 
death in 1873. 

498 — Specimens from 
site. 

499— Seth Russell Walker Collec- 
tion: 2 Spanish dollars, gold 
sovereign, buttons, and Conti- 
nental bill. 

500— Chipped celt, by 
Brown of Tobias. 

501 — Vermont Freedom button, pre- 
sented by G. R. Unthank of 
Lincoln. 

502 — Two arrow points, presented 
by Clarence Ruigh of Firth 

503 — Specimens of purple flint 
from a cache in York Co., pre- 
sented by Rev. Cross. 

504 — Flints from Gray site. 

505 — Chipped flints from Beaver 
creek, Wyoming, by Bert 
Griggs. 

500 — Eleven flint arrow heads, 
loaned by Wm. Murphy, found 
near Florence, Neb 

507 — Miniature image of horse 
found near Linwood. 

508 — A flint found near Linwood. 

509 — Pottery from Florida, by Don 
C. Van Deusen, Blair. 

510 — Lock, purchased by Prof. 
H. W. Caldwell. 

511 — A curiosity found in Pickerel, 
by Mr. Montgomery. 

512 — One of the six imitation med- 
als used at the Calhoun cele- 
bration August 3, 1904. 



Charles H. 523— 
524 
525 



No. 

513 — Mandan pottery, presented by 

J. V. Bi'ower. 
514 — Bible once owned by Andrew 

Dripps, loaned by his daughter, 

Mrs. Mary J. Barnes of Barn 

ston. 

515 — Piece of pottery found under 
six feet of earth near Crescent 
City. Iowa. 

516 — Two curiosities loaned by 
Mrs. E. J. Young of Columbus. 

517 — Pottery, loaned by Miss War- 
ner of Maywood. 

518 — Ax from Furnas Collection. 

519— "Little St. John," a stone me- 
dallion found near Tekamah, 
and loaned by J. P. Latta. 

520— "Little St. John," identical 
with the above, found at 
Plattsmouth and loaned by G. 
Fickler. 

521 — A new flint implement from 
the Gray site, probably used 
to pull the beard. 

522 — A new flint implement, found 
by A. L. Hopkins, probably 
used as a groover to groove 
the arrow shafts. 
Pair of shoulder epaulets. 
-Scrapers from Burkett site. 
-New flint implements, use un- 
known. 

526— Two "Stockton Curves"; A. G. 
Parker Collection. 

527— An awl, A. G. Parker Collec- 
tion. 

528 — Wampum from Massachu- 
setts, presented by S. E. Tay- 
lor. 

529 — Arrow from Washington, by 
S E. Taylor. 

530 — Pair of candle snuffers, pre- 
sented by E Whitcomb. 

531 — Pair of andirons from Whit- 
comb Collection. 

532 — An ancient form of spinning 
wheel from Germany, presented 
by Chas. Hopt of McOook. 

533 — Calcined bone from grave 
near Crescent City, Iowa. 

534 — Spurs worn by Col. John M. 
Stotsenburg when he met his 
death in the Philippines, pre- 
sented by B. D. Whedon. 

535 — Pottery from New Mexico, by 
D. F. Ridden. 

536 — Japanese coin, by Y. Hiryama. 



364 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



No. 

537 — Old Virginia laud warrant, 
loaned by Mrs. C. S. Sherman. 

538 — Whole pottery vessel from 
Onawa, Iowa. 

539 — Skull found with above urn. 

540— Cast of "The Gray Stone 
Face" found at Schuyler, orig- 
inal in Gray, Col. 

541 — Burned clay from Tekamah, 
also a rock like the one con- 
taining the Little St. John when 
found. 

542 — Flints from Alabama, by L. 
McKinnon. 

543 — A hetchel for flax, Whitcomb. 

544 — A powder gourd. 

545 — One of a case of hats lost in 
Missouri river in 1860 and 
found in 1903, W. H. Woods. 

546— Saddle bags, W. H. Woods. 

547 — Tongs, by E. Whitcomb. 

548 — Large spinning wheel, by 
E. Whitcomb of Friend. 

549-:-A bed warmer from Wiscon- 
sin, by W. O. Fletcher. 

550 — Armor, by Edward Daniels. 

551 — Model mower, by S. E. Upton, 
Lincoln. 

552 — Ancient Winnebago canoe, 
loaned by W. K. Mitchell of 
Bancroft, Neb. 

553 — Ancient plow with wooden 
mold-board, loaned by Fred 
Humphrey of Lincoln. 

554 — Part of limestone at Ne- 
braska-Dakota line, by, Robert 
Harvey. 

555 — Brass urn from Philippine Is- 
lands. 

556 — Pictograph rock from Wonder 
site. 

557 — Chair in which Governor Fur- 
nas was cradled. 

558 — Gun which belonged to Gov- 
ernor Furnas's father. 

559 — Table and wheel made at 
Deaf and Dumb Institute at 
Omaha. 

560 — A flint-lock shotgun brought 
to Nebraska in 1834 by Rev. 
Samuel Allis, presented by his 
son, Otis E. Allis, Council 
Bluffs, Iowa. 

561 — Sandstone planers from Hop- 
kins Collection. 

562 — Pillar from old capitol build- 
ing, presented by E. T. Hart- 
ley. 



No. 

563 — Winnebago canoe made by 
Green Rainbow. 

564 — Ship from Hemple Collection. 

565 — Fishing rod, presented by R. 
W. Furnas. 

566— Knife. 

567— Knife. 

568, 569— Two machetes, Whitcomb 
Collection. 

570 — Machete, Gilbert Collection. 

571 — Confederate knife, by S. A. 
Gardiner. 

572 — Sword, presented by Gen. ,Tohn 
M. Thayer. 

573 — A number of guns from Hem- 
ple Collection. 

574 — Two swords, R. W. Furnas. 

575 — Two swords, R. R. Livingston. 

576 — Confederate sword captured 
by Gen. R. R. Livingston. 

577 — Wooden chain, Hopkins. 

578 — Three pairs of shackles from 
slavery days, from Hopkins 
Collection. 

579 — Old broken sword of Spanish 
design, hand made, found at 
11th and K Sts. ten feet below 
the surface by Charles H. Ris- 
ing. 

580— Tobacco pouch, by A. E. Shel- 
don. 

581 — Leggins from Wounded Knee 
battle field. 

582 — Three pottery vessels, by Mrs. 
J. E Barkley. 

583 — Tongs, shears, and chopping 
knife, presented by Gilbert L. 
Cole, Beatrice. 

584— Rock from the chimney of old 
trading post on Sioux reserva- 
tion. 

585 — Medicine sticks from Pine 
Ridge. Ingles Collection, Plea- 
sant Hill. Neb., loaned by J. W. 
Ingles, 1906. 

586 — Philippine kris. 

587 — Piece of royal palm, Philip- 
pines. 

588 — Three stone pipes from Pine 
Ridge. 

589 — Pipe-stone war clubs, knives, 
and a horseshoe from Pine 
Ridge. 

590 — Six effigy urns from cli'ff 
dwellers. New Mexico (an- 
cient). 

591 — Two pairs Pawnee moccasins. 

592 — Two pairs Yoca moccasins. 



MUSEUM CATALOGUE. 



305 



Mo. 
593 
594 
595 
596 

597 

598 

599 
600 



601—1 



602 
603 

604 
805 
606 
607 
608 
609 



610 
611 
612 
613 
614 
615 
616 
Li] 7 

618 
619 
620 

621 
622 

623 
024 

625 
626 
627 
628 
629 
630 
631 
632 



— Two Pawnee pouches. 
-Small Ponca moccasins. 
-Omalia pouch. 
-Pawnee tobacco box. 
-Six beaded novelties. 
-Coco palm, silver mounted 
cane. 

-Indian bow. 

-Shells, Mexican flag, and 
other relics. 

Ostrich egg. also a collection 
of U. S. silver half-dollars, 
quarters, and dimes; a number 
of bronze and nickel coins and 
two gold quarters, all enumer- 
ated in the catalogue; also a 
copy of the Boston Gazette 

Journal . 

— Three shells, Vernice Rogers. 
-Rain coat from Burmah, 
loaned by C. H. Carson. 

— War bonnet, by Ray Bell. 

—Hay-knife, W. H. Woods. 
Two hand-sickles. 

— Silver horn. 

— Three knives. 
-Flint spear head from Saun- 
ders Co., loaned by R. E. Ka- 
van. 

-Philippine pants. 
-Philippine bamboo chain. 
—Chinese shoes. 

— Philippine "head chopper." 
-Kris. 

-Kris, wavy edge. 
-Silver bracelet. 
-Gun, presented by T. W. 
Pentzer. 

— A Mauser rifle. 
-Canteen, Furnas Collection. 
-Cartridge box, Furnas Collec- 
tion. 

^Hali pipe, broken in drilling. 
-Knap sack and double can- 
teen. 

— Quirt. 

—Pistol, by Morris E. Meyers 
of Broken Bow. 
-Stone ax. 

— Stone ax. 
Stone ax. 
Mounted stone tomahawk. 

— Moccasin. 

A card of chipped flints. 

— Quirt. 
-Photograph of Lincoln's first 
capitol, W. W. Wilson. 



No. 

633— The gavel wdth which the first 
territorial legislature was called 
to order. 

634 — Sand box, by Gardiner. 

635 — A pew number, Gardiner. 

636 — Specimen of "Novaculite," by 
Mills. 

637^Unique animal skull, Harvey 
Link. 

638— MS. of Grover Cleveland, pre- 
sented by J. Sterling .Morton. 

639— Trailer, by Starr. 

640 — Sandwich Island priest's robe. 

641 — Buckskin beaded vest and se- 
cret society regalia from Fur- 
nas Collection. 

642 — Rocks, bones, etc ,. found un- 
der ten feet of loess soil near 
north line of Nebraska. 

643 — Piece of stone ax from near 
Hartington. 

644 — Two pieces of stone ax from 
Alaska, by Dr. Ward. 

645 — Lava from Mt. Shasta, L. D. 
Brace. 

646 — Belt, pistol case, and canteen, 
from Furnas Collection. 

647 — Telegraph key from San Juan 
hill, by E. W. Harvey. 

648 — Epaulet worn by Gen. Sterling 
Price. 

649 — Brick found when boring a 
well near Brownville, Furnas. 

650—87 articles from the Whit- 
comb Collection, enumerated 
and described in. an old cata- 
log. 

651 — Two flints from Hebron, by 
W. N. Bozarth. 

652 — Six flints from Cuming Co., 
by A. E. Long. 

653 — Campaign club, by A. B. Em- 
ery. 

654 — Chipped flints from Campbell, 
by H. H. Sheibal. 

655 — Gavel from the Furnas Collec- 
tion. 

656 — Scalp from the Furnas Collec- 
tion. 

657 — Masonic regalia from the Fur- 
nas Collection. 

658 — General Vifquain relics. 

659 — Ancient silver coin, by Wra. 
Elmendorf. 

660— Spike from the old Majors & 
Waddell building at Nebraska 
City, by C. N. Karstens. 

661 — A Nebraska City warrant, by 
E. F. Warren. 



366 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



No. 

662— Key to the old "Block House" 
at Nebraska City, by Mrs. Car- 
oline Morton. 
663— Canteen, by T. F. Goold of 

Ogalalla. 
664 — Coin, by Miss Maud Marti of 

Maywood. 
665 — Flint arrow heads presented 
to R. W. Furnas by I. M. Hach- 
er of bundy Co., also an Indian 
ration check, and a Washing- 
ton letter. 
666— A grain cradle presented by 
Mrs. Louis Giberson of Weep- 
ing Water. 
667 — Piece of timber from the 
"John Brown cave" near Ne- 
braska City. 
668— A flail, by A. L. Hopkins; a 

coin by A. L. Hopkins. 
669 — Two scalps from Hemple Col- 
lection, property of H. C. Mc- 
Macken of Plattsmouth. 
670 — Flints from a mound house 

near Genoa. 
C71— Flint knife, by C. R. Wright, 

Genoa. 
C72 — Shell beads and arrows, pre- 
sented by O. H. Olson, Orleans. 
673 — Flints from Orleans, E. M. Ol- 
son. 
674 — Columbian half-dollar by Jas. 
McGeachin. 

12th century English coin by 
Mrs. James ]\IcGeachin of Or- 
leans. 
675 — Two large ceremonial flints 

from near Hardy. 
676 — E. H. Whittemore collection: 
14 chipped flints and a pipe 
from Adams. 
677 — Revolver, presented by Lucas 

B. Dundas, Auburn. 
678— Relics from Ft. Calhoun by 

John T. Bell, Oakland, Cal. 
679 — Vifquain's address to 97th 111. 

Reg., by T. M. Pentzer. 
680 — The Johnson Bros, collection 
of Indian relics from Pine 
Ridge agency, loaned by John- 
son Bros, of York: Sixteen 
beaded war clubs; 103 plain 
war clubs; 92 pairs of mocca- 
sins; 97 beaded pockets; 27 
knife cases; 37 pick cases; 25 
beaded animal dolls; 4 tobacco 
pouches; hair bridle; 4 dolls; 
3 quirts; 4 head bands; 5 head- 



No. 

dresses; 9 large pockets; pair 
small leggins; powder horn; 
beaded spoon; horn spoon; pair 
mittens; belt and knife case; 
small Navajo blanket; Navajo 
loom; bow holder and quiver; 
20 blunt arrows; 34 sharp steel 
pointed arrows; 14 bows; rump 
dress; 2 head dresses; shirt; 
small tipi; 2 medicine bows; 
2 pack saddles; 2 medicine 
clubs. 

681 — Pipes from one of the Hop- 
kins disks. 

082 — Silver cross found near Or- 
leans by N. C. Sasse; also a 
complete skeleton. 

,683 — An ox shoe. 

684 — Wood by Charles Greene of 
Marquette. 

685— Flints by Charles White of 
Phillips. 

686 — A melodeon, loaned by Mr. 
and Mrs. H. G. Sutton of Beth- 
any, Neb. 



BLACKMAN COLLECTION. 

Collection loaned by E. E. Black- 
man, Lincoln, Neb. 
B. 1 — White flint spear head from 

Scott Co., Iowa. 
B. 2 — Spear head. 
B. 3 — Arrow head. 
B. 5 — A small drill given by Prof. 

Nickerson, found near Fuller- 
ton. 
B. 6 — A collection of small arrow 

points given by Miss Reynolds. 
B. 7 — A "whirler" found near Pon- 

ca and given by W. C. Eckhart. 
B. 8 — Tomahawk found near 

Sprague, loaned by J. H. Koh- 

ler. 
B. 9 — A celt, loaned by Kohler. 
B.16 — Burned clay showing wicker 

work, from Roca site. 
B.17 — Pictograph on pipe-stone, 

Roca. 
B 20 — Hematite bust found near 

. Roca. 
B.22— Book (Indian). 
B.23— Book (Indian). 
B.24— Kettle from Horse Creek 

site. 
B.33 — A toy from Horse Creek site. 
B.36 — Indian paint given by Warres 

Hodgkins. 



ISIUSEUM CATALOGUE. 



3G 



l-)( 



J. R. COFFIN COLLECTION 

Collection loaned by J. R. CofBjn, 

of Genoa, Neb. 
No. 

C. 1 — "Puck-oos," or Indian rattle. 
C. 2 — Lone Chief's head dress. 
C. 

C. 

C. 

c. 



No. 



Rose- 



C 
C 
C 
C 
C, 
C 
C 
C 

c. 
c 
c 
c. 
c. 
c 
c. 
c. 
c. 



3— Whip handle. 

4 — Indian pants. 
6 — Leaded head band. 
7 — Medicine pouch from 
bud agency. 

C. 8 — Porcupine head band. 

C. 9 — Omaha shirt. 

C. lO^Moccasins. 

C. 11 — Pawnee knife scabbard. 

C. 12 — Pawnee quiver of buffalo 
skin. 

C. 13 — Pawnee bow. 

C. 14 — Sixteen arrows from vari- q 
ous tribes. 

C. 15— Fan. C. 

C. 16 — Omaha moccasin. 

C. 17 — Pawnee squaw dress skirt. 

C. 18 — Pair beaded gloves. 

C. 19— Beaded bottle. 

C. 20— Head band. 

C. 21 — Medicine bag. 

C. 22 — Hair cane. 

C. 23 — Cut-glass beaded belt. 

C. 24 — Cheyenne beaded mocca- 
sins. 

C. 25 — Pawnee beaded necklace. 

C. 26 — Pipe-stone pipe with legend. 

C. 27 — Pawnee pipe. 

C. 28 — Piece of catlinite. 

C. 29 — Pipe from Rosebud. 

C. 30 — Pawnee pipe. 

C. 31 — Santee pipe. 

C. 32— Santee pipe. 

C. 33 — Moccasins. 

C. 34— Charm. 

C. 35 — Rosebud knife-club. 

C. 36 — Cheyenne porcupine mocca- 
sins. 

C. 37 — Stone war club. 

C. 38— U. S. belt. 

C. 39 — Cannon ball, shot at Genoa. 

C. 40— Pawnee knife. 

C. 41 — Prong stick for torture. 

C. 42 — Bone used to strip sinew. 

C. 43 — Bone hide flesher. 

C. 44 — Bone hide flesher. 

C. 45 — Scraper handle. 

C. 46 — Paint bone. 

C. 47 — Stone used to paint with. 

C. 48 — Pictograph quirt handle. 

C. 49— Revolver. 



C 
C 
C 
C 
C 
C 
C 
C 
C 

c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c, 

c, 
c. 

c. 
c, 
c, 



50 — Sac-Fox silver head band. 

51 — Sac-Fox silver bracelet. 

52 — Sac-Fox silver bracelet. 

53 — SacFox silver bracelet. 

54 — Sac-Fox silver bracelet. 

55 — Sac-Fox silver bracelet. 

56 — Indian baby foot. 

57 — Pawnee beaded belt. 

58 — Pawnee beaded sash. 

59 — Santee flute. 

60 — Pawnee tobacco pouch. 

61 — Sioux shirt. 

62 — Picture frame. 

63 — Wampum worth $80. 

64 — Group of photographs. 

65 — Buckskin beaded vest. 

66 — Earrings worn by Pit-a-Le- 
Sharu, used as money by Paw- 
nees. 

67 — Moccasins worn by Pit-a-Le- 
Sharu when he died. 

68 — Photograph of Pit-a-Le- 
Shani. 

69 — Beads as sold to Indians. 

70— Beaded ball. 

71 — Indian pictograph dream. 

72 — Indian dress. 

73 — A medicine bag. 

74 — Pawnee shirt. 

75 — Pappoose coat. 

76 — Beaded medicine bag. 

77 — Pawnee shirt. 

78 — Head dress. 

79 — Pawnee moccasins. 

80 — Moccasins from Rosebud. 

81 — Pawnee cloth. 

82 — Pawnee beaded belt. 

83 — Pawnee pants. 

84 — Pawnee pants. 

85 — Pawnee moccasins. 

86 — Beads. 

87 — Decoration for the horse 
dance. 

88 — Pawnee medicine bag. 

89 — Pawnee shirt. 

90 — Head dress. 

91 — Moccasins. 

92 — Government belt given to 
Pawnees. 

93 — Moccasins. 

94 — Moccasins. 

95 — Pawnee war-club. 

96 — Rosebud spear. 

97— Eagle Chief's bow. 

98 — Rosebud bow. 

99 — Pawnee game. 
100 — Sisseton war-club. 
101 — Pawnee war-club. 



368 



NEBRASKA STATE HLSTOKlCAL SOCIETY. 



No. 

C.102 — Engravings. 

C 103 — Mexican whip. 

C.104 — Santee beaded bottle. 

C. 105— Spoon bolder. 

C.106— Spoons. 

C.107 — Geological specimens. 

C.108 — Geolog^ical specimens. 

C.109— Relics of a tortured Sioux. 

C.llO — Pappoose skull. 

cm — Pawnee skull. 

C.112 — Remnant of bead work. 

C.113 — Tootb found 462 feet under 

ground. 
C.114 — Arrow points. 
C.115— Lariat. 



A. W. GILBERT COLLECTION. 
PLACED AS A LOAN. 

No. 

1- Filipino military straw hat. 

1 Filipino machete. 

1 Filipino rice knife. 

1 shell card tray. 

1 bamboo chain. 

1 Filipino comb. 

1 Chinese money belt. 

1 Filipino knife. 

1 banca. 

1 casco. 

2 pairs Filipino slippers. 

1 pair Japanese slippers. 

2 clips Mauser shells. 

1 Spanish pocket knife. 

1 grape shot. 

1 piece cocoanut fiber gauze. 

Captain Jen's watch. 
1 cocoanut cup. 
1 Mauser rifle. 
1 Filipino haversack. 
4 Manila newspapers. 

1 pair Japanese chopsticks. 

2 silk cocoons (Japan). 
Tree coral specimens. 

1 coin collection, to-wit: IMexican 
peso, -50 sen, half peso. Mexican 
20c, Mexican 10c, quarter yang, 
U. S- half dime, Spanish 10c, 2 
candareen, 1 mace, 44 candar- 
eens, 5 sen, 20 sen, 5 sen (-1 spec- 
imens), 3 cents (U. S.), Rus 
sian copper coin, French 20 cents, 
English sixpence, 2 sen (copper), 
Spanish 2 centavo (4 samples), 
Spanish 1 centavo (11 samples), 
Japanese coppers 8. Chinese cop- 
pers 7, 14 sen, U. S. 2 cents (2). 



WHITCOMB COLLECTION. 

In an old catalogue found ;n the 
museum is the following record of 
the collection belonging to Edward 
Whitcomb, of Friend. The names 
only are given, the description of 
each article will be founl in the 
catalogue. 

No. 

5 pieces of fence rail witli musket 
balls imbedded, parts of bayonets, 
skein of thread, acorns, screw, 
cap box, photograph, gavel, sec- 
tion of tree, band from a musket, 
Confederate amputation sav,% old 
U. S. bugle, canteen, 24 pound 
unexploded thelt, piece of pevcus- 
sion shell, 4 pieces of shell, pine 
knot, 12 pieces of shell, 10 pound 
imexploded Rodman shell, 6 
pieces of shell, minnie ball, 6 
pound solid shot, Bible, book — 
Springtime of Life, piece of brick, 
3 friction primers, army buttons, 
15 pieces of Confederate money, 
lieutenant's shoulder straps, min- 
nie ball, piece of trace chain, iron 
musket guard, mourning badge. 
All are Civil War relics and a 

careful description and the history 

of each are found in the written 

catalogue. 



B. Y. HIGH COLLECTION. 

PLACED AS A LOAN. 



No. 



B. 


H. 


1 


B. 


H. 


2- 


B. 


H. 


3- 


B. 


H. 


4- 


B. 


H. 


5 


B. 


H. 


6- 


B. 


H. 


7- 


B. 


H. 


8- 


B. 


H. 


9 


B. 


H. 


10 


B. 


n. 


11- 




sins. 


B. 


H. 


12- 


B. 


H. 


13 


B. 


H. 


14- 


B. 


H. 


15- 


B. 


H. 


16- 


B. 


H. 


17 


B. 


H. 


40 



— Beaded wall pocket. 

— Beaded wall pocket. 

— Beaded velvet clout. 

— Porcupine-quill vest 

— Beaded wall pocket. 

— Leggins. 

— Beaded bridle. 

— Feather head dress. 

— Beaded leg bands. 

— Beaded drum-stick. 

— Pair leggins and mocca- 

— Pappoose case. 

— Beaded pouch. 

—Bottle. 

— Beaded sash. 

— Beaded vest. 

to B. H 35 — Moccasins. 

to 42— War-clubs. 



MUSEUM CATALOCiUE. 



3(>9 



No. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 

B. 



H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 



43 — Beaded turtle. 

44 — Beaded watch pocket. 

45 — Beaded fish. 

46— Beaded ball. 

47 — Beaded pocket. 

48 — Beaded pocket. 

49 — Porcupine pocket. 

50 — Beaded buckskin case. 

51 — Porcupine buckskin case. 

52— Watch pocket. 

53 — Beaded velvet pocket. 

54 — Beaded belt. 

55 — Bead bracelet. 

56 — Teepee. 

57 to B. H. 59— Dolls. 

60 — Doll on a board. 

61 — Beaded shirt. 

62 — Catlinite inkstand. 

63 — Pair silver bracelets. 

64 — Beaded horseshoe. 

65 — Horn spoon. 

66 — German book. 

67 to B. H. 69— Plates. 

70 — Pipestone horseshoe. 

71 — Pipestone knife. 

72 — Beaded tobacco pouch. 

73, 74— Beaded rabbits. 

75 — Beaded dog. 

76 — Navajo doll. 

77 — Beaded ball. 

78, 79— Beaded turtles. 

80, 81 — Stone war-clubs. 

82 to B. H. 90— Pipes. 

91 — Horn hat rack. 



A. L. HOPKINS COLLECTION. 

This collection was gathered in 
the vicinity of Oakdale, Neb., and a 
description of each specimen is 
found in the written catalogue, to- 
gether with an account of the par- 
ticular field where the specimen 
was found. 

No. 

H. 1 — Net sinker of stone. 

H. 2 — ^Anvil on which tools were 

chipped. 
H. 3— Maul. 
H. 4— Maul. 
H. 5 — Stone club head. 
H. 6 — Stone used as mould for 

cup. 
H. 7 — Block for making arrow 

points. 
H. 8 — Net sinker. 



No. 

H. 9— Flesher. 

H. 10— Maul. 

H. 11— Maul. 

H. 12— Chipped celt. 

H. 13— Anvil. 

H. 14 — Jasper for dressing hides. 

H. 15 — Grooved celt. 

H. 16— Flesher. 

H. 17 — Net sinker. 

H. 18— Adze. 

H. 19 — Implement for smoothing 

pottery. 

H. 20— Stone maul. 

H. 21 — Hammer. 

H. 22— Sinker. 

H. 23 — Stone for dressing hides. 

H. 24— Sinker. 

H. 25— Ax. 

H. 26 — Rock used in playing 

games. 

H. 27— Celt. 

H. 28— Celt. 

H. 29 — Upper millstone. 

H. 30 — Hammer. 

H. 31— Crystal. 

H. 32— Crystal. 

H. 33. 34, 35, blank. 

H. 36, 37— Stirrups. 

H. 38— Pestle. 

H. 39 — Hand grenade from Moro 

Castle, Havana. 

H. 40— Ax. 

H. 41 — Stone club head. 

H. 42— Millstone. 

H. 43— Millstone. 

H. 44— Hoe. 

H. 45 — Anvil. 

H. 46 — Hammer. 

H. 47 — Grooved celt. 

H. 48— Ax. 

H. 49 — Wedge for splitting bow 

timber. 

H. 50— Stone club head. 

H. 51— Flint ball. 

H. 52 — Implement for smoothing 

pottery. 

H. 53— Ball. 

H. 54— Toy. 

H. 55 — Pottery smoother. 

H. 56 — War-club head from Iowa. 

H. 57— Ax. 

H. 58— Ax. 

H. 59— Ax. 

H. 60— Chipped celt. 

H. 61— Battle ax. 

H. 62— Pestle. 

H. 63— War-club. 

H. 64— War- club. 



24 



370 



NEIJKASKA S^TATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 



No. 



No. 



H. 


65 — Millstone. 


H. 


H. 


66 — Pottery smoother. 


H. 


H. 


67— Hoe. 


H. 


H. 


68— War-club. 


H. 


H. 


69— Ball. 


H. 


H. 


70 — Millstone. 


H. 


H. 


71 — Implement for polishing 
pottery. 


H. 


H. 


72— Implement for polishing 
pottery. 




H. 


73 — Partly made pipe. 


H. 


H. 


74 — Pipe block. 


H. 


H. 


75 — Fragment of pipe. 


H. 


H. 


76— Same. 


H. 


H. 


77 — Same. 




H. 


78 — Implement used in making 


H. 




moccasins. 


H 


H. 


79 — Grooved celt. 


H. 


H. 


80— Club head. 


H. 


H. 


81, 82— Club head. 


H. 


H. 


83— War-club. 


H. 


H 


84, 85— Axes. 


H. 


H. 


86— Twisted celt. 


H 


H. 


87— Ax. 


H. 


H. 


88— Maul. 


H. 


H. 


■ 89 — Twisted stone ax. 


H. 


H. 


90— Polishing stone. 


H. 


H. 


91— Picket pin. 


H. 


H. 


92— Ball. 


H. 


H. 


93— Toy. 


H. 


H. 


94— Hoe. 


H. 


H. 


95 — Planer for arrow shafts 


H. 


H. 


96 — Fragment of hoe. 


H 


H. 


97— Hoe. 


H. 


H. 


98— Hoe. 


H. 


H. 


99, 100, 101, 102— Fleshers. 


H. 


H. 


103— Spade. 


H. 


H. 


104— Flesher. 


H. 


H. 


105, 106— Axes. 


H. 


H. 


107— Ax. 


H. 


H. 


108— Celt. 


H. 


H. 


109— Celt. 


H. 


H. 


110 — Quivera tomahawk. 




H. 


Ill — Quivera tomahawk. 


H. 


H. 


112, 113— War-club heads. 


H. 


H. 


114— Flesher. 


H. 


H. 


115 — Fish scaler. 


H. 


H. 


116— Flesher. 


H, 


H. 


117 to H. 149— Geological speci- 


H. 




mens. 


H, 


H. 


150— Whale's looth. 


H, 


H. 


151 — Mexican hat. 


H, 


H. 


152 — Head dress. 


H. 


H 


153— Cloth. 


H 


H. 


154— Hat. 




H. 


155— Vest. 


H. 


H. 


156— Basket. 


H, 


H. 


157 — Bark soup basket. 


H, 



158— War-club. 

159 — Hoodoo bag. 

160 — Nine pairs moccasins. 

161 — Needle case. 

162 — Head dress. 

163 — Three arrow shafts. 

164 — Moccasin track on lime- 
stone from Ohio. If it is a 
track it was made thousands 
of years ago. 

165 to H. 172— Pipes. 

173 — Bayonet. 

174 — Bayonet. 

175 — Stone from a cave in North 
Carolina. 

176 — Teeth of a moose. 

177 — Geological specimens. 

178 — Sea louse. 

179 — Mastodon tooth. 

180 — ■Geological specimens. 

181— Buckle. 

182— Geology. 

183— Pottery. 

184 — Ostrich egg. 

185 — Auk egg. 

186 — Emu egg. 

187 — Brown pelican egg. 

188— Skinner. 

189— War-club. 

190 to H. 192— Rasp. 

193 — Drinking horn. 

194— Tooth. 

195— Tooth. 

196— Tile. 

197 — Fish scaler. 

198-99— Fleshers. 

200— Fish spear. 

201 — Stone implement. 

202 — Geological specimens. 

203— Adobe brick. 

204— (Returned to Hopkins). 

205 — Flexible sandstone {Itask- 
lemite). 

206— Flints. 

207 — Bottle of scrapers. 

208 — Bottle of moss agates. 

209— Beans. 

210— Centipede. 

211 to 215 — Ohio ceremonials. 

216— Pebble. 

217— Toy. 

218 — Polishing stone. 

219— Stone. 

220 — Stone from stomach of a 
deer. 

221— Cup 300 years old. 

222— Spear. 

223— Knife. 



MTTSKTJM CATALOGUE. 



371 



inO. 

H. 224— Fish spear. . 

H. 225— Knife. 

H. 226— War 'point. 

H. 227— Drill. 

H. 228— Knife. 

H. 229— Awl. 

H 2S0— Fish spear. 

H. 231— Knife. 

H. 232— Cast of a hand. 

H. 233— Shark's teeth. 

H. 234— Alligator teeth. 

H. 235— Wampum. 

H. 236 — Geological specimens. 

H. 237— Chop sticks. 

H. 238— Wood. 

H. 239— Hoe. 

H. 240— Wood. 

H. 241— Wood. 

H. 242— Whale bone. 

H. 243 — Chert arrow points. 

H. 244 — Geological specimens. 

H. 245 — Geological specimens. 

H. 246— Knife. 

H. 247— Handcuffs. 

H. 248 — Slave shackles and hand- 
cuffs. 

H. 249 — Geological specimens. 

H. 250 — 9 candy-pail heads mounted 
with Ohio arrow points. 

H. 251 — 1 candy-pail head mounted 
with Iowa arrow points. 

H. 252 — 21 candy-pail heads and 
frames mounted with Nebraska 
arrow points and chipped 
flints. 

H. 253— Flint knife. 

H. 254— Revolver. 

H. 255— Knife. 

H. 256— Knife. 

H. 257— Revolver. 

H^ 258— Horse pistol. 

H. 259— Revolver. 

H. 260— Horse pistol. 

H. 261— Revolver. 

H. 262— Pistol. 

H. 263— Revolver. 

H. 264— Powder horn. 

H. 265—10 celts. 

H. 266—17 millstones. 
• H. 267—10 mauls. 

H. 268— Petrified log. 

H. 269 — Large mortar. 

H. 270— Paint mortar. 
. H. 271 — 2 war-club head.?. 

H. 372—2 axes. 

H. 273— Polished stone. 

H. 274 — 8 rasps. 

H. 275— Pottery. 



No. 

H. 276— Catlinite. 

H. 277 to H. 299— Chipped imple- 
ments. 

H. 300 to H. 307— Polished stone 
implements. 
Note. — The names given to the 

implements are suggested by Mr. 

A. L. Hopkins at time of catalog- 
ing. 



HOWARD CLEVELAND COLLEC- 
TION. 
No. 

This collection is placed as a 
loan. All of this collection is from 
the Philippine Islands. 
H. C. 1— Khaki uniform. 
H C. 2— Fork. 
H. C. 3 — Letter paper. 
H. C. 4— Plate. 
H. C. 5— Hat. 
H. C. 6 — Japanese shoes. 
H. C. 7— Wood paper. 
H. C. 8 — Stamp case. 
H. C. 9 — Bell from San Juan con- 
vent. 
H. C. 10— Brass shell. 
H. C. 11— Cards. 
H. C. 12— Chop sticks. 
H. C. 13— Pen brushes. 
H. C. 14— Ink. 
H. C. 15 — Grain sickle. 
H. C. 16— Knife. 
H. C. 17— Razor hone. 
H. C. 18— Medicine bag, elk teeth. 
H. C. 19— Pen case. 
H. C. 20— Powder. 
H. C 21— Kokua nuts. 
H. C. 22— Purse. 
H. C. 23— Organ reed. 
H. C. 24— Wax. 
H. C. 25 — China spoon. 
H. C. 26— Looking glass. 
H. C. 27— Teacup. 
H. C. 28— Small teacup. 
H. C. 29— Cup rover. 
H. C. 30— Program. 
H. C. 31— Medal. 
H. C. 32— Sea horse. 
H. C 33— Slipper. 
H. C. 34 — 3 pairs of slippers. 
H C. 35— Roster of 2d Neb. Regt. 
•H. C. 36— Image of Confucius. 
H. C. 37— China candle-stick. 
H. C. 38— Testament. 
H. C 39— Belt buckle. 
H. C. 40— Sword of Chinese money. 



372 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



No. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 

H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H. 
H, 



C. 41— 
C. 42 
C. 43 
C. 44— 
C. 45 — 
C. 46— i 
C. 47— 
ship. 
C. 48- 
C. 49— 
C. 50- 
C. 51 
C. 52 
C. 53 
C. 54— 
C. 55- 
C. 56- 
C. 57- 
C. 58- 
C. 59- 
C. 60- 
C. 61- 
C. 62- 
C. 63- 
C. 64- 
C. 65- 
C. 66- 
C. 67- 
C. 68- 
C. 69- 
C. 70- 
C. 71- 

C. 72- 
C. 73- 
C. 74- 
C. 75- 
C. 76- 
C. 77- 
C. 78- 
C. 79- 
C. 80- 
corps 
C. 81- 



Blank book. 

Stick. 

Native razor. 

Whetstone. 

Combs. 

5 brass letters. 

Instrument taken from 



C. 
C. 
C. 
C. 

c. 

c. 
c. 



82- 
83- 
84- 
85- 
86- 
87- 



Pipe. 

(Omitted). 

Slipper. 

2 strings of beads. 

Spoon. 

Key. 

Opium pipe. 

Quirt. 

Machete and scabbard. 

Blank brass shell. 

•Large loaded shell. 

Hat band. 

•Bone spoon. 

Army corps mark. 

■7 stone arrowheads. 

Iron arrowhead. 

-Piece of cable. 

-Card receiver. 

•Blank cartridge. 

-Smokeless cartridge. 

-Cigarettes. 

-Relief for the wounded. 

-2 wax candles. 

-Hat numbers. 

-China cup. 

-Bullets and napkin ring. 

-3 bullets. 

-Box of shells. 

-Solid shot. 

-2 Chinese books. 

-4 silk fans. 

-Cartridge box and shells. 

-Song book of 8th army 

-Bamboo stick. 
-Roll of paper. 
-Priest's charm. 
-7 small flags. 
-Spanish flag. 
-Chinese merchant flag. 
-Silk mat. 
-Silk U. S. flag. 



SEARLE COLLECTION. 

All of this collection is from the 
Philippine Islands. 

No. 

S. 1— Large ivory head. 

S. 2 — Aluminum medal "Co. M 

1st Nebraska, 41." 
S. 3 — Tea urn carved from stone. 
S. 4 — Vase of carved stone. 
S. 5 — China tea urn. 
S. 6— Pearl beads and crucifixion 

box. 
S. 7 — China teacup. 
S. 8 — Handsome basket made of 

brown wood. 
S. 9—3 cups like No. 6. 
S. 10 — Wood carved image. 
S. 11 — Perfumed vase. 
S. 12 — China pitcher. 
S. 13— Cup like No. 9. 
S. 14 — Broken plate of coiled pot 

tery. 
S. 15 to 19 — China vases (5). 
S. 20 — China platter. 
S. 21— Mug (small China). 
S. 22, 23, 24— China cup, plate, and 

urn. 
S. 25— Tea urn. 
S. 26, 27, 28— Small plates of 

china. 
S. 29, 30, 31—3 china spoons. 
S. 32^Small china vessel. 
S. 33 — Sandal wood fan. 
S. 34, 35, 36— Ivory heads. 
S. 37 — Ivory napkin ring. 
S. 38, 39,, 40, 41 — 4 ivory hands. 
S. 42 — Carved stone image. 
S. 43 — Meerschaum cigar holder 

and case. 
S. 44 — A nut of button ivory. 
S. 45, 46, 47 — 3 images carved 

from it. 
S. 48 — Stone signet. 
S. 49 — Stone paper weight. 
S. 50— Terra cotta boy. 
S. 51 — China man. 
S. 52 — Box of tooth powder. 
S. 53 — Stone ape. 
S. 54 — Polished wood block. 
S. 55 — Bronze lion. 
S. 56 — Wood carved lion. 
S. 57 — Bronze Christ and child 
S. 58. 59. 60, 61, 62— Terra cotta 

figures. 
S. 63, 64, 65— Tortoise shell card 

receiver. 
S. 66 — Wood card receiver. 
S. 67, 68 — Metal card receiver. 



MUSEUM CATALOGUE. 



.^73 



No. No. 

S. 69— Strings of beads. S. 
S. 70, 71 — Metal card receiver. 

S. 72 — Opium pipe. S. 

S. 73 — Pigs in clover, and set of S 

wood butter dishes. S. 

S. 74 — Checker board. g 

S. 75 — Chess board and man. o 
S. 76— Small bureau of inlaid 

wood. ^• 

S. 77, 78, 79— Inlaid boxes. S. 

S. 80 — 3 in one inlaid box. S. 

S. 81 — Bamboo box with orna- S. 

mented cover. S. 
S. 82 — Plain jewel case and watch 

holder, of wood. 

S. 83 — Fine Inlaid small box.' S. 

S. 84 — Wooden head of negro. S. 

S. 8.5— Wooden flowers. S. 

S. 86, 87—2 bronze urns. S. 

S 88 — A bone signet letter. S. 

S. 89 — A stone for testing gold. S. 

S. 90— Little china dish. S. 

S. 91— A beaded pocket. . S. 

S. 92 — Large metal card receiver. S. 
S. 93 — An opium pipe cane. 

S. 94 to 107 — Pipes and cigarette S. 

holders. S. 

S. 108— Brass lock and key. S. 
S. 109 — Priest's charm. 

S. 110 — A flag of truce used in S. 

Philippines. S. 
S. Ill — A wedge tent used by the 

soldiers of Manila. S. 

S. 112 — A fish net from Philippines. S. 

S. ]13 — Thread for weaving nets. S. 

S. 114 — A captured Spanish flag. S. 

S 115 — Mr. Searle's dress coat. S. 

S. 116— Mr. Searle's hat. S. 

S. 117 — A sailor blouse. S. 

S. 118 — A Philippine summer cos- S. 

tume. S. 

S. 119— A leather belt. S. 

S. 120— Pair of shoes. S. 

S. 121 — Straw toe slippers (pnir). S. 

S. 122 — Wood soled toe slippers. S. 

S. 123— Bamboo box, old, with S. 

cover. 

S. 124— Kolo nut cup. S. 

S. 125, 126— Sword hilt with his- S. 

tory. 

S. 127 — A long handled spoon (re- S. 

paired). S. 
S. 128, 129—2 deer horns. S. 
S. 130— Sword handle, black. 
S. 131 132, 133— Machetes in scab- 
bards. S. 
S. 134— Fine pair of horns. S. 



135 — Electric bell from Philip- 
pines. 

136 — Screw driver, unique. 

137— Knife, Philippines. 

138 — Woven hair brush. 

139— String of beads. 

140 — Package of tobacco. 

141 — Mr. Searle's spoo)i. 

142 — A belt, red, and a purse. 

143 to 153— Baskets. 

154 — Toe slippers. 

155— Broom, cartridges in bas- 
ket (147), 14 little china fig- 
ures. 

156 to 159 — Playing cards, 

160 — Japanese flowers, curiosity. 

161 — Common fan. 

162 — Horn ornament. 

163 — Little horn box. 

164 — Ivory paper knife. 

165 — Ring box. 

166 — Chinese bell, very flne one. 

167— Mr. Searle's plate; 6 cruci- 
fixes. 

168 — Very large cartridge.- 

169 — Censer from Manila. 

170 — String of bean beads and 
small gems. 

171 — 2 watch chains. 

172—2 cigar cases; 19 trinkets, 
nickel ornaments, etc. 

173— Scabbard of leather 

174 to 178— Combs. 

179 to 183— Shaving tools. 

184 — Domestic keys and hook. 

185 — Chopping knife. 

186 — Wooden pulley. 

187 — Box tooth powder. 

188 — Branding iron. 

189 — Pineapple fiber kerchief. 

190 — Marking line. 

191— Chisel. 

192— Spectacles, 

193 — Old steel machete, small. 

194 — Shuttle. 5 Jap pens and 3 
sticks of ink. 

195 — Organ reed. 

196— Pickle fork. 
7 blocks of powder. 

197— Net. 

198 — Badge, broken bow. 

199—200 wall mats, 17 books, 10 
pictures. 112 papers, 1 album, 
3 sheets of stamps. 

201 — Tin box for papers. 

202 — Scales and weights. 



374 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



D. CHARLES BRISTOL (OMAHA 
CHARLIE) COLLECTION. 

No. 

O. 1 — Scalp robe, presented by 
Black Bear, a Cheyenne, in 
188fi. Note.— These scalps 
are probably not all Indian 
scalp locks but are made of 
horse hair; however, Black 
Bear when he made the robe 
had been granted the right to 
use so many scalps by the war 
tent. Scalps are often made 
in this way. 

O. 2 — Collection of genuine In- 
dian scalps, full size, presented 
by Black Bear, procured on 
Green river, the home of the 
Utes, in 1886. 

O. 3 — ^.Scalp shirt, presented by 
Standing Bear (Arapaho (?)) 
in 1876. The leader of a tribe 
wears such shirts when on the 
war-path. 

O. 4 — Calf buffalo robe, obtained 
at the Pine Ridge agency in 
1880. It has 100 days' work in 
porcupine quills on it. 

O. 5 — Scalp shirt having 291 
scalps on it. It was worn by 
Crazy Horse of Pine Ridge 
agency. 

O. 6 — A Navajo blanket brought 
to Pine Ridge agency by Ogal- 
allas. 

O. 7 — A number of Indian tanned 
hides. . 

O. 8 — A large buffalo cow robe. 
Killed and tanned by Indians 
of Pine Ridge in the '60s. 

O. 9 — Buffalo robe owned by 
Lone Wolf. 

O. 10 — Chaps worn by a Wvoraing 
"rustler." 

O. 11 — Dress worn by oldest 
daughter of Sitting Bull. 

O.- 12 — Breech cloth made and 
used by one of the Little Hill 
family, Winnebago. 

O. 13 — A saddle blanket given by 
Little Priest, a Winnebago 
scout in the U. S. army. 

O- 14— Horse's tail tanned by 
Omaha Charlie. 

O. 15 — Cap worn by Omaha Char- 
lie. 

O. 16 — Leg bands from Winnebago 
tribe, Little Hill family. 



No. 

O. 17 — Scalp head dress, presented 
by Plenty Wounds, an Ogalalla. 

O. 18 — Scalp head-dress, presented 
by Old - IMan - Afraid - of - His- 
Horses. 

O. 19 — Saddle bags, presented by 
Old-Man-Afraid-of-His-Horses. 

O. 20 — Porcupine quill decorated 
calf robe for children to wear, 
from Pine Ridge agency. 

O. 21 — Chaps presented by Ed 
Priest, a Winnebago. 

O. 22 — Breast of a Loon, from 
Manitoba. 

O. 23 — Woman's dress worn by 
the wife of Young-Man-Afraid- 
of-His-Horses, a Winnebago. 

O. ' 24 — Otter skin used as a medi- 
cine bag by one of the Little 
Hill family who belonged to the 
Winnebago tribe. 

O. 25— Calf robe from Ogalalla 
tribe. 

O. 26— Calf robe from Pine Ridge 
having fifty days' work in por- 
cupine quills on it. 

O. 27 — Robe from Pine Ridge; 
seventy-five days of porcupme 
quill work. 

O. 28 — Two pairs of Australian 
trousers, bought from a cow- 
boy in Valparaiso, Neb. 

O. 29 — Scalp head dress. 

O. 30, 31— Buckskin suit which 
Omaha Charlie had made in 
1870 by Sioux Indians at an 
expense of $200. 

O. 32— Beaded buckskin blanket 
used as a saddle, once owned 
by Standing Bear, a Cheyenne. 

O. S3 — Beaded buckskin blanket 
used as a saddle, owned by 
Drinidng Cup, a Brule. 

O. 34 — Woman's beaded buckskin 
dress, owned by wife of Red 
Cloud, an Ogalalla; 9 months 
of bead work on it. 

O. 35 — Tobacco pouch. 

O. 36 — Tobacco pouch. 

O. 37 — Ghost shirt used by Brule 
Indians. 

O. 38 — Beaded pappoose hood 
made by Ogalallas; 3 months' 
work. 



MUSEUM OATALOGirE. 



375 



No. 
O. 

o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 

o. 

o. 
o. 

o. 

o. 
o. 

o. 

o. 

o. 

o. 

o. 

o. 

o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 



o. 



o. 



39 — Porcupine decorated pap- 
poose hood found on Wounded 
Knee battle field. 

40 — Buckskin shirt worn by 
Omaha Charlie in the '70s. 
41 — Omaha Charlie's vest 
which he wore in 1870. 

42 — Pappoose beaded hood; 3 
months' v.'Oi'k. 

43 — Pappoose beaded hood, 
given by daughter of Lone 
Wolf, the mother of Seven Up. 
44 — Leggins presented to Oma- 
ha Charlie by Black Bear, one 
of Omaha Charlie's best friends 

45 — An ornamental dress for 
the hips. 

46 — Pappoose hood, decorated 
with 75 days of porcupine quiil 
woi'k Made by the Ogalallas. 

47 — Omaha Charlie's coat and 
vest. 

48 — A small Ogalalla teepee. 
49 — Cow skin vest worn by 
Omaha Charlie. 

50 — Ogalalla belt from Stand- 
ing Rock agency. 

51 — Winnebago beaded ' leg 
bands. 

52 — Beaded leg bands, once 
owned by Green Cloud. 

53 — Winnebago beaded belt, 
made by Jacob Russel. 

54 — Beaded belt, owned by Sol- 
omon Rice Hill. 

55 — Roach head-dress, pre- 
sented by Ijttle Fish, a Winne- 
bago. 

56 — Deer tail head-dress, pre- 
sented by Spotted Tail, a Brule. 
57 — Omaha Charlie's leather 
pp.nts. 

58 — A "crow skin" (feathers on 
a cloth). 

59 — Hat which Omaha Charlie 
wore, having snake skin band 
which was presented by Little 
Horse, a medicine man at 
Standing Rock agency. 
60 — Hat worn by a Mexican 
who married a daughter of 
Bear Nose, an Ogalalla. 
61 — Soldier's rain cap given by 
Green Cloud. 



No. 
O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 
O. 

O. 

O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 



O. 

o. 



62, 63 — 2 rawhide cases used to 
carry meat or skins and may 
be used as a boat to ferry 
them across streams. 
64 — Beaded belt owned by Lit- 
tle Thunder. 

65 — Sinew from the back of a 
buffalo, used as thread in sew- 
ing. 

66 — Buckskin jockey cap worn 
by an Indian. 

67 — Tobacco pouch owned by 
Little Jim, a Winnebago who 
was killed near Homer, Neb., 
in 1900. 

68 — Bag of Killikinick given by 
Henry Rice Hill, a Winnebago 
medicine man. 
69 — Snake skin. 
70 — A feather head-dress used 
by Henry Rice Hill in the '50s. 
71 — ^Omaha Charlie's mocca- 
sins. 

72, 73, 74, 75— Tobacco pouches 
procured at Standing Rock 
agency. 

76 — A hunting bag and powder 
horn found at Wounded Knee 
battle field. 

77 — Flags used in the ghost 
dance. 

78, 79, 80— Navajo baskets 
made to hold water. 
81 — Rawhide lariat given to 
Omaha Charlie by Mike Ragan 
of Platte Center, Neb. This 
was used to hang the man who 
attempted to murder Ragan. 
82 — A rawhide lariat made by 
"Bridle Bill," a cowboy. Cost 
$50. 

83, 84— Buffalo horns from Da- 
kota. 

85 — Shield used on the war- 
path, presented by Plenty 
Horse. 

86, 87 — Hakamore bridles made 
by Bridle Bill. 

88 — Braided work by Bridle 
Bill. 

89 — Sword from a marine ship 
of New York harbor. 
90 — Cane made by one of Red 
Cloud's band. 

91 — Piece of elk horn dug out 
near Logan creek in 1890. 
92 — Spear for buffalo, used by 
the Ogalalla tribe. 



376 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



No . No. 

O. 93 — War-club made by Ogalal- O. 

las. 
O. 94 — Iron tomahawk used by O. 

Oraahas. 
O. 95— Stone ax found in Ne- O. 

braska. 
O. 96— "Trailer" found near the O. 

Rawhide creek. Note. — These O. 

stones were tied to a rope 

placed around the neck of a O. 

horse; the horse could be fol- O. 

lowed by the trail it left. 
O. 97 — Wooden turtle bowl given 

by mother of Joseph Little O. 

Bear, made in 1807. O. 

O. 98 — Pictographs or Indian sign 

writing which shows the Sioux 

and Arapahos fighting Plentj 

Wounds. Also photographs. O. 

O. 99 — Indian pack saddle at least 

100 years old in 1906. Also a 

stirrup to same. O. 

O. 100— Braided halter. 
O. 101— Horns. O. 

O. 102 — Eagle wing, presented by 

Old-Man-Loves-His-Knife. 
O. 103 — Eagle wing, presented by 

Black Bear. O. 

O. 104— Bu'ffalo horns. 
O. 105 — Sitting Bull's rifle given by 

one of his men to Omaha Char- 
lie. O. 
O. 106 — Elk teeth earrings worn by O. 

Omaha Charlie. 
O. 107 — Diamond rattlesnake skin O. 

from South Sea Islands. 
O. 108 — Hoe given to the father of O. 

Mrs. Bristol by the government O. 

at Crow Creek reservation. 
O. 109— Tomahawk pipe. O. 

O. 110 — Moccasins. 

O. Ill — Tomahawk pipe. O. 

O. 112— Metal bracelet. O. 

O. 113 — ^( Number given to ox yoke 

which was not brought to the O. 

museum.) 
O. 114 — 2 buffalo heads and horns O. 

picked up on Nebraska plains. O. 
O. 115 — A bag used by a squaw. O. 

O. 116— A baby coat from Black O. 

Crow family. 
O. 117 — Sioux bow, for bmfalo. O. 

O. 118— A little boy's suit from the 

INlcCaa family, v.^orn by a rela- 
tive of Red Cloud. 
O. 119- Turkish cap. 
O. 120 — Eagle wing bones. O. 

O. 121 — Pawnee necklace. 



122, 123— Cheyenne tobacco 
pouches. 

124 — Cap worn by son of Lone 
Wolf. 

125 — Very fine beaded sinew 
girth. 

126— Belt. 

127 — Indian idol from Seneca In- 
dians, New York. 

128 — 21 Indian arrows. 

129 — Tobacco pouch made by 
wife of Standing Bear for her 
son. 

130 to 132 — Tobacco pouches. 

133 — Bag found on a battlefield 
by Green Cloud, a government 
scout. It was made by Arap- 
ahos. 

134 — 2 snake skin leg bands 
found on an Arapaho battle- 
field by Green Cloud. 

135 — Moccasins given by wife of 
Lone Wolf. 

136 — Moccasins which Lone 
Wolf took off his feet and gave 
to Omaha Charlie at Rosebud 
agency in 1890. 

137 — A Pomme Blanche root 
from which Indians made fiour. 
It still grows on the Omaha 
reservation. 

138, 139 — 2 Pawnee head-dresses. 

140 — Pocket from Standing 
Rock. 

141 — Tobacco pouch found on 
Wounded Knee battlefield. 

142 — Cheyenne pocket. 

143 — Cheyenne cape for Indian 
girl. 

144 — Pocket from Wounded 
Knee. 

145 — Kickapoo sash (wool). 

146 — Saddle blanket from Iowa 
Indians. 

147 — Wooden mask from Seneca 
Indians, New York. 

148— Buffalo forelock. 

149 — Peacock's wings. 

150 — Eagle claws. 

151 — Fan which was used by 
r.ain-in-the-Face. 

152 — A head-dress with horns 
which belonged to Goll, of 
Standing Rock agency. This 
head-dress was in the Custer 
battle. 

153 — ^Leggins from family of 
Drinking Cup. 



MT'SKT'^NI CATALOGUE. 



8 



( < 



No. 

O. 154 — Head-dress. 
O. 155 — Doll and pappoose case, 
showing use of hood, made by 
East Powder Bill or Bill Al- 
mon, who married an Ogalalla 
woman. 
O. 156— Squaw belt from Ogalalla 

tribe. 
O. 157. 158 — Head-dresses from 

Rosebud agency. 
O. 159 — Flash club used to signal 
from hill to hill, used by Brule 
Indians. 

O. 160, 161 — Pair of pistol cases 
made by Sally Twist, Ogalalla. 
O. 162 — Pouch given by Mrs. Hunt- 
er, mother of Mrs. Bristol. 

O. 163— Pouch from Pine Ridge. 

O. 164 — Board on which three of 
Omaha Charlie's children were 
carried. Note. — The baby is 
strapped to this board and car- 
ried on the mother's back. 

O. 165. 166— Stone war-clubs, 
mounted. 

O. 167, 168 — Axes mounted by 
Sioux. 

O 169 — Cane made by Good Snake, 
a Winnebago, 

O. 170 — Omaha necklace. 

O. 171 — Necklace brought from Eu- 
rope by the Ogalallas who 
traveled with Buffalo Bill. 

O. 172 — Necklace presented by 
Charging Eagle. 

O. 173 — Mexican hair band. 

O. 174, 175 — Dish and spoon which 
an Ogalalla woman carried on 
warpath. 

0. 176 — ^A pipe pick. 

O. 177 — Winnebago trimming for 
the hair. 

O. 178— Moon Shell. 

O, 179 — Knife scabbard. 

O. 180, 181, 1S2— Horn implements, 

O. 183— A hoof. 

O. 184— A hoof. 

O. 185 — Watch worn by Omaha 
Charlie. 

O. 186 — Eagle feathers. 

O. 187 — Sword presented to Omaha 
Charlie in Indiana. 

O. 188 — Cross presented by Red 
Cloud. 

O. 189 — 3 stone pipes. 

O. 190 — Long stem and peace pipe. 

O. 191, 192- Pair of leggins for 
women. 



No. 

O. 

O. 

o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 

o. 

o. 

o 
o. 

o. 

o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 

o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 

o. 

o. 
o. 



o. 
o 



o. 

o. 
o. 
o. 

o. 



o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 



o. 
o 
o. 



193 — Mexican whip. 

194, 195 — Leggins. 

196. 197- Leggins. 

198, 199— Squaw leggins. 

200, 201— Leggins. 

202, 203— Leggins. 

204 — Very old beaded vest worn 

by Thunder Hawk, a Brule. 
205 — Beaded vest worn by 

Many Wounds, an Ogalalla. 

206 — Beaded vest worn by the 

son of Thunder Hawk. 
207 — Vest worn by Seven Up. 
208, 209 — ^Vests worn by the son 
of Standing Bear. 
210 — Wool Kickapoo sash worn 

by Butler. 
211 — Beaded sash. 
212 to 216 — Beaded knife cases. 
217 — 2 arm bands. 
218 — Pair of Navajo moccasins. 
219 to 222 — Whip sticks of elk 

horn. 

223 — Beaded moccasins. 
224 — Pair of moccasins, 
225 — Eagle head and tail. 
226, 227 — Pistols used in War 

of 1812. 
228 — Copper tomahawk from 

Pennsylvania. 
229 — Iron tomahawk from Ohio. 
230 — Revolver given by Shafer, 

a cousin of Jesse James; said 

to have belonged to James. 
231— Revolver. 
232 — Tail and three mounted 

hoofs of a horse from Custer 

battlefieid; also shoulder-straps 

from same field. 
233 — Feet of horse mounted by 

Mr. Bristol. 
234 — Pepper box pistol. 
235 — Cap and ball pistol. 
236 — Knife found in a grave in 

Nebraska. 
237 — Very old knife used to 

save the iife of an Indian and 

kept by him with great care. 
238— Knife. 
239— Knife. 
240 — Very old knife. 
241, 242, 243—3 knives from 

Custer battlefield. 
244— Knife. 
245 — 2 beaver tails. 
246 — Scalping knife. 



378 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



No. No. 

O. 247 — Siin Dance knives, five in O. 

number, procured of Ogalallas 

In 1881. 
O. 248 — 2 canteens from Custer O. 

battlefield. O. 

O. 249— Sword from Custer battle- O. 

field. O. 

O. 250— War-club. 
O. 251 — Arapaho whip with a scalp O. 

for a lash. 
O. 252— Cane head. O. 

O. 253 — Cartridge box and. belt 

from Custer battlefield. O. 

O. 254, 255 — 2 Iron spear heads 

from near Homer, Neb. 
O. 256 — 'Pawiiee sign writing or 

pictographs; a report sent back O. 

to the tribe by a scout. 
O. 257 — Apache war-club. O. 

O. 258 — Apache war-club. 
O. 259 — Apache arrow. 
O. 260— Flathead war-club. O. 

O. 261 — Ogalalla war-club from Red O. 

Cloud's band. 
O. 262— Meat crusher from Ogal- O. 

alia tribe. 
O. 263— Ogalalla war-club. O. 

O. 264 — Winnebago war-club. 
O. 265 — Scraper for tanning hides, 

from Lone Wolf's family. 
O. 266— War-club, Chippewa, from O. 

White Earth reservation. 
O. 267, 268— Comanche lance clubs. 
O. 269 — 2 old iron tomahawks, O. 

supposed to have been used by 

Black Bird and Big Elk. They O. 

were so cherished in the Oma- 
ha tribe. 
O. 270 — Buffalo horns made into a 6. 

war-club by Crow Indians. O. 

O. 271— Creek war club. O. 

O, 272— Ogalalla war-club. 
O. 273— Three Strikes's club. He O. 

killed three Indians with three O. 

strikes and took the name 

after. O. 

O. 274— Iroquois hatchet 200 years O. 

old. 
O. 275 — Winnebago whip owned by O. 

Little Priest (seven scalp 

marks on it). O. 

O. 276— Buffalo cow hoof. 
O. 277— An "1849" ox hoof, shod. O. 

O. 278 — Quirt owned by Great Bear 

(25 scalp marks). O. 

O. 279— Seneca hatchet from Sal- O. 

amanca, New York, owned by O. 

the Mary Jamison familv. 



280 — Leather. This number em. 
braces braided bridles and 
halters. 

281 — Cheyenne pipe. 

282 — Chippewa ornament. 

283— Spanish stiletto. 

284 — Ornament for a war-club 
belonging to Loves-aKnife. 

285 — Leather stamping outfit 
for ornamenting saddles. 

286 — Arrow used to throw, made 
by Henry Little Hill. 

287 — Specimens of wampum 
given by Frost, the man who 
supplied such things to the In- 
dian trade. New York. 

288 — Ogalalla porcupine quill 
bands. 

289 — Pictograph, "Crazy Horse 
on War-path," drawn by Crazy 
Horse. 

290 — Medicine rattle. 

291 — Sun Dance whistles, Ogal- 
alla. 

292 — Pair of Sally Twist mocca- 
sins. 

293 — Antelope necklace of dew- 
claws, owned by Thunder 
Horse, used to stampede 
horses. 

294 — Elk hoof necklace belong- 
Little Bear, used to 



squaw hair 



mg to 
frighten horses. 

295 — Winnebago 
dress. . 

296 — Necklace of bones from 
turtle legs, owned by Young 
Spotted Tail. 

297 — Omaha necklace. 

298 — ^Ogalalla pipe pick case. 

299 — Little moccasins, presented 
bj^ Elk woman. 

300 — Squaw hair dress. > 

301 — Wampum breast ornament 
belonging to Yellow Smoke. 

302 — Cheyenne doll in costume. 

303 — Winnebago doll in cos- 
tume. 

304, 305— Ogalalla dolls in cos- 
tume. 

306 — Elk dew-claw necklace used 
to stampede horses. 

307 — Beaded scorpions used in 
Cheyenne medicine dance. 

308 — Ponca cartridge pouch. 

309 — 3 beaver feet, Nebraska. 

310 — Sitting Bull's wampum 
breast plate. 



MUSEUxM CATA!,OGUE. 



379 



No. 

O. 311 — 6 Omaha horn spoons. 

O. 312 — 4 Cheyenne porcupine quill 
arm bands. 

O. 313 — Ogalalla scraper owned by 
wife of Lone "Wolf, observe the 
scalp marks. 

O. 314 — A Winnebago game. 

O. 315 — A bunch of ring sizes. 

O. 31G— Worn by William T. Bris- 
tol when a baby (moccasins). 

O. 317 — Shoes worn by Edith Hunt- 
er's baby. 

O. 318 — Needle book carried by D. 
Charles Bristol. 

O. 319 — Shoes worn by D. Charles 
Bristol. 

O. 320 — 2 pairs of gloves made by 
Sally Twist. 

O 321 — Black Bear's toOth; arrow 
from Homer; small steel toma- 
hawk made in Pennsylvania. 

O. 322 — Watch chain worn by D. 
Charles Bristol. 

O. 323 — Moccasins made, by wife of 
Standing Bear. 

O. 324 — Beaded work done by Sally 
Twist. 

O. 325—3 old iron Ogalalla spears. 

O. 326 — Spanish bit attachment 
procured of Indians. 

O. 327 — Beaded snakes for Ogalalla 
snake dance. 

O. 328 — Button given by an officer 
of marines in New York har- 
bor. 

O. 329— Dinner horn. 

O. 330 — Cheyenne quirt. 

O. 331 to 341—11 pockets. 

O. 342 — Winnebago loom and work. 

O. 343 — Cheyenne wampum. 

O. 344 — Watch guard worn by D. 

Charles Bristol. 
O. 345 — Watch guard worn by U. 

Charles Bristol. 
O. 346— Pocket. 

O. 347 — Winnebago scalp dress. 
O. 348 — Tweezers to pull beard. 
O. 349— Ornament. 
O. 350—3 beaded Ogalalla balls for 

women. 
O. 351 — Spanish spurs from Crow 

reservation. 



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O. 
O. 

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O. 
O. 

O. 

O. 

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O. 
O. 

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O. 

O. 
O. 

O. 

O. 

O 

O. 
O. 



O. 
O. 
O. 
O. 

O. 
O. 
O. 

o 

o. 

o. 
o. 

o. 
o. 



352 — Beaded Ogalalla vest. 

353 — Manitoba police boots. 

354 — Snow shoes from Mary 
Jamison family. 

355 — Curious bones. 

356 — Bone from a turtle's back. 

357— Tally bone for ^family, ob- 
serve the scalp marks. 

358 — Bag in which clothes are 
carried. 

359 — Lacrosse sticks, used in 
ball game. 

360— Buffalo horns. 

361 — Cartridge box. 

362 — Navajo pad for carrying 

water in vessels balanced on 

the head. 

363 — Japanese dagger. 

364 — Sitting Bull's medicine 
pipe. 

365— Pipe used by Red Cloud. 
366— Pipe owned by Old-Man- 
Afraid-of-Kis-Horses. 

367 — Pipe belonging to Crazy 
Horse. 

owned by 



Thunder 



owned by Charging 



368- Pipe 
Horse. 

369— Pipe 
Eagle. 

370 — Santee pipe. 

371 — Pipe belonging to Hole-in- 
the-Day, a Chippewa who was 
killed by his own people be- 
cause he was toa friendly to 
the whites. 

372 — Yankton Sioux pipe. 

373 — Winnebago pipe. 

374 — Santee Sioux pipe. 

375 — Pipe belonging to Yellow 
Smoke, an Omaha. 

376 — Odd pipestone work. 

377 — Powder horn. 

378 — Pappoose beaded hood 
from Pine Ridge. 

379 — Pappoose beaded hood 
from Pine Ridge agency. 

380 — Breech cloth owned by 
Plenty Horse. 

381 — Winnebago hair 

382 — Moccasins worn 
Bristol, his mother's 

383 — Pair moccasins. 

384 — Winnebago rattle. 



dress. 

by Willie 

work. 



880 



NEURA.SKA «TATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



No. 

O. 385 — Oil paintings, 4 in number, 
D Charles Bristol, Rain-in-tlie- 
Face, Goll, Sitting Bull, all by 
Mountain Charley or C. S. Sto- 
bie. Also photographs of not- 
able western characters which 
will be found under the name 
of D. Charles Bristol in the 
photograph catalogue. 
The following numbers were 
added to the original catalogue 
when articles were put in 
cases: 



No. 

O. 386— Pipe. 
O. 387— Pipe. 
O. 388— Pipe. 

O. 389 — Moccasins. 

O. 390 — Moccasins. 

O. 391 — Moccasins. 

O. 392 to 397— Moccasins. 

O. 398 to 401— Moccasins. 

O. 402— Moccasins (odds). 

O. 403— Flute. 

O. 404 — A pipestone cane. 



SUPPLEMENT TO GENERAL CATALOGUE. 
Continued from page 3G6. 
Being relics added to the museum, and numbers added to the catalogue. 



687 — Coin collection loaned by D. 
H. Noll, of Wyniore, Neb. U. 
S. Columbian half dollar; U. S. 
Columbian quarter dollar; U. 
S. half dollar; 1809 and 1812; 
silver foreign coin; U. S. pen- 
nies, 1797 and 1812; one cent 
upper Canada, bank token, 1850; 
U. S. two cent, 1865; British 
commercial token, 1814; G-eorge 
II. English penny. 

688 — Two Icelandic books loaned 
by .John Halldorson, 1311 So. 
11th Street, Lincoln, Nebraska, 
date 1745 and 1766. 

689 — Chipped flints (history un- 
known.) 

690 — A jNlcClellan medal or token 
loaned by R. J. Scarborough, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

691 — Stone maul found just outside 
the stockade at Fort Laramie, 
loaned by V/alter S. House- 
worth, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

692 — Locket containing tlie por- 
traits of Mr. and Mrs. J. W. 
Richardson, pioneers of Fon- 
tenelle, Nebraska, presented by 
Miss Delia Campbell, through 
the kindness of A. N. Yost of 
Omaha. 

693 — Collection of Joel and James 
Thompson, Lincoln, Nebraska, 
placed as a loan; three stone 
arrow points; two curious 
rocks; two rattles; from Pev- 
ely, Missouri. 



694 — A box of heirlooms, loaned in 
the nam.e of Milton L. Trester: 
A sword, a lantern, a l)road ax, 
a grain sickle, a fork, and can- 
dle moulds. 

695 — ^An ox yoke made from a Ne- 
braska Cottonwood tree and 
used for many years in Ne- 
braska. Presented by the late 
P^ranklin Ball, of Palmyra. 

696 — Homer's Iliad and Odyssey in 
the original Greek, printed in 
1561, loaned by J. A. Barrett, 
of Omaha. 

697 — Five original commissions, is- 
sued to various Indian chiefs 
over a hundred years ago, pre- 
sented by the late Robert W. 
Furnas. 

698 — Case of Nebraska woods, col- 
lected by the late Robert W. 
Furnas. 

699 — Picture of Rev. Joseph Hen- 
son, the original of "Uncle 
Tom,' presented by a. D. Klt- 
chen, Lincoln, Neb. 

700 — Roster of the 1st Nebraska 
Regiment in the Civil M''ar, 
loaned by Mrs. R. R. Living- 
ston, Plattsmouth, Nebraska. 

701 — Bank notes and wild-cat bills, 
paper tokens, and Confederate 
bills, mounted between glasses. 
About sixty specimens in all, 
given to the Society by various 
people, names unknown. 



M I SEU M CATALOG UE. 



381 



702 — Colonial newspaper. Two cop- 
ies of the Providence Gazette 
and Country Journal, July S 
and November 11. 1775, 
mounted between glasses. The 
name of the donor is unknown. 



703- 



-Large 



United States pennies. 
This collection is from various 
sources; most of them were 
presented by Jay A. Barrett, 
and the collection is nearly 
complete. They are mounted 
between glass slides, so that 
both sides may be studied. 

704 — State Fair souvenirs collected 
to show the evolution of the 
advertising idea at the Ne- 
braska State Fair. 

70-5 — Collection of political badges 
purchased of S. A. Gardiner, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

706 — Collection of political and 
other badges, presented by H. 
C. McMaken, Plattsmcuth, Ne- 
braska. 

707 — Collection of geological speci- 
mens, loaned by A. L. Funk, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

708— Picture of Gilbert Park, by J. 
W. Gilbert, Friend, Nebraska. 



709 — Donkey shoes from Rome, pre- 
sented by Prof. .James T. Lees, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

710 — Autograph letter of Charles I. 
of England, 1644, loaned by 
James Mitchell, Wilber, Ne- 
braska. 

711 — Colonial newspaper, Essex 
Journal and New Hampshire 
Packet of March 29, 1776, do- 
nated by Charles H. Morrill. 

712 — Communion plate (very old), 
loaned by Prof. George R. 
Chatburn, of, Lincoln. 

713— Safe, loaned by John B. Hor- 
ton, of Evanston, Illinois, used 
by his father, in Calais, Maine, 
and by Mr. Horton in Lincoln. 

714 — Nebraska silks and wools with 
case, presented by the late iMrs. 
]\Tary E. ]<\irnas. 

715 — A diary written in Anderson- 
ville prison by H. A. Shotwell, 
loaned for safe-keeping by J. C. 
Pentzer. 

716 — Safe used in the old Platte 
Valley bank, at Nebraska City, 
and the old State Bank at Lin-, 
coin. It is one of the first safes 
brought to the territory, and 
the first in T^incoln. Presented 
by N. C. Brock, of Lincoln. 



382 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTOKTCAL SOCIETY. 







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LEGISLATIVE ACTS. 393 

LEGISLATIVE ACTS AFFECTING THE NEHllASKA 
STATE HISTOIUCAL SOCIETY. 

Act giving force of law to reservation of Historical Square. 

JOINT RESOLUTION. 

Be it resolved by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

That the report of the commissioners for the location of Lincoln, the 
seat of government of Nebraska, and for the erection of public buildings 
thereat, is hereby accepted, and all reservations of public squares, streets, 
and alleys, and church lots in Lincoln, together with the general design, 
is hereby adopted; and the governor may deed such church lots as other 
lands deeded by the state. Lincoln is hereby declared the seat of gov- 
ernment of the state of Nebraska. The bondsmen of such commissioners 
are hereby released, and such commissioners are authorized to surrender 
the said bonds Such commissioners are hereby authorized to pay out 
of the proceeds of the sale of any Lincoln lots, to be made, the sura of 
tvi^enty-one hundred and twelve dollars, being a balance due on the erec- 
tion of the Capitol buildings at Lincoln. 

WM. Mclennan, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
EDWARD B. TAYLOR, 

President of the Senate. , 

Approved February 15, 1869. 

DAVID BUTLER, Governor. 
Laws of 4th-5th session, p. 316. 



Granting to the city of Lincoln a certain block of lots in said city for a 

market place. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. That there is hereby granted and donated to the city of 
Lincoln for public use, as a market square, all of block twenty-nine in 
said city, heretofore known as and called "The State Historical Society 
Block." 

Sec. 2. That it is a fundamental condition of this grant, that said block 
shall, forever, remain the public property of said city, for the use of its 
citizens, for market purposes, and shall never be sold or alienated by 
said city. 

Sec. 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its 
passage. 

Approved, February 24, 1875. 
Laws 1875, pp. 317-xo. 



An act to aid and encourage the "Nebraska State Historical Society." 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. That the "Nebraska State Historical Society," an organiza- 
tion now in existence — Robt. W. Furnas, President; James M. Wool- 
worth and Elmer S. Dundy, Vice-Presidents; Samuel Aughey, Secretary, 
and W. W. Wilson, Treasurer, their associates and successors — be, and 
the same is hereby recognized as a state institution. 



394 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Sec. 2. That it shall be the duty of the President and Secretary of said 
institution to make annually reports to the governor, as required by other 
state institutions. Said report to embrace the transactions and expendi- 
tures of the organization, together with all historical addresses, which 
have been or may hereafter be read before the Society or furnished it as 
historical matter, a data of the state or adjacent western regions of 
country. 

Sec. 3. That said reports, addresses, and papers shall be published at 
the expense of the state, and distributed as other similar official reports, 
a reasonable number, to be decided by the state and Society, to be fur- 
nished said Society for its use and distribution. 

Sec. 4. That there be and is hereby appropriated annually the sum of 
five hundred dollars (|500) for the use and benefit of said "Nebraska 
State Historical Society," to be used under the direction of its officers 
exclusively in defraying expenses, collecting and preserving historical 
matter, data, relics, for the benefit of the state. 

Approved February 27th, A.D. 1883. 

Laws of 1883, pp. 340-41. 



An act to amend sections 1 and 2 of an act entitled "An act granting to 

the city of Lincoln a certain block of lots in said city, for a 

market place," approved February 24, 1875. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. That sections 1 and 2 of an act granting to the city of ]Jn- 
coln a certain block of lots in said city, for a market place, approved 
February 24th, 1875, are hereby amended so as to read as follows: 

Sec. 1. That there is hereby granted and donated to the city of Lin- 
coln, for public use as a market square and other public purpose, all of 
biock twenty-nine, in said city, heretofore known as and called "The State 
Historical Society block." 

Sec. 2. That it is a fundamental condition of this grant that said block 
shall forever remain the public property of said city, for the use of its 
citizens, for market and other public purposes, and shall never be sold 
or alienated by said city. 

Sec. 2. That sections 1 and two of the act amended in section 1 hereof 
are hereby repealed. 

Approved March 5, A.D. 1885. 

Laws 1885, pp. 428-29. 



(Senate File No. 55.) 

An act to assist the state library and ''The Nebraska State Historical 
Society" to augment their collections. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. To enable the state library and the Nebraska Historical So- 
ciety to augment their respective collections by effecting exchanges with 
other societies and institutions, the state of Nebraska hereby donates to 
the state library two hundred (200) bound copies of each of the several 
rublications of the state, its officers, societies and institutions, except 
the reports of the supreme court; and to the Nebraska State Historical 
Society fifty (50) volumes of the same publications as the same shall be 
issued. 



i 



LEGISLATIVE ACTS. 395 

» 

Sec. 2. It is hereby made the duty of the secretary of state, or other 
officer having custody of any of the said publications, to deliver the num- 
ber of copies of the same above specified, on the issuance of said publi- 
cations to the state librarian and the Secretary of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society respectively. 

Approved April 7, 1893. 

Laws 1893, pp. 366-67. 



(Senate File No. 180.) 
(Introduced by Mi'. Jones.) 

Act of 1905 concerning custody of records. 

A bill for an act to make the Nebraska State Historical Society the cus- 
todian of records, documents, and historic material from the various 
departments of state, state institutions, court houses, city halls, and 
other public buildings and departments in the state of Nebraska, 
and to provide for making certitied copies of the same by the officers 
of the Nebraska State Historical Society. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. (State Historical Society — Custodians of ancient public rec- 
ords.) — The Nebraska State Historical Society is hereby made the cus- 
todian of all public records, documenis, relics, and other material which 
it may consider of historic value or interest and which are now or may 
hereafter be in any office or vaults of the several departments of state, 
in any of the institutions which receive appropriations of money from 
the legislature of Nebraska, in any of the county court houses or city 
halls or other public buildings within the state of Nebraska, subject al- 
ways to the following regulations and conditions: 

Sec. 2. (Records subject to this act — Receipts.) — That such records, 
documents, relics, or other historic material shall not be in active use in 
any such department, institution, or building, nor have been in active use 
for the period of twenty years preceding their delivery to the custody of 
said State Historical Society. That such material, through lack of proper 
means to care for, or safe and adequate place to preserve, is Hable to 
damage and destruction. That the officer or board having the care and 
management of such department, institution, or building, shall consent in 
writing to the custody of such documents, records, and materials by said 
State Historical Society. That the said State Historical Society shall 
cause invoice and receipts for such material so turned over to be made 
in triplicate, one copy to be deposited with the secretary of state, one 
with the officer or board turning over such material, and one retained by 
the Secretary of the State Historical Society. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of every officer or board having control or 
management of any state departmeni, institution, or building to notify 
the Secretary of the State Historical Society whenever there are records, 
documents, relics, or material in his or their care coming within the 
scope of this act. 

Sec. 4. (Cost of removal.) It shall be the duty of the State Historical 
Society by its officers or employes to examine such material and remove 
and receipt for such as shall seem to it of historic value. It shall trans- 
port the same at its own cost to its museum, and shall catalogue, arrange, 
and display the same for the free use of the public. 

Sec. 5. (Certified copies.) Certified copies of any record, document, 
or other material of which the Nebraska State Historical Society shall 
be the custodian shall be made upon application by the Secretary or 



396 NEBRASKA Si? ATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. • 

Curator of said Society under seal and oath. Such certified copy shall 
be received in courts or elsewhere as of the same legal validity as similar 
certificates from the original custodian of such record, document, or 
other material, and the Secretary or Curator of said Nebraska State His- 
torical Society shall be entitled to the same fees for making such certified 
copy as the original custodian. 

Approved March 30, 1905. 

Laws of 1905, pp. 604-5. 



(House Roll No. 431 ) 

(Introduced by Finance, Ways and Means Committee.) 

An act to secure the restoration to the state and its original purposes of 
block 29, in the city of Lincoln, Nebraska, originally known as "State 
Historical Society Block," or in lieu thereof of some other equally 
desirable tract; to provide for the erection of the basement story of 
a fireproof building thereon and a temporary roof for the same, to 
be used as a museum and library by the Nebraska State Historical 
Society for the safe preservation and exhibition of documents, books, 
newspapers, weapons, tools, pictures, relics, scientific specimens, 
farm and factory products, and all other collections pertaining to the 
history of the world, and particularly to that of Nebraska and the 
great West; also for the organization of the material and carrying 
on the work of the legislative reference department; to provide an 
appropriation of money therefor, to authorize the city of Lincoln to 
convey certain property in said city as a site for said building and 
grounds, and to amend sections 1 and 2, of chapter 121, of the session 
laws of 1885, and to repeal said original sections. 

(Preamble.) "Whereas, David Butler, John Gillespie, and Thomas P. 
Kennard, commissioners of the state of Nebraska, appointed by the act 
of legislature of June 14, 1867, to relocate the capitol of the state of Ne- 
braska, were granted power to "survey and stake out public squares or 
reservations 'for public buildings," and 

Whereas, Said commissioners on August 26, 1867, in compliance with 
the act creating them, filed a surveyor's plat of the original city of Lin- 
coln, bearing in proper place this legend "Block 29 for State Historical 
Library Association, incorporated August 26, 1867," and 

Whereas, On February 15, 1869, the legislature of the state of Ne- 
braska accepted and approved the acts of said commissioners, including 
the reservation of said block for the State Historical Library Associa- 
tion; and 

Whereas, on February 24, 1875, the legislature of the state of Nebraska 
granted and donated to the city of Lincoln said block 29, described in 
the act as "State Historical Society Block," for public use as a market 
square on the fundamental conditions that it should "forever remain pub- 
lic property for use for market purposes and never be sold or alienated 
by said city;" and 

Whereas, On March 5, 1885, the legislature of the state of Nebraska 
amended the act of 1875 so as to permit the block, again described as 
"State Historical Society Block," to be used by said city "as a market 
square and for otlier public purposes;" and 

Whereas, Under said amended act the city of Lincoln has used one 
corner of said block for its city offices and fire department; and 



LfiGiSLAliVE ACTS. 397 

Whereas, Arrangements have been completed by said city of Lincoln 
under which it has acquired the former U. S. postoflBce building as a city 
hall, and is about to remove its offices to said building; and 

Whereas, The Nebraska State Historical Society has, since the year 
1878, been carrying on the work to which said block 29 in the city of 
Lincoln was originally dedicated, and is now overcrowded in basement 
rooms of the University Library, where, in addition to its library, mu- 
seum and newspaper department, it has now organized and carries on 
its legislative reference department; and 

Whereas, The restoration of block 29 to its original purposes as de- 
signed by the founders of this state and original locaters ot the city of 
Lincoln as a site for a State Historical Society building and park, is an 
act of justice and sound public policy; and 

Whereas, It is believed public sentiment in the city of Lincoln is now 
favorable to the restoration of said Historical Society Block to its orig- 
inal purposes, for which it is well-adapted by reasou of its central loca- 
tion in the city of Lincoln; therefore 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. (Appropriation: building; use, management.) — That there is 
hereby appropriated out of any money belonging to the general fund of 
the state, not otherwise appropriated, the sum of twenty-five thousand 
dollars, to be expended in the construction and equipment of the base- 
ment story of a fireproof wing in the city of Lincoln, Nebraska, upon 
ground to be donated by the said city of Lincoln and accepted as the site 
tor a Historical Society building ana park by the executive board of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society. Said baseaient story and said wing 
and building and park snail be under ihe managem.ent and control of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society and be usea by it as a museum and 
library building and grounds tor the preservation, care, arrangement 
and exhibition of documents, books, newspapers, weapons, tools, pictures, 
relics, scientific specimens, farm and factory products, and all other col- 
lections pertaining to the history of the world, and particularly to that of 
Nebraska and the great West; also to carry on the work of the Nebraska 
legislative reference department. 

Sec. 2. (Same, basement story.) — Said basement story shall be con- 
structed according to plans and specifications adopted by the executive 
board of the Nebraska State Historical Society, shall be fireproof through- 
out, and shall be designed to preserve, care lor, and exhibit, for the Iree 
use of the public all the collections which the Nebraska State Historical 
Society has in its custody or may hereafter receive, and to carry on the 
ofiice work of said Society and of the legislative reference department. 
The management and control of the construction of said building shall 
be vested in the executive board ot the Nebraska State Historical Society 
and such person or persons as the said executive board may appoint for 
such purpose. 

Sec. 3. (Building, construction ) — The executive board shall proceed to 
secure bids for the consti-uction of said basement story by advertisement 
in such manner as it may determine, or by such other means as will, in 
its judgment, secure the services of the most responsible contractor bid- 
ding lowest for the same. Said board shall also require the successful 
bidder to execute and file the bond required by an act of the legislature, 
approved March 21, 1S89, before the final award and execution of the 
contract of construction. Said board shall make all orders necessary to 
protect the interests of the state and to secure the construction of said 
basement story according to the plans and specifications prepared there- 
for. Said board is hereby authorized and empowered to execute by its 
proper officers all contracts for the construction and equipment of 



398 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

building, and to do and perform, by its duly appointed agents, all neces- 
sary acts and things in that behalf. 

Sec. 4. (Same, payments.) — Payment shall be made from time to time, 
as the work of construction proceeds, upon estimates furnished by the 
Society and the superintendent of construction. Fifteen per cent of each 
estimate shall be retained until the work therein provided for shall be 
completed and accented by the executive board. For the purpose of 
making such payments, and for all expenditures of money under this act, 
the said executive board shall issue its certificates, signed by its Presi- 
dent, or*its Vice-President, and its Secretary, directed to the Auditor of 
Public Accounts, who shall thereupon issue his warrant upon the general 
fund of the state directed to the treasurer, for the amount and in favor 
of the person or persons named in said certificates. 

Sec. 5. (Condition.)— The express condition of this appropriation is 
that within two years from the time this act shall take effect, the city of 
Lincoln, Nebraska, shall donate and convey to the Nebraska State His- 
torical Society a tract of land in said city suitable for a site for a His- 
torical Society building and acceptable to the executive board of said 
Society and the governor of the state, provided that said property must 
be said' block 29 in the city of Lincoln or property of equal value. Said 
appropriation shall become available after this act is passed, whenever 
the said Historical Society executive board shall certify by its proper- 
officers under oath to the auditor of public accounts that the conditions 
named in this section have been complied with. 

Sec. 6. (Sections amended.)— That sections 1 and 2, of chapter 121, of 
the session laws of 1885, are hereby amended to read as follows: 

"Section 1. (Grant to Historical Society.)— That there is hereby granted 
and donated to the city, of Lincoln, for public use as a market square and 
other public purpose, all of block 29, in said city, heretofore known as 
and called 'The State Historical Society Block.' 

"Sec. 2. (Condition.) — That it is a fundamental condition of this grant 
that said block shall foiever remain public property of said city, for the 
use of its citizens, for market and other public purposes, and shall never 
be sold or alienated by said city; provided, that said city of Lincoln may 
by ordinance convey said block 29. or any part thereof, to the Nebraska 
State Historical Society for use as a site and grounds for a museum and 
library building for said Society and for the legislative reference 
department." 

Sec. 7. (Repeals.) — The said original sections 1 and 2, of chapter 121, 
of the Session Laws of 1885, are hereby repealed. 

Approved April 10, 1907. 

Laws 1907, pp. 457-61. 



I 



CONSTITUTION, 



399 



APPROPRIATIONS. 
Nebraska State Historical Society 1883-1907. 



Session 
Laws. 


Current 

Expenses. 


Printing 
Reports. 


Building. 


1883 


$ 1000 

lOCO 

1000 

1000 

1000 

2000 

3000 

3500 

5000 

10000 

10000 

10000 

15030 






1885 


$1500 
1500 




1887 




1889 




1891 


1500 




1893 




1895 






1897 






1899 






1901 






1903 






1905 


2500 




1907 


125000 










$63500 


' $7000 


$25000 



Total amount appropriated for general support 1883-1907 $70,500 

For building 25,000 

Total $95,500 



CONSTITUTION OF THE NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

I. Name. The name of this Society shall be The Nebraska State His- 
torical Society. 

II. Object. The object of the Society shall be to promote accurate his- 
torical knowledge and research, to awaken public interest in and popu- 
larize historical study throughout the state. For these ends, in trust for 
the people of the state of Nebraska, it shall maintain a public library 
and museum. It shall collect, arrange, catalogue, and preserve therein 
manuscripts, books, pamphlets, maps, newspapers, pictures, relics, antiq- 
uities, products of art and industry, and other suitable material, — with 
special reference to illustrating the past and present resources and prog- 
ress of Nebraska and western America. It shall, in particular, aim to 
preserve the memory and deeds of the early explorers and pioneers of 
this region; the traditions and relics of the Indian inhabitants; and the 
archeological remains of former peoples. It shall publish the results of 
its researches and spread this knowledge by printed reports, lecture 
courses, exhibits, and other suitable means. 

III. Location. The library, museum, and office of the secretary of this 
Society shall be located at Lincoln, Nebraska. 

IV. Membership. The Society shall consist of active, life, ex-officio, 
honorary, and corresponding members. These may be chosen at any reg- 
ular meeting of the board of directors — except at the meeting next pre- 
ceding the annual meeting of the Society, — or by the Society at its annual 
meeting. Such choice shall be by ballot. A majority of all the directors 
shall be necessary to a choice or a majority of all the votes cast in case 
of election by the Society. 



400 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Active members shall pay an admission fee of two dollars, but editors 
and publishers of newspapers and periodicals who have contributed the 
regular issues of the same to the Society's collections for the period of 
one year shall be considered active members during the continuance 
thereafter of such contributions, without payment of fee, upon signing 
blank membership form furnished by the secretary. All active members 
shall be citizens of Nebraska and shall qualify by compliance with the 
foregoing provisions and filing with the secretary a signed application 
blank for membership which shall be furnished by him. 

Life membership may be secured by a donation of property to the value 
of fifty dollars to the Society. The secretary shall furnish each life mem- 
ber with an engraved certificate of the same suitable for framing. 

Honorary and corresponding members shall be such persons, distin- 
guished for literary or scientific attainments, or for promotion of his- 
torical study, as may be chosen by the board of directors or the society 
at any regular meeting. They shall have all the privileges of the Society 
except voting and holding office, and shall be exempt from all fees and 
dues. 

Any member may be dropped from the rolls or expelled at any meeting 
of the Society by a two-thirds vote of those present, after not less than 
twenty days' notice of the charges against him and the time and place of 
trial by registered letter directed to him at his last known address. 

V. Officers. The officers of the Society shall be a president, two vice- 
presidents, a treasurer, and a secretary, who shall be elected by ballot 
at the annual meeting, and hold their office until their respective suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified. A vacancy in any ofiice may be filled 
by the board of directors for the unexpired term. 

The president shall preside at the meetings of the Society and in gen- 
eral shall perform the duties usually incident to the office. 

The vice-presidents, in the order of their election, shall have all the 
rights and duties of the president in his absence. 

The treasurer shall collect and have charge of the funds of the Society; 
he shall keep the moneys of the Society in its name in some safe banking 
house in the city of Lincoln; he shall keep a detailed account of receipts 
and expenditures; keep his books and accounts open for inspection by 
the board of directors; make a full report to the Society at its annual 
meeting and at all times when required, and pay no moneys except on 
warrants drawn by the president or a vice-president and countersigned 
by the secretary. He shall give a bond for the faithful performance of 
his duties, in the sum of two thousand dollars, and such additional sum 
as the Society may require, and file the same with the secretary. 

The secretary shall have the custody of the Society's property and the 
general supervision and the management of its work, subject to control 
by the board of directors. He shall keep the records of the meetings of 
the Society and conduct its correspondence. In connection with the presi- 
dent he shall make the report to the governor required by law and pro- 
cure the publication of the same. He shall make a full report of his do- 
ings at the annual meeting of the Society, and at the quarterly meetings 
of the board of directors, and perform such other duties as may be re- 
quired by the Society. 

The secretary and treasurer may each receive such salary as the So- 
ciety shall by vote previously determine. No other officer shall receive 
any remuneration for his services, but may be allowed his actual expenses 
in performing the duties of his office. 

Any officer may be removed at any meeting by a two-thirds vote of 
those present. 

Officers pro tempore may be chosen by the Society at any meeting iu 
the absence of the regular officers. 



BY-LAWS. -tot 

VI. Board of Directors. The governor of the state, the chancellor of 
the State University, the head of the department of American history in 
the State University, and the president of the Nebraska State Press Asso- 
ciation shall be ex-officio members of the Society. Together with the 
elective officers of the Society they shall constitute the board of directors. 

The board of directors is made the governing body of the society, with 
power to manage, administer, and control the disposition of its moneys, 
property, effects and a'ffairs, subject to this constitution and by-laws an- 
nexed. They may adopt such rules as they see fit, not contrary to this 
constitution and by-laws, for the administration of the Society's affairs. 

Regular meetings of the board of directors shall be held on the first 
Tuesday after the second Monday in January and quarterly thereafter 
during the year. At siich meetings they shall receive reports from the 
secretary and other officers, act on applications for membership, and 
transact such other business as shall seem for the Society's best interests. 
Special meetings of the board may be called by the secretary upon five 
days' notice to each member, specifying the object of such special meet- 
ing. Five shall constitute a quorum of the board. The order of business 
at a meeting of the board of directors shall be the same as that of the 
Society's meeting. The board shall report through the secretary to the 
Society at its meetings. 

VII. Seal. The Society shall have a corporate seal, of such design as it 
may adopt. ' 

VIII. Meetings. The regular meetings of the Society shall be the an- 
nual meetings which shall be held in the city of Lincoln on the first Tues- 
day after the second Monday in January. 

Special meetings may be called under the direction of the president, 
for the transaction of such business as may be specified in the notice 
thereof, and no other business can be finally di.sposed of at such meetings. 

Notice of all meetings of the Society shall be sent by mail by the secre- 
tary to all active members at least ten days before the date of such 
meeting. 

Ten active members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of 
business. 

IX. Amendments. This constitution may be amended at any annual 
meeting by a two-thirds vote of those present; Provided, That the pro- 

_ posed amendment shall have been submitted in writing and entered on 
the minutes at a previous meeting at least three months beforehand, The 
by-laws which may be made by the Society may be amended or sus- 
pended at any regular meeting, or special meeting for that purpose, by a 
two-thirds vote; Provided, That the regular order of business may be 
varied at any meeting by a majority vote. 

BY-LAWS. 

1. The treasurer shall give bond in the sum of two thousand dollars with 
sureties to be approved by the board of directors, and the same shall be 
filed with the secretary. He shall receive for his services the sum of 
twenty-five dollars per annum, payable on the first of January for the 
year preceding. 

2. The secretary shall act as librarian of the Society. He shall use his 
best efforts to promote the growth of the library and museum and pre- 
serve a complete record of the articles received by the Society. Only 
members of this Society shall be entitled to draw books from the library; 
no manuscripts or articles from the museum shall be withdrawn from the 
custody of the secretary; he shall preserve all correspondence received 
in proper files, and keep copies of all letters written by him. 

He shall receive for his services the sum of five hundred dollars per 
annum, payable in quarterly instalments on the first day of April, July, 
October, and January for the quarter preceding. 



402 NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Provided, That in case the legislative appropriation shall, in the judg- 
ment of the board of directors, warrant, they may authorize the secretary 
to employ an assistant to act as librarian and to do the general work of 
the Society under his supervision, at such salary as they may determine, 
not to exceed $1,400; and in that etent the salary shall be $100. 

3. The president-elect shall appoint at each annual meeting the follow- 
ing standing committees, composed of three members each: 

A committee on publication, of which the secretary shall be ex officio 
chairman, to select and prepare all matters for publication, and to super- 
vise the printing thereof. 

A committee on library and museum, to assist the secretary's collec- 
tions, and with him have general superintendence thereof. 

A committee on obituaries, whose duty it shall be to prepare memoirs 
of deceased members, and to collect materials for the same. 

A committee on program, of which the secretary shall be ex-officio 
chairman, to arrange for suitable literary and other exercises at the 
various meetings of the Society. 

4. The regular meetings of the Society shall be held in the city of Lin- 
coln, at such hour and place as shall be designated by the secretary. 

5. The order "of business at meetings shall be: 

(1) Roll call, or other proceedings to ascertain the names and num- 

ber of the members present. 

(2) Reading of minutes. 

(3) Reports of officers. 

(4) Reports of standing committees. 

(5) Reports of special committees. 

(6) Communications and petition. 

(7) Election of members. 

(9) Miscellaneous business. 

(10) Adjournment. 

6. Robert's Rules of Order shall be authority on parliamentary pro- 
cedure at the meetings of the Society. 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS. 

Transactions and Reports of the Nebraska State Historical Society. 

Vol. I, 1885. 8vo. clo., 233 pp., $1.25; paper in 4 pts., $0.75. 

Proceedings of the Society from January, 1879, to January, 1883; 
Historical Recollections of Otoe and Washington Counties; Au- 
tobiography of Rev. Wm. Hamilton, Indian Missionary; Short 
History of the Omaha Indians; Death of Francis Burt, First Gov- 
ernor; First White Child Born in Nebraska; Female Suffragist 
Movement in Nebraska; Two Historical Letters from Father De 
Smet; Fifty-six pages of Biographies; Discovery of Nebraska; 
Annual Address by President Furnas, 1880; Place of History in 
•Modern Education; Rush for Gold at Pikes Peak; Philosophy of 
Emigration; Constitution, By-laws, and Roster of the Society. 

Vol. II, 1887. 8vo. clo., 383 pp., $1.25; paper in 4 pts., $0.75. 

Relation of History to the Study and Practice of Law; Sketches 
of Territorial History; Wild-Cat Banks; Politics; Pioneer Jour- 
nalism; How the Kansas-Nebraska Boundary Line was Estab- 
lished; Slavery in Nebraska; John Brown in Richardson County; 
A Visit to Nebraska in 1662; Forty Years Among the Indians in 
Nebraska; Military History of Nebraska; The Powder River Ex- 
pedition, 1865; Histories of Cass, Dodge, Washington, and Sarpy 



PURLTCATrONS. 40o 

Counties; Early History of Fremont, Nebraska; Discovery of 
Gold in Colorado; Establishment of an Arboreal Bureau; Twenty- 
six pages of Biographies; Official Reports of Officei's of the 
Society. 

Vol. Ill, 1892. 8vo. clo., 342 pp., very rare, $3.00. 

American State Legislatures; Salem Witchcraft; History of Edu- 
cation in Omaha; The Beginning of the City of Lincoln and of 
Lancaster County; Early Times and Pioneers: Ft. Pierre Expedi- 
tion, and the ]\Iilitary Camp on the Big Sioux River. 1885; Remin- 
iscences of a Teacher Among the Nebraska Indians, 1843-55; 
Sioux Indian War of 1890-^1; Brief History of Higher Education 
in Nebraska and an Accoimt of the University of Nebraska; Paw- 
nee Indian War of 1859; Reminiscences of Early Days in Ne- 
braska; Official Proceedings of the Society. 

Vol. IV, 1892. 8vo. clo., 336 pp., $3.00. 

Contributions by J. Sterling :\Torton; Old Ft. Atkinson, 1818; 
Map of Ft. Atkinson; Indian Troubles and the Battle of Wounded 
Knee; History of the Fontenelle Family of St. Louis; First Post- 
master of Omaha; Arbor Day; Supreme Judges of Nebraska; 
Omaha Public Library; County Names; Personal Sketch and 
Extracts from the Diary of Rev. Moses Merrill, Missionary to 
the Otoe Indians, 1832-40; Pioneers of Dixon County; History 
of Butler County; Fifty-six pages of Biographies; Constitution 
and By-laws of the Society. 

Vol. V, 1893. 8vo. clo., 293 pp., very rare, S5.00. 

Records and their Conservation; Lincoln Public Library; The 
Arikara Conquest of 1823; Admission of Nebraska as a State; 
Nebraska Silver Anniversary, Lincoln, 189/!; Meeting of Native 
Nebraskans; Old Settlers' Meeting and Organization; Early Life 
in Nebraska; Political and Constitutional Development of Ne- 
braska; Settlement of Kearney County; Official Proceedings and 
Roster of the Society. 

Proceedings and Collections of the Nebraska State Historical Society. 
Second series, vol. I, 1894-95. 8vo, clo., 264 pp., $1.25. 

- Life of Governor Burt; Early Nebraska Currency; Municipal 
Government in Nebraska; Soldiers' Free Homestead Colony; 
Ghost Songs of the Dakotas; Early Nebraska Courts; Freighting 
Aci'oss the Plains; Financial Fallacies, a Sketch of Wild-Cat 
Banks in Nebraska; Biographical Notes, Personal Reminiscences; 
Official Proceedings and Roster of the Society. 

Second series, vol. II, 1898. Svo. clo, 307 pp., $1.25. 

The Poncas; Sketch of Bellevue, Nebraska; Travelers in Ne- 
braska in 1866; Underground Railroad in Nebraska; Social and 
Economic Progress in Nebraska; First Territorial Legislature 
and Sketches of its Members; Nebraska Women in 1855; Death 
of Sitting Bull; Official Proceedings of the Society; Papers and 
Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. 

Second series, vol. Ill: — The Provisional Government of Nebraska 
Territory and the Journals of William Walker. Special Publica- 
tion of the Society, by Wm. E. Connelley. 

Svo. clo., 423 pp., $3.00. 

The Wyandottes; The Walker Family; The Provisional Govern 
ment of Nebraska Territory. Documents relating to the Provi- 



1 



iOi NEBEASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOClETlf. 

sional Government and Original Constitution; A Sketch of Ah6' 
lard Guthrie, First Delegate to Congress; The Journals of Wil- 
liam Walker; Eleven Rare and Valuable Portraits. 

Second series, vol. IV: — Forty Years of Nebraska, by Thomas Wes- 
ton Tipton, U. S. Senator for Nebraska from 1867-75. Special 
Publication of the Society, 1902. 

8vo. clo.. 570 pp.. $2.00. 

Biographical Sketches and Official Records of Territory and State 
Governors of Nebraska; Territorial Delegates to Congress, IT. S. 
Senators, and Representatives with many Portraits. 

Second series, vol. V, 1902. 8vo. clo., 381 pp., $1.50. 

Territorial Journalism; Reminiscences of Territorial Days; Bi- 
ographies of Judge Elmer S. Dundy, Thos. W. Tipton. Algernon 
Sydney Paddock, and others; The Nebraska Constitution; An 
Episode of the Y/yoming Cattle War; Recollections of Omaha in 
1855-61; Death of Logan Fontenelle; Farmers' Alliance in Ne- 
braska; Indian Massacre, 1866; Pawnee War of 1859; Plains War 
in 1865; Underground Railroad in Nebraska; Along the Overland 
Trail; Early Freighting and Staging Operations; Proceedings of 
. the Society and List of Members. 

Nebraska Constitutional Conventions. A special Publication of the Ne- 
braska State Historical Society, being vol. XT of its publications. 

Second series, vol. VI, 1906. 8vo. clo., 582 pp., $1.50. 

Official Report and the Debates and Proceedings of the Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1871. 

Second series, vol. VII, 1907. 8vo. clo., 628 pp., $1.50. 

Official Report and the debates and proceedings of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1871. 

(.There are two more volumes of the Debates and Proceedings 
of the Constitutional Conventions of Nebraska now in course of 
preparation. 

Proceedings and Collections of the Nebraska State Historical Society, 
second series, vol. X, 1907. 8\o. clu., 422 pp., $1.50. 

Mormon Settlements in the Missouri Valley; Railroad Migration 
into Northern Nebraska; Nebraska Politics and Nebraska Rail- 
roads; Reminiscences of Territorial Days; Campaign Against 
Crazy Horse; Early Days in Decatur, Nebraska; History of the 
Lincoln Salt Basin; Judicial Grafts; Visit of General Tnayer to 
the Pawnee Village in 1855; Early Days on the Little Blue; Bio- 
graphical Sketches of Pioneers; Railroad Taxation in Nebraska; 
Work of Union Pacific Railroad; Early Dreams of Coal in Ne- 
braska; Unveiling of Monument to Gen. John M. Thayer; Official 
Proceedings, 1901 to 1908; Reports of Secretary, Treasurer, Li- 
brarian, and ArcheologJst for 1907; Museum Catalogue; List of 
newspapers received by the Society; Legislative Acts Afi'ccling 
the Society; Appropriations, 1883-1907; Constitution of the So- 
ciety; Publications of the Society. 



INDEX 



Abbott, Dr. Luther J., 217. 
Abbott, Lysle I., 258. 
Abbott, Ned C, 294. 
Abbott, Othman A., 172. 
Acts of legislature affecting the 
Nebraska State Historical So- 
ciety, 393-98. 
Adair, William, 304. 
Adams county, 110. 
Adams. J. W..'285. 
Adams, P. Edgar, 230, 237. 
Adams trip, 354. 
Agency, Crow Creek, 80. 
Ager, John H., 34, 223. 
Agriculture. State Board of, 165. 
Aitchison, Clyde B., 7. 
Albermarle, 51. 
Albion, 181. 

Aldrich. Chester H., 276. 
Alexandria, 129. 

Alexis of Russia, Grand Duke, 273. 
Allen, Charles S., 237. 
Allen, C. W., 224, 230. 
Allen, Capt. James, 14. 
Allen, John E., 121, 125. 
Allen, Thomas S., 285. 
Allen, William I, 258. 
Allen, William V., 240. 
Allen (town), 331. 
Allis, Samuel, 121, 123. 
Allis, Otis E., 237, 362. 
vUma (town), 108. 
Alton, 24. 

Amendments to constitution pro- 
posed January 14. 1907, 287. 
American Fur Co., 7, 78. 
American Horse, 73. 
Ames, John H., 83, 238. 
Ancient Bluff ruins, 17. 
Anderbery, Charles P., 258. 
Anderson, David, 217. 
Anderson, N. J., 330. 
Anderson, Squire. 141. 
Anderson, Wilham, 138. 
Andrew county (IMo.), 138. 
Andrews. E. Beniamin, 251, 252, 

253, 262, 263, 264. 
Annin, William E., 216, 218. 304. 
Annual meetings — 

Twenty-fourth, 1901, 215. 

Twenty-fifth, 1902, 222- 

Twenty-sixth, 1903, 226. 



Twenty-seventh, 1904, 233. 
Twenty-eighth, 1905, 238. 
Twenty-ninth, 1906, 246. 
Thirtieth, 1907, 257. 
Thirty-first. January 13-14. 1908, 
281. 
Antelope county, 30, 31. 
Appropriations, Nebraska State His- 
torical Society, 399. 
Arbor Lodge, 148. • 

Arbor Dav, 151, 152, 227, 228, 231, 

236. 
Archeologist's Reports — 

1906, 326. 

1907, 335. 
Archeologist, Report of, 323. 
Arikara Indians, 222. 
Armstrong, W. J., 143. 
Artesian well, Lincoln, 95. 
Ashland, 170, 171, 337. 
Atchison county (Mo.), 136. 
Atwood, Myrtle P., 285. 
Auditing committee, Report of, 1907, 

282. 

Aughey, Prof. Samuel, 331. 

Aukes. Dr. Bhme E , 229. 

Avery, R. O., 260. 

Aylsworth, Kittle Austin, 288. 

Aylsworth, Leon E.. 237. 

Aylsworth, William P., 230, 262, 269. 

Babcock, L. J., 363. 

Bain, Robert A., 98. 

Baird, T. C, 335. 

Baker, E., 135. 

Baker, Mrs. E. C, 275. 294. 

Baker, Dr. George G., 144. 

B^ker, Samuel, 358. 

Baldwin, Willis A., 230. 

Ball, Franklin, 218, 304, 380. 

Bancroft, M. A.. 332, 335. 

Barber, J. A., 361. 

Barbour, Erwin H, 258. 355. 

Barkley, Mrs. J. E., 364. 

Barnes, John B., 259. 

Barnes, Mrs: Mary J., 363. 

Barr, Wesley, 197. 

Barrett, Jay Amos, 102, 217. 220, 
228, 230, 231, 2.62, 233, 235, 239, 
241, 244. 245, 246, 251, 253, 255, 
256, 261, 263, 334, 380, 381. 

Barrett, Jay Amos, Resignation of, 
256. 



406 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORIC AT. SOCIETY. 



Barry, John H., 259. 

Bassett, Samuel C, 245. 

Bates, Dr. Henry Y., 285. 

Bates, Ross, 285. 

Battle Creek (town), 20. 

Battles — 

Ash Hollow, 272. 

Rosebud, 71. 

Slim Buttes, 73. 

White Stone Hills, 78, 164. 

Bean, John J., 285. 

Beatrice, 63, 64, 65, 129, 181, 337. 

Beattie, James, 350. 

Beemer (town), 29. 

Belfour, W. A., 360. 

Bell, John T., 366. 

Bell, Ortha C, 193, 214. 

Bell, Ray, 365. 

Bellevue, 7, 8, 22, 64, 119, 121, 148, 
154, 155, 156, 157, 231. 

Bellevue claim club, 155. 

Bellevue Town Company. 155. 

Belpere, C. L., 362. 

Bene, Jules, 61. 

Benedict, P. J., 285. 

Bennett, Capt., 78. 

Bennett, George D., 279, 286. 

Bennett, Gideon, 133, 138. 

Bennett, Judge Hiram P., 60, 138, 
140, 141, 143. 

Bennett, William, 143. 

Benton, George H., 136, 137. 

Benton (town), 79. 

Bessey, Dr. Charles E., 276, 277. 

Best, G. M.. 334. 

Bethlehem, 21, 23. 

Bierbower, Victor, 114. 

Biervagon, ('harley, 135, 136. 

Big Elk (chief), 14. 

Bighorn country, 69, 70. 

Big Springs (Kansas), 349. 

Billows, Peter, 104. 

Billows family, 104. 

Bills, Charles J., 285. 

Bingham, John A., 285. 

Birchiield, William P., 141. 

Bird, Jim, 107. 

Bird family, 104. 

Bishop, Arthur E., 285. 

Bixby, Amrni L., 218, 285. 

Black Bird (chief), 272. 

Black. James P. A., 259. 

Black canker plague, 15. 

Black Hills, 72. 

Blackburn, Merritt L.., 260. 

Blackburn, Thomas W., 259. 

Blackman, Elmer E., 221, 222, 223 
226, 231, 237, 241, 244. 245, 246, 
248, 251, 255, 258, 261, 262, 263, 
267, 274, 295, 334, 335, 359. 366. 



100. 

284, 



137. 
137. 



304. 



Blackman, E. E., Collecfcion of, 36 

Blaine, Col., 153. 

Blair, JMontgomery, 

Blakely, Na~than, *63 

Bloomington, 108. 

Blunt, Joseph, 135, 

Blunt, Mrs. Joseph, 

Blythe, T. A., 280. 

Boats — 

Banner State, 141 

Little Ann, 148. 

Mayflower, 148. 

Western Engineer 

Yellowstone, 78. 
Boelus (town), 182. 
Boston, 126. 
Boston Journal, 
Boulware, John 
Boutton, Martin 
Bowen, John S., 
Bowen, William 
Bowers, A., 145. 
Bowers, William D, 
Bowlby, Charles J., 230. 231 23c 

241, 246. 
Bowman, Oscar R 
Box Butte county, 
Boyer Lake, 21. 
Boyd, Gov. James E., 58, 207, 300. 
Bozarth, W. N., 365. 
Brace, L. D . 365. 



78. 



202. 

B., 134, 
v., 142. 
145. 
R., 304. 



304. 
230, 

, 218. 
31. 



140, 142. 



Bradford, 

140. 
Bradford, 
Bradford, 



Judge Allen A., 60. 136 



Henry, 138. 141, 142. 
Henry & Co., 139, 142 
Bradford, R. H., 100. 
Brash, Mrs. G. H.. 303. 
Brewster, John W., 285. 
Briggs, Clinton, 172. 
Bristol, D. Charles, 333 

374. 
Bristol, 
Bristol, 

258 
Broady, .Jefferson H., 172, 231 234 

235. 
Brock, Nelson C. 224, 
Brown, C. M., 285. 
Brown, Dick. 138. 
Brown. Elmer W., 279. 
Brown, Erasmus E., 98, 99. 
Brown, Francis W., 250. 2S0, 284. 
Brown. George W., Jr., 276. 
Brown, M. W., 140. 
Brown, Norris, 174. 248. 
Brown, Will A.. 359, 360. 
Brown county. 31. 
Brownville, 65. .104, 129. 138, 143 

144, 145, 158, 163. 164. 
Brownville College, 145. 



334, 335 



Mrs D. Charles, 334. 

D. Charles, Collection of 

331. 374. 



363, 381. 



INDEX. 



407 



Brower, Jacob V., 222, 362, 363. 

Broz, Rev. John S., 237. 

Bruner, Uriah, 304. 

Bryan, Frank, 346. 

Bryan, William Jennings, 62, 280, 
281, 300. 

Bryan, Mrs. William Jennings. 280, 
300. 

Buchanan, James. 148. 

Buchanan John Ross, 25, 222, 223. 

"Buckskin Charlie," see White, 
Charles. 

Buell, George E., 279. 

Bu'ft'alo Bill, see Cody, William F. 

Buffalo county, 25. 

Buffalo Gap, 32. 

Building for State Historical So- 
ciety, Plans for, 233. 

Building Proposition, 290. 

Burlington (Iowa), 169. 

Burnett, Edgar A., 276. 

Burnham, Charles B., 260. 

Burt, Francis, 119. 

Burt county, 80, 117. 

Busch, Charles H., 280. 

Bush, L. Penn. 240. 

Butler, Gov. David, 87, 88, 94, 159, 
300, 396. 

Butler county, 329. 

By-laws of the Nebraska State His- 
torical Society, 401. 

Cadman, John, 108. 

Cady, Addison PJ.. 240. 

Cahn, Isaac, 92, 93, 94, 95. 

Cairo Record, 336. 

Cairo trip. 336. 

Caldwell, Howard W., 217, 218, 219, 
222, 223, 225, 226, 227, 228, 231, 
232, 233, 234, 238, 239, 240, 241, 
242, 243, 245, 246, 248, 254, 255, 
256. 257, 261, 262, 263, 264, 274, 
275, 277, 278, 279, 334, 363. 

Caldwell, Samuel U, 285. 

Caldwell county (Mo), 10. 

California, 20. 

California city, 23. 

Callaway (town), 182. 

Campaigning against Crazy Horse. 
By David Y. Mears, 68. 

Campbell, Delia. 380. 

Campbell, Dr. John C, 138. 

Campbell's Grove, 12. 

Canaday, Joseph S., 285. 

Capital Beach. 301. 

"Capital City," see Lincoln. 

Capital located, 53. 

Cams, Margaret J., 285. 

Carpenter, John H , 285. 

Carr, Daniel M., 230. 

Carr, Gen. Etigene A., 272. 



Carson, C. H., 365. 

Carson. Sam, 139, 141. 

Carterville, 23. 

Carved Rock on University campus, 

331. 
Casper (Wyo.), 32. 
Cass county, 116. 
Cass county (Iowa), 7, 12, 23. 
Catalogue of Museum, see Museum 

Catalogue. 
Caton, John Dean, 7. 
Cedar Rapids, 181. , 

Chadron, 32, 68. 
Challis, C. H., 248. 
Chamberlain, Miss Abba Daton, 360. 
Chappell, Phil B., 228, 230. 
Chapman, Mrs. Agnes D., 295. 
Chapman, Bird B., 138. 
Chapman, Samuel M., 297, 305. 
Charde, ]Mrs. A. B., 218. 
Chase county, 271. 
Chatburn, George R, 381. 
Cherry county, 31, 68. 
Chester Basin, see Salt Basin. 
Cheyenne (Wyo.), 68, 69, 70, 181. 
Chicago, 7. 
Childs, A. L., 145. 
Chippeway Indians, 7, 8. 
Chittenden, Capt. Hiram M., 192, 

224, 228, 230. 
Choui village, 355, 356, 358, 359. 
Chouteau collections, 245. 
Church family, 104, ]05. 
Claim club, Bellevue, 155. 
Clapman, Mariel B., see Gere. Ma- 

riel E. C. 
Clark, Elias H., 305. 
Clark, Lieutenant, 76. 
Clark, Mrs. Paul F., 230. 
Clark, Victor F., 285. 
Clarke, E. H., 237. 
Clarke, Henry T., 217, 218. 229, 230, 

232, 238, 240, 241, 243, 246. 
Clarke, Henry T., Jr., 240. 
Clay county (Mo.), 10. 
Clayton, Edgar, 280. 
Clayton, W., 9. 
Clayton's Guide, 9. 
Clearwater (town), 27. 
Clements, E. G., 218. 
Clemens, John, 140. 
Clemens, Samuel L., 102. 
Cleveland, Grover, 148, 255. 
Cleveland, Howard G., 240, 325, 371. 
Cleveland, Howard, Collection of, 

371. 
Cobb, Clinton C, 239, 280, 337, 354. 
Cochran, Judge, 109. 
Cody, William F., 273. 
Coffin. C. H., 239. 



408 



NEBRASKA STATE IIISTOKICAl. SOCIETY. 



Coffin, Edward M., 260. 

Coffin, J. R., 324, 360, 361. 

Coffin, J. R., Collection of, 367. 

Colby, Mrs. L. W., 285. 

Cole, Gilbert L., 276, 364. 

Cole, T. L., 280. 

Coleridge (town), 331. 

Collections, Resume of, 324. 

Collins, Mrs. Louisa E., 279. 

Colorado, 67. 

Colorado Cliff Dwellers National 

Park, 224. 
Columbus, 25, 181, 184, 186. 
Committee on Elections, 20. 
Committee on Marking Historic 

Sites, 270. 
Commonwealth, 159. 
Comstock family, 128. 
Cone, Charles G., 279. 
Congregational church, Ashland, 

171. 
Constitution of Nebraska, 48, 49, 50, 

57. 
Cbnstitution of the Nebraska State 

Historical Society, 399. 
Constitutional convention, 1871, 45, 

234. 
Constitutional convention of 1875, 

172, 234. 
Constitutional convention, The One- 
night, 234. 
Cook, Harold J., 276. 
Cook, James H., 276. 
Cook, W. H., 155. 
Coonville (town), 23. 
Corcoran, George F., 285. 
Cornell, Charles H., 218. 
Cornell, H. W., 140. 
Cottonwood canyon, 270. 
Cottonwood Springs, 270. 
Council Bluffs. 12, 19, 22, 24, 26, 53, 

59. 64, 78, 81, 119, 154, 181, 302. 
Council Bluffs Agency, 8. 
Council Bluffs subagency, 7, 8. 
Council Point, 12, 15, 21, 22. 
County Historical Societies, 304. 
Cowin, John C, 205, 213, 259. 
Cowles, Charles H., 135, 136, 137, 

138, 139, 140. 
Cowles, Mts. F. W., 280. 
Cowles, Harvey C, 135, 138, 139. 
Cox, William W., 62, 65, 10-3, 227, 

228, 236, 237, 239, 240, 275, 304. 
Cox, Samuel D., 305. 
Craig, Hiram, 304. 
Craig, William R., 137, 140, 141, 142. 
Crandall, Wallace L., 279. 
Crawford, Jam.es, 239, 362. 
Crazy Horse (chief), 73, 74, 75, 76, 

77. 



Creeks — 

Blue Water, 271. 

Camp, 138, 139. 

Chadron, 76. 

Chariton, 12. 

Crazy Woman's, see Rivers, Pow- 
der, Crazy Woman's fork. 

Flag, 346. 

Frenchman, 271. 

Goose, 72. 

Indian. 19, 337. 

Keg, 12. 

Liberty, 130. 

Locust, 12. 

Maple, 27. 

Plum, 9, 133. 

Prairie, 356. 

Rosebud, 70, 72. 

Salt, 85. 103, 337. 

Sandy, 129. 

Silver, 16. 

South Table, 133. 

Squaw, 141. 

Sugar, 12. 

Sweet, 336. 

Table, 135, 137. 

Thirty-two Mile, 131. 
' Walnut. 139. 

Weeping Water, 354. 

Wilson, 199. 
Creighton (town), 32. 
Crescent (town), 21. 
Crew, Parmer W., 240. 
Crimm, Dr., 104, 105. 
Crites, Albert W., 258. 
Crook, Gen. George, 68, 70, 12, 73, 

74, 75, 76, 77. 
Cross, R. T., 363. 
Orounse, Lorenzo, 29, 99, 112. 
Crow Indians, 71. 
Crow Creek Agency, see Agency, 

Crow Creek. 
Croxton, John H., 304. 
Culver, Ada I., 260. 
Cuming, Gov. Thomas B,, 119, 120, 

140, 255, 300. 
Ctiming county, 31. 
Cummins, Gov. A. B., 255. 
Custer, Gen. George A., 72. 
Cutler Park, 14, 15, 16. 
Cutler's Camp, 16. 
Cutright, John W., 260. 
"Dacotah" county, 80. 
Daily State Democrat, 62. 
Dakota Junction, 32. 
Daniel, Herbert S., 259. 
Daniels, Edward, 364. 
Darling, Charles W., 305. 
Darlow, Alfred, 239. 
Dartmouth College, 169. 



INDE>t. 



409 



I 



Daughters oi' the Anierican Revo- 
lution, 302, 303. 
Davenport, George W., 285. 
Davey, Mrs. Nana Hudson, 280. 
Davis, David, 100, 101. 
Davis. William R., 305. 
Dawes county, 31. 
Dawson, Jacob, 66, 141. 
Dawson county, 1S4. 
De Soto, 52. 
Deadwood, 72, 73. 
Deaf and Dumb, Institute of. 145, 

364. 
"Debates and Proceedings in the 
Nebraska Constitutional Con- 
ventions," 289. 
DeCamp, David M., 361. 
Decatur, Stephen, 81. 
Decatur (town), 61, 77, 79, 80, 82, 

83. 
Decatur county (Iowa), 12. 
Dech, Mrs. W. E., 360. 
Dech, William H., 360. 
Decker, James H., 137, 138, 141. 142. 
Dee family, 65. 
Deemer, Horace E, 286, 287. 
DeLisa, Manuel, 302. 
Denney, Charles H., 259. 
Denton, i\vs. Mary J., 285. 
Denver, 59. 

Department of the Platte. 68. 
Dewey, Dr., 136. 
Dibble, Richard, 237. 
Dickinson College, 153. 
Diddock, Mrs. Margaret, 360. 
Dillon, Sidney, 187. 
Dilworth. Gen. Caleb J., 114. 
Dimery, Martin W., 279. 
Dinsmore, John B., 248. 
Directors, Board of, 309. 
Directors, Beard of, Meetings of — 
May 8, 1901, 220. 
April, 1902, 226. 
April 14, 1903, 231. 
May 20, 1903, 233. 
January 19, 1905, 243. 
June 24, 1905, 243. 
May 10, 1906, 251. 
October 9, 1906. 255. 
February 1, 1907, 262. 
April 9, 1907, 274. 
July 9, 1907. 276. 
October 17, 1907, 277. 
Diversity of work, 292. 
Doane College, 171. 
Dodge, Gen. Grenville M , 222. 
Dodge. Henry, 357. 
Dodge, Nathan P., 240. 
Dodge county, 31. 
Domenech, Abbe E. M., 347. 



Donahoo, Thomas, 140. 

Donahue, A. J., 135. 

Doniphan trip, 352. 

Doom, James B,, 172. 

Doty, Shadrach, 285. • 

Douglas, Fred, 151. 

Douglas (W^yo.), 64. 

Douglas county, 26, 117. 

Downs, Hiram P., 134, 135, 136, 139. 

Downs Hotel, 137, 140. 

Draft of Proposition to Lincoln City 

Council, 250. 
Dryden, John N., 259. 
Dudley, IMajor. 202. 
Duev, Kate A., 156. 
Duff, Nicholas A., 280. 
Duffield, Eleanor, 285. 
Dunbar trip, 344. 
Duncan, Lafayette, 133, 134. 
Dundas, John H., 216. 
Dundas, Lucas B., 366. 
Dundey, Charles, 218. 
Dundy, Judge Elmer S., 300. 
Dunham, Fl'ank, 237, 360. 
Dimkleberger, I. W., 360. 
Dunn, Ignatius J., 259. 
Dye, "Jim," 104, 105. 
Early Annals of Nebraska City. By 

J. W^ Pearman, 133. 
Early Days on the Little Blue. By 

J. H. Lemmon, 127. 
Early Days at the Salt Basin. By 

John S. Gregory, 102. 
Earlv Dreams of Coal in Nebraska. 

By Dr. George D. Miller, 189. 
Early, Jubal, 159. 
Eaton, Henry M., 277, 285, 294. 
Eberly, George A., 280. 
Educational Convention. State, 165. 
Edwards, Jonathan, 285. 
Edwell, J. W., 350. 
Eells, Perry, 362. 
Egger, Arnold, 279. 
Eggers, Mr., 360. 
Elkhorn Crossing, 15. 
Elkhorn rendezvous, 20, 21. 
Elliot, M. A., 361. 
Ellsworth, Edward, 355. 
Elmendorf, William, 365. 
Emery, A. B„ 365. 
Emery, Col., 270. 
Emigrants' Guide, 9. 
Endicott mound, 350, 
' England, Wellington H„ 281. 
Epperson, Ambrose C, 285. 
Epperson, Charles H., 240. 
Ernst, Carl J., 230. 
Estabrook, Henry D, 255. 
Estelle, Lee, 237. 
Elsty, Miss, 360. 



410 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAI. SOCIETY. 



Eubanks family, 12S. 

Evans, Isaiah D., 247, 258. 

Evans, John M., 92, 93, 94, 95. 

Evans, Robert E., 259. 

Eveland, Alt., 104, 105. 

Eveland, Elizabeth, 104. 

Eveland, John F., 285. 

Eveland family, 104. 

Exchanges, 298. 

Executive Board, see Directors, 

Board of. 
Executive Committee, see Directors, 

Board of. 
Exposition, American, London, 165. 
Exposition, Cotton Centennial, New 

Orleans, 165. 
Exposition. Philadelphia, 165. 
Exposition, St. Louis, Louisiana 

Purchase, 232. 
Exposition, World's Fair, Chicago, 

165. 
Eyestone, Willis J., 285, 295. 
Falloon, Edwin, 259. 
Farmers' Alliance, 216. 
Farragut Post No. ,25, 193, 213. 
Fergus, Elizabeth, 144. 
Ferryville, see Boyer Lake. 
Fessenden, William Pitt, 50. 
Fickler, Gotlif, 363. 
Field Work, 296. 
Finances, 306. 
Financial Statement, 307. 
Fisk, Jim, 132. 
Fitchey, James, 143. 
Fitchner, Mrs. Alice, 362. 
Flansburg, Claude C, 259. 
Fletcher, W. O., 363, 364. 
Florence, 13, 15, 24, 26, 326. 
Florence (Mormon settlement), 24. 
Foale, Oscar P., 279. 
Fodrea, Mrs. Kate P., 279. 
Fontenelle, Logan, 241, 302: • 
Fontenelle (town), 26. 
Ford, Governor, 14. 
Fort, Irvin A., 305. 
Fort Atkinson Papers, 245. 
Forts— 

Calhoun, 302. 

Crook, 155. 

Des Moines, 155. 

Donelson, 199. 

Fetterman, (19, 72. 

Henry, 199. 

Kearney, 21, 55, 134, 303. 

Kearney (old), 10, 21, 1.34, 277. 

Laramie, 17, 21, 69, 74. 

Leavenworth, 14, 55. 

McPherson, 270. 

Niobrara, 33. 

Pierre, 190. 



Forts — Con — 
Randall, 80. 
Reno, 70. 
Robinson, 74, 75. 
Union (N. M.), 127. 
Fowlkes, Dr. William T., 138, 140. 
Fox, Beman C, 259. 
Fox Indians, 7. 12. 
Frahm, Otto, 362. 
Frampton, William C, 259. 
Franklin, John, 260. 
Franklin county, 113. 
Freight rates in Nebraska, 37, 38. 
Freeman, Giles N., 139. 
Fremont, John C, 199. 
Fremont, 26, 121, 185, 186, 302, 344. 
Fremont county (Iowa), 138. 
French, Caroline Joy, see Morton, 

Caroline J. F. 
"French Creek," sea Clearwater. 
Frontier Guardian, 8, 9, 15, 3 9, 20, 

21, 22, 23. 
Frost, Lincoln, 260. 
Frost, Rev. William H., 280. 
Fryar, Louis F., 279. 
Fulton, A. R., 7. 
Fulton, William, 143. 
Funk, Ancil L., 381. 
Furnas, Mary E.. see Furnas, Mrs. 

Robert W. 
Furnas, Gov. Robert W., 47, 51, 54, 

55, 57, 60, 61, 63, 143, 147, 158, 

168, 171, 215, 217, 219, 220, 222, 

225, 226,-228, 230, 233. 234, 238, 

240, 241, 242, 245, 246, 257, 260, 

300, 305, 364. 
Furnas, Mrs. Robert W., 166, 381. 
Furnas, Robert W. By Henry H. 

Wilson, 161. 
Furnas, Susanna E., see Furnas, 

Mrs. Robert W. 
Gage, Rev. William D., 139, 140. 
Gage county, 63, 64, 159. 
Gallatly, I\Irs. Margaret, 239. 
Gantt, Daniel, 98, 99. 
Garber, Gov. Silas, 305. 
Garden .Grove, 12. 
Gardiner, S. Adelbert, 214, 264, 295, 

364, 365, 381. 
Garrison, William Lloyd, 50, 
.Garr'^w, Ernest D., 280. 
Garver, Fred B., 285. 
Gaslin, Judge Yv^illiam, 108, 241. 
Geisthardt, Stephen L., 240, 241, 

243, 246, 248, 250, 253, 255. 256. 

261, 262, 264, 266, 274, 275, 276, 

277, 281, 286, 311. 
General Assembly of Iowa, 8. 
Genoa, 24, 25, 181. 



INDEX, 



411 



Jenoa trip, 339. 

}ere. Charles H., 158, 218, 219, 221, 
223, 224, 225, 226, 229, 230, 231, 
232, .233, 234, 238, 240, 249, 305. 
lere, George, 160. 
Jcere, Mariel E. C, 160. 
Germans, 58. 
Jiberson, Louis, 337. 
Gtiberson, Mrs. Louii, 337, 360. 
CJibson, Lunun C, 240. 
Gibson, Nils,' 360. 

Gicldm^s, Napoleon Bonapiirte, 138. 
Gilbert, A. V/., 3G8. 
Gilbert, A. W., Collectiou of, 308. 
Gilbert, John W., 281, 381. 
Gilder, Robert F., 258, 260, 262, 207, 

^''T 338 

Gillespie, John, 87, 278, 300, 396. 
Gillespie, W. M., 197. 
Gilman, John A , 138. 
Gilman, John K., 138. 
Gilmore, Benjamin, 19, 305. 
Gilmore, Melvin K., 240, 253, 262, 

267. 

Gise, Jonas, 28. 
Gleim, Philip, 260. 
Glenwood (town), 23. 
Gline, George, 138. 
Godfrey, Alfonso S., 216, 217, 305. 

Good Templars lodge, 140. 

Goold, T. F., 366. 

Goss, Sergeant, 154. 

Goudy, Alexander K., 305. 

Gould, Charles H., 217, 218, 305. 

Gould, Capt. W. H., 228, 230. 

Graham, Loyal M., 285. 

Grand Army of the Republic, 103. 

Grand Island, 12, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 
181, 185, 186. 

"Grand Pawnee Indians, 9. 

Grange and Farmers' Alliance, 216. 

Grant, Dr. Isaac, 160. 

Grant, Mathew, 160. 

Grant, Ulysses S., 194, 199, 207. 

Grasshoppers, 172. 

Gray, McConnell S., 259. 

Graves, Katherine Leigh, see Shedd, 
Katherine L. 

Great American Desert. 183. 

Great Salt Spring, see Salt Basin. 

Great Railroad Migration into 
Northern Nebraska. By J. R. 
Buchanan, 25. 

Great Salt Lake, 18. 

Green, Jesse T., 92, 95, 96, 98, 181. 

Greene, Charles, 356, 366. 
Greene, Robert J., 259. 
Greene, William L.. 217. 
Gregory, John S., 102, 104, 105. 
Greeley, Gen. A. W., 205. 



Greenwood, 337. 
Greiss, Theodore, 285. 
Grey, Jennie Emerson (iMrs. Rob- 
ert), 237, 305. 
Griffing, George L., 172. 
Griffith, L. J., 239, 360. 
Griggs, Bert, 363. 
Grover, Captain, 17. 
Grummann, Paul H., 279. 
Gruver, Lafayette E., 258. 
Guenzel, Ernst, 280. 
Gwyer, William A , 172. 
Hagey, E. Joanna, 285. 
Haggard. Mrs. J. A., 363. 
Hail, Celia, 137, 140. 
Hail, Curran C, 137, 140. 
Hail, Floyd, 137. 
Hail, Frill, 137. 
Hail, Laura, 137, 140. 
Hail, Phil, 137. 
Hail, Tabby, 137. 
Hail, William B., 138, 141. 
Hail, William B. & Co., 137. 
Haile, Amos, 230, 361. 
Haile, Stewart, 362. 
Hall, Frank M., 259. 
Hall, Mrs. Frank M., 280. 
Hall, Harry J., 279. 
Hall, Matthew A., 230. 
Hall county, 55, 58, 352. 
Halldorson, John, 279, 380. 
Hamburg, 134. 
Hamilton, John, 133. 
Hainer, Albert G., 273. 
Hamilton. James W., 259. 
Hammond, Ross, 241, 246. 
Hanna, James R , 258. 
Hannan, William E., 278, 281, 297, 

298, 309. 
Hanscom, Andrew J., 119. 
Hansen, George W., 285. 
Hansen, Henry, 240. 
Harden, Edward R., 140. 
Harden, Fred G., 285. 
Hardenbergh, Jacob R , 97, 98, 99. 
Hardy, Harvey Y\^. 217, 218. 
Hargus, Simpson, 135. 
Harmon. William J., 276, 328. 
Harmon family, 104. 
Harney, Gen Wiiliam S., 271. 
Harpham, Charles F., 280. 
Harrington, Robert B., 172. 
Harris, W. R., 360. 
Harrison, C. S-, 228. 
Harrison, J. H., 280. 
Harrison, J. P., 144. 
Harrison county (Iowa), 17. 
Hartig, Rev. Emmanuel, 280. 



412 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Hartley, Ellis T., 247, 284, 364. 

Hartman, Christian, 305. 

Harvey, Augubtus F., 84, 85, 86, 87, 
95, 385. 

Harvey, Robert, 230, 241, 243, 246, 
247, 251, 252, 257, 261, 262, 263, 
264, 272, 274, 276, 282, 286, 302, 
364. 

Hascall, Isaac S., 45, 52, 53. 

Jiasebrook, Albert, 279. 

Hastings, Maj. AUred G., 98, 110. 

Hasty, D. W., 230. 

Hatcher, I. M.,- 366. 

Hauffnagle, Frank, 346. 

Hawke, Georga W., 280. 

Hawke, Robert, 136. 

Hawks, Mrs. Nellie, 218. 

Hawley, Richard A., 216, 276. 

Hawthorne, Joseph J., 239, 328. 

Hawthorne, Vincent L., 259. 

Hax, Lewis, 141. 

Hayden, Dr. F. V., 189, 190, 191. 

Hayes county, 271. 

Haynes, James B., 280. 

Hayward, William, 280, 295. 

Headley, W. S., 358. 

Heath, Harvey E., 260. 

Hebbard, James P., 95, 96, 97, 98. 

Hedde, Fred, 52. 

Helvey. Joe, 138. 

Helvey, Joel, 142. 

Hempie, Benjamin, 325, 362. 364. 

Hemple, Henry, 239. 

Henry, Dr. Charles A., 64. 

Henson, Rev. Joseph, 380. 

Herring, Carl E., 259. 

Hershey, Dr. David, 294. 

High, B. Y., 239, 325, 368. 

High, B. Y., Collection of, 368. 

Hildebrand, Arthur E., 285. 

Hildebrand, James G. P., 279. 

Hill, J. C, 240. 

Hill, James J., 222, 255. 

Hindman, A. W., 280. 

Hinman, Beach I., 172. 

Hirayama, Y., 363. 

Historical Society, Nebraska State, 
157, 165. 

Historical Society, Nebraska State, 
Housing of, 218. 

"Historical Square," 247. 

History of the Lincoln Salt Basin. 
By John H. Ames, 83. 

History of the Nebraska Constitu- 
tional Conventions, 260. 

History of the Nebraska Press, 274. 

History of Seward County, 275. 

Hitchcock, Gilbert M., 216. 

Hitchcock, Phineas W., 216. 

Hitchcock county, 248. 



Hixon, Andrew, 134, 135. 

Hoagland, Henry V., 279. 

Hoar, E. Rockwood, 100. 

Hodgkins, Milo, 237, 362. 

Hodgkins, Warren. 366. 

Hollingworth, A. O., 362. 

Holt county, 28, 31, 32, 33, 

Homer, 335. 

Homer Free Press, 332. 

Homestead, 30. 

Hondesheldt, Mrs., 363. 

Hoover, William H , 305. 

Hopewell, Melvin R., 172, 277, 300. 

Hopkins, A. L., 363, 364, 366, 369. 

Hopkins, A. L., Collection of. 366, 
369. 

Hopkins, Andrew, 90, 99. 

Hopt, Charles, 363. 

Horticultural Society, State, 165. 

Horton, Mrs. F. D., 361. 

Horton, John B., 381. 

HOuseworth, Walter S., 280. 

Houseworth, Walter S., Jr., 380. 

Houston, Abagail, 170. 

Houston, Hal A., 139. 

Howard, George E., 240, 241, 243, 
246, 247, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 
261. 

Howard, Titus J., 259. 

Hoxie. M. B., 29. 

Huddart, Edmund, 239, 361. 

Hudson, Henry J., 24, 25, 344. 

Hukill, Dr. James H., 280. 

Hullihan, Snelly, 361. 

Humphrey, Fred, 364. 

Hunter, Miss Marilla, 287. 

Huntington, C. S., 230. 

Huntsman's Echo, 25. 

Hurd, Elbert C, 276. 

Hurd, Leslie G., 276. 

Hurst, William, 141. 

Hutchinson, Marion, 78. 

Hyde, Orson, 9, 19,. 21. 

liams, Samuel B., 230, 284, 286. 

Her, Peter E., 190. 

Immigration, 187. 

Immigration Depot, Castle Garden, 
N. Y., 187. • 

Independence (Mo), 21, 127. 

Indian bibliography, 324. 

Indian pictographs, 335. 

Indian songs, 247. 

Indian Town, 12, 15, 23, 285. 

Ingles, Harry C, 276. 

Ingles, J. W., 364. 

International Association of Fairs 
and Expositions, 165. 

Iowa City, 59, 154. 

Iowa, General Ass-jmbly of, 8. 

Irrigation convention, Trans-Mis- 
souri, 165. 



INDEX. 



413 



Irrigation, Dawson county, 185. 

Izard, Mark W., 119, 120, 121, 202. 

Jackett, Mary B.. 239. 

Jackson, D. F,, 143. 

Jackson, Frank E, 285. 

Jacobs (town), 64. 

Jackson county (Mo.), 10. 

Jameson, Mr., 138. 

Jameson, Jacob, 139. 

Jamison, Susanna E., see Furnas, 

Mrs. Robert W. 
Jefferson county, 159, 350. 
Jessen, Paul, 280. 
Jewett, Walter K., 285. 
Johnson, A. G., 277, 280. 
Johnson. President Andrew, 164. 
Johnson Bros., 366. 
Johnson Bros, collection, 337. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth, 349. 
Johnson^ Mrs. Emma A., 285. 
Johnson, Joseph E., 25. 
Johnson, Joseph W., 280. 
Johnson, S. V., 277, 280. 
Johnson, Thomas, 58. 
Jones, Alfred D., 305. 
Jones, Cass, 362. 
Jones, J. W., 195. 
Jones, Will Owen, 237. 
Judicial Grafts. By Judge William 

Gaslin, 108. 
Jules, see Bene, Jules. 
Julesburg, 61. 
Kane, Elisha Kent, 19. 
Kane, Col. Thomas L., 19. 
Kanesvillo, 8, 19, 21, 22, 23. 
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 57. 
Kansas-Nebraska country, 154. 
Kansas State Historical Society, 

302. 
Karstens, Carsten N., 280, 365. 
Kast, John P., 155. 
Kavan, R. E., 365. 
Kearney, Albert A., 259. 
Kearney, Gen. Stephen W., 14. 
Kearney, 38, 53, 56, 58, 108, 133, 

182, 186. 
Keeling, William H., 224. 
Kees, John F., 285. 
Keifer, Dr. George, 144. 
Keith county, 272. 
Keiser, Capt. D. L , 228, 230. 
Kelley, William R., 218. 
Kemmer, John P., 260. 
Kemp, James H., 259. 
Kempton, Abraham, 276. 
Kennard, Thomas- P., 48, 51, 58, 59, 

87, 396. 
Kennedy, Miss, 137. 
Kennedy, Mr., 98. 
Kennedy, Benjamin E. B., 259. 



Kennedy, Howard, Jr., 259. 

Kennedy, James A. C, 258. 

Kennedy, Capt. James, 228, 230. 

Kennedy, Sarah, 140. 

Kennedy, William J., 228, 230. 

Keokuk (Iowa), 119. 

Keya Paha county, 31. 

Keyes, Harlow W., 259. 

Kimball, Heber C, 20. 

King, Milo D., 259. 

Kingsley, Anna M. B., 285. 

Kinnikinic, 67. 

Kirkpatrick, E. A., 359. 

Kirkpatrick, Howard, 248. 

Kirkpatrick, Samuel W., 172. 

Kitchen, Aldridge D., 380. 

Kitchen, James B., 262. 

Kitdredge, William F., 144. 

Knight. John, 363. 

Knight, Robert E., 98. 

Knotts, Mrs. Minnie P., 247, 261, 
322. 

Knox county, 31. 

Kountze, Herman, 262, 305. 

Kyne's Blu'ff, 336. 

Ladd, Mrs. Walter M., 280. 

Daird, James, 172. 

Lake. Judge George B., 98, 99, 112, 
234. 

Lamb, Charles, 305. 

Lambert, Clement, 79. 

Lambertson, Genio M., 231. 300, 
305. 

La Master, Joseph E., 231, 305. 

Lamoni (Iowa), 24. 

Lamuel, Joseph, 360. 

Lancaster (town), 66. 

Lancaster county, 85, 89, 102, 103, 
108, 159. 

Lane, Arthur W., 260. 

Lantern slides, 325. 

Larson, Mrs. Hannah, 360. 

LaSelle, Mrs. Henry A., 279. 

Latta, James P., 363. 

Latter Day Saints, see Mormons. 

Lauer, J. Dan, 141. 

Laurel, 331. 

Lavender, Luke, 66. 

Lawrence, William, 100. 

Laws. Gilbert L., 223. 

Leach, A. J., 218. 

Leaming, Capt. Silas T., 77, 228, 
230, 305. 

Leary, C. L. L., 158. 

Learned, Myron L., 237, 295. 

Learned Spear, 327. 

L'eau-qui-court, see Rivers, Nio- 
brara. 

Leavenvv'orth, 67, 



414 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Leavitt, H. P., 237. 

Leavy, L. H., 239. 

Le Clerc, see Pied Riche. 

Lederman, A. C, 281. 

Lee, iMichael, 240. 

Lees, Prof. James T., 381. 

Legislative Acts Affecting the Ne- 
braska State Historical Society, 
393. 

Legislative Reference Bureau, 297. 

Lenimon, James H., Jr.. 127, 133. 

Lemon, Thomas B., 305. 

Leshara dedication, 327. 

Letton, Mrs. A. H., 303. 

Letton, Charles B., 237. 

Leverett, William J., 286. 

Lewis (Iowa), 7, 23. 

Lewis & Clark, 8, 9, 1.54, 324. 

Librarian's - Report, December 31, 
1907, 320. 

Library, 294. 

Library Committee Report, Febru- 
ary L 1907, 268. 

Licking Valley Register, 162, 278. 

Lincoln, Abraham, -111, 163, 211. 

Lincoln, Justus C, 231. 

Lincoln, 46, 64, 65, 66, 83, 84, 85, 
96, 103, 186. 

Lincoln county, 270. ^ 

Lincoln Daily Journal, 158. 

Lindly. William A., 280. 

Link, Dr. Harvey, 223, 305, 365. 

Linwood, 329, 330, 358. 

Lisa, Manuel, 302. 

"Little Miami," see Indian Towii. 

Livingston, Robert R., 364. 

Livingston, Mrs. Robert R., 361. 

Lobingier, Charles S, 215, 216, 218, 
219, 220, 225, 230, 231, 233, 235, 
238. 

Lobingier, Mrs. Charles S., 218. 

Lockwood. R. B., 133. 

•Loder, John P., 276. 

Lomax, Edward L., 181, 222. 

Long, A. E., 365. 

Long, Maj. Stephen H., 78. 

Long Pine, 32. 

Longsdorf, David E., 155. 

Longsdorf, Elizabeth, 153. 

Longsdorf, George, 153. 

Longsdorf, George Foster. 155, 156. 

Longsdorf, Heinrich, 153. 

Longsdorf, Helen Mabel, 156. 

Longsdorf. Henry A., 153, 157, 229, 
231, 305. 

Longsdorf, Henry Warren, 156. 

Longsdorf, Martin, 153. 

Longsdorf, Ralph Martin, 156. 

Lost Camp, 12. 



Loup City, 182. 

Loup Fork ford, 9. 

Loup Forks, 9. 

Loughridge, Dr. William K., 279. 

Lowe, S. E., 305. 

Lowell (Neb.), 108. 

Loyal Legion of America, 165. 

Lute, Harry D , 285. 

Lyle, Epaminondas E., 276. 

Lyon, Nathaniel. 199. 

McCarthy, Dr., 252. 

McCartney, Frank, 280. 

.AlcClain, Elmer, 360, 361. 

McComas, Mary - E., seu Furnas, 
Mrs. Robert W. 

McCormick, B. P., 218. 

MacCuaig, Donald, 305. 

INlacfarland, John D., 305. 

McGeachin, James, 279, 845, 366. 

McGeachin, Mrs. James, 366. 

McGiiron, Edmund G., 259. 

McGrev/, Mrs. Kittio, 285. 

McGrew, Dr. Samuel W., 285. 

McHugh, William D., 259. 

Mclntyre, Edmund, 305. 

McKesson, Dr. John M., 66. 

McKillip, Patrick E., 259. 

McKinnon, Laura, 364. 

ilcLean, Robert, 270. 

McLennan, William, 140, 141. 

McMaken, Henry C, 285, 362, 366, 
381. 

Macaiurphy, Harriet S., 60. 

MacMurphy, .John A., 61, 305. 

7\IacMurtry, Dr., 146. 

McNeely, Hugh, 134. 

McPheeley, John L., 259. 

McPherson, Charles E., 144, 145. 

McPherson, Dr. John, 145, 146. 

McPherson, Dr. John. By Robert 
W. Furnas, 143. 

McPherson, John E., 144. 

McPherson, William J., 144. 

McPherson block, 145. 

McPherson Normal College, 145. 

McWilliams, D., 345. 

Maddox, Wilson M., 135, 3 38. 

Madison county, 31. 

Maiben, Alvin R., 279. 

Majors, Col. Alexander, 38, 127. 

Majors. Thomas J , 197, 213. 240, 
257. 

Majors. Russell & Waddell. 127, 
132. 

Mandan Indians, 341. 

-Alandan (town), 222. 

Manderson, Charles F., 172. 

Manners, Charles A., 90, 99. 

Mark Twain, see Samuel L. Clem- 
ens, 



INDEX. 



415 - 



JMarking Historic spites, 302. 

Maiiis, C. R., 331. 

Marquette, 355. 

xMarti, Miss INlaude, 36C. 

Martin, D. N., 139. 

Martiu, Frank, 172. 

Martin, George W., 295. 

Martin, Maggie, 139. 

Martin, W. F., 3U5. 

Marsli, Rev. J. Lewis, 238. 

Marvvood, Tliomas, 230. 

Mason, Oliver P., 99, 112. 

Masons, Grand Lodge, 165. 

Masters, James H., 142. 

Matliewson, Dr. H. B., 305. 

Maupin, Will M., 230. 

Maupin, Mrs. Will M., 230. 

Maxwell, Henry E., 259. 

Maxwell, Judge Samuel, 172, 297, 

305. 
Maxwell (town), 270. 
May, Col. Charles A., 58. 
Mayhew, A. B., 136, 141. 

Mears, David Y., 68, 228. 

Meek, John, 360. 

Meier, Otto W., 279. 

Alembership, 305 

Memorial to Congress in behalf of 
a United States military res- 
ervation at Fort Kearny, 303. 

Mercer, A. J., 218. 

Merrill Mission, 302. 

Metcalfe, Richard L., 281, 295. 

Methodist Episcopal church, 142. 

Mexican War, 14. 

Mi-an-mise, 7. 

Mickel, Rev. Jeremiah, 213. 

Mickey, Gov. John H., 236, 241, 243, 
246, 248. 

iMillard, Joseph H., 237. 

Miles, Stephen B., 231. 

Miles of railroad in Nebraska, 43. 

Miller, Bishop, 19. 

Miller, C. M., 259. 

Miller, Chief Justice, 178. 

Miller, David, 154. 

Miller, Mrs. Edwin O., 218. 

Miller, Frank E., 361. 

Miller, G. E., 361. 

Miller, Dr. George L., 119, 226, 228, 
238, 240. 243, 245, 247, 251, 252, 
255, 257, 258, 261, 262, 274. 276, 
277, 281. 286, 300, 303, 334. 

"Miller's Hollow," 19. 

Miller's quartet; 197, 204. 

Mills, William C , 365. 

Mills county (Iowa), 7, 21. 

Missouri Indians, 8. 

Missouri (state), 9. 



Mitchell, Andrew J., 24. 
Mitchell, James, 381. 
Mitchell, W. K., 364. 
Mix, Sergeant John, 134. 

Mockett, Robert S., 280. 

Mockridge, Drusilia C, 285. 

Monell, Gilbert C, 145. 

Money, W. G., 344. 

Monona county (Iowa), 17. 

Montgomery, Carroll S., 259. 

Montgomery, James B., 363. 

Morgan, Thomas P., 305. 

I\lorin, Edward, 305. 

Morlan, Webster S., 259. 

Mormon Settlements in the Mis- 
souri Valley. By Clyde B. Ait- 
chison, 7. 

Mormon Trail, 302. 

Mormons, 10, 11, 13, 14, 19, 20, 56, 
57, 184. 

Morrill, Charles H., 233, 285, 381. 

Morrissey, A. M., 259. 

Morton, Carl, 148, 215. 

Morton, Mrs. Caroline, 280, 295, 366. 

Morton, Caroline J. P., see Morton, 
Mrs. J. Sterling. 

Morton, Miss Emma, 280, 295. 

iMorton, Mrs. Irene S., 280. 

Morton, J. Sterling, 21, 55, 57, 62, 
68, 89, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 119, 
139, 141, 142, 148, 149, 150, 151, 
165, 171, 189, 190, 215, 216, 219, 
220, 222, 223, 224. 225, 226, 227, 
229, 231, 236, 257, 300, 305, 323, 
365. 

Morton, Mrs. J. Sterling, 148. 

Morton, J. Sterling. By Robert W. 
Furnas, 147. 

Morton, Joy, 148. 

Morton, Julius, 148. 

Morton, Mark, 147, 148. 

IMorton, Paul, 148. 

Morton, Thomas, 139. 

Morton, J. Sterling, Tablet on Cali- 
fornia Tree, 236, 239. 

Morton Memorial ftlonument, 237. 

Morton Monument fund, 152. 

Mound at Endicolt, 350. 

Mt. Pisgah, 12, 23. 

Mullen, Arthur F., 259. 

Mullis, Conrad, 135, 142. 

Monroe, G. A., 218. 

Murphy, ]\Irs., 119. 

Murphy, Frank, 119. 

Murphy, William, 363. 

IMurray, Mr., 272. 

Muscatine, 154. 

Museum, 295. 

Museum Catalogue, 359. 



416 



NEBllASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Museum Committee Report, Febru- 
ary 1, 1907, 266. 

]\Iussetter. John W., 280. 

My Very First Visit to tlie Pawnee 
Village in 1855. By Gen. John 
M. Thayer, 119. 

Myers, Morris E., 365. 

Mynster Springs, 12, 15. 

Mystic Circle, 132. 

Nash, John, 141, 142. 

Natrona county (Wyo.), 32. 

Nauvoo, 10, 14, 15, 16. 

Neapolis, 113, 329. 

Nebraska, 22. 

Nebraska admitted to the Union, 
50. 

Nebraska. Advertiser, 143. 163. 

Nebraska Cavalry, M, 78, 80, 133, 
164. 

Nebraska City, 21. 46, 53, 59, 64, 
89, 95, 96, 98, 104, 120, 138, 148. 

Nebraska City News, 139, 142, 149. 

Nebraska Loess Man. 327, 338, 353. 

Nebraska Politics and Nebraska 
Railroads. By John H. Ager, 
34. 

Nebraska Public Library Commis- 
sion, 297. 

Nebraska Salt Company, 91. 

Nebraska State Journal, 159, 160. 

Nebraska Territorial Pioneers' As- 
sociation, 289. 30L 

Nebraska's admission to the Union, 
53, 57. 

Necrology, 304. 

Neff, Mrs. Theresa, 280. 

Nehawka, 324, 337, 342. 

Nehawka trip. 354. 

Neligh, 29, 32. 

Nelson, Gustav O, 362. 

Nemaha City, 163. 

Nemaha county, 65. 

Newburn, Mr., 29. 

New Kiel, see Grand Island. 

New Mexico, 20. 

New Orleans, 20. 

New Revenue Law and Its Work- 
' ings. By John H. Mickey, 248. 

Newspaper Department, 298, 

Newspapers received by the Ne- 
braska State Historical Soci- 
ety, 382-92. 

New York Tribune, 202, 278. 

Nickerson, E. S., 240. 

Nielsen, A. A., 345, 348. 

Nolan, W. P.. 361. 

Noll, D. H., 380. 

Norfolk, 27, 32. 181, 182, 186. 

North. Arthur S., 285. 



North, George, 141. 

North, James B., 223, 261, 262, 274, 

277, 278, 286. 
North, Jacob H., 230. 
North, Lute H.. 239. 
North Platte, 181, 185, 186. 
North Platte route, 20, 21. 
Norton, .1. Nathaniel, 285. 
Nerval. Theophilus L., 248. 
Nuckolls, George, 137, 140. 
Nuckolls, Stephen F., 136, 137, 140, 

141, 143. 
Nuckolls county, 67, 132. 
Nuckolls House, 137. 
Oak, 129. 
Oak Grove, 132. 
O'Brien, Margaret A., 218. 
Oconee, 181. 

Oddfellows, Grand Lodge, 165. 
O'Gara, P. J., 223. 
Ojendyke, Theodore, 279. 
Old Mission House, 120. 
Oldham. William D., 217. 
Olson, E. M., 366. 
Olson, O. K., 346, 366. 
Omadi (town), 80. 
Omaha, 27, 45,- 51, 52, 53. 63. 64. 
•108, 114, 119, 120, 121, 133, 159, 

185, 19L 
Omaha Bee, 174. 
"Omaha Charlie," see Bristol, D. 

Charles. 
Omaha Daily Herald, 191. 
Omaha Indians, 8, 9, 13, 14, 24, 60, 

81. 164, 272. 
Omaha World Herald. 338. 
O'Mahoney, Patrick, 279. 
Onawa (Iowa), 24. 
O'Neill. Gen. John, 28, 32. 
O'Neill's Iri.sh Brigade, 28. 
O'Neill (town), 28, 32. 
Ord, 181. 
Oregon, 20. 
Oregon trail, 302. 
Orleans trip, 345. 
Osborn, John M., 285. 
Osceola (Iowa), 12. 
O'Shea, Edward J., 362. 
Otoe Indians. 8, 9. 20, 134. 
Otoe City. 133, 138. 
Otoe county, 89, 116, 142. 
Ott, Charles K., 295. 
Ottawa Indians, 7, 8. 
Overland Route, 184. 
Overland trails, 272. 
Overton, Capt. A., 228, 230. - 
Owens, .lohn, 105 
Owens family. 104. 
Pacific coast, 26. 



INDEX. 



417 



Paddock, Algernon S., 216. 

Padilla, Father, 345. 

Paine, Clarence S., 240, 241, 246, 

247, 24S, 257, 261, 262, 265, 266, 

274, 275, 276, 277, 286, 288. 309. 
Palin, Daisy. 221. 244, 245, 253, 256. 
Palin, Pearl, '256. 
Palmer, Capt, Henry E.. 240. 257, 

263. 
Papillion, 12. 
Papillion cropsing, 15. 
Pardee, George C, 227. 
Parker, A. A., 285. 
Parker, A. G., 362. 363. 
Parker, W. F., 224. 
Parker, W. F., Collection of, 326. 
Parker, W. H., 305. 
Passenger tariffs in Nebraska, 38. 
Patrick, Nelson (J. N. H.), 46. 
Patterson, IMary E., 285. 
Panl, James N., 240. 
Paul, Nicholas J., 240. 
Pawnee Indians, 8, 9. 13, 25, 71, 

103, 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 202, 

247, 270, 271, 324, 330, 344, 346, 

350, 357, 358. 
Pawnee City, 159. 
Pawnee Lonp Indians, 9. 
"Pawnee Council Monumient," 270. 
Pawnee county, 159. 
Pawnee Mission, 9. 
Pawnee Mission Station, 9. 
Pawnee Village, My First Visit to. 

in 1855. Bv Gen. John M. 

Thayer, 119. 
Pawnee War, 58, 202. 
Pearman, Anna, 137. 
Pearman, Hugh, 142. 
Pearman, John W., 133, 136. 140, 

141. 
Pearman, Susan. 137. 
Pell, Mary, 137. 
Pell, Richard, 135. 
Pemberton, Will. 106, 107. 
Pemberton family, 104. 
Pentzer, John C, 381. 
Pentzer, T. M., 365, 366. 
Peiin, Senator W., 276. 
Per-is-ka-Le-Shar-u, 324. 
Persinger, Clark E.. 217, 237. 
Personal Recollections of Early 

Days in Decatur, Nebraska. 

By Capt. Silas T. Learning, 77. 
Peters, Dr. Albert T., 276. 
Peterson, C. P., 357. 
Peti-Le-Sha-ru, 344. 
Pettingill, Dr. Somers, 362. 
Phelps, Ernest H., 285. 
Philpot, James E., 97, 98, 99. 259. 
Pied, Riche, 13. 



Pike, Zebulon M., 346. 
Pike monument, Kansas, 349. 
Pierce, Charles W., 139, 280. 
Pierce, Capt. Charles W., 218, 284, 

305. 
Pierce, Franklin. 119. 120, 142. 
Pierce, John L., 280, 294. 
Pierce county, 31, 142. 
Pierre (town), 79. 
Pioneer Women, 60. 
Plainview, 32. 
"Plan for Research and Reference 

Department." 254. 
Plateau House, 155. 
Platte county, 25. 
Plattsmouth, 64. 
Pleasanton, 182. 
Plumb. George M., 285. 
Point aux Poules, 22. 
Polk. Gary S., 259. 
Polk county, 356, 358. 
Pollard, Ernest M., 241, 246. 
Pollard, Isaac. 224, 359. 
Polygamy, 17. 
Ponca Indians, 8, 9, 13. 
Pony express, 38. 
Poore, Ben Perley, 49. , 
Population of Nebraska, 182. 
Porter, Harry, 279. 
Portraits, 299. 
Pottawattamie Indians, 7, 9, 12, 13, 

19. 
Pottawattamie county (Iowa), 20, 

21. 
Pound, Roscoe, 237. 
Pound, Stephen B., 234, 300. 
Pound, Mrs. Laura B., 303. 
Poynter, Gov. William A., 300. 
Praasch, Herman. 27. 
Prairie City, 135. 
Pratt, Parley P., 18. 
Preparation (town), 24. 
Presbyterian Mission, 10. 
Prescott school, 327. 
Presson, Rev. Joseph H., 240. 
Prey, James J., 345. 
Prey, John D., 89. 
Prey, John W., 89. 90, 99. 
Prey, Martha J., 285. 
Prey, Nina, 152. 
Prey, Thomas R.. 89. 
Prey, Mrs. Thomas R., see Prey, 

Martha J. 
Prey. Thomas R . Jr., 260. 
Prey, William L.. 89, 90. 
Price, Anna M.. 320. 
Price, F. M., 350. 
Problem of Railroad Taxation. By 

E. A. Ross, 248. 



418 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Proposition Made to State Agricul- 
tural Society, 1905, 242. 

Proudfit, Robert M., 259. 

Prouty, John T., 28. 

Public Expenditures. By C. O. 
Whedon, 241. 

Publications of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society, 402. 

"Pull Point," 22. 

Pumpkin Butte. 75. 

Pyle, Edward P., 285. 

Quartet, Prof. Miller's. 197, 204. 

Quiggle, Charles C, 285. 

Rabest, C. B., 279. 

Railroad Legislation in Nebraska, 
39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44. 

Railroad Taxation in Nebraska. 
By Norris Brown, 174. 

Railroads — 

Atchison & Nebraska, 159. 

Burlington, 39, 42. 

Burlington & Missouri River, 27, 

33, 159. 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 

114. 
Chicago & Northwestern. 32, 81. 
Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri 

Valley, 27, 32, 34. 
Iowa Central Air Line, 80. 
Midland Pacific, 159. 
Missouri Pacific, 199. 
Union Pacific, 27, 33, 39, 181, 183, 

185, 186, 187, 190, 223, 270. 
Santa Fe, 236, 302. 

Railroads in Nebraska, 37. 

Rainfall, 33. 

Raper, William B., 193. 

Rapid City (So. Dak.), 32. 

Ray, Benjamin C, 361. 

Ray, George A., 240. 

Raymond, Lewis K, 259. 

Red Cloud, 75. 

Redick, William A., 259. 

Reed, John S., 280. 

Reed, Mrs. John S., 280. 

Reed, Lewis S., 218. 241, 246. 

Reeder, James G., 259. 

Reese, Manoah B., 172, 235. 

Reid, William M., 281. 

Reminiscences, 45-68. 

Renner, Dr. Frederick, 66, 216. 

Republican Indians, 9. 

Republican City. 144, 145, 146, 147. 

Research and Reference Depart- 
ment, Plan for, 254. 

Research work, SOO. 

Resignation of Curator Barrett, 256. 

Revenue Cutter, 17. 



Reyner, G. A., 356. 
Rice, C. E., 237, 305. 
Rice, Walter, 239, 362. 
Richards, Charles L.. 259. 
Richards, Lucius C, 305. 
Richards, Mrs. Mazie Boone, 305. 
Richards, William, 20. 
Richardson, "Curl,"' 97. 
Richardson. J. W.. 380. 
Richardson, Mrs. J. W., 380. 
Richardson, Origen D., 121, 123. 
Richardson Point, 12. 
Richey, Mrs. Isabel, 276. 
Richmond, Henry C, 274. 
Ricker, Rev. A. E., 240. 
Ricker, Eli Seavey, 259. 
Riddle, D. F., 363. 
Riden, Mastin W., 140, 141. 
Rinaker, Samuel, 259. 
Ripley, Edwin S.. 285. 
Rising, Charles H., 364. 
Rivers — 

Bellefourche, 75. 

Big Blue, 64. 

Blue, 131, 324, 337. 

Cheyenne, 75. 

Des ]\Toines, 10. 

Elkhorn, 12, 17, 58, 63, 121, 122, 
124. 324. 

Keya Paha. 31. 

Little Bighorn, 72. 

Little Blue, 128, 130, 131, 132. 
350. 

Loup, 17, 20, 21, 56. 

Missouri, 9, 46, 67, 154. 

Niobrara, 9, 13, 17. 342. 

Nishnabotna, 7, 23. 

North Platte, 17. 

Platte, 9, 17, 20, 26. 27, 39, 52^ 53, 
55, 58, 121, 123, 127, 131, 133, 
154, 184, 302, 324, 328, 337, 342, 
356, 357, 358. 

Platte, Wolf fork, 9. 

Powder, 75. 

Powder. Crazy Woman's fork, 69. 

Powder, Dry Fork of, 69. 

Red, 9. 

Republican, 67, 132, 345, 346. 

Soldier, 24. 

South Loup, 336. 

Sweetwater, 20. 

Wood, 25, 56. 

Yellowstone, 72, 78. 
Robbing, William H., 279. 
Roberts, Evan T., 285. 
Roberts, George H., 99. 
Roberts, John Fitz, 279. 
Robertson, William M., 234. 
Robinson, Seth, 98, 99. 



INDEX. 



410 



Robinson, W. H., 58. 

Rock county, 31. 

Rockport, 302. 

Rocky mountains, 67, 184. 

Rogers, Eliphus H., 145. 

Rogers, Sanmel, 119. 

Rogers, Vernice, 365. 

Roggeu, Edward P., 96, 97, 98. 

Rolte, DeForest P., 305. 

Rolle, Rollin M., 142, 280. 

Romaine, Gertrude, 362. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 237. 

Roper, Laura, 128. 

Rose, Aniazial M., 136. 

Rose, Halleck F., 259. 

Rosewater, Edward, 226, 260, 262, 

284, 305. 
Rosewater, Victor, 241, 246. 
Ross, Prot. Edward A., 176, 248. 
Round Table, 223. 
Ruben, Andrew, 346. 
Ruigh, Clarence, 279, 363. 
Rulo, 46. 
Rushville, 12, 15. 
Sac Indians, 7, 12. 
St. Francis (Iowa), 7, 22. 
St. Joseph, 20, 120. 
St. Louis, 20, 24, 51, 52, 78, 79, 80, 

120, 199. 
St. Paul, 182. 
Salaries, 231. 

Saline county, 64, 159, 335. 
Salt Basin, 66, 83, 88, 97, 101, 102, 

104, 106, 107. 
Salt Lake, 20, 21, 25, 26. 
Saltzman, August, 239, 362. 
San Francisco, 132. 
Santa Fe Trail, 302. 
Santee Indians, 325. 
Sappa Peak, 348. 
Sargent, Engineer, 223. 
Sarpy, Peter A., 10, 13, 79, 133. 
Sarpy county, 117, 153, 155. 
Sarpy's ferry, 13. 
Sasse, N. C, 279, 345, 366. 
Saunders, Gov. Alvin, 50, 16'^, 300. 
Saunders, Charles L., 239. 
Sawyer, Andrew J., 224, 262, 263, 

284. 
Sawyer, Mrs. Winona S., 215, 241, 

246, 278, 300. 
Saxton, Henry, 154. 
Saxton, William E, 279. 
Sayent's Grove, 12. 
Sayer, Edward L., 218, 223, 226. 
Scarborough, R. J., 380. 
Schwagger, Henry, 239. 
Schwyn, John, 253, 279. 
Scotia, 181. 



Scott, Rev. George, 229. 

Scott, George A., 279. 

Scott, Perley W., 259. 

Searles, Addie, 239, 372. 

Searle, Addie, Collection of, 372. 

Searle, Archibald L., 281. 

Searle, O. H., 325. 

Searle, Edwin M., Jr., 280. 

Secretary's Report, 1907, 288. 

Selleck, William A., 281, 284. 

Sellers, Col. Beriah, 87, 102. 

Senora (Mo.), 138. 

Seward, 103. 

Seymour House, 136, 137, 140. 

Shamp, Peter, 66. 

Shedd, Capt. Abel, 168. 

Shedd, Daniel, 168. 

Shedd, Dr. George, 169, 170. 

Shedd, George C, 168, 246, 247. 

Shedd, Hibbard H., 170, 173, 174, 
246, 305. 

Shedd, Hibbard Houston. By Geo. 
C. Shedd, 168. 

Shedd, Katherine L., 171. 

Shedd, Z., 29. 

Sheibal, H. H., 365. 

Sheldon, Addison E., 216, 218, 220, 
222, 224, 228, 229, 231, 235, 238, 
241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 
251, 252, 253, 256, 260, 261, 262, 
263, 274, 275, 277, 278, 296, 297, 
303, 309, 362, 364. 

Sheldon, Gov. George L., 193, 194, 
197, 204, 213, 214, 275, 278, 294, 
300. ' • • 

Shepard, John, 139. 
Sheridan, Gen. Phil, 72. 
Sheridan county, 31. 
Sherman, ]\Irs. C. S., 364 
Shick, Belle, 229. 
Shine, Rev. Michael A., 230. 
Shoshone Indians, 71. 
Shotwell, H. A., 381. 
Silver cross from Orleans, 345. 
Simpkins, Mrs. George B., 279 
Simpson, U. S., 139. 
Sidney (Iowa), 134, 135, 139. 
Sioux Indians, 9, 25, 68, 71, 74, 164 

182, 202, 271. 
Sioux City, 182. 
Sioux county, 31, 110. 
Sisson, George W., 285. 
Sisson, Nellie M., 279. 
Skeleton from Orleans, 345. 
Skidi village, 355. 
Slabaugh. Willard W., 229. 
Slabaugh, Mrs. Willard W., 229. 
Sloan, Charles H., 259. 
Sloan, Judge James, 20. 



420 



NEBRASKA STATE IIISTOUICAI. SOCIETY. 



Sloan, William T., 280. 

Slocum law, 84. 

Sliisher, Eli, 134. 

Smith, Andrew J., £4. 

Smith, Col. Charles B., 138. 

Smith, Harlan I., 338. 

Smith, Horace, 95. 

Smith, Joseph, 10. 

Soldiers' Union, Nebraska State, 

165. 
South Omaha, 183, 186. 
South Platte route, 21. 
Sparhawk, A. G., 162. 
Spearman, Frank M., 305. 
Special Committee to Examine 

Work ot Society, Report of, 

283. 
Spencer, Hugh, 361. 
Sprather, Ed, 135. 
Sprick, Henry, 305. 
Staats-Zeitung, 67. 
Stamford, 345. 
Standing Elk, 74. 
Stanton county, 31. 
Starr, E. .M., 339, 362, 365. ■ 
State Historical Society, 59. 
"State Historical Society Block," 

264, 291. 
State Journal, 84, 118, 169. 
State Press Association, 274. 
Statesman, Nebraska, 84. 
Stearnes, R. DeWitte, 239, 360. 
Steele, W,. E., 239. 
Stein. Rev. Fredrick S., 237. 
Steinhardt, John W., 279. 
Steinhardt, Mrs. John W., 279. 
Stephens, William L.. 237. 
Sterling, Emeline, 148. 
Stewart, Lou L. E., 279. 
Stewart, Salmon C, 285. 
Stewart, W. W., 155. 
Stilson, Lyman D, 229, 261. 
Stokes, Ed S., 132. 
Stolley, William, 54, 58, 59. 
Stoner, Christian D.. 285. 
Stratton, D. C, 240. 
Stromsburg, 181. 
Stromsburg trip, 357. 
Stubbs, Mrs. J. J., 303. 
Stueffer, William, 27. 
Stull, John S., 259. 
Stull, J. W., 141. 
Stull, Morris C, 279. 
Stull, Mrs. Morris C, 279. 
Sully, Gen. Alfred, 164. 
Sumner, Charles,' 48, 49. 
Sundean, John L., 259. 
Sunflowers, 19. 
Susong, Mrs. A. M., 278. 



Sutton, Mrs. H. G., 366. 

Sweet, James, 92. 

Sweitzer, Lieut. Charles McG., 273. 

Sweitzer, N. B., 271, 273. 

Sweitzer, Gen. Nelson B., 273. 

Swift, Mary A., 133. 

Sydenham, Moses, 305. 

Syfert, E. M., 230. 

Table Creek Postoffice, 139. 

Table Rock, 159. 

Tablet on California Tree for J. 
Sterling Morton, 236. 

Talbot, Adolphus R., 237. 

Tappa Indians, 9. 

Taylor, Joseph E., 279. 

Taylor, S. E., 363. 

Taylor. William Z., 285, 288. 

Templeton, Charlotte, 262, 269. 274, 
285. 

Territorial Pioneers' Association, 
Nebraska, 165. 

Territorial Pioneer Days, 45. 

Terry, Gen. Alfred H., 72. 

Thatcher family, 104. 

Thatcher (town), 32. 

Thayer. Gen. John M., 47, 52, 53, 
58, 119, 159, 193, 194, 195, 197, 
198, 199, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 
207, 208, 211, 212, 270, 284, 300, 
305, 364. 

Thayer monument. Unveiling of, 
193. 

Thomas, E. A., 239. 

Thomas, Edward W., 231. 

Thomas, Griffith P., 285. 

Thomas, John J., 248. 

Thompson, Charles B., 24. 

Thompson, Elizabeth, 78. 

Thompson, John M.. 216. 

Thompson, Joel and James, Collec- 
tion of, 380. 

Thompson, S. H., 362. 

Thompson, T. E., 135, 136, 140, 142. 

Thompson, W. P., 278. 

Thrasher, J. H., 361. 

Tibbies, Mrs. Yosette LaFlesche, 
305. 

Tichacek, J. B., 329. 

Tichenor, Anson C, 91, 92, 95, 101. 

Tobitt, Edith, 262, 269, 274. ■ 

Todd, Ami B , 239, 361. 

Tidball, John L., 243. 

Tinnell family, 104. 

Tipton, Thomas W. 49, 145, 159, 
220. 

Tracy, Lieut. Thomas, 160. 

Traders, see Trading Point. 

Trading Point, 7, «, '2. 15. 

Transportation, Cost jf, 59, 188. 



INDEX. 



42i 



Treasurer's Reports — 

1901, 219. 

1902, 225. 
1906, 249. 

January 16, 1907, 265. 
January 1, 1908, 310. 
Tree claim, 30. 

Treeman, Lucian B., 235, 305. 
Trester, Milton L., zm. 
Troy Times, 162. 
Truell, Ferdinand A.. 279. 
Trumbull, Lyman, 45. 
Tyler,. M. Dayton, 259. 
"Underground Railway," 169. 
Union county (Iowa), 12. 
United States land office, 27. 
United States Supreme Court, 40. 
University of Nebraska, 159, 164. 
Unveiling of the Thayer monument, 

Wyuka cemetery, 193. 
Upton, Samuel E., 305, 364. 
Utah. 20, 67. 
Unthank, G. R., 363. 
Valentine, Judge Edward iv , 27, 28. 
Valentine (town), 32. 
Valier, Peter, 135. 
Valley, 181. 
Valparaiso, 181. 
Van Duesen, Don C, 363." 
A^an Volkenburg, Mrs. Dudley, 362. 
Van Wyck, Charles H.. 172. 
Vifquain, Gen. Victor, 61, 235, 305, 

365. 
Wade, Ben, 45, 48. 
Wade, Ruth Ann, 135. 
Wagner, William A., 285. 
Wake, Charles, 285. 
Wakefield (town). 331. 
Wakely, Arthur C, 230. 
Wakeley, .Judge Eleazer, 99, 234. 
Walker, H. T. & Co., 137. 
Walker, Seth Russel, 363. 
AVallace, Mrs. Dr., 362. 
Walling, Augustus M.. 285. 
Wallingford, J. R., 229. 
Walnut Grove cemetery. Brown- 

ville, 166. 
Walton, C. W., 29. 
Wamberg, Jobn W., 279. 
Ward, Dr. Henry B., 365. 
Ward, John, 240. 
Warner, Miss Anna, 363. 
Warnes, Edward, 66. 
Warren, Edwin F., 280, 365. 
Washington county, 26, 31, 117. 
Washington Journal, 49. 
Waterbury, 331. 
Waters, Frank R., 259, 305. 
Watkins, Albert, 224, 225, 241, 246. 



Waugh, Merriwealher J., 280. 

Wauneta, 271. 

Weaver, Archibald J., 172. 

Webster, John L., 234, 235. 

Weeping Water Falls, 64. 

Weeping Water trip. 122. 

West Point, 27, 29. 

Westgate, I^eander, 285. 

Westerfield, Ellery H., 279. 

Westerfield, Samuel F., 279, 305. 

Wetherwell, G. A., 279. 

Whaley, M. H., 240. 

Wheedon, B. D., 363. 

Whedon, Charles O., 241. 

Wheeler, Daniel H, 48. 

Wheeler, Mrs. Hiland H., 237, 240. 

Whitcomb, Ed W.. 363, 364, 3C5. 

White, Benjamin T., 259. 

White, Charles, 357, 366. 

White, Fi-ancis E., 278, 300. 

White, Mary Elizabeth, 102. 

Whitmore, W. G., 237. 

Whitmore, Mrs. W. G., 237. 

Whittemore^ E. H., 240, 354, 366. 

\\Tiittemore collection, 354. 

Whitten, Walter S., 285. 

Whyte, N. Z., 361. 

Whyte, E. R., 362. 

Wiggins, Horace S., 260, 283, 295, 

306, 308, 
Wiggins, Mrs. Ida Duffield, 260. 
Wild, Joseph A., 259. 
Wiles, G. F., 239. 
Wiles, T. F., 361. 
Wilhelm, E., 139. 
Williams, Joseph Albert, 285. 
Williams, Julia, 281. 
Williams, Oliver T. B., 305. 
Williams, Thomas F. A., 275. 
Williamson, .John W., 239, 344, 361. 
Wilsie, Jerome, 362. 
Wilson, Hon. James, 236. 
Wilson, Henry H., 161, 245, 246, 

260, 264, 284, 286. 
Wilson, John C, 279. 
Wilson, Mary S., 280. 
Wilson, William W., 365. 
Wilson, Woodrow, 255. 
Winnebago Indians, 81. 
Winter Quarters, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 

24, 326. 
Wisner, 28. 

Wolcott, Francis E., 280. 
Wolf Pawnee Indians, see Pawnee 
■» Loups. 

Wolfe, Carrie A., 279. 
Wolfe, Harry K., 237. 
Wolfe, Thomas, 240. 
Wolfenbarger, Andrew G., 126. 



422 



NEBRASKA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Wolworth, Mr., 346. 
Wood, Lucy T., 285. 
Wood, William W., 259. 
Woods, J. D., 361. 
Woods, W. H., 364, 365. 
Woolworth, James M., 59, 202, 305. 
Wonder, G, 239. 

Work of the Union Pacific in Ne- 
braska. By E. L. Lomax. 181. 
Wray, Arthur J., 285. 
Wright. C. W., 239, 361, 366. 
Wright, John. 363. 
Wyman, Henry F., 276. 



Wyoming (Territory), 201, 207. 

Wyoming (town), 21, 141. 

Wyuka cemetery, Nebraska City, 

140. 
Yates, Elijah, 142. 
Young American Horse, 74. 
Young. Brigham, 10, 12, 16, 17, 18. 

20, 23. 
Young, Mrs. E. J., 363. 
Young, Elder John McK., 66. 
Young Miami, see Mian-mise. 
Yost, Absalom N., 279, 281. 



l^ft?