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3 1833 02595 0582 

Gc 978 . 2 N27p v . 1 5 * Ser . 2 , v ■ 1 
Nebraska State Historical. 


Publications of the Nebraska 
State H i stor i c al Soc i et y 


Digitized by 

the Internet Archive 

in 2013 







Voluaie Fifteen. 

Nebraska State Historical Society Publications. 
(Series II— Vol. X.) 



Jacob North & Co., Printers 



Officers and Office Staff 3 

Letter of Transmittal 5 

Historical Addresses — 

'Mormon Settlements in the Missouri Valley, 

By Clyde B. Aitchison 7 

Great Railroad Migration into Northern Nebraska, 

By John R. Buchanan 25 

Nebraska Politics and Nebraska Railroads, 

By John H. Ager. , 34 

2 Territorial Pioneer Days, 

Speeches at the Annual Meeting, 1902 45 

Campaigning Against Crazy Horse, 

By David Y. Mears 68 

Personal Recollections of Early Days in Decatur, Nebraska, 

By Capt. Silas T. Learning 77 

History of the Lincoln Salt Basin, 

By John H. Ames 83 

Early Days at the Salt Basin, 

By John S. Gregory 102 

Judicial Grafts, 

By Judge William Gaslin 108 

My Very First Visit to the Pawnee Village in 1855, 

By Gen. John M. Thayer 119 

Early Days on the Little Blue, 

By J. H. Lemmon 127 

Early Annals of Nebraska City, 

By John W.^Pearman , 133 

Dr. John McPherson, 

By Robert W. Furnas 143 

J. Sterling Morton, 

_ By Robert W. Furnas . . 147 

Henry A. Longsdorf, Pioneer of Sarpy County.:.., 153 

Biography of, and Tribute to the Memory of the Late Charles 
H, Gere, 

By Robert W. Furnas 158 

^-Robert Wilkinson Furnas, 

By Henry H. Wilson.... 161 

-Hibbard Houston Shedd, 

By George C. Shedd 168 

Railroad Taxation in Nebraska, 

By Norris Brown 174 

^- Work of the Union Pacific in Nebraska, 

By E. L. Lomax 181 

Early Dreams of Coal in Nebraska, 

By Dr. George L. Miller 189 

Unveiling of the Thayer Monument, Wyuka Cemetery 193 



Proceedings of the Nebraska State Historical Society. — 

Twenty-fourth Annual Meeting, 1901 215 

Treasurer's Report 219 

Meeting of Board of Directors 220 

Twenty-fifth Annual Meeting, 19C2 >. 222 

Treasurer's Report 225 

Meeting of Board of Directors 226 

Twenty-sixth Annual Meeting, 1903 226 

Meeting of Board of Directors - 233 

Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting, 1904 233 

Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting, 1905 238 

Proposition Made to State Agricultural Society. 242 

Meeting of Board of Directors, January 243 

Meeting of Board of Directors, June 243 

Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting, 1906 246 

Treasurer's Report 249 

Draft of Proposition to Lincoln City Council 250 

Meeting of Board of Directors, May 251. 

Meeting of Board of Directors, October 255 

Thirtieth Annual Meeting, 1907 257 

Meeting of Board of Directors, (special) February 269 

Treasurer's Report 265 

Reports of Committees 266 

Museum 266 

Library 268 

Marking Historic Sites 270 

Meeting of Board of' Directors, April 274 

Meeting of Board of Directors, July. . 276 

Meeting of Board of Directors, October 277 

Thirty-first Annual Meeting, 1908 281 

Reports of Committees 282 

Auditing 282 

Work of the Society (Special) 283 

Obituaries 284 

Report of the Secretary 288 

Treasurer's Report ....... .\ . . 310 

Report of Librarian • 320 

Report of Archeologist, 1906 323 

Report of Archeologist, 1907 335 

Museum Catalogue 359 

Newspapers Received by the Society 382 

Legislative Acts Affecting the Society 393 

Constitution and By-Laws 399 

Publications of the Society 402 




President — Dr. George L. Miller Omaha 

1st Vice-President — Robert Harvey St. Paul 

2d Vice-President — James E. North ..Columbus 

Secretary — Clarence S. Paine Lincoln 

Treasurer — Stephen L. Geisthardt. Lincoln 


Governor of Nebraska Hon. George L. Sheldon 

Chancellor State University Hon. E. Benjamin Andrews 

President State Press Association Hon. Henry C. Richmond 

Department of Am. Hist. Uni. of Neb Prof. Howard W. Caldwell 


Clarence S. Paine Secretary 

Addison E. Sheldon Director of Field Work and Legislative Ref. Dept. 

Elmer E. Blackman Archeologist 

Mrs. Minnie P. Knotts Librarian 

William E. Hannan Assistant Legislative Reference Department 


Office of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society, 

Lincoln, January 1, 1908. 

To His Excellency, George L. Sheldon, Governor of Ne- 

Sir — In accordance Avith the provisions of law, we have 
the honor to herewith submit our report of the proceedings 
of the Nebraska State Historical Society for the year ending 
December 31, 1907. 

Embracing also a report of the proceedings of the Society 
under the administration of our predecessors, covering the 
period from January, 1900, the date of the last published 
report, to January, 1907. 

George L. Miller, 


Clarence S. Paine, 






In the spring of 1846, that portion of the Missouri valley 
now included in southeastern Nebraska and southwestern 
Iowa was nearly devoid of white settlers. The eastern slope 
of the valley, stretching from the Missouri river back to the 
lands of the Sacs and Foxes, was occupied by the Pottawat- 
tomi Indians, some 2,250 in number. By a treaty made 
September 26, 1833, 1 the Pottawattomies, with some of the 
Ottawas and Chippeways, were granted five million acres of 
land, embracing a large part of what is now included in 
southwestern Iowa. The Pottawattomies and their allies 
were removed from Chicago, and in time were located on new 
lands. 2 A subagency and trading post was established at 
Traders or Trading Point, or at St. Francis, within the pres- 
ent limits of Mills county, Iowa, and their Avants Avere cared 
for at the Council Bluffs subagency. 3 A considerable sized 
village called, after one of their chiefs, Mi-au-mise (Young 
Miami) was located on the Nishnabotna river, near the pres- 
ent site of LeAvis, in Cass county, IoAva. 4 Except a few small 
settlements of Avhites near the Missouri state line, the sub- 
agency opposite Bellevue, and scattering posts of the Ameri- 
can Fur Company, the eastern slope of the Missouri yalley 
Avas in the sole use and occupation of the PottaAvattomies and 

treaty of Chicago, Illinois, (see Stat. L. vn, 431) modified October 
1, 1834. The treaty is abstracted in part II, 18th Annual Report, Bureau 
of American Ethnology, p. 750. 

2 See "Miscellanies" (John Dean Caton), p. 139. 

3 "Red Men of Iowa" (A. R. Fulton), p. 170. 

4 "Red Men of Iowa," p. 171. 




their Ottawa and Chippeway allies. By a treaty made with 
the United States, June 5, 1846, the Pottawattomies disposed 
of their IoAva lands, but reserved for themselves the tempo- 
rary right of occupancy. 1 

.West of the Missouri, the agency at Bellevue cared for four 
tribes of Indians, the Omahas, Otoes, Poncas, and Pawnees, 
beside attending to the Pottawattomies, Ottawas, and Chip- 
peways through the Council Bluffs subagency on the east side 
of the river. 2 The Omaha tribe was to the north of the Platte, 
and the Otoes near its mouth, both bordering on the Missouri, 
with a strip of land between thein still the cause of occasional 
disputes — the ridiculous warfare of poor remnants of once 
mightier tribes. When the territory of Louisiana was ac- 
quired in 1803, the tribe of Otoes was estimated to consist of 
about two hundred warriors, including tAventy-five or thirty 
of the Missouris who had taken refuge with them about 1778. 
The Omahas in 1799 consisted of 500 warriors, but had been 
almost cut off by smallpox before the acquisition of the Louis- 
iana territory. 3 When found by the Mormons in 1810, the 

1 "Early History of Iowa" (Charles Negus), in Annals of Iowa. 1870-71, 
p. 568. See Stat. L. ix. 853. The treaty is abstracted in part II, 18th An- 
nual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, p. 778. The reservation of possession 
is not mentioned in the abstract of the cession. 

2 Care must be taken that the Council Bluffs agency is not confounded 
with the present city of Council Bluffs. The name Council Bluff or Coun- 
cil Bluffs was applied to various places along the Missouri river, in turn: 
first to the original Council Bluffs mentioned by Lewis and Clark, eigh- 
teen miles north of Omaha, and west of the Missouri, then to the agency 
at Bellevue, then to the subagency across the river from Bellevue and to 
the settlement at that point remaining after the removal of the Potta- 
wattomi Indians. January 19, 1853, the name of the town of Kanesville 
was changed to Council Bluffs, in conformity with a change of the name 
of the postoffiee made some time previous thereto. By an act of the 
General Assembly of Iowa passed February 24, 1853, the town (now city) 
of Council Bluffs was incorporated. The Fiontier Guardian, issue of Sep- 
tember 18, 1850, says, "The marshal has completed the census of Kanes- 
ville, and Trading Point or Council Bluffs. The former contains 1,103, 
the latter 125." Hence as late as 1850 the names Kanesville and Council 
Bluffs were entirely distinct. 

3 An account of Louisiana (being an abstract of documents in the 
offices of the Departments of State and of the Treasury). Reprinted in 
Old South Leaflets No. 105, p. 18. The description of the Indian tribes 
contained in this much-ridiculed account of the Louisiana Purchase trans- 
mitted by President Jefferson to Congress (see McMaster's "History of 
the People of the United States," vol. II, p. G31) was shown by later ex- 
plorations to be remarkably accurate, except that the relative distances 
are much exaggerated. 


Otoes and Omahas were but shadows of* their former selves, 
miserably poor and wretched, not disposed to do evil unless 
forced by hunger and want to rob and steal, presumptuous 
when treated Avith kindness and charity, but well behaved 
when visited with vigor and severity. 1 The Omahas were 
particularly miserable. Unprotected from their old foes, the 
Sioux, yet forbidden to enter into a defensive alliance, they 
were reduced to a pitiable handful of scarcely more than a 
hundred families, the prey of disease, poverty stricken, too 
cowardly to venture from the shadow of their tepees to gather 
their scanty crops, unlucky in the hunt, slow to the chase, 
and too dispirited to be daring or successful thieves. 

Further north, between the Niobrara or L'eau-qui-court 
and the Missouri rivers were five or six hundred almost 
equally abject Poncas. The Pawnees had their villages at 
the Loup Forks, and south of the Platte and west of the 
Otoes, and the country to their north was yet the scene of 
frequent conflicts between the Pawnees and their hereditary 
enemies, the Sioux. 2 

All west of the river was "Indian country" — a part of the 
vast territory of Missouri remaining after the state of Mis- 
souri had been created out of it. A white man entering it, 
unless specially licensed, became a trespasser. The country 
was unorganized, practically unexplored, and little else than 

^Frontier Guardian, issue of March 21, 1849. The Pottawattomi In- 
dians were expressly excepted from this description. The editor (Orson 
Hyde) advised returning roving Omahas and Otoes to St. Francis or 
Trading Point, or the use of the hickory. 

2 Lewis and Clark, in 1804, located the Pawnees as follows: "Great 
Pawnee and Republican, consisting respectively of about 500 and 250 
men, on the south side of the Platte, opposite the mouth of the Loup; the 
Pawnee Loups or Wolf Pawnees, numbering 280 men, on the Wolf fork of 
the Platte and about 90 miles above the principal Pawnees; and a fourth 
band of 400 men on the Red River." See also map 41, 2d part, 18th An- 
nual Report, Bureau of Ethnology. "The Emigrants' Guide" (W. Clay- 
ton, 1848) places the old Pawnee mission station at Plum creek, Lat. 41° 
24' 29", and 914 miles east of the Loup Fork ford, Lat. 41° 22' 37". Long. 
98° 11', and locates the old Pawnee village formerly occupied by the 
Grand Pawnee and Tappas bands half a mile west of the Loup Fork. 
The village mentioned was burned by the Sioux in the fall of 1846. In 
the spring of 1847 the Pawnees were located on the Loup Fork, nearly 
thirty miles east of the old village, according to Clayton's Guide. 



a name to the world. Peter A. Sarpy had a trading post or 
so in it; the Presbyterians had established a mission; and a 
few troops were stationed at Old Ft. Kearney. With these 
exceptions, the prairie sod of the Indian country was still 
unbroken by the plow of the white settler. 1 

In 1830, some sixteen years before the time mentioned, a 
religious sect arose in New York, calling itself the Latter 
Day Saints, but commonly designated "Mormons." 2 As the 
result of great zeal and missionary enthusiasm its members 
increased rapidly. Vain attempts were made to secure a per- 
manent home, isolated from the rest of mankind, in Jackson, 
Clay, and Caldwell counties, Missouri. When finally driven 
from Missouri, in 1840, they gathered on the left bank of the 
Mississippi at a place nearly opposite the mouth of the Des 
Moines river. Here at first they were welcomed for their 
voting power, and easily obtained a charter for the town of 
Nauvoo, so favorable it practically made them an independ- 
ent state within a state. The surrounding inhabitants soon 
combined to drive them out. Five years of constant riot cul- 
minated in the assassination of Joseph Smith, the founder of 
the religion, in the revocation of the charter of Nauvoo, and 
the complete overthroAV of the Saints by superior, physical 

After the election of Brigham Young as president of the 
twelve apostles, the Mormons promised to leave Illinois "as 
soon as grass grew and water ran," in the spring of 1840, pro- 
vided meantime they Avere permitted to dispose of their prop- 
erty and make preparations for departure, without further 
molestation. September 9, 1845, the Mormon authorities de- 
termined to send an advance party of 1,500 to the valley of 
the Great Salt Lake. In January, 1840, a council of the 
church ordered this company to start at once, and announced 

*See p. 20, et seq., "William Walker and the Provisional Government 
of Nebraska Territory," by William B. Connelley, vol. Ill, second series, 
publications of Nebraska State Historical Society. 

^Authorities and references for the general outline of Mormon history 
are deemed unnecessary. The word "Mormon" is used herein solely for 
convenience and for brevity. 


in a circular to the Saints throughout the world their inten- 
tion to secure a home beyond the Rockies, thus providing a 
safe haven from the annoyances of their enemies. 

All through the winter of 1845-46 the Mormons exerted 
themselves to dispose of property which could not be easily 
moved, and to secure proper equipment for the march. 
Houses and farms and all immovable chattels were sacrificed 
on the best terms available, and the community for a hundred 
miles around was bartered out of wagons and cattle. 

From motives of prudence, the pioneers hastened their de- 
parture. The first detachment, 1,600 men, women, and chil- 
dren, including the high officials of the church, crossed the 
Mississippi early in February, and pushed forward on the 
inarch. The main body of Mormons began crossing the day 
after, and followed the pioneers in large bodies, and at fre- 
quent intervals, though some little distance behind the first 
party. By the middle of May or first of June probably 16,000 
persons with 2,000 wagons had been ferried across the Mis- 
sissippi, and were on their way to the West. Thus commenced 
an exodus unparalleled in modern times. In point of num- 
bers of emigrants, in length of travel, in hardships endured, 
and in lofty religious motives compelling such a host to jour- . 
ney so great a distance, through obstacles almost beyond hu- 
man belief, there is nothing in recent history with which the 
inarch of the Mormons may be compared. 

The sufferings of the pioneers (though the hardiest of the 
whole Mormon host) and of the earlier bands following al- 
most baffle description. Hastily and inadequately equipped, 
without sufficient shelter or fuel, weakened by disease, short 
of food for both man and beast, exposed to every blast of an 
unusually severe winter, they plodded westAvard and wished 
for spring. Spring came, and found them destitute, and not, 
half way to the Missouri. The excessive snows of the Avinter 
and the heavy spring rains turned the rich prairie soil of 
IoAva into pasty mud, and raised the streams so that in many 
instances the emigrants had to Avait patiently for the waters 
to go down. 



The pioneers laid out a road, and established huge farms 
in the lands of the Sacs and Foxes. Two of these settlements 
or farms were known as Garden Grove and Mt. Pisgah. They 
included upwards of two miles of fenced land, well tilled, 
with comfortable log buildings, and were intended as perma- 
nent camps for those to follow, and where provisions could 
. be accumulated for the coining winter. In addition to these, 
camps of more or less permanence were established at inter- 
vals along the trail from the Mississippi to the Missouri, 
at Sugar Creek, Richardson Point, on the Chariton, Lost 
Camp, Locust Creek, Sayent's Grove, and Campbell's Grove, 
and at Indian Town, the "Little Miami" village of the 
Pottawattomies. 1 

Many did not reach the Missouri in 1816. Some returned 
to eastern states. Twelve thousand remained at Garden 
Grove and Mt. Pisgah and in settlements westward to the 
Missouri, because of a lack of wagons to transport them fur- 
ther west, and for the purpose of cultivating the huge farms 
intended to provision the camps the following winter. Presi- 
dent Young and the vanguard reached the Missouri June II, 
1816, near the present city of Council Bluffs, and then moved 
back into the hills while a ferry boat was being built, The 
boat was launched the 20th, and the next day the pioneers 
began pushing across the river. The next few weeks the com- 
panies of emigrants as they arrived temporarily camped on 
the bluffs and bottoms of the Missouri, at Mynster Springs, 
at Rushville, at Council Point, and Traders Point. The pio- 
neers at the same time advanced into the Indian country, 
building bridges over the Papillion and Elkhorn and con- 
structing roads. In July it was resolved to establish a fort 
on Grand island, but the pioneers did not reach that far west 

3 Garden Grove is in the northeast part of DecatiTr county; Mt. Pisgah 
at the middle fork of the Grand river, in the eastern part of Union county; 
Lost Camp about six miles south of Osceola; Sayent's Grove in Adair 
county; and Campbell's Grove in Cass county— all in Iowa. Indian Town 
has already been located. See "Early History of Iowa" (Charles Negus) 
in "Annals of Iowa," 1870-71, p. 568; and the First General Epistle of I lie 
Church. Rushville was on the east side of Keg creek, about tour miles 
north of the south boundary line of Mills county. 


that year. Some reached the Pawnee villages, and then find- 
ing the season too far advanced to continue westward, turned 
north and wintered on the banks of the Missouri at the mouth 
of the Niobrara, among the Poncas. 1 

The Pottawattomies and Omahas received the refugees 
kindly. A solemn council was held by the Pottawattomies in 
the yard of one of Peter A. Sarpy's trading houses, and the 
assembled chiefs welcomed the wanderers in aboriginal man- 
ner. Pied Riche, surnamed Le Clerc, the scholar, addressed 
them : 

"The Pottawattomi came sad and tired into this inhos- 
pitable Missouri bottom, not many years back, when he was 
taken from his beautiful country beyond the Mississippi, 
which had abundant game and timber and clear water every- 
where. Now you are driven away from your lodges and lands 
there and the graves of your people. We must help one an- 
other, and the Great Spirit will help us both. You are now 
free to cut and use all the wood you may wish. You can make 
all your improvements, and live on any part of our land not 
actually occupied by us. Because one suffers and does not 
deserve it is no reason he shall always suffer, I say. We may 
live to see all right yet. However, if we do not, our children 
will. Bon jour." 

"The Pottawattomi came sad and tired into this inhos- 
lands to the United States, reserving to themselves tempo- 
rary right of occupation, and now drew and signed articles 
of convention with the Mormons, with becoming dignity. 

A large number of emigrants remained among the Potta- 
wattomies during the winter of 1846-47, living in shacks of 
cottonwood, in caves in the bluffs, in log cabins in the groves 
and glens— wherever there was shelter, fuel, and water. The 
greater number of Mormons, however, crossed into the Indian 
country at the ferry established opposite the present site of 
Florence or at Sarpy's ferry below, making their first large 

>The camp on the Niobrara returned to the settlements on the Mis- 
souri, in the spring of 1847, for provisions. See First General Lpistle of 
the Church. 



camp at Cutler Park, a few miles northwest of the ferry, 
where they built a mill. 

Here the chiefs of the Omaha tribe held a grand council 
with the Mormon leaders, and Big Elk, the .principal chief 
of the tribe, gave permission to remain two years, invited re- 
ciprocal trade, and promised warning of danger from other 
Indians. 1 

The Mexican War was now in progress. About the time 
the exodus began, the Mormons applied to Washington for 
some form of work to assist them in getting further west. 
Their tender of military services was accepted, and under 
orders from General Kearney, Capt. James Allen raised a 
battalion of five companies in the Missouri camps in two 
weeks, himself assuming command. After a farewell ball, 
the recruits marched away, accompanied as far as Ft. Leaven- 
Avorth by eighty women and children. There a bounty of $40 
was given each man, most of which was taken back to the 
.families left behind at the Missouri river camps. While the 
enlistment of 500 able-bodied men left few but the sick in the 
camps, the bounty received was considerable and greatly 
needed, and the formation of the battalion induced Captain 
Allen to promise, for the government, to allow the Mormons 
to pass through the Pottawattomi and Omaha lands, and to 
remain there while necessary. Subsequent letters from Wash- 
ington showed the Mormons were expected to leave the In- 
dian lands in the spring of 1847. 

Some 650 Saints had been left in Nauvoo after the emigra- 
tion ceased in June, the remnant consisting of the sick, the 
poor, and those unable to sell their property. The gentile 
whigs renewed the old quarrel, fearing the vote of the Mor- 
mon element would control the August congressional elec- 
tion. The Saints finally agreed not to attempt to vote 1 , but 
in fact, says Governor Ford, 2 all voted the democratic ticket, 
being induced by the considerations of the President allow- 

ir The speech is set out in full in Sorenson's "History of Omaha," p. 24. 
'-"History of Illinois" (Ford), pp. 413-14. 


ing their settlement on the Indian reservations on the Mis- 
souri, and the enlistment of the Mormon battalion. Nauvoo 
fell, and the last of the. Mormons fled from the city in fear 
and extreme distress. 

By the close of the summer of 1846 some 12,000 or 13,000 
Mormons were encamped in the Missouri valley, at Kush- 
ville, Council Point, Traders Point, Mynster Springs, Indian 
Town, in the groves along the creeks, and in the glens in the 
hills and on the west side of the Missouri river, at Cutler 
Park, on the Elkhorn and Papillion crossings, and as far as 
the Pawnee villages. 

During the summer and autumn of 1846, particularly in 
August and September, the various camps were seized with a 
plague of scrofulous nature, which the Mormons called the 
black canker. The Indians had lost one-ninth of their num- 
ber from this strange disease the year before, and the mor- 
tality was fully as great among both Mormons and Indians 
in 1846. In one camp 37 per cent were down with the fever. 
The pestilence was attributed to the rank vegetation and de- 
caying organic matter on the bottoms of the Missouri and 
its sluggish tributaries, to the foul slime left by the rapid 
subsidence of a flood, and to the turning of the virgin soil by 
the settlers. There were often not enough well persons to at- 
tend to the sick or bury the dead. Six hundred deaths oc- 
curred on the site of the present town of Florence. Hundreds 
were buried on the slopes of the Iowa bluffs. 1 The plague 
raged each successive year for several years, and from 1848 
to 1851 hundreds of Mormons died of it on the Iowa side of 
the river. 

During the autumn months preparations were made to 
winter on the site of the present town of Florence until the 
spring of 1847. They enclosed several miles of land, and 
planted all obtainable seed and erected farm cabins and cat- 
tle shelters. They built a town on a plateau overlooking the 

Dane's lecture, "The Mormons," p. 51, reprinted in Frontier Guardian 
September 4, 1850; also numerous conversations of the writer witn 



river, their "Winter Quarters/' and 3,500 Saints lived there 
during the hard winter of 1846-47. 

"Winter Quarters 77 was a town of mushroom growth, con- 
sisting, in December, 1846, of 538 log houses aud 83 sod 
houses, laid out in symmetrical blocks, separated by regular 
streets. The numerous and skilful craftsmen of the emigrants 
had worked all the summer and fall under the incessant and 
energetic direction of Brigham Young. The houses they built 
afforded shelter and were comfortable, but were not calcu- 
lated to stand the first sudden thaw or drenching rain. 

"The buildings were generally of logs,' 7 says the manuscript 
history of Young, -"from twelve to eighteen feet long; a few 
were split and made from linn and cotton wood timber ; many 
roofs were made by splitting oak timber into boards, called 
shakes, about three feet long and six inches wide, and kept 
in place by Aveights and poles; others Avere made of Avillows, 
straAV and earth, about a foot thick ; some of puncheon. Many 
cabins had no floors; there were a few dugouts on the side 
hills — the fireplace Avas cut out at the upper end. The ridge 
pole Avas supported by tAvo uprights in the center and roofed 
Avith straAV and earth, with chimneys of prairie sod. The 
doors were made of shakes, with Avooden hinges and a string 
latch; the inside of the log houses was daubed with clay; a 
few had stoves." , 

In October, the camp at Cutler Park Avas moved to Winter 
Quarters. 1 Schools Avere instituted, churches established, and 
the Avhole ecclesiastical and civic mechanism so rudely shat- 
tered at Nauvoo Avas once more running as smoothly and 
poAverfully as ever. Eight thousand dollars was spent for 
machinery and stones for the water flouring mill Young was 
constructing. Several loads of willow baskets were made by 
the Avomen. The winter Avas passed in endeavoring to keep 
alive and in preparation for resuming the march in the spring 
by those avIio Avere strong and had provisions for a year and a, 

Sutler Park, on the west side of the Missouri, is not to he confused 
with Cutler's Camp, on Silver creek, in Iowa. Compare John D. Lee's 
"Mormonism Unveiled," p. 180, with Andreas' Illustrated Historical Atlas 
of Iowa, p. 409. 



half. Others made ready to plant and gather the crops of 
the coming summer. Several thousand cattle were driven 
across the Missouri and up into Harrison and Monona coun- 
ties, in Iowa, to winter on the "rush bottoms/' where a now 
extinct species of rush formerly grew in profusion, and re- 
mained green all winter, though covered by snow and. ice. 

Polygamy was practiced to a limited extent. Young, for 
instance, confesses to meeting, one afternoon, sixty-six of his 
family, including his adopted children. 

In the octagon council house, "resembling a New England 
potato heap in time of frost," and which called for a load of 
fuel a day, the scheme of organization and exploration was 
perfected, and Young published most minute directions as 
to the manner of march, pursuant to a revelation made Janu- 
ary 14, 1847. In response to a call for volunteers, what was 
called "the pioneer company" moved out from Winter Quar- 
ters to the rendezvous on the Elkhorn, April 14, 1847, and or- 
ganized the 16th, with Brigham Young lieutenant general. 
The pioneer company numbered 143 men and three women. 
Seventy-three wagons were taken, loaded with provisions and 
farm machinery. About this time the camp on the Niobrara 
returned to the Missouri river settlements. 

The pioneers followed the north side of the Platte to Ft. 
Laramie, crossing the Loup, April 24, in a leather boat, the 
Eevenue Cutter, made for this purpose. They reached the 
Ancient Bluff ruins May 22 and Ft. Laramie June 1, halting 
while the animals rested and ferryboats were built. Captain 
Grover was left behind to ferry other companies arriving 
from Winter Quarters, but his services were not needed. 
After the pioneers had crossed to the south bank of the North 
Platte, they recrossed 124 miles further on, and subsequent 
emigration seems to have kept to the north bank of the river. 1 

^'The Latter Day Saints' Emigrants' Guide," by W. Clayton, originally 
published in 1848. and reprinted in the Salt Lake Herald, April 25. 1897, 
traces the customary route of the Mormon emigrants so that it is com- 
paratively easy to retrace their road. Some suspicion may be cast on the 
accuracy of the latitude and longitude given in the Guide, by the fact that 
the first figures Clayton gave, the latitude of Winter Quarters, were 
* erroneous. 



The pioneers traveled more than a thousand miles, and laid 
out roads suitable for artillery. The valley of the Great Salt 
Lake was reached the 23d and 24th of July, and the city of 
Salt Lake was laid out in a month. Brigham Young and 107 
persons started back to Winter Quarters August 26, a small 
party having preceded them eastAvard. October 31 the pio- 
neers arrived at the Missouri. 

After the pioneers left Winter Quarters in April all others 
who were able to go organized another company, known as 
the First Immigration, with Parley P. Pratt and John Tay- 
lor in command. The First Immigration consisted of 1,553 
persons in about 560 wagons, with cattle, horses, swine, and 
poultry. It reached the Salt Lake valley in detachments in 
the autumn of 1847. 

This and the strong expeditions later on were divided into 
companies of 100, subdivided into companies of fifty and 
squads of ten, each under a captain, and all under a member 
of the High Council of the church. Videttes selected the next 
day's camp and acted as skirmishers. Wherever possible the 
wagons traveled in a double column. LTpon halting they were 
arranged in the form of two convex arcs, with openings at the 
points of intersection, the tongues of the wagons outward, 
one front wheel lapping the hind wheel of the Avagon in front. 
The cattle corralled inside were watched by guards stationed 
at the openings at the ends and were safe from stampede or 
depredations. The tents were pitched outside. When prac- 
ticable, the Mormons arranged the wagons in a single curve, 
.with the river forming a natural defense on one side. 1 

Their wagons were widened to six feet by extensions on the 
sides. Each was loaded to the canvas with farm implements, 
grains, machinery of all sorts, and a coop of chickens lashed 
on behind. 2 All the wagons were not of this size or descrip- 
tion. They ranged from the heavy prairie schooner dra wn by 

x See "History of Utah/' H H. Bancroft, p. 207, for the revelation to 
Brigham Young as to the method of travel. 

2 Popular tradition makes the Mormons' chickens responsible for scat- 
tering the sunflower seed which have grown into the prairie nuisance 


six or eight oxen to the crazy vehicle described by Colonel 
Kane as loaded with a baby and drawn by a dry, dogged little 
heifer. Each man marched with a loaded, but uncapped mus- 
feet, and so perfect was their discipline and organization that 
frequently hostile Indians passed small bodies of Mormons 
to attack much stronger bands of other immigrants. 

During the year 1847 the Indians on the west side of the 
river complained that the Mormons were killing too much 
game and cutting too much timber, and the Saints were there- 
upon ordered to leave. 1 They obtained permission to occupy 
the Pottawattomi lands for five years, and accordingly the 
main body moved to the east side of the Missouri. Their 
Bishop Miller had settled a little earlier, in the valley of 
Indian creek, in the center of the old part of the present city 
of Council Bluffs. After the complaint had been made by 
the Indians the great part of the Mormons settled around the 
old government blockhouse there. "Miller's Hollow" be- 
came "Kanesville" in honor of the gentile friend of the Mor- 
mons, Col. Thomas L. Kane, who was a brother of Elisha 
Kent Kane, the explorer. 2 The headquarters of the church 
were transferred to a huge log tabernacle on the flats. 3 A 
postoffice was established that year in Kanesville, but mails 
were received very irregularly until the great influx of gen- 
tile immigration in 1852-53. Orson Hyde, the apostle and 
lawyer, became editor as well, and published the Frontier 
Guardian for three years, commencing in February, 1849. 

Prof. Charles E. Bessey explodes this idea as non-botanical in a letter 
published in the Lincoln Courier, November 8, 1898. Positive testimony 
is existent that the sunflowers dotted the plains in 1832 (testimony of 
Benjamin Gilmore), fifteen years before the first Mormon emigration. 
Sunflowers, of course, marked the trails, as they sprang up in profusion 
where the soil was broken. 

1 Not based on documentary authority quoting original sources, but 
amply verified by conversations with pioneers. The Mormon Church 
History claims that an outfitting station east of the Missouri was de- 
sired, hence the move. 

2 Biography of Elisha Kent Kane (William Elder), p. 313. 

I ''Frontier Guardian, May 30, 1849. 



The population of Pottawattamie county at that time was 
about 4,000, mainly of the Mormon faith. 1 

The crops in 1847 were bountiful, and a series of strong 
emigrant trains was organized at the Elkhorn rendezvous. 
The Quorum of the presidency of the church left for Salt 
Lake early in the summer at the head of strong bands; Brig- 
ham Young in May, with 397 wagons and 1,229 persons, 
Heber C. Kimball in July with 226 wagons and 662 persons, 
and Willard Kichards soon after with 169 wagons and 526 
persons, 2,417 emigrants in all, with 892 wagons. Kichard's 
departure left Winter Quarters quite deserted. 2 

These companies took what was called the North Platte 
route, ferrying the Elkhorn (whose bridge had disappeared) 
and Loup, and keeping on the north bank of the Platte the 
whole distance to the SweetAvateiv All the later Mormon 
trains Avere governed by the same strict discipline as the pio- 
neers and first emigration, and their travels present no fea- 
tures of special interest. 

The Salt Lake emigration continued with diminishing 
volume from 1848 to 1852, until scarcely distinguishable from 
the general rush to the West following the discovery of gold. 3 
The perpetual emigration fund was established in 1849, and 
the attention of the church was turned to gathering its com- 
municants from Great Britain in Salt Lake valley. The emi- 
gration was to New Orleans and St. Louis by steamboat, and 

Memorial of Judge James Sloan to Iowa Senate, December 19, 1848, 
quoted in Frontier Guardian, April 4, 1849. 

^Frontier Guardian, May 30, 1849, quoting First General Epistle of the 
presidency of the church from the Great Salt Lake valley. The Otoes 
and Omahas fired on Kimball's band at the Elkhorn. wounding three. 

3 During the years 1849 and 1850 more than a hundred thousand emi- 
grants passed through the trans-Missouri country on their way to Cali- 
fornia, Utah, Oregon, and New Mexico. (Letter of Abelard Guthrie, pro- 
visional delegate to Congress from Nebraska Territory, to Chairman 
Committee on Elections, TJ. S. House of Representatives, July 20, 1861. 
See vol. Ill, 2d series, Nebraska State Historical Society Publications p 
75. In the spring of 1850, before June 3, there passed Ft. Laramie bound 
westward, 11,433 men, 119 women, 99 children; 3,188 wagons,' 10,900 
horses, 3,588 mules, 3,428 oxen, 233 cows. It was estimated that by July 
7 of the same year 40,000 persons and 10,000 wagons passed Ft. Laramie 
westward. {Frontier Guardian, July 10, 1850.) 


then by boat to Independence, St. Joseph, Kanesville, or 
neighboring Missouri river settlements. 

The Independence and St. Joseph trails soon merged in the 
well-known government and stage road of later years to Ft. 
Kearney. Bethlehem, opposite the mouth of the Platte, was 
a favorite crossing place for those landing at Council Point, 
near Kanesville, but preferring the South Platte route. Many 
started from Nebraska City, or Old Ft. Kearney, and after 
1856 from Wyoming, in Otoe county. 1 The South Platte 
route folloAved the southerly bank of the Platte until it joined 
the Ft. Kearney road. 

The trail officially recognized and directed was along the 
north bank of the Platte, leaving Kanesville by way of Cres- 
cent, making a rendezvous at Boyer Lake or Ferry ville, cross- 
ing to the abandoned Winter Quarters, then to the Elkhorn 
rendezvous, with ferries over the Elkhorn and Loup. All the 
sunflower trails converged into one at Ft. Laramie. The 
North Platte route was deemed the healthier, and was thus 
constantly urged and recommended by the church authorities 
at Kanesville. Orson Hyde counted 500 graves along the 
trail south of the Platte, and but three graves north of the 
Platte river from the Missouri to Ft. Laramie. 2 

Many Mormons did not start immediately for Salt Lake, 
and several thousand who were disaffected or impoverished 
never left the valley of the Missouri. These scattered over 
southwestern Iowa. A year after the last company left Win- 
ter Quarters, the church had thirty-eight branches in Potta- 
wattamie and Mills counties. 8 The census from 1849 to 1853 
gives PottaAvattamie county a population varying from 5,758 
to 7,828, reaching the maximum in 1850, and showing a loss 
of 2,500 from 1852 to 1851, the years of final Mormon exodus. 
Every governmental function was controlled by the Mor- 
mons up to 1853. They elected Mormon representatives to 

1 Letter of the late J. Sterling Morton to the writer, December 17, 1898. 
2 Frontier Guardian, December 11, 1850. 
3 Frontier Guardian, May 2, 1849. 


the state general assembly, and Mormon juries sat in the 
courts of Mormon judges. 

Kanesville, of course, was the principal settlement. As 
might be expected of a frontier outfitting camp, its popula- 
tion Avas very unstable. In September, .1850, it contained 
1,100 inhabitants; in November, 1851, it was 2,500-3,000; 
and the census of 1852 showed 5,057. At first it hardly at- 
tained the dignity of a village. Its inhabitants regarded it 
as a temporary resting place and all looked forward to an 
early departure therefrom; the buildings they erected were 
makeshifts, and their home-made furniture was rude and not 
intended for permanent use. With the rush of the gold-seek- 
ers following 1849, the resting place of the well-behaved 
Saints gradually changed to a roistering mining camp, too 
lively and wicked for the Mormons, who, by the way, were 
the original prohibitionists of Iowa. Little attention Avas 
paid to life or property in the crush and confusion of outfit- 
ting from the first of March to the first of July, Avhile the 
AvestAvard emigration was at its height. After June the pop- 
ulation dAvindled to scarcely 500, and the village again be- 
came sedate. 1 

There Avere only two or three other settlements of any size. 
Council Point, three or four miles south of Kanesville, Avas a 
favorite steamboat landing. 2 Traders or Trading Point, or 
St. Francis, three or four miles below Council Point, opposite 
Bellevue, was made a postoffice in the summer of 1819, under 
the name Nebraska.' 5 A year later this postoffice was given 
the vagrant name Council Pin Its, and was credited with a. 
population of 125. 4 

^Frontier Guardian, September 18, 1850; testimony of G. G. Rice, re- 
ported in "History of Pottawattamie County," Iowa, by D. C. Bloomer, in 
"Annals of Iowa," 1870-71, pp. 528-29. 

^Frontier Guardian, March 7, 1849. 

^Frontier Guardian, July II, 1849. Joseph Pendleton was postmaster. 
Traders Point was the "Pull Point" or Point aux Ponies mentioned in 
Kane's lecture. (Testimony of Judge W. C. James.) 

^Frontier Guardian, July 10, 1850, and September IS, 1850, the editor, 
in the former number, warning his readers io leave "Council Bluffs" off 
everything designed for Kanesville. 



California City was directly opposite the month of the 
Platte, and a little south was Bethlehem ferry. Carterville 
was three miles southeast of Kanesville, a thriving village of 
some hundreds. Indiantown, at the crossing of the Msh- 
nabotna, on the Mt. Pisgah road, west of the present Lewis, 
in Cass county, Avas the center of quite a large trade. Coon- 
ville became Glenwood. 1 

We have the names of some forty or fifty other settlements 
in southwestern Iowa. Little of these remains, however, but 
their name and memory and a half -rotted squared log occa- 
sionally plowed up. Strictly, they were not villages or even 
hamlets, merely the collection within easy distance of a hand- 
ful of farm houses in a grove on a creek, with a school or 
church and perhaps a mill or trader's stock. They resembled 
rather the ideal farm communities or settlements of some 
modern sociologists. 2 

The greater part of the Saints who acknowledged the lead- 
ership of Brigham Young left IoAva in 1852, and with the leg- 
islative change of the name of Kanesville to Council Bluffs 

1 Plats of Kanesville, Bethlehem, Coonville, and California City are 
found in Record A, pp. 32, 7, 5, and 3 respectively, in the office of the 
recorder of deeds of Pottawattamie county, Iowa. The Frontier Guardian, 
February '6, 1850, reports a postoffice established at Indian Town, forty- 
five miles east of Kanesville. 

2 Among the other Iowa settlements whose names still remain were: 
Allred's Camp, Americus, Austin (Fremont county), Barney's Grove, Ben- 
son's Settlement, Big Grove (now Oakland), Big Pigeon (Boomer town- 
ship), Blair, Boyer Lake Rendezvous, Brownings, Bullocks Grove, Car- 
bonca, Cooleys Mill, Coolidges Mill, Crescent City (still existing by that 
name), Davis Camp, Dawsonburg (Fremont county), Ferryville (opposite 
Winter Quarters), Galland's Grove (Harrison or Shelby county), Harris 
Grove, Highland Grove (northwest of Nicola), Honey Creek (still existing 
by that name), Hyde Park, Indian Mill (also known as Wicks Mill, and 
later as Parks Mill, on Mosquito creek), Keg Creek, Keg Creek Mills (at 
present Glenwood), Little Pigeon, Lynn Grove (east of Avoca on one 
branch of Nishna off the trail), Macedonia (still existing by that name), 
McKisslck's Grove (Fremont county), McOlneys, North Pigeon, Nishna- 
botna (synonymous with Macedonia), Old Agency, Perkins Camp (near 
Council Bluffs), Pleasant Grove, Plum Hollow (Fremont county) Rocky- 
ford or Rockford, Rushville,. Sidney (Fremont county, still existing by 
that name), Silver City (Mills county, still existing by that name), Silver 
Creek, Springville, Stringtown (inside present limits of Council Bluffs on 
south bottoms), Union or Unionville, Voorhis' Spring (Sy 2 miles north of 
present city of Council Bluffs), Wheeler's Grove (Hanson county), Willow. 
Many of these settlements can not be located definitely at this time. The 
, Mormons had little to do with some named, but branches of the church 
were reported at all the above settlements at an early date, 



City, ill January, 1853, the history of the early Mormon set- 
tlements in the Missouri valley may be considered closed. 
March 16, 1854, the Omahas ceded their land west of the Mis- 
souri to the general government. 1 The organization of Ne- 
braska territory soon after opened the lands around the Mor- 
mon Winter Quarters for settlement. A. J. Mitchell and 
A. J. Smith had been left in charge of the Mormons east of 
the river, but in the summer of 1854 they sold their interests 
in Council Blulfs to the gentiles, moved to the west of the 
river, and changed the name of Winter Quarters to Florence. 
But the rush of gentile settlers following the opening of the 
territory was so great that the Mormon settlements were not 

Council Bluffs remained an outfitting station for Mormon 
as well as other immigration for years, but there was little to 
distinguish Salt Lake travelers from an}' others preparing to 
cross the Rockies. Such immigration continued in consid- 
erable numbers until the Civil War, as witness the ill-fated 
hand-cart and wheelbarrow expedition of 185^?. A colony of 
schismatics, under the leadership of Charles B. Thompson, 
founded a town called Preparation in the Soldier river valley, 
about fifteen miles from the present site of Onawa, Monona 
county, Iowa. 2 The colony finally disbanded and its property 
was divided by the courts. But passing mention is made of 
the later settlements of the reorganized branch of the Mor- 
mon church, centering around Lamoni, Iowa. They belong 
to the present, and not to the history of the early Mormon 
settlements in the Missouri valley. 

A colony of a hundred families from St. Louis, under the 
direction of H. J. Hudson, formed three communistic settle- 
ments at Genoa in 1857, called Alton, Florence, and St. Louis, 
after unsuccessfully attempting to settle in Platte county. 
These colonists constructed dugouts and cabins in Hie fall. 

l Stat L. x , 1043. See part II, ]8th Annual Repori Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology, p. 790. 

-Omaha Daily Bee, January 30, 1899. 


and the following spring surveyed the lands on which they 
were located and partitioned to each man his share. They 
enclosed 2,000 acres with fences and ditches, and turned the 
sod of two square miles of prairie. The Genoa postoffice Avas 
established, with Mr. Hudson, later of Columbus, as post- 

The first years of their occupancy were marked by great 
privations, gradually changing, however, to comfort and pros- 
perity. After seven years' undisturbed occupancy by the 
colonists the Pawnees arrived and claimed possession of their 
new reservation on the same ground. The colonists resisted 
their claims for three years; but being worn and weary of 
strife and in constant danger from the continually conflict- 
ing Sioux and Pawnees, they abandoned further effort in 
1863 and dispersed, some to Salt Lake and others to Iowa 
and some to Platte county, Nebraska. 

Quite a settlement, or relay station, was made at Wood 
river, in Buffalo county, in 1858 by Joseph E. Johnson, who 
published a, paper, the Huntsman's Echo, for two years, and 
grew "the largest and finest flower garden" then west of the 
Mississippi. The settlement was broken up in 1863 by the 
removal of Johnson and his companions to Salt Lake valley. 1 


Address of J. R. Buchanan/ Delivered before the An- 
nual Meeting of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society, at Lincoln, January .14, 1902. 

The railroads and the Bible are the two most potent agen- 
-ies of modern times which have operated in the western 

^ee Andreas, "History of Nebraska," under the various counties. 
2 John Ross Buchanan was born in Beaver Town, Pennsylvania, April, 
1838. He removed to Guernsey county. Ohio, in 1847, where he attended 


The railroad makes a new or unoccupied country access- 
ible, and creates or establishes markets in convenient 

The Bible with its devotees follows, giving a moral tone to 
the locality, which means safety, la>v, and tranquillity. 

Only the sturdy, hardy, and industrious should — but, un- 
fortunately, many others do — go to the new country, Usu- 
ally, however, the percentage of the better class which occu- 
pies a new section is sufficiently large to impress its virtues 
on such country in time of need. Education follows as a 
correlative necessity — a prerequisite -to good citizenship. 

A generous and responsive soil and a good climate consti- 
tute the reasons for populating a new T country and determine 
its destiny. 

With the earliest settlements in north Nebraska I am not 
personally familiar. I am in a general way informed that 
the original wagon trails to the mountains, the Salt Lake 
Basin, and the Pacific Coast from Omaha, Council Bluffs, or 
Florence, were through Douglas and the western part of 
Washington county into Dodge, striking the Platte river at 
the present site of Fremont, or perhaps for a portion of the 
year avoiding the loAver land, touching at Fontenelle, a small 
settlement from Quincy, Illinois, and thence to the Platte 
river, but later centering at Fremont, which became a promi- 
nent frontier trading point. Settlement took root in that 
vicinity, and as the danger from Indians receded, spread up 
the Elkhorn valley sparsely, the impression generally pre- 
vailing that, as all territory west of the Missouri river had 
been known as a desert, it was necessary to keep in the val- 

school and read law. In 1861 he entered the service of the Chicago, Iowa 
& Nebraska R. R., afterwards the Chicago & Northwestern Ry. In 1862 
he entered the Civil War service on the subsistence staff. In 1863 he re- 
turned to the service of the Chicago & Northwestern Ry„ and in 1871 
was appointed general freight agent of the Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska 
R. R. He practiced law and served in various railroad capacities until 
1881, when he entered upon his important career as general passenger 
agent of the Sioux City & Pacific and Fremont. Ulkhorn & Missouri Val 
ley Railroads, where he served until 1003, when he resigned and returned 
to Waukesha, Wisconsin, where he is engaged in the practiee of law. 


leys or near the watercourses. The settlements Avere very 
slow and scattering. Attention was mainly directed to the 
country along and south of the Platte, afterwards pierced by 
the Union Pacific E. E., prospects for building which widely 
advertised that section, and later by the Burlington & Mis- 
souri Eiver E. E. 

January 20,. 1869, the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley 
E. E. was organized, and commenced building up the Elkhorn 
valley. I am assured by Judge E. K. Valentine, of West 
Point, that he moved the United States land office from 
Omaha to West Point in May, 1869. There were then only 
twelve houses in West Point, mainly a little colony of Ger- 
mans from Watertown, Wisconsin, conspicuous amongst 
whom was the father and family of our present state treas- 
urer, William Stueffer. 

The Elkhorn railroad built in 1869 from Fremont to Maple 
Creek, ten miles, and rested the winter. In 1870 it was built 
from Maple Creek to West Point, twenty-five miles, arriving 
there on Thanksgiving Day. Small settlements had scattered 
along up the valley as far as "French Creek," now the rail- 
road station of Clearwater. Perhaps as conspicuous a settle- 
ment as any was a small colony of thirty-seven families of 
German Lutherans, also from Watertown, Wisconsin, who 
sought a new country where, with their very limited means, 
all could locate together and support jointly a church of their 
faith. They were piloted to the present site of Norfolk in 
1866 by Mr. Stueffer, their former townsman in Wisconsin, m 
who had preceded them, locating at West Point. One of their 
number, Mr. Herman Praasch, in 1870, platted the original 
town of Norfolk. Nearly all of that colony, with a numerous 
growth of children and grandchildren, are still living there. 
A notable fact is cited by/ one of the descendants, to the effect 
that the children and grandchildren of these pioneers, that 
were bred in Nebraska, are all taller, larger of frame, and 
usually more robust than their ancestors, and they attribute 
this to the healthful, invigorating climate. 




"As the railroad opened markets and extended its line, set- 
tlements became more numerous. 

In 1871 the railroad was extended to Wisner, where it 
rested until 1879. 

In 1873 a small colony from Beloit, Wisconsin, headed by 
one John T. Prouty, settled a little east of the present site of 
O'Neill, but later scattered or was replaced by Gen. John 
O'Neill, who, with eighteen Irishmen — mostly Fenians who 
had accompanied him in his raid in Canada on the 31st of 
May, 1866, and known as O'Neill's Irish Brigade — took up 
land and settled in Holt county. 

A party, with whom was Mr. Jonas Gise, a civil engineer 
and member of the city council of Omaha, made a trip in 
1873 north to the O'Neill settlement, also from Norfolk to 
Niobrara. They reported that from about four miles north 
of Norfolk there was not a sign of habitation on the way to 
Niobrara until they reached some ranches on the Niobrara 
river. Whenever they found habitations, they were of the 
order known as "dug-outs" or "sod houses" or occasionally 
a cabin of cottonwood logs. There was very little stock of 
any kind, and the most primitive kind of living possible. The 
streams were unbridged and the roads were "across the 

Here are two incidents which ought to pass into history. 
In 1869 Judge Valentine was judge of the district court. He 
was driving up the Elkhorn valley near what is now Pilger, 
■* when he noticed a woman some distance from the road whose 
strange actions decided him to go to her. He found a comely 
looking young woman with her hands tied behind her back, 
and a rope securely fastened around her waist, and tied to a 
stake driven into the ground. Near by were a shanty and 
two stacks of grain. She was entirely alone. After he had 
cut the ropes, the woman, who was a German, told him, as 
well as she could in broken English, that her husband had 
engaged the threshers for three successive days previous, and 
she had cooked and prepared for them the first two days, they 
failing to come. The third day she refused to cook again, and 

Railroad migration into northern Nebraska. 29 

they came, and the husband, to punish her and emphasize his 
authority, had tied her hands and lariated her out in the 
sun. He disappeared and was not seen afterwards. 

The other incident was as folloAvs: In 1870 a Mr. New- 
burn, who lived on a homestead near the present site of the 
town of Beemer, had cultivated a patch of watermelons. A 
party consisting of Hon. Lorenzo Crounse (then district 
judge and since governor of Nebraska), Z. Shedd, M. B. 
Hoxie, and C. W. Walton, attorneys, was driving past en 
route to West Point. Crounse, Shedd, and Hoxie entered 
the melon patch to test the products. Each took a melon 
under each arm and started to their wagon, when Newburn 
appeared, demanding in angry tones, "what kind of a set of 
d — d thieves' 7 were stealing his melons. Shedd, gathering his 
senses first, replied indignantly by asking what he meant by 
such language, and asked if he knew whom he was addressing, 
explaining, "This is his honor, Judge Crounse, and I am Z. 
Shedd, a laAvyer from Fremont," etc., to which Newburn 
replied," "I do not care a d — n who you are, you will pay me 
fifty cents each for those melons, or I will go with you to 
West Point and have }^ou arrested, as you deserve." Three 
dollars were promptly paid, and the party left. Shortly after 
they arrived at West Point, Newburn came in, and as he had 
known the Judge and Shedd all the time, he told the story, 
which their friends enjoyed, he returning the three dollars 
and giving the party more melons. Newburn was satisfied, 
and all enjoyed the joke. 

In 1879 the Elkhorn K. R. was extended to Battle Creek, 
in 1880 to Neligh, the present county seat of Antelope county. 

In the fall of 1880 I came to the road. I found all that 
northern portion of the state very sparsely settled or wholly 
unoccupied, and in fact but little known about it. I found 
there were millions on millions of acres of government land 
which was available under the "homestead," the "pre-emp- 
tion," and the "tree claim" or "timber culture acts," whereby 
a man could procure 160 acres, and after living on it fourteen 



months could commute the remaining- four years by paying 
$1.25 per acre and get patent. That he could move onto an- 
other 160 acres as a "homestead" and at the same time file on 
another 160 acres as a "tree claim/ 7 and by planting a certain 
number of trees, ten acres, I believe, plowing a fire-guard 
around them, at the same time occupying his homestead, at 
the end of five years, if he had done the stipulated small 
amount of work on the homestead, and could also make affi- 
davit that the requisite number of trees were alive and grow- 
ing on his claim, he could get patents for both. Thus, in six 
years, he could acquire 480 acres of land, only having paid 
the filing fees, about f 14 on each quarter, and the commuta- 
tion of $200 on one quarter. 

These conditions, with some knowledge of human nature, 
gave me the inspiration on which I promptly acted, advertis- 
ing in flaming posters and seductive, but more modest, 


That was my slogan, or rallying phrase. It headed every 
circular, folder, and poster which I issued, and I issued them 
by the million. I spread them over Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, 
Wisconsin, Michigan, and Ohio, and even worked some in 
New York and Pennsylvania. Everywhere, and in every pos- 
sible publication and newspaper, printed in black, blue, and 
red ink, in the English and German languages, this sentence 


There seems to be an inherent desire in human nature to 
get "something for nothing," and here I was offering free 
homes — 160 acres of good American soil— by the million. It 
took with the people, and the tide of immigration started to 
north Nebraska. There was a very sparse populat ion in I lie 
counties upon our line as far as Antelope county: This w ill 
appear from an old folder which I issued, probably in 1883 


or 1884 (it was not dated), which states in English and Ger- 
man that there were — 


"The above invitation is to all who come early." 
Then, for those who have money and want a home nearer 
by, I say— 

"In Washington county there are 150,000 acres of unim- 
proved land available at from $10 to f 20 per acre." 

In Dodge county were 190,000 acres unimproved land at 
from $7 to $20 per acre. 

In Cuming county there were 210,000 acres unimproved 
land at from $3 to $7.50 per acre. 

In Stanton county 225,000 acres unimproved land at $2.50 
to $5 per acre. 

In Madison county 200,000 acres at $2 to $7 per acre. 

Antelope county 500,000 acres at $1.25 to $6.50 per acre. 

Holt county 300,000 acres at $1.25 to $6.50 per acre. 

Pierce county 200,000 acres at $2.50 to $6 per acre. 

Knox county 160,000 acres at $1.25 to $6 per acre. 

Over 2,000,000 acres in these counties at $1.25 to $20 per 
acre. It is perhaps needless to say that now no land can be 
purchased in Dodge county on the east at less than $15 to $60 
per acre, nor in Holt county, the farthest west of the counties 
named, for less than $20 to $10 per acre. I rode over a farm 
in Antelope county a few weeks ago for which $50 per acre 
was offered and declined, and which I know at the time of 
the above advertising could have been bought at $5 or less 
per acre. 

All that territory west of Holt county, now embraced in 
the counties of Rock, Keya Paha, Brown, Cherry, Sheridan, 
Box Butte, Dawes, Sioux, and all that part of Boyd lying 
south of Keya Paha river, was attached to Holt county for 
judicial purposes, and known as Sionx county, otherwise 
unorganized. There were not five hundred people in all of 
them. I am not able to say what was in Wheeler, Garfield, 



Blaine, Thomas, Hooker, Grant, or Scotts Bluff, lying imme- 
diately south of the large unorganized country named, but no 
doubt they were as unsettled as the above. In fact, outside 
the little settlement by General O'Neill's party and a few 
others there were no settlements in Holt county, only about 
3,000 people in all. 

Now, there is a population of over fifty thousand in those 
new counties, most of which, at the time I referred to above, 
were attached to Holt county for judicial purposes. 

There is an increased population in Holt county and the 
counties east of our main line, of about one hundred 

There are half as many more, or an increase of at least 
fifty thousand, in that territory west of our main line and 
along and west of the branch line since built, which leaves 
the main line at Scribner, passing through Colfax, Platte, 
and Boone counties, and joining the main line again at 

The extension of the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley 
R. R. enabled me to continue this, as it pierced that wholly 
unoccupied section. The railroad was extended in 1880 from 
Norfolk to Plainview; in 1881 from Plainview to Creighton, 
and from Neligh to O'Neill, and to Long Pine; in 1882 from 
Long Pine to Thatcher; in 1883 from Thatcher to Valentine; 
in 1884 the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley R. R. was 
purchased by the Chicago & North-Western Ry. Co., and its 
future extension directed under that ownership. In 1885 it 
was extended from Valentine to Chadron, and from Chadron 
to Buffalo Gap, at the base of the Black Hills; in 188G from 
Buffalo Gap to Rapid City, South Dakota, and the same year 
another line was constructed starting from Chadron, or 
rather starting from a point now called ''Dakota Junction." 
which is five miles directly west of Chadron, whence it ran 
through Nebraska to the Wyoming state line, and thence 
through Wyoming in succeeding years to Casper, in Natrona 


This railroad had no land grant, and the Union Pacific and 
the Burlington & Missouri R. R. both having large grants, out 
of which they could pay for liberal advertising, and offer other 
liberal inducements, drew people to the South Platte. I was 
at a great disadvantage; our company was running into an 
unoccupied country, and had little business comparatively; 
and I trust I may be forgiven for having resorted to the only 
method within my means and at my disposal to attract atten- 
tion to the north Nebraska country. At any rate, it clearly 
resulted in adding at least two hundred thousand people to 
the population of that portion of the state, and the section is 
now, I believe, recognized as the very best in the state, and 
the people are prosperous, thrifty, and contented. 

When I commenced advertising — 


I knew the land and conditions in all the northeastern part 
of the state and as far west as Holt county were superb, and 
would respond bountifully to good farming. I took pains to 
have the soil west of there analyzed, and found the constitu- 
ents adapted to cropping. I had also investigated the rain- 
fall. An army officer at Ft. Niobrara took account of it regu- 
larly and reported to me the precipitation was 16 to 22 inches 
in the spring, summer, and fall. At the same time, the precip- 
itation at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and at Rochester, New 
York, was reported about 18 to 23 inches during the same 
time. This, I believed, justified my belief that there was suffi- 
cient precipitation to warrant the expectation that crops 
would grow where there was so much vegetation growing. 
Then, too, I shared the common belief that turning up the 
moist soil would add to the moisture in the atmosphere, re- 
sulting in added precipitation, and so that each such effort 
and growing crops would aid in redeeming that portion of the 
so-called arid belt, and I accordingly encouraged — even pilot- 
ing some — colonies to go well westward, where I knew there 
was excellent soil. Those who confined themselves to crop 



raising exclusively in these western sections proved to them- 
selves and to me that it was a mistake, and I quit advising 
farmers to go so far out, Those who acquired the free land 
and put a little stock on it were delighted and prosperous, and 
all who have gone since and pursued the same plan have pros- 
pered. The raising of vegetables, especially potatoes, proved 
successful and profitable, but corn, wheat, and general crop- 
ping were unprofitable. The "farmers" proper ultimately 
moved eastward into that section east of about the one hun- 
dredth meridian, and they, too, have prospered. 
It was the advancing railroad and the — 

"free homes for the million" 

Advertising which accomplished the result and peopled north 
Nebraska. This, not only immediately along the line of the 
Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley R. R., but the popula- 
tion spread out to the north boundary of the state on the 
north, and covered two and more counties to the south of the 
line of our railroad, and the entire north part of the state is 
fairly well settled. 


Presented by J. II. Ager 1 at the Annual Meeting of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society,, January 
15, 1902. 

The subject assigned to me is "Nebraska Politics and Ne- 
braska Railroads." The inference carried by the title would 
seem to be that the railroads entering Nebraska are more or 

3 J. H. Ager was born at Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, in 1847. He resided 
in that state until the age of twenty-one, except during his service in 
Company H, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, in the Civil War. He entered 
railroad service in Kansas and Nebraska in 1867; was in the mercantile 
and banking business from 1878 to 1887; settled in Lincoln in 1887, and 
was state railroad commissioner for three years. He entered the ser\ Ice 
of the Burlington railroad as special agent in 1892 and still occupies I his 



less active in politics, and this inference I readily grant. In 
discussing the subject, I hope to be able to give you, from the 
railroad's standpoint, sufficient reasons for their right to 
take such interest as well as the extent and objects of their 

A recital of the history of the railroads of Nebraska would 
be but the telling of the story of the marvelous growth and 
development of this rich and fertile state. The railroads of 
Nebraska pay into the several treasuries of the state nearly 
one-sixth of all the taxes paid, and, second only to the brain 
and brawn of the men who conceived and built its cities, and 
changed its unbroken prairies into productive farms, have 
been the most potential factor in its development and in mul- 
tiplying many times the value of its fertile acres. Preceding 
the commencement of the construction of the two great sys- 
tems of railroads in Nebraska, the territory which they trav- 
erse was popularly supposed to be practically uninhabitable 
as an agricultural country; but the far-sighted, sanguine men 
who invaded the territory and risked their capital in railroad 
construction saw farther than the men whose judgment pro- 
nounced the country an arid waste. They found here a fertile 
soil and a genial climate, that gave promise of a rich field for 
the agriculturist and stock man. 

Simultaneously with railroad construction they began the 
work of supplying to the people of the eastern states such 
information as to the country's natural resources as had in- 
duced them to send their capital west, and as would bring 
immigration. Lured by the promises of future rise in values, 
and the hope of securing homes and a competency, the strong, 
ambitious, and sanguine first sons of families in other states 
came to Nebraska and engaged in its development, undergo- 
ing the hardships and privations inevitable to pioneer life, 
and in this work each individual became a partner of the rail- 
roads, laboring to the accomplishment of the same end — the 
utilization of natural conditions to the betterment of them- 
selves and all the people. 



The railroads through their agents said to the people of the 
East, "Out there in Nebraska there is a soil unsurpassed for 
fertility and ease of tillage, a climate as favorable to agri- 
cultural pursuits as any in the world. We are going out 
there to spend our money in its development, and we want 
your help. Our railroads can not do the work alone. We 
want you to go out and cultivate the lands, build cities and 
factories, raise cattle, horses, hogs, and sheep. Our part of 
the work shall be to haul your surplus products to market 
and bring you such things as you may need from other sec- 
tions of the country." Upon this proposition hands were 
joined, and the work of settlement, development, and railroad 
construction has, with few interruptions, gone continuously 
forward, and Nebraska has reached a place well toward the 
head of the procession in the sisterhood of states, the result 
of cooperation and a community of interests of the railroads 
and the people. 

Take an instance typical of most. A man from the East, 
equipped with health, industry, and a determination to suc- 
ceed, homesteaded a quarter-section of government land, or 
perhaps bought from the railroad at fl.25 per acre, a farm, 
say in Kearney county, in the central part of the state. Pre- 
vious to the advent of the railroad his land had but little 
value, other than the speculative value based upon the com- 
ing of a road. True, he and his family might derive from its 
cultivation the provisions necessary to their existence, and a 
restricted local market might be found for a limited surplus. 

In time the road was built, and a station opened within 
hauling distance of his farm. A market town sprang up. 
While the productive value of his land in bushels and pounds 
was unchanged, its market value was multiplied two, four, or 
perhaps ten times, because the railroad had created a new 
value for its products. The gate which heretofore stood 
closed betAveen the products of his land and the consumers of 
the East was pushed open by the locomotive, and lie (hen 
learned that the value of his wheat and corn was affected 


more by a thirty-mile haul in a farm wagon than by a thou- 
sand miles in a freight car. It was as though the manufac- 
turer of the East, the fruit grower of Florida and the Pacific 
Coast, the lumberman of Michigan, and the coal men of other 
states had moved into Kearney county and become his neigh- 
bors, in respect to the facility and cheapness with which an 
exchange of his products for theirs could be effected. 

Nebraska is essentially an agricultural state, and upon the 
occupants of the farms, more than upon any other class, do 
the railroads depend for business. Crop failures and short 
crops mean to the railroads idle cars and idle men, Avith con- 
sequent loss of revenue, without a corresponding decrease in 
the fixed charges which constitute about 80 per cent of the 
gross outlay of the railroad. The conditions necessary to 
insure good crops are as anxiously hoped for and their pres- 
ence hailed with as much satisfaction by the managers of 
western railroads as by the tillers of western farms. 

The state, by reason of its long distance from the grain 
markets of the East, is naturally somewhat handicapped, but 
the managers of the railroads have sought to so regulate the 
rates as to overcome this disadvantage and enable the Ne- 
braska farmer to successfully compete in the marketing of 
his products with the farmers occupying the high priced 
lands of Iowa, Illinois, and other eastern states, and com- 
plaints have been lodged with the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission by the farmers of the latter named states, charging 
discrimination by the railroads in grain rates, in favor of 
Nebraska, Kansas, and the Dakotas. Twenty years ago the 
average freight rate per ton per mile, received by the Ne- 
braska roads, was a fraction more than three cents. The 
average rate received for the year ending June 30, 1900, the 
latest data I could obtain, had fallen to one cent and 11/100 
of a mill. Today the wheat of Nebraska is being taken to the 
Atlantic seaboard for export, for 6.2 mills per ton per mile, 
and corn for 4.97 mills. At this rate a farmer hauling one 
and one-half tons per load, thirty miles per day, would re- 
ceive for the day's work for himself and team 25 Vi cents for 


hauling wheat, and less than IT cents for hauling corn. It 
used to cost $10 to get a barrel of flour carried from Buffalo 
to New York. That amount will now carry a ton of Nebraska 
wheat from Hastings to New York, a distance of 1,505 miles, 
and leave thirty cents unexpended. The amount that it took 
in 1859 to send a letter weighing one ounce, from the Mis- 
souri river to San Francisco by Col. Alexander Major's pony 
express, will send a ton of Nebraska corn 1,006 miles on its 
journey for export to Europe. 

The first passenger tariff issued by the' Union Pacific rail- 
road, taking effect July 16, 1866, as far as Kearney, made 
the rate of ten cents per passenger per mile. The average 
rate received by the Nebraska railroads, excluding free trans- 
portation, for the year ending June 30, 1900, had fallen to 
2 33/100 cents 'per mile. These comparisons are made to 
show that the railroads have been continually and voluntarily 
doing their part to assist the people in the work of the devel- 
opment of the state by reducing rates as fast as increasing 
business would enable them to do so. 

It will be remembered by those present that during the 
almost total failure of crops in western Nebraska, in 1880, 
and again in 1893 and 1895, the railroads voluntarily came 
to the relief of the sufferers by furnishing free transportation 
to thousands of the citizens of the drouth-stricken localities 
who came to the eastern part of the state, or went to other 
states in search of employment, and to the numerous agents 
of different localities who went east to solicit aid from their 
more fortunate brethren; and in one year, more than a quar- 
ter of a million dollars in freight charges was rebated lo Hie 
people of the western part of this state on seed grain and feed 
for teams and other stock, and relief goods. 

The foregoing has, I believe, established the right of the 
railroads to an interest in the politics of the state, for in al- 
most every case political issues resolve themselves into mere 
business issues, in which so great a factor as the railroads of 
Nebraska are certain to be affected one way or the other. 


The extent to which the railroads participate in politics is 
and has always been very greatly overestimated. Politicians 
and -the press have very often found it seemingly to their 
interest to mislead the people on this subject, and the de- 
feated candidate in convention and at the polls has many 
times jumped to the conclusion that he was beaten by the 
railroads, when as a matter of fact the railroads had no ob- 
ject or participation in his defeat. As in every other state, 
so in Nebraska, large numbers of men seeking public office 
have sought to gain favor with the people by charging all 
their misfortunes to oppression by railroads and other cor- 
porations, and some years back a great party, which for sev- 
eral years swept the state, was created and built up on the 
theory that the interests of the railroads and the people were 
divergent and conflicting, and that the former were engaged 
in robbing the latter of the legitimate fruits of their toil. 
Demagogues in all parties encouraged this idea, and the state 
was overrun with candidates for office, and politicians de- 
manding the most stringent and unjust legislation against 
nearly all forms of corporate enterprise. Up to this time 
railroad participation in state politics has been more in the 
nature of rivalry between the Union Pacific and the Burling- 
ton roads in their efforts to settle up the territory north and 
south of the Platte, through which their respective lines run. 
But the aggressive action of the new party caused the rival 
roads to make common cause against threatened adverse leg- 
islation. A legislature was elected; a majority of which was 
pledged to radical rate regulation, and a bill known as the 
Newberry bill was introduced. Neither the introducer of the 
bill nor a single member of that legislature pretended to 
know anything about the numerous factors that enter into 
the adjustment of railroad freight rates, and as a matter of 
course were unable to say whether the then prevailing rates 
were unreasonable or not. The question had been made a 
political issue, and they were bound by party pledges to re- 
duce rates anyhoAv. There was not a man in the body who 
had ever spent a single day in the service of any railroad 



company, making rate sheets. And from the very nature of 
tilings they could not have known whether or not railroad 
rates were too high or too low. This fact was emphasized 
when, some days after the bill was introduced, it was discov- 
ered that the bill actually raised nearly every rate in the 
schedule. When this fact became known, the bill was with- 
drawn and another introduced, making an average rate so 
low as to have finally been declared by the United States Su- 
preme Court to be unconstitutional because the reductions 
were so great as to make them confiscatory. However, the 
agitation for a reduction of rates was continued by the i>oli- 
ticians, although the people themselves were making little if 
any complaint. I do not think that so much misinformation 
was ever furnished to the people of this state on any other 
subject by the politicians who hoped to secure office for them- 
selves or friends, by arousing and taking advantage of preju- 
dice against the corporations. One incident in illustration : 
one of the founders of the new party, a former farmer but at 
that time publishing a newspaper, made complaint before the 
board of transportation, charging the railroads Avith extor- 
tion amounting to robbery on grain rates to Chicago. After 
a radical speech to the board on these lines, in which he 
stated that he represented the fanners of this state, I asked 
him if he thought the farmers of Nebraska would be satisfied 
with a rate which would carry their wheat to the Chicago 
market at three cents per ton per mile. He replied, "yes, if 
the railroads would make that sort of a rate, I would not be 
here to complain.-' When I showed him that there was at 
that time no rate in the state higher than a cent and a quar- 
ter per ton per mild, he admitted that he knew nothing at all 
of the details of the rate question, and was relying on the 
oft-repeated charge that rates were too high. 

The prejudices engendered in the public mind were taken 
advantage of by individuals, usually not members of either 
branch of the legislature, to procure (he introduction and 
passage by the house or senate of all sorts of hills attacking 
corporate interests, with no other motive than that of per- 


sonal gain by traffic in their real or assumed influence with 
the members. The business has grown from year to year, 
until it has- almost assumed the dignity of a profession, and 
many members of the legislature have afterward become 
aware of the fact that they had unwittingly lent themselves 
to the consummation of the schemes of the professional hold- 
up. During more than one session of the legislature regular 
syndicates have been formed for the introduction of what 
have by long familiarity become known to the general public 
as hold-up bills. These bills have not always attacked cor- 
porations. Bills to reduce fees of sheriffs, county clerks, 
clerks of the courts, and other county officers, so-called pure 
food bills, attacking a single article of manufacture, bills for 
the regulation of various kinds of business have been intro- 
duced with the purpose and expectation of causing the par- 
ties threatened to hurry to the state, house and raise a fund 
to be disbursed for the defeat of such legislation. During the 
last session of the legislature bills were introduced to regu- 
late freight rates, to regulate the length of freight trains, pre- 
scribing the number of brakemen to a train, to compel the 
railroads to equip their engines with certain kinds of ashpans, 
to equip Pullman cars with fireproof safes, and numerous 
other bills of like character. Believing that the rates at- 
tacked were just and reasonable, and that the details of the 
management and operation of the road could better be left 
to the men who by years of service in the employ of the roads 
had become familiar with the subject, the railroad companies 
of course opposed such legislation. There has scarcely been 
a bill of this character affecting the railroads, introduced in 
the last ten years, that some man assuming to have great in- 
fluence with the members has not sought out a representative 
of one or more of the railroad companies and offered for a 
consideration to prevent its passage. It is due to the mem- 
bers of the legislature, however, to say that in most instances 
these offers have come from the outside, from men who have 
sought to use the members of the legislature for purposes of 
personal gain, although I have known of regular syndicates 



being- formed almost entirely of members of the two houses, 
and I recollect one instance in which a demand was made on 
an auxiliary railroad corporation for $8,000, and two annual 
passes, the two latter to be given to an employee of the senate 
and his partner, who drew a certain bill and had it intro- 
duced. A representative of the corporation attacked hurried 
out from Chicago, and before seeing any member of the syn- 
dicate asked me what I would advise his doing. I advised 
public exposure of all the men implicated. He did not see fit 
to follow nij' advice, and I was afterwards informed by a rep- 
resentative of the company that $2,000 had been paid to de- 
feat the measure. As I stated before, this was not a railroad 
bill, and the railroads had nothing to do with it. The fore- 
going is but one of several like incidents which have come 
within my knowledge. It has been charged by those ignorant 
of the facts that large sums of money are paid by the rail- 
roads to defeat legislation. So far as this charge applies to 
any period of which I have knowledge, which covers at least 
the last six sessions of the legislature, not one single dollar 
has ever been given to a member of the legislature, to any- 
body for him, or to any member of any syndicate, for this or 
any other purpose of like character. 

It has always been my policy, which policy has been ap- 
proved by the management of the Burlington road, which I 
have had the honor to represent, to furnish .to the members 
of the legislature all possible information that they may re- 
quire in legislating upon any subject touching the interests 
of the railroads, relying upon the fact that a majority of the 
legislators are honest men and intend when fully informed to 
do justice to the railroads as well as to any other legitimate 
interest. The last legislature, like its predecessors, for at 
least five sessions, contained within its membership practical 
representatives of most of the chief industries and professions 
existing or practiced in the state. Among its numbers were 
managers of farms, stock ranches, stores, mills, factories, 
banks, while lawyers, physicians, teachers, mechanics, and 
insurance men helped to make up the body. Yet of its entire 



membership of 133, not one man connected with the manage- 
ment of any portion of the 5,884 miles of railroad in Ne- 
braska, entering all bnt six of the counties of the state, built 
at a cost of many millions of dollars, paying in 1900 taxes to 
the amount of $1,109,474, giving employment to 14,858 men, 
to whom are paid yearly salaries aggregating more than 
8,000,000 of dollars, has had a voice in the deliberations upon 
the floor of either house, or a vote upon any measure upon 
which it has been called to act. This fact is referred to sim- 
ply to direct your attention to the further fact that it is only 
by appearing by representatives before the legislative com- 
mittees that the roads can make known to the legislature the 
views of their management upon proposed legislation affect- 
ing their interests. 

The friends to whom I have confided the details of some of 
the schemes that outside lobbyists have undertaken to make 
money out of, have saitl, "Why don't you expose them?" My 
answer has invariably been that I had never taken any pains 
to conceal any knowledge I possessed on the subject, or to 
shield or excuse any man connected with the nefarious busi- 
ness. At the last session of the legislature one of the mis- 
cellaneous corporations did accuse a couple of outside lobby- 
ists of procuring the introduction of several bills of this 
'character, and instead of meeting the approval of the legisla- 
ture as they had expected they would, the story was at once 
started that the corporation itself had stood behind the intro- 
duction of the bills, and had made the exposure in bad faith, 
for the purpose of bringing into bad repute any bill affecting 
that corporation. 

A railroad manager entrusted with the care of the great 
properties represented by the railroad systems in this state 
would be culpable indeed should he not do all in his power in 
a legitimate way to protect his stockholders against the on- 
slaught upon their property made for mere political pur- 
poses, or in furtherance of the money-making schemes of pri- 
vate individuals. At a republican state convention some 
years ago the then attorney general of the state stood in the 



corridors of the capitol hotel importuning the delegates to 
the convention to vote for the nomination of a certain man 
as judge of the supreme court, on the plea that he was 
"against the railroads.' 7 The case was one in which the rail- 
roads felt entirely justified in trying to prevent his nomina- 
tion, as were also the cases of the six state senators previously 
referred to who formed a combine for extorting money from 
the corporations, and I am happy to state that not one of the 
six was nominated for a second term although all Avere candi- 
dates for renomination. 

In closing permit me to say that the political interests of 
the railroads are best subserved by the election of honest and 
capable men to all the offices within the state. The railroads 
are best served by that legislation which fosters the growth 
and development of its varied agricultural and commercial 
possibilities. Whenever a mile of railroad is built in Ne- 
braska, somebody's land is made more valuable, and the num- 
ber of his conveniences and comforts increased. Whenever a 
quarter-section of Nebraska prairie is turned into a product- 
ive farm, some railroad is benefited by the receipt of new 
business. All citizens in Nebraska should feel the same de- 
gree of pride in its splendid railroads and their unexcelled 
equipment and service that the managers of the roads feel in 
its rich and beautiful farms, its sleek herds, its great pack- 
ing houses, its thriving cities, and numerous and varied man- 
ufactories. All these are the product of the joint efforts of 
the railroads and people, and every interest in its effort for 
expansion and betterment owes to all others fair, unpreju- 
diced treatment, and willing cooperation. No legitimate in- 
terest in Nebraska or elsewhere can prosper if it becomes the 
oppressor of other legitimate interests. This applies as well 
to the treatment of railroads by the people as to that accorded 
to their patrons by the roads; their interests are so closely 
interwoven that neither can prosper without mutual benefit, 
or suffer without mutual loss. 




Speeches Made at the Annual Meeting op the Nebraska 
State Historical Society, January 15, 1902. 

remarks by isaac s. hascall. 1 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, and Territorial 
Pioneers — There are but few of us present, but I think if we 
will make an effort at the next state fair we will get the pio- 
neers of the state together. I am satisfied that we are fortu- 
nate in having the officers we have, and I know the pride that 
our President takes in all such matters that concern Ne- 
braska, especially not only in horticulture, but agriculture 
and history, and for that reason he takes pride in getting out 
the old pioneers; and what one doesn't know the other will. 
And it is not a bad thing to get together and have a system- 
atic statement of how we came into existence and what we 
are doing now. It has not been very long, according to the 
old pioneer, as you grow older and I grow older, and conse- 
quently thirty or forty years does not appear to be much. Of 
course, I am a young man; I came ahead of the railroads to 
Chicago and to the Mississippi and to Nebraska, and I know 
when Ben Wade and Lyman Trumbull and his party came to 
Omaha they held a little reception in the old capitol building 
on the hill. Trumbull said he had been out over the state of 
Nebraska, and thought it was a beautiful country, and 
thought in a short time it would be intersected by railroads 
the same as Illinois. There was no such place as Lin- 

1 Isaac S. Hascall, pioneer lawyer, Omaha. Nebraska, was born in Erie 
county, New York, March 8, 1831; was admitted to practice law in the 
courts of New York, and in 1854 went to Kansas. In the spring of 1855 
he arrived in Nebraska, and during that summer was engaged in survey- 
ing township lines in Nemaha and Otoe counties. He returned to Kansas 
and engaged in the practice of law at Atchison. While there he was 
elected a member of the constitutional convention of Kansas, and was 
later elected probate judge. In 1860 he went to Colorado and Oregon, 
thence to Idaho City, Idaho, where he remained four years. After sev- 
eral months spent in traveling, he settled at Omaha in March, 1865. He 
was appointed probate judge of Douglas county in 1865, and in 1866 was 
elected state senator; in 1870 was reelected, and made president of the 
senate. In the spring of 1871 he was elected to the constitutional con- 
vention of that year. Mr. Hascall died at Omaha January 17, 1907. 



coin in those early times, but Lincoln was the product, you 
might say, of the first legislature that had power to legislate, 
and while it met with some opposition in my city of Omaha, 
still I thought Omaha was having the capital placed in a cen- 
tral point, where it was liable to remain, and it had a healthy 
locality and would build up into a beautiful city. The orig- 
inal bill was for "Capital City" and the parties that were 
putting the bill through had agreed among themselves 
that they Avould not allow in another man, but I happened to 
be a member at that time, and my colleague was Hon. Nelson 
Patrick. We said if there was to be a capital for Nebraska 
that it ought to have a good name, consequently we agreed we 
would bring forward the name of "Lincoln," which was 
brought up, and it took one vote from the opposition to carry 
it, and consequently this city has the name of Lincoln today. 
It is one of the best names you could have. Capital City was 
too much of a one-horse place in the wilderness, but we are 
no longer in the Avilderness. In fact, when you come to con- 
sider that since the Civil War the population of the United 
States has doubled, then it is no wonder that Nebraska has 
its million of people. We have got plenty of soil and acres 
of land, and it wants what this horticultural and agricul- 
tural society is doing and the state officers are accomplishing, 
and we want to encourage the people to engage in that which 
will benefit mankind. So far as our schools are concerned" 
we have as good an educational system as anywhere in the 
United States, and I am glad to know that the census of the 
United States shows us standing at the; front in reference to 
average intelligence. If there was a property qualification I 
think they would all vote, women and all. If we all come to 
know and look over the situation and compare filings it will 
benefit us. I was unfortunate in 1855, and came up the Mis- 
souri river to Nebraska City, and we didn't have to turn out 
for farms, but the country prairie and (lie Missouri river 
along the old road leading to Nebraska City Prom Rulo was 
the handsomest country in the United States. 1 have heard 
about the Santa Clara valley, but we excel it. 



We have got a western man for president that is going to 
perfect a system of irrigation that will bring fruitfulness 
to the soil and prosperity to the state. I hope we will 
all live until we find this water stored here, and it has to 
evaporate. Certainly the United States is doing what 
England is doing in Egypt. They are piling up head dams 
and stopping up that great river, and they are going to 
raise all the tropical products and some that grow in the 
temperate zone. There is no bad land from here to the moun- 
tains; consequently, we must consider that we are fortunate 
in every respect. There is good water In Nebraska. See our 
old time-honored Governor Thayer of Nebraska, hero of many 
wars, he is still here, proof that it is fine water, but you must 
not go out and keep your mouth open during a blizzard. 
But everybody thinks it is good enough to live in and to die 
in, and we will stay together and put in our energies and put 
in the work Ave ought to do. You may talk about your rivers, 
but we can look upon the Missouri and Mississippi as the 
longest river in the world. We have got a prosperous and 
vigorous community, one that has got the elements to create 
a state equal to an old state like New York or Pennsylvania. 
While we must not pretend to say that we have got the best 
interests, Ave Avill have interests equal to any of them. 

President Furnas: Will Governor Thayer favor the As- 
sociation Avith a feAv words? 

Governor Thayer : I am in no condition to speak, or even 
stand up. I had a misfortune happen to my limb, and it is 
paining me this afternoon. Why not call on some of the 
older ones of this organization, that are older in age? 

President Furnas — You are one of the oldest in years. 

Governor Thayer — I Avas here at an early day. I recol- 
lect, but I can not take the time or make the effort to speak 
at any length this afternoon. I am much pleased at the com- 
ing around of this Association occasion. When this Associa- 
tion conies together, — I Avish J could have seen more here 
than I do at present, for it is an organization Avhich should 



be continued by meeting every year, certain and often. I am 
glad to have a meeting at the time of the meeting of the state 
fair ; perhaps we can draw more together then than noAV. 

I might give some reminiscences of an early day. I recall 
well of meeting yourself [Mr. Furnas], for instance, at an / 
early day here in Nebraska, your secretary [D. H. Wheeler], 
and others. My old friend, Mr. Kennard, I see here. By the 
way, I think if I were called upon to say anything I should 
call upon him to act as a substitute for me. There was a 
time, years back, when substitutes were put forward to take 
the place of others who didn't feel like going forward, and I 
know from experience that Mr. Kennard would be a good 
substitute. It was with reference to bringing the territory 
in as a state. I can recall how naturally my friend Kennard 
talked to the people in favor of it, but I will hardly enter 
upon that, unless you have something to say, Mr. Kennard. 
(I shall call upon him when I sit down.) We traveled north 
and south and AvestAvard in order to do what Ave could to help 
fonvard the introduction of the admission of Nebraska as a 
state. That brings to my mind an instance which is, and Avas 
at the time, very interesting to me, and in place of anything 
Avhich I can not offer better, I will relate it. It is rather of 
national character. After the legislature had met and elected 
tAvo senators Avith the vieAv to the admission of the state, it 
became my duty to take a trip to Washington to take the con- 
stitution Avhich had been prepared. Well, Ave found that Ave 
had something of a task before us. 

My first call upon the members of the Senate Avas upon the 
old hickory senator, Ben Wade, of Ohio. He Avas chairman 
of the committee on territories. He received me with a great 
deal of apparent satisfaction, for they Avere desirous of get- 
ting tAvo more republican senators into the Senate. He took 
hold of the matter with great earnestness. I found I would 
have to visit a number of senators, and the next morning I 
called upon Sumner. It had been intimated that lie would 
be against admission, because the word "white" was in the 
constitution, and I anticipated hostility, but several senators 



advised me to see him. Mr. Tipton was not there at first and 
did not take much part in the work of admission. I sent up 
my card to Senator Sumner, and the word came down, "Show 
him up." I entered his room and he was sitting at his desk. 
There was one person present, Ben Perley Poore, whom some 
of you have known by reputation or have read of. He was a 
very prominent Washington correspondent, especially of the 
Washington. Journal. I stated to the Senator my object in 
calling. He turned upon me almost fiercely and said, "How 
can the people of Nebraska send their messenger here and 
ask for the admission of Nebraska as a state with the word 
'white' in its constitution?" Well, it was a rather abrupt 
way of meeting me. (I don't desire this to be taken down, I 
may some time put it in print.) "Well," I said, "it is there 
in the constitution, not by my agency in any respect. I don't 
like it there, but I had to present it just as it was delivered to 
me by the. legislature." It was a matter that I had to meet on 
that ground. 

I said, "Mr. Sumner, I have my own views on that point, 
and I am as much opposed to the word 'white' in the consti- 
tution as you are. I have had some experience with the black 
people ( I thought I would use the strongest arguments I 
could with him), and my association with them in the late 
war has made me pretty strongly in favor of the right of 
suffrage being given to the black race." 

That seemed to mollify him somewhat, and I went on and 
explained that. during my service in the war I had two col- 
ored regiments under my command for nearly a year, and 
three Indian regiments. There was no doubt about the char- 
acter of the blacks, but the Indian regiments, my experience 
was, that I would not give a farthing for them. I would not 
trust them near an enemy unless well supported by black and 
white troops. I had observed these black troops regularly 
while in camp and on the march. The black troops had the 
tactics and while in camp they would study them. They were 
trying to be soldiers, and they succeeded. I never saw better 
soldiers in front of the enemy than your black troops, and I 



said to the senator, "they determined me in favor of giving 
them the franchise. I then learned that the men. who had 
been fighting on my side of the Union were worthy to vote by 
my side, and that, should I reach Nebraska again, I said it 
will be my aim to enact the word 'white' out of the 

These remarks seemed to make a decided impression on 
him. I said furthermore, "We live and learn in this country. 
The people have to be educated. I can remember in my boy- 
hood days reading when William Lloyd Garrison Avas chased 
through the streets of Boston by a howling mob, when the 
mayor of that city and police got him into the jail and turned 
the key upon the multitude to protect him. That was in your 
city of Boston. That can not be done now; things have 
changed. The people have changed and have improved in 
their own views on public affairs and public rights, and we 
shall change in Nebraska. The people will be ready ere long- 
to blot that word ' white' from the constitution." All of this 
conversation made a decided impression on him. 

In a day or two afterwards I made the suggestion first to 
Senator Fessenden, a man avIio was more respected than some 
of them. I suggested this : "Supposing the legislature of 
Nebraska should come together and agree to accept the con- 
ditions which you may impose, passing your resolution 
through Congress declaring that the state might be admitted 
if the legislature would pledge itself faithfully to treat that 
word 'white' as a nullity." 

I will make the story short as possible. You recollect that, 
at the instance of Governor Saunders, a resolution which had 
passed both houses of Congress containing that provision, 
was agreed to by the legislature by a special act, the act which 
I took back to Washington. I came back to Nebraska ad- 
vised that whenever the President should receive the act of 
the legislature of Nebraska, pledging itself io treat the word 
"white" as a nullity, he should declare Nebraska as a state 
admitted into the Union. T brought the act back and deliv- 
ered it to him, and he issued his proclamation. During (he 



quarrel between the President and Congress his hands had 
been tied so completely that he didn't dare to hesitate to issue 
the proclamation because the air was full of impeachments 
then of the President. Nebraska was admitted in that way. 
Now I have stood longer than I felt able to stand, and taken 
up more of your time than I intended to, but I have taken 
this course to get out of the Avay of making any lengthy 
speech. I am glad to meet with you, and hope you will have 
the privilege of coming together many years in the future. 

President Furnas : We thank the Governor for his short 
address. I was about to call out the same gentleman he 
named, and now I will call on Mr. Kennard to follow up 
Governor Thayer. 

Thomas P. Kennard i 1 Mr. President, and fellow members 
of the Pioneer Association — I hardly know what to say be- 
fore an audience of this kind. Is there anything better than 
to compare the past with the present, and comparing the past 
with the present anticipate the future? Is that right? In 
1857 I lived in central Indiana. I took Horace Greeley's ad- 
vice to "Go west, young man, and grow up with the country." 
I came across from Indianapolis to St. Louis on my way to 
Nebraska. I arrived there before the opening of the naviga- 
tion, early in the spring. I waited for the first boat up the 
river. I took the old Albemarle. It was the first boat on the 
river from St. Louis north. How ]ong could some of you 
imagine it took to go from St. Louis to Omaha? We go to 

] Thomas P. Kennard, Lincoln, was the first secretary of state of Ne- 
braska. He was born near Flushing, Ohio, December 18, 1828. His young- 
manhood was spent in Indiana. He was admitted to the bar in that state, 
and opened a law office at Anderson, Indiana. On April 24, 1857, he ar- 
rived at Omaha, via Missouri river steamboat, and immediately settled at 
De Soto, Washington county. He was a member of the first Nebraska 
constitutional convention. In 1863 he was appointed deputy assessor and 
collector of internal revenue for the territory north of Douglas county. 
He was nominated for secretary of state by the convention which met in 
Plattsmouth in 1866," and was active in the election which resulted in the 
carrying of tne proposition for statehood. He was one of the tjhree com- 
missioners to locate the capital at Lincoln, and retired from the office of 
secretary of state at. the end of his second consecutive term. For a time 
he engaged in the practice of law, but soon gave that up for a business 
career, which he has since successfully followed. He still resides in 



sleep iiow iii the evening and get up in St. Louis. I was just 
fourteen days coming from St. Louis to Omaha. That is the 
contrast. I got to Omaha and landed there in the little vil- 
lage with my friend Hascall. I think it had a population of 
about 800 at that time. I think there was but one brick 
building in the little town. I staved there over night, and 
the next morning I started out afoot and 1 walked to De Soto, 
twenty -two miles north. 

I will be brief. Now just one other stop. I lived there for 
a short time, and I didn't imagine that I would ever live to 
see the time that Nebraska would even be knocking at the 
gates of the Union to become a state. I don't think there was 
hardly a man in a thousand, or one hundred I might say, in 
this territory at that time that looked forward to the time 
when Nebraska would be a state. Nearly everybody had 
come here with the idea of making something and going back 
to their old home, but they didn't go. Win ? Why, each suc- 
cessive year demonstrated irresistibly the conclusion that 
Nebraska would be a state. The Aoav of immigration com- 
menced coming iu, and every avenue was tilled with it, and in 
a few years, as the General there says, there Avas a proposi- 
tion that we become a state. He alludes to this so I am war- 
ranted iu alluding to it, I suppose. General Thayer and I, 
I think, did more than any other ten men in this state in the 
canvassing in favor of state organization. I don't mean that 
Ave had more finish, but Ave did more hard work than any 
other ten men in the state. AVe canvassed every county north 
of the Platte, and a good many of them south of the Platte, 
and we went out to Grand Island during that campaign, and 
AA r e stayed all night with old father Hedde. 

And now I will tell you what is the gospel fact. We were 
then at the entire outside edge of civilization and we were 
virtually beyond practical agriculture. I saw a load of corn 
there, and it was produced from what they called a certain 
kind of corn that they brought down there from Canada, and 
the nubbins were about eight inches long, and they could 
produce that kind of corn and haul it to Kearney, and sell it 



to the soldier and make something out of it. Why, they didn't 
think they would ever become a state, but they were willing 
to risk this little corn and sell it at Kearney. But the result 
was, through Governor Thayer's efforts, we became a state. 
The people voted in favor of it. 

Friend Hascall alludes to another point in the development 
of this country — when the legislature in their wisdom de- 
cided that to build a state they must enlarge *the foundations, 
and they must move the capital from the city of Omaha and 
place it some place in the interior. In the act of Congress 
admitting us to the Union they had given us 500,000 acres of 
land to aid and assist in internal improvements, building rail- 
roads, etc. The legislature in their wisdom then provided 
and passed a bill that Mr. Hascall alludes to, appointing 
commissioners to locate the capital, and a bill providing that 
any railroad company organized should have, I think, 2,000 
acres a mile for the first fifty miles, or something like that, I 
forget exactly, but it was giving so much out of this munifi- 
cent gift from the general government to aid in the develop- 
ment of the state. The commissioners came down here and 
located this capital. I happened to be one of the commis- 
sioners, and on the evening after our first day's sale of lots 
we had a big bonfire over here about where the postoffice now 
stands. Standing there before an audience I made a predic- 
tion that became quite notorious at that time. I said, "I 
stand here now in the center of what will, in the course of 
time, be the Indianapolis of Nebraska. It will be the rail- 
road center of this state." How far my prediction was veri- 
fied late history and your own observation will tell. 

At that time there was not a foot of railroad south of the 
Platte river and west of the Missouri. How did Ave get down 
here? I will tell you, brother Hascall. I lived twenty-two 
miles north of Omaha. The first day I would drive down to 
Omaha. The next day I went across the river and drove down 
by the Avay of Council Bluffs to Nebraska City, and stayed 
' all night, and the third day I was able to reach the place 



where we now stand. From where I lived at the outside it 
now takes about three hours; it then took three days. 

I don't wish to occupy your time, and I don't know but 
what I have said now more than I should, but I Avish to bring 
up these facts to show you, as every man knows, if he stops 
to think what we have done in the past thirty years, what 
still we may do in the next thirty years. Nebraska is the best 
agricultural state in the Union, and I don't leave out any 
one. The wealth of this country is in its soil. What is its 
gold, its iron, its silver, its copper Avorth if there was not 
something to feed the man who works in the mine? It all 
depends upon the agricultural resources of the country to 
make it great and prosperous. There was not a state in this 
Union after the storm of 1893 and 1894 that swept over this 
country from ocean to ocean, and from the Lakes to the Gulf, 
that recuperated as quickly and rapidly and thoroughly as 
the state of Nebraska. I think it is the verdict of every think- 
ing man, simply because we are an agricultural country, the 
men and women, too, and the boys that went out and dug the 
wealth out of the soil and fed the other people and operated 
in that way to pay our debts. [Applause.] 

President Furnas : He spoke of Grand Island as being on 
the outskirts of this country at that time. I remember it 
well; I remember the men who were pioneers in and about 
Grand Island. We have one of them here this afternoon, 
William Stolley, who was one of the first men to make that 
region of country what it is today. 

William Stolley: 1 I know you very seldom make mis- 
takes, but this time I guess yon have. I am not accus- 
tomed to addressing an audience and I will be very brief. T 

William Stolley, Grand Island, Nebraska, was born in Warder, Sege- 
berg, Germany, April 6, 1831. He acquired his education in his native 
country, where he also saw army service as a sharpshooter. In 1849 he 
emigrated to America, landing at New Orleans. From there he went by 
steamboat to Davenport, Iowa. After traveling for three years, collecting 
natural history specimens, he engaged in the mercantile business in 
Davenport. In 1857 he led a German colony into the Platte valley of 
Nebraska, and settled near the site of the present town of Grand Island, 
where he has since resided. He has served as a school director in dis- 
trict No. 1, of Hall county, for about forty years. 



guess I have to ask your pardon at the start, at the same time 
I will attempt to say a few words. Mr. Kennard he made one 
remark about nubbins of corn. A little before he got to 
Grand Island civilization stopped. In what year was that, 
Mr. Kennard? He says 1867. Now it was in the year 1857, 
ten years earlier, that I organized the colony of thirty-five 
men and three women in Davenport, Iowa, to pilot them 
through the state of Iowa. These thirty-live men were to 
be started by a town site company, which expected to make 
big money there. They agreed to furnish the money and buy 
320 acres of land under the territorial law at that time, but 
later on found that they could not do it, and so the settlers 
had to get it themselves, but they sunk about f 6,500 there in 
that settlement, and everybody had to go on his OAvn hook. 
Now that was in 1857. The next year we had ten teams, one 
wagon with two yoke of oxen, and the next year I took out 
ten teams from Davenport, Iowa, in 1858, and we went right 
to work digging into the ground. I made the first landmark 
in Hall county, and I live on the same 160 acres today, and I 
propose to die right there. That was ten years before Mr. 
Kennard was there. 

The second year after we came there I contracted with 
the quartermaster at Ft. Kearney for 2,000 bushels of corn 
to be delivered in shelled corn at $2 per bushel. In those 
days the government had to pay $3.75 and get it from Ft. 
Leavenworth, so it was quite a saving to the government, and 
it was fine for us. Many a load of corn I have taken myself 
up the Platte river into Ft. Kearney and got my $2. Now 
that was seven years before Mr. Kennard was there. By that 
time I had a grove of six acres of cottomvood trees growing. 
I now have a park of about thirty -five acres, and I don't be- 
lieve there is a nicer park in the state of Nebraska for differ- 
ent kind of trees. I have been inviting our president, Gov- 
ernor Furnas, and Mr. Morton, but I can not get them to go. 
I would enjoy it to take them around and have them take a 
glass of my own wine. But they don't come! Why don't 



The President : We will. 

Now we had a pretty hard road to travel, that is so, but 
then we have got a nice city now, of which I am proud. I 
guess I was the cause of it. There was a fight about our city. 
They wanted to call it New Kiel; I thought it wasn't just 
right. Grand Island Avas suggested. It is named after the 
large island over there, but Grand Island holds its own pretty 
well, I think, and going into instances, there are quite a num- 
ber of them, but it would look too egotistical to go into that. 

I will relate one incident that happened after we had been 
there three years, the first run Ave made out to the Loup. We 
met two men there from Des Moines, who set the prairie afire 
and burned out, and they had only one part of their wagon. 
All their guns Avere burned. It was a trapping party, and we 
met them twelve miles above Kearney on Wood river. The 
fire jumped Wood river and went to Kearney and destroyed 
400 tons of hay for the government. Before Ave met them Ave 
thought they were buffaloes, and we Avatched for the buffalo 
coming over a hill, and Avhen they crossed over that hill I 
saw horses against the sky and, though it Avas getting dark, 
saAv their horses 7 ears. I says, "Boys, don't shoot." We took 
them in, nearly starved, and gave them something to eat. We 
Avent on to the Loup and killed lots of buffalo and caught an 
Indian pony, and then it turned very cold, and then Ave came 
down to about ten or twelve miles above where Grand Island 
was. There Avas a Mormon settler located there. He had a 
dugout 14 x 24 and took the dirt and put it into the 
river, and only kept enough to cover his dugout, so you could 
hardly see it, but you could drive over it. When Ave got there 
and had been in the wind all day, and as tired as possibly 
could be (you know how that is), when one gets into warm 
air on an occasion like this, he will go to sleep nearly 

We had to have our supper, lie was a Mormon and he had 
a Avife and seven children, and they were only a year apart, 
and one looked just exactly like the other, just about the 
same, it seemed to be, so that the father got mistaken in their 

Territorial pioneer days. 


names. When we got up to the table the young ones were 
ranged all around, and he prayed as a Mormon to the Heav- 
enly Father and blessed and thanked Him for the blessings 
of the day. There was a crash above us just then. I had 
gone pretty nearly to sleep, and instead of going on with his 
prayer, the dirt came down onto our tables, and he says, 

"God right in the middle of his prayer, and then I 

came very nearly running my fork into my nose. It was a 
big ox that tried to cross over the dugout; the ox came down 
with all four legs on the table. We had to get out, and we 
could not get the ox at all except by putting a chain around 
his neck and hauling him out. There is more of that kind, 
but I guess this will do. Now please excuse me, I can not 
speak off-hand. [Applause.] 

Governor Furnas : We have with us today a young man 
who has had a conspicuous part in the development of this 
commonwealth. In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska act passed, 
and this young man in the state of Michigan embraced the 
first opportunity to cast his lot in this then untried region of 
country. I have known him intimately since the following 
year. He has been a pioneer, trying to advance the interests 
and promote the good of this country we now enjoy. That 
gentleman is J. Sterling Morton, avIio is with us this after- 
noon. I call on him. 

Hon. J. Sterling Morton : I don't know that I can add 
anything to this reunion. As I came in I heard this remark 
from my long-time friend relative to the times in this state, 
how public sentiment had changed — our senators changed 
their minds. It was suggested by him that th\s resolution 
should pass, and a legislature — not the people of the state — 
should ignore the word "white" in the constitution. That was 
'a very remarkable statement and it suggested to me that 
there Avere other changes. He insisted upon this legislative 
act in the state of Nebraska as an additional precedent to its 
admission into the Union, declining to admit Kansas because 
it had done the same thing. So there were a great many 
things, — it was a pretty good thing in Nebraska to make a 



constitution without submitting that question to the people, 
and it was a very wrong thing to do the same thing in Kan- 
sas. The secretary and acting governor and I 1 organized Hall 
county in 1858 and appointed Stolley one of the commission- 
ers — we appointed the whole thing from Omaha. Already 
they had begun the cultivation of corn, and they had sent in 
specimens to show what they could do, that there were no 
nubbins, so I repudiate that intimation that they only grew 
small corn there. As early as the Pawnee War, you remem- 
ber it, .gentlemen, there was a very successful and prosperous 
settlement at Grand Island. I remember we sent a man by 
the name of Thomas Johnson, who was an agent of the stage 
line at Omaha, to notify Colonel May for troops to protect 
our people on the Elkhorn against assaults of the Indians, 
and Grand Island was a station. I think he made the trip to 
Kearney in three da}^s, and through him Ave secured a com- 
pany of cavalry under W. IT. Robinson, who came down to 
the assistance of General Thayer and the governor of the ter- 
ritory. Grand Island was then a source of supply. Now, 
Mr. President, as to this invitation that Mr. Stolley has ex- 
tended to you and me, I remember that is true, I wish to go, 
but he never said anything to me, and I presume not to you, 
about the wine. I presume you would have gone out, I am 
not sure about myself. 

The settlement at Grand Island was, as Mr. Kennard sug- 
gested, the pioneer settlement, and it was instituted there by 
the Germans, and I question whether any other people would 
have stood what they did for four or five years — raising corn 
when it will not pay. While you had $2 a bushel it was not 
so very bad employment for any one. But beyond that, after- 
wards and a long time before Kennard's subdivision, there 
was quite a large fa,rm on the north Side of the Platte from 
Kearney. J. E. Boyd raised quite a good deal of corn; I 
think he raised enough to run a brewery there. (I can not 

% lt should be said here that Mr. Morton was acting-governor by virtue 
of his position as secretary of the territory when Hall county was or- 
ganized, which explains his statement that "the Secretary, and Acting- 
Governor and I organized flail county in 1858." 



see how Kermard came so near to Grand Island and did not 
smell that brewery.) 

The travel in those days from the river to the Mississippi 
required a great deal of fortitude. I remember in the winter 
of 1867 of going from Council Bluffs in a stage to Iowa City. 
We had three on a seat. The fare was $21, and meals at sta- 
tions consisting of sausage and hot bread and coffee, one meal 
$1 each. I wish to say that there was less grumbling about 
the facilities and comforts of traveling by stage coach then 
than there is in the Pullman car now. People now demand 
everything that the imagination can conceive of. In those 
stage coach days there was less fault-finding with methods of 
transportation, with the rates of transportation. I remember 
pretty Well I filed an original paper with our State Historical 
Society some time ago. I had great good fortune in raising 
potatoes one year. I found that the Denver market de- 
manded potatoes and I sent out two wagons loaded, and they 
sold in Denver at 22 cents a pound, but the cost of transpor- 
tation was 12 cents a pound, and after I paid the commission 
man and the other expenses I had about $55 left, so that the 
extortion of the mule society of that time was as great as the 
railroads today. So that I think while I have a great regard 
for the good old times, that the present times are rather pref- 
erable to men of our age. 

The experience related by Mr. Stolley about the ox reminds 
me of a trip taken with Mr. Wool worth in 1867. We got to 
Nebraska City, arriving there at dark. At that time Wool- 
worth had to appeal a case in the supreme court. In driving 
out we drove over a dugout the same as he describes, and 
knocked down the stove pipe, and the proprietor of the man- 
sion emerged from under cover in great rage. 

There is one thing among the old timers, — Ave all felt our 
isolated condition. There was more cordiality in those days 
than in these civilized times. We loved company, and it was 
a God's blessing when some one came to the home out on the 
prairie, a long ways from neighbors and you could shake a 
friendly hand. There was a certain open-hearted cordiality 


that was heartfelt all over these prairies everywhere in the 
West. I am sorry to say that with the luxuries of more re- 
fined civilized life that cordiality that existed then has largely 
passed away. 

I remember Judge Bradford, whom we met in Iowa. He 
said it was a very cloudy night, and he and Judge Bennett 
arrived at a cabin and asked to stay all night. They said, 
"Yes, but Ave can not give you much. We have nothing but 
corn meal and salt and water," and he said the cake Avas 
made and they could judge of it. After supper he lighted his 
pipe and then heard the woman of the house say to her hus- 
band, "John, if those pups sleep in the meal much more it 
will not be fit for bread." 

President Furnas : The women did their part well in pio- 
neer days. I see before me a lady Avho was a pioneer school 
teacher on an Indian reseiwation. She is here Avith us as a 
pioneer today, Mrs. MacMurphy. 

Mrs. MacMurphy : It is true that I was a teacher in the 
very early days Avhen I Avas a girl of fourteen, and moreover 
I Avas a teacher under one of the friends who is with us to- 
day. I taught in Governor Furnas's family on the Omaha 
Indian reservation, in the year, I think, of 1801. In fact, 
one of the pupils- that I haA r e just been passing the usual 
salutations with, that have been a pleasure between us for a 
good many years, never ceases telling me how I treated him 
and Iioav I was under contract to make him behave, and I in 
turn tell him that he didn't seem to be under contract to be- 
have, and noAv this Ave enjoy very much. This pupil was one 
year younger than I Avas. 

After riding over the prairies of Iowa, day after day, my 
father and his family, the most of them in a wagon, which ha 
had covered and made comfortable, and back of it a buggy 
with one horse driven by myself, a girl twelve years old, with 
my little twin brothers beside me. We went as yon have, 
starting in the morning from a house where we got shelter 
the night before, and would go perhaps .all day long over the 
hills, not seeing another house until we reached some place 



where we could get shelter at night. We came to the Mis- 
souri, and a vivid picture is before me — beside it a young 
girl standing out there barefoot, a beautiful girl, as the 
average would make of that class. We learned afterwards 
that she was even then only about fifteen years old, and 
a widow of Jules, for whom Julesburg was named. We 
waited there for the ferryboat to come to the landing to take 
us across the river, and then we were in Nebraska. There 
are other pictures still more beautiful. I feel that I stand 
here as a representative of several generations of pioneers. 
One of them whom you know well. 

My husband was even earlier than 1 to come to Nebraska, 
up the Missouri river in the boats as it has been related, in 
the year 1867 to Decatur, the town almost the earliest to be 
settled and to which the first railroad was laid out, an air line 
from Chicago to Decatur. That town is still waiting for its 

My husband and I in the years after had planned that 
when the railroad reached Decatur we should go into Decatur 
on the first train. He has passed out, and it may perhaps be 
my pleasure yet to go if such an event should occur, because 
but very feAV of you can understand, unless you did live in 
that section, the stage difficulties, and the efforts and desires 
of a number of marked individuals who lived in that queer 
little town in their efforts to have a railroad there. 

President Furnas: We haven't the acquaintance of the 
other ladies here. Those of you who have please call out their 
names that they may take part in these reminiscences. If not, 
I will call upon General Vifquain. 

Gen. Victor Vifquain: 1 Mr. President — TWc are not 
young men any more. Years have whitened our hairs, be- 
sides myself, and I hope for most of you that the heart is still 

1 General Victor Vifquain was born in Brussels, Belgium, May 20, 1836. 
He received a military education in an academy of his native town, and 
in 1858 emigrated to America and established his home on a tract of un- 
surveyed land in Saline county, Nebraska. With the beginning of the 
Civil War he enlisted with the 53d New York as a private and was mus- 
tered out eight months later with the rank of adjutant. In 1862 he was 
appointed adjutant of the 97th Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, and rose to 



yoiing, but I assure you I remember with the greatest pleas- 
ure the friends I made forty-five years ago in the state of Ne- 
braska. I received my first lessons from Morton, I have, 
been steadfast ever since; I will remain so. We made it a. 
matte r of pride then as young men to honor the state by 
whatever Ave might be called upon to do. We didn't think to 
make money. We thought the world was going to take care 
of us. Some of us have been sadly disappointed. The world 
takes care of those who take care of themselves, because this 
is a very selfish world, Mr. President. And when I thought 
of this meeting this morning I was hoping that I would meet 
more of the old settlers of the state, of the continentals you 
might call us, the Old Guard. There are too few to hear our 
old friend, Mr. Cox. There are more that ought to be here. 
I don't know of a single one of the, old citizens of the state 
that have been conspicuous who has disgraced the state ; most 
of them have honored the state, and the young generation 
owe them a great deal, but they don't think they do. One 
thing that I regret very much is that some people don't take 
interest enough in the education of the fireside to teach their 
children what they owe to those who have made the state and 
who have kept it. This is a good time to speak of such mat- 
ters. I think Ave have all thought of that, but know we have 
been derelict in teaching them that Avhich they should know. 
I hope at some other time when we meet again there will be 
more of us. We will feel more free to talk because the num- 
ber is larger. I thank you for your attention. [Applause.] 

the rank of brigadier-gen oral. He was awarded a medal of honor by the 
Congress of the United States, and was the only Nebraskan to ever re- 
ceive such distinction. He was mustered out at Springfield, Illinois, in 
October, 1865. After the war he returned to Nebraska, and in 1867 was 
the democratic candidate for Congress from the fourth district. In 1871 
he was elected a member of the constitutional convention of that year. 
In 1879 he established the Daily State Democrat at. Lincoln. In 1886 he 
was appointed by President Cleveland as consul at Baranquiila, and was 
promoted to the consulate at Colon in 1888. In 1891 he was appointed 
adjutant-general of Nebraska by Governor Boyd. In 1893 he was ap- 
pointed consul-general to Panama, serving until 1897. In May, 1898, Gen- 
eral Vifquain joined the 3d Nebraska Regiment for the Spanish-American 
War, and was commissioned lieutenant-colonel. With the resignation of 
Colonel Bryan he became colonel of the regiment, lie was mustered out 
with the regiment May, 1899. General Vifquain died at Lincoln. Ne- 
braska, January 7, 1904. 



President Furnas : I knew Nathan Blakely when he ven- 
tured as far west as Gage county. That country was then of 
very doubtful character, whether it could be civilized. He 
and a few others went in an early day, and have made that 
county bloom as a rose with one of the finest inland towns 
in the state. 

Mr. Blakely: 1 Mr. President — 1 don't know as I can 
make any remarks on this occasion. I have been very feeble 
in health and have been for a number of years. I located in 
Beatrice in July, 1857, in company with a brother of mine 
and a cousin and four or five wagonloads of immigrants. We 
started from Iowa towards Omaha, expecting to locate there. 
When we got there in June, 1857, we found that all of the 
land was claimed between Omaha and the Elkhorn river, a 
distance of about twenty miles. There were no settlements 
on this land; there were one or two small buildings put up, 
but there were stakes driven in the quarter-section corners 
with some person's name on who had claimed that quarter- 
section. We had a great desire to jump some of those claims 
that Avere unoccupied, but we were told that if we did that 
the men before leaving would have thrown us into the river 
or tar-and-feathered us. We didn't desire to go through that 
ordeal, and so Ave started to go out as far as the Elkhorn 
with our ox teams and Avagons, and stayed there about a week. 
There Avas but one claim at that time of 120 acres that Avas 
not claimed by some one. We Avent to examine that, and it 
Avas very rocky and sandy. The members of that club in 
Omaha, they said that they Avould certainly perform some 
very severe operations upon us if Ave dared to jump these 

1 Nathan Blakely was born in Roxbury, Connecticut, July 25, 1824. He 
was educated at Roxbury Academy, and during his young manhood was a 
teacher in New York, New Jersey, and Illinois, and an editor at Birming- 
ham, New Jersey. He settled m Gage county, Nebraska, July 17, 1857, 
and resided on a farm until 1864, during which time he also engaged in 
freighting across the plains. He then engaged in the general merchan- 
dise business in Beatrice until 1875. In 1861 he Was elected to the terri- 
torial legislature, and again elected in 1866. He was elected to the state 
legislature in 1868, and served during the first session held in Lincoln. 
He was receiver of tue United States land office at Beatrice from 1869 
to 1875. Mr. Blakely died in 1907. 


pieces of land. It would astonish you to know their names, 
some of the principal men and lawyers that probably live in 
Omaha. We really heard that they had thrown one man into 
the river because he had jumped one claim, but we did not 
want to run any risk, and so we started down the river, un- 
derstanding that there was a ferry down about half way be- 
tween there and the mouth of the river Avhere Ave could cross 
into the interior. We found that ferry had been Avashed out. 
We went on to Bellevue, and the next morning was the 4th 
of July. We made a very early start and went up to Omaha. 
We arrived in Omaha a little before noon that day, and I 
recollect one circumstance that I shall never forget. They 
told us that a man had ridden a horse upstairs on the second 
story Avhere a saloon Avas kept, and Ave got there just as the 
horse Avas half down the stairs. We saw that, I think that 
man Avas Dr. Henry. We stayed there a day or two and went 
across to Council Bluffs and down the opposite side to nearly 
opposite Plattsmouth to a small little town called Jacobs. 
There Ave crossed over into Nebraska. We heard of Weeping 
Water falls, a very fine locality for a flouring mill. We drove 
out there and Ave found that everything there was claimed 
for a long distance. 

We found a party there that were going to Nebraska for 
the same purpose Ave were, so we agreed together, about 
eight Avagons in all, that we would go up to the Big Blue. 
As near as I can tell Ave crossed not very far from where Lin- 
coln uoav stands on our way to the Blue. We suffered for 
Avater on the road. We struck the Big Blue in Saline county. 
We did not find anything like the timber avc expected to find 
nor the rich bottom land, so we made up our minds to go 
into Kansas. In Gage county Ave found a company there 
from Nebraska City. They urged us to stay. We kept on 
down the river, and when Ave got to Beatrice we found an- 
other company there, located about six AVeeks before we got 
there. They urged us to stop. I think there were some forty 
members in this party; they formed a company lo locale that 
town. We commenced looking around lo find a claim. We 



found there were no improvements. They said every settler 
was entitled to a quarter-section of timberland and a prairie 
quarter-section. When we investigated Ave found that some 
of these were several miles from Beatrice. We finally decided 
to locate there for good. Finally we got land within about a 
mile and a half of the city, and we stayed there. My brother 
died about three years ago, and I am still living there. At 
the time we located there we had to go to Brownville to trade, 
sixty miles away. There were very few settlements between 
our place and Brownville, but the people of Brownville in- 
sisted that we leave that country and locate in Nemaha. 
They said, "You will be sorry that you stayed there, our land 
is good." We paid no particular attention to that advice, 
and I am very glad to say that I have been there since 1857 
and expect to stay there as much longer as I can. 

Mr. W. W. Cox -} Mr. President — I am a sort of a tender- 
foot as compared with many of these speakers here, but still 
I was here some time ago. Very little has been said about 
this city and its immediate surroundings. You were all on 
the ground so long before Lincoln was thought of, that it has 
escaped your notice to tell the folks anything about how peo- 
ple located here once. On the 2d of July, 1861, I think, in 
company with one of the young settlers of the Dee family, I 
made a two-wheeled cart propelled by oxen, Buck and 
Bright, I guess they were called. We came down from the 
Dee home, which was five miles south of here, and came up 
here. At that time there were two blind tracks across this 
toAvn site, and the wild inhabitants, so far as 1 know of, Avere 
a beautiful drove of antelopes about Avhere the government 

William Wallace Cox was born in Versailles, New York, November 
12, 1832, son of Mordecai and Catherine Peters Cox. The family moved 
to Sangamon county, Illinois, where the father died, and the mother with 
her children went to Green county, AVisconsin. In his young manhood 
Mr. Cox was a school teacher in Wisconsin arid Illinois', In 1858 be re- 
moved to Iowa, and in February, 1860, settled at Nebraska City. In 1864 
he moved to Seward county, where he resided during most of his later 
years. In 1888 he edited a "History of Seward County," which he re- 
vised and published in a second edition in 1905. Mr. Cox died February 
25, 1907. 



Square was; they were the only inhabitants of the city of 
Lincoln so far as I know. 

Now, I want to tell you in regard to the first settlement of 
this town site. On the following 4th of July, wife and I were 
living over here at the basin. We concluded to gather some 
gooseberries. Along about eleven o'clock we heard a cheer 
at the little cabin. When we came in sight, we beheld that 
the stars and stripes fluttered over our cabin ; and how came 
it there? Had it fallen from heaven or where did it come 
from? But we heard some male voices there and we went 
over to the cabin, and there they were, Uncle Dr. McKesson, 
that splendid specimen of manhood Elder Young, Peter 
Shamp,. and Jacob Dawson, Luke Lavender, and Edward 
Warnes. They had come and they had brought the blessed- 
flag and we had a 4th of July celebration in ; 62 there at the 
Salt Basin, and a jolly good time. They were looking for a 
place to found a colony and they looked all around, but they 
located right here on this quarter-section, and they named it 
the town of Lancaster, and in a year and a half after that they 
held a county seat election, and it was held at my cabin, and 
we voted the county seat of Lancaster county here at the town 
of Lancaster, and I understand the records of Lancaster show 
nothing of the kind, but it is a fact just the same. The years 
have rolled by. When the capital Avas located I was one of 
those peculiarly sanguine creatures, and I predicted in my 
Wild imagination that it would not be twenty-five years until 
we had a population of 5,000 in the city of Lincoln. Just 
think how wild Ave all were. I Avas perhaps the oldest of the 
lot and yet how far short of the reality. It seems like awak- 
ening from a Rip , Van Winkle sleep every time I conic 
into this city and behold its grandeur and development. 

Dr. Renner : l My best hold is the pen. It is rather unfair 
to expect a pump to give water both at the spout and pump 

1 Dr. Frederick Renner, Omaha, Nebraska, was born !n 1830 at Spires, 
in Rhenish Bavaria. He emigrated to America, and shortly afterward 
joined a party of friends, with the intention of traveling overland to Cali- 
fornia. Reaching Nebraska City in May, 185(5, he was persuaded to Join 



handle, but since you were kind enough to call on me I will 
simply relate that perhaps I have killed as many rabbits as 
anybody in this assembly, because I was one of the surveyors 
when the surveyor general's office was located in Leaven- 
worth to run the base line along the 40° parallel from the 
Missouri river, and going on that line straight west to the 
summit of the Kocky mountains, then on to the western 
boundary of Utah. Of course no Colorado was thought of 
until after we returned from our two-years trip. We took 
nothing but a blind trail. Basing it on the imaginary line 
between Kansas and Nebraska Ave struck the Republican, 
crossing the base line seven times, I think, in Nuckolls 
county. I was often ahead to make a diagram of the country 
in order that we might tell where to locate our camp for the 
next night, to find water and perhaps wood, and also rock 
because Ave had to set mile stones and half-mile stones Avher- 
ever possible with rock; otherwise Ave had to erect ' nigger- 
heads." On the Republican river we saw the first prairie-dog 
villages, one after another. The fellow that was with me on 
horseback Avas an habitual smoker, and he had his tobacco, 
Avhich Avas the kinnikinic made from the sumac leaA^es 
found on the road. When Ave first struck that prairie-dog 
village, Ave saw snakes and any number of them. I says, 
"Let us go to work and get the rattles off the snakes, then Ave 
can shoAV the felloAvs at the camp." We took the steel ram- 
rod of a gun that Ave had; Ave had some revolvers, but as a 
usual thing Ave carried these old army muskets. We killed a 
snake, and one fellow cut off the rattles and put the rattles 
into a salt bag, and lo and behold, you would not believe it 
today. It is a fact Ave filled that salt bag before Ave finished, 
and we Avent back to camp to show them. They asked us 

the surveying party of Col. Charles A. Manners, then engaged in estab- 
lishing the boundary line between Kansas and Nebraska. He later prac- 
ticed medicine at Nebraska City until 1861, and then established the Ne- 
braska Staats-Zeitung, which he continued to publish until 1876. From 
1867 to 1870 he was assessor of internal revenue of Nebraska. In 1875 
he was appointed revenue agent for Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, 
Indian Territory, and Colorado, with headquarters at St. Louis, but re- 
signed one year later and returned to Nebraska City. During his later 
years Dr. Renner has resided in Omaha. 



what kind of mineral we had there. It was nothing but the 
rattles of rattlesnakes. You tell that today to any man liv- 
ing in Nebraska only ten years, and he would say that is a 
snake story, but it is an actual fact, and J. Sterling Morton 
has seen them. 


' Read Before the Annual Meeting of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society, January 14, 1903. 

by david t. me alls, 1 chadron, nebraska. 

In 1875-76 I was in Washington, D. C. In January I re- 
ceived a letter from General Crook, who was then in com- 
mand of the Department of the Platte, to report to him at 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, as soon as possible to organize his trans- 
portation for a summer campaign against the Sioux and 
other Indians who were then on the war-path, killing settlers 
and committing all kinds of depredations. I landed in Chey- 
enne in due time and went to work at once. My particular 
business was to organize pack-trains. Right here is a goo'J 
place to describe a pack-train. It consists of a lot of medium 
sized mules on which to carry supplies for the army when we 
cut loose from the wagon trains. AVe could then keep up 
with the command, let the soldiers go when and where they 

1 David Young Mears, Chadron, Nebraska, was born in Westmoreland 
county, Pennsylvania, December 13, 1833, son of John Blair and Martha 
Young Mears. At the age of fifteen years he went to Pittsburg, and for 
several years was employed on the steamboats plying the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi rivers. In 1856 he went to the Pacific coast, where he engaged 
in mining and freighting. He later went to Idaho, and thence to Mon- 
tana, and in 1869 to White Pine, Nevada. Mr Mears was with General 
Crook, as transportation manager, during the campaigns against the In- 
dians from 1874 to 1879. In the spring of 1880 he went to Ft. Niobrara. 
He was the original settler on the land that now embraces the site of 
Valentine, county seat of Cherry county, and was one of the commis- 
sioners appointed to organize that county. He served as county com 
missioner there, and as postmaster at Valentine. He later 'located at 
Chadron, and became one of the first county commissioners of Dawes 
county and the first mayor of Chadron. He served subsequently as jus- 
tice of the peace, police judge, water commissioner, and member of the 
city council. 



would or travel as fast as they wished. 'The pack-train was 
right at their heels, with their provisions, blankets, ammuni- 
tion, tents, or feed for the horses. A .pack-train generally 
consists of about sixty pack and ten riding mules, led by one 
bell horse. An army horse will do, just so he is gentle and is 
a good kicker. Mules are very playful, and the horse that 
kicks, bites, and fights them most is the horse that suits them 
best. Keep the bell horse inliand. and Indians will get very 
few mules in case of a stampede. 

We had eight such trains as above described when we left 
Cheyenne for the Bighorn country in Wyoming, besides 
about one hundred wagons divided into four trains, each 
train under the supervision of a wagon-master and one 

About the first of March, 1876, we left Cheyenne on our 
Indian hunt. The weather >vas very cold nearly all the time 
"we were gone on that trip. We went via Ft. Laramie and Ft. 
Fetterman. The latter fort was close to where theovillage of 
Douglas, Wyoming, uoav stands. From there we went over 
to the Dry Fork of Powder river, where we had our first 
alarm from Indians. We had some beef cattle with the com- 
mand and every few days had one killed. There were about 
a dozen left, and as Indians are very fond of beef they will 
run some chances to get the cattle. One night they shot the 
herder, ran off all our beef cattle, and we never saAV any of 
them since. Our scouts from here were sent out in advance 
to locate the Indian village. They were to meet the command 
at the crossing of the Crazy Woman's fork of the Powder 
river. The scouts returned and reported that they had seen 
signs of Indians, and after a needed short rest were again 
sent ahead to locate, if possible, their village. After a few 
days the scouts returned with what they called good news. 
They had located a village of about sixty tepees. For two 
days we had orders not to shoot under any circumstances, nor 
to make any undue noise, as we had to make a sneak to sur- 
prise the Indians. The night before we jumped the Indians 
was one of the coldest nights I had ever experienced. We left 



camp about two o'clock in the morning of March 17, and 
opened the campaign on St. Patrick's day. Several companies 
rode through the village, shooting right and left and stam- 
peded the Indians, who soon rallied, returned, and bravely de- 
fended their families. A great many people have an idea that 
Indians are not brave, that they will only sneak on the enemy ; 
but let such be undeceived. Indians will average with white 
men in bravery. I noticed on this trip that when the troops 
were surprised in camp, as occurred several times during the 
summer, they would try to dodge every bullet that came. 
After the fight in the early morning several soldiers were 
found killed. How the Indians suffered in killed and wounded 
we never knew, as the troops never went back to the battle- 
field, but left their dead in the hands of the Indians. 

General Crook decided to return to Cheyenne to reorganize 
for a summer campaign against the same Indians. We were 
in rendezvous camp near Cheyenne several weeks and made 
a start for the Bighorn country well equipped for a summer 
campaign. We took the same route we had taken before, and 
arrived by easy marches at old Ft. Reno, Wyoming. The 
scouts had been sent out a few days previously and soon 
brought in news that Indians were plenty but they could not 
locate their camp. We broke camp and moved farther west 
and located camp on Tongue river. We had not been in camp 
long when the Indians surprised us by firing into camp. The 
next day we packed the wagons, mounted the infantry on 
pack mules, and with four days' rations we left enmp for 
Rosebud, as the scouts had located the Indian camp on that 
stream. The second day from camp we found the carcasses 
of several buffalo which had been very recently killed by the 
Indians. Although it was not more than nine o'clock A.M., 
General Crook decided to go into camp until the Indian vil- 
lage was definitely located. But the Indians; were on the 
lookout for us, and had come about six miles to attack us, 
which they did before we got into camp. They were in front, 
rear, flanks, and on every hilltop, far and near. I had boon 
in several Indian battles, but never shav so many Indians at 


one time before, at least not when they were on the war-path. 
We had about six hundred men, having left about three hun- 
dred to guard the wagon train. We also had eighty Sho- 
shones, eighty Crows, and fifty Pawnees as allies. They made 
good scouts and did good work. They all acted very brave, 
each tribe vieing with the others to outdo in acts of bravery. 

I had a very close call myself at this Rosebud fight. We 
were half a mile from the creek and needed water badly, es- 
pecially in the hospital. I started with several canteens, went 
on foot, and kept well out of sight, going down a ravine. 
There was a Shoshone Indian who had left his saddle at the 
creek when the fight started and was going after it. We kept 
together for several hundred yards. He then left me and 
went alone for his saddle, as I could strike the creek in a 
nearer way. The first thing we knew the Sioux had us cut 
off from the command. There were eight or ten of them who 
opened fire on us. I got behind a bank and stood them off 
until some of the troops came toward me and drove the In- 
dians away, but they got my Indian friend. When I saw that 
the Sioux had him going ahead of them, I knew he would not 
last long. He turned around and fired at the Sioux, and 
when they found his gun empty a couple of Sioux ran up so 
close on him that he had no time to load his gun. The Sho- 
shone jumped off his pony and sprang over a bank of the 
creek. A Sioux who was at his heels lit upon him and stabbed 
him in the back with a butcher knife, leaving the knife in the 
Shoshone's back. After the day's battle I went directly to 
find my Indian and found him lying on his face, dead, with 
the knife through his heart. I pulled it out and returned it 
to its scabbard which was lying in the ground where the 
Sioux Indian had left it in his hurry to save his own scalp. 
He did not even scalp the Shoshone, which proves what a 
great hurry he was in. 

The Rosebud battle lasted from about nine o'clock in "the 
morning until near sundown, when the Indians withdrew and 
were soon out of sight. The battle was fought on the 17th 
day of June, 1876. The Indians had gained their point, which 


was to hold us there until they could get their camp moved 
about forty miles from the Bosebud, and go into camp again 
on the Little Bighorn, Avhere eight days after General Custer 
met them and was utterly defeated by them. AYe had ten 
men killed and several badly wounded in this fight. The In- 
dians suffered a good deal as we afterwards learned. Gen- 
eral Crook returned with his command to the wagon train, 
and went into camp on Goose creek to await OL'ders from Gen- 
eral Sheridan. We were in camp a long time without hearing 
from the outside world. The Indians were very brave, think- 
ing they had got the best of it at the Bosebud, and I guess 
they had as much to crow over as anybody. The} 7 would often 
fire into our camp. At last, about the 4th of July, a courier 
came from Ft. Fetterman with the news of the Custer mas- 
sacre, which had been known all over Europe eight or nine 
days before we heard of it, although we Avere within sixty 
miles of where it occurred. General Crook had tried to get 
in communication -with General Terry who was in command 
of the Department of Dakota, but the scouts always returned 
with the cry of "too many Indians" between the commands. 
We were, in camp until troops arrived from all points that 
could spare a corporal's guard, when Ave broke camp and re- 
lieved the monotony by marching through the Indian country 
with tAvo thousand men and ten days' rations. We went 
Avhere ive wished with a command so large, though the In- 
dians still had the best of it numerically and their knowledge 
of the country gave them a chance to run or fight. We soon 
made a junction with General Terry on the Yellowstone river, 
but the Indians had scattered and Ave were not molested much 
by them. 

We left General Terry and started for the Black Hills, 
thinking to come across some Indians. They had divided up 
into small bands which would give them a better chance to 
depredate against the settlers in the vicinity of Deadwood. 
General Crook scoured the country all he could, but as the 
rainy season had set in it was very difficult to do much scout- 
ing. The next twelve days was one of (he hardesl inarches 



United States troops ever made. We came down to horse 
meat for rations, and that so poor, there was not fat enough 
on a dozen horses to season the gruel for a sick grasshopper. 
The horses were not killed until they gave out and could go 
no farther. With the last meal of beans we had in the pack- 
train I concluded to have quite a blow-out and invite the Gen- 
eral to breakfast. Next morning our cook got all the beans he 
could get together for one grand mess. He cooked them in 
the evening, and some soldiers came around camp and offered 
him f 20 for the beans. The cook told me of the offer. I told 
him not to sell for any money, as I had invited General Crook 
and staff to breakfast. Well, the next morning the beans 
were all gone — stolen, The cook swore he did not sell them, 
neither did he eat them, but I will always think that cook got 
what he could eat and sold the balance. 

It rained every day. The horses were giving out, soldiers 
walking through mud. In the evening when we Avent into 
camp there was not a thing to eat but meat from poor horses, 
ten or fifteen of which were killed each evening and eaten 
with no seasoning whatever. 

Seventy-five miles from Deadwood we surprised a large 
band of Indians, about forty tepees, American Horse's band. 
We kept out of sight until daybreak, when we made the at- 
tack. Several were killed on both sides and a great many 
soldiers wounded. American Horse soon had runners out to 
other Indian camps. Crazy Horse was soon on hand with all 
his force and made it very interesting for us for six hours. 
After this battle, called "Slim Buttes," we fared a little bet- 
ter for something to eat. We had buffalo meat, and besides 
the Indian ponies were fat ancl we had plenty of them. I 
really thought that horse meat was good and wondered why 
we did not eat more horse at home. We could not follow the 
Indians on account of lack of rations, and the only thing that 
I could hope for was, that the man who stole the beans was 
killed. We arrived at Deadwood and were met by the citizens 
of that place with open arms and a generous hospitality that 
only those big-hearted miners know how to give. From there 



the command came to Ft. Robinson, Nebraska, where a great 
many Indians had come in to give themselves up. We found 
them to be, generally, women and children and old and de- 
crepit men with 'no guns. This was just what the lighting 
Indians wanted — to get rid of those non-combatants who were 
only an encumbrance to them. Let the Government feed the 
squaws while the bucks fought the troops. 

General Crook was not satisfied with the surrender, and 
decided to make a winter campaign against Mr. Crazy Horse. 
We started again from Ft. Robinson and Ft. Laramie in No- 
vember, 1876, with a large command which required an extra 
amount of transportation to carry supplies. We arrived at 
Crazy Woman's creek and went into camp, having seen no 
Indians, but the scouts had been busy and had located a large 
village in the Bighorn mountains on the headwaters of the 
creek we were then camped on. Here again is where the pack- 
trains came into play. We cut loose from the wagon train 
and proceeded up the creek where it would be impossible for 
wagons to go. It began to get cold. After a march of twenty 
miles we laid in camp all day expecting to make a night 
march. We dared not build a fire as the Indians would see 
our smoke. Cold? well I should say "Yes." Our spread for 
dinner was frozen beans, frozen bread, with snow balls and 
pepper on the side; supper the same, less the beans. We be- 
gan to think that the government was treating us rather cool. 
Horse meat would have been a Delmonico dinner. The scouts 
came into camp in the evening and reported the Indian camp, 
supposed to be that of Crazy Horse, Standing Elk, and Young 
American Horse. We made the attack at daybreak and com- 
pletely surprised the Indians, who soon rallied and came very 
near turning the tables on us, when eighty packers left their 
mules in the rear of the command and joined in the fight and 
soon had the Indians on the retreat. We looted the village 
and burned everything we could not take away. This was 
the most telling battle against the Sioux that was fought dur- 
ing that 1876 campaign. It had more to do to make them 
surrender than all the other fights. We found thai Crazy 



Horse was not in that fight, but was camped on Powder river. 
Had he been there with all his determined braves the battle 
might have had a different termination. He was so disgusted 
with that camp for retreating and giving up everything that 
he would hardly let the starving, freezing Indians come into 
his camp. His action in this case had its effect on him at his 
final surrender. General Crook made up his mind to try to 
strike Crazy Horse if possible before he left the country, but 
the cavalry horses and wagon mules were getting poor, the 
snow so deep, and the weather so terribly cold that it was be- 
ginning to tell on the men, and he concluded to give up the 
chase. We made a detour of a few days' march on the Pow- 
der river and headwater of the Bellefourche and Cheyenne 
river which brought us to Pumpkin Butte, where we camped 
on Christmas Eve, just twenty-six years ago this day, and a 
colder day and night I never slept out of doors. Several mules 
froze stiff and fell over during the night. So on the 25th of 
December we left Pumpkin Buttes and Crazy Horse behind 
and started for Cheyenne, which caused a general rejoicing 
among men and mules. The backbone of the Indian war was 
broken, but the main vertebra was still defiant, viz., Crazy 

The next summer General Crook started again. He sent 
troops in all directions to bring in all Indians that had not 
previously surrendered. They had been coming in during the 
winter to Chief Red Cloud's camp which was then situated 
near Ft. Robinson, Nebraska. General Crook went person- 
ally to Ft. Robinson to superintend the surrender as they ar- 
rived. They were coming and going all the time, and lie in- 
tended to put a stop to that. So he issued an order that no 
Indian should leave the agency without his permission. Tiiat 
made the Indians "heap mad/' and they concocted a scheme 
to kill him. They were to call a council to talk with him 
about the surrender, when some one was to shoot him and 
have a general fight, An Indian, whom General Crook had 
befriended at some time, told Crook -all about the plan. When 
the time came for the talk the General had the Avhole place 



surrounded with trooj)s. When the Indians saw such an ar- 
ray of soldiers they thought better of the plan, and the as- 
sassination did not take place. The Indians appeared to be 
undecided what to do, whether to go out again on the war- 
path or to surrender. 

Crazy Horse was still out and had runners going back and 
forth all the time. They kept him posted about affairs 
at the agency. General Crook concluded to disarm the In- 
dians and set a time for them to appear and give up their 
arms. When the time arrived three-fourths of the Indians 
started out again on the war-path. They went about twenty- 
five miles and entrenched themselves on Chadron creek, just 
four miles from where I am now writing. The General had 
"boots and saddles'' sounded, and a large body of troops took 
along with them a couple of mountain howitzers and a Gat- 
ling gun. When they arrived within gunshot, no shot having 
been fired as yet, the commanding officer called to the Indians 
under a flag of truce and told them he would just give them 
five minutes to surrender. AVhen the five minutes were up he 
let go his cannon and the flag went up instanter. They were 
taken back to the agency, where they were all disarmed. 
Crazy Horse was on his way to the agency, the General hav- 
ing sent friendly Indians out to meet him. His marches were 
very slow as his ponies were very poor, the squaws and chil- 
dren worn out, cold, and hungry. When within twenty miles 
of the agency he stubbornly refused to go further, but the 
General sent him word by other Indians (hat he would bring 
him in if he had to call all the troops in the United States. 
He sent some of his aids-de-camp with plenty of provisions 
and wagons to haul the women and children. After a long 
talk and being assured he would not be hurt he reluctantly 
agreed to come in. There was a general rejoicing among the 
Indians Avhen he agreed to come in, and he was met by nearly 
all the Indians at the agency. It was an imposing sight to 
see all those Indians, several thousand in all, headed by Crazy 
Horse himself, who was riding beside Lieutenant Clark of 
Crook's staff. He was escorted directly (o General Crook, 



who shook hands with the chief and directed that he should 
be made comfortable as well as all his people. The next day 
was set to disarm Crazy Horse's band. They had come into 
the fort, and the agency Avas located a short distance away. 
In the morning Crazy Horse, personally, was not at the fort, 
but was said to be at the agency, where he was found by the 
Indian police that had been sent after him. But he refused 
to return to the fort with them; the police so reported on their 
return to the fort. General Crook sent the police back — those 
police Avere all Indians — to take an ambulance with them and 
bring Crazy Horse to the fort. We all expected it Avould 
bring on a big fight as the Indian police Avere very deter- 
mined, but they brought him in Avithout much of a demon- 
stration from the other Indians. He Avas put in the guard- 
house, Avhere there Avas the usual guard, and as a precaution 
several Indians Avere detailed as extra guards. Crazy Horse 
Avas very sullen and morose. All of a sudden he jumped up, 
brandishing a large knife, and made for the door. An Indian 
jumped on his back and pinioned his arms. The soldier guard 
sprang forward Avith his gun at a charge. Crazy Horse was 
seen to fall. When the excitement was over Crazy Horse Avas 
dead, having been pierced through the body Avith either a 
knife or the bayonet of the soldier. Thus died one of the 
greatest Indian Avar chiefs that ever fought a battle with the 
white men. 



I have been asked by the Historical Society of Nebraska to 
give some personal recollections of pioneer life in Burt 
county, particularly in connection with the settlement of De- 

^apt. Silas T. Learning was a native of Schoharie county, New 
York. At four years of age he moved with his parents: to La Porte, 
Indiana, where he went to country school and worked as' a civil 
engineer. He crossed the plains to California in 1852, returning in 1855. 



catur, and the steamboats which then seemed the link be- 
tween the Wild West and civilization. It has been said that 
all things pass away when their usefulness is ended. 
Whether this be true or not, the days of steamboating on the 
upper Missouri were of short duration. The locomotive Avith 
its long train of cars sent them into oblivion with the stage 
coach and the prairie schooner. 

The very first steamer to come as far as this point was sent 
out by the government in 1819 with a party of explorers. 
This boat was named Western Engineer and commanded by 
.Maj. Stephen H. Long. The expedition remained at a point 
just below Council Bluff during the Avinter of 1819-20. 
Early in the spring, the boat received a neAV commander and 
was used for transporting gwernment supplies to the forts 
and trading posts along the Missouri. The second steamer 
to ploAV the waters of the "Big Muddy" was the Yellowstone, 
owned by the American Fur Company and commanded by 
Captain Bennett. This steamer made its first trip during the 
summer of 1831. From this date until after the close of the 
Civil War, steamers made regular trips between St. Louis 
and the Yellowstone. During the last years of steam navi- 
gation on the upper Missouri, shifting sands and changing 
boundaries rendered extreme care necessary in order to 
avoid being stranded on a sand bar, and progress was slow, 
until even steamers, that the old settlers declared could run 
over a heavy deAV, came less and less frequently. ( Joining here 
in 1856, I found them still plying and eagerly looked for by 
the few Avhite inhabitants living in settlements near the river. 
These steamers were not "floating palaces/' but they repre- 
sented a certain phase of luxury and were the connecting 
link with the outside world. There was no hurry in (hose 

As surveyor for the Iowa Central Airline R. R. he surveyed the route of 
that road from Ida Grove, Iowa, to Decatur, Nebraska. He settled in De- 
catur in 1857 and was the first mayor of the town. In 1859 he was a mem- 
ber of the territorial legislature, and later surveyed the Omaha and Win- 
nebago Indian reservation. He was first lieutenant, and captain of 
Company I, 2d Nebraska Cavalry, and took part in the campaign leading 
to the battle of White Stone Hills. He was married in L869 to Elizabeth 
Thompson of Decatur. After her death he married, in 1897, Miss Marion 
Hutchinson of Fordwick, Canada. He died February 18, 1906, 



days of elegant leisure, but the instant the whistle of a 
steamer Avas heard there was a general stampede for the land- 
ing. Parties were quickly improvised, and the eatables and 
drinkables aboard were levied upon by those who^e principal 
living consisted of such delicacies as venison, wild turkey, 
prairie chicken, and game of every variety. These were gladly 
exchanged for bacon, fruit, vegetables, etc. There was al- 
ways a darky aboard with banjo or fiddle, so the festivities 
culminated in a dance. 

At the time of which I write, 1856, the principal trading 
post at Decatur was held by Peter A. Sarpy, and for a time 
Clement Lambert was his chief clerk. Like most Indian trad- 
ers, Lambert was fond of his booze. One evening a steamer ar- 
rived from St. Louis and tied up for the night. This was the 
signal for a general carousal, and Lambert went on a tear. 
He owned a famous pony, as fearless as himself. When Lam- 
bert got fairly full, he stripped to pants and Indian leggings, 
buckled a belt around his waist, stuck in it a pair of Colt's 
revolvers, sprang to the back of his pony, gave a couple of 
Indian war-whoops, and made for the river. Barely halting 
long enough to give another yell, and with a gun in either 
hand, he ordered the gangway open, which was quickly done 
under the force of circumstances. Then with a command, 
more forcible than elegant, he told the pony to go, and he 
went, not only on to the steamer, but up the flight of stairs, 
into the saloon, and up to the bar. Here he ordered a big 
drink for Billy, the pony, and commanded every soul present 
to "drink to the health of Billy and the President of the 
United States." 

During the Civil War, steamers reduced in size and with 
light draft carried supplies to the forts as far north as Ben- 
ton and Pierre, bringing back rich furs, by which many trad- 
ers made independent fortunes. 

Just here, a personal incident connected with steamboat- 
mg may not be out of place. The uprising of the northern 
Indians and the dreadful massacres had called out a large 
number of troops who went in defense of the white settlers. 



I was then captain of Company I, 2d Nebraska Cavalry, Gov- 
ernor Furnas, colonel of the regiment. Being severely ill at 
Crow Creek agency, it became necessary to send me to the 
hospital at Ft. Randall. As one of the fur company's steam- 
ers came puffing doAvn the river, it Avas hailed for this pur- 
pose. Fearing they were to be pressed into the service, the 
captain paid no heed to the signal, whereupon the officers in 
command ordered a shot fired across her bow, causing a quick 
change in the direction of the boat, for she speedily came to 
the landing, and I was carried aboard and safely conveyed to 
the hospital. During the trip, the Captain became interested 
in my condition, and at a point where they were taking on 
wood, the Captain sent the private who had been detailed to 
take care of me ashore, and told him to get a bush of bull 
berry. The bush was brought, loaded with berries, red, acid, 
and astringent. The Captain told me to eat a handful, or 
extract and swallow the juice, which I did. AYithin an hour 
I experienced great relief, and to this I feel sure I owe my 
life. * * *■ : 

The first lumber-yard established on the upper Missouri 
was at Omadi, Dacotah county, one of the first towns laid 
out in the territory of Nebraska. Steamers from St. Louis 
came to this point laden with lumber for the flourishing 
young toAvn. A schoolhouse was erected, sawmill built, and 
hopes were high for making Omadi the county seat of Da- 
cotah county. Today, the site of Omadi is marked by a sand- 
bar on the opposite side of the river from where it was orig- 
inally located. The treacherous Missouri, having decided to 
change her bed, cut out the bank, and SAvept over and around 
to the other side, leaving the place where poor Omadi had 
been, in Iowa. 

Coming back to 1856, the date of my arrival in Decatur, T 
take up the story of pioneer life in Burt county. 

The "Iowa Central Air Line" was surveyed and located to 
the Missouri river, at a point opposite Decatur. There 
seemed to be no possible reason for believing the road would 
not be speedily built through. Having a little money to in- 



vest, I decided to purchase land and shares in the county and 
town. Since I had been one of the engineers in the party 
surveying the line, my locating here was believed to establish 
the fact of the point of crossing the river, and shares jumped 
in one week from one hundred to eleven hundred dollars. It 
is a matter of history how the Iowa Central Air Line went 
into possession of the Chicago, North-Western E. E. Co., and 
was made to swerve to the south in order to reach Council 
Bluffs, which had come into prominence from being the point 
where supplies for troops and overland parties were obtained. 
Stephen Decatur, better known as "Commodore Decatur," 
was godfather to the town which bears his name. Though 
sorely disappointed by the railroad failure, the settlers 
bravely went to work to develop the natural resources of the 
beautiful and fertile country. 

The Indians had occupied the reservation several years, 
but not until after the close of the Civil War was the allot- 
ment made giving to each Indian his own particular portion. 
I Avas appointed by the government to make the first allot- 
ment, and at the close of the second summer every member 
of the two tribes, Omaha and Winnebago, was satisfactorily 

At the time of my coming there was not a white woman in 

The first team owned there was a yoke of oxen belonging 
to me, slow but sure. 

Surprise parties were the fashion, and often did they carry 
a merry party out to the sod house of some settler who was 
aroused from his slumbers by the "whoa haw gee" of the 
driver. It required some effort to get up a first-class enter- 
tainment, but there were always some ready to lend a hand, 
and by the time a half dozen calico dresses were seen on the 
street, dances, concerts, lectures, etc., were not infrequent. 
Many of the settlers were afraid of the Indians, who were 
our near neighbors, but the people of the town had become 
accustomed to their antics and war-whoops so that none of 
these things disturbed them. 



One summer, when town lots were at a low ebb, it was de- 
cided to make an extra effort to sell some. The 4th of July 
was at hand, so Avhat could be better than to combine busi- 
ness with pleasure and patriotism. The combined intellect 
of the place evolved a fine program that should stimulate 
curiosity- and whet the appetite for town lots and a good din- 
ner. 'A feAv days before the Fourth, "dodgers" were sent 
out through the county, reading like this: 



The surprise was to be in the form of a war dance and de- 
signed for the climax of the festivities. The Indian agent, 
sent by the government to the reservation, entered heartily 
into the arrangement and promised to furnish the finest spec- 
imens at the agency for the war dance. The ladies of De- 
catur entered into the spirit of the time, and with patriotic 
fervor vied with each other in preparing delicacies for the 
banquet, baking "Revolution cake" and "Washington pie," 
and furnishing enough bread, doughnuts, chicken, baked 
beans, etc., to feed a regiment. The day was perfect; Hags 
and floAvers gaily dressed out the tables set on the green, an<l 
everybody was on tiptoe of expectations, ready to welcome 
the crowds sure to come, with true western hospitality. 

A large number of Indians were to come in their Avar paint 
and feathers and with the red, blue, or yellow blankets fur- 
nished by the government. It Avas expected they would make 1 
a picturesque shoAving riding down the bluff at full speed ou 
their SAvift ponies. The expectations were fully met. The 
Indians are always fond of surprises, and at this time deter- 
mined to have one of their oAvn, so, instead of Availing quietly 


for their part of the program, they came tearing down the 
bluffs with unearthly yells, whooping as they had been told 
to do, their blankets and long hair streaming in the wind, 
just as the farmers and settlers with their wives and children 
dressed in their Sunday best were coming in on the river 
road. With one startled look, every last wagon was turned 
quickly about and Avent flying home at a galloping pace. 
They had heard of Indian uprisings, and knowing nothing of 
the "wonderful surprise," stayed not on the order of their 
going but went at once. The Decatur people had their war 
dance, which was an old story to them, and the Indians had 
the "free meals," for every table was quickly cleared by the 
hungry savages, who were ready to eat anything from a 
coyote to a grasshopper. 

It is said that "hope deferred maketh the heart sick." 
Surely the people of Decatur that day had reason to feel 
that fate was against them. Even their patriotic enthusiasm 
was not rewarded. However, they have gone on with courage 
unabated, until now; despite the absence of a railroad, they 
have one of the prettiest towns in the state. They have good 
schools and churches and beautiful homes where peace, pros- 
perity, and contentment abide under the shade of the groves 
their own hands have planted. 

•.- , ■ " 


Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Nebraska 
State Historical Society, January 10, 1905. 

by john ii. ames. 1 

In attempting to comply with the request of your Society 
to prepare a history of the Salt Basin near Lincoln, I shall 
confine myself as closely as possible to documentary evidence, 

x John H. Ames, commissioner of the supreme court of Nebraska, was 
born on a farm in Windham county, Vermont, near the city of Brattleboro, 
February 20, 1847f was admitted to the bar in Buffalo, New York, m May, 
1868, and in July, 1869, removed to Lincoln, Nebraska, where he engaged 



but for some of its episodes I shall be compelled to resort to 
my own memory and that of others, concerning transactions 
of which no j>revious written memoranda have been made. 

As has been mentioned in papers previously read before 
this body, the saline springs at Lincoln were, in early days, 
supposed to be caused by large deposits of salt in their vicin- 
ity, and because of conditions of manufacture and transpor- 
tation then prevailing, here and elsewhere, they Avere regarded 
as very valuable. It is well known that these considerations 
were the principal and determining factor that induced the 
location of the seat of government at this place in the sum- 
mer of 1867, by commissioners appointed by the legislature 
and vested with authority to select a site therefor. 

In the early Avinter of 1869-70, the writer prepared a series 
of articles under the title of "A History of Lincoln,*' which 
were printed in a weekly newspaper then published at Lincoln 
and called the Nebraska Statesman. They met with so much 
popular favor that in the following summer the State Journal 
Company reproduced them in a pamphlet edition of several 
thousand copies. In the latter form they were distributed by 
both public officials and private individuals throughout the 
United States. But notwithstanding that provocation, pub- 
lic lethargy, due, perhaps, to exhaustion consequent upon the 
then recently ended Civil War, was so profound, ami the pub- 
lic mind Avas so ^preoccupied and perplexed with the problems 
of reconstruction following that conflict, that the country 
remained at peace. Previously thereto Mr. Augustus F. 
Harvey, now deceased, then a prominent citizen, and for- 
merly editor and proprietor of the Statesman, and Avho, as 

in the practice of law until 1901. In April, 1901, he was appointed to the 
supreme court commission of Nebraska, which position he still holds, 
having been twice reappointed. In 1877 be served on a commission to 
revise the statutes of Nebraska, -the work of which was not wholly 
adopted. He is the author of the revenue law of 1879.. which remained 
in force without important amendment for twenty-five years, and of the 
homestead exemption law of the same year, which is still in force. He is 
also the author of the so-called "Slocumb" law of 1881. a statute regulat- 
ing the sale of intoxicating liquors, and which is still in force without 
substantial amendment, and has served as the groundwork lor legislation 
on the same subject in other states. 



surveyor and civil engineer, had made the first survey and 
plat of the town site of Lincoln, had published a pamphlet 
entitled "Nebraska as It Is/ 7 from which my own publication 
reproduced the following : 

"In Lancaster county, averaging forty-five miles from and 
west of the Missouri river, lies a great salt basin. Within an 
area of twelve by twenty-five miles, through which Salt creek 
runs in a northeasterly direction, are found innumerable 
springs of salt water, containing 28.8 per cent of salt by 
weight, the product itself containing ninety-five to ninety- 
seven parts of chloride of sodium (pure salt) and three to 
five parts of chlorides and sulphates of magnesium, calcium, 
lime, etc. 

"There is no question of the vast wealth which will some 
day be derived from this region. The absence of fuel for the 
purpose of manufacture is more than compensated for by the 
excessive dryness of the atmosphere and the consequent rapid- 
ity of evaporation. From the 1st of April to the middle of 
November scarcely a day passes without a warm, dry wind. 
During the months of June, July, August, and September the 
winds are almost constant." 

( Mr. Harvey afterward demonstrated by actual experiment 
that the average evaporation during the months last named is 
at the rate of ten inches of saturated brine in sixty hours, ten 
inches of fresh water in seventy-two hours. ) 

"The salt made by boiling or washing the deposits around 
the spring crystallizes like the finest table salt. That from 
solar evaporation, or over slow artificial heat, forms large 
crystals from 1-16 to 1-8 of an inch, and is more translucent 
and snowy than the Syracuse or Kanawha salt. 

"The location of the salt region is an evidence of that wis- 
dom and goodness of the Creator which men are slow to 
acknowledge, but upon which all human welfare must rest. 
It is a curious fact that,, as far as we know, all the principal 
deposits of this one absolute necessity to the preservation of 
animal life are situated about equal distances apart, and with 
an apparent forethought of the commercial relations of the 


territory between them. This will be apparent when one 
marks upon the map the New York, Michigan, Virginia, Mis- 
souri, Wisconsin, Tennessee, Texas, Nebraska, Dakota, Col- 
orado, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona salt regions, 
and notes the nearly uniform spaces between them." 

As well to corroborate this testimony as to forestall an 
inference that might otherwise be drawn therefrom, that so 
much heat and drouth might prove an obstruction to suc- 
cessful agriculture, the "history" supplemented the quotation 
from Mr. Harvey by the following commentary : 

"Usually during a large portion of the summer but little 
rain falls in any part of the state, such drouths, however, 
seldom occurring until after the grain crops are fully devel- 
oped and beyond the reach of any injury therefrom, the deep 
and porous soil having a singular power of retaining the mois- 
ture received by it in the earlier portion of the season. For 
this reason vegetation is found to thrive, unaffected by 
drouth, long after the surface of the ground has become so 
excessively dry that the water on the surfaces of streams or 
in other exposed situations becomes almost the only consid- 
erable source from which the atmosphere is supplied with the 
aqueous vapor necessary to prevent nocturnal chills." As 
Mr. Harvey observes in his pamphlet, the atmosphere is so 
excessively dry that "dead animals upon the prairies do not 
rot; they dry up." This accounts for the previous-mentioned 
rapidity of solar evaporation. 

From these and other equally trustworthy data, including 
indications obtained by lessees of the state by the sinking of 
a well near the springs to a depth of 340 feet, it was thought 
to be sufficiently proved that brine of at least sixty degrees, 
or twenty per cent strength, could be produced in inexhaust- 
ible quantities from a thousand Avells to be sunk within the 
surrounding basin, comprising some three hundred square 
miles and constituting a much larger and more productive 
territory than could be found elsewhere in the United States. 
Taking all these matters into consideration and dividing the 
results to which they pointed by four, so as to eliminate every 



supposable error of fact or of calculation, it was ascertained, 
by mathematical demonstration, that the value of the annual 
output from each of the thousand anticipated wells would be 
approximately a half million dollars, or live hundred million 
in all. And the product, upon the assurance of Mr. Harvey, 
was represented to be 97 per cent pure common salt, fit for 
table use without rectification. 

The foregoing shows what can be done by a vivid and vig- 
orous imagination with a little rain water and a moderate 
quantity of chloride of sodium slightly adulterated with alka- 
line salts. Upon a fly-leaf of the pamphlet was printed the 
following certificate : 

"Lincoln, Nebraska, June 22nd, 1870. 
"We, the undersigned officers and Commissioners of Public 
Buildings of the State of Nebraska, do hereby certify that we 
have carefully examined the proof sheets of the following 
pamphlet, and that we are thoroughly satisfied, that the same 
is a true, correct, and impartial history of the town of Lin- 
coln, and of the several public enterprises and matters therein 

"John Gillespie, David Butler, 

Auditor. Governor. 
"Thomas P. Kennard, 

Secretary of State." 

The Governor and Auditor have gone to their final reward, 
but the Secretary of State is still living in Lincoln at a hale 
and hearty old age, and has never recanted. The practice of 
supplying the delinquencies of judicial tribunals by irregular 
methods has never been adopted in Nebraska. 

I have always regretted that these matters were never 
brought to the attention of Col. Beriah Sellers, as certainly 
would have been done if the writer had enjoyed the personal 
acquaintance of his celebrated biographer, Mark Twain. The 
evidence already cited is, however, by no means all or the 
most weighty of which the case is susceptible. There is more 


NEBEASKA state historical society. 

and better at band and easily producible, to which attention 
will be invited in the course of the folloAving narrative. 

It has been a policy of the United States ever since the 
formation of the government, and one which is evidenced by 
a series of congressional enactments beginning with the year 
1796, to reserve saline springs and deposits upon the public 
lands from sale or private entry, and to preserve them for the 
benefit of all the people of the several states formed or to be 
formed out of the territory in which the} T are found. In con- 
sonance with this policy, an act of Congress of April 19, 1861, 
authorizing the formation of a state government and provid- 
ing for the admittance of Nebraska into the Union, contained 
the following section: 

"Sec. 11. And be it further enacted, That all salt springs 
within said state, not exceeding twelve in number, with six 
sections of land adjoining, or as contiguous as may be to each, 
shall be granted to said state for its use, the said land to be 
selected by the governor thereof, within one year after the 
admission of the state, and when so selected to be used or 
disposed of on such terms, conditions, and regulations as the 
legislature shall direct; provided, that no salt springs or 
lands, the right whereof is now vested in any individual or 
individuals, or which hereafter shall be confirmed or adjudged 
to any individual or individuals, shall, by this act, be granted 
to said state. 7 ' 

Pursuant to this statute the first governor of the state, the 
Honorable David Butler, lately deceased, selected twelve salt 
springs lying within the "Great Salt Basin," above men- 
tioned, the largest of them being the one now under discus- 
sion. Prior to that time the public lands of the territory of 
Nebraska had been surveyed and platted under (he authority 
of an act of Congress, July 22, 1851, and these springs bad 
been noted upon the field books, but the notes bad not been 
transferred to the plats prepared and returned for the use of 
the land department in making sales of the public domain. 
It was thought, also, that there wore ambiguities in certain 
previous acts of Congress, the nature of which it is unneces- 



sary and would be tedious to explain here, by reason of which 
the Nebraska springs had unwittingly been excepted from the 
rule, which, as above stated, Congress had, from the first, 
intended to apply to all such properties. 

In 1857 or 8 Mr. John Prey had removed to this territory 
from Wisconsin and with his sons, Thomas, William L., and 
John W., had settled upon public lands lying in what is now 
Lancaster county. Afterward William L. obtained employ- 
ment from the late J. Sterling Morton at the residence of the 
latter, near Nebraska City in Otoe county. The regulations 
offering the lands for sale at the United States land office at 
the latter-named place made no reservation for the protection 
of settlers. The elder Prey had sold his farm in Wisconsin, 
but had not yet been paid the purchase price, and was "there- 
fore without means to secure the possessions of himself and 
his sons. In this emergency he, as well as some of his neigh- 
bors, similarly situated, applied to Mr. Morton for assist- 
ance. Morton, as agent for certain eastern parties, had in his 
possession a considerable number of military bounty land 
warrants, issued under the authority of an act of Congress 
approved September 28, 1850, and which were selling at some 
discount and were exchangeable at their face for public lands 
at their minimum price. His instructions were to sell them 
either for cash or to permit them to be located, relying upon 
the good faith of the locators to secure their payment upon 
the land as soon as title therefor should be obtained, Morton 
being responsible to his principal for the consummation of 
the transaction in good faith. The Preys, besides asking for 
warrants for the purpose mentioned, which he seems to have 
furnished without hesitancy, besought him to furnish addi- 
tional warrants to cover what has been called the Great Salt 
Spring, representing to him that it was rich with salt which 
at a day not far distant would be very valuable. He had 
never seen the land itself, or the surveys or plats in the land 
office, or talked about them with any United States official, 
and was skeptical about its containing salt deposits of any 
considerable value. On the contrary, he believed it to be 



alkaline land unfit for agriculture or any other useful pur- 
pose, and so expressed himself. No one, however, seemed to 
doubt that it was lawfully subject to entry and sale, and the 
subject was not discussed or so much as mentioned. With a 
great deal of reluctance and after much importunity, he 
finally consented to furnish a part of the warrants asked for, 
provided the locations should be made in the name of Wil- 
liam L. Prey, in whom he had the uttermost confidence and 
upon whom he mainly relied to carry out the arrangement 
usual in such cases. But for some unknown reason, probably 
because of the mistake or inadvertence of the register of the 
land office, the location Avas made in the name of John W. 
Prey. These entries were made on the 12th day of Septem- 
ber, 1859. In July, 1868, John W. Prey executed a deed pur- 
porting to convey to Morton an undivided one-third of the 
lands mentioned in the certificate of location, and on the same 
day similar deeds were made to Andrew Hopkins and Charles 
A. Manners. Patents were issued by the land department 
and transmitted to the local office, for delivery to Prey, but 
the Secretary of the Interior, upon being informed that the 
lands contained valuable saline deposits, arrested them 
before delivery, and after having caused an investigation to 
be made, directed their return to Washington and cancella- 
tion, which was done in the year 1862. 

The only question affecting the validity of the location or 
of the patents was whether the springs had been reserved 
from sale, or "private entry/' as it was called. That the land 
was valueless for agriculture was apparent to all, and no 
attempt at their actual occupancy by Prey or his grantees 
was made until after the lapse of more than ten years from 
their location. The Nebraska legislature met in regular ses- 
sion on the 7th day of January, 1869, and the governor's mes- 
sage read on the next day submitted the following matters 
for their consideration : 

"Although comparatively little has been accomplished in 
the actual production of salt, that little has sel l led beyond 
question, if indeed further proof was needed, that we have, 



within sight of this hall, a rich and apparently inexhaustible 
supply of pure and easily manufactured article. It will be 
directly and indirectly a source of wealth to the state, whose 
great value no one can fully estimate. 

"Prompted by a sense of the importance of the early devel- 
opment of this interest, I gave to Mr. A. C. Tichenor a lease, 
conditioned upon the approval of the legislature, of one sec- 
tion of the salt lands belonging to the state. One-half of his 
interest in the lease was, by Mr. Tichenor, assigned. to the 
Nebraska Salt Company of Chicago. This company, from 
want of means or some unknown reason, has failed to fulfil 
the obligations undertaken in their purchase! So far has it 
failed that the local demand for salt has not been supplied, 
and that it has been unable at times to supply even a single 
bushel for home consumption. It is credibly represented that 
this company has refused to pay the debts which it has con- 
tracted among our citizens. While such is the state of things 
with this company, experienced men declare their readiness 
to invest in these works any required sums, if the opportu- 
nity is presented them. 

"The original lessee, in assuming and meeting the liabil- 
ities of the company, has a considerable amount invested in 
buildings and other works adapted to the prosecution of suc- 
cessful manufacture. He, as managing agent for the com- 
pany, has been faithful, though he has failed to receive the 
support which it is the duty of the company to render. He 
could not by any action of the state be made to suffer. But 
the public interest is at too great an extent involved in the 
speedy and full development of the productive capacity of 
these salt springs to allow them to lie in the hands of those 
who, from lack of energy or means, shall fail to work them to 
their full extent. Though the government should not take 
possession of the works built by Mr. Tichenor, without 
making full compensation, the general assembly should at 
least take such action as will soon result in securing the 
manufacture of salt to the greatest possible extent." 



The legislative response to this urgent appeal was an act, 
approved February 15, 1869, by which the lease mentioned in 
the message was declared to be void and of "no effect in law," 
and the governor was "authorized and directed" to enter into 
a new lease for the same lands with Anson C. Tichenor and 
Jesse T. Green, covenanting for the construction of certain 
manufacturing works, to the aggregate cost of one hundred 
thousand dollars, the commencement of the manufacture of 
salt within ninety days from the date of the instrument, and 
the payment to the state of two cents per bushel upon the 
gross output, and providing for a forfeiture of the lease for 
failure to make the required improvements or for failure to 
prosecute the business for so long a period as six months at 
any one time. The act also authorized the governor to lease 
any other of the saline lands to any other competent persons 
upon substantially the same terms, but requiring a greater 
or lesser expenditure for improvements, as he should see fit. 
On the same day the session was finally adjourned and on the 
same day also a lease with Tichenor and Green, as contem- 
plated by the act, Avas formally executed, and the lessees went 
into possession thereunder and proceeded with the erection 
of vats and pumping apparatus for the purposes of manu- 
facturing salt by means of solar evaporation of the surface 
brine. It is shown by the official report of the state treasurer, 
James Sweet, under the date of January 12, 1871, that the 
total revenues derived from royalties for the manufacture of 
salt were, up to that time, $53.93, indicating a total produc- 
tion of 2,696% bushels. It does not appear that Ihe state 
ever subsequently received any income from thai source. 

The governor convened the legislature in special session on 
the 17th day of January, 1870, and submitted io them a mes- 
sage reciting the objects to accomplish which they had been 
called together, and containing (lie following paragraphs; 

"To ratify and confirm a certain contrad made by the gov- 
ernor for the conveyance of certain lands to Isaac Cahn and 
John M. Evans, Io aid in the development of the saline inter- 
ests of the state. 



"Anxious to secure at an early clay as possible the develop- 
ment of our saline interests, I entered into a contract with 
Messrs. Cahn and Evans in August last, whereby they obli- 
gated themselves to commence at once the sinking of a well 
on land leased to them for that purpose, and to continue the 
sinking of the same to the depth of eight hundred feet unless 
brine of fifty degrees in strength should be sooner obtained, 
and to keep a perfect geological record of formations 1 passed 
through in the prosecution of the work. 

a To aid them in this, I contracted, subject to your ap- 
proval, to deed them two sections of saline lands belonging 
to the state. 

"Since that time they have steadily prosecuted the work, 
meeting, however, with very many obstacles. They have 
already expended twelve thousand dollars and it will cost 
them several thousands more to complete the work. The geo- 
logical record provided for in this contract will prove invalu- 
able in the sinking of future wells. I trust you will see the 
justice of this measure and cheerfully confirm my action in 
the matter. 

"It is of the highest importance that this interest be devel- 
oped without dela}^, and I see no way whereby it can be done 
without state aid." 

Without giving the matter mentioned in the foregoing par- 
agraphs of the governor's message any consideration, the 
legislature finally adjourned on the 4th day of March, 1870, 
and were by executive proclamation reconvened in a second 
extra session on the same day. Again the governor, by mes- 
sage, urged upon that body the importance of the subject 
under consideration, saying : 

"The ratification and confirmation of a certain contract 
made by the governor for the conveyance of certain lands to 
Isaac Cahn and John M. Evans, to aid in the development of 
,the saline interests of the state, or such other aid as the leg- 
islature may see fit to extend. I again urge this subject upon 
you for your earnest consideration. I can not but think that 
the best interests of the state need and demand it. The time 



has come when the people of this state ought to know whether 
the salt * springs owned by her are to be a source of wealth, 
rivaling Saginaw and Syracuse, or not. It is hardly to be 
supposed for a moment that individual enterprise can afford 
to take upon itself the risk of ruin consequent upon sinking 
a well at a vast expense and failing to obtain brine. It may 
be true that these lessees are able to sell out and make them- 
selves whole. But whether true or not, true it is beyond 
doubt that individual speculation in our salt springs is not 
what the state wants. Indeed, I think it hurtful to the repu- 
tation of our saline resources. We want them developed. 
We want the problem solved once and forever. I would much 
prefer that it be made a condition of the grant or other aid 
that the present lessees shall not assign their term or any 
part of it, until they have sunk the well to the depth required. 
This would certainly be for the best interests of the state. It 
would insure hearty and vigorous effort on the part of the 
lessees. I hope gentlemen will consider the subject well v be- 
cause I know of my own knowledge that these lessees, after a 
great expenditure made in good faith and at my own earnest 
solicitation, will be compelled to abandon, for want of means, 
further prosecution of their enterprise. This very abandon- 
ment will by no means tend to increase the zeal of enterpris- 
ing adventurers in making further experiments. I therefore 
ask at your hands such legislation as avi'11 tend to push for- 
ward this work to a rapid completion.' 7 

This appeal, like the former, fell upon deaf ears, and, with- 
out adverting to the subject, the legislature on the same date 
on which they had been for a second time reconvened, ad- 
journed without day. At the ensuing regular session of the 
legislature in 1871, Governor Butler Avas impeached and 
removed from office, and the lease to Cahn and Evans was 
never ratified or validated. They proceeded, however, to sink 
a well to the required depth, before reaching which they 
struck a stream of flowing water too slightly saline for the 
profitable manufacture of salt. Their "works were then aban- 



doned, but the stream continues to flow in undiminished 

It Avas said at the time that the flowing vein was of sweet, 
fresh water, and that its salt and alkaline qualities, when it 
reached the surface, were due to its mixture with other veins 
encountered on its way upward. And it was said, also, that 
its velocity Avas such that it Avould rise in a tube to the height 
of thirty feet above the ground. I have attempted to verify 
or disprove neither of these statements. If they are true, the 
stream may perhaps some time be of practical value for the 
generation of electric power. Much the same story Avas told 
of a well afterwards sunk by the city, on Government (then 
Market) Square, for the purposes of protection from fire. 

Not long after the execution of the lease to Tichenor and 
Green, the former disposed of his interest to Horace Smith of 
Springfield, Massachusetts, a member of the celebrated firm 
of Smith & Wesson of revolver fame, who by personal inspec- 
tion and with the aid of experts had satisfied himself of the 
great value of the salt deposit controlled by the lessees. But 
not deeming the business of manufacture at Lincoln so far 
developed as to require his personal attendance, he placed his 
matters there temporarily in charge of his nephew, Mr. 
James P. Hebbard, of Nebraska City. 

There is no reason to doubt that Morton and his associates 
acquired their supposed title in good faith and felt assured 
of its validity during all this time, but when or Iioav he became 
convinced that the land Avas of any considerable value is not 
known. He may possibly have read Mr. Harvey's pamphlet 
or my own. Quite likely he had read the report of an expert 
inspector on file in the land department and hereafter men- 
tioned, and he Avas doubtless familiar Avith the governor's 
message and with the legislative act of February 15, 1869, and 
Avith the covenants of the lease made pursuant to it, and Avith 
the purchase by Smith, a reported wealthy and capable busi- 
ness man, after a careful personal examination Avith the aid 
of an expert, and Avith the expenditures of Calm and Evans 
and the reassuring indications reported to be obtained by the 



sinking- of their well. There was certainly evidence enough 
to convince any reasonable man, and Morton was never 
accused of lacking the faculty of reasoning. But by the fall 
of 1870 it had become evident that the title to the tract could 
never be put beyond dispute otherwise than by a judgment of 
the courts, and, in a litigation concerning it, certain technical 
advantages of considerable value, it was supposed, would 
abide with the party in possession who would enjoy the posi- 
tion of defendant, and be better able to parry an attack than 
to make one. With a view to securing these advantages, 
Morton organized an expedition in December of that year. 
There was then no direct communication between Lincoln and 
Nebraska City by rail, and he traveled "overland" with a 
wagonload of provisions and supplies and one or more assist- 
ants. Arriving in Lincoln at evening on the 24th day of the 
month, he looked about him for some trusty local personage 
to help him out with his enterprise, and finally hit upon Ed. 
P. Roggen, then just arriving at manhood, afterwards secre- 
tary of this state, and with his party thus completed repaired 
to the salt springs just at nightfall. 

Among the structures erected by the lessees pursuant to 
their covenants with the state was a small building intended 
for use as a sort of headquarters and barrack room for the 
proprietors and their employees. The weather had been 
cloudy and threatening for the past week, and the manu- 
facture of salt by solar evaporation had been temporarily 
suspended, and the "works" were deserted. The building was 
unlocked and unguarded and the party went into occupancy 
without opposition. News of the invasion soon came to the 
ears of Green and Hebbard and caused them no little uneasi- 
ness. It was feared that unless the intruders could be at once 
expelled, their possession would ripen into such a character 
that it could only be terminated, if at all, at the end of a long 
and tedious litigation, during which the tenants of the state 
Avould incur a forfeiture of their lease, besides losing the 
profits of manufacture in the meantime. In view of these 
possibilities they immediately repaired for counsel to Col. 



James E. Philpott, one of the leading legal practitioners in 
the city, and laid their case before him. Cord-wood, with the 
exception of corn, was then almost the sole fuel used or ob- 
tainable in Lincoln, and was worth from ten to fourteen dol- 
lars per cord, reference being had to quality. The lessees had 
a large quantity of it piled near the building, and the Colonel 
suggested that if the trespassers should consume any of it, 
which on account of the state of the weather they would 
doubtless be compelled to do, they Avould commit the offense 
of larceny, for which they would become liable to arrest and 
criminal prosecution. Acting upon this suggestion, two per- 
sons were dispatched to the salt springs with instructions to 
observe and report events. They were not long in discovering 
both Morton and Roggen helping themselves to the wood and 
carrying armsful of it into the building, and in reporting the 
fact to their employers. Immediately a complaint charging 
Morton and Eoggen with larceny, according to a statutory 
form then in use, was prepared by Philpott, and subscribed 
and sworn to by Hebbard before myself as justice of the peace, 
which office I then held, and a warrant thereon was duly 
issued and delivered to a constable named Richardson, who 
was then also town marshal. I do not recall his given name, 
but because of the quality of his hair he was commonly called 
and known as "Curl" Richardson. At about half past ten 
o'clock on the same night, the constable appeared at my office 
with both the defendants in charge as prisoners and attended 
by their counsel, Mr. Jacob R. Hardenbergh, now deceased. 
Mr. Hebbard and Colonel Philpott and perhaps others were 
also present. There was a good deal of half-concealed anger 
and excitement, but there was no outbreak and no "scene." 
The next day was both Christmas and Sunday. Morton en- 
tered into his personal recognizance and became surety upon 
the recognizance of Roggen for the appearance of both of 
them at a specified hour on the following Monday, to which 
an adjournment was taken. When these proceedings had 
been concluded all persons in attendance left the room. 
There was a conference that night between Morton and his 


counsel on one side, and Seth Robinson, then attorney gen- 
eral of the state, on the other, at the private office of the lat- 
ter. Who else was there or what was done or agreed upon, I 
knoAV only from hearsay. I was not present and did not know 
of the meeting at the time. This much, however, seems cer- 
tain, namely, that Morton agreed to desist from his attempt 
to take forcible possession of the property in consideration 
that the criminal prosecution should be dropped. It was said 
at the time that he also agreed to waive any claim for dam- 
ages on account of his arrest, but this he afterwards disputed. 
At any rate, at the hour to which the case had been adjourned, 
on Monday, the prosecution appeared and withdrew the com- 
plaint and the proceeding was dismissed. 

Two weeks later, on the 7th day of January, 1871, Morton 
began an action against Hebbard and Green, in the district 
court of Lancaster county, to recover the sum of twenty thou- 
sand dollars damages for malicious prosecution and false 
imprisonment. His counsel was Jacob R. Hardenbergh, with 
whom was afterwards associated Daniel Gantt of Nebraska. 
City, later a judge of the supreme court of the state. Heb- 
bard and Green filed separate answers, the former being rep- 
resented by E. E. Brown and Seth Robinson as his attorneys, 
and the latter by James E. Philpott. A jury was waived and 
the cause came on for trial at a special term of the court 
before the Hon. George B. Lake, district and supreme judge. 
On the 8th day of June, 1871, there were subpoenaed as wit- 
nesses a man named Kennedy, E. 1*. Roggen, Major A. G. 
Hastings, and myself. There were findings and a judgment 
for the plaintiff in the sum of one hundred dollars damages 
and costs of suit. On the same day the amount was paid into 
court by Robert E. Knight, a partner of Colonel Philpott, and 
on the same day, also, Morton signed with his own hand upon 
the records of the court a receipt Tor it from Capt. Robert A. 
Bain, clerk of the court, The trial was merely formal, ami it 
was understood at the time that what Morton wished to gain 
from the suit was not large damages but vindication from (he 
accusation of larceny. Thus ended an episode aboul which 



there was much angry discussion for a time, and which was 
the occasion, temporarily, of some "bad blood," but which left 
matters precisely where they were at the beginning, and 
which had caused no appreciable harm to the property and 
none at all to the reputation of any one concerned. 

But litigation was by no means at an end. On the same 
7th day of January, on which the last-mentioned suit was 
begun, Morton, Hopkins, and Manners began an action in 
ejectment in the same court to try the title to the lands in 
dispute. Counsel engaged in the case were J. E. Harden- 
bergh and Daniel Gantt, for the plaintiffs, and Seth Robin- 
son, E. E. Brown, and James E. Philpott for the defense. 
Subsequently the state was admitted to defend by George H. 
Roberts, who had succeeded Mr. Robinson in the office of 
attorney general. A trial before Judge George B. Lake and 
a jury resulted in a verdict and judgment for the defendants, 
to reverse which a petition in error was prosecuted in the 
supreme court. The serial or general number of the case in 
that court was 81. In that court Judge E. Wakeley, of 
Omaha, also appeared for the plaintiffs. 

The judgment of the district court was affirmed in an opin- 
ion by Judge Crounse, from which Chief Justice Mason dis- 
sented, 2 Nebraska, 441. 

The patents although executed, as before stated, and trans- 
mitted to the local land office were never delivered to Prey, 
but were arrested by the commissioner of the general land 
office, Mr. J. M. Edmunds, as soon as he became informed of 
the character of the land, and were by his order returned to 
the department at Washington and canceled. The sole ground 
of the decision Avas that, by reason of these circumstances, the 
legal title had never passed out of the United States to Prey, 
and that although he might have acquired complete equitable 
ownership and conveyed it to the plaintiffs, the court was 
without jurisdiction to adjudge the matter in the common 
law action of ejectment. The chief justice combatted this 
decision in an elaborate and characteristically vigorous opin- 
ion, in which he maintained that saline lands in Nebraska 



were not reserved from private sale prior to the passage of 
the enabling act, and that the lands in suit having been sold 
before that time, section 11 of that act, above quoted, not 
only did not assume to grant them to the state, but by impli- 
cation ratified and confirmed their previous sale to the plain- 
tiffs or Prey. He further contended that the action of the 
department of the interior in arresting and cancelling the 
patents was in excess of authority and void, and that the 
plaintiffs, having all except the bare legal title, which was a 
mere shadow, were entitled to maintain their suit, and upon 
reversal of the judgment of the district court, to have final 
judgment in their favor rendered in the supreme court. He 
treated the defendants, the state, and its lessees as in the light 
of mere trespassers without semblance of right. 

Dissatisfied with this decision, the plaintiffs sued out a 
writ of error from the supreme court of the United States, 
where counsel for the plaintiffs was Montgomery Blair, and 
for the defendants were Judge William Lawrence, of Ohio, 
Judge E. Rockwood Hoar, of Massachusetts, and the Honor- 
able R. H. Bradford. The case was reached and disposed of 
by an opinion by Justice David Davis, speaking for the whole 
court, at the October term, 1874, 21 Wallace, 88, U. S. 660. 
That court wholly ignored the opinions of the state supreme 
court, both majority and minority, and disposed of the cas<? 
upon its merits, a somewhat unusual proceeding, because a 
majority of the state court expressly declined to consider the 
merits, and rested their decision solely on a question of prac- 
tice, having reference to their own jurisdiction and that of 
the trial court in this form of action, and held that neither 
had any. The state court was certainly competent to deter- 
mine its own powers and jurisdiction, and it is difficult to 
understand how the Supreme Court of the United Stales de- 
rived from it a jurisdiction which it did not itself posses*. 
But the latter-named court so determined, holding, after a 
review of all the congressional legislation relative to the sub- 
ject, that the springs were reserved from private entry by all 
act of Congress of July 22, 1854, establishing the office of 



surveyor general for the territories of New Mexico, Kansas, 
and Nebraska, and for that. reason affirmed the judgment 
complained of. The lands were thus finally released from 
the custody of the law. No further attempt to make use of 
them for the manufacture of salt has ever been made, but 
there has been some partly successful efforts to convert the 
big spring into a pleasure resort. 

There was produced on the trial in the district court and 
included in the bill of exceptions a certified copy of a report 
of an expert who, by direction of the land department, had 
been detailed by the United States Surveyor General for Kan- 
sas and Nebraska to ascertain the true character of the land 
in question. It was shown by this document that by careful 
observation over a long period in the summer of 1862, of the 
quantity of. brine issuing from the large spring, then called 
the "Chester Basin," and from a personally conducted quan- 
titive and qualitative analysis of it, that there was annually 
producible by solar evaporation from the surface waters of 
that spring alone no less than fifty-five hundred tons of, for 
practical purposes, chemically pure salt, one thousand tons 
of which could be collected from spontaneous crystallization 
around the edges of the basin. This quantity would have 
been equal to two hundred and twenty thousand statutory 
bushels, and at the royalty reserved in the Tichenor and 
Green lease, should have yielded the state an annual revenue 
of four thousand and four hundred dollars. But it was fur- 
ther shoAvn by this report that the quantity of salt obtain- 
able could without difficulty be largely increased by the use 
of dams and dykes preventing loss by dilution and seepage. 

The statement of facts prepared by Mr. Justice Davis for 
official publication in connection with the decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States contained the following 
statement, substantially repeated in the body of the opinion : 
"The land in question was palpably saline, so incrusted with 
salt as to resemble snow covered lakes." It should not be 
forgotten that there are eleven smaller springs situated in 
the Great Basin and selected by the governor. 



I can not but think that Mr. Samuel L. Clemens is cen- 
surably at fault for failure to bring these official representa- 
tions to the attention of Colonel Sellers. That the publica- 
tions of an humble and obscure individual like myself should 
have failed to attract the notice and arrest the attention of 
wealthy and prominent men of affairs is not surprising. But 
Mr. Clemens has for many years put himself forward as a 
comprehensive and accurate historian of his country, par- 
ticularly of the W est, and his books have been bought and 
devoured with avidity by a large and ever increasing circle 
of readers. For thirty yoars the above recited facts have been 
spread upon the records, and published in thousands of copies 
of the official reports, of the highest^ most learned, and most 
dignified, powerful, and important judicial tribunal in the 
United States, or perhaps in the world, and it can be due to 
nothing less than the gross and criminal negligence of the 
writer whom I have named that this immense store of min- 
eral wealth has remained for all this time undeveloped and 
unproductive, and, it may truthfully be said, undiscovered, 
at the very gates of our capital city. 


By John S. Gregory 1 for the Annual Meeting of the 
State Historical Society, January 1 0-11, 1005. 

Galveston, Texas, December 1(1, 11)04. 

Jay Amos Barrett, Curator: 

Dear Sir — I am in receipt of your kind invitation to ap- 
pear at your annual meeting of January next, and detail some 
of the early history of Lancaster county as 1 may remember it, 

Mohn Stanford Gregory was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, in 1834. 
Graduated at Maumee, Ohio, high school. From 1859 to 1861 ho was 
U. S. mail agent. He was admitted to the bar in L860 and came to the 
Lincoln Salt Basin, Nebraska, in August. 18(52. He built the first salt 
works there and manufactured salt for several years. He was engaged 
in real estate and insurance at Lincoln from 18(57 to 1891. In 1 set hQ 
was a member of the territorial legislature. In 1891 he removed to Gal- 
veston, Texas, where he now resides. He was married in 1857 to Mary 
Elizabeth White, 



Nothing Ayould afford me greater pleasure than to be present 
upon that occasion, and exchange reminiscences with the 
early settlers of that territory — if any are yet left on earth to 
meet, but as this is not possible at this time I will contribute 
my mite in the form of this letter. 

I would like to state something to a Historical Society that 
would be an incident of history, but as nothing occurred in 
my early day, I can not. I dislike to intrude in this article 
so much of the pronoun I, but remember that at the first elec- 
tion held in Lancaster county, which Avas a year ]ater than 
my first arrival, there were but eleven voters in the county, 
which was a picnic for office-seekers, for every one could have 
one. Therefore, if I am to say any tiling at all, it must involve 
myself more or less. Of these seventeen, W. W. Cox, 1 of 
Seward, and myself are the only survivors, so far as I am 

I first made my home in what is now Lincoln in the sum- 
mer of 1862, being the first permanent settler of that city's 
site. Neighbors in the county were few and 'far between, but 
for music we had nightly serenades from hundreds of coyote 
Avolves, who also loved chicken better than traveling minis- 
ters or down-south darkies; therefore Avar Avas declared 
against the Avolves. Every evening in the winter months Ave 
Avould mount a horse, fasten a piece of fresh meat to a lariat, 
and draAV it over the ground in a circuit of a mile or so, occa- 
sionally dropping a small pellet of lard encasing a flake of 
strychnine. The Avolves Avould take the trail, and sometimes 
Ave Avould gather a dozen of them in the morning. Their pelts 
paid the cost, and their carcasses Avere clraAvn aAvay to the 
banks of Salt creek, Avhere Ave expected them to rot in the 
spring. But a band of PaAvnee Indians found them, and 
never broke camp uutil the last carcass Avent into the soup, 
Avhich Ave Avere informed Avas "heap good for Ingun." 

In 1863 there Avas quite an influx of temporary citizens 
from the state of Missouri who came, as they stated, to "get 
out of the draft" (this AA r as war time, you know) and settled 

1 William Wallace Cox died February 25, 1907, aged seventy-four years. 



around Salt Basin. Of this number I remember the families 
of Owens, Harmon, Eveland, Bird, Billows, Tinnell, Thatcher, 
Pemberton, Church, and a few others. It was said that some 
of these had been bush-whackers in Missouri, and had in fact 
come up to the Salt Basins "for the benefit of their health"; 
but they were as peaceful as doves while here, and all went 
back to Missouri after the war was over. 

During that year, Dr. Crimin and "Jim" Dye, of Brown- 
ville, came to the Basin, and built a bench of salt boilers and 
became my friendly rivals in the salt manufacture. 

At an election late in the fall we elected Alf Eveland jus- 
tice of the peace, and Peter Billows constable, and this was 
the first attempt to call in the aid of the law, in that county. 
Prior to that date every man was his own law-giver, and a 
brace of revolvers enforced it. "Alf". was a small, freckled- 
faced, red-haired chap, very self-important, and ambitious to 
be called "Squire Eveland." He had opened a "saloon" in 
his sod dwelling, his stock in trade being a keg of whisky and 
a caddy of tobacco. His wife, Elizabeth, was of massive pro- 
portions, at least four times the size of her husband, and 
strong as she was big — could easily hold her lord at arm's 
length over her head, with her right arm alone. It was said 
that after Eveland's stock in trade had been paid for, he had 
ten cents left, with which he purchased a drink at his bar, 
while his wife kept the saloon, and then she in turn used it 
for the same purpose while "Alf" was bartender, and by alter- 
nating this process quite a trade was established. 

When "Alf" became justice of the peace, he went to Ne- 
braska City and provided himself with a justice docket book 
and a full set of law blanks, and returned, fully equipped to 
"dispense with justice" (as he put it) to all who should re- 
quire his services, but as it is difficult to make radical changes 
in forms of law, more than six months passed without a sin- 
gle case for Eveland's adjudication. The nearest to a case 
that I remember was from this Peter Billows, who, by the 
way, was originally a Pennsylvania Dutchman. Peter camG 
over to my office one morning, and said, "Gregory, John 



Owens' hogs broke into my garden last night, and destroyed 
more than fifteen dollars' worth of damage. What can I do 
about it?" I advised him to go and see JoIid, and if he would 
not fix it, he would have a case for Eveland, but as he and 
John "fixed it," the justice case was a failure. 

The first law case of this county- appears in "Justice 
Docket No. 1 — A. Eveland, Esq., J. P., and is entitled, 
"Crimm & Dye vs. J. S. Gregory, Action for Keplevin," and it 
arose as follows: Both Crimm and myself used a consider- 
able amount of salt barrels, which we made at our salt works, 
and the man, Church, was a stave maker, obtaining his bolts 
from the headwaters of Salt creek. On the morning Church 
started back to Missouri, he came to my Avorks, and sold me 
his stock of staves, amounting in value to about $ 16. I went 
with him to his "dug-out," counted and marked the staves, 
and took a bill of sale in writing, and paid for them. During 
the same morning he sold the same staves to Crimm, who also 
marked them, and took a bill of sale in writing. A few days 
after, I went for them with my wagons, and when Crimm 
saw me loading them, he came up and wanted to know what 
I was' doing with his staves. Of course it was a short story 
to explain the situation, and we agreed to divide the lot and 
each stand half the loss. But just at this point, a brilliant 
idea struck Crimm. He said, "Say, Gregory, what a pretty 
case this would be for a lawsuit. Here is Squire Eveland, 
who has spent a whole lot of money for books and blanks, and 
has been a justice of the peace for more than six months with- 
out a single case. What do you say to a lawsuit?" 

So it was arranged that Crimm should rush down to the 
"saloon," sue out a writ of replevin, and the constable should 
take the property, and we would give the "Squire" something 
to judicially decide. In due time the trial was had, Crimm 
introduced his bill of sale, proved payment, and delivery to 
himself by Church, on the day of his departure, and demanded 
judgment. Whereupon the Squire announced that the plain- 
tiff had a clear case, and, as his mind was already made up 
upon that point, he did not care to hear any evidence from 



the defendant. Of course defendant insisted that it was not 
lawful to render a judgment without both sides being heard, 
and demanded the right to produce his evidence. "Oh ! go 
ahead," said the Squire, "if you insist upon it, but it will do 
you no good, for I have already formed my opinion of the 
case." We followed Crimm's presentation exactly, and then 
pleaded that, as we were in possession of the property, in ad- 
dition had as good a right as the plaintiff, the plaintiff could 
not take it away from us without showing some superior 
right. The Squire, who had been so sure of his opinion, was 
evidently in a quandary and advised us to try and settle the 
case between ourselves, to which we each "angrily- 7 objected, 
and asked him what a justice court was for, if folks could 
agree without it. Finally, three days were taken in which to 
announce a decision, at which time about all the men of the 
settlement were present to hear the result. Court was called 
to order and the Squire said, "Gentlemen, I have given, the 
case my best consideration, and the more I have studied it the 
more difficult it seems to arrive at. any conclusion as to which 
of you rightfully own those staves. I think you should agree 
to divide them." And announced that this was the only judg- 
ment he would enter. To this we each protested, but con- 
sented to confer, each with the other to see if we could com- 
promise. After a short time we filed back "into court," and 
announced that if the Squire would remit his costs and treat 
the "boys" who had come to attend his court, Ave would settle 
the case between ourselves, to all- of which he gladly 

I don't knoAv how much whisky was left in that keg, but 
doubt there being any; for the saloon business closed from 
that day. 

Will Pemberton Avas another of the "characters" of Sail; 
Basin. Tie Avas the youngest of the colony, and had many 
good traits of character which T admired, but he Avas quick- 
tempered and impulsive. I don't suppose he Avas any more 
truthful than the ordinary denizens of the colony, but to be 
called a liar was to him a deadly insult. One day he came 



over to my place upon his horse, at its fastest run. II is face 
was pale and his eyes were green, and he was trembling with 
excitement. He said, "Greg, I want to know if I can depend 
upon you as my friend in trouble?' 7 I answered him that he 
could up to the last hair. He then asked me if there was any 
law in Nebraska against killing birds. I told him there was 
not. He said he was awful glad to know it, for he had just 
killed Jim Bird over at the Basin. Said Jim had called him 
a liar, and he had shot him through the head, was awful sorry 
now that he had done so, but it couldn't be helped, said it 
broke him all up, and that he couldn't think what to do. He 
wanted me to think for him, and advise him ; said he would 
light out and leave the country, or Avould stay and face the 
music, or any other thing I might advise. I told him it was 
bad business, and that before I could give him any reliable 
advice I would go over and see if he was not mistaken about 
Bird being dead. To this he said his revolver never failed to 
plant a bullet where he aimed it, and he saw Bird fall with 
his shot. I mounted my horse, and rode over,- and the first 
man I saw was this same Jim Bird, busy cutting wood at the 
front door of his log cabin. His rifle leaned. against the door- 
jamb, and as he caught sight of me he called me; said he 
wanted me to see what that Coyote Pemberton had done. A 
hole was through his hat, and a reel streak on his head Avhere 
the bullet grazed, and which had temporarily prostrated Jim, 
and had buried itself in the house logs. "Now," he says, "if 
Pemberton don't quit the country there will be a funeral to- 
morrow, for I will shoot, him on sight," Well, I got down 
from my horse, and made Bird sit down with me, and I ar- 
gued the case with him in all its bearings, told him what 
Pemberton thought of it, and finally Bird agreed that if Pem- 
berton would come to him, and pass to him his pistols, as 
evidence of good faith, and beg his pardon for his rashness, 
and promise to keep the peace, Bird would let the matter 
drop. To all these Pemberton gladly complied, and again 
peace and good will hovered over Salt Basin. 



John Cadinan was another leading light in ancient history. 
He was a politician of the foxy kind. He always took a prom- 
inent part in every social or political move, both for noto- 
riety and as a source of revenue. 

He was ready on all occasions to make an "impromptu" 
speech, but always wanted about tAvo weeks' time in advance 
to prepare it, otherwise he was all at sea. On one occasion I 
remember he was called upon, but being unprepared, de- 
clined: As the audience insisted, a good, strong escort on 
each arm walked him upon the platform "willy nilly," so 
John started in : "My friends and fellow citizens, it affords 
me great pleasure to — to— to come together again." The ap- 
plause that greeted this announcement about closed the re- 
marks of the honorable gentleman, and John took a seat. 
Cadman died several years ago in California. 

The Lancaster colony had its advent in 1864, but this being 
modern history, and subsequent to my early day, T leave its 
record for others. 


Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Nebraska 
State Historical Society, January 11, 1905. 

by judge william gaslin. 1 

I have been invited by you to present a paper at this annual 
meeting of your Society upon the subject of "Justice on the 
Frontier," or "another subject," if it pleases me better. Hav- 
ing been for sixteen years an active participant in adminis- 

1 William Gaslin, pioneer lawyer, Kearney, Nebraska, was born in Au- 
gusta, Maine, July 29, 1827. He was graduated from Bowdoin College 
with the degree of A.B. He became a teacher and law student at Au- 
gusta, Maine, 1856-58, practiced law • at. Augusta, 185S- 00. member of the 
common council, Augusta, 1857; board of aldermen, 1803-64; superin- 
tendent of schools, 1857-62; city solicitor, 1863-64. He has been a lawyer 
in Nebraska since 1868, practicing in turn at Omaha, Lowell, Blooming- 
ton, Alma, and Kearney. He served as judge of ihe fifth, eighth, and 
tenth judicial districts of Nebraska, 1875-1902 consecutively; attorney 
for the city of Kearney, 1896-97. Judge Gaslin, although eighty years oldj 
is still active, and is engaged in the banking business at Alma, Nebraska, 



tering justice on the frontier, no subject would be so interest- 
ing to me as that; but I have thought best to defer this to 
some future time, and have chosen the subject of "Judicial 
Graft/' which is robbing the taxpayers of this state of nearly 
|100,000 annually, and which demands our immediate atten- 
tion, as the legislature, which has the only power to remedy 
this evil, is now in session. 

During the session of the legislature of 1891 I was asked 
by several members my opinion of the necessity of increasing 
the number of judges and judicial districts which had been 
asked for and given at previous sessions and I gave one of 
them at that time, the following communication, which was 
published in the Nebraska State Journal: 

"For session after session I have seen the number of judi- 
cial districts and judges increased, at an unnecessary expense 
to the taxpayers. 1 did not suppose a repetition of this 
would be attempted in the present legislature, elected on the 
issue of economy. We have twelve judicial districts and 
twenty-one district judges, nearly as many as England, Scot- 
land, Ireland, and Wales, with a population of over forty-two 
millions. The reason of this useless iu crease is, there is no 
branch of our government so little understood by the x^^ople 
and legislators, who are not lawyers, as the judicial. I know 
of instances during a campaign when certain lawyers have 
espoused the cause of candidates to the legislature, under 
promise of using their influence, if elected, to increase the 
number of judicial districts and judges, when both parties 
knew there was no necessity of it, hoping thereby to secure a 
judgeship, and this, under the false cry of increase of law 
business and necessity, and honest members have been in- 
duced to vote for this increase. 

"During a former session of the legislature, a majority of 
the district judges informed a committee thereof it was not 
necessary to increase the number of judicial districts and 
judges : but the bill passed, increasing the same, through the 
influence of tricksters and politicians. When my district 
was last divided, a majority of the lawyers in the newly cre- 
ated district therefrom, and Judge Cochran, the appointee of 
the new district, frankly and honestly said there was no neces- 
sity for it. But the program of the rapacious politicians 



"From 1876 to 1883 my district comprised over twenty 
counties, all the state west of Nuckolls, Clay, Howard, and 
Valley counties, and included the unorganized county of 
Sioux, extending north to Dakota; and during that time I 
kept my dockets clear by holding court less than one-third of 
the time, and had to travel by carriage to reach many of the 
courts; and had more criminal business than there was- in 
any two other districts in the state. The first three years I 
was judge I tried twenty-six murder cases, and the first six 
years, forty-three. 

"When the subject of increasing the number of judicial 
districts began to be agitated, I commenced to keep an ac- 
count of the number of days I held court in each county. In 
1880 I held court in all, in my district, 113 days, the largest 
number I have ever held in one year, occasioned by an un- 
usually large number of murder cases, among which was the 
infamous Olive's trial, which consumed more time than I 
ever devoted to one case. In 1881, I held court 94 days; in 
1882, 93 days ; in 1883, after the territory north of the Platte 
was cut off from my district, by the politicians, against my 
protest, as I could do all the business by holding court one- 
third of the time, I held court but 40 days : in 1884, 34 days ; 
in 1885, 64 days; in 1886, 59 days; in 1887, 72 days. And 
notwithstanding I could do the business of the entire district 
in 72 days, the legislature this year cut off from my district 
all west of Phelps and Harlan counties, which I protested 
against, as I could do the business of the whole territory of 
the district as it was, in less than one-third of the time, and 
save the taxpayers the unnecessary expense of the salary of 
the judge and reporter, amounting to #4,000 a year. In 18S8 
I held court in my district SO days; in 1889, 107 days, the 
business largely increasing in Adams/county this year, on 
account of the litigation growing out of (lie collapse of the 
boom in Hastings; in 1S00 I held court 00 days. There will 
be much 'less business this year than last. My dockets are as 
clear as I can get them, and are goae through with every 
term, and all cases (hereon tried, unlGSS continued by mutual 
consent; or on an iron-clad affidavit, if either parly desires 
trial; and yet I see a, bill has been introduced to increase the 
number of judicial districts and judges, and even to create 
another '.judge for my district, when tiere is not half business 
enough to occupy my time. By examination of the dockets 
and business transacted in the counts as near as I can com- 



pute it in volume of law business,, my district stands at the 
present time fourth in the state. With the exception of the 
second and third, I can take any two districts in the state 
and keep the dockets clear, and not run court over eight 
months in a year; and so can any man who will strictly at- 
tend to and rush the business, by running the courts a rea- 
sonable number of hours each day. As I have an abundance 
of time, I do not dispatch the business nearly as rapidly as I 
might and should were I pressed for time. Instead of in- 
creasing the number of judges and judicial districts, better 
enact laws requiring the courts to open in the morning and 
run the entire clay, and do an honest day's work, and clear up 
the dockets and dispose of the business thereon. If men in 
other vocations would run their business in the Avay many 
lawyers and courts do theirs, they would bankrupt themselves 
in a short time. The burlesques and criticisms on the legal 
profession and the- courts are not without just cause. 

"If you have any legislation for relief, give it to the su- 
preme court, which is so overworked and overburdened with 
business, it is impossible for any three men to transact it. 
The increase of judges and judicial districts is for the pur- 
pose of giving drones more time to sleep and do nothing and 
to furnish more teats for the public political pigs. As Presi- 
dent Lincoln onpe said to a lot of worthless office-seekers for 
whom he had nOplace, '.Better kill the pigs than increase the 
number of teats) 

"The salaries \f the present district judges and their re- 
porters alone cost the tax-payers of Nebraska $84,000 a year ; 
and each new juuge and his reporter will cost the public 
$4,000 a year. Think of this when you create an office that 
is not necessary. 1 deem it my solemn duty to give you my 
opinion on this subject, based on actual knowledge from 
over fifteen years' experience as district judge. I owe this 
to a tax-ridden and unfortunate people as well as to my own 
conscience. Whatever the outcome of this matter, I have 
done my duty to the people of the state. You have asked me 
for my opinion and I have honestly given it to you." 

At this session of the legislature of 1891 was made the 
worst judicial graft that was ever made in the state, by in- 
creasing the number of judicial districts to fifteen and the 
number of district judges to twenty-eight. 



When I came to the state in 1868 it was divided by the 
Constitution and law into three judicial districts, to Avhich 
but three judges, elected by the voters, were assigned by the 
legislature, by which times and places of holding courts were 
provided, and the three district judges, by the Constitution 
and Statute, were made supreme judges. They were Oliver 
P. Mason, chief justice, Lorenzo Crounse, and George B. Lake, 
the first judges of the state elected under the Constitution of 
1866, and in the aggregate, in my opinion, we have never had 
a better, if as good, a supreme court. They were the pioneers 
and founders of our judicial system, as promulgated in our 
early reports, which are a credit to them and an honor to our 
state. Under the judicial system then in force they promptly 
disposed of the business of the courts, kept their dockets 
clear and gave general satisfaction. Section 8, article 4, of 
the Constitution of 1866 provided that, "The legislature may, 
after 1875, increase the number of justices of the supreme 
court and the judicial districts of the state." Under this 
system the number of judicial districts and judges might be 
increased after 1875, but to a comparatively limited numbeiy 
as the supreme judges Avere cx officio district judges. Under 
article 2, section 8, Constitution of 1866, after ten years the 
legislature could increase the number of senators not to ex- 
ceed twenty-five, and the number of representatives not to 
exceed seventy-five. So to get rid of these and other whole- 
some restrictions, the rapacious politicians, office-seekers, ad- 
venturers, and grafters, who had swarn^ed to the new state 
for pelf and political preferment, beind in a majority, pro- 
ceeded to the calling of a constitutional] convention, adopted 
the Constitution of 1875, which created our present system 
of district judges and judicial districts/ opening the way for 
so many superfluous offices and places; imposing on the lax- 
payers a large expenditure of unnecessary money. I was 
nominated a member to that convention by acclamation, but 
declined. The New England and oilier slates for long 
years had, and some now have, the same judicial system as 
Nebraska had under the Constitution of 1866, Which I lived 




and practiced under prior to coming to Nebraska; and I am 
not sure it is not the better system. This system, Avhere the 
district and* supreme judges occupy the same position, tends 
to get a better class of lawyers and men for district judges 
than under our present system, as the people realize that 
all their judges must or should be qualified for the position 
of supreme judges as well as for district judges. It really 
requires a better lawyer for district judge, who has to pass 
on a multitude of questions as they arise in the contest of 
the trial, with no chance for reference, than for supreme 
judge, who has ample time for examination, study, and re- 
flection before writing his decision. 

Here let me depart and say that in my native state, Maine, 
in choice of judges and school officers, by common consent, 
politics are ignored; the judges are often retained until ex- 
treme old age, and as long as their physical and mental facul- 
ties remain intact, by experience growing better each and 
every term of office. The selection of judges, by all means, 
should be removed from the dirty pool of politics, as no 
business is so dishonest, disreputable, and injurious to the 
public as professional politics. 

Under the Constitution of 1875 the state was divided into 
six judicial districts, providing for one judge for each dis- 
trict, to be elected by the voters of the district for four years. 
At that time I was residing in Franklin county, which in the 
apportionment was in the fifth district. When the time came 
to choose a candidate for district judge for the district, many 
asked me to become the candidate, which T at first declined, 
but at last consented to be, and was triumphantly elected, 
with three candidates in the field. At the expiration of my 
first term, I did not even attend the judicial convention to 
nominate my successor, but was nominated by the republi- 
cans and indorsed by the democrats, no one running against 
me. At the close of my second term I was nominated and 
again supported by all parties. At the expiration of my third 
term I was again nominated and elected practically without 
opposition, making sixteen consecutive years I served the 



people, according to the best of my ability, running the courts 
with dispatch and as economically and parsimoniously as if 
the cost and expenses came out of my own pocket. 

When I was first elected, the district covered at least half 
of the territory of the state, sparsely settled, railroads reach- 
ing but few of the county seats, and infested with outlaws 
and the worst kind of criminals. Court was not held by me 
for ornament, but strictly for business, and soon law and 
order were established and crime was promptly and fear- 
lessly punished, even at times in peril of my life. Fortu- 
nately, Gen. C. J. Dilworth was district attorney. He was one 
of the coolest and bravest of men, a gallant soldier in the 
Union army during the Civil War, affable and judicious, 
clear-headed and a good trial lawyer, having genius and tact 
to convict criminals, without exciting their hatred, ever co- 
operating with me to secure the conviction of the guilty ; and 
he is entitled to his full share of the credit for redeeming the 
district from the reign of terror in which we found it. We 
conferred together constantly, and I could always rely upon 
his good judgment. His services were appreciated and re- 
warded by the law-abiding citizens of Nebraska by electing 
him attorney general of the state for two terms, which posi- 
tion he filled with credit, as he ever did any public position 
entrusted to him. He has gone out from among us to the 
land of the unknown, leaving behind him his widow, an ex- 
cellent lady, and a worthy and upright son, occupying a 
prominent position at Omaha, in the legal department of the 
C, B. & Q. Ry. Co. After General Dilworth was elected at- 
torney general, during the last of the carnival of crime in 
the fifth district, Hon. Victor Bierbower, peculiarly fitted 
for the position, occupied the position of district attorney, 
who acquitted himself with credit, and who died a few years 
ago in Idaho occupying a prominent state office. 

Unfortunately for the taxpayers of Nebraska, the Consti- 
tution of 1875, by provision of article 6, section 2, provided 
that "on and after 1880 and every four years thereafter," (he 
legislature had authority to increase the number of judicial 



districts and the number of district judges. Authorized by 
the above provision, in the session laws of 1883, chapter 37, 
page 218, the politicians, tricksters, and grafters induced the 
legislature to increase the number of judicial districts from 
six to ten, and to add an extra judge for the fourth district ; 
authorized the governor to appoint new judges created by 
the act until the next regular election, which was promptly 
done, when there was not the least necessity for this increase ; 
adding to the state taxes $4,000 for the salary of each new 
judge and his reporter, making $ 20,000 increase in state taxes 
for the salaries of the five unnecessary judges and reporters, 
besides the unnecessary costs and fees of additional bailiffs, 
'urors, etc., falling on the counties. By act of the legislature 
of 1885, session laws of 1885, page 239, an additional judge 
was provided for the second district, the attendant officers 
following as a consequence, only two years subsequent to the 
prior act of 1883, extending the number of judicial districts 
to ten, when section 2, article 6, of the Constitution pro- 
vides that the number of judges and judicial districts can be 
increased but once in four years. Well do we remember the 
juggling and hair-splitting of the supreme court to get 
around this provision of the Constitution. After this con- 
struction the head-gates were hoisted, and the grafters turned 
lo~>se to rob the people of the state by creating unnecessary 
xidges and reporters, and court hangers on ad libitum. In 
1877 by act of the legislature, found in chapter 6, page 95, 
the judicial districts were increased to twelve and the num- 
ber of district judges to nineteen, increasing the state taxes 
$24,000, the pay of the superfluous judges and reporters, be- 
sides the court expenses of extra bailiff fees, jurors, and other 
court hangers-on. This act provided for four judges for the 
fourth district, two judges each for the first, fourth, seventh, 
and ninth districts, and one judge each for the other districts. 
By act of the legislature of 1889, Session Laws, chapter 44, 
page 418, an additional judge was provided for the tenth judi- 
cial district, increasing the whole number of district judges 
to twenty. After law business had greatly fallen off, by act 



of 1891, Session Laws, chapter 6, page 70, the number of judi- 
cial districts were increased to fifteen and number of district 
judges and reporters to twenty-eight; districts two, seven, 
eight, nine, ten, twelve, thirteen, and fourteen having one 
judge each; the first, fifth, sixth, eleventh, and fifteenth hav- 
ing two judges each; the third district having three judges; 
and the fourth district seven judges. This is one of the most 
palpable grafts ever perpetrated on the people of the state. 
Though litigation and business of the courts have greatly 
decreased, amounting at most to not more than one-third of 
Avhat it did ten or twelve years ago, there is no diminution 
in the number of districts, district judges and their reporters, 
and the concomitant court hangers-on; and though Governor 
Mickey, one of the best governors for good people and one of 
the worst for the grafters, in his first inaugural address drew 
the attention of the legislature to this palpable evil, not the 
least attention was paid to or notice taken of it. Though this 
useless expenditure of public money lias been apparent to 
and felt by those conversant with it for years, no steps have 
been taken to eradicate it. What is everybody's business is 
nobody's business. When a public office is once created, it 
can be got rid of only with great difficulty. 

As I have said, there are now in Nebraska fifteen judicial 
districts, twenty-eight district judges, and the same mimler 
of reporters, every judge and his reporter costing the (a. 
payers of the state $4,000, besides the extra jurors, criers, 
bailiffs, and court hangers-on, costing the counties a large 
sum. I have gone over the matter and made a quite careful 
estimate, and it seems to me that one judge is ample for the 
first district, which now has two; that the two counties, Otoe 
and Cass, comprising the second district, should be attached 
to the adjoining districts and that district be dispensed with; 
that one judge is sufficient for the third district, which now 
has three; that two judges are ample for the fourth district, 
which noAV has seven; that one judge is ample for each of the 
fifth, sixth, eleventh, and fifteenth districts, which each now 
have two judges; that the counties in the seventh district 



should be attached to the adjoining districts where the judges 
have not more than business enough to occupy one-third of 
their time; that the tenth and twelfth districts should be 
united in one, and the same disposition be made of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth; thus dispensing with seventeen 
useless and unnecessary judges and the same number of 
redundant reporters, whose salaries annually amount to $68,- 
000, besides the other costs of unnecessary jurors, bailiffs, 
and other officers attached to and attendant on the unneces- 
sary judges aggregating some $100,000 yearly expenses and 
salaries. The last graft, the worst, most obvious and unnec- 
essary of all, passed by the legislature of 1891, after law busi- 
ness had begun to decline. 

The district comprising Douglas, Sarpy, Washington, and 
Burt counties is the only one that ever required more than 
one judge, not more than two, during the large foreclosure 
and other cases for a short time, occasioned by the collapse 
of the boom, a large portion of which went by default, which 
was the case to a greater or less extent all over~the state. This 
gave the grafters, designing and professional politicians an 
opportunity to impose upon the honest and Avell-meaning 
public and legislators, thereby to unnecessarily increase the 
number of judges and judicial districts, by falsely heralding 
he increase of law business and cases *in the courts. These 
oom cases were mostly default cases, and added very little 
to the work of the judges and reporters, the decrees and jour- 
nal entries being written largely by the clerks of the district 

During the sixteen years I served, as district judge I pre- 
sided over sixty-eight murder cases, and other important 
iminal cases in proportion, most of them hotly contested 
by able lawyers, and now a murder case is rare. T also had 
requent county-seat contest cases as Avell as important 
quity cases containing important questions, and often in- 
olving large sums of money; raising new questions arising 
in a new state, which required much labor and research ; and 
often held courts for other judges in other districts, espe- 



cially the first five or six years I was judge, and on an aver- 
age not over one-third of my time was occupied in holding 

There is not in this state one-third of the law business 
there was ten or twelve years ago, and it is growing less every 
year, — : an excellent thing for the public. During all this 
clamor for increase of district judges and judicial districts I 
can not call to mind an instance when I have heard a district 
judge advocate it; on the contrary, all I have talked with 
gave their opinion that it was unnecessary ; and that has been 
the opinion I have heard all well-informed, honest lawyers of 
the state express. At this time it is obvious to the most casual 
observer of ordinary intelligence, lawyer or judge or not, 
that the district judges, reporters, and judicial districts 
should be greatly reduced. Would it not be a joke, if the 
present legislature increased the number of judicial districts 
and district judges instead of reducing them? That was just 
what was done by the legislature of 1891, after I gave a num- 
ber of that body the communication 1 have just read, which 
was published in the State Journal, and to my certain knowl- 
edge other district judges gave members of the legislature 
the same opinion. If the politicians, tricksters, and grafters 
have control of the legislature, and so will it, it will be done, 
however detrimental to the public interest and though honest 
members may oppose it, Both parties preach economy, right- 
eousness, and strict conformity to the laws and Constitution 
during campaigns, but disregard their campaign vow s when 
they get in power. All kinds of subterfuges, after being in- 
stalled, are used to continue and create superfluous and un- 
necessary and illegal positions in and about the stale house 
and elsewhere to reward relatives, friends, and politicians <*f 
the successful party, who helped elect the members in power. 
They become so thick in and about the state house during 
the session of the legislature, (hey run over and trample each 
oilier down, though a goodly number of the grafters whose* 
names are on the pay roll au<l drawing salary are absent. 




IN 1855. 

Read before the Annual Meeting of the Nebraska State 
Historic^ l Soc i ety. 

by general john m. thayer. 

The passage of what was known as the Kansas and 
Nebraska bill May 30, 1851, providing for the organization 
of those territories, attracted the attention of the people 
very generally of the North and South, and many were 
ready to remove to those sections of the country. I had long 
had the intention of finding some point in the northwest 
for settlement, and in the spring of 1851 had taken a trip to 
Nebraska in view of spying ont the land. I was so well 
pleased with the appearance of the country that I deter- 
mined to locate in Omaha, which had then been laid out and 
planted in anticipation as the future capital city of Ne- 
braska. In September of that year I arrived in the city of 
Council Bluffs, which was then the stopping place for all 
persons intending to locate in the central portion of Ne- 
braska. I was accompanied by my wife. We found there at 
that time a number of persons who helped to lay the founda- 
tion of the territorial government. I recall the Hon. J. Ster- 
ling Morton and wife, Dr. George L. Miller and wife, A. J. 
Hanscom and wife, Samuel Rogers, Thomas B. Cuming and 
wife, Mrs. Murphy, -and Frank Murphy, and others whom I 
cail not now recall. All the gentlemen whom I have named, 
with the exception of Thomas B. Cuming, are now living, and 
all located in Omaha opposite Council Bluffs. 

President Franklin Pierce by proclamation opened the ter- 
ritory for settlement and appointed a set of officers. He 
selected Francis Burt of South Carolina for governor, and 
named Thomas B. Cuming, of Keokuk, Iowa, to be secretary 
of state, and Mark W. Izard for United States marshal. Gov- 
ernor Burt started with a view of making the journey to, 
what was to be to him, his future land of promise, but he was 



in poor health at the time, and as he journeyed toward Ne- 
braska his health grew worse and became very much im- 
paired while on a steamer from St. Louis to Bellevue. The 
steamer could go no farther than St. Joe, from which place 
he proceeded in a hack to Nebraska City and from there in a 
wagon to Bellevue. He was taken into the Old Mission House 
at that point and continued to grow Avorse, and he finally died 
there in a few days, never having assumed the duties of office 
as governor. By the organic law his death devolved the du- 
ties of the office of governor upon the secretary of the terri- 
tory appointed, Thomas B. Cuming above named. The latter 
assumed the duties of the offic*e of acting governor, and soon 
put the machinery of organization on foot, laying off the 
territory into counties and providing for the election of mem- 
bers of the legislature. President Pierce did not immediately 
fill the office of governor by another appointment, but finally 
did appoint Mark W. Izard, who was then U. S. marshal, 
who, being on the ground, immediately assumed the duties 
of the office. Governor Cuming had developed into an active, 
energetic, broad-minded governor, filled with neAV ideas of 
progress, while Governor Izard was of the reverse order, and 
it was a mystery to many people why he had ever been se- 
lected for the governorship. It was a general conclusion that 
the delegation from Arkansas felt under obligation to pro- 
vide a place for him. The legislature elected under the 
proclamation of Governor Cuming met during the winter of 
1854-55. I was unexpectedly called back east and was £one 
some weeks. While I was away the legislature had made 
provision for laying off the territory into a brigade, and had 
elected me brigadier-general to command the frontier and to 
struggle with the Indians. I did not give much thought to 
the subject at first, but thought I would undertake whatever 
duties might devolve from it. I found subsequently that it 
became a more serious subject than I had supposed. 

I had built a small house on the site of Omaha ami on my 
return from the East occupied it. We had just about got 
settled in it when I noticed, one afternoon towards evening. 


Governor Izard coming over towards it, and I said to my 
wife, "I wonder what is up now?" He called upon me and I 
soon found what his call Avas for. He said to me the couriers 
had just arrived, informing him that the Pawnee Indians 
were making a raid on the settlers along the Elkhorn river, 
stealing their stock and driving it away, and consequently 
the people were greatly alarmed and appealed to him for pro- 
tection; and that he felt it his duty to call upon me to go at 
once to the Pawnee village and hold a council with the chiefs, 
with a view of inducing- them to keep their Indians in sub- 
jection and not to meddle with the whites. Here was a de- 
velopment which I was not looking for. I had no familiarity 
with the Indians and had hardly ever seen them. Here was 
a call upon me which I could not escape. I had made up my 
mind not to shirk any duty, and, taking a cheerful view, I 
determined to be of use to the settlers if it was in my power. 
There was nothing left for me then but to make preparation 
to visit the Pawnee village. 

The village of the Pawnees was on the south and west side 
of the Platte river, on a very high point a few miles this side 
of where the town of Fremont had just commenced a settle- 
ment. The Governor said to me that Mr. Allis, who had 
formerly been a missionary to the Pawnees and had been 
employed as interpreter for that tribe, was living in a little 
town on the east side of the Missouri river in Iowa, opposite 
Bellevue, and that he would send a messenger for him to 
come to Omaha at once and accompany me on the expedition, 
as it would be necessary to have his services as an inter- 
preter, and I was very glad to have him associated with me. 
O. D. Eichardson, who had settled in Omaha, having for- 
merly been lieutenant-governor of Michigan, kindly volun- 
teered to accompany me in this movement. I had decided 
also to take along John E. Allen, a brother-in-law. That made 
up the party of four. I had purchased a team for farming 
purposes and took that as the means of our conveyance. I, of 
course, could not tell how long we would be absent, but I de- 
termined to provide a goodly supply of good things, so that 



we might live well, no matter what hardships we might meet 
with. My wife was an excellent cook, trained in a good New 
England home, and she volunteered to prepare rations for 
us that would last us some days. She at once set to work 
and baked a half dozen loaves of bread, boiled a Avhole ham, 
baked six or seven mince pies, and fried nearly a half bushel 
of doughnuts, ground coffee for several days' consumption, 
put in a full supply of condensed milk, pickles, and other 
good things, all of which was a portion of supplies that Ave 
had laid in for the winter. She was engaged all one day and 
all one night in preparing these articles of food and the part 
of next day in order to get them ready for us. When the 
interpreter arrived Ave were prepared to start on this trip to 
the PaAAmee A r illage, putting in feed for the horses, and taking 
some blankets Avith us which Ave expected to sleep in, or in 
the Avagon if there Avas room enough. The Governor came 
over to see us off and say good-bye, expressing the hope that 
we would make the Indians behave themselves. He was a 
kindly old gentleman, a tall six-footer in size, and a good 
chewer of tobacco. It Avas reported of him that he was a 
retired Baptist minister, all the way from the wilds of Ar- 
kansas, lie had many qualities which made me like him. 
He evidently Avas trying to do the best he could for the set- 
tlers. Being thus prepared Ave started on the expedition. 
We took the trail leading Avest from Omaha, and in a few 
hours crossed the Elkhoru river on a flat-bottomed boat, near 
where a family had located, and then made for the direction 
of the Pawnee village on the high bluff to which I have al- 
luded, reaching a point on the Platte on this side of it. The 
village was entirely exposed to our view and the hundreds of 
Indians loafing around it. They soon discovered our team 
approaching their direction and were a good deal excited at 
the apparently strange appearance to them. We could dis- 
cover a crowd on the bluffs as they were drawn by curiosity 
to come out, and Look at the strange team thai was approach- 
ing. We halted in full view of the village, and the inter- 
preter signalled to them to send a number of Indians across 


the river to lead us back, as we were coming to see the chiefs. 
Soon some twenty Indians crossed over to the place where 
Ave were awaiting their coming. The interpreter informed 
them that Ave Avanted them to lead us back across the river. 
The Platte river Avas as it is noAV, a dangerous stream to cross 
without a guide who is familiar Avith it; so it Avas arranged, 
that Ave should take my tAvo horses and unharness them, and 
Gov. O. D. Kichardson ride one and I the other, and the In- 
dians furnish a pony for the interpreter, one of them giving 
up his pony and doubling upon the back of another. I left 
Allen in charge of the Avagon and the supplies in it, having 
no suspicion of treachery on the part of the Indians. While 
they Avere Avith us and around the Avagon they took good care 
to learn Avhat Avas in the Avagon. When Ave Avere ready to 
cross the river our escort of Indians took the lead and Ave 
folloAved in single file. When perhaps about half Avay across 
the Platte I suddenly realized that my horse Avas sinking in 
quicksand, and instantly slid off into the river, realizing the 
serious danger from the quicksand. I gave him a touch with 
my Avhip, and Avith an unearthly yell, reneAving the Avhip, 
caused him to make a tremendous effort to get his limbs out 
of the quicksand and plunge forAvard, and fortunately he 
struck hard sand and thus saved himself. I led him along 
a few rods and then got onto him again and thus we crossed 
'the river without further incident. I Avas the only one Avho. 
had the wetting in water up above my waist. 

On reaching the first bank Ave Avere led up into the heart 
of the village and into AAdiat appeared to be a great council 
tent, constructed in the shape of an amphitheater, by poles 
set upon the ground, then spliced at each end and forming a 
Avide circle. The poles were bound with leather strap made 
of buffalo skins.. This tent Avas filled with as many of the 
PaAvnees as could get into it. We were led into the center 
of it and there the old chief and his associates were squatted 
on the ground. By my direction Mr. Allis introduced me to 
the chief, telling him who I Avas and for what purpose I Avas 
there, that I had come to make complaint to him that the 



members of the Pawnee tribe were committing depredations 
upon the settlers. The old chief received me very kindly with 
the usual grunt. He extended his hand and then handed me 
the pipe of peace, which I took. I knew I would be expected 
to puff it a little and did so, and then it was passed around 
among* the subordinate chiefs. While remaining in my posi- 
tion there I cast my eyes into an immense iron kettle which 
was suspended by ropes made of skins from the central open- 
ing at the top, in which kettle there seemed to be a dark col- 
ored liquid in which there was something resembling beef 
stewing. It did not look inviting to me, for I had heard of 
the Indians cutting up dogs and stewing them, and the 
thought occurred to me that as a part of their hospitality 
they would invite me to take some of that stew, which was 
not a pleasing thought, but I had determined that I would 
draw the line there against that dish; but fortunately they 
did not offer it to me. The interpreter was then directed by 
me to state more in. detail the object of our visit in language 
which I dictated to him. I said the knowledge had reached 
the Great Father that the members of his tribe, the Pawnees, 
had been committing depredation upon the white settlers, 
stealing and driving off their cattle, and causing great fear 
to prevail among them along the Elkhorn river. I had come 
to say to him and to the subordinate chiefs that these wrongs 
must not be continued. When he came to reply the chief 
said to the interpreter that these marauding acts had been 
committed by their young men, and that they could not con- 
trol them. I replied to him that they must control their 
young men, and put an end to the wrongs which these young 
men Avere inflicting upon the peaceable settlers. I felt the 
necessity of replying to him in a strong language, stating 
that the government had purchased these lands and had paid 
for, or was paying for the same — that the government had 
opened them up for settlement, and that the settlers were 
there by right and must be protected in Hie possession of thai 
property, and that the government would protect them, and 
adding that if it Avas not done the government would send 


troops out here to punish and suppress the . Indians; saying 
to them that if I had to come here again on account of these 
outrages committed by their tribe I should come with a force 
of troops to punish the marauders. The chief then promised 
that they would do everything in their power to prevent any 
wrongs being inflicted on the settlers, saying they desired to 
live in peace with their white brethren. I repeated my mes- 
sage to him in order to make as strong an impression on them 
as possible. Of course I could not tell what effect it would 
have on them, but it was fill I could then do. After giving 
me the strongest assurances that they would behave them- 
selves properly and let the whites live in peace, and the other 
chiefs united with him in the assurances he gave by such a 
way of approval, the council was concluded. It lasted prob- 
ably two hours. I informed the chief we should need parties 
to escort us back across the river to our wagon; the escorts 
he readily furnished, but not the same ones who had escorted 
us over to the village. At that time the weather was cold and 
chilly. That was about the 15th of April. [It was May 25. 
— Ed.] I was beginning to think of the good things we had in 
our wagon, and the splendid supper we were to have under 
the tree — with a huge fire in front of us. That anticipated 
supper was in my mind during the whole passage of the river. 
I had a special reason myself allowing for the fire and the 
supper, for I was the only one who had been in the river, and 
still had my wet clothes on and no chance to improve my con- 
dition. Visions of cold ham, bread and butter, doughnuts, 
mince pie, and hot coffee with condensed milk and Avith all 
the good things enumerated above ready at our call. Well, 
on arriving at the wagon our astonishment was overwhelm- 
ing when we were informed by Allen, the fellow Who had 
stayed at the wagon, that about twenty of the Indians came 
there as soon as we had reached the council tent, and over- 
powered him, took by force everything in the wagon, and had 
taken them across the river again. It was a disappointment 
for which I never had language to express my indignation. 
The treachery of the Indians has been fully impressed on my 



mind ever since, although I have found some good Indians 
among them, but the sufferings which I was enduring, cold 
and wet and hungry, are too much for me to describe at this 
late day. There we were, just at night, with nothing left to 
us but our blankets which the Indians kindly left us. My 
first thought was "what shall we do?" Eecalling the fact 
that we had found one family at the ferry where we crossed 
the Elkhorn, in a log cabin, we determined to return there 
and seek what relief we could by way of supper and some- 
thing to eat. We hitched the team again and drove to that 
point. Fortunately the ferryman had been out hunting prai- 
rie chickens that afternoon Avhile we were in the council and 
had brought in some half-dozen prairie chickens. His good 
Avife set to work, dressed and cooked those chickens, and 
having some bread and butter Ave fared reasonably well, and 
determined to stay there for the night, which AA r e did. 

I had reason to believe afterwards that the party of In- 
dians avIio crossed over and led us back to the village quietly 
reported to the chief Avhat Ave had in our Avagon over the 
river, and that they went back Avith the permission of the 
Indians, and robbed us of all Ave had. Thus, while we were 
holding council and demanding assurances that they would 
control their men, their oavii Indians were across the river 
and Avere plundering our Avagon of all our supplies — the kind 
of treachery for which there is no name to designate. I de- 
termined at that time if I had ever a chance to get at them 
and have some satisfaction I would do so. I should have 
mentioned among the things which they stole from my wagon 
Avas a present from a friend of mine who brought it to nic as 
I was about leaving— a bottle of very old choice brandy, say- 
ing to me that I might some time need it to head off snake- 
bites Avhen roaming over those prairies of Nebraska. I had 
not opened the bottle since leaving Boston, but when making 
preparation for this expedition it occurred to me that it 
might be very useful to me, but the Indians had taken that. 
I hope my friend Wolfenbarger will forgive me Tor taking 
along the bottle under Hie circumstances, and enabling the 



Indians to have a set-to over the use of that firewater. Some 
three years afterwards the whole tribe entered upon one gen- 
eral marauding excursion up the Platte river f destroying 
everything within their reach. The reign of terror prevailed 
over the whole Elkhorn valley. They destroyed everything 
in their path, and then I raised the force of 194 men arid pur- 
sued them. Coining up with them at daylight we captured 
the whole tribe. Then the chiefs came rushing out of their 
tepees, making every sign of surrender, exclaiming to me 
"Good Indian/ 7 and begging me for mercy. 

That tribe had given much trouble at different times, but 
after this capture of the whole tribe they were put on their 
reservation and the government took immediate charge of 
them, and after that they never gave the whites any trouble. 

Years ago the Pawnee tribe was a great, powerful nation 
among the Indian tribes. It was a Avarlike nation, fighting 
battles with different tribes, but it gradually got upon the 
downward grading and became greatly diminished in num- 
bers till I believe it is but a remnant of the Pawnees now in 
the Indian territory. 


Written for the Nebraska State Historical Society. 

by j. h. lemmon, pioneer of thayer county. 

Alexander Majors, the founder of the greatest freight com- 
pany that was ever formed to do a freighting business with 
teams and wagons, commenced the business with six yoke of 
cattle and one wagon. His first trip was from Independence, 
Missouri, to Ft. Union, New Mexico. He kept adding teams 
to his outfit until he had twenty-six teams and wagons. He 
then formed a partnership with two men under the firm name 
of Majors, Russell & Waddell and they kept enlarging their 
business until the year 1860-61 they had six hundred teams 
and wagons with six yoke of cattle to the wagon. 



I think that the old freight road that used to pass up the 
Little Blue river was once the greatest thoroughfare that was 
ever traveled iu any country. In the year I860 there were 
never less than three hundred and sometimes over five hun- 
dred wagons passing over the road every day for o~\er five 
months, not counting any teams coming from the West, and 
probably three-fourths of these same teams traveled over the 
same road going west. 

On the open prairie, where there was plenty of room, the 
road was worn down smooth for one hundred yards wide. I 
have seen three trains traveling abreast. Just imagine five 
hundred wagons strung out on the same road, each team 
taking up at least one hundred feet, making a distance of 
over nine miles. I have seen over four hundred wagons 
camped in one bottom, their corrals covering a space one 
mile long by one-half mile wide. 

In regard to the Indians, we lived here on the Little Blue 
river for four years in perfect peace with them. We did not 
mind them any more than Ave did the birds that were living 
about us. There would not have been any trouble with the 
Indians if it had not been for the Kebellion. There were, 
among the Indians, some of the rebels who put them up to 
go on the war-path. There were twenty-three persons killed 
within thirty-five miles on the Little Blue, and seven ranches 
burned in the first big raid. Among the killed were six of 
the Eubanks family and six freighters. The rest were killed, 
one and two at a place, all this being done at the same hour 
of the day. There was one married woman and her two chil- 
dren by the name of Eubanks and one young lady, Laura 
Roper, who were taken prisoners in the year I860. 

By the year 1866 nearly all the old ranchmen had gotten 
back on the Little Blue river and things were going along 
nicely. I had in 155 acres of coin, the Comstoeks had in 
ninety acres, and all the others had in from forty to sixty 
acres. It was a line growing spring. \Y< had all plowed our 
corn over the first time and had commenced to go over it the 
second time. I had three hired men, two of whom wanted to 



go down to Brownville on the Missouri river to the land office 
to enter some land. 1 took three big teams and Avent with 
them. I loaded my teams with corn and started back. I got 
to the Sandy, near where Alexandria now stands, where there 
was quite a little settlement, some six or eight families. To 
this place the stage coach had come down the day before and 
brought the news that all the men had been run out of the 
fields, and one man, who was breaking prairie just one mile 
above where the town of Oak now stands, was killed. We 
ranchmen all had men standing guard over the men that were 
plowing in the fields, so that the Indians could not get the 
drop on them. That was the reason the men all got out of the 
fields Avithout any more of them being killed. Well, the peo- 
ple around Sandy were all getting ready to leave the country 
again and go east to the big settlements. I commenced to talk 
to them and told them that I Avas going to stay, and said to 
them, "Let's go out and give those Indians a good drubbing 
and then they will let us alone. We can whip all the Indians 
in the Sioux and Cheyenne nations with the adA^antage Ave 
have in arms." We all had heaAw rifles, sixteen shooters, or 
Spencer rifles, seven shooters. We counted up and we could 
raise fifty men and still leave tAvo men at each ranch. I told 
them that I would furnish grub for the men and feed for the 
animals. This was on Friday morning. It would take me two 
days to drive home. Well, they all agreed to come to my 
place Saturday night so that we could start out on Sunday. 
On. Sunday morning the coach came up and brought me the 
news that every ranchman and all the settlement at Sandy 
had left the country except at the stage stations where were 
a dozen soldiers as a guard. I talked with my hired men, of 
whom I had four, and told them that if any of them were 
afraid to stay to say so and I would pay them off. One of 
them said he would rather not stay, so I paid him off and he 
went down on the next coach. The other three said they 
Avould stay if I did. I Avanted my wife and small children 
and hired girl to go to Beatrice, but my wife would not go 
and leave me on the Blue. I had to let part of my corn go 



without tending, except the one plowing. I had to put a man 
at each end of the field and one man had to be at the house 
the most of the time. Whenever we saw an Indian or In- 
dians we mounted our horses and made them bounce. They 
would always make for a large body of timber about four 
miles up Liberty creek. They would generally have so much 
the start that they would make the timber before we could 
overtake them. We made it hot for three of them one day. 
We shot the pony from under one of them just before they 
reached the timber, but he got up behind one of the others 
and got away before we could get him. If the ground had 
not been rough for the last quarter of a mile we would have 
gotten all three of them. 

My farm lay between Liberty creek and the Little Blue 
river. The day before the 1th of July an Indian came down 
* the south side of Liberty creek to a high piece of ground 
and sat on his pony watching for an hour the boys plowing 
and the men on guard. On the next day, the 1th of July, 
an Indian came and sat around on his pony the same as the 
day before. At the same time sixteen of them crossed Lib- 
ert}' creek on foot, the banks being too steep for their ponies 
to cross. The field was one-half a mile long and the boys 
were plowing up and down the creek. The northeast corner 
of the field ran up on to high ground so that the man on 
guard at that corner of the field could see all over and across 
to the other side of the creek. There was a draw about sixty 
yards from the west of the field and quite straight so that 
the man who was on guard could look down to the timber. 
He saw the Indians come out, but at first thought they were 
wild turkeys as they were crawling in the grass. But to be 
sure he jumped on his horse and ran down where the boys 
were just coming out at the end of the field. The Indiana 
had crawled up the draw directly opposite where (lie boys 
would come out. When the guard reached the boys lie gal- 
loped over toward the draw, and the Indians jumped up and 
began to shoot. By this time the boys had gotten out of the 
corn, and the man who was riding the plow jumped and ran 



around his team, and his second shot killed an Indian, and 
the rest ran back into the draw and to the timber, keeping 
down under the bank, making their way toward the ranch. 
By their motion the boys thought there was another party 
attacking the house, so as quickly as the boys could unhitch 
they jumped on their horses and took down through the corn 
rows. The Indians saw that the boys were going to beat 
them, so they jumped up from behind the bank and com- 
menced shooting again. The guard was riding a running 
horse and was about three rods ahead of the others, so the 
Indians did all their shooting at him. The boys behind said 
they made the dust fly about three or four feet behind him. 
They were not like old Davy Crockett. He allowed for the 
coons crawling, but the Indians did not allow for the horse 

The buffalo were so plenty on the Little Blue river and 
between the Little Blue and Platte rivers that it seemed as 
though the whole face of the earth was covered with them. 
For four days several big freight trains lay in camp on the 
divide between the Little Blue and the Platte rivers, not 
daring to move, being entirely surrounded by buffalo. Had 
they known the nature of the animal there was not a particle 
of danger, for when they are in such large bodies they never 
stampede, as they move together and in one direction. 

In the year I860 I had a contract for putting up hay for 
the stage company, about four miles from Thirty-two Mile 
creek station where there was a large bottom of fine grass for 
hay. All the rest of the country was eaten up and tramped 
into the earth. There was a small creek that ran into the 
Blue river right at the upper end of this bottom, and the buf- 
falo were just above this. I was afraid they would come down 
and tramp the grass into the earth, so I took five men on 
horses and we worked for four hours and did not move them 
half a mile, only just crowded them a little closer together. 
We worked away and cut all that bottom, and the buffalo 
were all that time within three or four hundred yards of us. 

A short time after I finished my hay a couple of men came 



in from a trapping expedition on some of tiie creeks that ran 
into the Republican river, and they told me that they had 
seen eight head of big, fine horses on a small creek, so I took 
another man with me and led an extra horse with blankets, 
feed, and grub and started early in the morning, and when 
we had gotten one mile from my ranch Ave ran right into a 
body of buffalo. We rode on a trot all day, and I am certain 
that Ave rode fifty miles and never saAv an acre of ground but 
had from twenty to fifty buffalo on it. We would just make 
a lane through them not more than fifty yards Avide, and it 
Avould all be closed up one hundred yards behind us. When 
night came Ave went into the timber and camped. The next 
day Ave went back over another route but found it just tin 1 

In the year 1861 Ed S. Stokes, the man who killed Jim 
Fisk in New York, came from San Francisco on the stage. 
He laid over one daA T at my ranch to take a buffalo hunt. I 
had a splendid buffalo horse, and I put him on that and I 
hitched up a couple of pretty good horses to my carriage and 
Ave started out. We had to go but two or three miles lie- 
fore Ave came to a small herd. He wanted to kill the buffalo 
himself. He had two big dragoon revolvers and I had two 
more in the carriage and a heavy rifle. He started out after 
the buffalo, and I let my team go and kept pretty close to 
him. When he got within one hundred yards of the buffalo 
he commenced to shoot. I told him to let the horse go up 
close, but he kept back until Ik 4 unloaded both his revolvers 
and came back to the carriage for another. I then told him 
to go up within twenty feet of the buffalo,- but he was still 
afraid and went up to within about forty feet, and at the 
seventeenth shot he got him down, and then taking my rifle 
finished him. 1 have taken the same horse and a revolver 
and had three buffalo down before 1 it was empty. 

The first cabin built on the Little Blue was at Oak Grove 
in Nuckolls county. It was built by Majors, Russell & Wad- 
dell to leave their lame cattle when I hey were freighting west, 

I am almost positive that my oldest son, James IT. Lein- 



mon, Jr., was the first white child born in the territory of Ne- 
braska. He was born the 20th day of June, 1853, in a tent- 
on the Platte river, not over five miles from where Kearney 
now stands. I was on my way to California. 

There was no settlement in Nebraska at the time I crossed 
the Missouri river about four miles below where Omaha now 
stands. Peter A. Sarpy had a little cabin in the bottom under 
the bluff one mile above where I crossed the river. 


Written in 1873, for the Old Settlers' Association of 

Otoe County. 

by j. w. pea 1 

On the 4th of May, 1853, I crossed the Missouri river at 
Otoe City (Gideon Bennett, ferryman), in company with 
R. B. Lockwood and Lafayette Duncan ; we were then on our 
way to Plum creek with tAvo wagonloads of groceries, for the 
purpose of trading with the California and Oregon immi- 
grants on their way to the gold fields of the Pacific slope. 

First, we camped on the headwaters of South Table creek, 
now owned by our worthy old settler, John Hamilton, where 
he has a farm. We made our journey to Plum creek, sold our 

1 Major John W. Pearman, deceased, was a native of Hardin county, 
Kentucky, born March 16, 1832, son of Hugh and Nancy (Whalen) Pear- 
man. He crossed the Missouri riven into Nebraska at Nebraska City, 
May 10, 1854. He served as county treasurer of Otoe 'county from 1856 
to 1862. He enlisted in the 2d Nebraska Cavalry for nine months' service, 
and was commissioned junior major. After his term of enlistment had 
expired, he was appointed assistant quartermaster by President Lincoln, 
and sent to Virginia. After the war he was placed in charge of the quar- 
termaster's stores at Davenport. Iowa. In 1870 he returned to Nebraska 
City, and engaged in agricultural and horticultural -pursuits. Major 
Pearman was marrieu February 4, 1856, to Mary A. Swift, of Atchison, 
Missouri. Eleven children were born to them, nine of whom are living: 
Anna Nebraska, wife of Edward L, Sayre, Omaha; Mary, wife of C. H. 
Pringle, Omaha; Fred L.; Horace S.r Prudence, wife of Charles A. Dun- 
ham, South Omaha; Hugh C, Deadwood, South Dakota; Guy R. ; Mar- 
garet; and Katherine, wife of L. M. Davis, South Omaha. 



groceries, and returned to Old Fort Kearney, arriving there 
June 1G of the same year. On our arrival we found H. P. 
Downs and family occupying the old government hospital and 
entertaining all who chose to put up with them. The Mis- 
souri river at that time and for nearly two months afterwards 
was 'bankful, and the land directly opposite the city, where 
the B. & M. depot now stands, was fully two feet under water. 
The bottom extending to the bluffs was one sheet of water 
ranging from two to eight feet deep. Many of the settlers in 
the bottom were compelled to leave their homes and find a dry 
location on this side of the river. Among the number who 
moved over were Andrew Hixon and family, Hugh McNeely 
and family, John B. Boulware and family, and many others 
whose names I can not now recall. John B. Boulware went, 
from what is now the foot of Main street, to the bluffs near 
where Eli Slusher then lived, four miles above Hamburg, in a 
skiff, carrying with him the United Strifes mail just in from 
Ft. Kearney, and Sergeant Mix of the regular army. The trip 
was easily made after leaving the main channel of the river 
about two miles above the present ferry landing on the oppo- 
site side. 

On the 4th of July Lafayette Duncan, myself, and seven 
Otoe Indians started for the highlands in ToAva in canoes. We 
left the foot of Main street early in the morning expecting to 
reach Sidney, Iowa, by 10 :00 a.m. in time to take part in the 
celebration of that place. We aimed to go through the heavy 
timber directly opposite the city, but after paddling our way 
for a few hours we found we could not get through on account 
of the driftwood afloat. 

We sent the Indians back, tied most of our clothing around 
our. neck, and started afoot, for the Bluffs, a distance of about 
eight miles, at which place we arrived about dark, traveling 
in water from two to eight feet deep, 

We arrived at Sidney at 1:00 a.m. on the 5th to find the 
celebration all over and the people in bed. 

About the middle of August we got our lea ins over, and 
thus ended my experience with Nebraska until the 10th of 


May, 1854, when, in company with A. J. Donahue and family 
and Miss Kuth Ann Wade, we left Sidney for this place, ar- 
riving here a little before sundown after a hard day's ride in 
an ox wagon. 

We put up with our old friend, H. P. Downs, with just ten 
cents in our pocket. We here met T. E. Thompson, C. H. 
Cowles and family, Simpson Hargus and family, Richard 
Pell and family, Andrew Hixon and family, Joseph Blunt 
and family, Wilson Maddox and family, Harvey 0. Cowles 
and family, Ed Sprather, Peter Valier, Charley Bierwagon, 
and Conrad Mullis, T. E. Thompson and myself, being single 
men and having come west with a view of making our fortune, 
held a consultation as to what Ave should do to accomplish 
that object. 

Thompson made the first raise. He caught a catfish at 
the mouth of Table creek and sold it to Downs, for which he 
received fifty cents credit on his first week's board. Next 
came my time, and I got a job of dropping corn after the 
prairie plow of Richard Pell who was then breaking all that 
portion of the city west of 6th street to 14th street and south 
to Kansas. For this work I got one dollar per day and 
boarded myself. After the corn was planted Ed Spratlin and 
myself were awarded the job by the town company of split- 
ting fence posts and fencing in the field. We got one dollar ^ 
per hundred for cutting and splitting the posts, and for set- 
ting them in the ground and nailing on the boards we got one 
dollar per day and board, board being the essence of the con- 
tract. The Avork Avas completed about the middle of June, 
after Avhich Downs thought it to the interest of the town to 
have a street one hundred feet Avide cut through from near 
the crossing of 6th and Laramie streets to the residence of 
Simpson Hargus in Prairie City. This work — the first to- 
ward building a city — was done by T. E. Thompson, George 
E. Baker, and myself, for which Ave received the usual fee and 

The 4th of July being near at hand, it was determined to 
have a grand old barbecue, and every one set to work doing 



what they could to make it a success. Arbors for eating, 
speaking, and dancing were erected near where the Seymour 
house now stands. Everybody was invited far and near. 
There were at least one thousand persons present, Atchison 
county, Missouri, and Fremont county, Iowa, furnishing 
most of the white people, while our own locality furnished 
many whites and a host of Indians. Dancing and eating 
commenced about one o'clock of the 4th and wound up 
by a "big injun" dance on the evening of the 6th. And be it 
said to the credit of the earlier settlers of Otoe county, not a 
drunken man was seen nor were there any disturbances of 
any kind during this three days' barbecuing. 

The glorious old Fourth having passed off to the satisfac- 
tion of all concerned, the town proprietors thought it about 
time to commence the work of building up a great city on the 
west bank of the mighty Missouri. 

On the 10th, the following persons could be seen standing 
near the present crossing of 6th and Main streets: S. F. 
Nuckolls, Allen A. Bradford, Hiram P. Downs, C. H. Cowles, 
T. E. Thompson, A. M. Rose, A. B. Mayhew, Charley Bier- 
wagon, George H. Benton, Dr. Dewey, and others whom I 
now forget. Dr. Dewey was the surveyor, J. W. Pear-man 
flagman, A. M. Rose and A. B. Mayhew chainmen, and T. E. 
Thompson axman. The first stake was set where the 
northwest corner of Robert Hawke's store now stands, and 
was firmly driven in the ground by a heavy stroke of the ax 
from each one present, and with a few appropriate remarks 
from Messrs. Nuckolls and Bradford, wherein the gentlemen 
called the attention of those present that in a few years we 
should see a city built up here containing at least twenty 
thousand inhabitants, the corner slake was set, and from (hat 
stake the survey of the city commenced. A line was then sur- 
veyed east to the river on the south side of Main street, (hen 
on the north side west to 6th street, at that time (lie western 
boundary of the city. As soon as the lots were numbered so 
that parties could tell where to build—houses commenced go- 
ing up very rapidly. H. P. Downs built (he lii*s( hotel on (he 



grounds where now the Seymour House stands. It was a 
large frame building two stories high, and was the only hotel 
in the city until the Nuckolls House was built, which burned 
down in 1860. I should have stated before this that 0. H. 
Cowles erected the first dwelling-house some time in March 
or April, previous. It would have been built on lot 7, block 
25, directly north of the Christian church. Mr. Cowles also 
built the first, storehouse opposite where the Seymour House 
stands and kept the first store. He continued in the business 
until late in the fall of the same year, when he sold out to 
H. T. Walker & Co. 

Mr. Cowles and George H. Benton, who built the Downs 
hotel, were the first carpenters in the city. James H. Decker 
made and burnt the first brick and built the first brick house 
for S. F. Nuckolls, now used by the Nebraska City Transfer 
Company for office purposes. Joseph Blunt made the first 
shingles, which were used in covering the Downs hotel. Wil- 
liam B. Hail & Co. sawed the first lumber. The mill was near 
where the gas works now stand. Price of lumber f 2.50 per 
hundred feet. 

C. H. Cowles built the first bridge across Table creek, about 
the same place where the Main street bridge now stands. 

The first white child born after the city was located was a 
daughter to Mr. and Mrs. George H. Benton. I understand 
the child is yet living. Its mother's death was the first that 
occurred after the child was born, and she was buried near 
the residence of William E. Craig. This was in August, 1854. 
Mrs. Joseph Blunt died in the country during the same year. 

The first old fashioned a ho-down" was danced at the resi- 
dence of 'William B. Hail— in the old government hospital 
which I have before mentioned. Laura Hail, Celia Hail, Phil 
and Tabby Hail, Susan and Anna Pearman, and two Miss 
Kennedys and Mary Pell were the ladies present. C. C. Hail, 
Frill Hail, Floyd Hail, George Nuckolls and some more Hails, 
and myself also, were present. A pleasant evening was spent 
in the old way of dancing, and the mother of all the Hails 
said this evening's entertainment reminded her of "Old Vir- 



ginny" more than anything she had seen since she left there. 

John A. Gilman was the first butcher. He opened a shop 
in the old block house. Col. C. B. Smith, IT. S. deputy mar- 
shal, took the first census of the county. I accompanied him 
with a petition for signatures, asking the governor to con- 
vene the first legislature at Nebraska City. The first day out 
we found Joe Helvey, William Anderson, better known as 
"Black Bill/ 5 Dr. William T. Fowlkes, George Gline, and 
Gideon Bennett. We stayed all night with Mr. Bennett at 
Otoe City. Next night we camped with old man Jameson 
and son, on Camp creek, where the old man now lives. All 
four of us slept in a wagon-box, and next morning after eat- 
ing breakfast we gave that little stream the name of Camp 
creek, which name it has ever gone by to this day. From here 
we struck out for Brownville, arriving there about sundown, 
found the proprietors of the town, Dick Brown and a few 
others, skinning a beef. Stayed all night and next morning 
crossed the river and stopped over night at Senora, Missouri, 
where I got a large number of signers to the petition. On our 
return to the city I delivered the petition to Mr. Nuckolls, 
who gave me lot 6, block 5, where John K. Oilman's house is 
now located, for my service rendered. Soon after this an 
election was held for members of the legislature and delegates 
in Congress. There being no party lines drawn at that time, 
every man ran for office that wanted to. Those elected to the 
loAver house were William B. Hail, James IT. Decker, Harvey 
C. Cowles, Wilson M. Maddox, IT. P. Bennett, and Gideon 
Bennett. Those to the upper house or council were Henry 
Bradford and Charles H. Cowles. At this election a tie vote 
occurred between C IT. Cowles and IT. I*. Downs. A new 
election was ordered; Cowles was elected by one majority. 
Napoleon Bonaparte Giddings, who lived then and does now 
in Andrew county, Missouri, was elected delegate to Con- 
gress, beating Bird B. Chapman, of Ohio, a few voles. At- 
chison county, Missouri, and our neighbors across the river 
assisted us very much in polling a heavy vole at that election. 

Dr. John C. Campbell was the first practicing physician. 



He came here early in the fall of the year 1854 and took up a 
claim where John Sheperd's orchard now stands. The Doc- 
tor was a live man then as he is now among the old settlers. 
And I believe he claims the honor of being the first one in 
the county afflicted with the "Missouri scratches or Illinoy 

Rev. W. D. Gage preached the first sermon in August, 1854. 
Nearly all the citizens were present and listened attentively 
to what he said, while a lot of Indians played "moccasin" be- 
hind the block house. 

The first watermill was built by Henry C. Cowles and D. N. 
Martin on Walnut creek. The same property is now owned 
by U. S. Simpson. 

E. Wilhelm established the first steam sawmill in the bot- 
tom below town. 

Jacob Jameson established a tri-weekly sawmill about the 
same time on Camp creek. The saw went up one day and 
down the next, making three strokes a week. 

Sam Carson was among the first scientific ox drivers. 

Miss Maggie Martin was the first school teacher. 

Henry Bradford & Co. opened the first drug store and did 
the first house painting. 

The first postoffice was established early in 1854 and called 
"Table Creek Postoffice," with H. P. Downs as postmaster. 
The office was first opened in Charlie Cowles's store, Mr. 
Cowles acting as deputy. But little mail matter was received 
or sent off, as there was no service, and the people generally 
depended on the Sidney office for their mail. In 1855 C. W. 
Pierce became Downs's successor and kept the mail in his 
house near where the Press office stands. 

The Nebraska City Neivs is among the oldest settlers in 
the state, having issued the first paper November 14, 1854. 
Henry Bradford was editor, Giles N. Freeman and Hal. A. 
Houston printers. The News belonged to the town company 
until 1855, when its present owner, Thomas Morton, pur- 
chased the whole concern and continued the paper with J. 
Sterling Morton as editor. 



S. F. Nuckolls was the first man to suggest the idea of 
purchasing grounds for a cemetery, and at a citizens' meet- 
ing a committee was appointed to select a place for burying 
purposes. The committee selected the present Wyuka cem- 
etery, and John Clemens was the first person buried in it. He 
died on the island above the city and was buried about the 
middle of January, 1855. C. C. Hail, Laura and Celia Hail, 
J. W. Pearman, and a few others were present at the grave. 

The first whisky shop was established by the writer in the 
fall of 1854, which "busted up" in just one month, to the en- 
tire satisfaction of the proprietor. 

J. W. Pearman was the first store clerk in C. H. Cowles's 

H. W. Cornell established the first harness shop. 

Hon. Edward R. Harden, of Georgia, was the first district 
judge, and held the first term of court in January, 1855, in 
the dancing room of the Downs House. All that was done at 
that term of court was to admit H. P. Bennett, A. A. Brad- 
ford, William McLennan, and Dr. William C. Fowlkes to 
practice. Dr. Fowlkes passed the best examination, and was 
highly complimented by the court. M. W. Riden was the 
first district clerk, and issued the license to the above 

George W. Nuckolls and Sarah Kennedy were the first 
couple married. 

The first lodge of Good Templars was organized in the old 
log house occupied then by Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Craig di- 
rectly in the rear of the Seymour House. Early in the year 
1855, Hon. T. B. Cuming, acting governor of the territory, 
appointed the following county officers: M. \Y. Brown, pro- 
bate judge; Thomas Donahoo, sheriff; T. E. Thompson, dep- 
uty; C. C. Hail, recorder; W. 1). Gage, treasurer; William 
Anderson, justice of the peace. Mr. Gage never qualified, 
and at an election soon thereafter J. W. Pearman was elected. 

John B. Boulware paid the hrs( money into the county 
treasury, a. ferry license required of him annually, amount- 
ing to $30. 



J. H. Decker and William Hurst had the first lawsuit be- 
fore Squire Anderson, about the proprietorship of a claim 
upon the public lands near Wyoming. H. P. Bennett and 
J. Sterling Morton were Decker's attorneys, and Jacob Daw- 
son, Hurst's attorney. The trial lasted for several weeks 
until the court dismissed the case for want of time to hear 
the evidence and pleading through. 

Lewis Hax established the first cabinet shop and sold fur- 
niture at a large profit. 

William McLennan ran the first steam ferry boat. The 
steamer, Banner State, Avas the first landed here after the 
town was established. 

John Nash was the first well-digger and dug the first well 
for S. F. Nuckolls on lot 12, block 6, where the transfer com- 
pany is now located. 

George North opened the first jewelry store in a small 
frame building on Main street, opposite the court house. 

J. Dan Lauer rode the first balky mule in the city. Dan 
came from Squaw creek on the said mule to purchase gro- 
ceries for his father's family, and after laying in a supply of 
"fine cut" and a side of bacon started for home. His mule- 
ship would not move a step until Sam Carson assisted him 
with his ox whip, upon which the mule started on the double 
quick, leaving Dan and his groceries lying in the street. 
A. B. Mayhew owned the first Shanghai rooster. 
The first election occurred in May, 1855. Henry Bradford 
was elected mayor; William B. Hail, W. R. Craig, and J. W. 
Pearman, alderman; M. W. Riden, clerk; J. W. Stull, mar- 
shal. The same officers were reelected in 1856 except Mr. 
Craig. At the close of the second year the council passed an 
ordinance allowing themselves $50 each for their services. 
This was about all they did in the two years. 

Under the territorial laws, William B. Hail was elected 
probate judge and issued the first county orders. William 
P. Birchfield was the first sheriff elected, and collected the 
first county taxes. 


xp:braska state historical society. 

By an act of the legislature in the winter of 1854, intro- 
duced by J. H. Decker, the name of the county was changed 
from Pierce to Otoe — the acting governor having first named 
it Pierce count v in honor of Franklin Pierce, then President 
of the United States. 

The first grand jury was impaneled in the fall of 1855, 
John B. Boulware foreman. Nearly every man in the county, 
including the jury itself, was indicted for gambling and was 
fined by the court in sums ranging from five to ten dollars 

James H. Masters came here in 1855 and established the 
first nursery, where he now lives. 

Hugh Pearman planted apple trees in the same year on 
lot 1, block 26, where they are still growing. 

Martin V. Boutton was the first one afflicted with measles. 

J. Sterling Morton, who moved here early in 1855 and took 
charge of the editorial columns of the News, owned the first 
jack, which he named Henry Ward Beecher. 

The M. E. church was the first to organize and erected the 
first house of worship. William R. Craig was made one of 
the trustees at the first organization. 

T. E. Thompson, deputy sheriff, made the first assessment 
of the county. 

Henry Bradford, mayor of the city, entered the town site 
and obtained the land officer's receipt for the entrance fee, 
March 31, 1857. 

John Nash, the well-digger, received the first certificate of 
entry from the U. S. land office that appears on record. 

Elijah Yates was the first boot and shoe maker. Opened 
up a shop upstairs over Henry Bradford & Company's drug 
store, December, 1855. 

Conrad Mullis Avas the first blacksmith. Opened his shop 
in the old soldier*' quarters, June, 1854, near where R. M. 
Rolfe's house now stands. 

Joel Helvey established the first bakery ;m«l baked the first 
bread. He located his bakery near the west end of the pres- 
ent Otoe street bridge, in the spring of 1855. 



D. F. Jackson had the first wagon "smash up." He hired 
James Fitchey- to repair the same. 

H. P. Bennett planted the first shade trees around his resi- 
dence, now owned and occupied by William Fulton, 

S. F. Nuckolls, agent for the town company, made the first 
quit-claim deed, transferring lot 6 in block 3 in Nebraska 
City to William Bennett. 

W. J. Armstrong was the first milk pedler. 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) J. W. Pearman. 

Nebraska City, February 14, 1873. 

dr. john Mcpherson. 


, It was my good fortune to have knoAvn Dr. McPherson in- 
timately and continuously from the year 1839 to the day of 
his death. 

My first acquaintance with him was in the winter of 1839- 
40. He was then preparing himself for the medical profes- 
sion. To aid in defraying the expense of his pursuit he 
taught school during the winter season. The winter named 
he taught a country school in Miami county, Ohio. While a 
boy of sixteen, then on a farm, I was one of his pupils. 

In the year 1855 he came west, through Illinois and Iowa 
to Nebraska. After looking over the Missouri river counties 
in Nebraska he concluded to locate at Brownville, Nebraska. 
Returning to Ohio, he had immediate conference with me. I 
was a practical printer and had been publisher and editor of 
a newspaper in the county in which we both resided. The 
Doctor, through the result of some "bad debts," had fallen 
heir to a well-equipped printing office, in Tippecanoe, Miami 
county, Ohio. He proposed to give me one-half of the office 
if I would go with him to Brownville and publish a weekly 
paper for one year. I accepted. Thus it was T came to Ne- 
braska in the spring of 1856. The paper, Nebraska Adver- 



User, made its first appearance April 6, 1856, and has been 
regularly and continuously published from that date to the 
present, being the oldest continuously published paper in 

Dr. McPherson was born in the township of Livonia, Liv- 
ingston county, New York, December 21, 1818. lie died at 
Republican City, Nebraska, January 2, 1901, aged eighty- 
two years. Although born of humble parentage, his ambition 
was for an education, which he gained by diligence. After 
attending the seminary at Lima, New York, at the age of six- 
teen he moved to Norwalk, Huron county, Ohio, where he 
completed his literary education under Professor Thompson 
(who afterward became bishop of the M. E. church). He 
then began the study of medicine under Dr. Geo. G. Baker 
and Wm. F. Kitdredge, and remained three years, when he 
moved to Troy, Ohio, continuing his studies under Dr. Geo. 
Kiefer, going from there to Cincinnati and into the office of 
Prof. J. P. Harrison, dean of the Ohio Medical College and 
president of the XL S. Medical Association. He renin ined at 
the college for two years and graduated with high honors in 
1847. He was married in Miami county, Ohio, in 1845, to 
Elizabeth Fergus. Out of eight children they have three liv- 
ing: Charles E., William J., and John E. Eight grandchil- 
dren and two great-grandchildren also survive. 

Soon after graduating he located at Tippecanoe, Miami 
county, Ohio, and began the practice of medicine, where lie 
remained and followed the profession for fifteen years, and 
during the same time carried on a very extensive business in 
the manufacture of linseed oil, flour, and lumber, and also in 
general merchandising, in which he alone employed twenty 
men, and in his seven or eight different branches nearly one 
hundred. It might be said without overestimating that 'he 
had either erected or caused to be erected over one-third of 
the buildings in the town, which had a population of 3,000. 
When he came to Brownville, Nebraska, he broughl with him 
a stork of goods valued at $30,000, besides a large amount of 



At this point be carried on a large mercantile business un- 
til 1879, and in connection with this from 1863 to 1867 he 
conducted a steam flour- and sawmill. He also opened a large 
cigar manufactory, continuing it for three years. He was a 
member of two territorial constitutional conventions, and at 
both he voted against admitting the territory as a state, and 
in 1863 he succeeded T. W, Tipton to the state senate. 

The medical department of Brownville College was organ- 
ized in December, 1875, with Dr. McPherson as professor of 

An act to incorporate an institute for the deaf and dumb 
passed the Nebraska legislature and took effect in February, 
1867, (Neb. Statute, 1873, chap. 16. "Be it enacted by the 
council and house of representatives of the territory of Ne- 
braska that A. Bowers, A. L. Childs, E. H. Rogers, John S. 
Bowen, G. C. Monell, and John McPherson be and they are 
hereby incorporated and made a body politic and corporate 
with perpetual existence by the name of 'The Institute for 
the Deaf and Dumb. 7 " ) These gentlemen, through arduous 
labor, placed the institute on a firm basis, and afterwards the 
state, becoming envious of their success, took it under her 
own wing. He also turned his attention largely to farming, 
accumulating some 3,000 acres, and at about the same time 
erected the McPherson block in Brownville at an expense of 

In 1872 Dr. McPherson sold out his milling and other prop- 
erty, and in company with his son Charles went to Republi- 
can City, Nebraska, and laid out the town site. He went to 
Cincinnati, Ohio, purchased and shipped a neAv flour- and 
sawmill, Avhich burned two years later. He carried on an 
extensive business, which he sold to his son, C. E. McPherson, 
in 1886. He had always taken an active part in all affairs 
that have tended to build up the town. When the McPherson 
Normal College was incorporated at Republican City he took 
|2,000 of the stock. His life has been an active one and now 
he rests well. ' 




Dr. MacMurtry, who preached Dr. McPherson's funeral 
sermon, added this tribute to his memory, which I cheerfully 
make a part of this paper : 

"The occasion has suggested to me the theme of this hour — 
'The Value of a Human Soul/ I have never met one who 
more fully appreciated the value of our text than he whose 
body lies before us at this hour. I have not come into closer 
and more intimate acquaintance with any in my visitations 
in Kepublican City than I did with Dr. McPherson. I found 
him sound in the Christian faith ; one who loved to read, his 
Bible and commune with God in his soul. It was his inten- 
tion to unite with this church at our last communion in Sep- 
tember. To him the church was an institution of God and 
its membership nothing if not true worshippers of the living 
God. His library contained many choice volumes on the im- 
mortality of the soul — Plato, Socrates, the Koran, and oth- 
ers ; but in these he found no comparison to the teachings of 
the Bible. Israel's God and the Christ of God, man's only 
redeemer, was his Saviour. Together we have often bowed 
the knee in prayer. Two weeks ago we were together at his 
home; I had been reading an article on faith in Jesus Christ 
and handed it to him. After he had read it I said, 'That to 
me is sound doctrine,' and I shall not forget his answer, 'Yes, 
I believe all that.' The value of the human soul was no un- 
solved problem to him. 

"As a citizen he loved the peace and good will of his fellow 
citizens. I have not been to his friends to ask his character 
or standing; I have not listened to the words of praise from 
the lips of those who today suffer the silence of his voice and 
the caress of his hand. I hear it everywhere. If ever God 
found in any man a standard of good will and the incorporate 
law of the Golden Pule it was to be found in Dr. John 

He was one of the first to settle on these prairies; no one 
brought more capital, energy, and push to put into every en- 
terprise than he, whether it was in business propositions, a 
school, or church. Honest himself, he trusted others; if 
there was a wrong done he was the first to right it. and if he 
suffered he bore it without one thought of revenge. His 
tongue is not more silent now than it lias always been in 
speaking an unkind word of his neighbor or fellow man. 
Having enjoyed a good education and being blessed with pro 

j. stealing Morton. 


fessional ability, he sought to help others to the same. Be- 
ginning with his own, it was the pride of his life to put 
opportunity within the reach of every son and daughter. It 
was not his fault that Republican City is not the center of 
higher education today. On your main streets stands a mon- 
ument to higher education once the pride of his ambition. 
Nothing would have suited him better than to have heard the 
hum of voices reciting the classics or pursuing the sciences 
by the children and youth of his town. 

"I am. sure he will be remembered for his kindly ways ; 
even the children will not forget his friendly notice, and all 
will miss his cheerful voice. To those within his family cir- 
cle the cords were strongest. Love, devotion, heart-to-heart 
companionship reached down to the fourth generation. For 
forty-five years he has walked hand in hand with the loved 
ones who survive him. God graciously lengthened out his 
years and favored you — his children, grandchildren, and be- 
loved wife — with his devoted life. 

"There is a richer endowment to children than a divided 
fortune ; this is yours. It is a father's unblemished character 
and an aim in life that it will be well to emulate. God's rich- 
est blessing will be yours if you strive for the same mark of 
the high calling. God wants men. of character to fill every 
station in life; men that realize the value of time and the 
value of a human soul." 



Ladies and Gentlemen of the Association: 

While the sad event is already known to you, the sorrow- 
ful duty devolves upon me to officially announce the death of 
a worthy member of this Society, its late President, J. Ster- 
ling Morton. 

He was born at Adams, New York, April 22, 1832, and 
came to Nebraska, 1854, shortly after the passage by Con- 
gress of the Kansas-Nebraska act, opening for settlement 
this part of the Northwest, May 30 in the same year. He 
died April 27, 1902, at the residence of his son Mark, Lake 
* Forest, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, where he had gone tern- 


porarily for the benefit of his health, barely passing the scrip- 
tural allotment of three score and ten years by five days. He 
had often expressed to me a desire to pass that period in life. 

His father, Julius Morton, of Scotch descent, was born at 
St. Albans, Vermont. His ancestors were among the earliest 
of New England Puritans, coming in the next ship following 
the "Mayflower"— the "Little Ann." His mother, Emeline 
Sterling, of English descent, was born at Adams, New York. 

He attended a private school until fourteen years old, then 
a Methodist school at Albion, Michigan, where he prepared 
for college. He entered the University of Michigan at Ann 
Arbor, but graduated and received his diploma from Union 
College, New York. 

October 30, 1854, Mr. Morton and Miss Caroline Joy 
French were married at Detroit, Michigan. Within an hour 
after the marriage they started to Nebraska, reaching Belle- 
vue early in November following. Here they remained only 
for a feAV months, removing to Nebraska City, where a home- 
stead was taken, and remained the continuous Morton resi- 
dence, iioav known as "Arbor Lodge." This residence is sur- 
rounded by the pride of Mr. Morton's life, orchards, vine- 
yards, forest and evergreen groves and flowers of rarest 

Mrs. Morton died June 29, 1881. She was an ideal wife 
and mother. 

There were born to the family four sons who grew to man- 
hood as model young business men: Joy, Paul, Mark, and 
Carl. Carl, the youngest, died suddenly three years ago. 

Mr. Morton was appointed by President Buchanan terri- 
torial secretary of Nebraska; a portion of the time he was 
acting-governor. lie was Secretary of Agriculture during 
Mr. Cleveland's second term. 

It affords me pleasure to speak, although briefly, of this 
man's life and work since in Nebraska. 

Mr. Morton was favored wiih a most excellent and prac- 
tical education, fortified with strong mental and physical 
equipments. Had fitted himself for the practice of law, and 



came to Nebraska with his young bride, at the age of twenty- 
two, in the year named, with the intention of following that 

Arriving in Nebraska, he was at first sight infatuated with 
the New West, and thought there was an opening whereby 
he could accomplish more good than in the practice of his 
profession, namely, the development and upbuilding of the 
new territory. And further, he conceived a newspaper to be 
the better medium through which he could the more effectu- 
ally accomplish his desire and object. Accordingly he be- 
came the editor of the Nebraska City News, and for years 
remained as such. And continuously thereafter, until sum- 
moned hence by the great Dispenser of events, his able pen, 
eloquent and forceful voice were directed in demonstrating 
the worth, resources, and possibilities of Nebraska. More 
especially in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and their kin- 
dreds, he accomplished a great work, and by a kind Provi- 
dence was spared to_be an eye-witness of the fruits of his 

Mr. Morton was a rare, unique character. A close ac- 
quaintance with the man revealed this, and its consequent 
real Avorth. He was honest to a fault, if such can be. He 
was a very positive man. Was cautious in formation of his 
opinions as to men and measures. When conclusions were 
reached and position taken, next to no power could change 
them. Sure in his convictions of right, it made him a fierce 
defender as well as denunciator. He was a stranger to the 
word compromise. His friendships kuew no bounds. His 
dislikes were along the same line. He never forgot a friend 
nor allowed an enemy to forget him. However bitter may 
have been differences between him and others, no one ever 
called in question his ability or integrity. No man of his 
means did more to wipe away orphans' tears or kindle fires 
on widows' hearths, did more for the betterment of his fellows, 
more helpful to those in need. All Such Samaritan acts, 
however, were of the scriptural order : "Let not thy left hand 
* know what thy right hand doeth." 



I remember an instance not many years since, when Shy- 
lock stood on the doorstep of a worthy, helpless neighbor of 
Mr. Morton, demanding the foreclosure of a mortgage, the 
pound of flesh which would render the family homeless. Mr. 
Morton paid off the sum. into hundreds of dollars, making 
the indebted a clear deed, without reimbursement. 

Another incident characteristic of Mr. Morton. In the 
earlier days of the territory differences between men were 
frequently settled with knife or bullet. For some reason, I 
can not now call it to mind, a grievance sprang up between 
him and a then prominent citizen of the territory, since dead. 
The other party challenged Mr. Morton to fight a duel, and 
demanded pistols as weapons. His reply was : "Do you 
mean to challenge me to mortal combat? Is there positively 
a coffin in your polite invitation, and if so. for whom? An 
early reply will greatly gratify." 

The matter was then, by the challenger, referred to his 
"second,'! to whom Mr. Morton replied: "Permit me to re- 
mind your principal that, as the weather is very warm 
i July i. you impress upon his mind that a recumbent posi- 
tion will be more comfortable, and if he will not assume that, 
compromise with him upon a sedentary position. I am quite 
anxious to hear, and do hope you will inform me upon this 
important question very speedily." 

"Convey to your bellicose principal my renewed assurance 
that lie lias never, in any way. given me reason to demand 
satisfaction of him. as I have never held a judgment against 
him. nor even a note of hand. He will probably be pleased 
to learn of my good health, and also to know that I enjoy life 
very much, and love it, too, even better than I do him. His 
proposition r<» shoot lead bullets at me is not in accordance, 
either with law or my own ideas of social amenities or amuse- 
ments. To kill or to be killed would be no particular felicity 
with me, especially in hot weather when corpses spoil so read- 
ily. Not for a moment doubting the bravery of your martial 
principal, which is proverbial, 1 would like i<> inquire whether 
he is the author of the following stanza: 



" 'The deities which I adore 
Are social peace and plenty, 
I'm better pleased to make one more 
Than be the death of twenty.' 

"The temperature at this place is ardent to such a degree 
as to prevent my addressing you at length. 'Kiss your prin- 
cipal for his mother/ Enclosed is a copy of Greeley's alma- 
nac and Fred Douglas's speeches, for his perusal and 

"With high regard for the law, and especially that referred 
to, I remain alive, 

"(Signed) J. Sterling Morton." 

I was some years afterwards the medium by which the two 
sat side by side at a dinner table at Mr. Morton's residence, 
when the old grievance was reconciled, and they were ever 
afterwards friends. 

As a social entertainer, especially of well-narrated anec- 
dotes, and imitator of broken foreign languages, he had no 
superior; as an after-dinner speaker, but few equals. It is 
said of him while a sojourner at Washington, when a mem- 
ber of President Cleveland's cabinet, a social gathering was 
next to incomplete without him. He held at command a "re- 
serve fund," almost unlimited, of anecdote and pleasing 

While Secretary of Agriculture in President Cleveland's 
cabinet he did what no other secretary did before or since — 
gave his influence to abolish the shameful expenditure of 
millions of dollars, furnishing those "rare and valuable" 
seeds, lettuce, turnip, and poppy, to please members of Con- 
gress, in throwing very cheap tubs to cheaper whales. 

He was the originator of many trite utterances, among 
which as to corn and swine are : "Corn is king, swine heir 
apparent" ; "A mother swine is an inter-convertible bond, her 
family, annual coupons, serving as farmer's mortgage lift- 
ers" ; "Corn is bullion, fed to swine, the mint, produces gold 
and silver dollars." 

He was the author of "Arbor Day," which has become a 
legal holiday in all states of this Union as well as in nearly 



all civilized foreign countries. Through its influence trillions 
of trees and vines have been planted. Since I commenced 
the formation of this paper I received a letter from Miss Nina 
Prey, a native of Nebraska, now a teacher in Porto Rico, in- 
forming me the legislature of that island had, by enactment, 
made ,k Arbor Day" in that country a legal holiday, and that 
it had been generally observed in its inaugural year, 1902. 

It W2& suggested at Mr. Morton's funeral by his many 
friends that a monument be erected to his memory, as author 
of "Arbor Day." To this end a local organization was 
formed and voluntary subscriptions solicited — no canvassing. 
Today this fund is over 811,000. A very pleasing incident is 
of record in this work. A gentleman in Boston who had 
never met Mr. Morton, but who was an admirer of his life 
work, sent a check for §500 and added, "If more is needed, I 
will add another cipher." 

In concluding this, a brief and feeble effort to pay tribute 
to a worthy citizen, permit me to digress and speak a word 
personal. Mr. Morton was a warm, unfaltering friend of 
mine for near a half century continuous duration. Friend in 
all the word can possibly signify. We came to the territory 
about the same time — he iu the fall of one year and I in the 
spring following. We were editors and publishers of news- 
papers, differing radically in politics. In those days politi- 
cal editors were virulent in the extreme in their utterances, 
— could not be more bitter and unrelenting. We were not ex- 
ceptions to this rule. In all else, such as tended to the wel- 
fare of Nebraska, we were in perfect unison. Wo had not 
met each other personally. Some time during- the year 1856 
we came together. Onr opening thoughts and expressions 
were not along the line of politics, but of those of which we 
were in harmony. At the close of a brief interview, a modest 
reference was made to our political altercations. We mu- 
tually agreed to never talk politics, nor write, or indulge in 
them personally. That agreement was sacredly observed, and 
a long and most pleasant life was the result. 



I can not realize lie is dead. 

"There is no death. The stars go down 
To rise upon some fairer shore." 

"He did well his work, and goes a pleasant journey." 


Henry Augustus Longsdorf was one of the pioneers of Ne- 
braska. In a long and busy life full of activities and full of 
works, some of the principal scenes of which were laid in this 
state. With his fellow pioneers he came and spied out the 
land, and later he worked as he found opportunity to develop 
its resources and to advance its welfare. Good citizenship, 
honorable service in war, righteousness, kindliness and indus- 
try in his daily life, helpfulness and fair dealing towards his 
fellow man, reverence and loyalty to his God — these sum up 
his life and recount his honors. They mark his name, not as 
one to be set above, but as one to be written among the names 
of men. 

On November 18, 1829, he was born in Silver Spring town : 
ship, Cumberland county, Pennsylvania. He was the eldest 
son of George and Eliza Longsdorf and was of the fourth 
generation of his family in America. Heinrich Longsdorf. 
his great grandfather, a native of Baden, settled in Silver 
Spring in 1754, and on the frontier braved the dangers of the 
French and Indian War. Martin Longsdorf, son of Heinrich, 
was next in the line. He Avas an ensign in the War of the 
Revolution in Colonel Blaine's regiment. 

The childhood and youth of Mr. Longsdorf were spent in 
his father's home on the old family acres which for 125 years 
were held direct from the sons of William Penn, proprietors 
of the province. He learned the art of farming, but his edu- 
cation was not neglected, for he attended school regularly 
and for a time attended Dickinson College at Carlisle, Penn- 
sylvania, near to his home. Later, while teaching school, he 
continued his studies, and by self -teaching made himself pro- 
ficient in the practice of surveying and leveling. 



In the years of his early manhood he went to work in the 
famous Cumberland Nursery owned by David Miller at Mid- 
dlesex, Pennsylvania, and here began his vast and wonderful 
knowledge and experience about fruits and fruit trees. Dur- 
ing his life he covered the entire field of this industry from 
the propagation of fruit trees and plants to the planting of 
orchards, the gathering and sale of fruits, and lastly to ex- 
perimentation in the practical development of fruit culture 
and selection and testing of varieties. 

This work was indeed not uninterrupted. During the win- 
ter season he often found employment as a teacher: For some 
years, too, he was engaged in the general hardware trade. He 
entered the locally well-known hardware store of Henry Sax- 
ton, where through the long hours and hard work of store- 
keeping, as it was then conducted, he rose to be Mr. Saxton's 
principal assistant in the management of the business. 

After this was the journey to the West. Events contrib- 
uted to it. His father had visited Iowa in 1846 to see the 
land. Several young acquaintances had yielded to the en- 
ticements of California. When a boy he had read what books 
were at hand concerning the West. Chief among these Avas 
Sergeant Goss's journal of the travels and explorations of 
the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Which well-worn book — or its 
duplicate, for there were two of them in the family library — is 
now in possession of the Nebraska State Historical Society, 
presented by Mr. Longsdorf. He once related to the writer 
how his boyhood mind had from such reading imagined the 
future planting of a great settlement at the junction of the 
Platte and Missouri rivers. Therefrom it followed that, with 
the hurrying of travel a\ est ward in the middle '50s, he, with 
others, came to this much-talked-of Kansas-Nebraska coun- 
try. The journey was made by way of Pittsburg, the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers to Muscatine, thence by rail to Iowa, 
City, and by wagon and foot to Council Bluffs. He arrived 
in Bellevue May 1G, 1856. A packet of old letters written by 
him to his father gives his impressions at the time. It is evi- 
dent that he did not come as a speculator or as an adventurer, 



for he writes about the fitness of the land to make a new home 
for his aged parents, and he also speaks of its possibilities as 
a place of settlement for his younger brothers, though he 
laconically advises them to remain at home until sent for. 
Land, he writes, was too high in price in Iowa because of 
speculation, and money was worth 40 per cent a year at Ft. 
Des Moines. He expresses great satisfaction at finding in 
Nebraska a respite from land speculators, because of the fact 
that the government survey of Nebraska was not yet made; 
and he praises the healthy appearance of the settlers as com- 
pared with the "yellow" and sickly looking inhabitants of 
Illinois and Indiana whom he had seen along the rivers as he 
came. The fine character of the soil and possibilities of fruit 
culture were both matters of mention. 

His brothers, David E. Longsdorf and George F. Longs- 
dorf, the latter now deceased, settled with him at Bellevue. 
Each bought or took up claims, and having perfected them 
by making "improvements" and completing a legal residence 
they joined with W. H. Cook, John P. Kast, and W. W. Stew- 
art in keeping bachelor's hall at the "Plateau House," a cabin 
with the luxury of plastered walls, but of small dimensions, 
which until about 1890 Avas still standing. It was exactly at 
the center of the beautiful tract noAV the site of Ft. Crook. A 
huge cottonwood four feet thick remains there, the lone sur- 
vivor of more than a score planted in 1856 by Mr. Longsdorf 
and his associates. The memory of many pleasures and much 
hospitality runs back to the old and widely known "Plateau 

Mr. Longsdorf entered actively into the life of the young 
community. He was a member of the Bellevue Claim Club 
and a shareholder of the Bellevue Town Company, and a part 
owner of the Sarpy Keserve which included the steamboat 
landing and the trading house. When Sarpy county was or- 
ganized he was its first superintendent of schools, which office 
it may be supposed was not an arduous one at that time 
For three years he lived in Bellevue and then returned to 



Ill 1862 lie and two of his four brothers enlisted in the 
158th Pennsylvania Infantry. He became captain of Com- 
pany A and served faithfully and with honor in a very trying 
campaign in the Virginia and Carolina swamps, for which 
his brigade was officially complimented. Other parts of his 
service were rendered while attached to the Army of the 

After the close of his service he followed his ordinary oc- 
cupations, visiting Nebraska at frequent intervals. He was 
married in December, 1869, to Miss Kate A. Duey of Cum- 
berland county, Pennsylvania. Six children were born to 
them, and four survive, viz., George Foster Longsdorf, Helen 
Mabel Longsdorf, Henry Warren Longsdorf, and Ralph Mar- 
tin Longsdorf. 

In 1888 he resumed his residence at Bellevue, where the 
latter years of his life were spent happily and enjoyably, but 
not in rest, for his "old active disposition'' could not become 
dormant. However, his labors were necessarily more of the 
evening and less of the midday of life than before. In his 
garden and among his trees and with his family he dwelt. 
The trees and the plants were his intimates. . They spoke to 
him a silent language that he had known and studied for 
fifty years. They made known their needs and he endeavored 
to supply them. His interest was not mercenary, for he 
planted for instruction and pleasure and not for profit. In 
this spirit he became interested in peach culture. He was 
encouraged by the success of peach growers in extreme south- 
ern Nebraska to believe that peaches might be successfully 
grown in his own neighborhood. Souk- attempts had already 
been made 4 to do so, and from what he observed of these he 
made 1 his plans for a series of trials, which, as he said, might 
take twenty-five years, for which reason he could not hope to 
complete them or live to see success. But success came 
quickly. The first peach seeds planted in 1892 returned a 
few fruits in 1895 and very heavy and frequent crops since 
then. Very many hundreds of peach trees were given and 
sold to his neighbors. They were instructed how to plant and 



care for the trees and how to propagate young trees. All 
about Bellevue these trees grow and flourish as witnesses to, 
and memorials of his useful work. His knowledge of all in- 
digenous fruits was vast, and his experience extended over 
many states. 

He was a member of the Pennsylvania Horticultural So- 
ciety, of various local agricultural and horticultural socie- 
ties, and of the Nebraska Horticultural Society: He was 
also a member of the Nebraska State Historical Society, reg- 
ular in attendance at its meetings, and well known to many 
of its members, and a contributor to its historical collections. 

Mr. Longsdorf did much public service as a citizen, though 
he occupied no public offices save minor ones. He was ear- 
nest and actively interested in politics and exalted in his 
conception of patriotism. In the highest sense of the word 
he was devoted in care, affection, and thoughtfulness for his 
family. He strove to provide education for his children and 
to inspire in them a love of study and improvement. He ay as 
a Christian gentleman in works as well as in words. He was 
frank and direct in address, and firm and courageous in loy- 
alty and friendship. He commanded respect and thereby 
won the love of those Avho knew him best. A neighbor who 
knew him Avell paid this tribute : "His strongest trait Avas 
high integrity of character/"' yet it Avas no stronger than his 
unselfishness and no stronger than the constancy of his 
friendship and his love. His last work Avas the building of a 
neAV house, the first he ever owned, to provide a home for him- 
self and for his family after him. He lived but five weeks to 
enjoy it. On Nov ember 13, 1902, he died. * Most fittingly it 
Avas that he Avas laid among the pioneers Avho rest in the old 
cemetery at BelleA 7 ue on the crest of the great hills circled 
by the scenes of so much of his earlier manhood and of his 
declining years — fitting that his earthly body should return 
to the soil of his adopted state Avhose foundations he helped 
prepare and of Avhich he became a proud and useful and loyal 





While the duty of formally announcing the death of one of 
the oldest, most active, and Avorthy members of this Asso- 
ciation is a sad one, the privilege of paying tribute to the 
memory of the late Charles H. Gere is a pleasure. 

It was my good fortune to have been intimately and con- 
tinuously associated with him in various capacities from the 
day of his advent into Nebraska to near the day of his death. 

In July, 1865, I had the pleasure to welcome him to the 
territory of Nebraska, as he stepped from a steamboat at 
Brownville. I therefore can speak of his characteristics from 
personal knowledge. 

He was born in Wyoming county, New York, in 183S, and 
died at his home in Lincoln on the 30th day of September, 
1904, at the age of sixty-six. 

Biographically, I copy extracts from an editorial in the 
Lincoln Baity Journal, announcing the death of Mr. Gere. 
This, I am advised, is largely autobiographic, and therefore 
reliable : 

"He prepared for college at Oxford academy, and entered 
the junior class at Dickenson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 
graduating in 1861. 

"Just before graduating he enlisted in the Pennsylvania 
'Bucktails' with several of his classmates, but they were all 
refused muster by order of Governor Curtin, who said that 
undergraduates were not needed. He was appointed a 
teacher in a grammar school in Baltimore the following year, 
and continued the study of law under the tuition of Con- 
gressman C. L. L. Leary. In June, 1863, when Lee invaded 
Pennsylvania, he resigned to enlist in the 10th Maryland in- 
fantry, which was ordered immediately to occupy Maryland 
Heights, where it guarded a battery of artillery during the 
battle of Gettysburg. Upon the expiration of the term of the 
regiment he served in the quartermaster's department at 
Annapolis and Martinsburg for several months, was a mem- 
ber of a party of independent scouts in Ihe vicinity of Balti- 



more, when Jubal Early raided Maryland, and afterward 
joined the 11th Maryland infantry, and served until the close 
of the war. He was admitted to the bar at Baltimore a few 
days later; and started to visit his mother, who lived at Table 
Bock, Nebraska. 

"Nebraska suited him, and he wrote back for his trunk, 
and opened a law office at Pawnee City, and soon afterward 
was taken into partnership by David Butler, afterwards the 
first governor of the state. He was appointed prosecuting 
attorney for the county by the county commissioners, and 
was elected to the first legislature of the state, which con- 
vened at Omaha, July 4, and elected John M. Thayer and 
Thomas W. Tipton to help get the state into the Union. 

"Upon the admission of the state, March 1, 1867, he became 
the private secretary of Governor Butler. On the location of 
the capital at Lincoln the following summer he began the 
publication of the first newspaper in Lincoln, at first named 
the Commonwealth, but later the State Journal. In the fall 
of 1868 he was elected to the state senate from the five coun- 
ties of Lancaster, Saline, Pawnee, Gage, and Jefferson ; was 
chairman of the committee on education and a member of the 
committee on railroads. In the former capacity he had 
charge of the University bill, and as a minority in the later 
committee reported a substitute for the bill, appropriating 
400,000 acres of state lands for sundry railroads, which sub- 
stitute was finally accepted, after a hot fight by both houses 
of the legislature, and became a law. Under it, within two 
years, were built the first sections of the Burlington & Mis- 
souri B. R. in Nebraska, the Midland Pacific, the Atchison 
and Nebraska, all noAV a part of the Burlington system, and 
the Omaha & Southwestern, a part of the Union Pacific sys- 
tem. All these roads 'come to Lincoln/ while the roads 
projected in the majority of the report of the committee were 
'up the river' for the benefit of the eastern tier of counties. 

"He soon after was chosen chairman of the republican 
state central committee, and served four successive terms. 
In 1875 he was elected to the convention that framed the 
present state constitution. He served a second term in the 
state senate in 1881-82, and was appointed, in the spring of 
1881, a member of the board of regents of the University to 
fill a vacancy, and was afterward elected twice to the same 
position, and was president of the board several years. 

"In the city he was president of the board of trustees in 
1869-70, and county attorney, by appointment of the com- 



missioners, and postmaster under President Harrison's ad- 
ministration. He served in the early '80s as a member of the 
state railroad commission, Avhen the body was first created. 
For a long series of years he was a member of the board of 
literary trustees. 

"■Upon the establishment of a daily edition of the State 
Journal in July, 1870, Mr. Gere abandoned the practice of 
law, and has devoted his time and energies to the editorial 
columns of that paper, and has been president of the State 
Journal Company since its incorporation in 1872. 

"He was married in 1871 to Miss Mariel E., daughter of 
Capt. John Clapman, of Washington, D. C. Four children 
have been born to them, of whom three daughters are living. 

"Mr. Gere was of colonial and Revolutionary stock, 
descended through his father, George Gere, son of 'Jonathan 
of Heavitree,' Devonshire, who crossed the ocean in 1631, and 
settled in Boston, and through his mother from Lieut. 
Thomas Tracy, also from the south of England, who emigrated 
to Connecticut in 1635, aud Mathew Grant, who came over 
about the same time, one of the founders of Windsor, Con- 
necticut. His maternal grandfather, Dr. Isaac Grant, served 
through the Revolution with the Connecticut line, and was 
in Washington's Jersey and Pennsylvania campaigns, and at 
the storming of Stony Point. M 

Mr. Gere was an exceptional man in all desirable respects. 
The state, more particularly the city of Lincoln, owes much 
to him for his labors in developing and making them what 
they both are today. As long the editor-in-chief of the Daily 
Journal his gifted pen was ever persistently and successfully 
devoted in their behalf, not only in these two factors, but in 
all matters pertaining to good citizenship and betterment of 
a progressive commonwealth. He was a writer of extraor- 
dinary force in whatever he advocated. His convictions were 
unswerving for what he conceived to be rigid and for the 
greatest good. His boldness in utterance was coequal witli 
his convictions. lie was a profound thinker and safe 

As more expressive and forceful than I have words to Utter 
1 quote another, speaking of a friend on an occasion like unto 



"We are in the habit of culling from nature her choicest 
flowers and, weaving them into suggestive designs and gar- 
lands of beauty, placing them upon the coffins of our de- 
parted friends and loved ones as tokens of our respect and 
esteem. So, too, with pathetic pens do we enroll upon the tab- 
lets of the heart the names of those who were, but are now no 
more, and with eloquent tongues do we recount the many vir- 
tues, noble character, and endearing qualities of those who 
have been called hence." 

His labors are ended. He has entered into what we call 
death, but which, unless all teachings are in vain, is but the 
beginning of another and better life. Those who walked with 
him far down into the valley of the shadow of death, while 
the final scene was closed to vision, have no doubt but that 
when he entered into that "dreamless sleep which kisses down 
the eyelids" he gently drew aside the curtains which separate 
the seen from the unseen, the known from the unknown, and 
stepping behind its mysterious folds, fell asleep in the arms 
of his Creator. 


JANUARY 17, 1906. 

The best heritage of the race is the memory of the lives of 
its great men and women. The rich and the poor are alike the 
heirs of him who has lived a useful and honorable life. In all 
ages it has been the kindly office of friendship to record and 
perpetuate the memory of the good deeds of our fellows. 

It is therefore in a peculiar sense fitting that we should, in 
the records of this Society, perpetuate the memory of its 
founder, one of the most noteworthy pioneers of the territory 
and the state. 

Eobert Wilkinson Furnas, the farmer's boy, apprenticed 
printer, editor, publisher, railroad man, merchant, soldier, 



legislator, Indian agent, postmaster, governor, University re- 
gent, pomologist, floriculturist, horticulturist, and promoter 
of agriculture, was born on an Ohio farm May 5, 1S24. His 
great grandfather was born on English soil, and both his 
father and mother were natives of South Carolina, but in the 
veins of both there was so much Quaker blood that they early 
chafed under the peculiar institutions of their native statu 
and sought the freer atmosphere of Ohio. They settled on a 
farm near Troy, in Miami county, where Robert was born. 
At Trov, at the tender age of eight, he was orphaned, by the 
death of both father and mother from cholera. Young Robert 
was cared for by his grandfather Furnas, and continued on a 
farm until near seventeen years old. From that time on he 
seems to have made his own way in the world. For four years 
he served as an apprenticed printer in the office of the Lick- 
ing Valley Register of Covington, Kentucky. The educa- 
tional advantages of that day, for the poor boy, were very 
limited indeed. His irregular attendance at school would not 
amount, all told, to more than twelve mouths. Yet by dint of 
hard work and indomitable pluck, with a liberal use of mid- 
night oil, or more strictly speaking of tallow candies, he ob- 
tained a good, practical education, and like many others lie 
learned to appreciate in after life educational advantages 
largely because lie had never enjoyed them himself. The 
newspaper office became to him what it has been to so many 
of our noteworthy men — his real university. While the cur- 
i i ulum of this poor boy's university is doubtless narrow and 
its instruction often crude, yet the education it does give 
rings true, and often in its practical' efficiency compensates 
in a large measure for its defects. 

After serving a regular apprenticeship of four years as a 
practical printer he removed to Cincinnati, where in part- 
nership with A. (\. Sparhawk, he opened ami conducted a booji 
and job printing office, which enterprise also included tin 1 
publication of several periodicals. In the year L847 he re- 
turned to his native county of .Miami ami became the editor 
and publisher of the Troy Tint's, a local whig newspaper, 



which he conducted for about five years. From 1852 to 1856 
he was successively engaged as merchant in the book, paper, 
notion, and jeAvelry trade in Troy, as railroad ticket agent, 
and railroad conductor. 

It seems probable while engaged in these latter avocations 
he still controlled his printing outfit, for in the spring of 1856 
he brought a printing outfit from Ohio with him and estab- 
lished at Brown ville, this state, the Nebraska Advertiser, 
which has been published continuously from that time to this, 
but of recent years at Nemaha City in the same county. 

On April 6, 1856, he landed from a Missouri river steam- 
boat at Brownville. An inventory of his belongings at this 
time would show his printing outfit and one and a half shill- 
ings, or eighteen and three-fourths cents in cash — not a very 
large contribution to the grand assessment roll of the then 
territory. But he brought with him an inexhaustible enthu- 
siasm and an unalterable faith in the future of the great 
West. Well might he have sung with Whittier — 

"We cross the prairies as of old 
The Pilgrims crossed the sea. 
To make the West, as they the East, 
The homestead of the free! 

"We go to rear a wall of men 
On Freedom's southern line, 
And plant beside the cotton tree 
The rugged northern pine." 

On June 7, 1856, he published the first number of the Ad- 
vertiser and began that marvelous campaign of nearly fifty 
years for the creation and development of what, is fast be- 
coming the greatest agricultural state in the Union. From 
1856 to 1860 he edited and published the Nebraska. Farmer, 
the first agricultural paper published in Nebraska. In 1857 
he was a delegate to the convention held at Topeka to form a 
state constitution for a new state which it was proposed to 
organize out of northern Kansas and southern Nebraska. On 
March 22, 1862, he was, by President Lincoln, commissioned 
as colonel in the regular army. Under this commission he 
organized the first Indian regiment, which was composed of 
Indians who had been driven by the Confederates from Indian 



territory into southern Kansas. Two other Indian regiments 
were afterwards organized by him, and as commander of these 
Indians he successfully fought several engagements of some 
importance along the border. 

At the request of Governor Saunders he resigned his Indian 
commission and, returning to Nebraska, aided in organizing 
the second regiment of Nebraska cavalry in which he enlisted 
as a private. He was soon promoted to captain. He served 
efficiently in General Sully's campaign against the Sioux In- 
dians in Dakota and took a leading and decisive part in the 
battle of Whitestone Hill, Dakota, September 3, 1863. 

At the close of the Rebellion he was, by the governor, com- 
missioned colonel of this regiment. After the close of his 
term of service Avith the 2d Nebraska cavalry he became 
United States Indian agent for the Omaha Indians as well 
as postmaster for the same, which post he held for nearly four 
years, and until political differences with President Johnson 
terminated his services. He now returned to his Brownville 
farm to follow his favorite pursuits as horticulturist and pro- 
moter of scientific farming. In 1868 he was a delegate to the 
national convention that first nominated General Grant for 

From January 13, 1873, to January 11, 1875, he served as 
governor of the state of Nebraska, and as such was ex-officio 
member of the board of regents of the University of Nebraska, 
to which latter position he was elected by the people in 1875 
under the new constitution adopted that year. 

In 1856, and within a few months after his arrival in Ne- 
braska, he was elected to the council of the third legislative 
assembly, and also served as a member in its fourth, fifth, and 
sixth sessions and in the eighth session in 1861 as its secre- 
tary. As a member of the legislative assembly he drafted afcd 
introduced what became the first common school law of the 
territory, also the law creating whal became the stale board 
of agriculture — thus promoting the two great interests to 
which his life was chiefly devoted — agriculture and education* 



He Avas for many years president of the State Board of 
Agriculture and for very many years and up to his death its 
secretary. He died, therefore, as he had always wished to 
die — in the harness. He was also president of the State Horti- 
cultural Society, president of the Nebraska State Soldiers- 
Union, vice-president of the American Pomological Associa- 
tion, presided over the first State Educational Convention 
held in Nebraska; was president of the Trans-Missouri Irri- 
gation Convention held at Denver, Colorado, 1873; was al- 
ternate United States commissioner to the Philadelphia Ex- 
position in 1876; United States commissioner to the Cotton 
Centennial at New Orleans in 1884-85; member of the Ex- 
ecutive Council and special commissioner of the United 
States to the American Exposition at London in 1886 : one 
of the United States commissioners at large of the World's 
Fair at Chicago in 1893; president of Nebraska Territorial 
Pioneers; first president of this Society, and remained presi- 
dent thereof for five years, and on the death of Mr. Morton 
again became its president, retiring from that position one 
3'ear ago. For six years he was president of the International 
Association of Fairs and Expositions. 

In the great civic societies he was no less active. He as- 
sisted in the organization of the grand lodge of Masons of 
Nebraska and successively held nearly all of the offices 
therein. At various times he held high office in all of the 
organizations of that fraternity. He participated in the or- 
ganization of the grand lodge of Odd Fellows and held the 
highest office therein and was its representative to the na- 
tional convention of that order. He was a member of the 
Grand Army of the Republic and of the Military Order of the 
Loyal Legion of America. 

In politics he was an old line whig until the organization 
of the Republican party, when he enlisted under its banner. 
While a strong partisan, he was yet tolerant of the opinions 
of others and was proud to number among his intimate and 
life-long friends many of his political opponents. 


He affiliated with the Methodist church before moving west, 
but, on coining to Nebraska, he united with the Presbyterians, 
with whom he worshipped up to the time of his death. 

While residing at Cincinnati he was, on October 29, 1845, 
married to Miss Mary E.-McComas, who shared his fortunes 
until her death at Brownville, April 1, 1897. There were 
born to them eight children, of whom five are still living. On 
December 25, 1899, he was married to Mrs. Susanna E. Jami- 
son, who still survives him, residing at Lincoln. 

This active and remarkable life of a little more than eighty- 
one years came to a fitting and peaceful close at Lincoln, 
June 1, 1905. On Sunday, June 3, a special train carried his 
remains and hundreds of sorrowing friends to the very spot 
where, forty-nine 3 r ears before, he had stepped from the 
steamer, all aglow with hope and ambition to aid in the con- 
quest of a wilderness. 

The struggle was now over and the battle Avon. The brave 
heart that had counted the moments of this long and busy life 
was silent forever. His remains were borne up the steep 
slope of the hills that had known him so long, and were laid 
to rest among the evergreens of Walnut Grove Cemetery, 
overlooking the great river whose waters had so kindly borne 
him to our shores. Over his ashes Avcre performed the solemn 
and impressive burial ceremonies of the Masonic Order — the 
great civic society Avhieh he so Avell exemplified and which he 
had served so long and so well. A large part of his "life had 
been devoted to the service of the public in official positions 
to Avhieh no salary Avas attached. To him service for others 
Avas a service of love, and the sense of duty well performed 
Avas a sufficient compensation. 

It is vain to speculate what might have been the life of one 
had the environment been other than i( was. Had young 
Furnas been born to ease and luxury, had lie held a diploma, 
from a great seat of learning, had lie inherited a greal for- 
tune, Ave might not uoav be commemorating bis life 1 ami 
achievements. Certain it is that the strong physical ( (insti- 
tution brought Avith him Prom Hie farm ami (he sterling in- 



tegrity inherited from his Quaker parents stood him in good 
stead in the great work that lay before him. Adverse winds 
that would have brought others to earth seemed only to raise 
him the higher. Defeat could not crush nor disappointment 
sour him. While he had a strong, welj-balanced mind, yet 
his remarkable career can not be explained on the theory of 
great intellectual superiority. 

The keynote of his character and the secret of his success 
was his faithfulness and his kindliness of spirit. Without 
seeking preferment, he diligently and faithfully performed 
every duty Avhich the partiality of his fellows imposed upon 
him. His gentleness of spirit and kindness of heart often led 
to his being chosen over others equally able and equally com- 
petent. To the very close of life he remained young in spirit 
and buoyant in temperament. He believed in the great pos- 
sibilities of the future. He never sighed for the good old 
times of the long ago. To him every decade was better than 
its predecessor. 

On his eighty-first birthday, Avhile in a local hospital, re- 
ceiving treatment for his fatal malady, he said to me that his 
chief wish to live longer sprang from his desire to see the 
great inventions, discoveries, and improvements that the fu- 
ture was sure to bring. He said that if it be true that the 
dead can see the living he should enjoy looking over the bat- 
tlements of Heaven and witnessing the further progress on 

He came to our shores when our civilization was new and 
our enterprises young. jSTo other single life is so intimately 
interwoven with the beginnings of so many things that have 
made us a great state. Our civilization has now become so 
complex and our enterprises so varied that it would be quite 
impossible that any one man, however capable and active, 
should, within the next half century, exert more than a frac- 
tion of the influence upon our development that he exerted 
in the half century just closed. No one else seems to have 
touched our life, industrial, economic, civic, political, and re- 
ligious, at so many points as did he ; and he never touched ex- 



cept to elevate. If I were asked to what single individual 
this state owes the greatest debt of gratitude for its marvelous 
growth and development I would be but expressing the con- 
census of opinion of those best qualified to judge when I 
answer, Eobert Wilkinson Furnas. 



The name which Mr. Shedd bore is Scottish and was rooted 
in Scotland as early as 1100, continuing there and afterwards 
in America in a tenacious, though not numerous, succession 
down to the present time. * •-' 

The original stock was humble — the name indicates as 
much — but it worked up to knighthood some time about 1500. 
The rise was a doubtful honor, and not one to boast of, per- 
haps due rather to the comeliness of a lass than to conspicu- 
ousness of a man, for the bar sinister ran across the new 

To one of this early race, at least, adventure appealed. 
This was Daniel, and he came out to America, in 1610, twenty 
years after the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, and settled at 
Braintree, Massachusetts. In accordance with the spirit of 
the time he was probably a sober, dry, hard-praying Puritan, 
with little use for witches and a long head for a bargain. As 
I say, his name was Daniel, and there was a quantity of Sam- 
uels, Jonathans, and Ezekials, Ruths, Rachels, and Rebeccas 
to follow. The family developed a strong bent for the pulpit 
and mission field, and they were not the last to espouse the 
cause of liberty. Plenty of them were in the Revolution, and 
one Captain Abel Shedd, grandfather of the subject of the 
present sketch, commanded an American vessel in that war, 
and served his country at least to the extent of capturing a. 
British sloop off the New England coast, with several men 
and two barrels of rum. Whether the incident or any of its 
possible consequences made 1 an impression on the Captain's 



son, George, of course we are unable to determine. He after- 
wards turned out to be a strong advocate of temperance and 
of the humanitarian movement of his time. This was the 
father of Hibbard Houston. At an early age he was bound 
out, in which mild form of slavery he continued until of age. 
He acquired his right of franchise without having acquired 
an education. This he set out to get; and went so far as to 
graduate from Dartmouth College in 1839, studying medi- 
cine afterwards at Cincinnati. 

He then moved to a settlement named Denmark, on the 
west bank of the Mississippi, seventeen miles from Burling- 
ton, in the territory of Iowa. Though he came too late (he 
himself informed me of the lamentable fact) to take part in 
the destruction of the Mormons across the river at Augusta, 
his brother, who had preceded him here, had helped in wiping 
out the iniquity, as he called it, even furnishing a log chain 
with which to stuff the cannon when balls were no longer to 
be had. 

Dr. George Shedd, upon his arrival in this pioneer village, 
practiced medicine, and meantime vigorously talked aboli- 
tion in the open, and privately worked negroes north to Can- 
ada, being a prominent spirit on the "underground railway," 
the business of which carried him abroad as far as Cincinnati 
and north to the Lakes and brought him frequently into clash 
with southern slave-OAvners. Upon the creation of the Ee- 
publican party he became a stanch member, continuing as 
such until his death in 1891. He was a man of firm convic- 
tions, sturdy principles, with a quiet taste for fighting evil- 
doers. Something of the Scotch obstinacy and of the Puritan 
piety and zeal, with perhaps a little of the intolerance of both, 
had descended, it will be seen, even thus far. Here, however, 
it stopped. 

Hibbard Houston Shedd, son of the doctor, himself seldom 
referred to his antecedents. Indeed, he was so democratic 
that he took little vanity in what his forebears had been do- 
ing or had done. He believed that each man should stand 
upon his feet. But I have mentioned these antecedents as 



possessing a certain value, possibly in making plain the in- 
herited tendencies and influences which shaped the beginning 
of his life. 

Dr. George Shedd married Abigail Houston, and Hibbard 
was the only son born of this union, on January 27, 1847. It 
was still the period of chopping and hewing of wood, of o&- 
teams, and long prayers. The community was a New Eng- 
land one, excepting two or three families of negroes which 
had appeared out of the South and had been adopted" for con- 
version and as a defiance to the South. 

Hibbard Shedd grew up here, and may in the first sense be 
said to be an American, being the seventh generation of the 
name in America ; and in the second sense, also, by his pio- 
neer environment. His home was unpretentious and his life 
simple and healthful, consisting of work, school, and church. 
He attended the academy of the town, the first academy or 
college in IoAva, where he was taught mathematics, Latin and 
Greek, philosophy, a little Hebrew, astronomy, and a good 
deal of the Bible and Concordance. Over this course of study 
he often smiled in later years. Gne event signalized this 
somewhat uneventful boyhood — a trip to Illinois where in 
company with his father he heard one of the famous Lincoln - 
Douglas debates, and we can not doubt but that it made a 
deep inix)ression upon him. 

At the outbreak of the war he was anxious to shoulder a 
musket, but being only fourteen years old, his patriotic as- 
pirations outran his age. In '64, arriving at seventeen, he 
joined the 45th Iowa Volunteers, and during the brief end of 
the war saw service in Tennessee and Mississippi, though to 
his regret he was in no great battle. 

In 1869 he made his first trip to Nebraska and was so im- 
pressed with the possibilities of the new state that lie rel urned 
a year later to take up his residence at Ashland, where be en- 
gaged in mercantile business. Here, until his death three 
months ago, was his home. 



On February 18, 1874, he married Katharine Leigh Graves, 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, to whom six children were born, four 
now living. His home life was ideal. 

When he came to Nebraska he was a young man, twenty- 
three years of age, with a sound education, broadened by the 
war experience, supplemented by that of a year's teaching in 
Illinois and a year in a Burlington, Iowa, bank. It can not 
be said that he was a pioneer of our state — the pioneer period 
was ended. He was one of the men of the construction pe- 
riod. He had great faith in the new commonwealth, despite 
its drouths, blank prairies, and grasshopper plagues. From 
the year of his coming he enjoyed the acquaintance and con- 
fidence of Morton, Furnas, and others of those who had pre- 
ceded him and who were instrumental in bringing Nebraska 
into statehood. 

From 1870 until his death he took an active part in the re- 
ligious, social, educational, and political life of his commu- 
nity and state. He was the prime spirit in organizing the 
Congregational church of Ashland, of which he was trustee, 
organist, and Sunday school superintendent for thirty-five 
years. His last fatal illness alone cut short his work in these 
lines. For a number of years he was trustee of Doane Col- 
lege, and always recognized the place denominational col- 
leges have in our school system. This did not lessen in any 
respect his strong interest, almost attachment, for the State 
University, which he had witnessed rise from nothing to its 
present splendid proportions. For several successive terms 
he was president of the Ashland public school board, was a 
participant in the state teachers' association, and presented 
addresses before the National Teachers' Association of Amer- 
ica. He frequently contributed articles to educational jour- 
nals and reviews. His literary work was not confined to 
these, since he was a contributor to various other magazines, 
and author of several monographs and memoirs. 

Politically he was a republican, coming under the influence 
of this party at, it may be said, its inception. While a stanch 
holder of the tenets of his political faith and a constant sup- 



porter of its platforms and policies, he was broadminded in 
his convictions and unshackled by narrow prejudices. His 
first important public service Avas during his twenty-eighth 
year, as a member of the state constitutional convention of 
1875. Here he gained the thorough insight into the fabric of 
our commonwealth, himself helping to build it, and of the 
principles fundamental in good citizenship. 

From his diary of this period I will quote one or two. ex- 
tracts which may perhaps have interest : 

"May 12. — Convention met at 9 :00 o'clock and proceeded 
to adopt the report of committee on rules. All adopted with 
slight changes, except rule 31, which was postponed until 
after dinner. Met at 2 :00 o'clock and discussion began on 
subject of committees. Some of the members are in favor of 
a large number of them, some in favor of few, some are de- 
sirous of bringing bulk of work before convention. Vote 
finally passed to have entire number of committees. Speeches 
by Van YVyck, Martin, Manderson, Maxwell, Broady, Kirk- 
patrick, Hinman, Gwyer, Briggs, Reese, Harrington, Griffin, 
Laird, Weaver, and Hopewell. 

"May 27. — Committees on legislature and apportionment 
hold joint session. A very earnest and bitter debate — ad- 
journed without satisfactory result. 

"Jnne 3. — Long and fierce debate on salaries and clerk 
hire of executive offices. 

"Jnne 10. — Convention put in a long day faithfully. Ab- 
bott made a bitter attack on Doom, but got the worst of it. 

"June 15. — Immense clouds of grasshoppers flying over — 
they are beginning to light nights ami do some damage — 
business at a standstill, almost nothing doing in town. A 
pale, anxious, frightened body of men everywhere. Dark 
days these." 

His experience as a member of (his convention well pre- 
pared him for the position he was to assume in the councils 
of his party and for the non-part isan public service w hich he 
was to render to the state 4 . In the year 1881 was chosen a 
member of the legislature, and in L883 was elected a speaker 



of the house of representatives. This was a decade when the 
tariff question was paramount, Mr. Shedd put in ten years 7 
study, and it may safely be said he became an expert upon 
the subject, having published frequent articles upon it in 
serious revieAvs. He was twice elected lieutenant-governor, 
filling that office with credit and dignity during the terms of 
1885 and 1887. Time as well as the occasion will not permit 
me to deal with details of these ten years. He has left many 
papers, addresses, reminiscences, and records pertaining to 
them and the political history of the state at this epoch. 

-This active participation in this early legislation broad- 
ened and strengthened him. He gained insight, foresight, 
and power. He acquired those statesman-like qualities which 
should develop in one who holds public position. I think his 
integrity was never questioned; his honesty of thought and 
sincerity of purpose was admired by his opponents, his loy- 
alty and steadfastness of conviction were an asset to his 
friends ; and all sought to rank among these. His interest in 
the Avelfare of his state persisted to the day of his death, and 
his faith in its present greatness and greater future was firm 
and abiding. 

Until within the last year or two Mr. Shedcl was constantly 
engaged upon the platform, his speeches upon patriotic days 
and other occasions being in request wherever he was known. 
As a thinker he was clear, sound, and comprehensive, even at 
times profound; as an orator he enjoyed more than a local 
reputation, delivering addresses in numerous middle and 
western states. But it is his private life perhaps which gives 
him the most honor. 

As a citizen he was always obedient to his state's and coun- 
try's laws, and ready to sacrifice his personal convenience or 
desires to promote the welfare -of his community and Ne- 
braska. As a man he was kindly and considerate in his re- 
lations with his neighbors, clean and upright in all his do- 
ings, just and more than just in business dealings, even 
generous and charitable, and exercised a strong influence for 
good, and inspired strong, useful, equitable action in others. 


He died upon October 6, 1905. 

A fitting eulogy was pronounced in an editorial of the 
Omaha Bee, as follows: 

"The death of former Lieutenant-Governor H. H. She&d 
signalized the removal of another eminent Nebraskan who 
was for many years conspicuous in public life. (And after 
a summary of his career) His life was an example of con- 
scientious devotion to duty, which must have been a greater 
satisfaction to him than would have been the accumulation 
of colossal wealth." 


Address before the Nebraska State Historical Society 
' on the Evening of January 18, 1906. 

by hon. norris brown, attorney general of nebraska. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The right of the state to tax railroads at all is obtained 
from the same authority that the right to tax other property 
is. Under the Constitution of Nebraska every item of prop- 
erty within its boundaries is subject to taxation except that 
which is used exclusively for church, charitable, and educa- 
tional 'purposes. The warrant for that authority is found in 
the 9th clause of the Constitution, and one feature of that I 
would like to call your attention to specifically, and, for fear 
I may misquote it, permit me to read it to you: 

"The legislature shall provide such revenue as may be 
needed by levying a tax by valuation so that every person 
and every corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to the 
value of his, or her, or its property ami franchise, the value 
to be ascertained in such maimer as the legislature shall 
direct.' 7 

It is clear to start with that the property, whether it is 
physical — in sight, or whether if is tangible— out of sight, 
is taxable, assessed according to its valuation. 


Under the second proposition it is equally clear that the 
value shall be ascertained in the method provided by the leg- 
islature. Now those two propositions, I take it, are settled 
by the Constitution. In obedience to that authority the les- 
islature when it first met in this state passed a revenue law. 
For the purposes of this discussion it is sufficient to call your 
attention to the fact that in the year 1903 the legislature 
wiped it off the statute book from the first to the last section, 
and in its place they put what is now known as the new rev- 
enue act. It was an act not to tax part of the property in 
this state, but an act to tax all of the property in this state — 
personal, real, tangible, and intangible. It also provided a 
detailed list by which the assessor became an inquisitor. It 
was his duty to put on paper and get the signature of the man 
who owned the property, every item of the property, whether 
little or big item. The attempt of this new law was the pur- 
pose, which is well known by everybody, of the legislature to 
raise more money for the state. This was the purpose of it. 
And you could not raise more money for the state unless you 
increased the taxes in the state, could you? That was the 
purpose of the act. And the reason for that purpose was that 
under the old law it was not only full of inequalities and in- 
iquities, but it didn't raise enough money to pay the expenses 
of the government. And it didn't matter much which party 
was running the government; the government was running 
behind every year under the old law. That was the object of 
the new law — to increase the taxes. Now to observe generally 
that that law was partially successful, is the fact that the. 
total assessment roll of this state, under the old revenue act, 
had never exceeded flS0,060,000. All property — railroads' 
and common folks', all of it — never had exceeded the sum of 
$180,000,000. Kailroad property in the state had never been 
taxed to exceed $26,000,000 ; that was the sum ami the highest- 
mark it ever reached. Under the new law the assessment roll 
increased to almost $300,000,000, and the railroads from $26,- 
000,000 to about $46,000,000 in round numbers. That gives 


us an idea of these two laws as to their operation and also a 
comparison of the corporation property with other property. 

I am here to discuss particularly railroad taxation in this 
state and under this law. This law undertook to provide the 
method, as the Constitution provided, by which yon might 
ascertain the valuation of the railroad for taxation purposes. 
My good friend, the professor [E. A. Boss], has told you 
about the difficulties that confront any assessor undertaking 
to assess a railroad. You must remember that the railroad 
doesn't just lie within our state; it passes through many 
states. It therefore becomes the duty of the assessor in this 
state to find the valuation, not of the entire railroad, but just 
of a piece of it. just a part of it. Those difficulties the legis- 
lature undertook to minimize, to reduce to the lowest possible 
degree, and to do that they went to great length in declaring 
the method by which the state board of equalization and as- 
sessment might investigate that question. 1 want to talfc to 
you a little while about that method. 

In the first place, that law said that every railroad corpora- 
tion doing business in this state should make a return to the 
state board of all of its property, its physical property — 
nothing about its stocks and bonds — but its physical prop- 
erty, its miles of right of way; its depots, their co<t: its 
bridges, their cost; its trackage; every item of physical prop- 
erty that it owned in the state must be returned to the state 
board, and that the value of that physical property should be 
returned to the state board and sworn to by the agent of the 
railroad making the return. Now, my friend discusses quite 
clearly how insufficient and unsatisfactory that method would 
be, to assess it at that rate; just take the physical property 
at what it is returned and assess it. That would be unfair. 
Let us apply the lest to a railroad system in (his state. Here 
is a railroad thai lias a thousand miles within Nebraska, in 
round numbers. The total system lias 3,000 miles operating 
in several different states. They make a return of their cars 
and physical property in Nebraska, and the officer swears 
that it is worth on an average $20,000 a mile, making the re- 



turn that is sworn to. The legislature that passed the law 
thought that that would not be a safe test upon which to base 
the taxation of a railroad, and they provided that the value 
of its physical property as returned by the railroad agent 
should not bind the state board making the assessment, and 
yet that was one of the tests the law did provide the board 
must examine. Under the law the state board had followed 
the injunction of the law and applied that test, that is, they 
had examined these returns and found that they were worth 
$20,000 a mile as returned by a statement, — and this of a rail- 
road that you could not buy in the markets of the world for 
$60,000 a mile. Do you know of anybody whom you are sat- 
isfied is fair, that would argue that a railroad should be as- 
sessed, then, according to its physical property? In Ne- 
braska, under this law, it can not be assessed by the physical 
test alone. Why? Because this same act provides further 
on that the railroad must make an additional and further 
return to the state board. It provides what that return and 
the schedules shall contain. And what is it? The total cap- 
ital stock issued by the corporation. What else? The market 
value of that capital stock. What else? The dividend that 
has been paid by that corporation on its stock during the pre- 
ceding year. ^\ nat else? The total issue of its bonded in- 
debtedness outstanding against the corporation, and its value 
and rate of interest, and whether paid or not. Now we have 
a second test provided for here by the legislature under this 
provision of the Constitution that authorizes it : a test that 
permits the assessing board to investigate the stock and bond 
values that my friend talked to you about. He said that was 
an unsatisfactory test, in a measure. I agree with him, in a 
measure. Any test is unsatisfactory that undertakes to fix 
the valuation of a corporation that is doing a business in a 
number of states when you can not fully, exactly, and accu- 
rately fix a value on that part of the system in this state. But 
let me tell you, the courts of this country have been dealing 
as often as legislatures have with the question of how to tax 
railroads, and the courts in this country, ever since 1875, 




when Chief Justice Miller laid down the rule that no fairer 
method has ever been devised by the legislature to fix the value 
of a railroad than to find the value of its stocks and bonds, 
and from them to ascertain the value of a part of the system, 
have sustained the rule. Why is it fair? Because when yon 
buy the stocks and bonds of a railroad you have bought all 
the railroad. You haven't bought anything else. And when 
you OAvn the stocks and bonds of a road you own it all, — 
every mile of it, every car, every asset that it holds, whether 
assessed in connection with the company or something else, 
you are the OAvner of that railroad system, depots and all. 
The difficulty with the stock and bond test, and the reason 
why it is unsatisfactory is this, that you can not find out what 
the value of the stocks is. That is the trouble. It is easy to 
find the value of a bond because it has a reasonably staple 
value on the market. But when you come to the value of the 
stock which is issued whenever the directors make up their 
minds they Avant more stock outstanding, that is a different 
proposition, because it is subject to manipulation sometimes. 
But avIio manipulates it? The fellow avJio owns it, and the 
fellow avIio knoAvs Avhat it is worth. The fellow who lias to 
pay the taxes on it. The felloAV avIio is dealing in those kinds 
of securities, he is the felloAV avIio manipulates it. And if he 
does it to his own disadvantage he can not complain of the 
assessing board, because it is his act, and not the act of the 
assessor. But the board is not bound by any market value 
anyhow. It is the duty of the board under (lie second provi- 
sion to investigate and ascertain the actual value of (lie storks 
and bonds, and it is the duty of the company (o return actual 
value if it knows it, as well as the market value. In this stale 
in 11)04, there were returns made of a, railroad operating in 
eleven states that had outstanding 1208,000,000 of stock, who 
swore to the state board of this state that they did not know 
what their capital stock was worth. It did not have any mar- 
ket value because its owners had taken it off the market . It 
was not quoted since 1001. Now it had no market value. 
They SAVore under oath that they did not know what it avus 



actually worth. That ieft the board up in the air. Left them 
to resort to some other means of investigation, which they did, 
to find out what the value of that stock was. But now then, 
let us carry this application of this principle to the road that 
I started with, of one thousand miles that returned its phys- 
ical property to be worth f 20,000 a mile. It said the stocks 
were not worth par, and the board took them at their own 
value, not |200,000,000 as they had outstanding, but $175,- 
000,000, what the board itself said it was worth, or about 82 
cents on the dollar. If you take the mileage of that road at 
their own figure, take the bonds at par, and they were above 
par, and you have a stock -and bond valuation on that road of 
over $100,000 to the mile, a property whose physical return 
value was only $20,000. This is the second test of stocks and 
bonds according to this law. 

Now there comes the third proposition. The legislature 
was not satisfied to have the board investigate the value of a 
railroad two ways, but it said you must do it three ways, and 
they made a command upou every railroad operating in this 
state to make a sworn return to the state board of the amount 
of its earnings, gross and net. My friend said that he thought 
that this test was a pretty fair test. If. 3 011 capitalize the net 
earnings which they say was $1,000 a mile at A per cent, that 
Avould give the value of the road. His argument was — and 
the courts agree with him — that the fair rate to capitalize 
earnings is six per cent. But I have yet to find a reason why 
the per cent should be that high. Here is a plant which pays 
four per cent dividends ; it is a four per cent institution ; its 
bonds all draw four per cent and some four and one-half and 
five per cent. Will you tell me why they should be capitalized 
at six per cent when they are a four per cent plant? But we 
will take the court's view of it and give the roads the benefit 
of capitalization at six per cent, and what is the result as to 
this company I have been talking about? Its net earnings 
average the system over, more than $1,000 a mile. What is 
the net earning of a railroad? It is what is left after every 
item of expense in the operation has been paid. You have 



maintained your road and kept it in repair. Not only that, 
you have paid your taxes ; and whatever is left, that goes into 
your pocket; after all these expenses are paid, the rest is net 
earnings, The state board in 1901 was not satisfied to have 
a return made as to the net earnings of this railroad on its 
entire system; the board thought the system was earning 
more money in Nebraska than in the other states, and it asked 
for a return showing net earnings in Nebraska ; and while the 
returns showed that the whole system over every mile had 
averaged over f 1,000 net earnings, in Nebraska it averaged 
$5,500 per mile net. That is a great earning power. You 
capitalize this and you have at least f 90,000 per mile on an 
average in this state. 

Now, then, we have applied the three tests that the law au- 
thorizes, and this road, worth by the physical property test 
§20,000; by stock and bond test about $92,000, and the net 
earning test something less than that, and you have an aver- 
age valuation of beyond $05,000 per mile, $10,000 per mile 
more than it is assessed. Do you wonder the courts sustained 
that assessment? When you come to the final assessment of 
railroad property in Nebraska, as in every other state, you 
have got to depend upon the integrity of your state assessors 
in fixing the property and its valuation, because it is their 
judgment that does the business. The law is here, and it is 
their judgment that must do the rest. 

There are two ways to beat a law. First, never to pass it. 
That is one way. Second, after yon have passed it. get some 
one in office who will not enforce it. That is the second way. 
I don't care what kind of law you put on the statute books, 
unless you will put an assessor there'who w ill carry it out, 
you will never get an equitable assessment. My friends, I 
have talked longer than I expected. I thank you. | Applause.] 





A description of the growth and progress of Nebraska, 
without mention of the Union Pacific, would be like the play 
of Hamlet without the Prince of Denmark. The construction 
of the road, its rise and triumphs, are a part of the history of 
the state, and the prosperity of the road has increased the 
advancement and wealth of Nebraska which has accompanied 

The Union Pacific was the first road to enter Nebraska. 
In 1863 the work was begun and forty miles of road were 
completed by 1865. Within five more years, 705 miles of road 
were constructed and operated in the- state, and this increase 
continued until now, in 1902, there are over fourteen thou- 
sand miles of rail and water lines directly controlled by the 
Union Pacific R. R. A reference to this is necessary to show 
what part the road has taken in enabling the commonwealth 
to double and quadruple, as it has done. The mileage of the 
Nebraska division of the Union Pacific is as follows : 

Eastern District — Council Bluffs to Grand 

Island and spurs 159.95 

Middle District — Grand Island to North 

Platte 137.28 

Western District— North Platte to Cheyenne 225.41 

Total 522.59 


Beatrice Branch — Valley to Beatrice 96.72 

Stromsburg Branch — Valparaiso to Stroms- 
burg 53.30 

Norfolk Branch — Columbus to Norfolk .... 50.37 

Albion Branch — Oconee to Albion 31.51 

Cedar Rapids Branch — Genoa to Cedar Rap- 
ids 30.55 

Ord Branch— Grand Island to Ord 60.77 

Scotia Spur— Scotia Junction to Scotia . . . 1.37 


Loup City Branch—St Paul to Loup City. 39.40 

Pleasanton Branch — Boelus to Pleasanton . 22.06 

Kearney Branch — Kearney to Callaway... 65.79 

Sioux City Branch— Sioux City to Norfolk. 74.94 

Total Nebraska Division 1,052.40 

Throughout the state there is already one mile of railroad 
to every fourteen square miles. 

Vast regions of fertile country have thus been opened up 
to settlers, and great areas of land brought by rail into con- 
tact with metropolitan centers. Prosperous cities have 
sprung up in every section traversed by this line. 

The state in thirty-nine years has grown from 122,000 to 
1,068,901 inhabitants, with a proportionate increase in mate- 
rial and other property. Take the following as an example 
of the surprising growth of Nebraska : 

The population in 1855 was 4,494 

The population in 1860 was 28,841 

The population in 1875 was 257,280 

The population in 1880 was 452,402 

The population in 1885 was 740,645 

The population in 1890 A\ as .1.050,793 

The population in 1900 was 1,068,901 

In 1860 there was 1 person to 3 square miles. 
In 1880 there were 6 persons to 3 square miles. 
In 1900 there were 13 persons to 3 square miles. 

The assessed valuation of the state is over f 170,000,000 ; 
there are 120,000 farms under cultivation. 

It- has now nearly 5,600 miles of railways, w hich is greater 
than those of Siberia and Japan combined. It is first in in- 
telligence of its citizenship; second in health; third in corn 
growing and sugar heels; fourth in oats; fifth in wheat; and 
sixth in hay. 

Its cattle products in 1900 were 2,200,792; sheep 322,057; 
hogs about 1,500,000. 

In 1900 its smelting work products were $28,000,000; beet, 
sugaT, |520,301. 



The estimated value of South Omaha products alone in 
1901 is 114,000,000 greater than that of the whole state in 
1890. Its true wealth is estimated in 1900 at §1,282,210,800, 
as against f 385,000,000 in 1880, an increase of 233 per cent. 

Its surplus products in 1900 are valued at f 225,555,1 00.89. 

The beginning of all this, the phenomenal growth, dates 
from the commencement of the Union Pacific Jl. R. 

In a brief outline of this character it would be impossible 
as well as unnecessary to describe the early history of this 
great railroad. It is now a part of the history of the United 
States, and everybody knows something of it, but in order to 
appreciate what the Union Pacific has done, it is well to re- 
member that the expanse of territory now called Nebraska 
was in what our forefathers called "The Great American Des- 
ert," which spread its arid, lifeless mantle of land over thou- 
sands of square miles of the great western basin of the Mis- 
sissippi. In latitude north and south, and in longitude east 
and west, the awful barrenness extended without limit. Civ- 
ilization had hardl\ r approached it on any side. The idea of 
ever crossing this expanse was regarded as well-nigh impos- 
sible. In the midst of this seeming hopeless sterility, Ne- 
braska has sprung up — a state of magnificent extent, seventy- 
seven thousand square miles, or 49,000,000 acres in area! 

It could be spread over all New England, and yet have 
11,000 square miles to spare. 

In this stupendous transformation, the Union Pacific has 
been a mighty factor. Let me cite merely a few of the things 
this great railroad has done for Nebraska. Take, for instance, 
the economic importance of irrigation. The distribution of 
water by artificial methods, better known as irrigation, lias 
received such an impetus during the past few years that it 
has at last resolved itself into a national proposition. All 
western and some of the southern states have established 
state departments of irrigation, Nebraska along with the oth- 
ers. Not that this state, could not produce crops without 
resorting to artificial methods, for the volume of rainfall has 
increased and continues to increase of late years, but the soil 



of Nebraska is suitable for irrigation, and farmers have found 
that it has multiplied the productive capacity of soils. 

The Mormons seem to have started irrigation in the West, 
when they conveyed the waters from the mountain streams 
of Utah and distributed them over the valleys and tablelands. 

For years after this there was no progress made in the mat- 
ter of irrigation. In fact, the matter was hardly thought of 
by residents east of the Rocky Mountains until a few years 
ago, when the Union Pacific took the matter up and urged it 
upon the settlers of the western portion of the state. For a 
time it was slow work, but by being persistent and advocating 
it in the press and in pamphlets, it soon took root, and as a 
result today more than 1,500,000 acres of land lying along 
"the Overland Route/' beyond Columbus can be flooded by 
the waters of the Platte that are tributary. 

The first place where irrigation was tried in Nebraska was 
along the valley of the Platte. The water was diverted from 
the natural channel and conducted over the fields. The result 
was marvelous. That year, while, generally speaking, there 
was an average supply of moisture 1 — as much as in many of 
the other western states — the crop yield on the irrigated land 
was nearly two-fold of that upon land where nature only sup- 
plied the moisture. The result of this experiment induced 
the passenger department of the Union Pacific to urge upon 
farmers the necessity of constructing irrigation ditches. Not 
only did the Union Pacific urge this. It assisted in bringing 
settlers at reduced rates ami in many other ways. At this 
time about Mix irrigation companies an 1 operating in Ne- 
braska near tin 1 main line of the Union Pacific. 

Taking Dawson county as example, it will be found one of 
the most prosperous counties in the state. The main line of 
the Union Pacific traverses this county. 

The following figures show what Dawson county has done 
in the way of irrigation: 




Farmers & Merchants Irrigation Co 83 80,000 

Cozacl Irrigation Co 40 46,000 

Gothenburg Water Power and Irrigation 

Co . 29 25,000 

Orchard & Alfalfa Irrigation Co . 20 15,000 

Gothenburg South Side Irrigation Co 30 15,000 

Farmers Irrigation Co 10 ■ 5,000 

Platte Kiver Irrigation Co 18 8,000 

Elm Creek Irrigation Co 10 8,000 

Bird & Newman Irrigation Co 8 1,200 

P>ooker & Kalston Irrigation Co G 1,500 

Edmisten Irrigation Co 5 3,000 

259 207,700 
In assisting the irrigation movement, in reclaiming arid 
wastes and making the soil productive despite parching 
winds, the Union Pacilic has helped to make a more prosper- 
ous community by laying a sure foundation for the creation 
of revenue and the development of the state by inducing the 
influx of immigration and wealth within its confines. 

It is well known that the Union Pacific R. R. is equipped 
with heavy eighty-pound steel rails, that its main line is 
nearly all ballasted with the famous "Sherman gravel'' hauled 
at great expense out to points on the line. During the past 
two or three years millions have been spent for labor and im- 
proving the physical condition of the system. While not all 
these vast items have been expended in Nebraska, much of it 
has gone to enrich the residents of the state. 

Since the construction of the road, the Union Pacilic has 
maintained large shops at Omaha and smaller ones at Fre- 
mont, Grand Island, and North Platte. For over a quarter 
of a century this road has carried thousands of these shop- 
men on its payrolls, annually exchanging hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars with them, the company giving them its 
money. and they giving the company their labors in return. 
In the headquarters at Omaha, the Union Pacific maintains 
an army of officers and employees who are paid good salaries 



regularly. This money lias amounted to millions of dollars 
during the past thirty years, and has been spent chiefly in 
Nebraska, a large portion of it going to the merchants and 
the tradesmen and others along its line. When you consider 
that the Union Pacific has been doing business since 1865, 
that the vast sums of money referred to have been paid out 
year after year, you may then get some idea of what it has 
done and is doing toward the support of the people of 

It is not too much to state that for more than thirty years 
the Union Pacific expenditure in Nebraska has been far 
greater than any other corporation doing business in the 

Let me answer the question, "What has the Union Pacific 
done for Nebraska?" by pointing to some of the coming cities 
of the commonwealth, Fremont with a population of 8,000; 
Lincoln, 40,000; Columbus, 3,600; Grand Island. 7,500; Nor- 
folk, 4,000; Kearney, 6,000; North Platte. 1.000; not omitting 
South Omaha with a population of 20,000, the third largest 
packing center in the United States, and hundreds of other 
thriving cities, towns, villages, and hamlets, which, by the 
magic hand of the Union Pacific alone, sprang into existence. 
But for* the Union Pacific, the pioneer railroad company, 
these towns would not exist. Put for the Union Pacific, 
might be crossing the plains and climbing the mountains to 
the Pacific Coast in covered wagons or slow (rains of less am- 
bitions roads, instead of in the palatial cars of "The Overland 

The Union Pacific has spent thousands upon thousands of 
dollars in advertising the s*tate of Nebraska, not only in the 
United States, but all over the world. Not only in our new- 
possessions inn in the cities, towns, and villages of Rurope 
has the Union Pacific placed Nebraska before tin emigrant 
or traveler as a desirable spot, by maps and pamphlets, by 
magazines, newspapers, and sundry other ways. 

The following extract from a report of the senate commil tee 
on Pacific Railroads, dated February 1809, shows thai the 



Union Pacific lias -been instrumental in building up the state 
of Nebraska since its earliest clays. 

"It can be shown by official records/' says the report before 
mentioned, "that the Kansas Pacific, the Union Pacific, and 
the. Central Pacific have been instrumental in adding* hun- 
dreds of thousands to the population of the states of Kansas, 
Colorado, Iowa, Nebraska, California, and Nevada. Minne- 
sota OAves to the rapidity and cheapness of transportation by 
rail her best immigrants — over 100,000 Germans, Norwegians, 
and Swedes. Every foreign laborer landing on our shores is 
economically valued at $3,500. He rarely comes, empty- 
handed. The superintendent of the Castle Garden (New. 
York) Immigration Depot has stated that a careful inquiry 
gave an average of f 100, almost entirely in coin, as the money 
property of each man, woman, and child, landed in New York. 
From 1830, the commencement of our railway building, to 
1860 the number of foreign emigrants was 4,787,924. At that 
ratio of coin Avealth possessed by each, the total addition to 
the stock of money in the United States made by the increase 
to population was $478,792,100. Well might Dr. Engel, the 
Prussian statistician, say: 'Estimated in money, the Prus- 
sian state lost during the sixteen years by emigrants a sum 
of more than 180,000,000 thalers. It must be added that those 
who are resolved to try their strength abroad are by no means 
our weakest elements; their continuous stream may be com- 
pared to a Avell-equipped army, which, leaving the country 
annually, is lost to it forever. A ship loaded with emigrants 
is often looked upon as an object of compassion; it is never- 
theless in a political-economical point of view generally more, 
valuable than the richest cargo of gold dust.' ;? 

The words of Sidney Dillon uttered many years ago are 
not inappropriate now. He said : "The growth of the United 
States west of the Alleghenies during the past fifty years is 
due not so much to free institutions or climate or the fertility 
of the soil as to railways. If the institutions and climate and 
soil had not been favorable to the development of common- 
wealths railways would not have been constructed, but if rail- 


ways had not been invented the freedom and natural ad van- # 
tages of our western states would have beckoned to human 
immigration and industry in rain. But increased facilities 
for travel are among- the smaller benefits conferred by the 
railways. The most beneficent function of the. railway is that 
of a carrier of freight. What would it cost for a man to carry 
a ton of wheat one mile? What would it cost for a horse to 
do the same? The railway does it at a cost of less than a cent. 
This brings Nebraska. Colorado, Dakota, and Minnesota into 
direct relation with hungry and opulent Liverpool, and makes 
subsistence easier and ekearjer throughout the civilized world. 
The world should, therefore, thank the railway for the oppor- 
tunity to buy wheat, but none the less should the West thank 
the railway for the opportunity to sell wheat. 

Xo fact among all the great politico-economical facts that 
have illustrated the world's history since history began to be 
written is so full of human interest or deals with such masses 
of mankind since the railway opened to the seaboard these 
immense solitudes. 

Within fifty years over 30,000,000 people have been trans- 
planted .to or produced upon vast regions oC hitherto unin- 
habited and comparatively unknown territory, where they are 
uoav living in comfort and affluence and enjoying a degree of 
civilization second to none in the world, and greatly superior 
to any that is known in Europe outside of the capitals. This 
could not have happened had it not been for the railways, and 
as a helper in developing this -real area the Union Pacific lias 
been a very potent factor. 





AYhen the vanguard of the whole occupation and the pio- 
neers first planted foot in Nebraska, a majority of them had 
come from the timber lands of their ancestral states. When 
they looked out upon vast oceans of treeless prairie lands, it 
was hard for them to understand how it was possible for them 
to be permanently occupied and subdued to the home-making' 
uses of agriculture. They never thought of planting trees ex- 
cept for ornament and shade, where they might grow by 
* proper nursing, for their rude little huts. How could trees 
grow on a "desert"? How could people wait for trees to be 
planted and grown, even if they could be made to grow .at all? 

As was quite natural, they were moved by instinct to dream 
and dig for coal. Holes in the hills on the Nebraska side of 
the Missouri river were bored in plenty from north to south, 
within the state boundaries, and there were more coal discov- 
eries in those early days of blind hopes and doubting expecta- 
tion than could be easily counted for numbers. Nor have we 
done making these coal discoveries yet. Large sums of money 
have been sunk in these vain quests for coal deposits of suffi- 
cient depth of vein and quantity to be made available for use. 
Veins of coal would, it is true, be frequently found, which 
would give good ground for confidence that they would sup- 
ply enough of the black diamonds for commercial use. But 
they Avere only surface veins, and not the real coal measures. 
These surface veins would be 2V- 2 to 3 feet in thickness, count- 
ing the shale, and would yield fine coal, rich in carbon and 
heating power. These coal discoveries have only led to a large 
harvest of disappointed hox>es and a large loss of money. The 
late J. Sterling Morton was an early and conspicuous victim 
of these illusive coal discoveries in the territorial period, one 
of which was made on the Nebraska City farm. Dr. F. V. 
Hayden, the famous geologist who made the U. S. survey of 
the territory, was called in to examine the coal mine. Anxious 


i • • 

as he was on all accounts to make a favorable report, and es- 
pecially on Mr. Morton's account, he told Mr. Morton the sad 
scientific truth about it, which more than forty years of time 
have confirmed. I doubt whether Mr. Morton lived quite 
long enough to forgive Hay den for telling him the truth. 
Professor Hayden always held, with Meek, that the coal beds 
which appear in Iowa dip down very deep in Nebraska, per- 
haps 3,000 feet. The nearest we ever came to getting a real 
substantial bed of coal was when Mr. P. E. Her put down a. 
boring for anything that might be found, oil, gas, eoal, or 
what not, at his old distillery in Omaha. A vein of coal was 
struck at a depth of several hundred feet which was, in fact, 
highly promising. Pennsylvania experts were brought out 
who said so. I was interested in a small way, but I did not 
forget the warning of Hayden. There were high hopes and 
much excitement. All Air. Her got was a supply of artesian 
water, which Avas very valuable to. the distillery of which he 
was then the owner. But Peter's coal mine, like all the rest 
of them, "petered out." 

When, in 1855, I went with the army to Ft. Pierre, dreams 
of coal and of cedar and pine timber wire excited by vague 
reports of these products on the upper Missouri, and I was 
asked to look out for them. My point of observation from 
the decks of a steamboat did not enable me to see anything 
but the color of coal, where slate and shale had been exposed 
by the wash of the river. We had heard of islands rich with 
cedar. I did not sec them. As to pine timber, ditto. Reports 
were circulated of vast deposits pf coal through Indians and 
traders, although I saw none of it. These reports were 
founded on fact, and it is there in unlimited quantity-; to (he 
great advantage of South Dakota. It is the lignite formal ion. 
A proposition was made a few years ago to some Omaha cap- 
italists to bring this coal to the Nebraska markets by barging 
it down the river, bul it was ascertained thai (he coal dete- 
riorated by exposure. II is said to contain more carbon than 
the Wyoming product which Hayden discovered dm ing (he 
Union Pacific construction. If was in 1867, 1 iliink, that 


Hayden brought down the first specimens of . Wyoming coal 
to Omaha, in a gunny sack, and dumped them on the fioor of 
the editorial apartment of the Omaha Daily Herald, which 
then called itself "a strictly religious journal, price $10 a year, 
invariably in advance." 

This, in brief, is a mere outline of the brave efforts and uni- 
form failures that were made in the past, and which still con- 
tinue at longer or shorter intervals, to uncover coal measures 
on Nebraska soil. Behind these efforts and giving them en- 
ergy have been the strong motives of individual gain, alluring 
visions of sudden and large wealth, and also, be it said, a 
higher, if not a more effective force of public spirit, striving 
for the advancement of the general welfare of the "young 
commonwealth." Nothing could be more commendable in mo- 
tive on the part of ambitious citizens, however misdirected 
may have been their labors and sacrifices. As the editor of 
the Omaha Daily Her aid, in the cream of my manhood life 
for man}^ years, 1 used to share with others a keen regret that 
Nebraska could not boast the advantage of mineral weal th in 
any form to reinforce its prodigious capacity for agriculture. 
It was I who first said in the columns of that somewhat busy 
little newspaper, "Nebraska's an agricultural state, or it is 
nothing." Time and events have confirmed that judgment, 
and its implied forecast of its sole dependence for develop- 
ment, population, and power, and I may now repeat the re- 
frain with variations, so to say, that enable me to declare 
that Nebraska's an agricultural state, and Avouldn't be a min- 
eral state if it could, even if coal measures were within 500 
feet of the surface soil in a general distribution over the state. 
In other words, when all of our people were deploring the 
want of coal, they did not appreciate then, and may not now, 
that it would be a losing trade to swap our fertile and inex- 
haustible corn, winter wheat, and other cereal-producing 
lands, for coal lands, or any other mineral lands. Corn beats 
coal. Coal can be had for the asking from contiguous states 
by payment of prices for it that are little more than they 
would be if the state abounded in coal. But what more? 



I am writing this paper at a time when a mighty movement 
for the improvement of our great rivers, the Missouri, great- 
est of all, by federal appropriations which will make our great 
Nebraska boundary line on the east as freely and safely nav- 
igable by boat and barge of great capacity as the lower Mis- 
sissippi, to whose broad waters it is the most generous con- 
tributor. Then will come the day and hour when the lignite 
of the Dakotas will be safely housed and swiftly brought to 
our eager wharves at slight cost over mining, in endless sup- 
ply for all uses, in easy competition with Wyoming, Kansas, 
Missouri, and other coals. 

I have another vision imparting more than shadowy forms 
to dreams of the future greatness of the Missouri valley, the 
Nile of the United States, and two times as rich as the his- 
toric river of Egypt, which are not all dreams. Major Chit- 
tenden of the TJ. S. A. says that this Missouri river kingdom 
of ours is capable of supporting a population of 25,000,000 
people. Not pretending to know the half that this accom- 
plished officer does of the great valley, I am bound to agree 
with him. But to ever realize such results, or any great re- 
sults from dense populations in this valley, one condition 
precedent must be deemed vital, namely, the broad acres of 
this vast natural garden of agricultural wealth must be de- 
fended and protected from destructive invasions and overflow 
from the mad waters of the river. Its improvement for navi- 
gation means the certainty of this protection as an almost 
necessary incident of the work of deepening and widening the 
channel for boats and barges; at any rate, the people of the 
\Y< st, whose geographical heart Nebraska is, will not fail to 
redeem and secure, at the hands of the nation, that which is 
most certain to increase ils population, wealth, and power 
beyond the wildest dreams of men. 





Sunday, October 27, 1907, at 2:30 p.m., Lincoln, Neb. 

order of exercises. 

The meeting was called to order by O. C. Bell, chairman of 
the committee, who introduced Hon. George L. Sheldon, Gov- 
ernor of Nebraska, as master of ceremonies. 

O. C. Bell :— 

Comrades, Fellow-citizens, Ladies, and Gentlemen: 

We have assembled this afternoon of this sacred day to 
perform a duty which has been designated by an act of the 
legislature. For fear that you might not all know just why 
we are gathered together, T will explain a few facts relative 
to the occasion. Last winter there originated in the Post 
room of Farragut Post No. 25 the idea that a monument 
should be erected to the memory of General John M. Thayer. 
The duty of effecting this purpose was imposed on a com- 
mittee consisting of five. They prepared a bill for the legis- 
lature asking an appropriation of f 1,250. This bill was pre- 
sented to the legislature by our friend and comrade, Mr. W. 
B. Raper of Pawnee City. It was carried through both the 
house and senate without a dissenting voice. The same act 
provided for a committee of five to select and erect the monu- 
ment. That duty has been performed. We have assembled 
today for the purpose of dedicating and unveiling that mon- 
ument, and now, at this time, I wish to thank the officers of 
the state of Nebraska and the members of the legislature of 
1907 for their kind act in bringing about this result. . 

Governor Sheldon, who will act as master of ceremonies, 
gave his aid in many ways that the committee might accom- 
plish this work. I have the honor now of presenting to you 
Governor Sheldon, who will act as master of ceremonies. 




Governor George L. Sheldon : — 
Ladies and Gentlemen, My Fellow Citizens, and Friends of 
General Thayer: 

It is peculiarly fitting that we should assemble here this 
afternoon to again pay our respects to a man who devoted his 
life to the welfare of Nebraska and her people. General 
Thayer was a farmer, a school teacher, a lawyer, a soldier, 
and a statesman, but above all, a most patriotic American 
citizen. He, as you well know, came to this territory the 
same year that it was organized as a territory, and cast his 
lot with the people, the pioneers who were here, Avho came 
here at that time. For six years, under a commission from 
the territorial legislature, as brigadeir-general, he guarded 
the pioneers against the outbreaks and ravages of the hostile 
Indians. When the war broke out, as a colonel he went to 
the frontyand soon was made a brigadier-general. He was a 
friend of General Grant, and the valuable services that he 
rendered his country are so well known that it is not neces- 
sary at this time to recount them. Back again to the state 
and the people that he loved, he advocated earnestly the ad- 
mission of the territory into the Union, and was then fittingly 
elected to represent the young state in the United States Sen- 
ate. Again, as governor of this great commonwealth, he ex- 
ercised the functions of that great office, always for the best 
interests of the people of this state. A conscientious servant 
of the people, lie died like every unselfish man who devotes 
his whole life to the service of his people, a poor man so far 
as material wealth was concerned; but, thank God, the man 
who conscientiously serves his people through his life will 
have his reward from and by their gratitude. And I am glad 
to know that the people of this state have appreciated the 
services of such a grand and good man. When House Roll 
438 was presented to me last winter I signed if with a greal 
deal of pleasure, and at the same time with considerable re- 
gret — a great deal of pleasure because the legislature had 
seen fit, in this modest way, to pay tribute to a worthy man 
who loved his state and who gave his life work for tin better- 



ment of the people within it; with regret, because it seemed 
to me that a man who had devoted so much of his time in such 
an honest way for the people of this state should have a more 
worthy tribute and a better monument to mark his last rest- 
ing place than could possibly' be secured for $1,250. I hope, 
however, that the day will not be far in the future when this 
state Avill erect in commemoration of that grand old man a 
monument on the Capitol square proportionate to the great 
services that he rendered this state during his lifetime. 

I am glad indeed to know that there are so many old com- 
rades of General Thayer here this afternoon; those men of 
the early days who sacrificed, who gave up their time and 
their services, that we might have a better and a freer coun- 
try in which to live. 

I am glad, indeed, that these men are here this afternoon 
to pay, with us, their respects to this gallant soldier, states- 
man, and patriot. I do not want to take up a great deal of 
your time this afternoon, because there are others who know 
from a life's association with this man more of his sterling* 
qualities, and are therefore better fitted to speak concerning 

I have the pleasure now of introducing the Rev. J. W. 
Jones, pastor of Grace M. E. Church, who will offer prayer 
on this occasion. 

Invocation, by Rev. J. W. Jones. 

Oh God, our loving Father, it is right that Ave should pause 
for a moment here under thy blue sky, under the light of thy 
great sun, and talk with thee. Thou art the providence of 
nations. Thou art the father of individuals. We have come 
here today to remember one of the world's great men. He 
was the nation's man. He was Nebraska's man, but above 
all he was thine own man. He sought thy righteousness and 
made himself the channel of thy righteousness to men. He 
looked toward thy truth and tried to live the truth reflected 
in thy Son. He caught something of thy great love for man, 
and poured that love upon the world about him. He entered 



into thy presence and caught the light of thy face and poured 
it back to his fellows. So, looking deep into thyself, his face 
was made to shine and all of his powers became to us thine 
own ministering angels. Grant us thy spirit. Be in every 
heart. May this shaft lifted here with thy fathomless keav.-ns 
as its background picture the deed of the hour. May thy love 
bending over us all be ever the background of our activities 
and aspirations. Let thine own inspirations be the back- 
ground of this deed of these, his friends, who lift this monu- 
ment to his memory. Bless all men. Hasten the day when 
the whole world shall know thy love and shall realize thine 
own dream of the world to be. Bless our land. Bless our 
chief executive. Bless our governor of the commonwealth. 
Bless our legislatures and courts, our army and navy, and all 
who are in power. Lead and crown America more and more, 
and may the whole world know how blessed is that nation 
whose God is the Lord. Let thy blessings be upon these old 
comrades of the hero we today remember. Guide them by 
thy truth. Uphold them by thy love, and may they know that 
their heroisms of dream and deed are as thine own word and 
shall bless millions yet unborn. How good it is to recall all 
that he was. We thank thee for his great love toward the 
unfortunate and oppressed. We thank thee for hi< unfalter- 
ing trust in thee. In the day of his strength he was rhino, 
and when the shadows fell about him without fear and with 
great joy he turned toward tin- home-land ami. smiling his 
love, bade his comrades not farewell but good night, saying, 
"In the morning we shall meet again." May thy blessings be 
upon his memory. May his Love and trust, bis loyaltj and 
hope. In- to us as guiding stars along this pathway, growing 
laughter and brighter even unto the per feci day. 

Let thy richest benediction be upon the hour and upon us 
all. Forgive us, lead us. and at last crown us with the lar 
life forever with thee. For Jesus' sake. Amen. 



Unveiling of the Monument; by W. M. Gillespie and Wes- 
ley Barr, of the 1st Nebraska Regiment. 

Song by Professor Miller's Quartet. 

Governor Sheldon : — 

The monument having been unveiled, it is particularly fit- 
ting and proper that on this occasion the dedicatory address 
should be delivered by the man who succeeded General Thayer 
as Colonel of the 1st Nebraska Regiment, I am glad indeed 
to have the pleasure this afternoon to introduce to you the 
Hon. Thomas J. Majors, who also has devoted the greater 
part of his life to the building up of Nebraska and defending 
her interests and her people whenever occasion called upon 
him. My friends, Colonel Majors will now deliver the dedi- 
catory address. [Applause.] 

Dedicatory Address, by Col. T. J. Majors: — 
Comrades and Friends: 

We are assembled here today to dedicate a monument to 
one who has been one of the foremost men in this great com- 
monwealth; one who was patriot and statesman, a citizen, 
and a brave and gallant soldier in the War of the Rebellion; 
one whose excellency and true worth and ability of character 
have excited the keenest admiration of every citizen and in- 
habitant of our great state. It is fitting that a monument 
should be erected in this hallowed spot to perpetuate the deeds 
and virtues of our late friend — one of our great national lead- 
ers. I appreciate greatly the honor conferred upon me in - 
being permitted in my weak way to speak of our deceased 
comrade and testify as to a personal knowledge of his sterling 
worth and character and recount some of his valiant deeds 
which this magnificent monument is erected to perpetuate. 

To you, Governor Sheldon, as a representative of this splen- 
did commonAvealth, I desire on behalf of a grateful people, 
especially the soldier element thereof, to thank you for this 
beautiful tribute erected by the state in commemoration of 
our dead hero and statesman whose memory we all revere. 
True, this monument, great as it is, sinks into insignificance 



when compared with the still greater monument built by our 
comrade's incessant, intelligent, and unceasing life labors 
given to the upbuilding of this magnificent state, which is an 
integral part of this, the greatest republic on earth. 

I would first briefly call your attention to a few incidents 
in the early life of our departed friend and comrade. I find 
in the record published by the Nebraska State Historical So- 
ciety the following: "John M. Thayer settled in Omaha, Ne- 
braska, in the fall of 1854, a few months after the territorial 
organization. He was born in Bellingham, Norfolk county, 
Massachusetts, January 24, 1820. Possessing a good educa- 
tion, an<J hopeful of the future, with a laudable ambition to 
succeed, he naturally challenged early attention, gained the 
confidence of his associates, and found a field of enterprise 
wide open for occupancy. Belonging to the legal profession, 
it was not strange that visions of legislative honor should 
have had an enticing influence, and that in 1857 he was found 
a candidate for Congress in a free-for-all before the organi- 
zation of parties, in a case where four aspirants divided 
among them 5,600 votes, each receiving 1,000, but Fenner 
Ferguson having the highest number in the hundred. Again 
in 1859 and then in 18G0 his name was placed before the Re- 
publican nominating convention, but Samuel G. Daily, an 
original Abolition Republican, became the nominee and dele- 
gate. He was elected to the territorial council of 1800 and 
1861, and subsequently to a constitutional convention. In 
the council he was author of a bill to abolish slavery in 

And now, personally speaking of his record, I desire to say : 
Answering the first call of the immortal Lincoln, General 
Thayer was authorized in April, 1861, to raise the 1st Ne- 
braska Infantry, which he did in l<>ss than ninety days, oni of 
a territory that had less than 30,000 people within its domain. 
One thousand stalwart sons, or more Hum one-thirtieth of 
Nebraska's population, responded to the call and marched 
forth under the leadership of our (lend Commander <<> do or 
die for their country. General Thayer, fearing that his regi- 



ment might be required to remain on the frontier, planned 
and used every means possible to get his command into the 
South, and into the heart of the Rebellion. Getting out of 
Nebraska and into the jurisdiction of General Fremont, we 
were throivn south to Springfield, Missouri, but not in time 
to save General Lyon, who was killed at Wilson Creek. After 
driving Price out of Missouri we were marched to Sedalia, 
then the terminus of the Missouri Pacific Ry., and from theDce 
proceeded south to St. Louis, where we boarded a transport 
and proceeded down the Mississippi, thence up the Ohio, and 
thence up the Tennessee river, arriving at Ft. Henry just as it 
had fallen into our hands. Before disembarking, Colonel 
Thayer received orders to turn back, and also to see that all 
transports carrying troops Were turned back to the Ohio 
river, and to hasten up the Cumberland river to Ft. Donelson, 
which he proceeded to do, and inside of thirty-six hours we 
disembarked and marched on to the bloody field, and partici- 
pated in the fight of Ft. Donelson. Then it was that our 
Colonel's heroism and gallantry earned for him the command 
of a brigade, undying fame, and immortal renown. So con- 
spicuously engaged was he and his command at that time that 
you have but to read the memoirs of General U. S. Grant, 
that mighty soldier of the Civil War, to know his high esti- 
mate of our dead Comrade. Then it was that the immortal 
Lincoln, recognizing his worth, adorned him with the stars 
which he ever after wore with honor and distinction while 
the war lasted. 

Thence he proceeded with his command up the Tennessee 
river and engaged in the bloody battle of Shiloh, and there 
earned further commendation and promotion. If it were 
permissible I might tell of one fact that came under my own 
personal observation. On Monday morning, while the regi- 
ment was lying fiat on the ground in front of a rebel battery, 
not one hundred yards distance, which Avas persistently pour- 
ing into our lines a most disastrous storm of shot and shell, 
and it did not seem possible that anything alive could survive 
it, General Thayer was observed coming along the lines from 



left to right alone on foot, his aids, his adjutant general, and 
his orderlies having been swept from him by this hostile fire. 
As he passed along the lines he gave the order that when the 
regiment moved, it was to "fix bayonets and take that rebel 
battery." It was then his courage showed forth, not a tremor 
in his voice, not a doubt in his form or face. His courage 
inspired the confidence of all and richly crowned the sacrifice. 
After the siege of Corinth we were then marched to the rear 
and into Memphis, and thence to Helena. My regiment was 
then detached and sent back to Missouri and fought General 
Marmaduke at Cape Girardeau. But our hero went south to 
Vicksburg, led his division against that stronghold, where 
thousands of the flower of the army fell under his inspired 
leadership. From thence he went to the southwest — lied 
Kiver — always active, always hopeful, always confident of the 
outcome, and, thank God, he lived to see and fully realize the 
full fruition of every hope of a prosperous, happy, and united 
country, for which he ever prayed. Old Comrades, we, so few 
in number, are here today to do honor to the memory of our 
old Comrade and Commander. To the world such ceremonies 
as these may seem only formal, but to us who survive him 
they are the earnest tributes of devoted friends and a grateful 
state, duties saddened by painful loss and yet hallowed by 
delightful memories. Our commonwealth and our city have 
mourned his death, and are not reconciled, while friends have 
refused to be comforted. Life is lonelier to us all since he has 
been taken away. 

"And he is gone who seemed so great — 

Gone; but nothing can bereave him 
Of the force he made his own 

Being here; and we believe him 
Something far advanced in state, 

And that he wears a truer crown 
Than any wreath that man can weave him. 

Speak no more of his renown, 
Lay your earthly fancies down, 

And upon the Father's bosom leave him; 
God accept him; Christ receive hjm." 



After the battle of Shiloh General Thayer submitted a very 
minute, comprehensive, and accurate report of the participa- 
tion of his command in that most important and sanguinary 
contest. After stating the circumstance under which it took 
position in the line of battle on that memorable Sunday night, 
he gave a graphic description of the steady retreat of the Con- 
federate line from 5:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., before the steady 
advance of the Union Army reinforced by Buell's command. 
He said, "I can not speak in terms of too high praise of the 
officers and soldiers under my command; their conduct was 
most gallant and brave throughout ; they fought with the ar- 
dor and zeal of true patriots. It gives me pleasure to speak 
of the different regiments and their officers. Nobly did the 
1st Nebraska sustain its reputation well earned on the field 
of Donelson. Its progress was onward during the whole day. 
In face of galling fire of the enemy, moving on without flinch- 
ing, at one time being an hour and a half in front of their 
battery, receiving and returning fire, its conduct was most 

I make the foregoing quotation from his official report of 
that battle to show his kindness of heart in giving full credit 
to those of his command, however humble they might be, hence 
the extreme love of all those serving under him, who honor 
him and revere his memory. 

From this time on until July, 1865, when his active military 
career closed, he is seen commanding a brigade of Iowa troops 
and leading a storming party in the battle of Chickasaw 
Bayou; then in the battle of Arkansas Post, where his horse 
was shot under him ; and then through the siege of Vieksburg; 
with Sherman in the battle of Jackson, Mississippi, and with 
General Steele in Arkansas in command of the Army of the 
Frontier, and ending with a command at Helena, on the Mis- 
sissippi river; then retiring to civil life, bre^etted Major-Gen- 
eral. In 1867 he entered the TJ. S. Senate for a term of four 
years, and in 1875 was appointed Governor of Wyoming 



When the entire eastern frontier of Nebraska bordering on 
the Missouri river was first settled, numerous Indian tribes 
had originally roamed at will; the peace and quiet, the lives 
and property of emigrants were often at the mercy of savage 
marauders. So, early ^as May, 1855, we find General Thayer 
one of a commission to hold a council with the Pawnee chiefs, 
under appointment of Governor Izard. In July of the same 
year the Governor commissioned General Thayer to raise 
troops and give protection to the settlers against the depre- 
dations of the Sioux. In the summer of 1S59 he led a force 
against the Indians in what was denominated the Pawnee 
War, the results of which were reassuring to the emigrants, 
and a lesson of power and authority to them. 

An article by Major Dudley, in the second volume of the 
Nebraska Historical Society reports, contains the following: 

"One figure stands out prominently in all this history con- 
nected with every military affair or expedition, the first brig- 
adier-general of the territory, colonel of its first regiment to 
take the field in defense of the Union, 'Brigadier and brevet 
Major-General of U. S. Volunteers,' then, after the war, IT. S. 
Senator and then Governor of our state, John M. Thayer." 

I can not help but recall that in March, 1867, some three 
weeks after General Thayer had been admitted to the Senate, 
that the Congressional Record shows Mr. Thayer engaged in 
an Indian war discussion in which he had to arraign the re- 
port of a congressional committee, correspondence of the 
New York Tribune and Boston Journal, and an interview of 
the chairman of the Indian committee, together with numer- 
ous allegations made by senators in debate. With undisputed 
facts ami invulnerable arguments he met all comers and 
charge s, and then appealed to the sense of th( Senate in the 
following compact sentences : 

"I stand here to say to the Senate, speaking in behalf of 
every community on the border, speaking in behalf of every 
industrial pursuit, that nothing can be mere abhorrent 3 noth- 
ing more dreaded by them than an Indian war. W hy, sir, 
until these hostilities upon the frontier everything was pros- 



perous there; the commerce on the plains had risen to an 
immense magnitude; we could talk about the commerce of the 
plains as well as you could talk about the commerce of the 
seas and the lakes. These men went out on the plains and 
did business in the mountains. You could go in no direction 
across these wide plains that you did not see long caravans 
of trains bearing merchandise from all the points of the Mis- 
souri to all the territories in the mountains and away to the 
Northwest. It is the main source of our income ; it is the mar- 
ket for our productive industry; and to send it forth to this 
nation that we frontiersmen are in for a war to make money 
is the most atrocious calumny of the nineteenth century." 

Continuing in a more subdued and humorous strain, we 
have the following: 

"My dear sir, the very gamblers and thieves which Chicago, 
St. Louis, New York, Cincinnati, Boston, and Philadelphia 
fail to hang, dread an Indian war. We have some of that 
class of people there, I am sorry for it, but it is because you 
in the East have not done your duty and hung them. They 
fled out there to escape, but they do not represent the border. 
My friend from New York (Mr. Conkling) suggests that they 
do not come from New York, If so, it is because they treat 
them so kindly there, they do not have to run away. They 
vote the right way in New York city." 

Senator Morrill of Maine having been very active in the 
discussion and full of the poetic idea of u Lo, the poor Indian," 
and deeply anxious that at least some stray rays of civiliza- 
tion's light might dawn upon the far West, receives a cordial 
invitation to visit and be conviDced: 

"I tell him as a friend, frankly, without prejudice, that he 
would come back with different ideas as to that section of 
country. He talks about Christianity and civilization. Why, 
sirs, from whence did the people of the border come? Many 
came from New England. Men have settled there, whom I 
have the honor now in part to represent, whom he has hereto- 
fore represented on this floor. The people of the border are 
'bone of your bone, and flesh of your flesh.' Sir, I have seen 



a Christian people there coming from their humble cabins, 
meeting at cross-roads or by-roads, in an improvised school- 
house, and I have heard them raise the voice of Thanksgiving 
and the song of praise to Almighty God, and worship Him 
with as much feeling and as much sincerity as is manifested 
by those who worship in the gorgeous temples of your eastern 
cities. You will find there an humble Christianity, but it is 
as pure as that which dwells in the East." 

No one who ever resided in Nebraska could fail to appre- 
ciate this beautiful tribute to Nebraska's Christianity and 
advanced civilization. 

Thus at the end of the fortieth Congress, General Thayer 
had "won his spurs" on themes general to his condition as a 
western representative. 

I have quoted thus fully from his speeches to show that he 
was not only a soldier, but a true statesman, comprehending 
fully the needs of the great West, and he was indeed a true 
representative of the state of his adoption, kind and gentle in 
spirit but severe and determined in his conception of his sense 
of duty. 

May this beautiful monument erected to his memory be a 
lasting token of remembrance to the rising generation of our 
great commonwealth of the deeds of valor and statesmanship 
displayed by their forefathers in opening up this bountiful 
West with all its beneficent institutions of learning, and 
boundless areas of wealth for their mere asking and for their 

Song by Professor Millers Quartet; "Where are the Roys 
of the Old Brigade?" 

Governor Sheldon : — 

We have listened to the splendid address by one of the com- 
rades of General Thayer. We will now have an address by 
another veteran of the Civil War, a gallant son, and a man 
who cast his lot early in life with this state. A man who has 
been distinguished for his patriotism and for his love for Ne- 
braska. A man whom we all admire and love lor what he has 



done for Nebraska, It gives me great pleasure, my friends, 
to introduce this afternoon Gen. John C. Cowin of Omaha, 
who will now address you. [Applause.] 

Address by Gen. John C. Cowin : — 

After the battle is ended, and the thunder of the artillery 
has ceased to echo through the land; when the groan of the 
wounded is hushed, and Peace with all its blessings has re- 
turned to a victorious people, the issues involved, the terrible 
struggle, the sacrifice, suffering, and death, are apt to be for- 
gotten, effaced by the great tide of the conceits of the world. 

At the last session of our legislature, an appropriation was 
made for "erecting a monument at the grave of General John 
M. Thayer," a token of the memory and appreciation of a 
grateful people for one of their greatest sons. Comrades dear 
to him in life were appointed to the task, which they have 
faithfully and lovingly performed. 

And as we are met here today to unveil the monument, the 
Past speaks to us. We hear again the sound of the gun echo- 
ing through the land, that ushered in the morning of open 
rebellion, and told the world that upon this continent a mon- 
ster, civil war, was born. 

These ceremonies recall the momentous events following, 
enacted more than forty years ago, before most of you, and 
before this great state, were born. The time "when darkness 
curtained the hills and the tempest was abroad in its anger ; 
when the plow stood still in the field of promise, and briars 
cumbered the gardens of beauty ; when the brave began to fear 
the power of man, and the pious to doubfc the favor of God;" 
memories bringing in their train all the vicissitudes of a sol- 
dier's life, his suffering and agony, his defeats and his vic- 
tories, life and death ; making the history of a gigantic battle 
fought by a great army of patriots for national existence. 

General Thayer, a native of Massachusetts, there a farmer 
boy, a district school and law student, a son of a father and 
mother whose respective fathers were soldiers under Wash- 
ington, in 1854, longing for a more active life, moved to the 
territory of Nebraska, thus transplanting in its soil, into its 



political and social life, the blood and patriotism of the Amer- 
ican Revolution. 

When difficulties with the Indians arose, brought about, as 
Avas always the case, by lack of faithful treatment on the part 
of the government, and fraudulent treatment on the part of 
its grafting agents, General Thayer was selected by the terri- 
torial legislature to command the territorial forces in de- 
fense of the inhabitants, with the rank of brigadier-general. 
This position he held until the advent of the Civil War. In 
this command he gave evidence of that industry, loyalty, and 
ability which he afterward so conspicuously displayed in the 
battles of the Civil War. With the Indians he was success- 
ful, both in war and diplomacy, using force when necessary, 
kindness when available. 

When the Union of the States was threatened, when the 
baleful doctrine of states rights, by long agitation, reached 
the point when it finally declared that state sovereignty was 
paramount to national authority, and the Nation's llag, by 
misguided hands, was pulled from the skies and trampled 
into the earth, General Thayer, with but a single thought, 
made straightway to its rescue ami protection. 

From the small but strenuous population of the territory, 
he gathered to a regimental standard one thousand sturdy 
and patriotic boys, and with them, avoiding frontier duty, 
rapidly crowded his way to the front, and came face to face 
with those whose feet were upon the flag of our fathers. Prom 
this on, his services covered the entire period of the war. 

At the battle of Donelson, the result of which gave the first 
ray of hope to the Nation's cause, since the dogs of war were 
let loose, his star shot into the skies, there to remain with 
ever-increasing splendor. In the midst of almost certain de- 
feat, he was a tower of strength, a strong arm of the com- 
mander, the greatest captain of the age. General Grant. From 
him he received praise undying, and thereafter, always and 
at all times, in war and in peace, as soldier and statesman, 
possessed his confidence, esteem, and friendship; 



By his bravery , fearlessness, and enthusiasm, giving faith, 
courage, and spirit to his men, which he displayed in the 
mighty struggle on the bloody field of Shiloh, and in the brave 
charge for Vicksburg, he added new luster to his star, and to 
his fame. And so he continued in the ever-shifting scene to 
the end of the war. 

Returning with high honor and fame to civil life, General . 
Thayer took an active part in the civil affairs of the territory. 
He Avas a member of its constitutional convention. He advo- 
ca:ed its admission as a free state. Upon its admission as a 
state, the legislature honored him with election to the United 
States Senate. In that capacity he at once took a place in the 
front rank of the great statesmen of that day, and rendered, 
invaluable service in bringing forth legislation to adjust the 
serious conditions of the time, and settle the groat questions 
resulting from the Civil War. 

For a time, at the request and under the appointment of 
his comrade and friend, General Grant, then President of the 
United States, lie served as governor of the territory of Wy- 
oming. Returning to his own state, he was twice elected gov- 
ernor, serving as such four years, from 1887 to 1891 inclusive, 
His administration was directed, with a singleness of pur- 
pose, to the welfare of the people, whom he always held dear 
to his heart. 

At the close of his second term, as there was a question re- 
specting the citizenship of his successor-elect, Mr. Boyd, he 
felt it his sacred duty to. administer the affairs of the office of 
governor until it should be determined whether his successor 
was constitutionally qualified to hold that office. I was at- 
torney for Governor Boyd in that contest, and in frequent 
conversations with General Thayer I was impressed with the 
patriotism of his purpose. His only concern was that the 
governor of the people of his state should be a constitutional 
executive. When the United States Supreme Court decided 
that question in favor of Mr. Boyd, General Thayer was sat- 
isfied, and I believe pleased. The office was at once turned 
over to his adjudged successor. 


General Thayer then returned to private life. Tie took pa- 
triotic interest in the old soldiers. A post of the Grand Army 
of the Republic bears his name. He was a state department 
commander. Colleges of learning conferred upon hint 

His wife, the loving and beautiful companion of a long life, 
to whom he himself paid the grand tribute, "She was a faith- 
ful wife and mother, and the most patriotic of women," was 
taken from her earthly home in September, 1892. The hus- 
band and father followed March 19, 1906. From the home 
they loved, from the land they worshipped, their great souls 
were wafted, to be reunited in the realms of eternal love and 

He is greatest who serves his country best.. Splendid in 
courage, and standing by honors side, makes the man God- 
like. With these was justly classed General Thayer. 

Coming to Nebraska in 1867, then twenty-one years of age, 
I soon became acquainted with the General. He was my in- 
spiration in the days of my doubts and discouragement, and 
until his death he was my friend, and T his, and his admirer. 
A rather strenuous contest for the election of a United States 
Senator, in which we were both candidates, never strained a 
cord of that relation. His splendid ability won my admira- 
tion, and his high qualities, my personal regard. 

In the performance of the duties of all the high offices he 
filled, military and civil, the path he trod was the path of 
righteousness. His character, his conduct, was never tainted 
even with the suspicion of the slightest wrong-doing. His 
leading traits were courage, integrity, loyalty, patriotism, 
Patriotism with him was more than a sentiment; it was a 
deep-seated principle. Loyal impulse, kind memory, and gen- 
tle hands of his comrades have placed here, a site of his own 
selection, this monument, to mark his last resting place, and 
commemorate a life that the public can not safely forget, the 
offering of a grateful people. And we, his former comrades, 
here christen it with our tears, and vitalize it with the love 
we bore our comrade, now silent in death; for when living, 



the portals of his heart flew open to a comrade's approach, 
"like the Gates of Peter's prison at the Angel's touch." 

There are conditions in our country alarming enough to 
attract the attention and consideration of every man who 
pretends to a concern in the public welfare. No man can 
deny that we have ground for apprehension and anxiety. 

Great financial interests embodied in corporations and 
trusts have unlawfully lived, prospered, and ruthlessly ruled 
in our national life. They have sought power merely for pow- 
er's sake. Their code of morals in corporation conduct and 
high finance has been infamous. They have paralyzed, they 
have destroyed the industry and labor of honest effort. Worse 
than this, they have poisoned th& morality of busiuess 

But there is a public mood, aroused by our fearless and 
patriotic President, come forth to meet this situation. As a. 
man of great affairs lately said, "We are going to have in this 
-republic a standard of corporate and financial morals that 
will square with the moral sense of the American people, in 
their private conduct, and we are going to have it at any 
cost." This may come at a terrible financial and industrial 
cost, but come it must. 

The great danger is that in coming it may bring with it 
mistaken and unjust methods. That officers of the law, with- 
out sufficient strength of character and purpose to abide 
safely by the law, and for their own ambitious purposes, may 
follow an outraged public opinion, which is often far from 
discriminating, and pursue costly and ^reckless methods, and 
arouse public opinion against corporations and financial in- 
terests, that are wholly innocent and within the law. 

I know of no greater danger to the efficacy of these reform 
laws than to seek to apply them so as to seriously impair, if 
not destroy, honest business affairs. The condition of public 
* opinion is such, brought about by unlawful corporate and 
high financial methods, that it takes a high degree of sterling 
honest purpose to decide a controversy in favor of a large 



corporation, uo matter how absolutely honest that decision 
may be. 

Let the public assure its servants that he who intelligently 
and honestly decides in favor of a corporation shall have the 
same approval and support as when he intelligently and hon- 
estly decides against it. 

We must in this respect differentiate, for side by side with 
you who believe in honest methods, who believe in fair deal- 
ing, are nine-tenths of the corporations of the country. The 
other one-tenth, possessing the large part of the great wealth 
of the land, pursuing methods in defiance of law, has been 
the curse of the country. 

But another cloud has appeared above the horizon. There 
has come forth from the land a voice that is a menace to our 
national welfare, preaching again that sermon of states rights 
that brought forth the tragedy of the nation. 

State conventions and state legislatures have adopted reso- 
lutions, proposing to abridge and limit the power of the gen- 
eral government. I Avarn you that this tendency, so far as it 
impregnates the public mind, is dangerously near the senti- 
ment for states rights, that resulted in the ordinances of se- 
cession in the early '60s. 

Limit the power of this national government and the hope 
of the liberty of mankind is gone. Limit the power of this 
government, given through the Avisdom of our fathers, sup- 
ported and maintained since by the blood of millions, and 
you will loosen the cords that bind these state entities into 
one, sheaves reaped and bound together in the harvest of 
death. Limit the national power and the permanency of 
Union will have departed forever. 

If this monument could speak today, w ith the inspiration 
derived from a patriotic life, we would hear these sentiments : 
"In my life, love of country was a. passion; to me the Union 
of the states was my country. I can not see, outside the per- 
petuity and Strength of the Union, anything worthy in the 
future of the Republic." 



General Thayer believed with the faith that makes heroes 
and martyrs, that in the maintenance of the Union, with all 
its power, and the ascendency of its Constitution and laws, 
were bound up, not only our welfare, but the birthright of 
millions yet unborn. The effulgent blaze of this great truth 
lighted up his intellect. 

President Lincoln said, "My paramount object is to save 
the Union," but I ask you, what would Lincoln have thought 
at that time if he knew that free states of the North in the 
near future wonld seek to deprive that Union of the power of 
self-preservation ? 

Let us maintain, not disintegrate; let us preserve, not 
weaken ; preserve, unimpaired in power, the Union forever. 

There is no menace from imperialism. There can be no 
imperialism without the support of the army and navy. But 
the history of this country shows that the surest safeguards 
against imperialism, the safest bulwarks for the protection 
of the liberty of the people, have been the soldiers and sailors. 
During the Civil War, speaking of the North and the South, 
Garfield said, "Our army is equally brave, but our government 
and congress are far behind in earnestness and energy" and 
he might have added, in patriotism. In the darkest hour of 
that dread time, when men of all political associations thought 
the war for the Union a failure, and advocated peace by sep- 
aration, it was the soldier and the sailor that never doubted. 
It was the soldier and the sailor that had abiding faith. It 
was the soldier and the sailor that stood firm as the rock of 
Gibraltar, to the very end, and to victory. They were sure 
of the approach of the coming day. They had the faith and 
inspiration of the lark, singing his hallelujah to the coming 

The great Lincoln, patriot, martyr, standing on the blood- 
stained field of Gettysburg, communing, as it were, with the 
souls of the patriot dead that went up from that consecrated 
spot, said, "Our fathers brought forth on this continent a new 
nation," and in the out-pouring of his heart exclaimed, "We 
here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in 



vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of 
freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, 
for the people, shall not perish from the earth." 

It was the soldiers and sailors that "brought forth" this 
nation. It was the soldiers and sailors that gave this nation 
"a new birth of freedom." It was the soldiers and sailors, 
with their blood and their lives, that saved this government 
of the people from perishing from the earth. And when 
Peace came at last, these soldiers and sailors, of the North 
and of the South, went out into civil life, and civil pursuits, 
the grandest body of citizens the world ever knew. 

It was Grant, the soldier, and by his side General Thayer, 
who, in the critical times following the close of the War, stood 
firm as the mountain for peace, justice to a brave but fallen 
foe, and the liberty of the people, against the imperialism and 
tyranny of Johnson, the executive. 

Grand and patriotic is another body of our citizens today, 
the national guardsmen. Our fathers provided by the Con- 
stitution for a militia to execute the laws, suppress insurrec- 
tion, and repel invasion. This grand body of citizen soldiery 
is one of the most important factors in our national life, the 
right hand of the states and the Union, the nation's mighty 
guard when war shall come. Oar people everywhere and al- 
ways should give to this organization loyal support. The na- 
tional guardsman is the teacher of the people in discipline 
and obedience to law. He is an example of seJf-sacrifice, loy- 
alty, and patriotism; the highest type of our country's citi- 
zenship; ready, when the occasion comes (and who knows how 
soon it will come?) to condense his life into an hour, and 
crown that hour wilh death. He who is cowardly enough to 
belittle our citizen soldier will never be brave enough to face 
a soldier of an enemy. When the appeal of humanity came 
from our island neighbors, the response of the national 
guardsmen was prompt, patriotic, and effective. 

It is well to contemplate (lie domain of our sacred dead. 
Around their silent homes cluster our tenderesl recollections. 
Let their memory shine resplendent with the glory of a nut ton 



saved, and growing brighter and brighter as age follows age, it 
will teach generations yet unborn the sacrifices by which lib- 
erty was saved to mankind. Let their patriotism be poured 
out upon the land that it may influence the destinies of our 
nation. It will make us better and braver men and give us 
more faith in the future glory and greatness of our country. 

"And now to thee, oh! flag of truth! 
To thee we dedicate anew 
Our pledges, faithful, tried and true; 
Again we swear by thee to stand, 
Proud emblem of our ransomed land!" 

At the conclusion of Gen. Cowin's address a hearty ap- 
plause was given, and upon request of Governor Sheldon the 
audience joined the quartet in singiug "America." 

Gov. Sheldon : — • 

I would like on this occasion, on behalf of the people of this 
state, to thank you, Mr. Bell, and thauk the committee that 
was appointed by the legislature to secure and erect this splen- 
did monument. The program that you have arranged we have 
appreciated. It was particularly fitting that you selected 
those two grand veterans and citizens of this state, Colonel 
Majors and General Cowin, to deliver addresses upon this 
occasion. When we look at that beautiful monument we can 
not help but be thankful for your efforts in securing such 
splendid results from the small appropriation that you have 
had at your command. If this state could receive the same 
value for all money appropriated that we have received 
through that monument, we certainly would be thankful. 
( Applause. ) 

We will now have the benediction by Rev. Jeremiah Mickel, 
Chaplain Farragut Post No. 25. 

Benediction : — ■ 

May the love of God, our Father and our Commander, the 
fellowship of the Lord Jesus Christ, our divine instructor, 
guide and protect us; May His spirit rest upon us now, and 



make us more loyal to our God, more loyal to our flag, more 
loyal to each other, and Thy name shall have the glory 
through time and all eternity. Amen. 

Governor Sheldon : — 
Taps by Mr. O. 0. Bell. 

Taps were here sounded. 





Lincoln, Nebraska, January 8, 1901. 

In accordance with the call and the constitution of the So- 
ciety, the Nebraska State Historical Society was called to 
order at 8:15 p.m. of this date by the Hon. R. W. Furnas, 
First Vice-President of the Society. After some expressions 
of sympathy for President Morton, his life-long friend, on 
the death of his son, Mr. Carl Morton, he declared the So- 
ciety ready to transact business. 

Mr. C. S. Lobingier then offered the following resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted by a rising vote : 

"Whereas, The President of this Society has suffered 
grievous and irreparable loss in the death of his youngest son, 
be it 

"Resolved, That the Nebraska State Historical Society 
hereby tenders to its President and his bereaved family its 
profound and sincere sympathy in their hour of sorrow and 

"Resolved, That this Society Recognizes in the late Carl 
Morton a man of sterling character, and a worthy son of an 
honored father and one whose death is a serious loss to this 
commonwealth of which he was a native and with which he 
had been honorablv identified during practically his entire 

_ "Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the rec- 
ords of this Society and that a copy thereof be forwarded to 
the bereaved family." 

In the absence of President Morton, his annual address Avas 
read by Mrs. A. J. Sawyer. The following resolutions were 



then introduced by Dr. F. Renner of Nebraska City, and 
adopted without a dissenting vote : "Moved that the thanks 
of the Historical Society be tendered to Mr. Morton for his 
able address on the 'Beginnings of a State,' and also to Mrs. 
Sawyer for her delightful, effective, and impressive reading 
of the same/ 7 

Mr. K. A. Hawley made a few remarks in the form of ob- 
jecting to the position taken in the paper of President Mor- 
ton on the subjects of monetary science, and the principles 
of heredity. 

On account of the condition of Mr. Annin's voice, his paper 
on the "Life and Services of Senator A. S. Paddock" was 
read by Mr. C. S. Lobingier. Mr. G. M. Hitchcock was ab- 
sent, so his paper on "Senator P. W. Hitchcock" had to be 
omitted. The subject of the "Beginnings of the Grange" was 
treated by Mr. R. A. Hawley in an informal manner, and on 
his request he was granted more time to gather the needed 
information and to formulate his paper. Remarks on the 
"Grange and Farmers' Alliance" were made by Mr. J. H. 
Dundas. He was inclined to take the view that the Grange 
accomplished very little good, but tended to cause jealousy 
and suspicion between classes, and especially to narrow the 
farmers' horizon. Mr. A. S. Godfrey, of Lincoln, objected to 
the position taken, holding that much good accrued to the 
people in the way of social development and mutual aid. 

Mr. J. M. Thompson then read a scholarly historical paper 
on the Farmers' Alliance, treating the matter in a scientific 

As there were no other historical papers a business session 
was held. The Treasurer submitted liis report, which was 
referred to an auditing committee, consisting of Mr. A. E. 
Sheldon and Mr. 0. S. Lobingier. 

As the hour was late the Society adjourned to 8 :00 o'clock 
of the evening of January 9, 1901. 

R. W. Furnas, Vice-President, 
H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 



Lincoln, Nebraska, January 9, 1901. 

The meeting of the Society was called to order by Hon. 
K. W. Furnas at 8 :10 p.m. 

The first paper, entitled "Reminiscences/' was read by H. 
W. Hardy. Some criticism was made concerning some of 
Mr. Hardy's statements by various members of the Society. 
Mr. Charles H. Gould and Mr. A. S. Godfrey, as Avell as the 
President, held that the account of the meeting at the peni- 
tentiary was not accurate in its details. On suggestion Mr. 
Gould was requested by the Society to prepare a full account 
of the meeting at the penitentiary to be read at the next an- 
nual meeting. Mr. Oldhani was necessarily detained, so his 
paper on Congressman W. L. Greene had to be deferred to 
some future time. Mr. C. E. Persinger then presented a se- 
ries of maps to show the early roads and routes in Nebraska. 
His analysis and presentation were especially appreciated by 
the audience. The last paper of the evening was a very care- 
fully prepared account of "Freighting in Early Nebraska 
Days" by Hon. H. T. Clarke. 

The Society then proceeded to the work of its annual busi- 
ness. Mr. David Anderson presented the following resolu- 
tions, which were adopted unanimously: 

"Whereas, Shortly after the last annual meeting of this 
Society one of the interested and active participants at that 
meeting, Dr. L. J. Abbott, was suddenly stricken with dis- 
ease and taken from us ; therefore 

"Resolved, That this Association sincerely mourns his, 
death, deeply regrets the loss of our fellow member, pro- 
foundly expresses our high regard for him, and expresses our 
condolence to his family ; and, be it further 

"Resolved, That this Society and the state of Nebraska 
have lost an efficient worker, a valued citizen, and a promoter 
of the interests of mankind.' 7 

Mr. J. A. Barrett brought up the subject of enlarged quar- 
ters for the Society, and after some remarks moved the ap- 
pointment of a committee of three to consider the matter. 



The resolution as modified took tbe following form and was 
adopted : "Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed, 
by the chairman, to consider and devise plans for housing the 
Historical Society." The chairman appointed as such com- 
mittee, Mr. H. W. Hardy, Mr. H. T. Clarke, and Mr. C. H. 

Mr. A. E. Sheldon moved the following: "First, that a 
committee of three be appointed to consider the constitutions 
of the State Historical Societies of Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Iowa, and Kansas, and other states and recommend to the 
Nebraska State Historical Society any needed changes in its 
constitution." As such committee the chairman appointed 
A. E. Sheldon, C. S. Lobingier, and H. W. Caldwell. 

The report of the Secretary was accepted without reading. 
The librarian read a brief report on the work of the year. 
The Secretary then read the action taken by the executive 
committee in a meeting of January 25, 1900. 

Under the order of election of members the following 
names were voted on and elected: 

E. L. Saver, Omaha. 

Miss Margaret O'Brien, 

Charles L. Dniidey, Omaha. 

Judge W. E. Kelly, Omaha. 

Mrs. Nellie Hawks, Friend. - 

W. E. Annm, Denver, Colo- 

G. A. Munroe, Columbus. 
A. J. Mercer, Lincoln. 
A. L. Bixby, Lincoln. 

Mrs. E. O. Miller, Lincoln. 
A. J. Leach, Neligh. 
E. P. McCormick, Oakdale. 
0. R. bowman, Waverly. 
C. W. Pierce, Waverly. 
E. G. Clements, Lincoln. 
Mrs. A. B. Charde, Omaha. 
Lewis S. Reed, Omaha. 
C. IF. Cornell, Valentine. 
Mrs. 0. S. Lobingier, Omaha. 
Charles TI. Gould, Lincoln. 

On the motion of Mr. Ball, Mr. EL T. Clarke was author- 
ized to cast the unanimous vote 4 of the Society iu favor of the 
reelection of the present officers. The vote was cast, and re- 
sulted in the reelection of 



J. Sterling Morton President 

R. W. Furnas First Vice-President 

C. S. Lobingier Second Vice-President 

C. H. Gere Treasurer 

H. W. Caldwell Secretary 

On motion the Society adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 


January 14, 1901. 
Hon. J. Sterling Morton, President Nebraska State Histori- 
cal Society: 

Sir — I have the honor to present the following report of 
receipts and expenditures of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society for the past year. 


Balance on hand January 8, 1901, ap- 
propriation of 1899 | 1,583 73 

Paid on Auditor's vouchers for sal- 
aries, etc $1,474 56 

Covered into treasury 109 17 

Total $1,583 73 

Appropriation of 1901 10,000 00 

Paid on Auditor's vouchers for sal- 
aries, etc 3,027 33 

Balance in state treasury $ 6,972 67 




Balance on hand, First National Bank, 

January 8, 1901 : . . .$ 511 5G 

Membership fees received.. 6 00 

Interest on deposit 16 32 

Balance on hand 566 88 

Total balance on hand. . . . . . .$7,539 55 

Very respectfully, 

C. H. Gere, Treasurer. 

Mr. President : 

Your auditing committee report that they have examined 
the books, bank book, and accounts of your Treasurer, Mr. 
C. H. Gere, and find the same correct. 

A. E. Sheldon. 



Lincoln, Nebraska, May S, 1901. 

Governor Morton called the meeting to order at 2 :00 p.m. 

Moved by Governor Furnas that the Librarian continue to 
prepare a bibliography of Nebraska with reference to print- 
ing the same by the state when completed. 


The Secretary was instructed to procure an autograph 
picture of Senator Tipton to insert in his volume, and also 
to prepare an autobiography to insert as an appendix. 


Moved by Governor Furnas that Mr. Barrett's salary be 
fixed at $1,400 per annum. 
Carried unanimously. 



Mr. Gere moved that the Secretary be authorized to em- 
ploy such help as may be needed as collector and in charge 
of the bureau of exchanges at a salary of |900. 


Moved by Mr. Gere that the Secretary be authorized to 
employ Miss Palin at $25 per month. 

The following communications were read to the executive 
board at its meeting, May 8, 1901 : 

"To the Honorable Board of Managers of the State Histori- 
cal Society: 

"Sirs — This is to formally make application for a position 
which shall enable me to thoroughly investigate the arche- 
ology of this state under the auspices of the State Historical 
Society and to make collections of relics of value to the So- 
ciety in this and other lines. 

"Also to respectfully request your honorable body to per- 
manently establish a department of archeology and set apart 
sufficient funds to economically maintain it. 

"Respectfully submitted, 

"E. E. Blackman. 

"Mille Lac, Minnesota, April 29, 1901." 
"Professor Caldwell, Lincoln. 

"My Dear Sir — Archeologic examinations for definite 
sources of information are being extended from the Arkansas 
river northward to Lake of the Woods, and up the Missouri 
river to and into Montana. I do not desire to assume the 
responsibility of determining the archeology of your state, 
but if your Society will take favorabie action, intended to 
enhance collecting for museum purposes, so that Nebraska 
can maintain its own proofs of ancient and more recent occu- 
pancy, it will be a pleasure to go to Nebraska, entirely at my 
own cost, to assist in the work. I very much desire the infor- 
mation to be gained, but I do not propose to interfere with 
the arrangements of the Historical Society and the explora- 
tions of Mr. Blackman. It so happens that studies initiated 
in Missouri and Kansas necessarily extend across Nebraska 


to Mandan where the Arikaras have been traced. Please 
advise me at box 2360, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

"Very truly, 

"JV V. Brower." 

Moved by Governor Furnas that Mr. Blackman be em- 
ployed for making archeological surveys and collections of 
Nebraska, and that $300 be set aside for carrying on this 
work. Also that all collections found by him belong to the 


Mr. B rower to be thanked for his advice and assistance in 
the work of the Society. 

The Secretary was authorized to buy such books on Ne- 
braska as may seem necessary. 

The Secretary was authorized to hire such day labor or 
hour labor as may be necessary. 

The meeting now adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 


Lincoln, Nebraska, January 14, 1902. 
President Morton in the chair. 

Meeting was called to order at 8:00 p.m. by President Mor- 
ton. The program was proceeded Avith, and President Mor- 
ton stated that ill health had prevented the preparation of a 
paper by him, so without further preliminaries he would in- 
troduce Mr. J. R. Buchanan, who presented his paper on the 
"Great Railroad Migration into Northern Nebraska. " 

In the absence of Mr. E. L. Lorn ax, his paper was read by 
Mr. A. E. Sheldon. The Secretary read a paper by Gen. G. 
M. Dodge, and a letter from Mr. James J. Hill. 



Bound Table.— A discussion by- President Morton of the 
conditions of coming to Nebraska in .1854. He remarked that 
it was 300 miles to the nearest railroad whistle. Mr. C. H. 
Gere spoke of the early movement to get railroads to enter 
Lincoln and the disposition of the 500,000 acres of land. Mr. 
J. E. North spoke on early days along the Union Pacific 
railroad. In 1867 the Indians wrecked a train, the only train 
ever wrecked by the Indians. Mr. Sargent, an engineer on 
the Union Pacific, addressed the Society in regard to his 
early experiences in the West. 

The meeting adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 

January 15, 1902. 

The meeting was called to order by the Hon, J. Sterling 
Morton at 8:16 p.m. in accordance with adjournment on 
January 14, 1902." 

As the first speaker was not in the room, in accordance 
with a motion by Mr. C. H. Gere, the meeting was opened 
by reading the Secretary's minutes. After reading they were 
approved as read. Mr. Blackman was then presented and 
gave an address on the archeology of Nebraska. In' the ab- 
sence of Mr. G. L. Laws, Mr. J. H. Ager presented his paper 
on "Nebraska Politics and Railroads. 77 Mr. Ager's paper pre- 
sented the reasons for and the extent of the part railroads 
have taken in Nebraska politics. Mr. Sayer then discussed 
the development of the counties of Nebraska, presenting to 
the Society a most valuable series of maps showing the growth 
of the territory of Nebraska and of its subdivisions. 


President Morton : The next is the election of members. 
I would like to propose the names of Dr. H. Link, Douglas 
county, Millard; J. R. Buchanan, Douglas county, Omaha; 
J. H. Ager, Lancaster county, Lincoln; P. J. O'Gara, Lan- 



caster county, Lincoln; C, W. Allen, Merriman; W. H. Keel- 
ing, Falls City. 

Captain Chittenden, Sioux City, Iowa, elected an honorary 

Mr. Sheldon reports for the committee on revision of the 
constitution and explains the principal changes. 
Keport received. 

Mr. Sheldon : By permission of the President I will read 
a resolution I have as follows: 

"This Society, with deep regret, records the death, January 
9, 1902, at Florence, of Mr. W. F. Parker, a member of this 
Society, well and widely known as a lover of art, letters, and 
nature, as Avell as a man of high public spirit and moral pur- 
poses. Ordered that this testimonial to his worth be placed 
on the records of this" Society, and that a copy thereof be 
transmitted by the Secretary to his family." 


Recognizing the importance of preserving the scanty re- 
mains of prehistoric civilization on this continent and of 
providing for the study of such under proper regulations, the 
Nebraska State Historical Society commends to the favor- 
able consideration of Congress the bill (house roll 6270) 
creating the Colorado Cliff Dwellers National Park. 

The Secretary of this Society is hereby ordered to transmit 
a copy of this resolution to the senators and representatives 
of the state of Nebraska now in Congress and to the chairman 
of the committee oa public lands and buildings. 


Mr. Gere presents the Treasurer's report. 

President Morton: I will appoint Mr. A. Wat-kins, Mr. 
N. C. Brock, and Mr. Isaac Pollard to examine the report of 
the Treasurer just made. In the meantime the report is re- 
ceived and will be adopted after the examination. 

Mr. Sawyer moved that the present officers be declared 
elected for the ensuing year. Seconded and carried. 



The present officers were declared elected for the ensuing- 
year : 

J. Sterling Morton « . President 

R. W. Furnas First Vice-President 

C. S. Lobingier Second Vice-President 

C. H. Gere Treasurer 

H. W. Caldwell , Secretary 

Mr. Watkins: The committee has examined the account 
kept by the Treasurer and find it correct. 


Hon. R. W. Furnas, President Nebraska State Historical 

Sir — I have the honor to report the receipts and expendi- 
tures of the Society since the last annual meeting as follows: 
Balance in the state treasury of the' 
appropriation of 1901 on Janu- 
ary 14, 1902 > f 6,978 72 

Vouchers drawn for salaries and inci- 
dentals 5,319 20 

Balance now in state treasury $ 1,659 52 

Balance in First National bank of 

Lincoln January 14, 1902 $ 566 88 * 

Receipts from membership fees 6 00 

Interest on deposits 16 50 

| 589 38 

Checked out on vouchers 19 18 

Balance in bank 77~ 570 20 

Total balance of funds on hand I 2,229 72 

Very respectfully, 

C. H. Gere, Treasurer. 

15 . 



April, 1.902. 

Present, President Morton, Mr. Furnas, Mr. Gere, and 
H. W. Caldwell. 

Beading of minutes of last meeting approved. 

Presentation of estimates for coming year. Available for 
work in archeology, f 1,000 for Mr. Blackmail for remainder 
of the biennium. 

The Secretary sends Mr. Sayer thanks of the Society for 
his maps of Nebraska. 

The Secretary to get information from other historical so- 
cieties in regard to buildings and prepare article for 


Secretary authorized to continue to employ the help au- 
thorized at the last meeting. 

Adjourned, subject to call by chairman. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 


Lincoln, Nebraska, January 13, 1903. 
• University Chapel. 

The Historical Society was called to order by Vice-Presi- 
dent R. W. Furnas at 8:00 o'clock p.m. 

The first paper was presented by Hon. R. W. Furnas, a 
tribute to Hon. J. Sterling Morton. This was followed by 
an extempore estimate of the life and work of Hon. J. Ster- 
ling Morton by Hon. George L. Miller, of Omaha. 

In harmony with the program ihe next paper was given by 
Hon. Edward Rosewater on the topic, "Railroads in Ne- 
braska Politics." 



Mr. CaldAvell moved that the remaining papers be deferred 
till the evening of January 14 in order that the members of 
the Society might visit the Society's collections and museum. 
Before a vote was cast on the motion the question of placing 
a memorial tablet on a tree in the California redwood forests 
in commemoration of Hon. J. Sterling Morton was discussed. 
A letter from Governor-elect Pardee of California to W. W. 
Cox was read favoring the plan: 

"Oakland, California, December 22, 1902. 
"Mr. W. W. Cox, 

"Cortland, Nebraska: 

"Dear Sir — Your suggestion that a tree in one of the red- 
wood groves of California should be named for the late Hon. 
J. Sterling Morton, of Nebraska, who originated the 'Arbor 
Day' celebrations, appears to me to be very appropriate ; and 
I have no doubt that it can be carried out. If the Historical 
Society of Nebraska is willing to assume the expense of plac- 
ing a bronze or marble tablet upon the tree, the people of 
California would be highly pleased by this exchange of inter- 
state courtesies. 

"You suggest that the tree should be chosen in the redwood 
forest near Santa Cruz; but I think the place might be a 
matter for further consideration. In the Mariposa grove of 
Big Trees there are many noble forest monarchs which have 
been named for distinguished persons, and as this grove is 
state property, it might be well to choose a tree there, to be 
named in honor of Mr. Morton. 

"However, as I said before, this is a question which could 
very well be left for decision at a later day. All that I can 
say now is that the naming of a tree for the late Secretary of 
Agriculture would be very fit and pleasing, and I have no 
doubt that the arrangement could be carried out with satis- 
faction to all. 

"Very truly yours, 

"George C. Pardee." 

After explanations by Mr. Cox and some discussion a mo- 
tion was made to appoint a committee of three with power to 
secure an appropriate tablet of bronze or other metal, and 



have the same placed on some tree in the California forest to 
dedicate said tree to the memory of the founder of Arbor 
Day. The motion was seconded by Mr. Sheldon and carried. 
The chair appointed as such committee Mr. W. W. Cox, Dr. 
George L. Miller, and C. S. Harrison. 

The Society then adjourned to 8:00 o'clock p.m. January 
14, 1903. 


H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 
11. W. Furnas, Vice-President. 


f Lincoln, January 14, 1903. 

University Chapel. 
Meeting was called to order by acting President Furnas at 
8:00 p.m. 

In the absence of the author of the first paper of the even- 
ing, Mr. D. Y. Mears, of Chadron, his paper on the "Cam- 
paign against Crazy Horse and the Mule Reserves" was 
read in part by Mr. A. E. Sheldon, who also gave a brief his- 
tory of Mr. Mears himself. Mr. Phil E. Chappel's article on 
"The Rise and Fall of Steamboating on the Missouri River" 
was, in the absence of the author, presented by Mr. Jay A. 
Barrett. At the last moment Col. H. M. Chittenden was or- 
dered to the Yellowstone Park. His paper was, in his ab- 
sence, read by Secretary Caldwell. His paper, "The Passing 
of a Romantic Business," was full of interesting matter. 

Captain A. Overton, of Council Bluffs, gave a most inter- 
esting account of his "Recollections of the Missouri River, 
1852-1902." Mr. Barrett then read a paper prepared by 
D. L. Keiser of Boonville, Missouri, on the "All-Water Route 
to the Rockies." 

Other papers were presented by title and ordered filed witli 
the Society to be printed in the future volumes. These papers 
were by Wm. J. Kennedy, of Omaha; Capt. James Kennedy, 
Kansas City, Missouri; Capt. S. T. Learning, Decatur, Ne- 
braska; Capt. W. H. Gould, Yankton, South Dakota, Mr. 



Gere moved that the Society go into business session; sec- 
onded by A. E. Sheldon. 
Motion carried. 

Calling of the roll dispensed with on motion of the 

Reports of standing committees were then called for. Mr. 
A. E. Sheldon reported for the committee on revision of the 
constitution, appointed two years previously. The amend- 
ments to the constitution as were proposed by the committee 
were then explained by Mr. Sheldon. After explaining the 
first amendment, relating to membership in the Society, Mr. 
Clarke moved that it be adopted. On vote the amendment 
was carried. The second important change was to enlarge 
the executive committee by adding certain state and public 
officials. After some discussion the amendment was adopted. 
The third amendment providing for quarterly meetings of the 
executive board was also adopted. The constitution as a 
whole as amended was then adopted on motion of Hon. H. T. 

An amendment was proposed to be laid on the table in re- 
gard to giving a permanent position to the Secretary in har- 
mony with the general tendency to make such official posi- 
tions more permanent. After some discussion the notice was 
laid over for further action. 

The special committee on obituaries had no formal report 
to make. It was stated by Mr. Sheldon that the death of the 
President, Hon. J. Sterling Morton, and Mr. LoDgsdorf were 
the only ones during the year in our membership. 

The names of the folloAving persons were presented for 
membership, and under suspension of the rules were declared 
unanimously elected: 

Dr. E. E. Aukes, Cortland- L. D. Stilson, York. 
J. R. Wallingford, Cortland. Judge W. W. Slabaugh, 
Thomas Graham, Seward. Omaha. 
Rev. Geo. Scott, Cortland. Mrs. W. W. Slabaugh, 
Mrs. Belle Shick, Seward. Omaha, 



Eev. M. A. Shine, Sutton. 
Hon. 0. J. Ernst. Lincoln. 
Mrs. T. C. Buckley, Stroms- 

P. Edgar Adams. Venango. 
Mrs. Paul Clark, Lincoln. 
C. J. Bowlbyj Crete. 
Robert Harvey. St. Paul. 
W. M. Maupin, Lincoln. 
Mrs. W. M. Maupin, Lincoln. 
J. H. North, Lincoln. 
Samuel B. Iiams, Lincoln. 
M. A. Hall, Omaha. 

A. C. Wakeley, Omaha. 
C. S. Huntington, Omaha. 
A. Haile, Clearwater. 
Thomas Marwood, Oakdale. 
W. J. Kennedy, Omaha. 
S. T. Learning, Decatur. 
X). M. Carr, Fremont. 

C. W. Allen. Merriman. 
W. P. Aylsworth, Bethany. 
Rev. W. A. Baldwin, Lincoln. 

D. W. Hasty, Arapahoe. 

E. M. Syfert, Omaha. 


Capt. A. Overton, Couucil 

Capt. H. M. Chittenden. 

Sioux City. 
Phil E. Chappell, Kansas 


(/apt. D. L. Keiser, Boonville, 

(/apt. W. H. Gould, Yankton. 
James Kennedy. Kansas 



Hon. R. W. Furnas was unanimously elected President. 
The following were also elected: 

C. S. Lobingier First Vice-President 

H. T. Clarke Second Vice-Presideni 

C. H. Gere Treasurer 

H. W. Caldwell Secretary 

Hon. C. H. Gere read his reporl as treasurer, which was 
accepted and adopted. 

The report of the Librarian was presented, bu1 not read in 
full owing to the lateness of the hour. 



Mr. Barrett called attention to the fact that in the resolu- 
tion on the deaths of members the name of Hon. G. M. Lam- 
bertson had been omitted. His name was ordered inserted. 

"This Society records with a deep sense of irretrievable loss 
the death during the past year of J. Sterling Morton, author 
of Arbor Day and honored President of this Society the past 
eleven years ; of H. A. Longsdorf, one of the pioneers of Belle- 
vue; of James E. Lainaster, of Tecumseh; and G. M. Lam- 
bertson, of Lincoln. In public and private life each of these 
pioneers has been a worthy son of this state. Ordered that 
this resolution be spread upon the records and copies thereof 
be sent to the families of the deceased." 

Mr. J. H. Broady gave an estimate of the lives and works 
of Stephen B. Miles, J. C. Lincoln, and E. W. Thomas, early 
and valuable men in Nebraska's history. 


H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 


Lincoln, Nebraska, April 14, 1903. 
Present : C. H. Gere, C. J. Bowlby, C. S. Lobingier, the 
Professor of American History, and the Secretary, H. W. 

The Secretary reported that the legislature had made an 
appropriation of $10,000 for the biennium, and recommended 
that the expenditures for the years 1903-4 be as follows : - 

1. Salaries : 

J. A. Barrett, curator and librarian $1,400 

A. E. Sheldon, superintendent of field work 900 

E. E. Blackman, archeologist 800 

Newspaper clerk 300 

Secretary 100 

Treasurer 25 



2. For labor in various fields — approximate amounts: 

Cataloguing books f GO 

Day labor 20 

Carpentering 50 

3. For other expenses— approximate amounts : 

Publishing volume reports $ 600 

Freight and expenses 115 

Binding newspapers 100 

Sundries . 100 

Buying books 120 

Traveling expenses 200 

Supplies, photography, etc 50 

Total $5,000 

It was moved and carried that the Secretary be authorized 
to make out and sign vouchers for salaries on above estimates, 
and if necessary to conform to law, to make the computation 
by the day to equal the salary schedule fixed in former 

The President and the Secretary were authorized to secure, 
if possible, an appropriation for the St. Louis Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition to aid the Historical Society in making its 
display. Also to secure for J. A. Barrett a clerkship, under 
pay of the Nebraska exposition board, at St. Louis during the 
summer of 1904. The resolution was also passed, to be sent 
to Mr. Chamberlain, of St. Louis, asking the national board 
of managers to make an appropriation to aid in preparing a 
proper and suitable historical exhibit for the exposition. 


Mr. Barrett presented plans to raise the money by private 
subscription. After a discussion the following resolution 
was adopted. On motion of Mr. Gere, seconded by Professor 
Caldwell, Mr. Barrett was authorized to proceed to raise the 
money to construct a building and to secure suitable grounds 
on which to erect the same. The Treasurer and Secretary 



were appointed as consulting members to aid Mr. Barrett in 
devising plans to carry out the undertaking. 

Mr. Bowlby then moved that two hundred dollars from the 
Society's funds in the bank be appropriated to pay prelimi- 
nary expenses in the attempt to raise money for the historical 


In order to give Mr. Barrett a better recognition for his 
work, and to enable him to carry out his plans more success- 
fully, his title was made to read "Curator and Librarian of 
the Nebraska State Historical Society." 

There being no other business to come before the board it 

C. S. Lobingier, Vice-President. 
H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 


Lincoln, Nebraska, May 20, 1903. 

Present: Governor Furnas, Vice-President Clarke, C. H. 
Gere, H. W. Caldwell. Moved, seconded, and carried that 
the salary and expense list, passed on at the meeting of April 
14, 1903, be ratified: 

In regard to display at St. Louis, the meeting felt that the 
Secretary and Treasurer might carry out the plans outlined 
at the meeting, April 14, or secure a lump sum as they find 
most feasible, after consultation with Mr. Morrill. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 


Lincoln, Nebraska, January 12, 1904. 
The Society was called to order by President R. W. Furnas 
at 8 :10 p.m. The President, after making a few general re- 
marks in regard to the condition and prosperity of the So- 


ciety, announced the program of the evening, "The Consti- 
tutional Conventions of the State." In the absence of Judge 
Lake, the first paper of the evening was presented by Judge 
Wakeley on "Tne Defeated Constitution of 1871." Other 
papers were presented on the convention of 1875. The first, 
by Judge Broady, considered especially "The One-Night Con- 
stitution" ; the second, by Judge W. M. Robertson, discussed 
the debate on the "Separate Propositions," that were sub- 
mitted to the vote of the people, in regard to the election of 
senators by popular vote and location of the capital. - 

Judge Wakeley then gave a brief discussion of the reasons 
for the defeat of the Constitution of 1871. There being no 
other business, an adjournment to 8 :00 o'clock on Wednes- 
day evening, January 13, 1904, was taken. 

R. W. Furnas, President. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 

Lincoln, January 13, 1904. 

The adjourned meeting of the Historical Society was called 
to order at 8 :25 P.M. by President Hon. R. W. Furnas. 

The program of the evening consisted of a round table on 
the Convention of 1875, under the guidance of Hon. J. L. 
Webster, of Omaha, who was president of the Convention of 
1875. Mr. Webster opened the discussion by noting the con- 
ditions in the state in 1875, and the effects, on the character 
of the constitution formed. He then called on various per- 
sons who were members of tlie convention to give their recol- 
lections of the various movements in and the decisions of the 

Judge J. H. Broady was first called on, but he asked to be 
excused as his paper of the previous evening contained his 
contribution, and now he preferred to hear from others. 
Hon. C. H. Gere was then called on. Mr. Gere discussed the 
reasons for the incorporation of various features peculiar to 
the Constitution of 1875, and found them in the conditions 
of the state at the time. Judge S. B. Pound then gave an 



account of his experiences in the convention of 1875 and espe- 
cially discussed the struggle over salaries for state and judi- 
cial officers. After Mr. J. A. Barrett had made a statement 
in regard to letters received from members of the convention 
who found it impossible to be present, Hon. M. B. Keese made 
a very interesting talk on the personnel and discussions of 
the convention. After a few remarks by various members of 
the Society Mr. Webster made a few additional observations 
and brought a very successful discussion to a close. 


Mr. A. E. Sheldon called attention to certain documents 
of very peculiar origin and interest, but found no one who 
could throw additional light on their meaning. 

On motion roll call was then dispensed Avith, the minutes 
were read, corrected in one item by Mr. C. S. Lobingier, and 
were approved. 

Mr. Barrett's annual report as curator and librarian was 
then presented, and on motion placed on file. The Treas- 
urer's report was read, received, and adopted. The Secretary 
then made a report as chairman of the publication committee 
and asked the desire of the Society in regard to publish- 
I ing the material on the constitutional conventions of the 
state. After some discussion and several motions, the com- 
mittee was instructed to edit and publish the material in full, 
subject to its judgment, to omit any immaterial matter. 

Mr. A. E. Sheldon moved resolutions on the deaths of Gen. 
Victor Vifquain and L. B. Treeman, which were read and 

The Secretary was instructed, on motion of Mr. Broady, 
to formulate plans for keeping a record of the deaths of mem- 
bers of the Society, to be reported on at the annual meeting 
each year. 

The Treasurer called attention to the fact that many per- 
sons whose names were proposed from time to time failed for 



some reason to pay their initiation fee, and thus their names 
did not get on the permanent roll of the Society. 

The Secretary read the report of Mr. W. W. Cox in regard 
to the preparation of the Morton tablet to be placed in the 
grove of giant trees in California. 

"Miller, Nebraska, January 6, 1904. 
"To the President and Secretary of the State Historical So- 
ciety of Nebraska: 

"Your committee appointed to secure a bronze tablet in 
memory of our late honored President, Hon. J. Sterling Mor- 
ton, and have it placed on one of the great redwood trees at 
Santa Cruz, California, beg leave to report as follows : 

"After much correspondence between the members of the 
committee, and also with the family of the deceased and a 
host of his personal friends, your committee contracted with 
the White Bronze Company of Des Moines, Iowa, for a tablet 
two feet square and three-eighths inch thick, with the fol- 
lowing inscription: on the upper left-hand corner, these 
words, 'Plant truths'; on the upper right corner, 'Plant 

" 'In memory of J. Sterling Morton, Father of Arbor Day. 
Born Apr. 22nd 1832 
Died Apr. 27th 1902. 

" 'By order Nebraska Historical Society.' 

"Cost of tablet was $30 delivered in .Lincoln, Nebraska. 

"It would have been very agreeable to your committee if it 
had been possible to send a member to California to make a 
proper presentation, but the means to bear the expense was 
not at their command. The Santa Fe R. R. Co. kindly offered 
transportation from Kansas City to San Francisco and re- 
turn, but the other expenses of from #40 to $50 were not at 
our command; We prepared an address to the people of Cal- 
ifornia with the view of having the tablet placed on last Ar- 
bor Day, and the tablet was forwarded to the mayor of Santa 
Cruz, but it arrived too late for that, and then we ordered it 
held for the Society to take further action. 

"Your committee corresponded with the President of the 
United States, with Secretary Wilson, Governor Mickey, and 
all the living ex-Governors of our state, with the Governor of 
California, and other distinguished citizens, and we now hold 



Very many responses, to be used when the tablet is placed and 
afterward to become the property of our Society. The letters 
of President Roosevelt and Secretary Wilson are very pa- 
thetic and worthy a place among our treasures. 

"Your committee would like to complete arrangements to 
present the tablet to the people of California and place it 
upon the grand tree, with fitting ceremonies next Arbor Day, 
April 22. 

"Respectfully submitted, 

"W. W. Cox, 
"Chairman Committee." 

This report was ordered received and filed. The President 
then spoke briefly on the Morton memorial at Nebraska City, 
stating that about f 1,500 was on hand, and the Association 
hoped to add $5,000 more. After a brief discussion it was 
concluded that the finances of the Society prevented it from 
making any contribution at this time, especially as so few 
members were present. 

The names of the following persons were proposed for mem- 
bership, and on motion the Secretary was instructed to cast 
the vote in their favor, which was done : 

C. E. Persinger, Lincoln. 
L. E. Aylsworth, Lincoln. 
Mrs. E. E. Blackman, Lin- 

C. S. Allen, Lincoln. 
* A. R. Talbot, Lincoln. 
H. K. Wolfe, Lincoln. 
L. Stephens, Lincoln. 
R. Pound, Lincoln. 
W. O. Jones, Lincoln. 
Mrs. H. H. Wheeler, Lincoln. 
Rev. F. S. Stein, Lincoln. 
Lee Estelle, Omaha. 
M. L. Learned, Omaha. 
H. P. Leavitt, Omaha. 

Joseph H. Millard, Omaha. 
Rev. John Rroz, Dodge. 
R. Dibbles, Beatrice. 
Milo Hodgkins, Beatrice. 
Mrs. Robert Grey, Schuyler. 
C. E. Rice, Blue Springs. 
Prank Dunham, Roca. 
E. H. Clarke, Ft. Calhoun. 
P. Edgar Adams, Paxton. 
C. B. Letton, Fairbury. 
W. J. Whitmore, Valley. 
Mrs. W. J. Whitmore, Valley. 
Otis All is, Council Bluffs, 
( Honorary. ) 



On motion the Secretary was ordered to cast the unani- 
mous vote of the Society in favor of the reelection of the 
present officers. Under this vote the following persons were 
elected for the year 1904-5 : 

R. W. Furnas, Brownville President 

C. S. Lobingier, Omaha •. . First Vice-President 

H. T. Clarke, Omaha Second Vice-President 

O. H. Gere, Lincoln Treasurer 

H. W. Caldwell, Lincoln Secretary 

On motion of Mr. H. T. Clarke^ as there was no other busi- 
ness to come before the Society, adjournment was taken. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 


Lincoln, January 10, 1905. 

The regular annual meeting of the State Historical So- 
ciety met in Memorial Hall, University of Nebraska, at 8 :15 
p.m. and was called to order by President R. W. Furnas. In- 
vocation was then offered by Kev. Mr. Marsh. As there was 
no business to be transacted the Secretary in a few words 
introduced the first speaker of the evening. President Fur- 
nas, who addressed the Society on the "Past and Future of 
the Historical Society.'' Governor Furnas dwelt especially 
on the history of the "Historical Block" in the city of Lin- 
coln, and pointed out the need of more room in order that . 
the Society may perforin its work properly. After the read- 
ing of this valuable paper the President called on Dr. Geo. L. 
Miller, who addressed the Society on the early history of the 
state and some of the men who laid its foundations. Owing 
to the lateness of the hour the paper by Judge John H. Ames 
Avas read by title, and in the absence of Judge Ames, pre- 
sented to the Society to be printed. Mr. Sheldon then gave 



a series of views, showing early Nebraska men, with illus- 
trations to show the work the Society is doing in the way of 
gathering photographs of Nebraska history. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 

Lincoln, January 11, 1905. 

The State Historical Society was called to order for its 
adjourned meeting at 7 :45 p.m. The first order was a busi- 
ness session, and according to the by-laws the Secretary 
called the roll of the active members of the Society to get 
corrected addresses, names of deceased members, and infor- 
mation needed to make the record complete. 

The report of the Secretary for the meetings of 1904 was 
then read and approved as read. Mr. Barrett, curator and 
librarian, then presented his report, and on motion it was 
placed on file. Mr. W. W. Cox made a brief oral report on 
the Morton tablet, stating that the same had been placed on 
one of California's giant trees, according to instructions. 

The following names were then proposed for elective 
membership : 

B. Y. High, Bloomfield. 

G. Wonder, Blue Springs. 
James Crawford, Barns ton. 
Walter Bice, Blue Springs. 
Edmund Huddart, Barnston. 
L. H. Leavy, Columbus. 
J. J. Hawthorne, Fremont. 
August Saltzman, Ft. Cal- 

Henry Schwagger, Omaha. 
Mrs. Mary E. Jackett, Gilt- 

C. W. Wright, Genoa. 
C. H. Coffin, Genoa. 

J. W. Williamson, Genoa. 

Henry Hemple, Havelock. 
R. DeAvitte Stearns, Kimball. 
Lute H. North, Monroe. 
L. J. Griffith, Nehawka. 
A. Darlow, Omaha. 
G. F. Wiles, Omaha. 
A. B. Todd, Plattsmouth. 
Charles L. Saunders, Omaha, 
Mrs. Margaret Gallatly, Sut- 

Miss Addie Searles, Platts- 
E. A. Thomas, Stuart. 
W. E. Steele, Yutan. 
C. C. Cobb, York. 



E. S. Nickerson, Gretna. 
Howard Cleveland, Lincoln. 
E. H. Whitteraore, Adams. 
Thomas Wolfe. David City. 
Capt. H. E. Palmer, Omaha. 
Thomas J. Majors, Peru. 
Eev. J. H. Presson. Milforc. 
D. C. Stratton, Pawnee City. 
J. C. Hill, Imperial. 
W. V. Allen, Madison. 
Rev. A. E. Ricker, Aurora. 
M. R. Gilmore, Bethany. 
L. P. Bush, Bethany. 
H. T. Clarke, Jr., Omaha. 

Charles H. Epperson, Fair- 

M. H. Whaley, Clarks. 
Michael Lee, Omaha. 
L. C. Gibson, South Omaha. 
X. P. Dodge, Jr., Omaha. 
John Ward, Springfield. 
James N. Paul, St. Paul. 
X. J. Paul, St. Paul. 
A. E. Cady. St. Paul. 
F. TV. Crew. Sr. Paul. 
Geo. A. Ray, St. Paul. 
Henry Hansen. Dannebrog. 

On motion of H. T. Clarke the Secretary was instructed to 
cast the vote of the Society in favor of the above list of per- 
sons, which was done. 

The next order of business was the election of officers. The 
President. Hon. R. W. Furnas, announced that he believed 
that he had had the honors of the presidency long enough, 
therefore he wished to place in nomination Mr. H. T. Clarke, 
who had been in the state just fifty years. On motion the Sec- 
retary was instructed to cast the unanimous ballot of the So- 
ciety for Mr. Clarke as President for the ensuing year, which 
was done, and Mr. Clarke was declared duly elected Presi- 
dent. Hon. Geo. L. Miller was nominated by C. S. Paine for 
First Vice-President and elected by unanimous vote rasr by 
the Secretary. On motion of H. W. Caldwell, Prof. G. E. 
Howard was elected Second Vice-President, Mr. S. L. Geist- 
hardt was nominated by Mrs. H. H. Wheeler as Treasurer, 
and on motion was unanimously elected, as was also H. W. 
Caldwell for Secretary. 

Hon. R. W. Furnas then read a paper on the life and serv- 
ices of C. H. Gere, the only member of the Society to pass 
away during the year, as far as known. Mr. \Y. W . Cox 



moved, and it was adopted, that the address be given to the 
press of the state for publication. 

Mr. CO. Whedon then read a very able paper on the sub- 
ject of "Public Expenditures/ 7 This paper was followed by 
one by Judge William Gaslin on "Judicial Graft/' or the 
unnecessary number of judges on the bench in the state. 

On resumption of the business session Mr. A. E. Sheldon 
presented two resolutions, which were adopted, as follows : 

"Moved, that a committee be appointed by the President of 
this Society to confer with any other patriotic societies who 
may be willing to join with us in marking historic sites and 
thoroughfares in this state and particularly the home of Lo- 
gan Fontenelle. 

"Kesolved, that a committee of three be named, of whom 
President R. W. Furnas shall be one, to cod f er with the State 
Agricultural and State Horticultural Societies at their com- 
ing annual meetings proposing to them that they join with 
this Society in asking for the erection of a fireproof building 
in which they shall have permanent offices and headquarters." 

Committees : 

On Publication. — Geisthardt, Sheldon, Bowlby. 
On Obituaries. — President Clarke, Governor Mickey. 
On Program. — Caldwell, Watkins, V. Rosewater. 
On Library. — Barrett, Howard, Mrs. A. J. Sawyer. 
On Museum and Collections. — Blackman, C. S. Paine, L. S. 

On Marking Historic Sites and Routes. — Harvey, A. E. 
Sheldon, H. T. Clarke, Ross Hammond, Ernest Pollard. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 



SOCIETY, 1905. 

To the President and Board of Managers Nebraska State 
Agricultural Society: 

At the annual meeting of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society held last week the undersigned were appointed as a 
committee with full power to make such arrangement as shall 
be satisfactory with 3^our Society and the State Horticultural 
Society in order to secure cooperation and joint action to ob- 
tain a permanent fireproof home, centrally located, for the 
use of all three societies. 

By virtue of previous arrangements for the past ten years 
the publications of your Society and the records and publi- 
cations of the State Horticultural Society have been kept in 
the rooms of the State Historical Society and distributed by 
its staff. For a number of these years there has been felt an 
urgent need by. all three societies for safe, convenient, and 
permanent office quarters and store-rooms. 

We therefore make these propositions to your Society: 

1. That it join with us in asking from the present legisla- 
ture an appropriation sufficient to erect a building, fireproof 
and large enough to care for the present pressing needs of 
the three societies. Said building to be erected on satisfac- 
tory ground donated by the city of Lincoln, in lieu of the old 
Historical Society block. 

2. That the State Agricultural and State Horticultural 
Societies shall have ample office and store rooms in such 
building for their own exclusive use and occupancy and joint 
use with our Society of halls therein for public meetings. 

3. That your Society appoint a committee with full power 
to present the need for such a building before the state legis- 
lature and city of Lincoln; to plan for its construction and 
arrange details for division of office'room. 

Robt. W. Furnas. 
H. W. Calowkll. 
A. E. Sheldon. 




Lincoln, Nebraska, January 19. 1905. • 

A quorum being formed the meeting proceeded to business. 
On motion the bond of S. L. Geisthardt as Treasurer was ap- 
proved. The resignation of Geo. L. Miller as Vice-President 
was reluctantly accepted, and Hon. Robt. Harvey elected in 
his place. 

It was moved and carried that Mr. Sheldon be instructed 
to prepare and have introduced into the legislature a bill for 
an historical building to cost not less than fl 00,000 and to be 
erected on land donated by the city of Lincoln. 

John L. Tidball, of Crete, was elected a member of this 

Mr, Geisthardt moved that the curator and librarian make 
quarterly reports to the board of progress of the work of the 



H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, June 24, 1905. 
Present: Mr. EL T. Clarke, Governor J. H. Mickey, Geo. 
E. Howard, S. L. Geisthardt, Robt. Harvey, and H. W. Cald- 
well. Meeting called to order by President Clarke at 11:00 
a.m. The Secretary then, after stating that the meeting 
should have been held April 1, presented the account of ex- 
penses for the last biennium, and a proposed distribution of 
the budget for the year 1905-6, April 1 to April 1, as follows: 



Binding $ 70 00 

Transportation 150 00 

Photography 100 00 

Books . 200 00 

Postage, express, etc. 75 00 
Stenographer, type- 
writer, etc 120 00 

Day labor 25 00 

Carpentering. lum- 
ber, etc 25 00 

Hardware 25 00 

Telephone, etc 40 00 

Office supplies, etc. $25 00 

Anniversaries 25 00 

Elect, supplies, etc. 25 00 

Tools, type, etc 10 00 

Glass, etc 12 50 

Museum supplies.. 10 00 

Paper, etc 25 06 

Total | 962 50 

Salaries 3,950 00 

Total $4,912 50 

Salaries for the year 1905-6 were fixed as follows : 

Treasurer .f 25 00 

Secretary 100 00 

Xewspaper clerk — Miss Palin 325 00 

Archeologist — Mr. Blackman S50 00 

Field secretary— Mr. Sheldon 1,200 00 

Curator and librarian — Mr. Barrett 1,150 00 

Total |3,950 00 

Printing — 

Special fund $2,500 00 

Out of general fund 200 00 

Total $2,700 00 

Payment S. K. Gardiner, labor, collecting, etc., badges, 

books, etc $50 00 

The Secretary then made a statement in regard to hours of 
service of office staff, time for keeping the rooms open, etc., 
and recommended that the minimum should be eight hours 
per day. On motion the board adopted the recommendations, 
and established the rule of eight hour service. The plan of 
organization was then outlined by the Secretary as it had 
been agreed upon by the office staff, and on motion adopted. 



In general the distribution of work was outlined as follows : 
Jay A. Barrett to have general oversight of the library, and 
to accession new material ; to prepare material for reports to 
the governor, and for publication; to care for all papers pre- 
sented at annual meetings, and to see to safe preservation; 
also to carry on the general correspondence of the Society ; 
to index the Ft. Atkinson papers, to arrange material in the 
vault, and to aid in planning for the good of the Society. 

Mr. Sheldon was to prepare copy for constitutional con- 
ventions and to read proof for the same; to enter upon the 
following field work, viz. : to visit Indian reservations to 
gather material of their lives; to see to the Chouteau collec- 
tions, and to get the Maxwell papers; to classify, arrange, 
catalogue, and store photographs, slides, etc.; to attend to 
newspaper exchange correspondence; work on collecting 
manuscript material, and to aid in arranging vault. 

Mr. Blackman to spend necessary time in field expeditions, 
visiting and locating Indian village sites, etc.; to have gen- 
eral direct charge of the library, arranging books, classifying, 
cataloguing, etc., as far as time will permit ; to care for and 
arrange museum, and attend to its development ; to arrange 
lectures, etc. 

Miss Palin, to have charge of the newspapers; of the ar- 
ranging and preparing them for binding; keeping bound vol- 
umes in order, etc. 

Secretary Caldwell to meet office staff for one hour each 
week, at least; to plan with the above members of the office 
staff the work to. be done, and to help arrange work so as to 
gain the most for the Society. 

A committee consisting of H. H. Wilson, Geo. L. Miller, 
S. C. Bassett was appointed to arrange for suitable addresses 
at the January meeting on the life and work of Hon. R. W. 
Furnas; also to arrange for the preparing of a suitable bi- 
ography of Mr. Furnas. The Secretary was instructed to 
draft appropriate resolutions on the life and services of Gov- 
ernor Furnas, to be presented at the annual meeting. 



A committee on marking historic sites and routes was 
named by the President as follows : Kobt. Harvey, chairman ; 
President H. T. Clarke, A. E. Sheldon, Ross Hammond, and 
Ernest Pollard. 

Other committees consisting of the following members were 
named by the President : 

On Publication. — Geisthardt, Sheldon, Bowlby. 

On Obituaries. — President Clarke, Governor Mickey. 

On Program. — Caldwell, Watkins, V. Rosewater. 

On Library. — Barrett, Howard, Mrs. A. J. Sawyer. 

On Museum and Collections. — Blackman, C. S. Paine, L. S. 

After some discussion of plans to secure an adequate build- 
ing, on motion of Governor Mickey the executive committee 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 


Lincoln, Nebraska, January 17, 1906, 8:00 P.M. 

In the absence of the President, Hon. H. T. Clarke, the 
meeting was called to order by Robt. L. Harvey, the first 
vice-president. After an announcement by Mr. Harvey of 
the absence of Mr. Clarke, he made a general summary of 
the work of the Society, calling especial attention to the pub- 
lication of the proceedings of the constitutional conventions, 
now under way. 

The President then called for the reading of Mr. Clarke's 
address by the Secretary; then followed an address in mem- 
ory of the life and services of the late H. II. Shedd, of Ash- 
land, by his son, George E. Shedd. 

The President then announced that of the pioneers of (he 
state who had passed away none were more missed than our 
late President, Hon. R. W. Furnas. Mr. H. II. Wilson then 
presented a paper on the work of Governor Pumas for the 
state of Nebraska. 



Mr. Harvey next stated that the new work of the Society, 
undertaken during the last year, was the securing of Indian 
songs. ' Mr. Sheldon then gave, by means of the phonograph, 
a number of records made of the songs of the Pawnee and 
other Indians. 

At the regular business meeting the calling of the roll was 
dispensed with on the announcement that a quorum was pres- 
ent. The minutes of the annual meeting of the board for the 
year 1905 were read and approved. The Treasurer's report 
was read and adopted. 

Under the reports of special committees Mr. Harvey, as 
chairman of the committee on historic sites and their mark- 
ings, reported the work of the year, which is found in full in 
the stenographic minutes. 

Mr. A. E. Sheldon brought up the questions of the Society's 
interest in the "Historical Square," and the means that might 
be taken to recover the whole or a portion of it for the So- 
ciety's use. Mr. Sheldon then moved that an effort be made 
to secure the block for the Society's- use. The motion was 
seconded and carried. 

The following names were then presented for membership : 

I. D. Evans, Kenesaw. Mrs. Minnie P. Knotts, Lin- 

G. E. Shedcl, Ashland. coin. 

Mr. Sheldon gave notice of an amendment to the constitu- 
tion striking out "second Tuesday of January," and inserting 
"third Tuesday" as the date of the annual meeting of the 

The nomination of officers was then called for. Mr. C. S. 
Paine nominated Dr. Geo. L. Miller, of Omaha. Mr. E. T. 
Hartley moved the rules be suspended, and Dr. Miller be 
elected by the unanimous ballot of the Society. Carried, 
and the Secretary was instructed to cast the unanimous bal- 
lot of the Society for Dr. Miller, which was done. Mr. R. L. 
Harvey, of St. - Paul, was chosen as First Vice-Presi- 
dent. Geo. E. Howard, of Lincoln, as Second Vice-President 



in the same manner. Mr. S. L. Geisthardt was reelected 
Treasurer, and H. W. Caldwell, Secretary for the ensuing 
year. Mr. Dinsmore asked if anything had been done look- 
ing to the marking of the site of the Indian massacre, in 
Hitchcock county. 1878. Mr. Blackman responded in the 
negative. On motion of Mr. Barrett the matter was referred 
to the committee on sites. 

Mr. Paine moved that the offer of the Treasurer, that the 
salary for that office be donated by him to the Society, be ac- 
cepted, and that the Society extend its thanks to Mr. Geist- 
hardt for his generous offer. 


Society adjourned to meet at 8 :00 p.m. in St. Paul's church. 
January 18, 1906. 

Society called to order by the acting President, Mr. Robt. 

After a pipe-organ solo by Mr. Howard Kirkpatrick, the 
program of the evening was given. Mr. Harvey announced 
that the Society occasionally set aside an evening for the dis- 
cussion of topics of current interest. This evening the pro- 
gram related to the taxation of railroad and other property. 

Prof, E. A. Boss then discussed "The Problem of Bailroad 
Taxation."' Mr. Norris Brown, attorney general, spoke of 
"Railroad Taxation in Nebraska." He was followed by Gov. 
J. H. Mickey. Avho spoke on the "New Revenue Law and Its 

The following additional names were then proposed for 

membership and all elected : 

T. L. Norval, Seward. Mr. C. H. (Tiallis, Ulysses. 

Mr. J. J. Thomas, Seward. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 

PROCEEDINGS 1906, 249 


January 17, 1906. 
To the Officers and Members of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society : 

I hereby respectfully submit my report as Treasurer for 
the year ending January 17, 1906. 

On January 27, 1905, I received the books of the ]ate Treas- 
urer, Hon. C. H. Gere, from the hands of his widow, and re- 
ceived the moneys to the credit of the Society in the First 
National Bank of Lincoln. During my office as Treasurer 
the following have been the receipts and disbursements : 



January 27, received from First National Bank, de- 

posit $227 92 

January 27, G. L. Loomis, membership fee. 2 00 

January 27, T. J. Majors, membership fee 2 00 

J anuary 27, Charles L. Saunders, membership fee .... . 2 00 

February 23, Herman Kountze, membership fee 2 00 

March 20, H. T. Clarke, Jr., membership fee 2 00 

March 20, N. P. Dodge, Jr., membership fee , . 2 00 

March 20, Michael Lee, membership fee 2 00 

March 20, Charles H. Epperson, membership fee 2 00 

March 20, Melvin R. Gilmore, membership fee 2 00 

April 10, W. H. Harrison, membership fee 2 00 

Total receipts $247 92 



January 28, Jacob North & Co $27 25 

February 28, Jacob North & Co 10 00 

July 11, Farmers & Merchants Bank for L. D. Wood- 
ruff 750 

Total $44 75 

Balance on hand in National Bank of Commerce'. . . . $203 17 



Since practically all the funds of the Society are now re- 
ceived and disbursed by the state treasurer, I see no good rea- 
son why the Society should pay a treasurer for collecting and 
disbursing a few dollars' membership fees. I would recom- 
mend that all membership fees be collected by the Secretary, 
and by him paid to the Treasurer, and that the Treasurer's 
salary from this time forward be discontiued. The past year's 
salary I will donate to the Association. 

I submit herewith bank book duly balanced and vouchers 
for disbursements. Dated this 17th day of January, 1906. 

S. L. Geisthardt, Treasurer. 


JANUARY 17, 1006. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, December 22, 1905. 
To the Eon. Mayor Brown and Vihj Council, Lincoln ^Ne- 

The Nebraska State Historical Society, through its execu- 
tive board, submits the following proposition to the city of 
Lincoln : 

1. That the city of Lincoln qn it-claim to the Nebraska 
State Historical Society its interest in and use of block 29 
in said city, known as "Historical Block," and also as "Hay- 
market Square," except that portion at the southeast corner 
of said block now occupied by the city's buildings. 

2. In consideration of said cession the State Historical So- 
ciety agrees to immediately clear said square, the ceded part 
thereof, of all unsightly rubbish and to park the same and to 
plant it to trees and shrubs, properly protected, during the 
next tAVo years. 

3. It also agrees to efecl thereon a wing of a suitable fire- 
proof building of the best modern architecture, said wing to 
cost not less than $100,000 and to be creeled at the earliest 



possible moment that appropriation for the same can be ob- 
tained from the Nebraska state legislature and in any event 
within ten years from the date of the city's cession. 

4. Said Historical Society building to be maintained as a 
free public library, museum, art gallery, and historical study 
for the people of the state of Nebraska and the part of said 
block not occupied by said building and its subsequent ex- 
tension to be maintained as a public park with suitable walks, 
seats, trees, shrubs, and flowers at the expense of said Ne- 
braska State Historical Society. 

Accompanying this proposition is a brief statement of the 
history of said block 29, together with the statement of the 
moral and legal considerations which prompt this proposition. 


Lincoln, Nebraska, May 10, 1906. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, Hon. 
Geo. L. Miller, of Omaha. The following members Were pres- 
ent : Chancellor E. B. Andrews, Geo. E. Howard, Robt. Har- 
vey, and-H. W. Caldwell, in addition to the President. The 
Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of June 24, 1905, 
which after some discussion were approved as read. The an- 
nual reports of the office staff were then presented. Mr. Bar- 
rett outlined the work done in his department. The report 
was received and placed on file. The reports of Mr. Sheldon 
and Mr. Blackman were read, discussed, received, and or- 
dered placed on file. The board then, on suggestion of the 
Secretary, went into executive session. 

The President explained that he was loath to enter upon 
the duties of the office, as he felt little acquainted with his 
duties and the needs of the Society. He expressed his belief 
that a younger and more active man might have been se- 
lected, but now that he was chosen in spite of his protest, he 
would enter on the work, relying on the members of the board 



to aid him in making a success of the interests of the Society. 
The President also suggested that greater interest in the So- 
ciety needed to be aroused, and he felt that perhaps the bring- 
ing to our annual meeting of some distinguished scholar might 
have the desired effect. A motion was made and carried au- 
thorizing the President to secure some speaker of note to pre- 
sent a paper on one evening, and the program committee to 
arrange the exercises for the other evening, securing the 
strongest men of the state as far as possible to present papers. 
The report of the financial expenditures of the year ending 
April 1, 190G, showed that the amount used for various funds 
was in excess of the appropriation for the purpose made by the 
Board at the June meeting of 1905. After considerable dis- 
cussion and criticism of such overdrafts, Chancellor Andrews 
moved that hereafter "no indebtedness to exceed ten dollars 
be incurred on account of the Society without the Secretary's 
previous authorization." The resolution was adopted. 

A communication from Mr. A. E. Sheldon in regard to the 
establishment of a new department to be known as the "leg- 
islative research and reference bureau" was read. Professor 
Howard spoke in favor of the plan, and discussed at some 
length the work of "Dr. McCarthy of Wisconsin, showing the 
advantages to arise in having directly available the material 
for the use of members of the legislature. President Miller, 
Chancellor Andrews, and Mr. Harvey also expressed their 
decided approval of the movement. Chancellor Andrews then 
moved that "the Secretary is instructed to prepare and sub- 
mit to the executive board at its next meeting, in July, a 
draft of an enactment establishing a new bureau of legislative 
publicity in general accordance with the minutes read by him 
this day." Carried unanimously. The whole question of the 
organization of the Society was discussed at some length. 
The fact that nearly $8,000 out of the total f 10,000 went to 
the payment of salaries was noted. The Secretary stated 
during this discussion that he doubted whether there was 
profitable work for three men under the existing circum- 



stances. The funds remaining after salaries are taken out 
are not sufficient to pay necessary expenses to develop field 
work in any line of investigation to any considerable extent. 
The inside work can be directed by one salaried official, with 
the assistance of the help of a man or woman part of the time 
at day wages. The outcome of this discussion was the ap- 
pointment of a committee of three to take into consideration 
the whole subject of organization, salaries, personnel, and 
duties and report at a subsequent meeting of the board for 
its action. The chair appointed Prof. G. E. Howard, Chan- 
cellor E. B. Andrews, and S. L. Geisthardt. 

A motion was made that A. E. Sheldon's salary for the 
year 1906-7, April 1 to April 1, be fixed at |1,300. The mo- 
tion was carried after explanation by the Secretary that Mr. 
Sheldon had received flOO from the university during the 
year 1905-6, which would not be available for the coming 
year. A motion was made and carried that the payment of 
Miss Palin's salary during her illness be approved, on the 
ground that her work had been done by other members of the 
office force, thus setting no precedent for future cases. The 
matter of the final payment to Mr. Gardiner of $50, the bal- 
ance due him for his work and collections, was presented, but 
it was held that the action of the board in June, 1905, stand. 
This action deferred further payment till after the next bi- 
ennial appropriation. The communication in regard to Prof. 
M. K. Gilmore's request that the board pay his railroad fare 
on a trip with Mr. Sheldon was received and laid on the table. 

The board made the following apportionment of the funds 
for the year 1906-7, to be followed as nearly as possible, and 
to be varied from only on account of some unexpected emer- 
gency arising. 

Total available funds was reported by Mr. Barrett, May 1, 
1906, with about $52 of orders outstanding. 



Allowances for transportation, photography, phonographic 
work : 

MAY 10, 1906. 

To the Executive Board of the Nebraska State Historical 

This is to request you to create a new department — the 
research and reference department — of this Society upon the 
following plan: 

1. The new department to be independent of any other 
department in its organization, but to cooperate with the 
others toward common ends.. 

2. A secretary of research and reference department to be 
at its head. He to have direction and control of the depart- 
ment, the selection of assistants, the niaking and carrying 
out of plans, subject to the executive board, to whom he shall 

3. The present director of field work to be secretary of the 
new department and to carry with him his present lines of 
work — except so far as may be arranged hereafter. 

4. A special new field of work to be opened — the scientific 
collection, arrangement and indexing of data for the use of 
the Nebraska legislature and public officials, pursuing 
the general plan of the Wisconsin legislative reference 

5. For the support of the new department there shall be 
set apart a sum (f ) from the present biennial ap- 
propriation; also the receipts from membership fees directly 

lilackman, field work — maximum 
Sheldon, photographic work 
Sheldon, phonographic work. 

flOO 00 
25 00 
25 00 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 



traceable to circular letters to be sent out explaining the new 
constitutional archives volumes now in press and soliciting 
members on the strength of them. Separate estimates shall 
be made in the future for support of this department and 
submitted to the auditor and legislature. 

6. Eooms. A room in the university library building next 
to the present Historical Society rooms shall be asked of the 
proper authorities, also one at the capitol during the legis- 
lative session. 

7. Work to begin at once in this department. The secre- 
tary to be authorized to visit Wisconsin and study organiza- 
tion and methods there. 


Lincoln, Nebraska, October 9, 1906. 

Called to order by President Miller. Present, Miller,, How- 
ard, Geisthardt, and Caldwell. 

Keport of Secretary of May 10, 1906, was read and ap- 
proved as read. Eeport of office staff called for. Mr. Barrett 
had no report except written communication. Mr. Blackmail 
reported on the collections, especially the Bristol collection, 
which has been secured as a loan collection. In explorations 
not much had been gained in new information, stone mark- 
ings not determined. Eequest of Mr. Blackman to have some 
part of our collection stored in the city library. Permission 
was granted. 

Mr. Sheldon reported on the work of the library reference 
bureau. President Miller then called for remarks and ex- 
pressed himself as favorable to the matter. Professor How- 
ard explained the reason for his support. Mr. Miller opened 
up the question of the program, various questions whether 
his plan of having some distinguished man to give an address 
one evening, as Mr. Estabrook, Mr. Cleveland, Governor Cum- 
mins, Woodrow Wilson, or J. J. Hill was wise. 



Mr. Barrett's resignation was presented. Professor How- 
ard moved that it be accepted and that a resolution be au- 
thorized to be drafted expressive of appreciation of his work. 
Seconded by Mr. Geisthardt. Professor Howard discussed 
the work Mr. Barrett had done. Mr. Howard and Mr. Geist- 
hardt were appointed as such committee. 

Financing legislative bureau was taken up, discussed and 
approved. On account of Miss D. Palin's sickness, Miss 
Pearl Palin was permitted to continue her work. The per- 
sonnel of legislative bureau was left to the Secretary and Mr. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 


Lincoln, Nebraska, October 9, 1906. 
To the Executive Board of the Nebraska State Historical 

Gentlemen — I desire to be released from official connec- 
tion with the Historical Society at the end of this biennium, 
April 1, and will ask you to act favorably upon the request 
at this time. Except detail work, there remains but one thing 
that I yet wish to do for the Society, and that I shall be able 
to do after my official connection with the Society has ceased. 

It is probable that I shall not require all of the time be- 
tween now and the first of April to complete what remains 
for me to do, and I shall therefore ask you to empower the 
Secretary of the Society to agree with me upon an earlier 
date than April 1st, in accordance with the completion of the 

Jay Amos Barrett. 




Lincoln, Nebraska, January 15, 1907. 
Meeting of the State Historical Society called to order by 
President Geo. L. Miller. Moved and seconded that the So- 
ciety adjourn to meet at 8 :00 p.m. January 16, 1907. Carried. 

H. W. Caldwell;, Secretary. 
Geo. L. Miller, President. ' 


Lincoln, Nebraska, January 16, 1907. 

The meeting of the Society was called to order at 8 :15 p.m. 
by the First Vice-President, E. L. Harvey, Avho introduced 
Dr. Geo. L. Miller, of Omaha, the newly elected President of 
the Society. Dr. Miller gave a few words of thanks for the 
honor conferred by his election as President of the Society. 
He then spoke in feeling terms of his predecessors, Hon. R. 
W. Furnas and Hon. J. Sterling Morton, whose deaths had 
left a great void in the ranks of the Society. Dr. Miller then 
stated that he had aimed to have some distinguished man to 
address the Society, but all efforts to do so had failed. He 
still hoped to have such an address at some future date. The 
educational spirit of Lincoln and the l r niversity of Nebraska 
impressed Dr. Miller favorably, and he rejoiced that he had 
lived to see such a spirit, and added that taxes might well be 
doubled for the cause of education. 

The President then called the speakers who were on the 
program for the evening. Col. H. E. Palmer, of Omaha, pre- 
sented a paper of very great interest on "Across the Plains, 
1861-65." Col. T. J. Majors gave a talk on the 1st Nebraska 
Cavalry and an outline of some phases of its history during 
and at the close of the Civil War. On account of the lateness 
of the hour, Mr. C. S. Paine declined to present his paper, 
which was read by title and handed to the Society for its use. 

The Society then adjourned to 8:00 p.m., January 17, 1907. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 

Geo. L. Miller, President.' 




Lincoln, January 17, 1907. 

The Society was called to order at 8:00 p.m. by its Presi- 
dent, Hon. Geo. L. Miller. Mr. Miller introduced Mr. Robert 
F. Gilder, the first speaker on the evening's program, in a 
few very felicitous words, as a journalist and artist, and one 
deeply interested in early Indian life in Nebraska. * Mr. Gil- 
der's paper discussed the "Indian Mounds near Omaha/ 1 and 
the finding therein of the remains of prehistoric man. The 
same subject was continued by Professor Erwin-H. Barbour 
in an illustrated lecture on "Evidence of Nebraska Loess 
Man." Mr. Blackman, the Curator of the Society, then dis- 
cussed the Indian costumes and customs as illustrated in 
the D. Charles Bristol Collection. 

The Society, after listening to the foregoing excellent and 
interesting program, resolved itself into its annual business 
session for the election of officers and the transaction of such 
other business matters as might come before it. The calling 
of the roll of members was dispensed Avith on motion of the 
Secretary, after he had counted more than a quorum present. 
The minutes of the last annual meeting were then read and 
approved. The Secretary next read the report of the Treas- 
urer, which was received and referred to the executive com- 
mittee for auditing. The list of names of those applying for 
membership was then read, and on vote of the Society were all 
declared duly elected, and on payment of the customary fee 
of $2 entitled to active membership in the Society. The 
names were as follows : 

I. D. Evans, Kenesaw. 

Lafayette E. Graver, Univer- 
sity Place. 

Charles P. Anderbery, Min- 

J. A. C. Kennedy, Omaha. 
Albert W. Crites, OhadroHy 
Lysle I. Abbott, Omaha. 
James 11. II anna, Greeley. 
William I. Allen, Schuyler, 



Robert E. Evans, Dakota 

John N. Dryden, Kearney. 
Periey W. Scott, Imperial. 
Cary S. Polk, Plattsmouth. 
Ignatius J. Dunn. Omaha. 
Milo D. King, Minden. 
Samuel Rinaker, Beatrice. 
Howard Kennedy, Jr., 

Benjamin E. B. Kennedy, 

Thomas W. Blackburn, 

Carroll S. Montgomery, 

J. P. A. Black, Hastings. 
Jas. W. Hamilton, Omaha. 
M. Dayton Tyler, Norfolk. 
Carl E. Herring, Omaha. 
Chas. H. Sloan, Geneva. 
Henry E. Maxwell, Omaha. 
Jno. S. Stull, Auburn. 
Wm. A. Redick, Omaha. 
A. M. Morrissey, Valentine. 
Charles H. Denney, Fairbury. 
Herbert S. Daniel, Omaha. 
John B. Barnes, Norfolk. 
William D. McHugh, Omaha. 
Titus J. Howard, Greeley. 
James H. Kemp, Fullerton. . 
John L. McPheeley, Minden. 
Benjamin T. White, Omaha. 
John C. Cowin, Omaha. 

Edmund G, McGilton, 

C M. Miller, Alma. 
Arthur F. Mullen, O'NeilL 
E. S. Ricker, Chadron. 
Vincent L. Hawthorne, Wa- 


Patrick E. McKillip, Hum- 

Char]es L. Richards, Hebron. 

Frank M. Hall, Lincoln. 

Lewis L. Raymond, Scotts 
' Bluff. 

J. L. Sundean, Wahoo. 

Webster S. Morlan. McCook. 

John H. Barry, Wahoo. 

James G. Reeder, Columbus. 

William W. Wood, Rushville. 

Albert A. Kearney, Stanton. 

R. M. Proudfit, Friend. 

Edwin Falloon, Falls City. 

Harlow W. Keyes, Indianola. . 

Frank R. Waters, Lincoln. 

Jas. E. Philpott, Lincoln. 

William C. Frampton, Lin- 

McConnell S. Gray, Daven- 

Joseph A. Wild, Wilber. 
Halleck F. Rose, Lincoln. 
Robert J. Greene, Lincoln. 
Claude C. Flansburg, Lin- 

Beman C. Fox, Lincoln. 


Edward M. Coffin, Lincoln. Mrs. Ida Duffield Wiggins, 

Lincoln Frost, Lincoln. Lincoln. 

Charles E. Burnliam, Nor- M. L. Blackburn, Lincoln. 

folk. Thomas E. Prey, Lincoln. 

Arthur W. Lane, Lincoln. John W. Outright, Lincoln. 

Phillip Gleim, Danbury. Robert P. Gilder, Omaha. 

R. O. Avery, Humboldt. Harvey E. Heath, Lincoln. 

John P. Kemmer, Lincoln. Ada I. Culver, Milford. 

Horace S. Wiggins, Lincoln. John Franklin, Lincoln. 

Mr. H. H. Wilson then asked leave to introduce the follow- 
ing resolutions: 

"Whereas, The late Governor Furnas in 1897 temporarily 
loaned to this Society a collection of Nebraska woods and 
other articles of interest connected with the history of this 
state; and 

"Whereas, By his will this collection became the property 
of his widow, who offers the same for sale ; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the board of directors of this Society be 
requested to take proper steps to acquire title to said collec- 
tion, if it can be done at a reasonable cost/' 

Mr. Wilson moved the adoption of the resolution, which 
was seconded and carried. 

The Secretary announced that he had no written report of 
the year's work, but would make a brief oral statement about 
it. The establishment of the' legislative reference bureau by 
the executive committee, with Mr. Sheldon at its head, had 
been the most important measure of the year. The work of 
the bureau had started out successfully and so far Avas ap- 
preciated by the legislature. Mr. Sheldon, the Secretary an? 
nounced, was present and could give further details if the 
Society desired. The first volume of the "History of the Ne- 
braska Constitutional Conventions" is almost ready for de- 
livery and copies may be obtained in a very few days. The 
Secretary also suggested that some commemoration of the 
life and services of Hon. Edward Rosewater ought to hr uu- 



dertaken by the Society; at least resolutions should be re- 
corded in the Society's files. It was also stated by the Sec- 
retary that the officers of the Society, Mr. Barrett, Mr. 
Sheldon, and Mr. Blackman, were present, ready to make 
reports of their work for the year. „ The report in this abbre- 
viated form was accepted. 

Mr. Blackman announced that his report would be incor- 
porated in a written form as usual with the Secretary as a 
part of his report.' 

The President then called for committee reports. 

Mr. Harvey, the chairman of the committee on sites, sent 
a letter to the Secretary stating that, owing to sickness, his 
report was not ready, and asking the favor of making it in a 
written form later. 

The next order of business was the annual election of offi- 
cers. Mr. Geo. L. Miller was nominated for reelection as 
President, and on motion of Mr. S. L. Geisthardt the Secre- 
tary was instructed to cast the unanimous ballot of the So- 
ciety in his favor, which was done. Mr. Miller thanked the 
Society for the honor, and called for nominations for first 
Vice-President. Mr. Harvey was renominated for first Vice- 
President, and on motion the Secretary cast the unanimous 
ballot of the Society in his favor. Mr. Sawyer nominated 
Prof. Geo. E. Howard for reelection as second Vice-Presi- 
dent. Mrs. Knotts nominated L. D. Stilson, who declined; 
she then presented the name of J. E. North, of Columbus. 
Professor Howard then withdrew his name, and on motion 
Mr. North was unanimously elected second Vice-President. 

Mr. C. S. Paine and H. W. Caldwell were nominated for 
the Secretaryship. While the ballot was being taken a list 
of proxies was presented, and their votes asked to be counted. 
The question was raised whether proxies could be voted in 
the Society. It was noted that no instance had ever occurred 
in the Society to afford a precedent. The President ruled 
that the vote of proxies might be counted, and an appeal was 
taken from his decision. After discussion by several mem- 
bers of the Society pro and con on the issue a standing vote 



was taken, and the decision of the chair was not sustained. 
The President then announced that the Society had voted 
against the use of proxies and that vote would stand as a 
precedent, and the ballot of the Society, proper under the 
constitution, would now be counted. The tellers announced 
20 votes for Mr. Paine and 17 votes for Mr. Caldwell. Then, 
on motion, Mr. Paine was declared elected by the full vote of 
the Society. 

Mr. S. L. Geisthardt was unanimously reelected Treasurer. 

Mr. Sheldon called attention to the pending amendment 
changing the time of meeting from the second to the third 
Tuesday of January. After some discussion the whole mat- 
ter was laid on the table. 

The committee to draft resolutions on the death of Mr. 
Kosewater was announced as Mr. Sheldon, Mr. Gilder, and 
Mr. Sawyer. On motion the names of Mr. Woolworth, Mr. 
Kountze, and Mr. Kitchen, of Omaha, were added. 

The Society then adjourned. 

H. W. Caldwell, Secretary. 



Meeting called to order by President George L. Miller. 
Present, Dr. George L. Miller, James E. North, Chancellor 
E. B. Andrews, Robert Harvey, Prof. II . W. Caldwell, and 
C. S. Paine. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting of 
the old board was dispensed with. 

The President announced the appointment of the standing 
committees for the ensuing vein* as follows: 

Library.— Miss Charlotte Templeton, Miss Edith Tobitt, 
Chancellor W. P. Ay Is worth. 

Museum.— Elmer E. Blackman, Melvin R, Gil more, Robert 



Obituaries. — Jay Amos Barrett, A. J. Sawyer, Capt. IT. E. 

Program. — The Secretary, the President, Prof. H. W. 

Publication. — The Secretary, A. E. Sheldon, Robert 

The report of the Secretary was then presented, and action 
upon it suspended, while the board listened to the report of 
the Director of Field Work, Mr, A. E. Sheldon. This report 
was ordered accepted, and placed on file. 

The report and recommendations of the Secretary were • 
then taken up seriatim. 

Chancellor Andrews moved to approve the apportionment 
of salaries as outlined by the Secretary, with the addition of 
an appropriation of f 600 for a newspaper clerk, and assistant 
in the legislative reference department. Carried. The sal- 
ary roll as finally approved standing as follows : 

A. E. Sheldon $1,300 

E. E. Blackman. 850 

Assistant secretary and librarian (to be chosen) 800 

Newspaper clerk (to be chosen) . 600 

Stenographer (to be chosen) 416 

Secretary 100 

Treasurer ...... . . 25 


Chancellor Andrews moved the appointment of a commit- 
tee of three to investigate the matter of salaries, and ascer- 
tain whether or not any reduction could be made from the 
amounts recommended by the Secretary. Carried. 

The President appointed as such committee Chancellor An- 
drews, Professor Caldwell, and the Secretary. 

On motion of Chancellor Andrews the apportionment of 
the funds for the ensuing year as submitted by the Secretary 
was approved. 



The report of Mr. Robert Harvey, chairman of the special 
committee on marking historical sites, was presented and 

Motion of Chancellor Andrews to appropriate $100 for the 
use of the committee on historic sites. Carried. 

Professor Caldwell moved that $50 be appropriated to pay 
S. A. Gardiner, balance due on a collection turned over to 
the Society in 1904. Carried. 

On motion of Chancellor Andrews the Secretary was au- 
thorized to dispose of the printing material owned by the 
"Society, proceeds to be turned into the treasury. 

Mr. H. H. Wilson appeared before the board to discuss the 
resolution adopted by the Society at the last annual meeting 
with reference to the purchase of the Furnas collection of 
Nebraska woods, which resolution had been referred to the 
board of directors for action. A resolution was offered by 
Chancellor AndreAvs as follows : "Kesolved, that Professor 
Wilson has the approval of the board of directors of the Ne- 
braska State Historical Society, in the project for introduc- 
ing a bill in the legislature to acquire the Furnas collection 
of Nebraska woods, for the use of the Nebraska State His- 
torical Society." Adopted. 

Motion was made by Professor Caldwell to appoint a com- 
mittee of three to take into account and report on the value 
of the Furnas collection of woods. Carried. The President 
appointed Messrs. Caldwell, Harvey, and Geisthardt as such 

On motion of Chancellor Andrews the proposition of the 
Director of Field Work to secure the restoration "To the 
state and to its original purposes of block 29 in the city of 
Lincoln, Nebraska, originally known as State Historical So- 
ciety Block," and to secure an appropriation of $25,000 for 
the beginning of the foundation for the wing of a building 
thereon, was approved. 

The report of the Treasurer being presented was ordered 
approved and placed on file. 



The bill of the Treasurer for salary and expense, 1906, was 
approved and a warrant ordered drawn. 

On motion of Professor Caldwell the President was re- 
quested to invite Gen. A. W. Greeley to deliver an address in 
Lincoln under the auspices of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society at some date during the latter part of February or 
the first part of March. 

On motion of the Secretary the meeting adjourned. 

Approved April 9, 1907. 

0. S. Paine, 



To the Officers and Members of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society : 

I hereby respectfully submit my report as Treasurer for the 
year ending January 16, 1907. 

I am to be charged with the following receipts : 



January 17, balance on hand in National 

Bank of Commerce .$203 17 

September 11, cash, J. A. Barrett, publica- 
tion sold 1 00 

September 30, exchange collected 10 


January 16, exchange collected . 15 

January 16, 70 membership fees collected 

as per list annexed 110 00 

Total receipts 

|344 42 





July 25, A. E. Sheldon, expenses ? 62 00 

October 10, S. L. Geisthardt, postage and 
stationery 1 75 

October 10, A. E. Sheldon, expenses bal- 
ance Oklahoma trip 51 73 

October 10, cash, exchange charged 15 

Total disbursements f 115. 63 

Balance in National Bank of Commerce, 

per check herewith $228 79 

I submit herewith bank book duty balanced and vouchers 
and check to the order of the Society for the balance on hand. 

Beginning with July 5, 1906, I have kept a record of all re- 
ceipts issued on stubs from which the receipts were detached, 
numbered consecutively. Prior to that time there was no 
regular system of giving or issuing receipts. 
Dated this 16th day of January, 1907. 

S. L. Geisthardt, 


Accepted, approved, and ordered placed on file by the 
Board of Directors, February 1, 1907. 

C. S. Paine, 




To the Executive Board, Nebraska State Historical Society: 
We find a brief catalogue of the museum ready for the 
printer and recommend that it be published in connection 
with the report of the Archeologist. This report has been 
published in the Agricultural report without expense (»> I he 



Nebraska State Historical Society heretofore, and we recom- 
mend that it hereafter be published by the Society. 

We wish to express our approval of your action in setting 
apart }250 for field expenses for this department. 

We believe that the services of a stenographer are neces- 
sary, not only to prepare the letters, but to assist in prepar- 
ing manuscript and elaborating notes which are to be used in 
the literary work in hand ; an average of one hour a day will 
accomplish the necessary work. 

It is impossible to properly preserve the specimens and in- 
terest the public unless the dust and dirt be kept out of the 
whole building; we recommend that this matter be arranged 
for in some manner so that less of the time of Mr. Blackmail 
be taken for that work and more of his time be devoted to 
field exploration and arrangement of the specimens in the 

The matter of popular lectures throughout the state should 
have more attention. There is nothing which will better ad- 
vertise the work and bring the people into closer touch with 
the Society. To that end we recommend that funds be set 
aside for the purchase of a stereopticon lantern and equip- 
ment, and that lantern slides of the important specimens be 
made, giving full credit as to ownership or authorship, and 
thus c*arry the museum to the people who can not come to the 

We feel justified in asking your honorable body to appor- 
tion a fair share of the legislative appropriation to this de- 
partment of the work. The share Ave are asking for is scarcely 
one-fifth, and we believe if the members of the Society were 
to decide the matter they would justify you in expending at 
least one-fourth on this department. We have confidence that 
you will see that a just proportion is expended here. We be- 
lieve that you will not let this important part of the work be 
handicapped for lack of funds. 

E. E. Blackman, 


February 1, 1907. R. F. Gilder. 




To the Board of Directors of the Nebraska State Historical 

Soon after the appointment of the library committee of the 
State Historical Society a meeting was held in the Society's 
rooms. After a thorough inspection of the library it Avas de- 
cided that the one great need was a librarian. There is much 
valuable material on the shelves, but it is not in such form 
as to be available. The records are inadequate. While a 
great deal has been done in the past few months in arranging 
the books on the shelves there is still much to do. There 
should be a new accession record, a shelf list from which an 
inventory can be taken, and a catalogue Avhich will make the 
contents of the library of easy access. There is doubtless 
much material duplicated Which should be sorted out and 
listed for exchange. Continuations and sets may be incom- 
plete. But little can be done until a complete catalogue is 

Now this work of organizing the library may be done in 
two ways. A temporary librarian may be employed for sev- 
eral months who will plan the work, get it well started, and 
train some person to carry it on, the person trained to be 
some one with the natural ability and such knowledge of 
office work as will fit her to carry a great deal of the work 
of the Society, the correspondence, etc. In this way some one 
would be employed who, by her previous experience, could be 
an assistant to the Secretary and by her training under the 
library organizer would have the knowledge of library meth- 
ods necessary to carry on the work of the library. 

An organizer could doubtless be obtained for $75 a month. 
The future librarian should be employed at the same time (o 
assist in the work and to learn how to carry it on herself. 

By the other plan a graduate of a library school could be 
employed as permanent librarian. Such a person could re- 
organize the library and gradually assume much of the other 
work to be done. Under this plan a person of good education 



Can be found, doubtless a college graduate as well as a grad- 
uate of a library school, who would have, by reason of her 
professional training, a broad outlook. Handling the books 
through every process of accessioning, classifying, and cat- 
aloguing she Avould acquire a knowledge of the books them- 
selves very valuable in future reference work. Such a libra- 
rian could, we think, be found who would be willing to start 
in at |600 a year. 

At any rate, adopt which plan you will, there should be 
some person whose first duty is to the library, who will make 
this collection of the value that it should be to the community 
and to the whole state, a person who will Avatch the book cat- 
alogues for desirable purchases, who will build up the library 
systematically along its special lines, who will keep up a live 
mailing list of good exchanges, who will take care of these 
accessions intelligently when they come and make them avail- 
able to the public at large. 

- It is very desirable to get the library into good shape now 
before it is any larger. Every year makes the task more diffi- 
cult and more expensive. 

It seems to us that in the apportionment of funds there 
should be a definite sum, however small, set aside for the 
library outside the salary of the person in charge, who, as 
she would do other work for the Society, could be put on the 
general salary list Unless there is such a sum, we fear that 
the money will all be absorbed by the other activities of the 
Society. The library committee will gladly serve as an ad- 
visory board in the book purchases, although they believe 
that it is more important just now to get into good order the 
books already in the library than to add more. 

These suggestions are respectfully submitted by your 
library committee. 

Charlotte Templeton, Chairman, 
Edith Tobitt, 
W. P. Aylsworth. 

"February 1, 1907. 




Lincoln, Nebraska, January 17, 1907. 
To the Board of Directors of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society, Lincoln, Nebraska: 

Sirs— As chairman of the committee on landmarks I am not 
able to report much that is tangible in the way of marking 
locations having a local or general history sufficient to be 
perpetuated by an expenditure of time and money on the part 
of the Society. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the council held by Gen. John 
M. Thayer for the territory with the Pawnee Indians occurred 
on the 25th day of May, 1905. 

The event was celebrated by General Thayer in person 
pointing out the location, and the erection of a granite monu- 
ment about Sy 2 feet high to mark the site, on the farm of 
Robert McLean in S. 2, T. 16 N., R. 8 E. On the monument 
is inscribed "Pawnee Council, May 25, 1855." 

In the early part of November last I visited the site of old" 
Ft. McPherson on the south bank of the Platte river in T. 12 
N.j R. 28 W., Lincoln county, near MaxAvell on the Union 
Pacific R. R. 

The row of cotton Avood trees planted in front of the offi- 
cers' quarters is still standing and in fine growing condition, 
and the old street in front is now the county road, although 
it does not conform to the section line. 

Cottonwood Springs, situated in a bend of Cottonwood 
canyon, a short distance east of the fort, was famous in the 
days of overland travel. It is now smothered or choked up 
by the sloughing off and washing down of the (day bank of 
the canyon. The large Cottonwood tree 4 which shaded the 
spring, I was told, was ordered cut down, during the occu- 
pation of the fort, by order of Colonel (General) Emery, to 
prevent the soldiers lounging around the spring. 

The old flagstaff was of red cedar and stood in the center 
of the parade ground. It was the initial point of the surrey 



of the original boundary lines of the military reserve. This 
was of special interest to me, for around it is clustered the 
recollections of my first experience in government surveying 
in 1869 when I assisted in the original survey of the boundary 
lines of the reserve. 

The interest in the "locus" of the old flagstaff has been in- 
creased by reason of the disputes and contests before the de- 
partment at Washington and in the courts over the condi- 
tions of the survey of the reserve into sections in 1897, one 
of the points of the dispute being the "locus' 7 of the flagstaff, 
which it was claimed was not found by the surveyor. 

The whole matter in dispute was of such importance that 
the government was induced to send a special examiner of 
surveys to investigate, who spent considerable time in his 
search. From verbal statements of the examiner, Mr. N. B. 
Sweitzer, corroborated by eye witnesses, I am satisfied the 
original site of the staff in 1869 was found by Mr. Sweitzer. 

In the middle of a field I found a marble monument, 6 
inches square and extending about 8 inches above ground, 
erected by Mr. Sweitzer to mark the site of the flagstaff. 
There Avas no inscription on top, and I did not see any on 
the sides, although I did not clear away the grass for a close 

To obtain further information I wrote to Mr. SAveitzer re- 
questing particular data. On the 10th inst. I received from 
him an answer to my request, which I make a part of this 
report and mark as exhibit A. 

The parade ground was part of a magnificent field of corn, 
the owner claiming a yield of fifty bushels per acre. 

During the latter part of November I visited Wauneta, 
Chase county, and was informed that the last great battle 
fought by the Pawnee and Sioux Indians took place in a 
canyon tributary to Frenchman creek in Hayes county. 
Wherever the battle was fought I suggest that its location be 
authentically settled and commemorated. Also the battle 
fought between the United States forces under command of 
General Harney and the Sioux Indians on the Blue Water, 



more generally knoAvn as the battle of Ash Hollow in Keith 

I also suggest the proper marking of the grave of Blaek 
Bird, chief of the Omaha Indians, which I am informed has 
been definitely located. 

With members of the committee there has been discussed 
the matter of marking the intersection of the Overland trails, 
military roads, and the old Mormon trail, with the section 
lines, and in a few instances the matter has been discussed 
with the residents of counties through which the trails passed, 
Avith the object of obtaining the cooperation of the people of 
the several counties in the way of looking up the old land- 
marks and bearing a large portion of the expense of placing 
suitable markers at convenient and important locations along 
the different lines of travel. 

Kespectfully submitted, 

• Robert Harvey, 



Niobrara, Nebraska, January 13, 1905. 
My Dear Harvey— I received your letter of the 10th hist, 
last night. 

In regard to the old flagstaff, it is so long ago and I have 
been on so many other pieces of work so similar that I have 
nearly forgotten the details in regard to it. 

The "locus" of the old flagstaff was the origin of the adja- 
cent surveys, and hence important. The position of mile post 
No. 1 was plain, and hence the south boundary could be 
started from that, but in all of these cases the origin is very 

I ran several lines from the exterior, focusing on this ori- 
gin, and they gave me locations which of course were com- 
paratively near to where the corner should be. I then asked 
for information from all the old people who had seen the flag- 
staff in its old position. Mr. Murray, an old friend and sol- 
dier of General Carr's and father, showed me very close to 
where he remembered it to have stood, but was somewhat 
misled by the position of the old gravel walk. Mrs. Murray's 



memory in regard to its position was a great help to me. I 
then commenced digging, beginning with my exterior loca- 
tions and converging on the center. After several days' effort 
I finally found the hole from which the flagstaff had been 
taken, which could be plainly seen by the disturbed condition 
of the earth. Upon digging down six or seven feet and find- 
ing considerable brick or pieces of chimney made of cement, 
I finally found the foundation, consisting of four squared 
cedar logs mortised together, forming a central hole which 
was square for the purpose of stepping the flagstaff. Placing 
a vertical rod in the center of this hole I filled it with the 
debris taken out, and at the center produced at the ground 
surface I placed a large white marble shaft given me by the 
custodian of the near cemetery. 

You are in error in regard to there being no inscription, as 
I carved it in myself with letters one-half inch deep, and the 
same was finished up by my assistants, Albert G. Hammer, 
of Chicago, Illinois, and my brother, Lieut. Charles McG. 

This old post was particularly interesting to me, for this 
was the place where my father, General Sweitzer, took Grand 
Duke Alexis of Russia on that famous buffalo hunt, he hav- 
ing charge of the cavalry escort ; and where Buffalo Bill first 
made his bow to notoriety, being introduced by Ned Buntline 
of dime novel fame. Cody taking him out of the fort a few 
miles dressed a la Sioux, and Buntline, just from the East, 
with silk hat and broadcloth, took Cody seriously; hence his 
rise to fame and finance. A Bill Nye would have seen the 
funny side of it, but would never have seen the Wild West 

My first report describing the corner is in Washington, and 
I write the above from memory, but you will find it substan- 
tially correct. 

Yours sincerely, 

N. B. Sweitzer. 





Meeting called to order at i :45 p.m. by the President, Dr. 
Geo. L. Miller. 

Present, Dr. Geo. L. Miller, Jas. E. North, Prof. H. W. 
Caldwell, S. L. Geisthardt, Robert Harvey, Henry C. Rich- 
mond, and C. S. Paine, as members of the board, and Miss 
Charlotte Templeton and Miss Edith Tobitt, members of the 
library committee, also Prof. A. E. Sheldon, Director of Field 
Work, and Elmer E. Blackman, Archeologist. 

Minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The report of the Secretary was presented, and on motion 
of Mr. North was ordered accepted and placed on file. 

The Treasurer, Mr. Geisthardt, reported that there was 
approximately |200 on hand in the bank fund. 

The report of the Archeologist, Mr. E. E. Blackman, was 
presented, and on motion of Prof. Caldwell it was accepted 
and placed on file. 

The report of the Director of Field Work, Mr. A. E. Shel- 
don, was then presented, and on motion of Prof. Caldwell the 
report was accepted and filed. 

The report of the library committee was read by Miss Char- 
lotte Templeton, and there being no objection it was, by order 
of the President, accepted. 

The report of the museum committee was received, ac- 
cepted, and placed on file. 

After some discussion on the subject of cooperating with 
the State Press Association, in the publication of a History 
of the Nebraska Press, it Avas moved and seconded that the 
board recommend to the Society, at its next annual meeting, 
that it cooperate with the State Press Association in the pub- 
lication, under the auspices of the Society, of a volume de- 
voted to the history of the Nebraska Press, the editorial work 
to be provided for by the State Press Association. Carried. 



The recommendation of the Secretary that the board de- 
cline to "accept the proposition of Mrs. Kobt. W. Furnas, to 
purchase the Furnas collection of Nebraska woods, paying 
therefor $4,000, in four equal annual payments of $1,000 
each, was, on motion of Mr. Geisthardt, concurred in. 

A vote of thanks was extended to Gov. Geo. L. Sheldon for 
the solicited donation of a portrait of himself to hang in the 
Society rooms. 

A vote of thanks was also extended to Mrs. E. C. Baker, 
of Miller, Nebraska, for the donation of 400 copies of the 
History of SeAvard county, by W. W. Cox. 

The Secretary recommended the appointment of a commit- 
tee of three, of which Mr. Geisthardt should be chairman, to 
conduct negotiations with the city of Lincoln, with the view 
to securing Market Square or some other acceptable site for 
the proposed Historical Society building. It was moved and 
seconded that such committee be appointed. The motion was 
amended by Professor Caldwell to make the committee five 
members, two to be selected outside of the board, one of whom 
should be Mr. A. E. Sheldon. In this form the motion was 
carried. The President appointed as such committee: S. L. 
Geisthardt, C. S. Paine, H. W. Caldwell, A. E. Sheldon, and 
T. F. A. Williams. 

Upon request of the Secretary, his salary of $100 was, on 
motion of Mr. Geisthardt, appropriated and added to the 
salary of E. E. Blackman, the Secretary waiving all claim to 
salary from the Society for the current year. 

The report of the library committee was taken up, and on 
motion of Mr. Geisthardt a plan proposed by the committee 
for the employment of a librarian, to. catalogue and accession 
the library, was approved, and on motion of Mr. Geisthardt 
the Secretary was authorized to cooperate with the library 
committee in the selection of a librarian, and in carrying out 
the plans recommended by the committee, so far as the avail- 
able funds of the Society would permit. 

On motion of Professor Caldwell, the rules were suspended 
and the Secretary instructed to cast the ballot for the fol- 
lowing named persons as members of the Society: 


f| i- 1 1 r-J^I | ! jj ', _ j | : i j , 

Win J. Harmon, Fremont George W. Brown, Jr., Lin- 
Leslie G. Hurd, Harvard. coin. 

Chester H. Aldrich, David Epaminondas E. Lyle, Wa- 

City. hoo. 

Dr. Albert T. Peters, Lincoln. Harry C. Ingles, Pleasant 

Elbert C. Hurd, Lincoln. . Hill. 

Mrs. Isabel Richey, Lincoln. Gilbert L. Cole, Beatrice. 

Senator W. Perin, Lincoln. Henry F. Wyman, Omaha. 

Richard A. Hawley, Lincoln. John P. Loder, Waverly. 

James H. Cook, Agate. Abram P. Kempton, Lincoln. 

Harold J. Cook, Agate. Edgar A. Burnett, Lincoln. 

On motion of the Secretary the meeting was adjourned. 

Approved July 9, 1907. C. S. Paine, 




Meeting called to order at 2:30 p.m. by the President, Dr. 
Geo. L. Miller. Present, Dr. Geo. L. Miller, & L. Geisthardt, 
Robert Harvey, C. S. Paine, and Dr. C. E. Bessey, represent- 
ing Chancellor Andrews. 

Minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The report of the Secretary was presented and, on motion 
of Mr. Geisthardt, was approved and ordered placed on file. 

The Treasurer, Mr. Geisthardt, reported : 

Balance on hand January 17, 1907 .. . .f 228.79 


Membership fees f 112 00 

Sales 3 50 

Total TT 115 50 

Total |344 29 

Paid out on warrants 190 95 

Leaving a balance on hand, July 9, 1907, of. . .$147 34 



The report of the Director of Field Work was presented, 
and by order of the President was placed on file. 

The Secretary reported the resignation of Mr. S. L. Geist- 
hardt as chairman of the building site committee, and the 
appointment of James E. North, by the President, as chair- 
man of such committee. 

On motion of Mr. Geisthardt the Secretary was directed 
to convey to Hon. H. M. Eaton and to Messrs. S. V. and A. G. 
Johnson the thanks of the board for valuable donations to 
the library and to the museum. 

Upon the recommendation of President Miller, and on mo- 
tion of Mr. Geisthardt, it was agreed to memorialize Congress 
in behalf of the proposition to establish a national reserve in 
Nebraska, embracing the site of old Ft. Kearney. President 
Miller appointed Prof. A. E. Sheldon to prepare such me- 
morial, to be presented at the next meeting of the board. 

On motion of the Secretary the meeting was adjourned. 

Approved October 17, 1907. 

C. S. Paine, 



Held at the Office of the Society in Lincoln, October 

17, 1907. 

Meeting called to order at 10 :30 a.m. by the President, Dr. 
Geo. L. Miller. 

Present, Dr. George L. Miller, Prof. H. W. Caldwell, C. S. 
Paine, J. E. North, Dr. C. E. Bessey, representing Chancellor 
i Andrews, and Lieut. Gov. M. R. Hopewell, representing Gov- 
ernor Sheldon. 

Minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
The question being raised of the right of Dr. Bessey, repre- 
senting Chancellor Andrews, and of Lieutenant-Governor 



Hopewell, representing Governor Sheldon, to sit as members 
of the hoard, the President decided that in the absence from 
the state of Governor Sheldon and Chancellor Andrews, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Hopewell was entitled to represent the for- 
mer, and Acting Chancellor Dr. B esse v, the latter. 

The report of the Secretary was presented, apj)roved, and 
ordered placed on file. 

The report of the Director of Field Work was presented 
by the Secretary, and ordered accepted and placed on file. 

The request of Mr. A. E. Sheldon to be granted a leave of 
absence from October 1, 1907, to June 1, 190S, was, upon 
recommendation of the Secretary, granted. 

A communication was presented from Mr. W. F. Thomp- 
son, of Brownville, Nebraska, offering to sell to the Society, 
for §25, a bound volume of newspapers, containing the New 
York Weekly Tribune from March 27, 1847, to September 1, 
1819, inclusive; and the Licking Valley Register from July 
21, 1811, to July 20, 1811, inclusive. 

On motion of Professor Bessey, seconded by Governor 
Hopewell, the Secretary was directed to accept the foregoing- 

On motion of Mr. North, the Secretary was directed to con- 
vey to Mrs. A. M. Susong. of Lincoln, the thanks of the So- 
ciety for the donation of an oil painting of her father, Johu 
Gillespie, first State Auditor of Nebraska. 

L^pon recommendation of the Secretary, the President was 
authorized to name a committee of three, not necessarily mem- 
bers of the Board, who should select the names of those peo- 
ple whose portraits should be solicited to occupy a place in 
the portrait gallery of the Society. 

The President appointed as such committee: Mrs. A. J. 
Sawyer, Lincoln; Francis E. White 1 , Omaha; Hon. Melville 
R. Hopewell, Tekamah. 

Upon the motion of Professor Caldwell, the salary of Wil- 
liam E. Hannan was increased from s.~f> to $75 per month, 
beginning October 1, and continuing during the absence of 
Mr. A. E. Sheldon. 



On motion of Professor Caldwell, the Secretary was in- 
structed to cast, and did cast, the ballot for the election to 
membership of the following persons : 

Henry V. Hoagland, Lincoln. 
Wallace L. Crandall, Lincoln. 
Ferdinand A. Truell, Lincoln. 
Otto W. Meier, Lincoln. 
Albert Hasebrook, Lincoln. 
Morris C. Stull, Lincoln. 
Mrs. Morris C. Stull, Lin- 

Samuel F. Westerfield, Lin- 

Harry J. Hall, Lincoln. 
Mrs. Kate P. Fodrea, Lin- 

Mrs. Louisa E. Collins, Kear- 

Mrs. Henry A. LaSelle, Bea- 

Win. H. Eobbins, Beatrice. 

Absalom N. Yost, Omaha. 

Lou L. E. Stewart, Omaha. 

Geo. E. Buell, Murdock. 

Ellery H. Westerfield, 

Clarence Ruigh, Firth. 

Martin W. Dimery, Lincoln. 

Dr. W. K. Loughridge, Mil- 

Harry Porter, Lincoln. 
Charles G. Cone, University 

J. W. Wamberg, Grand Is- 

John Schwyn, Grand Island. 

Patrick O'Mahony, Lincoln. 

Louis F. Fryar, Clay Center. 

Theodore Ojendyke, Ashland. 

J. G. P. Hildebrand, Lincoln. 

Geo. A. Scott, Columbus. 

Carrie A. Wolf, Lincoln. 

J. E. Taylor, Neligh. 

Alvin It. Maiben, Palmyra. 

James McGeachin, Orleans. 

N. C. Sasse, Stamford. 

John Fitz Roberts, South 

W. E. Saxton, Decatur. 

John C. Wilson, Bethany. 

C. B. Rabest, Omaha. 

Prof. Paul H. Grummann, 

George D. Bennett, Lincoln. 

Arnold Egger, Sprague. 

Oscar P. Foale, Table Rock. 

John Halldorson, Lincoln. 

G. A. Wetherwell, Dorches- 

Nellie M. Sisson, Ainsworth. 

Mrs. George B. Simpkins, 

Elmer W. Brown, Lincoln. 

John W. Steinhardt, Ne- 
braska City. 

Mrs. John W. Steinhardt, 
Nebraska City. 



Mrs. Caroline Morton, Ne- 
braska City. 

Mrs. Irene S. Morton, Ne- 
braska City. 

Charles H. Busch, Nebraska 

Paul Jessen, Nebraska City. 
Edwin F. Warren, Nebraska 

Joseph W. Johnson, Lincoln. 
Walter S. Houseworth, Lin- 

John S. Eeed, Lincoln. 
Mrs. John S. Eeed, Lincoln. 
Dr. James H. Hukill, Lin- 

William J. Bryan, Lincoln. 
Mrs. W. J. Bryan, Lincoln. 
James B. Haynes, Omaha. 
George A. Eberly, Stanton. 
T. L. Cole, Washington, D. C. 
Rollin M. Kolfe, Nebraska 

A. G. Johnson, York. 
Kev. Wm. H. Frost, Fremont. 
Meriwether J. Waugh, Lin- 

Wm. A. Lindly, Lincoln. 
Mrs. Theresa Neff, Nebraska 

Miss Mary S. Wilson, Ne- 
braska City. 
Wm. T. Sloan, Nebraska City 
Mrs. F. W. CoAvles, Nebraska 

Kev. Emmanuel Hartig, Ne- 
braska City. 

A. W. Hindman, Chester. 
C. C. Cobb, York. 
S. V. Johnson, York. 
J. H. Harrison, Cairo. 
T. A. Blythe, Cairo. 
Francis E. Wolcott, Lincoln. 
Mrs. Frank M. Hall, Lincoln. 
Wm. Hay ward, Nebraska 

Geo. W. Hawke, Nebraska 

Carsten N. Karstens, Ne- 
braska City. 

Ernest D. Garrow, Nebraska 

Edgar Clayton, Nebraska 

Miss Emma Morton, Ne- 
braska City. 

Mrs. Walter M. Ladd, Omaha 

Mrs. Nana Hudson Davey, 

John W. Mussetter, Lincoln. 

Charles W. Pierce, Nebraska 

Ernst Guenzel, Nebraska 

Frank McCartney, Nebraska 

Nicholas A. Duff, Nebraska 

Robert S. Mockett, Lincoln. 
Charles F. Ilarpham, Lin- 

Francis W. Brown, Lincoln. 
Edwin M. Searle, Jr., Lincoln 
John L. Pierce, Lincoln. 



Wellington H. England, Lin- A. C. Lederman, Grand Is- 

coln. land, 

Archibald L. Searle, Lincoln. John W. Gilbert, Friend. 

William M. Reid, Albion. William E. Hannan, Lincoln. 
William A. Selleck, Lincoln. 

The meeting was, on motion, adjourned. 


Held at the Temple, Lincoln. Nebraska, January 13-14, 


A preliminary session was held Monday evening, January 
13, at 7 :30 p.m., when the following program Avas presented, 
President George L. Miller presiding: 

Address, "History" Hon. William J. Bryan 

Address, "Life and Character of James R. Kitchen," 

Richard L. Metcalfe 

Piano Solo Miss Julia Williams 

Address, "Fifty Years of Educational Progress in Ne- 

Jasper L. McBrien, State Supt. Public Instruction 

Tuesday, January 14, 1907, 7:30 p.m. 

The Nebraska State Historical Society met iu business 
session, Dr. George L, Aliller presiding. 

There appearing to be a quorum present, the roll call was 
dispensed with on motion of the Secretary. 

The reading of the minutes of the last annual meeting was 

The report of the Secretary was then presented, and on 
motion of S. L. Geisthardt, seconded by A. N. Yost, of Omaha, 
the report was adopted. (See p. 288.) 

The report of the Treasurer, S. L. Geisthardt, was then pre- 
sented and action upon same postponed pending the report 



of the auditing committee. Mr. Robert Harvey, appointed 
by the Executive Board to audit the report of the Treasurer, 
submitted the following: 

• / 

Lincoln, Nebraska, January 13, 1908. 

To the President of the State Historical Society: 

Sir — Your Committee to whom was referred the annual re- 
port' of the Treasurer, together with the stub-book of receipts 
for money received, vouchers for money paid, cash book, and 
pass book of deposits with the Bank of Commerce, Lincoln, 
Nebraska, with instructions to audit the accounts of the same, 
desire to make the following report, to-wit : 

I have examined said books and vouchers and find the cash 
book shows the following amounts have been received and 

disbursed, to-wit : 


Balance from 1907 #228 79 

Dues for 13G new members at $2 per member 272 00 

From sale of Society's publications to libraries. . . , . 12 50 

Total ..$513 29 


Paid on vouchers 238 35 

Balance on hand . . : .-^274 91 

Which amount agrees with the balance 1 on hand as shown by 
the Treasurer's last settlement with the Bank of Commerce, 
January 4, 1908, and also with the Treasurer's report. 
Respecl fully submitted, 

ROBEUT Harvey. 

Auditing Committee. 

On motion the report of the Auditing Committee was 
adopted. The report of the Treasurer was then adopted as 
read. (See p. 310.) 



The report of the special committee appointed by the Presi- 
dent to examine into and report upon the work of the Society 
for the year 1907 Avas then presented as follows : 

To the Nebraska State Historical Society: 

Your special committee to examine into the work, methods, 
and progress of the Society for the past year beg to report as 
follows : 

That your committee held a meeting at the rooms of the 
Society, January 11, 1908, and found as follows : 

First — That the accounts of the Society are methodically 
kept and vouchers filed to cover all expenditures. 

Second — That the records, vouchers, and books of account 
of the Society have been examined and found correct by the 
public accountant, Mr. H. S. Wiggins. 

Third — That the officers of the Society have promoted suc- 
cessful meetings of the Pioneers' Association, State Historical 
officials, and other kindred societies whose work and objects 
are allied to those of this Society. 

Fourth — That the Society has acquired, by exchange and 
purchase, a large amount of new material, which, together 
with that already possessed by the Society, has been, with 
much labor, arranged, classified, and catalogued, and thereby 
made available for the purpose of the Society. 

Fifth — That the Secretary has devoted practically his 
Avhole time to the service of the Society, without condensa- 
tion, the Board having at his request transferred his nominal 
salary to one of the assistants. 

Sixth — That the Secretary has at his own expense visited 
a large number of Historical Societies and libraries in neigh- 
boring states, and thereby promoted friendly relations 

Seventh — That there is an increased interest by the Press 
and Public of the State in the work of the Society which has 
resulted in a large increase of the membership. 

Eighth — We find that the work and usefulness of the So- 
ciety are greatly impaired by want of suitable quarters, and 



in the opinion of your committee the time has come to move 

for a permanent building for the Society. 

H H. Wilson, 
E. T. Hartley, 
P. AY. Brown, 
A. J. Sawyer, 
W. A. Selleck. 

Mr. Henry H. Wilson moved the adoption of the report. 
Carried unanimously. 

The committee on obituaries, through Mr. A. J. Sawyer, 
submitted the following report : 

The Committee on Obituaries have to report that that mys- 
terious power which we call Death has invaded our ranks and 
taken from our list of membership, General John M. Thayer, 
Edward Rosewater, Major Charles TV. Pierce, and Nathan 
Blakely; therefore be it 

Bcsolvcd, That in their death the Nebraska State Historical 
Society has lost four of its most honored and respected mem- 
bers. Each Was a patriot and rendered conspicuous service 
to the nation in its hour of need ; each a statesman and helped 
to lay broad and deep the foundation of our commonwealth 
and to govern it with just and wholesome laws; each was a 
philanthropist ever seeking the good of his brother men ; each 
was a pioneer and endured the hardships and privations com- 
mon to the vanguard of settlers in a new territory. By their 
lofty patriotism, their pride of state, their zeal for its better- 
ment and their civic virtues, they have left their impress for 
good upon the institutions of our noble Nebraska which shall 
endure through all time. 

Resolved^ That a copy of this resolution be spread upon the 
records of this Society and also furnished to the press. 

A. J. Sawyer. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

On motion of Samuel I». [iams the Secretary was instructed 
to east, and did so cast, the unanimous ballot of the members 
present for the election to active membership of the 
following : 



George W. Sisson, Lincoln. 
John W. Brewster, Lincoln. 
Arthur E. Bishop. Lincoln. 
George M. Plumb, Lincoln. 
A. A. Parker, Platte Center. 
Ammi L. Bixby, Lincoln. 
P, J. Benedict, Hastings. 
O. M. Brown, Cambridge. 
William Z. Taylor, Culbert- 

Edward P. Pyle, Stock ville. 
S. C. Stewart, Ax tell. 
Augustus M. Walling, David 

Henry M. Eaton, Lincoln. 
George F. Corcoran, York. 
Anna M. B. Kingsley, Min- 

Griffith P. Thomas, Haiward. 
J. N. Norton, Osceola. 
Ambrose C. Epperson, Clay 

Theodore Griess, Harvard. 
C. D. Stoner, Osceola. 
Loyal M. Graham, Stockville., 
J. W. Adams, Curtis. 
Joseph S. 
Arthur J. Wray. York. 
Leander Westgate, Lincoln. 
Ross Bates, Springfield. 
Fred B. Garver, Fairfield. 
Fred G. Harden, Liberty. 
John J. Bean, Lincoln. 
Charles Wake, University 


Mary E. Patterson. Lincoln. 
Evan T. Koberts, Lincoln. 
Joseph A. Williams, Lincoln. 
Frank E. Jackson, Lincoln. 
Edwin S. Kipley, Lincoln. 
Martha J. Prey, Lincoln. 
Brasilia C. Mockridge, Lin- 

Walter S. Whitten, Lincoln. 

Canady, Minden. 

Charlotte Templet on, Lin- 

John H. Carpenter, Lincoln. 
E. Joanna Hagey, Lincoln. 
Eleanor Dufneld, Lincoln. 
Lucy T. W ood, Lincoln. 
Arthur S. North, Lincoln. 
Charles C. Quiggle, Lincoln. 
Thomas S. Allen, Lincoln. 
Charles J. Bills, Lincoln. 
William A. Wagner, Lincoln. 
Ernest H. Phelps, Lincoln. 
Willis J. Evestone, Lincoln. 
S. Doty, McCool. 
A. E. Hildebrand, Gretna. 
Charles H. Morrill, Lincoln. 
Samuel L. Caldwell, Lincoln. 
Walter K. Jewett, Lincoln. 
Victor F. Clark, Neligh. 
Mrs. Emma A. Johnson, 

Dr. Henry Y. Bates, Bel- 

Margaret J. Cams, Lincoln. 
Myrtle P. Atwood, Lincoln. 
Mrs. L. W. Colby, Beatrice. 
John A. Bingham, Lincoln. 
John M. Osborne, Pawnee 

Jonathan Edwards, Omaha, 
George W. Davenport, Lin- 

Henry C. McMaken, Platts- 

George W. Hansen, Fairbury. 
John F. Eveland, Lincoln. 
John F. Kees, Beatrice. 
Harry D. Lute, Paxton. 
Mrs. Mary J. Denton, Den- 

J lev. John E. Ingham, Lin- 

Mrs. Kittie McGrew. Auburn. 

Dr. Samuel W. 

McGrew, Au- 


The Secretary then proposed for honorary membership the 
following : 

Horace E. Deemer, Red Oak, Iowa. 
William J. Leverett, Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

On motion the Secretary was instructed to cast the unan- 
imous ballot of the members present for the election of these 
gentlemen to honorary membership. 

The Secretary: The ballot is so cast. 

Then followed the election of officers for the ensuing year. 
George D. Bennett moved that "the present officers be re- 
elected to succeed themselves as follows : 

President, George L. Miller, Omaha; 
1st Vice-President, Robert Harvey, St. Paul : 
2d Vice-President, James E. North, Columbus : 
Secretary, Clarence S. Paine, Lincoln; 
Treasurer, Stephen L. Geisthardt, Lincoln." 

There being no other nominations. Mr. Samuel B. lianas 
moved that the rules be suspended and the Secretary be in- 
structed to cast the ballot of the Society for the officers 
named. Mr. H. H. Wilson moved to amend by making it the 
duty of the mover of the motion to cast the ballot. The 
amendment was accepted. The question upon the motion was 
put by the Secretary and unanimously carried. The ballot 
being cast by Mr. Iiams, the following Avere declared by the 
President to be the duly elected officers of the Society for the 
year 1 90S : 

President George L. Miller, Omaha 

1st Vice-President Robert Harvey, St. Paul 

2d Vice-President .Tames E. North, Columbus 

Secretary. Clarence S. Paine, Lincoln 

Treasurer Stephen L. Geisthardt, Lincoln 

The following amendments to the Constitution, recom- 
mended by the Executive Board, were then presented by the 
Secretary and ordered laid upon Hie table: 



First — To amend article IV, second paragraph, by striking 
out "upon signing blank membership form, furnished by the 
Secretary/ 7 and substituting therefor the following: "pro- 
vided further, that any person donating to the Society prop- 
erty to the value of $5 shall be entitled to active membership 
without payment of membership fee, and be considered an 
active member during the continuance of such loan, without 
payment of fee." 

Second — To amend article IV, third paragraph, by striking 
out the words "the Secretary shall furnish each life member 
with an engraved certificate of the same, suitable for fram- 
ing/' and substituting therefor the words "said life member- 
ship shall entitle the holder to all the privileges of the So- 
ciety, including the right to vote, and to receive publications 
without the payment of membership fee or other dues." 

Third— To amend article IV, paragraph four, by adding 
the following : "The Secretary shall furnish' each member 
an engraved certificate of membership, suitable for framing." 

Fourth — To amend article IV by the addition of another 
paragraph as follows : "Any society in Nebraska, organized 
for the purpose of gathering and preserving facts relative to 
the history of this state and of its individual citizens, may, 
upon application, become an auxiliary member of this So- 
ciety, be represented at all general meetings thereof by one 
delegate, and make a report of its Avork annually to this 

Fifth — To amend article V, fourth paragraph, by strik- 
ing out the words "shall collect and." 

Sixth— To amend article V, fifth paragraph, by inserting 
after the word "correspondence" the following: "he shall col- 
lect all membership fees or other moneys due to the Society, 
and turn the same over to the Treasurer, taking his receipt 

The regular program was then presented as follows : 

Piano solo Miss Marilla Hunter 

Address, "The Part of Iowa in the Organization of Ne- 
braska," ......Horace E. Deemer 



Vocal solo , . . Mrs. Kittie Austin Ayls worth 

Address, "The Last Battle Between the Pawnee and 

Sioux in Nebraska" William Z. Taylor 

The meeting was then, by the President, declared ad- 

Clarence S. Paine, 



Members of the Nebraska State Historical Society: 

In submitting this, my first annual report, I do it with a 
feeling that, however much has been accomplished in the past 
year, it must seem little indeed when compared with what 
remains to be done to place this Society in that commanding 
position among similar institutions which it ought to occupy. 

My predecessors in office laid well the foundation for a 
great historical library and museum, and the citizens of Ne- 
braska owe to them, for their self -sacrificing labors, a debt 
which will never be liquidated. Considering the small ap- 
propriations available and the consequent lack of help and 
of facilities, they assembled an immense quantity of very val- 
uable material, which only needed to be made accessible in 
order to be of inestimable benefit to historians, students, 
scientists, and all investigators. The sorting, arranging, 
classifying, and cataloguing of this material lias been the 
principal work of your present Secretary and his assistants 
during the past months. While it can not be said that flu's 
work is wholly completed, we are at least able to report sub- 
stantial progress. 


The Nebraska State Historical Society was organized in 
1878, but for some years little more was attempted than to 
maintain an organization and hold annual meetings, at which 



historical addresses were delivered. The first volume of 
transactions and reports was issued from the press in 1885. 
During the next eight years a good start was made in the 
collection of Nebraska newspapers and in the accumulation 
of a library. There were also published, during this period, 
three more volumes of transactions and reports. In 1895, 
with an increased appropriation and the opening of the new 
rooms provided by the University, which it then seemed would 
afford ample accommodations for years to come, the work of 
the Society took on new life and vigor. Rapid progress was 
made in the next few years, and the biennial appropriations 
increased from f 1,000 in 1883 to f 10,000 in 1901, and alto- 
gether ten volumes of publications had been issued, the last 
of these appearing in July, 1902. No more volumes were 
published until 1906 when a start was made on the series 
known as "The Debates and Proceedings in the Nebraska 
Constitutional Conventions." The first volume of this series 
appeared in January, 1907, the second will soon be delivered, 
and the third is partly in type. There will be four volumes 
of this series. The present volume of Proceedings and Col- 
lections is designated Yol. X, Second Series, to make allow- 
ance for the two volumes of the constitutional series yet to 


Among the special lines of work which we have undertaken 
during the year may be mentioned the following: the organ- 
izing and cataloguing of the library and museum ; the invoic- 
ing, classifying, and arranging of our exchange material ; the 
providing of a complete system of permanent financial rec- 
ords; the reorganization of the Nebraska Territorial Pioneers' 
Association and the building up of its membership; the ac- 
quisition of new members for the Historical Society and the 
correction of its membership roll; and the preparation of a 
miscellaneous volume covering the proceedings of the So- 
ciety from 1901 to 1907 inclusive. The accomplishment of 
these things has led to the doing of many others of minor con- 



sequence, which in the end will result in great good to the 

We have also given special attention to the establishment 
of friendly relations and the perfecting of exchange arrange- 
ments with the historical societies of other states. An espe- 
cial effort has been made to get into personal touch with all 
of these societies, to keep in constant communication with 
them, and to effect the exchange of such duplicate material 
as we have accumulated for such as might be had from these 
various societies. Your Secretary has personally and very 
largely at his own expense visited all of the societies of neigh- 
boring states and made himself familiar with their plans and 
purposes. These visits have tended to the establishment of a 
closer relationship with these societies, which can but result 
in good to our work in the future. 

In line with this idea, an invitation was extended some 
months ago to the secretaries or librarians of all the historical 
societies of the Mississippi valley to meet in Lincoln, October 
17-18, 1907, for the purpose of forming an organization for 
the advancement of historical research, and the collection 
and conservation of historical material in these western 
states. In response to this invitation there assembled in Lin- 
coln on the dates named the representatives of several of the 
most progressive of these societies. A formal meeting was 
held in the University Chapel, and several business sessions 
were held at the rooms of the Historical Society, which re- 
sulted in the organization of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Association, which held its second meeting in Madison, Wis- 
consin, December 28, 1907. 


From 1902 to 1907 the efforts of the Board and its officers 
seem to have been devoted chiefly to the work of securing a 
new and permanent home for the library and collections of 
the Society, although progress was made in. building up the 
museum during these years. Little encouragement was given 
the building proposition until the last legislature made an 


appropriation of $25,000 "to be expended in tire construction 
and equipment of the basement story of a fireproof wing of a 
building/ 7 provided that the city of Lincoln within two years 
from the date of the act should donate to the State Historical 
Society block 29 in the city of Lincoln, known as "State His- 
torical Society Block, or property of equal value." This act 
was approved by the Governor April 10, 1907, and became 
effective July 1 following. Soon after the passage of the act, 
committees were appointed by your Board of Directors and 
by the city council of Lincoln for the purpose of devising 
some plan to comply with the provisions of the act. One 
joint meeting was held by these committees, which resulted 
only in revealing the fact that there was pronounced opposi- 
tion on the part of the city government, backed by a consid- 
erable public sentiment, against conveying to the Historical 
Society Market Square or any part thereof. Therefore ; if the 
Historical Society is to benefit by this act, it is incumbent 
upon the city of Lincoln to provide some other "property of 
equal value." 

While cooperating to secure the block now knoAvn as Mar- 
ket Square for the site of the proposed Hall of History and 
Archives, because there were those who seemed favorable to 
this location, your Secretary is and has been from the first 
opposed to this site. First and chiefly because of its sur- 
roundings, which do not give promise of improvement; sec- 
ond, because the continued insistence upon this site, and the 
attempt to array Omaha and the country districts against 
Lincoln, is liable to alienate a very large number of influen- 
tial friends, and possibty defeat any effort to secure another 
site ; third, as a citizen and taxpayer of Lincoln he is opposed 
to giving to the Historical Society a block of ground that is 
worth for commercial uses f 50,000, w^hen other properties of 
equal if not greater value for the purposes of the Society 
are to be had for much less money. This matter can well be 
left to our public-spirited Mayor and business-like Council 
to provide a site conforming to the law, and that in ample 
time to make use of the appropriation before it lapses. This 


much confidence may be placed in the intelligence, public 
spirit, and civic pride of Lincoln public officials and 


The varied activities of the Nebraska State Historical So- 
ciety and the great variety and scope of its enterprises are 
indicated by the folloAving divisions into which the work un- 
dertaken by the Society naturally divides itself: 




. Museum. 


Field work. 


. Legislative Beferenee Bureau. 


Newspaper collection. 

Sixth . 

Publication of volumes, pamphlets, 

" circulars, etc. 


. Bureau of exchanges and distribu- 

tion of publications' 

Eighth . 

Care of duplicate material for ex- 

change purposes. 


Extension work for the Society. 

Tenth . 

Entertainment of visitors. 


. Correspondence and bookkeeping. 


. Business management. 

Thirteenth . 

. Preparation of annual program. 


Research work. 

Fifteenth . 

. Daily care of rooms and collections. 


The erection of monuments or other- 

wise marking historic spots. 

These divisions may be subdivided in turn, until the amount 
of work shown to be necessary would seem almost disheart- 
ening in view of the limited number of employees. In a word, 
the work of the Society has grown out of all proportion to (he 
ratio of increase in the appropriations, and if Nebraska is to 
maintain her place and reputation among the sisterhood of 
states in this work of preserving the present for ( he future, 


two things are absolutely necessary : first, a commodious fire- 
proof building; second, appropriations for maintenance large 
enough to enable the Society to do the work for which it was 

The character and variety of this work is well illustrated 
by a few of the requests, selected at random, from among the 
hundreds received by the Secretary the last feAV months. 

A prominent member of the Woman's Club of Hastings, 
Nebraska, wants material for the preparation of a paper on 
the early explorations in the Nebraska country. 

A pioneer lady of Falls City wants to know where she can 
find personal reminiscences of early Nebraska. 

The Secretary of the Nemaha County Historical Society 
wants a photograph of a distinguished pioneer of that county. 

A citizen of Cass county inquires by long distance tele- 
phone the date of the great blizzard in Nebraska. 

An attorney of Dundy county, Nebraska, requests by first 
mail a certified copy of a legal notice appearing in a paper 
of that county several years ago. 

A high school girl of Hall county, Nebraska, wants data 
concerning the early settlement of that county. 

The Governor of the state forwards a request from an east- 
ern magazine for a historical sketch of Nebraska. 

An eastern publication requests biographical sketches of 
several leading Nebraskans, by first mail. 

A Chicago lawyer wants information concerning one of the 
early judges of Nebraska territory. 

A prominent lady of Nebraska, a member of the Society 
and a taxpayer, requests the assistance of the Society in 
tracing her genealogy. 

A gentleman of New York city wants a pamphlet issued 
by the department of education of Nebraska in 1898. 

These and other requests of like character follow each 
other so closely that a good stenographer can be kept busy 
writing letters explaining to these people the reasons why 
the Historical Society can not do the work for which it is 
supposed to exist, 




Your special attention is directed to the report of the Li- 
brarian, which shows a total of 28,550 titles in the library, 
consisting of western history, description, and travel, colonial 
records, government and state departmental reports, genea- 
logical publications, the reports of antiquarian, anthropolog- 
ical, historical, genealogical, and scientific societies; state, 
county, and town histories; bound magazines; a varied col- 
lection by Nebraska authors, and miscellaneous volumes cov- 
ering nearly the whole range of regular library classification. 
In addition to the books and pamphlets, the library has ac- 
quired many rare manuscripts, documents, and maps, and 
many portraits and biographies of Nebraskans. 

This report also shows that the Society has exchanged, 
during the past year, 900 duplicate volumes for 1,400 volumes 
that have been added to the library, and that there are now 
on hand, for exchange purposes, 25,115 duplicates. These 
duplicates may be readily exchanged for almost anything in 
the book line that may be needed for the library. 

In the purchase of books during the past year we have lim- 
ited ourselves to those which it was absolutely necessary that 
our library should have, leaving out of the question those 
that could be had at any time, and selecting only those which, 
because of their rarity, must be secured at once, in order to 
make sure of their acquisition. 

You will note that a total of only $245.80 has been expended 
for books for the library during the year. It has been the 
judgment of your Secretary, approved by the library com- 
mittee, that we should seek to make the books we had access 
ible before buying new ones. The library committee has been 
especially active and helpful during the year. 

Among those making valuable donations to the library dur- 
ing the past year are N. O. Abbott, Tekamah ; John L. Pierce, 
Lincoln; Hon. H. M. Eaton, Lincoln; Gov. George L. Shel- 
don; Mrs. E. C. Baker, Miller; Dr. David Hershey, Nebraska 



City; William Hayward, Nebraska City; S. A. Gardiner, 
Lincoln; W. J. Eyestone, Lincoln; Miss Emma Morton, Ne- 
braska City; Mrs. Caroline Morton, Nebraska City; Mrs. 
Agnes D. Chapman, Plattsmouth; M. L. Learned, Omaha; 
Charles K. Ott, Tekamah; Horace S. Wiggins, Lincoln; and 
Richard L. Metcalfe, Lincoln. 


The museum is the most popular feature of the work of the 
Historical Society. It is a conservative estimate to say that 
80 per cent of all the visitors to the Society come for the ex- 
press purpose of viewing the museum. These visitors are not 
limited to residents of Lincoln, nor even of Nebraska, but rep- 
resent many states of the Union, and even foreign countries. 
The museum, which contains approximately 28,100 objects, is 
free to visitors, and is open from 8 :00 a.m. to 5 :00 p.m. each 
week day. The assembled relics are very largely donations 
from patriotic citizens, or loans placed with the Society for 

Mr. Blackman has finished during the past year a complete 
catalogue of the articles in the museum, which is appended to 
his report and is included in this volume. Mr. Iilackman's 
report, which you are asked to read, covers in review prac- 
tically all of the work accomplished by this department since 
its organization under his direction. Mr. George W. Martin, 
secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, in his re- 
port for 1907, just received, says: "I find Nebraska away 
ahead of Kansas in areheological and ethnological matters." 
This is a very high commendation coming from one who is so 
familiar with the great work that has been done by the Kan- 
sas Society. • 

Larger quarters are imperative for the work of this depart- 
ment, and unless they are soon provided the interests of the 
Society will materially suffer. Because of our inability to 
receive and care for numerous collections of historical relics 



and curios that have been offered, many local museums haA^e 
been established in county courthouses, under the auspices 
of county historical societies; and if this policy is continued, 
it will mean a great number of museums distributed over the 
state, instead of one great collection here in the capital city, 
where it will be easy of access to all the people. 


The field work of the Society, which has been under the 
direction of Mr. Addison E, Sheldon, might easily occupy the 
time of half a dozen men, and if properly carried out would 
mean an expenditure of a large sum of money annually for 
traveling expenses. All of the state institutions should be 
visited from time to time, and periodical visits should be made 
to all of the county seats to secure such records as the lav/ 
provides may be turned over to this Society as custodian. 

All over the state public records are being destroyed that 
would be of very great value to future historians, and other 
public documents of far greater value are in constant danger 
from loss by fire, stored as they often are in the basements of 
frame buildings. 

Your Secretary has taken this matter up with various 
county boards, and nearly all have been found entirely will- 
ing to turn over these archives to the Historical Society, it be- 
ing simply a question of our ability to send a man to sort, 
box, and ship them, and to find a place to store them upon 
their arrival here. This latter problem will be solved only 
with the erection of a new building. 

Another phase of the work, properly coming under this 
head, is the gathering of old libraries, original manuscripts, 
correspondence, and portraits of distinguished Nebraskans, 
who have been prominent in the public life of the common- 
wealth. Some work has been done along this line by Mr. 
Sheldon, the most notable illustration of which has been the 
acquisition of the correspondence and papers of the late 



Judge Maxwell. . Your Secretary has also beeu able to re- 
cently secure the correspondence and papers of the late Judge 
Samuel M. Chapman of Plattsuiouth. 


Under the direction of Mr. Addison E. Sheldon, this bureau 
rendered faithful service to the members of the last legisla- 
ture, a room in the capitol building being provided for its use 
during the session. NeAV material is constantly being added, 
especially upon such subjects as will likely receive the atten- 
tion of the next legislature. Leave of absence was granted 
Mr. Sheldon from October 1, 1907, to June 1, 1908, to pursue 
studies in Columbia University, the work of the department 
being left to his assistant, Mr. William E. Hannan. 

The organization of this bureau, as a separate and distinct 
department of the Historical Society, under a secretary, with 
full power to employ his own assistants, contract any in- 
debtedness, and do all things necessary to the conduct of the 
department is not likely to prove entirely satisfactory in 
practice. In the judgment of your Secretary this bureau 
should not be conducted as an independent enterprise at the 
expense of the Historical Society, but the work should be left 
to the Society itself. It is well to avoid the machinery of a 
separate department, which is certain to lead to confusion, 
conflict of authority, and duplication of material. 

The state of Wisconsin was the first to establish a legisla- 
tive reference department, and what has come to be known 
as the "Wisconsin plan" has been largely copied in other 
states. In Wisconsin this department is maintained in the 
capital, and is under the control of the free library commis- 
sion of that state. It may yet be found advisable to place the 
work in this state under the direction of the Nebraska Public 
Library Commission, or establish it upon an independent 
basis in such manner as to insure its freedom from partisan 
bias or manipulation. 



to be honored by a place in this collection. This committee 
is composed of Mrs. A. J. Sawyer, Lincoln; Hon. Melville K. 
Hopewell, Tekamah; Francis E. White, Omaha. 

The Society has at this time framed portraits of the 
following : 

Hon. J. Sterling Morton. 
Dr. George L. Miller. 
Gov. Robert W. Furnas. 
Gen. John M. Thayer. 
Gov. David Butler. 
Gov. Alvin Saunders. 
Gov. Thomas B. Cuming. 
Gov. George L. Sheldon. 

Hon. William J. Bryan. 
Mrs. William J. Bryan. 
Gov. James E. Boyd. 
Gov. William A. Poynter. 
Hon. Elmer S. Dundy. 
Hon. Genio M. Lambert son, 
Hon. John Gillespie. 
Hon. Stephen B. Poun^ 

It is hoped that this number may be doubled during the 
coming year. 

An especial effort should be made to secure enlarged por- 
traits of all the governors of the territory and state. Aside 
from the historical value of such pictures, there is no feature 
of the work which will attract more general attention and 
commendation than a collection of these portraits. 

The Society has many photographs of pioneers, lantern 
slides, and numerous views of historic scenes, and in many 
cases owns also the original negatives. These photographs, 
lantern slides, and negatives, to the number of 1,200, have 
been systematically arranged in filing cabinets and a card 
catalogue made of the whole. 


There is an endless amount of research work along his- 
torical and scientific lines that might, and perhaps ought to 
be, undertaken by this Society. Your present Secretary is 
not opposed to this line of work, but on ITie contrary is en- 
thusiastically in favor of it. He believes that this work, 
when undertaken, should be done by members of the office 

REPORT OF seOreTary i907. 


staff, for and in the name of the State Historical Society, and 
that the Society should publish the results of such research. 
He is not, however, in favor of members of the office staff de- 
voting time which is paid for by the Historical Society to 
work of this character, for and in the name of other institu- 
tions, for a pecuniary consideration. While he believes in 
advertising the work of the State Historical Society and the 
scholarly ability of its corps of workers, he does not believe 
that salaried employees of the Society should devote any part 
of their time, during office hours, to work which is undertaken 
for their personal financial gain. 


The work of this organization is so closely allied with the 
work of the Nebraska State Historical Society that it has 
been the practice in the past to conduct its business from the 
office of the Historical Society, the necessary expenses of the 
Association being paid out of the funds of the Society. Your 
Secretary, as Secretary-Treasurer of the Territorial Pioneers' 
Association, has been able, through the accession of neAV mem- 
bers, to defray most of the expenses of the Pioneers' Associa- 
tion from the treasury of that organization, and the Asso- 
ciation is in a fair way to become self-supporting. 

On August 30-31 the Territorial Pioneers' executive com- 
mittee planned for and carried out a celebration, picnic, and 
banquet, which exceeded in point of interest and attendance 
any similar meeting ever held in Lincoln. There were 212 
who partook of the banquet at Capital Beach ; sixty-five mem- 
bers were added to the Pioneers' Association, and twenty- 
seven to the State Historical Society. An engraved certifi- 
cate of membership has been provided for the Territorial 
Pioneers' Association, which will be paid for out of the funds 
now in its treasury. It is recommended that there be pub- 
lished in the next volume of Proceedings and Collections the 
official proceedings of the Territorial Pioneers' Association 
with the constitution and roster of that organization. 




In this connection your attention is directed to the report 
of Mr. Kobert Harvey, chairman of the special committee on 
marking historic sites, which is made a part of this report. 
The importance of erecting monuments to mark the Oregon 
Trail and other historic spots in Nebraska has frequently 
been discussed in the meetings of this Society, and much in- 
terest has been created in the subject throughout the state. 
But two monuments have been erected, one on the. Platte 
river opposite Fremont, placed by the Historical Society to 
mark the site where the first council was held by representa- 
tives of the territorial government of Nebraska with the 
Pawnee tribe of Indians, in 1855. The other monument was 
erected at Ft. Calhoun by this Society and the Daughters of 
the American Eevolution, to commemorate the council held 
by Lewis and Clark with the Indians at Council Bluff in 
1804. There are several other points in Nebraska where mon- 
uments should be erected, such as the grave of Logan Fon- 
tenelle, the site of the Merrill mission building on the Platte 
river, the site of Manuel Lisa's trading post near the old vil- 
lage of Rockport, and the plat of ground formerly occupied 
by Ft. Kearny. Markers should also be placed all along the 
line of the Oregon Trail and the old Mormon Trail. 

New interest has been aroused in this subject by the recent 
activities along these lines in the state of Kansas. The peo- 
ple of Kansas have erected many monuments, but no work 
of this character which they have yet undertaken approaches 
in importance the marking of the Santa Fe trail across that 
state. This has been accomplished by the Daughters of the 
American Revolution working with the State Historical So- 
ciety of Kansas. The Kansas legislature appropriated $1,000 
to aid the work, and a penny collection taken among the 
school children netted $584.40. The markers were of Okla- 
homa red granite, and cost, including the lettering, $16 each; 
they were delivered free- of cost by the Santa Fe railroad to 



all points along its lines. The citizens of the twenty-one 
counties through which the trail lay undertook, at their own 
expense, to set these markers. With this assistance and the 
money received from the legislature and the school children, 
it was possible to erect ninety markers at a cost of about $17 
each. There were also six special markers, paid for by local 
chapters of the D. A. E., making a total of ninety-six monu- 
ments erected along that historic trail. 

The result of these efforts led the President of this Society 
to open negotiations with the Daughters of the American 
Kevolution in this state, with a view to arriving at some plan 
of cooperation for marking these important trails in Ne- 
braska. The Nebraska conference of the D. A. R. adopted a 
resolution authorizing the state regent to "appoint a com- 
mittee to cooperate with the State Historical Society in en- 
deavoring to permanently mark the Oregon Trail through 
Nebraska." Mrs. A. H. Lettou, state regent, appointed as 
such committee, Mrs. J. J. Stubbs, Omaha; Mrs. S. B. Pound, 
Lincoln; and Mrs. G. H. Brash, Beatrice. This committee 
will soon meet with representatives of the Historical Society 
to discuss plans for this important work. 

Your attention is called to a recommendation of President 
Miller, that this Society cooperate in the plan to establish a 
national park and reserve, embracing the site of historic Fort 
Kearny. This proposition has received the endorsement of 
your board of directors, and Mr. A. E. Sheldon was author- 
ized to prepare the following memorial to Congress to be 
presented at this meeting, in the hope that some affirmative 
action might be taken at once. 


To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

Whereas, Fort Kearny, Nebraska, founded in 1848, was 
for many years the principal frontier defense of settlers and 



the great station upon the overland trail from the Missouri 
river to the mountains and to California and Oregon and, 

Whereas, there still remain earthworks and fortifications 
upon the site of the fort marking its location, associated with 
these memories of the d&ys when they were constructed and , 
in use; and, 

Whereas, a movement is now on foot for the establishment 
of a United States Reservation at this point, therefore, 

The Nebraska State Historical Society respectfully 
petitions Congress to permanently preserve and commem- 
orate this spot around whose early military existence and 
achievements so many associations of the national life 

There have of late years been organized many county his- 
torical societies, and numerous local associations of old set- 
tlers. Your Secretary believes that it should be the policy 
of this Society to encourage these local societies, establish 
and maintain the closest relations possible with them, and 
that some permanent form of affiliation should be planned. 
It is recommended also that officers of this Society and mem- 
bers of the office staff be sent to represent the Society at all 
public gatherings of pioneers ; to deliver addresses whenever 
invitations may be received, and to do everything possible to 
bind these organizations to the state society. 

The following deaths have occurred among the members 
of the Nebraska State Historical Society since the date of the 



last report published 

Adair, William. 

Brunei*, Uriah. 

Annin, William E. 
Ball, Franklin. 

Blakeley, Nathan. 
Cox, William W. 
Craig, Hiram. 

Bowen, William R. 
Bowers, William D. 

Croxton, John II. 



Chapman, Samuel M. 
Clark, Elias H. 
Cox, Samuel D. 
Davis, William R. 
Darling, Charles W. 
Fort, Irvin A. 
Furnas, Robert W. 
Garber, Gov. Silas. 
Gere, Charles H. 
Gilmore, Benjamin. 
Godfrey, Alfonso. 
Gould, Cnarles H. 
Goudy, Alexander K. 
Grey, Jennie Emerson. 
Hartman, Christian. 
Hoover, William H. 
Jones, Alfred D. 
Kountze, Herman. , 
Lemon, Thomas B. 
Learning, Silas T. 
LaMaster, Joseph E. 
Lamb, Charles. 
Lambertson, Genio M. 
Link, Dr. Harvey. 
Longsdorf, Henry A. 
Lowe, S. E. 
Martin, W. F. 
MacCuaig, Donald. 
MacMurphy, John A. 

Macfarland, John D. 
Mathewson, Dr. H. B. 
Maxwell, Judge Samuel. 
Morgan. Thomas P. 
Morin, Edward. 
Morton, J. Sterling. 
Mclntyre, Edmund. 
Pierce, Capt. Charles W. 
Parker, W. IT. 
Richards, Lucius C. 
Rosewater, Edward. 
Rice, C. E. 

Richards, Mrs. Mazie Boone. 
Rolfe, DeForest P. 
Shedd, Hibbard H. 
Sprick, Henry. 
Sydenham, Moses IT. 
Spearman, Frank H. 
Thayer, Gov. John M. 
Tibbies, Mrs Yosette La 

Treeman, Lucian B. 
Upton, Samuel E. 
Vifquain, Victor. 
Williams, Oliver T. B. 
Woohvorth, James M. 
Waters, Frank R. 
Westerfield, Samuel F. 

Brief biographical notices of these deceased members will 
be published in the next volume. 


As nearly as can be determined from the records, there are 
446 active members of the Society, 80 honorary members and 




66 deceased persons who have been elected to membership in 
the Society. Two hundred and fonr persons have been elected 
to active membership during the year just past, of whom 175 
have paid their membership fee. During the early years the 
records were not very carefully kept, and it is no uncommon 
thing to find persons whom the records show to have been 
elected to membership, and who claim to have paid their fee to 
some one at some time. The names of many of these, how- 
ever, never got on to the treasurer's books, and we have 
thought it best to accept their statements in the absence of 
any proof of their error. There are many, too, whose names- 
appear upon the records as having been elected to membership 
who do not even claim to have paid their membership fee. 
These Ave have eliminated from the membership roll. Many 
who have been elected to active membership and have paid 
their fee have, by their removal from the state, forfeited their 
claim to active membership in the Society. 

The constitution makes it the duty of the Secretary to pro- 
vide an engraved certificate of membership to be furnished 
to each life member. This made it necessary that such a 
certificate should be provided, and as the principal cost is in 
the engraving, it is recommended that a certificate of mem- 
bership be furnished to all members of the Society. 


A complete system of financial records has been provided 
for the Society under the direction of Mr. Horace S. Wig- 
gins. This will enable those in authority to keep a better 
check upon expenditures, to equalize the expenses of the 
various departments, and to prevent any Overdrafts. It will 
enable the Board of Directors to have positive knowledge at 
all times of the exact financial condition of the Society. 

The last legislature made an appropriation of $15,000 for 
the Avork of the Society for the biennium. This was an in- 
crease of f 2,500 over the appropriation of the last biennium. 
In addition to this there was also appropriated |25,000 for a 


building fund, contingent upon a site being donated by the 
city of Lincoln. This latter appropriation will lapse August 
1, 1909. 

Of the general appropriation of 1907, there has been ex- 
pended from April 1, 1907, to January 1, 1908, a total of 
|4,864.83, leaving a balance of $ 10,135.17 for the remaining 
fifteen months of the biennium. 

To obtain the amount of the actual expense of the year 
there should be deducted from the total expenditures, as 
shown in the following statement, the sum of $462.46, the 
amount of indebtedness against the Historical Society due 
and unpaid on January 1, 1907. 


Cash in hands of Treasurer, January 

1, 1907 , $ 228 79 

Balance of 1905 general appropria- 
tion unexpended January 1, 1.907 . . 1,276 56 

Appropriation 1907, available April 

1, 1907 : 15,000 00 

Total $16,505 35 

Receipts January 1 to December 31, 1907 — 

Membership fees $ 272 00 

Sale of books 12 50 

$ 284 50 

Total $16,789 85 

Expenditures from January 1 to December 31, 1907 — 

Salaries . . . .$ 3,436 42 

Postage 150 56 

Express . 146 49 

Freight and drayage 70 17 

Telephone and telegraph 78 97 

Traveling expenses 131 85 

Extra labor 839 87 

Books purchased 245 80 



Expenditures — Con. 

Printing f 99 80 

Binding newspapers 128 30 

Photography 142 87 

Stationery and office supplies . . . 300 36 

Annual and board meetings. ... 26 96 

Furniture and fixtures 287 34 

Miscellaneous expenses ; 296 98 

Total expenditure # 6,382 74 

Balance $10,407 11 

Cash in hands .of Treasurer $ 271 94 

Unexpended balance of 1907 appro- 
priation 10,135 17 

Total available funds ~~ $10,407 11 

Special appropriation of 1905 for 
printing proceedings of consti- 
tutional conventions, unex- 
pended January 1, 1907 f 2,500 00 

Amount paid for printing and bind- 
ing same $ 2,500 00 

Departmental distribution of Expenditure — 

Historical Society $ 1,288 99 

Legislative Reference Bureau . . . 2,577 98 

Museum 1,055 25 

Library 1,104 28 

Newspapers . 160 80 

Undistributed salaries 173 26 

Territorial Pioneers 22 18 

Total f 6,382 74 

I hereby certify that 1 have examined the records, vouch- 
ers, and books of accounts of the Nebraska State Historical 
Society for the year ending December 31, 1907, and from the 
same have compiled the above financial statement, and that 
the same is correct. 

EL S. Wiggins, 

Public Accountant. 

December 31, 1907. 



Note.— The item "Historical Society $1,288.99" includes 
charges not properly chargeable to some particular depart- 
ment of the Historical Society. The item "Legislative Refer- 
ence Bureau $2,577.98" includes salaries of A. E. Sheldon and 
W. E. Hannan, although their time lias not been devoted ex- 
clusively to that department. The item "Library $1,104.28" 
includes the amount paid to an expert librarian for the cata- 
loguing and indexing of books and pamphlets contained in 
the library, also the salary of the Librarian. 


Your Executive Board has held four regular meetings, and 
one special meeting during the year. Each meeting has been 
held at the appointed time, with a quorum present for the 
transaction of business. Your Secretary has had the most 
cordial cooperation of the Board and its officers in everything 
undertaken for the good of the Society. The promptness and 
business-like methods of your Treasurer have been very help- 
ful to the Secretary in his work. In this connection it is 
recommended that the constitution be so amended as to re- 
lieve the Treasurer of the duty of collecting membership fees, 
which no treasurer can undertake to do without sufficient 
compensation. It should be the duty of the Secretary to col- 
lect these fees and turn them over to the Treasurer, taking 
his receipt therefor. 

A large part of the work of the Historical Society, such as 
the management of its business affairs, the disposal of its 
correspondence, the orderly direction of the work in the 
various departments, the entertainment of visitors, the ex- 
amination of catalogues, and the purchase of books, and the 
daily care of rooms and collections, can not be measured in 
words. These things, of the first importance in the right con- 
duct of any such institution, could easily occupy the whole 
time and thought of one person, and to these duties your 
Secretary has given his personal attention. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Clarence S. Pa ink. 


Adopted January 14, 1908. 





To the Officers and Members of the Nebraska State Historical 

I hereby respectfully submit my report as Treasurer for 
the year ending January 1, 1908. 

I am to be charged with the receipts and disbursements 
shown in detail on the schedule hereunto annexed, as follows: 



January 16, balance on hand in National 

Bank of Commerce . . . , . $228 79 


January 1, receipts for membership fees 
and sundries as per schedule since said 
date 281 50 

Total receipts $513 29 



Cash paid on warrants as per schedule 

hereunto annexed and accompanying 

vouchers $238 35 

Balance in National Bank of Commerce 

per check herewith . 274 94 

I submit herewith bank book duly balanced, and vouchers, 
and check to the order of the Society for the balance on hand. 
Dated this 1st day of January, 1908. 

S. L, Geisthardt, 


Adopted January 14, 1908. 






January 17, balance on hand per last re- 

January 17, R, S. Cooley, Waver] y, mem- • 
bership fee 2 00 

January 17, J. C. Byrnes, Columbus, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

January 17, M. L. Blackburn, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

January 17, Louis R. Smith, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2, 00 

January 17, J. W. Outright, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

January 17, H. S. Wiggins, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee . 2 00 

January 17, Ada I. Culver, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

January 17, John Franklin, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

January 17, H. E. Heath, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee " 2 00 

January 17, D. C. Heifernan, Hubbard, 

membership fee 2 00 

January 17, Ida Duffield Wiggins, Lincoln, 

membership fee . . . . 2 00 

February 5, Samuel B. Iiams, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

February 5, E. E. Lyle, Wahoo, member- 
ship fee ' 2 00 

February 5, G. W. Brown, Jr., Lincoln, 

membership fee v 2 00 

February 9, A. P. Kempton, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 


February 9, Edgar A. Burnett, Lincoln, 
bership fee f 2 00 

March 15, G. S. Paine, Lincoln, sales 3 50 

March 21, John P. LocTer, Waverly, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

March 27, Philip Gleim, Danbury, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

April 15, E. C. Hurd, Lincoln, member- 
ship fee ' 2 00 

April 18, J. W. Gilbert, Friend, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

April 22, Leslie G. Hurd, Harvard, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

April 22, C. H. Aldrich, David City, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

April 22, W. J. Harmon, Fremont, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

April 23, Francis E. Wolcott, Lincoln, • 
membership fee 2 00 

May 10, John W. Steinhardt, Nebraska 

City, membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Mrs. Caroline Morton, Nebraska 

City, membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Mrs. Irene S. Morton, Nebraska 

City, membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Mrs. John W. Steinhardt, Ne- 
braska City, membership fee 2 00 

May 10, E. F. Warren, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Charles H. Busch, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Paul. Jessen, Nebraska City, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

May 10, Wm. Hayward, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Geo. W. ITawke, Nebraska City, 
membership fee 2 00 


May 10, C. N. Karstens, Nebraska City, 
membership fee $ 2 00 

May 10, E. D. Garrow, Nebraska City, 
membership fee 2 00 

May 10, Edgar Clayton, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

May 10, W. J. Bryan, Lincoln, member- 
ship, fee 2 00 

May 10, Mrs. Isabel Kichey, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

May 16, Eichard A. Hawley, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

May 16, James H. Cook, Agate, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

May 16, Harold J. Cook, Agate, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

May 16, Harry C. Ingles, Pleasant Dale, 
membership fee : 2 00 

May 16, Gilbert L. Cole, Beatrice, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

May 16, Henry F. Wyman, Omaha, mem- 
bership fee , 2 00 

May 22, Thomas R. Prey, Jr., Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 11, Rev. Emmanuel Hartig, Nebraska 

City, membership fee 2 00 

June 11, Charles W. Pierce, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 11, Ernst Guenzel, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 11, Frank McCartney, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 11, N. A. Duff, Nebraska City, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

June 11, Miss Mary S. Wilson, Nebraska 

City, membership fee N 2 00 

314 Nebraska state historical society. 

June 11, R. M. Rolfe, Nebraska City, mem- 
bership fee ... . | 2 00 

June 11, Miss Emma Morton, Nebraska 

City, membership fee 2 00 

June 24, Mrs. W. J. Bryan, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

June 28, Mrs. G. B. Simpkins, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

June 28, Mrs. F. M. Hall, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

July 9, J. B. Haynes, Omaha, membership 

fee 2 00 

July 9, G. A. Eberly, Stanton, membership 

fee 2 00 

July 13, A. W. Hindman, Chester, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

July 13, Joseph W. Johnson, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

July 13, W. S. Houseworth, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

July 13, Ellery H. Westerneld, Omaha, 

membership fee 2 00 

July 19, T. L. Cole, Washington, D. C, 

membership fee 2 00 

July 19, Dr. J. H. Hnkill, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee ' 2 00 

July 19, Mrs. Theresa Neff, Nebraska City, 

membership fee 2 00 

July 30, Clarence Iinigh, Firth, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

July 30, Elmer W. Brown, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee ." 2 00 

August G, C. C. Cobb, York, membership 

fee 2 00 

August 6, P. O'Mahony, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee ' 2 00 

August 6, Harry Porter, Lincoln, member- 
ship fee 2 00 


August 6, Dr. W. K. Loughridge, Milford, 

membership fee $ 2 00 

August 31, Mrs. John S. Eeed, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

August 31, John S. Keed, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee . 2 00 

August 31, Martin W. Dimery, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, 0. G. Cone, University Place, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, John Schwyn, Grand Island, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, J. W. Wamberg, Grand Is- 
land, membership fee 2 00 

September 6, James McGeachin, Orleans, 
- membership fee . 2 00 

September 6, J. E. Taylor, Neligh, mem- 
bership fee r 2 00 

September 6, Henry V. Hoagland, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Mrs. Louisa Collins, Kearney, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Mrs. Kate P. Fodrea, Lin- 
coln, membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Albert Hasebrook, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Lou L. E. Stewart, Omaha, 

membership fee . 2 00 

September 6, Wm. H. Bobbins, Beatrice, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Morris C. Stull, 'Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Mrs. Morris C. Stull, Lin- 
coln, membership fee. 2 00 

September 6, Samuel F. Westerfleld, Lin- 
coln, membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Absalom N. Yost, Omaha, 
membership fee 2 00 


September 6, Harry J. Hall, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee ; | 2 00 

September 6, Mrs. Henry A. LaSelle, Bea- 
trice, membership fee 2 00 

September 6, Wallace L. Crandall, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 16, Geo. E. Buell, Murdock, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 16, Louis F. Fryar, Clay Center, 

membership fee 2 00 

September 16, Theodore Ojendyke, Ash- 
ton, membership fee 2 00 

October 21, Key. Wm. H. Frost, Fremont, 
membership fee 2 00 

October 21, John Halldorson, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

October 21, C. S. Paine, Lincoln, sales. . . 1 50 

October 25, F. W. Brown, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

October 28, O. P. Foale, Table Rock, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

October 28, A. E. Hildebrand, Gretna, 

membership fee 2 00 

October 28, S. Doty, McCook, membership 

fee 2 00 

October 28, Lucy T. Wood, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

October 28, W. A. Lindly, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

October 28, P. S. Mockett, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

November 6, A. P. Maiben, Palmyra, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

November 6, P. T>. Garver, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

November 6, M. J. Waugh, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 


November 21, W. A. Selleck, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee .$ 2 00 

November 25, Arnold Egger, Sprague, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

November 25, P. A. Truell, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee . . . . 2 00 

November 25, W. H. England, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

November 30, Geo. F. Corcoran, York, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, S. C. Stewart, Axtell, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 2, Edward P. Pyle, Stockville, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, Arthur J. Wray, York, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 2, Griffith J. Thomas, Harvard, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, Ambrose C. Epperson, Clay 

Center, membership fee 2 00 

December 2, C. D. Stoner, Osceola, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 2, J. W. Adams, Curtis, member- 
ship fee 2 00 

December 2, C. M. Brown, Cambridge, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, W. Z. Taylor, Culbertson, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, A. M. Walling, David City, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 2, Mrs. Anna M. B. Kingsley, 

Minden, membership fee 2 00 

December 2, J. N. Norton, Osceola, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 2, Theo. Griess, Harvard, mem- 
bership fee , 2 00 


December 2, Loyal M. Graham, Stockyille, 

membership fee $ 2 00 

December 2, J. S. Canaday, Minden, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 3, Milwaukee city treasurer 

books sold M. C. L 7 50 

December 4, Ross Bates, Springfield, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 10, H. M. Eaton, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 10, George D. Bennett, Lincoln, 
membership fee 2 00 

December 17, A. L. Searle, Lincoln, mem- 
bership fee 2 00 

December 17, G F. Harphani, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 24, W. E. Hannan, Lincoln, mem- 

. bership fee 2 00 

December 24, Miss Eleanor Duffield, Lin- 
coln, membership fee 2 00 

December 24, J. G. P. Hildebrand, Lincoln, 

membership fee 2 00 

December 26, Charles Wake, University 

Place, membership fee 2 00 




January 22, State Journal Co., printing 

programs $ 4 75 

February 18, Simmons the Printer, print- 
ing programs 2 50 

March 1, Columbia National Bank (Jacob 

North & Co.), City Directory L907 5 00 

April 3, Marion Koxsey, salary, March... 32 00 


May 10, C. S. Paine, miscellaneous bills. . .$ 22 52 

May 13, Columbia National Bank (W, E. 

Hannan), services 29 62 

May 24, George L. Miller, expenses 15 30 

May 25, Columbia National Bank (J. E. 

North), expenses 8 66 

May 25, A. E. Sheldon, postage ...... 10 00 

June 5, Columbia National Bank (Abner 

Blue), services 56 50 

June 26, First National Bank (F. E. Jack- 
son ) , services * . 7 00 

June 29, City National Bank (Clara 
Webb ) , services 3 00 

July 1, exchange, David City 10 

November 6, Central National Bank (Jacob 

North & Co.), stationery 6 30 

November 7, First National Bank (J. E. 

Ferris), reporting 5 00 

November 7, National Bank of Commerce 
(Americana Society), American Histori- 
cal Magazine 3 00 

November 11, City National Bank (W. F. 

Thompson), N. Y. Tribune tiles 10 00 

November 21, National Bank of Commerce 

(Ivy Press), printing 12 00 

November 23, M. E. Wheeler (J. E. Fer- - 
ris), reporting 5 00 

December 3, exchange paid 10 

Total |248 35 

Balance in National Bank of Commerce $274 94 




To the Board of Directors of the Nebraska State Historical 

I take pleasure in submitting my report as Librarian of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society, from May 1, 1907, to De- 
cember 31, 1907. 

Perhaps the most important work done during this period 
was the cataloguing of a very large part of the 27,000 vol- 
umes in the library. 

Up to the 1st of last June the library had not been cata- 
logued, organized, or classified except in a general way. The 
present Secretary and Library Committee were very anxious 
to have the library catalogued and put into such shape that 
the material could be used to better advantage. As it was, 
there was no way, outside the memory of those actively con- 
nected with the Society, of telling what material was on hand, 
or of locating things for those who came to use the library. 

When your Librarian assumed her duties, the 1st of May, 
1907, the Board had decided to secure an expert organizer 
and cataloguer for the summer, and do as much as possible 
toward cataloguing the whole library. 

Miss Anna M. Price of the Library School of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois was employed as organizer, and on the tenth 
day of June the work of cataloguing began. Besides Miss 
Price and your Librarian, a young woman was secured to 
typewrite the cards, and during eight and one-half weeks of 
the summer one other assistant was employed. 

For financial and other reasons the library had not received 
as much attention as it needed, and was very dirty. Every 
book was taken from the shelves, the dust wiped off with 
damp cloths, and the shelves washed before the books were 

The work of cataloguing continued from June 10 to Sep- 
tember 4, and during that time 22,000 titles were catalogued 
by the Dewey decimal system of classification. The card cat- 
alogue contains 10,000 typewritten cards, shelf lisl included. 



One room of the library is knoAvn as the Nebraska room. 
It contains all books pertaining to Nebraska, all books writ- 
ten by Nebraska people, and all books of western description 
and travel. Everything in this room was catalogued. 

In the other part of the library more than three-fourths of 
all the books on hand at that time w T ere catalogued. With the 
exception of 525 volumes on agriculture — the 030's — cards 
were made for everything down to the 974's, which leaves the 
history by states yet to be done. This material was all ar- 
ranged by itself and was in the best shape of any part of the 
librae, so it w r as thought best to leave it, rather than other 
subjects, uncatalogued. 

Beside the 27,000 volumes already mentioned in the library, 
there were a large number of volumes stored in the vault for 
exchange purposes. They w T ere mainly reports from the vari- 
ous state offices, and Avere being asked for on exchange ac- 
count by libraries and historical societies. These books w r ere 
not listed nor systematically arranged, so it was impossible 
to tell Avhat was on hand. After the principal part of the cat- 
aloguing was finished September 4, these duplicates were car- 
ried from the vault, sorted, counted, listed, and arranged 
according to an alphabetical system. The list showed 11,982 
volumes, chiefly publications of the state departments, and 
6,800 volumes of the Society's own publications. 

Beside the duplicates in the vault, there is another room 
containing approximately 4,000 volumes for exchange. These 
are of a general nature, including public documents, depart- 
mental reports of various states, historical publications, etc., 
and a special list is being made of them. 

The storerooms at the capitol contain a large number of 
duplicates of state officers' reports, and the Historical Society 
obtained permission to take such of these as were needed for 
exchange purposes. In October the books were looked over 
and 2,353 volumes were added to the Society's duplicates. 
Many of these were early territorial laws, and senate and 
house journals, some of which were quite valuable. 




At the meeting of Secretaries of Historical Societies from 
the various Mississippi valley states in this city October 17 
and 18, our exchange lists were gone over eagerly and care- 
fully by the visiting secretaries, and arrangements were made 
to add a large number of books to the library without ex- 
pense by exchanging duplicates with the other societies. The 
secretaries from Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Montana were 
especially anxious to exchange for Nebraska's full list of du- 
plicates, and the secretary from Montana shipped 225 vol- 
umes to the library immediately on his return home. Others 
have since sent the library what they had for exchange, Kan- 
sas sending 962 volumes. 

The library was officially represented by the Librarian at 
the meeting of the Iowa and Nebraska Library Association, 
Avhich was held in Omaha and Council Bluffs, October 8 to 
11, 1907. 

On account of the financial limitations of the Society and 
an extra amount of money having been spent on the library 
during the cataloguing, it was decided best to dispense with 
the Librarian's services for the month of November. 

Several donations of valuable books and manuscripts have 
been made to the library during the period which this report 
covers, and a few persons have made loans either for a short 
period or for an indefinite length of time. 

During the months between May 1, 1907, and January 1, 
1998, the Society sent out 900 books and pamphlets and re- 
ceived 1,400 in exchange. 

The volumes on hand January 1, 1908, are as follows: 

Catalogued in library 22,100 

Uncatalogued in library 0,450 

Nebraska publications for exchange 14,315 

State Historical Society publications for exchange. . . . 6,800 
General publications for exchange 4,000 

Total 53,065 

Respectfully submitted, 

Minnie P. Knotts, 





To the Honorable, The Board of Directors, Nebraska State 
Historical Society : 


The complete report of this department has been published 
in the -Annual Report of the State Board of Agriculture from 
time to time. My first report will be fonnd in the Annual 
Report of the State Board of Agriculture for 1902. This em- 
braces a report for the last six months of 1901 and a report 
for 1902. In the same publication for 1904 will be found my 
(second and third) report for 1903 and 1901. My (fourth) 
report for 1905 will be found in the annual report of the Ne- 
braska State Board of Agriculture for 1905. 

It is hoped to have these reports gathered into a volume 
and published in the Nebraska State Historical Society series, 
but until such a volume is compiled it seems right that a brief 
summary be printed here. 

At a meeting of the executive board of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society in June, 1901, $300 was set apart to begin 
the work of this department. J. Sterling Morton, then Presi- 
dent of the Society, gave his influence, and I may say that he 
was chiefly responsible for the start made at that time. 

This branch of the work was placed on a permanent foot- 
ing at the January meeting in 1902. A salary of $800 per 
year was granted the archeologist, and the museum was 
placed under his direct charge. Fifty dollars a year was 
added to the salary of the archeologist in 1905. 

The east third of the state has been explored, and about 
fifty Indian village sites have been visited and described in 
the reports. Maps have been made of a few of the most im- 
portant ones. Relics have been gathered from each site and 
stored for future study. 



By far the most interesting point of study in the state is 
found at Nehawka, Avhere the aborigines quarried flint. This 
field has been explored and described in my reports. 

Very interesting remains were found along the Blue river. 
The Platte and its eastern branches abound in earthworks 
and village sites, and the whole Missouri front presents a 
difficult and interesting problem which will require time and 
careful study to untangle. 

The Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804 gave the earliest 
and most authentic description of this Missouri front, and a 
careful study of this expedition enabled me to locate each 
camp made in the state. Many of these have been visited, and 
the study of the Missouri front is well begun. 

The Indian bibliography is growing slowly; when this is 
completed it will be a history and biography of every notable 
Indian mentioned in the literature of the state. 

The museum has grown during these five years. When I 
assumed charge there were but a few relics ; part of the Whit- 
comb collection was here as well as about 150 numbers in the 
general catalogue. Now the catalogue shows ten large col- 
lections, which have been catalogued separately, as well as 
about 700 numbers in the regular catalogue. This will give 
you a conception of the amount of material which lias been 
gathered into the museum during the last five years. 

The letter C. before the number shows that the article be- 
longs to the J. II. Coffin collection. This collection consists 
of 115 numbers and is chiefly Pawnee material. Mr. Coffin 
lives at Genoa, Nebraska, and lias known the Pawnees from 
boyhood. He speaks the Pawnee language, and was called 
"The Boy Chief/' or "Per-iska Le-Shar-u:" 

The Hopkins collection has the letter //. placed before (he 
number. It consists of chipped and polished stone-work 
found along the Elkhorn river, as well as many other curious 
and interesting articles. There are 307 separate catalogue 
numbers, but this does not give an idea of (lie collection, as a 



catalogue number often embraces a number of articles. One 
number has four thousand separate pieces of chipped flint. 
It is the best single collection of chipped stone implements 
we have. 

The B. Y. High collection has the letters B. II, placed be- 
fore the numbers, and contains 91 separate pieces, mostly of 
Santee beaded work. This collection represents more money 
than many of the larger collections, as the pieces are all very 
superior. It was procured at Niobrara and was selected as 
the best out of the quantity sold there by the Santees. 

The Cleveland collection has the letters H. C. before the 
numbers. It is material from the Philippine Islands, col- 
lected by Howard Cleveland, of Table Rock, while with the 
3d Nebraska regiment. It has 88 numbers. 

The Searle collection was brought from the Philippines by 
C. H. Searle, of Plattsmouth, and has 202 numbers with the 
letter 8. before each. It is much the same as the Cleveland 
collection, only larger, and it contains many very fine 

The Hemple collection is one made by Benjamin Hemple, 
of Plattsmouth. It is not catalogued separately, but, like the 
many small collections, is found in the general catalogue. It 
consists of guns, coins, and other interesting curios. 

A number of lectures have been given in various parts of 
the state which have been instrumental in bringing the people 
into closer touch with the Society. These lectures cost but 
the actual expense of railroad fare and entertainment, and 
we are glad to make arrangements to All a number of dates 
each year. 

About 30 lantern slides have been made, showing some of 
the best museum specimens, and others will be made when 
the honorable board will grant us a lantern in which to use 

The literary work done in this department is no small item ; 
a number of manuscripts are prepared, and we hope to ar- 
range for their publication some time in the future. 


With this brief resume of the previous reports, I herewith 
present my ( fifth ) annual report for 1906 : 


The beginning of the year, from January 1 to April 1 was 
devoted to arranging material in the museum and to arrang- 
ing and listing the library. The daily care of the rooms was 
no small part of the work, and little was accomplished beyond 
routine work during this time. 

The Academy of Sciences asked me to prepare a paper on 
aboriginal pottery for their meeting February 2 and 3, 1906. 

February 23 I was called to Swedeburg, a little toAvn in 
Saunders county, to deliver a lecture. 

During the past tAvo years little has been done in the way 
of securing large collections for the museum. The already 
crowded condition seemed to justify inactivity until such a 
time as the legislature should see fit to grant us more com- 
modious quarters, but there are a number of collections in 
the state which demand immediate attention if we ever expect 
to secure them, and I was determined to secure collections 
and care for them as best we could until more space was 

To this end I visited Florence, April 5, and investigated 
the W. F. Parker collection with the agent of the estate. 
June 6 I spent two hours in the Parker museum. There 
are few things of historical value to Nebraska in the collec- 
tion. It is interesting, but Nebraska is not well represented 
in it, and the whole collection is going to ruin from lack of 
care. There is no catalogue and the moths are doing much 
damage in the valuable rugs and costumes. 

The safe which is in the Parker museum was the one used 
by the bank of Florence and is a valuable Nebraska relic. 
An old bass drum which the Mormons used at tin 1 "winter 
quarters" is also of interest historically, but most of the 
pieces are from other countries, and as (hey lack labels are 
of no value to science. 



May 25 I gave a talk at the Prescott school on Indian cus- 
toms, and later a talk at the city library along the same line. 

A new town was dedicated on the new line of the Great 
Northern at Lesharu, and I was asked to give a talk on the 
old Pawnee village site near by. 

While on the trip to investigate the Parker collection I 
went with R. F. Gilder to view some of the earthworks he 
had discovered north of Florence, and stopped to see the 
place where the "Learned Spear" was fonnd. This spear is 
seven inches long and three inches wide. It is a very artistic 
piece of chipping from agatized wood. Originally it was 
brown in color, but one side is eroded to a bluish white. It 
is very different from any spear found in the state and evi- 
dently was not made by the Otoes who formerly owned the 
land. It will take the evidence of a specialist to determine 
how long this material must be exposed to the elements to 
change the color as this is changed. There is no evidence of 
a grave at the point where it was found and it seems to have 
been in the drift or in the loess soil. 

While on this trip we saw the great lodge circle in the top 
of a hill overlooking the Missouri river. This circle is over 
60 feet in diameter and fully six feet deep in the center; 
it is one of the largest I have seen. Manj*bits of flint and 
ancient pottery near prove it to be old. Mr. Gilder showed 
me many evidences of aborigines north of Florence, which 
convinced me that the archaeological condition in that 
vicinity is very complicated. In fact the whole Missouri 
front is a very complicated study. It is in this field that the 
"Nebraska Loess Man" was discovered. The geologists are 
better qualified to handle the situation in regard to this find, 
as it is purely a geological question. There is no doubt but 
the bones found are human bones, and the only question 
involved is the age of the bones ; this must be determined by 
the age of the undisturbed geological formation in which 
they were found. 


June 20th I visited the home of W. J. Harmon in company 
with J. J. Hawthorne of Fremont. Mr, Harmon owns the 
. land upon which an ancient Indian village site is situated. 
This site, which I have named the "Harmon Site/' is on sec- 
tion 28, township 17 north, range 8 east. It is situated on a 
high bluff overlooking the Platte river. Near the point of the 
bluff may be seen a number of lodge circles and mounds 
similar to the mound houses on the Burkett site. 

No implements showing contact with whites were found; 
a number of specimens of pottery of ancient design were 
picked up there, as well as broken flints of a gray color and 
some brown specimens. 

This site was doubtless contemporaneous with the Ithaca 
site, as the debris is similar, although the Ithaca site yielded 
a few relics showing contact with the whites. The Harmon 
site covers an area of about three or four acres and was the 
home of some small band of aborigines for a number of years. 
The mounds have not been disturbed, and a cross-section of 
them may yield more evidence of the people. This site is one 
of many in Saunders county, and in fact all along the 
Platte. The proof of the identity of one will settle the 
identity of all, as they all bear a close resemblance to each 
other. The supp>sition that these villages are Pawnee may 
be established as a fact, but at present writing the study has 
not gone far enough to prove it beyond doubt. 

About a mile farther up the river and quite near its banks, 
is the site of the once famous "Neapolis." 

Tradition has this to say of this place: 

The "rump" legislature of 1857-58, which adjourned from 
Omaha to Florence, January 8, 1858, passed a resolution lo- 
cating the capital of the territory al a point which should be 
sixty. miles west of the Missouri river and within six miles of 
the Platte river north or south. An enterprising company 
from Plattsmouth discovered a valuable body of timber on the 
Platte river and immediately "jumped" the claim and laid 



out the town of "Neapolis" (on paper), erected a sawmill, 
and applied for the capital of the territory, as the location 
met the requirements of the resolution. 

The raft of lumber which was sawed from the timber was 
wrecked on its way to market. The general assembly, in 
the fifth session, patched up the difficulties and the capital 
remained at Omaha, Nothing seems to be known of this bold 
venture except the site of the would-be capital and metropolis, 
Neapolis. It is a beautiful spot, and one can not help but 
regret the adverse influences which made it but a tradition. 

A mile south of the little town of Linwood in Butler 
county is a ruin of an Indian village. I visited this field 
June 21, 1906, and secured a number of relics. . The village 
was evidently burned, as the soil is plentifully intermixed 
with charcoal ; so much so that one is at a loss to account for 
such an abundance from the burning of the village. Pieces of 
cedar posts are plowed out from year to year, and these, being 
well preserved, indicate that this site is not so old as tradition 
in the vicinity seems to imply. The land is owned by J. B. 
Tichacek, who came here in the '70s; he says that a sod wall 
neariy three feet high enclosed forty acres which was thickly 
covered with lodge circles. He has graded down the wall and 
filled the circles until the ground is nearly level. 

Not a scrap of pottery can I find on the site and not a 
single flint chip. A number of rust-eaten iron arrow 
points were found and some pieces of metal. These all show 
contact with whites. One very interesting specimen was 
found — a small image of a horse moulded in clay and burned 
very hard ; it is not two inches long, but is a very good repre- 
sentation of a horse. This is probably the most valuable and 
interesting thing left on this site. I think the tribe which 
lived here had trouble. I think they lived here not longer 
than ten years, and probably no longer than five. If the 
village contained over a thousand circles, as Mr. Tichacek 
seems to think it did, the tribe must have been quite numer- 



ous and may have been driven away from this place very soon 
after the village was built. I am confident the Pawnees were 
the builders of the village. It is certain the village was built 
long after the Indians had learned to depend on the white 
man for his weapons and utensils. 

Immediately west of this village ruin, and situated 
on a bench twenty feet or more above the bottom-land where 
this ruined site just described is found, is the site of an 
ancient stone age village. The two villages are side by side, 
and by a casual observer might be taken for the same village 
site. This ancient site yields abundance of potsherds and 
chipped flints. The lodge circles are in a pasture covered 
with brush and small trees, so very little could be learned of 
its extent. This site was built, occupied, and abandoned long 
before contact with the whites. It belongs to the class of 
ancient villages strewn along the Platte on both sides, but is 
some years older than the sites near Genoa and Fullerton. 
Some day we will know just avIio built these villages and 
approximately the date of occupancy. 

South of Linwood some six or eight miles, not far from the 
banks of Skull creek, is an Indian burying ground, and eight 
miles farther up the Platte, near the head of a large island 
and not far from where Shinn's ferry once plied the waters, 
is another cemetery. While a]l the points of evidence 
are more or less of interest and yield a certain amount of 
information, nothing can be definitely determined until the 
greater number of these ancient villages and sepultures have 
been examined and studied. Relics are being gathered and 
conditions noted which will all contribute to a certain and 
definite knowledge. 

N. J. Anderson, of Walioo, very kindly sent the museum a 
photograph of a pile of Indian bones dug out of the mound at 
Ithaca which I saw in 1900; a number of relics were found 
which showed that the Indians buried here were supplied 
with utensils and arms almost wholly by the white men. 


Two years ago I learned of a large collection of costumes 
and curios belonging to Mr. D. Charles Bristol, of Homer, 
Nebraska. Arrangements were made to visit Homer a year 
ago, but the conditions would not permit. July 10 I started 
on an extended trip; I visited Homer and saw part of the col- 
lection belonging to Mr. Bristol. I was convinced that this 
collection is the most valuable and best authenticated collec- 
tion in the West, and immediately began to negotiate to have 
it removed to the Historical Society museum. 

After getting the negotiations started, I visited Sioux City 
for a day. There I saw a number of people interested in 
early history and archeology. Hon. C. K. "Marks, a pioneer 
and historian, presented specimens of pottery from "Broken 
Kettle" mound near Sioux City. 

From Sioux City I went to Coleridge in Cedar county, to 
visit the original home of the boulder which the class of 1892 
placed on the University campus. This boulder was dis- 
covered by Professor Aughey, of the University of Nebraska, 
in the year 1869. It is a granite drift boulder of several tons 
weight. Upon the face of this boulder is the imprint of a 
foot, evidently cut or worn into the rock by blunt tools; the 
whole top surface is covered with hieroglyphics, or curious 
marks evidently made in the same way. I have long desired 
to visit the spot from which this boulder was removetL I 
explored the country from Sioux City to Coleridge by stop- 
ping over one train in various small towns; I stopped at 
Waterbury, at Allen, and at Laurel, as well as at Wakefield. 
At Waterbury I explored to Allen and took the train there 
for Laurel. Nothing of particular note was discovered; a 
few mounds and a chance small camp site here and there were 
brought to my attention by settlers, but along this railroad 
Indian ruins are scarce. 

From Coleridge I drove about four miles to the farm where 
this rock once rested. The cavity can still be seen, as the hill- 
top is covered with drift pebbles. About three acres of ground 
on the top of this hill have never been disturbed, which gave 
me a splendid chance to study the situation. 



This spot is one and a half miles' from flowing water. 
According to old settlers who have explored the surrounding 
country carefully, it is eight miles to the nearest site of a ruin 
left by Indians, and that is very insignificant. The surround- 
ing country for five miles in all directions seems very de- 
ficient in relics of this departed race. I inquired diligently 
of everyone, but failed to find even an account of an arrow 
head or a stone ax being discovered in the surrounding 
country. I was in the vicinity three days, and instead of find- 
ing a rich field of relics near where this rock was discovered, 
I found none. 

The barren hilltop is covered with small drift pebbles. 
After critically examining over five hundred of these I am 
convinced that none of them were used in making the marks 
left on this boulder. There are no worn or beaten paths lead- 
ing up to the place where the rock once rested; there is no 
indication that other rocks had been worn to bits in cutting 
the characters. In fact, the soil near is free from any pebbles 
save waterworn, rounded pebbles like those covering the 
entire hill. One is forced to the conclusion that the work of 
cutting this rock must have been done elsewhere. The study 
is not complete, and I doubt whether conclusive evidence can 
ever be found to settle the problem. It. has taken infiuite 
labor to cut these characters into the granite; they are not 
scratches, but the marks are three-fourths of an inch wide 
and in some places half an inch deep. The cutting has been 
done in the same manner as grooves are put in granite mauls 
or axes. I have interest ed some of the people near, and if any- 
thing is found which will throw light on this problem it will 
be reported. 

August 20 I made another trip to Homer, and after some 
discussion of details it was arranged to have the "Omaha 
Charlie" collection placed in tin 1 Nebraska Stale Historical 
Society fireproof rooms. 

It is worthy of mention in Ibis connection that Mr. M. A. 
Bancroft, of the Home 1 !' Free Press, assisted very much in 


arranging the details for Mr. Bristol, and the Society appre- 
ciates his kind offices and careful business tact in this mat- 
ter. Mr. F. B. Buckwalter also assisted in cataloguing the 

The following is the contract signed by Mr. D. Chas. Bristol 
and wife as owners of the collection and the officers of the 
Historical Society as trustees of the collection : 


"This agreement made this first day of September, A.D. 
1906, by and between D. Charles Bristol, of Homer, Nebraska, 
and the Nebraska State Historical Society of Lincoln, Ne- 
braska, witnesseth : 

"That D. Charles Bristol, of Homer, Nebraska, hereby 
places in the custody of said Nebraska State Historical So- 
ciety a collection of rare and curious articles, Indian cos- 
tumes, Indian weapons, ornaments, and handiwork, for safe- 
keeping and care, to be held by said Historical Society until 
such time as he shall demand them returned to him [see 
catalogue attached]. 

"That for and in consideration of the above described loan 
the Nebraska State Historical Society agrees : 

"First, to keep the said collection safely in the fireproof 
rooms of the said Society at Lincoln, Nebraska, as long as 
said D. Charles Bristol may desire it so kept, and to care for 
the collection in the best manner possible. 

"Second, to catalogue and label the collection and each 
piece thereof as the 'D. Charles Bristol Collection, 1 and keep 
same on free exhibition at Lincoln, Nebraska, and to print a 
catalogue as soon as possible after receiving said collection, 
and to furnish said D. Charles Bristol as many copies of said 
catalogue as he may desire — not to exceed 100 copies. 

"Third, the Nebraska State Historical Society further 
agrees, in consideration of the above described loan of said 
collection, to bear all expense of labeling, cataloguing, print- 
ing of catalogue, -and transporting of collection from Homer, 
Nebraska, to Lincoln, Nebraska, and in addition thereto the 
entire expense of caring for and maintaining said collection 
on exhibition in aforesaid fireproof museum of said Society 
at Lincoln; and if the collection shall remain in the custody 
of the Society for two years or more the Society agrees to 



pay cost of transporting the collection back to Homer, Ne- 
braska, should the said 1). Charles Bristol demand the return 
of the collection. 

"It is further agreed and understood by and between both 
parties that the said D. Charles Bristol collection shall re- 
main intact and be kept and called one collection, and not be 
scattered. It shall be held in trust by the' said Historical 
Society for D. Charles Bristol and his heirs until such a time 
as the said D. Charles Bristol sJiall demand its return. Upon 
the death of D. Charles Bristol it shall be held in trust for 
the legal heirs of the said D. Charles Bristol until such a time 
as they (the legal heirs) shall agree in writing to sell the en- 
tire collection to some person or institution where it can be 
maintained as a whole to be known as the TX Charles Bristol 
Collection.' At such a time the Nebraska State Historical 
Society shall have the first right to purchase the collection 
at the price offered ; but if the said Nebraska State Historical 
Society can not or will not purchase the entire collection, 
then the Nebraska State Historical Society shall turn over 
the said D. Charles Bristol collection, each piece and every 
part of said collection, in good condition, and without ques- 
tion to the legitimate purchaser of the same, free of cost. 

"D. C. Bristol. 
"Mrs. D. C. Bristol. 
"Geo, L. Miller, 

"H. W. Caldwell, 

"J. A. Barrett, 

"E. E. Black man, 


"Witness : 

G. M. Best. 

September 10 I went to Homer and packed the collection, 
making a catalogue of the same at the time. T gave, as near 
as Mr. Bristol can remember, the history of each piece. 



While at Homer I explored the surrounding country as 
much as time would permit, and Mr. M. A. Bancroft has vol- 
unteered to aid in the study of that vicinity. Mr. Bancroft is 
a wideawake, hustling newspaper' man and he has succeeded 
in learning a few facts about the Omaha village which was 
once at the mouth of Omaha creek, a few miles' east of where 
Homer now stands. The site of this village has gone into the 
river, but many mounds are scattered along the bluffs around 
Homer. Part of the history of this village is to be found in 

I erected a tablet on the farm of Mr. T. C. Baird where a 
ledge of rock is covered with Indian pietographs. These 
should be photographed. 

September 24 I visited the home of J. W. Ingles at Plea- 
sant Hill in Saline county. Mr. Ingles came to Pleasant Hill 
when the Indians wandered through Saline country and has 
been in the mercantile business ever since. He has gathered 
a number of interesting and curious things, which he has 
loaned to the Historical Society for safe-keeping. No small 
part of this collection is a number of U. S. silver and bronze 
coins Avhich will grow more valuable as time goes on. Tavo 
gold quarter-dollars are found in the collection, as well as a 
number of Indian relics. The smaller donations to the mu- 
seum will be found in the catalogue of the museum. 

The latter part of 1906 was spent in arranging the new 
collections brought in, and in placing the "Omaha Charlie" 
collection in the cases. 

E. E. BLACKMAN, Archeologist. 

January 1, 1907. 


To the Honorable Executive Board, Nebraska State Histori- 
cal Society: 

The first part of the year was spent in rearranging the 
museum to make a place for the collections which have re- 



cently been added; a complete catalog of the museum was 
prepared in brief and is submitted as part of this report. 


May 1, I visited Cairo, Nebraska, to investigate a mo and 
which had recently been opened near there. The account of 
this mound may be found in the Cairo Record of April 26, 
1907, and need not be repeated here. 

The grave is on a high bluff knoAvn as Kyne's Bluff which 
overlooks Sweet creek, near its junction with the South Loup 

I am of the opinion that this lone burial was made during 
a hunting expedition and that the warrior was buried about 
1870 or 1873. The implements and dress show him to have 
lived long after contact with the whites. His pipestem was 
found, but in the excavation they missed his pipe, which is 
probably there yet. I brought the bones and the other relics 
with me and have them in the museum. 

It is not common for the modern Indian to bury even the 
prominent warriors five feet deep. I am of the opinion that 
part of that depth was made by the wind; I noticed that the 
bluff is composed of a light loose soil mixed with sand. In 
places it is nearly all sand. The wind seems to build the 
points of bluffs higher by blowing the light soil and sand into 
drifts a few inches back of the prominent face of the bluff and 
directly on top of it. There are a number of well-defined sur- 
face lines to be seen Avhen the edge of the bluff is cut with a 
spade. This may be caused by an upward current of air car- 
rying the loose particles up the face of the bluff when the 
wind bloAvs directly against it. 

The whole surrounding country is more or less "sand-hills" 
and by a study of the formation of these hills one can account 
for the remains of this Indian being five feet deep when he 
was probably buried three feet deep. There is an ideal camp 
ground for hunting parties near this grave, but no signs of a 
permanent home. 



I made a trip to Weeping W ater during May. I wished to 
find the flint outcropping in the bluffs near there and get a 
more definite knowledge of the mound just east of that town. 
The flint I failed to find, and the tops of the hills east of town 
skirting the Weeping Water valley show camp sites on nearly 
every level spot. Chipped flints and potsherds are to be found 
in many fields, showing that this stream was a well-traveled 
highway. The nature of the chips of flint lead me to believe 
that the highway led from the Nehawka quarries to the vil- 
lage, sites on the Platte river. 

There is a Avell-defined line of camp sites leading from the 
Platte river near Ashland to the Blue river near Beatrice, by 
way of Indian creek and Salt creek, and this Weeping Water 
trip convinced me that the same kind of a trail doubtless 
joined it not far from Ashland. 

While at Weeping Water I secured an old grain cradle once 
used by Louis Giberson, who settled near Greenwood in an 
early day ; he was a noted cradler and could put more grain 
in the windrow than any of his neighbors. This cradle was 
the one he used in this state. It was presented by his wife, 
Mrs. Giberson. 

June 4 I delivered a lantern lecture before the York county 
teachers. While in York I called on C. C. Cobb, a merchant 
of that place who has gathered a fine collection of interesting 
material from all parts of the world. This he has tastefully 
displayed in a room built for it, which is 17 by 34 feet. His 
coin collection is especially fine, and his collection of musical 
instruments can not be duplicated in the West. We hope that 
he will think favorably of placing his collection in the Ne- 
braska State Historical Society museum in time. 

Johnson Brothers, dealers in shoes, purchased a fine lot of 
Indian costumes, moccasins, war-clubs, and beaded work 
when they lived near the Bosebud agency. This is all made 
with sinew and is a good representative collection of the work 
done at the Kosebud agency twenty years ago. You will find 
a complete catalog of this collection as part of this report. I 
packed the entire collection June 5 and shipped it to Liu coin. 




To make room for this collection a new case was constructed 
4 by 5 feet and 7 feet high. Johnson Brothers value this col- 
lection at }800. It is a nice addition to our museum; and is 
placed as a loan. 

On June 15, I 'accompanied Prof. Harlan I. Smith, of the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, and,Kobt. 
F. Gilder of the World-Herald, .on an exploring trip north of 
Florence to visit the place where the "Nebraska Loess Man" 
was found. 

The trip was only a brief review of the excavation made 
and no new points were discovered save that at the depth of 
four feet from the surface bits of bone were found in the side 
of the wall of earth left in excavating ; these bits of bone have 
the appearance of being gnawed by gophers. 

Not far from these bits of bone, and in apparently undis- 
turbed loess soil I found a small chip of whitish pink flint, 
very sharp and no larger than a gold dollar. This, to me, is 
an important find and carries more weight, as evidence, than 
anything else I have seen from that field. If this specimen 
of flint was used by the loess man, this same loess man must 
have visited the home of this flint or he must have trafficked 
with those who did visit the original quarry. 

If I mistake not this flint is the same as that brought north 
by the. Pawnees about 1400 A.D. A number of bits of gray 
flint were found in the excavation which are certainly from 
the Nehawka quarry. This proves little, as the Nehawka 
quarry is not far away and primitive man used flint; the 
nodules crop out at Nehawka and this loess man may have 
found his flint on the surface. Perfect implements will be 
found in some future excavation, and when they are found 
much may be learned from them. Until the perfect imple- 
ments are found, the best evidence to be obtained is found in 
the flint chips mingled with the bones of this loess man. It 
is possible that these bits of flint are from the intrusive burial, 
or more properly the burial. (The bones of the loess man are 
supposed to be buried by nature at the time the loess was de- 



posited.) The line of demarkation between the remains 
buried by man and those covered by nature can not be distin- 
guished without cutting a new cross-section — at least I could 
not see it. The true age of the loess man can be approxi- 
mately determined by the perfect implements if they can be 
found; and some light may be thrown on the subject by the 
flint chips if we can be sure these chips are contemporaneous. 
The walls of the excavation have certainly every appearance 
of being undisturbed loess soil. 


Tuesday, July 23, 1907, I started for Genoa to cut a cross- 
section through one of the mound houses on the Burkett site. 
The mound houses there are from 30 to 100 feet in diameter 
and from 2 to 4 feet high ; they are highest in the center and 
slope in all directions. The surface is thickly strewn with 
broken flints, potsherds, and bones. These bones seem to be 
buffalo, deer, and dog bones, but a few bits of bone have been 
found on the surface which are unmistakably human bones. 
A number of bone scrapers, awls, etc., have been found on 
the surface as well as many perfect scrapers and a few per- 
fect arrows, spears, and flint knives. Every hut ruin in the 
state is circular in form, most of them having a low place in 
the center and a ring of earth slightly raised around the outer 
edge. There is usually a fireplace in the center, and char- 
coal, ashes, and burned soil are found by digging in the low- 
est spot in the center. The mound house ruins on the Bur- 
kett site are so different from other ruins in the state that a 
cross-section was necessary to study them. 

Mr. E. M. Starr, who has lived on the place for a number 
of years, says he has taken a human skeleton out of three of 
these mound houses, but the bones are scattered and lost; he 
says a perfect human skull was taken out of one. 

I cross-sectioned the largest one of these mound houses. I 
dug a trench 2% feet wide, beginning at the outer edge of the 
mound fifty feet from the center and running due west to 


Nebraska state historical society. 

the center. I found hard undisturbed soil at the surrounding 
level. At the center my trench was nearly four feet deep. 
The material thrown out consisted of a light moved soil, 
nearly one-half of which was ashes ; in places the ashes rested 
in layers an inch or two thick, covering an area of from one 
to four square feet ; this layer did not rest horizontally, but 
the part next the center of the mound was higher than the 
part nearest the outer edge ; the slope was from a half-inch to 
an inch and a half to the foot. This seems to indicate that 
the ashes had been thrown on a mound. The layers of ashes 
were found at almost every level in the cross-section, and in 
places soil was mixed with ashes to such an extent that, after 
drying, the soil had the appearance of being all ashes. The 
admixture of soil seemed to be black surface soil rather than 
the light yellow subsoil with which the whole village site is 

In a number of places a plaster-like substance was found 
. in irregular chunks. This had every appearance of ashes 
when dried and powdered, except that it contained some grit 
or fine sand; the chunks were as hard as lime mortar. One 
mass (of which I secured a specimen) was as large as a water 
pail. These chunks were found at various levels and in vari- 
ous parts of the cross-section made. 

The mound seems to have been erected from the level, as 
the soil below the level seemed firm and undisturbed. No 
evidences of posts having been set to support a roof were 
noted, although I expected to find them and kept a careful 
watch. The area of floor uncovered was so small, however, 
that the excavation may have missed them. There was no 
evidence of fire having been used save the scattered and in- 
termixed ashes mentioned before. There were a few bits of 
burned clay intermixed here and there, but they appeared to 
have been brought with the ashes and not to have been burned 
as they lay. Every cubic inch of the soil which forms iiiis 
mound seems to contain potsherds, broken bones, or broken 
flints, and no part of the mound seems to have a greater abun- 



dance. It seems strange, if this mound is an ordinary refuse 
heap, how the distribution could be so evenly made. 

A few perfect bone implements were found with a number 
of broken or decayed bone implements. There are a great 
number of shoulder blades (scapulae) of the buffalo, which 
show evidence of use as a hoe or for other purposes. A few 
rib bones and femurs that have been made into hide scrapers 
by notching one edge of the end. Not a few small bones show 
evidences of use as awls. These implements are very well 
preserved when buried in ashes, but if found in soil that is 
comparatively free from ashes they are somewhat decayed. 
A few calcined bones were found, but they seem to be acci- 
dents. Dog bones are intermingled as well as dog teeth and 
a few tusks, which may be those of the bear. Many of the 
bones are broken, as the Indian is- wont to do for the pur- 
pose of removing the marrow. The state of preservation is 
remarkable; many of the bones look as fresh and new as if 
placed there a year ago. Other bones are in a very advanced 
stage of decay. 

The pottery is of the older type ; many very artistic handles 
were found, and the curves of the edge pieces show some of 
the vessels to be as large as twenty-four inches in diameter. 
Most of the pieces are smooth on the outside ; only a few spec- 
imens have the fabric impressions; it is tempered abundantly, 
mostly with fine gravel, although a few specimens have the 
broken bits of pottery used as tempering. - Mica is not often 
seen. The specimens look very much like the Mandan pot- 
tery; the color is the same and the shapes similar, but there 
is a marked difference in the tempering. The Mandan pot- 
tery has abundance of mica, while mica is scarcely seen in 
the specimens from the Burkett site. The shape of the top is 
very different also. The tops at the Burkett site show a nar- 
rowed neck two or three inches from the edge, which is very 
marked, while in the Mandan specimens which we have here 
there is but a very slight narrowing at the neck. The edges are 
elaborately decorated and nearly every specimen shows that 



the vessel had handles. The same kind of pottery is scattered 
along the Platte river in nearly every ancient village, but few 
similar specimens are found on the Missouri front. The pot- 
tery will prove one of the most valuable evidences in finally 
determining the people who occupied this site. 

The flint specimens are abundant; a small per cent of these 
specimens are from the Nehawka quarry, a very few are from 
the Blue river, but the greatest number are of the brown and 
yellow material which came from the headwaters of the 
Platte river. Occasionally a specimen of green quartzite 
from the Niobrara river is seen, but I have never found a 
specimen of the whitish-pink flint brought from Oklahoma 
and Arkansas by the Pawnees. Specimens of catlinite are 
rare — so much so that I doubt that these people ever visited 
the quarry. I have not found a specimen of Obsidian as yet. 

These flint specimens lead one to infer that the people traf- 
ficked toward the west. 

The large mound house which I cross-sectioned is seventy- 
five feet from a circle house ruin. This ruin is southwest? of 
the mound house; in the center of this circle is the fireplace 
resting at the surface level. Large quantities of ashes aud 
charcoal were found in a circular firepot. The surrounding 
soil is burned red for six or eight inches in all directions. 
The circle is slight, probably little below the depth of present 
cultivation, and one must observe carefully to note it at all. 

Ten feet south of this ruined hut ring is a cache. I discov- 
ered it by the appearance of the wheat stubble, which shows 
the cache to be nearly 8 feet in diameter. 

I cut a cross-section 7 feet long and 2% feet wide near the 
south edge of this cache. Upon exposing the north side of 
the trench I found the cache to be 4 feet 10 inches in diam- 
eter in the narrowest place 4 and about 8 feci at the level of 6 
feet dee]). It was dug in the shape of a. funnel, the widest 
place at the bottom. At 8 feet deep the yellow soil was 
brought up on (lie spade. Numerous large 1 bones were found, 
some ashes near the bottom, and a number of large pieces of 



broken pottery. A half of a vessel which held less than a 
quart was found in this cache. It will pay to remove all the 
loose earth from this cache and thus restore it completely. 
This will be done when help can be had and the weather is 
cooler. There are a number of caches on this site in which 
some whole pottery vessels should be found — this would be 
a nice addition to our museum, but would not assist in the 
study of the people, so we can not afford to do the digging 
now. . 


In briefly summing up the conditions as noted above, it 
seems likely that the Burkett site has been twice occupied by 
the same tribe of Indians, and that some time elapsed be- 
tween the first village built there and the last one. The 
mound houses, as I have called them, were made when the 
site was first occupied, and the ruin of these houses was a 
simple hut ring when the second village was built. These old 
hut rings were used for dump heaps by the people of the sec- 
ond village; dogs dug holes and buried their bones there, 
children played in the soft dirt, and ashes were dumped there 
by the squaws. Broken vessels and broken bone implements 
were deposited there until the old hut rings became heaps of 
refuse similar to the kitchen middens. 

There are ordinary hut rings scattered over the site; one is 
usually found not over 100 feet from the mound. The mounds 
are scattered evenly over eighty acres of ground, and there 
are about twelve or fifteen in all. Eight are large and well 
defined, while the remainder are but slightly raised and often 
show the hut ring well defined on the outer edge, with a slight 
elevation in the center, showing that but little refuse had been 
placed there. The only point against this theory is the total 
absence of a fireplace in the center. The hut rings all have 
this fireplace, while not a single mound house shows it. If 
they had been used once as a house the old fireplace would 
show in the center. This leads one to think they may have 


been storehouses, contemporaneous with the rest of the 

The whole village must have been of grass houses or houses 
covered with skins and erected on the level, as the outer circle 
of earth is so small that it can not represent more than a low 
banking around the base of the house. There is not enough 
earth in the ruin above the undisturbed soil to form a mud 
house like those found south of Fremont, Avhere white men 
saw the Pawnees living in earth houses in 1854. It is not 
impossible that these mound houses are ruins of storehouses 
where refuse was dumped. I have thought they may be 
houses built for dogs, before the advent of the horse. The 
village was in ruin before contact with white traders, even, 
as I have not found a single indication of contact with white 
men. However, Mr. John Williamson says he found a rusty 
knife three feet below the surface in one mound house. 

Peti-Le-Sharu, head chief of the Pawnees, said there was 
no legend of the village in his tribe. They knew nothing 
about it. He counted it very strange that any one should 
build a village on these high bluffs, nearly a mile from water 
and wood, and remarked that the Pawnees were not so fool- 
ish. Judge H. J. Hudson, of Columbus, rode over this site in 
1848 and it had then the appearance of great antiquity. 


Some years ago a Mr. Money, who lived near Dunbar, gave 
me the account of finding a "stone sepuleher" containing not 
only the bones of a human being but also some stone imple- 
ments. This information was filed away until such a time 
as it seemed possible to investigate it. 

July 30 I went to Dunbar to learn more about this matter. 
I found evidences of a village site about two miles southeast 
of town on the banks of a small branch of the Nemaha. 

This site covers a part of the N.W. y 4 of the N.W . " ,, S. 
19, T. 7 N., R. 13 E. It was inhabited before contact with 
the whites, and the graves on the hill near have every appear- 



ance of antiquity. A few hut rings are still visible in the 
lowlands near the creek. 

Mr. Mc Williams, who lived near, found some stone imple- 
ments on this site a number of years ago, but the survivors 
of the family were not at home. I gave the place but a hasty 
examination and drew a plat of the village site which I have 
named the Dunbar site. Careful inquiry among the settlers 
did not reveal other evidences near there. The land is owned 
by Mr. J. J. Prey, who does not reside there, consequently no 
excavation was attempted. 


August 12 I went to Orleans to investigate the conditions 
surrounding the silver cross found by N. C. Sasse a mile west 
of town. This solid silver cross was brought to the museum 
by Mr. A. A. Nielsen, of Stamford. It was thought at the 
time that the bones found with it might prove to be those of 
the martyr — Father Padilla, who accompanied Coronado on 
his march to Quivera in 1541, but a careful examination of 
these bones proves them to be Indian bones buried not over 
one hundred years ago. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Sasse we brought the bones 
to the museum. Every bone is carefully preserved, and we 
hope to have the complete skeleton mounted, and then lie 
shall again wear his treasured crucifix. 

The Indian was buried in the clean sand not many rods 
from the banks of the Republican river. The bones are well 

The theory is advanced by some of the early settlers that 
this Indian may have been killed near the stockade which 
was built in 1870 on the N.E. % of S. 17, T. 2 N., R. 19 W. 
This was built by the early settlers as a place of safety in 
case of an Indian attack. Tradition has it that two or three 
Indians were killed in the vicinity, but no one seems to know 
just when or by whom. The bones were found in a sand 
dune on the Republican bottom. The dune was probably 



eight inches above the level and covers a half-acre of ground. 
Nothing grows there except a few scattering weeds. The 
skeleton was placed in a sitting position, showing that red 
men buried it. 

Flag creek flows south and joins the Eepublican at Or- 
r leans. James McGeachin told me that it takes its name from 
the fact that a man by the name of Foster left the stockade 
and first raised the flag on this creek as early as 1ST0. Some 
of the builders of this stockade are still living, although their 
handiwork has entirely disappeared. Frank Hauffnangle, 
Andrew Euben, Frank Bryan, and Mr. TVolworth were among 
the number. 

Mr. James McGeachin very kindly accompanied me on a 
trip of exploration five miles north of Orleans. On S. 27, 
T. 3 N., E. 19 W., near the creek bank, is the site of a stone 
age village. Whole pottery vessels have been found near 
there. This village had extensive caches along the creek 
bank; three of these have washed out, leaving the top sod to 
cave in. The walls are yet plainly defined and show the 
caches to have been from six to eight feet deep and about 
seven feet across. Owing to the prolonged drouth the soil is 
very dry, and one could not cut a satisfactory cross-section, 
but I am satisfied there are a number of these old cache holes 
which can be excavated to show the size and form. The sur- 
rounding surface has the appearance of having been a corn- 
field, and I think this site is where the Eepublican Pawnees 
raised corn when Tike saw them farther east in l^Oti. In 
fact, from the brief survey of the Republican region I am led 
to think that the Republican Pawnees wandered along this 
stream in much the same manner as their brothers lived and 
wandered along the Elkhorn and the Platte. 

One feature seen a mile north of Orleans must not be 
omitted here. On the farm of O. H. Olson is a circle, plainly 
defined, that measures 120 feet in diameter. The land has a 
crop of sod Corn this year, being newly broken. Mr. Olson 
said that when this land was in pasture the circle showed 



very plainly. There is no evidence of earthwork except in 
the center; there is a depression about eight inches deep in 
the deepest place and not over ten feet in diameter. A slight 
ring can be observed outside of this low spot, which is about 
twenty feet in diameter. The vegetation always grows abun- 
dantly within this slight ring. A strip surrounds the large 
circle and really defines it, on which little if any grass grew 
when in pasture, and on which the corn is very short and 
dried up. The soil seems packed and is whitish in appear- 
ance against the soil from the center or from the surrounding 
surface. This circular strip is about ten or twelve feet wide 
and a perfect circle, the outer edge of which is 120 feet in 
diameter. The circle rests on sloping ground near the top of 
the ridge and tips to the southwest. One can see this evi- 
dence from the road, a half-mile away, very plainly. 

I can not explain the phenomenon. We have the legend 
of the "mystic circle" quoted by Abbe Em. Domenech. This 
may be one of those "mystic circles." This of course does not 
explain the strange phenomenon, and all I can do is to record 
its appearance in 1907. 

West of Orleans about five miles is a mound which has 
every appearance of being a land slide from the main bluff 
near by. It may, however, be an eroded extension of the 
range of bluffs which it seems to terminate. From observa- 
tion it appears to be about fifty feet high and two hundred 
feet across. The lowest stratum is a shale having streaks 
resembling coal. Within five feet of the top is a stratum of 
what appears to be drift pebbles, the largest per cent of which 
is flint in stratified pieces two or three inches wide and half 
an inch to an inch thick. Many bits are smaller. This flint 
seems water-worn, is of good quality, and brown to light yel- 
low in color. These pieces bear a close resemblance to the 
material used so extensively for implements along the Platte 
and Elkhorn rivers. How extensive this deposit is I was 
unable to learn; I saw it in two places only, although I rode 
twenty miles over the adjoining country. A feature worth 



mentioning is observed on the top and sides of this mound. 
At a point near the top a sand bank has been opened, and 
one side of this exposes a cross-section of a sepulcher or some 
similar earthwork. There are no bones, however, and this is 
not strange when we consider how shallow the burial was 
made (not over two feet deep) and how loose the soil is, as 
wolves are wont to exhume the bones. But the strange fea- 
ture is noticed in the pieces of flint which seem to be burned. 
The specimens are abundant. They are light and brittle, al- 
though in every other way they resemble the flint specimens. 

This mound may have been used repeatedly for signal fires 
or the flints may have been burned in connection with the 
burial, as they are most abundant in and near the four or 
five graves which crown this mound. It was unfortunate 
that we had no spade and a storm was rising. We were four 
miles from our shelter, so the graves were left undisturbed. 
The calcined flint is a new feature in this state. 

The next morning we drove from Stamford southeast to 
examine "Sappa Peak." This is the highest point of hill, in 
the surrounding country. The top is comparatively level 
and is about an acre in area. A few inches below the top is 
a layer of lime rock. This probably accounts for the lack of 
erosion and explains why this peak towers above the sur- 
rounding hilltops. Two broken flint arrow points were found 
on this peak and a number of flint chips. There is indication 
of a burial, but the mound, has been opened by some one who 
was evidently hunting wolves. Early settlers say that Sappa 
peak was strewn with fiat lime rocks in an early day, and 
that these rocks were placed in such a way that they repre- 
sented the outlines of the human form; however, at this time 
none of these rocks arc left. The top of this peak is strewn 
with flint chips, and artifacts are frequently found. Mr. A. A. 
Nielsen, of Stamford, who accompanied me on this trip, will 
use a favorable time and cross-section the mound on top of 
Sappa Peak. The earth was so dry ami cracked that it was 
impossible to excavate the mound satisfactorily at this time. 



On my return trip I stopped at Superior and visited the 
Pike monument near Republic, Kansas. A number of lodge 
circles are to be seen on an eminence commanding a view of 
the Republican river, but the general appearance of the site is 
disappointing. There are but a few acres in the site, and after 
a careful study of Pike's very meager description of the vil- 
lage, which he visited in 1806, one can scarcely believe this is 
the identical spot. Be that as it may, the state of Kansas and 
Mrs. Elizabeth Johnson have clone a noble and praiseworthy 
work in marking the Pike village. If this is not the spot, it is 
at the very least approximately correct, and the event is the 
main thing after all. The real reason for marking the spot is 
the fact of our flag being raised there in 1806. This event is 
fittingly celebrated and the historical fact is commemorated 
by this shaft. The petty contention for the exact spot should 
be laid aside and all should join in gratitude to Mrs. Johnson 
and the state of Kansas for their noble work. 

No flint spalls were found in or near this Pike village site. 
It is stated that Pike moved his camp from the bank of the 
river to a high point commanding a view of the village. 
There is no such point of high land near this monument. 
Nor is the surrounding country exactly as one would expect 
to see from Pike's description. I drove north and Avest from 
this monument to the site of another village about three 
miles south of Hardy. This village site is also in Kansas. 
It occupied an eminence about a mile from the river bank. 
At the base of the hill there gushes forth a spring that is 
known far and Avide as "Big Springs." The water flows out 
over a hundred acres of pasture land and joins the Republi- 
can river. Near this spring I found a chipped flint 8% inches 
long and 4 inches wide which weighs I.14 pounds. It is of 
light brown flint. The flint was found by the Indians in 
strata about an inch thick, as can be seen by this specimen. 
The sides still show the limestone which rested on either side 
of the flint stratum. The specimen is very similar to the ones 
found on the Platte and Elkhorn rivers, and if we did not 



know from history that the Pawnees once lived on the Ee- 
pnblican river this specimen would establish a relationship 
between the people of the Platte and the people of the Ee- 
pnhliean. It is Pawnee in size, material, shape, and indi- 
viduality of chipping. Where the material came from orig- 
inally is yet unknown, bnt very probably from Wyoming. 
Other spalls and broken implements were found on the high 
point above the Springs, showing that once a considerable 
village of Stone Age people lived here. 

James Beattie once owned the land where this implement 
was found, and he said that a number of lodge circles were 
still to be seen near where the old fort was built when he 
came to live there in the early -60s. 

He also told me that two miles west of the Big Springs w as 
another ruin of an Indian village site. 


August 9 I started for a brief view of the field in Jefferson 
county. I had notes about a chipping field near Endieott on 
the farm belonging to P. M. Price, but could find nothing 
worth mentioning in that line; however, I found a mound on 
this farm which seemed worth opening. A few arrow points 
had been found in the vicinity, but I was not able to see a 
single one. 

The farm is now operated by Mr. J. \Y. Edwell. who very 
kindly gave his consent to open the mound. It was at the 
highest point of a hill in a rolling pasture on S.W. 1 4 S. 17, 
T. 1 N., R. 3 E., and about two miles south of the Little Blue 

The surrounding hills arc covered with a brown sandstone, 
having irony streaks through it. In some places this rock is 
soft and crumbles easily, while in other places it is as hard as 
iron and contains small pebbles in a conglomerate mass as 
if fused in iron. 

These rocks covet a considerable area, bnt do not extend 
very deep; they crop out at the top of the hills and appear to 



be a cap which only extends half way clown the hill. Imme- 
diately under these rocks one finds a red and brown clay. 

The mound was in the midst of large, flat, irony sand rocks 
and was about two feet above the surrounding rocks; it was 
ten feet across and nearly circular. The soil which was 
mixed with the rocks seemed darker in color and was more 
fertile, as was evinced by the vegetation groAving there, and 
it was probably carried from the valley. This is what first 
attracted my attention. The rocks at the edges of this mound 
sloped toward the center, showing that they had settled. The 
mound was probably much higher at one time. From the 
appearance, I concluded I had found the sepulcher of some 
noted chief, and I concluded to open the mound. 

The rocks extended to a depth of four feet. The mound 
had a covering of three courses of flat rocks about three 
inches thick. They were so large that it took two men to get 
them out of the hole. It seems that the oblong excavation 
was hollowed out of the original rocky hill about five feet 
deep, and something had been deposited there, as the soil for 
sixteen inches below the rocks was mixed with some dark 
fibery substance which left a whitish-green mould on the 
under side of the rocks. 

There was not, however, a single scrap of bone or any sub- 
stance other than the mould and displaced earth which would 
assist in determining what had been buried there. I doubt 
that it was a human body, as the form of the bones would 
have been found. It may have been meat, or it may have been 
hides or blankets. Whatever may have been placed there 
had so thoroughly decayed that no proof was left to deter- 
mine it. 

I am certain the mound was erected by human hands; I 
am certain coyotes could not have removed the bones if it 
were a grave, and the only solution I can give is that some- 
thing had been cached there and then removed, the rocks and 
mound being replaced, or that the substance cached has 



wholly decayed during the many years since the mound was 

A well-defined, rude wall surrounded the oblong hole both 
above and below the flat rocks. The excavation was a little 
larger than the rocks which covered it, so that their w T eight 
rested on whatever was placed under them. This mound is 
near the old trail and a spring is found near "Pulpit Kock," 
forty rods south. 

The hard sandstone which caps the hills in this vicinity is 
the material which the Indians used to make "planers.'? 
These are blocks of sandstone about one and a half inches 
each way and from three to ten inches long. A groove is 
made lengthwise on the flattened side and the other three 
sides are rounded. Two of these planers are used together. 
A shaft which is to be used as an arrow shaft is placed in 
this groove. Both are held in the hand with the shaft held 
lightly between them. By drawing the arrow shaft back and 
forth it is made straight and smooth; it is made round by 
turning it as it is moved back and forth. 

This irony sand rock made durable planers. They are 
found on almost every village site in the state. A streak of 
brown sandstone extends nearly across the state, but it is not 
always suitable for planers. • 


An interesting discovery was recently made in the clay pit 
at the brick yard near Doniphan, two miles south of the 
Platte river in Hall county. About twenty acres of the clay 
has been removed to a depth of thirty feet. About the 1st of 
July they began to remove the clay from a deeper level and 
uncovered an area of several hundred square yards to a depth 
of thirty-six feet. At this level the workmen came to black 
surface soil not fit for bricks. 

I investigated this locality August 23. I found this 
stratum of surface soil to be about four and a half fed deep 
— three times as deep as the black soil on the present surface. 



The loess deposit immediately above this stratum of black 
soil is intermixed with charcoal and bones. The bones are 
not human, and I saw no sign of a campfire or any area 
where the evidences showed that man had resided, but 
one of the workmen said that he saw two places which 
showed that a campfire had been maintained for some time. 
If evidences of man are found at this place there can be no 
question but he lived here in interglacial days, as the locality 
is such that the glacial loess alone could have buried this 
black surface soil. The area which was uncovered to the 
deepest level unfortunately was covered with water, and the 
spot where the workman saw the fireplaces could not be seen. 
Later we hope to see the area drained. 

By digging at a point near, we exposed a cross-section of 
the black soil and were able to study it. This black soil is 
underlaid with a tough clay intermixed with coarse sand. It 
is a light yellowish-brown with a pea-green tint; while the 
clay above lacks the tint of green and has rusty streaks 
through it. 

At one point in the cross-section was a crack extending 
vertically the whole way down, through the loess above as 
well as the black soil. This crack was one-sixteenth of an 
inch wide and was washed full of very light yellow soil. The 
crack appeared the same width all the way and extended 
across the excavation, showing on both, sides of the pit. 

The bones, as well as blocks of the soil, were secured for the 
museum. Mr. John Schwyn, who owns the brickyard, is a 
student of archeology. He has kindly consented to keep a 
close watch when the second level is being removed, and we 
hope to secure reliable facts about this surface which was 
covered so many years ago. 

If evidences of man are found in this clay pit it will for- 
ever settle the problem of the "Nebraska Loess Man." The 
surface here is eighty feet above the Platte level, two miles 
from the river, and on a level with the surrounding table- 
land. It is in a comparatively level country Avhere a "land 
slide" could not happen. 



The same stratum of black soil has been observed in exca- 
vating at Aurora and at other points near. It seems that a 
large area of fertile land existed here in interglacial days. 


September 11 I briefly reviewed the vicinity of the flint 
quarries near Nehawka, in company with C. C. Cobb of York. 

The only new point observed during this trip was in a deep 
ravine which has been recently washed out to a depth of six- 
teen feet, not far from the bed of the Weeping Water creek. 
About half way from the creek to the base of the hill where 
the flint quarries are found this ravine cuts a cross- section 
at right angles with either. At a depth of sixteen feet below 
the present surface I found a number of flint spalls as they 
were struck off the nodules and rejected. I also secured a 
piece of limestone reddened by heat which rested at the same 
level. This proves the great age of these quarries. They 
have existed long enough for the hill to erode and bury this 
burned rock sixteen feet deep at a point 200 feet from the 
present foot of the hill and 100 feet from the present bed of 
the stream. The stream now has a level of ten feet below 
where this burned rock was found. No spalls were found 
below the sixteen foot level, but above that level to the sur- 
face the soil was evenly strewn with broken bits of rock, 
burned and natural, as well as numerous flint chips. 

This cut made by nature is an interesting study. It shows 
llr.' substance of a cross-section nearly twenty feet deep and 
it is rich black soil all the way down. 


September 24 I visited A. H. Whittemore, of Adams. Mr. 
Wliittcmore wrote me some time ago of his collection of 
stone-age implements found near Adams, and I \isi(<Mi him 
for the purpose of looking over his collection; and I suc- 
ceeded in getting his interest aroused to such an extent 1 1ml 
he will attend to the archeology of his particular locality. I 



brought to the museum one of the finest specimens of Quivera 
tomahawk I have ever seen. It was found near Beatrice. It 
shows much wear and appears to be very old. A few very fine 
blades of Nehawka flint were found in the same locality. 
This is evidence that the people who worked the Nehawka 
quarries trafficked with the people on the Blue river, and 
probably were contemporaneous. No specimens of catlinite 
are found about the ruins along the Blue valley. If these 
ruins are Quivera in type, the Indians which met 
evidently knew nothing of the catlinite quarries. Mr. Whitte- 
more loaned us a pipe made from a very fine grained sand- 
stone which Dr. Barbour calls Dakota cretaceous, intimately 
cemented with red oxide of iron. This material evidently 
was found in the drift and used occasionally for making 
pipes. This pipe is a small disk pipe. A similar disk pipe 
was found near Genoa and is in the Larson collection. Three 
or more have been found along the Elkhorn river, and are in 
the Hopkins collection. 


In "Indian Sketches- 7 by John T. Irving, Jr., you will find 
a very graphic account of a trip among the various tribes of 
Nebraska Indians made in 1833 by Edward Ellsworth. He 
made a treaty with the Otoes on the Platte, and visited the 
Pawnees in three of their important villages. It has not been 
difficult to find the ruins of the Otoe village near where Yutan 
now stands, and the ruins which are found near Fullerton 
may be identified as one of the villages visited. What I have 
called the Horse Creek site, tw r elve miles west of Fullerton, 
is certainly the Skidi village which Irving describes, but the 
Choui village, situated south of the Platte, has thus far not 
been identified. I have made inquiry of those living in Polk 
and Hamilton counties without avail. 

Tuesday, October 22, I went to Marquette to begin the 
search for the ruin of the Choui village which was visited by 
Ellsworth in 1833. 



Mr. Charles Green and his brother when they visited the 
Museum during the state fair of 1907 informed me that flint 
arrows had been found near their home and invited me to 
explore the vicinity. At a point nearly north of Marquette 
on sections 32 and 33 of town 13, range 6, on the farm be- 
longing to G. A. Keyner, is a point which corresponds geo- 
graphically with the Irving description of the surrounding 
country, but there is no evidence of a ruin to be found near 
the place described. A few graves are in evidence on the 
surrounding hills, but no earthworks or chipped flints can be 
found in the valley where Irving says the village was situated. 
I explored the south bank of the Platte to a point two miles 
up stream from the Grand Island bridge, but could find no 
evidence of the old Choui village. It still remains to explore 
on down stream into Polk county. 

Irving says they forded the river with the Avagons and ox 
teams. He says that after traveling toward where Fuller ton 
noAv stands for a few hours they . came to a "lone tree'* and 
refreshed themselves at the only stream they had found on 
the trip. This stream must have been Prairie creek, but the 
"lone tree'' could not have been the historic Lone tree which 
once stood on the bank of the Platte river. The very early 
settlers in Merrick county may have seen a lone tree on the 
banks of Prairie creek north of Central City, at the roots of 
which a small stream flowed. There must still be consider- 
able evidence of this Choui- village on the ►surface unless it be 
swept into the Platte. As this stream has changed its banks 
but little in the later years, there is hope that the ruin may 
yet be found. Irving says it was situated at the- base of a 
range of hills, fifty yards from the Platte. 

You will find circular depressions about forty feet in diam- 
eter where this village stood. There should be broken Hints 
and pieces of pottery scattered thickly over the surface. I 
shall continue my search for this ruin and will be very thank- 
ful for any information you may be able to give 1 . 
. Living on the very bank of lie Platte river about > \ miles 
southwest of Phillips is aft interesting gentleman by the 



name of Charles White, but known throughout this vicinity 
as "Buckskin Charlie/ 7 He has a small collection of Indian 
implements and quite a variety of firearms and other curios. 
This gentleman is well posted on Indian history and tradi- 
tion, having scouted with the Indians on the frontier nearly 
all his life. 


It has been a matter of interest that the exact location of 
the Choui village should be definitely determined, and a sec- 
ond trip was prompted by additional information secured 
from Mr. C. P. Peterson of Lincoln, after the foregoing was 
put in type. The general location was known to be on the 
bank of the Platte river, nearly due west from Osceola, but 
there exists no record of its discovery. 

I have mentioned Ellsworth, Avho negotiated a treaty with 
the Choui band of Pawnees in 1833, and John T. Irving, 
who wrote of the trip, gave a good account of the sur- 
rounding country. George Catlin visited the village in 
1833 and painted portraits, of a number of the leading 
warriors, among which was the portrait of Shon-ka-ki-he-ga 
(the Horse Chief), who was head chief of the Choui (or 
Grand) Pawnees. The head chief of the Choui band was also 
head chief of the confederated band of Pawnees in later years, 
so this is doubtless the chief of the Pawnees in 1833. 

Henry Dodge negotiated a treaty with this band at this vil- • 
lage in 1835, and says the head chief was called Angry Man, 
while Irving does not mention the name ol the chief at all. 
From the descriptions given by these earty travelers the geo- 
graphical surroundings may be recognized at this time. Just 
when the village was built is not known, nor is it known just 
when it was abandoned, but, from the authority at hand, I 
suspect it was not occupied in 1810. About that date the 
Choui band moved to the vicinity of the Loup river, near the 
other bands, as all the strength of the Pawnee tribe was 
necessary to resist the Sioux. 



The ruin of the Choui village is in Polk county about eighty 
rods northeast from the end of the Clarks bridge over the 
Platte river. It lies in section 17, township 14 north, range 4 
west. The land is owned by W. S. Headley, who purchased it 
in 1892. Samuel Baker bought the land from the railroad 
company in 1870, and broke out the field, which has been in 
cultivation ever since. The village occupied'about forty acres. 
It was destroyed by their enemies before 1833 and rebuilt by 
the Pawnees. There is an abundance of charcoal intermixed 
with the soil on this village site. This shows that the village 
must have been destroyed by fire at last, although we have no 
record of it. A number of iron implements have been found 
and the charred ends of the tipi posts are still being plowed 

No flint chips were noticed, which leads me to conclude that 
this village was built after the contact with white traders had 
been so close that practically all the members of the band 
used steel arrow points and knives. This condition was 
brought about very rapidly when once the red men saw the 
white man's implements. If the Choui band had occupied this 
village site before they discarded the flint, the whole surface 
would be streAvn with flint chips, thrown off in making their 
arrows. The ruin seems destitute of potsherds. This seems 
to indicate that kettles made by white men had taken the 
place of the Indian-made pottery. The Pawnees had ample 
opportunity to procure white man's implements, as traders 
traversed the Platte valley even before the Lewis and (lark 
expedition of 1804. 

The importance of this village ruin is found in the known 
condition in 1833. This is about as early as a written account 
of any village in the state is to be found. By studying (he 
ruined conditions of this village, seen by travelers and de- 
scribed in 1833, we may determine (lie approximate age of 
other ruins. When I visited the ruin near Linwood I had 
nothing for a comparison. Now I have a much greater re- 
spect for that village ruin, which is doubtless older than this 


Choui village. The discovery of this ruin gives us a basis of 
comparison which is very important. 

A map of the village will be prepared, and we hope to do 
some excavating in the vicinity, in time. 

E. E. Blackman, 


January 1, 1908. 



When the specimens bearing the first numbers were cata- 
logued it was not expected that the museum would attain to 
a dignity beyond that of a simple workshop, and study speci- 
mens were given numbers the same as others. A number of 
specimens which had been catalogued were returned to the 
owners. This explains why so many numbers are left out. 

It is not thought best to cumber the catalogue with insig- 
nificant specimens, and these numbers will be used for im- 
portant specimens later on. Many specimens are stored for 
want of room to properly display them, and these are not 
included in this catalogue. 

No. No. 

1 — A nodule of flint found near lerton, and presented by Will 
the Nehawka flint mines, and - A. Brown. 

presented by Isaac Pollard in 8 — Frontal bone from a - grave 

1901. near Nehawka, exhumed in 

2 — Nodule of flint in three pieces 1898, by E. A. Kirkpatrick. 
from flint mines at Nehawka. 9 — Chipped tomahawk, found at 

3 — A chipped flint presented by Nehawka. 

E. A. Kirkpatrick, of Nehawka, 12 — Chipped flint from Nehawka. 

found on the surface near Ne- 14 — Chipped flint from Nehawka. 

hawka. 15 — Knife of flint, Nehawka. 

4 — Chipped flint found near Ne- 16 — A flake of flint thrown off in 
hawka, and presented by E. A. chipping, Nehawka. 
Kirkpatrick. 18, 19 — Chipped flints from Ne- 

5 — The largest chipped flint of hawka. 

which there is a record, being 21 — A core left after implement- 

23 inches long and 3 inches making chips are taken off the 

wide, was plowed up near Ful- nodule. 




24 — A flint knife found at a depth 
of three feet on the floor of a 
lodge circle on the Griffith site. 

29— Chipped flint from Griffith 

40 — Chipped tomahawk found on 
Griffith site. 

54 — Chipped flint from the Grif- 
fith site. 

80 — Flint presented by L. J. Grif- 
fith of Nehawka. 

80— Mill, found on the Pollard site. 
100— Chipped flint from' Nehawka. 

158 — A "discoidal" found by Frank 
Dunham on his lot in the town 
of Roca and presented by him. 
It may be a stone shaped by 
white men and lost. 

159 — Ax presented by J. L. Griffith. 

160— Maul, presented by J L. Grif- 
■ fith. 

161, 162— Relics from the Chamber- 
lain collection, source un- 

163- — Ax, presented by James Fuller. 

164, 165 — Two ax heads from the 
old Indian town of Aztalan in 
Jefferson Co., Wisconsin; the 
Winnebagos once lived near. 

166 — Bone implement presented by 
Will A. Brown of Fullerton. 

168 — A chipped rock, use unknown. 
A number of these are found 
in Nance Co. 

170— Chipped flint. 

171 — Stone ax found 3 miles north- 
west of Tecumseh; presented 
by W. R. Harris. 

173 — A "ceremonial" in pottery 
from Nance Co.; presented by 
Will A. Brown. 

176 — Iron implements used by In- 
dians; presented by Will A. 

178 — Arrow head presented by 
John Meek of Douglas, found 
cn sec. 4.. T. 7 N, R. 10 E. 

179 — Stone mortar found by W. A. 
Belfour of Unadilla. 

181 — Stone pipe, purchased; said 
to have been made by Sitting 

182 — Flints taken from the Cham- 
berlain Collection. 

183 — Stone maul presented by I. 
W. Dunkleberger of Genoa. 

184 — Pottery handles which belong- 
to Coffin Collection. 


188 — A piece of flint in strata, 

brown in color and chipped ; 

found near Genoa, Neb. 
205-207 — Flints from near Genoa. 
214 — A paint bone used to decorate 

robes; presented by Will A. 

Brown; from the Horse Creek 


217 — A bone turned to stone, from 
the Horse Creek site 1 . 

218 — A knife from the same 'place. 

221 — A whole pottery vessel found 
near Fullerton, loaned by R. 
DeWitte Stearns. 

222 — "Ceremonial" from Scotts 
Bluff, Neb., loaned by R. De 
Witte Stearns. 

223, ' 224, 225— Flints from Scotts 
Bluff, loaned by Mr. Stearns. 

227 — Mill stone, presented bv Mrs. 
W. E. Dech of Ithaca. 

228 — Catlinite ornament, by Mrs. 
W. E. Dech of Ithaca. 

232— Flints presented by Win. H. 
Dech of Ithaca. 

237 — Maul presented by Mrs. Mar- 
garet Diddock of Thurston Co., 
found in a cache. 

239 — Arrow point from near Le- 
shara, presented by Miss Esty. 

240 — Arrow presented by Nils Gib- 
son, found near Swedeburg. 

242, 243 — Indian relics presented by 
Mr." Eggers of Yutan. 

245 — An 1820 copper cent, found at 

246 — Button from Yutan. 

251 — Iron hoe used by Pawnees 
found near Leshara, by Eggers. 

252 — Ax as above. 

253, 254 — Iron Pawnee implements 
from Leshara, by Joseph Lam- 

255, 256, 257, 258, 259— Indian im- 
plements from the McClain 
site, presented by Master El- 
mer McClain. 

260 — A large flint ceremonial, very 
fine, loaned by Mrs. Hannah 
Larson of Genoa. 

261— Pipe. 

262— Part of a pipe 

263— Pottery. 

264— Drill. 

265 — Bone fish hook, all of I he Lnr- 
soii Collection. 




266 — Beads found in Pawnee grave 
near Genoa, loaned by Mrs. F. 
L. Horton. 

267 — Card of flints, presented by 
C. R. Wright of Genoa. 

268, 270— Pipes, loaned by C. R. 
Wright of Genoa. 

271 — Scraps of copper from near 

272 — A brass bracelet found on the 
Wright site, 

274 — A brown jasper knife, dia- 
mond-shaped, having four cut- 
ting edges, found on the Wright 
site. " 

275 — Pipe loaned by J. A. Barber 
of Genoa. 

282— Flint from the Wright site. 

285— Ax loaned by C. R. Wright. 

287 — A chipped tomahawk from the 
Coffin site. 

290— Flint from Coffin site. 

293, 295, 296— Chipped flints, etc., 
loaned by J. A. Barber, found 
on Wright site. 

297, 298, 311, 312, 313— Large im- 
plements found on the Wright 
site near Genoa, Neb. 

315 — Mill stones from the Coffin 

329 — Iron implements used by Paw- 
nees, found near Genoa, pre- 
sented by M. A. Elliott. 

330, 331— Picked pebbles loaned by 
J. A. Barber. 

335 — Pipe stem presented by Mrs. 
L. F. Horton. . 

337 — Pipe stem from Wright site. 

339 — Copper knife found on the 
Wright site. 

341 — Bone bead from Wright site. 

342 — Curious brass coin found near 
Genoa; Coffin Collection. 

343 — Two arrows presented by Mr. 
DeCamp of Clearwater. 

345 — Four war points presented by 
Frank E. Miller of Clearwater. 

351 — Pipe presented by Elmer Mc- 
Clain of Fremont. 

352 — Relics from Pawnee village on 
McClain site, by Elmer Mc- 

353 — Beads and other relics pre- 
sented by Elmer McClain. 

356 — Relics from the Miller site 
presented by Amos Haile of 


359 — Pistol presented by John Wil- 
liamson of Genoa. 

360 — Stone implements from Miller 
site, presented by G. E f Miller. 

361 — Upper mill stone from Ne- 

362 — A quartzite chipped tomahawk 
found near Nehawka. 

363— "Turtle backs" from Burkett 

364 — Scraper from Burkett site. 

365 — Pipe presented by Benjamin 

C. Ray, found near Barada, 
Neb., west of Glen Rock on 
Aldrich farm % miles east of 

369— Presented by Shelly Hullihan 
of Niobrara. 

370 — Stone ax found on sec. 16, T. 
9 N, R. 7 E.; -presented by J. 

D. Woods. 

372— Knife presented by J. H. 
Thrasher of Plattsmouth. It 
was used by a burglar on a 
safe at North Platte. 

373— Skull of an Indian (Omaha) 
killed with a club near Deca- 
tur in 1860; presented by J. H. 
Thrasher of Plattsmouth. 

374 — Pipe loaned by T. F. Wiles of 

375 — General Price's collar, loaned 
by Mrs. R. R. Livingston of 

377— Platte Valley Herald, Aug. 29, 
1860, loaned by Mrs. R. R. Liv- 

378— Vol. 1, no. 1, Plattsmouth Jef- 
fersonian, July 25, 1857, A. B. 
Todd of Plattsmouth. 

379 — Arrows loaned by A. B. Todd. 

380— Gun found in Black Hills at 
an early date, A. B. Todd. 

381 — Beads found in Otoe grave at 
Barnston, loaned by Hugh Spen- 

382, 383 — Otoe relics loaned by 
Hugh Spencer. 

384-86 — Bracelets, pipe and beads, 
loaned by E. Huddart of Barn- 

387 — Otoe relics presented by W. 
F. Nolan of Barnston. 

388 — Bell by Hugh Spencer. 

391, 392 — Drill and arrow from 
Scott Co., Iowa, loaned by N. 
Z. Whyte of Gushing, Iowa. 




393 — Arrow from Scott Co., Iowa, 
loaned by B. R. Whyte of dish- 
ing, Iowa. 

394 — A piece of "pumice stone" 
found near Ft. Calhoun. This 
is doubtless similar to that 
which Lewis and Clark men- 
tioned in 1804, presented by 
Otto Frahm. 

395 — Spear loaned by Otto Frahm. 

396 — A whole pottery vessel found 
in a bank of earth near Ft. 
Calhoun, loaned by August 

397 — A pipe from Mexico. 

398— Flints from the "Huddart 

399, 400— Collection presented by 
Dr. S. Pettingill of Ft. Calhoun. 

401. 402 — Two celts loaned by Gus- 
tave O. Nelson of Ft. Calhoun. 

404 — Flint spear presented by C. L. 
Belpere of Rulo. 

405 — Arrow found in Iowa Indian 
village site near Rulo, by Mrs. 
Dudley Van Valkenburg. 

407 — Celt from Kansas, purchased 
by A. B. Sheldon. 

408 — Upper millstone found near 
Salem, presented by Jerome 

409 — Stone ax found in Indian 
mound on the farm of Cass 
Jones 4 miles northwest of 
Rulo, presented by Jerome Wil- 

411 — Mill stone presented by Cass 

412 — A 3-pronged fork from the 
Hemple Collection; probably a 
toasting fork. 

413 — Mounted swan from Hemple 
Collection, presented by Mrs. 
Dr. Wallace of Union. 

414 — A mounted pelican. 

415 — A pepperbox pistol. 

416 — A horse pistol. 

417 — Revolver with "Cady Rogers" 
on a card. 

418, 419, 420 — Haversack, canteen, 
and mountain sheep head, 
property of H. C. McMaken, 

421 — Brass cartridge. 

422— Pipe. 

424 to 438— Axes, all from Hemple 

439 — Arrow point presented by 

Stewart Haile. 


440 to 450 — Arrow points from Al- 
ma, Kan. 

452-457 — Relics from Burkett site^ - 
presented by Mr. Starr. 

458 — Arrow presented by Perry 
Eells of Roca. 

460-467— Flints from the Burkett 

468 — A rudely chipped flint, iden- 
tity unknown. 

469 — Flints from near Stockdale, 
Kan., presented by A. O. Hol- 
lingsworth of Redland, Ore. 

470 — Flint from the Rice site, pre- 
sented by A. O. Hollingsworth. 

^471 — A tobacco pouch from Hemple 

473 — Specimens of Quivera chipped 
implements from Kansas, se- 
lected from one ton of this ma- 
terial. These are the very 
best. Presented by Hon. J. V. 
Brower of St. Paul, Minn. 

474 — Pottery from Kansas. 

475 — Collection from the Rice site, 
loaned by Walter Rice of Blue 

476 — Specimens from the Holling- 
wcrth site near Holmesville, 

477 — Two Quivera tomahawks 
found on Rice site. 

478 — Quivera tomahawk loaned by 
Mr. Crawford of Wymore. 

479 — Arrows loaned by Mr. Craw- 
ford of Wymore. 

480 — Collection loaned by Edward 
J. O'Shea'of Lincoln. 

481 — Arrow points from Scott Co.. 
Iowa, by Mrs. Alice Fitchner, 
Anthon. Iowa. 

482 — Pair of hand cuffs presented 
by Milo Hodgkins, Roca, Neb. 

483 — Ceremonial and celt from 
Ohio, by S. H. Thompson, Nel- 
son, Neb. 

484 — Collection loaned by Mrs. Ger- 
trude Romaine, 1448 P St., Lin- 
coln, Neb.: 2 pony saddle bags, 
quiver and arrows, 5y 2 pairs 
moccasins, Sioux belt, shirt, to- 
bacco pouch, pappoose case. 

485 — Collection presented by Otis 
E. Allis, Council Bluffs, Iowa; 

486— Card of flints loaned by A. G. 
Parker of Yutan. 

487 — A fine stone ax, presented by 
Stewart Haile. 




489 — Arrow point from Hopkins 

490 — Squaw knife from Gray site. 

491— Collection of small arrow 
points taken from the Hopkins 

492 — Wooden dish made from a log 
of Governor Clark's house in 
St. Louis, presented by Mrs. 
J. A. Haggard. 

493 — Stone hammer presented By 
L. J. Babcock of Gibbon. 

494 — A lime-stone hammer from 
Wyoming, by Bert Griggs. 

495 — Stone mortar presented by 
Charles H. Brown of Tobias. 

496 — Specimens from the overland 
trail presented by John Wright. 

497 — A key presented by John 
Knight of Pleasant Hill. This 
is the key to a jail, cell where 
Mrs. Hondesheldt burned to 
death in 1873. 

498 — Specimens from the Gates 

499— Seth Russell Walker Collec- 
tion: 2 Spanish dollars, gold 
sovereign, buttons, and Conti- 
nental bill. 

500— Chipped celt, by Charles H. 
Brown of Tobias. 

501— Vermont Freedom button, pre- 
sented by G. R. Unthank of 

502 — Two arrow points, presented 
by Clarence Ruigh of Firtli 

503 — Specimens of purple flint 
from a cache in York Co., pre- 
sented by Rev. Cross. 

504 — Flints from Gray site. 

505 — Chipped flints from Beaver 
creek, Wyoming, by Bert 

50G — Eleven flint arrow heads, 
loaned by Wm. Murphy, found 
near Florence, Neb. 

507 — Miniature image of horse 
found near Linwood. 

508 — A flint found near Linwood. 

509 — Pottery from Florida, by Don 
C. VanDeusen, Blair. 

510 — Lock, purchased by Prof. 
H. W. Caldwell. 

511 — A curiosity found in Pickerel, 
by Mr. Montgomery. 

512 — One of the six imitation med- 
als used at the Calhoun cele- 
bration August 3, 1904. 


513 — Mandan pottery, presented by 
J. V. Brower. 

514 — Bible once owned by Andrew 
Dripps, loaned by his daughter, 
Mrs. Mary J. Barnes of Barn- 

515 — Piece of pottery found under 
six feet of earth near Crescent 
City, Iowa. 

516 — Two curiosities loaned by 
Mrs. E. J. Young of Columbus. 

517 — Pottery, loaned by Miss War- 
ner of Maywood. 

518 — Ax from Furnas Collection. 

519 — "Little St. John," a stone me- 
dallion found near Tekamah, 
and loaned by J. P. Latta. 

520— "Little St. John," identical 
with the above, found at 
Plattsmouth and loaned by G. 

521 — A new flint implement from 
the Gray site, probably used 
to pull the beard. 

522— A new flint implement, found 
by A. L. Hopkins, probably 
used as a groover to groove 
the arrow shafts. 

523 — Pair of shoulder epaulets. - 

524 — Scrapers from Burkett .site.- 

525 — New flint implements, use un- 

526— Two "Stockton Curves"; A. G. 
Parker Collection. 

527— An awl, A. G. Parker Collec- 

528 — Wampum from Massachu- 
setts, presented by S. E. Tay- 

529 — Arrow from Washington, by 
S E. Taylor. 

530 — Pair of candle snuffers, pre- 
sented by E WMtcomb. 

531— Pair of andirons from Whit- 
comb Collection. 

532 — An ancient form of spinning 
wheel from Germany, presented 
by Chas. Hopt of McOook. 

533 — Calcined bone from grave 
near Crescent City, Iowa. 

534 — Spurs worn by Col. John M. 
Stotsenburg when he met his 
death in the Philippines, pre- 
sented by B. D. Whedon. 

535 — Pottery from New Mexico, by 
D. F. Riddell. 

536 — Japanese coin, by Y. Hiryama. 




537— Old Virginia laud warrant, 
loaned by Mrs. C. S. Sherman. 

538— Whole pottery vessel from 
Onawa, Iowa. 

539— Skull found with above urn. 

540— Cast of "The Gray Stone 
Face" found at Schuyler, orig- 
inal in Gray, Col. 

541 — Burned clay from Tekamah, 
also a rock like the one con- 
taining the Little St. John when 

542 — Flints from Alabama, by L. 

543— A hetchel for flax, Whitcomb. 

544 — A powder gourd. 

545 — One of a case of hats lost in 
Missouri river in i860 and 
found in 1903, W. H. Woods. 

546— Saddle bags, W. H. Woods. 

547— Tongs, by E. Whitcomb. 

548 — Large spinning wheel, by 
. E. Whitcomb of Friend. 

549— A bed warmer from Wiscon- 
sin, by W. O. Fletcher. 

550 — Armor, by Edward Daniels. 

551 — Model mower, by S. E. Upton, 

552 — Ancient Winnebago canoe, 
loaned by W. K. Mitchell of 
Bancroft, Neb. 

553 — Ancient plow with wooden 
mold-board, loaned by Fred 
Humphrey of Lincoln. 

554 — Part of limestone at Ne- 
braska-Dakota line, by. Robert 

555 — Brass urn from Philippine Is- 

556 — Pictograph rock from Wonder 

557— Chair in which Governor Fur- 
nas was cradled. 

558 — Gun which belonged to Gov- 
ernor Furnas's father. 

559 — Table and wheel made at 
Deaf and Dumb Institute at 

560 — A flint-lock shotgun brought 
to Nebraska in 1834 by Rev. 
Samuel Allis, presented by his 
son, Otis E. Allis, Council 
Bluffs, Iowa. 

561 — Sandstone planers from Hop- 
kins Collection. 

562 — Pillar from old capitol build- 
ing, presented by E. T. Hart- 


563 — Winnebago canoe made by 
Green Rainbow. 

564 — Ship from Hemple Collection. 

565— Fishing rod, presented by R. 
W. Furnas. 

566— Knife. 

567— Knife. 

568, 569 — Two machetes, Whitcomb 

570 — Machete, Gilbert Collection. 

571 — Confederate knife, by S. A. 

572 — Sword, presented by Gen. John 
M. Thayer. 

573 — A number of guns from Hem- 
ple Collection. 

574 — Two swords, R. W. Furnas. 

575 — Two swords, R. R. Livingston. 

576 — Confederate sword captured 
by Gen. R. R. Livingston. 

577 — Wooden chain, Hopkins. 

578 — Three pairs of shackles from 
slavery _ days, from Hopkins 

579 — Old broken sword of Spanish 
design, hand made, found at 
11th and K Sts. ten feet below 
the surface by Charles H. Ris- 

580— Tobacco pouch, by A. E. Shel- 

581 — Leggins from Wounded Knee 
battle field. 

582 — Three pottery vessels, by Mrs. 
J. E Barkley. 

583 — Tongs, shears, and chopping 
knife, presented by Gilbert L. 
Cole, Beatrice. 

584— Rock from the chimney of old 
trading post on Sioux reserva- 

585 — Medicine sticks from Pine 
Ridge. Ingles Collection, Plea- 
sant Hill, Neb., loaned by J. W. 
Ingles, 1906. 

586 — Philippine kris. 

587 — Piece of royal palm, Philip- 

588 — Three stone pipes from Pine 

589 — Pipe-stone war clubs, knives, 
and a horseshoe from Pine 

590 — Six effigy urns from cliff 
dwellers, New Mexico (an- 

591 — Two pairs Pawnee moccasins. 

592 — Two pairs Yoca moccasins. 




593 — Two Pawnee pouches. 

594 — Small Ponca moccasins. 

595 — Omaha pouch. 

596 — Pawnee tobacco box. 

597 — Six beaded novelties. 

598 — Coco palm, silver mounted 

599 — Indian bow. 

600 — Shells, Mexican flag, and 
other relics. 

601 — Ostrich egg, also a collection 
of U. S. silver half-dollars, 
quarters, and dimes; a number 
of bronze and nickel coins and 
two gold quarters, all enumer- 

. ated in the catalogue; also a 
copy of the Boston Gazette 
Journal . 

602 — Three shells, Vernice Rogers. 

603 — Rain coat from Burmah, 
loaned by C. H. Carson. 

604— War bonnet, by Ray Bell. 

605— Hay-knife, W. H. Woods. 

606— Two hand-sickles. 

607 — Silver horn. 

608— Three knives. 

609 — Flint spear head from Saun- 
ders Co., loaned by R. E. Ka- 

610 — Philippine pants. 

611 — Philippine bamboo chain. 

612 — Chinese shoes. 

613 — Philippine "head chopper." 

614— Kris. 

615 — Kris, wavy edge. 

616 — Silver bracelet. 

617— Gun, presented by T. M. 

'618 — A Mauser rifle. 

619 — Canteen, Furnas Collection. 

620 — Cartridge box, Furnas Collec- 

621 — Half pipe, broken in drilling. 

622 — Knap sack and double can- 

623— Quirt. 

624 — Pistol, by Morris E. Meyers 
of Broken Bow. 

625 — Stone ax. 

626— Stone ax. 

627— Stone ax. 

628 — Mounted stone tomahawk. 

629 — Moccasin. 

630— A card of chipped flints. 

631— Quirt. 

632— Photograph of Lincoln's first 
capitol, W. W. Wilson. 


633— The gavel with which the first 
territorial legislature was called 
to order. 

634 — Sand box, by Gardiner. 

635 — A pew number, Gardiner. 

636 — Specimen of "Novaculite," by 

637— Unique animal skull, Harvey. 

638— MS. of Grover Cleveland, pre- 
sented by J. Sterling Morton. 

639 — Trailer, by Starr. 

640— Sandwich Island priest's robe. 

641 — Buckskin beaded vest and se- 
cret society regalia from Fur- 
nas Collection. 

642 — Rocks, bones, etc, found un- 
der ten feet of loess soil near 
north line of Nebraska. 

643 — Piece of stone ax from near 

644 — Two pieces of stone ax from 
Alaska, by Dr. Ward. 

645 — Lava from Mt. Shasta, L. D. 

646 — Belt, pistol case, and canteen, 
from Furnas Collection. 

647 — Telegraph key from San Juan 
hill, by E. W. Harvey. 

648 — Epaulet worn by Gen. Sterling 

649 — Brick found when boring a 
well near Brownville, Furnas. 

650— 87 articles from the Whit- 
comb Collection, enumerated 
and described in an old cata- 

651 — Two flints from Hebron, by 
W. N. Bozarth. 

652 — Six flints from Cuming Co., 
by A. E. Long. 

653— Campaign club, by A. B. Em- 

654 — Chipped flints from Campbell, 
by H. H. Sheibal. 

655— Gavel from the Furnas Collec- 

656 — Scalp from the Furnas Collec- 

657 — Masonic regalia from the Fur- 
nas Collection. 

658 — General Vifquain relics. 

659 — Ancient silver coin, by Wm. 

660— Spike from the old Majors & 
Waddell building at Nebraska 
City, by C. N. Karstens. 

661 — A Nebraska City warrant, by 
E. F. Warren. 


Nebraska state historical society. 


662— Key to the old "Block House" 
at Nebraska City, by Mrs. Car- 
oline Morton. 

663— Canteen, by T. F. Goold of 

664 — Coin, by Miss Maud Marti of 

665 — Flint arrow heads presented 
to R. W. Furnas by I. M. Hach- 
er of Lnmdy Co., also an Indian 
ration check, and a Washing- 
ton letter. 

666— A grain cradle presented by 
Mrs. Louis Giberson of Weep- 
ing Water. 

667 — Piece of timber from the 
"John Brown cave" near Ne- 
braska City. 

668— A flail, by A. L. Hopkins; a 
coin by A. L. Hopkins. 

669 — Two scalps from Hemple Col- 
lection, property of H. C. Mc- 
Macken of Plattsmouth. 

670 — Flints from a mound house 
near Genoa. 

671— Flint knife, by C. R. Wright, 

672 — Shell beads and arrows, pre- 
sented by O. H. Olson, Orleans. 

673 — Flints from Orleans, E. M. Ol- 

674 — Columbian half-dollar by Jas. 

12th century English coin by 
Mrs. James McGeachin of Or- 

675 — Two large ceremonial flints 
from near Hardy. 

676 — E. H. Whittemore collection: 
14 chipped flints and a pipe 
from Adams. 

677 — Revolver, presented by Lucas 
B. Dundas, Auburn. 

678— Relics from Ft. Calhoun by 
John T. Bell, Oakland, Cal. 

679— Vifquain's address to 97th 111. 
Reg., by T. M. Pentzer. 

680 — The Johnson Bros, collection 
of Indian relics from Pine 
Ridge agency, loaned by John- 
son Bros, of York: Sixteen 
beaded war clubs; 103 plain 
war clubs; 92 pairs of mocca- 
sins; 97 beaded pockets; 27 
knife cases; 37 pick cases; 25 
beaded animal dolls; 4 tobacco 
pouches; hair bridle; 4 dolls; 
3 quirts; 4 head bands; 5 head- 


dresses; 9 large pockets; pair 
small leggins; powder horn; 
beaded spoon; horn spoon; pair 
mittens; belt and knife case; 
small Navajo blanket; Navajo 
loom; bow holder and quiver; 
20 blunt arrows; 34 sharp steel 
pointed arrows; 14 bows; rump 
dress; 2 head dresses; shirt; 
small tipi; 2 medicine bows; 
2 pack saddles; 2 medicine 

681 — Pipes from one of the Hop- 
kins disks. 

082 — Silver cross found rear Or- 
leans by N. C. Sasse: also a 
complete skeleton. * 

683 — An ox shoe. 

684 — Wood by Charles Greene of 

685— Flints by Charles White of 

686 — A melodeon, loaned by Mr. 
and Mrs. H. G. Sutton of Beth- 
any, Neb. 


Collection loaned by E. E. Black- 
man, Lincoln, Neb. 

B. 1 — White flint spear head from 
Scott Co., Iowa. 

B. 2— Spear head. 

B. 3 — Arrow head. 

B. 5 — A small drill given by Prof. 
Nickerson, found near Fuller- 

B. 6 — A collection of small arrow 

points given by Miss Reynolds. 
B. 7 — A "whirler" found near Pon- 

ca and given by W. C. Eckhart. 
B. 8 — Tomahawk found near 

Sprague, loaned by J. H. Koh- 


B. 9 — A celt, loaned by Kohler. 
B.16 — Burned clay showing wicker 

work, from Roca site. 
B.17 — Pictograph on pipe-stone, 


B 20 — Hematite bust found near 

, Roca. 
B.22— Book (Indian). 
B.23— Book (Indian). 
B.24— Kettle from Horse Creek 

B.33 — A toy from Horse Creek site. 
B.36 — Indian painl giveD by Warren 




Collection loaned by J. R. Coffin, 
of Genoa, Neb. 


C. 1 — "Puck-oos," or Indian rattle. 

C. 2 — Lone Chief's head dress. 

C. 3— Whip handle. 

C. 4 — Indian pants. 

C. 6 — Beaded head band. 

C, 7 — Medicine pouch from Rose- 
bud agency. 

C. 8 — Porcupine head band. 

C. 9 — Omaha shirt. 

C. 10— Moccasins. 

C. 11 — Pawnee knife scabbard. 

C. 12 — Pawnee quiver of buffalo 

C. 13 — Pawnee bow. 
C. 14 — Sixteen arrows from vari- 
ous tribes. 
C. 15— Fan. 

C. 16 — Omaha moccasin. 
C. 17 — Pawnee squaw dress skirt. 
C. 18 — Pair beaded gloves. 
C. 19 — Beaded bottle. 
C. 20— Head band. 
C. 21 — Medicine bag. 
C. 22 — Hair cane. 
C. 23— Cut-glass beaded belt. 
C. 24 — Cheyenne beaded mocca- 

C. 25 — Pawnee beaded necklace. 
C. 26 — Pipe-stone pipe with legend. 
C. 27 — Pawnee pipe. 
C. 28— Piece of catlinite. 
C. 29— Pipe from Rosebud. 
C. 30 — Pawnee pipe. 
C. 31 — Santee pipe. 
C. 32 — Santee pipe. 
C. 33 — Moccasins. 
C. 34— Charm. 
C. 35 — Rosebud knife-club. 
C. 36 — Cheyenne porcupine mocca- 

C. 37 — Stone war club. 
C. 38— U. S. belt. 

C. 39 — Cannon ball, shot at Genoa. 

C. 40— Pawnee knife. 

C. 41 — Prong stick for torture. 

C. 42— Bone used to strip sinew. 

C. 43 — Bone hide flesher. 

C. 44 — Bone hide flesher. 

C. 45 — Scraper handle. 

C. 46 — Paint bone. 

C. 47 — Stone used to paint with. 

C. 48 — Pictograph quirt handle. 

C. 49 — Revolver. 


C. 50 — Sac-Fox silver head band. 

C. 51 — Sac-Fox silver bracelet. 

C. 52 — Sac-Fox silver bracelet. 

C. 53 — Sac-Fox silver bracelet. 

C. 54 — Sac-Fox silver bracelet. 

C. 55 — Sac-Fox silver bracelet. 

C. 56 — Indian baby foot. 

C. 57 — Pawnee beaded belt. 

C. 58 — Pawnee beaded sash. 

C. 59— Santee flute. 

C. 60 — Pawnee tobacco pouch. 

C. 61— Sioux shirt. 

C. 62— Picture frame. 

C. 63 — Wampum worth $80. 

C. 64 — Group of photographs. 

C. 65 — Buckskin beaded vest. 

C. 66 — Earrings worn by Pit-a-Le- 
Sharu, used as money by Paw- 

C. 67 — Moccasins worn by Pit-a-Le- 

Sharu when he died. 
C. 68— Photograph of Pit-a-Le- 


C. 69 — Beads as sold to Indians. 

C. 70— Beaded ball. 

C. 71 — Indian pictograph dream. 

C. 72 — Indian dress. 

C. 73 — A medicine bag. 

C. 74 — Pawnee shirt. 

C. 75 — Pappoose coat. 

C. 76 — Beaded medicine bag. 

C. 77 — Pawnee shirt. 

C. 78— Head dress. 

C. 79 — Pawnee moccasins. 

C. 80 — Moccasins from Rosebud. 

C. 81 — Pawnee cloth. 

C. 82 — Pawnee beaded belt. 

C. 83 — Pawnee pants. 

C. 84 — Pawnee pants. 

C. 85 — Pawnee moccasins. 

C. 86— Beads. 

C. 87 — Decoration for the horse 

C. 88— Pawnee medicine bag. 
C. 89 — Pawnee shirt. 
C. 90— Head dress. 
C. 91 — Moccasins. 

C. 92 — Government belt given to 

C. 93 — Moccasins. 
C. 94 — Moccasins. 
C. 95 — Pawnee war-club. 
C. 96 — Rosebud spear. 
C. 97 — Eagle Chief's bow. 
C. 98— Rosebud bow. 
C. 99 — Pawnee game. 
C.100 — Sisseton war-club. 
C.lOi — Pawnee war-club. 




C.102 — Engravings. 
C 103 — Mexican whip. 
C.104 — Santee beaded bottle. 
C. 105— Spoon holder. 
C.106— Spoons. 

C.107 — Geological specimens. 

C.108 — Geological specimens. 

C.109 — Relics of a tortured Sioux. 

C.110 — Pappoose skull. 

C.lll — Pawnee skull. 

C.112 — Remnant of bead work. 

C.113 — Tooth found, 462 feet under 

C114 — Arrow points. 
C.115 — Lariat. 



1- Filipino military straw hat. 

1 Filipino machete. 

1 Filipino rice knife. 

1 shell card tray. 

1 bamboo chain. 

1 Filipino comb. 

1 Chinese money belt. 

1 Filipino knife. 

1 banca. 

1 casco. 

2 pairs Filipino slippers. 

1 pair Japanese slippers. 

2 clips Mauser shells. 

1 Spanish pocket knife. 
1 grape shot. 

1 piece cocoanut fiber gauze. 

Captain Jen's watch. 
1 cocoanut cup. 
1 Mauser rifle. 
1 Filipino haversack. 
4 Manila newspapers. 

1 pair Japanese chopsticks. 

2 silk cocoons (Japan). 
Tree coral specimens. 

1 coin collection, to-wit: Mexican 
peso, -50 sen, half peso, Mexican 
20c, Mexican 10c, quarter yang, 
U. S- half dime, Spanish 10c, 2 
canrlareen, 1 mace, 44 candar- 
eens, 5 sen, 20 sen, 5 sen (4 spec- 
imens), 3 cents (U. S.), Rus- 
sian copper coin, French 20 cents, 
English sixpence, 2 sen (copper), 
Spanish 2 centavo (4 samples), 
Spanish 1 centavo (11 samples), 
Japanese coppers 8, Chinese cop- 
pers 7, y z sen, U. S. 2 cents (2). 


In an old catalogue found m the 
museum is the following record of 
the collection belonging to Edward 
Whitcomb, of Friend. The names 
only are given, the description of. 
each article will be found in the 


5 pieces of fence rail with musket 
balls imbedded, parts of bayonets, 
skein of thread, acorns, screw, 
cap box, photograph, gavel, sec- 
tion of tree, band from a musket, 
Confederate amputation saw, old 
U. S. bugle, canteen, 24 pound 
unexploded shelf, piece of percus- 
sion shell, 4 pieces of shell, pine 
knot, 12 pieces of shell, 10 pound 
unexploded Rodman shell, 6 
pieces of shell, minnie ball, 6 
pound solid shot, Bible, book — 
Springtime of Life, piece of brick, 
3 friction primers, army buttons, 
15 pieces of Confederate money, 
lieutenant's shoulder straps, min- 
nie ball, piece of trace chain, iron 
musket guard, mourning badge. 
All are Civil War relics and a 

careful description and the history 

of each are found in the written 










—Beaded wall pocket. 




—Beaded wall pocket. 




—Beaded velvet clout. 




—Porcupine-quill vest 




—Beaded wall pocket. 








—Beaded bridle. 




—Feather head dress. 




—Beaded leg bands. 




—Beaded drum-stick. 




—Pair leggins and mocca- 





— Pappoose case. 




— Beaded pouch. 








—Beaded sash. 




—Beaded vest. 




to B. H 35 — Moccasins. 




to 42— War-clubs. 




B. H. 43 — Beaded turtle. 

B. H. 44 — Beaded watch pocket. 

B. H. 45— Beaded fish. 

B. H. 46— Beaded ball. 

B. H. 47 — Beaded pocket. 

B. H. 48 — Beaded pocket. 

B. H. 49 — Porcupine pocket. 

B. H. 50 — Beaded buckskin case. 

B. H. 51 — Porcupine buckskin case. 

B. H. 52— Watch pocket. 

B. H. 53 — Beaded velvet pocket. 

B. H. 54— Beaded belt. 

B. H. 55 — Bead bracelet. 

B. H. 56— Teepee. 

B. H. 57 to B. H. 59— Dolls. 

B. H. 60 — Doll on a board. 

B. H. 61— Beaded shirt. 

B. H. 62— Catlinite inkstand. 

B. H. 63 — Pair silver bracelets. 

B. H. 64 — Beaded horseshoe. 

B. H. 65 — Horn spoon. 

B. H. 66 — German book. 

B. H. 67 to B. H. 69— Plates. 

B H. 70 — Pipestone horseshoe. 

B. H. 71 — Pipestone knife. 

B. H. 72 — Beaded tobacco pouch. 

B. H. 73, 74— Beaded rabbits. 

B. H. 75— Beaded dog. 

B. H. 76— Navajo doll. 

B. H. 77— Beaded ball. 

B. H. 78, 79— Beaded turtles. 

B. H. 80, 81— Stone war-clubs. 

B. H. 82 to B. H. 90— Pipes. 

B. H. 91— Horn hat rack. 


This collection was gathered in 
the vicinity of Oakdale, Neb., and a 
description of each specimen is 
found in the written catalogue, to- 
gether with an account of the par- 
ticular field where the specimen 
was found. 


H. 1 — Net sinker of stone. 

H. 2 — Anvil on which tools were 

H. 3— Maul. 
H. 4— Maul. 
H. 5 — Stone club head. 
H. 6 — Stone used as mould for 


H. 7 — Block for making arrow 

H. 8 — Net sinker. 


H. 9— Flesher. 

H. 10— Maul. 

H. 11— Maul. 

H. 12— Chipped celt. 

H. 13— Anvil. 

H. 14 — Jasper for dressing hides. 

H. 15 — Grooved celt. 

H. 16— Flesher. 

H. 17 — Net sinker. 

H. 18— Adze. 

H. 19 — Implement for smoothing 

pottery. ' 

H. 20— Stone maul. 

H. 21 — Hammer. 

H. 22— Sinker. 

H. 23 — Stone for dressing hides. 

H. 24— Sinker. 

H. 25— Ax. 

H. 26 — Rock used in playing 


H. 27— Celt. 

H. 28— Celt. 

H. 29 — Upper millstone. 

H. 30 — Hammer. 

H. 31— Crystal. 

H. 32— Crystal. 

H. 33, 34, 35, blank. 

H. 36, 37— Stirrups. 

H. 38— Pestle. 

H. 39 — -Hand grenade from Moro 

Castle, Havana. 

H. 40— Ax. 

H. 41 — Stone club head. 

H. 42— Millstone. 

H. 43— Millstone. 

H. 44— Hoe. 

H. 45— Anvil. 

H. 46 — Hammer. 

H. 47 — Grooved celt. 

H. 48— Ax. 

H. 49 — Wedge for splitting bow 


H. 50 — Stone club- head. 

H. 51— Flint ball. 

H. 52 — Implement for smoothing 


H. 53— Ball. 

H. 54— Toy. 

H. 55 — Pottery smoother. 

H. 56 — War-club head from Iowa. 

H. 57— Ax. 

H. 58— Ax. 

H. 59— Ax. 

H. 60 — Chipped celt. 

H. 61— Battle ax. 

H. 62— Pestle. 

H. 63— War-club. 

H. 64— War- club. 





H. 65 — Millstone. 
H. 66 — Pottery smoother. 
H. 67— Hoe. 
H. 68 — War-club. 
H. 69— Ball. 
H. 70— Millstone. 
H. 71— Implement for polishing 

H. 72 — Implement for polishing 

H. 73 — Partly made pipe. 
H. 74— Pipe block. 
H. 75 — Fragment of pipe. 
H. 76— Same. • 
H. 77— Same. 

H. 78 — Implement used in making 

H. 79— Grooved celt. 
H. 80— Club head. 
H. 81, 82— Club head. 
H. 83 — War-club. 
H 84, 85— Axes. 
H. 86— Twisted celt. 
H. 87— Ax. 
H. 88— Maul. 
H. ' 89 — Twisted stone ax. 
H. 90 — Polishing stone. 
H. 91— Picket pin. 
H. 92— Ball. 
H. 93— Toy. 
H.- 94— Hoe. 

H. 95 — Planer for arrow shafts 
H. 96 — Fragment of hoe. 
H. 97— Hoe. 
H. 98— Hoe. 

H. 99, 100, 101, 102— Fleshers. 

H. 103— Spade. 

H. 104— Flesher. 

H. 105, 106— Axes. 

H. 107— Ax. 

H. 108— Celt. 

H. 109— Celt. 

H. 110 — Quivera tomahawk. 

H. Ill — Quivera tomahawk. 

H. 112, 113— War-club heads. 

H. 114— Flesher. 

H. 115— Fish scaler. 

H. 116— Flesher. 

H. 117 to H. 149— Geological speci- 

H. 150— Whale's tooth. 

H. 151 — Mexican hat. 

H. 152— Head dress. 

H 153— Cloth. 

H. 154— Hat. 

H. 155— Vest. 

H. 156— Basket. 

H. 157 — Bark soup basket. 


H. 158— War-club. 

H. 159 — Hoodoo bag. 

H. 160 — Nine pairs moccasins. 

H. 161 — Needle case. 

H. 162— Head dress. 

H. 163 — Three arrow shafts. 

H. 164 — Moccasin track on lime- 
stone from Ohio. If it is a 
track it was made thousands 
of years ago. 

H. 165 to H. 172— Pipes. 

H. 173— Bayonet. 

H. 174— Bayonet. 

H. 175^ — Stone from a cave in North 

H. 176 — Teeth of a moose. 
H 177 — Geological specimens. 
H. 178 — Sea louse. 
H. 179 — Mastodon tooth. 
H. 180 — Geological specimens. 
H. 181— Buckle. 
H. 182— Geology. 
H 183— Pottery. 
H. 184— Ostrich egg. 
H. 185— Auk egg. 
H. 186— Emu egg. 
H. 187 — Brown pelican egg. 
H. 188— Skinner. 
H. 189— War-club. 
H. 190 to H. 192— Rasp. 
H. 193— Drinking horn. 
H. 194— Tooth. 
H 195— Tooth. 
H. 196— Tile. 
H. 197— Fish scaler. 
H. 198-99— Fleshers. 
H. 200— Fish spear. 
H. 201 — Stone implement. 
H. 202 — Geological specimens. 
H. 203— Adobe brick. 
H. 204— (Returned to Hopkins). 
H. 205— Flexible sandstone (Itask- 

H. 206— Flints. 
H. 207— Bottle of scrapers. 
H. 208 — Bottle of moss agates. 
H. 209— Beans. 
H. 210— Centipede. 
H. 211 to 215 — Ohio ceremonials. 
H. 216— Pebble. 
II 217— Toy. 
H. 218— Polishing stone. 
H. 219— Stone. 

H 220 — Stone from stomach of & 

H. 221— Cup 300 years old. 
H. 222— Spear. 
H. 223— Knife. 

museum catalogue. 



H. 224— Fish spear. . 
H. 225— Knife. 
H. 226— War "point. 
H. 227— Drill. 
H. 228— Knife. 
H. 229— Awl. 
H 2S0— Fish spear. 
H. 231— Knife. 
H. 232— Cast of a hand. 
H. 233 — Shark's teeth. 
H. 234— Alligator teeth. 
H. 235— Wampum. 
H. 236— Geological specimens. 
H. 237— Chop sticks: 
H. 238— Wood. 
H. 239— Hoe. 
H. 240— Wood. 
H. 241— Wood. 
H. 242— Whale bone. 
H. 243 — Chert arrow points. 
H. 244— Geological specimens. 
H. 245 — Geological specimens. 
H. 246— Knife. 
H. 247— Handcuffs. 
H. 248 — Slave shackles and hand- 

H. 249 — Geological specimens. 

H. 250 — 9 candy-pail heads mounted 

with Ohio arrow points. 
H. 251 — 1 candy-pail head mounted 

with Iowa arrow points. 
H. 252 — 21 candy-pail heads and 

frames mounted with Nebraska 

arrow points and chipped 

H. 253— Flint knife. 
H. 254— Revolver. 
H. 255— Knife. 
H. 256— Knife. 
H. 257 — Revolver. 
H. 258 — Horse pistol. 
H. 259— Revolver. 
H. 260— Horse pistol. 
H. 261— Revolver. 
H. 262— Pistol. 
H. 263— Revolver. 
H. 264 — Powder horn. 
H. 265—10 celts. 
H. 266—17 millstones. 
H. 267—10 mauls. 
H. 268— Petrified log. 
H. 269 — Large mortar. 
H. 270 — Paint mortar. 
. H. 271 — 2 war-club heads. 
H. 272 — 2 axes. 
H. 273 — Polished stone. 
H. 274—8 rasps. 
H. 275— Pottery. 


H, 276— Catlinite. 

H. 277 to H. 299— Chipped imple- 

H. 300 to H. 307— Polished stone 
Note. — The names given to the 
implements are suggested by Mr. 
A. L, Hopkins at time of catalog- 



This collection is placed as a 
loan. All of this collection is from 


Philippine Islands. 




_ Khaki uniform. 








-Letter paper. 












-Japanese shoes. 




— Wood paper. 




-Stamn pa^p 

k j 1. 1 1 1 1 j | ; v., cx o ^ . 




—Bell from San Tnan nnn- 

- LJ v> a ± xx vjiii OcXH O Hall tun 





-Brass shell. 








-Chop sticks. 




—Pen brushes. 








—Grain sipTtIp 








-Razor hone. 




-Medicine bag, elk teeth. 




-Pen case. 








-Kokua nuts. 








-Organ reed. 








-China spoon. 




-Looking glass. 








-Small teacup. 




-Cup cover. 












-Sea horse. 








-3 pairs of slippers. 




-Roster of 2d Neb. Regt. 




-Image of Confucius. 




-China candle-stick. 








-Belt buckle. 




-Sword of Chinese money. 



H. C. 41 — Blank book. 

H. C. 42— Stick. 

H. C. 43 — Native razor. 

H. C. 44— Whetstone. 

H. C. 45— Combs. 

H. C. 46 — 5 brass letters. 

H. C. 47 — Instrument taken from 

H. C. 48— Pipe. 
H. C. 49— (Omitted). 
H. C. 50— Slipper. 
H. C. 51 — 2 strings of beads. 
H. C. 52 — Spoon. 
H. C. 53— Key. 
H. C. 54— Opium pipe. 
H. C. 55— Quirt. 

H. C. 56— Machete and scabbard. 
H. C. 57— Blank brass shell. 
H. C. 58— Large loaded shell. 
H. C. 59— Hat band. 
H. C. 60 — Bone spoon. 
H. C. 61— Army corps mark. 
H. C. 62—7 stone arrowheads. 
H. C. 63 — Iron arrowhead. 
H. C. 64— Piece of cable. 
H. C. 65 — Card receiver. 
H. C. 66 — Blank cartridge. 
H. C. 67— Smokeless cartridge. 
H. C. 68— Cigarettes. 
H. C. 69 — Relief for the wounded. 
H. C. 70 — 2 wax candles. 
H. C. 71— Hat numbers. 
H. C. 72 — China cup. 
H. C. 73— Bullets and napkin ring. 
H. C. 74—3 bullets. 
H. C. 75 — Box of shells. 
H. C. 76 — Solid shot. 
H. C. 77 — 2 Chinese books. 
H. C. 78—4 silk fans. 
H. C. 79 — Cartridge box and shells. 
H. C. 80— Song book of 8th army 

H. C. 81 — Bamboo stick. 

H. C. 82— Roll of paper. 

H. C. 83 — Priest's charm. 

H. C. 84—7 small flags. 

H. C. 85— Spanish flag. 

H. C. 86 — Chinese merchant flag. 

H. C. 87— Silk mat. 

H. C. 88— Silk U. S. flag. 


All of this collection is from the 
Philippine Islands. 

S. 1 — Large ivory head. 

S. 2 — Aluminum medal "Co. M 

1st Nebraska, 41." 
S. 3 — Tea urn carved from stone. 
S. 4 — Vase of carved stone. 
S. 5 — China tea urn. 
S. 6 — Pearl beads and crucifixion 


S. 7 — China teacup. 

S. 8 — Handsome basket made of 

brown wood. 
S. 9—3 cups like No. 6. 
S. 10 — Wood carved image. 
S. 11 — Perfumed vase. 
S. 12 — China pitcher. 
S. 13— Cup like No. 9. 
S. 14 — Broken plate of coiled pot 


S. 15 to 19— China vases (5). 
S. 20— China platter. 
S. 21— Mug (small China). 
S. 22, 23, 24— China cup, plate, and 

S. 25 — Tea urn. 

S. 26, 27, 28— Small plates of 

S. 29, 30, 31—3 china spoons. 

S. 32 — Small china vessel. 

S. 33— Sandal wood fan. 

S. 34, 35, 36— Ivory heads. 

S. 37 — Ivory napkin ring. 

S. 38, 39,, 40, 41—4 ivory hands. 

S. 42 — Carved stone image. 

S. 43 — Meerschaum cigar holder 

and case. 
S. 44 — A nut. of button ivory. 
S. 45, 46, 47 — 3 images carved 

from it. 
S. 48 — Stone signet. 
S. 49 — Stone paper weight. 
S. 50 — Terra cotta boy. 
S. 51 — China man. 
S. 52: — Box of tooth powder. 
S. 53 — Stone ape. 
S. 54 — Polished wood block. 
S. 55 — Bronze lion. 
S. 56 — Wood carved lion. 
S. 57 — Bronze Christ and child 
S. 58, 59. 60, 61, 62— Terra cotta 


S. 63, 64, 65— Tortoise shell card 

S. 66 — Wood card receiver. 
S. 67, 68 — Metal card receiver. 

museum catalogue. 


S. 69— Strings of beads. 

S. 70, 71 — Metal card receiver. 

S. 72 — Opium pipe. 

S. 73 — Pigs in clover, and set of 

wood butter dishes. 
S. 74— Checker board. 
S. 75 — Chess board and man. 
S. 76 — Small bureau of inlaid 


S. 77, 78, 79— Inlaid boxes. 

S. 80 — 3 in one inlaid box. 

S. 81 — Bamboo box with orna- 
mented cover. 

S. 82 — Plain jewel case and watch 
holder, of wood. 

S. 83 — Fine inlaid small box." 

S. 84 — Wooden head of negro. 

S. 85 — Wooden flowers. 

S. 86, 87 — 2 bronze urns. 

S 88 — A bone signet letter. 

S. 89 — A. stone for testing gold. 

S. 90 — Little china dish. 

S. 91 — A beaded pocket. . 

S. 92 — Large metal card receiver. 

S. 93 — An opium pipe cane. 

S. 94 to 107 — Pipes and cigarette 

S. 108 — Brass lock and key. 

S. 109 — Priest's charm. 

S. 110 — A flag of truce used in 

S. Ill — A wedge tent used by the 
soldiers of Manila. 

S. 112 — A fish net from Philippines. 

S. 113 — Thread for weaving nets. 

S. 114 — A captured Spanish flag. 

S 115 — Mr. Searle's dress coat. 

S. 116— Mr. Searle's hat. 

S. 117 — A sailor blouse. 

S. 118 — A Philippine summer cos- 

S. 119— A leather belt. 

S. 120— Pair of shoes. 

S. 121 — Straw toe slippers (pair). 

S. 122 — Wood soled toe slippers. 

S. 123 — Bamboo box, old, with 

S. 124— Kolo nut cup. 

S. 125, 126— Sword hilt with his- 

S. 127 — A long handled spoon (re- 

S. 128, 129 — 2 deer horns. 

S. 130 — Sword handle, black. 

S. 131. 132, 133 — Machetes in scab- 

S. 134— Fine pair of horns. 


S. 135 — Electric bell from Philip- 

S. 136 — Screw driver, unique. 

S. 137— Knife, Philippines. 

S. 138 — Woven hair brush. 

S. 139— String of beads. 

S. 140— Package of tobacco. 

S. 141 — Mr. Searle's spoon. 

S. 142— A belt, red, and a purse. 

S. 143 to 153— Baskets. 

S. 154 — Toe slippers. 

S. 155 — Broom, cartridges in bas- 
ket (147), 14 little china fig- 

S. 156 to 159 — Playing cards. 
S. 160 — Japanese flowers, curiosity. 
S. 161 — Common fan. 
S. 162 — Horn ornament. 
S. 163— Little horn box. 
S. 164 — Ivory paper knife. 
S. 165— Ring box. 
S. 166— Chinese bell, very fine one. 
S. 167— Mr. Searle's plate; 6 cruci- 

S. 168 — Very large cartridge/ 
S. 169— Censer from Manila. 
S. 170— String of bean beads and 

small gems. 
S. 171—2 watch chains. 
S. 172—2 cigar cases; 19 trinkets, 

nickel ornaments, etc. 
S. 173— Scabbard of leather. 
S. 174 to 178— Combs. 
S. 179 to 183— Shaving tools. 
S. 184 — Domestic keys and hook. 
S. 185— Chopping knife. 
S. 186 — Wooden pulley. 
S. 187— Box tooth powder. 
S. 188 — Branding iron. 
S. 189 — Pineapple fiber kerchief. 
S. 190— Marking line. 
S. 191— Chisel. 
S. 192— Spectacles. 
S. 193 — Old steel machete, small. 
S. 194 — Shuttle, 5 Jap pens and 3 

sticks of ink. 
S. 195 — Organ reed. 
S. 196— Pickle fork. 

7 blocks of powder. 
S. 197— Net. 

S. 198 — Badge, broken bow. 

S. 199—200 wall mats, 17 books, 10 

pictures, 112 papers, 1 album, 

3 sheets of stamps. 
S. 201— Tin box for papers. 
S. 202— Scales and weights. 





O. 1 — Scalp robe, presented by 
Black Bear, a Cheyenne, in 
1886. Note.^-These scalps 
are probably not all Indian 
scalp locks but are made of 
horse hair; however, Black 
Bear when he made the robe 
had been granted the right to 
use so many scalps by the war 
tent. Scalps are often made 
in this way. 

O. 2 — Collection of genuine In- 
dian scalps, full size, presented 
by Black Bear, procured on 
Green river, the home of the 
Utes, in 1886. 

O. 3 — .Scalp shirt, presented by 
Standing Bear (Arapaho (?)) 
in 1876. The leader of a tribe 
wears such shirts when on the 
war : path. 

O. 4— Calf buffalo robe, obtained 
at the Pine Ridge agency in 
1880. It has 100 days' work in 
porcupine quills on it. 

O. 5 — Scalp shirt having 291 
scalps on it. It was worn by 
Crazy Horse of Pine Ridge 

O. 6 — A Navajo blanket brought 
to Pine Ridge agency by Ogal- 

O. 7 — A number of Indian tanned 
hides. . 

O. 8 — A large buffalo cow robe. 
Killed and tanned by Indians 
of Pine Ridge in the '60s. 

O. 9 — Buffalo robe owned by 
Lone Wolf. 

O. 10 — Chaps worn by a Wyoming 

O. 11 — Dress worn by oldest 
daughter of Sitting Bull. 

O. 12 — Breech cloth made and 
used by one of the Little Hill 
family, Winnebago. 

O. 13 — A saddle blanket given by 
Little Priest, a Winnebago 
scout in the U. S. army. 

O. 14 — Horse's tail tanned by 
Omaha Charlie. 

O. 15 — Cap worn by Omaha Char- 

O. 16 — Leg bands from Winnebago 
tribe, Little Hill family. 


O. 17 — Scalp head dress, presented 
by Plenty Wounds, an Ogalalla. 

O. 18 — Scalp head-dress, presented 
by Old - Man - Afraid - of - His- 

O. 19 — Saddle bags, presented by 
Old-Man- Afraid-of-His-Horses. 

O. 20 — Porcupine quill decorated 
calf robe for children to wear, 
from Pine Ridge agency. 

O. 21 — Chaps presented by Ed 
Priest, a Winnebago. 

O. 22 — Breast of a Loon, from 

O. 23 — Woman's dress worn by 
the wife of Young-Man-Afraid- 
of-His-Horses, a Winnebago. 

0/ 24 — Otter skin used as a medi- 
cine bag by one of the Little 
Hill family who belonged to the 
Winnebago tribe. 

O. 25— Calf robe from Ogalalla 

O. 26— Calf robe from Pine Ridge 
having fifty days' work in por- 
cupine quills on it. 

O. 27— Robe from Pine Ridge; 
seventy-five days of porcupine 
quill work. 

O. 28 — Two pairs of Australian 
trousers, bought from a cow- 
boy in Valparaiso, Neb. 

O. 29 — Scalp head dress. . ■ 

O. 30, 31 — Buckskin suit which 
Omaha Charlie had made in 
1870 by Sioux Indians at an 
expense of $200. 

O. 32 — Beaded buckskin blanket 
used as a saddle, once owned 
by Standing Bear, a Cheyenne. 

O. 33 — Beaded buckskin blanket 
used as a saddle, owned by 
Drinking Cup, a Brule. 

O. 34 — Woman's beaded buckskin 
dress, owned by wife of Red 
Cloud, an Ogalalla; 9 months 
of bead work on it. 

O. 35 — Tobacco pouch. 

O. 36 — Tobacco pouch. 

O. 37— Ghost shirt used by Brule 

O. 38 — Beaded pappoose hood 
made by Ogalallas; 3 months' 




O. 39 — Porcupine decorated pap- 
poose hood found on Wounded 
Knee battle field. 

O. 40 — Buckskin shirt worn by 
Omaha Charlie in the '70s. 

O. 41 — Omaha Charlie's vest 
which he wore in 1870. 

O. 42 — Pappoose beaded hood; 3 
months' work. 

O. 43 — Pappoose beaded hood, 
given by daughter of Lone 
Wolf, the mother of Seven Up. 

O. 44 — Leggins presented to Oma- 
ha Charlie by Black Bear, one 
of Omaha Charlie's best friends 

O. 45 — An ornamental dress for 
the hips. 

O. 46 — Pappoose hood, decorated 
with 75 days of porcupine quill 
work.. Made by the Ogalallas. 

O. 47 — Omaha Charlie's coat and 

O. 48 — A small Ogalalla teepee. 

O. 49 — Cow skin vest worn by 
Omaha Charlie. 

O. 50— Ogalalla belt from Stand- 
ing Rock agency. 

O. 51 — Winnebago beaded " leg 

O. 52 — Beaded leg bands, once 
owned by Green Cloud. 

O. 53 — Winnebago beaded belt, 

made by Jacob Russel. 
. O. 54 — Beaded belt, owned by Sol- 
omon Rice Hill. 

O. 55 — Roach head-dress, pre- 
sented by Little Pish, a Winne- 

O. 56 — Deer tail head-dress, pre- 
sented by Spotted Tail, a Brule. 

O. 57 — Omaha Charlie's leather 

O. 58 — A "crow skin" (feathers on 
a cloth). 

O. 59 — Hat which Omaha Charlie 
wore, having snake skin band 
which was presented by Little 
Horse, a medicine man at 
Standing Rock agency. 

O. 60 — Hat worn by a Mexican 
who married a daughter of 
Bear Nose, an Ogalalla. 

O. 61 — Soldier's rain cap given by 
Green Cloud. 


O. 62, 63 — 2 rawhide cases used to 
carry meat or skins and may 
be used as a boat to ferry 
them across streams. 

O. 64 — Beaded belt owned by Lit- 
tle Thunder. 

O. 65 — Sinew from the back of a 
buffalo, used as thread in sew- 

O. 66 — Buckskin jockey cap worn 

by an Indian. 
O. 67— Tobacco pouch owned by 

Little Jim, a Winnebago who 

was killed near Homer, Neb., 

in 1900. 

O. 68 — Bag of Killikinick given by 
Henry Rice Hill, a Winnebago 
medicine man. 

O. 69— Snake ' skin. 

O. 70 — A feather head-dress used 
by Henry Rice Hill in the '50s. 

O. 71 — Omaha- Charlie's mocca- 

O. 72, 73, 74, 75— Tobacco pouches 
procured at Standing Rock 

O. 76 — A hunting bag and powder 
horn found at Wounded Knee 
battle field. 

O. 77 — Flags used in the ghost 

O. 78, 79, 80— Navajo baskets 
made to hold water. 

O. 81 — Rawhide lariat given to 
Omaha Charlie by Mike Ragan 
of Platte Center, Neb. This 
was used to hang the man who 
attempted to murder Ragan. 

O. 82 — A rawhide lariat made by 
"Bridle Bill," a cowboy. Cost 

O. 83, 84 — Buffalo horns from Da- 

O. 85 — Shield used on the war- 
path, presented by Plenty 

O. 86, 87 — Hakamore bridles made 

by Bridle Bill. 
O. 88 — Braided work by Bridle 


O. 89 — Sword from a marine ship 

of New York harbor. 
O. 90 — Cane made by one of Red 

Cloud's band. 
O. 91 — Piece of elk horn dug out 

near Logan creek in 1890. 
O. 92 — Spear for buffalo, used by 

the Ogalalla tribe. 




O. 93-^-War-club made by Ogalal- 

O. 94 — Iron tomahawk used by 

O. 95 — Stone ax found in Ne- 

O. 96 — "Trailer" found near the 
Rawhide creek. Note. — These 
stones were tied to a rope 
placed around the neck of a 
horse; the horse could be fol- 
lowed by the trail it left. 

O. 97 — Wooden turtle bowl given 
by mother of Joseph Little 
Bear, made in 1807. 

O. 98 — Pictographs or Indian sign 
writing which shows the' Sioux 
and Arapahos fighting Plenty 
Wounds. Also photographs. 

O. 99 — Indian pack saddle at least 
100 years old in 1906. Also a 
stirrup to same. 

O. 100— Braided halter. 

O. 101— Horns. 

O. 102 — Eagle wing, presented by 

O. 103 — Eagle wing, presented by 
Black Bear. 

O. 104— Buffalo horns. 

O. 105— Sitting Bull's rifle given by 
one of his men to Omaha Char- 

O. 106 — Elk teeth earrings worn by 

Omaha Charlie. 
O. 107 — Diamond rattlesnake skin 

from South Sea Islands. 
O. 108 — Hoe given to the father of 

Mrs. Bristol by the government 

at Crow Creek reservation. 
O. 109 — Tomahawk pipe. 
O. 110 — Moccasins. 
O. ill — Tomahawk pipe. 
O. 112— Metal bracelet. 
O. 113 — (Number given to ox yoke 

which was not brought to the 

O. 114 — 2 buffalo heads and horns 

picked up cn Nebraska plains. 
O. 115 — A bag used by a squaw. 
O. 116 — A baby coat from Black 

Crow family. 
O. 117 — Sioux bow, for buffalo. 
O. 118— A little boy's suit from the 

McCaa family, worn ly a rela- 
tive of Red Cloud. 
O. 119— Turkish cap. 
O. 120 — Eagle wing bones. 
O. 121 — Pawnee necklace. 


O. 122, 123— Cheyenne tobacco 

O. 124 — Cap worn by son of Lone 

O. 125 — Very fine beaded sinew 

O. 126— Belt. 

O. 127 — Indian idol from Seneca In- ' 

dians, New York. 
O. 128 — 21 Indian arrows. 
O. 129 — Tobacco pouch made by 

wife of Standing Bear for her 


O. 130 to 132— Tobacco pouches. 

O. 133— Bag found on a battlefield 
by Green Cloud, a government 
scout. It was made by Arap- 

O. 134 — 2 snake skin leg bands 
found on an Arapaho battle- 
field by Green Cloud. 

O. 135 — Moccasins given by wife of 
Lone Wolf. 

O. 136 — Moccasins which Lone 
Wolf took off his feet and gave 
to Omaha Charlie at Rosebud 
agency in 1890. 

O. 137 — A Pomme Blanche root 
from which Indians made flour. 
It still grows on the Omaha 

O. 138, 139 — 2 Pawnee head-dresses. 

O. 140— Pocket from Standing 

O. 141 — Tobacco pouch found on 
Wounded Knee battlefield. 

O. 142 — Cheyenne pocket. 

O. 143 — Cheyenne cape for Indian 

O. 144 — Pocket from Wounded ' 

O. 145 — Kickapoo sash (wool). 
O. 146 — Saddle blanket from Iowa 

O. 147 — Wooden mask from Seneca 
Indians, New York. 

O. 148 — Buffalo forelock. 

O. 149 — Peacock's wings. 

O. 150— Eagle claws. 

O. 151 — Fan which was used by 

O. 152 — A head-dress with horns 
which belonged to Goll, of 
Standing Rock agency. This 
head-dress was in the Custer 

O. 153 — Leggins from family of 
Drinking Cup. 




O. 154— Head-dress. 

O. 155 — Doll and pappoose case, 
showing use of hood, made by 
East Powder Bill or Bill Al- 
mon, who married an Ogalalla 

O. 156 — Squaw belt from Ogalalla 

O. 157, 158 — Head-dresses from 

Rosebud agency. 
O. 159 — Flash club used to signal 

from hill to hill, used by Brule 


O. 160, 161— Pair of pistol cases 
made by Sally Twist, Ogalalla. 

O. 162 — Pouch given by Mrs. Hunt- 
er, mother of Mrs. Bristol. 

O. 163 — Pouch from Pine Ridge. 

O. 164 — Board on which three of 
Omaha Charlie's children were 
carried. Note. — The baby is 
strapped to this board and car- 
ried on the mother's back. 

O. 165, 166— Stone war-clubs, 

O. 167, 168— Axes mounted . by 

O 169 — Cane made by Good Snake, 
a Winnebago, 

O. 170 — Omaha necklace. 

O. 171 — Necklace brought from Eu- 
rope by the Ogalallas who 
traveled with Buffalo Bill. 

O. 172 — Necklace presented by 
Charging Eagle. 

O. 173 — Mexican hair band. 

O. 174, 175 — Dish and spoon which 
an Ogalalla woman carried on 

O. 176 — A pipe pick. 

O. 177 — Winnebago trimming for 
the hair. 

O. 178— Moon Shell. 

O. 179— Knife scabbard. 

O. 180, 181, 182— Horn implements. 

O. 183— A hoof. 

O. 184— A hoof. 

O. 185 — Watch worn by Omaha 

O. 186— Eagle feathers. 
O. 187 — Sword presented to Omaha 

Charlie in Indiana. 
O. 188 — Cross presented by Red 

O. 189 — 3 stone pipes. 
O. 190 — Long stem and peace pipe. 
O. 191, ] 92— Pair of leggins for 



O. 193 — Mexican whip. 

O. 194, 195— Leggins. 

O. 196, 197— Leggins. 

O. 198, 199— Squaw leggins. 

O. 200, 201— Leggins. 

O. 202, 203— Leggins. 

O. 204 — Very old beaded vest worn 

by Thunder Hawk, a Brule. 
O. 205 — Beaded vest worn by 

Many Wounds, an Ogalalla. 
O. 206 — Beaded vest worn by the 

son of Thunder Hawk. 
O. 207 — Vest worn by Seven Up. 
O. 208, 209— Vests worn by the son 

of Standing Bear. 
O. 210 — Wool Kickapoo sash worn 

by Butler. 
O. 211— Beaded sash. 
O. 212 to 216— Beaded knife cases. 
O. 217—2 arm bands. 
O. 218 — Pair of Navajo moccasins. 
O. 219 to 222— Whip sticks of elk 


O. 223 — Beaded moccasins. 
O. 224 — Pair of moccasins. 
O. 225 — Eagle head and tail. 
O. 226, 227— Pistols used in War 
of 1812. 

O. 228 — Copper tomahawk from 

O. 229 — Iron tomahawk from Ohio. 

O. 230 — Revolver given by Shafer, 
a cousin of Jesse James; said 
to have belonged to James. 

O. 231— Revolver. 

O. 232 — Tail and three mounted 
hoofs of a horse from Custer 
battlefield; also shoulder-straps 
from same field. 

O. 233 — Feet of horse mounted by 
Mr. Bristol. 

O. 234 — Pepper box pistol. 

O. 235— Cap and ball pistol. 

O. 236 — Knife found in a grave in 

O. 237— Very old- knife used to 
save the life of an Indian and 
kept, by him with great care. 

O. 238— Knife. 

O. 239— Knife. 

O. 240— Very old knife. 

O. 241, 242, 243—3 knives from 
Custer battlefield. 

O. 244— Knife. 

O. 245 — 2 beaver tails. 

O. 246— Scalping knife. 



O. 247 — Sim Dance knives, five in 
number, procured of Ogalallas 
in 1881. 

O. 248 — 2 canteens from Custer 

O. 249 — Sword from Custer battle- 

O. 250— War-club. 

O. 251 — Arapaho whip with a scalp 
for a lash. 

O. 252— Cane head. 

O. 253 — Cartridge box and. belt 
from Custer battlefield. 

O. 254, 255 — 2 Iron spear heads 
from near Homer, Neb. 

O. 256 — Pawnee sign writing or 
pictographs; a report sent back 
to the tribe by a scout. 

O. 257 — Apache war-club. 

O. 258 — Apache war-club. 

O. 259 — Apache arrow. 

O. 260 — Flathead war-club. 

O. 261— Ogalalla war-club from Red 
Cloud's band. 

O. 262— Meat crusher from Ogal- 
alla tribe. 

O. 263 — Ogalalla war-club. 

O. 264 — Winnebago war-club. 

O. 265 — Scraper for tanning hides, 
from Lone Wolf's family. 

O. 266 — War-club, Chippewa, from 
White Earth reservation. 

O. 267, 268— Comanche lance clubs. 

O. 269 — 2 old iron tomahawks, 
supposed to have been used by 
Black Bird and Big Elk. They 
were so cherished in the Oma- 
ha tribe. 

O. 270 — Buffalo horns made into a 
war-club by Crow Indians. 

O. 271— Creek war club. 

O. 272— Ogalalla war-club. 

O. 273— Three Strikes's club. He 
killed three Indians with three 
strikes and took the name 

O. 274 — Iroquois hatchet 200 years 

O. 275 — Winnebago whip owned by 
Little Priest (seven scalp 
marks on it). 

O. 276— Buffalo cow hoof. 

O. 277— An "1849" ox hoof, shod. 

O. 278— Quirt owned by Great Bear 
(25 scalp marks). 

O. 279— Seneca hatchet from Sal- 
amanca, New York, owned by 
the Mary Jamison family. 



O. 280 — Leather. This number em. 
braces braided bridles and 

O. 281 — Cheyenne pipe. 

O. 282 — Chippewa ornament. 

Q. 283— Spanish stiletto. 

O. 284 — Ornament for a war-club 
belonging to Loves-a-Knife. 

O. 285 — Leather stamping outfit, 
for ornamenting saddles. 

O. 286 — Arrow used to throw, made 
by Henry Little Hill. 

O. 287 — Specimens of wampum 
given by Frost, the man who 
supplied such things to the In- 
dian trade, New York. 

O. 288 — Ogalalla porcupine quill 

O. 289 — Pictograph, "Crazy Horse 
on War-path, ''' drawn by Crazy 

O. 290— Medicine rattle. 

O. 291 — Sun Dance whistles, Ogal- 

O. 292— Pair of Sally Twist mocca- 

O. 293 — Antelope necklace of dew- 
claws, owned by Thunder 
Horse, used to stampede 

O. 294 — Elk hoof necklace belong- 
ing to Little Bear, used to 
frighten horses. 

O. 295 — Winnebago squaw hair 
dress. . 

O. 296 — Necklace of bones from 
turtle legs, owned by Young 
Spotted Tail. 

O. 297 — Omaha necklace. 

O. 298 — Ogalalla pipe pick case. 

O. 299 — Little moccasins, presented 
by Elk woman. 

O. 300 — Squaw hair dress. , 

O. 301 — Wampum breast ornament 
belonging to Yellow Smoke. 

O. 302 — Cheyenne doll in costume. 

O. 303 — Winnebago doll in cos- 

O. 304, 305— Ogalalla dolls in cos- 

o. 306 — Bib dew-claw necklace used 

to stampede horses. 
O. 307 — Beaded scorpions used in 

Cheyenne medicine dance. 
O. 308 — Ponca cartridge pouch. 
O. 309—3 beaver feet, Nebraska, 
o. 310- Sitting Hull's wampum 

breast plate. 




O. 311 — 6 Omaha horn spoons. 

O. 312 — 4 Cheyenne porcupine quill 

arm bands. 
O. 313 — Ogalalla scraper owned by 

wife of Lone Wolf, observe the 

scalp marks. 

O. 314 — A Winnebago game. 

O. 315 — A bunch of ring sizes. 

O. 316— Worn by William T. Bris- 
tol when a baby (moccasins). 

O. 317 — Shoes worn by Edith Hunt- 
er's baby. 

O. 318 — Needle book carried by D. 
Charles Bristol. 

O. 319 — Shoes worn by D. Charles 

O. 320 — 2 pairs of gloves made by 
Sally Twist. 

O. 321 — Black Bear's tooth; arrow 
from Homer; small steel toma- 
hawk made in Pennsylvania. 

O. 322 — Watch chain worn by D. 
Charles Bristol. 

O. 323 — Moccasins made, by wife of 
Standing Bear. 

O. 324 — Beaded work done by Sally 

O. 325 — 3 old iron Ogalalla spears. 

O. 326 — Spanish bit attachment 
procured of Indians. 

O. 327 — Beaded snakes for Ogalalla 
snake dance. 

0. 328 — Button given by an officer 
of marines in New York har- 

O. 329— Dinner horn. 

O. 330 — Cheyenne quirt. 

O. 331 to 341—11 pockets. 

O. 342 — Winnebago loom and work. 

O. 343 — Cheyenne wampum. 

O. 344 — Watch guard worn by D. 

Charles Bristol. 
O. 345 — Watch guard worn by B. 

Charles Bristol. 
O. 346— Pocket. 

O. 347 — Winnebago scalp dress. 
O. 348 — Tweezers to pull beard. 
O. 349— Ornament. 
O. 350—3 beaded Ogalalla balls for 

O. 351 — Spanish spurs from Crow 


O. 352 — Beaded Ogalalla vest. 

O. 353 — Manitoba police boots. 

O. 354 — Snow shoes from Mary 
Jamison family. 

O. 355 — Curious bones. 

O. 356 — Bone from a turtle's back. 

O. 357— nTally bone for a- family, ob- 
serve the scalp marks. 

O. 358 — Bag in which clothes are 

O. 359 — Lacrosse sticks, used in 
ball game. 

O. 360— Buffalo horns. 

O. 361— Cartridge box. 

O. 362 — Navajo pad for carrying- 
water in vessels balanced on 
the head. 

O. 363 — Japanese dagger. 

O. 364 — Sitting Bull's medicine 

O. 365— Pipe used by Red Cloud. 
O. 366— Pipe owned by Old-Man- 

Afraid-of-His-Horses. - 
O. 367 — Pipe belonging to Crazy 


O. 368 — Pipe owned by Thunder 

O 369 — Pipe owned by Charging 

O. 370— Santee pipe. 

O. 371 — Pipe belonging to Hole-in- 
the-Day, a Chippewa who was 
killed by his own people be- 
cause he was toa friendly to 
the whites. 

O. 372 — Yankton Sioux pipe. 

O. 373 — Winnebago pipe. 

O. 374 — Santee Sioux pipe. 

O. 375 — Pipe belonging to Yellow 
Smoke, an Omaha. 

O. 376 — Odd pipestone work. 

O. 377 — Powder horn. 

O. 378 — Pappoose beaded hood 
from Pine Ridge. 

O. 379 — Pappoose beaded hood 
from Pine Ridge agency. 

O. 380 — Breech cloth owned by 
Plenty Horse. 

O. 381 — Winnebago hair dress. 

O. 382 — Moccasins worn by Willie 
Bristol, his mother's work. 

O. 383 — Pair moccasins. 

O. 384 — Winnebago rattle. 




O. 385 — Oil paintings, 4 in number, 
D Charles Bristol, Rain-in-the- 
Face, Goll, Sitting Bull, all by 
Mountain Charley or C. S. Sto- 
bie. Also photographs of not- 
able western characters which 
will be found under the name 
of D. Charles Bristol in the 
photograph catalogue. 
The following numbers were 
added to the original catalogue 
when articles were put in 


O. 386— Pipe. 

O. 387— Pipe. 

O. 388— Pipe. 

O. 389— Moccasins. 

O. 390 — Moccasins. 

O. 391 — Moccasins. 

O. 392 to 397— Moccasins. 

O. 398 to 401— Moccasins. 

O. 402— Moccasins (odds). 

O. 403— Flute. 

O. 404 — A pipestone cane. 


Continued from page 3G6. 
Being relics added to the museum, and numbers added to the catalogue. 

687 — Coin collection loaned by D. 
H. Noll, of Wymore, Neb. U. 
S. Columbian half dollar; U. S. 
Columbian quarter dollar; U. 
S. half dollar; 1809 and 1812; 
silver foreign coin; U. S. pen- 
nies, 1797 and 1812; one cent 
upper Canada bank token, 1850; 
U. S. two cent, 1865; British 
commercial token, 1814 ; George 
II. English penny. 

688 — Two Icelandic books loaned 
by John Halldorson, 1311 So. 
11th Street, Lincoln. Nebraska, 
date 1745 and 1766. 

689 — Chipped flints (history un- 

690 — A McClellan medal or token 
loaned by R. J. Scarborough, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

691 — Stone maul found just outside 
the stockade at Fort Laramie, 
loaned by Walter S. House- 
worth, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

692 — Locket containing the por- 
traits of Mr. and Mrs. J. W. 
Richardson, pioneers of Fon- 
tenelle, Nebraska, presented by 
Miss Delia Campbell, through 
the kindness of A. N. Yost of 

693 — Collection of Joel and James 
Thompson, Lincoln. Nebraska, 
placed as a loan; three stone 
arrow points; two curious 
rocks; two rattles; from Pev- 
ely, Missouri. 

694 — A box of heirlooms, loaned in 
the name of Milton L. Trester: 
A sword, a lantern, a broad ax, 
a grain sickle, a fork, and can- 
dle moulds. 

695 — An ox yoke made from a Ne- 
braska cottonwood tree and 
used for many years in Ne- 
braska. Presented by the late 
Franklin Ball, of Palmyra. 

696 — Homer's Iliad and Odyssey in 
the original Greek, printed in 
1561, loaned by J. A. Barrett, 
of Omaha. 

697 — Five original commissions, is- 
sued to various Indian chiefs 
over a hundred years ago, pre- 
sented by the late Robert W. 

698 — Case of Nebraska woods, col- 
lected by the late Robert W. 

699 — Picture of Rev. Joseph Hen- 
son, the original of "Uncle 
Tom," presented by A. D. Kit- 
chen, Lincoln, Neb. 

700 — Roster of the 1st Nebraska 
Regiment in the Civil War, 
loaned by Mrs. R. R. Living- 
ston, Plattsmouth, Nebraska. 

701 — Bank notes and wild-cat bills, 
paper tokens, and Confederate 
bills, mounted between glasses. 
About sixty specimens In all, 
given to the Society by various 
people, names unknown. 



702 — Colonial newspaper. Two cop- 
ies of the Providence Gazette 
and Country Journal, July 8 
and November 11, 1775, 
mounted between glasses. The 
name of the donor is unknown. 

703 — Large United States pennies. 
This collection is from various 
sources; most of them were 
presented by Jay A. Barrett, 
and the collection is nearly 
complete. They are mounted 
between glass slides, so that 
both sides may be studied. 

704 — State Fair souvenirs collected 
to show the evolution of the 
advertising idea at the Ne- 
braska State Fair. 

705 — Collection of political badges 
purchased of S. A. Gardiner, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

706 — Collection of political and 
other badges, presented by H. 
C. McMaken, Plattsmcuth, Ne- 

707— Collection of geological speci- 
mens, loaned by A. L. Funk, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

708— Picture of Gilbert Park, by J. 
W. Gilbert, Friend, Nebraska. 

709 — Donkey shoes from Rome, pre- 
sented by Prof. James T. Lees, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

710— Autograph letter of Charles I. 
of England, 1644, loaned by 
James Mitchell, Wiiber, Ne- 

711 — Colonial newspaper, Essex 
Journal and New Hampshire 
Packet of March 29, 1776, do- 
nated by Charles H. Morrill. 

712 — Communion plate (very old), 
loaned by Prof. George R. 
Chatburn, of ^ Lincoln. 

713 — Safe, loaned by John B. Hor- 
ton, of Evanston, Illinois, used 
by his father, in Calais, Maine, 
and by Mr. Horton in Lincoln. 

714 — Nebraska silks and wools with 
case, presented by the late Mrs. 
Mary E, Furnas. 

715 — A diary written in Anderson- 
ville prison by H>. A. Shotwell, 
loaned for safe-keeping by J. C. 

716— Safe used in the old Platte 
Valley bank, at Nebraska City, 
and the old State Bank at Lin-, 
coin. It is one of the first safes 
brought to the territory, and 
the first in Lincoln. Presented 
by N. C. Brock, of Lincoln. 



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Act giving force of law to reservation of Historical Square. 


Be it resolved by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

That the report of the commissioners for the location of Lincoln, the 
seat of government of Nebraska, and for the erection of public buildings 
thereat, is hereby accepted, and all reservations of public squares, streets, 
and alleys, and church lots in Lincoln, together with the general design, 
is hereby adopted; and the governor may deed such church lots as other 
lands deeded by the state. Lincoln is hereby declared the seat of gov- 
ernment of the state of Nebraska. The bondsmen of such commissioners 
are hereby released, and such commissioners are authorized to surrender 
the said bonds Such commissioners are hereby authorized to pay out 
of the proceeds of the sale of any Lincoln lots, to be made, the sum of 
twenty-one hundred and twelve dollars, being a balance due on the erec- 
tion of the Capitol buildings at Lincoln. 

wm. Mclennan, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 


President of the Senate. , 
Approved February 15, 1869. 

DAVID BUTLER, Governor. 

Laws of 4th-5th session, p. 316. 

Granting to the city of Lincoln a certain block of lots in said city for a 

market place. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. That there is hereby granted and donated to the city of 
Lincoln for public use, as a market square, all of block twenty-nine in 
said city, heretofore known as and called "The State Historical Society 

Sec. 2. That it is a fundamental condition of this grant, that said block 
shall, forever, remain the public property of said city, for the use of its 
citizens, for market purposes, and shall never be sold or alienated by 
said city. 

Sec. 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its 

Approved, February 24, 1875. 
Laws 1875, pp. 317-xo, 

An act to aid and encourage the "Nebraska State Historical Society." 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. That the "Nebraska State Historical Society," an organiza- 
tion now in existence— Robt. W. Furnas, President; James M. Wool- 
worth and Elmer S. Dundy, Vice-Presidents; Samuel Aughey, Secretary, 
and W. W. Wilson, Treasurer, their associates and successors — be, and 
the same is hereby recognized as a state institution. 



Sec. 2. That it shall be the duty of the President and Secretary of said 
institution to make annually reports to the governor, as required by other 
state institutions. Said report to embrace the transactions and expendi- 
tures of the organization, together with all historical addresses, which 
have been or may hereafter be read before the Society or furnished it as 
historical matter, a data of the state or adjacent western regions of 

Sec. 3. That said reports, addresses, and papers shall be published at 
the expense of the state, and distributed as other similar official reports, 
a reasonable number, to be decided by the state and Society, to be fur- 
nished said Society for its use and distribution. 

Sec. 4. That there be and is hereby appropriated annually the sum of 
five hundred dollars ($500) for the use and benefit of said ''Nebraska 
State Historical Society," to be used under the direction of its officers 
exclusively in defraying expenses, collecting and preserving historical 
matter, data, relics, for the benefit of the state. 

Approved- February 27th, A.D. 1883. 

Laws of 1883, pp. 340-41. 

An act to amend sections 1 and 2 of an act entitled ''An act granting to 
the city of Lincoln a certain block of lots in said city, for a 
market place," approved February 24, 1875. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. That sections 1 and 2 of an act granting to the city of Lin- 
coln a certain block of lots in said city, for a market place, approved 
February 24th, 1875, are hereby amended so as to read as follows: 

Sec. 1. That there is hereby granted and donated to the city of Lin- 
coln, for public use as a market square and other public purpose, all of 
bxock twenty-nine, in said city, heretofore known as and called "The State 
Historical Society block." 

Sec. 2. That it is a fundamental condition of this grant that said block 
shall forever remain the public property of said city, for the use of its 
citizens, for market and other public purposes, and shall never be sold 
or alienated by said city. 

Sec. 2. That sections 1 and two of the act amended in section 1 hereof 
are hereby repealed. 

Approved March 5, A.D. 1885. 

Laws 1885, pp. 428-29. 

(Senate File No. 55.) 

An act to assist the state library and "The Nebraska State Historical 
Society" to augment their collections. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the -State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. To enable the state library and the Nebraska Historical So- 
ciety to augment their respective collections by effecting exchanges with 
other societies and institutions, the state of Nebraska hereby donates to 
the state library two hundred (200) bound copies of each of the several 
rublications of the state, its officers, societies and institutions, except 
the reports of the supreme court; and to the Nebraska State Historical 
Society fifty (50) volumes of the same publications as the same shall be 



Sec. 1 It is hereby made the duty of the secretary of state, or other 
officer having custody of any of the said publications, to deliver the num- 
ber of copies of the same above specified, on the issuance of said publi- 
cations to the state librarian and the Secretary of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society respectively. 

Approved April 7, 1893. 

Laws 1893, pp. 366-67. 

(Senate File No. 180.) 
(Introduced by Mr. Jones.) 

Act of 1905 concerning custody of records. 

A bill for an act to make the Nebraska State Historical Society the cus- 
todian of records, documents, and historic material from the various 
departments of state, state institutions, court houses, city halls, and 
other public buildings and departments in the state of Nebraska, 
and to provide for making certified copies of the same by the officers 
of the Nebraska State Historical Society. 
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. (State Historical Society — Custodians of ancient public rec- 
ords.) — The Nebraska State Historical Society is hereby made the cus- 
todian of all public records, documents, relics, and other material which 
it may consider of historic value or interest and which are now or may 
hereafter be in any office or vaults of the several departments of state, 
in any of the institutions which receive appropriations of money from 
the legislature of Nebraska, in any of the county court houses or city 
halls or other public buildings within the state of Nebraska, subject al- 
ways to the following regulations and conditions: 

Sec. 2. (Records subject to this act — Receipts.) — That such records, 
documents, relics, or other historic material shall not be in active use in 
any such department, institution, or building, nor have been in active use 
for the period of twenty years preceding their delivery to the custody of 
said State Historical Society. That such material, through lack of proper 
means to care for, or safe and adequate place to preserve, is liable to 
damage and destruction. That the officer or board having the care and 
management of such department, institution, or building, shall consent in 
writing to the custody of such documents, records, and materials by said 
State Historical Society. That the said State Historical Society shall 
cause invoice and receipts for such material so turned over to be made 
in triplicate, one copy to be deposited with the secretary of state, one 
with the officer or board turning over such material, and one retained by 
the Secretary of the State Historical Society. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of every officer or board having control or 
management of any state department, institution, or building to notify 
the Secretary of the State Historical Society whenever there are records, 
documents, relics, or material in his or their care coming within the 
scope of this act. 

Sec. 4. (Cost of removal.) It shall be the duty of the State Historical 
Society by its officers or employes to examine such material and remove 
and receipt for such as shall seem to it of historic value. It shall trans- 
port the same at its own cost to its museum, and shall catalogue, arrange, 
and display the same for the free use of the public. 

Sec. 5. (Certified copies.) Certified copies of any record, document, 
or other material of which the Nebraska State Historical Society shall 
be the custodian shall be made upon application by the Secretary or 


Curator of said Society under seal and oath. Such certified copy shall 
be received in courts or elsewhere as of the same legal validity as similar 
certificates from the original custodian of such record, document, or 
other material, and the Secretary or Curator of said Nebraska State His- 
torical Society shall be entitled to the same fees for making such certified 
copy as the original custodian. 

Approved March 30, 1905. 

Laws of 1905, pp. 604-5. 

(House Roll No. 431 ) 

(Introduced by Finance, Ways and Means Committee.) 

An act to secure the restoration to the state and its original purposes of 
block 29, in the city of Lincoln, Nebraska, originally known as "State 
Historical Society Block," or in lieu thereof of some other equally 
desirable tract; to provide for the erection of the basement story of 
a fireproof building thereon and a temporary roof for the same, to 
be used as a museum and library by the Nebraska State Historical 
Society for the safe preservation and exhibition of documents, books, 
newspapers, weapons, tools, pictures, relics, scientific specimens, 
farm and factory products, and all other collections pertaining to the 
history of the world, and particularly to that of Nebraska and the 
great West; also for the organization of the material and carrying 
on the work of the legislative reference department; to provide an 
appropriation of money therefor, to authorize the city of Lincoln to 
convey certain property in said city as a site for said building and 
grounds, and to amend sections 1 and 2, of chapter 121, of the session 
laws of 1885, and to repeal said original sections. 

(Preamble.) Whereas, David Butler, John Gillespie, and Thomas P. 
Kennard, commissioners of the state of Nebraska, appointed by the act 
of legislature of June 14, 1867, to relocate the capitol of the state of Ne- 
braska, were granted power to "survey and stake out public squares or 
reseryations for public buildings," and 

Whereas, Said commissioners on August 26, 1867, in compliance with 
the act creating them, filed a surveyor's plat of the original city of Lin- 
coln, bearing in proper place this legend "Block 29 for State Historical 
Library Association, incorporated August 26, 1867," and 

Whereas, On February 15, 1869, the legislature of the state of Ne- 
braska accepted and approved the acts of said commissioners, including 
the reservation of said block for the State Historical Library Associa- 
tion; and 

Whereas, on February 24, 1875, the legislature of the state of Nebraska 
granted and donated to the city of Lincoln said block 29, described in 
the act as "State Historical Society Block," for public use as a market 
square on the fundamental conditions that it should "forever remain pub- 
lic property for use for market purposes and never be sold or alienated 
by said city;" and 

Whereas, On March 5, 1885, the legislature of the state of Nebraska 
amended the act of i875 so as to permit the block, again described as 
"State Historical Society Block," to be used by said city "as a market 
square and for other public purposes;" and 

Whereas, Under said amended act the city of Lincoln has used one 
corner of said block for its city offices and fire department; and 

Legislative acts. 


Whereas, Arrangements have been completed by said city of Lincoln 
under which it has acquired the former U. S. postoffice building as a city 
hall, and is about to remove its offices to said building; and 

"Whereas, The Nebraska State Historical Society has, since the year 
1878, been carrying on the, work to which said block 29 in the city of 
Lincoln was originally dedicated, and is now overcrowded in basement 
rooms of the University Library, where, in addition to its library, mu- 
seum and newspaper department, it has now organized and carries on 
its legislative reference department; and 

Whereas, The restoration of block 29 to its original purposes as de- 
signed by the founders of this state and original locaters of the city of 
Lincoln as a site for a State Historical Society building and park, is an 
act of justice and sound public policy; and 

Whereas, It is believed public sentiment in the city of Lincoln is now 
favorable to the restoration of said Historical Society Block to its orig- 
inal purposes, for which it is well-adapted by reason of its central loca- 
tion in the city of Lincoln; therefore 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Nebraska: 

Section 1. (Appropriation: building; use, management.) — That there is 
hereby appropriated out of any money belonging to the general fund of 
the state, not otherwise appropriated, the sum of twenty-five thousand 
dollars, to be expended in the construction and equipment of the base- 
ment story of a fireproof wing in the city of Lincoln, Nebraska, upon 
ground to be donated by the said city of Lincoln and accepted as the site 
for a Historical Society building and. park by the executive board of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society. Said basement story and said wing 
and building and park shall be under the management and control of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society and be used by it as a museum and 
library building and grounds for the preservation, care, arrangement 
and exhibition of documents, books, newspapers, weapons, tools, pictures, 
relics, scientific specimens, farm and factory products, and all other col- 
lections pertaining to the history of the world, and particularly to that of 
Nebraska and the great West; also to carry on the work of the Nebraska 
legislative reference department. 

Sec. 2. (Same, basement story.) — Said basement story shall be con- 
structed according to plans and specifications adopted by the executive 
board of the Nebraska State Historical Society, shall be fireproof through- 
out, and shall be designed to preserve, care for, and exhibit, for the free 
use of the public all the collections which the Nebraska State Historical 
Society has in its custody or may hereafter receive, and to carry on the 
office work of said Society and of the legislative reference department. 
The management and control of the construction of said building shall 
be vested in the executive board of the Nebraska State Historical . Society 
and such person or persons as the said executive board may appoint for 
such purpose. 

Sec. 3. (Building, construction ) — The executive board shall proceed to 
secure bids for the construction of said basement story by advertisement 
in such manner as it may determine, or by such other means as will, in 
its judgment, secure the services of the most responsible contractor bid- 
ding lowest for the same. Said board shall also require the successful 
bidder to execute and file the bond required by an act of the legislature, 
approved March 21, 1889, before the final award and execution of the 
contract of construction. Said board shall make all orders necessary to 
protect the interests of the state and to secure the construction of said 
basement story according to the plans and specifications prepared there- 
for. Said board is hereby authorized and empowered to execute by its 
proper officers all contracts for the construction and equipment of S a"d 



building, and to do and perform, by its duly appointed agents, all neces- 
sary acts and things in that behalf. 

Sec. 4. (Same, payments.) — Payment shall be made from time to time, 
as the work of construction proceeds, upon estimates furnished by the 
Society and the superintendent of construction. Fifteen per cent of each 
estimate shall be retained until the work therein provided for shall be 
completed and accepted by the executive board. For the purpose of 
making such payments, and for all expenditures of money under this act, 
the said executive board shall issue its certificates, signed by its Presi- 
dent, or*its Vice-President, and its Secretary, directed to the Auditor of 
Public Accounts, who shall thereupon issue his warrant upon the general 
fund of the state directed to the treasurer, for the amount and in favor 
of the person or persons named in said certificates. 

Sec. 5. (Condition.) — The express condition of this appropriation is 
that within two years from the time this act shall take effect, the city of 
Lincoln, Nebraska, shall donate and convey to the Nebraska State His- 
torical Society a tract of land in said city suitable for a site for a His- 
torical Society building and acceptable to the executive board of said 
Society, and the governor of the state, provided that said property must 
be said block 29 in the city of Lincoln or property of equal value. Said 
appropriation shall become available after this act is passed, whenever 
the said Historical Society executive board shall certify by its proper - 
officers under oath to the auditor of public accounts that the conditions 
named in this section have been complied with. 

Sec. 6. (Sections amended.) — That sections 1 and 2, of chapter 121, of 
the session laws of 1885, are hereby amended to read as follows: 

"Section 1. (Grant to Historical Society.) — That there is hereby granted 
and donated to the city, of Lincoln, for public use as a market square, and 
other public purpose, all of block 29, in said city, heretofore known as 
and called 'The State Historical Society Block.' 

"Sec. 2. (Condition.) — That it is a fundamental condition of this grant 
that said block shall forever remain public property of said city, for the : 
use of its citizens, for market and other public purposes, and shall never 
be sold or alienated by said city; provided, that said city of Lincoln may 
by ordinance convey said block 29, or any part thereof, to the Nebraska 
State Historical Society for use as a site and grounds for a museum and 
library building for said Society and for the legislative reference 

Sec. 7. (Repeals.) — The said original sections 1 and 2, of chapter 121,1 
of the Session Laws of 1885, are hereby repealed. 
Approved April 10, 1907. 
Laws 1907, pp. 457-61. 




Nebraska State Historical Society 1883-1907. 






$ 1000 







' $7000 


Total amount appropriated for general support 1883-1907 $70,500 

For building , '. 25,000 

Total $95,500 


I. Name. The name of this Society shall be The Nebraska State His- 
torical Society. 

II. Object. The object of the Society shall be to promote accurate his- 
torical knowledge and research, to awaken public interest in and popu- 
larize historical study throughout the state. For these ends, in trust for 
the people of the state of Nebraska, it shall maintain a public library , 
and museum. It shall collect, arrange, catalogue, and preserve therein 
manuscripts, books, pamphlets, maps, newspapers, pictures, relics, antiq- 
uities, products of art and industry, and other suitable material, — with 
special reference to illustrating the past and present resources and prog- 
ress of Nebraska and western America. It shall, in particular, aim to 
preserve the memory and deeds of the early explorers and pioneers of 
this region; the traditions and relics of the Indian inhabitants; and the 
archeological remains of former peoples. It shall publish the results of 
its researches and spread this knowledge by printed reports, lecture 
courses, exhibits, and other suitable means. 

III. Location. The library, museum, and office of the secretary of this 
Society shall be located at Lincoln, Nebraska. 

IV. Membership. The Society shall consist of active, life, ex-officio, 
honorary, and corresponding members. These may be chosen at any reg- 
ular meeting of the board of directors — except at the meeting next pre- 
ceding the annual meeting of the Society, — or by the Society at its annual 
meeting. Such choice shall be by ballot. A majority of all the directors 
shall be necessary to a choice or a majority of all the votes cast in case 
of election by the Society. 



Active members shall pay an admission fee of two dollars, but editors 
and publishers of newspapers and periodicals who have contributed the 
regular issues of the same to the Society's collections for the period of 
one year shall be considered active members during the continuance 
thereafter of such contributions, without payment of fee, upon signing 
blank membership form furnished by the secretary. All active members 
shall be citizens of Nebraska and shall qualify by compliance with the 
foregoing provisions and filing with the secretary a signed application 
blank for membership which shall be furnished by him. 

Life membership may be secured by a donation of property to the value 
of fifty dollars to the Society. The secretary shall furnish each life mem- 
ber with an engraved certificate of the same suitable for framing. 

Honorary and corresponding members shall be such persons, distin- 
guished for literary or scientific attainments, or for promotion of his- 
torical study, as may be chosen by the board of directors or the society 
at any regular meeting. They shall have all the privileges of the Society 
except voting and holding office, and shall be exempt from all fees and 

Any member may be dropped from the rolls or expelled at any meeting 
of the Society by a two-thirds vote of those present, after not less than 
twenty days' notice of the charges against him and the time and place of 
trial by registered letter directed to him at his last known address. 

V. Officers. The officers of the Society shall be a president, two vice- 
presidents, a treasurer, and a secretary, who shall be elected by ballot 
at the annual meeting, and hold their office until their respective suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified. A vacancy in any office may be filled 
by the board of directors for the unexpired term. 

The president shall preside at the meetings of the Society and in gen- 
eral shall perform the duties usually incident to the office. 

The vice-presidents, in the order of their election, shall have all the 
rights and duties of the president in^ his absence. 

The treasurer shall collect and have charge of the funds of the Society; 
he shall keep the moneys of the Society in its name in some safe banking- 
house in the city of Lincoln; he shall keep a detailed account of receipts 
and expenditures; keep his books and accounts open for inspection by 
the board of directors; make a full report to the Society at its annual 
meeting and at all times when required, and pay no moneys except on 
warrants drawn by the president or a vice-president and countersigned 
by the secretary. He shall give a bond for the faithful performance of 
his duties, in the sum of two thousand dollars, and such additional sum 
as the Society may require, and file the same with the secretary. 

The secretary shall have the custody of the Society's property and the 
general supervision and the management of its work, subject to control 
by the board of directors. He shall keep the records of the meetings of 
the Society and conduct its correspondence. In connection with the presi- 
dent he shall make the report to the governor required by law and pro- 
cure the publication of the same. He shall make a full report of his do- 
ings at the annual meeting of the Society, and at the quarterly meetings 
of the board of directors, and perform such other duties as may be re- 
quired by the Society. 

The secretary and treasurer may each receive such salary as the So- 
ciety shall by vote previously determine. No other officer shall receive 
any remuneration for his services, but may be allowed his actual expenses 
in performing the duties of his office. 

Any officer may be removed at any meeting by a two-thirds vole of 
those present. 

Officers pro tempore may be chosen by the Society at any meeting in 
the absence of the regular officers. 


VI. Board of Directors. The governor of the state, the chancellor of 
the State University, the head of the department of American history in 
the State University, and the president of the Nebraska State Press Asso- 
ciation shall be ex-officio members of the Society. Together with the 
elective officers of the Society they shall constitute the board of directors. 

The board of directors is made the governing body of the society, with' 
power to manage, administer, and control the disposition of its moneys, 
property, effects and affairs, subject to this constitution and by-laws an- 
nexed. They may adopt such rules as they see fit, not contrary to this 
constitution and by-laws, for the administration of the Society's affairs. 

Regular meetings of the board of directors shall be held on the first 
Tuesday after the second Monday in January and quarterly thereafter 
during the year. At such meetings they shall receive reports from the 
secretary and other officers, act on applications for membership, and 
transact such other business as shall seem for the Society's best interests. 
Special meetings of the board may be called by the secretary upon five 
days' notice to each member, specifying the object of such special meet- 
ing. Five shall constitute a quorum of the board. The order of business 
at a meeting of the board of directors shall be the same as that of the 
Society's meeting. The board shall report through the secretary to the 
Society at its meetings,. 

VII. Seal. The Society shall have a corporate seal, of such design as it 
may adopt. 

VIII. Meetings. The regular meetings of the Society shall be the an- 
nual meetings which shall be held in the city of Lincoln on the first Tues- 
day after the second Monday in January. 

Special meetings may be called under the direction of the president, 
for the transaction of such business as may be specified in the notice 
thereof, and no other business can be finally disposed of at such meetings. 

Notice of all meetings of the Society shall be sent by mail by the secre- 
tary to all active members at least ten days before the date of such 

Ten active members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of 

Dt. Amendments. This constitution may be amended at any annual 
meeting by a two-thirds vote of those present; Provided, That the pro- 
posed amendment shall have been submitted in writing and entered on 
the minutes at a previous meeting at least three months beforehand, The 
by-laws which may be made by the Society may be amended or sus- 
pended at any regular meeting, or special meeting for that purpose, by a 
two-thirds vote; Provided, That the regular order of business may be 
varied at any meeting by a majority vote. 


1. The treasurer shall give bond in the sum of two thousand dollars with 
sureties to be approved by the board of directors, and the same shall be 
filed with the secretary. He shall receive for his services the sum of 
twenty-five dollars per annum, payable on the first of January for the 
year preceding. 

2. The secretary shall act as librarian of the Society. He shall use his 
best efforts to promote the growth of the library and museum and pre- 
serve a complete record of the articles received by the Society. Only 
members of this Society shall be entitled to draw books from the library; 
no manuscripts or articles from the museum shall be withdrawn from the 
custody of the secretary; he shall preserve all correspondence received 
in proper files, and keep copies of all letters written by him. 

He shall receive for his services the sum of five hundred dollars per 
annum, payable in quarterly instalments on the first day of April, July, 
October, and January for the quarter preceding. 



Provided, That in case the legislative appropriation shall, in the judg- 
ment of the board of directors, warrant, they may authorize the secretary 
to employ an assistant to act as librarian and to do the general work of 
the Society under his supervision, at such salary as they may determine, 
not to exceed $1,400; and in that event the salary shall be $100. 

3. The president-elect shall appoint at each annual meeting the follow- 
ing standing committees, composed of three members each: 

A committee on publication, of which the secretary shall be ex-officio 
chairman, to select and prepare all matters for publication, and to super- 
vise the printing thereof. 

A committee on library and museum, to assist the secretary's collec- 
tions, and with him have general superintendence thereof. 

A committee on obituaries, whose duty it shall be to prepare memoirs 
of deceased members, and to collect materials for the same. 

A committee on program, of which the secretary shall be ex-officio 
chairman, to arrange for suitable literary and other exercises at the 
various meetings of the Society. 

4. The regular meetings of the Society shall be held in the city of Lin- 
coln, at such hour and place as shall be designated by the secretary. 

5. The order' of business at meetings shall be: 

(1) Roll call, or other proceedings to ascertain the names and num- 

ber of the members present. 

(2) Reading of minutes. 

(3) Reports of officers. 

(4) Reports of standing committees. 

(5) Reports of special committees. 

(6) Communications and petition. 

(7) Election of members. 

(9) Miscellaneous business. 

(10) Adjournment. 

6. Robert's Rules of Order shall be authority on parliamentary pro- 
cedure at the meetings of the Society. 


Transactions and Reports of the Nebraska State Historical Society. 

Vol. I, 1885. 8vo. clo., 233 pp., $1.25; paper in 4 pts., $0.75. 

Proceedings of the Society from January, 1879, to January, 18S3; 
Historical Recollections of Otoe and Washington Counties; Au- 
tobiography of Rev. Wm. Hamilton, Indian Missionary; Short 
History of the Omaha Indians; Death of Francis Burt, First Gov- 
ernor; First White Child Born in Nebraska; Female Suffragist 
Movement in Nebraska; Two Historical Letters from Father De 
Smet; Fifty-six pages of Biographies; Discovery of Nebraska; 
Annual Address by President Furnas, 1880; Place of History in 
Modern Education; Rush for Gold at Pikes Peak; Philosophy of 
Emigration; Constitution, By-laws, and Roster of the Society. 

Vol. II, 1887. 8vo. clo., 383 pp., $1 25; paper in 4 pts., $0.75. 

Relation of History to the Study and Practice of Law; Sketches 
of Territorial History; Wild-Cat Banks; Politics; Pioneer Jour- 
nalism; How the Kansas-Nebraska Boundary Line was Estab- 
lished; Slavery in Nebraska; John Brown in Richardson County; 
A Visit to Nebraska in 1662; Forty Years Among the Indians in 
Nebraska; Military History of Nebraska; The Powder River Ex- 
pedition, 1865; Histories of Cass, Dodge, Washington, and Sarpy 



Counties; Early History of Fremont, Nebraska; Discovery of 
Gold in Colorado; Establishment of an Arboreal Bureau; Twenty- 
six pages of Biographies; Official Reports of Officers of the 

Vol. Ill, 1892. 8vo. clo., 342 pp., very rare, $3.00. 

American State Legislatures; Salem Witchcraft; History of Edu- 
cation in Omaha; The Beginning of the City of Lincoln and of 
Lancaster County; Early Times and Pioneers; Ft. Pierre Expedi- 
tion, and the Military Camp on the Big Sioux River, 1885; Remin- 
iscences of a Teacher Among the Nebraska Indians, 1843-55; 
Sioux Indian War of 1890-91; Brief History' of Higher Education 
in Nebraska and an Account of the University of Nebraska; Paw- - 
nee Indian War of 1859; Reminiscences of Early Days in Ne- 
braska; Official Proceedings of the Society. 

Vol. IV, 1892. 8vo. clo., 336 pp., $3.00. 

Contributions by J. Sterling Morton; Old Ft. Atkinson, 1818; 
Map of Ft. Atkinson; Indian Troubles and the Battle of Wounded 
Knee; History of the Fontenelle Family of St. Louis; First Post- 
master of Omaha; Arbor Day; Supreme Judges of Nebraska; 
Omaha Public Library; County Names; Personal Sketch and 
Extracts from the Diary of Rev. Moses Merrill, Missionary to 
the Otoe Indians, 1832-40; Pioneers of Dixon County; History 
of Butler County; Fifty-six pages of Biographies; Constitution 
and By-laws of the Society. 

Vol. V, 1893. 8vo. clo., 295 pp., very rare, $5.00. 

Records and their Conservation; Lincoln Public Library; The 
Arikara Conquest of 1823; Admission of Nebraska as a State; 
Nebraska Silver Anniversary, Lincoln, 189/!; Meeting of Native 
Nebraskans; Old Settlers' Meeting and Organization; Early Life 
in Nebraska; Political and Constitutional Development of Ne- 
braska; Settlement of Kearney County; Official Proceedings and 
Roster of the Society. 

Proceedings and Collections of the Nebraska State Historical Society. 
Second series, vol. I, 1894-95. 8vo. clo., 264 pp., $1.25. 

- Life of Governor Burt; Early Nebraska Currency; Municipal 
Government in Nebraska; Soldiers' Free Homestead Colony; 
Ghost Songs of the Dakotas; Early Nebraska Courts; Freighting 
Across the Plains; Financial Fallacies, a Sketch of Wild-Cat 
Banks in Nebraska; Biographical Notes, Personal Reminiscences; 
Official Proceedings and Roster of the Society. 

Second series, vol. IT, 1898. Svo. clo , 307 pp., $1.25. 

The Poncas; Sketch of Bellevue, Nebraska; Travelers in Ne- 
braska in 1866; Underground Railroad in Nebraska; Social and 
Economic Progress in Nebraska; First Territorial Legislature 
and Sketches of its Members; Nebraska Women in 1855; Death 
of Sitting Bull; Official Proceedings of the Society; Papers and 
Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. 

Second series, vol. Ill: — The Provisional Government of Nebraska 
Territory and thre Journals of William Walker. Special Publica- 
tion of the Society, by Wm. E. Connelley. 

8vo. clo., 423 pp., $3.00. 

The Wyandottes; The Walker Family; The Provisional Govern- 
ment of Nebraska Territory. Documents relating to the Provi- 


sional Government and Original Constitution; A Sketch of Aba- 
lard Guthrie, First Delegate to Congress; The Journals of Wil- 
liam Walker; Eleven Rare and Valuable Portraits. 

Second series, vol. IV: — Forty Years of Nebraska, by Thomas Wes- 
ton Tipton, U. S. Senator for Nebraska from 1867-75. Special 
Publication of the Society, 1902. 

8vo. clo., 570 pp., $2.00. 

Biographical Sketches and Official Records of Territory and State 
Governors of Nebraska; Territorial Delegates to Congress, IT. S. 
Senators, and Representatives with many Portraits. 

Second series, vol. V, 1902. Svo. clo., 381 pp., $1.50. 

Territorial Journalism; Reminiscences of Territorial Days; Bi- 
ographies of Judge Elmer S. Dundy, Thos. W. Tipton, Algernon 
Sydney Paddock, and others; The Nebraska Constitution; An 
Episode of the Y/yoming Cattle War; Recollections of Omaha in 
1855-61; Death of Logan Pontenelle; Farmers' Alliance in Ne- 
braska; Indian Massacre, 1866; Pawnee War of 1859; Plains War 
in 1865; Underground Railroad in Nebraska; Along the Overland 
Trail; Early Freighting and Staging Operations; Proceedings of 
. the Society and List of Members. 

Nebraska Constitutional Conventions. A special Publication of the Ne- 
braska State Historical Society, being vol. XT of its publications. 
Second series, vol. VI, 1906. 8vo. clo., 582 pp., $1.50. 

Official Report and the Debates and Proceedings of the Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1871. 

Second series, vol. VII, 1907. Svo. clo., 628 pp., $1.50. 

Official Report and the debates and proceedings of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1871. 

(There are two more volumes of the Debates and Proceedings 
of the Constitutional Conventions of Nebraska now in course of 

Proceedings and Collections of the Nebraska State Historical Society, 
second series, vol. X, 1907. Svo. clo., 422 pp.. $1.50. 

Mormon Settlements in the Missouri Valley; Railroad Migration 
into Northern Nebraska; Nebraska Politics and Nebraska Rail- 
roads; Reminiscences of Territorial Days; Campaign Against 
Crazy Horse; Early Days in Decatur, Nebraska; History of the 
Lincoln Salt Basin; Judicial Grafts; Visit of General Tfiayer to 
the Pawnee Village in 1855; Early Days on the Little Blue; Bio- 
graphical Sketches of Pioneers; Railroad Taxation in Nebraska; 
Work of Union Pacific Railroad; Early Dreams of Coal in Ne- 
braska; Unveiling of Monument to Gen. John M. Thayer; Official 
Proceedings, 1901 to 1908; Reports of Secretary, Treasurer, Li- 
brarian, and Archeologist for 1907; Museum Catalogue; List of 
newspapers received by the Society; Legislative Acts Affecting 
the Society; Appropriations, 1883-1907; Constitution of the So- 
ciety; Publications of the Society. 


Abbott, Dr. Luther J., 217. 

Abbott, Lysle I., 258. 

Abbott, Ned C, 294. 
"Abbott, Othman A., 172. 

Acts of legislature affecting the 
Nebraska State Historical So- 
ciety, 393-98. 
"Adair, William, 304. 

Adams county, 110. 

Adams, J. W.,'285. 

Adams, P. Edgar, 230, 237. 

Adams trip, 354. 

Agency, Crow Creek, 80. 

Ager, John H,, 34, 223. 

Agriculture, State Board of, 165. 

Aitchison, Clyde B., 7. 

Albermarle, 51. 

Albion, 181. 

Aldrich, Chester H., 276. 
Alexandria, 129. 

Alexis of Russia, Grand Duke, 273. 

Allen, Charles S., 237. 

Allen, C. W., 224, 230. 

Allen, Capt. James, 14. 

Allen, John E., 121, 125. 

Allen, Thomas S., 285. 

Allen, William 1 , 258. 

Allen, William V., 240. 

Allen (town), 331. 

Allis, Samuel, 121, 123. 

Allis, Otis EL, 237, 362. 

Alma (town), 108. 

Alton, 24. 

Amendments to constitution pro- 
posed January 14, 1907, 287. 
American Fur Co., 7, 78. 
American Horse, 73. 
Ames, John H., 83, 238. 
Ancient Bluff ruins, 17. 
Anderbery, Charles P., 258. 
Anderson, David, 217. 
Anderson, N, J., 330. 
Anderson, Squire, 141. 
Anderson, Wilham, 138. 
Andrew county (Mo.), 138. 
Andrews, E. Benjamin, 251, 252, 

253, 262, 263, 264. 
Annin, William E., 216, 218, 304. 
Annual meetings — 

Twenty-fourth, 1901, 215. 

Twenty-fifth, 1902, 222.. 

Twenty-sixth, 1903, 226. 

Twenty-seventh, .1904, 233. 
Twenty-eighth, 1905, 238. 
Twenty-ninth, 1906, 246. 
Thirtieth, 1907, 257. 
Thirty-first, January 13-14, 1908, 

Antelope county, 30, 31. 

Appropriations, Nebraska State His- 
torical Society, 399. 

Arbor Lodge, 148. • 

Arbor Day, 151, 152, 227, 228, 231, 

Archeologist's Reports — 

1906, 326. 

1907, 335. 
Archeologist, Report of, 323. 
Arikara Indians, 222. 
Armstrong, W. J., 143. 
Artesian well, Lincoln, 95. 
Ashland, 170, 171, 337. 
Atchison county (Mo.), 136. 
Atwood,* Myrtle P., 285. 
Auditing committee, Report of, 1907, 


Aughey, Prof. Samuel, 331. 

Aukes, Dr. Ehme E , 229. 

Avery, R. O., 260. 

Aylsworth, Kittie Austin, 288. 

Aylsworth, Leon E,, 237. 

Aylsworth, William P., 230, 262, 269. 

Babcock, L. J., 363. 

Bain, Robert A., 98. 

Baird, T. C, 335. 

Baker, E., 135. 

Baker, Mrs. E. C„ 275, 294. 

Baker, Dr. George G., 144. 

Baker, Samuel, 358. 

Baldwin, Willis A., 230. 

Ball, Franklin, 218, 304, 380. 

Bancroft, M. A., 332, 335. 

Barber, J. A., 361. 

Barbour, Erwin H, 258, 355. 

Barkley, Mrs. J. E„ 364. 

Barnes, John B., 259. 

Barnes, Mrs: Mary J., 363. 

Barr, Wesley, 197. 

Barrett, Jay Amos, 102, 217, 220, 
228, 230, 231, z32, 233, 235, 239, 
241, 244. 245, 246, 251, 253, 255, 
256, 261, 263, 334, 380, 381. 

Barrett, Jay Amos, Resignation of, 



Barry, John H., 259. 
Bassett, Samuel C., 245. 
Bates, Dr. Henry Y., 285. 
Bates, Ross, 285. 
Battle Creek (town), 29. 
Battles — 

Ash Hollow, 272. 

Rosebud, 71. 

Slim Buttes,'73. 

White Stone Hills, 78, 164. 
Bean, John J., 285. 
Beatrice, 63, 64, 65, 129, 181, 337. 
Beattie, James, 350. 
Beemer (town), 29. 
Belfour, W. A., 360. 
Bell, John T., 366. 
Bell, Ortha O, 193, 214. 
Bell, Ray, 365. 

Bellevue, 7, 8, 22, 64, 119, 121, 148, 
154, 155, 156, 157, 231. 

Bellevue claim club, 155. 

Bellevue Town Company, 155. 

Belpere, C. L., 362. 

Bene, Jules, 61. 

Benedict, P. J., 285. 

Bennett, Capt., 78. 

Bennett, George D., 279, 286. 

Bennett, Gideon, 133, 138. 

Bennett, Judge Hiram P., 60, 138, 
140, 141, 143. 

Bennett, William, 143, 

Benton, George H., 136, 137. 

Benton (town), 79. 

Bessey, Dr. Charles E., 276, 277. 

Best, G. M.. 334. 

Bethlehem, 21, 23. 

Bierbower, Victor, 114. 

Bierwagon, Charley, 135, 136. 

Big Elk (chief), 14. 

Bighorn country, 69, 70. 

Big Springs (Kansas), 349. 

Billows, Peter, 104. 

Billows family. 104. 

Bills, Charles J., 285. 

Bingham, John A., 285. 

Birchfield, William P., III. 

Bird, Jim, 107. 

Bird family, 104. 

Bishop, Arthur E.. 285. 

Bixby, Ammi L., 218, 285. 

Black Bird (chief), 272. 

Black, James P. A., 259. 

Black canker plague, L5. 

Black Hills, 72. 

Blackburn, Merritt L., 260. 

Blackburn, Thomas W., 259. 
Blackman, Elmer EL, 221, 222, 223, 
226, 231, 237, 241, 244. 245, 246, 
248, 251, 255, 258, 261, 262, 263, 
267, 274, 295, 334, 335, 359, 366. 

Blackman, E. E., Collection of, 366. 

Blaine, Col., 153. 

Blair, Montgomery, 100. 

Blakely, Nathan, 63, 284, 304. 

Bloomington, 108. 

Blunt, Joseph, 135, 137. 

Blunt, Mrs. Joseph, 137. 

Blythe, T. A., 280. 

Boats — ■ 

Banner State, 141. 

Little Ann, 148. 

Mayflower, 148. 

Western Engineer, 78. 

Yellowstone, 78. 
Boelus (town), 182. 
Boston, 126. 
Boston Journal, 202. 
Boulware, John B., 134, 140, 142. I 
Boutton, Martin V., 142. 
Bowen, John S., 145. 
Bowen, William R., 304. 
Bowers, A., 145. 
Bowers, William D., 304. 
Bowlby, Charles J., 230. 231, 239 

241, 246. 
Bowman, Oscar R., 218. 
Box Butte county, 31. 
Boyer Lake, 21. 

Boyd, Gov. James E,, 58, 207, 300.* 
Bozarth, W. N., 365. 
Brace, L. D, 365. 

Bradford, Judge Allen A., 60. ISm 

Bradford, Henry, 138, 141, 142. 
Bradford, Henry & Co., 139, 142. | 
Bradford, R. H., 100. 
Brash, Mrs. G. H., 303. 
Brewster, John W., 285. 
Briggs. Clinton, 172. 
Bristol, D. Charles, 333, 334, 33B 

Bristol, Mrs D. Charles, 334. 
Bristol, D. Charles, Collection ofl 

258, 331, 374. 
Broad y, Jefferson H, 172, 231, 2341 


Brock, Nelson C. 224, 363, 381. 
Brown, C. M., 285. 
Brown, Dick. 138. 
Brown, Elmer W.. 279. 
Brown, Erasmus E., 98. 99. 
Brown, Francis W., 250. 280, 2X4. 
Brown. George W., Jr., 276. 
Brown, M. W., 140. 
Brown, Norris, 174, 248. 
Brown, Will A.. 359. 360. 
Brown county, 31. 

Brownvillo, 65, .104, 129, 138, lm 

144, 145, 158, L63, 164, 
Brownville College, 145. 



Brower, Jacob V., 222, 362, 363. 
Broz, Rev. John S., 237. 
Bnmer, Uriah, 304. 
Bryan, Frank, 346. 
Bryan, William Jennings, 62, 280, 
281, 300. 

Bryan, Mrs. William Jennings. 280, 

Buchanan, James, 148. 

Buchanan, John Ross, 25, 222, 223. 

"Buckskin Charlie," see White, 

Buell, George E., 279. 
Buffalo Bill, see Cody, William P. 
Buffalo county, 25. 
Buffalo Gap, 32. 

Building for State Historical So- 
ciety, Plans for, 233. 

Building Proposition, 290. 

Burlington (Iowa), 169. 

Burnett, Edgar A., 276. 

Burnham, Charles E., 260. 

Burt, Francis, 119. 

Burt county, 80, 117. 

Busch, Charles H., 280. 

Bush, Lf. Penn, 240. 

Butler, Gov. David, 87, 88, 94, 159, 
300, 396. 

Butler county, 329. 

By-laws of the Nebraska State His- 
torical Society, 401. 

Cadman, John, 108. 

Gady, Addison El, 240. 

Cahn, Isaac, 92, 93, 94, 95. 

Cairo Record, 336. 

Cairo trip, 336. 

Caldwell, Howard W., 217, 218, 219, 
222, 223, 225, 226, 227, 228, 231, 
232, 233, 234, 238, 239, 240, 241, 
242, 243, 245, 246, 248, 254, 255, 
256, 257, 261, 262, 263, 264, 274, 
275, 277, 278, 279, 334, 363. 

Caldwell, Samuel L%, 285. 

Caldwell county (Mo), 10. 

California, 20. 

California city, 23. 

Callaway (town), 182. 

Campaigning against Crazy Horse. 
By David Y. Mears, 68. 

Campbell, Delia, 380. 

Campbell, Dr. John C, 138. 

Campbell's Grove, 12. 

Canaday, Joseph S., 285. 

Capital Beach. 301. 

"Capital City," see Lincoln. 

Capital located, 53. 

Cams, Margaret J., 285. 

Carpenter, John H , 285. 

Carr, Daniel M., 230. 

Carr, Gen. Eugene A., 272. 

Carson, C. H., 365. 
Carson, Sam, 139, 141. 
Carterville, 23. 

Carved Rock on University campus, 

Casper (Wyo.), 32. 

Cass county, 116. 

Cass county (Iowa), 7, 12, 23. 

Catalogue of Museum, see Museum 

Caton, John Dean, 7. 
Cedar Rapids, 181. 
Chadron, 32, 68. 
Challis, C. H., 248. 
Chamberlain, Miss Abba Daton, 360. 
Chappell, Phil E., 228, 230. 
Chapman, Mrs. Agnes D., 295. 
Chapman, Bird B., 138. 
Chapman, Samuel M., 297, 305. 
Charde, Mrs. A. B., 218. 
Chase county, 271. 
Chatburn, George R, 381. 
Cherry county, 31, 68. 
Chester Basin, see Salt Basin. 
Cheyenne (Wyo.), 68, 69, 70, 181. 
Chicago, 7. 
Childs, A. L., 145. 
Chippeway Indians, 7, 8. 
Chittenden, Capt. Hiram M., 192, 

224, 228, 230. 
Choui village, 355, 356, 358, 359. 
Chouteau collections, 245. 
Church family, 104, 105. 
Claim club, Bellevue, 155. 
Clapman, Mariel E., see Gere, Ma- 

riel E. C. 
Clark, Elias H., 30.5. 
Clark, Lieutenant, 76. 
Clark, Mrs. Paul F., 230. 
Clark, Victor F., 285. 
Clarke, E. H., 237. 
Clarke, Henry T., 217, 218, 229, 230, 

232, 238, 240, 241, 243, 246. 
Clarke, Henry T\, Jr., 240. 
Clay county (Mo.), 10. 
Clayton, Edgar, 280. 
Clayton, W., 9. 
Clayton's Guide, 9. 
Clearwater (town), 27. 
Clements, E, G., 218. 
Clemens, John, 140. 
Clemens, Samuel D, 102. 
Cleveland, Grover, 148, 255. 
Cleveland, Howard G., 240, 325, 371. 
Cleveland, Howard, Collection of, 


Cobb, Clinton C, 239, 280, 337, 354. 
Cochran, Judge, 109. 
Cody, William F., 273. 
Coffin, C. H., 239. 



Coffin, Edward M., 260. 
Coffin, J. R„ 324, 360, 361. 
Coffin, J. R„ Collection of, 367. 
Colby, Mrs. L. W., 285. 
Cole, Gilbert L., 276, 364. 
Cole, T. L., 280. 
Coleridge (town), 331. 
Collections, Resume of, 324. 
Collins, Mrs. Louisa E., 279. 
Colorado, 67. 

Colorado Cliff Dwellers National 

P.ark, 224. 
Columbus, 25, 181, 184, 186. 
Committee on Elections, 20. 
Committee on Marking Historic 

Sites, 270. 
Commonwealth, 159. 
Comstock family, 128. 
Cone, Charles G., 279. 
Congregational church, Ashland, 


Constitution of Nebraska, 48, 49, 50, 

Constitution of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society, 399. 

Constitutional convention, 1871, 45, 

Constitutional convention of 1875, 
172, 234. 

Constitutional convention, The One- 
night, 234. 

Cook, Harold J., 276. 

Cook, James H., 276. 

Cook, W. H, 155. 

Coonville (town), 23. 

Corcoran, George F., 285. 

Cornell, Charles H., 218. 

Cornell, H. W., 140. 

Cottonwood canyon, 270. 

Cottonwood Springs, 270. 

Council Bluffs, 12, 19, 22, 24, 26, 53, 
59. 64, 78, 81, 119, 154, 181, 302. 

Council Bluffs Agency, 8. 

Council Bluffs subagency, 7, 8. 

Council Point, 12, 15, 21, 22. 

County Historical Societies, 304. 

Cowin, John C, 205, 213, 259. 

Cowles, Charles H, 135, 136, 137, 
138, 139, 140. 

Cowles, Mrs. P. W., 280. 

Cowles, Harvey C, 135, 138, 139. 

Cox, William W., 62, 65, 103, 227, 
228, 236, 237, 239, 240, 275, 304. 

Cox, Samuel D., 305. 

Craig, Hiram, 304. 

Craig, William R., 137, 140, 141, 142. 

Crandall, Wallace L., 279. 

Crawford, James, 239, 362. 

Crazy Horse (chief), 73, 74, 75, 76, 

Creeks — • 

Blue Water, 271. 
Camp, 138, 139. 
Chadron, 76. 
Chariton, 12. 

Crazy Woman's, see Rivers, Pow- 
der, Crazy Woman's fork. 

Flag, 346. 

Frenchman, 271. 

Goose, 72. 

Indian. 19, 337. 

Keg, 12. 

Liberty, 130. 

Locust, 12. 

Maple, 27. 

Plum, 9, 133. 

Prairie, 356. 

Rosebud, 70, 72. 

Salt, 85, 103, 337. 

Sandy, 129. 

Silver, 16. 

South Table, 133. 

Squaw, 141. 

Sugar, 12. 

Sweet, 336. 

Table, 135, 137. 

Thirty-two Mile, 131. 
- Walnut. 139. 

Weeping Water, 354. 

Wilson, 199. 
Creighton (town), 32. 
Crescent (town), 21. 
Crew, Farmer W., 240. 
Crimm, Dr., 104, 105. 
C rites, Albert W., 258. 
Crook, Gen. George, 68, 70, 72, 73, 

74, 75, 76, 77. 
Cross, R. T., 363. 
Orounse, Lorenzo, 29, 99, 112. 
Crow Indians, 71. 

Crow Creek Agency, see Agency, 

Crow Creek. 
Croxton, John H., 304. 
Culver, Ada I., 260. 
Cuming, Gov. Thomas B., 119, 120, 

140, 255, 300. 
Cuming county, 31. 
Cummins, Gov. A. B., 255. 
Custer, Gen. George A., 72. 
Cutler Park, 14, 15, 16. 
Cutler's Camp, 16. 
Outright, John W., 260. 
"Dacotah" county, 80. 
Daily State Democrat, 62. 
Dakota Junction, 32. 
Daniel, Herbert S., 259. 
Daniels, Edward, 361. 
Darling. Charles W., 305. 
Darlow, Alfred, 239. 
Dartmouth College, 169. 



Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, 302, 303, 
Davenport, George W., 285. 
Davey, Mrs. Nana Hudson, 280. 
Davis, David, 100, 101. 
Davis, William R,, 305. 
Dawes county, 31. 
Dawson, Jacob, 66, 141. 
Dawson county, 184. 
DeSoto, 52. 
Deadwood, 72, 73. 

Deaf and Dumb, Institute of. 145, 

"Debates and Proceedings in the 
Nebraska Constitutional Con- 
ventions," 289. 

DeCamp, David M., 361. 

Decatur, Stephen, 81. 

Decatur (town), 61, 77, 79, 80, 82, 

Decatur county (Iowa), 12. 

Dech, Mrs. W. E,, 360. 

Dech, William H., 360. 

Decker, James H., 137, 138, 141, 142. 

Dee family, 65. 

Deemer, Horace E, 286, 287. 

DeLisa, Manuel, 302. 

Denney, Charles H., 259. 

Denton, Mrs. Mary J., 285. 

Denver, 59. 

Department of the Platte, 68. 
Dewey, Dr., 136. 
Dibble, Richard, 237. 
Dickinson College, 153. 
Diddock, Mrs. Margaret, 360. 
Dillon, Sidney, 187. 
Dilworth, Gen. Caleb J., 114. 
Dimery, Martin W., 279. 
Dinsmore, John B., 248. 
Directors, Board of, 309. 
Directors, Board of, Meetings of — 

May 8, 1901, 220. 

April, 1902, 226. 

April 14, 1903, 231. 

May 20, 1903, 233. 

January 19, 1905, 243. 

June 24, 1905, 243. 

May 10, 1906, 251. 

October 9, 1906, 255. 

February 1, 1907, 262. 

April 9, 1907, 274. 

July 9, 1907. 276. 

October 17, 1907, 277. 
Diversity of work, 292. 
Doane College, 171. 
Dodge, Gen. Grenville M, , 222. 
Dodge, Henry, 357. 
Dodge, Nathan P., 240. 
Dodge county, 31. 
Domenech, Abbe E. M., 347. 

Donahoo, Thomas, 140. 

Donahue, A. J., 135. 

Doniphan trip, 352. 

Doom, James EL, 172. 

Doty, Shadrach, 285. 

Douglas, Fred, 151. 

Douglas (Wyo.), 64. 

Douglas county, 26, 117. 

Downs, Hiram P., 134, 135, 136, 139. 

Downs Hotel, 137, 140. 

Draft of Proposition to Lincoln City 

Council, 250. 
Dryden, John N., 259. 
Dudley, Major, 202, 
Duey, Kate A., 156. 
Duff, Nicholas A., 280. 
Duffleld, Eleanor, 285. 
Dunbar trip, 344. 
Duncan, Lafayette, 133, 134. 
Dundas, John H., 216. 
Dundas, Lucas B., 366. 
Dundey, Charles, 218. 
Dundy, Judge Elmer S., 300. 
Dunham, Frank, 237, 360. 
Dunkleberger, I. W., 360. 
Dunn, Ignatius J., 259. 
Dye, "Jim," 104, 105. 
Early Annals of Nebraska City. By 

J. W. Pearman, 133. 
Early Days on the Little Blue. By 

J. H. Lemmon, 127. 
Early Days at the Salt Basin. By 

John S. Gregory, 102. 
Early Dreams of Coal in Nebraska. 

By Dr. George L. Miller, 189. 
Early, Jubal, 159. 
Eaton, Henry M., 277, 285, 294. 
Eberly, George A., 280. 
Educational Convention, State, 165. 
Edwards, Jonathan, 285. 
EdAvell, J. W., 350. 
Eells, Perry, 362. 
Egger, Arnold, 279. 
Eggers, Mr., 360. 
Elkhorn Crossing, 15. 
Elkhorn rendezvous, 20, 21. 
Elliot, M. A., 361. 
Ellsworth, Edward, 355. 
Elmendorf, William, 365. 
Emery, A. B., 365. 
Emery, Col., 270. 
Emigrants' Guide, 9. 
Endicott mound, 350. 
' England, Wellington H, 281. 
Epperson, Ambrose C, 285. 
Epperson, Charles H., 2.40. 
Ernst, Carl J., 230. 
Estabrook, Henry D, 255. 
Estelle, Lee, 237. 
Elsty, Miss, 360. 



Eubanks family, 128. 
Evans, Isaiah D., 247, 258. 
Evans, John M., 92, 93, 94, 95. 
Evans, Robert E., 259. 
Eveland, Alf., 104, 105. 
Eveland, Elizabeth, 104. 
EVeland, John P., 285. 
Eveland family, 104. 
Exchanges, 298. 

Executive Board, see Directors, 

Board of. 
Executive Committee, see Directors, 

Board of. 
Exposition, American, London, 165. 
Exposition, Cotton Centennial, New 

Orleans, 165. 
Exposition, Philadelphia, 165. 
Exposition, St. Louis, Louisiana 

Purchase, 232. 
Exposition, World's Fair, Chicago, 


Eyestone, Willis J., 285, 295. 

Falloon, Edwin, 259. 

Farmers' Alliance, 216. 

Farragut Post No. .25, 193, 213. 

Fergus, Elizabeth, 144. 

Ferryville, see Boyer Lake. 

Fessenden, William Pitt, 50. 

Fielder, Gotlif, 363. 

Field Work, 296. 

Finances, 306. 

Financial Statement, 307. 

Fisk, Jim, 132. 

Fitchey, James, 143. 

Fitchner, Mrs. Alice, 362. 

Flansburg, Claude C, 259. 

Fletcher, W. O., 363, 364. 

Florence, 13, 15, 24, 26, 326. 

Florence (Mormon settlement), 24. 

Foale, Oscar P., 279. 

Fodrea, Mrs. Kate P., 279. 

Fontenelle, Logan, 241, 302: 

Fontenelle (town), 26. 

Ford, Governor, 14. 

Fort, Irvin A., 305. 

Fort Atkinson Papers, 245. 


Calhoun, 302. 

Crook, 155. 

Des Moines, 155. 

Donelson, 199. 

Fetterman, 69, 72. 

Henry, 3 99. 

Kearney, 21, 55, 134, 303, 
Kearney (old), LQ, 21, L34, 277. 
Laramie, 17, 21, 69, 74. 
Leavenworth, 14, 55. 
McPherson, 270. 
Niobrara, 33. 
Pierre, 190. 

Forts — Con — 
Randall, 80. 
Reno, 70. 
Robinson, 74, 75. 
Union (N. M.), 127. 
Fowlkes, Dr. - William T., 138, 140. 
Fox, Beman C, 259. 
Fox Indians, 7, 12. 
Frahm, Otto, 362. 
Frampton, William C, 259. 
Franklin, John, 260.' 
Franklin county, 113. 
Freight rates in Nebraska, 37, 38. 
Freeman, Giles N., 139. 
Fremont, John C, 199. 
Fremont, 26, 121, 185, 186, 302, 344. 
Fremont county (Iowa), 136. 
French, Caroline Joy, see Morton, 

Caroline J. F. 
"French Creek," see Clearwater. 
Frontier Guardian, 8, 9, 15, 19, 20, 

21, 22, 23. 
Frost, Lincoln, 260. 
Frost, Rev. William H., 280. 
Fryar, Louis F., 279. 
Fulton, A. R., 7. 
Fulton, William, 143. 
Funk, Ancil L., 381. 
Furnas, Mary E.. see Furnas, Mrs. 

Robert W. 
Furnas, Gov. Robert W., 47, 51, 54, 

55, 57, 60, 61, 63, 143, 147, 158, 

168, 171, 215, 217, 219, 220, 222, 

225, 226, 228, 230, 233, 234, 238, 

240, 241, 242, 245, 246, 257, 261), 

300, 305, 364. 
Furnas, Mrs. Robert W., 166, 381. 
Furnas, Robert W. By Henry H. 

Wilson, 161. 
Furnas, Susanna E., see Furnas, 

Mrs. Robert W. 
Gage, Rev. William D, 139, 140. 
Gage county, 63, 64, 159. 
Gallatly, Mrs. Margaret, 239. 
Gantt, Daniel, 98, 99. 
Garber, Gov. Silas, 305. 
Garden .Grove, 12. 
Gardiner, S. Adelbert, 2 44, 264. 295, 

364, 365, 381. 
Garrison, William Lloyd, 50. 
.Garrow, Ernest D., 280. 
(Jarver, Fred B., 285. 
Gaslin, Judge William. IDS, 241. 
Geisthardt, Stephen U 240, 241. 

243, 246, 248. 250, 253, 255. 256. 

261, 262, 264, 266, 274, 27. r .. 276, 

277, 281, 286, 31 1. 
General Assembly <>; towa, s. 
Genoa, 24, 25, LSI. 



Genoa trip, 339. 

Gere, Charles H., 158, 218, 219, 221, 
223, 224, 225, 226, 229, 230, 231, 
232, .233, 234, 238, 240, 249, 305. 

Gere, George, 160. 

Gere, Mariel E, C, 160. 

Germans, 58. 

Giberson, Louis, 337. 

Giberson, Mrs. Louis, 337, 366. 

Gibson, Lunun C, 240.' 

Gibson, Nils,' 360. 

Giddings, Napoleon Bonaparte, 138. 

Gilbert, A. V/., 368. 

Gilbert, A. W., Collection of, 308. 

Gilbert, John W., 281, 381. 

Gilder, Robert F., 258, 260, 262, 267, 

327, 338. 
Gillespie, John, 87, 278, 300, 396. 
Gillespie, W. M., 197. 
Gilman, John A , 138. 
Gilman, John K., 138. 
Gilmore, Benjamin, 19, 305. 
Gilmore, Melvin K., 240, 253, 2'82, 


Gise, Jonas, 28. 
Gleim, Philip, 260. 
Glenwood (town), 23. 
Gline, George, 138. 
Godfrey, Alfonso S., 216, 217, 305. 
I Good Templars lodge, 140. 

Goold, T. F., 366. 
I Goss, Sergeant, 154. 
Goudy, Alexander K., 305. 
Gould, Charles H., 217, 218, 305. 
Gould, Capt. W. H., 228, 230. 
Graham, Loyal M., 285. 
Grand Army of the Republic, 165. 
Grand Island, 12, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 

181, 185, 186. 
"Grand Pawnee Indians, 9. 
Grange and Farmers' Alliance, 216. 
Grant, Dr. Isaac, 160. 
Grant, Mathew, 160. 
Grant, Ulysses S., 194, 199, 207. 
Grasshoppers, 172. 
Gray, McConnell S., 259. 
Graves, Katherine Leigh, see Shedd, 

Katherine L. 
Great American Desert, 183. 
Great Salt Spring, see Salt Basin. 
Great Railroad Migration into 

Northern Nebraska. By J. R. 

Buchanan, 25. 
Great Salt Lake, 18. 
Green, Jesse T., 92, 95, 96, 98, 181. 
Greene, Charles, 356, 366. 
Greene, Robert J., 259. 
Greene, William L.. 217. 
Gregory, John S., 102, 104, 105. 
Greeley, Gen. A. W., 265. 

Greenwood, 337. 
Greiss, Theodore, 285. 
Grey, Jennie Emerson (Mrs. Rob- 
ert), 237, 305. 
Griffing, George L., 172. 
Griffith, L. J., 239, 360. 
Griggs, Bert, 363. 
Grover, Captain, 17. 
Grummann, Paul IL, 278. 
Gruver, Lafayette E., 258. 
Guenzel, Ernst, 280. 
Gwyer, William A , 172. 
Hagey, E. Joanna, 285. 
Haggard, Mrs. J. A., 363. 
Hiail, Celia, 137, 140. 
Hail, Curran C, 137, 140. 
Hail, Floyd, 137. 
Hail, Frill, 137. 
Hail, Laura, 137, 140. 
Hail, Phil, 137. 
Hail, Tabby, 137. 
Hail, William B., 138, 141. 
Hail, William B. & Co., 137. 
Haile, Amos, 230, 361. 
Haile, Stewart, 362. 
Hall, Frank M., 259. 
Hall, Mrs. Frank M., 280. 
Hall, Harry J., 279. 
Hall, Matthew A., 230. 
Hall county, 55, 58, 352. 
Halldorson, John, 279, 380. 
Hamburg, 134. 
Hamilton, John, 133. 
Hainer, Albert G., 273. 
Hamilton, James W., 259. 
Hammond, Ross, 241, 246. 
Hanna, James R , 258. 
Hannan, William E., 278, 281, 297, 

298, 309. 
Hanscom, Andrew J., 119. 
Hansen, George W., 285. 
Hansen, Henry, 240. 
Harden, Edward R., 140. 
Harden, Fred G., 285. 
Hardenbergh, Jacob R , 97, 98, 99. 
Hardy, Harvey W., 217, 218. 
Hargus, Simpson, 135. 
Harmon, William J., 276, 328. 
Harmon family, 104. 
Harney, Gen William S., 271. 
Harpham, Charles F., 280. 
Harrington, Robert B., 172. 
Harris, W. R., 360. 
Harrison, C. S-, 228. 
Harrison, J. H., 280. 
Harrison, J. P., 144. 
Harrison county (Iowa), 17. 
Hartig, Rev. Emmanuel, 280. 



Hartley, Ellis T., 247, 284, 364. 
Hartman, Christian, 305. 
Harvey, Augustus P., 84, 85, 86, 87, 
95, 365. 

Harvev, Robert, 230, 241, 243, 246, 
247, 251, 252, 257, 261, 262, 263, 
264, 272, 274, 276, 282, 286, 302, 

Hascall, Isaac S., 45, 52, 53. 
Hasebrook, Albert, 279. 
Hastings, Maj. Altred G., 98, 110. 
Hasty, D. W., 230. 
Hatcher, I. M.; 366. 
Hauffnagle, Frank, 346. 
Hawke, George W., 280. 
Hawke, Robert, 136. 
Hawks, Mrs. Nellie, 218. 
Hawley, Richard A., 216, 276. 
Hawthorne, Joseph J., 239, 328. 
Hawthorne, Vincent L., 259. 
Hax, Lewis, 141. 
Hayden, Dr. F. V., 189, 190, 191. 
Hayes county, 271. 
Haynes, James B., 280. 
Hayward, William, 280, 295. 
Headley, W. S., 358.. 
Heath, Harvey E., 260. 
Hebbard, James P., 95, 96, 97, 98. 
Hedde, Fred, 52. 
Helvey, Joe, 138. 
Helvey, Joel, 142. 
Hempie, Benjamin, 325, 362, 364. 
Hemple, Henry, 239. 
Henry, Dr. Charles A., 64. 
Henson, Rev. Joseph, 380. 
Herring, Carl E., 259. 
Hershey, Dr. David, 294. 
High, B. Y., 239, 325, 368. 
High, B. Y., Collection of, 368. 
Hildebrand, Arthur E., 285. 
Hildebrand, James G. P., 279. 
Hill, J. C, 240. 
Hill, James J., 222, 255. 
Hindman, A. W., 280. 
Hinman, Beach L, 172. 
Hirayama, Y., 363. 
Historical Society, Nebraska State, 
157, 165. 

Historical Society, Nebraska State, 
Housing of, 218. 

"Historical Square," 247. 

History of the Lincoln Salt Basin. 
By John H. Ames, 83. 

History of the Nebraska Constitu- 
tional Conventions, 260. 

History of the Nebraska Press, 274. 

History of Seward County, 275. 

Hitchcock,, Gilbert M., 216. 

Hitchcock, Phineas W., 216. 

Hitchcock county, 248. 

Hixon, Andrew, 134, 135. 
Hoagland, Henry V., 279. 
Hoar, E. Rockwood, 100. 
Hodgkins, Milo, 237, 362. 
Hodgkins, Warren, 366. 
Hollingworth, A. O., 362. 
Holt county, 28, 31, 32, 33, 
Homer, 335. 

Homer Free Press, 332. 
Homestead, 30. 
Hondesheldt, Mrs., 363. 
Hoover, William H , 305. 
Hopewell, Melvin R, 172, 277, 300. 
Hopkins, A. L., 363, 364, 366, 369. 
Hopkins, A„ L., Collection of, 366, 

Hopkins, Andrew, 90, 99. 

Hopt, Charles, 363. 

Horticultural Society, State. 165. 

Horton, Mrs. F. L., 361. 

Horton, John B., 381. 

Houseworth, Walter SI, 280. 

Houseworth, Walter S., Jr., 380. 

Houston, Abagail, 170. 

Houston, Hal A., 139. 

Howard, George E,, 240, 241, 243, 

246, 247, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 


Howard, Titus J., 259. 
Hoxie, M. B., 29. 
Huddart, Edmund, 239, 361. 
Hudson, Henry J., 24, 25, 344. 
Hukill, Dr. James H., 280. 
Hullihan, Shelly, 361. 
Humphrey, Fred, 364. 
Hunter, Miss Marilla, 287. 
Huntington, C. S., 230. 
Huntsman's Echo, 25. 
Hurd, Elbert C, 276. 
Hurd, Leslie G., 276. 
Hurst, William, 141. 
Hutchinson, Marion, 78. 
Hyde, Orson, 9, 19,. 21. 
Iiams, Samuel B., 230, 284, 286. 
Her, Peter E., 190. 
Immigration, 187. 

Immigration Depot, Castle Garden, 

N. Y., 187. " 
Independence (Mo), 21, 127. 
Indian bibliography, 324. 
Indian pictographs, 335. 
Indian songs, 247. 
Indian Town, 12, 15, 23, 285. 
Ingles, Harry C, 276. 
Ingles, J. W., 364. 
International Association of Fa!rs 

and Expositions, 165. 
Iowa City, 59, 154. 
Iowa, General Ass-unbly of. S. 
[rrigatiOB conveniioii, Trans-Mid 

souri, 165. 



Irrigation, Dawson county, 185. 

Izard, Mark W., 119, 120, 121, 202. 

Jackett, Mary EL, 239. 

Jackson, D. P., 143. 

Jackson, Frank E, 285. 

Jacobs (town), 64. 

Jackson county (Mo.), 10. 

Jameson, Mr., 138. 

Jameson, Jacob, 139. 

Jamison, Susanna E., see Furnas, 

.Mrs. Robert W. 
Jefferson county, 159, 350. 
Jessen, Paul, 280. 
Jewett, Walter K., 285. 
Johnson, A. G., 277, 280. 
Johnson, President Andrew, 164. 
Johnson Bros., 366. 
Johnson Bros, collection, 337. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth, 349. 
Johnson, Mrs. Emma A., 285. 
Johnson, Joseph E., 25. 
Johnson, Joseph W., 280. 
Johnson, S. V., 277, 280. 
Johnson, Thomas, 58. 
Jones, Alfred D., 305. 
Jones, Cass, 362. 
Jones, J. W., 195. 
Jones, Will Owen, 237. 
Judicial Grafts. By Judge William 

Gaslin, 108. 
Jules, see Bene, Jules. 
Julesburg, 61. 
Kane, Elisha Kent, 19. 
Kane, Col. Thomas L., 19. 
Kanesville, 8, 19, 21, 22, 23. 
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 57. 
Kansas-Nebraska country, 154. 
Kansas State Historical Society, 


Karstens, Carsten N., 280, 365. 
Kast, John P., 155, 
Kavan, R. E., 365. 
Kearney, Albert A., 259. 
Kearney, Gen. Stephen W., 14. 
Kearney, 38, 53, 56, 58, 108, 133, 

182, 186. 
Keeling, William H., 224. 
Kees, John F., 285. 
Keifer, Dr. George, 144. 
Keith county, 272. 
Keiser, Capt. D. Li , 228, 230. 
Kelley, William R., 218. 
Kemmer, John P., 260. 
Kemp, James H., 259. 
Kempton, Abraham, 276. 
Kennard, Thomas P., 48, 51, 58, 59, 

87, 396. 
Kennedy, Miss, 137. 
Kennedy, Mr., 98. 
Kennedy, Benjamin E. B„ 259. 

Kennedy, Howard, Jr., 259. 
Kennedy, James A. C, 258. 
Kennedy, Capt. James, 228, 230. 
Kennedy, Sarah, 140. 
Kennedy, William J., 228, 230. 
Keokuk (Iowa), 119. 
Keya Paha county, 31. 
Keyes, Harlow W., 259. 
Kimball, Heber C„ 20. 
King, Milo D., 259. 
Kingsley, Anna M. B., 285. 
Kinnikinic, 67. 
Kirkpatrick, E. A., 359. 
Kirkpatrick, Howard, 248. 
Kirkpatrick, Samuel W., 172. 
Kitchen, Aldridge D., 380. 
Kitchen, James B., 262. 
Kitdredge, William F., 144. 
Knight. John, 363. 
Knight, Robert E., 98. 
Knotts, Mrs. Minnie P., 247, 261, 

Knox county, 31. 
Kountze, Herman, 262, 305. 
Kyne's Bluff, 336, 
Lacld, Mrs. Walter M., 280. 
Laird, James, 172. 
Lake, Judge George B., 98, 99, 112, 

Lamb, Charles, 305. 
Lambert, Clement, 79. 
Lambertson, Genio M., 231. 300, 

La Master, Joseph E., 231, 305. 

Lamoni (Iowa), 24. 

Lamuel, Joseph, 360. 

Lancaster (town), 66. 

Lancaster county, 85, 89, 102, 103, 

108, 159. 
Lane, Arthur W., 260. 
Lantern slides, 325. 
Larson, Mrs. Hannah, 360. 
LaSelle, Mrs. Henry A., 279. 
Latta, James P., 363. 
Latter Day Saints, see Mormons. 
Lauer, J. Dan, 141. 
Laurel, 331. 
Lavender, Luke, 66. 
Lawrence, William, 100. 
Laws, Gilbert L„ 223. 
Leach, A. J., 218. 

Learning, Capt. Silas T., 77, 228, 
230, 305. 

Leary, C, L. L., 158. 

Learned, Myron L., 237, 295. 

Learned Spear, 327. 

L'eau-qui-court, see Rivers, Nio- 

Leavenworth, 67 ? 


Leavitt. H. P., 237. 

Leavy, L. H., 239. 

Le Clerc, see Pied Riche. 

Lederman, A. C, 281. 

Lee, Michael, 240. 

Lees, Prof. James T., 381. 

Legislative Acts Affecting the Ne- 
braska State Historical Societv, 

Legislative Reference Bureau, 297. 

Lemmon, James H, Jr.. 127, 133. 

Lemon, Thomas B., 305. 

Leshara dedication, 327. 

Letton, Mrs. A. H., 303. 

Letton, Charles B., 237. 

Leverett, William J., 286. 

Lewis (Iowa), 7, 23. 

Lewis & Clark, 8, 9. 154, 324. 

Librarian's- Report,. December 31, 

1907, 320. 
-Library, 294. 

Library Committee Report, Febru- 
ary 1, 1907, 268. 

Licking Valley Register, 162, 278. 

Lincoln, Abraham, -111, 163, 211. 

Lincoln, Justus C, 231. 

Lincoln, 46, 64, 65, 66, 83, 84, 85, 
96, 103, 186. 

Lincoln county, 270. % 

Lincoln Daily Journal, 158. 

Lindlv. William A., 280. 

Link, Dr. Harvey, 223, 305, 365. 

Linwood, 329, 330, 358. 

Lisa, Manuel. 302. 

"Little Miami," see Indian Town. 

Livingston, Robert R., 364. 

Livingston, Mrs. Robert R.. 361. 

Lobingier, Charles S , 215, 216, 218, 
219, 220, 225, 230, 231, 233, 235, 

Lobingier, Mrs. Charles S., 218. 

Lockwood, R. B., 133. 

Loder, John P., 276. 

Lomax, Edward L., 181, 222. 

Long, A. E., 365. 

Long, Maj. Stephen H, 78. 

Long Pine, 32. 

Longsdorf, David E., 155. 

Longsdorf, Elizabeth, 153. 

Longsdorf, George, 153. 

Longsdorf, George Foster. 155, 156. 

Longsdorf, Heinrich, 153. 

Longsdorf, Helen Mabel, 156. 

Longsdorf, Henry A., 153, 157, 229, 

231, 305. 
Longsdorf, Henry Warren, 156. 
Longsdorf, Martin, 153. 
Longsdorf, Ralph Martin, 156. 
Lost Camp, 12. 

Loup City, 182. 
Loup Fork ford, 9. 
Loup Forks. 9. 

Loughridge, Dr. William K., 279. 

Lowe, S. E.. 305. 

Lowell (Neb.), 108. 

Loyal Legion cf America, 165. 

Lute, Harry D, 285. 

Lyle, Epaminondas E., 276. 

Lyon, Nathaniel. 199. 

McCarthy, Dr., 252. 

McCartney, Frank, 280. 

McClain, Elmer, 360, 361. 

McComas, Mary - E., see Furnas, 

Mrs. Robert W. 
McCormick, E. P., 218. 
MacCuaig. Donald, 305. 
Macfarland, John D., 305. 
McGeachin, James, 279, 345, 366. 
McGeachin, Mrs. James, 366. 
McGilton, Edmund G., 259. 
McGrew, Mrs. Kittle, 2S5. 
McGrew, Dr. Samuel W., 285. 
McHugh, William D., 259. 
Mclntyre, Edmund, 305. 
McKesson, Dr. John M., 66. 
McKillip, Patrick E., 259. 
McKinnon, Laura, 364. 
McLean, Robert, 270. 
McLennan, William, 140, 141. 
McMaken, Henry C, 285, 362, 366, 


MacMurphy, Harriet S., 60. 
MacMurphy, John A., 61, 305. 
MacMurtry, Dr., 146. 
McNeely, Hugh, 134. 
McPheeley, John L., 259. 
McPherson, Charles E.. 144, 145. 
McPherson, Dr. John. 145, 146. 
McPherson, Dr. John. By Robert 

W. Furnas, 143. 
McPherson, John E., 144. 
McPherson, William J., 144. 
McPherson block, 145. 
McPherson Normal College, 145. 
McWilliams, D.. 345. 
Maddox, Wilson M.. 135, 138. 
Madison county, 31. 
Maiben, Alvin R., 279. 
Majors, Col. Alexander, 38, 127. 
Majors. Thomas J , 197, 213. 240, 


Majors. Russell & Waddell. 127, 


Mandan Indians, 341. 
.Mandan (town), 222. 
Manderson, Charles F.. 172. 
Manners, Charts A.. 90. 99. 
Mark Twain, see Samuel L. Clem- 



Marking Historic Sites, 302. 
Marks, C. R., 331. 
Marquette, 355. 
Marti, Miss Maude, 366. 
Martin, D. N., 139. 
Martin, Frank, 172. 
Martin, George W., 295. 
Martin, Maggie, 139. 
Martin, W. P., 305. 
Marsh, Rev. J. Lewis, 238. 
Marwood, Thomas, 230. 
Mason, Oliver P., 99, 112. 
Masons, Grand Lodge, 165. 
Masters, James H., 142. 
Mathewson, Dr. H. B., 305. 
Maupin, Will M., 230.. 
Maupin, Mrs. Will M., 230. 
- Maxwell, Henry E., 259. 

Maxwell, Judge Samuel, 172, 297, 

Maxwell (town), 270. 
May, Col. Charles A., 58. 
Mayhew, A. B., 136, 141. 
Mears, David Y., 68, 228. 
Meek, John, 360. 
Meier, Otto W., 279. 
Membership, 305. 

Memorial to Congress in behalf of 
a United States military res- 
ervation at Fort Kearny, 303. 

Mercer, A. J., 218. 

Merrill Mission, 302. 

Metcalfe, Richard L., 281, 295. 

Methodist Episcopal church, 142. 

Mexican War, 14. 

Mi-an-mise, 7. 

Mickel, Rev. Jeremiah, 213. 
Mickey, Gov. John H., 236, 241, 243, 

246, 248. 
Millard, Joseph H., 237. 
Miles, Stephen B., 231. 
• Miles of railroad in Nebraska, 43. 
Miller, Bishop, 19. 
Miller, C. M., 259, 
Miller, Chief Justice, 178. 
Miller, David, 154. 
Miller, Mrs. Edwin O., 218. 
Miller, Prank E., 361. 
Miller, G. E., 361. 

Miller, Dr. George L., 119, 226, 228, 
238, 240, 243, 245, 247, 251, 252, 
255, 257, 258, 261, 262, 274. 276, 
277, 281, 286, 300, 303, 334. 

"Miller's Hollow," 19. 

Miller's quartet, 197, 204. 

Mills, William C , 365. 

Mills county (Iowa), 7, 21. 

Missouri Indians, 8. 

Missouri (state), 9. 

Mitchell, Andrew J., 24. 

Mitchell, James, 381. 

Mitchell, W. K., 364. 

Mix, Sergeant John, 134. 

Mockett, Robert S., 280. 

Mockridge, Brasilia C, 285. 

Monell, Gilbert C, 145. 

Money, W. G., 344. 

Monona county (Iowa), 17. 

Montgomery, Carroll S., 259. 

Montgomery, James B., 363. 

Morgan, Thomas P., 305. 

Morin, Edward, 305. 

Morlan, Webster S., 259. 

Mormon Settlements in the Mis- 
souri Valley. By Clyde B. Ait- 
chison, 7. 

Mormon Trail, 302. 

Mormons, 10, 11, 13, 14, 19, 20, 56, 
57, 184. 

Morrill, Charles H, 233, 285, 381. 

Morrissey, A. M., 259. 

Morton, Carl, 148, 215.. 

Morton, Mrs. Caroline, 280, 295, 366. 

Morton, Caroline J. F., see Morton, 
Mrs. J. Sterling. 

Morton, Miss Emma, 280-, 295. 

Morton, Mrs. Irene S., 280. 

Morton, J. Sterling, 21, 55, 57, 62, 
68, 89, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 119, 
139, 141, 142, 148, 149, 150, 151, 
165, 171, 189, 190, 215, 216, 219, 
220, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 
229, 231, .236, 257, 300, 305, 323, 

Morton, Mrs. J. Sterling, 148. 

Morton, J. Sterling. By Robert W. 
Furnas, 147. 

Morton, Joy, 148. 

Morton, Julius, 148. 

Morton, Mark, 147, 148. 

Morton, Paul, 148. 

Morton, Thomas, 139. 

Morten, J. Sterling, Tablet on Cali- 
fornia Tree, 236, 239. 

Morton Memorial Monument, 237. - 

Morton Monument fund, 152. 

Mound at Ehdicott, 350. 

Mt. Pisgah, 12, 23. 

Mullen, Arthur P., 259. 

Mullis, Conrad, 135, 142. 

Monroe, G. A., 218. 

Murphy, Mrs., 119. 

Murphy, Frank, 119. 

Murphy, William, 363. 

Murray, Mr., 272. 

Muscatine, 154. 

Museum, 295. 

Museum Catalogue, 359. 



Museum Committee Report, Febru- 
ary 1, 1907, 266. 

Mussetter. John W., 280. 

My Very First Visit to the Pawnee 
Village in 1855. By Gen. John 
M. Thayer, 119. 

Myers, Morris E., 365. 

Mynster Springs, 12, 15. 

Mystic Circle, 132. 

Nash, John, 141, 142. 

Natrona county (Wyo.), 32. 

Nauvoo, 10, 14, 15, 16. 

Neapolis, 113, 329. 

Nebraska, 22. 

Nebraska admitted to the Union, 

Nebraska. Advertiser, 143, 163. 
Nebraska Cavalry, 2,d, 78, 80, 133, 

Nebraska City, 21, 46, 53, 59, 64, 
89, 95, 96, 98, 104, 120, 138, 148. 

Nebraska City News, 139, 142, 149. 

Nebraska Loess Man, 327, 338, 353. 

Nebraska Politics and Nebraska 
Railroads. By John H. Ager, 

Nebraska Public Library Commis- 
sion, 297. 

Nebraska Salt Company, 91. 

Nebraska State Journal, 159, 160. 

Nebraska Territorial Pioneers' As- 
sociation, 289, 301. 

Nebraska's 1 admission to the Union, 
53, 57. 

Necrology, 304. 

Neft', Mrs. Theresa, 280. 

Nehawka, 324, 337, 342. 

Nehawka trip, 354. 

Neligh, 29, 32. 

Nelson, Gustav O, 362. 

Nemaha City, 163. 

Nemaha county, 65. 

Newburn, Mr., 29. 

New Kiel, see Grand Island. 

New Mexico, 20. 

New Orleans, 20. 

New Revenue Law and Its Work- 
' ings. By John H. Mickey, 248. 

Newspaper Department, 298. 

Newspapers received by the Ne- 
braska State Historical Soci- 
ety, 382-92. 

New York Tribune, 202, 278. 

Nickerson, E. S., 240. 

Nielsen, A. A., 345, 348. 

Nolan, W. F., 361. 

Noll, D. H., 380. 

Norfolk, 27, 32, 181, 182, 1S6. 

North, Arthur S., 285. 

North, George, 141. 

North, James E., 223, 261, 262, 274, 

277, 278, 286. 
North, Jacob H, 230. 
North, Lute H, 239. 
North Platte, 181, 185, 186. 
North Platte route, 20, 21. 
Norton, J. Nathaniel, 285. 
Norval, Theophilus L., 248. 
Nuckolls, George, 137, 140. 
Nuckolls, Stephen F., 136, 137, 140, 

141, 143. 
Nuckolls county, 67, 132. 
Nuckolls House, 137. 
Oak, 129. 
Oak Grove, 132. 
O'Brien, Margaret A., 218. 
Oconee, 181. 

Oddfellows, Grand Lodge, 165. 
O'Gara, P. J., 223. 
Ojendyke, Theodore, 279. 
Old Mission House, 120. 
Oldham, William D., 217. 
Olson, E. M., 366. 
Olson, O. EL, 346, 366. 
Omadi (town), 80. 
Omaha, 27, 45; 51, 52, 53, 63, 64, 
■108, 114, 119, 120, 121, 133, 159, 
185, 191. 
Omaha Bee. 174. 

"Omaha Charlie," see Bristol, D. 

Omaha Daily Herald, 191. 
Omaha Indians, 8, 9, 13, 14, 24, 60, 

81, 164, 272. 
Omaha World Herald, 338. 
O'Mahoney, Patrick, 279. 
Onawa (Iowa), 24. 
O'Neill, Gen. John, 28, 32. 
O'Neill's Irish Brigade, 28. 
O'Neill (town), 28, 32. 
Ord, 181. 
Oregon, 20. 
Oregon trail, 302. 
Orleans trip, 345. 
Osborn, John M., 285. 
Osceola (Iowa), 12. 
O'Shea, Edward J„, 362. 
Otoe Indians. 8, 9, 20, 134. 
Otoe City, 133, 138. 
Otoe county, 89, 116, 142. 
Ott, Charles K., 295. 
Ottawa Indians, 7, 8. 
Overland Route, 184. 
Overland trails, 272. 
Overton, Capt, A., 228, 230. 
Owens, John, 105 
Owens family, 104. 
Pacific coast, 26. 



Paddock, Algernon S., 216. 

Padilla, Father, 345. 

Paine, Clarence S., 240, 241, 246, 
247, 248, 257, 261, 262, 265, 266, 
274, 275, 276, 277, 286, 288, 309. 

Palin, Daisy, 221, 244, 245, 253, 256. 

Palin, Pearl, '256. 

Palmer, Capt. Henry E., 240, 257, 

Papillion, 12. 
Papillion crossing, 15. 
Pardee, George C, 227. 
Parker, A. A., 285. 
Parker, A. G., 362, 363. 
Parker, W. P., 224. 
Parker, W. F„ Collection of. 326. 
Parker, W. H., 305. 
Passenger tariffs in Nebraska, 38. 
Patrick, Nelson (J. N. H.), 46. 
Patterson, Mary B., 285. 
Paul, James N., 240. 
Paul, Nicholas J., 240. 
Pawnee Indians, 8, 9, 13, 25, 71, 

103, 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 202, 

247, 270, 271, 324, 330, 344, 346, 

350, 357, 358. 
Pawnee City, 159. 
Pawnee Loup Indians, 9. 
"Pawnee Council Monunrent," 270. 
Pawnee county, 159. 
Pawnee Mission, 9. 
Pawnee Mission Station, 9. 
Pawnee Village, My First Visit to, 

in 1855. By Gen. John M. 

Thayer, 119. 
Pawnee War, 58, 202. 
Pearman, Anna, 137. 
Pearman, Hugh, 142. 
Pearman, John W., 133, 136. 140, 


Pearman, Susan. 137. 

Pell, Mary, 137. 

Pell, Richard, 135. 

Pemberton, Will, 106, 107. 

Pemberton family, 104. 

Pentzer, John C, 381. 

Pentzer, T. M., 365, 366. 

Perin, Senator W„ 276. 

Per-is-ka-Le-Shar-u, 324. 

Persinger, Clark E,, 217, 237. 

Personal Recollections of Early 

Days in Decatur, Nebraska. 

By Capt. Silas T. Learning, 77. 
Peters, Dr. Albert T., 276. 
Peterson, C, P., 357. 
Peti-Le-Sha-ru, 344. 
Pettingill, Dr. Somers, 362. 
Phelps, Ernest H., 285. 
Philpot, James E., 97, 98. 99, 259. 
Pied, Riche, 13. 

Pike, Zebulon M., 346. 
Pike monument, Kansas, 349. 
Pierce, Charles W., 139, 280. 
Pierce, Capt. Charles W., 218, 284, 

Pierce, Franklin, 119, 120, 142. 
Pierce, John L., 280, 294. 
Pierce county, 31, 142. 
Pierre (town), 79. 
Pioneer Women, 60. 
Plainview, 32. 

"Plan for Research and Reference 

Department," 254. 
Plateau House, 155. 
Platte county, 25. 
Plattsmouth, 64. 
Pleasanton, 182. 
Plumb, George M., 285. 
Point aux Poules, 22. 
Polk, Cary S., 259. 
Polk county, 356, 358. 
Pollard, Ernest M., 241, 246. 
Pollard, Isaac, 224, 359. 
Polygamy, 17. 
Ponca Indians, 8, 9, 13. 
Pony express, 38. 
Poore, Ben Perley, 49. . 
Population of Nebraska, 182. 
Porter, Harry, 279. 
Portraits, 299. 

Pottawattamie Indians, 7, 9, 12, 13, 

Pottawattamie county (Iowa), 20, 

Pound, Roscoe, 237. 

Pound, Stephen B., 234, 300. 

Pound, Mrs. Laura B., 303. 

Poynter, Gov. William A., 300. 

Praasch, Herman, 27. 

Prairie City, 135. 

Pratt, Parley P., 18. 

Preparation (town), 24. 

Presbyterian Mission, 10. 

Prescott school, 327. 

Presson, Rev. Joseph H., 240. 

Prey, James J., 345. 

Prey, John D., 89. 

Prey, John W., 89. 90, 99. 

Prey, Martha J., 285. 

Prey, Nina, 152. 

Prey, Thomas R., 89. 

Prey, Mrs. Thomas R., see Prey, 

Martha J. 
Prey, Thomas R, Jr., 260. 
Prey, William L,, 89, 90. 
Price, Anna M., 320. 
Price, F. M., 350. 

Problem of Railroad Taxation. By 
E. A. Ross, 248. 



Proposition Made to State Agricul- 
tural Society, 1905, 242. 

Proudfit, Robert M., 259. 

Prouty, John T., 28. 

Public Expenditures. By C. O. 
Whedon, 241. 

Publications of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society, 402. 

"Pull Point," 22. 

Pumpkin Butte. 75. 

Pyle, Edward P., 285. 

Quartet, Prof. Miller's, 197, 204. 

Quiggle, Charles C., 285. 

Rabest, C. B., 279. 

Railroad Legislation in Nebraska, 
39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44. 

Railroad Taxation in Nebraska. 
By Norris Brown, 174. 

Railroads — 

Atchison & Nebraska, 159. 
Burlington, 39, 42. 
Burlington & Missouri River, 27, 
33, 159. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 

Chicago & Northwestern. 32, 81.. 

Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri 
Valley, 27, 32, 34. 

Iowa Central Air Line, 80. 

Midland Pacific, 159. 

Missouri Pacific, 199. 

Union Pacific, 27, 33, 39, 181, 183, 
185, 186, 187. 190, 223, 270. 

Santa Fe, 236, 302. 
Railroads in Nebraska, 37. 
Rainfall, 33. 

Raper, William B., 193. 
Rapid City (So. D«rk.), 32. 
Ray, Benjamin C, 361. 
Ray, George A., 240. 
Raymond, Lewis L., 259. 
Red Cloud, 75. 
Redick, William A., 259. 
Reed, John S., 280. 
Reed, Mrs. John S., 280. 
Reed, Lewis S., 218, 241, 246. 
Reeder, James G., 259. 
Reese, Manoah B., 172, 235. 
Reid, William M., 281. 
Reminiscences, 45-68. 
Renner, Dr. Frederick, 66, 216. 
Republican Indians, 9. 
Republican City. 144, 145, 146, 147. 
Research and Reference Depart- 
ment, Plan for, 254. 
Research work, 300. 
Resignation of Curator Barrett, 256. 
Revenue Cutter, 17. 

Reyner, G. A., 356. 
Rice, C. E., 237, 305. 
Rice, Walter, 239, 362. 
Richards, Charles L.. 259. 
Richards, Lucius C, 305. 
Richards, Mrs. Mazie Boone, 305. 
Richards, William, 20. 
Richardson, "Curl/' 97. 
Richardson, J. W., 380. 
Richardson, Mrs. J. W., 380. 
Richardson, Origen D., 121, 123. 
Richardson Point, 12. 
Richey, Mrs. Isabel, 276. 
Richmond, Henry C, 274. 
Ricker, Rev. A. E., 240. 
Ricker, Eli Seavey, 259. 
Riddle, D. F, 363. 
Riden, Mastin W., 140. 141. 
Rinaker, Samuel, 259. 
Ripley, Edwin S., 285. 
Rising, Charles H., 364. 
Rivers — ■ 

Bellefourche, 75. 

Big Blue, 64. . 

Blue, 131, 324, 337. 

Cheyenne, 75. 
- Des Moines, 10. 

Elkhorn, 12, 17. 58, 63, 121, 122, 
124, 324. 

Keya Paha. 31. 

Little Bighorn, 72. 

Little Blue, 128, 130, 131, 132. 

Loup, 17, 20, 21, 56. 

Missouri, 9, 46, 67, 154. 

Niobrara, 9, 13, 17. 342. 

Nishnabotna, 7, 23. 

North Platte, 17. 

Platte, 9, 17, 20, 26. 27, 39, 52^ 53, 
55, 58, 121, 123, 127, 131, 133, 
154, 184, 302, 324, 328, 337, 342, 
356, 357, 358. 

Platte, Wolf fork, 9. 

Powder, 75. 

Powder. Crazy Woman's fork, 69. 
Powder, Dry Fork of, 69. 
Red, 9. 

Republican, 67, 132, 345, 346. 

Soldier, 24. 

South Loup, 336. 

Sweetwater, 20. 

Wood, 25, 56. 

Yellowstone, 72, 78. 
Robbins, William H., 279. 
Roberts, Evan T., 285. 
Roberts, George H., 99. 
Roberts, John Fitz, 279. 
Robertson, William M., 234. 
Robinson. Scth, 98, 99. 



Robinson, W. H., 58. 

Rock county, 31. 

Rockport, 302. 

Rocky mountains, 67, 184. 

Rogers, Eliphus H., 145. 

Rogers, Samuel, 119. 

Rogers, Vernice, 365. 

Roggen, Edward P., 96, 97, 98. 

Rolfe, DeForest P., 305. 

Rolfe, Rollin M., 142, 280. 

Romaine, Gertrude, 362. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 237. 

Roper, Laura, 128. 

Rose, Amazial M., 136. 

Rose, Halleck P., 259. 

Rosewater, Edward, 226, 260, 262, 

284, 305. 
Rosewater, Victor, 241, 246. 
Ross, Prof. Edward A., 176, 248. , 
Round Table, 223. 
Ruben, Andrew, 346. 
Ruigh, Clarence, 279, 363. 
Rulo, 46. 
Rushville, 12, 15. 
Sac Indians, 7, 12. 
St. Francis (Iowa), 7, 22. 
St. Joseph, 20, 120. 
St. Louis, 20, 24, 51, 52, 78, 79, 80, 

120, 199. 
St. Paul, 182. 
Salaries, 231. 

Saline county, 64, 159, 335. 

Salt Basin, 66, 83, 88, 97, 101, 102, 

104, 106, 107. 
Salt Lake, 20, 21, 25, 26. 
Saltzman, August, 239, 362. 
San Francisco, 132. 
Santa Fe Trail, 302. 
Santee Indians, 325. 
Sappa Peak, 348. 
Sargent, Engineer, 223. 
Sarpy, Peter A., 10, 13, 79, 133. 
Sarpy county, 117, 153, 155. 
Sarpy's ferry, 13. 
Sasse, N. C, 279, 345, 366. 
Saunders, Gov. Alvin, 50, 164, 300. 
Saunders, Charles L., 239. 
Sawyer, Andrew J., 224, 262, 263, 


Sawyer, Mrs. "Winona S., 215, 241, 

246, 278, 300. 
Saxton, Henry, 154. 
Saxton, William E , 279. 
Sayent's Grove, 12. 
Sayer, Edward L„ 218, 223, 226. 
Scarborough, R. J., 380. 
Schwagger, Henry, 239. 
Schwyn, John, 253, 279. 
Scotia, 181. 

Scott, Rev. George, 229. 
Scott, George A., 279. 
Scott, Perley W., 259. 
Searles, Addie, 239, 372. 
Searle, Addie* Collection of, 372. 
Searle, Archibald L., 281. 
Searle, C. H., 325. 
Searle, Edwin M., Jr., 280. 
Secretary's Report, 1907, 288. 
Selleck, William A., 281, 284. 
Sellers, Col. Beriah, 87, 102. 
Senora (Mo.), 138. 
Seward, 103. 

Seymour House, 136, 137, 140. 
Shamp, Peter, 66. 
Shedd, Capt. Abel, 168. 
Shedd, Daniel, 168. 
Shedd, Dr. George, 169, 170. 
Shedd, George C, 168, 246, 247. 
Shedd. Hibbard H., 170, 173, 174, 
246, 305. 

Shedd, Hibbard Houston. By Geo. 
C. Shedd, 168. 

Shedd, Katherine L, 171. 

Shedd, Z., 29. 

Sheibal, H. H., 365. 

Sheldon, Addison E., 216, 218, 220, 
222, 224, 228, 229. 231, 235, 238, 
241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 
251, 252, 253, 256, 260, 261, 262, 
263, 274, 275, 277, 278, 296, 297, 
303, 309, 362, 364. 

Sheldon, Gov. George L, 193, 194, 
197, 204, 213, 214, 275, 278, 294, 
300. ' ' ' 

Shepard, John, 139. 

Sheridan, Gen. Phil, 72. 

Sheridan county, 31. 

Sherman, Mrs. C. S., 364. 

Shick, Belle, 229. 

Shine, Rev. Michael A., 230. 

Shoshone Indians, 71. 

Shotwell, H. A., 381. 

Silver cross from Orleans, 345. 

Simpkins, Mrs. George B., 279. 

Simpson, U. S., 139. 

Sidney (Iowa), 134, 135, 139. 

Sioux Indians, 9, 25, 68, 71, 74, 164, 
182, 202, 271. 

Sioux City, 182. 

Sioux county, 31, 110. 

Sisson, George W., 285. 

Sisson, Nellie M., 279. 

Skeleton from Orleans, 345. 

Skidi village, 355. 

Slabaugh, Willard W., 229. 

Slabaugh, Mrs. Willard W. ; 229. 

Sloan, Charles H., 259. 

Sloan, Judge James, 20. 



Sloan, William T., 280. 
Slocum law, 84. 
Slusher, Eli, 134. 
Smith, Andrew J., 24. 
Smith, Col. Charles B v 138. 
Smith, Harlan I., 338. 
Smith, Horace, 95. 
Smith, Joseph, 10. 
Soldiers' Union, Nebraska State, 

South Omaha, 183, 186. 
South Platte route, 21. 
Sparhawk, A. G., 162. 
Spearman, Frank M., 305. 
Special Committee to Examine 

Work of Society, Report oi*. 


Spencer, Hugh, 361. 

Sprather, Ed, 135. 

Sprick, Henry, 305. 

Staats-Zeitung, 67. 

Stamford, 345. 

Standing Elk, 74. 

Stanton county, 31. 

Starr, El. M., 339, 362, 365. - 

State Historical Society, 59. 

"State Historical Society Block," 

264, 291. 
State Journal, 84, 118, 169. 
State Press Association, 274. 
Statesman, Nebraska, 84. 
Stearnes, R. DeWitte, 239, 360. 
Steele, W, E., 239. 
Stein, Rev. Fredrick S., 237. 
Steinhardt, John W., 279. 
Steinhardt, Mrs. John W., 279. 
Stephens, William L., 237. 
Sterling, Emeline, 148. 
Stewart, Lou L, E., 279. 
Stewart, Salmon C, 285. 
Stewart, W. W., 155. 
Stilson, Lyman D, 229, 261. 
Stokes, Ed S., 132. 
Stolley, William, 54, 58, 59. 
Stoner, Christian D., 285. 
Stratton, D. C, 240. 
Stromsburg, 181. 
Stromshurg trip, 357. 
Stubbs, Mrs. J. J., 303. 
Stueffer, William, 27. 
Stull, John S., 259. 
Stull, J. W., 141. 
Stull, Morris C, 279. 
Stull, Mrs. Morris C, 279. 
Sully, Gen. Alfred, 164. 
Sumner, Charles,' 48, 49. 
Sundean, John L., 259. 
Sunflowers, "19. 
Susong, Mrs. A. M., 278. 

Sutton, Mrs. H. G., 366. 
Sweet, James, 92. 

Sweitzer, Lieut. Charles McG., 273. 
Sweitzer, N. B., 271, 273. 
Sweitzer, Gen. Nelson B., 273. 
Swift, Mary A., 133. 
Sydenham, Moses, 305. 
Syfert, E. M., 230. 
Table Creek Postoffice, 139. 
Table Rock, 159. 

Tablet on California Tree for J. 

Sterling Morton, 236. 
Talbot, Adolphus R., 237. 
Tappa Indians, 9. 
Taylor, Joseph E., 279. 
Taylor, S. E,, 363. 
Taylor, William Z., 285, 288. 
Templeton, Charlotte, 262, 269. 274, 


Territorial Pioneers' Association, 
Nebraska, 165. 

Territorial Pioneer Days, 45. 

Terry, Gen. Alfred II., 72. 

Thatcher family, 104. 

Thatcher (town), 32. 

Thayer, Gen. John M., 47, 52, 53, 
58, 119, 159, 193, 194, 195, 197, 
198, 199, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 
207, 208, 211, 212, 270, 284, 300, 
305, 364. 

Thayer monument, Unveiling of, 

Thomas, E. A., 239. 

Thomas, Edward W., 231. 

Thomas, Griffith P., 285. 

Thomas, John J., 248. 

Thompson, Charles B., 24. 

Thompson, Elizabeth, 78. 

Thompson, John M.. 216. 

Thompson, Joel and James, Collec- 
tion of, 380. 

Thompson, S. H., 362. 

Thompson, T. E., 135, 136, 140, 142. 

Thompson, W. F., 278. 

Thrasher, J. H.. 361. 

Tibbies, Mrs. Yosette LaFlesche, 

Tichacek, J. B., 329. 
Tichenor, Anson C, 91, 92, 95, 101. 
Tobitt, Edith, 262, 269, 274. , 
Todd, Ami B. , 239, 361. 
Tidball, John L,, 243. 
Tinnell family, 104. 
Tipton, Thomas W. 49, 145. If.!), 

rracy, Lieut. Thomas, 160. 
Traders, see Trading Point, 
Trading Point, 7, 8, L5. 
Transportation, Cost jf, 59, 188. 



Treasurer's Reports — 

1901, 219. 

1902, 225. 
1906, 249. 

January 16, 1907, 265. 
January 1, 1908, 310. 
Tree claim, 30. 

Treeman, Lucian B., 235, 305. 
Trester, Milton L., 380L 
Troy Times, 162. 
Truell, Ferdinand A., 279. 
Trumbull, Lyman, 45. 
Tyler,. M. Dayton, 259. 
"Underground Railway," 169. 
Union county (Iowa), 12. 
United States land office, 27. 
United States Supreme Court, 40. 
University of Nebraska, 159, 164. 
Unveiling of tbe Thayer monument, 

Wyuka cemetery, 193. 
Upton, Samuel E., 305, 364. 
Utah, 20, 67. 
Unthank, G. R., 363. 
Valentine, Judge Edward K, 27, 28. 
Valentine (town), 32. 
Valier, Peter, 135. 
Valley, 181. 
Valparaiso, 181. 
Van Duesen, Don C, 363. 
A^an Volkenburg, Mrs. Dudley, 362. 
Van Wyck, Charles H., 172. 
Vifquain, Gen. Victor, 61, 235, 305, 


Wade, Ben, 45, 48. 

Wade, Ruth Ann, 135. 

Wagner, William A., 285. 

Wake, Charles, 285. 

Wakefield (town), 331. 

Wakely, Arthur C, 230. 

Wakeley, Judge Eleazer, 99, 234. 

Walker, H. T. & Co., 137. 

Walker, Seth Russel, 363. 

Wallace, Mrs. Dr., 362. 

Walling, Augustus M., 285. 

Wallingford, J. R., 229. 

Walnut Grove cemetery, Brown- 

ville, 166. 
Walton, C. W., 29. 
Wamberg, John W., 279. 
Ward, Dr. Henry B., 365. 
Ward, John, 240. 
Warner, Miss Anna, 363. 
Warnes, Edward, 66. 
Warren, Edwin F., 280, 365. 
Washington county, 26, 31, 117. 
Washington Journal, 49. 
Waterbury, 331. 
Waters, Frank R., 259, 305. 
Watkins, Albert, 224, 225, 241, 246. 

Waugh, Merriweather J., 280. 

Wauneta, 271.' 

Weaver, Archibald J., 172. 

Webster, John D., 234, 235. 

Weeping Water Falls, 64. 

Weeping Water trip, 122. 

West Point, 27, 29. 

Westgate, Deander, 285. 

Westerfield, Ellery H., 279. 

Westerfield, Samuel F., 279, 305. 

Wetherwell, G. A., 279. 

Whaley, M. H„ 240. 

Wheedon, B. D., 363. 

Whedon, Charles O., 241. 

Wheeler, Daniel H. , 48. 

Wheeler, Mrs. Hiland H., 237, 240. 

Whitcomb, Ed W.. 363, 364, 365. 

White, Benjamin T., 259. 

White, Charles, 357, 366. 

White, Francis E., 278, 300. 

White, Mary Elizabeth, 102. 

Whitmore, W. G., 237. 

Whitmore, Mrs. W. G., 237. 

Whittemore, E, H., 240, 354, 366. 

Whittemore collection, 354. 

Whitten, Walter S., 285. 

Whyte, N. Z., 361. 

Whyte, E. R., 362. 

Wiggins, Horace S., 260, 283, 295, 

306, 308.. 
Wiggins, Mrs. Ida Duffield, 260. 
Wild, Joseph A., 259. 
Wiles, G. F., 239. 
Wiles, T. F., 361. 
Wilhelm, E., 139. 
Williams, Joseph Albert, 285. 
Williams, Julia, 281. 
Williams, Oliver T. B., 305. 
Williams, Thomas F. A., 275. 
Williamson, John W., 239, 344, 361. 
Wilsie, Jerome, 362. 
Wilson, Hon. James, 236. 
Wilson, Henry H, 161, 245, 246, 

260, 264, 284, 286. 
Wilson, John C, 279. 
Wilson, Mary S., 280. 
Wilson, William W., 365. 
Wilson, Woodrow, 255. 
Winnebago Indians, 81. 
Winter Quarters, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 

24, 326. 
Wisner, 28. 

Wolcott, Francis E., 280. 
Wolf Pawnee Indians, see Pawnee 
v Loups. 

Wolfe, Carrie A., 279. 
Wolfe, Harry K., 237. 
Wolfe, Thomas, 240. 
Wolfenbarger, Andrew G., 126. 



Wolworth, Mr., 346. 
Wood, Lucy T., 285. 
Wood, William W., 259. 
Woods, J. D., 361. 
Woods, W. H., 364, 365. 
Woolworth, James M., 59, 262, 305. 
Wonder, G- , 239. 

Work of the Union Pacific in Ne- 
braska. By E. L. Lomax, 181. 
Wray, Arthur J., 285. 
Wright, C. W., 239, 361, 366. 
Wright, John, 363. 
Wyman, Henry F., 276. 

Wyoming (Territory), 201, 207. 
Wyoming (town), 21, 141. 
Wyuka cemetery, Nebraska City, 

Yates, Elijah, 142. 

Young American Horse, 74. 

Young, Brigham, 10, 12, 16, 17. 18, 

20, 23. 
Young, Mrs. E. J., 363. 
Young, Elder John McK, 66. 
Young Miami, see Mian-mise. 
Yost, Absalom N., 279, 281.