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nuKSAaioss of the 


Publications of Yale University 


XEW MAvrS, rrtHX1«n"l(.t-T 



[Publications of Yale University 


■Ttrrrm 'itit»riin<iut • vtviMH rviii* 




Incorporated A. D. 1799 



/ ^ 

Publications of Yale University 

[commencing with this volume, these transactions will hereafter be 
published as one series of the publications of yale university.] 






■' "^ -y. 




CopyriRht 1907. 
C'oNNE<Ti< IT Academy of Arts and S<'iExrKs. 




OFFICERS FOR 1906-07. 


Prof. A. E. VERRILL. 






Committee of Publication. 

Prof. A. E. VERRILL, Chairman, Prof. A. W. EVANS, 

Prof. E. S. DANA, Prof. CLIVE DAY, 

Prof. H. OERTEL, Prof. J. C. SCHWAB, 




Additions to the Library, vii 

Art. I. — The Hawaiian Hepatic^ of the Tribe Trigox- 
ANTHE^. By C. M. Cooke, Jr 1 

Art. n. — The Bermuda Islands : Part IV. — Geology and 
Paleontology ; Part V. — An Account of the Coral 
Reefs (Characteristic Life of the Bermuda Coral 
Reefs) 45 

Art. III. — Studies of the California Limbless Lizard 

Anniella. By W. R. Coe and B. W. Kunkel 349 

Index 404 



Gonnecticnt Acadeiy of Arts and Sciences, 

By Gift and Exchange fbom Jan. 1, 1903, to Dec. 31, 1906. 

Amhebst. — Amherst College. 

Catalogue. 1903-4; 1904-5. 
Ann Arbor. — Unireraitp of Michigan. 

Michigan Academy of Science. 6th Report. 1904. 
Annapolis. — United States yaval Institute. 

Proceedings. Vol. XXIX-XXX, 2 and Suppl. to no. 104. 
Austin. — Universitjf of Texas. 

Bulletin. Nos. 60; 63-65; 79. 1905-1906. 
Baltimore. — Johns Hopkins University. 

University circulars. No. 164, 165, 167, 168, 175, 176, 182. 1904- 
1005 ; 1906. No. 3-9. 
Bebkklet. — University of California. 

Publications. Botany. Vol. II. 1-3 ; II. 1-4. 

Zoology. Vol. I. 2-9. 

Boston. — American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Proceedings. Vol. XXXIX-XLII. 13. 1899-1906. 
Museum of Fine Arts. • 

Bulletin. Vol. II. 2-6 ; III. 1-5 ; IV. 1-5. 

Annual report. 1903-1905. 
Society of Natural History. 

Memoirs. Vol. V-VI. 1. 

Occasional papers. Vol. VII. 1-6. 

Proceedings. Vol. XXXI-XXXIII. 3. 1903-1906. 
Boulder. — University of Colorado. 

Studies. Vol. II-III. 1904-1906. 
BozEMAN. — Montana Agricultural College. 

Science studies. Vol. I. 1-3. 1905. 
Brooklyn. — Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

Science bulletin. Vol. I. 4-9. 1904-1906. 

Cold Spring Harbor Monographs. 1-6. 

Memoirs of Natural Sciences. I. 1. 1904. 
Cambridgk \,yiAHS.)— Astronomirnl Obficrvatory of Harvard College. 

Annals. Vol. XXXIX. 2: XI.III. 3: XLVI. 1-2; XLVIII. 3-9; 
LI; LII. 1-3; LIH. 1-10; LVJII. 1-2; LX. 1-2. 1903-1906. 

Annual report. 19()5. 

Circulars. No. 51-92; 105-118. 
Museum of Comparative Zoolof/i; <tt Harvard College. 

Memoirs. XXV. 2 ; XXVI. 4-5 : XXIX-XXX. 3. 1903-1906. 

Bulletin. Vol. XXXIX-XLII ; XLIII. 1. 4 ; XLIV-XLVII ; XLVIII. 
1-2; XLIX. 1-3; L. 1-5. 1903-lOOG. 

Annual report. 1902-3; 1903-4; 1904-5. 

viii Additions to the Library. 

Chapel Hill, N. C. — Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 

Journal XIX-XXII. 2. 1903-1906. 
Chicago. — Field Museum of Natural History. 

Publications. No. 73-116. 1903-1000. 

John Crerar Library. 

Annual report. VIII-Xi: 1902-1905. 
List of books on Industrial arts. 1903. 
List of cyclopedias and dictionaries. 1904. 
Supplement to list of serials in Chicago libraries. 1903-190(». 
Cincinnati. — Lloyd Library of Botany, Pharmacy and Materia Medica. 
Bulletin. Reproduction series. No. 3-4. 1903. 

Mycologlcal series. No. 3. 1905. 

Mycologlcal notes. No. 10-20. 19()2-190."5. 

Museum Association. 

Annual exhibition, American art. 1904. 
Annual report. Vol. XXII-XXV. 1902-1905. 

Society of Natural History. 

Journal. Vol. XX. 4-7. 1904-1906. 

University of Cincinnati. 

Record. Series I, Vol. II-IIL 11. 1904-1906. 
Teachers' Bulletin. Vol. I. 6 ; Ser. III. 2. 5. 1905-1900. 
University Studies. Vol. I-II. 2. 1903-1906. 

University of Cincinnati, Observatory. 

Publications. Vol. 15. 1905. 
Colorado Springs. — Colorado College. 
Studies. Vol. X-XI. 
Publications. Science series. Vol. XI -XII (42-49). 

Language series. Vol. XII. 15-17. 

Social science series. Vol. II. 5. 

Columbia. — University of Missouri. 

Bulletin. Vol. IV. 7-9: V. 1903-1904. 
Studies. Vol. II. 2-5. 1903-1904. 
Studies. Science series. Vol. I. 1. 1905. 
Laws Observatory. Bulletin 3-7. 1904-1905. 
Columbus. — Geological Survty of Ohio. 

Bulletins. Fourth series. 1-8. 1903-1906. 
Preliminary report of Ohio topographical survey. 1904. 
Davenport, Ia. — Academy of Sciences. 

Proceedings. Vol. IX. 1901-1903. 
Des Moines, I a. — lotca Academy of Sciences. 

Proceedings. Vol. IX-XII. 1902-1905. 

Iowa Geological Survey. 

Publications. Vol. XIII-XV. 1903-1905. 
(Jranvillk. — Drnison Iniversity. 

Bulletin of the Scientific Laboratories. Vol. XII. 5-XIII. 3. 1902- 
1 905. 
Hartford. — Connecticut Historical Society. 

Annual report. 1904. 
Honolulu. — Berniee Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and 
Natural History. 

Memoirs. Vol. II. 1-2. 

Occasional papers. Vol. II. 1-4; IV. 1. 1903-1906. 
Fauna Hawaliensis. Vol. I. 4 ; Vol. III. 2-4. 1903-1905. 
L.\WRENCE. — University of Kansas. 

Science bulletin. Vol. II-III. 1. 1903-1905. 
Bulletin. Vol. VII. 3. 1906. 
Madison. — Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. 
Transactions. Vol. XIII. 2-XIV. 2. 1902-1903. 

■ Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. 

Bulletin. No. 9-14. 1903-1906. 

Additions to the Library. ix 

Manila. — Ethnological Survey of the Philippine Islands. 

Publications. Vol. II. 1-3; IV. 1. 1004-1905. 
Milwaukee. — Puhlic Muneum. 

Annual report. XXI-XXIV. 1903-1906. 
Wisconsin Natural Historii Society. 

Bulletin. N. S. Vol. IlI-IV. 1903-1906. 
Missoula. — University of Montana. 

Bulletin. Geological series. I. 1903. 

Zoological series. IV. 1903. 

Mt. Hamilton. — lAck Observatory. 

Publications. Vol. VI. 1903. 
New York. — Academy of Sciences. 

Annals. Vol. XIV-XVII. 1. 1904-1906. » 

Memoirs. Vol. II. 4. 1905. 
American Oeographical Society. 

Bulletin. Vol. XXXV-XXXVIII. 11. 1903-1906. 
American Museum of Natural History. 

Bulletin. Vol. XVII. 3-4; XVIII. 1-3; XIX-XX ; XXI. 1-10, 14- 
16, 18-25 ; XXII. 1-10. 12-14, 16, 21. 1903-1906. 

Annual report. 1903-1905. 

Memoirs. Vol. I. 8 ; III. 3 ; IX. 1-3. 1903-1906. 

Folkmar, D. Album of Philippine Types. Manila, 1904. 
Botanical Garden. 

Bulletin. No. 9-15. 1903-1906. 
Public Library. 

Bulletin. Vol. VII-X. 1903-1906. 
Scientific Alliance. 

Annual directory. Vol. XI-XII. 1903. 
Oberlin. — Wilson Ornithological Chapter of the Agassiz Association. 

Wilson Bulletin. No. 43-56. 1903-1906. 
Philadelphia. — Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Journal. Vol. XII-XIII. 2.. 1903-1905. 
American Entomological Society. 

Transactions. Vol. XXIX-XXXI. 1903-1905. 
American Philosophical Society. 

Proceedings. XLV. 182. 1906. 
Geographical Society. 

Bulletin. Vol. III. 5-IV. 1. 1904-1905. 

Charter, by-laws, list ot mombors. 1905. 
Vnirersity of Pennsylvania. 

Contributions from the botanical laboratory. Vol. II. 3. 1904. 
Wagner Free Institute. 

Transactions. Vol. III. 6. 1903. 
Phoenix, Ariz. — Free Museum. 

Bulletin. No. 1. 1903. 
I*iTTSBURO. — Carnegie Museum. 

Publications. Ser. no. 20-43. 1903-1906. 

Celebration of Founder's day. Vol. VIII-IX. 1903-1904. 

Memoirs. Vol. II. 6-9; IV. 1. 1906. 
Pocghkeepsie. — Vassar Brothers^ Institute. 

Debates and proceedings of the New York State Convention, 1788. 
Providence. — Brown University. 

Contributions from the anatomical laboratory. Vol. III. 1903. 
Rochester. — Academy of Science. 

Proceedings. Vol. III-IV, p. 231. 1901-1906. 
St. rx>cis. — Academy of Science. 

Transactions. Vol. XIII-XVI. 6. 1903-1905. 
Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Annual report. XIV-XVII. 1903-1905. 

Additions to the Library, 

Salem. — Essex Institute. 

Annual report. 1903-1900. 

Constitution. 1904. 

Sears, J. II. Physical geography', geology, mineralogy and paleon- 
tology of Essex County, Massachusetts. 1905. 
S.\N Francisco. — California Academy of Sciences. 

Memoirs. Vol. III-V. 1. 1903-1905. 

Occasional papers. Vol. IX. 1905. 

Proceedings. Series III. Math.-phys., Vol. I. 8. 1903. 

Geology, Vol. II. 2. 

Botany, Vol. II. 11. 1904. 

Zoology, Vol. III-IV. 3. 1905. 

TopEKA. — Kansas Academy* of Science. 

Transactions. Vol. XVII I. 1903. 
Tufts College. 

Studies. Vol. VIII. 

Scientific series. Vol. II. 1-2. 1905-1906. 

Urbaxa. — Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Bulletin. Vol. I. 3 (2d edition), 1903; VI. 2; VII. 1-5. 1903-1905. 
Washington. — Carnegie Instil ution. 

Year Book, II-IV. 1903-1904. 
Publications. No. 23, 24, 30, 49, 52. 

Library of Congress. 

Classification, Class Q. Science. Preliminary, July 1, 1905. 
Select list of recent purchases: Science (Report of Librarian, 1904). 
Report of librarian and superintendent of buildings and grounds. 

National Academy of Sciences. 

Biographical Memoirs. Vol. V. 1905. 

— Philosophical Society. 

Bulletin. Vol. XIV, pp. 233-246 ; 317-450. 1903-1906. 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Annual report, 19(>:{-1904. 

Special bulletin : Oceanic Ichthyology, by O. G. Brown. 1895. 

American hydroids. by C. C. Nutting. 190O, 1904. 

Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Annual report. XX. 190.".. 

Bulletin. No. 25, 28. 29, 32. 1903-1906. 

United States Deparlmrnt of Agriculture. 

Bureau of Plant Industry. Bulletin. No. XXXVIII ; LVII ; LIX : 

LXV : LXVIII ; LXXV. 1903-1905. 
Crop lleporter. Vol. VII. 12-VlII. 1-7. 1906. 
Library bulletin. No. 45-60. 19()3-l!H)6. 
Weather Bureau. Report. 1902-3 ; 1903-4 ; 1904. 

—Bulletin. No, XXIX, XXXIII. 19(»3. 

Bulletin M. 1904. 

Monthly list of publications. No. 535-546. 1906. 
Visitors' guide to exhibition of Bureau of Plant Industry at St. Louis. 

United States Ethnological Society. 

Publications. No. 1. 1905. 

United States (Uological Survey. 

Annual rep<.rt. XXI-XXIII : XXV: XXVI. 1902-1905. 

Bulletin. No. 205-265 ; 268-270 : 272-278 ; 280-285 ; 288 ; 290- 

293 ; 298 ; 3(»1. 1901-1906. 
Geological atlas of the United States. Fol. 87-l.'J5. 
Monographs. Vol. XXXII ; XLII-XLVII. 
Mineral resources of the Tnited States. 1902. 1903. 1904. 
Water-supply and Irrigation papers. Ncs. 65-160; 162-181; 186. 

Professional papers. No. 1-33 ; 35-37 ; 39-40 ; 43-45 ; 47-51 ; 55. 

Additions to the Library. xi 

Washington. — United States National Museum. 

Annual report. 1901 ; 1902 ; 1903. 

Bulletin. No. L. 3 ; LIU. 1 ; LIV ; LV. 1904-1906. 

Contributions from the United States national herbarium. Vol. 
VIII. 4 ; IX ; X. 1-2 ; XI. 1905-1906. 

Proceedings. Vol. XXV-XXVII ; XXIX-XXX. 1903-1905. 

Extracts. Nos. 900-901 ; 907-9 ; 918-22 ; 925 ; 927-30 

933-5; 937-44; 946; 948-9; 953-4; 959; 967; 969-71; 973 
076-7; 979-81; 984; 986; 988-93; 995-6; 998-9; 1000 
1002-6 ; 1009 ; 1012-14 ; 1016-17 ; 1019-23 ; 1029-31 ; 1033-5 
1043-5; 1(548-61; 1066-T2 ; 1074-84; 1086-91; 1093; 1095 
1097; 1099; 1100; 1103-7; 1112; 1117; 1121; 1126-9 
1131-2; 1134; 1130; 1145-52; 1155-6; 1158-9; 1161-4; 1205. 

Special bulletin. American hydroids. Pt. II. 1904. 
United States Naval Observataty. 

Publications. Second series. Vol. III. 5 ; IV. 1-3. 1903-1906. 

Report of the superintendent 1903-1005. 
WiLKSS-BABRfi. — Wyoming Historical and Ocological Society. 

Proceedings and collections. Vol. VIII-IX. 1904-1905. 
WoBCESTEH. — American Antiquarian Society. 

Proceedings. New series. Vol. XV. 3-XVlI. 3. 1903-1906. 

Salisbury memorial : a tribute from Yucatan. 1906. 

:iENS. — Soci4t4 Linnienne du Nord de la France. 
Bulletin. No. 333-368. 1901-1905. 
M^moires. Tome XI. 1904. 
Amstbroah. — Kon. Akademie van Wetenschappen. 
Jaarboek. 1902-1905. 
Verhandelingen. Afdeel. Natuurkunde. Sectie I, Deel VIII. 3-IX. 

3. Sectie II, Deel IX. 4-XlI. 1903-1906. 
Verslagen van de gewone vergaderingen van de wis- en natuurkundige 

afdeellng. Deel XI-XIV. 2. 1903-1906. 
Proceedings. Section of sciences. Vol. V-VIII. 2. 1903-1906. 

Kon. Zodloffisch Oenootschap. 

Bljdragen tot de dierkunde. Afl. 17-18. 1893-1904. 
Antwebpen. — Paedologisch jaarboek. V. 1904. 
AUGSBUBO. — Naturhisiorischer Verein fUr Schtcaben und Neuburg. Bericht. 

XXXVI. 1904. 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Report. Meeting. 1902, 1004. 
Basel. — Naturforschende Oestllschaft. 

Verhandlungen. Bd. XV-XVIII. 3. 1903-1906. 
Batavia. — Kon. Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch-IndiS. 
Natuurkundige tijdsschrift. Deel LXII-LXV. 1903-1906. 

R. Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory. 

Observations. Vol. XXV-XXVII. 1901-1004. 

Regenwaamemingen in Nederlandsch-Indi^. Jaarg. 1902, 1903, 
Bebgen. — Museum. 

Aarbog. 1902. I, III ; 1905, II, III. 

Aarsberetning. 1902-1905. 

Account of the Crustacea of Norway. By G. O. Sars. Vol. IV. 11- 

14 (in 2) ; V. 1-12. 1902-1906. 
Hydrographical and biological investigations in Norwegian fiords. By 
O. Nordgaard. 1905. 
Berlin. — K6n. Museum fUr Naturkunde. 

Mitteilungen aus der zoologiscben Sammlung. Bd. II-III. 2. 1903- 

Bericht. 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905. 
BOLOONA. — R. Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istitufo di Bologna. 
Rendlconto. N. S. Vol. V-VIII. 1900-1904. 

xii Additions to the Library. 

Bombay. — Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Journal. No. LIX-LX. 1904-1905 ; and extra number, 1905. 
Oovernment Ohaervatory. 

Magnetical and meteorological observations. 1900-01. 
Bonn. — yaiurhiatoriacher Veiein der preuasischcn Rheinlande, Weatfalens und 
d€8 Regierungs-Bezirks Oanahrilck. 

Verhandlungen. Jabrg. LIX. 2-LXII. 2. 1902-1905. 

Sitzungsberlchte der nlederrhelnlscben Gesellscbaft fUr Natur- und 
Hellkunde. 1903. 1-1905. 1. 
BoRDEArx. — Acad^mie Xationale des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts. 

Acts. Ann^. LXIII-LXVI. 1901-1904. 
8ociH€ des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles. 

M^moires. Tom. II-III. 1903-1904. 

Procfes-verbaux. Ann<^e. 1901. 2-1904. 5. 

Table g^n^raie, publications, 1850-1900. 1905. 
Commission M^tforologique de la Oironde. 

Observations pluvlom^trlques et thermom^trlques. Juln, 1904 k mal, 
1905. , 

Bremen. — yatuncissenschafth'cher Verein. 

Abhandlungon. Bd. XVII 1. 1-2. 1905-1906. 
Meteorologischcs Ohservatonvm. 

Deutsches meteorologischos Jahrbuch. Jabrg. XIII-XVI. 1902-1906. 
Breslau. — Schlesische Oesellschaft fiir vatcrliindische Cultur. 

Jahres-Berlcht. LXXX-LXXXIII. 1902-1905. 

Die Hudertjahrfeier u.s.w. 1904. 

Kestgabe von T. Schnbe. 1903. 
Brisbane. — Queensland Branch of the Royal Geographical Society of Austral- 

Queensland geograpblcal iournal. Vol. XVIII-XX. 1903-1905. 
BrOnn. — Naturforschender Verein. 

Verbandlungen. Vol. XL-XIJII. 1901-1904. 

Berlcht der meteorologlschen Commission. XX-XXIII. 1900-1905. 
Bruxelles. — Academic Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de 

M<^moIres. Tome LIV. 6. 1904. 

M<?molres de la classe des sciences. Vol. I. 1905. 

M^molres couronn^s et m^moires des savants etrangers. Tome LIX. 
4 ; LXI-LXII. 7. 190:i-l')04. 

M^moires courann^s et autres m^molres. Tome LXIII-LXVI. 

Bulletins. Classe des sciences. 1903-1906. 4. 

Annuaire. LXX-LXXII. 1904-1906. 
Mus^e Royal d'Histoire Xaturellc de Belgique. 

M^molres. Vol. I-II. 1903. 
Ohservatoire Royale de Belgique. 

Annuaire astronomique pour 1906. 

Annales astronomique. T. IX. 1, 1904 : nonv. s^r., T. III. 1, 1906. 
SociH6 Entomologique de Belgique. 

Annales. Tome X1,VI-XLIX. 1902-1006. 

Mf-moires. Vol. IX-XIV. 2. 1902-1006. 
Soci6t4 Royale Beige de Geographic. 

Bulletin. Ann^e XXVII-XXIX. 1903-1906. 

XXV e anniversalre. 1903. 
Socii'te Royale de Botanique. 

Bulletin. Vol. XI^XLII. 2. 1903-1905. 
Society Royale Zoologique et Malacologique de Belgique. 

Annales. Tome XXXVI-XL. 1902-1905. 
Bucarest. — Tnstitut mH^orologique de Roumanie. 

Annales. Tome XVI. 1900. 
Society des Sciences. 

Bulletin. Vol. XII-XVI. 4. 1903-1906. 

Additions to the Library, xiii 

BucABEST. — SociHaica Farmadstiior din Romania. 

Revlsta farmaclel. An. 17, Xos. 1-9. 1905. 
Budapest. — Koniylich Ungarische Reichsanstalt fiir Meteorologie und Erd- 

Bericht. 1902. 1903, 1904. 

Jahrbttcher. Jahrg. XXXI-XXXIII. 3. 1902-1903. 

PublicaUojien. «d. YI. 1904. 

Namen- und Sachreglster der Bibliothek des Observatoriums In 

6-Oyalla. 1902-1903. 
Bibliothek, Verzelchnlss erworbener BUcher. 1904 (3). 

8ociH6 Royale hongroise des sciences natureUes. 

Mathematische und naturwissenschaftliche Berlchte aus Ungarn. Bd. 
XVII-XX; XXIII. 1899-1905. 
BUEXOS AiBES. — Sociedad Cientiflca Argentina. 

Anales. LV. 3-6 ; LVI. 1-6, 10-11 ; LVII. 2-3, 5-7 ; LVIII-LXII. 1. 

Museo nacional. 

Anales. Ser. 3. Vol. II-V. 1903-1905. 

Direccidn General de Estadistica de la Provincia. 

Boletin mensual. Vol. III. 25, 29; IV. 30-39, 41-45; V. 48; VI. 

49-56, 58, 60 ; VII. 66-68. 
Demografia. 1899 ; 1901 ; 1902. 
Caen. — 8ociH6 Linn^enne dc yormandie. 

Bulletin. 5e s#r. Vol. VI-VIII. 1902-1905. 
M^molres. Vol. XXI. 1. 1902-1904. 
Calcutta. — Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Journal. Vol. LXXI, part 1, 2, and extra no. 2; LXXII-LXXIII, 

part III. 4. 1904. 
Proceedings. No. 11 extra: 1903-1904. 
Journal and proceedings. Vol. I. 1-10, and extra number ; II. 1-3. 

Memoirs. Vol. I. 1-9. 1906. 

Board of Scientific Advice. 

Annual report. 1902-3 ; 1904-5. 

Oeoloffical Survey of India. 

Palaeontologla Indlca. Ser. IX. Vol. III. 2 ; Ser. XV. Vol. I. 5 ; 

IV. 1 ; new ser., Vol. II. 2. 
Records. Vol. XXXI-XXXIV. 2. 1904-1906. 
Memoirs. Vol. XXX. 3-4; XXXIV. 3; XXXV. 2-3; XXXVI. 1. 

Geoeral report. 1902-3. 
Contents and index of Vols. 21-30 of the Records. 1903. 

Imperial Department of Agriculture. 

Annual report. 1904-5. 

Memoirs. Vol. I. 1. 1906. 

Memoirs. Botanical series. Vol. I. 1-4. 1906. 

Meteorological Department of the Qovernment of India. 

Indian meteorological memoirs. Vol. XIV ; XV. 1-3 ; XVI. 1-2 ; 

XVII ; XX. 1. 1903-1906. 
Monthly weather review. Dec, 1902, to April, 1906. 
Rainfall of India. 1902, 1903, 1904. 
Report on administration. 1902-3 to 1905-6. 
India Weather Review. Annual summary. 1904. 
Cambridge (England) . — Observatory. 
Annual report. 1904-5. 

Philosophical Society. 

Transactions. Vol. XIX. n-XX. 10. 1904-6. 
Proceedings. Vol. XII. 2-XIII. 6. 1903-1906. 
Catania. — Accademia Qioenia di Scirnze Xaturali. 

Attl. Ser. IV. Vol. XVI-XVIII. 1903-1906. 

Bolletino delle Sedute. Nuova serie. Fasc. 76-91. 1903-1900. 

xiv Additions to the Library. 

Catania. — Societd degli Spettroacopiati Italiani. 

Memorie. Vol. XXXII-XXXV. 8. 1903-1906. 
Chemnitz. — yaturtcisaenachaftUcJic QeselUchaft. 

Berlcht. XV. 1899-1003. 
Cherbourg. — Soci6H yaiionalc des Sciences yaturelles. 

M^moires. Tome XXXIII. 2; XXXIV. 1903-1904. 
Christiania. — Kong. Norske Inivcrsitet. 

Observatorlum. Publication. 1903. 

Norske Gradmaalingskommissioii. Vandstands-Observationer. VI. 
yoncegisches meteoroloffischea Inatitut. 

Jahrbuch. 1900-1004. 
Videnskahs SeUkabet. 

Forhandllnger. 1902-1905. 
Chdr. — yaturforschcnde Geaellschaft Graubiindens. 

Jahresberlcht. Neuo Folge. Bd. XLI-XLII. 1904-1905. 
Congrdt international de Botanique. 

Texte syDoptique des documents destines k servir de base aux d^bats 
sur les questions de nomenclature, par J. Briquet. Berlin, 1905. 
Copenhagen. — L^Acad^mie Koyale des Sciences et des Lettres de Danemark. 

Bulletin (Oversigt). 1905, no. 6 — 1906, no. 3. 
Cordoba. — Academia Nacional de Ciencias, 

Boletin. Tome XVII. 2-XVIII. 1. 1902-1905. 
Danzig. — yaturforschende Qesellschaft. 

Schriften. Neue Folge. Bd. XI. 1^. 1904-1906. 

Katalog der Bibliothek. Heft 1. 1904. 
Dijon. — Academic des Sciences, Arts et Belles Lettres. 

M^moires. S^r. IV. Tome IX. 1905. 
DoRPAT. — Oelehrt^ Estnische Qesellschaft. 

Sitzungsberichte. 1902-1905. 

Verhandlungen. Bd. XXI. 1-2. 1904. 
Naturforscher-Gescllschaft bei der Universitdt Dorpat. 

Archiv fiir die Naturkunde Liv-, Ehst- und Kuriands. Ser. II. Bd. 
XII. 2-XIII. 1. 1902-1906. 

Sitzungsberichte. Bd. XIII. 1; XIV. 1. 1902-4. 

Schriften. Bd. XI-XVI. 1902-1906. 
£cole R^ale. Station mdt^orologiquc. 

Observations. 1904. 1-5. 
Dresden. — yatuncissenschaftliche Gesellschaft Isis. 

Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen. 1904-1906, I. 
Verein fUr Erdkunde. 

Jahresberlcht. VI, XXVl-XXVII. 1898-1901. 

Mitgliedcrverzeichniss. 1904. 

Rich tor (P. E.), Litteratur der Landes- und Volkskunde des Kdnig- 
reichs Sachsen, Nachtrag 4. 1903. 

Mitteilungen. Heft 1905 ; 1906, 1. 

BUcher-Verzeichniss. 1905. 

Schneider (O.), Muschelgeld-studlen. 1905. 
Dublin. — Royal Dublin Society. 

Economic proceedings. Vol. I, 3-8. 1002-1906. 

Scientific proceedings. New ser. Vol. X. 1-2 ; XI. 1-12. 1903-1906. 

Scientific transactions. Ser. II. Vol. VII. 14-16; VIII. 1-2, 5-16; 
IX. 1-3. 1903-1906. 
Royal Irish Academy. 

Transactions. XXXII. A., 0-10 ; B., 2-4 ; C, 1-3 ; XXXIII, B., 1-2. 

Proceedings. Vol. XXIV-XXV; XXVI, B., 1-3; C, 1-4. 1904- 

Todd Lecture Series. Vol. XIII. 1906. 
Edinburgh. — Botanical Society. 

Transactions and proceedings. Vol. XXII-XXIII. 1. 1901-1905. 

Additions to the Library, xv 

Edinburgh. — Geological Society. 

Transactions. Vol. VIII. 2-8, and special part. 1903-1905. 
Royal Physical Society, 

Proceedings. Vol. XV. 1-XVI. 6. 1901-1905. 
Royal Society. 

Proceedings. Vol. XXIII-XXVI. 5. 1899-1906. 
Emden. — Naturforschende Oesellachaft. 

Jahresberlcht. LXXXVII-LXXXIX. 1901-2 to 1903-4. 
Erfurt. — K6n. Aktidemie gemeinniltziger Wissenschaften. 

Jahrbflcher. Neue Folge. Heft XXIX-XXXI. 1903-1905. 
FiRENZE. — Bihtioteca Vazionale Centrale. 

Bolletino delle pubblicazioni Itallane rlcevuto per dlritto dl stampa. 
N. S. no. 31, 56, 68. 1903-1906. 
Frankfurt a. M. — Deutsche Malakozoologische Gesellschaft. 

Nachrlchtsblatt. .Tahrg. XXXIV. 5-12 ; XXXVI. 1-4 ; XXXVII. 1- 
4 ; XXXVIII. 4. 1903-1906. 
Senokenhergiache Naturforschende GeaellacJiaft. 

Abhandlungen. Bd. XX. 4; XXV. 4; XXVII. 2-4; XXIX. 1 ; 
XXX. 1. 1903-1905. 

Berlcht. 1903, 1904, 1905. 
Frankfurt a. O. — Natunoisaenschaftlicher Verein dca Regierungshezirka 

Helios. Abhandlungen und monatllche Mitthellungen. Jahrg. XX- 
XXIII. 1903-1906. 
Freiburg i. B. — NaturforacJiende Oesellachaft. 

Berlchte. Bd. XIII-XIV ; XVI. 1903-1906. 
Geneve. — Inatitut National Oencvoia. 

Bulletin. Tome XXXVI. 1905. 
Soci6t6 de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle. 

M^moires. Tome XXXV. 1-2. 1904-1906. 
Genova. — Museo Civlco dl Storia Naturale. 

Annali. Tom. XLl. 1904-5. 
Gi ESSEN. — Oherhessische Gesellschaft fUr A'ofur- und Heilkunde. 

Berlcht. XXXIV; Neue Folge, medizinlsche Abtellung, Bd. I. 1903- 
Glasgow. — Philosophical Sdciety. 

Proceedings. Vol. XXXIV-XXXVI. 1903-1005. 
Natural Iliatory Society. 

Transactions. New ser. Vol. VI. 3-VII. 2. 1001-1904. 
GOrlitz. — Naturforachende Gesellschaft. 

Abhandlungen. Bd. XXIV-XXV. 1. 1904-1906. 
GOteborg. — Kon. Vetenskaps och Vitterhets Samhdlle. 

Handllngar. 4de foij. Hjift. V-VI. 1903. 
GOttingen. — Kdn. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 

Nachrlchten. Pbilosophlsch-historlsche Klasse. 1903, 4-1906, 2 und 

Mathematlsch-physlsche Klasse. 1903 ; 1905, 5. 

Geschaftllche Mitthellungen. 1903, 1-2, 5 ; 1904, 1-3 ; 1905, 

1-2 ; 1906, 1. 
GOSTROW. — Verein der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg. 

Archlv. Jahrg. LVI-LX. 1. 1902-1906. 
Haarlem. — Mus^e Teyler. 

Archives. S€r. II. Vol. VIII. 3-5 ; IX. 1-4 ; X. 1-2. 1903-1906. 

Catalogue de la biblloth^ue. III. 1904. 
Soci4t6 Hollandaise des Sciences. 

Archives n^erlandaises. S^r. II. Tom. VIII. 2-XI. 5. 1903-1906. 
Habana. — Real Coleglo dc Bclen. 

Observaclones meteorologicas y magnetlcas. 1881-1884; 1902-1905; 

Las dlferentes corrlentes de la atmosfera en el cielo de la Habana, 
por el P. L. Gangoltl, S. J. Dec, 1904. 

xvi Additions to the Library, 

Habana. — Real Colegio de Helen: 

Gutierrez-Lanza, M. Apuntos historlcos. 1904. 

Perturbaclon ciclonlca. Oct., 1904. 1905. 
Halifax. — 2iova Scotian Institute of Natural Science. 

Proceedings and transactions. Vol. XI. 1. 1902-1903. 
Department of MineSy yova Scotia. 

Report. 1905. 
Halle a. S. — Kais. Leopoldiniach-CaroUniachc deutache Akademie der Xatur- 

Nova acta. Bd. LXXXI. 1 ; LXXXIV. 3. 1906. 

Leopoldlna. Heft XXXIX-XLI. 1902-1905. 
Naturforschende Oesellschaft. 

Abhandlungen. Bd. XXIV. 1906. 
Hamburg. — Deutsche Seewarte. 

Aus dem ArchlT. Jahrg. XXV-XXIX. 1. 1902-1906. 

Ergebnisse der meteorologlscben Beobachtungen, 1896-1900. 1904. 

Katalog der BIbllothek. Nachtrag IV-VI. 1903-1905. 

Deutsches meteorologlsches Jahrbuch. Jahrg. XXV-XXVII. 1902- 
NaturwissenschaftHcher Verein. 

Abhandlungen. Bd. XVIII-XIX. 1903-1904. 

Verhandlungen. 3te Folge. X-XI ; XIII. 1903-1905. 
Hannover. — Na turhistorisch c Qescllschaft. 

Jahresberlcht. L-LIV. 1899-1904. 
Le Havre. — 8oci^t€ Oiolopique de Normandie. 

Bulletin. Tome XXII-XXV. 1902-1906. 
Helsinqfors. — Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. 

Acta. Vol. 21-26. 1901-1904. 

Meddelanden. Vol. 28 (1-2) ; 30. 1902^. 
Societas Scientiarum Fennica. 

Oferslgt af forhandllngar. XLIV-XLVI. 1902-1904. 

Observations publics par rinstitut M6t^rologique Central. 1891-2 ; 
1893-4; vol. XVI-XX (1895-1906). 

The same : liftat des glaces et des nelges. 1892-3 to 1894-5 ; 
Societas Scientiarum Fennica. 

Acta. Tom. XXV. 1 ; XXVIII-XXXI. 1899-1903. 

Bidrag till kUnnedom af Flnlands natur och folk. Hftft. 61-62. 
Hermannstadt. — Siehenhiirgischer Verein fur Naturicissenschaften. 

Verhandlungen und Mitthellungen. Bd. LII-LIV. 1902-1904. 
HoBART. — Royal Society of Tasmania. 

Papers and Proceedings. 1808-9 to 1902. 1900-1903. 
Kasan. — Ohservatoire m6t^oroloffique. 

Bulletins. June, 1902-Feb., 1903. 
8oci^t6 Physico-matlUmatique de VUniversit6 Impiriale. 

Bulletin. S^r. II. Tome XI-XV. 1. 1902-1905. 
Kharkov. — Soci^t^ des sciences physico-chimiques. 

Travaux. XXVIII-XXXII. 1900-1904. 

Supplements, Fasc. 8-10. 1897-1904. 

Kiel. — Kon. Christian Alhrechts-Unii ersitat. 

Schriften. 1902-3; 1903-4. 

92 dissertations. lOOn. 
yaturicissenschaftlicher Verein fUr Schlestrig-IIolstein. 

Schriften. Bd. XII. 2 ; XIII. 1 ; Register, Bd. I-XII. 1904. 
Kiev. — Soci^te des yatnralistes. 

M^moires. Tomes XVII. 2-XX. 1. 1902-1906. 
Kjobeniiavx. — Kon. Danske Videnskabernes Selskah. 

Overslgt over forhandlinger. 1903-1905, 5. 
Naturhistorisk Forening. 

Videnskabellge meddel ser. Aaret 1903-1905. 

Additions to the Library, xvii 

Klausbnburo. — Koloz8vdri magyar Kirdlyi Ferencz Jdzaef tudomdnyegyetem. 

Annales. 1905-1906. 
KODAI kAnaIj. — O hterva tory. 

Bulletin. No. 1-6. 1904-1906. 

Annual report. 1905. 

KOnigsbero. — KOnigl. phyaikalisch-okonomiache Oesellschaft. 

Schrlften. Jahrg. XLIII-XLVI. 1902-1905. 
Krakow. — K. K. Stemwarte. 

Materyaly do klimatograftl Galicyl. Rok 1003. 

Meteorologiscbe Beobacbtungen, Mai, 1905 bis Sept., 1906. 
Akademija Vmiejetnosci. 

Komisya flzyjograflczna. Materyay zebrane przez. Seltcye meteor- 
ologiczna w roku 1904. (Spraw. Kom. flzyogr. T. 39.) 

Kyoto. — College of Science and Engineering, Imperial University. 

Memoirs. Vol. I. 1-2. 1903-1905. 
IjA Plata. — Universidad. 

Facultad de ciencias flslco-matematicas. Publlcaciones. No. 2. 1904. 
La Roch£LLE. — Acad6mic. Soci€i6 des Sciences Naturelles. 

Annales. No. 34. 1902-1905. 
SociH6 de» Sciences Haturelles de la Charentc Inf^rieure. 

Annales. 1902. 
Lausanxk. — Soci6t4 Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. 

Bulletin. 5e s^r. Vol. XLI, no. 146-XLII, no. 155. 1905-1906. 
Leiden. — Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging. 

Tijdschrift. Ser. II. Deel VIII. 1^; IX. X. 1-2. 1903-1906. 

Aanwinsten van die bibliotheek, 1 Jan.-Sl Dec, 1004. 

Catalogus der bibliotheek, 4 uitgave; 1 vervolg. 1904. 

Versiag. 1902-1904. 
Leipzig. — FUrstl. JablonoicskVsche Oesellschaft. 

Jahresbericht. 1906. 
K6n. Sdchsische Oesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 

Berichte. Mathematisch-physische Klasse. Bd. LI, math. Theil 
I-II ; LIV. 6-LVII. 1898-1906. 
Yerein fUr Erdkunde. 

Mittheilungen. 1902 ; 1903, 1 ; 1904 ; 1905. 

Wissenschaftliche Veroffentlichungen. Bd. VI. 1904. 
Lemberg. — SevcenkO'Oesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 

Chronik. 1903, 1-2, 6 ; 1904-1906, 2. 

Sammeischrift der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlich-tlrztlichen 
Section. Bd. X. 1905. 
LifcGE. — Soci6t€ Roy ale des Sciences. 

M^moires. S^r. III. Tom. V. 1904-1905. 
Lima. — Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru. 

Boletin. No. 3-43. 1903-1906. 

Memoria. 1904-1905. 
LiSBOA. — Sodedade de Oeographia. 

Boletim. Serle XX. 1-6; XXI. 2-XXIV. 8. 1903-1906. 
Real Ohservatorio Astronomico. 

Two pamphlets. 1904. 
Llinas (Barcelona). — Ohservatorio Belloch. 

Observaciones meteor61ogicas. July, 1902-December, 1903. 
London. — Geological Society. 

Quarterly Journal. LIX-LXII. 1003-1906. 

List. 1904; 1905; 1906. 

Geological literature added to the library. 1002, 1904, 1005. 
Linnean Society. 

Journal. Zoology. No. 187-190. 1903-1904. 

Botany. No. 246, 247, 252, 257, 262. 

Proceedings. 1902-1906. 

List. 1903-4 to 1906-7. 

xviii Additions to the Library, 

L02n>03f. — yational Physical Laboratory. 

Report. 1902, 1903. 
Royal Society. 

Philosophical transaction b. Vol. CXCV-CCV. 

Year-book. 1904. 

Reports to the evolution committee. II. 1905. 

Obituary notices of Fellows. Parts 1-3. 1904. 

Reports of the sleeping sickness commission. I, YI. 1903-1905. 

Report on Ceylon pearl oyster fisheries, by W. A. Herdman. I-IV. 
LouvAiN. — La Cellule. Tome XX. 2-XXII. 2. 1903-1904. 
LuifD. — Kongl. Carolinska Unirersitet. 

Acta. Tome XXXVII-XL. N. F. 2. 1. 1901-1905. 

Bibiioteks Arsberftttelse. 1904. 

Fran Filologiska F§reningen, Sprakliga Uppsatser. I-III. 1897- 

^ 1906. 

Odmanska donationen till, Fdrtechning 5fver dess Psykiatrisk-Neuf- 
ologiska del. 1906. 
Luxembourg. — Institut Orand-Ducal. 

Publications. Section des sciences naturelles, physiques et math^ 

matiques. Tome XXVII. B. 1904. 

Archives trimestr. Fasc I, II. 1006. 
Lyon. — Acadimie des Sciences, Belles-Lettrcs et Arts. 

M^moires. Sciences et lettres. 3e s^r. Tome VI I- VII I. 1903-1905. 
Soci^t6 d* Agriculture, Sciences et Industrie. 

Annales. 1905. 
Madras. — Oovemment Observatory. 

Report. 1903; 1904. 
Madrid. — Comisidn del Mapa Geoldyico dc Espaiia. 

Explicaci6n del mapa geol6gico de Espaiia. Por L. Mallada. Tom. 
V. 1904. 
Observatorio Astronomico. 

Observaclones meteroldgicas. 1900-01 ; 1904. 

Memorla sobre el eclipse de sol. 1904. 

Instruci^nes para observar el eclipse de sol. 1905. 
Manchester, England. — Literary and Philosophical Society. 

Memoirs and proceedings. Ser. IV. Vol. XLVII. 3-L. 3. 1902-1906. 
Marburg. — Oesellschaft zur Beforderung der gesammten Naturtcissenschaften, 

Sitzungsberichte. Jahrg. 1902-1905. 
Melbourne. — Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria. 

Catalogue of current periodicals. 1905. 

Memoirs, National Museum. No. 1. 1906. 

Armstrong, E. LaT. Book of the Public Library, Museums and 
National Gallery of Victoria, 1856-1906. Melbourne, 1906. 

President's address on opening exhibition of . . . Books. 1906. 

Catalogue of exhibition of books, etc., 1906. 
Metz. — Academic. 

M^moires. 3e s^r. Ann^ XXIX-XXXIII. 1899-1004. 
Mexico. — Academia Mexicana de Cicncias. 

Anales. Vol. I. 1-2. 1903. 
Instituto Qeoldgico de Mexico. 

Boletin. No. 20-21. 1905-1906. 

Parergones. Tomo I. 1-10. 1903-1906. 
Instituto Medico yacional. 

Anales. Tomo V. 6-7 : VI-VIII. 1. 1902-1906. 
Observatorio Met€orol6gico Central. 

Boletin mensual. 1902, no. 2-11 ; 1904, 5-6. 
Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alrate." 

Memorlas y revista. Tomo XIII. 7-10; XIV-XVIII ; XIX. 6-12; 
XX-XXIII. 4. 1902-1906. 

Additions to the Library, xix 

Mexico. — Sociedad MexUsana de Eiatoria Natural, 

La naturaleza. Ser. II. Tomo III. 5-10. 1900-1901. 
MiDDELBURO. — Zeeutosch Oenootachap der Wetenacfutppen. 

Archlef. 1903, 1904, 1905. 

Fokker, M. Proeve van eene lljst bevattende de vroegere namen der 
huizen In Mlddelburg. 1904. 

Zelandla illustrata. Vervolg. 3-4. 1902-1905. 
MiLANO. — Real Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere. 

Rendlconto. Serie II. Vol. XXXVI. 6-XXXIX. 16. 1902-1906. 
Reale Oaservatorio di Brer a. 

Pubbllcazloni. XL. 1; XLII. 1902-1903. 

Riassunto delle osservazioni meteorologiche. 1902, 1903. 
Sooietd Italiana di Scienze Xaturali. 

Attl. XLII-XLIV ; XLV. 1-2. 

Elenco del Soci, 1st. Sclent. Corrlspondentl, Indlce Generale. 1906. 
MoDENA. — Regia Accademia delle Scienze^ Lettere ed Arti. 

Memorie. Serie III. Tom. IV-V. 1902-1906. 
MoNS. — 8oci4t6 d€8 Sciences, des Arts et dee Lettres du Hainaut. 

Catalogue des Ilvres de la biblloth&que. 18S2. 

Bulletin des sciences. 1864-1865. 

M^moires et publications. St^r. Ill, Tom. 4-10. 1870-1875 ; S^r. IV, 
Tom. 1-2, 4-10. 1875-1887 ; S^r. V, Tom. 1-6, 8-9. 1888-1897 ; 
S^r. VI, Tom. 1-4. 1899-1903. 
Mont Blanc. — Observatoire M€t4orologique. 

Annales. Tome VI. 1005. 
Montevideo. — Muaeo Nacional. 

Anales. Tomo IV. 2 ; V ; Serie II, Entrega 1-2. 1903-1905. 
Obaervatorio Metcorolopico del Colegio Plo de Villa Col6n. 

Boletin mensual. Ano XIV. 1-2. 1904-1905. 

Observatorio Meteoroloyico Municipal. 

Annuario. 1901-1904. 

Boletfn. 1903-1905. 
Montpellier. — Academic des Sciences et Lettres. 

M^moires. Section des lettres. S^r. II, Tome IV. 2, 4. 1904. 

Section des sciences. S6r. II, Tome III. 3-4. 1904. 

Section de mMecine. S€r. II, Tome II. 1-2. 1905. 

Montreal. — McOill Universitp. 

Papers from the Department of Classics. No. 1. 1906. 

Chemistry and Mineralog}% Nos. 1-5. 1906. 

-Engineering. No. 9. 1906. 
-Geology. No. 1-16, 21. 1904-1906. 
-Zoology. No. 1-3. 1906. 

Moscou. — K. Vniversitdt, Meteorologischcs Observatorium. 

Beobachtungen. 1902. 

Meteorologische Beobachtungen. 1901-1903. 
Boci€t^ Imp^riale des Naturalistes. 

Bulletin. Ann^e 1902-1905. 
MCnchen. — K6n. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 

Sltzungsberichte. Philosophisch-philologisch und historische Classe. 
1902, III-1905, I. 

Mathematlsch-physikallsche Classe. 1903, I ; 1904, I ; 1905„ 

KSnigl. bayerische Hof- und Staatsbibliothek. 

Catalogus codicum MSS. III. 1-2. 1892-1894. 
Nancy. — Academic de Stanislas. 

M^molres. 5e s^r.. Tome XX ; 6e s^r.. Tome I-III. 1903-1006. 
Napoli. — R. Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche. 

Attl. Serie IL Vol. XII. 1906. 

Indlce del lavori pubblicati dai 1737-1903. 1904. 

Rendlconto. Ser. III. Vol. IX. 3-XII. 4. 1004-1006. 

XX Additions to the Library. 

Napoli. — R. Accademia di Scienze Morali e Politiche. 

Atti. Vol. XXXIV-XXXVI. 1903-1906. 

Rendiconto. Anno 1901-1905. 
R. latituto d'Incoraggiamento alle Scienze Naturali, etc. 

Atti. Ser. V, Vol. V ; Ser. VI, Vol. LVI. 1904. 
R. Universitd. 

Annuario del Museo Zoologico. N. S. Vol. I, num. 1-35. 
NecchAtel. — Soci^H Neuchateloise des Sciences Naturelles. 

Bulletin. Tomes XXVIII-XXXII. 1900-1904. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. — North of England Institute of Mining and Mechani- 
cal Engineers. 

Report on mechanical coal-cutting. 1-2. 1903-1905. 

Transactions. Vol. LI. 6-7 ; LII. 5-8 ; LIII. 1 ; LIV. 1-6, 8 ; LV. 
1-5, 7 ; LVI. 1-3. 

Subject-matter index of mining, mechanical and metallurgical litera- 
ture for 1901. 

Annual report of the council. 1903 ; 1904 ; 1905-6. 
NDbnberg. — NaturhistoHsche Oesellschaft. 

Abhandlungen. Bd. XV. 1-3. 1903-1906. 

Jahresbericht. 1904. 
Odessa. — Bociit6 des Naturalistes de la Nouvelle Russie. 

Zapiskl. Tom. XX ; XXIV. 2-XXIX. 1902-1906. 
University Imp6ria1e. 

Revue m^t^rologique. Vol. VI-VII. 1903. 
Ottawa. — Department of the Interior. 

Relief map of the Dominion. 1904. 

Resource map of the Dominion of Canada. 1905. 

Maps : Windsor sheet, 1904 ; Ontario, London and Hamilton sheets, 
1904. Mounted police stations, 1904 ; Exploration No., Canada, 
Geological Survey of Canada. 

Annual report. New series. XII-XV. 1899 to 1902-3. 

Catalogue of Canadian Birds. Parts II-III. 1903-1904. 

Altitudes in Canada. 1901. 

Geological map of the Dominion of Canada. Sheets Nos. 42-48 ; 
Meteorological Service of the Dominion of Canada. 

Report. 1903. 
Oxford. — Radcliffe Library. 

Catalogue of books added. 1903 ; 1904 ; 1905. 
• Radcliffe Observatory. 

Catalogue of 1772 Stars, by A. A. Arthur. 1906. 
Palermo. — R. Accademia di Scienze, Lettere e Belle Arti. 

Bulletin©. Annl 1899-1902. 
Societd di Scienze Naturali ed Economiche. 

Giornale. Vol. XXIV-XXV. 1904-1905. 
Paris. — Ecole Poly technique. 

Journal. 2e s^r. Cahier VIII-X. 1903-1905. 
Mus6e Ouimet. 

Annales. Tome XXX. 3. 1903. 

Biblioth^que des etudes. Tome XI-XII ; XV-XVIII ; XX. 


Revue de Ihistoire des religions. Tome XLVI. 3-LIV. 1. 1902-1906. 

Jub\\6. 1904. 
Museum d'Histoire yaiurellc. 

Bulletin. Ann^e 1903, 1-C, 8 ; 1904, 1-8 ; 1905. 1-6 ; 1906, 1-5. 
Observatoire yntional. 

Rapport annuel. 1902-1904. 

-SociCtv Zoologique de France. 

Bulletin. Tome XXVIII-XXX. 1904-1906. 

M^moires. Tome XV-XVII. 1903-1904. 

Tables du Bulletin et des M^molres (1876-1895). 1905. 

Additions to the Library, xxi 

Penzance. — Royal Geological Society of Comtcall. 

Transactions. Vol. XII. 8-9. 1903-1904. 
Pernambcco. — Inatitiito Archeologico e Qcographico. 

Bevista. Vol. X. 58. 1903. 
Perth. — Geological Survey of Western Australia. 

Bulletin, tt-9, 11-13, 15-18. 20-22. 1902-1906. 
Pisa. — Societd To8cana di Science yaturali. 

Memorie. Tom. XIX-XXI. 1903-1905. 

Processl verball. Tom. XIII, pp. 153-191; XIV. 1-10; XV. 1-5. 
Potsdam. — A strophyaika Uifchcs O hscrva toriu m. 

Publikatlonen. Bd. XIV-XV. 6 ; XVIII. 1. 1903-1906. 

Photographische Uimmclskarte. Bd. III. 1903. 
Prao. — K6n. homische Gcsellschaft der Wissenachaflcn. 

Sitzungsberichte der mathemathisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe 

Jahresbericht. 1902, 1903, 1905. 

Cesk^ Spolecnosti Entomologick^. Casopis. I. 1-4. 1904. 

General Register der Schriftcn. 1884-1904. 
»— IC. K. Stemwarte. 

Magnetische und meteorologische Beobachtungen. Jahrg. LXllI- 
LXV. 1902-1905. 
Export-Verein fUr Bohmcn, Mahren und Schlcsicn. 

Jahresbericht. 1905. 
PcsA- — Agricultural Research Institute. 

Agricultural Journal of India. Vol. I. 1. 1906. 
Quebec. — Literary and Historical Society. 

Transactions. No. XXV-XXVI. 1905. 

Historical Documents. 7th Series. 1905. 
Reobnsburg. — NaturvHsscnschaftlicher Verein. • 

Berichte. Ileft IX-X und Beilage. 1001-1904. 
Historischer Verein von Oberpfalz und Kegensburg. 

Verhandlungen. Bd. LIV-LVI. 1902-1904. 
R lOA. — Naturforscher-Vertin. 

Korrespondenzblatt. Jahrg. XLVI-XLVIII. 1903-1905. 
Rio de Janeiro. — Museo Jk'acional. 

Archives. Vol. XI-XII. 1901-1903. 
Roma. — Accademia Pontifica de'Nuovi Lincei. 

Attl. Anno LVI-LIX. 3. 1903-1906. 
Reale Acciidemia dei Lincei. 

Atti. Serie V. Rendiconti. Classe di scienze flsiche, matematiche e 
naturali. Vol. XII-XV. 1903-1906. 

Rendiconto deiradunanssa solenne. 1903-1906. 
Reale Comitato Gcologico d' Italia. 

Bolletlno. Vol. XXXIII. 4-XXXVII. 2. 1002-1906. 

Corpo reale delle minlere. Catalogo della mostra fatta all'Espozlone 
dl St. Louis. 1004. 
Societd Italiana delle Scienze. 

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!• — The Hawaiian Hepatic^ of the Tribe TRiGONANTHEiB. 

By C. M. Cooke, Jr. 

The tribe Trigonanthefie is represented in the Hawaiian Islands 
by twenty-tive species belonging to six of the twenty-six genera 
enumerated by Schiffner and by a single species of the genus Aero- 
niasHgum recently proposed by Evans. None of the peculiar genera, 
such as Protocephalaziay Pteropsiellay Jft/tilopsis, Arachniopsis, 
etc., found in tropical America by Spruce, have representatives 
among the Hawaiian members of this tribe. The genera represented 
are Lepidozia (three species), Acroniastigum (one species), JBazzaniq, 
(ten species), Kantia (four species), Odo?itoschisma (three species), 
and Cephalozia including Cephaloziella (five species). 

Of the twenty-six species seven are unpublished — one in Lepi- 
doziOy two in Bazzania, and four in Cephalozia, Three of the last 
belong to the subgenus Cephaloziella and one to the subgenus 
JEhicephalozia. No species of Cephaloziella have before been 
reported from the Hawaiian Islands. 

A large number of the Hawaiian Trigonan these are related to 
North American and West Indian species and apparently not so 
many to East Indian, Asiatic, or South Pacific species. Some of 
the Hawaiian species related to North American and European 
Kpecies are : Lepidozia australis to X. reptanSy L. Uawaica to 
L. setacea, Bazzania Baldwinii to B, triangularis^ Kantia hifurca 
lo K. SuUivantii, Odontoschisma Sandvice7}se to O. Sphaguiy and 
Cephalozia Baldwinii to C. leucantha. Two of those related to 
West Indian species are: Lepidozia Sandvicensis to L, commutata, 
and Bazzania patents to Mastigobryum Cubense, Cephalozia 
Kilohanensis is closely related to C. exiliflora^ of New Zealand, 
Bazzania emarginata is very close to B, fallax^ of the East Indies, 
and Kantia Tosana is found in Japan. 

The larger species of Bazzania are very conspicuous in the woods 
and on the higher mountain-ridges. They form large mats on the 
ground, sometimes many feet in diameter, and also cover the trees 
along with other bryophytes. The writer has only collected on the 
islands of Oahu and the lower ridges of Kauai. Undoubtedly the 
high mountain ranges of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai and Kauai offer a 
very rich field for the hepaticologist, especially in the smaller forms. 
The conditions are most favorable for the growth of hepatics. 

Traks. Coww. Acad., Vol. XII. 1 May, 1904. 

2 (7. M. Cooke, Jr. — The Hawaiian Hepaticce 

The writer acknowledges his greatest thanks to Dr. A. W. Evans 
for his kind help in the preparation of this paper and for the use of 
material from the herbarium of Yale University, including several 
type-specimens sent by Herr F. Stephani and Mr. W. H. Pearson. 
Much thanks is also due Mr. D. D. Baldwin, of the Hawaiian 
Islands, for specimens of all the hepatics which he has collected. 

The descriptions of the tribe and of the different genera are 
largely based on those of Spruce in his " Hepaticse of the Amazon 
and Andes" and in his paper " On Cephalozia." 

The tribe Trigonantheae is a fairly natural one, and was first pro- 
posed by Spruce.^ It is characterized by the trigonous perianth 
(except in Kantia and Marsupidium)^ which is usually borne 
on a short postical, specialized branch (rarely on a main branch or 
on the stem). This perianth is flattened anlically and in every cas^ 
there is a more or less pronounced postical keel, although apparent 
exceptions are found in certain species of Cephaloziella, where many 
of the perianths bear from one to three supplementary keels. In the 
tribe Epigonianthese the third keel is antical, while in the Scapani- 
eaB and the Raduleae the perianth is often so flattened that the 
upper and lower surfaces are in contact. In Kantia and Maraupi- 
dium the place of the perianth is taken by a large cylindrical 
perigynium. Kantia is distinguished from other saccate genera 
by its incubous leaves, but in the position of the sterile 
archegonia it agrees with Acrobolbus, a member of the £pigoni- 
anthesB. In both these genera the calyptra is adnate (about three- 
fourths) with the perigynium and is crowned at the top by the 
sterile archegonia. In Marsupidium, which agrees with Adeloeolea 
in its vegetative characters, the sterile archegonia surround the 
mouth of the perigynium; this condition finds its counterpart in 
7)/limant/iU8, another member of the Epigonianthese. 

The plants of the Trigonantheae vary greatly in size and also in 
color, being green, yellow, brown, white or sometimes reddish. The 
stems are simple or variously branched. In some genera the vegeta- 
tive branches are lateral, while the specialized postical branches bear 
the 6 or $ organs or else are reduced to flagella. In other genera 
all the branches are postical, while in Anomoclada the vegetative 
and sexual branches are antical and the flagella are postical. The 
lateral branches are commonly exogenous in origin, while the postical 
branches are usually endogenous and are axillary to the underleaves 
whenever the latter are present. In the genus Acromastigum, how- 

On Cephalozia. 1882. 

of the Tribe IVigonantheoe, 3 

ever, the postical branches are exogenous in origin and are borne 
at the side of a reduced underleaf. The branching of Cephaloziella 
approaches that of some of the Epigonianthese. 

Leaves are always present, though sometimes restricted to the 
sexual branches. They are usually alternate, rarely opposite, and 
are incubous, succubous or transverse. They exhibit various forms, 
being sometimes undivided and sometimes deeply parted, while their 
margins are entire or denticulate. The leaf -cells vary considerably 
in size in the different species and their walls are variable in thick- 
ness. Trigones may usually be demonstrated and are sometimes 
very large. Underleaves are usually present, though absent in cer- 
tain species ; they are minute to very large, in Lepidozia and Aero- 
mastigum being nearly equal in size to the leaves. 

The inflorescence is usually dioicous, but is sometimes autoicous, 
and rarely paroicous or heteroicous. The $ bracts are tristicous in 
two to six series; they are broadly to narrowly ovate, deeply bifid 
to quadrifid and are usually larger than the leaves ; sometimes they 
are highly connate with the bracteoles. The apex of the perianth is 
somewhat constricted, and the mouth is entire, dentate, ciliate or 
laciniate. The calyptra is pyriform and sometimes fleshy. The 
capsule is subglobose to subcylindrical, borne on a short or long 
stalk, four-valved to the base, two to five cells thick, the innermost 
cells being armed with semiannular thickenings.' The spores are 
minute, round, and smooth or verruculose. The androecium is most 
often a short postical branch, but is sometimes terminal or intercalary 
on a leafy branch or on the main stem. The bracts are usually orbic- 
ular to ovate, closely imbricated, sometimes subcom plicate. The 
antheridia are usually solitary, but in certain species of Bazzania 
occur in pairs. 

Key to the Hawaiian Genera of the Trigonanthece. 

Vegetative and specialized branches usually postical (sometimes lateral in 
Perianth present ; leaves succubous or transversely inserted. 

Leaves succubous, undivided. Odontoschisma. 

Leaves succubous or transversely inserted, bilobed. Cephalozia, 

Perianth lacking, sporophyte developing instead within a cylindrical peri- 
gynium ; leaves incubous. Kantia. 

Vegetative branches usually lateral, specialized branches postical. 

Stems pinnately branched, often plumiform, in a few species bearing 
postical, endogenous flagella ; leaves deeply lobed or parted ; under- 
leaves nearly as large as leaves. Lepidozia, 

4 C. M. CookCy Jr, — The Hawaiian Hepaticm 

Stems sparingly branched, postical flagella exogenous ; leaves trans- 
versely inserted, undivided; underleaves similar to leaves but slightly 
smaller. Acromastigum. 

Stems pinnate or falsely dichotomous, postical flagella endogenous ; 
leaves subfalcate, usually tridentate at the apex, rarely entire, biden- 
tate or quadridentate ; underleaves smaller than leases. Bazzania, 

Lepidozia Dumort., 1835. 

Plants rather large or rarely small, pale or yellow-green, rarely 
bright green, densely caespitose, in depressed, rarely erect or pendu- 
lous mats : stems usually strong, plumose, pinnately or bipinnately 
branched ; leafy branches as a rule lateral, more or less curved down- 
wards, sometimes attenuated and rooting at the apex ; in small species, 
chiefly, postical branches present, which are normally leafy or fre- 
quently reduced to radicelliferous flagella : leaves incubous, small or 
minute, often broader than long, obliquely or transversely inserted, 
the antical margin longer and more rounded than the postical, 
decurved-convex or fornicate, usually 4-lobed or parted, rarely 2-, 
3-, 5- or 6-lobed, lobes subulate, either entire or bearing at the antical 
base a few teeth, sometimes the whole margin dentate : cells small 
or minute, quadrate-hexagonal or oblong-quadrate, elongated at the 
base of the leaves, scarcely thickened at the corners : underleaves 
similar to leaves but smaller: dioicous or monoicous: $ inflorescence 
borne on a short postical branch from the main stem, rarely from a 
branch ; bracts in 3 to 5 rows, appressed, concave, much larger 
than the stem-leaves, apex 2- to 4-lobed, margin denticulate to 
spinose ; archegonia 20 oi* less, the sterile persisting at or near the 
base of the calyptra ; perianth elongated, ovoid to narrowly 
fusiform, obtusely trigonous above, fleshy or unistratose, mouth 
entire, denticulate or ciliate-laciniate ; calyptra one-half to one- 
quarter as long, pyriform or oblong, fleshy at the base : capsule 
oblong-cylindrical, 4-valved to the base, cells of outer layer fur- 
nished with parietal columns, innermost layer with semiannular 
thickenings ; claters slender, bispiral ; spores minute, smooth or ver- 
ruculosc : andni'cium usually occupying a small postical branch, 
rarely terminal on a lateral branch ; bracts in 5 to 10 pairs, suborbic- 
ular, concave, ai)ex: bidentate ; bracleoles about half as large as 
bracts : antberidia borne singly. 

Leaves obliquely inserted, 0.45"""x0.35°'"^ L, australis. 

Leaves transversely inserted, less than 0.4o"'™x0.35"'™. 

Plants large ; leaves 0.8'""'x0.4"'", closely appressed to stem. 

L. Sandvicensis. 

Plants small ; leaves 0.13°""x0.05'"'", slightly spreading. L, Hatoaioa. 

of the Tribe Tiigonanthem. 

SabgenuB Eiilepidozia Spmce, 1876. 

Plants rather large, csespitose, pinnate, more or less plumose : 
leafy branches nearly always lateral, in a few species rarely postical 
and flagelliform : leaves incubous, quadrifid about one-half : perianth 
fleshy, 2 to 4 cells thick, mouth subentire or denticulate, rarely 

Lepidozia aiistralis (Lebm. & Lindenb.) Mitt. 

Jungermannia australis Lebm. & Lindenb., Pug., vi, 28, 1834. 

Lepidozia reptans australis G. L. & N., Syn. Hep., 205, 1845. Lindenb. & 

Gottscbe, Sp. Hep., vi, 32, pi. V, tigs. 18-23, 1846. 
Lepidozia triceps Tayl., Lond. Joum. Bot., v, 369, 1846. 
Lepidozia australis Mitt.; Seemann, Flora Vitiensis, 406. 1871. 
Mastigophora triceps Trevis., Mem. reale 1st. Lomb. di Sci. e Lett., Ill, iv, 

416, 1877. 
Lepidozia reptans Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 256, 1892 {not Lepidozia 

reptans (L.) Dumort.). 

Plate I. 

Monoicous : depressed-caespitose, pale green : stems pale green, 
oval in section, about six by eight cells, cortical cells (in about 16 
longitudinal rows) and internal cells about the same size, with 
uniformly thickened walls : lateral branches attenuate, flagelliform, 
rarely blunt : postical flagella infrequent ; rhizoids frequent, color- ' 
less, borne in small clusters at the base of the underleaves : leaves 
approximate, obliquely inserted, spreading, plane, quadrifid (trifid, 
rarely bifid) about one-third ; lobes subulate to narrowly triangular, 
acute, parallel, about 4 cells broad at the base and 8 cells long, 
usually ending in a row of 2 cells ; sinuses separating lobes subacute 
or obtuse ; leaves on branches approximate or slightly imbricated, 
similar to stem-leaves but smaller, usually trifid ; leaves on attenuated 
branches minute, usually bifid ; leaves subtending branches oblong, 
quadrate-ovate, bifid, lobes spreading, subulate : stem-underleaves 
about half the size of the leaves, distant, subquadrate, quadrifid 
about one-fourth ; lobes subulate, parallel, 2 to 4 cells long, 1 to 2 
cells broad ; sinuses separating lobes obtuse ; branch -underleaves 
smaller than those of stem, similar, quadrifid : cells in the middle 
of leaf arranged in rows, cavities with rounded corners, walls 
thickened, trigones small ; cells in the middle of underleaf similar to 
those of leaf : $ inflorescence borne on a short branch; bracts usually 
in three pairs ; innermost bracts broadly orbicular, denticulate at 

6 C. M. Cooke^ Jr. — The Hawaiian Hepaticm 

apex, teeth (usually 4) composed of 2 to 4 cells, rounded or acute, 
terminal cells verruculose ; sinuses separating teeth lunate j cells near 
middle of bract oblong, with uniformly thickened walls ; bracteole 
similar to bract ; bracts of second row orbicular, similar to innermost 
bracts but smaller ; bracteole of second row similar to bracts ; 
perianth broadly fusiform, 2 cells thick to a little above the middle, 
the rest 1 cell thick, terete below, irregularl}'- 8-keeled above, 
mouth irregularly lobed, the lobes subdenticulate with teeth formed 
by sightl}' projecting obtuse cells: 3 spike usually occupying a 
short postical branch, sometimes terminal on a lateral branch ; 
bracts in 4 to 7 pairs, concave or almost complicate, broadly ovate, 
bifid about one-third with triangular, acute lobes and acute sinus ; 
bracteoles ovate, bifid about one-fourth with subulate, parallel lobes 
and obtuse sinus. 

Stems 0.23"™ in diameter; leaves 0.45™"x0.37™"; leaf-cells at 
edge of leaf 2oftx20fi, at middle 32/xx30/x, at base 38ft, at middle of 
underleaf 38ftx24fi ; underleaves 0.24™™x0.21™™; innermost bracts 
0.95"*"xl.l°'™ and 0.82'"™x0.7™"; innermost bracteole 0.96°»"xO.96"°» 
and 0.8""x0.8""; bracts of second row 0.45"°x0.55""; perianth 
2.15"»° to 3.25""xl.3"™-1.7'""'; 6 bracts 0.37"^°»x0.3°™; bracteoles 

Hawaii (Menzies). West Maui (Baldwin). 

Lepidozia australis differs from L, reptaus (G. & R., Hep. Eur., 
No. 479) in the following characters : the stems are more robust, 
the branches rarely branching and usually attenuate; the cells of the 
stems have much thicker cell-walls ; the leaves and underleaves are 
not as deeply lobed; the leaves are more obliquely inserted and 
spreading (while in L, reptans the leaves are concave, the lobes 
strongly incurved), the lobes are much narrower, usually only 4 cells 
wide (in the European species the lobes are usually 6 to 12 cells 
wide); the leaf-cells are larger, with much thicker cell-walls and 
with larger trigones ; the mouth of the perianth has shorter teeth. 

Subgenus Microlepidozia Spruce, 1876. 

Plants usually small, depressed -caespitose, sometimes larger and 
pendulous : leaves transversely inserted, deeply divided or parted : 
perianth unistratose ; mouth ciliate-laciniate. 

of the Tribe TingonanthecB, 1 

I«epidozia Sandvicensis lindenb. 

Lepidozia Sandvicensis Lindenb.; G. L. & N., Syn. Hep., 201, 1845. Lindenb. 

& Qottsche, Sp. Hep., vi, 12, pi. I, figs. 1-5, 1846. 
Lepidozia filipendula Tayl., Lond. Joum. Bot., v, 369, 1846. 
Mastigophora Sandvicensis Trevis., Mem. reale Ist. Lomb. di Sci. e Lett., Ill, 

iv, 415, 1877. 
Mastigophora filipendula Trevis., 1. c, 416. 

Plate II ; figures 1-12. 

Plants loosely caespitose, pale green : stems pale green becoming 
brown with age, pinnately branched, branches often bi- to tri-pinna- 
tifid, flagelliform, main stem about 20 cells in diameter, cortical 
cells in about 60 longitudinal rows, internal cells hexagonal in cross- 
section, with uniformly thickened colorless cell-walls, cortical cells 
subquadrate, walls of about the same thickness as those of the 
internal cells, outer wall much pigmented ; rhizoids wanting : leaves 
distant, almost transversely inserted, closely appressed to stem, 
slightly convex, subquadrate, slightly unsymmetrical, the antical 
edge longer than the postical, 12 to 18 cells wide at base, quadrifid 
(rarely bifid) more than one-half ; lobes subulate, 4 to 6 cells broad, 
6 to 10 cells long, ending in a single cell or a row of 2 or 3 cells, 
sinuses separating lobes acute, rarely obtuse: underleaves similar to 
leaves, but smaller, 8 to 10 cells broad at base ; lobes usually 2 cells 
broad, 4 to 6 cells long; leaves of branches much smaller than stem- 
leaves, subquadrate, 6 to 8 cells broad at base, usually trifid, rarely 
quadrifid, lobed below the middle ; lobes subulate, 1 or 2 cells broad 
at base, 2 to 4 cells long ; underleaves of branches similar to branch- 
leaves, more often quadrifid : leaf-cells subquadrate, cell-walls uni- 
formly thickened, cell-cavities with corners slightly rounded : leaves 
subtending branches ovate, deeply bifid about one-half; lobes trian- 
gular-subulate, acute, parallel or spreading : inflorescence unknown. 

Stems 0.5™™ in diameter ; cortical cells 30ft long, 27ft broad, 21ft 
thick ; leaves of main-stem antical length 0.3"™, postical length 
0.2™™x0.4™™ (breadth at base); underleaves 0.22™™x0.25™™; leaf-cells 
at edge of leaf 29fix25fi, at middle 35fix25ft. 

Hawaiian Islands (Tolmie). West Maui (Baldwin), 

Lepidozia commutata Steph.,' of the West Indies, is very close to 
the Hawaiian species. The comparison has been made with speci- 
mens from the island of Guadaloupe (G. & R., Hep. Eur., No. 565). 
The two plants differ in their branching, the Hawaiian species having 
the branches pinnately or bipinnately branched, while in the West 

» Hedwigia, xxvii, 293, 1888. 

8 C, M. Vookey Jr. — The Hawaiian JBepaticce 

Indian species they are simple or rarely pinnate ; the cortical cells 
of the latter species are longer, narrower and with much thicker 
cell- walls, the leaves are not as closely appressed to stem, and those 
of the main stem are smaller with much smaller cells and thicker cell- 
walls, the leaves of the branches are larger and much more deeply 
lobed and their lobes are longer with much smaller cells. These 
differences hold also in the underleaves. In general appearance the • 
two plants differ so that they can easily be distinguished by the 
naked eye, X. Sandvice/tsis being more robust and the stems appear- 
ing smooth. In L. conimxitata the plants are slender and the 
branches are rough, this appearance being due to the slightly 
spreading leaves. 

Lepidozia Hawaica sp. nov. 

Plate II ; figures 13-24. 

Dioicous : plants green, densely csespitose or scattered among 
mosses and other hepaticse : stems light green, pinnately branched, 
branches blunt or sometimes attenuated and flagelliform; stems about 
4 cells in diameter, the internal cells with uniformly thin cell-walls, 
the cortical cells (in about 9 longitudinal cell-rows) with much thick- 
ened walls, the outer wall convex, giving the stem a fluted appear- 
ance ; flagella scattered, postical with minute and closely appressed 
leaves; rhizoids wanting or found in small clusters of 2 to 4, at the 
base of the underleaves of the flagella or of the attenuated branches: 
leaves of main stem distant or subimbricated, transversely inserted, 
convex, suberect or slightly spreading, deeply 3-parted (rarely 
4-parted) to within one or two cells of the base; base 4 or 5 cells 
broad ; lobes spreading or parallel, often decurved, narrowly subu- 
late, 1 or 2 cells broad, 3 to 5 cells long, with acute or obtuse sinuses; 
leaves of branches bi- or tri-parted, ai^reeing in other characteristics 
with the leaves of the stems : underleaves bipartite to within one 
cell of the base ; base 2 to 4 cells broad, lobes most often parallel, 
narrowly subulate, 1 to 2 cells broad, about 4 cells long with obtuse 
sinuses: leaf subtending a branch subulate, 1 or 2 cells broad, about 
4 cells long: leaf-cells subquadrate, with uniformly slightly thickened 
walls: $ inflorescence borne on a very short postical branch; bracts 
in 3 to 5 pairs; innermost bracts ovate, bifid about one-third, the 
upper portion ciliate or dentate ; teeth 1 to 3 cells long, lobes 
generally divided, divisions subulate, 4 to 7 cells broad at base, 
about 9 cells long, ending in a row of three or more cells, cell-walls 
thin, apex of the end cell usually verruculose ; innermost bracteole 

of the Tribe TrigonantJiecB, 9 

similar to bracts ; bracts of second row similar to innermost bracts 
but smaller ; bracteole similar to bracts of second row ; perianth 
broadly fusiform, terete below, many keeled above, mouth slightly 
contracted, irregularly lobed, lobes laciniate, lacinise 4 to 6 cells long, 
2 to 4 cells broad, cells of lacinise slightly verruculose : 5 spike 
usually occupying a short postical branch, rarely terminal on a 
lateral branch ; bracts in 4 to 8 pairs, imbricated, concave or sub- 
complicate, broadly ovate, unequally bifid about two-thirds or one- 
half; lobes irregularly dentate, subulate, spreading, 3 or 4 cells broad 
at base, 6 or 7 cells long, ending in a row of about 3 cells, the apical 
cell slightly verruculose, the postical lobe broader than the antical ; 
bracteoles similar to the stem-underleaves : capsule oval, dark brown ; 
elaters blunt, bispiral. 

Stems 0.07°" in diameter; leaves 0.13'"™ long x 0.05™™ broad at 
base; leaf-cells of lobes 23/tAXl6ft, at base of leaf 18/lix14/li; inner- 
most bracts 0.7™™x0.4™™ ; perianth 0.9™™ to 1.7™™x0.4™™ to 0.5™™ ; 
spores 12/Lt in diameter ; elalers 150/tAXl2/tA ; ^ bracts 0.22™™xO. 15™™. 

West Maui (Baldwin). Oahu : Nuuanu (Cooke). 

This species is abundant in the latter locality, growing on the 
ground or fallen logs, on the shady lateral ridges. 

Lepidozia setacea (Web.) Mitt, is very close to this species. For 
comparison specimens from G. & R., Hep. Eur., No. 502, were used. 
The Hawaiian species has leaves which are usually 3-parted, while 
in the European species the leaves are usually 4-parted ; in the 
Hawaiian species the lobes are never 2 or 3 cells broad for 3 or 4 
rows, but are shorter and narrower than the lobes of X. setacea; 
the leaf -cells have slightly thinner cell-walls and the terminal cell is 
not verruculose as in the European species ; the underleaves of the 
Hawaiian species are usually bipartite, while in the European species 
they are usually tripartite ; the leaves subtending branches in X. 
Haxjoaica are made up of a single row of cells, while in L, setacea 
these leaves are bipartite ; the perianth of the Hawaiian species is 
smaller, and the innermost bracts and bracteoles are smaller and not 
so deeply lobed. 

Acromastiguin Evans, 1900. 

Plants medium-sized, scattered among other hepatics, yellowish 
green, becoming brownish with age : stems stiff and wiry, mostly 
ascending or erect, sparingly branched : vegetative branches of 
three kinds : terminal branches from the lateral segments, terminal 
branches from the postical segments (flagella), intercalary branches 

10 CM, Cooke, Jr, — The Havoaiian JETepaticce 

axillary to the underleaves (very unusual) : rhizoids not abundant : 
leaves 'distant or subimbricated, transversely inserted, undivided : 
underleaves a little smaller than the leaves, undivided : leaf-cells 
with thickened walls : sexual branches intercalary, arising singly in 
the axils of the underleaves : 9 branch very short, its leaves reduced 
to the three to five rows of bracts; perianth long and slender, 
the three keels distinct except at the cylindrical base, separated 
by grooves ; unfertilized archegonia borne at the base of calyptra : 
S spike oblong ; bracts in several pairs, strongly concave ; antheridia 
occurring singly ; paraphyses wanting ; bracteoles similar to the 
underleaves but smaller : sporophyte not seen. 

Acromastiguni integrifoliuxn (Anst.) Evans. 

Mastigohryum f integrifoUum Aust., Bot. Gazette, i, 32, 1875. 
Bazzania? integrifolia Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 255, 1892. 
Acromastigum intcgrifolhun Evans, Bull. Torr. Clnb, xxvii, 103, pi. I, 1900. 

Dioicous : general characters of stems and branches given above ; 
rhizoids whitish, simple or irregularly branched at the ends, very 
scanty on ordinary vegetative axes and occurring singly or in small 
clusters at the bases of some of the underleaves, more abundant on 
the flagella and less definite in position : leaves spreading widely 
from the stem, usually curved upward in the outer parts, ovate from 
a broad base, obtuse or more commonly acute, entire or nearly so, 
rarely with an indistinct angular tooth near apex : underleaves 
strongly squarrose, ovate or oblong, truncate or rounded at apex, 
entire or nearly so : leaf-cells with a very thick verruculose cuticle 
and conspicuous often confluent trigones but no intermediate thick- 
enings ; cell-cavities stellate : bracts very small and similar to 
ordinary leaves at base of branch but becoming rapidly larger 
toward the perianth ; innermost bracts broadly ovate, gradually 
narrowed from near the base, shortly dentate or laciniate at apex 
(usually less than one-fourth the length) with slender teeth, other- 
wise entire or nearly so ; innermost bracteole similar ; perianth 
linear-fusiform, composed of a single layer of cells except at the 
very base, cells more uniformly thickened than the leaf-cells, mouth 
of perianth contracted, laciniate, the laciniae long and slender, 
straight or irregularly curved and distorted, sometimes denticulate, 
composed of a single row of cells above and usually two or more 
toward the base : S bracts in about 6 pairs, strongly concave, ovate, 
shortly bi- or tri-denticulate at the apex, the teeth 1 to 3 cells 

of the Tribe TrigonantheoB. 1 1 

long, otherwise entire or nearly so ; bracteoles similar to ordinary 
underleaves bnt smaller. 

Stems 3 to 8*^°* long ; 0.25°™ in diameter ; leaves 0.7"°* x 0.4""™ ; 
underleaves 0.5™™ x 0.3"" ; leaf-cells at edge of leaf 14/a in dia- 
meter, in middle 18/x, and at the base 28/utx23/ut ; innermost bracts 
1.7™"xl.O"'™ (on robust specimens with perianths); perianth 4.0™"x 
0.85"™: bracts 0.45™"x0.25°™: bracteoles 0.35"™xO. 15"™. 

Mixed with other hepatics. West Maui (Baldwin). Oahu : 
Konahuanui (Cooke). Type-specimen in Herb. W. H. Pearson. 

Bazzania S. F. Gray, 1821. 

Plants usually robust : stems depressed or pendulous, falsely 
dichotomous, compressed slightly from the front; cortical and interior 
cells of the stem similar, somewhat smaller than the leaf -cells ; leafy 
branches lateral, very rarely postical ; postical branches usually short 
and floriferous or elongated, microphyllous and radicelliferous : 
leaves incubous, alternate or very rarely opposite, more or less imbri- 
cated at the base, decurved, sometimes (in dry specimens principally) 
secand, always obliquely inserted, often falcate, twice as long as 
broad, subcordate at base or ligulate, apex usually truncate, triden- 
tate, in rare cases 4-dentate or entire, sometimes equally bidentate or 
unequally bilobed, margin entire in most species, in -a few dentate 
at the postical base : cells small, subequilateral, thickened at the 
corners, near the postical margin with 6 to 12 rows of elongated 
cells ; subtending leaf autical, ovate-subulate, entire : under- 
leaves always present, half as long as the leaves or less, usually 
wider than the stem, mostly subrotund, or quadrate, rarely elongate; 
apex truncate, usually 4-crenate to incised, rarely subentire, margin 
subentire or dentate, base cordate : dioicous: 6 and $ flowers clad- 
ogenous on postical branches ; ? bracts in 3 to 5 pairs, often shorter 
than leaves, concave, ovate to orbicular, rarely ovate-lanceolate, apex 
at least bilobed, laciniate or ciliate and more or less denticulate ; 
archegonia 10 to 16; perianth narrowly ovoid, somewhat fleshy at 
the base, terete below, 3 keeled above, mouth subciliate; calyptra half 
the length of perianth, pyriform to cylindrical-oblong, 3 cells thick 
at base, 2 cells thick above : capsule half as long as calyptra, 
subcylindrical, the wall about 5 cells thick, outer layers with parietal 
columns, innermost having semiannular thickenings ; elaters thin, 
Bubobtuse ; spores minute: androecium shortly incurved; bracts in 
5 to 10 rows, ovate, concave or subcomplicate, apex bifid or 
bidentate, rarely entire : antheridia usually in pairs, rarely solitary. 

12 CM, Cooke, Jr. — The Hawaiian JETepaticoB 

Underleaves ovate to orbicular. 

Apex of leaves rounded or Bubtmncate. B, Nuuanuetisis. 

Apex of leaves tridentate or bidentate. 

Leaf -cells at apex thick-walled, with or without small trigones. 

B. Sandvicensis, 
Leaf-cells at apex thin -walled, trigones large. 
Leaves broadly ovate ; plants robust, branching frequently. 
Leaves tridentate, 1.4""xl.l°"°; leaf -cells at margin 15;x in diameter. 

B. cordistipula. 
Leaves tridentate or bidentate, O.SS^^xO.O"™""; leaf -cells at margin 
25// in diameter. B. Didericiana. 

Leaves lanceolate, always bidentate ; plants slender, seldom branch- 
ing. B. emarffinata. 
Underleaves subquadrate or quadrate. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate ; underleaves not connate with the leaves. 

Leaves obliquely truncate, O.O^^xO.S"". B. Baldwinii. 

Leaves acute or bidenticulate, 0.6'""x0.4'"". B, minuta. 

Leaves ligulate ; underleaves sometimes connate with the leaves on one side. 
Leaves large, 1.95°""x0.85™"" ; leaf -cells at apex about 40/'XtM)/<, with walls 

slightly thickened. B. patens. 

Leaves 1.0'"'"x5'"'" ; leaf -cells at apex about 30;xx20;x, with walls slightly 

thickened. B. incequabUis. 

Leaves small, 0.75'"'°x0.4 ; leaf -cells at apex 20/^ in diameter, with much 

thickened cell -walls. B. Brighami, 

Bazzania cordistipula (Mont.) Trevis. 

Herpetium cordistipulum Mont., Ann. des Sc. Nat., II, xix, 252, 1843. 

Voyage de la Bonite, Botanique, i, 242; atlas, pi. CXLIX, fig. 1, 1846. 
Mastigobryum cordistipulum G. L. & N., Syn. Hep., 224, 1845. Lindenb. & 

Gottsche, Spec. Hep., vii, 65, pi. XI, figs. 1-5, 1851. 
Bazzania cordistipula Trevis., Mem. reale 1st. Lomb. di Sci. e Lett., Ill, iv, 

414, 1877. 
Bazzania falcata Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 255, 1892 (not Bazzania 

falcata (Lindenb.) Trevis.). 

Plate III ; fig ores 1-14. 

Plants yellowish brown or green, densely caespitose: stems robust, 
falsely dichotomous, branches rarely attenuated or flagelliform ; fla- 
gella postical, numerous, long-attenuate, microphyllous: leaves closely 
imbricated, alternate, subfalcate, spreading, obliquely ovate, the 
antical margin much more rounded than the postical, obliquely trun- 
cate, unequally tridentate; teeth broadly triangular to subulate, acute, 
acuminate or apiculate, antical tooth usually the longest, 5 to 13 cells 
long 4 to 7 cells broad, postical tooth 3 to 7 cells long 3 to 4 cells 
broad; sinuses obtuse to lunate; antical base arching over stem; posti- 

of the Tribe JHgonantheoB, 13 

cal margin slightly dilated * near the base ; line of insertion curved 
slightly inwards: underleaves imbricated, more than twice as broad 
as stem, orbicular, apex subretuse or repand, sometimes irregularly 
dentate, base cordate, lateral margins entire and somewhat reflexed : 
cells at apex of leaf thick- walled, with irregular cavities and large, 
sometimes confluent trigones, in the middle with elongate, substellate 
cavities and large triangular to orbicular, often confluent trigones, 
at the base with large, stellate cavities and large trigones ; cells of 
underleaves similar to those of leaves: $ inflorescence borne on a 
very short branch; $ bracts in about 5 pairs; innermost bracts about 
the length of the leaves, broadly ovate, upper half irregularly denticu- 
late, teeth 1 to 3 cells long, apex deeply 2 to 4 laciniate (about one- 
fourth), innermost bracteole similar to bracts; perianth ovate, terete 
below, raanj' keeled above, mouth somewhat contracted, irregularly 
lobed, lobes laciniate, laciniae denticulate, 8 to 10 cells long, 4 to 6 
cells broad, ending in a row of 4 or 5 cells ; cells of perianth elon- 
gated, with much thickened walls: capsule oval, dark brown; spores 
light brown, minutely verruculose; elaters tapering toward the ends, 

Stems 0.3"™ in diameter; leaves, antical axis 1.3"''" to l.SS""™, pos- 
tical axis 1.0"™ to 1.2""\ breadth (greatest) near base 0.9'"'" to l.!™"", 
at apex 0.35'"" to 0.4'"'", leaf-cells at base of median tooth 26/iXl9/A, 
in middle of leaf 2G/ix21/ti, just above base 42/utx24/i, extreme base 
45/x, antical edge 15/ut; underleaves 0.7'"'"x0.85'"'" ; cells of under- 
leaves 38/ix22/A; perianth 2.2'"'"xl.5'""; innermost bracts 1.5'"'"x0.9'""; 
bracts of second row 1.2'""x0.75"'"; spores 20/ut; elaters 400/utxl5/ut. 

Hawaiian Islands (Gaudichaud, Ilillebrand, Tolmie, Douglas). 
Hawaii (Beechey, Macrae). West Maui (Baldwin). Oahu (Mann 
&, Brigham); Nuuanu, Konahuanui (Cooke). Kauai: Kilohana 
(Cooke) ; base of Pohokupili (Wawra). Very common from 1000 
to 5000 ft., growing on the ground. 

This species is closely related to B. falcata^ of Nepal. A part of 
the type-material, from the herbarium at Kew, has been used for 
comparison. J3, falcata differs from B. cordistipida in its larger 
leaves (length, antical 2.7'"", breadth at base 1.6'"'", at apex 0.35"'"), 
which are much more falcate and bear one or two teeth at the posti- 
cal base; the leaf-cells also are much larger with stellate cavities and 
larger trigones, measuring at apex 27/ut, in the middle 45/utx30/ut, at 
the base 45/ix38/x, and along antical edge 27/ut. 

14 C Jf. Cooke^ Jr, — The Hawaiian JETepcUiccB 

Bazzania SandvicensiB (Gottsche) Steph. 

Mastigohryum Sandvicensis Gottsche ; Steph. Hedwigia, xxv, 207, pi. II, figs. 

19-23, 1886. 
Bazzania cordistipula Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 255, 1892 (not Bazzania 

cordistipula (Mont.) Trevis.). 
Bazzania Sandvicensis Steph., Bull, de I'Herb. Boissier, v, 841, 1897. 

Plate III ; figures 15-22. 

Plants yellowish brown, densely caespitose : 8tem8 ascending, 
long, robust, irregularly pinnately branched, branches sometimes 
attenuate, flagelliform ; flagella numerous, very long, slender, micro- 
phyllous: leaves imbricated at the base, apex free, subfalcate, spread- 
ing, narrowly obliquely ovate, antical base curved, arching over the 
stem, postical not decurrent, line of insertion curved slightly inward, 
apex obliquely truncate, tridentate, teeth broadly triangular, acate, 
sometimes apiculate, about 4 to 8 cells broad, 6 to 14 cells long and 
ending in a row of 2 to 5 cells, sinuses obtuse or lunate: underleaves 
approximate or distant, suborbicular, apex truncate, rounded or 
slightly retuse : leaf -cells at apex with uniformly thickened walls, in 
the middle oblong, thick- walled, with small trigones, at middle of base 
large, with substellate cavities and large trigones, cells at antical edge 
oblong, with long axis perpendicular to edge, thick-walled, trigones 
small : cells of underleaf similar to those of leaf : $ inflorescence 
borne on a very short branch ; ? bracts in about 5 pairs; innermost 
bracts broadly ovate, the upper portion denticulate, bifid to qaad- 
rifid, lobes subulate, 2 to 4 cells broad, 6 to 10 cells long, ending in 
a row of 4 to 6 cells; cells of bract elongated with thickened walls; 
innermost bracteole similar to bracts; bracts and bracteole of second 
row similar to those of innermost row but smaller ; perianth ovoid- 
cylindrical, terete below, many keeled above, mouth deeply lobed, 
lobes laciniate, lacinise about 4 cells broad, 6 to 20 cells long, denti- 
culate at the base, ending in a row of 2 to 4 cells ; cells of perianth 
elongated, with numerous intermediate thickenings : capsale oval, 
borne on a short stalk ; spores minutely verruculose, light brown. 

Stems 0.3™"™ in diameter ; leaves antical axis 1.4™", postical axis 
Llo"*", breadth at apex 0.35™", near base 0.75"*° ; underleaves 
0.55™™x0.6™™ ; leaf-cells at base of median tooth ll/AXld/iy at mid- 
dle of leaf 29/UIX20/X, near base 50/ax19/a, at middle of base 45/bix40/x, 
at antical edge ll/utxl5/ut; innermost bracts 1.9™™xl.O™"; bracts of 
second row 1.25"™x0.7™"'; perianth 3.2"™xl.2™™; spores 18/a. 

of the Tribe Trigonanthece, 15 

Hawaiian Islands (Remy, Gaudichaud). Hawaii (Baldwin). 
Molokai (Baldwin). Oahu: Nuuanu, Konahuanui (Cooke). 

This species is rather close to B, cordistipula. The plants are 
longer, the stems are rarely dichotoiiiously branched, the leaves are 
narrower, less imbricated, the underleaves are smaller and are not 
imbricated, the leaf-cells are thicker walled, with smaller trigones, 
and at the apex are much smaller. 

Bazzania Nuuanuensis sp. nov. 

Plate III; figures 23-31. 

Plants green, loosely caespitose : stems more or less ascending, 
falsely dichotomous; flagella numerous, slender : leaves alternate, 
closely imbricated to the apex, spreading, subfalcate, broadly ovate, 
antical base arching over the stem, subcordate, postical base not 
decurrent, line of insertion curved slightly inward, apex truncate to 
roanded, margin slightly undulate : underleaves more than twice as 
broad as stem, transvereely or subobliquely inserted, approximate, 
orbicular, cordate at the base, apex retuse or truncate ; leaf-cells at 
apex of leaf thick- walled, cavities slightly irregular, trigones large, 
often confloent, in the middle somewhat elongated, cavities substel- 
late, trigones large, at the base elongated, with intermediate thicken- 
ings and large, more or less orbicular trigones, cells along margin 
similar to those at apex. 

Stems 0.3™™ in diameter ; leaves 1.15™"xl.l"™, leaf-cells at apex 
22/bix20fi, at middle 35/utx2V/ut, at middle near base 50/utx28/ut; under- 
leaves O.e^^xO.S™™, cells at middle of underleaf 30/ax24/a. 

Oahu : western ridge of Nuuanu (Cooke). 

This species is closest to jB. cordistipula among the Hawaiian 
species : it is easily distinguished by its apex not being toothed ; 
its leaves also are broader in proportion to their length, the cells are 
slightly larger, and the underleaves are slightly smaller and not so 
closely imbricated. 

Bazzania Didericiana Steph. 

Mastigobryum Didericianum Steph., Hedwigia, zxiv, 249, pi. Ill, fig. 2, 1885. 
BcLzzania Didericiana Steph., Bull, de I'Herb. Boissier, v, 841, 1897. * 

Plate IV ; figures 1-13. 

Plants yellow-green, densely caespitose : stems robust, sparingly 
branched, ascending; flagella numerous, slender, microphyllous: leaves 
imbricated, spreading, subfalcate, obliquely ovate, antical base arch- 

16 CM, Cooke^ Jr, — The Hawaiian Hepatiea& 

ing nearly across the stem, postical base not decurrent, line of inser- 
tion lunate, apex obliquely truncate, tri-(bi- or quadri-) dentate, teeth 
broadly triangular, acute ; sinuses separating teeth lunate : under- 
leaves twice the width of the stem, approximate or slightly imbri- 
cated, orbicular, apex retuse, crenulate or dentate, base subcordate : 
leaf -cells with stellate cavities, walls thin, trigones large, sometimes 
nearly as large as the cavities ; cells of underleaves similar to those 
of leaves : 9 inflorescence borne on a very short branch ; bracts 
in 3 or 4 pairs ; innermost bracts ovate, the upper half denticulate, 
apex bifid to quadrifid, lobes subulate, margins denticulate ; cells 
with thickened walls, those at margin with outer walls thin, trigones 
small ; innermost bracteole similar to bract but narrower and slightly 
shorter ; bracts and bracteole of second row much smaller, bifid to 
quadrifid, lobes subulate, sparingly denticulate ; perianth ovoid- 
cylindrical, terete below, irregularly keeled above, mouth contracted, 
irregularly lobed, lobes laciniate, laciniae 2 to 4 cells broad, 5 to 8 cells 
long, ending in a row of 2 to 5 cells: capsule oval, dark brown; spores 
round, verruculose ; elaters slender, blunt. 

Stems 0.3"'° in diameter, leaves 0.85"™ long, 0.6"" wide near the 
base, 0.25"" at the apex; underleaves 0.35""x0.5""; leaf -cells at base 
of median tooth 25/i, at base of leaf 57/ix33^, antical edge 24/a, at 
middle of underleaf 40/utx30/ut ; innermost bract 1.6""x 1.1"" ; inner- 
most bracteole 1.6""x0.8""; periantL 2.9""xl.0""; spores 2 O/i; ela- 
ters 160 to 240/AXlL>. 

Hawaii: Kilavea (Didrichsen). Hawaiian Islands (Baldwin). Oahu: 
Nuuanu (Cooke). 

This plant is easily distinguished from B. cordistipukiy its nearest 
Hawaiian relative, by its shorter and much less frequently branched 
stems, by its much smaller leaves and underleaves, and by its 
slightly larger leaf-cells with stellate cavities and much larger 

An aberrant form of this species is found in the same locality but 
not mixed with typical specimens. The stems branch much more 
frequently, the leaves are nearly half again as long and twice as 
l)road, deeply bidentate, the lobes triangular, acute or acuminate, 
4 to 6^cells broad, to h cells long, connivent or spreading; the sinus 
acute or obtuse, and the underleaves are larger and less toothed. 
The cellular structure, however, agrees with that of typical speci- 

of the Tribe TrigonanthecB. 1 *? 

Baszania emarginata (Steph.). 

JIfcMtigfo&ryttm Diderieianwrn^ yar. emarginatum Steph. , Hedwigia, zxiv, 249, 

Plate FV; figures 14-27. 

Plants yellowish brown, growing in loose tufts on the trees and on 
the ground, often mixed with other hepaticae ; stems very slender, 
sparingly branched, often pendulous ; flagella scattered, very slen- 
der : leaves distant, rarely approximate, spreading, subfalcate, lan- 
ceolate, antical base arching about half way over the stem, postical 
base not decurrent, apex bidentate or emarginate, teeth subulate, 
divergent or parallel, 3 to 6 cells broad, 4 to 12 cells long, ending in a 
row of 2 to 6 cells, antical tooth often longer than the postical; sinus 
acute or obtuse : underleaves distant or approximate, twice as broad 
as stem, broadly ovate, base slightly curved, apex truncate, retuse or 
erose-dentate : leaf-cells at apel large, thin-walled, cavities stellate, 
pits long, trigones large, sometimes confluent, cells at margin small, 
elongated, perpendicular to edge, at the middle of the base oblong, 
trigones large, often confluent ; at middle of underleaf similar to 
those of leaf : $ inflorescence borne on a short branch ; bracts in 
about three rows ; innermost bracts ovate, the upper portion den- 
ticulate, apex bifid to quadrifid, lobes subulate, denticulate at the 
base, 2 to 4 cells broad, 5 to 8 cells long, ending in a row of 3 to 5 cells; 
innermost bracteole similar to bracts ; bracts of second row ovate 
sparingly denticulate, bifid, teeth 2 to 4 cells long, 2 to 4 cells broad ; 
bracteole similar to bracts ; perianth ovoid-cylindrical, terete below, 
many keeled above, 2 cells thick near base, mouth contracted, irreg- 
ularly lobed, lobes laciniate, laciniae 2 to 4 cells broad, 4 to 7 cells 
long, ending in a row of about 4 cells: capsule oval, purplish brown; 
spores brown, verruculose: ^ spike occupying a short postical branch; 
bracts in about 6 pairs, concave, broadly ovate, apex irregularly den- 
tate, teeth 1 or 2 cells long, 1 or 2 cells broad; bracteoles much smaller, 
broadly ovate, apex emarginate, lobes triangular, rounded ; anther- 
idia borne singly. 

Stems 0.2™°» in diameter; leaves 1.3™™ long, 0.25"™ broad at 
apex, 0.5"" broad at base; underleaves 0.45™"x0.4™", leaf -cells at 
apex 33/1, at middle of base 5V/utx28/i, at antical edge 20/ix31/x, at mid- 
dle of underleaf 45/ix30/a ; innermost bract 1.2™™x0.65™™; bract of 
second row 0.75""x0.45™"; outermost bract 0.25™™x0.25™™; perianth 
2.4"™xl.O""; 6 bracteole 0,25^^x0.3™"; spores 22/i. 

Trans. Conk. Acad., Vol. XII. 2 May, 1904. 

I H (J, M, Cookty Jr. — The Hawaiian HepaticcB 

llawiiii : Kilavoa (Didrichsen). East Maui (Baldwin). Oahu : 
Koiialiiianiii (llollor, Cooke) ; Lanabuli (Cooke). 

TIiIh H|)e(!it»H in very (^oiiiiiion on the higher mountain ridges, where 
it («oinpU<t(*Iy (M)vt«rM the trunks, branches and twigs of the lower 
ritunttMl tHM'H, NoniotinioM along with Herpocladium and Herbertay 
whic'h it <<lom«ly rfHoinhloH to the naked eye. Of the Hawaiian 
/ianifttiw^ //. Dhhrhtciana in nearest to B, emarginata. The stems 
of tho hittor uro nuioli h)nger and slenderer, the leaves are usaally 
(lirttant, are h>ngor, narrower and more falcate, the apex is bidentate, 
tho uniiorh^HVos aro smaller and narrower in proportion to their 
U^n^th, tho h»«f-oells an^ much larger. 

//. rmtirffihtitii \h very close to B. /ttliax (Sande-Lac.) Schiffn., of 
tho Kaat Indian an^hipelago. Unfortunately the writer has been 
\inabK> to pnuMirt^ s}HHMmens of the latter species. The comparisons 
art* thoivfort* mado from tho descriptions and figures.* The Hawaiian 
*pooio5» diffors in^m tho Kast Indian In the following characters : the 
loavo!) ar«^ longt^r ami narrower, with much longer and more subulate 
looth, tho undorloavo* ar«» much shorter and broader, the leaf-cells 
aro sK^mowhat )ar^r» tho innermo<»t bracts are longer, narrower and 
with iwuoh fowor and sliortor lobes, 

8MAMIIIMI fmkhtfi^ii Att»l.; Grtawv TnuMw 0«xl And.. Tiit 355. pi. XXH, 
|i^>«<A«*tM v^^lvonA IN;m»«, t v.^.:^^v^^ ^ J ^ / fa yw i ^y<»») Ua d e i ■ A 

b^tAUvttvsU :^.>ut<^itu<^ wtQh WjjUfv br^UKrhtftf ^v«fn. oH from, axils of 
\/^uvWavvA\v<s^ v^^:aI tu :««evciv»tt ; tJb^Ua tfew. ^foiwewd. T«T slender: 

Ni^IXvu ^irv v.v«v*A>>v^ subi;iav'vv»I;A5if Co obii«^'«ly oT-jOje^ 
s'O.iAvvJv *rv*oui^ t*v»wrU ox^c nixte ^5t\?i»^ poi*cicaJ[ bifc«e njot 

; sv^^N' '^*".^^ - ^^* ^ v,vis> r>n.»»ivL mti'liiua -wi uobiiieaL t»ittb 

ivtt»vU\ ^%«avf ibtWi stv«u ,»^tiwx;r-mij*arHOWv .*p%;\ *runotl»« iui<llL[ai» or 

of the Tribe Trigonantheoe, 19 

comers rounded, trigones small, triangular, at base larger, thin- 
walled, comers rounded or slightly indented, trigones small, tri- 
angular, at margin similar to those at apex ; cells of underleaf 
similar to those of leaf : 5 spike occupying a short postical branch, 
dark brown ; bracts ip 5 to 10 pairs, closely appressed, concave, 
suborbicular, apex usually bidentate, teeth small, triangular ; brac- 
teole ovate, bidentate, teeth similar to those of bracts ; antheridia 
borne singly, oval. 

Stems 0.25"" in diameter; leaves 0.9"" long 0.2"" wide at the 
apex, 0.5"" at the base; underleaves 0.4""x0.35"", leaf-cells at apex 
20/x,at base 38/ix30/i, at antical edge IS/axIV/x; 6 bracts 0.5""x0.5""; 
bracteoles 0.5""x0.4"". 

East Maui: Haleakeala (Baldwin). West Maui (Baldwin). 

This species is closely related to B. triangularis (Schleich.) 
Lindb. (:= B, dejlexa), of Europe, North America and Asia. For 
comparison specimens from G. & R., Hep. Eur., No. 634, have been 
used. The leaves of B. Baldwinii are much less concave, narrower 
and frequently bidentate, the leaf-cells have thinner walls and 
smaller trigones, the cells at the base are somewhat larger, the 
underleaves are more oblong. 

minuta (Anst.) Evans. 

Mastigobr\/u'm rninutum Anst., Bnll. Torr. Bot. Clnb, v, 17, 1874. 
Bazzania minuta Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 255, 1892. 

Plate V ; figures 1-18. 

Plants loosely csBSpitose, yellowish green : stems slender, spar- 
ingly branched ; leafy branches lateral, sometimes postical from the 
axil of an underleaf ; flagella scattered, very slender : leaves 
approximate or distant, spreading, lanceolate-ovate, apex bidenticu- 
late, sometimes acute or apiculate, antical base curved, arching 
partly over the stem, postical base not decurrent : underleaves dis- 
tant, a little broader than the stem, base subcordate, apex obtuse 
or truncate, bidentate, retuse or erose-dentate, lateral margin 
sometimes unidentate : leaf-cells at apex thin-walled, cavities with 
irregular outline, trigones small, at base larger, but agreeing in other 
points with those of apex, at margin similar to those at apex ; cells 
of underleaves smaller than those of leaves and with smaller tri- 

Stems 0.15"" in diameter ; leaves 0.6""x0.4"" ; underleaves 0.15"" 
xO.12"" ; leaf-cells at apex 23/ix21/ji, at base 34/ix28/A, at antical edge 
I7fi; cells of underleaves 22/bixl7/A. 

20 C. M. Cooke, Jr,^^The Haicaiian HepalicoB 

Hawaiian Islands (Hillebrand). East Maui (Baldwin). 

Bazzania minuta is more closely related to B. Baldwinii than to 
any other Hawaiian Bazzania. They are easily distinguished by 
the difference in size of the plants and by the form and size of the 
leaves and underleaves. 

Bazzania patens (If out.) Trevis. 

Herpetium patens Ifont., Ann. des Sc. Nat., 11, xix^ 295, 1843. Voyage de la 
Bonite, Botaniqae, i, 242 ; atlas, pL CXLIX, fig. 2, 1846. 

Mastigohryum patens Q, L. & N., Sjn. Hep., 221, 1845. Lindenb. & Grottsche, 
Spec. Hep., vii, 48, tab. VIH, figs. 1-4, 1851. 

Mastigobi'yum parvistiptUum Anst., Ball. Torr. Bot. Club, v, 16, 1874. 

Bazzania patens Trevis., Mem. reale Ist. Lomb. di ScL e Lett., lU, It, 414, 

Bazzania Beecheyana Steph., Hedwigia, xxxii, 204, 1893. 

Plate VI; figures 1-10. 

Plants depressed, loosely caespitose, green : stems prostrate, 
falsely dichotomous ; flagella short, blunt ; rhizoids borne in 
clusters at the base of underleaves, long, colorless : leaves slightly 
imbricated, subfalcate, truncate, tri-(rarely quadri-) dentate, teeth 
broadly triangular, 2 or 3 cells long, acute ; sinuses separating teeth 
broadly lunate : underleaves slightly broader than the stem, sub- 
quadrate, apex irregularly 4 to 6 dentate, teeth triangular, often 
divided, 2 or 3 cells broad, 3 to 5 cells long, lateral margins often 
dentate : leaf -cells at apex large, walls slightly thickened, tri- 
gones small, at middle of base very large, oblong-polygonal, walls 
slightly thickened, trigones small ; cells of the underleaves oblong, 
smaller than those of leaves, with thinner walls and smaller trigones. 

Stem 0.4™™ in diameter ; leaves 1.95™™x0.85"™ ; underleaves 0.4""* 
xO.5™™; leaf -cells at apex 40/ax30/a, at middle of base 52/ix40/i, anti- 
cal edge near base 22/ut ; cells of underleaves 43/uix32/uu 

Hawaiian Islands (Gaudichaud, Andersson). East Maui (Baldwin). 
Oahu (Beechey, Mann and Brigham) ; Nuuanu (Cooke). Kauai : 
Kilohana (Cooke). 

B. patens is close to ^lastigobryum Ciibense Gottsehe.* It 
differs however in the following points : B. patens is a larger plant, 
the leaves being nearly twice as large, the cell-walls are thinner and 
the trigones are smaller and are not confluent, the cells at the base 
are larger and their trigones are smaller and are not confluent, the 
underleaves are smaller and have thinner cell-walls and smaller 

^Stephani, Hedwigia, xxiv, 249, pi. in, fig. 1, 1885. 

of the Tribe TrigonanthecB, 21 

Bazzania insequabiliB Steph. Ms. 

Plate VI; figures 11-25. 

Plants loosely caespitose, green : stems subascending, robust, fre- 
quently branching dichotomously, branches lateral, sometimes posti- 
cal from the axil of an underleaf ; flagella scattered, short : leaves 
densely imbricated, spreading, subfalcate, ligulate, antical base 
slightly dilated, arching partly over the stem, apex transversely or 
obliquely truncate, tri- (rarely bi- or quadri-)dentate, teeth triangu- 
lar to subulate, parallel or spreading : underleaves approximate, 
scarcely broader than stem, subquadrate, usually connate on one 
side, apex truncate, irregularly dentate : leaf -cells at apex subquad- 
rate, corners rounded, walls slightly thickened, trigones small, at 
middle of base larger, oblong, corners slightly rounded, walls slightly 
thickened, trigones small ; cells at middle of underleaves oblong, 
with slightly thickened walls, trigones small : $ inflorescence borne 
on a very short branch ; bracts in about 3 rows ; innermost bracts 
ovate, upper portion irregularly denticulate, deeply bilobed, lobes 
subulate, denticulate at the base, acuminate or bifid at the apex; 
innermost bracteole similar to bracts ; cells of innermost bracts 
elongated thin-walled, trigones lacking : perianth ovoid-cylindrical, 
terete below, irregularly keeled above, mouth contracted, lobed, lobes 
ciliate, cilia 2 to 4 cells broad, 6 to 8 cells long, ending in a row of 
3 to 5 cells ; cells of perianth elongated, with scarcely thickened 
walls : $ spike occupying a short postical branch ; bracts in about 
5 rows, broadly ovate, apex usually bidentate, teeth broadly trian- 

Stems 0.35"™ in diameter ; leaves about 1.0'"'"x0.45™°^ to 55""™; 
underleaves 0.3'°"x0.35™™, leaf-cells at apex 30/ix21/A, at middle of 
base 3Y/utx25/i, at antical edge near base 18/ut, cells of underleaf 
34/Ax25/x; perianth 2.9™'"x0.9'°"'; innermost bracts 1.3"'°"x0.55"'"; cells 
of perianth 80/ax20/x, of innermost bracteole 75/ix30/i; 6 bracts 0.4"™°' 
xO.35™" ; cells of cS bracts 32/ix20/i. 

Oahu (Lauterbach) ; Pauoa (Heller) ; Nuuanu (Cooke). Kauai : 
Lihue (Cooke). 

J3, incequabilis is a much smaller plant than J3. patenSy the stems 
branch much more frequently, the leaves are smaller, more closely 
imbricated, less falcate, sometimes spreading almost at right angles 
to the stem, the apex is much more deeply toothed, the underleaves 
are longer in proportion to their breadth, less deeply toothed, and 
the cells of the leaves and underleaves are smaller throughout. 

22 C, Jf. Cooke^ Jr. — The Hawaiian JETepaticce 

Bazzania Bxighami (Anst.) Evans. 

Masiigobryunt Brighami Anst., Bnll. Torr. Bot. Clnb, v, 16, 1874. 
Mastigobryum ligulatum Sande-Lac.; Steph., Hedwigia, zxv, 202, pL I, figs. 

13, 14, 1886. 
Bazzania Brighami Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 255, 1892. 

Plate VH. 

Plants loosely csespitose, green or yellow-brown : stems slender, 
creeping or ascending, branching frequently and dichotomously; 
branches blunt, rarely attenuated or ilagelliform; leafy branches 
sometimes arising postically from the axils of underleaves ; stems 
about 8 cells in diameter, all the cells of about the same size, walls 
much thickened, cortical cells in about 20 longitudinal rows, their 
walls pigmented ; flagella numerous, slender, sometimes branching; 
rhizoids borne in clusters at the base of underleaves: leaves approxi- 
mate or slightly imbricated, nearly opposite, spreading, sabfalcate, 
ligulate to broadly ovate, antical base slightly dilated, arching half- 
way over stem, apex truncate, tridentate, teeth broadly triangular, 
acute to apiculate, sometimes rounded, 1 to 3 cells long ; sinuses 
separating teeth broadly lunate: underleaves distant or approximate, 
much wider than the stem, usually connate with the leaf on one side, 
sometimes connate on both sides, subquadrate to broadly ovate, apex 
truncate, irregularly quadridentate, teeth triangular acute or apicu- 
late, often bifid : leaf -cells at the apex with much thickened cell- 
walls, cavities small, subquadrate, at middle near base subvittate, the 
cells oblong, thick-walled, trigones small ; cells of underleaves oblong, 
walls slightly thickened, the base of the underleaf showing one or 
two rows of very small cells with uniformly much thickened walls 
and irregularly oblong-quadrate cavities: ? inflorescence borne on a 
short branch; bracts in 3 to 5 pairs; innermost bracts broadly ovate, 
the upper part of margin irregularly dentate or denticulate, deeply 
bifid to quadrifid, lobes subulate, irregularly denticulate at the base; 
innermost bracteole similar to bracts, usually less deeply lobed; cells 
oblong, with slightly thickened walls ; bracts of second row ovate, 
bifid : perianth fusiform, terete below, irregularly keeled above, 
mouth lobed, lobes ciliate, cilia 4 to 6 cells long, 1 or 2 cells broad, 
apical cell minutely verruculose: S spikes borne in the axils of under- 
leaves, sometimes on flagella, often curved ; bracts in 5 to 10 pairs, 
concave, broadly ovate, apex bidentate or bidenticulate, teeth trian- 
gular, apiculate, sometimes acute, apical tooth minutely verruculose, 
lateral margins entire or sometimes bearing 1 or 2 teeth ; bracteoles 
ovate or subquadrate, apex truncate or rounded, bidenticulate, teeth 

of the Tribe Trigonanthece. 23 

separated by a broadly lunate sinus, margin entire, sometimes bear- 
ing a lateral tooth on one or both sides; cells of bracts and bracteoles 
polygonal, walls slightly and uniformly thickened. 

Stems 0.18"™ in diameter ; leaves 0.75""x0.25™™ at apex to 0.4'""' 
at base; underleaves 0.25""x0.35™'^ ; leaf-cells at apex 20/iXl8/x, at 
middle 20/x, at base 35/ix25/x, at antical edge 12/a, underleaf -cells at 
middle 20/dix15/x, at base ]2/i; perianth 2.4""x0.8"'" ; innermost $ 
bracts l.l^'^xO.Y"*™ ; cells at middle of bracts V5/ax25/li ; 6 bracts 
0.3"«* to 0.45°»'"x0.13'"°» to 0.22; cells at middle of 5 bract 32/ax24/i. 

Hawaiian Islands (Herb. Sande-Lac, Baldwin). Oahu (Mann and 
Brigham) ; Nuuann, Mt. Tantalus, Konahuanui (Cooke). Kauai : 
Kilohana, Molokpa (Cooke). 

Specimens of Mastigobryum ligulatum from Herr Stephani agree 
perfectly with the type-specimens of M, Brighami collected by 
Mann and Brigham. This species is very distinct from the other 
Hawaiian JSazzanicB, Perhaps B. inoequabilis is the most closely 
related. B. Brighami^ however, is a much smaller plant, the leaves 
are smaller and the sides more parallel, the leaf-cells are smaller, 
with much thicker cell -walls. 

Of great interest in this species is the occurrence of antheridial 
spikes on the flagella. This tendency was found on several plants 
which came from the same log. It may be compared with the posi- 
tion of male spikes on the ventral branches of Kantia^ since the 
flagella are modified postical branches. Leafy branches occur posti- 
cally on B. Brighami but no male spikes were found on them. 
That male spikes occur on flagella is mentioned by Lindenberg' 
and by Pearson.' In B, Brighami sometimes as many as three 
spikes were found on a single flagellum. 

Kantia S. F. Gray, 1821. 

Plants rather small to large, dark green to pale green, depressed- 
csespitose or scattered among other bryophytes : stems prostrate or 
assurgent at the sometimes gemmiparous apex, subsimple or rarely 
branching ; branches postical, blunt or attenuated ; rhizoids long, 
colorless, borne in clusters at the base of the underleaves : leaves 
closely imbricated to approximate, incubous, alternate, spreading 
narrowly ovate to suborbicular, entire, apex rounded or retuse, some- 
times caspidate, bidentate or bilobed : leaf-cells large, mostly isodi- 

' G. L. & N., Syn. Hep., 214, 1845. 

* The HepaticsB of the British Isles, 129, 1900. The species here referred to 
is B. trUobata. 

24 CM. Cooke ^ Jr, — The JETatoaiian JETepaticcB 

ametric or oblong-hexagonal, thin -walled or with walls scarcely 
thickened, trigones small or lacking : underleaves always present, 
usually large, broadly ovate, suborbicular or broadly reniform, apex 
entire, retuse or bilobed, lobes often equally or unequally bifid : 
dioicous, autoicous or paroicous ; sexual branches axillary to the 
underleaves : ? bracts in 2 or 3 rows, very much smaller than the 
leaves, subrotund, ovate or lanceolate, entire or 2 to 4 lobed, sub- 
connate ; bracteoles similar ; perianth lacking ; archegonia less than 
12: perigynium developed from the ? branch, pendulous, subter- 
ranean, carnose, many cells thick, radicelliferous, clavate or subcylin- 
drical, the apex crowned by the persisting bracts and bracteoles, the 
interior surface papillate ; calyptra nearly as long as the perigynium, 
adnate almost to the apex, the free portion bearing the sterile arche- 
gonia : capsule cylindrical, the four linear, spirally wound valves 
2 cells thick, the inner layer with numerous semiannular bands, which 
are nearly lacking in the outer layer ; " involucellum " highly devel- 
oped, finally adnate to the calyptra and reaching to the line of separ- 
ation of calyptra and perigynium walls, its cells elongated and sinu- 
ous : elaters long, slender, blunt, bispiral ; spores minute, about the 
diameter of the elaters. 

Apex of leaves subtmncate or ronnded, verrucnlose ; underleaves retose. 

K. Baldwinii. 
Apex of leaves usually cuspidate ; underleaves deeply bifid, lobes triangular. 

K. cuspidata. 
Apex of leaves usually bidentate. 

Leaves large, 1.25™"xl.l""", teeth 1 to 3 cells long; underleaves bifid 

about two-thirds. K, Tosana. 

Leaves small, about 0.65'"™x0.5™", teeth 3 or 4 cells long ; underleaves bifid 

to within a cell of the base. K, bifurca. 

Kantia Tosana Steph. 

Calypogeia TVtc/icwnanis Mitt. ; Seemann, Flora Vitiensis, 407, 1871 (not Kantia 

THchomanis (L.) S. F. Gray). 
Kantia bidentula Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 256, 1892 (not Jungerman- 

nia bidentula Web.). 
Kantia Tosana Steph., Hedwigia, xxxiv, 54, 1895. 

Plate VIII ; figures 1-8. 

Polyoicous : plants in loose, depressed mats : stems prostrate, 
frequently branching, the branches obtuse or sometimes elongate-fla- 
gelliform, often gemmiparous ; branches similar to stems ; flagella 
lacking or rarely present ; rhizoids long, colorless, borne in clusters 
at the base of underleaves : leaves alternate, spreading, obliquely 

. of the TVibe Trigonanthece. 25 

inserted, imbricated, rarely approximate or distant, ovate, antical 
base arching partly over stem, postical base slightly decurrent, apex 
bidentulate, rarely obtuse or acute, teeth small, acute or obtuse, 1 to 3 
cells long : cells of leaf polygonal, thin-walled, cavities angular, tri- 
gones lacking; cells at base oblong-polygonal : underleaves distant, 
twice the width of stem, subtransversely inserted, decurrent, broadly 
reniform, deeply bifid (about two-thirds), lobes entire or unequally 
cleft, divisions acute or obtuse, sinus separating lobes obtuse or 
lunate ; cells of underleaves similar to those of leaf but somewhat 
smaller : $ inflorescence usually borne singly, sometimes two ? , a <5 
and a $ , or a $ and a vegetative branch borne from the axil of 
the same underleaf ; bracts in two or three pairs, small, broadly 
ovate, usually bifid ; bracteoles similar to bracts : androecium a short 
branch, usually borne singly but sometimes in pairs from the axils 
of the underleaves: ^ bracts in 4 to 8 pairs, ovate, deeply bifid 
(about one-half), lobes subulate : capsule long, oval ; spores light 
brown, minute, round ; elaters blunt, bispiral. 

Stems 0.45"°» in breadth; leaves 1.4"^"xl.l'"'^ to 1.25'°"xl.l""^; 
underleaves 0.35'"'"x0.8"™ to 0.3°'"x0.5'"™; leaf-cells at apex 45/1, at 
base 90fix45/£, at margin near postical base 90/jix30ft, near antical 
base 75ftx35ft ; perigynium 3.9™"x0.8™°^ to S.To'^^'xO.O™™; elaters 
300yxxl5fi ; spores 18/a. 

West Maui (Baldwin). Oahu: Nuuanu (Cooke). Kauai: Kilohana 

This species is very common in damp, shady valleys, growing on 
the ground. It is about the same size as the widely distributed K, 
TVichomanis, of Europe and North America, but its leaves are nar- 
rower, more acute, and almost always bidentulate ; the leaf-cells also 
are much larger and with thinner cell-walls, and the underleaves are 
wider in proportion to their length. 

Kantia cuspidata Steph. 

Kantia cuspidata Steph. ^ Bull, de THerb. Boissier, v, 846, 1897. 

Plate VIII ; figures 9-14. 

Sterile: plants greenish yellow, loosely caespitose, depressed : 
stems short, prostrate, rarely branching ; true flagella lacking ; rhi- 
zoids long, colorless, borne in clusters at the base of the underleaves: 
leaves imbricated, alternate, obliquely inserted, spreading, plane, 
ovate, antical base arching partly over stem, slightly rounded, pos- 
tical base slightly decurrent, apex obtuse or cuspidate : leaf-cells at 
margin thin-walled, just inside the marginal row polygonal, at base 

26 (7. M. Cooke, Jr, — The Hawaiian Mepaticce 

polygonal-oblong, cuticle smooth : underleaves distant, somewhat 
broader than stem, broadly ovate, deeply bifid about three fourths, 
the lobes triangular, acute, parallel or spreading, 6 to 8 cells broad, 
8 to 12 cells long ; sinus separating lobes acute or obtuse ; cells of 
underleaves similar to those of leaves. 

Stems 0.25™" to 0.3"°^ in breadth ; leaves 1.05'»"x0.9"" ; leaf-cells 
at apex 33/i, at base 62ftx35/A ; underleaves 0.4"'"x0.46"*'° ; cells at 
middle of lobe of underleaf 62/ix35/a. 

Oahu (Heller) ; Nuuanu (Cooke). 

Kantia cuspidata is a smaller plant than £^, I'osana. The leaves 
are cuspidate or obtuse, never bidentulate ; the underleaves are more 
deeply bifid, and their lobes are never truncate or bilobed. 

bifurca (Anst.) Evans. 

Calypogeia bifurca Anst., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 223, 1869. 
Kantia bifurca Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 256, 1892. 

Plate IX; figures 1-10. 

Autoicous : plants small, scattered, pale green : stems pale green, 
slender, weak, prostrate, ascending at the tip, often gemmiparous, 
rarely branching except at the base, attenuate or blunt, oval in sec- 
tion, about T by 5 cells, ventral surface more convex than the 
dorsal, cortical cells (in about 12 rows) subquadrate, thin-walled, 
dorsal cells slightly larger than ventral, interior cells polygonal, thin- 
walled ; a row of large elongated cells is found on each side of the 
stem where the bases of the leaves are attached ; branches similar to 
stem, more often attenuate ; rhizoids borne in clusters at the base of 
the underleaves : leaves tender, alternate, spreading, obliquely 
inserted, imbricated or approximate, becoming distant on atten- 
uated stems or branches, decurrent postically to about the middle of 
the next leaf, antical base arching halfway over the stem, broadly 
ovate, apex truncate-bifurcate or bidentulate, lobes spreading, tri- 
angular, acuminate, 1 or 2 cells broad, 3 or 4 cells long, ending in a 
row of 2 or 3 cells ; sinus separating teeth lunate : leaf-cells at 
apex subquadrate with slightly thickened walls, at middle of base 
oblong-polygonal with thin walls, at margin elongated, with slightly 
thicker walls than interior cells: underleaves distant, minute, deeply 
bifid to within a single cell of the base, which is 5 or 6 cells broad, 
each lobe bearing a single tooth on its outer margin, spreading, 
subulate, 2 cells broad, 4 or 5 cells long, ending in a row of 3 or 4 
cells, the lateral tooth composed of 1 or 2 cells ; underleaf-cells 
with slightly thickened walls : S and $ flowers borne on very short 

of the Tribe Trigonanthece. 27 

branches, singly or in groups of 2 to 5 from the axils of consecutive 
underleaves, rarely 2 sexual branches borne from the axil of the 
same underleaf , in such a case both being of the same sex ; $ bracts 
2 or 3 pairs, much smaller than the leaves, innermost bracts ovate, 
unequally bifid to the basal row of cells, slightly verruculose, lobes 
subulate, connivent; bracts of second row larger, one-third the size 
of leaves, ovate, with a single marginal tooth, bifid about three- 
fourths, lobes spreading or connivent, sometimes unequal ; bracteoles 
similar to bracts; perigynium undeveloped: ^bracts 2 to 4 pairs, 
concave to subcomplicate, ovate, bifid about one-half, lobes incurved, 
subulate, spreading. 

Stems 0.18"" in breadth ; leaves^^xO.S"" ; leaf-cells at apex 
55/Ax45fi, at middle of base 60fix30/A, at margin (near base) 80/ax20/ji; 
large lateral cells of stem I05/ax60/a; ventral cortical cells 80/ax25/a; 
$ bracts of second row 0.45""x0.3"" ; ^ bracts 0.24""x0.17"". 

Hawaiian Islands (Hillebrand). Oahu : Pauoa (Heller) ; Nuuanu 
(Cooke). Kauai : Kilohana (Cooke). 

Kantia Sullivantii (Aust.) Underw., of North America, agrees 
very closely with the Hawaiian species. It differs, however, in the 
following characteristics: the teeth of the leaves are usually longer, 
broader and parallel, and are separated by a deeper sinus; the terminal 
cells of the leaf are smaller, and those of the basal margin are shorter 
and broader, all the leaf -cells having slightly thicker walls. 

Kantia Baldwinii (Anst.) Evans. 

Calypogeia Baldwinii Anst., Bot. Oazette, i, 32, 1875. 
Kantia BcUdwinii Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 256, 1892. 
Kantia rotundUtipula Steph., Bull, de I'Herb. Boissier, v, 846, 1897. 

Plats IX; figures 11-17. 

Dioicous (?) : plants yellow-brown, depressed, caespitose or 
scattered among other bryophytes : stems slender, simple or rarely 
branching, sometimes (very rarely) bearing true flagella, prostrate, 
ending obtusely or attenuated, flagelliform ; flagella short ; rhizoids 
borne in clusters at the base of the underleaves : leaves approxi- 
mate, imbricated at the base, apex free, obliquely inserted, obliquely 
ovate, verruculose, antical base arching partly over stem, postical 
base decurrent, antical margin dilated, apex subtruncate X)r rounded, 
sometimes slightly retuse : leaf-cells with slightly thickened walls, 
trigones minute : underleaves distant, twice as broad as stem, 
broadly ovate-subrotundate, subcordate at the base, apex retuse ; 
nnderleaf -cells similar to those of leaves: $ bracts arranged in 2 rows. 

28 CM. Cooke y Jr, — The Hawaiian HepaticoR 

minute ; the innermost bracts the largest, about twice the size of 
an underleaf, broadly ovate, denticulate, apex obtuse ; cells verru- 
culose ; bracteoles similar to bracts but narrower; perigynium unde- 

Stems 0.2°^^ in diameter; leaves O.V^'^xO.e"'"' to 0.9°»'"xO.'r™; 
underleaves 0.2™'"x0.4"'" ; leaf -cells at apex 25/*, at middle of base 
55/AX30/1, at antical margin 45/ax18/ji ; bracts 0.6°""x0.45"'". 

West Maui (Baldwin). Oahu : Konahuanui (Cooke). Hawaiian 
Islands (Herb. Spruce). 

K. JBaZdwinii is very close to K. nephrostipa Spruce, of South 
America. The leaves of the latter are more densely imbricated, 
longer in proportion to their breadth, the apex is usually crenulate, 
the cells have thicker cell-walls which are not verrucose, and the 
underleaves are broader and more deeply bifid. 

Compared with K. ccespitosa Spruce, of South America, IT. Bald- 
winii has the following differences : the plants are smaller ; the 
stems branching much less frequently ; the leaves are smaller and 
less imbricated, and the apex not so rounded ; the leaf-cells have 
thinner cell-walls and smaller trigones ; the underleaves are much 
smaller and broader in proportion to their length. 

Odontoschisina Dnmort., 1835. 

Plants medium-sized, green, sometimes reddish, rarely white, grow- 
ing in broad, flat mats, often mixed with mosses or other hepatics : 
stems strong, subterete, either prostrate or arching at intervals 
and free from the substratum ; flagella postical or terminating 
leafy branches ; leafy branches usually postical, similar to the 
stem : leaves obliquely to nearly longitudinally inserted, broadly 
ovate or suborbicular, retuse or rarely emarginate, usually concave 
and entire ; cells rather small to minute, isodiametric, often with a 
verruculose cuticle : underleaves commonly minute and soon obso- 
lete : $ inflorescence cladogenous ; bracts bifid, rarely trifid or 
quadrifid; bracteoles always present; perianth large, narrow, mouth 
ciliate to denticulate: capsule cylindrical-oblong, in other character- 
istics agreeing with that of C€2)halozia : androecium postical, small, 
amentiform, colorless, rarely larger and terminal. 

Leaves strongly concave. O. subjuUiceum. 

Leaves slightly concave, more often spreading. 

Plants rather large; leaves longer than broad, trigones small or lacking. 

O. Sandvicense. 
Plants slender; leaves usually broader than long, trigones large. 

0. graeile. 

of the Iribe THgonanthem. 29 

Odontoschisma subjulaceum Anst. 

Odantoschisma subjulaceum Anst., Bnll. Torr. Bot. Club, vi, 803, 1879. 
Jungermannia caudifera Tayl. Ms., ex parte ; Anst., 1. c. (as synonym). 

Plate X ; figures 10-26. 

Dioicous: plants small, green, or reddish near the apex, growing 
in dense or scattered tufts on fallen logs or on the ground: stems 
simple, rarely branching, short, apex ascending, usually attenuated 
and gemmiparous ; flagella borne near the base of stems, radiculose ; 
rhizoids scattered, at the base of stems or on the flagella : leaves 
strongly concave, apex arching over the stem, closely imbricated, 
decreasing in size on the attenuated portions of stems and branches, 
broadly ovate, apex entire, rounded, ventral base slightly rounded, 
dorsal base not decurrent ; leaves in upper part of gemmiparous 
branches small, spreading, narrowly ovate from a broad base, margin 
irregularly denticulate : leaf -cells thin-walled, with large sometimes 
confluent trigones and stellate cavities : underleaves rudimentary, 
minute, distant, usually bifid, near the base of branches much larger, 
unsymmetrically ovate or ligulate, obtuse or bidentulate; on gemmi- 
parous branches similar to the leaves: cells of underleaves thin-walled, 
with or without very small trigones; cells of underleaves near the base 
of branches similar to those of leaves : gemmje oval, composed of 1 or 
2 cells: 9 bracts in 2 or 3 pairs; innermost bracts ovate from a broad 
base, bifid from one-fourth to two-thirds, lobes triangular-subulate, 
acute-acuminate, often denticulate, innermost bracteole similar to 
bracts, but with shorter and more rounded lobes ; cells of bracts 
and bracteole elongated, thin-walled, trigones small, upper marginal 
cells verruculose: S bracts in 4 to G pairs, orbicular-ovate, strongly 
concave, unequally bifid one- third to one-fifth, lobes obtuse, verru- 
culose at the apex. 

Stems 0.1 S"*"' in diameter; leaves 0.6"'"x0.58"'" to 0.4'°™x0.38'"°'; 
leaf -cells at apex 24/ix23/jt, at middle of base 32/ix35ft, trigones lO/x, 
cells at margin 21/ax25/a; innermost bracts 0.75™™x0.4"°^; ^ bracts 
0.2°»"x0.17"% rudimentary underleaves O.oe^^^'xO.OS"", cells 24/1. 

West Maui (Baldwin). Hawaiian Islands (Bailey). Oahu: Nuuanu 
(Cooke). Kauai: Waimea (Heller); Kilohana, Lihue, Hanalei 

Odontoschisma subjulaceum differs from 0, Sphagni (Dicks.) 
Dumort., of Europe and North America, in being a much smaller 
plant and in producing numerous gemmae ; its leaves also are not 
decurrent ventrally and are much more convex with stellate cell- 
cavities and larger trigones. 

30 C. M, Cooke^ Jr. — TTie Hawaiian Hepaiiic(B 

Odontoschisma pntcile (Mitt.) Steph. 

Sph<igncee€tis graeilia Mitt.; Seemann, Flora Vitiensis, 405, 1871. 
Odontogehisma grcieile Steph., Bull, de THerb. Boissier, y, 848, 1897. 

Plate X ; fioubes 1-9. 

Sterile : plant brown when dry : stems slender, prostrate, long, 
rarely branching, branches often attenuate, flagelliform, rarely gem- 
miparous; true flagella rarely present, borne at base of stems; rhi- 
zoids in scattered clusters on postical surface of stem: leaves obliquely 
inserted, plane or nearly so, slightly imbricated or approximate, 
broadly subrotund, antical base rounded, postical base sometimes 
very slightly decurrent: leaf -cells with thin walls, very large tri- 
gones and stellate cavities: underleaves rudimentary, distant, minute, 
composed of 2 to 4 cells, underleaves at the base of branches larger, 
subligulate, composed of 7 to 10 cells; cells small, walls slightly 
thickened, cavities round or oval. 

Stems 0.1""^ to 0.12'""^ in breadth; leaves 0.4"'"x0.45°»"; leaf -cells 
near apex 25/ax27/i, trigones lO/i, cells near middle of base 45ftx27ft, 
trigones 13/a ; underleaves at base of branches 0.09™°*x0.045°*™ to 
0.09'"™x0.06™", cells 24/i; cells of rudimentary underleaves 19ft. 

Hawaiian Islands (Graudichaud). Known only from the type- 
material, a portion of which is preserved in the Kew herbarium. 

Odo7itoschisma gracile differs from O, subjidaceum in being 
longer and more slender; its leaves also are smaller and less imbri- 
cated, more spreading, broader in proportion to their length and 
with the postical margin much more curved ; the leaf -cells have 
much larger trigones, and those at the base are longer and with 
narrower and more stellate cavities. 

OdontoschlBma Sandvicense (Angstr.) Evans. 

Sphaffnoecetis Sandvicensis Angstr., Ofver. af Eongl. Vet. Akad. FOrhandl., 

xxix (No 4), 22, 1872. 
Odontoschisma Sandvicense Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad., viii, 256, 1892. 

Plate XI. 

Dioicous : plants green, rarely red, loosely csespitose : sterns 
appressed, branching irregularly, apex ascending, obtuse, sometimes 
gemmiparous, rarely flagelliform ; flagella borne at base of stem or 
branches ; rhizoids borne in clusters on postical surface of stems or 
branches : leaves slightly concave, obliquely inserted, ovate-subquad- 
rate, apex, subtruncate or rounded; verruculose, postical base slightly 
rounded, antical base not decurrent, leaves on attenuated gemmi- 

of the Tribe Trigonantheoe. 31 

paroas branches small, ovate from a broad base, acute or obtuse: 
leaf -cells at apex and along margin oblong-quadrate, thin-walled, per- 
pendicular to edge, cell-cavities with slightly rounded corners, tri- 
gones minute, cell-cavities sometimes slightly stellate with small 
trigones, cells in middle and at base thin-walled with cavities irreg- 
ular or rounded and trigones minute or small : underleaves minute, 
rudimentary, consisting of a few cells ; on gemmiparous branches 
similar to leaves ; at the base of branches well developed, broadly 
ovate, obtuse or bifid ; cells of the underleaves thin-walled with 
minute trigones : gemmae oval, composed of 1 or 2 cells : $ inflor- 
escence borne on a short branch; $ bracts in 3 or 4 rows; innermost 
bracts about the length of the leaves but narrower, ovate from a 
broad base, upper half irregularly denticulate, apex irregularly bifid 
about one-third, lobes ovate, apiculate or subulate, sometimes cleft, 
irregularly denticulate, terminal cell verruculose; innermost bracteole 
similar to bracts, but less deeply bifid : perianth fusiform, usually 
curved, terete below, irregularly keeled above, 3 or 4 cells thick at 
base, 2 cells thick to near the middle, 1 cell thick above, mouth 
irregularly lobed, lobes dentate-laciniate, lacinia) sometimes denticu- 
late, 2 or 3 cells broad at base and ending in a row of 1 to 4 slightly 
verruculose cells : elaters bispiral ; spores small, round, brownish 

Stems 0.15"™ to 0.18"" in diameter; leaves 0.9""x0.85""; leaf -cells 
at dorsal margin 17fix22f^ near apex 21/xx25f^ at middle of base 39/ax 
28^ ; rudimentary underleaves 0.05""x0.07"" ; cells of underleaves 
at base of branches 30/xx25/i ; perianth 2.5""x0.6"" to 3.0""x0.8""; 
innermost bracts l.l""x0.4"" ; innermost bracteole 0.9""x0.35""; 
elaters about 250/xx10/a; spores 9/x. 

Hawaiian Islands (Andersson). Oahu: Nuuanu (Cooke). 

Odontoschisma Sandvicense differs from O. Sphagjii in having 
gemmae and in its larger leaves, which are decurrent antically; the 
cells at the base of the leaves are also larger. From O. subjulacexim 
it differs in its larger size and green color ; the leaves are larger, 
more quadrate, narrower in proportion to their breadth, more spread- 
ing, and less concave ; its cell-cavities are more regular in outline, 
never as distinctly stellate, and its trigones are much smaller. 

Cephalozia Dnmort., 1835. 

Plants usually small, sometimes minute, rarely large or robust, 
branches usually postical, rarely lateral : leaves succubous, rarely 
transversely inserted, more or less concave, often bilobed or subcom- 

32 (7. M, Cqoke, Jr, — The Hawaiian Hepaticm 

plicate) margins never reflexed, entire or denticulate : underleaves 
much smaller than leaves, in some species partly or wholly lacking: 
dioicous, autoicous or paroicous : $ inflorescence usually borne on 
a short branch, rarely terminal on a vegetative branch, sometimes 
variable in position in the same species ; bracts in about 3 rows, 
bilobed (rarely trilobed or quadrilobed), often connate, yet free 
from the perianth ; bracteoles always present : archegonia about 20, 
rarely fewer : perianth elongated, usually trigonous, rarely 5- or 
fi-keeled, mouth variously laciniate to denticulate, rarely entire; 
calyptra free, surrounded at the base by the sterile archegonia: cap- 
sule more or less oblong, walls 2 cells thick, cells of the inner layer 
furnished with semiannular thickenings; elaters long, bispiral ; spores 
minute, about the diameter of the elaters, smooth or verruculose : 
androecium amentiform, usually occupying a short postical branch, or 
intercalary on a main branch ; bracts in several pairs, bifid, monan- 

Stems weak, postically branched; cortical cells larger than interior ; leares 
more or less obliquely inserted ; bracts not connate or only slightly so. 
Plants rather large ; leaves approximate or slightly imbricated ; month of 

perianth laciniate ; autoicous. C Sandxicensis, 

Plants minute ; leaves distant ; month of perianth ciliate ; paroioouB. 

C. Baldtvinii. 
Stems rigid, sometimes laterally branched ; cortical cells similar to interior ; 
leaves transversely inserted ; bracts connate. 
Innovations lacking; leaf-cells with much thickened walls; $ inflorescence 

cladogenous ; innermost bracteole not bifid. C, Kilohanensis, 

Innovations present ; leaf -cells with slightly thickened cell-walls ; inflo- 
rescence acrogenous or cladogenous ; innermost bracteole bifid. 

Underleaves lacking ; leaf -cells at margin 12/xxlO/i. C. Like, 

Underleaves present ; leaf-cells at margin 20uxl5/i. C. heteraica. 

Subgenus Eucephalozia Spruce, 1882. 

Plants variable in size, green, rarely yellow, sometimes reddish: 
stems mostly weak or fragile, rarely rigid, simple or sparingly branch- 
ing ; branches more or less postical, sometimes flagelliform : leaves 
obliquely inserted, often somewhat broader than long, concave or 
subcomplicate, margin entire, apex bifid: cells as a rule large, pel- 
lucid, quadrate-hexagonal or quadrate, smooth : underleaves, when 
present, entire or bifid : monoicous or dioicous : ? inflorescence in 
some species constantly cladogenous or acrogenous, in others varia- 
ble in position ; bracts rather large, 2- to 4-lobed, entire or often 
dentate, spinulose or incised ; bracteoles always present ; perianth 

of %7ie Tribe Trigonanthem, 33 

fusiform, sometimes almost linear, trigonous, mouth constricted, 
denticulate, setulose, ciliate or laciuiate: capsule more or less oblong: 
androecium spicate or amentiform, variable in position, rarely hypo- 
genous ; <$ bracts similar to $ bracts but smaller. 

Cephalozia SandTicensifl (Mont.) Spmce. 

Jungermannia Sandvicensis Mont., Ann. des Sc. Nat. 11. xix, 249, 1843. 

Voyage de la Bonite, Botanique, i, 259; atlas, pi. CXLVI, fig. 1, 1846. 
Jungermannia crcLssifolia Lindenb. & Gottsche ; G. L. & N., Syn. Hep., 685, 

1847, according to Spmce. 
Cephalozia ccmnivens Anst., Bnll. Torr. Bot. Clnb, v, 15, 1874 (not Cephalozia 

conniveris (Dicks.) Dnmort.). 
Blephirostoma Soindvicense Trevis., Mem. reale Ist. Lomb. di Sci. e Lett., 

in, ir, 417, 1877. 
Cephalozia Sandvicensis Spmce, On Cephalozia, 46, 1882. 
Cephaiozia muUiflora Evans, Trans. Conn. Acad, viii, 256, 1892 (not Cephalozia 

mult'^ra Sprace). 

Plate Xn. 

Antoicous : plants depressed, pale : stems colorless, sparingly 
branched, branches blunt or attenuated, stems oval in section, about 
6 by 5 cells, the ventral surface more rounded than the dorsal; interior 
cells with thickened walls, cortical cells in 10 to 12 rows, those of 
the dorsal surface about three times as large as those of the ventral; 
rhizoids scattered on the ventral surface of the stem, long, colorless: 
leaves slightly imbricated at the base or approximate, almost longi- 
tudinally inserted, spreading or slightly concave, antical base decur- 
rent, broadly ovate, unequally bifid (about one-half), lobes subulate, 
spreading or connivent, postical lobe broader, with outer margin 
more dilated, 3 to 5 cells broad, 4 or 5 cells long, usually ending 
in a row of 2 or 3 cells, antical lobe about 3 cells broad (rarely 2 or 
4), 4 or 5 cells long, ending in a row of 2 or 3 cells: cell-walls thin, 
comers rounded, trigones very small: underleaves wanting: $ 
inflorescence borne on a short branch; $ bracts usually in 3 pairs; 
innermost bracts ovate, deeply bifid (about two-thirds), the lobes 
usually unequally cleft, the outer division much the smaller, some- 
times with supplementary divisions or subequally 4 or 5 lobed, the 
inner lobes subulate, 8 to 10 cells long and about 4 cells broad, end- 
ing in a row of 2 to 4 cells, outer lobes 2 to 8 cells long; innermost 
bracteole similar to bracts, scarcely connate with them, the lobes 
usually less deeply cleft; bracts of second row shorter, deeply lobed 
(about one-half), sometimes with subdivided lobes ; perianth usually 

Trahb. Cohn. Acad., Vol. XII. 3 May, 1904. 

of the Tribe TrigonarUheoB. 35 

Cephalozia Baldwinii sp. nov. 

Plate XIII; figures 1-9. 

Paroicous: plants minute, pale green, scattered among other 
hepaticae : stems very slender, pale green or colorless, rarely branch- 
ing from the postical surface, 5 or 6 cells in diameter, cortical cells 
(in about 9 lougitudinal rows) much larger than internal celL^, 
the latter with uniformly thickened walls ; rhizoids long, colorless, 
in scattered clusters on the postical surface : leaves distant, minute, 
subtransversely inserted, slightly spreading, ovate, unequally bifid 
(about two-thirds), the antical lobe longer and narrower than the 
postical; lobes subulate, spreading, connivent or overlapping, antical 
lobe 2 or rarely 3 cells broad, generally 4 cells long, ending in a row 
of 2 or 3 cells, postical lobe 3 or 4, rarely 2, cells broad, usually 4 cells 
long, ending in a row of 2 cells or in a single cell ; sinus obtuse or 
rounded : underleaves wanting : leaf-cells small, cell-walls thin, 
colorless, trigones lacking : $ inflorescence borne on a short postical 
branch ; $ bracts reduced to a single pair, broadly ovate, deeply 
bifid (about one third), bearing a short lateral tooth, lobes triangular 
acute, sinus obtuse ; bracteole ovate, bifid, lobes triangular, acute ; 
perianth cylindrical, without distinct keels, 1 cell thick, mouth con- 
tracted, ciliate, cilia 1 or 2 cells long : 6 bracts hypogynous, in 2 or 
3 pairs concave, appressed to stem, ovate, bifid, lobes triangular, 
acute, sinus acute or obtuse. 

Stems 0.75"™ in diameter; cortical (antical) cells 54/ix21/a; leaves 
0.15"*™x0.1™™ ; leaf -cells at middle 25ftxl9/A, at postical margin 
24fixl5fi ; innermost bracts 0.4"™x0.35™™ ; bracts of second row 
0.4""x0.3™" ; perianth l.l'"™x0.4™'". 

West Maui (Baldwin), creeping over Lepidozia Sajidvicensis, 

This species was found among some hepatics collected by Baldwin 
in 1875. Unfortunately only a single well developed perianth and 
two or three young flowers could be found. The younger stages 
show conclusively that the species is paroicous. C Baldwinii 
is intermediate between Spruce's JEucephalozia and Cephaloziella, 
with a larger number of characters in favor of the former subgenus. 

Spruce mentions only two paroicous species of Cephalozia, C. 
Jackii Limpr. and C. myriantha Lindb., of Europe, both of which 
belong to Cephalozidla, C. leucantha Spruce, of northern regions, 
is nearest to the Hawaiian species but differs in its more distant 
and more deeply bifid leaves, with narrower unequal lobes, in its 
dentate bracts, and in its dioicous inflorescence. 

36 (7. M. Cooke^ Jr, — 7%e ffatoaiian JHiepcUiccB 

Subgenns Cephaloziella Spruce, 1882. 

Plants small or minute, often mixed with mosses or other hepatics: 
stems usually robust, cortical and interior cells similar, in many 
subrhizomatous at the base, bearing flagella ; leafy branches postical 
or more rarely lateral : lower leaves succubous, upper leaves crowded, 
transversely inserted, rarely exceeding the stem in breadth, often 
cuneiform, bifid one-half or more, carinate, segments subcomplicate 
or diverging, entire or subdenticulate, rarely spinulose : cells small 
or minute, subquadrate : underleaves (when present) small, entire or 
bifid, sometimes present or lacking in the same species : 9 inilores- 
cence acrogenous, cladogenous, or variable in position ; bracts 
rather large, bilobed, lobes denticulate or spinulose ; bracteoles 
always present, connate with the bracts ; perianth narrow, rarely 
only 3-keeled, often 3- to 6-keeled in the same species, mouth den- 
ticulate, rarely ciliate: androecium borne on stems or larger branches, 
intercalary or terminal, rarely amentiform ; bracts similar to stem- 
leaves, rarely smaller. 

Cephalozia Lilse sp. nov. 

Plate XIII ; figures 10-20. 

Dioicous ? plants scattered, pale green: stems pale green or nearly 
colorless, branching postically, oval in section, about 5x7 cells, walls 
slightly uniformly thickened, internal and cortical cells similar, the 
latter in about 18 longitudinal rows, rhizoids long, colorless, scattered 
at the base of the stem or branches : leaves distant, obliquely-trans- 
versely inserted, widely spreading, slightly concave, ovate or sub- 
quadrate, equally bifid (about one-half), lobes entire, spreading 
triangular, acute, about 7 cells long, 5 cells broad, usually ending in a 
row of two cells; leaf -cells with slightly uniformly thickened walls: 
underleaves wanting: $ inflorescence borne on main stem or branch, 
often having innovations; $ bracts in one or two pairs; innermost 
bracts broadly ovate, bifid (about one-third), lobes triangular, acute, 
spreading irregularly denticulate; sinus acute; innermost bracteole 
shorter than bracts, highly connate on both sides, ovate, apex 
rounded, denticulate or bifid (about one-fifth), lobes apicolate, dentic- 
ulate, sinus obtuse; bracts of second row smaller, broadly ovate, bifid 
(about one-third): perianth ovoid -cylindrical, unistratose, terete 
below, many keeled above, mouth slightly contracted, irregularly 
lobed, lobes denticulate. 

of the Tribe Trigonantheoe. 3*7 

Stems 0.06°»°* in diameter; leaves 0.12™'"x0.11'"°; leaf-cells at mar- 
gin 12|AXl0ft, at middle and base 17/i; innermost bracts 0.32""x0.24°»°»; 
innermost bracteole 0.2""x0.1'"'°; perianth 0.35°'°»x0.2°»°'. 

Oahu : Nuuanu (Cooke). 

This species is the smallest Cephalozia reported, so far, from the 
Hawaiian Islands. It was found scattered among other hepaticae. 
It is rather close to C, elachista Jack, of Europe. The leaves of the 
Hawaiian species are less deeply bifid and the leaf-cells are smaller 
with thicker cell-walls. The Hawaiian species is probably dioicous 
as no male spikes were found, while (7. elachista is monoicous and 
its perichsBtial bracts are blunler and less denticulate. 

Cephalozia Kilohaiiensis, sp. nov. 

Plate XIV. 

Autoicous : plants minute, caespitose, reddish brown : stems pros- 
trate, light brown, sparingly branched from the postical surface, 
about 5 cells in diameter, internal and cortical cells similar, the 
latter in about 12 longitudinal rows; rhizoids numerous, scattered 
on the lower surface of the stem : leaves near the apex of the stem 
imbricated, almost transversely inserted, concave, assurgent, sub- 
quadrate, broadly ovate, bifid (about one-half), lobes entire, spread- 
ing, 6 to 10 cells long, 4 to 7 cells broad, triangular-ovate, apex acute 
to obtuse; sinus usually obtuse: leaf-cells with much thickened walls, 
trigones lacking or minute : underleaves wanting : $ inflorescence 
borne on a short postical branch ; bracts in 3 to 6 pairs ; inner- 
most bracts similar to the leaves but from 2 to 3 times as large, 
broadly ovate, bifid (one-third to one-half), lobes unequal, the posti- 
cal the larger, acute or obtuse, sinus separating lobes acute or obtuse, 
margin entire or nearly so; innermost bracteole narrowly ovate, con- 
nate on one or both sides, apex acute, obtuse or bifid, when bifid the 
lobes are unequal, triangular, acute; other bracts similar but smaller 
than innermost bracts ; other bracteoles narrowly ovate, acute or 
obtuse, slightly connate on one or both sides : perianth cylindrical, 
terete below, obtusely keeled near the apex, 1 cell thick, upper 
third hyaline, mouth contracted, irregularly denticulate : ^ spike 
usually occupying a short postical branch ; S bracts in 5 to 10 
pairs, similar to leaves, closely imbricated, concave, unequally bifid, 
lobes ovate, obtuse, entire ; ^ bracteoles rudimentary, minute, ligu- 
late; cells of bracteole small subquadrate; antheridia borne singly: 
spores minute, round, purplish, verruculose ; elaters blunt ; bispiral. 

38 CM. Cooke^ Jr. — The Haxoaiian HepaticoR 

Stems 0.08'"°^ in diameter ; leaves 0.18™"x0.15'"™ to 0.3»""x0.28°'™; 
cells of stem 16/x in diameter ; leaf -cells at margin 19/AXl6f^ at base 
24/1x18/1 ; innermost bracts 0.35'"°'x0.3™°', bracteole 0.35°*°xO.15°'" ; 
perianth 0.95™™x0.4'^'" ; 6 bracts 0.2 5"'™x0.2°»'°; spores 9/i ; elaters 
about 160/1x9/1. 

Kauai : Kilohana (Cooke), growing on the ground. 

This species resembles C, exiliflora (Tayl.) Trevis. at first sight 
but differs in a large number of important characters. The Hawaiian 
species is autoicous while the New Zealand species is dioicous, the 
leaves of the former are larger, and more imbricated near the apex, 
the walls of the leaf-cells are slightly thicker, the 6 and $ organs 
are not acrogenous but are borne on postical branches, and lastly the 
perichsetial bracts are not denticulate. 

Cephalozia heteroica sp. nov. 

Plate XV. 

Heteroicous : plants green, loosely caespitose : stems subsimple 
or branching from the postical aspect, prostrate at the base, apex 
ascending, circular in section, about 6 cells in diameter, internal and 
cortical cells similar, with slightly thickened walls, the latter in about 
15 longitudinal rows ; rhizoids colorless, scattered on the ventral 
surface: leaves distant, transversely inserted, squarrose, somewhat 
concave, subquadrate, bifid more than one-half, lobes spreading, 
ovate, acute, entire, separated by an obtuse sinus, about 7 cells long, 
4 or 5 cells broad : leaf-cells with uniformly thickened walls, cell-cavi- 
ties sometimes rounded, trigones minute or lacking : underleaves 
v^ery small, about 4 cells broad at base, variable in form," lanceolate- 
ovate to broadly quadrate, apices acute, obtuse or bifid, with unequal, 
icuminate to obtuse, spreading to connivent lobes; cells of the under- 
eaves small, with uniformly thickened walls : $ inflorescence usually 
oorne on the main stem, with a sterile or floriferous innovation, 
nometiraes on a short postical branch; bracts in 2 or 3 pairs; innermost 
3racts broadly ovate to broadly quadrate, bifid (one-fourth to one- 
:hird), lobes triangular, acute, denticulate ; innermost bracteole sub- 
orbicular, connate on both sides, bifid, lobes triangular, acute, 
ienticulate ; bracts of second row broadly ovate, bifid (about one- 
^hird), lobes triangular-ovate, acute, spreading, slightly denticulate ; 
bracteole of second row connate on both sides, ovate, bifid (about 
one-third), sometimes quadrified, lobes ovate, acute, slightly denticu- 
late : perianth broadly fusiform, terete below, bluntly three-keeled 

of the Tribe Trigonantheoe. 39 

above, mouth slightly contracted, irregularly lobed, lobes denticu- 
late ; innovations lateral or postical, arising just below the second 
bracteole or from the axil of a bract : andrcecium borne just below 
the female flower or intercalary on a vegetative branch ; ^ bracts 
in 3 to 10 pairs, imbricated, suberect, slightly concave, about twice 
the size of the leaves of the vegetative branches, bifid (about one- 
half), lobes broadly ovate-triangular, acute, widely spreading, sinus 
broadly lunate ; bracteoles ovate, bifid (about three-fourths), lobes 
subulate, parallel ; antheridia borne singly. 

Stems 0.08"° in diameter; leaves 0.15°™x0.16°™ ; leaf-cells at 
margin 19ftxl6ft, at middle of base 20/i ; innermost 9 bracts 
0.45™""x0.6""" ; innermost bracteole 0.38'"™x0.4°'™, $ bracts of second 
row 0.45°°x0.5°™ ; bracteole of second row 0.35°'"x0.3°'° ; peri- 
anth 1.25°'"x0.45°°» ; 6 bracts 0.25°^'"x0.25™°». 

Kauai ; Kilohana (Cooke), growing on an exposed bank. 

This species varies greatly in almost every character pertaining to 
the male and female flowers. In rare instances the 9 inflorescence 
is borne on a short postical branch with the androscium median 
between the 9 bracts and the main stem. Usually the 9 inflor- 
escence is borne on a main branch or an innovation and sometimes 
as many as three or four floriferous innovations are given off in suc- 
cession. The 9 bracts and bracteoles vary greatly both in size and 
form. The underleaves also vary greatly. 

(7. heteroica is nearest to Cephaloziella Hehridensis Steph., from 
the New Hebrides Islands.* This species differs in its dioicous inflo- 
rescence, in its carinate leaves with acuminate lobes, in its smaller 
leaf-cells, and in the entire mouth of its perianth. 

» Hedwigia, xxxii, 316, 1893. 

40 C. M. Cooke^ Jr. — The Hawaiian HepatiecB 


Plate I. 

Lepidozia australis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Mitt., p. 5. — Fig. 1. Part of stem, poe- 
tical view, x30. — Fig. 2. Part of stem, antical view, x30. — Fig. 3. Leaf 
snbtending bract, x30.— Fig. 4. Cells of tooth of leaf , x270.— Fig. 5. Cells 
at middle of anderleaf, x 270.— Fig. 6. Perianth, x30. — Fig. 7. Innermost 
$ bract, X 30.— Figs. 8-10. Consecutive $ bracts, x 30. —Figs. 11-18. Con- 
secutive $ bracteoles, corresponding to Figs. 8-10, x 30. — Fig. 14. Apex of 
perianth, x 200. —Fig. 15. S bract, x 80. —Fig. 16. 6 bracteole, x80. All 
drawings from specimens collected by Mr. Baldwin on West Maui (No. 150). 

Plate II. 

Lepidozia Sandvicensis Lindenb., p. 7. — Figs. 1, 2. Leaves of main stem, x75. 
— Figs. 3-5. Underleaves of main stem, x75. — Fig. 6. Leaf of branch, 
X 75. — Fig. 7. Underleaf of branch, x 75. — Figs. 8-10. Leaves subtending 
branches, x 75. —Fig. 11. Cells of lateral tooth of leaf, x 195.— Fig. 12. 
Cells of lateral tooth of underleaf, x 195. Drawings from specimens col- 
lected by Mr. Baldwin on West Maui (No. 69). 

Lepidozia Hawaica Cooke, p. 8. — Fig. 13. Part of stem, postioal view, x 75. — 
Fig. 14. Leaf, x 265.— Fig. 15. Underleaf, x 265.— Fig. 16. Perianth, x 80. 
Figs. 17-20. Consecutive bracts, x75. — Fig. 21. Apex of perianth, xl05. 
—Fig. 22. ,5 branch, x 75.— Figs. 23, 24. 6 bracts, x75. All drawings 
from the type-specimens, collected by the writer in Nuuanu, Oahu. 

Plate III. 

Ba^zania cordistipula (Mont.) Trevis., p. 12. — Fig. 1. Leaf, x24. — Fig. 2. 
Underleaf, x 24.— Fig. 3. Part of stem, antical view, x 12. — ^Fig. 4. Leaf- 
cells at base of median tooth, x 215. — Fig. 5. Leaf -cells at antical edge, 
X 215.— Fig. 6. CeUs at middle of leaf, x 215.— Fig. 7. Cells at middle of 
base of leaf, x 215. —Fig. 8. Perianth, x 12.— Figs. 9-13. $ bracts in order, 
x24. — Fig. 14. Apex of perianth, x80. — Figs. 1-7 drawn from specimens 
collected by Mr. Baldwin on West Maui (No. 12) ; Figs. 8-14 drawn from 
specimens collected by the writer on Xonahuanui, Oahu. 

Bazzania Sandvicensis {Gotische) Steph., p. 14. — Fig. 15. Leaf, x24. — Fig. 16. 
Underieaf, x 24. —Fig. 17. Cells of median tooth of leaf, x 215. —Fig. 18. 
Cells from middle of leaf, x 215.— Fig. 19. Cells at antical edge of leaf, 
X 215.— Fig. 20. Perianth, x 12.— Fig. 21. Apex of perianth, x 62.— Fig. 
22. Cells of perianth, showing intermediate thickenings, x 215. —Figs. 15-19 
drawn from type-specimen ; Figs. 20-22 drawn from specimens collected by 
Mr. Baldwin on Molokai (No. 212). 

Bazzania Nuuanuensis Cooke, p. 15.— Fig. 23. Part of stem, postical view, x 12. 
—Fig. 24. Part of stem, antical view, x 12.— Figs. 25, 26. Leaves, x 24.— 
Figs. 27, 28. Underleaves, x 24.— Fig. 29. Leaf-cells at apex, x 215.— Fig. 
30. Leaf -cells at middle of leaf, x 215.— Fig. 31. Leaf-ceUs at middle of 
leaf near the base, x 215. All drawings from the type-specimens, collected 
by the writer on Oahu. 

of the TVibe TrigonanthecB, 41 

Plate IV. 

Bazzania Didericiana Steph., p. 15. — Kg. 1. Leaf, x30. — Figs. 2, 3. Under- 
leaves, x 30. — Fig. 4. Cells at apex of leaf, x 265. — Fig. 5. Leaf -cells at 
middle near base, x 265. — Fig. 6. Perianth, x 15. — Fig. 7. Innermost bract, 
X 30. — Fig. 8. Innermost bracteole, x 30. — Fig. 9. Apex of perianth, x 75. 
—(Figs. 10-13. Aberrant form.)--Fig. 10. Leaf, x 30.— Fig. 11. Underleaf, 
X 30.— Fig. 12. Leaf-cells of apical tooth, x 265.— Fig. 13. Leaf-cells of 
middle near base, x 265. — Figs. 1-9 drawn from type- specimens ; Figs. 
10-13 drawn from specimens collected by the writer on Lanihnli, Oaha. 

Bazzania emarginata (Steph.) Cooke, p. 17. — Fig. 14. Part of stem, postical 
view, X 15. — Figs. 15, 16. Leaves, x 30. — Figs. 17-19. Underleaves, x 30. — 
Fig. 20. Cells from middle of leaf, x 265.— Fig. 21. Perianth, x 15.— Figs. 
22-24. Bracts in order, x 30.— Fig. 25. Apex of perianth, x 75.— Fig. 26. 
6 bract, x 30. — Fig. 27. 6 bracteole, x 30. All drawings from specimens 
collected by the writer on Eonahnanni, Oahn. 

Plate V. 

Bazzania minuta (Anst.) Evans, p. 19. — Fig. 1. Part of stem, x 16. — Figs. 2-5. 
Leaves from a single stem, x45. — Fig. 6. Leaf, x45. — Figs. 7-11. Under- 
leaves, x45. — Fig. 12. Leaf -cells at apex of leaf, x285. — Fig. 13. Leaf- 
cells at middle of leaf, x 285. All drawings from specimens collected by 
Mr. Baldwin on East Mani (No. 65). 

Bazzania Baldwinii Anst., p. 18. — Fig. 14. Leaf, x32. — Figs. 15-18. Under- 
leaves, x 32.— Fig. 19. Leaf -cells at apex of leaf, x 285.— Fig. 20. Leaf-cells 
at middle of leaf near base, x 285.— Figs. 21, 22. Leaves, x 32.— Figs. 23-25. 
Underleaves, x 32.— Fig. 26. Leaf -cells at apex of leaf, x 285.— Fig. 27. 
Leaf-ceUs at antical edge of leaf, x 285. — Fig. 28. Leaf -cells at middle of 
leaf near base, x285. — Fig. 29. Part of stem with male branch, x32. — 
Figs. 80-82. Male bracts, x 32.— Fig. 33. Male bracteole, x 32.— Figs. 14-20 
from the type-specimens, collected by Mr. Baldwin on West Maoi (No. 199) ; 
Figs. 21-33 from specimens collected by Mr. Baldwin on E^t Maui (No. 

Plate VI. 

Bazzania patens (Mont.) Trevis., p. 20.— Figs. 1, 2. Leaves, x25. — Figs. 3-7. 

Underleaves, x 25.— Fig. 8. Cells of median tooth, x 285.— Fig. 9. Cells at 

middle of leaf near base, x 285. — Fig. 10. Cells in the middle of onderleaf , 

X 285. All drawings from specimens collected by the writer at Kilohana, 

Island of Kauai. 

Bcuszania inoequabilis Steph., p. 21.— Fig. 11. Part of stem, postical view, x 16. 

—Fig. 12. Leaf, x 32. —Figs. 13-18. Apices of leaves from a single plant, 

X 82. —Figs. 19-22. Underleaves, x 32.— Fig. 23. Cells of median tooth, 

X 285. —Fig. 24. Cells from middle of leaf near the base, x 285.— Fig. 25. 

Innermost $ bract, x 32. All drawings from the type-specimens. 

42 C. M, Cookcy Jr, — The Hawaiian HepaJtictB 

Plate VII. 

Bazzania Brighami (Aust.) Evans, p. 22.— Fig. 1. Part of stem, x 82. — Figs. 2-7. 
Leaves, x 32.— Figs. 8, 9. Underleaves, x 32.— Fig. 10. Leaf, x 82.— Figs. 
11, 12. Underleaves, x 32.— Fig. 13. Cells at apex of leaf, x 285.— Fig. 14. 
Cells in middle of leaf, x 285. — Fig. 15. Cells in middle of leaf near the 
base, X 285.— Fig. 16. Cells in middle of nnderleaf, x 285.— Fig. 17. Peri- 
anth, xl6. — Fig. 18. Innermost 9 bract, x32. — Fig. 19. Innermost ? 
bracteole, x 32. — Fig. 20. Part of stem, showing 6 branch borne on a flagel- 
lum, X 32.— Figs. 21-24. i bracts, x 85.— Fig. 25. 6 bracteole, x 85.— Figs. 
2-9 drawn from specimens collected by the writer at Nnnann, Island of 
Oahn ; Figs. 1 , 10-25 from specimens collected by the writer at Kilohana, 

Plate VIII. 

Kantia Tosana Steph., p. 24. — Fig. 1. Part of stem, postical view, xl4. — Fig. 
2. Part of stem, antical view, x 14. — Fig. 3. Leaf, x 28. — ^Figs. 4-6. Under- 
leaves, X 28.— Fig. 7. Cells at apex of leaf, x 250.— Fig. 8. Cells at apex 
of nnderleaf , x 250. All drawings from specimens collected by writer in 
Nnuanu Valley, Oahn. 

Kantia cuspidata Steph. y p. 25. — Fig. 9. Part of stem, postical view, xl4. — 
Fig. 10. Part of stem, antical view, x 14.— Fig. 11. Leaf, x 28. —Fig. 12. 
Underleaf , x 28.— Fig. 13. Cells at apex of leaf, x 250.— Fig. 14. Cells at 
apex of nnderleaf, x 250. All drawings from specimens coUected by Mr. 
Heller at Monoa, Oahu. 

Plate IX. 

Kantia bifurca (Anst.) Evans, p. 26. — Fig. 1. Part of stem, postical view, x 16. 
—Fig. 2. Leaf, x 32.— Fig. 8. Underleaf, x 215.— Fig. 4. Cross section of 
stem, x85. — Fig. 5. Apex of leaf, x215. — Fig. 6. Innermost $ bract, 
X 32.— Figs. 7-9. $ bracts of second row, x 32.— Fig. 10. $ bract, x85. 
All drawings from specimens collected by the writer in Nanann, Oahn. 
Kantia Baldwinii (Anst.) Evans, p. 27. — Fig. 11. Part of stem, poetical view, 
X 16.— Fig. 12. Part of stem, antical view, x 16.— Fig. 13. Leaf, x32.— 
Fig. 14. Underleaf, x32. — Fig. 15. Marginal cell at apex of leaf, x400. — 
Fig. 16. Cells from middle of leaf, x 285.— Fig. 17. Cells at apex of nnder- 
leaf, x 285. All drawings from specimens coUected by Mr. Baldwin on West 
Maui (No. 141). 

Plate X. 

Odontoschisma gracile (Mitt.) Steph., p. 30. — Fig. 1. Part of stem, postical view, 
X 28. —Fig. 2. Apex of flagellum, x 70. —Fig. 3. Leaf, x 28. —Figs. 4-7. 
Underleaves, x 250.— Fig. 8. Cells at apex of leaf, x 250.— Fig. 9. Cells 
from the middle of leaf, x 250. Drawings from type-specimens. 

Odontoschisma subjulaceum Anst., p. 29. — Fig. 10. Portion of stem, lateral view, 
x28. — Fig. 11. Apex of gemmiparous branch, x28. — Figs. 12, 18. Leaves 
X 28. — Figs. 14-16. Underleaves at base of branches, x 100. — Fig. 17. Under- 
leaf, X 250.— Fig. 18. Cells from middle of leaf, x250.— Fig. 19. Cells of 
underleaf, x 175. — Figs. 20-22. Innermost $ bracts, x 57. — Fig. 28. Inner- 
most $ bracteole, with Fig. 21, x57. — Fig. 24. S branch, x28. — ^Figs. 
25, 26. S bracts, x 57. Drawings from specimens collected by Mr. Baldwin 
on West Maui (No. 233). 

of the Tribe Trigonanthece, 43 

Plate XI. 

Odontoaehisma Sandvicense (Angstr.) Evans, p. 30. — Fig. 1. Branch, postical 
view, xl7. — Fig. 2. Leaf, x34. — Figs. 3, 4. Underleaves at base of 
branches, x 70. — Big. 5. Underleaf, x 315. — Fig. 6. Cells at apex of leaf, 
X 315.— Figs. 7, 8. Cells at middle of leaf, x 315.— Fig. 9. Cells from the mid- 
dle of nnderleaf at base of branch, x 315. — Fig. 10. Perianth, x 17. — Figs. 11, 
12. Bracts, x34. — Fig. 13. Bracteole, x 34.— Fig. 14. Apex of perianth, 
X 90. Figs. 2, 6, 7 from type-specimens ; other drawings from specimens 
jcollected by the writer in Nnnann, Oahn. 

Plate XII. 

Cephalozia Sandvicensis (Mont.) Spmce, p. 33. — Fig. 1. Part of stem, postical 
view, with perianth and male branches, x 30.— Figs. 2, 3. Leaves, x80. — 
Fig. 4. Cells of leaf, x 200.— Fig. 5. Cross section of stem, x 200. —Figs. 6, 
7. Innermost bracts, x 30. — Fig. 8. Innermost bract and bracteole, corre- 
sponding to Fig 7, x30. — Fig. 9. Apex of perismth, x80. — Fig. 10. Male 
bract, x80. — Figs. 11, 12. Male bracteoles, x200. All drawings from 
specimens collected by the writer on Lanihnli, Oahn. 

Plate XIH. 

Cephalozia Baldwinii Cooke, p. 85. — Fig. 1. Part of stem, postical view, x 34. — 
Fig. 2. Leaf, x 225. —Fig. 3. Cross section of stem, x 225.— Fig. 4. Peri- 
anth, x34. — Figs. 5, 6. Female bracts, x 48.— Figs. 7, 8. Male bracts, x48. 
Fig. 9. Apex of perianth, x225. All drawings from specimens collected 
by Mr. Baldwin on West Maui. 

Cephalozia IaIcb Cooke, p. 36. — Fig. 10. Part of stems, postical view, x 34. — 
Figs. 11, 12. Leaves, x 88. —Fig. 13. Cells of leaf, x 305.— Fig. 14. Cross- 
section of stem, X 225. — Fig. 15. Part of stem, with perianth, antical view, 
x88. — Fig. 16. Innermost bract connate with bracteole, from unfertilized 
flower, x88. — Big. 17. Innermost bract and bracteole, x88. — Fig. 18. 
Innermost bract, x88. — Fig. 19. Innermost bracteole, x88. — Fig. 20. Apex 
of perianth, x 305. All drawings from specimens collected by the writer in 
Naoann, Oahn. 

Plate XIV. 

Cephalozia Kilohanensis Cooke, p. 37. — Fig. 1. Apical part of stem, postical 
view, X 60.— Figs. 2, 3. Lower leaves, x 80.— Fig. 4. Upper leaf, x80.— 
Fig. 5. Cells of leaf, x 270.— Fig. 6. Cross-section of stem, x 200.— Fig. 7. 
Perianth, x 30.— Fig. 8. Unfertilized female flower, x 30. —Fig. 9. Inner- 
most bracts connate with bracteole, x 80. — Figs. 10, 11. Innermost bracts 
and bracteole, x 80. — Figs. 12, 13. Bracts and bracteole of second row, x 80. 
— ^Figs. 14-18. Consecutive bracteoles from an nnfertilized female flower, 
x 80.— Fig. 19. Apex of perianth, x 200.— Fig. 20. Male branch, x30.— 
Figs. 31-28. Male bracts, x 80.— Fig. 24. Male bracteole, x 200. All draw- 
ings from the tyi>e-specimens, collected by the writer at Eilohana, Kauai. 

44 (7. M. Cooke, Jr, — The Hawaiian HepaticcB 

Plate XV. 

Cephalozia heteroica Cooke, p. 38. — Fig. 1. Part of stem, postical view, x 80.— 
Figs. 2-4. Leaves, x 80. — Figs. 5-16. Underleaves from a single stem, x 200. 
— Fig. 17. Underleaf from a second stem, x 200. — Figs. 18-20. Underleaves 
from a third stem, x 200.— Fig. 21. Cells of leaf, x 270. —Fig. 22. Cells of 
nnderleaf , X 270.— Fig. 23. Cross-section of stem, x 200.— Fig. 24. Perianth, 
postical view, x 30. — Fig. 25. Unfertilized female flower, showing innova- 
tion, x30. — Fig. 26. Innermost bract, x80. — Fig. 27. Innermost bracteole, 

x80. — Fig. 28. Bract of second row from same flower, x80. — Fig. 29. 
Innermost bract and bracteole, x80. — Fig. 30. Bract jnst below innova- 
tion, X 80. —Fig. 31. Apex of perianth, x 270. -Figs. 32, 88. Male bracts, 

X 80. — Fig. 34. Male bracteole, x 200. All drawings from the type-speei- 
mens, collected by the writer at Kilohana, Kanai. 

II. — The Bermuda Islands. Part IV. — Geology and Pale- 
ontology, AND Part V. — An Account of the Coral Reefs. 
By Addison E. Verrill. 

The writer published a preliminary paper on the geology of these 
islands in 1900,* giving the results of his studies there in 1898. 
During another visit to the islands, in 1901, he had opportunities to 
make many additional studies and to obtain additional photographs, 
especially of some excellent sections laid bare by the great hurricane 
of 1900. The present report, which contains these later results, 
has been delayed, partly because of his desire to again visit the 
islands to study some points more fully. But as there may not be 
such an opportunity, at present, it is now thought best to print it. 
Imperfect as it must be, it will be of value to some of the numerous 
students who now annually visit the islands. 


Part IV. — I. Geology. 

1. Character of the Hocks. 

2. Greater Bermnda. 

3. Bermudas not a trae Atoll. 

4. Volcanic Character of the Bermnda Foundation. 

5. Emergence of the Land. 

6. Evolution of Greater Bermnda ; Pliocene Bermnda. 

7. Bermnda in the Glacial Period. 

8. Post-glacial Bermnda ; Subsidence. 

9. Re^levation of Bermnda. 

10. Consolidation of the Sands ; formation of the .^k>lian Limestones and *^ base 


11. Unconsolidated Sands; no consolidation mnch below low-tide level. 

12. Surface Hardening and Infiltration by Sea- water and Spray. 

13. Compact Limestones ; Bnilding Stones. 

14. Pliocene Bermnda ; Walsingham formation. 

a. Compact Limestones. 

6. Red Clay layers, with extinct Land Snails. 

15. Beach-rock with Marine Fossils ; Devonshire formation ; Champlain Period. 

a. Devonshire formation. 

6. Fossils of the Beach-rocks. 

• American Jonmal of Science, ix, pp. 313-40, with cnts in text. 
Tbans. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 4 June, 1905. 


(roni«obmMi[e«l A'li»nl"w*^"''** », ReefC< 
of mb^idMiw d«riT*l fwa Oiwu.n''* A.- 

5«tb».g« wd Mi«h«. . Bl. Tunioi 

of SnUldMi™ from Mta-i««a SA* js. F»h« 

' S8, Alii«i 

nbiwrgM Sounds or BroArf ™«J'. 
TOt« Channel* '"■■■'^''"■" 

t Filling »?"( the c:«i.«ia Que.* 

ootMde the Beets. 

mger Bank*. 

llovaHon of the Bemnaia- 

Srwtion. . , _i'iuX""""""'" 


bj the waves. 

Hattinil Arehei.«"i 

Pot-holes. „ -I „ " 

abon ;•»*»'""'"■ 



46 A. M Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

16. Evidences of Subsidence. 

A. Evidences from sabmerged ^olian limestones and Peat-bogs. 

B. Evidences of subsidence derived from Caverns and Sinks. 

o. Caverns containing Sea-water. 

b. Walsingham Caves and Sinks. 

c. Peat- bogs and Marshes. 

C. Evidences of Subsidence from submerged Sinks, Sounds, and 


a. Submerged Caverns and Sinks. 

6. Submerged Sounds or eroded Valleys. 

c. Outer Channels or ** Cuts." 

1 . Position and depths of the Cuts. 

2. Filling up of the Cuts and Channels. 

17. Broken Grounds outside the Reefs. 

18. Argus and Challenger Banks. 

19. Evidences of HeSlevation of the Bermudas. 

20. Changes due to Erosion. 

A. Subaerial Erosion due to solvent action of rain- water ; slow rate of 

decay of limestones. Spanish Rock. 

B. Mechanical action of rain-water. ^ 

C. Erosion by streams in former periods. 4 

D. Erosion by the waves. 

a. Erosion of the North-shore Cliffs, Islets, and Ledges. 

b. Grottoes and cavernous places. 

c. Natural Arches. 

d. Beaches of Shell-sand. 

e. Cliffs of Harrington Sound. 
/. Erosion of the outer Reefs and ** Flats." 
g. Erosion of the South shore Cliffs and Reefs. 
h. Pot-holes. 

i. Serpuline Atolls or '* Boilers." 
j. Catting Channels ; forming Harbors and Bays. V; 

21. Rates of Erosion by the sea ; modern changes slow; hurricanes ; land-slides | *. 

silting of harbors ; ancient maps. 

22. Origin of the Sands. 

23. Modern Sand-dunes. 

Part IV. — II. Paleontology. 

24. Fossils of the Walsingham formation. 

a. Land Shells 

b. *' Palmetto stumps" or ** Sand-pipes." 

25. Fossils of the Devonshire formation. 

26. Fossils of uncertain age. 

27. Summary. 

28. Bibliography. 

A. IC VerrUl — The Bermuda Inlands/ Geotoyy. 


Pabt V. — The Coral Reefs; CHAHACTEiusnc Ijfe ov the Bekmi. 

2S. Beef Corali and allied forma, 

A. Corala. B. AclinianH. C. Gorgoniaue. D. Millepores. 
30. Other InvertebrateB ; Sponges ; EohinodermE ; MoUnsks ; Annelids ; Cros- 

31. Tanicates. 

32. Fishes. 

33. Algie : Fntroids ; Corallinps ; Nullipor 

I. Geology: 

1. Character of the Hocks. 

The geology of the Bermudas, so far as the visible structure is 

concerned, ia very einiple and is identical with that of the Bahamas, 

Figure 1,— The onffinal Onmets Head of Caslle Island, showing typical leolian 
limestone formation. On the siiinmit are the ruins of the aucieiit tort (a) 
called Einf;'s Castle : b, mins of ancient SonlhampUiu fort. 

except that the coral reefs arc of greater importance in the latter. 
The rocks in both are all limestone and the red clays resulting from 
its decomposition. 

48 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

Kearly ali the rocks of the Bermudas, above sea-level, and to a 
considerable depth below it, are made up of wind-drifted shell-saDd 
(figs. 1 , 4-<l), with very little materials derived from corals and other 
organisms, such as foraminifera, bryozoa, corallines, etc. These 
materials, when consolidated, form a true ieolian limestone, sotne- 
times friable, but in some places very hard and compact. 

Figure 2. — Wreck Hill, as He«n from tbe Sea, bearing N. % East; the hilla to 
th« right aT« those west of Gibb's Hill Light, 100 to 173 feel high ; after 

The only exceptions to this origin are small local deposits of 
limestone, near tide-level, having a laminated beach -structure, and 
containing larger fossil marine shells, barnacles, etc, of existing 
species. The latter are underlaid, as well as overlaid, by solian 

Figure 3.— Hille west ami east of Gibb's Hill Light, bearing norib, 150 to 340 
feet bigh ; after Findlay. 

The islands are rliversifieil by rather liigh hills and deep valleys. 
The higrher hills are mostly toward the southern aide of the main 
island and are conspicuous when the islands are approached from 
'the south or southwest (tigs. 2, ^). Some of them, like Wreck Hill, 

• See plates xvi to xviii; also fig. 11, p. 79. 

A, E. Verrill — TTie Bermuda Islands; Geology/. 49 

aj>pear regularly rounded or somewhat conical ; others form more 
or less long ridges. Some are partly bare of vegetation, near the 
shore, and appear whitish in the distance. 

These hills are all ancient sand-dunes, of which the sands are 
mostly consolidated. The height of these dunes is remarkable, con- 
sidering the small extent. of the land. Some are now 200 to 268 
feet high. Nevertheless it is certain that the islands have subsided 
at least 80 to 100 feet, — probably more, — since these hills were 
formed. If we add this to the present height, it will be evident that 
they must have been at one time over 350 feet high, allowing noth- 
ing for the great amount of erosion that they have suffered during 
a long period of time, which would doubtless have amounted to 100 
feet or more. 

In modem times the sands have not been observed to drift more 
than 180 feet high, — and very seldom even to 100 feet. Therefore 
it is evident that the hills could not have reached their great height 
under present conditions. It would have required a much larger 
extent of sandy coast line and much more violent gales, unless the 
islands were undergoing a gradual elevation at the same time, which 
was probably the case. 

These calcareous sands are easily and quickly consolidated by the 
percolating rain-water, which contains calcium bicarbonate in solu- 
tion. Therefore, after being once slightly consolidated, they are not 
liable to be much eroded by the winds, though readily attacked by 
the rains. 

These limestones almost everywhere show their wind-drift origin 
by their very irregular lamination and stratification. The layers are 
of unequal hardness and show very abrupt changes in dip in nearly 
every section, whether in the shore cliffs, road-cuts, or in the quarries 
(6g8. 1, 4-6; and pi. xxii, tigs. 1, 2). Owing to this structure and the 
very unequal hardness of the layers, the erosion of the clifts by the 
sea has brought about some very remarkable and picturesque forms. 
The topography and physiography of the islands have been so fully 
described and illustrated in my former article,* that it will not be 
necessary to dwell upon those features in this place, except as bear- 
ing directly upon geological changes. Many of the broader and 
more open valleys between the hills are probably the original valleys, 
formed when the hills were built up around them by the winds. 

♦These Trans., vol. xi, part 2, pp. 464-490; and '*The Bermuda Islands,'' 
pp. 52-78. 

50 A, E, Verrill — The Bermuda Tulands; Geology. 

Such valleys may bave since been partly fiHed up by the red-clay 
Boils and calcareous sands washed down from the hillsides. When 
oectipied by swamps, they are filled with thick accumulations of peat 
and muck, said to be 45 f^et deep in some of the larger ones. 

Many of the smaller and more abrupt valleys, both those on the 
dry laud and those now beneath the sea, have certainly been made 
by the foiling in of the roofs of more or less extensive caverns, aided 

Figure 4. — Diagrammatic section of teoltan limeBtone, as seen in Hamilton, show- 
ing irregnlsr sand-drift stractore ; s, pocket of loose sand, 

by the subsequent erosion of the shores. Probably Bome even of the 
larger sounds and harbois, like Castle Harbor, Harrington Sound, 
etc., have bad a similar origin, at least in part. This will be dis- 
cussed more full} in the chapteis on subsidence and erosion. These 
enclosed sunken aieas or small \alleys arc like the "sinks" often 
found in the ca\ernous limestone regions of the United States and 
Europe, but t^fy ^r^ -mi'-ii-."- 'r-'-^-.u— i-i Bermuda, so that they 

Figare 5.— Disgrammatic section of noliau limestone at Mt. Langton, sbowing 
very diversely stratified sand-drift stmctnre. Both this and &g. 4 slightly 
altered and reduced from Rice. 

become a notable feature. Those that are above the level of the 
sea usually contain rich soil and are locally called "banana holes," 
because bananas and other tender plants grow best in them, owing 
to the shelter from the winds and the richness of the soil. 

Many of the sinks on the land extend below sea-level and then 
form small pools or larger ponds, often quite deep and filled with 
sea water, which may rise and fall with the tide. Some of those 
situated near the shore contain a variety of marine fishes, etc., 

A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 51 

which BOmetimea have entered through fissiirep, but in other cases, 
as at Devil's Hole, they have been put in by the proprietors. They 
make excellent fish and turtle preserves.* 

Some of the smaller baya and harbors are evidently only sinks of 
this kiod that have become connected with the sea by the erosion of 
the intervening rocks, in comparatively recent times. Others, like 
Peniston's Pond, are just beginning to be breached by the sea. 

The soil of the islands is partly of reddish clay, partly of shell-sand, 
mixed with vegetable mold in most places. The reddish clay is the 
most important part. It is a mere insoluble residue or impurity, 
left after the decomposition and solution of the limestones by rain- 

Fignw 6.— A weathered and eroded Hhore cliff near Bailey Bay, north shore, 
showing abrupt changes in the inclination of the layers of xolian limestone. 

water, during an immense period of time. It always contains, even 
where never cultivated, a notable per cent, of potassium sails, cal- 
cium phosphates, etc., and therefore forms a very fertile Boil.;^ 

Much of the interest in the geology of the islands is due to the 
various features of the erosion by the sea ; surface erosion ; and the 
anbterraoean erosion, which has formed extensive caverns, sinks, 
tunnels or passages for subterranean streams, etc. At present there 
are no streams or springs of fresh water, owing to the porosity of 
the rocks and the limited surface of the land. 

" For fuller deecriptions eea these Trans., li, pp, 466-473 ; " The Bermuda 
Islands," pp. 54-60 ; also below, chapter on erosion. 

t For anftlysee see these Trans., vol. xi, p. 493, and " The Bermuda Islands," 

52 A. M Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

2, The Greater Bermuda, 

The present dry land must be regarded as a mere remnant of a 
much larger similar limestone island, of which the former extent is 
approximately indicated by the outermost of the surrounding reefs, 
but which has been nearly destroyed, partly by erosion and partly 
by subsidence, in former periods. This larger island, known as 
" Greater Bermuda " or " Pliocene Bermuda," was about ten times 
the size of the present dry land. It was broadly elliptical in outline, 
with the longer axis nearly northeast and southwest, or nearly the 
same as that of the present main island (figure 12, map I). 

The area of this Greater Bermuda was probably somewhat more 
than 230 square miles. That of the present dry land is less than 20 
square miles. The best estimates are about 19^ square miles or 
12,3';3 acres.* 

The elliptical area, now enclosed by the outer reefs, is about 22 
miles long and 1 1 miles wide in the widest parts. There are good 
reasons for believing that nearly all of this area was dry land, with 
numerous more or less elevated hills, especially around the borders, 
in the period of Greater Bermuda. The evidences of this will be 
given later. The amount of subsidence is believed to have been at 
least 80 to 100 feet since the period of greatest elevation. 

3, The Bermudas not a true Atoll. 

The elliptical form of the outer reefs, more or less covered with 
corals and enclosing a broad shallow lagoon, with scattered islets 
and reefs within it, is so much like that of the coral islands or atolls 
of the Pacific Ocean in appearance that the earlier writers believed 
that the Bermudas formed a true coral atoll. But this has been 
shown by various more recent writers not to be the case.f 

However, the careful recent investigations of the Pacific coral- 
islands, especially by Mr. Alexander Agassiz, have shown that mapy 
or most of the coral reefs of that region have a foundation of older 
eroded rocks, at no great depth, on which the modern coral reefs 
have been built up. Thus the conditions even there approximate 
more nearly to those at Bermuda than has been supposed by some 
recent writers. Perhaps the difference is mainly due to the less 

* See these Trans., xi, p. 405, and *' The Bermuda Islands," p. 58, for areas 
of the various larger islands of the group. 

t Lieut. Nelson, in 1840, was perhaps the fii-st to demonstrate the true nature 
of the Bermuda rocks. 

A. jE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 53 

abundant growth of corals at Bermuda, and a less profound erosion 
of the submerged limestone banks and cliffs on which the recent 
corals have grown. In view of this, 1 have previously suggested 
that such a structure as that of the Bermuda reefs should be called 
a pseudatoll. 

Probably the position of the more elevated rim of limestone reefs, 
and the ancient sand-dunes of which they are remnants, was largely 
determined by still older coral reefs of Tertiary age, but this cannot 
be ascertained at present. 

4. Volcanic Character of the Bermuda Foundation, 

All geologists admit that the Bermudas rest on the flattened and 
eroded summit of a vast submarine volcano. The geological period 
when this volcano was last active is, of course, very uncertain. It 
is, however, most reasonable to suppose that it corresponded in time 
with the last great volcanic eruptions of the nearest American main- 
lands. This would imply that the Bermuda volcano was formed or 
completed during the Triassic period or at its close. During that 
period, and at its close, immense outbursts of volcanic rocks took 
place all along the eastern coast of North America, from North 
Carolina to Nova Scotia, giving rise to enormous trap-dykes, such as 
the Palisades of the Hudson ; Mount Tom, Mt. Holyoke, Meriden 
Hills, and numerous other extensive outflows along the Connecticut 
River valley; and also the vast series of dykes in Nova Scotia, espe- 
cially along the east side of the Bay of Fundy. As the Nova Scotian 
regions of eruption are only about 675 miles north of Bermuda and 
the immense dykes have a nearly north and south direction, it is not 
unlikely that the outburst at Bermuda was in direct relation with 
tl^ose of Nova Scotia. 

The great Bermuda volcano has a height of about 15,000 feet, for 
the surrounding ocean is about 2500 fathoms deep. Its slope on all 
sides is very steep. Its fonii and height prove that it is a volcano. 
This is confirmed by the remarkable magnetic variations detected 
by the oflScers of the " Challenger " in different parts of the islands, 
which could hardly be caused by anything except iron-bearing vol- 
canic rocks not far beneath the surface. 

" The observations made by the Expedition showed that the varia- 
tion differed in various parts of the island as much as 6°, ringing 
from 4° W. to 10° W., the smallest amount being found at a small 
islet just under the lighthouse on Gibb's Hill, and the greatest at 

54 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

the point on the west aide of Clarence Cove." Such variations do 
not exist at sen, a few miles from the islands.* 

Besides the main cone and crater, which form the foundation of 
the Bermuda Islands and reefs, there were two smaller connected 
peaks or ftide-cone^, which he a few miles to the southwest of Ber- 

Fiffnrc T.— I. Sectional diagram of submerged slope aorthward from North 
Rocks (N). 

n. The 8»me Honthward from Castle Harbor (C). 

III. Sketch map Hhowing the aituation of Argua Batik (A) ; Challenger Bank 
(C) ; and Bouthwestpni end of the Bermulaa ; Someraat Island (S) ; Ireland 
Island (I) ; Main Island or Bermuda !B. I.) ; Hamilton town (H) ; a, b, line of 

the » 

(. iV, 

IV. Section through Somerset Island (S), Challenger Bank (C), and Argus 
Bank (A), along the line «, 'i, in III. 

All soandingH nre given in fathoms. (Altered slightly from A. AgaaraE.) 

muda, and form what are known as Argus Bank and Challenger 
Bank, both having, in general, from 20 to 40 fathoms of wat«r over 
their slirfaces, but Argus Bank rises in one place to within 8 fathoms 
of the surface of the sea. (See fig. ".) 

* See " Vojage of the Challenger," Narrativs, i, p. 140. 

56 A, E, Verrill-rThe Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

some feeble effects to the depth of 100 feet or more, but hardly 
sufficient to move anything more than loose material like fine sand 
and mud. 

George's Bank and Nantucket Shoals, off Cape Cod, maintain 
themselves in the face of the most violent storms. Although com- 
posed only of loose sand and gravel, their shallowest parts rise to 
within 25 to 30 feet of the sea-level. This indicates that the erod- 
ing action of the waves decreases very rapidly, even at such depths. 

The Argus and Challenger cones were evidently truncated and 
roughly levelled by the erosion of the waves, but at the present 
time they are depressed so far beneath the sea that coral reefs do 
not grow upon them. Possibly they may have been dry land, with 
sand dunes and corals like those of Beinnuda, in the period of Greater 
Bermuda. If so, the subsequent subsidence and simultaneous ero- 
sion of the limestones could have reduced them to their present 

If Jurassic or Tertiary coral reefs existed here, as is quite prob- 
able, they would certainly have grown best around the borders of 
the banks and shoals. Thus they might have initiated the atoll-like 
structure that has prevailed subsequently. 

It is possible that during some of the former geologic periods, after 
the cones were formed, there may have been long periods of subsi- 
dence, in which the depth of water over them became too great for 
the growth of coral reefs,* as is now the case at the Argus and 
Challenger Banks. 

5. Emergence of the Land, 

At some period, perhaps after the close of the Miocene, when we 
know that many of the West Indian islands, with their Miocene 
corals, were upraised, as well as the eastern coast of the United States; 
or perhaps still earlier, in the Eocene, the Bermuda reefs and shoals, 
whether of coral or not, were so much raised that they formed dry 
land.f No doubt this land at first formed a group of low islands 

* Deep artesian borings at Bermuda might determine these questions with 
certainty. No doabt this will eventually be undertaken, as has been done else- 

f That the dry land was as old as the middle Tertiary is probable, because of 
the long time that must have been required for the evolution of the endemic 
genus FoecilozoniteSj with at least seven very diverse species that we find already 
there in the Pliocene. There must have been many earlier ancestral species 
that are unknown to us. See Paleontology. 

A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 57 

along the rim of the partly enclosed lagoon, as is almost always the 
case with small oceanic islands of this type. Their sandy beaches 
and flats, alternately covered by the tide and exposed to the sun, 
afforded an abundance of dry shell-sand. From this time onward 
the shell-sand, derived mainly from the life and death of myriads of 
small moUusks on and about the reefs and shoals, must have been 
drifted by the winds, so as to form hillocks and sand-dunes, grad- 
ually increasing the height and extent of the islets and eventually 
uniting them together into larger ones. It is probable that this was 
favored and accelerated by the continued and gradual uprising of 
the volcanic basis, during a long period of time. But it is possible 
to account for much of the subsequent great growth of the i^ands, 
even without much elevation of the sea bottom, beyond what was 
necessary to lay bare the extensive shoals of fine shell-sand, periodi- 
cally covered by the tide.* 

6, Ecolution of Greater Bermuda; Pliocene Bermuda. 

From the evidences derived from the subsequent subsidence, it is 
probable that the highest sand dunes, eventually, in one period at 
least, attained the height of over 450 feet. It is hardly probable 
that this was due wholly to the drifting of the sand to that height, 
though it is not impossible. It seems more probable that the emer- 
gence of the land continued while the great sand dunes were form- 
ing. In that case the higher and larger sand dunes would also be 
the older ones and the deposits at the center and summit would be 
the oldest. If the height were, wholly due to sand-drift, then the 
upper layers at the summits would be of later origin. The character 
of the rocks indicates, but does not prove, that the upper and central 
parts of the higher hills are the oldest. But fossils have not yet 
been found in them. Thus a long continued period of emergence 
was probable, with a constant loss of materials from the tops of the 

No doubt a very large amount of material has been removed from 
all the hills through solution and by mechanical erosion by rains, so 
that 450 feet for their greatest fonner elevation is probably too low 
an estimate. 

* Sabsequent sabsidence has buried the first formed limestones deeply beneath 
the sea, — probably at least 100 feet. We know the nature of the submerged 
rock to about 50 feet deep at Ireland Island dock, where it is u sand-drift lime- 
stone, associated with red clay soil. 

58 A. E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

I hope to demonstrate later that the rocka which I call the " Wals- 
ingham formation," and refer to the Pliocene period, now rise to the 
height of 60 to TO feet and probably much more. If we add to this 
100 feet for the later subsidence, those rocks must have formed hills 
at least 160 to ITO feet high in the Pliocene, even if we allow noth- 
ing for solution and denudation. I'heir in terst ratified red clays 
indicate a loss of more than 150 feet by solution. So it is probable 
that the islands were much higher and larger, even in the Pliocene, 
than at present. 

It is certain that it took a very long period of time to bring about 
the elevation of the land and to accumulate the vast quantities of 
shell-sand and red clays contained in the hills. But the mere 
mechanical work of heaping up the sand by the wind is of secondary 
significance in this study. It might have gone on very rapidly at 
times if the winds were more violent than now. This may have 
been the case, especially in the time of the Glacial period. 

What is of far greater significance is the enormous lapse of time 
required for the small shells and other small organisms to grow in 
quantities sufilicient to build up all this land, with its high hills, in 
addition to the quantities, perhaps equally great, that were washed 
away into deeper water, and also the great bulk that was lost by 
solution to form the red soil of the dry land and the caverns. 

When these considerations are taken into account, it is plain that 
the building up of Greater Bermuda must have required a vast 
period of time. Therefore, we are forced to believe that it had 
attained very much of its growth in the Pliocene or pre-Glacial times, 
and that it had acquired, before the Glacial period, a large flora and 
fauna of its own, of which some portions still exist, though the 
greater part may have been exterminated by the cooler and more 
stormy climate of that period. 

Perhaps all those plants that are now peculiar to Bermuda (only 
about 8 species*) date from the Pliocene or earlier periods. The 
same is probably true of the few land snails peculiar to the islands, 
especially the genus Pcecllozonites^ found nowhere else, and of 
which several of the species, including the largest, are known only 
as fossils, while others still survive in diminished nambei*s and 
feebler forms. Certainly they could not now exist in such places 
as small barren islands where they were once abundant. f 

* For lists of these see these Trans., vol. xi, p. 574, and ** Bermuda Islands," p. 
162, with figures. 
f These matters will be more folly discussed in the chapter on paleontology. 

A, E, Vennll — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 59 

If the higher land had become covered with luxuriant vegetation 
in the pre-Glacial times, this eventually would have had the effect of 
diminishing the accumulation of sand on the higher dunes. The 
drifting of the sand would have been more and more restricted to 
the vicinity of the shores, and therefore the bays and inlets would 
have been filled up more rapidly, except in face of strong currents. 

It is not unlikely that the Bermuda cedar and the palmetto (which 
last is peculiar to Bermuda), with other trees now extinct there, may 
have then formed dense forests over most of the land, similar to 
those that existed when Bermuda was first discovered by Europeans. 
Indeed, from the great size and abundance of the fossil land snails, 
on small islands now barren and nearly bare of vegetation, it is 
evident that there was a former period when the climate was more 
moist and the vegetation much more abundant than in the present 
period. It is known that the Pliocene was really a period of greater 
elevation than the present, for I have myself found the large fossil 
land snails (P. Nislsoni, pi. xxvi) in limestone strata of the Walsing- 
ham period, in places now submerged beneath the sea. It is said 
to have been found in the limestones at the depth of about 48 feet 
below the sea at Ireland Island. 

7. Bermuda in the Glacial Period, 

That the advent of the Glacial period caused a marked change in 
the climate of Bermuda cannot bo doubted. Huge continental ice- 
sheets existed over Uhe whole of New England, Nova Scotia and 
Newfoundland, and their lofty frontal ice-cliffs, extending for 
hundreds of miles along the coast and reaching some miles south of 
the present shore lines, were dropping vast numbers of icebergs, 
doubtless of gigantic size, like those of Greenland, into the sea con- 
tinually. Those ice-cliffs were not over 625 miles north of Bermuda, 
and doubtless the icebergs drifted much nearer. Possibly the Gulf 
Stream was stronger than now. If so, the icebergs may not have 
crossed it, but they must have gone far southward in the inshore 
Arctic current.* 

* In a former article (Amer. Jour. Science, i«, May, 1900), I suggested that 
the marine climate in the glacial period might have been warmer than now, 
because of the occurrence of fossil West Indian shells that no longer live there. 
Bat with the exception of Livona pica (tig. 60) carried inland by the hermit 
crabe, no marine fossils are known from the rocks that I now consider as pre- 
glacial and glacial. The beach formations, containing most of the marine shells 

60 A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

Therefore, it is certain that the northerly winds woald have been 
cooler than at present and doubtless the contrasts in temperature 
between the northerly and southerly currents, both of air and water, 
would have been much greater than now. Therefore, we are safe 
in assuming that the climate would have been more stormy, with 
fiercer gales and much more rain than now. Probably there were 
also frosts regularly in winter, and perhaps some snow, lor light 
frosts sometimes occur in Bermuda even now, and sometimes a few 
snow tiakes also. 

Such changes in the climate as I have named would have needed 
only a few degrees of decrease in the mean annual temperature. 
But they would have been sufficient to exterminate most of the 
tropical and subtropical life that may have existed there previously. 
The forests and other vegetation may have quite disappeared then 
from the exposed hills and highlands, even if partially retained in 
the sheltered valleys. Death of the vegetation and the increased 
violence of the winds would have set the sands in active motion 
again, perhaps far more energetically than ever before. 

These, I suppose, were the conditions under which the land 
attained its greatest elevation and extent. 

8, Post-glacial Bermuda; Subsidence. 

During the decline of the long glacial period, the " Greater Ber- 
muda," like the American coast north of it, underwent a gradual 
subsidence, as shown by many geological phenomena. This is 
believed to have amounted eventually to at least 100 to 120 feet, as 
will be shQwn in a later chapter. 

This period probably corresponded to the Champlain or Lawren- 
tian period of eastern North America. During this long period of 
subsidence there was an immense amount of erosion by the sea, and 
much of the lower parts of the previous dry land of the interior was 
finally covered by the sea, gradually bringing about the present con- 
dition of things. New sand-drift rocks were also forming during all 
this period. During this period, also, many species of plants and 
animals wore introduced from North America and the West Indies 

then referred to, I now refer to the post-glacial or Champlain period. However, 
it is possible that the Gulf Stream waters were as warm in the glacial period as 
at present, and that owing to the elevation of the coasts of the boreal Atlantic, 
and probably of its entire sea bed, its current may have reached Bermuda more 
directly than at present, so as to offset the cold Arctic currents. 

A, E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 61 

by winds, drift-wood, birds, etc., thus fomiing a new fauna and flora, 
combined with some remnants of those that had survival the glacial 

9, Reelevation of Bermuda, 

There is considerable evidence that these islands underwent a 
slight reelevation of about six to ten feet, after the period of greatest 
depression. If this be true, its period corresponded, in all prob- 
ability, to that in which Nova Scotia, Eastern Canada, and New 
England underwent a much greater reelevation in post-glacial or 
Quaternary time. 

Such a reelevation, of small amount, would best account for the 
various local deposits of beach-rock, containing recent marine shells 
and corals, now found elevated from 6 to 15 feet above the sea. 
This will be discussed later. 

10, Consolidation of the Sands ; formation of the ^olian lime- 
stones and ^^base rock,'^'* 

During the whole period of the accumulation of the shell-sands, 
a process of consolidation or cementation of the sands into softer or 
harder limestone has been going on beneath the surface of the land,* 
but not uniformly. This is brought about by the rain water, which 
always contains carbonic acid in solution, which dissolves a certain 
amount of the limestone as it percolates through the sands, forming 
calcium bicarbonate in solution. This solution, when exposed to the 
air, and especially when it evaporates, deposits calcium carbonate or 
crj'stalline calcite, either between the particles of sand, binding them 
together, or in the form of stalactites and stalagmites, when it drips 
into caverns, as is well known. 

But in the rainy and warm climate of Bermuda, this process goes 
on with unusual rapidity. In fact, the sands and porous limestones, 
below a certain distance from the surface, seem to be saturated with 
the lime solution, for many of these limestones, which are so soft 
that they are quarried by large chisels and cut into regular building 
stones with ordinary saws, as easily as wood, become quite hard and 
suitable for buildingf after exposure to the air for a few weeks. 

* There is no evidence at Bermuda that the shell-sand and marl ever consoli- 
date into limestone when wholly snbmerged beneath the sea. These materials 
are everywhere loose to a great depth, in the sounds. 

t See these Trans., xi, p. 431, fig. 11 ; " The Bermuda Islands," p. 19, fig. 11. 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 5 June, 1905. 

63 A. E. Ven-ill — TAe Dernntda Islands; Geology. 

So when the percolating waters meet cracks or fissures, where they 
will be exposed to air, they deposit the calcite on and near their 
surfaces, giving ri)ie to sheets and blocks of harder material, which 
may later stand out in relief wlien erosion takes place. (See fig'. 8.) 
The reticulated cracks, made by the air-drying of mud, are thus 
filled in some places, as well as the larger fissures. When such 
waters trickle down the surfaces of the stumps and roots of trees, 

Figure 8.— Cliff of leolian linieslcicie, south shore, showing the irregular BtratiQ- 
cation and the deeply pitted surfaces coated and infiltrated with calcite, 
characteristic of most of the clifFs that are exposed altamatelj to the action 
of the 8ea-E])ray ami dry sir. 

the sands may be so linrdeni'l around them that complete molds of 
the roots, and efen of ihe baizes of the trunks, may be formed and 
preserved in the liniesHmes. When the organic matters decay, casts 
may be fornie<l in the molds. Some of the stracturea locally 
known as "fossil palmetto stumps" have possibly been formed in 
this way. These will be discussed later. (See chapter 24, pis. xix, 


A. E. Verrill — T/te Bermuda Islands; 

When the percolating watera meet a nearly horizontal layer of 
impervious red clay, or a very compact layer of tine shell-marl, its 
downward course being arrested, it may collect in and consolidate 
more firmly the layers juat above. The layers of hardened limestone 
will also vary in hardness according to the fineness and compactness 
of the shell-sand and calcareous mud composing them ; according to 
their inclination and di-aina^e ; according to the amount of percolat- 
ing water ; and also according to their depth beneath the surface. 
Some of the beds of sand, even of considerable thickness, are still 

Fignn B. — Cathedral Bocks on Somerset IsUud ; the rains of an ancient cRvem 
and water paseagee, partly broken down nnd disBeoted by the sta.. The roof 
has partly fallen. The columns are hardened by infiltration and roughly 
pitted. Tbe bottom, which is above high tide, is covered with shell-sanil. 

loose, with little or no consolidation, although of ancient origin with 
thick deposits of hard limestone rocks over them. Sometimes irreg- 
ular masses or "pockets " of the loose sand occur in the harder lime- 
stones, tig. 4. When such loose deposits of sand happen to become 
exposed in the shore cliffs the soft contents are quickly washed away, 
leaving grottoes or cavernous places, large and small, in the chfFs. 
Probably the remarkable "Cathedral rocks" (fig. !>), on the west 
shore of Somerset Island,* have been formed mainly by the rapid 

• See pi. iii; also these Trans., ])p. 437, 473, and pis. Ijixxviii, IxxxiJt; "The 
Bermnda Islands," pp. 15, 61, the »ame plates. 

04 A. E. Verrill — T^e Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

erosion of a thick htd of only Kliglitly consolidated sand, in which 
many vertical tissures Iiad allowed tlie percolating waters to consoli- 
date tlic adjacent sand into harder rocks, which now stand up like 
pillars supporting the arches of overlying limestone. No doubt 
there was a time, before the erosion had progressed so far, when 
these archways and pillai-s formed the supports of a cavern of con- 
Hiderahle extent. But the jiillars are not true stalactites, as they are 
in some of the other caverns, but mere vertical masse!> of shell-Band, 
so impregnated and encrusted by stalactitic material that they are 
very hard and resistant. Some of the larger caverns on the islands 

title material that 
fraetuivs <>r se.-tin 

the larger siahiotii 

ieh are so thickly covered with stalac- 
nature eannot be ascertained without 
intermediate conditions occur among 

.ughly er 
r luealiti 

ided n^cks and pinnacles of 
'I' had a similar origin, bnt 
tiou (fig. 10, and pi. xxiii, 

A, jB. Verrill — 77ie Bermuda Islands; Geology. 66 

Pulpit Rock (fig. 22) and the North Rocks (figs. 23, 31) probably 
owe their existence mainly to their resistance due to infiltration, 
while the softer surrounding rocks were washed away. The same is 
doubtless true, in a marked degree, of all the other boldly sculp- 
tured rocks and projecting crags, such as Lion Rock (fig. 20), and the 
cliffs shown in figs. 17, 22. 

11. Unconsolidated Sands; no consolidation below low-tide level. 

Why the masses of shell-sand, mentioned above, remain unconsoli- 
dated, imbedded in or between hardened strata of the same composi- 
tion, has never been satisfactorily explained. The only suggestion 
that seems to me plausible, is that they were so situated that they 
were continually soaked in waters that were already saturated with 
calcium carbonate and from which no evaporation could take place, 
owing to the nearly impervious or hard rocks above and below them. 
Under such conditions they might have become water-bearing strata 
without alteration, either by solution or hardening. This would 
also explain the remarkably perfect preservation of delicate land 
flhelby even with their colors perfect, in these beds. 

I have already mentioned that there is no evidence that these 
efaell-eands and marls, at Bermuda, ever become consolidated into 
lime when constantly covered by the sea, somewhat below low-tide 
level. In the excavations made at Ireland Island and elsewhere, 6 
to 10 feet of such unconsolidated materials have been found, over- 
lying feolian limestones. Stakes and probes can be driven down 
many feet into these sands almost everywhere in the harbors. 

The same conditions are found all over the world where shell-sands 
and coral-sands form the bottom deposits. Also, in the deep sea 
where Globigerina-ooze occurs of great depth, it is never consoli- 
dated. Probably this is also due to the absence of evaporation. 
Perhaps violent agitation, in shallow water seas, may take the place 
of evaporation, to some extent, and cause some consolidation, just 
below low tide, by loss of carbonic acid. 

But many geologists constantly refer to such shell-limestones and 
coral-limestones as if consolidated below sea-level. I do not know 
of any evidence that it ever occurs under ordinary conditions. A 
marked or rapid change in temperature, or contact with water of a 
different chemical composition, or the action of living organisms, 
might cause it, under unusual conditions. 

66 A. E. Verrill — 77ie Berrnuda Islands; Geology. 

12, Surface ITardeniiig and Infiltration by Sea Water and Spray, 

Wherever the limestones have been exposed for some time to the 
joint or alternate action of salt spray and the atmosphere, their sur- 
faces becomes hard and deeply corroded, pitted, or rudely honey- 
combed, with the intervening portions rising up into sharp ridges, 
rough and ragged points, and other strange, rude, and irregular 
forms, so that they are very unpleasant to walk upon or climb over, 
for they are very destructive to shoes and clothing. (PI. xxii.) 

This is due partly to the solvent action of the sea water, eating 
out the pits, and partly to the infiltration and hardening of the inter- 
vening spaces by the evaporation of the calcareous water. As the 
intermediate ridges and points become higher they seem to act by 
capillary action, like wicks, to draw up the water from the pits and 
crevices, and the stalactitic material is deposited at their points and 
edges, building them up and making them very hard. (See figs. 8, 
15, 22.) This action is going on everywhere along the cliffs. When 
the surface of the rocks becomes thus hardened, they are very resist- 
ant to erosion by the waves, and thus even limestones that are soft 
beneatli the surface may endure for a long period. 

Below high tide the action is somewhat different, for here the 
8harf)er projections are worn off, but the infiltration and hardening 
of the rock goes on to low-water mark, especially wherever it is 
alternately wet and partly dry. In such places the rocks usually 
become rudely pitted, partly by solution and partly by the mechani- 
cal erosion of the softer spots, but the pits are generally larger than 
above sea-level, and often form shallow tidal pools, large and small. 
Owing partly to this hardening of the rocks, nearly or quite to low- 
water mark, but not much lower down, and partly to the diminished 
force of the waves on the rocks while subm^ged, these hardened 
limestones often form nearly flat platforms or benches, at or just 
above low-water mark. Sometimes this is aided by the horizontal 
stratification of the rocks, by corals and other growths, and by other 
causes. But the infiltration of these partly exposed rocks, convert- 
ing soft limestones into those that will ring under the blow of a 
hammer, has a great effect in preventing their rapid destruction by 
the waves. 

13, Compact Limestones; Buildi^ig Stones, 

In its downward course all the percolating watera must eventually 
be stopped, by the layer of sea-water which everywhere fills the 
porous beds of limestone to near the level of mean -tide and some- 

A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 67 

times above it. The rain water, being lighter, will rest upon the 
sea water and mix with it only very gradually in the pores of the 
rocks. Even in the shallow wells, often dug near the shore for 
cattle, nearly fresh water can be drawn from the surface during the 
ebb tide, though there may be salt water at the bottom. 

The calcareous fresh water, thus arrested by the sea water, will 
therefore deposit much of its,calcite in the strata just above the 
level of the salt water. As this level varies with the tide, a con- 
siderable thickness of harder limestone, often four to six feet thick, 
raay eventually be formed about at the level of high water mark, if 
the land should remain at a given level for a long period of time. 
This appears to me to have been the mode of induration of many of 
the hard strata of limestone found in various places, just about at 
high tide level, as along the south shore, and of other hard lime- 
stones on the reefs. 

Such hard compact limestones have been called by some writers 
the *' base-rock," and some have believed that they represent an 
older formation, underlying the whole island. 

Mr. A. Agassiz, however, considered them as formed from ordi- 
nary seolian limestones, of any age, indurated by the action of the 
sea water and air, and not indicating any particular period. Both 
views are true in part. 

Superficial induration of the kind to which Mr. Agassiz refers is 
common enough, as described above, but it does not convert thick 
strata of limestone over wide areas, and above sea-level, into a com- 
pact marble-like limestone, of very uniform character ; such as we 
find in much of the so-called " base-rock " of the south shores. 
Doubtless hard limestones of various periods have been massed 
together under the name of "base-rock," and the name is therefore 
misleading and better be abandoned. 

Similar hard limestones occur locally at various higher levels, 
often much above the level of the sea, and they have often been 
quarried for building stones. Some of these belong to the earlier or 
*' Walsingham formation " and are associated with the ancient red 
clay and extinct land shells. But others are of later origin and are 
only unusually hard and compact portions of the ordinary seolian 

Perhaps the unusual induration of such layers, distinctly above 
sea-level, may be connected with the somewhat variable zone or 
level of underground fresh water in the rocks, for no doubt such a 
zone exists here, as elsewhere, in spite of the porosity of the rocks.* 

* Artesiaii wells on the higher lands have yielded water in a few eases. 

68 *-l. -£1 Verrill — TTie Bermuda Idands; Geology. 

Pon*olating calcareous waters would be arrested at such a level, 
and deposit, just alwve it, by cooling and evaporation, much calcare- 
ous materiaU for it would occupy a zone in which evaporation would 
be taking place in dry weather and through capillar}' action. This 
priHH>s$« if long iH>ntinued« would form strata of hard limestone, but 
not nei^essarily of any particular period. 

The hariler strata, especially of the '• Walsingham format ion,'' are 
usually overlaid by a bed of red-clay soil, which was probably orig- 
nally occupied by vegetation. The dead vegetable matter of such 
a si^il may have contributed additional carbonic acid, and perhaps 
huuiio acids, to the percolating nin water, and this may have has- 
tened the s^-kliditication of the underlvin^ rocks. 

'llierefore it is evident that no very definite separation of these 
limestones into j>eriods or formations can be safely made, merely on 
the hanlness or com[>actnei^ of the rooks, though in general the 
older ones are likelv to l>e the harder. The sands have been con- 
tinually drifting and cv>nsolidaling, unequally and variously, ever 
since the ttr^t islands n>se above the sea, and at all levels. So, like- 
\iise, the changes in elevation and sube^idence have been so very 
gradual that they have prvxiuox^i no marked periods or changes in 
the rvxrk tonnation, except Kvaily. We can. however, distinguish 
an earlwr |H*rivHl, by means ot the extinct f*>ssil land shells, during 
which the Climate w^is niv.^rv favorable for vegetatioo and land-snails 
than at prv-s^nt* as ituticatexl al»»>ve. 

This we ttiAv prv»\ isiv^tiaLy r^ter to the Pliocene. It was, in my 
opinion, K-TT^aittty prv-glacial. 

I yrv^tcci<* r;u' :t^>* Uifctit^' ** Wils^itigham formation*' to designate 

that ivr*;i/v :• ::*v v^*-,kr t^TtuMiiir S5ra:a of LEaie$;oDe and red clav;vr'5vvi Vy vvrc^iv-:-^ s<*\>^nkL si-^cie* of extinct land snails, of 

Th^ :v.-,\s: v-v^vw^'-t: av-,1 .• ''ArAv*ctTl:sci;c of tsa^ wifls are the com- 
ts*s*5 A'/,i >^"v; .w. \*r. 'v/.t<'>:o"';s »?:v:CL tuive* ta bkuit places and 
o\vr >fc nIs* jfc'-vcfcSv Kw-vw :>*.* •."^'c^') ^7i.':r*c«;»i wrc& tcakhe, that the 
vvf^^tv-*! sAV.'.ior\:'j >:r':,-:i-v -.^ks *o«:>;7 -.Oifctir^i «uMr lioet* so that they 
*k*itw5:tytv?s A^^tv-Ar Vs* S.' :*j :!:vak y.'.fc55>;vv; scraWL foraung durable 

A. E. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 69 

bailding stones. But in many other places these rocks have remained 
friable or soft, with well marked sand-drift structure. In some cases 
they include layers or pockets of imperfectly consolidated, or loose, 
shell-sand. Between the layers of limestone are successive layers of 
" red-clay," — a decomposition product, representing ancient soils, 
and often containing numerous extinct land-snails. The red-clay 
may be more or less indurated by the infiltrations of calcite, or 
stalactitic materials, with which, and the shells, it sometimes forms 
a breccia-like reddish mass (fig. 45). The fossil land-snails occur in 
the limestone, whether it be consolidated or friable, but are most 
abundant in those portions connected with the layers of red-clay, 
especially in and just above the latter. 

Most of the larger caverns and sinks, like those of Walsingham 
and vicinity, have been formed in this formation, which seems to 
contain the oldest rocks now exposed to view on the islands, and to 
form the nuclei of the larger hills. It is found at all levels, from 
below low-tide mark to the elevation of 70 feet or more. Its hard 
compact layers, exposed in many places on the south side of the 
main island, just above high-water mark, are those that have been 
called "base rock" by Heilprin, Kice, and others,* and "the lime- 
stone" by Stevenson, but they are of the same nature as, and essen- 
tially contemporary with, those that occur elsewhere at greater eleva- 
tions, as shown by the overlying red clay and extinct snails. The 
best examples of the so-called molds and casts of " palmetto stumps " 
also occur in this formation (see plates xix, xx), showing that the 
latter might have been due to some extinct and unknown plant or 

This formation outcrops in numerous places on the ancient Wals- 
ingham property, between Castle Harbor and Harrington Sound, 
hence the name given to it. It seems to form most, if not all, of the 
high neck of land separating those two bodies of water, for it out- 

* Professor Rice, op. cit., p. 9, 1884, stated that the so-called base rock ** does 
not nniformly underlie the softer rocks, nor is there any evidence that it is older 
than they." He apparently referred to all the hard limestones of drift-sand 
origin, near sea-level, taken collectively. Agassiz, 1895. held essentially the 
same view. 

But Stevenson, 1897, claimed that this rock, which he called ** limestone," 
represented a distinct formation, underlying the ordinary aeolian limestone, 
which he called *' sandstone." However, he considered the limestones and red 
clays, containing extinct snails, around Castle Harbor and Harrington Sound, as 
a newer formation, ** The intermediate deposit," of the same age as the beach- 
limestones. With this conclusion I do not agree. 

Vo A. E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

crops by the roadside, nearer the Harrington House, nearly at the 
highest part of the ridge, perhaps fifty or sixty feet above the sea. 
Near the Walsingham house there are several deep sinks, filled with 
sea water, and used as fish ponds and turtle ponds, which are formed 
in these rocks. 

The famous Walsingham caves (pi. xxi, fig. 2) with large stalac- 
tites,* Jo^^ce's Cave, and several other similar caverns in this dis- 
trict are in this formation, for the hard limestone, near the entrances, 
contains the red soil and Nelsonian snails. There are many other 
outcrops of the same limestone, associated with red-clay breccia, and 
often completely filled with masses of the large Nelsonian snails, on 
the land of Mr. W. S. O. Peniston. The interesting Peniston cave,f 
with only one small entrance, which is on the top of a higher ridge, 
east of the Harrington House, also appears to be in the same rock, 
though I found no fossil snails just there. The cave dips downward 
with a steep slope to below sea level, for there is a pool of sea water 
in the bottom. The slope is said to be over 80 feet deep. 

There is an excellent exposure of the Walsingham formation at 
the old quarry on the west side of Castle Harbor, and near Paynters 
Vale. Here the hard, compact limestone, formerly quarried for 
government works, is several feet above the sea-level. 

The harder limestone is here overlaid as usual with a layer of red 
clay, which is more or less indurated in places, or united into brec- 
ciiated masses mixed with stalagmitic material and several extinct 
land shells, especially the large Nelsonian snails (fig. 45-47; also pi. 
xxvi). With these land snails numbers of a large marine spiral 
shell (Livo?ia pica, fig. GO) are often found here. These shells were 
carried from the beaches up over the hills in those daj's, just as they 
are toda}^ by the large land hermit-crabs, who use them for shelter. 
Part of the red clay is here contained in pockets or cavernous places 
in the limestone. The fossil land snails occur here in the limestone 
as well as in the red clay material. At this quarry much of the 
harder limestone shows distinct sand-drift structure, which is still 
more evident in the rocks below and above it. 

The Walsingham limestone, with red-clay breccias, outcrops at 
many other places on the southwest and south sides of Castle Harbor. 

* See these Trans., vol. xi, plates xc-xciii, and " The Bermnda Islands," p. 58, 
plates xc-xciii. 

f See these Trans., vol. xi, pp. 438, 471, pi. xciii, and **The Bermada Islands/' 
pp. 26, 59, pi. xciii, figs. 1, 2. Also below, Chapter 16, B. 

A. E. Verrill — 7%e Bermuda Islands; Geology, 71 

It seems to form most of the narrow neck of land that extends from 
Tucker's Town eastward to Castle Point. The extinct fossil land 
snails occur at many localities in this district. 

Thus it seems to be continuous along the shores, from the point 
near Coney Island to Castle Point, a distance of several miles. 
Apparently most of the rocks of Hamilton Parish belong to this 
formation. It occurs also at Tuckers Town and on the shores of 
Harrington Sound. Sharks Hole,* with the cliffs west of it, and 
Devil's Hole seem to be excavated in the WaLsingham formation, 
though only very few imperfect fossils were found at those places. 
The hard rocks on Pear Island and Trunk Island are probably of 
the same age. 

Mr. A. Gulick records a locality on the west side of Knapton Hill, 
near the west end of the sound, where a layer of red earth, about 
8 lo 10 inches thick, and containing several characteristic species of 
fossil snails, rests on a limestone of this formation. 

It occurs along the roadside, from Bailey Bay to near the cause- 
way, for I have found good specimens of P, JVelsoni in it at several 
places there. I also found it in the ledges outcropping near the 
shore at Mr. Seon's beach, Bailey Bay. 

On Bailey Bay Island it occurs near the sea-level, on the north 
side, and extends to an unknown depth below it. At this place I 
have obtained P. Nelsoni from ledges submerged even at low tide. 
Similar hard rocks occur on other small islands, and on the shores 
farther westward, but as they have not yielded the fossil snail {P. 
Nel8oni)y they cannot now be referred to this formation with any 
certainty. The same is true of the hard limestones forming the 
upper ledges on many of the higher hills. They may belong to the 
Walsingham formation, but this cannot be demonstrated until extinct 
fossil snails occur.f 

It apparently outcrops on the northern side of Hamilton Harbor. 
On Ireland Island, Nelson described a cavern in it, containing great 

* These Trans., p. 438, pis. Ixxi, Ixxiii ; ** The Bermuda Islands," p. 26, same 

f Some of the species of Poecilozonites that are fonnd as fossils are still living. 
This is notably so in the case of P. Bermudensis (pi. xxvi, figs. 1,2; pi. xxvii, 
figs. 1, a-Q, which occurs both in the Walsingham formation and in the later 
ones. It is often very abnndant in some of the later and softer limestones, 
retaining conspicnons bands of color. The fossil variety (variety zonata, pi. 
xxvii, fig. 2) is rather larger and thicker than the recent ones. This species, 
therefore, cannot be used for determining the age of these limestones. 

72 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 


numbers of P. Nelsonf* On Tucker's Island, in Great Sound, it 
contains a large cavern, supported by great starfactitic columns, and 
with several feet of sea water over its floor. I observed the red- 
clay and stalactitic breccia, containing the Nelson's snail, in the 
ledge near its entrance, and in other places on the island. 

It has also been recorded as occurring on St. George's Island. I 
did not find the extinct snails in that vicinity, but had little time to 
search for them there. 

Professor Rice, however, described a very hard limestone, of 
seolian origin and containing fossil land snails, as occurring at the 
old quarry at Stocks Point. It was overlaid by a local deposit of 
beach rock, containing many marine shells (see below, p. 75). This 
section, therefore, agrees completely with many of those on the south 
shore of the Main Island, described below. 

Excellent exposure of the hard Walsingham limestone occurs at 
many places, just above high water* mark, on the south side of the 
Main Island, from west of Tucker's Town to Elbow Bay, and 
perhaps further. 

The best examples that I saw are at the foot of a low bluff, near 
Hungry Bay, where the harder layers had been quarried by blasting. 
A good series of photographs of the rocks along this bluff, some of 
which are reproduced in my plates, were made in the spring of 1901, 
by A. H. Verrill. A violent hurricane, not long before, had washed 
away the debris and cut away the softer overlying rocks, so as to 
show all the strata very beautifuUyf (see tig. 11). 

The hardest stratum (b) at this place is about one and a half to 
two feet thick, and has been blasted off for building purposes. It is 
a very compact, white limestone, almost like marble in some places, 
and often with no trace of sand-drift structure, though showing this 
at times in the continuation of the same section. It is overlaid in 
some places by a thicker and somewhat softer stratum {b') of the 
same nature. 

The latter carries on its upper, nearly level, and somewhat eroded 
surface, portions of a firmly adherent layer of indurated red clay, 
commencing in which, at one place (plates xix, xx), there are large 
numbers of those cavities called molds of "palmetto stumps," men- 
tioned above, some of which penetrate into the hardest stratum of 

* See his description of the cavern, qaoted below, p. 82. 

f See pis, xvi-xx ; also these Trans., xi, pis. Ixxxiv-vi ; and "The Bermnda 
Islands," same plates. See discussion of their nature in chapter 24, Paleontology. 

A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 73 

Walsingham limestone, while others only reach its upper surface, or 
fail of that even. The hardness of the rock seemed to have had no 
indnence. They may have been formed before it was hardened. 

Above the red clay surface there is here a deposit of beach-rock 
(c), three or four feet thick in some places, and containing many 
marine shells. The latter is irregularly laminated, and locally 
variable in thickness and character. It appears to have been a true 
marine deposit, formed below high-water mark, but now elevated 
five to eight feet above it. 

This is overlaid, along most of this exposure, by a layer of drift- 
sand {d) which is only slightly consolidated and friable to the touch, 
especially in its upper part. Hence the storm, ref el-red to above, 
readily cut it out into the cavernous or oven-like places, shown in 
some of the plates, under the overlying strata {e) of later seolian 
limestones, which are here well indurated. The unconsolidated 
layers contained, in the lower part, some fragments of marine shells. 
There were mostly small valves of Mytilus and other light bivalves, 
easily drifted by the wind, but in its upper part it contained the 
land snail, Poecilozonites Bermudensis (plate xxvii), which is still 
living, and there were no extinct forms found with it. 

Following this exposure westward the unconsolidated beds soon 
disappear or become so consolidated that they cannot be distin- 
guished from the overlying aeolian limestones, which continue. The 
beach-rock also disappears locally, so that the upper %olian lime- 
stones may rest directly on the Walsingham limestone, though 
uncon f ormabl V. 

The arrangement of this series of rocks is almost the same at 
various other places, as at Devonshire Bay. It was observed there, 
both by Rice (1884) and Stevenson (1897, p. 105), underlying the 
beach-rocks containing marine shells,. Professor Stevenson's descrip- 
tion will be quoted below, under beach-rocks. 

It happens that the hard limestones of this formation occur along 
much of the southern coast of the island, just above sea-level ; 
between tides ; or more or less submerged. In many places the 
strata lie nearly horizontally, though not always so. In case these 
nearly horizontal, compact beds outcrop between tides, or a little 
below low-water mark, they will resist the erosion of the waves 
much more effectually than the softer overlying limestones of later 
age. Thus they are sure to form, under such conditions, more or 
less extensive " benches " or shelves, between tides or lower down. 
The waves speedily wear away the layers of red clay and the 

74 A. E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

unevenly corroded or pitted upper surface gives good opportunities 
for the commencement of the formation of " pot-holes," large and 
small, by the scouring action of the sand and rushing waters. Prob- 
ably some of the deeper and narrower cups or pot-holes on the ser- 
puline atolls are directly due to remodelling and enlarging the cavities 
called molds of "palmetto stumps," which often abound in this 
limestone much above sea level, as well as between tides. (See chap- 
ters 20 and 24, b,) 

It seems evident to me that the vast number of durable flat reefs, 
littoral shelves, submerged benches, and serpuline atolls, all along 
the south coast, are due largely to the outcroppings of these hard, 
nearly horizontal limestone strata, which have just the right nature 
and position to easily yield such flat structures, by the erosive action 
of the waves. (See figures 11, 27-29.) But I do not wish to deny 
that similar structures can be, and often are carved from ordinary 
aeolian limestones, especially when the layers are horizontal or nearly 
so, as Mr. Agassiz states. 

I am, therefore, inclined to believe that most of the serpuline 
atolls and outlying flat reefs of the south coast are composed of the 
hard limestones of the Walsingham period. But I do not know that 
the characteristic, extinct, fossil land snails have as yet been found 
in these reefs. As a rule, these solid limestones, in this vicinity, are 
destitute of recognizable fossils. 

h. Red Clay layers, with extinct Land Snails, 

That the Walsingham formation, which I refer to the Pliocene, 
represents a long period of time, is evident, not only on account of the 
great thickness of its limestone strata, but also from the successive 
layers of red-clay soil interstratified with them, as described above. 
Each of these layers of soil indicates a long time for surface decom- 
position, and locally without sand-drifting. Six or seven of these 
layers of soil, varying in thickness, have been noticed in some sec- 
tions; most of them are only 2 or 3 inches thick, but some are 8 to 10 
inches or more. 

It is thought that it would require the solution of at least 150 
feet of limestone to form a single foot of this soil, not allowing 
an^^thing for that portion which would naturally be washed away 
by rain. (See chapter 20, A.) 

Prof. T. W. Goldie, in his printed lecture on the Geological 
Formation of Bermuda, 1803, pp. 14, 15, mentioned a "belt or layer" 
of *' red clay " soil, 8 inches thick, underlying the seolian limestoneg 

A. E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 75 

near Hamilton. This layer was about 60 to 70 feet above sea-level 
and at about 130 feet below the surface of the hill. It was found 
in making a boring for a well at the military establishment on Pros- 
pect Hill. The layer of red clay was underlaid by strata of compact 
limestone. Perhaps this was a part of the Walsingham formation. 
A similar layer of red cl^y outcrops between limestones on Bishop 
Street, in Hamilton. It is about 60 feet above the sea. From this 
layer the sample of " virgin red soil " was taken for analysis by Mr. 
Manning* (sample No 3). 

15. Beach-rock with Marine Fossils ; Devonshire formation ; 

Champlain Period, 

That beach-rocks, containing the common marine shells of the 
shores and shallows, are still in process of formation locally, on 
many parts of the shores, is plainly to be seen by any one who 
observes such phenomena critically. They are formed of the sands, 
coarse and fine, which are tossed up toward and above high water 
mark by the waves, and often in their upper parts blended with 
finer sands that have dried and then drifted along the beaches with 
the winds. Exposed alternately to the action of the sea water, rains, 
and air, they often harden rather rapidly, as explained above, into 
compact masses of limestone, usually of small extent, and with 
thickness varying greatly within short distances. The larger marine 
shells found in them are mostly broken by the waves, but many are 

These modern deposits are seldom more than three or four feet 
above high tide, and are most frequent in partially sheltered bays 
and coves. 

Many of them are constantly being washed away by more violent 
gales, or by waves from some different direction, so that only a few 
become permanent. At certain places the modern sand-dunes have 
encroached upon and buried such beach deposits. 

It is evident that the same phenomena have been taking place in 
all previous periods of the geological history. But as the islands 
have subsided about 100 feet, it must be evident that all the older 
deposits of this nature must now be buried beneath the sea. The 
only beach deposits of much antiquity that we could expect to find 
would be those formed at some period when the islands stood at a 
slightly lower level than now, in the Champlain or post-glacial 
period (see p. 61). 

* See these Trans., xi, p. 493, table ; also **The Bermuda Islands," p. 81. 

76 A, JE VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

a, Devonshire formation. 

Some of the older and more elevated beach-rocks indicate that 
they were formed in such a period of depression. Some of these 
now lie 12 to 16 feet above the sea, and bv the fine character of the 
materials and good condition of the shells, appear to have been 
formed in comparatively'' quiet waters, and not tossed up by hurri- 
canes, as Mr. Agassiz supposed. No doubt some of the coarser 
deposits, with broken shells, only 3 or 4 feet above the sea, as 
described by him, may have been tossed up by violent gales, for we 
know that recent Bermuda hurricanes have thrown broken shells, as 
well as rocks of considerable size, to the height of 10 to 15 feet, or 
even more, above high tide. But their action is much more destruc- 
tive than formative. No one has seen them leave regular thin-bedded 
deposits of fine materials and entire shells at any such elevations. 
The evidence, therefore, at present, is that the naore elevated beach- 
rocks are of Champlain age, and were mostly deposited in partially 
sheltered bays and lagoons, where violent sea waves did not enter 
with great force. Yet in later times, the barrier reefs or islands 
protecting them having been worn away, some of them have come 
to be exposed on the outer shores, especially along the southern side 
of the main island (fig. 11). ■ They are best displayed, perhaps, on 
the south coast of Devonshire Parish, and therefore I propose to call 
them the Devonshire formatioUy for a distinctive name. 

Professor Rice (1884, pp. 10-14) studied these rocks with much 
care. But he did not, in all cases, distinguish between the beach- 
rocks and the underlining hard aeolian limestones of the Walsing- 
ham formation. Moreover, he supposed, like Heilprin, that they 
belonged to an earlier period than I do, and that they underlaid 
the leolian limestones generally, just as the Walsingham limestones 
do, instead of being of much later origin than the latter, and 
localized, or of small extent, as I believe. 

Stevenson, also (1807, p. 103), held a similar view. He called 
them "the intermediate deposits,"* believing that they were 
deposited directl}^ over the Walsingham formation, and earlier than 
the ordinary jeolian limestones. So far as their position is concerned, 
in many of the outcrops, their views were correct. But according 
to my observations, these rocks are much later and more local 
than they apparently supposed. Yet they are old enough to have 

* Part of the rocks to which he gave that name are of sand-drift origin and 

belong to the Walsingham formation. 

A, jE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 77 

been covered in some places by a considerable thickness of late 
leolian limestones, as shown in fig. 1 1. 

Mr. Agassiz, however, took the extreme opposite view, and 
believed that they are all of modern origin, and formed since the 
islands attained their present level. He believed that all the mate- 
rials, even of the most elevated beds, were carried up the beaches by 
the waves and winds, to the heights at which they are now found. 

My own conclusions are intermediate, for I consider them local 
shore and shallow water deposits of different periods. The older 
and higher ones I believe to have been formed at a period when the 
land stood at least 10 to 15 feet lower than now, as explained above. 
Others are still forming. The older ones, especiall}', are w^orthy of 
more careful studies. 

Lieut. Nelson, 1840, was the first to describe a genuine beach 
formation with marine fossils, at Bermuda. It seems to have been 
one of the older ones, resting on Pliocene limestone. His descrip- 
tion was as follows : 

"The most interesting organics with which I have met were in 
the rock now inclosed by the North Bastion at Ireland Island. 
Whilst cutting the escarp of this work, a large block of reef was 
discovered in the solid rock fifteen or twenty feet from the surface, 
and at about four feet above high water. This specimen contained 
Maeandrina areolata^ the common Mytilus of the coast [M. adu8tus\ 
retaining its black colour, and a pink Millepore [Polytremacis?^ very 
common in the sei'puline reefs. This spot, conceiving the truncated 
strata of Ireland I. to be restored to their proper form, must have been 
at the very apex of the saddle, and is perfectly distinct from the 
loose, soft, and newer sandstones. Above the level of this spot lie 
the strata, a, a, fig. 8, which 'for some hundred yards along the 
north side, consist chiefly of a hard subcrystalline limestone." 

"In the centre of this rock was a cavern ; and entangled amongst 
the stalagraitic lining (as well as in that of other caves and crevices), 
or else lying in heaps in the loose red earth within, we found abund- 
ance of a large and delicate Helix [= PcecUozonites Nelsoni],^^ 

This statement regarding the loose red- soil and stalagmitic 
materials containing this extinct snail, indicates that the clay and 
underlying rock belonged to the Walsingham formation, for the 

* This specunen, which is still preserved in London, has been recently iden- 
tified as Myeetophyllia Lamarckana by Gregory. I have referred this species to 
Mussa (these Trans., xi, p. 68, note). If correctly named by Gregory, it is not 
Imown to inhabit Bennnda at this time. 

Trans. Cokn. Acad., Vol. XII. 6 June, 1905. 

7* A. £, V'irrlU — 77/ ^r BtDiiuda Islands; Geology, 

conditions are like those of the qnarry at Paynter's Vale, described 
above <p. 70). This beaeh-rock was evi«1entlv a very local deposit 
It mast have been mnch later than the red elav and limestone 


below it. It could not have been of the same period, for we know 
that part of the older rocks containing fossil land shells occar sub- 
merge«l some 45 feet below the sea at the dockyard, in the immedi- 
ate vicinitv. Therefore the rock containing: marine fossils must have 
been depositee! at some perio^i after the submergence of the Walsing- 
ham formation to at least that amount. 

Among other instances. Nelson mentions a locality of beach-rock 
on Long Bird Island, not described by later writers: 

'* The last individual animal organic which I shall mention is a 
ikrorahu*^ which I chiselled out at Long-bird Island, and had the 
cavities in the substance of the shell tilled with crystallized carbon- 
ate of lime. I may terminate this list comprehensively by saying 
that almost every shell now known in the surrounding sea may be 
found in the rock quite perfect, except with regard to colour, espe- 
cially among the newer beds on the sea coast. ** 

A local deposit of beach-rock or '^conglomerate," with marine 
fossils, occurring at an old quarry on Stock's Point, St. George's 
L<!>land, has been described by Rice, Stevenson, and others. It is 
said to have been of greater extent and height formerly. It varies 
from I to feet in thickness, llie marine shells contained in it are 
mostly broken. It lies in corroded hollows of the harder underlying 
limestone, and to the height of about 1 2 feet above the sea. 

This deposit of beach-rock was described by Professor Rice, as 
follows: — 

"The rook which has been quarried there, and which now appears 
in the ba>e of the bluff, is a very hard rock of subcry stall ine texture 
and of ferruginous color. It shows vestiges of irregular lamination, 
and contains fossil Helices and no marine fossils. It is undoubtedly 
a drift-rock, like that at Paynter's Vale. The up|>er surface of this 
rock is exceedingly irregular, giving evidence of much snbaerial 
erosion precedinir the deposition of the overlying strata. It is over- 
lain by a remarkable conglomerate, evidently a beach-rock, contain- 
ing fragments of the underlying hardened drift-rock, peculiar ferru- 
ginous nodules, compact lumps of * red earth,' and pretty large 
marine shells. Tiie upper surface of this conglomerate, unlike its 
lower surface, is quite regular — the usual plane of marine deposition. 
This conglomerate is overlain in places by a stratum of sand, like 
that observed at Devonshire Bay, containing shells of land snails in 

A. E. Verrili—TAe Bermuda Islands; Qeology. 79 

its nppermoat layers. Above this sand, where the sand i& present, 
in other places resting immediately upon the conglomerate, is the 
ordinary drift-rock." 

b. Foasits of the Beach-rocks. 
As mentioned above, marine shells are often abundant in these 
rocks. Most of them are species still living about the islands, 
though of these some are now rare and much smaller than the fossiis. 
In the chapter on Paleontology, I shall give a rongh list of these 
fossils hitherto recognized. Unfortunately collectors have not desig- 
nated, in most cases, the exact localities where their specimens were 

Fignre 11. — Di^rammatic Bection west of Hangr; Bay, south shore ; b,b' , strata 
of hard Walsingham limestoDe, containing oylindric holes, p, commoni}' 
called moldfl of " palmetto stninps.'" and overlaid by indarated red-clay ; c, 
Beach-rock or Devonshire formation, containing marine fossils ; d, beds 
of imperfectly consolidated drift-aand. overiying c ; p, later ffiolian lime- 
atonea containing only recent land shells ; a, di^rammatic section of small 
serpDline atoll, near the shore; i«, lu, level of high-water and low-water 
mark. Original. 

obtained, so that they are probably of different periods. Few 
recognizable corals have occuri'ed. The Mussa or MycetophyUiit 
obtained by Nelson is of the most interest. Near Hungry Bay, I 
found in these rooks fragments of a large barnacle (Balanus), which 
I have not seen living here. 

The best exposures that I studied were between Elbow Bay and 
Hungry Bay. These have been mentioned above (p. 72), and some 
of the exposures have been previously figured by ine.* 

•Plates ivi-ii. Also these Trans., li, p. 908, plates luxiv-lxixvi ; "The 
Bermuda Islands," p. 490, same plates. 

so A. E, Verrili — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

At these places the beach deposits vary in thickness from 1 or 2 
feet up to 4 feet or more. They are irregular and variable within a 
few hundred feet. They are rather hard, laminated, with pretty 
thin layers, which dip toward the sea at small but variable angles. 
They rest either directly upon the flat corroded surfaces of the hard 
Walsiufirham limestones, h and b\ or upon a layer of partially indu- 
r^tevl riHl-i*lav that overlies the latter. Thev also overlie the sur- 
face of a hanl limestone (//), which at this place contains remarkably 
perfect examples of the *' fossil palmetto stumps." (See plates 
refenvti to alx^ve.) These beach-beds contain numerous marine 
shells, mi>stly of common existing species. 

The Wach-Hmestones are marked c and c in the plates and in the 
dia<rrammatic section (ti<r. 11). In the best sections thev are overlaid 
by a beti of very im[>erfectly consolidated drifted sand, 3 to 6 feet 
thick, which wa^ here waslu'd out into cavernous places by the pre- 
vious hurricane \see p. 11). But a short distance farther west these 
lo*os»e l>e<ls, or their equivalent, become gradually harder and in some 
places cannot l>e distiuiriiisheil from the overlying a^olian limestone 
{u t ), The lix^se s.ind-betl contained in it5 lower parts a few sepa- 
raKn^ shells of marine bivalves, mosily J/yf #/?«#, and numerous speci- 
mens of Pii'-cilozonit^s BtrtHudin*is in good preservation, but no 
ertinct s|-»ecies, so that it doubtless l>elongs to the newer series. In 
oihvr shore s<-ctions, in c<>nnnuation wiih those figured, the beach- 
rocks were lacking and the later axuian limestones, like «, e', rested 
direct Iv on h\ 

Profes<H->r Stovenson^s description of the locality at Devonshire 
Bav WAS ,^s follows: — 

- The intennotiiate deposit, or marine limestone, covers the broadly 
irrcirular surfaiV of the limestone. It reaches to the water-level, on 
the ^k^uthwi-st side of the old forts but is seven or eight feet above 
it on till- northerly side. The rock is hard in the lower portions, 
bnt bfcomos si^ft above, disintegrating readily and passing, as far as 
extent of consolidation is concemeil, very gradQally into the over- 
Iring deposit, li is >lightly conglomerate in the apper portion. 
The simcturi' is >ory similar to that of the sandstone, the laminsB 
being thin and inilinct^ in all dirvvtions. The hardness of the rock 
is not due to spray, or to the cashing of the present tides, since it is 
as marked on the rorthorlx as on the souther! v fflde of the fort 
JJronn^ ("Af7?/<i7, rr'/7/»^f.v and Ar^ti occur in prodigious numbers, 
the shells of 7. //•.»». 7 Wing as large and as j^rfect as those dredged 

A. JS Ven*ill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 81 

in Castle Harbor, or in the shallows off the south shore.* The other 
shells give equal proof of having been deposited in comparatively 
still water. On the southerly side of the old fort, an apparently 
complete physical break between the intermediate rock and the sand- 
stone is indicated by a horizontal line, yet the passage from the 
lower to the upper rock is extremely gradual, while above the line 
and within the Helix zone, Area and jChama were seen perfectly 
preserved, the open valves of Area, in one case, being still attached. 
The condition, for a time at least, must have been such as one sees 
at Tuckertown today, where the dune is encroaching upon the bay." 

16, Evidences of Subsidence, 

That these islands have undergone a considerable amount of sub- 
sidence, since the time of Greater Bermuda, is admitted by every 
geologist who has studied them, but they differ as to the probable 
amount. The evidence is partly derived from (A), the aeolian lime- 
stones, peat bogs, red soil, land snails, etc., dug up from far beneath 
the sea at Ireland Island, and in dredging and blasting the ship 
channels; (B) from the fact that caverns, sinks, and peat bogs on the 
land now extend much below sea-level, although they must have 
been formed above it. Stalagmites and stalactites, formed in the air, 
are now found submerged in the sea water in the caves; (C) from the 
submarine sinks, sounds, and deep water channels, which give every 
evidence of having been formed by running water when the land 
was elevated above the sea. The latter are, no doubt, the more 
important evidences, but the former appeal more to those who are 
not geologists. 

A. Evidences from submerged ^olian limestones and Peat bog-*. 

During the excavations made in 1870, at the dockyard on Ireland 
Island, to accommodate the great floating dock, series of aeolian 
limestones were penetrated to the depth of 52 feet below low tide. 
At the depth of 46 feet below sea-level, a stratum of peat and "red- 
earth," 2 feet thick, was found, which contained vertical stumps of 
cedar trees. Below this were again strata of hard aeolian limestones, 
at least 4 feet thick, containing fossil land-snails (said to have been 
P, Nelsoni by some ; P, Bermudensis by others). I have not seen 

* Prof. Stevenson was probably misinformed as to its existence in these locali- 
ties. So far as I know it is extinct in Bermuda. 

82 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

these fossils. If this snail was really the extinct Nelson's snail, this 
lower hard limestone, and probably the associated red-earth, belonged 
to the Walsingham formation. 

The peat and stumps may have belonged to a later period thao 
the red -clay and the limestone below it, but according to some 
accounts the fossil snails and trees were all found in the layer of red 
soil.* Bones of an unknowi\ bird are also said to have been found 
in this red soil. Probably these materials were not taken out with 
sufficient care by the workmen to enable any one to determine their 
exact relations. 

In dredging out the channel in Hospital Bay, about 25 years ago, 
large numbers of tbe trunks of cedar trees, in pretty good preserva- 
tion, were brought up. They were overlaid by a peat bog, and over 
this was a deposit of shell-mud and shell-sand, with foraminifera, etc. 

Masses of peat, evidently derived from a submerged peat-bog, 
were dredged up by me and my party in 1901, in the channel of 
"The Reach," north of the Swing Bridge, where the depth of water 
was about 15 to 20 feet. 

A bed of red-clay was found between layers of aeolian limestones 
while blasting out the reefs to deepen the channel at the entrance of 
St. George's Harbor, in 1847-8. 

Roots and stumps of cedar trees have been pulled up on the 
anchors of vessels several times, both in Hamilton and in St. Greorge's 
Harbors. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that Hamilton 
Harbor, St. George's Harbor and the " lieach " were once marshes 
or peat-bogs, with cedar trees in the drier parts, like the Devonshire 
marshes, for example. By subsidence and the encroachment of the 
sea, the peat beds have been buried at the bottom of the harbors 

Peat, as well as cedar wood, if buried under the salt-water mud, 
would last almost indefinitely. If openly exposed to the water, the 
cedar would soon be destroyed by the " ship-worms " ( Teredo)y 
which abound here. • 

Such peat bogs might have come to be below the sea-level by a 
long period of subsidence, before the encroachment of the sea, just 
as some of the existing peat bogs now extend far below sea-level. 
That was, indeed, ]>robably the case, for otherwise the sea would 
have rapidly worn away the peat to which it had access on the shore. 

* See Jones, J. M., Visitor's Guide to Bermuda, 1876, p. 119. Also '* Recent 
Observations in the Bermudas," Nature, vi, p. 262, 1872 ; ditto, Amer. Jorum* 
Science, Ser. 3, vol. iv, p. 414, 1872. Reprint. 

A. jE Verrill — The Bermuda Islajids; Geology. 83 

A Evidences of Subsidence derived from Caverns and Sinks. 

Among other structures indicating subsidence are the various 
caverns, with large stalactites and stalagmites, now depressed more 
or less below the level of the sea and filled with sea water, which is 
said to be at least 30 feet deep in some of them. The stalactites 
descend into the sea water in ^some cases, while stalagmites can be 
seen, through the clear water, rising up from the bottom. 

a. Caverns containing Sea water. 

In the large cavern on Tucker's Island, the bottom is covered by 
6 to 10 feet of clear sea water, beneath which I saw, in 1901, many 
large pointed stalagmites standing upright, but not reaching the 
surface. Some of these were more than a foot in diameter. This 
cavern, which was then open to visitors on payment of a fee, has to 
be explored in a boat. Its roof is supported by large stalactitic 
columns, many of which are of hardened limestone, thickly encrusted 
with dull-colored stalactitic material, but most of them extend 
beneath the sea water to the bottom. 

Lieut. Nelson, 1840, described a partly submerged cavern as 
follows : 

"Tucker's Island cavern was a perfect bijou; with one splendid 
exception it has hitherto stood unrivalled among the caves of Ber- 
muda. This little cavern had a length of eighty feet, a breadth of 
about fifty, a height above the little lake within of at most fifteen, 
and a depth below its surface scarcely exceeding fourteen. The 
stalactites were remarkably clear and beautiful, varying from the 
massive pendant of six or seven feet in length, to the slender incip- 
ient fragile tube, which crumbled at the slightest touch. It was a 
scene not to be readily forgotten, when we launched a little boat 
into the miner's first and narrow opening, through which the sun 
shone strongly, and reflecting its light from the face of the water 
upwards and with power to the sparry fretted ceiling of the vault, 
illuminated it in a way which can only be appreciated by those who 
have been eye-witnesses of such effects. This cave was shortly 
afterwards destroyed, as interfering with the safety of the works." 

One of the most interesting caves, because of its peculiar situation 
and its elegant and profuse pure white stalactites and drapery-like 
sheets of stalactitic material, is Peniston's Cave, on the land of Mr. 
W. S. O. Peniston. It was not open to the public at the time of 
my visit, and partly on that account its stalactites retained their 

84 A. JE, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

original purity of color. The entrance is near the top of a wooded 
hill somewhat south of the Harrington House, toward Castle Harbor. 
There is a large, dry, cultivated sink to the northward of it. The 
entrance is nearly perpendicular and barely large enough for a man 
to enter, it being only the wider part of a fissure. The fissure 
expands below to form the cave. The floor and roof both slope 
rapidly downward for about 80 feet.* The open ttpace is at times 
more than 50 feet wide. The height of the roof varies from 4 or 5 
up to 10 or 15 feet. It is thickly covered in most places with mul- 
titudes of rather small stalactites, though large ones occur. These, 
stalactites are still forming. Water was dripping from most of them. 
Many of the small and very slender ones were tubular and porous at 
the end, and had a drop of water hanging there, in which, with a 
lens, loose or but slightly attached crystals of calcium carbonate 
could be seen forming.* 

In the bottom of this cavern there is a pool of very clear sea- 
water, about 8 to 10 feet deep, so that it goes below the level of 
Harrington Sound and Castle Harbor to that depth, but the connec- 
tion with the sea is probably only by small crevices. No fishes live 
in it. 

At several points on the west shore of Castle Harbpr, opposite the 
Peniston Cave and others of this vicinity, several streams of clear 
salt water flow out from holes and crevices in the beach, exposed at 
low tide. Some of them are like springs, and of considerable volume. 
The water may come from the caves, or even from Harrington Sound. 
Such localities are excellent for collecting marine invertebrates. 

The whole neck of land between Harrington Sound and Castle 
Harbor seems to be cavernous. Sharks Holef at the southeast cor- 
ner of Harrington Sound is a cavern in the form of a deep archway, 
partly submerged beneath the water, so that a boat can row in 50 feet 
or more. The bottom is covered with large broken rocks, among 
which manv flshes mav often be seen. The water under the arch is 
rarely more than 10 to 12 feet deep. Among other well known 
caves in tlii.s vicinity are Cooper's Ciive and Paynter's Cave ; 
Joyce's Cave, near Coney Island; Convolvulus Cave; and the Wals- 
inghani Cavcs.J 

* See these Trans., pp. 43S. 471, pi. xciii, figs. 1, 2; '*The Bermada Islands/' 
pp. 20, T)!), pi. xeiii, figs. 1, 2. 

f Its location is at S. H. on map II. See these Trans., xi, p. 488, pi. Ixxiii ; 
"The Bermuda Islamls," p. 20, pi. Ixxviii. 

X See these Trans., xi, pp. 470, 471, plates xc-xcii ; "The Bermada Islands," 
pp. 58, 59, same plates. 

A. JE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 85 

b. Wahingham Caves atid Sinks, 

On the ancient Walsingham place, near the northwestern shore 
of Castle Harbor, there are several rather large caves, excavated by 
percolating rain water and fresh water streams in the hard limestones 
of the Walsingham formation (see p. 70). 

One of these, near " Tom Moore's Calabash Tree," has at present 
no sea water in it. It has two entrances, one of which is on consider- 
ably higher land than the other. From this the path descends 
rapidly into a long irregular colonnade, bordered on each side with 
large stalactitic columns, and hung with large stalactites. In some 
places it enlarges into vaulted rooms of considerable height. The 
second entrance opens at a much lower level into a very evident dry 
sink, covered at present with woodland.* 

This cavern seems to have been at one time the subterranean 
channel of a stream of water of considerable volume. Probably it 
was connected directly with several other caves, some of which are 
now represented only by the adjacent sinks. 

Near by, but on lower land, there is a large cave with a single 
room. It has a high sloping roof, from which hang great numbers 
of stalactites, some of them of large size, many over a foot in diame- 
ter and perhaps 6 to 10 feet long. This cavernf has a deep pool of 
sea-water covering most of its floor. It is said to be 15 to 20 feet 
deep in the deepest parts, which are not accessible without a boat. 
Certainly the bottom could not be seen, except close to the shal- 
lower side, when strongly illuminated. Some of the stalactites 
descend into the sea-water. Several other caverns in this district 
have the same general character, and some communicate with the 
sea so freely that the tides ebb and flow, and various fishes live in 
them. (See pi. xxi, fig. 1.) 

Near these caves are several sinks with abrupt sides and nearly 
full of sea-water. They are evidently the ruins of caverns like those 

* It was from one of these caverns that a large stalagmite was taken in 1819, 
by Admiral David Milne, and sent to the mnseum of Edinburgh. It was 25 
inches in diameter, where it was sawn off, 11 feet 3 inches high, weighed 
abont 3^ tons and contained 44 cubic feet. (See Proc. Royal Society Ediub., 
v, p. 423; *' Bermuda Pocket Almanac," 1888, p. 175; 1889, p. 149. But the 
attempts^ that have been made to estimate its age, by the rate of deposit now 
going on, are futile, for there is no possibility that the rate is the^ame now that 
it was formerly, nor that it was at all constant in any former period. The varia- 
tions must have been very great. 

f See these Trans., p. 471, pis. xci, xcii ; **The Bermuda Islands," p. 59, 
same plates. 

86 A. JS. Terr ill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

that remain. One, close by the Walsingbam house, appears to be of 
considerable depth, but I had no means of sounding it. The bottom 
was not visible in strong sunshine. It may be 20 to 30 feet deep. 
When I visited it there were several large green-turtles swimming 
in it. A smaller sink of the same kind exists by the roadside on 
Coney Island. It may be 30 to 50 feet in diameter. Its banks are 
of limestone rocks, on all sides, either perpendicular or overhanging, 
and large flat slabs, evidently parts of the fallen roof, lie loosely on 
the bottom. The water is 6 to 10 feet below the brink and about 
8 to 12 feet deep. Large numbers of snappers and other large 
fishes were seen in it. 

The famous Devil's Hole, on the west side of Harrington Sound, 
is another sink of precisely the same nature, but much larger. It 
may be nearly 100 feet across. Its perpendicular walls rise 10 to 15 
feet or more above the water. The water is said to be nearlv 40 
feet deep, but I know of no accurate measurements. It is walled 
around and kept as a show-place, on account of the large numbers 
of Hamlet groupers and other large fishes that are kept in it.* 

Webb's Pond, near the Flatts, is another good example of a sink 
filled with the sea water. It is near the shore and is about 200 feet 
in diameter. It is said to be 14 feet deep. 

When any of these caverns or sinks extend below sea-level, 
whether their stalactites and stalagmites are submerged or not, it is 
conclusive evidence of considerable submergence, for such caverns 
are always excavated by percolating or running rain-water, which 
also forms the stalactites by exposure to air. But to many persons 
the submergence of the stalactites seems more tangible and convinc- 
ing evidence. 

I shall show later that caverns and sinks exist which are entirely 
submerged beneath the sea. 

c. Peat-hogs and Marshes, 

Many of the peatbogs and fresh-water marshes are known to be 
so deep that their bottoms are considerably below the level of the 
sea. In a region where the rocks are so easily permeable as in 
Bermuda, the land and fresh-water marsh plants of which the peat 
is composed could only have grown when the bottom of the* valleys 

* It is located at D, on map II. See also these Trans., xi, p. 468; **The 
Bermuda Islands," p. 56. These sinks make excellent preserves for fishes and 
sea- turtles. 

A. JS. Terrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 87 

containing the peat was above sea-level. But a subsequent gradual 
subsidence would permit their growth on top, provided the surface 
remains always a few feet above the sea, for the fresh water of the 
upper layers will not readily mix with the brackish water below. 

Pembroke Marsh, near Hamilton, is now but little above the sea, 
yet according to Governor Lefroy, who had it tested in 18'72, the 
peat is, in places, 40 to 48 feet deep. This would show that the 
bottom of this valley or sink extends to at least 30 to 35 feet below 
the sea-level, and that the islands must have subsided as much as 
that, since the peat began to form. Several other bogs and marshes 
are known to extend below sea-level, but I am not aware of any 
reliable records of their depths. The instances given show well 
how peat beds happened to be buried in Hamilton and St. George's 
Harbors (see p. 81), by subsidence. 

C, Evidences of Subsidence from submerged Sinks^ Sounds, and 


That sounds, sinks, and subterranean passages, due in part to the 
caving in of the roofs of caverns, exist here beneath the sea, just like 
those on the land, and formed in the same way by the solvent action 
of rain-water, when the land stood at a higher level, is certain. No 
doubt most of the smaller, deep, isolated sinks, harbors, sounds, and 
"holes" are of this origin. No other explanation of their origin is 
available. The same is true of many of the passages through and 
under the reefs. Probably, however, the larger ship-channels and 
the broader sounds were largely due to the erosion of the rocks by 
running streams during the time of Greater Bermuda, but many of 
those streams may have had underground channels, as they do in 
many limestone regions. The much greater extent of the land, at 
that time, and its height must have given rise to streams of consider- 
able size and velocity, which would have cut away and undermined 
the soft limestones with great rapidity, whether above ground or 
underground. If the falling in of large caverns took place to form 
sinks, these would have been rapidly enlarged by. the erosion of the 
shores, either by fresh water or sea water, according to their eleva- 

Therefore, at the present time it is impossible to determine which 
factor was of the most importance in the excavation of the larger 
sounds. In either case the land must have been raised above sea- 
level to a height equal at least to the present depth of the deepest 

88 A, E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

sounds and channels (12 to 14 fathoms), unless we admit that they 
have been eroded by the sea since their submergence. Erosion of 
the sea bottom seems not to have occurred here, unless in very 
shallow water, for the bottom is everywhere covered with a thick 
deposit of incoherent shell-sand and fine, white, calcareous mud, which 
is evidently accumulating faster than it can be removed by the s«a. 
Where excavations have bven made to deepen the inner channels, 
loose shell-sand has been found to be 6 to 8 feet thick, over the 
aBolian limestones. Therefore it is probable that all the deeper 
sounds and channels have been very much filled up since the sub- 
sidence of the land. They may have been originally 40 to 50 feet 
deeper than now. But as some are still 12 to 14 fathoms deep, it is 
safe to assert that the islands were at least 80 to 100 feet higher 
than now, when those deeper places were eroded. 

If we wish to trace the present terrestrial conditions downward 
beneath the sea, it will be necessary to first consider such evidences 
as exist in the shallower waters near the shore. These may be 
found in abundance. Only a few will be mentioned here, as 

a. Submerged Caverns and Sinks, 

While blasting out the rocks to deepen the channel at Timlin's 
Narrows in Hamilton Harbor, in 1843, the drills suddenly entered a 
submarine cavern. When gunpowder was exploded in it, the depth 
suddenly increased from 15 feet to 22 feet. This cavern contained 
red clay and stalactites. J. M. Jones states that in deepening the 
channel into Hamilton Harbor, in 1869, a cavern was found at the 
depth of 36 feet below sea-level.* 

" Blue Hole," on the west side of Castle Harbor, is a submerged 
deep sink, similar to " Devil's Hole " on the land. Many other 
similar sinks or deep " holes " exist here, under the sea. Very many 
more liave, no doubt, been so entirely filled up with mud that they 
are no longer visible. Some of the abruptly deeper parts of Harring- 
ton Sound are of the same nature, as are also the deeper parts of 
Castle Harbor and Eiies Harbor. 

h. Submerged Sounds or eroded Valleys. 

If we <ny into deeper water, we find several notable areas of water 
from oO to 70 feet doej), surrounded on all sides by shallower areas. 
In a few such places the depth reaches 72 to 84 feet, as in a small 

* American. Journ. Sci., Ser. 3, vol. iv, p. 415, 1878. 

A. E. Verrill — The Bennnda Islands; Geology. 89 

sound inside of Mills Breaker (c, map II). These deeper places, more 
than 45 feet deep, are mostly indicated by ruled lines on map I, 
fig. 12 (p. 92). A few of the smaller ones, less than two square 
miles in area, omitted on map I, are shown on map 11, pi. xxxvii. 

If the land were re6levated to the height of 45 feet above its 
present level, all these areas would become enclosed sounds, like 
Harrington Sound. Very likely the tides and waves would soon 
clear the mud and debris out of their old channels, so that most of 
them would communicate with the outer waters by narrow channels, 
thus coming to resemble Castle Harbor, Great Sound, Elies Harbor, 
etc. But some would remain for a long time land-locked, unless the 
waters have unknown subterranean ])assage8. The deeper part of 
Great Sound would thus form a completely land-locked sound, two 
square miles or more in area, and about 15 feet deep (VI on map I). 
It would resemble Harrington Sound in size and form. There would 
also be a much smaller area of water, about 10 to 20 feet deep, in 
the center of Harrington Sound. 

All these sounds that would be left, after such reelevation of 45 
feet, would amount to about 40 square miles, but the dry land 
re'gained would be about 160 square miles, or about eight times the 
present area of the dry land. 

The largest of the residual sounds would be that including part of 
Murray Anchorage and the longer and deeper North Rock Sound, 
now connected with the former by a channel of 8 fathoms depth. 
This sound would be about as large as all the present land of Ber- 
muda, including Castle Harbor and Harrington Sound. Three other 
sounds without visible outlets (II, III, and V), each about the size of 
Harrington Sound, would remain. Another, similar in size to St. 
George's Harbor, is marked II on map I. 

Again, if the reelevation should amount to about 50 feet, the 
total area of dry land gained would amount to about 190 square 
miles, and the only bodies of water, of any notable size, that would 
remain are indicated by the heavy dotted or broken lines on map II. 
They would amount to about 12 to 14 square miles. All the flats, 
and the rest of the reef areas and great interior lagoons, would be 
laid bare. The pinnacles and cliffs exposed would be, on the lower 
lands, 45 to 50 feet high. 

The largest sound that would now remain is the North Rock and 
Mills Breaker Sound (eon map H), which would have an area of or 
7 square miles, with depths of 1(5 to 22 feet in some small areas, but 
most of it would be only 4 to 10 feet deep. A small, irregular. 

90 A, E, Verrill — 77ie Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

bilobed sound (a), farther east, toward the Mills Breaker cut (xiv), 
would probably be connected with the former sound by an extension 
of its southern limb in the form of a narrow, deep, and crooked 
channel, in which there is now 48 feet of water. This sound would 
be about as large as St. George's Harbor. To the east of it would 
lie two smaller bodies of water, 10 to 34 feet deep. The larger of 
these (c) would probably remain connected with Mills Breaker cut 
(xiv) by means of a narrow deep channel, and probably also with 
the sounds (a) and {e), A shallow sound of about 8 square miles 
(a), would exist north of St. George's Island, in the eastern part of 
Murray Anchorage. It would be larger than the prq^ent Harring- 
ton Sound. One (i), about as large as Harrington Sound, would be 
enclosed in what is now Great Sound. It would have no visible 
outlet, and would be 4 to 10 feet deep. A few other small and 
mostly shallow lagoons or ponds, without outlets, marked b,fy g^ A, 
would also exist with water only 4 to 10 feet deep. 

A rise of 70 feet would cause very nearly all of these lagoons and 
sounds to disappear. As remarked above, these larger submerged 
sounds are due in part to erosion when they formed valleys on 
the dry land of Greater Bermuda. That they may, in some parts, 
have been formed by the falling in of great caverns in the still older 
limestones beneath them is quite possible, but that view, which has 
been advanced by others, is unnecessary and is also incapable of 
being proved, at present, for we, as yet, know nothing about the 
nature of the rocks that immediately underlie the sounds beyond 52 
feet below sea-level. 

However, the cavern theory does not seem adequate to account 
for valleys and sounds six to ten miles across, with very gently 
sloping bottoms. They, like the larger of those under discussion, 
are more likely to be the original valleys, formed between the primi- 
tive sand-dunes, for sand-dunes cannot exist without having valleys 
between them. Such valleys would have been the places where the 
waters flowed and then ordinary erosion would have done the rest. 

c. Outer Channels or " Cutsy 

1. Position and depth of the Cuts, 

The outer circle of reefs "flats" and boilers forms an almost 
unbroken barrier around the islands, as shown on maps I and II.* 
They enclose a narrow strip of sea one-half to nearly two miles in 
width on the southern side, but six to nine miles wide on the 
western and northern sides. 

Map II is printed on pi. xxxvii. Map I is fig. 12, p. 92. 

A. JE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 91 

Through the great border of reefs, extending from St. George's 
Island at the eastern end around the whole northern and western 
sides to the extreme southwestern part, a distance of some 40 miles, 
there are only six or seven narrow and crooked channels considered 
navigable for vessels even of small size. Only one of these, the 
"Narrows" or ship-channel (S. C, map II), is used by passenger 
steamers and naval vessels. The others are sometimes used by the 
smaller native Ushing and coasting vessels. One of these, the " Hog- 
fish Cut" (see viii, maps I, II), was considerably used by coasting 
vessels in early times, and could be easily improved. In a former 
work* I have quoted the sailing directions, given by Mr. A. G. 
Findlay, 1870-1895, for entering by several of these channels. But 
most of them are too dangerous to be attempted, except by expe- 
rienced local pilots. 

They are of importance geologically, because they are probably 
the more or less obstructed and filled up ancient channels by which 
the separated interior sounds, described above, were connected with 
the sea in the time of Greater Bermuda, and were eroded to their 
greatest depths at that time. 

Beginning at the northeastern end of the islands, the first channel, 
off St. George's and less than a mile from the shore, in some places, 
is the main ship-channel or "Narrows" (S. C, maps I, II). This is 
long, narrow, and crooked, but has usually 6 to 8 fathoms of water. 
It leads into the Murray Anchorage. The next channel northward 
is Mills Breaker Cut (XIV, on map II, pi. xxxvii). This has 10 
fathoms of water at the entrance. The branch that leads directly 
westward is 8 to 10 fathoms deep, and leads to the small, deep 
sound (c), which is 10 to 14 fathoms deep and about a mile wide. 
From this it leads into the longer sound (a), by a channel 8 fathoms 
deep, running west, about a mile into the large North Rock Sound 
(6, map 11), which is 8 to 12 fathoms deep. This "cut" seems to be 
the most important one, from a geological point of view, because, 
according to the official charts, it is the deepest and one of the 
widest, and drains the deepest of the enclosed sounds. 

Cut XIII, farther northeast, is of much less importance, for 
though 10 fathoms deep at the entrance, and 8 fathoms within, it is 
much obstructed by scattered reefs and rocks. 

Cut XII, east of the " Great Breaker Flatts," also appears to be 
very much obstructed. 

♦ These Trans., pp. 486-489 ; *' The Bermuda Islands," pp. 74-77. 

A. JE Verrill — The Bermuda Idaiids; Geology, 93 

JShcplanation of Map I; Figure 12. 

The depths ontside the reefs and in the lagoons are in fathoms ; those on the 
reefs and shallows are in feet. The continnons line, outside the reefs, indicates 
the contour at 10 fathoms ; the two dotted lines indicate 20 and 100 fathoms, 

I. I. — Ireland Island with the Naval Station and Dry Dock. See pp. 71, 77 
81, 109, 115, 151, 1«0. 
BZ. — Boaz Island. 
S. I.— Somerset Island. See pp. 63, 106, 109. 

B. I.— Bermuda or Main Island, p. 108, 136. 

B.— Bailey Bay. See pp. 51, 71, 110, 111, 138, 139, 142, 158, 159, 161. 
H.— Hamilton, the capital and harbor. See pp. 50, 75, 82, 88, 144. 
H. S.— Harrington Sound. See pp. 71, 84, 86. 88, 89, 98, 111, 112, 138, 144 
S. B,— Shelly Bay. See pp. Ill, 123, 151. 

F.— Flatt's Village and the outlet of Harrington Sound. See pp. Ill, 136. 
E.— Elbow Bay, with modem sand dunes. See pp. 72, 79, 119, 151, 153. 
G. H.—GibVs Hill Light. See pp. 48, 55. 
D.—DevU's Hole. See p. 86. 

C. —Causeway, destroyed Sept. 12, 1899, by a great storm, and rebuilt. See 
pp. 127, 182. 

C. H.— Castle Harbor. See pp. 70, 85, 88, 121, 127, 128, 135, 138, 159. 
G. I.— St. George's Island and town. See pp. 70, 72, 104, 105, 109, 130. 
G.— St. George's Harbor. See pp. 81, 82, 87, 89, 90, 94, 127, 136, 144. 
S. C. — Main Ship-channel or entrance to Murray Anchorage. See p. 91. 

D. I.— St. David's Island and Light. See pp. 109, 110. 
C. I.—Cooper's Island. See pp. 106, 109. 

N» I. — Nonesuch Island and Quarantine. 

K. I. — Castle Island and ruins of King's Castle. See pp. 47 (cut 1), 94, 128. 

The principal submerged sounds or drowned lagoons, over 45 feet deep, are 
shaded with parallel lines, and numbered I-VI. Their probable ancient outlets, 
called ** cuts," are numbered VII to XV. 

I.— Murray Anchorage. See pp. 88, 89, 90, 91, 138. 
II. — Blue Cut Sound. See p. 94. 
III. — Sound north of Ireland Island, or Western Chub Cut Sound. See p. 94. 
IV. — Brackish Pond Sound. See p. 94. 
V. — Chub Cut Sound or Western Ledge Sound. See p. 94. 
VI.— Great Sound. See pp. 72, 88, 90, 138, 144. 
VII. — Cut in Long Bar, leading to a large passage 3 miles long and 6 to 10 
fathoms deep, running S.E. and N.W. inside Long Bar Reef. See 
p. 94. 
Vni.— Hog-fish Cut, 7-10 fathoms deep, leading to Chub Cut Sound and Elies' 
Harbor, from the southwest. See pp. 91, 94. 
IX. — Chub Cut, 3-8 fathoms deep, leading to Chub Cut Sound from the north. 
See p. 94. 
X. — Western Blue Cut, partly obstructed by reefs, leading to Sound III. 
See p. 94. 
XI. — North Rocks, Northeastern Cut, leading toward a small sound 11 fathoms 
deep, not numbered (North Rocks Sound). See pp. 91 , 94, 115,128-132. 
XII. and XIII. — Ledge Flat Cuts. 7-9 fathoms deep, connected together inside 

the outer reefs. See p. 91. 
XIV. — Mills Breaker Cut, 8-10 fathoms deep, leading towards Mills Breaker 
Sound, an irregular sound (not shaded), 9 to 14 fathoms deep, and 
about 2 miles long. See Map II. See pp. 91, 115. 
XV. — Main Ship-channel or the Narrows, a narrow, deep cut leading to Murray 
Anchorage. See p. 91. 

Note. — The map is altered from that of Mr. A. Agassiz by the addition of the 
three contour lines, at 10, 20, and 100 fathoms depths ; by shading the deeper 
parts of the larger lagoons, where the depth exceeds 45 feet ; and in some other 
respects. It is based on the Admiralty Chart, reduced by photography. 

Traks. Comn. Acad., Vol. XII. 7 November, 1905. 

94 A, E, Verrill — TTie Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

Cut XI, the Eastern North Rock Cut, is navigable for small Ber- 
mudian vessels with a good pilot, but is dangerous. It leads directly 
to the Great North Rock Sound, marked e, on map IF, pi. xxxvii. 

Cut XIr<, the Western North Rock Cut, is larger and deeper, and 
is easily entered by vessels of some size with good local pilots. .It 
runs southward into the great North Rock Sound. It has 6 to 8 
fathoms of water in most of its course, but it is rather crooked. 

Cut X(/, the Eastern Blue Cut, leads into the sound numbered II, 
on map I ; /*, on map II. It is rarely used, except by fishing boats 
and other small craft, as it is much obstructed by detached reefs. 
It has depths of 5 to 8 fathoms. 

Cut X, the Western Blue Cut, is not much better for navigation. 
It has depths of 4 to 6 fathoms. It leads to Ireland Island, and into 
the sounds numbered III and IV, on map I; ^, on map II. 

Cut IX, the Chub Cut, is navigable only for small vessels. Its 
depth is 3 to 7 fathoms. It leads into the sound numbered V, on 
map I; A, on map II. 

Cut VII leads into a large sound, 7 to 10 fathoms deep, between 
Western Ledge Flats and Long Bar. (See map II.) In part of its 
course it is 10 fathoms deep. 

Cut VIII is the Hog-fish Cut. It is very long, narrow, very 
crooked, and not far from the shore. It is badly obstructed near its 
entrance by Kitchen Shoals, but the Bermuda mercantile vesseU 
formerly made much use of it to enter Elies' Harbor. 

Besides these, there is a channel (XIII) into Castle Harbor, 
between Castle Island (cix, map II) and Southampton Island, which 
was much used by vessels in the early years of Bermuda history. 

The channel that leads into St. George's Harbor is of the same 
nature. This was originally narrow, crooked, and too shallow, bat 
it was much improved about 50 years ago by blasting out some of 
the worst ledges in its bottom. It badly needs additional improve- 
ments of that sort to safely admit modern vessels of larger size. 

2. billing up of the Cuts and Channels, 

There can be no doubt that most, if not all, of these cuts through 
the re^fs have very much filled up and obstructed since their sub- 
mergence. If they drained the interior sounds and valleys of 
Greater Bermuda, they must have been at least equal to them in depth. 
Of course, some of them may have been of later origin than the 
sounds, and if so, may have served merely to help in the ebb and 
fiow of the tides, like the present shallow outlet of Harrington 

A, JS. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 95 

Sonnd, which is much shallower, and also of much later origin than 
the sound. But if the deeper sounds were excavated to their lower 
levels by running water, as it seems necessary to believe, then the 
channels must have been equally deep. That they should have been 
partly filled up after the subsidence is natural. Great masses of 
rock, broken by the storm waves from the high, bordering, sub- 
merged cliffs, would certainly fall into them from time to time. 
Shell sand and mud would collect in the interstices, and corals would 
grow on the fallen rocks, thus inevitably, but gradually, obstructing 
and filling them up. 

The action of the sea waves, in 10 to 20 fathoms of water, is 
almost inappreciative, and not sufficient to remove coarse sand or 
small stones. The tides, also, are here not strong enough to produce 
much effect at the bottom, even of shallower channels, though in 
some cases it is able to remove fine loo^e mud and keep the project- 
ing ledges bare. Reef corals, millepores, corallines, Gorgonise, and 
other organisms grow well in these channels, where there are rocks, 
and their debris helps to fill up the channels. It is, therefore, not 
unlikely that some of these channels were once 30 to 50 feet deeper 
than at present. 

17. Broken Grounds outside the Beefs. 

The outer borders of the outer reefs usually fall off suddenly, 
like submerged cliffs, into water from 30 to 40 feet or more in depth. 
In many places the outer reefs are undercut, so that their tops over- 
hang their bases more or less, by the more rapid wearing away of 
the rocks below, owing either to their less hardened condition, or to 
less protection by living corals, algae, etc., or perhaps to both causes 
combined, in most localities. In other parts they fall away with 
steep slopes, or with a succession of steps, indicating layers of differ- 
ent hardness, like the cliffs along the shores. These submerged 
steep cliffs are rarely less than 30 to 40 feet high, and are more or 
less covered with a profusion of coral-heads, especially the brain- 
corals and astrseans, Oculiiia^ Millepora, gorgonians, corallines and 
nullipores, Sargassum and other large sea weeds, all of which have 
a great effect in retarding the erosion by the waves. The reef- 
corals, which are usually abundant and large to the depth of about 
25 to 30 feet, become small and scattered at about 40 feet, but the 
branching OcuHnas SLud large Gorgonias extend down to 125 feet 
or more, where there are rocks for attachment. 

96 A, JS. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

The bottom slopes gradually form the bases of the sabmerged 
cliffs to the depth of 100 to 125 feet; beyond that it falls off more 
rapidly to about 300 feet, and then descends with a steep slope to 
6,000 feet or more. 

That portion of the bottom that lies between 30 or 40 feet and 
about 1*20 feet is irregular, rough, and more or less completely cov- 
ered with ledges and blocks of stone, interspersed with patches of 
white shell-sand. As the depth increases the shell-sand predominates 
more and more, until at about 100 to 125 feet, and beyond, it coyers 
most of the bottom. 

The rough rocky zone, between about 40 and 120 feet, is called 
the " broken ground " by the fishermen. Many of the rocks scat- 
tered over this slope are doubtless great and small masses that have 
been torn from the outer edges of the reefs by the violent sea-waves, 
during the thousands of years since they were submerged. Others 
are probably eroded ledges of a^olian limestone. These rocks are 
more or less covered, especially in the shallower parts, with an 
abundance of • living organisms, such as corallines, nuUipores, and 
other algie ; large branching corals of the genus Ooulina ; and large 
gorgonians, such as the sea-fan, Gorgonia fiahellani ; the sea-plume, 
G. acerosa ; Plexaura flexuosa ; Plezanrella crassa^ Verrucellay etc. 
(See also chapter 20.) 

This zone of "broken ground" is often two to three and a half 
miles wide off the eastern, northern, and western reefs ; but usually 
only one-half to one mile wide off the reefs of the southern side. 

It undoubtedly represents what were once the low lands, shores, 
and shallows of Greater Bermuda, to which have been added 
immense quantities of debris derived from the erosion and tearing 
down of the outer reefs by the violent oceanic wayes that beat on 
the outer edges of these upright reefs with immense force during 

The character of the bottom over this zone, its slope, and its depth 
indicate a submergence of at least 100 feet, as do the cuts and 
sounds described above. 

18. Argus aiid Challenger Banks. 

The present very uneven surfaces of Argus and Challenger Banks 
are like those of Bermuda, and indicate erosion when they stood 
above sea-level. Some considerable parts of their summits are now 
180 to 240 feet beneath the sea ; other parts (Argus Bank) are only 
8 feet (see fig. 7). Erosion by waves on such sunken banks would 

A. JE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 97 

be a levelling process and does not extend, even in great storms, with 
noticeable eflFect, more than 100 to 125 feet below the sea-level. 
Hence it is probable that they have subsided at least 100 feet since 
they were eroded. 

19. Evidences of Be^levation of the Bennudas. 

The evidence in regard to the reelevation of the islands after their 
greatest depression, is not entirely conclusive. 

The evidence depends largely upon the existence of elevated beach 
deposits, containing existing marine shells, at various localities, from 
5 to 20 feet above high water mark, as described in chapter 15, on 
the Devonshire formation. 

It appears to me probable that some of those beds were made 
below sea-level, and therefore do actually give evidence of elevation, 
as stated on p. 76. That they are not more extensive and general 
may be due partly to the abruptness of the shores m most places, 
and partly to their subsequent erosion, for they would have been 
powerfully acted upon by the sea during their emergence, when they 
were doubtless mostly unconsolidated beds of sand. 

We might well expect to find such deposits around the low shores 
of certain land-locked bays and lagoons, where they are not now 
known to exist, had such an elevation taken place, even to the extent 
of 8 or 10 feet. Possibly such deposits may exist around Mullet 
Bay and other bays surrounded by low lands, but I am not aware 
that any one has made a careful search for them in such places. 
But it is possible that much of their bulk may have been carried 
away from such localities, by solution in rain waters, even if not 
much exposed to erosion by the sea. 

The most elevated beds of this kind now known are not over 15 
to 18 feet above the sea. Very few are more than 10 to 12 feet 
above it ; ordinarily their elevation is only 5 to 8 feet above high 

Professor Rice adopted the view that an elevation, of small amount, 
has taken place since these beds were formed, but Mr. Agassiz took 
the opposite view. (See above, pp. 76, 77.) 

Mr. Agassiz suggested that such materials could have been thrown 
by storm waves to such heights, and therefore that they do not 
prove elevation. This is no doubt true in exposed situations, but 
most of these beds are situated in partially sheltered harbors where 
such violent wave-action would i)robably not occur ; moreover, the 

98 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

usual regular character of the beds and the condition of the con- 
tained fossils indicate rather quiet deposition, not storm formations. 

Another suggested evidence that an elevation of several feet has 
occurred is the peculiar character of the erosion on many of the 
cliffs. A second very marked plane of maximum erosion can often 
be observed 8 to 15 feet above the one situated at or a little above 
the present high -tide level. In many cases the cliffs are thus 
undercut at two levels. This, however, might well be due to the 
action of violent gales, producing waves much larger and more 
powerful than the ordinary ones. Thus a single violent storm will 
often effect more erosion in one day than ordinary storms would do 
in several vears. 

In other cases cavernous places or "ovens" of large size have 
been excavated entirely above the reach of ordinary waves. This 
is the case on the islands in land-locked Harrington Sound as well as 
in more exposed situations. It seems at first hardly probable that 
occasional severe storms could effect this kind of erosion at such 

But in many cases such erosions are excavated from beds or 
pockets that are unusually soft, or consist of nearly loose sand, 
so that the mere dashing of the spray, made in a severe storm, 
might be sufficient to rapidly wear away such materials at several 
feet above high tide. Still it must be admitted that the erosion of 
such places as the Cathedral Rocks (fig. 9) ; the pinnacles of 
Tobacco Bay (fig. 10 and pi. xxii, tig. 1); the Natural Arch ; and 
many other places (pi. xxii, l^g. 2), could be more easily explained if 
the islands have actually been raised several feet above their former 
level, in post-pliocene times. To suppose that this took place at 
a more remote period would imply a durability that these rocks do 
not possess, although their durability is very great. (See chap. 20, 
. A.) This upper zone of erosion has apparently been removed by 
subsequent erosion on most of the more exposed cliffs, especially 
on the south side. 

We might well expect, also, to find some evidences of wave erosion 
on the ledges around the borders of some of the enclosed lowlands 
and bays, where the sea does not now reach. It might have pro- 
duced more or less distinct terraces in such places, if the land had 
remained a long time at a lower level than now. But of course, 
such terraces, had they once existed, may have been mostly or 
entirely removed or ob scured by later erosion of the softer rocks 
and soil. 

100 A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

age of the dry land of the Bermudas. At present we can only say 
that this process of accumulation of the red soil is an extremely slow 

It pri>bably requires the destruction of at least 150 to 20O feet of 
limestone to form one foot of soil, as shown bv the chemical analyses 
of the shell-sands and rocks (see pp. 74-75). The amount of 
impurities in the limestone is very small — probably less than an 
averasje of 0.75 per cent. Some of this material in the limestone 
was probably of foreitjii volcanic origin (floating pumice and ash 
fn>m the West Indian volcanoes perhaps), but some of it may have 
Invn derived indirectly from the ancient Bermudian volcano. Frag- 
ment* of pumice are now rarely found on the shores. Probably the 
amount of this native soil on the island, if evenlv distributed over 
the surface, would amount to at least two feet. Though there are 
large tracts where the average depth of soil is not over six inches, 
and also tracts of nearly bare rock, there are depressions and valleys 
Wtwei^n the hills where it is many feet deep. This light soil is 
easilv washed from the hillsides into the vallevs bv the heavv rains, 
unless it Ih^ olosolv iH"»vereii bv ijrass or some other vesretation. On 
the contrary, .is there are no brooks or streams of fresh water, com- 
parativoly little o\ it is now carrieil into the sea and wasted, though 
sirt»ams of ivnsiderable site probably existed in the time of Greater 
Bt^rmuda, Heniv it follows that unless these limestones disintegrate 
with unusual rapidity, it must have taken a very long period to 
form even one fix^i of soil. 

This kind of diH^^mjH^sition of the rooks has been going on daring 
the whole historA* of the islands, since the first dry land emerged, 
for wo tind numoixMis lavors of the same reil-clav interstratified 
In^iw^vn all the limtsionos ; ovon thv^se of Pliocene age (see p. 74). 

IVrhaps iho amouni still iinbi^ide\i in the Umestone may be 
act u all v srrt-ator than all tho si:riavv soils. 

Tho li most one thus dissv'^UtNi and carried awav from the surface 
b\ tho tHnv'.^Ti!\c r:*in-v» atit, is af torwards } art ly deposited in the 
\v«!vs of tht r,rvUrl>ir,c rvvks^ niakiiiir them harder and more com- 
tviv't: .-i sr.ia'\T i^,-*:: i> ai>.v^>iTc-.l in cavoms, in the form of stalactites 
Av..^* ^:,'^^'*^r.r.:^^. . ::ur \v^r:.v-rv >^t%^ to harden the exposed surfaces 
v^t' r^vks ,i:^i ;hi >::r!,ivo> ot r.s>uT\^ tto. But a large proportion is, 
\x r/: . V ^ u : vi o . i V : , t^ v . « ' . \ v-,^ • r ! i\: : v : o t hx x-x in solution. 

>V:uv, ::vN.::::\s:vO, v,^:vu,^ur> .^r strtams find their way into 
^ns.;:\> or v-.^\ ;: \> ot thx* v.vk, x^r :rio Kvts^ or s*oft portions, they 
>\ ^. . s;r,^o»,:A'.!\ vV.>^\v\c axxsx ih; T\vk arxi form caverns, large or 

A. JE VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 101 

small. In many cases their formation is partly a mechanical process 
of erosion, but in nearly all cases observed here it is partly or largely 
a solvent action (see pp. 70, 84). 

Eventually the roofs of ihe broader caverns become too weak to 
support their own weight and they fall in, thus forming " sinks," 
which, by subsequent enlargement and blending together by erosion 
may, in some cases, form the basins of large ponds, marshes, harbors 
and sounds. 

Slow rate of decay of limestones. 

Some data that T obtained by examining the ruins of the old stone 
forts on Castle Island and other islands, some of which were prob- 
ably built before 1620, show an unexpectedly slow rate of disintegra- 
tion of the ordinary firm limestone used in the walls and buildings. 
This was confirmed by observations made at other places. These 
data would make the average rate of subaerial disintegration for the 
harder aeolian limestones to be less than two inches in a century. 
This would require '120,000 years for the destruction of tlie 200 feet 
of hard limestone necessary to form one foot of soil. 

But there are, in many places, areas of much softer limestones, 
which decay far more rapidly aifd furnish soil much more freely. 
Such tracts of soft limestones have, by their decay and solution, 
given origin, in many cases, to the sinks, ponds, marshes, and caverns 
that abound on the larger islands. This consideration would very 
materially reduce the time required to form the soil. 

But many of the softer limestones, when exposed to the air, as in 
the road cuttings, become, in a few months, very much harder and 
more resistant to decay. It is rare to find in the extensive road-cuts 
any great portions of the nearly perpendicular side-walls that have 
fallen away by decay. On the contrary, their surfaces have become 
hardened by infiltrations and coatings of calcium carbonate, so as to 
resist weathering quite well. 

My observations, therefore, on this point, though not satisfactory 
and far too few in number, point to a great antiquity for the Ber- 
muda limestones, though recent in a geological sense. 

Spanish Hock. 

Some idea of the slowness of the subaerial decay of the limestone, 
where it has acquired a hard surface, may be gained from an ancient 
incised inscription on the rock known as "Spanish Rock" (fig. 13). 

102 A, E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Oeology. 

This inscription consists of a monogram, a rude cross, and the date, 
1543. The date is, or was a few years ago, fairly distinct. It 
was originally cut, perhaps .50 to .75 of an inch deep, — possibly an 
^nch. That it has remained visible so long may be due to the fact 
that the corrosion may have affected the incised lines quite as much 
as the surrounding surfaces. Still, it is remarkable that it should 
have been preserved at all. It is now^ much less distinct than 40 
years ago, but this is largely due to vandalism of visitors. 

As to the authenticity of the date, we have no positive proof. 
Local tradition makes it appear to have been known to the early 

It is, perhaps, one of the mementoes of the supposed visits of the 
Spanish before the English settlement, mentioned by Gov. Butler, in 
1619 : " VVitnesse certaine crosses left erected upon rocks and pro- 
montories." He also refers to old Spanish coins that had been found 
here by the early settlers. 

The presence of numerous wild hogs on the islands in 1593, as 
narrated by Henry May, and in 1611, as described by the early 
settlers, proves that Spanish or Portuguese vessels had previously 
visited the islands and introduced them there. 

However, I have not found any positive reference to the inscrip- 
tion on Spanish Rock before 1840, but the literature of the islands, 
before that time, and after 1640, is singularly bare of all references 
to the natural history of the islands. Those 200 years were the 
" dark ages " of Bermuda, in this respect at least. 

I am not certain as to who, among modern writers, first mentioned 
it, but all agree that it had been known for a very long time, and 
that, from the first, it appeared ancient. 

It has been attributed by most writers to Ferdinando Camelo, a 
native of Portugal, who received an abortive charter for the settle- 
ment of Bermuda from the King of Spain, about 1527. But there 
is no evidence that he personally ever visited the islands. If the 
monogram ever stood for his name the C has now disappeared by 
weathering. Quite possibly this has happened. At present, the 
monogram more resembles TK or FK or TR. It is more probablfe 
that it is the onlv known record of the survivors of some disastrous 
shipwreck in 1548, who may have lived for some time on these 
islands, and perhaps died here. The presence of a cross would 
rather exclude the theory that it was left by pirates or buccaneers. 

If the date be genuine, it indicates a loss of less than an inch in 
depth from the surface in 862 years. 

A. E. VerriU — 7%e Bermuda Inlands; Geology. 103 

This, however, is rendered less improbable when we see the Bmall 
amonot of erosion and decay on some of the stone work of the 
ancient ruins of Btone forts, built by the early settlers. The purity 
of the air and absence of the eulphiir acids, derived from the com- 
bustion of coal, is favorable to the duration of such objects here, as 
contrasted with the rapid decay of marble in our large cities, or near 
factories and smelting works. 

.'->,_ J 

Figore 13. —Ancient iHBOription on " Spanish Boclt," after Lefroy, 1879. 

Howeier, the remarkable durability of limestones of this kind, 
away from cities, and especially when hardened by the stalagmitic 
coating, is well known in other countries. 

On the Mingan Islands, south coast of Labrador, and especially on 
Niapisca Island, there are many tall and often slender columns of 
Lower Silurian limestone, standing on and near the shore. The 
limestone forming them is in nearly horizontal strata of varying 
hardness, and some of them are mush room -shaped at the top and 
undercut below, very much like some of the columns at Tobacco 
Bay, ill Bermuda, but taller and larger, for some of those at Niapisca 
Island are 60 feet high. They were thus eroded during the Cham- 
plain period, when the land there stood much lower and those islands 
were submerged. So that at one time those columns must have been 
much like the tall narrow reefs off Murray Anchorage. That they 
have stood ao many thousands of years, exposed to the storms and 

104 A, E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

intense frosts of the Labrador coast, is good proof of their dura- 
bility. A group of these columns is figured by Lyell in his Manual 
of Geology, p. 78, 1853, fig. 97. I saw the same columns in 1861. 

Lyell, in the same work (pp. 74, 75), also describes limestone cliffs 
much eroded by the sea in the Pleistocene period, but now elevated 
180 feet above the sea and situated inland, near Palermo, Sicily. 
They are pitted, encrusted, and infiltrated with statactitic material 
near the base, like the Bermuda cliffs, and contain holes bored by 
marine bivalves (Lithodornus), the shells of which often still remain 
in the holes, when under the crust. But these cliffs contain sea-worn 
caverns in which are gravel deposits filled with the bones of extinct 
mammals, such as the mammoth, hippopotamus, etc., thus showing 
the great antiquity of the cliffs and caverns. They have evidently 
altered but little in the many thousands of years since the Pleisto- 
cene period, when they were raised from beneath the sea. Lyell 
describes other similar cases in the Morea and other regions, proving 
the remarkable durability of such cliffs. 

Therefore it is not unreasonable to suppose that the date on 
Spanish Rock is genuine, nor to believe that the columns of Tobacco 
Bay, the Cathedral Rocks, etc., have remained much as they now 
are for thousands of years, or since the Champlain period, when 
they were probably elevated above the sea, like those of Niapisca 

B, Mechanical actio7i of rain-ioater. 

Bermuda has a large rainfall. At times the rains are frequent 
and violent. According to Lefroy's tables, covering eleven and 
sixteen years respectively, the annual rainfall was 54.66 inches at 
Ireland Island, and 48.01 inches at St. George's. The amount near 
Hamilton during later years has usually varied between 58 and 63 
inches, but in 1808 it was only 48.19 ; and in 1900 it was 67.05 

The rainfall is usually pretty well distributed throughout the year, 
but is generally greatest in October and November and least in the 
summer months, when droughts are not uncommon, but seldom very 
prolonged. Usually more or less rain falls on from one hundred and 
ninety to two hundred and seven days. During July, 1896, the 
rainfall at the Prospect Observatory was 18.21 inches. On July 
30th the fall was 4.42 inches. 

* See tables, these Trans., xi, pp. 500-502 ; "The Bermuda Islands," pp. 88-90 

A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 105 

Such copious rains wash large quantities of the red-clay soil, loose 
shell-sands, and other loose materials from the hillsides into the 
valleys, and on steep sea shores much may be carried into the sea. 

The cutting away of the cedar forest and destruction of other 
native vegetation, even by the early settlers, very soon led to many 
of the hills becoming barren, and often nearly bare of soil over large 
areas, where the soil was at tirst fertile. This was especially the 
case on St. George's Island, which was first settled, for Governor 
Butler, in 1619, said that even then the land had become barren and 
of little or no value, except for pastures. Laws regulating and 
restricting the cutting of the trees, prohibiting the burning, of the 
brush so as to kill young trees, etc., were made before 1630, mainly 
in consequence of the increasing barrenness of the soil.* More 
stringent ones were made in 1632, 1659, etc. But the islands were 
overpopulated, fuel and lumber were scarce, and the laws could not 
be enforced. 

Although at the present time no permanent streams are formed, 
doubtless much of the copious rain finds its way into cracks and 
crevices of the rocks, and finally into larger passage ways, and thus 
into the sea. In a few hours after the hardest rains most of the 
water disappears from the surface of all the uplands. 

(7. Erosion by streams in former periods. 

Although streams do not exist at the present time, there is evi- 
dence (see pp. 86-96) that in the time of Greater Bermuda, and later, 
they did exist, both above ground and in subterranean passages, 
leading into or through caverns, and finally reaching the sea. The 
agency of such streams in forming the great sunken or drowned 
sounds and their channels or cuts out to sea has already been dis- 
cussed. (See pp. 87-94.) 

No doubt the subterranean streams of Greater Bermuda were the 
principal agents in excavating the caverns that now exist on the 
land, as mentioned above, and consequently in forming the sinks, etc., 
derived from their ruins. 

A number of the passage ways through which they flowed are 
also known. I have mentioned on p. 84, that the large dry cave of 
Walsingham was probably once such a passage-way for a large and 
rapid stream of water. A narrow and deep chasm, with a small 

♦ For details see these Trans., xi, pp. 421, 477, 593, 598, 602, 603 ; *' The Ber- 
muda Islands." pp. 9, 65, 181, 186, 190, 191. 


Bermuda Itlaiuh; limioQ. 

■ of it (fig, Ul.aaConper'tlM, 
mid pu°s^. Batsei'ii cm litis 
le long, but wltbonl )Ulacti!ci.ifp 
[laaeage-WRj for » «)miii,itiw 

»l bndtte «i topees lilaiKi. ^ •* 

ude the formation «[ «TM«"* 


fi „ The iDlerraU"?" 



108 A. E. Verrill—The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

hardness of the layers ; the existence of pockets, beds, or layers of 
loose sand in tlie cliffs, etc. 

The irregular stratification of the limestone, with layers of uneqnsl 
hardness and sloping in all directions, which is characteristic of all 
such leolian limestones, causes this rock to he admirably suited for 
the ocean naves to carve into curious and fantastic forms. (Figs. 1, 
6, 8, 10, M, IC, 17, 2-2.) 

Ki(^ire IT. —Pinnacle of ipotiiin liiuestune on aontli shore Bhowing sand-dnft 
EtrJililit'iitiuii iibuve. mid the det^ply pitted, rough, tuud surface below, infll- 
truted and cuated with ciilci(«. The cliS on the left is nnderont. 

Along iiHist of the north shore of the Main Island, from near 
Hamilton to the eastern end of St. George's, the shore is almost 
everywher*.' formed liv low or only moderately high limestone cliffs, 
which in ni.iny places have a talus of fallen rocks at the base, usually 
exposed -U low tide (figs. Ki, -irt). But in many other places there 
are not many fallen rocks and the waves dash directly (^^DSt the 
base of the cliffs, both at high-tide and tow-tide. (Figs. 10, 15, ^i, 

A. £L Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 109 

33a, 33^.) In the latter case the cliffs are apt to be undercut, 
between tides, and usually somewhat above high-tide level, owing 
to the dash of the waves and spray in storms. The zone from 
about half-tide to 10 to 20 feet above is usually deeply pitted and 
very rough, as already described (p. QQ). 

If the strata are nearly horizontal and unequal in hardness the 
undercutting will vary in amount, making two or more projections 
and intervening grooves (figs. 15, 17). When the strata are irregular 
in position and variable in hardness the undercutting and conse- 
quent falling away of the cliffs in large masses give rise to all sorts 
of fantastic forms. (Figs. 8, 10, 17, 20, and pi. xxii.) 

Sometimes, when the rocks vary greatly in hardness, due to the 
presence of large beds or masses of unconsolidated sand and to the 
hardening by infiltration of particular parts, as described above 
(p. 03), the rapid erosion of the softer beds or masses leaves the 
harder parts projecting in the form of partly or wholly detached 
pillars, pyramids, pinnacles, or columns, often of considerable height 
(figs. 10, 17; pi. xxii). 

^'Pli^it Rock," on Ireland Island, is a good example of such a 
detadied pinnacle rock (fig. 22). It also shows well the irregular 
stratification of the SBolian limestone. Some of these pinnacles stand 
oat some distance from the shore, on the flat reefs, showing where 
an islet or the shore cliff once stood. 

The formation of pinnacles and towers is well shown at the eastern 
end of the islands, especially at Tobacco Bay, on St. George's (fig. 
10 and pi. xxii, fig. 1), and on the eastern shores of St. David's and 
Cooper's Islands, and at some points on the south shore (pi. xxii, 
fig. 2). 

In many of these places every stage in the process of forming 
these columns can i^e seen, as well as their undercutting and final 
overthrow, by which high islets and shore cliffs become eventually 
converted into flat tidal ledges, and detached flat reefs, or even into 
serpuline atolls (figs. 27-29; pi. xxiii). 

The remarkable examples of erosion shown at " Cathedral Rocks " 
or " Old Church Rocks," on the western side of Somerset Island 
(fig. 9 and pi. xxiii), are similar in origin, but less broken down. 
They are probably largely due to great masses of loose sand that 
has been washed away from the hardened parts that now form the 
pillars and arches. Part of this may have been done at a former 
time, when the land stood 10 to 15 feet lower than now (see 
pp. 75-80). 
Trans. CJonk. Acad., Vol. XII. 8 November, 1905. 

110 A. E. VerriU — The Bermuda Island*; Geology. 

Along many parts of these shores there are msDy outlying small 
rocky islets and Dumerous Hmestune ledges ; some of tbem are clow 
to the shore and evidently connected with the shore cliffs at no very 
distant period, while others are farther away. The submerged 
ledges, somewhat removed from the shore, aie more or less covered 
with corals, but all bear quantities of large dark-colored seaweeds 
(Sargaasum, etc.), so that they are conspicuous, even when wholly 
submerged. Tliere are several of these small islands and ledges 
off Spanish Point ; others, like the Staggs, east of the Flatts ; and 
several in Bailey Bay, which are all good collecting grounds. Bailey 
Bay Island is the largest and highest of tbose in its vicinity, and 

Figure 18.— laletH and kdgea in Bails; Bay ; showing the shattered and inagti- 
liiT rocks, deeply pitted and honeycombed above low tide. 

bears some vegetation, such as stunted cedars, etc., but its summit 
is partly covered with fine drifting sand. Its shore ledges are very 
rough and deeply pitted (fig. 18), and its strata lie at all angles, so 
that there is liere no approach to the formation of flat tidal benches 
or Klielves, nor of serpuline atollf, such as are abundant on the 
south shores. 

li. Grottoes and cavernous places. 

Small grottoes, due to the removal of soft materials, exist in the 
cliffs at Clarence Cove (figs. .33ff, 336), and in many other places. 
There is a grotto in the face of a cliff near the lighthouse on St. 
David's Island, that is said to contain a pool of fresh water, but I 
did not visit it. 

A. EL Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. Ill 

Along the high shore cliffs there are many grottoes and eaves that 
can only be entered from a boat, and sometimes only at low tide, 

Two large dome-like groltoes of this kind, accessible only by a 
boat at low water, are situated close together in the shore-cliff a 
short distance east of Bailey Bay. One of them is lighted from 
above by a small chimney-like opening in the roof. Such grottoes 
often contain nests of the tropic bird.* 

Small grottoes in the shore cliffs exist in many other places, and 
many are entirely submerged, under the reefs, and are the abode of 
innumerable fishes, octopi, and various other marine creatures.f 

c, Natural Arches. 

The formation of the well known " Natural Arches " at Tucker's 
Town beach| is evidently due, also, to the erosion of masses of 
softer limestone, leaving the harder parts to form the sides and 
central pillars of the arches. It stands just at high tide, but in 
heavy storms great waves dash under and through the archways 
with force enough to slowly cut away the softer limestones. The 
irregular strata of rock forming the arches are considerably broken 
and show distinct vertical fissures, as if due to settling. They are 
destined to fall at no distant time. 

d, Sandy Beaches. 

On the north side of the Main Island the line of cliffs is broken at 
Hamilton Harbor, at the Flatts, at Shelly Bay,§ where there is a good 
shell-sand beach, and at Bailey Bay, where there are two short sandy 

e. Cliffs of Sarrington Sound. 

On the cliffs of Harrington Sound, which has usually less than a 
foot of tide, and which is so completely landlocked that it never has 
large seas, the erosion presents some different phases. The cliffs on 
the sound are often precipitous, and in some places, as at Abbot's 
Head (fig. 21), they are quite high.) 

♦ These Trans., xi, p. 679, pi. Ixxii, fig. 1 ; " The Bermuda Islands,*' p. 267, 
same plate. 

f See pi. xxxvi; also these Trans., xi, pi. Ixxii ; *'The Bermuda Islands,'' 
same plate. 

X These Trans., xi, pp. 437, 473, pi. Ixxxvii ; *' The Bermuda Islands,'* pp. 25, 
61, same plate. 

^ See these Trans., pi. Ixviii, fig. 1 ; **The Bermuda Islands." same plate. 

I See also these Trans., xi,pl. Ixxi, Ixxii; *' The Bermuda Islands," same plates. 

112 < -4. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

Many of these uliffs show, by their perpendicular fronts and the 
masses of fallen debris, that they are undergoing considerable ero- 
sion. This is mainly due to the peculiar undercutting effected by 
the small sharp waves, acting in one narrow zone, usually only a 
foot or less in breadth, doubtless aided by the solvent action of the 
water that is in constant contact with the surface undergoing ero- 

FiguK lQ.-~Diagram of nDdercnt cliff on Earringtun Sontid ; a, gtoora abaat A 
foot wide ; >r, tc', bigh tide and low tide levels ; e, <f, solian U 
r, r, soil ■■, f, /, vertiral fisenreB ; b, submerged teolian limeatonM. 

Fif;nre 20. — Liuii Rock, on tlie sontli shore of Harrington Soand, — a carionsl.v 
eroded nnd bardeoed rucli. The cliff iu tbe middle distance is narrowly 
nnderent, at sea level. (Phot. 1901, by A. H. Verrill.) 
sion. This causes the waves to cut a narrow groove, like a hage 
saw-cut, deeply into the face of the cliffs, whether high or low, just 
about at high-water mark. I have seen such grooves cut ioto the 
bases of cliffs to the extent of 10 to 15 feet, and lees than a foot 
wide (tigs, lit, 20), 

A. E. Verrili — 77ie Bermuda Islands; Geology. 


This goes on till a large unsupported mass of the cliff falls away 
by its own weight. The fall is often hastened by reason of vertical 
fissures or weak places in the cliffy. Great angular blocks of stone, 
thas fallen off, lie in front of the cliffs at the eastern end of the 
sound, and especially at the base of Abbot's Head (fig. 21). The 
latter are said to have fallen off only a few years ago, but I did not 
learn the date. They show, as yet, scarcely any wear, but those 
that are submerged are partly covered with corals, etc. As there 
are no violent waves in the sound, such masses are not so soon 
destroyed as on the exposed shores. 

ing the recent]; faUen 

In most photographs these narrow deep undercuttings show only 
as a dark line, looking like a dark shadow, at the foot of the cliff, as 
in fig. 20.» 

Sharks Hole, at the southeastern end of the sound, is a large 
arch-way or tunnel, penetrating deeply into the cliff, and about half 

" See also pi. )»i, these Trans., vol. si, and " The Bermuda iBlands," same 
plate, in which the long cliff, west of Sharks Hole, is shown to ba thus nnder- 
cat. Alao pi. Ixxiil, ahonii^ Sharks Hole. 

114 A. E, Vcrrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

submerged, so that boats can go in. It has apparently been made 
by the removal of a mass of softer limestone. It may have been a 
passage-way for an underground stream when the land stood at a 
higher level (p. 70). But large masses of stone have fallen from the 
sides and roof in modern times, due to undercutting, and many 
masses still lie on the bottom, in plain view. 

There are also small grottoes on Trunk Island, above and below 
tide, due to the more rapid undercutting and removal of softer rocks. 

In some cases, where this mode of undercutting occurs in hard 
flat ledges, just above high tide, the effects are very curious. I have 
observed such cases on the north side of Trunk Island and in other 
places. In some instances the portion of the ledge that is undercut 
may be only a few inches to a foot thick ; the outer border may run 
out to an irregular edge only an inch or two thick, while the under- 
cut groove may be several feet deep. This is quite unlike anytliing 
that happens on the open coast, where such projections would be 
soon broken off by the waves, even if they could be formed. 

f. Erosion of the Outer Reefs and " Elats^^ off the northern and 

western shores. 

The great barrier forming the broad outer border of the elliptical 
area, extending from off St. George's all around to the Long Bar, 
the most southwestern of the reefs, is formed of a series of almost 
continuous broad patches of flat reefs. They are nearly flat on top, 
and are mostly submerged from one to ten feet below low-water 
mark. In certain places they are close to the surface or partially 
laid bare at low tide, and the seas break heavily over them in stormy 
weather. Such portions of the reefs are designated as " breakers " 
on the charts. In certain places patches of reefs, large or small, 
stand somewhat apart and outside of the main border line. Some of 
these, where the seas break heavily, are called " boilers," as in the 
case of some of those to the east of Mills Breakers. A large namber 
of outlying reefs exist outside the western border reefs.* 

Among the most dangerous of these detached reefs are the Chub 
Heads, 9 miles from the shore at Wreck Hill; Long Bar, of which 
the south part is miles W.S.W. from Gibb's Hill Light ; and 
Southwest Breaker, on which the sea always breaks, and which lies 

* Mr. A. Agassiz has given very full descriptions of many of these outer reefe 
and '* flats'' from personal examination, and reference should be made to his 
memoir for more details. 

A. E. Verrill — TKc Bermuda Islands; Geology. 


14 inilee from the shore, and about south from the xouthwestern end 
of the Slain Island. 

The somewhat submerged reef or " flats " of the outer barrier are 
usually from one-fourth to a mile wide and very irregular in outline; 
in some places they may be over two miles wide. The great northern 
"Ledge Plats" are eight and a half miles long, from the cut west of 
North Rocks to Blue Cut, and from one to two miles wide. The 
" East I^ge Flat " is over seven miles long, with no important 
interruption, and seldom more than half a mile wide. Many of the 
others are as large as Somerset Island or St. George's Island. 

Fignre K. — Pnlpit Rock. Iri-lantl IsLiinl. ^.howiiig tharaoleristic. irrejjnlar. sand- 
drift fltratiQcation above : the lower part in untlercut, iDfiltrated, aud roughly 

Among the most important "breakers" are " Mills Breaker," north 
of the eastern end of St. George's; " Great Breaker," east of North 
Rocks; and the breakers or flats around North Rocks, which are 
bare in places at low tide (tig. 21). 

North Rocks {figs. 2-% M, 33) consist of a small group of pinna- 
cles, the higher ones showing at high tide. They stand on one of 
those flat reefs that is partly laid bare by the tide, and are the only 
rocks that project above the general level of the outer reefs. The 
largest is only about 14 or la feet high, above low tide, and about 

116 A. E. Verrill — The Bermvda Itlands; Qeology. 

10 feet in diameter (fig. 23). They are undercut and eroded like the 
pinnacles near tbe sliore [fig. 32); and like tbe reefs thenuelves, they 
are remnants of wbat were once islands, now destroyed by the sea. 

These rocks are interesting historically as well as geologically, for 
it was in close proximity to these rocks that the " Bonaventnia," 
with Henry May on board, was wrecked in 1593, as mentioned below. 
Therefore they were represented, with this wrecked Tessel, on tbe 
reverse of the original seal of tbe Bermuda Company (fig. 32). They 
lie about 8 miles north of tbe Main Island and about 12 miles 
N.N.W. from Catherine Point, at the eastern end of St. Gleorge'a 
Island. (See map II.) 

Figure 23. — North Kucks, a view looking eontbwan), toward tlie m^n iaUnd, 
which is seen in the backgronnd. From a recent photograpb by Phelp* 
Oage. Loaned br Prof. E. L. Uark, from Proa. Am. Aaaoc. Ad. Sci., 19011. 

Within the outer reefs and between the anchorages there are 
innumerable detached reefs and groups of reefs of various sices and 
shapes, but often covering many square miles, where the water is so 
obstructed and tilled with reefs that no vessels of any kind can pase 
through them, except small boats in-pleasant weather. But in other 
))laces tliey are more openly arranged or scattered, with deep water 
and white bottoms in the wide and deep passages between them. 

Beneath the sea the outer reefs and breakers, as well as most of 
those inside, are roughly eroded, with their sides perpendicular, or 
even so much undercut that the top often overhangs 6 to 10 feet or 
more. Schools of li»hcs, including many bright-colored species, often 
take refuge under the cavernous places (pi. xxxvi, fig. 1). Owing to 

A. M Verrill—77ic Bermuda Itlanda; Geology. 117 

the deep Dudercutting many of the detached reefs, standing in 30 to 
40 feet of water, have a broad, fiat-topped or mushroom-shaped form. 
So many of them are most undercut 20 to 30 feet below the surface 
of the sea, that it seems probable that the land remained stationary, 
or nearly bo, for a long period of time, when about 30 feet higher 
than now, during the general period of subsidence. 

So, likewise, there are reasons for believing that it stood for a. 
long time at about 50 feet higher than at present, owing to the 
large areas of the lagoons or sounds that lie at, or are filled up to, 
near that depth, as well as to the erosion of so many of the reefs to 
about that depth. It is not probable that the erosion of the sea 
now reaches to much more than 20 feet below low tide, with any 
degree of force. 

FignrQ 34.— Flats near North Bocks, at low tide. One of the man was Governor 
Lefroy. From a photograph made in 18T5 hy Mr. J. B. He;l. 

. All these outer reefs and many of those nearer the shores are 
overgrown with corals of various kinds, sea plumes, sea-fans and 
other gorgonians, MiUeporea, serpulse, mussels, Chamaa, sponges, 
ees-weeds, corallines, nullipores, and many other living organisms, 
which greatly protect them from the wear of the waves, and on the 
outer parts raise the level considerably above tbat of the underlying 
limestone rock. Were it not for this protective covering, the reefs 
would be worn away and destroyed far more rapidly. 

Among the reef-corals* that are most efficient, both in protecting 
and building up the surfaces of the reefs, are the " brain-corals " 

" For s fuller acconnt and illnstratiotiB of the reef-corala and goi^oniana, see 
Chapter 39. Also mf articles in these Trana., xi, pp. 63-206, pis. i-xinv; aJso, 
VcniU, ZoSlogy of Bermada, i, articles II, 13, pp. 63-306; same plates. 

118 A, E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

{Mceatidra)^ the "star-corals" [Orbicella and SiderastrcBa); "rose 
corals" (Mussa); Porites astreoides (plate xxix) ; and the "finger- 
coral" (Millepora alcicornis^ plate xxx, a). The latter is very 
abundant on all the reefs and rocks, including those near the shores, 
for it grows in very shallow water. It forms large and handsome 
clusters of elegantly branched fronds, often projecting from the 
edges of the reefs. It is dark russet-brown in color when living. 
The common brain-coral (Mceandra lahyrinthiformis) is the largest 
and most abundant reef -coral. It may grow in broad crusts 3 to 8 
inches in thickness, and 6 to 8 feet across, due to the grafting 
together of many small colonies, or it may form rounded or hemi- 
spherical masses, 1 to 6 feet in diameter. It is orange or yellow 
when living. 

The most important protective sea- weeds are large, olive-colored 
species of "gulf weed" of the genus Sarga^uniy "rock weed" 
{FncHs)y etc., also various calcareous pale red algse, belonging to the 
genus Lithothamnion^ and others related to Corallina, 

If the Bermuda Islands could be suddenly re^levated to the height 
of 45 feet, the greater part of Greater Bermuda would become dry 
land. The parts that would remain covered by water, in the form 
of lagoons and sounds, are shown, with the exceptions of a few small 
ones, by the ruled areas on the map (fig. 12, map I). 

The dry land that would thus be gained, amounting to about 160 
square miles, would have a very remarkable appearance, something 
like some of the much eroded ancient table-lands of Colorado and 
other parts of the western United States, though on a much smaller 

Most of the land would lie in the form of long, narrow, irregular, 
curved outer islands, often 5 to 8 miles long, with nearly perpen- 
dicular or even overhanging cliffs, about 40 feet high. Hundreds of 
smaller, irregular islands, and detached pinnacles, spires, columns, 
and mushroom-shaped cliffs, rising from the shallow waters and the 
broad and nearly level, enclosed sandy plain, to the height of 40 to 
45 feet, would lie within the outer row of islands, both scattered and 
in groups. Between them would be intricate passages, some of 
which might be deep enough to allow the tides to reach several of 
the enclosed sounds. These columns and cliffs would he more or 
less coated and covered, on the sides and top, with massive corals 
and other growths. But seen from below they would, in many 
places, present appearances similar to the much smaller eroded cliffs 
and pinnacles of Tobacco Bay and other localities on the present 
shores, as seen at low tide (pi. xxii). 

A, E, VerriU^The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 119 

In natare, however, such changes in level rarely if ever occur 
snddenly, to anything like this amount. Such an emergence would 
be likely to cover centuries of time. In that case the bizarre cliffs 
and pinnacles would be greatly eroded, as fast as they emerged 
above the sea, and by the time the entire elevation had been accom- 
plished only a part would remain, and these mostly much reduced 
in height and size. Channels would be eroded, at the same time, to 
allow the tides to flow freely into the larger sounds. Meantime the 
vast areas of fine loose sands, gradually uncovered, would afford 
immense quantities of materials for the wind to drift into sand- 
dunes on the newer as well as on the older lands. 

g. Erosion of the South-shore Cliffs and Reefs, 

Along the south side of the Main Island the shore cliffs are almost 
continuous and are usually higher and more precipitous than on the 
north side. In most parts the waves at high tide, at least in storms, 
dash against the bases of the cliffs. But at low tide there may be 
a wide beach of shell-sand exposed in front of the cliffs, as near 
Tucker's Town, Elbow Bay, and many other places. Or these may 
be nearly flat, broad benches, or smooth shelves of hard limestone, 
laid bare in front of the cliffs by the tide. At several points, as at 
Ellbow Bay and Tucker's Town, there are extensive sand beaches. 
The erosion of the cliffs on this side is similar to that on the north 
side, but on a larger scale, owing to higher cliffs and to the greater 
violence of the storms, though the outlying lines of reefs and serpu- 
line atolls serve to more or less break up the heavy seas, and thus 
give considerable protection in many places. However, owing to 
the fact that the harder limestones of the Walsingham formation 
(pp. 72-74, fig. 11) outcrop in thick, nearly horizontal beds, at and 
below tide-level in many places, the erosion has been materially 
modified in certain ways, especially in the formation of the flat tidal 
ledges, and flat-topped outer reefs and serpuline atolls, so charac- 
teristic of this shore, as mentioned on a former page. 

A. Pot-holes. 

The hard flat beds have also been favorable for the formation of 
pot-holes, both on the tidal ledges and on the reefs. Some of the 
shallow pot-holes have, apparently, been started in slight depressions 
and eroded spots in the surface, and then worn deeper by the plung- 
ing and whirling action of the waves and the stones carried by them. 

120 A. E. VerriU—TAe Bermuda /elanda; Geology. 

Some of these may eventually become of large size and several feet 
deep before they are broken through and spoiled (eee fig. 25). 

But I believe that many of the deeper and more regular pot-holn 
are simply the ancient fossil structures familiarly Icdovd as fosal 
molds of " palmetto stumps," originally contained in the hard flat 
ledges and filled with softer sand. When the sea encroaches upon 
such a ledge as that shown in plates kik, xx, for example, if it were 

Figure 25, — Cliff and pot-hole on eonth shore. The npper part ahowa noliu 
limestone not mnch altered; other parts are mdely boueycombed, encnuted, 
and iDfiltTBted. The pot-hole, on the right, contained • loose mnm of linr- 

helow tide, it would at once begin to wear and enlarge the bolea 
already existing and they would soon become wider at the top and 
more cup-shaped; many would blend their margins together; eome 
would have one side of the rim worn off, forming cresceot-ehaped 
or horseshoe -eh aped pot-holes, etc., just as we now find the smaller 
and more regular pot-holes on many of the submerged ledges and 
reefs (fig. 26). 

Mr. Agassi z attributed all such pot-boles to the direct action of 
the sea. But he also believed that the so-called "palmetto stomps" 
were real pot-holes formed by the action of the waves. Those that 

A. jE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 121 

he mentioned^ however, happened to be in shore rocks, within reach 
of the tides at least. However, those that I have figured (pis. xix, 
xx) are decidedly above the tides, and if they were ever worn by 
the waves, it must have been in a period of greater subsidence, the 

Figure 26. — Diagnun of group of small pot-holes on edge of reef; a, the dotted 
line, shows how some may become crescent-shaped by erosion, as c, c. 
Altered from A. Agassiz. 

existence of which Mr. Agassiz does not admit. But they have 
sharp edges ; are surrounded by still adherent red-clay soil ; their 
inner surfaces are nearly smooth, and they cut uniformly through 
the harder and softer layers, which are characters not found in real 
potrholes. Moreover, just the same structures occur in limestones, 
aiqpiimitly of the same age, at least 60 to 80 feet above the sea. 
Tbeiefoire they csq hardly be pot-holes, and those that are in the 
sea fltnst^ at any rate, have preexisted in the limestones before the 
pveaent sobmergence of the rocks. See chapter 246, for a discus- 
sion of the mode of origin of these structures. 

«. Serpuline Atolls or " jBoilers" 

Along nearly the whole southern shore of the islands the reefs are 
situated much nearer to the shore than on the northern and western 
sides. Most of them are not more than half a mile to a mile away, 
though in some places they may be more than a mile from the shore. 
Along this coast most of the outer reefs are usually flat on the top 
and well covered with living corals, sea-fans and other gorgonite, 
mussels, barnacles, serpulse, and sea-weeds. A few of them, as 
Southwest Breaker, are uncovered in places at low tides. Their 
sides are steep, often perpendicular, and frequently undercut. They 
often fall off into deep water by flat steps or benches of hard lime- 
stone. They seem to be formed, in most places, of the hard, nearly 
horizontal beds of the Walsingham limestone (see above, pp. 7*5, 74). 

The inner line of reefs that exists along most of this coast is pecu- 
liar in being made up largely of a special form of reefs, usually 
known as "serpuline atolls," a name given b}' Lieut. Nelson in 1H40.* 

* See pi. zxiii; also these Trans., xi, p. 486, pb. Ixxvii, Ixxviii ; *'The Ber- 
mada Islands," p. 74, same plates. 

122 A. K Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Greology. 

The serpuline atolls are detached, rounded, elliptical, crescent- 
shaped, or irregular reefs with a raised rim and excavated or cup- 
shaped central j)art. They vary in size from those only a few feet 
in diameter up to those of 100 feet or more. Many are very regu- 
larly rounded. The rim is formed by a solid, raised, living crust, 
made up of the hard, convoluted, shelly tubes of serpulse and Verrtit-^ 
tns, barnacles, small black mussels, nullipores, corallines, and some 
true incrusting corals, such as Porites astreoides and a few others, 
with more or less seaweeds, etc. 

The living rim of these atolls is usually laid bare by the ebb tide, 
wholly or in part. The rim is usually higher and larger on the 
windward side, because the organisms live best in the swash of the 
pure water, and are liable to be killed off on the lee side by the sand 
and debris, often washed out from the central pool. The growing 
rim, therefore, is often lacking at one or more places on the lee side, 
so that the edge is lower, and the water that is thrown into the 
central pool by the waves rushes out over the low lee side in a minia- 
ture cataract, when there are large waves. The rim may rise from 
a foot to nearly two feet above low tide, because such organisms as 
compose it can endure an exposure to the air of two or three hours, 
especially as the sea or spray usually dashes over them, and they 
retain water in their interstices. (Plate xxiii.) 

The living organisms usually have not built up. the whole height 
of the raised rim, but they have protected it from erosion to a lower 
level, and have added something to its height by their own growth. 

These serpuline atolls are composed, like the reefs farther out, of 
hard seolian limestones, usually in nearly horizontal beds, probably 
of Walsingham age (see pp. 73-74). The hardness and horizontal 
position of the beds of this limestone are eminently favorable for 
their formation, though they probably are often formed of other 
limestones, especially when they are in hard and nearly flat layers. 
If the layers happen to be much inclined, the atolls become irregalar 
and imperfect, owing to the very uneven erosion that results. 

The submerged sides of the atolls are usually undercut, or at least 
very steep. They are situated at various distances from the shore, 
but are mostly within half a mile of it, and usually with not more 
than 10 to 15 feet of water between. Many are in water not more 
than 2 to 4 feet deep at low tide. In some places many of them are 
even connected with the shore ledges, at low tides, as " fringing 
reefs," especially around the outer small islets, but in such places 
the rim is covered more by seaweeds, etc., than by serpalse. 

A. K VerrVi^The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 123 

At certain places along the south shore, as at Whale Bay and 
Great Tartle Bay, various stages in the process of eroding the pro- 
jecting Iedgt;a and cliffs into detached pinnacles can be seen; and the 
nndercatting of these, between tides, until they fall over, leaving 

Figure 27. — Diognuu of shore cliS, d, with connected eerpentine atoll, c; a, a, 
living rim of the tatter ; c', cavity 8 feet deep. HWm, and l.Wm, high aud 
low-water levels. Slightly altered from A. Agassiz. 

flat-topped ledges, which are converted into the serpuline atolls by 
the fonoatioD of the living rim over which the waves dash to exca- 
vate tbe central cup or pool. This is eKc-avated partly by the impact 

^re 28. — Diagramotatio section of incipient serpnline atolt with central nnder- 
cnt pinnacle of ceolian limestone still remaining ; a 
sisting of living serpolte, etc.; k, i'. the eaclosed lagoon o- 
leveli. OriginaL 

of the descending and whirling water and the sand carried with it, 
and partly by the solvent action of tbe water. As intimated above 
(p. 74), the waves may often find the beginnings of the pot-holes 
already existing in these limestones. The accompanying diagrams 
are intended to illustrate some of the phases of these methods of 

124 A. E. VerriU—TAe Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

Figure 27 represents a cliff or ledge {d) eroded at base into a flat 
beiicb, on the borders of which the serpuline rim {a) has already 
begun to grow, white the waves have scooped out a deep pool ot 
cup {c, c), which, in this case, is 8 feet deep at the center. Thi» 
would form a fringing atoll. 

Figure 28 represents one of the detached pinnacles of leolian lime- 
Btoue, in nearly flat beds, at a stage when it has become stronglv 
undercut at the base, while the nm of the serpuline atoll (a, a') is 
already growing and the central pool («, a') is being excavated by 
the waves. Such a pinnacle would eventually be overthrown, and 
then the atoll would be more deeply excavated near the middle, 
thus assuming the typical form, which is ahown in section in figs. 
11,8, and 21». 

Figure 39. — Diagrum matin iwction of completed, BmKll aeipnline atoll ; a, a', lim 
of living organisma ; c, central cup, 4 feet deep ; i, acenmalation of Mad 
fuid gravel ; d, d\ andercot unbmargad sBoIian limeetonefl ; Iv>, low-tide leveL 
Altered from A. Agassiz, 

The submerged sides {d, d') of such structures are also being 
eroded by the dash of the waves, especially at low tide and in stormy 
weather, so that most of them are undercut or perpendicular below 
tlie protecting rim of organisms. Thus, in course of time, many of 
them will be broken off on one side, forming crescents, or all around, 
and thus they will eventually be changed into ordinary submerged 
ledges or reefs. Jlany such isolated reefs, without the rima, occnr 
all along this coast, often mixed with the atolls. 

Similar serpuline atolls occur at a few places and in small nambers 
inside the great bordering reefs of the north side. Some of these 
are to the northeast of Ireland Island and north of St. George's 
Island. Perhaps they occur tfaerc because the character and hori- 
zontal position of the limestone are favorable. 

A. M Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 125 

Mr. Agassiz believed that these reefs and atolls were formed out 
of the ordinary seolian limestones, superficially hardened over the 
surfaces and edges by the local action of the sea-water itself. If, as 
I believe, these limestones were already much hardened, nearly 
throughout, long before they became submerged beneath the sea, 
and had also in most cases a horizontal stratification, as they now 
do on the adjacent shores (fig. 11 and pis. xvi-xx), the whole prob- 
lem of the formation of the remarkable serpuline atolls along this 
shore becomes much simplified. 

However, I do not wish to deny that such reefs and atolls can also 
be formed by the cutting: away of ordinary seolian ledges, when the 
strata are favorable, as Mr. Agassiz states, for I have seen the same 
process. But as we find hundreds of these remarkable atolls along 
this south shore, and very few in other places, it seems reasonable to 
connect the littoral outcrops of a suitable, hard, horizontally strati- 
fied limestone with the parallel line of atolls and flat reef at a little 
distance from the shore. Indeed, it is possible, at low tide, to wade 
out to some of the atolls figured in my plates, as was done to obtain 
the photographs. In other cases the atolls are actually connected 
with the flat benches of limestone exposed between tides, or with 
the shore cliffs. 

j. Cutting Channels ; forming Harbors and Bays. 

Id many cases the gradual erosion of the sea-cliffs by the waves 
and the encroachments of the sea have connected sinks and low 
valleys with the outside waters by means of narrow or wide chan- 

* At the Island of Anticoeti, Gulf of St. Lawrence^ I have studied the action 
of the wsves over a large expanse of nearly flat reefs that extend along the shore 
for a great many miles, between tides, or barely submerged. They are formed 
of hard layers of Silnrian limestones, nearly horizontal in position, from which 
the overlying softer strata have been removed by the undercutting of the cliffs 
between tides, and above, by the violent action of the sea-waves, aided no doubt 
by the frosts of winter, and by the existence of layers of soft shales, between 
the limestones. The flat reefs are often 100 to 200 yards wide. Their surfaces 
contain irregular depressions, and shallow pools of water, large and small, are 
left in them at low tide, but very few deserved to be called " pot-holes." The 
shore cliffs there vary from 20 to 300 feet or more high, and the summit of the 
higher ones osnally overhangs the base. The outer edge of the flat reefs, below 
low tide, is also nndercut or abrupt in most places, just like many of those at 
Bermoda. In fact, the phenomena of erosion are in many respects similar to 
those of the south shore of Bermuda, though on a much grander scale. But the 
organisms for forming coral-encrusted reefs and serpuline atolls do not exist in 
northern waters. 

Tbaitb. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 9 Decembeb, 1905. 


A. E. VerriU—The Bermuda lalaiuts; Qeologjf. 

tiL-ls, thufi forming partly enclosed barboni, lagoons, sonnils, or bays, 
as tlu'y are variously L-alled. Every stage in tbie process can be 
wen in progress. Tliere is a little landlocked cove on Coney Island, 
with a mhcll-sand beach, but connect«d with the open water only by 
a narrow chaiiiK'l, between limestone ledges, barely wide enough for 
a row-boat to pasj) through (fig. 3t)). A eimilar rainiatnre harbor 
may be seen near the roadside between Bailey Bay and Shelly Bay. 
It is said to have l>ecome connected with the sea, in qnite recent 
tim(>». lVni»toit's Pond ii» a lai^r body of water, separated from 
the sea only by a low bar. over which the waves ponr a large amount 

I; •.■• vN ; U-;i: ;h»; ;K- *«•* wi.l Si-ve i'« a chaniiel throagh tlw bar 
w.-X iv!i»<.-: t; ;:•.;»■ * -::v»!" i>ay -r hi.-tK^r. Tbi* )ia» ainaAx hap- 
vitiNi ■*: ll-.;^!i:r'i Iviy, :v.~.Tr »t«, whi^ wa* ^ndeatlr slint off 
rv>!;( '.ht- wa :\'r*v,(r"y Vy i >;a!i ar bar, wiiiirii ha$ hecn breached by 
':\\>:oci. t'^v ;:.!(' v-.>« ^'.-ws :-:: a:: 1 •.xit. cluva^ a aanow ckasBri. 
;i A v.ti' -i ^- irrxv,. l>> bav is scv.-w i.Ti th* inner cad terviBates 

1-. : 

•.■•■x: ;a:s stoiv ffc.vwsk. whi^ 

A. jE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 127 

St. Greorge's Harbor and Castle Harbor are examples of the same 
kind of erosion done on a larger scale and much longer ago; probably, 
also, much aided by subsidence of the land. The two causes operate 
together and in most of the older cases cannot be considered sepa- 

21, Rates of Erosion by the sea / modern changes slow. 

Most observers, seeing the evidence of great erosion on all sides, 
and considering the softness of the rocks, have naturally supposed 
that the erosion has taken place far more rapidly than is the case. 

In my studies of the rate of erosion by the waves, as shown on 
the masonry of the causeway leading to St. George, and in other 
places, this rate of erosion was found to be unexpectedly slow, 
under ordinary conditions, owing to the absence of ice and frost; 
also because there are no deposits of very hard sand, gravel, and 
pebbles on the shores, which the storm waves can pick up and use as 
tools of destruction, by dashing them against the bases of the cliffs 
and agftinst each other, as they do on our rocky coasts. It is only 
dnriiig the severe storms and hurricanes, which occasionally occur, 
thst rapid erosion is accomplished. 

The causeway between the main island and St. George's was com- 
pleted in 18Y1.* It was about a mile long, and fairly well built of 
native limestone blocks of considerable size. It included an iron 
drawbridge and several smaller bridges, under which were strong 
tidal currents, flowing in and out of St. George's Harbor and Castle 
Harbor. It is so situated in the passage between the islands that it 
is partly sheltered by the outlying small islands and reefs, and ordi- 
narily it is not exposed to the full'violence of storms. By an exami- 
nation of the masonry of this causeway, in 1898, at various places, I 
found that during the 27 years that it had been built, the erosion by 
the sea rarely amounted to an inch in depth, where most active, and 
the average erosion was less than half an inch, between tides ; most 
of this, also, had evidently been effected within the first few years 
after its erection, before the stones had acquired their hard superficial 
coat of infiltrated calcite. It is true that these stones were selected 
from the harder beds of limestone and therefore had more than the 
average resisting power, but after any of the soft limestones become 
infiltrated by calcite, the surface is resistant, so that the differences 
in power of resisting erosion by the sea, between tides, is much less 

* It was totally destroyed by the great hurricane of Sept.^ 1900, but has since 
been reboilt in a different way. 

128 A. E. Verrilt — TTie Bermuda Island*; Geology. 

than it would otherwise be. Allowing the average to be even an 
inch in 25 years, it would have required at least 25,000 to 30,000 
years for the sea to have eroded the high cliffs of the islands facing 
on Castle Harbor to the extent that they bave been eroded. 

I did not obtain any reliable data as to the rate of erosion of the 
exposed cliffs of the south shore, except the observation that on 
Castle Island the ancient sea-walls of the forts were often bnilt with 
their foundations on the edges of the cliffs (fig. 1) or even on a 
shelf of limestone some distance below the ori^nal brow of the 
seaward cliffs, and they have not yet been undermined, bnt stand 
firmly where they were put many years ago.* So, likewise, the 
Cathedral Rocks show scarcely any changes since the earlier photo- 
graphs were made, about 30 years ago. I compared an excellent 
photograph, made by Mr. J. B. Heyl, about 1875, with the condition 
of the rocks as they were in 1901, and could find no changes worthy 
of note. 

Figare 31.— North Rocks. From a photograph taken by Hr. J. B. Heyl in 18T5. 

jVor(A Socks in former times. 

A comparison of several photographs taken at various times within 

the past thirty rears shows but little modern alteration in the North 

Rocks, but some very severe storm might suddenly overthrow them. 

They are situated near the extreme edge of the outer reefs, aboDt 

■ Althongh the firit stoiie fort was bnilt here nbout ISSO, th« preMnt rainad 
walla may date no farther back (ban 1612. 

A. M Verrill — 7%e Bermuda Islands; Geology. 129 

eight miles north from the islands. They stand on an extensive 
patch of flat reef, part of which is laid bare by low tides. The 
larger one is about 14 to 15 feet high, the second in size is about 10 
feet. They are evidently the remains of an island of considerable 
height and extent that has been nearly worn away to the sea-level 
by erosion. But the aocient engravings indicate that the erosion, 
even in this exposed situation, has not been rapid. 

Figara 82. — Bednced facsimile of the reverse of the ancient seal of the Bermnda 
Companr, Bngraved on Norwood'e map of Bermnda, published in 1626. It 
shows the wreck of Haj'a vessel in 1593. alongside of North Rocka, which 
then appeared much as at present, but sppsrentlf higher and the two parts 
mor« aaazlj eqnal. 

Od Norwood's map of 1626,* in the two lower comers, are engrav- 
ings of the seal of the original Bermuda Company. On the reverse 
side of the seal (fig. 32) there is a view of a wrecked vessel alongside 
of two high rocks, which are easily recognized as the two peaks or 
lobes of the main Korth Rock. The vessel, with broken masts, 
stands apright between the large rock and a small one that exists to 

* The map particnlarly referred to was made by Bichard Norwood, before 
1922. "Am^pof the Sommer Islands, once called the Bermodas." London. 
1020- Beprinted {rom an original engraving in ihe British Mnsenm, by Gover- 
nor Lefroy in " HemoriaJsof the Discovery and earl j Settlement of the Bermndas 
or Somer's Islands," London, 1877 (end of vol. I). A much less complete edition 
of this or an earlier map was published in 1824, in Capt. John Smith's " General 
History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer lie." 

A later survey and map by Norwood, completed in 1633, has also been 
reprinted by Gov. I^froy, in the work cited, p. 644, bot the shore lines are 
mnch eoareer and less accnrale in the latter, which was made mainly with refer- 
ence to the transfers of land and the boundaries of estates. 

130 A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Oeology. 

the right and is therefore concealed by the hull of the yessel. In a 
photographic view (^g, 31) taken in 1875 by Mr. J. B. Heyl, a man 
stands where the vessel stood and the two views are apparently from 
nearly the same point. The two peaks of the rock are represented 
as being nearly equal in height, but now one is decidedly lower than 
the other. This ancient sketch, imperfect as it naturally is, corre- 
sponds fairly well with the outlines of the rocks, as seen in the photo- 
graph. It proves that these rocks have undergone no great change 
in general form and size since the early settlement of Bermuda, for 
this seal was probably engraved as early as 1618-20. 

The sketch was very likely made by Mr. Norwood, for he was a 
man of good ability as a draughtsman, and was making bis first sur- 
vey in 1617. The scene evidently commemorates the wreck of a 
French vessel, the " Bonaventura," on the 17th of Nov., 1593, on 
board of which was one English seaman, Henry May, who published, 
after his escape to England, in 1594, an account of his experiences 
and a fairly good but brief description of these islands, which, up to 
that time, were known in England only as dangers to be carefully 
avoided. Those of the crew who were saved (about 26 persons), 
brought ashore their provisions, tools, and fittings of the vessel 
" before she split." They remained on the island five months, while 
they built a small cedar vessel of 18 tons, with which they sailed to 
the Banks of Newfoundland and joined the fishing fleet and were 
thus taken back to Europe. May, in his narrative, stated that when 
they went on the rocks, in the night, they supposed they were on 
the shore of the island, because of the " hie cliffs," but in the morn- 
ing they found that they were " seven leagues " away from it. He 
also said that after building a raft they towed it ashore, " astern of 
their boat," and that " we rowed all the day until an hoar or two 
before night yer we could come to land." 

Several writers have been misled by this statement and have even 
iniajyined that thev must have been wrecked on some far more dis 
tant island which has since been worn away or submerged.^ But it 
is evident that May meant that it was seven leagues as they had to 
row^ for they could not cross the reefs at that point, in the surf, and 
must have rowed along outside the reef till they reached the present 
ship channel and there entered the bay and landed, probably on St 
Georcfe's Island. This would have caused them to row about seven 

* See Lef roy Memorials, vol. i, p. 9. Also Jones, Recent ObeervationB in the 
Bermudas, and his Visitors' Gaide, 1876. 

1. E. VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 


leagoes and would donbtless have taken all day with the boat heavily 
laden and towing a raft aatern. 

That there was no islet in the place of the North Rocks when the 
islands were first settled (1611) is evident from the fact that none 
in mentioned by the early chroniclers and none is represented on 
Norwood's accurate map of 1626. Indeed, it is recorded that Gov- 
ernor Moore (1612) made a voyage out to sea in order to find, if 
possible, an outlying island, but without success.* An island at this 
locality, even if small, could easily have been seen from the main 
island. Ht-nce it would be safe to believe that the North Rocks 
were then not much larger than now, even if we did not have 
Norwood's sketch to prove it. 

Figure 38. — North Rocks as dratrn by Lieut. Neliton. &bont I6S0, and pttbliehed 
bj Ljell, 1858. A, The largest rock, then 16 feet high, with two conepicn- 
ODB Bid»-lobes, a, b, and s email rock, c, near its base ; e, e'', two smaller 
rocka where hut one now stands. B, Next to largest Rock, then about 13 
feet h^h, strongly nndercnt at cc, ce. 

In Lyell's Manual of Geology, f the author has reproduced a very 
interesting drawing of the North Rocks, made, as he stated, by 
Lieut. Nelson. Therefore, it dates from about 1810, for Kelson was 
the engineer in charge of the governmental workx at Ireland Island 
in 1827 to 1833. This figure (see mj fig. 33), if correct, shows that 
the North Rocks have changed somewhat during the past 75 years. 
The small rock, c, seems to still exist. 

The main rock has lost something from the height of the smaller 
peak [a, a), and one side-lobe seems to have been lost. One of the 
two rocks near it (c', c') has apparently disappeared ; the only one 
that appears in that vicinity in the recent photographs (fig. 23) has a 
crooked form like c'. The rock a' seems to have been destroyed. 
The rock B, in the foreground of this sketch, is represented as rela- 

■ See these Trans., li, pp. 664, 665 ; " The Bermada Islands," pp. 352, 253. 
f Lyell, Sir Chailea, Haaoal o( Elementary Geology, several editions ; in the 
American reprint of the 4th ed., 1658, the figuie is on page 78. 



132 A. K VerrUl — The Bermuda Islands; Geold^, fy. 

tively larger than in the photographs, but this is evide! 

perspective for artistic effect. It has nearly the same 

present, but may have been somewhat larger. Lyell stJ 

was then 12 feet high, while the main rock was 16 feet hij 

are rather more than their present heights. Unfortunl 

point of view in this sketch is not the same as in any of th< 

graphs, so that no very close comparison of the cuts can 

A comparison of the sketch, on the spot, with the actual rocks, 

would be useful. But it is evident that at least one of the smaller 

rocks has disappeared. The wonder is that the changes have been 

so small in this very exposed situation. 

This drawing, therefore, confirms my conclusions^ deriyed from 
other evidence, that the rate of erosion is here very much slower 
than has been supposed. 

Great Storms ; Hurricanes, 

The Bermudas are frequently visited by severe storms, and occa- 
sionally genuine West Indian hurricanes reach these islands and do 
great damage to buildings, shipping, trees, crops, etc. Bat as the 
dwellings are almost all of limestone blocks, and solidly built, they 
are seldom entirely demolished and for that reason there is seldom 
any loss of life, though in the storm of Sept. 28, 1903, two men were 

Such storms are of special geological importance, for they effect 
more changes in the shore cliffs and beaches in a few hoars than 
would occur in many years of ordinary weather. Unfortunately no 
geologists or other persons sufficiently interested have been on the 
spot to record such changes as have occurred along the shores and 
outer reefs, at such times. Such facts as are recorded usually relate 
mostly to the damage to property, or to the shores of the more 
sheltered harbors. 

In Part I of this series* I have given some details of the effects 
of the hurricane of Sept. 12, 1899, in which the long causeway was 
destroyed (see also, p. 127, above), and much other damage was done 
all over the islands. But yet there is scarcely anything recorded of 
the changes that it wrought on the exposed cliffs, though such effects 
were sufficiently obvious a year later, all along the southern shores. 

* These Trans., xi, pp. 442, 496, 497 : ** The Bennnda Islands," pp. 80, 84, 85 
where other similar hurricanes are also recorded. 

A. K VerriU—The liermvda Islands; Geology. 133 

A later gre&t storm or hunic&ne occinred Sept. 28, 1903.* Though 
it was of comparatively flhort duration, it also did a great amount 
of damage. At the height of this storm, which was about noon 
(13.30 p. M.), the wind had a recorded velocity of ~4 niile^, fi-om the 
northeast; after it shifted to the northwest it had a velocity of 40 
nules, at 3 p. ii. It was accompanied by a very heavy rainfall, which 
waebed away the roadbed in many places. Large numbers of cedar 
trees were uprooted, many large palmettoes were broken off, the 

Figure S3a.— Undercut cliffs at Clarence Cove, near the location of the great 
landslide of Oct. 6, 1908. 

banana crop was ruined, and nnmeroun public buildings and private 
dwelling!! were damaged. A number of litone docks and sea walls 
were badly damaged or destroyed, and many boats were wrecked. 
Not much was said in the papers of the effects on the shore cliffs, 
but in the Royal Gazette for Oct lOtli the following item appeared: 
"On the North shore of Pt-mbroke Parish — from Spanish Point 
toward the Ducking Stool— the nigged cliffs in several places show 
the effects of ibe fierce onset of mighty billows during the late 
hurricane. Huge pieces, wrenched up and swept away, have left 

*See "The Colooist," of Sept. 30, 1903. and 'The Rojal Gazette," vol. 
nxTiii, No. 80, OeL 7, 1908, p. 1, for details. 


A. K Vtrrill—The Bermuda lahmda; 

white, staring g!i|>s in the dark rocks as a reminder, for many a day 
to come, of the visitation." 

A week after this storm the great landslide at Deep Bay oeciirred. 
hastened, no doubt, by the effects of the great sea-waves of the 
storm. (See below.) 

During such storms, and even in those of much less violence, the 
fine calcareous mnd of thi; shallower bays and sounds is so thoronghly 
stirred up that the water becomes milky white everywhere, and when 
this sediment settles it must make layers of notable thickness. 


Owing to the undercutting of the cliffs, great masses weighing 

many thousands of tons sometimes suddenly slide o£f into tbe sea, 

causing a great commotion. One of the latest of these landslides 

Figiirii 'S3b. — Cavernoas and undercut cliff at Clarence Cove. 

happened at Deep Hay, near Hamilton, Oct. 6, 1903, a week after 
the hurricane of Sept. 38. 

An account of it was published in the Royal Gazette for Oct. 10, 
1903, as follows : — 

"At ' Deep Bay,' near Admiralty House, on Monday, about mid- 
night, {just one week after the storm) a large portion of the cliff. 

A. E, VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 135 

some 60 feet deep, and from 35 to 40 feet in width, toppled over 
into the sea with a thundering: reverberation, resembling very much 
the sound of a shock of earthquake. For years — in fact beyond the 
memory of the oldest heads in the vicinity — there has existed an 
irregular-edged crevasse at the place where the final break occurred, 
nearly semicircular in shape and some eighty feet in length, and 
from two to three feet wide at the top, locally known as * the crack,' 
and although it could not but be evident to the most casual observer 
that the fracture of the rock was complete throughout, its collapse 
was regarded as a far remote possibility by the North-siders, not- 
withstanding its very perceptible inclination seaward, np one of 
whom feared to step across on to the leaning cliff, and walk, amid 
sage-brush and scrub-cedars, to its dizzy edge, even children fear- 
lessly invading it in their gambols." 

The fallen masses of stone at other places indicate similar land- 
slides, but I was not able to learn the dates of any others of impor- 
tance. They often seem more recent than they really are, and most 
of them have apparently not occurred within the remembrance of 
the inhabitants. Among those that appear to be comparatively 
recent is the mass of angular blocks at the base of Abbot's Head 
(fig. 21). 

Earthquake shocks, even if not very severe, might loosen many of 
these undercut masses. But, as stated in my former work,* very 
few earthquakes have occurred here in modern times, and those were 
of but little importance. Those recorded occurred in 1664, 1801 and 
1843. According to the local newspapersf a slight earthquake 
occurred on July 27, 1903, between 5 and 6 a. m., at Paget East. 

Silting of Harbors ; Ancient Maps. 

That some local changes in the depth of certain harbors have 
taken place since the early settlement of the islands is certain. In 
some cases this has been connected with the drifting of sands from 
the land into tie sea, as at Tucker's Town, where the sands from 
the dunes on the south shore drift across the narrow neck of land 
into Stokes' Bay, on the Castle Harbor side. This small bay or 
harbor is now very shallow, with broad sand flats exposed at low 
tide. It is said that in the early days of Bermuda small vessels in 
the West Indian trade could anchor in this harbor. 

♦ These Trans., xi, p. 510 ; ** The Bermuda Is.," p. 98. 
t See Royal Gazette for Jaly 28, 1903. 

136 A. H Verrill — 27ke Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

The changes in Shelly Bay, referred to by Nelson, also seem to 
hare been connected with the drifting of sand and will be referred 
to under that head (Chapter ^3). 

The small harbor at the Flatts has been subject to many changes, 
owing to the swift tidal currents, which are continoally moving the 
sands^ combined with the effects of storm wares^ which often work 
against the tidesw There have been periods in the past when it was 
used as a harbor for trading vessels, but it is now maeh obslracted 
by sand bars. However, in very eariy times the same thing occurred, 
for in I<$:^!^ there is a record of the pa^inent of 50 pounds of tobacco 
to Thomas EInunet for *^ digging the channel at the Flatts mouth, '^ 
which had beciMne obstructed by the formation of a sand bar, even 
then.* NelsoD, 1S40, said of it : 

"^ The Flatt}^ Inlet« entrance to Harringtoo Sound, is perceptibly 
tililiixg. notwithstanding the benefit it remres from the Sound as a 
bcfcekwater.^ The same condition still existSw It is a locality of 
shifcfng sand bars. 

XeIt<o<u IS4«X also made the following obserralioBS^ which are still 
appiiL-able : 

~ Th.ii:f at the head of Crow-lane* Bensuda or Main Irfand, within 
chie mem^ory of the present generation^ siupt» c^ soi a e burthen used to 
I>^ as wharfs^ where now scarcely a large boat eaa repair at all tides. 
Thie fame ha:^ oeeunred in the narrow cbaBnrf between Ordnance 
Ldaibi aoil the Market-wharf at St. Ge^rgeX bat to a far greater 

H^werer. ^mi the whole, the ehanget^ sdmi^ tk first accounts were 
wTiccflu ab«}ux 3i>} years ago* have beeu aaaU and Hoeal,. aad entirely 

=3m:&i:ieai: t«> mruerially alter the geaenl forva ami character of the 
iiiiaai^ ^zui nfeik The following aecoontf ap^6» perfectly well at 
pr»*ie!Lu. It: u ^:io «:>f special importaace a» tm&atra^ t&e condition 
\t 'jiA imer r»*e£:f and ehanneLf at thac time^ th.ii» dhi»wiB^ that there 
«!aaai:n ia.Tif beeu any notable chaii^e» ul W^rel). nor any extensiTe 

-^ Aai£ '^Li^ !t]iitiiin*>aed rest che« smail dam&w m. tile midst of a 
ia:r» zmime :«!ifaiu wa«}i«e violea^^e' &«> Wnw of ami brokiHDi in the 
^iM^rin-^M-r, *iiie bj biiiice aiimbei!^ h*^ imcertauM invksy Mfaeig shal- 
jiw^T iiiift fir 'Jirvfe Lea^rie^ oat at setk JL$^ ti>t^ south warde of 

A, jE VeiTill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 137 

them is found a continued ledge of the same mettall within halfe a 
league of the shore, servinge to the same purpose on that side, the 
which betwixt them (leavinge noe open approach lo any part of the 
shore, which vessels of any burthen, save only through thoes two 
channells which greatly, gently and peaceably conveye the benefitt 
of the sea through the straight and narrowe mouthes of the two 
harbours into the large bosome of the firme and rocky earth) prove 
thereby so terrible and sure a fortification against all invasive 
attempts that waye, as by haveinge some sort art added unto them 
at the harbours mouthes since the plantation, they cause the whole 
peece to become as fully impregnable, and as easily to be defended 
against any ennemye as (I think) any one in that nature of Chris- 

Ancient Maps. 

Strachy refers to a map of the islands, made by Admiral Somers 
while detained there by the shipwreck, in 1609.* That map was 
never published and was probably lost soon after it was made. It 
would be of great interest now. 

Bat Richard Norwood, a very competent surveyor, was employed 
by the Bermuda Company from 1615 to 1622, to make a careful 
survey and map of the islands. His first map, published in 1626t 
and a later one, made by him before 1633, are still in existence, and 
both have been republished.! 

I have carefully compared these early maps with the most recent 
Admiralty charts and with other maps made during the past century. 
The changes in outlines are very slight. In some cases small bays 
or coves have been converted into lagoons by the formation of sand- 
bars across the mouth. In other cases such bars have apparently 
been washed away, converting a small lagoon into an open cove. 
These are phenomena that are common on all sandy shores, and may 
take place during a single severe storm. 

* *' For no greater distance is it from the Northwest Point to Gates his Bay, 
as by this Ifap your Ladyship may see, in which Sir George Summers, who 
coasted in his Boat about them all, tooke great care to expresse the same exactly 
and full, and made his draught perfect for all good occasions, and the benefit of 
such, who either in distresse might be brought upon them, or make saile this 

f See page 129, foot note, for more details of these maps. A later caref al sur- 
vey was made about 1780 by Lempriere, whose first edition 1 have not seen. It 
republished in "The West Indian Atlas," by Thos. Jeffreys, London, 1780. 

138 A. E. Verrill — I%e Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

The variations from the present outlines are, in most cases, no 
greater than might be due to slight inaccuracies of the surveyor or 
engraver. Thus the maps confirm the conclusion that changes due 
to erosion are here very slow. 

22, Origin of the SheU-sands. 

Until quite recently most writers called the calcareous sands of 
Bermuda "coral sands." Nelson was probably the first writer to 
definitely state that the sands are mainly derived from small shells. 
Mr. A. Agassiz considered them^ as mostly derived directly from the 
disintegration of the sBolian limestones of the reefs and cliffs, thoagji 
ultimately derived from shells, corallines, etc. According to oar 
studies, the sand and mud of the sounds, bays, and shores are mostly 
shell-sand, whenever the materials are coarse enough to be identified. 
But in the deeper parts of the harbors and sounds there is a large 
admixture of calcareous mud, so finely divided that its origin can- 
not be determined directly.* As all gradations exist between such 
fine particles and those that can be recognized as fragments of 
minute shell*?, it is pretty safe to assume that a corresponding per- 
centage of the fine material is also of shell origin. That a consider- 
able part of the sand and mud is, in many places, the detritus of 
eroded rocks, especially near the shore cliffs, is very evident, but the 
proportion is probably much smaller than Mr. Agassiz supposed. 
Therefore there is reason to believe that the total mass of material is 
increasing, not diminishing as some have supposed. 

We collected large amounts of the bottom materials from numer- 
ous localities for study, with reference to their origin. Among the 
localities were Murray Anchorage, Bailey Bay, Great Sound, Har- 
rington Sound, Castle Harbor, etc., in depths of 1 to 10 fathoms, as 
well as on the shores. 

They were all rather similar, though differing much in fineness, and 
especially in the relative amount of impalpable mud. When the 
fine mud is washed out through fine sieves, the sand-like material 
that remains consists, in nearly every case, mainly of small broken 
shells, together with many entire specimens, living or recently dead. 

More than 50 species of these small shells can often be picked out 
from a single sample of mud, after washing. In most cases the small 

* See also Verrill, Notes on the Geology of Bermada, Amer. Jonm. Science, 
ix, pp. 328-381, figs. 8, 9, 1900, and Moseley, Notes hy a Naturalist on the 
Challenger, 1879. 

A. K VerriU — The Bermuda Itlanda; Geology. 139 

bivalves are io excess of the univalves, ihongh more of the latter are 
entire.* (See figures 34a, 346, and pi. xxiv, figs. 1, 2.) 

Part of the small shells are tlie young of larger species, but the 
greater number never grow large. Such smaU species (pi, xxiv) are 
probably animal, or ai most biennial, and reproduce rapidly, so that 

Figure 84a. — Washed ehell-iaud from off Bailey Bay, in 4 fathomH, x Ij^. 
P^W« S4b.— Waaiied Bhell-Baod from main Ship Channel, iu 8 fathoms, x IJ^. 

their total increase in bulk is greater than that of larger shells with 
slower rates of growth and reproduction. But fragments of larger 
shells are also found in considerable numbers in most samples, espe- 
cially in those from the shores and very shallow waters. 

In many localities, near the reefs and rocks, fragments of Verme- 
tua and allied genera occur in considerable quantity. One of these, 
Tenagodus, or Siliquaria, ruber, is red and often imparts a I'eddish 
tint to the sand. In other cases the reddish lint is due mostly to 
fragments of^Spoiidi/lng, Tellina and Cliama, and to the sessile fora- 
minifer, Polytrema miniaceum, which is common on dead corals. 

In nearly all the samples of fine sand a very small percentage of 
diatoms, spicules of gorgonise and of sponges, and shells of ostra- 
codes could be fonnd, and also, occasionally, a few radiolarlans, but 
auch organisms collectively would usually not make up a tenth of 
one per cent, of the material. 

Fragments of corallines, or calcareous algie, of the genera Ilali- 
meda, Vdotea, Lithotkamnion, etc., ai'c usually common, especially 
near the reefs, and often form an important element. Foraminifera 

* NnmerooB speaies of tbaae small shells were described and figored bj Ver- 
rill and Btub,~the«e Trans., vol. z, pp. 513-544, pis. liiii-Uv, 190U ; and " The 
Zoology of Bermada," article 8, reprint. 

140 A. E. Verrill—The Bermuda lalatids; Geology. 

of several species are also common,* and also fragments of starfisbei, 
echini, and other echinoderms. Fragments of calcareous worm-tubes 

re 35. — Bermada Fornmimfern I Miiiotma eirrmlaru aide view 2, MiUo- 
Una semin-alvm, Hide view ; 2a end view 8 it pvlchttUt side Tiew ; So, 
end view ; 4, Ttxtularia Irochus, side view ; S, T. concana, side view ; 5a, 
end view; 6, T, iMcuUnta, side view; 6ii, end view; 7, Ctawlina ctmtmunii, 
aide view ; 8, Nodonaria mucronata, aide view ; 9, Bilrx^lina ringera ; 10, 
aiobigeriiia bvlloides ; lOn, the same, with bases of spines remaining; 11, 
Orftieudiia adunca, young; 12, the asme, odnlt; IS, Comiu^ira/olioeea, kS; 
\i,Noiiionmadepr'asttia; \o, CristeUaria eomprtaia; 16, i^neropluperttcsiu; 
Figs. 1-10 , 14-16, after Brady; 11-13 after A. A^^aesis. 

of the Serpula family are also common i 

ledges and reefs. 

I the deposits from i 

• Among the common apeoies are Orbiculina adunea, Orbitoli'te* marytnaii*, 
O. duplex, O. eompianata, Orbuliiia uniteraa, Miliolina eirailaril, M. vmvtia. 
It. aeminulum, M. pulckeiia, C'omuapira foliacea, Ttxtutaria eoneava, T. iHen- 
Unta, T. trochua, Ammodiacua tennia, CiavHtina cominuntl, FeneropH* p 

A. KVerriU— The Bermuda Itlanda; Geology. 141 

Fragments of coralB are uBually few in number, even in the 
vicinity of the reefs. The most common form ie the slender branched 
bydroid coral, MUtepora alcicomU (fig. 36 and pi. xxx a), which is 
abundant on all the reefs and is easily broken. Of the true corals, 
fragmenu of the slender branched Ocnlina diffusa (fig. 36a) are 
occasionally found, and in some localities the thin edged shade-coral, 
Agaricia fragitit, occurs in the form of thin fragments. Fragments 
of the more solid or massive genera, such as Poritei, Musaa, Mcsan- 
dra, OrbiceUa, etc., are rare in the mud and sand, even near the 

Plgnre W.—MiU^pora ateioomit, hianebee, ^ natnnl size. 

Figure 86a. — Oeulina diffuta, branch with expanded polyps, natural size ; 6, 

the same, more enlarged. After Agowiz. 
Figure 86fr. — SdilzvponUa Itabelliana, (cronp of cells, much enlarged. 

Bryozoa of several kinds are often met with in some localities. 
One of the most common forms is a thin encrusting species of 
Bijluatra, which grows abundantly on the stems and fronds of fioat- 
ing Sargtusum. Another common species is Idmonea atlantica 
{fig. 36c), which grows abundantly on the reefs in slender branched 
forms with tubular calicles. Some larger or more solid foliaceons 
species also occur not infrequently. Among these is a species that 
at first forms thin crusts on rocks and dead corals, but later often 
becomes massive, or has tubular, pink-tipped branches (36^). 

In shallow water near the shores land-shells are rather common in 
the sand. Among those found were P<ecilozonitea bermvdensis, P. 
eircumJirmatuB, Polygyra microdonta, Subulina oclona, Jiumina 
deeoUata, ffelicella ventricosa, Helicina convexa, Truncatetia cari- 

A'loeitliiui bul/oidei, B. riHgtna, etc. For mnch longer lists of the Bermnda 
FoTuninifera, see Woodward, Joarnsl New York Microecopical Society, 1885, 
p. 147, and Brady, Voyage of the Challenger, Zoology, vol. ii, with a volume 
of pUites. Host of the apeciea are described and Ggored by the latter. The thin 
circnlar and sabcircnlar disks of Oi-bitoUtts, Orbiculina and Peneroplit are 
among the l«rgest and most common forms. For fossil species, see chapter 24. 
Tains. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 10 Fkbbuahy, 1908. 

142 A. KVerrill— The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

bceemis. All these are common species which can easily be washed 
into the sea by rains or blown by the winds. Seeds of land planti 
occurred in small numbers in the same localities. 

Near the ship-channels there was usually a considerable per cent. 
of small fragments of coal and cinders. The latter were usnaltr 
decomposed, partially or wholly, to small reddish lumps of red clav, 
often soft enough to be easily crushed between the fingers. In some 
samples from off Bailey Bay, such fragments of cinders oonetitnted 
about 10 per cent, of the washed material. . 

Figure 36c, a-d. — Idmoaea atlaiitica branchea of different eJEM Mid sbapM; 
ranch enlarged Drawn b; A H Temll 

An average sample of the bottom from Bailey Bay, in 6 fathoms, 
had about the following proportions ; Impalpable and very fine mad, 
60 per cent.; coarse materials, such as fragments of larger ahells, bil« 
of limestone, etc., 5 per cent.; shell-sand stopped by tbe finer sieves, 
35 per rent. 

The washed shell-sand was estimated to consist of the following 
average perecntages: 

Small Bh*llB. entire and broken 66 

Coralfl, Millepora, etc 3 

Corallioee 8 

Bryozoa 1 

Echinodenua 0.5 

Foraminifera 5 

Otber organisms 0.5 

LimeBtone detritua 8 

In some samples the shells formed at least 90 per cent. Of course 
mch estimates can be only approximate, for no two lots would be 

A. K Verrill—TAe Bermuda Islands; Geology. 143 

JDSt alike. Some of the most abundant species of small Bhells com- 
monly found are shown on plate xxiv, figni'ea 1, 2. 

Id the channels and passages between the islands, and especially 
on shallow bare, where there are active currents and wave action, 
the fine calcareous ooze is washed away more or less completely and 
the bottom usually consists, in such places, of nearly clean shell-sand, 
which may contain numerous living and dead foraminifera, amount- 
ing, in some cases, to 10 or even 30 per cent., while in the immediate 

Figure 87a. — Stickopua Mdbii, spotted variety, ventral side, J nHtDnil size. 
Figure 876. — The aame, dorsal side. Drawn from life by A. H. VerrUI. 

vicinity of reefs the fragments of calcareous alg^e may sometitnes 
amount to 25 per cent, or more, and in such places the fragments of 
MiUepora, Oculina, etc., may rise to 20 per cent, or more, in some 

In the sheltered harbors and more or less enclosed lagoons, espe- 
cially in the deeper parts, where there is but little wave action, the 
fine oose that is washed out from other places settles down and 
forms a soft, more or less coherent, whitish, grayish, or yellowish 

144 A, E, Verrill — The Bennuda Tslandit; Geology. 

mud, that Mr. Agassiz called "marl." In such localities there are 
comparatively few living organisms, except some small foraminifera, 
though the common sea-urchin ( Ibxopnenstes), the black holothurian 
(Scichopus), and various annelids may also flourish in large numbers. 
Such bottoms occur in Harrington Sound, Hamilton Harbor, Great 
Sound, St. George's Harbor, etc. 

In some cases part of this ooze or mud has probably been washed 
in from the shores by rains, and in that case it comes from the old 
aeolian limestones, as Mr. Agassiz claimed. But I am disposed to 
believe that most of it is recent and of the same origin as the coarser 
particles. The rocks and soil here are so porous that there is bot 
little running water, even during rains. But during heavy storms, 
especially when of some duration, the water over all the sonnds 
often becomes milky with this fine ooze that is stirred up from the 
bottom by the ^vave•motion. It sometimes does not clear up for a 
day or two. At such times great quantities of the fine sediment is 
deposited in those places where the water is most quiet and thus the 
ooze sometimes accumulates veiy rapidly.* 

The broken condition of the larger part, even of the smaller shells, 
and the finely comminuted mud are probably largely due to the fact 
that the shells, and even the mud in bulk, are the food of various 
manne animals. Indeed, it is probable that most of this sand and 
mud has more than once passed through the digestive organs of the 
mud-dwelling forms of life, and in this way the shells have been 
broken into small fragments or reduced to powder. 

One of the most important species, for this kind of geological 
work, is a large holothurian (Stichopits Mdhii)y\ which occurs in 
great numbers on all the white muddy bottoms. (Figures 37flf, 375.) 

* This fine calcareoas mnd is carried oat to sea many miles by the tides and 
currents, for it largely covers the submarine slopes of the Bermnda mountain at 
all depths down to 2475 fathoms, and as far away as 48 miles, according to 
Thomson. He states (" The Atlantic," i, p. 289), that the Challenger sounded on 
the slopes of Bermnda at 120, 780, 950, 1820, 2250, and 2475 fathoms, and at all 
these places the bottom material consisted largely of ** soft, white, oalcareons 
mud, evidently produced by the disintegration of the Bermuda reef and of the 
multitude of pteropod shells that sink down from the surface." 

f Several other names have been given to this species. The scarcer variety, 
which is yellowish or brownish with large black spots, agrees best with M6bii 
Semper, of the West Indies. It was later named S. xanthomela by Heilprin. 
The abundant black variety was named S. diaboli by Heilprin, bat it seems to 
be only a color variety. The name, diaboli^ may well be retained to indicate 
the common black form, as a variety. 

A. RVerrill — The Sermuda Islands; Geology. 145 

This is U8aa1l)r nearly or quite black in color, though Bometinies 
spotted, and is 10 to 15 inches long and 3 to 4 inches broad. It is, 
therefore, very couspicuoas when the white bottom U viewed with a 

This creature, like all the larger holothurians, has a large con- 
voluted intestine, which is always found crammed full of the bottom 
mud, from which it digests out any nutritive material that it may 

Figure ^.—HtOoVturia Ralhbimi, )i natnral size. Phot, by A. 5. Verrill. 
F^nre 39. — Syiutpta roieola. Pink Sfnapts, abont '^ natural size; a, one of the 
dermal ancfaots nmcb enlarged. 

contain, but the inert residue is passed out in great quantities and 
mostly in a state of fine division. Another large holothurian, but 
much more slender (Uolothuria Riithhuni) lives buried in holes 
beneath the surface of the mud, but feeds in the same way. It is 
often 15 inches in length and pale rusty brown in color with darker 
brown blotches." 

Several other smaller and more slender burrowing holothurians, 
which commonly occur, belong to the genera St/napla and CItirodota. 

•Tbese Trans., vol. li, p. 37, pi. i, figs. 8, 7; Verrill, Zoology Bermuda, 1. art. 
10, pi. I. flg*. a, a, 6, 7, 1901. 

14C -4. B. Verrill — 7'Ae Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

Among them are H. roseola (tig. 39), S. hihmreiis, S. aeanthia, and 
C. rotifera. All of these swallow the mud in bulk, picking it np 
with their oral tentacles, which they use like hands while feeding. 
Some of the sea-urchins wltioh live on these bottotos have the 
same habit of feeding on mud and sand in bnlk, while others select 
with more care the small living mollusks. The most importaDt of 
these is Toxopneustes iiariegiUiis (fig. 10), a round species, 2 to 4 
inches in diameter, thickly covered with dark purple, violet, or 
brown spines. It is everywhere abundant on the muddy and sandy 
bottoms, often associated with the large Stic/wptis, feeding in the 

Figure iO.—Toxnpiieualea variegatus, f, nataral size. Phot, b; A. H. Verrill. 

same way. A larger but much less common species, JSij^onoi eacu- 
leitta, has the same habit. Its spines are shorter and nearly vhite. 

In certain localities a flat '-'cake-urchin " or " sand-dollar," with 
six perforations {Melifta sex/oris), is abundant and feeds on the sand. 

A large starfisli, with five long flat rays, is common in aome places, 
living under the surface of the sand. It is remarkable for the 
rapidity with which it can glide along, using its numerous large 
ambulacral feet as paddles or oars for swimming or gliding, while 
concealed, just under the loose sand. It feeds on small laoUusks. 
This is the Luklia clatkrata, common also on the Carolina ooasts. A 
very common opbiiiroid ( Ophloiiereis reticulata), with long slender 
arms and a pale yellowish body, reticulated with broWQ lines, also 
lives in the sand aud under stones. 

A. MVerrili — The llermuda Idands; Geoloyy. 147 

Annelids of many kinds* also swallow the mud and sand with 
little selection, while others pick out, with their prehensile organs, 
the small Hying mollusks, etc. Among the larger forms burrowing 
in the sand Axa Arenicola criatala {fig. 41) and E"poffftiitiia mag- 
nifica (plate XXXV, fig 1, «); aUo the " blood -drop " Enoplobrauchug 
gtiJiffuineiig Ver, 

The first is often 12 to 15 inches long and nearly an inch in 
diameter. Its color in life is dark oiive-gret^n or blackish green, 
with dark red plumose gills. It is common on most of the sandy 
bottoms in shallow water and at low tide. It makes large and deep 
burrows, which often have large coils of mucus at the entrance. 
The second is nearly white, with a body more than a foot long. Its 

Figure 41. — Areiiicola crigtala ; a, profile; ft, dorsal view; '^ nntaral size: 
Phot, by A. H, Verrill. 

numerous white, slender, prehensile tentacles, which spread out in 
every direction, are often more than a foot long. Its intestine is 
usually so filled with mud and sand that the delicate walls of the 
body will buFHt when it is taken from its burrow. It builds in the 
burrow a large and rather delicate tube usually consisting mostly 
of small bivalve shells, both entire and broken, loosely cemented 
together. The tube is concealed in the sand or under stones ni 
sandy places. It selects such materials with its tentacles and puts 
them in place with the same organs. 

* Many of the aaaelids i 
505-670, 1900. 

e dedcribed by j 

1 these Tra 

148 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda ItlantU; Geology. 

Another large species { Cirralului grandis) ifi ol'ive-green or yel- 
lowisli brown, with- numerous long reddish cirri {fig. 42). The large 
Pectinaria regalis, which constructs a remarkable portable, cornu- 
copia-shaped tube of sbell-aand, the particles regularly cemented in 
a single layer, is common.* Many smaller species, with similar feed- 
ing habits, are abundant in the mud and sand, and must make large 
contributions to the deposits of line materials. 

Many species of crabs found there, and also Other crustaceans, 
feed lai^ely on small mollusks, usually crushing the sheila with 

FinuTf 43.- 

(hIiik grandis V.. nat. e 

Drawn from life bj A. B. Verrill. 

thfir Nirong claws, tliu!) contributing to the ahell-fland. Uany of the 
univalvi' nmllusks ( (ianlrofiodii) feed on bivslres, nsnally drilling 
a holt' in th(> xlit'll through which they suck the blood. The well- 
known "drill," which is so dt'slructive to young oysters on the 
Ainvricau cimMt, is a good example. Many related species with 
Hiniilar habitH arc found in Horniuda. There are aleo many fishes, 
abnntliuil tlitTc, tlittt fiH'd on small mollusca and other calcareous 
bottom or^iiniHuiH ami thus contribute to the fonnation of the fine 

> 'nM-w Truib.. vul. li. p. »ti. pi. Tiii, figs. S, 7, IMl. 

A. E. Verrill—The Bermuda Islands; Gtolog'j. 149 

The roagh and corroded appearance, often noticed on the surface 
of broken sheila, u due, without miicfa doubt, in nearly alt canes, to 
the action of the digeative fluids of fishes and other animals that 
swallow the mollusks. In some instances similar effects may be due 
to acids generated by decaying vegetable matters, with which tbey 
have been in contact at the bottom. 

That no appreciable lose of the coarser bottom materials occurs 
through solution is evident, for if the carbonated waters were not 
already saturated, they would surely first dissolve the impalpable 
calcareous mud, which is everywhere present in larger or smaller 
proportions, and thus speedily become saturated with lime. Xor is 

Fignre 48.— Borings of LifAopAofrus apjjenrfieiitafus, in hard limsBtone, about J^ 

Figure 43a. — The same ; a, one of tbe skelle removed. 

there evidence that solidification of these sediments is taking place 
anywhere beneath the sea, by the deposition of the calcium carbon- 
ate from solution. 

The breaking up of the massive corals and the larger shells is due 
largely to the action of various kinds of boring creatures, which 
penetrate the basal and older pans of the corals and the thicker 
parts of shells and gradually weaken them till the action of the 
waves can rednce them to fragments. Specimens of tbe common 
brain'Coral are sometimes found live to six feet in diameter. These 
are probably more than 1 50 years old.* They would doubtless grow 

* So fai as known there is no definite limit to the duration of the life of the 
luge compotmd corals. Were it not tor accideuta and enemies, such ae borere. 
they might live a thousand year* or more, for anght that we know to tbe con- 
tnuT. As it ia, some of the Pacific masBive corals become 20 to 30 feet or more 
in diameter. Indicating agee of 500 to 800 years. 

150 A. £,'. Verrill — The Jiermitda Jslands; Geology. 

much larj;er were it not for the undermining of their bases by bor- 
ing spODges, molluska, annelids, etc. 

Among the most common and important of the borers are bivalve 
mollusks of the genus LUhophaga. One of these, a dark brown or 
black s)>ecie8, about ii inches long (Z. nigra), is very common in 
the bases of large corals. Other species with the same babita are 
L. appendictdata (fig. 4.1, 43n) and L. bis'dcata. Other boring 
bivalves common here are Gaftrochmna rostrala and Coralliophagn 
coralUophaga. * 

Several species of annelids are constantly found in irregular 
burrows and tubes in the dead or partly dead corals, but it is uncer- 
tain, in most cases, whether they make the hnrrows or simply occupy 

Figure 436, a-d. — Phywosoma rariaiis; from corals, showing diSerent color 
varieties and states of coatraetion. Phot, by A. H. Verrill. 

those made by sponges and mollusks. Several large species of Leo- 
dice, Marphysa, Nicidion, etc., are particularly common and with 
other forms found in corals will be referred to later, io discussing 
the life of the reefs. See chapter 30. 

Several species of Gephyreans also occur. One of these, Phyaco- 
soma variant (fig. 43d), which is very common, seems to be a true 
borer, but may be only an intruder-f 

Certain species of iiiliccous sponges are among the most destruc- 
tive of the boring animals that attack corals and shells. They make 

* See these Trans., vol, i, pi, Ixiii, figs. 8, 10. 

t See these Trans. , vol. x, p. ISG9 ; Verrill, ZoSlogy af Bennada, art. 9, p. M, 

A, E.Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 151 

irregular branched burrows of all sizes, finally reducing the coral, 
shell, or even hard limestones, to a mere honeycomb, easily crumbled 
by the waves. They mostly belong to the genus Cliona, One such 
species (C. stdphurea), common on the American coast, from Cape 
Cod to Florida, is famous for its destructive borings not only in the 
shells of oysters, etc., but even in hard marble. , 

The related Bermuda sponges have not yet been determined spe- 
cifically, but they are abundant and destructive. 

One of the common reef dwelling sea-urchins {Echinometra sub- 
angulariSy pi. xxxiv, a, has the remarkable habit of forming cavities 
or holes for itself in the solid limestones. Even when it becomes 3 
to 4 inches in diameter the holes just fit its form. 

2S, Modern Sand Dunes and Peat Bogs. 

In recent times the activity of the drifting sands has been quite 
variable, depending mainly on the effects of the vegetation that 
borders and encroaches upon the dunes. 

It is singular that none of the early settlers, who wrote such full 
descriptions of most of the other features of Bermuda, say anything 
definite about the drifting sands, which later became a conspicuous 
feature. Neither are areas of barren sands indicated on the early 
maps of Norwood (1626-1663). Though there is mention of some 
barren sandy lands on Ireland Island in the early records,* the dis- 
trict about Tucker's Town was cultivated, and from the records 
appears to have been fertile, for it is mentioned that Governor 
Tucker (1616) planted figs and pomegranates there. 

Therefore it is probable that at the time of the first settlement of 
the islands (1611) the native vegetation, especially the cedars, had 
so fully covered the soil that the sands no longer drifted to any great 
extent, except close to the shores, and so did not attract attention. 
At the time when Lieut. Nelson wrote (1833-37) the drifting sands 
had attained considerable importance, and he mentions that the drift- 
ing, in the vicinity, of Elbow Bay, had begun about 70 years previ- 
ously (about 1763), and at Tucker's Town about 1773. His account 
is as follows: — 

"The proprietor of the principal part of the land of this bay, the 
venerable Captain Lightbourne, remembers an attempt about seventy 
years ago, when the inhabitants expected an attack from the French 
and Spaniards, to form a breastwork along the sand hills which 

* See theae Trans., vol. xi, pp. 476-479 ; '' The Bermuda Islands,'* pp. 64-67. 

152 A. E. Verrill — 7'Ae Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

then, as at Shelly Bay, skirled the coast. In doing so they cut 
through the natural prot«ctionB given by the sea-shrubs and creepers 
which usually abound in such places. From that day the sand, 
supported by constant supplies from the sea, has steadily proceeded 
up the hill to the very Hiimmit, a height of 180 feet. It is, however, 
surprising to observe the singular state of arrest under which the 
invader stands before the children of the soil. A few straggling 
cedars, widely scattered in advance of the wood which now bounds 
the space, have been passed by this sand flood, yet the dazzling, dry, 
and almost snow-white sand is checked, before the front rank of the 

Figure 44a. — Drifting sand, 
1873. After ThomBoii. 

odvaacing " sand glsciei 

t Elbow Bay, abont 

trees, in a steep bank, varying from ten totwentyfive feet in height, 
and so remarkably well defined that scarcely a particle is scattered 
beyond a distance of 20 yards. Although this inroad commenced bo 
long ago, yet the principal advance has been since 1807, from which 
date about 200 yards have been gained on the eastern side. Before I 
left the colony in March, 1833, the sand had reached the northern 
comer of a cottage belonging to a man called Ned Keel (on Mr. 
Butterfield's estate) and the top of the bank, eight feet high, was on 
a level with the eaves of the shed. During the last fourteen years 
it has progressed, at this point, only about forty yards, in a bed 
from four to eight feet deep, in consequence of the repnlsire action 

A, JE, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 153 

of a thin belt of cedars just below. Very near this spot also, is a 
small circular group of the same trees, which the sand has passed, 
and imbedded to the depth of from six to eight feet; but the space 
within has been so perfectly screened, that the bottom of this little 
oasis is the natural green-sward." 

" There is another encroachment at Tucker's town, said to have 
taken place about sixty years ago; it has crossed the neck between 
Harrington's Sound and the sea; but beyond this it does not seem 
inclined to move. The sand has not been stopped at the eastern 
extremity of this beach, where the bluflFs commence, by their very 
considerable declivity, — though it has been most eflFectually at the 
crest of the slope, by a natural fence of sage bush, growing partly 
in the soil and partly in the sand; which as it ascended, seems to 
have thus rolled on with the seeds of destruction to its progress in 
its own bosom." 

When J. M. Jones wrote (1866-72), the drifting sands were still 
quite active near Elbow Bay, as quoted in my former paper (vol. xi, 
p. 474), and nearly the same conditions evidently existed at the 
time of the visit of the Challenger, in 1873. When Jones wrote, a 
soiall cottage had been buried by the sand, the top of the chimney 
alone being visible.* This chimney and the moving sand dune or 
"sand-glacier" were figured by Thomson in the Voyage of the 
Challenger; The Atlantic, vol. i, p. 310-13, figs. 74-76. 

But Jones stated that even in his time the activity of the moving 
sands had greatly diminished, as compared with 1850, owing to the 
vegetation. Stevenson, in 1897, stated that the sand had advanced 
but little at Elbow Bay in the previous 20 years. 

Probably the modem activity in the drifting of the sands was 
brought about in most cases by the reckless cutting of the cedars 
and the burning of the brush, combined, perhaps, with the disturb- 
ance of the surface soil to make roads or build forts, near the shore. 

♦ The description of this locality by Jones, 1876, p. 81, is as follows: 
**C)n arriving at the nori;h-east comer of the sand-hills, the encroachment of 
the drifting sand will at once be perceived ; as the mass, some ten feet in depth, 
is now gradually covering a small garden. According to the observations made 
by persons residing close to, this overwhelming body has advanced over the 
enltiyated land abont eighty yards, daring the last twenty- five years. At the 
N.E. comer of the hills, will be seen among some oleander trees near the top. 
the chimney of a cottage which formerly stood there, inhabited by a coloured 
family. It is now wholly buried in the drifting sand, save the chimney ; which 
alone rises above the mass to show the position of the strnctnre." 

154 A, JEf, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

Lieut. Nelson also described the changes that bad occarred at 
Shell V Bav, as follows : 

"In 1801 Shellv Bav scarcely existed : what is now the mouth, 
was at that time a row of sand hills; and the road on the north side 
lay close within. Some free blacks who lived there, being in need 
of fuel, cut down the plants which kept these sand hills in a solid 
state. Being no longer duly opposed, the sea quickly broke through, 
and now retains possession of the ground at least 100 yards in rear 
of the old road, traces of which are still visible. The Mangrove 
Swamp between the beach and the present road was until then a 
garden." . . . 

The condition of Shelly Bay appears to be still nearly as described 
by Nelson.* As to its previous condition, I know of no earlier 
description in which the sand hills across its mouth are mentioned. 
On the contrary, on the early maps of Norwood it is represented 
with nearly its present outline. In the earliest accounts it is men- 
tioned as a bay abounding in fishes (1610), discovered by Mr. Shelly, 
one of Admiral Somers' party, in 1609. Therefore, unless Lieut* 
Nelson was misinformed as to its condition in 1801, the sand hills 
across its mouth must have been formed after the settlement, wfaidi 
seems improbable. I am disposed to think that the change was not 
nearly so great as Nelson was led to believe. 

As to Tucker's Town, the sand still continues to drift in AmI 
district, and sand-dunes are still forming near the shore (see pL ud| 
fig. 2), though the area of drifting sand seems to be much less thin 
formerly, owing to the great increase of native sand-dwelling vege* 
tation and the introduction of additional species.f 

One of the most important species growing here in the sand deae 
to the shore is Scmvola lobelia^ a low shrub which has thick, leatheiy 
leaves and long creeping root-stalks. It is the species shown on the 
sands in my plates. J A little farther away from the shore the " Sage- 
bush " (Lrmtana) becomes important, and the seaside morning- 
glory {fpomcea pes-caprw), with several seaside grasses, especially 
(Jenchrus tribuloides. At the edges of the advancing sand the olean- 
ders and cedars, with other plants, form barriers to its advance. In 

* For a view of Shelly Bay, see these Trans., xi, pi. Ixviii ; "The Bermada 
Islands," same plate. 

\ See these Trans., vol. xi, pp. 474-479, pis. Ixxv and Ixxvi ; **The Bermuda 
Islands," pp. 63-67, same plates. 

X See pi. xxi, fig. 2. Also these Trans, pi. Ixxv and Izxvi; " The Bermada 
Islands," same plates. 

A. E.Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. l^o 

fact, at the timeB of our vifiitN the sand was drifting but little at any 
place except near Tucker's Town, owing to the vegetation. 

An nnusaaliy long drouth, by injuring or destroying the vegeta- 
tion, might cause the sands to drift again in many localities. It was 
also noticed that in several limited areas the drifting sand did not 
come from the beaches, but was derived from the crumbling of old 
leolian rocks. 

Peof Soffs. 

Deposits of peat of considerable extent occur in several of the 
swarops in Bermuda. The most extensive are in Devonshire Swamp 

Figure 446. — View id Devoushire Swamp. From a photograph, after ThomBon. 
and Pembroke Uarsh. These swamps occupy deep valleys between 
the hills of teolian limestone and their bottoms are many feet below 
the present sea-level, so that Uie water in then) is moie or less 
brackish below the surface. Governor Lefroy is reported to have 
tested the depth of peat in Pembroke Marsh, in 1872. It is said 
that he foand that it was 43 feet or more deep.* 

• Sea p. 87; uid 
Onide, p. 121. For 
1S«, out 83. 

Tb« Bermuda Islands,'' p. 1 
risw of Pembroke Marsh, s 

Also J. M. Jones, Viutor's 
"The BemmdA Islands," p. 

156 A. E.Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

The lower portions of these peat beds must be of great age, while 
the upper portions are very modern. A careful exploration of the 
lower parts might afford the remains of plants, birds, insects, snails, 
etc , which are now extinct in Bermuda. The only records that I 
have seen in regard to this is the statement that cedar trees five feet 
in diameter have been found buried in the peat, but this is not much 
larger than some found growing by the earliest settlers. The peat 
of these bogs is not composed, to any great extent, of the remains of 
Sphagnum and other mosses,* as in cold climates, but mainly of the 
leaves, stems, and roots of larger plants, such as several large ferns 
that grow luxuriantly, and to the height of 6 to 8 feet,t reeds, 
sedges, palmetto, cedar, with vines and shrubs of various kinds. 
(See figure 44ft.) 

This peat, where purest, resembles supei'ficially the ordinary peat 
of colder climates, and burns equally well when dried. In some 
localities it has been dug for a fertilizer. I am not aware that its 
microscopic structure has been studied by any one for scientific pur- 
poses. Eventually it may yield many facts of niuch scientific inter- 
est. The deposition of peat in some of the swamps is still going on, 
but in many places the swamps have been partially or wholly drained 
and are now cultivated.^ 

Additional note on Bottom Deposits. 

Chapter 22 was in type long before I had seen the following 
valuable paper : — The Shoal Water Deposits of the Bermuda Banks, 
Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., xl, No. 15, 1905, pp. 559-592. 
(Cont. from Berm. Biolog. Sta., No. 5.) By Henry B. Bigelow. 

In this work the author has given a pretty detailed account of the 
character of the bottom deposits that he examined from numerous 
localities, representing about all the varieties of bottom to be found, 
within the outer reefs. His results agree pretty closely with my 
own, though he found foraminifera more abundant in several places 

* Several species of snch mosses do occnrf though of relatively small impor- 
tance. Among them are : Sphagnum cyrabifolium, S. cuspidatumf and Isop- 
terygium tenerum, 

f Among the larger and more ahandant swamp ferns are Acroatichum aureunij 
PUris aquilina, Osmunda regalis, O. cinnamomea, Woodwardia virginica, Aspi- 
dium coriaceum. See also, **The Bermuda Islands," pp. 162-166, for some of 
the rarer species. 

X For section at Ireland Island, showing ancient submerged bed of peat, see 
figure 58. 

A. JE VerriU — The JBermuda lalatida; Geology. 15V 

than I did anywhere. He also gives a somewhat greater percentage 
to the calcareous algse, in certain places, than I have done. He fol- 
lows Mr. A. Agassiz in attributing the fine mud and marl entirely to 
the erosion of the rocks and sands of the shore and reefs, overlook- 
ing the very important part that living animals take in the grinding 
up of the shells, etc., as explained in the preceding pages. He 
apparently overlooked the ejirly studies of Nelson, Moseley, and 
others on this subject, and does not refer to them or to my own 
paper (Notes on the Geology of Bermuda,* 1900), even in his bibliog- 
raphy. In my paper of 1900 there was a fairly good though brief 
discussion of the subject, with figures of the sands from photo- 
graphs. He informs me that it was accidentally overlooked. 

One of the most novel and interesting parts of his paper relates to 
the character of the deposits on the Challenger Bank. The bottom 
was found to be covered with rounded pebbles composed of the 
nullipore, Lithothamnion vngeri, on all sides, and carrying serpulse, 
small corals (Madracis), bryozoa, etc. From this he concludes that 
wave-action with force sufiicient to roll these masses over (some 
were 6 inches in diameter) extends to the depth of 30 to 40 fathoms, 
which is quite contrary to the current scientific belief. 

To me his conclusion that they are continually turned over by 
wave-action seems unnecessary. Plants of that sort require so little 
light that the diffuse and reflected light enables them to grow on the 
lower shaded sides of rounded pebbles in shallow water, though not 
on the parts resting on the bottom. Fishes with burrowing and 
rooting habits may turn such pebbles over frequently and continually 
while searching for their prey, and so might the larger crabs and 
other Crustacea, the Octopus, etc., thus causing them to grow on all 
sides and keeping them free of sediment. 

In enumerating the most important genera of shells (p. 568) he 
places the well known bivalves, Codakia, Cardiuniy and Gouldia 
among the gastropods. 

The fragments of "red Serpula " that he refers to on pp. 566, 567, 
probably are fragments of one of , the VermetidaB (Tenagodua (Sili- 
quaria) ruber Schum.). I do not know any species of Serpulidae 
with red tubes. (See above, p. 139.) 

♦ Amer. Jonm. Science, ix, pp. 313-340, with cuts in text, 1900. 

Trahb. CoNir. Acad., Vol. XII. 11 February, 1906. 

158 A. K Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology/. 

Paet IV. — II. Paleontology. 

24. Fossils of the Walsingham Formation, 

In a former chapter (pp. 68-74), I have discussed the occuiTeDce 
of numerous fossil land-shells, nine of which are now extinct, in this 
formation. Besides the land shells we find in it the well-known 
large West Indian " whelk " {Livond pica, fig. 60). The latter is 
often abundant, just as it is in the later seolian limestones. It was 
undoubtedly carried up from the sea beaches to the sand hills by 
the land hermit crab ( Cenobita diogenes, fig. 60), which is still found 
on the modern sand hills with the ancient fossil shells on its back, 
for these fossil shells are so commonly weathered out entire that 
they are always available. Many of these ancient specimens still 
retain the external color and the pearly luster of the interior nacreous 
lining. This species, though still common in the West Indies, seems 
to have died out in Bermuda in modern times. There is no authentic 
record of recent living specimens.* 

a. Land Shells. 

The most interesting of the fossil shells belong to a genus of 
snails peculiar to Bermuda, named Poecilozonites by Pilsbry. It 
differs anatomically from all the related genera, but its nearest allies 
are found in eastern North America. It is by no means certain that 
all the extinct species referred to this genus really belong to it, but 
most of them strongly resemble the living forms. At the time when 
this formation was deposited the genus had already reached its 
maximum development and greatest differentiation, for at that 
remote time the largest known species (P. JSTelsoni) was very abun- 
dant, while at the same time the smallest and most diversely formed 
species, such as P, cupula and P. Dalli, were in existence. Six 
species and five well marked varieties are now recognized. All the 
species and all but one of the varieties are found fossil in this forma- 
tion. This proves that the genus.had been established or had orig- 
inated here at a period long anterior to the deposition of the oldest 
rocks now known on the islands, for such differentiation implies a 
very long period of evolution. Three species of the genus and four 
varieties are now extinct. The other associated species belong to 
well known American and West Indian genera. 

* See ** The Bermuda Islands," p. 296 ; these Trans., xi, p. 708, for a discns- 
sion of this matter. 

A, JE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 159 

An important paper on the fossil land shells of Bermuda has 
recently been published by Mr. A. Gulick,* in which he has described 
several new species and has given many details of their occurrence. 
Most of his new species had been collected previously by us, in 1898 
and 1901, but not described. 

The following species have been found in this formation: 

Poecilozonites Nelsoni (Bland) Pilsbry. 

Hyalina Nelsoni Bland, Annals Lye. Nat. Hist., N. York, xi, p. 78, 1875 (as a 

variety of H. bermiLdensis). 
PkBcilozonites Nelsoni Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., 1888, p. 290, 

pi. xvii, figs. J. K. L.; in Heilprin's Bermuda Islands, p. 197, pi. 16, 

figs. J. K. L.; Trans. Conn. Acad., x, p. 500, 1900. Verrill, op. cit., xi, p. 

728; **The Bermuda Islands," p. 316. A. Gulick, Proc. Acad. N. Sci., 

Philad., 1904, p. 415, pi. xxxvi, fig. 4. 
Pachystyla mauritiana in Bartram^s List, Berm. Almanac, 1881, p. 125. 

Plate XXV; Pirate XXVI, figures 4-8. Also figures 45, 46, 47. 

This large extinct species is remarkably variable in form. In 
some localities most of the specimens are conical, about as high as 
broad, or even higher, while in other localities the spire is much 
depressed or flattened. The original type of Mr. Bland was the low 
and flattened form to which Mr. A. Gulick has recently given the 
variety name, diacoides. (See fig. 46.) But intermediate forms are 
not uncommon. Those specimens that have a large callus on the 
inner lip Mr. Gulick called variety caUosus, The amount of callus 
is also inconstant, so that no sharp line can be drawn between these 
varietal form^. They sometimes occur together, but more commonly 
are found at different stations. 

The surface, in all the varieties, is generally ornamented by low, 
oblique, curved ribs, as shown on plate xxv. Many of the specimens 
from some localities retain traces of the original color. It was 
usually yellowish brown, with irregular streaks or blotches of 
reddish brown crossing the whorls, and sometimes with a subsutural 
band and one or two wider peripheral bands of brown, much as in 
some existing specimens of P. bermudensis. 

The mass of specimens figured on plate xxv, and fig. 45, came 
from the Walsingham district, between Harrington Sound and Castle 
Harbor, and near Paynter's Vale. They are cemented together by a 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Science, Philad., 1904, pp. 406-425, pi. xxxvi. 

160 A. E. Verrill—Tke Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

hard, red, calcareous matrix, containing red clay. The Bhells in this 
cluster are all of the high, conical form, now named variety conoida. 
(See pi. xxvi, fig. 4.) Some of tbeiu show color marldngSi ae 
described above. This species is common in the Walsingham dis- 
trict, all along the western and southwestern shores of Castle Har- 
bor, as stated above (see pp. 68-70), and at many other localities. 
Mr. Gulick found it in the ancient sandy strata at bis station 818, 
near Tucker's Town, but not in later deposits of the same kind. It 
was found in great abundance at Ireland Island by Lient. Nelson 
(1840), who described its occurrence as follows: 

" In the centre of this rock was a cavern ; and entangled amongst 
the stalagmitic lining (as well as in that of other caves and crevices), 
or else lying in heaps in the loose red earth within, we fonnd abnn- 

gnTe45. — HasB of breccia-like material, contaiuiug numerous shells of the 

«itinct Nelson's snail (P. Nelsotii, vai, coaoidet), imbedded in atalagmit* 
and indnrated red clay from fhe Walsingbam formation. About i natural 

dance of a large and delicate Selix [P. Nelsoni]. In another 
instance npwards of thirty bushels were recovered, without any 
earth among them: a circumstance easily accounted for by the com- 
mon habit of these animals to shelter in holes wherever tbey can 
find them. I have never seen these creatures alive, nor have I ever 
heard of their having been seen in that state ; but still tbey were 
found with a smaller Helix deep in the compact rock. This Seiiz 

A, JE. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 161 

[P. bermudensisly which is the common living snail of the island, 
I obtained in the hardest stone and in the loosest sand; sometimes 
lined with drases of carl)onat« of lime, sometimes filled with a solid 
cast, at other times slightly cemented together, and frequently 
retaining some colour; in which condition they are generally found, 
as before mentioned, in every part of the colony." 

This rock was a mass of marine or beach limestone, containing 
fossil corals (see under Devonshire formation below). The fossil 
snails in the cavern with red soil indicate that a mass of soil and 
calcareous sands of earlier origin, and containing these fossil shells, 
was imbedded beneath this mass of beach rock, and by its subsequent 
decomposition, the shells and red clay contained in it were left in 
the space it had occupied. 

This large species appears to have become extinct at the time of 
the great subsidence at the close of the Walsingham period, when 
great changes in the climate and vegetation must have occurred. 

It occurs at almost all the quarries opened in the limestones of 
this formation, especially on the west and southwest sides of Castle 
Harbor, both in the hard limestone and the red-clay breccia filling 
cavities. Also at Bailey Bay, Knapton Hill, etc. 

Poecilosoziites Nelaoni Bland, var. Nelsoni VerriU. 

Poeeilozonites Nelsoni, var. discoides Gnlick, op. cit., p. 416, pi. xxxvi, fig. 

4, 1904. 
P. Nelsoni Pilabry in Heilprin, ** The Bermtida Islands," p. 197, 1889, pi. 16. 

FiouBB 46. Plate XXYI, figures 7, 8. 

This variety, in its extreme form, has a low flattened spire, but in 
most other respects differs very little from the more elevated forms 
of the species. Intermediate states frequently occur. It is found 
associated with the high-spired variety, but more often alone, at 
several localities in the vicinity of Castle Harbor and Bailey Bay. 
The last whorls are often distorted. 

Bland's original description applied strictly to this form, named 
discoides by Gulick. He gave the height as 19"'" ; diameters 
37x34"°, which are almost exactly the proportions that Mr. Gulick 
gives for his variety discoides. He gives for one : height, 19™™; 
diameter, 37°*°; for another, height, 19.5°™; diameter, 39°°. (See 
oar fig. 46.) 

162 A. E. Verrill — The BeiTnuda Islands; Geology. 

PcscilozoniteB NeUoni, var. callosus Ovlick. 

A. Gnlick, The FoBsil Land Shells of Berranda, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad.. 
1»04, p, 414, pi. iiivi, fig. 5. P. Ketsoni (pars), Pilsbry, Proo. Acad. Nit 
Sci., Philad., 1888, p. 390, pi. xvii, Bg. K; reprint in Hailprin, '■The B«r- 
mnda Islands," p. lUT, pi. 16, Gg. K. 

Plate XXVI, figures 5, 6. Also text-fioubb 47, xypb. 
Several good examplsB of this variety, in excellent preservation, 
belonging to the American Museum, New York, were lent to me 
for figuring bj' Mr. R. P. Whitfield. They were collected by him 
at Bailey Bay, in a road-side cutting and in cavernous places in the 
hills west of Mr. Seon's house. 1 personally collected similar speci- 
mens, but not as perfect, in the ^ame vicinity. I also found the same 
variety in a ledge below low-water mark at Bailey Bay Island, and 
in a road-cut near Castle Harbor, Mr. Gultck's specimens were 

Fignre i6.—PuecilozimHe» Netaoni, var. NtUoni. 

Figare 4T. — P. Xetaoni, var. eallosua, typ«. Both abont natural size, copied from 

from Knapton Hill and Tucker's Town. Specimens of the same 
kind were sent to me thirty years ago by J. M. Jones. Some of the 
figures of P. Nelsoni published by Mr, Pilsbry in Heilprin's Ber- 
muda Islands, pi. le, reprinted from Proc, Philad. Acad, for 1888, 
p. 290, pi. xvii, also represent this variety. 

Mr. Gulick states that this variety is smaller than the ordinary 
form, but some of our specimens are much larger than his and 
exceed the diameter of his largest examples of the ordinary form, 
so that the size cannot be used as a varietal character. Its depressed 
form, thicker shell, the thickened outer Up, and thick callus of the 
inner lip are the only notable distinctions, but all these are variable 
characters in this species. 

The following description of the larger Bailey Bay specimens was 
prepared several years ago, when 1 had also given it a varietal name 
in MSS. 

A. E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 163 

Shell large and thick, with a rather low spire, the height usually 
less than two-thirds of the breadth. Base strongly convex. Umbili- 
cus variable, but usually small and deep, and often partly covered 
by the slightly reflexed, angular edge, of the lip. Body whorl 
obtusely angulated or obsoletely subcarinate. Sutures impressed, 
sometimes slightly canaliculate. Whorls 8 to 9. Spire sometimes 
much depressed, with an even slope, due to the flattened upper 
whorls, in other cases broad, conical, with the upper whorls a little 
more rounded. 

The sculpture consists of numerous, very oblique and usually well- 
marked costulse, parallel with the lines of growth ; sometimes the}'' 
are strongly developed and rather coarse, especially on the upper 
side of the body-whorl. Aperture somewhat irregular, transversely 
oblong-ovate, the outer end rounded, the basal side flattened, and 
the columella? end subtruncate, with a slight, excurved sinus, both at 
the basal angle and at the umbilical angle. The inner lip, in the 
older shells, is often much thickened, with a thick white callus; the 
thickening also affects the columella and outer part of the lip in 
most cases.' 

Color, when preserved, pale yellowish brown with a wide band of 
orange-brown, both above and below the periphery of the body- 
whorl, and sometimes with a narrower subsutural band of the same 
color. In some cases the upper surface is also flammulated with 
reddish brown. 

Diameter of the largest specimen, 45™"; height, 23"™. Another 
has the diameter, 31°™; height, 28™™; length of aperture, 14™™; its 
breadth, 7™™. In Mr. Gulick's type the diameter was 33™™; height 

PcBcilozonites Nelsoni, var. conoides Verrill, nov. 

Figure 45. Plate XXV, types. Plate XXVI, figure 4, type. 

This name is now proposed for the high-spired or conical form of 
this species, in which the height is from two-thirds to nine-tenths 
the diameter of the shell, or sometimes even equal to it. 

It was figured by Pilsbry in Heilprin's " The Bermuda Islands," 
pi. 16, J. 

It is the most common form of the species in many places in the 
vicinity of Castle Harbor, and was considered the typical form by 
Mr. Gulick. But Mr. Bland's original description, as stated above, 
applies only to the depressed form. The surface in many of the 

164 A. E. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

specimens is strongly costulate (see pi. xxv, a, ft, e). The umbilicus 
is of moderate size or small. Many of the specimens are flammalated 
with brownish, and some have peripheral brown bands preserved. 

This variety passes into the others by all intermediate gradations. 
One of the largest examples (see pi. xxvi, fig. 4) has the height 
32™° ; diameter, 41°°. The type specimens are from near the 
western shore of Castle Harbor in a mass of red -clay and stalagmite. 
It occurs in numerous localities in that district and near Paynter's 
Vale. Also on the shore opposite Coney Island, etc. 

Poecilozonites Bermudensis, var. zonatiiA VerriU. 

These Trans., vol. xl, p. 728, 1902. "The Bermuda Islands," p. 316 [728], 
note, 1902. Gnlick, op. cit., p. 418, pi. xxxvi, fig. 3, 1904. 

• • 

Plate JKXVI, figures 1, 2. Plate XXVII, figitbes 2, a-l, types. 

This variety occurs abundantly in the softer limestones and imper- 
fectly consolidated sands of the Devonshire and Paget formations, 
in which its colors are often very well preserved. The examples 
figured are all of the latter period. Hence it will be more fully dis- 
cussed under that formation. 

It is found, however, associated with P. Nelsoni and other extinct 
species in the Walsingham formation, though in most cases far less 
abundantly than the latter. 

The most productive localities are especially in the hard Walsing- 
ham limestones at the quarries near the west and south-west shores 
of Castle Harbor ; we also found it near Bailey Bay and near Coney 
Island. Station 814 (Gulick). 

It occurs both in the limestone and in the reddish breccia-like 
stalagmites containing red-clay, found in this district. 

Poecilozonites Beinianus (Pfr.) Pilsbry. 

Helix Reiniana Pfeiffer, Malak., xi, p. 1, 1868. 

Poecilozonites Reinianus Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., 1888, p. 290, 

pi. xvii, I, D, reprinted in Heilprin, ** The Bermnda Islands," p. 198, pi. 

16, I, D (radnla); these Trans., x, p. 500. 
VerriU, these Trans., xi, p. 728; **The Bermuda Islands," p. 816 [728], 1902. 

Gulick, op. cit., p. 419, 1904. 

Figures 66a, 666. 

This species is much smaller than the preceding ; diameter, 
9_l|mm. height, 5-6'°™. The spire is depressed (nearly flat in var. 
P. Goodei), The umbilicus is large, about one-third the diameter 

A. JE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 165 

of the shell, and shows all the whorls. The whorls of the spire are 
somewhat convex, the apical one smooth; the body-whorl is rounded 
when adult. The shell is usually flammulated with chestnut-brown in 
recent specimens and some of the fossils show the same colors. 
There is no internal lamella. The fossil shells are usually somewhat 
larger than the recent ones. As a living species it is not abundant. 
Occurs not infrequently at the quarries of hard limestone near the 
shores of Castle Harbor with P. Nelsoni, and elsewhere, but usually 
in the form or var. antiquus. Gulick obtained his best specimens at 
locality 815, near Harrington House. It also occurs in the Devon- 
shire and Paget foinnations. 

Variety Goodei PUsb. 

Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. N. Sci., Philad., 1889, p. 85, pl.-iii, figs. 12, 13; these 
Trans., x, p. 500 ; Gnlick, op. cit., p. 419. 

This living variety was distinguished merely on account of its 
nearly flat spire and larger umbilicus. Diameter, 9-10™"; height, 

It is reported by Mr. Gulick as found fossil at Town Hill (his 
station 819). 

Variety antiquus, nov. 

Plats IXVI, figure 3. 

A single specimen of a peculiar form of Poecilozonites was found 
imbedded in the stalagmitic mass of P, Nelsoni figured on pi. xxv, 
(see also fig. 45). 

If it be not somewhat abnormal, it may represent a new species, 

in some ways intermediate between P, Reinianus and P. circum- 

firmcUuSy var. discrepans. It has rather the form of the first (var. 

Goodei) y but it apparently had a faint internal ridge in the last 

whorl, unless due to injury during life. 

The spire is almost flat, composed of about seven somewhat con- 
vex whorls, separated by impressed sutures. Surface rather strongly 
costulate; on the last whorl the costulse are interrupted a little above 
the periphery by a slight groove. The solid stalagmitic cast of the 
interior shows, in spots where the shell is broken away, a very slight 
peripheral groove, as if there had been a very thin internal ridge, 
corresponding to the external groove. Probably this liiay have been 
produced by an injury during the growth of the shell. The basal 
side of the shell is wholly concealed. The last whorl is well rounded. 

166 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

not angulated at the periphery. The aperture is more lanate than 
in the existing varieties, owing to the more compressed whorls. It 
is larger than the living forms. Faint flamtnulations of red-broirn 
color are preserved. Diameter, 10""° ; height, about 5"". Other 
similar specimens have the diameter, 13"""; height, fl"". From a 
quarry near Castle Harbor. We found broken specimens of the same 
variety in a road-cut at Bailey Bay, but without the slight per- 
ipheral fuiTow. 

It seems to be nearest to P. Jieiniantts, var. Qoodei, but the latter 
is smaller and more delicate, has leas evident costulation, and t)ie 
whorls are less compressed. 

Fcecilozonites circumflnnatuB (Redf.) PiUbrj-. 

Hyalina circMmfirmata Redfield. Am. Lyo. Nat. HiBt., New York, rf, p. 16. 

Pacilozoaitts cireumfirmalns Pilsbry, op. cit., 1889, p. 291, pi. i^ii, flgs. f, 
0, H (ihell). A, B [radala and jaw] ; sama reprinted in Heilprin, " The 
Bermnda Islands,*' p. 199, pi. 16, 1889; these Trans., i, p. 500, 1890. Vemit, 
tbeseTrans.,!, p. T3S, figs. 67, a, b, 1902; the same, " The Bermuda lalandB," 
p. 316, fig. 87. Gnlick, op. cit., p. 420, 1904. 

FiGUHES 4&a, 48b. 

This delicate species is similar to the last in size and form. Its 
diameter is usually 9 to 12°""; height, about 6-7""°. The fossil shells 
differ but little from the recent ones. It is easily distinguished from 
others of the genus by the internal revolving lamina. 

Figare 48. — PiBcHosoniUs circvmfirmalna; a, upper, and b, nnder surfaces, x21, 
from phot<^raphB of recent specimens bj A. H. V. 

Specimens were found by us at Bailey Bay in the interior of P. 
yelsoni. It occurs at nuuicrouit localities iu the Walsingham forma- 
tion with P. Nelaoni, as well as in the later Devonshire and Paget 
formations. We found it common in the strata near Hungry Bay 
just above the Devonshire beach limestones. It is a common living 

A, JE, VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 


Variety discrepans (Pfr.). 

This variety is separated only on account of its nearly flat spire. 
This is a variable character, as in P. Nelsoni, and intermediate forms 
are not uncommon. Mr. Gulick records it from the older hard lime- 
stones and red clay pockets at Knapton Hill and near Castle Harbor; 
also from ancient unconsolidated sands at Tucker's Town (his sta. 
818). We took it from the sand inside a shell of P. Nelsoni^ found 
in a road-cat at Bailey Bay, and also in strata immediately above the 
Devonshire beach-limestones at Hungry Bay. It is found living, 
but is not common. 

Poecilozonites cupula Gnlick. 
Op. cit., p. 417, pi. xxxvi, fig. 2, 1904. 

Figure 49, type. 

Easily distinguished by its dome-shaped spire. It has about 8 
whorls; diameter 16 to 20"*™; height, 13 to 15™°*. Some specimens 
show traces of subsntural and peripheral color bands. 





Figure 49. — P. cupula; 50, Poecilozonites Dulli ; 51, Zonitoides Bristoli. 
All copied from Gnlick. 


Several specimens were found by Mr. Gulick at a quarry of hard 
limestone near Paynter's Vale, southwest shore of Castle Harbor (his 
locality 806), associated with other extinct species. 

Poecilozonites Dalli Gnlick. 
Op. cit., p. 417, pi. xxxvi, fig. 1, 1904. 

Figure 50, type. 

This small species is higher than broad, with an elevated spire, 
rounded apex, and convex base. Diameter, V to 7.3™'°; height 8.5 to 
10"™. Whorls about 9, polished, whitish, with two brownish per- 
ipheral lines. Umbilicus small, partly covered by the reflexed 
columellar margin. Exact locality unknown. 

168 A, E. Verrill — I'he Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

Zonitoides Bristoli Gnlick. 

Op. cit., p. 421, pi. xxxvi, fig. 13, 1904. 

Figure 51, type. 

A minute species, having three convex whorls, which are finely 
costulate and covered with fine and regular spiral lines. Diameter, 
1.17™"; height, 0.7°^". 

Recorded from the hard Walsingham limestone at station 807 by 
Gulick. Also from near Tucker's Town, in sand-pits at station 818* 
(type). It was not observed by our parties. Not known living. 

Zonitoides minusculiis Binney. 

Pilshry, op. cit., 1900, p. 501, pi. Ixu, fig. 11. Verrill, op. cit., p. 317 [729], 
fig. 71, 1892. Gulick, op. cit., p. 421, 1904. 

Figure 52, recent. 

This well-known, minute North American species was recorded by 
Gulick, as found with the preceding at station 807. It is not uncom- 
mon as a living species in Bermuda. It is widely distributed in 
North America, ranging northward to New England and southward 
to the West Indies. 


diX^'^y^ 58 



Figure 52. — Zonitoides minusculuSy enlarged-, after Binney. 

Figure 52a. — Thysanophora hypolepta, much enlarged, after Pilsbry. 

Figure 53. — Strobilops Huhhardi, enlarged 4 diameters, after Binney. 

Euconuliis turbinatiis Gulick. 
Op. cit., 1904, p. 420, pi. xxxvi, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

Figures 55a, 556, types. 

A small conical species with a high spire and blunt apex. Whorls 
7^, narrow, nearly flat, umbilicus small Diameter 2.8 to 3"" ; 
height, 3.4°^™. 

* The sandy or uncontolidated strata at this station probably belong to the 
Walsingham formation, as the characteristic fossils occur in them. 

A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 169 

Gulick records this species from the Walsingham limestones at 
station 806, near Castle Harbor, and at 807, Knapton Hill, and also 
from the sand-pits at station 818. Also from the Paget sand-pits 
(sta. 808). The specimen figured (55ft) was from station 807. We 
foand it in the red-clay breccia on the west shore of Castle Harbor, 
mostly as casts. It is not known to be living. 

Thyaanopliora hypolepta Shnttl., Bern. Mitth., March, 1854, p. 129. 

Helix (Mierophysa) hypolepta Pilsbry, Proc. Philad. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1889, p. 

82, pi. iii, figs. 6-8; Pilsbry in Heilprin, '* The Bermuda Islands," p. 200, 

pi. 16, figs. M. M. 
Thysancphora hypolepta Pilsbry, these Trans., x, p. 49, pi. ixii, figs. 2a, 26, 

1900. Verrill, these Trans., xi, p. 728, figs. 68, a, 6 ; ** The Bermuda Is.," 

p. 816, figs. 68, a, 6, 1902. Gulick, op. cit., p. 413, 1904. 

Figure 52a ; recent. 

This minate species is still living in Bermuda, but is not known 
from any other locality. It has a broader umbilicus than Z. minus-. 
cidus and a rounder aperture. They are similar in size and appear- 
ance. Gulick records this from Knapton Hill, station 807, and near 
Paynter's Vale, station 806, but not from the Paget sands. We 
found it in the sand from the interior of Pcecilozonires Nelsoni, 
taken from a road-cut at Bailey Bay. 

Strobilops Hubbardi (Brown). 

Helix Hubbardi Brown, Proc. Acad. N. Sci., Philad., 1861, p. 333. 

Strobila Hubbardi Tryon, Am. J. Conch., ii, p. 259, 1866. Binney, Terrest. 

Mol. U. States, v, p. 261, fig. 153, 1878. 
Strobilops Hubbardi Gnlick, op. cit., p. 413, 1904. 

Figure 53, recent. 

This minute species, now living in the southern United States and 
Jamaica, was recorded by Gulick as found at station 806, near 
Paynter's Vale. It is not known as a recent shell in Bermuda. He 
gives the size of the fossil shell as diameter 2.8™""; height, 1.2' 


Pupa (Bifldaria) serviliB Gnild. 

Pupa pellu4nda Bland, Am. Lye. Nat. Hist., New York, vii, p. 351, 1861. 
Pupu (Bifidaria) servilis Pilsbry, these Trans., x, p. 497, pi. Lxii, fig. 6, 1890. 

Verrill, op. cit., p. 729, fig. 74a, 1902 ; Bermudas Is., p. 317, fig. 74a. 
Bifidaria servilis Gnlick, op. cit. , p. 414. 

Figure 68a, recent. 

This is a minute species, still living in Bermnda, Cuba, the 
Bahamas, etc. It was found by Mr. Gulick in the imperfectly con- 


A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

soHdated strata near Tucker's Town (station 818) which I refer to the 
Walsingham period. 

Pupa (Bifidaria) rupicola (Say, not of Binney). 

Pilsbry, these Trans., x, p. 498, pi. Ixii, fig. 8, 1900 (description). Verrill, 
these Trans., xi, p. 729, fij?. 74c, 1902 ; **The Bermnda Is.," p. 317, fig. 74*. 
Bifidaria rujncola Gnlick, op. cit., p. 414, 1904. 

Figure 68c ; recent. 

This was recorded from station 806, near Pavnter's Yale, bv 
Gulick, and also from station 808, in Paget sands. It is still living 
but not common in Bermuda. Also found in the southern United 
States and Cuba. 

Vertigo numellata Gnlick. 

Op. cit., p. 413, pi. xxxvi, fig. 6, 1904. 

Figure 54c, type. 

This minute extinct species is the most common of the fossil 
Pupida*. Gulick recorded it from station 806, Paynter's Vale, and 
807, Knapton Hill. We obtained it from sand in the cavity of P. 

54a 546 54c 54d 55a 556 

Fignres 54a, 546, Carychium bermudeiisis Gul., profile and front views, ok. 
Vertigo numellata Gnl. 54t£, Vertigo MarJ^ Gnl. 55a, 556, Eueonulut 
turhinatu^ Gnl. All reduced from Gnlick's fignres. 

N^elsoniy from near Bailey Bay, and from the red-clay breccia near 
Castle Harbor. It is not known from the Devonshire nor Paget 
formations, nor as a living species. 

Vertigo Mark! Gulick. 

Op. cit., p. 414, pi. xxxvi, tig. 7, 1904. 

Figure 54d, type. 

Slightly hirger than the last. Diameter, 1"™ ; height, 1.9'"". 
Found by Gulick at the same stations as the preceding, but not so 
common. We found it in the sand from inside P, NeUoniy Bailey 
Bay road-cut, witli the last. Not known from newer deposits. 

Garychiimi bermudeziBe Gnlick. 
Op. cit., p. 415, pi. zxxvi, figs. 11, 12. 

Figures 54a, 546, type. 

This extinct species has about five convex whorls with the surface 
finely striate, corneous white. Aperture oblique, with a broadly 
expanded reflexed lip, thickened within, and with a slight promi- 
nence just above the middle. Coluraellar lamella minute and deeply 
situated. Diameter, 0.9°°^; height, 1.8"™. 

We took several good specimens from fine sand found in the 
interior of the shells of Poecilozonitea Nelsoni from road-cut near 
Bailey Bay. It was associated with the two preceding and other 
species. It also occurred, chiefly as casts, with several other species, 
in a red-clay breccia from the west shore of Castle Harbor. Gulick 
found it common in the red-clay deposits at his stations 806 and 807, 
and in the sands at station 818. He also records it from the Paget 
sands, stations 808, 809. It is not known to be living. 

Succinea soxnenensis sp. nov. 

Succinea bermudensis (pars) Gulick, op. cit., 1904, p. 421 (non Pfeiffer). 

The ancient form, from the Walsingham formation, seems to be 
distinct from the recent species, which may have been a modern 
importation from the West Indies.* 

The fossil species is larger and stouter — usually 12 to 13™°* long 
and about 7™° in diameter ; length of the last whorl about 9"". It 
is pretty regularly ovate, the breadth more than half the length. 
Surface nearly smooth, but showing delicate lines of growth. Spire 
small and acute. The shell is thicker than in the living form. Our 
largest specimen is 12"° long; 7°;° broad. 

Gulick gives for his largest example, length, 13™™; diameter, 7 
It is seldom that the modern species becomes more than 10 to 11 
in length, usually it is 8 to 9. Not uncommon in the Walsingham 
district. Mr. Gulick records it from his stations 806, 807, and 818. 
Whether his specimens from the sand-pits (Paget formation), at 


* The small species now liying in Bermuda (see figare 70) has had several 
names. Some of the references are as follows : 

Succinea barbadensis Gnilding, Zool. Joum., iii, p. 532, Snpl., pi. 27, figs. 
4-6. Pilsbry, these Trans., x, p. 502. Verrill, these Trans., xi, p. 729, figs. 
80, a, by 1902 ; •* The Bermuda Is.,'* p. 317, figs. 80, a, 6. 

Succinea bermudensis Pfeiffer, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 110; Gnlick, 
op. cit., p. 421, 1904. 

A. E. VerriU — T/ie Bermuda Islands; Geology, 


they exist at Eaton, near Norwich. (Figure 57.) They vary in 
aize there from a few inches to 12 feet in diameter, and in depth 
from a few feet to 60 feet. Most of those figured are pointed at the 
Iow$r end. Lyell states that they are circular and very symmetrical 
is form. He believed that they are due to the solvent action of 
percolating rain wat«r, but he does not explain why such solvent 
action should be concentrated, for long periods, upon such definite 
and oircular spots, often dose together, nor why the holes should 
preserve a circular form throughout their depth, without spreading 

Figure 67.— Section at Eaton, Eng. After Ljell. C, C, white chalk ; F, F, 
IsjeiB of flint nodules; S, Band and entface soil; a-f, ''sand pipes "of 
variooB sizes. 

The same difficulties are obvious in the Bermuda examples, for 
they often penetrate through layers differing in texture and hard- 
ness, without changing in size or form. If due wholly to the ordi- 
nary solvent action of rain-water, we should expect to find that such 
waters had spread laterally in the more porous layers and so pro- 
duced irregularities. 

It appears absolutely necessary to assume that there was at least 
some definite and specific cause to determine the position and circu- 
lar form of the primary pit, if we admit that the solvent action was 
the active cause of the prolongation downward, for puddles of rain- 
water, on ordinary natural surfaces of soil, assume very irregular 
forms, and are rarely symmetrical and circular, like these holes. If 
we could explain the initial circular form of the pits, we might sup- 
pose that the solvent action had made them deeper and larger, 
especially if the pits had become filled with clay-soil and decaying 
vegetable matter. 
Tbahs. Cokf. Acab., Vol. Xn. 12 Fbbbcabt, l»Oe. 

TtU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 176 

in the pliocene, now extinct, that had iieshy or 
he right form, with rootlets too soft to be pre- 
es of West Indian Ipomeas have huge, fleshy 
man's body, and some of the extinct forms may 
>re remarkable.* It is not necessary to suppose 
were moulded around the stump of a palmetto or 
ict, if we believe them to be of vegetable origin, 
herbaceous plants with huge roots, and some of 
) sand dunes of this kind. That most of these 
incient Walsingham limestone is significant, but 
1 the later rock and at high altitudes, 
it to note that in the most typical cases, where a 
fig. 11, and pis. xix, xx), they all start downward 
r level, usually a layer of red-clay soil, or an 
I," though some may be deep and others shallow, 
what would have been the case if they had been 
e palmetto, buried in the drifting sands, for in 
ends would have been nearly at one particular 
»f red-clay soil. In most cases we found no layer 
lear the lower ends. They usually tenminated 
jtone, just as if dug out to variable depths by a 

irery probable that at least part of them were 
: root or base of some plant, and that in most 
irged and deepened by the solvent action of the 
urally found its way into the crevice around the 
core of loose material and clay that later filled 
I roots decayed, 
•cular cavity may have been formed in the soil 


)ing at one particular spot from the branch of a 
3se soil, a circular cup-shaped cavity, which could 
downward and enlarged by solvents, 
of grasses, shrubs, and other plants growing in 
oil and exposed to the winds will often, by their 

really have been formed around the bases of palmettos, 
ot all of the same origin. 

:o the pits on the inner surface of some that he examined 
xxx fig. 56). 

Indian species have fleshy roots 4 to 6 inches or more in 
3t long, coiled in a regular tapering spiral, like a cork- 
to 12 feet long. 

1T6 A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda Isla^ids; Geology. 

rotary motions, loosen the sand about themselves and thus cause the 
wind to excavate conical or cup-like cavities. Such cavities, if pre- 
served by clay soil washing into them by rain, might be the starting 
points of deep cavities excavated by solution. 

Whatever the cause may have been, in particular cases, such shal- 
low cavities, if in a calcareous soil covered by clay, must have been 
filled by the red clay washed in by rain. The clay core on drying 
would shrink away from the surrounding materials, leaving a nar- 
row crevice about it into which rain water would percolate and 
slowly dissolve away the surrounding limestone, redepositing part 
of it a little farther away, as the moisture evaporated. The enlarged 
crevices would be filled, again and again, by additional clay material, 
and so the clay core would be increased in size and length as the 
solvent action went on. Thus there would be no definite limit to the 
depth or size of the cavities, provided the time were very long and 
no insoluble obstructions were encountered. The ordinary effects of 
gravitation account, in this theory, for the extension downward 
being most rapid. The presence of clay deposited on the sides of 
the cavities accounts for the water not spreading much laterally in 
the more porous layers. 

A similar effect may be seen when pebbles rest upon porous ice 
or snow in sunny weather. The ice melts away under and around 
the stone, but mostly beneath, so that the stone soon sinks into a 
hole but little larger than itself. 

That the solvent action referred to will result in forming cironlir 
pits may be demonstrated experimentally by resting balls or cylin- 
ders of clay on shallow indentations in pieces of limestone and allow- 
ing very dilute acids to trickle very slowly over the surface of the 
clay, so that the solution will evaporate almost as soon as formed. 

The best examples of these structures that I saw were near 
Hungry Bay on the south shore. See plates xix, xx. At this place 
there is a bench of hard limestone, believed to be of the Walsing- 
ham formation (see above, pp. 62, 72), just above high -tide, which 
has been quarried for building purposes. So that good sections of 
some of the cavities have been made, as in pi. xix.* The upper sur- 
face of this limestone is partially covered with indurated red clay, 
the- softer parts of the clay stratum having been worn away by the 
sea. This surface is perforated by a large number of these cavitieSi 
most of them nearly round and a foot or more in diameter. If due 

* See also ^' The Bermuda Islands,'' plates Ixxxiv-y, and these TraiiB., vol. xi, 
same plates. 

A. E. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. IVY 

to palmetto stamps there must have been a rather thick grove at 
this place. They terminate below at various levels in the hard 
limestone strata. The inner surface is rough and often stained to a 
dark manganese-brown color, but I could see no evidence of rootlets 
in these examples. 

c. Plants ; Ancient Peat and Cedars. 

On a former page (p. 81) I have mentioned the fact that a bed of 
peaty with red-clay soil and vertical stumps of cedars, was found, in 
1870y at Ireland Island, in making the excavation for the floating 
dock. This fact has often been mentioned as evidence proving the 
subsidence of the land. A fossil species of land-snail ( Poecilozonites) 
is also said to have been found in the same bed or in the seolian 
limestone below it. 

This bed of peat and soil was overlaid by layers of sand-rock and 
** coral-crust," of considerable thickness, as shown in the accompany- 
ing section, copied from Thomson. 



_-.. ^.j— -3^^- .-•^ 


Figure 58. — Section made in the excavations for the dry dock at Ireland Island, 
showing the bed of peat and red clay with cedar stumps, etc. After 

The upper layer, about 25 feet below low-tide, was fine shell-sand and marl, 
4 feet thick ; 2d layer, 8 feet thick, was " coral crust," containing shell-sand, 
foflsil shells, and various corals, among them Moeandra labyrinthiformis; 3d 
layer was shell-sand, mixed with corals, about 7 feet thick ; 4th layer, about 7 feet 
thick, was loosely coherent and harder shell-limestones ; the layer, of red earth 
and peat, with cedar stumps and bones of birds, was 2 to 4 feet thick, in a 
hollow eroded out of the latter ; 5th layer was hard aeolian limestone, tested by 
borings to 52 feet, containing fossil land shells. The deepest part of the excava- 
tion was 50 feet. The upper surface of the red -soil bed was 44 to 50 feet below 
low-tide. • 

It is evident that this bed of peat and vegetable remains must 
have been deposited during the period of ** Greater Bermuda," and 

178 A. K Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

therefore probably belongs to the Walsingham Period, though per- 
haps to the latter part of it, for the peat is underlaid by older seolian 

It is unfortunate that careful microscopic examinations of this 
peat were not made, for it might have been possible to have identi- 
fied specifically some of the plants and other organisms, which may 
have differed from those in the modern peat bogs. 

The overlying beds of " coral crust " may have belonged to the 
Devonshire formation, and may indicate a subsidence, after the 
latter had been raised above the sea-level and hardened, for such 
materials do not appear to solidify in these waters, except when 
exposed more or less to the air. 

25. Ihssils of the Marine Devonshire Formation^ or Bea^^h Lime- 

The typical beach deposits of this period have been discussed 
above (see pp. 76-81), where it is also stated that the raised beach 
deposits may not all be of the same age, and that some of them may 
be very recent. But at present we have no positive means of deter- 
mining this in most cases, for the fossil shells are generally all living 

As the true Walsingham limestones were deposited at a time 
when the land was at a much higher level than now, we cannot hope 
to find, on dry land, marine deposits of that age. 

A deposit of fossiliferous rock containing Tellinay Lucinay etc., 
situated 16 feet below low-tide mark, found in the excavations made 
in Tomlin's Nan-ows,* indicates by the nature of its solidification 
that it had been long exposed to the air and water above or between 
tides. It may represent a deposit of Devonshire beach-limestone 
made before the close of the first period of subsidence. But it may 
better be taken as one of the facts indicating that a small amount of 
subsidence must have occurred since the marine deposits were first 
elevated. f It is probably of the same age as the "coral crust" in 
the Ireland Island section, fig. 58. These submerged deposits 
deserve much more investigation. 

In certain cases Avhere extinct land shells of the Walsingham 
period have been found associated w^ith red clay in cavities of the 

* See also, A. Agassiz, op. cit., 1895, p. 230. 

f This would be in accordance with my belief that these BemmdA sands do not 
solidify into firm limestone except on exposure to the air. See p. 61. 

A. M VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 179 

beach-limestones, they appear to represent beds of the older forma- 
tion that were buried in the later deposits and were afterwards 
removed by solution, leaving the shells and clay behind, as in the 
notable case at Ireland Island described by Lieut. Nelson in 1840. 
His description is quoted above on page 77. 

In the mass of beach rock he found a cavity containing loose red 
earth with an abundance of Pcecilozonites JVelsoni. This occurrence 
seems to me an additional proof that the beach rock at this place 
was much later than the • Walsingham limestone, as in the other 
localities described above, pp. 76-78. 

The following list of fossils from the beach deposits is very incom- 
plete, for I did not have time to make so large collections of them 
as I wished, and most other collectors have neglected them, because 
they are nearly all living species. Professor W. N. Rice (op. cit., 
p. 31, 1884) has given a much longer list of fossil shells than any 
other writer. Most of the species named by him were also obtained 
by my party; all those recognized are given in the following lists. 
Many others are too imperfect for identification. 

Crustacea of the Devonshire Formation. 

Balanns (large sp. like B. tintinahulum). 

Fragments of a large barnacle were common in the beach-rocks 
near Hungry Bay. It must have been at least 1.5 to 2 inches in 
diameter. No such species is recorded as now living at Bermuda. 

Cenobita diog^nes (Linn.). Land Hermit Crab. Figure 60. 

The fossil remains of this land crab have been found in a shell of 
Livona pica. It may, however, have been taken from comparatively 
modern sand dunes. It was sent by J. M. Jones many years ago, 
and the exact locality was not recorded on the label. 

Marine Shells of the Devonshire Formation. 

a. Gastropods, 
Purpura hsBmastoma Linn. 

Near Hungry Bay; fragments. 

Purpura deltoidea Lam. 
Fragments only. 

ambi^ua Montagu. Figore 59. 
Not common. Recorded by Rice as N, Candei d'Orb. 

180 A, E. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

OolumbeUd mercatoria Lion. F^fore 59a, n. 

ColumbeUa cribraria Lam. Future 590, b. 

Oliva reticulata Lam. 

Fragments only. 
OliTella oiyza Lam. 

Recorded by Rice. 
Faaciolaria diatana Lam. 

Recorded by J. Matthew Jones, a single instance. 

iOa, a, Cotumbella mfreatoria ; S9a, b, Coivm- 
ze, phot. A. H. V. 

Natica canreoa Linn. 

Trivia quadripunctata Gray. 

Recorded by Rice as T. rotunda, which is now considered a 
Cypraa exanthema Linn. 

Recorded by Heiiprin from St. George's (as C cervus Linn.). 
Cypnea cinerea Gmel. 

Recorded by Rice and by Heiiprin. 
intimua eribbosua (Linn.) Mtf. 

Recorded by Rice as C'l/phoma gibboea; rare. 

Strombus coatatua Gmel. =accipitriiius Lam. Rare. 

Nelson (see above, p. 78) recorded a Strombus, without specific 
name, from Long Bird Island. Heiiprin mentions that the speoi- 

A. E. Verrill — TTie Bermuda Islands; Geology. 


menB of this species seen by him were antiquated in appearance. 
Probably they were fossil. I have seen no recent epecimens froni 
Bermuda, except In the collection of Miss Peniston, who had several 
fine ones in 1898, but not collected personally.* 

C^ritliiuill TniTiiinnTii Qmel, 

Not uncommon. 

Ceritbiiim Tarinbile Adams. 
C ferntgineum Saj, non Bmg. 

Figore 596. — Cixeum lermes ; a, young ; 6, nearly adult. By A. H. V, 

Figure S9e. — Uodulua morfujus, two examples, slightly eolsi^ed. Phot. A. H. T. 

laittoiina an^ulifem Lam. 
Near Hungry Bay. 

Tvctarins mnricatna (Linn.). 
Near Hungry Bay. 

* The late Miss Mary PeoiHton had a veiy valuable local oollectioD of shells 
which she had obtained during many years. In 16S8. I made a brief examina- 
tion of her shells, iuiendiDg to made a carefnl study of them a few days later, 
bat was prevented from doing so by a severe illness. She died before my visit 
in 1901, and her shells were unfortanately not accessible then. She did not 
Ubel ber shells to sny great extent, depending npon her memory as to the time 
and place of captnre, etc. She had a considerable number of exotic sheila, 
given to her by others as collected in Betmnda, which she personally considered 
doubtful. Among snoh, aa not«d by me at the time of my visit, were Cyprtea 
liffris, C. aMtltua, Volvila musica, Jfurpx braiaiea, etc. Snch shells she kept on 
a separate shelf, bnt in the same case with the true Bermuda shells. Whether 
the StTomlm* aeeipitrinus was among those that ahe thought doubtful, my notes 
do not show. It was recorded by Kreba from Bermuda, 1864, as collected by 

182 A. JE VerriU — 27ie Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

CsBCUxn termes Heilprin. Figure 596. 

Several specimens in bard foraminiferous limestone, near Hungry 

Vermetus lumbricalis Linn. 
Fragments are common. 

Tenagodus ruber (Schum.) MOrch. 
Siliquaria rosea Blainv. 

Fragments are common. They are also found in some of the 
modern beach-sands, to which they sometimes impart a reddish tint. 
Sometimes erroneously referred to the Serpulidae as " Serpula rubra/* 
First recorded from Bermuda by Morch. 

Scala, sp. • 

Bartram (Berm. Almanac for 1881, p. 126) recorded a speciei 
(erroneously as " ScalaridcB scaherrima " of Chenu), which he said 
was only found as a " sub-fossil." Chenu's figure of Scala seaberrima 
represents a Scala with numerous delicate varices, not unlike some 
of the living Bermuda species. Tliough Bartram's identification wis 
doubtless wrong, it indicates that he had a true Scala from thil 
formation, of which an outcrop occurs close to his former residenogi 
at Stocks Point. In the same list he mentions other '^ sab-fossQ " 
species as not found living now. 

Livona pica (Linu.). Figure 60, p. 197. 

Very abundant and perfect at Devonshire Bay (Stevenson). Com- 
mon in the beach deposits and also in the older Walsingham forma- 
tion, as well as in modern sand-dunes. (See above, page 158.) Not 
known as now living in Bermuda waters. 

Astralium longispina (Lam.). 

Near Hungry Bay; not common. 

' Modulus modulus (liinn.). Figure 59c. 
Modulus lenticularis of many writers. 
Not verv common. 

Nerita tessellata Gmel. Figure 61, 1, 2. 
Not uncommon. 


Nerita peloronta Linn. Fignres 61, 3, 5. 

Not common. Found by us near Hungry Bay; also recorded by 

A. K VerriU — T%e Bermuda Islands; Geology. 18; 

N'vrita venicolOT Measch. Figtire 61, 4. 

Not common ; near Hungry Bay. 
FusoreUa (Oremides) barltadatislB (Qmel.). Figure 6i, i, b. 

FitttireUa barbndeneii Oinelin=F. anlillai^m d'Orb., and of many others. 
Recorded by Rice. 

Pignre «!.— 1, 2, Nerita Ussellata ; 3, 5, JV. prioi-oata; ♦. jV. versicolor. Natural 

sue ; phot. A. H. V. 
Figms 62. — a, b, FUturella barbadeiiaia ; c, Olyphis altfrnata ; d, Siplionaria 

alUnuUa ; e. Chiton lubenmtatus, jouDg. All about natural size. Receot. 

Phot. A. H. V. 

FUmuidea altemata <Sa;). Figtue 63, c. 
FusurtUa aUemata S»ij=: Olyphis altemata of many writ«rs. 
Recorded by Rice as fKaaurella grixca, which is a Mediterranean 

species closely related to F. altemata. Rice's specimens may have 

been JF. altemata, vbich is the common recent Bermuda species of 

this group, or F. Li»teri, which ia very similar. 

Bulla occidentalis Adams. 
Bulla media of many authors (non Linn.). 
Fragments are common. 

1 84 A. -E VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

h. Bivalves. 

Tellina laevigata Linn. 

Fragments, apparently of this abundant living species, are common. 

Tellina (Angulus) promera Dall. 

One specimen found at Hungry Bay, 1901. 

Tellina, sp. 

Fragments of one or more additional species were found, too 
imperfect to name. Fragments are abundant at Devonshire Bay. 

Venus or Cliione, sp. 

In Bartram's list (see Berm. Almanac for 1881, p. 126), he identi- 
fied a species, doubtless erroneously, as Venus puerpera from Chenu's 
figures, 351-354, which represent a rounded lamellose species. He 
states that it is only found sub-fossil. In our collection of the recent 
shells there are fragments of a similar large species. 

Pnllastra or Callista ? 

In Bartram's list (op. cit., 1881, reprinted from previous years), he 
records a shell, only found as a fossil, under the erroneous name 
PuUastra perovalis, identified by Chenu's figure (vol. ii, p. 92, f. 
411). The figure represents a regularly ovate, smooth shell unlike 
any recent Bermuda shell known to me. The fossil might be a 
Callista maculata^ but needs reexamination * 

* Mr. J. T. Bartram's collection of shells, birds, -fishes, etc. was purchased by 
the Bermuda government, after his death, but it was not accessible at the time 
of my visits. In his lists, 1875 to 1881, many species entirely foreign to Ber- 
muda are included, doubtless brought in by sailors. Among such are Buccinum 
undntuniy Fasciotaria tulipa^ Terebra tignnaj Strombus peruvianus, Oliva por- 
phyreoy and many others. Moreover, many of the true Bermuda shells are 
wrongly named, from a superficial resemblance to the figures in Ohenu, and 
in Woodward's Manual, which seem to have been the only illustrated works on 
shells that he had. He also published in his lists many (83) of his own manu- 
script names. He was a persevering collector, but uneducated and without any 
scientific training. He resided at Stock's Point for many years, but had pre- 
viously been a sailor. If his collection had been carefully studied by a compe- 
tent malacologist, it would have added much more to our knowledge of the Ber- 
muda fauna than his lists indicate, for they are far too unreliable for scientific 
use, except in those cases when confirmed by later collectors. He also left a 
considemble amount of MSS. relating to his shells, but they have not yet been 
examined by a specialist to ascertain their value. J. M. Jones was personally 
acquainted with Mr. Bartram and certainly saw his collection and exchanged 

A. K VerriO—TTie Jtermuda Islands; Geology. 185 

Fliacoidea pennsylvanicoa (Linii.) Dall, 1901. 
Feniupmits^lEantca Linn.; Nelson, 1S40. 
Lnteina peniui/lmmka of moet writers. 
Lucina gpedoxi and L. grandinaia Reeve (t. Dall.). 

Lieut. Nelson, 1840, recorded this as Venus pennsylranica, and 
wrote 8« follows : 

"A stratum of these, in indifferent preservation, ie in the quarry 
wfaence the stone for the pier at St. George's ferry was obtained. 
This bed, however, is of trifling extent compared with an apparently 
corresponding one in the chain of islets reaching across the mouth 
of Crow-lane Harbour, beginning near Phyllis' Island, and continu- 
ing thence through every point till it reaches Harris's Island: it is 
about five feet thick and lies about six feet above the water." 

Tariety BcnaersensiB, nov. Figare 63. 

P^ura t&- — Phacoidt* pcnTitvieanicus, vat. somxraentig, left valve, natnral size. 

Two separate valves of this large and thick shell were found by 
me near Hungry Bay, 1901. It is thicker, more convex, and 
much more oblique than the typical form, with the umbo more 
prominent and the beak more incurved, and situated more ante- 
riorly. The dorsal area is defined by a wide and rather deep groove; 
the lonale is large, strongly cordate, and sunken. The cardinal and 

BpecimeUB with Mm to some extent, as is Bhown b; their coiresponilence, whicb 
I bkve Been, bnt Jonee seemB to have made very little ase of BartTam's collection 
in compiling his own lists Of 1664 and 1876, which are mnch more accnrate than 
Bartram's later lista. Ifr. Q. Brown Goode also visited Mr. Bartram's place and 
MW his eoUeetion, bnt made very little -aae of 11, except that he credits a few 
■peoiea of Bahea to him, in hia Ilet of 1881 (Bermuda Almanac, p. 116). 

180 A. K Verrill — TTie Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

lateral teeth are well developed. There is no radial sculpture, but 
the surface is covered with shallow unequal grooves or undulations, 
with larger ones at two resting periods. Height of figured valve, 
55mm. transverse elevation, 16' 


Codakia orbicularis (Linn.) Dall. 

Codakia tigrina in most recent lists. Lucina tigrina (pars) anth. {non Linn.). 

Fragments are common. Recorded by Rice as C. tigerina. 

Codakia orbiculata (Mont., 1808) Dall. 

Lncina pecten Lam., 1818. 

Lucina imbricatula C. B. Adams. 1845. 

Lucina pectinata C. B. Adams, 1852 {non Gmel.). 

Lucina occidentalis Reeve, 1850. 

Fragments are common. • . 

CrOdakia costata (d'C)rb.)=Liieina antillarum Reeve, 1850=Ir. ornata Adams, 
185*2 (non Reeve), Hnngry Bay. 

Chama macrophylla Chem. ** Rock Cockle,-* Plate xxxv b, figs. 4, 4a. 

Common, mostly broken in small fragments. It has received 
manv other names. 

Chama lingxia-felis Reeve. 

Recorded by Rice. Probably only a variety of the preceding. 

Area nosB Linn. '* Mussel '* of the fishermen. Plate xxxv b, figs. 6, 6a. 

Area ^Barbatia) dominguensis (Lam.). 
Reci^rded bv Uice. 

Pectuncidus undatus Linn. 

Several valves of large size were found near Hangry Bay. 

tulipa Lam. ** Black Mussel.'' Plate xxxv B, fig. 5. 
Frajrmonts near Hunsrrv Bav. 

Kytilus ezustus linn. **^rrt.if/ Black MusseL" 

Common : also found in the aN>lian limestones, just above the 
lx\^oh-rooks, assiviated with land shells, near Hang^ Bay. 

Spondylus americanus Lam. ** i^vir Scollop,^ Plate xxxv b, figs. 1, la. 

Fragments art^ ovMumon, often preserving the reddish colors. It 
has roooivoii a variotv of other naine& 

A. -E VerriU — 77ie Bermuda Islands; Geology. 187 

Kargaritopliora radiata (Lam.). Pearl Oyster. Plate xxxv b, figs. 2, 2a. 
FragmeDts retaining their pearly luster are occasionally foand. 

OstrsBa trona linn. 

Fragments are not rare. 


I Myoetopliyllia Lamarckana Edw. and Haime, (i)=Manicina areolata of 
Nelson (an incorrect determination). 

The specimen, which is preserved in Coll. Geological Soc. London, 
has been studied by Gregory. If correctly named by him* (as JM. 
Lamarcki)y op. cit., p. 266, it is a scarce West Indian species, not 
now living in Bermuda. 

K beach-worn, as is probable, I should suspect that it was rather 
one of the common Bermuda species of Micssa. (See p. 77, note.) 

P ICseandra areolata (Linn.) Oken. 

Verrill, these Trans., vol. xi, p. 81-84, pis. xi, xii, 1901. 
Manicina areolata Lam. Lieut. Nelson, op. cit., 1840. 

This common West Indian species is not now found living in 
Bermada. I have formerly suggested that it was a mistaken identi- 
fication of the last species, but this needs confirmation. 

Found by Nelson in the beach-rock of Ireland Island. 

Orbicella cavernosa (Linn.). Figore 87. Plate xxx a, fig. 2. 
Verrill, these Trans., vol. xi, pp. 102, 171, 1901. 

This species was recorded as a fossil from Bermuda, in Coll. 
Greolog. Soc. London, by Gregory (Proc. Greolog. Soc, li, p. 271), 
under the name, O. radiata. 

MCadracis decactis (Ljm.). Fignres 94, 95. 

This species was recorded by Gregory, op. cit., p. 250, as found 
fossil in the beach-rocks. We did not find it, except living. 

▲garica fragillB. Fignres 101, 101a. 
Agaricia undata Nelson, 1840. 

Found with the last by Nelson. Small fragments of this common 
thin and fragile species are occasionally found, both in the beach 
deposits and in the later seolian limestones. 

♦See these Trans., xi, p. 68, where, however, this identification was erron- 
eoQsly attributed to Dr. Vanghan. Whether it be Nelson's specimen may be 

188 A. E. VtrriU—The Sermuda lelanda; Geology. 

HilleporB Klciconiu Linn. Figure 8^. PI. xxx a, fig. 1. 

Fragments of the fragile braochee are rather common in the beach 
deposits. It is now one of the moHt abundant reef corals. 

Uelitta testudmata (Klein)— SiMtetla qainqueforii Nelson. 

This five-holed sand-dollar was recorded by Nelson from Ireland 
Island and the islands in Crow Lane, Hamilton. It bas not been 
observed here by others, either living or fossil. The six-holed 
species (M. aexforia) is common, however. Possibly Nelwn con- 
founded the two Epccies. Both are common on the sandy coasts of 
the Carol! nas and Florida. 

Fora m in ifera. 
In some of the finer layers of beach-rock, near Hungry Bay, 
foraminifera of many species were common, but mostly too much 
worn to admit of specific determination. 

Figure 6i.~OrbltolHes marginalia, x 10; 64o, the same, profile and section; 6tt, 
O. duplex, X 6. Both a£t«r Brady. 

Among those recognized were Orhiculina adunca (see p. 140, fig. 
35, 12); Orbitolites marginalis, fig. 64; O. duplex, fig. fl4ft; Comu- 
spira foliacea (fig. 35, 13); Miliolina aeminulum (fig. 36, 8); Biloeu- 
Una rinf/ens (fig. 35, 0); Textularia concava (fig. 35, 5); I'eneroplu 
(fig. 35, Hi). But many other species were present. 

Fi-agmenU of the common red sessile foraminifer {Polytrema 
miniaceum), which grows firmly attached to the under sides of dead 
corals and stones in warty and branched forms, are not unoommon. 
This is probably what Nelson referred to as a red MiUepora. (See 

A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 189 

chapter 30 for figures.) Delicate shells of MoUusca ( Ccecum^ etc.) 
were found entire in the same layers, indicating that they were 
deposited in rather quie£ water, either below low-tide or in a shel- 
tered locality. 

The species and varieties from these beds that are not certainly 
known to be living in Bermuda waters are the following: 

?Strombus accipitrinua. 

JFbsciolaria distans. 

Scalttj 8p. 

lAvona pica. Common. 

VenttSy — a large lamellose species. . 

Cailista (?), like C. maculata in form. 

Phacoides pennsylvanicuSy var. somerseyisis Ver. 

BalanuSy — a large, massive species. 

^Mycetophyllia Lamarckana. 

?Mceandra areolata. 

Melitta testudinata. 

26, FosMs of the ^olian limestones and sands of the Devonshire, 

Pa get y and later formations. 

Certain portions of the seolian limestones must have been of the 
same age as the raised beach deposits, and seem to be continuous 
with them at some localities on the south shores, but others, and 
perhaps the larger part, are of later origin, down to modern times. 
In some places they rest upon the beach limestone unconformably. 
(See above, pp. 73-80, and plates xvi-xix.) At present it is impos- 
sible to determine the relative age of most of these seolian limestones. 
We know that some rest directly upon the older beach deposits or 
are continuous with them, and overlaid by thick strata of still later 
origin, yet it is not known that any characteristic differences can be 
made out in the fossils that they contain. Hence I have here grouped 
together all the fossils from these newer seolian deposits, whether 
supposed to be contemporary with the Devonshire beach deposits or 

Although we have not, at present, sufficient evidence to prove any 
great change in the physical conditions between the Devonshire 
and Paget periods, there are certain facts that indicate greater 
changes of level than the few feet of elevation above the sea, now 
shown by the ordinary beach deposits. The discovery by us of a 
layer of hard marine limestone"", near Hungry Bay, composed largely 

Trans. Comr. Acad., Vol. XII. 13 March, 1906. 

190 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda IslandB; Geology, 

of foraminifera and small marine shells, such as we now dredge ap 
from the depths of 3 to 5 fathoms, indicates that after deposition 
these beds may have been raised 20 to 30 feet or more, above their 
previous level. Moreover, the occurrence of hard limestones con- 
taining marine shells in the excavation for the dry dock (p. 177, 
fig. 58), and in the deepening of the harbor channels, at depths of 
16 to 30 feet, indicates that such beds have at one time been elevated 
above the sea and subsequently subsided, for the loose materials 
apparently do not consolidate here except above low-tide level, where 
more or less exposed to the air (see p. 21). These facts go to 
show that a second period of subsidence, perhaps of 20 to 35 feet, 
followed the emergence of the Devonshire marine limestones. In 
that case, the changes in physical conditions and vegetation must 
have been considerable at that time, and doubtless enough to exter- 
minate many species. 

It is possible that the unusually thick layer of red clay that has 
been found to underlie the city of Hamilton and adjacent districts 
may eventually be found to mark best the distinction between the 
Devonshire and Paget periodt*. It certainly marks a very long 
period of surface decay of the limestone and probably of forest 
growth. In some of the sections it is at least two feet thick. In a 
boring for the military works at Prospect Hill, it was cut through 
at the depth of 130 feet, and at that point it was about 65 feet above 
sea level. At Hamilton it (or a similar layer) descends nearly to the 
shore. No fossils have been reported from it. 

As it seems desirable to have a definite name to designate those 
limestones known to be newer than the beach deposits of Devonshire 
age, I propose to call them the Paget formation, because they are well 
displayed near Hungry Bay in Paget Parish, where my photographs, 
here reproduced, were made. This may be regarded as a typical 
example of these rocks. See plates xvii-xix. Their physical charac- 
ters have been described above. (See p. 73 and tig. 11.) 

a. Fossil Land Shells [Ptdmonatd). 

Several of the extinct land shells of the Walsingham period are 
also found in the unconsolidated sands and soft shell limestones 
referred to the Devonshire period. In some cases it is possible that 
they had been weathered out of the older deposits and subsequently 
redeposited with other wind-drifted materials in the later sand-dunes. 
If so, we have at present no means of determining such instances. 

A. E. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 191 

There are, however, a few fossil species that have not been found 
in the older rocks, but are still living. The following species have 
been obtained from deposits believed to be of these later periods : 

PcBciloBonites bermudensis, var. zonatus Ver. See p. 164. 


Very common. In many of the banks of soft limestone by the 
roadsides, especially near Elbow Bay and Hungry Bay, it weathers 
oat in large numbers and great quantities of the clean shells can 
sometimes be found at the base of the banks after rains. It was 
abundant in a bed of partially consolidated sands on the jioithwest 
side of Charles Island (or Goat Island), where the sea was under- 
mining it. At this place many of the shells retained their brown 
color-bands, and some were curiously mounted on the summits of 
slender columns or pedicels of shell-sand, due to the protection 
afforded by the shells from erosion by the falling spray or rain. 
The shells figured on plate xvi, figs. 1-2, were from this local it3\ 

At present this small barren island is nearly bare of vegetation 
and quite unfit for the existence of land shells of this kind. Prob- 
ably these fossils date back to a period when this island. Castle 
Island, and the other adjacent small islands were much larger, 
wooded, and connected with the main island at Castle Point, thus 
forming a continuous barrier on the south side of Castle Harbor. 
There is no evidence whether Charles Island (also called Goat Island 
and Old Fort Island), was or was not wooded at the time of the 
first settlements, though a small stone redoubt was built on it at that 
time, of which the ruins still remain.* 

This fossil variety (zonaUis) is generally easily distinguishable 
from the recent specimens. The shells are usually distinctly thicker 
and heavier, the spire is usually more obtusely rounded, and the 
body-whorl less sharply angulated in the adult at the base. The 
inner lip nearly always has a thick callus in the adult. The umbili- 
cus is generally decidedly smallerf than in the living form, being 
usually about 1™"; sometimes only Co""'", but is variable in both. 
The fossil shells are usually conspicuously banded with two peri- 
pheral brown bands, often separated by a white band on the keel, 
while the recent ones are generally blotched or transversely flammu- 

♦ See ** The Bermuda Islands," p. 51, fig. 22, for what is known of the history 
of this rain. 

t By a typographical error it is said to be larger in my former article (these 
Trans., xi, p. 728, note ; and ** The Bermuda Islands," p. 316). 

192 A. K, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

lated with brown, as shown by the figures on plate xxvii. But some 
of the fossili!>, aH fig. 2, c, d, are also slightly flammulated, similar to 
sowe of the living ones, while the living ones, as fig. 1, c, ^, are 
often bunded. The middle row of shells (tigs. 1 and 2, 6 to A) in 
each figure show the range of variations in the umbilicus and base 
of each variety, while the lower row shows the rang 3 of variation in 
the form of the spire and aperture, and the angulation of the body- 
whorl. In fig. 2, Qy the umbilicus is reduced to a small pore, while 
in l^g, 1, e and g, it is large, yet all intermediate sizes occur, from 
.5 to 2"»™. 

Average specimens are about 20 to 22""* in diameter, and 12 to 
14™" high, but the larger ones may be 24 or 25"" in diameter and 
14 to 16"" high. Some of those with a depressed spire measured 
10"" high and 19"" in diameter; 10"" high and 20"" in diameter. 
All these are adults with a thick callus on the inner lip. The last 
body-whorl is usually distinctly angulated and sometimes almost 
carinate. In the young the spire is nearly flat, the last whorl is 
carinate, umbilicus larger, and the color is flammulated. 

This variety would probably pass for a distinct species if inter- 
mediate forms were not found, or if it occurred in another region. 
The modern form seems to be a degenerate or depauperate descend- 
ant, altered by a less favorable environment. 

The living form of this species has been erroneously referred to 
several genera, as shown by Pilsbry in Proc. Phil. Acad., 1888, p. 
289, where he has figured the jaw, radula, and genital organs. The 
following references apply chiefly to the living form (var. bermuden- 
sis), which will doubtless be found in the more recent aeolian lime- 
stones and dune sands, if sought for. 

Poecilozonites bermudensis Pilsbry {pars)^ Proc. Acad. Sci. Philad., 1888, 
p. 289, j)l. xvii ; the same in Heilprin, **The Bermnda Islands," pp. 196, 
198, pi. 16, figs. E (young), C (radula); N, O, (genital organs), 1889. 
Pilsbry, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1889, p. 85 (anatomy and synonymy); 

Trans. Conn. Acad. Science, x, p. 499, 1900. 
Verrill, these Trans., xi, p. 728, 1902 ; **The Bermuda Islands," p. 816 [728]. 
Zonites bermudensis Binney, Annals N. York Acad. Science, ill, p. 86 (jaw 
and radula). 

Plate XXVII, figures 1, a-l. 

In. our plate twelve recent specimens are figured from photo- 
graphs. They show marked variations in color, elevation of spire, 
size of umbilicus, sliape of aperture, and extent of angulation of the 

A. E. VerriU—T%e Bermuda Manda; Geology. 193 

According to Pilsbry (Phil. Acad , 1B89, p. 86), this specieB was 
the type of the genera Poecilozonileg Bottger, 1884 ; Bermudia 
Ancey, 1887 ; Jvno Mazyck, 1889. It has also been referred to 
many other genera. 

Bielix ochroleuca Pfr, is believed to be a pale, plain-colored variety 
of this species. 

PcBcUoBOnitM Beinianus. See p. 164. Fioures 66a, 66b. 

This living speoiea, common in the older rockB, was also found by 
Mr. Gulick in the newer sandy deposits at his stations 808 and 809, 
near the Devonshire Marsh and barracks, associated with the last, 
and by us near Hungry Bay. 

Variety Goodei Pilsbry has also been found by Gulick at Tower 
Bill. Seep. 165. 

'Figure K.—PacilozoaiUi Rfintanus ,- n, under Bide i t, tipper eide of another 
specimen. Recent, x about 4. Phocog. by A. H. V, 

PiBCU0BOiiit«a circumflmtataa. See p. 160. Fioureb 48a, 4Bb, 

Found by Mr. Gulick at stations 808 and 809, with the two pre- 

Variety discrepant (Pfr.) has also been found in these deposits, by 
Mr. Gulick, (See p. 167:1 

Bnconnla* tuibiHAtua. Seep. 168. FiocitEa S5a, 55(>. 

This extinct species was found by Mr. Gulick at Rtation 808, with 
the laat. 

Polygyra microdonta (Desh.). Fiourb 67. 

Filshry, theae Trans., i, p. 496, pi. liii. fig. 3, 1900. 

Verrill, these Trans., li, p. 738, fig. 73; '"The Bermuda Ulands," p. ai7, fig. 
12. Galiok, op. cit., p. 413, 1904. 

This Species was recorded aB a fossil of the "di'ift rocks" by 
Professor W. N. Rice (as Helix), hut he did not give any special 

.1. K Vtrriil — 7^« Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

KviilitY. It wax not fuun<] as a fossil by our parties nor by Gulick, 
II ill ail aliuiitlaiil living species, found also in the Bahamas. 

PupA \BtAdMiAi rupicolA. Se* p. I TO. PicrBE «8c. 

i>iK> sixvini.'ii was found bv Mr, Gulick at station eOS. 

IV*s»*^— "'')^T"-« »<.b.--.«.«r.>. *=i«ii5*2: ftraa ^uig. br A. H. V. 
rK«w ^ ~~n. i\,ix\ ir^^'it- 1 J- : f . iV^ai jtmmiaimM*. » 1: «. Papa n 


FttfisgA** masyuaxa ^ 

1 >ci;:'.'(T ■^■i) 

s. ;. 4K-, JilA. pL Ixii, fig. It. 

> ri ~tt! till:, im^u. TDxnat a 

til '■ii'^wiiiuiitrfc Buc anarine sMb- 

-«Hi<.i- K ii» ^aDiDtf '<i['^ and ew, 
. »- Mil riinir B»t iK^«r ^«det or 

A. JE VerriU — TTie Bermuda Islands; Geology, 195 

b. Fossils Birds and Iteptiles of the Paget Formation. 

Up to the present time we have very little precise knowledge of 
the vertebrate fossils that have, from time to time, been found in 
these deposits. 

The most important of these are probably the bones of birds. 
Several fossil bones of birds kept in the collection in the public build- 
ing at Hamilton were seen by the writer, but they were too few and 
imperfect for identification, unless by long and careful comparisons 
with the skeletons to be found only in large museums. Other col- 
lections of birds' bones have been made, but not vet identified. 

Several fossil birds' eggs have also been found, some of them quite 
recently, but they cannot be identified with certainty. Those that I 
have seen are about the size and shape of those of the tropic bird. 
Lieut. Nelson in 1840 mentioned the discovery of the bones and eggs 
of bi]*ds as follows : 

" Returning to the cavern at the North Bastion (fig. 8). In the 
heap of red earth, which in this instance only had rather an unc- 
tuous feel, mixed with the large Helix [P, Nelsoni\ were found quan- 
tities of birds' bones. From the best accounts, the caves at Ireland 
were frequented until lately by a sea bird, whose local name, derived 
from its peculiar cry, is Pim-li-co.* In hazy weather, or at night, 
this sound was always a warning for vessels from the West Indies to 
put about, and avoid the perilous southwest bar and reefs; but since 
the establishment of the dockyard at Ireland, these birds have 
almost left the Bermudas. 

Whilst excavating a ditch near the cavern by shown in fig. 5, p. 108, 
a small hole was discovered in a rather hard rock, composed of com - 
minuted fragments, with the interstices not filled up; it was about 
twenty feet above the sea, thirty yards from it, and fifteen feet from 
the top of the hill, but without any apparent connection with the 
surface. In this hole were found an eggshell and many fragments 
of bones, similar to the preceding, but they were all, as well as the 
egf^y coated with carbonate of lime. 

Ireland however is by no means the exclusive mine for these fossils. 
Bones, apparently those of birds, have been found in the limestone 
on the coast of Harrington Sound by Mr. Hill, to whom I am 
indebted for the information. He obtained specimens fifty feet from 
the water, twenty feet above it, and four feet under the surface. 

♦ This is the Shearwater, Puffinus cinereus or Anduboniy which still breeds 
sparingly in Bermuda. 

106 A, E, Verrill^Thc Berrnnda Inlands; Geology, 

Three eggs were found close to the bones, and similarly imbedded. 
Another egg was found in a block of limestone near Hamilton.'^ 

A fonsil egg about the «i7.e of a hen's egg was found by Mr. H. 
J. Zuill of Orange Grove, Smith's Parish, Sept., 1903, in breaking 
atone by the roadside. (See Royal Gazette, Sept. 5, 1903.) 

Mr. A. Agassiz mentions a fossil egg (as that of a tropic bird) 
found in a quarry by the Middle Road in Devonshire, formerly pre- 
served in the government building. I examined the same specimeD. 
but should be unwilling to say it was the egg of a tropic bird, h 
mav have been a shearwater. 

The most notable discoverv of the bones of sea-turtles is that men- 
tioned by Nelson, in 1840. There is no certainty as to their species 
and they may have been of recent origin : 

*"• Turtle bones were also procured from the North Bastion coral 
rag, and from the sands at Elbow Bay. The turtles seem, like the 
poor bird before mentioned, to have been buried while depositing it* 
eggi^j as the two skeletons when first discovered were entire and 
undisturbed. Their dimensions were nine feet in length and seven 
in breadth, as I was informed by an eye-witness." 

The earliest records of the Bermuda settlement mention the great 
size of the turtles as found livins: at that time.f 

Probably they were the green turtle {Chelonia myda*)^ w\^ti 
ceased to breed here probably more than 200 yeais ago. J 

<*. Marine Shells in the Paget Formation. 

Livona pica and Cenobita diogenes- (Linn.). 

Figure 60. 

This well known large, thick, pearl-lined. West Indian shell » •:oe 
of the most common and conspicuous of the fossils of this foTBSDro. 
Whore the rook is feebly consolidated or sandy, these sh<fl* -.T^jfl 
weather out in consiilerablo numbers and are sometimes iKarlj Per- 
fect, the blotches of dark color still showing in many speci]n«& A* 
stated above (p. l."»S\ they were unquestionably carried ^ fmn. 
the sea s^horos oriyfinallv bv the land hermit-crab iCen»}ii^i a^ft- 
entit)^ which is still livinir here in considerable numbers Rxs mn'^ 
of the shells have probably been used again and again, €v«ir 
they have bei'U weatluTod out of previous deposits. 

* St>«> hUo lltinU*^. Nat. Hist, of the Bermndas, p. 878, V9tC 
f Stv Vt'irill. »• Vho !?ortinula Islands/- p. 279 (691), 381. 
t Soo Vrrrill. " Iho Th rmmla Ulands," I, p. 280, 1901 

A. K VerriU — TAe Bermuda /glands; Geology. 197 

In a fev instances remains of the actual shell of the Hermit-crab 
have been found in the fossil Livona. Mr, J. Matthew Jones sent 
me a fossil crab of this kind from Bermuda, many years ago, which 
had the characteristic legs and claws in fairly good preservation. 
The exact locality where it was fonnd was not recorded. 

Flgnre 80. — l^nA Hermit Crab [Ctnobita diogenea) in a foBsil shell of ttrona 
pica, i Dattual size. Drawn frum life b; A. E. VerriU. 

The correct explanation of the presence of this shell in these 
elevated beds was first given by Lieut. Nelson, in 1840: 

" The Turbo pica [ = Livona pica) is very abundant, with the 
nacre and colors; but like the Venug [I,t/cina] Pennaylvantca, it is 
chiefly met with in sand-pits, and more recent formations, though 
without the slightest reference to the hardness of the stone contain- 
ing it. It seemed difficult at first to account for these large shells 
( Turbo pica) being found on heights, where, from their weight, it 
was impossible to suppose they had been carried there by the wind; 
but a Eolation may be found in the habitK of the Soldier Crab, which, 
on more than one occasion, I have seen running about in these 

The lAvona appears to have become extinct at Bermuda in recent 
times, for its broken shells were found in tlie heaps of kitchen refuse 
at the ancient forts on Castle Island, as if used for food by the garri- 
son there, probably during the war of 1812* 

Varions other common marine shells, especially single valves of 
Tellina, Mytilvg, Lucinn, Chama, etc., are occasionally found in 
these deposits, especially in those that are but a few feet above the 

; VerriU, " The Bermuda Islanda," pp. 51, 296, 

198 A, E, VerriU — The Bermuda Islaiids; Geology. 

level of the beach deposits. They were, without doubt, mostly 
carried up to those positions by unusually high winds or great storm 
waves, such as often occur in modern times. But crows and other 
birds habitually gather such shell-fish, sea-urchins, etc., on the shores 
and carry them inland for food, so that their shells may occasionally 
be found at any elevation. 

d. Fossils of tmcertam nature; Casts of Plants, etc. 

In many localities irregular, cylindrical, tapered, and sometimes 
branched structures occur in the seolian limestones at vanous levels. 
Sometimes they are tubular with a cavity in the center, either empty 
or filled with loose sand. In many cases the walls are thick and not 
very firm ; in other cases, especially when small, the walls are hard 
and almost crystalline. These are generally supposed to be the 
moulds or casts of the roots, and sometimes of the stumps of trees 
and other plants. In some cases they resemble the stumps and roots 
of the common Bermuda cedar, but they seldom, if ever, show any 
organic structure. They appear to have been formed by the harden- 
ing of the sands around the roots by the rain water percolating 
through decayed roots or around living ones. (See p. 62, above.) 
According to J. M. Jones the process of forming these casts was 
still going on near Elbow Bay, when he wrote. His account was as 

" On the western side of the sand hills, there is now a plateau of 
about half an acre, or perhaps more, of hardened drift sand, forming 
gradually into rock. On its face are cracks filling with drift sand : 
showing that the sun doubtless affects this hardened surface. Ele- 
vated stumps of a foot or so in height, rise amid this plateau; having 
each a hole or depression at the centre. These denote the sites in 
which cedar trees formerly grew. At the east end of the hills may 
be seen the gradual decay of cedar stumps; exhibiting more clearly 
the several stages of change; which are the more worthy of study, 
in consequence of the light they throw upon the many carious 
chimney-pot looking structures everywhere to be met with on the 
Bermuda shores." 

Perhaps these root-like structures are more abundant on Cooper's 
Island than elsewhere, but we observed them in many places. In 
some cases small tubular root-moulds were seen to come in contact 
with fossil snail shells and curve around them in clusters, just as 
living roots will do. 

A, JE TerriU — 7'Ae Bermuda Islands; Geology. 199 

Some of the tubular forms may have been due to the consolidation 
of the walls of the burrows of animals, such as the land-crabs, earth- 
worms, etc. 

Synopsis of Bermuda Paleontology. 

Three distinct formations can be distinguished by their fossils: 

1st. The earliest rocks now visible above the sea probably belong 
to the Pliocene. They are here designated as the Walsingham 
Formation. They contain at least 17 species and 6 varieties of land 
shells (Pulmonata), of which 9 species and 4 varieties are extinct, 
besides one that still lives in the West Indies and southern United 
States, but not in Bermuda (Strobilops Ilttbbardiy fig. 53). 

This formation contains all the known species (6) and roost of 
the subspecies or varieties of Pcecilozonites^ a genus peculiar to 
Bermuda. This genus had already attained its greatest develop- 
ment at that early period, for the largest and strongest species 
(P. Nelsoni)^ now extinct, was then very abundant, and all the 
other species and varieties were larger and heavier than their modern 

In view of the great development of this genus at that time, it 
might well be called the Poecilozonites Period, 

No marine deposits of this age are visible, for it was followed by 
a subsidence of 100 feet or more. 

2d. The second formation, here called the Devonshire, is composed 
in part of marine limestones or ** beach rock,"* containing a large 
number of marine shells, corals, foraminifera, etc. It corresponds to 
the period of greatest subsidence. The marine limestones are now 
rarely elevated more than 8 to 12 feet above the sea and extend 
below low tide in some places. They have suffered greatly by ero- 
sion, and are now often of small extent, ^olian rocks of the same 
age occur. The marine fossils are mostly species still living in Ber- 
muda waters. A few (about 10) are now extinct there (p. 189), but 
most or all still exist in the West Indies. 

This period probably corresponds precisely Avith the Champlain or 
Leda-clay period of New England and Canada. It was followed by 
a period of elevation, probably of small amount (at least 12 feet, 
and perhaps 25 feet or more). 

3d. The third formation, here called the Paget, was the period of 
re^levation, probably to a height somewhat greater than the present. 
It consists chiefly of ffiolian limestones, unconsolidated shell-sands. 

200 A, JS Verrili — The Bermuda Islands; Geology. 

and red-clay layers, resulting from decomposition. It contains at 
least 1 species and 3 varieties of land shells, of which 3 species and 
I marked variety are extinct. 

It corresponds with the period of reelevation on the American 
coast. There is some evidence, in the sahmerged hard limestones 
containing marine fossils, that there has been a period of sabsidence 
of small amount, during this period. 

Bibliography: List of the Principal Works on the Geology and 

Paleontology of Bermuda, 

Agassiz, Alexander. — Notes from the Bermndas, Amer. Joum. Science, aer. 8, 

xlvii, Jnne, 1894. 
A Visit to the Bermudas in March, 1894, Bulletin Mua. Ck>mp. Zool., xzri, 

No. 2, pp. 209-281, with a map and 50 plates, 1895. 

Contains detailed descriptions of the reefs, reef-flats, serpoline atolls, sounds, 

Bermuda Pocket Almanac. Hamilton, Bermuda. 

Bermuda. Greological Description of, by Williams^ W. F. Volume for 1850, 
pp. 60-64. 

Rainfall on the north side of Pagets for 10 years. Volume for 1875-1884; 
reprinted in later years, 188b -1897 ; volume fur 1898, p. 280. 

Jonea, J. if. —On the Geology of Bermuda, abstract from his article in Proc. and 
Trans. Nova Scotian Inst., 1873. pp. 237-280. 

Also abstract of Thomson's article in Nature, July, 1873. Volume for 1874, 
pp. 58, 60. 

Bart ram, J. T. — Lists of the Shells of Bermuda. Volume for 1875; reprinted 
with additions in lat^r volumes down to 1881. Includes some foasil species. 

Description of a Stalagmite taken from a Walsingham cave. Reprint from 
D. M. Home, in Proc. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, v, p. 428. Volume for 1888, p. 
175 : 1889, p. 149. 

Bigeloir, Henry B. — The Shoal- water Deposits of the Bermuda Banks, Proc. 
Amer. Acad, of Arts and Sciences, xl. No. 15, pp. 559-492, 1905. Cent, 
from Bermnda Biclogical Station, No. 5. 

Bland. Thos.—Anu. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, xi, p. 78, 1875. Describes fossil 
Hyalina Xelsoni (as var. of H. Bennudensis). 

Creak, E. IT.— Report on the Magnetical Results obtained by H. H. S. Challen- 
ger during the years 187:3-76. Pt. 6, vol. ii, 1889. Two maps. " Magnetic 
disturbance was found at three stations in the eastern parts of the 
islands, *' — p. 4—"). 

Dana, James Diritjht.—Coniis and Coral Islands. New York, Dodd & Mead. 
1872. (2d edition, 1874 ; 3d e<l. 1890.) 8% 398 pp. 

Xijte. — Structure of the Bermuda Islands [with map], pp. 218-t^l ; 21&-236, 
ed. 3 : former extent, p. 370: 408, ed. 3 ; caverns, p. 361, ed. 1, 2; p. 398, ed. 8. 

A. JE VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 201 

A list of corals, famished by A. E. Verrill, comprising 17 species, is g^ven on p. 
114 [ed. 1, 2, 8]. 

Review of Ribe, W. N., Geology of Bermnda, Amer. Jonm. Sci., xxix, 

p. 888, 1885. 

Manual of G^logy, Amer. Book Co., New York. 8vo. 4th ed., 1087 

pp., 1895. 

In this edition the references to Bermuda are on pp. 20, 46, 145, 162, 213, 224. 

FewkeSy J. WcUter. — On the Origin of the present form of the Bermudas. Proc. 
Boston Soc. Nat. History, vol. xxiii, pp. 518-522, June, 1888. 

See also Amer. Geologist, v, pp. 88-100, 1890. 

Oodety Theodore i., M.D. — Bermnda, its history, geology, climate, products, 
agriculture, commerce, and government. London : Smith, Elder & Co. 

For a review of this book, see VerriU, ** The Bermuda Islands,'* p. 456. 

OddUy T. TT.— Lecture on the Geological Formation of Bermuda. Delivered 
at the hall of the Bermuda Mechanics Beneficial Association, Oct. 10, 1867. 
Reprinted, 1893, by Gregory V. Lee, Royal Gazette Press, Hamilton, 29 

A popular but intelligent account of the geology of the islands. 

Ortgory/y J, W, — Quart. Joum. Geolog. Soc. London, li, pp. 255-310, 1895. 
Refers to several fossil corals from Bermuda. 

Chdieky Addison, — The Fossil Land Shells of Bermuda. Proc. Acad. Nat. Science 
Philadelphia, 1904, pp. 406-424, 2 maps and pi. xxxvi, 1904. (Cont. from 
Bermuda Biol. Laboratory, No. 2. ) 

HeUpriUy Angela. — The Bermuda Islands, 8vo, pp. 231, with 17 plates. Pub- 
lished by the author. Philadelphia, 1889. 

The Corals and Coral Reefs of the Western Waters of the Gulf of Mexico. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1890, p. 
808-816, plates vi-vii. Philadelphia, 1891. Refers incidentally to Bermuda 

Hovne^ David Milne, — [I>esoription of a large] Stalagmite sawn from the floor of 
a [Walsingham] cave in the Island of Bermuda [in 1819] and sent to the 
Museum of £!dinburgh by Admiral Alexander Milne. Contains about 44 
cubic feet. Proc. Roy. Soc. Eklinb. , v, p. 423. Reprinted in Berm. Pocket 
Almanac for 1888, p. 175 ; 1889, p. 149. See also under Thomson, Sir C.W. 

HurdiSy John L. — Rough Notes and Memoranda relating to the Natural History 
of the Bermudas. 1897. Notes on Geology, pp. 872-380. 

Jonesy J. Matthew. — The Naturalist in Bermuda. London, 1859. Map. 

On Ocean Drifts and Currents. Canadian Nat. and Geologist, vol. ix, 

no. 1, pp. 87-45. Feb., 1864. 

On the Geological Features of the Bermudas. Proc. and Trans, of the 

Nora Scotian Institute of Nat. Science, i, part iv, p. 21, 1866. 
See also, vol. ill, p. 287, 1873, reprint in Bei-muda Almanac for 1874, p. 58. 
Recent Observations in the Bermudas, Nature, vi, p. 262, Aug., 1872. 

Reprint in Amer. Jour. Sci., civ, pp. 414-416. 

— Geology of Bermuda. Bermuda Pocket Almanac, 1874, p. 58. 

202 A. JS, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 

Jones, J, Matthew. — The Visitor's Gnide to Bermnda. Halifax, New York and 
London, 1876, 12mo, pp. 159. 

Note. — A large part of the descriptive matter in this work, inclnding the 
geology, has been reprinted in Stark's Guide to Bermnda. 

U. S. National Museum, Bull. No. 25, pp. ix-xxiii, 1884. 

Lefroy, Gov. John H. — Remarks on the Chemical Analyses of Samples of Soil 
from Bermuda. Addressed to the Board of Ag^cultnre. Hamilton, Ber. 
1873, pp. 1-46, with introductory remarks on climate and a meteorological 
table, pp. i, ii. Also reprint, 35 pp. Office Koyal Gazette. Hamilton, 1883. 

Noticed with abstract in Amer. Joum. Sci., vol. vi, p. 473. 

Lyell, Sir C/iar?es.— Principles of Geology, 9th ed., 1858. References to Ber- 
muda are on pp. 776, 778, 796. 

On p. 778 is a reference to the great age of some of the large masses of bndn 


Manual of Elementary Geology. In 4th ed. New York, 1858, references 

to Bei-muda are on pp. 78, 216 ; figure of North Rocks, by Lieut. Nelson 
(fig. 98) is on p. 78. 

Moseley, H. N. — Notes by a Naturalist on the Challenger. 8vo, London, 1879. 

Note. — A number of pages are devoted to Bermuda, including an account of 
the geology (pp. 18-28), etc. 
Murray, John. — On the Structure and Origin of Coral Reefs and Islands. Proc. 

Royal Soc. of Edinburgh, vol. 10, pp. 505-518, 1879-80. 
Summary of Scientific Results obtained at the sounding, dredging and 

trawling stations of H. M. S. Challenger. Part I, 1895. 
Murray, John and Renard, A. F. — Report on Deep-Sea Deposits based on the 

specimens collected during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger, in the yean 

1872 to 1876. 1890-91. 
Stations at which dredgings were made at or near Bermuda were eighteen. 
The parts relating to Bermuda deposits outside and within the reefs, are on pp. 
46-51, 54-55, 150-151, pi. 13; charts, 6, 8, 9. 
Nelson Richaril ./.—On the Geology of the Bermudas. Trans. Geolog. Soc. 

London, 2d ser., v, pp. 103-123, with woodcuts and map, 1887 (1840), based 

on observations mafle between 1827 and 1833. 
Norwood. Richard.— LetieT, June, 1667, on tides, etc. Philosophical Trans. 

Royal Soc, ii, pp. 565-667, 1667. 
Ofjilry, John, M.D.—Au Account of Bermuda, Past and Present. 64 pp., 8to. 

Hamilton, Bermuda, S. Nelmes, 1883. 
Pilsbry H. A. — On tlie Helicoid I^nd Mollusks of Bermuda. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci'. Phila., 1H88, pp. 285-291, pi. xvii. 
Deals chiefly with Po'cilozonites. which is anatomically characterized. Contains 
figures and detjcription of P. Nelsoni. Reprinted in Heilprin's The Bermuda 
Islands, pp. 191-201, pi. 16. 
The Air-breathinpf Molhisks of the Bermudas. Trans. Conn. Aoad. Sci., 

X, pp. 491-507, pi. Ixii, 1900. Description of P. Nelsoni. 
Rein, J. J.— Bericht. a. d. Seiickenberg. Naturforsch. Qesellschaft, Frankfort, 

1870, pp. 140-158. 

A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Geology, 203 

Rein, J. J. — Die Bermndas-Inseln iind ihre Korallenriffe. Verhandl. d. ersten 

dentoh. Ckograph. zn Berlin, 1881, pp. 29-46, 1882. 
Rice, Wm. North. — Q«ology of Bermuda. Bulletin United States Nat. Museum, 

No. 25, pari I, pp. 5-32, with illustrations and a map, 1884. Reviewed in 

Amer. Joum. Science, ser. 8, xxix, p. 338, 1885, by J. D. Dana. 
Scotty Andrew. — ^Notes on the Bermuda Islands. Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. 2, xxiv, 

p. 274, Sept., 1857. (Geological.) 
Stark, J. H. — Stark's Illustrated Bermuda Guide, pp. 157, 46 illustrations and a 

map. Boston, Jas. H. Stark, 1897. 

Note. — A large part of the descriptive and historical matter, including the 
geology, ifl reprinted from Jones' Visitor's Guide, 1876, without acknowledg- 
Stevenson, John J. — Notes on the Geology of the Bermudas. Trans. New York 

Acad. Sciences, xvi, pp. 96-124, with map and two plates, March, 1897. 
Tarr, Ralph S. — Changes of Level in the Bermuda Islands. American Geologist, 

xix, pp. 293-303, plates 16-18, May. 1897. 

Synopsis of same. Nature, vol. 55, p. 311, Jan., 1897. 

Thomson, Sir C. Wyville. — Geological Peculiarities of the Bermudas. Nature, 
vol. viii, pp. 266, 267, 1 cut, July, 1873. 

Voyage of the Challenger. The Atlantic, vol. 1. London, 1877; N. Y., 

1878. Chapter IV, with map. 

In the London edition the parts relating to Bermuda are on pp. 288-366; map, 
opposite p. 290 ; geology on pp. 305-335; analysis of soils, pp. 358-353; metero- 
logical tables, pp. 354-357. On pp. 326-327 is an account of the section of a 
large stalagmite from a Walsingham cave, presented to the Mns. of the Univ. of 
Edinburgh in 1819, by Sir David Milne, and of the cutting of a second section 
from the same stump after Thomson's visit. (See above, p. 85, note.) The 
paging of the New York edition is not the same. 

Tizard, T. H., and others. — Narrative of the cruise of H. M. S. Challenger, with 
a general account of the scientific results of the expedition. 2 vols in 3. 
1882-1885 [vol. 1, 1884-85, vol. 2, 1882.J 

Vol. i, pt. 1. — General description of the geology, flora, and fauna of the Ber- 
mudas ; 19 woodcuts, diagram, and three charts, pp. 136-153, 160-167. 

Vol. i, pt. 2. — Revised table, showing the positions of the soundings, the tem- 
perature, etc., of surface and bottom water, trawlings, dredgings, etc., near Ber- 
muda, Appendix II, pp. 1008-1009. Also a revised determination of th£ latitude 
and longitude. 

Vol. ii. — Abstract of magnetical observations taken at fifteen different points 
on land, at Bermuda, with descriptive references to observation spots, pp. 25, 
46; pp. 56-59; Abstract of Variations, etc., pp. 76; 114-119; 274-276; 276- 
277 ; 278-279 ; 280-281 ; 296-297 ; 346-352 ; 364-369. (Cole.) 

Verrill, Addison E. — Notes on the Geology of the Bermudas, Amer. Joum. 
Science, ser. 4, vol. ix, pp. 313-340, with 11 cuts and a map. May, 1900. 

The Bermuda Islands : Their Scenery, Climate, Productions, Physiog- 
raphy, Natural History, and Geology ; with sketches of their E^rly His- 
tory and the Changes Due to Man. Vol. xi, Part II, pp. i-viii, 418-956, 
including a full index of 44 pages ; 285 cuts in text ; 40 plates, Ixv-civ. 
April, 1902— Feb., 1903. 

204 A. K Verrill—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 

Also isHiied separately, with new title-page and special pagination [i-x ; 1>548], 
and 8 additional cnts, as author's edition. Boand in cloth and in card-board. 
Inclades Bibliography, pp. 849-804. 

Vet^Uly Addison E. — Variations and Nomenclature of Bermndian, West Indian, 
and Brazilian Beef Corals, with Notes on varioos Indo-Paoifio Corals (105 pp.. 
plates x-xxxv ; 8 cuts in text), 1901. Discussion of Bermuda fossil oonl 
on pp. 08, 81, notes. In note on p. OS, for Vaughan, read Gregory. 

Wallace, Alfred /?wsse/;.— Island Life, London edition, 1880, pp. 253-264. New 
York edition, pp. 249-200. 

Contains a brief account of the geology of Bermuda. 

Von MartenSf E. — Sitznngsber. Ges. Nat. Freunde, Berlin, 1889, p. 201. Becords 
fossil P. Nelsoniy from collection of Bey rich. 

Part V. — Characteristic Life of the Bermuda Coral Reefs. 

The geological structure of islands suiTounded by coral reefs is so 
largely dependent on the animals and plants occupying the reefs 
that a brief review of the principal forms of life seems to be highly 
desirable. The general character of the growths upon many of the 
Bermuda reefs w^as given by Mr. Agassiz in his valuable memoir,* but 
he usually mentioned only a few of the genera and families of the 
larger corals, gorgoniae, etc., that he noticed, and without figures. 
My ])resent purpose is, therefore, to give a more specific and detailed 
account of the principal living forms, with figures of many of them, 
so that students, with few other books, and also amateurs, when 
visiting the reefs, may be able to recognize many of the species, 
without much difficulty. 

The outer reefs cannot be safely visited except in pleasant weather, 
with little or no wind, on account of the heavy surf that frequently 
covers them. But there are interesting and productive coral reefs in 
Castle Harbor which can be studied, even in somewhat windy 
weather, especially if the wind be from the west or northwest. 
Others, in and near Great Sound, Bailey Bay, etc., can be visited 
when the wind is southerly or oflF shore. The outer reefs are, how- 
ever, of greater interest, because the corals and other groups grow 
upon them much more luxuriantly than elsewhere. Those off the 
south shore and the extensive areas off the western end of the islands 
have been least studied, owing to the almost continuous surf. 

The reefs or " flats " near the North Rocks (see figs. 23, 24) are 
among the best localities for studying the life of the outer reefs, for 

* A. Agassiz, Visit to the Bermudas, March, 1894. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
xxvi, pp. 209-281, 29 plates. 

A. M VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs, 205 

they are often laid bare for two hours or more, at low-water of 
spring tides. But there are reefs much nearer the shore that yield 
nearly all the species foand there, though less abundantly.* 

The water is so transparent in pleasant weather that objects can 
easily be seen on the bottom to the depth of 20 to 30 feet or more, 
by Qsing a water-glass, with which nearly all the boatmen are pro- 

But many of the reefs, which are covered at low-tide by only 1 to 
3 feet of water, can best be thoroughly explored by wading over them 
clothed only in a bathing suitf and stout boots, for the surface is 
apt to be very rough and unreliable. 

To obtain very large corals we used large and strong steel double 
grapples, made for the purpose, and worked with a rope from a 
large row-boat. 

The Bermuda lobster is often taken by the fishermen by means 
of a long-handled spear or "grains." But it requires considerable 
skill and much practice to use this instrument in deep water, owing 
to the strong refraction. Yet some of my party acquired great skill 
in its use. We took Octopus^ large holothurians, etc., as well as the 
lobster, in that way. 

The fishermen use large lobster-traps of a peculiar formj in which 
they also often take various fishes, Spanish -lobsters (Scyllarides), 
crabs, etc. Such traps, slightly modified and suitably baited, would 
serve admirably for the purpose of catching the rarer forms of Crus- 
tacea, carnivorous gastropods, etc., living among the reefs in deep 
water. For the deeper waters, "tangles" can sometimes be used to 
advantage, but among and near the actual reefs the bottom is apt 
to be too rough and rugged even for tangles. 

* The larger and better forms of corals, gorgonise, sponges, etc. , rnnst, as a 
mle, be obtained by the use of grapples. A form of grapples nsed there by the 
fishermen and called by them ^^ nippers," is an excellent instrument for this 
parpose. It is attached to a pole abont 20 to 24 feet long and is worked by a 
eord attached to the movable jaw. 

f This was the method nsed by my students, daring our visit in 1898. As al 1 
were expert at diving and swimming, the large boat could thus be rapidly filled 
with choice specimens in much better condition than those obtained by the use 
of ** nippers,** which often break delicate corals, etc. Still the nippei-s had to 
be used at depths beyond the reach of the divers, and for corals growing in 
inaccessible recesses and crevices ; also for objects that cannot safely be handled, 
like the long-spined Diadem a. 

X See " The Bermuda Islands," i, p. 293, for a figure of the ordinary style of 
lobster-pot used there, and pi. xciv, fig. 1, for a figure of the " lobster." 

Trans. Conk. Acad., Vol. XII. 14 March, 1906. 

206 A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda IsUmds; Coral Reefs. 


Madreporaxia ; True Reef-corals. 

In any examination of the reefs, the corals,* actinians, gorgoni«, 
and bright colored sponges naturally attract most attention. Nearly 
all the corals, as well as most of the other forms of Bermudian reef 
animals and plants, are the same as those found on the reefs of 

* The more important recent systematic works relating to the corals of Ber- 
muda are the following. Many other special papers and the general works of 
Ehrenberg, Dana, Edwards and Haime, etc., are quoted in the synonymy : 

AyassiZy Louis. — Report on the Florida Reefs. Accompanied by illastrations of 
Florida Corals, 4to, 23 plates. Edited by A. Agassiz. Explanation of plates 
and names of the corals by L. F. Pourtal^s, Mem. Mns. Com p. Zoology, 
vol. vii. No. 1, 1880. 

The plates are remarkably good lithographs, mostly by Sonrel, and illnstrate 
many of the »«pecies fonnd at Bermuda, including also the very young of several 
A(>6cies. It contains no descriptions. 

Ikina, J. I). — Corals and Coral Islands. In ed. 3, 1890, the list of Bermndi 
corals is on p. 114. (Determined by A. E. Verrill.) 

Ihichassaing, P. and Michfiotti\ G. — Memoire snr les Coralliaires dee Antilles. 
Mem. R. Acad. Sci.. Torino, ser. 2. vol. xix, pp. 89. 10 plates, 1860. Sup- 
plement to same. Mem. cit.. vol. xxiii. pp. 112, 11 pi., 1866. 

/>iir»ff«»i», ./. E. — Order of appearance of the Mesenteries and Septa in the Mafdre- 
jK^raria. Johns Hopkins Univ. Circular, xix, pp. 47-^. 1900. 

Morpholog>' of the Madreporaria. iii. The Significance of Bndding and 

Fission. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. x. pp. 38^-393, 190S. 
No. iv. Fissiparons Gemmation, op. cit,. pp. 141-155. 1903. 

Aggregate<l Colonies in Madreporarian Corals. Amer. Natondist, xxxvi. 

pp. 461-471. mv^. 

— West Indian MadreiK>rarian Polyps. Mem. Nat. Acad. Science, vol. viii, 

No. T. pp. 401-^97. pis. i-xxv, 1902. 

This is the most im(K»rtant work hitherto pnblisbed on the anatomy and 
histoK>gy of the Si>ft ].w«rt8 of reef corals, including their lelations to the conl- 
lum. More or less of the embryology of several species is also given. Aboat 
26 s^>eoies were studieil. including 10 that occui at Bermuda. 

Tlie Coral Siderastrea radians and it« poetlarval DeTriopmeiit. Pobl. 

No. 2^\ Carnej;ie Inst . Washington, D. C, 180 pp.. 11 platea. 19CH. 
(>tYv<>ry J. W. — Contributions to the Palev^ntology and Physieal Geoiogj of the 

West Indies. Quart. Joum. Geo^t^eal Society of Londoii^ toL H, pp. 355- 

312. pi. xi. 1SIV>. 

This is ohiedy devotcni to the fossil and ne<>ent corals and mefaides lengthy 
synonymy, which in numrnms cases is erroneoos. as Taugbaii bas tittowwL He 
reoonlevi three f^>ssil speoies from Bt-rmuda and serenl reccat ooes. A^wwg 

A. E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 207 

Florida and the Bahamas. But many of the common Bahama 
species do not occur in Bermuda. Therefore the reefs-corals here 
are less varied and less luxuriant. The absence from Bermuda of 
the large branching and palmate forms of Acropora (or Madrepora) 

the latter, he erroneously recorded Colpophyllia gyrosa, due to the fact that he 
wrongly considered Mussa fragilis Dana a synonym of that species. His record 
of Agaricia agaricites is probably also due to his erroneous synonymy, for he 
did not record A, fragile from Bermuda, which he very likely confounded with 
the former. 

HeUpriHy Angela. — The Bermuda Islands, 1889. 

Gives a list of 19 species on pages 99-103. Several are synonyms. 

Lesueur^ M. — Descr. de plusieurs Anim. appar. aux Polypiers Lamellif^res. Mem. 
du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., vol. vi, pp. 271-299, pi. 15-17, 1820. 

Figures the polyps of several species ; a number of new species described. 

Pourialks, L. F. — The Reef Corals. lUust. Catal. Mus. Comp. Zoology; Memoirs, 

vol. ii, pp. 65-93, 1871. See also AgassiZy L. 
Quelchj John J. — Report on the Reef Corals. Voyage of Challenger, Zool., vol, 

xvi, 202 pp., 12 plates, 1886. 

Enumerates nearly all the known corals of Bermuda, with descriptions of 
many. Admits too many species of Isophyllia, Oculinay and Meandrina. 

Vaughan, T. lFa|//ami.— Some Fossil Corals from the Elevated Reefs of Curasao, 
Arube, and Bonaire. Samml. Geolog. Reichs-Mus., ii, 99 pp. 8vo, 1901. 

Contains detailed descriptions and full synonymy of many recent West Indian 
species. Also a good bibliographical list of works relating to West Indian corals. 

The Stony Corals of Porto Rican Waters. Bulletin U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion, vol. xx, for 1900, pp. 290-320, 38 plates, 1901. 

Contains descriptions and detailed synonymy of the species, with numerous 
figures from photographs. For the later views of Dr. Vaughan, on their nomen- 
clature, see Amer. Joum. Science, xiii, p. 76 (note), Jan., 1902 ; and these 
Trans., vol. xi, p. 206, 1901. 

Verrilly Addison i:.— Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., I, No. 3, pp. 29-60, 1864. 

Records several Bermada species. 
On the Polyps and Corals of Panama, with descriptions of new species. 

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., x, p. 323, 1866. 

Contains a comparison of the West Indian Coral Fauna with that of Panama. 

— Comparison of the Coral Faunae of the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of the 
Isthmus of Darien. American Naturalist, iii, p. 499, Nov., 1869. 

— Additions to the Anthozea and Hydrozoa of the Bermudas. Trans. Conn. 

Acad. Science, vol. x, pp. 551-572, pi. Ixvii-lxix, 1900. 
— Additions to the Fauna of the Bermudas from the Yale Expedition of 
1901. Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., vol. xi, pp. 47, plates i-ix ; 6 cuts in text, 

208 A, E. Verrill—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 

muricata is particularly noteworthy, for the latter are often the 
most conspicuous of the corals on the West Indian reefs. One 
reason for their absence here may be the lower temperature of the 
water in winter. But it may be dne in many cases to tbe short 
duration of the free-swimming larval stages* of such species, so that 
the young larvae may all perish before arriving at Bermuda. The 
same causes have influenced most of the other marine animals. 

Probably most of the Bermuda species have migrated in one way 
or another from the Bahamas. How long a time is required for 
drifting objects to travel from the Bahamas to the Bermudas is not 
known. The distance is rather more than 700 miles, but floating 
objects would not travel in a straight line. They would, most 
likely, travel at least 1,000 miles in such a journey. At the rate of 
1 mile per hour the northward drift would be 1008 miles in 42 days, 
or 720 miles in 30 days. Probably the average rate of the current, 
in this region, may not be much greater than that. 

VerriUy Addison E. — Variations and Nomenclatare of Bermadian, West Indian, 
and Brazilian Reef Corals, witti Notes on various Indo-Pacific Corals (105 
pp., plates x-xxxY ; 8 cnts in text). Trans. Conn. Acad, of Science, vol. 
xi, part I, pp. 63-168, 1901. 

Contains figures and descriptions of most of the Bermnda corals with details 
of synonymy, etc. 

Comparison of Bermadian, West Indian, and Brazilian Coral Famue, 

op. cit., pp. 169-206, cnts in text, 1901. 

Includes a list of all Bermuda corals then known. 

Zoology of the Bermndas, vol. i, 427 pp., 45 pi., 1908. 

Inclndes the four preceding papers, as articles 5, 10, 11, 12. 

Review of The Stony Corals of Porto Bican Waters by T. W. Vanghan, 

Amer. Jour. Science, vol. xiii, pp. 75-78, 1902. 

Relates to synonymy and changes in nomenclature^ and contains the later 
views of Dr. Vaughan (note p. 76). 

* Dr. J. E. Duerden has shown that many of the common reef corals, inclad- 
ing some of those found at Bermuda, remain in the free-swimming larval condi- 
tion only a short time, — sometimes but few days. This adds very much to the 
difficulty of explaining their migration across wide seas. Possibly some coraU 
may have drifted long distances attached to drift-wood or other floating objects, 
but it is rarely that they are found attached to drift-wood. I have seen a 
branched Oculina diffusa, over 6 inches high, taken from the bottom of a vessel 
at Bermuda, after a cruise in the West Indies. It is even possible that some of 
the common Bermuda corals were accidentally introdaced into Bermuda waters 
by the vessels of the early settlers. Unfortunately the early writers on Ber- 
muda do not mention the existence of corals on the reefs. 

A, JE Verrill-^The Bermuda Islands; Coral Retfs. 209 

At present I am able to recognize only 22 Bermuda species of 
true corals (exclusive of the deep-water forms, of which several are 
known.)* They belong to 10 genera, as now classified. 

Qaelch, in his report (Voyage Challenger, xvi), gave a longer 
list, for he described, as distinct species, many trivial variations of 
Jtftusa (as Isopht/Uia)^ Moeandra, Favia, and Oculina, But seven 
of the genuine species here described were not known to him, so 
that he really had but 15 genuine species. Doubtless others will 
yet be found on the extensive south-western reefs, which have been 
as yet very little explored by zoologists. 

Some of the common Florida and West Indian speciesf that are 
lacking on the reefs here, so far as known, are as follows : 

Jtfussa angtdosa. PhyUangia Americana, 

Masandra clivosa. Solenastroea hyades, 

McBandra {Manieina) areolata, Acropora muricata, 

Dendrogyra cylindrus. Var. cervicomis, 
Colpophyllia gyrosa, " prolifera. 

Meandrina meandrites, " palmata, 

Dichocomia Stokesi. Porites f areata, 

Sumnilia aspera. Agaricia agaricites, 
Cladocora arbuscula. 

On the other hand, certain genera and species seem to be more 
abundant and luxuriant here than anywhere in the West Indies. 
This is especially the case with the genus Ocidina, with its several 
species, and with the genus Mussa of the IsophyUia type, of which 
there are here five species and numerous varieties. Agaricia fragilis, 
so common here, is comparatively rare elsewhere. 

It is doubtful if any of the species are really restricted to Ber- 
muda, though a few of the recently described species have not yet 
been recognized from other localities. 

The most conspicuous, largest, and also one of the most common 

of the true reef corals is the brain-coral {Mceandra labyrinthi- 

formisy figs. 71-71c), but on the outer reef the massive Porites {P. 

asireoideSy pi. xxix, 1), is quite as abundant, while in some places 

the common star-coral (Siderastrcea radians^ pi. xxix, 2) is more 

♦For a list of these, see Trans. Conn. Acad., xi, p. 182; and Zoology of 
Bermnda, i, article 12, p. 182. 

f For detailed descriptions, synonymy, and nnmerons figures of most of the 
Bermuda and Florida corals, see my articles in these Trans., vol. xi, pp. 63-206, 
plates x-xxxv, 1901 ; and The Zoology of Bermuda, articles 11, 12, same plates. 

lore genenlly difisriat 
, (or it \nn undw i pbt 

YSrjr rapidly. Tk -w, 
es ot tbit pall*, liji :**■ 
ecfi lod clow to tilt ik>' 
■(F* site and biigiii nU ' 
i(rwiin(F» are t'bifflj W ' 

; also ill liie wuBifa,*^ 

I'llowistbroiniwil""."' ' 
ami j.-lini»ns, aM m '■ 
ally in the mm of * 
■m. These pl«i» ¥"■■■■'' 
may be uliM tfy '*"" ; 
riof n«pirai''"'f'""*'') 
f ft-aur,i(e<p««J»«*?^. 

,|j.p„ .to «!*">* 

fferent li""^- 

Ota. wkO"* W*^ 

thBW Triw-. 

(eet in diameter are ofl 
near togetber two ma* 
and then they will of 
procew. leaving nnly s 
union.' 1 have one lat 
of three masses perfe 
the young start close 
broad, irregular, crtti' 
inches thick. 

»,M '- 

. u«ll.v If--!*' '•j!,-...*"* 

»pl.riBl.r -*^^( 
.,„.ol..i«»' •-, 

r.i,M.««« """''■',, 

i'ignre Tl.— MrtMindi 

wmewliat rec 

Upward to a 
anil HUDsliine, ' 

forms, often dea 


212 A. E. V(.rfiU-~Tht Bermuda Itlandi; Coral Bee/a. 

It varies greatly in the form and breadth of the ridgee between 
the grooveij. Young specimens, 2 to 4 ioches thick, often have Teiy 
wide and double ndges (var, Stokeaii, fig. 71a); later on, the wide 

Figure lla.—M.lahyrinthiformigyax. Sfojtraii, slightl; enlarged: a, b,c, d, placa 

where bads were about to develop. 
Figure 716. — Jf. labyrintkiforruia, partially expanded polypa, enlarged ; pbot 

from colored drawing. 

ridges divide and new grooves grow In between them. The wide 
ridges may also appear in larger specimens, either over the whole 
coral or in some particular places.* 

Figure Tic— W lab thfo a cal cle at the end of a series, with » 

nearly roiitraett^ j>ol^ p, ami a iliagrammatii. sectional view of tbe conl, to 
Bhow the r^lntiou oC imrtx. Drawn by the anthor from the llliog coial. 

In full expansion the disks nf the polyps rise up to or somewbit 
above the levol of the summits of the collines, so that the bonndinf 
furrows may be seeti above their walls while the disks become much 
wider than in their jiartly contracted condition, so as to occapy 


pp. TO-73 

poiint nntl illustrntiona of these variations, see tbese Tnna., 
pi. I. ti);s. 1-3 ; and Zoology of Bermuda, article tl, mdm 

A. JE VerriU^The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs, 213 

early the whole breadth of the valleys, and the tissues become mnch 
lore translucent. In contraction the column-walls of the polyps 
>ld inward and downward over the se|>ta, while the disk contracts 
> the breadth of the floor of the valleys, the tentacles having their 
Mes over the groove outside the paliform lobes, as in flg. Vie. 

The tentacles of the living polyps (fig. 71c) are not very long, 
Hilar (deodar, tapered, knobbed or obtuse at tips, alternately larger 
ii'finfUiller ; the outer ones are the smaller, more erect, and have 
fiiittr tips. Mouths small, oblong or elliptical, with a whitish bor- 
it^ Disk deep yellow with faint white radiating lines. Coenen- 
jgjgBpa imd polyp cc^umns lemon-yellow to orange-yellow, sometimes 
nk oeher-yellow. In partial or complete contraction the septa and 
i0te show through as whitish radial lines. 

It is common on the inner as well as on the outer reefs. On the 
iefis in Castle Harbor it is abundant, but seldom grows to great size 
lere. It apparently does not occur in Harrington Sound. It is 
[so common on the Florida reefs and keys, and throughout the 
Test Indies. 

tSBAXidra cerebrum (Ellis and Sol.). Brain Coral. Figs. 7^726 ; 73, 73a (6-9). 

Madrepora cerebrum Ellis and Solander, Hist. Zooph., p. 163, 1786. 
Masandrina sinuosa Verrill, Ball. Mob. Comp. Zool., i, p. 49, 1864 (non Mean- 

drina sinuosa Les., Mem. Mns. Hist. Nat., vi, p. 278, pi. xv, figs. 4-9, 1820 ; 

with yarieties wrtdts, rubra, vineola^ limosa, appressOj most of which evi- 
dently helong to clivosa. 
Mctandrina lahyrinthica, M. lahyrinthiformis, and M. sinuosissima of many 

Mceandra cerebrum Verrill, these Trans., xi, p. 74, plate x, fig. 4-; pi. xii, fig. 

4 ; pi. xiv, figs. 4, 5 ; pi. xix» fig. 7. 
Mceandrina strigosa Dana. Ponrtal^, Florida Beef Corals, p. 74; in L. Agassiz, 

Florida Reefs, pi. ix, figs. 6-9, 1880. 
Piatygyra riridi> Vanghan, op. cit., p. 806, plates ix-xiii, 1901 {non Lesueur). 
Maandrina labyrinthica Daerden, Mem. Nat. Acad. Science, viii, pis. xx-xxii, 

figs. 138-147, anatomy and histology, 1902. 

This closely resembles the preceding in form and modes of growth 
id may become equally large and hemispherical, but the collines 
Btween the grooves are always narrow and not double. Its color in 
fe is variable, — often pale ocber-yellow, sometimes dull brownish 
sHow, but so far as I observed it does not assume the bright orange- 
»llow color of the preceding species, nor have I seen it green, 
lOUgh Duerden reports specimens w^ith green colors, due to an 
>undance of Zooxantbellae in the endoderm. 


A. E. VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

The disk and tentacles are usually dark yellowish or greenish 
brown. In contraction the membrane of the disk becoiDes rough or 
wrinkled in radial lines, aR in the other species of the genus. 

When fully expanded the polyps rise a little above the crests of 
the collines and the disks expand to the width of the upper part of 
the calicinal valleys ; the adjacent column walls then become nearly 
vertical, leaving only narrow grooves between them, over the cresb 
of the collines. The tentacles form two cycles, the inner oncB a 

Figure 'li. — yfivdndra nrfhi-um, var. 

colony, about itaturul size. 
Pi)i;ure Tiii. — The aaine. Portion near th« mergio of the same speoii 

about li. Both phot, by A. H. Verrill. 

Brain Coral . Portion of a jonng 

little larger; they are small, rather short, obtuse or slightly knobbol 
and whitish at the tip. In contraction the disk sinks to the bottom 
of the valleys and the column walls cover the septa, becoming 
uneven over their teeth. The tentacles can be introverted in full 

It is much less common than the last and is rarely found except 
on or near the outer reefs. It seldom grows close to the surface, 
but is more frequent in C to 20 feet of water. 

It ia a common Wc»t Indian and Florida coral, and often grows to 
great size there. 

A. E. Vernll~37ie Bermuda lekinde; Coral Reefs. . 215 

rhe common form of this species (figs. 72, 72a) in which the 
lines are of moderate height and appear rounded, owing largely 
the principal septa being wide and pretty regularly rounded 
'ard the summit, with nearly even denticulations, may be regarded 
the typical variety, 

rhe most marked variation from the typical form is that in which 
■■ colUnes appear sharper or narrower at the crests, or have a gotbic 
m, due mainly to the narrowed upper portion of the septa, but in 
-t to the greater height of the collines and thiuness of the walls. 




is is the form figured under the name of labyrmthica by Ellis and 
ander, 1887, and which has generally been known by that name 
later works. It was admirably illustrated in the plates of Prof. 
Agassiz (see our fig. 73), under the name of M. atrigoaa, applied 
t by PourtalAs, who considered it a distinct species.* 
t seems desirable to retain a special varietal name to designate 
t form, and none seems so available as ttrtgosa, which seems to 
the earliest, except labyrinthica, which cannot be used, because 
/as originally applied to another species {meandrites Linn.). 

Mj own descriptioD of M. certbi-um in a former article (these Trans., vol. 
pp. 74-76, was based more largely on this variety than on the variety now 
in (w the type form (var. cerebi-um), bnt the fignree there given mostly per- 
to the latt«r. Intermedials fonnH often occur. 

A. E. Virrill — ITte Bermuda Igtands; K'l/riil Rt^t. 
73a. 6-9. 

. 3, -t. i:« «• 

Variety atrigoaa Dasa. Figoira ','■ 
iladrrpora labtfrinfkiea Ellis and Sol., p. 160. pi. 46. t 

JfiiiiHrfn'Mti Inbyrinthiea Lami.. Eiptw. Metti., p. -V4. pL llii. Sgs. 1, 4 lad 

of nuuiT later writprs. 
Uaaiidi-ina i'tritj'>M IHma. Ziji'ipb. Expl. Eiped., p. 237. pL sir. fig. \a. IStl 

PoimaI««. in L. Aga^Hiz. Ftorida R<wfs. pi. ii. ^a. S-B, 1880. (figam n^r.- 

dao«d h«iv'. 
Platyjyra ri'-ida VaaijcbaD. Stony CoraU. P^Ro mm. SM. {d. ix-im. I^C 

31irandi-a (^rrijma (p<rrsl Verrill. tb«« TraiM., li. p. 74. 1901, IwiuKdcuiJc 

This t.-oiuinon varietv. as $e«n in collections, dsiuIIt fornu lusi 
evenly D>uni.le<i hemispheres, often of Ivge stse and generally hat- 
tn? the coUine^ au-i calicles long and rery UDaoos or conrobt^-L 

t»): S, T, esIielM and eoOinf* 
^rsvifc'ttT-* Ttew of ncpCa and paUfbim Mwi. bor 
U: -:■« JJi^i pcvdk* u( «a^ : i, M. dirota. coQinw 
faz:-^. wvGiiiB o( indEiB* and piufilca of Kp«B mm 

ji. E. Verrilt — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 


lut sometimes long and parallel in aome parts. In nature, liowever, 
t occors of varioua irregular forme, often merely forming thick crusts 
vhen youog, as in other related forms. When wetl grown it usually 
AD be readily distinguished by the open or cellular appearing, rather 
leep and wide calicinal grooves, which have sloping sides and are 

Iilgnre 74. — Maandrina tinuo$a Leeoear, showing his varieties ; a, b, var. 

limoaa, polyps partly retracted ; e, d, var. viridia ; c, profile of collines, 

enlarged; d, polyp of terminal calicle, mnch enlarged. Pbotograpbed from 

Lesnenr'B Ggares. 
Figure T4a. — The same; a, var. rvbra; b, vat. n'neola, both mnch enlarged. 

Photographed from Lesnenr'a fig^nres. 
Figure 746. — Maandra rlivoia, terminal part of a calicinal vallej with the 

polype partially eipanded, much enlarged. Photographed from L, Agssaiz. 

therefore wider above, and by the gothic form of the larger septa 
and rather narrow acute collines, with thin, simple walls. The full 
grown calicinal grooves are usually 8 to 10°"" deep, and to 1-^™" 
wide, from crest to crest of the collines. 

The principal septa are thin at base with a distinct, roughly 
Rpinnlose paliform lobe; they decrease in width distally. either regu- 

JIS .4. /;. VerriH^llte Bermuda Islunds; Coral Beefs. 

larly or in a gothic form, ami are quite narrow at the apex, which 
]>rojoots a littlo alnn-o tho wall and bears a few rough denticles: the 
inner odgt^ is covered with rather irregular, rough, often spinulose 
or lacerate divergi^nt or ascending denticles; their sides are sharply 
and roughly gran u lose or s]tinu]ose. Very narrow and thin secon- 
dary sopt,-!, disappearing helow. usually alternate with the larger 
ones, hut an.^ <>ften absent, whicii results in wide, open interseptal 
spaces. When they are present there are about it'2 to 24 septa to a 
centimeter. Tiiose on op)»o>ite sides oi the coll in es usually alternate, 
and the thin crest of the wall is often a little zigzag. ITie wall 
bcconi es thicker bel k » w a n d sol i d . 

IV. V a ugh an gave some excellent }»hotograj»hic illustrations of 
this variety, some i»f which are considerably enlarge<i (op. cit., 190i. 
pis. ix-\iii^, but the name viridis, used by him, did not originalh 
apply to this lorm. for it was gixt-n to a color variety of J/, sifmota 
IvCS. (Ser our tig. 74. *". «/, co}»it-d fi*c»m Lesueur), which is a verr 
diffeu-nt coral, with much "iower col lines, rounded at the top, and 
>trv nanv'W c^iioinal crrH'\e>. which, according toLesuear's natural- 
size figure, mndf to ^lK'W their arrangement ^his pi. 15, tig. 5*?) 
measure onlv 4 to r»"" fn-m crest to crc*st of the walls and 4.5 to 5" 
from the I'oi} p mouths of I'tie series to thos*e in the next. These 
dimensiv»n> ari scnrcvlv half a> larire as in the coral under discussion 
ln-iH-. lijiieivl, the dinxnsions givi-n and the low eollines, as figared 
b \ 1 A ■>« c u r i 1 . 1 ; 1 > ] »ri^ti i e a u • w s, n c a oi\] y of t.h e var. r iridiSj but of 
all ln> ««;"!:iT \«viiiie> of .V. ^//fwosi/^ can scarcely applv to any Wert 
Inili.^ii Mti'i :e> i vci}'i .V. rJ^rosn* That is the onlv msandriiiifomi 

I a 

v*..r;i I-: ;!:;> !:ii;iifi lifts Mich sniftil ci»llines and narrow ffrooves. 

a:;:: v.:.t^:i. "^ULi^ .•: :i.> nuiTTf: 1 i»t'iif-Vf ihui liis mtfuofia and all iu 
,•...: x>.v:-:':s. r:wi.v!'. i .^ i i-^pvi.:. sii.»i;if. "k>t itrft-rred 1c» Af. cHnma (Ellis and 
>... . V ! •. : ^ ; !»i .':..v .xU'!-: ■. I.; >;.»f:'it»!. hfiv.uc Kutrij li»w and suuTow eollinM 

A-. .?.'.>.* :hi hcj.-j»> ,•: :i'i tm"!x;i^ vLk-i lit civeK. and which I have icprcK 
.]',•»» It ••» '.'1.* .•: !.;> ^■>iV'i;»i'^. iicrtn l»rt« with tboM* of Jf. dirota, u 

I'm,!.:**.. \^ . .\4.r»r«»*- "*!'i •'».• tw T4''. 1, ^'irfMo if> jtlivi oue of the mcMl aboB- 
iiiti ■ sj»i». 'i*v !■: s ';'!'. nil. .>» 1 "shj.ii, V vjiTi'T. wht'Tt- l/*KQpTir obtained hisi^wcx* 
iiM-iiv yi..!'. ■ lu .'';ii : \ iij.n.. H'> i>! sTtiTfi'. whilt- wading; an the ivef s and 
V l».«i:. •■ ' »«;» I. !.:':»::.n.-!*v :i jn.-; i: vonlrl ht far ZDore Hkelv to b* 
■ 0«jn:i».'-. ' ' •■ vj. .ii;.i : I" ■ ,»• hi .i:iit«: SI kfi'ies. which arr mrirr mtflriTf 
J.I'., w"- V 1 .!<•:■.»:■- > ■■■.■ Am-.. • j'- s. rji- H> kxiiiwn Tome. Jf. r/iroia i* the 
.1' > >.:xi'.'<iv V I •. ) !.H^ '-u.i :.— .u> u^i,' hrij^hT rolfiTs ah Lesnenr described. 
!:rv \u 1. .1.-^ j.~. .-;•«*. !i , ji^ «i. .-.•;■ « li fVi-mii Hi hK. foccepi in oolora. 

^. ?.» X .jifi .!«!''. . f.^ *v p. .i:*^-.- '»^i»:i.ii )>t*rwet*i) var. mpMlu and our Tir. 
< •!'••''■ .'. » • ■ M . ■ I 'i . •»::4:'. uiir.Y*: h\ rlu- opjiosite extreme* of tb« 

' «. -.M-.v :.»-ii^.« .1'. n. ; ».• ,: .:.Vj:i . i-^ii-^ .i; rhh» Tt^ion. 

A. E. VerriU~The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 219 

I have reprodaced here some of the figures of M. cliiiosa, given 
by L. Ajjraesiz (fig. 13a (2, 4) and fig. 746), for easy comparison with 
those given by Lesueur in 1820. The difFerences in the polyps are 
no more than constantly occur, due to different degrees and modes 
of contraction of the polyps and the individual variations in the 
colonies. Lesueur said nothing about the general form of his ain- 
uota, but though 2d. clivosa becomes nodular and irregular when 
Urge, it has an even and regular surface when young. Probably 
all of Lesueur*B hand-gathered specimens were young and in the 
crust-like stage of growth, when they can be easily detached and 
carried ashore alive. 

M. clivosa has not yet been found at Bermuda, though it might 
well be expected to occur on the outer reefs, for it is very common 
on the Florida and Bahama reefs. 

Favia tra^uai (Eeper) Edw. and Haime. Slnr Coral. Figure *5. 
Attnra (or Favia) ananas and coarclala of many modem writere. 
facia frngum Vanghsn, op. cit., p. 303, pi. viii, figs. 1, 2, 1902. Verrill, 
these Tnuis., li, pp. 90, 171, pi. xiii, figs. I, 2, 1901. Dnerden, Mem. Nat. 
Acad. Soi., viii, p. 569, pie, ilii-iv, flga, 02-116, anatomy, histulog}-, and 
larvn, 1902. 
This forms small rounded or hemisphcerical masses, ^Idom more 
than 2 or 3 inches ai-roEf, usually solidly attached. It is generally 

Figure 726.— MiHindra eerrbrum, typical variety, sectioD of collinea showing 

forms of septa and denticles, x about 2. 
Figure 75. — Favia fntgum. Part of the upper aurface of a Bpecimen with 

crowded calicles(var. coarctata), about nnloral size. Both phot, hy A. H.V. 

pale yellowish or greenish yellow, sometimes dark yellowish brown, 
or tinged with green, often with white specks, especially on the 

220 A. K VerriU^ The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs. 

tentacles while living. It can live close to the surface and is often 
found in tide-pools of the shore ledges, as well as on the reefg. 
The star-like calicles are a little elevated, usually elliptical or oval, 
seldom circular, and quite variable in size, though usually not more 
than .25 to .80 inch in the longer diameter. 

In expansion the polyps rise up somewhat above the rim^ of the 
calicles. The tentacles vary in number from about 30 to 50 or more, 
and form two or more crowded circles, the inner a little the burger ; 
in full extension they are slender with a rounded or knobbed whitish 
tip, but more often they are short, tapered, and blunt. The dUk, in 
contraction, is rugose in radial lines, and may fold inward so as to 
entirely conceal the tentacles. Often there are two or more mouths 
on one disk, due to incipient fission. The disk is often convex and 
the mouth elevated in full expansion. 

Dr. Duerden (1902) has described and figured a series of the 
larvae, both before and after attachment. According to bis observa- 
tions the polyps are hermaphrodite and viviparous. The larvn fix 
themselves within a few days after extrusion. 

It is not very abundant at Bermuda. Common on the Florida 
Keys and throughout the West Indies. 

Mussa (laophyllia) fragilis (Dana) Ver. Rose Coral. Figa. 76, 77, 78. Plate 
XXX, fig. 1, «, i ; pi. xxi, fig. 1. 

Tsophyllia or Symphyllia fragilis of many writers. 

Isophyllia dipsacea Pourtal^s, in L. Agassiz, Florida Reefs, pi. yii, figs. 1-7. 
1880 (non Dana). 

Isophyllia fragilis Verrill, these Trans., xi, p. 121; plate xvi, figs. 1, 2; pi. 
xvii, figs. 1-7 ; pi. xviii, figs. 1,6; pi. xix, figs. 1, 5, 1901. 

Mussa fragilis Dana; Verrill, op. cit., p. 180, 1901. 

Symphyllia anemone, S. conferta^ S. strigona^ S. AgUx, S, thomcuianay S. 
aspera, var., Duch. and Mich., Coral. Antilles, pp. 69-74, 1860. (Identifica- 
tions by photographs of original types in Mas. Turin made for Dr. T. W. 

f Lithophyllia argemone Docb. and Mich., op. cit., p. 68, pi. x, fig. 15, 1860. 

fLithophyllia cuhensis (non Haime) and L. lacera {non Pallas) Qnelch, op. cit., 
1886. (Young.) 

Isophyllia sttHgosa, I. fragilis, I. australiSy Qnelch, op. cit., pp. 82-84, 1886. 

This handsome coral is very common at Bermuda, both on the 
reefs and close to the shores, where it may be attached to scattered 
rocks and ledges, even in very shallow water. It is also abundant 
in Harrington Sound. It lives best where exposed to strong light, 
in open waters. 

A. E. VerriO—The Bermuda Islands; Coral R&eft. 

When living, and with the polyps folly expanded, it \% a beantiful 
object, for its colors are often brilliant and remarkably variegated. 

One of the most common shalloi 
translucent lavender-gray, tinged ii 

flecked with unequal flake-white specks, most of which are in radial 
lines. Tentacles are often swollen at base and obtuse at tips, usually 

water varieties had the disk 
1 places with emerald -green, and 

1 the Hiinple jonng or LiiAopAt/Hio-atage. 

Flgore 77.— Jhiwo fragilit 
Phot. A. H. V, 

translucent gray, with a large patch of flake-white on the outer 

base, sometimes ranning op on the outer side, and sometimes another 

on the inner base; or the whole surface may he flecked with white; 

Tbahs. Com. Acu>., Vol. XII. 13 March, 1906. 

222 A. E. VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Ree/t. 

lips translucent gray with vhite lines. Coenenchyma and column 
translucent olive-brown, usually tinged with emerald-green. 

Sometimes emerald-green is the prevailing color, varied with laven- 
der and flake-white, often in symmetrical patterns ; in other speci- 
mens lavender or yellow may be the dominant color, scarcely two 
being alike. Some pale yellow and almost albino specimena were 
taken. In full expansion this coral and the allied species of 
Miissa look like clusters of bright colored Bea-anemonefi, for the 
soft upper body can rise half an inch or more above the coral aad 

Figure 78.— .M«ssa fragilis, a calicle with a polyp partly expanded, alightly 

enlarged. Sketobed from life by the anthor. 
Fi^re T8a. — The same, one of the Isolated polyps folly expanded, about nat 

size, with a dia)^ammatic section of the coral to show the Telationa of 

tlie parts; «, epitheca ; c. costte ; rn, endotheca ; o, columella; a, a, septa; 

tp, wall. Drawn from life by the author. 

expand a fine wreath of large tapering tentacles, 43 or more in 
number, often entirely concealing the coral beneath the fleshy mem- 
branes. (Fig, 18a.) When it contracts the soft upper-bodies, disk, 
and tentacles sink down into the calJcles, below the bounding rioiH, 
and in full contraction the tentacles are withdrawn out of sight, 
though often visible in partial expansion. (Plate xxsi, fig. ].) At 
such times the fleshy column walls, which cover the ridges and outer 
parts of the coral, are curiously wrinkled and verrucose over the 
denticles, and in that state the form of the coral can usually be seen 
through the translucent tissues. 

Ordinary specimens are ^ to 4 inches in diameter, but in favorable 
localities it often forms hemispherical masses 6 inches or more in 
diameter and 4 to 5 inches thick. 

A. M VerrtU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs. 223 

Toung specimens of this and the other species of Mussa are 
simple, circular, cup-shaped corals, usually up to half an inch or more 
in diameter (fig. 77), and have been described by many writers* as 
distinct species of another genus {LithophyUia or Scolymia), But 
all stages of transition between these simple forms and the complex 
calicles of the adults can easily be found at Bermuda f 

It is very variable in general form and in the size and form of 
the calicles and the intervening ridges, which may be simple or 
double, and in the form and breadth of the septa. The denticles of 
the larger septa are nearly always numerous and slender, often look- 
ing like sharp lacerations of the thin septa, but they vary consider- 
ably in form and number. 

Duchassaing and Michelotti made several species out of ordinary 
variations of this one, and Quelch followed them in this respect, but 
an their species could not be identified by their brief and imperfect 
descriptions, his names were often erroneously applied. To Dr. 
Vanghan I am greatly indebted for an excellent series of photo- 
graphs made for him from their original types, which are still pre- 
served in the Museum of Turin. | 

Their SymphyUia conferta and S. anemo?ie agree very closely 
with Dana's type of fragilis. Their type of thomasiana is nearly a 
typical fragilis^ but many of the calicles had been badly injured 
before death. The types of S, cylindrica and S, guadalupensis are, 
without doubt, abnormal or diseased specimens of the same species or 
of M, dipsacea. In these the septa and their denticles have become 
unnaturally thickened by pathological deposits of calcium carbonate 
in nearly all the calicles. But some of the younger marginal cali- 
cles, which remain partially or wholly normal, show the ordinary 
characters of dipsacea rather than of fragilis. 

Their 8. verrucosa is the same as their guadalupensis. In the type 

* Qnelch, Voj. Challenger, zri, has recorded LithophyUia cubensis and L. 
lacera from Bermuda ; both are young of Mussa. 

f See these Trans., xi, plates xvi-xix, 1901. 

J Dr. T. Wayland Vanghan, when in Tnrin in 1897, was kindly permitted by 
Prof. Camerano to study the types of the species of Symphyllice described by 
Dnchaasaing and Michelotti. Count M. G. Peracca, who has charge of the 
Herpetological Collections at the Turin Museum of Natural History, very cour- 
teously made a series of photog^phic negatives, illustrating each one of the 
species whose type had been preserved. The United States Geological Survey 
had a number of duplicate prints made and these were distributed by Dr. 
Vaughan to various museums. Dr. Vaughan has given me permission to use 
them in T^^lHng the revisions of the species described in this paper. 

224 A, jE Ytrrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Iteefs. 

of guadalupensis the unnatural thickening is so great that many of 
the denticles have become thick obtuse cones or tubercles, often in 
contact, while the septa are so thick that they are often in contact 
at the wall. Similar diseased specimens are common in Bermuda. 

Var. strigosa. The photographs of the two types of their A 
strigosa, one of which is the same that they figured (pi. x, fig. 16, 
but their figure is revereed,) and their type of S, Aglo^ are all much 
alike in details, and in essential characters agree with those Bermuda 
specimens oifragilis in which the calicies become crowded, especially 
when they become older than usual. In this state, or variety, the 
calicies become rather smaller than usual, and many are circam- 
scribed ; the intervening ridges are rather high and mostly simple, 
and the calicies rather deep and abrupt, owing to the septa being 
wider distally. Their teeth are slender, acute, numerous, usually 10 
to 12, and the distal ones are mostly wider, especially on the sum- 
mits of the exsert septa. The name is retained as a varietal term, 
simply for convenience in designating a form or condition due to 
age or conditions of growth. 

The figures on pi. vii, figs. 1-7, of L. Agassiz, Florida Reefs, 
referred to L dipsacea by Pourtal^s, agree better with this variety 
of frag His than with dipsacea, 

Var. asperula nov. (the name of the type, aspera D. and M., was 
preoccupied in Mussa by Edw. and Haime, 1857). 

* The type of S. Aglce is a large specimen with numerons crowded calicies, 
many of which are nearly circnmscribed and separated by narrow and OBiially 
simple coUines. The septa are thin, not very wide, rather openly arranged, 
with slender acute teeth, as in fragilis. The longer, sinnons, calicinal valleys 
of the type are sometimes 2 inches or more in length, and .40 to .50 broad ; the 
hemispherical mass is abont 6 inches wide and 4 high. The specimen is very 
much like that figured on our plate xvii, fig. 5, these Trans., vol. xi, in form, 
number and character of calicies, septa, etc. 

The type of S. thomasiana is very similar in details, bat the calicies are larger 
and more flaring (the larger ones .80 to 1 inch broad), and many are circum- 
scribed ; the ridges are very narrow and simple ; septa unequal, very thin with 
wide interspaces. 

The type of S. helianthus is abnormal, for many of the calicies had been 
injured or killed and were being regenerated, while parasitic barnacles, seipuke, 
algie, etc. , had interfered with the normal development of many calicies. How- 
ever, a few are nearly normal and are very like those of striffosa. The only 
notable peculiarity is the rather unusual breadth of many of the larger septa, 
which are apt to be convex about mid-height ; their surfaces are sharply grann- 
lose ; the denticles are numerous, slender, irregular, roughly grannlose or spina- 
lose. It is probably an abnormal fragiliSy of the var. sirigosa, with dwarfed 
calicies, but it might be dipsacea. 

A, JE. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 225 

The type of their S, aspera is also very similar to many specimens 
of /ragiliSy and in many respects like their JS. AglcB and S. thorn- 
asiana, I am disposed to consider it a variety of fragiliSy for con- 

The most tangible character is found in the rough septa, which 
are thin, rather narrow at the summit, and openly arranged, so that 
the calicles appear rather shallow and open, with narrow and usually 
simple walls between. The surfaces of the septa and their denticles 
are thickly covered with sharp, rough granules or spinules, but not 
much more so than in some specimens of true fragilis. The denti- 
cles are slender and rough, usually 10 to 12, the upper ones some- 
what stouter and wider. The larger calicles are .70 to .80 of an inch 
(18-22"°*) broad ; mostly in long series in the type. 

The Z aspera of Quelch is different and appears to be only a 
slight variation of dipsacea. 

(iBOphyllia) dipsacea (Dana) Ver. Rose Coral, Cactus Coral, Figures 
79, 80, 81. 

Jsophyllia or Symphyllia dipsacea of many writers. 

laophyUia dipsacea Yerrill, 1864 ; these Trans., zi, p. 118, plate xviii, figs. 2, 

5 ; pi. xix, figs. 2, 3 ; pi. xx, fig. 2, 1901. Ponrtal^s, in Agassiz, Florida 

Reefs, pi. vii, fig. 8 (section). Dnerden, Mem. Nat. Acad. Science, viii, pp. 

574-576, pis. xvii, xviii, figs. 121-128, 1902, (anatomy, histology and larva). 
Mussa dipsacea Verrill, op. cit., p. 180, 1901. 
Symphyllia knoxi Dnch. and Mich., op. cit., p. 71, 1860; ? S. cylindrica and 

f S. verrucosa D. and M., loc. cit., pp. 71, 72, 1860. (Both abnormal.) 
Jsophyllia knoxi, J. dipsacea, I, cylindrica, I. aspera (non D. and M.), Quelch, 

Voyage Challenger, Zool., vol. xvi, pp. 84-87, 1886. 

This species closely resembles the last in colors, form, and general 
appearance, as well as in its habits of growth and localities, for they 
are often found together. 

The calicles are often complex and large, up to 1 to 1.5 inches, 
broad and frequently quite shallow. They are often circumscribed, 
partly or wholly, and frequently nearly circular. The intervening 
ridges or collines may be high or low, simple or double, often thick 
and solid. 

Some writers have made half a dozen or more nominal species out 
of mere slight variations of this and the preceding species.* It is 

* This is particularly true of Duchassaing and Michelotti, Coral. Antilles, 
and their Supplement. Also of Quelch, Voy. Challenger, Zool., vol. xvi, pp. 
10-12, 8&-86. For more details see note on a previous page, and Verrill, these 
Trans., xi, pp. 115-121, plates xviii-xx : Zool. of Bermuda, article 11, the same 

226 A. K VerriU—T/ie Bermuda Island*; Coral Seefi. 

eveu a question whether these two be really distinct species ia the 
broader sense, for they nearly intcrgrade, or else hybridize more or 

The chief dififereiioes are in the closer and thicker radial septa, 
tlieir fewer, sliorter and stouter, often triangular or saw-tooth shaped 
dent icul at ions, and other details of stnietare. 

The type of SymphylUft ttto.ri Duch. and Uich., of which Dr. 
Vaiighan has sent me a photograph, is a young tUptacea, very much 
like my figure 2, pi. xix, these Trans., vol. xi. It consists of ni 
broad. sbalKiw. niatnre calicles grouped around a primary simple 



Ptot. by A. H. T. 

one : -iLHiie '.>f thetii are ne^irty eireiilar and simple ; others are 
Wo'uirnL; l.i''eil. The se['ta are nunien>«». close together, not very 
iiirf.nul: the twcli are -tr-ui-^, triaagulur. and r:ither regular. 

The rei'i.trkaf>U' and tla,fH>rite tiirnres dniwn and Itthographed bv 
Mr. A. S.itirel ivv W'-i. l.-mv< X-^-j.^il, f'ut eveniually pablidhed by 

A. Av'a*- 

ligi. t-s"i 
But s'l.jh 


:.i all 

rtaK's ( Florida Reefs, pi. 

be made by lithography. 

ly reprewnted exi-ept by pho- 

■ii/Minrvii. bat he was at that 

j>-"j'lla. They all have slender 

belong mostly to fniffilit. Fig. 

A. E. Verrill—TAe Bermuda Islands; Ooral Reefi. 327 

S has more crowded septa and ia like var. atrigoau. Bnt the section 
Bhown in fig, 8 represents dipsacea, to judge by the stoater triangu- 
lar teeth, though the callcle is deep. Ab long ago as 1861-1864, 

Fignre 80. — Ifuua dipsacea, a gmap of talicles from a DomMil epecimen, abont 
natural size. Phot. A. H. Y. 

when I had charge of the collection of corals in the Mus. Comp. 
Zoology, I conid not find the originals from which these figures 
were made. Therefore I presume that PourtalSs did not find them. 

Figure 81. — Musaa diptacea, var. aster. A yonng colony. Polyps pHrtiy ex- 
ponded, one in fall eipansion, abont nat. size. From a colori^d figure by 

and tbey mnst be judged as they appear on the plate. The septa 
are too thin and too crowded and their denticles too slender to 
belong to M. dipaacea, as now understood. 

228 A. E, Verrill^ The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 

Dana's original type of dipsacea, which I have seen, was not 
mature. It had narrower calicles than the adult (mostly 12 to 18""), 
but the denticles are pretty regularly triangular, or saw-tooth 
shaped, and not very numerous. Dana's figure, also, represents them 
of this form. Specimens like the type are common at Bermuda. 

Var. aster, nov. Figure 81. 
See these Trans., xi, pi. xx, fig. 2, 1901, for type. 

It seems desirable to retain a varietal name for those forms that 
have unusually large, often circumscribed, and generally shallow 
calicles, like those illustrated in the figure referred to. They may 
be called var. aster^ alluding to the appearance of the expanded 
polyps, which resemble certain varieties of " China Aster " of the 
gardens, both in form and colors. 

The septa are numerous and rather thick ; the principal ones bear 
strong, rather regular, and mostly triangular teeth. The calicles 
may be 25 to 35""^ in diameter. 

Mussa (Symphyllia) annectens Verrill. Cactus Coral. Figure 82. 

These Trans., xi, p. 178, pi. xxxv, figs. 1, 2, 1901. 

This is a comparatively rare species, probably best at home on the 
outer reefs, though originally found on the inner ones, off Hamilton 

Figure 82. — Musaa annectens; forms of lai'ger septa of type, enlarged; a-d, 
septa with typical Mussa denticles ; e, /, septa with IsophyUia denticles ; 
c, d, intermediate forms ; g, h^ marginal septa with costal spmules. Drawn 
by A. H. V. 

Harbor, where it is rare. It is a much heavier and coarser species 
than the others, with much larger and longer teeth on the stoat 
distal part of the exsert radial septa ; the upper ones are generally 
the largest and longest. 

A: -E VerrtU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs, 229 

The mature calicles are mostly 15 to 20""™ wide, rather deep, with 
the sides abrupt, owing to the width of the upper part of the septa. 
Some of them, in the larger specimens, may be distinctly and some- 
times regularly 4- to 6-lobed, with a stellate eflFect; many are circum- 
scribed, but most are lobed or sinuous. The collines are mostly 
simple, thick, and nearly solid below the surface, but usually appear 
double at the summit, with a median line or furrow, across which 
the septa do not often blend. It is a rare species ; the type speci- 
mens were obtained from the reefs in Great Sound, off Hamilton, 
and off Ireland Island, by A. H. Verrill, 1901. The expanded polyps 
were not observed. 

At present it is only known from Bermuda, with certainty. 

(Isophyllia) multiflora Ver. Small Rose Coral. Figure 84. 

Isophyllia multiflora Verrill, these Trans., xi, p. 125, pi. xx, fig. 1 (not pi. 

XXV, fig. 1), 1901.- 
JsophyUia muUilamella Ponrtal^, Florida Reef Corals, p. 70, 1871 (non Dnch. 

and Mich. sp.). 
f JsophyUia marginata Qnelch, op. cit., p. 85, 1886 {non Dnch. and Mich.). 

This is also a rather unconmion species, at least on the inner reefs. 
It is distinguished mainly by the small shallow calicles, thin, narrow, 
crowded septa, with long and slender denticulations, which are 
roughly spinulose, about 10 to 12 on the larger septa ; distal ones 
shorter and divergent at the slightly exsert convex summits of the 
septa. It most resembles M. fragilis, var. strigosa. The latter has 
larger and deeper calicles with wider septa, which are less crowded. 

The polyps when expanded form beautiful crowded clusters, simi- 
lar to those of M. fragilis, but smaller. The predominant colors 
are emerald-green, lavender, and flake-white. It occurred on the 
serpuline atolls, off Hungry Bay ; also on the reefs off Great Sound, 
and in other places, but it is not common. Florida Reefs, — Pour- 

When I first described the species I erroneously referred to it a 
young "Specimen of M. rosula, which is quite distinct in structure. 

rosula Verrill, sp. nov. Little Rose Coral. Fignre 83. 

Musga multiflora {pars) Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., xi, p. 126 (No. 4009), 

pi. XXV, fig. 1, 1901. (Young.) 
JsophyUia rigida {pars) Verrill, Bull. Mos. Comp. Zool., i, p. 50, 1864 {non 

Dana, non Ponrtal^, nee Qnelcb). 

This is a rare and but little known species of which I have only 
recently obtained a mature specimen, through the young have been 

230 A. E. Verrill—The Bermuda Itlands; Coral Re^t. 

known to me since 1864. It was a yoong apecimen of this specJa 
tbat I recorded from Bermuda in 1864 (as Isophyllia rigida, coIL 
Mus. Comp. Zool,), but the subsequent discovery of Dana's type of 
riffida in the collection of Yale University proved long ago that it 
is a distinct species. (See these Trans., xi, p. 127, pi. zxv, figs. S, 3, 
for the true M. riffida, which has not been found in Bermuda.)* 

A careful examination of the photographs of all the types of the 
forms described by Duch. and Mich, shows tbat it cannot be referred 
to any of them. It appears, therefore, to still lack a name and i 
place in the system. It resembles multijlora only in the BmaJI nie 
and rapid division of the calicles. 

Figure 83. — Musaa ros-ula, sp. nov. Young ; natural siie. 

Figure 84. — 3f. muUiflura (/), a yonng specimen, abottt natural elEe. Both pbot. 
bj A. H. V. 

lliis specie!:, when mature, forms convex masses up to 4 to 5 
inches in diameter. The calicles are nnusually small for the genus, 
and many soon beconie isolated and nearly circular, especially the 
marginal ones ; most of the calicles are only 10 to 12"" in diameter 
liefore division, but some of the marginal ones may be 18 to 20"', 
in the largest specimen. They arc usually rather deep with steep 
sides. The intervening collines may be simple and solid in the 
young (as in the example figured), but in the larger specimens they 

* Jadging by a photograph of the type, sent to me by Dr. Vanghan, (seep. 828,) 
the Ara/ifhastrtsa iJipaacea Dnch. and Mich., op. oit., p. 76, 1860, la ideotical 
with the tme JIf. rigida of Daoa. 

A. JBL YerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 231 

are generally truncate and double at the surface, with a naked 
groove or furrow interrupting the cost® ; beneath the surface the 
wall, as seen in sections, is thick and nearly solid, with very few 
exothecal vesicles. 

The principal septa in the younger specimens are rather thin and 
not very closely crowded, but in the largest one they become so 
thick distally that they appear crowded, the spaces between being 
less than their thickness ; those of the last cycle are poorly devel- 
oped. The larger septa are rather wide distally and evenly rounded 
at the somewhat exsert summits, where they bear three or four 
angular, rather strong, but not very long, divergent teeth ; the teeth 
or denticles of the inner margin are usually 8 to 12 on the larger 
septa, of moderate length, wider at base, subacute, mostly increasing 
in size and length distally. In the younger specimens the teeth are 
sharply granulose or spinulose, but only moderately so in the adult. 
Columella moderately developed, lamellose and spinulose. The 
epitheca covers the larger specimen almost to the margin, but one 
of the younger ones, which has very little of it, has wide and thin 
lamellar costaB, finely serrulate below, but thickened and covered 
with strong triangular teeth distally, toward the margin. 

This species resembles rigida in the solidity of the walls, but that 
species has smaller, mostly astreiform calicles, and different septal 
teeth. It is nearest related to M. amiectens, but the latter is a much 
larger, coarser, and heavier coral, with larger calicles, stouter and 
more exsert septa, and much larger and longer distal and terminal 
teeth, so that it appears much more spinose. 

This species appears to be rare at Bermuda and unknown else- 
where. I have not seen more than half a dozen specimens among 
the hundreds of specimens of Mussa examined. 

Additional notes on the species of Mussa recorded by Quelch. 

Many species of Mussa (as Isophyllia) were recorded from Ber- 
muda by Quelch.* Most of those that he enumerated are slight 
variations of M, fragilis and M, dipsacea (see above, pp. 223-225). 
In addition to those already discussed, he recorded marginata Duch. 
and Mich., australls Edw. and Haime, niultilainella (D. and Mich., 
1866, as Zfithophyllia), and /. spinosa Edw. and Haime. 

* Of the 28 species of true corals recorded by Quelch, 13 are here regarded as 
synonyms. He enumerated 11 species of Isophyllia and Lithophyllia, all of 
which are here referred to the two common species of Mussa {fragilis and 
dipsacea) with one possible exception (his marginata). 

232 A. E. VerriU—T7ie Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefa. 

The original Lithophyllia muUUameUa was a yoang Mvtta, iDd^ 
terminable from the description and figure. The Bennnda iped- 
mens are more likely to be M. fragili* than any other ; I. ^inow 
Edw. and Halrae appears to be the young of fragUa ; I. atutniit 
was originally based on the young of an AastraliaD species, but tin 
australis of Quelch is apparently fragilit. 

The I. marginata of Quelch was probably my M. multtflora, bat 
the real Symphyllia marginata was quite different, as sfaowa by i 
photograph of the type sent to me by Dr. Vaughan.* The latter i« 
a large convex mass, wilh very numerous, mostly circamscribed, 
angular or irregular, flaring calicles, the larger ones 10 to 15"° broid, 
of moderate depth, with unusually thin, narrow, and fra^e sepU, 
loosely arranged, so as to leave wide open spaces between them, 
those of the later cycles being extremely delicate ; the denticles srt 

Figure 85. — OrbieeUa annufari*, jok. iiizA. Phot, bj A. 

long and slender, but irregular, 12 to 15 or more on the larger septa, 
becoming smaller distally. The septa are thickened at the wall aod 
the ends seem to have been narrow or falcate and considerably 
exsert, but they are mostly broken oS.. The walls are thin, lepi- 
rated by a narrow groove, and apparently by a vesicular exotheo. 
The columella is feebly developed. It is probably a valid speciei, 
distinct from all those recorded from Bermuda. It resembles sonw 
of the larger fpecimcns of fragilit more than any other Bermndi 
species, but the latter rarely if ever has so many of the calicles ct^ 
cumscribed, nor so small, nor the septa so narrow and loosely 

• For critical remarlta on moat of their othw types, see pp. 2SS-886. 

A. E. V<srriU—77ie Bermuda Islands; Coral Rteft. 233 

arranged. In general appearance it resembles M. kitpida Dana.* 
{See Verrill, these Trans., xi, p. 127, pi. xxi, figs. 2-20, 1901.) The 
type ot the latter is in the Museum of Yale University. 

OrtncellA annnlnria (Dana) Ver. Star Cnrai. FignKs 85, 86. 

Avlrtra annularu and Htliaatraa annularis of manj writers. 

OHdeella annularis Terrill, these Traiu., li, pp. 94, 171, pi. iy, figs. 1, la, 

IMl. Dnerden, Hem. Nat. Acad. Sci., viii, pp. 564-366, pis. vtii-x, figs. 

S4-T3, anatomy, biBtology. 
Orbicella acroptyra VangbftD, op. oit., p. 301, platea vi, vii, 1902. 

This coral grows both in the form of thick crusts, 2 to 4 inches 
thick, and ia hemispheres up to 3 feet or more in diameter. It is 
found miunly on the outer reefs, but has often been obtained from 
those not far off Ireland Island. In life it is usually pale yellow, 

Fignre 86.— OrWceHa annuJari»; a, poljpB partially eipunded ; b, In foil eipan- 
iioD. From colored drawing by A. H. Verrill. 

yellowish brown, or greenish, due to zooxanthellte. It can be dis- 
tiDgaished from most others by its slightly prominent, circular 
calicles, sboat ^ inch in diameter (fig. 85). The polyps, when fully 
expanded, rise considerably above the nms of the calicles, as shown 
in fig. 86, b. They have about 24 slender, short, unequal tentacles 
with a small white knob at the tip. The soft upper body and the 
tentacles in expansion are translucent, usually yellowish or greenish 
with white specks. 

It is common on the Florida reefs and throughout the West Indies, 
where it often grows to great size, sometimes forming masses 3 to 5 
feet in diameter. 

* M. hitptda tuu wider and mach i 
th« aepts are n 

lore irregDlar and lacerate septal teeth, and 
■e spinolose laterally. 

234 A. K Verrin—TAe Bermuda lalandg; Coral Eeeft. 

Orbicella cavernosa (Linn.) Ver. Great Star Coral. Fig. 87. Pl.iii*,%l. 

Aatrta eatftiwia, A. radiata, and A. argua of nuuif writers. 

Orbicella caremoia Veirill. 1864; these Trane., xl, pp. 102, 171, 169, IW. 
Vangh&n, FoBsil Corals, p. 37, 1001. 

This fine coral is miich less common tfaan the last. It growi 
chiefly on the outer and most exposed reefs, where it forms hemis- 
pherical masses. I have seen a few small specimens from the inner 
reefs, 2 to 3 inches thick. The largest Bermuda specimen that I 

Fignre %!.— Orbicella caneniosa, nbout natural size. Phot, bj A. H. T. 

hare seen is a dome-shaped mass, rather more than a foot in diame- 
ter, but it is said to grow much larger there, as it certainly does in 
the West Indies and Florida, where it is much more common and 
reaches the diameter of 4 to 5 feet at least. According to Ponrtalii 
it occui-s in 10 to 15 fathoms, off Florida. 

It is also found as far south as Pernambuco, Brazil. It is one of 
the common fossil corals in the elevated reefs of mauy of the West 
Indian Inlands. At 'Dominica Island it occurs in an elevated reef, 
near Rosseau, about 1,000 feet above the sea, from whence I hare 
good specimens collected by A H, Verrill, 1905. It has also been 
found fossil in the Devonshire formation of Bermuda (see p. 167). 

It is easily distinguished from 0. anmilaris by the roach la^ 
calicles, which are usually .25 to .30 of an inch (6 to S"") or more 
in diameter, and by the more numerous septa (about 48). The 
columella is usually large. 

Fleaiaatrsa Ooodei Verrill. Star Coral. Figure 86. 

These Trans., li, pp. 106, 1T2, fig. 1, pi. xxxi, figs. 1, la, iDOl. 
This is, apparently, a rare species. I have seen but two Bennnda 
specimens, one of which, now in the American MnseDin, New York, 
was taken by Mr. Whitfield on one of the small inner reefc, off 

A. E. VerriU—Tke Bermuda Islands; Coral Meefs. 


Bailey Bay. The other, collected by Mr. G, Brown Goode, may 
have been from the onter reefs, but had no special label. It forms 
thick, solid crasts and also hemispheres up to a foot or more in 
diamet«r. Its small stellate calicles are very regular in structure, 
but vary somewhat in form and size. They have a simple, solid 
colnmella in the center. The living polyps have not been described. 
It occurs also in the Bahamas. 

Figure 81 

—PUnattroia GootUi, x about 5. Phot, by A. H. V. Type. 

Ocnlima dlAua Lam. Bii«A Coral. Figures 30a, 89. Plate xxviii, Sg. 3. 
OcuUna diffusa DauA, Zooph., p. 397, 1846. Edw. and Haime (part), Corall., 
ii, p. 107, 1857. PunHaltw, Beef Corals, p. 65, 1877; Florida Reefs, pi. i, 
figs. 2, 8, 4 (polype) ; pi. iii, figs. 10-18, 1880. Qnelch, op. cit., p. 47, 1886, 

Oculina aiffttta Vanghan, op. cit., p. 2M, pi. i, figa. 5, 6a, 1902. Verrill, 
these Trans., xi, p. 17G, 1901, Duerden, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., viii, pp. 
586-588, pi. nil, flg, 149. 

This is the most common of the Bermuda Oculinas. It grows 
abundantly in Harrington Sound, Castle Harbor, etc., as well as in 
the outer waters, bat it is not found, like the massive corals, exposed 
to the heavy surf of the onter reefs, in very shallow water. In the 
outer waters it is found in abundance at the depths of 5 to 10 
fathoms or more, on the reefs and " broken ground." Wherever there 
are atones or ledges on the bottom for attachment, it is found in the 
sounds and channels, in 3 to 10 fathoms. I also saw a specimen at 
Bermuda, 7 inches high, taken from the bottom of a ship recently 
arrived from the West Indies. In Harrington Sound it grows in 
shallow water 3 to 4 feet deep, as well as in 5 to 8 fathoms. 

When well grown this coral forms handsome densely branched 
clDSters of very numerous branchlets, becoming quite slender at the 
tips. The clumps are often a foot or more high. The calicles are 

236 A. E. VerriU—TAe Bermuda Islands; Coral Itee/s. 

round and a little prominent, though varying in this respect. When 
□ot so well developed, the ulusterB of branches are irregnUr snd 
often misshapen or straggling. The main branches are often an inch 
or more in diameter. 

When living these corals are dull yellow or ocher-yellow to 
brownish yellow; the soft upper bodies of the expanded polyps are 
pale yellow, or translucent with whitish lines, and rise high above the 
calicles. The slender tentacles are specked and tipped with flake- 
white, due to raised clusters of cnidie. 

The figures -2-4, on pi. i, of L. Agassiz, Florida Reefs, which 
Pourtat^s referred to 0. vuricosa, belong, without much doubt, to 
this species, and my fig. 89 is only slightly ajtered from hufig. 2. 

Fi^re 89. — Oeulina difftiia, Bhowing polyps in partial and full ezpanMon. 
From colored figure by A. H. Y., altered from L. AgBBsiz. 

It agrees better with the polyps of 0. diffusa, as seen hy me it 
Bermuda, than with either of the other species, though the differ- 
ences between them are only slight, when seen in the corresponding 
states of expansion. However, this figure was drawn by Mr. Bork- 
hardt from a living specimen in Florida, while he was artist for 
Prof. L. Agassiz on his visit to Florida to study the reefs. O. d^uta 
is the only Oeulina that is ordinarily found on the Florida reefs and 
Keys, where it is abundant, and therefore it would naturally have 
been the species figured while living. Pourtalis himself states (op. 
cit., p. 66) that 0. varicosa has not been found on the Florida reefa 
to his knowledge. I can say the same. The specimens of the conl 
of O. varicosa on the same plates were all from Bermuda. 

It is a common coral throughout the West Indiea and Florida 
Keys, in sheltered places. 

A. E. VtrriU~TAe Sermuda Islands; Corai Reefs. 237 

Ocnlliut vaiicOMi Lesneur. laay Coral. Figai^a 00. 91, a. Plate ziTiii, fig. 1. 

Oculina variaaa Lea., Hem. Una. Paria, vi, p. 391, pi. xvil, Gg. 19, 1830. 

Tonng. DoQB, Zo6pb. Expl. Exp., p. 894, 1846. Poortalea, Raef Corals, p. 

60 i Florida Reefs, pi. i, Bga. l-1a ; pi. ii, Bga. 3, 4 ; pi. iii, Gga. 8, S. 1880. 

Verrill, these Tnuw., li, p. 178, pi. Jiiii, figs, 2, 3, 4, 1901. 

When well grown this is one of tbe most elegant corals of these 

waters. It grows taller, with a stouter trunk than the last, and 

hrancfaes more sparingly and in a more tree-like manner, with stouter 

and longer branches. The calicles are larger and more prominent 

Figure 90. — Ocuftna varieota, part of a branch with the polypa well expanded. 
X about 5. Drawing by A. U. V. 

and much swollen at base, or even mammiform, and on the large 
branches are often sarrounded by a depression and ridge. The 
coral, when dried and bleached, becomes pure white, but in life it is 
usually light yellow. The polypH are translucent and rise much 
above the calicles in full expansion. The tentacles are slightly 
knobbed at the tip and specked with white. 
Tarietj conigaia Venill. Fignre 91, o. 

Tbeae Trans., xi, p. 175, pi. xix, fig. 3, 1901. 

This lingular variety has the corallets much more elevated, swollen 
or mammiform at base, with the calicles smaller than usual. The 
■orface is nearly smooth. It is rather rare. Tbe best examples that 
I have seen were from deep water in Harrington Sound. 

Oculina Vftlenciomeai Edw. and Haime. leory Coral. Fignre 91, b. 
Honog. Oonlinids, p. 69, 1850; Hist. Corall., ii, p. 108, 1857. 
fOatlina bermudiana Dnch. and Mich., Sapl. Corall. Antilles, p, 16S [66], 

pi. X, figs. 1, 3 (poor), 1S66. Qnelch, op. cit., p. 51 (aa bermudettsis). 
Oeulina Valeneitnneti Verrill. theee Trans., vol. li, p. 17S, pi. xiiii, fig. 5, 

This coral branches rather loosely and irregularly, usually with 
pretty long and often crooked, tapered branches, forming open 
clumps often a foot or more high. 
TEAire. Conn. Acad., Vol. xn. 18 Apsil, 1906. 

•238 A. E. Verrill—The Bernuida Islands; Coral Reefs. 

The calicles project but little and are usually snrrouDde 
eliallow dopi-ession or fosse and outer circular ridge, somet 
high as the calicles. 

It is common at the depth of 2 to 10 fathoms or more, 
soiindx and channels between the reefs, and also in Hai 
Sound, etc. 

Oculina pallena Ehrenbei^. Iirory Coral. Figure 93. Plata xxxvi. 
Corall. Botlien Ue«res. p. 79. 1884. Dana, ZoOph., p. 67, fig. 29, p. 3 

Ponrtalfea, Floiida Reefs, pi. iii, 8gB. 14-17, 1688. 
fOculina spedosa Edw. and Haime, MoDog., p. 67, pi. It, fig. 1, 18.' 

Corall., ii, p. lOS, 1857. Qoelcb, op. cit., p. 50 (dKBcr. and uotf 

orii^Dal type, eiamineil). 
Oculina pallem Verrill, these Trans., xi, p. 176, 1901. 

This, when well grown, is a handsome speciee, braucbin| 
aborescent form. The branches are larger and less namerous 


Figure fli.— n, Oculina raricosa, var. conigfra; b, O. rarrnriennMi. 

natural size. Phot, by A, H. V. 
Fignre 92.— Oc»/in<i pallfm ; ii. one of the polyps expanded, k aboal ! 

group of tentacles more enlarged to show the (dtemation. Bj the k 
Figure 93. — O. coroiiafia. Section of a calicle much enlarged. After Qde 

O. diffusa, to which it is nearly allied. It has calicles less si 
and less prominent tiian those of 0. varicoaa. It occurs in ihi 
places with the preceding. 

Oculina coronalix Qaelch. Irory Coral. Figure W, 
Voy. Challenger, ivl, p. 49, pi. i, figs. 6-ee. VerriU, thaw Tians., xi, i 

This is a loosely branched coral distinguished mainly by tbe 
of 12 pali around tlie columella being rather more promitKot 
usual. But all the species vary in this respect. It may be me 

A. K VerriU—TAe Sermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 239 

riety of the preceding, which it resfmbles in mode of growth, 
-ge size of caliclee, and general appearance. I found no specimens 
reeing perfectly with the type, though some from Harrington 
und seem to be the aame. 

• deCBctis (L;nian) Ver. Figares 94, 95. 
ittrtta decactii Ljtusii, 1859. 
itadraeis deeaetii Verrill, 1864. Poortal^, op. cit., pp. 28, 67, pi. vii, Gg*. 

1-4, 1871. Verrill, these Trans., i, p. 551, pi. Uvii, figs. 8, 10, 1900; li, 

p. 108, Sgs. 2, 2a, pi. xiv. 6g. 6, 1901. 
ixJielia deeaetis Vaaghaii, op, cit., p. 8, 1801. 

'lliia coral is not uncommon at Bermuda, even on the inner reefs 
d in Harrington Sound and Castle Harbor. When young it forms 
ists, or small, irregular, nodular masses, but later usually grows 

Figure 94. — Madracit decaclia, x abont 6. 

Figure 95. — Tbe same, with polyps expanded. Drawings by A. H. V. 

> into blunt branches or irregular lobes, sometimes becoming round 
id forking into smaller branches, which are usually very brittle, 
ough seldom leas than J inch in diameter. The coral is rarely 
>re than 4 to 6 inches high. 

It can easily be distinguished by the small, usually sunken calicles 
lich have only ten septa (encept sometimes a few calicles at the 
8 of the branches, which may have 20). This number 10 for 
•- septs is rare in corals. The polyps, however, have 20 unequal 
itacles, sometimes only 18, and rise above the calicles when they 
;iand (fig. 95). The color in life is variable, usually light yellow- 
brow.n and rust-color, or purplish brown, varying to pink and 
lit yellow. Disk dull yellow, russet-brown or lavender, with white 
3ial lines, wider near the mouth ; lips whitish ; tentacles have 
lite tips. 

It occurs, also, in Florida and the West Indies. Gregory has 
ported it as fossil from the Bermuda beach-rocks. 

240 A. E. VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

Porit«a astreoidea Lam. Figures OS, 86a, Plate xxii, fig. 1. 
Madrepora poritet {pars) Fallas, Eleurb. Zooph., p. 334, 1766. 
PoriUs aalreoides Lam., Hi8t. Anim. Suns Vert,, ed. I, ii, p. 208, 1818. 
Foritea oilraoidfs Dana, ZoOph. U. S. Eapl. Exp. , p. S6I, 1846. Verrill, BdB. 
MuB. Comp. Zool., i, p. 42, 1884. Ponrtalis, FloridB Reefs, pi. ivi, figi 
1-13, 1880. Dnerden, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., viii, pp. 550-553, pL iii-i. 
flgB. 38-43, 1902, anatomy. 
ftiri(<s astreoides Vanghan, op. oil., p. 317, plates ixiii-xxitv, 1901. Verrill, 

these Trans., xi, pp. 160, 181, pt. xixi, Qga. 4, 4a, 1901, 
This coral ia one of the most impoitant of the reef-building corala, 
It forms large hemispherical, siibglobular, or domesfaaped masses 
when well grown, on the outer reefs, but is often found in the form 
of thick crusts. Its surface is genemlly more or less uneven or 
nodular. It sometimes becomes 2 feet or more in diameter, but is 
more commonly not move than to 10 inches in diameter. 

Figure 96. — Porites astrtoidfs. Polyps in partial eipandon, mach 

From colored drawing by A. H. V. 
Future 97. — Poritea poriles, var. clararia. One o( the poljips fnUy 

Hnch enlat^d. Prom life by tbe aatbor. 

In life its color is ueaally greenish yellow, sometimes pale oeher- 
yellow, yellowish green or yellowish brown. I>aerden describes it 
as sometimes blue. 

The polyps, in contraction, are usually brighter yellow than the 
ccenencliyma ; when fully expanded they rise considerably above 
the coral and have twelve small blunt tentacles. The small moutti 
is bordered with white, and usually there are twelve thin white 
radial lines on the disk. The tentacles are sometimes wliitish or 
very pale yellow, in other cases brownish yellow. Twelve snisli 
white specks often surround the base of each polyp. They usuallr 
stand so close together that when fully expanded the tentacles inter- 
lock and entirely conceal the surface of the coral. Occasioniilf 

A. E. VerriU—7^e Bermuda Islands; Coral Reeft. 241 

there are more than 12 tentacles. Dr. Duerden has described its 
anatomy very fully. 

When dried the coral becomes dark brown or black, unless 
cleaned with potash or bleached. 

It is most abundant on the outer reefii, but is also common on the 
inner reefs and serpuline atolls oB the southern shore. It is occa- 
sionally fonnd, also, in Harrington Sound. 

This is an abundant reef coral in the West Indies and Florida and 
has received many names not given above. 

Forites poritea (Pallas), var. clavaria Lam. Figure 97. 

Madrtpora poritet (part) Pallas, Eleacb. ZuQpb., p. 334, ITSC. 

FbnUt polyinorphiu (para) Link, Besoh. Nat. Samml., Boitock, p. 163, 1807. 

Poriiti clavaria Lam.. Hist. Aniin, sana Vert., ii, p. 270, 1816. Uana, Zooph., 

p. 654, 1046. Ponrtalis, Florida Seeh, pi. xii, figs. 4-6, 1880. Ratbbnn, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mna., x, pp. 35$-361, pi. xvi, pi. ivii, fig. 2, pi. lii, fig. 1, 

1887. Daerden, Uem. Nat. Acad. Sci., vUi, p. 427. 

Poritea poriUt (par>=furiiia clavaria) Vaagbau, op. cit., pp. 314-316, pi. 

xiix, pi. mi, fig. 2, 1902. 
PariU* polvoorpli'* Verrill. these Trans., zi, pp. 158, 181, pi. xxxi, figs. 8, 

So, 1901. 

This is a rather unattractive coral. As found in Bermuda it grows 

in irre^tar clnmps or clusters of stout, uneven, often crooked, short, 

blunt branches, dead below, and covered with small, inconspicuoux, 

shallow calictes. The color in life is dark brown to yellowish brown 

Figare 96a.— ftiri(e» aslrrotdes, group of calicles. 

F^nre 67a. — P. poriUi, var. davaria, group at calicles, x 4. Both phot, by 
A. H. V. 

or gray. It occurs in shallow water near the shore attached to small 
masses of rocks, as well as on the reefs. It was not very abundant 
in any locality visited by us. It is variable in form, but the variety 
(or allied species) called /'. furcata, abundant in Florida and the 
West Indies, has not been found in Bermuda, so far as I know. 

242 A. E. Verrill—The Bermuda Islands; CoralRe^t. 

The polyps, when fully eipanded, rise considerably aboTe the 
caliclefi. The column and tentacles are tranBlacent and nsuallT 
nearly colorlese, specked with white. There are generally 12 nearly 
equal tentacles; occasionally a large calicle occurs with 24 blunt 
tentacles and 24 septa. Such abnormally large calicles soon undergo 
fission. They are more frequent in P. astreoidee and some other 

Vaughan unites the davaria and all the other branching West 
Indian forms in one species, under the name Poritea poritea. There 
may be good reasons for doubting the correctness of this, bnt there 
is DO reason to doubt that ciaviiria was one of the forms included 
under M, pontes by Pallas. 

Bid«rastrea radiaiu <Pallas) Ver. Slar Coml. Fige. 9S-99b. PI. xzix, fig. I. 
Madrepora radiani Pallas, Elencb. Zoopb., p. 322, 1766. 
Sidfraatraa radians Verrill, Bull. MnB, Comp. Zool., i, p. M, 18M ; tlie« 

Trans., zi, p. 153, 181. pi. xzz, fig. 1. Tanghan, Corals Porto EUcan Watm, 

p. 309, pi. XV, pi. ivi, fig. 2, 1901. 
Dnerden, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., viii, pp. 608, .130, 623. Th« Conl 8Umt- 

Irra /•adiam and its Postlarval Development. Carnegie Inst., WaahiDgton, 

Fabl. No. 20, 130 pp.. 11 pi., 1004. 
Sidrrattraa galajrra of maoj writers. Ponrtalte, Beef Corale, p. 81 ; HoiUi 

Beefs, pi. li, figs, 14-31, series of joung; pi. zr, ^s. 1-IS, Oga. 1-7 Ao* 

living polvpa. 
This is a ver\- common coral, both ou the reefs and on the flats in 
shallow water near the sbore, and in Harrington Sound. We found 

Figure 98. — SideraMnra i-adiau* with the polyps paztiallj expanded, mn^ 
t^alitgeH. Altered from Agaasii. Phot, from a coloted drawing, hence too 

A. EL. VfTriU—7%e Bermuda Inlanda; Coral Reefi. 243 

it abundant on the shallow data at Long Bird Island, even in places 
laid bare at low tide, and also at Walsingham Bay in one or two 
feet of water in a sheltered, muddy cove. In such places it often 
fonnH ovate or eubglobular masses, 3 to 6 inches in diameter, wholly 
nnattacbed, and with calicles on all sides. They were evidently 
attacbed, when very young, to small shells or loose bits of stone 
whicb have been entirely enclosed. On the reefs it forms thick 
cruBts or more or less hemiapberical masses, up to more than a foot 
in diameter. 

Id life the color is usually dull orange-brown, or brownish yellow, 
or HometimeH clay-color, varying according to the situation. In full 
expansion the polyps rise only a little above the calicles. The tenta- 
cles, about 36 in number, are scattered over about one-half the disk, 
forming three or fonr irregular circles ; they are mostly small, slen- 

Pignre W. — Sidrraatnta radians, group of ealiclea, ■x 2^. 
Figure 100.— S. tiderea. Calicles, x 2i. Both phot, bj A. H. V. 

der, tapered, but the larger inner ones are bilobed. In 1898, I did 
not see that the tips were bilobed, as they were figured by L. 
Agassiz many years ago,* but bis enlarged figure (5) does not show 
bilobing, but indicates that the appearance was due to their peculiar 
grouping, which the artist did not understand. The c<eneuchyma is 
marked by lighter and darker radial lines of color, the disk is often 
dark orange-brown or yellowish brown, with paler radial lines ; lips 
lighter ; tentacles yellow or yellowish brown with wljitish enlarged 

tip"- ^_^^__^_ 

* I>aerden has. however, receutir described them as bilobed at the tip (op. 
cil., 1904, p. 10). They are small and may have been imperfectly expanded 
when observed by me, bat it is possible that they vary in this respect. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Dnerden they are dimorphic, the inner ones, trbich are endocoelic, 
Iwing bilobed, while the outer ones sr« ectoccelic and simple. (See figs. 09a, 


244 A. E. Verrill—T/te Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefg. 

The description of this species given by Pallas, in 1766, is very 
good and applies perfectly well to tliis species and to no other. 
Therefore there is no reason why his name, radiant, should not be 
UDiversally adopted, instead of ijalaxea of much later date. 

The development of this species has recently been the subject of 
an extended work by Dr. Duerden. It proves to be hardy in con- 
finement and well adapted for such studies (Carnegie Inst., 1904, 
Pnbl. No. 20). Dr. Duerden there fully describes the adult and 
young polyps, as well as the gradual development of the corallum 
from its earliest appearance, with admirable il lustrations. 

Figure ^a.—SitUraitrea radian); dingtammalic view of disli and tentadn, 
mnfb enlaced. The tentacleB and aepta are nombered acoording to their 

Fignre 99b. — The same ; a, inner bilobed tentacle ; b, ooter simple one. Both 
after Duerden. 

Siderastrsea aiderea (E. and Sol.) Blainv. Star Coral. FigureB 100, 100». 
Maiirepora sulerea Ellis and Sol., op. cit., p. 168, pi. xlii, fig. 2, 1786. 
Sidrraatnea aidei-ea Blainr., op. cit., p. 335, 1630; Uan. Aotin., p. S70, 18H. 
Edw. and Haime, Uonog., p. 141, 1S49. Verrill {pars), these Trans., i, p. 
554. 1900 ; vol. li, pp. 151. 181, pi. ixx, figs. ■£, 3, 1901. Vanghau, op. dt, 
p. 809, pi. liv, GgB. I, 2. pi. xvi, fig. 1, 1902. Daerden, Hem. Nat. Ag^., 
viii. pp. 437, 488, 588-591, pie. iiiii, iiiv, figs. 150-160. 
This coral grows in the same forms as the last, but appears to be 
much less common at Bermuda, at least in the places that we visited. 

FiKnre lOOa.—Sidrriiali-aa siderea, one-half of a calicle in section, but showing 
expanded polyp ; from life ; e, c, septa ; s, month and stomodmun. Drawn 
by the author, x about 8. 

It is more restricted to the outer reefs, where it may beoonLe large. 

J. E. VerriU—'nie Bermuda lalandi; Coral Reeft. 245 

It differs from the preceding mainly in having a larger number of 
sdial septa (about 48), which are less unequal in size and thickness, 
ind io having somewhat larger calicles, which are commonly din- 
inctly bounded by an interveaing angular ridge, so that they often 
Lppear hexagonal or polygonal. 

The living polyps of this, apparently in full expansion {fig. 100«), 
18 seen by the writer, had small, tapered, blunt or knobbed tenta- 
iles, in four or five rows, the inner ones largest and bilobed, situated 
iboDt midway between the mouth and margiit of the disk. The 
«lors were about as in the preceding species.* 

It is an abundant West Indian reef coral, where it often forms 
olid hemispheres 3 to 5 feet in diameter. 

lS<^riciA fragilia Dana. Hal Coral. Shade Coral. Figs. 101, 101a. 
Agarieia fragilia Terrill, these TranB., xi, pp. 142, 181, pi. xxvi, figs. la-Id, 

1901 ; The Zoolog; of Bcrmada, i, article 11, pp. 142, 181, same plate. 
MgcediKm fragile of many authors. PonrtalSe, in L. Agaswz, Florida Beefs, 
pi. li, figs. 1-10, jonog; pi. xiii, figs. l-H; pi. ilv, flgs. 1-8, details. 



Figure 101.— Agnricia fra-iills. a specimen with two primary calicles, probably 

dne to two youim Bpecimens growing together ; aboat fi nat. size. Phot. 

A. H. V. 
Fipire 101a.— The same; living polyps at and near the margin, apparently fully 

expanded, and showing the minute tentaoles. Drawn by A. H. V., from a 

sketch by the author. Enlarged. 

•The coral called Aitrra aidtrta by Leauenr (op. cit., p. 288, pi. 16, liga. 
14, a, 6, e), and of which he figured the polyps, is not of this genus. It in an 
latnean coral with about 38 short tentacles, in two aubiuargioal serien. If I 
inderstand hia description of the coral, which is rather ambignona, it has a 

246 A. E, Verrill — 7%6 Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 

This delicate coral is rare on the outer reefs, but is common in 
sheltered situations on the reefs and ledges, especially in Harring- 
ton Sound, where it occurs under shaded cavernous places in the 
shore ledges, in very shallow water, and also to the depths of 2 to 6 
fathoms or more. It also occurs in Castle Harbor. 

When full grown it may become a foot in diameter, but large 
specimens are nearly all irregular. The best formed are 2 to 5 
inches in diameter. It is always attached by a narrow but strong 
pedicel, so that the thin edges of the cup are usually broken in 
detaching the coral, unless found in so shoal water that it can be 
taken by hand. 

The color of the coral, in life, on the upper side is usually choco- 
late brown, yellowish brown, or purplish brown with pale radial 
lines; often dull yellowish brown below. The tentacles are whitish, 
very small and short in those that were best expanded ; disk not 
raised to level of calicle rims, but possibly we did not see them fully 
expanded ; the mouth is relatively large, rounded or elliptical. 

Spurious and Superfluous Species, 

On the previous pages I have enumerated all the true corals that 
are known to occur at Bermuda in shallow water. Others may yet 
be found there. Several others have been found in deep water, near 
Bermuda, and on Challenger Bank, in 25 to 40 fathoms. (See list 
in these Trans., xi, p. 182.) 

Certain species have been erroneously attributed to Bermuda, 
from various causes. 

Gregory erroneously recorded Colpophyllia gyrosa from Bermuda 
because of his confounding it with Mussa fragilis. He also errone- 
ously recorded Agaricia agaricites because he confounded A, fragilis 
with it in his synonymy. Neither of these two common West Indian 
species has hitherto been found in Bermuda. 

Nor have any of the varieties of Acropora (or Madrepora) muri- 
cata, though they are often sold in the curiosity shops to travelers, 
as if of Bermuda origin. They are all imported from the West 
Indians " for the trade," especially variety prolifera. 

more or less solid columella, or else a circle of close pali, which he speaks of as 
a central ** cylinder" united to the ** lamellae." The callcles were described as 
prominent and the septa free at the summit, rounded, and crennlate. It may 
have been a variety of Favia fragum^ though the latter has no solid columella. 

A. K VerrUl^The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 247 

Quelch (Voyage CballeDger, xvi), recorded about a dozen species 
too many becaase be followed other authors in regarding trivial 
variations in growth, etc. as true species. Most of his errors of this 
kind have been corrected in the previous pages, especially those in 
the genus Mussa (his Isophyllia and LithophyUia)^ and in Mceandra 
(bis Mceandrina), However, it may be useful to add in this place a 
list of the species recognized by him, with their present equivalents, 
so far as they can be determined without reexamination of types. 
Thirteen out of the 28 listed by him I regard as synonyms. 

Species listed hy Quelch. 

Oeuliiui diffusa, p. 47. 

O. pollens, p. 48. 

O. varieosa, p. 48. 

O. coronalis, sp. dot., p. 49. 

O. speeioHQ, p. 50. 

O. bermudensis, p. 51. 

O. Valenciennesi, p. 11. 

Mddraeis decactis, p. 53. 

Isophyllia strigosa, p. 82. 

/. fragUis, p. 84. 

/. austrcdis, p. 84. • 

/. dipsaeea, p. 84. 

A marginaJla, p. 85. 

/. cylindriea, p. 86. 

/. Knoxi, p. 86. 

/. multilamella, p. 11. 

/. spinosa, p. 11. 

Lithophyllia eubensis, p. 11. 

L. lacera (non Pallas, sp.), p. 11. 

Diploria certbriformis, p. 90. 

Mceandrina labyrinthiea, p. 91. 

M, sinuosissima, p. 91. 

M. strigosa, p. 92, 

Astrasa ananas, p. 98. 

A. eoaretata, p. 98. 

Siderastrrea galaxea, p. 113. 

Agarieia fragilis, p. 117. 

Porites clavaria, p. 179. 

Present names. 

No chaDge. 

No change. 

No change. 

No change. 

O. paliens, var. 

O. Valenciennesi, var. 

No change. 

No change. 

Mussa fragilis. 

M. fragilis. 

M. fragilis, young. 

M. dipsacea. 

M. multi/lora. 

M. dipsacea (ahnorraal). 

3f. dipsacea, yonng. 

M. multiflora ?, young. 

M. fragilis. 

M. fragilis, young. 

M. dipsacea, young. 

Mceandra lahyrinthifonnis. 

M. cerebrum, var. strigosa. 

M. cerebrum. 

M. cerebrum, var. strigosa. 

Favia fragum. 

F. fragum, var. 

S. radians. 

No change. 

P. porites, var. clavaria. 

248 A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

Actinaria*; Sea Anemones, etc. 


Several large and handsomely colored sea anemones occar com- 
monly, both on the outer and inner reefs, and some are often very 
conspicuous when expanded, especially Condylactis gigantea^ which 
is one of the largest and most abundant. It has very long and large 
flexible tentacles, usually with pink or purple tips, which are DOt 
retractile when disturbed. 


* The more important recent special works relating to the Bermnda Actinaria 
are as follows : 

Andresy A. — Le Attinie. Fauna n. Flora d. Golfes von Neapel. Mouog. ix, 

An admirahle work on the Mediterranean species. Enumerates most of the 
Actinians then known from other seas. 

Carlgren, O. — Ost-Afrikanische Actinien. Mith. Naturhist. Mus. Hamborg, 

Contains some results of an examination of the types of Duchassaing and 



Duerden, J. J5;.— Jamaican Actinaria. Part i, ZoanthaB. Royal Dublin Sec. Trans., 
ser. 2, vol. vi, pp. 389-376, plates xviia-xx (with anatomy), 1898 ; Part ii, 
op. cit., vol. vii, pp. 133-208, pi. x-xv, 1900. 

Actinaria around Jamaica. Journ. Inst. Jamaica, vol. ii, No. 5, pp. 

449-465, 1898. 

The Edwardsia-titRge of Lehrunia. Journ. Linn. Soc. London, Zodl., vol 

xxvii, pp. 269-316, pi. 18, 1899. 

Report on the Actinians of Porto Rico. Ball. U. S. Fish Com. for 1900, 

vol. XX, part 2, pp. 321-374, 12 plates, 1902. 

— West Indian Sponge-incrusting Actinians. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
xix, pp. 495-503, 4 plates, 1903. 

On the Actinian Bunodiopsis globulifera Verrill. Trans. Linnean Soc. 

London, vol. viii, part 9, pp. 297-317, plates xxv, xxvi, 1902. 

Contains full anatomical and histological details of this Bermuda species. 

Erdinaniiy A. — Ueber einige neue Zoantheen. Jena Zeitsoh. fur Naturwissen- 
schaft., vol. xix, pp. 430-488. 2 plates, 1886. 

. Describes two unnamed species from Bermuda with anatomy. 

Gray, J. £.— Spic. Zool,, viii, 1825. Notes on Zoanthinae. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, pp. 233-240, 1867. 

Enumerates the West Indian genera and species. 

Haddon, A. C— Re\i8iou of the British Actiniae. Part i. Sci. Trans. Royal 
Dublin Soc, iv, pp. 297-361, pi. xxxi-xxxvii, 1889. 

A. JS, VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 249 

Some of the social actinians (Zoanthacea) form broad encrasting 
3lonie8, several feet across. One of the most common (Palythoa 
lammiUosd) is light ocher-yellow and is often very conspicuous on 
tie reefs. 

dptasia annulata (Les.) Andres. Ringed Anemone. Figs. 102, 108. Plate 
XXTJ, fig. 2. 

Actinia annulata I^es., Jonrn. Philad. Acad. Sci., i, p. 172, 1817. 

Aiptasia annulata Andres. McMnrrich, Actin. Bahama Is., p. 7, pi. i, fig. 1; 

pi. iii, fig. 1, 1889. Duerden, Actinaria around Jamaica, p. 457, 1898. 
Verrill, these Trans., x, p. 556, pi. Ixviii, fig. 3, 1900. Duerden, Actinaria of 

Porto Rico, pp. 355-358, pi. iii, xi, xii, figs. 11, 41, 44, 1902, anatomy. 

This, when full grown, is a large and elegant species, with very 
umerons (often over 200) long, slender, tentacles, covered with 

laddon, A. C. and Shackleton, Miss Alice M. — Revision of the British Actiniae. 
Part 11; the Zoantheae. Sci. Trans. Royal Dublin Soc., vol. iv, ser. 8, pp. 
609-672, 3 plates, 1891. 

Contains a synopsis of the described genera and species with anatomical 
etails of the English species. Enumerates species from Bermuda and West 

ferfuTtg, /?. — ^Report on the Actinaria. Challenger Exped. Zo51., vol. vi, 1882 ; 

vol. xxvi, 1888. 
icMurrich^ J. P, — Contribution to Actinology of Bermuda. Proc. Acad. Nat, 

Sci. Philad., xli, 1889, pp. 102-126, pi. vi, vii ; reprinted in Heilprin's The 

Bermuda Islands. 

Actinaria of the Bahama Islands, W. I. Joum. of Morphology, vol. iii, 

pp. 1-74, pi. i-iv, 1889. 

Notes on some Actinians from the Bahama Is. Annals N. York Acad. 

Sci., vol. ix, 1896. 

On some Irregnlarities in the number of the Directive Mesenteries in the 

Hexactinis. Zoolog. Bulletin, vol. i, pp. 115-122, 1897. 
Discusses (p. 120) the directives of Actinotryx, which has but one pair. 

Report on the Actinaria of the Bahama Elxpedition of 1893. Bulletin 

Laboratory State Univ. of Iowa, iv, pp. 225-249, 3 plates, 1898. 

The Mesenterial Filaments in Zoanthus sociatus, Zo5log^cal Bulletin, vol. 

ii, No. 6, 1899. 
Merrill J Addison E. — Descriptions of imperfectly known and new Actinians. 
Parts 1-^ (86 cuts). Amer. Joum. Science, 1898-99. 

Contains descriptions and figures of several Bermuda species. 

Additions to the Fauna of Bermuda. These Trans., vol. x, pp. 555-567, 

1900, 8 plates; vol. xi, pp. 47-52, pi. vi, vii, ix, 1901. 

Zoology of Bermuda, vol. i. Contains the two preceding papers as 

articles 5 and 10. 
Many other works are quoted below in the synpnymy. 

A. JE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 251 

flesh-color, specked with olive and flake white. Yellowish brown 
specimens also occur. 

The tentacles can be contracted in length, but are not retractile, 
so that it can be easily preserved partially expanded. The raised 
annuli of the tentacles are usually distinct in alcoholic specimens. 

In some small specimens, preserved in formalin (var. monilifera), 
the thickened bands are longer than thick, thus becoming truly 
bead-like, and separated only by narrow constrictions. Possibly 
this may be a distinct species. 

Many specimens of this species do not have the tentacles and 
mesenteries arranged in regular hexamerous cycles. Octamerous 
specimens have been described by McMurrich from the Bahamas. 

Hermaphrodite specimens have been observed by Duerden (1902).* 
Gonads are borne on mesenteries of the 2d and 3d cycles and some- 
times on those of the 1st cycle, except the directives. There is no 
distinctly defined sphincter muscle, though the general musculature 
may appear a little stronger at a certain level than elsewhere, per- 
haps due to a stronger local contraction. 

Yar. Mdifwa (Lesnenr). 
Aetimia solifera Les., op. cit., p. 173, 1817. 

The large specimen figured on our plate xxxi, fig. 2, belongs to 
this form, described by Lesueur, but his specimens were much 
smaller. Its distinctive character is the presence of interrupted flake- 
white spirals, usually not distinctly thickened in life, on the tentacles. 
Intermediate states between the spirals and the raised rings fre- 
[juently occur, and hence the two forms have been united. 

This species and the varieties are also common in the West Indies. 

^ptasia tag^tes (Dach. and M.) Andres. White-specked Anemone. Figs. 104, 
105, 106. 

f Aipiasia, sp. McMurrich, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1889, p. 102, pi. vi, 

figs. 1, 2 (anatomy); Heilprin's Bermuda Is., p. 100, pi. 10, figs. 1, 2. (May 

be a distinct species of Paranthea.) 
Aiptasia tagetes McMnrricb, Actinaria of the Bahama Is., pp. 12-17, pi. i, 

fig. 2 (anatomy, varieties, etc.), 1889. 
Aiptasia tagetes Duerden, Actinaria around Jamaica, p. 457, 1898. 
Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., x, p. 557, pi. Ixvii, fig. 2, 1900; vol. xi, p. 49, 

pi. vi, fig. 6, 1901. (Var. hicolor.) 

This is one of the most common species, but does not grow nearly 
so large as the last. It occurs in the crevices and under rocks and 

♦ Dr. J. E. Duerden has given a very full account of the anatomy and histol- 
ogy of this species in Actinians of Porto Rico, pp. 355-358. His specimens, 
however, were not full grown, though sexually mature. 

252 A. E. VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Mtefs. 

dead eoials on the i-eefs and ledges, but is more abundant in shel- 
tered places along the shores. It was also found attached withiH 
the osculos of sponges, like the var. spongicola of McMitrrich. 

Var. bicolor, iiuv. Figures 105. 

The more coinnioii colors of the column are smoky brown, pale 
green, olive-green, greenish or yellowish brown, usually darker dis- 
tally, and often flecked with white spots. Flesh-colored specimens 

Figure 104. — Aiptaeia tagetes, fully expanded, dark -olive green Tariet.v, show- 
ing two long directive tentoclea ; about natural size ; ac. acontia extruded : 
b, var. biVofoi-, one of the tentanleu more enlarged. 

Figure lOIS. — The same, light fie^b-colored apecimen of variety bieolor, some- 
what enlai^ed. Both fi^om colored drawings by A. H. V. 

The tentacles generally correspond with the body in color, but are 
usually paler. 

The larger mesenteries often show through the sides as pale longi- 
tudinal lines, and small specks of brown or green are usually present. 
Aeontia arc long, slender, white. 

It occurred in abundance attached to floating leaves and twi^ in 
the edges of the mangrove swamp at " Fairy Lands." It varies con- 
fiiderably in color at this place, but most had the body pale olive- 
green, the darker olive-green, with white loops around the basefl 

A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 253 

of the teDtacles, white radial spots, and a white bar across the disk 
in line with the longer diameter of the mouth and very long direc- 
tive tentacles. Other tentacles were pale grayish green with alter- 
nating half rings or angular spots of white, interrupted along the 
median line by a narrow dark line. The tentacles are nearly always 
spotted on the inside with angular or crescent-shaped spots or half- 
bands of flake-white, alternating on opposite sides, and generally 
there are two odd directive tentacles, longer and larger than the rest, 
and in line with the angles of the month ; these may be nearly all 
white, or at least have a long stripe of flake-white or rows of white 
8pot« on the inner surface for about half their length, or only one 
may be thus marked. A white stripe usually crosses the disk 
between their base^. 

Acontia, in the form of slender white threads, are often emitted 
from pores arranged in two or three transverse rows a short distance 
below the tentacles. The slender tentacles form several (3-5) rows, 
the inner longest ; they are contractile but not retractile. 

TTle column of the larger specimens is often 2 to 3 inches high 
and up to 1 inch in diameter, with tentacles about 1 to 1.5 inches 
loDj^, bat most of those seen were less than half that size. 

One nearly albino specimen was found, with the body pale flesh - 
color, finely specked with flake-white, but the pale yellowish tenta- 
cles still showed 8-12 crescent-shaped spots of flake-white and the 
dark median line. 

According to McMurrich, this species, as studied by him at the 
Bahamas (1889), has no sphincter muscle. Duerden found a very 
feeble lower one in his Jamaica specimens (1898). But McMurrich 
described, 1889 (as Aiptasia, sp.), an actinian from Bermuda very 
much like this species in other respects, in which he found two 
sphincter muscles quite distinctly developed, which is contrary to the 
normal conditions in this genus, but has been found, also by him, in 
A, pallida of the American coast — a species for which I proposed 
to establish a genus (Paranthea) in 1869.* 

* It is possible that the Bermnda species described (from preserved speci- 
mens) by McMnrrich was really P. pallida, or a similar small species, thotigh 
it has not since been recognized there by others. Otherwise we must suppose 
that A. taffetes varies to a remarkable extent in the development of the sphinc- 
ter mnscles, — from none at all to two distinct ones. However my figure 106 
represents a specimen that has a strong constriction at some distance below the 
margin, about in the position where the lower sphincter described by McMur- 
rich was situated, clearly indicating the presence of a somewhat muscular band 

Trans. Cowir. Acad., Vol. XII. 17 April, 1906. 

254 A, E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

This species was originally described from the Antilles. It has 
been recognized as common at the Bahamas and Jamaica. 

It resembles closely, in form and colors, the Mediterranean species, 
A, diaphana (Rapp.), as figured by Andres (Attinie, pi. ii, figs. 

Phellia nifa Verrill. Figures 107, 107a, 108, 108a, p. 266. 

Trans. Conn. Acad., x, p. 557, pi. Ixviii, fig. 4, 1900 ; vol. xi, p. 49, pi. vi, 

fig. 4, 1901 (not fig. 5, as there erroneously quoted.) Mark, Proc. Amer. 

Assoc. Adv. Science, p. [31], pi. 14, fig. 25, 1905, (not fig. 26, as there 

? Phellia clavata Duerden, Ac tin. around Jamaica, p. 459, 1889, {non Dnch. 

and Mich, nee Stimp.). 

When well grown and fully expanded this is a handsome species. 
The column is nearly always salmon-red, brownish red, or terra cotta, 
largely covered with a tongh dirty brown epidermis. The light 
reddish or salmon tentacles are elegantly marked with flake-white 
rings and hands, with M- or W-shaped patches of dark red or purple 
near base ; the disk is radially marked with the same colors. 

The tentacles may be flesh-color, brick-red, or dark red, and the 
white markings vary in form. 

One curious variety (fig. 107) had the disk and tentacles slate- 
gray, with almost black radial spots and tentacle bands, while the 
body was brownish red. Var. nigropictay nov. 

The external cuticle usually ends distally in an abrapt often 
flaring edge, above which the column is brighter colored and often 
partially translucent, flesh -color or light red. 

at that place. This may belong to the same variety or species described by 
McMurrich. I have seen others with the same constriction, but have not 
examined them with reference to the existence of the two sphincter muecles 
mentioned by him. His species also had reproductive organs on part of the six 
primary or complete mesenteries. 

However, it seems to me desirable to keep apart, as a separate genus, those 
species which have, like pallida, two sphincters, and for such forms the generic 
name Paranthea, given by me in 1869 (Com. Essex Inst., v, p. 822 [8]), should 
be retained, with pallida as the type, as then given. 

To combine in one genus species with and others without sphincters seems 
inconsistent, considering the perhaps exaggerated importance attached to this 
anatomical feature by Hertwig, Carlgren, McMurrich, and many others, in recent 
years, unless it can be proved that one and the same 8i>ecie8 can vary to this 
extent, which is not impossible, in view of the extensive variations now known 
to occur in the mesenteries, siphonoglyphs, gonads, etc. in many species of 
Actinians. But this is not yet proved for species of Aiptcuia, 

A. K VtrriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 255 

Lai^e specimeDB, in full extension, are often 8 to 4 inches long 
and ,75 to 1 inch in diameter of body, but moet are not half that 

FigUN idi.—Aipiaiia lageU$ (/), jootig. from a preserved Bpecimen, somewhat 

FipiiB 107. — Pheltia rufa, yar. nigropicta, nov,, not tally extended, nat. size 

from colored figures, bj A. H. V. 
Fignre lOTa.^The saiue, var. rufa, tentacles enlarged. 

F^:iire lOS.—Phellia rufa. Group of polfpa in different states of eipaoBion to 
show variations in form ; a-g, var. rufa; ft, var. nigropicta. Aboat ( nat. 
size. From colored drawing by A. H. V. 

size. Tbe column can take a great variety of forms ; sometimes it 
ia elongated. honr-g)ase ahape, club-shaped, or salver- shape, or some 
portion may swell out into a globular form on a narrow pedicel. 

256 A. E. VerriU—Tlie Bermuda Islands; Coral Jtte/a. 

It was abundant under the stones on the shores of Cast)c Harbor, 
where there are out-flowing streams of salt water, and in other 
similar places. Also in crevices and under dead corals on the reefs. 

Actinia bermudensis Terrill. Bed Aiiemonf. Figs. 109, 110. 111. 
Amer. Joum. Sciente. tI, p. 493, 1898; Trsna. Conn. Acad., x, part 3, p. 

558. pi. Ixvii, fig. T, 1900. 
niplaetis lierimiilfmiii ilcMnrrich, Proc. Philad. Afad., 1889, p. Ill, pi. vi. 
figs. 4, 6 ; vil, figs. 1, 2 ; reprint in Heilpiin'a Berciada Is., p. 116, pL 10. 
figs. 4-6, pi. 11, figs. 1, 3; AnnnlB. N. York Acad. Science, 1896, p. IBfl, pL 
ivii, fig. 3. 

This is one of tlie most common of the actinians,* especially on 
the ledges and shores. It prefei's the under sides of large loow 
atones and the roofs of cavernous places where it can hang montb 
downward. It is often found in such places between tides. 


Figure 109. — Actinia benn\idensU, f^ nat. aize. Phot, from life by A. H. T. 
The white aperka are dne to loosely adliering aaod and mncQB. 

The body is usually cherry-red, varying to crimson, brownish red. 
and terra cotta red, rarely yellowish, of yellowish brown. The 
circle of large, globular, bright blue acrorh^i below the tentacles 
is conspicuous only in full exjiansion, for they are often concealed 

* The first speeimeiis of this species and of C. gigantea seen bj me wen 
brongllt from Bermuda nltve in 1B60, and exhibited at '' The Aqoaiial QaTdeiu'' 
in Boaton, for some time. It was also collected hy Mr. O. Brown Goode, in 
18TS. McMnrrich, in a recent paper (op. cit., 1905), has deflnitelj decided that 
it is the same an hJH nijiUiclis brrmudeiisin, which was described from badiv 
preserved epecimena. Therefore his genua DiplactU muat be cancelled. Tbt 
colored fignre by Northrop, from a Bahama specimeu. referred to it by HcU1l^ 
rich, 1898, does not agree with the common Bermnda form, eapeclally in it» 
darker color and lacking the couspicnDns blue acrorhagi. It may be the fonn 
here called var. pniaievloi: 

A. E. VerrUl—The Bermuda l»land»; Coral Eeefs. 


by the color. The tentacles are brighler or paler red than the body 
and oBuaily plain in color ; lips bright red or carmiDe. 

This species is viviparons. The young when bom have well 
formed tentacles and basal disk, and are red; some have 2^ or 36 
tentacles and are up to 5"" or more in diameter. 

Figoie lift, — Actinia btrmudeoMt, diak ; ni, moath with portion of stomodtenm 

ereitod ; a, b, gonidUl grooves. 
Figure 111. — Aetinia btrmaiUnsis, abont nat. size ; b, bine aciorhagi. B; A. 

H. V. 

Tar. pnmioolor, nov. Prunt-colored Anemone. 

A pecnliar col or- variety, or possibly a distinct species, was found 
at Caatle Harbor and Elbow Baj', March, 1901, by A. H. Verrill, 
vho made very good colored drawings of it. The body was uni- 
form dark purple, prnne-color or plum-color. The tentacles, which 
were longer than the diameter of the disk, were a paler tint of the 
same, or pale carmine with lighter tips, and with a small white 
stripe OD each side of the base ; lips rermiliion. 

Tentacles do not differ much in length and form abont three mar- 
ginal rows. No acrorhagi were observed in life ; they were prob- 
ably inconspicuous in size or color. Height of column, 1.25 inches ; 
diameter, 1 inch ; length of tentacles, 1 inch. 

This agrees pretty closely with the colored figure of Diptactia 
bermvdentit McMur. from the Bahamas (op. cit, 1B96, pi. xvii, p. 3). 

Actinia melanaster Verrill. Dark-ttar Anemont. Figure 112, 

TrauB. CoDD. Acad., li, p. 51, pi, vi, figs, 2, 'A, 1901. 

This is a rather rare species, usually found sheltered in deep 
crevices of the reefs and ledges. It expands to about two inches 

258 A. E. VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefa. 

across the tentacles, with the body about an inch in diameter and 
two inches high. Tentacles about 96, in the larger ones. The bodj 
is dark brown tinged with red. The disk has a conspicuous, central, 
stellate area of rich brown, with about 54 tapering rays, rnnning 
out between the bases of the 24 inner tentacles, with paler radial 
lines, and bordered with light yellow ; tentacles reddish brown with 
a median paler stripe; mouth red ; lips whitish. 

In formalin the tentacles are longitudinally fluted and the column 
is covered with longitudinal vows of small elevated ragie, dne to 
wrinklings ; the acrorhagi are conspicuous. 

This may prove to be only a strongly marked color-variety of the 
last, when a larger series c\m be obtained, but all those found were 
very uniform in color and habit. 

It was found in crevices of a ledge near Flatts Inlet. 

Figure \V1. — AfSinin melanatter (type), abont imtliml WM. From a colored 
drawiiiK by A. H. V., therefore too dark. 

Condjrlactis gigantea Weiiil«n<l. Pink-tipptd Anemone, FignTeB 118, \\i- 

pi. KXX. tiR. 1. f.; |ll. xxivi, fi({. 1, 13. 

Anthea (lifitinteii Weinluiid, JalireHhefte dea Vereina f. VaterlSudiBChi! Kstal' 
kande, Wiirttembiinj, 18tHI, pp. ;W. 44, pi. 1. fig. 4 (young). 

CoHiluUi>-Hs jmsHifto,» DiH'li. and llichelotti, sap!, p. 31, pi. v, flg. 7, 1866. 

McUorrich, Artiimrin BnhnuiH la,, p. 18, pi. i, Sf;. 3 ; pi. iii, figs. 4-6, 1B89 1 
MiiMnrrieh, Proc. Aeud. Nat. Sii., Philad., 1889, p. 104, pi. ri, fig. 3 
(anatomy) ; TeprinI in Heilpriii, Bermnda la., p. 108, pi. I, fig. 3. 

Lhlenlen, ActiDaria nronud Jaiiiaicn. Jonrn, Inat. Jam., ii, p. 498, ISftS. 

Verritl, Trans. Conn. Ai::it1., x, p. 'ATi, 1900; li, p. 53, 1901. 

Ccitaeila Bahamensin MiMnrrirli, Johna Hopkius Univ. QrcaUr, viii, No. 
TO. p. 30, 1889. WilHou, loc. i-it. . p. :(8 (abnormal atomod»nm). 

A. K VmrriU—The Bermuda /stauda; Coral See/s. 


This is the moat abundant and conspicuous of the larger actinians 
baod on the reefs. It generally occupies some bole or crevice in or 
>etweeK the rocks, in which the body is entirely cnncealed, but the 
arge and long, soft, waving tentacles may project 4 to 8 inches or 
nore beyond the disk. When several individuals stand side by side 
n a continuous wide crack, the long row of crowded tentacles pre- 
lents a very peculiar appearance, for in length, thickness, general 
;olor, aod soft appearance they look much like some slender- 
jranched sponges. The tentacles are usually swollen at base and 
>ften as large as one's lingers, or larger, and usually taper more or 
ess regularly to the tip, but at times they may be swollen and 
thickest in the middle or at the tips. Their color is usually pale 

!ignre 113. — Condylaclix \)igitnleii, vnrietj' with piak tips to tentacles, abont 1 

?ipire 1 14. — A small tentacle enlarged. Both from colored drawings bj A. H.V. 

awn, dull brown, or grayish, finely transversely lined with paler or 
ivhite interrupted wavy or zigzag rings or vermiculate lines and 
ipots, sometimes specked with white, and nearly always broadly 
lipped with bright pink, magenta, crimson, or bright purple, below 
ivhich there is usually a pale or white band, usually not definitely 
limited proximally. But the terminal pink and white colors are 
vanting in some examples, when the white band extends to the tip, 
ind sometimes the tentacles are nearly plain yellowish, greenigh, or 
>ale fiesh-color, with lines of reddish specks and spots. The body is 

260 A, E. Verrill—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

generally bright red, varying from pale red to carmine and dark red 
and brick-red in diifferent specimens. Color-varieties occur with the 
body orange, ocher-yellow, salmon, pale yellow, gray, or even white; 
and with corresponding variations in the color of the tentacles, 
which are rarely entirely purple, pink, or salmon. Sometimes the 
tentacles are iridescent. Thev can contract much in size, but are 
incapable of retraction. The basal disk is generally dark red. The 
surface of the column toward the summit has rows of more or le88 
numerous small, inconspicuous, adhesive suckers, capable of con- 
tracting so as to be invisible. They are often deeper red than the 
ground color and surrounded by a whitish ring, or white specks. 
The upper part of the column is often fluted, due to the swelling of 
the intermesenterial spaces ; in such cases the swellings are often 
translucent with red pigment specks. 

The disk is similar to the tentacles, but often has white or red 
radial lines or streaks ; or it may be entirely red. Lips usually red 
or pink ; gonidial grooves pink with white borders. 

A very strongly marked color variety was found by A. H. Verrill, 
in 1901, living between the rocks of the abutment at Mangrove 
Creek. The body was light pink, spotted with crimson, but the 
tentacles, which were 10 inches long and .75 of an inch in diameter 
when fully distended, were bright pea-green, with sky-blue tips, 
which were often swollen. 

A variety was found at Bailey Bay, in shallow water, in which 
the column was lemon-color or light orange ; margin and tentacles 
grayish, the latter vermiculated with darker brown lines ; tips 
whitish, no purple. 

In life, there are short rows of small and rather inconspicaons 
suckers or verruca? on the upper part of the column, but they are 
usually indistinct on preserved specimens. 

The anatomv was described to some extent bv McMurrieb, 1889. 
The sphincter muscle is diffuse and feebly developed. All the 
mesenteries, exce]>t the directives, are fertile, but those of the last 
cycle were incomplete in his specimens, which were not full grown. 

This species is also found in the Bahamas and throQgbout the 
West Indies. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that this is the species named 
giganttn by Dr. Weinland in isoo. Although his note (op. cit, p. 
'■\^) and his figure of the young have been known to me for many 
years, and have been considered by me as pertaining to this species, 
I had, in view of that scanty description, hesitated to definitely 

A. M Verrili— The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reeft. 261 

change the name. However, I had, until recently, overlooked ihe 
more definite description on p. 44, which makee it certain that this 
was the species in view. The following is a translation of his 
description : 

"The polyp is beautiful dark red, with brown tentacles having 
red tips. Later I fonnd a specimen with bine tentacular tips, and 
finally still another with dark green tentacles and light green tips. 
The diameter of the crown of this anemone amounts to two feet. I 
obtained this specimen at Corail in three fathoms (18 feet) of sea 

Anemonia elegana Venitl. Figure 115. 
Tnms. Coua. Acad., xi, p. 50, pi. vi, t%. 5 (not fig. 4, as there qaoted), 1901 
Hark, PToc, Amer. Assoc. Adv. Scienc« for 1905, p. [31], pi. 14, flg. 26 (not 

fig. 25, as there qaoted). 

This is a small graceful species, apt to be mistaken for the young 

of the preceding. Its column is about half an inch in diameter, 

smooth, withont Backers, usually fawn-color or yellowish, tinged 

with brown or orange ; tentacles pale yellow to light orange yellow. 

Figure 115. — Anemonia ttegam, x \\. From colored 6g. by A, H. V. 

Dsually with pink tips, and a red line behind and at the sides of the 
base, often witb a white spot on front of base; disk yellowish with 
reddish or brown radii; lips scarlet red or pink. Tentacles change- 
able in length, but not retractile. It occurs in sheltered spots and 
under masses of dead coral. 

Anlaetinia tUlioidea HcUnr., Actinaria of Bahama Is., p. 2S, pi. J, figs. 5, 0, 

pi. iii, figs. 8-10, 1889. 
Autaefinia tMItt Dnerden, Jonm. Ins. Jamaica, ii, p. 454, 1898. 

262 A. E. Verrill—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Bee/t. 

Bunodella Blelloidea Verrill, Amer. J. Sci., vii, p. 43, 1898. 

Bunodaclii stelloides Verrill, op. cit., vii, p. 146, note, 1808; Traiu, Conn. 

Acad., X, p. 556. 1900. 
Actinoides patliiia Verrill, op. cit., i, p. 558, pi. liviii, fig. 4 (noii DaeTda), 

This small species is common, both upon the reefs and ledges, but 
prefers sheltered spots or the under surfaces of large stones sud 
dead corals, occurring in such places even above low tide. Often, 
also, found buried in the sand up to the tentacles and with many 
bits of broken shells, etc., attached to the suckers of the colauiD, 
and ill such cases having the body much elongated and slender. 
The upper part of the column is covered by 12 or more vertical rows 


the Huthur. 
Figure llSii.— TV 

diiclis stfll/n'rlea, vftr. caleiiulata ; a, elongated state : ft, eon- 
"t form ; uat. size ; c, a tentacle enlaiged. From shetehea by 

From a colored drawing hj A. E 

of distinct suckers, often bright red In color, decreasing in mm 
downward, about to f in each row; the upper one in each rov is 
larger, \crrueifonn, and marginal. The column may be long and 
slender, or contracted to a short form, broader than high ; the baail 
disk may he expanded much beyond the breadth of the column. 
Tentacles slender, usually about 36, in three or more rows, longer 
than diameter of disk. 

The column may be flesh-color, grayish, greenish, yeHowish, or 
milk white, often darker above ; the verrDC» may be pink, red, or 
white : there may he rows of red spots or specks below the lioefl of 
verruca', partly continuous with them. The tentacles may be of the 

A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 263 

same various colors as the column, but paler ; they are most often 
pale grayish, greenish, or light brown, sometimes light pink or flesh - 
color. They usually have a yellow or white spot on each side of the 
base. The inner surface is often (var. catenulata) characteristically 
marked by a median row or chain of rounded or elliptical flake- 
white spots, often connected together by a median narrow stripe, 
and clearly defined laterally by a continuous narrow dark line of 
green or brown, on each side, which usually persist in preserved 
specimens after all other colors have faded. The spots may be 
transversely elliptical when the tentacles are partly contracted and 
sometimes they are nearly or quite in contact. In some specimens 
these spots are more irregular or not so clearly defined, and in some 
pale varieties the tentacles appear to be unspotted (var. carneola). 

The disk is somewhat like the column in its ground colors, but 
paler. The mouth is usually surrounded by a green or light brown 
zone ; next there is a zone of white radial spots, bars, or lines, bor- 
dered outwardly in many cases by angular or V-shaped brown or 
green markings, which often unite into a stellate zone, but in other 
cases are separated by white radial lines. The white radial lines or 
bars opposite the 12 inner tentacles are wider than the others, and 
are often defined by dark lines continuous with those on the tenta- 
cles (var. catenulata). It is viviparous. 

Found also in the Bahamas and Jamaica. 

Var. catenulata, nov. Figure 116. 

Aetinoides pcUlida Verrill, op. cit., p. 558, p. Ixviii, fig. 4 (non Duerden). 

This name is here given to the color variety, described above, 
having a chain of connected, well defined white spots bordered by 
narrow dark lines, on the inner surface of the tentacles. It is the 
most common variety at Bermuda and may eventually prove to be a 
species distinct from the true stelloides of the Bahamas, which was 
not described as having markings of this character. 

Var. cameola, nov. Figure 116a. 

This name is proposed for a rather peculiar color variety, obtained 
in 1901, and of which I have an excellent colored drawing by A. H. 
Verrill (see fig. 116a). 

The column is light red or fiesh-color, with longitudinal rows of 
bright or light red spots, larger below, and with rows of conspicuous 
darker red suckers on the upper part ; the tentacles are pale pink. 

264 A. E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Jtee/k, 

usually without distinct lines of spots, but with streaks of white, 
light orange or yellow at their bases, forming a nearly continnons 
discal zone ; inside of this is a zone of white radii, while the mouth 
is usually surrounded with light green. In some specimens there are 
inconspicuous ovate or roundish spots on the tentacles. The 
V-shaped dark markings of the disk are nearly or quite lacking. 

Btmodactis versus Cribrina. 

1 do not agree with McMurrich* in adopting Cribrina (Ehr.) as a 
substitute for Bunodes or Bunodactis. 

Cribriyia as established by Ehrenberg (1834) was a composite 
group, practically synonymous with Cereus Oken, 1815, and there- 
fore should be dropped from the system. Moreover, the funda- 
mental generic character, as given by Ehrenberg, was the perfora- 
tion of the walls, as the vernacular name given by him also implied, 
"sieve anemones." He included in it polypus Forsk., evideDtlj 
the only species that he had personall); studied, and added such 
other sagartians, like Metridium, Adamsia, etc., as were known to 
him to have perforated walls, and such, beyond doubt, should be 
considered his idea of the type.f 

* Report on the Hexactiniae of the Colnmbia Univ. E^ped. to Paget Sound 
dnring the summer of 1896. Annals N. Y. Acad. Science, xiv, No. 1, p. 14, 
May, 1901. 

f Ebrenberg^s first species and two others belong to the Bunodes-groap, itii 
tme, bat he had already established the genns Urticina, on a previous page, to 
include such forms, and his placing them in his Cribrina was an error due to 
misinterpretation of figures, mistaking verrucffi for pores. If Cribrina were to 
be adopted at all, it should be applied to a Sagartian genus — in plaoe of Adamtia 
(1840) for instance, which would be a typical group, for three species of thai 
genus were included by him {effceta, polypus, palliata). There is a role of 
nomenclature generally adopted which forbids the restricting of a genos to t 
type that contradicts the original generic diagnosis. This has been done bj 
McMurrich, in this instance, as I understand it, and withont any neceaaty, 
so far as priority is concerned. Moreover, another valid rale of nomenclataie 
requires that the earliest restriction of the name of snch a composite gnn^ (if 
not done contrary to obvious rules) shall hold good, as having priority. Now 
Cribrina had been thus restricted long before McMurrich took it np (e. g. l>y 
Grub^, 1840), with bellis as a type, which was one of the species named by 
Elhrenberg and conforming to his definition. 

Professor Haddon (Revis. Brit. Actiniae, i, p. 828, 1889), also definitely 
restricted Cribrina to the Sagartian group, taking polypus Forsk. {=UjM^ 

A. JE Verriil — I7ie Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 265 

TaM,* who first restricted the genus, placed under Cribrina 
« species : C. beUiSy C. effoeta and C. carciniapodos (=:paUiata). 
these were included in Cribrina by Ehrcnberg, and all conform 
[lis definition of the genus, in being perforate. Adamsia was 
kblished for the last of these in 1840, and effoeta is included in 
same genus by many, thus leaving belUs as the sole type, which 
already been the type of Cereus (1815). C. eff*ce(a, however, 
>ng8 to the genus CalliactiSy proposed b}' me in 1864, but not 
med sufficiently distinct from Adamsia by many writers. 
Neither can I agree with him in uniting JEvactis and Bunodosoma 
Bunodactis. If that should be done, however, Evaetis must be 
pted as the name of the larger genus. But its type, E. artemisia, 
•ecnliar in having distinctly ectacmaeous tentacles, — a remarkable 
racier for this family, and as good as most generic characters. 
*re is also good reason to believe that it has numerous definite 
forations in the upper part of its column, as stated in Dana's 
port, 1846, through which streams of water can be ejected in life, 
ugh McMurrich did not find them in his strongly contracted spe- 
lens. Pores known to exist in other species cannot be discovered 
limilar material by sections hardened out of all natural conditions, 
ks for Bunodosoma, the non-adhesive verrucse, which differ his- 
)gically from those of Bunodactis, afford a sufficient generic 

n.) as the type, which would be perfectly logical if the previous application 
restriction of the name by Qmb^ conld be ignored. Both these restrictions 
he name not only had priority over that of McMurrich, but they, unlike his, 
e in accordance with the ordinary rules of nomenclature, providing, of 
nse, that the name is to be retained at all. 

[y own view of it, many years ago (1864), when I first definitely restricted 
fus (Oken, 1815) to heUis^ as its unquestionable type (which Haddon and 
it others now admit was correct), was that Cribrina, after having been 
rioted to the same group by Qrub^, as he had the right to do, should be 
irded as a synonym of Cereus and therefore should be dropped from the 
em. I still believe that this is the best and most logical course to take, and 
\ in accordance with the usual rules of nomenclature. 

be only other thing to do. so far as 1 can see, is to adopt the genus with 
fpus as the type, as Haddon has done, in place of Adamsia and Calliaeiis of 
vioQS writers. At any rate, McMurrich's recent action, in ignoring Haddon's 
re explicit restriction, and applying the name in a totally different sense, 
not be sustained, for it violates rules of nomenclature universally approved. 
Grub^, A, E. Actinien, Echinodermen und Wtirmer des Adriatischen und 
telmeers, p. 12, Konigsberg, 1840. 

A. K Verrill—The Ba-muda lilands; Coral Seefi. 

Asteractia fioaculifern (.Lea.) Terrill. RuSUd Antmoiu. Elgare 117. 
Actinia floscuU/era Lea., JouRt. Acad. Sci. Pbilad.,i, p. 174, 1S17 (not OHforlu 

Jlostuli/era Dnch. and Mick.) 
Outactia fascioilala McMurrich. Proc. Philad. Acad. 3ci., 1880, p. 108; Kbg 

in Heilprin'H " The Bermnda lalande," p. 113, pi. i, flg. 5 (sectioo), 1888. 
Oulactig ftoactilifera McManich, Actinaria Bahama Ih., pp. S6-SB, pi. ii, fig. 

2 (general) ; pi. iv, figs. 13-l'4 (anatomj), 1889. 
Aateraclvi fio»cxtl<fera Verrill. Amer. Jonm. Sci., vol. Tii, p. 47, 1609; Ttm*. 

Conn. Acad. Sci., i, p. ST3, pi. Iiviii, &^. 1 (ActinactU by erroi), 1900. 
Cr.idactis fasciculata McUnnich, Report on Actinite coll. by U. S. F. C. 

Steamer Albatroas, Proo. U. 8. Nat. Mns., xvi, p, 197, 1898. 

Aetinoatetta floaeuiifera McMor., Boll. Mtu. Turin., xx, p. 7, 1905. 

This species is common on the sand-flatg in Bb&Uow water, where 

it lives buried in tbe sand np to its broad, expanded collar, but it ii 

also found occasionally on the reefs, where sand collects in sheltered 

depressions under large stones. We foond it in numerous localitiei.* 



Fignre WSa.—Plu-llia ru/u. about } iiat. size. 

Figure 117.— AeteracHa Jloscullfera, about i nat. die ; b, tbme of tbe pMO^ 
fronds, enlarged. Both from colored figures by A. H. V. 

It is easily distinguished by tbe wide collar, external to the tenti- 
cles, made up, in large specimens, of about 48 psendofrondi, 
appearing slightly free at their outer ends, where there are two or 
three prominent tubercles; the upper surface of each is covered wiui 

* Several large apecimer 
Brown Ooode in 1870. 

n the oollectiona made at Bermuda by Mt. 0. 

A, JE VeTriU--The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 267 

irregular simple and lobulated tubercles or verriicse, arranged in 
three or four crowded rows ; the innermost tubercle of each, situated 
close to the base of a tentacle, is usually simple and a little larger 
than the rest, like a special acrorhagus, especially in young speci- 
mens, in which it is often conspicuous. 

The tentacles are moderately long, rather slender, about 48 in the 
adult specimens. The upper part of the column bears rows of dis- 
tinct suckers, which do not reach the basal portion, but disappear 
about mid-height. Ordinary specimens are about 2 inches high and 
the column is about 1 inch in diameter, but the column can extend 
to a much longer form when in its burrow. The width across the 
expanded disk and collar may be 2 inches or more. The color is 
variable, but most commonly the lower part of the column is trans- 
lucent flesh-color or whitish, with the white mesenteries showing 
through as pale lines ; distally the color grows darker', the upper 
part often becoming orange-brown or burnt-umber, specked with 
flake-white and darker brown. The verrucse of the pseudofronds 
are usually similar to the column in color, but paler and with more 
white spots. One specimen had twelve radii of reddish brown on 
the collar surface. Tentacles usually translucent grayish, greenish, 
or whitish, with obscure streaks of brown, and with transverse 
blotches and many specks of flake- white. 

This species is viviparous. One specimen, taken in April, 1901, 
when put into formalin, gave birth to about a dozen well developed 
young ones, from 2 to 6™" in diameter of column, as contracted. 
The larger ones had the essential characters of the adult, with 12 
to 24 tentacles, and with corresponding distinct prominent acrorhagi, 
representing the pseudofronds of the adults, but simple, bilobed, or 
with very few minute lobules ; suckers of the column were present. 

It is found, also, in the West Indies. 

The colored flgure of the Bahama form published by McMurrich 
(1889, pi. ii, flg. 2) does not agree well with our specimens in 
respect to the pseudofronds, which appear too wide and too finely 
divided, perhaps due to inaccurate drawing. But McMurrich, in his 
last paper, 1905, identifies the specimen with this species, after a 

McMurrich there adopts Actinostella Duch., 1850, for this genus. 
The type of Duch. was A, formosa^ sp. nov. But the genus and 
species were then so imperfectly described as not to be recognizable 
by subsequent writers. Indeed, in Duchassaing's later work (Duch. 
and Mich., 1860), neither the genus nor the species is referred to. 

268 A. E, Verrill — 77ie Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 


In the latter work Oidactis formoaa is described as a new species, 
and there is no evidence that it was considered the same as " Actinoi- 
tella formosa'*'^ of 1850. Indeed, there is good reason for believiDg 
that they were totally different things. Therefore there is no good 
reason why that obscure generic name should be adopted, for it had 
no definite diagnosis and no tangible type.* 

If Phyllactis, OulactiSy and Aster actis are all congeneric, as 
McMurrich maintains, then it would be most correct to adopt the 
first for the whole group, for it has precedence, as to the pages, and 
has the characters of the family in the most specialized form. In 
that case the present species should be called Phyllactis flosculifera^ 
and the closely allied West Indian species would be P, conchilega. 

But so far as I can judge, there is no sufficient reason for uniting 
these three genera, at least not until their internal organization has 
been fully studied comparatively, for their external differences are 
greater than those of the majority of actinian allied genera. A^er- 
actis is especially characterized by the comparative simplicity of iu 
pseudofronds, which are only slightly differentiated portions of the 
upper column or collar, and the tubercles that cover them are simple 
or only lobulated, while the slightly free border is due only to the 
projection of the outer tubercles ; by the adhesive verrucffi of the 
column, confined to the upper part ; and tlie narrow naked tree 
disk, with the true tentacles crowded around its margin. f 

* In fact, Edward and Haime even referred it to their genus Certus, with % 
mark of doubt. 

f The type of Phyllactis E. and H. (Metridium prcftextum Dana) has a wide 
collar consisting of large fronds that are free for about one-third of their 
length ; the free portion is stalked, digitately branched distally, and covered 
witli lobes or tnberclef*, forming trne fronds. They are thus qnite nnlike the 
far more simple pseudofronds of Asteractis, The vermcsB are confined to the 
under surface of the fronds, which are separated from the smooth column bj s 

The type of Oulactis (M. mucosum) Dana has a very broad nndnlated diflk, 
with the tentacles considerably scattered, in 5 or 6 rows. The colnmn is 
entirely covered with verrucse, which are represented as adhesive. The frondi 
are united nearly or quite to their ends, much as in AstercustiSf but with complex 
lobules on the upper side. 

The character of the disk, arrangement of tentacles, and entirely yermeote 
body seem to be characters of generic value, and indicate the existence of inter- 
nal differential characters of greater importance. 

The third species (M. con cinnatum) of Peru is similar to the last, M to the 
verrucae of the column and tubercles of the pseudofronds ; the peendofrondi 
have the tips or terminal tubercles free, but apparently not branched; probthlj 

A. K Vm-ill—The Bermuda lalands; Coral Reefs. 269 

Lsbnmia I>aiUB(Dneh. and Mich.). Gitl-bratiHg Anemone. Figures 118, 119. 
Hate xixii a, ^. 2. 

Ouloetu Datia Dnch, and Mich., Coral. Antil., p. 47, pi. vii, fig. 10, 1860. 

Hhodaetit Dana Dacb. and Micb., Snpl.. p. 37, 1866. 

Xebrunia Domt VaiTiU, Amer. Jonm. Sci., vii, p. 48, &g. 15, 1899; Trans. 

Conii. Aoad., i, p. 56S, pi. Izrii, fig. S (gill), pi. Ixii, fig. 1, general, 19D0 ; 

TOl. li, p. 48, pi. Ti, fig. 1, general, 1901. 
Lebrvnia neglecta (aa LebruHea) HcMairicb, Aotinaria of the Bahama la., p. 

88, pi. i, fig. 7 (general), pL Hi, figs. 11-14 (anatomy). 1889. 
Lrbmnia nrgleeta Dnerden, Aetinaria around Jamaica, p. 45fl, 1898; McUor- 

ricli (pars), Bolletino Moi. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. 0niv. Torino, xi, p. 6, 

1906 (described itara original type of L. Dante). 

This is a large and very curious species, often 6 to 8 inches in " 
diameter id expansion, not uncommon on the ledges and reefs, wbere 






1 Dance, ) natural a 

Phot, from life by A. H. V. 

it is always firmly attached to the liottom of some deep hole or 
crevice, showing only the disk, tentacles and gills when expanded. 
It can seldom be obtained entire without cutting away the rock. 

tbey ar« mucb like those of AalrracUa. It appears to be nearer Asleractis than 
either of tbe others, bnt differs in the wide naked disk and rermcie extending 
to the base of the colnmn. 

As for LophactisV^TiiW, 1867, also made a synoupn of Aclinoalellahy McMnr- 
rich, it waa discovered by myself, many years ago, that it was based upon a 
nnitilated specimen of an unknown organism ; certainly not an actiuian, nor 
eren an Antbozoan. That name, therefore, shonld be cancelled. Yet its disk, 
tentacles, and " fronds" were remarkably like Pkyllaetia, anperficislly. 

TujiB. Cosh. Acad., Vol. XII. 18 Aphil, 1906. 

270 A. E. Verrill—Tke Bermuda Islauda; Coral Rtep. 

Its most nemarknhle feature is the presence of large, hanibonit. 
arborescent I J' much brancbeil gills {afiinohranchi<B) or " pseudo- 
tentacles" oiitHi<U' the true tentacles and usually much exceeding 
tlieni in leiiglli. There are normally six of thet^e, but freqaentk 
only four or five are present. In some cases this ia probably dne to 
injury, but some specimens appear to be normally pentamerou*. 
Duerdeii records S]>ecimens witii eight* Tbese branched organs 
nsually bear numerous oonspicnous, semi -globular bodies (aerorhajij 
couuuonly pale blue in color, but sometimes there are but few of 
them. The tentacles are very numerous, long, rather slender, 
tapered, often 

Figure IID. — Lrbrvnia Danrr x gill, contracted in formalin, natoTBl die. Fnti 
dntwing by A. H. V. 

Some uf the larger specimens were 8 to 10 inches acroM in fnll 
expansion ; the column may be 1 to 2 inches or more in diametef 
and 1 to r. inches in length, according to the stale of expanmoo. 

Thi' color \* somewbnt variable. Perhaps most frequently, tbe 
column is light brownish or £iwn-co!or, but it is often doll greeni'b 
or olive. The tentacles and gills are similar In color to the bodr, 
bnt usually lighter yellowish brown or greenish brown, often flecW 

* This may iudicati! an octamerune arrangement of meaenteiira mud lenticl'* 
in the adntt. miiecialli- since Dnerden has shown that the t«t jtraugUrrKol 
Ltbrnaia are truly tetniniemns or octamerona for a brief period. Some Bu; 
retain tlmt cuuiUlion (bruu)jb life, as in eome other Aetiniana (aee Daeritf. 
The EdwanlHiu hIakt uf the Ai-tinian. Ij/brvtiiia, etc., Joom. Ijnn. Soc. Londco, 
ZoiUi^'v. xxvii, pp. -.>«lf-9ia. pi. IS, 19, 1899, where the Hrly atagM are m 

A, E. Verrill — The Bei-muda Islands; Coral Reefs. 271 

with white and paler toward the tips ; the acrorhagi are often blue, 
but sometimes pale brownish or yellowish ; sometimes they are 
iDcoDspieuous ; disk similar to the tentacles, but often with paler 
radii, or flecked with whitish. 

This species has nematocysts capable of stinging the hands of 
some persons quite severely. The tentacles and gills are not retrac- 

One individual was found in 1901, with a young one budding 
from the side of the column. It is hermaphrodite and viviparous, 
according to Duerden. The young are born in much earlier stages 
of growth than in the preceding species. (See Journ. Linn. Soc. 
London, xxvii, pp. 269-316, pi. 18, 19, 1889.) 

We found it at numerous localities. It is in the collections made 
at Bermuda by Mr. G. Brown Goode in 1876, together with Epicys- 
lis crucifera^ Aiptasia annulata^ Condylactis gigantea, etc., but 
without notes or special stations. 

McMurrich has adopted the name Z. neglecta (D. and Mich., 1860) 
for this species, or rather he has united the two forms under the 
former name, in his article of 1905, after studying and redcscribing 
the original type of L, Danm^ preserved in the Turin Museum.* 
But as the type of i. neglecta was not found, his argument for 
uniting them is not very convincing. Certainly I have never found 
any Bermuda specimens agreeing with the one described and figured 
by McMurrich from the Bahamas (1898, pi. 1, fig. 7). 

But Duerden's Jamaica specimens, described as Z. neglecta^ agree 
well with those from Bermuda. The matter needs further study. 
Possibly McMurrich's Bahama specimen was one that had lost its 
gills and was regenerating new ones, so that they were not normally 
developed. They not only lack evident acrorhagi, but are not more 
than one-fourth as large as those of similar sized Bermuda speci- 
mens, and have far less numerous divisions. It is not improbable 
that there are two West Indian species of the genus. Therefore 
it seems to me better not to unite them at present. Until more 

♦ The synonymy of L. neglecta is as follows : 
Jjebrunia neglecta Dnch. and Mich. 

Lebrunia neglecta Dnch. and Mich., op. cit., p. 48, pi. vii, fig. 8, 1860 (young). 

Andres, op. cit., p. 362 (non Dnerden). 
fAetinodaetylus neglectus Dnch. and Mich., op. cit., p. 44, 1860 (very yonng). 
rStauractis incerta Andres, op. cit., p. 225, 1884 (new name for last). 
Lebrunea neglecta McMurrich, Actin. Bahama Is., p. 33, pi. i, fig. 7 (general), 

pL ill, fig. 11-14 (anatomy). Verrill, Amer. Jonm. Sci., viii, p. 48, 1899. 

A. K VerriU—The Bermvda Islands; Coral Reefs, 273 

Phymanth%is crucifer McMnrrich. Actinaria Bahama Is., p. 51, pi. ii, fig. 1, 
pi. iv, figs. 6-11 (anatomy), 1889. Dnerden, Actinaria aronnd Jamaica, p. 
452, 1898 ; Jamaican Actinaria, pt. ii, p. 139, pi. x, figs. 1, 2, pi. xi, figs. 1, 
2 (anatomy), 1900 ; Actinaria of Pori» Rico, p. 368, pi. iii, fig. 13, 1902. 

Epicystis aticifeira Verrill, Amer. Jo am. Sci., vi, p. 496, 1898. McMurrich, 
Bolletino Mns. Zool. Anat. Comp., Turino, vol. xx, p. 12, 1905. 

This is also a large and very handsome species, not uncommon on 
the reefs and ledges, where the water is apt to be much agitated. 
It buries itself nearly up to the tentacles in holes and crevices of the 
rocks, into which it can withdraw when disturbed. It adds to its 
ability to conceal itself, by fastening bits of broken shells, etc., to 
the conspicuous suckers on the upper part of the column. 

It is also frequently found on the sand flats in shallow water, 
attached to a stone several inches below the sand and expanding its 
broad undulated or frilled disk on the surface of the sand, where it 
often presents a very elegant appearance. 

When fully extended the body of the larger specimens may be 6 
to 8 inches or more long and 2 to 3 inches in diameter, while the 
disk and tentacles may expand to the breadth of 6 to 8 inches, but 
specimens of about half these dimensions are much more common. 
In full expansion the edge of the disk is usually curved into six to 
twelve wavy undulations, or they may become deep sinuous frills ; 
sometimes they disappear and the broad disk is then usually con- 
cave, but changeable. Occasionally there are only four great undu- 
lations of the disk. The tentacles, which are very numerous, and . 
form three or four crowded rows, are of moderate length, stout and 
tapered, but not very different in form or length. They are generally 
crossed by several raised, flake-white, transverse ridges or bars, 
usually bilobed or dilated at the ends, and containing large batteries 
of nematocysts.* Sometimes these are interrupted along the medinn 
line, and frequently they are reduced in number, but I have never 

* Mr. Duerden, in his recent work (Actiniansof Porto Rico, 1902, p. 368) adopts 
Phymanthus Edvr.y 1857, for the generic name, and qnotes Carlgren's opinion 
that this species is congeneric with P. loligo, of the Red Sea, the type of that 
genus. Whether that be the case or not (for the difference is considerable), 
Epicystis must be adopted for the American genus, on the ground of priority. 
The genua Epicystis Ehrenberg was established, with a brief diagnosis, for E. 
crucifera in 1834. It was the first of the three species mentioned by Ehrenberg, 
and the only one that can be considered typical, for the other two belong to 
genera previously established. Phynianthus was not named till 1^57, and there- 
fore, if they are to be united, the Red Sea species must take the name Epicystis 
loligo (Ehr.). But the latter has clusters of papillae on the tentacles, so conspic- 
uous that Ehrenberg referred it to Actinodendron Bv. 

i!7l A. K Verrill — 2%e Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

Hoon HpiHMiiu'nH without them, unless referable to the next species or 
HuhHpcrioH by other characters. 

Tho (link is covered with numerous unequal radial rows of small, 
Hiin|)lo papilUo or tubercles of various sizes, the rows corresponding 
to ilu» tentacles of all but the outer cycles. The smaller are rounded 
aiui wart-liko ; the larger, conical or papilliform. The column is 
Miuooth below, but has short rows of suckers, usually bright red in 
color, to which foreign objects adhere, on the upper part. Each 
n>w usually has (J to 10 suckers in large specimens, decreasing in 
Mir,o below. The margin bears a circle of rounded acrorhagi, each 
one in line with a row of suckers. 

The ground color of the column is usually pale flesh-color, cream- 
color, or whitish, irregularly striped, streaked, on flammulated with 
oannine, rose-red, light reil, or crimson, not unlike some varieties of 
striped apples ; near the upi>er margin it usually changes to gray; 
verruca* bright reii. The disk is elegantly variegated with several 
colors ; the ciMitral part is often bright iridescent green, beyond 
which it may bo variegate<i with lavender, russet-brown, green, yel- 
low, and t^ako- white, in various patterns. Frequently the ground- 
color of I ho disk is whitish, grayish, or yellowish green ; while the 
luWri^los mav W darker voUow, jjreen, olive, or brown. The basal 
disk is usually light nni. The lips may be lavender, with white 
gx^udial grt>ovo^ : inside of mouth often pink. The tentacles also 
vary in tN^lors^ but usually oi>rrespond in color more or less with the 
disk ; nuvM ^H>n>monlv thov are cre^nish or olive-brown, with the 
oryvxs Ivars t^akowhito ; the white cr>L>ss- bars are of ten most numer- 
ous and nuvM diNtinot on tho outer lentaclesw 

Tho bps baxc alvMU ::4 c'^"**'*vos on each side, besides the goniditl 
j^Tvs^xox >^b^^^. aiv mt\mk\> developed. 

When o\\vi^^u\i r.i ;ht:r barrv-^ws^ the disk spreads out into a 
V:\vid •rilisi •»- :r., b;:: :t v-ar* c*,^ntracl very quickly wben disturbed 
a!Ni n^T^x^at ivt;:\!\ >nMh:r. i^jt burrow, xlK^iicii tbe testacies are not 

S*;Ns:>4V vts ^'Xft^'iMk J'^ ^ "' * '* --v- ■.y^-.'^ Am^mtim . Pip. 130. H. "rrit fig. t 

4>«. i;nVv .«.■*••• \ .'r . . >•«.-^v .\a:t A^-ifci . t p. SSA. IWN) i^eAa^vA 

D :> N s».: ^. . s.: v;-v*N «> .Jtref as rbe }moediiig and has 
: ?v v\rvs i.'*.\, s..*! sv' ;*x ':'.'*"it :c xbe dk^ loid usually the 

vs.:v. '\v: >N. WKiV. .v.-^s .: ■ !n ,viLixT^ Bm "die tentacles, which 

A. K VerriU^Tfu Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 275 

are in four rows, are entirely destitute of the raised transverse white 
ridges or bars, so characteristic of crucifera. Moreover, the smooth 
tapered tentacles are usually fawn-color or orange brown with a 
coDspicnous stripe of flake-white on each side, becoming wider at 
base and running inward on the disk as white radial lines or streaks; 
on the outer tentacles the white patches often meet around the outer 
base and extend about half way to the tips. The 'disk is colored 
like the tentacles, often with an iridescent green tint, variegated 
with brown and lavender and specks of white, and with many white 
radial lines. 

The tubercles of the disk are small and very numerous in each of 
the larger radial rows ; they are mostly small and verruciform, but 
some are conical, papilliform, or even slender and clavate. They 
are usually darker than the ground color of the disk, but vary in 

Figure 120. — Epieystis formosa. Diagrammatic profile of disk and tentacles, 
natnral size ; «, tabercles of disk ; a, acrorhagns or larger upper verraca ; 
h, adhesive snckers of the wall. Sketched from life by the anthor. 

The large verrucae or suckers of the upper part of the column are 
bright red. They remain conspicuous in preserved specimens. 

Although in a former article I described this as a distinct species, 
I have here reduced it to a subspecies or variety, mainly out of 
deference to the opinion of Mr. Duerden, who claims to have found 
intermediate forms at Jamaica, though it would seem that the two 
characteristic forms are also abundant there, as in Bermuda. 

It is quite possible that though really distinct, they may often 
hybridize, and thus produce intermediate forms, as in the case of 
our two New England starfishes of the genus Asterias, which are 
well known to hybridize where their ranges overlap, as in Vineyard 

In many respects this agrees with the description of Actinia 
oscidifera Les., 1817, with which I formerly identified it. The latter 

276 A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

had similar colors, radial rows of tubercles on the disk, and verruca 
on the upper part of the column from which water could be ejected, 
as in crucifera, with which Lesueur himself compared it. 

However, McMurrich justly remarks that Lesueur described the 
disk tubercles as lobed or branched, which has not been observed in 
this species. But his attempt to explain away the verrucae of the 
column as due to an error of observation on Lesueur's part, he being 
supposed to have mistaken accidental wrinkles of the smooth-walled 
Actinotryx for verrucae, seems to me very improbable. They must 
have been conspicuous, for they not only ejected water, bat sug- 
gested the name of the species. 

Moreover Lesueur was an able and careful observer, well-trained 
in zoology for that period, and an excellent zoological artist, as his 
published figures show. In fact, he exceeded most zoologists of his 
time in the attention to all minor details of the objects he' described, 
as is shown, for instance, in his figures of the anatomy of ZoanUiUM, 
giving correctly the unusual arrangement of the mesenteries. 

Hence I think we must allow that the species described by Lesueur 
had distinct suckers or verrucae on the column, of which some were 
perforated, and that the disk tubercles were lobed or branched. 
Moreover, he speaks of the marginal tentacles as large. 

Hence it seems to me quite unreasonable to assume, as McMurrich 
does, that he had before him Actinotryx Sancti'thomce, which has a 
remarkably smooth and lubricous column, and only very small mar- 
ginal tentacles; It also has a very different style of coloration. 
Moreover its peculiar form surely would have attracted Lesueur's 
attention, as being quite unlike any species he had previously 

However, if we eliminate these two species, I do not know any 
other West Indian species, described by modem writers, to which 
his description could apply. Perhaps it was a species not yet redis- 
covered. We are certainly not yet acquainted with all the West 
Indian actinians. 

Actinotryx sancti-thoms (Dncb. and Mich.) Figures 121. 132, 123. 

Actinotryx Sanvti-Thonuv Duch. and Mich., Corall. AntilL, p. 45, pL Tii, fig. 

2, 1860 ; Andres, p. 509, 1860 ; Dnerden, Jamaican Actinaria, part ii, PP- 

148-154. pi. X, figs. 3-6 (general), pi. xi, figs. 8, 4 (anatomy), pi. xii, fig. ^ 

(anatomy). 1900. 
Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., x, p. 555, pi. Ixviii, fig. 5, 1900. 
Rhoilactis Sancti-Thomce McMurrich, Actinaria Bahamas, p. 42, pi. i, fig. ^f 

pi. iv, figs. 2, 3 (anatomyy. 1889. Dnerden, Actinaria aromid Jamaiea, p. 

451, 1898. 

A. -E VerriU—TTie Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 'ill 

Rhodaetit omOiftra IfcUnrrich, Reviaioii, Boll. Uns. TnriD, xx, p. 13, 190S 
(iton Les. sp.). . 1 

This curious species is comtnoD on the reefs, ofteo living exposed 
to the surf, as well as in sheltered spots. It often grows in large 
gronps or colonies, nearly covering the rock for a considerable area, 

Figure 131. — Aetinotryx mntti-thomcK. A small specimeD fully expanded. 

Phot, from life, Dat. size. The inegtilar patcbes on the colamn are due to 

loowlf adherent macns. Phdt. A. H. V. 
Flgore 123. — The same, a lar^r specimen, not bo fullf expanded, } nat. size. 

From colored drawing by A. H. V. 

those in each colony being of nearly one pattern of color, due, 
without doubt, to the fact that this actinian can produce young 
asesually, both by direct fission and by fragmentation of the edges 

Fignre 123. — Aetinotryx sancli-thomee ; a, digram of month nnd disk-tuber- 
cles, ■x2; b, groap of marginal tentacles, mote enlarged. Sketches from 
lite hj the author. 

of the lobulated basal disk. Therefore a concolorous group indi- 
cates that all in such a group are of one parentage. But there is 
great diversity in the members of different groups. 

278 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

The base, which is often expanded and lobulated, adheres Tery 
closely to the rocks, and is very liable to be injured in remoyal. It 
sometimes secretes an epidermal basal cuticle. The body, in foil 
expansion, is narrow below, but spreads out toward the disk into i 
cup-like or vase-like form, or even into a broad salver-shape, with 
the thin rim of the broadly distended disk often horizontal, or even 
reflexed, and frequently undulated. The exterior is very smooth 
and lubricous, and when irritated it secretes a great amount of tena- 
cious mucus, but in partial contractions the wall is often longito- 
dinally lined or grooved, corresponding to the mesenteries, and 
sometimes transversely wrinkled, but never has verruc» or suckere. 
The broad disk may be concave or convex, according to state of 
expansion, and is often flexuous ; the mouth is generally raised on i 
broad conical elevation ; the lips have numerous (48—60) small lobes 
and grooves, but no distinct gonidial grooves. Several short, 
rounded or wart-like tubercles surround the mouth. 

Then there is a nearly naked smooth area, beyond which numer- 
ous radial rows of disk-tubercles run out toward the bases of the 
marginal tentacles, but leave a naked zone in front of them. The 
disk-tubercles vary in form and size. Twelve primary rows can 
usually be distinguished by their larger size, greater complexity, 
and often by their white or lighter color. The proximal and distal 
tubercles of the larger rows, and all of those in the smaller rows are 
simple, rounded, mammiform, or verruciform, and in specimens of 
less than an inch in diameter all are usually simple. But in the 
larger specimens, 5 to 8 or more of those in the middle part of the 
larger rows are lobulated, each bearing 3 to 6, or even 8, irregular, 
short, blunt, divergent digitations or lobules, while those more distal 
become gradually smaller and simple. There maybe 12 to 20 or 
more in a radial row. 

The margin is thin and bears a single row of short simple, unequal 
tentacles, in which groups of one to three larger ones alternate with 
groups of three or four smaller ones, somewhat irregularly. 

The body is but little contractile, and the disk cannot be enrolled, 
but may be incurved. The internal structure is peculiar in several 

The color of the column varies greatly. It is often greenish 
brown below, becoming chocolate-brown or umber-brown above, and 
usually finely lined with paler, and frequently flecked with whitish 
or pale spots; specimens that are olive-green, purplish, or fawn-color 
are also common ; they are usually paler near the base. 

-4. JK Verrill—ITie Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 279 

The disk is variously colored and variegated. Common colors are 
emerald'green, lavender, chocolate-brown, gray, and flake-white, 
often with an iridescent luster when green. Frequently the colors 
are in radial lines or stripes. The primary rows of tubercles are 
often flake-white or light green on a green ground-color, or gray 
with white specks, alternating with other rows of laveiider-color. 
Toward the margin there are often alternating radii of light brown 
and whitish. Inside of mouth often light green, sometimes greenish 

The largest specimens observed were 3.5 inches across the 
expanded disk and about 2 inches high; specimens of 1.5 to 2 
inches in diameter are not uncommon. The larger ones sometimes 
have 2 or 3 mouths on the disk, indicating incipient fission. 

It is also common in the West Indies. 

Duerden in his work of 1900 (Jamaican Actinaria, pt. II) has 
given an excellent account of its anatomy and histology, which are 
peculiar. There is no definite sphincter muscle, and therefore the 
margin of the disk and column cannot be completely retracted. 
The mesenteries are irregular. Only one pair of directive mesen- 
teries is usually developed, and there is no distinct gonidial groove. 
Nematocysts are lacking in the column wall and disk tentacles, but 
occur at the tips of the marginal tentacles. The mesenterial fila- 
ments are unusually simple and lack the ciliated streaks. 

It is viviparous, but extrudes the young in early stages of develop- 
ment. Duerden found it breeding in September. 

In addition to the preceding species, which are mostly common 
and well known,* the following species was described from a pre- 
served specimen obtained by the Challenger expedition from the 
" Reef of Bermuda." It has not been observed since that time, so 
far as I know. There may, perhaps, be an error as to the locality, 
but it should be carefully looked for on the outer reefs. 

* Several species of Bermada actinians have not been described above, because 
they are not ordinarily fonnd on the reefs. They are as follows : 

Cerianthus natans Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., xi, p. 47, pi. ix, fig. 6, 1901. 

PheUia simplex Verrill, op. cit., p. 48. 

Bunodopsis globulifera Verrill, op. cit. , x, p. 559, pi. Ixvii, fig. 4, 1900 ; Amer. 

Jonr. Sci., vii, p. 146, fig. 20, 1899. Dnerden, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 

viii, pp. 297-317, plates 25, 26, anatomy, 1902. 

280 A. E. Verrill^The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs. 

Byanthopsis long^ifilis Hertwig. 

Voyage Challenger, Zoology, vol. xxvi [p. 13], pi. ii, fig. 2 (gen. and sp. no?.). 

It is a turbinate form, as contracted, with a small pedal dist It 
had about 160 long, slender, perforated tentacles, in about four rows. 
Wall of column and collar smooth. No acontia ; mesenteries 160, 
all fertile and perfect; no sphincter. Height of column, 35""; diam- 
eter of disk, 70°"^; of base, 40"'"; length of larger tentacles, 40"". 

It probably belongs to the Actinidoe^ but in its anatomy it is 
unlike any West Indian species known to me. 

It seems to most resemble Condylactis gigantea. 


Several species of these social or colonial actinians occur at Ber- 
muda in great abundance, not only on the reefs, but in shallow 
water along the shores, in small bays, and even in tide pools. The 
bottom of Hungry Bay, in the spring of 1900, seemed to be com- 
pletely carpeted with two or three species, over large areas. One 
of the species abundant there was a bright green ZoanthttSy another 
was the larger yellow or orange-colored ProtopcUythoa grandis. Two 
species of Palythoa occur commonly on the reefs, forming more 
or less extensive pale yellow coriaceous crusts, often several feet 
across. The most abundant is P, mammillosay in which the polyps, 
when fully contracted, sink entirely into the coenenchyma, so as to 
show little or no prominences. In this the encrustation of white 
sand is so dense that the colonies can be preserved in the dry state 
so as to retain much of their natural form and size. 

The species of this group are variable in form, color,* number of 
tentacles, etc., and therefore they are difficult to identify, especially 
when preserved. Several recent writers have endeavored to find 
good specific characters in their internal anatomy and histologr, 
but so far with little success, for the internal structure seems to vary 
quite as much as the external. The mode of growth, crowding, and 
even the state of contraction give rise to apparent structural differ- 
ences, even in a single colony. The mesenteries and tentacles 

* The greeD, yellow, brown, and olive colors, so common in the Zoanthacet, 
as well as in the coral polyps, are mostly dne to microeoopic nnicellnlAr plants 
(Zooxanthellae) living symbiotically in the tissnes, especially in the cells of the 
endoderm, and varying in relative numbers as well as in color, thus canang 
corresponding variations in the polyps. But they also have, in many cases, 
special pigment grannies of different kinds in the ectoderm cells of the disk ind 
tentacles. (See p. 210.) 

A. M VerriU—7%e Bermuda Islanda; Coral Reefs. 281 

se by pairs, to the right and left of the directives, so that 
rary in nnmber up to full maturity. The number of tentacles 
lesenteriee in the full-grown polyps seems to be fairly constant 
1 rather narrow limits. 

! Bermuda reef species all have fhott tentacles. The species 
long tentacles mostly belong to Epizoantkus and Parazoart' 
ind are found chiefly in deeper or colder waters. 

MiTthoa grandia Terrill. Figures 134-138. Plate izi, fig. 2. 
■^atythoa grandia Venill, Trans. Conn. Acad., i, p. 563, pi. Iivii, fig. 6, 

I species is one of the largest American zoanthids. 
ally occurs in large groups, coaled with white sand, and united 
ler at base by broad membranous expansions, but when the 
rs are Email the polyps may be united by narrow stolons (figs. 

126. — Pratopalyl hoa grandii. A group of adull and young, yellow vari- 
r, X Ij ; a, an adult polyp Tcith 64 tentacles, partially expanded. From 
lolored drawing by A. H.V., from life. 

• colnmn may be of almost any form, according to the place of 
h and state of expansion. In many eases it is short and cylin- 
, but spreading distallyin expansion (figs. 136, 127). Very often 
lavate or trumpet-shaped, narrow at base and regularly enlarg- 
stally, as in figs. 125, 126. In expansion the disk may be flat 
icave, but when very fully expanded it becomes convex and 
id, as in figs. 124, 125, The length of the column varies, in 
polyps, from 1 inch or less to 2 inches (20-.')0"""); diameter of 
tcted summits, 8 to 1-3°"° ; of expanded disks, 12 to 18""". The 
lea are numerous, usually 60 to 68; sometimes 80 in the largest 

382 A. E. Verrill—T/te Bermitda Island*; Coral Beef ». 

polyps, rather short and blunt, arraiigtd in two alternating rows. 
Surrounding the dixk, outside the tentacles, there is a circle of angu- 
lar pointed lohett, usually white in color, corresponding to the isiier 

FiKore V2i.—Pi-otfijMtlylhoa grantlh, two poljpi in different rttte 

aboat nikt. size. Drawn b}' the author from lite. 
Figure ISj. — Tbt; xame, a detaobMl polyp with dongated oolamn, ■Ugtitl]' 

enlarged. Drawn by A. H. V. 
Figtire 127,— The sHine. Two polj'pB of the HhoTt form, wlQi wUte muKfaul 

lobes and ocher-yellow disk, expanded, aomewhst reduced. Dikwii bj A. 

H. V. 
Fignre 128. — Tbe same. Gronp of polype, contraoted, }i natonl sIm. 

A. E. Verrill^The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs. 283 

jircle of tentacles, and of the same number. These show as white 
convergent points when the polyps are contracted and enable us to 
iscertain the number of tentacles, even in contraction. In some 
sases one of the directive tentacles was longer and lighter colored 
than the rest, and the corresponding marginal papilla was whiter. 

The disk and tentacles are most frequentlj' ocher-yellow, orange- 
yellow, or buff, usually darker near tlie tentacles, and mostly marked 
with brown or green radial lines ; the whole disk may be tinged 
with green or olive ; lips whitish or pale yellow. The column, 
under the sand, is usually buff, salmon, or ocher-yellow. 

Common on the reefs and in sheltered bays and sounds ; low- 
water to 8 fathoms. 

Protqpalythoa Heilprini Verrill. 

Verrin, these Trans., x, p. 500, 1900 (as Parapalythoa by error). 
C^emmaria Riiaei {Russi by error) McMurrich, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 
1889, p. 124, pi. vii, figs. 7-9 (non Duch. and Mich.). 

This is a much smaller species found in small groups attached to 
stones at North Uocks. Height of column about 25™™ ; diameter, 
in contraction, 6 to 7™". The column is usually clavate and trans- 
versely wrinkled. Thirty-one pairs of mesenteries were found by 
McMurrich. The * tentacles should, therefore, be about 62. It 
appears to be rare. 

Palythoa mammillosa (EUis and Sol.), Lamx. Figs. 129, 129a, 130. PI. xxx, 
fig. 1, a. 

Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis and Solander, Hist. Zo(5ph., p. 179, pi. 1, 

figs. 4, 5, 1786. 
Palythoa mammillosa Lamx., Polyp. Flex., p. 369, pi. xiv, fig. 2, 1816; Edw. 

and H., ill, p. 304 ; Dana, Zooph. Expl. EIxp. 
Corticifera flava Lesnenr, op. cit., p. 179, 1817. 
Palythoa flava Dnch. and Mich., Corall. Ant., 1860, p. 53. McMurrich, 

Actinaria Bahama Is., p. 66. 
f Palythoa earibceorum, Dnch. and Mich., Corall. Ant., p. 53, 1860. 
Palythoa einerea Dnch. and Mich., Snpl. Coral., p. 47, pi. vi, fig. 8, 1866. 
Corticifera lutea Hertwig, Voyage Chall., Zool., xxvi, p. 44, pi. i, fig. 6, 

1888 {non Qnoy and G., sp.). 
Corticifera flava McMnrricb, Actinaria Bahama Is., p. 66, 1889. 
Corticifera glareola McMnrrich, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1889, p. 122 ; 

also reprint in Heilprin's Bermnda Is. {non Les. sp.). 
Palythoa mammillosa Dnerden, Actinaria of Jamaica, p. 859, pj. xviiA, figs. 

7, 8, pi. xix, figs. 1-4, anatomy, 1889. Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. 

X, p. 564, pi. IxviU, fig. 7, 1900. 

A. E. VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Km/s. 


ThU is the most cominon epecies at Bermuda as well as in the 
West Indies. It forms broad, coriaceous, pale yellow crusts, due la 
the thick coat of calcareous sand, on the ledges and reefs, both » 
low tide and in deeper water. These colonies are often two to four 
feet across and from one-third to one-half an inch (8-12""") or more 
in thickness when living, and with a nearly smooth surface wheD the 
polyps are entirely retracted. But when they expand they can riee 
considerably above the ctenencLyma, the projecting portion being 3 

Fignre 12SI.— Pal ylb' 
espanded ; nat. 
Fignre 139i(. ~" 

Another part of 

phot, while living, under 

illoiii, part of & colonj, with Bon 

. ,_.. _- — same colony, 
r, by A. H. V. 

» of the pol jpi 

to 5'°'" high, cylindrical, or expanding toward the disk, conical, or 
hemispherical according to the degree of expansion (figs. 129, 130). 

When dried, therefore, these crusts sometimes show slight num- 
milliform elevations over tlie polyps, and sometimes depressions, or 
even round openings (as in ocellata of Ellis and Sol,), 

The tentacles are small and short, about .06"" long, Taiying from 
34 to 40, but usually 'Mj to 38 in full grown polyps. They form two 
alternating rows, with an outer circle of whitish, angalar, colnmiuil 
lobos, o|>posite the inner circle of tentacles and of the same nnmber. 

A. M VerriU — 7%e Bermuda Inlands; Coral Eeefs. 285 

The disk is ocher-j-tllow or light oranpe-yellow, with the central 
part darker or more browniBb, with radial white lines or rows of 
spots, and nsually a circle of small flake-white spots around the 
moath. Tentacles similar to the dittk, but usually paler, often 
■pecked with white at the tips, aod frequently with white specks 
between their bases. But the color may vary in the same colony, 
some of the polyps being without white lips and radii on the disk 
aod spots on the tentacles, while others will have them. 

The anatomy has been described by McMnrricb, Duerden, and 
others. The internal Etrocture seems to vary considerably in vari- 
ooB features. 

It is commoD throughout the West Indies. 

V\fpa% IW. — a, Rdythoa ynammilloKi expanded polyp ; b, P. grandiflora, 
expanded polyp. Both about 1} natural size by tbe anthor. 

Taljthaa grandiflora Tenill. Fignrea 180, b, 181, 182. Plattt iii, flg. 1, b. 
f Wf ttoa grandiflora Ver., Trans. Cona. Acad. Sci., x, p. 564, pi. Ixriii, &g. 

6. IMO ; op. eit., vol. xi, p. 52, pi. vii, Bg. S, 1001. 
Cortie^rra oetOala HcMnrrich, Pn>c. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phitad., 1889, p. 130 ; 

rBprint in Heilpriu'B The Bermuda Is. {non Ellis and Solauder sp.). 
This is one of tbe largest known species of Zoanthidie. When full 
growD it forma broad but not very thick crusts, several feet broad, 
bat more frequently it is found in smaller colonies, a foot or less in 
breadth. In contraction the larj^e polyps cannot contract entirely 
to tbe level of the ctenencbyma, but their summits remain as promi- 
nent rounded tubercles or mammillie, 10 to 14'°'° broad, on its sur- 
face (fig. 131). In this state the summits of the contracted polyps 
are sulcated with about 26 to 3() grooves, terminating in white, 
angular points around tbe disk. In expansion the polyps rise con- 
siderably above the cteoenchyma (about 16 to SC""), and swell out 
at the summit into broad cup-shaped or flower-like forms, often 
with the disk flat or even convex, and so broad that their margins 
often overlap each other in the clusters, entirely concealing their 
Trams. Conn. Acad., Voi. XII. 18 Jcsk, 1908. 

286 A. E. VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefa, 

bodies and the ccenenchyma. The disk is 14 to 18"" broad in expan- 
sion. The tentacles varr from 52 to 60 in the fall grown jmlvps; 
they are t^hort, subequal, in two regularly alternating rows, nsiullr 
dark yellow or dull orange with white tips. The disk is also gea- 
enilly some shade of brownish orange, with specks and radial line> 
of whitish, lips usually white. The angular colnmnal lobes, opposite 
the inner tentacles, are tipped with flake-white, and one in line with 
the directive tentacles is often larger and whiter than the rest 
Column and cteneuehyma, under the coaling of sand, is ocher-yellow, 
pale orange, or orange-brown. 



FignivlSI. — Falytkaa grattditora. a email cf^ony putljr nmtnctod. alwil 

Fi^T» 1^.— The same, part of a lar^r colonr. alightlj radoDed. FIm>L I? 
A. H. V. 

It wa:! moKt abandant in the coaree of streams of salt irat«r llov- 
ing out from caverns, etc., through the rocky shores, espeoblly wi 
the side -ci Cattle Harbor. It occurred also on the reef* ud 
in 5 to t^ fathoms. It di>e$ not appear to be known from tbe W«l 

The )Htly|>$ of this S|iocies agree so well in siae, color, and number 
of tentxoles with those of Protopaltithoa ffrandUy that it iBtr 
naturally Ih> susjieotei) that they are (he same speoes with diffemt 

A. M Verritl—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 287 

forma of growth, the Utter having no ccenenchyma above the basal 
stolons. Bnt I foand no truly intermediate forms. Should they 
ultimately prove to be identical, it would probably be necessary to 
unite the genus Protopalythoa {= Gemmaria of many authors) to 
Falt/thoa* The type of the latter (1816) was P. m((m»wi/f(wa. The 
only tangible difference between the two genera is the presence in 
the latter of a thick crust-like coenenchyma, uniting the polyps 
together laterally. But in this species they are often united for less 
than half their height. 

ZOantlliU proteu* VerriU. Fignreti 133, 134, 135. Plate iix, Gg. 1, c. 
Zoanthiu, ep. 1. ErdmRjin, op. cit., p. 438, pi. ir, figs. 1, 3, general, pi. v, 

figs. 1-5, uuitoinj. 
fbOHthu Dana Hertwig, Vo;. Cball., Zool., ixvi, p. 36, pi. i, fig. 1, 1S88 

(turn Veirtll, 1867). 
r Zoanlhtte fiog-nuMrintu McMnrrich, op. cit., lt<8!l, p. 113, pi. rii, figs. 3, 4 ; 

HeUprin's The Bermuda Is., p. llfl, pi, xi, figs. 3, 4, 1689 (iian Dach. and 

rZoivnthiu pulehtUu* {para) I>iieTden, A«t. of Porto Rico, 1902, p. 333, pi. ii, 

flgX, t, 8, gen»ral, pi. It, Bg. 14. sphincter (non Dnch. and Hich.). 
AohMw protev* VerriU, these Trans., i, p. 561, pi. ixvii, figs. 5^b, 1900. 

This is the most common Bermuda species of Zoanthui. The 
polyps are extremely variable in form and height ; the column may 

Figure 133. — Zoanthns proteua, from same colony as>]34 ; a, two polyps with 
lateral atolona and bads ; b, polyps with lateral bnds. x abont 2. Drawn 
from preserved speciroenB by A. H. V. 

be short or long cylindrical ; bottle-shaped ; jug-shaped ; club- 
shaped ; or tall, slender, trumpet-shaped ; all these forms often 
occurring in one cluster (see fig. 134). The wall is soft, but often 
has dirt, diatoms, etc., adhering slightly to the surface, except on 

• Or else the latter would need to be restricted to Bpecie#in which the polyps 
cian be enUc«lj withdrawn into calicles immeraed in the canenchyma. 

288 A. E. VerriU—TAe Bermuda Mands; Corai Ree/i. 

the upper tfaird or fourth part, which is smoother and naked, to 
that the surface is usually divisible into two regions, usually with i 
constriction between, and with a secondary sphincter muscle corre- 
gpondiDg to it ; but this difference is not always evideot externally. 

In many contracted specimens small irregular verrnoie and tram- 
verse rugffi occur about the middle of the column, where the w»il 
appears to be thickest. The mesenteries sometimes sbo«r throu^ 
the column, where thin distally, as longitudinal lines. 

The two sphincter muscles agree well in sections with the figure 
of Erdmann (op. cit., pi. v, fig. 2). 

The polyps are united into more or less extensive clusters either 
by slender narrow stolons, or by flat espansions of coenenchyma, or 
directly, the buds often springing from the basal regions of the 
column, or even from higher up on the sides ; sometimeB stolooB 
also arise from above the base (fig. 133). These variations may all 
occur in one colony. 

The polvps inay be crowded or openly grouped, but seldom if ever 
wide apart, as io sociatua. According to Hertwig and ISrdmann 
their Bermuda specimens were hermaphrodite. 

Figure Ui.—Zoauthuf 

; part of a large colony \a contraction, abont Ji 

Figore 185. — Zoaiilhus proteu»\ a, pednncnlate form; b, oidioMy fomw;t, 
short forms, all from one colony, x IJ. Drswn by A. H. V. 

Tentacles numerous, slender, usually 48 to 52, greeo or yellow. 

Color of column distally is olive-green, sometimes bluish or to^ 
quoi!<e-blue ; disk pale ochre-ycllow, with white specks, somctinie* 
green, with paler radial lines. 

A, JE, VerrHl — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 289 

Height of longest polyps, in contraction, 18 to 24™"; usual diam- 
eter, 3.5 to 5""; height of short forms, 6 to 10""; diameter, 4 to 6""; 
height of average polyps, about 10 to 15""; breadth of expanded 
disk, 5-8"". 

At and considerably below low-tide mark, on the reefs, adhering 
to stones and dead corals ; also in the sheltered bays and sounds ; 
abundant in Hungry Bay in shallow water. 

This is the species described by Erdmann, op. cit., 1886, p. 438, 
pis. iv, V, with some anatomical details, and afterwards referred 
erroneously to Z. Dance by Hertwig. It also resembles a species 
described by Duerden under the name of Z. pulchelltis {non Duch. 
and Mich.) from Porto Rico, in 1902, but not so much the one 
described by him under that name from Jamaica, in 1898. The 
figure of the sphincter muscle given by Duerden is very much like 
that of this species, as figured by Erdmann, more like it in fact 
than like that of the Jamaica pidchellus tigured by Duerden in 
1898, pi. 18a, fig. 3. In Erdmann's figure the two sphincter muscles 
are both well developed, much as in Duerden's Porto Rico speci- 
mens, which is not the case in the smaller Jamaica form. 

Zoanthtui K>ciata8 (Ellis and Sol.?) Cavier. Figure 136 (SolandH). 

Actinia sociata Ellis (Q 1767, p. 428, pi. xiii, figs. 1, 2: Ellis and Sol., 1786, 
p. 5, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2. (Figs, reproduced by Lamonronx, EIxpos. Meth.) 

f Zoanthus sociata Lesaenr, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., i, p. 176, 1817. 

t Zoanthus Solandri (color-variety) Les., op. cit., pp. 177, 183, pi. viii, fig. 1 
1817* (not of Duerden, 1898). 

* LeeueuT'S general figure of Z. Solandri (fig. 136), if natural size, as most of 
the general fig^nres in his plates were, represents a much larger species than the 
one here discussed, for the expanded disk in his figure is 12™'° in diameter; con- 
tracted columns, 9-10"" ; height of column, 45""". He gives, as a measure- 
ment, " length about two inches " which agrees with the figure. As the above 
species agrees so well with his type in other respects, and no large West Indian 
species having similar characters is now known, it seems most logical to con- 
clude that his figure was enlarged to nearly double the natural size (at least If). 
Allowing for this, the agreement would be very close. He stated that it had 60 
tentacles. Probably it was a mere color- variety of his Z. sociata (op. cit., p. 
176), which also had 60 tentacles and the same form of column and stolons, and 
lived in the same place. No measurements were given of the latter. Both lived 
buried to the tentacles in sand, but were attached by slender stolons in crevices 
of rocks below the surface. The figure of Solandri by Duch. and Mich,, 1860, 
is much like that of Lesueur, and similar in size ; height 40-50""° ; diameter of 
expanded disk 13"", and it is stated to be natural size ; the tentacles are short. 

If both figures of Solandri are natural size, it certainly is a distinct species. 

290 A. E, Yerrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

Zoanthus sociatus McMnrricb, Actin. Bahama Is., p. 62, pi. ii, fig. 3; pi. iv, 
figs. 15-18, 1889 (anatomy). Bull. Labr. Nat. Hist. Univ. Iowa, iv, p. 342, 
pi. iii, fig. 1, 1898 (anatomy) ; Zoolog. Bnlletin, vol. ii, No. 6, mesenterial 
filaments, 1899. 

Zoanthus flos-maHnus Dnerden, Jamaican Actin., part i, p. 889, pi. xviiA, fig. 
2, pi. xviiiA, fig. 2, 1898 {non Duch. and Mich.).* 

Zoanthus sociatus Yerrill, these Trans., x, p. 561, 1990. Daerden, Actinians 
of Porto Rico, p. 334, pi. ii, fig. 4, pi. iv, figs. 15, 16; pi. v, figs. 17-22, 1902 

The polyps in this species are pedunculated ; they arise from 
slender stolons and form open colonies. The column is clavate or 
enlarges upward to the disk, in expansion, and at the widest part is 
about 4 to 5'°" in diameter ; expanded disk, 5 to 8""; height usuallj 
about 20 to 25°*°*. 

The tentacles are about 56 to 60 in adult polyps; they are small 
and rather slender, bluish green, olive, or brown. 

The disk is usually green, more or less varied with blue, yellow, 
or brown. There is sometimes a brown triangular spot at one or 
both angles of the mouth (t. McMurrich and Duerden). The column 
is bluish, greenish, or dark violet above, yellowish below. 

The original tigure of Z, sociatus in Ellis and in Ellis and Solan- 
der, if natural size, represents it as a larger species than the one now 
so-called. Moreover, one of the polyps is represented as expanded, 
and as having numerous long, slender tentacles, like an Epizoanthus* 
No measurements were given, and therefore it is doubtful whether 
the figure is natural size. If the drawing of the tentacles was cor- 

characterized by its large size, pedunculate form, and about 60 short, conical 
tentacles. But the early writers often measured and described their species of 
such animals from the drawings, not from specimens, and it may well be 
doubted whether either figure is natural size, for it is difficult to represent the 
small tentacles, etc. of these forms without enlargement. If such a common 
large species exists in the West Indies, it is remarkable that modem colleoton 
have not found it. 

The species very fully described, 1898, with anatomical details by Duerdfin, 
under the name of Solandri^ is a shorter and stouter species with cylindrical 
bodies and short stolons, similar to Z. proteus. 

* The Z. flos-marimis of Daerden, 1898, had much smaller polyps than the 
original type of Duch. and Mich., and differed in form, and in the size, color, 
and number of tentacles ; the latter was described as having 86 tentacles (the 
figure shows 40). The flos-mannus of McMarrich, 1889, from Bermudi^ seems 
to be my Z. proteus. No recent writer has noticed a large species 1.5 iochee 
high, with 86 tentacles, corresponding with the original floa-marinus. 

A, E. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Rerfs, 291 

ect it cannot represent this species, which has much shorter tenta- 

The only West Indian species of similar size, described by later 
mters as having long slender tentacles, like those represented in 
he plate of Ellis, is Z. nobilis of Duch. and Mich. (CoralL, pi. viii, 
^g- '^)5 which has about 60 long tentacles, their length, as figured, 
exceeding the breadth of the disk, as in the figure of Ellis. The 
K>lyp8 are clavate, slender at base, with narrow stolons. If the 
igare is natural size, it is much larger than the species now com- 
nonly called sociatus, and it n^ay be identical with the original 
oeiatus of Ellis. But the statement that it is natural size may be 
rroneous ; no measurements were given. However, as no recent 
mter has seen a species like Z, nobilis, and the original description 
3 too brief and indefinite to be of much value, I have thought it 
>est to leave the nomenclature of the present species undisturbed, 
.waiting the rediscovery of Z. nobilis. 

lOanihiifl dubiuB Les. Figures 137, 138. 

Zoanthus dubius Les., op. cit., p. 176, 1817 (non D. and M.). 

Verrill, these Trans., x, p. 563, pi. Ixviii, fig. 3, 1900. 

Zoanthus pulchellus Dnerden, op. cit., 1898, p. 460; Jamaican Actinaria, i, 
p. 341, pi. xviia, fig. 3, pi. xviiia, figs. 3, 4 (anatomy), 1898. Not that in 
Actinians of Porto Rico, p. 332, pi. ii, figs. 2, 3 (general), pi. iv, fig. 14 
(anatomy), (non Dnch. and Mich. sp.). 

, The specimens referred to this species have smaller and shorter 
K)lyps than the two preceding species,f seldom exceeding 8 to 12™™ 
n height and 4"™ in diameter of the contracted column. The 
x>lumn is usually more or less cylindrical, rarely clavate ; it is com- 

* The source of this drawing and of those of several West Indian gorgonians 
rith expanded polyps, published by Ellis, is not known. Although they appear 
have been made from living specimens, it is not absolntely certain that they 
rere not drawn from preserved specimens, for some of them have non-retractile 
M>lyp8. However, I will venture to suggest that several of those excellent 
Irawings, reproduced in the plates of Ellis, were made from life by Catesby, 
irbile be was in the Bahamas, where he spent some time drawing the fishes. A 
arge part of his collection is known to have gone into the museum of Sloane, 
?bo was one of his patrons, and the drawings may have gone to him also. Ellis 
8 said to have made use of Sloane^s collections, and he may have used his draw- 
Dgs also. 

f Lesneur stated that the polyps of his dubia were one-third smaller than 
hose of Z. sociata^ which it otherwise closely resembled, though it lived **in 
nmches" entirely exposed **in all its parts" to the water; tentacles **very 
lomeroTis"; " body cylindric, pedunculated, reddish." 

2»2 A. E. Verrill—The Bermuda I»landa/ Coral Bet^a. 

monly divided into two regions by a slight constriction above the 
middle ; the lower part uoually increases in size downward to tb« 
base; its substance is firm; the surface is longitadinslly aulcated in 
contraction, somewhat rough, and usually covered more or less with 
foreign growths (diatoms, small sponges, etc.). The distal portion 
has a thinner wall, with a smooth, soft surface, and usually in creasei 
in size upward to the rounded summit; which is sulcated in cootrsc- 
tion. The expanded disk is broad, often convex, V-g"" in diameter. 

Figure 136.— ZoonfAus Sotandri Lea., copied from Leaneor's ^(nre, | MigintI 

Bize of fij{Tire. 
Figure 137. — Zoanthua dttbiua Lea. Two polype o( the blD» vuiety, eipuided ; 

x about li. 
Figare 138,— Tlie same. Qroiip of contrBcted polyps, enlarged abont 31, Tb» 

baital part of column is encrusted with living diatoms, etc. 

It forms somewhat open clusters; the polyps are nnited togetber 
by a thin membranous basal expansion, or by wide thin stolons. 
Sometimes the colonies are of considerable extent. 

The tentacles are short and varj' from about 4« to 52. 

According to Dnerden the lower part of the column is nsnall; 
pale buff, while the upper part is olive-blue; disk bright green with 
lighter radial lines, sometimes pale green or yellow; lips oft«n pink, 
sometimes red or yellow: sometimes a dark triangular spot at eaek 
angle of the mouth. 

Some of our specimens (as the one represented by fig. 137) vert 
bright turquoise -blue all over the column; disk bluish green, or pile 
blue with green radii; lips reddish; tentacles 40-44, outer rowpwn, 
inner ones bright blue. The cluster represented in fig. 138 had the 
column olive-green distally; disk pale ocber-yellow. Lesnenr's type 
had the disk green; mouth and tentacles yellow; body reddish. 

A. E. VeiTiU—'ITie Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs. 293 

This species, very fully described aDatomically by Duerden, seems 
to me to agree better with the original dubia than any other known,* 
asd should, I believe, take that name. The dubius of Duch. and 
Mich., 1860, appears from the figure to be a larger and stouter 
species, more like Z. proteus, but they gave no description, not even 
jof the colors or number of tentacles, nor any measurements. Their 
pulchelUis is probably Z. nyniphma Les. The Z. pidchellus 
described from Porto Rico, 1902, by Dr. Duerden appears to be 
my Z. proteuSy (see above, p. 289), but that of his previous papers 
is probably Z. dubius, 

Isauros tuberculatus Qray. Figures 139, 140. 

iKLurus tuberculattis Gray, Spioil. Zoolog. , p. 8, pi. 6, fig. 3, 1828 ; op. cit. 

1867, p. 284. 
Zoanthus tuberculatus Dnoh., Anim. Bad., P- 11» 1850. Dnch. and Mich., 

Corall. Ant., p. 327, pi. viii, fig. 5, 1860. 
Antinedia tubereulata Duch. and Mich., Snpl., p. 136, pi. vi, figs. 2, 3, 1866. 
Antinedia Duefmasaingi Andres, p. 330, 1873. 
MammiUifera tubereulata McMnrrich, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., p. 117, 

1889, pi. vii, figs. 5, 6 ; reprint in Heilprin's Bermnda Is. 
Itaurus Duehassaingi McMnrrich, Notes on Actinians, p. 190, pi. xvii, figs. 

6-8. Dnerden, Jamaican Actinaria, p. 346, pi. xviia, fig. 4 (general), pi. 

xviiia, figs. 5, 6 (anatomy), X898 ; Actinians of Porto Rico, p. 336, pi. ii, fig. 

5, pi. vi, figs. 23-25, pi. vii, fig. 26, 1902 (anatomy). 

This species is usually found growing solitary or in small groups 
on the reefs, or united by basal stolons into small colonies of 3 to 5 
individuals. The column is usuallv curved to one side or crooked. 
It is easily recognized by its firm consistency, translucency, and by 
the more or less prominent tubercles which cover the upper part of 

* Probably other species of Zoanthus occur at Bermnda which I have not met 
with, hnt all my species seem referable to the three species given above. Bnt I 
did not make any special search for small forms. I have given a provisional 
analytical table of the West Indian and Bermnda forms nsnally recognized as 
distinct species in a former article (these Trans., vol. z, p. 566, 1900). I should 
remark that I have now rednced the species there given, by the anion of Solan- 
dri to sociata ; and pulchella to dubia. Also that the measurements there given 
for Solandri were taken from the figure, which was probably considerably 
enlarged. All the species need a thorough study, with numerous living colonies, 
in order to determine the limits of their variation, as well as a very much more 
extended study of their anatomy by sections, than they have yet received. Large 
series of sections should be made from polyps known to be certainly of one 
species, in order to know how much the internal structure may vary. Too often 
writers have depended on sections of actinians made from only one or two 
specimens, and have been much misled. We now know that the internal struc- 
ture often varies widely. 

294 A. K Verrill—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Re^a. 

the column, especially on the convex side, but these are sometimet 
nearly obsolete in email specimens, A circle of about 10 to 11 
tubercles surrounds the infolded portion of the summit in contrac- 
tion ; the summit is covered by numerous convergent salcationt. 
The greater part of the column is covered with lon^tadinal and 
transverse sulcations, most conspicuous in strongly contracted alco- 
holic specimens ; the tubercles are lacking on the concave side and 
toward the base. The column is translucent, so that the mesenteries 
show through the wall. The tentacles are about 40 to 46. Perfect 
mesenteries about 20. Height 30 to 40°"" ; diameter of column 


Figure 139. — /saurus («6ercu(o(m, smoother var., contracted, x IJ. 

Figure 140. — The same, rougher var., gtroDgly contracted, xl^. Drawn bf 

the author from preserved specimens. 
Figure 141.— faraioanfAua pnraaiticut, \ nst. siie ; a, paraeitio on "tBb^ 
sponge " ; 6, psrositit- on Hirvina T Phot. A. H. V. 

usually 8 to lO""" in contraction. Our best specimen is 40°"° bigb 
and 9"™ in diameter as contracted; it is much smoother than some 
of those Hgured. It differs generically from Zoanthut chiefly in 
having but one sphincter muscle instead of two. The color of the 
column, disk, and tentacles in life is buS or ocher-yellow. It it not 
uncommon on the Bermuda reefs and is also found throughout the 
Wcfit Indies. 

ilcMurrich considered the Bermuda form (as tubercuiatut) > 
species distinct from that of the Bahamas. To me the difference) 
noted seem to be individual variations. 

A. jE VerriU — JTie Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 295 

Paratfoanthus parauticuB (D. and M.). VerriU. Figure 141. 

Zoantkus paroMtieus Dach. and Mich., Corall. Antill., p. 50, pi. viii, figs. 3, 

Parajsoanthua parasiticus Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., x, p. 560, 1900. 

Daerden, Amer. Mns. Nat. Hist., ziz, p. 500, pi. xlv, 1903. 
Parazoanthus separatus Dnerden, Jamaican Actinaria, pt. ii, Trans. Koyal 

Dublin Soc., vii, p. 197, pi. x, figs. 12, 13, pi. xui, fig. 8, pi. xiv, fig. 4, 1900, 


This roinate species is frequently found parasitic on the tubular 
sponge (Tuba or SpinoseUa sororia). The disks show at the sur- 
face of the sponge, when dried, as small, circular, about 12-rayed, 
stellate, and mostly separated spots, 1.6 to 2™" in diameter, more or 
less scattered over the surface. It also occurs on a species of ffir- 
cinoy and probably on various other species. 

In life it rises above the sponge in expansion about 4"'° ; diameter 
of disk about 3°°°* ; its column is then quite translucent. It has 
about 24 to 26 small alternating tentacles, which, like the disk, are 
pale brownish in life; column in contraction whitish, from enclosed 
white sand, etc. Dr. Duerden (1900) has published a very full 
aeeoont of the anatomy and histology of this species.'*' It appears 
to be the species very poorly described by Duch. and Mich., 1860. 

Undetermined species of Zoanthacea. 

No doubt several other species of this and allied genera will be 
fonnd at Bermuda. My notes indicate some of which I did not 
obtain sufficient material. 

One of these is a form found entirely free, and somewhat resem- 
bling an Edwardsia externally. It was 16""" long in contraction ; 
diameter 3"". The wall was thin, but tough, brownish, with 20 to 
24 slight sulcations, the ridges having minute papillae distally. Ten- 
tacles minute, about 24 counted, but they were difficult to observe. 

* Dr. Duerden in bis later paper (1903) also describes the anatomy of Bergia 
eatenularis Duch. and Mich., which has the same parasitic habits and mode of 
growth. He places it in ParazoanthuSy but if it be congeneric it will be neces- 
Bary to adopt Bergia as the generic name for the whole group, on the ground 
of priority, for although the original diagnosis was nearly worthless, the type 
species is easily recognizable. However, Dr. Duerden points out important struc- 
tural differences, quite sufficient, in my opinion, to require generic separation. 
He states that the type species of Bergia lacks a distinct sphincter muscle and 
also lacks the ciliated band of the mesenterial filaments, both of which are 
present in genuine species of Parazoanthus. These certainly seem sufficient 
for generic characters. 

296 A. a, Verrill — 77ie JBermtAda Islands; Coral Reefs, 

and judging by the mesenteries were more likely aboat 48. About 
24 perfect mesenteries, alternating with very small ones ; two small 
ones in each of two pairs adjacent to directives ; 8 (or perhaps 10) 
are fertile. There is no evidence of attachment, the base being 
smooth and evenly rounded. 

It is probably a true Zoanthtis, but my study of it was too incom- 
plete to place it accurately, and the specimen seems to have been 



Gorgonacea^ ; Sea-fans^ Sea-plumes, etc. 

Several large species of gorgonians, called sea-fans, sea-rods, etc. 
by the fishermen, are very common on the inner as well as on the 
outer reefs. Some are found in Castle Harbor, but nearly all are 
absent from Harrington Sound. 

* Among the more recent works relating to Bermuda GU>rgonacea are the 
following : 

CooA:, Frank C. — The Chemical Composition of some Qorgonian CoralB. Amer. 
Joum. Physiology, vol. xii, pp. 95-98. 

Six of the species analyzed were from Bermnda. 

Dana^ James D.— Corals and Coral Islands. Three editions. Ed. 8, 1890, hai 

the list of Bermuda corals and gorgonians on p. 114. 
Hargitt, C. W. and Rogers^ Chas. O. — The Alcyonaria of Porto Rico. BnU. U. S. 

Fish Com., for 1900, pp. 265-287, 4 plates and cuts in text, Dec., 1901. 

Contains a usef nl analytical table of the families and genera of the Alcyonarii. 
Also figures and descriptions of several Bermnda species. 

Heilprin, Angela. — The Bermnda Islands, pp. 103-106, 1889. 

Gives a list of 8 species of gorgonians, mostly without desDriptive notes. Two 
are doubtful. 

Jones, J. Matthew. — Contributions to the Nat. History of the Bermudas ; Coral- 
Haria. Nova Scotian Institute Nat. Sci., vol. ii, pt. 2, pp. 7-16, 1860. 

A list of 4 species (determined by A. E. Verrill), with some notes. 

Kolliker, Albert. — Icones Histiologicae, ii. Die Bindesubstanz der CoBlententeOt 
13 cuts, X platen. Leipzig, 1865. 

The first work demonstrating the systematic importance ef the spicnlet oi 
Alcyonaria. It includes a revision of the genera and species. His figoies of 
the spicules, etc., in many cases, represent preparations from the type-flpeci- 
mens of Esper, Ehrenberg, Lamarck, and Duch. and Michelotti. A set ol 
mounted slides of the same species was sent to me by Dr. KOlliker. 

Mendel, L. B. — On the occurrence of Iodine in Corals. Amer. Jour. Physidogy. 
iv, No. 5, pp. 243-246, 1900. 

The three species of gorgonians analyzed, Gorgonia flabellum, O, aeerotay and 
Ptexaura flexuosa were from Bermnda, furnished by the writer. (See Cook, 

F. C.) 

A. M VerriU^The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 29V 

They are, however, much more abundant and luxuriant on the 
outer reefs, and especially at a few fathoms below the surface, all 
around the islands. The most common are Gorgonia flabeUumy the 
"sea-fan"; Plexaura flexuoea; and Pseudoplexaura crassa, known 
as " sea-rods." These all grow to great size on the outer reefs, at 
moderate depths, becoming in some cases 4 to 6 feet high. 

Ckxrgonia flabeUuxn Linn. Sea Fan. Figure 142. Plate xxxiiic, fig. 1 (2, 3). 
PL xxxvi, fig. 1 (19;. 

Oorgonia flabellum Efiper, Pflanz., ii, plates ii, iiiA, 1794. Dana, Zooph., 184tf, 
and nearly all other writers np to 1857. 

Bhipidogargia flabellum, Eldw. and Haime, Coral., ill, p. 173, pi. b2, fig. 4, 
1857, and many later writers. Ponrtalte, in L. Agassiz. Florida Reefs, pL 
xxi, figs. 1-7. Nutting, Bull. Univ. Iowa, i, p. 151, pi. x, 1889. 

Oorgonia flabellum KolUker, Icones Histiol., ii, 1865, and most later writers. 

Verrill, Critical Remarks on Halcyonoid Polyps, No. 4, Amer. Joar. Sci., 
xlyiii, p. 424, 1869, there made the type of the most restricted genns Oor- 
gonia; these Trans., z, p. 568. Hargitt and Rogers, Bnll. U. S. Fish Com., 
1902, p. 287, pi. iii, fig. 3. 

This species always grows in fan-like forms with the branchlets 
closely reticulated, except close to the tips. The fans vary much in 
shape, some being round, others broad, and some tall and narrow, 
the shape depending much upon the place of growth and amount of 
space. Sometimes two or more fans arise from the same base, and 

Nutting^ C, C, — Contributions to the Anatomy of Gorgonidae. Bull. Labr. 

Nat. Hist. State Univ. Iowa, pp. 97-160, 1889. 
Rogers, Chas. G.— See Hargitt, O. W. 
VerriU, Addison, ^.—Bnll. Mns. Comp. Zool., i, pp. 29-60, 1864. 

Records a number of gorgonians and corals from Bermuda. 

Critical Remarks on Halcyonoid Polyps, Nos. 1-4. Amer. Joum. Science, 

No. 1, vol. xlv, p. 411 ; No. 3, vol. xlvii, p. 281, 1869 ; No. 4, vol. xlviii, p. 
419, 1869. 

Includes revisions of many genera and species, some of which are West Indian 
and Bermndian. 

• Additions to the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa of Bermuda. These Trans. , 

YoL z, pp. 551-572, 3 plates, 1900. 

Additions to the Fauna of the Bermudas from the Yale Expedition of 

1901. Trans. Conn. Acad., xi, pp. 15-62, plates i-ix ; 6 cuts in text, 1901. 

Zoology of the Bermudas, vol. i, 427 pp., 45 pi., 1903. Includes the two 

preceding papers as articles 5 and 10. 
Wright, E. f. and Studer, Th. — Report on Alcyonaria. Voyage Challenger, Zool., 
YoL xzzi, part 64, 1889. 

Inoludes a few reef forms from Bermuda and some from deep water adjacent. 

298 A. E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

sometimes small ones branch out from one or both sides of large 
ones, at various angles. Off the outer reefs, in 10 to 20 feet of 
water, it often grows to great size, the height sometimes being 5 to 6 
feet and the breadth 4 to 5 feet. Such specimens are very firmly 
attached and are difiicult to obtain entire. 

On the inner reefs and in Castle Harbor it is usually only one or 
two feet high, partly, perhaps, because so many are constantly 
gathered by the fishermen for sale to travellers as curiosities. 

In life this species is usually dark purple, becoming lighter purple 
on drying. But many specimens are more or less tinged with yel- 
low, especially on the trunk and main branches. Entirely yellow 
specimens are not so common at Bermuda as in the West Indies. 
These colors are due to the fact that the microscopic spicules of 
the ccenenchyma are partly bright purple and partly bright yellow, 


Figure 142. — Oorgonia flabelluin ; small portion to show arrangement of cali- 
cles ; a, axis ; c, coenenchyma^ x 1^^. After L. Agassiz. 

the proportion of each color varying in different specimens and in 
different parts of the same specimen. 

The polyps, when expanded, are very small, pale, and translucent; 
they project strongly from the calicles and resemble those of ft 
citrina in form. 

This is one of the species of which the axis has been analyzed by 
Professor Mendel and Mr. Cook for the iodine contents.* The large 
specimens used were furnished by me and came from the outer reefs 
of Bermuda. It was also analyzed by Mr. Cook for its other consti- 

Gorgonia acerosa Pallas. Sea Plume. Plate xxxiiic, fig. W ; pi. zzzvi, 

1 (18). 

Oorgonia acerosa Pallas, Elench. Zoophy., p. 172, 1766 (noti Esper). 

Oorgonia setosa Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. xii, 1767, p. 1292. 

Esper, Pflanz., ii, Gorg., p. 66, pi. xvii, figs. 1-8, 1794 (non Linn.). 

♦Mendel, L. B., Amer. Journ. Phys., iv, pp. 248-246, 1900* Cook, F. C, 
Chem. Composition of Gorgonian Corals, op. cit., xii, pp. 95-98. 

A, JE Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 299 

Oorffonia pinnata (pars) Lamk., Hist., ii, p. 316. 
, Pterogorgia pinnata (non Linn, sp.) and P. Sloanei Edw. and Haime, iii, p. 

168, ia57. 
Pterogorgia setoaa Ehrenberg, 1884 (pnrple var.). Dana, Zooph., p. 650. 

Edw. and Haime, iii, p. 168, and many later writers. 
Pterogorgia a^ierosa Ehr., 1834 (yellow var.). Dana, Zooph., p. 649, 1846. 

KOlliker, op. cit., p. 139, pi. zviii, figs. 34, 35. 
Verrill, 1864, and many later writers. 
Oorgonia acerosa Verrill, Crit. Bem., No. 4, p. 424, 1869, and most later 

writers. Hargitt and Rogers, op. cit., p. 287, pi. iii, fig. 2, 1902. 

This beautifal gorgonian, when well grown on the outer reefs, is 
sometimes four or five feet high, with a strong, elastic stem, and 
very numerous long, slender, and very flexible pinnate branchlets, 
which are usually more or less pendulous in the form of a loose 

Large specimens" of ten consist of several such plumes arising from 
one base or from one large main trunk near the base. The axis in 
the main trunk and larger branches is large, black, tough, horn-like, 
and often much flattened ; in the terminal branchlets it becomes 
capillary or setiform, translucent, yellow or amber color. 

The color is usually light purple or purplish red in Bermuda 
waters, but not rarely light yellow or pale straw-color, or in dry 
specimens long exposed to light it may be almost white. 

Many writers, like Ehrenberg and Edw. and Haime, have made 
jLwo or three species out of what seem to me merely slight variations 
in form and color of this species. 

After examinations of large numbers of specimens from Florida, 
West Indies, and Bermuda, I cannot find any reliable characters for 
separating setosa or JSloanei from this species. Very young speci- 
mens have undoubtedly been described under other names. The 
original G. pinnata of Linn, and Pallas appears to be a distinct 
South African species, Lophogorgia or Leptogorgia flammea Ellis 
and Sol., though many early writers have confused it with the pres- 
ent one. Probably Linn^ himself confounded the two, as Pallas 

The axis of this species was also analyzed by Prof. Mendel and 
Mr. Cook. It was found to contain about 2 per cent, of iodine. 

It is not often found on the inner reefs and is not very common 
in shallow water, even on the outer ones. It prefers water 3 to 6 

*Lamonronz, Exped.. Method., pp. 51, 52, 1821, added greatly to the con- 
fosion by uniting ander G. pinnata: V. amerieana, O. setosa, G. acerosa, and 
O, sanguinolenta, while he confonnded the true pinnata = flammea Ellis and 
Sol. with the palma of Pallas, which is Eunicella palma. 

300 A. jE VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; CoralJReefs. 

fathoms deep. It appears to be less common than in the West 
Indies, where it is more often yellow. 

Ok>rgonia americana Qmelin. 

Gorgonia americaiia Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13, based on pi. xiv, fig. 3, of 

Ellis and Sol., 1787. 
Gorgonia pinnata (pars) Lamx., Expos. Method., p. 82, pi. 14, fig. 3, after 

Elllis and Sol. (non Linn.). 
Pterogorgia txirgida Ehr., Corall., p. 146, 1834. 
Pterogorgia pinnata Dana, Zooph., p. 649, 1846 (non Pallas, sp.). 
Pterogorgia Ellisiana Edw. and H., Corall., iii, p. 168, 1857. 
Pterogorgia americana Verrill, Bull. M. C. Z., i, p. 31, 1864. 
Gorgonia americana and G. turgida Verrill, Crit. Rem., No. 4, p. 424, 1869. 

This is a much less common species than the last, which it some- 
what resembles. The branchlets are not so long, slender and flex- 
ible, and scarcely droop. The branchlets are thicker and more 
terete ; the polyps along the edges of the branchlets are much larger 
than in the last and do not readily retract, so that most of the dried 
specimens are disfigured by the dead extended polyps adhering to 
the outer surface. When the soft parts are entirely removed the 
calicles are relatively large and open, forming two or three rows on 
the edges of the branchlets. Its color is usually pale yellow, some- 
times light purple. It is seldom more than 1.5 to 2 feet high. The 
branchlets are 3 to 4™'" thick. 

This is the species recorded by me from Bermuda in 1864, under 
the name of P. turgida Ehrenberg, which I now consider a synonym. 

It is also found on the West Indian and Flonda reefs, but not 

Ok>rgonia citrina Esper. Figare 143. 

Gorgonia citrina Elsper, Pflanz., ii, Gorg., p. 129, pi. xxxviii, figs. 1, 2, 17M. 

Edw. and H., iii, p. 171, 1^57. 
Gorgonia {Pterogorgia) citrina Dana, Zooph., p. 648, 1846. 
Pterogorgia fa^ciotaris Ehr., Corall. Roth. M., p. 145, 1884. Dana, op. dt, 

p. 648. 
Pterogorgia sancti-thomce Ehr. , op. cit. , p. 145 (purple var.). 
Xiphigorgia citrina Verrill, Bull. M. C. Z., i, p. 38, 1864. 
fXiphigorgia americana Dnch. and Mich., Sapl., p. 118, pi. ii, fig. 6, 1806 

(non Gmel. sp.)= Gorgonia pumila Ver., 1869. 
Gorgonia citrina KOlliker, leones Histiol., ii, p. 189, 1866. Verrill, Crit 

Rem., No. 4, p. 42, 1869, and of most later writers. 

This is a small and rather inconspicuous species, seldom more than 
6 inches high. It forms small clusters of rather stiff, flattened, 

A. E. Verriil — 7%e Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 301 

orked braDches, with a row of polyps along their thin edges. It is 
isaaliy bright or light yellow, with purple edges and calicles, but is 
lOt uncommonly all purple or entirely yellow. 

'ignre 143. — Oorgonia citrina; a, portion of branch with polyps of one edge 
expanded, x abont 5 ; h, tentacles and disk, more enlarged. Drawn from 
life by the author. 

It occurs sparingly on the reefs. It was also found in Harrington 
lound, where most other gorgonians do not occur. At Dominica it 
^owB much larger, with numerous branches. 

Curicea muricata (Pallas) Blainv. Figs. 144, 145. Plate xxxiiis, fig. 2, a, 
(polyps expanded) ; plate xxxiiic, fig. 2, d ; plate xxxvi, fig. 2 (7). 

Oorgonia muricata Pallas, Elenchus ZoSph., p. 198, 1766. Ellis and Sol., 

Zooph., p. 182, 1787. Esper {pars), Pflanz., ii, Gorg., pi. xxxix. 
Eunicea muricata Lamx., Polyp. Flex., p. 439, 1816. 
Muricea spicifera Lamx., Exposit. Method., p. 36, pi. 71, figs. 1, 2, 1821, 

(after Ellis and Sol. ?). Ehr., 1834, p. 134. 
Muricea muricata Blainville, Man. Actin., p. 509, pi. 88, fig. 1. 
Muricea spicifera Dana, Zooph., p. 673, 1846. Eklw. and Haime, iii, p. 142, 

1857. K511iker, Icones Histiol., ii, p. 135. 
Muricea muricata Verriil, Crit. Bem., No. 1, p. 411, 1868; these Trans., x, 

p. 569, fig. 1, 19(X). Cook, op. cit., p. 98, 1904, from Bermuda (analysis). 

This is easily distinguished from all the other Bermuda gorgo- 
lians by the prominent calicles, covered externally with acute imbri- 
ated spicules, having projecting points easily visible to the naked 
ye. It forms rather closely branched, flattened clusters, seldom 
ttore than a foot high. Its color is* pale straw-yellow to ocher- 
ellow, sometimes with a rusty or brownish yellow tint ; old dried 
pecimens often fade to white. 

It occurs on the reefs in Castle Harbor, but we found it most 
bundant on the ledges in Bailey Bay, one of which it occupied to 
he almost complete exclusion of other species. It is also found on 
he outer reefs.* 

Trahs. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 20 March, 1907 

302 A. E. Verrill^The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reeft. 

The polyps, when expanded {fig. 146 and p). xxiiiiB, fig. 2, a) an 
very elegant; they are blender, whitish, and translucent ; they stand 

Figuifl 144 — VMncta rauncata, portioD of \ branch, x4. 

Figure 145.— The game, with the polyps eipauded, x 3. Drawn by A. H. T. 

BO close together that they nearly conceal the coral. The tentacles 
have about ten slender pinufe on each side. 

Flexaura flexuosa Lniiix. Figure 146 ; plate ixiiiiB, Og. 2, b, e ; pUt* 

xiiiiic, fig. 2, It, b, e. Plate ixivi, %. 2 (6). Plate ziivia, fig, 4, BpiNilei. 
Plexaura JUxuosa Lamx., Polyp. Flei., p. 434, 1816 ; Expoa. Uethod., p. H 

pi. TO, fig. 1, 2. 1821. Edw. and H., iii, p. 164. YeiriU, Bull. Hub. Conp. 

Zool., i, p. 34, 1804 j thegfl Ttoub., i, p. 568. Kfilliker, loones, p. 138. 
Oorgonia an^ui'ciilus Dadb, Zouph. £i. Exped., p. 668, 1846. 
rPUxaHra salicornoides Edw. and Haime, Coral)., iii, p. 1S3, pi. B*, IBGT. 
Ptexaum ftexuosa Hargitt and Si^ere, Ball. U. S. Fish Com., 1903, p. 3S1, 

pi. iv, figB. 13-10, apicntea. 

Figure 14G. — Ileraiiia Jlej^osn ; a, portii 
b. jiart of same, more enlarged ; c. 
Drawn li.v A. H. V. 

1 of a amall brancUet, x abontJ: 
motion of branohlet, more enUi^' 

This is the most common of the stout-branched gorgoaians on the 
Bernnida reef^. It fonnn upright, bushy coloniee consis^g o' 

A. K Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs, 303 

nameroas forking branches arising from a stout basal trank. The 
branchlets have a tendency to stand somewhat in one plane, so that 
the group is flattened ; they curve outward at base and then become 
rather rigidly erect, with blunt tips. They are usually more or less 
crooked or wavy, and vary in length up to 6 to 8 inches or more, 
and when well grown have a diameter of about 5 to 7"™. The 
calicles are small, often almost punctiform, pretty evenly scattered 
over the whole surface, about l"*"" apart. They are usually slightly 
8-rayed, and when fully contracted are level with the coenenchyma 
or may even be a little sunken, but frequently, in less strongly con- 
tracted specimens, they are slightly raised on low mammilliform 
elevations, and then the pores are larger, up to about .5™", as in 
fig. 147,*. 

The color, in life, is almost always dark purple or purplish brown, 
but when dried, under identical conditions, part of them will remain 
purple, others become reddish brown, and many become brownish 
yellow, russet, or fawn-color, but no other differences could be found. 

The polyps are small, but quite prominent (see pi. xxxiiin, fig. 2, 
by c), nearly translucent, with rather long, delicately pinnate tenta- 

The axis of this was also analyzed by Prof. Mendel and Mr. Cook, 
for iodine, etc. It contained a larger percentage of iodine than any 
other species tested: 4.95 per cent, of the water-free substance in 
one case. 

It is doubtful if this be the true flexuosa of Lamouroux, which 
was described as a yellow species, like P. 7nutica D. and M. I have 
personally seen no bright yellow variety of this species, and think it 
possible that flexuosa may be a distinct species. But this is the P, 
flexuosa of most recent writers, and therefore it seems best to retain 
that name until the yellow form can be reexamined microscopically. 
This is the true P, anguiculus of Dana, and that name should be 
used if flexuosa proves to be distinct. 

It is a common species on the Florida Reefs and is found through- 
out the West Indies, south to Dominica. 

^lezaura Valenciennesi Wright and Stud., Voy. Chall., Zool., vol. xxxi, p. 
137, pi. xxziii, fig. 1 (spicnles). 

Plexaura flexuosa Val., MSS., Edw. and H., Corall., iii, p. 154(no/i Lamx., t. 
Wr. and Studer). 

This species was described from a single specimen dredged in 
shallow water. It was about 10 inches high, dichotomous, with the 

304 A, E. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

terminal branchlets 3-5"^°* in diameter. The calicles are " thickly 
set in irregular spirals," circular or oval, with the margin slightly 
raised. Coenenchyma " massive and formed of several layers of spic- 
ules." The outer layer is composed of purple spindles and foliated 
clubs; the middle layer of large tuberculate spindles; the innermost 
layer of small radiate, tripartite, and fusiform spicules, purple or 

Polyps wholly retractile, tentacles with double rows of minute 
spindles on the outer side. Closely related to the preceding species. 

This appears to be one of the forms that have been included under 
jP. flexuosa by several writers. The typical form of flexuosa (Lx.) 
was yellow and is not well known. The spicules have not been 
described. P. mutica D. and M., op. cit., p. 28, pi. iii, figs. 9, 10, is 
a similar yellow species, probably identical with flexuosa. Color 
alone is, however, of little specific value in this group. 

Plexaura homomalla (Esper) Lamx. Figure 147. Plate xxxya, fig. 8, spicales. 

Plexaura homomalla Lamx., Polyp. Flex., p. 430, 1816. Blainv. Man. Actio., 
p. 509. Edw. aud Haime, iii, p. 155. Hargitt and Bogers, 1902, p. 285. 
fig. H (spicules). 

Oorgonia homomalla Esper, Pflanz., ii, p. 104, Oorg., pi. 29, figs. 1, 2, 1794. 
Lam. Hist., ii, p. 319. Dana, Zooph.; p. 667. 

This is closely related to the preceding and has similar but smaller 
calicles and polyps. The branches and branchlets are more slender 
and flexible, with a softer axis, so that when dried they nearlv 
always droop over to one side, but they are upright in life. It is 
usually only about a foot high (250 to 350"™) and often about as 
broad, forming rather closely branched or bushy clumps. 

Branchlets about 4 to 6"'™ in diameter. 

Color usually dark brown, becoming umber-brown or blackish 
when dried. The surface is granular under a lens. 

The coenenchyma is apt to be rather friable when dried and like 
the axis very hygroscopic, so that it easily becomes detached from 
the axis by unequal contraction. 

The axis is round and black in the larger branches. 

Common on the outer reefs. A common species on the Florida 
reefs and through the West Indies. 

A. K Verrill—TAe Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 305 

Plexaurft flavida (Lam.) Yal. Figure 146. Plate uxva, fig. 4, spicules. 
aorgoHia flavida Lam., Hiat., ii, p. SIS : Sd ed., p. 496. Lamx., Pljp. Flex., 

p. 403. Dana, Zooph., p. 664, 1846. 
Ptexaara fiavida Edw. and Haime, Corall., i, p, 153. Kolliker, Iconea, p. 138, 

pi. xiji, fig. 6, 1865 (apicnle from type). 
fEuniera ramvlota Ehr., op. oit., p. 139, Dana, Zooph., p. 665. Verrill, theae 

Trans., yol. ii, p, 569. 
Oorgonia spiciftra Dana, Zoopb., p. 665 (»on Lamk.). 
Of this species, which is rather rare in collections, I have seen a 
few specimens from Bermuda, but did not find it myself. 

It has one or two main stalks from which nnmeroua slender, terete, 
divergent branches arise on all sides, so as to produce a somewhat 

I4a 147 148 

P^:are 147. — Ptexaara homomaUa, anrface with poljpe contracted ; 146. — P. 
flaeida, x 4; 149.— P. bicolor, x 4. All from dry Bpecimena by A. H. V. 

plume-like form, when full-grown. The main stems may be 6 inches 
to a foot or more high ; the side branches or branchlets vary from 
3 to 5 inches in length, but are mostly 3 to 4 inches (75 to 100"") 
and about 2 to 3""" in diameter. The calicles are veiy small, with 
the borders slightly raised, especially on the lower sida ; they are 
about equally distributed on all sides of the branchlets, and not very 
close together, though numerous. The color is nsually yellow, 
varying from pale yellow to light olive-yellow. 

It appears to be rather uncommou in the West Indies. My son, 
A, H. Verrill, haa recently sent several well grown specimens from 
Dominica Island. There are specimens from other West Indian 
localities and from Colon, in the Yale Museum. 
Plsx&nra Eaperi, nom. nov. Figarea 153-155. Plate Jtxxvi*, fig. 4, apitviles. 

PUxavraantipalhesKomkei, op. cit., p. 138, pi. zviii, figa. 31,22(ito)i Liun, ap.l. 

Oorgonia antipalhea {pan) Esper, Pflanz., Gorg., pi. xiiii, only (iioii Linn. 
nee Pallas). Detennined by comparison ol spicQia from Eaper's origins! 

A small specimen, collected in 1901, agrees closely in size, mode of 
branching, and character of calicles with Esper's figure (pi. sxiii). 

306 A, E, VerriU — The Bermuda Islafids; Coral Reefs. 

and it has the peculiar forms of spicules characteristic of the latter, 
as shown by a slide of spicules from Esi)er'8 type, sent to me by 
Professor K5lliker. But Esper included several other species under 
the name G. antipathes, as did Linn^ and most of the other early 
writers. Pallas definitely restricted that name to a large, much 
branched East Indian form, with short and slender terminal branch- 
lets, a stout trunk, with a very black, spirally striated axis, and with 
large, pore-like calicles, quite unlike the present species. Therefore 
it is necessary to adopt another name for this. I am unable to 
identify it with any other of the more recently named West Indian 
species, many of which have been described very imperfectly with- 
out figures.* 

This species branches dichotomously, nearly in one plane, with 
elongated, upright terminal branchlets, from 4 to 8™" in diameter. 
The coenenchyma is rather thick, not very friable when dry, nearly 
smooth, with a thin cortical layer of very minute, foliated clubs, 
and short, rough, irregular white spicules, which give the surface, 
under a pocket-lens, a very finely granulated appearance. This 
superficial layer is pale or yellowish white, often with a purple tint 
where the underlying larger spicules show through. The latter are 
rather large, symmetrical, warty spindles, warty heads or spheres, 
and other short thick forms, partly deep purple and partly white io 
color. Surrounding the axis is a close layer of much gmaUefy short, 
double-whorled, dark purple spindles. 

The calicles are rather small (about .5°*™), ix)und, pit- like or pore- 
like, not crowded, the intervals between them exceeding their diam- 
eters, and with their borders slightly sunken, without any fringe 
of larger spicules. The polyps are wholly contractile and apparently 
without any spicules f The axis is black, compressed at the axils. 

The short, thick, elliptical and subsphserical spicules, abundant in 
the ccenenchyma, are very characteristic of this species. 

* The (lescriptionR of West ludian Gorgonians by Duch. and Miohelotti axe 
mostly nearly worthless, bnt some of their general figures are fairly good. 

A set of slides of spicnles from a nnniber of their tyx>e8, sent to me by Pro- 
fessor Kolliker, have been of great assistance to me in determining some of theb 
species. The descriptions by Lamarck, Ehrenberg, Dana, and Edwards and 
Haime are also very brief and indefinite^ without any acconnt of the spicules. 
The Plexaura antipathes of Ehrenberg is a West Indian species different from 
Esperi, and named P. Ehrenbergii by Kolliker. It may be a form of P. erasta. 

I If tliis should pnn-e to be the case, the species should be referred to Piex- 
(turopnis : the polyps are badly decayed in my specimens. 

A. M VerriU-—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 307 

PMndoplazaura craasa (Ellis and Sol.) Wright aod Stud. Sea Rod. Figures 
150, 131, 133. Pint« zuiii. Plate iiivU, fig. 3, Bpicnles. 

Ovrgtmia ortma Ellis and Sol., p. 91, pi, iviii, fig. 3, 1787. (non Plexaurella 

eroMa KOll.), non Dana. 
rOoTDonia ponaa Holler. Esper (pars), Pflanz., 11, Ooig., p. 49, pi, i, 1794. 
PteMmra friabiiu {the figure, not the descr.) I^mi., Exp. Hethoil,, p. 35, 

pi. xviii, fig. 8, 1821 (fig. from EUis and Sol.), noit Lamarck. 
Plexaura maerocj/thara Lunx., Polyp. Flaz., p. 428, 1818. 
Plexaara poroia (par§) Dana, Zooph., p. 670. Edw. and Haime, Hi, p. 156, 

P(«M«ra cra««a VerriU, Ball. H. C. Zo6l., i, p. 34, 18«4 ; Grit. Hem., No. i, 

p. 413, 1868. Hargitt and Bogers, op. cit., 1903, p. 285, pi. iv, flga. 1-13 

(general and epionlea). 
/ Oorgonia {PUxaura) imiltieaiida Heilprin. Betmnds la., p. 104 (not of Lam. 

which belongs to Eunicea, t. Edw. and H.). 
Fieudopleaaura erassa Wright and Stnder, Voy. Challenger, ixxi, p. 143, 

pi. xxiiii, &g. 3 (spicnleB). 

This, when well grown, is sometimee four to five feet high, with 
a basal trunk 1.3 to 2 inches in diameter ; it is repeatedl}- forked 

[, portion of a small branch, with wide open 

Pignre 150.— fteurfopf^xai 

calicles, -i-2i, 
Pignre 151. — The same, portion of branch with the polyps expanded, x about 1}. 

Both drawn by A. H. V. 
Fignre 153. — The same, disk and tentacles, mnch enlarged; a, partly contracted; 

b, fally expanded (too many pinnie are shown). Drawn by A, H. Verrill. 

and has slightly tapered, long, round terminal branchlets, up to two 
feet (300 to 600""°) or more in length, and 6 to 12""" in diameter, 
near origin. The calicles are unequal, rather large, up to 1°"" in 
diameter, round or ovate, and generally more or less widely open in 
dried specimens, with the borders slightly or not at all raised. 
When entirely expanded, they are large and unusually close together 

308 A, E. VerriU — T^e Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

(fig. 148), the intervals between them being generally less than their 
diameters, and often much less on the distal part of the branchlets, 
but sometimes, when partly contracted, on the large branches, they 
are not very close in external appearance. 

The polyps in expansion are very prominent and much larger than 
in P. flexuosay and so close together that their tentacles overlap and 
entirely conceal the coBnenchyma. They are translucent and dull 
yellowish or brownish, disk and tentacles yellowish brown. The 
tentacles are long and tapered, with 10-12 short pinnae on each 
side i^g. 148). They have but little activity in contracting, and 




Figure 153. — Plexaura EspeH : o, small purple spindles and doable spindles of 

inner layer ; 6, small purple spicules of middle layer. Fig. 154. — The same: 

small purple spicules of middle layer. Fig. 155. — The same : white spicules 

of surface ; c, c, foliated clubs ; d^ d, irregular forms ; g, hy double spindles, 

X 70. Drawn by A. H. V. 

generally remain expanded when preserved, but they are able to 
contract slowly and completely. They contain no spicules in the soft 
bodv nor in the tentacles. 

The axis is hard and rigid at base, but in the branches it is black 
and flexible. It is the one usually made into riding whips by the 

The coenenchynia is thick and apt to be friable, unless dried with 
care. It should be previously soaked in alcohol or formalin, for the 
exsert polyps are so numerous and large that they often cover up 
and disfigure the surface as well as prevent it from drying rapidly. 

In life the coenenchynia is usually light yellow or brownish, but 
when dried the surface often becomes pale straw-yellow or purplish 
gray, or nearly white, due to large white fusiform spicules, but the 

* These generally consist of two or three long terminal branches twisted 
together and polished. 

A. E, VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs, 309 

interior of the ccenenchyma, near the axis, is usually purple, due to 
the internal fusiform purple spicules. 

This is most common on the outer reefs in 10 to 20 feet of water, 
where it grows to great size, but it is also common on the inner reefs 
and ledges, where specimens 2 to 3 feet high are often found. It is 
a common species in the West Indies and on the Florida Reefs. 

gen. noY. 

Axis and spicula similar to those of PUxaura, Polyps wholly 
retractile, nearly destitute of spicula both in the column and ten- 
tacles. CoBnenchyma rather thick, with a cortical layer of small 
spinose or foliated clubs, and sometimes with one-sided, irregular, 
spinose forms, giving a finely granular appearance to the surface 
under a lens. Calicles wholly immersed or with the borders only 
slightly raised and unarmed. 

Plezauropsis bicolor, sp. nov. Fignre 149. Plate xxxiiiB, figs. 2, &, c, 
epicnles. Plate xzzvIa, figs. 1, 2, spicules. 

Colony dichotomously branched, a foot or more high (300""), with 
the terminal twigs 4 to 6"" in diameter and 75 to 125"" long, terete, 
little tapered, obtuse at tips. Calicles nearly round, about .5"" in 
diameter, arranged somewhat in quincunx, rather close together, 
the intervals often about equal to their diameters, often more 
crowded distally, and more separated on the larger branches. 

Polyps much exeert (see plate), translucent, pale brownish yellow; 
tentacles lanceolate, a little obtuse, with about seven or eight close 
obtuse pinnsB on each side. The polyps contract only very slowly 
and seldom completely when disturbed, so that they are easily pre- 
served fully extended in formol. 

The coenenchyma is relatively thick, dark purple within, but with 
a thin cortical layer of pale yellow or whitish spicules (hence the 
name). The cortical spicules are mostly rough, subfoliated and spi- 
nose minute clubs, of various sizes and forms, but mixed with many 
irregular and one-sided spindles and oblong fonns, with the outer 
edge roughly spinose or thorny, much as on the distal end of the clubs. 
The purple spicules of the ccenenchyma are mostly elongated, rather 
slender, acute spindles of various small sizes, with the verructe small 
and not much crowded ; a few are branched and there are a few 
shorter and thicker acute spindles, enlarged in the middle. 
Taken in shallow water in 1901. 

310 A. K Verrill—The Bermtida lUands; Cored Reefs. 

Plexaurella dichotoma (Esper) K611. Figs. 156, 157. PI. xxxiiiB, fig. 1, 6. 
Plate xxxviA, figs. 1, 2, npicnles. 

Gorgonia dichotoma (pars) Esper, Pflanz., Qorg., pi. xiv (light hand fignre), 

Gorgonia {Plexaura) dichotoma Dana, Zooph., p. 667, 1846. 
Plexaura dichotoma Vemll, Bull. M. C. Z., i, p. 34, 1864. Synonymy only 

in part. 
Plexaurella dichotoma K5lliker, Icones, p. 138, pi. xiii. fig. 7, pi. xiv, fig. 10, 

pi. xviii, fig. 1, 1865. Nutting, op. cit., 1889, pp. 113-128, pi. ii, figs. 1-17. 
Gorgonia heteropora Lamk., Hist., 1816. 

Plexaura heteropora Lamx., Polyp. Flex., p. 429, 1816. Dana, Zooph., p. 670. 
Gorgonia vermiculata {pars) Lamk., Hist., ii, p. 319, 1816 ; p. 497, 2d ed. 
Plexaura vermiculata Edw. and H., Corall., i, p. 156. 
f Plexaurella vermiculata KoUiker, Icones, p. 138, pi. xviii, fig. 18 (spicule 

from type). 
Eunicea anceps Duch. and Mich., Corall., p. 25, pi. iil. figs. 1, 2 (young). 
Plexaurella anceps Koll., op. cit., p. 138, pi. xviii, fig. 14 (spicule from type).* 

This species is easily recognized by its stout, rigid, upright, blunt 
branches covered with large irregular calicles, varying in shape 
when dried from round to oval and slit-like forms, with the margins 
slightly or not at all raised (fig. 156). In life the calicles are round, 
or with 8 slight lobes. The coenenchyma is dense and very thick in 
proportion to the diameter of the axis, especially in the branchlets 
(fig. 157), and contains a great number of crowded spicula, all much 
smaller than in the two preceding species, many of them elegantly 
cruciform and strongly verrucose, while those in the outer layer are 
partly club-shaped. There are no large, fusiform internal spicules ; 
those of the innermost layer are slender, acute, small, purple spindles. 
The longitudinal ducts surround the axis uniformly on all sides and 
are rather large (fig. 157). 

The color in life is dull yellowish brown, or russet-brown. When 
dried it usually becomes dull grayish yellow, straw-color, or whitish, 
with a finely granular surface. The polyps are without spicules and 
contract completely. 

The axis at the base and in the main trunk is hard, rigid, and 
partly calcareous, in layers, but in the terminal branches it is rather 

* Dr. KoUiker regarded P. dichotoma ^ P. vermiculata and P. anceps as dis- 
tinct species and figured a single cross-shaped spicule of each, from specimens 
believed to be the types. But on the slides of the same, which he sent to me, 
the corresponding spicules vary to an extent more than sufl&cient to include his 
figures of the three forms. See pi. 36a. But P. nutans Duch. and Mich., 1860, 
of which he also sent spicules from the type, is quite distinct, having the crosses 
much more slender, with longer, more acute, and less verrucose branches. 

soft and brittle. It is grayish or dull wood-color. Tbe branches 
curve strongly outward at base, and then become rigidly erect. Tbe 
trunk is often an inch or more (20 to 30"") in diameter; the branch- 
lets, when full grown, are about 6 to 10 inchee (150 to 230°"°) long, 
and 10 to 14""° in diameter; larger calicles 1 to LS""" in diameter. 

Dwarfed specimens ai-e sometimes found with much smaller and 
shorter branchlets and smaller calicles. 

It occurs both on the outer reefs and on those in Castle Harbor, 
Great Sound, etc. It is also found on the Florida reefs and in the 
West Indies generally, south to Dominica. 

V^gnm 156. — Ptexaurella dichotoma ; a, b, portions of ihe surface of two speci- 
mens to show TariatioDB ia form of calicles dae to contraction, x about S. 

Slgnre ]S7. — Pltxawtlla dichotoma, croas-sfction of branch, x abont 3^: n, 
axis, with circle of lougitDdinal dnctB around it, 

Sunicoc^sU, gen. nov. Tj^pe E. Toamrjorti. 

I propose to separate, as a genus, those species usually referred to 
Eitnicea, in which the column and tentacles contain double rows 
of spicula, which are absent in typical species of Minicea* (restr.). 
The presence of these spicules renders the tentacles somewhat rigid 
and slow to contract, and in incomplete contraction they serve as a 
»rt of opercular covering for the calicles. 

* I propose tu consider E. mammoia Li, and £. Umiformia Lx. the typical 
forms of Eunicra. The fortoer was tbe only species Ggnred hj Lamouroui 
when he established the genus (1816). His fast species (G, (iniipathes oi early 
•nlhoiB) is indeterminable, being a heterogeneous assemblage of several genera 
tod species. His second species {E. micmthela) is not certainly known, but 
probably belongs to Evaieetla. Other Hpecies of true Eunieea are *.'. mwricala 
I'm. (t. Edw. and H.), E. madrepoi-a Dana. etc. 

312 A. E. Verrill—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Re^g. 

The spicula of the ccenenchyraa consist of larger aod smaller warty 
spindles, some often very large, and of a dense saperficiat layer of 
smaller rough, warty or sptnulated, club-shaped or irregular spicuks 
of various forms, giving the surface a roughly granular appearance 
under a lens. The calicles may be low or high, 8-iobed or bilabiale. 
Axis horny. Besides the species here described, several other West 
Indian species (or varieties) belong to EnniceopsU ; among them are; ■ 
E. crmsa (Edw. and H); E. Rotmeam (E. and H.); E. mulUcavda 
(Lam.); E. aspera Duch. and M,; E. hirta D. and M.; E. laciiiiata 
T>. and M., and E. liigubris D. and M. 

Euniceopsis Toumeforti (Edw. and Haime) Ver. Fignres 1S8-160. Plate 
xxivJB, figs. 1, 2, spiculeB, 
Eunicea Tov.rneforti Edw. and Hftime, Corall., i, p. 150, 1867. Veirill, these 

Trans., x, p. 570, 1900. Nutting, op. oil., pp. 142-151, pis. viji, ii, 1889. 
rOorgonia (Eunicea) pseudo-anttpathea Dane, Zi>Oph., p. 671, 1846 (not of 
Lam., which waa a Murieea, t. Edw. and H., i, p. 146). Heilprin, Bermuda 
le., p. 104 (no deaciiptioa). 


Fignre 138. — Euniceopaia Timmeforli. Portion of a terminal brancli, x about 3^ 

Figure 159. — The game, section of a branoblet, x abontStimea, 

Figure 160.— The same, portion more enlarged. Drawn bj A. H. Verrill. 

This is a large, stout, stiff species, with thick, forking, upright, 
blnnt branches, dark brown or nearly black in color. It is easily 
distinguished from most of the allied species by the large prominent, 
somewhat conical calicles with the bilabiate aperture on the upper 
side and the lower lip prolonged and curved upward and inward 

(fig. 158;. 

Tiie cronenehyma is thick and hard, filled with rather large, very 
stout, and mostly fusiform spicules (fig. 160), but with a smoothish 
or snbgranular surface. The axis in the terminal branches is rela- 
tively small and soft, shrinking ranch and becoming brittle when 

A. S. Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Mee/s. 


dry, but black, hard, and rather rigid Id the large brancbee and 
trank, and flatteDed at the axils. 

The polyps are brown and relatively large, and bo filled with spic- 
nlea that they cannot readily contract. Even the tentacles are thas 
stiffened and are often seen incurved in the form of a ball over the 
apertnree of the calicles. 

Well grown specimens are often 2 feet or more high. The termi- 
nal branches are usually over half an inch in diameter (12 to le*"™) 
and 4 to 8 inohea long. 

It is found in Caetle Harbor; The Reach; and other inner waters, 
where there are strong currents, but is more common and larger on 
the outer reefs. 

tt is found, also, in the West Indies. 

Enmceopaia grandia Var. Figtiree 161-163. Plate ixxiilA. Plate iziiiiH, 
flg. 1, a. Plate xiivIb, fig. 3, ipicnlee. 
£ltnie«a grandit Verrin, Tibub. Conit. Acad., vol. I, p. 570, pi. Ixii, &ga. 3, 

8a, 1900. 
rE»itieta trata Edw. and Haime, Corall., i, p. 148 (non Ellis ap.). 

Figurs 161. — Euniceopaia grandia, portion of a brooch, x 3. 
lignre 162. — The same, section of a branch, showing the axis sarronnded by 
DDmerona longitudinal ducts, x 8. Both drawn by A. H. Verrill. 

This large robust species is similar in size and form to the preced' 
ing, and like it is dark umber-brown or sepia-brown in color while 
living, becoming russet brown, dark brown, or black when dried; the 
inner part of the csnenchyma around the axis is usually pnrjile, due 
to the large, fusiform, purple spicules. 

It can be readily distinguished by its large, slightly mammiform, 
or verruciform calicies, with the aperture terminal and usually 

314 A. E. Verrill — The Bermuda lalaiida; Coral Meefs. 

etightly eight-lobed when dried, but much more prominent and 
distinctly eight-lobed in life. 

The c(Enenchynia is very thick (fig. 162), bnt the spicales are 
much smaller than in the preceding species. The loogitudinal canaU 
around the axis are numerous and large. The axis is black and hard 
in the larger branches, but soft, shrinking much in drying, and 
brittle in the smaller branches. 

The branches are forked, very stout, blunt, and large, and form 
somewhat flattened colonies, the terminal branches upright and 
nearly straight. They are up to .65 of an inch or more (10 to 16"") 

Figure 193. — Eaiiiceopsia grandit. One of tile polype, Dearly expanded, mnch 
enlarged. From life, bj the writer. ■- 

F'igare 164. — Euaiceopais atra ; a, one of the larger, and h, one of the smaller 
terminal bmitchletti, nat. size. Phot, bj A. H. V. 

in diameter and 6 to 1^ inches or more in length, in large specimens. 
The main stalk may be t to 2 inches in diameter near the base, and 
ihe total height of the colony 2 to a feet; breadth 1.6 to 2 feet. 

The polyps are large, brownish yellow, and so filled with whitish 
spicules that they appear rather stiff, and contract slowly when dis- 
turbed; the tentacles roll their tips inward, forming a sort of ball, 
which often seems too large to lie drawn into the calicles, but can 
be entirely retracted, though slowly. The median part of the ten- 
tacles has two rows of conspicuous slender fusiform spicules arranged 
en chevron (fig. 10:t), continuous with similar lines on the column ; 
lines of similar but much smaller while spicnles extend along the 

It is found, like the last, 
outer reefs and on the inm 
or more of water. 

in strong currents of wat«r, both on the 
r ledges; most commonly in 6 to 20 feet 

A. -E Verr^l—Ths Bermuda TslaruU; Coral Reef». 815 

This species is allied to E. multicauda (Ijam.); JS. craasa Kdw. 
and Haime; and E. turgida Ehr,, io having low verruciform callcles 
with the borders 8-lobed. Possibly they may all belong to bnt one 
or two Bpeoies. 

a, Terrill. FigareH 164, 166, 
Bunieta alra Verrill, TmiB. Coiiii. Aoad. Sci., toI. t 

p. 53, pi. ix, figH. 4, : 

This species forms flattened groaps of rather rigid, black branches, 
which subdivide diohotomonsly. The branches and branchlets are 
distinctly smaller than in the three preceding species. 

Figure 165. — Eunictops 

group of the Bpicoles xl7 Drawn by A H V 

The branches mostly spring from near the bise the termmal ones 
are long, aboat 100 to 150°'"' ind 6 to 10°"" m diametei where 
largest; they are often crooked cr slightly smuous and frequently 
clavate at the tip. 

The calicles are rather large and n^uailv open when dry up to 1"" 
or more in diameter, and not ver> close together aperture round or 
elliptical, with the borders only slightly raised, and UEually not d]^ 
tinctly 8-lobed in the dry specimens; lower lip usually very slightly 
developed, as an angular point, often entirely lacking. 

The polyps in expansion are targe and prominent, yellowish brown, 
and so stiffened with chevrons of white spicules that lliey contract 
very slowly, though completely. The color of the cunenehyma \s 
ioky black in life, and when taken from the water it exudes a large 

316 A. E. Verrill — 7'he Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

amount of a black mucus that stains one's hands and olothes like ink. 
It also discolors a large quantity of alcohol or formol solotioD. 
When dried it is usually dark umber-brown or black. 

It was taken in "The Reach," in 8 to 10 feet of water, where 
there wae a strong tidal current, and also od the reefs. It is not ;«t 
known from other waters with certainty. 

It resembles K lugub7-ig Duch. and Mich, more than any other 
described species, but the latter has the calicles distinctly 8-rared. 

16C 167 

Flgara IQR. — Vtrraeella graiidis ; a, portion of terminal bnmchlet; 

of a larger brnach, botb natDral size. Phot. A. H. V. 
Figure 187. — The name. Side-view of portion of a brunch. 
Figure 168.— The same, Spicnles, x 170. Drawn by A. H. V. 

I have compared the spicule 
mounted by Dr. KOliiker. 

with those of the type of the latter, 

Verrucella grandi^ Verrill. Figures 166. 16*, 168. 

Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., vol. li, p. 53, pi. li, figs. 1, 3, 8, 1801. 

This is a large and handsome species, growing in a tree>like form, 

• with long and rather slender, sparingly forked, flattened branches, 

having the small verruciform calicles in two or more rows on eacb 

of the edges, with the sides naked. The axis is nearly rigid, brittle, 

stony or calcareou)<, and pale dull yellow. 

The cceneiichyma is hard and rather thin, with very small orange- 
coloi'cd spicules of various forms (fig. 168). Its color when dried is 
dark ochcr-yellow, inclining to orange. 

A, E. VerriU — Hie Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 317 

The only specimen yet known is about 5 feet high ; the longer 
terminal branches are 12 to 18 inches (300 to 450"°™) long and about 
2 to 4°"> in diameter. 

It was taken outside the reefs, near North Rocks, in abo«t 100 
feet of water. 

Doubtful species of Gorgonice. 

Several species have been recorded, without descriptions, from 
Bermuda, which cannot be determined without examination of the 
specimens. Probably most, if not all, are synonyms of the species 
listed above. 

Among them are the following: 

Gorgonia (Plexaura) purpurea (Pallas). Recorded by Heilprin, 
op. cit., p. 104. 

The genuine purpurea (Pallas) is a slender species of Leptogorgia^ 
ranging from Brazil to Chili. Heilprin's species may have been the 
purple var. of P. flexuosa or P, anguiculus, 

Gorgonia (Plexaura) multicauda (Lam.). Recorded by Heilprin, 
loc cit., p. 104. 

The original species of Lam. belongs to JSuniceopsis, but Heilprin 
gives, as synonyms of his species, G. crassa Ellis and Sol. and G. ver- 
miculaia Lam. The latter is a Plexaurella ; the former is a Pseudo- 

Gorgonia (Eunicea) pseudoantipathes Lam. Recorded by Heil- 
prin, loc. cit., p. 104. 

The original type was a Muricea (t. Edw. and H.), but the name 
has been variously misapplied by authors. 


milepora alcieomis Linn. Sea Ginger. Finger Coral. Figures 36, 169. 
Plate TTXA, fig. 2 ; plate zzzvi, fig. 1 (20). 
Dana, Zodph., p. 543, 1846. M. Edw. and Haime, Corall., iii, p. 228, 1860. 
Poortalte, Florida Reefs, pi. xx, figs. 1-6, 1880, excellent. Qnelch, Voj. 
Challenger. Yaaghan, Corals Porto Rican Waters, p. 318, plates xxxv- 
xxzviii. VerriU, these Trans., xi, p. 182. 

This is the most abundant coral, both on the outer reefs and on 
the inner rocks and ledges. It grows in very shallow water as well 
ms at the depth of 5 to 8 fathoms. It forms, when well grown, large 
rosette-like clusters of lobed and digitate flat fronds, diverging in 
all directions, the groups often being 4 to 6 feet or more across, 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 21 March, 1907. 

»18 Ji. JS. verrut—iM jsermuaa JsionOt; Uoral Ketft. 

while the fronds are from 1 to 2 feet high, and terminate in very 
elender, tapering, fragile branches of various sizes and shapes. Its 
color in life is usually dark russet brown, but sometimes is light 
yellowish brown or orange-brown, or even umber-brown. 

Figure 169. — Zooids of living MUlepora .- P, Anthoioid or feedii^ polTPt "i 1* 
mouth : D. DZ, defeasire zoOids ; C, (KEnenchyiQa: «e, ectoderm; ra,eiido- 
derm. Mnch enlargHl. afl^r }io»\ey. 

Figure 170. — Srrtvlaria Gnyi. moch enlai^ed. Drawn b; A. H. Vmill. 

When young it forms more or less thicfc encrnstalionB on det^^ 
corals, shells, etc Sometimes it completely encrusts the dead aim^ 
of a gorgonian, and then by the unequal shrinking and swelling of^ 
the gorgonian when dried, the crust of white coral usually breaks u -* 
into short, often bead-like fragments (var. moniiiformie). A torr^ ' 
(var. ranio*(i) with unusually well rounded and forked branches hi^» 
been separated by many former writers as a distinct species, biC 
intermediate forms are common. Quelch (Voy. ChalL) recorded ' 
from Bermuda. We did not find at Bermuda the variety, or di £ 
tinct s|>ecies ( .V. pUcila), with broad, flat, nabranched froods, whi< 
is common in st>mi- ]>arts of the West Indies. Qselcb also reoot 
var. ca t/tt'/fnlinniii D. and M. from Bermnda. The bydro'-^ 
nature of the xodids of this uoral was first asoertuned by Profess ^^' 
Lonis AgasRz. in 1 ■^.^■^.* and his discovery faaa mnoe been ooafirm^^ 
by many others, who have obser\-ed the io5ids of Uillepores in 


■ Amer. Joan. Stimp*-. i 
.1. ri. p. 3W. IN'i^, 

10. 1858. Proc Bortcm Soe. NaL HM., 

A. JS, Verriil — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 319 

Yarious parts of the world. Prof. Wm. N. Rice observed the 
zodids of Millepora at Bermuda in 1876-7 and published sketches 
of the defensive zo5ids in various states of expansion, showing con- 
siderable variety of forms.* 

The zooids, so far as now known, are very similar to, if not prac- 
tically identical with those of the East Indian species, which have 
been most carefully studied by Moseley and others. 

The Bermuda varieties agree exactly, in form and structure with 
those of Florida and the West Indies, and essentially the same form 
occurs on the coast of Brazil, at the Abrolhos Reefs, but is there 
associated with a species (Jf. nitida V.) not known in the West 

The nettling cells (cnidse) of Millepora are unusually powerful, 
and are capable of stinging the hands of some persons with delicate 
skin. When a freshly taken specimen is touched with the tongue or 
lips the stinging power is sufficiently obvious to warrant its vernacu- 
lar name of "Sea Ginger." Very few other hydroids were met 
with by my parties, on the reefs, though probably a considerable 
number occur there later in the season. 

Seitularella Gayi. Figure 170. 

This is the only Sertularian hydroid that we found common. It 
grows on loose stones and dead corals, but all of our specimens were 
Bmall and immature. 

90, Echinod&rms; Sponges; Mollusks; Annelids; Crustaceans, etc. 


This group is fairly well represented on the coral reefs, though 
^most of the species conceal themselves so well in cavities and crev- 
ices that they must be carefully sought for. Only one species of 
starfish (Asteirias (or Stolasterias) tenuispina) is common. The sea 
urchins are, however, represented by several large species, and the 
8erpent-stars or ophiurans by a still larger number. Of crinoids 
only one specimen was found, and that was quite young (Antedon), 

♦ Amer. Journ. Science, vol. xvi, pp. 180-182, figs. 1-20, 1878. 
f BiBLioGBAPHY. — The echinodermB of the reefs are nearly all well known West 
Indian species, described in the general treatises on this group. The following 
lUre the most essential works : 

AgtusiZy ^.—Revision of the Echini. Parts i-iv. Illustrated Catalogue of 
Museum Comparative Zoology, No. II. 4to. 49 plates, 1872. Contains 
figures and descriptions of all the Bermuda species. 

320 A. JS. Verrill—JTie Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 


Although a large species of this group (Stichopus Mdbiiy see p. 
143, fig. 37) is one of the most common and conspicuous creatures 
on the bottom of the lagoons, the few species living on the reefs are 
small and live well concealed under stones or in cavities of dead 

AgassiZj A. — North American Starfishes. Memoirs Mils. Comp. Zodlogy, vol 

V, No. 1, 1877. 
Clark J Hubert Seymour. — Notes on the Echinoderms of Bermnda. Ann. New 

York Acad. Sci., vol. xi, pp. 407-413, 1898. 

— Further Notes on the Echinoderms of Bermuda, op. clt., vol. xii, pp. 117- 

138, 1899. 

— Bermndian Echinoderms. A Report on Observations and Collections made 

in 1899. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. History, vol. xxix. No. 16, pp. 339-S44. 
Heilprifij Angela. — The Bermuda Islands^ pp. 136-145, pi. xii, xiii, 1887. 
Latkeiif Chr. Fr. — Oversigt over de Yestindiske Ophiorer. Naturbist. Foren. 

Vidensk. Meddelelser, 1856. 

— Additamenta ad Historiam Ophioridarum. Pt. ii, 92 pp., 5 plates. Egl. 

Danske Yidenskab. Selskabs Skrifter, 5te Rskke, Naturvidensk. eg mathem. 
Af deling, v, 1859. 

— Additamenta ad Historiam Ophinridamm. Part iii. Kgl. Danske Yidenskab. 

Selskabs Skrifter, 8, Bd. ii, pp. 24-101, 1869. 

— Synopsis genemm Ophfuridarum verarum. (Forms part of the preceding 

work, pp. 87-100.) 1869. 
Lyman, Theodore. — Ophinridce and AstrophytidflB. lUastr. Catalogue Mnaeom 

Comp. Zoology, I, 1865. 
Mailer J.J and Troschely F. H. — System der Asteriden, 1842. 
Sladenf Walter P. — Reports Yoy. Challenger, Zo51., vol. xxx ; Report on the 

Asteroidea. 1 vol. text, 1 vol. plates, 1888. 
Theely Hjalmar. — Report on the Holothurioidea. Yoyage Challenger, ZoSlogy, 

vol. xiv, part 39, 1886. 
VerrilL Addison E. — Notice of the Corals and Echinoderms collected by Prof, 

C. F. Hartt at the Abrolhos Reefs, Province of Bahia, Brazil, 1867. TraBB. 

Conn. Acad. Sciences, i, pp. 351-371, 1 pi., 1868. 

— Revision of certain Genera and Species of Starfishes, with descriptioDB of 

New Forms, op. cit., vol. x, part 1, pp. 145-234, (a.) 8 pi. 4- 1899. 

— North American Ophinroidea. Part i. Revision of certain Families and 

Genera of West Indian Ophiurans. Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. x, pt. 2, pp- 
301-371, 1899. (b.) 

— The same. Part ii. A Fannal Catalogue of the known Species of West* 

Indian Ophiurans, op. cit., pp. 3?2-377, pi. xlii, xliii, includes Bibliography^ 
1899. (c.) 

— Additions to the Echinoderms of Bermuda. Trans. Conn. Aead., x, part 2^ 

p. 583, 19Q0. 

— Additions to the Fauna of the Bermudas from the Yale Expedition of 1901 -; 

with Notes on other Species, op. cit., vol. i, pt. 2, pp. 85-87, 1901. 

A. K. VtrrUi—The Bermuda lalanda; Coral Reefi. 321 

condB, etc. The larger number live buried in sand or mud on the 
flats and shores.* 

CnecomAriA punctata Lndwig. Sta Cucumber. Figure 171. 
a»rk, H. L., op. oit., 1901, pp. 342, 344. 
Semperia bermudeiuu Heilprin, The Bennnda Is., p. 138, pi. xii, Sge. 3, 2a, 

This is,-perhaps, the moat common reef species. It lives firmly 
attached by its sucker-feet under loose stones. In expansion it is 
fusiform and becomes 4 to 6 inches long, and when its tea dendriti- 
oally branched tentacles are well expanded it* presents an elegant 

Fignre 171. — Cueumaria punctata, abont nat. size. Phot, from life bj A, H. V. 

appearance. Its color varies from yellowish brown to dark olive- 
green ; often with darker brown blotches or longitudinal stripes; 
sacker-feet lighter, yellowish or sometimes reddish. 

Bolothnria captiva Lndw. Sta Cucumber. 

Clarl, op. oit., 1899, p. 124; p. 842, 1901. 

BoloOmria abbreniata aod H. captica Heilprin, The BeriuDda Is. , p. 187, pi. 
xii. figa. 4, 5, 8, 8a, 1S89. 

This is of about the same size as the last, but is usually more 
elongated in form when fully expanded. It has about 18 to 30 short 

* Among those fonod burrowing in the calcareous s^nda of the fiats are Holo- 
'Anria Rathhuni (see p. 145, fig. 38), Chirodola rotifera, and several species 
at SyiuipttK. (See p. 145.) One small species of Sjpiapla or Chondroelaa (C. 
vanpara, fig. 173) has the liHbit of living eipiised, clinging Qrmly to algie, corals, 
bjdroids, etc. by means of its dermal anchors. Id life it is often green, blotched 
iriUi white, bnt sometiineB dull red, mottled with green or brownish red. 
Csoallj there ia a pair of dark brown spots at the base of each tentacle. 

322 A. E. Verrill—The Bermuda lalande; Coral Beefi. 

shield-like tentacles and its sucker-feet are in three definite rovi 
underneath. Its color is usually deep olive green. It lives uoder 
stones, like the last. 

Holothuria Buriutuoensia Ladw. Sea Cucumber. Pigore 1T3. 

Clark, op. cit., 1899, p. 121 ; 1901, p. 344. 

Hololkvria floridaaa Heilprin, op. cit., p. 136, pi. lii, fig*. 6, 6o, 7, 7n. 188B 
()it»i Poartat^). 

Common under stones and corals, both on the reefs and on the 
islands at low water mark. Similar to the last in appearance, bat 

nomeMSi's, about natural size. Phot, from lif* bv 

longer. Color dull pale yellowish brown to dark olive-brown. Thf 
tentacles vary in number, but 20 is the most common number. 

The most abundant sea urchin is the dark purple or sometimee 

greenish species (ToxopneiesUa variegatus, see p. 146, fig, 40), which 

to be iceu almost everywhere on the white bottom of the lagoons 

shallow water. It is sometimes found, also, od the reefs, though 

t is not a true reef species. It often covers itself with broken shells 

and other debris. 

Cidarifl tribuloidea (J^m.). 

Flatb XXXIVa, fio. 1. Plate XXXIVb, fig. 2. Plam XXXVI, wo. 1 (11). 
This species is easily recognized by its stout cylindrical spines. 

It is not uncommon on the outer reefs, as in the vicinity of the 

* Three additional ecbioi ouour only in the bays on aand; or raudd; bottomB. 
These are SMitta hcxajiora (see above, p. 14B); Erhiaonrus temiluaaru {atiAeT 
stones in sand near HunRry Bay) : Hrismta unieolor. 

A. B. VtrriO—The Sermuda Itlandt; Coral Seefi. 328 

North Bocka It adheres firmly to the rocks, io crevices and c*vi- 
ties, by means of its sacker-feet. 

Piadama aotomuo Qny. Lunn-tpinfd, or blark Sea rrehi<l. Fi^T« 1T4. 

Puts XXXIV, noou 1. Plau XX5VI. navax 1 (12). 

This is one of the largest and most interesting forms. When full 
grown the shell may be 3 inches in diameter and the slender, barbed, 
and very sharp spiaes may be more than 6 inches long. In life the 
color of the adults is purplish black, but when young the slender 
spines are annulated with purple and white. The spines are effective 


gnre ITS. — ChondrocUta <or Synapta) vivipara, x2. From colored fijrnre. 
gure 174. — Diadema selosum, with apineg removed, about j nat. size. Phot. 
and drawn b; A. H. Y. 

organs of defence, and are notorious for the painful wounds that 
they inflict when an inexperienced person attempts to capture the 
creatore. When touched large numbers of spines are almost 
instantly converged toward the point of contact. The very sbarj> 
tips are brittle and break off in the wounds. They are hard to 
remove on account of their barbed structure. They also seem to 
convey some poisonous secretion, very irritating to most persons, 
causing much pain and swelling, but the purple discoloration of the 
fleeh around the wounds, often very alarming in appearance, is due 
to the absorption of the purple coloring matter of the spines ami 
soon passes away. This creature is very active for a sea-urchin, and 
when disturbed usually quickly glides away and conceals itself in 
tome nearby cavity beneath the rocks. It is common on the outer 

324 A, E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Cored Reefs. 

reefs and is also to be found on the rough rocky shores of the cater 
islands, as at Cooper's Island, Castle Island, etc., in shallow water. 

It can be easily taken by means of a barbed wire, or straightened 
fish-hook attached to a long slender stick and used as a spear. 

Echixiometra subang'ularis (Leske). Plate xzxivA, fig. 2. 

The stout, sharp spines and somewhat oblong form of the shell 
are characteristic of this species. Its spines, in life, are generally 
dull purple or greenish. 

It is found on the reefs and outer islands among rough rocks in 
shallow water, like the last. It has the singular habit of excavating 
holes for itself in the limestone rocks, the holes being just large 
enough to hold the creature, whatever its size. How it bores the 
rock is not certainly known. 

Hipponoe esculenta (Leske). Edible Sea Urchin. Plate xxzivB, fig. 2. 

This large round species is found in the same situations as the last 
two. It is not common in most localities. It becomes 4 to 5 inches 
in diameter. Its spines are numerous, rather shoit, and usually pale 
green or whitish in color. In some of the West Indian islands it is 
an important article of food. The principal edible portions are the 
large clusters of roe. 


▲flterias (Stolasterias) tenuispina (Lam.) Common Starfish. Plate xxxIy, 
fig. 2. Plate xxxivc, fig. 2. Plate xxxvi, fig. 1 (7). 

No other starfish is commonly found on the reefs without diligent 
search under stones, etc. This species, however, is very common 
and usually lives exposed. Its rays are slender and easily detached. 
It is usually irregular in form, with part of its rays much shorter 
than the rest, due to the partial restoration of lost rays. The num- 
ber of rays varies from 5 to 9 or more, but is most frequently 6 to 8. 
It rarely becomes more than 7 to 8 inches in extent. In life its 
colors are variable and often attractive, commonly some shade of 
purple, or purple varied with orange. 

It is found also in the Bahamas and in the Mediterranean Sea. 

* The only Bermuda shallow water starfish not found on the reefs is Luidia 
clathrata, which lives in sheltered sandy bays. (For habits, see above, p. 146.) 

A. M. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 325 

Asterina folium (Ltttken) Agassiz. Plate xxzivc, figs. 3, a, &. 

Asteriscus folium, LtLtken, Yidensk. Medd. nat. Foren., Ejobenhavn, p. GO, 

AsUrina folium A. Agassiz, Mem. Mas. Comp. Zool., v, pt. 1, p. 106. Sladen, 

Yoy. Challenger, xxz, p. 393. 

This small starfish is peculiar in heing distinctly blue while living, 
a color very unusual among echinoderms. It is seldom more than 
about .75 inch in diameter (15 to 20™°). It is not uncommon adher- 
ing to the under surfaces of large loose blocks of stone and in 

Chiildingii Gray. Plate xxxivc, fig. 1. 

Qray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, p. 285, 1840. A. Agassiz, North Ameri- 
can Starfishes, p. 105, pi. xiy, figs. 1-6. Yerrill, these Trans., vol. xi, p. 
36, 1901. Sladen, op. oit., p. 410. 

Ophidicuter omit?ioptis Mtill. and Trosch., Syst., p. 31, 1842. 

This is easily recognized by its round, slender, finely granulated 
rays, either five or six in number, and very often in process of restor- 
ation after injuries. One ray is even capable of regenerating a new 
body and the other arms. It may become 6 inches or more in 
breadth. It is found under blocks of stone or in crevices, but is 
not common. It is found also in the West Indies and Cape Yerde 


The Ophiurans are well represented on the reefs, though most of 
the species hide themselves very effectively in crevices, under stones 
and corals, or in the cavities of sponges.* 

Ophiura cinerea (Mtill. and Tr.) Lyman. 

Ophioderma cinereum Mtill. and Troschel, Syst. Aster., p. 87, 1842. 
Ophioderma antillarum Lutk., Vid. Meddel., p. 9, 1856; Add. ad Hist. 

Ophiur., pt. ii, p. 88, pi. i, figs, la-le, 1859. 
Ophiura cinerea Lyman« lUnst. Catal. Mas. Comp. Zool., i, p. 27, 1865. 

Verrill, these Trans., x, p. 585, 1900. 

A large species, variable in color ; usually brown or grayish, often 
specked with darker brown ; arms often banded. The radial shields 
are naked and conspicuous at the base of the arms ; the lower arm - 

* In addition to the reef Ophinrans, enumerated below, the following species 
are found in more sheltered sitnations in the bays and sounds : Ophionereis 
reticulata J (pi. xxzivB, fig. 2, a), common under stones in sand at low tide mark 
(see aboTe, p. 146); Ophiolepis paucispina ; Amphipholis squamata ; A. Goesi ; 
Ophiostigma istieanthum . 

326 A. E, Verrill — 2^e Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 

spines are the longest ; oral shields broad heart-shaped ; arms long, 
terete, regularly tapered. 

It conceals itself in rock crevices. Ranges through the West 
Indies to Bahia, Brazil. 

Ophiura appressa Say. 

Ophiura appressa Say, Joum. Phil. Acad., v, p. T51, 1825. Lyman, 111. Cat. 

Mas. Comp. Zool., i, p. 34, 1865. Verrill, op. cit., 1899. 
Ophioderma virescens Lutken, Vid. Meddel., Jan., 1856, p. 9; Add. ad Hist. 

Opbiur., pt. ii, p. 92, pi. i, fig. 4. 

Agrees with the last in having the lower arm-spines longest, but 
the radial shields are covered by the granulations of the disk ; arm- 
spines about nine, short and flat. The color is very variable; usually 
greenish or grayish green, mottled or specked with darker green and 
whitish ; sometimes pale. 

It lives in rock-crevices ; ranges southward to Brazil. 

Ophiura brevicauda (Lutk.) Lyman. 

Ophioderma brevicauda Ltltken, Vidensk. Meddel., Jan., 1856, p. 8; Addit. 

ad Hist. Opbiur., pt. ii, p. 94, pi. 1, figs. 3-3«, 1859. 
Ophiura brevicauda Lyman, Illast. Catal. Mns. Comp. Zool., i, p. 16, 1865. 

Verrill, these Trans., x, p. 584, 1900. 

The arm-spines are equal, short, stoutish. Disk coarsely granu- 
lated ; arms short, about 3^ times diameter of disk ; lateral oral 
plates granulated. Colors various ; often green, red, or brown, 
irregularly mottled. 

Crevices in the reefs ; not common. Florida and West Indies to 
South America. 

Ophiura brevispina Say. Plate xzxivE, fig. 2, b. 

Ophiura brevispina Say, Jonr. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., v, p. 149, 1825. Lyman, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 258, 1860; 111. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool., i, 
p. 18. Verrill, Bull. Univ. Iowa, v, p. 4, 1899. 

Ophioderma olivaceum Ayers, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., iv, p. 134, 1852. 

Ophioderma serpens Ltltken, Vid. Meddel., Jan., 1856, p. 7; Add. ad Hist. 
Ophiur., pt. ii, p. 96. 

Ophiura olivacea Lyman, 111. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool., i, p. 23, 1865. 

This species has 6 to 8 arm-spines, about equal and flattened. 
Radial shields usually covered ; lateral oral shields naked. Color 
variable, usually green or greenish gray, mottled with lighter green 

A. K VerriU^The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs. 327 

or yellowiBh ; the arms often banded above with pale green or 
whitish ; sometimes plain olive-green (var. olivacea). 
Ranges from southern New England (var. olivacea) to Brazil. 

Ophiothrix angulata (Say) Ayres. Plate xxzivD, fig. 1. 

Ophiura angulata Say, Jour. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci. , v, p. 145, 1825. 
Ophiothrix violaeea Mull, and Trosch., Syst. Aster., p. 115, 1842. Lyman, 

m. Cat. Mns. Comp. Zool., 1, p. 164. Ltltken, Add. ad Hist. Opb., pt. ii, 

p. 150, pi. iv, figs. 1-lcf, 1859. 
Ophiothrix angulata Ayers, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. Hist., iv, p. 249, 1852. Lyman, 

lUust. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool., i, p. 162, pi. i, figs. 1-3, 1865. Verrill, Bull. 

Labor. Nat. Hist. Univ. Iowa, v, p. 19, 1899 (descr.); these Trans., x, p. 


Easily distinguished by its long, slender, glassy spines and violet 
or parple, rarely brown color, often with a white median line on the 
arms or with whitish blotches or bands, bordered by dark brown. 

Not common here. It often lives gregariously among and in 
sponges. Cape Hatteras to Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

Ophiotlixix Suenaouii LQtken. 

Ophiothrix Suensonii Ltltken, Vid. Meddel., p. 15, 1856; Add. ad Hist. Oph., 
pt. ii, p. 148, pi. iv, fig. 2. Lyman, Illust. Catal., p. 157, 1865 : Bull. Mns. 
Comp. Zool., V, 9, p. 232; Verrill, Bull. Labor. Nat. Hist., Univ. Iowa, 
V, p. 21, 1899 (descr. colors, etc.) ; these Trans., x, p. 585, 1900. 

Similar to the last in form, but with more slender arms and spines. 
Its colors are paler, often lavender, with a purple line along the 
middle of the back of each arm, bordered by white, and with radial 
lines of purple on the disk. It lives among sponges, etc. ; not com- 
mon. More common in Florida and the West Indies. 

Ophiocoma echinata (Lam.) Agassiz. Plate zxxivn, fig. 2 (1, 2). 

Ophiura echinata Lamarck, Hist. Anim. sans. Vert., ii, p. 548, 1816. 
Ophiocoma echinata L. Agassiz, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Nenchatel, i, p. 192, 

1835. Lyman, lU. Cat. Mns. Comp. Zool,, i, p. 81, fig. 5, 1865. Lyman, 

Report Voy. Challenger, Zool., v, p. 171, pi. xlii, fig. 12, 18, 1882, anatomy. 

Verrill, Bull. Univ. Iowa, v, p. 22, 1900. 
Ophiocoma crassispina Say, Jour. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., v, p. 147, 1825. 
Ophiocoma crassispina Lutken, Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. ii, p. 142, pi. iv, fig. 7, 


A large dark brown or grayish black species with large stout upper 
arm-spines. Lives among corals and in crevices of the reefs. Com- 
mon from Florida to Colon, and Cumana and throughout the West 
Indies to Brazil in shallow water. 

328 A, JE VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Jiee/s. 

Ophiocoma Biisei Liitken. Plate xxxivD, fig. 2 (3). • 

Ophiocoma Riisei Lutken, Vicl, Meddel., p. 14, 1856; Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 
ii, p. 143, pi. iv, fig. 6, Lyman, 111. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool., i, p. 76. 
Verrill, Bull. State Univer. Iowa, 1899, p. 22 ; these Trans., x, p. 586, 1900. 

Similar in size to last, but has the upper arm-spines slender. 
Usually jet-black or nearly so. 

Common on the reefs. Has the same range and habits as the last. 

Ophiocoma piimila Lutken. Plate xxxivE, fig. 1. 

Ophiocoma pumila Lutken, Vid. Meddel., p. 13, 1856 ; Add. ad Hist. Oph., 
pt. ii, p. 146, pi. iv, fig. 5, 1859. Lyman, 111. Cat. Mas. Comp. Zool., i, p. 
71, 1865. 

Much smaller than the two preceding. Often has six arms. Colors 
light brown varied with darker. Same range as the last two. 

Ophiopsila Biisei Liitken. 

Ophiopsila Riisei Lutken, Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. ii, p. 136, pi. v, fig. 2, 1859. 
Lyman, Illns. Catal. Mns. Comp. Zool., i, p. 150, figs. 16, 17, 1865 ; Report 
Voy. Challenger, Zool., v, p. 160, pi. xl, figs. 1-3, 1882 (anatomy). Verrill, 
these Trans., vol. x, p. 586, 1900. 

Not common ; lives under corals and stones and in crevices. 

Ophiactis Krebsii Lutken. 

Ophiactis Krebsii Lutken. Vid. Meddel., p. 12, 1856; Addit. ad Hist. Oph., 
pt. ii, p. 126. Lyman, HI. Cat., i, p. Ill, figs. 10, 11. Verrill, Bull. Univ. 
Iowa, V, p. 34, 1899. 

Ophiactis Savignyi (pars) Lyman, Report Voy. Challenger, Zool., v, p. 115. 

A small, rough, green and gray species, usually with six or seven 
unequal arras ; four oral-papillse ; upper arm-plates lobed medially. 
It spontaneously divides when young. Lives in cavities of large 
sponges, etc. ; common. Ranges from South Carolina to Brazil. 

Ophiactis MuHeri Lutken. 

Ophiactis MuUeH Lutken, Add. ad Hist. Oph., ii, p. 127, 1859. Lyman, 
lUus. Cat., p. 109, 1865. 

Similar to the last in appearance and habits. It has but two oral 
papillae, four rough, short and blunt arm-spines, next to the upper 
largest ; upper arm-plates oval, not lobed. Color usually green. 

A. K Verrill—'lTie Bermuda Jtlands; Coral Beefs. 329 

Oplliomjrxa floccida (Say) Utken. 

Ophiura flaceida Say, Jonr. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., v, p. 151, 1825. 
Ophiomyxa flaceida Latken, Add. ad Hist. Opbiar., pt. ii, p. 186, pi. t, Bg. 

I, 1850. Lyman, lU. Cat. Mm. Comp. Zool., i, p. 178, pi. il, figB. 18. 19; 

Voy. Chall., T, p. 346, pi. iliii, figs. 1-3 (anatomy). 1882, Verrill, Bull. 

Uiiiv. Iowa, V, p. 66, 1699 (colon, etc.). 


Figan 175. — Ophiomifxa flaeeida ; a, dorsal Hide of disk : b, oral aide, nat. Biu; 
c, mouth-organs and lower side of arm, eDlarged. After Lutken. 

This rather large species has the disk covered with a soft, smooth 
skin, without plates. Its colors are usually bright or dark yellow, 
orange, or greenish varied with yellow. It may become 6 to 8 
inches across. Conceals itself in crevices of the reefs and under 
dead corals. Kanges from Florida to Brazil. 

pl. V, flgs. r>a, 56, llj59. Verrilt, these 

Aatroporpa afflnu Liltksn. 

Addit. od Hist. Ophinr., ii, p. 154, 
Trans., li, pt. 1, p. 86, 1901. 

This singular species has only occurred clinging to the large stony 
gorgonian, Verrucelta grandis, taken in about 100 feet of water on 
the outer reefs. It is rough and so annulate^ with lighter and 
darker brown that it closely resembles the gorgonian branches. 


Antedon, ep. Young. 

A single specimen, too young for accurate identification, was 
obtained in 1901. 

330 A. E, Verriil — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 


Numerous species of sponges, some of them of large size and con- 
spicuous on account of their colors, grow on and about the reefs in 
shallow water, as well as in the sounds. The larger of these mostly 

* The following are the principal modem descriptive works relating to the 
reef sponges fonnd in Bermuda, the West Indies, and Florida : 

Carter^ H. J. — Some Sponges from the West Indies and Acapnlco. Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, vol. ix, 1882, pp. 266-301, 846-368, pi. xi, xii. 

Describes many silicions sponges. 

Duchassaing and Michelotti. — Spongiaires de la Mer Caraibe. Natnork. Verh. 

Holl. Maats. Wetensch. Haarlem, vol. xxi, 1864. 25 plates (many errors 

in references to plates). 
Dendy^ A. — Observations on West Indian Chalinine Sponges, etc. Trans. Zool. 

Soc. London, xii, part 10, pp. 84»-368, pis. 58-68, 1890. 

Describes and figpires several species. 

Higgiiiy Thomas. — Descriptions of some sponges obtained daring a cmise of the 
steam yacht Argo, in the Caribbean and neighboring seas. Annals and Mag. 
Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. xix, p. 291, pi. xiv, 1877. 

Hyattj Alpheus, — Revision of the North American Poriferee, with remarks upon 
foreign Species, Part I. Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, 10 pp., 1 pi., 
1875 ; Part II, op. cit., vol. ii, part 4, pp. 441-554, pi. xv-xvii, 1876. 

Lendenfeld, R. von. — Monograph of the Homy Sponges. 955 pp. 4to, 50 
plates. Royal Society, London, 1889. 

Contains full descriptions of all known species, with anatomy, distribntion, 
etc. Also a complete bibliography of sponge literature, and a general system of 
classification of sponges. 

Maynard, C. J.— No. 2. Sponges. West Newton, Mass., 188 pp., 42 cuts, 4 
plates, 1898, publ. by the anthor. 

A popular work ; contains descriptions and figures of numerous Florida and 
Bahama sponges. 
PoUjaeff, JV.— Report on the Calcarea. Voy. Challenger, Zool., vol. viii, 1888. 

Nine Bermuda species are described, mostly from 32 fathoms, off Bermuda. 
Report on the Eeratosa, op. cit., vol. xi, 1884. 

One species ( Verongia hirsuta) is recorded and figured from Bermuda. 

Ridley, S. O. and Dendy, ^.—Report on the Monaxonida. Rep. Voy. Challenger, 
Zo5l., vol. XX, part 59. 

Contains only a very few Bermuda species. 
Solas, Wm. J.— Report on the Tetractinellida. Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zool., vol. 
XXV, part 63. 

Three species are described from off Bermuda, in deep water. 
Schmidt, O. — Die Spongien Fauna des Atlantischen Gebietes, 1870. 

A. K VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 331 

belong to the group of homy sponges {Keratosa)^ which includes the 
commercial sponges (genus Spongia)^ but there are very few spe- 
cies in Bermuda waters that are sufficiently fine and elastic to be of 
any value, though two or three species are used by the fishermen for 
boat-sponges and similar rough uses. 

It is quite probable that some of the more valuable Bahama and 
Florida sponges would flourish at Bermuda, if once introduced there 
by artificial means, which could easily be done by vessels having 
live wells. 

Most of the horny sponges while living are dark umber-brown, 
purplish brown, or glossy black, though a few are distinctly yellow, 
purple, or red. The tube-sponges {Tuba or Spmosella)^ which are 
common and attractive silicious species, are dark yellowish gray to 
grayish brown in life. The most conspicuous of all the sponges is 
a very common, large, soft, bright red species {Tedania ignis) 
which grows in various forms, either encrusting or massive and 
lobate, or even branching. It varies in color from scarlet to bright 
red and dark red, and is often two to three feet across. It belongs 
to the group of monaxid silicious sponges. 

The Bermuda sponges have hitherto been but little studied, 
although large collections have been made.* 

Die Spongien des Meerbosens von Mexico nnd des Caraibischen Meeres, 

Jena, 1879, 1880, 2 parts. 

Topsent, E. — ^Une R^forme dans la Classification des Halichondrina. Memoirs 
Soc. Zoologiqne de France, vol. vii, pp. 1-86, 1894. Diagnoses of all the 

Introduction a FEtnde Monog. des Monazonides de France. Classifica- 
tion des Hadromerina. Archives de Zoologie exp^rimentale et g^n^rale, 
ser. 3, vol. vi, 1898, pp. 91-113. Diagnoses of all the known genera. 

The Same, Part III, op. cit., vol. viii, 1900, pp. 1-331, plates i-viii. 

(Descriptions of Hadromerina, bibliography, etc.) 

Whitfield, R, P. — Notice of a New Sponge from Bermuda and of some other 
Forms from the Bahamas. Bnll. Amer. Mas. Nat. History, New York, vol. 
' xiv, pp. 47-50, 1901. 

Wilson, H, F.— The Sponges collected in Porto Rico, in 1899, by the XT. S. Fish 
Com. Steamer Fish Hawk. Bull. U. S. Fish Com. for 1900, vol. xx, part 2, 
pp. 377-411, 1902. 

♦ Mr. G. Brown Goode and Professor W. N. Rice, in 1876 and 1877, made 
large collections, especially of the homy sponges, some of which were examined 
by Professor A. Hyatt, while preparing his memoirs on that group of Porifera, 
but the bulk of Mr. Goode's large collection was not received until after Hyatt's 
second memoir was completed. Part of this collection is now in the Museum of 

332 A. E, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Jiee/s, 

Most of the keratose sponges have been recorded in the memoirs 
of Prof. Hyatt. Those found on the reefs by my parties will be dis- 
cussed in the latter part of this chapter.* 


The Bermuda silicious sponges are represented in our collections 
by about 38 species, but many of them have not yet been carefully 
studied and are not now enumerated. The reef species belong 
mostly to the Monaxonida, in which the skeletal spicules are 
unbranched ; but there are also several representatives of the 
Tetraxonida, in which part of the skeletal spicules have four 
branches, often in the form of anchors or grapples with three flukes 
and a long shank. Several species of this group, forming more or 
less spheroidal masses, with a radiate interior structure, belong to the 

Wesleyan University, and part in the U. S.« Nat. Moseam and Boston Soc. Nat. 
History, with Hyatt's identifications, mostly made after his works were pub- 
lished. My own parties, 1898 and 1901, iJso made large collections. I have com- 
pared most of our specimens of Eeratosa with those labelled by Professor Hyatt. 
Many of the calcareous sponges (9 species, mostly dredged) were described by 
Pol6jaeff in the Reports of the Voy. of the Challenger (vol. viii, part 24), bw 
several others, found on the reefs, are in our collections. 

* The following are the principal ones hitherto recognized by me : 

Spongia lapidescens, Common : var. turrita Hyatt, very common : var. eoni- 
fera Ver. (with finer texture and smaller and more regular cones). 

Spongia lignea, var. crassa Hyatt. 

Spongia anomala Hyatt. 

Spongia punctata^ var. hermudensis Hyatt MSS. 

Spongia corlosiay var. elongata Hyatt. 

Spongia gossypina D. and M. (t. Hyatt). 

Spongia cerebriformiSj var. obscura Hyatt. 

Hircina armata (D. & M., sens, ext.) Very common : var. JUtularis V., var. 
nov., very common; it has hollow branches, with large terminal vents. 
Also varieties marginalise cylindrica, columnaris, etc. 

Hircina acuta (D. & M.). 

Spongelia fragilis (Mont.)=i)j/«idea fragilis H. 

Dendrospongia crassa Hyatt. Common. 

Aplysina fistularis (Esper), Yellow tube-sponge. 

Aplysina hirsuta (Hyatt, as Verongia). 

Verongula prcetexta (Hyatt, as Aplysina). This new generic name is propoeed 
as a substitute for Aplysina Hyatt, for those species having regular, diver- 
gent, angular radial canals, with thin latticed walls, producing a honey- 
comb-like structure. It includes also : V., gigantea H. ; V, rigida (D. & M.) ; 
V. cellulosa (H.) ; V. aurea (H.), etc. 

A, JEJ. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 333 

genus Stelletta/ some of them occur under large flat stones, others in 
sand. A large species, growing in hard, thick, lobate crusts on the 
reefs, is Geodia gihherosa ; its hard cortex is filled with spheroidal 
spicules (sterrasters), fig. 176. Also one of the fleshy sponges. 

Oligosilicina, Fleshy or cartilaginous sponges, without a skele- 
ton, but usually with abundant, minute, star-shaped flesh-spicules, 
with many rays (euasters). Family, ChondriUidce, 


Some of these are conspicuous on account of their large size or 
brilliant colors, like the very common scarlet sponge {Tedania)\ or 
have characteristic forms, like the tube-sponges {Spinosella), hwX, 
many are inconspicuous and have irregular or incrusting forms. 

This order is represented here by several groups, mostly distin- 
guishable by their spicules : 

1. Chalinoidea^ or Homorhaphida, in which the spicules are 
nearly all of one kind, usually fusiform, acute at both ends (oxea)^ 
and enclosed in or held together by reticulated horny fibers ; no 
flesh-spicules (microscleres). Families, ChalinidoB and jRenieridce. 

2. JBieterarhaphida, in which the skeletal spicules may be of two 
or more forms, usually oxeotes (oxea), combined with needle-shaped 
forms (styles), pin-shaped forms (tylostyles) ; with a head at both 
ends (tylotes); or with both ends blunt (strongyles). With these 
there are usually minute flesh-spicules, generally either C-shaped 
(sigmas or sigmata) ; bow shaped (toxa); or slender hair-like forms 
(rhaphides) ; but never anchor-like (chelae). Families, Tedanida^y 
Desmacellidce, GeUiodidoB. 

8. Desmacidontoidea, In this family the skeletal spicules may be 
of various forms: styles, tylostyles, oxea, etc., but the flesh-spicules 
are minute anchor-like forms (chelae) with hooks or flukes at both 
ends; sometimes these are combined with sigmata, etc. The skeletal 
spicules are usually enclosed in horny fibers. Family, EspereUidas. 

4. Echinonemata. In these, spicules project as special spines from 
the surfaces of the fibers: they are usually styles or tylostyles, often 
spinulated. Families, Agelasidm (=.EctyonidaB)j Clathriadce. 

5. Axinelloidea, Usually branched sponges with distinct axial 
fibers, which are plumosely branched and filled with styles, stron- 
gyles, or oxea. Flesh-spicules seldom present, sometimes spirasters 
or asters; never chelae. Family, Axinellidce, 

6. Clavata or Suberitoidea, Massive, lobate, or boring sponges ; 
skeletal spicules mostly tylostyles or styles ; often no flesh-spicules ; 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 22 May, 1907. 

A. JE Veri'iU — The Bermuda Isla7ids; Coral Reefs, 335 

free portion often a foot or more high. The opening at the summit 
of the tubes has a thin edge, usually fringed with little plumose pro- 
jections. Outer surface usually ornamented with more or less numer- 
ous spiuiform processes. Oscules on the inner surface of the tubes. 
There are numerous varieties, based mainly on the character of 
the outer surface, which may be qnite smooth or it may have various 
forms of conules. Sometimes the same tube will be smooth distally, 
for half its length, and covered with aculeate or conical prominences 
l>elow. The color in life is usually dark yellowish-gray or tawny 
yellow ; when well dried it is usually yellow, yellowish-gray, or 
yellowish -brown. 

Spinosella stoloxiifera (Whitf.). 

Siphonochalina stolonifera Whitfield, Ball. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xiv, 

p. 47, plates i-iii, 1901. 
? Callyspongia Eschrichtii Duch. and Mich., op. cit., p. 56. PI. xii, fig. 1.* 

This singular and rare species has smaller tubes than the pre- 
ceding, with one or two circles of spinose elevations near the top, 
while an intricate mass of stolon -like processes, mostly not tubular, 
is given oflF from the base. The spicules are simple oxeote forms, 
nearly as in the last. 

Pachychalina cellulosa, sp. nov. Plate xzxvd, figs. 8, 9, spicules. 

Sponge irregularly dichotomously branched, the branches rounded, 
unequal, about .75 inch (15-25™™) in diameter, and 4 to 6 inches 
long, often repent, elastic when wet, subrigid and light when dry. 
Oscules scattered, very little raised, 3-4™™ in diameter. Internal 
reticulations rather coarse, with rather strong fibers containing much 
ppongin. Beneath the surface layer the canals or areolae are rela- 
tively large (2-3™™), angular, honeycomb-like, separated by thin 
reticulated walls, and often form linear series. The dermal layer, 
when intact and dry, is thin, openly but finely reticulated, with the 
angular pores mostly arranged in groups or double circles around a 
central pore over the areola?, and with a small projecting point at 
each angle. The skeleton fibers are .05 to .12™™ in diameter and 
contain veiy numerous multiserial, slender, sharp, oxeote spicules, 
usually .10 to .15™™, rarely .18™™ long, mostly shorter than the sides 
of the meshes, and mostly entirely enclosed in the spongin fibers. 
Color, when dried, dark reddish brown ; lighter red in life. 

Our specimens are much infested with the Zoanthid, Parazoanthus 
parasiticus. (See p. 295.) 

• In the text the reference is erroneously to pi. vii, fig. 3. Many similar 
errors occur in refemng to the plates in the same work. 

336 A. B, VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs. 

Pachychalina elastica, sp. nov. 

Sponge tough and elastic when wet, elastic even when dry, digi- 
tate and somewhat dichotomous, the branches springing from a short, 
stout, compressed stem. Branches 10 to 25"" in diameter, and 50 to 
75"" long, nearly round, often swollen distally, sometimes coalescent. 
Oscules large, scattered on the sides. Surface, when dry, conspicu- 
ously areolated when the external net-work is lost. The areolae are 
2-3"" in diameter, deep, subangular, and separated by rather stout 
partitions, often 1-2"" thick, composed of strong and elastic, rather 
coarsely reticulated fibers, many of those next the surface free at 
the tips, giving the surface a tufted and spongy appearance. Outer 
layer easily detached ; when present, it consists of a rather open 
and regular network of slender fibers, allowing the areolae to be 
easily seen through it, with the meshes about .2"" wide. 

The spicules are slender oxeotes, very acute, often bent, .15 to 
.20"" long. They are multiserial and crowded in the fibers, but well 
covered by spongin. Color, when dried, yellowish brown. Not 
very common on the reefs. 

Pachychalina xnillepora, sp. nov. Plate xxxvc, fig. 8. 

A delicate irregularly branched sponge, fragile when dry ; surface 
nearly smooth, very finely reticulated; branches irregular in size and 
form, varying from 12 to 25"" or more in diameter at different 
places. Oscules irregularly scattered on the branches, 2-4"" in 
diameter, with the edges slightly fringed and little raised ; some- 
times funnel-shaped. Dermal layer very finely and pretty regularly 
reticulated. The meshes angular or rounded, with minute points at 
the angles. Areolae, under the cortex, not crowded, separated by 
walls equal in thickness to the diameter of the areolae. Fibers about 
.03 to .04"" thick, filled with abundant multiserial spicules, which are 
rather slender oxeotes, mostly .2 to .22"" long, often about equal in 
length to the sides of the meshes. 

Pachychalina xnonticulosa, sp. nov. Plate xxxvd, figs. 6, 7. 

Sponge encrusting, or massive and irregularly lobulate, bearing 
subconical on mammiform elevations, each having at the summit a 
rather large oscule, 3-5"" in diameter. Internal texture not very 
fine; dermal reticulation formed by small polygonal meshes, visible 
to the naked eye. Subdermal areolae rounded, very unequal in size, 
the larger about 1"" broad, separated by walls usually about as wide, 
made up of irregular and somewhat coarse reticulations, tympanized 
by films of sarcode. Fibers rather coarse, uneven, with numerous 

A. E. VerriU — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 337 

slender, acute, oxeote spicules, mostly entirely enclosed in the red- 
dish spongin, but many are partly free in the meshes. 

The spicules are tnostly about .22-. 26"™ long. Very common. 

Color red in life; reddish brown when dry. 

Pachychalina niicrox>ora, sp. nov. Fig. 178. Plate xxxvc, fig. 7, spicules. 

A delicate sponge, friable when dry, encrusting, or forming small 
convex or lobate masses. Surface smooth ; dermal layer thin, dis- 
tinct, very finely reticulated, the pores microscopic, oscules few, 
4-5""* in diameter, mostly on summits of low conules. Subdermal 
areolae small, about .5-1™"* in diameter, with rounded angles, and 
separated b}'^ walls often 2-3"™ thick and finely reticulated. Fibers 
slender, multispiculose, with small amount of spongin. Spicules very 
small and mostly decidedly short, mostly bent oxeotes (see figures) 
about .01-.015™™ in length, by .00066 to .00094™™ in diameter. 

A few long slender oxeotes, about .45™™ long (fig. 7, h of plate), 
were also observed; they may be of extraneous origin. 

Color yellowish white when dry. 

Figure 178. — Pachychalina micropora ; one of the conules, with oscule, x 2; 
by A. H. V, 

Cribroclialina Bartholmei (D. & M.). 

Spongia Bartholmei Duch. and Mich., op. cit., p. 42, pi. vi. figs. 3, 4, 1864. 

When well grown this has the form of a large regular funnel, or 
of a broad cup, with a short narrow stem. It may become 10 inches 
high and 6 to 8 broad. The sides are 8 to 12™™ or more thick, not 
thinning much at the edges, which are rounded. The surface of 
both sides is smooth and very finely reticulated, the meshes .1 to 
.2™™ in diameter. 

The oscules are mostly on the inside of the cup, numerous but 
inconspicuous and very small, mostly .2 to .3™™ in diameter. 

In one large specimen from Bermuda there were two stout fistular 
side-lobes at the base, with a terminal oscule about 6-8™™ wide. 

The skeletal fibers are densely spiculose, stout, and reticulated, 
much as in Pachychaliiia^ the radial ones plumose, but the sponge is 
harder and firmer when dry, though soft when wet. 

338 A. E, VerriU—The Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs, 

The' spicules are polyserial, very slender oxeote forms, variable in 
size; some are nearly styliform, being blunt at one end and acute at 
the other. Much fine calcareous sand is imbedded in the outer 

Bermuda, on a reef in Bailey Bay, one large specimen in Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., coll. Whitfield; Bahamas, Whitfield. 

Family, Desmacellida?. (P. 333.) 
Desmacella jania, sp. nov. Plate xxxvc, figs. 5, 6. 
.' Terpios jania Duch. and Mich., Spong., p. 101, pi. xxii, fig. 8. 

Our examples of this curious species are massive and irregularly 
lobulate, 2 to 3 inches high; the lobes are more or less conical, with 
a terminal osculum, 3 to 5'"™ in diameter. The whole surface and 
often most of the thickness of the walls are composed largely of a 
small slender-branched coralline {Jania)^ white when dry. Toward 
the base of the sponge this often nearly disappears, as if absorbed. 
The spicules are mostly long, slender tylostyles, .22 to .25™" long, 
mostly with small round heads, and mixed with styles of about the 
same length. The microscleres are minute, strongly curved, c-shaped 
sigmas, about .037 to .040""^ long. 

Other sponges, associated with Jania in the same way, have been 
described as the Beniera fihulata of Carter (1882). The Terpios 
jania D. and M. may not be this species, though it had the same 
form, for its spicules were not described. When treated with acids 
the form of the sponge is still preserved, with the translucent 
organic basis of the Junia imbedded in its structure, even close to 
the edges of the oscules. 

Family, EspereUldce, (P. 333.) 
Esperiopsis fragilis Y., sp. nov. Plate xxxvc, figs. 1-3. 

A very porous, fragile sponge, forming crusts or iiTegular masses 
15-20"'™ or more thick, soft while living, friable when dry. Surface, 
as dried, irregularly pitted or vermiculate; subdermal channels irreg- 
ular, deep, often labyrinthiform, .5 to .7™°^ wide, separated by walls 
made up of fine irregular meshes, hispid at the surface. 

Dermal layer thin, mostly destroyed, easily detached; pores micro- 
scopic, numerous; oscules scattered, small. Skeletal fibers delicate, 
composed mostly of numerous, closely packed, slender spicules. 
These are mostly slender tylostyles and styles, about .27 to .32™"* 
long, with smaller tylotes .16 to .21 long, with well-rounded ends. 
Microscleres numerous, very small sigmas (fig. 2, d, d')^ and isocbelsB 

A. E, Verrill — I'he Bermuda Islands; Coral Ite^fs, 339 

(c, c'); the latter with the flukes minutely three-toothed. A few 
very long acute oxeotes, much larger than the other spicules (fig. 3, 
bj h)y were scattered through the sponge; perhaps they were extra- 
neous. Numerous minute circular disks (fig. 2, z) were present, but 
disappeared when treated with acids ; they are probabl}' symbiotic 

Family, Tedauidce. (P. 333.) 

Snb-family, TedanincB Ridley and Dendy ; Topsent, etc. 

Tedania ignis (D. and M.) Scarlet Sponge. Fig. 180. Plate xxxvc, fig. 4, 

Thalisias ignis Dnch. and Mich., op. cit., p. 83, pi. xviii, tig. 1, 1865.* 
f Arcesias hostilis D. and M., op. cit., p. 97 (encrusting form). 
/ Tedania digitata^ var. bennudensis Ridley and Dendy, Voy. Cliall., xx, p. 51. 
Amphimidon variabilis Maynard, Sponges, p. 31, fig. 10, pi. iv (colored), non 
Bnch. and Mich. 

This is one of the most abundant Bermuda sponges and is very 
conspicuous in shallow water on account of its brilliant colors, 
which vary from bright scarlet to blood-red. In life it is very soft 
and brittle. When young it forms broad thin incrustations on rocks, 
dead corals, shells, and other sponges. Later it grows up into large 
irregular lobulate or convex massive forms, often with large conical 
or fistular elevations, each bearing a large terminal osculum. Some- 
times it is branched, or encrusts the branches of dead gorgonians, 
etc. It often penetrates into the cavities of dead corals and forms 
a red film over the surface, but there is no proof that it forms exca- 
vations for itself. When dry the surface is usually covered with 
rather deep, irregular, angular pits or areolations, 2-3'"™ in diameter, 
with a small central pore, the ridges between being thin and sharp ; 
in some cases a thin dermal film remains over the areola?. The 
interior is made up of small irregular angular and rounded reticula- 
tions of slender spiculose fibers, with irregular channels and lacuna?, 
some often of large size. The spicules are of several forms : 1. the 
spicules in the fibers are mostl}' long? slender styles and subtylostyles; 
2. oxeotes, acute at both ends ; 3. smaller, slender, often bent, tylote 
spicules, with both ends slightly enlarged, which are abundant in the 
external layer, mixed with oxeotes ; 4. very slender, long, acute, 
capillary forms (rhaphides) abundant, both singly and in fascicles. 
The larger spicules are .23 to .30"™ long. 

* This sponge has the several forms of spicules characteristic of Tedania 
(1867). But though Thalisias D. and M. antedated the latter, it was a heteroge- 
nooB group, not intelligibly defined, and if adopted at all some other species may 
b€ taken as its type. 

340 A^E. Veri-ill— The Bermuda Mand»; Coral Seefs. 

Owing to its eoftness it is not easy to dry the larger specimens in 
good condition without previously hardening in alcohol; even then 
the apecimens often collapse. When dry the color is usually pale 
green or yellowish white. It may form masses 6 to 8 inches thick 
and 12 to 20 broad. 

It is reputed to he poisonous if handled. It certainly irritates the 
skin of many persons and causes eruptions and intense itching. 
This is probably due to the very fine and sharp spicules entering the 
skin, as in the case of other similar sponges. Also common in 
Florida and the West Indies. It is closely related to Mediterranean 
and Pacific Ocean forms of the genus { T. dlgitata, etc.). 

Fignre 1T9. — Tube-Bponge, Spinosella sororia, var., J oat. size. 
Figaro 180. — Scarlet Sponge, Tedania iffnin, from a drj apecimen of the maBstTe 
form. "4 uHt. size. Both phot, by A. H. V. 

Family, AxineUidis. (P. 333.) 
Axinella Rppressa, sp. act. PUte xixvd, Qgs. 10, 11. 

Sponj^e divided into numerous, upright, slender, angular branches, 
a to f"'"* thiek, covered with small, Irregular, conical and compressed 
olevittions, mostly tlirected upward, and slightly hispid; subdermal 
areolie tubular, roundish, very unequal. The larger, !■"■ wide, 
rather close together. Dermal layer seldom preserved, thin, with 
small pores often arranged in small circular groups over the areola. 
Fibers rather strong, closely tilled with rather long, mostly curved 
stylote spicules, the longer ones .i-2 to .40°"°; the shorter one* .20 to 
^j™" long. The primary fibers are not very distinct from the others, 

A. JE. Verrill — TTie Bermuda Islands; Coral Beefs. 341 

but form evident loose axial lines, ascending and divergent, plumosely 
branched in the branchlets and conules. 

Color red in life, buff when dry. Found also in the Bahamas and 

Azinella rudis, sp. nov. Plate xxxvd, fig. 13. 

Sponge upright, with tall, rather stout irregular branches,' 15-20™" 
in diameter. Sides of branches covered with irregular, very unequal, 
rough tubercles and lobules, mostly blunt and ascending, 2-5"™ high ; 
l_4»nm broad; on the lower parts of branches and stem they become 
much smaller and more verruciform. Surface rough or subhispid, 
everywhere irregularly reticulated with rather coarse stiff fibers. 
Oscules abundant in the depressions, .5 to 1"" in diameter, sur- 
rounded by more numerous smaller pores. Color, in life, bright red; 
when dried it often retains a rose-red color, gradually changing to 
reddish or orange-brown. 

The fibers have a good amount of light yellow spongin. The 
spicules in the fibers are mostly rather large and stout, often curved, 
acQte stylotes; with these are some slender, and a few almost capil- 
lary styles, or rhaphides, nearly as long as the others ; very few 
regular, slender, tricurved toxa were also noticed in the thin dermal 

It occurs also on the Florida reefs.* It belongs to the group 
named Pandaros by Duch. and Mich. It is related to A . Walpersii 
D. & M., but that has flat or flabellate branghes; also to A, angidosa 
and A, pennata of D. and M. (as Pandaros), 

Family, Polt/ mast idee, (P. 334.) 

Polymastia varia, sp. uov. Plate xxxvd, figs. 1, la. 

Sponge compact, thick, encrusting and also massive, sometimes 
with a nearly even surface, often tuberculate, or when large rising 
into long finger-like elevations 1 to 1.5 inches high and .3 to .5 inch 
in diameter, often concave at top but not fistular. Some of the 
masses are 3 to 5 inches thick and broad. Surface, when dry, hard 
and compact, often appearing granulated or subareolate, and 
minutely hispid with the projecting points of small tylostylote spic- 

* Axinella rosacea^ sp. nov. Plate 35d, fig. 12. A similar species occurs at 
Florida and Bahamas. It has stunter branches densely covered with groups of 
abort capitate and tubercnlate branchlets, often forming rosette-like forms. 
Color light red or pink when dried. Stylote spicules much stouter than in A. 
angtUala, the larger ones .28 to .34"" long; with these are much more slender 
oxeates .87 to .40°"" long. 

342 A. JE, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reef». 

ules, perpendicular to the surface. Internal texture rather compact, 
with irregular canals ; thick supporting lines of densely crowded 
spicules run in various directions in the interior. Color, in life, 
orange-red; dull orange-brown when dry. 

Spicules are tylostyles of various sizes, mostly .36 to .48'"™ long 
and .008 to .014 in diameter, rarely styles by reduction of the heads; 
the heads are mostly regularly oval, sometimes slightly three-lobed. 

After a long search only a single microsclere was found; it was a 
minute spinispirula of about 1^ turns. 

Common on the reefs; perhaps a boring sponge when young. 


Family, Clionidm, (P. 334.) 

Heterocliona, gen. nov. Type, PapiUina cribrana Sch. 

Sponge massive or goblet-shaped when large, perhaps boring when 
young ; interior very cavernous when dry, supported by irregular 
columns of crowded tylostyles. Cortex thick, tough, smooth, and 
lubricous in life; tilled with tylostyles tangentially arranged. Micro- 
scleres few, spirulas or spirasters. Oscules usually grouped in large 

Heterocliona cribraria (Schm.). Plate xzxyd. figs. 2, 3. 
i Pcipillina cribraria Schm., Spong. Atl. Qieb. 

This massive, cavernous sponge often grows to great sire, sometimes 
becoming 2 feet or more in diameter, and over a foot high. The 
upjHT surface, when large, usually has a large central cnp or one 
or more cones, each with a large terminal oscule, 15 to 25™™ in 
diameter; other smaller oscules occur close together, in clusters, over 
the top and border of the sponge. When young (1-2 inches across) 
the form may Ih* cylindrical, capitate, or mushroom-like, with few, 
3-10, oscules, .5-10"^"^ in diameter, above. The surface is smooth, 
in life, with a lough blackish cortex. 

The interior, when drieil, is very cavernous, with large irregular 
cavities partly intercepted by irregular, often curved, broad bands 
and columns of densely packed bundles of spicules. In drying macfa 
of the soft sarcode often decavs and runs out of these cavities. 

The spicules are mostly long, slender, curbed tylostyles, with a 
sliorhtlv enlar£re*i mostlv ovate head : thev are about .23 to .S4** 
lonir: others of the same size are subtvlostvles and stvlesw In the 
donnal layer they mostly lie tangentially and in radiate grcNtps, with- 
out much ortier. 

A. JK Vefrill — 77ie Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 343 

Microscleres are mostly wanting; after a long search only two or 
three were found ; they were minute, slender, spined spirasters or 
spinispiralae, with about 1^ turns, and very minute, nearly straight 

Irregular and ovoid dark brown pigment bodies are abundant. 

Color in life, dark smoky brown or black, common; the largest 
seen were in Harrington Sound; also occurs on Florida reefs (Yale 

Cliona caribbasa Carter. Boring Sponge. Fig. 181. Plate xxxvd, fig. 4. 

Cliona caribbcea Carter, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, vol. ix, p. 346, pi. 

xii, fig. 26, 1882. 
Cliona viridis (pars.) Topsent, Archives Zool. Exper. et General, vol. viii, p. 

84, pi. iii, fig. 3d, 1900. 

While young this common species excavates extensive and irregu- 
lar cavities in shells and corals, especially in Porltes. Later in life 
it may grow up into thick, massive, dull yellow, convex forms, 6 
inches to a foot or more in diameter, with large oscules and a coarsely 
verrucose surface.* Interior coarsely cavernous,! as dried, and sup- 
ported by irregular bands and columns of compacted tylostylote 
spicules. The soft sarcode quickly decays and runs out, in drying, 
with a very offensive odor Cortical layer compact. It usually 
includes numerous fragments of shells and corals. 

Figure 181. Cliona caribbcBa ; a, one of the tylostyles from the boring 
sponge, X 165 ; 6, a microsclere ^spinispirula) much more enlarged (after 

The spicules of this massive form (see pi. 35^/, fig. 4) are mostly 
essentially like the one figured by Carter (fig. 181). They are variable 
in size and form, mostly .28 to .40™™ long ; many are rather stout 
with a fusiform shaft ; most are more slender with the shaft loss 
fusiform ; few are st3'les. The head is generally ovate, not very 
large. No microscleres were found after long searching. 

* In this form it corresponds to the genus OscareUa. Topsent (1900) refeiiod 
this species and many other forms to Cliona viridis of Europe, in which he 
included, as massive states, Osculina. and Papillina = Papillelki Vos. 

f The massive form here described may not be the adult of the Carter's spe- 
cies ; therefore I propos5 for it the provisional name Cliona sordida. See plate. 

344 A, JK Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs, 

Spirastrella mollis, sp. nov. Plate xxxtd, fig. 5. 

An encrusting species forming soft films .5 to 3"°^ or more tbick 
on dead, cavernous corals, and also penetrating into the cavernous 
spaces, — perhaps a boring sponge when young. Surface smooth ; 
no oscules nor pores visible to the naked eye in alcoholic specimens ; 
interior without visible canals. Skeletal spicules, long slender tylos- 
tyles, scattered and in groups (fig. 5, a), mostly with regular well- 
rounded heads, but some have ovate or elongate heads ; in some the 
heads are much reduced. Microscleres (hyh') are relatively large, 
spined spirasters, abundant in the cortical layer ; they mostly have 
three or four whorls of sharp conical spinules ; some are strongly 
curved (b'). 

(To be continued.) 


The following cuts are from photographs and drawings by Mr. A. Hyatt 
Verrill :— 1, 20, 30. 34a, 346, 366, 36c, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 436, 45, 59, 59a, 6, c, 
60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 67, 70, 71a, 6, 72, 72a, 6, 73, 75, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 
90, 91, 94, 95, 96, 96a, 97a, 99, 100, 101, 101a, 102, 103-114, 116a-119, 121, 122, 
125-128, 129, 129a, 131-135, 137, 138, 141, 144-162, 164, 176-180. 

The following were by Mr. M. C. Cooke :— 6, 16, 18 

The following are from photographs bought in Bermuda: — 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 
21, 22, 25, 33a, 336. 

The following were loaned by the publishers of Webster's International 
Dictionary :— 36, 36a, 43a, 142. 

The sources of others are given under the cuts. 

A, JE, Verrill — The Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 345 


Plate XVI. Cliff, South Shore, near Hungry Bay. a, beach sand ; 6, 6, hard 

fieolian limestone, of the Walsingham formation, formerly quarried (p. 69) ; 

c, c, Devonshire formation, marine limestone, containing fossil marine 

shells, p. 76 ; d, slightly consolidated aeolian sands of the Paget formation 

containing fossil land shells ; e, e, Paget formation ; inclined beds of 

harder seolian limestone. See pp. 72, 79. 
PULTB XVII. Northward continuation of the same cliffs. Lettering as in plate 

Plate XVIII. Part of same cliffs, south of section on pi. xvi. Lettering the 

Plate XIX. Part of same cliff, showing ** sand-pipes," in section ; 1, 2, 3, 4 

penetrate to different depths. Lettering as in pi. xvi. See pp. 72, 73. 
Plate XX. Same locality as pi. xix, seen from top of bank, showing the 

great number and various forms of "sand-pipes." The rough surface is 

indurated red-clay, partly covering the upper bed of Walsingham limestone. 

See pp. 72, 172. 
Plate XXI. Figure 1. A Walsingham ptive containing sea water and marine 

fishes. See p. 85. Figure 2. Beach and sand dunes near Natural Arch. 

Tucker's Town. The dunes are partly covered by Sccevola lobelia; p. 154. 
Plate XXII. Figure 1. Pinnacled rocks, much eroded and encrusted. Tobacco 

Bay, near St. George's. See p. 64. Figure 2. Eroded and encrusted aeolian 

limestone. South Shore. 
Plate XXIII. Figure 1. Cathedral Rocks or ** Old Church Rocks." Somerset 

Island. See p. 63. Figure 2. Serpentine atolls or "boilers" off South 

Shore. See p. 122. 
Plate XXIV. Figure 1. Sample of shell-sand, about natural size. Dredged 

in about 4 fathoms. Figure 2. Groups of small shells, etc. selected from 

shell sand to show relative abundance. Dredged in 4-6 fathoms. Figure 1 . 

1. Chama macrophylla, young ; 2. Area wocp, occidentalism young ; 3. Ver- 

metus spiratuSj young ; 4-7. Various small shells ; 8. Fragments of aBolian 

limestone. Figure 2. 1. Rissoina hryerea ; 2. Nassa ambiguay young; 3. 

Cerithioides; 4. Vermetus spiratus, young; 5. Marginella minuta; 6. CcBcum 

termes and C. obesum ; 7. Rissoa platycephala ; 8. ^sopus Steamsii ; 9. 

Circe ceHna ; 10. Cardita dominguensis ; 11. Ervilia nitens and E. concen- 

trica ; 12. Crassatella lunulata ; 13. Area intbricatay A. reticulata, and A. 

Adamxi; all very young; 14. Foraminifera, Orbiculina, Orbitolites, etc. 

15, 16. Corallines, fragments; 17. Corals, Oculiiiay etc. and echinoderm 

plates ; 18. MUlepora alcicorniSj fragment ; 19. Bryozoa, Biflustra. 
Plate XXV. Mass of stalagmite conglomerate filled with Poecilozonites Nelsoniy 

var. conoideSy about nat. size. See p. 159. 
Plate XXVI. Fossil land snails ; 1, 2. Poecilozonites bermudensiSy var. zona- 

tuSy nat. size ; 3. P. ReinianuSy var. antiquuSy x 2^ ; 4. P. Nelsoniy var. 

eonoides ; 5, 6. var. callosus ; 7, 8. var. Nelsoni ; nat. size. See pp. 161-165. 
Plate XXVII. Figure 1. Poecilozonites bemiudensiSy existing form ; series to 

show variations in form and color. Figure 2. The same, fossil form (var. 

zonatus) arranged to show variations. All natural size. See pp. 164, 192. 

n4fl A. K Verrlll — llie Bemmda Jslands; Coral Beefs, 

I'LATK XXVIIl. Ki^nre 1. Oculina vnricosa; reduced; p. 237. Fignre 2. 

(huUmi iliffuHii, part of h Inr^e maBH ; reduced ; p. 235. 
Pl.ATK XXIX. KlKuni I. PoriteH astreoideSy p. 240. Figure 2. Siderastrcea 

vadinnn, p. 242. Hutli uat. Hize. 
Pt«ATic XXX. Fl^urH 1. (Jroup of living zoanthids, corals, etc.; reduced to 

I; r», ISilytfnui inainmiiioaa ; 6, /*. grandiflora ; c, Zoanthus proteus;d, 

Artiniti fwriinuhntHis : r, (^yudylnctis gigantea^ young; t, Mussa fragilis, 

nhoui I niii. Mizo. Fi^uro 2. Large dark brown zoanthid (Protopaiythoa 

gmndis) from lift*. i>urtirtlly i>xprtnded ; all about t natural size. See p. 281. 
I'l.ATK XXX A. Figun» I. OrhiceUa, reduced to about i; p. 324. 

Figtu*<» 2. MilhfMvo aicicorniHy rt»duced about ^, p. 317. 
I'l.ATK XXXI. Figuiv 1. *'Ri>8e Coral," Mussa fixigiliSj nearly contracted, 

photo from lift* ; p. 220. Figure 2. Actiuian, Aiptasia annulata, from life ; 

p. 24W. Hoth tmturiil siae. 
Pi.ATis XXXIl. Figure 1. KfUcystis cmcifera, seen from above; photo from 

lifo ; p. 272. Fig«n» 2. Kpicyatis formosa, side view; photo from life; p. 

214. l^>th m»t. Hif.o. 
TUATR XXX 11. Kigwri* 1. Kpicyatis m'^tcifera, side view; 6, a tentacle enlarged: 

drawn fri>ni Ufx\ alwrnt | nat, site ; p. 272. Figure 2. Lebmmia Dqhkt : 

photo ft^>m lif«»» nat, site ; p. 269. 
ri.xn? XXXUl. IV«*<fop/«\roMi>i cmjsw. with polyps neiarlj expanded : photo 

(\\>m a TXHHkiitly killed »i>ecimen; about nat. si»e ; p. 906. 
t^.KTK XXXUIa, IlWn »VyM»|K<M.'5 j|i\i it<? w, with polyps partiall t contracted ; pbci^^c 

fix^m Uft|i, iMit. si»» ; p« JilO, 
V^.AtR XXXIU». Figt;r<f 1. «, KHniceoitsis ^rrav^i*: fe. Plejra^reihg ^i d k^ ^ ffma: 

dry, aIhnuI I i^at-, ?^i»*, }\ ^10, SlH, Figure 2. «, JiMricoa mvri:m*m^ idxh 

f^x^VMV^^l ^>*^\\ I"** ; ^, r, Phjr^nroj^sis hif^olor V, ; nearly aal. sbc plkoso frosi 

f-y^M ; i wUn ^s&e ; pp. ^>l, ^^ 
l^AW XX XIV, FV«T*' 1. nt^/k^m^ i»ft^f:mm, |, p. S24- Rg. ^. Ati^nmt tgruw^ 

fv»»»/is wiih *v\"j%an»^i $aRcVf-r-iV<<<<., p, SM, Both abcvt f sax. sBe. 
l^.vTV XXXlVx. FiiTRTf* 1. Oid^ris fr^hviin^rfi^ p, tSt, F%. ^ Et^nmamtfnrv 

s^th/tt-c^f/f >K p ^4- B*^rh "nia.. siw-.. 
1^ vTv WXIN B Piir»T^ 1- }^i]npnu/*( mruJi^itfiL. -with ^niief^ tbxdh^i^ £ 

>i>y< . /•. i^:is^ -iv.rt : /.. .-ok »>f ♦vular piAi«i; t^ <mt f»f i^^reaitttl plMzesv. 

Ni*^ . F'.ct;'^ '• •;>•*•• '.i./i */•'»!'«... offrsal xiew. v jthrmx 2«., Piinm- ^ TW 
samt ^*«'i :r»» ^nv . »»"!>i»r.: -r- t» ^^ 

• - VM Arv«ir - uw. ';;7-- 

A, JE Verrill — 77ie Bermuda Islands; Coral Reefs. 347 

Plats XXXV. Figure 1. a, Eupolymniamagnifica^ p. 147; 6, Hesione prcetexta. 
Fig. 2. Hermodice carunculata. Photos from life, nat. size. 

PuLTB XXXVa. Figure 1, 2. Spicules of Plexauropsis bicolor V., type; a, o, 
white foliated clubs of surface ; a', a\ irregularly white and purple stellate 
forms ; b, 6, purple spheroidal or biscuit-shaped forms ; c, c, small purple 
spindles of the coenenchyma ; d, d, light purple spicules ; e, e, small and 
medium white spindles of the coenenchyma ; c', larger irregular white spi- 
cule; /, /, small purple spindles of inner layer ; x 44. Figure 8. Plexaura 
homamalla ; Florida specimen : a, a, foliated clubs from surface ; a\ a\ 
irregular stellate forms from surface ; h, b, small crosses from surface ; b'y 
double spindle ; c, c, smaller spindles from coenenchyma ; c', one of the 
larger spindles ; d', d', tentacle-spicules; x 44. Figure 4. Plexaura flavida^ 
olive-yellow variety from Dominica ; a^ a^ larger spindles mostly light 
yellow, some purple ; 6, 6, smaller spindles of same colors ; x 92. 

Plate XXXVb. Figure 1. Sea-cat, Tethys dactylomela, photo from life, ^ nat. 
size. Fig. 2. Common bivalves; 1, la, Spmidylus amertcanus ; 2, 2a, Pearl 
Oyster, Pteria (or Margaritophora) radiata ; 3. Scallop, Pecten ziczac ; 4, 
4a, **Rock Cockle, Chama macrophylla ; 5. True mussel, Modiola tulipa ; 
6,6a. ** Mussel," Area noce, occidentalis ; 7. A. secticostata. All reduced 
to |. 

Plate XXX Vc. Figure 1. Esperiopsis fragilis^ sp. nov.; spieulose fibers, x84. 
Fig. 2. The same ; spicules ; a, a, tylostyles ; 6, 6, styles ; e, trichites ; /. 
tylotes ; «, unicellular alga (?), x 132 ; e, c, isochelae ; d, sigmas, more en- 
larged; c', d', the same still more enlarged. Fig. 3. The same ; a, a, tylos- 
tyles, X 225 ; 6, 6, large oxeotes, perhaps extraneous, x 22o. Camera draw- 
ings by A. H. V. Fig. 4. Tedania igni§ ; spicules ; a, a, tylostyles ; 6, 6, 
tylotes ; c, c, slender oxeotes ; d, trichites ; /, minute oxeotes, all x 132 ; 
6', ends of a tylote, x225. Fig. 5. Desmacella janiOy spieulose fibers, x 84. 
Fig. 6. The same, spicules; a, a, tylostyles; 6, 6, styles; c, minute spicules; 
d, oxeote, x 132 ; e, sigmas more enlarged ; /, sigmas still more enlarged. 
Fig. 7. Pachychalina micropora^ sp. nov.; spicules; a, a, ordinary oxeotes 
of fibers ; 6, a more slender oxeote, x 170. Fig. 8. P. milleporaj sp. nov.; 
a, a, a J oxeotes; 6, a substylote form, x 132. 

Plate XXXVd. Figure 1. Polymastia varia, sp. nov.; a, b, tylostyles, x 120; 
la, heads of same to show variations, x 206 ; c, spiraster, more enlarged. 
Fig. 2. Heterocliona cribraria, grouped spicules, natural order. Fig. 3. The 
same, spicules, x 120 ; a, a, tylostyles ; 6, styles ; d, spinispira more en- 
larged. Fig. 4. Cliona sordida, massive form; a, a, tylostyles, xl20; a% 
one more enlarged. Fig. 5. Spirastrella mollis ; a, tylostyles; b,b', spiras- 
ters. Fig. 6. Pachychalina monticulosa, sp. nov. ; spieulose fibers, x 76. 
Fig. 7. The same, spicules, x 150. Fig. 8. P. cellulosa, sp. nov., spieulose 
skeletal fibers, x 76. Fig. 9. The same ; spicules ; a, a\ oxeotes ; 6, 6, styli 
form spicules; x 150. Fig. 10. Axinella appressa, sp. nov., spieulose skele- 
tal fibers, X 76. Fig. 11. The same, spicules, x 120; a, longer styles; 6, 
shorter do. Fig. 12. Axinella rosacea, sp. nov., spicules; a, a', styles: 6. 
oxeotes, X 120. Fig. 13. Axinella rudis, sp. nov.,xaboufc 120; «, styles; 6, 
capillary oxeote or trichite ; c, toxa, much more enlarged. 

/ y. . . >- .- A- ?^ .•■:■.-. •jK' - .: S ••'• 1 I'mZT' ~-iaC >-7.-^l * 

.#.#••', •*'</ " ■" ' V.."' ■ ■-* ■ •' • ' ^ §• * * r ^- ' J-——' _ir "*■ Oil "*i* 

t, /f,^t». . ' '.-r *j ', ' - ... ' .i-J"— 1-—— fcF^ *f • *"~-»r"^j' .- 

//// //. //////// '*■'/, .i /'>/'; >,"*.-'. 4 yi V -..I '■.•*. »^f . 1'. Inr^ •! iral: >*■. Siir 

t ft, ft fit n*0i't»*i, .*4 'A'n.fA:. ''# /f/f*j^f'tffi ; ;^.«. S-^-r^-jW Mi7J^jmynJ 'i'*-i- 
funi-, *■■ . 'V ' ■•''< ';*'/.'./*• ' Hfttnft9^iln corona ; ITJ. S--*ri*^ #i»c^ rfdanM 
/// ^/ / - , ' »{ . • ;//'/ w '/"' tiiffttfi: i'f (In p-/'or»l ' ,4 y- ' nn a ftnyiUa . Fi*:. 2. 1 
tfffu iA'ftiy t l,\ft*t'toftiH lu.nfhrin): 2, "J. Spotted Mormj i£.. mon*M<>i . 

//fO< M >/f*tu\tnf '/'tt'/'HhUtink,f^i'..: '$. Ivorr Coral kOcvHhq rarieotaK 4. Brain 
I'nnil 'i. h'ltif/nnun ( f'^t/fiirfopHiH /jrotifh'g) : 6. 0, Plejcaura /lejcuosa : 7, 7, 

Mmhiif nnnhnhi; M, /'UniirfopniH ftfrn; 9, Forites elararia: 10. 10. Spomgia 
hitfiht, \'f, '\ H\tt' yK\t*iu\i,¥ (SpiitoMe//a mroria)\ 14, Reef -rock : 18. Pink 
I i»»M lj i'ihniiiintm ^ii\init)\ 10, ('owH*; (Cyprcea exanthema), Abont i nat. 

I'lAif XX.XVIa I'lKiiri' I. S|»i<'iil«'H of I'lexaurella dichotoma from the type 
III /' (Miir/f* (lMii-li. 1111(1 Midi.); ri, /f, larger croBses; a', a', irregular or one- i-iiiMHiiu , It, ildiililo NpiiHlli* ; r, Cy Hiunller spindles ; d, donble whorled 
•i)i|i'iili>. • MH |<'iK "i. I*, (livhotoma, Hpicnles from the original type of 
|rii|ii.| , ii, II. 1,111-KiM' «*r(mNi*H ; a', a\ irregularly branched crosses; a'^a', 
iliitililf iiphtilloH itr iinporfiTt miHMOH ; ft, ft, spindles and donble spindle?. 
■ Mil t>'l|t M. /W(li^l/»/r'.lNMlHl ontsMi, from Bermnda; a, a, small, irrega- 
liM. puipti' HpliMtloH ft>Mu thoHurfnot»: ft, ft, large spindles from the middle 
of » ii>uoni>h> \\\ts i ft . ft . murtUor npiiuUeA : r, r. small white spindles ; c\ c\ 
rtmiUi puvpio ■ph\»Ui»i». ^ 40. V^jj. 4. FiexaHra Esperi, sp, now Type; a, a, 
p\np)«' i^MibU' xxhovUtl lipioiiW ; %i , cluster of the same forms in place, le» 
v«^j^hi^**< . ^. ^. t^MO* trhorlM purpl<» double spindles: c, c, two-whorled 
^NH^p^o iUm^nIo fipn\<U4>»; «f. .f. Urt?^ pnr^^le spindles: cf, smaller pnrple 

l^vNV WW^tfc V\ituw 1 ^^l ..*.'vA)vci* ri-»»ins</orfi\: «, n. laige spindles; 6, 6, 

•<\\Vil«i *)N:v,rii'x . . . ,*.,",;Kf «v:y»oV : rf, T««ta<'lf^4piciile, x 40. Fig. t 

^'^, „!^n . . < vr.->A ". *.v-.'.j;:>. s'iv,Y>.Vif*' ; f . braac-lMid TarieCj : /./, irregular 

iv^.v ii.'» ..1 xr,v;'!%,v 0- ''■ t^*'»'>*'^*. filr.'h*. ci foufacie layer: i. A. slender 

s^.M.,!^»* T>.,^v^> ;^^^>,■ t^.Y ij»,\'on. \ S^ l^c. ?' JV.wiffWip w* fwnmdiM V., type ; 

.. u \N- si'.i'., !.>^ ^ >• rr^iv,^ ATI. ^ADo^ftf-: r^ r. flanall ffnndleB; cf, tf. 

:..r ?n. «. SM •«.. !i'v \ ;V. Tiy •- »Vsy:ii-v) >Ut3*vAM .- a. a. larppr tpindlet: 

i«i.v*' v^v.'o'i NTi-pi •' ^ '• >«Tiit»:'tcT imrrm^ mo 'hrnva fljVDdlea: ft*, small 

^->- '. s:* 'v <!>«> >•-/ «-i )»^^fi>t>T4iiH'nMl rcivibfiraidaliicsiitt: r. e. pinple 

c,,N,.vv ..s.)xv .» vt •rn,M r :ht sumi.. '«'iiti»- : 7',/. 'fODiJlpiaplefimidlei, 

\ .lit 

'«< X •« \\\> . > ^' "*)^' fi-»^nitiriffes tmt. mnor tsoEk. A^teved fraa 

^- >^ -» \\\ \ X^ '»'»• H-imin*!*"- mirtdh aw i t iniii. 

III. — Studies ox thk Califorxia Limbless Lizard, Anniella. 

By W. R. Coe and B. W. Kunkel. 

With Plates zli-xlyiii and 15 figures in the text. 

The four papers of this series are intended to include the results 
of a general study of some of the principal organ systems of a 
rather common but yet little known lizard, Anniella pxdchra^ found 
on the barren sand dunes of California, Arizona, and southward. 
This form presents a number of anatomical features which deviate 
more or less widely from those usually thought to be characteristic 
of the lizards. In some respects these structures are quite different 
from those which have thus far been described for any other form. 

The reproductive organs exhibit a feature apparently quite unique 
among lizards in that but a single oviduct is functional, the other 
being aborted and quite incapable of carrying an embryo. The 
copulatory organs likewise show a number of interesting deviations 
from the ordinary lacertilian type. An abstract of a paper dealing 
with the peculiarities of the urogenital and copulatory organs has 
been published in the American Naturalist (Coe and Kunkel, : 04). 
A second paper on the female urogenital organs of this form has 
appeared in the Anatomischer Anzeiger (Coe and Kunkel, : 05). A 
detailed and more fully illustrated account of these structures con- 
stitutes the third paper of this series. 

A general account of the habits and mode of life both in the 
natural habitat and when in captivity, together with a brief discus- 
sion of the visceral anatomy, is included in the first of the four 
papers of this series. 

The external anatomy and skeleton have already been briefly 
described in the papers h^ Cope (*92 and : 00) and by Baur ('94) 
and the systematic position of the genus discussed. Further details, 
however, both in regard to the arrangement of scales and the 
osteological peculiarities, are described in the second paper of this 


The central nervous system and particularly the parts of the brain 
associated with the pineal apparatus have been carefully investigated 
and constitute the subject of the last paper of the series. 

These structures by no means include all the anatomical peculiari- 
ties of the genus, for as yet no studies have been made on the circu- 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. Xn. 23 December, 1906. 

350 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

latory system, the musculature, or the peripheral nerves. It is hoped, 
however, that the present series of studies may prove of interest 
because of their bearing on the evolution of this retrograde type of 
lizard and be of use in determining its systematic position. 

The genus Anniella is apparently represented by a single known 
species (.1. pnlchra) deschbed by Gray in 1852, although Boalenger 
('87) briefly described a form said to have been collected in Texas 
(A, texana) which may possibly prove to be a distinct species. A. 
nigra^ described by Fischer ('85) as a distinct species, is, as stated 
by Cope (: 00, p. 675), merely a color variety of the common 
species. About two thirds of the individuals collected belong to 
this variety, the peculiarities of which are described below. 

The systematic position of the genus is to some extent a matter of 
discussion. Gray ('52) placed it among the Scincidae; Cope ('64) 
established for it a new family, Anniellidae, placing it in the tribe 
Typhlophthalmi ; Boulenger ('85) and Gill ('86) place the family 
Anniellida^ between the Anguidae and the Helodermatidse ; and 
Baur ('94) from a detailed study of the skeleton confirms Boolen- 
gerV view that the family is closely related to the Anguidae, of 
which the common European limbless lizard, Atigui*^ is the type. 

As will be seen from the account of the anatomical pecaliarities 
given on the following pages, the evidence afforded by these investi- 
gations emphasizes the close relationship of the Anniellidie and the 

I. — Habits and Visceral Axatomy. W. R Cok. 

Text-figs. 1-S. 

The natural history of -4#iwiV//<i is so imperfectly known that it 
sivms dosimMo to srive hert* such observations as we have been able 
to uKiko on tho habits of the animal. The brief obsenraUons in the 
tivui won* >\;pp!enunteti bv a studr of some thiitv animals wkidi 
won* kept ;ili\ o for several months in the labonil«o»nr. 

The adu!t HjuitxI is lonsr. slender, and snake-iike« aTemging: about 
Kx^'-' in loncih whon srxua^ly matwre, ahhoagfa there is gieat Taria* 
tion in tht Unirth as vN>nuvaT\si to the diameter of the boniT be«caii:<ae 
a <N>55sidoT::4bio pT\^|Vi^n5on of :he indavidnals enconntered hare pre- 
\ix>wsly li^si X xx>r:v*!^ of ihe taiL After an injnfx of this $ori the 
pvNsttHor e\iT\?**v:y ren^ans^ ai j^cssj for a lonsr tii»ft, shorts blnnt« 
:^rd T\>^n^^k\i, wtr.^o :h>Nr aiiimaHs which have n«i| ^ 
ir.^.urv biive lori^r -ii^'id s^trV.-dt-T iju'is. 

Coe and Kunkel — Calif omia Limbless Lizard, 351 

The length of the body of the adult from enout to cloacal open- 
ing varies commonly from 105"™ to 152"*". It is of nearly uniform 
size, with an average diameter of about e.a""". The length from 
cloacal opening to posterior end of these same animals, however, 
varies from 16 to 75"°*. Therefore in extreme cases the length of 
the tail may vary from one ninth to more than one third the total 
length of the body. 

At the time of birth the young lizards are usually from 70 to 80"" 
in length. 

AnnieUa pulchra is widely distributed in central and southern 
California, where it prefers dry, barren localities and deserts. At 
Pacific Grove, California, it is common on the sand dunes of the sea- 
shore. Here it lives buried in the sand beneath small clusters of low 
bashes and under driftwood scattered about over the more sunny 
sand patches. A number of individuals are often found collected 
together beneath a small shrub or piece of driftwood on the sunny 
side of a sand dune, particularly where not exposed to the winds 
from the sea. Professor Heath of Stanford University writes that 
he has found them plentiful in just such situations. Van Denburgh 
('97), on the other hand, states that they occur in the sand of pine 
forests in the same locality, and that they travel rapidly in the loose 

They naturally lie buried in the sand with only the anterior por- 
tion of the head exposed, so that it is usually quite impossible to see 
them unless they are more fully exposed by a rake or a hoe. Early 
in the morning and on a cloudy day they appear to lie more deeply 
buried in the sand; when exposed to view they very quickly bury 
themselves in the loose soil, especially if the weather is not too 
chilly. They are naturally much more active on a warm day, but 
even then they are not so agile as the ordinary running lizards. 

At San Diego the species is said to be very common, and it is also 
reported from the central and eastern portions of the state, Fresno, 
Kern, and San Bernadino counties (Cope :00). We have also 
heard of its being seen, but not collected, at Yuma and in western 

The lizards live well in captivity. Some thirty individuals which 
were collected at Pacific Grove, California, were kept in our labora- 
tory at New Haven, Connecticut, for several months. They were 
fed on the larvae of the chestnut beetle [Balanius) and on small 
larvfiB of Elater beetles. The method by which these insects were 
devoured is curious and interesting. 

352 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

The lizard lies buried in the sand with only the anterior portion 
of the head projecting. In this position it may apparently lie for 
days without moving unless it is disturbed or its attention attracted 
by some noise or the sight of some moving object. When the tem- 
perature falls to 60° F. or below, the head is drawn into the sand, 
unless the sun is shining brightly, and in the laboratory nearly all 
the lizards collect together, as if for mutual warmth, as far from the 
surface of the sand as possible. 

As soon as the room becomes warmer, however, the animals sep- 
arate and as a rule bring their heads again to the surface of the sand 
80 that their nostrils, eyes, and pineal organ are fully exposed. 
Sometimes an inch or two of the body is exposed, and at other times 
one or several of the lizards are seen crawling about on the surface 
of the sand. 

The sight of a small moving object quickly attracts their attention, 
although usually no effort is made to approach it. The lizard simply 
waits until the insect larva or other small object reaches its immedi- 
ate vicinity, when it raises its head an inch or more above the sand 
and crawls out of its burrow until its head is directly above the 
object. It then arches its neck sharply and with its jaws widely 
opened thrusts its head down quickly into the sand, thus holding its 
prey firmly pressed against the surface of the sand. 

The struggles of the prey to escape force it farther into the mouth 
of the lizard and in the course of a minute or two it is completely 
engulfed. It is held for some time in the lizard's mouth before being 
swallowed. More or less sand is swallowed at the same time^ and 
this accounts for its presence in both the stomach and the rectum of 
many of the lizards examined. 

An examination of the stomach contents of a number of individ- 
uals killed soon after collecting at Pacific Grove revealed the pres- 
ence of remains of both adult and larvae of small beetles, larvsB and 
pupae of other insects, and spiders. Van Denburgh ('97) likewise 
records the stomach contents as consisting of insect larvae up to more 
than an inch in length, as well as small ground beetles (JSelops and 

In many cases the lizards, although their eyes were fully exposed, 
apparently failed to detect the presence of an insect capable of being 
used as food until the insect actually touched the body. The eyes 
are very small, so that it seems probable that the animal relies quite 
as much on the sense of smell and other faculties as on the eyes in 
the detection of its prey. Furthermore, the presence in the stomach 

Coe and JKunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 353 

of inactive papse of insects demonstrates the ability of the lizard to 
recognize its food without relying upon the movements of its prey. 

The lizards seem to require a considerable amount of water, and 
were often seen with their snouts thrust into the dish of water in 
the cage in which they were kept. In drinking, the neck is arched 
very much as in the process of capturing an insect. 

Visceral Anatomy. 

The structure and disposition of most of the organ systems of the 
body cavity agree closely with the descriptions published many years 
ago for Anguis. The urogenital organs, however, are so peculiarly 
modified that they form the subject of the second paper of this 
series. The peculiarities of the aborted left lung, the shape and 
position of the liver, the situation of the gall bladder, and the gen- 
eral form of the different portions of the alimentary canal are men- 
tioned by Cope (:00, p. 670). 

Alimentary canal, — The head of this lizard is very small as com- 
pared with the other regions of the body, and the mouth is in con- 
sequence much less extensive than in most other lizards. In an 
individual 20*^°* in length, the mouth opening extends only about 6™™ 
behind the tip of the snout, and the greatest width across the pos- 
terior ends of the mouth opening is but 5 or 6™"^. The nature of 
the food and the method of its capture are described on the preced- 
ing page. 

The teeth are small, conical, slightly recurved, and rather acutely 
pointed. They are disposed in a single row on each jaw as described 
below, and figured on pi. xli, figs. 5-8. The number on the 
upper jaw is usually about 16 or 18 and on the lower jaw about 
14. The secondary buds at the bases of the developing teeth in 
the embryo indicate that, as in most other reptiles, new teeth 
develop to replace such as are accidentally lost. Small and incom- 
pletely developed teeth are often interspersed with the larger ones. 
E^h tooth exhibits a very shallow oval groove along the basal half 
of its median face. 

The tongue, as in Anguis, is much shorter than in most other 
lizards, although it is highly muscular and rather distensible in life. 
In individuals kept in captivity it does not appear to be extruded 
from the mouth either when the animal is capturing its prey or at 
other times. The organ is nearly twice as long as broad and is 
bilobed both in front and behind. In a large individual the length 
of the body of the tongue, not considering the anterior lobes, is 8™™, 


Coe aiid Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard, 


the anterior end being situated about 5™™ behind the tip of the 
lower jaw. The body of the tongue has its exposed surface covered 
with minute papillse except at the anterior end where it parses into 

the two highly muscular lobes 
or forks. The forks, on the other 
hand, appear under the lens to 
be perfectly smooth or provided 
with slight longitudinal wrinkles. 
The anterior forks are slender 
and acutely pointed and may lie 
side by side or become widely 
separated, according to the mus- 
cular contractions of the parts. 
Their basal portions are deeply 
pigmented, the dark pigment 
commonly extending for a little 
distance on the body of the tongue 
and sometimes well toward the 
tip of the fork, very much as in 
Anguis. The posterior lobes are 
rounded and provided with pa- 
pillae directly continuous with 
those on the body of the tongue. 
The histological structure of the 
glands of the tongue of Anguis 
is described by v. Seiller ('91, 
^— ^ p. 181). 

The body of the tongue is at- 
tached to the floor of the mouth 
^__l I along its whole length, the lat- 

eral borders and anterior forks 
alone being free. 

The glottis is represented by 
an oval opening situated on a 
short elevation in the angle be- 

Figure 1. Diagram of digestive and ^^'^^^ ^he two posterior lobes of 

respiratory organs, in their natural posi- the tongue, 

tions ; e, esophagus ; .s, stomach ; (i, du- rm. >li- i j • ^ ^i. i 

odemim ; i, ileum ; c, rudimentary cse- ^^^ mouth leads into the long, 

cum ; r, rectum ; i, trachea ; /, lung, with narrow esophagUS, which passeS 

large right, and rudimentary left lobes ; j n • . xu ^ • i.* 

\ heart ; li, liver ; ij. gall bladder ; v, the gradually mtO the Straight 

lobes of pancreas and spleen, x f . stomach. A sharp bend and 

narrow opening through a highly developed valve lie between stomach 

Coe and Kimkel — California Limbless Lizard. 355 

and duodeoani, the latter paeaing gradually into the more elender 
ilenm, which is elightly convoluted and narrows gradually toward its 
posterior opening into the large intestine {text-fig. 1). The total 
length of the small intestine when straightened out atid extended U 
about twice as great as in its natural position. The large intestine 
is sharply demarcated from the ileum and exhibits, especially when 
well distended, an indication of a ctecura, A fluted circular valve 
somewhat similar to that between the stomach and duodenum 
lies between the rectum and cloaca. 

The whole alimentary canal thus consists of an almost perfectly 
straight tube {text-fig. 1) except for the slight convolution of the 
duodenum and Ileum. As in Anguis, the conditions here conform 
to the requirements of a slender, elongated body, and are markedly 
different from those found in most lizards, where the intestine is 
greatly convoluted. Comparative lengths of different portions of 
this tube are as follows in a lizard about ^2™ long: 

Tip of snout to opening of esophagus, . 8"" 

Length of esophagus, (about) . . . 70""° 

" " stomach, ..... 20°"° 

" " duodenum and ileum, . . 40""° 

" " rectum, ..... 20""° 

" " cloaca, 6"'"' 

Tail behind cloacal opening, , . . 75""° 
The esophagus is remarkably long and slender and ia provided 
with highly distensible muscular walls. It passes into the stomach 
without any sharp line of demarcation 
(text-fig. 1). The stomach is usually 
straight and is directly continuous with 
the esophagus as in snakes. When much 
food is taken, a portion of it remains in 
the posterior part of the esophagus after 
the stomach has been moderately filled. 
In a few cases noted the stomach was dis- 
tinctly curved, with the pylorus on the 
Wifif^^^SBf right side of the body. In histological 

"^ '^ structure the walls of the stomach com- 

prise the usual muscular and connective 
Figure 3. Portion of trauB- tissue layers, while the mucous membrane 
."^rihoVirbrS;;.' i.remarkbljll,in, „,d the gland, .hort 
short tubnlnr gastric glands and nmch twisted (text-fig. 2). The lin- 
beneath th^ap*rflcialepitho- -^^^ ^f ^-^^^^ columnar epithelium, con- 
tiniies directly into the shallow pits, from 

356 Cq6 and Kunkel — Cali/arnia Limbless Lizard. 

the bottom of each of which one, two, or several short tubular 
glands extend to the rather thick miiBcularis mucosie. In their basal 
portions the glands twist about considerably. 

The pyloric valve is remarkably highly developed, as described by 
Leydig {'72, p. 120) for Anguis. It consists of a miiacular, circu- 
lar fold, fluted longitudinally and projecting into the lumen of the 

The duodenum has a diameter nearly as great as that of the 
stomach, and except for the sharp bend at its anterior end is almost 
straight. Its mucous 
\. kK& \ membrane is thrown up 

\ ^^Sft into very conspicuous 

tongue-shaped villi 
W^^^,-v,..,,' :■. ■> . ?^» (text-fig. 6), which are 

^"^K-^" r-f/ix'-'. iX \ "^^k^- ovalinsectionandplaeed 
with their long axes 
transversely to the 
length of the canal, as 
is common in many va- 
Figure 3. Section of epithelium of duodeoDni, rieties of reptiles. The 
showing Bbeence of glandB. x 250. , epithelium of the villus 

is, like that of the lining of the intervening intestinal surface, com- 
posed of simple columnar epithelium with thickly placed goblet cells 
(text-tig. 3). No other glands occur. The epithelial cells exhibit the 
peculiarly striated free border so characteristic of the small intestine 
of the higher vertebrates. Conspicuous blood and lymphatic ves- 
sels occupy the central portions of the villi. 

The duodenum passes imperceptibly into the ileum, there being no 
distinct line of demarcation either anatomically or histologically. 
The villi of the duodenum become gradually shorter and closer 
together, and eventually give place to irregular wavy folds which 
extend lengthwise throughout the ileum. The posterior end of the 
ileum, however, has a nearly smooth lining. Its posterior end is 
much narrower than the more anterior portions, and the change from 
ileum to large intestine is very marked ; there is here a distinct 
annular constriction separating the two chambers (pi. XLiii, figs. 25. 
^(i, text-fig. 1). This valve is marked by strong circular muscles, 
and the mucosa is thrown up into marked longitudinal folds. Tliere 
is no free fold of the mucosa, however, such as occurs between 
stomach and duodenum or between rectum and cloaca. 

The small intestine opens into the large intestine on one side of its 
central axis, so that an indication of a rudimentary c»cnm is formed 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 357 

on the side farthest from this opening, as in most lizards. The large 
intestine is cylindrical and without convolutions. It lies in the 
middle line of the body and remains of about the same diameter 
throughout its length. Posteriorly it opens into the much narrower 
ventral cloacal chamber as described below. Instead of passing 
gradually into the cloaca, however, the posterior end of the large 
intestine is saclike and in ordinary states of conti'action continues 
slightly farther back than the comparatively narrow opening into 
the cloaca. A pair of very shallow blind pockets are thus formed 
on the right and left sides of the anterior end of the ventral cloacal 
chamber. The epithelium of these blind pockets is sharply dis- 
tinguishable from that of the other portions of the large intestine 
because of the presence of masses of lymphoid cells forming well- 
marked lymphatic nodules. In other states of contraction, however, 
the pockets entirely disappear, the large intestine passing gradually 
into the cloaca. The masses of lymphoid cells thus lie at the pos- 
terior end of the large intestine. The cloacal chambers and their 
relation to the ducts opening therein are described in detail in the 
chapter on the urogenital organs. The posterior opening of the 
cloaca is in ordinarv states of contraction a transverse, crescent- 
shaped slit, guarded by a definite series of scales^ as described in 
the following chapter. 

Liver. — As is the case with the alimentary canal, the liver con- 
forms in shape to the slenderness of the body, consisting of a single 
very slender mass with only a very small secondary lobe (text-fig. 1). 
The main body of the organ is apparently made up of the portion 
which constitutes the right lobe in most lizards, the small secondary 
lobe referred to being the left lobe, which is either rudimentary or 
has its anterior portions completely fused with the right lobe. The 
right lobe extends from a short distance behind the heart nearly as 
far as the posterior end of the stomach. It is somewhat crescentic 
in cross section, the concavity lying closely appressed to the esopha- 
gus, which it covers ventrally and on the right side in its normal 
position. Sometimes both esophagus and posterior portion of lung 
are almost completely surrounded thereby. The average length of 
the right lobe is about SC'"^ in adult specimens, being very nearly 
one third as long as the distance from tip of snout to anal aperture. 
Both anterior and posterior extremities are very narrow. The 
epigastric vein enters the posterior end, while the vena cava inferior 
leaves the opposite extremity, and the portal vein enters the angle 
formed at the junction with the rudimentary left lobe. 

358 ■ Coe and Kiuikel — California LimbleM Lizard. 

The left lobe is represented by a very Hoiall projection situated a 
abort distance beiiind tbe gall bladder and at about four fifths the 
distance toward the posterior end of the right lobe (text-fig. 1). 

The gall bladder is conspicuous as a dark, oval body imbedded Id 
the substance of the liver at about three fourths the distance toward 
the posterior end of that 
organ. In some cases it is 
largely covered by the liver 
tissue, but usually lies freely 
exposed ventrally. Several 
bile ducts (text-fig. 4) ac- 
company the portal vein to 
Figure 4. Seotion of portal vein wiih ita the anterior end of the du- 

larger than the four or five 
other ducts and probably leads directly from the gall bladder. They 
pass through the walla of the duodenum in company with the pan- 
creatic ducts. 
Pancrean. — Situated in the angle between the pylorus and anterior 

Figure 6. Teutral side oC Btomach FignTe6. Ventral side of stomtkcb 

and dnodennni. Hliowing pusition of nod anterior portion of daodenDm, 

loI>esof pancreaaAnd apleen ; p,p , left the latter opened to show thetongnv- 

and middle lobex of pHiicreasreapfCttve' Bbai>ed villi. The three lobes of the 

ly : p'. right lube of pancreas, cuutiii- pancreas and the spleen are as In 

ning pusletiorlj into spleen (sp); P- f , fig- 5- « 3. 

end of the duodenum, that is, on the ventral and right sides of the 
pylorus, art' three small bodies of whitish color {text-fig. 1); two of 
ihcso arc fiattened, irregularly triangular in outline and appressed 
riilluT closely to the stomach, while the third is ovoid, with a deeply 
]iit;i[iuMted posterior portion (test-figs. 5, 6). The two flattened 
bodies prove to be lobes of the pancreas ; the paler portion of the 
ovoid body is likewise jianoreas, while its pigmented posterior por- 
tion constitutes the spleen. In most cases at least two of these 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 359 

bodies are more or less intimately fused together, and in some indi- 
viduals all three are connected by a continuous mass of pancreatic 
tissue, the three bodies then being represented as distinct lobes of a 
single gland. 

Of the pancreas lobes, one lies on the ventral and left side of the 
portal vein, close beside the pylorus. The second (text-figs. 5, 6) is 
situated somewhat posteriorly to this left lobe, and on the ventral 
side of the portal vein, and may be called the median lobe ; it is 
sometimes slightly bilobed, and occasionally connected directly to 
the left lobe. The third lobe, which is intimately fused with the 
spleen (text-figs. 5-7), is usually situated a little anterior to the 
median lobe and to the right of the portal vein (text-figs. 5, 6) ; it 
may consequently be considered as the right lobe. It is usually con- 
nected with the left lobe by a mass of pancreatic tissue between the 
portal vein and the pylorus. Both the splenic and pancreatic tissues 
are so closely fused into a single mass that the spleen must be 
looked upon as an appendage to the right lobe of the pancreas. 

Spleen. — As described above, the ovoid right lobe of the pancreas 

Figure 7. Outlines of right lobe of pancreas {p) in 
four individuals, showing its more or less intimate 
connection with the spleen (sp). x 6. 

exhibits a marked differentiation posteriorly, in that the anterior part 
is pale and whitish in color, while the posterior portion is deeply 
pigmented (text-figs. 5-7). A longitudinal section shows that the 
pale portion is composed of true pancreatic tissue and the pigmented 
part has the histological structure of the spleen. The boundary 
between the two kinds of tissue is clearly marked by a thin layer of 
connective tissue. 

The spleen retains its natural ovoid shape and is imbedded anteri- 
orly in the pancreatic mass, the convexity of the spleen fitting into 
a corresponding concavity in the pancreas. The extent to which the 
anterior portion of the spleen is buried in the pancreas varies in 
different individuals, as illustrated in text-fig. 7. The pancreas 
appears to grow back over the spleen by an outgrowth of its small 
lobules, so that the posterior border of the gland is irregular and 


Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

wavy in outline. In a few cases the spleen was attached to the 
pancreatic lobe only by a narrow mass of connective tissue. 

Lungs. — As stated above, the right lung is much elongated and 
well developed, while the left is small and rudimentary, although 
remaining functional. Both lungs are provided with a similar ante- 
rior lobe. 

The larger, right lung is long and tubular, being largest in its 
middle portion and tapering gradually to the slender, pointed pos- 
terior end (text-fig. 8). The trachea enters the median border of 
this lung a short distance behind the anterior end, which is thus 
extended forward as a short anterior lobe. The lumen of this lobe 
is directly continuous posteriorly with that of the main portion of 
the lung, although there is often a slight constriction in this region. 
If the constriction becomes conspicuous, the opening into the poste- 
rior end of the anterior lobe is comparatively narrow. 

The left lung is usually less than one fourth as long as the right, 
the cavities of the two being in all the individuals examined con- 
nected only by a narrow opening (text-fig. 8). 
Cope's statement (: 00, p. 670) that the two 
lungs are fused proximally, " so that there is 
but a single lumen," is therefore erroneous or 
founded on an abnormal or aitificial condition. 
The actual opening is small, oval in outline, and 
situated at the extreme posterior end of the 
trachea, which passes for a short distance along 
the median border of this as well as of the right 
lung. In this way the left lung is provided 
with an anterior lobe, projecting forward in 
front of the tracheal opening just as in the case 
of the right lung. The anterior end of this 
lobe is rounded and often fully as large as the 
corresponding lobe of the other lung. A slight 

„ constriction or lateral indentation usually occurs 

Figures.— Outline of , , . i i j ^ • i 

lungs, showing large ^^ demarcate the anterior lobe more definitely. 

right lobe and nidi- Although the cavities of the two lungs are so 

. X t- ^,^11 separated, yet the left lung is closely bound 
to the right by a strong sheet of connective tissue. The left lung is 
thus held closely appressed to the right except at its anterior and 
posterior extremities. 

Although there exists such great discrepancy in size between the 
two lungs, yet both are functional in all parts. The walls of both 
are thin and membranous, the reticulate bars or laminae, which carry 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 361 

the blood vessels, forming only shallow alveoli. There is in each 
lung, therefore, when well distended, a central air chamber nearly as 
large as the lung itself. 

The anterior ends of both lungs are placed symmetrically close 
behind and beside the ventricle, the anterior lobe of each projecting 
forward to about the same extent (text- fig. 8). The large lung 
occupies the right side of the body cavity behind the heart and 
extends posteriorly on the dorsal side of the liver, while the esopha- 
gus is situated in a corresponding position on the left side of the 
body cavity. Nevertheless, when the lung is well distended and the 
esophagus empty, the lung actually fills the whole ventral portion 
of the body cavity for some distance behind the heart and thus lies 
ventral to the esophagus. This condition will, perhaps, justify 
Cope's statement (: 00, pp. 670, 671) that the lung lies ventral to the 
alimentary canal. 

The average length of the right lobe in adult individuals is about 
35™™, and that of the left lobe about S™"", the comparative size in 
preserved specimens naturally depending largely on the state of 
contraction. In one instance noted the left was but 5™™ long and 
the right 30™". There is, however, great variation in size in life, 
particularly as regards the rudimentary lung. The lens^th of the 
trachea is about 30™™. 

Cope states (: 00, p. 670) that the fusion of the lungs indicates a 
step nearer obliteration of one than occurs in any of the serpentiform 
genera of TeiidaB, Scincidse, or Anguidae, where, although reduced 
in size, the left is distinct from the right except at its anterior end. 

11. — External Anatomy and Skeleton. B. W. Kunkel. 

PI. XLi, figs. 4-8 ; PI. XLii, figs. 9-24 ; Text-figs. 9-13. 

The external appearance of the limbless, snake-like lizard, Anniella 
pulchra, of California may be described as follows : Body cylindri- 
cal or flattened slightly dorso-ventrally. Head very much depressed, 
slightly broader posteriorly than rest of body and tapering gradually 
to a moderately sharp snout, which has the form of a truncated cone, 
and projects beyond the lower jaw. Body only slightly differen- 
tiated into head and neck. Externally there is no trace of limbs. 
Tail variable in length, being from one tenth to one half the length 
of body from snout to anus, due apparently to injury to this mem- 
ber. In every instance in which the tail was relatively short, it w^as 

362 Coe and KunUel — California Limbless Lizard, 

rounded at the posterior end, but in several blunt-tailed individuals 
the tail was one half the length of the body proper, showing that 
when broken the tail always becomes rounded regardless of the posi- 
tion of the injury. Of some 50 adult specimens measured, the 
maximum length of the body from snout to cloacal opening was 
153°™™, the average being 128.5™°*; the length of the tail of the same 
specimens averaged 41.1"™; and the total length, 169.6"™. The 
greatest diameter of these specimens varied from 5 to 7™™. 

There are apparently two distinct varieties of coloring, corre- 
sponding to the varieties nigra and pulchra. In the more common 
variety, nigra y which made up about two thirds of the total number 
of specimens examined, the dorsal side is of a dark purplish brown; 
and in the less common p'lilchra^ it is of a pale steel blue. In both 
varieties the color is uniform and extends on the dorsal surface for 
about one third the circumference of the body; that is, ten or eleven 
longitudinal rows of scales on the dorsal side are deeply pigmented. 
Adjacent to the pigmented scales on each side is a row of scales 
slightly paler than the dorsal ones. In some of the more deeply 
colored specimens, the row next but one to the unpigmented is 
slightly darker than any of the dorsal ones, thus giving rise to a 
lateral line of darker color. The ventral side is always very faintly 
colored; the individuals of the variety pulchra are slightly more of 
a cream color on the ventral side than those of the darker colored 
variety, which tend more to a decidedly yellow color. There is 
comparatively little difference, however, in the coloring of the ven- 
tral side. In the variety nigra the scales on the ventral side show 
very slight and delicate pigmentation on their lateral borders, but 
this is entirely wanting in the paler individuals. The ventral side 
of the head and neck is pigmented like the dorsal side but is not 
quite so dark. This pigmentation extends back in the median line 
for nearly twice the length of the mouth, but not so far laterally, 
and gradually passes over to the general color of the ventral side of 
the body. A small number of scales immediately anterior to the 
cloacal opening are likewise pigmented in some individuals. The 
scales on the ventral side of the tail are pigmented on their lateral 
borders, giving the effect of slightly irregular zigzag lines equal in 
number to the longitudinal rows of scales on the ventral side. The 
pigment of the dorsal side extends around the tip of the tail for a 
distance of a millimeter or two on the ventral side. 

There is no trace of an external ear, but the position of the audi- 
tory capsule in the skull is posterior to the specialized plates of the 

Co^ and Kwtkel — California Limbless Lizard. 363 

head. The eye ia rather elongated and may be closed by a lower 
lid which is covered by three scales, the middle one of which is the 

The scales covering the head are larger than those of the body 
and have a very definite position upon the underlying bones of the 
skull. The following are the most important peculiarities of the 
cephalic plat«s. The rostral plate (teit-figs. 9-11, r) is more or less 
pentagonal, and is in contact with the nasals by a long suture, and 
with the low anterior end of the first superior labial and the interna- 

Fig^orea 9-11. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral views of head, showing arrange- 
ment of scales ; /a, frontonasal ; fp, toned frontal and fruntoparietals ; if, 
flnit infralnbial ; t'li. first infsriOT labial ; ir, internasoloreal ; ip, interparietal ; 
II, nasal ; pa, parietala ; r, rostral ; s, aymphysial ; ic, second superciliary ; i.I, 
second saperior labial ; to, anproocnlar ; 3.;i, anperior preoonlar, x 4. 

Boloreals, which have a short common suture. The nasals (text-fig. 
10, «) are roughly rhomboidal with their apices directed posteriorly; 
they rest upon the first superior labials and are situated anterior to 
the second superior labials and internasoloreals. 

The nostril is small and elongated with its long asia oblique ; it is 
situat«d in the ventral and anterior portion of the nasal plate. 

The internasoloreals are laige and rectangular and meet in the 
middle line by a short suture which Is slightly oblique. They arc 
bounded posteriorly by the superior preocular and frontonasal (,fn), 
which is a large median plate, siibtriangular in form and somewhat 
wider than long. The superior preocular {s.p) is pentagonal, with 
its apex reaching the eye posteriorly ; it is in contact ventrally with 

364 Coe and Ku7ikel — California Limbless Lizard. 

the second superior labial {s.l) and tlie very small elongated inferior 
preocular, and dorsally with the frontonasal, the supraocular by a 
very short suture, and with the most anterior of the three small 
superciliaries. Posterior to the frontonasal is a single large hexago- 
nal scale, according to Cope (:00) probably the fused frontal and 
frontoparietals {fp)^ provided with a notch on its posterior margin 
to accommodate the small interparietal. The inferior preocular is 
situated ventrally with respect to the superior preocular. It is very 
small, linear or subtriangular in form with its base directed dorsally ; 
it is in contact on the ventral side principally with the third superior 
labial and sometimes also by a very short suture with the second 
superior labial. Out of more than 30 specimens examined, four were 
found in which the inferior preocular was absent and in two cases it 
was present on the right side only. 

The first supraocular (text-fig. 10, so) is triangular and situated 
posteriorly to the frontonasal and laterally to the large fronto-fron to- 
parietal. It is in contact also with the second supraocular poste- 
riorly, also with the superior preocular by a very short suture, and 
the first and second superciliaries. The second supraocular is rather 
small and elongated; situated dorsally to it are the fronto-frontopari- 
etal and the outer one of the parietals ; ventral to it are the second 
and third superciliaries ; anterior to it are the first supraocular and 
second superciliary, and posterior to it are the parietal and one of 
the postoculars. 

The three superciliaries form a series dorsal to the eye : the middle 
one {sc) is lozenge-shaped and higher than broad and separates the 
first and third, which are subequal; the first superciliary is elongated 
with parallel sides and is in contact with the superior preocular ante- 
riorly and ventrally; the third is slightly lower than the first and is 
bounded dorsally by the second supraocular and by the superior post- 
ocular posteriorly. 

Two squamiform subequal postoculars lie side by side in transverse 
series ; the inferior one is in contact ventrally with the fourth supe. 
rior labial ; the superior postocular is bounded anteriorly by the 
second supraocular and the third superciliary, and dorsally by the 
parietal. Posterior to these the regular squamation of the body 
proper begins. 

There are six superior labials which form a series bounding the 
mouth dorsally: of these the first is very low and situated ventral to 
the rostral and niisal plates ; the second [s.l) is the largest, about 
twice as long as high, subrectangular in shape and in contapt with 
the internasoloreals and superior and inferior preoculars dorsally ; 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 365 

the third is higher than broad and is bounded dorsally by the inferior 
eyelid, the anterior preocalar and the fourth superior labial; the fourth 
is sabrectangular, smaller but somewhat higher than the second and 
reaches the inferior eyelid ; it is in contact also with the postocular 
dorsally and posteriorly. The fifth and sixth are somewhat smaller 
than the others ; they are both squamiforra and scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished from the regular scales on the body in the same region. 

Lpng in the notch of the fronto-frontoparietal is the rhomboidal 
interparietal (text-fig. 10, e/>), which bears somewhat anterior to its 
centre the browspot, a pigmentless area of circular shape and indis- 
tinct outlines, whose diameter is equal to about one fourth the great- 
est width of the scale. It is bounded posteriorly by the occipital 
plate in the median line and the parietals. The occipital is rhomboi- 
dal in shape and smaller than the interparietal and parietals. Two 
subequal, rhomboidal parietals (pa) are arranged on each side in a 
transverse row posterior to the fronto-frontoparietal and the inter- 
parietal. Several rows of scales posterior to these are slightly larger 
than the body scales. 

On the lower jaw is a large symphysial plate (text-fig. 11, «) sub- 
hexagonal and equilateral. It is flanked by the first inferior labial 
{in), which is trapezoidal in form. Six inferior labials of gradually 
diminishing height form a series bounding the lower jaw medially. 
The second inferior labial is rhomboidal and of about the same size 
as the first. The fifth and sixth are considerably smaller than the 
others. Situated medially with respect to the inferior labials is a 
series of four infralabials. The first infralabials (if) are large and 
trapezoidal in form. They meet in the middle line and are bounded 
laterally by the first and second inferior labials; the second and third 
infralabials are oblong, about twice as long as broad ; the third is 
somewhat smaller ; and the fourth considerably smaller than the 
third. There is a second series of infralabials situated medially with 
respect to the first. The first scale of this series is broad and meets 
its fellow in the middle line by a long suture ; the second is some- 
what smaller and trapezoidal. Two squamiform scales somewhat 
larger than the regular scales of the body are situated posterior to 
the first infralabials of the second series medially. Posterior to these 
the regular squamation of the body begins. 

The scales of the body in the region of the neck are considerably 
narrower in an antero-posterior direction than those of the body 
proper. There are also several more longitudinal rows in this region 
to allow for the slightly larger diameter of the base of the head. 
The scales of the body (text-fig. 13) are very regular in size and 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 24 December, 1906 

366 Cot and Kniiket — California Limbless Lizard. 

shape, eubhexagonal or cycloidal and strongly imbricate and arranged 
in from ae to 32 longitudinal rows, 30 being the usual number ; the 
margins are entire and the surface smooth. 

There are five preanal scales (text-fig. 12), of whicb the median 
one is the longest and more or less wedge-shaped with its apex pos- 
terior. The lateral scales are subequal and lozenge -shaped. 

Some embryos just jirevions to the time of birth showed Beveral 
interesting variations from the adnit type. The interparietal plate 

Figare 13. ArrsD^ement of scales Figure 13. AmtDgement of scales of 

about cloHcal aperture of adult, x 4. bi>d7, seen from left side, x 4. 

of the embryo is much broader relatively than in the adult and the 
posterior margin of the fro n to- frontoparietal is more rounded in its 
contour than in the adult (pi. xi,ii, fig. 11). The interparietal 
also showed considerable variation in size, for in some cases it was 
not only relatively but also actually larger than in the adult. In a 
single embryo the parietal in contact with the interparietal on the 
right was replaced by three small cycloidal scales which occupied 
approximately the same space that the single parietal on the left did. 
Of these three the anterior was the largest and the posterior one was 
the smallest and overlapped the occipital more than did the parietal 
on the left. 

The position of the pineal eye with reference to the interparietal 
plate shows niueh variation in these embrj-os ; usually it is in the 
anterior portion, but it may lie centrally or even posteriorly. In the 
adult, on the iitlier hand, the pineal eye always lies entirely in the 
anterior portion. The eye can be seen clearly beneath this plate, for 
there is a circular nnpigmented area directly above it with a diameter 
about twice that of tlie underlying structure (fig. 10), so that the eye 
appears as a iicrfcctly black sp<)t surrounded by a pigmentless area 
which blends off into the general color of the dorsal side. 

Dvriiifil 0.'<s(/ii-nl/ijii''.—DeTiaii\ ossifications are strongly devel- 
oped, underlying each scale. Tliey are usually palmate in form 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 367 

with four or more rays and usually exhibit one or more foramina. 

ft ft 

Their outlines are irreorular. The ravs arise from a more or less 
Btont base and extend posteriorly (pi. xlii, figs. 15-19). 


Sktdl. — The skull of Aniiiella is, in a general way, conical, corre- 
sponding for the most part to the external form of the head ; pos- 
teriorly it extends beyond the differentiated cephalic plates. The 
cranium is broadest at the posterior portion of the fused parietals 
and supraoccipital which encloses the internal ear. Posterior to 
the broadest point the skull is more nearly hemispherical in form. 
The cranium is fairly well developed in comparison with the facial 
part of the skull. 

The premaxilla (pi. xlt, figs. 4, 5, and 6, pm) is single and bears 
four or five teeth, and has a large median process which extends 
posteriorly and dorsally and separates the two nasals ; the palatal 
portion bears posteriorly a slender median spine and two triangular 
processes. The latter are embraced externally by the maxiiiie. 
£ach maxilla (mx) bears usually six teeth, which are situated on a 
ledge on the inner side ; the facial portion is large; the maxilla is in 
contact with the premaxilla and nasal anteriorly ; the frontal, pre- 
frontal, nasal, and jugal dorsally ; with the supraorbital and ecto- 
pterygoid posteriorly, and with the palatine, ectopterygoid and 
vomer medially. The nasals (n) are rather large and separated 
anteriorly by the median process of the premaxilla. The facial 
portion of the maxilla and a slender process of the frontal lie exter- 


The frontals {/r) form a wifle entrant angle between the nasals 
posteriorly and, by a very small process, separate the nasals from 
the prefrontals. There is a small foramen on the external margin 
near the posterior end of the suture with the maxilla. Each pre- 
frontal (p) is bounded medially by the frontal and to a slight extent 
b}' the maxilia, ventrally and posteriorly by the orbit of the eye and 
supraorbital, anteriorly and ventrally by the maxilla. The poste 
rior end reaches the postfrontal ; the descending process is well 

Posterior to the prefrontal is the small postfrontal, which is 
crescentic in shape and is situated laterally to the frontal and 
parietal, the concave border fitting over the angle formed by the 
frontal and parietal at the coronal suture. The postorbital is very 
small and scale-like, attached to the outer and posterior aspect of 

368 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

the postfrontal. The frontals (fr) are large and separate. They are 
slightly separated posteriorly by an entrant angle of the fused 
parietals. Laterally are situated the prefrontal and postfrontal. 
The descending processes meet ventrally, enclosing the olfactory 
lobes. The parietals {pa) are fused and very large. There is no 
pineal foramen, but near the anterior margin is a cavity on the under 
side in which lies the pineal eye as has been described for Anguis, 
The parietal broadens posteriorly, although just behind the coronal 
suture it is constricted sharply so that the lateral angles overhang. 
Posteriorly the two lateral portions are prolonged considerably to 
fit externally to the supraoccipital ; in the median portion of the 
posterior edge of the parietal are several slender teeth for gomphosis 
with the supraoccipital {so). In one specimen there were four, as 
figured, but in others the lateral teeth had disappeared. Near the 
middle of the suture with the supraoccipital are two oval depressions. 
A short process of the outer and posterior end of the parietal rests 
on the petrosal and supports the anterior end of the squamosal. 
The parietal is in contact with the frontals, postfrontals, petrosals, 
squamosals, and supraoccipital. 

The supraoccipital {so) is large and is fused with the exoccipitals. 
There is a deep notch at the posterior margin dorsal to the foramen 
magnum. This bone is expanded considerably to accommodate the 
anterior semicircular canal. In each internal ear there is a single 
large lenticular mass of very white carbonate of lime, the otolith. 
The horizontal semicircular canal extends around the otolith medially 
and very nearly meets its fellow in the middle line. 

The vomers (tig. 5, vo) are separated anteriorly by the median 
process of the premaxilla. They are in contact with each other for 
about one half of their length but are separated posteriorly. The 
maxilhe and palatines lie externally to the vomers, immediately 
behind which the posterior nares open. There is a strongly devel- 
oj)ed longitudinal keel on each vomer which becomes more promi- 
nent posteriorly, and a foramen in the middle of each. 

The i)al:itines {pi) are sei)arated widely from each other by the 
vomers and are in contact also witU the maxillse, ectopterygoids, 
pterytj^oids, and prefrontals; they are short and, with the ectoptery- 
goids, enclose the anterior halves of the palatine foramina. £ach 
pterygoid (pt) is long and Y-sha])ed and encloses the palatine fora- 
men posteriorly. The outer limb of the Y is united with the ecto- 
pterygoid {cc) by a transverse suture; the posterior limb is the longest 
and extends medially to the quadrate. The median limb of the 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 369 

pterygoid articulates with the palatine. A short distance posterior 
to the union of the three limbs of the bone there is an articulation 
with a triangular process of the basisphenoid, called by Cope the 
basipterygoid process {h). The ectopterygoid forms a continuation of 
the outer limb of the pterygoid, fits into a notch of the posterior 
portion of the maxilla, and also sends a slender process, which comes 
in contact with the palatine, medially along the posterior margin of 
the maxilla. 

The basisphenoid (bs) is more or less triangular in shape with 
two lateral processes, the basipterygoids, articulating with the 
pterygoids. The lateral, posterior processes of the basisphenoid 
unite with the basioccipital. The basioccipital (bo) is large and 
bears a single, simple occipital condyle; in one of Baur's ('94) 
specimens the sutures between the exoccipitals and basioccipital, 
which enter into the formation of the condyle, could be distinguished. 
The basioccipital and basisphenoid are not co-ossified. The quad- 
rate (q) is more or less tri-radiate in form ; it lies external to the 
stapes («/), the columellar portion of which fits into a slight con- 
cavity on its posterior aspect. The ventral arm lies external to the 
pterygoid. The stapes is large, the tympanic portion thick and 
circular, the columellar portion short and stout. The petrosal, 
according to Cope, lies lateral and posterior to the parietal ; the ante- 
rior border is notched to receive the lateral borders of the parietal; 
the supraforaminal portion of the petrosal is produced to an acute 
angle, terminating at the parietal border much in advance of the 
anterior semicircular canal. The body of the petrosal is perforated 
by a large foramen just in front of the superior part of the quad- 

The jugal {j) is slender and somewhat curved, free at its distal 
end and united with the maxilla at the posterior facial portion. 
It bounds the orbit of the eye ventral ly and posteriorly. The 
squamosal (pi. xli, fig. 6, sq) is small and of irregular shape, flat 
and splint-like. It lies dorsal to the quadrate and stapes and exter- 
nal to the parietal, petrosal, and supraoccipital. The exoccipitals 
are fused with the basi- and supraoccipitals. The lachrymal is very 
small and in connection with the maxilla on the outside, and the pre- 
frontal on the inside. The supraorbital (s) is large and placed above 
the orbit anteriorly. The epipterygoid, mentioned by Cope, is very 
delicate and somewhat L-shaped. I could not determine its position, 
but found it in a thoroughly macerated skull. 

070 doe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard, 


The mandihle iw made up of tlie articular (fig. 7, a), augular, coro- 
nary (cor), dentary (fig. 7, dn and fig. 8), and splenial (sp). The 
articular is co-ossified with the supraangular. The angular is flat and 
8plintlike, situated on the external aspect of the mandible, external 
to the articular and dentary. Eight teeth are usually borne on the 
dentary. They are acutely conical, grooved on the inner surface 
and directed slightly backwards. -• 

The hyoid apparatus is, according to Cope, the simplest among the 
lizards: it consists of a continuous glosso-hyal rod, which is bifurcate 
posteriorly, and a simple branchihyal attached to each of the 
branches. The other elements are wanting (pi. xlii, fig. 12). 

Vertebral, — The vertebrae are procoelous. The presacrals vary in 
number from 71 to 74, and all have simple ribs attached except the 
first two. In a single specimen Baur found that there was a short 
rib present on one side only of the second vertebra. The neural 
spines are well developed and directed posteriori}' (pi. xlii, figs. 21 
and 22). No zygosphene is present on the cervicals, which are dis- 
tinguished by the presence of ventral processes. The processes 
diminish posteriorly, and that of the first vertebra is bilobed. The 
transverse processes arise from the anterior portion of the vertebrsB 
(fig. 19). 

There are four sacral vertebrae with no ribs attached, but with 
the transverse processes much developed. The first has a simple 
process directed slightly backwards; the second has the process 
split distally, the posterior prong being smaller and variable in posi- 
tion. The third has the same form as the second, but the notch at 
the extremity of the transverse process is deeper. It also shows the 
first indication of a chevron in the form of two parallel plates placed 
lengthwise on the ventral side of the centrum and not uniting dis- 
tally. In one s])ecimen these plates were wanting. The fourth is 
similar to the third but the chevron is complete. Baur ('94) found 
the chevron incomplete as in the [)receding and the splitting of the 
transverse process only on one side. The first caudal and all the 
succeeding have sim})le cau(]al ribs, diapophyses, directed anteriorly, 
and completely formed chevrons pointing posteriorly. The chevrons 
are situated at the i>osterior ends of the centra and not intercentrally. 
The transverse s]>litting of the vertebrje in the tail commences at 
the third caudal, A portion of the base of the transverse process is' 
included in the small anterior segment; the posterior segment is pro- 
ctelous (figs. 2:? and 24). The number of caudals varies. In one 
specimen with a moderately long tail there were 36. 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 371 

JRihs, — The ribs are slender, gradually tapering and curved (pi. 
XLii, tig. 13). Tbey increase in length to the tenth and then grad- 
ually diminish. The anterior ribs incline more posteriorly than the 
rest. The articular facet is triangular with the apex of the triangle 
directed ventrally. There is a single rounded notch at the middle 
of the base of the triangular facet, which is slightly concave. 
Posteriorly they become circular. The last two ribs are consider- 
ably shorter and slightly stouter than the rest. 

Pelvis. — The shoulder girdle is entirely wanting. The pelvic 
girdle is very rudimentary and is represented solely by a pair 
of somewhat flattened, rod-like bones (pi. xlii, tig. 14) attached 
by ligaments to the extremities of the transverse processes of the 
second sacral vertebra and extending medially and anteriorly in 
front of the cloacal aperture. The anterior ends of the pelvic 
rods are not constant in the degree to which they approach each 
other, but they never come in contact. Each presents a slight trian- 
gular process on its ventral and inner side about one third the dis- 
tance from the anterior to the posterior end. Baur states that he 
found in a macerated skeleton that the girdle was differentiated into 
an ilium, ischium, and pubis, but in a careful study of the adult and 
in sections of late embryos I have been able to tind but a single bone 
and have seen no indication whatever of more than one center of 
ossification. Baur also found an obturator foramen, which does not 
appear in my preparations. Serial sections of the embryos and 
adalts showed a simple cylindrical rod of cartilage with rounded 
ends situated in the middle line ventral to the bladder and anterior 
to the pelvic bones. It probably represents the epipubis. 

III. — Urogenital Organs. 
W. R. Coe and B. W. Kunkel. 

PI. XMii, figs. 25, 26 ; PI. xliv, figs. 27-32 ; PI. xlv, figs. 33-37 ; PI. xlvi, 

figs. 38-48; Text-figs. 14, 15. 

The material on which these studies were made was collected at 
Pacific Grove, California, during the months of August and Septem- 
ber, 1901. At this time of the year the female lizards give birth to 
their young. Some of the females collected had already discharged 
their young while others still carried embryos, all of which were in 
an advanced stage of development. Some of the embryos, however, 

372 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard, 

represented a much later period of embryonic life than did others, 
so that we have been able to follow the later development of the 
copulatory and other reproductive organs through their final stages 
of development and to compare them with the similar organs of the 
newly-born young and with those of the adult. We are therefore 
unable to give any account of the earlier stages of development 
either of the reproductive organs or of any of the organs of the 

The most striking feature of the well-advanced embryos is the 
possession of a pair of very conspicuous copulatory organs, which 
project from the sides of the cloacal opening and strongly resemble 
a pair of limbs. When most prominent these appendages project 
from the ventral side of the body for a distance fully one third as 
great as the diameter of the body itself in the same region. They 
are then gradually withdrawn into the cloacal aperture, and at the 
time of birth are fully concealed beneath the lips of this opening. 
Such appendages occurred in all embryos of a certain stage of 
development, and were apparently as conspicuous in females as in 

It was to study the structure and subsequent fate of these organs 
in both sexes that our studies were undertaken. This led naturally 
to an examination of the other reproductive organs of the adult 
animals, and in this connection a number of interesting peculiarities 
in which these lizards differ from others have been revealed. Some 
of these peculiarities are briefly described in«two preliminary papers 
already published (Coe and Kunkel, : 04 and : 05), but are here 
given in greater detail. 

In the following accoimt of the urogenital organs, including the 
peculiar structure of the two cloacal chambers and the copulatory 
organs, most of the details of structure will be omitted except where 
peculiarities are described which are different from those of the 
closely related European limbless lizard, Anguis, and other lizards. 
For a general treatise on the anatomy of Aiiguis the reader is 
referred to the admirable accounts given by Leydig ('72) and Braan 

7hst€s and Sperm Ducts, 

As is the rule in the lizards and many other reptiles, the right 
genital gland is situated more anteriorly than the left, so that the 
right genital duct is the longer. In Anniella the right testis is 
usually about its own length in advance of the left (pi. xlvi, fig. 38). 

Coe and Kunkd — CcUifornia Limbless Lizard. 373 

These glands are in life creamy white in color and are situated at 
an average distance of about 3*^™ anterior to the cloacal aperture in 
the adult lizards. Each gland is oval in shape, of regular outline, 
about 5"™ in length when mature and about half as wide. The 
tubules of which it is composed are loosely coiled, and can be seen 
with a hand lens, the connective tissue tunic being much less firm 
than in many lizards. 

At the anterior end of the testis the tubules enter a verv fine, much 
convoluted duct, forming the epididymis, which passes forward as 
far as the adrenal body, and then bends abruptly backward, passing 
along the lateral face of the testis to join the vas deferens. 

The vas dpferens is likewise much convoluted. It receives the 
epididymis on the lateral border of the testis, and, with many con- 
volutions in its anterior half, passes back to open at the summit of a 
longitudinal ridge or papilla situated on the dorsal wall of the dorsal 
cloacal chamber (pi. xlv, fig. 35, v.d) a little in advance of the open- 
ing of the ureter, as will be described below. The opening of 
the vas deferens into the cloaca is guarded by a strong sphincter of 
circular muscular fibers (pi. xlv, fig. 35), the contraction of which 
also raises the posterior end of the ridge on which the opening is 
situated into a prominent papilla. This papilla is doubtless greatly 
enlarged at the time of copulation. 

The epididymis is lined with a single layer of flattened or cuboidal 
cells, while the vas deferens has a lining of a single layer of colum- 
nar cells, and these increase in height toward the posterior end of 
the duct. 

Ovaries and Oviducts. 

As is the case with Angiiis and numerous other lizards, Aiuiiella is 
ovoviviparous, usually giving birth to two well formed young at each 
breeding season. These young are very vigorous and active from 
the moment of their birth. Externally they resemble the adults in 
almost every particular except as to size and in some cases color, for 
all the young appear to be of the gray or silvery variety, while the 
adults exhibit two well marked color varieties as described on the 
preceding pages. 

The genital glands of the female are situated in a position similar 
to those of the male, but are considerably larger. Their size natur- 
allv varies directlv with the increase in size of the ova as the time 
approaches for the discharge of the eggs into the oviducts. As a 
rule the right ovary is slightly larger than the left, although in all 
probability both produce an equal number of eggs. 

374 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

Since only one egg is usually matured in each ovary at each breed- 
ing season, as a rule one ovum in each ovary is distinctly larger than 
the others. The ovary is irregular in shape, conforming to the 
uneven arrangement of the larger and smaller ova, so that this gland 
is naturally smallest immediately after the discharge of its one large 
ovum. We are unable to state the time of year when such discharge 
takes place or the actual size or appearance of the egg on reaching 
the oviduct. As will be described below, the left oviduct is aborted 
and functionless in all of the individuals which we have examined, 
so that both the eggs discharged from the ovaries must enter the 
right oviduct. 

Microscopic sections of the ovary indicate that the ova develop 
in a manner quite similar to that described for Lacerta by Hoffmann 
('89). The conspicuous zona radiata of the partly developed ovum 
is surrounded by a single layer of smaller cells, each of which is 
very similar to the egg itself. Among these smaller follicular cells, 
as well as on their internal and external faces, are minute nuclei of 
cells which form a sort of capsule for the follicular cells. As the 
ovum increases in size and acquires more yolk, the follicular cells, 
which were previously so very similar to the ovum itself, become 
gradually smaller and more numerous. Their function is evidently 
to elaborate food materials which pass through the zona radiata to 
the ovum. The presence of a capsule about the follicular cells indi- 
cates that they are merely degenerate ova which contribute their 
food materials to the support of the single ovum which reaches 

Oviducts.-r-The most striking peculiarity of the oviducts is the fact 
that the right oviduct only is capable of receiving the eggs discharged 
from the ovaries, and it is, therefore, in the right alone that the 
embryos develop. In every one of the numerous females examined 
the left oviduct was much aborted, seldom exceeding a few milli- 
meters in length (pi. xliii, figs. 25, 20) and entirely incapable of per- 
forming its normal functions. 

The riffht oviduct is very similar to one of the oviducts of Anguis 
and other lizards. When without eggs it is a long slender tube, 
exhibiting numerous convolutions in its anterior half, and extending 
forward anterior to the ovary. Its anterior end usually lies near the 
posterior end of the liver, and opens into the body cavity by a large, 
funnel-shaped opening (pi. xliii, figs. 25, 26, o) as in other lizards. 
This terminal ostium is su])ported by strong mesenteries, forming the 
broad ligament, and commonly lies several times its own length in 
front of the ovary. 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 375 

The ostium leads into a narrow, much convohited tube which 
passes backward on the lateral face of the ovary. If there are no eggs 
or embryos in the oviduct this tube retains an almost uniform diameter 
throughout its whole length. It opens posteriorly at the summit of 
a small papilla (pi. xlv, fig. 34, g»p) situated on the ventral wall of 
the dorsal cloacal chamber, as described below. When eggs or 
embryos are present, however, the oviduct swells out to form a broad 
uterine sac in the region occupied by them. 

The exact shape and size of the egg in life has not been carefully 
noted, the drawing on plate xliii having been made from a specimen 
after preservation. In this specimen (fig. 26), and in several others 
similar, the two eggs occupied almost the whole length of the uterus 
between the ovary and the anterior end of the kidney. The eggs 
were separated from each other by a marked constriction in the uter- 
ine wall, and the wall was similarly sharply constricted both in front 
of the eggs and behind them. Each of these eggs was long and 
elliptical, but was decidedly narrower in the middle than toward the 

Left oviduct — As stated above, the left oviduct remains through 
life in a very rudimentary condition and even atrophies to such an 
extent that it reaches in adult females a length scarcely exceeding 
that of the kidney, as shown in figs. 25, 26, pi. xuii. The average 
length is about 20"*™, but varies widely in different individuals even 
when sexually mature. In a single specimen the length was 40™°*, 
and in another equally large specimen it was but 15™". These were 
the limits of variation, but these extremes are much greater than is 
the case of any other organ. This condition would indicate a very 
recent degeneration of this functionless oviduct. 

A consideration of the condition of the oviducts in Anguis and 
other reptiles further emphasizes the fact that we have in this organ 
in Anniella a much more advanced stage of degeneration than occurs 
in any other reptile, while the degeneration is along the same lines as 
in the large number of reptiles in which the left oviduct presents 
various degrees of diminution in size as compared with the right. 
Lacerta and most other lizards have the left oviduct more or less 
conspicuously shorter and smaller than the right, corresponding with 
the different position of the two ovaries. 

This aborted oviduct is slender and cylindrical, and is of about the 
same diameter throughout. At its anterior end, however, it usually 
bends on itself sharply and either ends abruptly (pi. xliii, fig. 25) or 
extends for a millimeter or two farther as a very narrow tube with 

376 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard, 

one or two sharp turns (pi. xLiii, ^g. 26). It is supported anteriorly 
by a delicate mesentery which runs forward toward the ovary in the 
position which the oviduct would occupy if it were fully developed. 

We found it difficult to determine whether this aborted oviduct in 
all cases opens into the body cavity. In the case noted above, where 
it was exceptionally long, such an opening could be distinctly made 
out. Several shorter oviducts, however, were so small and delicate 
at their anterior terminations that serial sections failed to show 
clearly whether a minute ostium was present or not. 

It should be emphasized, however, that this left oviduct corre- 
sponds closely in shape, position and general appearance with that 
terminal portion of the right oviduct which lies posterior to the 
uterus. Its histological structure, too, is practically the same, for it 
is provided with an abundance of compound tubular glands (pi. xlv, 
fig.. 37). These glands extend through about two thirds of the 
thickness of the wall of the oviduct, and discharge their secretions 
into its lumen by means of rather large ducts. The epithelial lining 
of the oviduct consists of medium-sized columnar cells, which become 
more or less cuboidal in the glands themselves. In the posterior 
portions of the oviduct the glands increase so greatly in number and 
complexit}^ as to form an almost continuous layer beneath the epithe- 
lium of the lumen. Toward the posterior openings of the oviducts, 
however, the glands disappear, the lumen becomes much smaller, 
and a distinct layer of circular muscles is formed outside the epithe- 
lium of the lumen. 

The aborted oviduct thus appears to have retained in some measure 
its secretory function, even though it is of little importance in the 
economv of the bodv. Like manv structures which show evidence 

fr •■ •- 

of recent degeneration, this rudmientary organ exhibits a very con- 
siderable variation in length and size in different individuals. While 
its average length is about equal to that of one of the kidneys, yet 
in several instances it has been found to be much shorter, and in the 
single case referred to above it was considerably longer than usual, 
and had a distinct anterior ostium. It is conceivable that in an 
exceptional case it might actually remain of sufficient size to receive 
and support an i.'g^. 

The o])enings of both oviducts are side by side on the summit of a 
pair of closely united ])apilla0 situated in the median line of the body 
on the dorsal side of the thick horizontal partition separating the 
dorsal from the ventral cloacal chambers (pi. xlv, fig. 34 and pi. 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 377 

XLVi, fig. 40). These will be described in detail below. In the 
papilla itself the lumen of the oviduct is much reduced in size. 

It should be noted that in the Closely allied Anguis both oviducts 
are well developed, and both bear an approximately equal number 
of embryos, some 15 to 20 young being produced in a single season 
(Leydig, '72, p. 180). In Amphisbaena both oviducts are likewise 
of about the same size (Bedriaga, '84, p. 67), as is also the case in 
Anops 2iXi^ Trogonophis (Smalian, '85, p. 191). 

It is to be remembered that it is the left oviduct which is aborted 
in AnniellOy while in birds it is the right which has degenerated even 
more completely. In numerous reptiles the left oviduct is shorter 
than the right, but so far as we can learn retains its normal functions 
in all lizards except Anniella. 


The cloaca in Anniella is made up of three more or less well 
demarcated chambers, of which two constitute the anterior portion 
of the cloaca and the third the posterior portion. The two anterior 
chambers are separated by a thick horizontal partition (pi. xlv, fig. 
35, A), so that one of them lies directly dorsal to the other. We 
shall therefore refer to these three chambers as ventral, dorsal, and 
posterior (u.e, c?.e, and /).<?, pi. xlvi, fig. 40). 

The ventral cloacal chamber {pi. xlv, fig. 35, vx) is a narrow tube 
with rather thick muscular walls. Its mucosa is thrown up into 
high longitudinal ridges so that the lumen of the tube is compara- 
tively small. It leads from the opening of the large intestine, 
described in a preceding chapter, to the posterior cloacal chamber. 
The urinary bladder enters this chamber by a narrow opening in its 
ventral wall near its anterior end (pi. xlvi, fig. 40, bl). The colum- 
nar epithelium lining this tube is not very diflPerent from that of the 
large intestine. 

The dorsal cloacal chamber is a rather large space lying directly 
dorsal to the thick horizontal partition which separates it from the 
ventral chamber. On the walls of this cavity the openings of the 
ureters, Wolfliian, and genital ducts are situated. 

In the male, as described above, the sperm ducts open on the 
summit of a pair of longitudinal ridges (pi. xlv, fig. 35, v.d), situated 
on the dorsal surface of the chamber. The ureters open directly 
posterior to them. 

378 Goe and Kitnkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

In the female the conditions are somewhat more complex, for the 
oviducts have their openings close together on the summit of a pair 
of closely united ])apillfe which are situated on the dorsal wall of the 
horizontal ]>artition and thus on the r€?ifral wall of the dorsal cloacal 
chamber (pi. xlv, fig. 34). In some individuals the papillae extend 
backward and project slightly beyond the j)OSterior end of the parti- 
tion, so that their tips are visible when the posterior chamber is 
opened. In most cases, however, such is not the case, the tips of 
the papillae being hidden from view by the horizontal partition. 
Although in ordinary cases a pair of such papillje is present, yet the 
state of contraction of the parts may be such that both oviducts lie 
very close together and apparently form but a single papilla. Each 
of the oviducts is surrounded by a firm layer of circular muscular 
fibers, which are nearly as well developed in the left as in the right 
oviduct, although the lumen of the left is usually smaller than that 
of the right. 

The ureters, on the other hand, open on the dorso-lateral aspect of 
the dorsal chamber very much as in the male. Their openings are 
thus widely separated from those of the oviducts, although both lie 
in a frontal plane passing through the posterior extremity of the 
horizontal partition (pi. xlv, fig. 34, u). Thus the openings of the 
ureters really lie on the boundary between the dorsal and pos- 
terior chambers. 

The posterior cloacal chamber is about as wide and as deep as it 
is long; its walls are very distensible and are commonly thrown up 
into fairly distinct longitudinal folds. Its epithelial lining is com- 
posed mainl}' of large, clear mucous cells, the nuclei of which are 
situated in the bases of the cells and appear to be irregularly 
arranged in two or more layers. The opening of this chamber to 
the exterior is guarded by strong circular muscles, and when con- 
tracted its epithi^lial lining shows conspicuous longitudinal folds 
(j)l. xLVi, figs. 40-43). 

The general relations of the cloacal chambers and the ducts open- 
ing therein are shown in text-figures 14 and 15 for both embryo and 
adult female. In the ideal sagittal section of the cloaca of the late 
embryo (text-fig. 14), the ureter (u) and the Wolffian duct ( W.d) 
both open directly into the dorsal cloacal chamber (d,c) somewhat 
laterally, while the oviduct (od) is indicated by dotted lines as it 
opens on the dorsal side of the thick horizontal partition (A) very 
near the median line of the body. The ventral cloacal chamber (v.c) 
is very broad and directly continuous with the narrow rectum (r). 

\nd Kiijikel — California Limbless I,iz(trd. 


In the adnit female (text-fig. 15) the horizontal partition Bejiaratlng 
the dorsal from the ventral chamber iovian a broad shelf and the 
oviduct {od) opens near its free poeterior margin, instead of at its 
base as in the embryo. 

Figure 14.— Ideal it^pttsl section of cloaca of female embryo ; bl, bladder ; 
eg, cloaoal gland ; d.c, doisal chamber ; h, horizontal pai'tition betiveeii cloacnl 
ebaatbers ; k, kidne; ; od, oridact; ji.c, posterior cbamber; r, rectnin ; u, are- 
ter; «', divenicnlum of nreter; t.c, ventralchamber; tr.if, Wolffian dnct. x 14. 

Figure 15.— Ideal sagittal 
M in preceding figure, x 7 

of cloaca of adnit female. Reference letters 

The copulatory organs in both sexes are situated in the posterior 
wall of the posterior cloacal chamber, as described below, and well- 

380 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

developed anal glands pour their secretions into it near its external 


The kidneys are elongated oval bodies, about 9 to 12™" in length, 
and 3 to 4'"™ in width. Thev are much flattened dorso-vent rally 
and slightly concave ventrally and convex dorsaily to correspond 
with the curvature of the body wall against which they lie. They 
are situated dorsal to the rectum, which they approximately equal 
in length. They also lie somewhat obliquely in the body, their pos- 
terior ends coming nearly in contact in the median line, while their 
anterior ends are somewhat more widely separated. 

The posterior end of each kidney (pi. xliii, figs. 25, 26, k) lies 
very near the dorsal wall of the cloaca, so that the ureter, which 
passes along the whole length of the median face of the kidney, is 
a very short tube. 


From the median faces of the kidneys the ureters pass directly to 
the dorsal cloacal chamber, where they open slightly posterior to the 
openings of the genital ducts. In the male the sperm ducts open on 
the dorsal wall of the cloacal chamber, so that the openings of the 
ureters lie directly posterior to those of the sperm ducts; whereas in 
the female the oviducts open on the ventral wall of the dorsal cham- 
ber, so that these two sets of openings are separated by the dorso- 
ventral diameter of this chamber. 

Immediately before opening into the cloaca, each ureter has a 
small diverticulum (pi. xlv, fig. 35, u) which passes anteriorly paral- 
lel to the uterer and close beside it for a short distance, and ends 
blindly (text-figs. 14, 15). 

The openings of the ureters are near the lateral borders of the dor- 
sal wall of the cloaca, and well separated from the median line. The 
oviducts, on the other hand, open close together near the median line, 
as de^icribed above. Osawa ('98) describes a similar relation in 
ILdterla. Leydig ('72), however, has the relative position of the 
openings of oviducts and ureters in Anguis the reverse of that 
found in Anindla, 

Tho position of the openings of the ureters relative to those of 
the i>:enital ducts is considerably different in the two sexes. In the 
male these oj)enings are situated on the summits of the urogenital 
pai)ilhe immediately ])osterior to those of the genital ducts (pi. xlv, 
tigs. '35, 3G), while in the female they retain a similar position as 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 381 

regards the cloacal chambers but are separated from the openings of 
the oviducts, as described above, by the lumen of the dorsal cloacal 
chamber (fig. 34). The openings differ further in the two sexes in 
that those of the male open on papilljB, the urogenital papillsB, while 
those of the female do not. 

Urinary Bladder. 

This organ lies on the ventral side of the rectum and although 
its opening into the anterior end of the ventral cloacal chamber is in 
the median line, yet its main portion usually lies on the right side of 
the rectum (pi. xliii, tigs. 25, 20: pi. xlvi, tig. 38). In but a single 
individual out of upward of twenty which were examined was the 
bladder situated on the left side of the rectum, and in no case did it 
lie in the median line. 

Its walls are thin, and were collapsed in every individual examined. 
In no case did the bladder contain any appreciable amount of fluid. 

In length it is usually soniewhat less than that of the rectum and 
its diameter about one fourth as great as that of the rectum, so that 
in shape it is a rather slender cylinder slightly larger at the rounded 
blind anterior end than elsewhere. 

Wolffian Ducts. 

The Wolflian body is highly developed in the half-grown embryos 
and the Wolffian duct becomes of considerable size. This duct, as 
is well known, later forms the genital duct of the adult male, while 
in the female of most animals it degenerates and disappears. In 
Anniella, however, as in certain other lizards, it persists throughout 
life in females as well as in males, although in the former it is 
apparently quite functionless. 

In the adult female this tube follows closelv the. course of the 
ureter, but is situated a little more ventrallv and nearer the median 
line (pi. XLv, fig. 34 W.d). It is lined with a low columnar epithe- 
lium. Its lumen is narrow and completely filled with a clear homo- 
geneous secretion which taltes the ordinary plasma stains with avidity. 
The orifices by which these Wolffian ducts open into the cloaca are 
very inconspicuous, and can be distinguished only by means of serial 
sections. Even with these it is difficult to determine that actual 
openings are present, for the lumen of the tube becomes obliterated 
near its opening into the cloaca. 

These openings in the adult female (pi. xlv, fig. 34) lie closely 
anterior to the openings of the ureters into the cloaca. Thus in 
cross sections of the body of the female in the region between the 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 25 December, 1906. 

382 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard, 

kidney and the openings of the ureters into the cloaca, three 
pairs of tubes are to be observed (pi. xlv, figs. 33, 34); situated 
most dorsally and most widely separated are the ureters, lined with 
rather tall columnar epithelium; rather close to these but ventral and 
nearer the middle line appear the very small Wolffian ducts, and 
very close to the middle line and considerably ventral are the two 
oviducts with the large racemose glands opening into their lumens. 
The relations of the ducts opening into the cloaca in the late embryo 
and the corresponding relations in the adult are shown in text- 
figures 14 and 15. 

Cloacal Glands, 

Conspicuous racemose glands are situated in a crescent-shaped 
mass on the ventral and lateral faces of the posterior cloacal chamber 
immediately anterior to the cloacal aperture, and extend dorsally 
and posteriorly as a pair of narrow horns which form a nearly com- 
plete ring about the posterior cloacal chamber (pi. xliv, figs. 27, 28). 

They are conspicuous in both sexes, but appear to be much more 
highly developed in mature males than in females or in young of 
either sex. 

They consist of two more or less distinct varieties of glands, of 
which one type apparently secretes a serous fluid and the other a 
distinctly mucous fluid. 


The serous glands consist of a single pair of oval masses of 
racemose acini situated immediately dorsal to the spiral groove 
which passes along the border of the phallus and discharge their 
secretions by a ])air of short ducts opening at the bases of the phalli. 

The mucous glands are much more extensive and are situated on 
tlie ventral side of the grooves leading to the phalli and on the 
ventral side of the posterior cloacal chamber. They are likewise of 
a racemose form and open by several ducts through the ventral wall 
of the cloaca in close relationship with the phallus grooves. The 
glands coiitit)ne much farther anteriorly than those of the serous 
ty})e, extending forward as far as the openings of the sperm ducts 
and ureters. In their posterior portions the mucous glands are 
situated lateral) v to the cloaca, but more anteriorly those of the 
two sides aj)])n)ach beneath the cloaca and eventually unite into a 
sinsrle mass beneath this chamber. This median mass constitutes 
the body of the crescent ic mass referred to above, while the paired 
posterior portions make up the horns of the crescent. 

From their high state of development it is obvious that these 
cloacal glands must jday an important part in the economy of the 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 383 

body. Their function is doubtless in large measure connected with 
the reproductive processes. At the time of copulation the secretion 
of a great amount of serous and mucous fluids at the base of the 
phalli and into the cloaca in the male doubtless facilitates the trans- 
fere ntje of the spermatozoa to the cloaca of the female. A further 
discharge of fluids on the part of the female might conceivably aid 
the spermatozoa in reaching the anterior cloacal chamber, from 
whence they enter the right oviduct to fertilize the two eggs which 
may be discharged therein. 

Copulatory Organs. 

One of the most striking features of all embryos at a well advanced 
stage of development is the presence of a pair of conspicuous projec- 
tions from the lateral borders of the cloacal aperture. When well 
developed they have an appearance strikingly suggestive of a pair 
of rudimentary hind limbs. These projections, however, are the 
copulatorj'^ organs, or phalli, as they are termed by Gegenbaur, 
which in these and certain other lizards develop primarily as exter- 
nal appendages, and which about the time of birth are withdrawn 
into the cloaca. Until near the time of birth there appears to be no 
marked distinctions between the phalli of the two sexes. After birth 
those of the male increase in size to become the highly specialized 
copulatory organs of the adult, while those of the female remain in 
a rudimentary condition, although they are retained throughout life. 

When withdrawn into the cloaca the phallus is tubular, with a 
narrow lumen, and extends from the posterior-lateral borders of the 
posterior cloacal chamber backward parallel with the vertebral 
column, as in other lizards. The minute structure and development 
of the phalli have been described by Unterhossel (: 02) for several 
snakes and lizards, including Anguis /rffgilis, which latter presents 
conditions very similar to those found in Amuella. 

In well-advanced embryos of Annidia the two phalli project from 
the cloacal aperture for a distance more than one third as great as 
the diameter of the body in the same region (pi. xliv, figs. ao-n^). 
They appear as a pair of stout plugs extending from the lateral bor- 
ders of the cloacal aperture, from whicli they are directed ventrally 
and laterally, and then bend anteriorly (])1. xliv, figs. 27, 28). 

Each phallus bears a spiral groove along its ])Osterior and outer 
borders (pi. xliv, fig. 27, g)y which extends to the somewhat swollen 
distal end of the organ, where it ends between two glandular pits. 
This groove is very narrow and deep, and passes directly from the 

384 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

lateral borders of the cloacal opening. Proxinially it occupies the 
median and posterior borders of the phallus, but ascends spirally 
toward the summit, making a turn of nearly 180° (pi. xliv, fig. 3*2). 
A cross section of the phallus near its proximal end shows that the 
groove is not radial in position but nearly tangential, cutting into the 
body of the organ very obliquely. The bottom of the groove is con- 
siderably broader than the superficial portion. In certain reptiles 
the groove is so broad at its bottom as to become T-shaped or even 
anchor-shaped in cross section. Toward its distal end, however, the 
groove becomes shallower, and situated more nearly radially (pi. 
XLIV, tig. 29). The phallus is somewhat swollen distally, and is ter- 
minated by a broad, flattened face, across which the spiral groove 
continues as a shallow depression (pi. xliv, fig, 32). This depression 
divides the terminal face of the organ into two practically equivalent 
portions, in each of which is situated a conspicuous pit-like depres- 
sion of somewhat irregular shape, which may be called the terminal 
pit (pi. xliv, figs. 29, 32, t,2>)' 

These terminal pits are much more conspicuous in the embryos 
than in the retracted phallus of the adult male, so that we do not 
ascribe to them any very important function. In the embryos the 
pits are glandular in structure, but in the adult they are lined with 
stratified epithelium not very diflPerent from that which covers the 
body of the phallus. Since the phalli arise as outgrowths from the 
lateral borders of the cloacal aperture, they are covered externally 
with ectodermic epithelium continuous with that of the outside of 
the body, as shown in pi. xliv, fig. 27. The ectoderm of the phalli, 
however, is naturally much thinner and more delicate than that form- 
ing the scaly covering of the body, although it is made up of strati- 
fied scaly epithelium. The deeper cells of this epithelium form a 
well marked Malpighian layer, while the superficial scaly cells are 
reduced to one or two lavers. 

The phallus is redrawn into its position posterior to the cloaca by 
means of two retractor muscles, the larger of which — the retractor 
phalli magnus — extends quite to the distal end of the organ, where it 
is inserted immediately beneath the two terminal pits. By the con- 
traction of this muscle the terminal portion of the phallus is redrawn 
into the more proximal by a })rocess of invagination similar to that 
of the invagination of the finger of a glove. The epithelium which 
covers the j)hallus in its everted condition thus comes to occupy the 
center of the invaginated or retracted organ, and forms the lining 
of a slender tube extending throughout its length. This tube extends 
far behind the cloacal aperture and lies parallel with the longitudinal 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 385 

axis of the body and directly internal to the superficial or ventral 
musculature of the anterior portion of the tail. The posterior end 
of the tube is divided into two cup-like terminal sacs (pi. xlvi, fig. 
39, tp)y representing the two terminal pits of the everted phallus. 
To these terminal sacs is attached directly the large retractor muscle. 
The main portion of the central tube of the phallus is extremely 
irregular in outline, due in part to the presence of the spiral groove 
and in part to the fact that the invagination takes place on the inter- 
nal and median borders of the organ to a much greater extent than 
on the lateral border. 

In transverse section of the retracted phalhis the spiral groove 
appears as a deep slit varying greatly in outline and position at 
different points throughout its length. At its proximal end it con- 
tinues directly into a conspicuous groove which passes along the 
latero-ventral wall of the posterior cloacal chamber, and thus, when 
the phallus is everted in the act of copulation, the genital fluid is 
conveyed from the cloaca to the spiral groove of the phallus and 
thence to the cloaca of the female. 

The ectodermic lining of the retracted adult phallus is, as stated 
above, composed of stratified scaly epithelium continuous with that 
of the outer covering of the body. The superficial scaly cells, how- 
ever, are reduced to one or two inconspicuous layers, so that it closely 
resembles irregularly stratified columnar epithelium. The scaly cells 
are sloughed off from time to time and collect in masses in certain 
portions of the lumen of the retracted phallus, particularly in the 
two terminal sacs, which in some cases are completely filled with 
these discarded scaly cells. 

The tissues of the phallus both in the retracted and in the everted 
condition are permeated with large, irregular, anastomosing blood 
spaces, forming a sort of erectile tissue, which, when distended with 
blood, causes the rigidity of the organ and aids in its eversion. 

The musculature consists of the retractor phalli marpius described 
above as extending from well back in the tail to the very distal end 
of the phallus, where it divides into two portions which are attached 
directly beneath the two terminal sacs or glands ; and of a short 
retractor basalts which is attached to the lateral border of the basal 
portion of the phallus. These muscles arc similar to those described 
by Unterhossel {:02) for several reptiles. A third muscle of small 
size — the rectus phalli— conned^ the basis of the phallus with the 
neighboring muscles of the cloacal aperture. 

From its everted condition it is easy to understand the manner in 
which the retractor muscles cause the invagination or retraction of 

386 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

the phallus, but the mechanism byi which the retracted organ is 
everted is much less readily understood. 

Situated immediately lateral to the phalli are very strong semi- 
circular muscles (pi. xlvi, fig. 39, cm) arranged in a single band 
between the phalli and the longitudinal caudal muscles which form 
an irregular layer beneath the integument of the tail. As suggested 
by Unterhossel (:02, p. 578), these muscles when contracted are 
capable of exerting a very considerable pressure on the posterior 
portions of the phalli and thereby initiate the process of eversion of 
the organs. 

The retractor basalis muscles may aid to some extent in the pro- 
cess of eversion as well as in drawing back the organ after its full 

The withdrawal of blood from the sinuses of the rigid, everted 
organ allows it to return to a comparatively small size, after which the 
retractor magnus invaginates the organ to its ultimate position pos- 
terior to the cloaca. 

Although the phalli of the female remain in a rudimentary condi- 
tion throughout life, they are in this sex apparently functionless and 
quite incapable of being everted. 

At the time of copulation the phalli are doubtless everted, as has 
been witnessed in other forms, and inserted into the cloaca of the 
female. The spiral groove with which each phallus is provided then 
leads directly from the cloaca of one animal to that of the other. 
A slight elevation of the urogenital papilla, on which the opening of 
the sperm duct is situated, would bring this opening in close prox- 
imity to the base of the s])iral groove. An abundant discharge of 
fluids from the cloacal glands would furnish a ready vehicle by which 
the spermatozoa ejected at the base of the groove might pass along 
the length of this canal to the cloaca of the female, whence the 
right oviduct is the ultimate destination of such as are to fertilize 
the two eggs which will develop therein. 

IV. — Braix and Pineal Apparatus. 
B. W. Kunkel. 

PI. XLi, figs. 1-;J ; PI. XLVi, tigs. 44 and 45 ; PI. xlvii, figs. 46-51 ; PI. xlviii, 

figs. 52-54. 

The brain of AnnieUa, like that of the reptiles generally, possesses 
well developed cerebral hemispheres and a comparatively small cere- 
bellum. The brain on the whole is rather elongated and compressed 

Coe and Kunkel — Calif oniia Limbless Lizard. 387 

The olfactory lobes (pi. xli, figs. 1, 2, 3, olf) are of regular 
ovoid shape, about twice as long as broad. The olfactory nerves 
come off from the anterior end in a ring of a diameter about one 
half that of the lobes. The lobes are closely applied to each other 
in the middle line except at the extreme anterior end, where they 
taper more abruptly. 

The cerebral hemispheres ( are very large and very much 
elongated. These are also ovoid in form with the greatest diameter 
at the posterior end. The cerebral hemispheres are differentiated 
from the olfactory lobes by a marked constriction which, however, 
allows of a rather wide connection between the two. 

The thalamencephalon is very small and is almost completely con- 
cealed by the neighboring parts of the brain. The pineal body is 
more or less pear-shaped and lies with its broad end directed posteri- 
orly and dorsally between the posterior ends of the cerebral hemi- 
spheres. A mass of blood vessels forming the choroid plexus of the 
third ventricle overlies the structure and is enclosed in the same 
mass of connective tissue with the epiphysis, so that superficially 
only a single structure is seen. On the ventral side of the thalam- 
encephalon is a well developed infundibulum (/>*) with the pituitary 
body attached distally. The anterior portion of the infundibulum is 
marked by four or five longitudinal folds which produce a corre- 
sponding number of scallops on the anterior end between two rather 
prominent ridges with rounded anterior ends, from which the optic 
nerves proceed. These lateral ridges continue into the ventral sides 
of the optic lobes. The infundibulum is of a regular conical form, 
with an axis somewhat shorter than the diameter of the base. The 
apex of the cone is marked by a slight depression with a longitudi- 
nal slit at the bottom of the cup marking tlie attachment of the 
pituitary body. The pituitary body is not represented in the figures. 

The optic lobes (o./) are rather small and placed very close 
together in the middle line, the two forming a more or less hemi- 
spherical mass. From the exterior their paired nature is only slightly 
indicated. Apparent!}' this compression is due to the great develop- 
ment of the internal ears, which lie slightly posterior and dorsal to 
this part of the brain and approach each other very closely on the 
dorsal side. 

The cerebellum (ch) is ver}- small and has the form of a transverse 
ridge lying posterior to the optic lobes, somewhat shorter than the 
diameter of this portion of the brain, and overhanging the anterior 
portion of the fourth ventricle. The medulla {^nul) is large and is 

388 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

characterized especially by its strong ventral flexure and the relative 
straightness of the ventral side in a transverse section. 

From a superficial examination of the brain without the use of 
sections, the anatomy of the thalamencephalon cannot be ascertained 
at all because of the blood vessels and the large amount of connective 
tissue which form a thick sheath about the organ on the dorsal side. 
A large blood vessel (pi. xli, fi*^. 1, h.ij) is often found leading from 
beneath the anterior end of the pineal body to the region of the 
pineal eye, which resembles very closely the pineal stalk or nerve as 
figured by Spencer (*86) in several instances. Sections have proven 
bevond a doubt that in the late embrvos and adults of Annie/la this 
"stalk" is simply a blood vessel. In other specimens in which this 
vessel was not distended with blood it was scarcelv noticeable. 


Although several facts of more or less interest have been noted in 
this region of the brain of Anniella, which have not been described 
for any other lizard, the pineal body is very similar to that of the 
closely related Anr/iiis which has been carefully described by Fran- 
cotte ('96), Beraneck ('67), and others. 

Sagittal sections of the head of a number of very late embryos 
from 45 to TO"*'" in length and of several adult individuals have fur- 
nished the material for studying with some degree of accuracy the 
anatomy of this part of the brain. The thalamencephalon is very 
much compressed laterally and the third ventricle is a rather narrow 
cleft extending dorso-ventrally between the optic thalami. The 
lateral walls of this region are in the form of a pair of more or less 
ovoid masses of nervous tissue with their long axes nearly horizontal. 
These two masses, the i/anglia linhejiuliPy or optic thalami, form 
protuberances dorsally just beneath the posterior ends of the cerebral 
hemispheres. The superior and posterior commissures in the embryos 
at hand are ])laced very close together, being separated by a very 
inconspicuous mass of cells apparently similar to the ordinary molec- 
ular cells of the adjacent parts of the brain. The posterior is some- 
what the thicker of the two and is situated ventrally and posteriorly 
with respect to the other. Both lie in the dorsal and ])OSterior part 
of the lateral wall of the thalamencephalon. The roof of the third 
ventricle is non -nervous in nature ; a single layer of cells similar 
in general appearance to the ependyma forms ah irregular much sac- 
culated covering, the post velar arch of Minot (;01), or the "Zirbel- 
polster" (pi. xLvii, fig. 47, e) and the paraphysis (/>y). Both 

Coe and Kunkel — Ca lifoTn ia L im bless Lizard, 389 

of these lie in the middle line, the post velar arch immediately 
behind the paraphysis, and separated from the latter by only the 
velum transversum (v.t). These evaginations are somewhat con- 
stricted at their bases but become slightly wider distally, forming 
long tubular sacs. The velum hangs down from the dorsal wall of 
the ventricle in a transverse position and bears a commissure {c.a) 
at its free distal end. 

The exact significance of this commissure has not yet been deter- 
mined. There can be but little doubt that w^hat has here been 
termed the velum transversum is actually that structure. The velum 
has a position immediately posterior to the paraphysis and anterior 
to the post velar arch throughout the Vertebrate series, v. KupflPer 
('9«3) figures a sagittal section of the brain of a four weeks embryo 
of Arlpefiser which shows this relation. De Graaf ('86a) does the 
same for Triton. In the lizards this structure is also described by 
Burckhardt ('94) in an embryo Lacerta. A similar structure is 
shown but not named in a number of Baldwin Spencer's drawings 
of the epiphysis of adult lizards. Francotte ('88) gives photo- 
micrographs of sagittal sections of the brain of Anguis which show 
the velum and the structure runninii: alone: its distal marorin very 
much as in Anniella, but he does not mention the commissure in his 
description. The only reference we have seen to a commissure in 
this situation is by Rabl-Rttckhard ('81), who finds in the brain of 
Psanimos( turns terrestris such a structure Ivins: immediately behind 
the connection between the third and the lateral ventricles, the fora- 
men of Monro, and having the form of a small bundle of fibers 
stretchino: across the narrow cavity of the third ventricle and lyins: 
upon the dorsal surface of the optic thalami. Habl-Riickhard con- 
siders it to be a rudiment of the posterior portion of the fornix and 
homologous with the transverse tract of fibers of the same. As 
Rabl-Riickhard has no figure of the structure in question, it is impos- 
sible to be certain about the homolosrv, but from his rather brief 
description this commissure corresponds closely with the rudiment of 
the fornix and will be so designated for the present. 

The post velar arch is a simple unbranched tubular sac which 
extends slightly posteriorly and dorsally and lies immediately in 
front of and in partial contact with the epiphysis. The cells (pi. xLvr, 
fig. 44, e') forming this sac are slightly diflPerentiated from the epen- 
dyma cells (fig. 45, e) in shape and staining qualities, being more 
nearly cubical and exhibiting nuclei which do not stand out as sharply 
from the cytoplasm as in the ependyma proper. The cytoplasm is 
rather denser and the nuclei do not take the nuclear stains so readily. 

390 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 

Paraphysis. — The paraphysis, or choroid plexus of the third ven- 
tricle (fig. 44, ;)//) is in general similar to the post velar arch, but 
diflPers from the latter by becoming more branched distally and more 
tubular in shape. It extends dorsal to the post velar arch and back- 
wards till it lies over the epiphysis (fig. 48, py). The epithelium of 
this sac resembles the ependyma more than do the cells of the previ- 
ously mentioned region, but in general the cells of the paraphysis are 
larger and the nuclei are arranged more regularly (fig. 44, py). 

The two cavities of the post velar arch and paraphysis are appar- 
ently unconnected, although from a close study of sections it is 
possible that there is a very small secondary opening between the 
two near the distal end of the post velar arch. 

Epiphysis. — The epiphysis (ep) of Aiuiiella is very similar in 
structure to that of Angnis. It is a hollow oval vesicle of somewhat 
larger size than the pineal eye, but showing considerable variation in 
extent. It is situated in the middle line and is inclined posteriorly 
so that although the whole structure lies behind the posterior com- 
missure, its long axis, produced ventrally, passes between the superior 
and the posterior commissures. The epiphysis thus rests upon the 
anterior part of the o})tic lobes in the middle line and in the posterior 
portion of the pineal body as a whole. 

The form is quite regularly oval and the walls are pf uniform thick- 
ness throughout, so that the cavity of the vesicle is also quite 
regular. In several of the series of sections examined, the cavity of 
the epiphysis exhibited, near the distal end on the anterior side, a 
slight depression as if a portion of the vesicle had been pinched off. 
Tbis scar resembles quite closely that figured by Klinckowstrom 
('93) in lijuaiui at the point where the pineal eye is cut off from the 
pineal body in the development of the organs. The epiphysis and 
neighboring parts are all supplied by large blood vessels and held in 
})l:ice by a great amount of connective tissue which gives the pineal 
bodv its characteristic external form. 

Histologically the epiphysis resembles very closely the pineal eye 
devoid of pigment (fig. 40, ep). It is made up of several la^'ers of 
cells, of which the iuneruiost are tall, slender columns with oval 
nuclei toward their outer ends. At the bases of these tall columnar 
cells is an irregular row or two of closely packed oval nuclei. 
Kxternally is a single layer of more cuboidal cells, very similar to 
those of the ])ineal eye, possessing s])herical nuclei which stand out 
verv clearly, being well separated from each other. The free borders 
of the innermost layer of cells show numerous cilia-like processes 

Coe and Kunkd — California Limbless Lizard, :191 

similar to those in the cavity of the pineal eye. Whether these 
processes are really cilia or not is rather difficult to determine. In 
the preparations studied, they were rather irregular in length and 
somewhat tapering in form instead of being uniform in diameter like 
true cilia. The cavity of the epiphysis contains, also like the pineal 
eye, a coagulum in the form of a loose network. The epiphysis is 
entirely closed in late embryos and in the adult, and its cavity exhib- 
its no structural connection with either that of the brain or of the 
pineal eye. This also corresponds to what has been determined for 
Anguis by Francotte ('96). 

In median sagittal sections of the thalamencephalon the posterior 
and superior commissures are seen lying close together a short dis- 
tance in front of the optic lobes, the superior being the smaller and 
situated dorsally. The epiphysis is a hollow oval body lying entirely 
separate from the brain proper except for the connective tissue 
sheath around it. The cavitv of the third ventricle is extended 
dorsally as a iingerlike evagination, the post velar arch, reaching as 
far as the dorsal limit of the epiphysis and lying in contact fre- 
quently w^ith the anterior wall of the latter. The velum trans versum 
bangs down from the dorsal wall of the third ventricle in front of 
the "Zirbelpolster" and bears at its ventral edge a commissure cor- 
responding probably with the rudiment of the fornix described by 
Rabl-Rflckhard ('81). Immediately in front of this the evagination 
of the paraphysis passes dorsally and posteriorly and extends dorsal 
to both the post velar arch and epiphysis. The cerebral hemispheres 
lie in front of the paraphysis. Projecting from the roof of the 
ventricle immediately in front of the opening of the paraphysis is a 
portion of the ependyma which supports the choroid plexus of the 
lateral ventricles. 

Pinetil Eye, 

As in a large number of other lizards, the presence of a pineal eye 
is indicated on the exterior bv a scale which is differentiated to form 
a kind of "cornea." In AnnieUn it is the interparietal plate which 
bears an unpigmented area in its central portion, beneath which the 
deeply pigmented pineal eye is visible (pi. xlii, fig. 10). Usually, 
in the adult at least, the eye is situated in the anterior j>ortion of the 
plate in the middle line, but in some of the embryos at hand it lies 
more posteriorly. The unpigmented area is circular in outline, 
although its outline is not absolutely definite because of the gradual 
disappearance of pigment from the browspot. The eye has a diame- 
ter of about 0.2"'" and the unpigmented area a diameter approxi- 
mately twice as great. 

302 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard, 

Apj)arently in the specimens examined, the eye in the paler variety 
{^pulchra^ was not as clearly seen as in the darker variety (nigra)^ 
in which the pigment seemed to be much more completely removed 
from the " cornea." 

As in all lizards probably that possess a pineal eye, the skin is 
firmly attached to the underlj'^ing bone in this region. Spencer {'c6) 
mentions that this peculiarity is constant, even in those forms in 
which the parietal organ is exceedingly rudimentary. The parietal 
bone over the pineal eye has the appearance of being etched when 
examined with a hand lens. Sections through this region (PI. xlvif, 
fig. 49) show the presence of rather stout, straight connective tissue 
fibers (c.^) which pass in a vertical or slightly oblique direction 
completely through the bone and are continuous with the fibers in 
the dermis. The laminae of the bone (/>«), which elsewhere are 
very prominent, are interrupted and obliterated by these fibers. 

There is no parietal foramen, but the fused parietal bones contain 
an excavation on the under side in which the pineal eye lies. This 
pit is in the middle line, near the anterior margin. There is a 
slight bulging corresponding to the pit on the dorsal side and around 
the depression internally is a marked thickening, so that the pineal 
eye lies in a cavity much deeper than the average thickness of the 
bone in that region. Careful measurements of the bones in one 
specimen showed that the elevation around the pit had a thickness 
nearly five times that of the parts of the parietal bone adjacent and 
eight times that of the bony cap over the foramen. The pit is 
elliptical in shape, with its long axis parallel to the axis of the lizard 
and of about twice the lenjjfth of the short axis. 

The pineal eye is situated at the bottom of the pit, pressed against 
the parietal bone dorsally. It is somewhat more flattened in the 
adult than in the embryo. Keraneck ('87) has noted that in Anguis 
the cavity is somewhat smaller in older embryos than in young ones, 
and althouixh this has not been observed in the material examined, it 
seems ]H*obable that the flattening of the eye in the adult may be of 
the same significance. The eye is slightly smaller than the pit, so 
that there is a considerable space surrounding it which is filled with 
a much vacuolated tissue (r), similar to that described by Spencer 
for Anolis and Aft'/niity consisting of a loose network of fibers and 
large vacuolated cells containing very little cytoplasm. 

In the embryos studied, in which the cranial cartilages were only 
partially laid down and were entirely absent in the region of the 
pineal eye, this organ was situated in the ventral portion of the 

Coe and KunJcel — California Limbless Lizard, 393 

dorsal wall of the bead, embedded in connective tissue and separated 
from tbe cranial cavity by a thin, slightly diflPerentiated layer of the 

With relation to the brain, the pineal eye has a position just dorsal 
to the constriction which marks the boundarv between the cerebral 
hemispheres and the olfactory lobes (fig. 51, pin). Because of the 
length of the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior inclination of 
the epiphysis, Anniella shows a much wider separation between the 
pineal eye and epiphysis than any other lizard. 

In shape, the pineal eye is a much flattened circular vesicle, the 
axis of rotation of which is vertical. The diameter of the vesicle is 
from 0.18 to 0.20"^™ and the thickness 0.06 to O.OT'"'". 

The blood vessels in the region of the parietal eye show very great 
variation. In some specimens the blood supply is Aery inconspicuous 
while in others there is a very much distended vessel extending along 
the mid-dorsal line of the brain, from the choroid plexus of the third 
and fourth ventricles anteriorly to a point just ventral to the pineal 
eye (fig. 50). Here it forms a distinct enlargement and breaks up 
into a number of branches which in general are distributed over the 
surface of the brain in this region, between the cerebral hemispheres 
and the olfactory lobes. A small branch also enters the vacuolated 
tissue surrounding the pineal eye. Just at the point of this vessel's 
breaking up into its terminal branches, it presses into the pit in a 
semicircle and becomes somewhat enlarged. Notwithstanding its 
similarity in outward appearance to a stalk connecting the pineal eye 
and the epiphysis, sections show conclusiA'ely that it is a blood vessel. 
It seems quite possible that some of the parietal nerves shown in 
Spencer's drawings of the pineal eye of a number of lizards, may 
be nothing but blood vessels, and that in this respect his figures are 

The hollow vesicle, forming the eye, may be differentiated into 
two quite distinct parts, which, liowever, are perfectly continuous, as 
Francotte ('87) andBeraneck ('81) have shown in the papers already 
^lentioned for Anguis, and not discontinuous, as de Graaf ('8b) has 
figured them. 

Retina, — As mentioned above, the pineal eye and especially its 
retinal portion, shows a structure very similar to that of the epiphysis. 
The quantity of pigment, however, obscures the details somewhat, so 
that the structure cannot be so certainly ascertained. Externally is 
a single layer of cuboidal cells with rather large nuclei. These cells 
contain less pigment than the inner retinal layers, so that they are 

394 Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard, 

frequently \evy distinct, forming an oatside wall to the vesicle. As 
far as could be made out through the pigment, in the polar region 
there is a sintjle layer of rather tall columnar cells with nuclei situ- 
ated in the basal portions of the cells ; in the equatorial region, 
however, where the wall of the vesicle is somewhat thicker than 
elsewhere, the increased thickness is due to an intermediate laj'er of 
cuboidal cells between the outermost layer and the columnar cells. 
This middle layer is rather irregular, but the presence of pigment 
interferes considerably with the accurate determination of the struc- 
ture. The pineal eye of Amiiella (pi. xlviii ) and Anguis, accord- 
ing to the beautiful photomicrographs of Francotte ('88), show 
striking similarity. Francotte describes three layers of cells in the 
retina of Auf/ftis as follows : 1, an outer layer of cuboidal cells 
forming the external wall ; 2, a layer of spherical cells on which the 
rods rest ; and 3, a layer of fusiform, ciliated rods lining the vesicle. 
In the specimens at hand there was so much pigment present that 
the second la^'er could not be distinguished except in the equatorial 
region. Francotte's figures of A?if/uis show the retina almost free 
from pigment, there being only a little at the inner ends of the 
columnar cells next the cavity, so that the three layers are very 
clearly shown. Because of the general similarity in other respects 
of these closely related forms, A^iguis and Aiuiiella, this may be the 
structure of the s])ecimens examined, but so obscured as not to be 
determinable. The columnar cells are not ciliated, although in 
nearly ever}'^ case a coagulum, in the form of a network having the 
appearance of cilia, is found in the cavity ventrally in contact with 
the retina. 

Differing from Anguis, the pineal eye of Aiwiella exhibits a 
marked thickening of its wall in the equatorial region. In some 
cases the wall is twice as thick here as in the ventral portion of the 

The pigment is present in the retina as fine granules of fairly 
uniform size, packed together to form irregular masses. In general 
it is concentrated principally along the lateral cell walls. In the cell# 
of the lower pole it is more abundant than in the equatorial region 
and occupies juactically the entire thickness of the retinal wall w^ith 
the exception of the outermost layer of cells, and even here some 
pigment is often found. The equatorial region of the vesicle con- 
tains less pigment than the rest of the retina, and it is confined 
princij)ally to the middle part of the columnar cells. In a ring sur- 
rounding the lens there is a large quantity of pigment, forming 
quite a distinct frame for the lens. 

Coe and Kunkel— California Limble^ Lizard, 395 

Lens. — The lens, while perfectly continuous with the retina, is 
strikingly differentiated from it by the absence of pigment. It lies 
on the side of the eye toward the exterior, and while the retina 
becomes more heavily pigmented in the course of its development, 
in many respects the two exhibit some similarity in structure. 

The cells of the lens, in contrast with those of the retina, are less 
dense in nature, more homogeneous, and free from pigment. Strahl 
and Martin ('88) describe pigment in the lens of A?if/uis, but this 
has not been substantiated by other investigators. Essentially, there 
is the same arransrement as in the rest of the eve, a laver of fairlv 

<7 V ' ft' ft 

tall columnar cells toward the cavitv and a rather irreornlar laver of 
shorter ones on the outside. Francotte describes in the lens two 
layers of fusiform cells, which probably correspond to the single 
layer which has been found here in Afuu'eiia. The cells arc some- 
what more slender and longer than in the retina, and the nuclei 
apparently are more crowded and elongated and occupy more nearly 
the central portions of the cells, although fnquently a nucleus is 
found pushed to one end or the other. External to the columnar 
cells is an incomplete layer of cuboidal cells, smaller than the corre- 
sponding ones in the retina and much more irregularly disposed, not 
forming apparently a continuous layer. These cells are not at all 
numerous and can be distinguished from the columnar ones onlv bv 

^y ft. w 

the spherical nuclei, the cell outlines of all the cells being somewhat 
indistinct in these preparations. Beraneck's ('87) description of the 
histological structure of the eye in Anguis agrees with that of 
Anniella verv closelv. 

ftr ft 

The lens is biconvex ; peripherally it has the same thickness as 
the retina surrounding it, and is in perfect continuity with the latter. 
The curvature of the two surfaces is usuallv different. The dorsal 


surface corresponds in curvature to that of the vesicle on the ventral 
side, so that ordinarily there is no bulging dorsally. Occasionally, 
however, there is a slight increase in the convexity of this part. On 
the ventral side, toward the cavitv of the eve, there is considerable 

7 ft- ft' ' 

variation in the curvature, as may be seen in tigs. 5J-54. In one ur 
two cases the convexitv of the two sides of the lens was the same, 

ftr ' 

but usually the inner surface was more strongly convex, forming a 
decided protuberance on the dorsal side of the cavity. The cell walls 
facing the cavitj' in general are delicate, so that the coagulum in 
contact wnth the cells has somewhat the appearance of streaming out 
from the cells. 

Projecting into the cavity of the eye from the free ends of the 
columnar cells of the lens are numerous processes quite similar to 

396 Co€ aud Kiuikel — California Limbless Lizard. 

cilia but diflPering from typical cilia in their more irregular and some- 
what tapering form. In Beraneck's figures of the developing pineal 
eye, the internal borders of the cells of the lens are provided with a 
" hyaline substance," forming an irregular layer of about the same 
thickness as the layer of processes just mentioned in Anniella, and 
it is likely that these processes are simply the coagulated " hyaline 
substance" of Beraneck ('87). This author states that both lens 
and retina secrete a substance which tills up the cavity. In nearly 
all cases the cavitv contains some material in contact with the cells 
of the lens and polar region of the retina ; that in contact with the 
inner side of the lens has an appearance that resembles cilia, while 
that from the retina is more of a loose reticular structure. 

In summing up the characters of the pineal apparatus and related 
parts of the brain, Afniiella has been found to agree very closely 
with Anguis in practically all essential points. The pineal eye is 
more widely separated from the epiphysis than in Auguis, In late 
embrvos and adults- there is no connection between the pineal eve 
and the ej)iphysis. The paraphysis of Anniella is rather more tubu- 
lar and longer than in Aftguis. The epiphysis is inclined posteriorly 
and dorsally, while in Anguis the distal portion is inclined anteriorly, 
almost at right angles to the ])roximal portion. The superior and 
posterior commissures are very closely related topographically to each 
other, and extend between the posterior portions of the ganglia 
habenuhe. In front of the epiphysis the post velar arch is very 
much elongated to form a tubular sac. Projecting ventrally from 
the doi*sal side of the third ventricle immediately in front of the 
post velar arch is the velum trans versum, along the dist<il margin of 
which is situated the commissure, which is a rudiment of the fornix. 
The paraphysis is a long tubular branched sac extending dorsally and 
posteriorly from the roof of the third ventricle, immediately in front 
of the velum. 

It has not been deemed necessary to mention the numerous papers 
which have a}>peared ujK)n this very interesting portion of the brain, 
because of the most excellent resume of the literature and discussion 
of the results of investigations by Gaupp ('97). 

Sheffield Biological Laboratory, May, 11)05. 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limhlesa Lizard. 397 

Baur, G. 

'94. The Relationship of the Lacertilian Genus Anniella, Gray. Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 17, p. 845-851. 

▼. Bedriaga, J. 

'84. Amphisbsena cinerea und A. Strauchi. Arch. f. Naturgesch., 50, p. 

28-77, pi. 4. 

Beraneck, E. 

'87. Ueber das Parietalange der Reptilieu. Jen. Zeitsch. f. Natnrw., 21, p. 

374-410, pi. 22, 23. 

Boulenger, G. A. 

'85. Cat. Lizards. British Mas., 2d edition, 2, p. 299, 800. 

'87. Descriptions of New Reptiles and Batrachians in the British Mnsenm. 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 20, p. 50-53. 

Bratm, M. 

'77. Das Urogenitalsystem der einheimischen Reptilien. Arbeit, zool.-zoot. 

Inst. Wttrzburg, 4, p. 113-228, pi. 5-10. 

Burckliardt, B. 

'94. Die Homologien des Zwischenhirndaches bei Reptilien nnd VOgeln. 

Anat. Anz., 9, p. 320-324. 

Ck>e, W. JL and Kunkel, B. W. 

:04. The Reprodactive Organs of the Limbless Lizard Anniella. American 

Naturalist, 38, p. 487-490. 

: 05. The Female Urogenital Organs of the Limbless Lizard Anniella. Anat. 

Anz., 26, p. 219-222. 

Cope, E. D. 

'64. On the Characters of the Higher Groups of Reptilia Sqnamata and 

especially of the Diploglossa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1864, p. 


'92. The Osteology of the Lacertilia. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 30, p. 


: 00. Crocodilians, Lizards, and Snakes of North America. Rep. U. S. Nat. 

Mus. 1898, p. 153-1270, 36 pis. 

FiBcher, J. Q. 

'85. Ueber eine Kollektion Reptilien nnd Amphibien von der Insel Nias, 

nnd uber eine zweite Art der Qattnng Anniella, Gray. Abhandl. Nator- 

wiss. Ver. Hambai*g, 0, 10 pp., 1 pi. 

Fleischmaiin, A. 

: 02. Morphologische Stndien Qber Kloake nnd Phallns der Amnioten. Unter- 

hossel, P., Die Eidechseo und Schlangen. Morph. Jahrb., 80, p. 541-581 , 

pi. 8. 

Francotte, P. 

'87. D^veloppement de T^piphyse et dn troisi^me Oeil chez les Reptiles. 

Bull. d. r Acad. roy. d. Belg., ser. 3, 14, p. 810-840, 1 pi. 

'88. Recherches sur le Developpement de T^piphyse. Arch. d. Biol., 8, p. 

757-821. pi. 39, 40. 

Tbans. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 26 December, 1906. 

Vjfi Co€ fjtud Kuj^k^l — California LimbltM Lizard. 

Franootte, P. 

*96. Ckmtribntion a l^nde de TOeil parietaL de I'^iphjse et de U P«r»- 
physe cLfz les Lacertilienfe. Mem. Cour. Acad. roy. d. Belg., 55), 48 pp.. 


'OT. Zirbel. Pari eta] orj^^an, und Parapbysis. Ergebn, d. Anmt. u. Entwick., 
7, p. 30fe-2«>. 

'Sd. Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst., 18S5, Part 1. p. 75*^801. 
daOraa^H. W. 
^86. Beitr&ge zur KenntuiBs Tom Bac nnd der Entwieklong der E^pfayse bei 

Amphibien uud Reptilien. Leiden. 
'86a. Zar Anatomie and Entwicklong der Epipbyse bei Amphibien nnd 
Beptilien. Zool. Anz.. 9, p. lW-194. 
Gray, J. E. 
'52. iHrftcriptions of Beveral new Genera of Beptiles from Collecticn of H. 
M. S. *' Herald." Ann. and Mag. Xat. Hist., aer. 2, 10, p. 440. 
Hoffxnaiiii, C. K. 
'89. Zar EntwicklungHgeKchichte der Urogenitalorgane bei den Bep<Ulien. 

ZeitftcLr. I. wiKs. Zool., 48, p. 260-300, pi. 17. 18. 
'90. Uro-genital Organe. Bronn's Thier-reich, 6, Abt. 3, p. 924-965. 
de KUnckowstrom, A. 

'93. Le premier D*'Telop]>ement de VOeil pineal, T^^piphyee elle Nerf parietal 
cbez If^uana taberenlata. Anal. Anz., 8, p. 289-299. 
V. Kupffer, C. 

'93. Stadieu zor verglt'iehendeu Eutwicklangsgesehiehte des Kopfea der 
Kranioten. Heft. 1. Die Entwicklang des Kopfes von Acipenser Stario. 
Leydig, F. 
'72. Die in DeatfK'hland lebenden Art en der Saorier. 262 pp., 12 pis. Tafiin- 
Minot, C. 8. 

:01. The Morphology of the Pineal Region, based on ita Development in 
AcantbiaH. Am. Jour. Anat., 1, p. 81-98. 
Osawa, G. 
'98. Nacbtrag zrir Lebre von den Eingeweiden der Hatteria punctata. Arch. 
f. raikr. Anat., 61, p. 704-794, pi. 23-2"). 
Babl-Biickhard, H. 

'81. Uebf-r das Vorkomnien eineH Fomixradiments bei Reptilien. Zool. 
Anz.. 4, p. 281-284. 
V. Seiller, B. F. 

'91. Ueber die Znngendriirten von Angnis, Psendopns, and Lacerta. Ein 
Beitrag zur Kenntiiiss der einzelligen Drusen. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., 38, 
p. 177-2f>4, pi. 10-13. 
Smalian, C. 

'85. Beitra^^e zur Anatomie der Ampbisbaeniden. Zeitschr. f. wias. Zool., 
42, p. 120-20:i. pi. Sand 6. 
Spencer, W. B. 
'86. On tliH Presence and Structure of the Pineal Eye in Lacertilia. Qtiar. 
Jour. Mirr. Sci., 27, p. 165-238, pi. 14-20. 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard. 


Strahl, H. and Martin, E. 

'88. Die Entwiokelang des Parietalauges bei Angiiis nnd Lacerta. Arcb. f. 
Anat. n. Physiol., 1888, Anat. Abt., p. 146-163, pi. 10. 
UnterhOssel, P. 
:02. Die Eidechsen nnd Schlangen, in: Fleiscbmann, A., Morpbologiscbe 
Stndien Uber Kloake nnd Phallns der Amnioten. Morpb. Jabrb., 30, p. 
541581, pi. 8. 
Van Denbnrgh, J. 

'97. Reptiles of the Pacific Coast. Occas. Papers Calif. Acad. Sci., No. 5, 
Anniella, p. 115-119. 



a articnlar. 

ad adrenal body. 

6 basipterygoid. 

hi bladder. 

ho basioccipital. 

hs basispbeuoid. 

h.v blood vessel. 

c cseonm. 

c.a mdiment of fornix. 

c.h cerebellnm. 

cd.m candal mnscle. 

eg cloacal gland. 

c.h cerebral hemisphere. 

cl cloaca. 

cm constrictor mnscle. 

cor coronary. 

c.p posterior commissnre. 

c.s snperior commissure. 

c.t connective tissue fibers. 

d dermis. 

d.c dorsal cloacal chamber. 

dn dentary. 

e ependyma. 

e post velar arch. 

e.a epiphysial apparatus. 

ec ectopterygoid. 

ed epidermis. 


fr frontal. 

f.v fourth ventricle. 

g oblique groove of phallus. 

g.h ganglion habenulae. 

g.p genital papilla. 

h horizontal partition between cloa- 
cal chambers. 
1 intestine. 
in infundibulum. 

J jugal. 

k kidney. 

I lymphoid tissue. 

l.od left oviduct. 

l.ov left ovary. 

in muscles. 

md medulla. 

mx maxilla. 

n nasal. 

o ostium. 

o.l optic lobe. 

olf olfactory lobe. 

p prefrontal. 

pa parietal. 

p.c posterior cloacal chamber. 

pg pigment. 

ph phallus. 

j)in pineal eye. 

pi palatine. 

jmi premaxilla. 

pt pterygoid. 

pij paraphysis. 

q quadrate. 

r rectum. 

r.m retractor muscle of phallus. 

r.od right oviduct. 

r.ov right ovary. 

s supraorbital. 

so supraoccipital. 


Coe and KitnJcel — California Limbless Lizard. 

sp splenial. 

sq squamosal. 

st stapes. 

t testis. 

t.p terminal pit of phallns. 

u nreter. 

u' diverticulum of ureter. 

ut uterus. 

V vacuolated tissue. 

17. e ventral cloacal chamber. 
v.d vas deferens. 
vo vomer. 
vr vertebra. 
v.t velum transversum. 
W.d Wolffian duct. 
II optic nerve. 
V trigeminal nerve. 
VII facial nerve. 

Figs. 1-3. 

Figs. 4-6. 




Brain of adult ; dorsal, lateral, and ventral aspects respectively. 
The blood vessel {b.v) extending in the groove between the cere- 
bral hemispheres (ch) is shown in a very distended condition 
with its branches ramifying over the union of the olfactory lobes 
( olf) and cerebral hemispheres just beneath the pineal eye. The 
optic chiasma and the scalloped anterior edge of the infundibnlnm 
( in ) are shown in fig. 3. The cranial nerves with the exception 
of the first, second (II), fifth (V), and seventh (VII) are not 
shown. X 7. 

Skull of adult from dorsal, ventral, and lateral aspects respectively. 
In fig. 4, internal to the ectopterygoid are seen the two minute 
bones, the postf rontal and postorbital. x 7. 

Left mandible seen from the right side, x 7. 

Dentary bone of right mandible seen from the left side, showing the 
shallow grooves on the recurved teeth, x 15. 


Fig. 9. Dorsal view of anterior end of 70""' embryo, showing the large 

interparietal plate with the pineal eye. x 8. 
Fig. 10. Interparietal plate and pineal eye of adult, x 20. 
Fig. 11. Interparietal plate of embryo 60""" long, x 20. 
Fig. 12. Hyoid apparatus, x 8. 
Fig. 13. Rib from left side, posterior aspect, x 17. 
Fig. 14. Left pelvic bone from dorsal side, x 17. 
Figs. 15-18. Dermal ossifications from scales of cervical region, x 17. 
Fig. 19. Thoracic vertebra seen obliquely from above and right side, showing 

the transverse processes at the anterior end of the centrum, x 17. 
Fig. 20. Same vertebra seen from doi-sal side, x 1 7. 
Fig. 21. Second cervical vertebra from anterior end. x 17. 
Fig. 22. Same vertebra from right side, x 17. 
Figs. 23, 24. Anterior and posterior segments respectively of one of the caudal 

vertebrae seen from the side, showing the "breaking joint." 

X 17. 

Coe and Kunkel — California Limbless Lizard, 401 


Fig. 25. Urogenital organs of adnlt female from ventral side, showing both 
ovaries (r.ov and l.ov) perfectly functional and of the same size, 
and the left oviduct {^Lod) very rudimentary. The cloaca is 
represented as if transparent so that the position of the openings 
of the dacts and the horizontal shelf separating the dorsiU and 
ventral cloacal chambers are shown, x 3. 

Fig. 26. Urogenital organs of adult female from ventral side, showing a 
slightly different form of the aborted left oviduct and also two 
^gs with developing embryos (uf, ut') in the uterine portion of 
the right oviduct, x 3. 


Fig. 27. Sagittal section of 60°"" embryo in the region of the cloaca through 
the phallus, showing the large retractor muscle of the phallus 
{r.m) and the large blood spaces (6.r). The oblique groove {g) is 
also shown in part. One of the cloacal glands is shown at {eg). 

Fig. 28. Transverse section of ^bryo of same length, x 47. 

Fig. 29. Transverse section of terminal portion of phallus of embryo of same 
length, showing the glandlike pits on the distal end (f.p), the 
oblique groove (g), and blood spaces (6.r). x 47. 

Fig. 30. Portion of ventral surface of 50°"" embryo shortly before birth, 
showing the phalli projecting from the lateral borders of the 
cloacal aperture and the oblique groove and terminal pits with 
which each is provided, x 18. 

Fig. 31. Portion of ventral surface of another embryo 70'""' long, showing 
slightly different form of phalli, x 14. 

Fig. 32. Slightly different aspect of phalli of another individual, x 20. 


Fig. 33. Transverse section through cloacal region of adult female, ante- 
rior to opening of oviducts {r.od) and ureters («). The minute 
Wolffian ducts persisting in the female are shown below and 
internal to the ureters. The left oviduct is slightly smaller than 
the right. Masses of lymphoid tissue ( / ) are situated beneath the 
epithelium of the ventral cloacal chamber (r.r). x 32. 

Fig. 34. Transverse section of same specimen somewhat more posterior. The 
dorsal chamber (rf.c) is much larger, and the geuital papilla {g.p)^ 
at the summit of which the oviducts open, is shown projecting 
from the dorsal surface of the horizontal shelf [h). External to 
the ureter (u) on the right side of the figure is shown the opening 
of the diverticulimi of the same which is present in both sexes. 
X 32. 

402 Coe and KunJcd — California Limhleaa Lizard, 

Fig. 35. Transverse section throngh cloacal region of adnlt male throngh the 
opening of the vas deferens (r.d) on the apex of the nrogenital 
papilla. The diverticulum of the ureter is essentially similar to 
that of the female in the previous figure. The horizontal partition 
between the cloacal chambers is here shown as a very thick band 
(A). X 28. 

Fig. 36. Transverse section of the same specimen somewhat more posterior, 
through the opening of one of the ureters. The posterior end of 
the horizontal partition {h) is completely surrounded by the pos- 
terior chamber, x 28. 

Fig. 37. Transverse section of aborted left oviduct from near its middle 
portion, showing the numerous well developed glands which open 
into its lumen, x 146. 


Fig. 38. Urogenital organs of adult male from ventral side. The cloaca is 
represented as a transparent structure so that the openings of the 
urinary (tt) and genital ducts (r.d) and the basal portions of the 
retracte<l phalli iph) may be seen, x 3. 

Fig. 39. Transverse section through adult male posterior to cloaca and pass- 
ing through the distal portion o'^ the retracfced phalli. The section 
is slightly oblique, so that the phallus on the right shows the two 
terminal pits {t.p) while that on the left does not. The strong 
constrictor muscles {cm) are shown. Large masses of adipose 
tissue (/) are situated on either side of the middle line between 
the vertebral column (?t) and the pouches of the phalli. x21. 

Fig. 40. Ideal reconstruction of cloacal chambers of adult female. The 
cloaca is represented with the left half removed along the middle 
line, showing the relations of the posterior cloacal chamber {p,c) 
and the dorsal (ff.r) and the ventral chambers (p. c). The genital 
papilla is seen projecting into the dorsal chamber from the dorsal 
side of the horizontal partition (/*). Folded condition of posterior 
chamber is also shown, x 7. 

Fig. 41. Cloaca of adult mule. The ventral wall has been cut away, thus 
removing the bladder and allowing the pouches of the pbftlll and 
horizontal partition to be seen, x 5. 

Fig. 42. Cloaca of adult male, contracted somewhat differently from that in 
the previous figure. The cloaca is represented as if split slightly 
to the left of the midventral line and spread open. The ventral 
wall of the posterior chamber has been removed so that the phallus 
pouches arc* not shown. A transverse section of the cloacal region 
contracted as represented would have the appearance of fig. 36. 
X 5. 

Fig. 43. Cloaca of adult, showing the lateral pockets at posterior end of 

rectum. A small section of the ventral wall in which the bladder 

opens into the cloaca has been removed and the cut edg^ of the 

rectum have been pulled aside to expose the chambers more fully. 

X 5. 

Coe and Ktinkel — California Limbless Lizard. 403 

Fig. 44. Highly magnified portion of fig. 47. showing the differentiation of 
the epithelium of the paraphysis (py ) and the post velar arch (eO* 

Fig. 45. Another portion of fig. 47 more highly magnified, showing the rudi- 
ment of the fornix {c.d) and the ependyma cells {e) which become 
differentiated to form the paraphysis {py) and the post velar arch 
of the previous figure, x 409. 


Fig. 46. A portion of fig. 47 through the epiphysis {ep) and the post velar 
arch («'), showing the details of cell structure, x '437. 

Fig. 47. Slightly oblique sagittal section of portion of brain of a 60"" •" 
embryo, showing the relationship of the various parts of the pineal 
apparatus. The paraphysis (py) arises anterior to the velum 
{v.t)j the third ventricle becomes greatly extended dorsally to 
form a more or less tubular sac, which lies just anterior to the 
epiphysis (ep). The superior (r.s) and posterior commissures 
{c.p) are situated very close together, x 67. 

Fig. 48. Sagittal section of portion of pineal apparatus of a 56'"" embryo. 
The tubular distal end of the paraphysis {py) is shown extending 
posteriorly and overljing the epiphysis {ep). Immediately above 
the posterior commissure {c.p) is seen the smaller superior com- 
missure. X 67. 

Fig. 49. Portion of fig. 50 more highly magnified, showing the integument 

(ed, d) attached closely to the underlying parietal bone {pa) by 

means of very stout connective tissue fibers {c.t). The pigment 

of the skin which is abseut above the pineal eye is shown at pg. 


Fig. 50. Portion of sagittal section of head of adult, showing the pineal eye 
{pin) situated in a pit on the ventral side of the parietal bone 
(pa) embedded in vacuolated tissue (u). The fleck of skin which 
remains fast to the skulb when the skin is peeled off from the rest 
of the body is shown and also the large blood vessel {b.v) which 
lies between the cerebral hemispheres. . x 45. 

Fig. 51. Sagittal section of head of embryo, part of which is represented in 
fig. 47. The pineal eye is seen in the ventral portion of the 
dorsal wall of the head, situated just above the union of the 
cerebral hemispheres and olfactory lobes, x 40. 


Fig. 52. Sagittal section of pineal eye of 45""" embryo, showing a moder- 
ately convex lens, x 437. 

Fig. 53. Transverse section of pineal eye of embryo shortly before birth, 
showing a less convex lens, x 437. 

Fig. 54. Sagittal section of pineal eye of 60""" embryo, showing a very 
much flattened form with an exceedingly convex lens, x 437. 

Trans Conn Acad.Science Vol XII 

CMX-Del HthotfptCc 

Lkpidozia AirsTRALis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Mitt. 


C.KC.Del HtlJ(il;ptCoBo!t«( 

i-ii. Lbpidozia Sandvicbnsis Lfndenb. 
i3-a4- Lkpidozia Hawaica Cooke. 

Trahs. Cohn tou). Science Vol XII 

1-14. Bazzamia coRDisTiPULA (Monr.) Trevig. 
15-11. Bazzania SANnvicBNsis (Gottichcl Sleph. 
H-31- Bazzania Nvuamubmsis Cooke. 

Trans ConkAcad Science Vol X!I 

1-13. Baezakia Didericiana Sleph. 
'4-^7- Bazzakia bmarginata (Steph.) Cooke 

Trans Conn.Acad Science Vol XII 

1-13. Baezania minuta (Auit.) Evan* 
14-33. Bazzania Balvwinii (AusI.) Evi 

Trahs Cokn.Acad Science VolXII 

Trahs. Cohh Acad.Sciekce Vol XII 

B&zzAKiA Brichami (Aust.) Evan*. Htlio^r^fnistqg 

Trams. Cohn Acad Science Vol XII 

-lo. Kaxtia siPtncA (Auit.) Evan*. 
-17. Kawtia Baldwimii tAual.) ErAns. 

Trans CohhAcadSciehceVolXH 

Odontoschisha Sandviciksk (Angstr.) Evar 

Trans Conh Acad Science Vol XII 

Z K C.Del teiiotjptCoBim 

Ckphalozia Samdvickhsis (Mont.) Spruce. 

Trams. Conn, Acad. Science Vol X!1 

14^-^"^ 16 

1-4). Cbpmalozia Balowihii Cooke. 
lo-io. CsniALOZiA Lilac Cooke. 

Trahs Conn Acad Science Vol Xli 

CxpnALOziA KiLOHANBNSis Cooke. 

Trams Conn Acad Scjence Vol XII 

Cbphalozia HBTERoiCA Cooke. 

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1. Conn. Aoad. Vol. X 


I. Conn. Acad. 

1. A Walaingluim Care. 2. Sand Dunes st Tucker's Town. 

Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. Xt 

1 «*- 

r -^ - -^. ^ ,^. 

1. Tobacco B*;, St. George'a I. 2. Soath Shore. 


. Cathednl Books, Somerwt I. 3. Serpoline Atolls, South Shore. 

Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. XII. 

1. Shell aand from ihallow water. 3. Small ahella, etc., from shell uud. 

Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. Xlt 











Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. XI 

\.H,«lVmilL, pht 

1. Oetilina taricoaa. 3. Ocvlina diffuia. 

Trana. Conn. Acad. Vol. X 


A. Hjrui VsTill, pkoL 




1. Orbietlla camrnoia. 2. MiUtpora afeicornia. 

I. Conn. Acad. Vol. 


1. Mu*KtfivgUU, from life. 3. Aiptatia annulate, var. totifen 

Bath nbont nat. si 

Trans. Com 


Euiiicfopgif gi-nadi:i. with polyps imrtially i-xpiiiided. 

Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. XII 


A. Hjrui Vtnill, phol. 



. Diadema irto$uin. '.i, 3. jIs'tios (fums^nui, wiih piliHiided sucker-feet. 


Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. X 

I. Cidarie Iribvloidei. 3. Eehinometra aiiliani/utarit. 

Trana. Conn. Acad, Vol. XII. 

H,Hy«tV„lHI,pl,«. S, 

1. Hipponol t»eule«ta, J. 2, Ciilaria tributoidea, ; 

rpana. Conn. Acad. Vol. XII 


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1. lindUa Ouildingii. %. AtUriat te«»>»pina, \. 8. Attirina folivm, x a 

K. Hy»ll Vcnill. phot. Slodd.ird s; Btv 

I. Ophiothrix angulala. 2. (I, 2), Uphincomn echinata ; (3), 0. Riii 


1. OlAioeoma putniln . 

3. a. Oiihiiira bi-'iixjiiufi : h. Ophionfrfis reticiilfila, J. 

Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. X 


1. a. Ewpolymnia ma^ifica ; It. Heaione praiexta. 2. Htrmodice earvneulala. 

Trana. Conn. Acad. Vol. XI 



1. Sen-cat — Tethyt dactylimipla. 2, Common bivalves : l,lo, ^poii- 
dylta; 3, 2«. Pearl OvBter; 3. Scollop=i%t/e(! iieznt ; 4, 4a. •■Rock 
Coe]f\e" — Chatna; 5, True inn8Hel=Wo((io/o lulipa; 6, lia, "MnBBe]"= 
Artanoa; 7. A. Seclicotlata. See expl. plateH. 

lead. Vol. XII. 


Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. XII. 



I. Acad. Vol. XII 




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Trans Conn Acad Science Yol. XII 

■nyjjs Cons h:*L Science Vol. '/£ 

■fiiANs. Conn Agatj Science Vol. Xn 

IW-a U •. T AiJ " SSCf 1 

"ftANE Conn AcAi;.Scin.TKv'OL.M 

T^iAHS Conn AcAnSciEja.VuL.M 


f AcAn Cc-.aicv. Voi. XE 

l>A!<s Com Auo Scmcr. Vol, xn 



By C. M. Cooke, Jr. 

The page nnmbers in italics refer to the pages on which the descriptions occnr. 

Acrobolbns, 2. 
Acromastignm, 1, 3, 3, 4, 9. 

integrifolinm, 10. 
Adelocolea, 2. 
Anomoclada, 2. 
Arachniopsis, 1. 
Bazzania, 1, 4, 11. 

Baldwinii, 1, 12, 18, 19, 20. 

Beecheyana, 20. 

Brighami, 12, L'^, 23. 

cordistipula, 1^, 13, 14, 15, 16. 

defleza, 18, 19. 

Diderieiana, 12, 15, 18. 

emarginata, 1, 12, /7, 18. 

falcata. 12, 13. 

fallax, 1, 18. 

inseqaabilis, 12, i?/, 23. 

integrifoUa, 10. 

minuta, 13, J9, 20. 

Nnoannensis, 12, 15. 

patens, 1, 12, £0, 21. 

Sandvicensis, 12; 14. 

triangularis, 1, 19. 

trilobata, 23. 
Blepharostoma Sandvicense, 33. 
Calypogeia Baldwinii, 27. 

bifurca, 26. 

Trichomanis, 24. 
Cephalozia, 1, 3, 31. 

Baldwinii, 1, 32, 35. 

connivens, 33, 34. 

elachista, 37. 

exiliflora. I, 38. 

forficata, 34. 

heteroica, 32, 3S, 39. 

Jackii, 35. 

Kilohanensis, 1, 32, 37. 

lencantha, 1, 35. 

LilHB, 32, 36. 

lunnlaBfolia, 34. 

multiflora, 33, 34. 

myriantha, 35. 

Sandvicensis, 32, 33, 34. 
Cephaloziella, 1, 2, 3, 35, 36. 

Hebridensis, 39. 
Encephalozia, 1, 3i\ 35. 
Ealepidozia, 5. 
Herberta, 18. 
Herpetiam cordistipulum. 12. 

patens, 20. 
Herpocladinm, 18. 
Jnngermannia austrulis, 5. 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. XII. 

' Jnngermannia bidentnla, 24. 

candifera, 29. 

crassifolia, 33. 

Sandvicensis, 33. 
I Kantia, 1, 2, 3, £3. 
I Baldwinii, 24, £7, 28. 

bidentnla, 24. 

bifurca, 1, 24, 26. 

csespitosa, 28. 

cnspidata, 24, ^5, 26. 

nephrostipa, 28. 

rotandistipnla, 27. 

Sullivantii, 1, 27. 

Tosana, 1, L'4f 26. 

Trichomanis, 24, 25. 
Lepidozia, 1, S, 4- 

anstralis, 1, 4, 5, 6. 

commntata. 1, 7, 8. 

filipendala, 7. 

Hawaica, 1, 4, 8, 9. 

reptans, 1. 5, 6. 

Sandvicensis, 1, 4, 7, 8, 35. 

setacea, 1, 9. 

triceps, 5. 
Marsnpidinm, 2. 
Mastigobryum Bomeense, 18. 

Brighami, 22, 23. 

cordistipulnm, 12. 

Cubense, 1, 20. 

Diderieianum, 15. 

integrifolium, 10. 

ligulatum, 22, 23. 

minntnm, 19. 

parvistipulum, 20. 

pateDs, 20. 

Sandvicense, 14. 
MfvStigophora lilipendula, 7. 

Sandvicensis, 7. 

triceps, 5. 
Microlepidozia, 6'. 
Mytilopsis, 1. 
Odontoschisma, 1, 3, JS. 
I gracile, 28, 30. 

SaudviceiiHe, 1, 28, 30, 31. 

Sphagni, 1, 29. 31. 

subjulaceum, 28, JCf, 30, 31. 
Protocephalozia, 1. 
I Pteropsiellii, 1. 
Sphagiiopcetis gracilis, 30. 

Sandvicensis, 30. 
Tvlimanthns, 2. 


May, 1907. 

Index to Article II. — The Bermuda Islands, Parts IV and V. 

Geology and Paleontology. 

The page numbers printed in italics refer to the pages where illustrations 
occur. In the author's edition the original paging is placed at the inner 

Abbot's Head, 111, 113, 135. ! Birds, fossil, 195. 

Acrostichum aureum, 156. Bland, Thos., 163. 

Admiralty House, landslide near. 134. '• Blood-drop, 147. 

.^Eolian limestones, 47, 48-51, 61, 62, 70, : Blue Hole, 88. 

107 y 108. Boaz Island, 93. 

.^k)lian limestones submerged, 81. Boilers, 90. 

Agaricia fragilis, 141, 187. Bonaventura, wreck of the, 116, 130. 

A. undata, fossil, 187. Bones of Birds, fossil, 82, 195. 
Agassiz, Mr. Alexander, 52, 54, 67, 69, ' Borings of Annelids and Gephyrseans, 

72, 74, 76, 77, 97, 125, 144, 157, 172, 150. 

178, 196, 204. Borings of Lithophagus appendiculatus, 

Ammodiscus tenuis, 140. etc. , 149. 

Ancient Maps, 135, 137. ■ Borings of sea-urchins, 151. 

Annelids, 1^7, 14S, 150. I Borings of sponges, 151. 

Anticosti Island, erosion at, 125. Bottom deposits, 139, 140-150 

Area (Barbatia) dominguensis and Area Broken grounds outside the reefs, 95. 

noaB, fossil, 186. Building stones, 66. 

Arenicola cristata, 147. ' Bulla occiden talis =B. media, fossil, 183. 

Argus and Challenger Banks, 54i 55, Caecum termes, fossil, 181, 182. 

56, 96. Cake urchin, 146 

Artesian borings, 56, 67. Callista macnlata, 184. 

Arctic current, 59, 60. Camelo, Ferdinando, 102. 

Aspidium coriaceum, 156. * Carychiumbermudense, fossil, i7^, 171, 

Astralium longispina, 182. 194. 

Bailev Bay, 51, 71, 93, 107, 111, 138, Castle Harbor, 70, 85, 88, 93, 121, 127, 

142. 138. 

Bailey Bay Island, 71, 110. Castle Island and ruins of King's Castle, 

Balanus, fossil, 79. 47, 93, 94, 128, 197. 

Balanus tiiitinabulum, fossil, 179, 189. Castle Point, 191. 

Bartram J. T., collection of shells, 184. Cathedral Rocks, 63, 98, 104, 109, 128. 

Base rock, 61. Catherine Point, 116. 

Bay of Fundy, 53. Causeway, 93, 127, 132. 

Beach limestone, 178. Cave, Convolvulus, 84. 

Beach-rock, 73, 199. Cave, Cooper's, 84. 

Beach-rock with marine fossils, 75. Cave, Joyce's, 84. 

Bermudia, genus. 193. Cave, Paynter's, 84. 

Bermuda Company, seal of the, 129. Cave, Peniston's, 84. 

Bermuda in the Glacial Period, 59. Caves, Walsingham, 84, 85. 

Bermuda Islands, The, Part IV, 45. Caverns and Sinks, 83, 88. 

Bermuda mountain, 55. (^averas containing sea water, 83. 

Bermuda not a true atoll, 52. Cavern at Ireland Island, 195. 

Bermuda volcano, 53. Cedar, Bermuda, 59. 

Bibliography of geology and paleontol- Cedars, large, in bogs, 177. 

ogy, 200-204. Cenchrus tribuloides, on sand dunes, 

Bifidaria rupicola, fossil, 170, 194. 154. 

B. servilis, fossil, 169, 194. Cenobita diogenes, fossil, 156, 158, 179, 
Biflustra, 141. ' 196, 197. 

Bigelow, Henry W., 156. Cerithium ferrugineum = minimum, 

Biloculina bulluides, and B. ringens, 181. 

140, 141, 188. . C. variabile, fossil, 181. 



Challenger Bank, 54, 55, 56. I Dominica Island, 55. 

Chama lingna-felis and C. macrophylla, ! Drifting Sands, 151-155. 

fossil, 1«6. 
Champlaiii or Lawrentian Period, 60. 
Champlain Period, 75, 199. 
Changes due to erosion, 99. 
Channel, cutting, 125. 
Channels, filling up of the, 94. 
Channels or cuts, outer, 90, 93, 94. 
Character of the rocks, 47. 
Charles Island, fossils at, 191. 
Chasm at Cooper's I., lUG, 109. 
Chirodota rotifera, 145, 146. 
Chiton tuberculatus, li^J. 
Chub Cut, 93, 94. 
Cirratulus grand is, JJfS. 
Clarence Cove, 54, 110, Ui, JJ4. 
Clavulina communis. J40. 
Climate of Bermuda, 61. 
Cliona sulphurea. borings of, 151. 
Codakia costata, C. orbiculata, and orbi 

cularis. fossil, 186. 
Codakia tigrina, fossil, 186. 
Columbella cribruria, fossil, ISO. 

C mercatoria, fossil, JSO. 
Compflct limestones, 66. 
Coney Island, 71, 86, IJG. 
Conglomerate, 78. 
Consolidation, none below low -tide 

level, 65. 
Consolidatiim of sands, 61, 
Cooper's Island, 93, lOf;. 109, 198. 
Coralliophaga coralliophaga, borings, 

Coriillina, 118. 

' Drill, of oysters, 148. 

I Ducking Stool, 133. 

I Earthquake shocks. 135. 

Kast Ledge Flat, 115. 
I Eaton, Eng., sand pipes at, ITS. 
> Echinometra subangularis, 151. 

Eggs, fossil, 195. 196. 
I Elbow Bay, drifting sands at, 72, 79, 
I 119, 150, iJJ, 153-155. 

Elies' Harbor, 126. 

Emergence of the land, 56. 

Emmet, Tliomas, 136. 

Enoplobranchus sanguineus, 147. 

Erosion by streams in former period?, 

Erosion by the sea, rates of, 127. 
i Erosion by the waves, 106. 
j Erosion of the North Shore cliffs, islets. 
j and ledges, 107. 

j Erosion of the Outer reefs and flats. 114. 
i Erosion of the South Shore cliffs and 
I reefs, 119. 

i Euconulus turbinatus, 168. 170, lSt3. 
j Eupoiymnia magnifica, 147. 
I Evolution of Greater Bermuda, 57. 
i Explanation of Map I, .'A?. 
■ Extinct Land Snails, 74, 158. 190, iW. 
! Fasciolaria distans, 180. 189. 
, Findlay. A. G., 91. 
• Fissurella altemata=grieca, fossil, IS^. 
I F. (Cremides) barbadensis = antillA- 
! rum, fossil, 18J. 
F. Listeri, fossil, 188. 

Coral Reefs, characteristic life of, 204. ] Fissuridea altemata, fossil, 183. 

Corals, fossil. 177, 187, 189. 
Corals, great age of, 149. 
Cornuspira foliacea, 140^ 188. 
Cristellaria comi)ressa, I40. 
Crow-lane, 136. 
Crow-lane Harbor, fossils at, 185. 

I Flatt's Village, 93, 111. 136. 

; Foraminifera, fossil, 140, ISS. 

■ Fonnation, Devonshire, 75, 76, 199. 

I Formation, Paget. 199. 

; Formation, pliocene, 19SK 

I Formation, VValsiDgham, 68, 199. 

Cnistacoa of the Devonshire Formation, | Fort Catherine, eroded rocks near, fi^ 
179. • Fossil birds and reptiles, 195. 

Cuts or Channels through reefs, 90. 93. | Fossil casts of plants, UW. 
94. I Fossil land-shells, 70, 158, 190-196, 199. 

Cuts. iH)sitiou and dei)th of the, 90-94. Fossil marine shells, 73-80, 178-189, 

Cypr.ia aselhis and C. tigris, IHl. ; 196, 199. 

Cvpriea cinert'iv and C. exanthema, fos- i Fossil palmetto stamps, 62, 72, 74, «9. 

"sii, ISO. I 80, yr;?. 

Cyi»hoin;i ^ fossil, 180. | Fossil plants, 177, 198. 

Decay of linu'stones, slow rate of, KU, ! Fossil sea-turtles. 196. 

103. I Fossils of leolian limestones. 189. 

Deej) Bav. laiwlslide at, 134. Fossils of the Beach-rocks, 78-80, 178- 

Devil's H<.le. :)1, K\, s."). S6-9:J. ! 189, 199. 

Di'VDU^hirt' Uav. 73, 78. M). 1 Fossils of Devonshire formatioD, IW- 

l)ev«)iishire fonnatlDn. 7'"), 7(J-81, 178. , 1M9. 199. 

1S9. ; Foasils of Ireland Island. 195. 
Dfvoiishire format ii.tii, marine fossilsof. i Fossils of uncertain nature, 198. 

i;s. 17!». isi). i!M). ' Fossils of the Walsingham formatioit 

Devonshire Parisli. 76. ! 156, 158. 

Devoii.sliire Swamp. AT.T. j Gastrochiena rostrata, borings, 130. 

Dockyard 011 Ireland Island, HI. | Geology, 47. 



Geology and Paleontology, 47-160. 

George's Bank, 56. 

Gephyreans, borings of, 150. 

Gibb's Hill and Light, 48, 55, 93. 

Glacial period, 58, 59. 

Globigerina bulloides, 140. 

Globigerina-ooze, 65. 

Glyphis altemata, fossil, 183, 

Goat Island, fossils of, 191. 

Goldie, Prof. T. W., 74. 

Goode, G. Brown, 185. 

Gorgoniae, 96. 

Great Breaker, 115. 

Great Breaker Flats, 91. 

Greater Bermuda, 52, 58, 60, 87, 91, 105. 

Great Sound, 72, 89, 90, 88-93. 

Great Storms, 123, 132. 

Great TriVtle Bay, 123. 

Greenland. 59. 

Green turtles, 86. 

Gregory, J. W., 77. 

Grottoes and cavernous places, 110, 111, 

Gulf Stream, 59. 60. 

Gulick, Mr. A., 71, 159-161, 162, 163- 

Gurnets Head of Castle Island, ^7. 
Halimeda, 139. 
Hamilton, 50, 75, 82, 88, 93. 
Hamilton and St. George's Harbors, 

peat beds in, 81. 
Hamilton Parish, 71. 
Harbors and Bays, forming, 125. 
Harrington House, 70, 84. 
Harrington Sound, 71, 84, 86, 88, 89, 

93, 98, 111, 112, 113, I4i\ 195. 
Harrington Sound, cliffs of. 111, 112^ 

Harris Island, fossils at, 185. 
Heilprin, Angelo, 69. 
Helicella ventricosa, 141. 
Helicina convexa, 141. 
Helix Hubbardi, fossil, 169. 

H. hypolepta, fossil, 169. 

H. Nelsoni, fossil, 160, 195. 

H. ochraceus, 193. 

H. Reiniana, fossil. 164. 
Heyl, Mr. J. B., 12H, 130. 
Hipponog esculenta, 146. 
Hogiish Cut, 91-{)3. 94. 
Holothuria Ratlibimi, i^J. 
Holothurians, if/, 144. 
Hospital Bay Channel, ^2. 
Hungry Bay, 72, 79. 99. 126, 176, 1«9, 

Hurricanes, 127, 182, i;j:3. 
Hyalina circunifirmatus, 166. 
Hyalina Nelsoni, fossil, loO. 
Idmonea atlautica, 141, l!fJ. 
Infiltration by sea water and spray, 66. 
Intermediate deposit, 69. 
Ipomaea pes-capra, on sand dunes, 154. 

Ireland Island, 71, 77, 81, 93, 109, 115, 

124, 149, 151, 156, 179, 195. 
Ireland Island, cavern at, 195. 
Ireland Island, fossils at, 195. 
Ireland Island, rainfall at, 104. 
Ireland Island, section at, 177. 
Ireland Island, submerged peatbog, 177, 
Isopterygium tenerum, 156. 
Jones, J. M., 88, 153, 162, 184, 198, 199. 
Joyce's Cave, 70. 
Keel Ned, cottage of, 152. 
Knapton Hill, 71. 
Labrador coast, 104. 
Land Hermit crab, fossil, 156, 158, 196, 

Landslides, 133, 134. 
Lantanu on sand dunes, 154. 
Leda clay Period, 199. 
Ledge Flats, 115. 
Ledge Flat Cuts, 93, 94. 
Lefroy, Governor, 87, 129, 155. 
Lempriere, map by, 137. 
Leodice, borings of, 150. 
Limestone, compact, 68, 69. 
Limestone, Devonshire beach, 178. 
Limestone, Walsingham, 178. 
Lion Rock, 112. 
Lithopbagiis appendiculatus, borings 

of, U^y 150, 343. 

L. bisulcatus, and niger, 150, 343. 
Lithothamnion, 118, 139, 187. 
Littorina angulifera, 181 . 
Livonapica, fossil, 59, 70, 156, 158, 182, 

189, 196, 197. 
Long Bar, 114. 
Long Bar Cut, 93, 94. 
Long Bird Island, 78. 
Lucina antillarum=L. omatum, fossil, 

Lucina pennsylvanica=L. grandinata= 

Lucina speciosa, fossil, 185. 

L. pectinata = L. pecten=:L. imbri- 
cata = L. occidentals, fossil, 186. 

L. tigrina, fossil, 186. 
Luidia clathrata, habits of, 146. 
Lyell, Sir Charles, 104, 13 1, ^172, 173. 
Madracis decactis, fossil, 187. 
Ma?andra areolata, fossil, 187, 189. 
Ma?andra labyrinthiforniis, 118. 
Mjeandrina labyrinthiforniis, 177. 
Magnetic variations, 53. 
Mangrove Swamp, 154. 
Mauieina areolata, fossil, 147. 
Manning, Mr., analysis of soil, 75. 
Map of Bermuda, 92. 
Maps, Ancient, 137. 
Margaritopliora radiata, fossil, 187. 
Marine shells, fossil, 196. 
Mark, Prof. E. L., 116. 
Marphysa, 150. 
Martinique, 55. 
May, Henry, 102, 116, 130. 
Mechanical action of rain-water, 104. 

INDEX. 411 

PoBcilozonites cupala, 167. ! Sand dunes, 151, 162^ 153. 

P. Dalli, 167. Sand glacier, 152, 153. 

PoBcilozonites Nelsoni, fossil, 68, 77, 80, I g^nd pipes, 172, 173. 

87, 158, 159, 160, ie^-166, 171 179 Sands; shell, origin and nature of, 138, 

P. Nelsoni, var. callosus, 159, 162, \ ' 

1 ftS loo, 

P. Nelsoni, var. conoides, 160, 163. Sands, unconsolidated, 65, 189. 

P. Nelsoni, var. disooides, 159, 160, Sargassum, 118. 

161. Scaevola lobelia, on sand dunes, 154. 

P. Nelsoni, var. Nelsoni, 162, 163. | Scala, sp. and Scala scaberrima, fossil, 

P. Reinianus, fossil, 164, 198. 182, 189, 

P. Reinianus, var. antiquus, fossil, i Scaor, The, 126. 

165. ! Sohizoporella isabelliana, i^i. 
P. Reinianus, var. Goodei, 164, 165, geal of Bermuda Company, 129. 

166, 193. Seaside grasses, on sand dunes, 154. 
PoBcilozonites Period, 199. Sea-turtles, fossil, 174, 196. 
Polygyra microdonta, 141, 193, 19J^. \ Sections, 50, 54, 79, 112, 123, 124. 
Polytrema miniaceum, 139, 188. ' Section at Ireland Island, 177, 178. 
Porites astreoides, 118, 122, Serpuline atolls or "boilers ", 79, 121, 
Post-glacial Bermuda, 60. \ 123. 

Post-glacial period, 61, 75. Sharks Hole, 71, 84, 113. 

Pot-holes, 74, 119, 120, 121. Shearwater, 195. 

Prospect Hill, 75. Shell sand, composition of, 142. 

Prospect Hill, section, 190. I Shell sands, origin of the, 138, 139. 

Prospect Observatory, Rainfall at, 104. Shelly Bay, 73, 111, 123, 136, 151, 152, 

PseudatoU, Bermuda, 53. ' 1,54. 

Pteris aquilina, 156. Shelly, Mr. Henry, 154. 

Poffinus Auduboni, and P. cinereus, Ship-channel, main, 91, 03. 

195. Ship-worms, 82. 

Pollastra or Callista, fossil, 184. Siliquaria rosea, fossil, 182. 

Pullastra perovalis, 184, 180. Siliquaria ruber, 139. 

Pulmonata, fossil, 158, 190. Silting of harbors, 135. 

Pulpit Rock, 65, 109, 115. Siphonaria altemata, 183. 

Pupa marginata, 194. Smith, Capt. John, 129. 

Pupa pellucida, 169. , Somei-set Island, 63, 93, 106, 109. 

Pupa (Bifidaria) rupicola, IO4. ' Sommer Islands, 129. 
Pupa servilis, and P. jamaicensis, 169, Sounds, or eroded valleys, submerged, 

194. : 88. 

Pupoides marginatus, 194. ! Southampton fort, 4". 
Purpura deltoidea, and P. hyemastoma. Southwest Breaker, 114, 121. 

fossil, 179. . Spanish Rock, 101, 102, 103, 104, 110. 

Quaternary time, 61. Spanish Point, 110. 

Radiolarians, 139. Sphagnum cuspidatum and cymbifo- 

Rainfall, 104. liiim, 156. 

Reach, The, 82. Spondylus americanus, fossil, 186. 

Red-clay breccias, 70. Staggs, 110. 

Red-clay layers, 74. Stalagmites and stalactites, 81, 83, 85. 

ReSleva'tion of Bermuda, 61, 07. Stevenson. Prof. John J., 69, 73, 76, 

Reptiles, fossil, 19."). 78, 80, 81. 

Rice, Prof. W. N., 69, 72, 73, 76, 78, Stichopus Mobii, 143. 

174, 179. I S. diaboli and xanthomela, 144. 

Rock Cockle, fossil, 186. Stocks Point. 72, 78. 

Rumina decollata. 141. 1 Stokes' Bay, 135. 

Sagebush, on sand dunes. 154. Strobila Hubbardi, fossil, 168, 169. 

Saint David's Island, 93, 109, 110. Strobilops Hubbardi, fossil, 168, 169, 

Saint George's Harbor, 81, 82, 87, 89, 199. 

90, 93. Stroinbns costatu8=aceipitrinus, fossil, 

St. George's Island and Town, 70, 72, 180. 181, 189. 

98, 104, 105, 100, 124, 130. Strombus, fossil, 78. 

Saint George's, rainfall at, 104. Subaerial erosion clue tc carbonic acid 

Saint Lucia, 55, 99. 

Sand beaches, 111. Submerged caverns and sinks, 88. 

Sand-dollar, 146. Subsidence, 60, 81-87. 

Index to Article IL-^Part V. Characteristic Life of the 
Bermuda Coral Reefs. — By A. E. Verrill. 

The nambers in italics refer to pages on which illustrations occur. 

Aoanthagtnea dipsacea, 230. 
Acropora muricata, 207, 209, 246. 

var. cervicomis, var. palmata, var. 
prolifera, 209. 
Actinacea, 236, 248. 
Actinaria, 248. 
Actinia annulata, 249. 

bermudensis, 256^ ^57, 

var. pmnicolor, ^57. 

cracifera, 272. 

floBcalifera, 266. 

melanaster, 257, ^58. 

OBcalifera, 275. 

solifera, 251. 
Actinobranchise, ^70. 
Actinodactylns Boscii, 272. 

neglectus, 271, 272. 
Actinodendron, 273. 
Actinoides pallida, 262, 268. 

Anthea gigantea, 258, 260. 

Anthozoa, 208. 

Antinedia Duchassaingi, A. tuberculata, 

Aplysina fistularis and A. hirsuta, 332. 
Area noae, 347. 

occidentalis, 347. 
secticostata, 347. 
Arcesias hostilis, 339. 
Asteractis flosculifera, eoo, 272. 
' Asterias, hybrids, 275. 
I Asterias (or Stolasterias) tenuispina, 319. 
' Asterina folium, 325. 
I Asteriscus folium, 325. 
' Asterioidea, 3, 24. 

I Astraea ananas and coarctata, 219, 247. 
i cavernosa, 234. 
! decactis, 239. 
siderea, 245. 

ActiaoBtella flosculifera, formosa, 266, Asti'oporpa affinis, 329. 
267, 268. i Aulactinia stella, 261. 

Aotinotiyx sancti-tbomaB, 276, :^77. stelloides, 261. 

Adamsia palliata, 264, 265. I Axhelia decactis, 239. 

Agaricia agaricites, 209, 246. ' Axinella appressa, 340. 

fragilis, 209, ^45, 247. i angulosa, 341. 

Agassiz, Alexander, 218, 226. ' pennata, 341. 

Prof. Louis, 215, 219, 224, 226, 236, , rosacea, 341. 

AgeUdse, 333. 

Aiptasia annulata, 249, :^50. 
var. solifera, 250, 251. 
var. monilifera, 250, 251. 
diaphana, 254. 
pallida, 253. 
tagetes, 251, ^.^^, ^55. 
var. bicolor, £5:^. 
var. spongicola, 252. 
-^Icyonaria, 276. 
-^Icyonium mammillosum, 283 
'^ .mphimidon variabilis, 339 

rudis, 341. 
I Walpersii, 341. 

Axinellidff, 333. 
Axinelloidea, 333. 

Bergia catenularis, 295. 
Bermuda lobster, 205. 
' Bibliographv of Bermuda Actiuaria, 
, 248, 249/ 

Alcvonaria, 296. 
I corals, 206, 207. 

Echinodorms, 320. 
Sponges, 332. 

"^jnphipholis Goesi and A. squamata, Boring Sponge, 343. 


nemone, cross-barred, J?.t:. 

Dark-star, 257, :J56\ 

Gill bearing, ^'fHK 

Pink -tipped, j,5<v. 

Prune-colored, J57. 

Ringed, 249, Joo. 

Small stellate. 201. 

White-specked, 251, J'>J. 

White-striped, 274, ,?;.;. 
Jiinemonia elegans, iSOl. 
Angel Fish, 848. 
Antedon, 319, 329, 

Brain Coral, 210, ,^7/, 213, JJ4. 
Brissus nnicolor, 322. 
Bunodactis stelloides. 261, ..^02. 

\ar. catenrJata. ,''6V, 263. 

var. carneola, Jf!J, 263. 

versus Cribriiia, 264, 
Bunodella stelloides, ^(i.J. 
Bunodes, 264. 

Bimodopsis globulifera, 279. 
Bunodosonia, 26"). 
Bush Corals, 235. 

Cactus Corals, 225, ^JO, 227, 22S, 



Gorgonia acerosa, 298, 299. 

americana, 299, 300. 

angoicolTis, 302. 

antipathes, 305, 306, 811. 

citrina, 300, SOI. 

crassa, 307, 317. 

dichotoma, 310. 

flabellnm, 297, 398. 

flavida, 305. 

flammea, 299. 

beteropora, 310. 

homomalla, 304. 

malticanda, 307, 317. 

mnricata, 301. 

palnia, 299. 

piDnaia, 299, 300. 

porosa, 307. 

psendo-antipathes, 312, 317. 

pnmila, 300. 

ptirpnrea, 317. 

Bangninolenta, 299. 

seiosa, 299. 

spicifera, 305. 

turgida, :^00. 

Termicnlata, 310, 317. 
OoTgonisB, doabtfnl species of, 317. 
Grapples, 205. 

Baddon, A. C, 264. 
Hat-coral. S4S. 

Heilprin, Qorgonians recorded by, 317. 
Hermodice camuciilata, 347. 
Hesione pnetexta, 347. 
Heterocliona cribraria. 342. 
Hipponoe esculenta, 324. 
Hircina acnta, 332. 

armata and vars. fistnlaris. margin- 
alia, cylindrica, colnmuaris, 332. 
Hog Fish. 348. 

Holothnria abbreviata and H. captiva, 
floridana, 322. 
snrinamensis. 822. 
Ratbbuni, 145, 321. 
Holothariaiis. 320. 
Holothnrioidea, 320. 
Hoplopboria coralligens, 272. 
^yatt. Prof. Alphens, 331, 3:^2. 
gydroid corals, 210. 
^ydrozoa, 317. 

Jiyanthopsis longifilis, 2H0. 

^Odine contents of gorgoiiians, Mendel 

and Cook, 298, 299, 303, 305. 
-^^anras Dnchassaingi, 293. 

tnbercnlatns, 293, '2U4. 
-^^ophylliaaspera, cvlindrica, knoxi, 225, 
^ 247. 

X^phyUia dipsacea, 220, 225, 22<i. 227. 

fragilia. 220, 247. 

man^nata, 229, 2:^1, 247. 

mnltiflora, 229. 

Isophyllia mnltilamella, 229, 247. 

rigida, 229. 

spinosa, 232, 247. 

auatralis, strigosa, 220, 247. 
Ivory Coral, 237, 238. 

Jania, *^. 

Keratosa, 3:31 , :«2. 

K(5lliker, Albert, gorgonian spicnleg 
sent by, 305, 306. 

Lachnolaimns maxinins, :U8. 
Lactophrys trieomis, 348. 

tnqueter, 348. 
Lebmnia Danae, 2G9. 270, 271. 

neglecta, 269, 271. 
Lesneur, 276. 
Linckia Gnildingii, 318. 
LithophylUa argemone, 220. 

anstralis. 231. 

cubensi« and lacera, 220, 247. 

multilamella, 231, 232. 

spinosa, 231, 232. 
Lobster traps. 205. 
Lopbactis, 269. 

Lnidia clathrata, habits of. 146, 324. 
Lycodontis funebris, 347. 

moringa, 347. 

Madracis decactis. 2o9. 247. 
Madrepora cerebrum. 213. 

niuricala, var. prolifera, 209, 246 

labyrinthica, 216. 

porites, 240, 241. 

radians, 242. 
Madreporaria, 206. 
Mieandra areolata, 201>. 

eerebmm, 213, 21i. 2i:>. 216, 219, 

var. strigosa, 213. 215. 210. 

clivosa, 209, 2l€, 217, 2 IS. 219. 

labyrinthifonnis. 210. 211, 212, 247. 

var. Stokfsii. 212. 
Ma»aii<lrii)a labyrinthica, 213, 247. 

labyrinthifonnis. 213. 

sinuosa,vars. limosa. rubra, vineola, 
viridis. 213, 214. -i7. 2ls. 

sinuosis.-iinia, 213, 247. 

strigosa, 213. J;.7. 210. 247. 
Margaritoj^hui-a radiata. 347. 
Mamniilliftra luberenlata, 2J>3. 
McMurrich. J. P.. 251. 253. 256, 260. 

2r»4. 265. 267, 271. 272. 276. 2s;l 
Meandriua nieand rites, 209. 
Meandrites. 215. 
Melitta liexapora. 322. 
Mendel, L. B.. On occurrence of Iodine 

in Corals, 2!»S, 29!», 303, 305. 
Metridiuni. 264. 

coiicinnatum, nmcosum, i)raetex- 
tum, 268. 



Millepora alcicomis, S17. 

var. carthageniensifl, 318. 

var. moniliformis, 318. 

var. ramosa, 818. 

nitida, 31 J». 
Millepora, polyps of, S17. 
Monaxonida, 333. 
Moray, greeo, 348. 

spotted, 348. 
Mnricea muricata, 301, 302. 

spicifeia, 301. 
Mnssa angulosa, 209. 

(Symphyllia) annectens. -22S, 231. 

(Isophyllia) dipsacea, 225, 247. 

dipsacea, var. aster, 227, 228. 

(IsophvlUa) fragilis, 220, 221, 222, 

231, 247.' 
hispida, 233. 

(Isophvllia) multiflora, 220, 2S0, 

232, 247."^ 
rigida, 221), 230. 
rosula, 229, 2J0. 

species recorded by Qnelch, Addi- 
tional notes on, 231, 247. 
Mycedium fragile, 2^5. 

Nippei*8, 205. 

Octopns, 205. 

Oculina bermudensis, 247. 

bermndiana, 237. 

coronalis, 2SS. 247. 

diffusa, 208, 235. 236, 247. 

pallens, 238, 247. 

speciosa, 238. 247. 

Yalenciennesi, 237, 238, 247. 

varieosa, 236, 237, 247. 

var. conigera, 237, 238. 
Oligosilicina, 33.3. 
Oi)hiacti8 Krebsii, 328. 

MuUeri, 328. 

Savignyi, 328. 
Opliidiariter ornitliopns, 318. 
Ophiocoma crassispina, 327. 

echinata. 327. 

pumila. 328. 

Riis^'i, 328. 
Ophiodernia antillariuu. '>25. 

brevicandn. 32(). 

cinereuni, 325. 

olivaceuni, 32r). 

ser])eiis, 32<>. 

vin^scens, 32<5. 
Opliiole])is i)au<ispina. i>35. 
Oi)hi<)iiiyxa tiac<*ida, ,i2U. 
Ophinufivis iHticulata. 325. 
()plii()l)sila Kiis.i, :Vlx. 
()phiosti;^ina isacaiitlmin, 325. 
Ophiothri.v aiigulata. ^»27. 

Siieiisonii. 327. 

viiilact'a. 327. 
Opliiiira angnlata, 327. 

al)pres^^<l, 32<>. 

Ophiura brevicauda, 326. 

brevispina, 326. 

cinerea, 325. 

echinata, 327. 

flaecida, 329. 
Ophiurans, 325. 
Opbiuroidea, 325. 
Orbicella annnlaris, 332, SJS. 

acropora, 233. 

cavernosa, 234. 
Oscarella, 343. 
Osculina, 343. 
Oulactis Danae, 269. 

fascicniata, floscnlifera, 2o6. 

formosa. 268. 

mncosnm, 268. 

Pachycbalina cellnlosa, 335. 

elastica, 336. 

micropora, 337, 

millepora, 336. 

monticnlosa, 336. 
Palythoa caribfeorum, 283. 

cinerea, flava, 283. 

grandiflora, 285, t86, 

mammillosa, 240, 280, 283, 28^. 
Pandaros, 341. 
Papilella, 343. 
Papillina, 843. 

cribraria, 342. 
Paranthea, pallida, 253, 254. 
ParazoantbuH parasitious, 29 J^, 205, ^5. 

8ex>arata8, 205. 
Parrot Fish, 347. 
Pearl Oyster, 3^7. 
Pecten ziczac, 347. 
Peracca, Count M. G., 223. 
Phellia clavata, 254. 

rufa, 254, 955, 266, 

var. nigropicta, 254, 255. 

simplex, 270. 
' Phyllactis conchilega, floscalifera, and 

praetextum, 268. 
Phyllangia americana, 200. 
Phymanthus cnicifera, 233. 

cnicifeni3, 272. 

loligo. 273. 
Pilot Fish, 347. 
Platygyra viridis, 213. 
Plesiasti-flpa Goodei. 234, 235, , 
Plcxaiira angnicnlas, 303, 317. 

antipathes, IW), 306. 

ci-assa, 306. 

dichotoma, 310. 

Ehrenbergii, 306. 

Esperi, 305, 306, 30S, 

flavida, 3o5, 

tiexnosa, 302. 30;^, 307, 317. 

f riabilis, 807. 

heteropora, 310. 

homomnlla, 804, 305, 

niacrocythaia, 307. 
I malticanda, 307, 817. 



Plezanra mntioa, 303, 304. 

poTosa, 807. 

salicomoideB, 302. 

Valencienneei, 303. 

▼ermicnlata, 310. 
Flezanrella ancepe, 310. 

dichotoma, 310, Sll. 

nntaDs, 310. 

Yermicalata, 310. 
Flexauropsis bicolor, 306, 300. 
Polymastia Yaria, 341. 
Polymastidffi, 334, 341. 
Porifera, 320. 
Pontes astreoides, 209, S40, 2^1, 

clavaria, ^^i, 247. 

farcata. 209, 241. 

polymorpba, 241. 

polities, var. clavaria, Si^O^ 241^ 242, 
Ponrtalte, L. F. de, 226, 236. 
Protopalythoa grandis, 280, 281, 282. 

HeUprini, 283. 
Psendoplezanra crassa, 307, 
Pteria radiata, 347. 
Pterogorgia acerosa, ^99. 

amerieana, 300. 

Ellisiana, fasciolaris, 300. 

pinnata. 299, 300. 

sancti-thomsB, 300. 

setosa, 299. 

Sloanei and targida, 299, 300. 

Quelch, John J., 209, 223, 225, 231, 247. 

Red anemone. 256. 
Reef-corals, 206, 209. 
Reniera fibniata. 338. 
Renieridae, 333. 
Rhipidogorgia flabellnm, 297. 
Rhodaetis Danae, 269. 
oscnlifera, 277. 
sancti-thomse, 276. 
Bice. Prof. Wm. N., on zoSids of Mille- 
pora, 319. 

Collection of Sponges. 331 . 
Bock Cockle, 347. 

Rose Corals, 220, 221. 225, 2JG. 2^7, 
229, 230, 

Scarlet Sponge, :«2, 3:^3, -339. 
Scams vetnla, 348. 
Scvllarides, 205. 
Scblvmia, 223. 
Sea Anemones, 236-248. 

Cat, 346. 

encumbers, i^J, IJ^o. -121, Jj'?. 

Fan, 296. 297, 298. 

Ginger, 317. 319. 

Plnme, 296, 298. 

Urchin, Long-spined, 343. 

nrchins, H6, 322. 
Semperia bermndensis, 321. 
Seriola zonata, 348. 

Serpent- stars, 348. 
Sertnlarella Gayi, 318, 319. 
Shade-coral, 2^5, 
Siderastnea gaJaxea, 242. 247. 

radians, 209, 242. 243, 244, 247. 

siderea, 243, 244. 
Siphonochalina papyracea, 334. 

stolonifera, 335. 
Solenastraea hvades, 209. 
Sonrel. Mr. a', 226. 
Spanish lobsters, 205. 
Spinosella sororia, 294, :331. 3:«, 340. 

stolonifera, 335. 
Spirastrella, U4. 347. 
Spirastrellidae. 334. 
Sponges. 3iU). 
Spongelia fragilis, 332. 
Spongia anomala, 332. 

Bartholmei, 337. 

cerebriformis, var. obscnra, 332. 

corlosia, var. elongata, 332. 

gossypina, Ii32. 

lapidescens, and vars. conigera and 
tnrrita, 332. 

lignea, var. crassa, 3^32. 

punctata, var. bermudensis, 332. 

Star Corals, 219, 233, 434. 235, 242. 

Starfishes, 324. 

Stauractis incerta, 271. 

Steletta, :m. 

Stichopns Mttbii, 143, 320. 

Strombus ;jiga8, 348. 

Siiberitidoe, 334. 

Suberitoidea, 3:«. 

Svmphvllia aghe. anemone, and aspera, 
*ooo ooQ 004 .^oj^ 

conferta, 220, 223. 

cylindrica. and knoxi, 223, 225, 226. 

dipsacea, 225. 

fnigilis, 220. 

vars. strigosa and asperula, 224. 

gnadalui>en8is. 223. 

helianthus, IHl, 224, 225. 

margin a ta. 232. 

strigosa and thomasiana, 220. 

verrucosa, 225. 

Tedania ignis, ;^1. 339. 3^0. 

digitata. var. berunidensis. iWO. 
IVdanidjp, 333. 339. 
Ted{inin;i\ 339. 
Terpiop jania. ^>3s. 
IVthvs dactvlcimt^lii. 347. 
Thalisijis iijiiis. o3l». 
Toxoimt-usH's varieiratns. J.'f0. 322. 
Trunk Fish. 34s. 
Tuba Sororia, 335. 
Tubt-spunKf. J.''.;. M:n. 332-:W4. 

Urtii'ina. 264. 

Vanu'han. T. Wavland, 21S, 223, 226 

Index to Article III. — Studies on the California limbless 
Lizard, Anniella. By W. R. Coe and B. AV. Kunkel. 

Page nambers in italics refer to pages on which illustrations occur. 

Kunkel, B. W. , on urogenital organs of 
AnnieUa, 871. 

Abbreviations, 399. 

Alimentary canal, 353, 354, 355, 356. 

Amphisb£ena, 377. 

AnguidsB, 350. I^acerta, brain of, 389. 

Anguis, 350, 353, 354, 355, 356, 380, 383, Liver of Anniella, 357 

390, 391, 393, 396. 
Anniella pulchra, 349, 350, 351. 

A. nigra, 350. 

A. texana, 350. 
AnniellidsB, 350. 
Anolis, pineal eye of, 386. 
Anops, 377. 

Bibliography, 397. 
Brain of Anniella, 386. 

Lungs of Anniella, 360. 

Ovaries and oviducts, 373. 
OAiducts, 374. 

Pacific Grove, Cal., 351, 352, 371. 
Pancreas, 358, 359. 
Pelvis of Anniella, 371 . 
Pineal Eye of Anniella, 391. 

Retina of Anniella, 393. 
Ribs of Anniella, 371. 

Cloaca of Anniella, 377, 379. 

Cloacal glands, 382. 

Coe, W. R. , on habits and visceral anat- ' Scales of Anniella, 303^ 306. 

omy, 360. i Skeleton of Anniella, 361, 367. 

Coe, W. R., urogenital organs of Anni- ' Skull of Anniella, 367. 

ella, 371. 
Copulatory organs, 383. 

Dermal ossifications, 366. 

Explanation of Plates, 399. 

Habits of Anniella, 351. 
Hatteria, 380. 
Helodermatidfe, 350. 

Iguana, brains of, 300. 

Spleen of Anniella, 358, 359. 


I Tests and sperm ducts. 372. 
Tbalamencephalon, 388. 
I Trigonophis, 377. 
I Typhlophthalmi, 350. 

Ureters of Anniella, 380. 
; Urinarv bladder of Anniella, 381. 
; Urogenital organs of Anniella, 371. 

Vertebrae of Anniella, 371. 
Visceral anatomy of Anniella, 353. 

Kidneys of Anniella, 380. 

Kunkel, B. W., on brain and pineal ap- Wolffian ducts, 381. 

paratuH, 386. 
Kunkel, B. W., on external anatomv, i 

361. * 1 


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